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Injuries and Accident Causes
in the Manufacture of
P A P E R B O A R D C O N T A IN ER S
A Detailed Analysis of
Hazards and of Injury Rates
for 1950 by Region, Plant Size,
and Operating Departments




Bulletin

No. 1 1 3 9

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LA BO R
Martin R Durkin, Secretary
BU REA U O F L A B O R STATISTICS
Ewan Clague,

Commissioner




Inj uries an d Accident C au se s
in the M a n u fa c tu re of
P A P E R B O A R D C O N T A IN E R S

Bulletin No.

1139

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LA BO R
Martin R Durkin, Secretary
BUREAU O F L A B O R STATISTICS
Ewan Clague,

Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 35 cents




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United S tates D epartm ent of L abor,
Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s,
W ashington, D. C ., A pril 1, 1953.
The S ecreta ry of Labor:
I have the honor to tran sm it h erew ith a rep ort on the
o ccu rren ce and ca u ses of work in ju ries in the m anufacture
of paperboard con tain ers.
This rep ort, a portion of w hich appeared in the D ecem b er
1951 M onthly Labor R eview , con stitu tes a part of the
B u reau ’s regu lar p rogram of com p ilin g w ork -in ju ry in fo r­
m ation for u se in accid en t-p reven tion w ork. The sta tistic a l
an a lysis and the preparation of the rep ort w ere p erform ed
in the B u reau ’s B ranch of Industrial H azards by G eorge R.
M cC orm ack. The sp ecific accid en t-p rev en tion su ggestion s
w ere prep ared by Sheldon W. Homan of the Safety Standards
D ivision of the Bureau of Labor Standards.
EWAN CLAGUE, C o m m issio n er.




HON. MARTIN P. DURKIN,
S ecreta ry of Labor.

CONTENTS
Page
A b stract.............................................................................................................................................................. vi
The industry r e c o r d ................................................................................................................................................
An estim ate of injury lo s s e s and c o s ts , 1 9 5 1 .........................................................

1

Scope and m ethod of su r v e y ...............................................................................................................................
2
Injury r a te s ........................................................................................................................................................
3
In ju ry-frequ en cy r a te .................................................................................................
A verage tim e charge per in ju r y ...........................................................................................
3
In ju ry -sev erity r a te ............................................................................................................................
3
A ccid en t-ca u se a n a ly s is ...........................................................................................................................
4
A gency of in ju ry..................................................................................................
A ccident ty p e..........................................................................................................................................
4
H azardous w orking co n d itio n .......................................................................................................
4
A gency of a ccid en t...............................................................................................................................
4
U nsafe a c t............................................................................................................
The industry and its h a z a r d s ............................................................................................................................
C orru gatin g........................................................................................................................................................
P rin tin g ................................................................................................................................................................
Cutting and c r e a s in g ..............................................................................................................................
S trip ping............................................................................................................................
G luing, staying, stitch in g and tap in g..................................................................................................
C overing and w ra p p in g .........................................................................................................................
F actors in the injury r e c o r d ........................................................................................................................
P roduct c o m p a r is o n s .............................................................................................................................
R egional and State c o m p a r is o n s .........................................................................................................
C orrugated and fib er-b o x p la n ts...............................................................................................
F ib e r -c a n , -tube, and -drum plants .....................................................................................
F old ed -b ox p la n ts.......................................................................................
Setup box p la n ts ...................................................................................................................................
P la n t-siz e c o m p a r iso n s............................................................................................................................
D epartm ental injury r a te s .................................................................................................................................
P roduction o p e r a tio n s............................................................................................
S erv ice o p e r a tio n s......................................................................................................................................

5
5
5
6

7
8
8
8

10
10
11
11
11

13
13

Kinds of in ju ries e x p e r ie n c e d ....................................................................................................................
14
F a ta litie s ............................................................................................................................................................ 14
P erm an en t-p artia l d is a b ilitie s ......................................................................................................
14
T em p ora ry-to ta l d is a b ilit ie s ................................................................................................................ 15
A ccident a n a ly s is .................................................................................................................................
A gen cies of in ju r y ..............................................................................................................
A ccident t y p e s ..............................................................................................................




iii

Page
A ccident c a u s e s ...................................................................................................................................................
H azardous w orking co n d itio n s...........................................................................................................
H azardous w orking p r o c e d u r e s .............................................................................................
Inadequately guarded a g e n c ie s ...............................................................................................
D efects of a g e n c ie s ........................................................................................................................
H azardous a r r a n g e m e n ts...........................................................................................................
P oor h ou sek eep in g......................................................................................................
M isc e lla n e o u s....................................................................................................................................
U nsafe a c t s .................................................................................................................................................
U sing equipm ent u n safely, or using hands in stead of equipm ent......................
A ssu m in g unsafe p osition s or p o stu r e s..........................................v ............... ............
Inattention to su rrou n d in gs.......................................................................................................
U nsafe loading, p lacin g, m ix in g, and com b in in g..........................................
O ther unsafe a c t s ............................................................................................................................
A ccid en t-p rev en tion s u g g e s tio n s ..............................................................................................................
C ase d escrip tio n s and reco m m en d atio n s.............................................................................................
A p p en d ix --S ta tistica l t a b le s ........................................................................................................................
Table 1 .- -W ork -in ju ry ra tes in the paperboard—con tainer in d u stry, by plant
product and plant s iz e , 1 9 5 0 ......................................................................................
T able 2 .--D istr ib u tio n of w ork -in ju ry frequency rates in the p ap erb oard -con ­
tain er in d u stry, by s iz e of plant, 1950 ...................................................................
Table 3 .- -In ju ry-freq u en cy rates in the paperboard—con tainer in d u stry, by
type of plant, geographic a rea , and State, 1950.............................................
Table 4 . - -D istrib u tion of esta b lish m en ts, em p lo y ees, in ju r ies, and days lo st
in the p ap erb oa rd -co n tain er in d u stry, by in ju ry-freq u en cy ra tes,
1 9 5 0 ..............
T able 5 . - -W ork-injury rates in the p aperboard-container in d u stry, by o p era ­
tion , 1950..........................................................................
T able 6 . - -D isa b lin g in ju ries in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by nature
of injury, part of body, and type of plant, 1950 ..............................................
Table 7 . - -D isa b lin g in ju ries in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by nature
of injury and part of body injured, 1950 .............................
Table 8 . --D isa b lin g in ju ries in the p aperboard-container in d u stry, by nature
of injury and agency of injury, 1950 ......................................................................
T able 9 .--D isa b lin g in ju ries in the p aperboard-container in d u stry, by part of
body injured and agency of injury, 1950 ................................................................
T able 1 0 .--W ork accid en ts in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by agency of
injury and accid en t type, 1950.................................................................................
Table 1 1 .--W ork accid en ts in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by nature of
injury and accid ent typ e, 1950 ...............................................................................
T able 1 2 .--W ork accid en ts in the p ap erb oard -con tain er in d u stry, by part of
body injured and accid ent type, 1950 .................................................................
T able 13— W ork accid en ts in the paperboard—con tainer in d u stry, by type of
plant and accid ent typ e, 1950 .................................................................................
Table 1 4 .--W ork accid en ts in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by accid en t
and a ctiv ity of injured, 1950 ............................................................................
T able 1 5 .--W ork accid en ts in the p ap erb oard -con tain er in d u stry, by hazardous
w orking condition and accid ent type, 1950 .....................................................
Table 1 6 . - -W ork accid en ts in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by agen cy of
accid ent and hazardous w orking condition, 1950 .......................................
T able 1 7 .--W ork accid en ts in the *p ap erb oard -con tain er in d u stry by type of
plant and hazardous w orking condition, 1950 ........................................




iv

20
21
21
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
26
26
26

27
27

34
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
42
44
46
48
50
51
52
54
56

Page
Table 1 8 .- -W ork accid en ts in the paperboard-container in d u stry, by accid ent
type and unsafe act, 1950 ............................................... *........................................
T able 19 .--W ork accid en ts in the p ap erb oard -container in d u stry, by type of
plant and unsafe act, 1950 ........................................................................................
T able 2 0 .--W ork accid en ts in the p ap erb oa rd -co n tain er in d u stry, by siz e
of plant, accid ent type, hazardous w orking condition, and unsafe
act, 1950 ...............................................................................................................................
CHARTS
1. In ju ry-frequ en cy rates in the p ap erb oard -con tain er in d u stry, by type of plant,
1950..........................................................................................................................................................
2 . Inju ry-frequ en cy rates in the p ap erb oard -container in d u stry, by s iz e of plant,
1950..........................................................................................................................................................
3. M ajor ag en cies of injury in the p ap erb oard -container in d u str y ................................
4. M ajor typ es of accid en ts in the p ap erb oard -container in d u str y ................................
5. M ajor types of hazardous w orking conditions in the p ap erb oard -container
in d u stry .................................................................................................................................................
6.
M ajor types of unsafe acts in the p ap erb oard -container in d u stry .............................




V

57
58
59

9
12

17
19

22

25

ABSTRACT
T he in ju ry —fre q u e n c y ra te fo r p la n ts m a n u fa c tu rin g p a p e rb o a rd
c o n ta in e rs h a s b een c o n s is te n tly u n fav o rab le c o m p a re d to the a ll­
m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u stry a v e ra g e . In 1951, the in ju ry -fre q u e n c y ra te
fo r the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u stry w as 18.1, abo ut 17 p e rc e n t
g r e a te r than the a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g a v e ra g e , 15.5. H o w ev er, th is
r e p r e s e n ts a re d u c tio n of m o re than 22 p e rc e n t fro m the p eak 1944
r a te , 2 3 .3, w hich w as 21 p e rc e n t h ig h e r than the a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g
r a te , 18.4.
A p p ro x im a te ly 5,000 w o rk m en w e re d isa b le d as a r e s u lt of in d u s tria l
in ju rie s d u rin g 1951. The econ om ic lo s s , in clu din g d ire c t and in d ire c t
c o s ts , of th e se in ju rie s is e s tim a te d at n e a rly 10 m illio n d o lla rs .
P la n ts m a n u fa c tu rin g c o rru g a te d o r fib e r b o x es g e n e ra lly had the
h ig h e s t in ju ry -fre q u e n c y r a te s , a v e ra g in g 23.0 fo r 1950. S etu p-box
p la n ts had the b e s t r a te s , a v e ra g in g 12.9. F o ld e d -b o x p la n ts had an
a v e ra g e fre q u e n c y ra te of 16.7 and fib e r—c a n ,-tu b e , an d -d ru m p la n ts
had a ra te of 16.5.
P la n t- s iz e a p p e a rs to be c lo se ly re la te d to the o c c u rre n c e of in ju rie s
in the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u s try . G e n e ra lly , the v e ry sm a ll p la n ts
(w ith fe w e r th an 50 em p lo y ees each ) and the la rg e p la n ts (w ith 500 o r
m o re e m p lo y e e s) had the lo w e st in ju ry -fre q u e n c y r a te s . P la n ts e m p lo y ­
ing 100 to 249 w o rk e rs had the h ig h e st a v e ra g e in ju ry -fre q u e n c y r a te .
P ro d u c tio n o p e ra tio n s as a grou p had a so m ew h at h ig h e r in ju ry fre q u e n c y ra te than the s e rv ic e -d e p a rtm e n t g ro u p , but the in ju rie s
e x p e rie n c e d by s e rv ic e w o rk e rs ten ded to be m o re s e v e re . A m ong the
p ro d u c tio n d e p a rtm e n ts , in ju rie s w e re m o st fre q u e n t in the c o rru g a tin g ,
p rin tin g , and cu ttin g o p e ra tio n s . S to ra g e o p e ra tio n s ra n k e d as the m o st
h a z a rd o u s of the p la n t-s e rv ic e a c tiv itie s .
A bout a fo u rth of a ll in ju rie s re su lte d fro m c o n ta c t w ith m a c h in e s;
p a p e r and its p ro d u c ts p ro d u c e d 18 p e rc e n t; v e h ic le s , 11 p e rc e n t;
w o rk in g s u rfa c e s , 9 p e rc e n t; and s k id s, 6 p e rc e n t.
M o re th an 80 p e rc e n t of a ll re c o rd e d a c c id e n ts fe ll in to fo u r g e n e ra l
c a te g o rie s . T h ese w e re a c c id e n ts in w hich w o rk m en w e re cau g h t in, on,
o r b etw een m oving o b je c ts; w e re s tru c k by m ov ing o b je c ts; s tru c k
a g a in s t o r bum ped in to o b je c ts; o r s tra in e d th e m se lv e s w hile han dling
m a te r ia ls o r eq u ip m en t.
H a z a rd o u s w o rk in g p ro c e d u re s , p a r tic u la r ly liftin g o r m oving heavy
lo a d s w ithout ad eq u ate a s s is ta n c e , w as the m o st com m on p h y sic a l c au se
of a c c id e n ts . O th er h a z a rd o u s w orking co n d itio n s in c lu d e d : in ad eq u ate
g u ard in g ; d e fe c ts of a g e n c ie s , e s p e c ia lly slip p e ry and uneven flo o rs;
im p ro p e rly p la c e d o b je c ts; and p o o r h o u sek eep in g .
O u tstan d in g am ong the u n safe a c ts w hich re s u lte d in a c c id e n ts w ere:
U sing eq u ip m en t u n sa fe ly o r h an ds in ste a d of equ ip m en t; assu m in g
u n sa fe p o sitio n s o r p o s tu re s ; in a tte n tio n to su rro u n d in g s; and u n safe
lo ad in g , p la c in g , m ix in g , o r combining.*
A cc id en t p re v e n tio n su g g e stio n s, p re p a re d by the D iv isio n of S afety
S ta n d a rd s of the B u re a u of L a b o r S ta n d a rd s, in d ic a te th at m o st a c c id e n ts
in the in d u s try could be p re v e n te d th ro u g h the a p p lic a tio n of v e ry sim p le
p re c a u tio n s .




Vi

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES IN THE MANUFACTURE
O F PAPERBOARD CONTAINERS
The p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u s try , as
defin ed fo r th is stu dy , in c lu d e s a ll p la n ts
engaged in the m a n u fa c tu re of p a p e rb o a rd
b o x e s, fib e r c a n s, tu b e s, d ru m s , and s im ila r
p a p e rb o a rd p ro d u c ts. A c tu ally , m o re than
n in e -te n th s of the p la n ts m a n u fa c tu re p a p e r b o a rd b o x es.
P a p e rb o a rd boxes a re c la s s ifie d as c o r ­
ru g a te d , fib e r, se tu p , and fold ed. C o rru g a te d
and fib e r b o x e s, u se d a lm o st e x c lu siv e ly fo r
pack in g and shipp ing , a re m ad e fro m fib e r
o r c o rru g a te d sto c k . Som e of th is sto c k is
p u rc h a s e d , but g e n e ra lly is fa b ric a te d in the
box p la n ts fro m p a p e rb o a rd p u rc h a s e d fro m
p a p e r m ills . F o ld e d and setu p b o x e s, on the
o th e r hand, a re u se d p r im a r ily fo r p ack ag in g
and a re m a n u fa c tu re d d ire c tly fro m p a p e rb o a rd sto ck .
Only a few of the la r g e r c o n ta in e r p la n ts
m a n u fa c tu re th e ir own p a p e rb o a r d .1 M ost
p la n ts p u rc h a s e the raw sto ck and p e rfo rm
only the fa b ric a tin g and p rin tin g o p e ra tio n s.
In g e n e ra l, e a c h p a p e rb o a rd -b o x p lan t p e r ­
fo rm s so m e o r a ll of the follow ing o p e ra ­
tio n s: c o rru g a tin g , p rin tin g , c re a s in g ,
cu ttin g , s trip p in g , sta y in g , gluing, and
w rap p in g .

In 1938, p r io r to w a rtim e in flu e n c e s, the
in ju ry -fre q u e n c y r a te s fo r the p a p e rb o a rd c o n ta in e r in d u stry and fo r a ll m a n u fa c tu rin g
w e re p r a c tic a lly id e n tic a l, 15.2 and 15.1
re sp e c tiv e ly . D u rin g the n ex t few y e a r s , a
v a rie ty of c irc u m s ta n c e s --c h ie fly sh o rta g e s
of tra in e d w o rk e rs , new eq u ip m en t, and
r e p a ir p a r ts , and p r e s s u r e fo r in c re a s e d
p ro d u ctio n to m e e t w a rtim e n e e d s --c a u s e d
a r is e in the in ju ry r a te s fo r m o st m a n u fa c ­
tu rin g in d u s trie s . By 1941 the in ju ry r a te
fo r the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u stry had
ad v an ced n e a rly 50 p e rc e n t to 22.4, and in
1944 it re a c h e d a p e a k of 23.3. It h eld c lo se ly
to th is le v e l th ro u g h 1946 and th en d e c lin e d
ste a d ily to 16.9 in 1949, fro m w hich it
tu rn e d u p w ard ag ain in 1950.
The a v e ra g e in ju ry ra te fo r a ll m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g follow ed a s im ila r c o u rs e d u rin g
th e se y e a r s , but at its p eak in 1943 (20.0),
it w as only abo ut 32 p e rc e n t h ig h e r th an in
1938 in c o n tra s t to the 53 p e rc e n t r is e in
the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r ra te re c o rd e d in
1944. In the p o stw a r re c o v e ry p e rio d the
a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g r a te d ro p p ed to 14.5 in
1949, about 4 p e rc e n t below the 1938
a v e ra g e . At th is p o in t the p a p e rb o a rd c o n ta in e r in d u stry ra te w as 17 p e rc e n t
h ig h e r than the a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g a v e ra g e .
In 1950 the a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g r a te a lso
tu rn e d u p w ard , but its r is e w as m u ch le s s
p ro n o u n ced th an the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r
in c re a s e . In c o n tra s t, h o w e v e r, the in c re a s e
in the a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g ra te d u rin g 1951
(14.7 to 15.5) w as m u ch g r e a te r th an the
in c re a s e in the ra te fo r the p a p e rb o a rd c o n ta in e r in d u stry .

THE INDUSTRY RECORD
T he in ju ry -fre q u e n c y ra te fo r p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r m a n u fa c tu rin g tu rn e d u p ­
w ard in 1950 follow ing a 3 -y e a r d e c lin e .2
The 1951 r a te , 18. 1, h o w ev er, w as only
slig h tly h ig h e r th an th e 1950 a v e ra g e , 1 7 .9 .3
C o m p a re d w ith the a ll-m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s­
try a v e ra g e , the r e c o rd of the p a p e rb o a rd c o n ta in e r in d u stry h a s b een c o n siste n tly
u n fa v o ra b le .

AN ESTIMATE OF INJURY LOSSES AND
COSTS, 1951
A p p ro x im ately 5,000 w o rk e rs in the
p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u stry e x p e rie n c e d
d isa b lin g in ju rie s d u rin g 1951. T h is r e p r e ­
se n ts 1 d isa b lin g in ju ry fo r e v e ry 27
em p lo y ees in the in d u stry .
An e s tim a te d 5 of th e se in ju re d w o rk e rs
d ied as a r e s u lt of th e ir in ju rie s and 265
o th e rs w e re p e rm a n e n tly d isa b le d in so m e

For a discussion of the hazards in the manufacture of
paperboard, see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No.
1036, Injuries and Accident Causes in the Manufacture of
Pulp and Paper.
2 For definition, see section on Scope and Method of
Survey.
3 Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No. 1137, Work In­
juries in the United States During 1951.




1

5
d e g re e by the lo s s , o r lo s s of u s e , of so m e p a y m e n ts .4 A ssu m in g th is r a tio to be a p ­
body p a r t o r fu n ctio n . The o th e r 4,730 p ro x im a te ly c o r r e c t fo r the p a p e rb o a rd w o rk e rs w e re m o re fo rtu n a te in th a t they c o n ta in e r in d u stry , the e s tim a te d in d ire c t
su ffe re d no p e rm a n e n t ill e ffe c ts , but e ach c o s t of in ju ry -p ro d u c in g a c c id e n ts in 1951
w as in ju re d s e rio u s ly enough to re q u ire at am ou nted to $ 6 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 , and the to ta l c o st,
in clu d in g m e d ic a l e x p e n se s, am o u n ted to
le a s t one fu ll day fo r re c o v e ry .
The a c tu a l tim e lo s t by the in d u s try ’s n e a rly $1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
in ju re d w o rk e rs d u rin g 1951 is e s tim a te d
at about 75,000 m a n -d a y s of w o rk . B ased
SCOPE AND METHOD OF SURVEY
on the a v e ra g e e a rn in g s of p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs in the in d u s try d u rin g th e y e a r ,
The U nited S ta te s B u re a u of L a b o r S ta ­
($60 .65 p e r w e e k ) / the im m e d ia te w age tis tic s h as co m p iled an n u al in ju ry r a te s
lo ss w ould a p p ro x im a te $ 6 50 ,00 0. T im e lo s t in the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u stry sin ce
w ith in the y e a r, h o w e v e r, do es not m e a s u re 1936. In re c e n t y e a r s th e se su rv e y s have
ad eq u ately the r e a l w o rk lo s s re s u ltin g in clu d ed abo ut 40 p e rc e n t of the in d u s try ’s
fro m th e se in ju rie s . M any of the p e r m a ­ e m p lo y e e s.
n en tly d isa b le d w o rk e rs w ill have th e ir
F o r the 1950 su rv e y , the sco p e of the
e a rn in g a b ility re d u c e d fo r the r e s t of th e ir r e p o r t w as e n la rg e d and c o o p e ra tin g e m ­
liv e s . F o r the fa ta lly in ju re d w o rk e rs , the p lo y e rs w e re a sk e d in fo rm a tio n on each
lo ss is e q u iv a le n t to th e ir to ta l e x p ected type of o p e ra tio n c a r r ie d on in the p la n t.
e a rn in g s th ro u g h o u t the y e a r s in w hich they T his d a ta p e rm itte d m o re sp e c ific and
w ould have w o rk ed h ad th e ir c a r e e r s not d e ta ile d a n a ly s is . U sab le r e p o r ts w ere
been cut s h o rt. If allo w an ce w e re m ade fo r re c e iv e d fro m 851 p la n ts w ith a p p ro x im a te ly
fu tu re lo s s e s re s u ltin g fro m in ju rie s e x ­ 73.000 w o rk e rs , o r n e a rly 60 p e rc e n t of the
p e rie n c e d in 1951, the econ om ic tim e lo s s em p lo y m en t in the in d u stry . The re p o rtin g
w ould be abo ut 320,000 m a n -d a y s . The to ta l g rou p in clu d ed 424 setu p -b o x p la n ts, 189
w age lo s s a ttrib u ta b le to th e se in ju rie s , fo ld ed -b o x p la n ts, 172 c o rru g a te d - and
b a se d on 1951 w age le v e ls , th e re fo re , w ould fib e r-b o x p la n ts, and 35 f ib e r -c a n , -tu b e ,
be abo ut $ 2 ,7 5 0 ,0 0 0 . In p a r t, th is lo s s is and -d ru m p la n ts. R e p o rts fro m the o th e r
c o v e re d by w o rk m e n ’s c o m p e n sa tio n p a y ­ 31 p la n ts fa ile d to in d ic a te the p a r tic u la r
m e n ts fin a n c e d by the e m p lo y e rs . B ut b e ­ type of c o n ta in e r m a n u fa c tu re d .
c a u se th e se p a y m e n ts a r e n e v e r eq u iv a le n t
In ad d itio n to the su m m a ry r e p o r ts , the
to fu ll w a g e s, the in ju re d w o rk e rs and th e ir o rig in a l a c c id e n t re c o r d s of 185 c o o p e ra tin g
d ep en d en ts m u st b e a r a c o n sid e ra b le p o rtio n p la n ts w e re m ad e a v a ila b le fo r d e ta ile d
in sp e c tio n and a n a ly s is . A r e p re s e n ta tiv e of
of th is lo s s .
In ad d itio n to w age lo s s e s , p a y m e n ts fo r the B u re a u v is ite d ea c h of th e se p la n ts and
m e d ic a l and h o sp ita l c a re a s w ell a s m any tr a n s c r ib e d fro m th e ir re c o rd s the follow ing
in d ire c t c o sts c o n trib u te to the to ta l c o s t of ite m s , w h ere a v a ila b le : (a) p la c e of a c c id e n t;
in ju ry -p ro d u c in g a c c id e n ts . A m ong the (b) o ccu p atio n and age of in ju re d w o rk e r; (c)
la tte r a re d am ag e to eq u ip m en t and m a te ­ n a tu re of in ju ry and p a r t of body in ju re d ; (d)
r ia ls ; the c o st of tra in in g re p la c e m e n t o b ject o r su b sta n c e p ro d u cin g the in ju ry ; (e)
w o rk e rs ; tim e lo s t by o th e r w o rk e rs who type of a c c id e n t; (f) u n safe co n d itio n a n d /o r
sto p p ed to o ffe r a s s is ta n c e a t the tim e of u n safe a c t lead in g to the a c c id e n t.
ac c id e n t; and s u p e rv is o ry tim e sp en t c a rin g
T his g ro u p of p la n ts, em p lo y in g about
fo r the in ju re d , in v e s tig a tin g the a c c id e n t, 34.000 w o rk e rs , h ad a co m b in ed in ju ry and re o rg a n iz in g o p e ra tio n s a fte r the a c c i­ fre q u e n c y ra te of 22 .3. A lthough th is r a te
d en t. U n fo rtu n ately , the in d ire c t c o sts a re w as so m ew h at h ig h e r th an th e in d u stry
seld o m re c o rd e d , and a s a r e s u lt, cann ot be a v e ra g e , th e re w as no in d ic a tio n th a t th e ir
d e te rm in e d a c c u ra te ly . H o w ev er, a study h a z a rd s d iffe re d g re a tly fro m th o se of o th e r
by M r. H. W. H e in ric h , T ra v e le r s In su ra n c e p la n ts in the in d u stry . M uch of the v a ria tio n
C om pany, in d ic a te s th a t fo r m a n u fa c tu rin g is due to the e x c lu sio n of p la n ts w ith z e ro
g e n e ra lly th e in d ire c t c o s ts a ris in g fro m fre q u e n c y r a t e s - - i .e . , p la n ts w h ich h ad no
in ju ry -p ro d u c in g a c c id e n ts a v e ra g e about in ju rie s fo r a n a ly s is - - f r o m th is p a r t of the
fo u r tim e s the co m b in ed am o u n ts of study. In d iv id u al c a s e r e c o rd s w e re c o l­
c o m p e n sa tio n , h o s p i t a l , and m e d ic a l le c te d in th is p a r t of the su rv e y fo r 1,505
5 Industrial Accident Prevention, by H. W. Heinrich, New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Third Edition, 1950.

