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INJURIES AND
ACCIDENT CAUSES IN THE
BUILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY




B u lletin N o .1 2 3 7
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU
REAU Of LABOR S A IST S
T T IC
Ewon Cloy , Cotnm
ittionir







IN J U R IE S A N D
A C C ID E N T C A U S E S IN T H E
B O IL E R S H O P -P R O D U C T S IN D U S T R Y

B u lle tin N o . 1 2 37
Novombor 1958

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU
REAU OF LABOR ST T IC
A IST S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D . C. - Price 50 cents

The Library of Congress has cataloged the series
in which this publication appears as follows:

U. S.

Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

B ulletin, no. 1 W ashington.
no. in

N ov. 1895-

v. illus. 16-28 cm.

Bimonthly, Nov. 1895-May 1912; irregular, July 1912No. 1-111 issued by the Bureau of Labor.

1. Labor and laboring classes—U. S.—Period.

HD8051.A62

331.06173

Library of Congress

15-23307 rev*t

[r58t2j

The Library of Congress has cataloged this
publication as follows:




McElroy, Frank Shafer.
Injuries and accident causes in the boilershop-products
industry tby Frank S. M cE lroy and G eorge R. M cCormack]
W ashington, U. S. Dept, o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, 1958.
iv,
46 p. illus. 26 cm. ( U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulle­
tin no. 1237)
Supplements In ju ry rate variations in the. boilershop-products in­
dustry, by G. R. McCormack, published in 1953 as B LS report no. 28.
1.
(Boiler-making industry— Accidents) 2. Boiler-makers.
i. Mc­
Cormack, George Robertson, joint author, i i . Title, i i i . T it le :
Boilershop-products industry.
(Series)

H D8051.A62

no. 1237

331.823

-------------------- Copy 3.

HD7269.B6M3

U. S. Dept, of Labor,
for Library of Congress

Library

t

L 58-69

CONTENTS
Page
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . .

..................................................................

. . .

1

Scope o f su rvey and d e fin it io n s • • . • • • • • • . ....................................
F a ta lit y • • • • . • • . ......................................................... • ......................
P erm an en t-total d i s a b i l i t y
.......................
P erm an en t-p artial d is a b ilit y ............................... . . . . .
T em p ora ry-tota l d is a b ilit y
...................................................
Source o f i n j u r y .........................................................................................................
A ccid e n t typ e ..............................................................................
Hazardous w orking c o n d itio n ................................... .... ............................... ....
Agency o f a c c i d e n t .....................
Unsafe a c t ......................................

2
3
3
3
3
3
ii
It
5
5

The in d u stry and i t s hazards ......................................................................
Layout ..........................
Machine o p e r a t i o n s .....................
A s s e m b ly ..........................

5
5
6
7

A c t iv it y o f in ju re d a t tim e o f in ju r y

8

Kinds
The
The
The

o f in ju r ie s ex p e rie n ce d . . . .
.................. . . . . . . . . . . .
fa t a lit ie s
• • • • • ........................... . . . .
........................................
p erm a n en t-tota l d i s a b ilit y
p erm a n en t-p a rtia l d i s a b i l i t i e s
. . . . . . . .
.................. . . .

Source o f in ju r y

• • • • • • • ..............................

8
11
11
11
13

A ccid en t a n a ly s is ........................................................
A ccid e n t typ es

17
17

A ccid en t cau ses .................................................................
Hazardous w orking c o n d itio n s
Hazardous o p e ra tio n s and p roced u res • • • • . . . . ...................... .
Placem ent hazards .............................................................
Inadequate gu ardin g • • • » . . .......................................................................
D e fe cts o f a g e n cie s . . . . . . .
........................... . ...............................
M iscella n eou s ........................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsafe a c ts . . . . . . . . . .
..................................................... . . . . .
Taking u n sa fe p o s it io n s o r p ostu res
Using u n sa fe equipm ent o r equipm ent u n s a fe ly . • • • • ..................
Unsafe lo a d in g and p la c in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O ther u n safe a c ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................

20
22
22
22

A ccid e n t-p re v e n tio n su g g e stio n s . . . .................. . . . . . .
..................
Case d e s c r ip tio n s and a c c id e n t-p r e v e n tio n su g g e stio n s . . . . . . .

30
30




- i -

2k

25
26
26
27
28
29

29

CONTENTS—-C ontinued
Page
Appendix— S t a t i s t i c a l t a b le s ..................
T able

1.

T able

2.

Table

3.

Table

1*.

T able

5.

Table

6.

T able

7.

Table

8.

T able

9.

Table 1 0 .

T able 1 1 .

Table 1 2 .

T able 1 3 .

Table ll*.




. . . .

....................... . . . . .

D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n t s , c l a s s i f i e d b y a c t iv it y o f in ju r e d and e x te n t
o f d i s a b i l i t y , 1 9 5 1 ...........................................................................
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n t s , c l a s s i f i e d by nature o f in ju r y , p a r t o f body
in ju r e d , and e x te n t o f d i s a b i l i t y , 1951 . . . . . . . .
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n ts , c l a s s i f i e d b y nature o f in ju r y , p a r t o f body
in ju r e d , and p r o d u ct, 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n ts , c l a s s i f i e d by n atu re o f in ju r y , p a rt o f bootyin ju r e d , and a c t iv it y o f in ju r e d , 1 9 5 1 ............................... ....
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n t s , c l a s s i f i e d b y p a r t o f body in ju r e d , sou rce
o f in ju r y , and nature o f in ju r y , 1951 ...................................
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n ts , c l a s s i f i e d by sou rce o f in ju r y and e x te n t
o f d i s a b i l i t y , 1951
..................
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n ts , c l a s s i f i e d by typ e o f a c c id e n t and e x te n t
o f d is a b i l i t y , 1 9 5 1 ...........................................................................
Work a c c id e n ts in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by ty p e o f a c c id e n t and a c t iv it y o f
in ju r e d , 1951 . • • • • • ........................... . . . . . . . .
Work a c c id e n ts in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by typ e o f a c c id e n t and p r o d u ct, 1951 . . .
Work a c c id e n ts in 136 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n ts ,
c l a s s i f i e d by typ e o f a c c id e n t and s o u rce o f
in ju r y , 1 9 5 1 ........................................................................................
Work a c c id e n ts in 135 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by typ e o f a ccid e n t and hazardous
w orking c o n d it io n , 1951 . . • • • • • • ...............................
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 135 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n t s , c l a s s i f i e d by hazardous w orking c o n d itio n
and e x te n t o f d i s a b i l i t y , 1 9 5 1 .................................................
Work a c c id e n ts in 135 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by hazardous w orking c o n d itio n and
p r o d u ct, 1951 .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work a c c id e n ts in 135 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by hazardous w orking c o n d itio n and
a c t iv it y o f in ju r e d , 1951 . . . . . . .
...............................

- ii -

1*7

1*7

1*8

1*9

50

5l

52

53

51*
55

56

57

58

59

60

CONTENTS— C ontinued
Page
T a b les— C ontinued
T able 1J>.

T able 1 6 .
T able 1 7 .

T able 1 8 .

Work a c c id e n ts in 135 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by hazardous w orking c o n d itio n and
agency o f a c c id e n t , 1951 • • • • • • • • • • • ..................
Work a c c id e n ts in 13U b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d by ty p e o f a c c id e n t and u n sa fe a c t , 1951 • •
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 13U b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
p la n t s , c l a s s i f i e d by u n sa fe a c t and e x te n t o f
d i s a b i l i t y , 1 9 5 1 .......................i .........................................................
Work a c c id e n ts in 13U b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts p la n t s ,
c l a s s i f i e d b y u n sa fe a c t and p r o d u ct, 1951 • • • • • • •

6l
62

63
6U

C h arts:
1.
2.
3.
U.
5.
6.

D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in th e b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
in d u s try , b y p a r t o f bod y in ju r e d , 1951 • • • • • • • • • • • •
D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in th e b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
in d u s tr y , b y n atu re o f in ju r y , 1951 ............................................ ....
M ajor so u rce s o f in ju r y in th e b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
in d u s tr y , 1 9 5 1 ....................................................
M ajor typ es o f a c c id e n ts in th e b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
in d u s try , 1 9 5 1 .....................................................................................................
M ajor ty p es o f hazardous w orking c o n d itio n s in the
b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts in d u s tr y , 1951
M ajor ty p e s o f u n sa fe a c ts in th e b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c ts
in d u s try , 1 9 5 1 ................................................. . ................................................




- iii -

iv
9
Hi
16
23
27

Chart 1. DISABLING WORK INJURIES
IN THE BOILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY
By Part of Body Injured, 1951
Parcant o! All Disabling Injuries

RSI
H E A D (Except EYE)

EYE

BACK

TRUNK (Except B A C K )

■
"

.■
.........................

e b = ’ -‘’* V ?k
v
‘

" ■ "

” ■■
■ ................... - ..... " " , l ' .,

v

-i

2 0 .0 1

H A N D O R FINGER

::

: vs)

LEG

s"1 ‘

f
FOOT O R TOE

BODY, G ENERAL

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B R A O L B R S A IS IC
UE U F A O
T T T S




> > ,^ T T *?8 y;... —
.u
22-3t

I n ju r ie s

a n d

A c c id e n t

B o ile r s h o p -P r o d u c ts

C a u ses

in

th e

In d u stry *

SUMM&HT

D e sp ite th e o b vio u s need f o r end v id e u se o f M e chanical l if t in g eq uip ­
ment in th e in d u stry , so n s I# p e rce n t o f th e in j u r ie s In b o ile rsh o p -p ro d n c ts
plan ts o ccu r in th e co u rse o f m anual h a n d lin g o f M a t e ria ls * In th e p e rio d
covered b y t h is su rv e y, 19$1, th e m ost cannon s in g le in ju r y experienced in
th e in d u stry w as back s t r a in from o v e re x e rtio n * A s u b s ta n tia l number o f
b r u is e s and fra c tu re s o f the fe e t and to e s ware a ls o a sso c ia te d w ith m anualh a n d lin g o p e ra tio n s*
The n e xt la r g e s t volum e o f s in g le in ju r y c o n siste d o f eye ir r it a t io n s
produced b y fo re ig n b o d ie s e n te rin g th e e ye * These f ly in g p a r t ic le s m ost
co on o n ly o rig in a te d in h a n d to o l and m achine o p e ra tio n s*
B oth h asard o u s w o rkin g c o n d itio n s and u n sa fe a c ts had a p a rt in th e
occurrence o f m ost o f th e re p o rte d a c c id e n ts* G e n e ra lly , th e in t e r r e la t io n ­
sh ip was su ch th a t i f e it h e r o f th e se a c c id e n t fa c to rs had been e lim in a te d
th e a c c id e n ts w ould n o t have happened* H asardous c o n d itio n s w ere id e n t ifie d
in about 90 percent and unsafe acts in a t le a s t 8J p e rce n t o f th e c a se s stu d ie d *
>
The m ost commonly encountered h asard o us w o rkin g c o n d itio n 1/ wee the
la c k o f adequate h e lp in m oving heavy m a te ria ls* O ther h asard ous c o n d itio n s
fre q u e n tly c o n trib u tin g to th e occurrence o f a c c id e n ts in c lu d e d : I m properl y
p ile d o r p lace d m etal sto c k and a s sem b lie s } la c k o f adequate p e rso n a l sa fe ty
equipm ent f o r mach in e and h a n d to o l o p e ra tio n s; la c k o f gu a rd s a t th e p o in t o f
o p e ra tio n o f m achines end hand t o o ls ; and d e fe c ts in w o rkin g su rfa c e s, handt o d s , m etal sto c k , a sse m b lie s, e tc *

*T h ls re p o rt was prepared in th e D iv is io n o f In d u s t r ia l H a sard s, Bureau
o f Labor S t a t is t ic s , U * S * Departm ent o f La b o r,b y F ra n k S * M cK Iro y and
G eorge R * McCormack*
1 / F o r d e fin it io n s o f h asard o u s w o rkin g c o n d itio n and u n sa fe a c t, see
Scope o f Su rv e y end D e fin it io n s , p . 2.




1

2

N e a rly h a lf o f the reco rd e d u n sa fe a c ts f e l l in th e g e n e ra l ca te go ry o f
"ta k in g an u n sa fe p o s it io n o r p o stu re . " Prom inent in t h is group were the
s p e c if ic a c ts o f in a tte n tio n to fo o tin g , in a tte n tio n to sur ro un d in g s, expo­
su re under suspended lo a d s, and exposure to f a llin g o r s lid in g o b je c ts. O th er
u n sa fe a c ts o f fre q u e n t occurrence in c lu d e d : G rip p in g o b je c ts In se c u re ly ;
ta k in g w rong h o ld o f o b je c ts; f a ilu r e to b lo c k o b je c ts a g a in st unexpected
movement; u n sa fe p la c in g o r lo a d in g o f m a te ria ls; and f a ilu r e to wear sa fe
a t t ir e .
SCOPE OF SURVET AND D EFIN IT IO N S
D u rin g 1952, th e Bureau o f Labor S t a t is t ic s conducted a sp e c ia l,d e ta ile d
su rv e y , c o v e rin g the p re ce d in g y e a r, o f w o rk -in ju ry ra te s in th e b o ile rsh o p p ro d u cts in d u stry . The f in a l re p o rt o f th a t stu d y , B IS R e p ort 2 8 ,In ju r y Rate
V a ria tio n s in th e B o ile rsh o p -P ro d u c ts In d u stry , 1951, p re se n te d a d e ta ile d
a n a ly sis o f in jury rate s ty product, plant size , region, and operating departments. 2/
The c u rre n t stu d y was d e sign e d to supplem ent the 1951 in ju r y -ra t e su rv e y
b y p re se n tin g in fo rm a tio n a s to how and why in ju ry -p ro d u c in g a c c id e n ts o ccu r
in th e in d u stry . Such in fo rm a tio n h e lp s to id e n t if y th e h azard s and u n sa fe
p ra c tic e s w hich m ost commonly le a d to a c c id e n ts and th e re b y se rv e s a s a spe­
c if ic gu id e to a c c id e n t-p re v e n tio n a c t iv it ie s .
The data f o r t h is stu d y were c o lle c te d in p e rso n a l v i s i t s o f Bureau
re p re se n ta tiv e s to 136 b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u c ts p la n ts. The p e rio d covered was the
same a s th a t f o r the in ju ry -ra te su rv e y (ca le n d a r y e a r, 1 9 5 1 )* A lth o u gh t h is
re su lte d in a co n sid e ra b le tim e la g f o r re p o rtin g th e fin d in g s o f th e stu d y ,
th e re i s no evidence th a t th e p a tte rn o f a c c id e n ts has changed d u rin g the
in t e r v a l, e s p e c ia lly sin c e th e m ethods o f o p e ra tio n s have changed l i t t l e in
th e in d u stry d u rin g the p e rio d . These 136 p la n ts em ployed n e a rly 28,000
w o rke rs, about hh p e rce n t o f a l l w orkers in the in d u stry . S in c e the objec­
t iv e was to o b ta in in d iv id u a l a ccid e n t case re c o rd s, o n ly p la n ts w hich had
p re v io u sly re p o rte d th e occurrence o f some in j u r ie s were v is it e d . The a v e r­
age in ju ry -fre q u e n c y ra te o f the p la n ts su rve ye d , 3 2 .5 , th e re fo re , was h ig h e r
th an th e in d u st ry average, 2 8 .5 , because o f the e x c lu sio n o f "n o in ju r y
e sta b lish m e n ts• " 2 /
The Bureau re p re se n ta tiv e s tra n sc rib e d the fo llo w in g d ata from th e o r ig i­
n a l a c c id e n t re c o rd s o f the p la n ts: (a ) p la c e where th e a c c id e n t o ccu rre d ;
(b ) n atu re o f in ju r y and p a rt o f body in ju re d ; (c ) o b je c t o r su b stan ce p ro ­
d u cin g th e in ju ry ; (d ) type o f a c c id e n t; and (e ) hazardous w o rkin g c o n d itio n
and/or u n sa fe a c t le a d in g to the a c c id e n t. In d iv id u a l ca se re c o rd s f a r 2,017
d is a b lin g in j u r ie s were c o lle c te d . In c lu d e d were 5 f a t a lit ie s , 1 perm anentt o t a l d is a b ilit y , and 103 p e rm a n e n t-p a rtia l d is a b ilit ie s . The o th e r 1,908
ca se s were te m p o ra ry -to ta l d is a b ilit ie s •

2/ T h is re p o rt may be ob tain ed fre e o f charge upon re q u e st to th e IT. S .
Departm ent o f La b o r’s Bureau o f Labor S t a t is t ic s •
3/ The in ju ry -fre q u e n c y ra te i s th e average number o f d is a b lin g w ork
in j u r ie s p e r m illio n h o u rs w orked.




- 3 -

The d e fin it io n s o f th e se v e ra l d is a b ilit y c la s s if ic a t io n s a s a p p lie d in
t h is su rv e y are a s fo llo w s: h /
F a t a lit y .— A death r e s u lt in g from a w ork in ju r y i s c la s s if ie d a s a w ork
f a t a lit y re g a rd le ss o f the tim e in te rv e n in g between in ju r y and d e ath .
Perm anent-Total D is a b ilit y . — A i in ju r y o th e r than death w hich perm anently
and t o t a lly in c a p a c ita te s an employee from fo llo w in g an y g a in fu l occup atio n
i s c la s s if ie d a s p e rm an en t-to tal d is a b ilit y . The lo s s , o r com plete lo s s o f
u se , o f any o f th e fo llo w in g in one a c c id e n t i s co n sid e re d p e rm an en t-to tal
d is a b ilit y :
(a ) B oth e ye s; (b ) 1 eye and 1 hand, o r arm , o r le g , o r fo o t;
(c ) any 2 o f the fo llo w in g n o t on th e same lim b : hand, arm , fo o t,
o r le g .
P e rm a n e n t-P a rtia l D is a b ilit y .— The com plete lo s s in one a c c id e n t o f any
member o r p a r i o f a member o f the body, o r any perm anent im pairm ent o f fu n c­
t io n s o f the body o r p a rt th e re o f to any degree le s s th an p e rm an en t-to tal
d is a b ilit y i s c la s s if ie d a s p e rta a n e n t-p a rtia l d is a b ilit y , re g a rd le ss o f any
preexisting d is a b ilit y o f th e in ju re d member o r im paired body fu n c tio n . The
fo llo w in g in j u r ie s a re n o t c la s s if ie d a s p e rm a n e n t-p a rtia l d is a b ilit ie s :
(a ) h e rn ia , i f i t can be re p a ire d ; (b ) lo s s o f f in g e r n a ils o r to e n a ils ;
(c ) lo s s o f te e th ; (d ) d isfig u re m e n t; (e ) s t r a in s o r sp ra in s n o t c a u sin g
perm anent lim it a t io n o f m otion; and ( f ) fra c tu re s h e a lin g com p letely w ith o u t
d e fo rm itie s o r d isp la ce m e n ts•
T em porary-T otal D is a b ilit y .--A n y in ju r y n o t r e s u lt in g in d e ath o r perma­
nent im pairm ent i s c la s s if ie d a s a te m p o ra ry -to ta l d is a b ilit y i f the in ju re d
p e rso n , because o f h is in ju r y , i s u nab le to perform a r e g u la r ly e sta b lish e d
Job, open and a v a ila b le to him , d u rin g th e e n tire tim e in t e r v a l co rre sp o n d in g
to the h o u rs o f h is re g u la r s h if t on any one o r more days (in c lu d in g Sundays,
days o ff, o r p la n t shutdow ns) subsequent to th e date o f in ju r y .
The a ccid e n t-ca u se a n a ly s is procedure used in t h is stu d y d if f e r s in
some re sp e c ts from th e p roce d u re s sp e c ifie d in th e Am erican Stand ard Method
o f C om p ilin g In d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t C auses. The d e v ia tio n s from the Sta n d a rd
in c lu d e the in tro d u c tio n o f an a d d itio n a l a n a ly s is fa c to r, term ed the "so u rc e
o f in ju r y " and m o d ific a tio n o f the sta n d a rd d e fin it io n s o f some o f the o th e r
fa c t o r s . These changes p e rm it more accu rate c ro ss c la s s if ic a t io n s •
Source o f In ju r y ;— The sta n d a rd c la s s if ic a t io n p ro v id e s f o r the se le c ­
t io n o f one "a ge n cy " in th e a n a ly s is o f each a c c id e n t. By d e fin it io n , t h is
agency may be e ith e r (a ) th e o b je ct o r su b stan ce w hich was u n sa fe and th e re b y

lj/ See Am erican Standard Method o f C om p ilin g In d u s t r ia l In ju r y R a te s,
approved b y th e Am erican Sta n d a rd s A sso c ia tio n , O ctober 11, 19U5, p . 6 .




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i;

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co n trib u te d to th e occurrence o f th e a c c id e n t, o r (b ) in th e absence o f su ch
an o b je c t o r su b sta n ce , the o b je c t o r su b stan ce m ost c lo s e ly re la te d to th e
in ju r y * Under t h is d e fin it io n , th e re fo re , a ta b u la tio n o f "a g e n c ie s" f o r a
group o f a c c id e n ts in c lu d e s o b je c ts o r su b stan ce s w hich n ay have been in h e r­
e n t ly sa fe and u n re la te d to th e occurrence o f the a c c id e n ts, a s n e ll a s th o se
w hich le d to th e occurrence o f th e a c c id e n ts because o f t h e ir c o n d itio n ,
lo c a tio n , stru c tu re , o r method o f u se * The developm ent o f th e c la s s if ic a t io n
"so u rc e o f in ju r y ” re p re se n ts an attem pt to se p ara te and c la s s if y se p a ra te ly
th e se two agency co n ce p ts*
The "so u rc e o f in ju r y ," a s u sed in t h is stu d y , i s th e o b je c t, su b sta n ce ,
o r b o d ily re a c tio n w hich a c t u a lly produced the in ju r y , se le c te d w ith o u t regard
to i t s sa fe ty c h a r a c te ris t ic s o r i t s in flu e n c e upon the c h a in o f e ve n ts con­
s t it u t in g th e a c c id e n t*
A ccid e n t Type. — A s used in t h is stu d y , th e a c c id e n t-ty p e c la s s if ic a t io n
a ssig n e d to each a c c id e n t i s p u re ly d e sc rip tiv e o f the occurrence r e s u lt in g
in an in ju r y , and i s re la te d s p e c if ic a lly to th e so u rce o f in ju r y * I t in d i­
c a te s how the in ju re d p e rso n came in t o co n ta ct w ith , o r was a ffe c te d b y, th e
p re v io u s ly se le c te d so u rce o f in ju r y , a s f o r exam ple, b y "s t r ik in g a g a in s t"
th e named so u rce o f in ju r y * The d e fin it io n re p re se n ts a change from th e
sta n d a rd procedure in two re sp e c ts: F ir s t , the a ccid e n t-ty p e c la s s if ic a t io n
i s s p e c if ic a lly re la te d to the p re v io u sly se le c te d so u rce o f in ju r y ; second,
the sequence o f se le c tin g t h is fa c to r i s sp e c ifie d *
Hazardous W orking C o n d itio n . — Under th e sta n d a rd d e fin it io n , th e h a za rd ­
ous w o rkin g c o n d itio n in d ic a te d in th e a n a ly s is i s d e fin e d a s th e "u n sa fe
m echanical o r p h y sic a l c o n d itio n o f th e se le c te d agency w hich co u ld have been
guarded o r c o rre c te d ." An example o f su ch a h azard i s the la c k o f a guard
f o r a p re ss* T h is im p lie s the p r io r se le c tio n o f the "a ge n cy " b u t does n o t
p ro v id e f o r re c o g n itio n o f any r e la t io n s h ip between th e h azardous c o n d itio n
and a cc id e n t-ty p e c la s s if ic a t io n s * N or does th e sta n d a rd p ro v id e f o r any
d e fin ite re la tio n sh ip between the "agency" and the "a ccid e n t typeP c la s s ific a tio n s .
To p ro v id e c o n tin u ity and to e s t a b lis h d ir e c t r e la t io n s h ip s among the
v a rio u s a n a ly s is fa c to rs to p e rm it c ro ss c la s s if ic a t io n , th e sta n d a rd d e fin i­
tio n was m o d ifie d f o r t h is stu d y to re ad : "The hazardous w o rkin g c o n d itio n
i s th e hazardous c o n d itio n w hich p e rm itted o r occasio ne d the occurrence o f
the se le c te d a c c id e n t ty p e *" The h a za rd o u s-c o n d itio n c la s s if ic a t io n , th e re ­
fo re , was se le c te d a ft e r the d e te rm in a tio n o f th e a c c id e n t-ty p e c la s s if ic a ­
t io n * I t re p re se n ts the p h y sic a l o r m echanical re a so n f o r th e occurrence o f
th a t p a r t ic u la r a c c id e n t w ith o u t re g a rd to th e f e a s ib ilit y o f gu a rd in g o r
c o rre c tin g th e c o n d itio n *
E lim in a tio n o f th e c o n d itio n "w h ich co u ld have been guarded o r c o rre c te d "
i s based upon the prem ise th a t s t a t is t ic a l a n a ly s is sh o u ld in d ic a te th e e x is t ­
ence o f h a za rd s, b u t sh o u ld n o t attem pt to s p e c ify the f e a s ib ilit y o f co rrective
m easures*




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Agency o f A ccid e n t* — Fo r the purpose o f t h is stu d y, the agency o f a c c ir
dent was d e fin e d as "th e o b je c t, su b stan ce , o r p rem ise s in o r about w hich the
hazardous c o n d itio n e x is te d ," a s, fo r exam ple, the p re ss w hich was unguarded.
I t s se le c tio n , th e re fo re , i s d ir e c t ly a sso c ia te d w ith th e hazardous c o n d itio n
le a d in g to the occurrence o f the a ccid e n t and n ot w ith the occurrence o f the
in ju r y . In many in sta n c e s, the source o f in ju r y and the agency o f accid e n t
are id e n t ic a l. The two c la s s if ic a t io n s , how ever, a v o id any p o s s ib ilit y o f
a m b igu ity in the in te rp re ta tio n o f the "a ge n cy" ta b u la tio n .
U nsafe A c t.— The u n sa fe a c t d e fin it io n u se d in t h is su rv e y i s id e n t ic a l
w ith the sta n d a rd d e fin it io n ; i. e . , "th a t v io la t io n o f a commonly accepted
sa fe procedure w hich re su lte d in the se le c te d a ccid e n t ty p e ."
THE INDUSTRY AND IT S HAZARDS
The b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u c ts in d u stry i s composed o f "e sta b lish m e n ts p rim a rily
engaged in m anufacturing in d u s t r ia l, pow er, and m arine b o ile r s ; smoke sta c k s;
heavy ta n k s; and o th e r b o ile rsh o p p ro d u cts; and fa b ric a te d p la te work w hich
in v o lv e s the c u ttin g , p u n ch in g, b e nd in g, and sh a p in g o f ste e l p la te s fo r other
in d u s t rie s , o r fo r assem bly on the jo b ." 5/
The la rg e r b o ile rsh o p s tend to conce n trate on p ro d u c tio n item s and are
commonly d e partm e ntalize d. Workmen in such shops u s u a lly perform o n ly 1 o r 2
s p e c ific o p e ra tio n s, becom ing e s p e c ia lly adept a t them. In the m isce lla n e o u s
ste e l-p la te fa b ric a tin g p la n ts, the end p ro d u cts are u s u a lly custom made ac­
co rd in g to the s p e c ific a tio n s o f a c o n tra c t. Large p la n ts in t h is group gen­
e r a lly have departm entalized t h e ir o p e ra tio n s, h a t w orkers in the sm a ll p la n ts
fre q u e n tly perform a number o f o p e ra tio n s, o fte n b e in g a ssig n e d to com plete
m ajor p o rtio n s o f a p a r tic u la r jo b . As a r e s u lt , the sm a ll p la n ts have l i t t l e
o r no departm ental o rg a n iz a tio n .
W hether the o p e ra tio n s are d e partm entalized o r n o t, how ever, th e y fo llo w ,
b a s ic a lly , th e same ge n e ra l p a tte rn . M etal sto c k i s la id out by maxicing, i t
i s then cu t and shaped, and f in a lly , i t i s assem bled.
L a yo u t.— The la y o u t area i s u s u a lly lo c a te d near the sto ra ge ya rd from
w hich m etal sto c k may be c a rrie d by cran es o r o th e r m echanical h a n d lin g equip­
ment. A la y o u t man, fo llo w in g a tem plate o r b lu e p r in t , m arks the sto c k w ith
a ce nter punch, c h a lk , o r p a in t, to in d ic a te th e o p e ra tio n s w hich are to be
perform ed. T enplates may be made o f m etal, wood, o r paper depending on the
e xte nt o f t h e ir u se .
The c h ie f h azard s o f the la y o u t departm ents are th o se a sso c ia te d w ith
h a n d lin g m a te ria ls. S tra in e d m uscles th rou gh o v e re x e rtio n and la c e ra te d hands

Sta n d a rd In d u s t r ia l C la s s if ic a t io n M anual, E xe cu tive O ffic e o f the
Lcter
P re sid e n t, Bureau o f the Budget, November, 19U5 (V o l. 1, P t. 1, p. 5 3 ).




