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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
R O Y A L M E E K E R , C o m m issio n e r

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS )
LABOR

I
A




AS

AFFECTED

N

• • • •■

BY

THE

D
E

N

\T~

WAR

D

FINAL REPORT OF THE BRITISH
HEALTH OF MUNITION WORKERS’
COMMITTEE

FEBRUARY, 1919

W A S H IN G T O N
P R IN T IN G

1919

SERIES

U
F

GOVERNM ENT

OAQ

O F F IC E

S
F

T
I

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

T h e publication of the a n n u a l a n d special reports a n d of the b i m o n t h l y bulletins w a s
discontinued in July, 1912 , a n d since that time a bulletin has been published at irregular
intervals. E a c h n u m b e r contains m a t t e r devoted to o n e of a series of general subjects.
These bulletins are n u m b e r e d consecutively , beginning with No. 101. U p to No. 236 they
also carried consecutive n u m b e r s u n d e r each series. Beginning with No. 237 the serial
n u m b e r i n g has been discontinued . A com p l e t e list of the reports a n d bulletins of the
B u r e a u will be furnished o n application.
A list of the series n o w issued by the B u r e a u is as follows:
Wholesale Prices.
Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
Wages and Honrs of Labor.
Employment and Unemployment.
Women in Industry.
Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor)w
,
Foreign Labor Laws.
Vocational Education.
Labor as Affected by the War.
Miscellaneous Series.
LABOR AS AFFECTED BY THE WAR.
T h e present bulletin is the s e c o n d in the n e w series o n “Lab o r as affected by the war**
T h e following bulletins, published since July 1, 1912, contain matt e r relating to the subject:
B u). 170, M aj7 1915. F oreig n fo o d p rices as a ffected b y the w ar.
,
B ui. 219. M ay, 1917. In d u strial p oison s used or p rod u ced in the m a n u fa ctu re o f
e xp losiv es.
B ui. 221, A p ril, 1917. H ou rs, fa tig u e, and hea lth in B ritish m u n ition fa cto rie s.
B ui. 222, A p ril, 1917. W e lfa re w ork in B ritish m u n ition fa cto rie s .
B ui. 223, A p ril, 1917. E m p loy m en t o f w om en and ju v e n ile s in G reat B rita in
d u rin g the w ar.
B ui. 230, J uly, 1917. In d u stria l efficiency and fa tig u e in B ritis h m u n ition fac­
tories.

Bui. 237, October, 1917. Industrial unrest in Great Britain.




CO N TEN TS.

Sections.
Page.
I. Introductory...................................................................................... 7-14
II. Preliminary and historical survey..................................................... 15-32
III. Relation of fatigue and ill health to industrial efficiency.................. 33-45
IV. The industrial employment of women............................................... 46-63
V. Hours of labor....................................................................................64-84
VI. Shifts, breaks, spells, pauses, and holidays....................................... 85-92
VII. Sunday labor and night work.......................................................... 93-100
VIII. Lost time and incentive................................................................. 101-107
IX. Food and canteens......................................................................... 108-127
X. Sickness and ill health................................................................... 128-136
XI. Injuries and accidents....................................................................137-148
XII. Eye injuries.................................................................................... 149-156
XIII. Special industrial diseases..............................................................157-174
XIV. Cleanliness, ventilation, heating, and lighting............................... 175-185
XV. Sanitary accommodation, washing facilities, and cloakrooms.........186-195
XVI. Seats, weights, clothing, and drinking water................................. 198-202
XVII. Welfare supervision for women and girls........................................ 203-222
XVIII. Welfare supervision for boys and men............................................ 223-232
XIX. Welfare outside the factory............................................................ 233-249
XX. Summary of conclusions................................................................. 250-266
Appendixes.
A. List of persons who gave evidence or otherwise assisted the commit­
tee............................................................................................. 267,268
B (I). Dr. Janet Campbell’s report on “ A further inquiry into the health of
women munition workers” ........................................................ 269-297
B (II). Dr. Janet Campbell’s “ General findings of inquiries into the health of
women munition workers ” ........................................................ 298-315
C. Dr. Vernon’s memorandum on “ A comparison of the systems em­
ployed for dividing up working hours into spells and breaks,J.. 316-333
D. Summary of Capt. Greenwood’s memorandum on “ The causes of wast­
age of labor in munition factories employing women ” .............. 334-338
E . Canteen planning and equipment.................................................. 339-342
F. Hostel planning and equipment..................................................... 343-359
G. Medical certificate of incapacity for work..........................................
360
II. Police, Factories, etc. (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1916, sec­
tion 7......................................................................................... 361, 362
1. Home Office order in regard to first-aid appliances........................ 363, 364
J. Ministry of Munitions memorandum on “ The duties of welfare super­
visors for women ” ...................................................................... 365-368
K. Concessions in regard to expenditure on provision of welfare facil­
ities, canteens, recreation, etc.......................... 1....................... 369,370
Index............................................................................................................. 371-374







PEEFACE.

This bulletin reproduces in full the final report of the British Health of Muni­
tion Workers Committee, and completes the group of bulletins which the Bureau
of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor undertook to publish
in compliance with the following resolution voted April 7, 1917, by the Council
of National Defense:
That the complete reports of the committee appointed by the British Minis­
ter of Munitions to investigate conditions affecting the health and welfare of
workers be edited so that the salient features thereof may be made applicable
to the conditions pertaining in the United States, and printed in condensed
form by the Department of Labor.
The first bulletin (Bulletin 221) published in compliance with the foregoing
resolution contains documents, official and unofficial, dealing with hours,
fatigue, occupational diseases, and the provisions of the Munitions of War Act
relating to labor disputes and the restoration of trade-union conditions after
the war. The second bulletin (Bulletin 222) contains memoranda relating to
welfare supervision and welfare work. The third bulletin (Bulletin 223) con­
tains reprints of official and unofficial documents dealing with the employment
of women and juveniles. The fourth bulletin (Bulletin 230) includes the in­
terim report of the Health of Munition Workers Committee on industrial
efficiency and fatigue, which sets out the result of a number of investigations
which had been made for the committee. The final report of the committee, re­
printed in this bulletin, gives a concise survey of the problems set forth in the
various memoranda of the committee covered in the above bulletins.
It is believed that these bulletins, published at the request of the Council of
National Defense, will be of great service alike to employers and workers in
this country because they give the experience of Great Britain in dealing with
labor in the production of the largest quantity of munitions in the shortest
space of time— an experience which offers many suggestions capable of prac­
tical application in the promotion of peace time industry.




5




B U L L E T IN
U .

S.

B U R E A U

no. 249

O F

OF

THE

L A B O R

S T A T IS T IC S .

W ASH IN G TO N

February, 1919

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.
FINAL REPORT OF THE BRITISH HEALTH OF MUNITION WORKERS’ COMMITTEE.

TERMS OF REFERENCE.

The committee were appointed in September, 1915, by the Right
Hon. David Lloyd George, M.P., with the concurrence of the Home
Secretary. The committee were invited u To consider and advise on
questions of industrial fatigue, hours of labor, and other matters
affecting the personal health and physical efficiency o f workers in
munition factories and workshops.”
The reference and appointment were subsequently approved bv the
succeeding Ministers of Munitions, the Right Hon. E. S. Montagu,
M.P., the Right Hon. C. Addison, M.P., M.D., and the present Min­
ister, the Right Hon. Winston S. Churchill.
CONSTITUTION OF COMMITTEE.

Sir George Newman, K.C.B., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Chairman) ; chief
medical officer, board of education; member of the central control
board (liquor traffic) ; emeritus lecturer in preventive medicine at
St. Bartholomew’s Hospital.
Sir Thomas Barlow, Bart., I£.C.V.O., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., physi­
cian extraordinary to H.M. the K ing; late president of the Royal
College of Physicians.
Gerald Bellhousc, Esq., C.B.E., H.M. deputy chief inspector of
factories, Home Office.
Professor A. E. Boycott, M.D., F.R.S., director of pathological de­
partment, University College, London.
J. R. Clynes, Esq., M.P., parliamentary secretary to the Ministry
of Food.
E. L. Collis, Esq., M.B., H.M. medical inspector of factories, Home
Office; director of health and welfare, Ministry of Munitions.
Sir Walter M. Fletcher, K.B.E., M.D., Sc.D., F. R, S., F. R. C. P.,
secretary to the medical research committee; fellow of Trinity Col­
lege, Cambridge.




7

8

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

Leonard E. Hill, Esq., M.B., F. E. S., director, department of ap­
plied physiology and hygiene, medical research committee; professor
of physiology, London Hospital Medical School.
Samuel Osborn, Esq., J.P., managing director Clyde Steel Works,
Sheffield.
Miss E. E. Squire, O.B.E., H.M. deputy principal lady inspector
of factories, Home Office.
Mrs. H. J. Tennant, C.H.
E. H. Pelham, Esq., (secretary); assistant secretary, board of edu­
cation.
To the E ight H on. W inston S. C hurchill, M. P., M inister op
M unitions.
Si r :

1. The committee now beg to submit the following final report.
2. Since their appointment the committee have held 39 meetings,
and in addition subcommittees have met on numerous occasions.
3. Immediately on their appointment the committee arranged to
sit and take evidence not only in London but also in Birmingham,
Sheffield, Newcastle, Glasgow, Manchester, and Coventry. Special
arrangements were also made for taking evidence at Woolwich.
Witnesses were heard representative of emplo3T
ers, workers, factory
inspectors, and other interested persons. From time to time special
witnesses have also been heard on particular questions. In addition,
a number of other persons have—by the submission of memoranda
or by other means—placed their special knowledge at the disposal
of the committee. The committee have decided to content them­
selves with quoting extracts from the evidence, and not to publish
it in full. In arriving at this decision they have been influenced not
only by the urgent need for economy in paper, but also by the fact
that much of the evidence was either not intended for publication
or had special reference to particular conditions then existing, but
now largely modified. Some persons, while allowing their state­
ments to be made use of, have desired that their names should not
be published.
4. Throughout their inquiries the committee have found it desirable
to rely for much of their information on visits paid to factories.
Such visits, which w
rere generally paid by two or three members of
the committee together, enabled them not only to interview a num­
ber of employees, foremen, and workers whose evidence would hardly
otherwise have been available, but also to ascertain at first hand the
conditions under which munition work was being carried out. In
addition, individual members of the committee, whilst discharging
other duties, have collected a considerable body of information bear­
ing on questions under consideration.




INTRODUCTION.

9

5. From the first the committee have been strongly impressed with
the importance of obtaining exact and scientific data. The Medical
Research Committee not only gave permission for Dr. Leonard Hill,
F. R. S., head of their applied physiology department, to serve upon
the committee, but placed the experimental resources of his labora­
tories at the disposal of the committee, and offered to render any
other assistance in their power. The assistance thus offered lias
proved of the highest value. In addition ta other work Dr. Leonard
Hill has conducted a number of detailed inquiries in regard to the
dietaries of munition workers, and also in regard to ventilation.
Dr. Benjamin Moore, F. R. S., and his staff have carried out a long
series of experiments and inquiries in regard to the effects of TNT
upon the health of workers (separately published). In conjunction
with that committee arrangements were made for Mr. P. Sargant
Florence, Mr. H. M. Yernon, M. D., fellow of Magdalen College,
Oxford (with whom has been associated Mr. W. Neilson Jones),
Prof. Thomas Loveday, Armstrong College, University of Durham,
and Capt. M. Greenwood, R. A. M. C. (with whom has been associated
Mr. S. H. Burchell), to collect data bearing on the relationship of
output to hours of work and other industrial problems. Capt. T. II.
Agnew, R. A. M. C., conducted, on behalf of the committee, a medical
inspection of about 3,000 male workers. Two series of medical in­
spections covering together about 2,500 women and girls were
organized under the supervision of Dr. Janet Campbell (a senior
medical officer of the board of education).
6. In Appendix A are set out the names of— (a) the witnesses,
other than those who desired that their names should not be pub­
lished; (h) the medical officers, inspectors, and others who assisted in
the medical inspections; and ( c) certain other persons who, by the
submission of memoranda or by other means, placed their special
knowledge at the disposal of the committee. The committee desire
to place on record their cordial appreciation of the assistance
rendered, often at much personal inconvenience, by all those who
have thus enabled the committee to collect a body of reliable in­
formation, without which it would have been impossible for them
adequately to perform the duties with which they were charged.
The committee are also under a great obligation to the many muni­
tion firms and their staffs for the facilities so readily accorded for
the pursuit of inquiries. Finally, the committee desire to express
their thanks to the Home Office (factory department), the Ministry
of Munitions, the board of education, and the national insurance
commissioners for the assistance afforded the committee by the loan
of their officers and the supply of information.
7. In view of the urgency of many of the problems involved by
their terms of reference the committee decided that it was desirable




10

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

that they should submit their views and recommendations in regard
to particular matters in separate memoranda rather than that they
should defer making any report until their investigations were com­
pleted. In accordance with this decision the committee have sub­
mitted to the ministry the following 21 memoranda:
No. 1. Sunday labor. (Cd. 8132.)
[Summarized in Monthly Review, May, 1916, pp. 66, 67; reprinted in Bui. 221.]

No. 2. Welfare supervision.

(Cd. 8151.)

[Summarized in Monthly fleview, May, 1916, pp. 68, 69 ; reprinted in Bui. 222.]

No. 3. Industrial canteens.

(Cd. 8133.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, May, 1916, pp. 69, 70; reprinted in Bui. 222.]

No. 4. Employment of women.

(Cd. 8185.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, pp. 74-76; reprinted in Bill.
228.]

No. 5. Hours of work.

(Cd. 8186.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, pp. 77-79; reprinted in Bui.

221.]
No. 6. Canteen construction and equipment.
3.) (Cd. 8199.)

(Appendix to No.

[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, p. 91; reprinted in Bui. 222.]

No. 7. Industrial fatigue and its causes.

(Cd. 8213.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, pp. 79-81; reprinted in Bui.

221.]
No. 8. Special industrial diseases.

(Cd. 8214.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, pp. 83-88; reprinted in Bui.

221.]
No. 9. Ventilation and lighting of munition factories and work­
shops. (Cd. 8215.)
[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, pp. 81-83; reprinted in Bui.

221.]
No. 10. Sickness and injury.

(Cd. 8216.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, June, 1916, pp. 88-90; reprinted in Bui.

221.]
No. 11. Investigation of workers’ food and suggestions as to
dietary. (Second appendix to No. 3.) (Cd. 8370.)
[Summarized in Monthly Review, January, 1917, pp. 56, 57; reprinted in
Bui. 222.]

No. 12. Statistical information concerning output in relation to
hcrnrs of work. (Cd. 8344.)
[Summarized in Monthly Review, December, 1916, pp. 105-119; reprinted in
• Bui. 221.]

No. 13. Juvenile employment.

(Cd. 8362.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, December, 1916, pp. 92-97; reprinted in
Bui. 223.]

No. 14. Washing facilities and baths.

(Cd. 8387.)

[Summarized in Monthly Review, January, 1917, pp. 150, 151; reprinted in
Bui. 222.]

No. 15. The effect of industrial conditions upon eyesight.
8409.)




(Cd.

11

INTRODUCTION.

[Summarized in Monthly Review, April, 1917, pp. 538-540; reprinted in Bui.

221J
No. 16. Medical certificates for munition workers.

(Cd. 8522.)

[Reprinted in Bui. 230.]

No. 17. Health and welfare of munition workers outside the fac­
tory.
[Summarized in Monthly Review, August, 1917, pp. 91, 92; reprinted in Bui.
230.]

No. 18. Further statistical information concerning output in rela­
tion to hours of work, with special reference to the influence of Sun- ,
day labor. (Cd. 8628.)
[Summarized in Monthly Review, November, 1917, pp. 61, 62.]

No. 19. Investigation of workers’ food and suggestions as to diet­
ary. (Second appendix to No. 3.) Revised edition. (Cd. 8798.)
No. 20. Weekly hours of employment (supplementary to Memo­
randum No. 5.) (Cd. 8801.)
[Reprinted in Monthly Review, February, 1918, pp. 82-87.]

No. 21. Investigation of the factors concerned in the causation of
industrial accidents. (Cd. 9046.)
[Summarized in Monthly Labor Review, July, 1918, pp. 161-164.]

All of these memoranda with the exception of No. 17 (Health
a!nd welfare of munition workers outside the factory) have been
published and placed on sale.
An interim report, entitled “ Industrial efficiency and fatigue,” was
also published (Cd. 8511) in February, 1917, in which was set out
the results of a number of investigations which had been made for
the committee. The studies included were: 1
(a) Industrial fatigue and its causes (reprint of Memorandum
No. 7).
(b) Output in relation to hours of work (reprint of Memorandum
No. 12).
(c) The comparative efficiencies -of day work and night work.
(cl) The causes and conditions of lost time.
(e) Incentives to work, with special reference to wages.
(/) Report on the health and physical conditon of male munition
workers.
(g) Inquiry into the health of women engaged in munition fac­
tories.
Finally, in December, 1917, the committee, acting on your instruc­
tions, issued a handbook on the “ Health of the munition worker,” 2
summarizing shortly and concisely the principal suggestions con­
tained in their earlier publications.
8.
The committee are satisfied that the procedure thus adopted has
been justified by the results attained. The publication of separate
1 The report was summarized in Monthly Review, July, 1917, pp. 14-19 ; the studies
included in the report, with the exception of (a) and (b), were reprinted in Bui. 230.
2 Summarized in Monthly Review, April, 1918, p. 311.




12

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

memoranda has undoubtedly rendered the committee’s recommenda­
tions more readily accessible. The demand for the memoranda has
been large and continuous; upward of 210,000 of the committee’s
memoranda and reports have been sold or distributed, and the rec­
ommendations contained in them have received a wide measure of
acceptance, both officially and unofficially.
9.
The committee consider that they have now reached a definite
stage in their work. Though doubtless fresh matters for inquiry
may arise from time to time there can be no doubt that the position
is now substantially different from what it was when the committee
were first appointed in September, 1915. There is apparently an
increased appreciation of the importance of the whole question of
industrial hygiene, and there can be no doubt that the environment
and conditions of employment of munition workers throughout the
country are now vastly better than they w
^ere two and one-half years
ago, though there is still much room and much need for improvement.
The developments which have occurred may be roughly grouped
under the following heads :
{a) The various memoranda and reports already prepared by the
committee may be broadly regarded as containing recommendations
in regard to all the principal questions which fall within their terms
of reference. All these recommendations have been generally ac­
cepted as reasonable, and have been widely adopted.
(b)
In January, 1916, the Ministry of Munitions established a
welfare section under the direction of Mr. B. S. Eowntree, for the
purpose of the executive work arising out of the committee’s recom­
mendations and other necessary undertakings for promoting the
health of the large body of workers for which the ministry was re­
sponsible. The activities of the department were at first concen­
trated on securing improved conditions of health and welfare within
“ controlled ” factories by encouraging factory managers to appoint
some person or persons to maintain a close personal relationship with
the workers, and also to make the requisite structural provision.1
Early in 1917, the pressure of other duties prevented Mr. Eowntree
from continuing to direct the department, which was about the same
time entirely reorganized under the direction of Dr. E. L. Collis, a
member of the committee. The new department was made re­
sponsible for all matters concerned with the health and welfare of
munition workers in national as well as in “ controlled ” factories,
including the medical problems involved in the prevention of TNT
poisoning and the maintenance of the health of those employed in
the manufacture of lethal gas. The sphere of the department was at
the same time extended to cover the conditions of life of munition
1 The conditions under which such expenditure may be met out of excess profits are
given in Appendix K.




INTRODUCTION.

13

workers outside the factory, together with the inspection of the large
number of temporary hostels for munition workers that were being
provided. In addition, special provision was made for research and
the collection of accurate knowledge upon which administrative
action could be based. More recently the department has been taking
steps to deal with the various maternity problems which arise in
munition areas. The staff, in addition to the central administrative
officers, includes men and women welfare officers1 charged with the
inspection of conditions inside the factories, the supervision of con­
ditions outside the factories and the inspection of hostels, medical
officers charged with the supervision of the doctors appointed to in­
dividual factories and also with advising on all health questions, and
special research investigators.
(c)
Under section 7 of the Police, Factories, etc. (Miscellaneous
Provisions), Act, 1916, the Home Office were given power to make
orders requiring special provision to be made at a factory or work­
shop for securing the welfare of the workers. The matters to which
the section applies include: Arrangements for preparing or heating
and taking meals; the supply of drinking water; the supply of pro­
tective clothing; ambulance and first-aid arrangements; the supply
and use of seats in workrooms; facilities for washing; accommoda­
tion for clothing; arrangements for supervision of workers.
As the result of these developments the questions now at issue are
concerned not so much with the determination of general policy as
with the application of agreed principles to particular cases. They
are, in fact, administrative rather than advisory in character. In
saying this the committee must not be regarded as in any sense
underrating the urgent necessity for the continuance and develop­
ment of the various scientific inquiries which they have initiated.
Other means can, however, be found for attaining this end, and the
committee concur in the propriety of the decision of the ministry to
discharge their reference and to establish in their place an office com­
mittee in association with the executive.
10.
It has only remained accordingly for the committee to prepare
a final report of their proceedings. In this report, which they now
submit, they have endeavored to survey concisely (even at the risk
of some repetition), the nature and development of all the various
problems covered by their memoranda. Many of the memoranda
would, in any case, have required substantial modification in view of
developments which have occurred since their publication, but what
is more important, the bringing together of the various matters
which have been dealt with in their various memoranda serves to
emphasise in a manner otherwise impossible the close relationship
1 There are now probably about 800 welfare supervisors employed in munition fac­
tories ; of these approximately 80 per cent are for women and girls and 20 per cent
for boys.




14

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

and interdependence which exists between the problems involved.
Though it is too early yet to draw any final conclusions as to the
permanent effect on the health and physical efficiency of the muni­
tion work of the abnormal conditions which have existed during the
war, it is at any rate possible to set out the extent to which normal
restrictions have been abandoned, to suggest some conclusions as to
the results wliich have followed, and, finally, to indicate certain
T
conclusions as to the steps which should be taken to maintain and
promote permanently the health of industrial workers when more
normal conditions are restored.