4 Monthly Labor Review, November 1952.




2

p e rm a n e n t lim ita tio n of m o tio n ; (f) f ra c tu re s
h ealin g c o m p le te ly w ithout d e fo rm itie s o r
d is p la c e m e n ts .
(4) T e m p o ra ry - T o tal D isa b ility . - - Any
in ju ry no t re su ltin g in d e a th o r p e rm a n e n t
Injury Rates
im p a irm e n t is c la s s ifie d as a te m p o ra ry The in ju ry - r a te c o m p a riso n s p re s e n te d in to ta l d is a b ility if the in ju re d p e rs o n , b e c a u se
th is re p o r t a re b a s e d p r im a r ily upon the of h is in ju ry , is u n ab le to p e rfo rm a re g u ­
in ju ry -fre q u e n c y and s e v e rity r a te s c o m ­ la r ly e sta b lis h e d jo b , open and a v a ila b le to
p ile d u n d e r the d efin itio n s and p ro c e d u re s h im , d u rin g the e n tire tim e in te rv a l c o r r e ­
sp e c ifie d in the A m e ric a n S tan d ard M ethod sponding to the h o u rs of h is re g u la r sh ift on
of C o m p iling In d u s tria l In ju ry R a te s, as any one o r m o re d ay s (including S undays,
ap p ro v ed by the A m e ric a n S ta n d a rd s A s s o ­ day s off, o r p la n t shutdow ns) su b seq u en t to
c ia tio n in 1945. T h ese sta n d a rd r a te s have the d ate of in ju ry .
b een su p p lem en ted by an a d d itio n a l m e a s u re
of in ju ry s e v e rity d e sig n a te d as the a v e ra g e
In ju ry -F re q u e n c y R a te .--T h e in ju r y - f r e ­
tim e c h a rg e p e r d isa b lin g in ju ry .
quency ra te r e p r e s e n ts the a v e ra g e n u m b e r
The d e fin itio n s 6 of th e se s e v e ra l d is a b il­ of d isa b lin g w o rk in ju rie s o c c u rrin g in each
ity c la s s ific a tio n s as ap p lied in th is su rv e y m illio n e m p lo y e e -h o u rs w o rk ed . It is c o m ­
p u ted a c c o rd in g to the follow ing fo rm u la :
a r e a s follow s:
(1) F a ta lity .-- A d e a th re su ltin g fro m an F re q u e n c y r a te eq u als
in d u s tria l in ju ry is c la s s ifie d a s an in d u s­
tr ia l fa ta lity r e g a r d le s s of the tim e in te r ­
N u m b er of d isa b lin g in ju rie s x 1,000,000
vening betw een in ju ry and d eath .
N u m ber of e m p lo y e e -h o u rs w o rk ed
(2) P e rm a n e n t-T o ta l D is a b ility .--A n in ­
ju ry o th e r than d eath w hich p e rm a n e n tly
A v erag e T im e C h arg e p e r In ju ry . - - The
and to ta lly in c a p a c ita te s an em ployee fro m re la tiv e s e v e rity of a te m p o ra ry in ju ry is
follow ing any gainful o ccu p atio n is c la s s ifie d m e a s u re d by the n u m b er of c a le n d a r days
a s p e rm a n e n t-to ta l d is a b ility . The lo s s , o r d u rin g w hich the in ju re d p e rs o n is un able to
co m p le te lo s s of u s e , of any of the follow ing w o rk a t any re g u la rly e sta b lish e d job open
in one a c c id e n t is c o n sid e re d p e rm a n e n t- and a v a ila b le to h im , exclud ing the day of
in ju ry and the day on w hich he r e tu r n s to
to ta l d isa b ility :
(a)
B oth e y e s; (b) one eye and one hand, w o rk . The re la tiv e s e v e rity of d eath and
o r a rm , o r le g , o r foot; (c) any tw o of the p e rm a n e n t im p a irm e n t c a s e s is d e te rm in e d
follow ing not on the sa m e lim b : hand, a rm , by re fe re n c e to a tab le of econ om ic tim e
c h a rg e s in clu d ed in the A m e ric a n S tan d ard
foot, o r leg .
(3) P e r m a n e n t- P a r tia l D is a b ility .--T h e M ethod of C o m p ilin g In d u s tria l In ju ry R a te s.
co m p lete lo s s in one a c c id e n t of any m e m b e r T h ese tim e c h a rg e s , b a se d upon an a v e ra g e
o r p a r t of a m e m b e r of the body, o r any w o rk in g -life ex p ectan cy of 20 y e a r s fo r the
p e rm a n e n t im p a irm e n t of fu n ctio n s of the e n tire w o rk in g p o p u latio n , r e p r e s e n t the
body o r p a r t th e re o f to any d e g re e le s s th an a v e ra g e p e rc e n ta g e of w o rk in g a b ility lo s t
p e rm a n e n t-to ta l d is a b ility is c la s s ifie d as a s the r e s u lt of sp e c ifie d im p a irm e n ts ,
p e r m a n e n t- p a rtia l d is a b ility , r e g a r d le s s of e x p re s s e d in u n p ro d u ctiv e d a y s. The a v e r ­
any p re -e x is tin g d is a b ility of the in ju re d age tim e c h a rg e p e r d isa b lin g in ju ry is
m e m b e r o r im p a ire d body function . The co m p u ted by adding the day s lo s t fo r each
follow ing in ju rie s a re not c la s s ifie d as te m p o ra ry in ju ry and the day s c h a rg e d
p e rm a n e n t-p a rtia l d is a b ilitie s , but a re a c c o rd in g to the sta n d a rd tab le fo r each
c la s s ifie d a s te m p o ra ry -to ta l, te m p o ra ry - d e a th and p e rm a n e n t im p a irm e n t and d i­
p a r tia l d is a b ilitie s , o r m e d ic a l tre a tm e n t viding the to ta l by the n u m b e r of d isab lin g
c a s e s , depending upon the d e g re e of d is ­ in ju rie s .
a b ility d u rin g th e h ealin g p e rio d : (a) h e rn ia ,
if it c a n be re p a ire d ; (b) lo ss of fin g e rn a ils
In ju ry -S e v e rity R a te .- - The in ju r y - s e v e r ­
o r to e n a ils; (c) lo s s of te e th ; (d) d is fig u r e ­ ity r a te w eig h ts each d isa b lin g in ju ry w ith
m en t; (e) s tr a in s o r s p ra in s not c a u sin g its c o rre sp o n d in g tim e lo s s o r tim e c h a rg e
and e x p re s s e s the a g g re g a te in te r m s of the
6 See American Standard Method of Compiling Industrial a v e ra g e n u m b e r of day s lo s t o r c h a rg e d p e r
Injury Rates, approved by the American Standards Associa­ 1,000 e m p lo y e e -h o u rs w o rk ed . It is c o m ­
pu ted a c c o rd in g to the follow ing fo rm u la :
tion, October 11, 1945.
d isa b lin g in ju rie s . T h ese in clu d ed 2 f a ta li­
tie s , 80 p e rm a n e n t-p a rtia l d is a b ilitie s , and
1,423 te m p o ra ry -to ta l d is a b ilitie s .

260182 0 - 5 3 - 2




3

S e v e rity ra te eq u als
T o tal days lo s t o r c h a rg e d x 1,000
N u m b er of e m p lo y e e -h o u rs w o rk ed

the a c c id e n t-ty p e c la s s ific a tio n is s p e c ifi­
c a lly r e la te d to the p re v io u sly s e le c te d
agen cy of in ju ry ; seco n d , the seq u en ce of
se le c tin g th is fa c to r is sp e c ifie d .

Accident-C ause A nalysis

H az ard o u s W orking C o n d itio n . - - U nder the
sta n d a rd d e fin itio n , the h a z a rd o u s w o rk in g
co n d itio n in d ic a te d in th e a n a ly sis is d efin ed
a s the “ u n safe m e c h a n ic a l o r p h y sic a l
co n d itio n of the se le c te d agen cy w hich could
hav e b een g u a rd e d o r c o r r e c te d .” An e x ­
am p le of su ch a h a z a rd is the la c k of a
g u ard fo r a p r e s s . T his im p lie s the p r io r
se le c tio n of the “ a g e n c y ” but d o es not
p ro v id e fo r re c o g n itio n of any re la tio n s h ip
b etw een the h a z a rd o u s con ditio n and a c c i­
den t type c la s s ific a tio n s . N or d o es the
s ta n d a rd p ro v id e fo r any d efin ite r e la tio n ­
ship b etw een the “ a g e n c y ” and the “ a c c i­
d e n t-ty p e ” c la s s ific a tio n s .
To p ro v id e co n tin u ity and to e s ta b lis h
d ire c t re la tio n s h ip s am ong the v a rio u s
a n a ly s is fa c to rs to p e rm it c r o s s c la s s if ic a ­
tion , the s ta n d a rd d efin itio n w as m o d ified
fo r th is study to re a d : “ T he h a z a rd o u s
w o rk in g co n d itio n is the h a z a rd o u s con ditio n
w hich p e rm itte d o r o c c a sio n e d the o c c u r­
re n c e of the s e le c te d a c c id e n t ty p e .” The
h a z a rd o u s-c o n d itio n c la s s ific a tio n , th e r e ­
fo re , w as s e le c te d a fte r the d e te rm in a tio n
of the a c c id e n t type c la s s ific a tio n . It r e p r e ­
se n ts the p h y sic a l o r m e c h a n ic a l re a s o n fo r
the o c c u rre n c e of th a t p a r tic u la r a c c id e n t
w ithout r e g a r d to the fe a s ib ility of g u ard in g
o r c o rre c tin g the co n d itio n .
E lim in a tio n of the con ditio n “ w hich could
hav e b een g u ard ed o r c o r r e c te d ” is b a se d
upon the p re m is e th a t s ta tis tic a l a n a ly sis
should in d ic a te the e x iste n c e of h a z a rd s ,
b u t should no t a tte m p t to sp ecify the f e a s i­
b ility of c o rre c tiv e m e a s u r e s .

The a c c id e n t-c a u s e a n a ly s is p ro c e d u re
u se d in th is study d iffe rs in so m e re s p e c ts
fro m the p ro c e d u re s sp e c ifie d in the A m e r­
ic a n S ta n d a rd M ethod of C o m p iling In d u s­
tr ia l A cc id en t C auses* The d e v ia tio n s fro m
the S ta n d a rd in clu d e the in tro d u c tio n of an
ad d itio n a l a n a ly s is f a c to r, te rm e d the
“ agen cy of in ju ry ” and the m o d ific a tio n of
the sta n d a rd d e fin itio n s of so m e of the o th e r
facto rs* T h ese c h an g es p e r m it m o re a c c u ­
ra te c r o s s c la ssific a tio n s*
A gency of In ju ry * --T h e sta n d a rd c la s s i­
fic a tio n p ro v id e s fo r the se le c tio n of but
one “ a g e n c y ” in the a n a ly s is of ea c h a c c i­
dent* By d e fin itio n , th is agen cy m ay be
e ith e r (a) the o b je c t o r su b sta n c e w hich w as
u n sa fe and th e re b y c o n trib u te d to the o c c u r­
re n c e of the a c c id e n t, o r (b) in the a b se n c e
of su ch an o b je c t o r su b sta n c e , the o b je c t
o r su b sta n c e m o s t c lo se ly re la te d to the
in ju ry . U n der th is d e fin itio n , th e re fo re , a
ta b u la tio n of “ a g e n c ie s ” fo r a grou p of a c c i­
d e n ts in c lu d e s o b je c ts o r s u b sta n c e s w hich
m ay hav e b een in h e re n tly safe and u n re la te d
to the o c c u rre n c e of the a c c id e n ts, a s w ell
a s th o se w hich le d to the o c c u rre n c e of
a c c id e n ts b e c a u se of th e ir con ditio n, lo c a ­
tio n , s tr u c tu r e , o r m eth o d of u s e . The
d ev elo p m e n t of the c la s s ific a tio n “ agen cy
of in ju ry ” r e p r e s e n ts an a tte m p t to s e p a ra te
and c la s s ify s e p a ra te ly th e se two agen cy
c o n cep ts.
A s u se d in th is stu d y , the “ agen cy of
in ju ry ” is th e o b je c t, su b sta n c e , o r bodily
re a c tio n w hich a c tu a lly p ro d u c e d the in ju ry ,
s e le c te d w ithout r e g a r d to its sa fe ty c h a r ­
a c te r is tic s o r its in flu en c e upon the ch ain
of e v en ts c o n stitu tin g the a c c id e n t.
A cc id en t T yp e* --A s u se d in th is stu d y ,
the a c c id e n t-ty p e c la s s ific a tio n a ssig n e d to
e a c h a c c id e n t is p u re ly d e s c rip tiv e of the
o c c u rre n c e re s u ltin g in an in ju ry and is
re la te d sp e c ific a lly to th e agen cy of in ju ry .
It in d ic a te s how the in ju re d p e rs o n ca m e
in to c o n ta c t w ith o r w as affe c te d by the
p re v io u sly s e le c te d agen cy of in ju ry , a s fo r
ex am p le , fa ll fro m one le v e l to a n o th e r. T he
d e fin itio n r e p r e s e n ts a change fro m the
sta n d a rd p ro c e d u re in two r e s p e c ts : F ir s t,




A gency of A c c id e n t.- - F o r the p u rp o se of
th is stu d y , the agency of a c c id e n t w as d e ­
fined as “ the o b je c t, su b sta n c e , o r p re m is e s
in o r about w hich the h a z a rd o u s con ditio n
e x is te d ,” a s , fo r ex am p le, the p r e s s w hich
w as u n g u ard ed . Its se le c tio n , th e re fo re , is
d ire c tly a s s o c ia te d w ith the h a z a rd o u s c o n ­
d itio n lead in g to the o c c u rre n c e of the
a c c id e n t and n o t w ith the o c c u rre n c e of the
in ju ry . In m any in s ta n c e s the agen cy of
in ju ry and the agen cy of a c c id e n t w ere
id e n tic a l. The double agen cy c la s s ific a tio n ,
h o w ev er, av o id s any p o ssib ility of am b ig u ity
in the in te rp re ta tio n of the “ a g e n c y ” ta b u ­
la tio n s.
4

P o w e re d eq u ip m en t is g e n e ra lly u se d fo r
m oving the h eav y r o lls of p a p e r bu t f r e ­
quently the p a p e r is ro lle d o r m ov ed m a n ­
u a lly . S hafts m u st be in s e rte d th ro u g h the
c o re s of the ro lls of p a p e r by hand. T h ese
sh a fts a r e q u ite h eav y , long, and aw kw ard
to h an d le. M o re o v e r, the c o rru g a te d b o a rd
is g e n e ra lly rem o v ed fro m the m ach in e by
hand.
L oad ing p a p e r onto c o rru g a tin g m a c h in e s
in v o lv es a n u m b er of h a z a rd s . W o rk m en ’s
fin g e rs m ay be c ru sh e d b etw een the sh a fts
and ro lls of p a p e r d u rin g the “ shafting**
o p e ra tio n o r b etw een the sh a fts and the ro ll
sta n d s w hile guiding the ro lls of p a p e r onto
m a c h in e s. O th er s e rio u s c ru sh in g h a z a rd s
in clu d e u n g u ard ed g e a rs and u n g u ard ed
m ach in e r o lls .
Sodium s ilic a te , u se d as an a d h e siv e , is
a n o th e r p o s s ib le so u rc e of in ju rie s . S p illed
on the flo o r, it is a slip p in g h a z a rd . D rie d ,
it m ay chip off the c o rru g a te d b o a rd d u rin g
m ach in e o p e ra tio n s and s trik e w o rk m e n ’s
e y e s, o r the d rie d p ie c e s along the edge of
the b o a rd m ay be a cu ttin g h a z a rd .
U n gu ard ed s litte r and c u tte r h ead s m ay
r e s u lt in s e v e re c u ts, la c e ra tio n s , o r even
a m p u ta tio n s. M ino r la c e ra tio n s a ls o m ay
r e s u lt fro m ru b b in g the ed g es of p a p e r.
K n iv es g e n e ra lly a re u se d to rem o v e w ra p ­
p in g s fro m the ro lls of p a p e r, and e x tre m e
cau tio n m u st be e x e rc is e d in th at w o rk to
p re v e n t knife c u ts.
S c ra p s of p a p e rb o a rd fre q u e n tly c o lle c t
aro u n d the c o rru g a tin g m ach in e. The d an g er
of slip s and fa lls , th e re fo re , is quite
com m on . H a z a rd s co n n ected w ith the o p e r ­
atio n of h o is ts and v e h ic le s a re a lso im ­
p o rta n t in the c o rru g a tin g o p e ra tio n s.

U nsafe A ct*--T h e u n sa fe a c t d efin itio n
u se d in th is su rv e y is id e n tic a l w ith the
sta n d a rd d e fin itio n , i. e ., “ th a t v io la tio n of
a com m only a c c e p te d safe p ro c e d u re w hich
re s u lte d in the s e le c te d a c c id e n t ty p e .”

THE INDUSTRY AND ITS HAZARDS
Corrugating

In c o rru g a tin g o p e ra tio n s , th re e la y e rs of
heavy p a p e r a re glued to g e th e r to p ro d u ce
an e la s tic p a p e rb o a rd fo r c o rru g a te d b o x es.
The m id d le la y e r of the p a p e r is flu te d o r
fo rm e d into a lte rn a te rid g e s and g ro o v e s,
and glued to the two o u tsid e la y e rs w hich
a r e c a lle d lin e r s .
H eavy ro lls of p a p e r, w eighing a s m uch
a s 2,000 poun ds, a r e d e liv e re d to the
c o rru g a tin g m ach in e by c ra n e , lift tru c k ,
o r do lly. A m e ta l sh a ft is p la c e d th ro u g h the
c o re of e a c h ro ll and s e c u re d . The r o ll is
th en lifte d onto the c o rru g a tin g m ach in e by
h o is t o r o th e r m e c h a n ic a l d e v ic e . A fte r the
w rap p in g s on the ro ll have b e e n re m o v ed ,
the p a p e r is th re a d e d th ro u g h the m a c h in e.
D u rin g the a c tu a l m a c h in e o p e ra tio n , the
in n e r o r c o rru g a te d la y e r f ir s t p a s s e s o v er
a ste a m sh o w er. The m o is tu re and h e a t thus
a b so rb e d by the p a p e r a s s is ts in “ setting**
o r im p a rtin g rig id ity to the c o rru g a tio n s as
the p a p e r p a s s e s th ro u g h the n ex t s te p -- th e
c o rru g a tin g r o lls . On th e se r o lls , w hich have
te e th th a t m e sh to g e th e r in a g e a r-lik e
o p e ra tio n , the rid g e s and g ro o v e s a re
fo rm e d in th e p a p e r. F ro m the c o rru g a tin g
r o lls , th e sh e e t p a s s e s o v e r a gluing ro ll
and then to p r e s s u r e r o lls w h ere the lin e rs
and the c o rru g a te d s h e e t a r e p r e s s e d to ­
g e th e r. B e fo re e n te rin g the p r e s s u r e ro lls
th e lin e r s have b een p re h e a te d to a s s u r e Printing
good a d h e sio n . F ro m the p r e s s u r e r o lls ,
the b o a rd p a s s e s o v e r a h e a te d s u rfa c e
T h re e ty p e s of p rin tin g p r e s s e s a r e u se d
w hich s e ts th e g lu e, add s rig id ity , and d rie s in b o x b o ard p rin tin g o p e ra tio n s: c y lin d e r,
th e b o a rd . It is th en trim m e d by a s l i t t e r - - a r o ta r y , and p la te n . T he m a in fe a tu re s of the
sh a ft equ ip ped w ith a s littin g h e a d --a n d cut c y lin d e r p r e s s and the r o ta r y p r e s s a re a
in the le n g th d e s ire d . The c u tte r is u su a lly m ov ing ta b le and a re v o lv in g c y lin d e r. In
a ro ta r y ty p e - -a knife s e t on the o u tsid e of the c y lin d e r p r e s s , th e c y lin d e r c a r r ie s the
a rev o lv in g d ru m . The m a n u fa c tu re of b o x b o ard in to co n ta c t w ith the p rin tin g p la te
fib e rb o a rd is s im ila r to th a t of c o rru g a te d w hich is lo ck ed in to the m o v ab le ta b le . In
b o a rd , the only d iffe re n c e b eing th a t the the ro ta r y p r e s s , the p rin tin g p la te is
m id d le la y e r is no t c o rru g a te d .
lo ck ed in to the c y lin d e r and the b o x b o ard is
A lthough c o rru g a tin g is p r im a r ily a m a ­ c a r r ie d th ro u g h the o p e ra tio n on th e ta b le .
chine o p e ra tio n , m any of the h a z a rd s of the In each m ach in e the tab le m o v es b ack and
c o rru g a tin g d e p a rtm e n t a re co n n ected w ith fo rth u n d e r the re v o lv in g c y lin d e r. D u rin g
m an u al h an d lin g . T h e re a r e m any p o s s ib il­ th e a c tu a l p rin tin g o p e ra tio n , the two a r e in
itie s of s tr a in s fro m o v e re x e rtio n o r of c o n ta c t, sy n c h ro n iz e d so th a t th ey a r e
c ru s h e d fe e t o r to e s fro m d ro p p ed o b je c ts. m oving in the sam e d ire c tio n a t the sa m e




5

n o tew o rth y b e c a u se of the d a n g e r of p e r m a ­
n e n t and s e rio u s d is a b ility , in clu d e u n ­
g u ard ed g e a r s , b e lts , r o lls , and o th e r
m ov ing p a r ts of p rin tin g m a c h in e s.

sp eed . The b o x b o ard m ay be fed into th e se
two m a c h in e s m e c h a n ic a lly o r by hand. In
the la tte r c a s e , the o p e ra to r m e re ly k eep s
the feed in g ta b le su p p lied w ith b o x b o ard .
The p la te n p r e s s is e s p e c ia lly ad ap tab le
fo r sm a ll p rin tin g o r d e r s w h ere the p r e s s
m u st be s ta r te d and sto p p ed fre q u e n tly . In
th is p r e s s , the p rin tin g p la te is lo ck ed in a
v e r tic a l p o sitio n . The b o x b o ard is p la c e d ,
one sh e e t a t a tim e , on a m o v ab le p la te n
w hich is h in g ed a t the bo tto m . F o r the
im p re s s io n , the p la te n sw ings u p w ard in to
c o n tact w ith th e p la te . W hen it r e tu r n s to
its o rig in a l p o sitio n , the o p e ra to r re m o v e s
the p rin te d b o x b o a rd and re p la c e s it w ith
a n o th e r u n p rin te d b o a rd .
M a te ria l han d lin g is an im p o rta n t s o u rc e
of h a z a rd s e n c o u n te re d in the p rin tin g
d e p a rtm e n t. B o x b o ard is g e n e ra lly p la c e d
on, and re m o v e d fro m , the p rin tin g m a c h in e
by hand. B u ck ets of in k m u s t be lifte d to fill
the ink fo u n ta in s. H eavy p rin tin g p la te s
m u st be lifte d and lo ck ed in to p la c e and
em p ty sk id s fro m w hich b o x b o ard h a s b een
re m o v e d a re u s u a lly tr a n s f e r r e d by hand
fro m the e n try end of the m ach in e to the
d e liv e ry end. In a ll th e se o p e ra tio n s , the
ch an ce of s tr a in s is v e ry g re a t.
H an dling o p e ra tio n s a lso r e s u lt in o th e r
ty p es of in ju rie s . H ands o r fin g e rs m ay be
la c e r a te d in ru b b in g a g a in st the ed g es of
the p a p e rb o a rd o r in com ing in to c o n ta c t
w ith s h a rp p a r tic le s of s ilic a te on c o r r u ­
g ated b o a rd . S p lin te re d o r roug h b o a rd s on
sk id s m ay c a u se p u n c tu re d fin g e rs o r h an d s
d u rin g the han d lin g o r m oving of th a t e q u ip ­
m e n t. In ad d itio n , the sk id s a r e fre q u e n tly
p la c e d u p rig h t a g a in s t the p rin tin g m ach in e
o r so m e o th e r su p p o rt u n til n eed ed . U n le ss
g re a t c a re is e x e rc is e d in thus p la c in g the
s k id s, they m ay fa ll o r to pp le o v e r, and
s tr ik e w o rk m en . T hen , too, w o rk m en m ay
d ro p the sk id s on th e ir fe e t o r to e s.
T h e re a r e m any p o s s ib ilitie s of fa lls in
p rin tin g o p e ra tio n s . The o p e ra to r of the
p r e s s fre q u e n tly m u st w o rk fro m a ra is e d
p la tfo rm . W orkm en often stan d on the
p r e s s e s o r on o th e r e le v a te d s u rfa c e s to
a d ju st o r lu b ric a te th e eq u ip m en t. In e ith e r
of th e se o p e ra tio n s the w o rk m en a re e x ­
p o sed to the d a n g e r of fa lls to lo w e r le v e ls .
S p illed ink, and sp o ts of o il d ro p p ed d u rin g
the lu b ric a tio n of eq u ip m en t, m ay c a u se
slip s o r fa lls .
P a p e rb o a rd and o th e r su p p lie s a re u su a lly
d e liv e re d to the p rin tin g m ac h in e by hand
tru c k . V e h ic u la r h a z a rd s a r e , th e re fo re ,
com m on in p rin tin g w o rk . O th er h a z a rd s ,




Cutting and C reasing
In cu ttin g and c re a s in g o p e ra tio n s , the
b o x b o ard is trim m e d o r cu t to siz e and
m a rk e d (c re a se d ) to in d ic a te the fo ld s w hich
a re n e c e s s a r y in a sse m b lin g the b o x b o ard
in to a box. Two ty p es of cu ttin g and c r e a s ­
ing o p e ra tio n s p re d o m in a te in the in d u stry .
In m any c a s e s , th e cu ttin g and c re a s in g
ed g es a re m o u n ted on sh a fts of m a c h in e s.
A s the b o x b o ard p a s s e s u n d e r the ro ta tin g
sh a fts, the cu ttin g k n iv e s cu t the b o x b o ard
to the d e s ire d siz e and the c re a s in g e d g e s,
w hich a re s im ila r to the cu ttin g k n iv es
ex ce p t th a t th e ir ed g es a r e ro u n d ed , m ak e
im p re s s io n s in d ic a tin g w h ere the b o x b o ard
is to be fo ld ed . T h is type of o p e ra tio n is
com m on in the m a n u fa c tu re of c o rru g a te d
b o x es.
An a lte rn a tiv e p ro c e d u re , u se d ch iefly in
the m a n u fa c tu re 'o f fold ed and s e t-u p b o x e s,
m a k e s u se of m a c h in e s s im ila r to p rin tin g
p r e s s e s . The c re a s in g and c u ttin g ed g es
a re m e ta l s tr ip s w hich a re p la c e d in d ie s
s im ila r to the p rin tin g p la te s . The a ctio n of
the m a c h in e is s im ila r to th a t of the c y lin d e r
o r ro ta ry p rin tin g p r e s s .
S e v e ra l o th e r s p e c ia liz e d ty p es of cu ttin g
a r e p e rfo rm e d in th e in d u stry . U su ally , the
n am e of th e o p e ra tio n in d ic a te s the kind of
cu t m ad e. F o r e x a m p le , c o rn e r cu ttin g
in v o lv e s cu ttin g c o r n e r s fr o m s c o r e d b la n k s
so th a t th e b o x b o ard m ay be fold ed to fo rm
the box. T he c o rn e r-c u ttin g m ach in e is
b a s ic a lly a cu ttin g d ie , sh ap ed into a 90d e g re e an g le. The o p e ra tio n is s im ila r to
th a t of a punch p r e s s - - th e die m o v es
v e rtic a lly and c u ts the b o x b o ard w hen the
b o a rd is p la c e d u n d e r it. In so m e in s ta n c e s ,
the die is a c tiv a te d by a foot p e d a l. In
o th e rs , it m o v es co n tin u o u sly and the o p e r ­
a to r m u st tim e h is m o v em en ts in p la c in g
the b o x b o ard to th e m o tio n of the d ie .
In the slittin g o p e ra tio n p a p e rb o a rd is cut
in to n a rro w s tr ip s , and the p ro c e d u re is
s im ila r to the cu ttin g o p e ra tio n d e s c rib e d
abo ve. S co rin g is s im ila r to the c re a s in g
o p e ra tio n , e x c e p t th a t the s u rfa c e of the
b o x b o ard is a c tu a lly cu t by a kn ife edg e.
S lo ttin g is the p r o c e s s of cu ttin g s lo ts in
p ie c e s of b o x b o ard to fo rm p a rtitio n s .
S p ecially d e sig n e d slo ttin g m a c h in e s a r e
g e n e ra lly u se d fo r th is p u rp o se b u t o c c a ­
6

F o r strip p in g , the b o x b o ard m ay be le ft
on sk id s w hich a re u se d to tr a n s p o r t the
b o x b o ard fro m the cu ttin g and c re a s in g
d e p a rtm e n t. In m o st in s ta n c e s , h o w e v e r, the
b o x b o ard is tr a n s f e r r e d to strip p in g ta b le s .
L iftin g h eav y b u n d les of b o x b o ard to and
fro m w o rk ta b le s is , th e re f o r e , one of the
m o re com m on h a z a rd s in strip p in g . A n o th er
han d lin g o p e ra tio n involving a su b s ta n tia l
h a z a rd is th a t of m oving the em pty sk id s.
T h is m ay r e s u lt in s tra in e d b ack s due to
o v e re x e rtio n , b ru is e d o r fra c tu re d to es and
fe e t if the sk id s a re d ro p p ed , and p u n c tu re d
han d s o r fin g e rs , if the sk id s a re rough.
H andtool o p e ra tio n s in strip p in g a re p o ­
te n tia l m a jo r p ro d u c e rs of in ju ry . The s tr ip ­
ping h a m m e r m ay slip fro m a w o rk m a n ’s
hand o r m ay be d e fle c te d fro m the p ile of
sto ck a g a in st the w o rk m a n ’s body u n le ss
the h a m m e r is s e c u re ly h eld . In ad d itio n , the
re p e a te d m o tio n in the u se of th e se h a m m e rs
m ay p ro d u ce s p ra in e d w ris ts .
A n o th er h a z a rd com m on to m uch w o rk in
the in d u stry , but e sp e c ia lly im p o rta n t in
strip p in g o p e ra tio n s , is th a t due to d is ­
c a rd e d b o x b o ard s c ra p s . In sp ite of fre q u e n t
c lean u p s in the strip p in g d e p a rtm e n t, the
g e n e ra l p ra c tic e of p e rm ittin g s c ra p s of
b o x b o ard to fa ll to the w o rk in g flo o r p r e s e n ts
a s e rio u s trip p in g and slip p in g h a z a rd .

sio n a lly c ir c u la r saw s a r e u se d . T hum bh o lin g , a s the n am e im p lie s , is the o p e ra tio n
in w hich th u m b h o les a r e cut into the boxb o a rd ,
M any of the h a z a rd s in the cu ttin g and
c re a s in g d e p a rtm e n ts a r e s im ila r to th o se
in the p rin tin g and c o rru g a tin g d e p a rtm e n ts .
M any h a z a rd s a re in vo lved in the h an dling
of m a te r ia ls and eq u ip m en t. B o x b o ard , ro lls
of p a p e r, sh a fts , and d ie s involve m uch
liftin g . T he d a n g e r of s tra in e d m u s c le s fro m
o v er e x e rtio n is g re a t. In a d d itio n , the h a n ­
dlin g of th o se o b je c ts m ay le a d to b ru is e d
o r fra c tu re d to e s and fe e t u n le ss c o n s id e r­
able c a re is e x e rc is e d in g ra sp in g and
holding o b je c ts s e c u re ly . C u ts o r la c e r a ­
tio n s m ay r e s u lt fro m co n ta c t w ith the
edg es of the p a p e rb o a rd ; fro m co n ta c t w ith
the m e ta l cu ttin g ed g es w hich a re in s e rte d
in the d ie s; o r fro m c o n ta c t w ith the k n iv es
w hich a r e fre q u e n tly u se d to tr im the c o rk
o r ru b b e r in s e r ts in the d ie s . W ood u se d
in the fra m e w o rk of d ie s and in sk id s m ay
hav e roug h o r s liv e re d edg es w hich can
p u n c tu re h an ds o r fin g e rs .
U n gu ard ed ro lls and o th e r m oving p a r ts
of m a c h in e s, su ch a s g e a rs , b e lts , and
p u lle y s m ay c a u se s e rio u s d is a b ilitie s .
In ad eq u ately g u a rd e d c ir c u la r saw b la d e s
a r e e s p e c ia lly h a z a rd o u s b e c a u se of the
p o s s ib ility of fin g e r a m p u ta tio n s.
Two o th e r h a z a rd s w h ich the cu ttin g and
c re a s in g d e p a rtm e n ts have in com m on w ith
the c o rru g a tin g d e p a rtm e n ts a r e the s ilic a te
p a r tic le s w hich m ay be th ro w n fro m c o r r u ­
g ated b o x b o ard d u rin g m ach in e o p e ra tio n s
and the s c ra p s of b o x b o ard lying on the
flo o r w hich m ay c a u se slip p in g .