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o r fin g e r s from c o n ta c t w ith s t e e l s liv e r s may r e s u lt from l i f t i n g , tu r n in g ,
and carryin g m etal s to c k . In a d d itio n , workmen may drop m a te r ia l on t h e ir
f e e t or s e t i t down on t h e ir hands or f in g e r s . When i t i s moved by crane or
o th er equipm ent, workers under th a t equipm ent may be stru ck by th e s lin g lo a d
or by m a te r ia l f a llin g from i t . Workmen may p in ch th e ir fin g e r s w h ile hooking
or clam ping lo a d s and, u n le s s a h a n d lin e i s u se d , th e y may cru sh t h e ir fin g e r s
in th e s lin g as th ey gu id e th e lo a d .
Some p la n ts make t h e ir own te m p la te s. In th a t work, hazards a s s o c ia te d
w ith machine o p era tio n s are common. Workmen may come in co n ta ct w ith th e
p o in ts -o f-o p e r a tio n o f c ir c u la r saws and o th er m achines; th ey may be caught
by unguarded b e l t s , g e a r s, e t c .; or th e y may be str u c k b y o b je c ts thrown by
th e m achines, i . e . , k ick b a ck s. In a d d itio n , in th e m anufacture o f wood
te m p la te s, saw dust may be blown or thrown in to workmen’ s e y e s .
Haphazard p ilin g in sto ra g e yards may cau se p ile s o f m a te r ia ls to c o l­
la p s e on workmen. Uneven working su r fa c e s p r e se n t s lip p in g and tr ip p in g
hazards w hich are a ccen ted by poor housekeeping such as p a in t, s p ille d or
dropped, on f lo o r s . F in gers or hands may be b r u ise d through th e m isuse o f
hammers, u sed w ith c e n te r punches in marking th e sto c k .
Machine O p eration s. — The m etal sto c k a fte r la y o u t undergoes a s e r ie s o f
machine o p era tio n s where equipm ent o p era to rs perform work as in d ic a te d by th e
la y o u t men. S to ck i s c u t to s iz e w ith a burning to rch or m achine sh ears and
th e edges are sm oothed by a p la n er or g rin d in g w h eel. R o lls bend or curve
s t e e l p la te s to form s h e lls fo r b o ile r s and ta n k s. P ress brakes and bending
rams form a n g les in th e m etal and tu b e-b en d in g m achines shape b o ile r tu b es
w ith o u t b u ck lin g t h e ir w a lls . F in a lly , d r i l l s and ream ers are used, to cu t
h o le s fo r r iv e t s .
Hazards a s s o c ia te d w ith th e o p era tio n o f powered equipm ent are common in
th e se departm ents. P o in ts -o f-o p e r a tio n are fr e q u e n tly unguarded as are g e a r s,
b e l t s , p u lle y s , e t c . These hazards fr e q u e n tly are in t e n s if ie d by th e improper
la y o u t o f o p e r a tio n s. Inadequate sp ace and la c k o f c le a r passagew ays may
req u ire equipm ent o p e r a to r s, as w e ll as o th ers working in th e a rea , to p a ss
near th e danger p o in ts .
In a d d itio n to th e hazard o f b ein g caught in , or b ein g str u c k b y , moving
p a r ts o f equipm ent, workmen in th e se o p era tio n s are l i k e l y to s u ffe r in j u r ie s
by co n ta ct w ith sharp-edged m etal c h ip s . Som etim es, th e ch ip s are thrown by
th e m achines and p resen t a se r io u s eye hazard. The m ost common, b u t l e s s
s e r io u s , in ju r y c o n s is ts o f cu t or la c e r a te d hands exp erien ced in rem oving th e
c h ip s from m achines, e s p e c ia lly d r i l l s . O c c a sio n a lly , th e c h ip s are h o t and
may produce b u rn s.
The movement o f sto c k from one o p era tio n to another i s a danger in machine
o p e r a tio n s. Large and heavy p ie c e s o f m etal are u s u a lly tra n sp o rted by crane
or o th er m echanical equipm ent b u t sm all p ie c e s are g e n e r a lly moved by hand or
handtruck. The h an d lin g hazards n oted under th e la y o u t departm ents a re,
th e r e fo r e , common in machine o p e r a tio n s.




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O i l s a re u s e d e x t e n s iv e ly a s lu b r i c a n t s and c o o la n t s i n m any o f th e s e
o p e r a t io n s .
P r o lo n g e d c o n t a c t w ith th e s e o i l s m ay p ro d u c e d e r m a t o s is .
In
a d d it io n , th e lu b r ic a n t s , when s p i l l e d o r d ro p p e d o n th e f l o o r s , c r e a te
s lip p in g h a z a rd s.
S c r a p s o f m e ta l, d is c a r d e d fro m m ach in e o p e r a t io n s , a re fre q u e n tly dropped
on f lo o r s w here th e y becom e t r i p p in g h a z a r d s .
E le v a t e d p la t f o r m s , o f t e n u n ­
g u a rd e d , o n w h ic h o p e r a t o r s o f la r g e m a ch in e s f r e q u e n t ly s t a n d , a re a n o th e r
p o t e n t ia l s o u r c e o f f a l l s .
H e avy m e ta l p la t e s o c c a s io n a lly a r e h e a te d t o
f a c i l i t a t e m achine o p e r a t io n s .
Workmen i n th o s e o p e r a t io n s , t h e r e fo r e , may
be b u rn e d .
A sse m b ly . — A f t e r th e m e ta l h a s b e e n c u t and fo rm e d , i t i s a sse m b le d . The
p ie c e s may be b o n d e d b y e l e c t r i c w e ld in g o r b y r i v e t i n g .
R iv e t in g i s common
i n th e m a n u fa c tu re o f b o ile r s and o th e r p r e s s u r e v e s s e ls .
H a z a rd s o r i g i n a t i n g i n h a n d t o o l o p e r a t io n s a re common i n th e a ss e m b ly
d e p a rtm e n ts.
I n r i v e t i n g o p e r a t io n s , th e r i v e t i n g hammer and th e b u c k in g b a r
a re th e m o st com m only u s e d h a n d t o o ls .
H ow ever, re a m e rs a r e u se d f r e q u e n t ly
t o a lin e r i v e t h o le s b e fo r e " d r i v i n g " r i v e t s .
I n a d d it io n t o th e w e ld in g
t o r c h , c h ip p in g ham m ers and g r in d e r s a re u s e d e x t e n s iv e ly i n w e ld in g o p e r a tio n s
t o sm o o th th e w e ld s .
C o n ta c t w it h th e p o in t - o f - o p e r a t io n o f h a n d t o o ls i s an e v e r -p r e s e n t
h a z a r d , s in c e t h a t e q u ip m e n t i s se ld o m g u a rd e d a d e q u a t e ly .
E le c t r ic h andtocils,
f r e q u e n t ly u n gro u n d e d , p r e s e n t a s e r io u s e l e c t r i c a l h a z a rd .
S m a ll p a r t i c l e s
th ro w n b y h a n d t o o l o p e r a t io n s e n d a n g e r th e e y e s o f a l l w o rk e rs i n th e a r e a .
I n a d d it io n , th e s m a ll p a r t i c l e s a re f r e q u e n t ly h o t and may i n f l i c t b u r n s .
I s o l a t i n g o r s h ie ld in g w e ld in g o p e r a t io n s i n t h i s in d u s t r y i s d i f f i c u l t
b e c a u se o f th e s iz e o f th e p r o d u c t s f a b r ic a t e d .
C o n s e q u e n tly , n e a r ly a l l
w o rk e rs i n th e in d u s t r y a re s u b je c t e d , i n som e d e g re e , t o u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s .
W e ld e rs w o rk o c c a s io n a lly i n c o n fin e d o r c lo s e q u a r t e r s .
A s a r e s u l t , w e ld in g
fum es m ay r e p la c e o x y g e n i n th o s e a r e a s t o a d a n g e ro u s e x te n t u n le s s a r t i f i c i a l
v e n t i la t i o n i s p r o v id e d .
H o t r i v e t s a re u s u a l l y th ro w n t o th e r i v e t i n g crew .
M is ju d gm e n t b y th e
r i v e t p a s s e r o r b y th e r i v e t c a tc h e r m ay r e s u l t i n h o t r i v e t s f a l l i n g o n o th e r
w orkm en.
M e ta l r i v e t s and w e ld s r e t a in t h e ir h e a t f o r some tim e . Workmen
may be b u rn e d , t h e r e fo r e , b y to u c h in g th e h o t s u r f a c e s .
On la r g e f a b r i c a t i o n s , much o f th e a ss e m b ly w o rk m u st b e p e rfo rm e d w e ll
ab ove th e f lo o r , l e v e l .
S a f e t y i n th e se o p e r a t io n s r e q u ir e s th e p r o v is io n o f
s t a b le and g u a rd e d w o rk in g s u r f a c e s .
U n f o r t u n a t e ly , th e p r o v is io n o f s a f e l y
d e s ig n e d w o rk in g p la t f o r m s f o r t h i s w ork i s n o t common i n th e in d u s t r y , and
th e f a b r ic a t o r s f r e q u e n t ly c lim b on th e a s s e m b lie s o r u t i l i z e m a k e s h ift
p la t f o r m s t o p e rfo rm t h e ir w o rk .
A lo n g w ith th e h a z a rd o f f a l l i n g , th e re i s
th e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t th e a s s e m b lie s , u n le s s s e c u r e ly s u p p o r te d , m ay c o lla p s e
u n d e r th e w o rk e rs o r t o p p le o v e r o n them .




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A C T IV IT Y OF IN JU R E D AT T IM E OF IN JU R Y
M ore th a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f a l l th e r e p o r te d i n j u r i e s o c c u r r e d i n th e
c o u r s e o f t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s — h a n d lin g m a t e r ia ls , u s in g h a n d t o o ls , and o p e r a t in g
m a c h in e s ( t a b le l ) .
Two o f e v e r y f i v e in j u r e d e m p lo y e e s w ere h a n d lin g m a te r i­
a l s o r e q u ip m e n t a t th e tim e o f t h e ir a c c id e n t s .
M o st o f them w ere l i f t i n g
m a t e r ia ls , b u t o t h e r s w ere in j u r e d w h ile th e y w ere h o ld in g , c a r r y in g , p la c in g ,
p u l l i n g , p u s h in g , o r r o l l i n g m a t e r ia ls o r e q u ip m e n t.
I n g e n e r a l, th e se in j u r ie s
w ere n o t s e v e r e — l e s s th a n 5 p e r c e n t o f them r e s u lt in g i n s e r io u s d i s a b i l i t y .
A b o u t o n e -fo u r t h o f th e d is a b le d w o rk e rs w ere in j u r e d w h ile u s in g h a n d t o o ls .
T h o se m o st f r e q u e n t ly u s e d w ere w e ld in g and b u r n in g t o r c h e s j h an d
g r in d e r s , b u f f e r s , and s a n d e r s ; hamm ers and s le d g e s j and w re n c h e s.
None o f
th e s e i n j u r i e s r e s u lt e d i n d e a th and o n ly U p e r c e n t i n p e rm an e n t d i s a b i l i t y .
H ow ever, b e c a u se t h e ir p erm an en t i n j u r i e s w ere r e l a t i v e l y s e v e r e , w o rk e rs who
w ere in j u r e d w h ile u s in g h a n d t o o ls h a d a s l i g h t l y h ig h e r a v e ra g e d i s a b i l i t y
(66 d a y s ) th a n th o se who w ere in j u r e d w h ile h a n d lin g m a t e r ia ls (62 d a y s ) .
One i n se v e n o f th e i n j u r i e s o c c u r r e d i n th e o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e s and
o th e r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t.
A b o u t a t h i r d o f th e s e i n j u r i e s o c c u r r e d i n th e
o p e r a t io n o f c r a n e s and o th e r h o is t i n g e q u ip m e n t.
M ore th a n 12 p e r c e n t o f
them r e s u lt e d i n d e a th o r p e rm an e n t d i s a b i l i t y .
C o n s e q u e n tly , t h e i r a v e ra g e
d i s a b i l i t y , 135 d a y s , w as n e a r ly 60 p e r c e n t h ig h e r th a n th e a v e r a g e f o r a l l
in j u r ie s .
K IN D S OF IN J U R IE S E X P E R IEN C E D
A lth o u g h b a c k s t r a i n s w ere th e m o st common s i n g l e i n j u r y , b r u is e s a n d
c o n t u s io n s (com m only i n j u r i e s o f l e s s th a n a v e r a g e s e v e r it y ) c o n s t it u t e d th e
l a r g e s t g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f i n j u r i e s — 2U p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l volum e o f d is a ­
b lin g in j u r ie s .
(S e e t a b le s 2- U . )
I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , h o w e v e r, t h a t t h i s i s
a lo w e r r a t i o th a n t h a t p r e v a i li n g i n 11 o f th e l a s t 15 in d u s t r ie s s t u d ie d b y
th e B u re a u . 6 /
B r u is e s and c o n t u s io n s o c c u r r e d m o st f r e q u e n t ly i n m a t e r ia l movement
a c t i v i t i e s b u t w ere a ls o common i n h a n d t o o l o p e r a t io n s .
G e n e r a lly , th e s e w ere
i n j u r i e s t o f e e t , le g s , t o e s , o r f i n g e r s .
The a v e r a g e d i s a b i l i t y f o r a l l

6/
In d u s t r i e s w ith h ig h e r p r o p o r t io n s o f b r u is e s an d c o n t u s io n s in c lu d e :
H o s p it a ls , w a t e r -s u p p ly u t i l i t i e s , w a re h o u sin g and s t o r a g e , and th e f o llo w in g
m a n u fa c tu r in g i n d u s t r ie s :
P u lp w o o d lo g g in g , p a p e rb o a rd c o n t a in e r s , p a p e r a n d
p u lp , c la y c o n s t r u c t io n p r o d u c t s , f e r t i l i z e r , t e x t i l e d y e in g and f i n i s h i n g ,
b r e w e r ie s , and s la u g h t e r in g a n d m eat p a c k in g .
In d u s t r ie s w it h a lo w e r p r o ­
p o r t io n o f b r u is e s a n d c o n t u s io n s in c lu d e :
C a r p e n t r y , p lu m b in g , b o t t l i n g o f
s o f t d r in k s , and th e f a b r i c a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l an d o rn a m e n ta l m e ta lw o rk .




9

Chari 2 . D ISA BLIN G W ORK INJURIES
IN THE BOILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY
By Nature oi Injury, IV3l
Percent of All Disabling Injuries

BRUISES, CONTUSIONS

STRAINS, SPRAINS

FRACTURES

CUTS, LACERATIONS

IRRITATIONS FROM
FOREIGN BODIES

BURNS, SCALDS

AMPUTATIONS,
ENUCLEATIONS

HERNIAS

WELDERS’ FLASHES

OTHER

U N ITED S TA TES D EP A R TM E N T O F LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




- 10 -

d i s a b l i n g b r u is e s and c o n t u s io n s w as 23 d a y s — 766 d a y s e ach f o r 9 c a s e s w h ic h
r e s u lt e d i n p e r m a n e n t -p a r t ia l d i s a b i l i t y an d 9 d a y s e a c h f o r U77 s u c h i n j u r i e s
r e s u l t i n g i n t e m p o r a r y -t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y .
S t r a i n s and s p r a in s , th e se c o n d l a r g e s t g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f i n j u r i e s ,
in c lu d e d 21 p e r c e n t o f a l l d is a b li n g i n j u r i e s r e p o r te d ( c h a r t 2 and t a b le s 2
and 3 ) .
T h is a ls o w as a lo w e r r a t i o th a n t h a t p r e v a i li n g i n m o st o t h e r in d u s ­
t r i e s s t u d ie d b y th e B u re a u .
M ore th a n h a l f th e s t r a in s an d s p r a in s o c c u r r e d
i n m a t e r ia l l i f t i n g o p e r a t io n s ( t a b le U ).
T h e se w ere m o st com m only b a c k (o r
tru n k ) in j u r ie s .
F r a c t u r e s c o n stitu te d a h ig h p r o p o r t io n o f th e t o t a l in j u r y vo lu m e — 19 p e r­
c e n t. 7/
T h e ir n u m e r ic a l im p o rta n c e , h o w e ve r, w as o v e rsh a d o w e d b y t h e ir
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h ig h s e v e r it y .
I n th e a g g r e g a t e , 38 p e r c e n t o f a l l d is a ­
b i l i t y d a y s r e c o r d e d w ere a t t r ib u t e d t o f r a c t u r e s , m ore th a n d o u b le th e
p r o p o r t io n c o n t r ib u t e d b y a n y o th e r c l a s s o f in j u r y .
F iv e o f th e 37$ re p o rte d
f r a c t u r e s w ere s k u l l f r a c t u r e s and U w ere f r a c t u r e s o f th e b a c k .
D e s p it e th e
t r e n d t o w id e r u s e o f s a f e t y s h o e s , to e f r a c t u r e s le d th e l i s t , 110 , f o llo w e d
b y 79 f o o t f r a c t u r e s , and 72 f in g e r f r a c t u r e s ( t a b le 5 ) .
N e a r ly h$ p e r c e n t o f th e f r a c t u r e s o c c u r r e d i n m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g a c t i v i ­
t i e s , b u t m ach in e and h a n d t o o l o p e r a t io n s a ls o p ro d u c e d c o n s id e r a b le num bers
o f th e se i n j u r i e s ( t a b le U ).
E ye i n j u r i e s p ro d u c e d b y f l y i n g p a r t i c l e s w ere common— 9 p e r c e n t o f a l l
th e d is a b li n g i n j u r i e s r e p o r t e d .
None o f th e e y e - i r r i t a t i o n c a s e s r e s u lt e d
i n p e rm an e n t im p a irm e n t, b u t th e r e s u l t i n g tim e l o s s a v e ra g e d U d a y s p e r c a s e .
T h e se i n j u r i e s o c c u r r e d p r im a r i ly i n m ach in e and h a n d t o o l o p e r a t io n s ( t a b le Ij).
S l i g h t l y o v e r lU p e r c e n t o f th e d is a b li n g i n j u r i e s w ere c u t s , la c e ra tio n s^
o r p u n c tu r e s .
T h e se te n d e d t o b e f a i r l y s e v e r e i n j u r i e s — 11 o f th e 289 r e ­
s u lt e d i n p erm anen t im p a irm e n ts and th e tim e l o s s f o r th e re m a in d e r o f th e
g ro u p a v e ra g e d 12 d a y s p e r c a s e .
N e a r ly h a l f o f th e s e w ere h an d o r f in g e r
i n j u r i e s an d a p p r o x im a te ly o n e -fo u r t h w ere l e g and f o o t i n j u r i e s .
M o st o f th e
re m a in d e r w ere h e a d i n j u r i e s .
(S e e t a b le $ , )
T h is g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f i n j u r i e s p r e v a ile d th r o u g h o u t th e in d u s t r y .
No
s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s i n th e in j u r y d i s t r i b u t i o n w ere fo u n d when th e r e p o r t ­
in g p la n t s w ere c l a s s i f i e d on a p r o d u c t b a s i s — i . e . , b y h e a v y ta n k p la n t s ,
b o i l e r p la n t s , and th o s e m a n u fa c tu r in g m is c e lla n e o u s b o ile r s h o p p r o d u c t s .
S i m i l a r l y , p la n t - s i z e g r o u p in g s p ro d u c e d no s i g n i f i c a n t l y d if f e r e n t p a t t e r n s .

7/ A h ig h e r p r o p o r t io n th a n i n
th e B u re a u .




lit- o f th e l a s t 1$ i n d u s t r ie s s t u d ie d b y

- 11 -

The 2,017 d i s a b l i n g i n j u r i e s s t u d ie d i n t h i s s u r v e y in c lu d e d 5 f a t a lit ie s ,
1 p e r m a n e n t-t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y , an d 103 p e r m a n e n t -p a r t ia l d i s a b i l i t i e s . Some
o f th e s e s e r io u s c a s e s r e f l e c t u n u s u a l o c c u r r e n c e s w h ic h m ig h t be o v e r lo o k e d
in a g e n e ra l a n a ly s is .
O th e r s r e p r e s e n t th e r e s u l t s o f common v a r i e t i e s o f
a c c id e n t s and a s s u c h e m p h a size th e t h e s i s t h a t no h a z a r d c a n b e c o n s id e r e d
" m in o r . ” T h e ir s e v e r i t y g iv e s th e s e c a s e s add ed im p o rta n c e i n th e i n j u r y
p a tte rn .
The F a t a l i t i e s . — Two o f th e d e a th s r e s u lt e d fro m s k u l l f r a c t u r e s .
I n one
in s t a n c e , a n e l e c t r i c i a n w as m akin g r e p a ir s a t th e en d o f a t r a v e lin g c r a n e .
A se c o n d c r a n e , o p e r a t in g on th e sam e t r a c k , m oved i n and c r u s h e d h i s h e a d
b etw een th e tw o c ra n e c a r r ia g e s .
The se c o n d d e a th fro m a s k u l l f r a c t u r e
r e s u lt e d fro m a f a l l — th e w o rk e r w as r i d i n g o n a la r g e b o i l e r s h e l l w h ile i t
w as b e in g moved b y a c r a n e .
He l o s t h i s b a la n c e and f e l l t o th e f l o o r .
A d o u b le f r a c t u r e r e s u lt e d i n one d e a th .
A cre w w as u n lo a d in g a n 18 - in c h
s t e e l p ip e fro m a t r u c k , u s in g s h o r t p ie c e s o f s m a ll d ia m e te r p ip e a s r o l l e r s .
One o f th e r o l l e r s becam e p in c h e d u n d e r th e h e a v y p ip e .
I t sn a p p e d o u t o f
p la c e u n d e r th e p r e s s u r e , s t r u c k a member o f th e u n lo a d in g cre w , and th re w him
h e a d lo n g a g a in s t a s t a n c h io n o f th e t r u c k .
H is n e c k w as b ro k e n and h i s s k u l l
w as f r a c t u r e d .
The f o u r t h f a t a l i t y r e s u lt e d fro m a c ra n e a c c id e n t .
A h e a v y s t e e l p la t e
w as b e in g lo w e re d i n t o p la c e .
A s i t came t o r e s t on i t s e d ge , th e c a b le
t e n s io n s la c k e n e d , d is e n g a g in g th e h o o k .
The u n su p p o rte d p la t e t o p p le d o v e r
o n to th e w o rke r who w as p r e p a r in g t o s e c u r e i t i n p la c e .
The f i f t h f a t a l i t y w as a d ro w n in g t o w h ich th e r e w ere n o w it n e s s e s .
The
v ic t im ’ s b o d y w as fo u n d i n a w a te r ta n k on w h ic h he h a d been w o rk in g a lo n e .
The P e r m a n e n t-T o ta l D i s a b i l i t y . — T h is w as a c a se o f s i l i c o s i s ,
b y a s a n d b la s t e r .

c o n tra c te d

The P e r m a n e n t -P a r t ia l D i s a b i l i t i e s . — The 103 p e r m a n e n t -p a r t ia l d i s a b i l i t y
c a s e s in c lu d e d 5>0 a m p u ta tio n s , th e re m o v a l o f 2 e y e s , and 5l b r u is e s , c u t s ,
la c e r a t io n s , b u r n s , s c a ld s , f r a c t u r e s , and s t r a i n s w h ic h r e s u lt e d i n th e l o s s
o f u se o f a b o d y p a r t o r f u n c t io n ( t a b le 2 ) .
H a n d to o l o p e r a t io n s a c c o u n te d f o r 1 and h o r s e p la y f o r th e o t h e r o f th e 2
eye e n u c le a t io n s .
In th e f i r s t a c c id e n t , an e n p lo y e e w as u s in g a s le d g e t o
a lin e s t e e l on a m a ch in e .
A s he s t r u c k th e s t e e l, a s m a ll fra g m e n t c h ip p e d
fro m th e p la t e an d p ie r c e d h i s e y e .
I n th e se c o n d c a s e , h o r s e p la y c a u se d an
e x p lo s io n w h ich r e s u lt e d n o t o n ly i n th e p erm an en t eye in j u r y b u t i n th e
p e r f o r a t io n o f b o th e a rd ru m s.
The 5>0 a m p u ta tio n s in c lu d e d U5 f in g e r ( in c lu d in g th u m b ), 1 f o o t , a n d U
to e i n j u r i e s .
O f th e f in g e r i n j u r i e s , 8 in v o lv e d tw o o r m ore f in g e r s .
H o is t in g e q u ip m e n t, m o s t ly c r a n e s , w as r e s p o n s ib le f o r 6 an d m a ch in e s
f o r 20
o f th e f in g e r ( in c lu d in g thum b) a m p u ta tio n s .
In clu d e d i n th e h o is tin g e q u ip m e n t




-

12 -

a c c id e n t s w ere U e m p lo ye e s who w ere c a u g h t i n
who w ere c a u g h t i n th e g e a r s o f c r a n e s .

c h a in s , c a b le s , o r h o o k s , an d 2

O f th e 20 a m p u ta tio n s a t t r ib u t e d t o m a c h in e s, 15 r e s u lt e d fro m c o n t a c t
w ith th e w o rk in g t o o l o f th e e q u ip m e n t.
F iv e o f th e m a ch in e s w ere s h e a r s , 5
>
w ere p r e s s e s , 2 w ere w o o d w o rk in g c i r c u l a r sa w s, 1 w as a c u t o f f m a ch in e , an o th e r
a p la t e - b e n d in g m a ch in e , and th e o th e r a s w e d g in g m a c h in e .
I n a n o th e r s i m i l a r
c a s e , a n em ployee h a d h i s f in g e r am pu tate d b y th e h o ld d o w n d e v ic e o f a s h e a r .
O f th e U r e m a in in g m ach in e a m p u ta tio n s , g e a r s a c c o u n te d f o r 2 , an d b e lt s and
c a b le s f o r 2 .
F a l l i n g m a t e r ia ls and eq u ip m e n t w ere r e s p o n s ib le f o r 8 o f th e f i n g e r o r
thum b a m p u ta tio n s and f o r th e U to e a m p u ta tio n s .
I n 7 a c c id e n t s , th e o b j e c t s ,
m o s t ly s t e e l p la t e s , f e l l fro m c ra n e h o o k s o r c la m p s.
In 2 c a se s, o b je c ts
f e l l fro m d o l l i e s o r h an d t r u c k s ; i n 2 , fro m m a c h in e s; an d i n a n o th e r, fro m a
w o rkb e n ch .
M a t e r ia ls an d e q u ip m e n t b e in g m oved b y h and p ro d u c e d 9 f in g e r am putations.
S t e e l s t o c k w as u s u a lly in v o lv e d and, m o st f r e q u e n t ly , th e a c c id e n t s o c c u r r e d
a s w orkm en.w ere p la c in g th e m a t e r ia ls u p o n m ach in e t a b le s .
I n one in s t a n c e ,
h o w e ve r, an em p lo yee l o s t a f in g e r when i t w as c r u s h e d b etw een a g ir d e r o f th e
sh o p and a m ach in e w h ic h he w as m o v in g .
Two men h a d f in g e r s am p u tate d w h ile u s in g h a n d t o o ls (a n axe an d a hammer).
The f o o t a m p u ta tio n o c c u r r e d a s a workm an s t o o d on a c ra n e r a i l t o p la c e a
ro p e i n th e p u lle y o f th e c r a n e .
The c ra n e m oved, a m p u ta tin g h i s f o o t .
The $1 lo s s - o f - u s e c a s e s in c lu d e d U eye and 5 o th e r h e a d i n j u r i e s ; 3 b a c k
i n j u r i e s ; 2 arm , 6 h a n d , an d lU f i n g e r i n j u r i e s ; U l e g , 7 f o o t , and 3 to e
i n j u r i e s ; and 3 c a s e s o f m u lt ip le i n j u r i e s .
F a l l i n g m a t e r ia ls a c c o u n te d f o r
11 l o s s - o f - u s e d i s a b i l i t i e s (a s k u l l , a h an d, an arm , a f in g e r , a to e , 2 l e g ,
and k f o o t i n j u r i e s ) .
I n 6 o f th e s e c a s e s , m a t e r ia ls o r s u b a s s e m b lie s f e l l
fro m h o is t i n g e q u ip m e n t.
Boom s o f c r a n e s a c c o u n te d f o r 2 m ore an d an in a d e ­
q u a t e ly fa s t e n e d p a r t o f a f a b r ic a t e d a sse m b ly f o r a n o th e r.
The o th e r f a l l i n g
o b j e c t s w ere a s c r a p b o x w h ic h f e l l fro m a h a n d tru c k an d a s t e e l p la t e w h ic h
f e l l fro m p la t e - b e n d in g r o l l s .
E le v e n p erm an en t lo s s - o f - u s e c a s e s (3 eyes, an e a r , a w r is t , a f o o t , h
f in g e r s , and an i n j u r y a f f e c t in g th e b o d y g e n e r a lly ) a r o s e fro m h a n d t o o l opera­
t io n s .
Hammers i n f l i c t e d h o f th e s e i n j u r i e s , i n 3 o f w h ic h m e ta l fra g m e n ts
p ro d u c e d b y b lo w s o f hammers w ere th ro w n i n t o w o r k e r s ' e y e s .
I n th e f o u r t h
c a s e , th e in j u r e d w o r k e r 's f in g e r w as c r u s h e d betw een th e h a n d le o f a hammer
and a b o i l e r head on w h ic h he w as w o rk in g .
B u r n in g t o r c h e s p ro d u c e d 2 in j u r ie s ;
i n one c a s e , s p a r k s p a r t i a l l y d e s tr o y e d th e h e a r in g o f a n em ployee 8/ an d , i n

U n d er th e 19$h r e v i s i o n o f th e A m e ric a n S ta n d a r d M e th o d o f R e c o r d in g
aPPr o v e d b y th e A m e ric a n S ta n d a r d s A s ? 6
d i s a b i l i t y t h p a r t i a i l o s s o f ' h e a r in g w o u ld n o t be c l a s s i f i e d a s a p e rm an e n t
,




- 13 -

th e o t h e r , an a c e t y le n e t o r c h e x p lo d e d when th e g a s li n e r u p tu r e d , r e s u lt in g i n
m u lt ip le b u rn s o f th e b o d y .
Two i n j u r i e s ( a f in g e r and a w r i s t ) w ere a t t r ib u ­
t e d t o w re n c h e s; i n b o th c a s e s , th e w re n ch e s s lip p e d and workm en s t r u c k o b je c ts
(a s t e e l p la t e and a d r i l l p r e s s ) w ith S u f f i c i e n t f o r c e t o in j u r e th e m se lv e s
p e rm a n e n tly .
A l a d l e , a b a r , and an a i r d r i l l a c c o u n te d f o r th e r e m a in in g 3
lo s s - o f - u s e i n j u r i e s in v o lv in g h a n d t o o ls .
I n one o f th e s e i n j u r i e s , a fo u n d r y
w o rk e r p e rm a n e n tly in j u r e d h i s f o o t when he s p i l l e d h o t m e ta l fro m a hand la d le ,
i n th e se c o n d , a w o rk m a n 's f in g e r w as p in c h e d when th e b a r s lip p e d a s he w as
u s in g i t t o move a s t e e l p la t e , an d i n th e o t h e r in j u r y , an e m p lo y e e 's f in g e r
w as c a u g h t i n an a i r d r i l l .
F a l l s p ro d u c e d 5 p erm an en t d i s a b i l i t i e s (a s k u l l , a w r i s t , a thum b, a
f o o t , and a g e n e r a l b o d y i n j u r y ) .
I n th e l a t t e r c a s e , th e w o rk e r f e l l UO f e e t
fro m a la d d e r t o a c o n c r e te f l o o r , e x p e r ie n c in g m u lt ip le f r a c t u r e s o f th e l e g ,
arm , c h e s t , an d p e l v i s .
Ten w orkm en w ere p e rm a n e n tly in j u r e d when th e y w ere sq u e e z e d b y m o v in g
o b je c ts .
F o u r o f them c r u s h e d t h e i r f in g e r s u n d e r o r b etw een o b je c t s w h ic h
th e y w ere h a n d lin g .
One o f th e workm en s u f f e r e d a h and in j u r y , a n o th e r a f i n ­
g e r in j u r y when th e y w ere c a u g h t b etw een c ra n e lo a d s and o t h e r o b j e c t s , an d a
t h i r d in j u r e d h is le g when he w as c a u g h t b etw een th e c a r r ia g e o f a c ra n e an d a
w a ll.
One em ployee h a d h i s f in g e r c r u s h e d b y th e le v e r o f a p r e s s , a n o th e r
h a d h i s thum b m ashed a s he w as h it c h in g a t r a i l e r t o a t r u c k , and a t h i r d h ad
h i s to e s c ru sh e d i n p la t e - b e n d in g r o l l s when he s to o d o n a p la t e b e in g f e d in to
th e r o l l s .
Two men p e rm a n e n tly in j u r e d t h e ir b a c k s and one man in j u r e d h i s arm w h ile
t h e y w ere l i f t i n g o b j e c t s .
S i m i l a r l y , a n o th e r em p loyee e x p e rie n c e d a p e rm an e n t
f o o t in j u r y a s a r e s u l t o f o v e r e x e r t io n i n p u s h in g a la r g e s t e e l a sse m b ly u n it .
One workm an s u f f e r e d a p erm an en t i n j u r y when he t w is t e d h i s b a c k .
E x p lo d in g g r in d in g w h e e ls p ro d u c e d a p erm anen t eye and a p e rm an e n t h e a d
in ju r y .
A n o th e r h e a d in j u r y r e s u lt e d when one e m p lo ye e , who jum ped a s he w as
s t a r t l e d , s t r u c k a se c o n d em p loyee w ith h i s lu n c h b u c k e t.
Two men s u f f e r e d
p e rm an e n t i n j u r i e s when th e y bum ped a g a in s t o b j e c t s ; one h a d a b a c k in j u r y , the
o t h e r a le g i n j u r y .
A n e l e c t r i c h e a te r i n th e c a b o f a c ra n e s h o r t e d a s th e c ra n e o p e r a t o r
opened th e s w it c h , r e s u l t i n g i n a p erm an en t h an d i n j u r y .
A p a in t e r w as perm a­
n e n t ly in j u r e d when he d ro p p e d a m atch in t o h i s c lo t h e s w h ic h w ere s a t u r a t e d
w it h t u r p e n t in e .
A w e ld e r, w o r k in g in s id e a t a n k , s u f f e r e d a p erm an en t f in g e r
in j u r y when th e ta n k t o p p le d o v e r an d c ru sh e d h i s f in g e r , an d a n o th e r w o rk e r
c ru sh e d h i s to e when he ro c k e d a t a n k he w as m o v in g o n to h i s f o o t .
SOURCE OF IN JU R Y
The o b je c t s an d s u b s ta n c e s w h ic h d i r e c t l y i n f l i c t e d th e r e c o r d e d i n j u r i e s
w ere m any an d v a r ie d .
S e v e r a l g e n e r a l c a t e g o r ie s , h o w e ve r, h a v e p a r t i c u l a r
s ig n i f i c a n c e a s in d ic a t o r s o f th e m ost common so u rc e s o f in j u r y . In some in s t a n c e s ,




- lU -

Chart 3 MAJOR SOURCES OF INJURY
IN T E BOILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1951
H
Percent of All Agencies of Injury

23.4!