SE CTIO N II.— P R E L IM IN A R Y A N D H IS T O R IC A L SU R V E Y .

11.
At the outset of their investigation and inquiry the committee
were confronted with the width and complexity of the reference
with which they were charged. It had to do with the environment of
the worker and the worker himself; it was concerned with immediate
as well as remote problems; its issues had to be viewed in relation
to present exceptional and ephemeral conditions and circumstances,
and also in relation to what would be practicable and permanent
after the war; it involved the consideration of the health, not only
of the munition worker in the narrow sense, but of all industrial
labor—for all branches of labor are interdependent upon each other—
and of many health questions, such as housing and maternity pro­
vision, which lie outside the walls of the factory or work place; and
lastly, it raised far-reaching social and even moral questions which
are not commonly thought of as appertaining to health.
The fact is that this report of the committee’s work, though con­
cerned primarily with the munition worker, deals also with vital
principles and practical methods affecting all forms of industry.
Moreover, the health of the industrial worker—man and woman—
is but part, essential, plastic, living, of the health of the people as a
whole, which in its turn raises manifold problems of administration,
economics, social relationships, and even ethics, which, though ap­
parently remote from questions of medicine, are in truth intimately
associated. The nation a century ago was wise in its generation in
recognizing the relation obtaining between “ the health and morals of
apprentices,” and, a hundred years later, it is found that some of tha
most intricate problems of health and physical efficiency are in­
separable from large issues of physiology, of social relationship or
morals, and of human conduct. It is sufficient to name two examples:
First, there is the advent of the woman worker—an advent which
brings with it new issues of physique, of physiological function, of
staying power, of nutrition, of maternity. The entrance into the
ranks of labor of the “ young person ” of either sex raises many ques­
tions concerning the development of the adolescent and the effects of
labor conditions upon such growth and the national results which are
likely to follow. All such questions are doubly difficult in the case
of the woman worker. There has been witnessed what can not be de­
scribed otherwise than as a mighty revolution in industry, and the
committee have been deputed to study some of the physiological con-




15

16

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

comitants or effects of this revolution. They do not profess to solve
the problems thus presented. They are under no delusion in the
matter. They can but open the door and invite other students to
enter this unexplored region of science and labor. They are con­
vinced that it offers a wide field for research, for careful experiment,
for firm, frank, and bold statecraft, for a large and sympathetic
understanding, which shall secure the inestimable advantages of
woman’s skill and energy without those irremediable and far-reach­
ing evils which will inevitably arise if her contribution be not wisely
and effectually safeguarded. Secondly, there is the old problem of
the relation of the man to the machine. During the industrial revolu­
tion in England there was a tendency, to put it no higher, for the
man to be made subservient to the machine. But physically, socially,
and even morally, this seems to reverse the proper order. Their in­
vestigations have convinced the committee that to secure harmony
and smooth working, to secure efficiency and maximum output, the
machine must be subservient to the man; it is his individual health,
mental development, and moral well-being which is the guaranty of
T
effective labor. The reference here is not to the social relationships
between master and man, or between man and man, though the propo­
sition may be true in that regard also. It is oniy in respect of the
physiological basis of labor and of all endeavor of whatever kind.
In short, physical health is the fundamental basis. There must be a
proper distribution of function of labor, a correct understanding of
the part played by nutrition, by rest, by fatigue, by health condi­
tions, if waste is to be avoided and maximum energy attained. The
human being is a finely adjusted physiological instrument, which
must no longer be wasted, much less destroyed, by ignorant or willful
misuse. A workingman’s capital is, as a rule, his health and his
capacity to perform a full day’s work. Once that is impaired or
damaged beyond recuperation, two things happen: First, his whole
industrial outlook is jeopardized and he becomes by rapid stages a
liability and even a charge on the State. Secondly, if the bodily
defense is undermined by stress and strain the man falls a ready
prey to disease, such as tuberculosis. Therefore, as the problems to
which reference is made in this report concern the future as well as
the present, so also they are concerned with the new preventive
medicine which has as its object the removal of the occasion of dis­
ease and physical inefficiency combined with the husbanding of the
physical resources of the worker in such a way and to such a degree
that he can exert his full powers unhampered, and with benefit to
himself and all concerned.
12.
Any account of steps which have been taken to promote the
health of workers in the engineering and other trades with which




PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.

17

this report is immediately concerned must inevitably deal in a large
measure with the efforts that have been made generally to promote
the health of all industrial workers during the century and a quarter
which has elapsed since public opinion first became aroused on the
subject. At first the health of children in cotton factories was the
primary matter for concern. The evils of long hours of work and
insanitary surroundings, though they had existed previously, had
become accentuated by the aggregation of large numbers of workers
in factories and by a marked increase in the demand for child labor.
The children were helpless to protect themselves against the demands
of the employer for cheap labor and against the cupidity of the
parents. That any action was taken was due partly, no doubt, to a
fear that the conditions of employment might react, not only on the
health of those immediately concerned, but on that of the nation as
a whole. Action was, however, mainly due to the gradual awakening
of the political and social conscience which occurred during this
period. It was a time, not only of factory legislation, but of educa­
tional advancement and of prison reform. The awakening was
religious as well as social, and the first factory act was concerned not
only with the health of apprentices but with their “ morals.” It dealt
with their education and religious training as well as with their
physical welfare. The modern factory acts were only gradually
evolved; legislation was directed to removing particular evils as
they became recognized, rather than to the realization of definite
principles, based on a critical examination of the causes of the evils.
That progress was slow was due in the main to the strength and
character of the individualistic views then held and to the widespread
belief that any curtailment of the liberty of action of the manufac­
turer must be prejudicial to the national prosperity. More than half
a century passed before there was any general acceptance of the
principle that the State has both a right and a duty to concern itself
with the physical and moral welfare of its people.
13.
The movement of reform expressed itself in two ways. First,
there was the individual effort of the more enlightened pioneering em­
ployers, and secondly, there was the intervention of the State through
its central board of health and, subsequently, the factory department
of the Home Office. From the days of Robert Owen, and before his
days, down to the present time, there has been a succession of benevo­
lent employers who have made it their business to provide for the
well-being of their workers, and have thus set a standard and an ex­
ample to the State. Wood and Walker, of Bradford, who inspired
Oastler; John Fielden, who, in 1836, felt he was “ the trustee of the
interests” of those he employed; Robert Gardner, of Preston; and
80035°— 19-------2




18

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

others were forerunners in a long line of famous employers who have
taken upon themselves the responsibility of the care of their workers.
“ We manufacturers, ” wrote Robert Owen, “ are always perfecting
our dead machinery, but of our living machinery we arc taking no
care. ” The movement began with the reduction of hours of labor,
but it now comprehends the whole wide compass of “ welfare. ” The
medical examination of applicants, the provision of surgeries, conva­
lescent homes and dental clinics; a nursing staff, prevention of acci­
dents, supervision of sick, slow, or backward workers; canteen accom­
modation, recreation agencies, clubs, swimming baths and playing
fields, libraries, allotments, educational classes; welfare supervisors;
improved wage systems savings clubs, profit-sharing—make a form­
idable array of agencies for the benefit of the worker. “ It is taken
for granted,” writes an employer, “ that before any so-called scheme
of welfare work can be of lasting good a living wage must be paid
and hours of labor and hygienic conditions must not involve the de­
terioration of the workers. It must be quite evident that clubs and
classes, savings funds and libraries are quite thrown away upon work­
ers who are overworked and underfed.” 1
14.
It is important to observe that, with few exceptions, the pioneer
reforms of employers were inspired by social and moral motives
rather than by scientific or economic evidence. There was, indeed,
all through this long period of tardy reform, little or no appeal to
the actual facts of the relation between the hours and conditions of
labor on the one hand and the energy and output of the workman on
the other. It seems now, on looking back, an extraordinary thing
that there should have been little or no scrutiny or inquiry, no ex­
periment, no research, no investigation into the real state of the case.
Men guessed, or assumed, or were guided by their own prejudice, or at
best, were compelled by humane or religious ideals. One of the first
control experiments on this subject made in the workshop was that
initiated in 1892 by the Eight Hon. Sir William Mather in the en­
gineering works of Messrs. Mather & Platt at Salford. As a result
of negotiation between employer and employed it was arranged to
make a year’s trial (1st March, 1893-28th February, 1894) of a 48
hours’ system, excluding the two hours of work before breakfast
(7.45 to 12 noon and 1 to 5.30). The results showed— (a) that there
was an increase of 0.4 per cent in the ratio of the wages cost to the
turnover; (b) that there was a saving in gas, electricity, fuel, wear
and tear, etc., amounting, by coincidence, to 0.4 per cent; (c) that
there was a fall in the amount of lost time from 2.46 per cent in the
53-hour period to 0.46 per cent in the 48-hour period; (d) that
though pieceworkers lost 1.76 per cent at the beginning of the trial
year, this fell to 0.78 per cent at the end; and (e) that there was
1 Experiments in Industrial Organization, by Edward Cadbury, 1912.




PEELIMIISTAKT AND HISTORICAL SURVEY,

19

“ increased cheerfulness and brightness ” on the part of the work­
people. 4 We seem,” wrote Sir William Mather in 189-1, 4 to have
4
4
been working in harmony with a natural law, instead of against it,
as in the unnatural conditions of men beginning the work of th« day
without provision required by nature for the. proper exercise of their
mental faculties and physical powers. * * * Of this I am assured,
that the most economical production is obtained by employing men
only so long as they are at their best—when this stage is passed there
is no true economy in their continued work. ” The committee have
had the advantage of discussing this admirable experiment with Sir
William Mather, and they are satisfied that his experience, and those
of other employers who followed his enlightened example of inquiry
and of reform, demonstrates the value to the workman, the employer
and the community as a whole, of applying to industry the scientific
method and the scientific spirit.
15. Secondly, alongside the ameliorative efforts of individual em­
ployers, sometimes guiding them, sometimes guided by them, there
has been the ever-increasing intervention of the State. For a hundred
years the movement has been slowly, with tardy steps, gaining
ground. To-day, in the presence of a wide interest in 4 welfare, ” it
4
is important to remember that the foundations have been laid for
many years. It is no new discovery either as need or remedy. For
a proper understanding of the present situation it is necessary to
take cognizance of the past. For convenience the matter may be
considered under four subheadings: (1) The hours of employment,
(2) factory environment, (3) personal well-being, and (4) the effect
of occupation on health.
(I ) LIMITATION OF HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT.

16. When at the beginning of the last century public opinion first
became seriously concerned with conditions of industrial employment
interest was mainly concentrated on the excessive hours of employ­
ment of children and adolescents, and somewhat later of women.
Though the hours of employment of men were the subject of contin­
ual agitation amongst the workers, legislation on the subject was
never seriously contemplated, the action of the legislature being con­
fined to limiting the hours of women, young persons and children,
and to the provisions necessary to secure the effective enforcement of
the limits decided upon. The earlier factory acts applied only to
the textile industries, mainly because they were more highly, devel­
oped, and regulations were consequently easier to enforce. It was
not until limitations of hours, substantially as they exist to-dav, had
been established, that their extension to other industries was seriously
considered.




20

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

17. The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act, passed in 1802, was
concerned solely with apprentices. Their working hours were lim­
ited to 12 a day, and their employment was forbidden between the
hours of 9 p. m. and 6 a. m. Except as a statement of principle this
act was of but little effect. It did not apply to the large and increas­
ing number of children who were employed otherwise than as ap­
prentices, and even as regards apprentices its administration was
lax. It was not, indeed, until 1819 that the agitations headed by
Eobert Owen,1 himself a cotton manufacturer, led to the passing of
a fresh act under which the emplojanent of all children under 9 years
of age was prohibited, and the employment of young persons between
9 and 16 years of age was limited to 12 hours. No further develop­
ment of importance occurred until the agitation led by Richard
Oastler and Michael Sadler commenced about 1830. These agita­
tions were in a large measure concerned with the establishment of a
10-hour day for juvenile workers, though it was anticipated that any
limitation of the hours of children would result in a similar limita­
tion in the hours of employment of all workers. The opposition
during this period was primarily based on the view that any restric­
tion of the hours of employment must seriously prejudice the pros­
perity of the country. Even as late as 1844 the view that “ the
longer the hours, the greater the profit,” was still being expressed
in its crudest form.
18. In 1833 commissioners were appointed to inquire into the ex­
isting conditions and to consider the need for further legislation.
They reported that children employed in the principal branches of
manufacture throughout the country worked during the same hours
as adults; that the effect of labor during such hours was, in a number
of cases, permanent deterioration of the physical condition and the
production of diseases wholly irremediable, and that at the age when
children suffered injuries from the labor they underwent they were
not free agents. The commissioners were accordingly of opinion
that a case was made out for the interference of the legislature on
behalf of children employed in factories.2 The Factory Act, 1833,
which resulted from the report of the committee, distinguished for
1 Robert Owen stated in evidence that the reduction of hours in his own factory had
not appreciably affected the output. He explained that “ a larger quantity may be
produced by a greater attention of tlie hands while the machinery is at work, in pre­
venting breakages, and by not losing time in commencing in the morning, at meals, or
when stopping at night.”
3 While they rejected the proposal of 10 hours a day they pointed out the fallacy
underlying the arguments of the opposition. “ It appears in evidence that .the practice
of working more than the ordinary hours a day in each branch can not be turned to
account to any such extent. * * * When work is protracted beyond these hours the
workmen become inefficient, the quality of the work is injured, the amount of waste
augmented and, moreover, additional expense for light is incurred.” Reports of com­
missioners on employment of children in factories, H. C.f 1833, XX, XXI, and H. C.,
IS34, XIX, XX.




PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.

21

the first time between “ children ” and “ young persons.” Children
between the ages of 9 and 13 were only to be employed for 9 hours
a day and 48 hours a week, while young persons between the ages of
y
13 and 18 might be employed for 12 hours a day. No person under
18 years of age was to be allowed to work at night; that is to say,
betweeen 8.30 p. m. and 5.30 a. m. Owing to frequent abuses a medi­
cal certificate was required that a child was of “ the ordinary strength
and appearance ” of a child of 9 years of age. Finally, the ineffec­
tiveness (complained of by employers and workers alike) of earlier
attempts to enforce the law through persons appointed by the local
justices led to the appointment of factory inspectors.
19. The demand for factory reform and for a 10-hour day con­
tinued and was gradually enforced by the reports of the factory in­
spectors as to the difficulties experienced in administering the act
of 1833. The Factory Act, 1844, which was largely supported by the
employers as well as by the workers, contained numerous provi­
T
sions for the better enforcement of the limitations already imposed
and for preventing encroachment on meal times, but the most im­
portant innovation was the limitation of the hours of employment
of all women to those permitted for young persons.1 The struggle
for a 10-hour day was practically ended by factory acts passed in
1847 and 1850, under which the hours of employment of women and
young persons were limited to 10J hours (with
hours for meals)
a day and 60 hours a week, while to prevent evasions of the law it
was prescribed that the legal working day was to be from 6 a. m.
to 6 p. m., thus coinciding in length with the legal period of em­
ployment.
20. The children’s employment commission, the first commission
of inquiry into the general conditions of industries other than tex­
tile, was appointed in 1840 as a result of representations made by
Lord Ashley. The commission in their first report dealt with the
mining industry; their second report,2 which was published in 1843,
showed that in the metal ware and other industries children were
generally employed for as long as adults, sometimes for as much as
16 or 18 hours without intermission. Night work was also common.
T
Though the reports of the commission resulted in legislation in re­
gard to coal mines and the extension of the factory acts to certain tex­
tile industries not hitherto included, no action was taken to remedy
the abuses shown to be existing in the metal ware and other nontextile trades.
1 As one inspector pointed out,.
12 hours’ daily work is more than enough for
anyone, but however desirable it might be that excessive working should be prevented,
there are great difficulties in the way of legislative interference with the labor of adult
men. The case, however, is very different as respects women; for not only are they
less free agents, but they are physically incapable of bearing a continuance of work
for the same length of time as men, and deterioration of their health is attended with far
more serious consequences to society.”
2 House of Commons Report, 1843, X III-X V .




22

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

21. It was not until 1862 that the second children’s employment
commission was appointed. The inquiries of this commission were
conducted under circumstances widely different from those which
had existed 20 years earlier. The extent of the restrictions on hours
of employment to be imposed by the factory acts was no longer a
matter of dispute. It was, moreover, generally recognized that the
industries affected had benefited by the imposition of these restric­
tions. The old opposition to the factory acts had largely disap­
peared. It is evident from the reports 1 that the character of the
metal industries had widely changed during the 20 years which had
elapsed since the previous inquiry. The increased use of machinery
and the regulation of hours in other trades had tended to secure to a
far larger degree regular hours of work. The phrase “ overtime ” is
now used in something approaching the modern sense of hours of
work in excess of the normal day. In continuous processes regular
day and night shifts, and occasionally the three-shift system, are
found established. The commission quoted with approval the evi­
dence of a number of witnesses who were opposed to overtime. The
following, among others, were quoted:
I f overwork lasts only for a short time 20 per cent increase o f hours’ labor
gives only about 10 per cent increase of result in production. I f overtime is
continued for any length it gives no increase o f result at all.
W e find that those on piecework make as much in 10$ hours as they do when
they know that they have 2 hours longer. I f they have been working their full
time well they have not the energy left to get through much more at the
end of it.
Bad management and carelessness is the source o f all overtime. When they
work on till 8 p. m. they get wearied— men and boys. There is quite time enough
from 6 a. m. to 6 p. m. for a man to do all he can do satisfactorily.

22. The commission recommended the inclusion of the metal trades
within the provisions of the factory acts, and legislation followed in
1867. Sunday work was forbidden, and also night work except to a
limited extent permitted for male young persons employed in iron
mills and blasting furnaces. Overtime was not allowed in the metal
industries.
23. The report2 published in 1876 of the commissioners appointed
to inquire into the working of the factory and workshop acts, with
a view to their consolidation and amendment, did not recommend any
change in the limitation of hours of employment then imposed, and
no material change has since been made. The commission also con­
sidered in this relation the desirability of placing special restrictions
upon the occupation of married women in the interests of themselves
as well as of their offspring. They, however, regarded it as imprac­
ticable to place any prohibition on the employment of women imme-




1 II. C., 1864, X X II ; H. C., 1865, XX.
9 II. C., 1876, X X IX and XXX.

PRELIMINARY AXD HISTORICAL SURVEY.

23

diatelj before or after childbirth, and confined themselves in con­
demning their employment and to recommending the provision of
public nurseries in factory towns. And it was not until the Factory
and Workshop Act, 1891, that it was provided that an occupier of a
factory or workshop shall not knowingly allow a woman to be em­
ployed therein within four weeks after 3he has given birth to a child.
24. The Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, so far as the limitation
of hours of employment was concerned, was mainly important as con­
solidating the law on the subject and as setting out the law as it at
present exists. A summary of the principal divisions is given in
Section V.
25. In 1911 a departmental committee was appointed on the night
employment of male young persons in factories and workshops. In
their report (published in 1912)1 they stated that they were strongly
of opinion that the employment of boys under 18 years of age at
night in factories was undesirable and ought not to be allowed to any
greater extent or at an earlier age than was absolutely necessary.
They considered that this applied especially to boys between 14 and
16 years of age, a when the rate of growth is most rapid and when
the conditions of life ought to be rendered as favorable as possible
for mental and physical development.” This committee reluctantly
came to the conclusion that the adoption of a system of three 8-hour
shifts was not generally practicable. They recommended the pro­
hibition of all night employment *of boys under 18 years of age in
blast furnaces, and of boys under 16 years of age in iron mills. They
considered it important that provision should be made for the period­
ical medical examination of boys employed at night until they are
18 years of age, at least once in six months. They added that records
should be kept at the works of any physical defects or other matters
calling for watchfulness on the part of the occupier, the examining
doctor or the inspector of factories.
26. Such, briefly, are the outlines of the story of the struggle for a
standard of working hours which should not overstrain the workman.
For upwards of a century the State has accumulated indisputable
evidence that it is the conditions of employment rather than its
character which undermine the physical strength and endurance of
the worker. Apart from exceptional occupations which are in
themselves injurious, the principal of the undesirable conditions, the
most radical and persistent, the commonest, is that of long hours. It
is a significant fact that all through the history of the industrial
system of this country the dominant evil is not accidents or poisoning
or specific disease, but the stress and fatigue due to long and unsuit­
able hours of labor, entailing inadequate opportunities for rest, rec-




mS
O,

1912.

24

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

reation and nourishment. In a word, it is not the work but the
continuity of the work which kills.
(2) FACTORY ENVIRONMENT.

27. Though in the earlier controversies of the last century public
attention was primarily concerned with the limitation of hours of
employment, the necessity was also recognized of attention to the
environment of the worker in the factory. The Health and Morals of
Apprentices Act, 1802, required that in all cotton factories in which
more than 20 persons were employed (whether as apprentices or not),
provision should be made for limewashing and “ for a sufficient number
of windows and openings in such rooms or apartments to insure a
proper supply of fresh air in and through the same.” From the first,
therefore, the importance of ventilation and cleanliness a as recog­
y
nized (unlike the limitation of hours of employment) as necessary
for men as well as for women and young persons.
28. Various commissions called attention to the matter. The chil­
dren’s employment commission in their report, published in 1843, on
the metal ware and other industries stated that—
In the great m ajority o f instances the places o f work are very defective in
drainage, ventilation, and in due regard o f temperature, while little or no at­
tention is paid to cleanliness.