Gluing, Staying, Stitching, and Taping
In the gluing, stay in g , stitc h in g , and taping
o p e ra tio n s, the box is fo rm e d o r fold ed into
shap e and fa ste n e d . F o ld ed b o x es a re u su a lly
glued. The gluing m ach in e fo ld s the b o x b o ard
along the c r e a s e d lin e s , g lu es the b o a rd
w h ere n e c e s s a r y , and d e liv e rs the fin ish e d
fold ed box to the s h ip p e rs o r p a c k e rs .
The a sse m b lin g o p e ra tio n in se tu p -b o x
p la n ts is c a lle d stay in g . The b o x b o ard is
b en t as in d ic a te d by the c re a s in g o p e ra tio n
and p la c e d u n d e r a p lu n g e r in a stay in g
m ach in e. W hen the p lu n g e r d e sc e n d s, it
p r e s s e s a p ie c e of m o iste n e d , gu m m ed ,
k ra ft p a p e r o v e r the c o rn e r of the box.
Som e stay in g m a c h in e s a r e d esig n ed to
fa ste n one c o rn e r of a box fo r each o p e ra ­
tion of the p lu n g e r w h e re a s o th e rs fa ste n
two o r fo u r c o r n e r s in a sin g le o p e ra tio n . In
som e c a s e s , the b o x b o ard is fo ld ed by hand
and p la c e d u n d e r the p lu n g e r w hich is
o p e ra te d by a foot p e d a l w h e re a s in o th e rs
the m a c h in e s a r e fu lly a u to m a tic . The a u to ­
m a tic q u ad ru p le stay in g m ach in e is m o st
fre q u e n tly u se d .
C o rru g a te d bo xes a r e e ith e r stitc h e d

Stripping

G e n e ra lly , the die d o es not cu t e n tire ly
th ro u g h the b o x b o ard b la n k d u rin g the cu ttin g
o p e ra tio n . A s a r e s u lt the w aste re m a in s
a tta c h e d to the b o x b o ard u n til it is re m o v e d
in a s e p a ra te o p e ra tio n c a lle d strip p in g .
M anually o p e ra te d s trip p in g h a m m e rs a r e
g e n e ra lly u se d in th is w o rk . H o w ev er, a
p o w ered hand s tr ip p e r h a s b een dev elo p ed
and is being u se d in so m e p la n ts. E s s e n ­
tia lly , the p o w e re d s tr ip p e r is a n o tch ed
d isc a tta c h e d to a fle x ib le , p o w ered sh a ft.
In the strip p in g o p e ra tio n , the fla t b o x b o ard
b lank s a re p ile d on top of e ach o th e r to a
h eig h t of s e v e ra l fe e t. The w a ste edgings a re
rem o v e d by s trik in g th em w ith a s trip p in g
h a m m e r o r by d ire c tin g the d isc of a
p o w e re d s tr ip p e r a g a in s t the edg es of the
b o x b o a rd s.




7

(actu ally sta p le d ) o r taped* In the stitc h in g
o p e ra tio n , the o p e ra to r fo ld s the b o x b o ard
by hand and p la c e s it u n d e r the sta p lin g h ead
of th e stitc h in g m a c h in e , w hich is c o n tro lle d
by a foot p e d a l. M ost c o rru g a te d b o x es,
h o w ev e r, a re tap ed . In th a t o p e ra tio n , the
o p e ra to r fold s the b o x b o ard and fe e d s it to
the tap in g m ach in e w h e re m o iste n e d ,
gu m m ed p a p e r is p r e s s e d o v e r the se a m .
P r e s s u r e b e lts convey the box to the d e liv ­
e ry end of th e tap in g m ach in e and a s s u r e
th a t the tap e h a s b een firm ly s e c u re d to the
box.
U n g u ard ed eq u ip m en t is th e o u tstan d in g
h a z a rd in th e s e o p e ra tio n s . In m o s t in ­
s ta n c e s , the b o x b o ard sto c k is fed to the
m a c h in e s m a n u a lly . The o p e ra to r m u s t be
e x tre m e ly c a re fu l, th e re fo re , to keep h is
h an d s a safe d is ta n c e fro m the p o in t of
o p e ra tio n . T his h a z a rd is e sp e c ia lly im ­
p o rta n t on m a c h in e s w hich a r e o p e ra te d by
foot p e d a ls . In su ch c a s e s , the o p e ra to r
m u st c o o rd in a te the m o v e m e n ts of h is han d s
and fe e t. U n g u ard ed foot p e d a ls a ls o m ay be
d e p re s s e d a c c id e n ta lly , a c tiv a tin g m a c h in e s
w ith out w a rn in g . O pen r o lls , b e lts , g e a rs ,
and p u lle y s a re o th e r in ju ry -p ro d u c in g
p o s s ib ilitie s . P a p e rb o a rd , conveyed by r o lls
o r b e lts , fre q u e n tly b e c o m e s ja m m e d in
m a c h in e s . In th a t c a s e , it is com m on p r a c ­
tic e to re m o v e the p a p e rb o a rd w ith out
sto pp ing the m a c h in e . T his e x tre m e h a z a rd ­
ous p ro c e d u re p re s e n ts m any c h a n c e s fo r
e m p lo y e e s to be cau g h t in the u n g u ard ed
b e lts o r ro lls .
A lthough not so im p o rta n t as in so m e o th e r
o p e ra tio n s , a liftin g h a z a rd a lso e x is ts in
th is w o rk . S tack s of b o x b o ard m u s t be lifte d
to , and re m o v e d fro m , m any of th e m a c h in e s .
Skids a ls o m u s t be sh ifte d w hen th e sto c k h as
b een re m o v e d and glue is g e n e ra lly c a r r ie d
to the gluing m a c h in e in b u c k e ts.
T he p o s s ib ility of a s lip o r fa ll is not u n ­
co m m o n in th e s e o p e ra tio n s . D rop s of g lu e,
sp ille d w hile th e glue is bein g p o u re d , p r e ­
se n t a slip p in g h a z a rd n e a r th e gluing m a ­
ch in e. B o x b o ard w h ich h ad b een ja m m e d in
the m a c h in e s is fre q u e n tly th ro w n on the
flo o r a fte r it h a s b e e n re m o v e d . T he d is ­
c a rd e d b o x b o a rd , th e re fo re , b e c o m e s a
slip p in g and trip p in g h a z a rd . In ad d itio n ,
so m e m a c h in e s a re so d e sig n e d th a t o p e ra ­
to rs m u s t w o rk fro m p la tfo rm s . As th e s e
w o rk in g s u rfa c e s a re only slig h tly above
flo o r le v e l, g u a rd r a ils a re g e n e ra lly c o n ­
s id e re d u n n e c e s s a ry . H o w ev er, fa lls fro m
any e le v a tio n m a y be qu ite s e rio u s .




Covering and Wrapping
Setup bo x es a r e u su a lly w rap p ed o r
c o v e re d to im p ro v e th e ir a p p e a ra n c e . M ost
b o x es a r e m ach in e w rap p ed but e ith e r
m a c h in e - o r h a n d -w ra p p in g m eth o d s m ay
be em ployed . In m a c h in e w rap p in g , the p a p e r
w hich h as b een s lit and cu t to siz e p a s s e s
th ro u g h a gluing ro ll, w h e re one s u rfa c e is
co ated w ith a d h e siv e . It is th en con vey ed,
by b e lt, to the o p e ra to r who c e n te rs a box
o r lid on the w ra p p e r. T hen, by foot p e d a l,
he r e le a s e s a p lu n g e r w hich p u sh e s the
box b etw een b ru s h e s w hich, in tu rn , p r e s s
the w ra p p e r on the box.
On deep b o x e s, the w ra p p e r is u su a lly
ap p lied by han d. The em p lo y ee m e re ly p u lls
a s trip of w rap p in g p a p e r o v e r a glue ro ll
and th en w o rk s it onto the box.
M achine h a z a rd s p re d o m in a te in th e se
o p e ra tio n s . U n g u ard ed g e a r s , p u lle y s , b e l ts ,
and ro lls m ay c a tc h em p lo y ees o r th e ir
clo th in g , p u llin g th em in to the m oving p a r ts
of m a c h in e s. B e c a u se the o p e ra to r m u s t
p la c e the box and w rapp in g p a p e r u n d e r the
p lu n g e r by hand, th e w o rk is e x c e p tio n ally
h a z a rd o u s. The o p e ra to r m u st co o rd in a te
h is m o v em en ts so th at the p lu n g e r d o es not
d e sc e n d u n til h is fin g e rs and h an ds a r e in
the c le a r . U n gu ard ed foot p e d a ls m ay be
p r e s s e d u n in te n tio n a lly and thus c a u se the
p lu n g er to d e sc e n d p re m a tu re ly .

FACTORS IN THE INJURY RECORD
The in ju ry r e c o r d of any p lan t o r of any
grou p of p la n ts is a co m p o site of a g re a t
m any fa c to rs : the k in d s of m a te r ia l p r o c ­
e sse d ; the ty p es of p ro c e s s in g p e rfo rm e d ;
the safe ty re g u la tio n s of the S ta te s in w hich
the p la n ts a re lo c a te d , and the ex te n t to
w hich th o se re g u la tio n s a re en fo rced ; the
kind of p e rs o n n e l em ployed ; the siz e of the
p la n ts; and the e x te n t of the safe ty p ro g ra m s
c a r r ie d on in the p la n ts. In p a r tic u la r
in s ta n c e s the in flu en ce of th e se fa c to rs m ay
o ffse t each o th e r, but in c o m p a riso n s b a se d
upon la r g e g ro u p s of o p e ra tio n s th e ir e ffe c ts
fre q u e n tly can be d e m o n stra te d , a s in the
follow ing b reak d o w n s of the 1950 e x p e rie n c e
of the p a p e rb o a rd -c o n ta in e r in d u stry .

Product Com parisons
A v erag e in ju ry -fre q u e n c y r a te s fo r the
fo u r m a jo r g ro u p s of p la n ts ra n g e d fro m a
high of 23.0 fo r p la n ts m a n u fa c tu rin g c o r8

CHART 1 INJURY-FREQUENCY RATES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY,
.
By Type of Plant, 1950
DISABLING INJURIES PER MILLION HOURS WORKED
10

20

Corrugated-and
Fiber-Box Plants

30

2 3 .0

Folded-Box Plants

Fiber-Can, -Tube,
and -Drum Plants

Set-Up-Box Plants

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

rugated or fib er b oxes to a low of 12.9 for all d isab lin g in ju ries in this group of plants
those m anufacturing setup b ox es. B etw een w as only 67 days p er c a se . T his w as low er
th ese lim its , the fold ed -b ox plants had an than the average tim e charge for any of the
average frequency rate of 16.7 com pared other plant groups. The standard sev erity
with 16.5 for fib er—c a n ,-tu b e , and-drum rate for the corru gated and fib er-b o x plan ts,
1.5, w as som ew hat higher than the ra tes
p lan ts. (See appendix, table 1.)
In the corrugated and fib er-b o x p lan ts, 1 for the setup and fold ed -b o x plants; it w as
in every 21 fu ll-tim e w o rk ers exp erien ced su b stan tially low er than for plants m anu­
a d isab lin g injury during 1950. Three deaths facturing fib er can s, tu b es, and d ru m s.
w ere rep orted by th ese p lants, averagin g 1
The o v era ll frequ en cy rate of 16.7 for
fatality for each 18 m illio n m an -h ou rs plants m anufacturing folded b oxes r e p r e ­
w orked. The ratio of p erm a n en t-im p a ir­ sented an av erag e of 1 d isab lin g injury
m ent c a s e s , h ow ever, w as r ela tiv ely low , during the yea r for every 28 w ork ers in that
averagin g som ew hat le s s than one in every segm en t of the in d u stry. One fata lity o c ­
m illio n m an -h ou rs. T em p orary-total d is ­ cu rred in each 21 m illio n m an -h ou rs and
a b ilitie s occu rred in th ese plants at the rate there w as 1 perm an en t-im p airm en t ca se for
of 22 p er m illio n m an -h ou rs, but the each 1^ m illio n m an -h ou rs. R ecovery tim e
average reco v ery tim e for th ese c a s e s (14 for the tem p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ilitie s e x p e r i­
days each) w as com p aratively low . As a enced in th ese plants averaged 14 days per
reflectio n of this com bination of a low c a se . The average tim e charge for a ll c a se s
average tim e lo s s for tem p o rary -total d is ­ was 69 days and the standard sev erity rate
a b ilitie s and a low in cid en ce of perm anent for the group w as 1.2.
im p a irm en ts, the average tim e ch arge for
P lan ts m anufacturing fib er can s, tubes,




9

and d ru m s, averaged 1 d isab lin g injury for
every 29 fu ll-tim e w o rk ers. T heir r ela tiv ely
favorab le frequency rate, 16.5, h ow ever,
w as o ffset by a very unfavorable record of
injury se v e r ity . No fa ta litie s w ere reported
by th ese plants during 1950, but their reco rd
of 5 perm anent im p airm en ts in each m illio n
m an -h ou rs w orked coupled with an average
reco v ery tim e of 21 days per ca se for
tem p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ilitie s gave them a
sev erity rate of 4.8 and an average tim e
charge of 289 days p er c a s e . The p o ssib ility
of exp erien cin g a serio u s injury appeared to
be m uch g rea ter in th ese plants than in any
other part of the in d u stry.
The setu p -b ox p lan ts, with an average
frequency rate of 12.9, had the m ost fa v o r ­
able exp erien ce in the industry. Their
reco rd show ed 1 d isab lin g injury for each
39 fu ll-y e a r w o rk ers, only 1 fatality in 40
m illio n m a n -h o u rs, and only a fraction m ore
than 1 perm anent im p airm en t per m illio n
m an -h ou rs. T heir average reco v ery tim e
for tem p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ilitie s, 17 d ays,
w as r e la tiv e ly high. A s a r e su lt, their
average tim e ch arge p er ca se w as 76 d ays,
but their se v e r ity rate of 1.0 w as the
lo w est for any of the 4 groups of p lan ts.

on the b a sis of in d u stry-w id e a v era g es m ay
be questioned. The m ost r e a listic area
co m p a riso n s, th erefo re, are th ose based
upon sp ecific types of production rather
than upon industry to ta ls.

C orrugated and F ib e r -B o x P la n ts.--I n jury rates for plants m anufacturing c o r r u ­
gated and fib er b oxes w ere com puted for 15
S tates. C om pared with the national average
of 23.0 for this group of p lan ts, 2 S ta te s-M a ssach u setts and Indiana--had v ery high
in ju ry-freq u en cy ra te s, 41.7 and 41.1 r e ­
sp ectiv ely (appendix, table 3). In co n tra st,
2 S ta te s--F lo r id a , w ith 10.7, and W iscon sin ,
with 1 1 .4 --had ra tes le s s than half the
n ational a v erag e. Of the rem aining 11 S ta tes,
1 had a frequency rate of 13.4 (C aliforn ia),
3 oth ers had ra tes le s s than 20 (Illin o is,
15.4, T ex as, 16.7, and M ichigan, 18.0), 3
had ra tes betw een 20 and 25 (New J e r se y ,
20 .0, M isso u ri, 21 .3, and Ohio, 22.9) and 4
had ra tes betw een 25 and 30 (New Y ork,
25.2, P en n sylvan ia, 27.9, T en n essee, 28.4,
and W est V irgin ia, 29.8).
F lo rid a plants had the b est State in ju ryse v e r ity reco rd , in addition to having the b est
average frequency ra te. None of the in ju ries
reported for that group of three plants r e ­
sulted in death or perm anent d isa b ility .
Regional and State Com parisons
T h erefo re, the average tim e lo st per d is ­
V ariation s in injury ra tes am ong the abling injury w as only 13 days and the s e v e r ­
d ifferen t States and region s m ay r e fle c t any ity rate w as ex trem ely low , 0.1. The plants in
one or any com bination of se v e r a l fa c to r s. M ichigan a lso had a reco rd of no death or
State safety regu lation s and the d egree to perm anent d isa b ility . In the 6 plants r ep o rt­
w hich they are en forced , the age and ing from that State, h ow ever, tem p o ra ry m aintenance of plants and equipm ent, and total d isa b ilitie s w ere quite s e v e r e , r eq u ir­
em ploym ent fa cto rs such as the exp erien ce ing an average of 33 days for recu p eration .
of availab le w o rk ers, all tend to in fluence S eriou s d isa b ilitie s w ere infrequent in M as­
the average le v e l of injury ra tes in any sach u setts (1 in 87), Ohio (1 in 129), and
area .
T en n essee (1 in 50). A s a r e su lt, the average
In ju ry-rate com p a rison s by region and tim e lo st per injury in those States w as c o m ­
State m ay be affected by the type of product p aratively lo w --1 9 , 20, and 25 days r e s p e c ­
predom inating in the p articu lar areas.*7 F or tiv ely . O ther States with average tim e
exam p le, the h igh est national average f r e ­ ch arges below the national average w ere
quency rate w as reco rd ed by plants m anu­ M isso u ri, 25 d ay s, T ex a s, 29 d ays, W iscon ­
facturing corrugated and fib er b o x es. Any sin , 44 d ays, and C a liforn ia, 55 d ays.
U nfavorable se v e r ity reco rd s w ere r e ­
area in w hich those p articu la r operations
con stitu te a high proportion of the total ported by Illin o is, 151 days lo st per injury;
production, th erefo re, would be exp ected to W est V irgin ia, 121 days; Indiana, 108 days;
have a com p aratively high o v era ll average and N ew Y ork, 106 d ays. T hese ad v erse s e ­
r e g a r d le ss of other fa cto rs which m ight v erity reco rd s w ere due ch iefly to a high r a ­
influence the rate. B eca u se of th ese variab le tio of perm anent d is a b ilitie s . T w elve of the
in tern al w eighting fa c to r s, the sig n ifican ce 107 rep orted in ju ries in 21 coop eratin g I lli­
of com p arison s am ong the States and region s n ois plants and 3 of the 31 in ju ries in 5 W est
V irgin ia plants w ere perm anent d is a b ilitie s .
7 State samples were too small to correlate injury-fre­ F iv e Indiana plants rep orted 1 fata lity and 4
perm anent d isa b ilitie s am ong 116 in ju r ies,
quency rates by product and size of establishment.




10

S im ila rly , 14 C onnecticut plants reported
2 fa ta lities and 5 perm anent p artia l d is ­
a b ilities am ong 91 in ju ries. A s a resu lt,
the average tim e lo st per injury w as 201
days and the sev erity rate w as 4 .8 , the
h ig h est record ed for any State group of
fold ed -b ox p la n ts. Two other groups of
plants averaged m ore than 100 days lo st
tim e p er injury, C aliforn ia, 182 d ays, and
Illin o is, 140 d ays.
Setup—Box P la n ts.--A v e r a g e s for setu p box plants w ere com puted for 10 S tates.
State in ju ry-freq u en cy ra tes ranged from
7.1 in Illin o is to 16.9 in C aliforn ia, the
average for a ll setu p -b o x plants being
12.9. In addition to Illin o is, one other
State had a rate le s s than 1 0 --M isso u ri,
with 8.5. F iv e of the 10 S tates had av era g es
betw een 10 and 1 5 --N ew York, 11.7; New
J e r se y , 11.8; N orth C arolina, 12.9; M as­
sa ch u setts, 14.1; and W iscon sin, 14.1. P en n ­
sylvan ia and C onnecticut plants averaged
15.3 d isab lin g in ju ries per m illio n hours
of w ork.
Injury se v e r ity , how ever, follow ed a
som ew hat d ifferen t pattern. The ad verse
frequency rate in C alifornia w as o ffset by a
favorable se v e r ity record , 33 days lo st per
injury, the lo w est for any State group of
setu p -b ox p lan ts. S im ila rly , the favorab le
frequency rate of Illin ois plants w as
counterbalanced by an unfavorable sev erity
reco rd , 212 days lo st p er injury, the h igh est
record ed for any group. H ow ever, with the
exception of the Illin o is p lan ts, a ll State
groups held th eir a v erag es to le s s than 75
days lo st tim e per d isab lin g injury.

and the 102 in ju ries in 1 7 New York plants in ­
cluded 1 fata lity and 3 perm anent d isa b ilitie s.
F ib er-C a n , -T u be, and -D rum P la n ts.- A verage injury ra tes for fib e r -c a n ,—tube,
and—drum plants could be com puted for
only 3 States# In Ohio, 4 plants ach ieved a
frequ en cy rate of only 8 .4 - -about half the
national a v era g e, 16.5. In addition, they had
favorab le in ju r y -se v e r ity reco rd s. None of
the nine rep orted in ju ries resu lted in s e r ious d isa b ility . C onsequently, the average
tim e lo st per injury w as only 15 days and
the se v e r ity rate w as only 0.1.
F avorable a v erag es w ere a lso rep orted
by 7 plants in P en n sylvan ia. F or that group
of plants the in jury-freq u en cy rate w as
10.6, the average tim e lo st per injury w as
25 d ays, and the se v erity rate w as 0.3.
In con trast, 6 New J e r se y plants rep orted
26 d isab lin g in ju ries per m illio n hours
w orked and m any of th ese w ere perm anent
d isa b ilitie s. The se v e r ity reco rd , th erefo re,
w as a lso unfavorable, 724 days charged per
injury and 18.8 days charged p er thousand
hours w orked.
F old ed -B ox P la n ts .--S ta te av era g es for
plants producing folded b oxes w ere a v a il­
able for 14 S tates. C om pared with the
national average of 16.7, the State injury frequ en cy ra tes ranged from 9.3 in Illin o is
to 24.4 in T exas. Six States had a v era g es
betw een 10 and 15 (W isconsin, 10.3; M is­
sou ri, 11.6; Ohio, 12.3; M ichigan, 12.6;
Indiana 14.1; and C alifornia, 14.7); 4 had
ra tes betw een 15 and 20 (New J e r se y , 16.5;
M aryland, 18.0; New Y ork, 19.6; and P en n ­
sylva n ia, 19.8); and 3 had ra tes betw een
20 and 25 (M assa ch u setts, 23.1; C onnecticut,
23.9; and T exas 24.4).
The T exas p lants balanced their ad v erse
frequency rate by a favorab le sev erity
reco rd . None of the rep orted in ju ries for the
four coop eratin g plants in that State resu lted
in death or perm anent d isa b ility . Coupled
with the r e la tiv e ly sligh t tem p o rary -total
d isa b ilitie s, this held the average tim e lo st
to 5 days per d isab lin g injury and 0.1 days
p er thousand hours w orked. F avorab le s e ­
v erity av era g es w ere a lso rep orted by plants
in P en n sylvan ia (14 days lo st per injury),
M aryland (18 days p er injury) and Indiana
(24 days p er injury).
In co n trast, 3 of 20 in ju ries reported by
7 M isso u ri p lants resu lted in perm anent
d isa b ility , giving that State a v ery high
average tim e lo s s per injury, 240 d ays.
260182 0

-

53-3




Plant-Size Com parisons
P la n t-siz e appears to be c lo se ly related
to the o ccu rren ce of in ju ries in the p ap erb oard -con tain er industry. G en erally, the
v ery sm a ll plants (with few er than 50
em p lo yees each) and the la rge plants (with
500 or m ore em p lo yees) had the lo w est
in jury-freq u en cy ra te s. P lan ts em ploying
100 to 249 w ork ers had the h igh est average
in ju ry-freq u en cy rate.
F or the group of plants em ploying few er
than 20 w ork ers a p iece, the average fr e ­
quency rate w as 11.6. In each of the next 3
siz e grou p s, the average m oved p r o g r e s­
siv ely higher: 13.6 for plants with 20 to
49 em p loyees; 19.1 for plants with 50 to 99
em p loyees; and 20.5 for th ose w ith 100
to 249 em p lo y ees. The average rate then

11

CHART 2. INJURY-FREQUENCY RATES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY,
By Size of Plant,1950
DISABLING INJURIES PER MILLION HOURS WORKED
10

20

30

1 to 19
Employees
20 to 49
Employees
50 to 99
Employees
100 to 249

12Q-51

Employees
250 to 499
Employees
500 Employees

33T"—-----------------------1
&r:

and Over

urn

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LAROR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

p reven tion p ro g ra m s, and can provid e a ll
guards and safety equipm ent known to
be av ailab le. L arge plants a lso can m ain ­
tain som e form of m ed ica l or train ed f ir s taid se r v ic e on the p r e m ise s. They have the
advantage of p ro fessio n a lly en gin eered plant
layout and w ork p r o c e s s e s , and are
gen era lly in a p ositio n to u tilize m ech an ical
equipm ent m ore ex ten siv e ly than are the
sm a ller p lan ts. M ate rial-h an d lin g o p era ­
tions u tilizin g m ech an ical co n v ey o rs,
h o ists, and pow er trucks can do m uch to
avoid m any of the in ju ries a sso cia ted w ith
the m anual p erform an ce of such op eration s.
The p rob lem of safety in m ed iu m -size
plants is com p licated b ecau se the resp o n ­
sib le head seld o m can devote m uch tim e to
ob servin g shop op era tion s, and, th erefo re,
m u st d elegate m uch of the resp o n sib ility
for safety to o th ers. U nfortunately, th ese
safety r e sp o n sib ilitie s frequently are a s ­
sign ed to forem en or su p erv iso rs w ith little
or. no safety training and who frequently

dropped slig h tly to 19.0 for plants having
250 to 499 em p lo yees apiece* In the fin al
group, m ade up of plants having 500 or
m ore em p lo yees each , the average dropped
sharply to 13.8 (appendix, table 1).
This pattern of in ju ry-freq u en cy rate
va ria tio n s in relation to plant siz e is
sim ila r to p attern s found in other B ureau
in d u stry surveys* The ind ication s are that
the ow ner is frequently the su p erv iso r in
sm a ll sh op s. He has p erso n a l fin an cial
in te r e st in keeping the accid en t volum e at
a m inim um , and is gen era lly able to keep
a ll op eration s under c lo s e ob servation .
T h erefo re, he can se e unsafe conditions
and p r a c tic e s as they d evelop , and can take
im m ed iate action to elim in ate hazards b e ­
fo re they cau se a ccid en ts.
The high volu m e of production in la rg e
shops m ak es it fin an cia lly p o ssib le to give
sp ecia l attention to safety . T hese plants
u su ally can afford to em ploy safety
en g in eers to ca rry on sc ie n tific accid en t-




12

p artm en ts a lso had the h ig h est average tim e
charge per c a se (91 days) and the h ig h est
sev erity rate (3.9) am ong the en tire group
of production d ep artm en ts.
Only two other production dep artm ents
had frequ en cy ra tes above 2 0 - -th e printing
and cutting d ep artm en ts. Each of th ese
op eration s had a com p aratively high p ro ­
portion of p erm an en t-p artial d isa b ilitie s
and ranked r ela tiv ely high in the injury se v e r ity co m p a riso n s.
At the other ex trem e, two production
dep artm ents had frequency ra tes of le s s
than 1 0 --the hand cov erin g , topping, and
turning op eration , and the lab elin g o p era ­
tion. The average reco v ery tim e for tem ­
p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ilitie s w as high in both
d ep artm en ts, but the low in cid en ce of p e r ­
m anent im p airm en ts gave them rela tiv ely
low in ju r y -se v e r ity r a te s.
In the m iddle range 13 production d ep art­
m en ts had frequ en cy ra tes ranging from
12.9 for gluing op eration s to 19. Sfor stitc h ­
ing op eration s. The tying and bundling d e­
p artm en t, w ith a frequ en cy rate of 14.1,
had the b est se v e r ity reco rd am ong a ll the
production d ep artm en ts. In this operation
no fata lity or perm anent im p airm en t
o ccu rred , and the reco v ery tim e for te m ­
p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ilitie s averaged only 10
d ays. Am ong the op eration s w ith le s s fa v o r­
able reco rd s w ere corn er cutting and
in tegrated cutting and crea sin g .

p lace g rea ter im portance on production
than on safety.
The group a v e r a g e s, h ow ever, tend to
con cea l the* wide d ifferen ces in the in juryfrequency rates of the individual plants
w ithin the variou s s iz e grou p s. A ctually,
n early 44 p ercen t of the plants included in
the su rvey op erated throughout the .year
without a sin gle d isab lin g injury (appendix,
tab les 2 and 4). M ost of th ese w ere sm a ll
p la n ts, but the lis t included 10 with over
100 w o rk ers, 2 of w hich em ployed n early
250 w ork ers a p iece. Although no plant with
over 250 em p lo yees ach ieved a zero f r e ­
quency rate, 1 em ploying 600 w ork ers
fin ish ed the year with a rate of only 3.7.
At the other ex trem e, 8 plants with few er
than 100 em p loyees rep orted ra tes of m ore
than 100. A nother group of 56 p la n ts, all
w ith few er than 500 em p lo y ees, reported
ra tes of over 50. T ogether, th ese 64 plants
em ployed le s s than 6 p ercen t of the w ork ers
covered in the su rvey but they accounted
for n early 20 p ercen t of the d isab lin g
in ju ries and 17 p ercen t of the tim e lo st
from in ju r ies. No plant w ith 500 or m ore
em p lo yees had a rate exceed in g 30.