METAL STOCK
12.4

ASSEMBLIES

CHIPS, PARTICLES, ETC.
J

. .11
11

.........................

* 74

HANDTOOLS
; r ? 6,3 ;J

WORKING SURFACES
•5.2

MACHINES
1^/4.3

.'

HOISTING APPARATUS

OTHER
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




- 1$ -

t h e s e

o b je c t s

h e r e n t ly

a n d

o n ly

b e ca u s e

t im e

o f

an

a lo n e

w ere
b y

S t e e l
A n g le s ,

th e s e

tw o

T he

M ost

an d

r e p o r t e d

o f

ty p e s

t h e s e

in

th e

h im s e lf

h am m ers

w ere

Som e
f l o o r s ,

6

1 2 6

o f

t h e ir

i n f l i c t e d

t h e ir

ow n

in ­

in ju r ie s

p o s it io n

in

g r o u p

th e

m e ta l

a t

th e

w ere

t o

o f

m e ta l,

th e

im p a ir e d

o f

an d

(t a b le
t o o l

5 ) .

o r

b e

M ost

c u ts

o f

th e

p e r c e n t
$ ,

6 ,

w ere

an d

m e ta l sto ck
h o w e v e r,

r e c o r d e d

o f

b u t

tw o

1 0 .)

ite m s .

w ere

f a t a l i t i e s

th e

in ju r ie s

n e a r ly

h a lf

s o u r c e s .

t o e s ,

q u ite

s a n d ,

b y

M ost

l e g s .

c h ip s a n d

d u s t,
b u t

o r

p r o ­

o f

H y in g

e t c . — w ere

th e

g r o u p

B ack

a l l

o f

com m on .

o f

m u ch

m ore

t o t a ls

f r a c t u r e s .

t h e s e

o c c u r r e d

on

s tr a in s

p a r t ic le s —

e y e

c a s e s .

in c lu d e d

s i x

c a s e s

f o o t

o r

r e s u lt e d

fr o m

c o n t a c t s

th e

t o e s .

w ere

w o r k e r

T he

th o s e

r e s u lt e d

in

co n ta ct

p r o m i­

s tr u c k

p o w e r e d -t o o l
i n f l i c t e d

p erm a n en t

s e v e r e

th a n

m o st

d a y s

p e r

23
th e
o f

s tu d y .
th e

w ith w o r k in g

o r ig in a t e d

w as

M ost

w hen

w h ile

h a n d to o ls — p o w e re d

h am m ers,

b y

fr a c t u r e s .

th e s e

in

b y

n on p ow ered

la c e r a t io n s ,
o r

h is

i n f l i c t e d

a s

i t

in ju r ie s

d i s a b i l i t y

w ere

w e ll

o r

in ju r ie s

M ost

te n p o r a r y

w ere

5

f e e t ,

in ju r ie s ,

a s

b r u is e s

th e

e t c .

t o

th e s e

i n f l i c t e d

in ju r ie s

d ro p p e d

c o m m o n ly

a v e ra g e

th e

g r in d e r s

c o m m o n ly

o f

th e

ite m s
o f

v is io n .

p e r c e n t

d r i l l s ,

w ere

d i r t ,

m in o r

o f

p r o p o r t io n

t o

f in g e r s ,

in ju r ie s

s a w d u st,

r e l a t i v e l y

m o st

Two

a t t r ib u t e d

a s s e m b lie s

1 2

t a b le s

c a s t in g s ,

a s s e m b lie s ,

a ls o

an d

a n d

h ig h

w ere

s t o c k

a n d

m ost

p e r c e n t

a n o th e r

3

th e
s t o c k

s t o c k .

in ju r ie s

w ere

7

a n d

1 2

in ju r y -p r o d u c in g

l i s t .

m e ta l

w ere

m e ta l

Som e

a n d

c h a r t

b a r s ,

f o r

o f

a l l

th e
b y

p a r t ic le s

c a t e g o r y ,

in ju r i e s .

w ith

o f

te n d e d

f o r

in

i n f l i c t e d

w o r k in g -s u r fa c e

a v e ra g e

am ong

I-b e a m s ,

s t o c k

p e r c e n t

T h e ir

h ig h

f ly in g

(S e e

a c c o u n te d

m o st

c a s e s .

t h is

v e r y

r e p r e s e n t e d

p la t fo r m s ,

r e m a in d e r

b e ca u s e
th e y

o f

a s s e m b lie s

c o n tu s io n s

th e

w ere

w ith

w ith

l i s t

w ith

in ju r ie s

th e

a s

o r

m a t e r ia ls

p a r t ic le s .

c h a n n e ls ,

m a jo r it y

th a n

su ch

c o n t a c t

fly in g

ra n k e d

m e ta l

la r g e

M ore

b y

fr a c t u r e s

fr a g m e n ts

t o o l s

o f

th e

in ju r ie s

p e r m a n e n tly

n e n t

o f

p e r c e n t

t u b e s ,

c o n t a c t

l i f t i n g

i . e . ,

o f

c h ip s
ra w

o r

p la t e s

r e p o r t e d

fro m

c a s e s ,

b e ca u s e

an d

c h ip s

B r u is e s

th e

o r

th e

p r o d u c e d

fro m

b y

u s e d

In

s u b s t a n t ia lly

d u ce d

im p r o p e r ly

p r o d u c e r s

o t h e r

a s s e m b lie s ,

2 3

p ip e s ,

r e s u lt e d

in ju r y
in

in ju r y .

o f

i n f l i c t e d

i n f l i c t e d

w ere

s t o c k ,

s o u r c e s

in ju r ie s

a ls o

t h e y

becam e

c h a r a c t e r is t ic s j

a c c id e n t *

M e ta l
com m on

s u b s ta n c e s

h a z a r d o u s

a s

N e a r ly

o t h e r s

w ere

com p a red
a

O n ly

in p a ir m e n ts ,

t e n p o r a r y -t o t a l
c a s e ,

s u r fa c e s —

f a l l s .

t h ir d

s t r a in s ,

3
th e

d i s a b i l i t y

w ith
o f

b u t

a

th e

1 6 -d a y
in ju r ie s

s p r a in s ,

o r

b r u is e s .

B e ca u se

o f

t h e ir

a n d

b y

h o is t in g

n o t

o f

o u ts ta n d in g

t o
a

som ew h at
l i t t l e

o v e r

m ore

o n e -fo u r t h

o f




h ig h

a p p a ra tu s

5

th a n
a l l

a v e ra g e
d e s e r v e

in p o r ta n c e

in

p e r c e n t

th e

U
th e

o f

p e r c e n t .
r e c o r d e d

s e v e r it y ,
p a r t ic u la r

term s

T he

o f

t o t a l ,

in ju r ie s

a t t e n t io n

n u m b ers.
an d

m a c h in e

p erm a n en t

th e

i n f l i c t e d

e v e n

M a c h in e

th o u g h

in ju r ie s

h o is tin g -e q u ip m e n t

in ju r i e s ,

im p a ir m e n ts j

h o w e v e r,
th e

b y

w ere

a m ou n ted

c a s e s

in c lu d e d

h o is t in g

m a c h in e s

th e y

cam e

t o

n e a r ly

e q u ip m e n t

16

Chart 4. MAJOR TYPES OF ACCIDENTS
IN T E BOILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1951
H
Percent of All Accident Types

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




-

c a s e s

I n c lu d e d

m an en t
1 6 2

d a y s

The
t o

p e r

d a y s

O th e r

(b o x e s ,

b y

m o to r

r e m a in d e r

o f

w e re

A c c id e n t

e v e n ts

th e

in t o

T y p e s . —
e v e n ts

g ro u p s

r e la t iv e

im p o r ta n c e

in ju r ie s

a re

in

n u m bers

an d

th e

o f

m o st

o f

m ost

b e

o f

an d

o f

th e

c a s e s

d ir e c t e d

T he

o f

I t

in t e r e s t in g

i s

v o lu m e

th e

r e p o r t s

s i z e .
o f

o f

In

2

th e

w h ic h

p e r c e n t

'w a s

stu d y .
r o s e

o f

th e

o f th e in ju r ie s

im p a ir m e n t.

th e

o r

o f

c o n ta in e r s

O ne

p erm a n en t

in ju r y

c h a r g e d .

T he
lo w

w ere

A s

v o lu m e ,

r e l a t i v e l y

o f

m o tio n s

i n ju r i e s .

t y p e s

e v e n ts

i t

i s

c r e a t e s

w h ic h - m u s t

T h is

c o s t

r e la t iv e
a

fu n c t io n

m o st

a

a n a ly s is
The

h e r n ia s ,

b e

o f

i s

w h ic h

p r e v e n te d

b o th

i s

r a d i­
s e ­
th e

th e

fro m

t h o s e

m ay

a c c id e n t s

w h ic h

o f

r a t e s

e f f o r t s

te n d

t o

occu rren ce

u p on

t h a t

i f

s im p ly

ca n

in t e r e s t s ,

d ic t a t e

th e s e

th e

o c c u r r in g

fr e q u e n c y

H u m a n ita r ia n

h o w e v e r,

an d

o f

m ea su red

I n ju r y -fr e q u e n c y

o ft e n .

i d e n t if y

in d ic a t e s

n o t

a c c id e n t -p r e v e n t io n

e le m e n ts ,

t o

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

p a tt e r n

im p o r ta n c e

i n ju r ie s .

(b )

d e v e lo p e d

t h is

t o

fo u n d

C a se s
f o r

C a se s

in

o f

t o

t h is

p a tt e r n

in

w as

t h e r e

terra s

f o r

s tu d y

f i v e

o c c u r r e n c e .

s u r v e y e d —

v o lu m e

in

h ig h lig h t s

fr e q u e n c y

t a b u la t e d

w ere

(a )

b e
th e

e m p lo y e e

f i r s t

p r o d u c e

a l l

(S e e

n o

p la n t

p la n t s

th e

e x p e r ie n c e

ty p e s

t a b le s

e s s e n t ia lly
w ere

o f

o f

g e n e r a l

th e

e ffo r t s
th e

sam e

o r

o n

s u r v e y e d ,

th e

s tr u c k

m o v in g

( c )

C a ses

o f

in

an d

U .)

f o r

c h a r t
a l l

w h ic h

w o rk e rs
th e

w e re

t o t a l

o f

o v e r e x e r t io n ,

in

w h ic h

b y

th e

f i v e

b a s is

m o st

t o

o v e r

lU

p e r c e n t

th e

w o rk e r

f e l l — o v e r

1 2

p e r c e n t

o f

w h en
o f

com m on

o b je c t s ,

v o lu m e .

a m o u n tin g

m a jo r

d iffe r e n c e s

b e :

o n e -t h ir d

th e

a c c id e n t s

7 -1 0

s ig n if ic a n t

p r o d u c ts

o f

t o t a l .

t o t a l .




in

c a s e ,

m o tio n s .

l o s t

p e r ­

A N A L Y S IS

a c c id e n t

I n d u s tr y

th a t

r e g a r d s

th e

b o d ily

in

p r e v e n tin g

p la n ts

w e re

a c c o u n t in g

th e

o f

th e

a c c id e n t s

o f

le a s t

f la s h

th e

c r a n e s .

r a d ia t io n s ;

a

tim e

in

o c c u r

p a tt e r n

P r o d u c ts

te rm s

seg m e n ts

b y

p e r

o f

in ju r ie s

in ju r ie s

b y

p e r c e n t

w e l d e r 's

p e r c e n t
m a c h in e

i n ju r i e s .

a c c id e n t

B o ile r s h o p

t o

2

s te p

c o n c e n t r a t in g

w h ic h

t o

w as

t o t a l

o f

p r o d u c e d

r e s u lt in g

o p e r a t in g

a t

b o d ily

c u lm in a t e d

th e

b y

d a y s

p a r t s ;

1

a c c id e n t

th e

p ro d u c e d

a m ou n ted

a l l

i n f l i c t e d

an d

f i r s t

o c c u r r e n c e s —

r a p id ly

s e r io u s

T he

o f

2 26

1 0

f o r

s p r a in s .

a v o id e d .

a c c id e n t s

r e la t io n s ,
s h o u ld

b e

s e v e r it y

re d u c e d
k in d s

t o

f o r

an d

a l l

w h ic h
o f

o f

m a c h in e

A C C ID E N T

c l a s s i f y

c a s e

a v e ra g e

th a n

ch a r g e d

f a t a l i t y

p e r c e n t

o r

p e r

w h ic h

m ore

o r

v e h ic le s ;
a

in ju r ie s

s t r a in s

o f

c a s e s

n e a r ly

th e

d a y s

a n

a n d

l o s t

s p e c i f i c a l l y

e a ch

lu m b e r ;

U

86

h a d

b eca m e

o v e r

d e a th s

tim e

in c lu d e d :

v e h ic le

w e re

T h re e

c a s e s

s o u r c e s ,

p r o d u c e d

v e r i t y .

w ith

in ju r i e s ,
e t c . ) ;

in ju r ie s

r e p o r t e d
a v e ra g e

in ju r ie s

v e h ic le s

th e

th e y

a t io n

th o s e

o f

5

T he

co m p a re d

in ju r y

d ru m s,

g r o u p ,

b u t

th e

e q u ip m e n t
f o r

nu m ber

i n f l i c t e d
a

o f

c a s e

h o is t in g
3 lU

t o t a l

1

in p a ir m e n ts .

1 7

p la n t
ty p es

-

(d )

C a se s

f r i c t i o n ,

o r

(e )

A n

in

o b je c t s —

e v a lu a t io n
o f

c la s s e s

a c c id e n t s .

o f

s e r io u s
h ig h

a p p r o x im a tio n

o f

c a s e s

in ju r ie s

v o lu m e

o f

to p -r a n k in g

m ay

(a )
f l y i n g

in

(b )

p e r c e n t

in

C a se s

w h ic h

36

o b je c t s —

w h ic h

o f

( c )

F a lls —

1 2

C a se s

(e )

q u it e

c la s s e s
in ju r ie s

w h ic h

o f

7

lo s s e s

s e v e r it y

o f

som ew h at
tim e

r e s u lt in g

o f

e . g . ,

t im e

th e s e

fr o m

a

d if f e r e n t

l o s t

lo w

o r

th e

t h e 'r e s u l t i n g

a g g r e g a te s ;

In

a
o f

ch a rg e d
v a r io u s

in ju r ie s
v o lu m e

and

o f

l o s t

o r

c h a r g e d

te rm s

o f

c o m p a r is o n ,

a s

a
th e

w e re

s tr u c k

t o t a l

w e re

t im e

ca u g h t

b y

m o v in g

l o s t

i n ,

o r

o r

c h a r g e d .

u n d e r ,

o r

w o r k e rs

s tr u c k

a g a in s t

o b je c t s —

d i f f e r e n t

a c c id e n t s

w ith o u t

r e g a r d

( c )

( e )




o f

t o

th e

r e l a t i v e
term s

th e

v o lu m e

w h ic h

C a se s
92

in

in

c a s e .

c a s e s

w e re

em erg es

a v e ra g e

On

p e r

i n ,

c a u s t ic s ,a n d

n o x io u s

c a s e .

w o rk e rs

w ere

s tr u c k

b y

m o v in g

w h ic h

d a y s

p e r

w o r k e rs

c a s e .

s tr u c k

a g a in s t

o b je c t s —

o f

t h is

u n d e r ,o r

c a s e .

c a s e .

86

w h en

s e v e r it y

in v o lv e d .

ca u g h t

d i s a b i l i t y

r a d ia t io n s ,

p e r

w h ic h

p e r

f a l l s —

C a se s
p e r

in

o f

o f

o f

w e r e :

w o rk e rs

d a y s

w ith

d a y s

d a y s

A ll

n o x io u s

im p o r ta n c e

in

r a t e d

c a t e g o r ie s

C o n ta c t

o b je c t s —

c a u s t ic s ,a n d

p e r c e n t .

p a t t e r n

a re

o b je c t s — 1 9 2

(b )

d a y s

7

a c c id e n t

s u b s ta n c e s — 1 8 1

(d )

r a d ia t io n s ,

C a se s

(a )
b e tw e e n

w ith

p e r c e n t .

O v e r e x e r tio n —

im p o r ta n t

8 0

in

C o n ta c t

( f )

m o st

am ou n t

p e r c e n t .

s u b s ta n c e s —

A

p r e s e n t s

t o t a l

am ou n t

c r u s h e d

p e r c e n t .

(d )

o r

p e r c e n t .

b e tw e e n

7

th e

th e

w o rk e rs

2 k

p r e s s u r e ,

w e r e -:

w o rk e rs

o b je c t s —

b y

t o t a l .

t o t a l .

in ju r i e s .

a c c id e n t s

th e

p in c h e d

h o w e v e r,

t h e s e

sam e

o f

th e

e c o n o m ic

in

i n f l i c t e d

w as

o f

a v e ra g e

th e

m in o r

o f

C a se s

th e

th e

p ro d u c e

r e l a t i v e l y

v a r ie t ie s

H ere

fa c t o r s

w as

p e r c e n t

w o rk e r

te r m s ,

o f

B o th

a re

1 1

p e r c e n t

e c o n o m ic

-

in ju r y

th e

1 0

im p o r ta n c e .

an

v o lu m e

th e

w h ic h

o v e r

in

r e l a t i v e

r e p r e s e n t s

th e

w h ic h

a b r a s io n — n e a r ly

C a se s

b e tw e e n

p a t t e r n

in

1 8

th e

g e n e r a l

th e

r e s u lt in g

b a s is

th e

-

T a k in g
th e

3

in t o

g e n e r a l

s a fe t y

p ro g ra m s

(a )

an d

s e v e r it y

o f

(b )

te rra s
s e c o n d

in

o f

in

e m p lo y e e s

w h ic h

a v e ra g e

r e s p e c t

a r e

s tr u c k

ra n k e d

l o s s ,

i t

a p p e a rs

a t t e n t io n

in

th a t
th e

b y

m o v in g

f i r s t

v o lu m e

t h ir d

an d

in
in

a v e ra g e

i n ju r i e s .

w o rk e rs

g ro u p

a re

o f

c a u g h t

a c c id e n t s

s e v e r it y

o f

e c o n o m ic

t o

e v a lu a t io n s ,

p r e fe r e n t ia l

a r e :

e c o n o m ic

T h is

3

d e s e r v in g

a c c id e n t s

r e s u lt in g

C a se s

th e

w h ic h

t o t a l

o b je c t s .

o f

a l l

in d u s t r y

in

th e

o f

a c c id e n t s

c la s s

in

-

r a n k in g s

th e

o f

th e

T h is

c a s e s

b e tw e e n

o f

C a se s

o b je c t s .
o f

a c c o u n t

c la s s e s

1 9

th e

l o s s ,

i n ,

r e s u lt in g
a n d

u n d e r ,

o r

f i r s t

in

ra n k e d

i n ju r i e s ,

f i f t h

in

te rra s

o f

t h ir d

in

v o lu m e

v o lu m e .

( c )
c a s e s
o f

th e

T he
m iz e s

th e

in

fo u r t h

in

a v e r a g e

o f

s e v e r it y

w h ic h

o f

t h r e e

p r e v e n t
a c c id e n t

a s

t o

c la s s e s

o t h e r

o f

a c c id e n t s

o f

ty p e s

a c c id e n t s .

p r e v e n t io n

ca n

p a r t ic u la r

th e

p r o b le m s

th e

a c c id e n t s

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c a s e s —

r e p o r t e d

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i n

n o
I t

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t o

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in

b e

w a y

T he

m a t e r ia ls ,

th e

m a te r ia l

w o r k e rs

" s t r u c k
in

t h r e e
u s e

m o st

a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ,
fr o m

th e

A
t o o l
t h e ir

in

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o r

c o n s id e r a b le
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In
w ere
f e l l ,

s e t

g r e a t e s t m eas­
o v e rco m e

t h r e e

c la s s e s .

b e e n

o f

o f

" s t r u c k

c a s e s ,

m o tio n

b y

b y "

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u s in g
w e re

o r

th e
p r o c e s s in g .

in

w o rk e rs

th e

s tr u c k

t o o l s .
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th e

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f e l l

fro m

s to r a g e

w h ic h

w h ile

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s tr u c k

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I n

a

f l y i n g

h a n d t o o ls .

o p e r a t io n s ,

th e

m a c h in e
ite m s

in

th e y

o f
m a c h in e s .

h a n d le d —

w o r k e r s ;

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h ig h ly

o f

w h ic h

b e in g

th e

p la c e d

t h o s e

th e m s e lv e s

o f

b y

e q u ip m e n t;

h a d

o p e r a t io n

m a te r ia ls

d ro p p e d

w e re

m ovem en t

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p a r t s

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w h ic h

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w h ic h

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th e

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e f f o r t s

t o

c o u ld

m ost

th e

w o rk e rs

d is lo d g e d

e q u ip m e n t

an d

d u r in g

p r o c e s s in g .

r e c o r d ,

i t

a p p e a rs

a c c id e n t s

in

t h is

c o n c e n t r a t e d




th e

c a t e g o r y

s t o c k

o r

th e

b y "

w e re

e it h e r

m e ta l

F rom
" s t r u c k

o b je c t s

c o n s is t e d

in

m a c h in e

p o s it io n in g

th e

s tr u c k

p r im a r ily
o r

th e

t h e y

n u m ber

th e

a n d

h a n d lin g

p r e d o m in a n t

o p e r a t io n s

a c c id e n t s

o p e r a t io n s ,

th e y

w h ic h

T h ese

a c t i v i t i e s —

h a n d t o o ls ,

c o m m o n ly

m a t e r ia l

p o s it io n s

o f

m ovem en t

w ere

g e n e r a l

on

im p r o v in g

in d u s t r y
th e

m e th o d s

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e lim in a t e
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m in i­

m e r e ly

7 -1 0 .)

(a )

b e

ra n k e d

an d

t h e s e

t o

c lu e s

d e t a ils

c o n c e n t r a t e d

In

in

Som e

th e

l o s s

u p o n

e f f o r t s

a r e a s

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p la c e d

f o r

r e s u lt s .

a p p a r e n t

T h e se

e c o n o m ic

r e s u lt in g

n e e d

p in p o in t s

t a b le s

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e m p h a s is

th e

u r a b le

F a lls —

and

m a t e r ia ls .

a r e
(S e e

-

T he

h ig h

v o lu m e

w o r k e r s '
b e

h a n d s

p la c e d

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o f

o t h e r

u p o n

m a te r ia l

a w a re n e ss
e m p lo y e r

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p ie c e
t o

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th e

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l i e s

T he

in

in ju r e d

h a d

b e e n

w a lk in g

T he

b u lk

o f

p e r s o n

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o t h e r

c o m p le x

UO

p r e v e n t io n

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th e

T h e ir

im p o r ta n c e

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th a n

l i e s

in

e le v a t io n s

f e l l

w e re

f a l l s

fro m

la r g e

f a b r ic a t io n s .

p la tfo r m s

f o r

in d ic a t e d

b y

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th e

in

i t

6 0
t o

o r

fro m

f a l l s

in

A b i l i t y
t o

th e

t o

r e c o g n iz e

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in d iv id u a ls —

i t

th e

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i s
an d

i s
an

som e

h e

o b je c t .
t o

p r e s e n t
w e re
t o

m ore

th e
a

v a r ie d

c a s e s

lo w e r

o f

th e

in

l e v e l .

r e s u lt in g

o f

th e

f a l l s

M ost

o f

th e

o t h e r

fro m

f o r

f a b r ic a t in g

w o r k in g

s t a b le

a n d

o p e r a t io n s

p o s it io n s
g u a rd e d

i s

on

w o r k in g

s t r o n g ly

r e c o r d .

o c c u r r e n c e

p r e v e n t io n .

f a l l s ,
w h ic h

t h ir d

A C C ID E N T

le a d

th e
o n

a

f a l l s

n e e d

H ere

la d d e r s .

fro m

w e re
T he

b y
co n ­

s t o c k

t r a c e a b le

s e v e r it y

N e a r ly

a

s p a c e .

