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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

CHILDREN’S BUREAU
GRACE ABBOTT, Chie!

INFANT M O RTALITY
RESULTS OF A FIELD STUDY IN BALTIMORE, MD.
BASED ON BIRTHS IN ONE YEAR

By

ANNA ROCHESTER
«

Bureau Publication N o . 119

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1923


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CONTENTS.
Page.

Letter of transmittal.................................. . . .
Introduction................................................. .
Method and purpose of the study.....................................
The babies’ surroundings.. . ______
. ______
Baltimore................ ..............................................
Mothers’ color and nationality....... ................................
Foreign-bom white families............... .. _ . . . *l .* ___ _
Colored families................... .......................... M

___
17
. . . . 19-21
....
20
----- 23-56
....
23
. . . . 28-34
....
28
32
Social questions arising from differences in color and nationality"
33
Fathers’ earnings and occupations............ ....................
. . . . 34-42
Fathom’ earnings and fam ily incom e.......... ...................
....
.35
Fathers’ occupations........... ................. . . . . ___
36
Irregularity of fathers’ em ploym ent.... . . . . . . . ______
39
Home conditions............................................
,...4 2 -4 7
Rental and sanitation.......................... ............... ..
....
42
Space and size of household........................ ’ ____ _
-----45
Variations in size of fam ily.................................
46
|; ' Employment of mothers......................... .; ____. .
. . . 47-53
! f.
Prevalence of em ploym ent................ .............
....
48
Occupations.......... ...............................................
...
50
Care of the infant........................................ .
. . . 53-54
Prevalence of artificial feeding...................................*
53
pi
Sum m ary.. .................. . ........................
54
The deaths.................. ..........................................................
. . . 57-68
Age at death............................. ..................... ................
58
Causes of death.......................................... .......................
. . . 59-67
Early infancy and malformations.............................
59
Gastric and intestinal diseases.................................... ||
61
Respiratory diseases.............................................
63
Other communicable diseases........ ............ ......... ............
64
Other cau ses.................................................................
66
Summary................. ................ ....................................
67
Feeding and infant m ortality.............................................
69
Social and economic factors in infant mortality.............
.. 77-132
Nationality and mortality........... ..................
. . . 77-93
Nationality and cause of death.......................
.....
78
Social factors in the variation of rates b y n ationality.......... ........... . . . 79-93
Native white and colored families...................................
80
Native white and foreign-born white fam ilies.. . . ...... ...............
85
Polish and foreign-bom Jewish fam ilies...................................* ..
88
Summary...... .... .................................................. ... .......
93
Li Poverty and infant mortality..................... ................. ...........
. 94-106
Fathers’ earnings and mortality rates............. ................. a J
94
Type of feeding and mortality in the several earnings grou ps.. . . .
97
Living conditions affecting mortality in the poorer fam ilies.. . . . . . . .
100
Poverty as a direct factor in infant mortality............ ...
..........
..
104
Sum m ary..... ...............................
105
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CONTENTS.

Social and econom ic factors in infant mortality— Continued.
Page.
Neighborhoods, dwellings, and infant mortality............................................ 106-114
Wards................................................ ........................................ - - ................... 106
Dwellings................................................................................................ ....... 111-114
Room congestion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - ................................... ....... ...........
1**
Sanitary equipment............................................. %------ - - - - — - - - - - - IP
Summary.......................- ..................... ........... -'......... .............. 114
Employment of mothers and infant mortality............ .- - ........ ............ - - - • 114-181
Employment during pregnancy of 1915................................................ .
115
Employment of mothers after birth occurring in 1915............................ 120
127
Employment away from home at any tim e. .....................‘ . . .
rt f
10A
Summary........................ ......... - ......... - - - - - .
- - - - - ------- - - ....................
xou
Relation of infant mortality to the mother’s illiteracy or inability to speak
English........... ........................- ......... ..........................- - ..................... ....... .......
1^1
Physical factors in infant m orta lity..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................ . . . 133-152
Order of birth, age of mother, and interval between b irth s ......... ............. 133-146
Order of birth............. - - ............... - ...........................- ------- . . . . i . . . . ------133
Age of m oth er....'..... ........... ........... ....... ..................... .................... - .........
Interval between births......................................
139
Summary.......................- .......... - - - - - - •- - - •— - *
145
Plural births................... ............. . - - - ....................................... .............................
Sex of infant.................................................................................................. . . . . .
|pi§
Maternal deaths.......................................... - - - - - - - . . . - - - - - ............... - - - . . . . . .
P®
Stillbirths............................................... •............................................................... 153
Illegitimate births........... .............. - ...............................- - - ............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - 155-IM
The mothers.................
155-Hw
Color and nativity................... ............ .. II - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
1*P>
Em ploym ent..........................................i . :.i . .
1«P
Age. ......................... - .............................- - - - ......... -----------------------------------Civil condition at confinement— .......... .................. - - - - - - - - ........... - 157
Previous births — ......................W& - - -. . . - 157
Literacy.................................................- - - - - - - - - - - - - ............................
158
The fathers............................... - - - ...............- - - - - - - - * - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------158
The births......................... .................... - ------- ------------------------ ------ - - -1»- -■• 159-160
Place of confinement and attendant at birth ..----- :
. . ----- - - - — - - - - 159
Prenatal care.......................... - .......................- - - - - - - - - .................. ........
159
Conditions during year after b i r t h . . . . ----- . . . . ------ -: 1- - - - - ............. - - - - 160-167
Relation of mothers and fathers - . . . . . . . . . . . . —. . A ................ ......... ...
160
Where the mothers liv ed ........... .............. ............ .......... - - - : ............ - - 161
Civil condition of mother at one year after confinement............... .........
162
Maternal deaths............... ; . - ................... - ......... ............................ . - 1........
164
Economic status of the mothers. r. .............. ............ .............................. . . .
164
Where the babies lived ...... .................... - - ........... ........................... .............
Mf>
Summary of social background....................... ........ ............................................
i®7
Mortality among illegitimate infants.. . . . . . . . ----- . . .
........ ............. 168-175
White and colored infants......... ..........................................
-; SB9* - - - - - W®
Age at death and stated cause of death.......... ................... .
- - - ........ 170
Employment of mother........... ................................ .—
e»0
P ov erty .. . — ........ — —. . . . . . . t . . . . . . . . - *............ .
171
Conditions peculiar to illegitim acy............................... ...................... - - - 171
Infant feed in g ................ - — - ........... - - - - - ......... ........................ - - .............
174
Stillbirths and miscarriages.. . . . . . . . . . ...... ........................ ....... . - J- - - - ------1*°
General summary..................................................... ........................................................
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Page.

Appendix I. Birth registration in B altim ore.. . . ___ . . . . . . ....... ..................... 185
Appendix II. The babies in families which could not b ^ ^ U d ied ......................
189
‘ Appendix I II. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates in this study and in Balti­
more City as a w hole............ ............................................................. ................... .....
193
Appendix IV . Method b y which median earnings and median rentals are esti­
mated from data available in the present study....... ........................ .......... ......
197
Appendix V. Method b y which infant mortality rate is computed for infants
having a specified type of feeding; explanation of terms “ expected deaths”
and “ expected rates” ............. ........... ........ ....... ............................................... 199-202
Computed rate by type of feeding..................... . . ................. .................... .
199
201
Expected deaths. .................. .............. ........... ......................................... .
Appendix V I. Prevalence of prenatal care and extent to which the infants in the
study were reached b y inf ant-welfare work............. .......................................... . 203-222
Organizations giving prenatal care................• . .. . .................. ................. .
203
Prevalence of prenatal care____ ________________ _______ __________A
204
Prenatal care and poverty..................... ................... ......... %
..........................
205
Prenatal care and color and n a tio n a lity ................. ......... ......................
206
208
Prenatal care and wards...... ........... ........................... ............. ...............
Grade of prenatal c a r e . . . . . ........ ................................ ......... ........................
208
Confinement c a r e ......................... .......... ....... ........... ...................... ......... .
211-217
Hospital facilities..................................................................... .
211
Attendant at birth..................... ............ ..................... .....................
211
Visits b y attendant during confinement p eriod ......................... ........ .....
213
Nursing care....... ....................... .................................................. 213
Infant-welfare w o r k . . . . . ^...... ................ .............. .................. ......... . . . . 218-222
Organizations doing infant-welfare w o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................
218
Infants reached b y infant-welfare work......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
219
Appendix V II. Tables.............______ _____________ ________ __________ . .... 223-391
TABLES.
Table 1. Infant mortality rates in the United States birth-registration area, in
certain foreign countries, in Baltimore and certain foreign cities, and in cities
(population 100,000 or more) in the United States birth-registration area, 1916.
Table 2. Legitimacy of birth, inclusion in and exclusion from, and reason for
exclusion from detailed study; total registered births in Baltimore in 1 9 1 5 ....
Table 3. Ward of residence, b y color and nationality of mother; scheduled
legitimate liv e births in Baltimore in 1915........................... .................. 1 . . . . . .
Table 4. Sanitary condition of dwelling, b y ward of residence; infants bom in
1915 who lived at least two weeks in dwellings stu d ied .. _....... ................. .
Table 5. Earnings of father, b y ward of residence and color of mother; live
births in 1915............................................................. ..................................................
Table 6. Monthly rental, b y ward of residence; infants bom in 1915 who lived
at least two weeks in rented dwellings studied ........... ................................... .
Table 7. Tenure of dwelling, b y ward of residence; infants bom in 1915 who
lived at least two weeks in dwellings stu d ied..................................... ................
Table 8. Tenure of dwelling, b y color and nationality of mother; infants bom
in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied................ ........ ..
Table 9. Tenure of dwelling, b y earnings of father; infants b om in 1915 who
lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied........ ......... ..............................
Table 10. Dwellings in building; infants b om in 1915 who lived at least two
weeks in dwellings studied......................................... .
Table 11. Color, nativity, and mother tongue of population in Baltimore and
; in Continental United States, 1910............... ....... . . . ________ . . . . ______: . . . .


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Page.

Table 12. Years of residence of mother in the United States, b y nationality of
mother; births in 1915 t^B reign-born white m others----- - — — - .............. Table 13. A b ility to speak English, b y literacy and nationality of mother;
births in 1915 to foreign-born white mothers of non-English-speaking nationalties................. ...........................- - ---------- v- - - - - - - ............. .......... ................. . ••-1
Table 14. A b ility to speak English, b y years in the United States and nation­
ality of mother; births in 1915 to foreign-born white mothers of non-Englishspeaking nationalities.............................................................- - *........ ......... ..
Table 15. Literacy of mother, b y color and nationality of mother and earnings
of father; births in 1915......................... .— ...................... ............... ........ . . . . . . . .
Table 16. A b ility of mother to speak English, b y earnings of father and nation­
ality of mother; births in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers of non-EnglishJ
.
speaking nationalities................................ - ................................ ...............................
Table 17. Occupation group of father, b y color and nativity of mother; births
in 1915.......................................................................... ....................................- ...........
Table 18. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y earnings of father, and color
and nationality of mother; births in 1915 — <i............................................. ..
Table 19. Earnings of father, b y occupation; births in 1915........... ............ .
Table 20. Earnings of father, b y occupation group of father and color and
nativity of mother; births in 1915.................................................................
Table 21. Estimated median earnings of father, b y occupation group of father
and color and nativity of mother; births in 1915........ - ............. — - ........... .........
Table 22. Earnings of father, b y regularity of his employment, and b y color and
nativity of mother; births in 1915...............- ............................................................
Table 23. Duration of nonemployment, b y earnings of father, and by color and
nativity of mother; births in 1915......................... .. - .................... - ..................... Table 24. Cause of nonemployment of father, b y color and nativity of mother;
births in 1915.................................... ............................................... - - - ......... - ......... Table 25. Duration of unemployment of father, b y color and nativity of mother;
births in 1915 in families with fathers unemployed because work was not
available........ . - . ......... - . . . . . . . . . - - ........... v- i ■■y----- y........................
Table 26. Source of fam ily ineome, b y earnings of father; births in 1915..............
Table 27. Source of family income, b y fam ily earnings; births in 1915.............. -Table 28. Earnings of father as sole source of family income, b y amount of his
earnings and color and nativity of mother; births in 1915.......... ......................
Table 29. Fam ily earnings, b y earnings of father; births in 1915. — ............ —
Table 30. Earnings of mother, b y color and nativity; births in 1915 to mothers
employed within year after birth of infant..............................- ............. ..
Table 31. Monthly rental, b y color and nationality of mother; infants born in
1915 who lived at least two weeks in rented dwellings studied----- ------- Table 32. Monthly rental, b y earnings of father; infants born in 1915 who lived
at least two weeks in rented dwellings studied................................ ......... ...........
Table 33. Estimated median rental, b y estimated median earnings of father and
b y color and nationality of mother; births in 1915.............. ................ . . . . . . .
Table 34. Sanitary arrangements of dwelling, b y color and nationality of mother
and earnings of father; infants born in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in
dwellings studied........................... - ......... ...............................................................Table 35. Number of persons in household, b y number of rooms in dwelling, and
b y color and nativity of mother; infants born in 1915 who lived at least two
weeks in dwellings studied....... ............ ............................................. - -----*
Table 36. Average number of persons per room, b y size of household and color
and nationality of mother; infants born in 1915 who lived at least two weeks
in dwellings studied........................................................... ..............................' ■ " *


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Table 37. Average number of persons per room, b y earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother; infants bom in 1915 who lived'at least two weeks in
dwellings studied.................................................... ..................................................
Table 38. Total number of births to mother, b y earnings of father and color and
nativity of mother; single births in 1915.......... .....................................................
Table 39. Total number of births to mother, b y nationality of mother; births
in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers..................... ...................... ........ ..............
Table 40. Keeping of lodgers, b y color and nationality of mother; infants born
in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.................................
Table 41. Mother pregnant within year after birth of infant, b y color and
nationality of mother; live births in 1915.............. .................... ................ .........
Table 42. Type of feeding, b y month of life, and by earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother; infants bom in 1915 to native white and colored
mothers not employed within year after birth............................................... ..
Table 43. Type of feeding, b y month of life of infant, ana b y literacy and color
and nativity of mother; infants born in 1915....................... .................................
Table 44. Prevalence of artificial feeding, b y month of life of infant, and b y
ability of mother to speak English and nationality of mother; infants bom in
1915 to Jewish, Polish, and Italian mothers.......................... ..................... .
Table 45. Prevalence of artificial feeding, b y month of life of infant, and by
literacy and nationality of mother; infants bom in 1915 to Jewish, Polish,
and Italian m oth ers.................................................................... . . . ........... ............
Table 46. „Prevalence of mixed feeding and artificial feeding, b y month of life
of infant, and b y place of employment and color and nationality of mother;
infants bom in 1915 to mothers employed within year after birth___ ________
Table 47. Infant deaths per 1,000 live births, b y cause of death and age; legiti­
mate live births in 1915, Baltimore study, and total registered live births
in 1915 in cities of 10,000 or more population in United States birth-registra­
tion area.............. ...................................................... ......... ..........................................
Table 48. Infant deaths, b y cause of death, with reference to classification num­
bers in International List of Causes of Death; deaths among legitimate live
births in 1915, Baltimore study, and total deaths in United States death-regis­
tration area in 1915............... ....... »j—
......... .................... ...............................
Table 49. Infant mortality rates, b y cause of death, and b y color and nativity
of mother; live births in 1915...................................................................................
Table 50. Infant deaths, b y cause of death and month of life; live births in
1915......... ........................ ...................... . . . . . . ............. ..
Table 51. Infant deaths, b y age at death, and b y color and nationality of
mother; live births in 1915........................................ ................. ...............................
Table 521 Infant deaths, b y calendar month of death and cause; live births in
1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ...................................... ..
........................................m
Table 53. Infant mortality rates, b y calendar month of birth and cause of
death; live births in 1915....... ............................................................................... .
Table 54. Infant deaths from gastric and intestinal diseases per 1,000 live births,
b y age at death; Baltimore City, 1915 and 1916, cities of birth-registration
area, 1915, and legitimate group in Baltimore study.................................. .........
Table 55. Infant deaths from diarrhea and enteritis per 1,000 live births, by
age at death; England and Wales, 1891 to 1917.................... ...............................
Table 56. Mean temperature and precipitation, by calendar month; Baltimore,
1915 and 1 9 1 6 ............ ............ ...................... .............................. ..................... .
Table 57. Infant deaths from epidemic and communicable diseases per 1,000
live births, b y age at death and cause of death; Baltimore City, 1915 and
1916, cities of birth-registration area, 1915, and legitimate group in Baltimore
study................................................................................................................................


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Page.

Table 58. Monthly death rates, b y type of feeding, and by color and nationality
of mother; infants bom in 1915................. .............. .
i .......... ............... .....
266-''
Table 59. Monthly death rates, b y type of feeding, and by earnings of father
and color and nativity of mother; in fa n tsb om in 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; 268
Table 60. Computed infant mortality rates, by type of feeding, and b y earn­
ings of father and color and nativity of mother; infants bom in 1915............ .. 1 276 *'
Table 61. Computed infant mortality rates, b y type of feeding, and b y nation­
ality of mother; infants bom in 1915 to foreign-bom white m others.. . . . ___
277
Table 62. Monthly death rates, by type of feeding, month of life and cause of
' 278
death; infants born in 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ .
Table 63. Computed mortality rates for first 10 months of life, b y cause of
death of infant and color of mother; infants bom in 1 9 1 5 ........... ........... .
278
Table 64. Death rates from each month to end of first year, b y month in which
artificial feeding began; infants born in 1915 and artificially fed during some
part of first year of l i f e . . . ....... ................................... ..: . . . . . . . . . . ..¿..i. . . . . . . .
278
Table 65. Computed (annual) infant mortality rates, by month in which arti­
ficial feeding began; infants born in 1915............. .................................. .......
279
Table 66. Monthly death rates, b y month of life, and by month in which arti­
ficial feeding began; infants born in 1915, and artificially fe d ............... .
279
Table 67. Weaning before end of first year of life, b y color and nationality of
mother; infants born in 1915 and surviving at one year. . . .
. . . . . . ___. . . .
279
Table 68, Weaning before end of first year of life, by earnings of father; infants
bom in 1915 and surviving at one year....... ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
* ____ .
280
Table 69. Infant mortality and stillbirth .rates, b y color and nationality of
mother; births in 1915................. ................. . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v i . . . ’ j . . . . .
280
Table 70. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y color and nationality of
mother; births, all pregnancies......... ................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
281
Table 71. Infant mortality rates, b y cause of death, and b y color and nation­
ality of mother; live births in 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___________________jumi 281
Table 72. Excess mortality among infants of Polish mothers over that among
infants of other foreign-born white mothers when the effect of greater propor­
tion of employed among Polish mothers is eliminated; infants of Polish
mothers not employed away from home during infant’s lifetim ei .......
282
Table 73. Stillbirth rates, by earnings of father and color and nativity of mother;
births in 1915.......................................... ................ . . . - ............. . j . . . . . . . . . . . _.
282
Table 74. Infant mortality rates, b y earnings of father and color and nativity of
mother; live births in 1915........................ .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; ..................... ..
283
Table 75. Infant mortality rates, b y earnings of father and color and nativity
of mother; live births, all pregnancies........ ..
1.1____. . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
Table 76. Stillbirth rates, b y earnings of father and color and nativity of mother;
births, all pregnancies............................... ......... .................. ............. ....................
284
Table 77. Neonatal infant mortality rates, earnings of father, and color and
nationality of mother; live births in 1915. . . ^. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____ . * 285
Table 78. Infant mortality rates, b y cause of death, earnings of father, and
color and nationality of mother; live births in 1915................................. . . . . .
286
Table 79. Deaths before feeding per 1,000 live births, and infant death rates
per 1,000 fed, by earnings of father and color and nativity of mother; live
births in 1915........................................... ......... ......... ............... ......... .............. .......
287
Table 80. Type of feeding, by month of life and earnings of father and color and
nativity of mother; infants born in 1915................................ ; . . . ....... ......... ...... , 288
Table 81. Type of feeding, b y month of life and by nationality; infants bom in
1915 to foreign-born white mothers.............. ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
289


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Table 82. Relative mortality among infants in families where the father earned
- $450 to $549 in comparison with that among infants in families where the
father earned $550 to $849, when effeet of differences in type of feeding is
eliminated; infants bom in 1915 to foreign-born white m others.. ............ ..
Table 83. Infant mortality rates in favored group, b y earnings of father and
color and nativity of mother ; live births in 1915.................................................
Table 84. Death rates in favored group per 100 (infants who lived at least two
weeks), b y average number of persons per room and earnings of father; in­
fants born in 1915 to white mothers, who lived at least two weeks in dwell­
ings studied............................................. ....... : ............. ........... .............................
Table 85. Infant mortality rates, b y occupation group and earnings of father
and color and nativity of mother; Hve births in 1915.............................................
Table 86. Excess mortality in overcrowded dwellings, with effect of differences
in father’s earnings eliminated; infants (born in 1915 to native white mothers)
who lived at least two weeks in dwellings with one or more persons per room ..
Table 87. Excess mortality, by ward of residence and cause of death, over
mortality expected when differences due to color and nationality are elim i­
nated ; live births in 1915.............................................................. ............................
Table 88. Excess mortality in overcrowded dwellings, with effect of differences
in father’s earnings eliminated; infants (born in 1915 to foreign-born white
mothers) who lived at least two weeks in dwellings with less than one and
with two or more persons per room.............. ............. .......... ......... .........................
Table 89. Excess mortality in overcrowded dwellings, with effect of differences
. in nationality eliminated; infants (born in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers)
who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied........................................... ..
Table 90. Per cent of infant deaths, b y average number of persons per room,
earnings of father, and color and nativity of mother; infants born in 1915 who
lived at least two weeks in dwellings s t u d i e d . . . . . . . . . . . . ________ ________ __
Table 91. Percentage of infant deaths, b y cause of death, sanitary arrangements
of dwelling, earnings of father, and color and nationality of mother; infants
born in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.......... ............
Table 92. Employment of mother at any time after marriage, during pregnancy
of 1915, or during lifetime of infant bom in 1915,b y place of employment,
earnings of father, and color and nativity of mother; mothers (maternal histo­
ries) and births in 1915........... ........................ ..................... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 93. Employment of mother at any time after marriage, during pregnancy
of 1915, or during lifetime of infant bom in 1915, b y place of employment and
nationality; foreign-born white mothers (maternal histories) and births in
1915............... ....... .......... 1................................................. .
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Table 94. Employment of mother away from home after marriage, b y number
of births, earnings of father, and color and nativity of mother; mothers
(maternal histories)............ ......... ...................... ."................................................. .. /
Table 95. Employment of mother during pregnancy, or within 12 months after
the birth, b y color of mother; live births in 1915...... ...........................................
Table 96. Occupation of mother and employm ent away from home before and
after marriage, b y color and nationality; mothers (maternal histories)... . . . .
Table 97. Occupation, b y time of employment away from home and color and
nationality of mother; mothers (maternal histories).... .......................................
Table 98. Occupation and place of employment of mother during pregnancy,
b y color and nationality; births in 1915............. ........................................... .
Table 99. Occupation of mother, b y place and tim e of employment; liv e births
in 1915 to mothers em ployed.......... ........................................... . ....... ¿ . . . . .
Table 100. Employment of mother during pregnancy of 1915 and during life­
time of infant, b y color and nationality; births in 1915.....................................


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Table 101. Employment of mother during pregnancy of 1915, by employment
after the birth, at home and away from home, b y color of mother; live births
in 1 9 1 5 ............................................ ................. . . . ........ ...............................
Table 102. Infant mortality rates, b y mother’s employment away from home
during pregnancy or within year after birth, earnings of father, and color
and nativity of mother; live births in 1915........................................... . . . . . . . . .
Table 103. Infant mortality rates (b y cause of death) and stillbirth rates, b y
employment of mother dining pregnancy and color and nativity of mother;
births in 1915.................................. ......... .............................................................._
Table 104. Excess infant mortality (by cause of death) and stillbirth rates
among infants of mothers employed during pregnancy, over those expected
when effect of differences in color and nationality and earnings of father is
eliminated; births in 1 9 1 5 .,......................................................................................
Table 105. Prevalence of premature births, by employment during pregnancy
and color and nativity of mother; live births in 1915................................. .........
Table 106. Infant mortality rates, b y cause of death and b y employment of
mother during pregnancy and color and nativity; full-term live births in 1915.
Table 107. Interval between cessation of work and confinement, b y occupation
and color of mother; births in 1915 to mothers employed during pregnancy..
Table 108. Infant deaths under 1 month per 1,000 live births and stillbirth rates,
b y interval between cessation of work and confinement, color of mother, and
place of employment; births in 1915 to mothers employed during pregnancy..
Table 109. Age of infant when mother began work, b y place of mother’s em­
ployment and color and nationality of mother; infants born in 1915 to mothers
employed during infant’ s first year of life, and subsequent infant deaths___
Table 110. Excess mortality among infants of mothers employed during infant’s
lifetime, b y time of resumption of work, place of employment, and color and
nationality of mother, over mortality expected when effect of differences in
color and nationality of mother is eliminated; infants born in 1915 to mothers
employed during infant’s lifetime. ^............ ........... ..............................................
Table 111. Excess mortality among infants of mothers employed during infant’s
lifetime, b y place of employment, over mortality expected when effect of
differences in infants’ ages and in fathers’ earnings is eliminated; infants
bom in 1915 to native white and to colored mothers............ ..................... .........
Table 112. Nationality of mother, b y place of her employment and age of infant
when mother began work; infants born in 1915 to mothers employed during
infant’s lifetime............... ............ ................ ........... .......................................... .
Table 113. Earnings of father, b y mother’s place of employment, color and
nativity, and age of infant when mother began work; infants of mothers employed during infant’s l i f e t i m e ; .................................... ............. ...;
Table 114. Interval between cessation of work and confinement, b y interval
between confinement and resumption of work; infants of mothers employed
away both dining pregnancy and within year after the birth............ ...... ........
Table 115. Excess mortality among infants of mothers employed away from
home during infant’s lifetime, b y mother’s employment during pregnancy and
age of infant when mother resumed work, over mortality expected when
effect of differences in mother’s color and nationality, and father’s paming«
-is eliminated; infants of mothers employed away from home during infant’s
lifetim e............................................................................................................ .............
Table 116. Infant survivors and infant deaths, b y type of feeding, month of
life, place of mother’s employment, and color and nationality of mother;
infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetim e........................................


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Table 117. Excess mortality among infants of mothers em ployed dining infant’s
lifetime, b y place of employment, over mortality expected when effect of
differences in type feeding, in color and nationality and (in native white
families) in earnings of father are eliminated; infants of mothers employed
during infant’ s lifetim e............. ..................... .........................................................
Table 118. Infant mortality rates, b y time of mother’s employment away from
home, color and nativity of mother, and earnings of father; live births, all
pregnancies . .............. ....................... ............ - - ..........................................................
Table 119. Stillbirth rates, b y time of mother’ s employment away from home,
color and nativity of mother, and earnings of father; births, all pregnancies..
Table 120. Infant mortality rates, b y number of births to mother, her employ­
ment away from home, and color and nativity; live births, all pregnancies..
Table 121. Infant mortality rates (b y cause of death) and stillbirth rates, by
employment of mother away from home, during pregnancy and after birth,
and b y color and nativity of mother; births in 1915..............................................
Table 122. Excess mortality among infants of mothers employed away from
home, b y time of mother’ s employment, over mortality expected when effect
of differences in number of births to mother, color and nativity of mother,
and earnings of father are eliminated; live births, all pregnancies................ ...
Table 123. Employment of mother away from home, b y age of mother when she
began work, and color and nativity; births (all pregnancies) to mothers em­
ployed away from home at some time prior to birth in 1915................... ...........
Table 124. Employment of mother during pregnancy of 1915, b y place of em­
ployment, age when she began work away from home, and color and nativity;
births in 1915 to mothers employed away from home at some time prior to the
birth........... ................................................................... - - ........................ ............. *
Table 125. Excess mortality and stillbirth rates among infants of mothers em­
ployed away from home, b y age of mother when she began work, over average
rates after effect of differences of color and nativity is eliminated; births, all
pregnancies..................... ..................... ...............................- * - - .............................
Table 126. Excess mortality (by cause of death) and stillbirth rates among in ­
fants of mothers employed away from home, b y age of mother when she began
work, over average rates after effect of differences of color and nativity is
eliminated; births in 1915......... — ............................................- ............... ..............
Table 127. Infant mortality rates, b y literacy of mother, earnings of father, and
color and nationality of mother; live births in 1915....... -..............................—
Table 128. Relative mortality among infants of illiterate mothers when effect
of differences in mother’s color and nationality and father s earnings is
eliminated; births in 1915 to illiterate mothers....... .....................- ............- - - - Table 129. Infant mortality rates, b y mother’ s ability to speak English, earnings
of father, and nationality of mother; live births in 1915 to foreign-bom white
mothers of non-English-speaking nationalities............ ......... ......... .......................
Table 130. Relative mortality among infants of mothers not able to speak
English, as compared with mortality expected on the basis of average rates,
when effect of differences in mother’s color and nationality and father s
earnings is eliminated; live births in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers
unable to speak English....................................... — - - - - ........................................
Table 131. Prevalence of infant-welfare work, b y ability of mother to speak
English and nationality; infants b o m to Jewish, Polish, and Italian mothers
and surviving two w e e k s ....................... .................................................... ; ------Table 132. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y order of birth; births in
1915, and births, all pregnancies............ .......... ............. ......................... - .............


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Table 133. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y order of birth and color of
mother; single births in 1915, and single births, all pregnancies, to mothers
who reported no plural births....................................................................................
Table 134. Stillbirth rates, b y number of births to mothers, order of pregnancy,
and color of mother; single births, all pregnancies, to mothers who reported
no plural births...... .......................................................................................................
Table 135. Infant mortality rates, b y number of births to mother, order of preg­
nancy, and color of mother; single live births, all pregnancies, to mothers
who reported no plural births............ ........................................................................
Table 136. Excess mortality among infants of mothers reporting large numbers of
births over mortality expected at average rates when effect of differences in
color and nativity and father’s earnings is eliminated; live births, all
pregnancies.
..................................................... ....................................
Table 137. Infant mortality rates, b y order of birth and earnings of father; single
live births in 1915 and all live births, all pregnancies.................... ...................
Table 138. Infant mortality rates, b y order of birth, earnings of father, and color
and nativity of mother; single live births in 1915.................................................
Table 139. Infant mortality rates, b y order of birth, earnings of father (detailed
groups), single live births in 1915 to native white mothers................................
Table 140. Premature birth, b y order of birth; live births in 1915.......................
Table 141. Premature birth, b y interval since preceding birth; live births in
1915, second and later in order of birth................ ...................................................
Table 142. Infant mortality (specified causes) and stillbirth rates, by order of
birth; single births in 1 9 1 5 . ......................................................... ......................
Table 143. Infant mortality rates, b y age, color, and nativity of mother; live
births in 1915 and live births, all pregnancies......................................................
Table 144. Stillbirth rates, b y age, color, and nativity of mother; births in 1915.
Table 145. Stillbirth rates, b y age of mother and earnings of father; single births
in 1915 and all births, all pregnancies....... ....................................................... .
Table 146. Infant mortality rates, b y age of mother and earnings of father; sin­
gle live births in 1915 and all live births, all pregnancies...............................
Table 147. Infant mortality rates from specified causes, b y age of mother; single
live births in 1 9 1 5 ............ ..................... ................................................................
Table 148. Premature births, by age, color, and nativity of mother; live births in
1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ .................................................................................. ...............
Table 149. Stillbirth rates, b y order of birth and age of mother; births in 1915,
and births, all pregnancies..................................................................................... ....
Table 150. Infant mortality rates, b y order of birth and age of mother; live
births in 1915, and live births, all pregnancies...................................................
Table 151. Infant mortality rates, by order of birth and age and color of
mother; single live births in 1915, and all live births, all pregnancies........ ...
Table 152. Infant mortality rates, b y order of birth, age of mother, and earn­
ings of father; live births, all pregnancies.......... ....................................................
Table 153. Infant mortality rates from specified causes, b y age of mother and
order of birth; single live births in 1915........................... .....................................
Table 154. Stillbirth and infant mortality rates, b y interval since preceding
birth, earnings of father, and color and nativity of mother; births in 1915,
second and later in order of b irth ............ ..............................................................
Table 155. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y interval since preceding
birth and period of gestation; births in 1915.........................................................
Table 156. Interval since preceding birth, b y earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother; live births in 1915, second and later in order of birth.


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Table 157. Number of mother’s pregnancies, b y duration of mother’s married
life and earnings of father; live births, all pregnancies.................................. . .
352
Table 158. Infant mortality rates, b y number of mother’s pregnancies, dura­
tion of married life and earnings of father; live births, all pregnancies.. . . i :.
353
Table 159. Infant mortality rates, b y interval between birth in 1915 and pre- '
ceding birth; live births in 1915, second and later in order of birth, and live
births preceding single births in 1 9 1 5 . . . . — . — .............. ............. ..
—
354
Table 160. Stillbirth rates, b y interval between birth in 1915 and preceding
birth; births in 1915, second and later in order of birth, and births preceding
single births in 1915......................................................... ..........................354
Table 161. Mother reported pregnant within first year after birth, b y age of
infant when the pregnancy began, b y color and nationality of mother; live
births in 1915 to mothers reported pregnant within year after the birth in
1915 and infant deaths subsequent to commencement of pregnancy. . . . . . . . .
355
Table 162. Infant deaths, b y age at death, relation of infant death to mother’s
pregnancy after the birth, and color and nativity of mother; live births in
1915 to mothers pregnant within year after b ir t h ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
356
Table 163. Monthly death rates, b y month of life and by pregnancy of mother
during infant’s first year of life; live births in 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . 357
Table 164. Computed infant mortality rates, b y mother’s pregnancy during
infant’s lifetime; infants born in 1915..................................... .
r ----- . . . .
357
Table 165. Prevalence of interval under two years between births, b y order
of birth; single live births in 1915, second and later in order of birth and all
live births, all pregnancies— .............. - ........... ........... - - ............... - - - - - - - v - •
Table 166. Interval between births, b y age of mother; single live births in
1915, second and later in order of birth.................... ...........................................
Table 167. Infant mortality rates from specified causes and stillbirth rates, by
order of birth and interval since preceding birth; single births in 1915, second
and later in order of birth.................................................................. .... ......... ......
Table 168. Infant mortality rates from specified causes and stillbirth rates, by
age of mother and interval since preceding birth; single births in 1915, second
and later in order of birth............................................ - - - - - - - - - ........... - - - -g - Table 169. Infant mortality rates from specified causes, by age of mother,
order of birth, and interval since preceding birth ; single live births in 1915,

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second and later in order of b irth ................................... ...........................r .v ; * .* ...360
Table 170. Prevalence of plural births, b y color and nativity of mother , births ,
in 1915 and births, all pregnancies........................................................ . ........ . - -r
361
Table 171. Infant mortality, stillbirth, and miscarriage rates, by color and
........ - - - - 1- - -T- - - - ; 3jBi
nativity of mother; single and plural births in 1915.
Table 172. Infant mortality, stillbirth, and miscarriage rates, b y color and
nativity of mother; single and plural births, all pregnancies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
361
Table 173. Infant mortality, stillbirth, and miscarriage rates, b y character of
plural birth; plural births in 1915 and all pregnanci es. . . .
3
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Table 174. Prevalence of plural births, b y age of mother; births in 19,15 and
births, all pregnancies----- . . . . . . . ------ .....................‘
‘ ; Y ‘ *' Y ' ' ' ' ' ‘ ’ "j
Table 175. Prevalence of plural births, b y order of birth; births in 1915 and

36^

births, all p r e g n a n c ie s ............ ............................. ................. -------------- r h . v r
Table 176. Prevalence of plural births, b y age of mother and order of birth,

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births in 1915.......................................- ••- - ..................... *....... ........... .." " * ' ' '
Table 177. Prevalence of plural births, b y occurrence of previous plural births-,
. pregnancies.......
.
.
.. i .
all
................ ............... .....................— ------ . . . . . . . ______
..

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Table 178. Prevalence of prematurity, b y single and plural births; births in
I®15* * " ............................................. *..................................................................... . . .
la b le 179. Infant mortality rates, b y single and plural births and prema­
turity; births in 1915.......................................................... .................. ...

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Table 180. Type of feeding, b y month of life; infants bom of plural births
in 1915..................................... .............. .................... ........' ................
Table 181. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y period of gestation- births
in 1915......................................... ............................................ 364
Table 182. Infant mortality rates, b y period of gestation and color and nativity
of mother; live births in 1915...................................... ........... .' . . . . . ' . _ _
*7
Table 183. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y sex of infant and color
and nativity of mother; births in 1915................................. .......................... . . .
Table 184. Masculinity, b y color and nationality of mother; births in 1915___
Table 185. Miscarriages, stillbirths, and infant deaths, b y interval between
confinement and death of mother and b y period of gestation; births in 1915
to mothers who died within year following confinement........ ...........................
Table 186. Death of mother, b y period elapsing after confinement and cause
of mother’s death; births in 1915 to mothers who died within year following
confinement....................................................................................
Table 187. Stillbirths, miscarriages, and infant deaths, b y color and nationality
of mother; births in 1915 and births, all pregnancies.............................. .........
Table 188. Stillbirth and miscarriage rates, b y color and nationality of mother;
births in 1915 and births, all pregnancies....................................................... . . .
Table 189. Miscarriage rates, b y earnings of father and color and nativity of
mother; births in 1915 and births, all pregnancies...................... 1..... .................
Table 190. Stillbirth and miscarriage rates, b y employment of mother away
from home and color and nativity; births, all pregnancies........................... ..
Table 191. Legitimacy of birth and scheduling of illegitimate births, b y color
of mother; total registered births in 1 9 1 5 .. . .. . .. . .. . . . 1
: ___ V........
Table 192. Employment of mother during pregnancy, b y color of mother;
scheduled legitimate and illegitimate births and total illegitimate births in

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Table 193. Occupation of mother during pregnancy, b y color of mother; ille­
gitimate births in 1915................................. .........................
Table 194. Occupation of mother during pregnancy, b y occupation during
year after birth; scheduled illegitimate births in 1915....... ................... ... . \
Table 195. Occupation during pregnancy, b y age of mother; illegitimate
births in 1915................... ......................................... ..
Table 196. Age of mother, b y color; illegitimate births in 1915...................
Table 197. Marital condition at confinement and one year later, b y color of
mother; scheduled illegitimate births in 1915................ .............. ..................
Table 198. Order of birth, b y color of mother; total and scheduled illegitimate
births in 1915............................. ...................... j ____^
_
Table 199. Order of birth, by color of mother and legitimacy; scheduled
illegitimate births in 1915, and previous births to mothers of scheduled
illegitimate births in 1915.................... ............................. . . . . . . . .
Table 200. Legitimacy of-previous births, b y order o f birth; scheduled ille­
gitimate births in 1 9 1 5 ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . i . .
Table 201. Occupation of father, b y color of mother; illegitimate births in
1915. ................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l . . . . . . . i . . . i
Table 202. Age of mother, b y age of father and color of mother; illegitimate,
births in 1915..........................................................................................
Table 203. Place of confinement, b y legitimacy of birth; total an d’scheduled
births in 1915....................................... ........................................


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Table 204. Attendant at birth, b y color of mother; scheduled legitimate and
illegitimate births in 1915.................................... .......................... . ............ ^
Table 205. Prenatal care, b y color of mother; mothers of scheduled legitimate
and illegitimate births in 1915.................................... .............................................
Table 206. Mother’s mode of living during whole or greater part of year after
confinement, b y color of mother; scheduled illegitimate births in 1 9 1 5 ......
Table 207. Earnings of father or contributions to the support of mother or child
during year following birth of infant, and mode of living, b y color of mother;
scheduled illegitimate births in 1915.............................. . ...................... ............. j
Table 208. Contribution of father to the support of mother or child during year
following birth of infant, b y mode of living, and b y color of mother; scheduled
illegitimate births in 1915................................ ................ ‘...................... ........... .
Table 209. Mortality among mothers during year after confinement, b y cause
of death and color; mothers of scheduled legitimate and illegitimate births in

1915...............* ; ............... .................................... ................. ................... ....................
Table 210. Earnings of mother, b y period worked during year after confine­
ment and type of remuneration; scheduled illegitimate births in 1915___ __
Table 211. Mother’s and infant’s mode of living during year after birth, by
color of mother; scheduled illegitimate infants born in 1915 and surviving
at least 2 w eeks................................................. .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 212. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, by employment of mother
away from home during pregnancy, and color of mother; scheduled legiti­
mate and illegitimate births and total illegitimate births in 1 9 1 5 .... I . . . . .
Table 213. Age at death, b y color of mother; deaths among illegitimate live
births in 1915............... ..................... .................................. ......... ... ; _
Table 214. Deaths per 1,000 live births, by age at death and color of mother;
total illegitimate and scheduled legitimate live births in 1915....................... .
Table 215. Cause of death, b y color of mother; deaths among illegitimate live
births in 1915................................................ _................................
Table 216. Infant mortality rates, b y cause of death and color of mother; total
illegitimate and scheduled legitimate live births in 1915........................... .
Table 217. Cause of death, b y age at death; infant deaths among illegitimate
live birthsin 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . ............ ................................
.
"
Table 218. Age of infant when mother began work, b y color of mother; scheduled
legitimate and illegitimate infants born in 1915........... ...................... .
Table 219. Per cent of premature births and stillbirths and infant mortality
rates among full-term births, b y employment of mother during pregnancy;
scheduled legitimate and illegitimate births in 1915.......... ........ ................. ’
Table 220. Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, b y literacy and color of mother;
scheduled illegitimate births in 1915.......................... ...___ . . . . ___ , _____ _
Table 221. Infant mortality rates, b y mode of living and earnings of father or
contributions to the support of mother or child during year following birth
of infant; scheduled illegitimate live births in 1915.............. ......................... . .
Table 222. Per cent of infant deaths, b y separation of infant from mother, and
color of mother; illegitimate infants born in 1915 and surviving at 3 months and
at 6 months of a g e ............... ..................... ......... ............. 5 ................................
Table 223. Infant mortality rates, b y place of confinement; total and scheduled
illegitimate live births in 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . .................... .................... ..
Table 224. Infant mortality rates, b y infant’s place of residence and color of
mother; scheduled illegitimate live births in 1915........................... f . . . . . p |
Table 225. Death rate per 1,000 infants, b y removals of infant; scheduled
illegitimate infants bom in 1915 and surviving at 3 months and at 6 months
o fa Se ................ ............ ................... ......................................................................
Table 226. Type of feeding, b y month of life, and.by color of mother; scheduled
legitimate and illegitimate infants bom in 1 9 1 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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Table 227. Computed mortality rates for first 10 months of life, b y type of
feeding and color of mother; scheduled legitimate and illegitimate live
b irth sin l9 1 5 ....................— .............. ..................................... ............................

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CHARTS.
Chart L Rental and sanitary condition of dwellings.......... — - ........................ -.Chart II. Per cent of mothers gainfully employed away from home, b y fathers’
earnings............................ ......... — - - - ................. .................................................., Chart III. Per cent of mothers gainfully employed at home and away from
home, b y color and n a t i v i t y . — ......... ............. - - ......... 52
Chart IV . Infant mortality rates, b y cause of death................... .
Chart V. Infant deaths, b y calendar month........................... ........................- - - Chart V I. Monthly death rates, b y type of feeding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ------- . . . .
Chart V II. Computed infant mortality rates during first 10 months of life per
1,000 infants fed, by type of feeding and cause of death..................... ............ .
Chart V III. Infant mortality rates, b y month of life in which artificial feeding
began......... . ....................................... ........ .................... .
Chart I X . Infant mortality rates, b y color and nationality........................... j-----Chart X . Infant mortality rates from all causes, b y fathers’ earnings, for infants
of native white, foreign-bom white, and colored mothers................. ..............
Chart X I . Infant mortality rates from early infancy, b y fathers’ earnings, for
infants of native white, foreign-bom white, and colored mothers. . . . . . . . ----- Chart X I I . Infant mortality rates from gastric and intestinal diseases, by
fathers’ earnings, for infants of native white, foreign-bom white, and colored
mothers.............. ................. - - .............................- ......... ............. ...................... , 87
Chart X I I I . Infant mortality rates from respiratory and other communicable
diseases, b y fathers’ earnings, for infants of native white, fordign-bom white,
and colored mothers............... ............................. - ............................ - ■*
- - - — -...
Chart X IV . Infant mortality rates, b y fathers’ earnings among infants of
“ favored group” and all other in fa n ts ....! — ................ ............... . - * ......... .
,
Chart X V . Death rates among infants surviving two weeks, b y fathers’ earn­
ings and room congestion...............................................- - - ------------------------ - - - Chart X V I. Infant mortality rates, b y mothers’ employment during pregnancy;
actual rates compared with rates expected on the basis of the fathers’ earnings
and the mothers’ color and nationality...................- - ......... - - - ---------............. - Chart X V II. Infant mortality rates under 1 month of age and stillbirth rates,
b y interval between the mothers’ cessation of work and confinement of
mothers employed away from home during pregnancy....... . —
. ----Chart X V III. Infant mortality rates from early infancy and from all other 1
causes, b y order o f birth; single births in 1915........ — . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart X I X . Infant mortality rates from all causes for each order of birth group,
according to age of mother; all single births and single births following pre­
ceding births by.tw o years or longer, 1915..................- ......... .. . ........ . . - .......
Chart X X . Infant mortality rates from early infancy for each order of birth
group, according to age of mother; all single births and single births following
. preceding hirths b y two years or longer, 1915----...... ..............................138
Chart X X I . Infant mortality rates from early infancy and from all causes for
certain order of birth groups, b y interval since preceding birth; single births
in 1915. . . .. ............. ........................................... . - . . . . ----- - -,.. . . . . . . . - Chart X X I I . Per cent of deaths before end of first year of life among illegiti­
mate infants surviving at 3 months of age, according to separation from
mother............ ......................... ......... .............................- ......... .................................MAP.
Infant mortality in Baltimore b y w a r d s . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - ........ ....... ........... - ........


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44
48

57

58
70
71
73
77
80

86

87

102
HO

115

119
135

137

144

172

24

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

U

n it e d

States D

epartm ent

of

L abor,

C h il d r e n ’s B

ureau

,

Washington, February 2 1 , 1922.

Si r : There is transmitted herewith a study of infant mortality in
Baltimore, Md.
It is the eighth and in many respects the most important of the
unique and valuable series of infant mortality studies which the
Children’s Bureau made while Julia C. Lathrop was its chief. Because
Baltimore is the largest city studied by the bureau, the number of
births is larger, and a more detailed comparison has been possible than
in other studies.
Dr. Grace Meigs Crowder was medical adviser during this investi­
gation; Estelle B. Hunter was in charge of the field work; Emma Duke
and Dr. Robert M. Woodbury planned the statistical tabulation;
and Anna Rochester organized the material and wrote the report.
In the analysis, the “ method of expected deaths” developed by
Prof. Harald Westergaard was applied under the direction of Doctor
Woodbury to isolate the effects of the several causal factors.
It is a pleasure to record that conditions have improved in Balti­
more since the investigation was made. The city now has a bureau
of child hygiene, and the opportunities for prenatal care have been
increased; and, as everywhere, the corollary has been a downward
trend in the infant mortality rate. The evidence which this report
adds to those already made as to conditions which affect the mor­
tality rate among infants under 1 year of age, will, it is believed, be
of value to all communities that are at work on this problem.
Respectfully submitted.
Grace A

bbott,

Chief.

Hon. James J. D avis ,
Secretary o f Labor ,
101351°—23-----2


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17


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INFANT M ORTALITY, BALTIMORE, M D.
INTRODUCTION.

Baltimore is tlie eighth, city in which the Children’s Bureau has
made an intensive field study of infant mortality. Not only do the
Baltimore findings strengthen conclusions indicated in the earlier
studies, but they have also a unique significance because of the detailed
analysis made possible by the large number of births included in the
study and because Baltimore differs in certain ways from the seven
other cities.
Baltimore is the largest of the cities studied by the bureau. The
population, shown by the Federal census of 1910 to be 558,485, is
estimated to have been 599,817 on July 1, 1915, the middle of the
calendar year covered by the study.1 It is the first city studied in
which the negro population was large enough to permit analysis of
the high infant mortality rate among negro babies. In fact, the
composite of native white, foreign-born white, and negro elements in
Baltimore was similar to that in the United States as a whole.
In the cities previously studied, some one industry predominated,
but not so in Baltimore. It is not only a shipping center but also a
manufacturing city producing a great variety of wares.
Baltimore is also the first city studied in which extensive infantwelfare work, including opportunity for prenatal instruction and
supervision, had been carried on for several years. Hospital pro­
vision for maternity care was also relatively well developed.
In Baltimore the mortality was not markedly higher than the
mortality in the birth-registration area of the United States. But
this in turn is definitely higher than the mortality in certain other
countries. Even when the negro births— which showed uniformly
higher mortality than white births— are eliminated from considera­
tion, the Baltimore infant mortality rate in 1916 was not only twice
as high as the rate for New Zealand (and markedly higher than the
rates for the cities of New Zealand) but also higher than the rates in
a number of European and American cities, including London and
New York. On the other hand, a number of American cities showed
approximately the same mortality as Baltimore and others a higher
mortality than Baltimore.2
In its population, the variety of its industries, and the rate of
infant mortality prevailing, Baltimore may be regarded as a typical
American city with a typical problem in relation to infant mortality.
i U. S. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No. 133, p. 22.

» See Table 1, Appendix VU , p. 223.

19


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20

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

METHOD AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.

The study is based primarily on the registered births (including
stillbirths and miscarriages) occurring in Baltimore during the year
1915 3 and the deaths among these infants within 12 months after
birth (in 1915 or 1916). The information was secured in part from
the birth certificates and death certificates on file with the Baltimore
Department of Public Safety, subdepartment of health, and in larger
measure from the mothers who were visited by women agents of the
bureau as soon as possible after the first anniversary of the baby’s
birth.4 In addition, information was secured from the mothers about
all their babies and the deaths (or stillbirths or miscarriages) among
these earlier births.
The babies bom in 1915 fall into two main groups— the 13,484
legitimate and the 1,124 illegitimate.5 As the study progressed,
each of these two groups had to be further divided.
A m on g the legitimate it was found that the families of 1,466
could not be located in Baltimore or were known to have moved
away; the families of 381 were omitted as nonresidents; and for 24
babies whose families were found, and who were residents of Balti­
more, detailed information was not available. Such facts as are
known about these 1,871 excluded births have been analyzed and
are discussed in Appendix II.5a Therefore the normal group of legiti­
mate births whose home surroundings were studied in detail and
whose infant mortality rate is given with precision includes 11,613,
or 86 per cent, of the registered legitimate births.6
More difficult to trace were the 1,124 illegitimate births. Only
679 or 60.4 per cent of these could be located and information
secured about their surroundings and care. Such items as were
given on the birth certificates and the known deaths in Baltimore or
elsewhere are, however, analyzed for the larger group, of all illegiti­
mate births. The material on illegitimate infants is presented in a
special section of the report.
The infant mortality rate among the legitimate babies whose his­
tories were traced throughout the year was 103.5 per 1,000 live births.
The rates for the other groups were unsatisfactory, but the known
deaths among the illegitimate babies indicate a rate about three
times as high as the rate in the normal group.7
3 For discussion of birth registration in Baltimore, see Appendix I, p. 185.
4 Tbe father provided he was able and willing to give the information, might be interviewed if the
mother was not at home or if it was otherwise inexpedient to seethe mother; others (as custodians or rela­
tives living with the baby’s family) might be interviewed ( 1 ) when the parents were dead or it was impos­
sible to see them; ( 2) when the relation of such persons to the family and their information were such that
there was no question as to their knowledge of facts; and (3) when their reliability was otherwise unques­
tioned.
„
..... ¿i.y
6 In addition there were 28 stillbirths or miscarriages whose legitimacy was not reported and for whom
no information could be secured.
6» See p. 189.
« See Table 2, Appendix V II, p. 223.
7 see Table V II, p. 170. For mortality among excluded legitimate births, see Appendix II, p. 189.
For mortality among illegitimate infants,seep. 168.


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INTRODUCTION.

21

No rate is offered as exact for Baltimore as a whole.8 Even the
rate for the group of families studied in detail can not be considered
an exact rate for all legitimate babies in Baltimore. While all the
nationalities living in Baltimore, all grades of economic status, and
mothers working and not working for wages are represented in the
large group on which the main body of the study is based, their dis­
tribution in the group may not be identical with their distribution
in the families about which information was not secured.
But the study is directly related to the city. Certain items were
noted about the houses in which the babies born in 1915 lived and
civic conditions affecting their health. Families in which either
mother or baby was away from Baltimore surroundings four months
or more during the year were excluded from the detailed study,
even when the facts about them were clear. The facts about earlier
births or “ maternal histories” are not, however, so directly related
to Baltimore.
Many known social factors in infant mortality were present in
Baltimore— poverty, gainful employment for married women, imper­
fect sanitation, room congestion, and artificial feeding of young
babies. Whether these were more or less prevalent in Baltimore
than elsewhere is a question outside the scope of the present study,
the aim of which is, rather, to show how these factors, and others,
were related to infant mortality among the Baltimore babies about
whom detailed information was available.
Statements of nationality or color are uniformly based on the color
or nationality (mother tongue) of the mother. For example, in the
discussion of fathers’ occupations and earnings, the fathers are some­
times referred to as native white, foreign-born white, Jewish, etc.
to avoid constant repetition of some such cumbersome phrase as
“ fathers of babies born to native white mothers.” 9
In the distribution of certain factors— the percentage of “ mothers”
or “ fathers ” or “ families ” of whom one or another statement is made
in the text— the presence of plural births is disregarded. It is as­
sumed that the number of births and the number of mothers, etc.,
are identical. The actual error involved is slight, but it should be
remembered that data are based, for example, not on “ mothers
employed” but on “ births to mothers employed.”
8
The relation of the rates given in this study to rates for the city as a whole is discussed in Appendix
III, p. 193.
s Intermarriage between white and colored is forbidden in Maryland. In the study of infant mortality
in Waterbury, Conn., an analysis was made of the nationality of the mother in relation to that of the
father. In 87 per cent (1,911 ases) of the total 2,197 cases, the nationality of the fathers was the same as
that of the mothers. Infant Mortality: Results of a Field Study in Waterbury, Conn., Based on Births
in One Year, b y Estelle B. Hunter, Children’s Bureau publication No. 29, p. 116.


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.
BALTIMORE.

In 1729 the inhabitants of Baltimore County addressed a petition
to the general assembly for the erection of a town upon the Patapsco
River. About 70 years later (in 1797) the town was incorporated as
Baltimore City with a population of 20,000 persons. The settlement
centered about the water front, and many houses of the shipbuilders,
merchants, and sea captains of these early days still stand in the
district east of the Fallsway. With the growth of the last century,
the uold families” have moved away from the water front, wharves
and warehouses have been extended, and the homes of the leaders
in former days have passed to the immigrants of yesterday.
Commercially the water front has remained of primary importance
to Baltimore, The city has spread far to the north and west of the
original settlement, and freight yards and factories have carried
business into other parts of the city, but the center of business life
is still near the river. In the fourth ward, which lies at the head
of the basin, just south and east of the physical center of the 30 square
miles of Baltimore City,10 are the city hall and the customhouse, the
newspapers, banks, and business offices, and, along the water front,
docks, warehouses, and factories. East and south of the fourth ward
docks and warehouses extend along the entire shore; and the irregular
contour, especially marked in the southern districts, increases
enormously the water front available to a comparatively srna.ll and
compact territory.
But at the time of this study business did not monopolize the eight
wards of the water front.11 The more prosperous residents had
moved to the north, but the poorest native white families and colonies
of the foreign bom remained. The negroes lived mainly in other sec­
tions of the city, but in the fourth ward and the twenty-second ward
(directly south of the fourth) a considerable percentage of the births
were colored. In the eight water-front wards were bom more than
one-third of the Baltimore babies of 1915.12
The foreign neighborhoods extended into two other wards— the
eighteenth ward, just west of the fourth, and the fifth ward, just
east of the fourth and north of the third. In these two small adja10 Before the annexation of additional territory on January 1 , 1919.
11 Wards 1,2,3,4,21,22,23,24. For the t abulations on which following statements are based see Tables
3,4,5, 6, and 7, Appendix V II, pp. 224 to 229.
« “ Baltimore” in this study refers to the 24 wards of Baltimore City as it was before the annexation
of surrounding territory, January 1,1919.

23


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24

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

cent wards and the eight wards of the water front were more than
two-thirds of the Baltimore births to foreign-born white mothers
and all the foreign neighborhoods except the Bohemian colony near
the Johns Hopkins Hospital. In these 10 wards, also, were nearly
two-thirds (65.8 per cent) of the white babies whose fathers earned
less than $550 during the year after the birth in 1915.
Live births.
Class.

The 10 wards.1

Baltimore
City (24
wards).

Number.

10,797

4,581

42.4

2,753
2,130

1,899
1,402

69.0
65.8

Per cent.

1 Wards 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 18, 21, 22, 23, and 24.

The largest distinctively foreign neighborhoods lay east of the
fourth ward. Crossing the Fallsway eastward on Baltimore Street,
one stepped from the business of the fourth ward into a district of
dwellings and small shops from which the main currents of city life
seemed singularly remote. In the fifth ward and the third ward
which lay north and south of East Baltimore Street at this point,
only 13 per cent of the babies were born to native white mothers.
Almost half were foreign-bom Jewish and one-fifth were Italian.
Just south of East Baltimore Street, in the third ward, were the
blocks described in detail as the Albemarle Street district in the 1907
study of housing conditions in Baltimore.13 Except that between
1907 and 1915 the sewer had been built and many, though not all,
of the toilets in the third ward had been connected, that report
gives a true picture of the neighborhood when the babies studied
were born— one-family dwellings used as tenements; extensions
crowding the lots and reducing light and air to a minimum; poorly
paved yards reeking with waste water (the gutters in many streets
still ran with surface drainage); and live stock in congested sheds
or cellars, chicken slaughterhouses, stables, and manure piles adding
their odors to the general stench.
Farther south and east in the third ward the neighborhood shifted;
the Jewish signs were less frequent and the Polish colony began.
The Polish colony was nearer the water front in the third ward, and
in the second ward and the first which follow on the east.
A typical neighborhood in the Polish colony is described in the
1907 housing report referred to above. Here also the one-family
is Housing Conditions in Baltimore, a study under direction of Association for the Improvement of the
Condition of the Poor and Charity Organization Society, Baltimore, 1907.


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15
8 0 .3

INFANT MORTALITY IN BALTIM ORE.
BY W A R D S
I

I Infant -mortal ity less th a n 8 5
In fan t m o r ta lity 85 to

m t!

Infant m o r ta lity

101351°—23. (To face p. 24.)


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125

125 a n d o v e r

««*>


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.

m

house of an earlier day was the prevailing type of tenement. In
lot congestion and in neglect of necessary repairs, the report found
this neighborhood slightly better than the Albemarle district, and
there were no chicken slaughterhouses. Dampness, however, in
cellars and yards was no less prevalent.
A much smaller Polish colony lived across the Basin, in the eastern
part of the twenty-fourth ward in the district known as Locust
Point. Behind the railroad piers, the dry docks,. and the grain
elevators which line the water front, and separated from the western
part of the ward by railroad tracks and, at the time of this study,
by a wide stretch of unbuilt land, lived this isolated community,
made up largely of Poles and other foreigners working on the water
front and in the big industrial plants of the districts.14 The lack of
sanitation and the filthy condition of the streets in this district were
conspicuous. In the twenty-fourth ward as a whole considerably
more than half the babies were in homes which had no sewer con­
nection.16
In the foreign neighborhoods west and south of the business center
of the fourth ward,16 the largest single group of foreign-born families
was the Lithuanian, and 91 of the 100 babies of Lithuanian mothers
in Baltimore lived in the fourth or the twenty-second ward or just
west of these in the eighteenth or the twenty-first ward. Almost no
Polish families lived in the wards west and south of the central
business district, and foreign-bom Jewish families were slightly less
numerous than Italian families. In the twenty-second ward, also,
were the blocks selected in the 1907 housing study to show the
worst conditions in negro dwellings in Baltimore. But there were
fewer births to colored mothers than to foreign-born white mothers
in this ward.
The largest negro neighborhood lay northwest of the downtown
business district. More than half the births in the seventeenth ward
(which adjoined to the north the western part of the fourth ward)
were colored; and this ward, with the fourteenth which lay beyond
it to the north and the eleventh ward which adjoined them both on
the east, included almost one-third of the total number of negro
births in Baltimore.
n The tabulations do not show how the 447 live births to native white mothers and the 158 live births
to foreign-born white mothers were divided between the Locust Point district and the western part of the
ward. But the Locust Point district was popularly supposed to be chiefly foreign and the western part
of the ward chiefly native born.
.
See Table 4, Appendix VH, p. 224.
is Wards 4,18,21,22,23, and 24 except Locust Point.


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26

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able I.—-Ward o f residence; live births to colored mothers in 1915.
Live births to col­
ored mothers.
Ward group.
Number.

Wards 11,14,17.................................................. .............................................................
Wards 15' 16j 18, 22............................................ : .............................................................

Per cent
distrib­
ution.

1,305

100.00

414
338
553

31.7
25.9
42.4

1 Wards in which less than one-fifth of the births were to colored mothers.

Certain alleys in the seventeenth ward were described in the 1907
study of housing conditions in Baltimore as typical of negro alley
dwellings in the city. This study showed space to be less congested
in the Negro alleys than in the Jewish and Polish districts east of the
Fallsway. But it found a higher percentage of dwellings seriously
out of repair, and it referred especially to the lack of decent toilet
facilities and to the filthy dampness of the alleyways. A t the time
of this study the percentage of babies born into homes which lacked
sewer connection was more than twice as high in the seventeenth
ward as that in any one of the four poorest white wards.17
Around these districts, where the poorest homes predominated and
where native white families were in the minority, the city stretched
out to the east, to the north, and to the west. The small downtown
district of fashion and wealth lay directly north of the fourth ward—
a narrow belt in the eleventh ward— between the negro district on
the west and the steep slope that dropped to the factories and rail­
road tracks along the Fallsway on the east. The other choice resi­
dential districts were to the north and northwest of this, about
Druid Hill Park and toward the Johns Hopkins University and
beyond.18
In no ward, however, did births among the well-to-do predominate,
and no ward was without a quota of foreign-born and negro families.19
Baltimore has been called a city of homes. The present study
offers no basis for comparing Baltimore with other cities in respect
to the prevalence of one-family houses, but it was found that slightly
more than two-thirds (68 per cent) of the infants whose dwellings
were studied lived in one-dwelling buildings and only 3 per cent lived
in buildings of five or more dwellings.20 Twenty-eight per cent of
« Wards 2, 3, 5, and 22 showed median earnings of the fathers under $650. For exact percentages of
dwellings with sewer connection in the several wards, see Table 4, Appendix V II, p. 225.
is Of the 197 live births in families where the father earned $2,850 and over, 134, or 68 per cent, lived in
the eleventh ward, or in the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, or fifteenth wards to the north or northwest
of the eleventh ward. Of the 44 infants surviving at least two weeks who lived in rented dwellings with
rental of $50 or more a month, 42 lived in these five wards. See Tables 5 and 6, Appendix VII, pp. 226
and 228.
u See Tables 3 and 5, Appendix VII, pp. 224 and 226.
*<>See Table 10, Appendix VII, p. 230.


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDIN'GS.

27

the families owned the dwellings in which they lived, but behind this
average percentage there were wide variations in the different wards
and in the different earnings groups. Speaking generally, the higher
the fathers’ earnings and the higher the economic level within a ward
the higher was the percentage of families owning the dwelling in
which they lived. This percentage rose to 50 per cent and 56 per
cent, respectively, among the families throughout the city where the
fathers earned $1,250 to $1,849, and $1,850 and over. Wards 1, 6,
7, 9, 15, and 16 also showed more than one-third of the infants in
fa m i lies who owned their dwellings.
But these should be contrasted
with the seven wards (4, 5, 11, 17, 18, 22, and 23) where only 15 per
cent or less owned their dwellings, and the very small percentages of
homes owned by families in the lower earnings groups.21
Baltimore is built on the alley plan, and in these narrow back
streets lived a considerable percentage of the population, especially
of the negroes. The evils of unpaved and dirty alleys were recog­
nized by the city officials, and in 1916, during the epidemic of polio­
myelitis, a systematic flushing of the alleys was attempted. Paving
of the alleys was gradually being pushed, but the Municipal Journal
stated in February, 1917, that 800 alleys were then under contract
to be paved and in addition 1,279 alleys had not yet been paved nor
contracted for. Alley dwellings have not been tabulated separately
in the present study, but they unquestionably housed many of the
colored babies and many of the babies in the poorest white families.
The sewerage system of Baltimore was opened in 1911. Of the
10,336 infants whose dwellings are included in the present study,
2,364, or 23 per cent, had toilets not connected with the sewer. The
great majority of these dwellings were in wards which included
open blocks and outlying districts. The tabulations do not show
how many of the dwellings without sewer connection were in open
blocks and how many in thickly settled parts of these wards. It was
found, however, that in 13 wards having no outlying districts, 598
infants lived in dwellings without sewer connection, and the per­
centage having no sewer connection varied in these 13 wards from
1 per cent in the fourth ward to 35 per cent in the nineteenth ward
and 37 per cent in the first ward.22
During 1916 a vigorous clean-up campaign was inaugurated, the
Women’s Civic League and the Women’s Cooperative Civic League
working with the city departments to secure the cooperation of
householders throughout the city in more efficient handling of garbage
and other refuse. In 1916 a city ordinance was enacted requiring
householders to use covered metal cans for garbage awaiting col­
lection.
21 See Tables 7 and 9, Appendix V II, pp. 229 and 230.


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22 See Table 4, Appendix VII, p. 225.

28

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

M O TH E RS’ COLOR AND NATIONALITY.

The group of Baltimore births includes nearly 7,000 native white,
families, nearly 3,000 white families in which the mother was of for­
eign birth, and more than 1,000 negro families. Or, in exact per­
centages^ 62 per cent of the births were to native white mothers, 25
per cent to foreign-born white mothers, and 13 per cent to negro
mothers.33
T able II .— Color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915.
Births in 1015.
Color and nativity of mother.

Per cent
Number. distribu­
tion.
11,195

100.0

6,937
2,837
1,421

62.0
25.3
12.6

Foreign-born white families.

The tabulations do not show how many of the native white mothers
were of foreign parentage and what foreign stocks predominated;
but in 1910, according to the Federal census, more than one-third
(34 per cent) of the native white population of all ages and both
sexes was of foreign or mixed parentage. The principal groups were,
in the order named, German, English and Celtic (chiefly Irish),
Jewish, and Polish. Together these groups comprised almost 90 per
cent of the total number of native white persons of foreign or mixed
parentage and about 30 per cent of the total native white popu­
lation.24
In 1910 the same four groups predominated among the foreignborn population in Baltimore that have been noted among the native
white population of foreign or mixed parentage. The order of numeri­
cal importance was somewhat different, however, with the Jewish
and Polish groups each larger than the English and Celtic (chiefly
Irish) group. The German group was both actually and relatively
smaller among the foreign-born white population than among the
native white population of foreign or mixed parentage. In the
present study, based on births in Baltimore during the year 1915,
the group of foreign-born German mothers was smaller than the groups
of foreign-born Jewish, Polish, or Italian mothers.
Certain important elements in the foreign-bom population of the
United States were not sufficiently represented in Baltimore to appear
in the present study. For example, the detailed study of legitimate
** See Tablé 69, Appendix VH , p. 280.


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ft See Table 11, Appendix V II, p. 230.

29

TH E BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.

births includes 21 births to foreign-born mothers of western European
nationalities other than German or English and Celtic, and 77 to
mothers of eastern European nationalities other than Polish, Bo­
hemian, and Lithuanian. In the analysis of conditions and mor­
tality rates in the foreign-bom families— that is, among infants of
foreign-bom white mothers— discussion will coyer mainly the Jewish,
Polish, and Italian groups.
T able I II. i— Nationality o f mother; births in 1915 to foreign-born white mothers.
Births i to foreignbom white
mothers.

Births i to foreignbom white
mothers.
Nationality of mother.

Nationality of mother.

Irish............................................
English, Scotch, and EnglishCanadian.................................

Num­
ber.

Per cent
distri­
bution.

2,894

100.0

1 Oil
'655
440
331
101

34.9
22.6
15.2
11.4
3.5

37

1.3

Num­
ber.

112
105
24
21
53
4

Other western European2.........
Othereastem European3..........

Percent
distri­
bution.
3.9
3.6
.8
.7
1.8
.1

1 Includes miscarriages.
2 8 Norwegian, 5 French, 3 Dutch, 2 Swedish, 2 Spanish, 1 Danish.
* 19 Greek, 13 Magyar, 6 Serbian, 5 Slovak, 4 Rumanian, 4 Ruthenian, 2 Slavic (not otherwise specified).
* 3 French-Canadian, 1 Arabian.

The length of time these different groups had been in the United
States reflects the general shifts in the tide of immigration. More
than 25 per cent of the German, Bohemian, and English and Celtic
mothers had been here 20 years or longer,25 and less than half had
come during the last 10 years.
Per cent distribution of births a in
1915.
Length of residence of mother in the United States.
German
mothers.

English
and Celtic
mothers.

Bohemian
mothers.

100.0

100.0

100.0

34.7
24.7
39.3
1.3

28.3
41.3
29.0
1.4

39.3
29.5
30.4
0.8

a Includes miscarriages.

Among the Lithuanians and Italians and the 102 mothers of various
nationalities (Russians, other eastern Europeans, “ other western
Europeans,” and “ all other” ) more than half had come to the United
States within 10 years and, except among the Lithuanians, more
25The difference between these three groups should be noted.


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30

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

than one-third had come within 5 years. The Jewish and Polish
immigration had been more evenly distributed over a long period of
years than any other, with more mothers who had come during the
last 10 years than during the 10 years next preceding, but also with
a high percentage who had been in the United States 20 years or
more.29
The groups which had been longest in the United States were least
separated from the life of the community. Their economic status
approached that of the native white American; the mothers more
generally spoke English; and the families lived not in the poorest
neighborhoods where the foreign born predominate, but in wards of
average prosperity, where more than half the births w;ere to native
white mothers.
T able IV .— Median earnings o f fathers and 'percentage o f mothers unable to speak
English, by color ana nationality o f mother; live births in 1915.

Color and nationality of
mother.

Native white...........................

Median
earnings
of
fathers.«

$796
619
781
718
703
664

Per cent
of
mothers
unable
to speak
English. 6

Color and nationality of
mother.

Percent
Median
of ’
earnings mothers
of
unable
fathers.« to speak
English.^

Foreign-born white—Contd.
$555
525
540
671
474

37.3
14.4
17.9
18.4

63.5
71.4
66.0
43.1
0.1

a Based on births, not including miscarriages except for English and Celtic, Bohemian, Lithuanian, and
"a ll other foreign.” For method by which median earnings are computed, see Appendix IV , p. 197.
6 Based on births, not including miscarriages except for Bohemian, Lithuanian, "all other foreign,” and
colored.

Nationality of mother.

Births a in
1915.

Estimated median
residenceof
motherin United
States.
Years.

138
331
112
1 on
655
105
440
102

14
14
12
10
9
8
7
5

Months.
6
2
6
5
8
5
5

« Includes miscarriages.
The median conceals, however, the important fact that 20 per cent of the Poles and only 6 per cent
of the Lithuanians had been in this country 20 years or longer. For detailed tabulation see Table 12,
Appendix VII, p. 231.

26 The median residence in the United States reported by the several groups offers a convenient summary of their relation on this point.


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THE BABIES

STIKKOUNDINGS.

31

While, on the whole, the nationality groups varied in these respects
according to the median periods that they had been in the United
States, three exceptions appear— among the Italians, the Bohemians,
and the mixed group of “ all other foreign.”
The Italian families, among whom relatively more had come within
the last five years than the Lithuanians, reported higher median
earnings than the Lithuanians and a slightly smaller percentage of
mothers unable to speak English. The Italians were also more
widely scattered through the city than the Lithuanians.27
The Bohemian families, who belonged to the older immigration
and whose economic status was far above that of the recent immi­
grants, had stayed mainly in one district. Of the 107 live births to
Bohemian mothers, 93, or 87 per cent, were in the three wards about
Johns Hopkins Hospital, a distinct colony in wards where, on the
whole, native white families predominated.28 On the other hand, the
Bohemian families had a higher percentage owning their homes than
any other group in Baltimore—not only higher than any other
foreign-bom group, but also more than twice as high as the native
white group: Bohemians, 73 per cent; native white families, 31 per
cent.
The mixed group of “ all other foreign” families, in spite of the
shortest median period in the United States, had higher median
earnings than any other foreign group except the English and Celtic,
German, and Bohemian, and fewer mothers unable to speak English
than the Poles, Italians, and Lithuanians. It will be remembered
that about one-fifth of the “ all other foreign” families were western
Europeans of the older immigration, but in the main this group con­
sisted of Russians and southeastern Europeans. In this group, also
the percentage of families owning their homes (33 per cent) was about
equal to the percentage among the native white families (31 per cent)
and higher than that among any other foreign group except the
Bohemians (73 per cent) and the Germans (47 per cent).29
Furthermore, while the variations in the extent to which foreignbom mothers had learned English correspond roughly with the
variations in the length of time that the groups had been in the
United States, certain marked differences persist when a comparison
is made of the mothers in each nationality who had been in the United
States less than 5 years, or those who had been here 10 years and
” 0 f the 100 Lithuanians, 91 were in a compact neighborhood made up of parts of 4 contiguous wards,
while 16 wards reported no birth to a Lithuanian mother. Of the 412 Italians, 50 per cent were in the 2
wards just east of the Fallsway (the third and the fifth), 26 percent w erem the other wards of the water
front (wards 1 ,2,4,21,22,23, and 24), and the remainder were distributed throughout the city. Only 3
wards (the ninth, eleventh, and the thirteenth) reported no live birth to an Italian mother. See Table 3
Appendix VII, p . 224.
28 Wards 6, 7, and 8. See Table 3, Appendix VII, p. 224.
» F o r percentages of homes owned in the several groups, see Table 8, Appendix VII, p. 229.


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32

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

over. In each, comparison, a relatively high, percentage of the Poles
and of the Italians and a relatively low percentage of the Jews spoke
no English.30 The fact that illiteracy was far more prevalent among ‘
the Poles and Italians than among the other foreign bom may account
in part for their failure to learn English. For within each nationality3
a higher percentage of mothers spoke English among those who could
read and write than among the illiterate.
Illiteracy, inability to speak English, and poverty seemed to go
hand in hand. Not only were there more mothers who could not
read and write, more mothers who could not speak English, and more
very poor families among the recent immigrants (especially the Ital­
ians and the Poles) than among the Jews and the older immigration,
but within each nationality, also, the poorer the fathers the higher the
percentages of mothers who were cut off from the community by
inability to speak English or by inability to read in any language.32
Colored families.

The proportion of negroes in the population of Baltimore at the
census of 1910 was somewhat greater than that in the United States
as a whole and decidedly above the average for the cities of 500,000
or more population— 15 per cent in Baltimore, 11 per cent in the
United States, and 3 per cent in the large cities. In actual number^
of negroes Baltimore ranked in 1910 as the fourth city of the United
States.33
Practically all the negroes in Baltimore were of native birth,’ and
most of them were born in Maryland. Nine per cent of the negroes
in Maryland in 1910 had come from Virginia f 87 per cent were native
in Maryland; and less than 1 per cent had come from any other State.
What proportion of the negroes had been born in Baltimore is not
known. The increase in negro population in Baltimore from 1900
to 1910 accompanying a decrease in negro population in the State of
Maryland as a whole indicates a drift from the country to the city.34
Shifting of the colored population within the city was limited at
the time of this study by a segregation ordinance, which prohibited
any colored person from moving into a block occupied wholly by
white persons (and vice versa). This ordinance had been passed in
1913 and was in force until it became invalid through the decision
s# See Table 14, Appendix VII, p. 232.
:,
si Based on data for Jewish, Polish, Italian, German and “ all other foreign” (including Lithuanian).
See Table 13, Appendix V II, p. 231.
32 See Tables 15 and 16, Appendix VII, p. 232.
33 Negro population: Washington, 94,446; New York, 91,709; New Orleans, 89,262; Baltimore, 84,749;
Philadelphia, 84,459; Memphis, 52,441. See IT. S. Bureau of the Census, Vol. I, Population statistics 1910,
p p .207-213.
¿L
• ^ ...
34 u . S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, Vol. II, Population statistics,
p. 837; Bulletin 129, Negroes in the United States, 1915, pp. 14 and 58.


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THE BABIES* SURROUNDINGS.

33

of the United States Supreme Court in the Louisville segregation
case.35 The rentals paid by colored families were excessively high.
Only 6 per cent of the colored families included in the study owned
the dwellings in which they lived. This percentage was smaller
than the corresponding figure in the poorest families, all nationalities
combined, and smaller than in any one of the foreign groups.36
Illiteracy was more prevalent among the negroes in Baltimore— 13
per cent illiterate—than among the negroes in any other city having
500,000 population or over at the 1910 census. Only St. Louis
approached it, with 12 per cent of the negroes illiterate.37 A com-,
parison of the negro mothers and the native white mothers in­
cluded in the detailed study also indicates the neglect of education
for the negroes. Thus, 12 per cent of the negro mothers as against
2 per cent of the native white mothers were unable to read and write.
In the poorest native white families, where the percentage of illiteracy
rose above the average (to 6 per cent in families with fathers earning
less than $450, and 5 per cent in families with fathers earning $450
but less than $550), it was much lower than the percentage in the
negro families.
In Baltimore separate schools and playgrounds were provided
Tor white and colored children, but the colored leaders interviewed
by the agents of the bureau referred to the fact that provision for
their children was inferior to that for white children. They pointed
out the lack of a colored industrial school in Baltimore and the
absence of provision for mental defectives.
Negroes in Baltimore had political representation; the seventeenth
ward had for some years been represented by a negro in the city
council. Several organizations of colored people were found working
for improvement of education, of civic conditions, and of health
conditions. The Federated Charities had enlisted the cooperation of
colored leaders.
.
Such agencies as the hospitals, the Babies’ Milk Fund Association,
and the Children’s Aid Society were serving both the white and the
colored population.
Social questions arising from differences in color and nationality.

Isolation of a group from the life of the community as a whole
may or may not affect the physical welfare of the babies of the
group. If it deprives men of economic opportunity, because they
can not pass barriers of language or of color, the babies born into
their homes will pay with a high mortality the pride of the fathers’
poverty. If it cuts off women from the services of nurses and hosw Buchanan v. Warley, 245 U. S. 60, reversing Harris v. City of Louisville, 165 Ky. 539. Decided Nov.
5,1917.
86 See Tables 8 and 9, Appendix V II, pp. 229 and 230.
s7 u. S. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin 129, p. 102.

101351°— 23------3


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34

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

pitals and from opportunities to learn fundamental principles of the
hygiene of maternity and infancy, the babies of the isolated group
will suffer from their mothers’ ignorance and lack of care. If, o n ”
the other hand, the foreign mother steps outside of her colony merely
to exchange the traditions of the Old World for the habits of her
American neighbors, without guidance from a trained adviser, her
contact with the community will be of doubtful value to her baby.
Several items in the data collected throw light on the contacts
with the community established by the groups of foreign born and
by the negroes in Baltimore. It is possible to examine the occupa­
tions in which the fathers in foreign and negro families were en­
gaged and their earnings, as compared with the earnings of fathers
in the native white families in the same occupations; to compare
the dwellings which, whether from choice or necessity, were occu­
pied by the several groups, and the home conditions into which the
babies were born; and to note how white and colored mothers were
supplementing the fathers’ earnings and the extent to which they
were going out into the community to work. It has already been
noted how many mothers were unable to read and write, and how
many of the foreign-born white mothers spoke no English. It is
interesting to see how the knowledge of English had reacted upon—
the customs of the foreign born in regard to infant feeding; and to
what extent the community agencies for instruction in hygiene
and for medical care were serving the mothers in the several groups.
FATHERS’ EARNINGS AND OCCUPATIONS.

The native white families were the most well-to-do and the negro
families were the poorest in the city, while the foreign-born groups
varied in economic status from English and Celtic,38 whose earn­
ings were only a little lower than the earnings in the native white fami­
lies, to the Lithuanians, whose earnings were considerably above the
earnings of the colored fathers. In the native white group, however,
less than half the fathers earned as much as $850. The percentage of
fathers earning at least $850 ranged from 42 per cent (based on total
births) of all in the native white families to 4 per cent of all in the
colored families.39 It may be fairly assumed that at the time of this
study the difference between $850 and $1,850 marked the difference
between a minimum of subsistence and a fair standard of comfort.
Four per cent of the families (total births) lived at the comfort level;
among the native white families, 6 per cent; and among the colored
families, two-tenths of 1 per cent. That is to say, of the 10,797 livebom babies only 431 were in families where the father earned so
much as $1,850.
88 Including Irish, Scotch, and Welsh.


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39 See Table 20, Appendix VII, pp. 238-239.

THE BABIES

SURROUNDINGS.

35

Fathers’ earnings and family income.

The father’s earnings are used as the index to the family’s economic
status because they are the normal source of the f a m ily income, and
the assumption in the United States is that a man’s earnings will be
sufficient to meet the needs of wife and children. In Baltimore, the
father’s earnings were in fact the main source of income and usually
determined the family’s economic status. Fifty-five per cent of the
births were in families without income from any source except the
father’s earnings, and 23 per cent in families where the father’s
earnings were supplemented only by earnings of wife or children; 4
per cent, where the family’s earnings were supplemented by earnings
of other relatives living in the household, or by money from pensions,
or compensation allowances, and 10 per cent, where the cash earnings
of the family were supplemented by gifts or by meals given in part
payment for services rendered. Only 7 per cent were in families
with any income from insurance, investments, or rents from tenants
outside the family’s dwellings.40
Where the father’s earnings were below the level of decent sub­
sistence (reckoned at $850 at pre-war prices), the family income also
was usually below $850. In this study 7,171 births were in families
where the father earned less than $850; of these, 3,672 had no other
source of income except the father’s earnings, and 2,753 reported
earnings from other members of the household 41 in such amounts that
the aggregate earnings of the family remained below $850. Only
109 of the families where the father earned under $850 had total
earnings from all wage earners in the family amounting to $1,250 or
more, and four-fifths of the families whose total earnings were under
$850 had no other source of income. In all, then, 7,171 births, or 64
per cent of all studied, were in families where the fathers earned less
than $850; and at least 5,249 births, or 47 per cent of all, were in
families where the total family income was also less than $850. In
addition, 1,336 births, or 12 per cent, were in families where the
aggregate earnings were under $850, but were supplemented by meals,
gifts, or income from other sources.
The amount of income received from insurance, investments, or
rents was not asked, but simply whether the family received income
from such sources. It should be noted, however, that in no fathers’
earnings group under $1,250 did so many as 10 per cent of the families
report income from such sources. Where the fathers earned $1,250
but less than $1,850, 11 per cent reported income from insurance,
investments, or rents, and where the fathers earned $1,850 or over,
21 per cent.42
<o See Tables 26,27, and 28, Appendix VII, pp. 243-244.
« Including, besides earnings, pensions, compensation allowances, and alimony, where these wero
reported.
42 Tables 26,27, and 28, Appendix VU , pp. 243-244.


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36

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

The exact amounts received from family earnings apart from the
father’s earnings are not tabulated in detail. It is known, however,
that more than half the mothers who worked within the year after
the baby’s birth earned less than $150.43 And considering only
families where fathers’ earnings were supplemented by earnings of
other members of the family, when earnings are classified in five
groups (under $550, $550 to $840, $850 to $1,249, $1,250 to $1,849,
and $1,850 and over), it is found that about one-third of the families
fell in a higher earnings group on the basis of aggregate earnings than
that in which they belonged on the basis of fathers’ earnings.44
Except where the father’s earnings by themselves approached the
level of comfort, the great majority of the families (93 per cent) were
dependent on their own exertions for support. And the amounts
earned by wife and children, when these were employed, were usually
too small to lift the family to a definitely higher economic level than
that provided by the father’s earnings.
Fathers’ occupations.

The differences in the earnings of the fathers in the native white,
foreign-born white, and the colored groups reflect differences in the
kinds of work the fathers did and in the regularity of their employ­
ment. It was commonly stated that negro workers were paid lower
wages than white workers in the same occupations. The tabula­
tions do not furnish exact evidence on this point, but they do show
unmistakably that the annual earnings of negro workers were lower
than the annual earnings of white workers in the same occupations.
Occasional striking instances of difference in pay for white men and
colored men doing the same work were noted by the bureau agents.
The census classification of occupations according to subdivisions
of the great fields of manufacturing, trade, transportation, clerical
occupations, domestic and personal service, public service, agri­
culture and animal husbandry, extraction of minerals, and pro­
fessional and semiprofessional pursuits, throws little light on the
economic status of the persons engaged in them. In the present
study, therefore, the occupations of the fathers have first been classi­
fied according to this method and then regrouped according to the
median earnings of the fathers in each occupation. This further
grouping gives five classes of occupations in which median earnings
were: I, under $550; II, $550 to $649; III, $650 to $849; IV, $850
to $1,049; and V, $1,050 and over.45
48 See Table 30, Appendix VII, p. 245.
« Four thousand seven hundred and thirty-six births were in families where fathers’ earnings were sup­
plemented by family earnings and the amounts of the fathers’ earnings and the aggregate earnings were
known. Sixty-five per cent fellin the same earnings group on both bases. See Tables 26 and 29, Appendix
VII, pp. 243 and 244.
<5 For the method by which median earnings are computed, see Appendix IV, p. 197.


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.

37

In Group I (under $550)° were cannery operatives; laborers, except
those employed in public service; janitors and elevator men; serv­
ants, except waiters; and the small number engaged in “ agriculture,
animal husbandry, and extraction of minerals.” In Group II ($550
to $649)° were all factory operatives, except cannery workers; shoe­
makers and tailors; deliverymen and chauffeurs, teamsters, and
expressmen; waiters; and laborers employed in public service. The
total number of births with fathers in these two groups of occupa­
tions was 5,292, or 47 per cent of all births studied.
Groups III ($650 to $849)“ and IV ($850 to $1,049)“ included all
the other types of skilled manual labor—blacksmiths, boilermakers,
skilled mechanics in the building trades, engineers and firemen in
industrial establishments, and barbers, with median earnings $650
to $849; compositors, electricians, machinists, conductors and rail­
way trainmen, and express, telegraph and telephone employees,
with median earnings $850 to $1,049. (No type of manual labor
showed median earnings so high as $1,050.) In Group III (median
earnings $650 to $849) were included also men engaged in clerical
occupations, saloon keepers and bartenders, and unclassified em­
ployees designated as “ others” in manufacturing and mechanical
occupations, in trade, in transportation, and in public service.
Group IV (median earnings $850 to $1,049) included in addition to
the more highly paid manual workers, salesmen and commercial
travelers, firemen and policemen, proprietors and managers of hotels,
pool rooms, etc., and retail and wholesale dealers, together with
officials and managers in retail and wholesale trade. The number of
births in families representing these two groups of occupations was
a trifle smaller than the number in the more poorly paid occupations,
and totaled 4,972, or 44 per cent, of all the births studied.
Group V (median earnings $1,050 and over) was made up of men
in six types of occupations— builders and contractors; manufac­
turers, proprietors, officials, etc., in manufacturing and mechanical
industries; bankers, brokers, and real estate and insurance agents;
proprietors, officials, and managers of transportation; public-service
officials and inspectors; and men engaged in professional and semiprofessional pursuits. Six per cent of the births in the study were
in families of this group.
Two hundred and eight, or 2 per cent, of the births were in families
where the father had no occupation (including seven births in families
living on own income). Seventeen births, or less than 1 per cent,
were in families where the occupation of the father was not reported.46
The most poorly paid occupations— with median earnings under
$550— included more than half the fathers in the colored group,
a Median earnings.


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6 See Table 17, Appendix VII, p. 233.

38

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

almost one-fifth of the fathers in the foreign-born white, and almost
one-twelfth of the fathers in the native white.47 In the next occupa­
tion group— with median earnings between $550 and $650—were
approximately one-third of the fathers in the colored group, more
than two-fifths of the fathers in the foreign-born white, and more
than one-fourth of the fathers in the native white. Together these
two groups of occupations, where more than half the fathers earned
less than $650 and very few individual workers earned so much as
$1,250, included 84.7 per cent of the fathers in the colored group,
59.2 per cent of the fathers in the foreign-born white, and 34.7 per
cent of the fathers in the native white.48
More than half the fathers in the native white group and more than
one-third of the fathers in the foreign-born white were in occunation
Groups III and IV, mainly skilled manual occupations, with median
earnings between $650 and $1,050. Only 8.1 per cent of the colored
fathers were in this group.
The supervisory and professional occupations— Group V, with
median earnings above $1,050— included less than 10 per cent of the
fathers in the native white group; 4.7 per cent of the fathers in the
foreign-born white, and 1.6 per cent of the fathers in the colored.
The earnings of all fathers engaged in each occupation are included
in the computation of these medians, but when the earnings of the
three color and nativity groups are considered separately a marked
difference in median earnings appears even within each group of
occupations. The earnings were highest in the native white and
lowest in the colored group. For example, in the poorly paid and
mainly unskilled occupations of Group I, the median earnings of the
native white were approximately $560, the median earnings of the
foreign-born white approximately $483, and the median earnings of
the colored group were approximately $452. Again, in the occupa­
tions of Group II, with median earnings for all workers studied,
falling between $550 and $650, the median earnings of the native
white group were approximately $654, of the foreign-born white,
$585, and of the colored, $489.49
It appears, therefore, that relatively more of the fathers in the
negro than of the fathers in the white group, and relatively more of
the fathers in the foreign-born white than of the fathers in the native
white group, were employed in the most unskilled and poorly paid
occupations. And, among men doing the same type of work, the
earnings of the native white were higher and the earnings of the
negro were lower than the earnings of the foreign born.
« The reader is reminded that the groups are based on the color and nativity of mother.
« See Table 17, Appendix V II, p. 233.
49 see Tables 20 and 21, Appendix VII, pp. 238 and 240. Median earnings are estimated from known
distribution in earnings groups under $450, $450 to $549, $550 to $649, $650 to $849, etc. For method, see
Appendix IV, p.'197.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

39

THE BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.

The actual difference in economic level comes out even more
strongly when the earnings are compared without reference to the
fathers’ occupations. For all occupations combined, the median
earnings in the native white group were $796; in the foreign-bom
white, $618; in the colored, $474. In the native white group, 55.3
per cent of the fathers earned less than $850 (in addition to 1.4 per
cent who earned nothing); in the foreign-bom white group, 73.9 per
cent of the fathers earned less than $850 (besides 1.9 per cent who earn­
ed nothing); and in the colored group, 87.3 per cent of the fathers
earned less than $850 (besides 5.2 per cent who earned nothing).
Or, comparing the earnings in the several groups with the amount
which the infant mortality rates seem to indicate as the minimum
for providing the necessities of health and well-being, it appears that
in the native white group 5.5 per cent earned at least $1,850; in the
foreign-born white group 2.2 per cent earned at least $1,850; and in
the colored group 0.2 per cent earned at least $1,850.50
T able V .— Earnings o f father by color and nativity o f mother; per cent distribution o f
births in 1915.
Per cent distribution.
Births to—
Earnings of father.

Total
births.
Native ForeignColored
bom
. white
mothers.
white
mothers. mothers.

Total........................... ...................................... ...................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Under $650................................ .....................................................
S650-S849 .......................................................................................
$850-81,849...................................................... ........... .....................
$1,850 and over.............................................................................. No earnings.....................................................................................
Not reported......................... ..........................................................

41.8
22.2
27.9
4.0
2.0
2.0

29.7
25.6
36.0
5.5
1.4
1.9

53.1
20.8
20.2
2.2
1.9
1.8

78.5
8.8
4.2
0.2
5.2
3.1

Irregularity of fathers’ employment.

The fathers in the native white group were more steadily em­
ployed than the fathers in the foreign-born or the colored groups,
66 per cent reporting employment throughout the year, as against 47
per cent among the foreign bom and 46 per cent among the negroes.51
Nonemployment is discussed in the present study from the point of
view of the family and includes not only the father’s unemployment
from lack of work or from illness but also any period .during which
he was not contributing to the support of the family because of
desertion or death. Irregularity of employment has been consid­
ered in computing the father’s earnings, and earnings refer in every
so The reader is again reminded that these figures refer to pre-war prices and earnings. For more
detailed tabulation of father’s earnings by color and nationality, see Table 18, Appendix VII, p. 234.
oi See Table 23, Appendix VII, p. 241.


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40

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

case to amounts actually received during the year following the birth
of the infant in 1915.52
Relatively more nonemployment was ascribed to lack of work and
to illness among the fathers in the foreign-born white than among
the fathers in the negro group; and among the fathers in the negro
group the number unonemployed” for other reasons, including
desertion of the family, was relatively high.
T a b l e V I . — P er cent o f fath ers iCnonem ploy ed’ ’ by cause o f nonem ploym ent and color

and n ativity o f mother; births in 1915.1
Per cent of fathers nonemployed.
Cause of nonemployment.
Color and nativity of mother.
Work
not
avail­
able.

Illness.

Other
causes
(includ­
ing de­
sertion).

32.4

6.4

2.6

26.0
44.0
40.5

6.1
7.9
5.2

2.0
1.6
7.6

1 See Table 24, Appendix VII, p. 242.

Comparing those in each group whose nonemployment was ascribed
to lack of work and for whom the period of nonemployment was
definitely stated, it is found that relatively more of the foreign born
than of the native, whether white or colored, were out of work for
six months or more— 12 per cent of the unemployed foreign born,,
6 per cent of the unemployed native white, and 5 per cent of the
unemployed negroes.53
The nonemployment from other causes, including illness and
desertion, was, in each group, of somewhat longer duration than
the nonemployment from lack of work, and when all nonemploy­
ment, from whatever cause, is considered together it appears that
the period of nonemployment was at least six months for 12.5 per
cent of the irregularly employed fathers in the native white group,
for 16.2 per cent of the irregularly employed fathers in the foreignborn white group, and for 21.7 per cent of the irregularly employed
fathers in the colored group.
62In the majority of cases the computations were based on reports made by the mothers of the weekly
or the monthly wages and the time out of work. In the study of infant mortality in Manchester, N. H.,
similar reports of fathers’ earnings were -tested with pay-roll data; it was found that on the whole the
mothers’ statements were substantially correct, with perhaps a slight tendency to overstatement. See
Infant Mortality. Results of a Field Study in Manchester, N. H ., Based on Births in One Year, by
Beatrice Sheets Duncan and Emma Duke, Children’s Bureau publication No. 20, pp. 15 and 16.
58 See Table 25, Appendix VII, p. 242.


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41

THE BABIES7 SURROUNDINGS.

T able V I I .—Duration o f nonemployment o f father by color and nativity o f mother;
births in 1915 with fathers reporting duration o f nonemployment.
Per cent distribution of
fathers nonemployed.1
Duration of nonemployment of father.
Native
white
group.

Foreignborn
white
group.

Colored
group.

Total............................................. ............

100.0

100.0

100.0

Under 3 months.................... ....................................
3-6 months.........................................
6 months and over.......................................................

69.4
18.1
12.5

54.3
29.5
16.2

59.0
19.4
21.7

1 Based on births.

The extent to which nonemployment was responsible for low
earnings among the fathers in the native white, the foreign-bom
white, and the colored groups is indicated by the following figures.
Among all the fathers in the native white group earning less than
$450 during the year, 10 per cent were steadily employed and 27.2
per cent were nonemployed for at least six months; in the foreignborn white group earning less than $450 during the year, 12.2 per
cent were steadily employed and 19.4 per cent were nonemployed
for at least 6 months; but in the colored group, 32.2 per cent of those
earning less than $450 were steadily employed throughout the year
and only 7.9 per cent were nonemployed for six months or more.
(In each color and nativity group there were also a considerable
number reported as nonemployed but with no report as to the period
of nonemployment. This number was 14.8 per cent of the native
white, 19.7 per cent of the foreign-born white, and 18.2 per cent
of the colored fathers, respectively, in the group earning less than
$450.) In the next earnings'groups, where the fathers earned from
$450 to $549 or from $550 to $649, relatively more of the fathers in
the colored than of the fathers in the white group were steadily em­
ployed, and fewer of the fathers in the colored than of the fathers in
the white group were without employment for three months or more.
But in these earnings groups there was far more nonemployment
among the fathers in the foreign-born group than among those in the
native white group. In the higher earnings groups, where more
steady employment was reported among all types of families, the
total number of colored fathers was small.
Again, it is possible to compare, roughly, the median earnings of
all fathers in the native white, the foreign-born white, and the
colored groups with the median earnings of those fathers in the same
groups who were steadily employed. The smallest difference appears
in the colored group and the largest difference in the foreign-born
white group, in spite of the fact, already noted, that on the whole


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42

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

in these two groups the percentage of fathers irregularly employed
was practically identical.
T a b l e V I I I .— Median earnings o f fathers steadily employed compared with all fathers,

by color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915.
Median earnings.1
Color and nativity of mother.

Fathers
steadily
em­
ployed.

All
fathers.

$825

$705

888
785
511

796
618
474

1 Estimated from distribution of births in earnings groups “ under $450,” “ $450 to $549,” “ $550 to $649,”
“ $650 to $849,” “ $850 to $1,049,” etc. See Tables 22 and 23, Appendix V II, pp. 240 and 241.

Two things seem apparent, even from this unsatisfactory analysis:
First, that in the pre-war days to which the data refer the foreignborn white man and the colored man were less regularly employed
than the native white man; and, second, that from the nature of the
occupations in which he was engaged and the rate at which he was
paid, the colored man who was steadily employed remained in the
same low earnings class with the colored man who was not steadily
employed.
HOM E CONDITIONS.

Many of the most important phases of home conditions do not
lend themselves to tabulation, and yet a rough index for the compari­
son of the babies’ homes among the native white families, the larger
groups of foreign white families, and the negro families is afforded
by such items as the rental paid, the sanitary arrangements of the
dwellings, and the relative sizes of dwellings and households.
Rental and sanitation.

The lowest median rental, $5.83 per month, was found among the
Polish families; the highest, $13.25 per month, among the English
and Celtic.54 In the three other groups it ran from $8.42 among the
Italian families to $11.83 among the native white families. Three
hundred and fifty babies, or 5 per cent of those living in dwellings for
which cash rent of a known amount was paid, were in dwellings
rented at less than $5 a month. The proportion rose to 39 per cent
among the Poles and dropped to 2 per cent among the Jews and the
Negroes.
64The Lithuanians paid a rental slightly higher than the Poles, and the English and Celtic paid a rental
slightly higher than the Negroes. For all other housing items these two nationalities are included in the
group of “ all other foreign,” and this group, as a whole, paid a rental lower than the negroes and higher
than the Poles.


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.

43

The 350 dwellings rented at less than $5 a month were scattered
^throughout the city. A t least 1 was reported for every ward, but
only in seven wards were there as many as 10 such dwellings. Almost
three-fourths were in wards 1, 2, and 3, and in these wards they formed
a considerable percentage of all the dwellings.
Taking the city as a whole, one-half of all the families studied
reported a rental of less than $15 a month.
Differences in rental usually reflect a difference in economic status,
but a comparison of the median rental with the median earnings of
the fathers in each of the color and nationality groups reveals two
variations: Among the Negroes, the group with the lowest earnings,
is found next to the highest median rental, amounting to 33 per cent
of their median earnings; among the Poles, with earnings lower than
any other group except the Lithuanians, Italians, and Negroes, was
found a median rental so low that it amounted to only 13 per cent
of their median earnings. The native white families, the Jewish
families, and the Italians were paying in median rental 18 per cent,
17 per cent, and 19 per cent, respectively, of their median earnings.55
But the amount of rental is less important than the dwelling it
procures. Considering the three items, sewer connection, a toilet for
the exclusive use of the family, and a bath tub, as roughly indicating
a fair standard of convenience and sanitation, it is found that the
Polish families had by far the poorest dwellings, 12 per cent possess­
ing none and only 6 per cent possessing all these arrangements. Of
the native white families, 51 per cent lived in dwellings provided
with these three arrangements, 42 per cent of the Jewish families
had them, and only 20 per cent of the Italian families lived in such
dwellings. That this reflected in part the relative prosperity of
the native white families and was not due wholly to their insistence
on a certain standard of living was indicated by the dwellings occu­
pied by families in which the father earned under $650 during the
year. The percentage of native white homes with the three con­
veniences dropped to 29, the Jewish to 25, and the Italian to 12.
And in this economic group relatively more of the native white
homes than of the Jewish, Italian, or Negro homes had none of these
conveniences, the exact percentages being 6 among the native white
families, 3 among the Italians and Negroes, and 2 among the Jews.56
Among the Negroes, as a whole, in spite of their paying a higher
median rental than any other group except the English and Celtic,
the percentage of dwellings provided with the three stated sanitary
arrangements was lower than among the native white or the Jewish
families. It has been commonly believed that a negro tenant pays
more than a white tenant for similar accommodations. These find66 See Tables 31, 32, and 33, Appendix VII, pp. 245 and 246. « See Table 34, Appendix VII, p. 247.


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IN F A N T M O E T A U T Y , BALTIMOEE, MD.

44

ings confirm this belief so far as the city of Baltimore is concerned.
Among the native white families living in rented dwellings, 24 per
cent paid $15 or more per month, and 51 per cent of all native white
f a.m ilip.fi lived in dwellings having bathtub, sewer connection, and a
C h a r t I . — R e n t a l a n d s a n it a r y c o n d it i o n o f d w e llin g s .

Per cent.
100

t.
P e rce n ta g e p a y in g 15 or m o r e
•monthly r e n ta l.

342
23.7
14.3
8.9
—

so
0.9

_

5.9
20.3
32.5
42.9
50.6

Native
white..

P ercen tage living indw ellings
with all s a n ita ry accom m odations.

Jewish.

Polish.

Italian.

Other
foreign.

Negro.

toilet for the exclusive use of the family; among the negro families
34 per cent of those living in rented dwellings paid $15 or more per
month, but only 33 per cent of all the negro families lived in dwell­
ings provided with these arrangements.57
w See Tables 31 and 34, Appendix VII, pp. 245 and 247.


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THE BABIES

SURROUNDINGS.

45

Space and size of household.

So far as space is concerned, the native white families, as the most
prosperous, fared better than any others. In actual number of rooms
per dwelling, the median negro home, with six rooms, was the same
as the median dwelling among native white families, but the median
negro household numbered six persons, and the median native white
household numbered only four persons, so the margin of space in
negro homes was considerably less than in the native white homes.
More cramped than either of these groups were the households of the
foreign bom , where the median dwelling of four rooms accommodated
a median household of four persons. (The kitchen was counted as a
room,' hut the bathroom was not.)
Within the foreign group itself, variations were found both in the
size of the dwelling and in the number of persons it accommodated.
The medians in the Jewish families were the same as those for the
entire foreign group; in the Italian families the number of rooms was
the same but the median household numbered five instead of four.
The Polish families had the smallest and most congested dwellings,
with a median of three rooms and four persons. The “ other for­
eign” — including the German, Bohemian, English and Celtic, and all
-oth er families— reported the same median space in their dwellings as
the native white families— six rooms and four persons.
Further analysis shows that the percentage of families who reported
one or more persons per room, exclusive of the baby born during
1915, ranged from 36 per cent among the native white families to
89 per cent among the Polish families. The Italians stood nearest
to the Polish in their room congestion, with 72 per cent reporting one
or more persons per room; then the Jewish families with 63 per cent,
the Negroes with 54 per cent, and the group of “ other foreign” with
49 per cent.
Thirty-one per cent of the babies in Polish families were housed in
dwellings with two or more persons per room; among the Italians
14 per cent, and among the Jewish families 9 per cent, were housed
in such congested quarters.
In each group, the percentage of families reporting one or more
persons per room increased with the size of the household, but it
was not only large households that had no margin of space. The
households of four persons or less showed similar variations in the
native white, the foreign white, and the negro f a m ilies — 18 per cent
of such native white families, 31 per cent of such negro fa m i l i es, and
50 per cent of such foreign families were living one or more persons
per room. And for each size of household, there were markedly
higher percentages reporting two or more persons per room among
the foreign families, and especially among the Poles, than among
other groups.

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46

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

In each race and nativity group room congestion was greatest in
the poorest households; but, again, at each economic level the native
white and the negro families had relatively more rooms in their dwell­
ings than the foreign families.58
Variations in size o f family.

Closely related to the variations in the size of household are the
variations in the numbers of children born to the mothers of the
several nationalities. But they do not correspond exactly, because
of differences in the stillbirth and infant mortality rates, and differ­
ences in custom regarding the presence in the household of relatives
and lodgers. Thus the Polish and Italian mothers reported on the
average more births and (in spite of high mortality among the Polish)
more children surviving the first year of life than any other nation­
ality. But the average households of the Jewish, the Polish, and the
“ other foreign” groups were approximately the same; and of all the
foreign born, only the Italians with their high percentage of families
keeping lodgers showed a definitely larger average household.59 The
negro mothers also reported a large average number of births but
relatively fewer children surviving their first year. The negro house­
holds, however, were larger, on the average, than any others.
T a b l e I X .—Size offam ily by nationality o f mother; births 1 in 1915.

Color and nationality of mother.

Average
number
of births1
to
mother.2

3.08
4.11
3.89
4.51
4.35
3.39
4.13

Average Average
number number
of child­
of per­
ren sur­ sons per
viving 1 dwell­
ing.8
year.2
2.48
3.36
3.35
3.54
3.49
3.18
2.88

4.48
4.77
4.70
4.66
5.19
4.73
5.79

1 Includes miscarriages.
„ ,,. • .
.. , TTT
aIncluding 1915 birth. Average derived from Table 70, Appendix VII, p. 281.
V 'lA j
8 Excluding 1915 infant, but including parents. Average derived from data shown in Table 35, Appen­
dix VII, p. 248.

Analyzing the average number of births to the mothers, the extent
to which the groups vary from one another is more clearly seen.
The number of mothers who had borne seven or more children
ranged from 10 per cent of all in the native white group to 26 per cent
of all in the Polish group.
MSee Tables 35,36, and 37, Appendix VII, pp. 248 to 252.
ss Two nationality groups—the Lithuanians and the small unclassified group of “ all other foreign” made
up mainly of immigrants who had recently arrived from southeastern Europe—showed a higher percentage
of families keeping lodgers than the Italian showed. But the housing data for these two groups wioh
191 infants have not been separately analyzed. In comparison with every other group the Italians had
the highest percentages keeping any lodgers (18.3 per cent) or keeping 3 or more lodgers (4.8 per cent). See
Table 40. Appendix V II; p. 254.


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDH'TGS.

47

The mothers in the poorest families bore more children than the
prosperous mothers. This difference was more marked among the
—native white mothers, who had an average o f -3.1 children in families
in which the fathers earned less than $550 a year and 2.5 in families
in which the fathers earned $1,250 or over, than among the foreignbom mothers, who had an average of 4 children in families having
earnings of less than $550 a year and 3.8 in families having namings
of $1,250 or over.60
Associated with this question of the size of the family is a variation
in the length of the interval between births. From the three sets of
data on this point included in the tabulations, it appears that the
average interval between births was shorter in the poorer families
than in the well-to-do, and shorter among the colored families than
among native white families of the same economic level. The Polish
and Italian mothers— the groups with the largest families— seem to
have had the shortest interval and the Jewish mothers the longest
interval between births. But it appears also that the intervals
between the first birth and the second and between the second
birth and the third tended to be somewhat shorter than those between
births later than the third, except that the intervals between births
-4n very large'families (of 10 or more) were the shortest of all.61
EMPLOYMENT OF MOTHERS.

In Baltimore, as in other cities studied by the Children’s Bureau,
it was mainly the wives of men whose earnings were insufficient for
the family’s needs who were gainfully employed away from home
during the critical time of pregnancy or the normal nursing period.
Tracing the mother’s record back for the entire period of her marriage,
as the Baltimore tabulations for the first time allow, it is found that
for the large number of women who had worked away from home at
some time after marriage the same relation holds: The lower the
earnings 62 of the men, the higher the proportion of women going out
to work.
80 Considering live births, stillbirths, and miscarriages, the averages in the native white famiiiog were
5 under 8550 and 2.8 at $1,250 or over and in the foreign white families 4.7 under $550 and 4.1 at $1,250 or
over. See Tables 38 and 39, Appendix VII, p. 253.
81 See Tables 41, 156, 157, and 165, Appendix V II, pp. 254,351, and 357.
81 This statement is based on the assumption that, in general, the earnings of the father during the year
following the birth of a baby in 1915 correctly indicate the family’s economic status in-previous years also.


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48

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able X .—Employment o f mother away from home, by earnings offather and color and
nativity o f mother; births1 in 1915.
Per cent2 of mothers em­
ployed away from home
during pregnancy.
Earnings of father.

Native Foreignbom
Colored
white
white mothers.
mothers. mothers.

$450-$549...........................................................................................................
$550-$649...........................................................................................................
$650-$849...........................................................................................................
$850-$1,049........................................................................................................
$1,050-$1,249......................................................................................................

5.5

11.4

44.9

15.5
12.5
7.6
4.1
2.0
1.2
1.1
20.4

18.5
14.6
14.7
7.8
2.8
2.9
.9
24.5

50.9
41.3
36.5
34.8

69.6

1Includes miscarriages.
* Based on births, including miscarriages. Not shown where base is less than 50.
Ch a r t II.—Per cent of mothers gainfully em ployed away from hom e, b y fathers’ earnings.
DURING PREGNANCY.

AFTER BIRTH.

Per cent.
70

Per cent.

60

50

40

30

20

10

$450.

to
$549.

to
$649.

$450.
to
to
and
$849. $1,049. over.
Native white mothers
Foreign-bom white mothers
Colored mothers

to
$549.

to

to

to
and
:l,049. over.

Prevalence of employment.

Relatively more colored women than white women, and relatively
more foreign-born women than native women, worked outside their
homes. But in each of these three groups separately it is found
that in descending the scale of fathers’ earnings, there was a steady
increase in the percentage of mothers gainfully employed away from
home at any time after marriage, or during the pregnancy of 1915, or
during the first 12 months of the baby’s life time.63
63For detailed tabulation see Table 92, Appendix VII, p. 295.


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THE BABIES

49

SURROUNDINGS.

Another indication of the economic pressure that is usually present
when married women go to work outside their homes is given b y the
fact that the percentage of women reporting such employment rose
steadily with the number of children in the family. At each economic
level within each of the three race and nativity groups, the percentage
of mothers who had worked outside their homes since their marriage
was higher among those who had borne seven or more children than
among others. And in families where the father earned less than
$850, the percentage of mothers who had worked outside their homes
since marriage was higher among those who had borne from four to
six children than among those who had borne less than four.64
T able X I .— Time o f employment o f mother away from home; live births in 1915.
Live births.
Time of employment of mother.