DEPARTMENTAL INJURY RATES
N ea rly a ll the su rveyed plants rep orted
on som e of their op eration s in su fficien t
d etail to p erm it the in clu sion of such data
in typ ical departm ental grou p s. (Many p lants
w ere unable to furn ish com p lete breakdow ns
of their op eration s accord in g to a stand­
ard ized pattern b ecau se of d ifferen ces in
in tern al organ ization .) Thus, sep ara te
injury reco rd s w ere com p iled for 18 prod u c­
tion d epartm ents and 5 p la n t-se r v ic e d e­
p artm en ts.

Service Operations
Storage o p era tio n s, with 1 d isab lin g injury
for every 13 fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, ranked as
the m o st hazardous of the p la n t-se r v ic e
a c tiv itie s. A long w ith a high in ju ry frequency rate of 35.8, th ese op eration s
had a high in ju r y -se v e r ity rate (4.6) and a
high average tim e ch arge p er injury (128
d ays).
The shipping dep artm ents a lso had a high
frequ en cy rate of 30.8. In ju ries in th ese
d ep artm en ts, h ow ever, tended to be le s s
serio u s than those occu rrin g in storage
op era tion s, giving them a b etter than a v e r ­
age se v e r ity ranking.
M aintenance op eration s ranked third
am ong the se r v ic e d ep artm ents in injury
frequ en cy and secon d in r esp ect to injury
se v e r ity . The frequ en cy rate of 24.8, how ­
ev er , w as h igher than that of any production
departm ent excep t corru gatin g.
The ad m in istra tiv e and c le r ic a l d ep art­
m en ts had a p a rticu la rly good reco rd . T h eir

Production Operations
P rod u ction op eration s as a group had a
som ew hat higher in ju ry-freq u en cy rate,
18.2, than the serv ice-d ep a rtm en t group,
14.6, but the in ju ries exp erien ced by s e r v ­
ic e w ork ers tended to be m ore se v e r e
(appendix, table 5).
The g r e a te st con cen tration of in ju ries
occu rred in the corrugatin g d ep artm en ts.
The average frequ en cy rate for th ese op era­
tions w as 4 2 .5 , rep resen tin g approxim ately
1 d isab lin g injury in the co u rse of the year
for every 11 fu ll-tim e w o rk ers. A re la tiv e ly
high proportion of th ese in ju ries w ere
se r io u s. A s a r e su lt, the corrugatin g d e­




13

In that accid en t, a m a ch in ist w as injured
when h is fin g ers w ere caught in the sp rock et
of a corru gator.
A ll of the 42 sin gle-th u m b and fin ger
am putations involved m oving equipm ent.
Seven teen d ifferen t kinds of m ach in es w ere
included, the m o st com m on b eing printing
p r e s s e s , 8 accid en ts; cu tters a n d c r e a se r s,
5 accid en ts; stayin g m a ch in es, 5 accid en ts;
corn er cu tters, 3 accid en ts; p ow ered sa w s,
3 accid en ts; and punch p r e s s e s , 3 a ccid en ts.
In 25 of th ese a ccid en ts, the w orkm an had h is
fin ger or thumb am putated at the p o in t-o fop eration of the m achine; in 6 c a s e s , b elts or
KINDS OF INJURIES EXPERIENCED
p u lleys w ere resp on sib le; and in 6 c a se s
autom atic feedin g d ev ices w ere in volved .
F atalities
The 29 lo s s -o f- u s e d isab lem en ts included
Individual c a se reco rd s of 1,505 in ju ries 17 fin ger, 4 hand, 2 arm , 2 le g , 2 foot, and
w ere c o llected for d etailed a n a ly sis by 2 back in ju r ies. F ou rteen fin ger in ju r ie s, 3
B ureau r e p r e se n ta tiv e s. Only 2 of th ese hand in ju r ies, and an arm injury resu lted
in ju ries resu lted in death. In one c a se , a fro m m achine o p era tio n s. P rin tin g m ach in es
clea n er craw led under a cutting and cr e a sin g accounted for 6 of the 18 in ju r ies. In four
p r e ss to clean the flo o r. W hile he w as c a se s (two fin g ers, a hand, and an arm
engaged in this w ork, the op erator, not injury) the w orkm en w ere caught in the
knowing the clea n er w as under the m ach in e, r o lls of m ach in es; in the fifth (a fin ger
sta rted the p r e s s . The travelin g bed of the injury) the em p loyee w as caught b etw een a
b elt and a p ulley; and in the sixth c a se a
p r e ss cru sh ed the cle a n e r , k illin g him .
In the secon d fatal accid en t, a b aler p rojectin g se t screw on the m otor shaft
op erator w as k illed when the top platen of caught a ring on a w orkm an’s fin g er. C ircu ­
la r saw s la cera ted the fin g ers of th ree
the b a ler fe ll on h im .
w orkm en and the cutting d ies or k n ives of a
slitte r , a corn er cu tter, and a die p r e ss
Perm anent-Partial D isabilities
accounted for two m ore fin ger in ju ries and
The 80 p erm an en t-p artial d isa b ilitie s a hand injury. B elts on a b o x -co v erin g
included 51 am putations and 29 cu ts, fr a c ­ m ach in e, a folding and gluing m ach in e, and
tu r e s, b r u ise s, and stra in s w hich resu lted a corrugator w ere resp o n sib le for a hand
in the perm anent lo s s of u se of a body part and two fin ger in ju r ies. Two m ore fin ger
or function. A ll but one of the am putations in ju ries w ere a scrib ed to the w ooden plunger
in volved fin g ers or thum bs. In that c a se , a of a quad m achine and the b lock of a w rapping
w orkm an lo st two m in or toes when h is foot m ach ine. The other fin ger injury in this
w as caught betw een an elev ator cage and a group occu rred when a w orkm an w as caught
betw een the strip p er arm and the fram e of a
floor*
E ight w orkm en lo st two or m ore fin g e r s. m ach ine.
Handling op eration s w ere resp o n sib le for
In two c a se s the accid en ts occu rred as
w orkm en w ere adjusting m oving m a ch in es. a back, a le g , and two fin ger in ju r ies. One
One involved a s litte r operator who had w orkm an su ffered a h ern iated d isc when he
four fin g ers am putated when h is hand w as attem pted to lift a co il of w ire. The secon d
caught betw een a b elt and a p u lley. The accid en t o ccu rred as a m aintenance crew
oth er, a lam inating m achine op erator, lo st w as rem ovin g a gear from a d ie-cu ttin g
two fin g e r s. F u ll d eta ils of h is accid ent m ach ine. When the w orkm en dropped the
are not availab le but the injury resu lted gea r, it stru ck a slitte r o p era to r, fractu rin g
when h is w rench slip p ed from a nut. F iv e h is le g . A nother m aintenance accid en t o c ­
w ork ers each lo s t two fin g ers w h ile o p er­ cu rred during the m oving of a p r e s s . In
ating m a ch in es. Two co rn er-cu ttin g m a ­ this c a s e , a m ain ten an ce m an w as hurt
ch in es, a band saw , a circu la r saw w ith a when an 8 -in ch by 8 -in ch plank dropped on
dado blade, and a p artition slo tte r w ere h is fin g er. In the other accid en t of this
involved in those a ccid en ts. M aintenance group, a tin -p r e ss op erator la cera ted h is
w ork a lso accounted for a tw o-fin ger c a se . fin ger on a sh eet of tin p late as he w as

in ju ry-freq u en cy rate of 1.7 com pared
favorably w ith the ra tes for sim ila r a c ­
tiv itie s in other in d u stries recen tly su rveyed
by the B ureau of Labor S ta tistic s. In the
cla y -co n stru ctio n p roducts in d u stry, for
exam p le, the frequ en cy rate for c le r ic a l
and ad m in istrative w ork in 1948 w as 3.0,
and in the fe r tiliz e r industry the rate for
sim ila r w ork w as 2.8 in 1946. In the pulp
and paper in d u stry, su rveyed in 1948, the
c le r ic a l and ad m in istrative rate w as so m e ­
what lo w er, 1.4.




14

p lacin g it in the m ach ine. Infection d e v e l­
oped and the perm anent d isa b ility resu lted .
Two perm anent foot in ju r ies, a hand, an
arm , and a back injury resu lted from fa lls.
Two of th ese (an arm and a foot injury)
w ere fa lls on ste p s. In one in stan ce, the
step s led to the w orking p latform of a
p rinting m achine. The secon d foot injury
w as due to a fa ll from a ladder and the back
injury resu lted from a fa ll off a scaffold .
The hand injury o ccu rred when a w orkm an
who w as rep lacin g a tag on a r o ll of paper,
fe ll from the second tier of 50 -in ch r o lls of
paper.
F allin g ob jects w ere resp o n sib le for the
rem ain in g two lo s s -o f- u s e in ju r ies. In one
c a se , a ro ll of paper fe ll on a m oisten in g m achine op erator, in flictin g a perm anent
fin ger injury. The second injury affected a
le g . In that accid en t, a p rin tin g -p r e ss
operator w as injured when a secon d w ork ­
m an pushed a cylin d er head from the
p rin ter.

stra in s in d ica tes that there is a great need
for m ore training in the safe m ethods of
handling and liftin g ob jects and m a te r ia ls.
Many of the sp rained w rists w ere a lso due
to liftin g op eration s, w h ereas sprained
ankles w ere p rin cip a lly the resu lt of m is ­
step s by w o rk ers.
M ore than h alf the cuts and la cera tio n s
w ere fin ger or thumb in ju ries and another
fifth involved hands. M ore ex ten siv e u se of
glov es m ight have p reven ted m any of th ese
in ju ries, but th eir u se is n e c e ssa r ily lim ited
by the fact that m uch of the work is on
m oving m ach inery w here g lov es would c r e ­
ate an additional hazard.
M ost of the fra ctu res a lso occu rred during
m anual handling a c tiv itie s. O ver h alf of
th ese in ju ries involved feet or toes; m ost of
the la tter could have been prevented by the
u se of ste e l-to e d safety sh o es. About a
fourth of the fra ctu res w ere fin ger or thumb
in ju ries.

ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

Tem porary-Total D isabilities

A ccid ent rep o rts frequently do not show
the sp ecific reaso n for the o ccu rren ce of the
p articu lar even ts culm inating in an injury.
In m o st in sta n ces, the only availab le in fo r­
m ation co m es from the injured p erson
h im self, or from w itn e sse s p resen t at the
tim e who m ay lack eith er the sk ill or the
opportunity to in v estig ate the event fully to
d eterm in e the actual accid ent ca u se. In the
a n a ly sis of a la rg e num ber of accid ent
rep o rts, th erefo re, it is com m on to find a
la rg e proportion d eficien t in the one item
m ost im portant to the safety en gin eer.
D esp ite th ese lim ita tio n s, h ow ever, the
an alyst can draw m uch u sefu l inform ation
from even the m ost sketchy accid ent d e­
scrip tion .
The d escrip tio n of an accid en t invariably
tends to follow the norm al line of thinking
on the part of an in terested p erson who
h ears that a frien d or acquaintance has
been injured. The fir s t thought is of the
injury its e lf. W as it a burn, a cut, a b ru ise,
a strain , or som eth in g e ls e ? Then, what
produced the injury and how did it happen?
T hese are a ll d escrip tiv e fa cts w hich u su ally
are read ily apparent to the w itn e sse s.
T h erefore, they loom la rge in the accounts
of the even ts. The m ore an alytical q uestion,
“ Why did it h ap p en ?” n orm ally a r ise s only
after the d e sir e for d escrip tiv e inform ation
has been sa tisfied . It frequ en tly goes un­
an sw ered , eith er b ecau se of p reoccupation

N early 32 p ercen t of the tem p orarytotal d isa b ilitie s w ere b r u ise s or contu­
sio n s. A nother 29 p ercen t w ere stra in s or
sp rain s and 21 p ercen t w ere cu ts or la c e r a ­
tion s. F ra ctu res ranked next in frequency,
accounting for 11 p ercen t of the total, and
h ern ias and foreig n b od ies in e y e s each
am ounted to 2 p ercen t of the total.
In gen era l, h ern ias and fra ctu res w ere
the m ost se v e r e tem p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ili­
tie s , averagin g, r e sp e c tiv e ly , 50 and 25 days
of lo st tim e p er c a se . Only 7 c a se s of
occupational d ise a se w ere reported am ong
the 1,423 tem p o rary -total d isa b ilitie s, but
the average tim e lo s s for th ese c a s e s , 22
d ays, w as com p aratively high. Strains and
sp rain s averaged 15 days per injury and
burns and sca ld s 14 d ays. M iscella n eou s
foreign b odies (eye in ju ries) w ere the le a st
se v e r e of all tem p o ra ry -to ta l d isa b ilitie s,
averagin g 3 days per injury.
N early th ree-fo u rth s of the b r u ises and
con tu sion s affected the lim b s of the body.
F e e t, le g s , and fin g ers w ere m o st frequently
injured. H andling op eration s w ere resp o n ­
sib le for m ost of th ese in ju ries w hich
occu rred when ob jects w ere dropped.
Strains and sp rain s w ere m o stly trunk
in ju ries; back in ju ries predom inated. Ankle
and w rist in ju ries w ere frequent, h ow ever.
R eflectin g the am ount of m anual handling
w ork in the industry, the num ber of back




15

w ith the d escrip tiv e fa c to r s, or b ecau se the
an sw er m ay not be read ily apparent.
The d irect approach in accid ent a n a ly sis,
th erefo re, is to draw from the reco rd s the
va rio u s elem en ts of inform ation in the ord er
in w hich they are u su ally reco rd ed . Standing
alon e, th ese elem en ts m ay have lim ited
va lu e, but when rela ted to each other they
can do m uch to in d icate the a c c id e n t-p r e ­
vention a c tiv itie s w hich m ay be n eeded. The
d eterm in ation of the ob jects or su b stan ces
m o st com m only producing in ju r ie s , coupled
w ith inform ation on how they produced the
in ju r ie s, co n stitu tes the fir st step toward
an understanding of the accid en t p rob lem .

or from hands of w orkm en. A s a resu lt,
b ru ised hands, fin g e r s, le g s, feet, and toes
w ere frequent. Many cuts and la cera ted
fin g ers resu lted from w orkm en rubbing
ag ain st the ed ges of som e of the m a te r ia ls.
V eh icles w ere the third m o st im portant
agency of injury. T hese w ere predom inantly
hand tru ck s. Of th ese in ju ries, tw o-th ird s
w ere exp erien ced by w orkm en who w ere
caught betw een v e h ic le s and other ob jects
or w ere stru ck by m oving v e h ic le s. The
r e su lts, g en era lly , w ere b ru ised or fr a c ­
tured le g s , fe e t, or to es. O verexertion
accid en ts in w hich w orkm en strain ed th em ­
se lv e s as they attem pted to m ove h eavily
loaded hand truck s w ere a lso quite com m on.
M ost of th ese w ere back in ju ries although
in ju ries to the abdom en w ere not infrequent.
Only sligh tly le s s com m on w ere in ju ries
resu ltin g from w o rk ers bum ping into or
again st station ary v e h ic le s.
C ontact with w orking su rfa ces accounted
for about 9 p ercen t of the d isab lin g in ju ries.
About h alf of th ese occu rred when em p lo yees
slipp ed or stum bled and fe ll on the su rfa ces
on w hich they w ere w orking. Only sligh tly
le s s com m on w ere accid en ts in w hich w ork ­
m en fe ll from elev a tio n s. B r u ise s, contu­
sio n s, str a in s, and sp rain s w ere the m ost
com m on, but fr a c tu r e s, the g en era lly m ore
sev ere in ju ries, w ere a lso quite frequent.
On an av erag e, 1 of ev ery 6 rep orted
fra ctu res w as attributed to contact with a
working su rfa ce.
About 6 p ercen t of the d isab lin g in ju ries
in the industry w ere in flicted by skids;
fallin g skids accounted for n early h alf of
th ese in ju r ies. In m o st in sta n ces, the sk id s
fe ll from the hands of w o rk ers, but im ­
p rop erly p laced sk id s frequ en tly toppled
ov er, strik in g w orkm en. B ru ised feet, to e s,
and le g s w ere, th erefo re, com m on. Strains
due to ov erex ertio n in liftin g skids w ere
second in im p ortan ce in this group of
a ccid en ts.
About 6 p ercen t of the d isab lin g in ju ries
resu lted d irectly from strain in g m ovem en ts
of the injured w orkm en rather than from
contact with p h y sica l ob jects or su b sta n ces.
In p ra ctica lly a ll of th ese in sta n ces, the
w orker slipped or stum bled and strain ed
h im se lf w hile he w as trying to regain h is
b alan ce. About two of every three in ju ries
in this group in volved a foot or a leg . M ost
of the* oth ers w ere stra in s of the back or
abdom en.
M etal shafts and r o lls w ere resp o n sib le
for about 4 p ercen t of a ll in ju ries. M ore

A gencies of Injury
M ach in es, the m o st frequent agency of
in jury, in flicted n early a fourth of all
in ju ries in p ap erb oard -con tain er p lants (ap­
pendix, tab les 9, 10, and 11). Many d ifferen t
kinds of m ach in es w ere involved in th ese
a ccid en ts, the m o st com m on being printing
p r e sse s ; c r e a se r s and cu tters; saw s; and
gluing, stayin g, stitch in g , w rapping, and
taping m ach in es. Two types of accid en ts
accounted for n ea rly all th ese in ju r ies. The
m o st com m on w as that of w orkm en being
caught in the m oving p arts of equipm ent.
Although g e a r s, p u lley s, and b elts w ere
involved in m any of th ese a ccid en ts, m ost of
them resu lted from w orkm en being caught
in the p o in ts-o f-o p era tio n . The second m ost
com m on type of accid ent involving m ach in es
w as that of w orkm en bum ping into or
strik in g against equipm ent as they w ere
w orking or m oving about the w orking a rea .
N ea rly th ree-fo u rth s of the resu ltin g in ­
ju r ie s w ere cu ts, la c e r a tio n s, b r u ise s, or
con tu sion s; fin g e r s, hands, and arm s w ere
m o st frequently injured.
It is notew orthy that m ach ines accounted
for 48 of the 51 reported am putations and
ov er a fifth of the fr a c tu r e s. M ost of th ese
m ore serio u s in ju ries occu rred when the
w ork er w as caught in m oving p arts of
m a ch in es.
P ap er products ranked second as an
agency of injury, producing 18 p ercen t of all
d isab lin g in ju r ie s. About tw o-th ird s of th ese
w ere stra in s from liftin g heavy carton s and
ro lls of p ap er. In addition, 13 of the 30
rep orted h ern ias resu lted from handling
paper p rod u cts. Many of the in ju ries a ttrib ­
uted to paper p roducts occu rred when w ork­
m en w ere stru ck by paper carton s or r o lls
of paper w hich fe ll from p ile s of m a te r ia ls




16

CHART 3. MAJOR AGENCIES OF INJURY IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY
PERCENT
10

20

30

------------------------------------------------------------------------------ T------------------------------

f

;2
gs?;'w4 .0

Machines

—
1 8 .3

Paper products

1 0 .7

Vehicles

Skids

5 .7

Body Motions

4 .1

Sh a fts, rolls

3 .1

Hand tools

2 .9

Metal parts

Other
UNITID STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




17

than half the in ju ries in this group w ere
b ru ised or fractu red to e s, fe e t, fin g ers, or
hands. M ost of th e se in ju ries resu lted from
shafts or r o lls being dropped during h an ­
dling o p era tio n s. In a few in sta n ces w ork ers
strain ed th e m se lv e s w hile liftin g heavyshafts or through faulty handling of them .
Am ong the le s s com m on a g en cies of
injury w ere hand to o ls, m eta l p arts, and
foreign b od ies (in e y e s). H and-tool in ju ries
w ere p rin cip a lly cuts or b ru ises to hands,
fin g ers, a r m s, and le g s . In m o st of th ese
accid en ts the w orkm an stru ck h im se lf with
his tool or dropped the tool on h is foot or
to e s.
The foreig n b o d ies, w hich in flicted eye
in ju ries, w ere p rim a rily sm a ll p a r tic le s,
eith er airborne or thrown from the point
of operation of som e m achine or hand tool.
The m eta l parts w ere m o stly m achine p a r ts.
Many of the resu ltin g in ju ries occu rred
when the parts fe ll from m ach in es or from
other equipm ent. O ther in ju ries in this
group included stra in s from liftin g heavy
m etal parts and b r u ise s or cuts from
bum ping again st the p arts.

Accident Types
M ore than 80 p ercen t of a ll the record ed
accid en ts fe ll into four gen eral c a te g o r ie s.
T h ese w ere accid en ts in w hich w orkm en
w ere caught in, on, or betw een m oving
ob jects; w ere stru ck by m oving ob jects;
stru ck again st or bum ped into ob jects; or
strain ed th em selv es w hile handling m a ­
te r ia ls or equipm ent (appendix, tab les 111)
5,
R eflectin g the wide u se of m ach in es in
the m anufacture of paperboard con tain ers,
a sixth of a ll the disab lin g in ju ries resu lted
from w orkm en being caught in the m oving
parts of pow ered equipm ent. T h ese
accid en ts tended to produce se v e r e in ­
ju ries - -n ea rly a fourth w ere death or
perm anent d isa b ility c a s e s . One of every
6 in ju ries in the group w as an am putation
and 1 of ev ery 8 w as a fra ctu re. M ost of
th ese accid en ts occu rred as w orkm en w ere
feeding stock into m ach in es and m o st of the
in ju ries w ere to hands or fin g e r s. In over
tw o-th ird s of the c a s e s the accid ent
occu rred at the point of operation of the
m ach ine. T h ere w e r e , h ow ever, m any a c ­
cidents in w hich the w ork ers w ere caught
in g e a r s, p u lley s, and b e lts. The setup-box
plants had a v ery high proportion of
accid ents of th is ty p e. In that group of p la n ts,




30 p ercen t of a ll in ju ries w ere due to
em p lo yees being caught in m oving equip­
m en t. In con trast, only 15 p ercen t of the
accid en ts in corru g ated -b ox plants and 14
p ercen t in fold ed -b ox plants w ere so c la s ­
sified . Although sta tistic a l v erifica tio n is
lack in g, it appears that the predom inance
of th ese accid en ts in setup box plants is
due to two factors: F ir s t, p rop ortion ately
m ore w ork in setup— plants is m ach ine
box
work; and secon d , m any of the m ach in es
are hand-fed and guarded.
N ext in im portance in the caught in, on,
or betw een group of accid en ts w ere th o se
in w hich w orkm en w ere caught and pinched
or cru sh ed by rollin g or fallin g o b jects. In
con trast to the accid en ts in volvin g m oving
parts of equipm ent, n early a ll the resu ltin g
in ju ries w ere only tem p o ra rily d isab lin g.
V eh icles con stituted the m o st im portant
agency of injury in th is group. In m o st in ­
sta n ces, the w o rk er’s toe or foot w as
caught b etw een the v eh icle and another
ob ject. H ow ever, fin gers and hands w ere
frequently injured when they w ere cru sh ed
b etw een the handles of v e h ic le s and w alls
or other ob jects. B r u ise s and fra ctu res
w ere the m o st' com m on v a r ie tie s of in ­
ju ries .
In n early a fourth of a ll a ccid en ts, w ork ­
m en w ere stru ck by m oving o b je c ts. F allin g
ob jects w ere m o st frequ en tly in volved in
th ese a ccid en ts, and n early h alf of the
fallin g ob jects originated in m anual handling
op era tion s. M ost com m on ly, th ese w ere
in sta n ces in w hich w orkm en dropped sk id s,
m etal sh a fts, hand tr u c k s, paper p rod u cts,
hand tools and other ob jects on th eir feet
or to e s. About a fifth of the fallin g ob jects
fe ll from m ach in es - -m eta l shafts being
liste d m o st frequently as the fallin g ob jects
in this group. M aterial fallin g from p ile s
a lso produced num erous in ju r ies. M ost
com m on ly, th ese fallin g ob jects w ere
bundles of paper boxes or ca rto n s. The
in ju ries produced by fallin g ob jects w ere
p rim a rily b ru ises or fra ctu res to to es or
feet. P rop o rtio n ately, fold ed -b ox plants and
corru gated -b ox plants rep orted n ea rly tw ice
as m any “ struck by fallin g o b je c ts”
accid en ts as the setup-box p lan ts.
F ly in g or thrown o b jects, m o stly sm a ll
p a r tic le s, w ere resp o n sib le for the secon d
la r g e st group of “ stru ck b y” a ccid en ts. In
m o st in sta n ces th ese accid en ts produced
only m in or eye in ju r ies.
P rop o rtio n ately, accid en ts of th is v a riety
w ere m ore com m on in corru g ated -b ox
18

kind than sm a ll p lan ts. P art of this d iffe r ­
ence can be explained by the fact that
corru gated -b ox plants a re, on an average,
la rg er than fo ld ed -a n d setu p -b ox p lants.
T h erefo re, the exp erien ce of the la rge
plants would be w eighted h ea v ily by that of
the corru gated -b ox plants with th eir
silic a te -p a r tic le hazard. N e v e r th e le ss, the
d isp arity held even for the plants m anu­

plants than in eith er fold in g -o r setu p -b ox
p lan ts. S ilica te u sed in the corrugating
operation w as p rim a rily resp o n sib le for
this circu m sta n ce. S m all p ie c e s of this
a d h esiv e, w hich b ecom es hard and b rittle
when dry, are frequently thrown off during
the fab ricatin g of the corrugated board
into b o x es. It w as a lso ob serv ed that la rge
plants had r e la tiv e ly m ore accid en ts of this
260182 0