29. The reports of the children’s employment commission (1862)
show7 that, notwithstanding the great developments which had taken
place during the previous 20 years in the organization of industry,
conditions in these respects remained much as before. The factory
acts (extension acts, 1864 and 1867) contained provisions in regard
to cleanliness and ventilation. As a direct result of the inquiries of
Dr. Greenhow provisions for the first time appear dealing with over­
crowding and with the provision of fans or other mechanical means
for the prevention of the inhalation of dust. The development of
opinion in regard to public health matters led to the Factory and
Workshop Act, 1878, incorporating certain provisions of the Public
Health Act, 1875, and requiring that the factory should be kept free
from effluvia and other nuisances.
30. With the development of machinery the prevention of acci­
dents became a question of increasing importance. The Factory Act,
1844, first provided for the fencing of machinery, though its provi­
sions were largely confined to machinery “ near to which children
and young persons are liable to pass,” and it was only by the Factory
and Workshop Act, 1878, that requirements as to the fencing of ma­
chinery were extended to all workers. The same act introduced for
the first time restrictions as to the cleaning of machinery by women,
young persons and children. Notification of accidents to the certify­




PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.

25

ing surgeon, first introduced in 1844, was now extended to cover
notification also to the factory inspector. The Factory Act of 1901
consolidated the measures for the improvement of the environment,
and included requirements regarding cleanliness, ventilation, light­
ing and sanitary accommodation.
31. The enforcement of legislative requirements in regard to the
environment of the worker has inevitably been a gradual process.
The difficulties were greater than in the case of limitation of hours,
since in the main the requirements w^re couched in general terms,
words such as “ adequate” left many loopholes for evasion, and the
raising of the standard was and is largely dependent upon the exer­
tions of the workers, the employers and the factory inspectors. Nor
must it be forgotten that pari passu with improvement in factory
environment there has been an immense advance in general sanita­
tion outside the factory.
(3) PERSONAL WELL-BEING OF THE WORKER.

32. Since the earliest developments of the factory system there
have always been employers who have not felt their social and moral
obligations satisfied by fulfillment of the minimum requirements of
the law, but have actively concerned themselves in promoting the
health and welfare of their workers, not only by providing clean
and well-ventilated work places and moderate hours of employment,
but by providing facilities for obtaining food and by other means
outside the ordinary range of factory management. Thus one of the
special commissioners appointed to make inquiries for the commis­
sioners on the employment of children in 1833 reported that—
The greatest mills I have always found to be the cleanest, the machinery
most securely fenced off, and the hands of the neatest and most respectable
appearance * * *. In Messrs. Strutt’s mill at Belper each hand is allowed
a pint o f good tea or coffee, with sugar and milk, for $ penny, and medical
assistance gratis. A dancing room is also found for them in this establishment.

33. In one of the earliest reports of the factory inspectors it is
stated—■
In some cases an active and anxious interest in the w elfare o f those em­
ployed has been evinced by the establishment o f institutions and different
regulations for the improvement o f their moral and social condition which
have been productive o f great advantage. Some o f these institutions have in
view the providing o f medical advice and medicines when ill, and occasional
pecuniary assistance during sickness.

Such cases were, however, exceptional, and there is no doubt that
it was not usually considered a part of the duty of the employer to
make any special provision in these respects.




26

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

34. The children’s employment commission reported in 1843 that—
Even in those trades and manufactures in which deleterious substances are
used there is in general no accommodation for the workpeople to change their
clothes on leaving their place o f work, or to wash themselves if they remain at
meal tim es; and it is very uncommon for any means to be provided for w ork­
people to dress and warm their food.

35. In the report of the royal commission on labor,1 there is con­
siderable evidence as to the need for increased interest being taken
in these matters, especially as regards women—
In ordinary employments the lady assistant commissioners call attention to
various common causes o f unhealthfulness such as the absence o f place for dry­
ing outer clothes when wet, absence o f dining rooms and provision o f hot water,
o r means o f cooking or obtaining proper food in or near works.

36. In this gradual development of opinion as to what is needful to
secure the well-being and efficiency of the worker, the factory in­
spectors have played an important part; though primarily concerned
with the enforcement of the law, they have inevitably developed a
wider view of their responsibilities. Since the first appointment of
women inspectors, in itself a significant fact, this movement has been
increasingly valuable, and the annual reports of the chief inspector
contain constant evidence of tlie interest shown in such matters as the
provision of washing facilities, baths, cloakrooms, overalls, canteens
and messrooms. The influence of these wider views has, moreover,
not been limited to individual employers and factories, but has led
to the insertion, with the concurrence of the employers concerned, in
orders governing employment in certain “ dangerous ” trades of elab­
orate requirements binding upon the whole trade.
(4) EFFECT OF OCCTOAXIOJT ON HEAITH.

37. Though individual writers had already drawn attention to the
effect of different occupations upon health, it was in the beginning of
the nineteenth century the common view that all occupations were
equally healthful, provided that the hours of employment were not
excessive and the conditions of ventilation and cleanliness were rea­
sonable. It was only gradually that the influence of occupation
upon health became more fully appreciated. The commissioners on
the employment of children in 1833 reported as follows:
That this excessive fatigue, prevention o f sleep, pains in various parts o f the
body and swelling o f feet experienced by young workers, coupled with constant
standing, the peculiar attitudes of the body and the peculiar motions o f the
limbs required in the labor o f the factory, coupled with * * * the impure
atmosphere did sometimes terminate in the production o f serious permanent and
incurable disease.

38. About the same time Dr. Turner Thackrah2 drew attention to
the effects of the principal trades and professions on health and lon­
iH . C ., 1893, X X X II-X X X IX .
*The Effect of Arts, Tracies and Professions on Health, by C. Turner Thackrah, 1832.




PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.

27

gevity. He pointed out that mortality was greater in the manufac­
turing districts, and called attention to the effect on health, not only
of atmospheric impurities and excess of labor, but also of dust and
gaseous impurities, posture, muscular effort and other conditions of
employment. He pointed out that in many occupations injurious
conditions existed which might be immediately removed or dimin­
ished.
89. The children’s employment commission (1810), which was the
first commission to make investigations into the conditions outside the
textile trades, reported that—
The work in which children and young persons are employed is seldom in
itself oppressive, or even la b oriou s; and very few indeed o f the processes in
the care and management o f which children take any part are in their own
nature in ju rious; but to this there are some lamentable exceptions in certain
processes connected with the manufacture o f metal wares, earthenware, and o f
glass.

40. In 1853 and 1854 were published two reports by Mr. A. G.
Finlaison, the actuary of the national debt, on the subject of sickness
and mortality among members of friendly societies. He showed that
the demand for sickness allowances depended, not so much on differ­
ence of locality or on the density of the aggregation of the popula­
tion, as upon the amount of the expenditure of physical force.1
41. In 1857 Dr. H. Greenhow, lecturer on public health at St.
Thomas’s Hospital, made an elaborate investigation into the incidence
of mortality from lung disease and other causes. He found that there
existed no fixed relation between the prevalence of pulmonary affec­
tions and the size of towns. He suggested that various disturbing
causes seemed capable of displacing the normal proportion and, of
these, probably occupations and modes of life were the most in­
fluential.
It is well ascertained that the great mortality among grinders and cutlers
arises from the irritation caused by the mechanical particles produced during
the process o f manufacture and received into the lungs with the air in respira­
tion.

42. This report was published by the board of health, with an
introduction by their medical officer, Sir John Simon. The public
health act passed in that year led to the transfer of powers of the
board to the privy council, and one of the earliest acts of Sir John
Simon as the medical officer of the new central authority was to
instruct Dr. Greenhow to investigate on the spot the conditions in
1 “ The only practical difference in the distribution of sickness that can be discovered
was seen to turn on the amount of physical force called out by the occupation of the
contributors; other features of the employment, the circumstances of the place, or of
shelter or exposure under which that occupation was carried on, seeming to have but
very minor influence on the question.”




28

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

certain areas where lung diseases were specially prevalent.1 Dr.
Greenhow included amongst the conditions which his inquiry had
shown to be direct causes of pulmonary disease, the inhaling of fine
dust of metal and the breathing of air polluted by fumes or over­
heated. Other causes included habitual exposure to hot and exceed­
ingly moist atmosphere, working in ill-ventilated and overheated
factory rooms, vicissitudes of temperature, and strained posture.
43. The inquiries of the children’s employment commission (1862)
showed that, in spite of the general development of industry, many
of the evils revealed by the children’s employment commission, ap­
pointed in 1840, still existed and called for redress.2 Though pri­
marily concerned with the conditions of employment of children and
young persons, the commission necessarily dealt with many condi­
tions which affected all workers. The conclusions of Dr. Greenhow,
which were fully confirmed by their own inquiries, were freely
quoted. The Factory Acts (Extension Acts), 1864 and 1867, which
followed, marked the end of a stage. Parliament had intervened to
remove certain general conditions of employment obviously prejudi­
cial to health. Though the reports of the registrar general have con­
stantly drawn attention to the influence of occupation upon mor­
tality, public interest and scientific inquiry have since been largely
diverted to questions affecting the health and welfare of the worker
outside the walls of the factory.
44. The Education Acts, 1870 and 1876, placed education within the
7
reach of every child, and established compulsory attendance. The
Sanitary Act of 1866 was followed by the Public Health Act, 1875,
which is still the principal measure dealing with all questions of
public health. That any further general intervention by Parliament
was unnecessary in the trades already under the factory acts was the
considered opinion of the commission on the consolidation and
amendment of those acts, which reported in 1876. For the future
legislation was to be largely confined to dealing with the special con­
ditions of particular industries. It took two forms: First, acts were
passed dealing with single industries, such as laundries; and sec­
ondly, the State was given power to confirm, or later themselves to
make, codes of regulations specially designed to protect the worker
against the effects upon health of “ dangerous ” trades or processes.
1 Reports by Dr. Greenliow are included in the third and fourth reports of the medical
officer of the privy council, which were laid before Parliament in 1860 and 1861.
2 Thus of one center of the metal industry they report that—
Considering, therefore, the early age at which the children go to work, the injurious
state of their places of work, the lowering and exhausting modes of their employment,
the unreasonable and excessive hours of work, irregular and undefined hours for meals,
late work on Saturdays, or extra work in the earlier part of the week to make up the
time granted for relaxation on Saturday afternoon, and exposure to frequent accidents
of all kinds from machinery, it will be acknowledged that on physical ground legislative
interference is required as a protection to the young in this large and important de­
partment of manufacture.




PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY,

29

45. Under the influence of Dr. Greenhow’s reports the factory
Acts (Extension Acts), 1864 and 1867, conferred upon employers the
power, with the approval of the secretary of state, to make special
rules to secure the requisite conditions of cleanliness and health.
Further, where any process was carried on by which dust was gener­
ated and inhaled by the workman to an injurious extent the inspector
was given power to require the provision of a fan or other mechanical
means for the prevention of inhalation. Under section 8 of the
Factory and Workshop Act, 1891, if the secretary of state certified
any machinery or process as dangerous or injurious to health, the
chief inspector might, subject to certain safeguards, make proposals
and require the adoption of special methods. These rules, like those
made under the Act of 1864, only referred to single factories. Section
28 of the Factory and Workshop Act, 1895, strengthened these powers
and extended them to cover rules prohibiting employment, or modi­
fying or limiting the period of employment for all or any class of
persons.
46. Finally, the Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, consolidated
previous legislation which had for its object the protection of the
health of the worker. It conferred powers upon the secretary of state
to make regulations applying to all factories where particular proc­
esses injurious to health were in operation. The regulations are nor­
mally divided into two parts—the duties of the employer and the
duties of persons employed. They deal with such matters as the re­
moval of dust or fumes, method of manufacture, certificates of fitness
before employment, periodic medical inspection, suspension of af­
fected persons, costume (overalls, respirators, clogs, gloves, etc.),
provision of messrooms and cloakroom, provision for the partaking of
food in work places, and washing and bath accommodation. The act
also continued the power given by previous acts to the inspector to re­
quire the provision of a fan or other means for preventing inhalation.
A provision first included in the Factory and Workshop Act, 1895, is
also continued, under which the secretary of state may require the
notification of certain diseases contracted in the factory or work­
shop, including those arising from lead, phosphorus, arsenic, mer­
cury, or anthrax. By special order of 1916 this provision was ex­
tended to toxic jaundice.1
47. In addition to dealing, as has been seen, with the hours of labor
and factory sanitation, the act of 1901 carried further previous enact­
ments for the safeguarding of personal health. Home work was
brought under special control; notification of the occurrence of
1 Under section 8 of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1906, the secretary of state hag
power to make orders extending the provisions of the act to disease contracted in the
course of employment.




30

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

industrial poisoning was extended; dangerous machinery had to be
more strict!}7 fenced, and certain dangerous employments were for­
bidden to y’oung persons; and lastly, the provision of the act of 1891
that a woman might not be employed within four weeks of giving
birth to a child received under the new act increased administrative
attention.
48* In submitting their report the committee desire to make cer­
tain qualifications and reservations for the consideration of those
who study its pages. First, they wish to express the view that a
true understanding of the questions dealt with in the report is only
practicable if the facts and findings set out in these pages are con­
sidered in relation to the history of industrial hygiene in England.
There is no greater mistake than to suppose that care for the health
of the worker and the introduction of welfare supervision are new
and untried ideas invented, or at least patented, by the committee.
In this matter, the committee enter into other men’s labors; but to
them has been given the opportunity of urging the application of
previous knowledge in a great national emergency, rapidly and on a
considerable scale. During the last 20 years immense progress has
been made under the factory department of the Home Office in many
of the essentials of health in the workshop. The reports of the chief
inspector of factories have set out year by year the milestones of this
advance. For several years before the European War there were not
wanting signs that employers were beginning to recognize the im­
portance of humanizing the life of industrial 'workers arid pro­
viding for them better conditions, and tlie Police, Factories, etc.
(Miscellaneous Provisions), Act of 1916, promoted by Mr, Herbert
Samuel when home secretary (which passed parliament subsequent
to the issue of tlie committee's first reports), is evidence of the desire
of the central authority in the same behalf.
Secondly, the committee wish to point out that in spite of the
great progress which had been made it remains true that up to
1914 relatively little attention had been paid by employers and
others responsible to the steadily accumulating evidence of the in­
fluence -of occupation upon health, and but little effort had been made
scientifically to investigate its causes. Efforts to protect the health
of industrial workers had been mainly based cm the need of miti­
gating or removing admitted evils as they arose, rather than on the
actual results of scientific inquiry and research. No doubt, partly
as a result of the appointment of medical inspectors by the Home
Office, increasing attention had in recent years been devoted to the
critical examination of certain “ dangerous ” trades; but most trades
aTe not “ dangerous,” and the vast bulk of industrial disease did not
find its origin in dangerous trades. Yet there is the strongest evi­
dence that rates of sickness and mortality amongst males had been




PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.

31

materially affected by occupation. In spite of this well known fact
much remained to be learned as to what are its causes, whether
they are peculiar to individual occupations or are common to
many, whether they are the same for sickness as for mortality, to
what extent they depend upon variable factors, and to what extent
they are removable. Then as to the injurious effects of industry
upon women and young persons, reliable data may be said to have
been almost wholly lacking, as they are equalty lacking in respect
of the relation of fatigue to disease. Again, the proper length and
distribution of hours of labor—spells, pauses, overtime—in relation
to output is another problem which has never yet been scientifically
explored. The committee here also found themselves without data.
Once more, though attention is now being given to so-called “ scien­
tific management,” evidence is still wanting to show how far the
speed of working can be increased or the method modified without
involving an undue physical or mental strain on the worker, which
counterbalances or even destroys the advantages claimed. In the
absence of reliable data on these and other problems of industrial
organization, the difficulties in the way of a wise handling of the
special problems arising out of the war have been greatly increased.
The committee mention these points with a view to laying emphasis
upon the imperative need of a more accurate understanding and a
firmer and more comprehensive grasp of the whole problem of
health and physique in relation to industry. In the committee’s
view it is necessary to make arrangements, without delay, for a
national scheme of industrial medical research, and to accord fuller
recognition to the importance of industrial hygiene.
49.
Thirdly, it is important to remember that the work of the
committee has been concerned with an emergency. The situation
to be explored was continually changing and expanding. It would
have been improper and impracticable to undertake any investi­
gation which delayed output or interrupted the arrangements of
the factory. Consequently the committee have been debarred from
making various experiments and inquiries which had suggested
themselves as likely to contribute to the elucidation of the matters
referred to them. Notwithstanding these limitations, there has been,
during the period of the committee labors and owing to the public
spirit and foresight of the ministry and of directors, proprietors,
managers, foremen, and workpeople, a very remarkable advance in
all that makes for industrial betterment. The munition worker is
T
a type of all workers, and the principles of the present report con­
cern, in fact, all forms of industrial labor. The committee earnestly
hope that every effort will be made to secure this progess as a per­
manent gain to the whole nation.




32

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

50.
Lastly, the committee recognize that the various questions
raised in the present report are intimately related to larger social
and industrial problems, which lie outside their reference, but as to
which they are deeply concerned. First and foremost there is the
fundamental question of shorter hours of labor from a political and
economic point of view (as well as from a health point of view) ;
the committee are convinced that this question lies near the root of
the whole labor problem. Secondly, there is the far-reaching issue
of the social and economic conditions of women’s labor (over and
above the issues of health with which the present report deals), a
matter of vital importance to the future of the British race, for the
health conditions of women are even more inseparable from the social
condition than in the case of men. Thirdly, there is the question of
the solidarity of industrial society, the interdependence between em­
ployer and workman, which is closely related to the whole issue of
the status, health and physical equipment of the worker. And
fourthly, there is the title of the worker to an effective voice in regard
to the conditions under which he works. If industry be indeed a
national service, the object of those engaged in it is the good of the
community as a whole, and the worker should have a fair and legiti­
mate share in the responsibility of the transaction. The committee
are convinced that these four problems must be faced and solved if
ever the State is to lay sound foundations for the health and physical
efficiency of the industrial worker.




SECTIO N III.—R ELATIO N OF FA T IG U E AND IL L H EALTH TO
INDUSTRIAL EFFIC IEN C Y .
INTRODUCTION.

51.
The personal health and physical efficiency of the munition
worker, as of all industrial workers, are measurable by two stand­
ards—first, that of fatigue, weariness and exhaustion of the healthy
physical faculties and functions of the individual; and secondly, that
of disease. It is not possible always to differentiate these two de­
partures from the normal, or to say when fatigue passes beyond the
confines of what is physiological to that which is pathological. It is
obvious there comes a stage in the processes of fatigue where recovery
in any individual falls short of the diurnal rhythm of rest and work,
and its degree or character is so severe as to be, in fact, a form of
disease. Indeed, the truth of this proposition is one which is neces­
sary to a sound understanding of the problem which presents itself.
It is necessary to widen the whole view and apprehension of the
subject of health and disease in relation both to industry and to the
personal welfare and capacity for work of each workman. The sci­
ence and art of medicine is not restricted to the diagnosis and cure
of disease in its gross forms; it includes also a knowledge of how dis­
ease comes to be, of its earliest beginnings, and of its prevention. It
is, in fact, the science and art of health, of how man can learn to live
a healthful life at the top of his capacity of body and mind, avoid­
ing or removing external or internal conditions unfavorable to such
a standard, able to work to the highest power, able to rest to the
fullest, growing in strength and in the joie de vivre. The new pre­
ventive medicine must not be understood to consist only of sanitation,
of the isolation from the community of cases of infectious disease, of
disinfection and outward cleanliness, and of the registration of births,
deaths and other vital statistics. These are, of course, matters of the
first importance. But much more is required. The individual man
m an animal—the body in all its parts, the senses and their functions
ing. the nutrition of the body, its growth and development, its ca­
pacity for work, its powers of resistance—must receive practical
consideration. The fight against disease is something more than the
closing of its channels of communication, something more than an
avoidance of the ways and means of its infection and invasion, cer­
tainly much more than a registration of its effects, a record of the
80935°— 19------3




S3

34

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

morbidity and mortality which follow in its train. The turning
point of the battle is elsewhere. The first line of defense is a healthy,
well-nourished and resistant human body. And to this end the whole
man must be dealt with, for he is something more than animal. His
body is in greater or less degree the instrument and expression of
emotion, intellect and will. There is thus a psychological aspect of
preventive medicine hitherto greatly neglected. Nor is the indi­
vidual, taken at any one moment, the whole of the issue. There is
his life history, his heredity, his family, his domestic life, his per­
sonal habits and customs, his home as well as his workshop. In short,
preventive medicine to be effective must deal with the man, the whole
man, as an individual as well as a member of the community. While
this is true of preventive medicine generally it is particularly true in
regard to that portion of it which has been referred to the committee
for examination. The subject of industrial efficiency in relation to
health and fatigue is thus in large degree one of preventive medicine,
a question of physiology and psychology, of sociology and industrial
administration. Before dealing with many of the practical ques­
tions involved the committee think it desirable to refer briefly to
some of the principles underlying present knowledge of fatigue and
personal health, for upon a right understanding of fatigue, its causes
and its relation to efficiency, the practical solution of the problems
raised seems to depend.
DEFINITION AND CAUSATION OF EATIGUE.

52. Fatigue is the sum of the results of activity which show them­
selves in a diminished caducity for doing work .—In ordinary expe­
rience fatigue is generally associated with familiar bodily sensations
and these sensations are often taken to be its measure. It is of vital
importance for the proper study of industrial fatigue, however, to
recognize not only that bodily sensations are a fallacious guide to
the true state of fatigue which may be present, and a wholly inade­
quate measure of it, but also that fatigue in its true meaning ad­
vances progressively, and must be measurable at any stage by a
diminished capacity for work, before its signs appear plainly, or at
all, in sensation.
53. In the animal body the performance of work depends on the
activities of parts which are best considered under three groups:
First. The complex nervous mechanisms of the brain and spinal
cord, which are concerned in the initiation and distribution of im­
pulses to action.
Second. The nerves, which conduct the impulses to muscles.
Third. The muscles themselves, which by contracting finally per­
form external work.




RELATION OF FATIGUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.