Per cent
Number. distribu­
tion. 1
10,797

100.0

2,284
8,507
6.011
945
1.551
6

21.1
78.8
55.7
8.8
14.4

1 Not shown when less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In all, 8,507 live-born babies, or 79 per cent of those studied, were
bom to mothers who had been at some time gainfully employed out­
side their homes. Over one-half of all the mothers had gone out to
work before they were 16 years old, and over one-fourth before they
were 14. But many of these mothers had had no outside employment
after marriage, and others did not go out to work during the preg­
nancy of 1915 nor within 12 months after the birth of a baby in
that year.
Of the 10,797 babies studied, 1,229, or 11 per cent, were born to
mothers who worked outside their homes during pregnancy; more
•than one-half., of these mothers resumed work outside the home
after the baby’s birth— 594 during the baby’s lifetime and 104 after
the baby’s death. The mothers of 322 babies, or 3 per cent of all,
went out to work within 12 months of the baby’s birth, although
they had not been so employed during pregnancy— 261 during the
baby’s lifetime, and 61 after the baby’s death.65 All but 22 of these
322 mothers had been gainfully employed away from home at some
previous time.
m

See Table 94, Appendix VII, p. 296.

101351°—23----- 4


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50

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Occupations.

The white mothers working away from home were mainly factory
operatives; the negro mothers were mainly domestic servants, char­
women, and laundresses.86
T a b l e X I I .— Occupation o f Toother, by color; births in 1915 to mothers employed away

from home during pregnancy.1

Occupation of mother during
1915 pregnancy.

Births to mothers
em ployed away
from home.
White.

A ll..................................
Factory operatives:
Canning, shucking............
Clothing............................
Other factory....................

688
315
99
121

Occupation of mother during
1915 pregnancy.

Colored.
629
6
23
12

Births to mothers
em ployed away
from home.
White.

Charwork, laundering, etc___
Other occupations...................

Colored.

49
22
82

363
194
31

1 The statements that follow in text are based on births, Table 98, Appendix V II, p. 300.

Among the cannery workers Polish women predominated, and
almost one-third were native white women; the other cannery
workers, a very small number in all, represented every nationality
group except the Jewish.
Approximately two-fifths of the clothing workers were native
white women and the remainder were about evenly divided among
the Negroes, the Lithuanians, and a scattered group representing
every nationality except the English and Celtic.
Of the workers in “ other factories,” four-fifths were native white
women.
These numbers represent widely varying percentages of mothers
employed away from home in the several race and nationality groups,
as custom and economic status within the group sent more mothers
or fewer out to work. At one extreme, with the largest numbers
going out to work, were the Negroes and Poles; at the other extreme,
the Jewish and Italian women.
Of the native white mothers, 14 per cent had worked away from
home after marriage, 6 per cent during their pregnancy of 1915, and
4 per cent during the first 12 months of the infant’s life. Among
the Jewish mothers, these percentages dropped to 7 per cent, 1 per
cent, and less than 1 per cent; among the Negroes they rose to 67
per cent, 45 per cent, and 32 per cent.67
For the period of the 1915 pregnancy and the 12 months after the
birth of a baby in that year, the gainful employment of mothers
within their own homes has also been tabulated. Except among
See Table 101, Appendix VII, p. 303.


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MSee Tables 96, 97, and 98, Appendix VII, pp. 297-300.

51

THE BABIES ’ SURROUNDINGS.

the Poles and the Negroes, more mothers worked at home than away
from home. And considering together employment at home and
away it is found that the native white mothers, instead of the Jewish
mothers, reported the least employment during the pregnancy of
1915. The percentage employed among the Jews rose to a point
just above the average for the city, and among the Italians con­
siderably higher. The Negroes and Poles still headed the list with
the highest proportions of mothers gainfully employed.68
Relatively few mothers reported doing “ home work” given out by
a factory. The 174 mothers 69 (just 2 per cent of all) who reported
having sewed at home on work given out by a factory during the
1915 pregnancy were Italians (69), native white women (37), Poles
(22), Lithuanians (17), Jews (15), and others (14). Only among the
Italians and the Lithuanians did these numbers represent more than 4
per cent of the mothers, but here they rose to 16 per cent of all. Of the
124 mothers employed at “ other home work,” 3 mothers—native
white—were working for a factory and 12 were probably doing
factory work. These 12 included 2 Italian mothers making lace and
embroidering, one Jewish mother “ making crab cakes at home,” one
colored mother mending feed bags, and 8 native white mothers
•making Christmas ornaments, flowers, brushes, etc.
The principal home occupations among the white mothers were
keeping lodgers and helping in the husband’s business; among the
negro mothers, laundering.
T a b l e X I I I .— Occupation o f mother, by color; births in 1915 to mothers employed at

home during pregnancy.

Occupation of mother during
1915 pregnancy.

Births to mothers
employed at home.
White.
Colored
mothers. mothers.

Keeping lodgers.......................
Sewing (for factory)................

1,397

355

670
167

46
1

Occupation of mother during
1915 pregnancy.

Helping in husbands5business.
Doing other home work.........

Births to mothers
employed at home.
White
Colored
mothers. mothers.
55

22

333
104

3
14

Keeping lodgers was most prevalent among four of the foreign
groups. In the small mixed group of “ other foreign,” 19 per cent of
the mothers were so engaged; of the English and Celtic mothers, 15
per cent; and of the Lithuanian mothers and the Italian mothers,
14 per cent. But these groups were small, and together they reported
only 115 of the 732 mothers who kept lodgers. In actual numbers, the
« See Tables 92 and 93, Appendix V II, pp. 295 and 296.
MSee Table 100, Appendix VII, p. 302.
m Births. Table 98, Appendix V U , p. 300.


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52

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

native white mothers led, with 422 keeping lodgers— a large number
but a small percentage (6 per cent) of the total number of native
white mothers. The other 195 mothers keeping lodgers were scat­
tered among the other nationalities, with percentages in each group
varying from 3 per cent of the Negro mothers to 9 per cent of the
German mothers.
Helping the husband’s business was the chief occupation reported
by Jewish mothers, of whom 163, or 16 per cent, were so engaged.
These Jewish mothers and 107 native white mothers constituted
more than three-fourths of all the women helping in the husband s
business. Both actually and relatively the numbers were small in
the other groups, ranging from less than 1 per cent of the negroes to
10 per cent of the mixed group of “ other foreign.”
Ch a r t

n i . _Per cent of mothers gainfully employed at home and away from home, by color and nativity.

40
r

30
i

NATIVE WHITE.

During pregnancy.
.During life of infant.

255

FOREIGN-BORN WHITE

During pregnancy.
During life of infant.

|
C l .l |

24.8

N E GR O.

During pregnancy.
During life of infant.

. an|
¿Q.U I

It has been noted that fewer mothers were employed outside their
homes after the birth of the baby than during the pregnancy of
1915. This decrease accompanies an increase in the number gain­
fully employed within their homes. Even omitting from consider­
ation the mothers who resumed or began work only after the death
of the baby born in 1915, this increase in work at home persists.70
T able X I V .— Time and place o f employment o f mother; live "births in 1915 to mothers
employed.
Live births to mothers em­
ployed.
Place of employment.

During
preg­
nancy.

Within the first
year after birth.
At any
time.

During
lifetime
of infant.

2,911

3,036

2,784

1,229
1,682

1,020
2,016

855
1,929

70 For details of shifting from employment to nonemployment and from employment away to employ­
ment at home and vice versa, see Table 101, Appendix VII, p. 303.


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THE BABIES’ SURROUNDINGS.

53

In each nationality without exception 71 this change in the distri­
bution of working mothers is found— relatively more working at home
and relatively fewer working away during the lifetime of the infant
than during pregnancy. Among the Negroes and the Poles, however,
in spite of this increase in employment at home, work away continued
to be more prevalent than work at home.
Whether the mother works at home or away is a matter of great
importance to her baby’s welfare.
From the infant mortality rates, which will be discussed in detail
in a later section,72 it appears that the work away from home increased
the hazard to the baby, while work at home, so far as the Baltimore
figures show, was accompanied by no excess in the infant mortality
rate. Whether the mother at home regulated her own conditions of
work so that strain during pregnancy was avoided, and ill effects were
not too serious to be outweighed by the benefit of addition to the
family income, is an open question. It does appear that the mothers
who worked at home breast fed their babies to about the same ex­
tent as mothers at the same economic level who were not gainfully
employed.
The high percentage o f Negro mothers and Polish mothers employed
away from home and the very low percentages of Jewish and Italian
mothers so employed may reasonably be considered one factor in the
high infant mortality rates among Negro and Polish babies and the
low infant mortality rates among Jewish and Italian babies.
CARE OF THE INFANT.
Prevalence of artificial feeding.

One baby in 11 was deprived of breast milk during the first month
of life; 1 baby in 5 had been weaned before the end of the third month;
and by the ninth month, 1 baby in 3 was having only artificial food.
Behind these average percentages for all babies born in 1915 were
certain marked variations among the several groups. More babies
were artificially fed in the prosperous families than among the less
well-to-do, and more babies were artificially fed in the native white
families than in the foreign-born white or the negro families.
On the other hand, mixed feeding— that is, the supplementing of
the mother’s milk with cow’s milk or other food— was less common
during the early months of infancy among the native white families
than elsewhere. But even with the relatively high percentages of babies
mixed fed in the other groups, there were also higher percentages
having only breast feeding among the babies of foreign-born white
mothers than among the babies of native white mothers and, omitting
n Native white, Negro, Jewish, Polish, Italian, and all other foreign (German, Bohemian, English and
Celtic, Lithuanian, and “ other foreign” combined).
>*See page 114.


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54

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

the babies of mothers gainfully employed, higher percentages having
only breast feeding among the babies of colored mothers than among
the babies of native white mothers. These comparisons hold true not^
only for the several groups as a whole, but also for native white,
foreign-born white, and colored families of the same economic levels.
The feeding was tabulated separately for the three largest foreignborn groups. The Polish and Italian babies showed approximately
the same distribution among the three types of feeding, with a slight
difference in favor of the Italian babies. Among the babies of Jewish
mothers, on the other hand, during the third month and later, the
percentages having mixed feeding were markedly high. As com­
pared with the Polish babies, the Jewish babies showed slightly less
artificial feeding at the first, third, and sixth months of life and
markedly less breast feeding during the sixth month and later. As
compared with the Italian babies, the Jewish babies showed prac­
tically no difference in the extent of artificial feeding, but markedly
less breast feeding from the third month onward.73
It is worth noting that the Italian and Polish mothers who had
learned to speak English were more likely to wean their babies during
the early months than the Italian and Polish mothers who had not
learned to speak English, while exactly the reverse was true of the ~
Jewish mothers. And more of the Polish mothers who could read
and write than of the illiterate Polish mothers were weaning their
babies during the early months, while among the Italian mothers as
well as the Jewish mothers there was less artificial feeding when the
mothers could read and write than when they were illiterate.
Among the native mothers, both white and colored, the illiterate
women were less likely than the others to give their babies breast
milk and no other food during the early months. In both groups
the illiterate mothers showed a high percentage of babies whose
nursing by their mothers was supplemented by other food. And
among the illiterate native white mothers the percentage of babies
weaned in the early months was also above the average.74
Within each race and nationality group the greatest prevalence of
artificial feeding occurred in families where the mother was gainfully
employed away from home.75
SUMMARY.

The Baltimore group included considerable numbers of colored
births and of births to foreign-born Jewish, Polish, and Italian
mothers. Other foreign groups were also represented, but their
numbers were too few to permit a separate detailed analysis.
73 See Tables 42,80, and 81, Appendix VII, pp. 255,288, and 289.
74 See Tables 43, 44, and 45, Appendix V U , p p. 255 and 256.
76 See Table 46, Appendix VII, p. 257. Therelation of the mother’s employment to her way of feeding
her baby is discussed in detail in the section on Employment of Mothers and infant Mortality, p. 124.


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THE BABIES7 SURROUNDINGS.

55

Artificial feeding of young babies, poverty, poor bousing, and
employment of mothers away from home are four important factors
in infant mortality the relation of which to mortality rates will be
discussed in detail in the later sections of the report.
In Baltimore artificial feeding was more prevalent among the
native white mothers than among the foreign-bom mothers or the
colored mothers. It was more prevalent among the Avell-to-do
than among the very poor white mothers, although it was greatly
increased in certain poor groups by the mothers7 employment away
from home. Except among the foreign-born Jewish families, the
foreign-born mother who spoke English was more likely to wean her
baby during the early months than the foreign-born mother who
spoke no English. In spite of the relatively high percentage of
mothers employed in the Polish group there was no marked differ­
ence in the prevalence of artificial feeding among the Poles, the
Italians, and the foreign-born Jewish mothers when these groups are
considered as a whole.
Almost two-thirds of the births studied were in families where the
fathers earned less than $850 a year. Four per cent were in families
where the fathers earned $1,850 or over. Economic conditions were
-w orst among the colored families. These fathers were employed
mainly in unskilled and poorly paid occupations and their annual
earnings were lower than the earnings of white fathers in similar
kinds of work. On the. other hand, the colored families paid higher
rentals than white families for houses with corresponding type of
sanitation. In the colored group the median rental was approxi­
mately one-third of the median earnings of the fathers; in the white
groups it was less than one-fifth.
The foreign-born fathers also earned less than the native white
fathers, because of difference in type of occupation and lower earn­
ings from similar types of occupations. But no foreign-born group
(except the small group of Lithuanians) was so poor as the colored
group.
The foreign-born families lived in poorer dwellings and had greater
room congestion than thé native white families. But when native
and foreign-born families of corresponding economic levels are com­
pared, it appears that the foreign-bom families had approximately
the same sanitary equipment as native white families with similar
earnings. The greatest room congestion and the lowest rentals
were found in the Polish group.
More than one-fifth of the families lived in dwellings without
sewer connections, and a considerable number of these were in wards
with no outlying, thinly settled districts. The percentage of dwell­
ings having no sewer connection was higher in the seventeenth


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56

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

and eighteenth wards than in any other ward with no outlying
district.
About one mother in seven worked away from home during preg­
nancy or during the lifetime of the baby within 12 months after
the birth. Such employment was most prevalent among the Negro
and Polish mothers and in these groups 45 per cent and 33 per cent,
respectively, worked away from home during pregnancy. In every
group the percentage of mothers employed away was greatest in
the poorest families and decreased steadily with increase in the
fathers’ earnings. The principal occupation among white mothers
employed away from home was factory work— chiefly in canneries
for the Poles, and for others chiefly in clothing factories. Domestic
service was the principal occupation among colored mothers.
The interplay of these social conditions in relation to variations
in the infant mortality rates in the several groups offers the main
subject for the following sections. Even this brief survey of the
field suggests certain reasons for the excessive mortality among
babies of Polish mothers and babies of colored mothers.


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THE DEATHS.

Of the 10,797 live-born babies in the normal Baltimore group,
1,117, or approximately 1 in 10, died during the first year of life;
477 died during the first month, 337 between the second month
and the sixth, and 303 between the seventh month and the twelfth.
Seven-eighths of all the deaths were ascribed to the three main
Ch ar t IV .—Infant m ortality rates, b y cause of death.
Infant
m ortality
rate.

50 -

41.3

Early infancy
and malfor­
mations.

Gastric and
intestinal
diseases.

Respiratory
diseases.

67

67

Other communicable
diseases.

All other
causes,

groups of infant diseases, and the total infant mortality rate, 103.5
per 1,000 live births, is made up as follows:
T a b l e I . — In f Hint mortality rates, by cause o f death; live births in 1915.1

Cause of death.

Infant
.m or­
tality
rate.
103.5

Malformations...........................................

29.1
19.7
3.6

Cause of death.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.
37.7

Epidemic and other communicable disAll other causes.......................................

6.7
6.7

1 For detailed tabulation, see Table 48, Appendix V II, p. 258.

More babies died during the hot months from July to September
and during the month of March than at any other season. Omitting
the seasonal deaths (from gastric and intestinal diseases and from
57

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58

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

respiratory diseases), it is found that in March there were 71 deaths
from other causes, while in the other months the number of deaths
from other causes ranged from 56 in April to 39 in January.
AGE AT DEATH.

In the Baltimore group, as in the death-registration area of the
United States and in the cities of the birth-registration area, slightly
over two-fifths of all infant deaths occurred in the first month of
life. Roughly, one may say that in Baltimore of every 1,000 babies
Ch ar t V .—Infant deaths, b y calendar month.
Number.

Gastric and intestinal diseases
Respiratory diseases

born alive, 103 died during the first year; 56 died during the first
three months (37 of these failed to survive the first two weeks);
19 died during the fourth, fifth, or sixth month; 15, during the
seventh, eighth, or ninth month, and 13, during the last three
months of the first year. A glance at the deaths by single months
reveals the fact that although, in general, the number of deaths
decreased month by month, more babies died in the fifth month
and in the sixth month than in the second, third, or fourth. In
the seventh month the number of deaths was strikingly less than
in any preceding month.76
« See Table 50, Appendix VII, p. 260.


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59

TH E DEATHS.

T a b l e I I .— Deaths per 1,000 live births, by age at death; comparison o f Baltim ore and
cities in the birth-registration area.

Deaths per 1,000
live births.

Deaths per 1,000
live births.
Cities in
the birthregistra­
tion area
(1915).

Age at death.
Balti­
more.

2 weeks, under 1 month.........

Cities in
the birthregistra­
tion area
(1915).

Age at death.
Balti­
more.

103.5

103.3

1 month, under 2....................

56.0
37.0
7.1

60.4
35.4
8.0

3 months, under 6...................
6 months) under 9...................
9 months) under 12.................

6.0
5.8
19.4
15.1
13.0

9.2
7.8
18.1
14.0
10.9

In the cities of the birth-registration area in 1915 the total infant
mortality rate (103.3 per 1,000 live births) was practically identical
with the rate for the Baltimore group (103. 5 per 1,000 live births).
But the Baltimore rate was higher than that for the other cities dur­
ing the first two weeks of life and during each three-month period
after the first three months.77
CAUSES OF DEATH.
Early infancy and malformations.

In Baltimore, as in the cities of the birth-registration area, the
causes of death peculiar to early infancy were responsible for more
babies’ deaths than any other group of diseases. Among the Balti­
more babies 407 deaths were assigned to premature birth, congenital
debility, or injuries at birth, and in addition 39 babies born with
malformations died early in their first year.78 These causes together
showed an infant mortality rate of 41.3 per 1,000 live births. More
than three-fourths (78.5 per cent) of these deaths occurred within
2 weeks of birth, many of them within 24 hours; 40 deaths assigned
to early infancy or malformations, or 9 per cent of all deaths from
these causes, occurred after the second month. The deaths after
the second month included none of those due to injuries at birth, and
77 For detailed tabulation see Table 47, Appendix v n , p. 257.
re So far as information could be secured, a list of defects of infants bom alive is shown in the following
tabular statement:

Nature of defect.

Rate per
Number. 1,000 live
births.

Cleft palate....................
Harelip.......... ...............
Additional finger or toe.
Missing finger or toe—
Club foot........................
Paralysis of lim b...........
Hydrocephalus.............


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6
9
13
3
3

1

4

0.6
.8
1.2
.3
.3
.1
.4

Nature of defect.

Imperfectly developed head.
Spinabifiaa....... .......... .
Monster....... ....................... ..
Lack of opening of rectum. ..
Congenital disease of heart...
Blind........ .............................

Rate per
Number. 1,000live
births.
7
4
2
1
38

1

0.6
.4
.2
.1
3.5

.1

60

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

only 2 of those due to prematurity. But 9 of the 39 babies who
died from malformations and 29 of the 138 who died from congenital
debility had struggled safely through the first two months and died"~>
later in the year.79
The death rate from malformations (3.6 per 1,000) was lower than
the corresponding rate (6.1 per 1,000) in the cities of the birthregistration area. For the causes peculiar to early infancy the
Baltimore rate was higher than that in the birth-registration cities.
Even omitting from the Baltimore group the colored babies with
their specially high death rate from these diseases, the Baltimore
rate was still somewhat above the rate for the other cities.
T a b l e I I I .—Infant mortality rates from causes 'peculiar to early infancy, by color and

nativity o f mother; comparison o f Baltimore and cities o f the birth-reqistration area
(1915).

Color and nativity of mother, and area.

Cities of birth-registration area (1915)............................................................
Baltimore study................................................. ..................................
White mothers.................... .................................................................
Native................................................................................
Foreign-born..... ...................................................................
Colored mothers.................................................................

._____

Live
births.

1481,496
10,797
9,492
6,739
2,753
1,305

Infant
mortal­
ity rate
from
early
infancy.
35.0
37.7
36.0
38.1'
30.9
49.8

1 Includes 471,144 white and 10,352 colored infants. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Birth Statistics, 1915.
First annual report, p. 10.

Only for the babies of foreign-bom mothers did the Baltimore rate
from early infancy drop below that for all the cities of the birth-reg­
istration area combined.
The deaths from causes peculiar to early infancy were more
evenly distributed through the different seasons than deaths from
gastric and intestinal diseases or deaths from respiratory diseases;
and yet in the Baltimore group it was found that more babies died
from causes peculiar to early infancy in March, April, and November
than in other months and noticeably few in January. The variations
in the numbers of births occurring in the several months do not ac­
count for these differences, for the infant mortality rate from this
group of causes was exceptionally high among babies born in March,
April, or November and exceptionally low among babies born in
January.80 In discussing these diseases, Dr. Grace L. Meigs says:
“ No more than a guess can be made as to the degree to which
these diseases can be prevented. * * * Two problems are here
involved: (1) The ignorance of the prospective mother in the care of
79 See Table 50, Appendix V II, p. 260.
80 See Tables 52 and 53, Appendix VII, pp. 262 and 263.


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61

TH E DEATHS.

herself during pregnancy; (2) improper care by physician and mid­
wife during pregnancy and at birth.” 81
The present study will show the extent to which in the Baltimore
group the death rate from causes peculiar to early infancy varied
not only with the color and nativity of the mother, but also with the
family’s means, with the work the mother did, and the number of
children she had borne.
Gastric and intestinal diseases.

Second in importance as a cause of death were the diarrheal dis­
eases, from which 308 babies in the Baltimore families died under 1
year of age. The six deaths from diseases of the stomach were
included with these in the group of gastric and intestinal diseases,
and the combined infant mortality rate was 29.1 per 1,000 live births.
In the deaths from these causes there was the least variation in
rates between the native, foreign-bom, and colored groups as a
whole.82 Each of the three in the Baltimore study showed a rate
somewhat higher than the rate in the cities of the birth-registration
area.
,
Color and nativity of mother, and area.

Infant mortality rate from
gastric and intestinal diseases.

Cities of birth-registration area (1915)..................... ............. |........... ....... ................
altimore study................................. ............................................... .............................
Native white mothers..............................................................................................
Foreign-horn white mothers.......................................... ....... ......................... .......
Colored mothers...................................................................................... ................

26. 6
29.1
28. 8
29.1
30. 7

These deaths occurred at every month of age within the first year
of life. The hazard was less during the first two months than later
and for these early months the rate in the Baltimore group was below
the rate in the cities of the birth-registration area. The monthly
death rate from gastric and intestinal diseases, in the Baltimore
group reached its maximum during the sixth month. Or, if the
four three-month periods of the first year of life are considered,
the lowest infant mortality rate from gastric and intestinal diseases
is found during the first quarter and the highest rate during the
second quarter.83 Quite different was the distribution of such infant
deaths among all babies under 1 year of age in all cities of the birthregistration area during 1915. There the rate from gastric and intes­
tinal diseases was highest during the first three months of life and
decreased steadily and markedly through the remainder of the first
year.. For each age period except the first three months the Baltimore
group had a higher rate than the babies in these other cities, and it
may be noted that the highest rate reached b y the Baltimore group
« Grace L. Meigs, M. D.: Other Factors in Infant Mortality than the Milk Supply and Their Control, in
American Journal of Public Health, Vol. V I, No. 8.
83 Table 49, Appendix VII, p, 259. Important variations in rate occur within the foreign group, which
will be discussed in the comparison of the several nationalities. Compare page 78.
88 See Tables 50 and 54, Appendix VII, pp. 260 and 264.


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62

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

(during the second three months) was higher than the maximum
reached in the other cities (during the first three months). A com­
parison with the death rate under 1 year from gastric and intestinal
diseases in Baltimore City during the calendar year 1915 shows a
distribution of deaths similar to that in the group studied in detail
and unlike that in the cities of the birth-registration area.
Gastric and intestinal diseases are, of course, largely seasonal.
Disregarding for. a moment differences between the two summers, it
appears that for the Baltimore group, while no calendar month was
without infant deaths assigned to these diseases, the months from
July to October had 243 such deaths, or 77.4 per cent of them all.
August had the highest number of deaths, 89, and July followed with
78.84
The summer of 1916, which was the period of special exposure for
most of the older babies in the Baltimore group, was exceptionally
dry,85 and the city death records showed more deaths under 2 years
of age from diarrhea and enteritis during 1916 than during 1945,
when the younger babies in the Baltimore group were especially
exposed to gastric and intestinal disorders. This might account for
an exceptionally high percentage of such deaths occurring during
the later months of life. It could have no bearing upon the high
mortality during the months from the third to the sixth.
Deaths from these causes are considered the most immediately
preventable of all infant deaths, since the disorders from which they
result are directly related to wrong feeding and improper care. That
these di£orders are gradually being controlled and prevented through­
out the country is indicated by the mortality statistics for the deathregistration area.
The total number of infant deaths in the death registration States
as of 1910 (exclusive of North Carolina) decreased from 135,020 in
1910 to 119,349 in 1917. There is no reason to assume a corre­
sponding decrease in the annual number of births within the same
area, since a possible decrease in birth rate would have been more
than offset by an increase in population. Therefore, the shift in per
cent distribution of deaths by cause of death indicates, primarily, a
decrease in the mortality from the causes which show a decreasing
percentage of the total infant deaths.
On the other hand, whether the mortality from causes-which show
an increasing percentage of the total deaths has actually increased or
merely remained constant while the deaths from other causes have
decreased can not be determined without a comparison of deaths
and births.86
84 See Chart V , p. 58, and Table 52, Appendix Vn, p. 262 .
86 See Table 56, Appendix VII, p. 264.
86A comparison of infant births and deaths is possible for the birth-registration area as of 1915, exclusive
of Rhode Island. The infant mortality rate from gastric and intestinal diseases was 24.6 in 1915,25.1 in
1916, and then fell to 23.4 in 1917, 23.2 in 1918, and 19.0 in 1919. Compiled from U. S. Bureau of the
Census, Birth Statistics, 1915 to 1919.


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63

TH E DEATHS.

T a b l e IY .— Changes in per cent o f infant deathsfrom certain causes in the death-registration

area, as o f 1910 (exclusive o f North Carolina), 1910 to 1917.
Per cent of infant deaths from
specified causes!
Years.

1917 ......................
1916.........................
1915.........................
1914.........................

Gastric Early in­
and in­ fancy and All other
testinal malfor­
causes.
diseases. mations.
23.7
24.3
23.4
24.5

41.4
41.2
41.9
41.4

34.8
34.6
34.6
34.2

Per cent of infant deaths from
specified causes.
Years.

1913.........................
1912.........................
1911.........................
1910.................... .

Gastric Early in­
and in­ fancy and All other
testinal malfor­
causes.
diseases. mations.
26.1
25.3
27.0
30.6

39.8
39.5
37.1
30.7

34.2
35.0
35.7
38.7

■
(U. S. Bureau of the Census, Mortality Statistics, 1917, p. 64.)

Marked variations in the rates from gastric and intestinal diseases
occurred within the native white group and among the several
nationalities in the Baltimore study. How these variations were
related to methods of feeding and to home conditions will be discussed
in later sections of this report. The very low rates prevailing in
certain groups tend to confirm the belief that these disorders can be
largely prevented by breast feeding, and by good care and sur1
roundings.
Respiratory diseases.

To the third important group of infant diseases— pneumonia,
bronchitis, and broncho-pneumonia— were assigned 213 deaths among
the Baltimore infants, an infant mortality rate of 19.7 per 1,000 live
births. The hazard from these diseases persists throughout the first
year of life, but the rate was highest (3.5) during the first month and
decreased slightly as the year progressed. More than one-sixth of
the babies who died of respiratory diseases were less than 1 month
old, and more than three-fifths of them were less than 6 months old.
In the cities of the birth-registration area there was a similar slight
decrease in these deaths as babies grew older, but the proportions of
the deaths from respiratory diseases occurring in the early months
of age were not quite so high as in the Baltimore group. During
each three-month period except the last the rate was higher in
Baltimore than in the cities of the birth-registration area.87
As in the deaths from gastric and intestinal diseases, there was a
seasonal variation, but the greatest numbers of deaths from respira­
tory diseases were in February (33) and March (32), and the least
were in August (7). The five calendar months, January, February,
March, April, and December, had 129 such deaths, two and one-third
times as many as the five months from July to November.
These deaths were very unevenly distributed among the different
families studied. Relatively more than three times as many occurred
87 See Table 47, Appendix V U , p. 257.


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64

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

among the colored babies as among the white babies. Or, specifically,
of the 1,305 babies born to colored mothers, 64 died from respiratory
diseases— 49 per 1,000 live births; of the 9,492 babies born to white
mothers, 149 died from respiratory diseases— 15.7 per 1,000 live births.
Among the babies of foreign-born mothers the rate (20.7) was higher
than among the babies of native white mothers. It should be men­
tioned that respiratory diseases are often complications of acute
contagious diseases, especially of whooping cough and measles, and
as shown later, whooping cough was more prevalent among colored
than among white babies.88
This element of the infant death rate has been considered difficult
to touch; the definite attempt to reach it is the development of only
the last few years. But, again, the low rates found in certain
groups suggest that many of the deaths from respiratory diseases
might be prevented.89 Here, too, the chief weapons are improve­
ment in the standard of living and the education of the mother. She
must learn that breast milk and plenty of fresh air increase the baby’s
power of resistance; that the baby must not be exposed to infection
from a person suffering from a cold; and that respiratory infections
in the baby must receive early treatment.
Other communicable diseases.

About 1 in 15 of the infant deaths were ascribed to the other com­
municable diseases, which included whooping cough, with 18 deaths,
tuberculosis, 15 deaths, and syphilis, 14 deaths. The other 25
deaths in this classification were scattered among several causes—
measles 8, influenza 7, erysipelas 4, diphtheria and croup 4, and
scarlet fever and dysentery each 1. Altogether these diseases
showed an infant mortality rate of 6.7 per 1,000 live births, which
was somewhat less than the corresponding rate (8.5 per 1,000) in
cities in the birth-registration area in 1915.90
The 14 deaths assigned to syphilis occurred in the earliest months
of life— 10 in the first month and only 1 after the third month.91
Deaths from this cause, like those assigned to early infancy, are
directly related to the condition of the mother and the condition of
the infant at birth. Their prevention depends directly upon the
care and treatment of the mother during pregnancy* and confinement.
s8 But if both causes are stated on the death certificate the death is ascribed to the epidemic rather than
to the respiratory cause. See U. S. Bureau of the Census, Manual of International Causes of Death, pp.
18-20; also U. S. Bureau of the Census, List of Joint Causes of Death.
8» A marked reduction in infant mortality from respiratory diseases in New Zealand during the past 15
years from 10 per 1,000 births in 1905-1909 to 4.6 in 1915-1918, has accompanied the development of infantwelfare work in that country.
90 See Tables 47,48,49, and 50, Appendix VII, pp. 257 to 260.
91 In addition to these deaths assigned to syphilis, an unknown number due to syphilis or other venereal
infection are probably included in the early deaths assigned to “ prematurity,” “ congenital debility,”
“ diseases ill defined and unknown,” and other causes.


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TH E DEATHS.

65

The deaths assigned to other communicable diseases increased in
the later months of life, and 24, or almost two-fifths of all, occurred
'-"among babies more than 9 months old.92 Among babies from 6 to
12 months old the death rate was practically the same in the Balti­
more group and in the cities of the birth-registration area for other
communicable diseases.
While it is necessary to guard against using the rates for the group
studied as true and complete for the city of Baltimore, it is found
nevertheless that on this point the experience of the group was
similar to that shown by all registered infant deaths in Baltimore
during 1915 and 1916— low death rates for communicable diseases
other than syphilis, with a diminishing difference between Baltimore
and the other cities as babies passed from early infancy to the later
months of their first year.
Variations in rates from these diseases were found within the
Baltimore group. Except for the three diseases— whooping cough,
tuberculosis, and syphilis— the total numbers of deaths were too
small to justify analysis, and, even for these three causes, slight
variations in rates would not be significant. But when it is found
that the babies of colored mothers died from whooping cough at the
^rate of 5.4 per 1,000 five births and that this rate was 3 times as high
as the rate (1.8) among babies of foreign-born white mothers and 6
times as high as the rate (0.9) among babies of native white mothers,
it becomes apparent that this difference in rate reflects a real difference
in conditions and care. Again, the rate from deaths assigned to
syphilis was 11 times as high among babies of colored mothers (7.7 per
1.000) as among babies of foreign-born white mothers (0.7), and 26
times as high as the rate (0.3) among babies of native white mothers.93
For tuberculosis the babies of foreign-born mothers had the most
favorable rate (0.4 per 1,000). The colored babies had a rate (3.1 per
1.000) more than twice as high as the babies of native white mothers
(1.4 per 1,000). This indication that relatively more colored babies
than white babies died from tuberculosis was confirmed by the much
« This cannot be ascribed to the fact that measles and whooping cough were more prevalent in Baltimore
during 1916 than during 1915. While 17 of the 26 babies in this group who died from one of these diseases
had passed the sixth month of life, more than half the infant deaths from measles and whooping cough
recorded for the year 1915 in the cities of the birth-registration area were in this same age period. See
Table 50, Appendix V U , p. 260.
M This may in part reflect a difference in the extent to which deaths from syphilis were assigned to other
causes in registering deaths of white persons and deaths of colored persons. It has been shown in other
studies that venereal infection is more prevalent among the negroes in Baltimore than among the white
population. J. Whitridge Williams: The Limitations and Possibilities of Prenatal Care based upon the
study of 705 foetal deaths occurring in 10,000 consecutive admissions to the obstetrical department of the
Johns Hopkins Hospital, pp. 32-48, especially pp. 33-35, American Association for Study and Prevention
of Infant Mortality, fifth annual meeting, Boston, 1914; J. Whitridge Williams: The Significance of Syphilis
in Prenatal Care andin the Causation of Foetal Deaths, in New York State Journal of Medicine, 1920, Vol.
X X , pp. 252-259.

101351°— 23------5


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66

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

greater difference between the white and colored death rates from
tuberculosis at all ages in Baltimore.94
The prevention of communicable diseases in infancy is not only a general community health problem but another challenge to all
efforts to insure babies breast feeding and good home care. It is
also, in large part, a problem of the sound condition and good care of
the mother during pregnancy and confinement.
The deaths from such diseases, even where the rate was highest,
were few in relation to infant deaths from all causes, and yet they
did increase the total infant mortality rate in the group. If no babies
had died from these diseases the rate for babies of white mothers
would have been 90.6 per 1,000 instead of 95.9 and for babies of
colored mothers 141. 7 instead of 158.6.
Other causes.

Of the remaining 72 scattered deaths which completed the toll
within the group, 10 were assigned to external causes, 7 to causes
entered as ill defined or unknown, 10 to meningitis, and 15 to “ con­
vulsions.” Little variation within the group was found in relation
to these deaths. The colored babies had more than their share of
deaths from external causes, with a rate of 2.3 per 1,000, as against.
94N ote .—

Year, and
color of
mother.

White:
1915
1916..

Estimated
population
of Balti­
more,
July l.o

496,682
501,155

Deaths from tubercu­
losis.*

Number.

798
812
N

Per 1,000
population.

1.60
1.62

Estimated
population
of Balti­
more,
July I.®

Year, and
color of
mother.

Colored:
1915.........
1916.........

Deaths from tubercu­
losis.*

Number.

87,923
88,466

Per 1,000
population.

489
509

5.56
5.75

a U. S. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin 133, p. 37.

* U. S. Bureau of the Census, Mortality Statistics, 1915, p. 570; 1916, p. 420.

Information was secured from various agencies in Baltimore about the mothers shown by their record
to have had tuberculosis, either at the time of the birth during 1915 or at some earlier time. This was
undoubtedly an incomplete s+a+ement of *he total number of cases, but it offers a bit of evidence about
the increase in hazard to infants whose mothers had had tuberculosis.
Infanc deaths.

Condition of mothers.

Live
births.

From tubercu­
losis.

From all other .
causes.

Infant
Infant
Num­ mortality
Number. mortality
ber.
rate.
rate.
Mothers with tuberculosis.................................................
Mothers without tuberculosis............................................

96
10,701

3
12

31.3
1.1

23
1,079

239-6
100.8

Note that while infant mortality from “ all other causes” was higher when the mother had tuberculosis
than when she did not have tuberculosis, the difference was especially marked in the mortality from
tuberculosis.


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THE DEATHS.

67

0.7 per 1,000 among-the white babies, but the whole number of such
deaths (10) was too small to be significant. Plainly, however, deaths
from external causes usually reflect lack of proper care of the baby.
Of the other 62 deaths, 24, or about two-fifths, occurred in the first
month of life, and 50, or nearly four-fifths, occurred during the first
six months of life. It seems likely that many of these early deaths
were closely related to the deaths classified as due to causes peculiar
to early infancy and could have been prevented only by better care
of the mother before her baby’s birth.
SUMMARY.

The total infant mortality in the Baltimore group was approxi­
mately equal to the mortality reported for the cities of the birthregistration area during 1915. The Baltimore group had a rate some­
what higher than this general rate for deaths during the first two
weeks and after the first three months of infancy, and lower than this
general rate for deaths among infants 2 weeks but less than 3 months
o ld .95
The Baltimore rate for causes peculiar to early infancy, which was
slightly above that for the birth-registration cities, was relatively
high during the first two weeks of life and relatively low thereafter.
The Baltimore rate for gastric and intestinal diseases, which for the
year as a whole was above the rate in the birth-registration cities, was
lower than the rate elsewhere during the first two months and higher
than the rate elsewhere during the remainder of the year. It was
especially high among babies in their fourth, fifth, and sixth months
of life.
The Baltimore rate for respiratory diseases was relatively high for
the year as a whole and was not at any period lower than the rate in
the birth-registration cities. The excess in the Baltimore rate ap­
peared chiefly among babies 3 months but less than 9 months old,
but also for the relatively few deaths from these diseases among babies
under 2 weeks of age the Baltimore rate was higher than the rate
elsewhere.
The Baltimore rates for communicable diseases and for the illdefined and “ all other” causes were below the rates for the birthregistration cities.
In each group of deaths, except those from malformations, the rates
among colored babies were higher than the rates among white babies.
Other variations that accompanied differences in economic and social
conditions will appear in the development of the discussion.
»s The reader is again reminded that in comparing the rates in the Baltimore group with the cities
of the birth-registration area, the rates used as a standard of comparison were almost twice as high as
the rates which had prevailed during recent years in the cities of New Zealand. And even where the rate
for the Baltimore group as a whole was “ relatively low,” it was still above the New Zealand rate.


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68

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

The total infant mortality in the Baltimore group was higher than
that in the groups studied b y the bureau in Brockton, Akron, and
Saginaw, and lower than that in the groups studied by the bureau hr~
Waterbury, New Bedford, Johnstown, and Manchester. The Balti­
more rate from gastric and intestinal diseases was markedly higher
than the rates in the three other cities with a lower total mortality.
The Baltimore rate from the causes peculiar to early infancy was
higher than the corresponding rates in New Bedford and in Akron.
Saginaw and Brockton showed lower mortality from respiratory
and other communicable diseases.
T able V.—Infant mortality rates from specified causes; cities studied by the Children's
Bureau.
Infant mortality rate.
City.

Respiratory
Gastric and and other
Early
All causes. intestinal communi­ infancy.
cable
diseases.
diseases.
134.0
165.0
130.3
96.7
122.7
85.7
84.6
103.5


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32.8
63.3
48.3
12.4
41.0
20.4
8.2
29.1

38.3
29.4
36.7
21.5
26.6
16.0
15.3
26.4

39.6
39.6
29.0
37.2
38.7
28.9
37.7
37.7

FEEDING AND INFANT MORTALITY.

It has become a truism that babies who are nursed through the
greater part of the first year have a lower mortality than babies who
are weaned prematurely or are never nursed at all, and that babies
who are given during their early months other food in addition to
breast milk face a greater hazard than babies who have breast milk
only. The extent of the variation is greatly modified by the condi­
tions under which artificial feeding is given and the nature of the food.
It is true, also, as shown in later sections of the report, that breast­
fed babies in the poorest families have a higher mortality than arti­
ficially-fed babies in the most prosperous families, but within each
group, distinct and homogeneous in race or nationality and in eco­
nomic status, an excessive hazard persists among artificially-fed
babies as compared with breast-fed babies in the same group.
In these studies “ breast feeding” refers to those babies who at the
specified age were receiving breast milk and no artificial food what­
ever. “ Artificial feeding” refers to those babies who were receiving
no breast milk at all. “ Mixed feeding” refers to babies who were
being nursed but were having other food besides. No attempt has
been made to distinguish among the various kinds of artificial food
such as cow’s milk (raw or Pasteurized), condensed or evaporated
milk, proprietary foods, bread or other solid foods, etc.96
The feeding of each baby was recorded and classified separately
for each of the 12 months of the first year.97
Any comparison of mortality must, therefore, be based primarily
on the monthly death rates of the three groups of babies— the breast-fed
group, which diminished from month to month as babies were given
other food, and the mixed-fed and artificially-fed groups, which in­
creased correspondingly. But from the monthly death rates an annual
rate, per 1,000 babies fed, may be computed in order to compare the
total hazards to breast-fed and other babies.98
96 The milk situation in B altimore during 1915 and 1916 was generally recognized as unsatisfactory. Raw
milk, inadequately safeguarded by regulation and inspection of dairies, and “ loose milk” were sold under
insanitary conditions. Pasteurization was voluntarily carried on by certain large dairies but without
standardization of the process. The sale of milk from diseased cows was prohibited, but city health au­
thorities found, year b y year, a considerable number of herds which had not been tuberculin tested. A
new ordinance intended to remedy these conditions was passed in 1917, to become effective June 1 of that
year. (Municipal Journal, Feb. 9,1917, p. 7.)
9? When a shift from one type of feeding to another occurred within the month the month was assigned
to the type of feeding which predominated. In most of the tabulations of feeding and mortality, however,
the feeding after the ninth month was disregarded; infants surviving at the beginning of the tenth month
and deaths among them were classified according to the feeding recorded for the ninth month.
98 For the method of computation of annual rate per 1,000 babies fed, see Appendix V, p. 199.


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*70
T

able

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.
I .— Monthly death rates, by type o f feeding and month o f life; infants bom in 1916.

Month of life.

Deaths per 1,000 infants fed in
Deaths per
specified way.
1,000 infants
surviving at
beginning of
month.
Breastfed. Mixed fed. Artificially
fed.

First................................................................................
Second.............................................................................
Third...............................................................................
Fourth............................................................................
Fifth..................... .
Sixth...............................................................................
Seventh..................... ....................................................

144.2
6.3
6.1
6.1
7.0
7.6
5.6
5.6
5.2
4.8

15.0
3.9
2.4
2.3
3.4
2.2
1.7
2.2
2.8
2.7

42.7
6.6
9.5
' 5.4
5.6
4.0
3.2
3.3
3.1
2.3

i The rate per 1,000 infants fed was 19.3; 269, or 24.9 per 1,000 live births, died not fed.
Chart V I.—Monthly death rates, b y type of feeding.
R ate
per

1, 000.

Breast-fed babies
Artificially-fed babies
Babies having mixed feeding


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55.3
18.9
18.4
16.5
15.7
20.6
13.7
11.8
9.8
9.6

71

FÈEd ING AND IN FA N T MORTALITY.

Comparing, first, the monthly death rates, it is found that at each
month up to the ninth the babies artificially fed had the highest
mortality, and that during the last three months of the first year
the babies who'had been artificially fed in the earlier months con­
tinued to show a higher mortality than the babies who had had
breast feeding or mixed feeding through the ninth month. The
breast-fed babies showed a monthly death rate of 15 per 1,000 babies
fed in the first month, 3.9 per 1,000 babies fed in the second month,
and thereafter a fairly constant rate ranging from 1.7 to 3.4 per
Ch art VII.—Computed infant mortality rates during first 10 months of life per 1,000 infants fed, by type

of feeding and cause of death.
Rate
per 1,000
fed.

120

108.8

100

Breast feeding.
Artificial feeding.
Gastric and intestinal diseases.

Breastfeeding.
Artificial feeding.
All other causes.

1,000 in each month to the end of the year. The artificially-fed
babies showed a monthly death rate of 55.3 per 1,000 babies fed in
the first month, 18.9 per 1,000 babies fed in the second month, and
a slowly diminishing rate in the succeeding months which touched
9.6 per 1,000 in the tenth to twelfth month. A break in the fall
occurred, however, in the sixth month, when the mortality among
artificially-fed babies rose to 20.6 per 1,000. The babies having
mixed feeding showed the greatest difference between the first and
later months. Their rate in the first month, 42.7 per 1,000,
approaches the rate for artificially-fed babies; from the second month
to the ninth it continued higher than the rate for breast-fed babies


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7â

ï t f M T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

though with a diminishing difference. From the tenth month to
the end of the year the babies who had had mixed feeding during
the ninth month or earlier had approximately the same mortality as1
the babies who had been breast fed throughout that period."
Or, comparing the computed annual rates per 1,000 infants fed,
it appears that, on the whole, the hazard to babies having mixed
feeding was twice as great, and the hazard to babies artificially fed
was more than four times as great, as the hazard to babies who were
breast fed. The excess hazard to artificially-fed babies as compared
with breast-fed babies in the same group rose to a still higher point
in the poorest families and dropped somewhat in the most prosperous
families, but in no group did the excess hazard among artificially-fed
babies disappear.1
The greatest difference appeared in the mortality from gastric
and intestinal diseases. Considering the deaths during the first 10
months (computed rates per 1,000 infants fed), it is found that the
rate from gastric and intestinal diseases varied from 75.1 among
artificially-fed babies to 6.3 among breast-fed babies, while the rate
from all other causes combined varied from 108.8 to 32.9.2
The age at which a baby is weaned bears directly upon the hazard
he must encounter. At each month, the percentage of subsequent
deaths was highest among babies who had been artificially fed during
the first month. And, in general, the later the artificial feeding was
begun the smaller the percentage of subsequent deaths among the
survivors at the beginrung of any specified month. There was an
apparent exception to this in a relatively high percentage of subse­
quent deaths among babies whose artificial feeding began in the sixth or
the seventh month. But they were few in number, and the rates,
apparently higher than the corresponding rates among babies weaned
in the fourth or the fifth month, may easily be due to chance varia­
tion.3
Another method of comparing the relative hazard of weaning at
different ages is shown in Chart VIII, in which yearly rates are com­
puted for infants weaned at different ages. In computing the rates,
it has been arbitrarily assumed that infants were mixed-fed during
99 See Tables 58 and 59, Appendix V II, pp. 266 and 268.
1 The average excess hazard among artificially-fed babies as compared with breast-fed babies is probably
a slight understatement of the true average excess. The artificially-fed babies included a relatively large
proportion of babies in the most prosperous families and relatively more of the babies in native white
families and fewer of the babies in foreign-born white families than are included in the breast-fed group.
The average hazard to artificially-fed babies was based, therefore, on a group weighted a little more favor­
ably than the breast-fed group, in relation to nationality and fathers’ earn in gs. But whether the average
hazard to artificially-fed babies was four times as great or more than five times as great is, after all, of little
moment. See Table 60, Appendix V II, p. 276.
* See Table 63, Appendix VII, p. 278.
8 See Table 64, Appendix VII, p. 278.


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Y3

FEEDING AND INFANT MORTALITY.

the month preceding the month in which artificial feeding began,
and breast fed during the earlier months.4 The infant mortality rate
per 1,000 for babies artificially fed from birth was 251.1. For infants
mixed fed during the first, and artificially fed from the second to the
Ch ar t VIII.—Infant mortality rates, by month of life in which artificial feeding began.

Rate per 1,000
red.
280 .

251.1

1st.

2d.

3ft.

4th.

5th.

6th.

7th.

8th.

9th.

10th
or 11th.

Month in which artificial feeding began.

twelfth month, the rate per 1,000 fed was 170.5; while for those
breast fed the first eight or nine months and artificially fed only from
the tenth or eleventh months, the rate per 1,000 fed was only 48.2.
The rates descend with two slight breaks in the regularity— the
* In the computation, average monthly death rates by type of feeding and, for those artificially fed,b£
the month in which feeding began, have been used as the basis of computation. For further explanation
o f method, see Appendix V , p. 199.


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74

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE!, MO.

babies weaned in the sixth seem to have a slightly higher rate than
those weaned in the fifth month, but the number of cases upon
which the monthly rates are based are small; and the differences are
slight among the babies weaned in the eighth, ninth, and later
months (eighth month, 49.8; ninth, 53.6; tenth or eleventh, 48.2).5
Furthermore, analysis of the monthly death rates among arti­
ficially fed babies, grouped according to the month in which artificial
feeding began, shows that except among babies artificially fed from
the first month, the highest monthly death rate within each group
occurred after the babies had been artificially fed for at least a
month.6 Moreover, there was no consistent decrease in the hazard
during the latter months of the first year among babies artificially
fed during the early months. And the decrease in monthly death
rate, from month to month, among all babies artificially fed during
each specified month reflects in considerable part the shifting into
the artificially-fed group of babies who had had breast feeding, or
mixed feeding, during their early months and the consequent lower­
ing of the average mortality among artificially-fed babies by the more
favorable rates among these later-weaned babies.
Practically, this lends great importance to the fact that of the
4,025 babies who were artificially fed within 12 months after birth,
24 per cent were artificially fed from the first month, and 2,082, or
52 per cent, were artificially fed before the fourth month. Only 850,
or 21 per cent, were weaned during the eighth month or later.7
On the other hand, of all the 9,680 babies surviving at 1 year of
age, considerably less than one-half (37 per cent) had been completely
weaned. But this percentage varied markedly in the several nation­
alities and the several earnings groups— ranging from 23 per cent
among the Poles to 46 per cent among the Lithuanians, and from
30 per cent in families where the fathers earned from $450 to $549
to 63 per cent in families where the fathers earned $2,850 or over.8
The present study does not attempt to follow the babies into their
second year nor to draw conclusions about the relation between a
too long continuance of nursing and the welfare of the infants after
the first year of life.
The Baltimore findings, therefore, conform to the accepted theory
that artificial food given during the early months increases the
hazards of infancy, and that babies having in the early months
breast milk and other food besides, face a greater hazard than babies
who are breast fed only, but a lesser hazard than babies who are
artificially fed only. They show that the effect of artificial feeding
was most marked in gastric and intestinal diseases, but that for
6 See Table 65, Appendix VII, p. 279.
« See Table 66, Appendix VII, p. 279.


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i See Table 65, Appendix VII, p. 279.

s See Tables 67 and 68, Appendix V II, pp. 279and 280.

FEEDING AND IN FA N T MORTALITY.

75

other causes of death, also, the artificially-fed babies had a higher
mortality during each month of life than the breast-fed babies. The
effect of artificial feeding appeared most markedly after the baby
had been deprived of breast milk for at least a month.
Artificial feeding, as it was practiced in Baltimore, meant in large
measure artificial feeding during the early months. More than half
the babies weaned during their first year had been weaned before
the end of their third month, and more than three-fourths before
the end of the seventh month. The earlier the baby was weaned
the greater the hazard he encountered during his first year.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN INFANT MORTALITY.
NATIONALITY AND MORTALITY.

It has been noted that the mortality from all causes and from each
cause separately except the gastric and intestinal diseases and
malformations was markedly higher among the colored babies
than among the white babies in the Baltimore group. Differences
quite as marked appear within the white families studied, when
„ .

Infant
mortality
rate.

180

*

Ch ar t IX .—Infant mortality rates, by color and nationality.

-

Native
white
(6,739).

Jewish
(961).

Polish
(625).

Italian
(412).

German English' Bohem- Lithu- Other Colored,
(318).
and
ian
anian foreign (1,305).
Celtic
(107).
(100).
(98).
(132).

they are divided according to the nationality of the mother. It is
true that the foreign-born white families, considered as a single
group, showed the same mortality as the native white families—
95.9 per 1,000. But the babies of Jewish mothers had the lowest
mortality in Baltimore— 51 per 1,000— and the Polish babies the
highest— 163.2 per 1,000. (The rate among colored babies, it will
be remembered was 158.6 per 1,000.) The other nationality groups—
77


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78

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Italian, German, English and Celtic, Bohemian, Lithuanian, and ah
other foreign bom —had rates ranging from 120 per 1,000 among
the Lithuanians to 87.4 per 1,000 among the Itahans, but the num­
bers of live births within each of these other nationality groups were
smah and the variations shown may not be significant.
T able I.— Infant mortality rates, by color and nationality o f mother; live births in 1915
and live births, all pregnancies.

Live births in 1915.
Color and nationality of mother.

Infant
mortality
rate.

Infant
mortality
rate.

Number.

10,797

103.5

34,844

119.3

9,492
6,739
2,753
961
625
412
318
437
132
107
100
98
1,305

95.9
95.9
95.9
51.0
163.2
87.4
94.3
107.6
113.6
93.5
120.0
102.0
158.6

30,440
19,696
10,744
3,561
2,681
1,701
1,313
1,488
529
387
252
320
4,404

111.9
110.9
113.7
65.2
163.7
111.1
125.7
132.4
132.3
124.0
162.7
118.7
170.5
’|

Number.

...................................................

Live births, all preg­
nancies.

Infant mortality rates based on ah live births from ah pregnancies,
to these mothers, showed the same general relation: The Polish and
Negro babies had the highest rates; the Jewish babies had the
lowest rates; the foreign bom as a whole had approximately the
same rate as the native white.9
Nationality and-cause of death.

Behind the equal total rates for babies of native white mothers
and babies of all foreign-bom white mothers, there were two marked
differences between these groups. For causes peculiar to early
infancy, the babies of native white mothers had a rate higher than
the babies of the foreign born as a whole and higher than the babies
in any single group of the* foreign born except the Polish. But for
respiratory and other communicable diseases the babies of the.
native white mothers had a rate lower than the babies of the foreign
bom as a whole and lower than the babies in any single group of
the foreign born except the Jewish.
s For

tabulations see Tables 69 and 70, Appendix V II, pp. 280 and 281.


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SOCIAL AÍTD ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

79

T able I I .— Infant mortality rates from specified causes, by nationality o f mother; live
births in 1915.
Infant mortality rate.
Color and nationality of mother.

Total....................................................
Native white...........................................
Foreign-born white.....................................
Jewish..............................................
Polish...............................................
Italian................ .......................
All other..............................................
Colored.........................................

Respira­
Gastric
tory and
All causes. andintes- other com­
tinal
diseases. municable
diseases.

Early in­
fancy.

All other
causes.

103.5

29.1

26.4

37.7

10.3

95.9
95.9
51.0
163.2
87.4
102.2
158.6

28.8
29.1
9.4
68.8
9.7
31.9
30.7

18.4
27.2
15.6
33.6
31.6
34.6
65.9

38.1
30.9
22.9
43.2
34.0
29.1
49.8

10.5
8.7
3.1
17.6
12.1
6.6
12.3

Again, behind the excessively high rates which were approxi­
mately the same for Polish babies and Negro babies were marked
differences in the rates from the principal causes of death. The high
rate among the Polish babies was chiefly due to an excessive rate
(68.8) from gastric and intestinal diseases, but their deaths from
early infancy (43.2 per 1,000) and from respiratory and communi­
cable diseases (33.6 per 1,000) were also above the average. Among
the colored babies, on the other hand, the rate from gastric and
intestinal diseases (30.7) was practically the same as the average for
all Baltimore babies studied, but the rate from respiratory and other
communicable diseases (65.9) was excessively high and the rate from
early infancy (49.8) was higher than the corresponding rate in the
Polish group.
The very low rate among babies of Jewish mothers appears in each
group of causes. At one point only was it equaled by the rate in any
other group: The babies of Italian mothers, whose total mortality
was considerably higher than the mortality among babies of Jewish
mothers, had the same low rate as the Jewish babies from gastric and
intestinal diseases.
The deaths from scattered and unspecified causes (which make up
the rates shown in the sixth column of Table II) were too few in the
several foreign-born groups to justify detailed comparison. It may
be noted, however, that again the Polish babies show the highest
rate and the babies of Jewish mothers the lowest rate.
Social factors in the variation o f rates by nationality.

Do the differences in social and economic conditions under which
the several groups were living account for these variations ? Or are
the variations related to other differences in home life or in physical
vigor which can not be analyzed in a study like the present one ?


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80

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

The relation which thé several social factors seem to bear in them­
selves to infant mortality will he discussed in later sections. The
present section will merely review briefly the items, already noted
about the distribution of these factors within each of the principal
race and nationality groups, and indicate the points at which variaCh art X .—Infant m ortality rates from all causes, b y fathers’ earnings, for infants of native white, foreignb o m white, and colored mothers.
Infant
m ortality
rate.

Under
$450.

. $650
$450
$550
to
to
to
$849.
$649.
$549.
Native white
---------------Foreign-bom white ----------------

$1,250
$850
to
to
$1,849.
$1,249.
C o lo r e d -------------Average x—x—x—x

$1,850
and
over.

tions in rate seem to coincide with or to run counter to the differences
in social condition.
Native white and colored fa m ilies.— T h e most obvious differences in
social conditions in native white and colored families were the ex­
cessively high percentages of colored fathers earning the lowest wages
and of colored mothers gainfully employed, and the greater preva­
lence in colored families of many births to a mother and of births
following a preceding birth by an interval of less than two years.

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

As a corollary to the poverty in colored families, their dwellings
were poorer than those occupied by native white families. But in
relation to room congestion and sanitary equipment of the dwelling—
the main points on housing which in the present study have been
exactly tabulated— the percentage of colored babies living in unfa­
vorable dwellings was not quite so high as the percentage of native
white babies, when families at the same economic level are compared.
Housing as a factor distinct from poverty is therefore omitted from
this comparison of infant mortality rates in native white and colored
families.10
Six aspects of the relative rates among babies of natiye white
mothers and babies of colored mothers will be considered: (a) Were
the higher rates among colored babies due wholly or partly to the
greater poverty of their families ? (6) Were they due to the larger
families and the shorter intervals between births in the colored
group ? (c) Were they due to a combination of poverty and preva­
lence of mothers’ employment away from home ? id) Were they due
to poverty and artificial feeding? (e) Were they due to a lack of
trained care for mothers and babies? if) Is there a difference in
mortality that persists when all these factors have been considered ?
(a)
So far as rates can be computed for colored babies whose
fathers earned more than the very lowest wages (that is, at least $450),
the rates were somewhat higher for colored babies than for babies in
native white families of the same earnings groups, but these differ­
ences were far less than the difference between the native white and
colored groups as a whole. And in the families where the father
earned less than $450 the difference disappeared, the babies of native
white mothers showing a rate of 164.8 and the babies of colored
mothers a rate of 163.7.
T a b l e I I I . — Infant mortality rates, by father's earnings; infants born in 1915 to native

white and colored mothers.
Native white mothers.
Earnings of father.
Live
births.
Total...................................................
Under $450.....................................
$450-$549.........................
$550-1649..............................
$650-$849...........................
$850 and over..................................
No earnings..............................
Not reported..................................

Infant
mortality
rate.«

Infant
mortality
rate.®

95.9

1,305

158.6

449
644
908
1,726
2,797
88
127

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
69.0

507
356
152
121
59
69
41

163.7
168.5
138.2
115.7

10 On housing conditions among the negroes in Baltimore, see p. 42 £E.


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Live
births.

6,739

a Not shown where base is less than 100.

101351°—23-

Colored mothers.

133.9

82

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

A large part of the difference in mortality, but not all, is evidently
due to the greater poverty of the colored families.
(b)
In every group a short interval since the preceding birth was
accompanied by a relatively high mortality. The percentage of
short-interval births was considerably higher among the colored
families, but when all short-interval births are eliminated and native
white and colored families in which the fathers earned under $550
are compared, it appears that the colored babies had a somewhat
higher mortality than the white babies. The short-interval births,
considered by themselves, on the other hand, showed approximately
the same mortality in white and colored families of this low-eamings
level. In general, it would seem, therefore, that the greater preva­
lence of short intervals between births in colored families contributed
to the high mortality among colored infants, but that in the lowest
earnings group the mortality in native white families was greater from
other causes, which counterbalanced the longer intervals in white
families.
T a b l e IY .— Excess mortality among infants o f colored mothers, when effect o f greater

prevalence o f short intervals between births is eliminated; infants o f native white and
colored mothers.

Color and nativity of mother and earnings of father.

Total:
Native white........................................................................
Colored...................................................................
Under $550:
Native white..........................................................................
Colored...........................................................................

Infant mortality rater'
Per cent
of live
births with Live births Live births
interval of with inter­ with inter­
less than
val of less
val of 2
than 2
2 years.
years or
years.
over.

25.5
33.5

138.0
188.9

88.6
141.4

27.9
35.7

205.6
207.0

134.1
142.2

Again, considering all earnings groups together, more than twice
as high a percentage of colored babies as of babies in native white
families were seventh or later in order of birth. But the distinctive
hazards to these babies of the later orders of birth evidently com­
bined with other factors to raise the total mortality among colored
babies and themselves played a minor part in the total rate. The
difference in rates between the later born and the earlier bom was
less among the colored babies than among the babies of native white
mothers, the colored rate remaining high, even when babies seventh
or later in order of birth were eliminated from the comparison. The
part played by large families and short intervals between births in
the total mortality among the colored infants seems to have been,
therefore, of small importance.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

83

T able V .—Excess mortality among infants o f colored mothers, when effect o f greater
prevalence o f births o f late orders is eliminated; infants born in 1915 to native white
and colored mothers.
Infant mortality rate.
Per cent of
live births,
seventh or
later.1

Color and nativity of mother and earnings of father.

Total:
Under $550:

1 Based on single issues only.

Births,
seventn
or later.

Births,
sixth or
earlier.1

9.8
20.0

132.6
152.3

84.3
146.9

14.5
20.8

163.4
170.5

127.5
150.3

See Table 138, Appendix VII, p. 339.

(c)
It is plain that in some way the mothers’ employment was a
factor in the excessive mortality of colored babies, for when all
mothers employed away from home during pregnancy or within 12
months after the birth in 1915 are eliminated from the comparison,
the total mortality rates among the colored babies and the babies
in native white families of the same earnings groups become almost
identical, with a slight difference in favor of the colored babies.11
—. T able V I.— Relative mortality among in f amts o f white and colored mothers, when effect
o f greater prevalence o f employment is eliminated; infants born in 1915 to native white
ana colored mothers not employed away from home.
Live births to mothers not employed away from
home.1

Earnings of father.

Native white mothers.

Live
births.

Under $450..........................................................................
$450-$549...:......................................................................
$550-$849.............................................................................

329
548
2,467

Infant
mortality
rate.
130.7
131.4
94.4

Colored mothers.

Live
births.

217
184
160

Infant
mortality
rate.
124.4
108.7
93.8

1 During pregnancy or within 12 months after the birth of a baby in 1915. Compare Table 102, Appendix
VII, p. 304.

(d)
More colored babies than babies of native white mothers were
nursed b y their mothers. The higher mortality among colored
babies as compared with white babies (when working mothers are
included) can not be attributed to an excess of artificial feeding in
the colored group; and the equivalent rates among colored babies
and babies of native white mothers (when working mothers are not
included) occur in spite of markedly more favorable feeding among
the colored babies than among the babies of native white mothers.
11 The relation of mothers’ employment to mortality is discussed in detail in another section of the
report, pp. 114 to 131.


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84

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Throughout, whether working mothers are included or not in the
comparison, the hazard to breast-fed colored babies or to artificiallyfed colored babies, was greater than the hazard to babies of native
white mothers reporting the same type of feeding.
T a b l e V I I .—Excess mortality among infants o f colored mothers, when effect o f differ­

ences in type o f feeding and mother's employment is eliminated; infqnts o f native white
and o f colored mothers in fam ilies where the father earned under $550.
Computed mortality rates among infants bom
in 1915 in families where the father earned un­
der $550.

Type of feeding and nonemployment of mother.

For first 10 months per
1,000 infants fed.

Native
white
mothers.
All mothers:
Breast..........................................................................
Mixed...........................................................................
Artificial......................................................................
Mothers not employed:

Colored
mothers.

36.7
100.3
268.8

73.3
127.9
375.7

32.2
107.1
259.3

79.3
131.4
448.9

For second to tenth
months per 1,000 in­
fants surviving at be­
ginning of second
month.i

Native
white.

11.8
107.1
196.8

Colored.

53.2
13.8
204.5-

1 B y eliminating deaths during the first month— the period in which most of the deaths from prenatal
causes occur—the effect of the greater prevalence of employment during pregnancy among the colored
mothers is, at least in part, neutralized. Rate not computed for all mothers.

(e)
The infant-welfare agencies in Baltimore reached during the
period of this study more of the colored mothers than of the native
white mothers in Baltimore. This subject is discussed in detail in
Appendix V I,lla but it should be noted here that comparison of
native white and colored families at the same economic level showed
a higher percentage of colored mothers than of white mothers receiv­
ing prenatal care of Grades A and B and trained nursing care at
confinement, and a larger percentage of colored babies than of white
babies receiving supervision from infant-welfare agencies. The per­
centage of cases dropped by the infant-welfare agencies because the
mother failed to cooperate was smaller in the colored group than in
any other.
(/) Among the colored babies, then, the greater poverty of the
fathers (with the attendant evil of poor housing), the more general
employment of the mothers, the tendency toward larger families and
shorter intervals between births, and the wider prevalence of venereal
disease indicated by the high mortality assigned to syphilis, were
increasing mortality, while mothers’ nursing of their babies, prenatal
care, and instruction and supervision received from infant-welfare
il» See p. 203.


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85

social and economic factors in infant mortality.

agencies were tending to reduce mortality. As the net result, the
mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases— which responds most
readily to breast feeding and intelligent care— was relatively low;
the mortality from early infancy—which was especially increased
by mothers’ employment away from home during pregnancy and by
the prevalence of venereal disease— was checked by prenatal care
from rising to the excessively high rate found in the poorest native
white families; and thè mortality from respiratory diseases and other
communicable diseases, which tends always to rise with poverty, was
almost twice as high among the colored babies in the poorest families,
as among babies in native white families of the same economic level,
suggesting a less protection from exposure to contagious diseases or a
lower resistance in the colored families.
T a b l e V I I I .— Infant mortality rates, by cause o f death, earnings o f father, and color o f

mother; live births in 1915.1
Infant mortality rate.2

Earnings of father.

Gastric and intes­
tinal diseases.

Respiratory and
other communi­
cable diseases.

Early infancy.

Native
Native
Native
Colored
Colored
Colored
white
white
white
mothers. mothers. mothers. mothers. mothers. mothers.
Total......................................
Under $450.............................
$450-$849.........................
$850 and over.....................
1 See Table 78, Appendix VII, p. 286.

28.9

30.7

18.4

65.9

38.1

49.8

51.2
34.2
14.7

33.5
28.6

37.9
21.0
11.4

71.0
55.6

62.4
41.5
31.1

47.3
54.1

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

In relation to each group of causes, the greater poverty of the
colored families was by itself a factor in their high average mortality.
The average mortality in the native white families represented
throughout a balance between a high rate in the poor families and a
low rate in the prosperous families; but the average in the colored
families was not tempered by lower rates in some favored group,
since there were almost no “ prosperous” colored families.12
Native white and foreign-born white fa m ilies .— The foreign-bom
group itself presents so wide a diversity in rates that the social and
economic differences between the foreign-born group as a whole and
the native white group may be discussed briefly. Three points stand
ou t: The fathers’ earnings were much lower among the foreign born
than the native white; the percentage of mothers employed away
from home was slightly higher among the foreign born than the native
white, whether a comparison is made of families at all economic levels
12 Three live births to colored mothers were in families where the father earned $1,860 or over; 11, where
the father earned $1,260 to $1,819.


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86

ixfant

Mortality, Baltimore, M£>.

combined or only of those in both groups in which fathers’ earnings
were identical; and room congestion was more common in the
foreign-born families than in native white families having the same
economic status. In addition, relatively more of the foreign-born
white mothers than of the native white mothers had borne seven or
more children; but the difference on this point is reduced when cor­
responding earning groups are compared; and the foreign-bom white
mothers as a whole, seem not to have had shorter intervals between
births than the native white mothers.
Chart X I.—Infant mortality rates from early infancy, by fathers’ earnings, for infants of native white,
foreign-bom white, and colored mothers.
Infant
mortality

Under
$450.

$450
$550
$650
to
to
to
$649.
$549.
$849.
Native white
---------------Foreign-bom w h i t e ----------------

$1,250
$850
to
to
$1,849.
$1,249.
C o l o r e d ----------- —•
Average x—x—x—x

$1,850
and
over.

Except for the relatively high mortality from respiratory and
other communicable diseases among the babies of the foreign-bom
mothers, the comparative rates in the foreign-bom and native white
families ran counter to that which might have been expected from
these social conditions if no other factors had been present. For
example, comparing only those families in which the fathers earned
under $650, it is found that there was among the babies of native
white mothers the higher mortality from early infancy, in spite of
a relatively low percentage of employment away from home, and the
higher mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases, in spite of less
congested dwellings. The total mortality, in families with earnings


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SOCIAL ANO ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

87

Ch ar t X II.—Infant mortality rates from gastric and intestinal diseases, by fathers’ earnings, for infants

of native white, foreign-bom white, and colored mothers.
i— -Infant

mortality
rate.

$450.

to
to
to
$549.
$649.
$849.
Native white
---------------Foreign-bom w h i t e ----------------

to
$1,249.
Colored — •— •— •
Average x—x—x—x

to
$1,849.

and
over.

Ch art X III.—Infant mortality rates from respiratory and other communicable diseases, by fathers’

earnings, for infants of native white, foreign-bom white, and colored mothers.
Infant
mortality
rate.

Under
$450.

$550
$650
$450
to
to
to
$849.
$649.
$549.
Native white
---------------Foreign-bom w h i t e ----------------


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$1,250
$850
to
to
$1,249.
$1,849.
Colored — — |— •
Average x—x—x—x

.

$1,850
and
over.

88

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MB.

under $650, was definitely higher among the babies of native white
mothers than among the babies of the foreign bom .13
T a b l e I X .— Infant mortality rates, by cause o f death, nativity o f mother, and earnings of

father; live births in 1915 to white mothers.
Infant mortality rate.

Nativity of mother and earnings of father.

Total:
Under $650:

All
causes.

Eespirar
Gastric tory and
Early
and in­
other
testinal commu­ infancy.
diseases. nicable
diseases.

All
other
diseases.

95.9
95.9

28.8
29.1

18.4
27.2

38.1
30.9

10.5
8.7

127.4
106.4

45.5
36.2

24.0
30.7

48.5
28.6

9.5
10.9

But another factor was present in the variations in method of
feeding. More babies had only breast milk and fewer babies had
only artificial feeding in the foreign-bom families than in the native
white families. And the general prevalence of breast feeding seems
to have been the chief reason for the more favorable rates among the
babies of the foreign bom. Comparing breast-fed babies with breast­
fed babies, and artificially-fed babies with artificially-fed babies, the
differences in favor of the foreign-born disappeared; and for the
breast-fed babies the total mortality was higher among the babies of
the foreign-born than among the others. But the greater proportion
of babies having breast feeding among the foreign born, and facing
the lesser hazards of breast-fed babies, reduced the total hazard in
the foreign-born group below the hazard in native white families at
the same economic level.14
Poverty, then, with its attendant evils of mothers’ employment
and poor housing, tended to increase mortality among the babies of
foreign-born mothers, while the greater prevalence of breast feeding
among the foreign born tended to reduce the mortality of their babies.
Considering together all types of feeding the native white families
showed a higher mortality than the foreign-born white families in
corresponding earnings groups; but for all earnings groups the average
mortality was reduced in the native white families by the very low
mortality in well-to-do homes. If the foreign-born group had
included a similar proportion of well-to-do families their average
mortality would have fallen below instead of equaling the mortality
in the native white families.
Polish and foreign -bom Jewish fa m ilies — On five points the con­
ditions reported among the Polish families were less favorable to
js gee Table 78, Appendix V II, p. 286.


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14 See Tables 60 and 80, Appendix VII, pp. 276 and 288.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

89

the welfare of their babies than the conditions reported among the
Jewish families: (1) father’s earnings; (2) housing; (3) mothers’
employment; (4) interval between births; (5) care and instruction
of the mother. In respect to feeding, so far as it can be judged in
the present study by the rough classifications of breast feeding,
mixed feeding and artificial feeding, practically no difference ap­
peared.15
T a b l e X .— Relative prevalence o f certain conditions influencing infant mortality, by

nationality o f mother; births in 1915 to Jewish, Italian, and Polish mothers.
Per cent of births in 1915.
Condition.

Mother employed away from home:

Mother reporting:

Italian.
Jewish
Polish
mothers. mothers. mothers.
46.3

70.5

62.1

1.3
.9
8.9
58.2

32.8
23.4
30.7
94.1

3.9
1.7
13.9
79.7

17.6
3.8
7.9
53.4
35.3
64.8
37.2
45.1
24.5

25.5
8.2
17.0
13.9
7.9
22.6
6.0
22.4
5.7

19.5
7.3
25.2
22.1
9.2
54.8
8.5
32.3
13.6

(1) The greater poverty of the Polish families was only a partial
factor in the excessive mortality among their babies as compared
with the Jewish babies; for when Polish and Jewish families in
which the father earned under $650 are compared, the differences in
their total rates and in their rates from each of the groups of causes
show little if any variation from the differences that appear when the
average rates for all earnings groups are compared.16 It is plain,
however, that the most unfavorable circumstances accompanying
poverty were more prevalent among the Poles than among the Jews.
(2) It has been noted that the median annual rental paid by Polish
families ($70) was lower than the median rental paid by Jewish fam­
ilies ($114); that the dwellings of the Polish families were more con­
gested than the dwellings of the Jewish families; and that fewer of
the dwellings were equipped with sanitary conveniences. The greater
congestion and poorer sanitation among the Poles appeared not only
in all earnings groups combined but also in the families in which the
is The Jewish families reported very little more breast feeding than the Polish families during the first
month; after the second month this was reversed and the Polish had slightly more breast feeding than the
Jewish. A t each month, excepting the ninth, the percentage artificially fed was slightly higher among
the Poles than among the Jews. The quality of the mixed feeding and of the artificial feeding may have
been better in the Jewish group than in the Polish group because of the greater prevalence of infant-welfare
work in the Jewish group. See Table 81, Appendix VII, p. 289.
is See Table 78, Appendix VII, p. 286.


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90

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

father earned under $650. It is known that overcrowding and lack
of conveniences within the dwelling react disastrously on the baby.
Rates in relation to room congestion can not be computed for Jewish
and Polish babies separately; but a comparison of the actual deaths
among Jewish and Polish babies who had survived the first two weeks
with the expected deaths (computed from the numbers in each group
living in congested dwellings and the average death rate for all foreignborn nationalities in similar dwellings) shows actual deaths far below
the expected number among the Jews and far above the expected
number among the Poles (Jewish, 54 expected, 25 actual; Polish, 45
expected, 75 actual.
T a b l e X I .—Relative mortality in Jewish and Polish fam ilies, when effect o f differences

in room congestion is eliminated; infants, horn in 1915 to Jewish and Polish mothers,
who survived two weeks.
Infants (of foreign-bom white mothers) surviving 2 weeks.
Jewish mothers.
Persons per room.

Deaths
per 100.

Deaths.
Infants.

931

Total..................................
3.9
6.4
10.6
66.6

Polish mothers.

342
506
83

Deaths.
Infants.

Actual.

Ex­
pected.1

25

54.4

597

13.3
32.4
8.7

68
345
183
1

Actual.

Ex­
pected.1

75

44.7
2.7
22.1
19.2
.7

1 Expected deaths in each nationality are computed by multiplying number of infants in each group
by death rate (all nationalities combined) for infants in dwellings with stated number of persons. For
detailed discussion of method, see Appendix V , p. 201.

Rates computed in relation to the sanitary equipment of the dwell­
ing indicate that while the greater prevalence of bad housing among
the Poles may accentuate the difference, part of the excess mor­
tality among the Poles must be traced to some further cause. In
dwellings lacking one or all of three specified items of sanitation and
in families where the father earned less than $650, the Polish mor­
tality was 12.6 per 100 infants surviving the first two weeks, the
Jewish mortality 2.2.17
(3)
Employment of the mother away from home was far more
prevalent among the Poles than among the foreign-born Jews. This
employment increased the mortality among the Polish babies. (See
p. 114 ff.) It accounts, however, for only part of the difference in rates
in these two nationalities. Comparing families in which the mother
was not employed away either during pregnancy or at any time
within 12 months after the birth in 1915, a persistently higher mor­
tality was found among Polish babies than among Jewish babies.
w See Table 91, Appendix V II, p. 294.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

(4) More than twice as many of the Polish mothers as of the
foreign-bom Jewish mothers became pregnant during the infant’s
lifetime and within a year after the birth in 1915; Polish, 17 per
cent, and Jewish, 7.9 per cent. (For discussion of the effect of short
interval between births, see p. 139.) But comparing only the infants
of mothers who did not become pregnant within a year, a mortality
still markedly higher was found among the Poles than among the
Jews, with a Polish rate of 153.7 per 1,000 live births and a Jewish
rate of 50.6 per 1,000 live births.18
(5) Relatively few of the Polish mothers were reached by the
infant-welfare activities in Baltimore, and the contrast between the
Polish families and the Jewish families on this point was marked.
T a b l e X I I .—-Relative prevalence o f types o f prenatal and confinement care and super­

vision from infant-welfare agencies in Jewish and Polish fam ilies.

Per cent having
specified kind of
care.1

Kind of care.

Jewish
Polish
mothers. mothers.
Any prenatal care from physician....................................................................................
Prenatal care of Grades A ànd B ...............................................
Physician attendant at confinement.........................................................
Trained nursing care, confinement...................................................................................
Any supervision from infant-welfare agencies..................................
Regular supervision from infant-welfare agencies............................................

53.4
35.3
64.8
37.2
45.1
24.5

13.9
7.9
22.6
6.0
22.4
5.7

1 Percentages for prenatal and confinement care based on mothers who had had births in 1915; per­
centages of supervision from infant-welfare agencies based on infants bom in 1915 who survived 2 weeks.

Whether these factors together account for the differences in mor­
tality among Polish and Jewish babies, or whether other factors
existed which did not appear in the present study, can not be deter­
mined. Unfortunately, the groups were too small to permit a com18 The mortality rates are not materially altered by eliminating the time lived by infants of mothers
who became pregnant during the infant’s lifetime and the deaths among these infants, as shown in the
following table. For a discussion of the excess mortality among infants of mothers who became preg­
nant during the infant’s first year of life, see p. 140.
Infant mortality rate.
Nationality of mother.
All mothers.

Mothers not
pregnant
within, year
after birth.

Total............................................................................................................

103.5

101.6

Native white.........................................................................................................

95.9
51.0
163.2
87.4
102.0
158.6

93.8
50.6
153.7
89.9
101.8
160.8

Other foreign-born white...................................................................... ...............
Colored.. . ” ........................................................................................


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92

in f a n t

m o r t a l it y

, Ba l t i m

o re

,

m ix

parison of Jewish and Polish families in which no one of these un­
favorable factors was present and in which the fathers’ earnings and
the grade of prenatal care, etc., were identical.19
A word must be added about the difference between the Polish and
Jewish rates and the rates among babies of native white mothers.
An excess in mortality among Polish babies as compared with ba­
bies of native white mothers follows naturally from the conditions
surrounding them. Just as we have noted in our comparison of Polish
and Jewish babies the conditions among the Poles involving excess
hazard to their babies, so, point by point, the comparison might be
repeated with equal force as between the Polish babies and the
babies of native white mothers. The fact that more Polish babies
than babies of native white mothers were breast fed is the only item
more favorable to the Polish babies than to the others. But the rate
for breast-fed Polish babies— 83.7 per 1,000 babies fed— is itself
so excessive that the somewhat greater prevalence of breast feeding
still leaves the total Polish mortality far in excess of the mortality in
native white families.
On the other hand, poverty and poor housing are more prevalent
among the Jews than among the native white families, and more
Jewish mothers than native white mothers reported having had seven
or more births.20 If these conditions were not balanced by others,
more favorable in the Jewish families than in the native white fam­
ilies, the Jewish rate would fall, not below the rate in native white
families, but between the rates for native white and for Polish families.
Actually, the Jewish rate is almost twice as favorable as the rate
among babies of native white mothers.21
Four of these more favorable factors in the Jewish homes are clear
from the tabulations: (I) Fewer mothers were employed away from
home; (2) fewer babies followed a preceding birth by an interval
under two years; (3) more babies were breast fed ; (4) more mothers
had Grade A or Grade B prenatal care, trained nursing care at con­
finement, and more babies had regular supervision from infantwelfare agencies. Apart from the prevalence of one or another type
of feeding, these factors, favorable and unfavorable, seem approxi­
mately to balance among the native white and the Jewish families.
m The Italians had a mortality falling between the mortality of the Jews and the Poles. In each of the
factors presented in this section, except interva jbetween births, the Italians had conditions less favorable
than the Jews and more favorable than the Poles. The percentage of Italian mothers pregnant within a
year was, however, higher than the corresponding percentage in any other group. See Table 161, Appendix
V II, p.355.
20 Note, however, the small percentage of Jewish mothers who had 10 or more births: Polish, 8.3; Jewish,
3.8; native white, 2.9.
si In families where the fathers earned less than $550, the Jewish rate is quite as definitely more favorable
than the rate in native white families as it was in the whole group, all grades of earnings combined. This
was true for the total mortality and for each group of causes separately. Also, in families where the fathers
earned less than $550 and the dwelling lacked one or more of three selected items of sanitation, the Jewish
rates from all causes and from gastric and intestinal diseases fell further below the rates for native white
families than when the average rates for all earnings groups and all dwellings are compared. See Tables 78
and 91, Appendix VII, pp. 286 and 294.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

93

The mortality of breast-fed babies was almost identical in both
groups— 32.7 per 1,000 fed in the native white families and 31.4 in
_the Jewish families. But the scales tip slightly in favor of the Jewish
babies, for the artificially-fed babies had a rate of 160.5 per 1,000 fed
in the native white families and 137.2 in the Jewish families. With
the greater prevalence of breast feeding among the Jewish mothers,
the total mortality in their families naturally fell definitely below the
total mortality in the native white families.
Summary.

The highest rates b y color and nationality were found among the
Polish and the Negro babies. They seem to have been due in part to
the fact that these two groups had the largest percentage of fathers
earning very low wages and of mothers gainfully employed away
from home. In addition, the Polish families had more congested
dwellings and more dwellings lacking in sanitary equipment than any
other group, even when compared with other families at the same
earnings level; and the Polish mothers had received less trained care
and instruction during pregnancy, confinement, and the year after
the birth than any others in Baltimore. Among the Polish babies
the computed annual rates from all causes, per 1,000 babies fed, were
"excessive even for breast-fed babies; and, in spite of the relatively
high percentage of breast feeding among them, their excess mortality
appeared chiefly in gastric and intestinal diseases.
The negro families had the poor housing that accompanies poverty,
but in comparison with other families at the same economic level
their room congestion and lack of sanitary equipment were not
excessive; on general conditions, such as dampness and ill repair, the
present study furnishes no information. The negro mothers more
generally than any others received trained care and instruction in
maternal and infant hygiene. The high mortality among colored
babies was not due to a high rate from gastric and intestinal dis­
eases; and their rate from early infancy was above the average, but
below the corresponding rate in the poorest native white families.
Their greatest excess appeared in the deaths from respiratory and
from other communicable diseases.
The lowest rate, b y nationality, was found among the babies of
foreign-born Jewish mothers. The rate for these babies was much
lower than the rate among babies of native white mothers, in spite
of the greater poverty in the Jewish families with its attendant evil
of poorer housing. But in the employment of mothers away from
home, the interval between births, the prevalence of breast feeding,
an.d the receiving of trained care and instruction by the mothers,
conditions were more favorable among the Jewish mothers than
among the native white mothers.


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94

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

POVERTY AND INFANT MORTALITY.
Fathers’ earnings and mortality rates.

In Baltimore, as elsewhere, the babies in poor families had the_
greatest hazards to face. Among the 1,544 babies whose fathers
earned less than $450 during the year after the baby’s birth, more
than 1 in 7 died within the year; among the 431 babies whose fathers
earned $1,850 or more, 1 in 27 died within the year. Eliminating
differences in race and nationality and considering only the babies
born to native white mothers, the same extremes are found— 1 in 26
dying in the most prosperous homes and about 1 in 6 dying in the
poorest homes.22
T a b l e X I I I . — Infant m ortality rates, by earnings o f father and color and nationality o f
m other; live births in 1915.
Infant mortality rate.1
Earnings of father.

Under
$450-$549

.....................................................................................
......................................................................................................

S650-S849

....................................................................................................

Native ForeignColored
bom
white
white mothers.
mothers. mothers.
95.9

95.9

158.6

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
69.9
84.3
38.3

144.6
62.4
100.2
93.0
61.1
46.7

163.7
168.5
138-.-2
115.7

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

The very low infant mortality in families where the fathers earned
at least $1,850 (a sum which at that time was held to be sufficient to
maintain a family at the comfort level) suggests that the differences in
mortality in the several earnings groups below $1,850 may be less sig­
nificant than the difference between this u $1,850 and over” group and
all poorer families. Unfortunately, the numbers are too small to
permit the clear analysis of higher earnings groups above $1,850 (and
above $2,850) which would be of interest. Except among the native
white families, however, this comparison of the “ $1,850 and over”
group with all poorer families is impossible, because the general level
of earnings was low. (See Chart X , p. 80.)
In the foreign white families, all nationalities combined, only 62
births occurred where the fathers earned as much as $1,850, and in no
single foreign nationality except the Jewish were there 100 or more
live births in families where the fathers earned even as much as $850,
so that no comparison of rates by detailed grouping of fathers’ earn­
ings can be made within each nationality. But if each nationality
is divided into two earnings groups— under $650 and $650 and over—
it is found that in both groups the Jewish rate was low and the Polish

33F or detailed tabulation see Tables 18 and 74, A ppen dix V II, p p . 234 and 283.

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

rate was high, while the Italians and “ all other foreign” families
showed markedly higher rates below this dividing line than above it.23
T a b l e X IV .

Infant mortality rates, ^by earnings o f father, selected nationalities,* live
births in 1915.
Infant mortality rate.
Nationality of mother.

Foreign-bom white mothers..................
Jewish................................
Polish..............................
Italian....................
All other..................................

Earnings
of father
under 8650.

106.4
49.3
160.3
105.5
112.1

Earnings
of father
$650 and
over.
73.0
40.5
153.4
48.6
86.7

In the colored families only 3 babies were born whose fathers earned
$1,850 or more, and only 59 babies whose fathers earned as much as
$850; in fact, nearly two-thirds of all were in families where the fathers
earned less than $550, so that the comparison of infant mortality by
fathers’ earnings in the colored families is especially limited. It is
plain, however, that the colored babies whose fathers earned less than
$550 had a higher rate than those whose fathers earned $550 or more.
(See Charts X I, X II, and X III, pp. 86 and 87.)
In ascending the scale of fathers’ earnings, the decrease in infant
mortality in the more well-to-do families represents, in the main, a
decrease in deaths from gastric and intestinal disorders and from
respiratory and other communicable diseases; but among the babies
of native white mothers there was also a definite decrease in deaths
from causes peculiar to early infancy.24 Or, separating the deaths of
babies who died immediately after birth, before they had been fed at
all, and all other deaths during the first year of life, it is found that the
decrease in the infant death rate appears chiefly in the later deaths—
although, again, among the babies of native white mothers, there was
the lowest rate for deaths immediately after birth in the families of
the highest earnings group.25
The total infant mortality decreased steadily from one earnings
group to the next among the white babies of both native and foreign
mothers, except for one break in the downward curve of rates in each
group.
(1)
The babies of native white mothers in families where the fathers
earned $1,250 but less than $1,850 had a total infant mortality rate
higher than the babies whose fathers earned $850 but less than $1,250.
But their rate— 84.3 per 1,000—was lower than the rate for babies
whose fathers earned less than $850, and above $1,850 the rate
dropped sharply again.
23 For detailed tabulation see Table 78, Appendix VU, p. 286.
24 See Table 78, Appendix VII, p. 286.


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86 See Table 79, Appendix VII, p. 287.

96

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able X V .— Infant mortality rates, by came o f death and earnings o f father; infants o f
native white mothers.
Infant mortality rate; infants of
native white mothers.
Earnings of father.
All
causes.

TTp^fir $4fiO

.............................................................................

$1,860 anil over............................................................................- ..........

Early
infancy.

All other
causes.

95.9

38.1

57.7

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
69.9
84.3
38.3

62.4
43.5
45.2
38.8
28.3
44.5
21.9

102.4
85.4
62.7
56.8
41.6
39.7
16.4

This break in the downward curve appeared only in the rates from
early infancy. That is to say, the mortality related to the care and
condition of the mother was unfavorable in this group which lay
between the poor and the well to do, but the mortality related to the
care of the baby after birth and the home surroundings was more
favorable here than in any poorer homes. It should be noted, how­
ever, that even for the causes peculiar to early infancy the highest
rate was found in the families where the father earned less than $450
and the lowest rate where the father earned $1,850 or more.26
(2)
In the foreign-born white families, all nationalities combined,
the families where the father earned under $450 had the highest
total infant mortality rate and the families where the fathers earned
$1,250 or over had the lowest total infant mortality rate, and these
extremes fell definitely above and below the rates for any earnings
groups between $450 and $1,250. But a break in the curve between
these two extremes occurred at $450 to $549, where the rate was
lower than in the two earnings groups next above and practically
identical with the rate at $850 to $1,249.
T able X V I — Infant m ortality rates, by came o f death and earnings o f father; infants o f
foreign-born white mothers.
Infant mortality rate; infants of foreign-born white mothers.

Earnings of father.

Total....................................................
TJndftr $450 .................................................
^,50-4549 _ _ ................................ - .............

%k^O to $1,249..........................................

Respiratory
Gastric and and other
All causes. intestinal communi­
cable
diseases.
diseases.
95.9
144.6
62.4
110.2
93.0
54.8
61.1
42.5

29.1
56.1
26.7
18.6
17.5
16.1
24.4

26 For detailed tabulation see Table 78, Appendix V II, p. 286.


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Early
infancy.

Other
causes.

27.2

30.9

8.7

35.7
15.6
39.6
31.6
9.7
• 11.9
4.8

40.8
8.9
32.6
33.3
27.4
24.4
33.0

11.9
11.1
9.4
10.5
1.6
4.8

SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN 'IN F A N T MORTALITY.

97

This comparatively low rate in so poor an earnings group appeared
in the rates from early infancy and from respiratory and other com—municable diseases, but not in the rate from gastric and intestinal
diseases. For deaths assigned to early infancy this earnings group—
$450 to $549— showed the lowest rate of all among the foreign born.27
Among the foreign-born white families, more babies in this wage
group were breast fed through the earlier months and fewer were
artificially fed throughout the first nine months than in the group
under $450 or in the groups between $550 and $849.28 This more
favorable feeding would, apart from other factors, reduce the infant
death rate for babies fed somewhat below the death rate for babies
fed in the earnings groups between $550 and $849. It does not,
however, account for the whole difference that appears, and, obviously,
it has no relation whatever to the very low death rate for babies
dying immediately after birth.29
T able X V I I .— Comparison o f infant mortality in fathers' earnings group, $450 to $549
with that in the group $550 to $849, elim inating differences due to type o f feeding; infants
in foreign-horn white fam ilies in the $450 to $549 group.

Type of feeding.

Actual
deaths.

Expected
deaths.!

28

39.7

5
23

9.9
29.8

Type of feeding.

Infants fed:
Artificially........................

Actual Expected
deaths. deaths.i

12
3
8

15.0
6.0
8.8

i The "expected deaths” are computed from rates in $550 to $849 group for babies not fed, breast fed,
mixed fed, and artificially fed.

Type of feeding and mortality in the several earnings groups.

In general, such variations as occurred in the prevalence of breast
feeding or of artificial feeding in the several groups do not account for
high rates in the poorer families and low rates among the well to
do, but tend, on the contrary, to obscure the actual differences in
hazard. For example, in the native white families of the “ under
$450” group, where the rates were highest, there were during the
early months, which are the period of greatest hazard, a higher per­
centage of babies breast fed and a lower percentage artificially fed
than in the native white families of any other earnings group. Only
after the sixth month did the percentage breast fed in this earnings
group drop below the average for all earnings groups combined. And
the fewest babies were breast fed and the greatest number were
artificially fed in the highest earnings group— $2,250 to $2,849, and
$2,850 and over— where the rates were very low.28
w For detailed tabulation see Table 78, Appendix VII, p. 286.
m See Table 80, Appendix V II, p . 288.
» See Tables 79 and 82, Appendix V II, pp. 287 and 289*

101351°—$3-----7


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98

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Again, dividing all the native white families into two approxi­
mately equal groups, with fathers earning under $850 and fathers
earning $850 and over, the infant mortality rate in the poorer group (112.7 per 1,000) was considerably above the rate (69.0 per
1,000) in the group with higher earnings. But the percentages breast
fed, month by month, were almost identical in the two groups. The
one difference, that there was more artificial feeding in the “ $850
and over” group and more mixed feedings in the “ under $850”
group, would reduce the rate in the poorer families below the rate
among the more well to do if other factors were not involved.
What, then, of the commonly held opinion that if all babies
received the mother’s milk and no other food through the first nine
months of infancy the excessive mortality among the babies in the
poorest families would disappear? In the Baltimore study, the
Children’s Bureau is, for the first time, discussing numbers large
enough to permit a detailed analysis of rates in relation to the earn­
ings of the father, the race and nativity of the mother, and the type
of feeding given to the infant. This analysis confirms the theory
that the rates for breast-fed babies at each economic level are below
the rates for artificially-fed babies in homes of the same economic
level; but it shows that while the rates for breast-fed babies in thepoorest homes (61.8 per 1,000 fed) were below the average rates for
all babies studied in Baltimore (80.5 per 1,000 fed) they were far
above the rates for breast-fed babies in families that were well to do
(13.3 per 1,000 fed).31
T a b l e X Y I I I .— In fa n t, m ortality rates, by earnings o f fath er and color and n ativity o f

m other; infan ts a rtificia lly fed .a
Computed annual rates « for artificiallyfed infants.
Earnings of father.

$550-8849..........................................................................................
$850-81,249.......................................................................................
$i,250-41,849.....................................................................................

Native Foreignbom
Colored
All
white
white
mothers.
mothers. mothers.
mothers.
191.4

160.8

232.1

310.1
185.4
117.3
130.1
27.5

289.9
178.8
109.6
104.2 |
26.0

274.1
196.9

347.3
387.9

169.7 |

252.4

a The method by which an annual rate per 1,000 infants fed is computed from the monthly rates for
babies artifleally fed, mixed fed, or breast fed during the first month, the second month, etc., is shown
in Appendix V, p. 199.
« Sea Table 60, Appendix VII, p. 276.


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99

SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

T a b l e X V I X .— Infant mortality rates, by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f

mother; breast-fed infants-1
Computed annual rates1 for breast-fed
infants.
Earnings of father.

Native Foreignborn
Colored
All
white
mothers. mothers.
white
mothers.
mothers.

Total___

43.3

32.7

50.2

Under $550.......
$550-5849..........
$850-11,249........
$1,250-51,849__
$1,850 and over.

61.8
46.1
22.5
23.2
13.3

39.0
39.6
20.2 Ì
29.2 1
15.6

63.8
51.1

J

90.2
91.4
Ì

20.9 |

88.0

I

1 The method by which an annual rate per 1,000 infants fed is computed from the monthly rates for
babies artificially fed, mixed fed, or breast fed during the first month, the second month, etc., is shown
in Appendix V, p. 199.

The variations in rates between the poorest and the most prosperous
were greater among the artificially-fed babies than among the breast­
fed babies, and the rates for artificially-fed babies descended in an
unbroken line from one earnings group to the next in each of the
three race and nativity groups. But the contrasts in rates between
the poorest and the most prosperous were quite definite even among
the breast-fed babies. In the native white families, the rate for
breast-fed babies was more than twice as high in the families “ under
$550” as in the f amilies “ $1,850 and over,” but the downward curve
in the rate was broken by a slight rise in the group $1,250 to $1,849.
How do these rates compare with the rates for all babies having,
all types of feeding? The total death rate in Baltimore for the
10,528 babies living long enough to be fed at all was 80.5 per 1,000
infants fed. The rates for breast-fed babies in the poorest homes—
except in the colored families— were below this average rate for the
community but also above the rates for breast-fed babies in the
most prosperous homes; and, it should be noted, the artificiallyfed babies in the most prosperous homes showed a far more favorable
rate than the breast-fed babies in the poorest homes. Three simple
computations of what the infant mortality in Baltimore might have
been if all the babies had been exposed only to such hazards as the
more favored babies had to meet, illustrate the interplay of infant
feeding and economic conditions as factors in preventable mortality.
(1)
If the infant death rate of 43.3 per 1,000 infants fed, which
was the average for all breast-fed babies in Baltimore, had been the
death rate among all the 10,528 babies who lived long enough to be fed,
the total number of deaths among babies fed would have been
approximately 456 instead of 848, and the total number of deaths
in the entire group (including the 269 who died immediately after
birth without being fed at all) would have been approximately 725


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100

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

instead of 1,117; and 392, or 35 per cent of those who died, would
have been saved.
(2) If the infant mortality rate (including all types of feeding a n d "'
babies not fed at all) among the 431 babies born in families where
the father earned at least $1,850 had been the rate for the entire
group of 10,797 babies, the total number of infant deaths would
have been approximately 401 instead of 1,117; and 716 babies, or
64 per cent of those who died, would have been saved.
(3) But if the rate, lower than either of these, for breast-fed
babies in the most prosperous families, and the rate in these families
of deaths immediately after birth before the infant was fed at all,
had been true for the entire group in Baltimore, then 175 instead of
269 babies would have died immediately after birth; and among the
10,622 who would have survived long enough to be fed 141 would
have died during the year. The total deaths would have been 316
instead of 1,117; and 801 babies, or 72 per cent of those who died,
would have been saved.
T able X X .—Potential saving in infant m ortality in Baltim ore; live births in 1915.
I. IF A L L BABIES HAD BEEN BREAST FED THROUGH THE FIRST NINE MONTHS (OR
UNTIL DEATH W ITHIN TH AT PERIOD).
Potential.
Infants.
Rate.

Fed

...............................................................................................

Deaths.

Actual
deaths.

10,797

725

1,117

269
10,528

269
456

269
848

43.3

II. IF A L L BABIES HAD FACED THE H AZARDS TO BABIES (TY PE OF FEEDING DIS­
R E G A R D E D ) WHOSE FATHERS EARNED $1,850 OR OVER.
10,797

37.1

401

1,117

III. IF A L L BABIES HAD FACED THE HAZARDS FACED A T B IR TH AND B Y BREAST­
FED BABIES A F TE R BIRTH , IN FAMILIES W HERE FATH ERS EARNED $1,850 OR
OVER.
10,797
Live births and deaths at birth.....................................................
Infants fed and subsequent deaths...............................................

10,797
10,622

16.2
13.3

316

1,117

175
141

269
848

Living conditions affecting mortality in the poorer families.

The higher mortality among babies living in the poorest families,
even when exclusively breast fed, is not easily explained. It is
doubtless due in part to social conditions associated with but not due
to poverty and in part to conditions for which poverty is itself a
cause. It is not easy to separate these two classes of conditions nor


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

101

to determine the extent to which poverty itself may be a direct
factor in increasing the hazards to babies.
Certain social conditions that raise the infant mortality rate were
more commonly present in the poorest families than elsewhere, but
even here they were not universal.32 In the poorest families, where
the fathers earned under $450 during the year, the most prevalent
unfavorable social factors were room congestion and employment of
mothers away from home; but more than one-half of the poorest
mothers were not so employed during pregnancy or within 12 months
after the birth of a baby in 1915, and more than one-fourth of these
babies who lived at least two weeks were in dwellings having more
rooms than there were persons in the household. Large families
and short intervals between births were slightly more prevalent in
poor homes than in prosperous homes, but less than one in four of
the babies whose fathers earned under $450 was seventh or later in
order of birth and less than one in four followed a brother or sister
born less than two years before.
Poverty may also be associated with lack of intelligence or with
ignorance on the part of the mother of the best methods of caring
for her baby. Perhaps the most serious aspect of ignorance in caring
for the baby is that it may lead to the early substitution of artificial
for natural feeding. But in this respect the mothers in the poorer
groups, as already discussed, are not handicapped, since the propor­
tion of infants breast fed is greater in the low earnings groups than
in the higher. In other respects, however, ignorance of the proper
intervals between feedings, ignorance of the importance of cleanli­
ness, of the importance, if artificial feeding is adopted, of adapting it
to the needs of the baby, ignorance of when it is advisable to consult
a physician— ignorance of these things may prove disastrous to the
baby’s life. Such ignorance is doubtless more prevalent among the
poorer mothers; the old theory.that all mothers know b y instinct
the best methods of caring for their babies is no longer held; and it
is obvious that the more well-to-do mothers have access to facilities
for education in respect to the best methods of infant care and may
secure competent medical advice and nursing c&re to supplement
their own efforts which the poor mother can not secure.
In one important point, in respect to the illiteracy of the mother,
the data of the study offer definite information. While illiteracy may
not always be associated with ignorance in regard to infant care,
yet it is probable that it usually is so associated, since the illiterate
mother is wholly dependent upon oral tradition and advice. In the
poorest families, those in which the fathers earned under $450, 23
per cent of the mothers were illiterate as compared with less than 1
per cent in families where the fathers earned $1,850 or over.
« Compare Tables 90,102, 127, 137, and 154, Appendix V II, p. 293, 304, 332, 338, and 349.


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102

Ch abt

IN F A N T

M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D ,

X IV .—Infant mortality rates, by fathers’ earnings among infants of “ favored group” and all
other infants.
NATIVE "WHITE MOTHEES.

FOEEIGN-BOEN "WHITE MOTHEES.

Infant
mortality
rate.

Infant
mortality
rate.

$450.

to
$549.

to
$649.


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to
to
and
$1,249. $1,849. over.
Favored group
All others
Average

$450.

to

to

to
$1,249.

and

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

103

The effects upon infant mortality of these conditions associated
with poverty— illiteracy of the mother, her employment away from
—home, large families, and short intervals between births— can be
eliminated to a large extent by examining the mortality rates in a
favored group in which none of the most unfavorable conditions
are present, and in which therefore the influence of poverty as dis­
tinct from these conditions is revealed. Eliminating all families
where the mother was employed away from home or was illiterate,
or where the 1915 baby was seventh or later in order of birth or
followed a preceding birth by an interval of less than two years, a
“ favored group” is formed which includes 22 per cent of the live
births in families where the father earned under $450 and 40 per cent
of the live births in families where the father earned under $850. In
this favored group, the contrast in rates between the poorest and the
most prosperous families is slightly less sharp than in all the families
combined, but the same general trend persists— the infant mortality
falls as the fathers ’ earnings rise.33
T a b l e X X I . — I n f ant m ortality in first favored group by earnings o f father; infants o f

native white mothers.
Favored group,1

Total.
Earnings of father.

mor­
Infant mor­
Live births. Infant
tality rate. Live births. tality rate.
Under $450..........................................................................
$450-1549.............................................................................
$550-$649.............................................................................
$650-$849.............................................................................
$850-$l, 249..........................................................................
$1,250-$l, 849......................................................................
$1,850 and over................................... ................................

449
644
908
1,726
1,802
629
366

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
69.9
84.3
38.3

185
301
492
1,063
1,175
453
281

113.5
119.6
87.4
72.4
54.5
83.9
46.3

1 From this group have been eliminated mothers employed away from home and illiterate mothers,„
and infants who were seventh or later in order of birth or who had followed a preceding birth by an inter­
val of less than two years.

Eliminating not only these social factors but room congestion as
well, the favored group is further reduced and includes only 11.5 per
cent of the infants surviving two weeks whose fathers earned under
$450 and 26.3 per cent of the infants surviving two weeks whose
fathers earned under $8^0. But the favored group is still large
enough to permit a comparison of infant death rates by fathers’
earnings, and again the same trend persists— the death rate falls as
the fathers’ earnings rise.34
88 To eliminate complications arising from differences in race, figures are shown in the table for infants
of native white mothers only. For detailed tabulations see Tables 78 and 83, Appendix VII, pp. 286 and
290.
84 To eliminate complications arising from difference in race, figures are shown in the table for infants of
white mothers only. For detailed tabulation see Tables 84 and 90, Appendix VII, pp. 290 and 293.


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IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e X X I I . — Infant m ortality in second favored group by father’s earnings; infants o f

white mothers who lived at least two weeks in dwelling o f residence.
Favored group.1

Total.
Earnings of father.
Infants.

$450-$549........................................ ....................................
$550-8849.
............................................................
$850-11,249..........................................................................

984
1,052
3,490
2,142
1,156

Deaths per
100.
11.1
6.8
6.4
4.1
2.4

Infants.

113
193
1,146
1,025
704

Deaths per
100.
7.1
5.2
4.0
2.6
2.0

1 From this group have been eliminated mothers employed away from home and illiterate mothers
and infants who were seventh or later in order of birth or who had followed a preceding birth by an interval
of less than two years, and infants in dwellings with one or more persons per room.

Poverty as a direct factor in infant mortality.

Evidently there are other unmeasured factors which make pov­
erty— or lack of means— a hazard to infant life apart from the size
of the dwelling, the size of the family, the interval between births,
and the illiteracy or the gainful employment of the mother. Low
income may itself be a factor in infant mortality.
An important way in which lack of means handicaps mothers in
caring for their babies is in the purchase of competent medical care
and* supervision and nursing service. Such medical care and super­
vision is necessary not only during the mother’s pregnancy but also
during the infant’s first year of life. The disadvantages of poverty
in this respect, however, are to a certain degree removed by provision
of infant-welfare stations and free consultation centers which are
open to the poor as well as to the well to do. But the highest per­
centages of mothers reporting examination and instruction" by phy­
sicians during pregnancy and medical and trained nursing care at
confinement were found in families where the fathers earned at least
$1,850, and the lowest percentages were found in one or another of
the earnings groups under $850. The extent to which the poorest
mothers took advantage of free medical supervision and care is shown
by the fact that the lowest percentages receiving care were in no case
found among the families in which the fathers earned the least (under
$450). But the provision of free care does not solve the problem for
the poorer mothers since throughout the study the highest mortality
rates were found in this lowest earnings group.
Lack of means is a further handicap in an attempt to fortify and
maintain health through good food, fresh air, rest, and recreation,
as recommended by health authorities. During pregnancy and the
nursing period the mother should have plenty of nourishing food,
including a generous proportion of fresh fruits and vegetables, and
should drink plenty of good milk. But the mother who is constantly
striving to make ends meet on a meager income may be forced to
stint herself or her children in order to provide food to maintain the

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

105

physical efficiency of the breadwinner of the family. She should
have her teeth cared for by a good dentist; but she is probably unable
to pay for such care. She should have pleasant exercise and recre­
ation and spend at least two hours of each day in the open air; she
should avoid worry and fatigue; she should sleep at least 8 hours
out of the 24. But her day may be filled with worries of making ends
meet, and with busy work patching up clothing for the different
members of the family that they may appear at least respectable,
preparing meals, caring for the children, besides trying to do all the
housework; it may be physically impossible for her so to arrange
her time and work— and the household conveniences which lighten
the toil and shorten the hours of housework can not be obtained
without money— that she may carry out these excellent recipes for
her own health and that of her baby. For the baby the house should
be sunny, well ventilated, and dry; his room should be not too hot
nor too cold, not too light nor too noisy. On a limited income it
will be difficult to rent a dwelling which meets all these requirements.
The baby should have clean, comfortable clothing, a good bed, and
suitable coverings. Even the cleverest and most diligent mother
can not provide all these things from an empty purse.
Poverty, therefore, through lack of means to provide the physical
essentials for health, as well as to procure medical and nursing
assistance when needed, appears to have a direct influence upon the
infant mortality rate.
Summary.

It appears, then, that the highest infant mortality was found in
the families where the father’s earnings were lowest, and the lowest
infant mortality where the fathers’ earnings were highest, and in gen­
eral the rates for the several causes of death decreased, with the
total rate, as the father’s earnings rose. Two minor exceptions to
this general rule appear in the Baltimore material— a low rate
(especially from diseases of early infancy) in the $450 to $549 group
among the foreign born, and a break in the downward curve from
diseases of early infancy in the $1,250 to $1,849 group among the
native white.
The importance of breast feeding in reducing mortality was appar­
ent in the differences between the rates for breast-fed babies and for
artificially-fed babies in the poorest homes. But the rates for breast­
fed babies also varied with the father’s earnings, and it is to be noted
that the artificially-fed babies in the most well-to-do homes had a
lower mortality than the breast-fed babies in the poorest homes.
Certain unfavorable living conditions were more commonly present
in the homes where the father’s earnings were low than elsewhere,
but a “ favored group” from which had been eliminated all babies


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IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

whose mothers were employed or were illiterate, all babies who were
seventh or later in order of birth or who had followed a preceding
birth-by less than two years, and all babies living in congested
dwellings, showed a marked decrease in mortality from the lower
earnings groups to the higher.
Prenatal instruction and supervision of the mother and medical
and nursing care at confinement were not universal in any earnings
group, but they were reported b y more mothers in the most pros­
perous families than at any lower economic level. That the absence
of care and instruction was not the chief cause of high mortality in
the poorer homes is evident, however, from the fact that relatively
more mothers reported trained care and instruction in the lowest
earnings group than in the groups slightly higher in the scale. But,
uniformly, the mortality was highest in these poorest homes.
The sheer absence of means with which to supply the necessities
of wholesome living seemed to be itself a factor in mortality.
NEIGHBORHOODS, DWELLINGS, AND INFANT MORTALITY.