-

53 - 4




19

m en w ere injured w hile pushing or pulling
equipm ent such as hand tru ck s. H ere, too,
strain ed backs w ere com m on.
R ep etitive m ovem en ts req u ired in o p era ­
tions such as strip pin g a lso contributed to
m any stra in s or sp ra in s. H ow ever, in
con trast to other o v erex ertio n accid en ts,
arm s and hands w ere m o st frequently
injured in th ese op eration s.
About a seven th of the accid en ts w ere
c a se s of strik in g against or bum ping into
o b jects. M ach in es, p aper, v e h ic le s, and
skids w ere in volved in ap p roxim ately tw othird s of th ese a c c id e n ts. C u ts, la c e r a tio n s,
b r u ise s, and con tu sion s w ere com m on, w ith
fin g ers, hands, feet, and leg s m o st fr e ­
quently injured. In m any c a s e s , the w orkm en
rubbed objects w hich they w ere handling or
w alked into equipm ent as they w ere m oving
about the w orking area; but, in m ost in ­
sta n ces, they m er e ly bum ped the m ach in es
or other equipm ent w ith w hich they w ere
w orking. About h alf of the rubbing c a se s
involved paper and half of the “ w alking
in to” accid en ts involved sk id s.
F a lls and near fa lls w ere only slig h tly
le s s frequent than “ strik in g a g a in st” a c ­
cid en ts. F a lls accounted for about tw othirds of this group, with fa lls on 1 le v e l
outnum bering fa lls to low er le v e ls by 3 to
2. H ow ever, the la tter g en era lly produced
the m ore se v e r e in ju r ies. About 1 of every
12 fa lls to a low er le v e l produced a p e r ­
m anent d isa b ility . In con trast, none of the
rep orted fa lls on the sam e le v e l resu lted in
perm anent injury. P ile s of m a te r ia ls, p la t­
fo rm s, ram p s, and m otor truck s w ere the
m o st com m on points from w hich people
fe ll to low er le v e ls . F a lls on the sam e
le v e l w ere m o stly to flo o rs or on sta ir w a y s.
B ru ised or fractu red le g s, feet, and arm s
and stra in ed backs w ere the m o st frequent
in ju r ie s.
The near fa lls w ere p rin cip a lly slip s on
floo rs and sta ir s and trip s or stu m b les over
ob jects lying on those su r fa c e s. In m any
in sta n ces, poor h ousekeeping w as a con ­
tributing factor to the occu rren ce of the
accid en t. G en erally, in th ese accid en ts, the
w orkm an v io len tly w renched h is body as he
attem pted to regain h is b alan ce. As a resu lt,
strain ed or sp rain ed feet, le g s, and backs
w ere the m o st com m on in ju r ies.

facturing corru gated b oxes e x c lu siv e ly . In
corru gated -b ox plants em ploying few er than
100 w orkm en, only 2 p ercen t of the accid en ts
in volved flyin g or thrown o b jects. On the
other hand, this type of accid en t accounted
for n early 6 p ercen t of the accid en ts in
plants averagin g 100 to 249 w ork ers and
4 p ercen t in plants em ploying m ore than
250 w orkm en. Although the explanation for
th is d ifferen ce has not been d efin itely
esta b lish ed , it appears that it m ay be due
to b etter con trol of other kinds of a ccid en ts
in the la r g e r p lants. A tendency to con ­
cen trate sa fety a c tiv itie s on the elim in atio n
of m achine and m ateria l-h a n d lin g h azard s,
which produce m ore serio u s in ju r ie s, would
give the fly in g -p a r tic le c a se s g rea ter im ­
portance in the total volum e of a c c id e n ts. In
any even t, it is evid ent that m ore gen era l u se
of goggles is d e sir a b le , p articu la rly in
corru g ated -b ox p lan ts.
A ccid ents in w hich w ork ers w ere stru ck
by h an d -op erated equipm ent or handw ield ed ob jects w ere a lso quite nu m erou s.
W orkm en using hand to o ls frequently m is ­
judged th eir sw in gs and stru ck th e m se lv e s
or fello w w o rk ers. S im ila rly , er r o r s in
judgm ent in m oving hand trucks contributed
to m any “ stru ck b y“ a ccid en ts. Another
group of accid en ts included in this gen era l
category w ere th o se in which w orkm en w ere
stru ck by paper or its products when th ose
products w ere h a stily w ithdraw n from m a ­
ch in es. In th ose accid en ts sharp edges of
paper in flicted cuts or la cera tio n s to eyes
or fin g e r s.
O verexertion accid en ts accounted for ap­
p roxim ately 1 of ev ery 5 in ju ries in the
in d u stry. H ow ever, only 1 of the 285 a c ­
cid en ts in this group resu lted in serio u s
d isab ility. In that in sta n ce, a w orkm an
su ffered a perm anent back injury w hile un­
loading a c o il of w ire from a railroad ca r.
M ore than tw o-th ird s of the ov erex ertio n
accid en ts o ccu rred w hile em p lo yees w ere
liftin g m a te r ia ls or equipm ent. F req u ently,
that liftin g w as in cid en tal to the operation
of a m a c h in e --i. e ., feeding or rem oving
sto ck . P ap er and paperboard in som e form
w ere, th erefo re, involved in a m ajority of
th ese c a s e s . As m ight be exp ected , “ liftin g ”
accid en ts w ere m o st com m on in the sm a lle r
plants w here m ech an ical-h an d lin g equipm ent
is not w id ely u sed . The in ju ries m o st
com m only resu ltin g from th e se accid en ts
w ere b a ck stra in s.
Second in im portance in the o v erex ertio n
group w ere th ose accid en ts in w hich w ork ­




ACCIDENT CAUSES
M odern accid en t an a ly sis is b ased upon
two p rem ises: F ir s t, that th ere is an
20

are not n e c e ssa r ily e x c lu siv e . In other
w ord s, the an a lysis proced u re w as not
d irected tow ard the d eterm in ation of a
sin gle m ajor cau se of each accid en t. T his
d eterm in ation would in volve an e x e r c ise
of an alytical judgm ent seld om p o ssib le from
the av ailab le fa cts. On the con trary, an
effort w as m ade to d eterm in e independently
for each accid ent w hether th ere w as a
hazardous condition w hich contributed
d irectly to the o ccu rren ce, and w hether the
event could be d irectly a sso c ia te d w ith an
unsafe act.
B eca u se m any of the rep orts w ere in ­
adequate for the d eterm in ation of one or the
other of th ese fa c to r s, it is im p o ssib le to
draw any con clu sion as to w hether hazardous
conditions or unsafe acts w ere the leading
cau se of a ccid en ts. F or the accid en t p r e ven tio n ist, h ow ever, this is a lim ita tion of
little con seq u en ce. F or h is p u rp o ses, the
pattern of the sp e c ific factors w ithin each
gen eral catego ry is of m ore im p ortan ce than
the in terrela tio n sh ip betw een the m ajor
groups of accid en t c a u se s. T his resu lts
from the fact that h is approach to the
elim in atio n of accid en t ca u ses in the two
ca teg o ries n e c e ssa r ily m u st be d ifferen t.
The co rrectio n of h azardous w orking
conditions u su ally is en tirely w ithin the
pow ers of m anagem ent and can be a cco m ­
p lish ed by d irect action. The avoidance of
unsafe a c ts, on the other hand, req u ires
coop eration and understanding by both
m anagem ent and w o rk ers. To ach ieve this
understanding, m anagem ent m u st take the
lead by providing safety -m in d ed su p ervision
and by m aking su re that a ll w ork ers are
acquainted w ith the hazards of th eir o p era ­
tion s and are fa m ilia r w ith the m ean s of
overcom in g them .

id en tifiab le cau se for every accident; and,
secon d , that when an accid en t cau se is
known, it is u su ally p o ssib le to elim in ate
or counteract it as the probable so u rce of
future accid en ts of the sam e ch a ra cter. In
m any in sta n ces a v a riety of circu m sta n ces
contribute to the occu rren ce of an accid en t,
and the co u rse accid ent p reven tion should
take m ay seem confused b ecau se of the
m u ltip licity of the p o ssib le avenues of
action . It is com m only accep ted , h ow ever,
that every accid en t m ay be tra ced to the
ex isten ce of som e hazardous w orking con ­
dition, to the co m m issio n of an unsafe act
by som e individual, or to a com bination of
th ese accid ent-prod ucin g fa c to r s.
The so le purpose of accid ent a n a ly sis, as
applied to la rg e groups of c a s e s , is to
d eterm in e what sp e c ific factors w ithin each
of th ese two ca teg o ries of accid en t cau ses
are m o st frequently in volved in the o c c u r ­
ren ce of accid en ts. With this know ledge
availab le, it is then p o ssib le to plan a safety
program concentrating upon the elim in ation
of th ese sp ecific accid en t factors with
assu ra n ce that s u c c e s s in this ob jective
should lead quickly to a su b stan tial reduction
in the volum e of in ju r ie s.
It m u st be reco gn ized , h ow ever, that a c ­
cident an a ly sis has definite lim ita tio n s. At
b est it can furn ish clu es only as to the
d irectio n s in w hich a ccid en t-p rev en tion a c ­
tiv itie s can m o st e ffectiv ely be pointed.
What th ose a c tiv itie s should be and how
they are to be ca rried out m u st be d e te r ­
m ined by the individual in con trol of each
safety program after h is gen era l ob jectives
have been indicated through accid ent
a n a ly sis. It m u st a lso be reco gn ized that
accident a n a ly sis cannot go beyond the
rep orted fa c ts. In other w o r d s, the accu racy
of any an a lysis is w holly dependent upon the
accu racy and co m p leten ess of the origin a l
accid en t re p o r ts. In this r e sp e c t, it has
been co n sisten tly apparent in the B u reau ’s
su rveys that the in adeq u acies of reporting
se r io u sly lim it the p o ssib ilitie s of effectiv e
a n a ly sis. The lim ita tion s are not grea t in
broad stu d ies of this type, w hich bring a
su fficien t volum e of adequate rep orts into
con sid eration to support an a n a ly sis. The
sh ortcom in gs are sp e c ific a lly at the c o m ­
pany or estab lish m en t le v e l w here the m o st
effective a n a ly sis can be p erform ed only
when the n e c e ssa r y facts are av ailab le.
In in terp retin g the findings rela tin g to
hazardous conditions and unsafe a c ts, it is
e sse n tia l to reco gn ize that th ese two factors




Hazardous Working Conditions
T h ree gen eral groups of hazardous w o rk ­
ing conditions accounted for n early 85
p ercen t of a ll accid en ts in the industry:
hazardous w orking p ro ced u res, 35 p ercent;
inadequately guarded a g e n c ie s, 31 percent;
and d efects of a g e n c ie s, 19 p ercen t. Two
other grou p s, hazardous arran gem en ts and
poor h ou sek eep in g, cau sed an additional 10
p ercen t (appendix, tab les 16-18).
H azardous W orking P r o c e d u r e s.- -R e la tiv ely few of the plants participating in the
su rvey had fully m ech an ized th eir m a te r ia l­
handling op era tion s. This circu m sta n ce w as
21

CHART 5. MAJOR TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WORKING CONDITIONS
IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY
PERCENT
0

10

20

30

35

U N I T E D S TAT ES DE PA R TME N T OF LABOR
B UR E AU OF LABOR S TAT I ST IC S

resp o n sib le for a la rg e p roportion of the
rep orted a ccid en ts. S train s from o v e r ­
exertio n in m oving r o lls of p ap er, b o x es,
carton s, loaded hand tru ck s, sk id s, and
heavy sh afts w ere com m on. S im ila rly th ere
w ere m any foot in ju ries in flicted by objects
w hich w ere dropped in m anual handling
o p era tio n s.
H and-feeding and m anual off-b ea rin g at




the m ach in es w ere a lso resp o n sib le for a
su b stan tial volu m e of o v erex ertio n a c c i­
d en ts. In off-b earin g m o st of th ese w ere
c a se s of o v erliftin g . In feed in g, h ow ever,
m any of the in ju ries could be tra ced to the
rep etitiv e m otions or to the tw istin g and
turning of the body n e c e ssa r y in m oving
the stock into the m a ch in es.
M anual shafting of r o lls of paper for the
22

ditions w ere sp e c ific a lly indicated as r e ­
su ltin g from inadequate guarding. A sim ila r
com p arison based upon plant s iz e indicated
that inadequate guarding accounts for a
su b stan tially higher proportion of accid ents
in sm a ll plants than in the la rge e sta b lish ­
m en ts. Inadequate guarding con stitu ted 37
p ercen t of a ll hazardous conditions record ed
in the plants having few er than 100
em p lo y ees, 30 p ercen t in th ose w ith 100
to 249 em p lo y ees, and 28 p ercen t in those
with 250 or m ore em p lo y ees.
D efects of A g e n c ie s. - -T he d efectiv e
ag en cies m o st com m only encountered in
the p ap erb oard -container industry w ere
slip p ery and uneven flo o r s. T h ese slipp ing
and tripping hazards constituted prim a
facie evid en ce of inadequate attention to
h ousekeeping and m aintenance in m any
p la n ts.
Inadequate m aintenance a lso was evident
in the con sid era b le num ber of accid en ts
ch argeab le to d efectiv e hand truck s and
m ach in es. W orn and rough handles on hand
trucks w ere resp on sib le for m any punctured
fin gers and hands. In som e in sta n ces lo o se
handles or other dam aged parts of hand
trucks fe ll off and stru ck the op era to r’s
feet. S im ila rly , th ere w ere a num ber of
in stan ces in w hich m achine op erators w ere
cut by contacting rough or sharp edges of
w orn m achine parts or w ere stru ck by
m achine parts w hich cam e lo o se and fe ll
b ecau se of w ear on th eir su p p orts.
Im proper con stru ction w as the b asic
reaso n for the failu re of som e d efective
p latform s and sca ffo ld s. M ore com m only,
h ow ever, the p rim ary fault w as inadequate
d esign for the purpose u sed . F au lty d esign
w as a lso d irectly resp o n sib le for m any
m achine a ccid en ts. On m any m ach in es
the lu b rication and adjustm ent points w ere
so located as to in vite or req u ire exp osure
to m oving p arts in the p erform an ce of th ese
e sse n tia l ta sk s. In other in sta n ces, the point
of op eration w as so located that the operator
had to stre tch or tw ist h is body to operate
h is m ach in e. S im ila rly , the in clu sio n of
braking equipm ent in the d esig n of in d u strial
trucks m ight have avoided the accid en ts in
which unattended hand truck s rolled from
th eir parking sp a ces and stru ck p erson s
w orking nearby.

corrugatin g m ach ines w as the sou rce of
m any accid en ts producing in ju ries to hands
and feet. As th ese shafts are quite heavy
and are d ifficu lt to handle, it w as not
unusual for the w orkm en to drop them on
th eir to es or to have th eir fin g ers pinched
as they w ere placing the shafts in p osition .
P lants w hich had adopted m ech an ica l sh aft­
ing p roced u res rep orted v ery few accid ents
from this operation.
C ongested w orking area s and inadequate
p rov isio n for plant traffic w ere resp o n sib le
for a v a riety of accid en ts, p articu la rly in
the older plants w here operations had grown
without a corresp on d in g expansion of the
p r e m ise s. M any of the accid en ts resu ltin g
from th ese conditions w ere sim p le c a se s of
bumping into o b stru ctio n s. O th ers, gen erally
producing m ore serio u s in ju r ie s, co n sisted
of w ork ers being caught and pinched or
cru sh ed betw een m oving v e h ic le s and fixed
o b je c ts.
Inadequately G uarded A gen cies .- -A c c idents attributable to inadequate guarding
of hazard points on equipm ent c h a r a c ter­
istic a lly tend to produce in ju ries of grea ter
than average s e v e r ity . The elim in ation of
such so u r c e s of a c c id e n ts, th erefo re, should
be a p rim ary ob jective in any safety p ro­
gram . Support for this w idely accepted
gen era lity is evident in the fact that 1 of the
2 fa ta lities and 66 of the 78 perm anent
d isa b ilitie s reported in this sectio n of the
p ap erb oard -con tain er-in d u stry su rvey r e ­
su lted from inadequate guarding.
About 60 p ercen t of the accid en ts ch a rg e­
able to inadequate guarding w ere “ point
of op eration a c c id e n ts.” M ost of th ese w ere
c a se s in w hich the o p era to r’s hands w ere
stru ck , caught, or cru sh ed by m oving m a ­
chine p a r ts .
Another 14 p ercen t of the accid en ts in
this group co n siste d of con tacts w ith un­
cov ered g e a r s, p u lley s, or other pow er
tra n sm issio n equipm ent. M ost of th ese
accid en ts o ccu rred in the co u rse of regu lar
op eration s and the injured p erson s w ere
gen era lly the regu lar operators of the
m ach in es in volved .
The rem ain d er of the group co n sisted
p rin cip ally of fa lls from scaffo ld s or
elevated p latform s on w hich no guard rails
had been provided.
Inadequate guarding w as a p articu la rly
prom inent sou rce of accid en ts in the setup
box p lan ts. In th ese plants 45 p ercen t of
all accid en ts attributed to hazardous con ­




H azardous A rran gem en ts. - -Im p roperly
p laced ob jects con stituted the predom inant
hazard in this group of a ccid en ts. M ost
23

w orker had no ch oice but to u se the
unguarded m ach in e. On the other hand, the
operation of a m ach ine from w hich the
guard had been rem oved w as c la ssifie d as
an unsafe act b ecau se the altern ative safe
p roced u re would have been the rep lacem en t
of the guard b efore operating the m ach ine.
The d efin ition does not im p ly, h ow ever,
that the w orker who com m itted the unsafe
act w as aw are of the altern a tiv e safe p ro ­
cedure nor that h is act w as the resu lt of a
con sid ered ch oice betw een the a lte r n a tiv e s.
F rom the an a ly sis of the individual a c c i­
d en ts, it is apparent that, in m any c a s e s ,
the w orker knew the safe p roced u re but
co n scio u sly decid ed not to follow it. In
other c a s e s , the in dividual acted u n safely
sim p ly b ecau se he did not know the safe
m ethod. T here a re, th erefo re, two step s
in any sa fety program w hich are esse n tia l
to the reduction of unsafe a cts, nam ely,
education and en forcem en t. A ll w orkm en
should be carefu lly in stru cted in the safe
m ethods of p erform in g th eir duties andthey
should be taught to reco g n ize hazards
involved in deviations from the safe p ro ­
ced u res. M anagem ent then should provide
adequate su p erv isio n to a ssu r e that the
safe p roced u res are follow ed.
Two gen era l typ es of unsafe acts p r e ­
dom inated. The unsafe u se of equipm ent, or
the u se of hands in stead of equipm ent,
contributed to 34 p ercen t of a ll the accid en ts
analyzed, and taking unsafe p osition s or
p ostu res to 33 p ercen t. Inattention to s u r ­
roundings and unsafe loading, p lacin g, or
m ixing w ere each resp on sib le for an addi­
tion al 8 p ercen t of the a ccid en ts, (appendix,
tab les 19 and 20).
U sing E quipm ent U nsafely, or U sing
Hands Instead of E quipm ent.--M o st of the
accid en ts in this group resu lted from im ­
proper handling of m a teria ls and equipm ent,
p rim a rily w hile feedin g m a teria ls into
m a ch in es. The m o st com m on fault was that
of grasp in g the m a teria ls in a way w hich
resu lted in the fin g ers being caught betw een
the m a teria l and the m ach in e. A som ew hat
sim ila r fa u lt--fa ilu r e to take or m aintain a
good grip on ob jects being lifted or ca r r ie d - w as resp o n sib le for a high p ercen tage of
the foot and toe in ju r ies.
O ther unsafe acts in this group included:
the in co rrect u se of hand tru ck s, such as
pulling hand tru ck s in stead of pushing them ;
and a num ber of in sta n ces of u sing the hands
in stead of the proper to o l, such as the

com m only th ese w ere accid en ts in w hich
ob jects such as sk id s, s te e l sh a fts, hand
tru ck s, and m eta l m achine parts w ere
p laced in in secu re p osition s from w hich
they fe ll or ro lled and stru ck nearby
w o rk ers. S im ila rly , p iled m a teria ls f r e ­
quently fe ll on w ork ers b ecau se the sto rag e
p iles had been im p rop erly con stru cted .
P oor H o u sek eep in g.--S c r a p s of paper
and other m a te r ia l lying on floo rs w as the
sou rce of m any s lip s , stu m b les, and fa lls.
The paper scra p s w ere often the refu se
from m achine o p era tio n s. M achine o p era ­
to rs w er e, th e r e fo r e , m o st frequently the
v ictim s of this h azard . G en erally, this
h ou sek eep in g condition w as m ore of a
problem in the la rg er plants than in sm a ll
o n es. In the sm a ll plants - -few er than 100
w ork ers - -on ly 2 p ercen t of the unsafe
conditions fe ll into this c la ssific a tio n .
P lants in the m id d le r a n g e --100 to 249
w o r k e r s- -a v era g ed 4 . 5 p ercen t and the
la rg er p la n ts --250 em p loyees and o v e r averaged 6.1 p ercen t.
M isc e lla n e o u s.- -G loves and goggles w ere
the item s m o st frequently m issin g in a c ­
cid en ts attributed to the lack of p erson al
sa fety equipm ent. G loves would have
elim in ated m any cuts resu ltin g from contact
w ith sharp ed ges of p aper. The lack of
go gg les w as m o st com m on in m achine
o p era tio n s.
The lack of ladders and scaffo ld s in
som e operations cau sed a num ber of fa lls.
Many m ach in es with elev ated w orking s u r ­
fa ces or requiring lu b rication or ad ju st­
m en t at an elev atio n w ere not equipped with
la d d ers, nor w ere ladders oth erw ise p ro ­
vided. As a resu lt, w orkm en tried to reach
th o se elevation s by clim bin g on m ach in es
or other equipm ent.

Unsafe Acts
F or the purpose of th is a n a ly sis, an unsafe
act w as defined as that “ violation of a
com m only accep ted safe proced u re which
o cca sio n ed or p erm itted the o ccu rren ce of
the in jury-p rod ucin g a c c id e n t.” L itera lly ,
this d efin ition m ean s that no p erso n a l action
sh a ll be d esign ated as unsafe u n less there
is a reaso n ab le, le s s h azard ou s, a ltern a ­
tiv e p roced u re. F or exam p le, the operation
of a m ach ine for w hich no guard w as p r o ­
vided w as c la s s ifie d as a hazardous co n ­
dition and not as an unsafe act b ecau se the




24

CHART 6. MAJOR TYPES OF UNSAFE ACTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY
PERCENT

T20

10
“T “

30

35

.

* 3 3 .9

;

Using equipment unsafely or hands instead of equipment

"a
,
G oR
mT

3 2 .8

.

—.................................................................
Assuming unsafe positions or postures

8.2

Inattention to surroundings

8.1

Unsafe loading, placing, etc.

6.6

Failure to warn or secure

5 .6

Cleaning, adjusting, or oiling moving equipment

4 .8

Other
UN I TE D S TA T ES D E P AR T ME N T OF LABOR
BUREAU OF L ABOR S TA T I S T I C S

operating m a ch in es, stepping to or from
equipm ent, or m e r e ly w alking from one
p lace to another in the plant. F req u en tly,
poor h ou sek eep in g contributed to the
occu rren ce of th ese a ccid en ts.
In correct p ostu res in liftin g, im p roper
p lacing of hands, exp osu re to fallin g or
rollin g ob jects, and exp osure to m oving
parts of equipm ent w ere am ong the le s s

failu re to u se push stick s in operating
pow er sa w s.
A ssu m in g U nsafe P o sitio n s or P o s ­
tu r e s .--N e a r ly half the accid en ts in this
group w ere slip s or fa lls resu ltin g from
w orkers* fa ilu re to ob serv e the o ft-rep eated
w arning “ w atch your s te p .” T h ese a c c i­
dents u su ally o ccu rred w hile w orkm en w ere




25

frequent p ositio n or p osture faults of w ork ­
m en. A ccid ents a scrib ed to in co rrect p o s ­
tu res in liftin g included liftin g with a bent
back and lifting from an awkward p ositio n .
A ll of th ese accid ents resu lted in strain s
from o v e r e x e r tio n .In m o st c a se s the ob jects
being lifted w ere boxes or ca rto n s.
The unsafe acts d esignated as im p roper
placing of hands co n sisted p rim a rily of
u n n ecessa rily exposing the hands to contact
with g ea r s, p u lley s, b e lts, or other m oving
m achine p a rts. In a con sid era b le num ber of
th ese in sta n c e s, the w ork ers w ere caught
by the b elts w hich convey stock through the
m ach in es. E xposu re to m oving or fallin g
objects gen era lly co n sisted of u n n ec essa rily
standing or w alking in front of m oving hand
trucks or of failin g to keep away from
suspended r o lls or carton s of paper p rod ­
ucts .
Inattention to Surrou n d in gs. - -M ost of the
accid en ts attributed to inattention on the
part of the w orker w ere c a se s in which
the injured p erson s bum ped into fixed
ob jects or stru ck again st m a teria ls or
equipm ent in the w ork p lace. G en erally, the
resu ltin g in ju ries w ere re la tiv e ly m in or
b ru ises or ab ra sion s produced by the con ­
tact. In som e in sta n c e s, h ow ever, the
w ork ers bum ped into piled m a te r ia ls, skids
which had been turned up on ed ge, or ste e l
shafts w hich w ere standing on end, and
cau sed the ob jects to topple o v er. T h ese
fallin g ob jects produced som e rather se v e r e
in ju ries to feet and to e s. In other in stan ces
w ork ers knocked to o ls or m achine parts
off th eir w ork tab les onto th eir fe e t.
Although it was obvious that greater
attention would have avoided th ese a c c i­
d en ts, it w as a lso apparent that the b asic
cau se in m any in stan ces w as con g estio n in
the w ork p lace. The lack of fa c ilitie s for
tem p orary sto rag e of m a teria ls and equip­
m ent, inadequate w orking a rea s , and narrow
a is le s w ere a ll contributing fa c to r s.
U nsafe Loading, P la cin g , M ixing, and
C om bining.--T h e bulk of the un safe acts
in this gen era l group w as of two v a r ie tie s .
F ir s t in im p ortan ce w as the p ractice of
individual w o rk ers of tryin g to lift or ca rry
ob jects w hich w ere ob viou sly too heavy for
one p erson to handle. M ost of th ese w ere
in stan ces in which a ssista n c e w as read ily
av ailab le, but for one rea so n or another the
individual d ecid ed to undertake the lift
alon e. The resu ltin g in ju r ies w ere p rim a rily
back, leg , and arm str a in s. M ore ex ten siv e




p rov isio n of m ech an ica l handling equipm ent
m ight reduce the o ccu rren ce of th ese
in sta n ces of poor judgm ent.
The secon d v a riety of unsafe acts produced
som ew hat few er, but frequ en tly m ore
se r io u s, in ju r ies. T his w as the rather
com m on p ra ctice of placing m a teria ls and
p ieces of equipm ent in p reca rio u s p osition s
from w hich they could fa ll. G en erally the
hazard w as ob v io u s, but w as ign ored b ecau se
it was not intended to lea ve the m a teria ls
in such p osition s for any length of tim e.
P rom inen t am ong th ese unsafe acts w as
the p ra ctice of standing sk id s on edge and
of standing shafts on end again st a w a ll.
O ther U nsafe A c ts .--M o st m achine
op erators are w ell aw are of the fact that
oilin g and adjusting m ach in ery w hile the
equipm ent is in m otion con stitu tes an
in vitation for an accid en t to happen. M ost
su p erv iso rs a lso know that this p ra ctice
should not be condoned. N e v e r th e le ss, a c c i­
dents attributed to this un safe act w ere
rather com m on, and a high p ercen tage of
them resu lted in perm anent d isa b ility .
S im ila rly , m o st w ork ers know that r e ­
m ovab le m achine parts are lik ely to vib rate
and fa ll when the m achine is sta rted u n less
they are firm ly lock ed in p la ce. They a lso
know that v e h ic le s parked on a grade and
near m a teria ls p laced on a slopin g su rface
frequ en tly w ill ro ll away when left w ithout
proper b lockin g. The failu re to take such
p recau tion s, h ow ever, w as resp o n sib le for
a con sid era b le volum e of a ccid en ts.
M ore often than not the p erso n who
com m its an unsafe act is the one who su ffers
the resu ltin g injury. In som e in sta n ces,
h ow ever, the con seq u en ces of a p erso n ’s
th ou gh tless action fa ll en tirely upon another
p erson . A p articu la rly hazardous p ractice
in the la tter group is that of sta rtin g
m ach in es w ithout fir st m aking su re that
all other w ork ers have b een w arned and a re
in the c le a r . A ccid en ts ch argeab le to this
fault w ere not com m on, but they occu rred
frequently enough to in d icate that th is
v a riety of unsafe act is rather w id esp read
in the in d u stry.
O ther unsafe p ra ctices reco rd ed in co n ­
sid era b le num bers included running in the
w ork p lace, operating in d u strial truck s at
e x c e ssiv e sp eed , w earin g lo o se or oth erw ise
unsafe clothing around m a ch in es, failin g to
u se availab le p erso n a l p rotective d ev ices
w here n e c e ssa r y , and m aking sa fety d ev ices
in o p era tive.
26

ACCIDENT-PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS

Naphtha should not be used for washing
or cleaning the hands. It is a powerful
solvent
and
can
cause
a
serious
dermatitis. T h e fact that naphtha is highly
f l a m m a b l e should also rule against its
use as a cleaning agent. All employees
should be thoroughly instructed regarding
the toxic and explosive hazards of the
solvents provided for their use.