T h ese

th e

b u t

p r o c e d u r e s .

o f

a g a in s t

e le v a t io n

v o lu m e .

v e h ic le s

m a c h in e .

s u r fa c e

w ork

th e
c r a n e

a c c id e n t

p e r c e n t

d i r e c t l y

th e

an

a

a
t r ie d

c a u g h t

m e ta l

h a n d lin g

f e l l

w ere

o f

b y

th a t

L e s s

s w in g in g

n u m erou s,

th e

h e

w e re

b e in g

fro m

w as

a s

m o v in g

s u c c e s s fu l

p r o b le m s .

f a l l s

e le v a t io n s

h a n d lin g

b e tw e e n

o b je c t

p in c h e d

in a d e q u a te

m ore

t h e ir

n o t

w ere

a b o u t

a c c id e n t s
t o

c r u s h e d

b e tw e e n

m a te r ia l

s ta n d in g

o r

T h ese

a c c id e n t

w o r k e rs

w ere

e it h e r

h o u s e k e e p in g

w as

b e tw e e n

o f

t h a t

im p r o v e d

T he
and

o r

r e m o v in g

a re

" f a l l s " ~ I n

th e

p o o r

o r

t y p ic a l

c r u s h e d

e m p lo y e e s

in t o

c a s e s —
m a t e r ia l

in ju r ie s

C a se s

t h a t

an

th e

p o s i t i o n .

o f

i t

b o th

s e r io u s

m a c h in e s

in d ic a t io n s

o f

t h a t

d e s ir e d

o f

th e

w ith

s t a t io n a r y

o b je c t s ,

num ­

a n d

in d ic a te s b u t

a

p a r ts

fe e d in g

a g a in ,

t r u c k s ,

m ore

n u m ber

s id e r a b le

p a r t

b e tw e e n "

fin g e r

w ere

th e

s h o u ld

e s s e n t ia l.

m o st

in t o

o b je c t s .

th e

i s

o r

som e

o f

w o r k e rs

s t a t io n a r y

w h ile

s t o c k

s t a t io n a r y

an d

o n ,

o r

a n d

o n

p r im a r ily
T he

h a n d

th e

a ls o

in ,

m ove

w h ic h

b e

fr o m

s u b s t a n t ia l

h o i s t s ,
h o w e v e r,

o p e r a t io n s .

s t o c k

f e l l

e m p h a s is

r a t h e r

c r a n e s ,

p r a c t ic e s

com m on ,
in

T he

m ore

a n s w e r,

e m p lo y e e

w o r k e r 's

m a t e r ia ls

p e rh a p s

n o t

a s s o c ia t e d

m e ta l

c a s e s

w h ic h

-

e q u ip m e n t,

m ay

"c a u g h t

w e re

m a c h in e
w h ic h

m ovem en t
a lo n e

T he

in
t h a t

in v o lv in g

s a fe t y

and

a c c id e n t s

c a s e s

m e c h a n iz a tio n .

a c c id e n t s

m e c h a n iz a tio n

an d

o f

s u g g e s ts

2 0

o f

n o t

th e

c o n d it io n s

a c c id e n t s
an

i s

in t u it iv e

a c q u ir e d

CAUSES

a b i l i t y

c ir c u m s ta n c e s

w h ic h

a
o r

o r

c ir c u m s ta n c e s

p r e r e q u is it e
in h e r e n t

s te m m in g
h a v e

t o

w h ic h

a b i l i t y

d i r e c t l y

c o n t r ib u t e d

a re

e f f e c t i v e
o f

c e r t a in

fro m
t o

l i k e l y

th e

a

t o

a c c id e n t
fa v o r e d

k n o w le d g e

o f

o c c u r r e n c e

o f

-

21 -

a c c id e n t s in th e p a s t .
E v e r y a c c i d e n t r e s u l t s fr o m a p a r t i c u l a r c o m b in a t io n
o f c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and i t i s a x io m a t ic t h a t a n y tim e a s i m i l a r
c o m b in a t io n o f c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s p e r m i t t e d t o e x i s t a s i m i l a r
a c c id e n t i s l i k e l y t o happen.
F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n i s t , he u s u a l l y c a n a v o i d t h e o c ­
c u r r e n c e o f an a c c i d e n t b y e l i m i n a t i n g any o n e o f t h e f a c t o r s w h ich t o g e t h e r
c o n s t it u t e a p o t e n t ia l a c c id e n t seq u en ce.
S t a t i s t i c a l a n a ly s is , as a p p lie d i n t h i s s tu d y , c o n s is t s o f c l a s s i f y i n g
t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e f i n d i n g s f o r a num ber o f c a s e s t o d e te r m in e w h e th e r o r n o t
th e a c c id e n t f a c t o r s te n d t o c o n c e n tr a te in t o p a t t e r n s .
A r e l a t i v e l y h ig h
c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n any o n e o f t h e a c c i d e n t f a c t o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e s a
s i g n a l f o r a c c id e n t -p r e v e n t io n e f f o r t s t o e lim in a te t h a t p a r t i c u l a r v a r ie t y o f
h azard.
Among s e v e r a l a r e a s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f a c t o r s , t h e r e l a t i v e d e g r e e
o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n e a c h may a s s i s t i n d e t e r m in in g p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n program .
The e x i s t e n c e o f a n y on e a c c i d e n t f a c t o r , t h e r e f o r e , i s
a s ig n a l t o th e a c c id e n t p r e v e n t i o n is t .
The e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h a t f a c t o r may
have p r e v e n t e d t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f an y a c c i d e n t s e q u e n c e t o w h ich t h e f a c t o r
may h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d .
A c c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m in in g and r e c o r d i n g a l l o f
t h e c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w it h t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f an a c c id e n t .
A c c i d e n t a n a l y s i s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s t h e p r o c e s s o f s i f t i n g th r o u g h t h e
f a c t s d e r i v e d fr o m t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e t e r m in in g w h ich o f t h e r e c o r d e d
c o n d i t i o n s and c ir c u m s t a n c e s d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f th e
a c c id e n t.
I t m ust b e r e c o g n i z e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t a c c i d e n t a n a l y s i s h a s d e f i n i t e l i m ­
ita tio n s .
A t b e s t , i t c a n f u r n i s h c l u e s o n l y a s t o t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h ich
a c c i d e n t - p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c a n m ost e f f e c t i v e l y b e p o i n t e d .
The d e t a i l s
o f t h e s a f e t y p ro g ra m m ust b e d e v e l o p e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c h a r g e o f s a f e t y
p r o m o tio n .
I n a d d i t i o n , i t m ust b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n a c c i d e n t a n a l y s i s , t h e
tw o f a c t o r s — h a z a r d o u s w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s and u n s a fe a c t s , ( t h e o n l y f a c t o r s
r e la t in g t o ca u ses o f a c c id e n t s ) are n o t n e c e s s a r ily e x c lu s iv e .
In o th e r
w o r d s , t h e a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e i s n o t d i r e c t e d to w a r d t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a
s i n g l e m a jo r c a u s e f o r e a c h a c c i d e n t .
S u ch a d e t e r m i n a t i o n w o u ld i n v o l v e an
e x e r c i s e o f a n a l y t i c a l ju d g m e n t se ld o m p o s s i b l e fr o m t h e a v a i l a b l e f a c t s .
On
t h e c o n t r a r y , an e f f o r t i s made t o d e te r m in e in d e p e n d e n t ly f o r e a c h a c c i d e n t
( l ) w h e th e r t h e r e was a h a z a r d o u s c o n d i t i o n w h ich c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s occu zren ce,
a n d /o r ( 2 ) w h e th e r t h e a c c i d e n t was d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w it h an u n s a f e a c t .
Many d e t a i l s w e re l a c k i n g f o r som e a c c i d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s u r v e y .
It
w a s, t h e r e f o r e , i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m in e w h e th e r h a z a r d o u s w o r k in g cnutH-Mmy o r
u n s a f e a c t s w e re t h e l e a d i n g c a u s e o f a c c i d e n t s .
The p a t t e r n o f t h e s p e c i f i c
f a c t o r s w i t h i n e a c h g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y i s o f m ore im p o r t a n c e th a n t h e i n t e r r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m a jo r g r o u p s o f a c c i d e n t c a u s e s .
I t i s n otew orth y ,
h o w e v e r , t h a t h a z a r d o u s w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s w e re i d e n t i f i e d i n a t l e a s t 89
p e r c e n t o f t h e a c c i d e n t s s t u d i e d an d u n s a f e a c t s w e re fo u n d i n a t l e a s t 85
p e r c e n t o f th e c a s e s .
F o r t h e b a l a n c e , t h e c a u s e s w e re i n d e t e r m i n a b l e .




-

22 -

The c o r r e c t i o n o f h a z a r d o u s w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s u s u a l l y i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n
t h e p o w e rs o f m anagem ent and c a n b e a c c o m p lis h e d b y management a c t i o n .
The
a v o id a n c e o f u n s a f e a c t s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e q u i r e s c o o p e r a t i o n and u n d e r ­
s t a n d in g b y b o t h management and w o r k e r s .
To a c h i e v e t h i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r
m anagem ent t o t a k e t h e l e a d b y p r o v i d i n g s a f e t y - m i n d e d s u p e r v i s i o n and b y
m aking s u r e t h a t a l l w o r k e r s know t h e h a z a r d s o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and th e means
o f o v e r c o m in g t h o s e h a z a r d s .
H a za rd ou s W ork in g C o n d i t i o n s
H a za rd ou s w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e n o t o n l y t h e a d v e r s e p h y s i c a l c o n ­
d i t i o n s o f t h e w o r k in g e n v ir o n m e n t , b u t a l s o th e in a d e q u a te ly pLanned o r c o n t r o ll e d
m eth ods an d p r o c e d u r e s a p p l i e d i n t h e w ork a c t i v i t i e s .
The l a t t e r , a s a m a tter
o f f a c t , was fo u n d t o b e t h e m ost p r o l i f i c c a u s e o f a c c i d e n t s i n th e b o i l e r sh op p ro d u cts in d u s tr y .
I n b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s , t h e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m ost
common s o u r c e s o f a c c i d e n t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y w e r e :
( l ) H azardou s p r o c e d u r e s ;
( 2 ) p la c e m e n t h a z a r d s ; ( 3 ) in a d e q u a t e g u a r d i n g ; and (U ) d e f e c t i v e a g e n c i e s .
(S e e t a b l e s 1 1 -1 5 and c h a r t 5 . )
H a za rd ou s O p e r a t io n s and P r o c e d u r e s . — T h ese h a z a r d s a r i s e p r i m a r i l y fr o m
m a n a g em en t's f a i l u r e i n tw o im p o r t a n t a r e a s o f s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ~
( l ) t o p l a n f o r s a f e t y i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s and t o p r o v i d e p r o p e r eq u ip m e n t and
f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e j o b s t o b e d o n e ; and ( 2 ) t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a te s u p e r v i s i o n t o
i n s u r e s a f e p e r fo r m a n c e o f t h e d e s i g n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s .
I n a d e q u a te p r o v i s i o n
f o r s a f e i n - p l a n t m ovement o f h e a v y , b u l k y , and awkward m a t e r i a l s , m o stly m e ta l
s t o c k and f a b r i c a t e d a s s e m b l i e s , was t h e m ost common a c c i d e n t c a u s e i n t h i s
g en era l ca teg ory .
O b v i o u s l y , no s i n g l e c o r r e c t i v e m easu re w i l l r e s o l v e a l l o f
t h e p r o b le m s i n t h i s a r e a , b u t i t i s a p p a r e n t fr o m t h e c a s e r e c o r d s t h a t m ate­
r i a l s m ovement w as f r e q u e n t l y e n t i r e l y u n p la n n e d an d u n d e r ta k e n h a p h a z a r d ly b y
u n tr a in e d w o rk e rs .
M a t e r i a l s w h ich m ig h t b e moved s a f e l y b y m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip ­
m ent w ere t o o o f t e n m oved b y h an d and w i t h o u t an a d e q u a te c r e w t o d i v i d e and
c o n t r o l th e lo a d .
O v e r e x e r tio n , r e s u lt in g in s t r a i n s , s p r a in s , h e r n ia s , e t c . ,
was t h e m ost common p r o o f o f t h e s e h a z a r d o u s p r o c e d u r e s , b u t t h e r e w ere a l s o
many i n s t a n c e s i n w h ich w o r k e r s w ere s t r u c k b y o b j e c t s w h ich t h e y w ere m ov in g
b y h an d and w h ic h w en t o u t o f c o n t r o l d u r in g t h e m ovem ent.
I n o th e r in s t a r c e s ,
w o r k e r s w e r e s q u e e z e d o r c r u s h e d b e tw e e n t h e o b j e c t s t h e y w ere moving and f i x e d
o b je c t s .
T h ese h a z a r d s w e re r e l a t i v e l y much m ore common i n s m a ll p l a n t s th a n
i n l a r g e o n e s and m ore p r e v a l e n t i n b o i l e r p l a n t s th a n i n ta n k p l a n t s .
The l a c k o f a d e q u a te s c a f f o l d s , p l a t f o r m s , o r o t h e r s t a b l e w o r k in g s u r ­
f a c e s f o r w ork a t e l e v a t i o n s was t h e b a s i c c a u s e f o r many f a l l s fr o m m a k e s h ift
s u p p o r t s e m p lo y e d i n w o rk o n l a r g e f a b r i c a t i o n s .
Many o f t h e a c c i d e n t s a r i s i n g i n t h e movement o f m a t e r i a l s b y c r a n e r e ­
s u l t e d fr o m h a z a r d o u s p r o c e d u r e s w h ich a d e q u a te s u p e r v i s i o n may h a v e p re v e n te d .
Among t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s was t h e p r a c t i c e o f g u id in g s l i n g l o a d s b y h a n d .
P la c e m e n t H a z a r d s .- - I m p r o p e r p la c e m e n t o f m a t e r i a l s and eq u ip m e n t c a u s e d
a b o u t 1 i n e v e r y 5 o f t h e a c c i d e n t s s t u d i e d — i . e . , im p r o p e r l y p l a c e d i n re s p e ct




- 23 -

Chart 5. MAJOR TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WORKING CONDITIONS
IN THE BOILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1951

HAZARDOUS
PROCEDURES
PLACEMENT HAZARDS
INADEQUATELY
GUARDED
DEFECTS OF AGENCIES
DRESS OR APPAREL
HAZARDS
ENVIRONMENTAL
HAZARDS

U IT D S A E D P R M N O L B R
N E TTS EAT ET F AO
B R A OF LABOR STA
UEU
TISTIC
S

t o t h e p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d ; o r im p r o p e r l y p i l e d o r i n a d e q u a t e l y se cu re d i n r e j e c t
to s t a b ilit y in th e ir p o s itio n .
I n p r o p e r p la c e m e n t f r e q u e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d a
v i o l a t i o n o f g o o d h o u s e k e e p in g p r a c t i c e s w h ic h com m only r e s u l t e d i n a t r i p p i n g
o r b u n p in g h a z a r d i n an a i s l e o r w ork a r e a .
M eta l s t o c k , lu m b e r , h a n d t o o l s ,
and s m a ll f a b r i c a t e d a s s e m b lie s w ere t h e o b j e c t s m ost com m only m i s p l a c e d .
The h a z a r d o f i m p r o p e r l y p i l e d m a t e r i a l s w as e n c o u n t e r e d m ore f r e q u e n t l y
i n th e g e n e r a l w orkin g a r e a s th a n i n d e s i g n a t e d m a t e r i a l s s t o r a g e a r e a s . G e n e ra lly ,
t h e s e w ere i n s t a n c e s i n w h ic h w o r k in g s u p p l i e s o r c o n p l e t e d s m a ll f a b r i c a t i o n s




-

2U -

w e r e a c c u m u la te d a t t h e w o r k s p a c e i n u n s t a b l e p i l e s .
T h ese a c c u m u la t io n s
u s u a l l y l e d t o w o r k e r s b e i n g s t r u c k b y m a t e r i a l s w h ic h s l i d o r f e l l fr o m t h e
p ile s .
A c c i d e n t s o f t h e " s t r u c k b y " v a r i e t y w e re a l s o t h e m ost common r e s u l t o f
th e h a z a rd s d e s ig n a t e d as in a d e q u a te ly s e c u r e d m a t e r ia ls .
Some o f t h e s e w ere
i n s t a n c e s i n w h ic h f a b r i c a t i o n s o r s u b a s s e m b lie s h a d b e e n p l a c e d i n w o rk in g
p o s i t i o n s fr o m w h ic h t h e y c o u l d s l i d e o r f a l l w it h o u t p r o v i s i o n o f p r o p e r
an ch ors o r b lo c k in g .
I n many o f t h e s e c a s e s , h o w e v e r , t h i s h a z a r d a p p l i e d t o
m a t e r i a l s w h ich becam e d i s l o d g e d when t h e y w ere m oved o n p l a n t v e h i c l e s .
I n a d e q u a t e G u a r d in g . — The p r o v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s , t o p re vent p erson s
fr o m com in g i n t o c o n t a c t w it h m ovin g m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t, o r m a t e r i a l s ; t o
p r e v e n t f a l l s fr o m e l e v a t i o n s ; and t o a v o i d c o n t a c t w it h p o t e n t i a l l y d a n g e r o u s
o b j e c t s o r s u b s t a n c e s i n t h e w o r k in g e n v ir o n m e n t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f
a c c id e n t p r e v e n tio n .
The n e e d f o r s u c h d e v i c e s h a s becom e a x io m a t ic among
s a f e t y e n g in e e r s and t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f g u a r d in g h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o
m o st s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s and s a f e t y m a n u a ls, f r e q u e n t l y w it h g r e a t t e c h n i c a l
d e ta il.
G u a rd in g r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r many k in d s o f m a ch in e s and e q u ip m e n t, and
f o r some i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s , h a ve a l s o b e e n e n a c t e d i n t o la w i n many S t a t e s .
D e s p it e t h e e m p h a s is p l a c e d u p on g u a r d in g a s a b a s i c e le m e n t i n a c c i d e n t
p r e v e n t i o n o v e r many y e a r s and t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s
t h r o u g h o u t th e s a f e t y m ovem ent, t h e r e a r e s t i l l w id e a r e a s o f i n d u s t r i a l a c ­
t i v i t y i n w h ic h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e i g n o r e d o r i n e f f e c t u a l l y a p p l i e d .
M ost
com m on ly, t h e r e a s o n s c i t e d f o r n o t p r o v i d i n g , o r n o t e n f o r c i n g t h e u s e o f
a d e q u a te g u a r d s a r e :
t h e h ig h c o s t o f i n s t a l l i n g and m a in t a in in g g u a r d s ; th e
r e d u c t i o n i n e f f i c i e n c y ( i . e . , p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s ) a r i s i n g fr o m th e use o f g u a r d s ;
r e s i s t a n c e o n t h e p a r t o f e m p lo y e e s t o t h e u s e o f g u a r d s b a s e d u p on assum ed
i n c o n v e n i e n c e im p o se d b y th e p r e s e n c e o f a g u a r d ; and a l a c k o f c o n v i c t i o n
th a t th e r e i s a r e a l need f o r g u a rd s.
The a n sw e rs t o t h e f i r s t tw o o f t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s l i e i n t h e f i e l d o f
e n g in e e r i n g and d e s i g n .
F o r m ost e q u ip m e n t, s im p le g u a r d s , w h ic h n o t o n l y
p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n b u t a l s o i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y , c a n b e and h a v e been d e s ig n e d .
The a n sw ers t o t h e l a s t tw o o b j e c t i o n s l i e i n t h e r e c o r d o f t h e a c c i d e n t s w hich
h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a d e q u a te g u a r d in g and w h ich m ig h t h ave b e e n
a v o id e d i f a d e q u a te g u a r d s h a d b e e n i n u s e .
More th a n 1 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s u r v e y w ere d i ­
r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o in a d e q u a t e g u a r d in g .
T h is f a c t a l o n e i s an im p r e s s iv e
i n d i c a t i o n t h a t im p rov em en t i n g u a r d in g p r a c t i c e s s h o u l d h a v e h ig h p r i o r i t y
i n t h e s a f e t y p ro g ra m s o f t h e b o i l e r s h o p - p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y .
Even m ore s i g n i f ­
i c a n t and r e f l e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g human s u f f e r i n g , t h i s g ro u p o f a c c i d e n t s
p r o d u c e d UO p e r c e n t o f th e r e p o r t e d d e a t h s and 1*3 p e r c e n t o f t h e p erm a n en t
d i s a b i l i t i e s r e c o r d e d in th e s tu d y .
From t h e v ie w p o in t o f c o s t s , t h i s g r o u p
o f c a s e s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 3h p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v olu m e o f d a y s l o s t o r
ch a rg ed t o a l l i n ju r ie s in th e stu d y .
More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e a v e r a g e tim e
c h a r g e p e r c a s e f o r t h e " i n a d e q u a t e g u a r d in g " g r o u p was 1 8 8 d a y s , m ore th a n




-

25 -

d o u b l e t h e a v e r a g e o f 86 d a y s f o r a l l c a s e s i n t h e s u r v e y *
Even i n r e s p e c t t o
t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t i e s , t h e c o m p a r is o n i s u n f a v o r a b l e t o t h i s g r o u p .
The a v ­
e r a g e r e c o v e r y t im e f o r t e m p o r a r y i n j u r i e s r e s u l t i n g fr o m in a d e q u a t e g u a r d in g
was 21 d a y s , c o m p a re d w it h 16 d a y s f o r a l l te m p o r a r y i n j u r i e s i n t h e s u r v e y .
The r a n g e o f e q u ip m e n t fo u n d t o b e i n a d e q u a t e l y g u a r d e d was w i d e .
M ost
p r o m in e n t w as t h e l a c k o f a d e q u a te g u a r d in g a t t h e p o i n t o f o p e r a t i o n o f f i x e d
m a ch in e s su c h as r o l l s , p r e s s e s , g r i n d i n g m a c h in e s , s a w s , s h e a r s , and d r i l l s .
I n many i n s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r , p o w e r e d h a n d t o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g r i n d e r s , w ere t h e
u n g u a rd e d a g e n c i e s .
The p r o b le m o f p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a te g u a r d s i s n o t , h o w e v e r , l i m i t e d t o ma­
c h i n e s o r p o w e r e d e q u ip m e n t.
Many a c c i d e n t s r e s u l t e d fr o m t h e a b s e n c e o f
s a f e t y h o o k s o r s a f e t y c la m p s o n h o i s t i n g a p p a r a t u s .
The u s e o f s u c h p r o t e c ­
t i v e d e v i c e s m ig h t h a v e a v o id e d t h e d r o p p in g o f c r a n e l o a d s w h ic h i n j u r e d many
p erson s.
S i m i l a r l y , w id e r u s e o f s a f e t y s h o e s o r a n c h o r s o n l a d d e r s m ig h t
h a v e p r e v e n t e d a number o f f a l l s .
G uard r a i l s o n s c a f f o l d s , p l a t f o r m s , and
o t h e r e l e v a t e d w o r k in g s u r f a c e s m ig h t a l s o h a v e p r e v e n t e d some s e r i o u s f a l l s ,
and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t o e b o a r d s o n e l e v a t e d w o r k in g s u r fa c e s m i^it have p r e v e n t e d
m a t e r i a l s fr o m f a l l i n g o n w o r k e r s b e l o w .
D e f e c t s o f A g e n c i e s . — The e l i m i n a t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s r e s u l t i n g fr o m d e f e c ­
t i v e m a t e r i a l ana e q u ip m e n t d o e s n o t o r d i n a r i l y r e q u i r e a h ig h d e g r e e o f e n g i ­
n e e r i n g s k i l l — b u t i t d o e s r e q u i r e c o n t i n u i n g a tte n tio n * These hazards freqien tO y
d e v e l o p g r a d u a l l y and t e n d t o m erge i n t o t h e e n v ir o n m e n t a l b a c k g r o u n d .
They
becom e a c c e p t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e w o r k p la c e and t h e i r p o t e n t ia l as a c c id e n t
p r o d u c e r s i s o v e r l o o k e d b e c a u s e " t h a t ' s t h e way t h i n g s a r e . "
C o n tro l o f th ese
i n s i d i o u s h a z a r d s r e s t s p r i m a r i l y u p on f r e q u e n t i n s p e c t i o n o f a l l p r e m i s e s ,
m a t e r i a l s , and e q u ip m e n t t o d e t e c t d e f e c t i v e i t e m s , and u pon p r o v i s i o n s f o r th e
p rom p t r e p a i r o r r e m o v a l o f t h e d e f e c t i v e it e m s fr o m s e r v i c e .
I n t h e m a in ,
t h e s e h a z a r d s t e n d t o b e o b v i o u s when a d e f i n i t e e f f o r t i s made t o f i n d th em .
Ifore th a n 1 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c c i d e n t s a n a ly z e d i n t h i s su rv e y were d i r e c t l y
a t t r i b u t a b l e t o d e f e c t i v e a g e n c ie s a n d m o s t, i f n o t a l l , o f t h e s e d e f e c t i v e
c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d r e a d i l y h a ve b e e n d e t e c t e d and c o r r e c t e d b e f o r e t h e y r e s u l t e d
in a c c id e n ts .
D e f e c t i v e f l o o r s — i . e . , s l i p p e r y fr o m w ear o r fr o m s p i l l e d o i l
o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , o r i r r e g u l a r fr o m w ear— w e re p r o m in e n t i n t h i s g r o u p o f
a c c id e n t s o u r c e s .
A l l o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w ere r e c o g n i z e d a s h a z a r d s w h ich
c o u l d h a ve b e e n c o r r e c t e d , b u t a p p a r e n t l y no o n e t h o u g h t a b o u t them b e f o r e
t h a t t im e .
W orn, c r a c k e d , s p r u n g , m ushroom ed, o r o t h e r w i s e d e f e c t i v e h a n d t o o l s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f a c c i d e n t s .
H ere a g a in t h e d e f e c t s g e n e r a l l y w ere s u c h t h a t t h e y c o u l d h ave been r e c o g n iz e d
a s h a z a r d s u n d e r an a d e q u a t e i n s p e c t i o n and r e p la c e m e n t s y s t e m .
A d e q u a te m a in te n a n c e f o r m a c h in e r y i s n o t o n l y a s a f e t y m easure— i t i s
an e c o n o m ic and o p e r a t i n g n e c e s s i t y .
E v id e n c e o f f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s
l i e s i n t h e number o f c a s e s i n w h ic h i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t m ach in e p a r t s b r o k e
o r came l o o s e fr o m t h e i r s u p p o r t s d u r in g o p e r a t i o n o f t h e eq u ip m en t an d s t r u c k
th e o p e r a t o r s o r o t h e r p e rs o n s n e a rb y .




-

26 -

Burred edges on th e m etal p la te s and sto ck b ein g fa b r ic a te d were found to
be another v ery common hazard in t h is group. The r e s u ltin g cuts and la cera tio n s
to fin g e r s and hands g e n e r a lly were n o t s e r io u s , b u t th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f sev ere
in f e c t io n d ev elo p in g i s alw ays p resen t in such in j u r ie s . I n ju r ie s req u ire
tim e fo r treatm en t and ten d to lim it th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e in ju red p erson s
u n t il th e ir wounds h e a l.
An in te r e s tin g s id e lig h t o f th e a n a ly s is , fo r w hich no reason i s apparent,
i s th a t a c c id e n ts a sc r ib e d to d e fe c tiv e a g e n c ie s were r e la t iv e ly more common
in la r g e b o ilersh o p -p ro d u cts p la n ts than in sm a ll o n e s.
M iscella n eo u s. — The ob viou s c o n c lu sio n th a t concentratio n on the elim ination
o f th e hazards a lrea d y d isc u sse d w ill r e s u lt in a h ig h ly fa v o ra b le red u ctio n
in a c c id e n t volume does n ot mean th a t o th er kinds o f hazards sh ou ld be ignored.
Some o f th e l e s s fr e q u e n tly encountered hazards w hich demand a tte n tio n are im­
p o rta n t in term s o f p o t e n t ia lly se r io u s in j u r ie s . One o f th e more im portant
hazards which was found in t h is group was th a t o f c o n g e stio n in th e working
a r e a s. More s p e c if ic a lly , in adequ ate clea ra n ce fo r m a te r ia ls w hich were b ein g
moved was d ir e c t ly r e sp o n sib le fo r two o f th e f a t a l i t i e s rep o rted in the survey.
The need fo r more adequate p r o v isio n o f p erso n a l p r o te c tiv e equipm ent
throughout th e in d u str y i s a ls o apparent; fo r exam ple, th e record d e f in it e ly
in d ic a te s th e need fo r a stro n g er g o g g le program fo r o p era tio n s in v o lv in g eye
hazard s. Expanded p r o v isio n s fo r th e u se o f g lo v e s , s a f e t y sh o e s, and o th er
p r o te c tiv e d e v ic e s , such as le a th e r aprons, are needed fa r th e sa fe r performance
o f many o f th e in d u s tr y 's a c t i v i t i e s .
U nsafe A cts
For th e purposes o f t h is stu d y , an u n sa fe a c t was d e fin e d as the "violation
o f a commonly a ccep ted s a fe procedure which d ir e c t ly p erm itted or o cca sio n ed
th e occu rren ce o f th e in ju ry-p rod u cin g a c c id e n t." By t h is d e f in it io n , no action
cou ld be co n sid ered u n sa fe u n le s s th ere was an a lt e r n a tiv e , s a fe p roced u re.
For exam ple, an em ployee who was in ju red by c o n ta c t w ith a c ir c u la r saw fo r
which no guard was a v a ila b le was n ot co n sid ered as com m itting an u n sa fe a c t
because he had no a lte r n a tiv e b u t to u se th e unguarded saw . On th e o th er hand,
a worker who was in ju r e d a fte r removing th e guard, com m itted an u n sa fe a c t
b ecause he had th e a lte r n a tiv e o f u sin g th e saw w ith th e guard.
The d e f in it io n , how ever, does n ot im ply th a t th e worker must n e c e s s a r ily
know th e a lte r n a tiv e s a fe p roced u re. Although some workers o b v io u sly ooranitted
u n sa fe a c ts through c h o ic e , i t was apparent in a stu d y o f th e in d iv id u a l c a se s
th a t many workers a cted as th ey d id because th ey sim p ly d id n ot know th e s a fe
method o f perform ing t h e ir d u tie s . The c o r r e c tio n o f u n safe a c t s , th e r e fo r e ,
req u ir e s a tw o fo ld e f f o r t — ed u cation and en forcem en t. F ir s t , workers must be
th orou gh ly tr a in e d in th e s a fe perform ance o f th e ir d u ties and second, management
must p rovid e adequate su p e r v isio n to assu re th a t th e s a fe procedures are u sed .