The physical environment into which the babies were born is
difficult of measurement and tabulation. The babies can be grouped
according to the ward in which their families lived and the room con­
gestion and sanitary equipment of the dwelling, but such important
items as dryness, ventilation, and cleanliness of the dwelling, and the
condition of the street and yard, can not be touched upon in the
present study. Moreover, in every community the condition of
neighborhoods and dwellings is primarily determined by the means
of the families and, to a slighter degree, by their traditions and
habits. It has been noted, for example, that overcrowding in the
homes was directly related to the fathers’ earnings but that the
foreign-born families reported more room congestion than the native
white families, even when groups with identical earnings are com­
pared.35
So far, therefore, as environment can be measured, the effect of
environment upon mortality must be considered as secondary to
the relation of poverty and of nationality to mortality.
Wards.36

In discussing the relation of wards to infant mortality, two separate
questions are involved: First, Where in Baltimore were the babies
living who faced the greatest hazards ? and, second, What was the
effect of neighborhood conditions on infant mortality apart from
other factors such as poverty and differences in conditions within
the home ?
35See Table 37, Appendix VII, p. 252.
36 The classification by wards is based on the dwelling in which the infant spent the greater part of his
life up to 1 year of age. If a period was equally divided between two dwellings, the dwelling occupied dur­
ing the time nearer the birth is used. In the ease of babies dying under 2 weeks of age (or stillbirths), the
ward refers to the house in which the mother spent the greater part of her pregnancy.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

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Four wards in Baltimore had infant mortality rates above 130 per
1,000. The second ward, a low-lying district on the water front,
- where the foreign born predominated and more than two-fifths of the
births were to Polish mothers, had a total infant mortality of 140.3
per 1,000, chiefly due to an excessive mortality from gastric and in­
testinal diseases. The seventeenth ward, lying on higher ground to the northwest of the business center, where about three-fourths of
the births were to colored mothers, had a total infant mortality of
146.8 per 1,000, chiefly due to an excessive mortality from the dis­
eases of early infancy. The twenty-first ward, the most western of
the wards bordering the river, with congested blocks and less settled
blocks, foreign-born and native families, very poor families and fami­
lies of average means, had a mortality rate of 136.5 per 1,000, chiefly
due to a high mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases. The
twenty-second ward, a very poor ward on the water front, with
crowded blocks of the foreign bom toward the west and a negro
colony toward the east, had an excessive mortality from gastric and
intestinal diseases and from respiratory diseases, but a relatively low
mortality from the diseases of early infancy. The total rate in the
twenty-second ward (134.1) was practically the same as the rate in
4he twenty-first ward.
Ward rates do not offer a satisfactory index to the neighborhoods in
which babies were facing excessive hazards. In many parts of Balti­
more the limits of a single ward included a marked variety of neigh­
borhoods, with alleys and streets, the homes of the rich and the homes
of the poor, grouped together in the ward unit. The high mortality
of a neglected neighborhood may have been balanced by the low mor­
tality of a well-conditioned neighborhood within the same ward.
The average for a ward may, therefore, conceal a genuine contrast
which it is impossible to trace from the data in the present study.37
37
See the general discussion of this in the section on “ Baltimore,” p. 23ff. The most obvious exam­
ple of contrasting conditions within the wards was found in the six wards in which 5 per cent or more
of the babies were bom in families where the father earned at least $1,850. In each of these six wards
the relatively high percentage of well to do families was balanced by a higher percentage of families in which
the father earned less than $650. And in four of these six wards the percentage of colored births was con­
siderably above the percentage of colored births in the city as a whole, and more of the babies in the ward
were bom into colored families than into well to do white families—see especially p. 26.
Live births in specified ward of residence.
Color of mother and earnings of
father.

Total...........................................
$1,850 and over:
White mothers..............................
Colored mothers............................
Under $650:
White mothers..............................
Colored mothers............................
All other:
White mothers..............................
Colored mothers............. ..............


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The six.
11

12

13

14

15

16

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

2,307

100.0

145

409

449

289

598

417

284
2

12.3
0.1

28

70

42

26
1

89
1

29

326
378

14.1
16.4

8
60

66
43

117
5

26
107

64
98

45
65

1,185
132

51.4
5.7

38
11

212
18

284
1

78
51

315
31

258
20

108

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

That there were undoubtedly blocks, or districts, outside of wards
2, 17, 21, and 22 where mortality was also far above the average for
all is indicated b y the extent to which the three groups in the popu-'
lation whose mortality was especially high were gathered in other
wards. Fifty-four per cent of the Polish babies, 78 per cent of the
Negro babies, and 77 per cent of all babies in white families where
the father earned less than $450 lived outside these four wards, but
the total mortality among these babies was excessive not only in the
four wards with high mortality rates but also in the remainder of the
city.
T a b l e X X I I I .—Relative m ortality, by ward groups, in selected nationality and earnings
groups; live births in 1915.

The four wards
(2,17, 21, 22).

The other wards.

Earnings of father, color and nationality of mother.
Live
births.

Polish mothers...................................................................
Colored mothers.................................................................
White mothers in families where father earned under $450

288
293
242

Infant
mortality
rates.
180.6
170.6
165.3

Live
births.

337

r

1,012

795

Infant
mortality
rates.
148.4
155.1
149.7

Is there, then, no distinctive relation between neighborhood con­
ditions and mortality, apart from the economic status of the family
and living conditions within the home ?
The ward rates in the present study illustrate the difficulty of
demonstrating the relation which many students of infant mortality
have thought to exist between infant mortality and lack of drainage
and sanitation and dirty streets— in other words, the city house­
keeping in any given district and the lot congestion and absence of
sunlight and open spaces. The families living in ill-favored neigh­
borhoods are usually the poorest, whose babies suffer from other
known hazards of poverty. Or, if they have a small margin of in­
come, they accept an ill-favored neighborhood because they con­
sider other things more essential than an improvement in living con­
ditions either within or without the home. And, vice versa, most of
the very poor families live in ill-favored neighborhoods. In Balti­
more, at least, there was no basis for comparing families in ill-favored
neighborhoods with families of the same nationality and similar
poverty in well-conditioned neighborhoods. No evidence can be of­
fered as to whether in Baltimore neighborhood conditions were an
independent factor in mortality, apart from the influence of poverty,
racial customs, and conditions within the dwelling.
For example, only two of the four wards— the twenty-first and the
twenty-second—with a mortality above 130, markedly above the


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

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average for all wards, had an excess that is not accounted for by the
inclusion within the'Ward of nationality and earnings groups with
high mortality rates.38 But keeping in mind the difficulties of analysis
stated above, it is apparent that this fact offers no evidence either
for or against the independent effect of neighborhood. The apparent
absence of high mortality in certain other conspicuously unfavorable
districts also proves nothing. For example, the Locust Point dis­
trict is merged in the tabulation with the western part of the twentyfourth ward. The third ward had an average rate, although it
closely resembled the second ward in housing and the condition of
the streets and yards; but the third ward had a considerable per­
centage of births to Jewish mothers who managed, always, to pro­
tect their babies to an amazing degree. The seventeenth and eight­
eenth wards had a higher percentage of dwellings that lacked sewer
connection than any other wards in the center of the city; but in
neither ward was the mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases
exceptionally high.
Another element in mortality according to wards is infant-welfare
work, which should tend to reduce the mortality in districts where
the work is well developed. The fifth ward, for example, which was
one of the poorest in the city, had the lowest infant mortality rate in
any ward. The large Jewish population in this ward accounts for
part, but only for part, of the difference between the fifth ward and the
average for all. The chief factor seems to have been the exception­
ally high percentage of mothers having fairly good prenatal care and
of infants having supervision.39 In the seventeenth and eighteenth
wards and in the twenty-fourth ward the percentage having regular
supervision from infant-welfare agencies was also above the average
for the city, and in the third ward more mothers and babies had such
care and supervision than in the second ward. But in none of these
wards except the fifth did more than one baby in five have regular
supervision from infant-welfare agencies.
The essential facts in the present study seem to be that (1) while
only four wards showed, as a whole, excessively high mortality either
from all causes or from one or more specified groups of causes, the
same excessive hazard was present in all districts representing the
same standard of living; (2) the Jewish families had a low rate even
in unfavorable surroundings; (3) the effect of neighborhood as dis­
tinct from economic status can not be either proved or disproved
from the present data; (4) certain of the wards in which surround­
ings were unfavorable showed a relatively high development of inf ant88See Table 87, Appendix V II, p . 292.
39Grades A and B,prenatal care, 38.1 per cent; regular supervision from infant-welfare agencies,34.6
per cent. For grades of care, see pp. 208 to 210. But note that the rate in the fifth ward (65.7) is almost
twice as high as the rate in families where the fathers earned $1,850 or over.


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ENTA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

welfare work and an average mortality, instead of excessive mor­
tality, from gastric and intestinal diseases; (5) but not even the
fifth ward with its high percentage of Jewish mothers and except
Ch ar t

X V .—Death rates among infants surviving two weeks, by fathers’ earnings and room congestion.

Per cent
of

Under
$450.

$450
to
$549.

$550
$650
to
to
$649.
$849.
Less than one person per room
One or more persons per room

$850
to
$1,049.

$1,050
to
$1,249.

$1,250
and
over.

tional development of infant-welfare work had a rate approaching
the very low rate among babies in the most prosperous families
throughout the city.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

I ll

Dwellings.

In relation to room congestion and lack of sanitation there was
more definite evidence that low standards reacted unfavorably upon
the baby.40 These conditions were,, of course, chiefly prevalent in
poor homes, but a comparison of the infants in crowded and poorly
equipped dwellings with other infants in families at the same economic
level showed a higher mortality in the crowded and poorly equipped
dwellings than elsewhere.
Room congestion .— Of the infants in native white families who
lived at least two weeks, 2,344 were in dwellings with one or more
persons per room— 107 of these in dwellings with two or more per­
sons per room. The death rate among the infants whose families
lived in dwellings with more rooms than persons in the household was
4.6 per 100 infants surviving two weeks; in dwellings with one person
but less than two persons per room, the death rate was 8.6 per 100
infants, and in dwellings with two or more persons per room it was
14 per 100.41
T a b l e X X I V .— Excess m ortality in overcrowded dw ellings, when effect o f differences in

fa th ers’ earnings is elim inated; in fan ts horn in 1915 to native white m others, who lived
at least tw o weeks in dw ellings with specified num ber o f persons per room .

Earnings of father.

Deaths per 100 infants (native
white mothers) who lived at
least 2 weeks in dwellings
with specified number of
persons per room.1
Less
than 1.

Under $450........................................................................................................
$450-3549............................................................................................................
$550-3649............................................................................................................
$650-$849............................................................................................................
$850-SI,249.........................................................................................................
$1,250 and over.................................................................................................

1 but less
than 2.

4.6

8.6

7.5
7.1
6.9
4.5
3.8
2.7

15.1
9.6
8.3
7.8
5.8
3.4

2 or
more.
14.0

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

At each earnings level, the death rate was lowest in the least
crowded dwellings. The families of the 107 infants in dwellings
with two or more persons per room were so distributed among the
several earnings groups that even in the lowest group their number
was too small to justify the computation of a death rate according
to father’s earnings. It may be noted, however, that the average
death rate among these 107 infants, for all earnings groups combined,
was higher than the death rate in any earnings group except the
10 The housing tables are based on infants who had survived the first 2 weeks of life and the dwellings in
which each lived the greater part of his life. The possible effect of housing on the condition of the mothers
or infants immediately after birth is not considered. Of the infant deaths in Baltimore 35.8 per cent oc­
curred within 2 weeks after birth, and such deaths are almost entirely assigned to natal and prenatal causes.
41 For detailed tabulation see Table 90, Appendix VII, p. 293.


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IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

poorest among the infants in dwellings with one person but less than
two persons per room.
A fair measure of the effect of room congestion upon mortality in ^
the native white families is afforded by comparing the actual number
of deaths— 208— among the 2,344 infants of native white mothers liv­
ing in dwellings with one or more persons per room, with the number
of deaths that would have occurred among them— approximately 133
— if they had been exposed to the hazards indicated by the rates in
families at the same economic levels in dwellings with more rooms
than persons in the household.42 The total mortality among babies
in native white families was 6.1 per 100 infants surviving the first
two weeks and 95.9 per 1,000 live births. If the excess deaths among
babies in dwellings with one or more persons per room had been
eliminated, the total mortality would have been reduced to 4.9 per
100 infants surviving the first two weeks and 84.7 per 1,000 live
births.
* In the same way among the colored babies the death rate in fam­
ilies living with less than one person per room was 8.1 per 100 infants
surviving the first two weeks and 12.4 in families living with one or
more persons per room. That is to say, 82 deaths occurred in the
congested dwellings instead of the 54 deaths which would have,,
occurred if these babies had faced the hazards of babies in other
dwellings.43
The total colored mortality was 10.7 per 100 infants surviving the
first two weeks and 158.6 per 1,000 live births. If the excess deaths
among babies in dwellings with one or more persons per room had
been eliminated, the total rates would have been 8.4 per 100 infants
surviving the first two weeks and 137.2 per 1,000 live births.
Among the foreign-born families, the difference in mortality ac­
cording to the room congestion was less than among the native white
families, ranging from 4 per 100 infants surviving two weeks in house­
holds with less than one person per room to 10.5 per 100 infants in
households with two or more persons per room. In this group of
most congested households, more than half were Polish, and the dif­
ferences in nationality distribution within the least congested and
the most congested groups would by themselves, apart from the room
congestion, account for the part of the difference in mortality, but
the actual difference (from 4 to 10.5). is somewhat greater than the
expected difference (from 5.5 to 8.6). Again, part of this excess may
be accounted for by the higher earnings in the families living with
42 See Table 86, Appendix VII, p. 291.
43Variations in distribution by earnings were disregarded in this comparison, since the general level
was low in both groups of colored families, and “ 2 or more per room” were combined with “ 1 but less
than 2,” since their number (48) was too small to serve as the base for a rate. See Table 90, Appendix VII,
p. 293,


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

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less than one person per room, where the median was between $650
and $850, while the median in the families living with two or more
-^persons per room was between $450 and $550. Disregarding the
differences in nationality distribution, computations of the deaths
expected in these two groups from the earnings of the fathers show
that, apart from room congestion, a somewhat higher mortality
would be expected in the congested households from the greater
poverty of the families. Again, however, the actual difference be­
tween the families with less than one person per room and the fam­
ilies with two or more persons per, room (from 4 to 10.5) was greater
than the expected difference (from 5.4 to 7.6). Even if the difference
due to variations in nationality and the difference due to poverty
had been entirely distinct— and they were not— and the total ex­
pected variations in death rate might be fairly indicated by the sum
of the two expected variations in rate, there would still be a margin
of actual difference in rate unrelated to nationality and poverty.44
Moreover, the rates for all Polish babieg, all Jewish babies, etc., and
the rates for all foreign-bom families with the fathers4 earnings under
$450, $450 to $549, etc., used in the computation of expected deaths
are themselves weighted somewhat by the relatively high percentage
of congested dwellings among the Polish families and in the lowest
^ earnings groups, and, therefore, overstate the differences which can
be attributed to poverty or to nationality apart from room con­
gestion. It may be concluded that the babies of foreign-born
mothers also met a greater hazard in congested dwellings than else­
where, although the excess was far less marked (and more difficult to
demonstrate) than the excess accompanying congestion in the native
households.
Sanitary equipment.— The native families, both white and colored,
showed a marked difference in the death rates among*infants two
weeks old and over according to the sanitary equipment of the dwell­
ings. Three items were taken as index to the condition of the dwell­
ing; a toilet connected with the sewer, a toilet for the exclusive use
of the baby’s household, and a bathtub. Dividing the babies into
two groups, with the dwellings equipped with all three items in one
group, and the dwellings lacking one or more of the three items in
the other group, and comparing the families where the fathers’ earn­
ings were the same, it is found throughout, for the native white and
the colored families, that the babies in well-equipped dwellings had
a lower death rate than the babies in other dwellings. The difference
appeared mainly in the deaths from gastric and intestinal diseases.
« Actual difference is 10.5 minus 4, or 6.5. Expected difference on basis of nationality is 8.6 minus 5.5,
or 3.1, and expected difference on basis of fathers’ earnings is 7.6 minus 5.4, or 2.2. 3.1 plus 2.2 is less than
6.5. See Tables 88 and 89, Appendix VII, pp. 292 and 293,

101351°—23----- 8


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I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

Only 35 Polish babies in a total of 597, and 80 Italian babies in a
total of 394, lived in well-equipped dwellings, but the Jewish families
and the “ other foreign” group had a large enough number living inwell-equipped dwellings to permit the computation of a death rate
for the babies in these families separately. Among the Jewish
babies, no difference appeared in the rate from gastric and intestinal
diseases, but there was a slight excess in deaths from other causes in
the poorer dwellings. Among the “ other foreign” babies, the death
rate was higher in the poorer dwellings than in the well-equipped
dwellings, from gastric and intestinal diseases and from other causes
also.45
Summary.

It seems clear that physical surroundings do affect the welfare of
the baby. The Baltimore data give new evidence that the crowded
and insanitary home adds to the hazards of poverty and affects
especially the mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases.
The Baltimore data afforded no satisfactory classification of neigh­
borhoods and no clear evidence that neighborhood conditions are an
independent factor in mortality apart from poverty and conditions
within the home.
The low mortality in one poor ward, the fifth, with its exceptionally^
large percentage of mothers receiving trained care and instruction in
maternal and infant hygiene, illustrates how mortality can be re­
duced in spite of unfavorable surroundings, but the rate in the fifth
ward (65.7) was markedly higher than the rate (37.1) among the
babies throughout the city whose fathers earned $1,850 and over.
EMPLOYMENT OF MOTHERS AND INFANT MORTALITY.

The infant mortality rates among babies of mothers who worked
outside their homes were higher than the rates among other babies.
The working mothers represented, in the main, poorer homes, and the
proportion of Polish and Negro mothers was higher; but even after
due allowance was made for the higher infant mortality expected in a
group so constituted, there remained an excessive mortality which
seemed to be related to the fact of the mother’s employment away
from home.
In the present study, there are three sets of data on infant mortality
and the mothers’ employment:
First, concerning employment at home and outside the home dur­
ing the pregnancy of 1915.
Second, concerning employment at home and outside the home dur­
ing the first 12 months after the birth of 1915.
Third, concerning employment outside the home at any time dur­
ing the mother’s life-.
<6 See Table 91, Appendix VII, p. 294,


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

115

From the first two sets of tables are derived infant mortality
rates based on the births of 1915. From the third set of tables are
derived rates based on all births to the mothers studied.
Employment during pregnancy of 1915.

It is difficult to disentangle the effect of employment during preg­
nancy and of employment during the first year of the baby’s life,
since three-fourths (76.3 per cent) of the mothers who worked during
Ch ar t X V I.—Infant mortality rates, by mothers’ employment during pregnancy; actual rates compared

with rates expected on the basis of the fathers’ earnings and the mothers’ color and nationality.
Infant
mortality
rates.

200

-

173.8

Not
employed.

Employed
Employed
away.
at
home.
Actual variations.

Not
employed.

Employed
Employed
at
away,
home.
Expected variations on basis of earnings,
race, and nationality.

pregnancy resumed work during the first year of the baby’s life.
But it is known that deaths assigned to “ early infancy” always
are related to the condition of the mother and the care she has
received during pregnancy and confinement; therefore, such deaths
may fairly be related to the mothers’ employment or nonemployment
during pregnancy.
The total infant mortality among the 7,883 babies of mothers not
employed during pregnancy was 93.4 per 1,000— 37.2 from the
causes peculiar to early infancy and 56.2 from all other causes com­
bined.

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I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

The total infant mortality among the 1,682 babies of mothers em­
ployed at home during pregnancy was 94.5 per 1,000— 26.2 from the
causes peculiar to early infancy and 68.4 from all other causes com- ^
bined.
The total infant mortality among the 1,22946 babies of mothers
employed away from home during pregnancy was 179.8 per 1,000—
57 from the causes peculiar to early infancy and 122.9 from all other
causes combined.
Similar differences appear when each of the three race and nativity
groups are considered separately. The rates from causes peculiar to
early infancy were highest among the babies of mothers employed
outside their homes during pregnancy and lowest among the babies
of mothers employed at home; the rates from all other causes were also
highest among the babies of mothers employed outside their homes
during pregnancy. But these were lowest among the babies of moth­
ers not gainfully employed.
T able

X X V .— Infant mortality rates, by cause o f death, employment o f mother during
pregnancy, and color and nativity; live births in 1915.1
Infant mortality rates.
Employment, color, and nativity of mother.
AH
causes.

Native white:

Foreign-born white:

Colored:

Early
infancy.

All other
causes.

94.3
85.4
140.8

38.9
27.4
46.0

55.5
57.9
94.8

82.9
88.2
183.3

28.8
21.3
64.3

54.1
66.9
119.0

124.1
126.9
201.8

48.7
34.1
59.6

74.5
92.9
142.1

1 For detailed table, see Table 103, Appendix VII, p. 305.

The differences between the rates from causes peculiar to early
infancy for the babies of mothers employed at home and the babies
of mothers employed outside fell beyond the differences which
might have been expected because of the economic and racial com­
position of the two groups and indicate a definite variation due to
the fact and circumstances of employment.47
Among the white mothers the predominating types of work done
at home and away were quite different; and a marked difference in
infant mortality rates would be expected, since the monotony and
unbroken strain of a factory day are not comparable with the variety
« For the mothers of three babies no report as to employment during pregnancy was secured.
« See discussion of employment of mothers in section on Nationality and Mortality: Social Factors,
pp. 83 and 89, and Table 104, Appendix V II, p. 306.


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An d

e c o n o m ic

factors in

iNfaNt

m o r t a l it y .

117

of work and the adjustable hours of the woman who is keeping
lodgers. But among the negro women, for whom laundering was
the chief occupation at home, and doing laundry work and char
work was the chief occupation away from home, the differences in
rates persist. This seems to indicate that it is not so much the fact
of muscular exertion as the uninterrupted hours of a full day’s work
required in outside employment that is injurious during pregnancy.
W hy the rates from causes peculiar to early infancy were lower
among the babies of mothers employed at home than among babies
of mothers not employed at all during pregnancy is not so clear.
In the native white families the variations in rate according to
the fathers’ earnings were more marked than in other groups both
in the deaths ascribed to early infancy and in deaths from all other
causes. It may well be that, when the mother worked at home
during pregnancy, her addition to the family income was of direct
and immediate benefit and tended to lessen the hazards to her baby.
When she worked outside her home during pregnancy the benefit of
her earnings was outweighed by the greater physical strain involved.
In the foreign-born white families the most marked variations in
rate followed the differences in nationality rather than the differ­
ences in fathers’ earnings. The rate from early infancy among
babies of mothers not employed during pregnancy was a trifle lower
than the rate expected on the basis of the nationality distribution
within the group.
In the negro families the economic factor may have been of im­
portance, since the general level of fathers’ earnings was low, and
yet there is no indication that the rate from early infancy was highest
in the poorest negro families.
One fact remains quite clear, however: The rates from early in­
fancy were definitely higher when the mothers worked away from
home during pregnancy than when the mothers worked at home or
did not work at all.
Premature births were more prevalent among the mothers who
worked away during pregnancy than among those who worked at
home. And in this respect as in others the mothers who were not
gainfully employed fell between the other two groups. But the
differences in the prevalence of premature births do not account for
the differences in rates. Considering only the full-term live births,
there were throughout— that is, for native white mothers, foreignbom white mothers, and colored mothers separately— the same
differences in rates from early infancy— that is, the highest rates when
the mothers were employed away from home and the lowest when
they were employed at home.48
48 See Tables 105 and 106, Appendix V II, pp. 307 and 308.


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I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

The stillbirth rate varied also with employment and nonemploy­
ment during pregnancy except among the foreign-bom white mothers.
The native white mothers who worked away from home and the
colored mothers who worked either at home or away from home had
definitely higher stillbirth rates than the other native white and
colored mothers. But in no group was the stillbirth rate materially
lower when the mothers worked at home than when they did not
work at all.49
The mortality rates from all causes other than those peculiar to
early infancy were excessive among the babies of mothers working
away from home during pregnancy, and only in part was this excess
accounted for by the greater poverty in these families. It seems to
have been due in part, also, to the mothers’ resumption of work
during the first 12 months of the babies’ lifetime. Of the mothers
who worked outside their homes during pregnancy, 39 per cent of the
white and 59 per cent of the negro resumed such work within 12
months of the birth. There may be, however, some further relation
between mothers’ employment away from home during pregnancy
and the deaths during later infancy, but this can not be clearly
determined.
It is commonly believed that if the working mother secures an
interval of release from employment before confinement the work
has a less harmful effect or no effect at all upon her own physical
condition and upon the health of her child. In Baltimore 74 per
cent of the mothers employed outside their homes during pregnancy
had stopped work at least two weeks before confinement, and most
of these, or 60 per cent of the total number of mothers so employed,
had stopped two months or more before confinement. Relatively
more of the colored mothers than of the white mothers employed
away from home continued working until less than two weeks before
the birth.50
In the white group there was a definitely higher stillbirth rate,
and in the colored group a definitely higher mortality rate for deaths
under 1 month of age, when the mothers worked away with no
interval of rest from employment before the birth or with only a
short interval than when the mothers had stopped work at least two
weeks before confinement. The same tendency, though less marked,
appears in the stillbirth rates in the colored group, and the mortality
rates under 1 month of age in the white group.
It should be remembered that the group who had stopped work
before the last two weeks probably included far more than its propor­
tionate share of the mothers who had suffered from some special dis­
ability or unfavorable symptom during pregnancy, and this would
49 See Tables 103 and 104, Appendix V II, pp. 305 and 306.
so See Table 107, Appendix VII, p. 308.


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S O C IA L A N D E C O N O M IC F A C T O R S I N I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y .

119

tend to increase the losses in this group above the losses in the group
who continued work. When, therefore, the losses in the group who
stopped work are found to be either equal to or definitely lower than
the losses in the group who continued until less than two weeks before
confinement, it may fairly be concluded that the experience of the
Baltimore mothers confirms the belief that a fair interval of rest
Ch art X V II.—Infant mortality rates under 1 month of age and stillbirth rates, by interval between the

mothers’ cessation of work and confinement of mothers employed away from home during pregnancy.
COLORED MOTHERS.

WHITE MOTHERS.

Stillbirth rates per
1,000 births.

120

-

100

—

Infant mortality
rates under
1 month of age.

Infant mortality
rates under
1 month of age.

1131
968

826
80

Stillbirth rates per
1,000 births.

-

917

76!
657

60.3
60

-

375

40

20

0

-

-1

Interval. Under
. 2 weeks.

2 weeks
and
over.

Under
2 weeks.

2 weeks
and
over.

Under
2 weeks.

2 weeks
and
over.

Under
2 weeks.

2 weeks
and
over.

from employment outside the home during the latter weeks of preg­
nancy is of great importance.
This unfavorable weighting of the group who stopped work ap­
pears plainly among the mothers employed at home. These mothers
commonly continued work until less than two weeks before confine­
ment, and 71 per cent of the white mothers and 54 per cent of the
colored mothers working at home reported no interval whatever.
Such work as the Baltimore mothers were doing at home seems not
to have been physically injurious to the mother or the child, and, as
has been noted, the babies born to mothers employed at home had
lower infant mortality and stillbirth rates than the babies of mothers
not gainfully employed. In the relatively small group of white


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I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

mothers who had been employed at home during pregnancy but had
ceased their employment two weeks or more before their confinement,
the stillbirth rate and the mortality rate under 1 month of age were'
relatively high. In the colored group the total number of mothers
working at home during pregnancy was small, and the slight differ­
ences in rates between those who stopped work and those who con­
tinued are without significance.51
For gainful employment outside the home, a definite interval of
rest before confinement is evidently important. For work within
the home the figures are inconclusive.
Employment of mothers after birth occurring in 1915.

In a discussion of mothers’ employment after the infant’s birth the
question of interval, not before but after confinement, becomes of
paramount importance. It will be remembered that 43 per cent of
all infant deaths occurred within four weeks after birth, and the
mortality rates decreased steadily through the later months of life.
But less than one-third of the working mothers took up their wage
earning before this first month, with its high mortality, was passed.
Naturally, therefore, a large proportion of the deaths among
infants of mothers employed after the birth occurred before the_
mother began, or resumed, her employment. These deaths must be
eliminated before a discussion of mortality in relation to employ­
ment during the first year of an infant’s life is attempted.
T a b l e X X V I .—Deaths o f infants by age at death in relation to mother's employment;

infants o f mothers employed away from home within year after the birth.

Age at death.

Mother
employed
only after
death of
infant.

Mother
employed
during life
of infant.

250

161

142
40
43
25

2
18
54
87

From the 161 deaths occurring among the 2,784 babies of mothers
who began, or resumed, employment during the infant’s life, no
single infant mortality rate can be computed to compare with a
single infant mortality rate among the babies of mothers who did
not work during the infant’s life.
Instead, since the hazard for all babies surviving at the beginning
of the second month, for example, was greater than the hazard for
all babies surviving at the beginning of the seventh month, the
61 See Table 108, Appendix VII, p. 309.


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hazards to babies of working mothers must be compared with those
to all babies according to the month of age of the infant when the
mother began, or resumed, her employment. Roughly, such a com­
parison is indicated in Table X X V II.
T

able

X X V I I .— Excess mortality among infants o f mothers employed during infant's
lifetime, when effect o f differences in infants' ages is eliminated.
Mothers employed
at home.

Mothers employed
away from home.

Age of infant when mother began to work.
Infants.

693
465
194
297
326
12

Death
rate.1
6.5
4.4
6.2
2.4
1.5

Infants.

60
132
99
255
308
1

Death
rate.1
21.7
14.4
9.1
9.4
2.9

Death
rate 2 all
infants
surviving
at speci­
fied age.
6.9
6.2
5.6
5.0 (4.4)
3.0 (2.2)

1 Subsequent deaths in year per 100 infants.
2 Death rate per 100 is based on total number surviving at beginning of specified period (except m “ under
1 month” group, when it is based on number surviving the first 2 weeks) and total subsequent deaths in
the group. But the two rates shown in parentheses are based on sum of survivors at beginning of each
month in the period and the sum of the subsequent deaths in each of these monthly groups.

From this it appears that employment away during the infant’s
life was disastrous and employment at home was beneficial. But
marked variations may have been due to some special weighting of
the working group in relation to the father’s earnings and the mother’s
nationality, and the extent to which these babies were breast fed.
The question of the infant’s age when the mother went to work also
demands further analysis.
(1)
How do the death rates among babies whose mothers worked
during the first 12 months of their lifetime compare with rates cor­
rected to the special distribution of nationalities and incomes within
the group where the mothers worked ? 52
Two-thirds of the mothers who worked away from home were
Polish or Negro women whose babies showed high infant mortality
rates throughout. Among these Polish and Negro babies there
occurred 54 deaths, 16 more than the 38 deaths that would have
occurred if these babies had faced only the average hazards to Negro
and Polish babies of corresponding ages in Baltimore. The white
mothers, other than Polish, who went out to work were mainly native
born and the 20 babies who died in these families were more than
twice as many as the number who would have died if they had been
facing only the average hazards to white babies, other than. Polish, in
Baltimore.
More than twp-thirds (70.6) of the babies whose mothers worked
away from home during their lifetime were in families where the father
earned less than $550 during the year; barely 4 per cent were in the
k

See Tables 109,110, and 111, Appendix VII, pp. 310-314.


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I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

families where the father earned as much as $850. On this point no
complete comparison with rates corrected for distribution of incomes
is possible, but it is found that the actual deaths among babies of
native white mothers and babies of negro mothers, where the fathers
earned under $850 and the mothers went out to work during the
babies’ lifetime, were more numerous than the deaths expected on
the basis of the rates for all babies in all native white and negro
families of corresponding earnings groups.
Among the mothers who worked at home during the baby’s life­
time the percentage of Negro and .Polish mothers was markedly lower
than among the mothers who worked away, and about the same as
the percentage of Negro and Polish women among those who were not
employed at all during the baby’s lifetime. The Jewish and Italian
mothers, on the other hand, whose babies had relatively low mortality
under all circumstances and who were almost entirely absent from
the group which worked away during the baby’s lifetime, constituted
about 24 per cent of those who were employed at home. (In the
group of mothers not employed at all during the baby’s lifetime, the
Jewish and Italian mothers formed about 11 per cent of all.) A com­
parison of the deaths which might be expected, on the basis of this
favorable nationality distribution with those actually occurring, among
babies of mothers employed at home during the baby’s lifetime reveals
but little difference for the group as a whole— 92 deaths expected and
87 deaths occurring.
These mothers employed at home represented in general a higher
economic level than the mothers employed outside. A t least 25 per
cent, instead of barely 4 per cent, had husbands earning $850 or over.
But they were still far below the economic level of mothers not gainfully
employed. Again, on this point, no complete comparison is possible,
but it is found that for all native white mothers employed at home
whose husbands’ earnings were known, the actual infant deaths, 30,
were approximately the number expected, 32, on the basis of fathers’
earnings. For colored mothers employed at home, the actual infant
deaths, 16, were fewer than the number expected, 24, on the basis of
the fathers’ earnings.
Evidently, the mother’s employment outside the home during her
baby’s lifetime involved some hazard which was distinct from the
general conditions of poverty and which was not operative when the
mother’s work was done at home. Infant mortality seems to have
been even a trifle lower when the mother worked at home during the
baby’s lifetime than when she was not employed.
(2)
What is the relation between the age of the baby when the
mother took up her employment and excessive or favorable death
rates?


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From the foregoing comparison, it appears that the earlier the
mother had begun her work the greater was the excess of infant
'deaths among the babies of mothers employed away from home.
This might result, quite apart from, the effect of the mothers’ employ­
ment, if the group of mothers going out to work before the baby was
3 months old represented families in which other conditions were
more unfavorable to the baby than in the families where the mother
took up her outside employment after 3 months. On three points
the conditions in these groups can be compared: Race and nationality,
fathers’ earnings, and the extent to which the mothers were employed
away during pregnancy. And this reveals in the “ under 3 months”
group a slightly higher percentage of babies of Polish mothers and
Negro mothers; a higher percentage of fathers with the lowest earn­
ings or none at all; and a markedly higher percentage of mothers
employed away from home during pregnancy, than in the “ 3 months
or over” group.53
That the high percentage of mothers who worked away from home
during pregnancy does not account for the greater excess in rate in
the “ under 3 months” group is plain, since this excess was approxi­
mately equal among the babies whose mothers had worked away
from home during pregnancy and the babies whose mothers had not
worked away during pregnancy. (It will be remembered that even
among the mothers who went out to work within three months after
the birth, comparatively few began their work during the first month,
and most of the deaths from prenatal causes occur before the baby
has completed a month of life.)
But the unfavorable weighting of the “ under 3 months group” in
the two other respects might account in part for the greater excess
of infant deaths in this group. This excess, however, when the
mother went out to work within three months did not appear uni­
formly throughout. Among the babies of white mothers other than
Polish the number of deaths was more than twice the number ex­
pected, whether the mother began work within three months, or
between three months and six months, or after the baby was 6
months old. In the Polish families the greatest excess of deaths
occurred when the mothers went out to work after the baby’s third
month but before he was 6 months old. In the Negro group the
excess appeared only among the babies whose mothers went to work
during the first three months.54
Where the mothers worked at home, the comparison of infant
death rates with the death rates for all infants surviving at each
month of life showed rates more favorable for the babies of working
mothers than for others in the “ 3 months or over” group and not
» See Tables 112,113,114, and 115, Appendix VII, pp. 314-316.
MSee Table 110, Appendix VH, p. 313.


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I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M O .

in the “ under 3 months” group. But in these families there was no
such favorable weighting in the “ 3 months or over” group as in the'
families where the mothers worked outside their homes.55 So, when'"
the number of deaths in one group or the other was below or above the
number expected, it reflects clearly some relation between the age of
the infant when the mother began her work at home and the benefit
or the hazard of the work. Turning to each of the race and nation­
ality groups separately, it appears that in the native white, the
Italian, and the “ other foreign” families there was a slight excess
over the expected number of deaths among the babies whose mothers
took up their employment within three months. In the native white
families this excess yielded to a number smaller than the expected
number of deaths, when the mothers took up their employment after
three months. In the negro families the number of deaths is below
the expected number for each period.56
From these variations, it may reasonably be inferred that, especially
if the mother works away from home, she serves her baby’s interests
better if she delays her employment at least three months or six
months after the baby’s birth, and longer if possible.
(3)
Did the babies of mothers working away from home have less
breast feeding than other babies, and did those whose mothers worked
at home have more breast feeding than other babies? Do such
variations in methods of feeding account for the high death rates in
the one group and the low death rates in the other ?
The ways in which working mothers fed their babies were different
in the three principal race and nativity groups, just as the methods
of nonworking mothers varied in these groups.
In each group, employment away decreased breast feeding and
increased both mixed feeding and artificial feeding throughout the
first nine months. But in the native white families, after the third
month, the increase in artificial feeding was much greater than the
increase in mixed feeding ; in the foreign white and the colored fam­
ilies, the increase in artificial feeding was not greater than the
increase in mixed feeding until after the sixth month. Throughout
the nine months, however, the foreign-born white mothers and the
negro mothers who went out to work were more likely to give their
babies mixed feeding than to wean them entirely; exactly th6
reverse appeared among the native white mothers.
It has been frequently assumed that few, if any, babies of mothers
working away from home had breast milk and no other food. The
statements of the mothers interviewed in Baltimore showed that of
the 470 babies surviving at the beginning of the sixth month whose
as See Tables 112 and 113, Appendix V II, pp. 314 and 315.
66 See Tables 109 and 110, Appendix VII, pp. 310 and 313.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

125

mothers had been employed away during the preceding month, 118,
or 25 per cent, were entirely breast fed during the sixth month.57
So far as employment either at home or away increases early
weaning it will inevitably raise the infant death rate. And the earlier
the baby is deprived of breast milk the greater will be the hazard he
must face throughout the year.58
A comparison of the deaths among babies of mothers employed
away during the babies’ lifetime with the number expected on the
basis of the rates, month by month, for breast-fed, mixed-fed, and
artificially-fed babies in the race and nationality and fathers’ earnings
groups represented, showed an excess of deaths among babies of
mothers employed away. The greater prevalence of mixed and
artificial feeding leads one to expect a relatively large number of
deaths. The actual number was even higher.
T a b l e X X V I I I .— Excess mortality among infants o f mothers employed awayfrom home

during infant’s lifetim e, when effect o f differences in type o f feeding, color, and nation­
ality o f mothers and earnings o f father is eliminated.

Type of feeding.

Infants of mothers
e m p lo y e d a w a y
from home during
infant’ s lifetime.1
Actual
deaths.

Expected
deaths.

68

53.8

6
20
42

4.4
13.2
36.2

i Excludes 46 infants (6 deaths) of native white mothers in father’s earnings groups “ No earnings” and
“ Not reported.” See Table 117, Appendix VII, p. 323.

Some excess in the number of deaths among babies of working
mothers over the number expected on the basis of the feeding reported
appeared in each race and nativity group except in the very small
group of foreign families other than Polish. It was highest in the
Polish families.
« See Table 116, Appendix V II, p. 317.
ss The effect of artificial feeding in relation to the age at which the infant is weaned is discussed in section
on Feeding and Infant Mortality, p. 69.


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T able X X I X .— Excess mortality, by color and nationality o f mother, among infants o f
mothers employed away from home during infant’s lifetim e, when effect o f differences in
color and nationality o f mother, earnings o f father, type o f feeding, and infants’ ages is
eliminated.

Color and nationality of mother.

Infants of mothers
e m p lo y e d a w a y
from home during
infant’s lifetime.1
Actual
deaths.

i See footnote 1, Table 117, p. 323.

Expected
deaths.2

68

53.8

15
14
2
37

8.3
8.8
2.1
34.6

2 See footnote 2, Table 117, p. 323.

When the mothers worked at home the effect of their employment
upon their way of feeding their babies was much less marked. In
the native white families the mothers employed at home had an
even higher percentage of babies breast fed at each month of life
and a slightly lower percentage artificially fed than the mothers not
employed. In the foreign-born white families, the mothers em­
ployed at home showed a greater tendency to give their babies^
either mixed or artificial feeding after the second month than the
mothers not employed. In the negro families this tendency appeared
from the beginning.
The infant deaths in these families where the mother worked at
home were slightly fewer than those expected on the basis of the
feeding reported, but the difference occurred chiefly among the babies
having breast milk at the time of death. These showed 23 deaths
instead of the 36 deaths expected. The numbers of actual deaths
and expected deaths among babies artificially fed were practically
identical.
T a b l e X X X .—Relative m ortality among infants o f mothers employed at home during

infant’s lifetim e, when effect o f differences m color and nationality o f mother, earnings
o f father, type o f feeding, and infants ’ ages is eliminated.
Infants of mothers em­
ployed at home dur­
ing infant’slifetime.1
Type of feeding.
Actual
deaths.

See Table 117, Appendix V II, p. 323.


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Expected
deaths.

83

95.7

14
10
59

20.7
15.9
59.1

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN INFANT MORTALITY.

127

Interference with breast feeding when the mother worked outside
her home and continuation of breast feeding when she worked at
home seem to account in part for the excessive number of deaths in
the one group and the relatively few deaths in the other group.
But even after the effect of the different methods of feeding is allowed
for, there was still a definite hazard in employment of the mother
away from home during her infant’s lifetime.
Employment away from home at any time.

In studying the deaths among all babies bom to the mothers, not
only during 1915 but at any previous time, no data are available
about methods of feeding, cause of death, or the baby’s age at death.
0nly
total infant mortality and stillbirth rates for babies of moth­
ers never gainfully employed outside their homes, for babies of moth­
ers so employed before marriage only, and for babies of mothers so
employed after marriage can be compared.
The 8,169 babies born to 2,371 mothers never gainfully employed
outside their homes showed an infant mortality rate of 99.2 per 1,000.
The 17,491 babies born to 6,229 mothers gainfully employed out­
side their homes before marriage but not so employed after marriage
showed an infant mortality rate of 104.3 per 1,000.
The 9,172 babies born to 2,562 mothers gainfully employed out­
side their homes after marriage showed an infant mortality rate of
165.8 per 1,000.
In each of these groups, as elsewhere, the infant mortality was
higher among negro babies than white babies, the general tendency
was for rates to decline as the fathers’ earnings increased; and the
babies in large families, showed higher rates than others.
From the presence of more negro babies, more babies of fathers
with very low earnings, and more babies of mothers who had borne
several children in the families where the mothers worked away from
home after marriage than in the other families, a high infant mor­
tality among the babies whose mothers worked after marriage was
to be expected. But the rate expected from the presence of these
unfavorable factors— approximately 143 per 1,000— was considerably
below the actual rate of 165.8 per 1,000.59
This difference was present in each of the three race and nativity
groups considered separately, and it seems to be plainly indicated
that the mothers’ employment after marriage or some undefined
factor related to it was unfavorable to the babies’ welfare.
The stillbirth rates were uniformly higher among mothers employed
away after marriage than among those employed away before mar­
riage only. But in the native white and the colored families, the
mothers who were never gainfully employed away from home had
69 See Tables 118, 120, 122, 123, and 124, Appendix VII, pp. 324,326,328,329, and 330,


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IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

stillbirth rates higher than the mothers who worked before marriage
only, and in the colored families this rose to a point higher than
the rate among mothers who worked away after marriage.60
It may be noted that in this grouping, no distinction is made
between mothers who had worked habitually since marriage and
mothers who had worked irregularly or for some one short period
since marriage. Mothers who may have worked during each preg­
nancy are grouped with mothers who may have ceased work before
the first pregnancy. The figures may conceal further variations
of rates within this general group of working mothers, but they
do serve to sum up the general fact that, in actual practice under
existing conditions, employment of married women, outside thenhomes involves danger to their babies.61
T a b l e X X X I .— Stillbirth rates, by employment o f mother away from home previous to

1915 birth, by color and nativity o f mother.
Stillbirth rate. Mother
employed away, from
home.
Color and nativity of mother.

After mar­
riage but
During
during
pregnancy not
pregnancy
ofl915birtn.
of 1915
birth.
49.2
34.2
93.8

21.6
25.8
78.2

Among the live born babies of 1915, there was also in the foreignborn and the colored families a higher mortality from the diseases
of early infancy in the group where the mothers worked away from
home during pregnancy than in the group where they had worked
away after marriage but not during the pregnancy of 1915. In
the native white families this difference does not appear, but the
rates are approximately equal in the two groups.
It should be noted that in the colored families, but not in the white
families, stillbirth and early infancy rates were as high among the
few babies whose mothers had never been employed outside the
home as among the mothers who worked outside the home during
pregnancy. (Detailed tabulations are shown in Table 121, Appendix
V II, p. 327.)
From the data for all pregnancies it appears that the age at which
the mother had commenced gainful employment away from home
60 See Table 119, Appendix VII, p. 325.

«1 Among the births during 1915, the stillbirth rates were uniformly higher in the group where the mothers
worked away dining pregnancy than in the group where the mothers had worked away after marriage but
did not work during the pregnancy of 1915.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

129

affected the well-being of her children. Among all mothers employed
away at any time previous to the birth occurring during 1915,
the lowest infant mortality rate, 106.9 per 1,000, was when the
mother had been from 16 to 19 years of age at beginning work.
The highest rate, 161.7 per 1,000, appeared in the group of 699 babies
whose mothers had begun work after the twenty-fifth year, and the
next highest rate, 139.6 per 1,000, in the group of 8,983 babies whose
mothers had begun work before they were 14.
But each of these two groups with rates above the average for all
babies of mothers employed away were so constituted as to lead to
an unfavorable infant mortality rate apart from the mothers’ age at
first employment. In the “ 25 years and over” group 91 per cent of
the babies were bom to mothers employed away from home after
marriage— a percentage more than twice as large as that in any
earlier age group. In the “ under 14 years” group an economic level
below the average for all working mothers may be assumed, and this
group is known to include a relatively high percentage of negro babies
(20 per cent, as against an average of 14 per cent in other age groups).
The only check afforded by the tabulations on the variations in
economic level in the families where the mothers had begun work at
the various ages is the fact of the mothers’ employment or nonem­
ployment away from home after marriage. But on the basis of the
mothers’ employment and of color and nativity, “ expected rates”
may fairly be computed for comparison with the actual rates in the
several age groups. From these it appears that the relatively low
rate among babies whose mothers had begun work at from 16 to 19
years of age was lower than the expected rate for this age group, and
the relatively high rate among babies whose mothers had begun work
under 14 years was higher than the expected rate.
In the other data, based on births during 1915, there was a similar
trend in the rates— the lowest among babies whose mothers had
begun work between 16 and 19 years, and the highest among babies
whose mothers had begun work at 25 or over, with a rate also slightly
above the average for all mothers who had ever been employed
away from home in the “ under 14 years” group. But comparing
these actual rates with rates expected from the distribution in the
several groups of mothers employed and mothers not employed
during the pregnancy of 1915, and of native white, foreign-bom
white, and colored mothers, the variation in the several age groups are
so little greater than the expected variation that with the relatively
small numbers involved it can not fairly be related to the mother’s
age at beginning work. Even when the total mortality is divided
into the two big groups of causes, there is no clear indication of a
101351°— 23----- 9


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IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

relation between excess mortality from either group of causes and the
mother’s age at beginning work.®2
Summary.

The babies of women who had been employed outside their homes
since their marriage faced a greater hazard than other babies, and this
hazard appears to have been especially emphasized when the mothers
had been employed away during pregnancy or during the first 12
months after the baby’s birth.
That employment outside the home during pregnancy had reacted
harmfully upon the condition of the mother and through her upon
the health of her baby is indicated b y a high percentage of premature
births to mothers employed away from home during pregnancy,
high stillbirth rates to native white and colored mothers so employed,
and high mortality from early infancy causes even among the fullterm live births of mothers employed away from home during
pregnancy. The babies of mothers who worked away during preg­
nancy also showed a high mortality from causes other than those
peculiar to early infancy. This may have been due in part to the
mother’s resumption of work during the first year of the baby’s
lifetime.
The variations in stillbirth rates and the mortality from early
infancy in relation to the interval of rest before confinement indicate
the importance of the mother’s ceasing her employment outside the
home at least two weeks before her confinement.
Employment away from home during the baby’s first year increased
the hazard to the baby. This increase in the hazard was especially
marked when the mother took up her work before the baby was
6 months old. The mothers employed away from home resorted
largely to artificial feeding for their babies, but the greater prevalence
of artificial feeding accounts only in part for the special hazard.
The actual number of deaths was greater than the number that would
have occurred among them if these babies had faced the average
hazards to all babies of their nationalities and their economic status
who had the same high percentage of artificial feeding.
In general, then, the baby whose mother works away from home
during pregnancy or during the baby’s first year pays dearly for the
physical strain to the mother and for the lack of a mother’s care.
The mothers’ employment at home, on the other hand, in the
occupations and under the conditions prevailing in the families
studied seems to have no ill effect upon the mothers or their babies.
The one rate indicating an exception to this general statement was
a stillbirth rate among colored mothers employed at home during
98 See Tables 123,124,125, and 126, Appendix V II, pp. 329-331.


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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

131

pregnancy greatly in excess of the stillbirth rate among colored
mothers not employed during pregnancy.
RELATION OF INFANT M ORTALITY TO THE M O TH E R ’S ILLITERACY O R
INABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The babies of illiterate mothers and the babies of mothers who
spoke no English had a higher mortality than others, but outside the
small group of native white families in which the mother was illit­
erate the data collected offer no evidence that the differences in
mortality were directly related to the fact of illiteracy or the fact
that a foreign-bom mother had not learned to speak English.63
I t has already been noted 64 that the illiterate mothers and the
mothers who spoke no English represented, on the whole, families
poorer than the average in their several color and nationality groups;
and, when due allowance is made in the comparison of rates for the
low economic level in these families, it is found that except among
the illiterate native white mothers the excess in mortality which
seemed to be related to illiteracy or to inability to speak English
practically disappears. And among the Polish babies there was, on
either basis, a somewhat higher mortality in the families where the
mother spoke English and in the families where the mother could
read and write than in other Polish families.65
Although the higher mortality- in certain foreign families where the
mother spoke no English coincides with greater poverty and seems to
be traceable to it, another question at once arises: Was not lack of
English a barrier cutting off certain mothers from the benefit of infantwelfare work ? In one sense it might seem so, for, it will be remem­
bered, fewer of the Polish and Italian women than of the Jewish
women had learned to speak English and fewer in these two groups
than in the Jewish group had care from the infant-welfare agencies.
But the lack of English does not account for the lack of care. Within
the Polish group 7 per cent of the 210 infants of mothers who spoke
English and 5 per cent of the 388 of mothers who did not speak
English had regular supervision from an inf ant-welfare agency.
Within the Jewish group, 23 per cent of the 768 infants of mothers
who spoke English had such supervision, and 31 per cent of the 169
of mothers who did not speak English. Only in the Italian group was
the percentage having such regular supervision markedly higher
63 See Tables 127,128,129, and 130, Appendix V E , pp. 332-334.
« S e e p . 32.
65 The differences in the prevalence of artificial feeding or of mixed feeding previously noted in connec­
tion with the illiteracy and inability to speak English (see p . 54) were too slight materially to affect the
relative mortality, and can not account for the high mortality among babies of illiterate native white
mothers or the relatively low mortality among babies of Polish mothers who were illiterate or who could
not speak English.


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INFAiTT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

among the infants of mothers who spoke English (22 per cent) than
among those of mothers who did not speak English (9 per cent) .66
The chief measureable difference, then, between the families where
the foreign-bom mother had not learned English, or the mother,
whether native or foreign, had not learned to read and write, and all
other families, is a difference in economic status, and this is, as has
been seen, a real factor in infant mortality. So far as illiteracy on
the part of the parents or their inability to speak English is respon­
sible for the greater poverty of the families in which the parents have
these limitations, the limitations become, themselves, a factor in the
infant mortality rate.
««See Table 131, Appendix VU, p. 334.


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN INFANT MORTALITY.
ORDER OF BIRTH, AGE OF MOTHER, AND INTERVAL BETWEEN BIRTHS

It is commonly said that mortality among first-born children is
higher than among second- or third-born, but lower than among the
later-bom children. And babies born to mothers more than 35 years
old are supposed to face a special hazard. . References to the high
mortality among fourth-, fifth-, and later-born children are frequently
countered by the statement that the largest families are the poorest
and that poverty rather than any essential condition in the bearing
and rearing of many children is the cause of the excessive hazard.
On these points one set of data is available based on the births
during 1915, and a second set of data based on these and all previous
births to the same mothers.
Order of birth.

The data based on births during 1915 showed a rate for the 2,868
~ first-born children slightly higher than the rates for second- and thirdborn children, and the rates rose steadily with each order of birth after
the third.67 The curve in the rates rose most sharply among the later
births in large families, and an excess in rates in the group of babies
seventh to ninth in order of birth as compared with babies of earlier
orders of birth persisted in the subdivisions of both groups when the
white and colored mothers and the families at different economic
levels are considered separately.68
In the larger group the first-born babies showed an infant mortality
rate higher than the rate for babies second in order of birth and
approximately equal to the rate for babies third in order of birth.
For later births the rate rose steadily and touched- its highest point
among the 883 babies tenth or later in order of birth.67
In the larger numbers considered, the births in this group of all
pregnancies would presumably give a better basis for discussion of
order of birth than the births in 1915, but there are certain qualifi­
cations which should be noted. For example, if this large group—
all births— is subdivided according to the total numbers of births
reported by the mothers, it appears that within each subdivision of
the group the first-born babies showed a higher mortality than the
later-born babies in the same families.69 Even in the families of seven
67 See Tables 132 and 133, Appendix V II, p. 335.
68 See Tables 137,138, and 139, Appendix VII, pp. 338-339.
69 See Table 135, Appendix VII, pp. 337.

133


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INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

or more births the first-born babies had higher infant mortality rates
than the babies born seventh or later in the same families. This
apparent contradiction of the relative rates shown among the births
during 1915 should be weighed against the fact that these births of
all pregnancies had extended over a number of years during which
the development of work for infant welfare and the improvement of
sanitary conditions had been tending steadily to reduce mortality.
The importance of this latter qualification is further suggested b y the
differences between the rates for babies of corresponding orders of
birth in the small families and in the large families, and again b y the
differences in mortality among all babies in small families and all
babies in large families, differences which fall far beyond the variation
expected from the relatively unfavorable economic conditions in the
larger families.70
In both sets of data we have stillbirth rates in addition to the
infant mortality rates for the several orders of birth. The stillbirth
rates for the several orders of birth showed almost identical curves
in the two sets of data, with a greater loss among first births than
among any later births except those tenth or over in order of birth.
The rates dropped sharply from the first birth to the second and
thereafter rose slowly without a break in the upward curve.71
In the data based on births during 1915, but not in the other set
of data, are found analyses of the infant mortality rates b y causes
peculiar to early infancy and all other causes, and statements of the
relative prevalence of premature births among the several orders of
birth. The first child was more likely than later children to come
to birth prematurely. Of the 2,999 first births in 1915, 9 per cent
were premature; of the 8,196 later births, 5.9 per cent were premature.
Or, considering only the live-bom babies, 8 per cent were premature
among the first births and 4.6 per cent were premature among the
later births. The percentage of prematurity was lowest among the
births fourth to seventh in order of birth and rose thereafter, but
only among the babies twelfth and later in order of birth was it
higher than among the first bom .72
to That is, owmwing that earnings during the year after the birth in 1915 were a fair index to the family’s
economic status throughout married life. It may be questioned whether the fathers who in 1915 were em­
ployed in manual labor, either skilled or unskilled, would have had during their married life any general
improvement in rate of wages (in relation to the cost of living) comparable to the salary increases that
commonly occur among those doing administrative or professional work. The majority of the fathers
were wage earners doing manual labor.
7» See Tables 132,133,134, and 142, Appendix VII, pp. 335,336, and 340.
7* See Table 140, Appendix V II, p. 340.


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN' IN F A N T MORTALITY.
Ch a r t

135

X V III.—Infant mortality rates from early infancy and from all other causes, by order of birth;
single births in 1915.
Infant
mortahty
rate.

All causes
-------------------------------Early infancy
All other causes — . — ---------


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IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e I. — In fa n t m orta lity and stillb irth rates, by order o f birth and term ; births in 1915.

Order of birth and term.

Total:
First....................................■.............................. |............................
' Second....................................................... ....... .............................
Third.................................................................. .............................
Fourth and later.............................................................................
Full term:
Second.............................................................................................
Third................................................................................................
Premature:
First.................................................................................................

Births.

Infant
Stillbirth mortality
rates (per rate (per
100 births).1 1,000 five
births).1

2,999
2,471
: 1,525
4,200

4.4
2.5
2.9
3.8

94.8
92.6
91.8
120.3

2,726
2,312
1,429
3,963

3.3
1.4
1.3
2.3

65.6
62.7
68.8
97.9

271
158
94
232
10

15.1
19.0

426.1
625.0

29.3

640.2

1 Not shown where hase is less than 100.

Since the mortality among premature births is exceptionally heavy,
as will be shown later, the high proportion of premature among first
births tends to raise the mortality rate among first as compared with
later births. Considering only the full-term births, all the rates for the
several orders of birth fall very considerably below those when the
full-term and the premature births are grouped together, the differ­
ence being greatest for the first births. The rate for the first births
is still above that for second, but falls below the rate for third births,
in contrast to its position when the births of all terms are grouped.
It should be noted further that among the premature births the rate
among first births was lowest of all; likewise among this group the
first births had the lowest stillbirth rate.
Reverting to the consideration of the entire group and analyzing the
total infant mortality rates according to the cause of death, and con­
sidering separately the rate from causes peculiar to early infancy—
which are most closely related to the care and condition of the mother—
and the rate of deaths from all other causes, it is found that for each
type of causes the rates were slightly higher for first-born babies than
for babies second or third in order of birth, while the steady increase
in total rate among babies fourth and later in order of birth was due
to a marked increase in the rate from causes other than those peculiar
to early infancy. For, although the rate from causes peculiar to early
infancy touched its highest point among babies tenth or later in order
of birth, the variation was slight, and for the intermediate orders of
birth— the fourth to the ninth— the rate from early infancy was some­
what lower than the corresponding rate for babies first to third in
order of birth.73
'3 See Table 142, Appendix VII, p. 340.


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IFF IN F A N T MORTALITY.

Age of mother.

137

*

Closely related to the variations in mortality for the several orders
of birth were the variations for the several age periods of the mothers.
Ch ar t X IX .—Infant mortality rates from all causes for each order of birth group, according to age of

mother; all single births and single births following preceding births b y two years or longer, 1915.
All single births.

Single births following preceding births by
two years or more.

Infant
mortality
rate.

Infant
mortality
rate.
150

125

100

75

50

25

Second and third b i r t h s ---------------Fourth to sixth births
------ --------

Tenth and later births
Average
.

--------------x—x—x—x

Both among the 1915 births and the larger group of all births to these
mothers the same curve in the rates was found, touching the lowest
point among mothers from 25 to 29 years of age and rising to high

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IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

points among mothers under 20 and 35 or over. The same general
curve appeared in the rates from early infancy and in the rates from
all other causes when these were considered separately, with this
difference— that the rates from early infancy were practically identical
for the three age periods between 20 and 35, but the rates from all
Ch art X X .—Infant m ortality rates from early infancy for each order of birth group, according to age of
mother; all single births and single births following preceding births b y tw o years or Ringer, 1915.

All single births.
Infant
mortality
rate.

Single births following preceding births by
two years or more.
Infant
mortality
rate.

100

75

50

25

Second and third births
Fourth to sixth births
....................

Tenth and later births
Average

other causes touched their lowest point among mothers 25 to 29
years old.74
Premature births were most prevalent among the youngest mothers.
In each group— native white, foreign-born white, and colored moth­
ers— considered separately, the percentage of premature births was
above the average among mothers under 20 and below the average
among mothers 35 years old or older.75 Stillbirths, on the other
« See Tables 143, 146, and 147, Appendix VII, pp. 341 and 343.
» See Table 148, Appendix VII, p. 344.


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

139

hand, were most prevalent among the oldest mothers, although the
stillbirth rate among mothers under 20 was also above the average.76
One might assume that the mortality rates for older mothers, were
high because among their babies the later births in large families
predominated, or that the rate for later births in large families was
high because older mothers predominated, and the limited volume of
the available data makes it impossible to separate entirely these two
interdependent factors. But it does reveal the fact that among the
babies of the oldest mothers the first born as well as the seventh and
later bom had excessively high rates, while for births other than the
first, and the seventh or later, the highest rates were not found among
the oldest mothers. Thus for babies second and third in order of
birth the highest rate appeared when the mothers were under 20
years old; for babies fourth to sixth in order of birth, when the mothers
were from 20 to 24 years old; and for babies seventh to ninth in order
of birth, when the mothers were from 25 to 29 years old.77
These excessive mortality rates for babies of certain orders of birth
bom to mothers of certain ages appear in both types of causes. The
mortality from causes peculiar to early infancy was highest (83.3 per
1,000) among first-born infants of mothers 35 years old or older, but
the babies second to sixth in order of birth bom to such mothers also
had rates above the average for all age groups. And babies of all
orders of birth born to exceptionally young mothers had rates above
the averages for all age groups. With one exception the highest
mortality from all other causes was among the babies bom to very
young mothers; only among babies tenth or later in order of birth
did this relation to the age of the mother disappear, and in this
group the mortality from all causes other than early infancy was
high throughout.
The age of the older mothers seems to have offered a real hazard
(involving a high mortality from prenatal causes) which was inde­
pendent of large families; and the large family seems to have suffered
from a lack of care (showing an especially high mortality from post­
natal causes) which was accentuated if the mother had begun her
child-bearing too young or had borne her children in too quick suc­
cession. The interval between births appears to have been, in fact,
a third element in the problem of the variations of hazard according
to the age of the mother and the number of children she had borne.
76 See Tables 144 and 145, Appendix VII, p. 341. This variation was true for native and foreign-bom
white mothers; it did not appear among the colored mothers, but the colored groups were too small to
afford basis for any deductions.
77 In the data based on all pregnancies, the highest rate for babies tenth or later in order of birth appeared
when the mothers were 30 to 34 years old; but in the data based on 1915 births, the rate for babies tenth or
later in order of birth is identical at this age period and among older mothers. See Tables 150, 151, 152,
and 153, Appendix VII, pp. 345-347.


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IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Interval between births.

In general the babies who followed a preceding birth by an interval,
of less than two years had a definitely higher mortality than those for
whom the interval was longer, with a rate of 146.7 per 1,000 among
the 2,072 babies born after an interval of less than 2 years since a
preceding birth and a rate of 92.3 per 1,000 among the 5,810 babies
born after an interval of 2 years or longer. (Compare the rate of
94.8 among the 2,868 first-born babies.) It is, of course, true that
among these short-interval babies the percentage of negro families
and, in the white group, the percentage of poor families were some­
what higher than among the babies following a preceding birth by two
years or longer. But these differences were too slight to account for
the difference in rates.78
Moreover, if the native white families in the several earnings
groups are considered separately, and the variations due to race or
nationality and to economic status are thus eliminated, there appears
in each earnings group except the highest a markedly higher infant
mortality among the short-interval babies than among the others.
The tabulations permit a comparison of infant mortality rates by
interval from another angle— that is, in relation to the mother’s
pregnancy within 12 months after the birth of the baby in 1915.
T able IT.— Infant deaths in relation to succeeding pregnancies commencing within 1
year after birth o f 1915 infant; live births in 1915.
Live births.
Mother pregnant
within 1 year
after birth.

Relation of infant death to pregnancy of mother.
Total.

Num­
ber.
Total live births....................................................................................
Infont deaths.........................................................
Preceding month in which pregnancy began..........................................
Following month in which pregnancy began..........................................
During month in which pregnancy began........... ..................................
Relation to pregnancy not reported...“ ..................................................

Per
cent.

10,797

1,563

14.5

1,117

406
299
74
28
5

36.3
26.8
6.6
2.5
.4

The percentage of mothers pregnant within 12 months after the
birth in 1915 was more than twice as high among the babies who died
within the year as in the entire group; and among those babies who
died and whose mothers became pregnant within the year, approxi­
mately three-fourths died before and one-fourth after the pregnancy
had begun.79
78 See Tables 154,155, and 156, Appendix VII, pp. 348-351.
» See Tables 161 and 162, Appendix VII, pp. 355 and 356.


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN FAN T MORTALITY.

Of the 1,231 babies whose mothers became pregnant during their
first year of lifetime, 74 babies died within 10 months after birth;
whereas only 34 babies would have died if they had been facing the
average hazards of all who were born in 1915. Most of them were
deprived of mother’s milk; but the deaths were also in excess of the
deaths which might have been expected because of the greater prev­
alence of artificial feeding.
T a b l e I I I .— Excess mortality among infants o f mothers becoming pregnant during

first year o f infant’s lifetim e, when effect o f differences in type offeeding and infants’ ages
is eliminated.
Infants of mothers becoming
pregnant during first year
of infant’s lifetime.
Type of feeding.

Expected deaths.
Actual
deaths.1 On basis On basis
of average of feeding
mortality. reported.

Total................. ......................................................................................

74

Breast............................................................................................................
Mixed................................................................................................................
Artificial.................................. ......................... ...................... . . . ; ................

2
5
67

33.8

60.3
1.2
2.8
56.3

1 See Table 163, Appendix VII, p. 357.

The births of all pregnancies can be classified only according to the
total number of births to the same mother and the number of years
she had been married.80 They indicate the same general tendency—
the shorter the average interval between births the higher the mor­
tality.
It is possible, however, that the high infant mortality accompany­
ing the births in families with short average intervals between births
was in part a cause, as well as a result, of the short interval and the
circumstances under which it occurred. For it appears that the
mother whose baby had died was more likely to become pregnant
within a short period than the mother whose baby was living, and
hence in classifying the births for mothers who had had short intervals
between births, the fact that the death of the infant was correlated
with short interval following the death exaggerated the relation be­
tween infant mortality and short interval.
so See Tables 157 and 158, Appendix VII, pp. 352 and 353.


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IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able IV .—Per cent o f short intervals follow ing birth 1 preceding 1915 birth according to
survival or death o f preceding birth; * single births in 1915 second and later in order
o f birth.1
Single births in 1915.

Type of loss.
Total.2

With interval under
t w o . years since
preceding birth.1
Number. Per cent/

7,959

2,101

26.4

1,650
897
753
365
157
225
6
1,016
252
764

776
440
336
184
66
85
1
354
75
279

47.0
49.1
44.6
50.4
42.0
37.8
34.8
29.8
36.5

1 Includes miscarriages.
* Excludes first births.
* The Corresponding percentage for all births in 1915, 26.2; for all lire births, 26.1; for single live births
26.3.

It has been noted that among the mothers who became pregnant
within the year after the birth in 1915 and whose babies died within
the year three-fourths became pregnant after the death of the baby
and not before. From the data about births in 1915 and the preced­
ing birth it appears that the percentage of short intervals was con­
siderably higher in the groups where the preceding birth was a still­
birth or miscarriage or a live-born baby who died within 12 months
than in the group as a whole. Some such difference would appear
if short interval was a cause of infant mortality. But the actual
percentage of short intervals in the group where the preceding birth
did not survive (47 per cent) was not only higher than in the group
as a whole (26 per cent) but also higher than in the group of losses
among the 1915 births (35 per cent). And, significantly, the dif­
ference was greatest where the preceding birth had been a stillbirth
or miscarriage or a death occuring within three months after
birth. This seems to indicate that the short interval was in part a
result of the death of the preceding infant. It does not, however,
do away with all the excess mortality, for among the babies who
died in 1915 the percentage who had followed the preceding birth
by an interval of less than two years was still considerably higher
than the corresponding percentage among all babies bom in 1915— or,
as has been noted, 35 per cent instead of 26 per cent.
Evidently, the mothers whose babies had died were a little more
likely than other mothers to bear another child after a short interval;
the babies whose mothers became pregnant during the first year of


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

143

the babies lifetime met a special hazard; and, except in the most
prosperous families, the babies who followed a preceding birth by an
interval of less than two years had a higher infant mortality than
other babies.
It is generally assumed that short intervals between births are
more prevalent in large families than in small families, and this
seems to have been true for the few exceptional families where the
mother had borne 15'or more children. In these families, more than
half the births during 1915 followed the preceding birth by an interval
of less than two years. But in the much larger number of families
where the mother had borne from 10 to 14 children, the percentage
reporting intervals of less than two years was less than in the families
where the mother had borne only 2 children and only a trifle higher
than in the families where the mother had borne 3 children. A
similar tendency appears among the births of all pregnancies. The
interval in this group of data refers not to the period between births
but the period between one birth and the beginning of the following
pregnancy. The percentage with average interval under two years
is therefore higher, on this basis, throughout. But the relation of the
several orders of birth to short interval is identical with that shown in
"--the births during 1915 and the interval since the preceding birth.81
It is not surprising, therefore, to find also that the percentage of
births during 1915 following the preceding birth by an interval of
less than two years was greatest among the youngest mothers and
decreased steadily as the age of the mothers increased. At all age
periods there was a practically constant proportion reporting an
interval of two or three years; only the percentage reporting an
interval of four years or more increased among the older mothers as
the percentage of very short intervals declined.82
The excess mortality among babies bom in 1915 who followed a
preceding birth by an interval of less than two years appeared
especially in deaths from causes other than early infancy. For
example, the babies following a previous birth by two years or longer
had a mortality from these “ other causes” which increased with the
later orders of birth, but for each order of birth the short interval
babies showed a higher rate from “ other causes” than the rates in
the other group. For the causes peculiar to early infancy, on the
other hand, the short interval babies earlier than seventh in order of
birth had rates definitely higher than the babies who followed a
previous birth b y two or three years; and. the babies seventh or later
in order of birth showed no differences in rates according to interval.83
It would seem, therefore, that short intervals between births affect
81 See Table 165, Appendix VII, p. 357.
82 See Table 166, Appendix VII, p. 358.
88See-Table 167, Appendix VII, p. 358.


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IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.
:.—Infant mortality rates from early infancy and from all causes for each order of birth,
by interval since preceding birth; single births in 1915.
]
j

Early infancy.

All other causes.

mi talit;
te.
40

120

LOO

80

00

40

20

0
rs.
---------------Fourth, fifth, and sixth births to mothers 25-34 years old
Seventh, eighth, and ninth births to mothers 30-39 years old — •— •— •—


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y
145

PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN F A N T MORTALITY.

the care the mother is able to give the baby more than they affect
the physical condition of the mother herself.
Again, at each age period of the mother, except among mothers
less than 20 years old, there was a relatively high mortality from
“ other causes” among the short interval babies but no clear dif­
ference b y interval in the mortality from early infancy. Under 20,
however, the mortality from early infancy rose markedly among the
short interval babies, while for all babies alike the mortality from
“ other causes” was high.84
Variations in mortality according to the age of the mother and the
order of the baby’s birth can not, therefore, except in this group of
babies born to mothers less than 20 years old, be ascribed to the preva­
lence in certain groups of short intervals between births. In fact,
when all the babies who followed the preceding birth by an interval of
less than two years are eliminated, the characteristic curves in the
rates persist, except that the rise in the curve for causes peculiar to
early infancy among babies of mothers under 20 years of age disap­
pears. But while the curves have the same general outlines they are
at several points lower when the short interval babies have been
eliminated than they are for the entire group, and most notably so in
the rates for causes other than early infancy among babies fourth to
ninth in order of birth born to mothers 25 years old or older.840
T able V .— Infant mortality rate,1 by interval since preceding birth,2 order o f birth 2 and
age o f mother; live births in 1915.
Infant mortality rate.1
Age of mother and order of birth.*

Second and third births:

Fourth to sixth births:
Seventh and later births:

x Not shown where base is less than 100.

Interval
under 2
years.

Interval
2 years
and over.

160.6
113.0

70.4
107.3

142.3

81.2
82.9

166.7
185.0

110.4
122.6

* Includes miscarriages.

Summary.

't

It may fairly be concluded that although these three factors are
closely bound together, yet each makes its own contribution to the
general problem. In grouping the births according to the order of
birth, it is found that, independently of age and interval, the births
8<gee Table 168, Appendix VII, p. 359.

101351°—23-----10


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Ma See Table 169, Appendix VU, p. 360.

146

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

seventh and later in order had a mortality higher than earlier births.
The babies of mothers under 20 or over 35 years of age in general
faced a greater hazard than other babies, although to this general rule
there were certain exceptions And the short-interval babies had
throughout higher rates than other babies of the same orders of birth
born to mothers of the same age periods.
Variations in rate with the different age periods of the mother
appeared in the deaths from early infancy and also in the deaths from
all other causes. But variations with the different orders of birth and
the different intervals between births appeared more markedly in the
mortality from other causes than in the mortality from early infancy.
Large families and short intervals were especially a problem in the
poorer homes, where they were somewhat more prevalent than in
prosperous homes. In the small group of prosperous homes the excess
mortality that accompanied them elsewhere was greatly diminished
or seemed to disappear entirely.
PLURAL BIRTHS.

Plural births show an infant mortality from two to four times
as high as thé infant mortality among single births, but the number
of plural births is small and they are not, therefore, an important
factor in the total mortality of a community. For example, if no
plural births had occurred in the Baltimore group of births during
1915 the infant mortality rate would have been 97.1 per 1,000 in­
stead of 103.5 per 1,000.846
Just over 1 per cent of the pregnancies studied resulted in plural
births. Of all the births during 1915, 2.5 per cent were plural. But
the losses among plural births were so great that, among the infants
born in 1915 and surviving their first year of life, the number of
twins or triplets was 1.7 per cent of the total survivors.
The three color and nativity groups showed practically no varia­
tion in the percentage of plural births. But there was a slight
variation according to the age of the mother and the number of
children she had borne. The younger mothers showed fewer plural
births than the older mothers, the percentage of plural births increas­
ing steadily from approximately 1 per cent among the mothers
under 20 years of age to approximately 4 per cent among the mothers
35 years of age or over. A similar increase appears when the
first, second, third, and later births are compared. Analysis of
the births during 1915 seems to indicate that order of birth and
age of mother are independent factors in the prevalence of plural
births.85
8<J> See Tables 170,171, 172, and 173, Appendix VII, pp. 361-362.
85 See Tables 174,175,176, and 177, Appendix VII, pp. 362-363.


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

It is clear, also, that the mother who has once had a plural birth
is more likely than other mothers to have plural births. Of the
38,211 pregnancies studied, 1.1 per cent resulted in plural births;
of the 734 pregnancies subsequent to a plural birth, 3.7 per cent
resulted in plural births. This simply indicates that thé second
occurrence of a plural birth is correlated with the occurrence of
a first plural birth.
T a b l e V I. — L oss rates— C om p a rison o f sin g le and p lu ra l births 1 in 1915.

Loss rates.
Type of loss..

Single
birtns.
3.6
3.6
97.1
33.9
63.2

Plural
births. •
5.4
7.1
361.5
192.3
169.2

1Includes miscarriages.

In every sense the losses were high among plural births. Mis­
carriages, stillbirths, and infant deaths %ere all more numerous
among plural than among single births. The infant mortality
among plural births showed its greatest excess in deaths from early
infancy, but it was also high from all other causes Combined. There
was among the plural births a high percentage of premature births,
but it was also found that among the full-term plural births the
mortality rate (266 per 1,000) was more than three times the mor­
tality rate (73.9 per 1,000) among the full-term single births.86
T a b l e V II.— C om p u ted 'a n n u a l in fa n t m orta lity rates, by ty p e o f fe e d in g ; com p a rison
o f p lu ra l an d a ll liv e births in 1915.

Computed infant
mortality rate.
Type of feeding.
All
births.
24.1
43.3
87.4
191.4

Plural
births.
88.5
132.2
256.2
399.0

Among the plural births,87 the percentage of infants artificially
fed was high at each month from the first to the tenth; but, again,
for each type of feeding considered separately, the computed rate
per 1,000 infants fed was markedly higher among the plural-bom
than among the single-bom children.
8« See Tables 178 and 179, Appendix VII, pp. 363 and 364.
87 See Table 180, Appendix V II, p . 364.


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148

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

Of the 403 pregnancies 88 resulting in twin births, 40, or 9.9 per
cent, ended in miscarriage of both fetuses and 3, or 0.7 per cent,
ended in miscarriage of one fetus and live birth of the other. Among
the pregnancies resulting in single births, on the other hand, 6.6
per cent ended in miscarriage.
Again, of these 403 pregnancies resulting in twin births, 9, or 2.2
per cent, ended in the stillbirths of both infants and 34, or 8.4 per
cent, ended in the stillbirth of one infant and the live birth of the
other. But among the pregnancies resulting in single births, only
3.3 per cent ended in stillbirth.
In 317 cases the twins were both bom alive, and 150 pairs of twins,
or 47 per cent of these plural live births, survived the first year;
90 pairs of twins, or 28 per cent of these plural live births died;
and for each of 77 pairs of twins, or 24 per cent, there were one
survivor and one infant death.
T a b l e V I I I .— S u rv iv a l or death o f tw in s in p a irs; birth s,1 a ll pregn a n cies.
Total pairs of twins...............................

403

Both miscarriages....................................
Both stillbirths.....................................
Both live births.................
Both deaths........... ..................................
1 survival and 1 death..............................
Both survivals..................

40
9
317
90
77
150

1 stillbirth and 1 live birth (survivals, 23;
deaths, 11)....................................................
1 miscarriage and 1 live birth (survival, 1;
deaths, 2 )................ ....................................

34
3

1 Includes miscarriages.

The infant mortality rate among these 634 twins who were both
born alive was 405.4 per 1,000. But note the distribution of deaths
and survivals. The twins tended both to survive or both to die.
If the average mortality rate for the whole group of 634 twin-born
infants had applied to them as individuals, the probable distribution
of deaths would have doubled the number of cases where one twin
survived and one twin died and reduced, correspondingly, the num­
bers of cases where both died or both survived.89
88 Among the total pregnancies the mothers had had.
89 N ote .—

Pairs of twins.
Actual dis­ Computed
distribu­
tribution.
tion.
317

317

90
77
150

52.1
152.8
112.1

*‘Computed distribution ’ ’ is derived from chance of death and chance of survival indicated in the average
rate for the 634 infants—405.4 deaths per 1,000 live births. p=chance of death, or 0.4054; ?=chance of sur­
vival, or 1 minus 0.4054, which is 0.5946. The formula pl+2 ps+ff2 gives the following expected distribu­
tions:
Both deaths =317X(0.4054)*=52.1.
One died, one survived =317X2(0.4054) (0.5946) =152.8.
Both survived=317X(0.5946)i =112.1


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PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

149

PREMATURE BIRTHS.

Premature birth resulted in excessive mortality, especially during
the first month of life, and in excessive losses from stillbirth and
miscarriage. If the mortality rates among infants bom at full term
had been applicable to the entire group, the losses from stillbirth and
miscarriage would have been 2.2 instead of 7 per 100 births, and the
infant mortality rate would have been 77.7 instead of 103.5 per 1,00Q
five births. These differences indicate fairly the part played by
premature birth in the total mortality. They do not reveal clearly
the very great difference in hazard to infants bom at full term and
infants born prematurely.
Among the 11,613 births in 1915 and included in the study, 1,173
or 1 in 10 were born prematurely. Of these premature births,
approximately one-half were stillborn; and of the live born premature
infants, less than one-half survived 12 months. Five hundred and
seven were born after less than seven months gestation, and in this
group only 89 were live born and only 3 survived the year. Six
hundred and sixty-four were bom after seven months but less than
nine months gestation, and in this group 500 were live born and
266 survived the year.
Comparing these losses with the losses among the full-term births,
it appears that among the premature births 49.6 per cent of the births
were stillborn (or miscarried) instead of 2.2 per cent stillborn, and
544.8 per 1,000 instead of 77.7 per 1,000 live births died within the
year. Even when the births of less than seven months gestation are
eliminated there was among the premature births a stillbirth rate of
24.7 per 100 births and an infant mortality rate of 468 per 1,000 live
births.
The difference in mortality rates among premature and full-term
births was greatest during the first month— 453.5 per 1,000 live
births in one group and 20.4 per 1,000 live births in the other group;
after the third month the .mortality among the prematurely born
was still higher than among the others but the difference then was
slight.90
It has been noted in the analysis of the infant deaths in the Balti­
more group that 477, or 43 per cent of the total, occurred within one
month after birth. Of these deaths during the first month, 56 per
cent occurred among infants prematurely born, although premature
births were less than 6 per cent of the total live births.
It would seem, therefore, that the prevention of deaths in early
infancy and the prevention of premature births are closely related to
each other and alike depend on protection of the mother. The
relatively high percentages of premature births which have been
MSee Tables 181 and 182, Appendix VU , pp. 364 and 365.


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150

IN T A N T

M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

noted among the first-born children and among all children of young
mothers emphasize the great importance of adequate care and
instruction for young mothers and for all mothers during their first
pregnancy. The high percentage of premature births previously
noted, also, among mothers gainfully employed away from home
during pregnancy emphasizes the importance of freedom from
physical strain.91 In all groups the percentage of premature births
could doubtless have been greatly reduced b y the general applica­
tion of known principles of hygiene and medical care.
SEX OF INFANT.

The Baltimore group offered no exception to the general fact that
male infants have a higher mortality than female infants. This
appeared in a higher percentage of miscarriages, a higher stillbirth
rate, a higher percentage of premature births, and a higher mortality
among the full-term live-born infants.
T a b l e I X . — L oss rates, by s e x ; births 1 in 1915.

Loss rates.
Type of loss.
Male.

Premature Births (per lOOlive births)...................................................................... ......

3.4
3.8
5.9
115.1
87.3
553.5

Female.
1.6
3.3
5.0
91.3
67.7
534.1

1 Includes miscarriages.

The total number of male births #as higher than the total number
of female births in the native and foreign-born white families, and, in
spite of the higher mortality among male infants, the number of males
surviving the first year was also slightly higher than the number of
females surviving the first year in these two groups. Among the
colored births, on the other hand, there were more female births than
male births and markedly more female survivors than male sur­
vivors.92
MATERNAL DEATHS.

When a mother dies from childbirth or from any other cause
within 12 months after a birth, her baby faces a special hazard. In
the Baltimore group 106 births, including 72 live births, were to
mothers who died during the following year. Among these liveborn infants the mortality rate from all causes was 486.1 per 1,000,
with a mortality from early infancy alone of 250 per 1,000. Among
M See p. 117.
MSee Tables 183 and 184, Appendix VTI, pp. 365 and 366.


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151

PHYSICAL FACTORS IN IN FA N T MORTALITY.

the 32 live-born infants whose mothers died within 2 months after
childbirth, or later in the year from a cause known to be connected
with childbirth, the mortality rate from all causes rose to 625 per
1,000 and the mortality from early infancy to 375 per 1,000 live
births. Even in so small a group, these rates indicate an excess
hazard far beyond the range of a chance variation from the rates
for infants whose mothers lived throughout the year— 100.9 from all
causes and 36.3 from the diseases of early infancy.
T a b l e X .— In fa n t m orta lity rates fr o m sp ecified causes, by su rviva l or death o f m oth er;
liv e births in 1915.

Infant mortality rate.
Survival or death of mother.

Mothers surviving.................................................. .
From childbirth or within 2 months....................

Live
births.

10,725
. 72
32
40

All
causes.

100.9
486.1
625.0
375.0

Gastric
Early
and in­
testinal infancy.
diseases.
28.6
97.2
93.8
100.0

36.3
250.0
375.0
150.0

All other
causes.

36.0
138.9
156.3
125.0

The excess in mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases and
from all other causes was less than the excess in mortality from early
infancy and showed no such marked variation between the infants of
mothers who died within 2 months after childbirth and the infants of
mothers who died later in the year.
Among the births (whether miscarriages, stillbirths, or live births)
to mothers who died within the year after the baby’s birth a markedly
high percentage of premature births was found, but this accounts
only in part for the excessive infant mortality among infants whose
mothers died. When the premature births and the full-term births
are considered separately it appears that in each group the live-born
infants whose mothers died within the year had a higher mortality
than other live-born infants in the same group; but it is noted that
the high mortality among premature infants whose mothers died
was assigned wholly to early infancy while the high mortality among
full-term infants whose mothers died was due to other causes.93
Of the 106 births to the mothers who died, 34 were stillborn (or
miscarried)— a total of 32.1 per cent. Of the 11,507 births to mothers
who lived, 782 were stillborn (or miscarried)— a total rate of 6.8 per
cent. Among the premature births the difference in loss was less
marked in the two groups— 54 per cent where the mother died and
49.5 per cent where the mother lived. But among the full-term
births, the still-birth rate (20.3 per cent) was about 10 times higher
when the mother died than when the mother lived (2.1 per cent).
»» See Table 185, Appendix VII, p . 367.


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152

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Evidently the relation is close between hazard to the mother and
hazard to her child. The live-bom baby whose mother dies may
suffer from the prenatal effect of the condition which leads to the
mother’s death; it may suffer from the lack of the mother’s nursing
and care. Premature birth and stillbirth or miscarriage may also
result from a condition which leads afterwards to the mother’s
death. The data show unmistakably that a high infant mortality,
a high percentage of prematurity, and high losses from stillbirth
and miscarriage accompany the mothers’ deaths.
Perhaps this relation appears even more clearly if the mortality
rates among the mothers are considered. In the group as a whole
105 maternal deaths occurred within one year after the birth, or 9.7
per 1,000 live births. Fifty of these deaths were assigned to causes
connected with childbirth; 18, or 1.7 per 1,000 live births, to puer­
peral septicemia; 14, or 1.3 per 1,000 live births, to puerperal
albuminuria and convulsions; and 18, or 1.7 per 1,000 live births,
to all other causes related to childbirth. But in addition to these
50 mothers whose deaths were ascribed to childbirth, 7 others died
within one month, 4 after one month but in less than two months,
and 7 after two months but within three months after confinement.
If the confinement was a contributing cause of the mother’s death
in these 18 cases the actual loss from deaths related to childbirth
would be approximately 6.3 per 1,000 live births. But these rates
vary with the nature of the birth.
Among the 798 confinements resulting in stillbirths and mis­
carriages, 29 mothers died from causes related to childbirth or from
other stated cause within three months* after the birth— a death rate
within the year of 36.3 per 1,000 confinements. But among the
10,665 resulting in live births, 39 mothers died from causes related
to childbirth or from other stated cause within three months after
the birth— a death rate within the year of 3.7 per 1,000 confinements.
Again, among the 1,131 mothers prematurely confined (whether
with miscarriage, stillbirth, or live birth), 28 mothers died from such
cause— a death rate of 24.8 per 1,000 confinements. And among the
562 mothers prematurely delivered of live-born children, considered
by themselves, 13 mothers died from such causes— a death rate of
23.1 per 1,000 confinements.
On the other hand, among the 10,322 mothers delivered at full
term, 40 maternal deaths occurred from such causes, or a death rate
of 3.9 per 1,000 confinements. Behind this average, again, there was
an excessive maternal death rate of 61.7 per 1,000 confinements
among the 227 mothers delivered at term of stillborn infants, and a
rate lower than the average for the entire group only among the
mothers delivered at term of live-born infants.


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STILLBIRTHS.

• From the mothers’ statements about all their pregnancies, it
appears that in the group as a whole the total number of stillbirths
and miscarriages, among the 38,630 births reported, was equal to 91
per cent of the total number of infant deaths occurring among their
live-born infants— 3,786 stillbirths and miscarriages and 4,158
infants deaths. In the Jewish families, with their exceptionally low
infant mortality, the number of stillbirths and miscarriages— 309—
was greater than the number of infant deaths— 232. And in the
colored families, with their exceptionally high miscarriage and still­
birth rates (as well as high infant mortality), the number of still­
births and miscarriages— 842—was also greater than the number of
infant deaths— 751. Only among the Polish families and the foreign
other than Jewish, Polish, or Italian, were the total stillbirths and
miscarriages markedly fewer than the infant deaths. The Poles,
'with an excessive infant mortality (chiefly from gastric and intestinal
diseases) had an average stillbirth rate and a miscarriage rate below
the average. The group of “ other foreign” families showed an
average mortality and average stillbirth rate but, like the Poles, a
miscarriage rate below the average.94
In the present study the word “ stillbirth” refers to dead births of
at least seven months gestation and “ miscarriage” to dead births of
a shorter term. The substantial agreement in stillbirth rates shown
in the two sets of data suggests a fairly complete reporting of still­
births, both in the registration of births during 1915 and in the
mothers’ statements about their previous pregnancies. On the
other hand, registration of miscarriages seems to have been far from
complete, since the miscarriage rates based on births during 1915
were in every nationality group markedly lower than the miscarriage
rates based on all pregnancies. Whether the mothers’ reporting of
miscarriages was itself complete is a question that can not be deter­
mined. It may be noted, however, that the variations in miscarriage
rate b y nationality were approximately the same in the two sets of
data— the colored rate above the average for all and the Polish and
“ other foreign” rates below the average for all.
The average loss from miscarriages (all pregnancies) was 67 per
1,000 births and the average loss from stillbirths (all pregnancies)
was 33 per 1,000 births.
»«See Tables 187 and 188, Appendix V II, p . 368.

153


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154

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Certain variations in stillbirth rates have been noted in earlier
sections of the report: The rate rises with the mothers’ employment
away from home during pregnancy, with the mother’s advancing
years, and with the bearing of very large families.95
What relation is there between stillbirth and infant mortality?
Medical authorities agree that many of the causes of stillbirth and of
deaths from causes peculiar to early infancy are identical. One
would expect, therefore, to find the variations in stillbirth rates and
in mortality from early infancy following the same general trend in
the several groups. And it is true that the colored families, with a
high infant mortality, especially high from early infancy, had the
highest stillbirth rate in the Baltimore group. But the foreign-bom
Jewish families, with a low infant mortality, including a low rate
from the causes peculiar to early infancy, the Polish families, with a
high inf ant mortality and a rate above the average from early infancy,
and the Italian families, with an average infant mortality and a rate
somewhat below the average from early infancy, had approximately
equal stillbirth rates, with such difference as there was tending
toward a high stillbirth rate in the Italian families and a low still­
birth rate in the Polish families. Again, the foreign-bom white
group as a whole had a lower mortality from early infancy than the'
native-white group, but the stillbirth rates in the two groups were
practically identical.
Except in the colored group, therefore, the data show no coinci­
dence of stillbirths and infant deaths.
96 See Tables 73, 103, 104, 132,133,144, 145, 149, 154, 189, and 190, Appendix VII, pp. 282, 305, 306, 335,
341,342, 344, 348. 368. and 369.


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ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

It lias been noted that certain families were excluded from the
study of the normal group because of temporary absence from Balti­
more or removal from the city. In studying the babies bom out of
wedlock a different method was followed. Information was secured
about every baby of illegitimate birth for whom the facts could
be ascertained, whether the baby and mother were still living in
Baltimore or had left the city. One source of information was the
birth and death certificates, and (since none but registered births
were included) information was available from the birth certificates
for all infants. This method of study, however, offered a complica­
tion in computing an infant mortality rate, since only deaths that
occurred within the city were registered in Baltimore.96
Besides securing this information, every effort was made to obtain
an interview with the mother and to add detailed information on
points not covered in the birth or death- certificates. Shifting of
residence of mother and baby was so frequent an occurrence that it
was difficult to locate the mothers. A special effort was made, there­
fore, to secure information in regard to this shifting of residence and
separation of mother and baby that are so characteristic of the life
of the illegitimate baby.
THE M OTHERS.
Color and nativity.

Of the 12,045 births to white mothers registered as occurring
during 1915 in Baltimore, 420, or 3.5 per cent, were illegitimate. Of
the 2,555 births to colored mothers, 704, or 27.6 per cent, were
illegitimate. In the illegitimate white group, less than half (192, or
45.7 per cent) were scheduled; in the illegitimate colored group,
more than two-thirds (487, or 69.2 per cent) were scheduled.96®
T a b l e I.— Color, nativity, and -parentage o f mother, by legitimacy o f birth; scheduled

legitimate and illegitimate births in 1915.
Legitimate births. Illegitimate births.
Color, nativity, and parentage of m oth «.

One or both parents foreign...........................................
Parentage not reported................... .. — 1.....................

Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
11,613

100.0

679

100.0

10,104
7,210
(a)
(«)
(“ )
2,894
1,509

87.0
62.1
(«)
(«)
(a)
24.9
13.0

192
174
111
43
20
18
487

28.3
25.6
16.3
6.3
2.9
2.7
71.7

a Parentage of mothers of legitimate children not reported, hut compare census figures shown on p. 28.
b Foreign-horn white mothers of illegitimate children include 8 Polish, 3 German, 1 English, I Irish,
1 Scotch, 1 Lettish, 2 Russian Jewish, and 1 other Jewish. For nationalities of legitimate mothers see
p . 29.

»« Seep. 168.
»to See Table 191, Appendix V II, p. 369.


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155

156

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

The nativity of the white mothers was tabulated only for the
scheduled group, and among these 192 white mothers were 18 women
of foreign birth, a percentage about one-third of the percentage of
foreign-bom women in the group of legitimate births to white women.
It is not known whether the larger group of unscheduled illegitimate
white births included also a low percentage of foreign-bom women.
Employment.

Women employed outside their homes predominated, both among
the white and colored mothers of children bom out of wedlock. In
the large group (total registered illegitimate births), the fact of the
mother’s employment or nonemployment during pregnancy was not
reported for 31 per cent of the white women and 14 per cent of the
colored women, but 53 per cent of the white women and 70 per cent
of the colored women were stated to have been employed outside their
homes. Twelve per cent of the white women and 10 per cent of the
colored women were reported as not employed during pregnancy.97
Domestic service was the chief - occupation among the colored
women and ranked second to factory work in importance among the
white women. The mothers of 491, or 70 per cent, of the colored
births and 88, or 21 per cent, of the white births were in domestic
service and kindred occupations, which included those of laundress,
waitress, cook, or kitchen girl, charwoman, nursemaid, and chamber­
maid. Of the white women 102, or 24 per cent, were factory oper­
atives and of the colored women 40, or 6 per cent. The other white
women who were employed were stenographers or clerks (13), sales­
women (6), nurses (4), school teachers (3), seamstresses (10), and
telephone operators (3). Eight white women and 4 colored women
were scattered among the following occupations: Chorus girl, com­
panion, hairdresser, demonstrator, peddler, florist’s helper, proprietor
of grocery store, farm worker, maid in hospital, maid in department
store, lady’s maid, and prostitute.98
Age.

The extreme youth of most of the mothers of children bom out of
wedlock is noteworthy. Fifty-five of them (5 per cent) were under
16 years of age, 180 (16 per cent) were 16 and 17 years of age, and
274 (24 per cent) were 18 but less than 20 years of age. Six of the
girls under 16 and 9 of the girls between 16 and 20 years old were
school girls. In all, 87 (17 per cent) of these mothers under 20 years
of age are known not to have been gainfully employed, while among the
97 In the scheduled group, with a smaller percentage of mothers whose employment or nonemployment
was not reported, there were relatively more employed away and more not employed. Only the percentage
employed at home remained approximately the same as in the entire group. For exact figures, see Table
192, Appendix VII, p. 370.
»8 See Tables 193 and 194, Appendix VII, pp. 370 and 371.


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ILLEGITIMATE BIKTHS.

157

mothers 20 years or older the number known not to have been gainfully
employed was only 6 per cent of the total. The colored mothers
were somewhat younger than the white mothers— with 26 per cent
under 18 years of age among the colored mothers and 13 per cent
under 18 years of age among the white mothers. But, on the other
hand, fewer of the colored mothers than of the white mothers were
between 20 and 25 years of age, and among the colored mothers 12
per cent, but among the white mothers 9 per cent, were 30 years of
age or older."
Civil condition at confinement.

The civil condition of the mother at the time of the birth is known
only for the scheduled group, and even here it is not known for seven,
or 4 per cent, of the white mothers and four, or 0.8 per cent, of the
colored mothers. Of the white women, 78 per cent were single, 15
per cent were widowed, divorced, or separated from a husband, and
4 per cent were married. Of the colored women, 88 per cent were
single, 11 per cent were widowed, divorced, or separated from a hus­
band, and 1 per cent were married.1
Previous births.

The illegitimate birth in 1915 was, in the majority of cases, the first
the mother had borne, but one in four of the white mothers and about
two in five of the colored mothers (scheduled group) had »previously
had at least one illegitimate birth. Among both the white and the
colored women were a few, also, who had borne one or more legitimate
children but no illegitimate child previous to the 1915 birth.
The order of birth of the illegitimate birth in 1915 is known for the
entire group, with the exception of one white child and four colored
children for whom it was not reported on the birth certificate. Eightytwo per cent of the white births and 58 per cent of the colored births
were first-born children; 5 per cent of the white births and 15 per
cent of the colored births were fourth or later-borne children. Cases
other than the first birth proved slightly easier to trace, so in the
scheduled group the percentage of first-born children dropped to 73
per cent of the white births and 55 per cent of the colored births.
Only for the scheduled group is the legitimacy of the previous births
known. In this group (192 white and 487 colored) there were 52 white
women and 219 colored women who had borne other children. For
4 white women and 9 colored women the legitimacy of the previous
births was not reported; for 16 white women, or 8.3 per cent of the
total scheduled, and for 21 colored women, or 4.3 per cent of the total
scheduled, the previous births had all been legitimate. The white
women had borne from 1 to 6 legitimate children and the colored
99 See Tables 195 and 196, Appendix VU, pp. 371 and 372.


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i See Table 197, Appendix V n , p . 372.

158

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

women from 1 to 9 legitimate children. Twenty-four white women
(or 12.5 per cent of the total scheduled) and 165 colored women (or
33.9 per cent of the total scheduled) had borne only illegitimate
children, the white women from 1 to 3 children previous to the birth
of 1915 and the colored women from 1 to 12 children previous to the
birth of 1915. In all, including the birth of 1915, these 24 white
women had borne 57 illegitimate children and these 165 colored
women had borne 531 illegitimate children. In addition, 8 white
women and 24 colored women (4.2 per cent and 4.9 per cent, respec­
tively, of the totals scheduled) had borne at least 1 illegitimate and
1 legitimate child previous to the birth of 1915, or a total, including
the birth of 1915, of 59 white children and 162 colored children.2
Literacy.

One other item is known about the scheduled mothers of illegiti­
mate children. A slightly higher percentage of these women than of
the mothers in the legitimate group were illiterate— 10.9 per cent of
the white women, instead of 9.3 per cent, and 16.2 per cent of the
colored women, instead of 12.4 per cent.
THE FATHERS.

^

Information about the fathers is comparatively meager. The
birth certificates supposedly state the father’s color, age, and occu­
pation, but the age was not reported for 29.5 per cent of the fathers
of white children and 9.5 per cent of the fathers of colored children,3
and the occupation was not reported for 35.5 per cent of the fathers
of white children and 11.8 per cent of the fathers of colored children.
The father’s color was stated, however, for all except the fathers of
15, or 2.1 per cent, of the births to colored women.
Two of the 420 white women had births b y colored fathers. About
these colored fathers nothing is stated except that one had died
before the birth. Two of the 704 colored mothers are stated to have
had births by white fathers, one classed as “ teamster, chauffeur, or
delivery man,” and one as “ clerk.” But there may have been other
white fathers in the group of 15 cases where the mother was colored
and the color of the father was not reported. The occupations of
these 15 fathers were not reported.
Unfortunately, the occupations of the fathers as stated on the
birth certificates do not lend themselves to exact classification or
comparison with the occupations of the fathers of legitimate children.
The fathers were so scattered through the various types of occu­
pations that, except for the 277 colored laborers and the 88 colored
teamsters, chauffeurs, and delivery men,” the number of white or
a See Tables 198,199, and 200, Appendix V II, pp. 373, 374, and 375.
s See Tables 201 and 202, Appendix VH , pp. 375 and 376.


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ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

159

colored fathers of children born out of wedlock in any 1 of the 19
occupations given was less than 40 and frequently less than 10.
Moreover, any conclusions as to the prevalence of certain types of
occupations among the fathers of illegitimate children based on less
than two-thirds of the white group and less than nine-tenths of the
colored group would, in any case, be subject to serious error. Inexact
registration of occupation is also an important factor. The number
of colored “ laborers,” for example, in the illegitimate group, repre­
sented 45.6 per cent of the colored fathers in that group having a
stated occupation, while in the colored legitimate group 34.5 per cent
of the fathers having a stated occupation were classified as laborers.
This apparent excess of laborers in the illegitimate group might indi­
cate nothing but a tendency on the part of physicians and midwives
to classify all unskilled workers as laborers.4
Both the white and colored fathers seem to have been older than
the mothers. Omitting the 124 white fathers and the 67 colored
fathers whose ages were not reported, in the white group 6 per cent
were under 20 years of age and 20 per cent 30 years *of age or older;
in the colored group, 14 per cent were under 20 years of age and
25 per cent 30 years of age or older.5
.

THE BIRTHS.
Place o f confinement and attendant at birth.

Far more of the illegitimate births than of the others occurred in
hospitals. In the total group of illegitimate births, 46 per cent were
hospital births as against 13 per cent in the total group of legitimate
births and 10 per cent in the scheduled group of legitimate births.
Fifty-six illegitimate births, or 5 per cent of the total, occurred
in institutions, including two infants bom in jail. The illegitimate
births in hospitals and institutions were more difficult to trace than
those in private houses. Less than half the hospital births were
scheduled and only 10 of the 56 births in institutions, while of the
551 births in private houses 424 were studied in detail. But even
with the relatively small number of hospital births included in the
scheduled group there still was in that group a percentage of hospital
births (36 per cent of the total number scheduled) far in excess of
the percentage of hospital births in the legitimate groups.
A relatively high percentage of births attended by physicians
accompanied, of course, the high percentage of hospital births in
the illegitimate group.6
Prenatal care.

For the scheduled illegitimate births, information was secured
about the mother’s prenatal care. Of the white women the per4 See Table 201, Appendix VII, p. 375.
6 See Table 202, Appendix VII, p. 376.


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6 See Tables 203 and 204, Appendix VII, p. 377.

160

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

centage reporting no prenatal care by a physician was the same
among the legitimate and the illegitimate births, but a slightly smaller
percentage of the mothers of children bom out of wedlock than of
the others reported prenatal care of grade A or B. Among the
colored mothers of children bom out of wedlock, however, a smaller
percentage reported no prenatal care and a slightly higher percent­
age reported prenatal care of grade A or B than among the legiti­
mate colored mothers.6“
CONDITIONS DURING YEAR AFTER BIRTH.7
Relation of mothers and fathers.

Thirteen per cent (25) of the white mothers of children bom out
of wedlock and 18 per cent (86) of the colored mothers lived with
the men b y whom they had borne children in 1915 during the whole
or the greater part of the year following the birth. But although
more of the colored mothers than of the white mothers lived with
the fathers of their children, slightly more of the white mothers than
of the colored-mothers were married to them during the year— 10
per cent of the white mothers and 8 per cent of the colored mothers.
These marriages include in the white group 2 women (or 1 per cent^
of all the white mothers) and in the colored group 9 women (or 2 per
cent of all the colored mothers) who did not live with the fathers of
their children during the greater part of the year following the 1915
birth.8
In addition to these 25 white women and 86 colored women who
lived with the men by whom they had borne illegitimate children in
1915, there were 50 white women, or 26 per cent of the total, and
171 colored women, or 35 per cent of the total, who reported that
the fathers of their children had contributed something to their own
or their child’s support. For 12 per cent of the white women and 4
per cent of the colored women, no report was made as to whether or
not the father contributed to the support of mother or child. The
median amounts contributed by both the white and the colored
fathers were between $50 and $100. In the colored group, however,
there were relatively more contributing under $5— I per cent (17)
instead of 0.5 per cent (1) of the white group— and also relatively
more contributing $100 and over— 9 per cent (45) instead of 6 per
cent (13).
The number of fathers who did not live with the mothers and con­
tributed nothing to the support of mother or child was relatively
greater in the white group than in the colored group— white, 49 per
cent (94); colored, 43 per cent (211).
so See Table 205, A p pen d ix V II, p . 378.
The statements about conditions during the year following the birth are based entirely on the scheduled
group—192'white issues and 487 colored issues.
8 See Tables 197 and 206, Appendix VII, pp. 372 and 378.
7


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161

ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

In both groups the percentage who contributed nothing to the
mother’s support was higher where the birth was a stillbirth or mis­
carriage than where it was a live-bom infant. The difference was
especially marked in the white group. But even where the infants
were live-born, more of the white fathers than of the colored fathers
contributed nothing to the support of mother or child.9
Where the mothers lived.

Two-fifths of the mothers in both groups lived in their parental
homes during the year after the birth. And these women, together
with the women who lived with the child’s father, were considerably
more than half of the mothers, both white and colored.
It has been noted that more of the colored mothers than of the
white mothers lived with the fathers of their children. It was found
also that more of the colored mothers than of the white mothers
lived with relatives or friends other than their parents or the fathers
of their children. On the other hand, 10 per cent (19) of the white
mothers but none of the colored mothers lived in an institution or
hospital.
T a b l e II.— M other's mode o f living during whole or greater part o f year after confinem ent;
. scheduled illegitimate births 1 in 1915.

Mother’s mode of living during whole or greater part of year after confinement.

Per cent distribu­
tion: scheduled
illegitimate births
in 1915.
White
Colored
mothers. mothers.

Witlv other relatives or friends...................................................... ..................................
With father of child...........................................................................................................
Own establishment pr boarding.............................. ........................................................

100.0

100.0

41.1
6.3
13.0
12.6
3.1
9.9
2.6
1.6
10.4

40.2
11.5
17.7
12.3
3.1
2.3
2.3
10.7

1Includes miscarriages.

The white group studied in detail includes 39 stillbirths, miscar­
riages, and infant deaths under 2 weeks of age and 153 infants who
lived at least two weeks. The colored group includes 112 stillbirths,
miscarriages, and infant deaths under 2 weeks of age and 375
infants who lived at least two weeks. A comparison of the mode of
living of the mothers whose babies lived two weeks and of the others
reveals certain differences which can not be pressed to definite con­
clusions but which should be noted. Among the women whose in» See Tables 207 and 208, Appendix VII, pp. 379 and 380.

101351°— 23----- 11


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162

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

fants had survived the first two weeks certain types of living arrange- .
ments were reported by relatively more than among the mothers of
dead births or of infants dying within two weeks after birth. ^Thus,
in the white and in the colored group, more mothers were living in­
dependently, more mothers were living at service, and more mothers
were living with friends or relatives other than their parents. And
among the white mothers, also, a higher percentage were in an insti­
tution or a hospital and among the colored mothers a higher percent­
age lived in their parental homes. On the other hand, fewer, both
of the white and of the colored women, were living with the father
of the child or with some other man, and among the white women
fewer were living in their parental homes.
T a b l e I I I .— M other’s mode o f living during whole or greater part o f year after confinement,
by color o f mother; scheduled illegitimate births m 1915.
Per cent distribution;2 scheduled illegitimate
births1in 1915.
White mothers.
Mother’s mode of living during whole or greater part
of year after confinement.

Colored mothers.
Stillbirths,
miscar­
Infants
riages, or ■ surviving
deaths
2 weeks.
under 2
weeks.

Stillbirths,
miscar­
riages, or
deaths
under 2
weeks.

Infants
surviving
2 weeks.

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

40.5
6.5
12.4
12.4
3.9
11.1
1.3
,7
11.1

35.7
6.3
21.4
9.8
2.7

41.6
13.1
16.5
13.1
3.2

4.5
3.6
16.1

1.6
1.9
9.1

With other relatives or friends.........................................

In institution or hospital— . . . . . . . . . —
i t ..........
With husband or other man (not father of child j ..........

is less than 100. See Table 206, Appendix VII, pp. 378-379.

Civil condition of mother at one year after confinement.

It has been noted that 4 per cent (7) of the white mothers of
children bom out of wedlock and 1 per cent (5) of the colored mothers
were married women; and, further, that 3 per cent (5) of the white
mothers and 2 per cent (11) of the colored mothers in this group
lived during the whole or the greater part of the year following the
confinement with a husband or some other man, not the father of
the illegitimate child bom in 1915. Comparing the civil condition
of the mother at confinement with her civil condition one year later,
it is found that these women who spent the whole or the greater part
of the year with a husband or some other man were'only part of the
total number who definitely reported marriage during the year to a
man other than the father of the illegitimate child.


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ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

163

Thus, among the white mothers 9 single women and 3 who had
been widowed or divorced, were married to a man other than
the father of the child, and of the 7 white mothers of children
bom out of wedlock who were married women, 6 were living at the
end of the year. Apart, therefore, from the 15 white women whose
civil condition at the end of the year was not reported, there were
at least 13 white women, or 7 per cent of the total, who lived with
a man other than the father of the illegitimate child at some time
during the year after the birth, in addition to the 5 women (3 per
cent of the total) who reported spending the whole or the greater
part of the year with such a man.
Among the colored mothers 16 single women were married during
the year to a man other than the father of the child and 5 had been
married women at the time of the birth. Hence, apart from the 16
colored women whose civil condition at the end of the year was not
reported, there were at least 17, or 4 per cent of the total, who lived
with a man other than the father of the illegitimate child at some
time during the year after the birth, in addition to the 11 women (2
per cent of the total) who reported spending the whole or the greater
part of the year with such a man.
To what extent, if at all, the mothers of children born out of wed­
lock in either the white or the colored group lived with the fathers of
their children or with other men for short periods during the year
the data do not indicate.
Of the 149 single women among the white mothers of children bom
out of wedlock, 79 per cent were single at the end of the year, 11 per
cent had been married to the father of the child, and 6 per cent had
been married to another man. Of the 29 white mothers who had
been widowed, divorced, or separated at the time of the birth, 69
per cent reported their civil condition as unchanged, 10 per cent had
been married to the father of the child, and 10 per cent had been
married to another man.
Of the 426 single women among the colored mothers of children
bom out of wedlock, 82 per cent were single at the end of the year,
9 per cent had been married to the father of the child, and 4 per cent
had been married to another man. Of the 52 colored mothers who
had been widowed, divorced, or separated at the time of the birth,
96 per cent reported their civil condition as unchanged a year later.
Two per cent (1 mother) had been married, but whether to the father
of the child or to another man is not known.
For 8 per cent of the white women and 3 per cent of the colored
women the civil condition at the end of the year was not reported.
These 15 white women included not only the 7 whose civil condition
at the time of the birth was not reported but also 6 who were single


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IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

164

and 2 who were “ widowed, divorced, or separated” at the time of
the birth. And these 16 colored women included not only the 4 whose
civil condition at the time of the birth was not reported but also 12
who were then single.10
Maternal deaths.

A relatively high percentage of these mothers are known to have
died during the year. Classifying the maternal deaths according to
the stated cause of death, it is found that among this group of mothers
the deaths assigned to causes directly related to childbirth numbered
9 per 1,000 confinements, while among the mothers of children born in
wedlock they numbered 4.4 per 1,000. Deaths occurring within the
year but assigned to other causes numbered among these mothers
11.9 per 1,000 confinements, but among the mothers in the legiti­
mate group 4.8 per 1,000. That the high maternal death rate in
the illegitimate group is not due wholly to the large proportion of
colored women, whose hazard in childbirth is usually greater than
the hazard to white women, is suggested by the fact that m the legiti­
mate group as a whole the maternal deaths from all stated causes were
9.2 per 1,000 confinements; in the illegitimate group the maternal
deaths from all stated causes among white women totaled 15.7 per
1,000 confinements and among colored women 22.9 per 1,000.
Evidently the death- rate among mothers of children born out of
wedlock is excessive, not only among the white mothers but also
among the colored mothers, as compared with the rates among
mothers in the legitimate group.11
Economic status of the mothers.

Of the economic status of the mothers during the year after the
birth of an illegitimate child in 1915 there is little exact information.
Such data as there are indicate extreme poverty. It has been noted
that 49 per cent (94) of the white mothers and 43 per cent (211) of
the colored mothers did not live with the fathers of their children
and received no support from them, and that the amounts paid
toward the support of the mother and child by those fathers who did
not live with them but made some contribution were in most cases
very small. Fifty white fathers (26 per cent) and 171 colored fathers
(35 per cent) made contributions, but only 13 of these white fathers
and 45 of these colored fathers contributed $100 or more. The
median earnings of the white fathers and of the colored fathers who
lived with the mother and whose earnings were stated were lower
than the median earnings of white and of colored fathers in the normal
10 See Table 197, Appendix V II, p. 372.


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u see Table 209, Appendix VII, p. 381.

ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

165

group. Part of the difference may have been due to the relatively
high percentage in the illegitimate groups whose earnings were not
reported, and, furthermore, a difference appearing in a group so small
as that of the fathers of children bom out of wedlock who lived with
the mothers during the year after the birth can not be pressed to
definite conclusions.13
No information was obtained regarding the economic status of the
mother’s parents, or the extent to which the material needs of the
mothers were provided for in the large number of cases where the
women lived in their parental homes during the year after the birth.
But 80 per cent of the women in the scheduled group were gainfully
employed during the year before the birth and at least 77 per cent
during the year after the birth. The actual percentages may have
been even higher, since the fact of employment or nonemployment
was not reported for 3 per cent during pregnancy and for 4 per cent
during the year following. The earnings of the mothers were utterly
inadequate for their support. Only 12 mothers of the 501 who worked
during the year earned as much as $350. Or, considering separately
the 297 mothers who worked at least nine months of the year, it is
found that more than half this group earned less than $250, with
7 mothers earning less than $50 in cash (although 4 of these received
meals in addition) and 2 mothers working for room and board with
no cash wages whatever.13
More than two-thirds (68 per cent) of the women who had been
employed during pregnancy returned to their former occupations or
to other occupations included in the same group; 20 per cent shifted
to a new occupation; 11 per cent did not resume gainful employment;
and for 2 per cent of those employed during pregnancy employment
during the year following was not reported. Of the mothers who had
not been employed during pregnancy, 40 per cent were employed
during the year after the birth. Comparing the total numbers en­
gaged in the five principal occupations during pregnancy and during
the year following, it appears that the numbers working in domestic
service and in factory work decreased while the numbers working in
the occupations akin to domestic service— as laundress, waitress, cook,
or kitchen girl, or as charwoman— increased.14
Where the babies lived.

One in three of the white babies and one in six of the colored babies
were, at some time during the year, in an institution or a boarding
home or boarding with a private family. The white babies were
chiefly in institutions and the colored babies chiefly in boarding
homes or boarding in private homes.
12 See Table 207, Appendix V II, p. 379.
J4 See Table 194, Appendix VII, p. 371.
n See Tables 192, 194, and 210, Appendix VII, pp. 370,371, and 382.


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166

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e IV.

In fan t’s place o f residence, by color o f mother; scheduled illegitimate live
births in 1915.

Scheduled illegitimate live births in 1915.

Infant’s place of residence.

White mothers.

Colored mothers.

Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
Total................... ......
Institution......................
Institution and boarded.......
Boarding home.............
Boarded in private home...
Boarding home and private hom e..
Never inmate of institution or boarded.
Not reported..........

163

100.0

409

100.0

29
6
15
3
1
108
1

17.8
3.7
9.2
1.8
.6
66.3
.6

4
1
39
23
3
339

1.0
.2
9.5
5.6
.7
82.9

But not all these infants spent the whole, or even the greater part,
of the year, or of their lives, in an institution or boarding. Among
those who survived the first two weeks of life, approximately fourfifths of the infants (78 per cent of the white infants and 82 per cent
of the colored infants) spent more than half of the year (or of their
fives) with their mothers. In addition, 4 per cent of the white infants
and 1 per cent of the colored infants lived more than half the time
with foster parents, and 4 per cent of the colored infants (but none
of the white infants) with the mother’s relatives. Among the
remainder— the 18 per cent of the white infants and the 13 per cent
of the colored infants who had survived the first two weeks of fife
and spent the greater part of the year in an institution or boarding—
it appears again that institutions predominated for the white infants
and boarding homes or boarding in private homes predominated for
the colored infants.
T a b l e Y — Infant’s place o f residence during greater part o f first year o f life, by color

o j mother; scheduled illegitimate infants surviving the first two weeks.
Scheduled illegitimate infants surviving
first 2 weeks.
Infant’s place of residence during greater part of first year.

White mothers.

Colored mothers.

Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
Total........................

375

1_

With mother’ s relatives............
With foster parents..............
In institution or hospital........
In boarding home. . . . .
Inerivate home..........
With others..............
Never separated from mother
Away part of time................


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o# y

.

120
97

78.4

4
1
31
15
2
309

100.0
3.5
1.1
•3
8.3
4.0
J5
82.4
74.4
8.0

167

ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

Of the 33 white infants away from the mother more than half the
year 16 were among the 17 whose mothers’ mode of living was not
reported. And of the 66 colored infants away from the mother
30 were among the 34 whose mothers’ mode of living was not re­
ported. For the others, a smaller percentage of the infants in both
the white and colored groups were away from the mother when she
lived with the father or with another man than under any other
circumstances. In the colored group, the next smallest percentage
of infants away from the mother appeared in the group whose mothers
lived in their parental homes. But this was not so in the white
group. There the mothers living in an institution, the mothers
having their own establishments or boarding, and the mothers living
with relatives (other than parents) or with friends all showed a
smaller percentage whose infants were separated from them than
the mothers living in their parental homes.15
* T able

Y I.— M oth er's m ode o f liv in g , by co lo r and sep a ra tion o f in fa n t fr o m m oth er;
scheduled illeg itim a te in fa n ts su rv ivin g fir s t tw o w eeks.
Scheduled illegitimate infants surviving the first 2 weeks.
White mothers.
Mother’s mode of living.

Colored mothers.

Away from
mother.1

Away from
mother.i
Total.

Total.
Number. Per cent.

Number. Per cent.

Total...................................................

1.53

33

21.6

375

66

17.6

Parental home.............................................
With other relatives or friends...................

62
10
19
19
6

10
1

16.1
10.0

2
3
1

10.5
50.0
5.9

156
49
62
49
12

7
10
2
4
9

4.5
20.4
3.2
8.2
75.0

16

94.1

6
7
34

4
30

57.1
88.2

Own establishment or boarding.................
At service.....................................................
With husband or other man (not father
Not reported................................................

2
1
17

1 During whole or greater part of year, or of life.

SU M M ARY OF SOCIAL BACKGROUND.

In so far, therefore, as the scheduled group, including 46 per cent
of the total white illegitimate births and 69 per cent of the total
colored illegitimate births occurring during 1915, offers a fair picture
of the condition of these mothers and their babies, it indicates
certain differences in the status of mothers of children born but of
wedlock among the colored population and the white population
which may account for the greater excess in mortality among white
illegitimate infants, which is revealed in the discussion below of
deaths and mortality rates.
is For more detailed figures, see Table 211, Appendix V U , p. 383.


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168

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Births out of wedlock were more common among colored women
than among white women. Not only was there a high percentage
of illegitimate births in the total births during the year, but also
among the colored mothers a relatively high percentage reported
having borne several illegitimate children previously.
More of the colored than of the white mothers were single women;
fewer had been widowed, divorced, or separated, fewer were married
women at the time of the birth, and fewer were married either to
the father of the child or to another man during the year following
the birth. But, on the other hand, a higher percentage of the
colored women than of the white women lived with the father of the
child during the whole or the greater part of the year after the birth,
and a higher percentage of the colored women than of the white
women who did not live with the father of the child received some
contribution from him toward their support, including a higher per­
centage in the colored group who received at least $100 from the*
father of the child.
More of the colored mothers than of the white mothers kept their
babies with them throughout the year (or until the baby’s death
within the year). And 20 per cent of the colored babies who were
separated from their mothers— but none of the white babies who were
separated from their mothers— were cared for by the mother’srelatives.
The difference in the white and colored mothers’ relation to their
parental homes was most marked. The percentage who lived in
their parental homes during the year after the birth was practically
identical in the two groups as a whole. But in the colored group
more mothers (instead of fewer) lived in their parental homes when
the baby had survived the first two weeks than when the baby
had died within two weeks or had been stillborn. And of all the
mothers whose babies had survived two weeks and who lived in their
parental homes, only 5 per cent in the colored group (instead of
16 per cent as in the white group) had their babies cared for elsewhere.
M ORTALITY AM ONG ILLEGITIM ATE INFANTS.

The group of 1,124 illegitimate births registered as occurring
in Baltimore during the year 1915, faced excessive hazards, but the
mortality rates which can be computed for the illegitimate babies
can not be pressed to exact comparisons with the legitimate group
for two reasons: (1) The large-number of illegitimate infants whose
condition at the end of the year is not known (256 in a total of 955
five births) involves a wide margin of probable error in the rates
based on the total illegitimate group; (2) in the scheduled group of
illegitimate infants the basis of inclusion is broader than the basis
of inclusion in the scheduled group of legitimate births, but the

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ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

169

difficulties of tracing the babies were so great that the scheduled
group is relatively smaller among the illegitimate births than among
the legitimate births and probably less representative of the entire
number 16 in social conditions and in mortabty rates.
The true infant mortality rates for the illegitimate group as a
whole were probably higher than the rates which may be computed
from all known infant deaths, whether scheduled or unscheduled,
and the total (955) live births, since among the 256 cases which could
not be traced and whose condition at 1 year of age was unknown
some deaths under one year doubtless occurred. The rate of 294.2,
based upon the total illegitimate births and the known infant deaths,
is therefore an understatement of the true rate. The scheduled
group, however, including those infants who could be located and
traced to the end of the year, or, in other wofds, including roughly
the group of infants whose mothers remained in Baltimore at or
near the places from which births were registered, showed a rate of
300.7, slightly higher than the rate based on the total births. It can
not be assumed, however, that this rate indicates the true rate for all
illegitimate infants. In any case it is clear that the illegitimate in­
fants had a mortality markedly higher than the legitimate infants.
White and colored infants.

The live-born colored illegitimate infants (581 in number) had a
mortality rate of 280.6, based upon births and known infant deaths
per 1,000 births. The live-born white infants (374 in number) had a
mortabty rate of 315.5 on the same basis.17 In the scheduled group
of illegitimate infants, the rate among the colored babies was 293.4
per 1,000 and among the white babies 319 per 1,000. It will be noted,
therefore, that among the colored births the mortality of illegitimate
infants approached twice the mortality (158.6 per 1,000) of legiti­
mate infants, while among the white births the mortality of illegiti­
mate infants was more than three times as great as the mortality
(95.9 per 1,000) among legitimate infants. This greater excess in
mortabty among the white ibegitimate births accompanied an odd
reversal in rates: In the legitimate groups the colored babies had
a markedly higher mortabty than the white babies; in the illegiti­
mate groups the white babies had a shghtly higher mortabty than
the colored babies. Among both white and colored infants, although
the excess hazard to illegitimate babies can not be measured exactly,
the fact of an excess hazard is clearly established.18
i« The unscheduled illegitimate infants include 256 live-bom infants whose condition at the end of the
year is not known, 18 live-bom infants who are known to have survived the year, and 109 live-born infants
who are known to have died.
i i The degree of uncertainty as to the mortality among illegitimate white infants was much greater than
that among illegitimate colored infants; in the white group, the condition at one year after birth, whether
alive or dead, of 133, or 36 per cent, was unknown; in the colored group the condition of 123, or 21 per cent
of the total colored, was unknown.
i* See Table 212, Atipendix VII, p. 384.


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IVO

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e Y I I .— Infant mortality rates, by legitimacy o f births and color o f mother; live
births in 1915.

Infant mortality rate.
Color of mother.

Illegitimate infants.
Legitimate
infants.
Total.

T otal...... ....................... ............ ........... .

..

White.................................................................................. .
Colored...............................................................................................

Scheduled.

103.5

294.2

300.7

95.9
158.6

315.5
280.6

319.0
293.4

Age at death and stated cause o f death.

A t all ages under 1 year and among the deaths from all stated
causes an excess mortality among the illegitimate infants persisted.
The excess was greatest, however, in both white and colored groups,
in the deaths during the second and third months. This may reflect
a genuine peak in the excess hazard or it may reflect a grouping in the
later months of infant deaths among the 256 illegitimate infants
whose condition at 1 year is not known,19 The one stated cause of
death which showed an excess in mortality above the average excess
for all causes was syphilis. But, again, this fact should be qualified
b y the reminder that less effort might be made in the case of an
illegitimate infant than in the case of a legitimate infant to assign a
death from syphilis to some other cause.20
Employment o f mother.

Employment away from home was far more prevalent among the
mothers of children born out of wedlock than in the normal group,
even comparing white mothers with white mothers and colored
mothers with colored mothers. Apparently, also, these mothers
resumed their work after the birth a little sooner than the others.
With the limitations already noted as due to the different basis of
computation, a rough comparison can be made of the mortality
in the two groups among infants of mothers employed away from
home during pregnancy; and for both the white and the colored
illegitimate infants of working mothers a mortality is found defi­
nitely higher than that for legitimate infants of working mothers of
the same race. Furthermore, it is to be noted that the illegitimate
infants of mothers working away during pregnancy had a mortality
only slightly higher than that of the other illegitimate infants.
In one point, however, the effect of employment away from home
seems to appear even in the illegitimate group. Among the illegiti$•It may fairly be assumed that relatively few of tbe infants were removed from Baltimore during the
first month, and, further, that such deaths as occurred among the 256 untraced infants occurred chiefly
out of the city—therefore, chiefly after the first month of life.
80 See Tables 213,214,215, and 216, Appendix VII, pp. 385 and 386.


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171

ILLEGITIMATE BIKTHS.

mate births, as among the legitimate, the percentage of premature
births was higher when the mother worked during pregnancy than
when she did not. But, also, the percentage of premature births
was higher among the mothers of children bom out of wedlock not
employed than among the working mothers in the legitimate group.
The infant mortality rates among the full-term illegitimate live
births were higher, also, than the infant mortality rates among fullterm legitimate live births.21
Poverty.

The economic status of the mothers is not clear. Such amounts
as are reported for the mothers’ earnings and for the fathers’ con­
tributions indicate a small income for the mother and suggest that
the mortality rates among the illegitimate infants should be compared
with the mortality rates among the legitimate infants whose fathers
earned nothing or less than $450. This comparison shows that
among both white and colored infants, the illegitimate births had
higher mortality rates than legitimate births of the same race in
families where the father earned nothing at all or less than $450.
T able V I I I .—Relative mortality rates, by color, among scheduled illegitimate infants, in
comparison with legitimate infants in lowest fathers’ earnings groups.
White mothers.
Earnings of father and legitimacy of infant.
Live
births.
Legitimate births—Earnings of father:
Under $450...........................
No earnings....... ......................
Illegitimate births.......................

1,037
138
374

Infant
mortality
raté.

153.3
210.1
315.5

Colored mothers.
Live
births.

507
69
581

Infant
•mortality
rate.

163.7
202.8
280.6

Conditions peculiar to illegitimacy.

The irregular relation of the father and mother, the separation of
a considerable percentage of the infants from their mothers, and,
in particular, the placing of the babies in an institution or boarding
home, seem to have been responsible in large measure for the high
mortality among illegitimate infants. These factors do not, however,
account for it entirely. The very slight difference in mortality
between the white and the colored illegitimate infants, has already
been noted and in the present discussion they will be considered
together.
In the scheduled group of illegitimate children as a whole, the
infant mortality rate was 300.7 per 1,000 live births. Among the
199 infants whose mothers did not live with the fathers but received
something from the fathers for their support, 46 deaths occurred
within the year— an infant mortality rate of 231.2 per 1,000. This
«1 See Tables 212,218 and 219, Appendix VII, pp. 384 and 387.


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172

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

rate was definitely lower than the rate (309.9 per 1,000) among thé
242 infants whose mothers did not live with the fathers and received
nothing from them, and lower than the rate (347.8 per 1,000) among
the 92 infants whose mothers and fathers lived together during the
whole or the greater part of the year following the birth. However,
19 deaths occurred among the 39 infants for whom the relation of
the mother and father was not reported and a true distribution of
these deaths among the other groups might shift the relation of the
mortality rates.22
Ch ar t

X X n .—Per cent of deaths before end of first year of life among illegitimate infants surviving at
3 months of age, according to separation from mother.

Per cent
of deaths.

All survivors
at 3 months
of age.

Not separated.

Separated,

The infants separated from their mothers had a mortality from two
to three times as high as the infants who stayed with their mothers.
Of the survivors at 3 months of age 17 per cent died before the end of
the year— 12 per cent in the group who stayed with their mothers,
and 32 per cent in the group who were separated from their mothers.
Again, of the survivors at 6 months of age, 11 per cent died before the
end of the year— 8 per cent in the group who stayed with their mothers
« See Table 221, Appendix VU , p. 388.


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ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

173

and 24 per cent in the group who were separated from their mothers.
A similar difference appears if the colored infants are considered by
themselves.23 It may be questioned whether the scheduled group
indicates fairly the part played b y the separation of the infant from
his mother in the total mortality among all illegitimate infants, since
the percentage of infants away from their mothers may have been
higher among those who could not be traced than among those for
whom it was possible to secure detailed information. But the rates
which have been noted show that even in the scheduled group
separation of the infant from the mother more than doubled the
death rate among survivors of the first three months. At the same
time, the death rates were higher even among the infants who stayed
with their mothers than among legitimate infants, either white or
colored, at the same ages.
As to the hazard of institutional life for infants, there were two
indications of excessive mortality. In the entire group of 955
illegitimate live births, there were 56 which occurred in an institution,
including 2 infants born in jail. Of these 56 infants, 35 are known to
have died, while 9 could not be traced and their condition at the end
of the year was not known. Assuming that these known deaths are
all that occurred, the infant mortality rate was 625 per 1,000 for these
56 infants born in institutions. In the scheduled group of 572
illegitimate live births were 10 live births in institutions. Two of
these 10 infants died within two weeks after birth.24
Again, it is possible to compare the percentage of deaths among
infants who were at some time during the first year of life in an in­
stitution or boarding home, and among those who were at no time
inmates of an institution or boarding. The actual numbers in the
several groups are small and the differences in rates are inconclusive,
but they seem to indicate that the hazard to infants in an institution
or a boarding home was excessive— in both cases about 3 babies in 8
died. The 30 infants boarding in private homes did not, on the
other hand, show a mortality above that for illegitimate infants who
were never an inmate of an institution or boarded. In the colored
group the mortality among infants boarded in private homes seems
to have been even a trifle lower than that in the large group who were
never boarded or placed in an institution. But even when all the
babies in institutions and boarding homes were eliminated, the other
S3 See Table 222, Appendix V II, p. 389. No comparison of mortality among infants under 3 months of
age is possible without analysis by the age at which the infant was separated from the mother. The high
percentage of total deaths in the age period between 2 weeks and 3 months among infants “ with mother”
and the low percentage of total deaths in the age period between. 2 weeks and 3 months among infants
“ separated from mother” suggest that the separations occurred mainly in the later months, and after the
first month at least.
24 See Table 223, Appendix VII, p. 389.


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174

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

illegitimate babies still showed a relatively high mortality in com­
parison with legitimate infants, white or colored.35
Among the infants who were not separated from their mother, the
dwelling was shifted in many cases. Of the 528 illegitimate infants
who survived at least two weeks, approximately half (262) were
removed at least once from one dwelling to another. These removals
can not be related, in the tabulation of so small a total group, to other
circumstances, but it may be noted that the percentage of subsequent
deaths was higher among the babies who were moved about than
among the babies who were not subjected to removals.26
Infant feeding.

With the prevalence of employment among the mothers of children
born out of wedlock and with the considerable minority who did not
keep their babies with them, it is not surprising to find a high per­
centage of the illegitimate infants artificially fed during the early
months. In the legitimate group, the number of babies having breast
milk and no other food was 88 per cent of all in the first month and 72
per cent of all in the third month. In the illegitimate group, 79 per
cent were breast fed in the first month, but only 44 per cent in the
third month. By the ninth month, the number breast fed in the
illegitimate group had dropped to 12 per cent of all, as against 29
per cent in the legitimate group. These low percentages breast fed
were balanced by high percentages artificially fed. Mixed feeding,
on the other hand, was rather more prevalent in the illegitimate group
than in the other during the early months but less prevalent in the
illegitimate group than in the other after the sixth month.
The difference in types of feeding reported for the illegitimate group
and the legitimate group was especially marked among the white
babies, but it was present also among the colored babies. And in the
illegitimate group, as to a less degree in the legitimate group, more
mixed feeding and less artificial feeding was found among the colored
infants than among the white infants.
The white illegitimate infants having each specified type of feeding
showed higher computed rates per 1,000 infants fed than white
legitimate infants having the same type of feeding. The excess in
rates persisted even in a comparison of the rates for white illegitimate
infants with the rates for white legitimate infants in the lowest earn­
ings groups. It was most marked among infants artificially fed.
The colored illegitimate infants, dn the other hand, showed a clear
excess in the computed rate per 1,000 infants fed only in the compari­
son of breast-fed infants.
as See Table 224, Appendix V II, p. 390.
26 See Table 225, Appendix VII, p. 390.


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ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS.

175

Again, comparing tlie computed rates among white and colored ille­
gitimate infants having each specified type of feeding, it appears that
the breast-fed colored illegitimate infants had a mortality twice as high
as the breast-fed white illegitimate infants, while the artificially-fed
colored illegitimate infants had a mortality slightly lower than the
artificially-fed white illegitimate infants.
With regard to deaths immediately after birth of infants not fed
at all, the most marked excess was among colored illegitimate births.27
The total mortality among illegitimate births, therefore, which was
slightly higher in the white group than in the colored group, reflects
in the white group an especially high percentage of infants artificially
fed, and a marked excess in mortality among these infants, together
with a slighter excess in mortality (as compared with white legitimate
infants) among infants breast fed or mixed fed and among infants
dying immediately after birth without being fed at all. In the
colored group, the high mortality among illegitimate infants reflects
also a high percentage of infants artificially fed, a high percentage
mixed fed during the early months, and a marked excess in mortality
among infants breast fed and among infants dying immediately after
birth without being fed at all.
STILLBIRTHS AND MISCARRIAGES.

The stillbirth and miscarriage rates among the illegitimate births
were higher than among the legitimate births, even in a comparison
of white births with white births and colored births with colored
births. Again, eliminating from both groups the mothers who were
not gainfully employed away from home during pregnancy or whose
employment was not reported, there were found in both the white and
the colored groups higher stillbirth rates among the illegitimate births
than among the legitimate births. The white illegitimate births (but
not the colored illegitimate births) showed also a high miscarriage
rate.28
It will be remembered that in the normal group mothers under 20
years of age had a higher stillbirth rate than the older mothers. In
the white illegitimate group this difference disappeared, and mothers
of all ages had higher stillbirth rates than the mothers in the normal
group. In the colored illegitimate group, the stillbirth rate was
higher among the mothers 20 years of age and older than among the
mothers under 20, and only these older mothers had a stillbirth rate
higher than the stillbirth rate among colored mothers in the normal
group.
22 See Tables 226 and 227, Appendix V II, p. 391.
28 See Table 212, Appendix VII, p. 384.


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176

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e I X .— Miscarriage and stillbirth rates, by legitimacy, color, and age o f mother;
births 1 in 1915.
Legitimate.
Age and color of mother.

White mothers:
Under 20 years............................................................
20 years and over.........................................................
Colored mothers:
Under 20 years.................................................... .
20 years and over.........................................................

Illegitimate.

Miscarriages Stillbirths Miscarriages Stillbirths
per 100
per 100
per 100
per 100'
births.
births.1
births.
births.1

2.8
3.3

3.4
2.8

4.7
6.3

5.6
5.6

4.0
6.1

11.0
7.7

3.9
6.7

9.5
16.0

1 Includes miscarriages.

The high percentage of premature births in the illegitimate group
has already been noted. Comparing full-term births with full-term
births, however, there was still a higher stillbirth rate in the illegiti­
mate group than in the legitimate group, except among the 96 fullterm births to mothers of children born out of wedlock not gainfully
employed during pregnancy. This rate (2.1 per 100 births) was
practically identical with the rate (2 per 100 births) among full-term
legitimate births to mothers not gainfully employed away from home
during pregnancy.29
» See Table 219, Appendix VII, p. 387.


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GENERAL SUMMARY.

The total infant mortality rate in the group of 10,797 live births to
married mothers, studied in detail in Baltimore, was 103.5 per 1,000.
The deaths from causes peculiar to early infancy were 37.7 per 1,000
live births, the deaths from gastric and intestinal diseases were 29.1
per 1,000 live births, and the deaths from respiratory and other
communicable diseases were 26.4 per 1,000 live births. Malforma­
tions were the stated cause of 39 deaths, or 3.6 per 1,000 live births.
External causes, diseases unknown or not specified, and scattering
deaths assigned to unusual causes were responsible for a mortality of
6.7 per 1,000 live births.
Of the total number of 1,117 deaths, 42.7 per cent occurred within
the first month after birth and 27.1 per cent after the sixth month.
The mortality in the entire group was approximately the same as
the mortality in the cities of the United States birth registration area
in 1915 and 1916. An analysis of the conditions under which babies
lived and died in Baltimore may fairly be considered an analysis of
conditions in a typical American city.
Mortality rates markedly above the average for the entire group
occurred among the colored families, the foreign-bom Polish families,
and the very poor native white families.
Low mortality rates— approximating those in New Zealand—were
found among the babies of foreign-bom Jewish mothers and in
families of the highest earnings groups.
Breast-fed babies in every group of the population had lower mor­
tality than artificially-fed babies in the same group. Computed
mortality rates derived from the monthly death rates among babies
having the specified types of feeding month by month were 43.3 per
1.000 infants breast fed and 191.4 per 1,000 infants having only
artificial food. The earlier the babies were weaned the greater was
the excess in mortality among those artificially fed. For example,
among infants surviving at the beginning of the third month of fife
the percentage of subsequent deaths during the year was 18.7 in the
group artificially fed from the first month, 12.4 in the group arti­
ficially fed from the second month, and 10.6 in the group whose
artificial feeding began in the third month. The rates for breast-fed
babies and the rates for artificially-fed babies varied greatly with the
color and nationality of the mother and the earnings of the father
ranging from 91.4 per 1,000 infants breast fed and 387.9 per 1,000
infants artificially fed in the poorest colored families to 13.3 per
1.000 infants breast fed and 27.3 per 1,000 infants artificially fed
in the most prosperous families (mainly native white).
101351°—23----- 12
177

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178

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

In every group certain measurable conditions accompanied a mor­
tality above the average for the group: Poverty, employment of
mothers away from home during pregnancy or the early months of
an infant’s life, housing below standard in point of sanitary equip­
ment and room congestion, short intervals between births, and the
bearing of many children. On the other hand, certain mothers
whose infants were exposed to such unfavorable conditions were
being reached by the organizations carrying on prenatal and post­
natal work.
New evidence is afforded b y the Baltimore study that poverty is
an important factor in infant mortality. Among the 1,544 babies
whose fathers earned less than $450 the infant mortality rate was
156.7 per 1,000 live births; among the 431 babies whose fathers
earned $1,850 or more the infant mortality rate was 37.1 per 1,000
live births. Eliminating differences in color and nationality and
considering only the babies bom to native-white mothers a similar
decrease in mortality appears as the fathers’ earnings rise: In the
poorest families about 1 baby in 6 died within the year, in the most
prosperous families about 1 baby in 26 died within the year. Further,
eliminating certain measurable conditions that occur more frequently
in very poor homes than elsewhere and considering only Jbabies born
to native white mothers who were literate, who were not employed
during pregnancy or the year after the birth, who had borne fewer than
seven children previous to the birth in 1915, and who reported an inter­
val of two years or longer since the previous birth if the 1915 baby
was not a first-bom child, a marked difference in mortality in the
poorest homes and in the most prosperous persists. Even in this
favored group the infant mortality rate in the poor homes was more
than twice as high as the infant mortality rate in the most prosperous
homes.
Employment of the mother away from home during pregnancy
accompanied, in each color and nativity group, a percentage of
premature births above the average for the group and excessive
mortality among full-term births from the causes peculiar to early
infancy. The mortality from other causes was also higher among
the babies whose mothers worked away from home during pregnancy
than the mortality that would be expected when allowance is made
for the poverty of these families and the large number of colored
families and Polish families among them. For the infants whose
mothers were employed away during the earliest months after the
birth the hazard was markedly increased. Not only did they face
the hazard that would naturally occur in a group with so large a
percentage of infants weaned during the early months, but also a
still greater hazard directly related, apparently, to the fact and cir­
cumstances of the mothers’ employment away from home. How­
ever, the actual effect on the total mortality of mothers’ employment

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GENERAL SUMMARY.

179

away during the first year after a birth was slight, since the number
of mothers employed away after the birth was smaller than the
number employed away during pregnancy, and employment was
usually resumed after the first month or even later in the year, when
the period of highest mortality had been already passed.
Room congestion and lack of sanitary equipment in the dwelling
accompanied death rates among infants surviving the first two weeks
higher than the death rates in groups of similar color and nationality
and corresponding fathers’ earnings in dwellings of a better type.
Of the 5,544 infants in dwellings with less than one person per room,
4.9 per cent died during the year; of the 4,269 infants in dwellings
with one person but less than two persons per room, 8.4 per cent died
during the year; of the 498 infants in dwellings with two or more
persons per room, 11.6 per cent died during the year. . Again, of the
4,486 infants in dwellings with sewer connection, a bath tub, and a
toilet for the exclusive use of the family, 4.4 per cent died during the
year; but of the 5,850 infants in dwellings lacking one or more of
these three items, 8.5 per cent died during the year. In this latter
comparison the deaths from gastric and intestinal diseases are noted
separately and these show a greater difference than the deaths from
other causes. Variations in death rate in relation to housing persist
when the greater poverty of the group in the poorer dwellings is
considered.
The first-born infants had a mortality slightly higher than the
mortality of infants second or third in order of birth, but among the
later orders of birth the mortality (especially from causes other than
the diseases of early infancy) rose steadily. The first-born infants
showed a higher percentage of premature births than any others
except the infants twelfth or later in order of birth. Having come
to birth, whether at full term or prematurely, the first-born babies
had a markedly lower mortality than other babies of the correspond­
ing term, with differences in rates between the first bom and the
others far greater than the average difference between first bom and
all others when full-term births and premature births are grouped
together.
The infants of mothers under 20 years of age and of mothers 35
years old or older showed higher mortality rates than other infants.
Among the infants of the youngest mothers the high mortality
appears in deaths from causes peculiar to early infancy and (when
infants were second or third in order of birth) in deaths from other
causes. Among the infants of the oldest mothers the high mortality
appears mainly in deaths from “ all other causes,” but the first-born
infants of the oldest mothers had also an excessive mortality from
causes peculiar to early infancy.
Variations in mortality according to the infant’s order of birth and
the mother’s age were accentuated when the interval since a pre
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180

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

ceding birth was short. Throughout, the births following a preced­
ing birth by an interval of less than two years had a higher mortality
than births occurring after a longer interval.
The infants bom to the 105 mothers who died within the year after
confinement had the highest mortality in the entire group, with a
rate of 486.1 per 1,000 live births as compared with the mortality of
100.9 per 1,000 among the infants whose mothers survived. When
the mother died from a cause directly related to childbirth or from
some other stated cause within two months after her confinement,
the infant mortality from all causes rose to 625 per 1,000. The excess
mortality was somewhat greater from early infancy than from other
causes.
A m o n g the negroes all the unfavorable social factors were present.
Their poverty was greater than the poverty in any other group in
Baltimore (except the small group of Lithuanian families); 44.9 per
cent of the mothers were gainfully employed away from home during
pregnancy; room congestion was less prevalent than among the
foreign-born white families, but the number of dwellings without
standard equipment was relatively high; one-fifth of the negro infants
were seventh or later in order of birth and 33.5 per cent had followed
the preceding birth by an interval of less than two years. But more
of the negro mothers than of any others were reached by the prenatal
and postnatal work. As the net result of these factors and others
not touched upon in such a study as the present one— the negro
babies had a high mortality from early infancy (49.8 per 1,000), a
high mortality from respiratory and other communicable diseases
(65.9 per 1,000), and an average mortality (30.7 per 1,000) from
gastric and intestinal diseases.
In the Polish group, also, all the unfavorable factors were present.
Their room congestion was the greatest in Baltimore; the percentage
of mothers gainfully employed away from home during pregnancy
was almost as high as the corresponding percentage in the negro
families; and the influence of unfavorable factors was not counter­
balanced by infant-welfare work, since the prenatal and postnatal
agencies had reached but few of the Polish mothers. The Polish
mortality was especially high from gastric and intestinal diseases
(68.8 per 1,000) and above the average from early infancy (43.2
per 1,000).
The very poor native white mothers were less generally employed
away from home than the Polish or Negro mothers ; their housing was
poor in sanitary equipment but they lived in less congested dwellings
than the Poles; in interval between births and the bearing of many
children conditions were more favorable than among the negroes.
Infant-welfare work had reached more of the very poor native white
mothers than of the Polish mothers, but fewer in this native white

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GENERAL SUMMARY.

181

group than in the colored group. In the poorest native white fam­
ilies the mortality from early infancy was higher than in the Negro
or Polish families; and the mortality from gastric and intestinal
diseases was markedly above the average though less high than in
the Polish group.
The foreign-born Jewish families were poorer than the native white
families but less poor than the Negroes and the Poles. Practically
none of the mothers were employed away from home. Many of
them had borne large families but the percentage of mothers pregnant
again within 12 months after the birth in 1915 was smaller than in
any other color or nationality group. Room congestion was less
prevalent than among the Poles but more prevalent than among the
native white families. In sanitary equipment, too, the dwellings of
the Jewish families were better than the dwellings of the Poles
and the Italians. And more of the Jewish mothers than of any
others except the Negroes were reached by the prenatal and post­
natal work. From these and other factors not touched in the present
study, the babies in the foreign-born Jewish families had a low mor­
tality from early infancy (22.9 per 1,000), a low mortality from
respiratory and other communicable diseases (15.6 per 1,000), and
a markedly low mortality from gastric and intestinal diseases (9.4
per 1,000).
In the illegitimate group of 955 live births, 281 infant deaths are
known to have occurred, but the condition of 256 infants at 12
months after birth could not be learned. The known infant mor­
tality rate of 294.2 per 1,000 live births is therefore a minimum
statement of the hazard to the illegitimate infants born in Baltimore
during 1915. More than two-thirds of the illegitimate births were
to colored mothers, and the mortality in the illegitimate colored
group was less high than in the illegitimate white group. The excess
in mortality among illegitimate infants appears especially in deaths
from early infancy, from gastric and intestinal diseases, and from
syphilis. For 572 live-born illegitimate infants detailed information
was secured which revealed a high percentage of infants artificially
fed during the early months. In the colored group the excess mor­
tality among illegitimate infants seems to be largely accounted for
by the prevalence of artificial feeding. But the deaths in the white group were more numerous than the deaths which would have
occurred if they had been subject only to the hazard of babies born
to married mothers and having the same type of feeding. The chief
conditions indicated in such a study as the present one which seemed
to increase the hazard to illegitimate infants were the prevalence of
care in institutions or boarding homes, the frequent shifts in dwelling
place, and the generally low economic level of the mothers


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APPENDIX I.— BIRTH REGISTRATION IN BALTIMORE.

As a preliminary to each of the bureau’s field studies of infant
mortality in cities a fairly complete record of births during a given
period has been secured. In 1915, when the plans were made for the
present study, Maryland had not been admitted to the birth-registra­
tion area, for which a 90 per cent registration is required by the United
States Bureau of the Census. But a steadily increasing annual birth
rate (the registered live births rising from 16.9 per 1,000 population in
1908 to 23.3 per 1,000 population in 1915) indicated that registration
of births in Baltimore had improved year b y year. During the same
period the infant mortality fate had dropped from 241.3 per 1,000
registered live births to 119.8 per 1,000 registered live births, a de­
crease so marked that, in spite of a reduction in the number of infant
deaths, a more nearly complete registration of births is also clearly in­
dicated. In 1916 Maryland was added to the birth-registration area.
The registration law in Maryland in effect at the time of this study
was enacted in 1912 and slightly amended in 1914.1 Under this law
stillbirths were registered as births and as deaths. “ The record of
a birth shall state the date and place of its occurrence, name in full,
sex and color, and the number o f the child, whether living or stillborn,
whether a twin, triplet, or other plural birth, and the name, color,
occupation, birthplace, and residence of parents.” 2 The physician
or midwife .was required to register a birth within four days.
T able I.—Estimated population, birth rate, and infant mortality rate, shown by registered
births and deaths, under 1 year o f age in Baltimore City, 1908-1917-1
Estimated
Registered Registered Infant mor­
population, Birth rate. live births. deaths un­ tality rate.
der 1 year.
July 1.

Year.

1908 .
..........................................
1909................................................................
19Ì0................................................................
1911 .............................................................
1912................................................................
1913................................................................
1914................................................................
1915................................................................
1916.. .
....................................................
1917................................................................

549,499
554,514
559,530
564,545
569,560
574,575
579,590
584,605589,621
594,637

16.7
15.8
17.6
16.4
20.0
21.8
22.0
23.3
25.6
25.1

9,178
8,796
9,858
9,283
11,398
12,542
12,637
13,634
15,085
14,950

2,215
2,227
2,148
1,958
2,026
2,002
1,954
1,633
1.783
1.783

241.3
253.2
217.9
209.8
177.8
159.6
154.6
119.8
118.2
119.3

1 Estimated population computed from figures for censuses of 1900 and 1910. Figures for births and
deaths based on annual reports of Baltimore City Department of Public Safety, subdepartment of health,
1908-1917.
T a b l e II. — Stillbirths in Baltimore City, 1908-1917.«

Year.

1908
1909
1910
1911
1912

Total
births, b

Still­
births.»

Still­
births b
per 1,000
births.

9,989
9,613
10,680
9,995
12,087

811
817
822
712
689

81.2
85.0
77.0
71.2
56.5

Year.

1913.........................
1914.........................
1915.........................
1916.........................
1917.........................

Still­
Still­
births b
Total
births, b births. b per 1,000
births.
13,451
13,663
14,765
16,320
16,217

909
1,026
1,131
1,235
1,267

67.6
75.1
76.6
75.7
78.1

a Derived from annual reports of Baltimore City Department of Public Safety, subdepartment of health,
1908-1917.
b Includes all registered dead births, both stillbirths and miscarriages.

11912 C 696; 1914 C 747. The law was further amended in 1916 and 1920 (1916 C 691 and 1920 C 317),
but the provisions here referred to were not changed,
a 1912 C 696, amending Annotated Code, art. 43, sec. 9.

185


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186

IN F A N T

M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

During 1915 the Baltimore City Department of Public Safety,
subdepartment of health, was making a special effort to secure the
rigid enforcement of the birth-registration law. Among the devices
the health officials were using to trace unregistered births was the
checking of infants’ death certificates with the birth records; When
it was found that a birth had not been registered, the health warden
of the district from which the death was reported called upon the
parents of the child and learned who had attended the birth. If
the birth had occurred within the city, a complete record was secured
from the attendant or, in cases where neither physician nor mid­
wife had been employed, from the parents of the child.
In September, 1915, the Babies Milk Fund Association of Balti­
more furnished the Children’s Bureau with the names of 813 babies
bom in Baltimore City since January 1 of that year, and these
names the agents of the bureau checked with the birth records.
Most of the mothers in this group were native white, negroes, or
foreign-born Jews, and they included 125 negro mothers of illegiti­
mate babies. All of the births had been attended by physicians.
Of the entire number, 724, or 89.1 per cent, had been registered.
The Children’s Bureau followed this test by a canvass of certain
districts in order to determine whether unregistered births were fairly
well distributed throughout the city or confined to particular groups
of the population. The districts were selected for the canvass after
consultation with various persons in Baltimore and they included
eight neighborhoods especially representing native white, Negroes,
and six foreign nationalities—Jewish, Polish, Italian, German, Bohe­
mian, and Lithuanian. Registration was found to be poorest among
the Poles and best among the Jews. Of the 555 births found in the
canvass, 77 per cent were registered. The low percentage of regis­
tered births in this group is not accounted for by the large number
of cases attended by midwives, for a larger percentage of the mid­
wives’ cases than of the physicians’ cases had been registered.
T a b l e I I I . — R eg istra tion o f birth , by co lo r an d n a tio n a lity o f m oth er; births stu d ied i n
special canvass.

Births studied in special canrass.
Color and nationality of mother.

Registered.
Total.
Number.

Per cent.1

Total..............

655

425

76.7

Native white..........
Foreign-born white:
Polish...............
Jewish...............
Italian...............
Lithuanian.......
Bohemian.........
German............
Other.................
Colored....................
Not reported........... .

180

148

82.2

93

59
62
32
19

63.4
84.9

1Not shown where base is less than 50.


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73
42
26
15
12
11
98
5

12
8
8

72
5

73.5

APPENDIX I .

187

T a b l e IV . — Registration o f birth, by attendant at birth; births studied in special canvass.

Births stu iied in special canvass.
Registered.

Attendant at birth.
Total.

Number.

Per cent.1

555

425

76.6

301
224
-11
7
12

237
179
7
2

78.7
79.9

1 Not shown where base is less than 50.

The Babies’ Milk Fund Association and other organizations in
Baltimore began during 1915 to cooperate with the city health
department in securing the registration of unregistered births.
In February, 1916, the Children’s Bureau agents interviewed the
families of babies born in January, 1915; the following month
each ward was visited again for interviews with the families of babies
bom in February, 1915, and so on through the year. Whenever
the bureau’s agents learned of an unregistered baby who had been
bom in 1915, the name and address were reported to the health de­
partment and the baby was included in the study.
How nearly complete was the final record of births during 1915,
when the names secured in the course of the field study had been
added to the registered births, it is not possible to estimate. It is
probable, at least, that the numbers of births of the several color and
nationality groups traced in this way tended to diminish the differ­
ences in the extent to which the known births fell short of the total
number in the several groups. Even if the final record remained
(as the prehminary canvass indicated the original records to be)
between 80 and 90 per cent complete for the foreign-bom Jewish
infants and between 60 and 70 per cent complete for the Polish
infants, correction of this difference would diminish but would not
obliterate the difference in mortality rate apparent in these two
groups. In the same way, if it is contended that the poorest babies
wereleastlikely to be registered and that part of the apparent excess
mortality rate in the poorest families is accounted for by defective
registration, it should also be remembered that unregistered births
were far more easily traced in the poorest districts than among the
well-to-do. It has also been noted that midwives’ cases showed a
slightly higher percentage of registered births than physicians’ cases,
so the hypothesis that more poor babies than others escaped regis­
tration may itself be questioned.
In general, it m a y b e concluded that in so far as the record of
births is incomplete, the infant mortality rates derived in the present
study overstate the absolute hazard, but that the relative hazards of
the various groups lie in the direction indicated by the figures shown.


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APPENDIX H.- -THE b a b ie s in f a m il ie s w h ic h c o u l d n o t
BE STUDIED.

•
per cent of the legitimate births registered as occurring
m Baltimore during the year 1915 are not included in the detailed
study. The number excluded (1,871) was made up of three main
groups: One thousand four hundred and sixty-six whose families
could not be located in Baltimore or were known to have moved
away; 381 nonresidents (320 nonresident hospital cases and 61 cases
where the family was living in Baltimore but had been absent from
the city more than four months during the first year after the baby’s
birth); and 24 births whose families were located but about whom
information was not available. It was desired to relate the conditmns under which the babies lived and died to the city of Baltimore,
and hence infants of nonresident mothers, infants whose families
were away from the city for over four months, and infants whose
families had moved away were excluded. Moreover, it would have
been difficult to secure exact information as to age at leaving; and
even if exact information could have been obtained about the ages of
infants when they left the city, or returned, the separating of the time
spent in the city and the time spent elsewhere and fair computation
of the rates among these infants during the months spent m Balti­
more would have involved minute computations of doubtful value.
In this study, as in the earlier studies of the bureau, the nonresidents
are therefore omitted from the detailed study.
Whether in the families omitted from the detailed study conditions
were ^markedly different from those we have been analyzing is a
question to which the data afford no satisfactory answer.
For the unknown number of babies whose births were never regis­
tered no information is available. For the other group of 1,871
babies whose births were registered but who could not be included in
the detailed study the birth certificates give us certain items. They
state the father’s occupation, and the race, nativity, and age of both
parents, as given by the physician or midwife who reported the birth.
The data about the father s occupation are of uncertain value, but
these statements and the statements about the mother’s color and
nativity have been tabulated and analyzed. The 320 nonresident
hospital cases are not included in this analysis, since they do not
represent a part of the Baltimore population. It may be noted i n '
passing that the birth certificates indicate them to be a selected
group with a higher percentage of well-to-do native white mothers
than the other births registered in Baltimore during the year The
following paragraphs, therefore, refer to the 1,551 births to Baltimore
mothers who could hot be located or who were known to have moved
away or who had been absent from the city more than four months
during the year.
189


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190

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e I . — Color and nativity o f mother, by class o f exclusion; legitimate births1in 191S.

Legitimate births.1
Excluded from study.

Color and nativity of mother.

Included in
study.

Num­
ber.

All other
exclusions.

Nonresident
hospital cases.

Total.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Num­
cent
cent
Num­
cent
cent
ber.
ber.
distri­
distri­
ber.
distri­
distri­
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.

Total..........................................

11,613

100.0

1,871

100.0

320

100.0

1,551

100.0

Native white.......................................
Foreign-born white.............................
Colored.................................................
Not reported. . .....................................

7,210
2,894
1,509

62.1
24.9
13.0

1,143
378
342
8

61.1
20.2
18.3
0.4

243
27
47
3

75.9
8.4
14.7
0.9

900
351
295
5

58.0
22.6
19.0
0.3

1 Includes miscarriages.

More than one in six of the mothers were colored, as against one
in eight in the families studied in detail. Eight per cent of the fathers
were reported in occupations with median earnings of $1,050 or more,
a percentage approximately the same as that in the detailed study.
In each race and nativity group the percentage of mothers delivered
in a hospital was higher than in the detailed study, and except among
the foreign born the percentage attended by a physician not at a
hospital was lower than in the detailed study. This suggests a
slightly lower economic level in the excluded group.
T a b l e II. — Prevalence o f attendance at confinement by physician, by place o f confinement

and color o f mother; births 1 to mothers in 1915.2
Per cent of mothers1 attended by a physician.

Color and nativity of mother.

In hospital.

Detailed
study.

Outside hospital.

Excluded
legitimate
births.8

Detailed
study.

Excluded
legitimate
births.

Total.................................................... ...................

9.5

20.0

57.9

55.8

Native white......................................................................
Foreign-born white.........................................» ................
Colored..............................................................................

8.1
10.9
13.5

21.3
13.1
24.1

64.4
40.4
60.4

58.7
45.9
58.6

1 Includes miscarriages.
2 Detailed study figures are based on mothers; excluded legitimate figures are based .on issues.
* Except nonresident hospital cases.

If the economic status and general character of the white families,
native and foreign, and of the colored families were the same in this
excluded group as in the included group, one would still expect to
find among the excluded families slightly greater losses than in the
included group, because of the larger percentage of colored families.
What are the facts ?
Of the total infant mortality under 1 year in this group there is no
direct measure, as deaths doubtless occurred outside the city for
which there is no information available. But it may reasonably be

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APPENDIX II.

191

supposed that few families moved away within two weeks after the
baby s birth and that the known death rate among babies under
two weeks of age is approximately correct.
T a b l e I I I .—Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, by color and nativity o f mothers•

excluded legitimate births 1 other than nonresident hospital cases.
Excluded legitimate births1 other than nonresident hospital cases.
Stillbirths.

Color and nativity of mother.

Total Miscar­ Total
births.1 riages, births.
Num­
ber.
Total....... .

1,551

Native white...........
Foreign-born white.
Colored............... .
Not reported...........

45

900
351
295
5

1 Includes miscarriages.

1,506

70

Known infant deaths.

Per
1,000
births.2

Live
births.

Under 2 weeks Age not
and
re­
w e ek s.
over. ported.

46.4

1,436

57

73

1

31.0
40.5
98.6

845
332
256
3

28
13
16

33
15
25

1

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

Of the 1,551 births, 1,436 were live births, and among these liveborn babies 57 died m the first two weeks, a death rate of 39.7 per
MOO. This rate can be compared with an expected death rate com­
puted from the rates for each race and nativity in the detailed
study. Thus, in the detailed study, the death rate under 2 weeks of
age was 35.8 among babies of native white mothers, 33.8 among
babies of foreign-born white mothers, and 50.6 among babies of
colored mothers. In the excluded group, if these same rates applied
one would expect to find 30 deaths among the 845 babies of native
white mothers, 11 deaths among the 332 babies of foreign-born white
mothers, and 13 deaths among the 256 colored babies, or a total of 54
deaths under 2 weeks of age and a total rate of 37.6 per 1,000. Ac­
tually, there were 57 deaths and a rate of 39.1 per 1,000, a difference
too slight to have significance.
On the other hand, the stillbirth rates in the excluded group were
* j
^ mo .ers
ea°h race and nativity than in the detailed
study. Comparing m the same way the expected rate and the actual
rate m the two groups, it appears that there were 70 stillbirths instead
oi 58 expected, and a rate of 46.5 per 1,000 births instead of 38.1.
T a b l e I V .— Excess prevalence o f stillbirths among excluded over rates prevailing among

included legitimate births.
Excluded legitimate births other
than nonresident hospitalcases.
Color and nativity of mother.
Stillbirths.
Total
births.
Actual.
. Total..............

1,506

70

Expected.1
58

Native white...........
Foreign-born white.
Colored....................
Not reported...........
d eta i^ estudy.nthe baS1S of sWUWrUi rates prevailing in corresponding color and nativity groups in the


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192

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Another basis of comparison, less exact but still of interest, is found
in the causes of death during the first month. The record of deaths
during the third and fourth weeks of age in the excluded group is
probably incomplete, but when it shows an excessive death rate from
any group of causes, the incompleteness of the record serves as a
reminder that this excessive death rate errs, if at all, merely in being
an understatement of the facts. In the excluded group, 11 deaths
in the first month were assigned to communicable diseases other than
the respiratory diseases, with a death rate from such causes alone of
7.7 per 1,000 live births as compared with a rate of 1.2 from similar
causes in the detailed study. Syphilis was the given cause of death
for 8 of these 11 babies; in the detailed study, dealing with more than
seven times as many babies, only 13 deaths during the first month
were assigned to communicable diseases and 10 of these to syphilis.
The numbers of deaths in both groups are too small to permit any
definite conclusions, but they seem to indicate in the excluded group
a slightly larger proportion of families in which babies were not
protected from disease.
T a b l e V . — M ortality during the first month o f life, by cause o f death and inclusion in or

exclusion from study; live births in 1915.
Deaths during the first month—
Among 10,797live-bom infants
included in study.
Cause of death.

Total.*

Total.
Rate
per
Num­ 1,000
ber.
live
births.

Epidemic and other communicable

Among the 1,436 live-born
infants not included in study.1

2
Under weeks,
2
under
weeks
1
of age. month. Num­
ber.

2
Under weeks,
2
Rate
under
weeks
per
1
1,000 of age. month.
live
births.

477

44.2

400

77

66

45.9

57

9

17
37
27
357

1.6
3.4
2.5
33.2

8
20
27
323

9
17

2.8
2.8
2.8
27.8

4
2
4
36

2

34

4
4
4
40

13
26

1.2
2.4

9
13

4
13

11
3

7.7
2.1

10
1

1
2

4

i Other than nonresident hospital cases.
* Probably incomplete. Note that in study the number of deaths reported at “ 2 weeks, under 1 month”
is 19.3 per cent of the number reported “ under 2 weeks!’ ; among excluded infants the corresponding per­
centage is 15.8 per cent.

Mortality during the months later than the first varied with
economic status and home surroundings more markedly than the
mortality related to prenatal causes and occurring within the first
weeks after birth. But of these deaths from postnatal causes the
record is too incomplete to warrant the computation of rates.


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APPENDIX m .— INFANT MORTALITY AND STILLBIRTH RATES
IN THIS STUDY AND IN BALTIMORE CITY AS A WHOLE.

A city’s infant mortality rate is based on the number of live births
and the number of deaths under 1 year of age registered during a
calendar year. It is stated in terms of the number of deaths per
1,000 live births. In Baltimore, the number of live births registered
during 1915 was 13,634 and the number of deaths under 1 year
registered during 1915 was l,633.x
The infant mortality rates given in the Children’s Bureau field
studies of infant mortality are based on the number of deaths under
1 year of age among a group of babies whose births are registered as
occurring in a given city during a given period, and whose individual
histories have been traced until 12 months after birth or until death.
These rates also are stated in terms of the number of deaths per 1,000
live births.
The present study is based on births occurring in Baltimore City
during 1915. But many of these births during 1915 were not regis­
tered until 1916, and the births registered in 1915 included births o f an
earlier period and several cases of duplicate registration. A few
births in Baltimore County had also been entered in the records for
Baltimore City. Therefore the total number of live births used by
the Children’s Bureau as the starting point for the present s t u d y 13,477 is not the same as the number of live births registered in
Baltimore during the year and serving as the basis for the city infant
mortality rate.
For two divisions within the group detailed schedules were secured!
Among 10,797 legitimate babies, 1,117 died under 1 year of age, or
103.5 per 1,000; among 572 illegitimate babies, 172 died, or 300.7
per 1,000. In addition there were 1,725 legitimate babies who could
not be traced or for whom detailed information could not be secured
or who were omitted from the study as nonresidents. It was learned,
however, chiefly from the death records in Baltimore, that 153 of these
babies had died; no attempt was made to learn of deaths outside
Baltimore. For 383 illegitimate babies detailed schedules could not
be taken, but in this group information was secured whenever possible
about babies who had left Baltimore; from death records and other
sources it was learned that 109 of these babies had died; 18 were
known to have survived the first year; and 256 could not be traced.
Estimated rates for the excluded legitimate babies and for the ille­
gitimate babies are discussed on pages 191 and 168, respectively.
It should be noted that while no deaths occurring outside Balti­
more among legitimate infants and only a partial record of deaths
occurring outside Baltimore among illegitimate infants are included
in the number of known deaths among the total number of live births
Department of public safety, annual report, subdepartment of health, to the mayor and city council of
Baltimore for the fiscal year ended Dec. 31,1915, pp. 13,16-19. The number of deaths under 1 year of age in
during 1915 is given by the U. S. Bureau of the Census as 1,626. (See Mortality Statistics, 1915,

101351°—23------13

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193

194

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

on which the present study is based and the rate which might be
computed for the entire group is to that extent defective, no cor­
responding incompleteness due to shifts of residence appears in the
deaths included in computing the city rate. For while the city rate
excludes all deaths occurring outside the city among babies born in
Baltimore, it includes all deaths occurring in Baltimore among babies
born elsewhere.
It is obvious that with such differences in the selection of live
births and of deaths included in the city rate and in the rates
computed in the present study, no precise comparison between them
is possible.
T a b l e I. — Infant mortality rates, by age at death, legitimacy o f birth, and whether or not

the birth was scheduled; registered live births in 1915.
Known inlant deaths.

Legitimacy and group.

Regis­
tered
live
births
in 1915.

Total.

under
Under 2 weeks. 2 weeks,
1 month.

1 month and
over.

Num­
ber.

Rate.

Num­
ber.

Rate.

Num­
ber.

Rate.

Num­
ber.

Rate.

Total............................. U3,477

1,551

115.1

548

40.7

113

8.4

890

66.0

Legitimate:
Scheduled........................ 10,797
Not scheduled................. il,725

1,117
153

103.5
88.7

400
70

37.0
40.6

77
12

7.1
7.0

640
71

59.3
41.2

Illegitimate............................

955

281

294.2

78

81.7

24

25.1

179

187.4

Scheduled........................
Not scheduled.................

572
383

172
109

300.7
284.6

44
34

76.9
88.8

14
10

24.5
26.1

114
65

199.3
169.7

Includes 289 nonresident hospital cases.

In comparing the data on stillbirths and miscarriages secured in
this report with the data published by the city health department,
two differences should be kept in mind. First, there is the differ­
ence between births registered in 1915 and births occurring in 1915
which has been noted in the preceding discussion of live births and
infant mortality rates. Then, there is a difference in the use of the
word “ stillbirth.” By the city health department all dead births of
whatever term are reported as stillbirths; in the present study births
of seven months or more are classified as stillbirths and earlier births
are classified as miscarriages.
The only stillbirth rates that can be computed from the city health
department’s data would not correspond with the stillbirth rate given
in the present report, but with a rate secured by combining the still­
births and miscarriages and dividing the sum by the total births.
Such a rate is roughly comparable with a rate based on the city health
department’s data, in spite of the difference between births registered
in 1915 and registered births occurring in 1915, since the completeness
or incompleteness of the data depend in both cases on the ultimate
completeness of the registration. Difficulties involved in changes in
residence and the tracing of families do not affect the accuracy of the
stillbirth rates fos the entire group in the present study.


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105

APPENDIX HI.
T

able

I I .— Stillbirth rates, by registration o f birth and color o f m other; births registered
in 1915 and registered births occurring in 1915.

S tillbirths a n d
m iscarriages.
R egistra tion o f b irth a n d color o f m oth er.

T o ta l
birth s.
N u m b e r.

R egistered b irth s occu rrin g in 1915...............
W h ite ................................................................
C o lo r e d .............................................................

14,765
12,231
2,534
14,636
12,045
2,555
36

S tillbirths.
T o ta l
birth s.

1,131
771
360
1,159
755
372
32

P e r 1,000
b irth s.1-

76.6
63.0
142.1
79.2
62.7
145.6

N u m b e r.

14,095
11,647
2,419
29

618
357
236
25

P e r 1,000
b irth s .1

43.8
30.7
97.6

1 N o t sh ow n w here base is less th a n 50.
* D ep a rtm en t o f p u b lic sa fety, a n n u al re p o rt, su b de p a rtm e n t o f health, fiscal yea r e n d e d D e c . 31,1915.
B altim ore, 1916.

f


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APPENDIX IV.— METHOD BY WHICH MEDIAN EARNINGS AND
MEDIAN RENTALS ARE ESTIMATED FROM DATA AVAILABLE
IN THE PRESENT STUDY.

The exact median of the father’s earnings is the amount earned by
the father in the middle of the group or, perhaps more accurately
phrased, the median is the earnings at the point in the scale where
one-half of the cases fall above and one-half fall below.
Similarly, the exact median rental is such an amount that onehalf of the families paid more and one-half paid less.
In the tabulations, earnings and rentals are not listed individually,
but grouped. The group within which the median falls can be exactly
determined; the individual median can be roughly estimated within
the group. As typical of the process, which is identical for earnings
and rentals, the median earnings of all the fathers studied are com­
puted below. It will be noted that the numbers refer to births.
The presence of plural births (approximately 2 per cent of all) may,
however, be disregarded. The slight error involved would not affect
the group median, since plural births appear with about the same
frequency in all earnings and nationality groups, and would not affect
the validity of the comparisons made in the report on the basis of
estimated individual medians.
B irth s.

Total..........................................................
With father’s earnings not reported...
Total with known earnings.. . .
One-half of total with known earnings
Father’s earnings:
None..................................................
Under $450.......................................
$450 to $549..................................
$550 to $649...................................... .

11,195
226
10,969
5,484.5

222
1, 615
1,523
1,543
4,903
2,490
7,393

$650 to $849...................................... .

Comparison of the total earning less than $650 and of the total
earning less than $850 with one-half of total with known earnings
shows that $650 to $849 is the group in which the median faUs. in
other words, the median earnings were between $650 and $850.
B irth s.

One-half of total with known earnings.............................. .....................................
Total in groups lower than median group..............................................................

5; 484.5

4t 903

58L5

The point within the median group at which individual median
probably falls is :
$650 plus I

times $200 = $796.

Assuming that within the median group the cases are distributed
uniformly in respect to earnings, the median point which will divide
the cases in the entire series into two equal parts, half above and
half below the median, is:

times $200 above the sum, $650,

which represent the lowest earnings in the median group.
$796 as the median earnings. -

This gives
197


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APPENDIX V.— METHOD BY WHICH INFANT MORTALITY RATE
IS COMPUTED FOR INFANTS HAYING A SPECIFIED TYPE OF
FEEDING; EXPLANATION OF TERMS “ EXPECTED DEATHS”
AND “ EXPECTED RATES.”
COMPUTED RATE BY TYPE OF FEEDING.

Many of the babies who are breast fed throughout the first month
are shifted to mixed feeding or to artificial feeding during the second
month, and such shifts from one type of feeding to another continue
throughout the year. The annual rate is computed (1) from the
monthly rate for each month from the first to the ninth, based on all
infants receiving a given type of feeding through more than half the
month (or until death within the month) and the deaths occurring
during the month within this group; and (2) from the survivors of the
ninth month, who had had a stated type of feeding during that month,
and the deaths occurring after the ninth month within this group.
The number of breast-fed babies dwindled from 9,283 during the
first month to 2,825 during the ninth month. The number of deaths
during the first nine months among babies who at the time of death
were receiving breast milk and no other food was 259. These repre­
sent monthly death rates varying from 15 per 1,000 in the first
month to 1.7 per 1,000 in one of the later months. After the ninth
month, 23 deaths occurred among the 2,817 survivors of the ninth
month who were breast fed during that month. These represent a
death rate after the ninth month of 8.2 per 1,000 survivors.
B y applying these rates to a hypothetical group of 1,000 babies
breast fed throughout the first nine months, the known monthly
death rates are translated into terms of infant deaths per 1,000 babies
born alive and surviving to be fed. The rate for the first month gives
the number of deaths within the first month in the hypothetical
t group. Subtracting these deaths from 1,000, gives the number of
* survivors at the beginning of the second month, which, in turn, is
multiplied by the rate for the second month to give the number of
deaths within the second month in the hypothetical group. These,
in turn, are subtracted from the survivors at the beginning of the
second month. This process is repeated for each month to thé ninth.
The survivors of the ninth month in the hypothetical group are then
multiplied b y the death rate for survivors of the ninth month who had
been breast fed through that month. The sum of the 10 numbers of
deaths is the number of deaths which would occur during the first 12
months of life in the hypothetical group of 1,000 breast-fed babies.
And, since this number is derived from a group of 1,000, it is identical
with the death rate per 1,000 among breast-fed babies.
199


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200

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD,
B R E A S T -F E D

IN F A N T S .

H y p o t h e t ic a l grou p o f 1,000
infants.

A c t u a l group.
M on th o f life.
I n fa n t
su r­
viv o rs .

F irs t........................ ................... ..............................
S econ d .......................................... ...........................
T h ir d .............. .......................................................
F o u r th ....................................................................
F ifth ..........................................................................
S ix t h .........................................................................
S even th ....................................................................
E ig h th .................................. ............................
N in th ....................................................................
T e n th t o tw e lfth ...................................................

D e a th s
w ith in
m on th .

M o n th ly
d e a th
ra te .

139
32
18
15

15.0
3 .9
2 .4
2 .3
3 .4

9,283
8,176
7,400
6,457
5,905
5,352
4,215
3,590
2,825
2,817

20
12

2.2

7

1 .7

8
8

2.2
2.8
8.2

23

In fa n t
sur­
vivors.

1, 000.0
985.0
981.2
978.8
976.5
973.2
971.1
969.4
967.3
964.6

M o n th ly
d e a th
rate.

15.0
3 .9
2 .4
2 .3
3 .4

2.2

D eaths
w ith in
m on th .

:

15.0
3 .8
2 .4

:; '2 ; 3
3 .3

2.1

1.7

1 .7

2.2
2.8
8.2

2.1

956.7

2 .7
7 .9
43.3

From the sum of the deaths within the month in the hypothetical
group is derived the computed annual rate for breast-fed babies o f
43.3 per 1,000 infants fed. In the same way from the computations
that follow, are derived the computed annual rate for babies having
mixed feeding— 87.4 per 1,000 infants fed— and the computed
annual rate for babies having artificial feeding— 191.4 per 1,000
infants fed.
M IX E D -F E D

IN F A N T S .

H y p o th e tic a l grou p o f 1,000
in fa n t s .

A c t u a l grou p .
M on th o f life .
I n fa n t
s u rv iv ­
ors.

F irs t..........................................................................
S econ d ...................... ...............................................
T h ir d ........................................................................
F ou rth ......................................................................
F ifth ........................................................
S ix t h ____: ........................; ......................................
S even th ....................................................................
E ig h th ......................................................................
N in t h ........................................................................
T e n th t o t w e lft h ...................................................

D eath s
w ith in
m o n th .

281
608
844
1,303
1,614
1,977
2,845
3,291
3,890
3,878

M o n th ly
d e a th
ra te .

I n fa n t
s u rv iv ­
ors.

M o n th ly
d e a th
ra te .

12

42.7

1, 000.0

42.7

4

6.6

8

957.3
951.0
942.0
936.9
931.7
928.0
925.0
921.9
919.0

6.6

9 .5
5 .4
5 .6
4 .0
3 .2
3 .3
3.1
7 .0

7
9

8
9

11
12
27

9 .5
5 .4
5 .6
4 .0
3 .2
3 .3
3.1
7 .0

912.6
A R T IF IC IA L L Y -F E D

D eaths
w ith in
m o n th .

4 2.7
6 .3
9 .0
5.1
5 .2
3 .7
3 ,0
3 .1
2 .9
6 .4
87.4

IN F A N T S .

H y p o th e tic a l gro u p o f 1,000
in fa n t s .

A ctu a l group.

Month o f life .
I n fa n t
s u rv iv ­
ors.

F irs t...........................................................................
S econ d ......................................................................
T h ir d ........................................................................
F o u r t h . . . . ..............................................................
F ifth ............................................ ..............................
S ix t h ....................................... ............................... .
S even th ....................................................................
E ig h th ......................................................................
N in th .........................................................................
T e n th t o t w e lfth ...................................................

958
1,531
2,006
2,426
2,605
2,725
2,919
3,042
3,153
3,122

D ea th s
w ith in
m o n th .

M o n th ly
d e a th
rate.

I n fa n t
s u r v iv ­
ors.

M o n th ly
d e a th
rate.

53
29
37
40
41
56
40
36
31
90

55.3
18.9
18. 4
16.5
15.7

1, 000.0

55.3
18.9
18 4
16.5
15.7

20.6
13.7

11.8
9 .8
28.8

944.7
926. 8
909.7
894.7
880.7
862.6
850.8
840.8
832.6
808.6


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20.6
13.7

11.8
9 .8
28.8

D eaths
w ith in
m o n th .

55.3
17.9

17 i

is le
14.0
is : l

11.8
10.0
8.2
24.0
191.4

APPENDIX V.

201

In the tables showing computed infant mortality rates b y type of
feeding, the numbers of infants having the stated type of feeding
during the first month and during the ninth month are shown. In
addition, the total number of months of feeding of a specified type
from the first to the ninth is given, as a truer indication of the size
of the base for the computed rate.
“ EXPECTED DEATHS.”

In this report the ‘ 1expected deaths” and “ expected rates” are
frequently compared with the “ actual deaths” or “ actual rates.”
The reason for making such a computation and the method of secur­
ing the expected deaths are briefly explained in the following
paragraphs.
Suppose, for example, an analysis is to be made of the relation of
mother’s employment during pregnancy to infant mortality. B y
classifying live births and deaths according to the employment and
nonemployment of the mother during pregnancy, an infant mor­
tality rate for each group can be obtained. The question imme­
diately arises, however, whether an undue proportion of the mothers
who worked during pregnancy may not be colored or foreign bom ,
groups in which the infant mortality rates have been found to be
nigh. The excessive mortality, therefore, among the babies of
mothers who worked may be due merely to the differences in the
composition of the groups. Accordingly the next step is to sub­
divide the group into the native white, foreign-born white, and
colored, ana to ascertain in each group the infant mortality rate
among babies whose mothers worked during pregnancy and whose
mothers did not work. It appears that the rates are still higher for
infants of mothers who worked. , The question then arises whether
this high mortality may not be due to the general conditions of
poverty in homes from which mothers go out to work. Or it may be
due to the fact that among the foreign-bom mothers, it was chiefly
the Polish mothers who went out to work. The next step in analysis,
therefore, is to subdivide these groups still further and to compare
in each of the subgroups the mortality among babies whose mothers
worked and those whose mothers did not work. The difficulty then
arises that the numbers in each of these homogeneous subgroups are
so small that great differences in the rates may be due to chance
variation. Evidently, some method of summarizing the results of
the findings of the different subgroups is necessary, but if the live
births and infant deaths in the different groups are merely added up,
the result gives the figures from which the analysis originally pro­
ceeded. It is therefore obvious that the method of summarizing
must produce results which are independent of the differences in the
distributions of the various factors which complicate the findings in
the original group. For this purpose, an expected rate is used for
comparison with the actual rate.
The method which has been followed in computing an expected
rate is, first, to compute the infant mortality rate in each of the sub­
groups not divided according to the factor upon which information
is particularly sought. In the present case infant mortality rates
are determined for each color and nationality and earnings group.


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202

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

The second step is to divide the live births in each of the subgroups
into two subdivisions— those whose mothers were, and those whose
mothers were not, employed during pregnancy. The third step is
to multiply the live births in each o f these subdivisions b y the infant
mortality rate for the subgroup. The result of this multiplication
gives the number of infant deaths in each of the subdivisions of the
subgroups if the rate which was true of the subgroups applied to each
of the subdivisions. These expected deaths are then added so that
one total is secured of all the expected deaths among infants of
mothers employed, and another of expected deaths of infants of
mothers not employed during pregnancy.
These totals of expected deaths are then compared to the totals of
actual deaths among infants of mothers employed and not employed
during pregnancy.1
If tnere is a tendency for employment of the mother to affect ad­
versely the mortality oi babies, then in each of the subdivisions of the
subgroups the actual number of deaths among infants of mothers
employed during pregnancy will tend, other things being equal, to be
in excess of the number expected, found by multiplying the live
births by the infant mortality rate for the entire subgroup. In each
of the subgroups, then, a comparison can be made between the actual
number and the expected number of deaths. By adding on the one
hand all the expected deaths and on the other all the actual deaths,
the validity oi the comparison between the actual and expected
deaths is preserved, and the result expresses the comparative mor­
tality in the two groups after the influence of differences in nation­
ality and economic condition is eliminated.
In summing up the results from all the subgroups the range of
variation due merely to chance is greatly lessened, and the conclusion
secures the full value of the weight attached to the number of cases
in the comparison.
Expected rates are found by dividing the number of expected
deaths by the total number of live births. These rates may be com­
pared to the actual rates in the same way that expected deaths are
compared to actual deaths.
In connection with each table showing expected deaths or expected
rates, a statement will be found showing the base upon which these
have been computed.
1It is obvious that adding together the actual deaths in each of the subdivisions of each subgroup will
give the total deaths among infants of mothers employed and not employed during pregnancy.


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APPENDIX VI.— PREVALENCE OF PRENATAL CARE AND EXTENT
TO WHICH THE INFANTS IN THE STUDY WERE REACHED
BY INFANT-WELFARE WORK.

In its Baltimore study, the Children’s Bureau for the first time in its series of infant mortality inquiries had an opportunity to observe
the development of prenatal clinics and infant-welfare work and to
ascertain the extent to which these facilities were available to the
babies bom during the specified period. The prevalence of prenatal
care among the mothers of infants bom in 1915 and the extent to
which the infants were reached by the infant-welfare agencies were
included in the scope of the inquiry. In Baltimore no public work
had yet been undertaken in the field of prenatal care and infant
welfare, but three private agencies, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, the
Babies’ Milk Fund Association, and the Mothers’ Belief Society, had
begun in 1914, 1915, and 1916 to carry on systematic prenatal and
infant care. Other hospitals and agencies were making examina­
tions of women who came to them during pregnancy and were coop­
erating in various ways with these three agencies.
Organizations giving prenatal care.

The prenatal care and obsterical service furnished by the Johns
Hopkins Hospital included a maternity ward, an out-patient disensary open every day, and a free, outside obstetrical service which,
owever, was limited to mothers living not more than a mile from the
hospital.1 A clinic nurse visited mothers living within the hospital
district, and other mothers were referred for nursing care to the
organization next described.
The Babies’ Milk Fund Association, organized in 1904 for the dis­
tribution of pure modified milk, maintained a nursing service which
to some extent reached patients of private physicians,2 and supple­
mented the work of prenatal clinics. The association also maintained
an obstetrical clinic in a neighborhood far from any hospital, where
foreign-born women predominated.3
A third clinic was carried on by the Mothers’ Relief Society, which
held a prenatal clinic once in two weeks at a settlement house, Law­
rence House.4 The work of the one nurse employed was supple­
mented through cooperation with the Instructive Visiting Nurse
Association.
A prospective mother was received b y ‘ the Johns Hopkins
Hospital obstetrical clinic only with the understanding that she
would return to the clinic at least monthly until confinement5 and

E

1A lm o s t all o f th e follow in g w ards w ere in clu d e d in this area: 2 , 3 , 5 , 6, 7 , 8, a n d 10.
* A m o n g th e 665 m arried w o m e n a tten d ed d u rin g p re g n a n cy b y th e B ab ies’ M ilk F u n d A ssocia tion
ap p roxim ately 63 p er cen t w ere patien ts o f a prenatal clin ic, w h ile a b o u t 11 p er cen t w ere p atients o f a p riva te
p h y sicia n o n ly . T w e n ty -fiv e p e r c e n t h a d n o a tten d a n t d u rin g p re g n a n cy e x c e p t th e nurse o f th is asso­
cia tion . M others receivin g care fro m a nurse o n ly h a v e n o t b e e n in clu d e d i n this report as h a vin g prenatal
care.
»T h e eastern p a rt o f th e tw e n ty -fo u rth w a rd , i n th e d istrict k n o w n as L o cu s t P o in t . T h e w a rd as a
w h o le sh ow ed m ed ia n earnings o f fathers b etw een $650 a n d $850; th e m e d ia n earnings for th e L o cu st P o in t
n eig h b orh ood h a d th e y be e n tab u la te d separately w o u ld p r o b a b ly h a v e fallen in t o th e lo w e r earnings
grou p .
* T h is c lin ic served parts o f w ards 4 ,2 2 ,2 1 ,2 3 ,1 8 ,1 9 .
• S ince 1915 th e sta ff has be e n increased, a n d th e pa tie n t is n o w e x p e c te d t o v is it th e c lin ic m o n t h ly u n til
th e s even th m o n th , a n d th e n e v e r y t w o weeks u n til con fin em en t.

203


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204

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

that the baby would be placed under the care of the Babies’ Milk
Fund Association until he was at least 1 year of age. The clinic did
not usually retain as a patient a woman who could afford a private
physician. The Babies’ Milk Fund Association endeavored to devote
the major part of its work to women in families with less than a stated
income; it preferred not to take as clinic patients women who could
and would go to a hospital for confinement or who would employ a
private physician. The Mothers’ Relief Society restricted its work
to white married mothers who would otherwise have employed a
midwife at confinement. It required of the mother full cooperation
in the plan of prenatal care, and tried to have mothers brought to
the society during the early months of pregnancy.
The prenatal service rendered by the Johns Hopkins Hospital
included at the first visit a complete physical examination with pelvic
measurements, and at this and each later visit a urinalysis. At least
one home visit was made by the clinic nurse or one of the nurses on the
staff of the Babies’ Milk Fund Association.6
The physician in charge of the Babies’ Milk Fund Association
clinic examined the mother thoroughly at her first visit, and she was
expected to return to the clinic at least monthly. Urinalysis was
made monthly in normal cases. The mother was visited in her home
about once in ten days, and if abnormal symptoms were found she
was urged to visit the clinic more often. An initial physical examina­
tion, monthly urinalysis, and weekly visits b y a trained nurse com­
prised the prenatal supervision carried on in normal cases b y the
Mothers’ Relief Society.
Prevalence of prenatal care.

The three agencies doing systematic prenatal work gave medical
prenatal care to 893 married mothers (769 of these received care from
the Johns Hopkins Hospital) and 128 unmarried mothers of those
who were included in the scheduled groups. In addition, 379 married
mothers reported prenatal visits from a nurse of the Babies’ Milk
Fund Association or the Mothers’ Relief Society, but no medical
prenatal care either from these organizations or from the Johns Hop­
kins prenatal clinic. Of these 379 mothers, 122 had medical prenatal
care from some other clinic and 257 did not have prenatal care from
any clinic.
Hospital clinics, other than Johns Hopkins gave prenatal care to
546 married mothers (including the 122 who also had visits from
nurses of the Babies’ Milk Fund Association or the Mothers’ Relief
Society) and to 161 unmarried mothers.
Besides the special work organized in the clinics, prenatal advice
and care were given by private physicians. A complete statement
of the prevalence of prenatal care could be obtained, therefore, only
by ascertaining in the case of each mother whether she had received
prenatal care during the pregnancy of 1915.7 Standards of prenatal
care were drawn up in consultation with medical authorities, and it
was agreed that to be classified as having any medical prenatal care
a mother must at the very least have consulted a physician once
6 Since 1915, t o th e rou tin e o f each v is it h a v e b e e n a d d e d th e de te rm in atio n o f b lo o d pressure a n d a n a b d o m ­
in a l exa m in a tion . I n ev e r y case a W asserm an n test is tak e n on th e first v is it a n d tre a tm e n t is in stitu ted
if a p o s itiv e reaction is secured.
.
. . . .
,
,
‘ .

7 The discussion in the following pages is limited to mothers of infants of legitimate birth in the sched­
uled group.


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205

APPENDIX VI.

during her pregnancy or have had a urinalysis.8 Consultations with
or advice given by a nurse or midwife were not considered prenatal
care.
On this basis slightly over half, 52.4 per cent, of the mothers of
legitimate infants born in Baltimore in 1915, received some medical
prenatal care; nearly half received none. Seven and eight-tenths per
cent of the mothers received care from one or more of the three
clinics described above, 4.8 per cent from other clinics, and 39.8 per
cent from a private physician only.
Prenatal care and poverty.

Table I shows the prevalence of prenatal care in the different
earnings groups. A marked correlation between the prevalence of
prenatal care and the earnings of the fathers is evident from the
table. Of the mothers in families where the fathers earned less than
$850, 56 per cent, as compared with 35 per cent in the families where
the fathers earned $850 to $1,849, and with 14 per cent in families
where the fathers earned $1,850 or over, received no prenatal care.
Of the mothers in families where the fathers earned $2,850 and over,
only 10.8 per cent were without some prenatal care.
But the greatest lack of care did not occur in the very poorest
f a m ilies.
In these families clinic care was most prevalent, reaching
34.9 per cent of the mothers in families with no fathers’ earnings and
30.4 per cent of the mothers in families with fathers’ earnings less
than $450. In families with a little more money, far fewer mothers
went to the clinics, and among several of the groups under $850 the
increase in private care as the fathers’ earnings rose was less marked
than the decrease in clinic care. Therefore fewer mothers had pre­
natal care in families where fathers earned more than $450 but less
than $650 than in families where the fathers earned nothing or under
$450.
T

able

I .— Prevalence o f 'prenatal care among mothers,a by source o f care and by earnings
offather.
P er cent la v in g prei aatal care.

E arnings o f father.

P e r cen t
h a vin g
T o ta l
n o pre­
m o th e rs .«
n atal
care.

T o ta l.

F ro m
clin ic
p h y si­
cian. 6

F ro m
p riv a te
p h y s i­
cia n only.

P e r cen t
n o t re­
p o rte d .

T o t a l..............................................................

11,463

47.5

52.4

12.6

39.8

0.1

N o e a r n in g s .........................................................
U n der $850..............................................................
U n d er $450.............................................. ..
$450-$549..........................................................
$550-$649..........................................................
$650-$849..........................................................
$850-$l,849...............................................................
$850-$1,049.......... ............................................
$1,050-$1,249....................................................
$1,250-$1,449....................................................
$l'450-$1^849....................................................

232
7,331

41.4
55.6
53.0
58.7
59.8
52.7
34.8
40.5
30.0
32.9
21.3
13.8
18.2
13.9

57.3
44.3
46.9
41.0
40.1
47.3
65.1
59.5
70.0
67.1
78.7

34.9
16.6
30.4

22.4
27.7
16.5

1.3

86.1

81.8

.7

39.7

89.2
58.6

$l,850-$2,249....................................................
$2'250-$2;849....................................................
N o t rep orted ..........................................................

1,668
1,551
1,566
2,546
3,205
1,675
696
444
390
456
143

101
212
239

10.8

86.1

20.8
13.0
7.1
3 .0
4.1
2 .3
2 .5
.3

.2

18.8

a In clu des o n ly m arried m oth ers t o w h o m ch ild ren w ere h o r n i n 1915.
b W ith or w ith o u t care fr o m other p h y sicia n ,
c N o t s h ow n w h en less th a n on e-ten th o f 1 p er cen t.
« I n 103 cases th e m oth er re p o rte d ù rin alysis, b u t n o co n su lta tio n w ith a p h y sicia n .


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.1
.1

20.2

27.1
40.1
62.2
55.4
67.7
64.6
78.5

.3

.1
.1
(*>

.1

86.0
81.1

86.1
89.2
39.7

1.7

206

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

In families where the father’s earnings were below $850, less than
..one-third of the mothers sought private prenatal care and less than
one-fifth were reached b y clinics. In families where the father’s earn­
ings were $850 and below $1,850, less than two-thirds had private
prenatal care and less than 1 in 30 was reached by the clinics. In
families where the fathers earned $1,850 or over, nearly seven-eighths
of the mothers sought private prenatal care.
Prenatal care and color and nationality.

The different customs of the several race and nationality groups
also play their part in causing the variations in prevalence of prenatal
care. In general, of course, the more the group clings to the employ­
ment of midwives at confinement the fewer are the mothers in the
group who have medical care during pregnancy. Thus, in Baltimore,
at one extreme are the Polish mothers with 86.1 per cent (Table II)
reporting no prenatal care (and 77.6 per cent attended b y midwives
at confinement), and at the other extreme the colored mothers and
the native white mothers with 42.8 per cent and 41.5 per cent, respec­
tively, reporting no prenatal care (and 25.9 per cent and 27.4 per cent,
respectively, employing midwives at confinement). The six national­
ity groups fall into two divisions: First, the native white mothers, the
colored mothers, and the foreign-bom Jewish mothers, of whom many,
relatively, had prenatal care; and the Polish, Italian, and “ all other
foreign” mothers, of whom relatively few had prenatal care.
T a b l e I I .— Prevalence o f prenatal care among mothers,1 by source o f care and by color

and nationality o f mother.
Per cent having prenatal care
Per cent
Color and nationality Total
having
ofmother.
mothers.1 noprenatalcare.

From clinic physician2.
Total.
Total.

The
three
clinics.

Other
clinics.

Per cent
not reFrom
private ported.
physician
only.

Total................

11,463

47.5

52.4

12.6

7.8

4.8

39.8

0.1

Native white.............
Jewish........................
Polish.........................
Italian........................
A ll other foreign-bom
white......................
Colored.......................

7,117
996
646
435

41.5
46.5
86.1
77.9

58.3
53.4
13.9
22.1

5.6
31.7
8.2
8.5

3.8
22.6
5.7
6.4

1.8
9.1
2.5
2.1

52. 8
21.7
5.7
13.6

.1
.1

780
1,489

63.1
42.8

36.5
57.0

8.8
38.1

6.4
18.9

2.4
19.2

27.7
18.9

.4
.3

1 Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 1915.
2 With or without care from other physician. /

The native white mothers depended mainly on private physicians,
while the foreign-born Jewish mothers and the colored mothers
depended mainly on the clinics. In the three other groups where
the m ajority of mothers had no prenatal care, about 1 mother in 12
had been reached by the clinics and the percentages having private
medical prenatal care ranged from 5.7 per cent of the Polish mothers
to 27.7 per cent of the “ other foreign-bom ” mothers.
The three clinics doing systematic prenatal work were so located
as to be accessible to mothers in the very poor districts in which


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207

APPENDIX VI.

native white families predominated. In the wards within a mile of
Johns Hopkins, which treated more prenatal patients than any other
clinic, occurred about two-thirds of the births to Jewish, Polish, and
Italian mothers. The principal colored neighborhoods were not so
accessible to Johns Hopkins and were less accessible to the Babies’
Milk Fund Association clinic. The Mothers’ Relief Society did not
accept colored patients. These three clinics together reached 22.6
per cent of the total foreign-bom Jewish mothers and 18.9 per cent of
the total colored mothers. The other clinics were accessible to cer­
tain other very poor districts, including the principal colored neigh­
borhoods, and reached 9.1 per cent of the foreign-born Jewish mothers
and 19.2 per cent of the colored mothers. In the other nationality
groups much smaller proportions of the mothers were reached by
the clinics.
T

able

I I I .—Prevalence o f prenatal care among mothers,} from specified source, by
ward o f residence and median earnings o f father.
Per cent having prenatal care.

Per cent
Ward of residence
Total
having
and median earn­ mothers.1
no pre­
ings of father.
natal care.

From clinic physician.a
Total.
Total.

Total................
Under $650—
Ward 2 .........
Ward 3.........
Ward 4.........
Ward 22.......
Ward 5.........
Ward 17.......
Median earnings:
$650-$849—
Ward 1.........
Ward 24.......
Ward 21.......
Ward 6.........
Ward 23.......
Ward 18.......
Ward 7 .........
Ward 19.......
Ward 10.......
Ward 20.......
Ward 11.......
Ward 13.......
Ward 8 .........
Ward 14.......
Median earnings:
$850 and over—
Ward 15.......
Ward 12.......
Ward 16.......
Ward 9.........

The
three
clinics.

Other
clinics.

Per cent
not re­
From
ported.
private
physician
only.

11,463

47.5

52.4

12.6

7.8

4.8

39.8

0.1

652
647
240
290
420
287

76.5
63.1
57.1
54.5
50.5
41.1

23.5
36.9
42.9
45.5
49.5
58.5

10.7
26.3
18.8
20.7
37.4
28.6

7.8
19.8
5.4
4.8
30.7
6.3

2.9
6.5
13.3
15.9
6.7
22.3

12.7
10.7
24.2
.24.8
12.1
30.0

.3

825
630
465
623
370
281
694
401
356
643
157
489
634
308

71J)
69.2
54.2
52.8
49.7
49.1
48.4
43.9
43.5
38.6
37.6
33.7
33.0
31.8

29.0
30.6
45.4
47.2
50.3
50.5
51.6
56.1
55.9
61.4
61.8
66.1
66.9
67.5

5.0
6.3
14.4
18.0
10.5
16.7
14.0
11.0
20.8
4.8
9.6
1.8
10.6
15.3

3.4
5.1
8.8
14.6
3.8
6.4
12.8
6.5
15.2
2.5
3.2
.8
8.7
4.2

1.6
1.3
5.6
3.4
6.8
10.3
1.2
4.5
5.6
2.3
6.4
1.0
1.9
11.0

24.0
24.3
31.0
29.2
39.7
33.8
37.6
45.1
35.1
56.6
52.2
64.2
56.3
52.3

645
437
452
517

29.8
28.8
24.1
21.9

69.9
70.9
75.9
77.8

5.3
6.9
7.3
5.4

.8
3.9
1.8
4.6

4.5
3.0
5.5
.8

64.7
64.1
68.6
72.3

1Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 1915.
a With or without care from other physician.


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.2
.4
.4
.6
.6
.2
.2
.6
.3
.2
.4

208

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Prenatal care and wards.

Of the five wards (wards 3, 5, 10, 17, and 22) in which 20 per cent
or more of the mothers received clinic care, four were among the
poorest wards in the city (Table III). Three of these (3, 5, ana 10)
were within the Johns Hopkins Hospital district. The other two
wards included districts with a large proportion of colored mothers
which were conveniently accessible to other hospitals. Other wards
showing a large proportion of mothers receiving prenatal care from
clinics were ward 4, which was conveniently accessible to two hos­
pitals; wards 6 and 7, which were within the Johns Hopkins district,
and ward 14, which contained a large colored population and was
conveniently accessible to other clinics. Wards 3 and 5 had a con­
siderable Jewish population; it is noteworthy that ward 2, which was
in the Johns Hopkins district, had a relatively low proportion of
mothers who reported prenatal care, a fact which may be related to
its relatively large Pohsh population.
Grade of prenatal care.

An attempt was made to classify the care received by the mothers
roughly into three grades, which were determined upon after consul­
tations with medical authorities. These grades are designated by the
letters A, B, and C—grade C including all cases having the minimum
of care already noted which could not qualify as either A or B.
To qualify in grade B the care received by the mother must have
satisfied all four of the following requirements:
(1) Some supervision by a physician.
(2) At least one urinalysis.
(3) At least an abdommal examination.
(4) Pelvic measurements if a primipara.
To qualify in grade A, the care must have fulfilled the following
additional requirements: Monthly visits to clinic from the fifth to the
ninth month or under supervision of private physician from the fifth
to the ninth month, and monthly urinalysis during the same period.
Several points should be mentioned in connection with the grading
of care. In the first place, the requirements even for grade A care
are low and may by no means be considered ideal. The fact that so
small a proportion of mothers received care of grade A with its low
standard is therefore all the more significant. In the second place,
though the care given by the three clinics was based upon thenrecords, the classification of care given by the private physicians was
based upon the mothers’ statements. The results are, therefore, sub­
ject to qualification in that the mothers’ memories may have been at.
fault or that the mothers may not have understood the object or the
scope of the examination made by the physicians. On the other hand,
the agents were given careful instructions in regard to the questions
to be asked and in every case the answers were so classified as to
overstate rather than to understate the extent of care actually
received. In the third place, it should be emphasized that the results
of this study can not be interpreted as in any way a criticism of the
physicians or the clinics, since the small proportion of cases receiving


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APPENDIX V I.

209

the best grade of care is largely determined by the fact that the
mothers did not present themselves for treatment early enough in
their pregnancies, or did not continue visits with sufficient regularity.
For a better showing the fuller cooperation of the mothers is required,
and this can be secured only after the importance of early care is
generally recognized and appreciated.
■Tho results of the ^classification by grades of care is shown in
Table IV. Of the entire group of mothers of legitimate infants, 5.1
per cent had grade A, 17.1 per cent had grade B, and 25.6 per cent
had grade C care. The proportion with grade A care was less than
5 per cent in all earnings groups under $850, and between 5 and 10
per cent m the groups $850 to $1,449, but rose to 39.2 per cent in the
group $2,850 and over.
T

ab le

IY —Prevalence o f prenatal care among mothers,l by grade o f care and by earnings
offather.
Per cent having prenatal care of specified grades.
Earnings of father.

. Total
mothers.1
Total.

Total...............................
No earnings................................
Under $850..............................
Under $450........................
$450-$549.........................
$550-$649........................
$650-$849................................
$850-$l,849....................................
$850-$l,049...........................
$1,050-81,249.....................

$1,250-$1,449..............................
$1,450-$1,849.....................
$1,850 and over................................
$l,850-$2,249............................
$2,250-$2,849.......................................
$2,850 and over.......................................
Not reported...............................................

Grade A. Grade B. Grade C. Grade not
reported.

11,463

52.4

5.1

17.1

25.6

4.5

232
7,331
1,668
1,551
1,566
2,546
3,205
1,675
696
444
390
456
143
101
212
239

57.3
44.3
46.9
41.0
40.1
47.3
65.1
59.5
70.0
67.1
78.7
86.1
81.8
86.1
89.2
58.6

1.7
2.2
1.3
1.8
1.6
3.5
8.5
6.6
8.2
9.2
16.4
30.3
21.0
24.8
39.2
4.2

28.9
17.9
25.7
19.5
15.7
13.2
14.0
13.3
14.5
13.5
17.2
17.3
14.0
23.8
16.5
22.6

23.3
21.7
17.7
18.2
20.3
27.2
34.6
33.1
37.6
36.9
33.3
2a 9
36.4
26.7
25.0
23.4

3.4
2.5
2.2
1.5
2.5
3.4
ao
6.6
9.6
7.4
11.8
9.6
10.5
10.9
as
a4

1 In clu d es o n ly m arried m oth ers t o w h o m ch ildren w ere b o m i n 1915.

Grade B care was most prevalent in the poorest families, with 28.9
per cent of all in the “ No earnings” group and 25.7 per cent of all in
the “ Under $450” group.9 Grade C care, on the other hand, was
most prevalent in the families between the very poor and the well to
do, the percentage having this grade of care ranging from 33.1 to
37.6 per cent of all in the families where the fathers earned $850 but
less than $2,250, but falling below 30 per cent in the most prosperous
families and below 20 per cent in very poor families.
Only in the poorest families (where the fathers earned less than
$550) and in the most prosperous families (where the fathers earned
at least $2,250) were the mothers who had grade A or grade B care
more numerous than the mothers who had grade C care. In the
poorest groups care of grades A or B was practically all grade B ; in
» T h e h igh percentage o f grade B care a t $2,250 t o $2,849 is based o n a grou p o f 101 m oth ers o f w h o m 76
h a d prenatal care o f a stated grade. T h is v a ria tion fr o m th e general tren d has little signifiran«» ; n „ n
sm a ll a grou p .

101351°—23— 14


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210

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

the earnings group from $2,250 to $2,849, it was about evenly divided
between grades A and B ; and in the group $2,850 and over, it was
mainly grade A.
,
.
In quality of care even more than in general prevalence ot care
the mothers in families of average means fared less well than the
very poor. •
. ,
,
.
Prenatal care for 48 per cent of tlie mothers who received, care did
not begin until after the fifth month, and consequently it could not
satisfy the requirements for grade A. More than one-fourth of the
mothers who were classified as having prenatal care saw the physi­
cian only once during pregnancy.10 Only 31.4 per cent had had as
many as five consultations.
IGA visit merely to engage the services of a physician without medical consultation was not counted
as a consultation.


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CONFINEMENT CARE.
Hospital facilities.

A t the time of this study 13 hospitals received maternity cases11
and 5 maintained outside obstetrical service, with the assistance of
students in Baltimore medical schools.
Attendant at birth.

In all, 67.4 per cent of the mothers were attended at confinement
by a physician (Table V). Confinement at home with a private
physician attending was the predominating type of confinement care
m the city as a whole, with 47.1 per cent of the total births studied.
Next in importance numerically were the midwife cases, with 32.3
per cent of the total births. Confinements attended b y the outside
obstetrical service of a hospital and confinements occurring in a
hospital were about equal in number with 9.9 and 9.5 per cent re­
spectively of the total births. The 24 births to mothers delivered b y
the obstetrician of the Babies7 Milk Fund Association and the 82
births to mothers delivered b y the obstetrician of the Mothers7
Relief Society were together less than one per cent of the total.
Twenty-nine births, or 0.2 per cent of the total, took place with
neither midwife nor physician in attendance.
Confinement care, like prenatal care, shows the greatest lack of
medical attendance, according to Table VI, in families between the
very poor and those who had more than the average income. The
percentage of the mothers who Were attended b y midwives was only
20.7 per cent in the group in which the husband earned nothing and
free hospital service reached the largest numbers of cases, but the per­
centage rose to 44 per cent in the groups in which the fathers earned
between $450 and $649. In the families where the fathers earned
$650 or more the numbers attended b y midwives decreased, but only
in families where the fathers earned at least $1,050 was the percent­
age of midwife cases smaller than in the poorest group, where the
husbands earned nothing.
\
T a b l e Y . — Attendant at birth and place o f confinement.
Legitimate births in 1915.
Attendantat hirth and place of confinement.
Number.

Total...............................................................................
Physician.....................................................................................
In hospital........................................................................
Not in hospital...................................................................................
Outside obstetrical service......................................
Babies’ Milk Fund Association..................................
Mothers’ Relief Society..................................................
Private.....................................................................
Midwife.......... ....................................................................
Other and none.........................................................................

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

11,613

100.0

7,830
1,105
6,725
1,150
24
82
5,469
3,754
29

67.4
9.5
57.9
9.9
0.2
0.7
47.1
32.3
0.2

11 See Report on the study of agencies in Baltimore, Md., caring for women in confinement, b y Louise
Pearce, M. D. Transactions of the third annual meeting of the American Association for Study and
Prevention of Infant Mortality, Cleveland, Ohio, 1912, pp. 272-275.

211

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212

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e V I .— Attendant during confinement period o f mothers, by place o f confinement,

and earnings o f father.
Per cent attended during confinement period—

Earnings of father.

B y physician.

Total
mothers.1
Total.

Total.
No earnings............
Less than $850........
Less than $450..
$450-1549..........
$550-4649........
$650-4849___...
$850-41,849..............
$850-41,049.......
$1,05641,249....
$1,25641,449....
$1,45641,849....
41,850 and over.......
$1,8504-2,249....
$2,256-42,849....
$2,850 and over.
Not reported..........

By
Outside midwife.
In
of
hospital. hospital.

11,463

67.4

9.5

57.9

32.4

232
7,331
1,668
1,551
1,566
2,546
3,205
1,675
696
444
390
456
143
101

78.0
60.6
64.3
56.4:
56.3
63.4
77.8
72.1
81.9
80.9
91.5
93.4
86.7
94.1
97.6
74.9

26.3
7.9
11.8
8.8
7.0
5.4
9.1
6.6
8.5
12.4
17.2
25.9
29.4
25.7
23.6
15.1

51.7
52.7
52.5
47.5
49.2
58.0
68.7
65.6
73.4
68.5
74.4
67.5
57.3
68.3
74.1
59.8

20.7
39.1
34.8
43.5
43.7
36.6
22.0
27.5
18.1
19.1
8.2
6.6
13.3
5.9
2.4
24.7

212

239

-

B y other
and no
attend­
ant.

0.3
'

1.3
.2
.8
.1
.1
.2
.4
.3

.4

1 Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 1915.

Of the mothers who were delivered in hospitals relatively the fewest
were among families of average earnings-—that is, between $650 and
$849; in this group less than 6 per cent of the mothers went to a
hospital. But in the families where the fathers earned nothing and
in the families where the fathers earned at least $1,850, approximately
25 per cent of the mothers were delivered in a hospital.
Midwife care was not so prevalent among the colored as among the
white mothers in Baltimore. No one nationality group of white
mothers— not even the native white women— showed quite so high
a percentage of attendance by a physician as the colored mothers.
O f the foreign-born groups, the Jewish mothers had relatively the
largest number attended by a physician and the Polish mothers had
relatively the fewest. Except among the native white mothers, with
their comparatively large numbers in the upper earnings groups, these
differences in the prevalence of medical care at confinement, in the
several color and nationality groups, correspond with the differences
in the numbers reached by prenatal care from the clinics.
A considerable number of mothers had both a midwife and a phy~
sician in attendance. In 208 cases (5.3 per cent of all attended by
midwives) a physician was called in during labor and the birth certifi­
cate was signed by the physician and in 93 cases (2.5 per cent of all
delivered b y midwives) a physician was in attendance after the
delivery. In addition, 287 mothers not attended by a midwife at
confinement employed a midwife as nurse.
Of the 29 mothers having neither physician nor midwife in attend­
ance at confinement, 5 had a physician after the delivery.

r*
fl


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213

APPENDIX V I.

T a b l e V I I .— Type o f attendant during confinement period, by nationality o f mother.

Per cent attended during confinement period—

Color and nationality of mother.

B y physician.

Total
mothers.1
Total.

Total.................................................

11,463 •
7,117
9Ô6
646
435
780
1,489

67.4
72.4
64.9
21.8
54.7
56.5
73.9

By
Outside midwife.
In
of
hospital. hospital.
9.5

57.9

32.4

8.1
23.8
2.9
2.3
6.9
H 5

64.4
41.1
18.9
52.4
50.6
60.4

27.4
35.0
77.6
44.8
42.8"
25.9

B y other
and no
attend­
ant.

0.3
.2
•1
.6
•5
.6
.2

i Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 1915.

Visits by attendant during confinement period.

The usual arrangement reported both in cases attended by phy­
sicians and in those attended by midwives was a daily visit through
the fourth day and at least one visit thereafter. Seven-eighths of
the physicians’ cases for which the arrangement of visits was reported
and practically all the midwife cases fall into this group. The num­
ber of visits varied with the economic status of the family. When
the fathers’ earnings were under $650, less than 10 per cent of the
mothers saw the physician 10 times or oftener; when the fathers
earned $1,850 or more, 40.3 per cent of the mothers saw the physician
10 times or oftener.
Approximately 95 per cent of the mothers who were under the
supervision of a physician during pregnancy and 37 per cent of those
who had no prenatal care were attended by a physician at con­
finement.
Nursing care.

More than one mother in four had no professional nursing care.
The greatest lack of such care appeared in the groups where fathers’
earnings were low among mothers who had been attended b y a
private physician. The midwife usually gave nursing care to the
mother whom she had delivered and such nursing care was the pre­
dominating type in families where the fathers earned less than
$850. Among the families where the fathers earned $850 or more,
the practical nurse was in attendance more commonly than the
midwife. Only 3.5 per cent of all mothers were cared for by a
resident trained nurse, and only in families where the father earned
$2,850 or more was this type of care predominant. Care by a visiting
nurse was reported by 4.8 per cent of the mothers. Among the
foreign-bom Jewish mothers and the colored mothers the proportions
cared for by a visiting nurse rose to 12.1 per cent and 11.6 per cent,
but in both groups more mothers were nursed by midwives than
by visiting nurses.


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214
T

able

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

V I I I .— Number o f visits received by mothers from physician follow ing delivery,
b y ea rn in g s o f fa th er.

Earnings of father.

Per
cent
having Per cent3 having specified number of visits
Per
no
from physician following delivery.
cent
Total visits
not
re­
moth­ from
ported
ers.1 physi­
as
to
cian fol­
visits.
lowing
de­
10 and Not re­
Total.
1
4-9
2-3
livery.
over* ported.

Total.............................

9,867

36.7

57.0

0.4

2.1

30.4

15.6

as

6.3

No earnings........... . ..............
Under $850.............................
Under $450......................
$450-$549..........................
$550-$649..........................
$650-$849..........................
$850-$l, 849.............................
$850-$l, 049......................
$1,050-$1,249...................
$1,250-$l, 449...................
$1,450-$l, 849...................
$1,850'and over......................
$1,850-82,249...................
$2,250-$2,849...................
$2,850 and over...............
Not reported..........................

194
6,427
1,457
1,372
1,369
2,229
2,699
1,428
582
372
317
362
116
80
166
185

25.3
43.5
38.8
47.4
49.2
40.6
25.6
31.7
21.5
22.0
9.8
8.0
16.4

70.6
50.9
54.8
47.9
46.4
52.9
66.8
60.5
71.3
70.7
82.6
85.4
73.3

2.1
.5
1.0
.4
.2
.3
.3
.5

3.6
2.6
3.2
3.1
2.3
2.2
1.0
1.0
.9
.8
1.6
.6
.9

30.9
29.9
30.9
28.2
2a 6
31.1
33.2
32.7
39.2
31.5
26.2
la s
17.2

a2
10.7
a9
a2
9.2
14.5
24.5
20.7
24.1
26.9
40.1
40.3

25.8
7.1
10.8

2a 4

6.1
48
7.9
5.7
7.0
11.6
14.8
25.4
26.7

41
5.6
6.4
4.7
44
6.6
7.6
7.8
7.2
-7.3
7.6
6.6
10.3

2.4
31.9

91.6
5a 4

.6
.5

.6
1.6

18.7
29.2

47.0
15.7

247
11.4

6.0
9.7

.2

.3

ao

1Includes only mothers with no complications of confinement. In tabulation the following were in­
cluded as complications: Instrumental delivery, Caesarean section, convulsions, stillbirth, and miscarriage.
* Not shown where base is less than 100.

The period of nursing care 12was longest among the mothers having
a resident trained nurse, but more than two-thirds of the mothers
confined in a hospital and of the mothers employing a practical
nurse had nursing care during two weeks or longer. Close to ninetenths of the mothers cared for by a visiting nurse had less than
two weeks’ nursing care; 30.6 per cent of them were nursed for less
than 7 days. Among the midwife cases, over half had care for less
than 10 days; 4.5 per cent were nursed for less than 7 days.
The period during which mothers stayed in bed was somewhat
longer than the period during which they had professional nursing
care. The usual time was from 10 to 13 days. It was shorter than
this among the Poles and the Italians of whom 20 and 17 per cent,
respectively, were up and about before the fourth day. But only
in iamilies where the fathers earned at least $1,450 did hah the
mothers with no reported complications of confinement stay in bed
for 14 days or longer.
Extra household help (usually given by a relative) was continued
after the professional nursing had ceased and the mother was up and
about. I t lasted in most cases from four to six weeks. Ninety
mothers (0.8 per cent of all) had no help and 269 mothers (2.3 per
cent of all) had help which lasted less than one week.
u If the mother received more than one type of nursing care, the time during which the dominant type of
care was received is here considered.


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215

APPENDIX V I.
T able I X — Type o f nursing care1received by mothers, by earnings o f father.

Earnings of father.

Per
cent
having
Total
no
Total.
moth­ nurs­
ers.*
ing.
care.8

Total............... 11,463
No earnings..............
Under $850...............
Under $450.........
$450-$549............
$550-$649............
$650-$849............
$850-$l,849...............
$850-$l,049.........
$1,050-$l,249___
$1,250-$l,449___
$1,450-$l, 849___
$1,850 and over........
$1,850-$2,249___
$2,250-$2,849___
$2,850 and over..
Not reported............

232
7,331
1,668
1,551
1,566
2,546
3,205
1,675
696
444
390
456
143
101
212
239

28.6
34.9
31.8
37.2
30.1
29.9
30.4
23.6
26.0
25.0
19.8
15.1
7.5
8.4
8.9
6.1
31.0

71.4
65.1
68.2
62.8
69.9
70.1
69.6
76.4
74.0
75.0
80.2
84.9
92.5
91.6
91.1
93.9
69.0

Per cent having specified type of nursing care.
Trained nurse.
Hos­
pital.4

9.5
26.7
8.0
11.8
9.0
7.0
5.5
9.1
6.7
8.5
12.4
17.2
25.9
29.4
25.7
23.6
15.1

Total.

Resi­
dent.

Visit­
ing.6

8.3

3.5

4.8

2.6
1.0
.4
.7
.4
1.9
5.6
3.6
4.7
7.0
13.8
28.9
14.7
25.7
40.1
5.0

8.2
6.6
10.6
9.0
5.4
3.3
1.2
1.7
1.0
.2
.3
.4
.7
i.0

10.8
7.6
11.0
9.7
5.9
5.2
6.7
5.3
5.7
7.2
14.1
29.4
15.4
26.7
40.1
9.2

4.2

Prac­
tical
nurse.

Not re­
ported.

34.4

18.7

0.5

21.6
41.0
35.9
44.2
45.7
39.4
24.5
30.1
21.1
22.0
9.0
7.2
14.0
6.9
2.8
28.9

4.7
11.3
4.0
.7
11.2
19.0
35.3
31.0
39.4
37.8
43.1
29.2
32.2
31.7
25.9
15.5

1.3
.4
.1
.4
.3
.6
.8
.8
.3
.7
1.5
.9
.7

Mid­
wife.

1.4
.4

1 In this table nursing care includes only care beginning within first three days after delivery. If two
kinds of care were given, the first in order is given preference.
a Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 19X5.
,. .
* Includes 27 mothers who had nursing care only after the third day, and 126 for whom no information in
regard to nursing care was secured.
...............
.... . . ,
,
.___ . ..
f Includes 6 mothers not delivered in hospital, but taken to hospital within three days from delivery.
In addition 25 mothers were taken to hospital later in confinement period.
. .
,
5 In addition, 13 mothers had care from visiting nurse after the third day; 10 of these had no professional
nursing within three days, 1 had hospital nursing, 1 midwife, and 1 practical nurse.
T able X .— Type o f nursing care1received by mothers, by color and nationality o f mother.

Color and national­
ity of mother.

Per
cent
Total having
no
moth­
nurs­
ers.2
ing.
care.8

Per cent having specified type of nursing care.
Trained nurse.
Total.

Hos­
pital.4

Total.

Resi­
dent.

Visit­
ing.6

Mid­
wife.

Prac­
tical
nurse.

Type
not re­
ported.

Total............... 11,463

28.6

71.4

9.5

8.3

3.5

4.8

34.4

18.7

0.5

Foreign bom ___
Jewish.........

9,974
7,117
2,857
996

26.7
28.1
23.3
17.9
11 fi
43, 2
28.8

7.6
7.5
7.8
13.3
3.1
6.2
5.6
13.2

3.8
2.6
6.9
12.1
2.9
6.2
4.0
11.6

35.3
29.4
49.8
36.1
82.0
46.0
42.6
28.5

20.9
26.1
7.8
8.4
.3
2.3
16.4
3.6

.6
.7
.3
•4

780
1,489

8.9
8.1
11.0
23.9
2.9
2.3
5.9
13.6

3.8
4.9
.9
1.1
.2

All other___
Colored.....................

73.3
71.9
76.7
82.1
88.4
fifi 8
71.2
59.2

40.8

1.7
1.7

.6
.3
—-------- *

1 In this table nursing care includes only care beginning within first three days after delivery. If two
kinds of care were given, the first in order is given preference.
2 Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 1915.
* Includes 27 mothers who had nursing care only after the third day, and 126 for whom no information
in regard to care was secured.
.
.......
4 Includes 6 mothers not delivered in hospital, but taken to hospital within three days from delivery.
In addition 25 mothers were taken to hospital later in confinement period.
, .___ ,
5 In addition 13 mothers had care from visiting nurse after the third day; lO of these had no professional
nursing within three days, 1 had hospital nursing, 1 had midwife, and 1 practical nurse.


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‘2 1 6

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T a b l e X I .—Duration o f nursing care1 received by mothers, by color and nativity o f

mother.

J

Native white
mothers.

Total mothers.2

Foreign-born
white mothers.

Colored mothers.

Duration of nursing care.1
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. Per cent
distri­
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
Total........................
With no nursing care *...........
With care....................
Less than 7 days............
7-9 days............................
10-13 days.........................
14 days and over..............
Duration not reported__

11,463

100.0

7,117

100.0

2,857

100.0

1,489

100.0

3,276
8,187
421
2,216
2,618
2,888
44

2a 6
71.4
3.7
19.3
22.8
25.2
.4

2,002
5,115
146
961
1,734
2,244
30

28.1
71.9
2.1
13.5
24.4
31.5
.4

666
2,191
183
942
601
459
6

23.3
76.7
6.4
33.0
21.0
. 16.1
.2

608
881
92
313
283
185
8

40.8
59.2
6.2
21.0
19.0
12.4
.5

r 4 Ï Â dS ? r ^ S S ° M ° “^ SCare0nlrafl“ tt6t“

das,’ “ dl28' » ' ' 1‘»“ “» “ ™ «»>>ta

T a b l e X II.- -Number o f days mothers spent in bed or in hospital follow ing delivery by

earnings o f father.

Total
mothers.1

Earnings of father.

Per cent with specified number of days in bed or in hospital
following delivery.
Less
than 1

Total___

2 8,760

No. earnings__
Under $450___
$450~$649.........
$650-8849.........
$850-$1,049.......
$1,050-$1,249...
$1,250-$1,449...
$1,450 and over
Not reported..

178
1,229
2,432
1,999
1,275
530
327
626
164

0.1
.2
(3)

as comph^tions: instrumenta! delive?y, c Ä

»

Ä

t

Ä

-3

n

4-6

7-9

14 and
over.

10-13

3.4

4.6

24.2

45.1

22.7

5.6
6.2
5.3
2.5
1.5
.8
.3
.6
2.4

1.7
6.4
6.5
4.6
2.7
2.6
2.1
1.1
4.3

20.8
30.7
2& 0
25.7
19.1
20.0
16.2
9.3
2a o

41.6
35.1
41.4
49.4
53.8
52.1
55.0
39.0
40.9

30.3
21.4
18.6
17.8
22.8
24.5
26.3
50.0
23.8

s e c t i S Ä

v ^ ^ Ä

Ä

l Ä

S ^ ^

ep e r S r “ n0t reP°rted °r Wh° * * * Wlth0ut g e t - u p .

T a b l e X I I I .— Number o f days mothers spent in bed or in hospital follow in g
delivery,

by color and nationality o f mother.

Color and nationality of mother.

Total
mothers.1

Per cent with specified number of days in bed or in hospital
following delivery.
Less
than 1

1-3

4-6

7-9

10-13

14 and
over.

Total.........

2 8,760

0.1

3.4

4.6

24.2

45.1

22.7

W hite.................
Native.........
Foreign bom
Jewish...
Polish. . .
Italian...
All other.
Colored................