35

Fatigue has been separately studied in all these parts, In its essen­
tial features the fatigue of all alike has been found, when it occurs,
to depend not upon the simple using up—“ exhaustion ”—of the sub­
stances supplying the chemical energy which is liberated during
work, but upon the accumulation within the living elements of the
products of the chemical changes involved. Fatigue of the animal
machine, that is to say, is not to be compared with the failure of fuel
as in a steam engine, or with the running down of a clock weight, but
rather with the clogging of the wheels in some mechanism by dirt.
54. The chemical products of activity in the nervous and muscular
elements are removed by the blood, in part directly by irrigation
and in part indirectly through chemical changes in the tissue itself
produced by constituents of the blood. Eest after activity is not a
passive state, therefore, but is itself an active process, or a series of
active processes, leading to a restoration of the normal capacity for
work. Time is required for these, and the time taken will be in
proportion to the amount of restoration needed. There will be a
definite relation accordingly between the degree of any given activity
and the time necessary for the completion of the subsequent restora­
tion process. If the activity is repeated too quickly to give time
enough for restoration after each action, fatigue will become pro­
gressively more intense as the debit balance accumulates, and each
repeated act in consequence will be more and more impeded, and will
become smaller, until further action is impossible.
55. Of the three groups of organs just mentioned—the nervous sys­
tem, the nerves, and the muscles—particular chemical and structural
characters will decide in each case what time relation must exist
beween action and the rest needed for complete repair. In the tired
man the symptoms of fatigue are referred to the muscles; they ache,
or they may appear to “ give way under him,” but in reality the
most severe bodily activity fails to produce any close approach to
complete fatigue of the muscles. The fatigue is fatigue of the nerv­
ous system, though in sensation its effects may be referred to the
muscles themselves. A hunted animal may be driven to intense
muscular fatigue, but in this extreme case the blood becomes charged
with chemical products of activity, for the elimination of which no
opportunity is given, and the muscles, with every other organ of the
I'cdy, become poisoned. Even in laborious work it is doubtful
' hcther a man by voluntary effort can cause his muscles to approach
advanced fatigue. It is well known that a man apparently “ run
t< a standstill ” in a race may upon some new excitement run freshly
again, under augmented stimulus from the nervous system, initialed
there perhaps in part along new paths. The problems then of indus­




36

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

trial fatigue are primarily and almost wholly problems of fatigue in
the nervous system and of its direct and indirect effects.
THE RHYTHM OF ACTION AND REST.

56. The necessary time relation between an action and the recovery
from it in rest has been mentioned already. For every acting ele­
ment a given rhythm of activity will allow exact recovery after each
act, and will maintain the balance between action and repair through­
out a long series. The heart, for instance, in alternating contraction
and relaxation, may continue to beat incessantly through the life of
a man without any accumulated fatigue for 70 years or more.
Among the great variety of nerve centers there will be found a great
variety in these time relations. Some may allow a relatively rapid
rhythm, as in the act of breathing, where the rhythm, which is a
nervous rhythm, may be almost incessant for years, while at the other
end of the scale there are slower rhythms like those shown in the
need for diurnal sleep.
57. In connection with this natural pace of the animal machine, to
and fro, from action to rest, reference must be made to the wide
adaptability of the animal mechanisms, and especially to that of the
nervous system, in response to training, use and habit. Complicated
coordinations in the nervous system, at first easily fatigued, may by
training, and, as it seems, by some improvement in the routes of con­
nection due to the increase of traffic itself, become capable of maxi­
mum efficiency at a more rapid rhythm. A man will swing each leg,
weighted with a heavy boot, as in walking, for 10,000 times in an
unbroken march without notable fatigue, but he can not as an im­
promptu exercise raise his lightly weighted finger for more than a
few score times at no faster rate before the movement comes to com­
plete standstill.
58. The problem of scientific industrial management, dealing as it
must with the human machine, is fundamentally a problem in indivi­
7
dual capacity, physical and mental, and in industrial fatigue. The
rhythms of industrial conditions required by the hours of labor, the
pace of machinery or that of fellow workers, or otherwise, are im­
posed upon the acting bodily mechanism from outside. I f these in­
dustrial rhythms are faster than the natural rhythms of the body they
must produce accumulated fatigue, and cause an increasing debit,
shown in a diminished capacity for work. It is therefore the prob­
lem of scientific management to discover in the interests of output and
of the maintained health of the workers what are the “ maximal effi­
ciency rhythms” for the various parts and faculties of the human
machine. These must be determined by the organized collection of
experience or by direct experiment. They must be separately deter-




RELATION OF FATIGUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.

37

rained, moreover, not only for tlie performance of relatively simple
muscular movements, all of which depend on the action of “ lower5
5
nervous centers, but also for the manifold faculties of the various
systems of the body, and for the “ higher ’’ coordinating centers, and
for all of these the natural rhythms must be studied for the best
arrangement of industry, the hours, shifts, spells, pauses, the periods
of sleep and holiday on the one hand, and the conditions of factory
environment on the other.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FATIGUE.

59.
It must be repeated that the bodily sensations of fatigue are
not a measure, or even an early sign, of it. Real or objective fatigue
is shown and is measurable by the diminished capacity for perform­
ing the act that caused it.
BODILY FATIGUE.

G . Fatigue following muscular employment is primarily nervous
O
fatigue, as explained already, and it has been seen that no advanced
degree of muscular fatigue as such can be obtained by voluntary
action, for fatigue in the nervous system outstrips in its onset fatigue
in the muscles. In accustomed actions, however, as in walking or dig­
ging, where there has been habituation, the activity may be so pro­
longed without great nervous fatigue as to give approaching “ exhaus­
tion ”—that is, notable loss of chemical substance—in the muscles.
Industrial work is habitual work, but the case in which muscular
labor is so intense and prolonged as to give exhaustion in this sense
need not be considered here, nor the causation of the special symptoms
which arise. It must be noted, however, that practically the whole
of the mechanical energy and heat yielded by the body during work
comes from the chemical energy stored in the muscles. In proportion
as this store is called upon, and quite apart from the question of
fatigue, it must be made good by supplies from the blood and ulti­
mately from the food. Practically the whole of the energy trans­
formed in the muscles is derived from carbohydrate material, and the
importance of this in relation to the diet of workers is well known.
Gl. While referring to this point of muscular fatigue, the com­
mittee wish to record the view that for work in which severe muscu­
lar effort is required it seems probable that the maximum output
over the day’s work and the best conditions for the workers’ comfort
and maintained health will be secured by giving short spells of
strenuous activity broken by longer spells of rest, the time ratio of
rest to action being here, for maximal efficiency, greater than that
for the employments in which nervous activity is more prominent or
more complicated than in the processes involved during familiar
muscular work.




38

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.
NERVOUS AND M ENTAL FATIGUE.

62. It is under this head, as has been seen, that the special problems
of industrial fatigue arise. The signs and symptoms of the fatigue
will depend upon the nature of the particular work done, whether
it be general bodily work of this or that kind, carried out in fixed
routine, or whether it involve mental activity of a simple or of a
more complicated kind. The fatigue may spring— (a) from the main­
tained use of intelligence and observation with varying degrees of
the muscular effort necessary in every kind of work; or (b) from
the maintenance of steady concentration upon one skilled task; or
( c ) of distributed attention, as when several machines are to be
tended or other manipulations performed 5 or ( d) it may depend
upon the continued use of special senses and sense organs in discrim­
ination, whether by touch or sight; or ( e) upon other parts of the
body acting upon the nervous system. It will be affected greatly
according to whether the worker has opportunity for obeying his
natural rhythms, or whether unnatural rhythm is imposed upon him
by the pace of the machine with which he works or by that of his
fellow workmen. Considerations so inexplicable at present in terms
of physiology as to be called “ psychological ” will also arise; if the
work is of a u worrying ” or “ fussy ” kind, with a multiplicity, that
is to say, of imposed and irregular rhythms, fatigue will be more
rapid, perhaps on account of the more numerous, and “ higher,”
nervous centers which become implicated.
63. Monotonous work—and much industrial work is monotonous—
presents some special problems. It has been seen that uniformly
repeated acts tend to become in a sense “ automatic,” and that the
nerve centers concerned become less liable to fatigue—the time ratio
of necessary rest to action is diminished. But when monotonous
series are repeated fatigue may appear in what may be called the
psychical field, and a sense of “ monotony ” may dimish the capacity
for work. This is analogous to, if it does not represent, a fatigue
process in unrecognized nervous centers. Conversely, winterest ” may
improve the working capacity even for a uniform monotonous activ­
ity, and the interest may spring from monetary incentives, emotional
states, or, as some think, from states of anticipatory pleasure before
meal time and rest (“ end spurt ” ), or, again, from a sense of patriot­
ism eager to forward the munitions output.
64. For practical purposes in industrial management two chief
characteristics of nervous fatigue must be observed. First, during
the continued performance of work the objective results of nervous
fatigue precede in their onset the subjective symptoms of fatigue.
Without obvious sign and without his knowing it himself, a man’s
capacity for work may diminish owing to his unrecognized fatigue.
His time beyond a certain point then begins to be uneconomically




RELATION OF FATIGUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.

39

spirit, and it is for scientific management to determine this point,
and to determine further the arrangement of periods of rest in re­
lation to spells of work or other body or environmental conditions
that will give the best development over the day and the year of
the worker’s capacity. Second, the results of fatigue which advances
beyond physiological limits (“ overstrain ” ) not only reduce capacity
at the moment, but do physical or mental damage of a more perma­
nent kind which will affect capacity for periods far beyond the next
normal period of rest. It will plainly be uneconomical to allow this
damage to be done.
65. For these reasons, chief among others, it is important to detect
latent fatigue at the earliest* opportunity, and since sensations of
fatigue are unpunctual and untrustworthy, means must be sought
of observing the onset of fatigue objectively.
TESTS OF IlO U STKIAL FATIGUE.
OUTPUT.

66. The true sign of fatigue is dimished capacity, of which meas­
urement of output in work will give the most direct test. The out­
put must be measured under the ordinary conditions, of the work,
and, in cases where from the nature of the work the output can not
be automatically measured, it must be tested by methods which do
not allow the workers to be conscious at particular times of the test
being made. In this way the errors due to special effort from inter­
est or emulation will be eliminated. The results of work expressed
in output must be corrected by allowance for all variable factors
save that of the worker’s changing capacity; changes in supply of
steam or electric power and of raw material, for instance, must be
determined for correction and interpretation of the actual output
returns. The output must be estimated for successive short periods
(e. g ., each hour) of the day’s work, so that the phenomena of u begin­
ning spurt” and “ end spurt” and other variations complicating the
course of fatigue as such, may be traced and taken into account.
Isolated tests of output taken sporadically will be misleading. The
records must also extend over longer periods to show the onset of
fatigue over the whole day and over the whole week, and under par­
ticular seasonal or other conditions, in order to detect and measure
the results of accumulating fatigue.
67. Measurements of output must obviously be recorded at so much
for each individual or for each unit group. The size of total output
will be meaningless of course without reference to the numbers en­
gaged. But it will also be important for proper management to take
account of the output of particular individuals. This in many fac­
tory processes is easily possible, and when it has been done the re­




40

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

suits have shown surprising variations of individual output which
are independent of personal willingness and industry, and have gen­
erally been quite unsuspected by the workers and their supervisors
before the test was made. Information so gained is valuable in two
respects. Good individual output is often the result of escape from
fatigue by conscious or unconscious adoption of particular habits of
manipulation or of rhythm. Its discovery allows the propagation
of good method among the other workers. In the second place, these
tests of individual capacity (or its loss by fatigue) give an oppor­
tunity for a rearrangement of workers and their assignment to par*
ticular and appropriate processes of work. Astonishing results,
bringing advantage both to employer and employed, have been
gained in this and other countries by the careful selection of indi­
viduals for particular tasks, based not upon the impressions of fore­
men but upon the results of experiment.
68. In passing it may be said that if the proper adaptation to par­
ticular kinds of labor of the relations of spells or shifts of work to
rest intervals and to holidays is to be determined, as it can alone be,
by appeal to experiment, it will of course be an essential condition
for success that the workers should cooperate with the employing
management *and give their highest voluntary efforts toward the
maximum output during the spells of work. It is not surprising that
where employers, following tradition rather than experiment, have
disobeyed physiological law in the supposed interests of gain—and
^
for a century this has been almost universal—the worker^ have them­
selves fallen very commonly into a tradition of working below their
best during their spells of labor. In so far as hours of work in excess
of those suitable for maximal efficiency have been imposed, during
the last two or three generations of modern industry, upon the
workers a tradition of slowed labor must necessarily have arisen,
probably in large part automatically, as a kind of physiological self­
protection. Without some conscious or unconscious slackening of
effort indeed during working hours of improper length in the past,
the output might have been even more unfavorable than it is known
to have been for the hours of work consumed.
ACCIDENTS AND SPOILED W O R K .

69. An important and early sign of fatigue in the nervous center*,
is a want of coordination and failure in the power of concentration.
This may not be subjectively realized, but may be shown objectively
in an increased frequency of trifling accidents, due to momentary loss
of attention. Such accidents may result in personal damage to tht.
worker, trifling or serious, breakages of tools or materials, or the
spoiling of work. In well-managed factories the incidence of acci­
dents of this kind is recorded for unit periods throughout the day,




RELATION OF FATIGUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.

41

and these records may provide a good secondary index to fatigue,
but only in so far as they are corrected by reference to the rate of
work being done and other variables. The subject of accidents will
be considered subsequently.
ASSOCIATED FATIGUE AND LABORATORY TESTS.

70. The primary sign of fatigue in a given function is diminished
capacity. But there is evidence to show that accumulated fatigue
in connection with a given act may affect adversely the condition oi
other parts of the nervous system not immediately employed. There
is little experimental knowledge, however, as to whether this effect,
shown in “ associated fatigue,” is more direct and definite in kind
than the effect upon general health to be mentioned below. The ap­
pearance of associated fatigue will need for its detection and study
the application of special tests, involving the use of suitable appa­
ratus and laboratory accommodation.
71. It should be remembered, however, that experiments of this
kind will have no validity unless the fallacies due to emotions and
ideas, such as a sense of novelty, interest in the desired result, antici­
pation of release from experiment, unconscious suggestion by the
observer, and so on, are eliminated by the most rigid attention to
experimental conditions and by long series of control observations.
The objects of experimentation must be trained for the purpose, and
it is unlikely that tests of this kind will offer results of sufficient
value to justify the special education of teams of selected workers for
the prolonged studies which the method demands.
72. In view of the fact that the committee’s sphere of experiment
and observation comprised actual factories and workshops in all
parts of the country, they have not engaged in any laboratory tests
of fatigue, mechanical methods, experiments with the ergograph, etc.
They have preferred to make their investigations of fatigue under
conditions actually obtaining in the industrial world and comprising
many individuals instead of few.
LOST TIME AND “ STALENESS.”

73. The accumulated results of fatigue are damaging to general
health, and they will be reflected in the sickness returns and in the
returns of lost time. Many problems arise here which can not now
be discussed in detail,1 and they are complicated by the influence of
other factors.
74. Reference must be made here, however, to a pronounced and
common symptom of industrial fatigue, wiiich appears to be the
reflection in the workman of the results of accumulated nervous
1Further reference is made to this subject below and in the chapter on sickness and
injury.




42

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

fatigue rather than a direct and measurable sign of it. In many
munition factories the complaint has been made by workers, and not
least by the most intelligent and willing of them, that they are feeling
u done u p 5 or “ fair whacked,” to use local phrases, and the evidence
5
shows that this state of “ staleness ” has been common and obvious.
By experienced managers and medical officers this condition of stale­
ness is attributed almost wholly to persistent long hours and the dep­
rivation of weekly rest. It has grave accompaniments, which para­
doxically appear not only in a state of lethargy and indifference, but
also in a craving for change and excitement. No doubt the restless­
ness of the condition must often predispose also to indulgence in the
apparent alleviations given by alcohol. At all points the state is apt
to set up a vicious circle in which the very, need for change and rest
prevents the proper use of such chances of rest as are given.
75. The committee hold the view that proper attention early in the
war to the need for a weekly rest would have prevented a large part
of the diminished capacity of this kind that was allowed to appear,
and would have averted much costly and wasteful expenditure
upon imperfect work. But stress must be laid here on a further
point. For the avoidance of staleness in conditions of strenuous
labor it is not enough to treat workmen in the bulk and to regulate
daily and weekly rests upon a physiological basis devised for the
average. Good management will consider always the individual
workman as well. The committee have no doubt that in many cases,
in which staleness is well marked or has even advanced to definite
sickness, a single “ day off,” given occasionally at the right time,
would have avoided much wasteful reduction of capacity and in the
worst cases the total loss of many clays work.
TH E STU D Y OF IN D U ST R IA L FATIGU E AN D IL L H E A L T H .

76. By studies of industrial fatigue measured by tests of individual
output a large body of valuable information has already been gained
in various countries, and its application wherever management is
scientific has become a commonplace of administration.1 It must
be admitted, however, that in England, and no doubt to the detri­
ment of both health and wealth, management based upon the experi­
mental science of industrial fatigue is far less common than in the
factories and business concerns of America and of Germany. Hith­
erto there has been a surprising uncertainty commonly found in this
country, even where professional knowledge is to be expected, with
regard to the proper solution of some of the most elementary prac­
tical problems of labor management.
1 References to published work may be found conveniently in Fatigue and Efficiency,
by Josephine Goldmark, New York, 1913 (third edition), and in the Interim Report
to the British Association (Manchester, 1915) by the committee upon the question of
fatigue from the economic standpoint.




RELATION OF FATIGUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.

43

77. There is the most urgent need for the application of the results
of experience scientifically acquired. Upon a sudden national emer­
gency the accumulation of fatigue and its results on workers may
well be temporarily disregarded, but when the race is to be a long
one, a failure to conserve the maximum efficiency of the workers must
be disadvantageous. Misguided efforts to stimulate workers to fever­
ish activity in the supposed interests of industry or national welfare
are likely to be as damaging to the desired result as the cheers of
partisans would be if they encouraged a long-distance runner to a
futile sprint early in his race. E^en during the urgent claims of a
war the problem must always be to obtain the maximum output from
the individual worker which is compatible with the maintenance of
his health, strength, and capacity. Life itself must not be sacrificed
to output. In war time the workmen w bo willing, as they have
rill
shown in so many directions, to forego comfort and to work nearer
the margin of accumulating fatigue than in time of peace, but the
country can not afford the extravagance of paying for work done
during incapacity from fatigue just because so many hours are spent
upon it,1 or the further extravagance of urging armies of workmen
towards relative incapacity by neglect of physiological law.
78. The committee have found an increasing number of instances
in which the onset of industrial fatigue has been avoided (1 ) by
intelligent observation of the output; (2) by regular study of the
returns of sickness and of lost time; (3) by prompt initiative in
adapting the hours and conditions of work to physiological need;
(4) by providing proper facilities for the feeding, resting and recrea­
tion of the worker. These cases are, however, still far from uni­
versal. Taking the country as a whole, the committee are bound to
record their conviction that conditions of reduced efficiency and low­
ered health have often been allowed to arise which might have been
avoided without reduction of output by attention to the details of
daily and weekly rests and other similar means of welfare and favor­
ing conditions. The signs of fatigue are even more noticeable in
the case of the managers and foremen, and their practical results are
probably more serious than in the case of the workmen.
80.
Finally, it must be remembered that when fatigue passes be­
yond physiological limits (“ overstrain ” ) it becomes ill health,
which leads not only to reduced output but to more or less serious
damage of body or mind. There is also, of course, much industrial
sickness and disease which bears no exact relation to fatigue, though
it may follow or precede it. Subsequent sections of the present re­
1 On the question of Sunday work by exhausted men, one foreman said he did not
believe in “ a holiday on double pay.” Another remarked that Sunday work gav«
“ six days’ output for seven days’ work on eight days’ pay.”




44

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

port are concerned with general and special diseases associated with
factory life and an account of means for their amelioration. Hero
it is only necessary to draw attention to the primary and funda­
mental importance of maintaining a high standard of health in the
industrial worker. For without health there is no energy, and
without energy there is no output. The actual conduct of businc.:.
is thus primarily dependent upon physical health. Moreover, health
bears a direct relation to contentment, alertness, and the absence of
lassitude and boredom, conditions bearing directly upon industrial
efficiency. In this matter the interests of the employer and the
workmen are identical. Nor are their respective responsibilities
separable. The employer must provide a sanitary factory and suit­
able conditions of labor. The workplace must be clean and whole­
some, properly heated and ventilated; there must be suitable and
sufficient sanitary accommodation; dangerous machinery and injuri­
ous processes must be safeguarded; circumstances necessitate in
many factories the establishment of industrial canteens, the provision
of seats, suitable overalls, lavatories and baths, rest rooms, and
first aid appliances. Owing to the factory employment of many
workers for the first time, and of increased numbers of women, often
at a distance from home, arrangements must be made for individual
supervision and the maintenance of their health. The employment
of boys also calls for special vigilance and attention.
Further, it has been recognized for many years that the wise em­
ployer considers the personal well-being of his workpeople. He can
not be only satisfied with external betterment. He will have regard
to the individual worker. Their nutrition, their rest and recreation,
their habits of life, are all of interest and importance in relation to
their health and efficiency.
81. The problems of industrial fatigue and ill health, already
soluble in part by reference to an available body of knowledge well
known and used in other countries, have become acute during the
great recent development of the munitions industries of Great
Britain. It is not too much perhaps to hope that the study of indus­
trial fatigue and the science of management based upon it, which is
now being forced into notice by immediate need, may leave lasting
results to benefit the industries of the country during succeeding
years of peace.
82. The national experience in modern industry is longer than that
of any other people. It has shown clearly enough that false ideas
of economic gain, blind to physiological law, must lead, as they led
through the nineteenth century, to vast national loss and suffering.
It is certain that unless industrial life is to be guided in the future—




RELATION OF FATIGUE TO INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.

45

(1) by the application of physiological science to the details of its
management, and (2) by a proper and practical regard for the
health and well-being of our workpeople in the form both of human­
izing industry and improving the environment, the nation can not
hope to maintain its position hereafter among some of its foreign
rivals, who already in that respect have gained a present advantage.