-

27 -

Chart 6. MAJOR TYPES OF UNSAFE ACTS IN THE
BOILERSHOP-PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, 1951

Percent of All Unsafe Acts

U IT D S A E D P R M N O L B R
N E TTS EAT ET F AO
B R A OF LABO STA
UEU
R
TISTIC
S

The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t tw o g e n e r a l k in d s o f u n s a fe a c t s a r e e x tr e m e ly
common i n t h e b o i l e r s h o p - p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y — t a k i n g u n s a fe p o s i t i o n s o r p o s t u r e s ;
and u s i n g u n s a f e e q u ip m e n t o r u s in g e q u ip m e n t u n s a f e l y .
Somewhat l e s s common,
b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s im p o r t a n t , a c c i d e n t c a u s e s a r e u n s a f e l o a d i n g o r p l a c i n g ; and
o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y o r f a i l i n g t o s e c u r e t h e eq u ip m en t a g a i n s t u n ex ­
p e c t e d m ovem ent o r f a i l i n g t o a d e q u a t e ly w arn o t h e r s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g
p e r fo r m e d i n t h e a r e a .
(S e e t a b l e s 1 6 - 1 8 and c h a r t 6 . )
T a k in g U n sa fe P o s i t i o n s o r P o s t u r e s . — I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e c a s e s , t h e
s p e c i f i c u n s a f e a c t was e i t h e r i n a t t e n t i o n t o f o o t i n g o r i n a t t e n t i o n t o s u r ­
r o u n d in g s .
I n a t t e n t i o n t o f o o t i n g w as t h e m ore common f a u l t , b u t t h e r e s u lt in g




-

28

in j u r ie s were g e n e r a lly l e s s sev e r e than th o se a r is in g from in a tte n tio n to
surroundin gs (ta b le 1 7 ).
B a s ic a lly , th e se u n safe a c ts c o n s is te d o f th e w orkers' f a ilu r e to p r o te c t
th em selves a g a in st p h y s ic a l hazards o f th e w orkplace. The hazard fr e q u e n tly
was n o t crea ted by th e person who was in ju r e d , but in m ost in s ta n c e s , i t was
one w hich sh ou ld have been apparent and w hich cou ld have been avoid ed through
th e e x e r c is e o f rea so n a b le a tte n tio n and judgm ent.
The f a ilu r e to ob serve and a v o id tr ip p in g hazards was a v ery common cause
o f f a l l s n ot o n ly on th e reg u la r w orking su r fa c e s b u t a ls o on e le v a te d surf aces
where th e p ro sp ect o f s e r io u s in ju r y sh ou ld have stim u la te d g r e a te r a tte n tio n .
Poor h ou sek eep in g, in ad eq u ate m aintenance o f w orking s u r fa c e s , and im properly
p la ced m a te r ia ls were c o n tr ib u tin g ca u ses in many o f th e se a c c id e n ts .
Most o f th e a c c id e n ts a ttr ib u te d to in a tte n tio n to surroundings were
th o se in which th e in ju red p erso n bunped in to some s ta tio n a r y o b je c t in th e
working area and was in ju red e it h e r by th e fo r c e o f h is co n ta c t or was stru ck
by f a l l i n g o b je c ts d islo d g e d by h is c o n ta c t. O ften th e se were in sta n c e s in
which a person tu rn ed sh a rp ly and stru ck a p ile o f m a te r ia l, a fa b r ic a tio n , a
m achine, or a parked in d u s tr ia l tru ck . C on gestion o f th e w orkplace and im­
p ro p erly p la ced m a te r ia ls were fr e q u e n tly c o n trib u to ry cau ses in th e se a c c i­
d e n ts. In oth er f a i r l y common in s ta n c e s , p erson s w orking in c o n fin ed sp aces
e ith e r bumped in to o b str u c tio n s w h ile moving about or had th e ir own t o o ls
d e fle c te d a g a in st them when th e to o ls str u c k o b str u c tio n s.
The m ost se r io u s a c c id e n ts in t h is g en era l group, how ever, were th o se in
which th e in ju red em ployee exposed h im se lf to c o n ta c t w ith moving m a te r ia ls
or equipm ent. These u n sa fe a c ts in clu d ed ta k in g a p o s itio n under a suspended
lo a d , sta n d in g betw een a sw inging lo a d and a fix e d o b je c t, stan d in g c lo s e to
moving v e h ic le s or moving m achines, working under unsecured fa b r ic a tio n s , and
stan d in g in fr o n t o f r o llin g or s lid in g o b je c ts . In many o f th e se in s ta n c e s ,
th e em p loyee's u n fortu n ate ch o ice o f a c tio n m ight have been avoided by more
adequate su p erv iso ry p lan n in g and c o n tr o l o f th e o p e r a tio n .
U sing U nsafe Equipment or Equipment U n sa fely . — In a h igh p ro p o rtio n o f
th e se c a s e s , th e s p e c if ic u n safe a c t was th a t o f n ot m ain tain in g a secu re h old
on o b je c ts b ein g h an d led . In many in s ta n c e s , th e m a te r ia l s in p ly s lip p e d from
th e w ork er's hands and f e l l on h is to e s . In o th er in s ta n c e s , in s e c u r e ly h e ld
t o o ls went ou t o f c o n tr o l and d e fle c te d a g a in st th e w ork er's body. Few o f th e
a c c id e n ts r e s u ltin g from th e se u n sa fe a c ts were s e r io u s , b u t in th e ag g reg a te
th e y were r e sp o n sib le fo r a co n sid era b le volume o f l o s t tim e . Wider u se o f
s a f e t y sh oes undoubtedly would have reduced th e volume o f in ju r ie s r e s u ltin g
from th e se a c c id e n ts .
A r e la te d u n sa fe a ct, ta k in g a wrong h o ld on o b je c ts , was r e sp o n sib le fo r
a sm a ller number o f a c c id e n ts— b u t th e r e s u ltin g in j u r ie s tended to be more
s e r io u s . These were p r im a r ily c a se s in w hich workers grasped o b je c ts which




- 29 th e y were moving in such a way th a t t h e ir fin g e r s were caught when th ey s e t
th e o b je c ts down, or were mashed a g a in st o th er o b je c ts in th e cou rse o f th e
o p e r a tio n .
The u n sa fe a c ts o f u sin g d e fe c tiv e equipm ent ( i . e . , when th ere was a
c h o ic e ) or o f u sin g equipm ent fo r purposes o th er than th a t fo r which i t was
in ten d ed w ere n o t common. I t seem s s ig n if ic a n t , how ever, th a t th e u se o f
h an d tools was in v o lv ed in most o f th e se c a s e s .
U nsafe Loading and P la c in g . — The u n sa fe a c ts d esig n a ted as u n safe lo a d in g
c o n s is te d s p e c if ic a lly o f c a se s in which th e o b je c ts b ein g moved were to o
heavy, b u lk y , or awkward in shape fo r th e number o f p erson s doing th e l i f t i n g .
A ll o f th e in ju r ie s r e s u ltin g from t h is group o f a c c id e n ts were s tr a in s or
sp r a in s, m o stly a f f e c t in g th e back .
U nsafe p la c in g c o n s is te d p r im a r ily o f p la c in g o b je c ts in u n sta b le p o s i­
t io n s or p i l e s from w hich th ey u ltim a te ly f e l l , o fte n i n f l i c t i n g in ju r ie s on
p erson s oth er than th o se who d id th e u n safe p la c in g . T his group d id n o t in ­
clu d e c a se s o f im proper p la c in g ( i . e . , in term s o f p o s itio n ) nor d id i t include
c a se s in which m a te r ia ls were p ro p erly p la c e d b u t in a d eq u a tely secu red a g a in st
s lid in g or f a l l i n g .
Other U nsafe A c ts. — Supplem enting th e major p a tte r n , th e r e was a wide
range o f somewhat l e s s common u n sa fe a c ts which in th e aggregate were responsi­
b le fo r a s u b s ta n tia l volume o f in j u r ie s . Because th e s e may be somewhat o f a
ra re occurrence in any in d iv id u a l e sta b lish m e n t, t h e ir im portance may be over­
lo o k ed and th e s te p s n ecessa ry fo r t h e ir e lim in a tio n may n ot be ta k en . The
in d u stryw id e sum m aries, how ever, in d ic a te th a t s e v e r a l v a r ie t ie s o f th ese
" le s s common" u n sa fe a c ts do occur o fte n enough to w arrant s p e c ia l preventative
a c tio n .
In p a r tic u la r , i t i s apparent th a t th e f a ilu r e to secu re m a te r ia ls and
equipm ent a g a in st unexpected movement i s r e sp o n sib le fo r a co n sid era b le number
o f in ju ry -p ro d u cin g a c c id e n ts . In an a p p recia b le number o f c a s e s , m etal sto c k
and a ssem b lies had s l i d or to p p led onto or a g a in st p eo p le who were working with
them sim p ly b ecau se th e a r t ic le s had been p r e c a r io u sly p la ced and unsecu red .
S im ila r ly , in o th er in s ta n c e s , workers had been str u c k by u n attended in d u stria l
tru ck s which had been parked on slo p e s w ith ou t b ein g b lock ed a g a in st movement.
Another ra th er common u n sa fe p r a c tic e d eserv in g a tte n tio n i s th e fa ilu r e
to make u se o f a v a ila b le p erso n a l p r o te c tiv e equipm ent, p a r tic u la r ly g o g g le s.
The f a ilu r e to u se g o g g le s which had been p rovid ed was d ir e c t ly resp o n sib le for
th ree o f th e rep o rted c a se s in which workers l o s t th e s ig h t o f an eye and fo r
a co n sid era b le number o f l e s s se r io u s in ju r ie s i n f l i c t e d by fly in g p a r t ic le s
or by w eld in g r a d ia tio n s .




- 30 ACCIDENT-PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS
To i l l u s t r a t e th e w ide range o f hazards en countered in th e b o ile r sh o p p rod u cts in d u str y , a number o f t y p ic a l a c c id e n ts w ere s e le c te d , fo r in d iv id u a l
a n a ly s is . £ /
In p resen tin g th e se a c c id e n t-p r e v e n tio n s u g g e stio n s, th ere i s no in te n t
to im ply th a t th e y c o n s titu te a com prehensive s e t o f s a f e t y r u le s fo r th e
b o ilersh o p -p ro d u cts in d u str y or th a t th e su g g ested methods c o n s titu te th e o n ly
e f f e c t iv e means o f avoid in g such a c c id e n ts. The a c c id e n ts d escrib ed are typ ­
i c a l c a se s o f freq u en t o ccu rren ce, but th ey do n ot in any sen se r e p r e se n t th e
f u l l range o f hazards encountered in b o ile r sh o p o p e r a tio n s.
The purpose o f th e comments and su g g e stio n s i s m erely to in d ic a te th a t
th e r e alm ost in v a r ia b ly i s a r e la t iv e ly sim p le method o f p rev en tin g p r a c t ic a l­
l y any kin d o f a c c id e n t. Many s a f e t y e n g in e e r s, no d ou b t, would a tta c k th e
problem s in v o lv ed in th e se a c c id e n ts in d if f e r e n t ways and would a ch iev e equal­
l y good r e s u lt s . The method o f p r e v e n tio n , o f co u rse, i s o f l i t t l e im portance
as lo n g as i t accom p lish es i t s purpose.
Case D e sc r ip tio n s and A ccid en t-p rev en tio n S u g g estio n s
1.
W hile an em ployee was w alking around a p r e s s , he step p ed on a sp o t o f
g re a se and f e l l to th e f lo o r . He s u ffe r e d a sp ra in ed sh o u ld er, and was d is ­
a b led 13 d ays. I n v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t th e g rea se f e l l from an a ir h o is t
u sed to convey m a teria l to th e p r e ss which had r e c e n tly been s e r v ic e d .
a . Poor housekeeping p r a c tic e s o b v io u sly p layed an
im portant p a r t in th e occurrence o f t h is a c c id e n t.
Both m aintenance men and o p era to rs sh ou ld be tr a in e d
to check th e work a rea fo r g r e a s e , scra p , e t c / ,' A'ftfeb
each s e r v ic in g and sh ou ld be req u ired to c le a n up im­
m ed ia tely any s p i l l e d or d isca rd ed m a te r ia l. The
su p erv iso r sh ou ld make a p erso n a l check to se e th a t
t h is i s done. Followup in s p e c tio n s sh ou ld be made
la t e r to in su r e th a t fu r th e r grease d rip p in g s are
removed.

9 / These c a se s were review ed by Sheldon W. Homan, S a fe ty E ngineer in th e
D iv is io n o f Labor S tandards, Bureau o f Labor S tandards, o f th e U. S . Department
o f Labor. For each c a se , Mr. Homan has made one or more su g g e stio n s as to th e
a c tio n w hich, i f ta k en , m ight have p reven ted th e d escrib ed a c c id e n t, and fo r
many o f th e c a se s has p rovid ed gen era l comments on th e s ig n ific a n c e o f th a t
p a r tic u la r v a r ie ty o f a c c id e n t.




- 31
b . The more im portant fa c to r « how ever, was th a t th e
m aintenance o p era tio n ap p aren tly had n o t been properlyperform ed, In any g rea sin g o p e r a tio n , i t i s e s s e n t ia l
th a t a l l e x c e s s grease be wiped from th e f i t t i n g s and
th a t f i t t i n g s w hich do n o t p ro p erly r e t a in to e g rea se
be r e p la c e d . I f d rip p in g p e r s is t s , a d rip pan sh ou ld
be in s t a lle d to keep th e g rea se o f f th e f lo o r .
2.
A worker was rem oving a s t e e l tube from tu b in g p ile d on a ra ck . He
p u lle d one tube from th e c e n te r o f th e p i l e , ca u sin g th e p i l e to s l i p and r o l l
on h is le g . He was d isa b le d 102 days w ith a fr a c tu r e d l e g . I n v e s tig a tio n
d is c lo s e d th a t th e p ile o f tubing con tain ed tu b es o f v a rio u s s iz e s and th a t
none o f th e tu b es on th e su rfa ce o f th e p ile was th e c o r r e c t s iz e th a t the
worker w anted.
Good housekeeping p r a c tic e would req u ire th a t
each tube s iz e be k ep t in a sep a ra te ra ck .
3.
A foreman stum bled over a p ie c e o f a n g le ir o n ly in g on th e f lo o r .
f e l l to th e f lo o r sp ra in in g h is elbow . L ost tim e: 7 d ays. I n v e s tig a tio n
d is c lo s e d th a t th e an gle ir o n was scrap m a teria l d isca rd ed from a burning
o p era tio n .
Good o p era tin g p r a c tic e s would req u ire th a t a
c o n ta in e r be a v a ila b le a t each w orkplace fo r d is p o s a l
o f scra p .
lu W hile an em ployee was o p era tin g a p la n e r , he s lip p e d and f e l l a g a in st
bed p la te o f p la n e r . He bruised h is le g and was disabled fa r 1 day. In v e stig a tio n
d is c lo s e d th a t th e f lo o r was o i l y and covered w ith s t e e l sh a v in g s.
A need fo r im proved housekeeping proced u res i s
s tr o n g ly in d ic a te d . Shavings sh ou ld n o t be allow ed
to accum ulate on th e f lo o r around any m achine. A
sw eeping compound which w i l l absorb th e c u ttin g o i l
and perm it i t s ready rem oval from th e f lo o r sh ou ld
be provid ed and i t s u se req u ired . Frequent in s p e c tio n
o f th e w orkplace by su p e r v iso r s i s n e cessa ry to in su re
com pliance.

5 . As an em ployee was w alking to h is workbench, he step p ed on a n a il
p r o je c tin g from a p ie c e o f lum ber. He was d isa b le d fo r 2 days as a r e s u lt o f
a punctured f o o t . I n v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t th e p ie c e o f lumber had been
d isca rd ed when a s c a f f o ld had been removed.
I t sh ou ld be standard p r a c tic e t o req u ire con­
s tr u c tio n . m aintenance, o r s e r v ic e crew s to remove
a l l scra p , d e b r is , e x c e ss m a te r ia l, e t c . , r e s u ltin g
from t h e ir o p e r a tio n s, b efo re le a v in g th e a r e a .




He

- 32 In d ism a n tlin g any wooden s tr u c tu r e s , b o x e s,
c r a t e s , e t c . , good s a fe p r a c tic e c a l l s fo r the"Imme­
d ia te rem oval o f a l l n a ils and p r o je c tin g fa s te n e r s
from each p ie c e o f lum ber b efo re i t i s d isca rd ed or
p ile d fo r rem oval.
U n fo rtu n a tely , th e se are s a fe p r a c tic e s which
are fr e q u e n tly v io la t e d . T h eir observance can be
in su red o n ly b y c lo s e su p e r v isio n . For h is own
p r o te c tio n , th e re g u la r su p erv iso r o f a work a rea
sh ou ld make a thorough in s p e c tio n o f th e area imme­
d ia t e ly a f t e r th e com p letion o f a c o n str u c tio n o r
r e p a ir jo b .
6 . An em ployee was p u llin g a fo u r-w h eel handtruck lo a d ed w ith s t e e l
p la t e s . When th e tru ck str u c k a h o le in th e f lo o r , th e p la te s f e l l from th e
tru ck and cru shed h is f o o t , which had to be am putated.
a . Under a good housekeeping and m aintenance
program, th e h o le in th e f lo o r would have been
r e p a ir e d .
b . A b a r r ie r on th e tru ck m ight have p reven ted
th e p la te s s lid in g forw ard.
c . G en era lly sp eak in g, i t i s an u n sa fe p r a c tic e
t o p u ll r a th e r than to push a lo a d ed handtruck.
In t h is in s ta n c e , th e em ployee would have been
u n in ju red i f he had been p u sh in g th e tru ck when
i t s p ro g ress was suddenly stop p ed and th e lo a d
s h if t e d forw ard.
7 . An em ployee was h elp in g to assem ble a ta n k . He step p ed on a p ie c e o f
round w eld in g rod . When i t r o lle d , em ployee tw is te d h is k n ee. He was disabled
fo r 22 d ays. I n v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t th e w eld in g rod had been d isca rd ed
by a w eld er who had dropped i t on th e f lo o r .
The unused ends o f w eld in g rods sh ou ld be
d e p o site d in a co n ta in er and d isp o sed o f as scra p .
A m etal c o n ta in e r fo r t h is purpose i s som etim es
a tta ch ed io th e w eld in g m achine, t h is a c c id e n t
a ls o p o in ts up th e f a c t th a t em ployees m ast be
tr a in e d to reco g n ize c o n d itio n s w hich can cau se
in ju r y .
8 . As em ployee was working near a p ile o f beams, one o f which f e l l from
th e p i l e and stru ck h is back. As a r e s u lt o f th e b r u ise d back, he was disabled
fo r 9 d a y s. I n v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t p ile d m a te r ia ls in th e yard w ere,
g e n e r a lly , n o t s t a b le .




- 33 S ta b le p ilin g o f m a te r ia l i s an e s s e n t ia l o f
ev ery s a f e t y program. U nsafe m a te r ia l p ilin g
in d ic a te s la c k or s a fe ty c o n scio u sn ess on th e p a r t
o f th e su p e r v iso r and p erh ap s, th e management,
9 . An em ployee was tig h te n in g a b o lt w ith a monkey wrench. The wrench
s lip p e d from th e b o lt and em ployee, attem p tin g to r e ta in h is b a la n c e , tw iste d
h is b ack . L ost tim e: 12 d ays. I n v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t th e jaw o f th e
wrench was worn lo o s e through exten d ed u s e .
a . An in s p e c tio n system fo r t o o ls and equipm ent
i s n ecessa ry so th a t worn t o o ls w i l l be rep a ired
or d iscard ed b efo re th e y become hazardous to u s e .
b . F ixed -jaw wrenches are p r e fe r a b le when u sed
on standard s iz e n u ts. The u se o f a d ju sta b le jaw wrenches sh ou ld be d iscou raged ex cep t fo r
o d d -siz e d n u ts or b o lt s th a t cannot be f i t t e d
by stan d ard fix e d -ja w w renches.
c . Employees sh ou ld be in str u c te d to make c e r ta in
o f fo o tin g and p o s it io n b e fo r e ap p lyin g p ressu re
on wrench— in c a se i t should s l i p .
A ccid en ts due to fa u lty t o o ls and equipm ent can be elim in a ted i f to o ls
and equipm ent are m aintained in good working ord er. To be e f f e c t iv e , m ainte­
nance must be on a sy ste m a tic and o rd erly b a s is so th a t each p ie c e o f equip­
ment i s in sp e c te d a t reg u la r in t e r v a ls . T his kind o f m aintenance i s som etim es
known a s p rev en tiv e m aintenance.
P rev en tiv e m aintenance in v o lv e s a number o f th in g s . I t s b a sic fe a tu r e
in c lu d e s a r o u tin e in s p e c tio n o f a l l t o o ls , equipm ent, and a p p lia n ces a t a
d e f in it e tim e w ith record s o f th e fin d in g s k e p t. I t goes even fu r th e r in
th a t i t in v o lv e s th e replacem ent o f p a r ts su b je c t to wear a t predeterm ined
in te r v a ls even though some u se s t i l l rem ains.
M aintenance i s c lo s e ly a l l i e d w ith o th er o p era tin g fu n c tio n s , such as
good h ou sek eep in g. An e f f i c i e n t l y op erated toolroom , fo r exam ple, must
in v o lv e in a d d itio n to e f f i c i e n t t o o l s to r a g e , a system o f e f f e c t iv e t o o l
m aintenance and issu a n c e to a ssu re th a t a n t o o ls are in f i r s t - c l a s s condition
and s u ita b le fo r th e jo b . Even where t o o ls are owned by th e workmen some
in s p e c tio n system sh ou ld be u sed to a ssu re th a t th ey are kept in good condition.
1 0 . An en p loyee was u sin g a sle d g e hammer. The head o f th e hammer which
was lo o s e fle w from th e handle and stru ck th e em p loyee's fa c e , d is a b lin g him
fo r 3 d ays.




- 3U I n e f f e c t iv e t o o l c o n tr o l i s in d ic a te d . Where
t o o ls are iss u e d from a t o o l c r ib , th ey sh ou ld be
in sp e c te d b efo re b ein g is s u e d . Where t o o ls are
owned by th e men, a system o f in s p e c tio n by th e
foreman sh ou ld be in s t it u t e d .
Em ployees sh ou ld a ls o be tr a in e d to in s p e c t
t h e ir own t o o ls and to o b ta in rep lacem en ts fo r
any which th e y fin d to be d e f e c t iv e ,
11.
An em ployee was u sin g a punch p r e s s . As th e d ie co n ta cted th e s t e e l
p la t e , th e d ie broke and a p ie c e o f s t e e l stru ck th e em ployee in th e e y e .
D is a b ilit y : 3 d a y s.
T his a c c id e n t su g g e sts th a t th e d ie was in
poor c o n d itio n to c u t p ro p erly . The d ie s e t t e r
sh ou ld make c e r ta in th a t th e d ie i s sharp and ~
fr e e o f d e fe c ts b e fo r e i t i s in s t a lle d .
12.
A punch p r e ss op erator was h old in g a s t e e l p la te on th e p r e ss when,
u n ex p ected ly , th e p r e ss tr ip p e d . H is hand was caught betw een th e d ie s and
fr a c tu r e d . He was d isa b le d fo r 129 d ays. I n v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t t h is
punch p r e ss d id n ot have a n on rep eat-typ e c lu tc h and th a t th e c lu tc h dog was
gummed up w ith g rea se and o i l . I t was rep o rted to have rep ea ted on o th er
o c c a sio n s.
a . Punch p r e sse s should be equipped w ith c lu tc h e s
d esign ed to p reven t r e p e a tin g .
b . An adequate in s p e c tio n and m aintenance program
p rob ab ly would have p reven ted t h is a c c id e n t by
e lim in a tin g th e "gummed up11 c o n d itio n o f th e c lu tc h
dog. In any e v e n t, th e machine sh ou ld have been
im m ed iately checked and p u t in good c o n d itio n a fte r
th e f i r s t tim e i t rep ea ted .
13.
An em ployee became s ic k when he in h a le d propane g a s . I n v e s tig a tio n
d is c lo s e d em ployee was working near a burning o p era tio n and th a t th e to rch
b ein g u sed in th a t work had a worn h o se . As a r e s u lt , propane gas lea k ed
from th e h o se .
a . An adequate program o f p r e v e n ta tiv e m aintenance,
in c lu d in g reg u la r in s p e c tio n o f a l l equipm ent, cou p led
w ith th e im m ediate r e p a ir or replacem ent o f a l l item s
found t o be d e fe c tiv e probably would have p reven ted
t h is a c c id e n t.




- 35 -

b . O p erators o f bu rn in g equipm ent sh ou ld be re q u ire d
t o in s p e c t t h e ir equipm ent and t o r e p o r t d e fe c t iv e item s
each day b e fo r e o p e ra tin g th e equipm ent. S u p erv isors
sh ou ld make p e r io d ic ch eck s t o in su re th a t t h is p r a c t ic e
i s fo llo w e d ,
lLu When a g rin d in g w heel e x p lod ed , a fragm ent s tru ck th e o p e r a t o r 's
arm and fr a c tu r e d i t .
D is a b ilit y : 118 d ays. In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t
th e w heel had r e c e n t ly been changed and the wrong typ e o f w heel u sed , and
th a t th e gu ard, w hich had been rem oved during th e change, had n ot been
r e p la c e d .
A b ra sive w heels have d iff e r e n t b u r s tin g stre n g th s
depending upon c o n s tr u c tio n , kind, o f bond, s iz e , e t c .
Adequate t o o l c o n t r o l through a w e ll-o p e r a te d toolroom
w ould p rev en t th e c o n d itio n s which cau sed t h is a c c id e n t.
The forem an sh ou ld p e r s o n a lly ch eck each new w heel
b e fo r e i t i s used t o in su re (a ) th a t the p rop er w heel
has~been s e le c t e d ; (b ) th a t the new w heel i s in good "
c o n d itio n } ( c ) th a t th e w heel i s p r o p e r ly m ounted;
and (d ) th a t the guard i s fir m ly fix e d in p la c e .
1 5 . A w eld er r e c e iv e d an e l e c t r i c shock from h is w eldin g t o r c h . As a
r e s u lt , he was d is a b le d f o r 8? d a ys. In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d d e fe c t iv e
in s u la t io n on th e ca b le n ear th e e le c t r o d e h o ld e r .
a . An adequate program o f p re v e n tiv e m aintenance,
in clu d in g r e g u la r in s p e c tio n o f a l l equipm ent,
cou p led w ith im m ediate r e p a ir o r replacem en t o f
a l l item s found t o be d e fe c t i ve p rob a b ly w ould"
have p rev en ted t h is a c c id e n t. ~
b . O perators o f w eldin g equipm ent sh ou ld be
tr a in e d and r e q u ir e d t o in s p e c t t h e ir equipm ent
and t o r e p o r t d e fe c t iv e item s each day b e fo r e
s ta r t in g t h e ir w ork. S u p erv isory in s p e c tio n s
sh ou ld be made r e g u la r ly t o in su re th a t t h is
prictlce~lir~f6TTowe5 .'~ -------- ------------------1 6 . An em ployee was unhooking a s k id from an e l e c t r i c tr u c k . The tru ck
r o lle d back s t r ik in g th e em p lo y e e 's h e e l, d is a b lin g him f o r 16 d a y s. An
in v e s t ig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t the em ployee d id n o t s e t the brake on the tr u c k .
O nly q u a lifie d person s sh ou ld be p erm itted t o
o p e ra te t h is equipm ent. R efresh er c o u rse s sh ou ld
be g iv en o c c a s io n a lly t o rem ind o p e r a to rs o f a l l
s a fe work req u irem en ts.




- 36 -

1 7 . A m aintenance e le c t r ic ia n was r e p a ir in g an e l e c t r i c sw itch on a
sm all cra n e . He was k ille d when he was s tru ck and h is head cru sh ed by the
low er span o f a la r g e overhead cra n e . In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t in ord er
t o r e p a ir th e s w itc h , th e em ployee had t o sta n d on a beam w ith h is body ex­
tended above th e sm a ll cra n e , th a t th e c le a ra n ce betw een the 2 cra n es was
a p p roxim ately 3 in c h e s , and th a t th e o p e ra to r o f the overhead cran e gave no
s ig n a l as he approached.
The sm a ll crane sh ou ld have been moved t o th e
end o f th e runway, o r , i f t h is w ere im p o s s ib le ,
a l l o f th e o th e r cran es in the bay sh ou ld have
been b lo c k e d o f f so th a t th ey co u ld n o t have been
moved in t o th e a rea .
In a d d itio n , a h e lp e r o r standby guard sh ou ld
have been p ro v id e d t o warn o f im pending danger.
1 8 . An em ployee was o p e ra tin g
he attem pted t o brush ch ip s o f f th e
bed o f th e p la n e r . When the bed o f
s tru ck b y th e p la t e . The la c e r a t e d
la s t e d 19 d ays.

a p la n e r . W ithout stop p in g th e m achine,
b o ile r p la t e , which was fa ste n e d t o the
th e p la n e r moved, em p loy ee's hand was
hand became in fe c t e d and the d is a b ilit y

a . T his was a v io la t io n o f a b a s ic s a fe t y r u le —
m achinery sh ou ld n o t be cle a n e d w h ile i t i s in
m otion .
b . P roper m ed ica l a tte n tio n sh ou ld have p rev en ted
th e in f e c t io n .
19.
W hile he was op era tin g a d r i l l p r e s s , th e lo o s e s le e v e o f th e
ja c k e t worn b y the o p e r a to r became en tan gled in the r e v o lv in g d r i l l .
Employee
fr a c tu r e d h is arm and was d is a b le d f o r U2 d ays.
Loose c lo t h in g such as s h ir t s le e v e s , n e c k t ie s ,
e t c . , sh ou ld n ever be worn abou t moving m achinery.
The a c c id e n t su g g ests th a t b e t t e r s u p e rv is io n was
in o r d e r .
20.
An em ployee attem pted t o l i f t a p ie c e o f s t e e l p la t e w eighing
ap p roxim a tely 15>0 pounds on to a m achine. He s tr a in e d h is back and was d is ­
a b led 15 d a y s. In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t th e h o is tin g equipm ent, g e n e r a lly
a v a ila b le , was b ein g u sed elsew h ere.
W ith p ro p e r tr a in in g , th e em ployee w ould have
w a ited f o r th e h o is tin g equipm ent o r w ould have
ob ta in ed h e lp in l i f t i n g th e p la t e !




- 37 -

2 1 . A m aintenance m echanic was r e p a ir in g an overh ead cra n e . He t r ie d to
c a n y a b lo c k and a c o i l o f rop e up a v e r t ic a l la d d e r . He m issed h ie handhold
and f e l l t o th e f l o o r . He was d is a b le d f o r £0 days w ith a fr a c tu r e d p e lv is
and h ip .
W one sh ou ld attem pt t o clim b a la d d e r c a rry in g
o
t o o ls o r equipm ent. A l i n e , w ith p a il f o r sm a ll
p a r ts i f n e c e s s a r y , sh ou ld be used t o r a is e o r low er
m a te ria ls from one e le v a tio n t o a n oth er.
2 2 . An em ployee was u sin g a hand h o is t t o move an I-beam . One o f th e
hooks s lip p e d , p e rm ittin g th e beam t o f a l l and s t r ik e h is l e f t f o o t . D isa­
b i l i t y : U8 d a y s. In v e s tig a t io n d is c lo s e d th a t em ployee had n o t ce n te re d th e
lo a d p r o p e r ly b e fo r e attem p tin g t o move th e beam.
a . A ll em ployees who have o c c a s io n t o u se h o is t s
sh ou ld be th o ro u g h ly in s tr u c te d in th e p ro p e r
m ethod o f a p p ly in g h ook s, s lin g s , and grabs and
o f making th e l i f t .
b . In t h is c a s e , th e em ployee p ro b a b ly sh ou ld
have~used ^ grabs" in s te a d o f h ook s. A sp read er
b a r m ight have h e lp e d .
c.

S a fe ty shoes m ight have m inim ized th e in ju r y *

2 3 . An em ployee was u sin g a p o r ta b le g r in d e r . W ithout s to p p in g th e
t o o l , he t r ie d t o remove a '•kink" in th e a ir h ose b y w hipping i t . As he d id
s o , he l o s t c o n t r o l o f th e g rin d e r and dropped i t a g a in s t h is l e g . D is a b ility :
3 d a y s.
a . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f u sin g nonkink a i r hose
sh ou ld be in v e s t ig a te d .
b . Em ployees sh ou ld be in s tr u c te d t o check
a ir h ose b e fo r e s t a r t in g g r in d e r .
c . Adjustm ents t o m ech an ical equipm ent sh ou ld
n ev er be made w h ile th e equipm ent i s m oving.
2U. W hile p a in tin g tanks near a w eld in g o p e r a tio n , a p a in te r s u ffe r e d
fla s h bu rn s. He was d is a b le d f o r 6 d a ys. In v e s tig a tio n showed th a t g o g g le s
were a v a ila b le , b u t th e p a in te r p r e fe r r e d n o t t o u se them .
The w eld in g o p e r a tio n sh ou ld be e n clo s e d
w ith a s o l i d e n clo s u re t o p rev en t fla s h burns
t o o th e r s in th e v i c i n i t y . T h is a ls o r a is e s "
th e q u e stio n o f whether p a in tin g c o u ld be done
a t an oth er p la c e o r a t a d iffe r e n t tim e.




- 38 -

25. An em ployee was ca rry in g a s t e e l beam w eighing 120 pounds. I t
s lip p e d ou t o f h is hands and f e l l on h is f o o t . Employee was d is a b le d f o r
5 d ays.
S a fe ty shoes m ight have p rev en ted th e in ju r y .
The a c c id e n t s u e e e sts th a t a stu d y sh ou ld be made
t o determ ine i f some means o f m ech an ical h an d lin g
w ould be advantageou s, n o t o n ly f o r s a fe t y b u t
a ls o f o r e f f i c i e n c y .
I f m echanical h an dlin g i s n ot p r a c t ic a l,
a d d itio n a l h elp sh ou ld be p ro v id e d f o r lifM w g
and tr a n s p o r tin g m a te ria ls o f t h is w eigh t and
shape.
‘
2 6 . Employee attem pted t o brush s t e e l ch ip s from th e t a b le o f a d r i l l
p r e s s w ith h is g lo v e d hand. A ch ip became im bedded in h is hand and, becau se
o f h is f a ilu r e t o r e p o r t f o r f i r s t a id , in fe c t io n d e v e lo p e d . He was d is a b le d
f o r k 2 d ays.
a . G loves sh ou ld n o t be worn when o p e ra tin g a
d r i l l p re ss o r any o th e r m oving m achinery.
b.

A brush sh ou ld be u sed f o r rem oving c h ip s .