7,621
5,363
2,258
789
521
343
605
1,139

¿1

3.6
1.2
9.4
.8
19.8
16.6
7.6
1.8

4.9
2.3
11.0
1.9
19.4
26.5
6.8
2.5

22.9
19.9
-30.0
22.3
34.9
30.6
35.5
32.7

46.3
53.7
28.7
44.0
7.5
17.8
33.2
37.2

22.2
22.8
20.8
31.1
17.8
8.5
16.9
25.7

»nÄ

S

S

C


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(8)

•1
.6

Ä S K T p ä S g

" ° * “ i>or*ed «

* * without getting up.

217

APPENDIX V I.

T a b l e X I V .— Household help at confinement and place o f confinement, by color and

nativity o f mother.

Total mothers.1
Household help at confine­
ment and place of con­
finement.

Native white
mothers.

Foreign-bom
white mothers.

Colored mothers.

Percent
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.

Total.............................

11,463

100.0

7,117

100.0

2,857

100.0

1,489

100.0

At home..................................
Household help................
Adult.........................
Child only..................
Laundry only............
No household help 2.........
Away from home...................
Not reported...........................

10,067
9,855
9,701
105
49
212
1,377
19

87.8
86.0
84.6
.9
.4
1.8
12.0
.2

6,297
6,163
6,084
49
30
134
808
12

88.5
86.6
85.5
.7
.4
1.9
11.4
.2

2,520
2,447
2,384
44
19
73
334
3

88.2
85.6
83.4
/—■L 5
.7
2.6
11.7
.1

1,250
1,245
1,233
12

83.9
83.6
82.8
.8

5
235
4

.3
15.8
.3

1 Includes only married mothers to whom children were bom in 1915.
2 Includes 122 cases where a practical nurse was employed.


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INFANT-WELFARE WORK.

Organizations doing infant-welfare work.

The principal infant-welfare work carried on in Baltimore in 1915
was done by the Babies’ Milk Fund Association, which conducted
12 (and from November, 1915, 13) infant-welfare centers. The
association nurses were paying instructive visits to the mothers
whose babies were less than 1. year of age and nursing sick babies
under 3 years of age, and modified milk was dispensed in selected
cases under the direction of a physician.
Infants attended at birth by the obstetrician of the Babies’ Milk
Fund Association and all infants attended by the outside obstetrical
service of Johns Hopkins Hospital or born in the lying-in wards of
Johns Hopkins were referred, n not in need of medical treatment) to
the nurses of the Babies’ Milk Fund Association for supervision.
Infants bom in other hospitals were less regularly referred to this
organization. Many cases were reported to it*by charitable organiza­
tions. It was the aim of the association to have the nurse visit the
mother immediately at the close of the confinement period, in order
to give instruction in infant care, and continue her visits at least
once a month throughout the first year of the baby’s life. After
the baby was about a month old, the mother was expected to take
him to the infant-welfare center for supervision by the physician.
The mothers whose babies were receiving breast muk and no other
food were urged to repeat these visits at least once a month. The
mothers of babies artificially fed were encouraged to report at weekly
intervals. The nurse’s visits at the home were continued even when
the mother failed to take the baby to the infant-welfare center;
but it was contrary to the rules of the association for the nurse to
direct the feeding of a child who was to be weaned. The centers,
again, gave advice about feeding for children who were well or had
slight digestive disorders; they did not prescribe treatment for sick
children but referred all such cases to the Harriet Lane Hospital
or some other clinic for sick children. Nursing care was given,
however, to sick children under 3 years of age.
The Babies’ Milk Fund Association did not attempt to restrict its
infant-welfare work to the very poorest families but as a matter of
fact the poorest families predominated among these cases as they did
among the prenatal cases.
The policy of the Mothers’ Relief Society in relation to infant
supervision was changed twice during 1915. During the first months
of the year the baby was referred to the Babies’ Muk Fund Associa­
tion at the end of the confinement period. Later, the policy was
followed of having the trained nurse of the Mothers’ Relief Society
continue to visit the mother and instruct her in infant hygiene until
the baby was 6 months old. In November the society decided to
continue this visiting throughout the first year of infancy. The nurse
paid a visit to the home at least once a month but the society had no
infant-welfare center for supervision of well babies by a physician.
Some of the artificially fed babies, however, were taken to the
'

218


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APPENDIX V I.

219

society s physician, or^ to the Harriet Lane Dispensary or some
other dime, for supervision of the feeding.13
Infants reached by infant-welfare work.

Only the supervision and advice given by a physician to a mother
visiting a,n mfant-welfare center with her baby for consultation, and
home visits by a nurse to instruct the mother in the care of her baby
are included in the term “ infant-welfare w ork” as used in the present
study. Similar advice and supervision are given by private phy­
sicians or resident nurses in many well-to-doliomes, but no attempt
was made to measure the extent of private supervision. Home
visits by a nurse for the treatment or care of a baby in sickness or
visits by a mother and baby to a hospital or dispensary for this pur­
pose are also excluded from consideration.
Infant-welfare work had been carried on longer than prenatal
work and naturally reached more of the families needing care. In
all, 2,935 legitimate infants, or 28.2 per cent of those who survived
two weeks, had been visited at least once by an infant-welfare nurse
or had been taken at least once to an infant-welfare center for consultation.
In the poorest families approximately one-half of the babies had
such supervision— 48.8 per cent, where the fathers earned nothing,
and 51.6 per cent, where the fathers earned less than $450. Com­
parison o f the several earnings groups shows a steady decrease in the
proportion of infants reached by infant-welfare work as the fathers’
earamgs rise, but in each group below $850, from one-fourth to onehalt ot the babies had supervision by infant-welfare agencies. Where
the fathers earned at least $1,850, 3.1 per cent of the babies had such
supervision.
T able X V .

Prevalence o f supervision fro m infant-welfare agencies, by earnings offather.

Infants who survive d 2 weeks.

Earnings of father.
Total.

Having siipervision
from infant-welfare
agerLcies.
Number. Percent.“

Total...........................
No earnings.....................
Under $850.........
Under $450..............
$450-$549................
$550-$649............
$650-$849...........
$850-$l,849...............
$850-$l,049..........
$1,050-$1,249...............
$1,250-$1,449..............
$1,450-$1,849.................
$1,850 and over...............
$l,850-$2,249.................
$2,250-$2,849......................
Not reported..........................

2,935
........................................

98

...............................................
..........................................
.............................................

OOo

.............................................
.............................................
....................................................
........................................
..........
............................................
..............................................
..............

48.8
35.4

13.9

3* 1
92
192

2
i

0.5
32.9

° Not shown where base is less than 100.
. 13 The work of the Harriet Lane Hospital, a children’s hospital connected with Johns Honkintf is not
and^abies tlUS dlscussl0ri whlch 1Sconcerned primarily with the preventive and instructive care of mothers


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220

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

As in prenatal work, the organizations had been more successful
in reaching colored families and foreign-born Jewish families than
any others. Nearly two-thirds (60.5 per cent) of the colored babies
and nearly one-han (45.1 per cent) of the babies of foreign-bom
Jewish mothers had supervision from welfare agencies. The actual
number of infants who had such supervision was greatest among the
native white families (1,302) but the total number of native white
families was large and the percentage having care (20 per cent) was
lower in this group than m any other. Even when families with
similar earnings are compared, it appears that in each group except
that in which fathers’ earnings were from $450 to $549 fewer infants,
relatively, of native white mothers than of foreign-born white mothers
had supervision from infant-welfare agencies.
Among the Poles and Italians the agencies were more successful
in reaching families where the mother could speak English than
families where the mother could not speak English, but the reverse
was true in the foreign-bom Jewish families.
Two-thirds of the infants who had supervision at any time within
12 months after birth were still having it at the encf of the year.
About 5 per cent died within the year; less than 1 per cent were dis­
charged to a private physician or transferred from one agency to
another without further record of the case; about 6 per cent were
dropped by the agency because the mother would not cooperate.
But the principal loss of cases occurred in families that moved and
were not followed to their new addresses; 18.8 per cent of the infants
who had had supervision were not having it at the end of the year
because their families had moved.
T a b l e X V I .—Prevalence o f supervision from infant-welfare agencies, by color and

nationality o f mother.
Infants who survived 2 weeks.

Color and nationality of mother.
Total.

Having supervision
from infantwelfare agencies.
Number. Per cent.

10,397

2,935

28.2

6,498
2,660
937
598
396
729
1,239

1,302
883
423
134
128
198
750

20.0
33.2
45.1
22.4
32.3
27.2
60.5

In every ward, as in the city as a whole, a higher percentage of
colored than of white infants had supervision. The need of super­
vision was of course greatest in the poorest wards, but at the time of
this study the work seems to have been more developed or more
successful in finding response in certain poor wards than in others.
In five of the six wards where the father’s median earnings were lowest
the percentage having supervision was well above the average for the
city (28.2), when all infants are considered together. But when the


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221

APPENDIX VI.

white infants and the colored infants are considered separately two
of these wards (second and seventeenth) did not show high percent­
ages having supervision. In the seventeenth ward, the number
having supervision was 40.9 per cent of the total. But of the white
infants in this ward only 7.9 per cent had supervision, as compared
with the average, 23.9, for white infants, and of the colored infants,
who comprised three-fourths of all the infants in the ward, only 53.3
per cent had supervision, as compared with the average, 60.5, for
colored infants. In the second ward, where less than 2 per cent of
the infants were colored and where very poor white families predomi­
nated, the percentage having supervision (23.2) was approximately
the average for all white families, rich and poor, throughout the city.
The white babies in the fifth ward had the highest percentage for
white infants; 48.1 per cent of the total had supervision.
T able X V I I .—Prevalence o f supervision from infant-welfare agencies, by color o f
mother, and ward o f residence.

Ward of residence and median earnings of father.

Per cent1 of infants who sur­
vived 2 weeks having super­
vision from infant-welfare
agencies.
Total
White
Colored
mothers. mothers. mothers.

Median earnings under 1650:
Ward 5.......................................................................................................
Ward 22......................................................................................................
Ward 3...............................................................................i .......................
Ward 4........................................................................................................
Ward 17............................................................ .........................................
Median earnings #650-$849:
Ward 18 ...................................................................................................
Ward 21......................................................................................................
Ward 23......................................................................................................
Ward 24.................................................................................. ...................
Ward 1............................................- ..................................................- ___
Ward 11......................................................................................................
Ward 8........................................................................................................
Ward 7 ...................... ...............................................................................
Ward 19......................................................................................................
Median earnings #850 and over:
Ward 12......................................................................................................
Ward 15......................................................................................................

28.2

23.9

60.5

54.8
47.0
41.2
41.1
40.9
23.2

48.1
39.2
40.6
35.5
7.9
22.3

82.7
73.7

39.1
38.0
36.7
36.1
29.8
27.5
27.5
27.1
25.9
22.7
22.6
22.4
22.4
18.1

31.2
35.5
30.9
36.1
25.8
27.3
12.4
22.0
10.0
22.6
20.7
16.5
18.9
17.0

66.1

21.0
17.2
15.5
13.1

12.8
5.1
11.9
4.6

65.6
60.2

53.3

39.5
42.0
71.6

46.9

1 Not shown where base is less than SO.

Of the 2,935 infants reached by infant-welfare work, more than
half did not receive supervision regularly, but were taken to* the
centers or were visited by the nurses only at irregular intervals. Over
one-third, however, had each an average of a visit a month— either
a visit from a nurse or a consultation at the center—from the
time the supervision was commenced until the end of the year.
And 120 babies, or 4.1 per cent of these reached by the infant-welfare
work, had each an average of a visit from the nurse and a visit to the
center during each month from the time the baby came under the


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222

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

supervision of the organization until the end of the year. Nine
babies each averaged three or four visits a month, including at least
one to the center and one home visit of the nurse in each month
during the period from the commencement of care until the end of
the first year.
Of the total number of infants who were reached by infant-welfare
work, over half, 55.8 per cent, were never taken to the infant-welfare
center; 13.8 per cent were taken once; 14.7 per cent were taken from
two to four times; 10.1 per cent were taken from 5 to 10 times; and
only '5.3 per cent were taken more than 10 times during the year.
The home visits b y the nurses were made more regularly and more
frequently than the mothers’ visits with the baby to the center. In
only 62 cases did the mother pay one or more visits to the center and
have no home visits from the nurse.
One-half the babies who were reached by infant-welfare work
received supervision before the end of the first month, and more than
one-third began receiving it during the second or third months.
Over 80 per cent of all these infants who received supervision before
the end of the third month were breast fed when it began, approxi­
mately the same proportion as in the entire group of babies in Balti­
more. But among the 392 babies whose supervision began at some
time between the beginning of the fourth month and the end of the
ninth month, artificial feedmg was markedly more prevalent than in
the entire group of infants.


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APPENDIX Y II.— TABLES
T a b l e 1 —Infant mortality rates in the United States birth-registration area, in certain

foreign countries, in Baltimore (selected group) and certain foreign cities, and in
cities (population 100,000 or more) in the United States birth-registration area, 1916.
Infant
mortality
rate.

Area.

United States birth-registration area___
Countries with more favorable rates:
Scotland..............................................
England and Wales...........................
The Netherlands..................... ..........
Switzerland.............................
Australia............................................
N orw ay..............................................
New Zealand.....................................

101
97
91
85
W8
70
a64
51

Infant
mortality
rate.

City.

Baltimore (selected group)....................
Foreign cities with more favorable rates:

103
100

89

86
83
80
73
68
65
59
58
55

W ellington........................................
Auckland............................................
Amsterdam........................................
Zurich............................................
CITIES IN UNITED STATES BIRTH -REGISTRATION A R E A .8

City.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

Fall River......................
Lowell.............................
New Bedford............... .
Scranton.........................
Reading..........................
Baltimore.......................
W hite.......................
Colored.....................
Lawrence.......................
Pittsburgh......................
W hite......................
Colored....................
Buffalo...........................
Detroit............................

173
146
139
131
125
122
104
219
116
115
113
177
114
112

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

City.

Providence.....................
Bridgeport.........
Washington................
W hite...................
Colored.................
Boston............................
W hite................
Colored.....................
Philadelphia...............
Colored.................
Hartford.........................

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

City.

110
106
106
83
158
105
104
193
105
102
160
101

68

100

1 Annuaire Statistique de la Suisse.
2 Compiled from Annuaire Statistique de la Norvège, 1919.
8 Birth Statistics, 1916, U. S. Bureau of the Census,
T a b l e 2.—Legitimacy o f birth, inclusion in and exclusion from , and reason fo r exclu­

sion from detailed study; total registered births1 in Baltimore in 1915.2
Inclusion or exclusion, reason for exclusion, and
legitimacy of birth.
Total registered.............................
Legitimate...........................
Included in detailed analysis.........
Excluded from detailed analysis..
Nonresident hospital cases.........
Other nonresident cases.............
Information not available...........
Not located or moved from city.................
Illegitimate......................
Legitimacy not reported (foundlings).......

Total
births.1

Miscar­
riages.

Still­
births.

Infant
deaths.

Live
births.

14,636

541

618

1,551

13,477

13,484

474

488

1,270

12,522

11,613
1,871
320
61
24
1,466

418
56
11
7
38

398
90
20
5
1
64

1,117
153
22
7
11
113

10,797
1,725
289
49
23
1,364

1,124
28

61
6

108
22

281

955

1Includes miscarriages.
2See Appendix II, p. 189, for discussion of exclusions.

223


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

224

T able 3.—

W ard o f residence, by color and n a tion a lity o f m oth er; scheduled legitim ate live births in B altim ore in 1 9 1 5 .1

Live births.
Ward of residence.

Color and nationality of mother.
Total.

10,797

White mothers......................................

9,492

Jewish........................................
Polish........................................

2

•3

4

5

6

790

620

627

215

396

596

649

8

9

10

11

598

496

331

145

12

13

14

15

16

If

18

19

20

21

22

23

409

449

289

598

417

252

269

381

606

447

261

351

605

24

609 616

174

317

544

577

576

465

305

74

348

443

130

468

332

68 204 331

591

407

203

319

605

78
6,739 558 259
2,753 228 350 538
49 275
961
7
625 168 279 115
4 133
412
16
8
1
18
318

70
104

59
258
180

366
178
124

432
145
27

527
49
5

428
37

214
91
39

53

322
26

41627

93
37
27

416
52
32

307
25

144

283

503

23

31

102
101

276
43

38
4

75

6

22
20

7

2

2
11

8
1

348
59

11

38
30
17

4

13

447
158
'4
42
5
80

3

5

Irish, English, Scotch, and
English-Canadian..................

786

Lithuanian...............................

2
1

2

132
107
100
98

3

4

1,305

.....

2

è
8

36
2

1
6

14

21
1

11

11

41

2
1

24

.....
79

52

1

21

20

6

3
65

3
19

.....

1

9

15

.....

‘-" 4
22

72

31

21
6
22
1
‘ "2*
26

21
12

7l

3

20

3
32

4

7

6

15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . „ ......

"il‘
2

10

6

65

50

15

2

3

4

7

3

'■■3 '

3
5
18

1
8
8

5

5

.....

20

8

61

6

159

184

85

130

24

6
2Ô
2

10
1

14

10

1
8
2
8 "¿è "
6
8
58

40

3
1
4

10

6
1
10

32 — •

'

»

1 Allsubsequent tables, unless otherwise specified, are based on the scheduled group of legitimate births occurring in Baltimore during 1915.

T able

4 — S a n ita ry con dition o f d w ellin g, by w ard o f residence; in fa n ts born in 1 91 5 who lived at least tw o weeks in dw ellings studied.

Infants bom in 1915 who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Ward of residence.

Sanitary condi­
tion of dwelling.
2

3

4

5

6

7

Total......... 10,336

754

598

601

207

380

572

621

Water supply:
City.............. 10,288
33
Well.............

754

597
1

601

207

380

572

621


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

570

484

317

137

394

434

266

577

405

228

257

361

573

431

250

341

570

476
6

317 ... 137

392
1

426
4

266

569
6

398
3

228

257

360
1

560
11

431

250

341

OO •
t'»
■
HO •

1

OO
t"»O

Total.
. 8

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Total.............................................

1

101351°— 23-

!

2
9,994
144
187

715
27
12

566
25
7

560
38
3

200
7

374
4
2

569
3

6,111
4,215
10

318
436

128
469
1

99
500
2

92
115

139
241

373
199

497
123
1

7,960

472

582

279

14

592

205

364

517

8

2

16

55

3

2

1

619
2

569

1

2
2

387
3
2
2

408
1
23
2

262
4

1
1

3
1

563
5
8
1

393

466
3
15

314
3

512
56
2

395
89

194
122
1

89
48

337
57

257
177

212
54

495
.82

614

511

317

312

134

313

191

260

6

59

166

5

3

81

243

6

137

1
1
221
4
3

255

349
4
8

550
1
20
2

410

2

336
69

123
105

133
124

246
115

422
151

221
210

79
170
1

143
196
2

451

308

197

220

234

296

178

233

198

261

126

95
1
1

31

37

126

277

253

16
1

143

317

Bath................... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Bath............ 59.1 42.2 21.4 16.5 44.4 36.6 65.2 80.0 89.8 81.6 61.2 65.0 85.5 59.2 79.7 85.8 83.0 53.9 51.8 68.1 73.6 51.3 31.6 41.9
No bath....... 40.8 57.8 78.4 83.2 55.6 63.4 34.8 19.8
9.8 18.4 38.5 35.0 14.5 40.8 20.3 14.2 17.0 46.1 48.2 31.9 26.4 48.7 68.0 57.5.1
Not reported.
.2
.4
.2
.6
.3
.3
.4
Sewer connec­
tio n ................ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Toilet con­
nected....... 77.0 62.6 97.3 98.5 99.0 95.8 90.4 98.9 89.6 65.5 98.4 97.8 79.'4 440 97.7 78.2 76.0 86.4 85.6 64.8 51.7 41.3 93.2 58.1
Toilet not
4.2
2.2 20.6 56.0
connected. 22.9 37.0
1.3
1.0
9.6
1.0 10.4 34.3
1.6
2.3 21.8 23.5 13.6 14.4 349 48.3 58.7
6.4 41.9
2.3
No toilet___
.2
.4
.1
.2
.2
.2
Not reported.
.4
.2
.3
.3

100.0
46.9
53.1

1

1

1

ii
1

21

242
5
3

310
4
27

555
1
19
3
271
307

1

Per cent distribution.1

100.0
45.2
54.8

APPENDIX VII. ---- TABLES.

Spring........
No water___
Location of water:
Dwelling___
Hall.............
Yard. „ . . .
No water___
Not reported
Bath:
Bath............
No bath____
Not reported.
Sewer connec­
tion:
Toilet con­
nected.......
Toilet not
connected.
No toilet......
Not reported.

1Not shown when less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

225


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

226

T a b l e 5 —Earnings o f father, by ward o f residence and color o f mother; live births in 1 9 1 5 .

Live births in 1915.
Earnings of father and color of mother
Ward of residence.
Total.
1

3

4

5

. 10,797

790 620

627

215

396

.

1,544
1,449
1,489
2,417
1,595
661
419
371
139
95
197
207
214

93
121
146
209
124
30
21
17
5

143
114
136
121
51
12
9
6
3
3

186
135
90
118
33
13
11
6
5

46
32
33
37
27
10
7
6

7
5
12

11
11

22
8

i
2
5
9

105
97
54
56
43
9
3
11
4

9,492

786

609

616

174

317

1,037
1,093
1,337
2,296
1,560
651
414
365
138
94
196
138
173

90
121
146
209
124
30
21
17
5

139
109
134
121
51
12
9
6
3
3

179
133
90
117
33
13
11
6
5

29
23
28
33
25
10
7
6

11
11

21
8

1
2
3
7

75
68
43
51
43
9
3
11
4
1
1
5
3

Colored mothers.

1,305

4

11

11

41

79

Earnings of father:
Under $450............
$450-$549................

507
356

3

4
5

7
2

17
9

30
29

Earnings of father:
Under $450___
$450-1549..........
$550-$649..........
$650-$849..........
$850-$l,049........
$1,050-SI,249___
$1,250-11,449___

$1,450-$1,849___
$l,850-$2,249___
$2,250-$2,849___
$2,850 and over.
No earnings___
Not reported...
White mothers.
Earnings of fathers:
Under $450.........
$450-$549.............
$550-$649.............
$650-$849.............
$850-$1.049..........
$1,050-11,249........
$1,250-$1,449.......
$1,450-$1,849.......
$l,850-$2,249........
$2,250-$2,849.......

$2,850 and over. .
No earnings........
Not reported___


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7
4
12

596

649

598

496

331

145

409

449

289

1
8
4
544

577

576

22

465

31

74

71

348

443

130

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

417

252

269

381

606

447

261

351

605

49
27
34
70
71
51
35
37
14
6
9
5
9

98
41
23
35
21
7
3
3
1
1
1
7
11

48
41
26
48
37
18
12
14
3
3

33
42
63
184
133
61
33
30
7
4
5
5
6

61
67
80
125
65
18
10
5

70
45
40
50
25
8
4
2
3

50
51
50
93
55
18
12
4
2

6
13

43
55
53
86
51
46
16
8
3
1
3
9
7

1
7
8

3
9
2

4
5
7

56
87
108
192
86
24
21
8
1
1
1
5
15

332

68

204

331

591

407

203

319

605

9
8
28
61
68
49
35
36
14
6
9
2
7

11
2
6
15
16
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
4

21
21
22
43
35
18
12
14
3
3

46
56
73
120
63
18
10
5

46
26
34
45
24
8
4
2
3

33
44
46
92
55
18
12
4
2

2
10

24
30
40
33
47 63
82 183
51 133
45 i 61
16
33
8 30
3
7
1
4
3
5
5
4
6
5

1
7
8

3
6
2

4
3
6

56
87
108
192
86
24
21
8
1
1
1
5
15

85

184

65

50

15

40

58

32

27
19
3
20 | 15 | 9

15
11

24
19

17
7

40
87
19 | 39

1

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

All mothers..

2

2

$550-8649.........
$650-8849.........
$850-11,049.......
$1,050-11,249...
$1,250-81,449...
$1,450-81,849...
$1,850-82,249...
82,250-82,849...
$2,850 and over
No earnings...
Not reported..

1

5
4
2

11
5

9
5

10
5
5

6
3

4
4

2
2

5
5
2

2
2

21
19
7
4
2
1

6
i

13
5

9
5
2

2
1

1
2

1

2

1
7
2

1
1

4

1
3

18
12
2
1
1
1
6
9

6
9
3
2

17
20
5
3

1

1

3
2

5
7

4
5
2

6
4

1

7
5
2

6
5
1

4
1

3

2
1

1

4
3

4
1

1
1

Per cent distribution.

Earnings of father:
$450-8549..........................................
8550-8649..........................................
8650-8849..........................................
$850-81,049........................................
$1,050-81,249.....................................
$1,250-81,449.....................................
$1,450-81,849.....................................
$1,850-82,249.....................................
$2,250-82,849.....................................
$2,850 and over................................
,No earnings.....................................
Not reported................................

100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
14.3
13.4
13.8
22.4
14.8
6.1
3.9
3.4
1.3
.9
1.8
1.9
2.0

11.8
15.3
18.5
26.5
15.7
3.8
2.7
2.2
.6
.9
.6
1.5

23.1
18.4
21.9
19.5
8.2
1.9
1.5
1.0
.5
.5

29.7
21.5
14.4
18.8
5.3
2.1
1.8
1.0
.8

i. 8
1.8

3.5
1.3

21.4
14.9
15.3
17.2
12.6
4.7
3.3
2.8
.5
.9
2.3
4.2

26.5
24.5
13.6
14.1
10.9
2.3
.8
2.8
1.0
.3
.3
2.0
1.0

11.2
12.6
15.3
25.3
16.6
4.9
5.7
2.3
1.0
.7
1.0
1.5
1.8

8.8
11.1
13.9
25.6
19.4
7.6
4.5
2.6
.3
.3
1.1
3.1
1.8

8.2
10.9
13.9
27.9
18.2
8.0
4.7
3.2
.7
.5
1.0
1.7
1.2

6.7
8.3
10.1
21.8
25.2
10.3
4.4
5.8
2.4
.8
1.0
1.0
2.2

14.8 23.4 9.0 5.6 20.1 9.0 11.8 38.9 17.8 11.3 5.4 13.6
14.5 20.0 6.8 7.3 16.3 9.4 6.5 16.3 15.2 14.4 6.9 15.0
13.9 3.4 10.5 14.3 9.7 8.7 8.2 9.1 9.7 13.9 10.4 17.9
23.0 9.0 16.6 25.4 13.5 15.2 16.8 13.9 17.8 22.6 30.4 28.0
18.1 9.0 15.2 17.4 7.3 13.4 17.0 8.3 13.8 13.4 21.9 14.5
3.9 1.4 9.0 8.7 5.5 8.7 12.2 2.8 6.7 12.1 10.1 4.0
3.6 2.8 4.4 3.8 5.2 7.2 8.4 1.2 4.5 4.2 5.4 2.2
3.6 1.4 5.9 6.0 4.5 9.5 8.9 1.2 5.2 2.1 5.0 1.1
.8 1.2 .......
.4 1.1
.3 5.5 3.2 2.2 2.4 4.2 3.4
.7
.4 1.1
.3
.3
.7 4.2 1.6 2.4 4.7 1.4
.2
.8
.8
.4 . . . . .
.6 13.1 9.8 6.5 4.5 6.2 2.2
.8 1.6
.9 5.5 1.5 1.2 2.8 2.2 2.4
3.0 2.8 2.7
.3 7.6 2.4 1.3 3.1 2.3 2.2 4.4 4.8 1.8 1.0 1.8

26.8
17.2
15.3
19.2
9.6
3.1
1.5
.8
1.1
1.1
3.4
.8

14.2
14.5
14.2
26.5
15.7
5.1
3.4
1.1
.6

9.3
14.4
17.9
31.7
14.2
4.0
3.5
1.3
.2
.2
.2
1.1
•8
1.4
2.
5
2.0

APPENDIX VII. ---- TABLES.

All mothers___ u ..... ...................

227


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

228

T a b l e 6.— Monthly rental, by ward o f residence; infants born in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in rented dwellings studied.

Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings of specified monthly rental.
Ward of residence.

Total
infants.

Under $5.

$5, under $10.

$10, under $15.

$15, under $25.

$25, under $50.

$50 and over.

Rental not
• reported.

Free.

Total..........

7,300

350

4.8

2,579

35.3

2,324

31.8

1,180

16.2

331

4.5

1............................
2............................
3 ...........................
4............................
5 ............................
6 ............................
7__ : .....................
8............................
9 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10..........................
11..........................
12................ .
13..........................
14..........................
15 ................«___
16 .........................
17..........................
18..........................
19..........................
20.........................
21..........................
22..........................
23..........................
24..........................

429
462
501
181
318
341
296
393
274
256
118
268
329
202
356
247
193
215
274
388
346
215
289
409

69
119
65
1
10
2
5
1
3
1
1
2
11
2
6
1
2
1
3
3
11
5
5
21

16.1
25.8
13.0
.6
3.1
.6
1.7
.3
1.1
' .4
.8
.7
3.3
1.0
1.7
.4
1.0
.5
1.1
.8
3.2
2.3
1.7
5.1

232
264
302
86
151
127
86
105
51
101
5
39
79
28
42
52
31
66
89
84
145
102
142
170

54.1
57.1
60.3
57.5
47.5
37.2
29.1
26.7
18.6
39.5
4.2
14.6
24.0
13.9
11.8
21.1
16.1
30.7
32.5
21.6
41.9
47.4
49.1
41.6

91
46
92
36
97
135
126
193
119
98
24
91
112
47
91
58
51
75
117
171
144
65
99
146

21.2
10.0
18.4
19.9
30.5
39.6
42.6
49.1
43.4
38.3
20.3
34.0
34.0
23.3
25.6
23.5
26.4
34. 9
42.7
44.1
41.6
30.2
34.3
35.7

20
12
7
21
37
53
51
76
82
36
35
57
67
49
115
92
71
36
42
112
21
24
31
33

4.7
2.6
1.4
11.6
11.6
15. 5
17.2
19.3
29.9
14.1
29.7
21.3
20.4
24.3
32.3
37. 2
36.8
16. 7
15.3
28. 9
6.1
11.2
10.7
8.1

2
1
3
13
1
1
6
3
5
3
23
45
26
45
74
28
18
3
13
9
2
1
1

.5
.2
.6
7.2
.3
.3
2.0
.8
1.8
1.2
19.5
16.8
7.9
22.3
20.8
11 3
¿3

0.6

95

397
1.7
.4

2.2

4.7
2. 3
.6
.5
.3
•


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

44

1

.3

10
12
10
3
7

8.5
4.5
3.0
1.5
2.0

1
1

.5

1.3
.9
2.7
1.3
1.5

1.2
.8

1.9
2.4

2.0
.3
1.6
1.0

2.8
1.5
1.0
1.4
.5
1.0
1.5

5.4
3.5
2.6
6.0
11.0
5.7
5.9
4.4
2.5
3.6
5.5
16.1
6.3
4.9
11.9
5.6
4.9
9.3
10.7

2.2

1.3
5.2
7.4
2.8

8.1

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent Number. Per cent

APPENDIX VÌI.— PABUES.

229

T a b l e 7. — Tenure o f dw elling, by ward o f residence; infan ts bom in 1915 who lived at

least tw o weeks m dwellings studied.

Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings of specified tenure.
Ward of
residence.

Total
infants. Dwelling owned.

Dwelling rented. Family boarding.

Tenure
not re­
Number. Percent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent. ported.

Total.

10,336

2,879

27.9

7,300

70.6

156

1.5

1..........
2..........
3 .....

754
598
601
207
380
572
621
570
484
317
137
394
434
266
577
405
228
257
361
573
431
250
341
578

322
136
97
16
55
225
310
169
192
61
16
114
92
58
214
153
29
37
81
180
83
28
51
160

42.7
22.7
16.1
7.7
14.5
39.3
49.9
29.6
39.7
19.2
11.7
28.9
21.2
21.8
37.1
37.8
12.7
14.4
22.4
31.4
19.3
11.2
15.0
27.7

429
462
501
181
318
341
296
393
274
256
118
268
329
202
356
247
193
215
274
388
346
215
289
409

56.9
77.3
83.4
87.4
83.7
59.6
47.7
68.9
56.6
80.8
86.1
68.0
75.8
75.9
61.7
61.0
84.6
83.7
75.9
67.7
80.3
80.0
84.8
70.8

3

.4

3
10
7
6
15
7
18

.5
4.8
1.8
1.0
2.4
1.2
3.7

3
12
13
6
7
5
6
5
6
5
2
7
1
9

2.2
3.0
3.0
2.3
1.2
1.2
2.6
1.9
1.7
.9
.5
2.8
.3
1.6

4

......

5
6

.....

....

1.......
8.......

9 ....

10 .....
11..........
12..........
13
14
15
16

.....
....
.....
....

17

....

18
19

20

....
....
....

24

....

21.........
22.........
23 ....

T a b l e 8 . — Tenure

1

1

o f dwelling, by color and nationality o f mother; infants bom in 1915
who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.
Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings of specified tenure.
Dwelling owned.

Color and nationality of Total
mother.
infants.

By
parents.

By others in
household.

Dwelling
rented.

Family
boarding.

Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per Num- Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Total....................... 10,336 2,879
Native white....................
Foreign-born white..........

6,464 1,991
2,649
814

27.9 2,367

ed.

22.9

512

5.0 7,300

70.6

156

1.5

1

30.8 1,541 23.8
30.7
785 29.6

450
29

7.0 4,351
1.1 1,820

67.3
68.7

121
15

1.9
.6

1

6
4
9

.4
1.0
10
2.9

73 5
7o! 9
7* 1
52Ì 9

1

•_8
3.0
1.0
1.1

4

Jewish........................
Polish.........................
Italian........................
German......................
Irish, English. Scotch,
and English-Canadian1......................
Bohemian..................
Lithuanian..............
All other....................

931
597
394
308

241
174
97
144

25.9
29.1
24.6
46.8

127
101
96
95

33
74
20
31

26.0
73.3
20.8
32.6

32
71
19
30

25.2
70.3
19.8
31.6

1
3
1
1

Colored.............................

1,223

74

6.1

41

3.4

33

237 25.5
168 28.1
93 23.6
135 43.8

1Includes 93 Irish, 18 English, 8 Scotch, and 8 English-Canadian.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Tenure
not

634
423
206
163

92 72T4
27 26.7
72 75.0
63 66.3

2.7 1,129

92.3

2

1.6

4

1

42
11

20

1.6

230

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 9 . — Tenure o f dwelling, by earnings o f father; infants bom in 1915 who lived at

least two weeks in dwellings studied.
Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings of specified tenure.
Dwelling owned.
. Earnings of father.

Total
infants.

By
parents.

Total.

B y others in
household.

Dwelling
rented.

Family
boarding.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Total....................... 10,336 2,879
Under $450........................
$450-8549...........................
$550-8849...........................
$850-81,249............ ...........
$1,250-81,849......................
$1,850 and over.................
No earnings......................
Not reported....................

1,457
1,387
3,749
2,183
751
419
192
198

22.9

512

5.0 7,300

70.6

156

1.5

i

135 9.3
161 11.6
703 18.8
762 34.9
333 44.3
220 52.5
14
7.3
39 19.7

36
41
204
149
42
16
9
15

2.5
3.0
5.4
6.8
5.6
3.8
4.7
7.6

87.2
84.5
74.3
56.8
48.1
43.0
79.7
70.2

16
13
56
33
15
3
16
4

1.1
.9
1.5
1.5
2.0
.7
8.3
2.0

i

27.9 2,367

171 11.7
202 14.6
907 24.2
911 41.7
375 49.9
236 56.3
23 12.0
54 27.3

Ten­
ure
not
re­
port­
ed.

1,270
1,172
2,786
1,239
361
180
153
139

T a b l e 10. —Dwellings in building; infants bom in 1915 who lived at least two weeks

in dwellings studied.
Infants who lived at
least2 weeksin dwell­
ings studied.
Dwellings in building.
Number.

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

Total........................

10,336

100.0

1.........................................
2.........................................
3.........................................

6,972
2 ,051
'812

67.5
19.8
7.9

Infants who lived at
least 2 weeksin dwell­
ings studied.
Dwellings in building.
Number.
4......................
‘5-9

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

196

1.9

61
26

6
.3

T a b l e 11.— Color, nativity, and mother tongue o f ‘p opulation in Baltimore and in Con­

tinental United States, 1910}
P o p u la tio n .
C on tin en tal
U n ite d
S tates.

B a ltim o r e .
C olor, n a t iv ity , a n d m o th e r to n gu e .

N u m b e r.

P e r ce n t
d istrib u ­
t io n .

P e r ce n t
d istrib u ­
tio n .

T o t a l ....................................................................................................

558,485

100.0

100.0

N a tiv e w h ite :
N a tiv e p a r e n ta g e ...........................................................................................
F oreig n or m ix e d p a re n ta g e .......................................................................

261,474
134,870

46.8
24.1

53.8
20.5

68,898
29,740
11,557
10,476
4,396
3,497
6,306

12.3
5.3

6.6

.8
.6
1.1

.3
.9
4.0

G e r m a n .................................................................................................. .
E n glish a n d C eltic..................................................................................
Y id d is h a n d H e b r e w ............................................................................
P o lis h ..........................................................................................................
B o h e m ia n a n d M o r a v ia n .....................................................................

Italian.......................................................................................
A ll o th e r........... ..........................................................................

F o re ig n -b o m w h it e ................................................................................

2.1
1.9

7.3
.7

.8

77,043

13.8

14.5

4 .5
1.9

2.8
2.0
.6

3.0
3.7

A ll o th e r...........................................................................................................

25 104
1Ö'6Ö3
15,585
11 123
3 ,354
5 043
6*231

1.1

.9

1.5
4.0

O tfier co lo re d ..........................................................................................................

84,749
'349

15.2
.1

10.7
.5

E n glish a n d C e ltic ............................................................................
Y id d is h a n d H e b r e w ....................................................................................
B o h e m ia n a n d M o r a v ia n ............................................................................

1Thirteenth Census of the United States, Vol. I, pp. 125,207,998-1015.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.1
1.0
.2

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

231

T a b l e 12.— Years o f residence o f mother in the United States, by nationality o f mother;

births1 in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers.
B ir th s 1 in 1915 t o fo re ig n -b o r n w h it e m o th e rs o f specified n a tio n a lity .

Years of residence of mother
in the United States.

Irish,
Eng­
lish,
Scotch, Bohe­
Lithua­ All
and
Eng- mian. nian. other.3
lishCanadian.2

Total.
Ger­
births.1 Jewish. Polish. Italian. man.

Total.............................
Under 5..................................
1........................ . .............
2.................................
3.......................................
4.......................................

2,894
651
132
186
184
149

1,011
188
41
55
55
37

655
160
31
40
45
44

440
157
37
40
41
39

331
48
5
21
12
10

138
15
3
5
2
5

112

5-9..........................................
10-14.......................................
15-19.......................................
20 and over.............................
Not reported..........................

792
601
303
535
12

294
258
113
155
3

174
114
73
132
2

126
79
45
33

67
59
23
130
4

24
32
25
40
2

105
22
4
8
7
3

- 102
49
10
14
17
8

32
23
10
34
1

51
18
8
6

24
18
6
5

12.
1
3
5
3

Per cent distribution.
Total............................
Under 5..................................
1.......................................
2.......................................
3.......................................
4................................

100.0
22.5
4.6
6.4
6.4
5.1

100.0
18.6
4.1
5.4
5.4
3.7

100.0
24.4
4.7
6.1
6.9
6.7

100.0
35.7
8.4
9.1
9.3
8.9

100.0
14.5
1.5
6.3
3.6
3.0

100.0
10.9
2.2
3.6
1.4
3.6

100.0
10.7
.9
2.7
4.5
2.7

100.0
21.0
3.8
7.6
6.7
2.9

100.0
48.0
9.8
13.7
16.7
7.8

5-9..........................................
10-14.......................................
15-19.......................................
20 and ov er............................
Not reported..........................

27.4
20.8
10.5
18.5
.4

29.1
25.5
11.2
15.3
.3

26.6
17.4
11.1
20.2
.3

28.6
18.0
10.2
7.5

20.2
17.8
6.9
39.3
1.2

17.4
23.2
18.1
29.0
1.4

28.6
20.5
8.9
30.4
.9

48.6
17.1
7.6
5.7

23.5
17.6
5.9
4.9

1Includes miscarriages.
2Includes: 101 Irish, 19 English, 8 Scotch, and 10 English-Canadian.
3 Includes: 24 Russian, 19 Greek, 13 Magyar, 8 Norwegian, 6 Serbian, 5 French, 5 Slovak, 4 Rumanian,
4 Ruthenian, 3 French-Canadian, 3 Dutch, 2 Slavic (n. o. s.), 2 Spanish, 2 Swedish, 1 Arabian, and 1 Danish.
T a b l e 13.— A bility to speak English, by literacy and nationality o f mother; births in

1915 to foreign-bom white mothers o f non-English-speaking nationalities.
Births in 191,
Literacy and nationality of mother.
Total.

Mothers able to
speak English.

Mothers not able to
speak English.

Number. Per cent.1 Number. Per cent.1
Foreign-born white mothers of non-English-speaking
nationalities:
Literate...................................................................
Illiterate..................................................................
Jewish:
Literate...................................................................
Illiterate.........................................................
Polish:
Literate...................................................................
Illiterate..................................................................
Italian:
Literate....................................................................
Illiterate..........................................................
German:
Literate....................................................................
Illiterate..................................................................
All other:
Literate...................................................................
Illiterate...................................................................
1Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1,920
777

1,417
227

73.8
29.2

503
550

26.2
70.8

814
176

697
112

85.6
63.6

117
64

14.4
36.4

354
288

187
47

52.8
16.3

167
241

47.2
83.7

228
196

107
38

46.9
19.4

121
158

53.1
80.6

306
21

272
8

88.9

34
13

11.1

218
96

154
22

70.6

64
74

29.4

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

232

T a b l e 14.— A bility to speak English, by years in the United States and nationality o f

mother; births in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers o f non-English-speaking nation­
alities.
Births to foreign-bom white mothers reporting specified number of years
in the United States.
5-9.

Under 5.
Nationality of mother.

Unable to speak
English.
Total.

Total foreign-born white
mothers of non-Eng­
lish-speaking nationalties.........................

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.1

473
104
151
136
23
59

75.4
55.9
95.6
89.5

627
186
158
152
48
83

All other................................

71.1

10 and over.
Unable to speak
English.

Unable to speak
English.
Total.

755
288
171
124
67
105

Total.
Num­
ber.

339
48
134
84
13
60

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

1,310
514
312
150
208
126

449
16.7
78.4
. 67.7
19.4
57.1

245
30
123
61
11
20

Per
cent.

18.7
5.8
39.4
40.7
5.3
15.9

1 Not shown where base is less than 50.
T a b l e 15. — Literacy o f mother, by color and nationality o f mother and earnings o f father;

births in 1915.
Per cent1 of births to illiterate mothers.
Color and nationality.
Earnings of father.
Foreign-born white.

Total.
Native
white.

Total...
Under $450...
$450-1549____
$550-$649____
$650-$849____
$850 and over.
No earnings..
Not reported.

9.7
22.6
16.4
11.7
5.9
2.6
15.3
7.5

1.9
6.1
5,0
2.7
1.6
0.5
1.5

Total. Jewish. Polish. Italian.
27.5
43.1
37.5
29.6
17.8
11.8
50.9
21.6

17.8
26.2
27.5
19.0
11.8
8.8

44.8
54.3
48.9
45.6
31.0
32.2

46.0
62.3
51.6
40.0
30.6
29.5

Ger­
man.

All
other.

6.4

22.4
43.7
25.0
26.6
15.6
8.2

M

w
6.6
5.3
2.1

Col­
ored.

12.2
14.2
10.9
14.6
10.4
4.8
9.5

1 Not shown where base is less than 50.
T a b l e 16. — A bility o f mother to speak English, by earnings o f father and nationality

o f mother; births in 1915 to foreign-born white mothers o f non-English-speaking
nationalities.
Per cent1 of births to mothers unable to speak English,
among foreign-bom white mothers of specified nationality .
Earnings of father.

Total...................................................
TTp^p.r $450
........................................

....................................

$650-$849.......................................................

1 Not shown where base is less than 50.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

All nonEnglishspeaking
nation­
alities.
39.1
57.6
45.7
43.1
32.5
18.9
48.1
30.0

Jewish.

18.4
33.8
18.3
17.4
16.7
9.1

Polish.

63.5
74.4
65.2
59.2
56.6
52.5

Italian.

German.

66.0
77.0
67.7
62.0
54.1
55.7

14.4
26.2
14.7
5.2

All
other.

44.6
66.2
33.8
20.0

T a b l e 17. — Occupation group1 o f father, by color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915,

Births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Totalbirths.
Foreign-bom white.

Native white.

Colored.

Occupation group1 of father.
Number.

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

Number.

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

Number.

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

Number.

Per cent
distribu­
tion.

11,195

100.0

6,937

100.0

2,837

100.0

1,421

100.0

1,757
3,535
2,591
2,381
706
201
17
7

15.7
31.6
23.1
21.3
6.3
1.8
.2
.1

522
1,888
2,048
1,833
549
85
8
4

7.5
27.2
29.5
28.4
7.9
1.2
.1
.1

499
1,179
470
505
134
44
4
2

17.6
41.6
16.6
17.8
4.7
1.6
.1
.1

736
468
73
43
23
72
5
1

51.8
32.9
5.1
3.0
1.6
5.1
.4
.1

1 For grouping see p. 36.

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES,

Total................................................................................................................
Group I ......................................................................................................................
Group I I .....................................................................................................................
Group III...................................................................................................................
Group I V ...................................................................................................................
Group V .....................................................................................................................
No occupation...........................................................................................................
Occupation not reported...........................................................................................
Own income...............................................................................................................

to
CO
CO


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

234

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MO.

T a b l e 18.— Infant m ortality and stillbirth rates, by earnings o f father, and color and

nationality o f mother; births1 in 1915.
Miscarriages.
Earnings of father and color Total
and nationality of mother. births.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.2

Stillbirths.
Births.

Num­
ber.

Live Infant
births. deaths.
Per
cent.2

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.2

All mothers..................

11,613

418

3.6

11,195

398

3.6

10,797

1,117

103.5

Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-$549..........................
$550-$649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249....................
$1,250-81,449....................
$1,450-81,849....................
$1,850-82,249....................
$2,250-82,849....................
$2)850 and over................
Nò earnings.....................
Not reported...................

1,690
1,574
1,590
2,575
1,696
705
449
397
146
103
212
235
241

75
51
47
85
56
27
19
17
3
3
7
13
15

4.4
3.2
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.8
4.2
4.3
2.1
2.9
3.3
5.5
6.2

1,615
1,523
1,543
2,490
1,640
678
430
380
143
100
205
222
226

71
74
54
73
45
17
11
9
4
5
8
15
12

4.4
4.9
3.5
2.9
2.7
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.8
5.0
4.0
6.8
5.3

1,544
1,449
1,489
2,417
1,595
661
419
371
139
95
197
207
214

242
171
162
232
114
44
31
32
5
3
8
43
30

156.7
118.0
108.8
96.0
71.5
66.6
74.0
86.3
36.0
40.6
207.7
140.2

White mothers............

10,104

330

3.3

9,774

282

2.9

9,492

910

95.9

Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249....................
$1,250-81,449....................
$1,450-81,849....................
$1,850-82,249....................
$2,250-82,849....................
$2,850 and over...............
Nò earnings....................
Not reported....................

1,087
1,165
1.420
2,440
1,655
695
444
391
145
102
211
156
193

28
38
41
75
53
27
19
17
3
3
7
8
11

2.6
3.3
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.9
4.3
4.3
2.1
2.9
3.3
5.1
5.7

1,059
1,127
1,379
2,365
1,602
668
425
374
142
99
204
148
182

22
34
42
69
42
17
11
9
4
5
8
10
9

2.1
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.8

159
111
141
218
108
43
28
32
5
3
8
29
25

153.3
101.6
105.5
94.9
69.2
66.1
67.6
87.7
36.2

3.9
6.8
4.9

1,037
1,093
1,337
2,296
1.560
651
414
365
138
94
196
138
173

40.8
210.1
144.5

Native mothers........

7,210

273

3.8

6,937

198

2.9

6,739

646

95.9

Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249....................
$1,250-81,449....................
$1,450-81,849....................
$1,850-82,249....................
$2,250-82,849....................
$2,850 and over................
Nò earnings.....................
Not reported...................

477
686
971
1,840
1,328
591
340
339
115
89
191
103
140

17
23
35
64
45
25
18
16
3
3
7
8
9

3.6
3.4
3.6
3.5
3.4
4.2
5.3
4.7
2.6

11
19
28
50
32
15
8
8
4
6
7
7
4

2.4
2.9
3.0
2.8
2.5
2.7
2.5
2.5
3.6

3.1

449
644
908
1,726
1,251
551
314
315
108
81
177
88
127

74
83
98
165
86
40
24
29
5
3
6
16
17

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
68.7
72.6
76.4
92.1
46.3

3.7
7.8
6.4

460
663
936
1,776
1,283
566
322
323
112
86
184
95
131

133.9

3.8

33.9

Foreign-born mothers

2,894

57

2.0

2,837

84

3.0

2,753

264

95.9

Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249....................
$1,250-81,449....................
$1,450-81,849....................
$1,850-82,249....................
$2,250-82,849....................
$2,850 and over................
N ò earnings.....................
Not reported...................

610
479
449
600
327
104
104
52
30
13
20
53
53

11
15
6
11
8
2
1
1

1.8
3.1
1.3
1.8
2.4
1.9
1.0

599
464
443
589
319
102
103
51
30
13
20
53
51

11
15
14
19
10
2
3
1

1.8
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.1
2.0
2.9

588
449
429
570
309
100
100
50
30
13
19
50
46

85
28
43
53
22
3
4
3

144.6
62.4
100.2
93.0
71.2
30.0
40.0

Italian....................

440

14

3.2

426

14

3.3

412

36

87.4

Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................

124
99
50
89
33

2
6

1.6

122
93
50
85
32

2
3
4
1
1

1.6

20
4

166.7

1 Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2

4
1

1
3
5

120
90
46
84
31
* Not shown where base is less than 100.

2
13
g

7

235

APPENDIX VII.---- TABUES.
T able

18.— Infant m ortality and stillbirth rates, by earnings o f father, and color and
nationality o f mother; births 1 in 1915—Continued.
Stillbirths.

Miscarriages.
Earnings of father and color Total
and nationality of mother. births.1 Num­
ber.
Earnings of father—Contd.
$1 050-41,249............ .......
$L250-$1,449.
$1,450-11^849. .
$1^850-$2'249....................
$2^250-82^849....................

Jewish....................
Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249....................
$1^250-81^449....................
$l'450-$li849....................
$l'850-$2'249....................
$2^250-82,849....................

Polish....................

All other................
Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-$549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049............... ........
$1,050-81,249....................
$1,250-81,449....................
$1,450-81^849...................
$l'850-$2'249....................
$2,250-82,849....................

Colored mothers..........
Earnings of father:
Under $450......................
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249...................
$1^250-81^449. .
$1^450-81,849....................
jl'850-$2' 249.
$2^250-82^849....................

Num­
ber.

Infant
Live Infant mor­
deaths.
tality
births.
Per
rate.2
cent.2

15
8
5

15
8
5

15
8
5

1

1

6
10

1

6
9

2
1

1,011

20

2.0

991

30

198
146
124
190
129
43
59
31
21
7
13
28
22

3
4
3
4
4
2

1.5
2.7
2.4
2.1
3.1

195
142
121
186
125
41
59
31
21
7
13
28
22

5
3
4
5
6
2

655

12

1.8

643

18

2.8

168
145
149
114
45
7
5
1
1

4
4
2
1

2.4
2.8
1.3
8.8

164
141
147
113
45
7
5
1
1

6
3
5
2
1
1

4.3
2.0
4.4

Earnings of father:
$450-8549..........................
$550-8649..........................
$650-8849..........................
$850-81,049.......................
$1,050-81,249....................
$1,250-81,449....................
$l'450-$lj849....................
$1,850-82,249....................
$2,250-82,849..................

Per
cent.2

Births.

10
10
788
120
89
126
207
120
39
32
15
8
5
7
9
11
1,509
603
409
170
135
41
10
5
6
1
1
1
79
48

1
11

1.4

2
1
1
2
3

1.7
.8
1.0
2.5

1
1

88

5.8

47
13
6
10
3

7.8
3.2
3.5
7.4

4

10
9
777
118
88
125
205
117
39
31
14
8
5
7
9
11
1,421

1
4
8

1
1

3.0

961

49

51.0

2.6
2.1
3.3
2.7
4.8

190
139
117
181
119
41
57
31
21
7
12
27
19

11
3
8
13
3
1
1
1

57.9
21.6
68.4
71.8
25.2

625

102

163.2

164
135
144
108
43
6
4
1
1

34
15
22
14
10

207.3
111.1
152.8
129.6

10
9
755

4
2
77

114
85
122
197
116
38
31
13
8
5
7
9
10
1,305

20
6
10
19
9
2
2
2

i
i
3

22

2.8

4
3
3
8
1
1

3.4
2.4
3.9
.9

1

1
116

556
3%
164
125
38
10
5
6
1
1
1
74

49
40
12

44

3

4

3

8.2
8.8
10.1
7.3
3.2

507
356
152
121
35
10
5
6
1
1
1
69
41

1
1In clu des m iscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2N o t sh o w n w h ere hase is less th a n 100.

4
4

1

2
4
1
207
83
60
21
14
6
1
3

14

102.0
175.4
82.0
96.4
77.6

158.6
163.7
168.5
138.2
115.7

T a b l e 19.— Earnings o f father, by occupation; births m 1915.

Births in 1915.
Earnings o f father.

Occupation of father.
Total.
$450$549

$550$649

$650$849

$850$1,049

L,050- $1,250- $1,4501,249 $1,449 $1,849

All occupations...... ............ .........................................

11,195

1,615

1,523

1,543

2,490

1,640

687

Manufacturing and mechanical industries...........................

5,040

734

725

810

1,313

748

282

Blacksmiths............................. .....................
Boiler makers.................................................
Builders and contractors.......................................
Compositors, linotypers, and pressmen.........................
Electricians and electrical engineers..............................
Factory operatives..........................................................
Metal........................................ .........................
clothing............................... .....................; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
W ood manufacturing......................................... ’ ’ **
Food canning............................................................
Other food manufacturing.....................................
Textile...............................................................
Other.........................t..............
Laborers, helpers, and apprentices (not in manufac­
turing)...........................................................................
Machinists, millwrights and toolmakers..............
Manufacturers, proprietors, officials, etc........................
Shoemakers and cobblers (not in factory).....................
Skilled mechanics, building trades.......... .....................
Tailors....................................................................
Engineers and firemen...................................................[
Others in manufacturing and mechanica 1industries. . !
Trade.......................................................
Bankers, brokers, real estate and insurance agents.......
Deliverymen....................................... ...........................
Laborers................................... ...... ! ! ! ! . ! i !! I
!
Retail and wholesale dealers (officials, etc.)..................
Salesmen and commercial travelers...............................
' Others in trade.............................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

380
172

$1,850- $2,250- $2,850and
$2,249 $2,849
143
33

100

No
earn­
ings.

Not re­
ported.

205
49

76

40

12

1,957
123
323
196
745
453
117

249

245

275

120

129

125

54

79

21

10

20

62

IN F A N T MORTALITY," BALTIMORE,

Under
$450

Transportation.........................................................................

1,792

Chauffeurs, teamsters, and expressmen..........................
Conductors, motormen. and trainmen.............................
Express, post, telegraph, and telephone employees.......
Laborers............................................................................
Proprietors, officials, and managers.................................
Others in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ...........................................

353
402
80
730
28
199

375

319

258

381

230

221

155

137

69

32

32

10

36

16

Clerical occupations.................................................................

25

Domestic and personal service................................................

215

85

26

Public service.............................. .............................. .............

319

18

33

APPENDIX V II. ---- TABLES.

Barbers................................. ............................................
Janitors and elevator operators........ ........................
Proprietors and managers in hotels, pool rooms, etc___
Saloon keepers and bartenders.........................................
Servants.................... ........................................................
Waiters........................................ ......................................
Others in domestic and personal service.........................
128

Firemen and policemen....... . .........................................
Laborers............................................................................
Officials and inspectors.....................................................
Others in public service.................................................
Professional and semiprofessional pursuits...........................

297

33

28

47

28

Agriculture, animal husbandry, and extraction of minerals.
Farmers and farm workers..............................................
Fishermen...................... ............................. .....................
Quarrymen.......................................... .......... .................
Own income..................................... .......................................
No occupation................................................................ .........
Not reported............................................................................

201

17

10

237


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

to

T able 20.— Earnings o f father, by occupation group1 o f father and color and nativity o f m other; births m 1915.

09

00
Births in 1915.
Occupation of father.
Earnings of father and
color and nativity of
mother.

Total infants.
I and II

Number.

All mothers............
Earnings of father:
Under $450...................
$450-$549......................
$550-$649......................
$650-$849......................
$850-11,049...................
$1,050-$1,249................
$i;250-$l,849................
Not reported...............
Native white mothers
Earnings of father:
Under $450...................
$450-$549......................
$550-$649......................
$650-$849......................
$850-$l,049...................
$1,050-$1,249................
$1,250-$1,849.................
$1,850 and over............
Not reported...............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

n

I

Per
Per
cent
NumNumcent
distriber.
distriber.
bution.
bution.

Per
Numcent
distriber.
bution.

in and IV
Per
Numcent
distriber.
bution.

in

V

IV

None. not reported, and
own income.

!

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
NumNumcent
Numcent
Numcent
cent
cent
distridistridistriber.
distriber.
ber.
distriber.
bution.
bution.2
bution.2
bution,2
bution.2

11,195

100.0

5,292

100.0

1,757

100.0

3,535

100.0

4,972

100.0

2,591

100.0

2,381

100.0

706

100.0

225

100.0

1,615
1,523
1,543
2,490
1,640
678
810
448
222
226

14.4
13.6
13.8
22.2
14.7
6.1
7.2
4.0
2.0
2.0

1,324
1,138
1,016
1,152
392
107
78
8

25.0
21.5
19.2
21.8
7.4
2.0
1.5
.2

684
459
299
225
44
9
4

38.9
26.1
17.0
12.8
2.5
.5
.2

640
679
717
927
348
. 98
74
8

18.1
19.2
20.3
26.2
9.8
2.8
2.1
.2

273
363
515

1.9

44

1.2

4.9
6.3
6.7
20.5
27.3
11.2
14.2
5.9
.3
2.6

15
19
12
51
93
73
185
237
4
17

2.1
2.7
1.7
7.2
13.2
10.3
26.2
33.6
.6
2.4

.4

33

117
151
159
488
650
266
339
140
8
63

1

1.5

6.0
8.2
13.7
30.8
19.5
9.0
8.0
2.4
.1
2.3

£3
1.3

77

156
212
356
798
505
232
208
63
2
59

3
3

1,155
. 498
547
203
10
122

5.5
7.3
10.4
25.9
23.2
10.0
11.0
4.1
.2
2.5

208

10

92.4
4.4

6,937

100.0

2,410

100.0

522

100.0

1,888

100.0

3,881

100.0

2,048

100.0

1,833

100.0

549

100.0

97

100.0

460
663
936
1,776
1,283
566
645
382
95
131

6.6
9.6
13.5
25.6
18.5
8.2
9.3
5.5
1.4
1.9

314
426
556
707
248
74
50
7

13.0
17.7
23.1
29.3
10.3
3.1
2.1
.3

119
126
129
113
22
3
2

22.8
24.1
24.7
21.6
4.2
.6
.4

195
300
427
594
226
71
48
7

10.3
15.9
22.6
31.5
12.0
3.8
2.5
.4

20

1.1

4
8
9
34
69
56
150
205
4
10

1.5
1.6
6.2
12.6
10.2
27.3
37.3
.7
1.8

1
2

Ì. 5

2.7
5.1
6.1
21.4
29.3
12.3
14.4
6.3
.1
2.2

.7

8

4.4
6.5
12.7
31.3
20.9
10.3
8.8
2.6
(«)
2.3

50
94
111
393
537
226
264
116

1.2

3.6
5.8
9.6
26.6
24.9
11.2
11.5
4.4
.5
2,3

91
133
260
641
429
210
181
54

28

141
227
371
1,034
966
436
445
170
2
89

1,286

1

48

1

41

1

89
4

Foreign-bom white
mothers...............
Earnings of father:
Under $450..................
$450-4549.................... .
$550-1649.................... .
$650-$849.................... .
$850-$l,049................ .
$1,05041,249................
$1,250-41,849................
$ 1,850 and over.......... .
No earnings............... .
Not reported...............
Colored mothers___

100.0

1,678

100.0

499

100.0

599
464
443
589
319

2 1.1

483
351
312
342

28.8
20.9
18.6
20.4
7.2
1.7
1.4

207

41.5
24.4
16.6

102

154
63
53
51

16.4
15.6

20.8
11.2
3.6
5.4

2.2
1 .9
1.8

121

29
24

1

122

83
64
14
'4

12.8
2.8
.8

.1

1,179

100.0

975

100.0

470

100.0

505

276
229
229
278
107
25
24

23.4
19.4
19.4
23.6
9.1

105
107
129
234
175
60
98

13.2
24.0
17.9

10.8
11.0

54
61
84
142
67

22

11.5
13.0
17.9
30.2
14.3
4.7

51
46
45
92
108
38

1

2 .1
2.0
A

33

6.2

.9

5

1.0

10

.8

7
27

2.8

6

1.3

■7

21

100.0

43

421

100.0

1,204

100.0

736

100.0

468

100.0

116

100.0

73

556
396
164
125
38

39.1
27.9
11.5

527
361
148
103
23
4
4

43.8
3h 0
12.3

358

48.6
28.7

36.1
32.1
13.0

8
2
2

27
29
15
18
14

23.3
25.0
12.9
15.5

12

1.9
4
.3

169
150
61
55
15

4

1.7
3.4

3

34

2.8

1
6

J)
5.2

5

10
11

3
74
44

8.8
2.7
.7

.8
.2

5.2
3.1

1 For grouping see p. 36.

8.6

87
48

20

11.8

6.5

1 .1

.3
.3

2.7

11.8

2
2

3.2
.4
.4

14

3.0

2

1Not shown where base is less than 100.

12 .1

134

100.0

50

100.0

24

15

211

100.0

11

100.0

16

11

18

3
3
5

15
9

2
1

6.8

1

8Less than one-tenth o f 1 per cent.

78

100.0
A P P E N D IX V I I .— T A B L E S .

Earnings of father:
Under $450..................
$4504549......................
$5504649......................
$6504849......................
$85041,049...................
$1,05041,249................
$1,25041,849................
$1,850 and over............
No earnings................
Not reported...............

,837

239


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

%

240

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

*

T a b l e 21. — E stim ated m edian earnings o ffa th er, by occupation group o f father and color
and n a tivity o f m other; births in 1915.

Estimated median earnings of father.3
Color and nativity of mother.
Occupation group of father.1
Total.

Group TTT

Native
white.

$705
489
610
786
923
1,513

.................................................................

Foreignbom
white.

$796
560
654
811
942
1,594

Colored.

$618
483
585
696
855
1,219

$474
452
489
596
491
850

1 For grouping see p. 36.
2 For method by which median earnings are computed, see Appendix IV , p. 197.
3 Computations exclude cases of no occupation and cases in which earnings were not reported.
T a b l e 22. — E arnings o ffath er, by regularity o f his em p lo ym en t, arid by color and nativity
o f m other; births in 1 915.

Births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total births.
Native white.

Earnings of father and regu­
larity of employment.

Foreign-born
white.

Colored.

Per cent
Percent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
Fathers employed throughEarnings of father:
$450-$549...........................
$550-$649...........................
$650-$849...........................
$850-$l,049........................
$1,050-11,249.....................

Fathers

not

employed

Earnings of father:
$450-$549....................
$550-$649..............
$650-$849...........................
$850-$l,049............
$1,050-41,249

Fathers’

employment

not

Earnings of father:
S650-S849 . . . .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6,524

100.0

4,548

100.0

1,318

100.0

658

100.0

298
654
832
1,619
1,265
1,180
12
110

4.6
10.0
12.8
24.8
19.4
8.5
18.1
.2
1.7

46
278
540
1,187
1,000
461
965
5
66

1.0
6.1
11.9
26.1
22.0
10.1
21.2
.1
1.5

73
143
192
347
239
83
203
6
32

5.5
10.8
14.6
26.3
18.1
6.3
15.4
.5
2.4

179
233
100
85
26
10
12
1
12

27.2
35.4
15.2
12.9
4.0
1.5
1.8
.2
1.8

4,639

100.0

2,365

100.0

1,517

100.0

757

100.0

1,317
869
711
870
375
124
78
210
85

28.4
18.7
15.3
18.8
8.1
2.7
1.7
4.5
1.8

414
385
396
588
283
105
62
90
42

17.5
16.3
16.7
24.9
12.0
4.4
2.6
3.8
1.8

526
321
251
242
80
19
14
47
17

34.7
21.2
16.5
16.0
5.3
1.3
.9
3.1
1.1

377
163
64
40
12

49.8
21.5
8.5
5.3
1.6

2
73
26

.3
9.6
3.4

32

24

2

6

1
31

1
23

2

6

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

241

T a b l e 23.—Duration o f nonemployment, by earnings o f father, and by color and nativ­

ity o f mother; births in 1915.
Births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total births.
Native white.
Duration of nonemployment
and earnings of father.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent
distri­
bution.

Foreign-bom
white.

Colored.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
distri­
bution.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
distri­
bution.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
distri­
bution.1

Total.............................

11,195

100.0

6,937

100.0

2,837

100.0

1,421

100.0

Employed entire year___
Nonemployed.........................

6,524
4,639

58.3
41.4

4,548
2,365

65.6
34.1

1,318
1,517

'46.5
53.5

658
757

46.3
53.3

Under 3 months...............
3 months, under 6 ..........
6 months and over..........
Period not reported.........

2,387
831
569
852

21.3
7.4
5.1
7.6

1,403
367
253
342

20.2
5.3
3.6
4.9

655
356
195
311

23.1
12.5
6.9
11.0

329
108
121
199

23.2
7.6
8.5
14.0

Employment not reported. . .

32

.3

24

.3

2

.1

6

.4

Under $450...........................

1,615

100.0

460

100.0

599

100.0

556

100.0

Employed entire year............
Nonemployed........................
U nder "3 months...............
3 months, under 6............
6 months and over...........
Period not reported.........

298
1,317
359
386
285
287

18.5
81.5
22.2
23.9
17.6
17.8

46
414
100
121
125
68

10.0
90.0
21.7
26.3
27.2
14.8

73
526
109
183
116
118

12.2
87.8
18.2
30.6
19.4
19.7

179
377
150
82
44
101

32.2
67.8
27.0
14.7
7.9
18.2

$450-$549..............................

1,523

100.0

663

100.0

464

100.0

396

100.0

Employed entire year............
Nonemployed.......................
U nder 3 months...............
3 months, under 6............
. 6 months and over..........
Period not reported.........

654
869
479
180
39
171

42.9
57.1
31.5
11.8
2.6
11.2

278
385
235
76
16
58

41.9
58.1
35.4
11.5
2.4
8.7

143
321
152
84
21
64

30.8
69.2
32.8
18.1
4.5
13.8

233
163
92
20
2
49

58.8
41.2
23.2
5.1
.5
12.4

100.0

936

100.0

443

100.0

164

100.0

540
396
273
64
9
50

57.7
42.3
29.2
6.8
1.0
5.3

192
251
161
38
3
49

27.5
56.7
36.3
8.6
.7
11.1

100
64
44
5
1
14

61.0
39.0
26.8
3.0
.6
8.5

$550-$649..............................

1,543

Employed entire year............
N onemployed.........................
Under 3 months...............
3 months, under 6............
6 months and over...........
Period not reported_____

832
711
478
107
13
113

$650-$l,049......................... .

4,130

100.0

3,059

100.0

908

100.0

163

100.0

Employed entire year............
Nonemployed.........................
U nder 3 months...............

69.8
30.1
21.9
3.3
.4
4.6

2,187
871
657
91
9
114
1

71.5
28.5
21.5
3.0
.3
3.7

586
322
208
46
7
61

64.5
35.5
22.9
5.1
.8
6.7

111
52
39

68.1
31.9
23.9

Period not reported_____
Employment not reported...

2,884
1,-245
904
137
16
188
1

13

8.0

$1,050 and over....................

1,936

100.0

1,593

100.0

319

100.0

24

Employed entire year______

1,734
202
155
13
1
33

89.6
10.4
8.0
.7
.1
1.7

1,426
167
132
10

89.5
10.5
8.3
.6
1.6

89.7
10.3
6.9
.6
.3
2.5

22
2
1
1

25

286
33
22
2
1
8

U nder~3 months...............
3 months, under 6............

222
226
1Not shown where base is less than 100.

101351°— 23------16


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

53.9
46.1
31.0
6.9.8
7.3

95
131

53
51

74
44

242

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 24.— Came o f nonemployment o f father, by color and nativity o f mother; births

i n 1915.
Births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total births.
Native white.

Cause of nonemployment of
father.

Foreign-bom
white.

Colored.

Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­ Number. distri­
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
Total.............................

11,195

100.0

6,937

100.0

2,837

100.0

1,421

Employed throughout year..
Nonemployed at some time
during year.........................

6,524

58.3

4,548

65.6

1,318

46.5

658

46.3

4,639

41.4

2,365

34.1

1,517

53.5

757

53.3

Work not available.........
Illness...............................
Other reasons..................

3,625
721
293

32.4
6.4
2.6

1,802
424
139

26.0
6.1
2.0

1,248
223
46

44.0
7.9
1.6

575
74
108

40.5
5.2
7.6

Employment not reported. . .

32

.3

24

.3

2

.1

6

.4

100.0

T a b l e 25.—Duration o f unemployment o f father, by color and nativity o f mother; births

in 1915 in fam ilies with fathers unemployed became work was not available.
Births in families with fathers unemployed because work not available.
Color and nativity of mother.
Total.
Native white.
Duration of unemployment
of father.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Foreign-born
white.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Colored.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

In­ Ex­ Num­ In­ Ex­ Num­ In­ Ex­ Num­ In­ Ex­
Num­ clud­
clud­ clud­ ber. clud­ clud­ ber. clud­ clud­
ber. ing clud­
ing ing
ing ber. ing ing
ing ing
not not
not not
not not
not not
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
port­ port­
port­ port­
port­ port­
port­ port­
ed.
ed.
ed.
ed.
ed.
ed.
ed.
ed.
3,625 100.0
759
Duration reported............... 2,866

Under 3 months............ 1,983 54.7
3 months, under 6......... 660 18.2
6 months, under 9......... 175 4.8
9 months, under 12.......
34
.9
14
.4
12 months......................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1,802 100.0

20.9
303
79.1 100.0 1,499
69.2 1,135
23.0
276
6.1
68
1.2
14
.5
6

1,248 100.0

575 100.0

16.8
83.2 100.0

274
974

22.0
78.0 100.0

182 31.7
393 68.3

100.0

63.0
15.3
3.8
.8
.3

567
293
90
19
5

45.4
23.5
7.2
1.5
.4

58.2
30.1
9.2
2.0
.5

281 48.9
91 15.8
17 3.0
1
.2
3
.5

71.5
23.2
4.3
.3
.8

75.7
18.4
4.5
.9
.4

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

243

T a b l e 26.—Source o f fam ily income, by earnings o f father; births in 1915.
Births in 1915 in families where earnings of father were—

Total................
Under $850.................
Under $450..........
$450-$549..............
$550-$649..............
$650-$849..............

11,195 6,175
7,171 3,672
1,615
422
1,523
723
1,543
908
2,490 1,619

222
226

7 3.2
83 36.7

425 3.8 1,105
9.9
284 4.0
820 11.4
77 4.8
442 27.4
55 3.6
176 11.6
3.9
60
91
5.9
92 3.7
111
4.5

763 6.8
381 5.3
82 5.1
77 5.1
78 5.1
144 5.8

542
288
108
58
51
15
8
14

15.2
17.6
15.9
13.5
13.4
10.5
8.0
6.8

103 2.9
58 3.5
22 3.2
15 3.5
5 1.3

3.8
3.4
4.6
2.6
5.8

352 9.8
123 7.5
44 6.5
55 12.8
36 9.5

4.0
2.4

11 11.0
55 26.8

38
69

17.1
30.5

28 12.6
10 4.4

2 2.0
1
.5

136
56
31
11
22
7
4
5

109 49.1
40 17.7

17
14

7.7
6.2

Per cent.

Per cent.

22.6
26.2
32.8
30.3
25.1
20.2

Number.

Insurance,
invest­
ments,
Other
tenants income.
outside,
or rents.
Number.

Per cent.

Meals,
gifts.

Number.

Per cent.

Number.

Percent.

55.2 2,531
51.2 1,881
26.1
529
47.5
462
58.8
387
65.0
503

$850 and over............ 3,576 2,413 67.5
$850-$l,049........... 1,640 1,098 67.0
$1,050-$1,249........
678 470 69.3
$1,250-$1,449........
430 288 67.0
380
$1,450-$1,849........
263 69.2
$l,850-$2,249........
143
92 64.3
100
$2,250-$2,849........
75 75.0
$2,850 and over...
205
127 62.0
No earnings...............
Not reported..............

Number.

Earnings of
mother or
Sources
children
included
or both,
in family
but with earnings1
no other
only.
sources.

Per cent.

Total births.

Earnings of father.

Number.

Sole source
ofincome.

187 1.7
132 1.8
63 3. 9
29 1 9
19 1.2
21
.8
27
17
3
3
2

.8
1.0

Source not reported.

Not sole source of income but supplemented by

9
1
1

....
3

.7
.5

1

1

.5

2

22
6

9.9
2.7

1
4

1 In family earnings, besides earnings of father, mother, and children, are included income from tenants
m home, earnings of foster parents, grandmothers, and aunts, pensions, compensation allowances, and
alimony.
’
T a b l e 27.—Source o f fam ily income, by fam ily earnings; births in 1915.
Births in 1915 in families where family earnings were—
Not sole source of income, but supplemented by—
Family earnings.1

Total
births.

Sole source of
income.

Num­
ber-

Per
cent.

Meals or gifts.

Insurance, in­
Source
vestments, ten­
Other income. not re­
ants outside,
ported.
or rents.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

9.9
13.3
33.6
13.6
9.9
5.8

763
362
67
59
81
155

6.8
5.5
5.7
4.5
5.3
6.0

187
100
26
21
19
34

1.7
1.5
2.2
1.6
1.3
1.3

9

2

Num­ ' Per
ber
cent.

T otal.............. 11,195
Under $850............... 6,585
Under $450......... 1,185
$4o0—
$ 5 4 9 ........ 1,309
$550-649.............. 1,518
$650-$849______ 2,573

9,131
5,249
694
1,051
1,268
2,236

81.6 . 1,105
79.7
874
58.6
398
80.3
178
83.5
150
86.9
148

$850 and over______
$850-$l,049.........
$1,050-11,249.......
$1,250-$1,849.......
$1,850 and over..

4,208
1,776
879
1,034
519

3,601
1,552
770
884
395

85.6
87.4
87.6
85.5
76.1

159
67
37
39
16

3.8
3.8
4.2
3.8
3.1

374
132
54
90
98

8.9
7.4
6.1
8.7
18.9

72
25
18
21
8

1.7
1.4
2.0
2.0
1.5

2

No earnings..............
Not reported............

40
362

11
270

27.5
74.6

21
51

52.5
14.1

8
19

20.0
5.2

15

4.1

7

U n family earnings, besides earnings of father, mother, and children, are included income from tenants
m home, earnings of foster parents, grandmothers, and aunts, pensions, compensation allowances, and
alimony.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

244

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 28.—Earnings o f father as sole source offam ily income, by amount o f his earnings

ana color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915.
Births in families where earnings of father were sole source
of income.1
Native white
mothers.

Earnings of father.

Number.

Foreign-bom white
mothers.

Colored mothers.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
of total Number. of total Number. of total
births.2
births.2
births.2

Total...................................................

4,611

66.5

1,277

45.0

287

20.2

Under $450....................................................
$450-$549.......................................................
$550-$649.......................................................
$650-$849.......................................................
$850-11,049....................................................
$1,050-$1,249..................................................
$i;250-$l'449..................................................
$1,450-$1,849.................. ..............................
$l,850-$2,249..................................................
$2j250-$2,849..................................................

149
411
626
1,281
928
420
235
240
80
65
116
2
58

32.4
62.0
66.9
72.1
72.3
74.2
73.0
74.3
71.4

199
214
229
312
154
46
50
18
12
9
10
5
19

33.2
46.1
51.7
53.0
48.3
45.1
48.5

74
98
53
26
16
4
3
5

13.3
24.7
32.3
20.8

No earnings........................................ .........
Not'reported................................................

63.0
44.3

i
1
6

1 For total births in each color and nativity' and father’s earnings group, see Table 17, p. 233.
2Not shown where base is less than 100.
T a b l e 29.— Fam ily earnings, by earnings o f father; births in 1915.

Births in families where father earned specified amount.
Total births.
$550-$849

$850-$l,249

$1,2501,849

$1,850and
over.

2,494
4,091
2,655
1,034
519
40
362


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

22.3 2,345
36.5
625
23.7
90
9.2
26
4.6
3
.4
3.2
49

74.7
19.9 3,455
2.9
452
.8
66
.1
14
1.6

46

85.7
11.2 2,109
1.6
167
.3
22
1.1

20

91.0
7.2
.9
.9

810 100.0

770 95.1
30 3.7
10

1.2

448 100.0

446 99.6
2

.4

No earnings.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Number.

Number.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Number.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Number.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Number.

Per cent dis­
tribution.

Number.

Total............... 11,195 100.0 3,138 100.0 4,033 100.0 2,318 100.0
Under $550...............
$550-$849...................
$850-$l,249................
$1,250-SI,849...... : . . .
$1,850 and over........
No earnings..............
Not reporfed............

Not reported.

Under $550
Family earnings.

222 226
147 2
il
3 i
3 2*
4
40
14 221

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

245

T able 30.—Earnings o f mother, by color and nativity; births 1 in 1915 to mothers
employed within year after birth o f infant.
Births 1 in 1915 to mothers employed within year after birth.
White mothers.

Colored
mothers.

Total.

Earnings of mother
during year after
birth of infant.

Total.

Native.

Foreign bom.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
dis­
tribu­
tion.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
dis­
tribu­
tion.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
dis­
tribu­
tion.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent
dis­
tribu­
tion.

Num­
ber.

Total........... ..

3,354

100.0

2,321

100.0

1,237

100.0

1,084

100.0

1,033

100.0

Under $50.............
$50-$149...............
$150-$249....... .........
$250-$349..............
$350-$549.................
$550 and over...........
No earnings..............
Not reported............

645
1,048
639
258
146
41
4
573

19.2
31.2
19.1
7.7
4.4

439
587
387

18.9
25.3
16.7
9.0
5.5
1.7

231
303
238
153
87
28
3
191

18.7
24.5
19.2
12.4
7.0
2.3

208
281
149
57
41

19.2
26.2
13.7
5.3
3.8

206
461
252
48
18

19.9
44.6
24.4
4.6
1.7

15.7

334

30.8

45

4.4

210

128
39
3
528

1.2
.1

17.1

.1

22.7

.2

11

1.0

2
1

Per
cent
dis­
tribu­
tion.

.2
.1

1 Includes miscarriages.

T able 31.

Monthly rental, by color and nationality o f mother; infants bom in 1915
who lived at least two weeks in rented dwellings studied.
Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Foreign-born white mothers.
A PI
O 08
© *3

Monthly rental.

O 03
M
§
-03
AO

aA

fl

Total.

7,300 4,351 1,820

Under $5.............................- 350
123
$5, u n d e rg o ......................... 2,579 1,375
$10, under $15......................2,324 ",553
$15, under $20...................... 905
599
$20, under $25...................... 275
163
$25, under $35...................... 250
158
$35, under $50..................
81
73
$50 and over........ ................
44
4Ó
Free.................
95
70
397
Not reported.....................
197

203
909
416
89
23
14
6

4
5
151

684
11

314
206
38
13
5
4

296
165
229
7
3

163

92

27

72

63

13
182
66
14

1,129
24
295
355
217

89
78
2

1

2

90

20

Per cent distribution.1
T otal....
Under $ 5 ......
$5, under $10..
$10, under $15.
$15, under $20.
$20, under $25.
$25, under $35.
$35, under $50.
$50 and over...
Free.............. .
Not reported..

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4.8
2.8 11.2
1.6 39.0
4! 4 2.5
35.3 31.6 49.9 45.9 54.1 61.5 35.6
31.8 35.7 22.9 30.1
1.7 22.3 44.2
12.4 13.8
4.9
5.6
.7
4.7
5.5
3.8
3.7
1.3
1.9
1.2
3.4
3.6
.8
.7
.2
.3
.6
1.1
1.7
.3
.6
.6
.9
.2
.1
: ,6
1.3
1.6
.3
.3
.2
.6
5.4
4.5
8,3 13.2, 4.0
6.8
9.2
......

1 Not shown where bas eis less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100.0
2.1
26.1
31.4
19.2
7.9
6.9

.2
1 ft

4.3

246

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 32.— Monthly rental, by earnings o f father; infants bom in 1915 who lived at

least two weeks in rented dwellings studied.
Infants bom in 1915 who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Earnings of father.

323

196

165

54

41

85
555
324
102
30
19
1

71
487
390
83
16
17

53
587
664
206
42
27
1

13
184
385
206
43
25
1

2
16
52
57
19
21
1

24
46

56

7
46

7
82

4
55

1
43
114
88
30
26
1
1
1
18

Ó 05
Ö5^
33

¿SS
io <£>

1
27

7
24
37
33
29
17
3

1
6
5
5
13
10
5

2
7
2
7
14
5

1
4
2
16
28
29

15

9

4

5

Not re­
ported.

No earn-1
ings.

916

105
624
300
89
42
39
1

Under $5......... 350
$5, under $10.. 2,579
$10, under $15. 2,324
$15, under $20. 905
$20, under $25. 275
$25, under $35. 250
$35, under $50.
81
$50 and ov e r..
44
Free................
95
Not reported.. 397

Under
$450.

Total__ 7,300 1,270 1,172 1,117 1,669

Total.

$2,250$2,849

100.0

$1,850$2,249

Total___ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

$1,450$1,849

42
6

8
28
35
10
9
8
3
1
9
28

$1,250$1,449

139

12
46
28
11
2
3
3

$1,050$1,249

153

$850$1,049

85

$650$849

$2,850
|and over.]

Monthly
rental.

Per cent distribution.1

Under $5......... 4.8
$5, under $10.. 35.3
$10, under $15. 31. 8
$15, under $20. 12.4
$20, under $25. 3.8
$25, voider $35. 3.4
$35, under $50. 1.1
.6
$50 and o v e r..
Free................ 1.3
Not reported.. 5.4

8.3
49.1
23.6
7.0
3.3
3.1
.1

7.3
47.4
27.6
8.7
2.6
1.6
.1

6.4
43.6
34.9
7.4
1.4
1.5

3.2
35.2
39.8
12.3
2.5
1.6
.1

1.9
3.6

4.8

.6
4.1

.4
4.9

1.4
.3
20.1 13.3
42.0 35.3
22.5 27.2
4.7
9.3
2.7
8.0
.1
.3
.3
.4
.3
6.0
5.6

1.0
8.2
26.5
29.1
9.7
10.7
.5
.5
13.8

7.8
30.1
18.3
7.2
1.3
2.0
2.0

4.2
14.5
22.4
20.0
17.6
10.3
1.8

27.5
3.9

9.1

5.8
20.1
25.2
7.2
6.5
5.8
2.2
.7
6.5
20.1

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 33.— Estimated median rental, by estimated median earnings o f father and by color
and nationality o f mother; births in 1915.
Annua rental.
Color and nationality of mother.

Foreign-bom white................................................................................

German...................... .............................................................
Irish, English, Scotch, and English-Canadian.......................
Bohemian..................................................................................

Median
annual
earnings
of father.1

Median
amount.8

$706

$132

18.6

796
619

141
102

17.7
16.5

664
555
540
619

115
70
101
119

17.3
12.6
18.7
19.2

718
781
703
525
671

130
159
95
95
108

18.1
20.4
13.5
18.1
16.1

474

156

32.9

Per cent
of median
earnings.

i Based on births, except for Irish, English, Scotch, and English-Canadian, Lithuanian, Bohemian,
and “ all other” foreign which are based on issues.
8 Based on infants living at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

247

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

T able 34.—Sanitary arrangements o f dwelling, by color and nationality o f mother and
earnings o f father; infants bom in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in dwellings
studied.
Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings with specified
sanitary arrangements.
Color and nationality o'f mother
and earnings of father.

All arrangements.1
Total
infants.

None.

Other dwellings.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.

All earnings groups:
All mothers..........................

10,336

4,486

43.4

351

3.4

5,499

53.2

Native white.................
Foreign-bom white.......

6,464
2,649

3,273
816

50.6
30.8

190
126

2.9
4.8

3,001
1,707

46.4
64.4

Jewish......................
Italian.....................
Polish......................
A llother..................

931
394
597
727

389
80
35
312

41.8
20.3
5.9
42.9

11
9
71
35

1.2
2.3
11.9
4.8

531
305
491
380

57.0
77.4
82.2
52.3

Colored...........................
Earnings offather under $650:
All mothers..........................

1,223

397

32.5

35

2.9

791

64.7

4,272

1,081

25.3

234

5.5

2,957

69.2

Native white.................
Foreign-bom white.......

1,913
1,409

556
236

29.lt
16.7

111
91

5.8
6.5

1,246
1,082

65.1
76.8

Jewish......................
Polish......................
Italian.....................
All other..................

432
424
243
310

107
20
30
79

24.8
4.7
12.3
25.5

7
52
8
24

1.6
12.3
3.3
7.7

318
352
205
207

73.6
83.0
84.4
66.8

Colored...........................

950

289

30.4

32

3.4

629

66.2

1Dwellings having “ all arrangements” have bath and toilet connected with sewer, and reserved for
xclusive use of family.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 35.— Number o f persons in household, by number o f rooms in dwelling, and by color and nativity o f mother; infants born in 1915 who lived at

least two weeks m dwellings studied.

to
oo

Infants bom in 1915 who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Number of rooms in dwelling.

Number of persons1in household and
color and nativity of mother.
Total.

Number of persons in household:
1. . .
2
3.
4 .. .
5
6
7 .. .
8
9 ..
10
11
12 .
13 ...
14 ...
15..
16 ...
17 ...
18.
19 .
20

10,336

42

731 1,404 1,297 1,130 3,585

11
1,882
1,931
1 720
1,563
1 142
^866
559
322
186
100
44
29
5
6
1
3
2
i
1
22

4
25
8
i
3
1

2
307
201
104
69
29
10
7

1
568
362
224
126
58
43
22

2

5

246
297
249
184
153
90
51
20
4
2

3
446
619
641
658
471
334
200
107
59
25
10
5
1

8

9

10

884

677

286

163

49
94
142
158
119
111
83
59
32
16
9
7
1
1
1

24
60
82
91
96
88
81
64
32
33
9
5
2
2

6
23
34
44
36
41
36
23
20
11
7
4

2

1

White mothers.............................

9,113

27

674 1,355 1,148

Number of persons in household:
1
2 .
3
4
5
6
7 .........
8........................................................

8
1,730
l ' 789
l'539
\ 375
972
700
447

2
17

2
283
181
99
66
27
9
6


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1
145
249
197
195
142
105
53
26
12
1
3

7

5

2
1

1
557
346
214
117
56
42
22

229
267
210
162
135
78
44

1

3
12.
32
17
22
21
14
8
15
5
6
4
1
1

11

12

13

47

34

22

3
2
6
7
4
7
4
3
4
4

1
3
3
5
7
2
6
3
2

.3
4
3
2
4
3
1
1

1

14

16

15

13

5

1
1
2
1
4
1
1

1
1
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
1

,

7

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1

1

1
1

2

6

1

1

976 3,239

714

506

221

132

39

29

20

13

5

1
134
217
171
174
117
82
47

48
85
123
134
96
78
60

23
56
59
74
72
56
57

6
23
33
35
24
30
27

3
12
31
13
19
19
10

3
2
6
6
3
6
2

1
3
2
4
7
1

1
1
2
1
4
1

1

2
4
3
2
3

2
427
491
586
582
412
284
166

6

1

1
5

1

1

Not re­
ported.

22

19

18

1

4

1
1
1

1

6

1

1
1

6

1
1

1
1

1

1

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

All mothers..................................

2

3

4

6

1

259
147
76
27
17
3
4
1
2
1
1
15
Native mothers......................
Number of persons in household:

19
11
1
2

93
54
23
8
5

41
27
12
4
4

1

1

53
21
23
6
1
2

16
11
8
6
1

9

3

1
4
3
1

272

154
77
24
13
2
1

1

1
4

732

691

692 2,671

206
82
30
12
6
2

179
190
120
84
62
32
16
7

1

1
115
178
121
129
70
46
19
8
3
1
1

15

1
376
501
498
496
331
224
123
59
35
15
5
4

2,649

1

4
3
2

3
1
1

1

1

1

4

— ......................... —

467

95
54
19

1

1

1

1

194

116

37

26

17

13

5

21

6
23
28
34
21
28
23
10
7
7
5
1

2
11
28
11
18
15
9
5
6
3
1
3

3
2
6
6
3
5
2
3
' 3
2

1
3
2
4
6
1
4
1
2

1
1
2
1
. 4
1
1

i

2
4
3
2
3
2

49
65
58
46
38
39
16
18
3
1
1

1

402

623

457

284

568

145

99

13
2

129
104
75
53
25
8
6

163
140
132
87
44
36
20

50
77
90
78
73
46
28
11
4

1939
50
45
47
36
28
ii
8

51
90
88
86
81
60
43
34
19
8
3

6
ii
14
31
18
17
16
17
9
4

2
5
10
9
14
10
19
14

1


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3

3

3

1 The number of persons in household does aot inc lude infants born in 1915.

1

407

18

1
1

1

1

42
74
109
103
78
61
44
24
18
8
4
4

27

16

1

5
3

5
1
3
2
4
6
4
1
1

1
1
3
2
1
4
1
1
2

1

1

1

1
1

i
1
1
1

6

1
1

1

1
1
1

-4

1

1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1

1

1

1
1
1

1
1

2

3

1

1

3

Number of persons in household:

m

1
1

569

1

1
9

3
3
3

1
1

2

Foreign-bom mothers...........

6
9
3
1
3

1

6,464

1*320
l'072
QR2
065
470
282
164
93
57

18
4

1

1

2

1
1

1
2

250

T able 35.— Number o f \persons in "household, by number o f rooms in dwelling, and by color and nativity o f mother; infants bom in 1915 who lived at
least two weeks in dwellings studied—Continued.
Infants bom in 1915 who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Number of rooms in dwelling.

NAmber of persons1in household and
m color and nativity of mother.
Total.

Number of persons in household—Con.
13..
14..............
15 ..
20.

Number of persons in household:
1.................... .......... ....................
2 . . . .............................................
3
4.
5
6 ...
7
8 ..
9 ..
10
11
12
13
14
15*..
16
17

2

3

4

2
1
2
1
6

8

7

1,223

15

3
92
142
181
188
170
166
112
63
39
24
17
12
2
2
1
2
7

2
8
3
1
1

1

2
171

65

31

1
9
19
24
23
33
23
18
5
4
5
3
1

1
4
23
17
24
32
24
11
11
10
3
4

1
9
12
11
9
7
9
3
1
3

1
4
3
2
4
2
6
2
5
1
1

149

154

346

24
20
5
3
2
1
1

11
16
10
9
2
1

17
30
39
22
18
12
7
2

11
32
26
21
25
23
6
7
1

1
19
28
55
76
59
50
34
14
5
2
2

1

1

1
1

1

11

12

13

14

15

16

18

19

22

Not re­
posted.

1

170

49

2

10

1
1
1
57

1

9

1

1

1The number of persons in household does not include infants bom in 1915.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6

5

1

2
8

5

i
1
1
2

1
1

1
1

1
2

2

1

1

1

1

2
2
3

1

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

1

T able 36.—Average number o f persons per room, by size o f household and color and nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915 who lived at least two
weeks in dwellings studied.1
Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Foreign-bom white mothers.
Native white
mothers.

xoiai.
Average number of persons per room and
number of persons in household.1

Number of persons per room:

Number of persons per room:

Number of persons per room:

Households of number not reported.

Polish.

Colored
mothers.

Italian.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
cent
Num­
Num­
cent
cent
Num­
cent
Num­
cent
Num­
cent
Num­
cent
Num­
cent
distri­
distri­
ber.
ber.
ber.
distri­
distri­
distri­
distri­
distri­
ber.
ber.
ber.
distri­
ber.
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.
bution.

10,336

100.0

6,464

100.0

2,649

100.0

931

100.0

597

100.0

395

100.0

726

100.0

1,223

100.0

5,544
4,269
498
25

53.6
41.3
4.8
.2

4,108
2,237
107
12

63.6
34.6
1.7
.2

882
1,418
343
6

33.3
53.5
12.9
.2

342
506
83

36.7
54.4
8.9

68
345
183
1

11.4
57.8
30.7
.2

107
230
55
'3

27.1
58.2
13.9
.8

365
337
22
2

50.3
46.4
3.0
.3

554
614
48
7

45.3
50.2
3.9
.6

5,484

100.0

3,691

100.0

1,375

100.0

506

100.0

314

100.0

175

100.0

380

100.0

418

100.0

72.9
3,999
24.6
1,347
138 . 2.5

3,020
640
31

81.8
17.3
.8

689
596
90

50.1
43.3
6.5

273
218
15

54.0
43.1
3.0

59
189
66

18.8
60.2
21.0

72
97
6

41.1
55.4
3.4

285
92
3

75.0
24.2
.8

290
111
17

69.4
26.6
4.1

4,830

100.0

2,764

100.0

1,268

100.0

425

100.0

282

100.0

217

100.0

344

100.0

798

100.0

1,545
2,922
360
3

32.0
60.5
7.5
.1

1,088
1,597
76
3

39.4
57.8
2.8
.1

193
822
253

15.2
64.8
20.0

69
288
68

16.2
67.8
16.0

9
156
117

3.2
55.3
41.5

35
133
49

16.1
61.3
22.6

80
245
19

23.3
71.2
5.5

264
503
31

33.1
63.0
3.9

22

100.0

9

100.0

6

100.0

1

100.0

3

100.0

2

100.0

7

100.0

.

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Num­
ber.

Jewish.

Total.

i The number of persons in household does not include infants bom in 1915.
251


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

252

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

37.—Average number o f persons per room, by earnings o f father and color and
nativity o f mother; infants born in 1915 who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.

T able

Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.
Average number of persons1
per room and earnings of
father.

Native white
mothers.

Total.

Foreign-born
white mothers.

Colored mothers.

Nuin-

Per cent
distribdtion.

Num-

Per cent
distri­
bution.*

Num-

Per ceni
distri­
bution.*

Num-

Percent
distri­
bution.2

All earnings groups___

10,336

100.0

6,464

100.0

2,649

100.0

1,223

100.0

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more..........................

5,544
4,767

53.6
46.1

4,108
2,344

63.6
36.3

882
1,761

33.3
66.5

554
662

45 3
54.1

1 but less than 2 ........
2 or more...................

4,269
498

41.3
4.8

2,237
107

34.6
1.7

1,418
343

53.5
12.9

614
48

50 2
¿9

Not reported....................

25

.2

12

.2

6

,2

7

.6

Under $550....................

2,844

100.0

1,041

100.0

995

100.0

808

100.0

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more..........................
1 but less than 2........
2 or more....................

994
1,840
1,555
285

35.0
64.7
54.7
10.0

441
599
551
48

42.4
57.5
52.9
4.6

206
785
581
204

20.7
78.9
58.4
20.5

347
456
423
33

42 9

Not reported....................

10

.4

1

.1

4

.4

5

.6

$550-1849........................

3,749

100.0

2,527

100.0

963

100.0

259

100.0

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more..........................
1 but less than 2 ........
2 or more...................

1,905
1,836
1,682
154

50.8
49.0
44.9
4.1

1,456
1,066
1,025
41

57.6
42.2
40.6
1.6

321
641
535
106

33.3
66.6
55.6
11.0

128
129
122
7

47 1

Not reported...................

8

.2

5

.2

1

.1

2

.8

$850-$l,249.....................

2,183

100.0

1,745

100.0

397

100.0

41

100.0

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more..........................
1 but less than 2 ........
2 or more....................

1,509
671
644
27

69.1
30.7
29.5
1.2

1,283
460
452
8

73.5
26.4
25.9
.5

200
196
177
19

50.4
49.4
44.6
4.8

26
15
15

36 6

52’ 4

4.1

4Q 4
2 .7

63 4

Not reported....................

3

.1

2

.1

1

.3

$1,250 and over.............

1,170

100.0

951

100.0

205

100.0

14

100.0

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more..........................
1 but less than 2 ........
2 or more...................

958
209
201
8

81.9
17.9
17.2
.7

824
124
119
5

86.6
13.0
12.5
.5

122
83
80
3

59.5
40.5
39.0
1.5

12
2
2

35 7

47

100.0

64

100.0

Not reported....................

3

.3

3

.3

No earnings...................

192

100.0

81

100.0

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more................ .........
1 but less than 2........
2 or more...................

67
125
108
17

34.9
65.1
56.2
8.9

31
50
47
3

11
36
27
9

Earnings not reported..

198

100.0

119

100.0

42

Persons per room:
Less than 1.......................
1 or more..........................
1 but less than 2 ........
2 or more....................

111
86
79
7

56.1
43.4
39.9
3.5

73
45
43

2

61.3
37.8
36.1
1.7

22
20
18
2

Not reported....................

1

.5

1

.8

1 The number of persons in household does not include infants bom in 1915..
1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

14 3

25
34
5
100.0

37
16
18
3

100.0

.—

253

APPENDIX V II.-----TABLES.

T able 38.— Total number o f births 1 to mother, by earnings o f father and color and nativity
o f mother; single births in 1915.
Per cent of births in 1915 to mothers re­
porting specified number of total births.1
Earnings of father and color and nativity of mother.
1-3
All mothers..............................................................

4-6

7-9

10 and
over.

62.9

23.5

9.5

4.1

Earnings of father:
Under $550..:...........................................................................
$550-$849................................................................
$850-$l,249..........................................................
$1,250-SI ,849............................................................
$1,850 and over....................................................
No earnings................................................
Not reported..................................; .........................

54.9
63.5
68.1
68.8
75.3
62.0
65.3

26.5
23.7
21.1
21.8
17.4
25.0
22.5

12.9
9.2
7.3
6.5
5.7
8.8
7.7

5.8
3.7
3.4
2.9
1.6
4.2
4.5

Native white mothers...........................................................

69.4

20.8

7.1

2.7

Earnings of father:
Under $550................................................................
$550-$849................................................................
$850-$l,249.......................................................................
$1,250-$1,849......... ..........................................
$1,850 and over..........................................................
No earnings.........................................................
Not reported.............................................................................

63.7
68.3
71.0
72.9
79.9
71.0
69.8

21.9
22.0
19.9
19.6
15.0
18.3
22.5

10.6
7.3
6.4
4.9
3.7
8.6
5.4

3.8
2.5
2.8
2.6
1.3
2.2
2.3

Foreign-born white mothers.................................................

52.3

28.4

13.3

5.9

Earnings of father:
Under $550...................................................................
$550-$849........................................................................
$850-$l,249.....................................................................
$1,250-$1,849...............................................................
$1,850 and over..............................................................
No earnings.................................................................
Not reported.............................................................................

48.9
54.4
56.0
51.9
45.9
52.9
61.2

30.1
27.3
26.3
30.5
32.8
25.5
22.4

'14.9
12.6
11.3
13.0
18.0
9.8
12.2

6.2
5.7
6.4
4.5
3.3
11.8
4.1

Colored mothers....................................................................

52.2

27.5

13.0

7.3

Earnings of father:
Under $550................................................................................
$550-$849......................................................................
$850 and over.....................................................
No earnings..................................................................
Not reported......................... ..........'....................................

51.4
50.5
64.3
56.9
56.8

27.7
27.0
. 23.2
33.3
22.7

13.3
14.6
8.9
8.3
9.1

7.6
7.8
3.6
1.4
11.4

1Includes miscarriages.

T able 39.— Total number o f births 1 to mother, by nationality o f mother; births 1 in 1915
to foreign-born white mothers.
Per cent of births1 to brothers
reporting specified number
of total births.1
Nationality of mother.
1-3
Foreign-born white mothers:
Jewish................................................................................
Polish...............................................................
Italian.....................................................................
All other.................................. ....................
1Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

53.3
45.2
45.9
56.3

4-6

29.1
29.3
34.5
25.1

7 and
over.

17.6
25.5
19.5
18.5

254

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 40.—Keeping o f lodgers, by color and nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915
who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.
Per cent of infants1
whose mothers
kept
specified
number of lodg­
ers.

Color and nationality of mother.

1 or more. 3 or more.
8.4

0.9

6.5
12.2

.5
1.7

8.7
11.1
18.3
14.2

.8
.5
4.8
2.1

8.8
16.5
7.9
22.9
26.3

.3
1.6
2.1
10.5

10.3

1.3

1Infants who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.

T able 41.— Mother pregnant within year after birth o f infant, by color and nationality o f
mother; live births in 1915.

Live births in 1915.

Color and nationality of mother.
Total.

To mot! lers pregnant vrithin the
year fa lowing.
Number. Per cent.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10,797

1,563

14.5

6,739
2,753

840
460

12.5
16.7

961
625
412
755

90
144
118
108

9.4
23.0
28.6
14.3

1,305

263

20.2

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

255

T able 42.— Type o f feeding, by month o f life, and by earnings o f father and color and
nativity o f mother; infants born in 1915 to native white and colored mothers not employed
within year after birth.
•
Infants whose mothers were not employed and who had
specified type of feeding.
Month of life of infant, earn­
Total
ings of father, and color and
infants.
nativity of mother.

Breast feeding.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Mixed feeding.
Num­
ber.

Artificial feeding. Type of
feeding
NumPer
not re­
ber.
cent.
ported.

Per
cent.

NATIVE "WHITE MOTHERS.

Earnings of father under $550:
Second month.................
Third month....................
Sixth month...-...............
Ninth month...................
Earnings of father, $550 and
over:
Second month.................
Third month............: ___
Sixth month....................
Ninth month....................

975
923
831
759

770
663
431
218

79.1
71.8
51.9
28.7

56
79
174
309

5.7
8.6
21.0
40.7

4,998
4,846
4,626
4,495

3,868
3,405
2,443
1,393

77.4
70.3
42.8
31.0

224
275
684
1,437

4.5
5.7
14.8
32.0

757
629
394
297

613
478
230
97

81.0
76.0
58.4
32.7

69
136

9.1
11.0
22.3
45.8

302
264
203
165

237
201
118
57

78.5
76.1
58.1
34.5

25
28
47
70

82.8
10.6
23.2
42.4

15.3
19.6
27.2
30.6

149
181
226
232'

18.1
24.0
32.4
37.0

905
1,165
1,498
1,664

COLORED MOTHERS.

Earnings of father under $550:
Second month..................
Third month....................
Sixth month....................
Ninth month....................
Earnings o f father, $550 and
over:
Second month.
Third month..
Sixth month..
Ninth month..

9.9
13.0
19.3
21.5
40
35
38
38

13.2
13.3
18.7
23.0

T able 43.— Type o f feeding, by month o f life o f infant, and by literacy and color and
nativity o f mother; infants bom in 1915.

Month of life of infant, literacy, and color and nativity of mother.

Per cent of infants having
specified type of feeding.
Breast
feeding.

Mixed
feeding.

Artificial
feeding.

86.7
77.3
70.1
52.1
30.1

2.3
4.8
•6.2
16.0
33.6

11.0
17.9
23.7
31.9
36.3

79.4
75.6
71.1
55.7
33.0

5.6
8.1
9.9
17.4
39.4

15.1
16.3
19.0
27.0
27.5

91.5
85.2
79.0
58.2
27.4

3.0
5.8
9.0
23.8
48.8

5.5
9.0
12.0
18.0
23.8

90.8
83.5
78.4
60.1
30.4

4.2
8.3
11.1
23.3
48.8

5.0
8.3
10.5
16.6
20.8

2.4
9.0
14.2
28.6
48.8

7.1
12.1
15.4
22.9
29.3

6.0
18.9
26.8
43.8
58. 2

6.0
9.8
14.8
21.9
26.1

Native white mothers:
Literate—

Ninth month.......................................................................................
Illiterate—
Third month.......................................................................................
Sixth month........................................................................................
Foreign-bom white mothers:
literate—
First month..... ........................................................ .•......................
Second month.....................................................................................
Third month. . . : ................................................................................
Sixth month........................................................................................
Illiterate—
First month........................................................................................
Third month.......................................................................................
Ninth month.......................................................................................
Colored mothers:
Literate—

Ninth month.......................................................................................
Illiterate—


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

90.5
78.9
70.4
48.5
21.9
87.9
71.3
58. 5
34.3
15.7

'

256

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 44.—Prevalence o f artificial feeding, by month o f life o f infant, and by ability o f

mother to speak English arid'nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915 to Jewish,
Polish, and Italian mothers.

Month o life of infant and nationality of
mother.

Mothers able to speak
English.

Mothers not able to speak
English.

Infant survivors.

Infant survivors.
Artificially fed.

Artificially fed.
Total.

Total.

Number. Per cent.

Number. Per cent.
Jewish mothers:
First month...................................- —
Second month................ ...................-.
Third month..........................................
Sixth month........................................ .
Ninth month.........................................
Twelfth month......................................
Polish mothers:
First month...........................................
Second month........................................
Third month.........................................
Sixth month..........................................
Ninth month.........................................
Twelfth month............................... —
Italian mothers:
First month...........................................
Second month........................................
Third month..........................................
Sixth month..........................................
Ninth month.........................................
Twelfth month......................................

786
766
764
759
755
748

18
43
56
94
135
193

2.3
5.6
7.3
12.4
17.9
25.8

175
169
168
166
165
165

9
12
14
25
36
47

5.1
/•I
8.3
15.1
21.8
28.5

223
207
205
201
191
186

9
17
22
34
39
48

4.0
8.2
10.7
16.9
20.4
25.8

402
383
382
368
353
343

20
26
38
54
60
75

5.0
6.8
9.9
14.7
17.0
21.9

140
134
134
133
131
130

5
10
11
23
29
41

3.6
7.5
8.2
17.3
22.1
31.5

272
261
259
253
250
247

6
12
17
30
55
73

2.2
4.6
6.6
11.9
22.0
29.6

T a b l e 45.—Prevalence o f artificial feeding, by month o f life o f infant, and by literacy

and nationality o f mother; infants bom in 1915 to Jewish, Polish, and Italian mothers.
Literate mothers.

Illiterate mothers.

Infant survivors.

Infant survivors.

Month of life, o f infant and nationality of
. mother.

Artificially fed.

Artificially fed.
Total.

Total.

Number. Per cent.

Number. Percent.
Jewish mothers:
First month...........................................
Second month........................................
Third month..........................................
Sixth month..........................................
Ninth month.........................................
Twelfth month......................................
Polish mothers:
First month...........................................
Second month........................................
Third month..........................................
Ninth month.........................................
Twelfth month......................................
Italian mothers:
First month...........................................
Second month'.......................................
Third month..........................................
Sixth month..........................................
Ninth month.........................................
Twelfth month......................................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

791
769
768
764
760
754

20
42
56
98
142
201

2.5
5.5
7.3
12.8
18.7
26.7

169
165
163
160
159
158

7
13
14
21
29
39

4.1
7.9
8.6
13.1
18.2
24.7

339
316
314
305
290
284

18
26
38
54
61
76

5.3
8.2
12.1
17.7
21.0
26.8

285
273
272
264
254
245

11
16
22
34
38
47

3.9
5.9
8. i
12.9
15.0
19.2

220
213
211
210
205
204

5
11
13
25
44
57

2.3
5.2
6.2
11.9
21.5
27.9

190
180
180
174
174
171

6
11
15
28
40
57

3.2
6.1
8.3
16.1
23.0
33.3

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

257

T able 46.—Prevalence o f mixed feeding and artificial feeding, by month o f life o f infant,
and by place o f employment and color and nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915
to mothers employed within year after birth.
Place of employment and
color and nationality of
mother.
Native white mothers:
Employed at hom e.........
Employed away from

Second
month.

Per cent of infant survivors.1
Mixed fed.
Artificially fed.
Ninth Second Third
Third
Sixth
Sixth
month. month. month. month. month. month.

5.6

5.3

Foreign-born white mothers:
6.3

11.4

Jewish mothers:
Employed at home...
Employed away from

6.7

13.9

Polish mothers:
Employed at hom e..
Employed away from

3.6

7.7

Employed away from

16.9

37.0

26.7

38.2

26.2

48.3

16.0

24.2

9.2

11.8

28.7

58.9

36.2

60.0

4.7

6.0

10.9

12.3

17.3

46.7

31.5

65.0

Ninth
month.

31.2

34.6

44.8

45.8

18.8

25.1

28.7

24.2

12.3

20.0

18.5

16.7

20.4

13.8

Italian mothers:
Employed at h om e..
Employed away from

8.1

11.1

18.1

40.5

2.7

8.3

16.7

25.5

Employed at hom e..
Employed away from

5.8

9.3

22.0

37.1

19.4

24.0

31.4

37.6

19.6

28.4

54.4

17.5

20.2

28.0

46.8

48.6

53.3

31.5

33.1

39.1

Colored mothers:
Employed away from
home.............................

1 Each infant is classified according to type of feeding and mother’s employment in each month, except
that if a mother worked away from home following aperiodof work at home the latter is disregarded; a
mother’ s employment is assumed to continue from the time it commenced until the end of infant’s first
year of life. Per cent not shown where base is less than 50.

T able 47.— Infant deaths per 1,000 live births} by cause o f death and age; legitimate live
births in 1915, Baltimore study, and total registered live births in 1915 in cities o f 10,000
or more population in United States birth-registration .area.
Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births.
Gastric and in­
Respiratory
Malformations.
diseases.
testinal diseases.
Regis­
Regis­
Balti­
Balti­
Regis­
Balti­
Regis­
tration
tration
tration
more
more
more
tration
cities.1 study. cities.1 study. cities.1 study. cities.1
103.3
29.1
26.6
19.7
17.8
3.6
6.1
60.4
5.9
6.7
6.3
9.0
3.0
5.4
35.4
.7
1.0
1.9
1.3
2.5
4.1
1.6
.8
1.8
8.0
1.5
.6
9.2
1.4
1.5
1.9
3.0
.3
.4
1.8
3.1
1.6
.2
7.8
3.0
.3
5.1
4.1
18.1
9.3
8.0
.6
.4
7.4
4.5
14.0
5.9
3.9
.1
.2
3.4
10.9
6.5
3.8
3.5
.1

All causes.
Age at death.

Total.............................
Under 3 months.....................
Under 2 weeks.................
2 weeks, under 1 m onth..
1 month, under 2..............
2 months, under 3............
3 months, under 6...................
6 months, under 9...................
9 months, under 12.................