T o illustrate the general types of accident
problems in the paperboard-container in­
dustry, a n u m b e r of typical accidents w e r e
selected for detailed study.These accidents
w e r e analyzed by a m e m b e r of the Division
of Safety Standards of the United States
Department of Labor's B u r e a u of Labor
Standards and suggestions w e r e m a d e to
indicate h o w these accidents might have
been prevented.
This section of the report suggests that
there is a simple approach to the prevention
of nearly every type of accident. N o attempt
is m a d e to present recommendations or
safety rules for the industry. M a n y safety
engineers, no doubt, would attack the p r o b ­
lems involved in these accidents indifferent
w a y s and would achieve equally good results.
T h e m e t h o d of prevention, however, is of
secondary importance as long as it a c c o m ­
plishes its purpose.
Brief descriptions of the selected acci­
dents accompanied by the r e c o m mendatio n s
of the B u r e a u of Lab o r Standards* safety
specialist for the prevention of such acci­
dents are given on the following pages.

4. A helper on a printing press attempted
to wipe s o m e ink f r o m the back f o r m roll
while the press w a s running. T h e wiping
cloth w a s caught by the rolls, and pulled
his h and into the rolls.
Supervisors should not permit e m ­
ployees to clean, oil, adjust, or repair
equipment while it is in operation.
5. A n employee w a s feeding boxboard to
a platen printing press. W h e n he failed to
r e m o v e his hand f r o m the operating zone,
the press crushed his fingers.
(a) W h e r e v e r possible, platen presses
should be fed automatically.
(b) A platen-press guard would have
reduced the possibility of an accident
although it would not eliminate the hazard.

CASE DESCRIPTIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

6. A p r e s s m a n w a s feeding heavy boxboard
to a platen printing press. T h e constant
motion of his hand and a r m in lifting the
board caused his a r m to swell. Investigation
disclosed that it w a s necessary to lift the
boxboard about 24 inches.

1. A p r e s s m a n shut d o w n his m a c h i n e and
started to clean the equipment. A s he
reached into the press, his elbow struck
the start button, setting it in motion. His
hand w a s caught between the ink slab and a
rod of the press.

All operations and procedures should
be planned so that the handling of m a t e ­
rials is kept at a m i n i m u m . In this case,
m o s t of the lifting could have been avoided
by the use of an automatic adjustable
platform f r o m which the boxboard could
be r e m o v e d at press level.

All starting switches should be designed
to prevent their being operated uninten­
tionally. In this case, a switch with a
start button recessed into the box probably
would have prevented the accident.
2. A n employee, standing on the steps of a
printing press to w a s h the ink press,
slipped and fell against the m a c h i n e .Investi­
gation disclosed that the steps w e r e metal
and corrugated but very greasy.

7. A printing-press operator injured his
t h u m b w h e n it w a s caught between the rolls
of a rotary press. Investigation disclosed
that the rolls w e r e unguarded.

Good
housekeeping
is essential to
safety. All equipment should be cleaned
at frequent,
regular intervals. This
practice
would
have
prevented the
accumulation of grease on the steps.

All in-running rolls should be guarded.
8. A helper placed one end of a roll of
paper on a printing press without locking
it into position. In an attempt to place the
other end of the roll in position it fell f r o m
the m a c h i n e and crushedhis foot. Investiga­
tion disclosed that the roll of paper weighed
approximately 200 pounds.

3. A printer’ helper developed a rash after
s
using naphtha to r e m o v e ink stains f r o m his
hands.

260182 0 - 53 - 5




27

tions, and supervisors should m a k e sure
that the safe procedures are followed.
(b) E m p l o y e e s engaged in this w o r k
should be required to w e a r steel-toed
safety shoes.

(a) All employees should be carefully
trained in the safe performance of their
duties. Adequate supervision should be
provided to assure adherence to the safe
procedures. In this case, the helper
should have locked the end of the roll
into position.
(b) E m p l o y e e s
engaged
in handling
heavy objects should be required to w e a r
steel-toed safety shoes.

13. A helper on a slitter attempted to
scrape w a x f r o m the knife roll while the
m a chine w a s in motion. His finger w a s
caught between the knife roll and the idle
roll.

9. A stock handler in the printing depart­
m e n t w a s injured w h e n a skid, standing on
end, toppled over and struck him. Investiga­
tion disclosed that it w a s c o m m o n practice to
place e m p t y skids on end against the press.

E m p l o y e e s should not be permitted to
clean, adjust, lubricate, or repair equip­
m e n t while it is in operation.
14. A punch-press operator stepped on the
foot pedal before his hands w e r e clear of
the machine. The press caught his fingers.

Skids should always be stored flat and
in a place reserved for that purpose.

The point-of-ope rati on of punch presses
should be adequately guarded. In this case
a two-handed tripping device would have
prevented the accident.

10. A helper w a s placing a 2,000-pound roll
of paper on the stand of the corrugator.
Instead of lowering the stand, which w a s a
little high, he tried to push the roll into the
elevated position. His foot slipped and he
strained his back.

15. A n employee w a s using a die press to
punch holes in corrugated boxboard. A s he
w a s reaching for a piece of boxboard which
w a s caught in the machine, the m a chine
tripped unexpectedly and caught his hand.
Investigation disclosed that the m a c h i n e w a s
old and w o r n and that heavy vibration of the
floor could activate the press.

All employees should be carefully
trained in the safe performance of their
duties and adequate supervision should be
provided to m a k e sure that safe p roce­
dures are followed. In this case, the
stand should have been lowered to the
level of the roll of paper.

All equipment should be inspected fre­
quently and regularly. Unsafe equipment
should be m a d e
safe immediately or
r e m o v e d f r o m service. In this case, the
relocation of the machine to an area
whe r e vibration is a m i n i m u m m a y help,
but properly maintained equipment should
not trip unexpectedly.

11. A helper on the corrugator stood on the
f r a m e of the m a c h i n e to thread the paper.
In getting down, he stepped on a plug f r o m
a roll of paper and fell. Investigation dis­
closed that it w a s c o m m o n practice to throw
discarded plugs on the floor.
G o o d housekeeping is essential to safety
in any operation. Containers should be
provided for scrap material and super­
visors should m a k e sure that they are
used. In addition, a regular cleaning
schedule should be developed and followed
strictly. In this case, a container for
discarded plugs should have been placed
near the paper feed on the corrugator.

16. W h e n
several boxboards clogged a
slotting machine, the operator attempted to
start the m a c h i n e by pulling the belt. W h e n
it started, his hand w a s d r a w n into the pulley.
(a) All employees should be carefully
instructed in the safe performance of
their duties and adequate supervision
should be provided to m a k e sure that the
safe procedures are followed. In this
case, the operator should have opened the
switch and then cleaned the machines.
(b) All belts and pulleys should be a d e ­
quately guarded.

12. A m a chine hand w a s helping to place a
roll of paper stock on the corrugator.While
he w a s lifting a shaft, it slipped f r o m his
hands and fell on his foot. Investigation
disclosed that the shaft weighed about 75
pounds.
(a) Safe working procedures should be
developed for all m a n u a l handling opera­




17. A n e m p l o y e e w a s cutting boxboard on a
band saw. A s he w a s feeding the stock, his

28

23. While an employee w a s “ stripping*1,
s o m e particles of paper dust entered his
eyes.

hand touched the blade. Investigation of the
accident disclosed that the portion of the
blade between the guide and the upper wheel
w a s unguarded, although the upper and lower
wheels wer e enclosed.

E m p l o y e e s engaged in this w o r k should
be provided with, and required to wear,
goggles or face shields.

The unused portion of a b a n d - s a w
blade should be guarded. In this case, a
guard should be installed and attached to
the guide shielding that part of the blade
between the guide and the upper wheel.

24. While r e m o v i n g a stack of cartons f r o m
a stripping table, an employee rubbed her
hand against a rough spot on the table.
Several splinters punctured her fingers.

18. A scoring machine helper attempted to
adjust the rolls while the machine w a s in
motion. His hand w a s crushed between the
revolving rolls.

All equipment should be inspected fre­
quently and regularly. Unsafe equipment
should be repaired immediately or r e ­
m o v e d f r o m service.

E m p l o y e e s should not be permitted to
adjust, clean, lubricate, or repair equip­
m e n t while it is in operation. Adequate
supervision should be provided to enforce
this rule.

25. A n emplo y e e had stopped his covering
m a chine to m a k e an adjustment. While he
w a s engaged in this work, a second e m ­
ployee attempted to frighten h i m by starting
the machine. The operator’s hand w a s
caught in the unguarded gears.

19. While an employee w a s stitching corr u ­
gated cartons, a piece of silicate entered
his eye. Infection developed.
(a) This type of injury is c o m m o n in
corrugated-box plants. (See injury analy­
sis of the report.) E m p l o y e e s in this
work, therefore, should be provided, and
required to wear, goggles.
(b) All injuries, regardless of severity,
should be given adequate first-aid atten­
tion to prevent infection.

26. A double-ender operator placed his foot
on the side of the machine. His toes, p r o ­
jecting through the frame, w e r e caught by a
revolving c a m and crushed.
W h e r e v e r possible, m o v i n g machine
parts should be guarded. In this case, the
opening in the m ac h i n e f r a m e should have
been covered.

20. A stitcher operator w a s wiping oil f r o m
his machine. W h e n a second w o r k m a n
unintentionally struck the foot pedal, a staple
w a s driven into the operator’s finger.

27. The string on a light switch had broken
off. T o reach the switch, one employee
lifted another. A s the second employee
dropped to the floor, he struck a m a k e - r e a d y
knife protruding f r o m the pocket of the first
employee.

Foot pedals of p o w e r e d equipment
should be guarded to prevent unintentional
contact.
21. A female taper operator w a s wearing a
loose coat. The shaft of the machine caught
the coat, pulling her against the machine.

(a) Supervisors should m a k e sure that
all necessary equipment is provided. In
this case, a ladder should have been used
to reach the light. Preferably, however,
the supervisor should have called a m a i n ­
tenance m a n to replace the broken cord.
(b) W h e n not in use, knives should be
properly sheathed.

E m p l o y e e s should not be permitted to
w e a r loose-fitting garments near m o v i n g
machinery.
22. T w o strippers w e r e working at the s a m e
table. O n e w o r k m a n unintentionally struck
the other with his stripping h a m m e r .
All operations should be planned to
assure safe working conditions. This
accident indicates that insufficient r o o m
had been provided for this operation.




(a) Horseplay should be strictly p r o ­
hibited. Adequate supervision should be
provided to enforce this rule.
(b) All gears should be completely e n ­
closed.

28. A s a laborer pulled a large skid f r o m a
pile of small ones, several small skids fell
on his foot.

29

G o o d housekeeping is essential for
safety. A tote box or similar container
should be placed near all m a c h i n e o p e r a ­
tions for discarded material. Supervisors
should enforce their use.

(a) Adequate storage facilities should
be provided and safe piling procedures
should be established. In this case, skids
should be piled according to size.
(b) Steel-toed safety shoes probably
would have prevented or m i nimized the
injury.

34. A n employee w a s bundling sheets as
they w e r e delivered f r o m the corrugator and
w a s placing t h e m on a skid. O n e of the
bundles fell f r o m the skid, striking h i m on
the back. Investigation disclosed that he had
been overloading the skid.

29. A laborer w a s helping to lift bales of
waste paper f r o m the stripping operation
onto a truck. A nail, projecting f r o m one of
the bales, punctured his finger.

All employees should be carefully in­
structed in the safe p e r f o r m a n c e of their
duties. Adequate supervision should be
provided to m a k e
sure that the safe
procedures are followed. In this case, the
bundles should be carefully piled on the
skids. T h e height to which the bundles
m a y be safely loaded should be deter­
m i n e d and that height should not be e x ­
ceeded.

E m p l o y e e s engaged in this w o r k should
be provided and required to w e a r s o m e
f o r m of hand protection--i. e., heavy
gloves or hand leathers.
30. A s a stripper picked up an e m p t y skid,
he cut his finger on a sharp piece of metal
projecting f r o m a corner of the skid.
A p r o g r a m of regular and frequent
inspection of all equipment would have
revealed the projecting piece of metal.
Unsafe equipment should be repaired
immediately or r e m o v e d f r o m service.

35. A
special type truck crane, battery
operated, w a s used for handling rolls of
paper. A s the operator entered the cab, he
inadvertently brushed against the p o w e r
control. T h e crane jumped, throwing the
operator against a railing. Investigation
disclosed that the operator, instead of
setting the brakes, had left the crane in gear
with the p o w e r off.

31. A female operator of a quad stayer w a s
injured w h e n a splinter went through the
open-toed sandals which she w a s wearing
and punctured her foot. Investigation dis­
closed that the plant floor w a s rough and
splintered.

(a) All equipment operators should be
carefully instructed in the safe use of
their equipment. In this case, the truck
should have been placed in neutral gear
and the brake applied.
(b) T h e control button should be guarded
or placed in a position w h e r e unintentional
contact with it would be impossible.

(a) Ro u g h or w o r n floors should be
repaired.
(b) O p e n sandals should not be p e r ­
mitted in industrial operations. Instead,
employees should be required to w e a r
substantial footgear, preferably steel­
toed safety shoes.
32. A female employee w a s riding on a skid
which w a s being towed by a lift truck. A s the
skid crossed a rough section of the floor, she
w a s thrown f r o m the skid. Investigation disclosed that the employee w a s riding the
skid in violation of instructions.

36. A baler suffered a hernia while lifting
bales of waste paper. Investigation disclosed
that the bales weighed between 200 and 300
pounds.

(a) T h e rough section of the floor should
be repaired.
(b) Adequate supervision should be p r o ­
vided to assure compliance of all instruc tions.

Baled paper, which is not only heavy but
bulky, should be handled mechanically by
lift truck, crane, conveyor, or other
equipment. If mechanical equipment is
not available, several workers, trained to
lift as a team, should be used.

33. A s a printing-press operator w a s w a l k ­
ing to his machine, he slipped on a piece of
g u m m e d boxboard and fell. Investigation
disclosed that the boxboard had been dis­
carded in the gluing operation.

37. A hand trucker injured his ankle w h e n
he slipped and fell as he w a s m o v i n g a truck
loaded with waste paper. Investigation dis­
closed that the floor w a s littered with scraps
of paper.




30

platforms. Therefore, supervisors should
not permit trucks to be used in that way.
In this case, a working platform or a
scaffold should have been provided.
(b) Periodic inspection of all equip­
m e n t should be m a d e . Defective equip­
m e n t should be repaired immediately or
r e m o v e " f r o m service. In this instance,
the frayed cable probably would have
broken had any load been placed on the
lift truck.

G o o d housekeeping is essential to safety
in any operation. A regular, frequent
cleaning schedule should be maintained.
This is particularly important in the
paperboard-container
industry
wher e
large amounts of paper scrap are dis­
carded during machine operations.
38. A hand trucker strained his back while
m o v i n g a truckload of paper. Investigation
disclosed that one of the truck wheels w a s
broken.

43. A female employee bent over to pick
up a tube while operating a crimping
machine in a fiber-tube plant. The spinning
chuck of the m a c h i n e caught her hair and
pulled a small area f r o m her scalp.

Frequent, periodic inspections of all
equipment should be made. Defective
equipment should be repaired i m m e d i ­
ately or r e m o v e d f r o m service.
39. A w a r e h o u s e m a n w a s guiding a fork­
lift operator w h o w a s placing a pallet of
boxboard blanks. W h e n the operator lowered
the lift, it caught the w a r e h o u s e m a n ’s hand.
Investigation disclosed that the operator
misunderstood the w a r e h o u s e m a n ’s signals.

All w o m e n working near m o v i n g m a ­
chinery should be required to w e a r caps
or snoods large enough to cover or
confine their hair.
44. A shipping clerk w a s filling a barrel
with silicate. W h e n he struck a m a t c h to
determine the quantity of silicate in the
barrel, an explosion occurred.

A standard set of signals should be
developed for giving directions by hand.
Only workers, familiar with the standard,
should be permitted to give directions
by hand signals.

(a) Flashlights, instead of matches,
should be used to supplement general
illumination.
(b) This accident indicates that there
m a y be a need for m o r e general illumina­
tion in this plant. A study should be m a d e ,
therefore,
to determine whether the
general lighting is adequate.

40. A laborer, m o v i n g a w o o d e n skid, w a s
injured w h e n the skid fell apart and dropped
on his foot. Investigation disclosed that the
skid w a s old and badly worn.
All equipment should be inspected
periodically. W o r n and defective equip­
m e n t should be repaired immediately or
r e m o v e d f r o m service.

45. A laborer crawled under a printing
press to clean. W h e n the operator started
the press, the traveling bed crushed the
cleaner. Investigation disclosed that the
operator had not been informed of the
cleaner’s presence.

41. While a warehouse supervisor w a s
climbing a ladder, the base slipped a w a y
f r o m the wall. The supervisor j u m p e d to the
floor, injuring his ankle.
Straight ladders should be
with anti-slip safety shoes.

P o w e r e d equipment which is being
cleaned or repaired should have the
starting switch tagged “ D o not operate”
or, preferably, should be locked if the
operator cannot readily see the cleaner
or repairman.

equipped

42. A maintenance mechanic w a s using a
lift truck as a platform while repairing roof
timbers. O ne of the cables on the movable
platform broke and he fell to the floor.
Investigation disclosed that the cable w a s
frayed due to extended use.

46. A shipping department e mployee fell
between a truck and the loading platform.
Investigation disclosed that no dock plate
w a s available and the truck had not been
parked close to the dock.

(a) Supervisors
should
not permit
equipment to be used for purposes other
than that for which it is designed. Lift
trucks are not intended for use as working

(a) M a n a g e m e n t
should provide
all
necessary equipment. In this case, suit­
able dock plates should be provided and
stored in a convenient location.




31

(b) All employees should be thoroughly
trained in the safe performance of their
duties. At loading platforms, trucks
should be parked close enough to eliminate
openings between the trucks and the
platforms.

or other device so arranged that they will
not fit properly unless fastened into
place.
48. A n employee w a s looking for a specified
skid load of stock. A s he attempted to step
f r o m one skid load of paper to another, he
slipped and fell between the loaded skids.
Investigation disclosed that storage space
w a s inadequate and, as a result, paper
stock, stored in disorder, projected into the
aisles.

47. A shipping laborer w a s loading bundles
of boxes into a freight car. W h e n the dock
plate slipped off the car, the employee
fell between the freight car and the dock.
Investigation disclosed that the dock plate
had not been fastened into place.
D o c k plates should be anchored to
prevent t h e m f r o m slipping. Compliance
with this rule can reasonably be assured
by using dock plates equipped with a lug




Proper planning in the layout of all
operations is essential for safety. Suf­
ficient aisle space and a m p l e storage
facilities should be provided.

32

APPENDIX—STATISTICAL TABLES
(including Sundays, days off, or plant shut­
downs).
T h e severity rate is the average n u m b e r
of days lost for each 1,000 e m ployee hours
worked. T h e computations of days lost
include standard time charges for fatalities
and p e r m a n e n t disabilities as listed in the
A m e r i c a n Standard M e t h o d of Compiling
Industrial Injury Rates, approved by the
American
Standards
Association,
1945.

T h e injury frequency rate is the average
n u m b e r of disabling w o r k injuries for each
million employee -hours worked. A disabling
w o r k injury is any injury which (a) results
in death or any degree of p e rmanent p h y ­
sical impairment, or (b) m a k e s the injured
w o r k e r unable to p e r f o r m the duties of any
regularly established job, which is open
and available to him, throughout the hours
corresponding to his regular shift on any
one or m o r e days after the day of injury




33

TABLE 1 .- - WORK-INJURY RATES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY PLANT PRODUCT AND PLANT SIZE, 1950
In ju r y - f r e q u e n c y

P r o d u c t and s i z e

Number
of
e sta b ­

o f p la n t

Num ber
of
e m p lo y e e s

lis h ­
m e n ts

E m p lo y e e h o u rs
w o rk e d
( th o u ­
sa n d s)

A ll
d is a ­

o f—

P e rm a ­
n e n tp a r t ia l

D e a th s

b lin g
in ju r ie s

ra te s

Te m p o ra ry to ta l
d is a ­

1 5 1 ,6 9 0

1 7 .9

5 3 ,8 0 7

2 3 .0
1 6 .5

851

7 3 ,2 8 1

172
35
189

2 5 ,6 7 9
5 ,1 1 6

F o ld e d b o x e s ........................................................................................

1 9 ,8 7 5

1 0 ,6 4 7
4 1 ,9 0 3

S e tu p

424

2 0 ,0 4 3

3 9 ,8 9 8

Tem po­
ra ry -

D is a ­

b ili­
t ie s

d is a ­
b ili­
t ie s

T o t a l 1 ........................................................................................................

In ju r y - s e v e r it y
A v e ra g e t im e
l o s t p e r—

b lin g

S e v e r it y
ra te

to ta l
d is a ­
b ilit y

in ju r y

1 .2

1 6 .7

85

15

1 .5

.9

(2 )

1 .5
4 .8

PRODUCT
C o rru g a te d and f i b e r b o x e s ..................................................
F i b e r c a n s, t u b e s , d r u m s .......................................................
b o x e s ...........................................................................................
S IZ E

t o 1 9 e m p lo y e e s ..........................................................................
20 -ho A 9 empl n y e e s ............................r ................................ ........

199
279

50 to

160
146

9 9 e m p lo y e e s ........................................................................

2 ,2 9 7

4 ,3 9 9

9 ,1 6 8
1 1 ,2 6 0

1 8 ,2 1 1
2 3 ,1 9 1
4 8 ,5 9 2

53

67
289
69

(2)

1 .1

1 1 .8

76

17

.9

1 0 .7
1 2 .7
1 7 .9

100

19
17

n o t sh o w n s e p a r a t e ly b e c a u se

of

.9
.1

2 0 .5
1 9 .0

2 1 ,2 3 5

9 ,9 2 6

in s u f f ic ie n t

1 1 .6
1 3 .6
1 9 .1

3 6 ,0 6 2

2 3 ,0 8 9
1 7 ,5 4 1

14

2 4 9 e m p lo y e e s ..................................................................
4 9 9 e m p lo y e e s ..................................................................

5 0 0 e m p lo y e e s and o v e r .............................................................

1 In c lu d e s f i g u r e s
2 L e s s th a n 0 . 0 5 .

0 .1

21
14

1 .2
1 .0

OF P L A N T

T

10 0 to
25 0 to

5 .1
.8

2 2 .0
1 1 .4
1 5 .9

14

(2)

1 6 .7
1 2 .9

1 3 .8

1 .1
.9
1 .4
2 .0

(2)
(2 )
.1

62
107

1 .2
.8
2 .0

13

47

1 1 .7

15

1.0

101
160 .

1 9 .6
1 7 .6

15
15

2 .2

1 .9

d a ta .

TABLE 2 .~ DISTRIBUTION OF WORK-INJURY FREQUENCY RATES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY SIZE OF PLANT, 1950
Num ber o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s w i t h
S iz e

fre q u e n c y r a t e s

o f—

o f p la n t
0

T o t a l ........................................................................................................

373

1 t o 1 9 e m p lo y e e s ........................................................................
20 t o A 9 f>mpl n y s e s .............. .................................. ..

166
159
38
10

50 t o 9 9 e m p lo v e e s ................... ............................. ...................
100 t o 249 fim p l o y s e s ...............................................................
250 t o 4 9 9 e m p lo v e e s ...............................................................
Amp! nyppfl
nvp t* t ....... .............




23

49

12
9
1

1 5 -1 9

2 0 -2 4

2 5 -2 9

3 0 -3 4

3 5 -3 9

4 0 -4 4

4 5 -4 9

5 0 -5 4

5 5 -5 9

6 0 -6 9

7 0 -7 9

85

66

55

40

31

32

19

14

17

10

15

7

15

3
10

1
5
11
11

5
11

2
4

2
6

3

4

5
8

7
4

2
3

7
3
3

4
1
1
3

1
5

1
2
4

7
3
4
1

5
2

3

3

2

1

1

23
19

21
20
28

21
20
15

1
23
8
16

4
2

9
7

9
1

6
1

1
1

8 0 and

1 0 -1 4

5 -9

1 -4

34

12
8

1

5

over

TABLE 3..—INJURY-FREQUENCY RATES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY TYPE OF PLANT, GEOGRAPHIC AREA, ANDSTATE, 1950
I n ju r y - f r e q u e n c y
G e o g ra p h ic

a re a

and S t a t e

A v e ra g e
a ll
p la n t s

C o rru g a te d and
f ib e r b o xe s

ra te s

o f p la n t s

F ib e r c a n s,
t u b e s , d ru m s ,
e tc .

b o xe s

S e tu p

b o xe s

1 7 .9

P e n n s y lv a n ia ................................................................................................................ .. ................

2 3 .0

1 6 .7

1 2 .9

2 1 .9
2 1 .8
2 3 .4
13 .9
M id d le A t l a n t i c a re a : T o t a l .....................................................................................................
New J e r s e y .........................................................................................................................................

3 7 .1

23 .7

4 1 .7

2 3 .9
2 3 .1

1 3 .2
1 5 .3

1 9 .1
1 8 .3
19

.A

T o t a l .......................................................................... ...................

1 5 .2

T n d i a n a ....................................................................................... ........................................................
M i c h i g a n .............................................................................................................................................
D h i o ............................................................ .. .........................................................................................

25 .6
1 3 .9
1 6 .8

W i s c o n s i n ...........................................................................................................................................

E a st

1 2 .1

N o rth

C e n t r a l a re a :

1 1 .5

W e st N o r t h C e n t r a l a re a : T o t a l .......................................................................
Mi n n e s o t a ...........................................................................................................................................

1 6 .5

F o ld e d

m a n u f a c t u r in g —

2 5 .1

2 1 .7

2 0 .0

2 6 .0

2 5 .2
2 7 .9
2 1 .2
15 .4

1 8 .9
1 6 .5

1 3 .4
1 1 .8

1 9 .6

1 1 .7

1 0 .6

1 9 .8

1 5 .3

8 .6

1 1 .6

9 .3

9 .3

4 1 .1
1 8 .0
22 .9
1 1 .4

1 4 .1

8 .4

7 .1

1 4 .1
12 . 6
1 2 .3
1 0 .3

1 4 .1
1 6 .6

1 8 .A
3 2 .3

2 4 .4

1 3 .2

M i s s o u r i ..............................................................................................................................................

1 3 .1

2 1 .3

1 1 .6

8 .5

S o u t h A t l a n t i c a re a : T o t a l .......................................................................................................
F l o r i d a ............................................................................................................. ....................... ..
M a rv la n d ..............................................................................................................................................

1 5 .3
1 0 .8
1 9 .3

2 1 .9

1 4 .5

1 0 .8

N o rth

C a r o l i n a ....................................................................... .. ...................................................

S o u t h C a r o l i n a . . . . ...................................................................................................................
V i r g i n i a .................................................................... .. ........................................... .. ........................
W e st V i r g i n i a ......................................... .. ....................................................................................
F .a st. S o u t h

C e n tra l

a re a :

T o t a l .............................................................................................

T e n n e s s e e ......................... ....................... .. .....................................................................................
W e st S o u th

C e n tra l

a re a :

T o t a l .............................................................................................

L o u i s i a n a ......................................................................................... .......................... .....................
T e x a s .................................................................... .. .............................................................................
P a c i f i c a re a : T o t a l .............. .. ........................................................ ............. .. .............................
C a l i f o r n i a ............................................ ..........................................................................................