2 7 . » h ile a m aintenance man was r e p a ir in g an overh ead c ra n e , th e cran e
o p e r a to r moved i t a t th e re q u e s t o f a workman on th e shop f l o o r . The m ainte­
nance man was cau gh t betw een th e moving cran e and a r a i l . He was d is a b le d
7U d a y s. In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t th e crane o p e r a to r had been n o t if ie d
o f th e r e p a ir work but had fo r g o t te n th a t th e m aintenance man was s t i l l
w orking on th e cra n e .
The cran e c o n t r o l sw itch sh ou ld be lo c k e d
open when r e p a ir s a re b ein g made. The key t o
th e sw itch sh ou ld be in th e p o s s e s s io n o f th e
m aintenance forem an, and he alon e sh ou ld have
th e a u th o r ity t o c lo s e th e sw itch when r e p a ir s
have been com pleted .
2 8 . A w eld er was sta n d in g on a tank t o ta ck w eld a su p p ort f o r th e ta n k .
He l o s t h is b a la n ce and f e l l t o th e f l o o r , b r u is in g h is knee. He was d is a b le d
f o r 6 d a y s. In v e s tig a t io n d is c lo s e d th a t th e re was no w orking p la tfo r m o r
s c a f f o ld a v a ila b le .
T his in ju r y su g g e sts th a t a stu d y be made o f
th e o p e ra tio n t o see i f a more e f f i c i e n t and s a fe r
way t o do th e jo b c o u ld be d e v is e d . I f a p la tfo r m
i s n o t p r a c t ic a l, c o r d -ty p e s o le s on sh oes m ight
be in o r d e r .
2 9 . A d r i l l p r e s s o p e ra to r was d r i llin g h o le s in a sm all s t e e l p la t e .
The d r i l l became stu ck in th e m a te r ia l, sp in n in g th e m a te ria l and th e j i g




w hich he was u s in g . The j i g s tru ck h is hand. He was d is a b le d 9 d a ys. In v es­
t ig a t io n d is c lo s e d th a t th e b i t had been d u lle d and th a t th e j i g had n ot been
clam ped t o th e p r e s s t a b le .
D r illin g sh ou ld n ever be attem pted u n t il th e
m a te ria l i s clam ped t o th e t a b le . A lso th e f a c t
th a t th e d r i l l was d u ll em phasizes th e axiom th a t
s a fe t y i s synonymous w ith e f f i c i e n c y .
30.
W hile an em ployee was g e t t in g tu bes from a tube r a c k , an overh ead
cran e p a ssed ca rry in g a b o i l e r . The suspended b o ile r stru ck a tank and swung,
s tr ik in g em ployee in th e abdomen. Employee s u ffe r e d a h e rn ia and was d is a b le d
$0 d ays. In v e s tig a t io n d is c lo s e d th a t crane was equ ipped w ith a w arning
s ig n a l, b u t th a t o p e ra to r d id n ot u se i t .
a . The w arning gong sh ou ld be in s t a lle d s o th a t
i t w i l l sound a u to m a tic a lly whenever th e crane~*is
in m otion .
b . The movement o f cran e lo a d s in con g ested a rea s
sh ou ld be planned in advance. A ll p o s s ib le ob­
s tr u c tio n s sh ou ld be s p o tte d and th e r ig g e r s sh ou ld
be su re th a t th e area i s c le a r o f o th e r w orkers be­
fo r e g iv in g th e s ig n a l t o move. W atchers sh ou ld be
a ssig n e d t o s ig n a l th e cran e o p e ra to r i f th e lo a d
comes c lo s e t o any o b s tr u c tio n , in t ig h t s itu a t io n s
such as th a t d e s c r ib e d , t a g lin e s p ro b a b ly sh ou ld b e
used t o gu id e th e lo a d and p rev en t i t s sw in g in g.
31. Employee was cle a n in g o i l from th e d ie o f a form ing m achine w ith ou t
open in g th e power s w itc h . W hile he was engaged in t h is w ork, th e machine
"tr ip p e d " su dden ly and h is fin g e r s were cru sh ed b y th e d ie . In v e s tig a tio n
d is c lo s e d th a t th e m achine was a c tiv a te d by a f o o t p e d a l w hich was unguarded.
I t i s assumed th a t o p e ra to r may have a c c id e n t a lly tou ch ed th e f o o t p e d a l.
a . When c le a n in g a p r e s s , th e power sh ou ld be
d is c o n n e cte d , and p r e fe r a b ly lo c k e d in the " o f f "
p o s it io n u n t il th e c le a n in g i s com p leted .
b . The f o o t tr e a d le sh ou ld have a guard o v e r i t
t o p reven t in a d v e rte n t o p e r a tio n o r th e p r e s s .
32. A h y d ra u lic p r e s s o p e ra to r was l i f t i n g a s t e e l p la t e on to a r o l l e r .
He caught h is fin g e r betw een 2 p la t e s and am putated 1 fin g e r . I n v e s tig a tio n
d is c lo s e d th a t th e p la t e s were heavy and th a t no m echanical h an dlin g equipm ent
was a v a ila b le .
An a c c id e n t o f t h is k in d c a l l s f o r a thorough
a n a ly s is o t th e jo b b ein g p erform ed . I t may be




- Uo found p o s s ib le t o e lim in a te th e l i f t i n g o p e r a tio n
e n t ir e ly ; t o p ro v id e m ech an ical l i f t i n g equipm ent;
o r i t may be fou n d th a t two men sh ou ld be a ssig n ed
t o t h is o p e r a tio n . In any e v e n t, th e e lim in a tio n
o f th e hazard p ro b a b ly w i l l r e s u lt in more e f f i c i e n t
o p e r a tio n s .
33.
A w eld er was "h ook in g up" an en g in e on a cran e in o rd e r to r e p o s itio n
en g in e . He had p la c e d a hook in a c y lin d e r h o le a t one end o f th e en g in e.
W hile th e w eld er was p la c in g a secon d hook a t th e o th e r end, th e crane op era tor
to o k up th e s la c k in th e ch a in and th e w e ld e r 's fin g e r was ca u g h t.betw een th e
hook and th e en gin e and am putated. In v e s tig a t io n d is c lo s e d th a t th e crane
o p e ra to r u n d erstood th e nod o f th e w e ld e r 's head to be a s ig n a l t o l i f t .
"H ooking up" sh ou ld p r e fe r a b ly be done b y a
hookup man ra th e r than th e o p e r a to r . A s e t o f
stan dard s ig n a ls sh ou ld be adopted and s ig n a ls
sh ou ld be tra n sm itte d o n ly b y p erson doin g th e
"h ook in g u p ." Cirane o p e ra to rs sh ou ld be re q u ir e d
t o a cce p t o n ly stan dard hand s ig n a ls b e fo r e moving
cra n e .
3U. An em ployee was a t th e end o f a 7 5 -fo o t sh ip p in g p la tfo rm w hich had
ste p s o n ly a t th e o th e r en d . In stea d o f w alking th e le n g th o f th e p la tfo rm
and u sin g th e s te p s , he jumped U f e e t t o the ground and tw is te d h is a n k le . He
was d is a b le d 1 week.
Jumping from a lo a d in g p la tfo rm i s an u n sa fe
p r a c t ic e w hich i s v e ry d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l. I t s
e lim in a tio n r e q u ir e s th orou gh tr a in in g in s a fe
p roced u res and p e r s is t e n t en forcem en t o f sa fe "*
p roced u res b y s u p e r v is o r s .
In a s it u a t io n such as t h i s , the p r o v is io n
o f a d d itio n a l s te p s t o e lim in a te th e need f o r
w alkin g so fa r t o g e t down from th e p la tfo r m "
w ould u n d ou bted ly red u ce the in c e n tiv e t o jump
down.
35.
An em ployee had been u sin g a la d d e r t o rea ch a s lin g lo a d o f p ip e in
o rd e r t o a d ju s t th e s lin g . When he s ta r t e d t o descen d th e la d d e r , i t s lip p e d
away from th e w a ll a g a in st w hich i t had been p la c e d . Employee f e l l 12 f e e t t o
th e f l o o r and b r u is e d h is f e e t . L ost tim e: 1 week. In v e s tig a t io n d is c lo s e d
th a t th e la d d er was n ot equ ip p ed w ith s a fe t y sh o e s.
a . When n e ce ssa ry t o a d ju s t th e s lin g , th e hook
sh ou ld be low ered and adjustm ents made from th e
i T o o r : -----------------------------------




---------------------------------------------

- la b . Ladders sh ou ld be equipped w ith s a fe t y sh o e s,
and em ployees sh ou ld be th orou g h ly tr a in e d in th e
s a fe placem ent and u se o f la d d e r s ,
36. An em ployee was u sin g a ch a in h o is t t o move a bu rn er. When he r e ­
le a s e d th e chain* th e burner tip p e d and em ployee s tr a in e d h is back tr y in g t o
ste a d y th e b u rn er. L ost tim e : 68 d ays. In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d th a t employee
attem pted t o "la n d ” the bu rn er on an uneven f l o o r .
E f f ic ie n t w orking c o n d itio n s r e q u ir e even
f lo o r s in a l l w ork p la ces. An a c c id e n t such as
t h is in d ic a t e s th e need f o r an in v e s t ig a tio n o f
work p r a c tic e s throu gh ou t th e sh op, n ot o n ly f o r
s a fe t y b u t a ls o f o r e f f i c i e n c y .
37. An em ployee was d r illin g h o le s in a b o ile r p la te * u sin g an e l e c t r i c
p o r ta b le d r i l l w ith a T -h an d le. When th e d r i l l brok e through th e p la t e , i t
"hung" and tw is te d th e handle o u t o f em p loy ee's hands. When he t r ie d t o reg a in
h is h o ld w h ile th e handle was r e v o lv in g , i t stru ck and fr a c tu r e d h is w r is t .
D is a b ilit y : 121 d a ys.
T his a c c id e n t may have r e s u lte d from a number
o f cau ses— a d u ll d r i l l t a hard s p o t in th e m eta l,
in adequ ate power o f th e d r i l l , p o o r fo o t in g , w earing
g lo v e s , e t c . However, a p r e ss u re -ty p e sw itch when
r e le a s e d w ould sto p th e d r i l l .
38. An em ployee was h o ld in g a d r i f t pin* w h ile a secon d
i t w ith a hammer. The cow orker m issed th e p in and stru ck th e
f in g e r . He was d is a b le d f o r 3 days w ith a fr a c tu r e d fin g e r .
d is c lo s e d th a t th e em ployee was n ot u s in g any k in d o f h o ld in g
p in .

em ployee s tru ck
f i r s t em p loy ee's
In v e s tig a tio n
t o o l t o h o ld th e

H olding d e v ic e s are p r a c t ic a l bu t c o n s id e r ­
a b le * * e ffo rt i s n ecessa ry t o g e t th e men t o use
them. P r o v is io n o f th e t o o l s , tr a in in g in t h e ir
u s e , and s u p e rv is o ry enforcem en t o f t h e ir use
are a l l e s s e n t ia l elem ents in e lim in a tin g t h is
k in d o £ a c c id e n t.
39. An em ployee* d escen d in g ste p s in t o b o ile r r o o m , s lip p e d and f e l l t o
th e f l o o r fr a c tu r in g h is l e g . D is a b ilit y : 7U days. In v e s tig a tio n d is c lo s e d
th a t th e sta irw a y was steep * in th e form o f a s p ir a l* and th a t th e re were no
s a fe t y tr e a d s .
S p ir a l s t a ir s a re always dangerous and t h e ir
in s t a lla t io n sh ou ld n ot be p e rm itte d . Where th ey
are in s t a lle d , h a n d ra ils must be used i f s t a ir s
are t o be d escen ded s a fe ly .




i*0. A e p y e ws cran in a air com ressor. T e cra k failed to
n m lo e a
k g n
p
h
n
release w e th en e started a d th e p y e ws th w against th w
h n e gin
n e m lo e a ro n
e all
of th building. Hsuffered m
e
e
ultiple lacerations a d c n sL n a da fractured
n o tu c s n
wrist. H ws disabled 22 days.
e a
O
bviously, a m an l starter is the a sw r.
ech ica
n e
We e a starter is not provided, the cra k sh ld
hr
n ou
b e g g d at the b m of th cycle a d raised
e nae
otto
e
n
only to th top, w the th m a d fingers o the
e
ith
ub n
n
s m side of th cra k handle. N effort shou
ae
e n
o
ld
b md to spin th crank. T is is a p ced re
e ae
e
h
ro u
w ic m st b taught to m st w ers.
hh u e
o ork
la. A e p y e ws cutting m
n m lo e a
aterial o a sh w ou using a guide.
n
ear ith t
A the knife d
s
escen ed the m
d ,
etal stock slipped forw a d em
ard n
ployee's finger
ws a p ta d b the knife. Investigation disclosed that th shear ws
a m u te y
e
a
u g a ed
n u rd .
S ea shou b eq ip ed w a stock gu e
h rs
ld e u p
ith
id
a d a h ld o n device to preven the stock fro
n
o dw
t
m
m v g A tw -h n ed tripping device, a gate
o in .
o ad
gu , or other device to prevent th h n s of
ard
e ad
the operator fro entering th d n e z n is
m
e a gr o e
also necessary for safe operation.
U A e p y e ws standing o a te p ra scaffold w in a tank.
2. n m lo e a
n
m o ry
eld g
T e scaffold h d b assem led b th w in c w fro lu b r available in
h
a een
b
y e eld g re
m me
the sh
op. It ws a stable structure, but it h d neither a rail n r a toe
a
a
o
board. T e w er s mh wlost his balance a d fell to th floor. H ws
h eld o e o
n
e
e a
disabled 6 d y w a b k rib.
a s ith ro en
T e construction of safe scaffolds requires
h
specialized training a d skills w ich m st w rk
n
h
o o ers
d not possess. It is, therefore, a unsafe p
o
n
ro­
ced re to require or p it w rk g cre s to as­
u
erm o in
w
sem le their o n scaffolds. T is w r sh ld b
b
w
h o k ou e
assigned to a specialist wo is w versed in th
h
ell
e
stan ard req irem ts for safe scaffolding. T e
d
u en
h
supervisor of the w rk rs wo are to use the
o e h
scaffold should personally ch it for safety
eck
before it is u a
se fl
F r in-plant w rk a m n fa re p an t-typ
o
o ,
a u ctu d erm en e
3cafTold, possibly eq ip ed w casters for m n u e ­
u p
ith
a e vr
ability, is generally safer a d mr econ ical th
n oe
om
an
the u of tem o ry scaffolds.
se
p ra




- U3
U A e p y e ws operating a grinder. W ou looking, h rea ed
3. n m lo e a
ith t
e ch
for th sw
e itch to o e it. H th m ws cau t b tw en th 7-belt a d its
pn
is u b a
gh e e
e
n
pulley a d a p ta . Investigation disclosed that th grinder ws u g a e .
n m u ted
e
a n u rd d
a. All pulleys a d V-belts. of 13/32-inch
n
w th or greater, sh ld b g a ed accord g
id
ou e u rd ,
in
to th A e a S d s Safety C d for M­
e m ric n tan ard
oe
e
chanical P er-T sm
ow ran ission A p
p aratu A y V
s. n belt a d pulley, regardless of size, is d n
n
a­
gerou b u of the shearing action of this
s eca se
typ of e u m n
e
q ip e t.
b. G o practice in m c in design requires
od
ah e
p cem t of the control sw
la en
itch in a readily
accessible position, free fro obstructions
m
or th possibility of contact w m v g
e
ith o in
parts.
U A e p y e ws using a circular s w to cut crating material. A
li. n m lo e a
a
splinter ca g t his glove a d pulled his h n into the sa . Parts of tw
uh
n
ad
w
o
fingers w r a p ta . Investigation disclosed the sa ws u g a ed
e e m u ted
w a n u rd .
R le U.1.2 of the A e a S n a s
u
m ric n ta d rd
Safety C d for Wo w r in M ch e requires
oe
o d o k g a in ry
ihat the s wb enclosed b a h o w lc
a e
y o d fa h
autom
atically adjust itself to th thickness
e
of m
aterial b g cut. R le 7«it.l says that
ein
u
gloves should not b w r w ile operating
e on h
m ch es. Flagrant disregard for safe practices
a in
h s o s th n for better supervision a d
ere h w e eed
n
education of em lo ees a d supervisors.
py
n
k$. A grinder ws standin o a platform w rk g o a steel d u . After
a
g n
o in n
rm
com letin his w rk h stepped b ck a d fell 5 feet to th floor. H suffered
p g
o , e
a n
e
b
m
ultiple bruises a d ws disabled 29 days. Investigation disclosed that the
n a
platform ws u g a e .
a n u rd d

T m o a y w r platform sh ld b constructed
e p r r ok
s ou e
w all the safety features required for p rm n n
ith
e aet
platform
s—handrails, toeboards. etc. T is type of.
h
accident raises th question of w eth r th w r
e
h e e ok
w s bein d n in th m st efficient w y A study
a
g oe
e o
a.
m h s o that the du could b so p ced that
ig t h w
rm
e
la ,
all w r could b d n fro th floor.
ok
e oe m e
U A e p y e w in in th plant aisle stepped o a air line of a
6. n m lo e alk g
e
n n
riveting hm e a d tu ed his a k w e the line rolled. A a result of
a mr n rn
n le h n
s
th sprained ankle, h ws disabled for 10 days. Investigation disclosed that
e
e a




-1*1*

-

the air line ws attach to a co p
a
ed
m resso located o the opposite side of the
r
n
aisle fro th riveting operation.
m e
Air lines should n er b laid across a aisle.
ev e
n
If im
possible to locate the co p
m resso o th s m
r n e ae
side of th aisle w e e th riveting is being d e,
e
hr e
on
th air line sh ld b carried o erh d to a point
e
ou e
v ea
a n r the riveter as possible.
s ea
In case of te p ra necessity, a sign mu te
m o ry
on d
o a stan ard cou b u to w r of the h
n
d
ld e sed
an
azard.
T e is a a s a tem
h re
lw y
ptation for person to step
s
o so eth g rather th over it.
n m in
an
1 7 A en eer ws taking ma re e ts for the b of a boiler w ic
* . n gin
a
e su mn
ase
hh
ws to b installed. A h turned, h fell 6 feet into th fu ace pit,
a
e
s e
e
e rn
fracturing his a m Lost tim 6 w s. Investigation disclosed that the
r .
e:
eek
pit ws u g a e .
a n u rd d
T m o a y excavations are frequently left
e pr r
u g a e b se th tim a d effort io g a
n u rd d ecau
e e n
u rd
th m d es n se mw w ile, ftie fact that*
e o ot e orth h
they are tem o ry a d wr is bein d n o
p ra n o k
g oe n
th mis all the mr reason w y th should"b
e
oe
h ey
e
protected, either by flooring th mover or b
e
y
use of a stan ard railing or g a rail.
d
u rd
1 8 T o em lo ee w r placing a steel plate o a w r table. A o e of
* . w p y s ee
n ok
s n
th mp sh th plate o to th table, h lacerated his h n o a sh e g of
e u ed e
n
e
e
ad n
arp d e
th plate. H ws disabled 6 days. Investigation disclosed that e p y
e
e a
m lo ees
wr not w a g gloves.
ee
e rin
G
loves or h n p d are a "m
ad as
ust" w e h d g
h n an lin
a steel plate. A job safety analysis m h s o
ig t h w
that a better wy could b ro n to mv th plate.
a
e ud
oe e
1 9 A a fo m n ws passing a grinder, s m steel particles from the
*. s
re a a
oe
hand-grinding operation lodged in his eye. H w s disabled 2 days. Investi­
e a
gation disclosed that the grinding operation w s located in su a wy that
a
ch a
the steel particles w re directed across a aisle a d that th fo m n w s not
e
n
n
e re a a
w rin goggles.
ea g
T e fo m n sh ld a a s w a goggles in eyeh re a ou lw y e r
h
azard areas not only to protect himself bu to set
t
a e a p for his mn
n x m le
e.
$0. W ile a e p y e ws re m g holes in a piece of boiler plate, a
h n m lo e a a in
piece of steel scale struck his eye. H ws disabled 1 days. Investigation
e a
*
disclosed that e p y e w s w a g spectacle-type goggles.
m lo e a e rin




Spectacle-tvt>e goggles offer frontal protection
only. In su operations as this w e e there Is a
ch
hr
possibility of particles flying from th sl< e cover­
e A;
all, cup-type, or spectacle-type goggles withside
screens sh ld be used.
ou
51. A e p y e w s using a sledge hm e to aline steel in m in
n m lo e a
a mr
ach es.
A h struck the steel w th h m e , a sm piece ch p off a d struck
s e
ith e a mr
all
ip ed
n
his eye. E p y e lost a eye. Investigation disclosed that th e p y e
m lo e
n
e m lo e
ws using a hm e w a h rd n d h a a d that h ws not w a g goggles.
a
a mr ith a e e e d n
e a
e rin
A y operation w ic involves h m e in or sledging
n
hh
a mr g
of m requires the operator to w a goggles. L c
etal
er
ak
of a eye-safety p g mis indicated. Possibly a
n
ro ra
better w y th using a sledge could b fo n to line
a an
e ud
u the w rk W e e it is necessary to strike steel
p
o . hr
objects, brass or other soft m h m es sh ld b
etal a mr ou e
p
rovid a d used.
ed n
52. Aw er ws w rk g in a boiler shell, kneeling o o e k ee. H
eld a o in
n n n
e
ws disabled for 3 d y as a result of a sprained k ee. Investigation dis­
a
as
n
closed that th boiler shell ws sm a d that th w er ws w rk g in a
e
a
all n
e eld a o in
c a p d position, mk g it necessary to kneel o o e knee.
r me
a in
n n
Wr in in c a p d quarters is a a s disagreeable
ok g
r me
lw y
a d d gerou k e p d w u h v md th w r less
n an
s, n e a a o ld a e a s e o k
u com
n fortab a d m h h v prevented th injury.
le n ig t a e
e
53. A e p y e ws using a file to ch m r the e g of a shaft bein
n m lo e a
a fe
de
g
tu ed o a lathe. T e file slipped fro th shaft a d e p y
rn n
h
m e
n m lo ee's h n
ad
struck, a d ws cut by, th revolving shaft. Disability: h days. Investi­
n a
e
gation disclosed that th tool n ally u for this operation ws du a d
e
orm
sed
a ll n
that e p y e h d r m v d the rest fro th lathe.
m lo e a e o e
m e
D g a file o a lathe is a a s d n e u a d
sin
n
lw y a g ro s n
sh ld b prohibited, except for m o to ch p u d r
ou e
in r u u n e
controlled conditions. T is is a flagrant e a p
h
x m le
of th unsafe practice of using th wo g tool to d
e
e rn
o
th job.
e
T e basic question raised b this accident is, of
h
y
course, wy didn't th e p y e obtain a rep
h
e m lo e
lacem t
en
for the regular tool w e it b c m dull? Ws there
hn
ea e
a
n n available? Ws th toolroom inconveniently
oe
a e
located? Ws h u d r pressure to co p the job?
a e ne
m lete
fhe a sw r my point th wy to th prevention of
n e a
e a
e
similar accidents.




-

U6

-

£ll. A e p y e ws using a wo chisel to pry o e a d o w ich ws
n m lo e a
od
pn o r h
a
stuck. T e chisel slipped fro the d o a d struck h in eye. H ws dis­
h
m
or n
im
e a
abled for 23 days. Investigation disclosed that a cro b r ws available, b t
wa a
u
th e p y e preferred to use the chisel.
e m lo e
D o should b so fitted a d h n that they
o rs
e
n ug
n ~n t b pried op . B t h is a casew e a
eed o e
en u ere
h re
m
akeshift tool ws u instead of a tool provided
a sed
for the p rp
u ose.
5$. A e p y e ws using a steel h m e to r mv steel pins fro a
n m lo e a
a mr
e oe
m n
assem
bly. Apiece of steel ch p fro the hm e a d struck e p y ein a .
ip ed m
a mr n
m lo e
rm
H w s disabled for 16 days. Investigation disclosed that a babbit hm e w s
e a
a mr a
available for this operation, but e p y e elected n to u it.
m lo e
ot
se
T is is a excellent illustration of th fact
h
n
e
that wr n n m st b ed cated to recognize hazards,
olq e u e u
trained to avoid th m a d that supervision b th
e , n
y e
fo m n m st b vigilant a d constant.
re a u e
n
56. W ile e p y e ws operating a stationary grinder, the w ee b k
h m lo e a
h l ro e
a d a piece of it struck th em lo ee’s leg. Disability: 2 days. Investi­
n
e py
gation disclosed that th sp of th w eel ex ed the mx u operating
e eed
e h
ceed
a imm
sp established b th m u
eed
y e an factu
rer.
W e l sp s are set b th m n fa rer o
h e eed
y e a u ctu
n
the basis of grain of the abrasive, k d of b n ,
in
od
d eter of w
iam
heel, etc. T e sh ld n
h y ou ever b
e
exceeded. L c of a eq a toolroom control is
ak
d u te
Indicated. T e fact that the grinder ws e u p
h
a q ip ed
w stan ard h , p er flanges, a d safety
ith
d
ood rop
n
w sh rs m im
a e
in ized th injury.
e
57. A m in n n m c a ic ws standin o a b x to repair a m ch e.
a te a ce e h n a
g n o
a in
H slipped off th b x a d fell to th floor. K ws disabled 2 days, o in
e
e o n
e
e a
wg
to a sprained b
ack.
Ap a en b t portable platform sh ld b
erm n t, u
ou e
available for w r that ca n t b d n fro th
ok
no e oe m e
floor. L c of supervision is suggested b th
ak
y e
u of a m
se
akeshift device.




Table 1 .

D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 136 b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u cts p la n ts , c la s s if ie d by a c t iv it y o f in ju re d
and ex ten t o f d is a b ilit y , 1951
Number o f days
lo s t o r
charged

Humber o f d is a b lin g in ju r ie s
T ota l

R esu ltin g in —

A c tiv it y o f in ju re d
Humber

P er­
ce n t

y

Death
and
perma­
n en tto ta l
d is a ­
b ilit y

Average numbei
o f days
charged
p er—

Number

D isa­
b lin g
in ju ry

Tempo­
ra ry to ta l
d isa ­
b ilit y

Perma­
n en tp a r t ia l
d isa ­
b ilit y

Teirpora ryto ta l
d is a ­
b ilit y

(1 ) 6

103

1,908

172,660

100.0

86

16

1

33
19

37,172
30,179
J»7,l83

2lu0
1 9 .5
30 .5

135
66
62

1U
17

Per­
cen t

y

y
2,017

100.0

O perating m a c h in e s ......................
Using hand t o o ls . . . . ..................
Handling m a teria ls • ..........................

276
1*60
766

lli.6

W alking, e t c .............................. .... . . .
Other a c t iv it ie s • • • • • • • • •
U n cla s s ifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t da ta . .

T o t a l ........................................... .

1/

y

1|0.6

1

3k

152

1 2 .3
8. 1

2

5
9

227
l Ul

lit , 300
26,091

9 .2
1 6 .8

62
172

17
15

131

—

(1 ) 2

3

126

17,735

—

135

15

232

—

P ercen ts are based on c la s s ifie d ca ses o n ly .
F igu res in paren th eses in d ic a te th e number o f perm an en t-total d is a b ilit ie s in clu d ed .