Balti­
more
study.
103.5
56.0
37.0
7.1
6.0
5.8
19.4
15.1
13.0

Age at death.

Total...................................................
Under 3 months...........................................
Under 2 weeks.......................................
2 weeks, under 1 month........................
1 month, under 2...................................
2 months, under 3..................................
3 months, under 6........................................
6 months, under 9........................................
9 months, under 12.......................................

Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births.
Epidemic and
Early infancy.
other communicable All other causes.
diseases.
B alti­
Balti­
Regis­
Balti­
Regis­
Regis­
tration
more
tration
more
more
tration
study.
cities.1 study.
cities.1 study.
cities.1
37.7
35.0
8.5
6.7
6.7
9.3
35.4
32.0
1.9
3.1
2.8
4.9
29.9
25.9
.6
1.2
.8
2.4
3.1
2.7
.4
.6
1.2
.9
1.8
2.1
.6
.9
.5
.9
.6
1.4
.1
.7
.3
.8
1.4
1.0
2.0
1.8
2.0
1.7
1.5
.7
.7
1.9
.8
1.4
2.2
.2
.3
2.0
.6
1.3

i Cities of birth-registration area, 1915. Based on unpublished data furnished by U. S. Census.

101351°— 23------17


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258

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 48.—Infant deaths, by cause o f death, with reference to classification numbers in
International List o f Causes o f Death; deaths among legitimate liye births in 1915, Bal­
timore study, and total deaths in United States death-registration area in 1915.
’

Abridged
International
List N o.1

Detailed
International
List N o.1

1
Deaths among
Infant deaths in
infants bom
in Baltimore death-registration
area in 1915.
in 1915.
Cause oi death.*
cent
Num­ Per
Num­
ber. distri­
ber.
bution.
All causes.

102,103
104.......
20 ..............
Part o f2 3 ...
22

Part" of 3 3 ...

Part of 33..
Part of 33..
Part of 37..
Part of 37..
5.
6.

7.
9....................
Part of 12___
Part of 12___
Part of 37___
13
..
14
..
15
..
Part of 37___
35....... ...........
38...................
17...................
Part of 37___
19...................

89..
91..
92..
150.
151[1]................
}l51[2], 152[2], 153
152[1 ]...............

G astric a n d in te stin a l diseases * ..
Diseases o f th e s to m a c h .........
D iarrhea a n d e n teritis............
R e sp ira to ry d ise a s e s 4.....................
A c u te B ro n ch itis .......................
B ro n ch o -p n e u m o n ia ...............
P n e u m o n ia ..................... J.........
M a lform ation s...................................
E a r ly in f a n c y ....................................
P rem atu re b ir t h .......................
C on gen ital d e b ilit y .. . . . . ___

In ju rie s a t b ir th ........................
E p id e m ic a n d other co m m u n i­
ca b le diseases.5
6
M easles.........................................
7
..
Scarlet fe v e r ...............................
8
W h o o p in g c o u g h ......................
9
...
D ip h th e r ia a n d c r o u p . . . ___
10
................................ ' . . . I n flu e n z a ............... . . . ' ..............
14...................
D y s e n te r y ..................... .............
18...................
E ry s ip e la s ...................................
24..................
T e ta n u s ........................................
28,29............. .
T u b e rcu lo sis o f th e lu n g s___
30....................
T u b e rcu lo u s m e n in g itis ........
31,32,33,34,35.
O ther form s o f tu b e rcu lo s is..
37............... .
S y p h ilis .......... ........................... ..
155 to 1 8 6 .....
E x te r n a l ca u s e s ...............................
187,188,189....
Diseases ill-d e fin e d or u n k n o w n ..
A l l oth er c a u se s...............................
61.
M e n in gitis...................................
71.
C on vu lsion s................................
79.
O rganic diseases o f th e h eart.
O th e r ............................................

..............
..

Per cent
distri­
bution.

1,117

100.0

148,561

100.0

314
6
308
213
24
149
40
39
407
225
138
44
72

28.1
.5
27.6
19.1
2.1
13.3
3.6
3.5
36.4
20.1
12.4
- 3.9
6.4

34,394
2,193
32,201
23,886
3,401
13,904
6,581
9,327
51,765
29,027
16,824
5,914
12,109

23.2
1.5
21.7
16.1
2.3
9.4
4.4
6.3
34.8
19.5
11.3
4.0
8.2

8
1
18
4
7
1
4

.7
.1
1.6
.4
.6
.1
.4

965
146
3,119
869
982
491
750

.6
.1
2.1
.6
.7
.3
.5

4
10
1
14
10
7
55
10
15

.4
.9
.1
1.3
.9
.6
4.9
.9
1.3

.6
.8
.3
1.4
1.2
2.0
8.4
1.0
1.5

30

2.7

851
1,194
421
2,022
1,727
2,943
12,420
1,444
2,301
son
8,085

5.4

1 The numbers indicate the classification in the abridged and the detailed lists, respectively, of the
Manual of the International List of Causes of Death.
*
in,this list are those used b v tn e U . S. Bureau of the Census (see
Mortality Statistics, 1915, p. 442) m classifying the deaths of infants under 1 year. They are those causes
of death or groups of causes which are most important at this age. The numbers of the detailed
and abridged International Lists will facilitate their identification. In order to make discussion of the
figures easier, these causes of death have been grouped in 8 main groups.
»The term “ gastric and intestinal diseases/’ as used in the tables and discussion, includes, as above
shown, only the diseases of this type which are most important amongjinfants; i. e., diseases of the stomach
diarrhea, and enteritis. It does not include all “ diseases of the digestive system” as classified under this
heading according to the detailed International List.
/T h e term “ respiratory diseases,” as used in the tables and discussion, similarly includes only those
of the respiratory diseases which are most important among infants; i. e., acute bronchitis, broncho­
pneumonia, and pneumonia. It does not include all “ diseases of the respiratory system” as classified
under this heading according to the detailed International List.
5 The term “ epidemic and other communicable diseases,” as used in the tables and discussion, includes
only those of this group which are most important among infants.


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259

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

T a b l e A 9 — In fa n t m orta lity rates, by ca m e o f death, and by color and n a tiv ity o f m oth er;
liv e births in 1915.

Total deaths.

Deaths among infants bom to mothers of specified color
and nationality.
White.

Cause of death.

Infant
Num- morber. tality
rate.

All causes........................ 1,117
Gastric and intestinal diseases.
Diseases of the stomach. . .
Diarrhea and enteritis.......
Respiratory diseases................
Acute bronchitis...............
Broncho-pneumonia..........
Pneumonia...................
Malformations..........................
Early infancy................. .........
Premature birth................
Congenital debility...........
Injuries at birth.................
Epidemic and other commu­
nicable diseases.....................
Measles...............................
Scarlet fever........... ..........
Whooping cough...............
Diphtheria and croup.......
Influenza............................
Dysentery........................ «
Erysipelas..........................
Tuberculosis of the lungs..
Tuberculous meningitis
Other forms of tuberculosis
Syphilis............................
External causes...............
Diseases ill-defined or un'
known..... ...........................
All other causes......................
Meningitis........................
Convulsions................. .
Other........................... .


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Total.

Native.

Foreign bom.

Colored
mothers.

Infant
Infant
Infant
Infant
Num- mor- Num- mor- Num- mor- Num- morber. tality ber. tality ber. tality ber. tality
rate.
rate.
rate.
rate.

103.5

910

95.9

646

95.9

. 264

95.9

207

158.6

314
6
308
213
24
149
40
39
407
225
138
44

29.1
.6
28.5
19.7
2.2
13.8
3.7
3.6
37.7
20.8
12.8
4.1

274
5
269
149
13
103
33
36
342
183
119
40

28.9
.5
28.3
15.7
1.4
10.9
3.5
3.8
36.0
19.3
12.5
4.2

194
4
190
92
7
65
20
27
257
145
81
31

28.8
.6
28.2
13.7
1.0
9.6
3.0
4.0
38.1
21.5
12.0
4.6

80
1
79
. 57
6
38
13
9
85
38
38
9

29.1
.4
28.7
20.7
2.2
13.8
4.7
3.3
30.9
13.8
13.8
3.3

40
1
39
64
11
46
7
3
65
42
19
4

30.7
.8
29.9
49.0
8.4
35.2
5.4
2.3
49.8
32.2
14.6
3.1

72
8
1
18
4
7
1
4
4
10
1
14
10

6.7
.7
.1
1.7
.4
.6
.1
.4
.4
.9
.1
1.3
.9

50
8
1
11
4
6
1
4
1
10

5.3
.8
.1
1.2
.4
.6
.1
.4
.1
1.1

32
5
1
6
1
5

4.7
.7
.1
.9
.1
.7

18
3

6.5
1.1

22

16.9
5.4

1

.8

.3
.1
1.3

1.8
1.1
.4
.4
.7

7

2
1
9

5
3
1
1
2
1

.4

3

2.3

4
7

.4
.7

2
6

.3
.9

2
1

.7
.4

1
10
3

.8
7.7
2.3

7
55
10
15
30

.6
5.1
.9
1.4
2.8

6
46
9
10
27

.6
4.8
.9
1.1
2.8

3
35
8
7
20

.4
5.2
1.2
1.0
3.0

3
11
1
3
7

1.1
4.0
.4
1.1
2.5

1
9
1
5
3

.8
6.9
.8
3.8
2.3

able

260

T

50.— In fa n t deaths, by ca m e o f death an d m on th o f life ; liv e births in 1915.
Deaths among infonts bom in 1915.
Occurring i n specified month of life.

Cause of death.

First.

Total.

All causes...................... ............................
Gastric and intestinal diseases...........................
Diarrhea and enteritis..................................
Broncho-pneumonia.....................................

Epidemic and other communicable diseases___


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1.117
314
6
308
213
24
149
40
39
407
225
138
44 •
72
s
1
18
4
7
1
4
4
10
1
14
10
7
55
10
15
30

Under 2 weeks, Second. Third. Fourth. Fifth.
under 1
2
weeks. month.

Sixth.

Sev­
enth. Eighth. Ninth. Tenth.

Elev­
enth. Twelfth.

477

400

77

65

63

62

71

76

56

56

51

49

42

49

17
1
16
37
6
20
11
27
357
216
97
44
13

8
1
7
20
2
11
7
27
323
197
83
43
9

9

15

29
1
28
17

36

24

20

27

36
12
1
8
3

24
20
2
16
2
1
3

20
17
2
13
2

27
14
1
11
2

1

1

1

5

14
3
1
5
1
4

44
17
2
12
3
2
5

21
1
20
12
2
10

22

15
16
5
7
4
3
19
7
12

27
2
25
21
1
17
3
3
5

44

9
17
4
9
4

32
1
31
19
2
12
5
2
6
1
5

3

1

1

1

7

1

4

4

3

7
1

9
2

4
1

8
1

3

2

2

1

1

3
1

2

2

2
1
3

12
3
1
2
2

1
2

1
3

34
19
14
1
4

2
1

5

4
4

1

1

1
1

1
10
2
3
21
9
12

1

7
1
2
10

1
3
1
1
11

2
1

1

4

2
1

1

6
4

3
8

1
3

1

1

1

1
1
1
13
5
1
7

1

2

4
1
2
1

2
2

1
1
1
3

9
2

1
1
2

1
1

22
11

4

1

1
3
1

4

1

2

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD,

Total.

T a b l e 51.— In fa n t deaths, b y age a t death, an d by co lo r an d n a tio n a lity o f m oth er; live births in 1915.

Deaths among infants bom to mothers of specified color and nationality.
White mothers.
(
Total infant
deaths.
Total.

Age at death.

Native.
Total.

Polish.

Irish,
Eng­
Per
lish,
cent
Jew­
Per
Ital­ Ger­ Scotch, Bohe­ Lithu­ All Num­ distri­
and
ish.1 Num­ cent ian.1 man.1
ber.
bu­
Eng- mian.1 anian.1 other.1
ber. distri­
tion.
lishbu­
Canation.
dian.1

1,117

100.0

910

100.0

646

100.0

264

100.0

49

102

100.0

36

30

12

42.7

394

43.3

286

44.3

108

40.9

26

35

34.3

17

10

477

12~

4~

V

5

2~

83~

40.1

Under 1 day..............................
\ day, under 2 ...........................
I days, under 3 ..........................
? days, under 7 .........................
1 week, under 2.........................
2 weeks, under 1 month............

208
40
42
51
59
77

18.6
3.6
3.8
4.6
5.3
6.9

178
36
37
40
43
60

19.6
4.0
4.1
4.4
4.7
6.6

135
24
24
25
33
45

20.9
3.7
3.7
3.9
5.1
7.0

43
12
13
15
10
15

16.3
4.5
4.9
6.7
3.8
5.7

10
4
4
3
3
2

13
4
3
4
3
8

12.7
3.9
2. Ö
3.9
2.9
7.8

5
2
2
5
2
1

7
1
1

2

3
1

2

1

30

14.5
1.9

1
2

16
17

7* 7

1 month, under 2.............................
2 months, under 3 ............................
3 months, under 6 ............................
6 months, under 9 ...........................
9 months, under 12..........................

65
63
209
163
140

5.8
5.6
18.7
14.6
12.5

51
52
159
138
116

5.6
5.7
17.5
15.2
12.7

35
34
113
98
80

5.4
5.3
17.5
15.2
12.4

16
18
46
40
36

6.1
6.8
17.4
15.2
13.6

3
i
7
7
5

3
10
19
17
18

2. 9
9. 8
18.6
16.7
17.6

2
4
6
3
4

2
7
4
4

U
50
25
24

5J$
24.2
12.1
11.6

Under 1 month..............................

15

£

2
3
3

1

10

207

4

100.0

1

i

i
1

1
1
1

1
2
2
1

2
3

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Num­ cent Num­ cent Num­ cent Num­ cent
distri­
distri­
distri­
distri­
ber.
ber.
ber.
ber.
bu­
bu­
bu­
bu­
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.

Total.......................................

Colored
mothers.
Foreign bom.

1 Per cent distribution not shown where base is less than 50.

to

o*

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262

T a b l e 52.— In fa n t deaths, by calendar m on th o f death and cause; live births in 1915.

Deaths among infants born in 1915.
Occurring in specified calendar month.
Cause o’ fdeath.
Total.

All causes..........................................
Gastric and intestinal diseases....................
Diseases of thestopiach............. ...........
Respiratory diseases.....................................
Broncho-pneumonia...............................

Epidemic and other communicable diseases
Measles....................................................
Scarlet fever............................................
Whooping cough....................................
Influenza.................................................
Erysipelas............... ..............................Tuberculosis of the lungs......................
Tuberculous meningitis.........................
Other forms of tuberculosis...................
External causes............................................
Diseases,ill-defined or unknown.................
Meningitis...............................................
Convulsions............................................
Other.......................................................


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1,117
314
6
308
213
24
149
40
39
407
225
138
44
72
1
18
4

65
3
3
23
2
14
7
3
18
8
7
3
10
1
1
1
4

Febru­
ary.
81
7
7
33
4
19
10
3
24
14
10
7

Septem­
ber.

October.

Novem­
ber.

Decem­
ber.

89

75

68

144

140

100

91

76

76

9

11

9

9
32
6
22
4
6
50
27
14
9
10
3

89
2
87
7

30

9
14

78
1
77

46

11
22

10
1
9
14

46
13

18

11

8

11

4
41
25
14
2
6
2

2
40
21
15
4
5

30
20
7
3
2

12

30
14
3
10
1
4
32
17
12
3

10
1
9
11
1
7
3
2
45
25
14
6
3

12
1
11
19
2
12
5
2
32
14
12
6
7

1

11
2

15

32
21

8

6

2

4

1

............ i ’
1
i

................ ...............
2
i

1
1
1
1

2
i

1

4
4
10
1
14
10

2 ...............
1
2

i

.............

2

1

2

i

55
10
15
30

6

3
6
2
2 ............ i '
2
2

4
1

4

August.

112

1
2

< I

July.

June.

May.

April.

March.

1

1

_
............ .

3

1
1
1
3
3

1
4

8

3
5

1
2

3
1

4

"l

.............

..............i

3

2

2

2

1
2
1
i

1
6

5

3

3
3

2
3

3

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

January.

T a b l e 53.— In fa n t m orta lity rates, by calendar m on th o f birth and cause o f death; live births in 1915.

Infant deaths from specified causes.

Total infant deaths.

Month of birth.

March............................................................
May................................................................
June...............................................................
July................................................................
August...........................................................
October..........................................................
December......................................................

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.

Gastric and intes­
tinal diseases.

Respiratory
diseases.
%

'

#
Diseases
Epidemic
ill defined
or
and
other
Malfor­
External
communi­ causes. unknown
Infant
Infant mations.
Infant
•
and
all
cable
Number. mortality Number. mortality
Number. mortality diseases.
other
rate.
rate.
causes.
rate.
Early infancy.

10,797

1,117

103.5

314

29.1

213

19.7

39

407

37.7.

72

885
891
973
793
828
878
999
936
909
904
886
915

82
97
113
103
88
101
97
78
78
94
101
85

92.7
108.9
116.1
129.9
106.3
115.0
97.1
83.3
85.8
104.0
114.0
92.9

33
36
24
38
20
25
21
19
18
30
24
26

37.3
40.4
24.7
47.9
24.2
28.5
21.0
20.3
19.8
33.2
27.1
28.4

14
21
14
16
20
14
31
17
16
18
16
16

15.8
23.6
14.4
20.2
24.2
15.9
31.0
18.2
17.6
19.9
18.1
17.5

2
2
7
3
4
5
4
1

24
26
57
41
36
38
30
27
29
26
44
29

27.1.
29.2
58.6
51.7
43.5
43.3
30.0
28.8
31.9
28.8
49.7
31.7

2
5
5
5
5
13
6
5
8
6
7
5

5
4
2

62

10
X

1
3
1
1
1
3

7
7
5

3
3
4
. 8
6
6
6
7

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Total............................................. ......

Live
births.

263


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

264

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD,

T able 54.— Infant deaths from gastric and intestinal diseases per 1,000 live births, by age
at death; Baltimore City, 1915 and 1916, cities o f birth-registration area, 1915, arid legiti­
mate group in Baltimore study.
Infant deaths from gastric and intes­
tinal diseases per 1,000 live births.
Age at death.

Cities of
birthregistra­
group.1 tion area.
Baiti-

Baltimore City.
1916

1915

29.1

26.7

29.9

32.7

5.9
9.3
7.4
6.5

9.0
8.0
5.9
3.8

7.7
9.2
8.1
4.8

9.9
8.6
8.2
6.0

1 In the Baltimore group the deaths under 1 year of age among infants born in 1915 occurred partly in
1915 and partly in 1916.

T able 55.— Infant deaths from diarrhea and enteritis per 1,000 live births, by age at death;
England and Wales, 1891 to 1917.
Infant deaths from diarrhea
and enteritis per 1,000 live
births.
Period.

Age at death.
Under 3
3-6
months. months.

1891-1900
...................................................................................................
1901—1910
...................................................................................................
1911—1915 .........................................................................................................
1916
............................................................................................................

6.95
5.58
5.56
3.53
3.42

6-12
months.

8.51
6.97
6.35
3.50
3.47

9.71
7.92
7.33
3.55
3.41

(Based on reports of registrar general of births, deaths, and marriages in England and Wales: 1915, cd.
8484; 1916, cd. 8869; 1917, cmd. 40.)

T able 56.— Mean temperature and precipitation, by calendar month; Baltimore, 1915
and 1916.
Monthly mean temperatine and total
precipitation in Baltimore.
1916

1915
Calendar month.

Mean
Mean
Precipi­
tempera­ Precipi­
tation tempera­
tation
ture
ture
(inches).
(inches).
(° F.).
(° F.).

July.................................................................................................

36.0
38.4
39.4
69.2
62.2
70.6
76.9
74.2
71.5
59.6
47.0
35.4

6.81
4.75
1.06
1.37
3.19
6.23
2.22
9.93
2.30
3.86
1.59
3.08

39.5
33.6
37.0
52.6
66.6
69.4
78.0
76.8
67.6
57.6
47.3
36.0

1.51
3.21
3.61
3.68
3.49
5.33
5.04
.83
1.82
1.61
1.97
3.94

Source: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, monthly issues Climatological Data, Mary­
land and Delaware Section, 1915 and 1916, and Monthly Meteorological Summary, 1915 and 1916.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N r
T able 57.— Infant deathsfrom epidemic and communicable diseases per 1,000 live births, by age at death and cause o f death; Baltimore City, 1915 and 1916,
cities o f birth-registration area, 1915, and legitimate group in Baltimore study.
Infant deaths at specified age under 1 year per 1,000 live births.
Baltimore City.
Cause of death

Cities of the birth-registra­
tion area, 1916.

Baltimore stuay.

1916

1915

6.7
1.3
6.4
.7
1.7
.4
2.6

2.9
1.3
1.7
.8
.1
.8

3.7
3.7
.7
.8
.3
1.9

8.6
1.6
6.9
.9
1.9
.6
3.5

4.6
1.5
3.1
.2
1.0
.3
1.6

3.9
.2
3.7
.7
.9
.3
1.9

8.9
4.5
4.4
.6
1.0
.7
2.2

5.9
4.0
1-9
.1
.4
.4
1.0

3.0
.5
2.5
.4
- .5
.3
1.2

9.1
4.0
5.1
.6
2.0
.5
2.1

5.5
3.6
1.9
.1
.9
.1
.8

3.6
.3
3.2
.5
1.1
.3
1.3

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Under 1 Under 6 6 months, Under 1 Under 6 6 months, Under 1 Under 6 6 months, Under 1 Under 6 6 months,
year.
months. under 12.
year.
months. under 12.
months. under 12.
year.
months. under 12.
year.

265


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 58.—

Monthly death rates, by type o f feeding, and by color and nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915.
Subsequent deaths.

Month of life of infant and Infant
sur­
nationality of mother.
vivors.

In year.

Breast fed.

In month.
Infant
sur
Per vivors

Num­ Per Num
ber. 1,000. ber. 1,000


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

In month.

In
year. Num­ Per
ber. 1,000

Mixed fed.
Infant
sur­
vivors

Artificially fed.

Subsequent
deaths.

Infant
In month. sur­
vivors
Num Per
ber. 1, 000.

In month.
Num- Per
ber. 1, 000.

10,797
10,320
10,255
10,192
10,130
10,059
9,983
9,927
9,871

L, 117
640
575
512
450
379
303
247
191

103.5
62.0
56.1
50.2
44.4
37.7
30.4
24.9
19.3

9,283
8,176
7,400
6,457
5,905
5,352
4,215
3,590
2,825

281
608
844
1.303
1,614
1,977
2,845
3,291
3,890

958
1,531
2,006
2,426
2,605
2,725
2,919
3,042
3.153

240
271
294
293
265
236
191
154

9,492
9,098
9,047
8,995
8,952
8,896
8,836
8,791
8,743

910
516
465
413
370
314
254
209
161

95.9
56.7
51.4
45.9
41.3
35.3
28.7
23.8
18.4

8,137
7,223
6,568
5,761
5,288
4,808
3,827
3,276
2.587

245
484
654
1,036
1.304
1,623
2,378
2,782
3,328

870
1,386
1,820
2,192
2,354
2,460
2,627
2,729
2,825

198
224
248
246
223

6,739
6,453
6,418
6,384
6,351
6,308
6,271
6,237
6,207

646
360
325
291
258
215
178
144
114

95.9
55.8
50.6
45.6
40.6
34.1
28.4
23.1
18.4

5,681
4,985
4,497
3,922
3.588
3,290
2,675
2,324
1,871

156
313
403
646
823
1,012
1,472
1,736
2,092

726
1.153
1,517
1,814
1,938
2,004
2,123
2,176
2,243

95.9
59.0
53 3
46.7
43.1
38.3
29.6
25.5
18.5

2,456
2,238
2,071
1,839
1,700
1,518
1,152
952
716

171
251
390
481
611
906
1,046
1,236

144
233
303
378
416
456
504
553
582

2,753
2,645
2,629
2,611
2,601
2,588 I
2,565
2,554
2,536

Not reported.

Subsequent
deaths.

121

202

167
134
105

55.3
18.9
18.4
16.5
15.7
20.6

13.7
11.8
46.0
16.6
17.6
14.6
13.6
18.3
13.3
11.4
9.6

Not
Subsequent
fed
deaths.
In­
fantat
In month.
■ In
once.
year. Num Per
ber. 1,000.
4

4

1
3
3
2
1
1

1
1

269

4

4

1
3
3
2
1
1

1
1

3

3

172

1

1

62

1
2
2
1
1
1

1

234

1
1
1

76.4
17.2
26.4
13.2
9.6
35.1
15.9
18.1
10.3

1

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

All mothers:
First month................
Second month.............
Third month...............
Fourth month.............
Fifth month................
Sixth month...............
Seventh month...........
Eighth month.............
Ninth month...............
White mothers:
First month.................
Second month.............
Third month...............
Fourth month.............
Fifth month................
Sixth m onth...............
Seventh month...........
Eighth month.............
Ninth month...............
Native mothers:
First month..........
Second month......
Third month........
Fourth month___
Fifth month.........
Sixth month.........
Seventh month___
Eighth month.......
Ninth month........ .
Foreign-born mothers:
First month...........
Second month........
Third month..........
Fourth month.......
Fifth month......... .
Sixth month..........
Seventh month
Eighth month.
Ninth month............. |

Subsequent
deaths.

961
935
932
931
928
925
924
924
920

51.0
24.6
21.5
20.4
17.2
14.1
13.0
13.0
8.7

625
590
587
577
575
569
558
551
544

163.2
113.6
109.0
93.6
90.4
80.8
62.7
50.8
38.6

412
395
393
389
388
386
383
382
381

87.4
48.1
43.3
33.4
30.9
25.9
18.3
15.7
13.1

755
725
717
714
710
708
700
697
691
1,305

1,222

1,208
1,197
1,178
1,163
1,147
1,136
1,128

25
14
11
10
8
6
6
4
3

7
2

8.0
2.5

1
1

1.6
1.7

1
2

3.4
9.7

4
3

4.3
3.3

878
803
746
638
581
514
366
297
206

35
3
10
2
6
11
7
7
3

56.0
5.1
17.0
3.5
10.4
19.3
12.5
12.7
5.5

559
507
477
430
402
369
276
241
185

64
42
33
21
18
13
7
6
5

13
2
7
1
2
1
1
1
1

23.3
3.9
14.7
2.3
5.0
2.7
3.6
4.1
5.4

17 41.3
2
5.1
4 10.2
1 2.6
2 5.2
3
7.8
1 2.6
1 2.6
1 2.6

372
348
327
302
287
256
201
161
125

19
13
10
7
7
5
3
1
1

5
2
2

13.4
5.7
6.1

2
1

7.0
3.9

102.0
64.8
54.4
50.4
45.1
42.4
31.4
27.3
18.8

30
8
3
4
2
8
3
6
4

39.7
11.0
4.2
5.6
2.8
11.3
4.3
8.6
5.8

647
580
521
469
430
379
309
253
200

42
26
16
14
11
8
7
7
4

7
5

10.8
8.6

1

2.1

2
1

7.9
5.0

158.6
101.5
91.1
82.7
67.9
55.9
42.7
33.5
26.6

83
14
11
19
15
16
11
8
6

63.6
11.5
9.1
15.9
12.7
13.8
9.6
7.0
5.3

1,146
953
832
696
617
544
388
' 314
238

124
65
49
36
25
18
11
6
5

32
7
4
8
3
3
3
1
1

27.9
7.3
4.8
11.5
4.9
5. 5
7.7
3.2
4.2

1Rate not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26 27.1
3.2
3
1 1.1
3 3.2
3
3.2
1
1.1

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Jewish—
First month........
. Second month....
Third month.......
Fourth month__
Fifth month.......
Sixth month.......
Seventh m onth..
Eighth month__
Ninth month......
Polish—
First month........
Second m onth...
Third month.......
• Fourth month. . .
Fifth month.......
Sixth month.......
Seventh month..
Eighth month__
Ninth month......
Italian—
First month........
Second month. . .
Third month.......
Fourth month. . .
Fifth month.......
Sixth month.......
Seventh month..
Eighth month__
Ninth month......
All oth erFirst month........
Second month. . .
Third month.......
Fourth month. . .
Fifth month.......
Sixth month.......
Seventh month..
Eighth month. . .
Ninth month......
Colored mothers:
First month.....................
Second m onth................
Third month....................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month. : ........ ; ___
Sixth month....................
Seventh month................
Eighth month..................
Ninth m onth..................

268

T a b l e 59.— M onthly death rates, by type offeedin g, and by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother; infants born in 1915 .J

Month of life of infant, earnings
of father, and color and nativ­
ity of mother.

Feeding not
ported.

Artificially fed.

Mixed fed.

Breast fed.

Total.

ALL MOTHERS.

Earnings of father:
Under $450—
First month..........
Second month___
Third month........
Fourth month___
Fifth month.........
Sixth month.........
Seventh month__
Eighth month___
Ninth month........
Tenth to twelfth month3
$450-1549—
First m onth...___
Second month___
Third month........
Fourth month___
Fifth month.........
Sixth month.........
Seventh month__
Eighth month___
Ninth month........
Tenth to twelfth month3
$550-$649—

First month..........
Second month___
Third month........
Fourth month___
Fifth month.........
Sixth month.........
Seventh month__
Eighth month___
Ninth month........
Tenth to twelfth month3


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1*451
1,434
1,419
1,408
1,390
1,370
1,356

17
15
11
18
20
14
16

1.0
.8
1.3
1.4
1.0
1.2

1*334

32

¿4

1,382
1,373
1,358
1,340
1,339
1*321
1,312
1,306
1,300

9
15
12
7
18
9
6
6
22

.7
1.1
.9
1.3
.7
.5
.5
1.7

1,452
1,423

29
12

2.0
.8

1,402
1,391
1,382
1,377

11
9
5
14

.8
.6
.4
1.0

7

1*344

17

J>
1.3

1 332
1* 165
1,039
882
793
705
526
428
332
331

31
10
5
2
6
4
1

2.3
.9
.5
.2
.8
.6
.2

i
10

.3
3.0

1,138
1,029
881
803
725
553
460
352
351

4
5
2
2
1

.4
.5
.2
.2
.1

1
1
2

.2
.3
.6

1,294
1,147

18
7
2
4
1
1
2
3

1.4
.6
.2
.4
.1
.1
.3
.6

2

.5

1 047

‘ *914
849
775
603
523
426
426

1.1

110
170
220
281
305
328
354
372
381
376

11
7
6
8
8
13
10
11
5
15

10.0
4.1
2.7
2.8
2.6
4.0
2.8
3.0
1.3
4.0

2.2
.5
.4
.3
.2
.5
.2
1.1

95
152
207
263
276
285
292
303
323
319

9
4
7
9
4
16
8
2
4
13

2.6
3.4
3.4
1.4
5.6
2.7
.7
1.2
4.1

124
205
272
324
335
353
376
383
386
379

7
4
7
6
6
3
10
9
7
11

5.6
2.0
2.6
1.9
1.8
.8
2.7
2.3
1.8
2.9

50
114
173
254
308
355
488
554
626
626

4
1
4
3
3
4

2.3
.4
1.3
.8
.6
.7

7

38
92
137
214
267
329
476
549
631
630

2
i
3
1
1
1
1
3
1
7

33
71
92
164
207
254
398
457
539
539

3
1
1
2
1
2

.6
1.0
.4
.5

4

.7

Deaths
in
month.

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Deaths in month.
Deaths in month.
Deaths in month.
Infant
Infant
Infant
Infant
survivors.
survivors.
survivors.
Number.
Percent.2
Number.
Percent.2
Number. Percent.3
Number. Percent.2
Deaths in month.

survivors.

re­

2,362
2,311
2,302
2,291
2,277
2,258
2,249
2,243
2,233
2,217

51
9
11
14
19
9
6
10
16
32

2.2
.4
.5
.6
.8
.4
.3
.4
.7
1.4

2,078
1,858
1,684
1,495
1,367
1,240
1,001
852
682
679

37
4
4
3
8
2
1
2
3
7

1.8
.2
.2
.2
.6
2
.1
.2
.4
1.0

60
113
166
251
331
413
604
726
861
857

2,205
2,180
2,170
2,164
2,160
2,153
2,141
2,137
2,132
2,121

25
10
6
4
7
12
4
5
11
23

1.1
.5
.3
.2
.3
.6
.2
2
.5
1.1

1,928
1,711
1,577
1^383
1,266
1,144
932
798
621
619

16
5

.8
.3

1
3
2
2
1
2

.1
.2
.2
.2
.1
.3

53
107
119
203
262
345
496
590
742
738

767
748
745
744
742
740
737
734
733
733

19
3
1
2
2
3
3
1

2.5
.4
.1
.3
.3
.4
.4
.1

10

1.5

1

.2

1

.2

1

.4

6

.8

651
574
519
472
441
408
321
282
223
223

2

.9

424
419
419
418
417
417
417
417
416
415

5

1.2

5

1.3

1
1

.2
.2

377
317
274
232
207
196

1
1

.2
.2

137
109
109

27
39
55
74
85
108
172
192
235
235
12
27
38
59
67
71
91
98
112
112

4
1

.9

1
1
1

.4 ‘
.3
.2

2
4
4

.3
.5
.5

1
1

.8

1
1
1

.4
.3
.2

4
3

.5
,_4

2
1
1

.6

224
340
452
545
579
605
644
665
690
681

10
4
7
10
10
6
5
6
9
21

4.5
1.2
1.5
1.8
1.7
1.0
.8
.9
1.3
3.1

224
360
472
576
630
662
711
747
767
762

8
5
5
3
3
9
1
4
5
20

3.6
1.4
1.1
.5
.5
1.4
.1
.5
.7
2.6

88
135
171
198
216
224
244
260
275
275

6
3

2.2

1
2
2
2

.5
.9
.9
.8

4

1.5

1
1

.9
.8

1
1

.5
.5

75
107
127
143
150
170
182
195
194

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1

1

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

J650-8849—
First month....................
Second month................
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month...................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month8
•850-11,249First month....................
Second month......... ......
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month....... ...........
Sixth month.........1.......
Seventh month.............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month8
•1,250-81,840First month....................
Second month................
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month...................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month8
•1,850 and over—
First month....................
Second month................
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month...................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month8

1 Excludes 35 not fed (died at once).
* Not shown where base is less than 100.
8 Figures are infant survivors at beginning of tenth month, who are classified according to type of feeding m the ninth month; and deaths in tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months
in each of these groups. The rate shows the deaths in these three months per 1,000 survivors at the beginning of the tenth month.

269


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 5 9 .— M on th ly death rates, by typ e o f feedin g, and by earnings o f fa th er and color and n a tiv ity o f mother; in fa n ts b o m in 1 9 1 5 1— C ontinued.

Month of life of infant, earnings
of father, and color and nativ­
ity of mother.

Infant
survivors.

Infant
survivors.

Infant
Number. Percent.2

Number. Per cent.2

all mothers—continued.

Earnings of father—Continued
No earnings—
First month................
Second month..........
Third month...............
Fourth month.............
Fifth month................
Sixth month...............
Seventh month...........
Eighth month.............
Ninth month...............
Tenth to twelfth month8
Not reported—
First month...............
Second month...........
Third month.............
Fourth month...........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month..............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month...........
Ninth month.............
Tenth to twelfth month8

201
199
198
195
191
184
175
170
169
169

2
1
3
4
7
9
5
1

1.0
.5
1.5
2.1
3.7
4.9
2.9
.6

5

3.0

210

3
4
2
3
2

1.4
1.9
1.0
1.5
1.0

1
4
4
3

.5
2.1
2.1
1.6

26
9
12
10
10
12
14

2.5
.9
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.4

207
203
201

198
196
196
195
191
187

1
1
1
2

.6
.8
.9

1
1

2
1

1.1
.7

1

.9

1
3
1

1

NATIVE WHITE MOTHERS.

Earnings of father:
Under $550— .
First month...............
Second month...........
Third month.............
Fourth month...........
Fifth month___ ____
Sixth m onth.............
Seventh month.........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1,058
1,032
1,023
1,011
1,001
991
979

928
814
729
622
557
507
393

18
1
1

1.9
.1
.1
130
169
205
300

1
5
1
1

.8
.6

1

.3

107
160
208
259
275
279
286

Number. Percent.1

Feeding not re­
ported.

Deaths
Infant
in
survivors. month.

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Number. Percent.2

Deaths in month.

Deaths in month.

Deaths in month.

Deaths in month.
Infant
survivors.]

Artificially fed.

Mixed fed.

Breast fed.

Total.

^

Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Tenth to twelfth month s

965
958
954

7
4
18

.7
.4
1.9

336
264
264

2,568
2,519
2,5C6
2,492
2,476
2,456
2,447
2,435
2,421
2,404

49
13
14
16
20
9
12
14
17
33

1.9
.5
.6
.6
.8
.4
.5
.6
.7
1.4

1,761
1,743
1,735
1,731
1,729
1,722
1,712
1,708
i;704
1,694

18
8
4
2
7
10
4
4
10
18

609
594
591
590
589
589
586
583
582
582
360
355
354
353
353
353
353
352
352

2

.8

2,227
1,971
1,778
1,552
1,422
1,304
1,072
930
768
766

31
6
3
4
6
2

1.4
.3
.2
.3
.4
.2

2
2
6

.2
.3
.8

1.0
.5
.2
.1
.4
.6
.2
.2
.6
1.1

1,524
1,347
1,232
l ’ 078
986
897 ■
740
6 '6
498
497

10
5

.7
.4

15
3
1
1

2.5
.5
.2
.2

3
3
1

.5

6

1.0

5

1.4

1
1

.3
.3

1

.3

.2

3
2
2

.3
.2
.3

1

.2

514
449
404
365
345
322
259
234
188
188

10

1.9

1

.2

1

.3

1

.4

2

1.1

320
267
232
196
177
171
140
123
101
101

5

1.6

348
400
400

4

1.1

3

.8

60
112
147
253
333
405
592
713
847
844

4
1

.9

41
79
83
144
191
246
356
433
554
550

1

20
24
35
46
50
109
119
151'
151
11
23
30
47
53
54
68
73
83
83

1

.3

1
1
3
5

.2
.1
.4
.6

1
1
1

.5
.4
.3

4
3

.7
.5

2

1

.9

281
294
290

3
4
13

1.1
1.4
4.5

280
436
581
687
•721
747
783
792
806
794

13
6
11
12
13
7
11
11
12
22

4.6
1.4
1.9
1.7
1.8
.9
1.4
1.4
1.5
2.8

196
316
419
508
551
578
615
638
651
646

7
3
4
2
3
7
1
4
5
15

3.6),

1.2
.2
.6
.8
2.3

75
121
152
179
194
202
218
230
243
243

3
3

2.5

.ft

l.Q
.4,

i

.6

2
2

1.0
.9

4

1.6

1
1

.9

1

.6

1

1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

APPENDIX VII. ---- TABLES.

Eighth month................
Ninth month................ .
Tenth to twelfth months
$550-8849—
First month....................
Second month................
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month
$850-81,249—
First month................
Second month...........
Third month.......
Fourth month.........
Fifth m onth..............
Sixth month............
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month...............
Tenth to twelfth months
$1,250-81,849—
First month....................
Second month................
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth t o twelfth month 3
$1,850 and over—
First month....................
Second month................

29
93
111
123
128
145
157
168
168

1 Excludes 35 not fed (died at once).
* Not shown where base is less than 100.
* Figures areinfant survivors at beginning of tenth month, who are classified according to type of feeding in the ninth month; and deaths in tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months
in each of these groups. The rate shows the deaths in these three months per 1,000 survivors at the beginning of the tenth month.

kq
f-i


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Total.
Month o f life of infant, earnings
of father, and color and nativ­
ity of mother.

Breast fed.

Deaths in month.
Infant
survivors.

Infant
survivors.
Number. Percent.2

Number. Per cent.2

Infant
survivors.

Deaths
Infant
in
survivors. month.
Number. Percent.2

NATIVE WHITE MOTHERS— Con.

Earnings of father—Continued
No earnings—
First month....................
Fourth month................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month *
Not reported—
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Tenth to twelfth month3

86
86
85
84
83
78
75
74
74
74

66
57
50
43
41
37
30
28
24
24

1
1
1
5
3
1
2

125
124
123
122
120
119
119
119
116
113

1
1
1
2
1

.8
.8
.8
1.6
.8

3
3
3

569
558
552
545
544
540
531

11
6
7
1
4
9
4

1

6
7
9
9
13
17
19
21
21

1

1
1

2.5
2.6
2.7

102
80
72
66
, 60
52
41
37
28
28

1.9
1.1
1.3
.2
.7
1.7
.8

506
455
416
362
335
294
228

8
5
3

1.6
1.1
.7

2
1

.6
.3

1.0

3
11
15
17
18
24
30
31
36
33

1

19
22
28
§2
33
28
28
27
29
29

i
3
1

20
33
36
38
41
42
48
51
52
52

2
2
1

35
57
69
82
88
102
111

1

i
i
1
5
2
1
1

1
2
1

i
i
i

2
2

FOBEIGN-BORN WHITE MOTHERS.

Earnings of father:
Under 8450—

Seventh month..............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

27
44
65
99
119
142
190

1.7
1.4
.5

3
1
4
1
6
3

5.9
2.7

i
2
2
2
2
2
2

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD,

Number. Percent.2

Deaths in month.

Deaths in month.

Deaths in month.
Infant
survivors.

Feeding not re­
ported.

Artificially fed.

Mixed fed.

272

T able 59.— Monthly death rates, by type offeed ing, and by earnings offather and color and nativity o f mother; infants born in l9 1 5 1— Continued.

101351o—23

527
520
517

7
3
14

1.3
.6
2.7

188
145
144

444
439
436
432
432
432
428
428
426
426

5
3
4

1.1
.7
.9

4

.9

2

.5

5

1.2

419
390
365
317
299
268
204
161
120
120

977
959
954
950
944
937
933
929
921
916

18
5
4
6
7
4
4
8
5
13

1.8
.5
.4
.6
.7
.4
.4
.9
.5
1.4

609
600
599
597
595
595
593
593
592
590

9
1
2
2

1.5
.2
.3
.3

2

.3

47
46
46
46
45
44
40
38
38
38

1
5

.7
3.5

5
2
3

1.2
.5
;8

2

1.7

903
829
767
697
647
583
437
367
279
278

14
4
3
2
3
1

1.6
.5
.4
.3
.5
.2

3
1
2

.8
.4
.7

4

.7

.5

550
501
466
415
374
331
250
209
155
154

1 ...............

40
31
28
23
20
20
14
9
6
6

1
2
3
1
1
1
4
2

1

.2

1
1

.5
.6

1
...............

218
253
253
14
26
39
68
84
110
168
199
234
234
29
54
82
118
152
197
321
372
441
440
17
39
56
89
111
145
205
232
274
274

1

.5

2

.8

119
121
119

5
2
7

I

.9

1

.5

1

.4

11
23
32
47
49
54
56
68
72
72

.8
.7
.5
.3
.3
.2
.7

45
76
105
135
145
157
175
190
201
198

2
\
1
3
3
2
3
4
3
8

41
59
76
92
109
118
137
151
162
161

4
1
1
i

2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3

1

6
7
1
10
9
1
9
13
16
19
19 ...............

7
9
11
13
16
15
13
13
13
13

4.2
1.7
5.9

2
1
1

1

1
1
3
i
2

1.0
2.2
2.1
1.3
1.7 . .........
2.1
1.5
4.0
1

2

1.7

1
3

1.8

APPENDIX VII. ---- TABEES.

Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month 8
*450-8549—
First month...................
Second month................
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month *
$550-$849—
First month....................
Second...........................
Third month..................
Fourth month..............
Fifth month.............
Sixth month...............
Seventh month..............
Eighth month........
Ninth month........
Tenth to twelfth month *
*850 and over—
First month.................
Second month........... .
Third month..................
Fourth month..............
Fifth month...................
Sixth month___
Seventh month.............
Eighth month................
Ninth month........
Tenth to twelfth month8
No earnings—
First month....................
Second month...............
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth month.................
Sixth month...................
Seventh month............
Eighth month................
Ninth month.................
Tenth to twelfth month8

1

1
3
1
í

273


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

274

T a b l e 59.— Monthly death rates, by type o f feeding, and by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother; infants born in 19151— Concluded.

Total.
Month of life of infant, earnings
of father, and color and nativ­
ity of mother.

Breastfed.

Deaths in month.
ant
vors.

Deaths in month.
Infant
survivors.

Number. Percent.2

Number. Percent.2

re­

Deaths in month.

Deaths in month.
Infant
survivors.

Feeding not
ported.

Artificially fed.

Infant
survivors.

Deaths
Infant
survivors. month.
Number. Per cent.2

FOREIGN-BORN 'WHITE MOTH­
ERS— continued.

Earnings of father—Continued.
Not reported—
First month....................
Second m onth................
Third month........ .........
Fourth month................
Fifth month..................
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month................
Ninth m onth.................
Tenth to twelfth month8

1

45
43
42
41
41
40
40
39
39
38

2
1
1

489
473
467
464
458
452
444
441
437
435

16
6
3
6
6
8
3
4
2
11

3.3
1.3
.6
1.3
1.3
1.8
.7
.9
.5
2.5

444
374
316
258
227
202
144
115
85
85

12
5
1
2
1
2

347
331
329
325
319
314

16
2
4
6
5
5

4.6
.6
1.2
1.8
1.6
1.6

314
270
242
204
178
159

7
1
2
2
2
1

38
32
29
25
25
22
19
18
11
10

1
1
1

2
2
2
6
6
8
9
9
15
15

1

5
9
10
9
9
10
12
12
13
13

1

1
1

i
i
i

1

COLORED MOTHERS.

Earnings of fathers:
Under 8450—
First'month.................. ,
Second m o n t h .............
Third m onth.,...............
Fourth month................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month_________ _
Seventh m o n th ... . ; __ _
Eighth month................
Ninth month.................
Tenth to twelfth month8
$450-8549—
First m o n th ,................
Second mouth._____
Third month. . ...............
Fourth month_____
Fifth month..............
Sixth m o n th .,................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.7
1.3
.3
.8
.4
1.0

14
48
75
105
122
136
176
191
213
213

2.2
'.4
.8
1.0
1.1
.6

12
30
45
66
81
91

3

1
1
1
1

.8
.7
.6

4

1.9

2
1
1
1

31
51
76
101
109
114
124
135
139
137

4
1
1
4
4
6
2
4
2
4

21
31
42
55
60
64

7
1
1
3
2
4

4.0
3.7
4.4
1.6
3.0
1.4
2.9

1

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Number. Percent.2

Mixed fed.

1
1

326

12
1

4.1
.4

1

.5

3

2.6

311

307
305
301
298
297
293
293
292

1

130
147
157
156

309
307
305
302

1
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
3

1
1

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.

Seventh month. . . . . . . . .
Eighth month.. . . . . . . . . .
Ninth month..................
Tenth to twelfth month *
$550 and over—
First month....................
Second month..............
Third month..................
Fourth month................
Fifth m onth.. . . . . . . . . . .
Sixth month..................
Seventh month..............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month.................
Tenth to twelfth month8
No earnings—
First m onth.............
Second m pnth-... . . . ,
Third month.. . . . . . . .
Fourth month...........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month..............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month...........
Ninth month.............
Tenth to twelfth month8
Not reported—
First month:.;... . . . . .
Second month......... .
Third month.............
Fourth month...........
Fifth month.........
Sixth, month..............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month...........
Ninthmonth.............
Tenth to twelfth month8

1

1
2

1
2
1
2
2

1

i

1 E x clu d e s 35 n o t fe d (d ie d at o n c e ).
* N o t sh ow n w h ere b ase is less t h a n 100:

-

.

.

.

,

_

_

.

8 Figures are in fa n t su rvivors at be gin n in g o f te n th m o n th * w h o are classified acco rdin g t o ty p e o f feed in g in th e n in th m o n th , a n d d eath s in te n th , eleven th , a n d tw e lfth m on th s
in each o f these groups. T h e rate sh ow s th e d eath s in these three m o n th s p e r 1,000 su rv iv ors at th e b eg in n in g o f th e t e n th m o n th .

275


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Earnings of father and color and nativity of mother.

No earnings..............................................................
Not reported............................................................
Earnings of father:
Under $550................................................................
$550-8849............ ......................................................
$850-$l,249................................................................
$1,250 and over.........................................................
Not re p o rte d ..................................................... .
Earnings of father:
Under $550................................................................
$550-$849...................................................................
$850 and over............................................................
Not reported............................................................
Earnings of father:
Under $550...............................................................
$550 and over...........................................................
No earnings........................................................ . . .
Not reported............................................................
i For first nine months of life only.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

First
month.

Ninth
month.

9,283

2,825

2,611
3,372
1,928
651
377
168
176

684
1,108
621
223
109
37
43

5,681

1,871

928
2,227
1,524
834
66
102

264
768
498
289
24
28

2,456

716

925
903
550
40
38

265
279
155
6
11

1,146

238

758
290
62
36

155
72
7
4

Number.
Com­
Total
puted
months
infant
of
Ninth
First
feeding.1 mortali­
month.
ty rate.2 month.

14,422
19,835
11,360
3,891
2,005
798
892

5,150
13,024
8,938
4,807
376
538

5,472
5,509
3,251
191
219

3,800
1,562
231
135

43.3

281

3,890

61.8
46.1
22.5
23.2
13.3
0
0

88
93
53
27
12
1
7

1,257
1,400
742
235
112
74
70

32.7

156

2,092

39.0
39.0
20.2
31.1
(3)
0

21
60
41
31
3

400
847
554
234
21
36

50.2

89

1,236
487
441
274
19
15

63.8
51.1
20.9
(3)
(/’

41
29
17

90.2

36

562

91.4
88.0
(3)
(3)

26
7
1
2

370
139
34
19

2

Com­
Number.
Total
puted
months
infant
of
Ninth
First
feeding.1 mortali­
month.
ty rate.2 month.

5,655
5,740
2,917
987
575
404
375

1,717
3,462
2,127
1,061
101
185

2,099
1,766
1,168
89
59

1,839
635
214
131

87.4

958

3,153

87.8
108.5
44.6
91.9

205
348
224
88
35
31
27

704
1,076
767
275
195
58
78

85.8

726

2,243

107.0
89.3
48.4
69.7
(3)
(3)

107
280
196
104
19
20

294
806
651
411
29
52

61.0

144

582

0
(3)

35.1
101.3
17.9
(3)
(3)

46
45
41
7
5

193
201
162
13
13

146.8

88

328

140.4
229.0
(3)
(3)

52
29
5
2

217
82
16
13

2 Per 1,000 infants fed. For method of computation, see Appendix V, p. 199.

rsLt

Com­
Total
puted
months
infant
of
feeding.1 mortali­
ty rate.*
191.4
4,717
7,502
5,149
1,811
1,184
478
524

310.1
185.4
117.3
130.1
27.5
0
0
160.8

2,149
5,833
4,472
2,633
246
361

289.9
178.8
109.6
77.3
(3)
(3)

1,196
1,229
945
110
89

274.1
196.9
169.7
0
0

232.1

347.3
1,372
534
122
74

3 Rate not computed.

387.9
252.4
0
0

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

All mothers...........................................................
Earnings of father:
Under $550................................................................
$550-1849...................................................................
$850-$l,249................................................................
$1,250-SI, 849.......................................... .................

Number.

Artificially-fed infants.

Mixed-fed infants.

Breast-fed infants.

276

T able 60.— Computed infant mortality rates, by type o f feeding, and by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother; infants born in 1915.

/
T

a b l e 61 .

-Computed infant mortality rates, by type o f feeding, and by nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915 to foreign-born white mothers.
Breast-fed infants.
Number.

Nationality of mother.

First
month.

Ninth
month.

2,456

716

Jewish......................................................................
Polish.......................................................................
Italian......................................................................
All others.................................................................

878
559
372
647

206
185
125
200

1 For first nine months of life only.

Com­
Total
puted
months
infant
of
feeding.1 mortali­
ty rate.*

5,029
3,446
2,379
3,588

Number.
First
month.

Ninth
month.

50.2

89

1,236

31.4
83.7
43.3
48.6

39
17
18
15

542
259
172
263

2 Per 1,000 infants fed.

Artificially-fed infants.

Com­
Total
puted
months
infant
of
feeding.1 mortali­
ty rate.2

First
month.

Ninth
month.

61.0

144

582

26.1
105.8
85.4
77.2

27
29
11
77

171
99
84
228

2,377
1,039
697
805

Number.

For method of computation, see Appendix V, p. —.

Com­
Total
puted
months
mfant
of
feeding.1 mortali­
ty rate.2
232.1
944
658
422
1,317

137.2
385.3
152.9
230.5

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Foreign-bom white mothers..........................................

Mixed-fed infants.

277


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278
T

able

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

62.— M on th ly death ra tes, by ty p e o f fe ed in g , m on th o f life an d cause o f d eath;
infants bom in 1915.
Deaths in month from specified causes per 1,000 survivors fed in specified way.

Month oflife.

Breast
fed.

Total.
First...........................
Third.........................
Fourth.......................
Fifth...........................
Sixth..........................
Seventh......................
Eighth........................
Ninth.........................
Tenth.........................

All other causes;

Gastric and intestinal diseases.

1.6
1.5
3.1
2.6
2.9
4.4
3.6
2.4
2.0
2.7

1.3
.9
.8
.2
.3
.6
.5
.3
.4
1.0

Mixed
fed.
7.1
5.9
3.1
2.5
3.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
.7

Artifi­
cially fed.
3.1
5.2
10.5
9.1
8.4
13.9
10.6
5.9
4.4
6.6

Total.
42.6
4.8
3.0
3.4
4.1
3.2
2.0
3.2
3.1
2.2

Breast
fed.
13.7
3.1
1.6
2.2
3.0
1.7
1.2
1.9
2.5
2.4

Mixed
fed.
35.6
6.6
3.6
2.3
3.1
5.1
2.1
2.1
1.8
.9

Artifi­
cially fed.
52.2
13.7
8.0
7.4
7.3
6.6
3.1
5.9
5.4
3.9

T able 63.— Computed mortality rates fo r first 10 months o f life, by cause o f death o f
infant and color o f mother; infants bom in 1915.
Computed deaths in first 10
months of life per 1,000 in­
fants.
Cause of death of infant and color of mother.
Breast
fed.
All mothers:
White mothers:
Colored mothers:

Mixed
fed:

Artifi­
cially fed.

6.3
32.9

244
59.5

75.1
108.8

5.9
28.4

22.3
51.2

75.5
89.3

8.0
67.1

41.6
99.7

72.7
280.7

T able 64.—Death rates from each month to end o f first year, by month in which artificial
feeding began; infants bom in 1915 and artificially fed during some part o f first year o f
life.

Month in which arti-

Fer cent of subsequent deaths among survivors at beginning of specified month'
oflife.
S econ d.

F irs t.................................
S econ d ............................
T h i r d ..............................
F o u r th ............................
F ifth ................................
S ix t h ...............................
S e v e n th ..........................
E ig h th ............................
N in th ..............................
A fte r n i n t h 2 ................

20.7
13.3

0
0
0)
0
0
0
0

■

2.8

T h ird .

F ou rth .

16.4

18.7
12.4

11.2

10.6

9.7

0
0
0
0
0
0

2.4

F ifth .

S ix th . . S even th .

E igh th .

7.4
5.4
5.6
3 .0
3.3
5 .0
3 .6

6 .4
3 .2
4.2

1.8

1.8
2.1
1.1

13.8
9.9

11.9

8.6

9 .6
6 .9

7 .5

6.0

8.0

8.8
8.0

6.6

5.5

5.1
7.3

3 .9
3 .3
7.3
44

2. 2.

0
0
0
02.0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
01.7

0
01.5

01.3

N in th .

2.1
2 .4
44
3 '2

1 Since the basis of classification requires that all infants of the several groups shall be alive at the begin­
ning of the month when first artificially fed, rates for subsequent deaths among survivors at beginning of
previous month are not shown.
2Computed from monthly rates for breast-fed infants.


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279

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.
T

65.— Computed (annual) infant mortality rates, by month in which artificial
feeding began; infants bom in 1915.

able

Month of life in which ex­
clusively artificialfeed­
ing began.

Infants
whose
artificial
feeding
began in
stated
month.

Computed
(annual)
infant
mortality
rates per
1,000 fed.i

952
622
508
461
217
165

First..................................
S econ d ............................
Third.................................
Fourth..............................
Fifth..................................
Sixth..................................

251.1
170.5
125.5
106.3
79.3
99.6

Infants
whose
artificial
feeding
began in
stated
month.

Month of life in which ex­
clusively artificial feed­
ing began.

250
163
146
384
157

Eighth.........
Twelfth___

Computed
(annual)
infant
mortality
rates per
1,000 fedd

73.3
49.8
53.6
48 2
n

]For computation of annual rate it is assumed that during month next preceding the month in which
artificial feeding began, the infants were mixed fed and that during earlier months they were breastfed.
Computations are based on monthly death rates for breast or mixed fed infants, Table 58, and on the per
cent of subsequent deaths among survivors at the begin n ing of the months in which artificial feeding began,
Table 64.
2Data not available for estimate.
T

6 6 . — Monthly

death rates, by month o f life, and by month in which artificial feeding
began; infants bom in 1915, and artificially fed.

able

Monthly death rates per 1,000 infants whose artificial feeding began in specified month.
Month
oflife.

First. Second. Third. Fourth. Fifth.

First___
Second..
Third__
Fourth..
F ifth ....
S ixth ....
Seventh.
Eighth..
Ninth__
Tenth. . .
Eleventh
Twelfth..
T

able

55.7
24.5
27.4
30.5
21.8
24.7
24.1
10.4
15.7
18.7
12.2
19.3

11.3
13.0
14.8
13.4
18.6
15.5
22.8
12.6
5.5
12.8
1.9

9.8
9.9
14.1
16.3
4.1
14.6
12.7
8.5
15.1
6.6

15.2
28.6
9.1
9.'2.
4.6
9.3
4.7
2.4

4.6
18.5
9.4
4.8
9.6
9.7

sixth. Seventh. Eighth. Ninth. Tenth. Eleventh.

24,2
6.2
12.5
6.3
6.4
19.2

8.0
4.0
4.0
24.4
4.2

6.1
6.2
6.2

........

6.8
13.8

14.6

5.6
5.6

6 7 — Weaning before end o f first year o f life, by color and nationality o f mother;
infants bom in 1915 and surviving at one year.
Infants born in 1915 and sur­
viving at 1 year of age.
Completely weaned
from breast.

Color and nationality of mother.
Total.

Number. Percent.1

German...............................................................................................
Bohemian................. ..............T..........................................................

9,680

• 3,567

36.8

8,582
6,093
2,489

3,193
2,449
744

37.2
40.2
29.9

912
523
376
288
117
97
88
88

240
120
114
114
50
28
40
38

26.3
22.9
30.3
39.6
42.7

1,098

374

34.1

1Not shown where base is less than 100.
2Includes: 85 Irish, 17 English, 8 English-Canadian, and 7 Scotch
2Includes: 19 Russian, 17 Greek, 11 Magyar, 8 Norwegian, 5 Serbian, 5 French, 5 Slovak, 4 Rumanian,
3 Ruthenian, 3 French-Canadian, 2 Dutch, 2 Slavic (n. o. s.), 2 Swedish, 1 Arabian, and 1 Danish.


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280

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 68.— Weaning before end o f first year o f life, by earnings offather; infants bom in
1915 and surviving at one year.
Infants bom in 1915 and sur­
viving at 1 year of age.
Earnings of father.

Completely weaned
from breast.
Total.
Number. Percent.1

Total..................................................................................................
Under $450...............................................
$450-8549....................................
$550-8649.......................
$6.50-8849...........................
$850-81,049............................
$1,050-81,249......................
$1,250-81,449.........................................................
$1,450-81,849...................
$1,850-82,249..........
$2,250-82,849.................
$2,850 and over.............................
No earnings........................
Not reported......... .....................

9,680

3,567

36.8

1,302
1,278
1,327
2,185
1,481
617
388
339
134
92
189
164
184

439
377
429
762
550
291
161
160
72
55
119
62
90

33.7
29.5
32.3
34.9
37.1
47.2
41.5
47.2
53.7
63.0
37.8
48.9

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 69.— In fa n t m orta lity an d stillb irth rates, by color a n d n a tion a lity o f m oth er;
births in 1915.
m'

Stillbirths.
Color and nationality of mother.

Total.
Number.

Total...................................................

Per
1,000
births.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.1

11,195

398

35.6

10,797

1,117

103.5

9,774

282

28.9

9,492

910

95.9

Native................................................
Foreign born..........................................

6,937
2,837

198
84

28.5
29.6

6,739
2,753

646
264

95.9
95.9

Jewish.............................................
Polish..............................................
Italian.............................................
German............................................
Irish, English. Scotch, and
English-Canadian2.....................
Bohemian.......................................
Lithuanian......................................
All other8........................................

991
643
426
327

30
18
14
9

30.3
28.0
32.9
27.5

961
625
412
318

49
102
36
30

51.0
163.2
87.4
94.3

135
110
104
101

3
3
4
3

22.2
27.3
38.5
29.7

132
107
100
98

15
10
12
10

113.6
93.5
120.0

Colored mothers...........................................

1,421

116

81.6

1,305

207

158.6

White mothers...........................................

1Not shown where base is less than 100.
8Includes 101 Irish, 19 English, 10 English-Canadian, and 8 Scotch.
8 Includes 24 Russian, 19 Greek, 13 Magyar, 8 Norwegian, 6 Serbian, 5 French, 5 Slovak, 4 Rumanian,
4 Ruthenian, 3 French-Canadian, 3 Dutch, 2 Slavic (n. o. s.), 2 Spanish, 2 Swedish, 1 Arabian, and 1 Danish.


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281

APPENDIX "VII.— TABLES,

T a b l e 70.— In fa n t m o rta lity an d stillb irth rates, by co lo r an d n a tio n a lity o f m oth er;
births, a ll ■pregnancies.1

Births, all pregnancies.
Infant deaths.

Stillbirths.
Color and nationality of mother.

Live
births.

Total.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.

Number. Per cent.

Total...................................................

36,047

1,203

3.3

34,844

4,158

119.3

White mothers.............................................

31,312

872

¿TiT

30,440

3,407

111.9

Foreign bom ..........................................

20,258
11,054

562
310

2.8
2.8

19,696
10,744

2,185
1,222

110.9
113.7

3,656
2,749
1,758
1,355
1,536

95
68
57
42
48

2.6
2.5
3.2
3.1
3.1

3,561
2,681
1,701
1,313
1,488

232
439
189
165
197

65.2
163.7
ill. 1
125.7
132.4

4,735

331

7.0

4,404

751

170.5

i To mothers of scheduled legitimate issues in 1915 who reported no previous illegitimate births.
T a b l e 71.— In fa n t m orta lity ra tes,1 by cause o f death, and by co lo r and n a tio n a lity o f
m oth er; live births in 1915.

Mortality rates among infants bom to mothers of specified color and nation­
ality.
Cause of death.

Foreign-bom white.
Native
white.

All causes......................
Gastric and intestinal diseases
Respiratory diseases..............
Malformations........................
Early infancy.........................
Epidemic and other commu­
nicable diseases...................
External causes......................
Diseases ill-defined or unAll other causes....... ...........- -

95.9

Colored.
Total.
95.9

Italian.

Jewish. German. Polish. Allother.

87.4

51.0

94.3

163.2

107.6

158.6

22.0
25.2

68.8
32.0
3.2
43.2

38.9
20.6
4.6
27.5

30.7
49.0
2.3
49.8

12.6

1.6
0.4

11.4

16.9
3.1
7.7
2.3

38.8
13.7
4.0
38.1

29.1
20.7
3.3
30.9

9.7
26.7
9.7
34.0

9.4
9.4
1.0
22.9

4.7
1.4
.3
.9

6.5
.4
.7
.4

4.9

6.2

.4
5.2

1.1
4.0

31.4

2.4
2.1

3.1

4.8
9.6

i For figures upon which these rates are based, see Tables 49 and 69, pp. 259 and 280.


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.7

4.6

.8
6.8

282

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 72.—-Excess mortality among infants o f Polish mothers over that among infants o f

other foreign-horn white mothers when the effect o f greater proportion o f employed among
Polish mothers is eliminated; infants o f Polish mothers not employed away from home
during infant’s lifetime.
Infants of Polish mothers not
gainfully employed away
from home during specified
month o f infant’s life.1
Month of life.
Survivors
at begin­
Actual
ning of
specified deaths.
month.
Total.........
First...................
Second................
Third..................
Fourth...............
Fifth............ .
Sixth...................
Seventh..............
Eighth................
Ninth.................
Tenth to twelfth.

614
570
561
530
521
505
486
471
449
410

Expected
deaths.2

86

53.1

35
3
9
2
5
7
2
6
2
15

23.9
3.4
3.9
2.1
2.6
4.5
1.9
3.3
1.8
5.7

1 The figures include in each month all infants whose mothers were not employed away from home
during that month.
2 Expected on the basis of monthly death rates among all infants of foreign-bom white mothers. These
expected deaths are slightly greater than would have been expected on the basis of monthly death rates
among infants of foreign-bom white mothers not employed away from home.
T a b l e 73.—Stillbirth rates, by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother; births

in 1915.
Births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total.
Native white.
Earnings of
father.

Stillbirths.
Births,

Foreign-bom white.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Per Births
Per Births, Num­ Per Births
Num­ 1,000
Num­ 1,000
Num­ Per
1,000
1,000
ber. births.
ber. births.1
ber. births.1
ber.
births.1

Total......... 11,195

398

35.6

6,937

28.5

2,837

29.6

1,615
1,523
1,543
2,490
2,318

44.0
48.6
35.0
29.3
26.7

460
663
936
1,776
1,849

23.9
28.7
29.9
28.2
25.4'

599
464
443
589
421

18.4
32.3
31.6
32.3
28.5

$850-81,049... 1,640
678
$1,050-1,249...

27.4
25.1

1,283
566

24.9
26.5

319

31.3
19.6

$1,250-81,849........

810

24.7

645

$1,250-81,449..
$1,450-81,849..

430
380

25.6
23.7

322
323

$1,850 and over...

448

37.!

$1,850-82,249..
$2,250-82,849..
$2,850 a n d
over...........

143
100

28.0
50.0

205

39.0

No earnings........
Not reported.......

222

67.6
53.1

Under $450..........
$450-8549.............
$550-8649.............
$650-8849.............
$850-81,249...........

Colored.

226

17

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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198

16

102

154

26.0

24.9
24.8

103
51

29.1

382

41.9

63

112
86

35.7
38.0

95
131

30.5

20

81.6
556
396
164
125
48

88.1
101.0
73.2
32.0

283

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

T able 74.— Infant mortality rates, by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother;
live births in 1915.
Live births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total.
Native white.
Infant
deaths.

Earnings of
father.

Foreign-born white.

Infant
deaths.

Colored.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Live
Live
Infant Live
Infant Live
Infant
births. Num­ Infant
mor­ births. Num­ mor­ births. Num­ mor­ births. Num­ mor­
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
Total............. 10,797 1,117

103.5

6,739

646

95.9

2,753

95.9

1,305

207

158.6

1,544
1,449
1,489
2,417
2,256

242
171
162
232
158

156.7
118.0
108.8
96.0
70.0

449
644
908
1,726
1,802

74
83
98
165
126

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
69.9

588
449
429
570
409

85~
28
43
53
25

144.6
62.4
100.2
93.0
61.1

507
356
152
121
45

83
60
21
14
7

163.7
168.5
138.2
115.7

$850-$1,049........ 1,595
$1,050-$1,249....
661

114
44

71.5
66.6

1,251
551

86
40

68.7
72.6

309
100

22
3

71.2
30.0

35
10

6
1

Under $450.............
$450-1549.................
$5.50-$649.................
$650-$849.................
$850-$l,249..............

264

$1,250-$1,849............

790

63

79.7

629

53

84.3

150

7

46.7

11

3

$1,250-$1,449___
$1,450-$1,849....

419
371

31
32

74.0
86.3

314
315

24
29

76.4
92.1

100
50

4
3

40.0

5
6

3

$1,850 and over.......

431

16

37.1

366

14

38.3

62

2

3

$l,850-$2,249....
$2,250-$2,849___
$2,850 and over.

139
95
197

5
3
8

36.0

5
3
6

46.3

40.6

108
81
177

33.9

30
13
19

2

1
1
1

No earnings............
Not reported..........

207
214

43
30

207.7
140.2

88
127

16
17

133.9

50
46

13
8

69
41

14
5

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 75.— In fa n t

m orta lity rates, b y earnings o ffa th er and color and n a tiv ity o f m other;
liv e births, a ll pregnancies.

Live births, all pregnancies.
Color and nativity of mother.
Total.
Native white.
Earnings of father.

Infant
deaths.

Foreign-born white.

Infant
deaths.

Colored.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Live
Live
Infant Live
Infant Live
Infant
births. Num­ Infant births.
mor­
Num­ mor­ births. Num­ mor­ births. Num­ mor­
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
rate.
rate.
rate.1
rate.1
Total............. 34,844 4,158

119.3 19,696 2,185

110.9 10,744 1,222

113.7

4,404

751

170.5

5,751
4,837
4,975
7,521.
6,874
4,780
2,094

915
634
627
877
648
443
205

159.1
131.1
126.0
116.6
94.3
92.7
97.9

1,512
1,980
2,788
4,963
5,159
3,469
1,690

218
268
355
581
467
300
167

144.2
135.4
127.3
117.1
90.5
86.5
98.8

2,500
1,724
1,655
2,100
1,550
1,180
370

366
183
181
231
160
127
33

143.4
106.1
109.4
110.0
103.2
107.6
89.2

1,739
1,133
532
458
165
131
34

331
183
91
65
21
16
5

190.3
161.5
171.1
141.9
127.3
122.1

$1,250-$l, 849.......... 2,371
$1,250-$l,449... 1,291
$1,450-$1,849... 1,080

200
105
95

84.4
81.3
88.0

1,756
879
877

151
74
77

86.0
84.2
87.8

581
392
189

42
24
18

72.3
61.2
95.2

34
20
14

7
7

$1,850 and over...... 1,134
$1,850-$2,249...
366
$2,250-$2,849...
240
$2,850 and over.
528

61
18
10
33

53.8
49.2
41.7
62.5

892
249
199
444

54
18
10
26

60.5
72.3
50.3
58.6

239
116
40
83

7

29.3

7

3
1
1
1

107
89

156.7
127.5

259
387

47
44

181.5
113.7

215
180

25
27

116.3
150.0

209
131

Under $450..............
$450-$549.................
$550-$649.................
$650-$849.................
$850-$l,249..............
$850-$l,049.......
$1,050-$1,249...

No earnings............
Not reported..........

683
698

1N ot shown where base is less then 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

35
18

167.5
137.4

284
T

able

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE,

M TV

76 .— S tillbirth rates, by earnings o f father and color and n a tiv ity o f m other; births,
all pregnancies.

Births to mothers of specified color and nativity; all pregnancies.
Total.
Native white.
Earnings of
father.

Stillbirths.
Births.

Foreign-bom white.

Stillbirths.

Colored.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Per Births. Num­ Per Births.
Per Births.
Per
Num­ 1,000
Num­ 1,000
Num­ 1,000
1,000
ber. births.
ber. births.
ber. births.1
ber. births.1

36,047 1,203

33.4 20,258

562

27.7 11,054

310

28.0

4,735

331

69.9

6,002
5,050
5,123
7,735
7,078

251
213
148
214
204

41.8
42.2
28.9
27.7
28.8

1,552
2,039
2,858
5,094
5,308

40
59
70
131
149

25.8
28.9
24.5
25.7
28.1

2,561
1,786
1,701
2,160
1,593

61
62
46
60
43

23.8
34.7
27.0
27.8
27.0

1,889
1,225
564
481
177

150
92
32
23
12

79.'4
75.1
56.7
47.8
67.8

$850-11,049........ 4,915
$1,050-$1,249..„ 2,163

135
69

27.5
31.9

3,561
1,747

92
57

25.8
32.6

1,213
380

33
10

27.2
26.3

141
36

10
2

70.9

15
7

67.0
50.7

Under $450..........
$450-1549..............
$550-$649..............
$650-$849..............
$850-$l,249...........

$1,250-11,849........ 2,439

68

27.9

1,813

57

31.4

592

11

18.6

34

$1,250-$1,449___ 1,326
$1,450-$1,849___ 1,113

35
33

26.4
29.6

904
909

25
32

27.7
35.2

402
190

10
1

24.9
5.3

20
14

$1,850 and over... 1,172

38

32.4

922

30

32.5

247

8

32.4

3

$l,850-$2,249__
$2,250-$2,849___
$2,850 and over.

375
251
546

9
11
18

24.0
43.8
33.0

257
206
459

8
7
15

31.1
34.0
32.7

117
44
86

1
4
3

8.5

1
1
1

No earnings.........
Not reported.......

723
725

40
27

55.3
37.2

274
398

15
11

54.7
27.6

225
189

10
9

44.4
47.6

224
138

1Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

285

APPENDIX V II.---- TABUES.

T a b l e 77 .— N eonatal in fa n t m ortality rates, earnings o f fath er, and color and n a tion a lity
o f m oth er; live births in 1 9 1 5 .

Infant deaths it specified age.

Earnings of father and color and nationality of mother.

Live
births.

Under 1 month.

Number.

1 month and over.

Per 1,000
Per 1,000
live
Number.
live
births.1
births.1

All mothers..........................................................

10,797

477

44.2

640

59.3

Under $450..............................................................
$450-$549..................................................................
$550-$649..................................................................
$650-1849..................................................................
$850-11,249.............................................................
$1,250-$1,849............................................................
$1,850 and over.......................................................
No earnings.............................................................
Not reported...........................................................

1,544
1,449
1,489
2,417
2,256
790
431
207
214

93
67
66
106
76
42
12
8
7

60.2
46.2
44.3
43.9
33.7
53.2
27.8
38.6
32.7

149
104
96
126
82
21
4
35
23

96.5
71.8
64.5
52.1
36.3
26.6
9.3
169.1
107.5

Native white mothers.........................................

6,739

286

42.4

360

53.4

Under $450..............................................................
$450-$549............................................... ................
$550-$649..................................................................
$650-8849.............................................................
$850-$l,249.......................................................
$1,250-81,849.........................................................
$1,850 and over.......................................................
No earnings.........................................................
Not reported...........................................................

449
644
908
1,726
1,802
629
366
88
127

29
32
40
75
59
35
11
2
3

64.6
49.7
44.1
43.5
32.7
55.6
30.1

100.2
79.2
63.9
52.1
37.2
28.6
8.2

23.6

45
51
58
90
67
18
3
14
14

Foreign-bom white mothers..............................

2,753

108

39.2

156

56.7

Under $650..............................................................
Under $450.......................................................
$450-8549........................................................
$550-8649...........................................................
$650 and over...........................................................
$650-8849...................................................
$850-81,249.......................................................
$1,250 and over.................................................
No earnings.............. .......................................
Not reported............................................... ......
Jewish...................................................

1,466
588
449
429
1,191
570
409
212
50
46
961

56
30
10
16
45
24
13
8
4
3
26

38.2
51.0
22.3
37.3
37.8
42.1
31.8
37.7

100
55
18
27
42
29
12
1
9
5

68.2
93.5
40.1
62.9
35.3
50.9
29.3
4.7

27.1

23

23.9

Under $650...........................................................
$650 and over............................................
No earnings..............................................
Not reported...........................................................
Polish....................................................

446
469
27
19
625

10
14
1
1

22.4
29.9

12
5
3
3

26.9
10.7

35

56.0

67

107.2

Under $650..............................................................
$650 and over.................................................
No earnings.........................................: .............
Not reported..........................................................
Italian...................................................

443
163
10
9
412

22
12
1

49.7
73.6

110.6
79.8

17

41.3

49
13
3
2
19

12
4

46.9
27.8

15
3
1

58.6
20.8

110.2

46.1

Under $650........................................................
$650 and over...............................................
No earnings....................................................
Not reported........................................................
All other...........................................
Earnings of father:
Under $650...................................................
$650 and over...............................................
No earnings..............................................
Not reported...................................................
Colored mothers........................................

256
144
4
8
755

1
30

39.7

47

62.3

321
415
9
10
1,305

12
15
2
1
83

37.4
36.1

24
21
2

74.8
50.6

63.6

124

95.0

Under $450......................................................
$450-8549.............................................................
$550-8649........................................................
$650 and over.......................................................
No earnings......................................................
Not reported................................................. .

507
356
152
180
69
41

34
25
10
11
2
i

67.1
70.2
65.8
61.1

49
35
11
13
12
4

96.6
98.3
72.4
72.2

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

286

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 78.— Infant mortality rates, by cause o f death, earnings o f father, and color and
nationality o f mother; live births in 1915.
Infant deaths from specified causes.

Earnings of father and
color and nationality of Live
births.
mother.

Total infant
deaths.

Gastric and
intestinal
diseases.

Respiratory
and other
communi­
cable
diseases.

Early in­
fancy.

Other
causes.

Infant
Infant
Infant
Infant
Infant
Num- mor- Num- mor- Num- mor- Num- mor- Num- morber. tality ber. tality ber. tality ber. tality ber. tality
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
All mothers...............
Earnings of father:
Under $450...................
$450-$549.................. :.
$550-$649......................
$650-1849......................
$850-81,249....................
$1,250-$1,849.................
$1,850 and over............
No earnings...........
N ot reported. . . . . . . . . .
Native white moth­
ers...........................
Earnings of father:
Under $450.................
$450-$549.................
$550-8649.*...............'..
$650-8849.......................
$850-81,249....................
$1,250-81,849.................
$1,850 andover............
No earnings..................
Not reported......... .
Foreign-bom white I
mothers............
Earnings of father:
Under $650...................
Under $450............
$450-8549. . . 4 . . . . . .
$550-8649................
$650 and over...............
$650-8849................
$850-81,249.............
$1,250 and over___
Noearnings........... 4. . .
Not reported................
Jewish...........
Earnings of father:
Unaer$650.................
$650 and over......... , . . .
No earnings............
Not reported......... .
Polish....... ..........
Earnings of father:
-Under $650.............. .
$650 and over.......... .
Noeamings.......... ^...
Not reported............
Italian.................
Earnings of father:
Under $650......... .........
$650 and over...............
Noeamings...........■:...
Not reported................
Allother____. . . .
Earnings of father:
Under $650...................
$650 and over..............
Noeamings ............. .. , 4 . . .
Not reported......... .
• Colored mothers.......
Earnings of father:
Under $450........ j ........
$450-8549.................. .1.
$550-8649............ .
$650 and over...............
N oeam ings.................
Not reported............... :

10,797 1,117

103.5

314

29.1

285

26.4

156.7
118.0
108.8
96.0
70.0
79.7
37.1
207.7
140.2

73
59
46
55
41
8
2
20
10

47.3
40.7
30.9
22.8
18.2
10.1
4.6
96.6
46.7

74
42
41
63
33
8
2
13
9

47.9
29.0
27.5
26.1
14.6
10.1
4.6
62.8
42.1

646

95.9

194

28.8

124

18.4

74
83
98
165
126
53
14
16
17

164.8
128.9
107.9
95.6
69.9
84.3
38.3

51.2
52.8
37.4
25.5
17.2
12.7
5.5
63.0

17
14
17
38
24
7
1
2
4

37.9
21.7
18.7
22.0
13.3
11.1
2.7

133.9

23
34
34
44
31
8
2
10
8

2,753

264

95,9

80

29.1

1,466
588
449
429
1,191
570
409
212
50
46
961

156
85
28
43
87
53
25
9
13
8
49

108.4
144.6
62.4
100.2
73.0
93.0
61.1
42.5

53
33
12
8
20
10
10

36.2
56.1
26.7
18.6
16.8
17.5
24.4

446
469
27
19
625

22
19
4
4
102

49.3
40.5

443
163
10
9
412

71
25
4
2
36

256
144
4
8
755

27
7
1
1
77

105.5
48.6

4

102.0

24

321
415
9
10
1,305

36
36
4
1
207

112.1
86.7

13
10
1

158.6

507
¿56
152
180
69
41

83
60
21
24
14
5

163.7
168.5
138.2
133.3

1,544
1,449
1,489
2,417
2,256
790
431
207
214

242
171
162
232
158
63
16
43
30

6,739
449
644
908
1,726
1,802
629
366
88
127

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

51.0

5
2
9

9.4

5
2
2

11.2
4.3

163.2

43

68.8

160.3
153.4

31
8
2
2
•4

87.4

37.7

I ll

10.3

49.2
36.6
42.3
37.6
28.4
45.6
20.9
33.8
37.4

19
17
12
23
20
11
3
3
3

12.3
11.7
8.1
9.5
8.9
13.9
7.0
14.5
14.0

257

38.1

71

10.5

28
28
41
67
51
28
8
3

62.4
43.5
45.2
38.8
28.3
44.5
21.9

13.4
10.9
6.6
9.3
11.1
15.9
8.2

31.5

3

23.6

6
7
6
16
20
10
3
1
2

75

27.2

85

30.9

24

8.7

45
21
7
17
24
18
5
1
4
2
15

30.7
35.7
15.6
39.6
20.2
31.6
12.2
4.7

42
24
4
14
36
19
10
7
3
4
22

28.6
40.8
8.9
32.6
30.2
33.3
24.4
33.0

16
7
5
4
7
6

10.9
11.9
11.1
9.3
5.9
10.5

1
1

4.7

22.9

3

3.1

8
4
1
2
21

17.9
8.5

7
12
1
2
27

15.7
25.6

2
1

4.5
2.1

43.2

11

17.6

45.1
38.6

7
4

15.8
24.5

70.0 ' 13
49.0
7
1

15.6

33.6

407
76
53
63
91
64
36
9
7.
8

29.3
42.9

20
6
1

15.7

9.7

13

31.6

14

34.0

5

12.1

15.6

10
3

39.1
20.8

9

4

35.2
27.8

4

15.6

31.8

26'

34.4

1
22

29.1

5

6.6

40.5
24.1

14
10
2

43.6
24.1

18.7
33.7

3
2

9.3
4.8

40

30.7

86

65.9

17
13
4
1
5

33.5
36.5
26.3
5.6

36
21
7
12
7
3

71.0
59.0
46.1
66.7

6
14
1
1
65
24
21
8
10
1
1

1

49.8

16

12.3

47.3
59.0
52.6
55.6

- 6
5
2
1
1
1

11.8
14.0
13.2
5.6

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

287

T able 79.—Deaths beforefeeding per 1,000 live births, and infant death rates per 1,000fed ,
by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother; live births in 1915.
Infants died at
once, not fed.
Earnings of father and color and nativity
of mother.

Live
births.
Number.

Infants fed.

Subsequ«int deaths.
Per
1,000
Number.
live
1,000
births.1
Number. Per
fed.1

All toothers........................................

10,797

269

24.9

10,528

848

80.5

Earnings of father:
Under $450.............................................
$450-1549...........................................
$550-$649.................................................
$650-$849.............................................
$850-$l,249..............................................
$1,250-$1,849...................................
$1,850 and over.......................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..........................................

1,544
1,449
1,489
2,417
2,256
790
431
207
214

49
37
37
55
51
23
7
6
4

31.7
25.5
24.8
22.8
22.6
29.1
16.2
29.0
18.7

1,495
1,412
1,452
2,362
2,205
767
424
201
210

193
134
125
177
107
40
9
37
26

129.1
94.9
86.1
74.9
48.5
52.2
21.2
184.1
123.8

Native white mothers........................

6,739

172

25.5

6,567

474

72.2

Earnings of father:
Under $450.............................................
$450-$549..............................
$550-$649.............................
$650-$849.................................................
$850-$l,249...........................
$1,250-$1,849...........................................
$1,850 and over.......................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported.........................................

449
644
908
1,726
1,802
629
366
88
127

12
23
24
42
41
20
6
2
2

26.7
35.7
26.4
24.3
22.8
31.8
16.4

62
60
74
123
85
33
8
14
15

141.9
96.6
83.7
73.0
48.3
54.2
22.2

15.7

437
621
884
1,684
1,761
609
360
86
125

120.0

Foreign-bom white mothers.............

2,753

62

22.5

2,691

202

75.1

Earnings of father:
Under $450.............................................
$450-$549................................................
$550-$649................................................
$650-$849.................................................
$850-$l,249.............................................
$1,250 and over.......................................
No earnings............................ ..............
Not reported..........................................

588
449
429
570
409
212
50
46

19
5
11
11
8
4
3
1

32.3
11.1
25.6
19.3
19.6
18.9

569
444
418
559
401
208
47
45

66
23
32
42
17
5
10
7

116.0
51.8
76.6
75.1
42.4
24.0

Colored mothers.................................

1,305

35

26.8

1,270

172

135.4

Earnings of father:
Under $450.............................................
$450-$549.................................................
$550-$649................................................
$650 and over.........................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported.........................................

507
356
152
180
69
41

18
9
2
4
1
1

35.5
25.3
13.2
22.2

489
347
150
176
68
40

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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65
51
19
20
13
4;

132.9
147.0
126.7
113.6

288

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 80.— Type o f feeding, by month o f life and earnings o f father and color and nativity
o f mother; infants bom in 1915.
Per cent of survivors.1
Earnings o f father and
color and n a tiv ity of
mother.

All mothers...
Earnings of father:
Under $450........
$450-8549............
$550-8649............
$650-8849...........
$850-^1,049.........
$1,050-81,249......
$1,250-81,449___
$1,450-81,849___
$1,850-82,249....
$2,250-82,849....
$2,850 and over.
No earnings___
Not reported__
Native white mothers.
Earnings of father:
Under $850.................. .
Under $450.............
$450-8549............... .
$550-8649...............
$650-8849...............
$850 and over...............
$850-81,049.............
$1,050-81,249...........
$1,250-81,449..........
$1,450-81,849..........
$1,850 and over___
No earnings.................
Not reported...............
Foreign-born white
mothers.......... .......
Earnings of father:
Under $850....................
Under $450............
$450-8549............... .
$550-8649............... .
$650-8849............... .
$850 and over...............
$850-81,049.............
$1,050-81,249..........
$1,250 and over___
No earnings.................
Not reported...............
Colored mothers.
Earnings of father:
Under 8450.............
$450-8549............... .
$550-8649...............
$650 and over........
No earnings..........
Not reported_____

Mixed fed.

Breastfed.
1st
mo.

3d
mo.

6th
mo.

9th
mo.

1st
mo.

3d
mo.

6th
mo.

Artificially fed.
9th
mo.

1st
mo.

3d
mo.

6th
mo.

9th
mo.

88.2

72.2

53.2

28.6

2.7

8.2

19.7

39.4

9.1

19.6

27.1

32.0

89.3
90.6
89.2
88.0
87.8
86.6
84.1
86.0
90.5
87.1
88.7
84.0
83.8

72.6 50.8
74.9 54.1
74.2 56.1
73.2 54.9
73.9 55.1
69.8 48.6
70.5 56.5
68.7 53.6
67.9 51.9
65.2 41.3
63.7 46.3
56.1 40.2
59.4 43.6

24.8
27.0
31.5
30.5
30.5
25.8
31.6
29.0
31.3
21.7
24.7
21.9
22.5

3.4 12.1
2.7 10.0
2.3
6.5
7.2
2.6
5.9
2.5
2.1
4.6
7.5
3.2
7.2
3.9
1.5 1 8 . 8
1.1
7.6
4.6 10.0
.5 17.2
3.3 14.9

25.6
24.6
18.4
18.3
16.3
15.5
14.9
14.2
15.6
18.5
17.4
28.3
25.6

46.8
48.3
39.9
38.6
35.9
32.3
33.4
30.5
27.6
29.3
25.3
43.8
36.6

7.4
6.7
8.5
9.5
9.7
11.3
12.7
10.1
8.0
11.8
6.7
15.5
12.9

15.4
15.1
19.3
19.6
20.2
25.6
22.0
24.1
23.4
27.2
26.3
26.8
25.7

23.6
21.3
25.5
26.8
28.7
35.9
28.6
32.2
32.6
40.2
36.3
31.5
30.8

28.5
24.7
28.6
30.9
33.6
41.9
34.9
40.5
41.0
48.9
50.0
34.3
40.8

86.6

70.1

52.2

30.1

2.4

6.3

16.0

33.7

11.2

23.6

31.8

36.1

87.1 71.0
87.8 74.0
87.9 69.4
87.7 72.2
86.3 70.3
86.4 69.7
87.0 72.5
85.4 67.6
84.0 70.6
84.8 66.1
88.9 65.4
76.7 58.8
81.6 58.5

52.5
52.5
50.3
53.1
53.1
52.2
54.1
47.6
57.2
52.1
48.4
47.4
44.1

30.5
26.6
28.2
33.9
30.6
29.8
31.1
25.0
34.0
30.6
28.7
32.4
24.1

2.2
2.1
1.9
2.3
2.4
2.6
2.4
2.1
2.9
3.6
3.1
2.4

6.6
8.0
8.7
4.4
6.6
5.5
4.9
4.6
5.4
6.5
8.5
8.2
12.2

17.7
19.3
21.6
17.2
16.1
13.7
14.4
14.1
10.4
11.6
15.3
16.7
20.3

36.9
41.8
41.7
35.1
34.9
29.9
33.6
30.0
27.2
24.7
23.6
28.4
31.1

10.7
10.1
10.1
10.1
11.3
11.0
10.5
12.5
13.1
11.6
8.1
22.1
16.0

22.4
18.1
21.9
23.3
23.1
24.8
22.6
27.8
24.1
27.4
26.2
32.9
29.3

29.8
28.1
28.2
29.7
30.8
34.1
31.5
38.3
32.3
36.3
36.3
35.9
35.6

32.6
31.6
30.1
31.1
34.4
40.3
35.3
45.0
38.8
44.8
47.7
39.2
44.8

91.3

78.9

58.7

28.3

3.3

9.6

23.6

48.8

5.4

11.5

17.6

23.0

91.9
89.1
94.4
93.3
91.8
90.5
90.4
92.9
89.4
85.1
84.4

79.8
75.6
83.7
81.2
79.8
77.9
80.1
80.6
73.5
60.9
70.7

60.0 29.2
54.6 27.9
62.0 28.2
64.9 29.7
60.2 30.7
55.7 26.2
59.2 29.0
54.1 29.9
51.5 20.6
45.5 15.8
55.0 28.2

3.5
4.8
3.2
2.4
3.4
2.8
2.6
2.0
3.4
4.4

9.6
11.8
8.9
8.5
8.6
9.4
8.5
5.1
12.7
15.2
4.9

23.5
26.4
25.5
18.6
22.9
24.4
22.3
22.4
28.4
20.5
20.0

49.7
48.7
54.9
48.7
47.2
46.4
43.1
43.3
52.5
50.0
38.5

4.6
6.2
2.5
4.3
4.8
6.7
7.0
5.1
7.2
14.9
11.1

10.6
12.5
7.3
10.2
11.6
12.7
11.5
14.3
13.7
23.9
24.4

16.4
19.0
12.5
16.6
16.9
19.8
18.5
23.5
20.1
34.1
25.0

21.1
23.3
16.9
21.6
22.0
27.4
27.9
27.0
26.8
34.2
33.3

90.2

68.9

46.8

21.1

2.8

15.7

30.4

49.8

7.0

15.4

22.8

29.1

90.8
90.5
86.7
90.9
91.2
90.0

67.7
73.6
65.7
77.8
49.3
50.0

44.7
50.6
48.5
54.9
27.4
29.7

19.5
23.0
22.6
26.3
12.3
11.1

2.9
3.5
2.0
2.3
1.5
5.0

16.1
13.7
13.6
10.8
29.9
34.2

30.1
29.0
25.0
27.8
48.4
48.6

48.7
51.5
43.6
50.6
59.6
52.8

6.3
6.1
11.3
6.8
7.4
5.0

16.3
12.8
20.7
11.4
20.9
15.8

25.2
20.4
26.5
17.3
24.2
21.6

31.8
25.6
33.8
23.1
28.1
36.1

1 Percentages are based upon total number of survivors at the beginning of the month whose type of
feeding was reported.


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APPENDIX VII.— TABUES.

289

T able 81.— Type o f feeding, by month o f life and by nationality; infants bom in 1915 to
foreign-bom white mothers.
Per cent of survivors.1

Foreign-bom white moth­
ers:
Jewish...........................
Polish............................
It a lia n ........................
All other.......... ............

Artificially fed.

Mixed fed.

Breast fed.

Nationality of mother.
1st
mo.

3d
mo.

6th
mo.

9th
mo.

1st
mo.

3d
mo.

6th
mo.

9th
mo.

1st
mo.

3d
mo.

6th
mo.

93.0
92.4
92.8
87.6

80.1
81.7
83.2
72.7

55.7
65.0
66.3
53.5

22.4
34.1
32.8
28.9

4.1
2.8
4.5
2.0

12.4
8.0
9.7
7.1

31.4
19.5
19.9
18.8

59.0
47.7
45.1
38.1

2.9
4.8
2.7
10.4

7.5
10.3
7.1
20.2

12.9
15.5
13.7
27.7

9th
mo.

18.6
18.2
22.0
33.0

1 Percentages are based upon total number of survivors at the beginning of the month whose type of
feeding was reported.

T able 82.—Relative mortality among infants in fam ilies where the father earned $450 to
$549 in comparison with that among infants in fam ilies where the father earned $550 to
$849, when effect o f differences in type o f feeding is eliminated; infants bom in 1915
to foreign-bom white mothers.
Infants bom in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers in families whore fathers
earned $450 to I549.1

Month of life.

Deaths in
month.

Deaths in
month.

Deaths in
month.

Deaths in
month.

Artificially fed.

Mixed fed.

Breast fed.

Total.

Sur­
Sur­
Sur­
Sur­
viv­
viv­
viv­
viv­
ors.1 Ac­ Ex­ ors. Ac­ Ex­ ors. Ac­ Ex­ ors. Ac­ Ex­
pect­
pect­
pect­
tual. pect­
tual. ed.*
tual. ed.*
tual. ed.’
ed.*

Fifth

Tenth to twelfth *................

444
439
436
432
432
432
428
428
426
426

23

29.8

5
3
4

8.0
2.2
1.7
2.5
3.0
1.8
1.5
3.2
2.0
3.9

4
2
5

419
390
365
317
299
268
204
161
120
96

12

15.0

5
2
3

6.5
1.9
1.4
.9
1.4
.5

2

1.3
.4
.7

3
14
26
39
68
84
110
168
199
234
249

1.0

1
Í
1

8

6.0

.6
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5
1.7

ii
23
32
47
49
54
56
68
72
81

1
1
3
1
2

8.8
.5
.3
.3
1.0
1.0
.7
1.0
1.4
1.1
1.5

1
Excluding 5 live-bom infants who died at once, never fed. The total live births in foreign-bom white
families, father’s earnings group, $450 to $549, was 449; 5infants died at once, never fed; if the rate for deaths
of infants not fed (22.0 per 1,000 live births) among infants in foreign-born white families, father’s earnings
group $550 to $849, bad applied to the group $450 to $549,9.9 deaths .wouhj have occurred of infants not fed,
instead of the 5 that actually occurred.
,
.
* For this comparison the numbers breast fed, mixed fed, and artificially fed during each month of life
are multiplied by monthly death rates for breast fed, mixed fed, and artificially fed infants, respectively,
for the same month of life in foreign-bom white families where the fathers earned $550 to $849.
* Figures for survivors at beginning of tenth, and deaths in tenth, eleventh, and twelfth among them.

101351— 23------ 19


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290

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 83.— Infant mortality rates in favored group, by earnings o f father and color and
nativity o f mother; live births in 1915.
Favored group.1
Earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother.

A ll others.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Native white mothers..
Earnings of father:
Under $450.......................
$450-1549......................
$550-$649...................... .
$650-$849.........................
$850-$l,249.............. .
$1,250-11,849.....................
$1,850 and over._____ ____
No earnings.......... ...........
Not reported.................... .
Foreign-born w h i t e
mothers....................
Earnings of father:
Under $450.........................
$450-$549........................... .
$550-$649................... .
$650-$849.........................
$850-$l,249........................
$1,250 and over.................
No earnings................. .
Not reported......................
Colored mothers............
Earnings of father:
Under $450.. .■....................
$450-$549....... ....................
$550-$649............................
$650-$849........................... .
$850 and ov er............... .
No earnings........................
Not reported.....................

Number.

Infant
mortality
rate.2

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Number.

Infant
mortality
rate.2

4,035

301

74.6

2,704

345

127.6

185
301
492
1,063
1,175
453
281
26
59

21
36
43
77
64
38
13
2

113.5
119.6
87.4
72.4
54.5
83.9
46.3

264
343
416
663
627
176
85
62
68

53
47
55
88
62
15
1
14
10

200.8
137.0
132.2
132. 7
98.9
85.2

832

49

58.9

1,921

215

111.9

112
102
127
214
159
102
4
12
201

11
5
9
16
5
3

98.2
49.0
70.9
74.8
31.4
29.4
89.6

74
23
34
37
20
6
13
8
189

155.5
66.3
112.6
103.9
80.0
54.5

18

476
347
302
356
250
110
46
34
1,104
458
290
118
94
44
65
35

80
53
19
10
9
14
4

7

49
66
34
27
15
4
6

3
7
2
4
1
1

171.2
174.6
182.8
161.0

1 The “ favored group” includes only infants from the second to the sixth in order of birth, bom after an
interval of at least 2 years since preceding issue to literate mothers not employed during pregnancy or the
year after the birth.
N
2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 84.—Death rates in favored group per 100 (infants who lived at least two weeks),
by average number o f persons per room and earnings o f father; infants bom in 1915 to
white mothers, who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.
Infants (of white mothers) who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings with specified average
number of persons per room.
Less than 1.
Earnings of
father.

Favored group.1

1 but less than 2.

Others.

Favored group.1

2 or more.

Others.

Deaths.

Deaths.
Deaths.
Deaths.
Deaths.
Infants.
InInInNum­ Per
fants. Num- Per fants. Num- Per fants. NumPer fants. Num- Per
ber. Ct.2
ber. ct.2
ber. ct.2
ber. ct.2
ber. Ct.2
Total... 3,247
Under $450... 113
$450-1549........ 193
$550-$849........ 1,146
$850-$l,249___ 1,025
$1,250 a n d
over............ 704
No earnings..
12
Not reported.
54

108 3.3 1,743

114

6.5 1,437

7.1
5.2
4.0
2.6

147
194
631
458

19 12.9
13 6.7
39 6.2
25 5.5

14 2.0
1
2

242
30
41

10
6
2

8
10
46
27

4.1

77 5.4 2,218

175
188
680
272

16
11
36
8

92
15
15

3

3

9.1
5.9
5.3
2.9

207

9.3

450

51

11.3

385
384
880
357

44
32
87
24

11.4
8.3
9.9
6.7

159
93
147
27

19
6
14
3

11.9

107
59
46

1
10
9

.9

8
12
4

7
2

9.5

1 • Favored group ” includes only infants from the second to the sixth in order of birth, bom after aninterval of at least 2 years since preceding issue, to literate mothers not employed during pregnancy or the year
after the birth.
2 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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291

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

T able 85.— Infant mortality rates, by occupation group 1 and earnings o f father and color
and nativity o f mother; live births in 1915.
Live births in families wherefathers were employed in specified occupations
group.2
Groups I and II.
Earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Earnings of father:
Under $450.......................
$450-$549.......................
*550-8649......................... .
$650-$849..........................
$850-81,249......................
$1,250-$1,8 4 9 .................
1,850 and o v e r.............
No earnings..... ...............
Not reported....................
Foreign-bom w h i t e
mothers.................
Earnings of father:
Under $450............. I........
$450-8549.......... ...............
$550-8649...........................
$650-8849......................
$850-81,249................... .
$1,250 and over...........
No earnings......................
Not reported....................
Colored mothers. .1.......
Earnings of father:
Under $450.......................
$450-8549............... .
$550-8649...........................
$650 and over...................
No earnings...................
Not reported....................

Num­
ber.

Infant
mortal­
ity rate.8

Occupation not
reported.

Groups III, IV, and V.
Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Num­
ber.

Live
Infant births.
mortal­
ity rate.8

Infant
deaths.

2,344

247

105.4

4,304

380

88.3

8

3

307
416
536
689
313
48
7

54
53
48
63
21
3

175.9
127.4
89.6
91.4
67.1

19
30
50
102
105
50
14

134.8
132.7
134. 4
98.5
70.5
86.1
39.0

1
2

1

28

5

141
226
372
1,036
1,489
581
359
5
95

1,638

164

100.1

1,068

88

476
338
302
335
147
25

69
25
28
26
12
2

145.0
74.0
92.7
77.6
81.6

15
1,100

2
165

150.0

111
110
127
235
262
187
7
29
133

16
3
15
27
13
7
2
5
28

480
324
136
128

76
55
18
14

158.3
169. 8
132.4
109.4

32

2

27
32
16
52
1
5

7
5
3
10
1
2

1

4

2

82.4

4

i

144.1
27.3
118.1
114.9
49.6
37.4

1
1

10

210.5

2
4

i
1

4

1

1 For grouping see p. 36.
2 In families where father had no occupation (including those who lived on own income) 83 births to
native-white mothers, with 16 deaths; 43 births to foreign-bom white mothers, with 11 deaths; and 68
births to colored mothers, with 13 deaths, were reported.
'
8 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 86.—Excess mortality in overcrowded dwellings, with effect o f differences in father's
earnings eliminated; infants {born in 1915 to native white mothers) who lived at least
two weeks in dwellings with one or more persons per room.
Infants (native white mothers) who
lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings
with 1 or more persons per room.
Earnings of father.

Expected deaths.1

Infants.

Actual
deaths.

All..........................................................................................

2,344

208

132.6

Under $450.......................................................................................
$450-$549.........................................................................................
$550-$649..........................................................................................
$650-$849.........................................................................................
$850-$l,249..................................... ‘.................................................
$1,250 and over................................................................................

267
332
432
634
460
124
50
45

41
33
34
51
26
4
9
10

20.0
23.6
29.8
28.5
17.5
3.3
8.1
1.8

Not reported................................................ ................. ................

Per 100
Number. infants.2

7.5
7.1
6.9
4.5
3.8
,2.7
4.0

1 Expected deaths are calculated by applying to the infants in each earning group the rates for infants
(of native white mothers) in the same earnings group who lived in dwellings with less than 1 person per
room.
2 Not shown where base is less than 100. Derived from Table 90.


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292

INFANT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 87.— Excess mortality, by ward o f residence and cause o f death, over mortality

expected when differences due to color and nationality are eliminated; live births in 1915.
Infant mortality rates from specified causes.

Ward of residence.

Live
births.

All causes.

Early infancy.

Gastric and
intestinal
diseases.

Respiratory and
other communi­
cable diseases.

Ex­ Actual. Ex­ Actual. Ex­
Ex­
Actual. pected.1
pected.1 Actual. pected.1
pected.1
Total............................. 10,797
1..............................................
2................................ ............
3 ..............................................
4..............................................
5 ..............................................
6 ..............................................
7 ........................... .................
8..............................................
9 ..............................................
10............................................
11............................................
12................... ........................
13............................................
14............................................
15............................................
16............................................
17............................................
18............................................
19............................................
20............................................
21............................................
22............................................
23 .......................................... :
24............................................

790
620
627
215
396
596
649
598
496
331
145
409
449
289
598
417
252
269
381
606
447
261
351
605

103.5

103.5

37.7

37.7

. 29.1

29.1

26.4

26.4

117.7
140.3
106.9
97.7
65.7
85.6
92.4
92.0
78.6
102.7
89.7
92.9
86.9
128.0
80.3
93.5
146.8
107.8
126.0
99.0
136.5
134.1
114.0
99.2

110.0
123.5
88.0
106.5
86.9
91.8
100.9
98.0
100.4
96.1
123.4
104.6
95.1
126.3
107.2
107.7
138.1
108.9
103.7
95.5
102.0
110.0
100.3
100.3

38.0
40.3
36.7
23.3
20.2
33.6
40.1
43.5
24.2
30.2
20.7
36.7
42.3
58.8
30.1
33.6
75.4
55.8
36.7
46.2
47.0
23.0
42.7
29.8

38.7
39.0
31.4
35.8
32.6
35.2
37.3
37.8
36.9
36.3
42.1
39.4
37.4
42.9
39.5
39.8
45.2
38.7
38.3
36.8
38.3
37.9
37.9
36.9

34.2
58.1
35.1
27.9
7.6
23.5
20.0
15.1
30.2
24.2
13.8
14.7
20.0
17.3
18.4
33.6
23.8
14.9
42.0
26.4
58.2
49.8
37.0
33.1

37.0
45.3
23.6
26.5
16.7
24.8
28.7
28.8
29.0
26.3
28.3
28.9
28.1
28.4
28.1
28.5
27.8
27.5
28.6
27.9
28.9
28.0
27.9
31.1

34 2
33.9
25.5
32.6
27.8
18.5
18.5
23.4
16.1
39.3
41.4
26.9
17.8
38.1
25.1
19.2
43.7
33.5
28.9
16.5
20.1
57.5
19.9
23.1

22.9
26.5
23.9
32.6
29.3
23.3
26.0
21.2
22.6
23.9
42.8
25.9
19.4
44.6
29.3
28.5
53.6
31.6
26.2
21.1
244
33.0
24.2
22.8

1
Expected rates are found b y dividing the births in each ward into the deaths calculated by applying
the rates for all births in each color and nationality group to the live births of the corresponding groups in
the ward.
T a b l e 8 8 . —Excess m ortality in overcrowded dwellings, with effect o f differences infather's

earnings eliminated; infants ( bom in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers) who lived at
least two weeks in dwellings with less than fine and with two or more persons per room.
Infants (of foreign-bom white mothers) who lived at least
2 weeks in dwellings with specified number of persons per
room.
Less than 1.

2 or more.

Earnings of father.
Deaths.

Deaths.

Infants.
Actual.

Expect­
ed.1

Infants.
Actual.

Expect­
ed.1

40

5.4

10.5

7.6

Total...................................................

882

35

47.3

343

36

25.9

Under $450....................................................
$450-8549.......................................................
$550—$649......................................................
$650—$849......................................................
$850-$l,249............ .'......................................

100
106
107
214
200
122
11
22

15
3
5
4
3
2
2
1

10.1
46
7.‘5
12.4
6.6
1.2
2.3
2.6

131
73
64
42
19
3
9
2

14
3
6
5
3

13.2
3.1
4.5
2.4
.6

5

1.9
.2

Noearnings..................................................

1 Expected deaths are calculated by applying to the infants in each earnings group the rates for allinfants
(of foreign-born white mothers) in the same earnings group wholived at least 2 weeks in dwellings studied.


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A P P E N D I X V I I .-----T A B L E S .

293

T a b l e 89.

Excess mortality in overcrowded dwellings, with effect o f differences in national­
ity eliminated; infants (bom in 1915 to foreign-bom white mothers) who lived at least
two weeks in dwellings studied.
Infants (of foreign-born white mothers) who lived at least 2 weeks in
L ess than 1.

Nationality of mother.

1 but less than 2.

Deaths.
Infants.

Deaths.

Infants.
Infants.
Actuàl. Expect­
Actual. Expect­
Actual. Expect­
ed.1
ed.1
ed.1

Infant death rates.
T ota l...
Jewish............
Polish............
Italian............
Other foreign.

2 or more.

Deaths.

882
342
68
107
365

4.0

5.5

35

48.6
9.1
8.5
5.4
25.6

(*)
■B
<*)

1,418
506
345
230
337

6.4

ft ft

91
(a)
(*)
(a)
(a)

92.0
13.5
43.3
11.6
23.6

343
83
183
55
22

36
(a)
(*)
(a)
(a)

29.4
2.2
22.9
2.8
1.5

l «

Expected deaths” are based on rates for all infants in families of specified nationality. * Not tabu*
lated.

cent o f infant deaths, by average number o f persons per room, earnings o f
fa tter, and color and nativity o f mother; infants bom in 1915 who lived at least two weeks
m dwellings studied.
Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings with specified average number of
persons per room.
Earnings of father
and color and na­
tivity of mother.

All mothers..
Earnings of father:
Under $450.........
$450-$549............
$550-1649..........
$650-$849............

Total.1

Less than 1.

692 6.7 5,544

1,457
1,387
1,428
2 , .321
2,183
$1,250 and over.. 1,170
No earnings___
192

160 11.0
446
111 8.0
548
105 7.4
609
139 6.0 1,296
91 4.2 1,509
31 2.6
958
34 17.7
67
21 10.6
111

Native white
mothers....... 6,464
Earnings of father:
Under $450.........
428
S450-S549

395 6.1 4,108
53 12.4
160
53 8.6
281
7.3
437
97 5.9 1,019
75 4.3 1,283
26 2.7
824
14
31
13 10.9
73

SftftO-ftft4Q
S85IVS1

9AQ

Foreign-born
white moth­
ers............ .
Earnings of father:
Under $450.......
$450-$549..........

2 or more.

Not reported.

Deaths.
Deaths.
Deaths.
Deaths.
In­
InInInInfants Num­ |Per fants
Num Pei fants Num Per fants Num Pei fants Deaths.
ber. et.2
ber. et.»
ber. .et.2
ber. ct.2
10,336

$1,250 and over..
No earnings.......

1 but less than 2.

1,655
1,745
951
81

267 4.8 4,269

359 8.4

498

58 11.6

25

8

824
731
726
9.56
644
201
108
79

91 11.0
64 8.8
61 8.4
76 7.9
34 5.3
4 2.0
17 15.7
12

180
105
87
67
27
8
17
7

22 12.2
7 6.7
7

7
3
6
2
3
3

4
2

187 4.6 2,237

193 8.6

107

15 14.0

239
312
411
614
452
119
47
43

36 15.1
30 9.6
34 8.3
48 7.8
26 5.8
4 3.4
7 __
8 .....

28
20
21
20
8
5
3
2

1,418

91 6.4

343

36 10.5

6

4

24
13
18
23
6

131
73
64
42
19
3
9
2

14 10.7
3
6
5
3 ....

4

3

43
38
36
54
53
27
9
7

9.6
6.9
5.9
4.2
3.5
2.8
6.‘ 3

12 7.5
20 7.1
30 6.9
46 4.5
49 3.8
22 2.7
5
3—

2,649

166 6.3

882

35

556
439

56 10.1
19 4.3
29 7.0
32 5.8
13 3.3
2 1.0
10
5

100
106
107
214
200
122
11
22

15 15.0
2.8
5 4.7
1.9
3 1.5
2 1.6
2 __
1

131 10.7

554

45 8.1

614

75 12.2

48

51 10.8
39 11.6
28 8.9
10
3

186
161
166
25
16

16 8.6
15 9.3
9 5.4

264
159
139

31 11.7
21 13.2
16 11.5

....(

18

21
12
7
r 5
3

$650-2840
397
$1,250 and over..
205
No earnings.......
47
Not reported.. : .
42
Colored moth­
ers............... 1,223
Earnings of father.
Under $450.........
473
$450-$549............
335
$550 and ov er.. .
314
No earnings..
64
37
wer^M t secured. 6 01 Œ


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

S

Œ

t

S

321
«UU

242
293
177
80
27
18

ï

7.5
5.0
7.4
7.8
3.4

3
4

6

9

3
8
2

1
12

5
3

1

3

3
2
2
3

2
2

1

I

i

i
i

1

7....