SE C TIO N IV .— T H E IN D U S T R IA L E M P L O Y M E N T O F W O M E N .

83.
In considering the conditions of employment of women work­
ers* as compared with those of men, the committee have recognized
that account must be taken not only of physiological differences but
also of thovSe contributions which women alone can make to the wel­
fare of the community. Upon the womanhood of the country most
largely rests the privileges first of creating and maintaining a whole­
some family life, and secondly, of developing the higher influences
of social life—both matters of primary and vital importance to the
future of the nation. In modern times, however, many of the ideals
of womanhood must find outward expression in industry, and in re­
cent years hundreds and thousands of women have secured employ­
ment within the factory system. The problems thus raised are nu­
merous, but broadly they may be considered as chiefly concerned with
the wise and effective organization of women’s industry, in such a
way as to protect and safeguard their unique contribution to the
State. The engagement of women in the manufacture of munitions
in the present war presents many features of interest. Probably the
most striking is the universal character of their response to the coun­
try’s call for their help. Of equal social and industrial significance
is the extension of the employment of married women, the increased
occupation of young girls, and the revival of the employment of
women at night. The munition workers of to-day include dress­
makers, laundry workers, textile workers, domestic servants, clerical
workers, shop assistants, university and art students, women and
girls of every social grade and of no previous wage-earning expe­
rience; also in large numbers, wives and widows of soldiers, many
married women who had retired altogether from industrial life, and
many, again, who had never entered it. In the character of the re­
sponse lies largely the secret of its industrial success, which is re­
markable. The fact that women and girls of all types and ages
pressed into industry, on account of the war, showed a spirit of
patriotism which was as finely maintained as it was quickly shown.
T
Conditions of work have been accepted without question and without
complaint which, immediately detrimental to output, would, if con­
tinued, be ultimately disastrous to health. It is for the State to safe­
guard the devotion of its workers by its foresight and watchfulness
lest irreparable harm be done to body and mind both in this gener­
ation and the next. More than ever in the past should considera­
tion now be given to the well-being of young girls fresh from school,
of the prospective mother, and of the working mother whose care is
46




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

47

especially claimed by her infant during the first months of its life;
for more than ever is their welfare of importance to the nation, and
much more than ordinarily is it threatened by conditions of employ­
ment.
84. Speaking generally, there are five principal matters which,
apart from the question of wages, concern the health and industrial
output of the woman worker, and which demand the careful and
continuous attention of employers in regard to the employment o f
women in factories on any large scale, viz, (a) the physical condition
and capacity of the woman worker, including the far-reaching issue
of maternity; (h) the period of employment (including night work,
length of hours, overtime, etc.), and its relation to home duties: (c)
the necessity of rest pauses and the convenient provision of meals;
( d ) the s'anitary condition of the factory and the hygiene of the
worker; ( e ) questions of management and supervision. The com­
mittee recognize that certain collateral issues, such as housing,
transit, and the means of recreation, are also intimately concerned in
the ^welfare of women workers, although they may be somewhat out­
side the immediate sphere of the employer. The committee have
given careful consideration to the subjects enumerated above, and
they desire to offer some observations under each heading. They
appreciate the exceptional importance of women’s labor in the pres­
ent emergency, and in the future, and they do not desire to suggest
the imposition of conditions which are likely to embarrass employers
or restrict the usefulness of women. They confine themselves, there­
fore, to matters which in their view are both necessary and urgent
in the interest of the women themselves, and the industrial output of
which they are caj)able.
THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF WOMEN WORKERS.

85. In considering the physical ability of woman successfully
to withstand the fatigue consequent upon continued heavy work in
a factory it should be remembered that her body is physiologically
different from, and less strongly built than, that of a man; that
her muscular system is less developed; and that she may have lived
a sedentar}7 or domestic life without contracting the habit of taking
active and regular exercise. The nature of her work should there­
fore be determined with due regard to its effect on her immediate
and future health. Certain ailments and forms of physical disability
to which women are liable are readily caused, or at least accentuated,
by inattention to these matters. Among such conditions are: (a)
Disturbances of digestion, due to unsuitable food, irregular and hur­
ried meals or fatigue; (&) anemia with possibly associated disease of
the heart and circulatory system; (< ) headache; (d) nervous ex­
~
haustion; (e) muscular pain and weakness, flat foot, etc.; and (/)




48

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

derangement of special physiological functions. Though these con­
ditions may not in all cases be immediately incapacitating, they fre­
quently have a tendency to become chronic in nature and far-reach­
ing in effect; they lead directly to malnutrition and a reduction of
body energy; if allowed to persist they inevitably lay the foundations
of ill health and disease in later years; and in some cases they may
exert an injurious effect on maternal functions. With a view to the
adequate consideration of this subject the committee made arrange­
ments in 1915-16 and in 1917 for two medical inquiries to be carried
out in.various factories where women were employed. The commit­
tee were fortunate in securing the services of Miss Janet M. Camp­
bell, M. D., M. S. (one of the senior medical officers of the board of
education), in this behalf, and they have received from her most
valuable assistance not only in the clear and comprehensive reports
of these particular inquiries but in all their consideration of health
questions in relation to the employment of women. The report of the
first medical inquiry, in which 1,326 women and girls were examined,
will be found in the Interim Report (published 1917), pages* 110
to 121; the second inquiry, in which 1,183 women were examined, is
reported in Appendix B to the present volume. The medical exami­
nation of these women workers could not be made as complete or
exhaustive as might well have been wished, partly because suitable
accommodation for the examination was not always available, partly
because the time at disposal was limited (women being summoned
from their work), but chiefly because presumably healthy women
are naturally shy and hesitant of all medical examination. In esti­
mating the physical condition and the amount of ftitigue, reliance had
to be placed to a large extent by the doctor on statements and descrip­
tions of symptoms given by the women. The heart, lungs, and abdo­
men could not be fully examined as a routine in all cases. (For par­
ticulars of medical inquiry see Appendix B.) As in the previous in­
quiry the workers were classified into three groups: (A) Normal and
apparently free from fatigue; (B) suffering from some fatigue; and
(C) suffering from well-marked fatigue. The results in regard to
fatigue in the second inquiry were as follows:
‘
England.

A (healthy).
B (slight fatigue). C (marked fatigue).
Number of
workers
examined. Number. Percent­ Number. Percent­ Number. Percent­
age.
age.
age.

1........ ...................
2 ...........................
3 ...........................
4 ........ ..................
5............... ...........
6............................
7
.....................
8........ ..................

193
264
116
157
199
T
3
67
114

110
199
63
112
77
45
35
51

56.9
75.3
54.3
71.3
38.6
61.6
52.2
44.7

70
53
46
41
114
19
30
52

36.2
20.07
39.6
26.1
57.2
26.02
44.7
45.6

13
12
7
4
8
9
2
11

6.7
4.5
6.03
2.5
4.02
12.3
2.9
9.6

Total.................................

1,183

692

58.4

425

35.8

66

5.5

Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory

No.
No.
No
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

....




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

49

86. It is interesting to observe in the following table the results of
the two inquiries which, in spite of different conditions of the exam­
ination, are surprisingly similar:
Number of
Class A (healthy).
workers
examined.
Inquiry No. 1...............................
........... ..................

Class B (some fa­
tigue
or
illhealth).

Class C (marked
fatigue or illhealth).

1,326 763= 57.5per cent.. 451= 34.0 per cent.. 112=8.5 per cent.
1,183 692=
Inquiry No. 2 58.5 per cent. . 425= 35.8 per cent.. 66= 5.7 per cent.

87. These tables indicate generally the amount and degree of
fatigue observed among typical women workers chosen at random.
The following points clearly emerge:
(a) The proportion of serious fatigue amounting to marked ill
health and incapacity for work is relatively small, approximately 5
per cent to 6 per cent of the cases examined.
(b) There is a considerable amount of slight fatigue, which varies
from 20 to 57 per cent.
(c) The total proportion of women exhibiting definite signs of
fatigue is about 40 per cent of all cases. But this percentage does
not represent the full burden of fatigue, for the following reasons:
(a) Much earlier fatigue is latent and objectively unrecognizable;
(b) the women most seriously affected tend to drop out of factory
life before they have served for any long period, and therefore are
not included; ( c) women knowing themselves to be fatigued were
not willing in all cases to subject themselves to examination; and ( d)
the examination was necessarily superficial and incomplete, and only
such as could detect definite and obvious fatigue, amounting almost
to sickness.
88. It might have been anticipated that the findings of the second
series of examinations would indicate an increase of fatigue, over­
strain, or sickness owing to the longer period of work undertaken
(nine months or more). On the other hand, the hours of work had
been shortened, there had been less overtime and no Sunday labor,
and there had been an immense improvement in the conditions of
factory life. Dr. Janet Campbell discusses in her report the relation
to the health of the woman worker of: (a) the character of the
work; (b) the length of hours of work; ( c ) her nutrition and physi­
cal health; (d) the tax imposed upon her by bad housing conditions
and inconvenient means of transit; and ( e ) the “ welfare ” conditions
surrounding her at the factory. The committee concur in Miss
Campbell’s view of the relative importance of these matters. In
spite of long hours and arduous labor there is no doubt that much
fatigue is reduced or removed by active incentives to labor, such as
interest, a sense of patriotism, higher wages, and a great improve­
ment in the conditions of labor.
80935°— 19-------4




50

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

89.
It is evident that while, physiologically, fatigue may be meas­
ured by a diminution in the capacity for doing w^ork, it may easily
increase to such a degree that it affects the health of the worker.
Avil to this point Dr. Janet Campbell and her colleagues turned
their attention. The ailments most frequently observed were indi­
gestion, serious dental decay, nervous irritability, headache, anemia,
and disorders of menstruation. Something like a quarter of the
women workers examined failed in one respect or another; 7 per
cent had throat trouble; 8 per cent suffered from eyestrain; and 0
per cent from swollen feet (see Appendix B). The report states
that—
Tlie -commonest causes o f indigestion among women are dietetic, e.
un­
suitable or improperly prepared food, the persistent use o f certain unwhole­
some articles o f diet, such as unduly rich substances or food containing excess
o f carbohydrates. Alcohol may be a cause, especially in older women, but this
w as not . observed in the present examination.
Headache wT fairly common. It could often be attributed to one or more
as
causes, such as fatigue in transit, noise in the factory, eyestrain, general tired­
ness, and wras often associated with anemia, indigestion, or carious teeth. Neu­
ralgia was complained o f by a number o f workers evidently suffering from
nervous fatigue. Sleeplessness, especially among women on night shift, was
frequently accompanied by headache.
Anemia is most common among ill-fed, overworked girls in industrial d is­
tricts, who have to work in badly ventilated and badly lighted rooms, under
conditions which prevent proper exercise, especially in the open air and sun­
shine. A large number o f the workers classed G showed signs o f more or less
severe anemia, frequently accompanied by hsemic murmurs. A higher percent­
age was noted in one or two factories where it w as mainly due to prewar rather
than postw ar conditions* such as chronic malnutrition or work in artificial
light. The improved diet and the usually healthy factory environment liave
no doubt acted as preventives o f anemia, and as far as can be judged on gen­
eral grounds, munition workers compare favorably in this respect with young
women w orkers in other trades and industries.
Indigestion, constipation,
anemia, and headache are so closely associated that it is often difficult to say
which is primary and which secondary. That all depend in considerable degree
upon environment and habits o f life, and they are remedied less by drugs or
direct medical treatment than by improved hygiene and nutrition. Sunshine,
fresh air, exercise, good food, and sufficient sleep are the most potent factors
in the restoration to health.
Mitxfidar pains, including aching or stiffness o f the neck or limbs, are
naturally common during the early weeks at the factory until the workers
become habituated to unaccustomed muscular exercise. Among more expe­
rienced workers muscular pains may be complained o f tow ard the end o f a
shift or attributed to a particular operation. They may indicate the com ­
mencement o f fatigue in the worker or that the work is unduly heavy or
otherwise unsuitable.
Nervous symptoms, such as neuralgia, irritability, nervousness, sleeplessness,
or an undue tendency to w orry were complained o f by many women who were
beginning to feel tired and worn. The symptoms were dependent on the gen­
eral state o f health rather than upon any organic defect.




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN*.

51

*90. The committee are relieved to find tliat the results of these
inquiries indicate that, although for the reasons given in paragraph
87 (c) above, the amount of existing fatigue and sickness probably
exceeds in considerable degree that discovered by the investigators,
the women and girls emploj'ed at these factories are as a whole bear
mg the strain of their munition work remarkably well. The commit­
tee concur in the conclusions stated by Dr. Janet Campbell, viz:
(1) That there is a definite burden of fatigue, which though rela­
tively small in amount as regards severe fatigue is considerable as
regards that of a less severe character;
(2) That the fatigue and ill health are less than might have been
anticipated liaving regard to the hours of work and the nature of
the employment, and that this is due, broadly speaking, to the greatly
improved attention to the health and welfare of the workers;
(3) That fatigue and sickness are greatest where heavy work is
combined with long hours at the factory and associated with onerous
domestic duties after factory hours;
(4) That unless brought under control, the considerable amount
of moderate weariness and ill health now present is likely to reduce
immediate efficiency and also exercise in many cases an injurious
effect on subsequent health and on capacity for maternity;
(5) That although there has been substantial improvement in the
conditions and circumstances of women’s work in factories, further
action is necessary if the amount of fatigue is to be diminished rather
than increased. In particular the findings of this inquiry seem to
.indicate the necessity—
(a) For further shortening of the hours of labor for women;
(b) For restricting women’s work in the heavier branches of in­
dustry to those who are young, physically fit, and capable, and who
have not arduous home duties to perform;
{£•) For the continuation and development, wherever women are
employed in factories, of hygienic conditions and especially “ wel­
fare ” arrangements (including industrial canteens) ; and
( d)
For making appropriate provision for effective medical super­
vision, both on entrance to the factory (in heavy and exceptional oc­
cupations) and subsequently, by means of the services of medical
officers (women preferred) and nurses, and in the form of suitable
accommodation as to rest rooms, first-aid appliances and wellequipped surgeries.
9L Maternity .—The employment of large numbers of women of
child-bearing age has also raised the problem of maternity and, ow­
ing to causes associated directly with the making of munitions, it is
apt to become acute and urgent in an unusual degree. The over­
crowded condition of many munition areas and the abnormal influx




52

INDTJSTKIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

of women into these *areas naturally strain to the breaking point the
always inadequate provision for maternity which exists locally. The
impression the committe have gained from inquiries at numerous
factories and among many of those responsible for the supervision
and welfare of the workers is that though the problem in an acute
form is limited to a relatively small proportion of women workers,
there is somewhat urgent need for immediate action in regard to the
care of those expectant mothers, married and single, who are unable
to make suitable arrangements for themselves.
92.
The care of the mother naturally falls into three stages—pre­
natal, natal, and postnatal.
Prenatal .—The married woman with a home of her own usually
leaves the factory in the early months of pregnancy, or at least as
soon as her condition becomes obvious. No special provision is re­
quired for her apart from the provision for women as a whole. A
certain number of women, however, are obliged to work almost until
their confinement as they have no other means of livelihood. In
filling factories it is usual, on account of the danger due to explosion
or the handling of poisonous materials, to discharge a woman as
soon as she is known to be pregnant. In engineering factories the
practice varies. Where the work is heavy and it is not possible to
transfer women to lighter processes they may be discharged as soon
as their condition is recognized. Where lighter work is available
and the general environment suitable they may be retained until, say,
the seventh or eighth month. There is the further difficulty of suita­
ble accommodation for the pregnant woman awaiting confinement.
Natal.—Again, the number of lying-in homes and hospitals is
notoriously inadequate to the needs of the country as a whole. In
many overcrowded munition areas the workhouse is the only institu­
tion to which women can go for their confinements, an arrangement
naturally repugnant to most women. Nor is there always available
sufficient or skilled midwifery and nursing attendance.
Postnatal .—Thirdly, the postnatal care of the mother’s own health
is complicated by the need for suitable arrangements for her child.
Practical questions, as Dr. Campbell points out, soon present them­
selves: “ Where is she to live?” “ How is she to support herself until
fit to resume factory work?” “ What is to become of the child whilst
she is absent night or day ? ” The only statutory provision which
relates to the employment of pregnant women or nursing mothers
is section 61 of the Factory and Workshops Act, which states that a
woman must not be employed within four weeks of giving birth to
a child. It is obvious that the mother’s first duty is to her young
infant and that in the interests of its health she should not return
to the factory until the expiration of a much longer period than




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

53

four weeks. But she may have to choose between remaining with
her baby without adequate means of support or returning to wellpaid work as soon as possible, even though this entails virtual sepa­
ration from the child. A breast-fed infant is more likely to thrive
than one which is brought up by hand, but an ill-nourished mother
is either unable to nurse her baby or continues to do so only at undue
cost to herself. Until the State is prepared to recognize the claims
of nursing mothers to assistance and financial aid the lesser of the
two evils may be for the mother to go back to work as soon as she is
physically fit to do so, provided that she can insure the care of the
baby during her absence.
93. It appears that the practice in regard to the employment of
mothers with young infants varies in different factories. In some,
with a view to encouraging breast feeding, no woman is supposed to
be employed who has a child under 9 to 12 months of age. In others,
no general rule exists and cases are judged on their merits. In some,
no attention is paid to the age of the child. It is, of course, impossi­
ble to investigate all cases fully, and a woman who is badly in need of
employment has often little difficulty in evading inquiries. Children
are thus commonly left with relatives or “ minders,” or sent to a day
nursery when there is one.
94. Dr. Janet Campbell has submitted for our consideration the
following maternity scheme for the assistance of munition workers:
(a) Skilled supervision o f pregnant women is necessary, both factory and
domiciliary, by a qualified and competent officer, in order to ensure that suitable
a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e m a d e for t h e confinement at h o m e or in lodgings (engagement
o f the m idwife or doctor, antenatal care, postnatal care, etc.) and fo r the care
o f the infant after birth. Such an officer would be able to bring the woman into
touch with local agencies for assistance. She would also encourage thrift and
proper preparation for the confinement. This supervision might be arranged by
the w elfare staff o f the factory, though in large factories an extra officer with
midwifery qualifications might be desirable for home visitation, etc.
( b ) The provision o f light employment may be made available inside or
outside the factory during the later months o f pregnancy, say from the 4th or
5th to the 8th or 9th month, and also after the birth o f the child. In some fa c­
tories this might be arranged as part o f the general organization, in other fa c­
tories all the work is too heavy or the general conditions too unsatisfactory
to admit of pregnant women being employed at least after the early months. In
such cases separate workrooms would be necessary, which might serve more
than one factory, where lighter work such as sewing and mending might be
undertaken (e. g., the sewing o f exploder bags, the making o f lighter boxes, the
manufacture o f overalls, etc.). Such small separate departments might also
be used by other women tem porarily ailing from one cause or another.
(c ) Favorable welfare conditions are essential for all pregnant women, in­
cluding the abolition o f night work and, where possible, reduction in the length
of the day shift. Arrangements for an adequate supply o f suitable food, includ­
ing milk, through the canteen or otherwise, is also advisable.
( d ) Maternity homes should be established for women who cannot be con­
fined at home or in their lodgings. These institutions should also provide,




54

LRDUSTPJAL HEALTH AXD EFFICIENCY.

where necessary, fo r preconflneinent residence and lying-in accommodation.
Maternity homes might be organized— (i) As a branch o f an existing lying-in
^hospital available for normal and abnormal cases; or (ii) as an ad hoc matermaty home o f six or a dozen beds in charge o f a competent mid wife.
In connection with these homes, but not necessarily under the same roof,
there should be accommodation for women before and, if necessary, -after con­
finement. Arrangements should be available for married or unmarried women,
and as far as possible the schemes should be self-supporting. Exchequer grants
w ould be necessary for the establishment o f such homes and also to make good
deficits in the -cost <jf w orking and maintenance, but the greater part o f tlie
maintenance expenses should fee met by payments from the women themselves.
( e ) Lastly, in many districts a creche or day nursery is necessary for the
children where they may be cared for during absence o f the mother. The num­
ber o f available “ minders ” to whom children would ordinarily have been sent
has steadily diminished, largely because these women have themselves sought
regular employment. Mothers working long shifts are physically unable to
devote a.s much attention as they would wish to the care o f theig* homes and
children. There is thus a substantial case for an increased provision o f nur­
series which would take charge of children under school age by day and, if
necessary, by night.