16

2lt2
Ida
731

2h.h

48-

Tb 2 Daln wkin r bd i3 rolade-poot is bt,ylas db nt r o in r , pr o
al . i bi g o juieoy1jue ,rhpetu dp ns c15 y aue f juy at f
e s
r
sinn bd no trdf s a ilit , sifie
6 ies x n c la
91

Nueo i juyad
ar f n r n
t
pr o bd i j rd
at f oyn e
u

N b o dsbn in r s
u e f iali g juie
mr
N b o dy Aeaenmr
u e f as vrg ub
mr
e
lot o
sgd
r
oagd
fde
as
y
ca e
hr
cr
h
Tt l
oa
Rs li gin
eu n —
t
pr
e—
Dd
eh
a
at­ Pm T p
na e a e o
pn- nrt­ rm­
em
r
y
ep
s ay
N b P­ ntt pst l taa fue cn Da rm­
u e e tea dn- dr­ t f r P­
mr r o l ea oa c et i ­ Tro
e
r
a ia t
ir­ is l
bj g dt ­
n a
cn ds­ b b
et ia ility ility
iliuy tis l
n r oa
y
y
b
ility
b
ility
u

Tt l ........................... 2 1 10 ( ) 6 - »3 1 0 12 6 0.0
oa
.98 7.6010
.07 0.0 1
NU OI JR
AR FN !
TE U
2
Apttos eul ai n •••••• 5 2
m ai n, ncetos
u
2 .6 — 5 — 2.50 1.1
80 7
Buss cnui n: Tt l ....... 16 2.2 — 9 15 1.U0 6
r ie, ot sos oa
*6 2.2
8 li
9
*7 1 6 .9
7
*6 0 1 .6
*$ .0
W i finio o••••••••• 11 3
ihn f t
t
9 11 1,95 6
W otet ci n........... . 2 1
ihu cen
t
19 .3
*
— — 2
8
2
Brs sa s ( o ce i a) Ta • 8 1.3 .... 5 6 I,07 1.8
un, cld nt hm l: oL 7 *
c t
7 3
0 .8
,1 *
W otet c ........... .
ihi finiotio ....... .
tuc nn
hn fe
.5
1 1 892 1
* 6 t 5 .9
1 6 315 2
W
i
t
,1* .9
1
7
—
28 5 3 5*
7
Ot, laeaio s Tt l ....... • 29 1.3 — n 21 2,78 1.1
us cr t n: oa
8 2
.6
* 51 5
W otinet n.••••••• 25 lb
ihu f cio
t
u 1* 2,35 1.1
5 1
W inet n .•••••••• 3 .7
ih f cio
t
U
1 12 .3
*
*3
— — 3
8
1 5 ,1 8
Fat r••••••••••••••• 7 1.6
rcue
3 2 1 3 6 3.0
1
5
Hiti ss•••••••••••••• 35 .3 -- — 11 6,35 1*
e a n o f n oi
r
1 .1 — — 3* 280 .1
*
7
87
*
Icnttoslrieoeg bd s. . . 11 2
rcaionfdsari............. 8* 9
ruai a mss
e
1 .5
3
1* 1 1
0 .1
,10 3
Oa s s ri s •••• ......... 11 2.5 ( ) 1 — 9 6 5 8*
p, pan e
*
2
Sr in
t
* t » .7
1 ,0
— 5 19 H l3 .1
i6 2
| .3
Wdrsf s e ................
e e' lahs
l
*
2
6
1 — i6 629 3
Ohr
t e..........................
l* ,1 .1
l
6 .7
1 .7
5
Uc sif d inuf ie t dt ••• 2 —
nlas ie ; s fic n aa
1 — 1 63 —
,00
P T FO IJR
A OBYN E
R D UD
5 33 9
.6
Hdy.................... . . • 36
e Eeo l.................... 6
a: T ta
3 li 32 3,88 1.1
2 0 .8
6 3
.1 — 6 29 1,36 7
2 2 5 1,31 7
Ban........................ 25 1.9
re, s u ....... ••••• 6 1
i kll
3 8 8 1.7
5 3 l *
3 3
9 .1
2
8 ,l5
1 3 5
Or
t
h
7
T n: Tt l .••••••••••• m 1.8 ( )— 3 16 2,69 1.1
r k oa
u
2 3 *8 2 5 3
7 ,59 3
Boe .•••••••••••• 26 2.9. 1— — 26 5 6 1
am
7 3
9 3
6 2 6 .5
Aetn ns, r s ........... 6* 3 ( ) 2 — 6 1,7* 7*
bc ........................ 6 3 1
dklug) ib
,6 6 .3
.3
.2 — — 2 217 .1
1 2
Cs (
h
8
Spl elv ................ . 1 1
hu e .................... 2 .U — — 1
* .0
9
*
9 80 .3
2
0 1* .5
0 .2
H, pr is
io d
** .1
1
Oe ......................
tr
h
5
53
— — 5 11
6 la 5,8** U
7 s 811 .0
Ue ete ii s Tt l . . . . . . 11 2*
p r xrm e: oa
p
t
8 .0
2 7 ,25 5*
8 l.o — 6 16 9 8 3.1
Am
r ........... ............. *5 u
9
2 1,77 1.3
Hdr ........... ........... 12 6
ag ,,••••• ••••.. 22 .5 —
ne
3 1.5
7 3
F
i
n
19 0
9 1 76 8
— 5 23 3,72 1 .3
L eexrmi .:................ 6* 3.8 — 1 66 197 2.6
o Lg. . . i e T ta
w ete .t s o l......... 1 9
r
.1
9 2 *,31 8
5 2
U 23 2,25 1.7
9 3
9 08 1
.6
Fe.......................... 17 1.7 — 8 15 2*6 H*
ot ......................
o
6 1,89 2
23 8
7
.5
T
o
15
7
— 7
U7 *
,a .1
B y gnrl ••••••••.••• 3 1
o , eea
d
1 3 3 818 1.7
8 .9
1 ,0* *
*
1 Prr t apbsdoslas tdhsmn .f em n-t t is b ie nl e.
/ i ces r rnhs cniifie c e oly
e e e ae n sc a s e
n
y F u sin aet ee i d aet ea bro pr aet o l d a ilit si c dd
gcmtd eas o s al nmro in r s n a
u
y N o p e bcu f m ub f juie.
o u
t
e
l e




1 8 .1

16 8

8
6

1
6

5*
1
8
2
3
2
1
*
2
2
9
3
7
0
<
l/>
8
9
9
9
1
2
18
6
5
0
l
*
(3
/)
3
3
5
<
l/>
<
!/)

—
9
9
2
2
1
3
H
*
</>
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

5
( />
2
</>
2

9
2
1
*
6
3*
1
3
11
3
1
*
7
2
0
1
*
0
18
9
9
1
2
2
Q
/>
11
2
15
1
15
3
17
1
7
17
0
3
9
1
2
1
*
22
1

7
6
1
1
1
0
1
9
1
5
1
*
0
1
2
1
8
2
2
(2
/)
H
*
1
7
1
2
2
0
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
6

3
5
5
o
1
*
(3
/)
1
3

16

-4 9

Table 3. Disabling work injuries in 136 boilershop-products plants, classified by nature o f injury, part
o f body injured, and produet, 1951

Nature of injury
and
part of body injured

Total number of
disabling
injuries

Heavy tanks

PART OF BODY INJURED
Head: Total ................................
Eye
Brain, skull • • • • • • • •
Other......................• • . • •
Trunk: Total . . . • ♦ ...............
Back . . ................................
Abdomen • • • • • ..................
Chest (lungs), ribs ...............
Shoulder • • • • • • • • • •
Hip, p elv is...............• . . •
Other ....................................
Upper extremities: Total . . . .
Arm .................. ...
Hand........................................
Finger . • • • • • • • • • •
Lower extremities: Total . . . .
Leg...........................................
Foot . • • • • • • • • • • •
Toe................ ........................
Body, general • • • • • • • • • •

y

y

y

2.017

100.0

1.071*

100.0

33b

100.0

609

100.0

52
U86
87
289
375

2.6
21*.2
b.3
lb . 3
18.6

25
260
50
i5b
182

2.3
2b.l
b.7
lb .b
17.0

8
79
15
b2
62

2.b
23.6
b.5
12.6
18.6

19
lb7
22
93
131

3.1
2b. 2
3.6
15.3
21.5

b7
181*
10
U2b
b6

2.3
9.1
.5
21.1
2.3

2b
87
8
21)0
36

2.2
8.1
.7
22. b
3.b

9
38
2
68
7

2.7
ll.b
•6
20.3
2.1

lb
59

2.3
9.7

116
3

19.1
.5

15

.7

7

b

1.2

b

.7

2

—

1

—

—

—

1

—

366
265
39
62

18.1
13.1
1.9
3.1

193
11*3
18
32

18.0
13.3
1.7
3.0

7b
50
11
13

lS.o

99
72
10
17

16.3
11.9
1.6
2.8

U83
279
66
6b
k9
20
5

23.9
13.8
3.3
3.2
2.b
1.0
.2

252
157
3b
23
23
11
b

23.5
lb .7
3.2
2.1
2.1
1.0
•b

82
38
11
18
12
3

2b.6
ll.b
3.3
5.b
3.6
.9

—

lb9
8b
21
23
lb
6
1

2b.5
13.8
3.b
3.8
2.3
1.0
.2

U85
81
132
272

2U.0

b.o

6.5
13.5

265
b3
7b
lb8

2b.7
b.O
6.9
13.8

76
lb
22

bO

22.8
b.2
6.6
12.0

lbb
2b
36
8b

23.6
3.9
5.9
13.8

6U5
197
273
175

32.1
9.8
13.6
8.7

3bl
112
138
91

31.7
lO.b
12.8
8.5

9b
2b
bb
26

28.0
7.2
13.0
7.8

210
61
91
58

3b.5
10.0
i5 .o
9.5

38

1.9

23

2.1

8

2.b

7

1.1

1/ Percents are based on classified cases only,




Other

Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
y

Total ...............................................
NATURE OF INJURY
Amputations, enucleations . . • •
Bruises, contusions • • • • • • •
Bums, scalds . . • . . ...............
Guts, lacerations . • • ...............
Fractures • • • • • • • . • • • •
Hernias................................ ... . .
Irritations from foreign bodies •
Occupational diseases • • • • • •
Strains, sprains • • • • • • • •
Welder's fla sh e s...............• . •
Other •
Unclassified) insufficient data •

Product
Boilers

.7*

—

22.2
3.3
3.9

~

—

-5 0 -

Table b.

Disabling work injuries in 136 boilershop-products plants, classified by nature o f injury, part o f
body injured, and activity o f injured, 1951
Activity o f injured

Nature o f injury and
part o f body injured

Total ................................

Total
number
Opera­ Using
of
disa­
ting hand
tools
m
a­
bling
injuries chines

2,017

Handling materials
L ift­
ing
Total
mater­
ia ls

Other

Walk­
ing,
Unclas­ etc.
sified

Other

Unclas­
sified ;
insuf­
ficien t
data

276

b60

766

260

221

285

232

152

. 131....

2U

20
196
5
96
165

3
bb
1
2b
33

7
60
3
21
61

10
92
1
51
71

66
3
33
36

3
35
21
12
25

1
2b
7
19
26

17

b

7

6

1

1

b

8

b9
—

78
—

23
1
12
12

13

—

2

6

1

N T R O IN RY
A U E F JU
Annotations, enucleations
Bruises, contusions • • •
Bums, scalds . . . . . .
Cuts, lacerations . • . •
Fractures • • • • • • • •

52
U86
87
289
375

2
67
6U

i*
10k
h9
62
59

Hernias • • • • • • • • •
Irritations from foreign
bodies .............................
Occupational diseases . •
Strains, sprains • . . .
Welder9s flashes • • • •

b7

2

10

28

18U
10
U
2i»
1»6

3U
3
16
1

90
3
56
18

7
1
2b6
2

137
—

2
1
60
2

Other • • • • • • • • • •

15

1

5

—

—

—

2

1

m
a
m

•.
M

M
M

Head: Total ..................
E ye............................
Brain, skull . . . .
Other • • • • • • • •

366
265
39
62

53
38
5
10

156
130
7
19

33
9
11
13

2
1
~
1

15
b
6
5

16
b
5
7

27
11
8
8

51
bO
6
5

b6
37
2
7

Trunk: Total . . . . . .
B a c k .........................
Abdomen.....................
Chest (lungs), ribs .
Shoulder . . . . . .
Hip, pelvis • • • . •
Other • • • • • • • •

1*83
279
66
6b
h9
20
5

20
9
k
1
h
1
1

8i*
33
17
lb
16
3
1

26b
180
35
25
16
8
—

lb8
109
21
12
5
1
—

57
bl
7
b
b
1
—

59
30
7
9
7
6
—

7b
37
7
15
8
5
2

23
10
3
5
b
l
—

18
10
—
b
1
2
1

Upper extremities: Total
Arm . .............. . . .
H an d.........................
Finger . . . . . . .

U85
81
132
272

123
lb
20
89

89
17
33
39

196
28
53
115

b6
6
15
25

57
12
13
32

93
10
25
58

21
6
10
5

36
11
11
lb

20
5
5
10

Lower extremities: Total
Leg . ..................... ...
Foot • • • • • • • •
Toe • • • • • • • • •

61i5
197
273
175

76
19
32
25

120
b5
bl
3b

271
58
122
91

6b
15
31
18

91
22
38
31

116
21
53
b2

103
b7
51
5

31
lb
11
6

bb
lb
16
lb

Body, general . . • • • •

38

k

11

2

—

1

1

7

11

3

Unclassified; insufficient
data • • • • • • • • • •

61

—

—

22
2

16

1

PA T O B D IN R D
R F O Y JU E




51

Part of body
injured
and
source of
injury

Total
nunber
of
inju­ Annota­ Bruis­
ries enucle­ es, Burns,
tions,
scalds
ations contu­
sions

Total................ 2.017
PA T O B0D IKJURED
R F 1
Head: Total • • 366
Eye............. 265
Brain, .skull.. 62
39
Other . .
Trunk: Total . . U83
Back « .. ..
66
Abdomenribs .. • 279
Chest, • • 6U
Shoulder • U9
Hip, pelvis
Other • • • • 20
$
Upper extremities:
Total ............. U8$
81
Arm
Hand• .• .• .• .• 132
Finger . . . 272
Lower extremities:
Total............. 6U5
Leg . .. .. .. . . 197
Foot
273
Toe............. 17$
Body, general . . 38
SO R E O IS(JU Y
UC F R
Metal stock
Assenblies .• .•. • U70
Chips, particles. 2li9
238
HandPowered Total lU8
tools: . . . U2
Hammers, not•
powered
U3
Other . . .. .
63
Working surfaces: 126
Total.............
Floors
93
Ground, .. .. .
Other . yard.. 27
6
Machines • • • •
HoistingTotal « . 105
atus: appar­
86
Cranes . . .
$9
Other • • • • 27
Machine parts .• . • $U
Radiations .. . . U8
Containers
U7
Lunber.............• U
U
Vehicles • • •
1*3
Bodily motions.
U2
Other ................• 307
Unclassified;
insufficient data 10




I I? I
s

Table $. Disabling work injuries in 136 bollershop-produetsof injury, 19$1 by part of body injured,
source of injury, and nature plants, classified
Mature of injury
Irrita­ Oc­
Unclas­
sified;
tions cupa­ Strains Weld­
Frac­ Her­ from tional
er's Other insuf­
ficient
tures nias foreign eases
flash­
data
bodies dis­
es

52 b86

87 289

UJ 18b

10

U2U

U6

1?

2

2 1*3
2 6
— 13
— 2k
— 78
23
— 10
— 22
— lU
—
2
— 7
U$ 108
_ 29
— 21*
U5 5$
5 85
— 2U9
l 108
U 56
— 8

22 59 — — 18b
9
11 5
183
20
1 28
5
U — 1
5 9 Uo U7 —
2
U —
1 3 — U7 —
3 2U —
2 2
— 1 5 — —
— — 6 — —
1 —
—
..
25 1U8 118 _ —
8 111 17 — —
13 1|6 72 —
U 88 29
—
26 70 207 — —
18 — _
13 Ui 79 — —
13 2U 110
— —
— 5
9 3 1 ~ ~

_
—
2
—
..2
—
~
..2
2
~
1
—
1
~
5

— U6
— U6
—
— —
300 —
2U _'
7
U ..
n
29 —
7
2 —
36 —
12 ..
17 _
7 —
86 —
39
U —
7

1
1
—
—
2
—
1
1
_
—
3
1
1
1

_
—
—
—
_
—
..
—

2 1U7
2 82
7
2 1*9
_
8
1 22
1 19
— 26
—
— 20
k
— 2
21 22
7 20
6 27
1 7
2U
—
— 7
— lU
— 17
2 63
1

2
1
11
2
—
—
2
__
_
—
~
1
—
—
~
...
2
—
—
—
68

1
—
—
__
—
—
—

102
66
—
29
9
6
1U
$U
U2
9
3
11
10
2
8
10
_
23
12
10
39
50
8

16

T-T,.

?P

16

—
■

80 no
25 62
3k
5
29 31
18 7
1 8
10 16
38
7 26
U 12
2
1 —
29 20
18 2U
11 20
7 u
5 1U
7 5
11 12
3 7
Uo
l

11
11
1
6
—
—
6

—
178
—
—
—
1 ...
1 —
—
—
1
— —
_ —
— —
1 __
_ —
5 —
— —
1 -3
U7 6 6
— — —
„ „

....

__

..
_
~

yrm

..
..
~
__
—
—
—
mm
t
9

2

—
—
—
_
—
_
..
—
mm.

_
—
U6
—
—
—
—
—

..
_
—

1 —
1
— _
8

2

—
__
—
—
~

1
—
—
_
_
—

..
—
—
„_
—
—
—
—
—
—
15

...
—
__
_
—
nr,
..
—
—
~
rm
1
— —

-5 2 -

Table 6.

Disabling work injuries in 136 boilershqp-produets plants, classified by source o f injury and
extent o f d isab ility, 1951
Number o f days
lo st or
charged

Number o f disabling injuries
Total
Source o f injury
Num
ber Per­
cent
y

Total .................................................

2,017 100.0

Average number
o f days
charged
per—

Number Per­
cent
y

TenqpoDisa­
rarybling total
injury disa­
b ility

Resulting in—
Death
and
perma­
nenttotal
disa­
b ility
y

Perma­
nentpartial
disa­
b ility

Tempo­
rarytotal
disa­
b ility

86

16

26.5
10.9
7.5

97
76
5U

16
20
7

3,U92
963
986
1,5U3

2.0
.6
.6
.8

21)
23
23
2b

lb
16
9
IS

123
91
26
6

6,96S
S,6$U
1,198
113

b.O
3.2
.7
.1

55
61
bb
Q/>

23
2b
23
(an

1,906 172,660 100.0

(X) 6

103

2
—

26
11
7

14)2
238
231

US,791
18,828
12,888

—
—

5
1
2
2

11)3
la
la
61

Natal stock • • • • • • ..................
Assemblies • • • • • • • ..............
Chips, p a r t ic le s ............................

b70
2b9
238

23*1)
12.1)
11.9

Hand tools: Total .........................
Powered • • • • • • • • • • • •
Hammers, not powered • • • • • •
Other ..........................................

11)8
b2
1)3
63

7.1)
2.1
2.1
3.2

Working surfaces: T o t a l ..............
Floors ..........................................
Ground, yard ............................
Other • • • • • • • • • • • • •

126
93
27
6

6.3
1).7
1.3
.3

—

3
2
1
—

Machines • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Hoisting apparatus: Total • • • •
Cranes • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Other • • • • • • • • • • • • •

105
86
59
27

5.2
1).3
3.0
1.3

1
1
—

2)
1
11
9
2

81
71)
1)9
25

17,001
19,U23
18,SU1
882

9.9
11.3
10.8
.5

162
226
31b
33

19
18
21
11

Machine parts ............................... •
Radiations • • • • • • • • • • • •
Containers • • • • • .................. •
Lumber • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Vehicles • • • • • .............. . . .

51)
1
)8
U
7
14)
1)3

2.7
2.1)
2.3
2.2
2.1

—
—
—
1

1

1,158
23U
U,765
802
7,U97

.7
.1
2.8
.5
U.3

21
5
101

1

53
1)8
1)6
14)
la

17b

12
5
17
18
22

Bodily m o tio n s............................ ...
Other .......................................... ...

1)2
307

2.1
15.3

(1) 2

1
12

la
293

1,291
32,377

.7
18.8

31
105

19
17

Unclassified) insufficient data . .

10

—

--

—

10

1U8

—

(an

(1 /)

—

—
—

—

1
—

1 / Percents are based on classified cases only.
y Figures in parentheses indicate the number o f permanent-total d isabilities included,
Not computed because o f small number o f injuries.




18

53

Table 7. Disabling work injuries in 136 boilershop-products plants, classified by type of accident and
extent of disability, 1951
Humber of disabling injuries
Number ofor Averagedays
lost days
of number
charged
charged
Total
Resulting in—
per—
Type of accident
Death Perma­
and
Tem
po­
perma­ partial total Humber
Disa­ Tem
nent- rarypo­
famber Per­ nent- disa­ disa­
Per­ bling rarytotal
total
cent disa­
cent injury disa­
i/ bility bility bility
i/
bility
2/

Total ........................................... 2,017 100.0 (1) 6 103 1,908 172.660 100.0
Striking against: Total • . . . •
12,392 7.2
7.7
7 11*8 11,018 6.1*
155 5.9
Stationary objects • • • • • •
119 1.8
1* 115 1.37U .8
Moving objects ......................
36
3 33
—
Struck by: objects: • • • • •. •. • . • .
Total • Total
1 33 61*5 62,505 36.2
33.9
679 22.8
Palling hands of workers . . .
2*55 7.5 ~1 17 1*37 39,932 23.1
— 11*9 2,232 1.3
From equipment • • • • • •
ll*9 7.5
Prom
15.6
1
Prompiles of materials • • U»9 2.1 — 13 135 26,950 .5
9U*
1*3
h3
Promstanding positions • •
883 5.2
1.9
39
39
Fromother positions • • •
1* 71 8,953 .5
75 3.8 —
Rollingobjects • • • • • • • .• •
1
* 52 7,71*1* 7.1
79
83 2.9
Flying or swinging objects
7 1*8 12,201* U.5
59 l*.l —
Hand-wielded objects .............
52 2.6
1
*
Other moving objects.............
30 1.5
1 29 1,9U» 1.1
711 .1*
—
2 11*3 9,1*05 5.5
Palls on same level: Total . . . .
Ili6 7.3 —
1
1 53 1,509 .9
To walkways or working surfaces
51* 1*.6
1
O or against other objects • .
n
1 90 7,896 U.6
92 2.7
2 28 11,827 6.9
Palls to ladders •levels: Total .
101 5.0 ~1
2 98 1*,370 2.5
30 1.5
Fromdifferent ......................
Promother elevations .............
1 — 70 7,1*57 2*.l*
71 3.5
Caught in, on, or between: Total .
1 1*9 163 1*0,877 23.7
213 10.6
Between a moving and• • • • • •
176 8.8
stationary object
1 38 137 33,922 19.7
Between two • • more moving
or • • ................
objects •
26
10 16 6,377 3.7
In a moving object • • • • • •
1 10
11 1.3 —
578 .3
.5
Rubbed, abraded: Total • • • • • •
219 1,136 .7
219 10.9
—
By objects being handled .. .. ..
9.0
179 1.3 — — 179
771* .1
By foreign bodies in eyes
211 .5
27 .6 — — 13
27
By other objects • • • • • • •
151 .1
13
Overexertion: Total . •objects• •• •
•••
1 186 12,318 1*.8
* 290
291* ll*.6 —
7.1
Lifting or pushing objects • • 189 9.1* —
or carrying
3 77 8,271 2.2
78 1.0 — — 20 3,822
Pulling
1
20 3.9
Swinging objects • • • • • • •
202 .1
Other activities • • • • • • •
7
7 .3 — —
23 <!s/>
Contact'with temperature extremes .
78 3.9 —
L 71* 1»,927 2.9
Contact with radiations, caustics,
and noxious substances................
69 3.1* (1) 2 — 67 12,1*61* 7.2
Bodily reactions .........................
U2 2.1 —
1 la 1,291 .7
12 .6 —
Other accident types ...................
1 11 3,351 1.9
Unclassified| insufficient data • •
9
9 ~
— —
11*7 —
1/ Percents are based on classified oases only*
y Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disabilities included.
3/ Hot conputed because of small number of injuries.
k / Less than 0.05.




—

—

—

—

...

—
—

86
80
93
38
92
88
15
181
21
23
119
93
207
37
21*
61*
28
86
117
11*6
105
192
193
22*5
a/)
5
2
*
8
12
2*2
21
**
2*9
10

16
12
11
12*
18
19
15
19
21
23
a
20
17
11
12*
16
17
16
22*
31
a
22
22

5
2*
8
12
17
18
18
10
Q/> <2/>
63 13
181
7
31 19
<2/> <J/>
(2/) Q/>

54Table 8. Work accidents in 136 bollershop-products plants, classified by type of accident and activity of
injured, 1951
Activity of injured
Type o f accident

Total
number
Operating Using
of
accidents machines hand
tools

Handling Walking,
mater­
etc.
ia ls

Other

Unclas­
sified ;
insuf­
ficien t
data

Total .................................................

2.017

276

1*60

766

232

152

131

Striking against: Total . . • • .
Stationary o b je c t s ..................
Moving objeots .........................

15$
119
36

20
3
17

33
20
13

35
31
k

5U
53
l

6
6
—

7
6
1

Struck by: Total .........................
Falling objects: Total . . . .
From hands of workers . • .
From equipment . . . . . .
From piles o f materials • •
From standing positions • •
From other positions • . •

679
U55
ll»9
lh9
U
3
39
75

113
75
7
$5
5
2
6

155
65
17
19
1
12
16

302
2kk
121
kh
28
1U
37

25
13
—
k
k
2
3

38
22
2
7
3
5
5

16
|
36
2
20
2
k
8

Rolling or swinging objects • •
Flying objects .........................
Hand-wielded objects • • • • •
Other moving objects • • • • •

83
59
52
30

23
11

3U
5
7
12

5
1
3
3

7
8

k

11
30
la
8

1

3
k
1
2

Falls on same level: Total . • . •
To walkways or working surfaces
O or against other objects . •
n

1U6
5U
92

7
2
5

19
h
15

36
13
23

67
28
39

11
5
6

6
2
k

Falls to different levels: Total .
From ladders
• .....................
FTom other elevations ..............

101
30
71

l
—
1

23
2
21

16
3
13

la
18
23

13
k
9

7
3
k

Caught in , on, or between: Total •
Between a moving and
stationary object • • • • • •
Between two or more moving
objects • • .............. ... . . .
In a moving object • • • • • •

213

79

9

98

2

16

9

176

60

8

88

1

13

6

26
11

U
*
5

—

1

9
1

2
1

1
2

Rubbed, abraded: Total ..................
By foreign bodies in eyes • • .
By objects being handled • • .
By other o b je c t s ..................•

219
179
27
13

Ul
3U
k
3

95
88
3
U

29
7
20
2

2

23
21
—
2

22
22
—
—

Overexertion: T o t a l .....................
Lifting or carrying objects . •
Pulling or pushing objects • •
Swinging objects • • • • • • •
Other a ctivities • • • • • • •

29k
189
78
20
7

9
—
6
1
2

33
2
13
18
—

239
183
56
—
—

7
2
1
1
3

k
1
2
—
1

2
1
—
—
1

Contact with temperature extremes •

78

1

U
9

h

k

15

5

Contact with radiations, caustics,
and noxious substances
•••••

69

k

2k

2

1

19

19

Bodily r e a c tio n s ............................

U
2

—

15

3

22

—

2

Other accident t y p e s .....................

12

1

3

1

—

7

—

Unclassified; insufficient data . .

9

—

2

1

—

—

6




—

—

1
9
7
—

—

-5 5 Table 9* Work accidents in 136 boilershop-products plants, classified by type of accident and product, 1951
Type

of accident

Total ..................................................
Striking against: Total . . . • .
Stationary o b je c ts.............. .
Moving objects .........................
Struck by: Total • • • • • • • • .
Falling objects: Total . . . .
From hands of workers . . •
From equipment • • • • • ,
From piles of materials • .
From standing positions • •
From other positions • • •
Rolling or swinging objects . .
Flying objects .........................
Hand-wielded o b je c ts..............
Other moving objects . . . . .
Falls on same level: Total . * . .
To walkways or working surfaces
On or against other objects . .
Falls to different levels: Total .
From ladders • • • • • • • • •
From other elevations...............
Caught in, on, or between: Total .
Between a moving and
stationary object • • • • • •
Between two or more moving
objects • • • • • • • • • • •
In &moving o b je c t..................
Rubbed, abraded: Total ..................
By foreign bodies in eyes • . •
By objects being handled . . .
By other objects ......................
Overexertion: Total • • • • • • •
Lifting or carrying objects • •
Pulling or pushing objects • •
Swinging objects . ..................
Other activities ......................
Contact with temperature extremes •
Contact with radiations, caustics,
and noxious substances..................
Bodily reactions • • • • • . • • •
Other accident types ......................
Unclassified} insufficient data . .

Total
number of
accidents

Number Per- Number Per­ Number
cent 1/
cent 1/
2,017
155
119
36
679
U55
lb9
lb9
U3
39
75
83
59
52
30
1U6
5U
92
101
30
71
213
176
26
11
219
179
27
13
29U
189
78
20
7
78

100.0
7.7
5.9
1.8
33.9
22,8
7.5
7.5
2.1
1.9
3.8
U.l
2.9
2.6
1.5
7.3
2.7
U.6
5.0
1.5
3.5
10.6
8.8
1.3
.5
10.9
9.0
1.3
•6
lU.6
9.1:
3.9
1.0
.3
3.9

69
U2
12
9

3.U
2.1
.6
~

1/ Percents are based on classified cases only,




Heavy tanks

Product
Boilers

1.07b 100.0
8U
7.9
6.0
6U
20
1.9
33U 31.1
221 20.5
70
6.5
7.2
78
1.6
17
16
1.5
Uo
3.7
3.6
38
2.2
2k
2.8
30
21
2.0
81
7.6
29
2.7
52
U.9
U.8
51
16
1.5
35
3.3
115 10.8
92
8.6
16
1.5
.7
7
9.8
105
7.8
8U
16
1.5
5
.5
171 16.0
108 10.1
1:6
U.3
12
1.1
.5
5
U7
U.U
5o
26
5
5

33b
22
17
5
116

75
33
16
9
10
7
19
9
11
2
2k

8
16
22
6
16

28
20
6
2
U3
36
k
3
UU
25
lU
5
lU

U.7

11

2 .k

k

.5
—

3
3

Other

Per­ Number
cent 1/

Per­
cent \ J

100.0
6.6
5.1
1.5
35.1
22.8
10.2
U.8
2.7
3.0
2.1
5.7
2.7
3.3
.6
7.3
2.U
U.9
6.6
1.8
U.8
8.5
6.1
1.8
.6
13.0
10.9
1.2
.9
13.3
7.6
U.2
1.5
—
U.2

609
U9
38
11
229
159
U6
55
17
13
28
26
26
11
7
Ul
17
2U
28
8
20
70
6U
U
2
71
59
7
5
79
56
18
3
2
17

100.0
8.1
6.3
1.8
37.6
26.0
7.6
8.9
2.8
2.1
U.6
U.3
U.3
1.8
1.2
6.7
2.8
3.9
U.6
1.3
3.3
11.5
10.5
.7
.3
11.7
9.7
1.2
.8
13.0
9.2
3.0
.5
.3
2.8

3.3
1.2
.9
—

8
12
U
1

1.3
2.0
.7
—

-56

Table 10. Work accidents In 136 boilershop-products plants, classified by type of accident and source of injury, 1951
Total
Type of accident

of
acci­
Work­
Ma­
dents Metal Assem­ Chips, Hand ing
stock blies part­ tools sur­ chines
faces
icles
§
C
M

Total ..................

Source of injury

U70

2U9

25
j8

86

U8

36
15
21

U
3
1

2
2
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

5
2
—
1
—
—
1

35
5
1
1
—
—
3

33
29
9
13
2
2
3

k

—
—
—

3
—
—
—

25
—
—
5

3
—
—
1

_
—
—
_
—
—
—
—
—
~
_
—
—
—

—
—
1

h
2
1

5
—
—
2

k

52

10

2

6

6

—
—

—
2

—
~

—
2

—
6

—
—
—

—
—
--

1
1
—

—

1:
18

Striking against: Total . • •
Stationary objects • • • •
Moving objects .......

155
119
36

29
28
1

23
22
1

2
2
—

H:
2
12

Struck by: Total .........
Falling objects: Total . .
From hands of workers .
From equipment • • • •
From piles of materials
From standing positions
From other positions. •

679
U55
lU9
1U9
U3
39
75

227
201
70
71
26
5
29

108

U5
—
—
—
—
—
—

93
36
17
9
—
3
7

Rolling or swinging objects
Flying objects .......
Hand-wielded objects ...
Other moving objects ...

83
59
52
30

20
—
1
5

11
—
—
5

Falls on same level: Total .
To walkways or working
surfaces • • • • • • • • •
On or against other objects

1U6

27

16

5k

92

—
27

101
30
71

Falls to different levels:
Total ................
From ladders • • • • • • •
From other elevations ...

92
28
28
8
uu
lU

U5
—
—
_

Unclas­
Hoist­
sified;
Ma­ Radia­ Con­
ing
Vehi­ Bodily
insuf­
appar­ chine tions tain­ Lumber cles motions Other ficient
atus parts
ers
data

3
3
17
:

126
6
6

105

2

16

—
—

—
U

51
l

—
10

7
1
6

8
1
7

—
_
—

—
_
~

65
25
Uo

2
—
2

—
—
~

—

3

—

U5

39

—

Caught in, on, or between:
Total ................
Between a moving and
stationary object • • • •
Between two or more
moving objects .......
In a moving object • • • •

213

69

18

176

63

18

—

2

—

26

31

26
11

6
—

—
--

—
—

—
1

—
—

11
8

7
1

—
—

Rubbed, abraded: Total . . . .
By foreign bodies in eyes .
By objects being handled .
By other objects ......

219
179
27
13

15
—
13
2

8
—

2
—
2
—

l
—
~
l

..
..
—
—
—

__
—
—
—

1
—
1
—

Overexertion: Total ......
Lifting or carrying objects
Pulling or pushing objects.
Swinging objects......
Other activities ......