7

4

3 ....
1
2
1

2
3
2

1
2
1

5

tW° Weeks' fOT whom fu s in g data

294
T

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

91 .—Percentage o f infant deaths, by came o f death, sanitary arrangements o f
dwelling, earnings o f father, and color and rationality o f mother; infants bom in 1915
who lived at least two weeks in dwellings studied.

able

Infants who lived at least 2 weeks in dwellings of specified sanitary accommodations.
Dwellings lacking 1 or more of 3 specified
items.

Dwellings with 3 specified items.1
Earnings of father
and color and
n a t i o n a l i t y of
mother.

Deaths.

Deaths.

au

Infants.

All mothers...
Earnings of father:
Under 1660........
$550-$849._____ _
$850-$l,249. . . . . .
$1,250-41,849----$1,850 and over..
No earnings----Not reported—
Native white
mothers___
Earnings of father:
Under $550....-.
$550-$849..........
$850-$l,249.......
$1,250-$1,849.......
$1,850 and over..
No earnings.......
Not reported___
Foreign-bom
whitemothers
Earnings of father:
Under $550........
$550-$849.......... .
$850-$l,249....... .
$1,250 and over7
No earnings___
Not reported___
Jewish___
Earnings of father:
Under $650___
$650 and over__
No earnings
Not reported___
Polish...
Earnings of father:
Under $650---$650 and over__
No earnings.......
Not reported__
Italian__
Earnings of father:
Under $650....... .
$650 and over__
No earnings___
Not reported__
All other..
Earnings of father:
Under $650.......
$650 and over...
No earnings___
Net reported...
Colored mother;
Earnings of father:
Under $550.......
$550 and over...
No earnings___
Not reported...

causes.

Gastric and
intestinal.

Per
cent.2

Numher.

Per
cent.2

495

8.5

230

3.9

216
173
49
12
1
26
18

9.8
7.3
5.7
6.9

107
71
26
2

4.9
3.0
3.0
1.2

21.7
17.3

15
9

12.5
8.7

260

8.1

135

4.2 '

84
105
39
9

11.0
6.9
6.0
7.4

47
53
19
2

6.2
3.5
2.9
1.6

11
12

20.7

7
7

12.1

1,833

141

7.7

66

3.6

856
677
186
53
35
26
542

65
53
8
1
9
5
17

7.6
7.8
4.3
1.9

38
15
7

4.4
.2.2
3.8

325
190
18
9
562

7
5
2
3
72

2.2
2.6
12.8

42

7.5

51
15
4
2
16

12.6
10.8

30
8
2
2
4

7.4
5.8

3.8

404
139
10
9
314
213
93
4
4
415

12
3
1

5.6
3.2

4

1.9

36

8.7

16

3.9

22
12
2

9.5
6.8

9
6
1

3.9
3.4

94

11.4

29

3.5

67
20
6
1

11.5
11.0

22
3
4

3.8
1.6

Numher.

Per
cent.2

Numher.

Per
cent.2

Numher.

4,486

197

4.4

66

1.5

5,850

644
1,389
1,324
578

8.5
5.1
3.2
2.2
1.3
li.i
3.2

17
25
14
6

2.6
1.8
1.1
1.0

72
94

55
71
42
13
5
8
3

4

5.6

2,200
2,360
859
173
34
120
104

3,273

135

4.1

48

1.5

3,191

278
999
1,093
474

7.9
5.6
3.3
2.5
1.5

7
21
11
6

2.5
2.1
1.0
1.3

61

22
56
36
12
% 5
3
1

763
1,528
652
122
26
42
58

816

25

3.1

11

1.3

139
286
211

10
8
5
1

4
3
3

2.9
1.0
1.4

12
16
389

1

7.2
2.8
2.4
0.7
1.5

4

1.0

2
1
1

1.9
0.4

6

107
266

4
1
1

3

1.6

3.7
0.4

1

35

3

1

20
15

2
1

1

80

3

30
47

3

312

13

4.2

6

1.9

79
224

3
10

3.8
4.5

2
4

2.5
1.8

397

37

9.3

7

1.8

227
132

1 17

23
8
4
2

Gastric and
intestinal.

Infants.

10.1
6.1

6
1

231
177
3
4
826

2.6
0.8
1

581
182
43
20

1 Bath, toilet connected with sewer and reserved for exclusive use of family.
*•Not shown where base is less than 50.


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3.1

5.1

4
2
4
2
1
1

0.7
0.6
0.5

1.3

295

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

T a b l e 92.— E m ploym ent o f mother at any tim e after marriage, during pregnancy o f 1915,

or during lifetim e o f in f ant horn in 1915, by place o f em ploym ent, earnings o f father,
and color and n ativity o f m other; mothers (m aternal histories) and births in 1915.1

Earnings of father
and color and na­
tivity of mother.

Employed
away from
home at
any time
after mar­
riage.

Total.

Total.

Total.
Num­ Per
ber. ct.3

All mothers......

11,169 2,562

22.9 11,613 1,400 12.1 1,819

$850-$l,049............
$1,050-$1,249.........
$1,250 and o v er...
No earnings.........
Not reported— ±.

777 50.2 1,690
534 36.2 1,574
398 26.0 1,590
404 16.0 2,575
146 8.8 1,696
705
41
5.9
54 4.2 1,307
235
136 62.4
241
72 31.0

494
325
202
169
45
11
16
89
49

29.2
20.6
12.7
5.6
2.7
1.6
1.2
37.9
20.3

Native white
mothers.........

7,069

966

13.7 7,210

394

5.5

463
661
949
1,807
1,308
581
1,060
101
139

188
158
171
212
84
29
33
57
34

477
40.6
686
23.9
971
18.0
11.7 1,840
6.4 1,328
591
5.0
3.1 1,074
56.4
103
140
24.5

74
86
74
75
27
7
12
21
18

15.5
12.5
7.6
4.1
2.0
1.2
1.1
20.4
12.9

2,830

748

26.4 2,894

Not reported.......
Foreign - born
white mothers
Earnings of father:
Under $450..........
$450-$549......... .
$550-$649..............
$650-$849..............
$850-$l,049............
$1,050-$1,249.........
$1,250 and ov er...

Colored mothers
Earnings of father:
Under $450...........
$450-$549..............
$550-$649..............
$650-$849..............
049
$1 050-$l,249

594
472
433
590
317
103
217
53
51
1,270
492
343
146
122
4C
9
12
64
42

228 38.4
161 34.1
136 31.4
123 20.8
44 13.9
10 9.7
17
7.8
22
7
848

610
479
449
600
327
101
219
53
53

66.8 1,509

361 73.1
215 62.7
91 62.2
69 56.6
18
2
4
57
31

Away from
home.

At home.

602
409
17C
135
41
10
14
79
48

15.7 10,797

855

349 20.7 1,544
307 19.5 1,449
262 16.5 1,489
340 13.2 2,417
241 14.2 1,595
79 11.2
661
144 11.0 1,221
42 17.9
207
214
55 22.8

341
179
93
85
20
5
7
84
41

22.1
12.4
6.2
3.5
1.3
.0.7
0.6
40.6
19.2

9.8 6,739

235

3.5

58 12.2
449
79 11.5
644
120 12.4
908
162
8.8 1,726
134 10.1 1,251
45 7.6
551
74 6.9
995
13 12.6
88
25 17.9
127

69
42
25
38
10
1
2
32
16

15.4
6.5
2.8
2.2
.8
.2
.2
12.6

200

7.3

70
43
33
26
8
2
2
12
4

11.9
9.6
7.7
4.6
2.6
2.0
.9

710

At home.

Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. ct.8 ber. ct.8

Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. ct.8 ber. ct.3

1,549
1,476
1,528
2,519
1,665
693
1,289
218
232

Earnings of father:
Under $450...........
$450-$549..............
$550-1649..............
$650-1849..............
$850-$l,049............
$1,050-$1,249.........
$1,250 and ov er...

To mothers employed
during lifetime of in­
fant and within 12
months after the
birth.

To mothers employed
during pregnancy.

Away from
home.

Earnings of father:
Under $450...........
$450-$549..............
$550-$649..............

Live births in 1915.

Births in 1915.1

Mothers.2

7.9 1,929 17.9
383
329
254
378
256
88
144
43
54

24.8
22.7
17.1
15.6
16.1
13.3
11.8
20.8
25.2

801 11.9
73
86
123
189
156
53
78
14
29

16.3
13.4
13.5
11.0
12.5
9.6
7.8
22.8

763 27.7

329 11.4

735

25.4 2,753

18.5
14.6
14.7
7.8
2.8
2.9
.9

146
123
98
142
94
31
68
14
19

23.9
25.7
21.8
23.7
28.7
29.8
31.1

677 44.9

374

24.8 1,305

420 32.2

365 28.0

50.9
41.8
36.5
34.8

145
105
44
36
13
3
2
15
11

24. C
25.7
25.9
26.7

507
356
152
121
35
10
14
69
41

202 39.8
94 26.4
35 23.0
21 17.3
2
2
3
40
21

143
113
33
37
14
2

113
70
66
47
9
3
2
13
6

307
169
62
47
9
1
2
55
25

588
449
429
57C
309
10C
212
5C
46

167
130
98
152
86
33
66
14
17

28.4
29.0
22.8
26.6
27.8
33.0
29.7

28.2
31.7
21.7
30.6

15
8

1 Includes miscarriages.
.
. . .
,
. . „
« Mothers for whom maternal history was secured. Schedule did not include employment at home
prior to pregnancy of 1915.
3 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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296

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 93.— E m ploym ent o f mother at any tim e after marriage, during pregnancy o f 1915,

or during lifetim e o f in fan t horn in 1915, by place o f em ploym ent and n ation a lity;
foreign -b om white mothers (m aternal h istones) and births in 1 9 1 5 }
Foreign-horn
white mothers.2

Nationality of
mother.

Births in 1915 to foreign-bom
white mothers.1

Live births in 1915 to foreignbom white mothers.
Employed during life­
time of infant and
within 12 months of
birth.

Employed
Employed during preg­
away from
nancy of 1915.
home at
any time
Total. after mar­ Total.
Total.
At home. Away from
riage.
home.
Num­ Per
ber. cent.

Num- Per Num- Per
her. cent. her. cent.

Total..............

2,830

748 26.4 2,894

Jewish.....................
Polish......................
Italian.....................
All other..................

995
634
433
768

6.6 1,011
66.4
655
12.2
440
27.1
788

German............
Irish, English,
S c o t c h , and
English-Canadian...............
Bohemian.........
Lithuanian.......
Other................

321

69 21.5

331

136
109

9.6
24.8
65.7
32.0

138
112
105
102

421
53
208

102

100

735

25.4

329

289 28.5
104 15.9
162 36.8
180 22.8
59

29

16.7
24.1
32.4
36.3

1 Includes miscarriages.
2 Mothers for whom maternal history was secured.
to pregnancy of 1915 birth.
3 Not available.

2.9
8.9
28.6
10.8

Away from
home.

Num- Per Num- Per
ber. cent. ber. cent.

11.4 2,753

13
1.3
215 32.8
17 3.9
84 10.7

17.8

At home.

27.7

200

961
625
412
755

289 30.1
116 18.6
165 40.0
193 25.6

9
146
7
38

318

(3)

(3)

(3)

132
107

(3)

(3)

(3)
(3)

(3)

100

98

763

(3)

(3)

<*§

(3)

(3)

(3)

(8)

(3)

Schedule did not include employment at iinm« prior

T a b l e 9 4 E m ploym ent o f mother away fro m home after marriage, by num ber o f b irth s}

earnings o f fath er, and color and n ativity o f m other; mothers (m aternal histories).
Mothers reporting specified number of births.1
Earnings of father during year after
1915 birth and color and nativity of
mother.

Native white mothers................
Earnings of father:
Under $450.....................................
$450-$549.........................................
$550-$649.........................................
$650-$849.........................................
$850-$l,249......................................
$1,250 and over...............................
No earnings....................................
Not reported..................................
Foreign-bom white mothers___
Earnings of father:
Under $450.....................................
$450-$549........................................
$550-$649.........................................
$650-$849.........................................
$850-$l,249......................................
$1,250 and over...............................
No earnings....................................
Not reported..................................
Colored mothers.........................
Earnings of father:
Under $450.....................................
$450-$549.........................................
$550-$649.........................................
$650 and over..................................
No earnings....................................
Not reported..................................
1 Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1-3.

4-6.

Employed.

Employed.

7 and over.

Employed.
Total. Num- Per Total.
Num- Per Total. Num- Per
ber. cent.2
ber. cent.2
ber. cent.2
4,884

604

12.4

1,487

215

14.5

698

147

21.1

279
432
626
1,254
1,328
796
74
95
1,468

101
97
102
133
78
25
42
26
356

36.2
22.5
16.3
10.6
5.9
3.1

108
142
226
384
387
190
17
33
811

48
36
39
50
22
5
10
5
219

44.4
25.4
17.3
13.0
5.7
2.6

76
87
97
169
174
74
10
11
551

39
25
30
29
13
3
5
3

Ì7.2
7.5

269
244
216
339
232
109
28
31
679

107
75
56
65
24
9
15
5
403

177
150
127
154
112
67
13
11
334

59
55
46
34
16
4
4
1
238

33.3
36.7
36.2
22.1
14.3

255
187
77
100
34
26

171
101
40
46
28
17

129
91
37
46
21
10

101
60
25
24
20
8

78.3

‘
24.3
39.8
30.7
25.9
19.2
10.3
8.3
59.4
67.1
54.0
46.0

27.0

71.3

173

31.4

62
31
34
24
14
4
3
1

41.9

148
78
90
97
76
41
12
9
257

207

80.5

108
65
32
37
9
6

89
54
26
23
9
6

82.4

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

297

A P P E N D I X V II.-— T A B L E S .

T able 95.— Employment o f mother during pregnancy, or within 12 months after the
birth, by color o f mother; live births in 1915.
Live births in 1915 to—
Employment of mother during pregnancy of 1915 or after 1915
birth.

White mothers.

Colored mothers.

Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.1
tion.1
Total......................................
Not employed during pregnancy or after birth..........
Employed only after death of infant.................
Employed at home on ly2...................
Employed away from Home....................
Employment not reported...................

9,492

100.0

1,305

100.0

6,932
61
1,663
835
1

73.0
.6
17.5
8.8

318
12
320
655

24.4
.9
24.5
50.2

1 Not shown when under one-tenth of 1 per cent.
* Includes 4 white mothers and 6 colored mothers who worked at home during pregnancy and awav
after death of infant, and 1 white mother who may have worked away during life of infant but for whom
employment after birth was not reported.

T able 96.— Occupation o f mother and employment away frcm home before and after
marriage, by color and nationality; mothers {maternal histories).
Mothers.
Employment of mother away from home, and
color and nationality of mother.

Employed away from hom e.
Total.
Total.

All mothers...............................
Not employed...............
Employed..............................
Before marriage only...........
After marriage...................
Employment not reported.. .
White mothers.......... “

Factory. Domestic

Other.

11,169

8,791

5,438

1,918

1,435

2,371
8,791
6,229
2,562
7

8,791
6,229
2,562

5,438
4,031
1,407

1,918
954
964

1,435
1,244
191

9,899

7,627

5,342

893

1,392

2,267
7,627
5,913
1,714
5

7,627
5,913
1,714

5,342
4,003
1,339

893
693
200

1,392
1,217
175

7,069

5,520

3,830

503

1,187

1,545
5,520
4,554
966
4

5,520
4,554
966

3,830
3,118
712

503
359
144

1,187
1,077
110

Foreign-born mothers....................

2,830

2,107

1,512

390

205

N ot employed.........................
Employed...........................
Before marriage only..............
After marriage..................................
Employment not reported......................

722
2,107
1,359
748
1

2,107
1,359
748

1,512
885
627

390
334
56

205
140
65

995

704

588

22

94

291
704
638
66

704
638
66

588
552
36

22
18
4

94
68
26

Not employed..............................
Employed..............................
Before marriage only.................
After marriage............................
Employment not reported...............
Native mothers......................
Not employed................................
Employed................................
Before marriage only.................
After marriage............................
Employment not reported..........

Jewish....................... .............
Not employed......................................
Employed..... ......................................
Before marriage only..........................
After marriage....................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

298

T able 96.— Occupation o f mother and employment away from home before and after
marriage, by color and nationality; mothers {maternal histories)— Continued.
Mothers.
Employment of mother away from home, and
color and nationality of mother.

Employed away from home.
Total.
Factory. Domestic.

Total.
599

516

54

29

599
178
421
1

599
178
421

516
123
393

54
40
14

29
15
14

433

147

111

4

32

286
147
94
53

147
94
53

111
70
41

4
4

32
20
12

321

270

114

135

21

51
270
201
69

270
201
69

114
69
45

135
114
21

21
18
3

136

122

26

87

9

14
122
109
13

122
109
13

26
21
5

87
80
7

9
8
1

109

101

40

59

2

s
101
74
27

101
74
27

40
17
23

59
55
4

2
2

102

97

84

6

7

5
97
30
67

97
30
67

84
21
63

6
3
3

7
6
1

100

67

33

23

11

33
67
35
32

67
35
32

33
12
21

23
20
3

11
3
8

1,270

1,164

96

1,025

43

104
1,164
316
848
2

1,164
316
848

96
28
68

1,025
261
764

43
27
16

Polish.

634

Not employed....................
Employed...........................
Before marriage only..
After marriage.............
Employment not reported.

M

Italian.
Not employed..................
Employed.........................
Before marriage only.
After marriage...........
German.
Not employed..................
Employed.........................
Before marriage only.
After marriage...........
Irish, English, Scotch, and English-Canadian......................... ......................
Not employed..................
Employed.........................
Before marriage only.
After marriage.______
Bohemian.
Not employed...................
Employed.........................
Before marriage only.
After marriage.......
Lithuanian.
Not employed..................
Employed.........................
Before marriage only.
After marriage...........
All other.
Not employed..................
Employed.........................
Before marriage only.
After marriage...........
Colored mothers.
Not employed....................
Employed...........................
Before marriage only..
After marriage.............
Employment not reported.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Other.

T able 97.—Occupation, by time o f employment away from home and color and nationality o f mother; mothers (maternal histories).
Mothers1 of specified color and nationality.
White.
Foreign bom.

Occupation,and time of employment of
Total
mother1 before marriage only and after mothers.
marriage.
Total.

Native.
Polish.

Italian.

Colored.
Bohe­
mian.

Lithu­
anian.

Allother.

Total....................................................

11,169

9,899

7,069

2,830

995

634

433

321

136

109

102

100

1,270

N ot employed away from home..................
Employed awayfrom home........................

2,371
8,791

2,267
7,627

1,545
5,520

722
2,107

291
704

34
599

286
147

51
270

14
122

8
101

5
97

33
67

104
1,164

Factory work............................
Domestic work.........................
Other work................................

5,438
1,918
1,435

5,342
893
1,392

3,830
503
1,187

1,512
390
205

588
22
94

516
54
29

111
4
32

114
135
21

26
87
9

40
59
2

84
6
7

33
23
11

96
1,025
43

Before marriage only.............................
Factory work............................
Domestic work.........................
Other work................................

6,229
4,031
954
1,244
2,562
1,407
964
191

5,913
4,003
693
1,217
1,714
1,339
200
175

4,554
3,118
359
1,077
966
712
. 144
110

1,359
885
334
140
748
627
56
65

638
552
18
68
66
36
4
26

178
123
40
15
421
393
14
14

94
70
4
20
53
41

201
69
114
18
69
45
21
3

109
21
80
8
13
5
7
si

74
17
55
2
27
23
4

30
21
3
6
67
63
3
1

35
12
20
3
32
21
3
8

316
28
261
27
848
68
764
16

7

5

4

1

Other work................................
_

-

1

12

APPENDIX VII. ---- TABLES.

Jewish.

Total.

Irish,
English,
Scotch,
German.
and
EnglishCanadian.

2

i Based on 11,169 mothers for whom maternal history was secured.

299


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

300

T a b l e 98.— Occupation and place o f employment o f mother during pregnancy, by color and nationality; births in 1915.*
Births in 19151 to mothers of specified color and nationality.
White
Occupation and place of employment of
mother during pregnancy of 1915 issue.

Foreign born. ^

Total.

Native.
Total.

Jewish.

Polish.

Italian.

Irish,
English,
Scotch,
BoheGerman.
and
mian.
EnglishCanadian.?

Colored.
Lithuanian.

All
other.*

A ll m o th e rs .........................................

11,613

10,104

7,210

2,894

1,011

655

440

331

138

112

105

102

1,509

N o t e m p lo y e d .............. .................................
E m p lo y e d ........................................................
A t h o m e ....................................................
K e e p in g lo d g e r s .............................

8,391
3,219
1,819
732
174
90
362
347
124
1,400
609
332
133
144
439
232
120
3

7,934
2,168
1,445
686
173
58
74
344
110
723
560
325
106
129
54
23
86
2

6,105
1,104
710
422
37
32
56
107
56
394
272
103
54
115
42
15
65
1

1,829
1,064
735
264
136
26
18
237
54
329
288
222
52
14
12
8
21
1

709
302
289
69
15
13
1
163
28
13
9

335
319
104
46
22
7
1
22
6
215
205
191
8
6
2
1
7
1

261
179
162
61
69
2

243
88
59
28
5
2
7
12
5
29
17
13
1
3
8
3
1

111
27
23
20

75
37
27
6
4

41
64
34
15
17

8
7
2
10
7
6
1

30
29
4
25

54
48
37
19
4
2
1
10
1
11
8
4
3
1

457
1,051
374
46
1
22
288
3
14
677
49
7
27
15
285
2Q9
34
1

Sewmg (for factory)..................
Sewing (not for factory)...........
Laundering...............................

H e lp in g i n h u s b a n d ’ s business.
D o in g oth er h o m e w o r k .............
A w a y from h o m e ..................................
F a cto ry op e ra tiv e s .......................
C a n n m g, sh u ck in g................

Clothing..............................
O th er fa c t o r y ..........................

Charwork, laundress, etc..........
D o m e s tic s e rv a n t..........................

Any other occupation..............
E m p lo y m e n t n o t r ep o rte d ........................

7
2
1
3

18
12
17
« 11
3
7
1
6

3
4
2
1
1
2

2

2
1

1

3

Per cent distribution.4
All mothers.........
Not employed...............
Employed......................
At home..................
Keeping lodgers.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

72.3
27.7
15.7
6.3

78.5
21.5
14.3
6.8

84.7
15.3
9.8
5.9

63.2
36.8
25.4
9.1

70.1
29.9
28.5
6.8

51.1
48.7
15.9
7.0

59.3
40.7
36.8
13.9

73.4
26.6
17.8
8.5

80.4
19.6
16.7
14.5

67.0
33.0
24.1
5.4

39.0
61.0
32.4
14.3

52.9
47.1
36.3
18.6

30.3
69.6
24.8
3.0

IN FA N T MORTALITY,

Total
births.1

Sewing (for factory)..................
Sewing (not for factory)...........
Laundering...............................
Helping in husband’ s business.
Doing other home work...........
Away from home.............................
Factory operatives...................
Canning, shucking, e t c .. . .
Clothing..............................
Other factory......................
Charwork, laundress, etc..........
Domestic servant......................
Any other occupation...............
Employment not reported....................

3.6
2.2

16.2
1.9
'28*6
27.6
3.8
23.8

1.4

1.0

2.9

APPENDIX Y II. ---- TABLES.

1 Includes miscarriages.
s Includes 101 Irish, 19 English, 8 Scotch, and 10 English-Canadian.
2 S w S s £ f t S & a n d l D a S . 13 Magyar* 8 Norwegian’ 6 Serbian,5 French,5 Slovak, 4 Rumanian,4 Ruthenian,3 French-Canadian,3 D utch,2 S la v ic (n .o .s .),2 Spanish,
1Not shown when less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

301


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302

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 99.— Occupation o f mother, by place and time o f employment; live births in 1915
to mothers employed.
Live births to mothers employed.

Occupation of mother.

During 1915
pregnancy.

During lifetime
of infant.

Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu- Number. distribution.
tion.
All mothers employed.
At home................................
Keeping lodgers.. . . — ............
Sewing (for factory)...................
Sewing (not for factory)............
Laundering..............- j..............
Helping in husband’s business.
Doing other home work............
Away from home.
Cannery operative.........
Other factory operative.
Charwork, laundry, etc.
Domestic.......................
All other.........................
Not reported..................

100.0

2,911

100.0

2,784

1,682

57.8

1,929

69.3

700
161
71
312
328
110

24.0
5.5
2.4
10.7
11.3
3.8

948
143
66
303
345
124

34.1
5.1
2.4
10.9
12.4
4.5

1,229

42.2

855

30.7

315
233
386
191
104

10.8
8.0
13.3
6.5
3.6

220
141
297
121
75
1

7.9
5.1
10.7
4.3
2.7

T a b l e 100 —Employment o f mother during pregnancy o f 1915 and during lifetime o f

infant, by color and nationality; births in 1915.1
Per cent of mothers
employed
Color and nationality of mother.

During
preg­
nancy.2
27.7

25.8

21.5

21.5

15.3
36.8

15.4
35.0

29.9
48.7
40.7
33.5

31.0
41.9
41.7
30.6

69.6
1Includes miscarriages.
2 Based on total births in 1915.
8 Based on live births.


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During
life of
infant.8

60.2
_________ E

303

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

T a b l e 101.— Employment o f mother during pregnancy o f 1915, by employment after the

birth, at home and away from home, by color o f mother; live births in 1915.
Live births in 1915 to—
Employment of mother.

All mothers.
Live
births.

Total............................................ .

White mothers.

Infant
deaths.

Live
births.

Infant
deaths.

Colored mothers.
Live
births.

Infant
deaths.

10,797

1,117

9,492

910

1,305

207

Employed at home during 1915 pregnancy.

1,682

159

1,359

118

323

41

Not employed after birth of infant......
Employed after death of infant:
At home................................
Away..........................................
Employed during life of infant: At home..........................................
Away........................................
Employment after birth not reported..

147

23

130

20

17

3

54
10

54
10

35
4

35
4

19
6

19
6

1,412

70

1,172
17
1

58
1

240
41

12
1

1

Employed away during 1915 pregnancy. . .

1,229

221

659

106

570

115

Not employed after birth of infant.......
Employed after death of infant:
At home................................
Away......................................
Employed during life of infant:
At home........................................
Away.............................................

363

41

274

27

89

14

10
104

10
104

4
51

4
51

6
53

6
53

158
594

10
56

71
259

4
20

87
335

6
36

Not employed during 1915 pregnancy1. . . .

7,886

737

7,474

686

412

51

Not employed after birth of infant......
Employed after death of infant:
At home.................... ........
Away............................
Employed during life of infant:
At home..........................................
Away................................
Employment after birth not reported.

7,250

640

6,932

603

318

37

22
51

22
51

19
42

19
42

3
9

3
9

359
203
1

7
16
1

321
159
1

6
15
1

38
44

1
1

1
reporrea.

3 live births (2 wbite, 1 colored) and 1 death (white); employment during 1915 pregnancy not


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304

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 102.— Infant mortality rates, by mother's employment away from home during

pregnancy or within year after bvrth, earnings o f father, and color and nativity o f mother;
live births in 1915.
Live births in 1915 to mothers—
Employed away from home
during pregnancy or within
year after birth.1
Earnings of father and color and nativity
of mother.

Not employed away from
home during pregnancy or
within year after birth.
Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.2

Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.2

1,553

302

194.5

9,244

815

88.2

181
69
10
5
24
13

203.1
169.1

$1,250 a n d o v e r ........ ....................
N o e a r n in g s .................................
N o t re p o r te d ..................................

891
408
61
18
112
63

2,102
3,498
2,195
1,203
95
151

232
325
148
74
19
17

110.4
92.9
67.4
61.5

N a tiv e w h ite m o th e r s ........

501

99

197.6

6,238

547

87.7

E arnings o f fa th er:
U n d e r $550................................ .
$550-$849................................ ..
$850-$l,249....................
$1,250 a n d o v e r ..............................
N o earnings....................................
N o t re p o r te d ...... ...................

216
167
36
12
41
29

42
30
5
4
11
7

194.4
179.6

877
2,467
1,766
983
47
98

115
233
121
63
5
10

131.1
94.4
68.5
64.1

A ll m o th e r s ................................
E arnings o f fa th er:
U n d e r $550.......................... .......
$550-1849..........................................

$850-$l,249...................................

214.3

112.6

F oreig n -b orn w h ite m others.

381

70

183.7

2,372

194

81.8

E arnings o f fa th er:
U n d e r $550.......... ...........................
$550-$849..........................................
$850 a n d o v e r .................................
N o ea rn in gs....................................
N o t re p o r te d ..................................

213
128
18
16
6

43
19
2
3
3

201.9
14& 4

824
871
603
34
40

70
77
32
10
5

85.0
88.4
53.1

C olored m o th e r s ....... ...............

671

133

198.2

634

74

116.7

E arn in gs o f fa th er:
U n d e r $550......................................
$550 a n d o v e r .................................
N o earn in gs....................................
N o t r e p o rte d ..................................

462
126
55
28

96
24
10
3

207.8
190.5

401
206
14
13

47
21
4
2

117.2
101.- 9

1 Includes 2 mothers whose employment was not reported.
2 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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305

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

T a b l e 103 .—Infant mortality rates (by cause o f death) and stillbirth rates, by employment

o f mother during pregnancy and color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915.
Stillbirths.

Infant deaths.

Early
All other
Total.
Employment during pregnancy Total
infancy.
causes.
liv e
of 1915, and color and nativity
births.
Per
of mother.
Num­ 1,000
ber.
Infanl
Infant
Infant
births.1
Num­ mor­ Num­ mor­ Num­ mor­
ber. tality ber. tality ber. tality
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
All mothers..... .............. .

11,195

398

35.6 10,797 1,117

103.5

407

37.7

710

65.8

Not employed................................. 8,123
Employed at home......................... 1,752
Employed away from home.......... 1,317
Employment not reported.............
3

240
70
88

29.5
40.0
66.8

7,883
1,682
1,229
3

736
159
221
1

93.4
94.5
179.8

293
44
70

37.2
26.2
57.0

443
115
151

56.2
68.4
122 9

Native white mothers.......... 6,937

198

28.5

6,739

646

95.9

257

38.1

389

57.7

Not employed................................. 5,896
Employed at home.........................
674
Employed away from home..........
366
Employment not reported.............
1

162
18
18

27.5
26.7
49.2

5,734
656
348
1

541
56
49

94.3
85.4
140.8

223
18
16

38.9
27.4
46.0

318
38
33

55.5
57.9
94.8

1

. Foreign-born white mothers. 2,837

84

29.6

2,753

264

95.9

85

30.9

179

65.0

Not employed................................. 1,791
Employed at home.........................
723
Employed away from home..........
322
Employment not reported.............
1

53
20
11

29.6
27.7
34.2

1,738
703
311
1

144
62
57
1

82.9
88.2
183.3

50
15
20

28.8
21.3
64.3

94
47
37
1

54.1
66,9
119.0

Colored mothers.................... 1,421

116

81.6

1,305

207

158.6

65

49.8

142

108.8

25
32
59

57.3
90.1
93.8

411
323
570
1

51
41
115

124.1
126.9
201.8

20
11
34

48.7
34.1
59.6

31
30
81

75.4
92.9
142t1

Not employed..................... ...........
Employed at home.........................
Employed away from home..........
Employment not reported.............

436
355
629
1

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

101351°— 23------20


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306

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 104.— Excess infant mortality (by cause o f death) and stillbirth rates among infants

o f mothers employed during pregnancy, over those expected when effect o f differences
color and nationality and earnings o f father is eliminated; births in 1915.

Deaths from
all causes.

Stillbirths.
Employment of mother during
pregnancy.

Live
>irths.

births.

Early
infancy.

in

All other
causes.

Infant
[nfant
Infant
Num­ mor­ Num­ mor­ Num­ mor­
ber. tality ber. tality ber. tality
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1

Per
Num­ 1.0001
ber. births.

AT.T, MOTHERS.

Not employed:
Employed at home:
Employed away from home:

8,123

240
256

29.5
31.5

7,883

736
759

93.4
96.3

293
290

37.2
36.8

443
469

56.2
59.5

1,752

70
70

40.0
40.0

1,682

159
176

94.5
104.6

44
62

26.2
36.9

115
114

68.4
69.0

1,317

88
72

66.8
54.7

1,229

221
170

179.8
138.3

70
54

57.0
43.9

151
116

122.9
94.4

3

3

1

1

NATIVE WHITE MOTHERS.

Not employed:
Employed at home:
Employed away from home:

5,896

162
168

27.5
28.5

5,734

541
538

94.3
93.8

123
217

38.9
37.8

318
321

55.5
56.0

674

18
19

26.7
28.2

656

56
65

85.4
99.1

18
25

27.4
38.1

38
40

57.9
61.0

366

18
11

49.2
30.1

348

49
42

140.8
120.7

16
15

46.0
43.1

33
27

94.8
77.6

1,791

53
53

29.6
29.6

1,738

144
158

82.9
90.9

50
52

28.8
29.9

94
106

54.1
61.0

723

20
22

27.7
30.4

703

62
62

88.2
88.2

15
21

21.3
29.9

47
41

66.9
58.3

322

11
9

34.2
28.0

311

57
44
1

183.3
141.5

20
12

64.3
38.6

37
32

119.0
102.9

436

25
35

57.3
80.3

411

51
63

124.1
153.3

20
21

48.7
51.1

31
42

75.4
102.2

355

32
29

90.1
81.7

323

41
49

126.9
151.7

11
16

34.1
49.5

30
33

92.9
102.2

629

59
52

93.8
82.7

570

115
84

201.8
147.4

34
27

59.6
49.4

81
57

142.1
100.0

1

1

FOREIGN-BORN WHITE MOTHERS.

Not employed:
Employed at home:
Employed away from home:

1

1

1

COLORED MOTHERS.

Not employed:
Employed at home:
Employed away from home:
Expected2. . . ....... .................

1

1

1

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.
................... . . . . l
.
a Expected stillbirths and deaths are calculated by applying to the births (or live births) in each
nationality, earnings and employment of mother group, the average rates prevailing in the same nation­
ality and earnings group; among the foreign-bom white mothers average rates prevailing in each na­
tionality group are used.


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307

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.

T able 105.—Prevalence o f premature births, by employment during pregnancy and color
and nativity o f mother; live births in 1915.
«

Live births.

Employment during pregnancy of 1915, and color
and nativity of mother.

Premature births.
Total.

All mothers...... ...................
Not employed................................ .
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home......... .
Employment not reported............
Native whife mothers.........

Full
term.

Number. Per cent.1

Term not
reported.

10,797

10,196

591

5.5

10

7,883
1,682
1,229
3

7,430
1,615
1,149
2

450
65
76

5.7
3.9
6.2

3
2
4
1

6,739

6,322

415

6.2

2

Not employed................................
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home......... .
Employment not reported............

5,734
656
348
1

5,377
619
325
1

356
36
23

6.2
5.5
6.6

1
1

Foreign-bom white mothers

2,753

2,654

97

3.5

2

Not employed................................
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home.........
Employment not reported............

1,738
703
311
1

1,669
687
297
1

67
16
14

3.9
2.3
4.5

2

Colored mothers...................

1,305

1,220

79

6.1

6

Not employed................................
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home.........
Employment not imported............

411
323
570
1

384
309
527

27
13
39

6.6
4.0
6.8

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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1
4
1

308

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 106.—Infant mortality rates, by cause o f death and by employment o f mother during
pregnancy and color and nativity; full-term live births in 1915.
Infant mortality rates.1
0
FullEmployment during pregnancy of 1915, and color and nativity term
live
of mother.
births.

Employment not reported.............................................................

All
causes.

Early All other
infancy. causes.

10,196

77.7

14.7

63.0

7,430
1,615
i' Ì49
2

67.2
76.2
147.1

13.9
9.3
27.9

53.3
66.9
119.2

6,322

68.3

13.4

54.9

5,377
619
■325
1

67.0
63.0
101.5

13.9
6.5
• 18.5

53.1
56.5
83.0

2,654

78.7

15.8

62.9

1,669
687
297
1

63.5
78.6
161.6

13.2
11.6
40.4

50,3
67.0
121.2

1,220

123.8

18.9

104.9

384
309
527

85.9
97.1
167.0

15.6
9.7
26.6

70.3
87.4
140.4

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 107.—-Interval between cessation o f work and confinement, by occupation and color
o f mother; births in 1915 1 to mothers em ployed during pregnancy.
Per cent3 of births1 to mothers reporting specified
interval between cessation of work aim. confine­
ment.
Occupation and place of employment
during pregnancy of 1915 and color of
mother.

Total
births.1
None.

weeks, 2 months Interval
Under 2 2under
2 and over. not re­
weeks. months.
ported.

All mothers employed during pregnancy...............................................

3,219

45.1

7; 2

10.7

35.6

1.3

Employed at home......................................

1,819

67.1

6.3

8.6

16.7

1.3

Keeping lodgers....................................
Sewing 7for factory)..............................

86.1
32.8

2.0
8.6

3.3
16.7

7.1
40.8

1.5
1.1

Laundering............................................
Husband’ s business..............................
Other home work..................................

732
174
80
362
347
124

48.3
70.3
69.4

10.2
9.2
8.1

15.2
8.1
10.5

25.1
11.8
8.1

1.1
.6
4.0

Employed away from home........................

1,400

16.6

8.5

13.4

60.1

1.4

Factory operatives................................
Canning, shucking, etc...................

7.1
9.0
3.8
5.6
31.0
13.4
18.3

8.5
10.8
10.5
1.4
10.5
5.6
6.7

12.3
17.8
6.0
5.6
14.6
15.5
10.8

70.6
61.7
79.7
82.6
42.6
65.1
61.7

1.5
.6

Other factory..................................
Charwork, laundress, etc......................
Domestic servant..................................
Any other occupation...........................

609
332
133
144
439
232
120

4.9
1.4
.4
2.5

White mothers...................................

2,168

50.3

6.6

9.6

32.0

1.4

Employed at home......................................
Employed away from home........................

1,445
723

70.7
9.7

5.5
8.9

7.8
13.3

14.7
66.5

1.3
1.7

Colored mothers.......................... ....

1,051

34.4

8.5

12.8

43.1

1.1

Employed at home......................................
Employed away from home........................

374
677

53.5
23.9

9.1
8.1

11.5
13.6

24.6
53.3

1.3
1.0

1 Includes miscarriages.


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3Not shown where base'is less than 100.

309

APPENDIX V II.-----TABLES.

T able 108.— Infant deaths under 1 month per 1,00o live births and stillbirth rates, by
interval between cessation o f work and confinement, color o f mother, and place o f employ­
ment; births in 1915 to mothers employed during pregnancy.
Births in 1915 to mothers employed during pregnancy.
Stillbirths.
Interval between cessation of
work and confinement, color
of mother, and place of em­
ployment.

Total
births.

Infant deaths.

1,000
Number. Per
births.1
Number.

Mothers employed at home:
White..................................

Under 1 month
of age.'

Total.

Per 1,000
Per 1,000
live
Number.
live
births.1
births.1

1,397

38

27.2

118

86.8

36

26.5

Interval—
None or under 2 weeks__
2 weeks and over..............
Not reported.....................

1,067
312
18

23
14
1

21.6
44.9

83
32
3

79.5
107.4

24
11
1

23.0
36.9

Colored....................................

355

32

90.1

41

126.9

14

43.3

Interval—
None or under 2 weeks__
2 weeks and over..............
Not reported.....................

218
132
5

20
10
2

91.7
75.8

23
16
2

116.2
131.1

9
4
1

45.5
32.8

Mothers employed away from
home:
W h ite.....................................

688

29

42.2

106

160.8

50

75.9

Interval—
None or under 2 weeks...
2 weeks and over..............
Not reported.....................

116
560
12

7
21
1

60.3
37.5

16
89
1

146.8
165.1

9
41

82.6
76.1

Colored.....................................

629

59

93.8

115

201.8

45

78.9

Interval—
None or under 2 weeks__
2 weeks and over..............
Not reported.....................

186
436
7

18
40
1

96.8
91.7

48
65
2

285.7
164.1

19
26

113.1
65.7

iN ot shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

310

T able 109.—Age o f infant when mother began work, by place o f mother's employment
and color and nationality o f mother; infants bom in 1915 to mothers employed during
in f ant's first year o f life, and subsequent infant deaths.
Infants of mothers of specified color and nationality who were
employed during infant’s life.

In­
fants.

Mothers employed after
birth of infant...........
Ago of infant:

Employed at home.......
Age o t infant:

Employed away from
home.........................
Age of infant:

Not reported..................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Native.

Total.

White.

Subse­ Deaths
quent before
In­
deaths end of fants.
in
month
year. of life.

Subse­ Deaths
quent before
In­
deaths end of fants.
month
in
year. of life.

Age of infant, and place of
employment of mother.

Subse­ Deaths
quent before
deaths end of
in
month
year. of life.

2,784

161

15

1,999

104

14

1,036

52

5

755
537
293
269
168
117
152
100
115
102
107
58
13

58
37
21
11
9
11
3
4
1
4
2

2
3
3

686
351
171
153
109
67
98
71
79
71
84
46
13

46
17
12
3
7
9
2
2
1
3
2

2
3
2

282
192
98
82
73
36
54
43
50
40
44
35
7

23
10
8

1
1

1,929

87

8

1,564

68

8

801

34

2

005
405
194
140
97
60
86
56
49
56
54
25
12

45
18
12
2
i
4

2
3
2

41
12
9

2
3
2

1
1

1

268
165
80
57
46
26
34
27
22
25
30
14
7

,21
6
5

3
1

652
305
141
100
72
38
62
42
31
42
46
21
12

855

74

7

435

36

235

18

60
132
99
129
69
57
66
44
66
46
53
33
1

13
19
9
9
8
7
3
3
1
1
1

14
27
18
25
27
10
20
16
28
15
14
21

2
4
3

i
3
1
1
1

1

1
1
3
1
1

34
46
30
53
37
29
36 .
29
48
29
38
25
1

1
3
1
1
1

3

1
1

5
5
3
3
7
6
2
2
1
1
1

6

1
3
1
1

4
2
1
2

1
1
1

2

i

i

4
1
1
2
1

3

1
1
1

311

APPENDIX V II.---- TABLES.

T able 109.— Age o f infant when mother began work, by place o f mother's employment
and color and nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915 to mothers employed during
infant's first year o f life, and subsequent infant deaths— Continued.
Infants of mothers of specified color and nationality who were
employed during infant’s life.
Foreign born.
Age of infant, and place of
employment of mother.

In­
fants.

Mothers employed after
Age of infant:

Employed at home.......
Age of infant:

Employed away from
Age of infant:

Not reported....................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Total.

Italian.

Jewish.

Subse­ Deaths
quent before
In­
deaths end of fants.
in
month
year. of life.

Subse­ Deaths
quent before
In­
deaths end of fants.
in
month
year. of life.

Subse­ Deaths
quent before
deaths end of
in
month
year. of life.

963

52

9

172

8

1

298

4

2

404
159
73
71
36
31
44
28
29
31
40
11
6

23
7
4
3
3
7
1

2
2
1

3
3
1

1

1
1

1
1

152
68
23
14
11
3
6
6
3
6
5
1

2
1
1

1
1
2

77
35
16
16
8
3
8
1
1
2
4

763

34

6

165

8

1

289

4

2

384
140
61
43
26
12
28
15
9
17
16
7
5

20
6
4

2
2
1

75
34
15
15
8
3
7
1
1
2
3

3

1

150
67
22
13
10
3
6
6
2
4
5
1

2
1
1

1
1

200

18

20
19
12
28
10
19
16
13
20
14
24
4
1

2

1

1

2

1
1

1

1
3

3
1_
3
3
5
1

2

1

1

1

7

9

2
1
1
1

2
1
1
1
1

1

1
1

3

1

1
2

f

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

312

T a b l e 109.— A ge o f infant when mother began work, by place o f mother's employment

and color and nationality o f mother; infants born in 1915 to mothers employed during
infant's first year o f life, and subsequent infant deaths— Concluded.
Infants of mothers of specified color and nationality who were employed
during infant’s life.
Foreign born.
Colored.

Age of infant, and place of
employment of mother.

Polish.

All other.

Subse­ .Deaths
Subse­
before
quent end
quent
Infants. deaths
of Infants. deaths
in year. month
in
year.
of life.
Mothers e m p l o y e d
after birth of infant..
Age of infant:
1 month...........................

5 months.........................
8 months.........................
10 months........................

Employed at home.......
Age of infant:

9 months..... ...................

Employed away from
home..........................
Age of infant:

8 months.........................
11 months........................
Not reported...................


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

262

25

66
20
15
26
11
16
20
12
18
19
29
8
2

6
2
1
3
3
5
1

4

1

1

231

15

2

785

57

109
36
19
15
6
9
10
9
7
4
2
2
3

12
1
1

1

1

1

69
186
122
116
57
50
54
29
36
31
23
12

12
20
9
8
2
2
1
2_

193

13

1

365

19

104
28
16
10
5
4
8
5
4
3
1
2
3

11
1
1

1

43
100
53
40
25
22
24
14
18
14
g
4

4
6
3
2
1
1

420

38

26
86
69
76
32
28
30
15
18
17
15
8

8
14
6
6
1
1
1
1

1
1
2

1
1

116

9

2

55
11
8
5
3
2
7
3
2
8
7
4
1

4
1
1

1

1
1

1

146

16

2

38

2

11
9
7
21
8
14
13
9
16
11
22
4
1

2
1

1

1

5
g
3
5
1
5
2
4
3
1
1

1

3
3
4
1
1
1

1

Deaths
Subse­ Deaths
before
before
end of Infants. quent end of
deaths
month
month
in year.
oflife.
oflife.

i

1

i

1

j'

1
1

1

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.

313

T a b l e 110.— Excess -mortality among infants o f mothers employed during infant's life­

time, by time o f resumption o f work, place o f employment, and color and nationality o f
mother, over mortality expected when eff ect o f differences in color and nationality o f mother
is eliminated; infants bom in 1915 to mothers employed during infant's lifetim e.
Infants of mothers employed
at home.
Age of infant when mother began work,
and color and nationality of mother.

Deaths.

Deaths.

Total.
Actual.
Total.

1,929

Under 3 months__
2 months, under 6..
6 months and over.
Age not reported...

1,294
297
326
12

Native white mothers.
Under 3 months__
3 months, under 6..
6 months and over.
Age not reported...
Foreign-bom white mothers.

Infants of mothers employed
away from home.

801

87

34

513
129
152
7
763

Under 3 months__
3 months, under 6..
6 months and over.
Age not reported...

585
81
92
5

Colored.

365

Under 3 months__
3 months, under 6..
6 months and over.

196
87
82

34

19

Ex­
pected.1

Total.
Actual.

Ex­
pected.1

92.4

855

72.7
13.6
6.1

291
255
308
1

35.0

235

6.7

27.7
5.0
2.3

59
62
114

2.2
2.9
1.6

74

46.5
23.4
16.2
6.9

31.1

200

11.0

26.5
2.9
1.7

51
57
91
1

4.3
4.1
2.6

5.3

420

18.5
5.7

181
136
103

2.1

38

28.8
16.9
9.2
2.7

. f E^P®cted deaths are calculated by applying to the infants of employed mothers in each color and na- S r<?uP ?he avera|[e rates of subsequent deaths in the same color and nationality group. The numrato°nf
went i? worh duringthe ^ t month of the infant’s life is m ultipliedbythe
e of sribsequeiit deaths among all survivors of the first month; the number of infants whose mothers
want to workduring the second month is multiplied by the average of the rates of subsequent deaths among
survivors at thebegmnmgand survivors at the end of the second month; and s i m il a r l y for each later month8
^ ht w S , r w en
together. to fonn the groups shown in the table. In calculating ex p ^ t^ d ea th s
m the foreign-born white group, calculations were made separately for the Jewish, Polish, Italian and all
other groups and the results added to form the total in the foreign-bom white group.
’
a


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

314

T able 111.— Excess mortality among infants o f mothers employed during infant's life­
time, by place o f employment, over mortality expected when effect o f differences m in­
fants' ages and in fathers' earnings is eliminated; infants bom in 1915 to native white
and to colored mothers.
Infants whose mothers’ employment be­
gan in some previous month.1
Earnings of father, and color, nativity, and place of employ­ Surviving at begin­
ning of2—
ment of mother.
Second
month.
Mothers employed at home..................................................
Earnings of father:
$55ft-$849

Earnings of father:
XJriqp.r $5.50

....................................................... -

....................................................

Mothers employed away from home...................................
Earnings of father:
XTniW $5.^0

.....................................................

Earnings of father:

*

Twelfth
month.

Infant deaths.3
Actual. Expected.

296
257

1,033
710

47
31

55.1
31.5

50
111
71
25
39

141
300
196
73
323

10
7
12
2
16

10.0
14.1
6.1
1.3
23.6

32
7
30
13

238
85
480
157

15
1
40
9

18.4
5.2
28.1
6.2

7
5
1

8
1

4.6
1.6

17

95
51
9
2
323

31

21.9

15
2

267
56

26
5

18.8
3.1

1 From this comparison are omitted (1) infants of foreign-born white mothers; (2) infants of native white
and of colored mothers in families where the fathers earned nothing or amounts not reported; (3) the litetime and deaths of infants lived in the months in which the mothers went to work—that is, if the mothers
went to work in the tenth month, thelifetime and deaths in that month, and (4) lifetime and deaths of
infantsin eases where the age ofthe infant at the time the mother went to work was not reported,
a The numbers for months between the second and the twelfth are omitted.
a The actual deaths are the sum ofthe deaths occurring month b y month among the “ infant survivors
at the beginning of each month. The expected deaths are the sum of the deaths among these infant sur­
vivors expected on the basis of monthly death rates among all infants of native white and of colored
mothers respectively in the specified fathers’ earnings group.
T able 112 .— Nationality o f mother, by place o f her employment and age o f infant when
mother began work; infants bom in 1915 to mothers employed during in fan ts
lifetim e.
________ ________________ ___________________
Infants of specified age when mothers began work.
Color and nationality of mother and place of em­
ployment.

Under 3 months.

3 months and over.

Not
Per cent reported.
Per cent
Number. distribu- Number. distribution.
tion.

Mothers employed at home.............

1,294

100.0

623

100.0

12

Native white...............................................
Jewish..........................................................
Polish.......... ..............................................
Italian..........................................................
All other foreign-bom white......................
Colored.........................................................

513
239
74
124
148
196

39.6
18.5
5.7
9.6
11.4
15.1

281
50
41
40
42
169

45.1
8.0
6.6
6.4
6.7
27.1

7

Mothers employed away from home.

291

100.0

563

100.0

1

Native white...............................................
Polish..........................................................
All other foreign-bom white......................
Colored.........................................................

59
27
24
181

20.3
9.3
8.2
62.2

176
118
30
239

31.3
21.0
5.3
42.5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1
1
3

1

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

315

T able 113.—Earnings o f father, by mother's place o f employment, color and nativity;
and age o f infant when mother began work; infants o f mothers employed during infant's
lifetime.
Infants of specified age when mothers began work—
At home.

Earnings of father and color and
nativity of mother.

Under 3
months.

Away from home.

3 months
and over.

Under 3
months.

3 months
and over.

Age
Age
not
not
Per
Per
Per
Per
re­
re­
cent
cent
cent Num­ cent
Num­ dis­ Num­
Num­
ported
ported.
dis­
dis­ ber. dis­
ber. tribu­ ber. tribu­
ber tribu­
tribu­
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.
All mothers.

1,294

100.0

623

100.0

Earnings of father:
Under $450___
$450-$549......
$550-$649.........
$650 and over..
No earnings...
Not reported..

228
216
175
612
26
37

17.6
16.7
13.5
47.3
2.0
2.9

155
111
78
247
17
15

24.9
17.8
12.5
39.6
2.7
2.4

Native white.

513

100.0

281

100.0

Earnings of father:
Under $450.......
$450-$549..........
$550-$649..........
$650 and over...
No earnings___
Not reported...

39
54
84
314
7
15

7.6
10.5
16.4
61.2
1.4
2.9

34
31
39
158
7
173

12

12

291

100.0

563

100.0

119
54
23
29
50
16

40.9
18.6
7.9
10.0
17.2
5.5

222

125
69
88
34
25

39.4
22.2
12.3
15.6
6.0
4.4

7

59

100.0

176

100.0

12.1 .......
11.0
1
13.9 ..........
56.2
4
2.5
2
4.3 ..........

16
10
5
12
14

53
32

2

27.1
16.9
8.5
20.3
23.7
3.4

30.1
18.2
11.4
22.2
10.2
8.0

51

100.0

100.0

43.1
19.6
3.9
21.6
9.8
2.0

32.4
22.3
20.3
18.2
4.8
2.0

20

39
18
14

Foreign-born white.

585

100.0

Earnings of father:
Under $450.................
$450-$549....................
$550-$649....................
$650 and over.............
No earnings...............
Not reported..............

123
95
72
269
10
16

21.0

16.2
12.3
46.0
1.7
2.7

Colored.........

196

100.0

169

100.0

181

100.0

239

100.0

66

33.7
34.2
9.7
14.8
4.6
3.1

77
46
14
24
6

45.6
27.2
8.3
14.2
3.6
1.2

81
34
16
6
31
13

418
18.8
8.8
3.3
17.1
7.2

121
60
19
22
9
8

50.6
25.1
7.9
9.2
3.8
3.3

Earnings of father:
Under $450.......
$450-$549..........
$550-$649..........
$650 and over...
No earnings__
Not reported...


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

67
19
29
9
6

100.0

5

25.4
19.7
14.5
37.6

1
1
3

.6

2

1

316

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 114.— Interval between cessation o f work and confinement, by interval between
confinement and resumption o f work; infants o f mothers employed away both during
pregnancy and within year after the birth.
Infants of mothers employed away duringpregnaney and resuming such work
within specified time after birth.
Under 3 months.

Interval between cessation of work and confinement.

Number.

3 months and over.

Per cent
Per cent
distrib­ Number. distrib­
ution.
ution.

236

100.0

358

100.0

80
23
43
88
2

33.9
9.7
18.2
37.3
.8

40
24
49
241
4

11.2
6.7
13.7
67.3
1.1

T able 115.— Excess mortality among infants o f mothers employed away from home during
infant’s lifetime, by mother’s employment during pregnancy and age o f infant when mother
resumed work, over mortality expected when effect o f differences in mother’s color and
nationality, and father’s earnings is eliminated; infants o f mothers employed away from
home during infant’ s lifetime.
Infants of mothers employed away during lifetime of infant.
Mother employed away
during pregnancy.

Mother not employed away
during pregnancy .

Age of infant when mother resumed work.
Deaths.

Deaths.

Infants.
*

Actual.

Ex­
pected A

Infants.
Actual.

Ex­
pected.1

AH.......................................................

594

56

35.0

260

18

10.7

Under 3 months...........................................
3 months, under 6 ........................................
6 months and over.......................................

236
183
175

33
17
6

19.9
11.3
3.8

54
72
*134

8
7
3

4.2
4.1
2.4

1 See note 1, Table 110, p. 313.
* Includes 1 infant of a mother whose employment was not reported.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.
T

317

116.— Infant survivors and infant deaths, by type o f feeding, month o f life, place
o f mother's em ploym ent, and color and nationality o f mother; infants o f mothers
employed during infant's lifetime.

able

Infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetime.
Month of life of infant, and
place of employment,
color, and nationality oi
mother.

Total.

Artificially fed. Not re­
ported.

Mixed fed.

Breast fed.

Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant
sur­
sur­
in
sur­
sur­
sur­
in
in
in
vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors.
All mothers employed during infant’s life:
Third month...................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month....................
Sixth m onth...................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month...................
Tenth month...................
Employed at home during infant’s life:

Fifth month..............
Seventh month........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Employed away from
home during infant’s
life:

Eleventh month.......
White mothers employed
during infant’s life:

Fifth month....................
Sixth month...................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month...................
Twelfth month...............
Employed at home dining infant’s life—

Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Eighth month...........
Ninth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

763
1,282
1,565
1,821
1,973
2,063
2,199
2,283
2,385
2,471
2,566

5
7
13
13
24
16
15
13
15
11
14

597
860
903
933
915
717
642
500
385
294
242

2
1
1
2
4
2
1
1
2

693
1,091
l)280
1,411
1,503
l) 551
1,633
1,677
1,718
1,766
1,811

4
3
9
5
12
4
12
8
7
9
6

566
791
813
823
797
624
552
430
330
241
196

2
I
1
1
2
1
1
1
2

60
191
285
410
470
512
566
606
667
705
755

1
4
4
8
12
12
3
5
8
2
8

31
69
90
110
118
93
90
70
55
53
46

684
1,028
i'l9 2
1,338
1,438
1,488
1,577
1,638
1,707
1)770
1)844

4
5
7
8
14
9
9
10
7
9
8

557
746
745
758
732
584
531
420
331
258
212

2
i

650
948
1,084
1,178
1,246
1,276
l)336
1,370
1,394
1,429
1,468

4
3
6
4
8
2
8
7
6
7
5

533
701
694
693
665
527
474
376
294
218
177

2
i

3

1

1
2
1

2

i
2
2
1
1
2
2

i
i
i
i
i
2
1

2
2
3
3
4
2
5
3
2
4

101
245
364
459
525
594
662
723
804
863
919

3
4
10
8
17
10
12
7
10
9
7

43
110
192
266
344
520
624
751
847
942
997

1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1

84
190
274
321
361
406
456
495
540
582
618

2
2
8
3
9
2
10
4
4
8
4

12
67
105
162
188
231
270
308
348
371
408

2
2
2
2
3
1
2
2
1
3

17
55
90
138
164
188
206
228
264
281
301

1
2
2
5
8
8
2
3
6
1
3

85
185
269
333
381
419
464
505
562
503
651

2
3
7
5
10
6
7
5
5
8
5

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

78
165
234
276
309
340
378
409
444
480
511

2
2
6
2
6
1
7
3
4
7
4

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

55
177
297
428
532
751
894
1,059
1,195
1,313
1,405

42
97
177
246
324
484
581
712
813
908
981
39
82
155
208
271
408
483
584
655
730
780

1
2
2
1
1
4
1
1

Ì
1
3

__ tn
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

318

T a b l e 116.— Infant survivors and infant deaths, by type o f feeding, month o f life, place

o f mother's employment, and color and nationality o f mother; infants o f mothers
employed during infant's lifetime— Continued.
Infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetime.
Month oi life of infant, and
place of employment,
color, and nationality of
mother.

Total.

Breast fed.

Artificially fed. Not re­
ported.

Mixed fed.

Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant
sur­
sur­
sur­
sur­
in
in
in
in
sur­
vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors.
White mothers employed
during infant’s life—Con.
Employed away from
home during infant’s
life 1

Native mothers employed
during infant’s life—
Third month...................
Fifth month....................

Ninth month..............
Eleventh m onth...
Twelfth month...
Employed at home dur­
ing infant’ s life—

Fifth month. L..

Ninth month. .

Employed away from
home during infant’ s
life—

Foreign-bom mothers em­
ployed during infant’s life—

Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................

Twelfth month...............


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

34
80
108
160
192
212
241
268
313
341
376

2
1
4
6
7
1
3
1
2
3

24
45
51
65
67
57
57
44
37
40
35

282
471
565
641
707
736
787
826
871
907
947

2
3
6
6
6
3
3
5
4
4
5

220
325
336
346
342
285
262
217
172
131
105

268
430
507
559
602
625
658
682
701
722
749

2
2
5
3
3
1
3
3
4
3
3

210
303
311
318
312
260
235
194
157
113
89

14
41
58
82
105
111
129
144
170
185
198
402
557
627
697
731
752
790
812
836
863
897

1
2

10
22
25
28
30
25
27
23
15
18
16

2
2
1
2
8
6
6
5
3
5
3

337
421
409
412
390
299
269
203
159
127
107

1
1
3
3
2
2

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2

1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i

3
15
22
38
53
76
98
128
158
178
201
16
30
61
90
130
197
246
307
366
424
465
15
23
52
74
102
161
202
252
292
341
378

1
7
9
16
28
36
44
55
74
83
87
26
67
116
156
194
287
335
405
447
484
516

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

3
1
1

1

2

1

1
1
1

1
2
1
1
1

7
20
35
57
72
79
86
96
118
123
140

2
1
1
1

46
116
168
205
235
254
279
302
333
352
377

1
2
6
4
' 5
2
3
2
2
3
3

43
104
144
167
188
204
221
236
252
268
282

1
2
5
1
3

3
12
24
38
47
50
58
66
81
84
95
39
69
101
128
146
165
185
203
229
251
274

1
1
3
4
5

3
1
2
3
3

1
3
2
2
1

1
1
1
1
5
4
4
3
3
5
2

i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

319

T a b l e 116.— Infant survivors and infant deaths, by type o f feeding, month o f life, place

o f mother’s employment, and color and nationality o f mother; infants o f mothers
employed during infant’s lifetime—Continued.
Infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetime.
Month of life of infant, and
place of employment,
color, and nationality of
mother.

Total.

Breast fed.

Artificially fed. Not re­
ported.

Mixed fed.

Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant
sur­
in
sur­
in
sur­
in
sur­
in
sur­
vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors.
Foreign-bom .mothers employed during infant’s
life—Continued.
Employed at home during infant’s life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month______
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month...........
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
Employed away from
home during infant’ s
life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month...........
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month........
Jewish mothers employed
during infant’s life-^
Second month.................
Third month...................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month...................
Sixth month....................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month...................
Tenth month...................
Eleventh month.............
Twelfth month...............
Employed at home during infant’ s life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
Employed away from
home' during infant’ s
life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

382
518
577
619
644
678
688
693
707
719

20
39
50
78
87
101
112
124
143
156
178
152
219
241
255
266
269
275
281
283
288
293
150
216
237
250
260
263
269
275
276
279
284

2
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
7
9
9

2
1
1
1
5
1
5
4
2
4
2

1
1
3
5
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

323
398
383
375
353
267
239
182
137
105
88

14
23
26
37
37
32
30
21
22
22
19

1
1
1
1
1
1

1

24
59
103
134
169
247
281
332
363
389
402

2
8
13
22
25
40
54
73
84
95
114

134
175
155
147
135
92
80
54
40
29
20

10
30
59
75
95
135
145
167
175
180
187

133
173
153
145
133
90
78
54
40
29
20

10
30
59
74
94
134
144
165
172
175
182

1
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
2
3
5
5

1
1

1
1
1
1

1

1

35
61
90
109
121
136
157
173
192
212
229

4
$
11
19
25
29
28
30
37
39
45
g
14
26
32
35
41
49
59
67
78
86
7
13
24
30
32
38
46
55
63
74
82

1
1
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
4

1
1
1
3
1
4
2
2
4
i

i

1
2
3
1
1
1
1
.........

i
"■■■*

1
i

320

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 116.— Infant survivors and infant deaths, by type o f feeding, month o f life, place

o f mother's employment, and color and nationality o f mother; infants o f mothers
employed during infant's lifetime— Continued.
Infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetime.
Month of life of infant, and
place of employment,
color, and nationality of
mother.

Total.

Breast fed.

Artificially fed. Not re­
ported.

Mixed fed.

Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant
sur­
in
sur­
sur­
in
in
sur­
in
sur­
vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors.
Polish mothers employed
during infant’ s life—
Second month.................
Third month...................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month....................
Sixth month....................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month...................
Tenth month...................
Eleventh month.............
Twelfth month...............
Employed at home dur­
ing infant’ s life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month....... .
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
Employed away from
home during infant’ s
life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.. . . . .
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
Italian mothers employed
during infant’s life—
Second month................
Third month...................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month.....................
Sixth month....................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth m onth..................
Tenth month............ .
Eleventh month..............
Twelfth month................
Employed at home dur­
ing infant’ s life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

•
66
85
99
125
135
146
161
170
186
204
229
55
65
73
78
81
82
89
90
91
98
103

11
20
26
47
54
64
72
80
95
106
126
76
111
126
141
149
151
159
159
159
161
163
74
108
122
136
144
146
153
153
153
155
156

1
1
4
5
3
2
3
2

1
2
1
2
1

1
1
3
5
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1
1
2

54
63
68
77
78
63
66
50
43
41
36
47
52
54
54
52
40
42
33
25
22
20

7
11
14
23
26
23
24
17
18
19
16
68
90
92
97
96
76
64
54
45
35
31
66
87
90
95
94
75
62
52
43
34
30

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1

1
1

i
1

3
10
18
27
31
55
69
94
110
126
150

1
1
1
1

9
12
13
21
26
28
26
26
33
37
43

2
5
10
12
14
27
32
42
49
57
61

6
8
9
12
15
15
15
15
17
19
22

1
5
8
15
17
28
37
52
61
69
89

3
4
4
9
11
13
• 11
11
16
18
21

1
1
1
1

6
12
16
25
29
47
58
66
72
83
84

2
9
18
19
24
28
37
39
42
43
48

6
12
14
22
26
43
54
62
68
78
80

2
9
18
19
24
28
37
39
42
43
46

1
3
3
1
1
3
i

i
i
2

1
2
3
1

i

1

1

i
1
2

1

i
i
2

321

APPENDIX V II.---- TABLES.

T able 116.—Infant survivors and infant deaths, by type o f feeding, month o f life, place
o f mother’ s employment, and color and nationality o f mother; infants o f mothers
employed during infant’ s lifetim e— Continued.
Infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetime.
Month of life of infant, and
place of employment,
color, and nationality of
mother.

Total.

Breast fed.

Artificially fed. Not re­
ported.

Mixed fed.

Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant
sur­
in
sur­
sur­
in
in
sur­
in
sur­
vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors.
Italian mothers employed
during infant’s life—Con.
Employed away from
home' during infant’s
life—
Second month...........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
All other foreign-bom white
mothers employed during
infant’s life—
Second month.................
Third month...................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month....................
Sixth month....................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth m onth..................
Tenth month...................
Eleventh month.............
Twelfth month................
Employed at home during infant’ s life—
Second month...........
Third month............
Fourth month...........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.. . . .
Twelfth month.........
Employed away from
home during infant’s
life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
Colored mothers employed
during infant’s life—^
Second month.................
Third month...................
Fourth month.................
Fifth month....................
Sixth month....................
Seventh month...............
Eighth month.................
Ninth month...................

101351°— 23----- 21


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2
3
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7

108
142
161
176
181
186
195
202
208
210
212
103
129
145
155
159
160
167
170
173
175
176

2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1

2
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
1

5
13
16
21
22
26
28
32
35
35
36
69
254
373
483
535
575
622
645

81
93
94
91
81
68
59
45
31
22
20

1

77
86
86
81
74
62
57
43
29
20
18

1

40
114
158
175
183
133
111
80

2

7
15
23
29
39
50
63
78
90
95
95

20
34
44
56
61
68
73
79
87
93
97

6
12
20
26
35
43
51
63
74
79
79

1

1
1
2

13
80
120
182
208
267
313
347

20
31
39
48
50
55
59
• 64
70
76
79

1

1
3
3
3
4
7
12
15
16
16
16

4
7
8
10
7
6
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
6
5
10
7
6
3

2
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
4

'

1
2
1
i
3
1
1

1
i
2
1
2
1
2
i
1
1
2
i
2
i
1
i

3
5
8
11
13
14
15
17
17
18
16
60
95
126
144
175
198
218

i
1
3
3
7
4
5
2

322

IN F A N T

M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T a b l e 116.— Infant survivors and infant deaths, by type o f feeding, month o f life, place

o f mother’s employment, and color and nationality o f mother; infants o f mothers
employed during mother’s, lifetim e— Concluded.
Infants of mothers employed during infant’s lifetime.
Month of life of infant, and
place of employment,
color, and nationality of
mother.

Total.

Breast fed.

Not re­
Artificially fed. ported.

Mixed fed.

Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant Deaths Infant
sur­
in
sur­
in
sur­
in • sur­
in
sur­
vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors. month. vivors.
Colored mothers employed
during infant’ s life?—1
Con.
Tenth month...................
Eleventh month.............
Twelfth month...............
Employed at home during infant’s life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........
Employed away from
home during infant’s
life—
Second month..........
Third month............
Fourth month..........
Fifth month..............
Sixth month.............
Seventh month.........
Eighth month..........
Ninth month............
Tenth month............
Eleventh month.......
Twelfth month.........


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

678
701
722

8
2
6

54
36
30

43
143
196
233
257
275
297
307
324
337
343

3
1
4
2
4
1

33
90
119
130
132
97
78
54
36
23
19

26
111
177
250
278
300
325
338
354
364
379

1

2
1

1

2
3
4

6
5
2
2
7
5

7
24
«9
45
51
36
33
26
18
13
11

1

1
1

1
1

1

382
405
424
4
28
37
58
73
112
141
167
192
212
217

9
52
83
124
135
155
172
180
190
193
207

3
1
3

242
260
268

1
1

6
25
40
45
52
66
78
86
96
102
107

1
1
1

1
2
1
1
2
i
2
2

10
35
55
81
92
109
120
132
146
158
161

5
1
2

2
1
3
1
3
1
i

1
1

1
2
4
3
2
1
5
2

323

A P P E N D I X V I I .-----T A B L E S .

T able 117.— Excess mortality among infants o f mothers employed during infant's life­
time, by place o f employment, over mortality expected when effect o f differences in type
o f feeding, in color and nationality and {in native white fam ilies) m earnings o f father
are eliminated; infants o f mothers employed during infant's lifetime.
Deaths among infa nts whose mothers
were employed.1
Type of feeding and color and nationality ofmother.

A t home.
Actual
deaths.

Total......................................................................................

Native white.........................................................................

Foreign-born white...............................................................

Colored...................................................................................

Away from home.

Expected Actual
deaths.2 deaths.

Expected
deaths.2

83

96.8

68

53.8

14
10
59

20.5
16.7
59.6

6
20
42

44
13 2
Sfi.2

32

34.9

15

8.3

5
3
24

5.2
5.0
24.7

2
4
9

1.4
6.5

32

35.2

16

10.9

7
2
23

9.4
5.1
20.7

1
4
ii

1.4
2.7
6.8

19

26.7

37

34.6

2
5
12

5.9
6.6
14.2

3
12
22

2.6
9.1
22.9

d

1 Deaths among infants of native white mothers in families where the fathers earned nothing or the
amounts were not reported are omitted from the actual and expected deaths; likewise deaths in two very
small groups. 11 infants whose mothers worked away from home, in fathers’ earnings groups 1850 and over,
and 27 infants with mixed feeding whose mothers worked at home, in fathers’ earnings groups $1,250 and
over.
2 The expected deaths are calculated by applying to the months of lifetime lived by infants fed in each
specified way at eaeh age whose mothers were employed at home or away from home in each color and
nativity group-^-for the native white group in eaeh earnings group, and for the foreign-bom white in each
major nationality group—the rates which prevailed among all infants in the corresponding age, type of
feeding, color, and nativity, earnings, and nationality group. These deaths were then added to form the
groups shown in the table.


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324

IN F A N T

M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T a b l e 118—Infant mortality rates, by time o f mother's employment away from home,

color and nativity o f mother, and earnings o f father; live births, all pregnancies.
Live births, all pregnancies.
Mother never employed Mother employed away Mother employed away
before marriage only.
after marriage.
away.1
Earnings of father during
year after 1915, birth and
color and nativity of
mother.
Live
births.

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.
Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.*

Num­
ber.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.*

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.*

All mothers..................

8,181

812

99.3

17,491

1,825

104.3

9,172

1,521

165.8

Earnings of father:
Under $550......................
$550-1849..........................
$850-$l,849.......................
$1,850 and over................
No earnings.....................
Not reported...................

2,053
2,535
2,631
589
153
220

240
271
223
28
19
31

116.9
106.9
84.8
47.5
124.2
140.9

3,616
7,106
5,871
498
133
267

438
785
534
31
13
24

121.1
110.5
90.9
62.2
97.7
89.9

4,919
2,855
743
47
397
211

871
448
91
2
75
34

177.1
156.9
122.5

Native white mothers..

4,603

452

98.2

12,143

1,271

140.7

2,950

462

156.6

Earnings of father:
Under $550......................
$550-$849..........................
$850-$l,849..................
$1,850 and over.............. .
No earnings................... .
Not reported...................

596
1,363
1,979
482
60
123

74
158
170
27
7
16

124.2
115.9
85.9
56.0

229
596
395
26
10
15

131.3
114.2
87.0
65.5
82.4

1,152
1,171
'398
13
134
82

183
182
53
1
30
13

158.9
155.4
133.2

130.0

1,744
5,217
4,538
397
65
182

3,291

323

98.2

4,423

435

98.3

3,030

464

153.1

1,316
1,078
615

148
106
45

112.5
98.3
73.2
9.3

1,293
1,645
1,256

102.9
95.4
103.5

1,615
1,032
260
34
66
23

268
149
27
1
11
8

165.9
144.4
103.8

61
70

133
157
130
5
2
8

Foreign-bom w h i t e
mothers...................
Earnings of father:
Under $550.....................
$550-$849........................
$850-$l,849......................
$1,850 and over..............
No earnings...................
Not reported..................
Colored mothers.........
Earnings of father:
Under $550.....................
$550-$849........................
$850-$l,849......................
$1,850 and over..............
No earnings...................
Not reported..................

12

223.9

287

37

128.9

925

119

128.6

3,192

595

186.4

141
94
37

18
7
8

127.7

579
244
77
3
7
15

76
32
9

131.3
131.1

2,152
652
85

420
117
11

195.2
179.4

197
106

34
13

172.6
122.6

ft
10

4

1Includes 12 for whom employment was not reported.
* Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

188.9
161.1

1
1

325

A P P E N D IX V I I .— T A B L E S .

T able 119.— Stillbirth rates, by time o f mother's employment away from home, color and
nativity o f mother, and earnings o f father; births, all pregnancies.
Births, all pregnancies.

Mother never em­
ployed away.1
Earnings of father during year
after 1915 birth and color and
nativity of mother.

Mother
employed
away before mar­
riage only.
Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.
Births.

Mother
away
riage

employed
after mar-

Stillbirths.

Per Births. Num­ Per Births. Num­ Per
Num­ 1,000
1,000
1,000
ber. births.8
ber. births.8
ber. births.8

8,443

262

31.0

17,978

487

27.1

9,626

454

47.2

Earnings of father:
Under $450...................... .......
$450-$549.................................. .
$550-1649.................................. .
$650-$849.................................. .
$850-$l,849.................................
$1,850 and over.........................
No earnings.............................!
Not reported.............................

1,187
940
952
1,644
2,716
613
163
228

33
41
29
32
85
24
10
8

27.8
43.6
30.5
19.5
31.3
39.2
61.3
35.1

1,651
2,085
2,614
4,681
6,024
511
135
277

58
62
65
124
153
13
2
10

35.1
29.7
24.9
26.5
25.4
25.4
14.8
36.1

3,164
2,025
1,557
1,410
777
48
425
220

160
110
54
58
34
1
28
9

50.6
54.3
34.7
41.1
43.8

All mothers..........................

65.9
40.9

Native white mothers......... .

4,750

147

30.9

12,453

310

24.9

3,055

105

34.4

Earnings of father:
Under $450.............................. .
$450-$549........... ........................
$550-$649.................................. .
$650-$849.................................. .
$850-$l,849................................
$1,850 and over........................
No earnings............................. '
Not reported...........................

242
374
508
879
2,052
502
66
127

7
13
10
14
73
20
6
4

28.9
34.8
19.7
15.9
35.6
39.8

14
28
38
95
117
10
2
6

21.9
24.4
21.4
26.6
25.1
24.6

28.4
34.7
38.5
34.2
38.6

7
1

49.6

31.9

670
519
571
644
414
13
141
83

19
18
22
22
16

31.5

640
1,146
1,779
3,571
4,655
407
67
188

Foreign-born white mothers

3,378

87

25.8

4,542

119

26.2

3,134

104

33.2

Earnings of father:
Under $450...............................
$450-$549..................................
$550-$649.................................. .
$650-$849..................................
$850-$l,849................................
$1,850 and over........................
No earnings........... .................
Not reported............................

858
491
421
690
624
111
92
91

13
20
16
17
9
4
4
4

15.2
40.7
38.0
24.6
14.4
36.0

686
642
696
993
1,289
101
61
74

17
18
18
26
33
3

24.8
28.0
25.9
26.2
25.6
29.7

1,017
653
584
477
272
35
72
24

31
24
12
17
12
1
6
1

30.5
36.8
20.5
35.6
44.1

Colored mothers...................

315

28

88.9

983

58

59.0

3,437

245

71.3

Earnings of father:
Under $450...............................
$450-$549..................................
$550-$649..................................
$650 and over...........................
No earnings.............................
Not reported...........................

87
75
23
115
5
10

13
8
3
4

34.8

325
297
139
200
7
15

27
16
9
6

83.1
53.9
64.7
30.0

1,477
853
402
380
212
113

110
68
20
25
15
7

74.5
79.7
49.8
65.8
70.8
61.9

1 Includes 12 for whom employment was not reported.
* Not shown where base is less than 100.


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4

326

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T a b l e 120.— Infant mortality rates, by number o f births 1 to mother, her employment

away from home, ana color and nativity; live births, all pregnancies.
Live births, all pregnancies, to mothers having specified number of births.

Employment away from
home, and color and na­
tivity of mother.

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Tnfant deaths.
Live
births.

7 and over.

4-6.

1-3.

Infant
Live
mor­
tality births.
rate.2

Num­
ber.

Live
Infant
Infant births.
Num­ mor­
mor­
ber.
tality
tality
rate.2
rate.2

All mothers.................. 11,590

1,106

95.4

11,464

1,239

108.1

11,790

1,813

153.8

2,259

167

73.9

2,865

247

86.2

3,045

396

130.0

Employed after marriage—
Employment not reported...

7,135
2,190
0

599
338
2

84.0
154.3

5,704
2,889
6

590
402

103.4
139.1

4,652
4,093

636
781

136.7
190.8

Native whitemothers..

7,888

721

91.4

6,395

689

107.7

5,413

775

143.2

1,652

113

68.4

1,582

154

97.3

1,360

185

136.0

5,278
955
3

457
151

86.6
158.1

3,909
898
6

405
130

103.6
144.8

2,956
1,097

409
181

138.4
165.0

2,624

237

90.3

3,677

356

96.8

4,443

629

141.6

1,209

88

72.8

1,582

191

120.7

94.9
128.6

1,441
1,420

187
251

129.8
176.8

139.4

1,934

409

211.5

103

20

194.2

255
1,576

40
349

156.9
221.4

Employed“ before marriage

Employed" before marriage
Employed after marriage—
Employment not reported...
Foreign-born

white

499
Employed" before marriage
Employed after marriage—
Employment not reported...

Employed* before marriage
Employed after marriage___

86.2

1,517
607
1

109
84
1

71.9
138.4

1,465
1,003

139
129

1,078

148

137.3

1,392

194

108

11

101.9

74

5

97.1
164.0

330
988

46
143

340
628
2

1Includes miscarriages.
1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

43

33
103
1

139.4
144.7

S2Î

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

T able 121.— Infant mortality rates (by cause o f death) and stillbirth rates, by employment
o f mother away from home, during pregnancy and after birth, and by color and nativity
o f mother; births in 1915.
Infont deaths.

Stillbirths.

Employment away from home, and color
and nativity of mother.

Live
Total
births. Num­ Per
births.
1,000
ber. births.1

All mothers.........................................

11,195

Not employed................................................
Employed before birth in 1915:
Before marriage only...........................
After marriage and prior to but not
during pregnancy of 1915....................
Dining pregnancy of 1915.......................
Employed only after birth in 1915...............
Employment not reported...........................

2,356

Early infancy.

All other
causes.

Infant
Infont
Num­ mortal- Num­ mortal­
ber. • ity
ber.
ity
rate.1
rate.1

35.6

10,797

407

37.7

710

72

30.6

2,284

73

32.0

123

53.9

6,347

193

30.4

6,154

220

35.7

346

56.2

1,144
1,317
24
7

43
88
2

37.6
66.8

1,101
1,229
22
7

43
70

39.1
57.0

84
151
5
1

76.3
122.9

Native white mothers............ ............

6,937

198

28.5

6,739

257

38.1

389

57.7

Not employed................................................
Employed before birth in 1915:
Before marriage only..............................
After marriage and prior to but not
during pregnancy of 1915....................
During pregnancy of 1915.......................
Employed only after birth in 1915...............
Employment not reported...........................

1,512

43

28.4

1,469

48

32.7

72

49.0

4,585

127

27.7

.4,458

168

37.7

250

56.1

463
366
7
4

10
18

21.6
49.2

453
348
7
4

25
16

55.2
46.0

31
33
3

68.4
94.8

Foreign-bom white mothers...............

2,837

84

29.6

2,753

85

30.9

179

65.0

Not employed................................................
Employed before birth in 1915:
Before marriage only..............................
After marriage and prior to but not
during pregnancy of 1915....................
During pregnancy of 1915.......................
Employed only after birth in 1915...............
Employment not reported......................

735

18

24.5

717

19

26.5

45

62.8

1,386

43

31.0

1,343

36

26.8

67

49.8

387
322
6
1

10
11
2

25.8
34.2

377
311
4
1

10
20

26.5
64.3

28
37
1
1

74.3
119.0

Colored mothers..................................

1,421

116

81.6

1,305

65

49.8

142

108.8

Not employed................................................
Employed before birth in 1915:
Before marriage only..............................
After marriage and prior to but not
during pregnancy of 1915....................
During pregnancy of 1915.......................
Employed only after birth in 1915...............
Employment not reported...................... ...

109

11

100.9

98

6

376

23

61.2

353

16

45.3

29

82.2

294
629
11
2

23
59

78.2
93.8

271
570
11
2

8
34

29.5
59.6

25
81
1

92.3
142.1

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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398

.

1

1

65.8

6

j|

328

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T a b l e 122.—Excess mortality among infants o f mothers employed away from home, by

time o f mother's employment, over mortality expected when effect o f differences in number
o f births 1 to mother, color and nativity o f mother, and earnings o f father are eliminated;
live births, all pregnancies.
Live births, all pregnancies.

Employment of mother away from home before and
after marriage.

Not employed after marriage.......................................
Never employed......................................................
Employed before marriage only............................
Employed after marriage......................... ...................

Actual deaths.
Live
births.2

Expected deaths.*

Infant
Infant
Number. mortality Number. mortality
rate.
rate.

33,463

3,962

118.4

3,960.9

118.4

24,892
7,801
17,091
8,564
7

.2,550
762
1,788
1,412

102.4
97.7
104.6
164.9

2,740. 7
869.5
1.871.2
1.220.2

110.1
111.5
109.5
142.5

1Includes miscarriages.
2 The 1,381 live births and 196 actual deaths in families where fathers earned nothing or the amounts
were not reported are omitted from the computation.
s Expected deaths are calculated by applying to the live births in each mother’s employment, color and
nativity, number of issues, and father’s earnings group the rates prevailing among all infants (irrespective
of mother’s employment) in the same color and nativity, number of issues, and father’s earnings group.


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A P P E N D I X V I I .— T A B L E S .

32Ô

T able 123.—Employment o f mother away from home, by age o f mother when she began
work, and color and nativity; births ( all pregnancies) to mothers employed away from
home at some time prior to birth in 1915.
Births, all pregnancies, to mothers who
began work away from home at speci­
fied age.

Total births.
Employment away from home and color
and nativity of mother.

Under 14.

14-15.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
tion.
All mothers........................................

27,604

100.0

9,319

100.0

8,002

100.0

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only.............................
After marriage.......................................

17,978
9,626

65.1
34.9

5,518
3,801

59.2
40.8

5,618
2,384

70.2
29.8

Native white mothers........................

15,508

56.2

5,160

55.4

4,949

61.8

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only.............................
After marriage.......................................

12,453
3,055

45.1
11.1

3,805
1,355

40.8
14.5

4,112
837

51.4
10.5

Foreign-born white mothers.............

7,676

27.8

2,270

24.4

1,985

248

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only.............................
After marriage.......................................

4,542
3,134

16.5
11.4

1:397
873

15.0
9.4

1,268
717

15.8
9.0

Colored mothers.................................

4,420

16.0

1,889

20.3

1,068

13.3

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only.............................
After marriage.......................................

983
3,437

3.6
12.5

316
1,573

3.4
16.9

238
830

3.0
10.4

Births, all pregnancies, to mothers who began work away from
home at specified age_
Employment away from home and
color and nativity of mother.

20-24.

16-19.
Num­
ber.

25 and over.

Per cent Num­
distri­
ber.
bution.

Per cent
distri­
bution.

Num­
ber.

Not re­
Per cent ported.
distri­
bution.

All mothers..................................

7,788

100.0

1,543

100.0

729

100.0

223

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only......................
After marriage.................................

5,810
1,978

74.6
25.4

848
695

55.0
45.0

66
663

9.1
90.9

118
105

N ative white mothers.................

4,367

56.1

715

46.3

227

31.1

90

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only......................
After marriage.................................

3,889
478

49.9
6.1

561
154

36.4
10.0

33
194

4.5
26.6

53
37

2,244-

28.8

672

43.6

440

60.4

65

Employment away from home:
Before marriage only......................
After marriage.................................

1,549
695

19.9
8.9

255
417

16.5
27.0

33
407

4.5
55.8

40
25

Colored mothers...........................

1,177

15.1

156

10.1

62

8.5

68

372
805

4.8
10.3

32
124

2.1
8.0

62

8.5

25
43

Foreign-bom white mothers.......

Employment away from home:
After marriage.— ^........................


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330

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T a b l e 124.—Employment o f mother during pregnancy o f 1915, by place o f employment,

age when she began work away from home, and color and nativity; births in 1915 to
mothers employed away from home at some time prior to the birth.
Births in 1915 to mothers who began
work away from home at specified age.

Total births.
Place of employment during pregnancy
of 1915, and color and nativity of
mother.

14-15.

Under 14.

Per cent,
Number. distribu­
Per cent
Per cent
tion.
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.

All mothers...........................

8,809

100.0

2,530

100.0

2,635

100.0

Not employed.................................
Employed at home.........................
Employed away from home..........
Employment not reported.............

6,192
1,299
1,317
1

70.3
14.7
15.0

1,595
436
499

63.0
17.2
19.7

1,919
359
357

72.8
13.6
13.5

Native white mothers..........

5,415

100.0

1,501

100.0

1,752

100.0

Not employed.................................
Employed at home.........................
Employed away from home..........
Employment not reported.............

4,542
506
366
1

83.9
9.3
6.8

1,170
174
157

77.9
11.6
10.5

1,481
156
115

84.5
8.9
6.6

Foreign-born white mothers.

2,095

100.0

540

100.0

527

100.0

Not employed.................................
Employed at home.........................
Employed away from home..........

1,304
469
322

62.2
22.4
15.4

335
123
82

62.0
22.8
15.2

354
. 115
58

67.2
21.8
11.0

1,299

100.0

489

100.0

356

100.0

346
324
629

26.6
24.9
48.4

90
139
260

18.4
28.4
53.2

84
88
184

23.6
24.7
51.7

Colored mothers.................
Not employed.................................
Employed at home.........................
Employed away from home..........

Births in 1915 to mothers who began work away from home at
specified age.
Place of employment during preg­
nancy of 1915, and color and nativity
of mother.

Number.

25 and over.

20-24.

16-19.

Not rePer cent
Per cent ported.
Per cent
distri- Number. distri- Number. distributton.
button.1
button.1

All mothers..........................

2,886

100.0

559

100.0

144

100.0

55

Not employed...............................
Employed at home.......................
Employed away from home.........
Employment not reported............

2,177
386
323

75.4
13.4
11.2

396
86
77

70.8
15.4
13.8

72
•20
52

50.0
13.9
36.1

33
12
9
1

100.0

1,777

100.0

301

100.0

60

Not employed................................ .
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home.........
Employment not reported............

1,573
138
66

88.5
7.8
3.7

259
27
15

86.0
9.0
5.0

40
8
12

Native white mothers.........

Foreign-bom white mothers

730

100.0

206

100.0

78

Not employed................................
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home.........

461
168
101

63.2
23.0
13.8

114
48
44

55.3
*23.3
21.4

31
11
36

Colored mothers... ..............

379

100.0

52

100.0

6

Not employed................................
Employed at home........................
Employed away from home.........

143
80
156

37.7
21.1
41.2

23
lì
18

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.

1
1
4

Ö4
*

100.0

19
3
1
1
14
9
4
1

100.0

17
5
5
7

A P P E N D IX V I I .-----TABL.ES.

331

T a b l e 125.— Excess m ortality and stillbirth rates among infants o f mothers employed

away from home, by age o f mother when she began work, over average rates after effect o f
differences o f color and nativity is eliminated; births, all pregnancies.
Births, all pregnancies.
Stillbirth rates per
1,000 births.

Age at which mother began work away from home.

Infant mor t a 1i t y
per 1,000 live
births.

Total.

Under 14........................................................................
14-15...............................................................................
16-19.......................................... ....................................
20-24...............................................................................
25 and over.....................................................................

9,319
8,002
7,788
1,543
729

Actual.

Ex­
pected.1

Actual.

E x­
pected.1

36.1
34.5
30.3
29.8
41.2

35.8
32.9
33.8
32.0
31.8

139.6
122.6
106.9
127.6
161.7

127.7
123.7
125.0
123.2
123.3

1 To find expected rates, the births in each group of births to mothers employed, classified by color and
nativity and by mother’ s age at beginning work, are multiplied by the rates prevailing among all infants
in each color and nativity group; the sum of the deaths (or stillbirths) in each age of mother group is then
divided by the births in that group.

T a b le 126.—Excess mortality (by cause o f death) and stillbirth rates among infants o f

mothers employed away from home, by age o f mother when she began work, over average
rates after effect o f differences o f color and nativity is eliminated; births in 1915.
Births in 1915.
Stillbirth rates per
1,000 births.
Age at which mother began
work away from home.

Total.

Early infancy.
Actual.

Under 14.....................................
14-15............................................
16-19............................. ..............
20-24............................................
25 and over..................................

2,530
2,635
2,886
559
144

Infant mortality per 1,000 live births.

40.7
41.4
31.5
19.7
34.7

E x­
pected.1

39.1
36.1
36.0
34.3
27.1

All other causes.

Actual.

Ex­
pected.1

Actual.

E x­
pected.1

38.3
38.0
41.1
31.0
57.6

39.8
39.4
39.0
38.0
33.1

75.8
72.8
54.7
74.8
64.7

70.6
67.5
67.8
66.8
60.4

1 To find expected rates, the births in each group of births to mothers employed, classified b y color and
nativity and b y mother’ s age at beginning work, are multiplied by the rates prevailing among allinfants
in each color and nativity group; the sum of the deaths (or stillbirths) in each age of mother group is then
divided by the births in that group.


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332

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T able 127.—Infant mortality rates, by literacy o f mother, earnings o f father, and color
and nationality o f mother; live births in 1915.
Literate mothers.

Earnings of father and color and nation­
ality of mother.

All mothers........................................
Earnings of father:
Under $450.......... ..................................
$450-8549.................................................
8550-8649................................................
8650-8849................................................
8850-81.249............................................
81,250-81,849...........................................
81,850 and over........................... .
No earnings..-........................................
Not reported..........................................
Native white mothers........................
Earnings of father:
Under $450.............................................
8450-8549..................................
8550-8649.................................................
8650-8849................................
8850-81,249.............................................
$1,250 and over......................................
No earnings..........................................
Not reported..........................................
Foreign-bom white mothers.............
Earnings of father:
Under $650.............................................
Under $450.............................................
$450-8549.................................................
8550-8649.................................................
$650 and over.........................................
8650-8849.................................................
$850 and over.........................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..........................................
Jewish..........................................
Earnings of father:
Under 8650.............................................
$650 and over.........................................
Not reported..........................................
Polish...........................................
Earnings of father:
Under 8650.............................................
8650 and over.........................................
Not reported..........................................
Italian.........................................
Earnings of father:
Under $650.............................................
8650 and over.........................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..........................................
All other.......................................
Earnings of father:
8650 and over.........................................
Colored mothers.................................
Earnings of father:
Under $550.............................................
Not reported..........................................
1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Illiterate mothers.

Infant deaths.
liv e
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.1

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant.
Number. mortality
rate.1

9,746

979

100.5

1,041

136

130.6

1,193
1,206
1,314
2,273
2,186
773
428
177
196
6,610

192
145
140
220
152
61
16
30
23
622

160.9
120.2
106.6
96.8
69.5
78.9
37.4
169.5
117.3
94.1

349
241
174
144
69
17
3
30
14
127

50
26
22
12
6
2

143.3
107.9
126.4
83.3

421
611
883
1,699
1,790
993
88
125
1,987

68
75
93
163
125
66
16
16
174

161.5
122.7
105.3
95.9
69.8
66.5

27
33
25
27
11
2

6
8
5
2
1
1

128.0
87.6

2
761

1
89

912
333
278
301
1,014
466
548
26
35
791

94
48
18
28
73
45
28
3
4
37

103.1
144.1
64.7
93.0
72.0
96.6
51.1

551
254
170
127
177
104
73
24
9
169

62
37
10
15
14
8
6
10
3
12

112.5
145.7
58.8
118.1
79.1
76.9

337
421
17
16
339

18
15
1
3
59

53.4
35.6

108
48
10
3
285

4
4
3
1
42

37.0

219
111
3
6
220

37
21
1

168.9
189.2
72.7

34
4
3
1
20

151.8

16

224
52
7
2
190

114
100
2
4
637

12
3
1

105.3
30.0

15
4

106.4

62

97.3

141
44
2
3
117
78
33
5
1
153

9
2
4
23

150.3

106
38
6
3

15
4
3
1

141.5

46.8

174.0

242
382
4
9
1,149

27
34

111.6
89.0

1
183

159.3

756
294
63
36

128
41
11
3

169.3
139.5

13
5
24

1
15

189.0

117.0

71.0

147.4

105.3

128.2

333

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.

T a b le 128.—Relative mortality among infants o f illiterate mothers when effect o f differ­

ences in mother’s color and nationality and fath er’s earnings is elim inated; births in
1915 to illiterate mothers.
Deaths among infants
of illiterate mothers.
Color and nationality of mother.
Actual.1 Expected.2
Total.........................................

118

119.9

Native white mothers......................

23
8
38
19
11
19

14.9
7.2
44.4
18.0
12.9
22.5

Jewish mothers..................................
Polish mothers...................................
Italian mothers..................................
All other foreign-horn white mothers
Colored mothers.................................

were “ none” or “ not
reported” are omitted in this computation.
2 Expected deaths in each nationality group are the sum of the deaths found by multiplying the births
(for illiterate mothers) classified by father’s earnings by the rates prevailing among all infants m the corre­
sponding nationality and earnings groups.

T able 129.— Infant mortality rates, by mother’s ability to speak English, earnings o f

father, and nationality o f mother; live births in 1915 to foreign-born white mothers o f
non-English-speaking nationalities.
Live births to foreign-bom white mothers of non-Englishspeaking nationalities.

Earnings of father and nationality of
mother.

Mother able to speak
English.
Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Foreign-bQm white mothers of nonEnglish-speakmg nationalities......
Earnings of father:
Under $650............................................
Under $450......................................
$450-8549....... .................................
$550-8649........................................
$650 and over........................j .........
$650-8849..........................................
$850 and over..................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..........................................
Jewish..........................................
Earnings of father:
Under $650.............................................
$650 and over.........................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..........................................
Polish...........................................
Earnings of father:
Under $650.............................................
$650 and over.........................................
No earnings...........................................
*
Not reported..........................................
Italian..........................................
Earnings of father:
Under $650.............................................
$650 and over.........................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..................................
All other.......................................
Earnings of father:
Under $650.............................................
$650 and over........................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..........................................
1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Mother not able to speak
English.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.1

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.1

1,594

125

78.4

1,027

124

120.7

711
244
235
232
825
363
462
27
31
786

60
30
12
18
57
33
24
3
5
39

84.4
123.0
51.1
77.6
69.1
90.9
51.9

712
334
199
179
279
171
108
22
14
175

91
53
15
23
21
13
8
10
2
10

127.8
158.7
75.4
128.5
75.3
76.0
74.1

336
14
19
17
223

18
16
1
4
39

53.6
38.6

110
55
8
2
402

4
3
3

36.4

63

156.7

144
72
3
4
140

23
15

48
10
4
i
25

160.5

78.6

299
91
7
5
272

72
66

7
4

20
3

108.7

2
170

14

82.4

184
78
4
6
132

63
100
2
5

1
11

4
9
1

49.6

174.9
159.7

90.0

91
37
3
1

57.1

91.9

1
18
11
5
2

136.4

334

IN F A N T

M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

T able 130.—Relative mortality among infants o f mothers not able to speak English, as
compared with mortality expected on the basis o f average rates, when effect o f differences
in mother’s color and nationality and father’s earnings is eliminated; live births in 1915
to foreign-born white mothers unable to speak English.
Deaths am ong infants
of foreign -bom white
mothers unable to
speak En glish.1

Nationality of mother.

Expected.2

Actual.2
112

113.4

7
58
23
24

8.3
62.8
23.9
18.4

1 Actual and expected deaths in fam ilies where the father’s earnings were “ none” or “ not reported” are
u iiJU /te u .

.

1 The expected deaths in each nationality group are the sum of the deaths found by multiplying the births
(to mothers unable to speak English) classified by father’s earnings by the mortality rates for all infants
in the corresponding nationality and earnings group.

T able 131.—Prevalence o f infant-welfare work, by ability o f mother to speak English
and nationality; infants born to Jewish, Polish, and Italian mothers and surviving
two weeks.
Infants surviving 2 weeks and having
specified postnatal care (institutional).
Ability to speak English and nationality of mother.

Total
infants
surviv­
ing two
weeks.

Care graded as bet­
ter than poor.

No care.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Jewish:
Able to speak English............................................
Not able to speak English.....................................
Italian:
Able to speak English............................................
Not able to speak English.....................................
Polish:
Able to speak English............ ...............................
Not able to speak English.....................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

768
169

177
53

23.0
31.4

439
75

57.2
44.4

134
262

30
24

22.4
9.2

84
184

62.7
70.2

210
388

14
20

6.7
5.2

156
308

74.3
79.4

335

A P P E N D IX V I I .— T A B L E S .

T able 132.—Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, by order o f birth; births in 1915, and
births, all pregnancies.
Births in 1915.
Infant
deaths.

Stillbirths.
Order of birth.1
Births.

Infant
deaths.

Stillbirths.

Live
Live
Births.
births.
Infant
Per births. Num­ Infant
Num­ 1,000
mor­
Num­ Per
Num­ mor­
1,000
ber. births.
ber. tality
ber. births.
ber. tality
rate.
rate.

Total............. 11,195
First.......... «...........
Second....................
Third......................
Fourth....................
Fifth and sixth......
Seventh to ninth...
Tenth and later___

Births, all pregnancies.

2,999
2,471
1,525
1,164
1,503
1,058
475

398

35.6 10,797 1,117

103.5 36,047 1,203

33.4 34,844 4,158

119.3

131
62
44
37
54
42
28

43.7
25.1
28.9
31. 8
35.9
39.7
58.9

94.8
92.6
91.8
106. 5
108.4
127.0
179.0

39.7 10,327 1,196
25.7 7,500
770
28.2 5,130
572
29.1 3,701
470
33.3 4,528
591
37.8 2,775
395
56.6
164
883

115.8
102.7
111.5
127.0
130.5
142.3
185.7

2,868 , 272
2,409
223
1,481
136
1,127
120
1,449
157
1,016
129
447
80

10,754
7,698
5,279
3,812
4,684
2,884
936

427
198
149
111
156
109
53

1 “ Order of birth” means order of issue for births in 1915 and order of pregnancy for births, all pregnancies •

T able 133.—Infant mortality and stillbirth'rates, by order o f birth and color o f mother;
single births in 1915, and single births, all pregnancies, to mothers who reported no
plural births.
Single births in 1915.

Births.

All mothers___ 10,915
Order of birth:
First.......................
Second and third...
Fourth to sixth___
Seventh to ninth...
Tenth and later___

Infant
deaths.

Stillbirths.

Order of birth1 and
color of mother.

Births, all pregnancies to mothers who
reported no plural births.
Infant
deaths.

Stillbirths.

Live
Live
In­ Births.
In­
births.
Per births.
fant
fant
Num­ 1,000
Num­ mor­
Num­ Per
Num­ mor­
1,000
ber. births.
ber. tality
ber.
ber. tality
births.
rate.
rate.
378

34.6 10,537 1,023

2,956
3,910
2,570
1,032
447

126
103
84
42
23

42.6
26.3
32.7
40.7
51.5

2,830
3,807
2,486
990
424

259 91.1 10,330
334 87.7 12,246
241 96.9 7,740
120 121.2 2,531
69 162.7
765

97.1 33,612 1,089

32.4 32,523 3,671

112.9

398
322
234
92
43

38.5 9,932 1,114
26.3 11,924 1,208
30.2 7,506
900
36.3 2,439
323
56.2
722
126

112.2
101.3
119.9
132.4
174.5

White mothers. 9,529

269

28.2

9,260

834

90.1 29,205

783

26.8 28,422 3,000

105.6

Order of birth:
First........................ 2,699
Second and third... 3,443
Fourth to sixth___ 2,189
Seventh to ninth...
852
Tenth and later___
346

98
75
56
27
13

36.3
21.8
25.6
31.7
37.6

2,601
3,368
2,133
825
333

223 85.7 9,184
268 79.6 10,730
193 90.5 6,631
96 116.4 2,079
54 162.2
581

304
220
169
62
28

33.1 8,880
20.5 10,510
25.5 6,462
29.8 2,017
48.2
553

966
984
714
244
92

108.8
93.6
110.5
121.0
166.4

Colored mothers 1,386

109

78.6

1,277

189 148.0

4,407

306

69.4

4,101

671

163.6

28
28
28
15
10

108.9
60.0
73.5
83.3
99.0

229
439
353
165
91

1,146
1,516
1,109
452
184

94
102
65
30
15

82.0
67.3
58.6
66.4
81.5

1,052
1,414
1,044
422
169

148
224
186
79
34

140.7
158.4
178.2
187.2
201.2

Order of birth:
First.......................
Second and third...
Fourth to sixth___
Seventh to ninth...
Tenth and later___

257
467
381
180
101

36
66
48
24
15

157.2
150.3
136.0
145.5
164.8

1 “ Order of birth” means order of issue for births in 1915 and order of pregnancy for births all Dree-

LrtftlAS.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

J

9

tr

©

I N F A N T M O R T A L I T Y , B A L T IM O R E , M D .

336

T ab le 134.—Stillbirth rates, by number o f births 1 to mothers, order o f pregnancy, and

color o f mother; single births, all pregnancies, to mothers who reported no plural births.

-

Single births, all pregnancies, to mothers who
reported no plural births and who reported
specified number of total births.i

Total.

4-6.

1-3.
Order of pregnancy and
color of mother.5
Births.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.
Births.

Per Birth?. Num­
1,000
ber.
births.

Per
1,000
births.

Num­
ber.

Per
1,000
births.

All mothers.................. 33,612
Order of pregnancy:
10,330
7,312
4,934
7,740
St?vell 111 to ninth............
T hui,h and later...............

1,089

32.4

11,855

408

34.4

11,226

320

28.5

398
186
136
234
92
43

38.5
25.4
27.6
30.2
26.3
56.2

6,691
3,750
1,414

271
98
39

40.5
26.1
27.6

2,385
2,342
2,316
4,183

88
53
57
122

36.9
22.6
24.6
29.2

29,205

783

26.8

10,689

311

29.1

9,802

228

23.3

33.1
20.2
21.0
25.5
29. 3
48.2

6,060
3,372
1,257

209
71
31

34.5
21.1
24.7

2,083
2,046
2,021
3,652

67
34
38
89

32.2
16.6
18.8
24.4

White mothers............
Order of pregnancy:
Third...............................

9,184
438
4,292
6 621

Seventh to ninth. ...........
Tenth and later ...............

304
130
90
169
62
28

Num­
ber.

>

Single births, all pregnancies, to mothers who reported no
plural births and who reported specified number of
total births.i
10 and over.

7-9.
Order of pregnancy and color of mother.5

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.
Births.

All mothers—
Order of pregnancy:
First....................
Second.................
Third...................
Fourth to sixth..
Seventh to ninth.
Tenth and later..
White mothers.
First....................
Second.................
Third..................
Fourth to sixth..
Seventh to ninth.
Tenth and later..

Births.
1,000
Number. Per
births.

1,000
Number. Per
births.

6,882

206

29.9

3,649

155

42.5

915
891
888
2,597
1,591

27
23
26
82
48

29.5
25.8
29.3
31.6
30.2

339
329
316
960
940
765

12
12
14
30
44
43

35.4
36.5
44.3
31.3
46.8
56.2

5,900
781
763
766
2,236
1,354

151
21
18
14
63
35

25.6
26.9
23.6
18.3
28.2
25.8

2,814
260
257
248
743
725
581

93
7
7
7 .
17
27
28

33.0
26.9
27.2
28.2
22.9
37.2
48.2

.

i Includes miscarriages.
. . . .
, .
. ,
.
.. __
.
5 The figures and rates for infants of colored mothers are not given separately, since the groups are too
small to yield satisfactory comparison.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

337

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.
T

185.— In fa n t m o rta lity rates, by n um ber o f births 1 to m other, order o f preyn an cu
b irth * 1™ °* m oth er; M ngle liv e births, a ll p regn a n cies, to m others w ho rep orted n o p lu ra l

able

Live births, all pregnancies, to mothers who
reported no plural births and who reported
specified number of total births.1

Total.

Infant deaths.

1-3

Order of pregnancy and
color of mother.»
Live
births.

All mothers.............

4-6

Infant deaths.
Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
Live
tality births.
rate.

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

32,523

3,671

112.9

11,447

1,059

92.5

10,906

1,135

104.1

Order of pregnancy:
First.......................
Second.....................
Third...................
Fourth to sixth...............
Seventh to ninth.........
Tenth and later.............

9,932
7,126
4,798
7,506
2,439
722

1,114
696
512
900
323
126

97.7
106.7
119.9
132.4
174 5

112.2

6,420
3,652
1,375

637
304
118

99.2
83.2
85.8

2,297
2,289
2,259
4,061

283

219
421

123.2
92.6
96.9
103.7

White mothers............

28,422

3,000

105.6

10,378

914

88.1

9,574

957

100.0

Order of pregnancy:
First........................
Second.....................
Third.....................
Fourth to sixth...............
Seventh to ninth. . . ___

8,880
6,308
4,202
6,462
2,017

966
571
413
714
244
92

108.8
90.5
98.3
110.5

5,851
3,301
1,226

565
255
94

96.6
77.2
76.7

2,012

2,016

246
176
184
351

122.0

212

1,983
3,563

121.0

87.5
92.8
98.5

166.4

Live births, all pregnancies, to mothers who reported no
Eirths i r^ s an<^ w h o reported specified number of total

7-9

10 and over.

Order of pregnancy and color of mother.*
Infant deaths.
Live
births.

All mothers......................
Order of pregnancy:
First...................................
Second..............................
Third..................................
Fourth to sixth................
Seventh to ninth............
Tenth and later................
White mothers...............
Order of pregnancy:
First.............................
Second................................
Third..............................
Fourth to sixth......... ........
Seventh to ninth...............
Tenth and later..............
_____________________ __________________ 1
1 Includes miscarriages

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.

6,676

890

133.3

3,494

587

168.0

888
868

862
2,515
1,543

*133
123
126
319
189

149.8
141.7
146.2
126.8
122.5

327
317
302
930
896
722

61
57
49
160
134
126

186.5
179.8
162.2
172.0
149.6
174.5

5,749

715

124.4

2,721

414

152.1

760
745
752
2,173
1,319

110

144.7
132.9
131.6
116.4
116.8

253
250
241
726
698
553

45
41
36

177.9
164.0
149.4
151.5
128.9
166.4

99
99
253
154

s r ^ t o S d la t o d^ ^ fS ^ S 5 . ° 0l0red mothers are not ^
101351°—23-----22

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

110

90
92

seParate1^- stace the gr0^ps are too

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

338

T a b l e 136.— Excess m ortality am ong infants o f mothers reporting large num bers o f

births 1 over m ortality expected at average rqtes when effect o f differences in color and
n ativity and fath er’ s earnings is elim inated; live births, all pregnancies.
Live births, all pregnancies.
Expected deaths.3

Actual deaths.8
Number of births1 to mother.
Total.
Number.

Total.................................................... ..........
1 fnS
4 to fi
7 to 9

.......................................................
...........................................................
........................................ ..........................

Infant
Infant
mortal­ Number. mortal­
ity irate.
ity rate.

33,463

3,962

118.4

3,962.1

118.4

11,138
10,996
7,112
4,217

1,038
1,182
990
752

93.2
107.5
139.2
178.3

1,263.5
1,300.4
866.4
531.8

113.4
118.3
121.8
126.1

1 Includes miscarriages.
.
,
.
,
, ..
,, •__„ „„
aBirths and actual and expected deaths m families where the earnings of the father were none or
“ not reported” are omitted from this comparison.
. _
s The expected deaths in each number of issues to mother group are the sum of the deaths found Dy
multiplying the live births (to mothers with specified number of issues), classified by color and nativity
of mother and b y earnings of father, by the average rates of mortality prevailing among all infants m the
corresponding color and nativity and earnings groups.
T a b l e 137.— In fa n t m ortality rates, by order o f birth and earnings o f fath er; single

live births in 1915 and all live births, all pregnancies.
Live births in families where fathers earned specified amount during
year after birth in 1915.

Order of birth.1
Live
births.

$850 and over.

$550-8849,

Under $550.
Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Live
Infant births.
Num­ mortal­
ber. ity rate.

Live
Infant births.
Num­ mortal­
ber. ity rate.

Infant
Num­ mortal­
ber. ity rate.

Single births in 1915.

Total............................

2,914

First.......................................
Second....................................
Third......................................
F o u r th ........... .....................
Fifth and sixth............... ......
Seventh to ninth...................
Tenth and later.....................

632
578
382
328
451
377
166

130.4

3,814

356

93.3

3,393

216

63.7

128.2
81
119.4
69
109.9
42
131.1
43
56 • 124.2
164.5
62
162.7
27

1,079
849
502
394
504
347
139

92
77
45
36
44
34
28

85.3
90.7
89.6
91.4
87.3
98.0
201.4

1,003
847
495
340
372
234

68

67.8
55.5
60.6
58.8
59.1
81.2
98.0

380

102

47
30

20
22

19

10

Births, all pregnancies.
Total............................. 10,588

1,549

146.3

12,496

1,504

120.4

10,379

909

87.6

2,741
2,132
1,563
1,215
1,562
1,049
326

382
284
205
187
226
195
70

139.4
133.2
131.2
153.9
144.7
185.9
214.7

3,795
2,707
1,828
1,310
1,597
960
299

460
294
207
163
214
115
51

121.2

3,385
2,366
1,538
1,029
1,175
665

295
154
133
99

87.1
65.1
86.5
' 96.2
103.8
106.8
158.4

F i r s t ...................................
Second..................... - — - ••Third.....................................
Fourth....................................
Fifth and sixth......................
Seventh to ninth....................
Tenth and later.....................

108.6
113.2
124.4
134.0
119.8
170.6

221

122

71
35

f “ Order of birth” means order of issue births in 1915 and order of pregnancy for births, all pregnancies.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

339

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.
T a b l e 138.

In fan t m ortality rates, by order o f birth,1 earnings o f fath er, and color and
n ativity o f m other; single live births in 1915.

Single live births of specified order of birth .1
First to third.
Earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother.

Fourth to sixth.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Num­
ber.

Seventh and later.

Infant deaths.

Infant Live
mor­ births.
tality
rate.2

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Infant Live
mor­ births.
tality
rate.2

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.2

Native white mothers..