1 0 .7
1 8 .0
1 2 .9

1 3 .1
1 2 .6
1 5 .7
2 8 .0

2 9 .8

2 4 .2
2 6 .4

2 6 .5

1 9 .5
1 7 .3

1 4 .7

2 5 .6

2 3 .3

1 6 .7

2 4 .4

1 5 .3

1 2 .5

1 7 .1

1 5 .3

1 3 .4

1 4 .7

35

2 8 .4

1 5 .9
1 6 .9

TABLE 4 .--DISTRIBUTION OF ESTABLISHMENTS, EMPLOYEES, INJURIES, AND DAYS LOST IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY
INJURY-FREQUENCY RATES, 1950
Establishments
Frequency rates of
establishments

Employees

Cumulative
Number

100 and over......................
90-99.............................
80-89.............................
70-79.............................
60-69.............................
55-59.............................
50-54.............................
45-49.............................
40-44.............................
35-39.............................
30-34.............................
25-29.............................
20-24.............................
15-19.............................
10-14.............................
5-9...............................
1-4...............................
0 .................................




8
4
3
7
15
10
17
14
19
32
31
40
55
66
85
•49
23
373

8
12
15
22
37
47
64
78
97
129
160
200
255
321
406
455
478
851

Cumulative

Number

Percent
0.9
1.4
1.8
2.6
4.3
5.5
7.5
9.2
11.4
15.2
18.8
23.5
30.1
37.7
47.7
53.5
56.2
100.0

190
222
292
331
1,056
852
1,262
1,187
1,949
3,051
3,649
5,651
6,149
8,303
15,138
7,551
5,496
10,952

Cumulative

Number

Number
Number

Days lost

Injuries

Cumulative

190
412
704
1,035
2,091
2,943
4,205
5,392
7,341
10,392
14,041
19,692
25,841
34,144
49,282
56,833
62,329
73,281

36

Percent
0.3
.6
1.0
1.4
2.9
4.0
5.7
7.4
10.0
14.2
19.2
26.9
35.3
46.6
67.3
77.6
85.1
100.0

Number
Number

40
42
48
44
127
104
131
114
163
236
249
317
279
294
374
116
37

40
82
130
174
301
405
536
650
813
1,049
1,298
1,615
1,894
2,188
2,562
2,678
2,715

Percent
1.5
3.0
4.8
6.4
11.1
14.9
19.7
23.9
29.9
38.6
47.8
59.5
69.8
80.6
94.4
98.6
100.0
100.0

Number
503
7,765
832
1,082
4,655
7,836
16,722
6,476
32,840
9,666
4,960
27,962
11,675
22,292
45,673
19,597
10,473

503
8,268
9,100
10,182
14,837
22,673
39,395
45,871
78,711
88,377
93,337
121,299
132,974
155,266
200,939
220,536
231,009

Percent
0.2
3.6
3.9
4.4
6.4
9.8
17.1
19.9
34.1
38.3
40.4
52.5
57.6
67.2
87.0
95.5
100.0
100.0

TABLE 5 .—WORK-INJURY RATES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY OPERATION, 1950
Injury severity

Injury-frequency rate of

Operations

Number
of
units
report­
ing

Number
of
employees

Employeehours
worked
(thou­
sands)

All
dis­
abling
injuries

Deaths

Perma­
nent
partial
dis­
abili­
ties

Temporary
total
dis­
abili­
ties

Average time
lost per—
Dis­
abling
injury

Temporary
total
disability

Severity
rate

Total1 .............................. ..........

851

73,281

151,690

17.9

(2 )

1.2

16.7

85

15

1.5

Production operations.........................

704296
376
115
360
155
367
54
324
239
362
391
391
308
131
453
228
358
.555

34,431
1,256
773
2,185
2,309
838
1,969
905
3,673
627
2,555
5,507
806
1,126
506
2,562
1,493
2,365
2,976

71,376
2,595
1,547
4,703
4,599
1,804
4,170
1,909
7,650
1,217
5,088
11,730
1,678
2,320
1,047
5,229
3,029
4,912
6,149

18.2
15.4
17.5
42.5
6.3
17.2
22 .5
17.3
12 .9
7.4
15.1
22.7
14.3
16.4
17.2
18.2
19.8
15.1
14.1

(2 )

1.0

17.2
15.4
13.6
40.8
5.9
15.5
20.8
16.3
12.2
7.4
13.7
21.3
14.3
15.5
16.2
17.2
17.8
14.9
14.1

57
16
83
91
43
54
70
69
58
32
52
83
18
26
28
27
51
17
10

14
16
22
15
24
12
15
11
16
32
14
14
18
11
12
12
12
13
10

1.0
.2
1.5
3.9
.3
.9
1.6
1.2
.7
.2
.8
1.9
.3
.4
.5

600
587
254
455
217
279

13,985
7,172
603
2,700
1,989
1,521

29,046
14,521
1,297
5,737
4,220
3,271

14.6
1.7
8.5
24.8
30.8
35.8

13.6
1.7
7.0
22.4
30.1
33 .0

89
13
60
115
42
128

16
13
7
15
17
19

Corrugating.................................
Pressing...................... ......... .
Out+.i ng .... ................. ............
nutting and creasing: integrated............
Tliiing..................... ................
i
Label ing.................. .................
Machine wrapping.... ....... ...............
Printing......................... ........ .
Scoring...... ..............................
Slitting....................................
SI ntti ng....................................
Stayi ng ......................................
Sti t c h i n g .................... ..................
Stripping.................. .......... .....
T ying and

b u n d l i n g ................................

Servi ce n p e r a t i n n s ....................... .
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c l e r i c a l . . . .................
Die ma Vi n g ................ ......... ........
M a i n t e n a n o e a n d p o w e r ......... .............

Shipping................................. .
S t o r a g p ................................. .

1 Includes figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
2 Less than 0.05.




37

0.2

3.9
1.5
.4
1.7
1.7
1.0
.7
1.4
1.4
.9
1.0
1.0
2.0
.2

1.0
1.5
2.4
.7
2.8

.5

1.0

.3

.1
1.3
(2)

.5
2.8
1.3
4.6

TABLE 6.—DISABLING INJURIES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY NATURE OF INJURY, PART OF BODY, AND TYPE OF PLANT, 1950
Injuries in plants manufacturing—
Nature of injury and
part of body injured

Total
injuries

Number

Corrugated
and
fiber boxes

Percent

Fiber cans,
drums, tubes,
etc.

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

^

Folded
boxes

Setup
boxes

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

1 1,505

100.0

778

100.0

48

100.0-

434

100.0

240

100.0

461
419
310
172
51
33
30
19
7
3

30.6
27.8
20.6
11.4
3.4
2.2
2.0
1.3
.5
.2

239
221
154
86
16
24
16
16
4
2

30.6
28.3
19.8
11.1
2.1
3.1
2.1
2.1
.5
.3

12
8
11
7
5
1
2
1
1

24.9
16.7
22.9
14.6
10.4
2.1
4.2
2.1
2.1

144
118
86
53
16
6
8
1
1
1

33.3
27.2
19.8
12.2
3.7
1.4
1.8
.2
.2
.2

66
70
58
24
14
2
4
1
1

27.5
29.2
24.2
10.0
5.8
.8
1.7
.4
.4

Eye.................................................
Brain or skull................... .............. .
Other......................................... .

98
51
11
36

6.5
3.4
.7
2.4

59
36
7
16

7.6
4.6
.9
2.1

4
1
1
2

8.3
2.1
2 .1
4.1

25
11
3
11

5.8
2.6
.7
2.5

10
3

4.2
1.2

7

3.0

Trunk.................................................
Back................................................
Abdomen.............................................
Shoulder............................................
Chest (lungs, ribs, etc.)...........................
Hip, pel vis.. ......................................
Other................................................

371
204
66
50
30
10
11

24.7
13.6
4.4
3.3
2.0
.7
.7

178
98
35
24
13
5
3

22.9
12.6
4.5
3.1
1.7
.6
.4

11
6
3
1
1

22.9
12.5
6.2
2.1
2.1

120
68
14
17
11
3
7

27.6
15.7
3.2
3.9
2.5
.7
1.6

61
31
14
8
5
2
1

25.4
13.0
5.8
3.3
2.1
.8
.4

Upper extremities............ ...............
Arm.......... ..............................._ .....
_
Hand................................................
Finger, thumb.......................................

585
82
165
338

38.9
5 .4
11.0
22.5

284
48
82
154

36.5
6.2
10.5
19.8

19

39.6

5
14

10.4
29.2

164
22
50
92

37.8
5.1
11.5
21.2

116
12
27
77

48.3
5.0
11.2
32.1

Lower extremities.....................................
Leg........................... .....................
Foot................. ..............................
Toe.................................................

434
128
194
112

28.8
8.5
12.9
7.4

247
73
114
60

31.7
9.4
14.6
7.7

13
5
4
4

27.1
10.5
8.3
8.3

120
36
48
36

27.6
8.3
11.0
8.3

52
13
27
12

21.7
5.4
11.3
5.0

17

1.1

10

1.3

1

2.1

5

1.2

1

.4

Total.................................................
INJURY
Bruises, contusions...... .........................
Strains, sprains..... .................................
Cuts, lacerations, punctures..........................
Fractures.................................... .........
Amputations...........................................
Foreign bodies, (not elsewhere classified)............
Hernias...............................................
Burns, scalds..... ....................................
Industrial diseases.......................... ........

PART OF BODY INJURED

Body— general........ .................................

1 Includes figures not shown separately because of insufficient data to classify.




38

TABLE 7 .-- DISABLING INJURIES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY INJURED, 1950
Total
number
of
injuries

Bruises,
contu­
sions

Strains,
sprains

Cuts,
lacer­
ations,
punc­
tures

Total........................................

1,505

461

419

310

172

Head.........................................

98
51
11
36

34
7
9
18

3

1

3

23
9
2
12

371
204
66
50
30
10
11

77
21
14
10
19
5
8

252
179
21
39
7
4
2

1

Hand.......................................
Finger, thumb..............................

585
82
165
338

139
24
50
65

74
27
38
9

248
12
62
174

60
9
11
40

Lower extremities............................
Leg........................................
Foot.......................................
Toe...................... .................

43 4
128
194
112

205
68
86
51

90
31
58
1

37
21
11
5

99
8
38
53

Rody-general.................................

17

6

1

1

Part of body injured

Back.......................................
Abdomen....................................
Shoulder....................... ............
Chest (lungs, ribs, etc.)..................
Hip, pelvis................................
Other......................................
Upper extremities............................




Fractures

Amputa­
tions

51

Foreign
bodies,
(n.e.c.)

Hernias

33

30

Indus­
trial
diseases

Burns,
scalds

19

7

Other

3

A

33
33

2

1

2

11
4

30

1

.... 30
1
4
1
1

39

50
1
49
1

10
9
1

4
1
2
1

1

1

1
1

1
4

3

2

TABLE 8 .--DISABLING INJURIES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY NATURE OF INJURY AND AGENCY OF INJURY, 1950
Total
number
of
injuries

Bruises,
contu­
sions

Strains,
sprains

Cuts,
lacer­
ations ,
punc­
tures

Total........................................

1,505

461

419

310

172

Machines.....................................
Printing presses.........................

359
70
36
29
27
27
23
23
23
19
82

109
25
6'

13
2

13
12
5
8
13
7
20

3
1

3

150
26
19
22
7
6
13
11
4
6
36

36
8
5
2
2
3
3
1
2
2
8

273
126

47
21
15
11

170
86
18
66

34
13
1
20

8
2
4
2

Agency of injury

Gluing machines..........................
Staying machines.........................
5?titohers................................
Wrapping machines........................
Taping machines..........................
Horn] gators........................ ......
Other machines...........................
Paper products...............................
Boxes, cartons...........................
Rolls....................................
Other paper products.....................
Vehicles.....................................
Hand trucks..............................
Other vehicles...........................




42

105
161
132
29

78
67
11

1
3

17
10
7

33
30
3

40

Amputa­
tions

Frac­
tures

30
23
7

51
48

Foreign
bodies,
(n.e.c.)

Hernias

33

30

Burns,
scalds

19
3

9

6
5

2

5

2
2

1
1

3

15

1

1

13

4
3
6
3

2

1

Indus­
trial
diseases.

7
.......

Other

3

TABLE 8 .--DISABLING INJURIES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY NATURE OF INJURY AND AGENCY OF INJURY, 1950--Continued
Agency of injury

Total
number
of
injuries

Bruises,
Strains,
contu­
sprains
sions

13487
22
21
4

55
34
9
9
3

Skids.......................................

96

Bodilv moti ons..............................

86

Shafts, rolls....... ........................
Hand tools................................ „.
Metal parts.................................
Foreign bodies..............................
Tables......................................
Other agencies......................... .
TTnn.lnssifled • insufficient data.............




Cuts,
lacer­
ations,
punc­
tures

Fractures

34
24
5
5

12
6
3
3

47

20

8

1

81

62

28

9

5

13

7

22

4

44

12

8

12

2

Indus­
trial
diseases

Burns,
scalds

Hernias

Other

3

9

39

Foreign
bodies
(n.e.c.)

20

47

Amputa­
tions

30
23
3
3
1

2
1

18

3

1

3

1

16

8

3

60

40

42

6

1

1

1

33

5

182

1

2

3

14
2

41

1

2
1

15

7

1
1

TABLE 9. --DISABLING INJURIES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY PART OF BODY INJURED AND AGENCY OF INJURY, 1950
Agency of injury

Head
Total
num­
ber
Brain
of
To­ Eye
or
inju­ tal
skull
ries

Trunk

Upper extremities

Other

To­
tal

Back

Abdo­
men

Shoulder

Chest

Hip or
pelvis

Other

10

11

Total......................

1,505

98

51

11

36

371

204

66

50

30

Machines...................

359
70
36
29
27
27
23
23
23
19
82

5
2

1

3
1

1
1

13
5

5
1

2

2
1

3
2

Creasers and cutters....
Saws...................
Gluing machines........
Staying machines.......
Stitchers..............
Wrapping machines......
Taping machines........
Corrugators............
Other machines.........
Paper Products.............
Boxes, cartons.........
Rolls..................
Other paper products....
Vehicles...................
Hand trucks............
Other vehicles.........

273
126
42
105
161
132
29




1

1
1
2

1

18
11

11
6

7
8
7
1

2
4

1

1
1
3

2

141
64
21
56-

83
41
9
33

30
9
8
13

16
8
3
5

7
6
1

38
32
6

20
16
4

8
7
1

4
4

7
5

1
1

1

1

2

5

1
1

42

8

2

2

1
1

2

1
1

1
1

6
2
4
3
1

To­
tal

Lower extremities

Arm

Hand

Fin­
ger

To­
tal

Leg

Foot

Toe

Body
gen­
eral

585

82

165

338

434

128

194

112

17

312
58
33
29
25
26
22
22
13
14,
70

22
7
2

224
30
26
26
16
23
19
14
5
7
58

27
5
2

15
5
1

8

4

2

3
3
3
1

66
21
5
3
6
3
3
5
5
4
11

89
45
7
37

21
11
2
8

43
23
2
18

19
11
8

‘
4
3
1

4
4

3

1

1

1
1
1

1

9
2
6

3
2
3

4

2

2

1

25
11
3
11

25
6
14
5

15
4
7
4

6
2
3
1

4

11
4
7

96
82
14

18
11
7

45
40
5

33
31
2

1
1

4

1

TABLE 9.—DISABLING INJURIES IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BYPARTOF BODY INJURED AND AGENCY OF INJURY, 1950--Continued
Agency of injury

Total
num­
ber
of
inju­
ries
134
87
22
21
4

Head

To­
tal

5
5

Skids......................

86

1

Shafts, rolls..............

62

3

Hand tools.................

47

2

Metal parts................

44

1

Foreign bodies.............

39

36

3
3

96

Bodily motions.............

Other

2
2

Eye

To­
tal

44
28
11
4
1

Back

20
12
5
3

Ab­
domen

Shoul­
der

Chest

3

9
7
2

5
3
2

2
1

Hip
or
pelvis

Other

5
4

2
2

To­
tal

16
182

18

Unclassified; insufficient
data....... ..............

6

8

9

5

2

1

1

20

1

6

1

1

1

1

2

27

11

6

3

2

1

6

2

1

11

40

24

6

2
1

1

1

43

4

54
32
6
14
2

27
15
4
6
2

24
16
2
6

3
1
2

3

5

17

2

64

16

31

44

12

4
2
2

1

32

15

30

1

10

19

11

11

12

7'

2

3

4

7

19

2

9

8

2

27

21

7

2

1

1
1

Body
gen­
eral

5
5

11

2
4

4
2

1

2

5

3

4

7
4
1
1
1

1

6

36

3

Toe

1

12
26

1

1

Other agencies.............

Foot

16
14
2

3
1

Leg

27
20
3
3
1

40

1

To­
tal

Hand

9

1

Lower extremities

Fin­
ger

Arm

22

Tables.....................




Upper extremities

Trunk

Brain
or
skull

7

1

6

2

2

1

56

8

21

27

61

13

4

1

1

2

1

TABLE 10. —WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER
Total
number
of
accidents

Accident type

1,505
316
25 8
175
48
35
77

Paper products

Vehicles

Working surfaces

Machines
Boxes,
cartons

Total1

Total1

Rolls

Hand
trucks

Total1

132

134

359

273

126

42

161

258
252
175
48
29
1
5

10

2

7

68
2

59
1 ‘

8
2

1
1

7

2
62
4

1
56
2

1
5

9

53
30
9
4
16
1
5

28
16
4

12
8
4
3
1

39
17
10

34
17
10

4
4
2

7

7

2

5
9
4
5

3
5
4

Other................................................................

339
211
100
43
26
42
49
39
10
46
5
28

9
1
12

9
1
7

Overexertion; Total....................................................
Due to lifting..... .................................................
Due to pulling or pushing............................................
Due to prolonged motions.............................................
Other............................................................ .

285
196
46
31
12

8
2
4

177
140
9
25
3

84
60
3
19
2

21
17
4

25
3
20

24
3
19

2

2

Striking against objects: Total........................................
Rnhhing against objects......................................... .
Trvhn nh jpr +. . .,.in. T_ ...,..... ........ .................
d
Other................................................................

229
48
29
152

77
2
2
73

32
24

11
8

2

22

12

8

3

2

5
17

5
7

Pal 1s on same 1evel • Total......... ,....................... ...... .
As a resul t of si ips......... ................ ......................
A i a ' p d i + rf tyips . ...( _ r . ..... ,__..........................
c
p . i l . t'
T .
Other........................ • ............................... ......
_

96
49
26
21

3
3

1

1

3

1

1

6
1
2
3

. 1 ips and st.nmhl es ? Total......................................... .
9
On 1oose objects.......... ............ ........
O ) f1n v .
r * rrQ
( . .
1
. ,,... T....... ._ .(....................... . _.

70
23
22
25

Floors

41

1Q
ip v p I d * Tntn i
.*.... .....................
F ^ t p pi n+frrmd "rampd P . * .
lry
'vi
+r .
.....
...................... ...
P'pom other el eva ti ons............. ................................. .
Exp0*1VT^ ^n P
5
r

n

62
19
43
14

+ P 7 p f P . l * . ,,TriTTT..... r........................
.TiP'+lTPd

nth^r ^ r KrP l+ +J/pP«
]f

,

.......... ._.......

29
5

Unclassified; insufficient data........................................
1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space.




44

9

2

11
1
3

4

87

6

1
1

6

2

6

2

63
31
19
13

50
25
16
9

3

1

1

1
2

1

1

53
17
36

34
6
28

1
1

1
'1

2
1

INDUSTRY, BY AGENCY OF INJURY AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 1950
Accident type

Bodily
motions

Skids

96

Total.....................................................................

86

Shafts,
rolls

62

8

39

47

Foreign
bodies

44

38

21
12
2
3

2

15

Unclas­
sified

Other

198

6

14
<
4

4
1
9
35
10
8
2

2

1

1

2
23

Overevertion: Total.......................................................
Thie to lifting..........................................................
Due to pulling or pushing......................... .....................
Due to prolonged motions................................................
Other.................................... ..............................

18
12
5

8

7

Striking against objects: Total...........................................
Rnhbing against objects.................... ............................
Walking into objects......... ..........................................
Other...................................................................

17
1
13
3

24
22
5
14
1
2
2

39

39
39

51
45
17
9
7
12
1

2

1
3

10
9

31
21

1

2

9
4
3
2

58
14
6
38

1
1

16
11
2
3

Other.................................................................

2

8

6
1

1
2

65
23
20
22

Fal 1s to di fferent 1evel s : Total............. ............... ...... .....
From pi a tforms ramps etc...............
From other el eva ti ons _.._.._.r.. .......... .

3

1
1

1
3
1

Slips and stumbles: Total.......................................... ......
On 1oose objects.............................................. .........
On f1 oors....................................................... .......
Other.................... .................. ........................ .

5
2

2

5

Falls on same level: Total................................................
As a r . i 11 of si ips.......... ....................... ..... ...........
esi
As a result of trips....................................................
Other........................................................... .

2

8

1
1

1

1
5
1
4

2

Fvposnre to evtreme temperatures....__ ....................................

14

Other accident types.. .......T........................ .

21

I n . assi fied ‘ insufficient data........ .............................. .
lcl




39

1
11

<6
4
<5
4
28

Metal
parts

12

3
5

Hand
tools

8

5

45

TYPE 11.--WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY NATURE OF INJURY AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 1950
Accident type

Total
Bruises,
number of contu­
sions
injuries

Strains,
sprains

Cuts,
lacer­
ations,
punc­
tures

Fractures

Amputa­
tions

Total............................................

1,505

461

419

310

172

51

140
74
43
17
14
42
24

12
3
1
1
1

117
100
70
17
13
6
11

58
33
27
3
3
22
3

45
4A
31
10
3

Other..........................................

376
258
175
48
35
77
41

.Struck by moving objects* Total..................
Falling objects: Total.........................
From hands of workers........................
From equipment...............................
From piles of materials.....................
From other elevations........................
Flying or thrown objects! Total................
.Small parti cl es..............................
Other........................................
Hand-operated or-wielded objects...............
Rolling objects................................
Other...........................................

339
211
100
43
26
42
49
39
10
46
5
28

169
122
59
22
15
26
7
2
5
20
3
17

10
7
1
1
4
1
1

51
11
6
2

72
69
34
17
6
12

1

Overexertion* Total..............................
Due to lifting.................................
Due to pulling or pushing......................
Due to prolonged motions.......................
Other..........................................

285
196
46
31
12

1
1

263
178
42
31
12

Foreign
bodies, Hernias
(n.e.c.)




3

1
1
1

46

3
6
3
3
23
1
10

33

30

Indus­
trial
diseases

19

7

Other

3

4
4
3
1

•
1

33

1
1

1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

33
33

1
2
1
1
1

Burns,
scalds

20
16
4

TABLE 11.—WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY NATURE OF INJURY AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 195Q—Continued
Cuts,
lacer­
ations,
punc­
tures

Othar

Slips
On
On

-

..................................................

and s t u m b l e s : T o t a l ....................................
1 nnsp o h j e e t s ................ ----- ......... --------f1 nnf’ ............... .................. .
s

O t h e r .............................................................

Fal 1 s

to

1 a v a l s : T o t a l ..................

dif’
f'aT’ n t
p

From

platforms

From

othsr

ramps

a t e . .............................

e l e v a t i o n s .......................................

Total
number
of
injuries

Bruises,
contu­
sions

Strains,
sprains

229
48
29
152

Accident types

73
9
16
48
-

15
1
2
12

96
49
26
21

47
22
12
13

24
14
5
5

70
23
22
25

5

1

1

2
3

60
22
20
18

1

1

2

62
19
43

25
10
15

13
4
9

4

18
4
14

2

1

21

t a m p a r a t u r a s ..........................

29

Unclassified; insufficient data...................

Amputa­
tions

127
38

7

5

80

2
5

5

2

10
5
4
1

13
7
5
1

1

1

Other

to

aytramp

arm'd ant




1

1
3
1

2

47

1

1

1
2

Other

1
1

12

5

Fvposure

Burns,
scalds

Indus­
trial
diseases

2

9

Hernias

14

t y p a s ..........................................

Foreign
bodies,
(n.e.c .)

Fractures

6

1

1

TABLE 12.--WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY PARTOFBODY INJURED AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 1950
Accident type

Total......................
Caught in, on, or between...
Moving parts of equipment.
Points of operation....
Gears, pulleys, belts,

Total
number
of
inju­
ries

1,505
376
258
175

Trunk

Head

Eye

Brain
or
skull

Other

To­
tal

Back

Abdo­
men

Shoul­
der

Chest

Hip or
pelvis

Other

To­
tal

Arm

Hand

Fin­
ger

To­
tal

Leg

Foot

Toe

Body
gen­
eral

98

51

11

36

371

204

66

50

30

10

11

585

82

165

338

434

128

194

112

17

1

1

277
236
173

12
11
8

54
44
34

211
181
131

92
19
1

17
5

39
7
1

36
7

2
2

43
20
14
27

3

6
4
4
6

34
16
9
21

4
14
60
13

2
3
6
6

1
5
28
4

1
6
26
3

1
1

53
21
13
4
2
2
8
3
5

6
2
1

17
5
3

30
14
9
4

1
1
1

34
25
9
5
6
5

70
58
25
11
3
19

70
68
42
13
2
11

3
3
1
2

1

174
151
76
29
11
35

14
3
6

7
1
1

7
1
4

1
1

10
7
3

8
6
2

2
1
1

1
1
1

4

1
1
1

78
18
4
.
4
7
3
40
36
4

38
36
2

Hand-operated or -wielded
nh jer.ts........ _______T
Rolling objpn.+.s____ ______
Other....................

46
5
28

11

10

9

2

Overexertion...............
Due to lifting...........
Due to pulling or pushing.
Due to prolonged motions..
Other....................

285
196
46
31
12




2

3
1

339
211
100
43
26
42
49
39
10

Struck by moving objects....
Railing nhjpcta..........
From hsinds oF worksrs. ••
From pqinpmpnt,.........
From piles of materials.
From other elevsttions- ••
Flying or throwing objects
Small particles........

Lower extremities

To­
tal

48
35
77
41

Rolling or falling objects
n+hp-r....................

Upper extremities

50

1

2

1

31
18
6
4
6
2
1

8
7

1

24
16
3
4
6
3
•1

1

1

1
4
1
7

10
5
2
1
2

1
1

3
2
2

1

1

4
2
1
1

1

6

215
161
38
7
9

2
3
2
1

1

1

2
1
2
137
106
21
4
6

39
28
8
2
1

48

9
3
2
1

1

5
28
19
7
2

7
5
1
1

2
1
1

2
2

17
1
6
60
28
5
24
3

1

1

2
2

2
23
9
2
12

1
5
1
4

9
1
1

3

32
17
2
10
3

8

5
2
1
2

TABLE 12. --WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY PART OF BODY INJURED AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 1950--Continued
Total
num­
ber
of
inju­
ries

Accident type

To­
tal

other.....................

Other’ ....................
Falls to different levels....
From platforms, ramps,
From other eleva ti o n s .....

Hip
or
pelvis

Other

1

1

1

1

Brain
or
skull

Other

To­
tal

Back

Ab­
domen

Shoul­
der

2

Eye

3

19

7

5

1

<
4

<
4
15

1

1
3

6

5
3
2

2
1
1

3
2

229
<8
4
29
152

SI ipe and ST.nmhl p r ......... _ .
On 1nnsp objects..........
On f l o n r e ............ ......

Upper extremities

Trunk

Head

5

5

2

3

96
<4
9
26
21

6
1
3
2

2

<
4
1
3

34
<
15

7

5

16
<
4

2
1

<
4

Chest

10
9

7

5

1

2

70

24

23
22
25

<
4
2

12
5

15
<
4
9
2

4
1
2
1

2

26

10

2

5

5

<
4

2

9
17

6

2

3
2

2
3

11

1

5

#

62

2

7

2

<
4

19
<3
4

<
4

2

2

Lower extremities

Hand

Fin­
ger

To­
tal

Leg

Foot

Toe

153
<4
4
<
4
105

16
2
2
12

50
21
1
28

87
21
1
65

52
<
4
21
27

24
1
10
13

25
1
11
13

3
2

18
13
<
4
1

9
5
3
1

8
7
1

1
1

37
19
9
9

25
11
7
7

11
7
2
2

1
1

<6
4
16
10
20

1

Arm

14
<
4
3
7

32
127
13

1

18

<
4

14

3

1

5
13

5

1
2

1
1

3

3

Body
gen­
eral

To­
tal

1

11

8

1

<
4
7

3
5

2

2

<
4

1

9

1
1

Exposure to extreme tem14
<

2

Other accident tvpes........

29

2

Unclassified; insufficient
data......................

5

pP*PP f.lTPPCJ .

......

......




. .