95. Sympathetic administration is essential to the success of such a
scheme, the aim and intention of which is to encourage the women to
report their condition at an early stage and to afford them such ad­
vice and assistance as are needed without exercising a burdensome or
inquisitorial supervision.
96. The committee consider this scheme valuable and suggestive.
They are glad to know that in many munition works successful effort
has been made on these lines, and they are satisfied that a similar
scheme is feasible for industrial women workers generally.1
1 A woman welfare supervisor in a national ordnance factory has written to the com­
m ittee as follo w s: “ A pregnant woman in this faet-ory is expected and encouraged to see
me, that I may assure myself that her work is not harmful to tier in any way. F tte
T
is questioned as to her home circumstances, aad permission to put her in touch with tke
medical officer of health is asked. This, if granted,, insures her a visit from the inspector
of midwives staff, who sees that a suitable midwife is, or will be, engaged.
Provided
that the work on which the woman is engaged is not injurious to her, she is retained
its long as possible. In many cases a woman has worked on her lathe until the eighth
month of pregnancy, Others require to be transferred quite early to lighter employment
such as disk oiling and cleaning, hammerhead crane driving, or in the overall department.
“ During enforced absence before confinement, if the worker’s income is insufficient,
her case is brought before a small subcommittee of the hospital and benevolent fund,
and a grant made to her of 7s. 6d. or 10s. '[$1.83 or $2.43] weeldy.
After the birth
of the child in the case of a married woman, in consideration of the health insurance
benefit of 60s. [$ 1 4 .6 0 ], the allowance from the fund stops for four weeks and is not re­
sumed until the child is three months old, when the mother is reinstated at her old
work.
I have fixed that period of absence, as I find that once nursing is established
during tii-ese -months, it is possible it may be partially continued with good results to both
mother an.d child.
If not continued, the three months’ nursing is of inestimable value
to the child. Another reason I advocate these three months’ absence is, that the work
is heavy for a recently confined woman.
“ The case o f the unmarried mother presents greater difficulties, and more individual
&t»dy -and care is required. It is a great anxiety to me to obtain tlie necessary knowl­
edge early enough .to be able to assure the girl that care will be taken of her .during
her pregnancy and help given her in Tier trouble.
My experience -convinces me that
serious consequences to the health of many girls have arisen from their fear of facing
tfee situation. I have found that once her confidence is gained and the girl understands
that for her child’s sake she is entitled to every care, a much happier .and healtkiex




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

55

97. The Ministry of Munitions decided, in 1916, to make special
grants in aid of the establishment and maintenance of nurseries for
the children of munition workers as follows:
(a) A grant of 75 per cent of the approved expenditure on the ini­
tial provision and equipment of the nursery.
(b) A grant of 7d. [14.2 cents] for each day or night attendance
made by the child of a munition worker.
It has been arranged that the board of education, as the depart­
ment charged with the administration of grants in aid of ordinary
day nurseries, should be responsible for the inspection of munition
nurseries and for advising the ministry in regard to the provision of
schemes and payment of grant. The number of munition nurseries
wholly or partly occupied by the children of munition workers is nov?
81. In most cases the nurseries are open by night as well as by day
for the benefit of women working on night shifts.
98. It is sometimes suggested that the nurseries should be in or
close to the factory, so that a mother may be able to nurse her baby
during the dinner interval. On the whole the committee think that it
is not usually desirable to have the nursery in close association with
the factory, however, partly because this entails bringing babies and
little children night or morning in trains or trams which are often
already overcrowded. Further, the usual interval of an hour is
scarcely sufficient for the mother to get her own meal and feed her
baby unless a dinner can be provided for her at the nursery.
Though arrangements have been made for a few individual eases
nothing has been attempted in a general way. Probably in certain
exceptional cases some provision is also needed for the younger
children who are able to attend school but are too young to look after
themselves during school hours while the mother is at work. A
few children’s “ hostels ” have been established through voluntary en­
terprise, to which such children may go for all meals and for play
state of mind and body exists.
Should there be no home care available for the girl
during her confinement, the only place for her in this town is the workhouse infirmary.
Under these circumstances we generally manage to keep her at quiet work until very
close to her confinement, and she is admitted to the infirmary immediately on applica­
tion.
“ I have never deviated from my rule regarding the three months* absence from the
factory after confinement, even in the case of the homeless girl, but some arrangement
has always been made for her care and well-being.
Friends have been found for her
and she has had a weekly grant from the hospital and benevolent fund, also advice and
help given her a§ to putting her in the way of receiving maintenance from the father of
her child. I have, at different times, brought in a girl, whose case has been difficult to deal
with, to work as cleaner in the canteen on days only. The baby comes with its mother
and lies (in summer) in a cot on the veranda. This works very well. The baby thrives
and is a source of interest and joy to the factory girls. I have always found that the
help given to a girl in her trouble has a wonderful result in improving her character and
deepening her sense of maternal responsibility.
“ The problems in work such as this are many and all different and have each to be
considered under no very hard and fast lines, but I hope I have outlined the maia
points sufficiently clearly to show our aims and ideals.”




56

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

and recreation, small payments being made by the mothers to cover
the cost of the food.
99. In this connection the committee consider it is desirable that
the lifting and carrying of heavy weights1 and all sudden, violent,
or physically unsuitable movements in the operating of machines
should, as far as practicable, be avoided. Often a simple appliance,
or the alteration of a movement, modifies an objectionable feature
when it does not altogether remove it. By similar thought and care
much may be done to mitigate the strain of prolonged standing,
which should be restricted to work from which it is inseparable.2
Prolonged standing has been found a highly provocative cause of
trouble to women and girls. When standing is absolutely unavoid­
able, the hours and spells of employment should be proportionately
short, and seats should be available for use during the brief pauses
which occasionally occur while waiting for material, or for the ad­
justment of a tool. Where so much depends upon the character of a
movement, upon the angle and position at which a weight is lifted
or carried, it is not advisable to lay down a standard of prohibited
weights. But serious accidents and injuries to health have been
caused in factories in the past by the excessive carrying of weights,
and it is trusted that employers will give this matter their earnest
consideration, especially in view of the heavy work which now de­
volves upon women in factories.3
PERIODS OF EMPLOYMENT AND HOME DUTIES.

100. Night work .—The imperative necessity of war has revived,
after almost a century of disuse, the night employment of women in
factories, with its associated economic, physical and moral disabili­
ties. In a working-class home, however, the difficulty in obtaining
rest by day is great; quiet can not be easily secured; and the mother
of a family can not sleep while the claims of children and home are
pressing upon her; the younger unmarried women are tempted to
take the daylight hours for amusement or shopping; moreover, sleep
is often interrupted in order that the midday meal may be shared.
The employment of women at night is, without question, undesirable,
yet now it is for a time inevitable; and the committee have, there­
fore, directed their efforts to the consideration of those safeguards
which would reduce its risks to a minimum.
101. In practically all factories where night shifts are worked it is
customary to change the shifts weekly or fortnightly. The frequent
1 For further observation on weights, see paragraphs 4 1 8 -4 2 4 .
2 See medical evidence on the grave effects of long hours of standing on the health
of women, given before the Select Committee on Ships, 1895 (p. 219, answers 5401 to
5 4 0 6 ), and the effects of industrial strain on the working woman (Trans. Fifteenth Inter­
national Congress on Hygiene and Demography, Washington, 1912, vol. iii., pt. 2, p 9 3 3 ).
* Report of Departmental Committee on Accidents, 1911 (Cd. 5 5 3 5 ).




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

57

change of shift has proved more convenient and acceptable to the
women than more prolonged periods of night or day duty. The
importance of adequate pauses for rest and meals during the night is
now fully realized; arrangements for the comfort of the women have
steadily improved and most women have learned the advantage of
suitable and substantial food when on night work.
102. While the urgent necessity for women’s work remains, and
while the mother’s time, and the time of the elder girls, is largely
given to the making of munitions, the home and the younger children
must inevitably suffer. Where home conditions are bad, as they are
’frequently, where a long working day is aggravated by long hours of
traveling, and where, in addition, housing accommodation is inade­
quate, family life is defaced beyond recognition. If the home is to
be preserved from such processes of destruction reasonably satis­
factory conditions of transit and housing must be secured, as well
as the best possible hours of work by night and day. It has been far
from uncommon to find some two or three hours spent on the journey
each way, generally under the fatiguing conditions of an over­
crowded train or tram, often with long waits, and a severe struggle
before even standing room could be obtained. Often, far from offer­
ing a rest from the fatigue of the day, the home conditions have
offered but fresh aggravation. A day begun at 4 or even 3.30 a. in.,
for work at 6 a. m., followed by 14 hours in the factory, and an­
other two or two and a half hours on the journey back, may end at
10 or 10.30 p. m., in a home or lodging where the prevailing degree
of overcrowding precludes all possibility of comfortable rest. Beds
are never empty and rooms are never aired, for, in a badly crowded
district, the beds, like the occupants, are organized in day and night
shifts. In such conditions of confusion, pressure, and overcrowding,
home has had no existence.
103. Though much has been now done to remedy these conditions,
there is still a great need for improvement in means of transit, and
this alone would help to relieve the unsatisfactory conditions of
housing; but, however great the increased facilities of service, the
journey between home and factory must still add, in many cases, a
couple of hours to the working da}^ When considering hours in
relation to efficiency and fatigue this influence upon the total length
of day should be remembered; the factory day can not always stand
by itself as the only contribution toward fatigue.
104. Happily there should be in the matter of hours of labor for
women little conflict between the interests of the home and the inter­
ests of munitions, for the hours which conduce most to a satis­
factory home life and to health conduce most to output. Long hours,
particularly when they are worked during the night, are among the
chief factors in fatigue, and the committee are of opinion that in




58

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

the interest of output and health alike they should be restricted
within proper limits; that there should be suitable pauses for rest
during the working period; and that there should be adequate cessa­
tion from work at each week end in addition to periodic holidays. It
may be stated broadly that conditions which press hardly upon the
average man press, because of her different constitutional develop­
ment, with greater severity upon the average woman; while, simi­
larly, though conditions of mental fatigue are probably equally in­
jurious to boys and girls, conditions of muscular strain well borne by
the ordinary boy may be highly detrimental to the girl of corre­
sponding vigor and physique. It is therefore especially important*
that women and young girls should be relieved from those conditions
of overstrain to which they have been so widely exposed.
105. Since the early days of the war the tendency has been toward
the reduction of the weekly total of hours worked and the length of
the shifts. The overtime system which was then common has now
been practically abolished and the weekly hours for women limited
to 60 or less. In order to avoid undue fatigue an increasing number
of firms have three eight-hour shifts in the place of two of 12 hours.
Though not always easy to organize from the factory point of view,
when accompanied by an adequate minimum wage the system of eighthour shifts appears to yield the best results in the long run. On the
one hand the machinery is used for the maximum part of the 24 hours
and effort is better sustained throughout the shift. On the other hand,
less strain is put upon the worker, with a resulting reduction in the
amount of ill health, disability, and lost time. The special strain of
night work is imposed less frequently, and^ partly for this reason, a
class of labor is attracted which would otherwise be unrecruited. It
has been suggested that in certain districts, and for certain industrial
processes, it may be possible, during the stress of the war, to employ
married women on half time, in two or more shifts daily of four or five
hours each. The committee recognize that such a system possesses its
own inherent difficulties, which may, however, not prove insurmount­
able.
ARRANGEMENTS FOR REST AND MEALS.

106. Pauses, well distributed and adapted in length to the needs
of women workers, are of the highest value in averting breakdown
and in giving an impetus to output. The factory acts permit in tex­
tile factories a maximum of four and a half hours continuous work;
in nontextile the limit is five, but many managers believe that four
hours is the longest period during which a woman can maintain con­
tinuous work at full vigor. Within this period a pause of 10 minutes
has been found to give excellent results, and where the spell is con­
tinued for five hours some such pause should certainly be made for
a cup of tea or cocoa. It is particularly valuable in the morning




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF W O M E I.

59

spell in those numerous cases where breakfast has been hurried or
omitted altogether. The proper arrangement of intervals for food
needs special consideration in filling factories, where work on some
of the high explosives seems to create a special feeling of hunger.
Here there is the added reason that a well-fed person is the better able
to resist the influence of poisonous materials. Facilities should be
provided, especially during the night shift, for rest in cases of faint­
ing or other temporary illness. Rest rooms are now frequently found
in well-equipped works; they usually consist of a few comfortable
chairs and a camp bed for the more serious cases, placed in the surgery
or rest room now being provided by many employers. A nurse is gen­
erally m attendance, whose assistance may be claimed by men and
women alike.
10T. The week-end rest has been found to be a factor of such impor­
tance in maintaining health and vigor that it has been reinstated by
employers who had taken it for work at the beginning of the war.
The committee are strongly of opinion that for women and girls a
portion of Saturday and the whole of Sunday should be available for
rest, and that the periodic factory holidays should not, on any account,
be omitted. Where women are employed on eight-hour shifts an in­
terval of half an hour for a meal may be regarded as normally suffi­
cient, but where longer hours are worked, it is important that they
should be allowed an hour for dinner and for the principal meal dur­
ing the night. Indigestion can not easily be avoided if a substantial
meal is followed immediately by work without an intervening period
for rest. Half an hour, especially in large factories, and in filling
factories where the actual consumption of food in the danger area is
prohibited, provides but scant time even for the eating of the meaL
Ten minutes are easily spent in reaching the mess room and return­
ing to work, certainly another five are occupied in washing the hands
and the service of the dinner; and so but 15 remain for the meal.
The provision of well-managed and suitably equipped canteens in
convenient proximity to the workrooms has now been made in a large
number o f factories and the mess-room accommodation and arrange­
ments for heating the workers’ own food have been much improved.
These are available both night and day at suitable hours. The com­
mittee desire once more to emphasize the importance of providing seats
with backs and similar amenities with a view to securing the comfort
and relaxation of the workers.
THE SAOTTAEY COlTDITIOlSf OP THE FACTOBY.

108.
The effect upon the health and energy of women and girls
which results from clean, bright, and airy workrooms, well warmed in
winter, can hardly be exaggerated. The factory act secures a mini­




60

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

mum of these essential things, but the highest standard attained in
the best factories is not too high. Women desire these things in
their working hours, and appreciate and respond to.a good environ­
ment. Cleanliness and good order contribute to increased output
as well as to the discipline and morale of the factory. The provision
of washing accommodation has become increasingly important. The
refreshing effect of washing and its influence on self-respect, espe­
cially where women are heated by their work, have been dwelt upon
by many witnesses who have given their evidence before the com­
mittee. For those processes in which poisonous substances are used,
such, for example, as the filling of shells and fuses with high
explosives, special regulations for washing have been framed.1 It
is a great convenience when the lavatories and cloakrooms can be
grouped with the canteens. The lavatories should be of sufficient
size to accommodate all those workers from a room or department
who cease work at the same time, and must be properly equipped and
maintained. If suitable facilities are easily accessible and are suffi­
cient to enable the workers to wash without undue encroachment
upon their mealtimes, experience shows that they are much appre­
ciated and fully used.
109. Cloakrooms should also be provided, and wherever possible
should be near the canteens and lavatories. It is of importance that
they should afford facilities for changing clothes and boots and for
drying clothes. The cloakrooms should be kept scrupulously clean.2
110. The provision of adequate and suitable sanitary accommo­
dation is a matter of special importance. The necessity for proper
equipment and maintenance of cleanliness, privacy, and convenience
of access should be borne in mind. It is the more necessary to call
attention to this matter since in man}^ instances women are now
employed in factories where, until recently, there have been male
workers only. The conveniences for women should be so situated as
to be readily accessible at all times, with due regard to the privacy of
the approach; they should be adequate in number, suitably planned,
and of sound sanitary construction. A high standard of cleanliness
must be maintained, and it is desirable that an attendant shall be in
charge of the conveniences throughout the period of employment.3
MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION.

111.
sity of
vision
works

The committee have received abundant evidence of the neces­
wise and suitable arrangements for the management and super­
of women’s labor. Their personal visits to large and small
where women and girls are employed, as well as the evidence

1 For further consideration of the provision of washing facilities see paragraphs 392-404.
2 For further suggestions as to cloakroom accommodation see paragraphs 411-412.
•For further suggestions as to sanitary accommodation see paragraphs 388-391.




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

61

placed before them, have led them to the opinion that there is hardly
any condition of greater importance than this, in respect both of
smooth working and of maximum output. The modern development
of commercial undertakings, not to speak of the vast size of many
factories, precludes the personal oversight and interest of the respon­
sible employer and makes it all the more necessary to appoint efficient
substitutes. This is particularly important in regard to the occu­
pation of women unaccustomed to the organized factory life, business
methods, and discipline of large engineering shops often with
unsuitable accommodation for women, difficulties of discipline, and
long hours. Briefly the committee recommend that in all cases
where women are employed consideration should be given by the
management to the appointment of forewomen, nurses, and welfare
supervisors, whose position and status should be properly assured
and whose duties should be prescribed. In this way provision is
made for each woman worker to have ready access to an officer of
her own sex in case of difficulties occurring in regard to her work,
her health, or the conditions of her employment. Surgeries for the
treatment of minor as well as serious accidents, rest rooms for
workers temporarily incapacitated, are of special importance where
women are employed. “ Welfare supervision,” in its broadest sense,
which has abundantly proved its value to both management and
workers, is essential for women workers if their well-being is to be
fully safeguarded.
112.
The ultimate purpose of wise supervision is twofold. First,
there is the purpose of securing sound and helpful conditions of labor,
under which the employer obtains diligence and skill from those
in his employ, and the worker is occupied, healthily and not unreason­
ably, to his own satisfaction and to the best of his capacity. Here,
without doubt, the highest interest of employer and worker is one
and the same. There is, or should be, satisfaction and advantage on
both sides. A second purpose of supervision is economical manage­
ment and the accurate adjustment of energy applied to the end in
view. The committee have been interested to observe the diverse
operation of these purposes in connection with the health of women
workers, and have decided that it was desirable to investigate further
a point which had much'impressed them, namely, the apparently
large amount of “ wastage ” of women workers in munition factories.
It was reported to them that large numbers of women were drifting
in and out of factories without sufficient reason, and they sought the
aid of Capt. M. Greenwood, the statistician, in endeavoring to find
an explanation of this phenomenon. Accordingly he made investi­
gations 1 in 16 factories, or parts of factories, employing altogether
1 Dr. Greenwood’s memorandum on The Causes of Wastage of Labor in Munition
Factories employing Women is being published, as a special report, by the Medical
Research Committee.




m

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AKD EFFICIENCY,

gome 40,000 women workers. An abstract of his report will be found
in Appendix D. Briefly his conclusions are:
.(■ ) That of 37,000 women workers under observation for at least
a
a month, illness or physical unfitness or incapacity was given as a
cause of leaving work in 1,651 cases, the lost workers owing to ill
health being practically the same at all ages in “ light ” factories, but
increasing at the age of 22 years in “ heavy” factories. In oth<j;*
words, girls over 23 years of age have fewer sickness losses in “ heavy ’’
than in “ light ” factories-;
(b )
That in sum total the “ wastage” is substantial, and such dis­
continuance of employment appreciably reduces output;
■(c) That much of this “ wastage ” is inexplicable; of 11,000 women
who left work as many as 6,700 gave no adequate reason for so doing;
(d)
That, whilst prevention appears obscure, the remedy is organ­
ized welfare work, including intelligent and sympathetic following
up of absentees.
The committee concur with Capt. Greenwood’s recommendations
that wherever any factory loses more than 20 per cent of its en­
trants within three months a special inquiry should be instituted, and
that older women (who more usually have home duties) should be
put on lighter work in order to reduce the double demand made upon
them.
113,
Clearly, everything possible should be done to reconcile tlie
woman’s conflict of interests between her duties to her home or chil­
dren and her work in the factory. Wherever other labor is available
the employment of mothers with infants is to be deprecated, as is
also that of the mother of any young family, for it must be remem­
bered that the mother’s work is certainly not ended with her factory
day. Her children make many claims upon her time and energy,
more especially, of course, at the period of the midday meal and at
bedtime. In some factories the majority of the women employed at
night are married, and many of them express a preference for their
work because it leaves them free for domestic work during the day.
In thus undertaking double duties their zeal may easily outrun their
strength, and factory and home equally may suffer. Where married
women are indispensable every effort should be made to give them
the preferential treatment common, in normal times, in some factory
districts and also in France. It is the experience of managers that
concessions such as half an hour’s grace on leaving and arriving, or
occasional “ time off,” is not injurious to output, as the lost time is
made good by increased activity, and under the system of 8-liour
shifts it might be arranged, without industrial dislocation of any
kind, that married women are employed only in $hat shift which
would cause least dislocation in their home. For organization of this
kind, as well as for the care of young girls individually during the




INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

63

first few months of their employment, the welfare supervisor has
proved herself to be invaluable; she can secure short periods of rest
or such interchange of occupation as tends to lessen either the spell
of muscular fatigue or the continued exposure to an injurious proc­
ess. Her supervision possesses particular value during night shifty
when ordinary supervision tends to become relaxed,
CONCLUSION.

114. Finally, the committee desire to state their considered opinion
that, if the maximum output of which women are undoubtedly capa­
ble is to be secured and maintained for an extended period, the fol­
lowing essentials must be provided fo r :
(a) Short hours of work with suitable shifts, pauses, and intervals;
(£) Adequate and suitable medical supervision, including the pro­
vision ©f rest rooms, surgeries, and first-aid appliances, properly
staffed1
;
(c) The careful selection of women for work within their capacity,
the heavier work being allocated to the younger women;
( d) Good and sufficient food obtainable at convenient times;
women appear to require food and refreshment more frequently than
men and always before commencing work in the morning;
(e) A suitable factory environment; women are probably more
susceptible than men to the benefits of effective ventilation (including
ample fresh, moving air), sanitary accommodation, and convenient
washing facilities;
( /) Sympathetic management and tactful supervision.
115. The committee recognize that emergency conditions must
obtain in many cases, but they are satisfied that every effort should
be made to organize women’s labor effectively and promptly. The
committee take the view that to use up or damage its women by over­
strain in factory work is one of the most serious and far-reaching
forms of human waste which a nation can practice or permit. It may
be that in the entanglement of problems new and old the coming of
the new and their imperative claim for solution will help the solving
of the old. There is impulse now as there was impulse long ago when
the eause of the children in the cotton mills of Lancashire won the
early factory acts for the generations that followed. There is need
now as there was need then. There is need for the work of women in
industry; there is need also for safeguarding that service. Happily
there is manifest a public spirit and a devotion able to overcome diffi­
culties and solve problems. There is also a fuller recognition of the
claims of women and of their children and of their vital importance
to the State, which is reward for the sacrifice and courage of those
women now working steadfastly in the ranks of labor.




SE CTIO N V .— H O U RS OF L A B O R .
LEGAL RESTRICTIONS ON HOURS OF LABOR.