4,567

372

81.5

1,364

128

93.8

641

85

132.6

Earnings of father:
Under $550.......................
$550-$849. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$850~$lj249.. . . . . . . . ____
$1,250 and over................
No earnings...................
Not reported...................

667
1,765
1,247
735
65

84
145
72
49

125.9
82.2
57.7
66.7

235
557
354
175
15
28

31
55
23

131.9
98.7
65.0

153
249
160

25
36
19

163.4
144.6
118.8

12

68.6

88

11
•11

Foreign - born white
mothers.....................

1,402

119

84.9

769

65

84.5

517

65

125.7

Earnings of father:
Under $550......................
$550~$ $ 4 9 ... .........
$850 and over..........
No earnings...................
Not reported...............

491
529
328
26
28

42
50
17
7
3

85.5
94.5
51.8

306
270
171

20

33

107.8
74.1
40.9

214
178
108
U

34
19

158.9
106.7

Colored mothers..........

668

102

152.7

353

48

136.0

256

39

152.3

Earnings of father:
Under $550.....................
$550 and over...................
No earnings.....................
Not reported...................
----------- --- «_____ __________

434
171
40
23

26
7
3

66

152.1
152.0

238
83

35
5

176
65
7

30

170.5

1 Includes miscarriages.
T

able

11
11

22
10

5

g
9

2

7
4

1

147.1

6
2

6

1

8

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

139.— In fa n t m ortality rates, by order o f birth,1 earnings o f father {detailed grou ps);
single live births in 1915 to n ative white m others.

Single live births of specified order of birth .1
First to sixth.
Earnings of father.

Seventh and later.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.2

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.2

Total__

5,931

500

84.3

641

85

Under $450....
$450-$549.........
$550-1649.........
$650-$849.........
$850-$l,249___
$1,250-$1,849__
$1,850 and over
No earnings__
Not reported..

364
538
792
1,530
1,601
569
341
80
116

54
61
72
128
95
47
14
16
13

148.4
113.4
90.9
83.7
59.3
82.6
41.1

73
80
94
155
160
44
18

13

112 .1

9

1 Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8

* Not shown where base is less than 100.

132.6

12

13
23
19
3

2

148.4
118.8

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

340

T a b l e 140. — Prem ature birth, by order o f birth; 1 live births in 1915.

Live births in 1915.

Live births in 1915.

Premature.

Order of birth.1

Premature.

Order of birth.1

Total.

Total.

Number. Percent .2

Number. Per cent.2
m 797

2,868

2 409
l ’ 481

1 127

Fifth.......................
i

'818

591
230
128
69
41

5.5

Sixth.......................

8.0

Eighth....................
Ninth......................
Tenth......................

5.3
4.7
3.6
2.7

22

631
440
337
239
172
90
185

Twelfth and later..

28
16
15
13

4.4
3.6
4.5
5.4
4.7

4
17

9.2

8

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

Includes miscarriages.

T a b l e 141.— Prem ature birth, by interval since preceding b irth ;1 live births in 1915,

second and later in order o f birth.1
Live birl hs in 1915, second
and late in order of birth.1
Interval since preceding birth.1

Premature.
Total.
Number. Per cent.2
7,929

361

4.6

2,072
2,950
1,364
1,496
47

132
105
50
69
5

6.4
3.6
3.7
4.6

2 Not shown where base is less than 50.

i Includes miscarriages.

T a b l e 142. — In fa n t m ortality (specified causes) and stillb irth rates, by order o f b irth ;1

single births in 1915.

Single births in 1915.
Infant deaths.
Stillbirths.
•

Order of birth.

Early infancy. Allother causes.

Total.

Live
births.

Total.
Per
Num­ 1,000
ber.
births.

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

Total..............

10,915

378

34.6

10,537

1,023

97.1

357

33.9

666

63.2

126
60
43
34
50
42
23

42.6
24.7
29.1
30.1
34.7
40.7
51.5

2,830
2,372
1,435
1,095
1,391
990
424

259
208
126
104
137

91.5
87.7
87.8
95.0
98.5

104
85
52
25
37
32

36.7
35.8
36.2

155
123
74
79

Seventh to ninth___
Tenth and later.......

2,956
2,432
1,478
1,129
L441
1,032
447

54.8
51. 9
51. 6
72.1
71.9
88.9

i Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

120

69

121.2

162.7

22

22.8

26.6
32.3
51.9

100
88
47

110.8

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

341

T a b l e 143— In fa n t m o rta lity rates, by age, co lo r, and n a tiv ity o f m oth er; liv e births in
1915 and liv e births, a ll pregn a n cies.

Live births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total.
Native white.
Infant
deaths.

Age of mother.
Live
births.

Foreign-bom white.

Infant
deaths.

Colored.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Live
Live
Live
Infant births.
Infant births.
Infant births.
Infant
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
rate.i
rate.i
rate.i
rate.i
Births in 1915.

Total............. 10,797 1,117
Under 20.................
20-24.................
25-29.................
30-34....................
35 and over..........
35-39.................
40 and over......
Not reported..........

947
3,283
2,987
1,958
1,618
1,206
412
4

103.5

6,739

126.7
336 102.3
270 90.4
187 95.5
203 125.5
153 126.9
50 121.4

666

120

646

2,195
1,890
1,132
856
630
226

1

95.9

2,753

77 115.6
208
94.8
154 81.5
104
91.9
103 120.3
77 122.2
26 115.1

111

264

662
795
608
576
432
144

1

95.9

1,305

207

158.6

17 153.2
50
75.5
73
91.8
51
83.9
72 125.0
55 127.3
17 118.1

170
426
302
218
186
144
42
3

26
78
43
32
28

152.9
183.1
142.4
146.8
150.5
145.8

1

21

7

Births, all pregnancies.
Total............. 34,844 4,158
Under 20.................
20-24...................
25-29....................
30-34........................
35 and over...........
35-39.................
40 and over.......
Not reported..........

119.3 19,696 2,185

4,105
608 148.1 2,507
12,583 1,492 118.6 7,370
9,851 1,061 107.7 5,513
5,441
614 112.8 2,817
2,807
358 127.5 1,472
2,281
289 126.7 1,189
526
69 131.2
283
57
25
17

110.9 10,744 1,222

343 136.8
812 110.2
550
99.8
284 100.8
185 125.7
152 127.8
33 116.6

11

780
3,652
3,281
1,989
1,018
833
185
24

125
406
334
219
126
103
23

12

113.7

4,404

751

170.5

160.3

818
1,561
1,057
635
317
259
58
16

140
274
177

171.1
175.5
167.5
174.8
148.3
131.3

111.2
101.8
110 .1

123.8
123.6
124.3

1 11

47
34
13

2

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.
T a b l e 144.— S tillbirth rates, by age, color, and n ativity o f m other; births in 1915.

Births to mothers of specified color and nativity.
Total.
Native white.
Age of mother.

Stillbirths.
Births.
Num­
ber.

Total___ 11,195
Under 20..........
20-24.................
25-29.................
30-34.................
35 and over___
35-39..........
40 and over.
Not reported...!

995
3,382
3,087
2,029
1,698
1,259
439
4

Per

Foreign-bom white.

Stillbirths.
Births.

1,000

births.1

Colored.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Births.
Births.
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
1,000
1,000
ber. 1,000
ber.
ber.
births.1
births.1
births.1

398

35.6

6,937

198

28.5

2,837

84

29.6

1,421

116

81.6

48
99

48.2
29.3
32.4
35.0
47.1
42.1
61.5

688

22

32.0
24.9
26.8
25.8
42.5
45.5
34.2

116
676
820
622
602
447
155

5
14
25
14
26
15

43.1
20.7
30.5
22.5
43.2
33.6
71.0

191
455
325
245

21

109.9
63.7
70.8

100

71
80
53
27

2,251
1,942
1,162
894
660
234

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

56
52
30
38
30

8

1

11

202

152
50
3

29
23
27
16

8
8

110.2

79.2
52.6

342
T

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

able

145.— S tillbirth rates, by age o f mother and earnings o f fa th er; sin gle births in 1915
. and all births, all pregnancies.
Births in families where fathers earned specified amount during year after
birth in 1915.

Age of mother.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.
Births.

$850 and over.

$550-8849

Under $550.

Per Births.
N u m -. 1,000
ber. births.1

Num­
ber.

Per

Births.

1,000

births.1

Per
Num­ 1,000
ber. births.1

Single births in 1915.
Total............................

3,054

140

45.8

3,936

122

31.0

3,487

379
923
737
494
517

24
35
35
28
18

63.3
37.9
47.5
56.7
34.8

394
1,302
1,056
653
531

10

20-24......................................
25-29.......................................
30-34.......................................

33
33

25.4
25.3
31.3
32.2
47.1

1,10 1

4

21

25

172
949

94

27.0

10

58.1
19.0
22.7
25.5
42.2

18
25
19

744
521

22

Births, all pregnancies.

20-24.......................................
25-29.......................................
30-34......................................

11,052

464

42.0

12,858

362

28.2

10,689

310

29.0

1,628
3,948
2,858

88

54.1
40.8
37.4
38.4
39.6

1,609
4,833
3,552
1,854
997
13

45
117
92
63
41
4

28.0
24.2
25.9
34.0
41.1

859
3,680
3,360
1,881
891
18

30
97
96
52
31
4

34.9
26.4
28.6
27.6
34.8

1,668

908
42

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

161
107
64
36

8

343

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

T a b l e 146.— In fan t m ortality rales, by age o f m other and earnings o f fa th er; sin gle live

births in 1915 and a ll liv e births, dll 'pregnancies.

Live births in families where fathers earned specified amount during year
after birth in 1915.
Under $550.
Age of mother.

$550-1849.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Num­
ber.

$850 and over.

Infant deaths.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.1

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.1

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.1

Single births in 1915.
Total.............................

2,914

380

130.4

3,814

356

93.3

3,393

216

63.7

Under 20................................
20-24.......................................
25-29.......................................
30-34.......................................
35 and over.............................
Not reported..........................

355
888
702
466
499
4

52
115
82
56
74
1

146.5
129.5
116.8
120.2
148.3

384
1,269
1,023
632
506

43
103
90
56
64

112.0
81.2
88.0
88.6
126.5

162
931
1,076
725
499

10
68
56
47
35

61.7
73.0
52.0
64.8
70.1

All births, all pregnancies.
Total............................. 10,588
Under 20................................
20-24.......................................
25-29.......................................
30-34.......................................
35 and over............................
Not reported..........................

1,549

146.3

12,496

1,504

120.4

10,379

909

87.6

261
552
371
223
132
10

169. 5
145.8
134.9
139.0
151.4

i,564
4,716
3,460
1,791
956
9

239
537
392
214
116
6

152.8
113.9
113.3
119.5
121.3

829
3,583
3,264
1,829
860
4

80
335
249
149
87
9

96.5
93.5
76.3
81.5
101.2

1,540
3,787
2J51
1,604
872
34

'Not shown where base is less than 100.
T a b l e 147.— In fan t m ortality rates fro m specified causes, by age o f m other; sin gle live

births in 1915.

Single live births in 1915.
Infant deaths.
Age of mother.

Early infancy.
Total.
Total.

All other causes.

Infant
mortality
Infant
rate.1 Number. Infant
mortality Number. mortality
rate.1
rate.1

Total..................................

10,537

1,023

97.1

357

33.9

666

63.2

Under 20....... .............................
20-24............................................
25-29............................................
30-34............................................
35 and over..................................
35-39........................... .........
40 and over...........................
Not reported...............................

940
3,224
2,910
1,896
1,563
1,164
399
4

114
309
242
169
188
141
47
1

121.3
95.8
83.2
89.1
120.3
121.1
117.8

45
101
94
54
, 62
48
14
1

47.9
31.3
32.3
28.5
39.7
41.2
35.1

69
208
148
115
126
93
33

73.4
64.5
50.9
60.7
80.6
79.9
82.7

i Not shown where base is less than 100.


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344
T

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

able

148.—Premature births, by age, color, and nativity o f mother; live births in 1915.
Live births to mothers of specified color and nativity.

Age of mother.
Total
live
births.

Total..... ......................
Under 20................................
20-24.......................................
25-29.......................................
30-34.......................................
35 and over.............................
35-39.................................
40 and over......................

Premature live
births.
Num­
ber.

Per­
cent.1

415

6.2

6,739

59
147
103
61
45
36
9

666
2,195
1,890
1,132
856
630
226

Colored.

Foreign-born white.

Native white.

8.9
6.7
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.7
4.0

Total
live
births.

Premature live
births.

Total
live
births.

Premature live
births.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.1

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.1

2,753

97

3.5

1,305

79

6.1

111
662
795
608
576
432
144
1

8
21
31
16
21
15
6

7.2
3.2
3.9
2.6
3.6
3.5
4.2

170
426
302
218
186
144
42
3

14
29
15
10
10
6
4
1

8.2
6.8
5.0
4.6
5.4
4.2

.

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 149.—Stillbirth rales, by order o f birth and age o f mother; births in 1915, and births,
all pregnancies.
Births of specified order of birth.1
Second and third.

First.
Age of mother.

Seventh and later.
Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.

Stillbirths.
Births.

Fourth to sixth.

Births.
Births.
Per Births. Num­ Per
Per
Per
Num­ 1,000
Num­ 1,000
Num­ 1,000
1,000
ber. births.*
ber.
ber. births.8
ber. births.8
births.8
Births in 1915.

Total.......... 2,999

131

43.7

3,996

106

26.5

2,667

91

34.1

1,533

70

45.7

741
1,449
561
187
61
54
7

35
53
26
16
1
1

47.2
36.6
46.3
85.6

246
1,588
1,409
546
207
176
31

12
35
33
14
12
11
1

48.8
22.0
23.4
25.6
58.0
62.5

8
337
966
853
500
408
92
3

1
11
34
23
22
18
4

32.6
35.2
27.0
44.0
44.1

8
151
443
930
621
309
1

7
18
45
23
22

46.4
40.6
48.8
37.0
71.2

Under 20..........
20-24.................
25-29.................
30-34.................
35 and over.......
35-39...........
40 and over.

Births, all pregnancies.
Total.......... 10,754
Under 20.......... 3,181
20-24................. 5,371
25-29................. 1,681
414
30-34.................
99
35 and over.......
89
35-39..........
10
40 and over.
8
Not reported...

427

39.7 12,977

347

26.7

8,496

267

31.4

3,820

162

42.4

117
197
73
33
5
4
1
2

1,054
6,197
4,153
1,228
316
277
39
29

51
154
90
29
15
13
2
8

48.4
24.9
21.7
23.6
47.5
46.9

41
1,367
3,755
2,490
817
709
108
26

3
40
120
74
27
22
5
3

29.3
32.0
29.7
33.0
31.0
46.3

41
571
1,502
1,696
1,293
403
10

2
26
57
74
48
26
3

45.5
37.9
43.6
37.1
64.5

36.8
36.7
43.4
79.7

i “ Order of birth” means order of issue for births in 1915, and order of pregnancy for births, all pregancies.
aNot shown where base is less than 100.


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If.
T able 150.— Infant mortality rates, by order o f birth and age o f mother; live births in 1915, and live births, all pregnancies.
Births of specified order of birth.1
Second and third.

First.
Age of mother.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Num­
ber.

Fourth to sixth.

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.2

Num­
ber.

Tenth and later.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.2

Num­
ber.

Infant deaths.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.2

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.2

Births in 1915.
Total...................................................................

2,868

272

Under 20.......................................................................
20-24.............................................................................
25-29..............................................................................
30-34.............................................................................
35 and over...................................................................
35-39.......................................................................
40 and over............................................................
Not reported................................................................

706
1,396
535
171
60
53

79
125
44
14
10
8
2

T

94.8

3,890

111.9
89.5
82.2
81.9

234
1,553
1,376
532
195
165
30

359

92.3

2,576

277

107.5

1,016

129

127.0

447

80

179.0

38
160
95
45
21
18
3

162.4
103.0
69.0
84.6
107.7
109.1

7
326
932
830
478
390
88
3

3
47
102
76
48
41
7
1

144.2
109.4
91.6
100.4
105.1

8
139
350
518
396
122
1

4
29
36
60
45
15

208.6
102.9
115.8
113.6
123.0

5
75
367
202
165

16
64
41
23

174.4
203.0
139.4

Births, all pregnancies.
Total......................... ......................................... 10,237
Under 20.................. ...................................................
20-24.............................................................................
25-29.............................................................................
30-34.............................................................................
35 and over...................................................................
35-39......................................................................
40 and over............... ............................................
Not reported..................... ...... ....... ............................

3,064
5,174
1,608
381
94
85
9
6

1,196

115.8

12,630

1,342

106.3

8,229

1,061

128.9

2,775

395

142.3

883

164

185.7

414
568
153
39
19
16
3
3

135.1
109.8
95.1
102.4

1,003
6,043
4,063
1,199
301
264
37
21

181
686
337
102
32
29
3
4

180.5
113.5
82.9
85.1
106.3
109.8

38
1,327
3,635
2,416
790
687
103
23

13
225
465
262
84
73
11
12

169.6
127.9
108.4
106.3
106.3
106.8

37
514
1,207
1,010
848
162
7

11
101
154
123
106
17
6

196.5
127.6
121.8
125.0
104.9

2
31
238
612
397
215

2
5
57
100
65
35

239.5
163.4
163.7
162.8


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

345

1 “ Order of birth” means order of issue for births in 1915 and order of pregnancy for births, all pregnancies.
* Not shown where base is Jess than lfiQ.

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

Live
Infant births.
mor­
tality
rate.2

Seventh to ninth.

346

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 151.— Infant mortality rates, by order o f birth and aye and color o f mother; single

live births in 1915, and all live births, all pregnancies.
Live births of specified order of birth.1
Second and third.

First.
Age and color of
mother.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.
Live
births.

Fourth and sixth.

Seventh and later.
Infant
deaths.

,

Live
Live
Live
Infant
Infant births.
Infant births.
Infant births.
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
ber.
ber.
ber.
tality
tality
tality
ber. tality
rate.2
rate.2
rate.2
rate.2
Single births in 1915.

White mothers. 2,601

223

85.7

3,368

268

79.6

2,133

193

90.5

1,158

150

129.5

604
20-24........................ 1,282
25-29........................
504
30-34.......................
153
58
35-39.................
51
7

65
96
39
14
9
7
2

107.6
74.9
77. 4
91.5

166
1,303
L251
475
173
147
26

24
114
76
36
18
15
3

144.6
87.5
60.8
75.8
104.0
102.0

3
220
766
729
414
330
84
1

1
26
68
59
38
32
6
1

118.2
88.8
80.9
91.8
97.0

3
93
325
737
496
241

2
18
32
98
68
30

98.5
133.0
137.1
124.5

157.2

439

66

150.3

353

48

136.0

256

39

152.3

66
226
87
38
22
18
4

12
35
12
4
3
3

3
94
139
77
38
34
4
2

1
13
18
12
4
3
1

129.5

3
49
84
119
86
33
1

1
9
12
17
12
5

Colored mothers

229

36

20-24........................
25-29.......................
30-34........................

98
93
21
15
2
2

11
22
2

35-39.................

1
1

/

154.9

142.9

Births, all pregnancies.
98.6

7,080

841

118.8

3,004

433

144.1

2,523
4,755
1,516
340
87
78
9
4

336
5ÒÌ
143
35
17
14
3
3

133.2
105.4
94.3
102.9

745
5,245
3,766
1,090
270
239
31
15

127 170.5
557 106.2
293 77.8
88
80.7
29 107.4
26 108.8
3
4

19
1,000
3,130
2,187
729
631
98
15

5
152
379
219
76
68
8
10

152.0
121.1
100.1
104.3
107.8

22
382
1,189
1,404
1,074
330
7

8
69
161
189
147
42
6

180.6
135.4
134.6
136.9
127.3

Colored mothers 1,102

161

146.1

1,499

244

162.8

1,149

220

191.5

654

126

192.7

541
419
92
41
7
7

78
67
10
4
2
2

144.2
160.0

258
798
297
109
31
25
6
6

54
129
44
14
3
3

209.3
161.7
148.1
128.4

19
327
505
229
61
56
5
8

8
73
86
43
8
5
3
2

223.2
170.3
187.8

17
163
256
218
171
47

5
37
50
34
24
10

227.0
195.3
156.0
140.4

White mothers. 9,225 1,035
20-24........................
25-29........................
30-34........................
35-39.................

20-24........................
25-29........................
30-34........................
35-39 ..

2

112.2 11,131 1,098

l“ Order of birth’ ’ means order of issue for births in 1915 and order of pregnancy for births, all pregnancies.
* Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

347

T able 152.— In fa n t m orta lity rates, by order o f birth , age o f m oth er, and ea rn in g s o f
fa th e r ; liv e birth s, a ll ‘p reg n a n cies.

Live births, all pregnancies, of specified order of pregnancy.1
First.
Age of mother and
earnings offather
during year after
birth in 1915.

Second and third.

Infant
deaths.
Live
births.

Fourth to sixth.

Seventh and later.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Live
Live
Live
Infant births.
Infant births.
Infant births.
Infant
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
Num­ mor­
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
rate.*
rate.*
rate.*
rate.*

Under $850... 6,536

842

128.8

8,230

990

120.3

5,684

790

139.0

2,634

431

163.6

Age of mother:
Under 20.......... 2,280
20-24................. 3,239
796
25-29.................
30-34.................
168
48
Not reported...
5

332
389
88
18
13
2

145.6
120.1
110.6
107.1

793
4,216
2,427
647
132
15

156
500
245
72
15
2

196.7
118.6
100.9
111.3
113.6

31
1,013
2,572
1,554
497
17

12
188
342
185
56
7

185.6
133.0
119.0
112.7

35
416
1,026
1,151
' 6

12
88
162
164
5

211.5
157.9
142.5

$850 and over. 3,385

295

87.1

3,904

287

73.5

2,204

221

100.3

886

106

119.6

Age of mother:
Under 20..........
657
20-24................. 1,738
25-29.................
749
30-34.................
197
43
Not reported...
1

62
155
55
17
5
1

94.4
89.2
73.2
86.3

166
1,573
1,492
511
156
6

17
149
78
27
14
2

102.4
94.7
52.3
52.8
89.7

6
268
907
755
262
6

1
30
99
62
24
5

111.9
109.2
82.1
91.6

4
116
366
399
i

1
17
43
44
1

146.6
117.5
110.3

1 For total rates, all orders of pregnancy combined, see Table 150, page 345.
* Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 153.— In fant mortality rates from specified causes, by age o f mother and order o f
birth;1 single live births in 1915.
Infant mortality rates*from specified causes among births of specified order of birth.1

Age of mother.

All births.

First.

Second and
third.

Fourth to
sixth.

Seventh to
ninth.

Tenth and
later.

Early AU Early AU Early AU Early All Early AU Early AU
in­
other in­
in­
other
in­
other in­
other
other
in­
other
fancy. causes. fancy. causes. fancy. causes. fancy. causes fancy. causes. fancy. causes.
Total......

33.9

63.2

36.7

54.8

36.0

51.7

Under 20..........
20-24.................
25-29.................
30-34.......... : . . .
35 and over......
35-39..........
40 and over

47.9
31.1
32.2
28.5
39.4
41.2
34.2

73.4
64.0
50.7
60.7
80.1
79.9
80.7

45.6
28.4
38.1
47.6
83.3
94.3

62.7
57.5
40.0
35.7
83.3
56.6

56.0
32.7
32.9
37.0
56.4
60.6

99.1
64.7
32.9
40.9
51.3
48.5

1Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

24.9

72.0

32.3

88.9

51.9

110.8

35.0
23.2
17.4
32 5
32.9
34.1

89.2
71.8
70.7
58.4
63.2
45.5

65.7
26.3
25.8
28.4
17.2

131.4
70.2
87.3
79.9
112.1

59.7
51.1
51.5
50.6

104.5
113.6
144.3
75.9

* Not shown where base is less than 100.

348

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 154.— Stillbirth and infant mortality rates, by interval since preceding birth,1

earnings o f father, and color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915, second and later
in order o f birth.1
Births in 1915 (second and later in order of birth)1after speci­
fied interval since preceding birth.1
Under 2 years.
Earnings of father and color and nativity
of mother.

Stillbirths.
Births.
1,000
Number. Per
birtns.2

Infant deaths.
Live
births.

Infant
Number. mortality
rate.*

All mothers........................................

2,149

77

35.8

2,072

304

146.7

Earnings of father:
Under $550.............................................
$550-1849................................................
$850-$l,249.............................................
$1,250 and over......................................
No earnings...........................................
Not reported..................................

714
783
391
176
41
44

37
25
6
2
6
1

51.8
31.9
15.3
11.4

677
758
385
174
35
43

128
101
63
14
10
g

189.1
133.2
111.7
80.5

Native white mothers........................

1,195

21

17.6

1,174

162

138.0

Earnings of father:
Under $550...................................
$550-$849................................................
$850-11,249.............................................
$1,250 and over..............................
Nò earnings......................................
Not reported..........................................

216
507
293
139
16
24

2
12
3
2
2

9.3
23.7
10.2
14.4

214
495
290
137
14
24

44
69
33
9
4
3

205.6
139.4
113.8
65.7

Foreign-bom white mothers.............

554

16

28.9

538

74

137.5

Earnings of father:
Under $550.............................................
$550-$849................................................
$850 and over....................................
No earnings....................................
Not reported..........................................

212
204
118
9
11

5
7
3
1

23.6
34.3
25.4

207
197
115

149.8
121.8
95.7

ii

31
24
11
3
5

Colored mothers............................... .

400

40

100.0

360

68

188.9

Earnings of father:
Under $550.............................................
$550 and over.........................................
No earnings..........................................
Not reported..........................................

286
89
16
9

30
6
3
1

104.9

256
83
13
8

53
12
3

207.0

1 Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

&

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

349

154.— Stillbirth and infant m ortality rates, by interval since preceding birth,1
earnings o f father, and color and nativity o f mother; births in 1915, second and later
in order o f birth1— Continued.

T able

Births in 1915 (second and later in order of birth)1after specified interval
since preceding birth1—Continued.
Not reported.

2 years and over.
Earnings of father and color
and nativity of mother.

Infantdeaths.

Stillbirths.
Births.

Live
Per births. Num­
Num­ 1,000
ber.
ber. births.3

Still­ Live Tnfant
Infant Births. births.
births. deaths.
mor­
tality
rate.3

All mothers...................... 5,999

189

31.5

5,810

536

92.3

48

1

47

5

Earnings of father:
Under $550........................... 1,717
$550-1849..............
2,111
$850-$l,249...........
1,236
'699
117
119

57
68
31
22
5
6

33.2
32. 2
25.1
31.5
42.7
50.4

1,660
2,043
l' 205
677
112
113

197
195
69
38
23
14

118.7
95.4
57.3
56.1
205.4
123.9

16
13
14
3
1
1

1

15
13
14
3
1
1

4
1

Native white mothers___ 3,508

99

28.2

3,409

302

88.6

23

23

1

562
1,348
947
546
41
64

10
45
21
19
2
2

17.8
33.4
22.2
34.8

552
1,303
'926
527
39
62

74
125
54
33
7
9

134.1
95.9
58.3
62.6

2
7
12
1
1

2
7
12
1
1

1,740

46

26.4

1,694

134

79.1

17

17

2

664
605
407
35
29

13
18
10
1
4

19.6
29.8
24.6

651
587
397
34
25

58
50
16
8
2

89.1
85.2
40.3

8
5
4

8
5
4

2

751

44

58.6

707

100

141.4

8

1

7

2

491
193
41
26

34
g
2

69.2
41.5

457
185
39
26

65
24
8
3

142.2
129.7

6
1

1

5
1

2

Earnings of father:
$550-$849.
$850-$l,249.........

Foreign - bom w h i t e
mothers.........................
Earnings of father:
$550-$849. ..

Colored mothers...............
Earnings of father:
Under $550...........................

1Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1

3 Not shown where base is less than 100.

1

1

350

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 155.— Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, by interval since preceding birth 1 and

period o f gestation; births in 1915.
Stillbirths.
Interval since preceding birth1 and period
of gestation.

Live
births.

Births.
Number. Per cent.

Infant
deaths.

Infant
mortality
rate.

103.5

Total.....................

11,195

398

3.6

10,797

1,117

No previous birth..........
Interval: •
1 year........................
2 years......................
3 years......................
4 years and over___
Not reported............

2,999

131

4.4

2,868

272

94.8

2,149
3,045
1,398
1,556
48

77
95
34
60
1

3.6
3.1
2.4
3.9
2.1

2,072
2,950
1,364
1,496
47

304
291
118
127
5

146.7
98.6
86.5
84.9
106.4

Full-term births...

10,430

234

2.2

10,196

792

77.7

No previous birth..........
Interval:
1 y ear..................
2yeais......................
3 years......................
4 years and over___
Not reported............

2,726

90

3.3

2,636

173

65.6

1,979
2,891
1,332
1,459
43

41
49
20
33
1

2.1
1.7
1.5
2.3
2.3

1,938
2,842
1,312
1,426
42

219
219
88
91
2

113.0
77.1
67.1
63.8
47.6

Premature births..
No previous birth..........
Interval:
1 year........................
2 years.................... .
3 years......................
4 years and over.......
Not reported............

'

755

164

21.7

591

322

544.8

271

41

15.1

230

98

426.1

158
151
64
96
5

36
46
14
27

21.4
30.5
21.9
28.7

132
105
50
69
5

85
70
30
36
3

643.9
666.7
600.0
521.7
600.0

Term not reported.

10

10

3

300.0

No previous birth..........
Interval:
1 y e a r ...................
2 years......................
3 years......................
4 years and over.......
Not reported............

2

2

1

500.0

2
3
2
1

2
3
2
1

2

666.7

1 Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

351

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

T a b l e 156.— Interval since preceding birth 1 by earnings o f father and color and nativity

o f mother; live births in 1915, second and later in order o f birth.1
Live births in 1915 second and
later in order of birth.1
Earnings of father and color and nativity of mother
Total.

Interval under 2
years since pre­
ceding birth.1
Number. Per cent.2

All mothers.................................................................
Native white mothers.........................................................
Earnings of father:
Under $550.............................................. ..............................
$550-8849................................................................
$850-$l,249...................................................................
$1,250 and over.......................................................
Nò earnings..................................................................
Not reported........................................................
Foreign-bom white mothers........................... ......................... .
Earnings of father:
Under $550..............................................................
$550-$849............................................................................
$850-$l,249..................................................................
$1,250 and over..............................................................
Nò earnings.............................................................
Not reported.........................................................................
Colored mothers...................................................................
Earnings of father:
Under $550..................................................................
$550 and over................................................................. ..
No earnings...............................................................................
Not reported..........................................................................
1 Includes miscarriages.
2 Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7,929

2,072

26^1

4,606

1,174

25.5

768
1,805
1,228
665
54
86

214
495
290
137
14
24

27.9
27.4
23.6
20.6

2,249

538

23.9

866
789
337
179
42
36

207
197
81
34
8
11

23.9
-25.0
24.0
19.0

1,074

360

33.5

718
269
52
35

256
83
13
8

35.7
30.9

352
T

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

able

157.— Number o f mother’s 'pregnancies, by duration o f mother’s married life and
earnings o f fattier; live births, all pregnancies.
Live births,1 all pregnancies, to mothers
reporting specified number of pregnancies.

Duration of mother’s married life and earnings of father
during year after 1915 birth.
2 and 3

4-6

7-9

10 and
over.
1,521

Earnings of father under $550....................................

2,142

3,508

2,731

Years married:
Under 6 years................................................................
6-10 years......................................................................
11-15 years....... . ...........................................................
16 and over....................... ............................................

1,535
504
74
29

277
1,801
1,036
394

7
290
1,080
1,354

248
1,273

Earnings of father $550-$849.....................................

3,209

4,228

2,525

1,429

Years married:
Under 6 years...............................................................
6-10 years.................................................................... .
11-15 years........................... ........................................
16 and over....................................................................

2,251
808
135
15

273
2,247
1,376
332

215
1,172
1,138

143
1,286

Earnings of father $850-$l,249..................................

2,050

2,174

1,271

720

Years married:
Under 6 years.......... J...................................................
6-10 years......................... T .................... ....................
11-15 years............................................... . ...................
16 and over....................................................................

1,265
621
138
26

107
1,085
774
208

100
673
498

61
659

Earnings of father $1,250 and over...........................

1,154

1,111

563

310

Years married:
Under 6 years...............................................................
6-10 years......................................................................
11-15 years....................................................................
16 and over....................................................................

588
466
74
26

31
577
369
134

50
201
312

5
20
285

l Omitting those for which earnings of father during year after 1915 birth were “ none” or “ not reported. "


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A P P E N D IX V I I .-----T A B L E S .
T a b l e 158.

353

Infant mortality rates, by number o f mother’s pregnancies, duration o f
manned life and earnings o f father; live births, all pregnancies.
Live births, all pregnancies, to mothers reporting specified duration of married life.
Under 6 years.

Number of mother’s
pregnancies, and
earnings of fathe
during yea- after
1915 birth.

6-10 years.

Infant
deaths.
Live
births

11-15 years.

Infant
deaths.

16 years and over

Infant
deaths.

Infant
deaths.

Live
Live
Live
Infan ; births
Infan births
Infant births
Infant
Num mor­
Num mor­
Num mor­
Num mor­
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
ber. tality
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1
rate.1

Earnings of
father under
«550............ 2,450
Number of mother’s
pregnancies:
1-3.................... 2,166
4-6....................
277
7-9....................
7
10 and over......

1
346

141.2

2,602

330

126.8

2,441

407 | 166.7

3,050

457

149.8

1
286
58
2

132.0
209.4

511
1,801
290

36
70.5
224 124.4
70 241.4

77
1,036
1,080
248

14
120 115.8
192 177.8
81 326.6

29
394
1,354
1,273

40
164
249

101.5
121.1
195.6

399

110.9

3,283

398

121.2

2,831

354

125.0

2,771

350

126.3

349
50

105.0
183.2

821
2,247
215

73
278
47

88.9
123.7
218.6

140
1,376
1,172
143

13
133
173
35

92.9
96.7
147.6
244.8

15
332
1,138
1,286

1
30
125
194

90.4
109.8
150.9

2,959

236

79.8

2,951

228

77.3

2; 312

204

88.2

2,150

241

112.1

Number of mother’s
pregnancies:
1-3.................... 2,821
4-6....................
138
7-9....................
10 and over___

222
14

78.7
101.4

1,134
1,662
150
5

59
136
33

52.0
81.8
220.0

214
1,143
874
81

14
79
100
11

65.4
69.1
114.4

54
342
810
944

5
22
79
135

64.3
97.5
143.0

167

30

179.6

160

26

162.5

170

19

111.8

185

32

173.0

159
8

30

188.7

42
108
10

5
21

194.4

5
102
63

97

13

175

29

E arnings of
father, «550«849............ 3,597
Number of mother’s
pregnancies:
1-3.................... 3,324
4-6....................
273
7-9....................
10 and over......
Earnings o f
father, «850
or over.

Earnings of
father,none.
Number of mother’s
pregnancies:
1-3....................
4-6....................
7-9....................
10 and over......
Earnings of
father, not
reported__
Numberof mother’s
pregnancies:
1-3....................
4-6....................
7-9....................
10 and over___ 1.
1

222

31

139.6

120

7

198
24

27
4

136.4

35
85

3
4

1

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.

101351°— 23------23


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

58.3

107.8

162

17

12
116
34

1

104.9

103.4
87
10 '

165.7

354

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 159.—Infant mortality rates, by interval between birth in 1915 and preceding birth;1
live births in 1915, second and later in order o f birth,1 and live births preceding single
births in 1915.
Live births preceding single
births in 1915.2

Live births in 1915.

Infant deaths.

Infant'deaths.

Interval between 1915 birth and
preceding birth.
Total.

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.8

Total.

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.8

7,062

753

106.6

7,929

845

106.6

1,661
2,716
1,257
1,417
11

336
241
72
97
7

202.3
88.7
57.3
68.5

. 2,072
2,950
1,364
1,496
47

304
291
118
127
5

146.7
98.6
86.5
84.9

1Includes miscarriages.
s These figures are approximate only, since if preceding birth resulted in plural live births only the one
which lived the longer was included.
8 Not shown where base is less than 100.

T able 160.—Stillbirth rates, by interval between birth in 1915 and preceding birth; births
in 1915, second and later in order o f birth, and births preceding single births in 1915.1
Births 1 preceding single
births in 1915.2

B irths1in 1915.

Stillbirths and
miscarriages.

Interval between 1915 births and
preceding birth.1
Total.

Num­
ber.

Per
1,000
issues.8

Stillbirths and
miscarriages.
Total.
Num­
ber.

Per
1,000
issues.8

Total...................................................

7,959

897

112.7

8,539

610

71.4

1 year............................................................
2 years..........................................................
3 years..........................................................
4 years and over...........................................

2,101
2,953
1,348
1,509
48

440
237
91
92
37

209.4
80.3
67.5
61.0

2,268
3,152
1,443
1,624
52

196
202
79
128
5

86.4
64.1
54.7
78.8

1Includes miscarriages.
* These figures are approximate only, since if preceding issue resulted in plural issues, only the one result­
ing in a live birth or, if none resulted in a live birth, that one having the longer period of gestation was
included.
8 Not shown where base is less than 100.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

APPENDIX V II.---- TABLES.

355

T a b l e 161.— Mother reported pregnant within first year after birth, by age o f infant when
the pregnancy began, by color and nationality o f m other; live births in 1915 to mothers
reported pregnant within year after the birth in 1915 and infant deaths subsequent to
commencement o f pregnancy.

Total.

First.

Second. Third.

Fourth.

7

6

16

10

64

29

127

54

1,300

327

4

3

13

9

51

21

106

44

Native....................
Foreign...................

6,739
2,753

646 5,899
264 2,293

426
157

840
460

220
107

1
3

1
2

10
3

6 38
3 13

14
7

74
32

30
14

Jewish............
Polish...............
Italian..............
Allother..........

961
625
412
755

49
102
36
77

871
481
294
647

33
51
19
54

90
144
118
108

16
51
17
23

. 1

1

3

2

3

2

4
1
1

11
9

2

2
6
2
3

Colored..........................

1,305

1,207

1,042

128

263

79

3

3

3

1

13

8

21

10

Infant
deaths.

406

583

Live
births.

1,563

8,192

Infant
deaths.

711

910

ILive
births.

9,234

9,492

Total.................... 10,797

Infant
deaths.

Live
births.

1,117

White............................

Live
births.

Infant
deaths.

Color and nationality
of mother.

Mother reported pregnant in speci­
fied month in first year after birth
of infant.

Mother
reported
pregnant in
1 year.

Live I
births.
Infant
deaths.
Live I
births.
Infant
deaths.
Live |
births.
Infant
deaths.

Mother not
reported
pregnant
within
1 year.

Mother reported pregnant in specified month in first year after birth of infent.

Fifth.

Sixth.

Sev­
enth.

Eighth. Ninth. Tenth.

Month
Elev­
enth. Twelfth. not re­
ported.

I Live
1births.
I Infant
1deaths.
1 Live
1births.
1Infant
1deaths.
I Live
1 births.
[ Infant
deaths.
Live
births.
Infant 1
deaths. |
Live
births.
Infant
deaths.
Live
births.
Infant
deaths.
Live
births.
Infant
deaths.
Live 1
births.
Infant
deaths.
Live I
births.
Infant
deaths.

Color and nationality of
mother.

Total..................... 205

63 186

44 221

Wlhite.............................. 174 49 144 33 182
Native...................... 116
Foreign.................... 58

30
19

92
52

Jewish...............
Polish................
Italian...............
All other............

10
19
11
18

1
11
1
6

9
12
17
14

3
7
4
2

11
25
14
10

Colored............ .............. 31

14

42

11

39


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

59 174

34 161

52 140 27 136

17 122 38
16 60 14

24 136 28 112 24

76

13

78

18

17 121

25 I kT 22

67

11

66

14

12 79
5 42

19 53
6 43

10 42
1 24

9
5
1
1
1
2
4

83
57

17
10

87
49

2
9
2
1

15
21
11
10

3
6
1

6
16
12
15

3
1
1

10
13
13
6

2
3
1

13
10
11
9

7

34

7

25

7

15

3

16

17 43
5 24
1
1
3

3
6
8
7

1

5
4
7
8

2

9

2

12

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

356

T

162.— Infant deaths, by age at death, relation o f infant death to mother’s pregnancy
after the birth, and color and nativity o f mother; live births in 1915 to mothers pregnant
within year after birth.

able

Deaths among infants whose mothers
became pregnant within year after
birth.
Age at death of infant and color and nativity of mother.

All mothers....................................................................... .

3 months) under 4...........................................................................
4 months, under 5...........................................................................
7 months) under 8...........................................................................

Native white mothers..........................................................

3 months) under 4..........................................-x...............................

7 months) under 8...........................................................................

Foreign-bom white mothers................................................

Died in a Month of
Died in a Died in succeed­
preg­
previous the same
nancy not
ing
month.
month.
month. reported-1
74

5

3
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
1

2
1
4
10
7
7
9
11
12
11

1
1
1

15

41

4

2
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
1

1
2
5
4
4
6
6
6
7

2

75

9

22

1

47
7
8
1
3
6
1
1

1
1

1

2

65

3

38
5
3
8
4
3
1
1
2

1

300

27

178
19
24
23
19
16
7
5
6
2
1

2
1

160
93
7
13
14
12
7
5
3
4
1
1

1
2
1
1

2

1
1

1
1
3
1
2
2
4
6
2

1

11

1
1
1

1
2
2
1
1
1
2

!

__

i Of the 18 infant deaths for which the month in which the mother became pregnant wasmot reported, II
which occurred in the first month and 2 in thesecond have been classified in this table as “ died in a previous
month.”


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

APPENDIX VII.-----TABLES.

357

T a b l e 163.— M onthly death rates, by month o f life and by pregnancy o f mother during
infant's first year o f life; live births in 1915.
Infants born in 1915.1
Mother pregnant during
infant’s lifetime.

Total.
Month of life.

Surviving Deaths in month. Surviving Deaths in month.
at begin­
at begin­
ning of
ning of
month. Number. Per 1,000. month.2 Number.8 Per 1,000.
First..............................................................
Third............................................................
Fourth.............................. ............................
Fifth.............................................................
Sixth.............................................................
Seventh.........................................................
Eighth...........................................................
Ninth............................................................
Tenth............................................................
Eleventh.......................................................
Twelfth.........................................................

10,528
10,320
10,255
10,192
10,130
10,059
9,983
9,927
9,871
9,820
9,771
9,726

208
65
63
62
71
76
56
56
51
49
45
46

19.8
6.3
6.1
6.1
7.0
7.6
5.6
5.6
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.7

12
51
139
298
445
608
746
879
980
1,057
1,108

3
1
4
10
7
6
9
11
12
11

58.8
7.2
13.4
22.5
11.5
8.0
10.2
11.2
11.4
9.9

1 Excludes 269 infants who died immediately after birth, not fed.
a Includes infants surviving at the beginning of each month, whose mothers had previously become
pregnant.
8Includes only deaths among infants shown in preceding column.
T a b l e 164.— Computed infant mortality rates, by mother's pregnancy during infant's
lifetim e; infants born in 1915.
Computed mortality rate
per 1,000 infants fed.
Period.

Mothers preg
nant during
All mothers. infant’
s life­
time.

Second to twelfth month.....................................................................................

60.4

154.5

T a b l e 165.— Prevalence o f interval under two years between births, by order o f birth; single
live births in 1915, second, and later in order o f birth,1 and all live births, all pregnancies.2
Single live births in 1915.

Order of birth.
Total.

All live births, all pregnancies.1

Interval under 2 Number
years since pre­ of preg­
ceding birth.1
nancies.

Total.

Number. Per cent.
Second.........................................
Third...........................................
Fourth........................................
Fifth............................................
Sixth...........................................
Seventh.........; ............................
Eighth.........................................
Ninth..........................................
Tenth to fourteenth...................
Fifteenth or later........................

2,372
1,435
1,095
795
596
426
329
235
393
31

703
381
242
174
137
114
81
64
113
17

29.6
26.6
22.1
21.9
23.0
26.8
24.6
27.2
28.8
54.8

1Includes miscarriages.
* Omits live births to mothers reporting but a single pregnancy.
* Or more.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Average interval
under 2 years be­
tween pregnancies.
Number. Percent.

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10-14
8 15

4,658
4,237
4,218
3,832
3,453
2,899
2,383
2,052
3,861
303

3,378
2,680
1,908
1,670
1,601
1,425
899
947
2,440
303

72.5
63.3
45.2
43.6
46.4
49.2
37.7
46.2
63.2
100.0

358

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 166.— Interval between births,1 by age o f m other; single live births in 1915, second
and later in order o f birth.1
Single live births (second and later in order of birthJ) to mothers of specified ages.
Total.

Interval since pre­
ceding birth.1

Live
births.
Total................
1 year.........................
2 years........................
3 years.......................
Not reported..............

Under 20.

Per cent
distri­
bution.

7,707
2,026
2,867
1,316
1,451
47

Percent
distri­
bution.

Live
births.

100.0
26.3
37.2
17.1
18.8
.6

20-24.
Live
births.

100.0
59.7
35.3
5.0

238
142
84
12

1,849703
778
249
114
5

25-29.

Per cent
distri­
bution.
100.0
38.0
42.1
13.5
6.2
.3

Percent
distri­
bution.

Live
births.
2,385
592
941
410
432
10

100.0
24.8
39.5
17.2
18.1
.4

Single live births (second and later in order of birthsi) to mothers of
specified ages.
30-34.

Interval since preceding birth.1

Live
births.
1,728
356
578
341
438
15

Total.................................
1 year..........................................
3 years.........................................
Not reported...............................
1

35-39.

Percent
distri­
bution.

Live
births.

100.0
20.6
33.4
19.7
25.3
.9

40 and over.

Percent
distri­
bution.

1, 111
187
378
222
313
11

100.0
16.8
34.0
20.0
28.2
1.0

Live
births.
392
45
108
81
154
4

Not
Per cent reported,
live
distri­
births.
bution.
100.0
11.5
27.6
20.7
39.2
1.0

4
1
1
2

Includes miscarriages.

T a b l e 167.— Infant m ortality rates from specified causes and stillbirth rales, by order o f
birth 1 and interval since preceding birth;1 single births in 1915, second ana later in
order o f birth.1
Single births in 1915 second and later in order of birth.1
Stillbirths.
Interval since preceding
birth and order of birth.1

Infant deaths.

Total
Live
births. Num­ Per births.
Total.
1,000
ber.
births.8

Early
All other
infancy.
causes.
Infant
mor­
Infant
Infant
tality Num­
mor­ Num­ mor­
rate.* ber. tality
ber. tality
rate.*
rate.*

7,959

252

31.7

7,707

764

99.1

253

32.8

511

Second and third births___

3,910

103

26.3

3,807

334

87.7

137

36.0

197

51.7

1 year............................
2 years...........................
3 years...........................
4 years and over............

1,118
1,410
572
802
8

34
29
13
27

30.4
20.5
22.7
33.7

1,084
1,381
559
775
8

129
106
40
59

119.0
76.8
71.6
76.1

49
41
17
30

45.2
29.7
30.4
38.7

80
65
23
29

73.8
47.1
41.1
37.4

Fourth to sbjth births........

2,570

84

32.7

2,486

241

96.9

62

24.9

179

72.0

1 year............................
2 years...........................
3 years...........................
4 years and over...........

578
972
513
489
18

25
30
9
20

43.3
30.9
17.5
40.9

553
942
504
469
18

82
85
35
36
3

148.3
90.2
69.4
76.8

18
19
9
13
3

32.5
20.2
17.9
27.7

64
66
26
23

115.7
70.1
51.6
49.0

Seventh and later births__

1,479

65

43.9

1,414

189

133.7

54

38.2

135

95.5

405
571
263
218
22

16
27
10
11
1

39.5
47.3
38.0
50.5

389
544
253
207
21

68
62
35
22
2

174.8
114.0
138.3
106.3

14
22
10
8

36.0
40.4
39.5
38.6

54
40
25
14
2

138.8
73.5
98.8
67.7

Total..........................

1 year.............................
2 years...........................
3 years...........................
4 years and over...........
Interval not reported...

1Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

* Not shown where base is less than 100.

66.3

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES,

359

T a b l e 168.— Infant m ortality rates from specified causes and stillbirth rates, by age o f
mother and interval since preceding birth;1 single births in 1915, second and later in order
o f birth.1

Single births in 1915 second and later in order of birth.1
Stillbirths.
Age of mother and interval
since preceding birth.1

Total
births.

Infant deaths.
Total.

Early
infancy.

All other
causes.

Per
Num­ 1,000
liv e
ber. births.® births.
Infant
Infant
Infant
Num­ mor­ Num­ mor­ Num­ mor­
ber. tality ber. tality ber. tality
rate.®
rate.®
rate.®

Interval 1 vear............

2,101

75

35.7

2,026

279

137.7

81

40.0

198

97.7

Under 20...............................
20-24.................................
25-29..............................
30-34......................................
35 and over...........................
35-39................................
40 and over.....................
Not reported.........................

152
721
612
369
246
199
47
1

10
18
20
13
14
12
2

65.8
25.0
32.7
35.2
56.9
60.3

142
703
592
356
232
187
45
1

24
87
81
45
42
37
5

169.0
123.8
136.8
126.4
181.0
197.9

10
27
26
8
10
9
1

70.4
38.4
43.9
22.5
43.1
48.1

14
60
55
37
32
28
4

98.6
85.3
92.9
103.9
137.9
149.7

Interval 2 years..........

2,953

. 86

29.1

2,867

253

88.3

82

28.6

171

59.6

Under 20...............................
20-24............ .............. ..........
25-29......................................
30-34......................................
35 and over...........................
35-39................................
40 and over.................

86
794
967
602
504
390
114

2
16
26
24
18
12
6

20.2
26.9
39.9
35.7
30.8
52.6

84
778
941
578
486
378
108

11
72
66
42
62
44
18

92.5
71.2
72.7
127.6
116.4
166.7

3
23
22
17
17
14
3

29.6
23.4
29.4
35.0
37.0
27.8

8
49
44
25
45
30
15

63*0
46.8
43.3
92.6
79.4
138.9

32

23.7

1,316

110

83.6

36

27.4

74

56.2

19.7
23.8
11.6
41.1
34.8

12
249
410
341
303
222
81
1

3
22
25
26
34
23
11

52.2
39.0
55.7
75.9
72.1

Interval 3 years..........

1,348

Under 20...............................
20-24............... .....................
25-29......................................
30-34......................................
35 and over...........................
35-39................................
40 and over.....................
Not reported.........................

12
254
420
345
316
230
86
1

5
10
4
13
8
5

Interval 4 years and
over..........................

1,509

58

38.4

1,451

20-24......................................
25-29......................................
30-34......................................
35 and over...........................
35-39................................
40 and over.....................

118
447
451
493
330
163

4
15
13
26
17
9

33.9
33.6
28.8
52.7
51.5
55.2

114
432
438
467
313
154

Interval not reported..

48

1

47

5

3

20-24......................................
25-29.......................................
30-34.......................................
35 and over...........................
35-39................................
40 and over.....................
Not reported....... , ................

5
10
16
15
11
4
2

5
10
15
15
11
4
2

1

1

2
1
1

1

1

1

1Includes miscarriages.
* Not shown where base is less than 100.


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1

88.4
61.0
76.2
112.2
103.6

9
9
7
11
7
4

36.1
22.0
20.5
36.3
31.5

3
13
16
19
23
16
7

117

80.6

51

35.1

66

45.5

9
29
40
39
28
11

78.9
67.1
91.3
83.5
89.5
71.4

2
17
13
19
13
6

17.5
39.4
29.7
38.5
41.5
39.0

7
12
27
20
15
5

61.4
27.8
61.6
42.8
47.9
32.5

2

1
1
1

â6Ô

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MB.

T a b l e 169.— Infant m ortality ratesfrom specified causes, by age o f mother, order o f birth f
and interval since precedinq birth ;1 sinqle live births in 1915, second and later in order
o f birth.1

Single births (second and later in order of birth1) following preceding birth1
specified interval.

láve
births.

Early
infancy.

Early
infancy.

All other
causes.
Live
births.

In­
In­
fant Num­ fant
Num­ mor­
mor­
ber tality ber. tality
rate.3
rate.4
S e c o n d and
third births1 1,084

49

73.8

2,715

32.4

87.6
83.0
58.2

95
972
1,042
429
177

28.8
29.8
37.3
56.5

32.5

64 115.7

1,915

45.2

137
554
292
83
18

Fourth to sixth
births1.........

553

Under 2 0 ....___
20-24...................
25-29...................
30-34...................
35 and over....... .
Age not reported.

5
144
225
137
41
1

27.8
35.6
14.6

S e v e n t h to
ninth births1

259

42.5

20-24...................
25-29...................
30-34...................
35 and over.........
Age not reported.

5
71
106
77

Tenth and later
births1....... .

130

25-29...-.............
30-34...................
35 and over.........

4
30
96

18

80

117

54.5
25.9
39.6
50.8
115

60.1

120.0

131.4

35.7
19.3
16.6
26.8

89.3
56.4
59.0
56.1

131.3

719

29.2

72.3

(*)
18.9
(s)

84.9

1
66
232
420

30.2
23.8

60.3
71.4

23.1

20 153.8

285

90.3

19

66.7

27

94.7

1

35
249

Live
births.

43.1

1
168
674
661
410
1

1 Includes miscarriages.
3 Not shown where base is less than 100.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

All other
causes.

In­
In­
fant Num­ fant
Num­ mor­
mor­
ber. tality ber. tality
rate.3
rate.3

73.0
39.7
44.5

Under 20............
20-24..................
25-29...................
30-34...................
35 and over.........

Infant
deaths.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Age of mother
and order of
birth.1

Interval not
reported.

2 years and over.

1 year.

64.3

by

104.4

18

Early All
in­ other
fancy. causes.

APPENDIX V II.---- TABLES.

361

T a b l e 170.— Prevalence o f plural births,1 by color and nativity o f mother; births 1 in
1915 and births,1 all pregnancies.

Births in 1915.1
Color and nativity of mother.

Births all pregnancies.1

Plural.

Plural.

Total.

Total.
Number. Per cent.

Number. Per cent.

Total................... ...............................

11,613

296

2.5

38,630

830

2.1

Native white................................................
Foreign-bom white.....................................
Colored.........................................................

7,210
2,894
1,509

183
74
39

2.5
2.6
2.6

21,752
11,632
5,246

465
250
115

2.1
2.1
2.2

1 Includes miscarriages.
T a b l e 171.— Infant m ortality, stillbirth, and miscarriage rates, by color and nativity o f
mother; single and plural births 1 in 1915.

Births in 1915.1

Color and nativity of mother.

Miscarriages per
100 births.1

Stillbirths per 100
births.

Single.

Single.

Plural.

Plural.

Infant
mortality
rate (per 1,000
live births).
Single.

Plural.

Total...................................................

3.6

5.4

3.5

7.1

97.1

361.5

W hite...........................................................
Native...................................................
Foreign bom ..........................................
Colored.........................................................

3.2
3.8
1.9
5.7

4.7
4.9
4.1
10.3

2.8
2.8
2.8
7.9

5.3
4.0
8.5
20.0

90.1
89.0
92.6
148.0

327.6
365.3
230.8
642.9

1Includes miscarriages.
T a b l e 172.— Infant m ortality, stillbirth, and miscarriage rates, by color and nativity o f
mother; single and plural births,1 all pregnancies.

•Births, all pregnancies.1

Color and nativity of mother.

Miscarriages per
100 births.

Stillbirths per 100
births.

Single.

Plural.

Single.

Plural.

Infant
mortality
rate (per 1,000
live births).
Single.

Plural.

Total...................................................

6.6

10.6

3.3

7.3

113.5

407.0

White.................................I........................
Native....................................................
Foreign bom ..........................................
Colored.........................................................

6.1
6.8
4.9
9.7

10.3
11.0
9.2
12.2

2.7
2 7
2.7
6.9

6.4
5.8
7.5
12.9

106.5
105.3
108.6
162.4

383.3
389.7
371.4
568.2

1 Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

362

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MR.

T a b l e 173.— In fan t m ortality, stillbirth, and miscarriage rates, by character o f plural
birth;1 plural births1 in 1915 and all pregnancies.

Plural births.1
Stillbirths.

Miscarriages.

Infant deaths.

Character of plural births.1
Total
births.1 Num­
ber.

Plural births in 1915........

*Plural births, all preg-

Births.
Per
cent.2

Num­
ber.

Live
births.
Per
cent.2

Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.2

296

16

5.4

280

20

7.1

260

94

361.5

281
15

315
1

5.3

266
14

18
2

6.8

248
12

86
8

346.8

830

88

10.6

742

54

7.3

688

280

407.0

806
24

83
5

10.3

723
19

52
2

7.2

671
17

270
10

402.4

1Includes miscarriages.
2 Not shown where base is less than 100.
3 One twin (miscarriage) was born in 1914 prior to schedule year.
T a b l e 174.— Prevalence o f plural births, by age o f mother; births in 1915 and births,
all pregnancies.

Births, all pregnancies.

Births in 1915.
Plural

Age of mother.

Plural.

Total.

Total.
Number. Per cent.

Number. Per cent.

20-24..............................................................
25-29..............................................................
30-34..............................................................
35-39..............................................................

11,195

280

2.5

36,047

742

2.1

995
3,382
3,087
2,029
1,259
439
4

11
64
80
62
45
18

1.1
1.9
2.6
3.1
3.6
4.1

4,276
12,976
10,160
5,634
2,368
'560
73.

41
193
228
158
98
24

1.0
1.5
2.2
2.8
4.1
4.3

T a b l e 175.— Prevalence o f plural births, by order o f birth ; births in 1915 and births,
all pregnancies.

Births, all pregnancies.

Births in 1915.
Order of birth.1

Plural

Plural.
Total.

Total.

Number. Per cent.

Number. Per cent.
First..............................................................
Second and third.........................................
Fourth to sixth............................................
Seventh and later........................................

2,999
3,996
2,667
1,533

43
86
97
54

1.4
2.2
3.6
3.5

10,754
12,977
8,496
3,820

140
211
263
128

1.3
1.6
3.1
3.4

i “ Order of birth” means order oi issue for births in 1915 and order of pregnancy births, all pregnancies.


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863

APPENDIX V II.— TABLES.

T a b l e 176.— Prevalence o f plural births, by age o f mother and order o f birth;1 births in 1915.

Births of specified order of birth.1
Second and third. Fourth to sixth. Seventh to ninth. Tenth and later.

First.
Age of
mother.

Plural
births.
Total
births

Num- -Per
ber. ct.2

Plural
births.

Plural
births.
Total
births

Num- Per
ber. ct.2

Total
births

Num- Per
ber. ct.2

Total......... 2,999

43

1.4 3,996

86

2.2 2,667

97

741
1,449
'56Ì
187
54
7

7
23
10
3

246
.9
1.6 1,588
1.8 l'409
1.6
546
176
31

2
27
38
19

.8
1.7
2.7
3.5

2
12 3.6
30 3.1
24 2.8
29 7.1

20-24............
25-29............
30-34............
35-39............
Not reported

8
337
966
853
408
92
3

Plural
births.
Total
births

3.6 1,058
8
144
363
412
130
1

Plural
births.

Num- Per
ber. ct.2

Total
births

Num- Per
ber. ct.2

26

2.5

475

28

5.9

2
2
8
8
6

(!)
1.4
2.2
1.9
4.6

7
80
209
179

8
8
12

10.0
3.8
6.7

1 Includes miscarriages.
* Not shown where base is less than 60.
T a b l e 177.— Prevalence o f plural births, by occurrence o f previous plural births; all
pregnancies.

Pregnancies.
Resulting in plural
birth.1

Occurrence of previous plural birth.
Total.

Number. Per cent.
Total.................................................................................................................

38,211
734

411
27

1.1
3.7

1 Includes miscarriages.
T a b l e 178.— Prevalence o f prematurity, by single and plural births; births in 1915.

Premature births.
Single and plural births.

All births:
Single.........................................................................................................
Plural.........................................................................................................
Live births:
Single........................................................................................................
Plural.........................................................................................................


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Total
births.

Number. Per cent.

10,915
280

690
65

6.3
23.2

10,537
260

534
57

5.1
21.9

364

IN FA N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 179.— In fa n t

m orta lity rates, by sin g le and 'plural births and p rem a tu rity; births
in 1 9 1 5 .

Infant mortality rate.
Single and plural live births.
Full term. Premature.
Single............................................................................................................................
Plural...........................................................................................................................

528.1
1701.8

73.9
266.0

1 Based on 57 live births.
T a b l e 180.— T yp e o ffee d in g , by m onth o f l i f e ; in fa n ts b o m o f p lu ra l births in 1 9 1 5 .

Infant survivors having specified type of feeding.
Total
twins
and
triplets.

Month of life.

Breast feeding.

Mixed feeding.

Artificial feeding.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
First............................................
Second.........................................
Third...........................................
Fourth........................................
Fifth............................................
Sixth...........................................
Seventh.......................................
Eighth........................................
Ninth..........................................
Tenth............ .............................

1237
218
211
203
194
189
187
184
172
168

133
102
66
48
43
38
36
27
23
17

56.1
46.8
31.3
23.6
22.2
20.1
19.3
14.7
13.4
10.1

29
38
48
52
50
48
41
46
44
46

12.2
17.4
22.7
25.6
25.8
25.4
21.9
25.0
25.6
27.4

31.6
35.8
46.0
50.7
52.1
54.5
58.8
60.3
61.0
62.5

75
78
97
103
101
103
110
111
105
105

1 Excludes 23 infants who died immediately after birth, not fed.

T able 181.— In fa n t m ortality

and stillb irth rates, b y p eriod o f gesta tion ; b irth s 1 in 1 9 1 5 .

Miscarriages
and stillbirths.

Period of gestation.

Total
births.1

Infant deaths.

Live

Total.
1
3
Under month,
months
Infant
1
under
3
and
Num­ mortal­ month. months over.
ber.
ity
rate.

Per
Num­ cent
of
ber. issues.2

Total............................. 11,613

816

7.0

10,797

1,117

103.5

477

128

512

10,430
1,173

234
582

2.2
49.6

10,196
591

792
322

77.7
544.8

207
268

108
19

477
35

507
664
2

418
164

82.4
24.7

89
500
2

86
234
2

468.0

85
181
2

i.9

1
34

10

3

2

1

10
1 Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 Not shown where base is less than 100.

365

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

T a b l e 182.— In fa n t m ortality rates, b y p eriod o f gesta tion and color and n a tiv ity o f
m other; live births m 191 5 .

Full-term live births.

Premature live births.

Infant deaths.

Infant deaths.

Color and nativity of mother.
Total.
Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.1

Total.
Num­
ber.

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.1

Total...................................................

10,196

792

77.7

591

322

544.8

Native white................................................
Foreign-born white......................................
Colored.........................................................

6,322
2,654
1,220

432
209
151

68.3
78.7
123.8

415
97
79

213
55
54

513.3

1 Not shown where base is less than 100.
T a b l e 183 .— In fa n t m ortality and stillbirth rates, by sex o f in fa n t and color and n a tiv ity
o f m oth er; births 1 in 1 9 1 5 .

Miscarriages.
Sex of infant and color and
nativity of mother.

Total
births.1

Stillbirths.

Live Infant
Births.
Per
Per
births. deaths.
Num­ 1,000
Num­ 1,000
ber. births.2
ber. births.2

Infant
mor­
tality
rate.

All mothers.................

11,613

418

36.0

11,196

398

35.6

10,797

1,117

103.5

Male.................. ....................
Female...................................
Not reported..........................

5,922
5,559
132

199
88
131

33.6
15.8
992.4

5,723
5,471
1

215
182
1

37.6
33.3

5,508
5,289

634
483

115.1
91.3

White mothers............

10,104

330

32.7

9,774

282

28.9

9,492

910

95.9

Male.......................................
Female...................................
Not reported..........................

5,177
4,802
125

144
62
124

27.8
12.9
992.0

5,033
4,740
1

155
126
1

30.8
26.6

4,878
4,614

526
384

107.8
83.2

Native...................

7,210

273

37.9

6,937

198

28.5

6,739

646

95.9

Male.......................................
Female...................................
Not reported..........................

3,695
3,408
107

116
51
106

31.4
15.0
990.7

3,579
3,357
1

110
87
1

30.7
25.9

3,469
3,270

377
269

108.7
82.3

Foreign bom .........

2,894

57

19.7

2,837

84

29.6

2,753

264

95.9

Male.......................................
Female...................................
Not reported..........................

1,482
1,394
18

28
11
18

18.9
7.9

1,454
1,383

45
39

30.9
28.2

1,409
1,344

149
115

105.7
85.6

Colored mothers..........

1,509

88

58.3

1,431

116

81.6

1,305

207

15a 6

Male........................................
Female...................................
Not reported..........................

745
757
7

55
26
7

73.8
34.3

690
731

60
56

87.0
76.6

630
675

108
99

171.4
146.7

1Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

* Not shown where base is less than 100.

366

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 184.— M a scu lin ity , by color and n a tio n a lity o f m oth er; births 1 in 1 91 5 .

Color and nationality of mother.

Irish, English, Scotch, and English-

Colored...............................................................

Total births.1

Live births.

Sex
Mascu­ not
re­
Male. Female. linity.8
ported.

Mascu­
Male. Female. linity.8

5,922

5/559 1,065.3

132

5,508

5,289

1,041.4

5,177

4,802 1,078.1

125

4,878

4,614

1,057.2

3,695
1,482

3,408 1,084.2
1,394 1,063.1

107
18

3,469
1,409

3,270
1,344

1,060.9
1,048.4

507
337
236
173

497 1,020.1
312 1080.1
200 1180.0
158 1094.9

-7
6
4

481
322
« 221
167

480
303
191
151

1,002.1
1062.7
1157.1
1106.0

1

66
51
53
48

66
56
47
50

7

630

675

69
54
55
51

69
58
49
51

745

757

984.1

Stillbirths.
Color and nationality of mother.
Male.

Irish, English, Scotch, and English-

Fe­
male.

933.3

Miscarriages.

Sex
Mascu­ not
re­
linity.8 ported.

Male.

Fe­
male.

Sex
not re­
ported.

215

182 1,181.3*

1

199

88

131

155

126 1,230.2

1

144

62

124

1

116
28

51
11

106
18
7
6
4

110
45

87
39

17
12
6
4

13
6
8
5

9
3
9
2

4
3
1
2

1
1
2
2

2
2
2
1

2
2

1

60

56

55

1

1
26

7

1Includes miscarriages.
* Number of male births per 1,000 female births among those for whom sex is reported; not shown where
baseisless than 100.
8Includes 101 Irish, 19 English, 8 Scotch, and 10 English-Canadian.
4
Includes 24 Russian, 19 Greek, 13 Magyar, 8 Norwegian, 6 Serbian, 5 French, 5 Slovak, 4 Rumanian
4 Ruthenian, 3 French-Canadian, 3 Dutch, 2 Slavic (n. o. s.), 2 Spanish, 2 Swedish, 1 Danish, and 1 Arabian.


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367

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

T a b l e 185.—Miscarriages, stillbirths, and infant deaths, by interval between confine­

ment and death o f mother and by period o f gestation; births 1 in 1915 to mothers who
died within year follow ing confinement.
Births1 in 1915 to mothers who died within year following con­
finement.
Interval between confinement and
death of mother and period of ges­
tation.

Infant deaths.
Total Miscar­
Still­
Live
births.1 riages. Births. births. births.

All mothers who died year after
confinement............................
Period:

Mothers who died in month following confinement...................
Period:

Mothers who died in year but
after first month following
confinement............................
Period:

7 months and over.................

Total.

Gastric
and in­ Early
testi­
nal dis- infan­
cyeases.

106

13

93

21

72

35

7

18

69
37
16
21

69
24
3
21

14
7

55
17
3
14

19
16
3
13

7

13
13

3
15
3
12

47

8

39

17

22

15

2

10

24
23
9
14

24
15
1
14

13
4
4

11
11
1
10

5
10
1
9

2

8
8

59

5

54

4

50

20

5

8

45
14
7
7

45
9
2
7

1
3

44
6
2
4

14
6
2
4

5

5
5

3
5
2
3

7
V

3

10
1
9

1Includes miscarriages.
T a b l e 186.—Death o f mother, by period elapsing after confinement and cause o f mother's

death; births 1 in 1915 to mothers who died within year follow ing confinement.
Births1to mothers who died within year following con­
finement.
Cause of mother’s death.

W ithin 3 months.

Total.

3 months or after.

1,000 Number. Per 1,000 Number. Per 1,000
Number. Per
births.1
births.1
births.1
All causes...........................................

106

9.1

62

5.3

44

3.8

Connected with childbirth..........................
All other causes...........................................

50
56

4.3
4.8

44
18

3.8
1.5

6
38

.5
3.3

1Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

368

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 187 —Stillbirths, miscarriages, and infant deaths, by color and nationality o f mother;
births1 in 1915 and births 1 all pregnancies.

Color and nationality of mother.

Total..........................- .......................

B irths1in 1915.

Births 1all pregnancies.

Still­
Infant
births
Births.1 and mis­ deaths.
carriages.

Still­
Infant
births
Births.1 and
mis­ deaths.
carriages.

11,613
7,210
1,011
655
440
788
1,509

816

1,117

38,630

3,786

4,158

471
50
30
28
33
204

646
49
102
36
77
207

21,752
3,870
2,858
1,883
3,021
5,246

2,056
309
177
182
220
842

2,185
232
439
189
362
751

1Includes miscarriages.

T able 188.—Stillbirth and miscarriage rates, by color and nationality o f mother; births 1
in 1915 arid births,1 all pregnancies.
✓

Miscarriage rates
(per 100).

Color and nationality of mother.

Total........................... - ........................................................

Stillbirth rates
(per 100).
Births,1
Births1 all
preg­
in 1915. nancies.

Births1
in 1915.

Births,1
all preg­
nancies.

3.6

6.7

3.6

3.3

3.8
2.0
1.8
3.2
1.4
5.8

6.9
5.5
3.8
6.6
4.3
9.7

2.9
3.0
2.8
3.3
2.9
8.2

2.8
2.6
2.5
3.2
3.1
7.0

1Includes miscarriages.

T

able

189.— Miscarriage rates, by earnings o f father and color and nativity o f mother;

births 1 in 1915 and births,1 all pregnancies.
Miscarriage rates (per 100 births1).

Earnings of father during year
after 1915 birth.

Births1
in 1915.

Total
Under $450..............
$450-1549.................
$550-$649.................
$650-849...................
$850-$1,049..............
$1,050-$1,249..........
$1,250 and over.......
$1,250-$1,449....
$1,450-$1,849....
$l,850-$2,249__
$2,250-$2,849—
$2,850 and over.
No earnings............
Not reported..........
1 Includes miscarriages.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Foreign-born
white mothers.

Native white
mothers.

Births,1 Births1
all preg­ in
1915.
nancies.

Births,1
all preg­
nancies.

Colored mothers.

Births,1
Births1 all preg­
in 1915. nancies.

3.8

6.9

2.0

5.0

5.8

9.7

3.6
3.4
3.6
3.5
3.4
4.2
4.4
5.3
4.7
2.6
3.4
3.7
7.8
6.4

7.3
1.8
6.2
3.1
6.1
1.3
7.0
1.8
6.7
2.4
6. 8
1.9
7.9
0.9
8.5
1*0
7.7 .......... .
5.2 ...............

5.4
5.5
5.3
4.1
5.1
3.6
4.9
5.4
3.6
5.7

7.8
3.2
3.5
7.4
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............
...............

10.6
10.2

7.4

10.8
8.4

6.4 .............. .

9.5 .............
7.7 ................

5.9 ...............

3.4
6.0

» Not shown where base is less than 100.

6.7
8.0

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.
T

able

369

190 .— Stillbirth and miscarriagerates, by employment o f mother away from home
ana color and nativity; births 1 all pregnancies.

Stillbirths and miscarriage
rates.
Employment of mother away from home.
Native
white
mothers.

Foreignborn
Colored
white mothers.
mothers.

Miscarriagerates per 100 births.*
Total.................................
Never employed away...............
Employed before marriage only
Employed after marriage___

6.9

5.0

9.7

6.9
6.1
9.6

5.4
4.9
4.7

13.1
6.7
10.3

Stillbirth rates (per 100 births).
Total..................................
Never employed away...............
Employed before marriage only.
Employed after marriage...........

2.8

2.8

7.0

3.1
2.5
3.4

2.6
2.6
3.3

8.9
5.9
7.1

1 Includes miscarriages.

T able 191.

Legitimacy o f birth1 and scheduling o f illegitimate births,1 by color o f mother'
total registered births1 in 1915.
Registered births * in 1915.
White mothers.

Legitimacy of birth * and
scheduling of illegimate
births.

Still­
births
and
mis­
carri­
ages.

Live Infant
births. deaths.

Color of mothers not
reported.

Colored mothers.
Still­
births
and
mis­
carri­
ages.

Live Infant
births. deaths.

Still­
births
and
Live Infant
mis­ births. deaths.
carri­
ages.

Total registered............

755

11,290

1,136

372

2,183

414

32

4

1

Legitimate.............................
Illegitimate............................
Scheduled.......................
Not scheduled.................
Legitimacy not reported.......

709
46
29
17

10,916
374
163
>211

1,018
118
52
66

249
123
78
45

1,602
581
409
>172

251
163
120
43

4

4

1

1 Includes miscarriages.
* Includes 133 white live births and 123 colored live births whose condition at 1 year of age was unknown.

101351°—23----- 24


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

370

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 192.— Employment o f mother during pregnancy, by color o f mother; scheduled
legitimate and illegitimate births1 and total illegitimate births1 in 1915.
Illegitimate births.1
Legitimate births1
(scheduled).
Employment of mother during pregnancy,
and color.

Scheduled.

Total.3

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion. tion.
679

100.0

10.9
5.1
63.7
. 20.4

ÏÏ9"
43
499
18

ÜS

420

100.0

192

100.0

78.5
14.3
7.2

52
14
223
131

12.4
3.3
53.1
31.2

49
6
126
11

25.5
3.1
65.6
5.7

1,509

100.0

704

100.0

487

100.0

457
374
677
1

30.3
24.8
44.9
.1

70
43
493
98

9.9
6.1
70.0
13.9

70
37
373
7

14.4
7.6
76.6
1.4

1,124

11,613

100.0

8,391
1,819
1,400
3

72.3
15.7
12.1

122~
57
716
229

10,104

100.0

7,934
1,445
723
2

* in clu d e s im scam u-gro.

100.0

_ •

_.

,

6.3
73.5
2.7

,

,,

2 Information about the mothers of the 445 issues for which no schedules were secured is based on the
birth certificates.

T able 193.— Occupation o f mother during pregnancy, by color o f mother; illegitimate
births1 in 1915.
Illegitimate births1in 1915.
White mothers.

Total.

Colored mothers.

Occupation of mother during pregnancy.
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. dsitribu- Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
tion.
1,124
331
142
52
41
49
94
66
57
21
13
11
10
6
4
3
3
12
122
17
105
229

100.0

420

100.0

704

100.0

29.4
12.6
4.6
3.6
4.4
8.4
5.9
5.1
1.9
1.2
1.0
.9
.5
.4
.3
.3
1.1
10.9
1.5
9.3
20.4

66
102
39
30
33
8
7
1
5
13
10
1
6
4
3
3
8
52
5
47
131

15.7
24.3
9.3
7.1
7.9
1.9
1.7
.2
1.2
3.1
2.4
.2
1.4
1.0
.7
.7
1.9
12.4
1.2
11.2
31.2

265
40
13
11
16
86
59
56
16

37.6
5.7
1.8
1.6
2.3
12.2
8.4
8.0
2.3

1
9

.1
1.3

4
70
12
58
98

.6
9.9
1.7
8.2
13.9

1 Includes miscarriages.
. . .
.
, ,
...
. ...
a Includes 1 each of the following: Chorus girl, companion, haar-dresser, demonstrator, peddler, florist s
helper, proprietor of grocery store, farm worker, maid in hospital, maid in department store, lady s maid,
ana prostitute.


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-ajrx-.Ci.lNIMA VJL1.---- TABL.ES.

TiBLE

**» &
Illegitimate blrtte. t .

;year

Employed.

Occupation of mother
during pregnancy.
Total

All occupations.
Domestic.........................
Factory o p e r a t i v e ! I I I ’
Textile and clothing.II
Cannery and food. . . . .
Other factory and fac­
tory n. s..........
Laundress.................... ] ] ]'
Charwoman........... ..I ..I I !
Waitress, cook, or kitchen
girl................................. .
A ll other...........................
Not em ployed..... IIIIIII]
Schoolgirl..............II"
Other.......................HI
Not reported...............IIH]

e ^ o t a a duriog

Em­
ploy­
Not
Wait­
ment
em­
Fac­
not
ployed. Total. Domes­ tory Laun­ Char­ ress,
cook,
All
re­
tic.
oper­ dress. woman.
or
others. port­
ative.
kitchen
ed.
girl.

679

127

522

168

109

90

68

45

42

19Q
115
44
38

30

16
19
5
6

167
96
39
32

128
5
1
3

9
81
36
25

10
3
1
1

7
4

7
2

7

2

6
1
1

33

8
5
3

25
83
53

i
7

20
2

1
G2
1

2
8
42

3

1
1
1

2
12
70
10
60

40
34
47
3
44
2

4
4
12

1

1
2
10
1
9
1

3
1
3

29

3

5
1

56
42
51
119
14
105
18

13
1
12

12

1

2
25
4

5

3

2
1
16

1Includes miscarriages.

T able im .-O c c u p a tio n d u rin g p reg m n ey b , a ye o f m oth er: «leg itim a te b irth s' in
1915•

Illegitimate births i in 1915.
Occupation of mother during pregnancy.

Age of mother.
Total.
Under
16.

All occupations.
Domestic.......................................
Factory operative___ ..;I!IIM IH !
Textile and clothing...............
Cannery and food..... , . .........
Other factory and factory n . s..
Laundress........................................
Waitress, cook, or kitchen girl ..II!
Charwoman....................................
Nursemaid.......................... III!!'* "
Stenographer or clerk... 11111111 ’ "
Seamstress................................. II]
Chambermaid............. 1.111111111"'
Saleswoman........................*...111.
Nurse............................... * 1 1 .1 '” ]
School-teacher.............. IIIIIIIIIIII
Telephone operator.........III III"
All other8.......................... I I I '. ’ I "
Not employed................... I I I I I I !"
Schoolgirl............. .........
Other........................L ...I I I I !"
Not reported....................IIIIIIIII"

16-20

20 and
over.

Not
reported.

1,124

55

454

610

5

331
142
52
41
49
94
66
57
21
13
11
10
6

13
1
1

152
65
24
17
24
23
22
13
13
4
4
5

165
76
27
24
25
69
43
42
6
9
7
3
6

1

2
1
2
2
2

........... ...........
....__ r
2

3
3
12
122 .......... 22
17
6
105
16
229
10

4
65
9
56
82

1 ................
3 .......... ...
7
1
35
2
33
134
3

1 Includes miscarriages.
maid, and prostitute.

S

^


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

f a m w S & r S ^ hair-dresser demonstrator, peddler, flor
' arm worker’ ™ d 111 hospital, maid in department store, ladyi

372

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.
T a b l e 196.— A ge o f mother, hy color; illegitimate births 1 in 1915.

Illegitimate births1in 1915.
White mothers.

Total.

Colored mothers.

Age of mother.
Percent
Per cent
Percent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
tion.
Total...................................................

1,124

100.0

420

100.0

704

100.0

16-17
................................................
18-19
.............................................
20-24
....................................................
25-29
.......................................................
30-34
.......................................................
35-39
....................................................

509
55
180
274
373
114
62
45
16
5

45.3
4.9
16.0
24.4
33.2
10.1
5.5
4.0
1.4
.4

149
10
44
95
185
48
17
13
6
2

35.5
2.4
10.5
22.6
44.0
11.4
4.0
3.1
1.4
.5

360
45
136
179
188
66
45
32
10
3

51.1
6,4
19.3
25.4
26.7
9.4
6.4
4.5
1.4
•4

1Includes miscarriages.

.

2 Sixteen years is the age of consent in Maryland.

T a b l e 197.— Marital condition at confinement and one year later, by color o f mother;
scheduled illegitimate births 1 in 1915.

Scheduled illegitimate births1in 1915.
Marital condition of mother at 1 year after confinement.

Total.

Married.
Marital condition at
confinement and
color of mother.

Un­
Per
cent changed.
disNum­
ber. tribution.

To father
of child.

Not re­
ported to
whom
married.

To an­
other.

Mother
died.

Not re­
ported.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. ct.2 ber. ct.2 ber. ct.2 ber. ct.2 ber. ct.2 ber. ct.*
White mothers___

192 100.0

142 74.0

19

9.9

12

6.3

Single...........................
Widowed, divorced, or
separated..................

149 77.6

117 78.5

16 10.7

9

6.0

Colored mothers...

487 100.0

406 83.4

37

7.6

16

3.3

Single...........................
Widowed, divorced, or

426 87.5

351 82.4

37

8.7

16

3.8

i

20
5

29 15.1
7 3.6
7 3.6

52 10.7
5 1.0
.8
4

50
5

0.5

1

1.6

15 7.8

.7

6 4.0
2

1
1

1
1

3
1

.2

7

11

2.3

16 3.3

10

2.3

12 2.8

1
4

1

TnpindAs miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3

3

1

* Not shown where base is less than 100.

A P P E N D IX

v ii

.—

t a b l e s

373

.

T a b l e 198.— Order o f birth,1 by color o f mother; total and scheduled illegitimate births 1

in 1915.
Ulegitimate births1 in 1915.
Scheduled.

Total.
Order of birth1 and color of mother.
Number.

1Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Per cent
Per cent
distri­ N um ber. distri­
bution.
bution.

420

100.0

192

100.0

345
42
13
10
9
1

82.1
10.0
3.1
2.4
2.1
.2

140
26
11
7
8

72.9
13.5
5.7
3.6
4.2

704

100.0

487

100.0

407
139
50
61
43
4

57.8
19.7
7.1
8.7
6.1
.6

268
95
41
45
38

55.0
19.5
8.4
9.2
7.8

374

HtfTAJSTT MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 199.— Order o f birth,1 by color o f mother and legitimacy;^ scheduled illegitimates
births1in 1915, and previous births 1to mothers o f scheduled illegitimate births1 in 1915.

Previous births1 to mothers of scheduled
illegitimate births1 in 1915.

Order cf birth1 and color of mother.

All mothers........................................

Fifth.............................................................

Fifth

.........................................................

1 Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Scheduled
illegiti­
mate
births
in 1915.

Total.

All
All
previous previous
Dirths1 births1
illegiti­
legiti­
mate.
mate.

679

792

399

' 131

408
121
52
17
20
15
14
11
9
5
2
1
2
1
1

121
104
51
80
75
84
77
72
45
20
11
24
13
15

106
82
30
36
45
54
14

11
12
12
16
15
12
28
16
9

192

142

33

33

140
26
11
3
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

26
22
9
12
5
12
14
8
9
12
13

16
14
3

9
4
6
8

487

650

366

98

268
95
41
14
17
14
12
9
8
4
2
1
1
1

95
82
42
68
70
72
63
64
36
20
11
12
15

90
68
27
36
45
54
14

2
8
6
8
15
6
28
16
9

9
11
12

Previous
births1 Legiti­
macy
divided
not
as to
legiti­ reported.
macy.
189

8
6
24
15
18
28
40
18
20
12

6

11
12

4
2
3
4
7
16
9

13
15

51

25

2

1
2

4
5
6
14
8
12

9

73

138

9
13
48
3

6
6
20
10
12
14
32
18
20

3
4
7
16

15

375

APPENDIX V I I — TABLES.

T a b l e 200.— Legitim acy o f previous births,1 by order o f birth;1 scheduled illegitim ate
births 1 in 1915.

Scheduled illegitimate issues in 1915.
Order of birth.1
Legitimacy of previous
birthsA

Second and later.
Total.
First.
Total.

All mothers......................

679

All previous births »illegitimate.
All previous births1legitimate..
Legitimacy not reported............

189
37
32
13

White mothers.................

192

All previous births1illegitimate.
All previous births1legitimate..

24
16

Legitimacy not reported............

4

Colored mothers...............

487

All previous births1illegitimate.
All previous births1legitimate..

165
21
24
9

Legitimacy not reported............

408

140

268

Seventh
and
later.

Fourth
to
sixth.

Third.

271

121

52

52

46

189
37
32
13

106
11
4

41
6
4
1

28
11
11
2

14
9
17
6

52

26

11

7

8

16
9

7
2
1
1

1
4
2

24
16
8
4

s

Second.

.

i

1

5
2

219

95

41

45

38

165
21
24
9

90
2

34
4
3

27
7
9
2

14
18
12
4

3

1Includes miscarriages.
T a b l e 201.— Occupation o f father, by color o f mother; illegitimate births 1 in 1915.

Illegitimate births1in 1915.

Illegitimate births1in 1915.
Occupation of father.

Occupation of father.
White Colored
Total. mothers. mothers.

All occupations. .

1,124

2 420

2 704

Professional pursuits *..

Laborers........................
Teamsters, chauffeurs,

308

31

277

Railway emp ->yees----Proprietors and dealers.

no
63
58
36
34
30
26
26

22
34
27

20
22

88
29
31
36
30
30
6
4

25

15

10

26

20

6

Factory operatives.......
Servants.....................

Skilled

mechanics,

Others in mechanical
industries...................

4

Janitors and elevator
Public employees6.......
Other occupations8—
No occupation..............
Students.................
Others.......... .........
Father dead...........

White Colored
Total. mothers. mothers.
20
19
19
12
11

13
3
18
9

10
9
29
21
6
3
12
232

7
14
7
1
2
4
149

7
16
1
3
6
10
2
15
14
5
1
8
83

1Includes miscarriages.
»Includes 2 issues with colored fathers; 1 occupation not reported; ldead.
»Includes 2 issues with white fathers—1 teamster, etc., and-1 clerk—and 15 issues with fathers’ color
and occupation not reported.
* Includes 4 physicians, 4 musicians, 3 school-teachers, 2 photographers, 2 jockeys, 1 lawyer, 1 dentist,
1 artist, 1 draftsman, and 1 editor.
6Includes2 soldiers, 1 policeman, 1 postman, 1 detective, 1 officerin a reformatory, and 3 whose occupa­
tions are not specified.
,
,
,___, .
.
* Includes 7 tailors, 7 fishermen or oystermen, 6 hospital orderhes, 5 saloon keepers or bartenders, 2 tele­
phone operators, 1 butcher, and 1 baker.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

376

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 202.—Age o f mother, by age o f father and color o f mother; illegitimate births 1
in 1915.
Illegitimate births1in 1915.
Age of father.
Age of mother.
Under 20.

Total.

Total. 16

17

18

19

50 Not re­
20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 and ported.
over.

All mothers.......

1,124

110

3

17

43

47

408

195

83

76

29

20

Under 20...................
12...........................
13 ......................
14 ......................
15 ......................
16 ...............
17 ......................
18 ......................
19...........................
20-24.........................
25-29.........................
30-34.........................
35-39.........................
40 and over..............
Not reported............

509
2
4
12
37
66
114
144
130
373
114
62
45
16

101

3

16

40

42

243
2

67

9

9

5

4

3
14
25
54
78
72
139
18

1
2
4
10
23
27
72
35
11
8'
2

1
3
4
38
20
11
4
1

1
1
4
3
22
16
16
12
1

2
3
3
4
9
7
1

1
1
1
2
2
5
5
2

2
2
1
3
4

7

4

2

3
4
13
23
29
22
7
9

1
2

1
1
3
3
6
2
1

2
4
15
9
7
3
3

2
4
5
14
13
4
5

1
1
1

5

White mothers..

420

19

1

3

4

11

133

84

29

18

149

16

1

2

3

10

63

27

2

2

3
7
15
29
46
49
185
48
17
13
6
2

2

1

1
1

1
2
4
3
1

3
6
13
20
21
63
6

Colored mothers.

704

91

2

14

39

36

Under 20...................
12...........................
13 ............ ..........
14 ......................
15 ......................
16 ......................
17 ......................
18 ......................
19......................... ,
20-24.........................
25-29.........................
30-34.........................
35-39.........................
40 and over...............
Not reported............

360
2
4
9
30
51
85
98
81
188
66
45
32
10
3

85

2

14

37

32

Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1
1

1
1
1

1
2

3
3
5
2

2
4
14
9
6
2
2

2
4
4
12
9
1
4

1

1
3
8
15
34
13
5
4
1

1

2

12
9
2
3
1

7
4
4
1

275

111

54

58

22

16

185
2

40

7

7

5

4

3
11
19
41
58
51
76
12

1
2
3
7
15
12
38
22
6
4
1

2
2
2
1

1
2
1
2

1
1

10

1
1
2
3
15
12
12
11
1

124

2
3
1
2
7
7

1
1
1
1
5
4
2

1
3
6
10
10
9
63
12
4
4
1
1
67
27

1
1
2
4
26
11
9
1

1
3
7
13
18
11
13
86
17
9
5
4
4

39

1

3
2
13
21
26
17
3
6

191
66

1
1

Under 20...................
12...........................
13 ......................
14 ......................
15 ......................
16 ......................
17 ......................
18 ......................
19...........................
20-24.........................
25-29.........................
30-34........................
35-39.........................
40 and over...............
Not reported............

2
3
5
4
3

12

2
2
1
3
2

1
2
4
7
8
1
4
23
5
5
1
3
3

APPENDIX VII.---- TABLES.

377

T a b l e 203.—Place o f confinement, by legitimacy o f birth;1 total and scheduled births1 in

1915.
Births1in 1915.

Place of confinement and legitimacy of birth.1

Total.

Number.

Illegitimate *........................................
Hospital......................................
Institution..............................
Private house...........................
Legitimate................................
Hospital...............................
Other.................................

Scheduled.

Per cent
Per cent
distri­ Number. distri­
bution.
bution.

1,124

100.0

679

100.0

517
56
551

46.0
5.0
49.0

245
10
424

36.1
1.5
62.4

13,484

100.0

11,613

100.0

1,735
11,749

12.9
87.1

1,105
10,508

9.5
90.5

1Includes miscarriages.
*Includes 420 white and 704 colored issues; hospital, 218 white and 299 colored; institution, 54 white and 2
colored; private house, 148 white and 403 colored. The “ private houses” include boarding and lodging
houses one house of prostitution, several homes of midwives, and the waitresses' home connected with a
hospital. Matermty homes in Baltimore send all confinement cases to hospitals.
T a b l e 204.—Attendant at birth, by color o f mother; scheduled legitimate and illegitimate

births1 in 1915.
Legitimate births.1 Illegitimate births.1
Attendant at birth and color of mother.
Number.

Per cent
Per cent
distri­ Number. distri­
bution.
bution.

A ll mothers.......

11,463

100.0

679

100.0

Physician....................
In hospital............
Outside hospital..
Midwife.......................
Other or none..............

7,721
1,088
6,633
3,713
29

67.4
9.5
57.9
32.4
.3

571
245
326
100
8

84.1
36.1
48.0
14.7
1.2

White mothers..

9,974

100.0

192

100.0

Physician....................
In hospital............
Outside hospital...
Midwife.......................
Other or none..............

6,620
887
5,733
3,328
26

66.4
8.9
57.5
33.4
.3

151
76
75
39
2

78.6
39.6
39.1
20.3
1.0

Colored mothers.

1,489

100.0

487

100.0

Physician....................
In hospital............
Outside hospital...
Midwife.......... : ...........
Other or none..............

1,101
201
900
385
3

73.9
13.5
60.4
25.9
.2

420
169
251
61
6

86.2
34.7
51.5
12.5
1.2

Includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

378

IN FAN T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T able 205.—Prenatal care, by color o f mother; mothers o f scheduled legitimate and
illegitimate births1 in 1915.
B irths1in 1915 to mothers having speci­
fied prenatal care.
Total
mothers.

Legitimacy of birth1and color of mother.

Care of grades
A and B.

No care.

Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.
All mothers:
Legitimate..............
Illegitimate.............
White mothers:
Legitimate........... ..
Illegitimate..............
Colored mothers:
i
Legitimate..............
Illegitimate.............

11,463
670

5,443
263

47.5
39.3

2,551
199

22.3
29.7

9,974
191

4,806
93

48.2
48.7

2,095
37

21.0
19.4

1,489
479

637
170

42.8
35.5

456
162

30.6
33.8

i Includes miscarriages.
T a b l e 206.— Mother’s mode o f living during whole or greater part o f year after confinem ent,

by color o f mother; scheduled illegitimate births 1 in 1915.
Scheduled illegitimate births1in 1915.
,

Mother’s mode of living during whole or
greater part.of year after confinement.

Total......................................... - ........

With husband or otfier man (not father of
philH)
...............................................

i includes miscarriages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

White mothers.

Total.

Still­
births,
miscar­
Per cent
Infants
Per cent riages,
surviving Number. distri­
and
Number. distri­
bution.
infant 2 weeks.2
bution.
deaths
under
2 weeks.2
679

100.0

151

528

192

100.0

275
68
111
45
66
83
21
19

40.5
10.0
16.3
6.6
9.7
12.2
3.1
2.8

57
9
30
15
3
2

218
59
81
(3)
(3)
68
18
17

79
12
25
17
8
23
6
19

41.1
6.3
13.0
8.9
4« 2
12.0
3.1
9.9

16
14
72

2.4
2.1
10.6

8
6
21

8
8
51

¿,5.
3
20

2.6
1.6
10.4

(3)
(3)
v

* For per cent distribution, see text table, p . 161.

8 Not tabulated.

APPENDIX VII.— TABLES.

379

T a b l e 206.— Mother's mode o f living during whole or greater part o f year after confinement,

hy color o f mother; scheduled illegitim ate births1 in 1915— Continued.
Scheduled illegitimate births1in 1915.
White mothers.
Mother’s mode of living during whole or
greater part of year after confinement.

Still­
Still­
births,
births,
miscar­
miscar­
riages,
Infants
Per cent riages,
Infants
and
surviving Number. distri­
and
surviving
infant 2 weeks.2
bution.
infant 2 weeks.2
deaths
deaths
under
under
2 weeks.2
2 weeks.2

Total.................................................
Parental home.............................................
With other relatives or friends...................
With father of child...................................
Married. ; ............................................
Unmarried.............................................
Own establishment or boarding.................
At service......................................................
In institution or hospital.............................
With husband or other man (not father of
child).........................................................
Died..............................................................
Not reported.................................................
1 Includes miscarriages.

Colored mothers.

(3)
(3)

39

153

487

100.0

112

375

17
2
6

62
10
19

196
56
86
28
58
60
15

40.2
11.5
17.7
5.7
11.9
12.3
3.1

40
7
24

156

11
11
52

2.3
2.3
10.7

(3)
(3)

4
2

19
6
17

3
2
3

2
1
17

2 For per cent distribution, see Text Table III, p. 162.

62

(3)
(3)

(3)
(3)

11

49

5
4
18

6
7
34

* Not tabulated.

T a b l e 207.—Earnings o f father or contributions to the support o f mother or child during

yearfollow ing birth o f infant, and mode o f living, by color o f mother; scheduled illegiti­
mate births 1 in 1915.
Scheduled illegitimate births1in 1915.
Earnings of father or contributions to the
support of mother or child during year
following birth of infant, and mode of
living.

Total.

White mothers.

Colored mothers.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion.
tion.
tion.

Total...................................................

679

100.0

192

100.0

487

100.0

Did not live with mother2.......................

526

77.5

144

75.0

382

78.4

Contributed:
Nothing..................................................
Under $5.................................................
$5-824.................................................
$25-849....................................................
$50-899.................................................
$100 and over.........................................
Amount not reported...........................

305
18
23
19
49
58
54

44.9
2.7
3.4
2.8
7.2
8.5
8.0

94
1
2
7
19
13
8

49.0
.5
1.0
3.6
9.9
6.8
4.2

211
17
21
12
30
45
46

43.3
3.5
4.3
2.5
6.2
Q. 2
9.4

Lived with mother2.................................

111

16.3

25

13.0

86

17.7

Earned:
Under $450............................................
$450-8649........................................
$650-8849.................................................
$850-81,249...........................................
$1,250 and over.....................................
Amount not reported......................
Mode of living not reported.....................

51
35
8
6
1
10
42

7.5
5.2
1.2
.9
.1
1.5
6.2

4
8
4
5
1
3
23

2.1
4.2
2.1
2.6
.5
1.6
12.0

47
27
4
i

9.7
5.5
J*

7
19

1.4
3.9

i Includes miscarriages.


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During entire or greater part of year.

380

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 208.— Contribution o f father to the support o f mother or child during yearfollow ing

birth o f infant y by mode o f living y and by color o f mother7.scheduled illegitimate births
in 1915.
Scheduled illegitimate births1in 1915.
Contribution of father to the support of
mother or child during year following
birth of infant, mode ofliving, and color
of mother.

Live births.

Total.

Stillbirths and
miscarriages.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­ Number. distribu­
tion. s
tion.
tion.

All mothers........................................

679

100.0

572

100.0

107

100.0

Father’s mode ofliving:'
Did not live with m oth ercontributed nothing......................
Contributed.....................................
Lived with mother3..............................
N ot reported...................... ................. -

305
221
111
42

44.9
32.5
16.3
6.2

242
199
92
39

42.3
34.8
16.1
6.8

63
22
19
3

58.9
20.6
17.8
2.8

White mothers...................................

192

100.0

163

100.0

29

100.0

94
50
25
23

49.0
26.0
13.0
12.0

72
48
22
21

44.2
29.4
13.5
12.9

22
2
3
2

487

100.0

409

100.0

78

100.0

211
171
86
19

43.3
35.1
17.7
3.9

170
151
70
18

41.6
36.9
17.1
4.4

41
20
16
1

52.6
25.0
20.5
1.3

Father’s mode ofliving:
Did not live with mother—

Colored mothers............................
Father’s mode ofliving:
Did not live with mother—
Contributed nothing......................
Contributed.....................................
Lived with mother3..............................
Not reported..........................................
Includes miscarriages.
* Not shown where base is less than 50.
* During entire or greater part of year.
i


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APPENDIX V II.---- TABLES.

381

T a b l e 209.— M ortality among mothers during year after confinement, by cause o f death

and color; mothers o f scheduled legitimate and illegitimate births 1in 1915.
Mothers who died in year following confinement.
Causes due to pregnancy and confinement.
Color of mother and legitimacy
of birth.1

Total.

Puerperal septicemia.

Total.
Per
1,000
live
births.

Num­
ber.

Per
1,000
confine­
ments.

Num­
ber.

Per
1,000
live
births.

Per
1,000
confine­
ments.

Mothers of legitimate births1..........

>105

50

4.6

4.4

18

1.7

1.6

W hite..........................................
Colored........................................

90
15

45
5

4.7
3.8

4.5
3.4

13
5

1.4
3.8

1.3
3.4

14

6

10.5

9.0

2

3.5

3.0

3
11

1
5

6.1
12.2

5.2
10.4

1
1

6.1
2.4

5.2
2.1

Mothers of illegitimate births
White..........................................
Colored........................................

Mothers who died in year following confinement.
Causes due to pregnancy and confinement.
Color of mother and legitimacy
of birth.1

Puerperal albumi­
nuria and convul­
sions.

Num­
ber.

Other causes due to
confinement.

All other causes.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
1,000
1,000 Num­ 1,000
1,000 Num­ 1,000
1,000
live confine­ ber.
live confine­ ber.
live confine­
births. ments.
births. ments.
births. ments.

Mothers of legitimate births1.........

14

1.3

1.2

18

1.7

1.6

55

5.1

4.8

W hite........................................
Colored......................................

14

1.5

1.4

18

1.9

1.8

45
10

4.7
7.7

4.5
6.7

Mothers of illegitimate births1.......

1

1.7

1.5

3

5.2

4.5

8

14.0

11.9

6.3

2
6

12.3
14.7

10.5
12.5

W h ite ......................................
Colored.......................................

1

2.4

2.1

3

7.3

1Includes miscarriages.
* The number of mothers was 1 less than the number of issues, since 1 birth resulted in plural issues.


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382

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

.

T a b l e 210.— Earnings o f mother, by period worked during year after confinement and

type o f remuneration; scheduled illegitim ate births 1 in 1915.
Illegitimate births1 to working mothers receiving specified
type of remuneration.
Cash plus meals.

Cash alone.

Earnings of mother and period worked
during year after confinement.

Per cent
Per cent
Number. distri­ Number. distri­
bution.1
bution.3

$50-$149
$15ft-$249
£250-4349

102

100.0

183

100.0

3
27
39
22
11

2.9
26.5
38,2
21.6
10.8

4
77
86
15
1

2.2
42.1
47.0
8.2
0.5

48

100.0

47

100.0

Room
and
board
only.1

Not
reported.

2

10

2
10

$£0-4149
$1504249
$2/50-4349

3

2
40
5

2
29
11
6

3
59

100.0

43

33
24
2

55.9
40.7
3.4

23
20

3
2
1

100.0

2

2
1

2

2
17

1
17

1 Includes miscarriages.
3 Rate not shown where base is less than 50.


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383

APPENDIX V II.---- TABLES.

T a b l e 211.— Mother's and infant's mode o f living during year after birth, by color o f

mother; scheduled illegitimate infants born in 1915 and surviving at least two weeks.
Illegitimate infants bom during 1915 and surviving at least 2 weeks.
Living during greater part of first year of life.
Away from mother.

Mother’s mode ofliving during entire
finement, and color.

Total.

Boarding.
With
With With In in­
moth­
moth­
stitu­
With
er.
Total. er’s foster
tion
In
oth­
rela­ par­ or hos­ board­ In pri­ ers.
vate
tives. ents. pital. ing
home. home.

All mothers.................................

528

429

99

Parental home....................................
With other relatives or friends............
With father of child.............................
With husband or man other than
father.................................................
At service.............................................
In institution or hospital................
Own establishment or boarded...........
Died......................................................
Not reported.........................................

218
59
81

201
48
79

17
11
2

8
18
17
68
8
51

8
6
16
62
4
5

12
1
6
4
46

White mothers...........................

153

120

Parental home......................................
With other relatives or friends............
With father of child.............................
With husband or man other than
father................................................
At service.............................................
In institution or hospital.....................
Own establishment or boarded...........
Died......................................................
Not reported.........................................

62
10
19

13

10

17

39

18

4

5

7
7
1

1

3

5

3
1

i

3

i
i

5

i

i
3

ii

16

ii

33

6

16

8

3

52
9
19

10
1

3
1

5

2

2
6
17
19
1
17

2
3
16
17
1
1

3
1
2
16

Golored mothers.........................

375

309

66

Parental home......................................
With other relatives or friends............
With father of child.............................
With husband or man other than
father.................................................
At service..............................................
In institution or hospital.....................
Own establishment ôr boarded............
D ied .....................................................
Not reported.........................................

156
49
62

149
39
60

7
10
2

3
1

6
12

6
3

9

3

49
7
34

45
3
4

4
4
30


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3
3

1

13

i
i

10

3

4

1

31

15

5
7
1

1

1

4

1
1
1

2

i

1

2

1

3
3

2

2

2

4
1

13

10

2

legitimate and illegitim ate births 1 and total illegitim ate births1 in 1915.

Total
births.1

Condition at 1 year.

Births.
Number. Percent.

Number. Percent.

Total.
Known.

A ll mothers:
Illegitimate births1—
Employed away from home during pregnancy—
Illegitimate births1—
White mothers:
Illegitimate births1—
Employed away from home during pregnancy—
Illegitimate births1—
Colored mothers:
Illegitimate births1—
Employed away from home during pregnancy—
Illegitimate births

1 Includes miscarriages.


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11,613

418

3.6

11,195

398

3.6

10,797

10,797

1,124
679

61
46

5.4
6.8

1,063
633

108
61

10.2
9.6

955
572

699
572

1,400

83

5.9

1,317

88

6.7

1,229

1,229

77
52

11.5
11.3

594
410

458
410

9 492

9,492

716
499

45
37

6.3
7.4

671
462

10,104

330

3.3

9,774

420
192

24
16

5.7
8.3

396
176

22
13

5.6
7.4

374
163

241
163

723

35

4.8

688

29

4.2

659

659

6.8
8.9

191
102

126
102

8.2

1,305

1,305

223
126

18
14

8.1
11.1

205
112

14
10

1,509

88

5.8

1,421

116

704
487

37
30

5.3
6.2

667
457

677

48

7.1

629
466
350

493
373

27
23

5.5
6.2

458
409

12.9
10.5

581
409

59

9.4

570

570

63
42

13.5
12.0

403
308

332
308

86
48

Infant
deaths.

Un­
known.

256

136

133

65

123

71

Based on
live
Based
births^ on t o t a l.
live
“ condi­
tion
births.
known.”

1,117

103.5

103.5

281
172

402.0
300.7

294.2
300.7

221

179.8

179.8

170
129

371.2
314.6

286.2
314.6

910

95.9

95.9

489.6
319.0

315.5
319.0

118
52
106

160.8

160.8

55
36

436.5
352.9

288.0
352.9

207

158.6

158.6

163
120

355.9
293.4

280.6
293.4

115

201.8

201.8

115
93

346.4
301.9

285.4
301.9

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

Legitimacy of birth,1 employment away from home
during pregnancy, and color of mother.

Infant mortality
rate.

Live births.

Stillbirths.

Miscarriages.

384

T a b l e 212.— Infant mortality and stillbirth rates, by employment o f mother away from home during pregnancy, and color o f mother; scheduled

APPENDIX VII.-----TABUES.

385

T a b l e 213.—A ge at death, by color o f mother; deaths among illegitim ate live births in 1915.

Deaths of illegitimate infonts.

Deaths of illegitimate in­
fonts.

Age at death.

Age at death.
All
White Colored
mothers. mothers. mothers.

Total..................

281

118

163

Under 1 month...........
Under 1 day.........
1 day, under 2......
2 days, under 3__
3 days, under 7___
1 week, under 2 ...

102
34
14
5
10
15

33
10
4
1
2
7

69
24
10
4
8
8

All
White Colored
mothers. mothers. mothers.
Under 1 month—Con.
2 weeks, under 1

9
25
13
23
14
10

24
43
29
48
33
26

2 months, under 3.......
3 months, under 6.......
6 months, under 9.......
9 months, under 12___

15
16
25
19
16

T a b l e 214.—Deaths per 1,000 live births, by age at death and color o f mother; total

•

illegitimate and scheduled legitimate live births in 1915.
Deaths per 1,000 live births.
All mothers.

Age at death,

Legiti­
mate.

Illegiti­
mate.1

White mothers.
Legiti­
mate.

Illegiti­
mate.1

Colored mothers.
Legiti­
mate.

Illegiti­
mate.1

Total................................. .....................

103.5

294.2

95.9

315.5

158.6

280.5

Under 1 month.............................................
Under 2 weeks.......................................
2 weeks, under 1 month........................
1 month, under 2..........................................
2 months, under 3........................................
3 months, under 6........................................
6 months, under 9................. .......................
9 months, under 12.......................................

44.2
37.1
7.1
6.0
5.8
19.4
15.1
13.0

106.8
81.7
25.1
45.0
30.4
50.3
34.6
27.2

41.5
35.2
6.3
5.4
5.5
16.8
14.5
12.2

88.2
64.1
24.1
66.8
34.8
61.5
37.4
26.7

63.6
50.6
13.0
10.7
8.4
38.3
19.2
18.4

118.8
92.9
25.8
31.0
27.5
43.0
32.7
27.5

1 Based on total illegitimate live births (374 white, 581 colored) and probably an understatement of the
true rate, smce condition at 1 year was not known for 133 white and 123 colored illegitimate infants.
T a b l e 215.— Cause o f death, by co lor o f mother; deaths among illegitimate live birth

in 1915.
Deaths of illegitimate infants.
Cause of death.
AU
White
Colored
mothers. mothers. mothers.
All causes..........................................................
Gastric and intestinal diseases................................
Malformations.................................................. .
Early infancy........................................................
Premature birth...................................
Congenital debility...................................
Injuries at birth..................................
Respiratory and other communicable dieases........................
Respiratory................................................
Syphilis............................................................
Other communicable...........................
All other causes1.................................................
1 Includes 5 deaths, “ cause ill-defined or unknown.’ !

101351°—23----- 25


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281
67
10
104

37

39
62
3

34

79

26

52
17
10
21

53

386

IN F A N T MORTALITY, BALTIMORE, MD.

T a b l e 216.— Infant mortality rates, by cause o f death and color o f mother; total illegitimate

and scheduled, legitimate live births in 1915.
Infant mortality rates.

Cause of death.

Legiti­
mate.

Colored
mothers.

White
mothers.

AU
mothers.
Illegiti­
mate.1

Legiti­
mate.

IUegitimate.1

Legiti­
mate.

Illegiti­
mate.1

All causes............................................

103.5

294.2

95.9

315.5

158.6

280.5

Early infancy...............................................

29.1
3.6
37.7

70.2
10.5
108.9

28.9
3.8
36.0

98.9
2.7
133.7

30.7
2.3
49.8

51.6
15.5
92.9

20.8
12.8
4.1

40.8
64.9
3.1

19.3
12.5
4.2

37.4
90.9
5.3

32.2
14.6
3.1

43.0
48.2
• 1.7

26.4

82.7

21.0

69.6

65.9

91.2

49.0
7.7
9.2

60.2
20.7
10.3

10.0

29.3

Respiratory and other communicable dis­
eases...........................................................

T

19.7
1.3
5.4

54.5
17.8
10.5

15.7
.4
4.9

45.5
13.4
10.7

6.6

22.0

6.1

10.7

i Based on total illegitimate live births (374 white, 581 colored) and probably an understatement of the
ue rate, since condition at 1 year was not known for 133 white and 123 colored infants.

T a b l e 217.— Cause o f death, by age at death; infant deaths among illegitim ate live births

in 1915.


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APPENDIX V II.---- TABUES.

387

T a b l e 218. -A ge o f infant when : imther began work, by color o f mother; scheduled

legitimate and illegitimate infants bom in 1915.
Legitimate infants.
Total mothers
employed.

Age of infant when mother began work,
and color of mother.

Number.

All mothers employed.

Under 1 month___

1 month, under 2...
2 months, under 3..
3 months, under 6..
6 months and over.
Not reported..........
White mothers employed.
Under 1 month___
1 month, under 2...
2 months, under 3..
3 months, under 6..
6 months and over.
Not reported..........
Colored mothers employed.
Under 1 month___
1 month, under 2...
2 months, under 3..
3 months, under 6.
6 months and over.
Not reported..........

Mothers employed
away from home.

Illegitimate
infants of mothers
employed.

Per cent
Per cent
distri- Number. distri- Number.
button.
button.

button.

2,784

100.0

855

100.0

371

100.0

755
537
293
552
634
13

27.1
19.3
10.5
19.8
22.8
.5

60
132
99
255
308
1

7.0
15.4
11.6
29.8
36.0
.1

41
95
70
78
83
4

11.1
25.6
18.9
21.0
22.4
1.1

1,999

100.0

435

100.0

91

100.0

686
351
171
329
449
13

34.3
17.6
8.6
16.5
22.5
.7

34
46
30
119
205
1

7.8
10.6
6.9
27.4
47.1
.2

18
15
15
22
19
2

19.8
16.5
16. 5
24.2
20.9
2.2

785

100.0

420

100.0

280

100.0

69
186
122
223
185

' 8.8
23.7
15.5
28.4
23.6

26
86
69
136
103

6.2
20.5
16.