21
9:
189
78
20
7

9U
78
15
—
1

67
UO
27
—
—

179
175
2
2
__
—
—
—
—

—
—
_
—
—
—

31
1
11
19
—

2
—
—
—
2

7
2
2
1
2

8
1
7
—
—

11
n
—
—
—

Contact with tenperature
extremes...............

78

2

1

11

1

—

—

Contact with radiations, caus­
tics, and noxious substances .

69

“

—

—

—

Bodily reactions .........

U2

~

—

-

Other accident types ......

12

Unclassified; insufficient data

9




—

k
h

1
—

—
—

—

—

5

kk

U

7
7
—

8
8
—

—

19
9

7
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

h

—
11
10
7
—
1
1
1

h
2

1
1
1
3

—
—
—
__

10

20
20

—

16

__
—
—
—
—
—
~

10
7
2
6

—
—
—

96
71
13
2k

5
13

21

1
5

—

2
19

—
—

2
—
2

3
—
3

—
—
—

13
2
11

—
—
—

1

—

13

—

20

—

1

13

—

17

—

—
—

—
—

2
1

1
—
1
—

2
—
1
1

1
—
1
—

—
—
_
—
—
—

—
—
_
—
—
—

—
—
—
—

27
25
2
—
—

8
6
1
—
1

5
l
U
—
—

—
—
—
—

2k
9

—
—

1
—
—
—
1

—

—

—

—

—

—

63

—

~

—

U8

—

—

—

—

20

—

—
-

—

—
—

-

-

-

-

-

U2

~

—

—

12

—

-

5

—
-

—

?°7

If
t

-

—

—

—

9
U
2
3
33

9

-5 7 -

Table 1 1 .

Work a ccid e n ts in 135 b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u cts p la n ts , c la s s if ie d by typ e o f a ccid e n t and hazardous
w orking c o n d itio n , 1951
Hazardous w orking co n d itio n
T o ta l
number
of
a c c i­
dents

D efects
of
agen cies

Dress
or
apparel
hazards

Environ­
mental
hazards

U nclas­
s i f ie d ;
in su f­
f ic ie n t
data

29k

271

253

115

220

32
32
—

39
5
31*

23
23
—

1
1
—

29
29

17
16
1

209

u

1
5o
37
32
1*8

119
68
7
58
—
—
3

91
58
21
27
—
2
8

83
59
52
30

12
6
6
8

29
3
—
9

20
25
t*
2

F a lls on same le v e l: T o ta l . . . .
To walkways o r w orking su rfa ces
On o r a g a in st o th e r o b je c t s • •

11*6
51*
92

5
1
1
*

72
19
53

F a lls to d iffe r e n t le v e ls : T ota l •
From l a d d e r s ...................................
From oth er e le v a tio n s • • • • •

101
30
71

35
—
35

7
3
1
*

18

Caught in , on , o r betw een: T ota l .
Between a moving and sta tio n a ry
o b je c t • • • • • • • • • • • •
Between two o r more moving
o b je c t s • • • • • • • • • • •
In a moving o b je c t • • • • • •

213

50

176

Hazard­
ous
pro­
cedu res

P la ce­
ment
hazards

Inade­
qu ately
guarded

2, oak

k93

368

S trik in g a g a in st: T ota l . • • • •
S ta tion a ry o b je c ts . . . . . .
Moving o b je c ts ..............................

155
119
36

H*
13
1

S tru ck b y : T o ta l ..................................
P a llin g o b je c t s : T ota l . . • .
From hands o f w orkers . . .
From equipm ent • • • • • •
From p ile 's o f m a teria ls • •
From stan din g p o s itio n s • •
From o th e r p o s itio n s . . .

677
k53
lk 8
l k9
1*3
38
75

1U5
113
103
u
1
1

R o llin g o r sw inging o b je c ts • •
F lyin g o b je c ts • • • • • • • •
H and-w ielded o b j e c t s ..................
Other moving o b je c t s • • • • •

Type o f a ccid e n t

T o t a l ............................................................

Rubbed, abraded: T o ta l • • •
by fo r e ig n b o d ie s in eyes
By o b je c ts bein g handled
By o th e r o b je c ts • • • •

• •
. .
. .
• •

•
.
.
•

—

—

22
11
••
3
5
2
1

1
11

12
13
6
2

«...
6
1
—

5
l
1
*
l

5
5
31
8

5
2
3

11
**
20
22*

—

9
6
3

11
6
5

32

H*

26
9
17

—
—

—

1
—
1

27

80

7

—

28

a

1*7

23

52

7

—

28

19

26
11

3
—

1
*
—

17
11

—

—

—

2
—

218
178
27
13

6
3
2
1

1
—

—

30
2
23
5

156
151*
2
—

29h

—
—

—

—

—

168

—

1

1
—
1

7
—

—
—
—

—
....

—

—
—
—

81*
35
16
7
—

21*
19
—
5

O verexertion : T o t a l ..........................
L ift in g o r ca rry in g o b je c t s • •
P u llin g o r pushing o b je c ts • •
Swinging o b je c ts • • • • • • •
O ther a c t iv it ie s • • • • • • •

189
78
20
7

227
167
53
5
2

11
1
*
6
~
1

—

21*
12
10

—

—

—

2

—

—

30
1
*
9
15
2

C ontact w ith tem perature extrem es •

78

5

2

11

5

37

6

12

C on tact w ith r a d ia tio n s , c a u s tic s ,
and n oxious su bstances • • • • • •

69

1

—

3

3

52

6

1
*

B od ily re a ctio n s

1*2

1
*

6

—

12

—

12

1

1

6

—

—

—

9

—

—

—

—

—

9

• • • • • • • • •

O ther a ccid e n t ty p es

• • • • • • •

U n cla s s ifie d ) in s u ffic ie n t data • •




—

1
*
—

2
2

7

-5 8 -

Table 12 .

D isa b lin g work in ju r ie s in 13$ b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u cts p la n ts, c la s s ifie d by hazardous working
c o n d itio n and e x te n t o f d is a b ilit y , 1951
Number o f d is a b lin g in ju r ie s
T ota l

Hazardous w orking co n d itio n
Number

Per­
ce n t

y

R esu ltin g in —
Death
and
perma­
n en tto ta l
d is a ­
b ilit y

Number o f days
lo s t o r
charged

Perma­
n en tp a r t ia l
d isa ­
b ilit y

Tempo­
ra r y to ta l
d is a ­
b ilit y

103

1,9 05

172,625

19
8
1
10

1*73
3U2
1*9
82

9
1
1
*
1
*

Average number
o f days
charged
Der—
D isa­
b lin g
in ju r y

Tempo­
ra r y to ta l
d is a ­
b ilit y

1 0 0 .0

86

16

32,613
llt,28U
10,871
7,658

20.1*
8 .8
6 .8
1*.8

67
la
213
83

18
17
18
21

3$9
19$
76
88

20,101
3,737
6 ,2 9 3
10,071

1 2 .$
2 .3
3 .9
6 .3

$S
19
79
i0 9

18
18
20
16

11
**
23
21

21*8
109
139

55,271
lit , 901
lt0,370

3U.3
9 .3
2 $ .0

188
113
21*9

21
19
22*

—

11
2
$
2
—
2

260
91
67
30
27
1*$

18,651
5,218
5,3 05
3,6 80
280
It,168

11 .6
3 .2
3 .3
2 .3
.2
2 .6

69
$6
71*
11$
10
89

13
10
15

—

$

21*8

9,111

$ .7

36

$

2

11*1

3,133

1 .9

22

5

3 .8
(1*/)

Number

Per­
cen t

y

y
2 ,0 llt

100.0

Hazardous p roced u res: T ota l * • •
Manual h andling o f heavy objects
Lack o f adequate w orking surface
Other • • • • • • • • • • • • •

U93
350
$1
92

2 7 .5
1 9 .6
2 .8
$. 1

Placem ent hazards: T o t a l..................
Im properly p la c e d ..........................
Im properly p ile d * ......................
In adequ ately secu red * * • • •

368
196
80
92

20.$
10*9
U.5
$ .1

In adequ ately guarded: T o ta l * • •
Lack o f p o in t-o f-o p e r a tio n guard
O th e r ...................................................

291:
132
162

16.1*
7.1*
9 .0

D e fe cts o f a g e n cie s: T ota l • • • •
S lip p e ry . ■ • • • • ......................
Worn, cra ck ed , broken • • • • •
Im properly co n stru cted • • • •
Sharp-edged • • • • • * • * • •
Other ....................................................

271
93
72
32
27
1*7

l $ .l
5. 2
1*.0
1 .8
1. S
2 .6

D ress o r ap p arel hazards: T otal* *
Inadequate p erson a l s a fe ty
equipm ent • • • • • • • • • •
Lack o f p erson a l s a fe ty
equipment • • • • • • • • • •
Inadequate c lo th in g ......................

253

l b .l

ll*3

8 .0

106
i*

$. 9
.2

—
—

3
—

103
1
*

5 ,9 5 3
25

Environm ental h azards: T ota l * * *
Inadequate work space .................
O th e r ........................................... .... .

11$
103
12

6.1*
$ .7
.7

(1 ) 3
2
(1 ) 1

6
6
—

106
9$
11

2lt,9lt6
18,666
6,2 80

U n cla s s ifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t data * *

220

—

--

9

211

11,732

T o ta l * * ....................................................

1/

2/
V

k/

(1 ) 6
l
—

1
—
—
—

—
2
—

2

—
—
—
—

18

$6
(2/>

5
< 2 /)

1 $ .$
1 1 .6
3 .9

217
181
( 2 /)

21
21
(2/>

—

53

12

P ercen ts are based on c la s s ifie d cases only*
F igures in paren th eses in d ic a te th e number o f p erm an en t-total d is a b ilit ie s in cluded*
Not computed because o f sm all number o f in ju rie s *
Less than 0 .0 $ .




16
18

-5 9 -

Table 13 .

Work a ccid e n ts in 135 b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u cte p la n ts , c la s s ifie d b y hazardous w orking c o n d itio n and
p rod u ct, 1951
T ota l number o f

Product
Heavy tanks

B o ile rs

O ther

Hazardous w orking co n d itio n
Humber

Per­
cen t 1 /

Humber

Per­
ce n t 1 /

T o ta l ........................................................

2,01b

1 0 0 .0

1 ,0 7 b

Hazardous p roced u res: T ota l . .
Manual handling o f heavy
o b je c t s . • • • • • • • • •
Lack o f adequate w orking
su rfa ce • • • • • • • • • •
O ther . . . . . ..........................

U93

27.5

350

Placem ent h azards: T o ta l . .
Im properly p la ce d . . . .
Im properly p ile d • • • •
In adequ ately secu red . .

Humber

Humber

Per­
cen t

1 0 0 .0

33b

1 0 0 .0

606

10 0.0

26b

2 7 .8

89

30.6

lbO

2 5 .3

1 9 .6

188

1 9 .8

6b

22 .0

98

1 7 .7

51
92

2. 8
5 .1

26
50

2. 7
5 .3

9
16

3. 1
5 .5

16
26

2. 9
b .7

. .
. .
••
• .

368
196
80
92

20 .5
1 0 .9
b. 5
5 .1

195
108
33
5b

2 0 .5
1 1 .3
3. 5
5 .7

b6
22
13
11

1 5 .9
7 .6
b. 5
3 .8

127
66
3b
27

2 2 .9
1 1 .9
6.1
b .9

In adequately guarded: T o ta l • •
Lack o f p o in t -o f -o p e r a tio n
guard . . . . . ................. ....
Other ...............................................

29b

16.h

lU9

1 5 .7

b3

lb .8

102

1 8 .b

132
162

7.k

6b
85

6 .7
9 .0

19
2b

6 .6
8 .2

b9
53

8 .8
9 .6

D e fe cts o f a g e n cie s: T o ta l . . .
S lip p e ry • • • • • • • • • •
Worn, cra ck ed , broken • . • •
Im properly co n stru cte d , • •
Sharp-edged • • ..........................
O th e r ...............................................

271
93
72
32
27
b7

1 5 .1
5. 2
b .o
1 .8
1 .5
2 .6

lb o
b8
35

17
26

lb .7
5. 0
3 .7
1 .5
1 .8
2 .7

b7
18
lb
3
3
9

1 6 .2
6.3
b .8
1 .0
1 .0
3 .1

8b
27
23
15
7
12

1 5 .2
b. 8
b .2
2 .7
1 .3
2 .2

D ress o r ap parel h azards: T o ta l.
Inadequate p erson a l s a fe ty
equipm ent .............................. ....
Lack o f p erson a l s a fe ty
equipm ent • • • • • • • • •
Inadequate c lo th in g • • • • •

253

lb .l

135

lb . 2

b8

1 6 .6

70

1 2 .6

lb 3

8 .0

72

7 .6

26

9 .1

b5

8 .1

106
k

5. 9
.2

61
2

6. b
.2

21
1

7. 2
.3

2b
1

b. 3
.2

Environm ental h azards: T ota l • •
Inadequate work space • • • •
O th e r ...................... .........................

115
103
12

6.U
5 .7
.7

67
59
8

7 .1
6 .2
.9

17
15
2

5 .9
5 .2
.7

31
29
2

5 .6
5 .2
•b

U n cla s s ifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t data •

220

—

12li

—

bb

—

52

—

1/

9 .0

P ercen ts are based on c la s s ifie d ca ses on ly.




lk

1/

Per­
ce n t

1/

- 6 0 -

T able H u

Work a ccid en ts in 13$ b o ile rsh o p -p ro d u cts p la n ts, c la s s ifie d b y hazardous w orking c o n d itio n and
a c t iv it y o f in ju r e d , 19$1
A c t iv it y o f in ju re d
T ota l
number
of
a ccid e n ts

O perating
machines

Using
hand
t o o ls

2.01U

276

1*60

765

232

152

129

Hazardous p roced u res: T ota l . . . .
Manual handling o f heavy o b je c t s •
Lack o f adequate w orking s u r fa c e .
O ther ........................................................

U93
350
5i
92

18
9
1
8

Uo
19
17

380
332
10
38

26
1
9
16

21*
1
n
12

5
3
1
1

Placem ent h azards: T o ta l . . . . . .
Im properly p la c e d ..............................
Iiqproperly p ile d • • • • • • • •
In adequ ately secu red . . . . . .

368
196
80
92

3U
15
6
13

56
23
3
30

156
63
32

7U
65
7
2

28
17
2
9

20
13
1
6

In adequ ately guarded: T ota l . . . .
Lack o f p o in t-o f-o p e r a tio n guard*
O ther ........................................................

29li
132
162

125
77
li8

59
36
23

ltli
7
37

25
3
22

17
1

2li
8
16

D efects o f a g e n cie s: T o ta l • • • • •
S lip p e ry . . .......................... • • •
Worn, cra ck ed , b r o k e n ..................•
Im properly co n stru cte d • • • • •
Sharp-edged . . . . . .
..................
Other •

271
93
72
32
27
ltf

liO

3
8

92
36
15
11
18
12

li6
36
6
1
—
3

22
3

9
12
5
10

61
9
37

13

10
5
1
2
1
1

D ress o r apparel h azards: T o ta l • •
Inadequate p erson a l s a fe ty
equipm ent • • • • • • • • • • •
Lack o f person al s a fe ty equipm ent
Inadequate c lo th in g • • • • • • •

253

33

Hill

8

7

32

29

1
6
—

11
21
—

Hi
Hi
l

Hazardous w orking c o n d itio n

T o ta l ................................................................

k

k

h

Handling
mater­
ia ls

61

W alking,
e tc .

Other

16

h
2

—

U nclas­
s i f ie d ;
in su f­
f ic ie n t
data

lli3
106

k

15
18
—

100
la
3

2
6
—

Environm ental h azards: T ota l • • • •
Inadequate work space • • • • • •
Other • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

115
103
12

12
12
—

18
15
3

37
36
1

29
26
3

11
8
3

8
6
2

U n cla s s ifie d ; in s u ffic ie n t data . . .

220

Hi

82

U8

25

18

33




61

T a ble 1 5 .

Work a c c id e n t * i n 135 b o ile r s h o p -p r o d u c t s p l a n t s , c l a s s i f i e d b y hasardoua w orking c o n d i t io n and agen cy o f a c c id e n t , 1951

Hazardous w ork ing c o n d i t io n

Agency of accident
Total
number
Hoist­ Goggles Work­
Elec­
Unclas­
of
trical Other sified;
and
Con­
acci- Mstal Hand Assem- Ha- ing
ing Vehi­
tools bliss chines appa­ shields sur­ cles Lumber tainers Ladders appa­
insuf­
dents stock
ratus
faces
ratus
ficient
data
201
,1;

3U0

238

235

177

16b

91

89

U7

kh

U2

12
*

21

21
6;

220

Hasardoua p r o c e d u r e s : T o t a l . .
Manual h an d lin g o f heavy
o b j e c t s ................................ . •
Lack o f adequate w orking
s u r fa c e .........................................
O ther • • • • • ............................

U93

158

13

125

15

U5

—

—

16

13

28

k

9

67

—

350

1U6

1

96

1

13

—

-

3

9

28

h

6

U3

—

51
92

1
11

3
9

2U
5

8
6

3
29

__

....

—

—

5
8

1
3

1
2

5
19

—

P lacem ent h a z a r d s : T o t a l
Im p rop erly p la c e d • •
Im p rop erly p i l e d • •
In a d e q u a te ly s e c u r e d

. .
• •
• •
• .

368
196
80
92

139
58
51
30

21

___

—

3
2
1
—

___

3

26
21
2
3

1
1

—

1
1
—
. —

10
5

5

52
10
13
29

—

—

100
70
13
17

In a d e q u a te ly guarded: T o t a l . .
Lack o f p o i n t - o f - o p e r a t io n
guard • ..........................................
O ther ..................................................

21
9;

2

la

2

110

81

—

15

k

19

132
162

w
2

98
12

_

2

3U
7

m
T,

81

D e fe c ts o f a g e n c ie s : T o ta l . . .
S lip p e r y .........................................
Worn, c r a c k e d , broken . • • •
Im p rop erly c o n s t r u c te d • • •
Sharp-edged • • • • • • • • •
O ther ..................................................

271
93
72
32
27
U7

30
7
1

16
*
3
28

19
U
5
3
6
1

15

16

—

—

T ota l

.
•
•
.

.
•
•
.

—

15
7

16
___

k
___

11

___
—
___

1
10
1
3

8
5
___

8
2
___

6

___
___

1
—
—

1
___

—

5
2

15

2

~
.
.
~

69
55
7
3

8
3
3

U
—
1

___

___

___

,

—

___

_

U

2

___

1
2

__

—
7
7

3

15

__

___
___

—

__

h

19

3

15

h

12
8
—

8
—
1
2

___

___

39
12
13
6
3
5

—

1
—

1
1
1

h

—

5

__
—
—

—
___

~

253

—

115

—

27

—

90

—

—

—

—

—

~

21

1*
13

—

U5

—

3

—

90

~

—

—

—

~

—

5

106
1
;

___

—

66
1
;

—

2*
1
—

—

—

—

—

“

—

—

—

—

—

Environm ental h a sa rd a : T o t a l • .
In adequate work sp a c e . . . •
Other • • • • ................................

115
103
12

11
11
—

2
2
—

37
3U
3

10
10
—

Hi

_
_

11
11
—

1
1
—

„ .

.,

—
—

—
—

22
lU
8

—

U n c la s s i f ie d ; i n s u f f i c i e n t d a ta •

220

~

—

D ress o r a p p a r e l h a z a rd s: T o t a l,
In adequate p e r s o n a l s a f e t y
e q u i p m e n t .......................
Lack o f p e r s o n a l s a f e t y
e q u i p m e n t .......................
Inadequate c lo t h i n g ...................




___

—
—

16

lk

—

—

—

k
h

~

3
2
1

—

220

- 6 2 -

Table 16.

Work accidents in 13b boilershop-products plants, cla ssifie d by type o f accident and unsafe act
1951
Unsafe act

Type o f accident

Oper­
Using
Total Taking unsafe
ating
Unclas
with­
number unsafe equip­
posi­
Failing Working Other sifie c
Unsafe
out
ment
of
or
a cci­
loading author­ to wear
at
tion
insufequip­
it y ;
safe
or
unsafe
fic ie r
dents
or
ment placing fa ilin g attire
speed
pos­
data
to
ture
un­
safely
secure
or warn

Total ....................................................

2,011

778

31
8*

263

Striking against: Total ...............
Stationary o b j e c t s ............... ...
Moving objects . . . . . . . .

155
119
36

105
87

18

27
17

10

1
1

Struck by: Total • • • • • • • • •
Falling ob jects: Total • . • •
From hands o f workers . . .
From equipment • • • • • •
From p iles o f materials . .
From standing positions • •
From other positions . . .

679
U55
ll*9
11*9
1*3
39
75

21
2*
151
92

199
151
H*7
3

30

—
—

Rolling or swinging objects • •
Flying objects •• ...................
Hand-wielded objects • • . . •
Other moving objects • • • • •

83
59
52
30

1*3
5
17

8

3*
1
1
*

Falls on same le v e l: Total . . • .
To walkways or working surfaces
On or against other objects • •

1 *6
1

133
51
82

Falls to d ifferen t le v e ls: Total .
From la d d e r s ............... ... . . .
From other elevations • • • • •

101

Caught in , on, or between: Total .
Between a moving and stationary
object • • • • ..........................
Between two or more moving
objects • • • • • • ...............
In a moving object • • • • • •
Rubbed, abraded: Total • • • • • •
By foreign bodies in eyes . . .
By objects being handled . . .
By other objects • • ...............

5*
1
92
30
71

1

16
12

77

1

6
1
*

—
83

68

—
H*
25
H*
15

156
7

1
6
92
63
—
33

1
12

17

20

8
—
—
—
—
—
—

_
—
—

1
1

6
6

11

1
*

33

1
9

2

1
*

31

26
11

9

1*
1

M
r
—

1
1

7

1
1

1

8*
1

20

2

—

101

99
29
50
15
5

—

_
—
—

59

291*
189
78

12
12

9

6

18
*

Overexertion: Total • • • • • • •
L ifting or carrying objects . .
Pulling or pushing objects • •
Swinging objects .......................
Other a ctiv itie s • • • • • • •

m
r
.
—
—

1
8

6

213

6

299

*8

~

H
*
1
*
1
*

19

3
—

176

213
173
27
13

27

9
—
—

12
6$

2

85

3

16
1

—
—
—
—

3
3
—
—

15

8
1
*
2
1

168

1 *8
1
18
2

2
2

17 .

—
—

—

2

--

8
1
1

6
1

59

—

—
—
—
—

1

—
—
—

20

—

6

—

1

13

_
3

2

1
1

5
33.
—
3

1

1
1

1
1

5
—

—

1

—

—

—
—
—

—
—

—
—

6
2
1
*

h

u

8

1
*

5

—

2
1

—

_
—
—
—

138
2

5

1
1

_.

1
*
3*
1
28
5

—

11*5

1

—

—

—
—
—
—

—

—
—
—

—
—

—
—
—
—

1

5

16

1

—

26

1

23

—

—

36

1

—

—

—

2

1
1

5
9

2

Contact with tenperature extremes .

78

25

1
*

Contact with radiations, cau stics,
and noxious substances • • • • • •

69

5

1
*

Bodily reactions

12
*

35

1
*

—

•••••••

12

2

3

—

~

~

—

2

5

U nclassified; in su fficien t data . .

9

—

—

—

—

~

—

—

9

•••••••••

Other accident types




-6 3 -

Table 17.

D isabling work in ju r ie s in 13l* b oilersh op -p rod u cts p la n t s , c l a s s i f i e d by unsafe a c t and e x ten t o f
d i s a b i l i t y , 1951
Number o f d is a b lin g in ju r ie s
T otal

R esultin g in —

Unsafe a c t

Death
and
perma­
nenttota l
d is a ­
b ilit y
2/

Perma­
nentp a r t ia l
d isa ­
b ility

Tempo­
ra ry tota l
d is a ­
b ility

Average number
o f days
charged
p er—

Disa­
b lin g
in ju r y

Tempo­
ra ry to ta l
d is a ­
b ility

Number

Per­
cent
i/

1,902

172,625

100.0

86

16

36
2
20
7

739
260
197
52

73,390
7,9lU
27,071*
19,1*75

1*9.1
5 .3
18.1
13.0

91*
30
121*
325

18
17

Number

T ota l ............................................................

Number o f days
lo s t or
charged

Per­
cent
i/

2,011

100.0

(1 ) 6

103

778
262

3
—
1
1

Taking unsafe p o s it io n or p ostu re:
T o t a l .......................................................
In a tten tion t o fo o tin g • • • •
In a tten tion t o surroundings • •
Exposure under suspended lo a d s .
Exposure t o f a l l i n g o r s lid in g
o b je c t s • • • • • • .................
Other • • • • • • • • • • • • •

60

1*5.1*
1 5 .3
12 .7
3.5

1*9
189

2. 9
1 1 .0

—
1

2
5

1*7
183

3,761
15,166

2.5
10.2

77
80

23
18

Using unsafe equipment o r equipment
u n sa fely : T ota l ..................................
Gripping o b je c t s in se c u re ly . .
Taking wrong h old o f o b je c t s . •
Using d e fe c tiv e equipment . . .
Other • • • • • • • • • • • • •

381*
190
136
27
31

22.1*
11.1
7 .9
1 .6
1. 8

—
—
—
—

33
1
27
3
2

351
189
109
21*
29

23,831*
3,221*
15,1*81*
3,1*79
1,61*7

16.0
2 .2
10.1*
2 .3
1 .1

62
17
111*
129
53

15
15
H*
12
H*

Unsafe loa d in g o r p la c in g : T ota l .
Moving to o heavy loa ds • • • •
Placing o b je c t s u n sa fely . . .

263
167
96

15.1*
9.8
5 .6

—
—
—
—

k

259
161*
95

13,590
7,677
5,913

9.1
5 .1
1*.0

52
1*6
62

16
20

Operating w ithout a u th ority ;
f a i l i n g to secure o r warn: T ota l.
F a ilin g to b lock o r secure • •
Operating w ithout g ivin g sig n a l
Other • • • • • ..........................

156
no
21
25

9.1
6.1*
1 .2
1. 5

1
—
1
—

3

H*l*
101*
18
22

23,61*7
11*, 370
7,731*
1,51*3

15 .8
9 .6
5 .2
1 .0

152
131
368
62

22
18
(V )
29

F a ilin g t o wear sa fe a t t ir e : Total
F a ilin g t o wear gogg les • • • •
Other • • • • ..............................

85
58
27

5 .0
3.1*
1 .6

—
—

3
3
—

82
55
27

6,0 83
5,711*
369

l*.l
3.9
.2

72
99
ll*

8
6
H*

Working a t unsafe speeds

• • • • •

27

1 .6

—

1
*

23

3,829

2 .6

11*2

23

Other unsafe a c ts .............................. ....

19

1 .1

—

5

11*

It, 982

3.3

<2/>

Q /)

U n cla s s ifie d ; in s u f f ic ie n t data . .

299

(1) 2

7

290

23,270

78

10

1/

y

3/

218

—

3

1
11
6
2

—

Percents are based on c l a s s i f i e d cases on ly .
Figures in parentheses in d ic a te the number o f perm anent-total d i s a b i l i t i e s in clu d ed .
Not computed because o f sm all number o f in ju r i e s .




16
22

18

-6 4 -

Table 18.

Work a ccid en ts in 131* boilersh op -p rod u cts p la n ts , c l a s s i f i e d by unsafe a c t and p rodu ct, 1951
T ota l
number o f
a ccid en ts

Product
Heavy tanks

Unsafe a c t

B o ile rs

Other

Number

Per­
cen t 1 /

Number

Per­
cen t 1 /

2 ,OU

100.0

1,07U

100.0

329

100.0

608

100.0

778
262
218
60

1*25
ll*l*
118
28

1*6.9
1 5 .9
1 3 .0
3 .1

112
35
28
8

38.9
12.1
9.7
2 .8

2la
83
72
21*

1*6.5

1 5 .3
12.7
3.5

1*9
189

2. 9
n .o

32
103

3.5
11.1*

6
35

2. 1
12.2

n
5i

2. 1
9.8

Using unsafe equipment o r equipment
u n s a fe ly : T ota l • • • • • • • • •
Gripping o b je c t s in se cu re ly • .
Taking wrong h old o f o b je c t s •
Using d e fe c tiv e equipment • . .
Other ...................................................

381*
190
136
27
31

22.1*
11 .1
7 .9
1 .6
1 .8

186
89
72
15
10

20.5
9.8
7 .9
1 .7
1 .1

71*
38
21*
5
7

25.7
1 3 .3
8 .3
1.7
2.1*

121*
63
1*0
7
11*

23.9
12.1
7.7
1.1*
2.7

Unsafe loa d in g o r p la cin g : T ota l •
Moving to o heavy loa d s • • • .
Placing o b je c t s u n s a fe ly • • •

263
167
96

15.U
9.8
5 .6

ll*6
103
1*3

16 .1
11.1*
1*.7

11
**
26
18

15 .3
9.1
6 .2

73
38
35

U * .l
7 .3
6 .8

Operating without a u th o rity ;
f a i lin g t o secure o r warn: T o ta l.
F a ilin g t o b lo ck o r secu re • •
Operating w ithout g iv in g sig n a l
Other .................. . . . . . . . .

156
no
21
25

9.1
6.1*
1 .2
1. 5

88

16

9.7
6 .7
1 .2
1. 8

20
13
3
1
*

6 .9
1*.5
1 .0
l.l*

1*8
36
7
5

9 .3
6 .9
1.1*
1 .0

F a ilin g t o wear sa fe a t t i r e : Total
F a ilin g to wear goggles . . . .
Other ...................................................

85
58
27

5 .0
3.1*
1 .6

1*5
30
15

5 .0
3.3
1.7

21*
17
7

8 .3
5 .9
2.1*

16

11
5

3.1
2.1
1 .0

Working at unsafe speeds

27

1 .6

8

.9

10

3.5

9

1 .7

19

1 .1

8

.9

1
*

1.1*

7

1.1*

299

—

T otal ............................................................
Taking unsafe p o s it io n o r p ostu re:
T o t a l ...................... . . ......................
In a tten tion t o fo o tin g • • • •
In a tte n tio n to surroundings . .
Exposure under suspended lo a d s .
Exposure t o f a l l i n g o r s lid in g
o b je c t s • • • • • • • • • • •
O t h e r ........................................... ....

. • • . •

Other unsafe a c t s .......................... ....
U n cla s s ifie d ; in s u f f ic ie n t data . .
1/

61
n

168

—

Number

la

Per­
cen t 1 /

—

Number

90

Percents are based on c l a s s i f i e d cases on ly.




S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1958 0 — 4 8 9 2 8 8

Per­
cen t 1 /

16.1
1 3 .9
1*.6

—