116. The Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, imposes certain restric­
tions on the hours of employment of protected persons; that is, of
women and young persons (i. e., boys and girls between 13 and 18
years of age who are legally exempt from attendance at school). The
following are the principal provisions bearing on employment in non­
textile factories:
(a)
The hours o f employment o f protected persons on the first five days of the
week are not to exceed a fixed daily period o f 12 (including l i hours for m eals),
and on Saturday 8 hours (including one-half hour for m eals). The period o f
work may commence at 6 a. m., 7 a. m., or 8 a. m. That is to say, the maximum
weekly hours o f employment, exclusive o f mealtimes, are 60. (Sec. 2G ( i ) ,
(ii) , ( iii).)
(&) Sunday labor is forbidden. (Sec. 34.)
(c ) Protected persons may not be employed continuously for more than 5
hours without an interval o f at least one-half hour for a meal. (Sec. 26 (iv ) .)
(d) Women may be employed in certain industries for 2 hours overtime in
addition to the ordinary hours on any day except Saturday: Provided, That an
additional one-half hour is allowed for meals after 5 p. m .; that no woman is so
employed for more than 8 days in any 1 week, and that the number o f days
in the year on which any woman is employed on overtime shall not exceed 30.
(Sec. 49.) No similar exception is allowed for young persons.
(e ) Night work is not allowed for women and girls, but is allowed for boys
over 14 if employed in certain specified trades, e. g., blast furnaces and iron mills.
(Sec. 54.)

No restrictions are placed upon the hours of employment of men.
117. Section 150 of the act provides that—
In cases o f any public emergency the secretary o f state may, by order to the
extent and during the period named by him, exempt from this act any factory or
workshop belonging to the Crown, or any factory or workshop in respect o f work
which is being done on behalf o f the Crown under a contract specified in the
order.1

118. Under this provision orders have been made by the Home
Office allowing relaxations of the limitations set out above. These
orders are of two kinds— (a) General orders setting out the conditions
under which women and*young persons may ordinarily be employed
1 By regulations made under the Defense of the Realm Act, and dated June 10, 1915,
and October 3, 1916, the power of the secretary of state is extended to any factory
or workshop in which he is satisfied that by reason of the loss of men through enlist­
ment or transference to Government service, or of any other circumstances arising out
of the present war, exemption is necessary to secure the carrying on of work and that
it can be granted without detriment to the national interests.




64

HOURS OF LABOR.

65

in munition works (the last general order w issued in September,
^as
1916); (&) Special orders authorizing variations of the general order
in particular cases.
119. Under section 6 (i) of the munitions of war (amendment)
act, 1916—
The Minister o f Munitions shall have power by order to give directions * * *
(subject, so far as the matter is one which is dealt with by the factory and w ork­
shops acts 1901 to 1911, to the concurrence o f the secretary o f state) as to hours
o f labor or conditions o f employment o f the female workers so employed.

120. No order has as yet been issued under this section, hours of
emplo3^ment continuing to be dealt with under the factory acts. A
committee, including representatives of the Ministry of Munitions, of
the Home Office, and of other departments concerned, has been estab­
lished at the ministry to consider special applications for permission
to work on Sundays 'or for exceptional hours.
WEEKLY HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT.

121. Prior to the war the weekly hours of employment of women
and young persons were as a rule substantially below the limits im­
posed by the factory and workshop act. This was due, partly to the
action of employers who believed that shorter hours were desirable
from the point of view of health and output, and partly to the action
of the trades-unions in regard to the hours of adult male workers. In
the engineering trades the normal weekly hours of adult male workers
were, as a rule, about 52 to 54, though in a few instances they were as
low as 48. These normal hours were generally liable to extension
(overtime) to meet special emergencies. Since if overtime were to
become a regular practice the value of the normal day would largely
be lost, it was usual to restrict overtime by requiring wages at a higher
rate for the additional hours and by limiting the additional hours
which might be worked in a given period. Thus the agreement exist­
ing at the outbreak of war between the Engineering Employers’ Fed­
eration and the engineering trades-unions concerned provided that
overtime should not exceed 30 hours a month.
The establishment o f the normal working day for engineering trades is not
entirely a modern development. As early as 1836 the London engineers secured
the normal 60-hour week with additional wages for overtime, and more than
50 years ago the principle o f a normal day and overtime was already widely
recognized.

122. At a very early stage of the war the ordinary restrictions on
hours of employment were widely relaxed. Sunday labor, previously
forbidden for women and young persons, and practically unknown
for men except in a few continuous processes, became common.
Night employment, which for 50 years had been abolished entirely
S0935°— 19------ 5




INDUSTRIAL- HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

for womea and- in the main for boys became regular. The strain
of these hours, in itself severe, was increased through large numbers
of men and women taken into employment being unaccustomed to
such labor, or being physically less able to bear the strain than the
selected body of workers previously employed. The difficulties of
housing and transit became accentuated and the conditions of em­
ployment were frequently makeshift and inconvenient. The em­
ployment of men for TO to 90 hours a week was common,, for over
90 hours was not infrequent, and there were even eases of hours in
excess of 100. The highly skilled workers (tool and gauge makers,
tool-setters,, etc.) were generally the most difficult to obtain and
were thus most frequently employed for long hours. These hours
were defended on the ground that—
(a). The dearth of workers and other causes prevented an}^ general
adoption of the shift system;
( b ) The demand for output was urgent and immediate, and had
to be met even at some risk of future breakdown;
( c ) Patriotism introduced a new incentive which rendered unre­
liable all previous experience as to the number of hours which could
be successively worked;
(d) Even though the rate of output might be reduced, and the
cost o f working increased, these long hours did result in a larger
output than short hours would have done.
123.
The evidence, however,, showed that the long hours are open
to certain serious objections:
(a) They are liable to impose too severe a strain on the workers;
(b) At any rate, after a period, the rate of production tends to de­
crease, and the extra hours produce proportionately little or no addi­
tional output; moreover, the quality of the output may be adversely
affected during the whole period of work, and not only during the
hours of overtime;
(c) A large proportion of the hours gained may be lost through
broken time; the workers become exhausted and take a rest; sick­
ness tends to increase, at any rate among the older men and those of
weak constitution;
(d) They lead to an undue curtailment of the periods of rest and
sleep available for those who have to travel long distances to and
from work;.
( e ) The fatigue entailed increases the temptation of men to in­
dulge in the consumption of alcohol; they are too tired to eat. and
therefore seek a “ stimulant.”
(/) A very serious strain was imposed upon the management, the
executive staff, and the foremen, both on account of the actual length
of the hours worked and of the increased anxiety over the main­




HOUES OF LABOR.

67

tenance of tlie output and quality of the work; the staff can not take
days off like ordinary workers*
124. Whatever may have been the justification for the long hours
worked, they undoubtedly imposed a severe strain on the workers,
as evidenced by the following statements made by trades-union repre­
sentatives :
Some of his men had been working from G a. m. to 9 p. m. These hours were
undoubtedly a severe, strain and some men were just at the limit o f their
powers. They stayed away for a day or two to rest, but did not see a doctor if
they could help it.
The men were reaching the “ fed-up ” stage. They were getting nervous and
irritated through working long hours. They could not keep up their physical
efficiency; he could see it in their faces. Men on overtime were more tired*
They were liable to have time fo r only about five hours’ sleep.
The excessive hours now being worked were too much for the men. They led
to a diminished output per hour. Men were continually having to stop w ork­
in g; they were obliged to rest, it was not a question o f slackness. For fear o f
being called slackers they hesitated to get a doctor’s certificate.

125. Though, as stated, the long hours thus undoubtedly placed
severe strain upon the workers, the committee did not find that they
had caused any serious breakdown among workers. This was in some
measure due to the tendency, after a time, to reduce hours. Further,
there was good reason for believing that the increased pay and better
food which workers were able to enjoy helped to counteract the strain
of long hours* There is little doubt, too, that workers were stimulated
to make special effort by an appreciation of the national importance
of their work. These influences have been thus, summarized by a
trades-union official:
(1) W ill pow er: Men have continued at w ork in a condition that under ordi­
nary circumstances would have put them off for a week or two. Even when a
man comes off for a time he is anxious to get back again as quickly as possible.
I have had one or two cases o f serious breakdown. The main factor is that
practically all the men want to do their best.
(2 ) Better wages mean better food fo r a large number o f men w ith families,
and they mean a little better provision for those families, whieh again reacts
upon the man’ s health and his work. In these cases it is not so much the saving
or possibility o f saving money, but the satisfactory spending o f it, which is the
factor o f importance.
(3 ) The possibility o f getting more money has also its effect. You read
much about the slacker. There is quite a large proportion o f workmen really
too anxious for overtime— employers will corroborate— even tmder normal
conditions.

120.
It would, however, have been a mistake to depend too largely
on the operation of influences of these kinds, or to hope that they
could continue indefinitely to be effective against fatigue. The com­
mittee was satisfied that if workers were to be asked to work for any*
thing approaching 15 hours a day for weeks and months on end, one




68

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

of two results must follow—either the health of the worker would
break down, or they would not work at full pressure.
127. While the committee, at an early stage of their inquiries, were
convinced as to the urgency of recommending some limitation of
hours, it was a matter of serious difficulty to determine what limita­
tions to recommend. Not only was there an almost complete absence
of any scientific data as to the relation of hours of employment to
output, but the evidence of witnesses differed widely as*to the limits
which might properly be imposed.
128. Men .—This conflict of opinion was specially marked as re­
gards hours of adult male workers. On the one hand, those who had
been employing their workers for 15 hours a day, sometimes with
Sunday work in addition, stated with confidence that such hours were
not excessive, that they had been worked in times of peace, and that
they could not be reduced without loss of output. Amongst those
who favored the longer hours were to be found some of the largest
employers of labor, and whatever their views might be as to the ulti­
mate gain from the reduction of hours, they hesitated to incur the
responsibility for any reduction of output, since such reduction, even
though temporary in character, might, owing to the large number of
workers involved, prove serious in bulk while it lasted. As a repre­
sentative of one of the largest firms in the country said:
Once a reduction was made it was impossible to go back to the previous posi­
tion. In consequence one must be sure of the ground before making experi­
ments. Previous experience is not a complete guide on this occasion, because
patriotism is a new and important factor.

129. On the other hand, witnesses, many of whom had devoted a
close study to questions of industrial fatigue and scientific manage­
ment, were emphatically opposed to overtime, except for quite short
periods.
As regards overtime, be did not consider it efficient, nor was it profitable, if
paid for at one and one-half rates. It did not induce any increased output,
except when working for a short spell to attain a definite object. I f continued
for a long period the tendency of. overtime is to reduce rather than to increase
output. The strain caused by the work is a mental rather than a physical one.
The monotony o f always being at one job was also productive o f fatigue.
In his opinion, the greatest economical efficiency o f engineering labor is ob­
tained with a week o f 48 to 55 hours. Longer hours, in the long run, meant a
diminished output, inferior quality o f work, and much greater cost o f produc­
tion. Though attending to heavy machinery might involve periods o f rest from
physical strain, it involved mental strain, owing to the amount of damage
caused if anything went wrong.

130. Between these two extreme views a middle course was also
advocated. It allowed a maximum of 10 to 12 hours of overtime a
week. Thus a large employer of labor, who was also engaged in
organizing national factories, expressed the view:




HOUES OF LABOR.

69

Definite restrictions should be placed on overtime. No workman ought to
w ork for more than 80 hours in any one week, or to maintain an average o f
more than 65 hours a week.

131. Similar views were expressed by trades-union representatives:
W here there is overtime beyond two hours daily there is evidence o f fatigue
and men can not be employed economically, from health and production point of
view, on continuous overtime o f three and four hours daily. Fatigue is rarely
reaching the point o f breakdown, but does affect health and production, and
in my opinion will manifest itself later. In some cases where such overtime is
worked; apart from night shifts, men are allowed one early night per week, and
I think this is wise and economically sound.
The witnesses were inclined to think that, to meet the present abnormal cir­
cumstances, men should be able to work as much as 60 to 65 hours a week over
a long period. The exact length o f hours would necessarily depend on the
character o f the work. Thus 65 would certainly be too high for gauge makers.
The hours at night involve greater strain and should not exceed 60. Even these
hours were justified only by the present crisis, and were no criterion o f what
was reasonable and proper in ordinary times.

132. In the agreement between the Engineering Employers’ Fed­
eration and the engineering trades-unions already referred to a simi­
lar limit was adopted.
133. Boys .—In the case of boys the evidence showed that the hours
of employment were largely determined by the fact that they fre­
quently worked with men. The Home Office had found it necessary
to sanction the employment of boys for 671 hours a week, and for
even longer periods in special cases, the period of the working day
being extended to 14 or even 15 hours, as compared with the 12 hours
allowed by the factory and workshop act. Though as in the case of
men no substantial breakdown occurred there w-as no doubt that the
hours worked in many cases involved a serious strain. Dr. Agnew,
as a result of a medical examination of 1,500 boys employed in all
parts of the country and under varying conditions of employment,
reported as follows:
My general impression is that hours tend to be too long for the proper preser­
vation o f health and efficiency. Large numbers o f boys are working a net
average of 68| hours per week. Under certain conditions the effect upon their
health is not so deleterious as in others, but, whatever the conditions, where
more than one hour has to be spent in going to and from the factories, in my
opinion, 68^ hours are too many. Many o f these boys are just over 14 years old,
and they spend considerably more than two hours per day in traveling, thus
having very little time for recreation or for rest. The natural bent o f most o f
us is to revolt against a yoke o f any kind in modern times. This is just what
happens. The boys have found from experience that they can not com fortably
work over 60 hours per week, and as evidence o f this— in one shop where 600
boys worked, 500 o f them on a Saturday afternoon did not return to work.
The same state o f affairs, with a few exceptions, is found up and down the
country. On the night shifts, boys do not tolerate well long hours, and in one
factory a very large percentage o f the boys complained o f sleepiness and disin­
clination for work. It has to be borne in mind that the average age o f the




10

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AN]> EFFICIENCY.

boys- examined w ould certainly not exceed 15 years, and it makes one consider
very seriously tlie future o f the rising generation.

134. A social worker with considerable experience of bo}^ labor in
munition works informed the committee that—
So far as he knew, there had been no general breakdown, but then he did not
expect to see im mediate effects* notwithstanding the long distances that some
boys had to travel. He suggested, however, that the boys are drawing on their
strength, and pointed to the fa ct that the boys fall asleep in the trains and
trams, and often travel on beyond their stations. They have no leisure, no
recreation, and no classes, and he w as very anxious as to what w ould become
o f the boys after the war. He suggested that too b ig a price was being paid
for output. Even the hours allowed under the factory acts were very lenient.
The granting o f relief at the week end was a great boon.

135. In considering what hours of employment are reasonable for
boys, it is necessary to distinguish between boys under 16 years of
age and those over. A witness with wide experience expressed the
view that—
Boys between. 16 and IS w ere quite different from boys under 1 6 they were
much stronger. Boys under 16, on the other hand, were probably more delicate
than girls o f the same age, and more likely to break themselves up. The essen­
tial safeguards were the reduction o f hours and w elfare work. Apart from the
strain on the health involved, long hours had disastrous effects upon the char­
acters o f boys. They also might make an adequate amount o f sleep difficult
and, perhaps most im portantr they prevented adequate facilities for recreation.
Such facilities were o f primary importance both for the physical and the moral
w elfare o f the boys. T h is latter dangei was accentuated by the monotonous
character o f their work, which afforded no intellectual interest. In the absence
o f healthy recreation the boys’ minds and conversation were likely to become
unhealthy and to lead to a general deterioration in character. Eight hours o f
sleep at least were essential, nine hours would be better. Unfortunately many
boys got only six: or seven hours.

136. Women .—Important as it is that the hours of work for men
should be kept within reasonable limits, it is essential that hours of
work for women and girls should be even more closely safeguarded.
Admittedly women and girls are unable to bear the strain of long
hours as well as men. Conditions which press hardly on the average
man, press, because of difference in constitutional development, with
greater severity upon the average woman. Under the general order
issued by the Home Office in September, 1915r women and girls over
16 years of age were allowed to be employed up to 67^ hours a week.
While this order applied to the great majority of munition works,
permission was granted in special eases for between 70 and 80 hours
a week. The maximum hours of daily employment was extended to
14 hours as compared with 12 hours allowed under the factory acts.
137. Though, as in the case of men and boys, no serious breakdown
of health can be pointed to, the committee were left in no doubt as
to the strain involved.




H OURS OF LABOR*

71

A medical exam ination1 which w7 conducted of over 1,300 women selected
as
from varying types o f work in different parts o f the country showed that
though for various reasons no general breakdown had then occurred, there un­
doubtedly existed a serious amount o f strain. Only 57 per cent were classified
as healthy as compared with 78 per cent in the case o f a similar examination
of m en ; even if full allowance is made for variations in the standard adopted
by different medical officers, the difference between these tw o percentages is
still significant. In one factory where the women were employed for 77 hours
weekly, 15.5 per cent o f the workers showed evidence o f marked fatigue and
it was reported that the workers were practically unanimous that the hours
should be shortened.

138. Many witnesses expressed the opinion that the hard work was
telling on the women though they were keen to work, feeling that
they were performing a patriotic duty. Though some employers
sought for permission and used to the full power to employ women
for more than 65 hours a week, the majority limited their application
to that figure. Moreover inquiries showed that in many factories the
maximum hours were not worked continuously. Employers sought
permission for a wider limit of hours than was ordinarily necessary
or desirable in order that they might have latitude for dealing with
special emergencies.
139. The nature of the evidence available made it clear to the com­
mittee that any recommendations they put forward in regard to the
limitation of weekly hours of employment must necessarily be tentative
and provisional in character. Moreover, if the recommendations
were to be of practical value, and secure any wide measure of ac­
ceptance, it was necessary that they should satisfy two essential con­
ditions. First, they had to be such as would be regarded as reason­
able and moderate by the great mass of employers and workers, and
secondly, while taking account of the probable duration of the war,
they had to have regard to the immediate urgency of output at that
time. Any recommendations which might involve even a temporary
diminution of output would have been doomed to failure. It was
evident in fact that any reduction of hours proposed must be gradual,
and the committee accordingly based their recommendations on what
appeared to be immediately practicable, rather than on what was
ultimately desirable, or might be defensible on a physiological basis.
Further, they found it necessary to confine themselves to suggestions
as to the maximum limits within which weekly hours of employ­
ment should be restricted, and they did not endeavor to set out the
extent to which, in their opinion, it was necessary or desirable to
reduce these limits to meet varying industrial conditions.
140. The limits of the weekly hours of employment provisionally
suggested in their Memorandum No. 5 (Hours of W ork), which
was prepared in January, 1916, were:
1 See Committee’s Interim Report (Cd. 8511), pages 110-121.




72

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND EFF IC IE N C Y .

(a) For men, that the average weekly hours of employment should
not exceed 65 to 67 (exclusive of mealtimes), i. e., a 13 to 14 hour
working day.
(b) That boys under 18 should be allowed to work the same hours
as men, provided that—
(i) The hours of boys under 16 should be limited to 60 so far as
possible;
(ii) Substantial relief at the week ends should be insisted on;
(H Night work should be limited as far as possible to boys
i)
over 16.
(c) That for women and girls employment should be restricted
within the normal legal limit of 60, i. e., a 12-hour working day,
though within these limits moderate daily overtime might be al­
lowed, and that the employment of girls under 18 at night should
be limited as far as possible.
141. These recommendations were generally accepted as fair and rea­
sonable and were widely adopted. In September, 1916, the Home
Office, after consultation with the Ministry of Munitions, issued
a new general order reducing the maximum hours of work for women
and young persons which had been allowed in the previous general
order. Under this order which was based upon the recommendations
of the committee—■
( a) The employment o f women was limited to the 60 hours a week per­
mitted under the factory and workshop act, though within this limit night
work was allowed and work fo r not more than 14 hours (including mealtimes)
instead o f 12 on any one day. The employment at night o f girls between
16 and 18 was only allowed in special circumstances where the superintending
inspector o f factories was satisfied that the work was suitable and o f a specially
urgent character. The employment o f girls under 16 at night was not per­
mitted at all.
(fc) The hours o f employment o f boys over 16 were limited to 65 by day
(excluding mealtimes) and 63 by night. Night work for boys under 16 and
their employment fo r 65 hours by day was only permitted where the superin­
tending inspector o f factories was satisfied that the urgency o f the work and
other circumstances made it imperative that they should do so.

142. The order made the relaxation of the requirements of the fac­
tory act subject to the fulfillment of the following general conditions:
( a) Employment on night shifts shall be subject to the provision, to the
satisfaction o f the factory inspector, of proper facilities for taking and cook­
ing meals, and in the case o f female workers, for their supervision by a wel­
fare worker or a responsible forewoman.
( b) No woman or young person shall be employed continuously at any time
for more than five hours without an interval o f at least half an hour, except
that where not less than one hour is allowed for dinner, an afternoon spell o f six
hours may be worked, with an interval o f quarter o f an hour only for tea, if the
factory inspector is satisfied that adequate provision is made for the workers
to obtain tea in the works and for tea to be actually ready for them as soon as
they stop work.




H O U ES OF LABOR.

73

(c )
I f w ork commences before 8 a. m. and 110 interval is allow ed for break­
fast, an opportunity shall be given to take refreshm ent during the morning.
((?) A woman or young person shall n ot.b e allowed to lift, carry, or move
anything so heavy as to be likely to cause injury to the woman or young
person.
(e ) D ifferent schemes o f employment may be adopted and different intervals
for meals fixed fo r different sets o f workers.

143. In a covering circular the Home Office stated that—
The order which .fixes the maximum lim its o f hours does not discrim inate be­
tween the various form s o f w ork carried on in munition factories, and subject to
these lim its it is fo r the occupier to decide, having regard to the nature o f the
work, the time taken by the w orkers in getting to and from the factory, and
other circumstances, what are the best hours to be adopted at his particular
works in order to secure the maximum efficiency and output over a long
p e r io d ; and lie is empowered by the order to fix different schemes o f hours
for different sets o f workers. Further, it w ill be necessary fo r occupiers to
instruct managers and forem en to w atch closely how each scheme w orks in
practice. Experience shows that some slight alteration or adjustm ent in the
hours o f work, such as, fo r example, the rearrangement or extension o f the
meal intervals or, in cases where overtime is worked, a short cessation oc­
casionally from overtime, may be sufficient to check staleness or fatigue and
cause a marked improvement in the w orkers’ efficiency.