2
1

1

5
17

1

1

49

5

5

2

3

1

1

2
2

1

2

3

2

1

5

1

2

1

TABLE 13.--WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY TYPE OF PLANT AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 1950

Accident type

Accidents in plants manufacturing—

Total
number
of
accidents

Corrugated
and
fiber boxes

Fiber cans,
drums, tubes,
etc.

Number

rercent1
2

Number

Percent2

Number

Total1..........................................................

1,505

100.0

778

100.0

48

Caught in, on, or between.......................................
Moving parts of equipment.....................................
Points of operation.........................................
Gears, pulleys, belts.......................................
Other parts.................................................
Rolling or falling objects....................................
Other.........................................................

376
258
175
48
35
77
41

25.1
17.3
11.8
3.2
2.3
5.1
2.7

178
114
67
21
26
43
21

22.9
14.7
8.6
2.7
3.4
5.5
2.7

12
10
8
1
1
2

4.2

Struck by moving objects....................................
Falling objects...............................................
From hands of workers.......................................
From equipment.................................... .........
From piles of materials.....................................
From other elevations.......................................
Flying or thrown objects......................................
Small particles.............................................

22.6
14.0
6.6
2.9
1.7
2.8
3.3
2.6
.7
3.1
.3
1.9

190
112
53
18
16
25
34
28
6
25
4
15

24.6
14.6
7.0
2.3
2.1
3.2
4.4
3.6
.8
3.2
.5
1.9

14
11
3
4
3
1
3
1
2

29.1
22.9
6.2
8.4
6.2
2.1
6.2
2.1
4.1

Hand-operated or -wielded objects.............................
Rolling objects...............................................
Other.........................................................

339
211
100
43
26
42
49
39
10
46
5
,28

Overexertion....................................................
Due to lifting................................................
Due to pulling or pushing.....................................
Due to prolonged motions......................................
Other.........................................................

285
196
46
31
12

19.0
13.0
3.1
2.1
.8

139
92
30
14
3

18.0
11.9
3.9
1.8
.4

8
6
1
1

Striking against objects........................................
Rubbing against objects.......................................
Walking into objects..........................................
Other.........................................................

229
48
29
152

15.3
3.2
1.9
10.2

117
24
15
78

15.1
3.1
1.9
10.1

9
2
1
6

Fal 1 s nn samp 1p v p I ......................... .............. .
As a rpsnlt of slips..........................................
As a rpsnl t of trips................................ .........
Other.........................................................

96
49
26
21

6.4
3.3
1.7
1.4

46
23
10
13

5.9
2.9
1.3
1.7

Slips and stumbles..............................................
On 1nose objects.................. ...........................
On floors.....................................................
Other............................................. •
...........

70
23
22
25

4.7
1.5
1.5
1.7

46
19
14
13

5.9
2.4
1.8
1.7

1

2.1

1

2.1

Falls to different levels.......................................
From pi atf orms ramps.... ................ .
From other elevations.........................................

62
19
43

4.1
1.3
2.8

35
9
26

4.5
1.2
3.3

1

2.1

1

2.1

Folded
boxes

Setup
boxes

Number

Percent2

Number

100.0

434

100.0

240

100.0

25.0
20.8
16.6
2.1
2.1

98
60
40
17
3
26
12

22.7
13.9
9.3
3.9
.7
6.0
2.8

87
73
60
9
4
8
6

36.4
30.6
25.1
3.8
1.7
3.3
2.5

104
69
34
16
5
14
10
8
2
16

24.1
16.0
7.9
3.7
1.2
3.2
2.3
1.8
.5
3.7

31
19
10
5
2
2
2
2

13.0
8.0
4.3
2.1
.8
.8
.8
.8

9

2.1

5
1
4

2.1
.4
1.7

2.1

85
60
8
11
6

19.7
13.9
1.9
2.5
1.4

51
37
6
6
2

21.3
15.5
2.5
2.5
.8

18.7
4.2
2.1
12.4

67
10
8
49

15.5
2.3
1.9
11.3

35
12
5
18

14.6
5.0
2.1
7.5

35
20
9
6

8.1
4.6
2.1
1.4

15
6
7
2

6.3
2.5
3.0
.8

14
2
6
6

3.2
.5
1.4
1.3

9
2
1
6

3.8
.8
.4
2.6

19
8
11

4.4
1.9
2.5

2
4

2.5
.8
1.7

Percent

16.7
12.5
2.1

Percent2

Exposure to extreme temperatures................................

14

.9

11

1.4

1

2.1

1

.2

1

.4

Other accident types............................................

29

1.9

14

1.8

2

4.2

9

2.1

4

1.7

5

2

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data to classify.
2 Percents are based on classified cases only.




50

2

1

TABLE 14.--WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARD-CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY ACCIDENT TYPE AND ACTIVITY OF INJURED, 1950
Activity of injured

Caught
Total ,
in, on,
number of
or
accidents
between

Struck
by
moving
objects

Overexertion

Striking
against
objects

Falls on
Slips
same
and
level
stumbles

Falls to
different
levels

Exposure
to
extreme
temper­
atures

Other
accident
types

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data

Total.......................................

1,505

376

339

285

229

96

70

62

14

29

5

Operating machines..........................
Setting-up or adjusting...................

283
70
140
12
61

138
19
42
23
54

125
11
43
35
36

138
33
45
30
30

24
7

2
1

15
4

A

4
1
p

3
10

21
4
5
2
10

17
2
8

Off-bearing...................... ........
Other and unclassified....................

767
152
292
110
213

7

1

5
2

2

Operating hand trucks.......................

126

43

28

22

9

11

10

1

Walki ng.....................................

77

3

Using hand tools.................... .......
Stripping harnmera.........................
nth er.....................................

59
25
34

15

31

8

6

1

12
8
4

6
4
2

2
1
1

1
1

1

3

1

3

14

4

5

2

7

8

7

19

11

49

16

9

19

13

50

6

12

50

2

2

Other and unclassified......................

376

39

113

nr




2

33
10
23

d o w n ...............................

Loading trucks and cars.....................
Stepping up

A

112

51

1
1

1
8

10

1

TABLE 15.—WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBOARDHazardous working procedure s
Total
number
of
acci­
dents

Inadequately guarded
Lack of
powertrans­
mission
guards

Total1

Moving
heavy
loads
by hand

Feeding
stock
by
hand

Working
in
confined
areas

Unsafe
layout
of
traffic

Total1

Lack of
point-ofoperation
guards

1,461

404

196

41

40

33

356

207

50

368
251
169
48
34
77
40

49

11

1

2

23

251
244
164
47
33

165
165
164
1

46
46

31
18

6
5

1

23

2

334
208
99
42
26
41
48
38
10
45
5
28

87
68
68

55
53
53

4
1
1

5

22
9

1

3

16
2
1

1
1

3

266
182
43
31
10

185
124
29

128
97
27

28
7

4

4

222
48
29
145

40
8
12
20

1

96
49
26
21

Accident type

13
3
7
3

Caught, in, on, or between...............................................

Struck by moving objects.................................................

Hand operated or -wielded objects......................................
Rolling objects........................................................
Other..................................................................
O v e r e x e r t i o n ...............................................................................................................................................................................
D u e to l i f t i n g ..........................................................................................................
.......................................................

Due to pulling or pushing ...................................................................................................................................
FliiP to prol o n g e d

rroti o n s ................ ......................................... ..

Other...................................................................................................................................................................
.......................
S t r i k i n g a g a i n s t o b j e c t s .............................................................
R u b b i n g a g a i n s t o b j e c t s .........................................................................................................................................
W a l k i n g i n t o o b j e c t s ..................................................................................................................................................

Other.............................................................................................................................................................................................
Fal 1 s on s a m e 1 e v p l .................... ...............................................
Ao q
t. rrP
ip.c; . . .
...................................................................................
............................
As a resul h o f t r i p s . ..... ....................... ..............................................................................
O t h e r ..................................................................................

3
6
6
2
4

S l i p s and s t u m b l e s .............................................................................................................................................................
69
On 1 o o s e o b j e c t s ...............................................................
..................................................................
.......................
23
On n nnr1 ..... ...................... ..................................................................................................................
^
22
n+.hpT*.................... . . . .
...
............ ..............
................................................... .............................................
24
F a l l s t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ............................................................................................................. 59
..........................
F r o m pi a tf orrr.s r a m p s ................................................................................
.................................................
..
19
F r o m o t h e r e l e v a t i o n s ..................................................... ..................
40
F.xpnsure to e x t r e m e
Other accident

4

t ypes. ....................................................
...............................................................................................
29




1
6

3

1

21

28

1
1
1

8
4
4

19

5

10
9

2
3

50
1

41

49

41

9

2

7
2

2

5
1
3
1

2
1
1

2

152
13

1

23
13
10

5

4
Unclassified; insufficient data........................................................................................................................

52

3
1
1

3

1
1

1

t e m p e r a t u r e s .....................................................................................................................
5
14

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space.

5

2

4

46

1
1

5
2

1

1
1

CONTAINER INDUSTRY, BY HAZARDOUS WORKING CONDITION AND ACCIDENT TYPE, 1950
Defects of agencies

Accident type

Ua z&rd ous
arrange­
ment or
place­
ment

Poor
house­
keeping

Lack of
personal
safety
equip­
ment

Other

34

65

54

37

21

7
4
4

5

1
2

5

12
6
2
1
3
1

41
39
3
6
15
15
1

1

1

Unclas­
sified;
insuf­
ficient
data

Improp­
erly
designed

Slippery

Worn,
rough

222

56

49

35
6
5
1

15
1
1

1

23
6

11
3

1

63
<0
4
7
21
2
10
6
<
4
2
2
1
14

24
13
4
4
1
4
1
1

5

1

Overexert inn........... .................................................
Due tn lifting.........................................................
flue tn pulling nr pushing..............................................
.....................
Due tn prolonged motions......................... •
Other....................................................... ...........

5
2
3

3
2
1

1

6
3
2

Striving against objects........... .................. .............. .
Rnhhing against objects................................................
Waiving into objects.............................. ................ .
Other......... ................................................... .

43
12

6
1

3
1

26

5

Fal 1s on same 1eve!............. ........................................
As a result of slips...................................................
A s n refi l ts of trips....... r.................................. .
.
l!
Other....................................... .................... ......

41
30

4
1

SI ips and stiimhl es..... ..................................................
On 1nnse nh jpo.tfi ....................................
On f1nnrs...... .
O t h e r __r.....T.....................................

20

17

2

12
8

11
6

1
1

Fal 1 a tn d if ferent 1evel s ......... ....... ........ .....................
Frnm piatfnrmfi ramps... .... .
prom other el eva hi ons .t__r.............................. .

10
2
8

2

2

8

2

2

8

3
2
1

1

16

Total1

Total....................................................................

Hand-nperahed nr —wielded nhjpot.fi.............................. .
Rnl 1 ing nhjpo.tfi...... .................................. .......... .
nthpr......................................................... ........

5

1
16
11
15

106
52
21
12
9
10
22
20
2
25
1
6

13
12
1
2

70
53
9
3
5
6

2
29
29

6
5
1

2
4

6

3

23
12
11

3
11

3

Other aooident types______ ___________....................................

2

i'iedj insufficient data.................... .....................




1

28
1

1

Fvposnre to PYtreme tempera times............................... .

Unols.

1
1
8

3

•

3.
2
1
1

18
17
1

5

5
4
4

6
4
1
1
2

302

54
10
5
39
10
4
1
5

3

10

3

25
21
4

1
9

1

1
4

4

53

TA BLE 1 6 .--W O R K ACCIDENTS IN THE PA PERBO ARD-CON TAIN ER INDUSTRY,
Total
number
of
acci­
dents

Hazardous working conditions

Machines

Working surfaces

Total

Printing

Corru­
gating

Cutting
and
creasing

1,4-61

451

80

60

47

264

216

169

47

404
196
41
40
33
28
23
43

97
2
41

12

41

8

36
2
24

81
5

72

9
5

35
33

35
33

28
23
3

2

356
207
50
29
13
57

296
207
50
4

Defects of agencies.........................................................
Improperly designed.......................................................
01 ipperv........................................................... .......
Worn roughj uneven.......................................................
Loose.....................................................................
Hidden defects............................................................
Projecting slivers, etc...................................................
Sharp edged...............................................................
Other.....................................................................

222
56
49
34
27
19
17
13
7

Hazardous arrangement or placement..........................................
Unsafely placed objects..... ......... ............._............. .
Unsafely piled objects....................................................
Other.................................................................. .

Hazardous working procedures................................................

Other.....................................................................
Inadequately guarded........................................................

10

7

Other

Total

28
13

1

7
3

51
32
9
2

14
8
3

30
21
6

201
146
32
2

35

8

3

3

13
4
2

3

6
3

19
6

4
1

1
1

Other

21

41
13
3
6
10
5
2
2

Floor

4.

8

4

18

3

15

17
1

3

14
1

40

15
6
6
2

55
6
37
9

31
7

1

1

2

1

i

65
33
29
3

3
2

1

2
2

1

1

Poor housekeeping..... ............................................... .

54

5k

51

3

Lack of personal safetv equipment...........................................
Lack of gloves............... :............................................
Tack of goggles...........................................................

37
21
13

O th er......................................................................................................................................................................

3

2

2

Tack o f 1 adders

s c a f f o l d s ........................................................................................................................

17

Improper illumination.......................................................

4

Unclassified; insufficient data........................ ....................

302




54

1
2
1

6
3
2
2

2

7

1

1

2

3

7

1

1

2

3

10

3

1

1

5

1
4

1

BY AGENCY OF ACCIDENT AND HAZARDOUS WORKING CONDITION, 1950
Paper products
Hazardous working conditions

Vehicles

Boxes,
Other
cartons

Total

Other

Hand
trucks

Total

137

46

38

53

85

65

20

270

95
83

Total..................................................................... ............

Rolls

40
37

25
20

30
26

23
22

22
22

1

1

4

5

31

1

12

1

10

5

1

............................................................................................................................

3

1

■p*a-p(or»+.<q r\f* pgA noi a .
q

1

1
5
4

5

5

2

4

2

Tmprnpprl y ripfii grtpd ................
ST i p p p r y ........................ ................................... .. .....................
Urvrn rn n gh
lin pv pn ........................... ............................ .....................................................................
H iddpn d p f p c t s ........................................................................................................................................................................
n fj
vpt*
p*hr» ( I l l T ( i r f . ( r r __,
_T_ . T.......................................................... ...... .............

43
19
1
8
11
3

1

1
23
2
19
2

1
5
2
3

4
33
17
5
9
2

1

8

10

5
5

7
1

18

10
2
1
3
2
1

81
18
8
11

9
1

5
5

7
6

1

1

302

20

Sharp 6dgGd

Ffa^arrinun arTflngpm ant n r p ls n p m p n t .................... ................................................ .............................. ..
TIriRaf'ply p la c.p d n h j p c t s ......................................................................................................................................
TIri.Raf'pl y p i 1 pd oh j p c t a ..........................................................................................................................

Unclas­
sified

108
84

Other

11
11

1
5
5

6

11
13
11
3
34
24
10

Poor h o u s e k e e p i n g . <
...................................... ................................................................................. ..
7r
arV nT p p r s n n a l sn fp+ .y p q irip m p n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tt r k n f gl n vPR ...................................... ..
n

16
16

14
5
6
3

Lack o *
f

rtf' * aHHPT».Q
]

. . i r i . . . . T. . , .............................................*.............................................. . . . .

4

4

2

Improper illumina'tion.......................................................................................................
Unclassifiedj insufficient data.......................................... ..............................................................................




55

302

TA BLE 1 7 .— WORK ACCIDENTS IN THE PA PERBO ARD-CON TAIN ER INDUSTRY, BY TY PE O F PLAN T AND HAZARDOUS WORKING CONDITION, 1950
Accidents in plants manufacturing—

Hazardous working conditions

number of
accidents

Corrugated
and
fiber boxes

Fiber cans,
drums, tubes,
etc.

Folded
boxes

Number

Percent1

Number

Percent1

Number

Total...........................................................

1,461

100.0

770

100.0

48

Hazardous working procedures................................ ^ ...
Moving heavy loads by hand....................................
Feeding stock by hand.........................................
Working in confined areas.....................................
Unsafe layout of traffic......................................

34.8
16.9
3.5
3.5
2 .8
2.4
2 .0
3.7

243
101
18
25
24
28
18
29

39.4
16.4
2.9
4.1
3.9
4.5
2.9
4.7

11
8
1
1
1

Removing stock from machines by hand..........................
Other.........................................................

404
196
41
40
33
28
23
43

Inadequately guarded............................................
Lack of point-of-operation guards.............................
Lack of power-transmission guards.............................
Lack of guardrails, etc............... ;.......................
Lack of bolts, locks, etc.....................................
Other.........................................................

356
207
50
29
13
57

30.7
17.9
4.3
2.5
1 .1
4.9

169
89
22
15
9
34

27.4
14.4
3.6
2.4
1.5
5.5

16
12
1

3

7.3

Defects of agencies.............................................
Improperly designed...........................................
Slippery.......... ...........................................
Worn, rough, uneven...........................................
Loose..... ....................................................
Hidden defects................................................
Projecting slivers, etc.......................................
Sharp edged...................................................
Other.........................................................

222
56
49
34
27
19
17
13
7

19.2
4.9
4.3
2.9
2.3
1 .6
1.5
1 .1
.6

99
25
23
17
14
5
8
4
3

16.0
4.0
3.7
2 .8
2.3
.8
1.3
.6
•5

11
3
1
1
1
4
1

Hazardous arrangement or placement..............................
Unsafely placed objects.................................. .
Unsafely piled objects.......... .............................
Other......... ........................................ ......

65
33
29
3

5.6
2 .8
2.5
.3

36
16
18
2

5.8
2 .6
2.9
.3

Setup
boxes

Number

Percent1

Number

Percent1

100.0

418

100.0

225

100.0

26.9
19.7
2.4
2.4
2.4

104
57
15
11
5

32.5
17.8
4.7
3.4
1 .6

46
30
7
3
3

25.4
16.4
3.9
1.7
i.7

5
11

1 .6
3.4

3

1.7

89
42
18
11
4
14

27.8
13.1 r
5.6
3.4
1.3
4.4

82
64
9
3

45.2
35.2
5.0
1.7

6

3.3

26.8
7.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
9.9
2.4

80
19
19
12
10
10
3
4
3

25.0
6 .0
5.9
3.8
3.1
3.1
.9
1.3
.9

32
9
6
4
2

17.7
4.9
3.3
2 .2
1 .1

5
5
1

2 .8
2 .8
.6

1

2.4

1

2.4

18
11
7

5.6
3.4
2 .2

10
6
3
1

5.5
3.2
1.7
.6

Percent

39.1
29.4
2.4

Poor housekeeping...... ........... ............................

54

4.7

33

5.3

1

2.4

13

4.1

7

3.9

Lack of personal safety equipment...............................
Lack of gloves................................................
Lack of goggles.................. ....................... .....
Other............. ...........................................

37
21
13
3

3.2
1 .8
1 .1
.3

27
14
11
2

4.4
2.3
1 .8
.3

1

2.4

8
6
2

2.5
1.9
.6

1
1

.6
.6

1

2.4

Lack of ladders, scaffolds................................... .

17

1.5

9

1.5

5

1 .6

3

1.7

4

.3

1

.2

3

.9

Improper illumination...........................................
Tine! a s s i fi ed • i n s u f f i c i e n t data.............. ..................

153

302

1 Percents are based on classified cases only.




56

7

98

44

TABLE 1 8 .--W O R K ACCIDENTS IN THE PA PERBO ARD-CON TAIN ER INDUSTRY, BY ACCIDENT TY PE AND UNSAFE A C T , 1950

Striking
against
objects

Falls
on
same
level

Slips
and
stumbles

Falls to
different
levels

Exposure
to
extreme
temper­
atures

Other
accident
types

240

211

86

66

57

13

21

117
15
93
7

14
10
3

48
13
16

1

1

2
1
1

4

2

1

15
4

68
5

30
1

47

Total
number of
accidents

Caught
in, on,
or
between

Struck
by
moving
objects

1,34-3

351

295

338
157
119
35
15
12

* 55
1
118
5
28

327
170
36
34
27
20
40

28
15
17
3

4
11
2
12

T n a t t e n t io n t n s u r r r m n d in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

1

16

U n sa fe loading p l a c i n g
e t c .......... ..
T ift i ng e x c e s s i v e l o a d s . . . .................................... r_____
.
p l a c i n g r h p + i * un rfif#1y TT. . T . . . , r. . . T. . , . . . t .
Vjo.c
*a
O th e r T. . . T..................... r..............T. . . 7 . .............. T..............

81
44
34
3

2

28

1
1

28

F ai 1lire t o s e c u r e o r w a r n ....................................................
FA-ilirrp +.n InnV n r hi nr*V _ . . _ 1 .......... r............................
F a i 1lire t o g i v e p r o p e r s i g n a l ____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66
47
17
2

46
34
12

13
11
1
1

1
1

f .le a n i n g

56

45

1

2

2

7

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data

10

17

Unsafe acts

Total ......................................... .........................

Over­
exertion

3

Using equipment unsafely or hands instead of

E x p o s u r e t n m ovin g nh j e c t s . . ....................... ..................
■Exposure tn m ovin g m a c h in e r y ............................................

Other............. .......................... ..

a d ju s t i n g

m ovin g e q u i p m e n t . . . . . . ________

W ork in g a t u n s a fe s p e e d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26
19

1

1
56
55

55
54

1
4

1

1

55

1

Unclassified; insufficient data.................




4
1

4

2

3

4

6

3

36
2
. i

10

48
44
2
2

3
3

2

2
2

3
3

1

2

17

2

4

2

2

1

5

345

28

82

130

46

25

1

1

57

9

1

2

1

14

F a ilu r e t o use s a fe a t t i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37
35

2
8

8

1

2

13

3

TA BL E 1 9 .--W O R K ACCIDENTS IN THE PAPERBO ARD-CON TAIN ER INDUSTRY, BY TY P E OF PLAN T AND UNSAFE A C T , 195-0
Accidents in plants manufacturing—

Unsafe acts

Total
number of
accidents

Corrugated
and
fiber boxes

Fiber cans,
drums, tubes,
etc.

Folded
boxes

Setup
boxes

Number

Percent1

Number

Percent1

Number

Percent1

Number

Percent1

Number

Percent1

1,343

100.0

729

100.0

32

100.0

353

100.0

224

100.0

Using equipment unsafely or hands instead of equipment..........
Taking wrong hold of objects..................................
Gripping objects insecurely...................................
Inattention while u: ng hand trucks...........................
Using hands instead of tools..................................
Other.........................................................

338
157
119
35
15
12

33.9
15.8
11.9
3.5
1.5
1 .2

169
64
71
19
7
8

32.2
12.2
13.6
3.6
1.3
1.5

8
4
4

33.3
16.6
16.7

90
40
29
13
4
4

34.5
15.3
11 .2
5.0
1.5
1.5

71
49
15
3
4

38.5
22.6
8 .1
1 .6
2 .2

Taking unsafe positions or postures.............................
Inattention to footing........................................
Lifting incorrectly...........................................
Unsafe placing of hands.......................................
Exposure to moving objects....................................
Exposure to moving machinery..................................
Other............................................. ............

327
170
36
34
27
20
40

32.8
17.1
3.6
3.4
2.7
2 .0
4.0

180
101
15
14
18
12
20

34.3
19.2
2.9
2.7
3.4
2.3
3.8

6
1

25.0
4.2

2
2
1

8.3
8.3
4.2

87
42
10
12
6
4
13

33.5
16.3
3.8
4.6
2.3
1.5
5.0

52
25
11
6
1
3
6

28.1
13.7
5.9
3.2
.5
1 .6
3.2

26

10 .0

14

7.6

20
12
7
1

7.7
4.6
2.7
.4

11
7
4

5.9
3.7
2 .2

7.3
5.0
1.5
.8

20
16
4

10.8
8 .6
2 .2

.......

Inattention to surroundings........................ ............

82

8 .2

42

8 .0

Unsafe loading, placing, etc............................. .......
Lifting excessive loads.................................. .....
Placing objects unsafely......................................
Other................... .....................................

81
44
34
3

8 .1
4.4
3.4
.3

49
25
22
2

9.3
4.7
4.2
.4

1

4.2

1

4.2

Failure to secure or warn.......................................
Failure to lock or block......................................
Failure to give proper signal.................................
Other.... ....................................................

66
47
17
2

6 .6
4.7
1.7
.2

24
16
8

4.6
3.1
1.5

2
2

8.3
8.3

19
13
4
2

4

16.7

13

5.0

8

4.3

3

1 .2

3

1 .6

5

2.7

1

.5

Cleaning, adjusting, moving equipment...........................

56

5.6

31

5.9

Working at unsafe speeds........................................ *

17

1.7

11

2 .1

Failure to use safe attire......................................

17

1.7

11

2 .1

1

4.2

14

1.4

8

1.5

2

8.3

Unclassified; insufficient data.............................. .

345

204

1 Percents are based on classified cases only.




58

8

2
93

.8

39

T A B L E 2 0 .--W O R K A C C ID E N T S IN T H E P A P E R B O A R D -C O N T A IN E R IN D U S T R Y , BY SIZE O F P L A N T , A C C ID E N T T Y P E , HAZARDOUS
W ORKING C O N D IT IO N , A ND UNSAFE A C T , 1950
Plant size
Accident types, hazardous working
conditions, and unsafe acts

100-249
employees

Less than
100 employees
Percent1

Number

Number

250 employees
and over

Percent1

Number

Percent1

Accident types
Total....................................................................................

290

100.0

640

100.0

575

100.0

Caught in, on, or between................................................................
Struck by moving objects............................................................. .
Overexertion................................... .........................................
Striking against objects.................................................................
Falls on same level......................................................................
>
Slips and stumbles....................................... ................................
Falls to different levels................................................................
Exposure to extreme temperatures.........................................................
Other accident types..„..................................................................

84
55
56
52
19
9
5
4
5
1

29.1
19.0
19.4
18.0
6 .6
3.1
1.7
1.4
1.7

156
150
116
89
36
32
36
6
15
4

24.5
23.6
18.2
14.0
5.7
5.0
5.7
.9
2.4

136
134
113
88
41
29
21
4
9

23.6
23.3
19.7
15.3
7.1
5.0
3.7
.7
1 .6

Total....................................................................................

273

100.0

613

100.0

575

100.0

Hazardous working procedures............................... ..............................
Moving heavy loads by hand.............................................................

65
34
31

29.8
15.6
14.2

180
79
101

37.2
16.3
20.9

159
83
76

34.9
18.3
16.6

Inadequately guarded......................................................................................................................................................................
Lack of point-of-operation guards............................. .........................

81
57
24

37.2
26.2
11 .0

147
86
61

30.4
17.8
12.6

128
64
64

28.0
14.0
14.0

Defects of agencies...................................... ...............................
Hazardous arrangement or placement............................ ...........................
Poor housekeeping........................................................................
Lack of personal safety equipment........................................................
Lack of ladders, scaffolds......... .....................................................
Improper illumination....................................................................

46
11
4
7
3
1
55

21 .1
5.0
1 .8
3.2
1.4
.5

76
33
22
17
8
1
129

15.7
6 .8
4.5
3.5
1.7
.2

100
21
28
13
6
2
118

21.9
4.6
6 .1
2 .8
1.3
.4

Hazardous working conditions

T nr’d a ss if-? f> d * i n s u f f i c i p r i t d a t a .............................................. ............................................................................................
T

Unsafe Acts
250

100.0

577

100.0

516

100.0

Using equipment unsafely or hands instead of equipment...................................
Taking wrong hold of objects...........................................................

80
54
26

40.8
27.5
13.3

136
63
73

30.8
14.3
16.5

122
40
82

33.8
11.1
22.7

Taking unsafe positions or postures......................................................
Inattention to footing.................................................................

56
29
27

28.6
14.8
13.8

161
80
81

36.5
18.1
18.4

110
61
49

30.5
16.9
13.6

Inattention to surroundings................................. .. ............................
Unsafe loading, placing, etc.............................................................
Failure to secure or warn................................................................
Cleaning, adjusting, moving equipment....................................................
Working at unsafe speeds.................................................................
Failure to use safe attire................................ ...............................

17
13
11
10
2
5
2
54

8.7
6 .6
5.6
5.1

39
43
17
24
7
6
8

8 .8
9.8
3.9
5.4
1 .6
1.4
1 .8

26
25
38
22
8
6
4

7.2
6.9
10.5
6 .1
2 .2
1.7
1 .1

Unclassified; insufficient data......... .. ........... ............ .. .......... ..............

1 .0

2 .6
1 .0

136

155

1 Percents are based on classified cases only.




59

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : O— 1953