144. Since the issue of the order the Home Office and the ministry
have taken other steps to reduce hours. Special concessions have
been withdrawn notably as regards the employment of women for
more than 60 hours a week and the employment at night of girls
between 14 and 16. In addition action is being taken which is result­
ing in the steady abolition of the employment at night o f girls be­
tween 16 and 18. Special concessions as to the employment at night
of boys between 14 and 16 are also being reduced.
145. As already stated the recommendations originally put for­
ward were only provisional, and the evidence which has since ac­
cumulated has shown the necessity for their revision. From the
commencement of their work the committee have attached the
highest importance to the collection of exact data affecting the
problems at issue. The field to be covered is a very wide one, while
the process o f collection has been slow and laborious. The com­
mittee, however, consider that the data which have already been col­
lected on their behalf by Dr. Vernon and others are of great prac­
tical value and demand the most serious attention. The results of
these investigations are the more valuable in that they have been
undertaken in the workshop and not in the laboratory, solely in a
spirit of scientific investigation and with no preconceived opinions.
The selection of factories for inquiry was based entirely on the
likelihood of reliable data being forthcoming. Further, in none of
the operations studied was there any change in the nature of the
operation or the type o f machinery during the period under review.




IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H A N D E FF IC IE N C Y .

H

The data were so chosen as to eliminate any possible disturbance
due to increasing skill. There is no reason to suppose that the data
were vitiated by any artificial restriction o f output. On this last
point Dr. Vernon reports—
When the hourly outputs o f individuals are plotted on a diagram, the distribution in the m ajority o f operations is roughly symmetrical, persons who
exceed the value reached by the largest group being about as numerous as
those who fall short o f it. In certain operations ( “ d ra w in g ” and “ rectify­
ing ,r cartridge cases) where the machine itself places an upper limit upon the
possible speefl o f production, the shape o f tl>e diagram was different, the num­
ber that exceeded? the output most frequently attained— what may be termed
the fashionable or Mmodal ” value— being much smaller than that which fell
short o f it. A corresponding result w as obtained for women sorting cartridge
cases, when paid at tim e rates, but for sim ilar operatives when paid at piece
rates the symmetrical distribution w as once more observed. It is accordingly
contended that the form o f distribution, whether approxim ately symmetrical or
asymmetrical, may be a useful test as to the existence o f lim itation o f out­
put, and that in the m ajority o f the operations here studied no such lim itation
occurred.

The following diagram was prepared by Dr. Vernon to show the
variation in output of women turning fuse bodies:—

40

vtZO

tu

u
Q
N
.10
0

ns

us

iss

m

relative hourly output

146. The result of Dr. Vernon’s investigations, which covered a
period of over a year, are set out in memoranda Nos. 12 and 18*1
but it appears desirable shortly to set out again the principal results
o f his investigations in so far as they concern the relation of weekly
hours of employment to output. The following are the four sets
o f data which bear on this subject:
147. During the period November 14 to December 19 Sunday
work (eight hours) was done on five out of six Sundays; during the




1 Ca. 8344 and Cel. 8628.

♦

HOURS OF LABOB.

75

eight weeks ending on July 2 on three Sundays, the nominal weekly
hours in these three weeks being 66.5 instead of 58.5, an average of
61.5. During the period ending December 16 the timekeeping was
bad, the normal weekly hours of work averaging about 55. Dr.
Vernon accordingly suggests that with good timekeeping a nominal
50-hour week ought to yield the same actual hours of work (namely,
45.6) ; that is to say, that for women engaged in moderately heavy
lathe work a 50-hour week yields as good an output as a 66-hour
week, and a considerably better one than a 75-hour week.




T able I.—NINETY-FIVE OR 80 WOMEN * TURNING ALUMINUM FUSE BODIES.

W eek ending—

N o m i­ P er cent of tim e lost per week
as—
nal
hours
of w ork B roken Short
Absent
per
w eeks. weeks. Total.
tim e.
w eek.

F eb . 27-A p r. 16.........................................
M ay 14................ ........................................
M ay 21.................... .....................................
M ay 28..........................................................
.Tune 4 _ , . _______ _________ __________
June 11.............. ..........................................
.Tune 18.........................................................
June 25.........................................................
July 2 ...........................................................
July 9 ...........................................................
July 16.........................................................
July 23.........................................................
July 30..........................................................
A u g. 6 ...........................................................
•Vug 12
A u g. 19.........................................................

58.5
66.5
66.5
66.5
58.5
58.5
58.5
58.5
62.5
52.5
51.0
66.5
62.5
49.5
49^5

8.2
5.9

74.8
64.3

■

2.1
6.0

1.3
5.1

A ctual hours
of w ork per
week.

R e la tiv e
ou tpu t per
w orking
hour.

66.2
53.4

5.4

2.6

3.0

11.0

4.6

3.9

1.1

9.6

•

7.1

7.1

3.3

17.5

58.5 1
58.5
\
58.5
56.5 J

5.8

5.5

2.6

r
1
13.9 |
I

100
123

55.8]
58.5
56.1
59.1
54.8
51.0
50.3
53.1
54.2
56.0
48.5 50.0
45.6
56.2
48.6
47.0
40.3
4 3 !0

11.6
17.0

130'
128
132
136
134
137
142
133
133
126
134 132
135
128
122
124
126
121

48.611
f
1
51.3
49.9 )
52.6
47.2 I
I

136'
133
>135
128
143.

H ours o f w ork
X relative
output.

6,620 (= 1 0 0 )
6,568 ( = 99)

7,343 (= 1 1 1 )

2 ..........................................................
9 .......................................
16........................................................
23........................................................

Sept. 30........................................................

29.5

24.0

58.5
58.5
58.5
54.5
58.5
53.5
58.5
50.0
49.5
58.5
58.5
29.5

43.5
49.2
52.0 4 8 .3
46.9
50.0
44. r
48.8
41.8
45.6
41.6
48.8
48.8
24.5

1371
146
153 144
132
152
143
141
156
158
152
174
179
149

■

6.0

7.5

2.8

16.3
?

•

6.5

8.3

2.0

16.8

I

T o ta l o u tp u t reaches a m a x im u m 11 per cent greater
than that of pre-Christm as p eriod , though w eekly
hours of w ork are 11.4 less.

6,737 ( -1 0 2 )

H ou rly ou tp u t rises again to th at of th© M ay-June
p eriod, b u t a b olition of Su n day labor has n ot yet
h ad an y ob v iou s effect.
Fu rth er four d a y s’ h olid a y (general h olid ay, b y G ov­
ernm ent ord e r).

6,955 (= 1 0 5 )

F u rther rise of h ou rly ou tp u t due to h olid ay and to
ab olition of S un day labor.

7,205 (= 1 0 9 )

Influen ce of shorter hours and of abolition of Sunday
labor n ow w ell established. T ota l ou tpu t 9 per
cent greater than it was a year ago, though w eek ly
hours of w ork are 20.6 less.

1 T h e figures show n in the table d o not represent the ou tpu t of the same n um ber of w om en . In N ovem b er the n u m ber of w om en w hose o u tp u t w as being studied was 95, b u t
A u gust, 29 had d rop p ed out. T o the rem aining 66 w om en were added 14 others, m aking the total from that tim e on 80, instead of 95.
(See H ealth of M unition W orkers Com­
m ittee: M em orandum N o. 18, p . 4.)




%
O
8

S
£
r*
W
w
>

F all of ou tp u t m ay be due to slackness resultant on
d ep rivation of usual h olid a y . N o m ore Sunday
labor after A u g . 6.
H o lid a y for a w eek (to com pensate for loss of W h it­
suntide and A u gu st h olid a ys).

136

O ct. 7 ............................................................
O ct. 14..........................................................
O ct. 21......................................................
O ct. 28..........................................................
N ov . 4...........................................................
N ov. 11.........................................................
N ov . 18.........................................................
N ov . 25.........................................................
D ec. 2 ...........................................................
D ec. 9 ...........................................................
D ec. 16.........................................................
D ec. 23.........................................................

T otal o u tp u t on ly 1 p e r c e n t less than in pre-Christm as
period , th ou gh w eek ly hours of w ork are 12.8 less.

W orkers w ent on to n ight shift for three weeks.

A u g. 26.........................................................
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.

R em arks concernin g output.

r
h
W
;>
%
a
w
M
Q

Table II.—FORTY WOMEN MILLING A SCREW THREAD.

W eek ending—

1.3
4.1

2.4
1.7

9.6
11.7
f

■

4.9

4.3

1 .6

1 0 .8

•

7.1

5.5

2 .6

15.2

:

1
j)
i
1
jJ

5.2

3.5

.7

9.4

f
1
)
[
f

6 .2
i
j

7.9

2 .0

I
16.1 ]
I

H ours o f w ork
X relative
output.

64.9
55.4
62.5’
63.1
40.6
46.3 •54.6
51.9
56.8
54.8
59. Si
55.6
53.5 •54.8
50.5;
29.5
38.1

100
109
113'
111
118
113 •114
118
114
109j
118
122
121 .
119
127j
123
122

51.11
f
47.5|
J
38.51 45.5 1
45.0J
I
26.4
44.8
49.31
48. 7
49.5
48.1
49.9
43.1
48.3

|
121]
126 1 2 1
1171
12lJI
119
110
1321
132
139
133
130
134
129

R em ark s concerning output.

6,490 (= 1 0 0 )
6,039 ( = 93)

6 ,224 ( = 96)

(T otal ou tp u t reaches its m axim u m , 2 p er cen t m ore
6,631 ( = 102) ^ than in N ovem b er-D ecem b er p eriod , though
( w eek ly hours of w ork are 1 0 .1 less.
(R ed u ction of hours ow ing to tem porary shortage of
\ m aterial.
H olid a y for a w eek.
5,506 ( = 85)

6 ,397 ( =

/ N o im m ediate response to abolition of Su n day labor,
( so total ou tp u t falls considerably.

LABOBk

57.0
51.0
44.5
48.5
29.5
54 5
54.5
58.5
55.5
58.5
58.5
58.5

5.9
5.9

R e la tiv e
o u tp u t per
w ork in g
hour.

O
F




71.8
62.9
.66.5
6 6 .5
55.0
55.0
50.5
66.5
62.0
• 6 6 .5
6 6 .5
6 6 .5
59.0
33.5
44.5

A ctu a l hours
o f w ork per
w eek.

EOXJES

N ov. 21-D ec. 19.........................................
Feb. 27-A p r. 1G.......................................
M ay 28..........................................................
June 4 ...........................................................
June 11.........................................................
June 18.........................................................
June 25.........................................................
July 2 ............................................................
Julv 9 ..........................................................
July in ..........................................................
J u ly 23..........................................................
July 30......................................................
A u g. 6 .......................................................
A u g. 1 2 .........................................................
A u g. 19.........................................................
A u g. 20.........................................................
Sept. 2 ..........................................................
Sept. 9 ......................................................
Sept. 10........................................................
Sept. 23......................................................
Sept. 30........................................................
O ct. 7 ........................................................
O ct. 14..........................................................
O ct. 21......................................................
O ct. 28..........................................................
N ov . 4...........................................................
N ov . 11.........................................................
N ov . 18.....................................................

N o m i­ Per cent o. tim e lost per week
as—
nal
hours
of w ork
Broken Short A bsent
per
Total.
weeks. weeks.
w eek.
tim e.

(T otal o u tp u t on ly l ’per cent less than in N o v e m b e r99) ^ D ecem ber p eriod , th ou gh w eekly h ours of w ork
[ are 16.8 less.

-a

•4

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H A N D EFF IC IE N C Y .

148.
D r . V e r n o n e x p la in s th a t th e r e a s o n w h y a r e d u c tio n o f h o u r s
d id n o t le a d t o a n im p r o v e m e n t o f t o t a l o u t p u t s im ila r t o th a t in th e
fu s e -b o d y t u r n in g o p e r a t io n is th a t f o r f o u r -fi ft h s o f th e t o t a l tim e
r e q u ir e d t o m ill th e s c r e w t h r e a d o n th e fu s e b o d y th e o p e r a t iv e h a d
n o o p p o r t u n it y o f q u ic k e n in g h e r w o r k in g s p e e d , s in c e sh e h a d
m e r e l y t o s t a n d i d l y w a t c h i n g h e r m a c h i n e , wrh e r e a s t h e l a t h e w o r k e r
h a d t o a p p l y s e v e n d if f e r e n t c u t t i n g a n d b o r i n g t o o ls in s u c c e s s io n
t o e a c h fu s e b o d y , a n d c o u ld q u ic k e n u p h e r s p e e d o f w o r k a t a lm o s t
e v e r y sta g e.
T able H i;—F IF T Y -S IX

W eek ending—

N ov . 14-D ec. 19............ ..
F eb . 27-Apr. 1 G.................
M ay 28..............................
JlITlO 4 ...............................
J unc 11.................................
June 18................................
June 25.............................
July 2....................................
July 9.................... 1 .............
July 16..................................
July 2 2 ..................................
July 29..................................
AU£?. 5 ...................................
A u g. 12.............................
A u g. 19.................................
A u g. 26.................................
Sept. 2 ..................................
Sept. 9...................................
Sept. 16............................ ..
Sept. 23................ '...........
Sept. 30.
O ct. 7....................................
O ct. 14..................................
O ct. 2 1 ..................................
O ct. 28..................................
N ov . 4 ..................................
N ov . 11.................................
N ov . 1 8 ........................... ...
N ov . 25.............................. .
D ec. 2....................................
D ec. 9....................................
D ec. 16..................................
D ec. 23.................................

MEN. S IZ IN G

FU SE

Per cen t of tim e lost per.
N om ­
w e e k as—
inal
hours o f
w oxlc
Broken Short A b sen t
per
T otal.
weeks. weeks.
tim e.
w eek.

66.7
62.8
66.o
63.5
58.5
53.5
.
58.5
58.5
61.0
66.5
55.5'
58.5 53.2
31.0
39.5
58.5
58.5
44.5
53. 5
29 5
54. 5
54.5
55.3
51.8
58.5
58.5
56.0
55. 2
54.5
58.5
58.5
29.5

\

5.6
8 .6

2 .8
5.8

5.2

8.3

.9

5 .2

9.0

2.7

5.6

4.8

1 .1

1 .6

.9

6 .6

5.0

.7

9.9

J

\

4 -1

I

4.2

A ctual
hours of
w o rk per
week.

R e la tiv e
H ours of
o u tp u t per
w ork X rela­
w ork in g
tiv e o u tp u t.
hour.

1 2 .8
19.6

4.4
5.2

|

B O D IE S .

58.2
50. o
54.91
. 55.8
:
49.9
4=6.0 ■52.1 ;
14.4
51.2
48.3
51.7
59.1
• 47. 6
16.9 • 45.9 ■46.3 ■
.
45.3
27.8
33.0

109
122
1171
122
118
119
119122
118
112
120
119
124 • 123
126
130
136

r
I
11.5 )
|

131]|
1351
[ 135
13311
139!
135
1331
142
138 r 137
133
138
138
136
135
140 i 139
141
146
136

51.6]
f
49.21 4-7. 6 I
40.11
1
.
49.4j
[
2 S. 2
51.3]
51.4
50.2 51.3
47.7
55.7
:
53.3
50.6
50.7
51.2
49.1
50.6
53.0
27.1

5> 820 (= 1 0 0 )
6 ^ 161 (==106)

6 ,, 200 (= 1 0 7 )

6 ,42& (-1 1 0 )

7,028 (=-121)

7,117 (=122)

149.
D u r i n g th e p e r io d e n d in g D e c e m b e r 1 6 , th e n o m in a l w e e k ly
h o u r s w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y le s s t h a n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d e n d i n g A p r i l 1 6 ,
b u t o w in g t o t h e c e s s a tio n o f S u n d a y l a b o r t h e t im e k e e p in g w as- so
m u ch im p r o v e d th a t th e a c tu a l h o u rs o f w o r k w e r e g r e a te r th a n d u r ­
i n g th e e a r lie r p e r io d .




HOURS OF LABOB.
T able IV.—FIFTEEN YOUTHS BORING TOP CAPS.

Statistical period^

Nkjv:. 15-D ec. 15:............
Jan. 3,-Feb, 13.................
Fed). 21-A p r.. Mk.
M ay 1-M ay 28................
M ay 21kJ u ly 2 . ..............
July 3-S ept. 23 (d&y
shift-);.
Jufy 2 -S ep t. 23 (night
shift);
Sept. 25-D ec. 16 (d a y
shift).
Sept. 24-D ec. 16 (night
shift).

N o m ­ P e r cent o f tim e lo st as—
. W e e k s in
inal'
whichA ctual:
hours
hours o f
Sun day
of
AbB to*
w o rk p er
labor
, Short
w o rk
, sent Total.
. k en
w eek.
was
waeks.
per
w eeks.
tim e.
perform ed.
week.

5.'Out:af 5 ..
4 out of 6 . .
(To u t a£ 8 . .
2 out of 4 ..
O ou t o f 51.
l
2 out. of 6 . .

78*5
75.5
6314
61.5
51,1.
59.7

3»&
5.8
5.4
5 .8
1 ,9 s
5.5

0 o u t of 6 _.

61.6 . 2 . 6

0 out af 6 . .

54.8

3.7

0 out of 6 . .

58.2

2.7

. 4.0;
7:&
1 .0
8.5
5 .8
2.3 , 13.5’
3.0
2.3
1 1 .1
5.3
■ 7l2r
.
3.9 * " 2 *2 * ir . 6

'~~i.T

4.8-

1.4*

1 1 .0

7.3

......

a. 8

3.3

6 .0

R e la tiv e
ou tp u t
parw ork in g
hour.

72. &
69.1.
5 4 .8 ;
:
'54.7.
47.4!

m
106
1£&
117
m

52.8)
lo4v5
5 6 .2j
| 128)

( 12al\
m

\

H ours of
w o rk X
relative
output.

T,250 ( — 1 0 0 ;
7,325 ( - 1 0 ! )
6,400

88)

7,030 ( = 97)

[ 126l=

48.7)
\12& 6,514 ( = 90)
k5L7 {
5 4 .7\
126

1 5 0 . T h i s p r o c e s s is l a r g e l y a u t o m a t i c ; i n c r e a s e o f o u t p u t c o u l d
o ® iy b e a tta in e d b y a m o r e c o n tin u o u s fe e d in g o f th e m a c h in e s
t h r o u g h o u t w o r k in g h ou rs.
151. S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly , th e a b o v e d a ta sh o w th a t a r e d u c t io n in
t h e w e e k l y h o u rosf a c t u a l w o r k , v a r y i n g f r o m 7 t o 2 # h o u r s p e r w e e k ,
i n mo c a s e r e s u l t e d i n m o r e t h a n a n i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i m i n u t i o n o f t o t a l
o u t p u t , w h ile o n t h e a v e r a g e it p r o d u c e d a s u b s t a n t ia l in c re a s e . A s
D r . V e r n o n p o in t s o u t, th e c la s s ific a t io n o f th e o p e r a t io n s a c c o r d in g t o
t h e p o s s ib ilit y th e y o ffe r f o r s p e e d in g -u p - p r o d u c t io n d e m o n s tr a te s
a n e w th e s e lf - e v id e n t f a c t th a t th e a lt e r a t io n s o f h o u r s m a y h a v e v e r y
d iffe r e n t e ffe c ts in d iffe r e n t o p e r a t io n s . T h e e x a c t m e a s u r e o f s u ch
a lt e r a t io n s c a n n o t b e p r e d i c t e d ; it c a n o n ly b e a s c e r t a in e d b y o b s e r v a ­
t i o n a n d e x p e r i m e n t . I t a p p e a r s e v i d e n t , h o w e v e r ,, t h a t f o r p r o c e s s e s
s im ila r t o th o s e e x a m in e d b y D r . V e r n o n t h e w e e k ly h o u r s c a n a d v a n ­
t a g e o u s l y b e r e d u c e d t o a t o t a l o f f r o m 5 0 t o 5 5 h o u r s ,, a n d h e s u g g e s t s
th a t e v e n lo w e r lim it s m ig h t g iv e a n e q u a lly g o o d o u tp u t.
152. T w o fu r t h e r p o in t s o f im p o r ta n c e e m e rg e f r o m c o n s id e r a tio n
o f th ese d a ta I n th e fir s t p la c e th e r a te o f p r o d u c t i o n c h a n g e d
g r a d u a lly , a n d fr e q u e n t ly f o u r m o n t h s e la p s e d b e f o r e an e q u ilib r iu m
v a l u e w a s r e a c h e d . T h i s g r a d u a l c h a n g e a p p e a r s to. n u l l i f y t h e s u g ­
g e s t io n th a t th e e ffe c t u p o n o u t p u t o f th e c h a n g e o f h o u r s w a s a m e re
co n s e q u e n c e o f th e d e s ire t o e a r n th e sa m e w e e k ly w a g e s as b e f o r e th e
h o u r s w e r e s h o r t e n e d . T h e e x p l a n a t i o n is r a t h e r t o b e t r a c e d t o t h e
w o r k e r f i n d i n g u n c o n s c i o u s l y a n d g r a d u a l l y b y e x p e r i e n c e t h a t lie c a n
w o r k m o r e s tr e n u o u s ly a n d q u ic k ly f o r a s h o r t-h o u r w e e k th a n f o r a
l o n g - h o u r w e e k . I n th e se co n d ' p la c e th e e v id e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a c o n ­
s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e h o u r l y o u t p u t is p o s s i b l e , q u i t e a p a r t
f r o m a n y in c r e a s e d r a p i d i t y o f w o r k in g . T h u s , as t h e r e s u lt o f s p e c ia l
in v e s t ig a t io n s , D r . V e r n o n f o u n d t h a t in th e c a s e o f th e fir s t b o d y o f
w o r k e r s m e n t io n e d a b o v e t h e tim e lo s t in c o m m e n c in g a n d s t o p p in g




80

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND EFF IC IE N C Y ,

w o r k d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p e r i o d a v e r a g e d 3 7 m i n u t e s a s c o m p a r e d A vith
o n l y 26^- m i n u t e s d u r i n g t h e t h i r d p e r i o d .
( S e e C d . 8 G 2 8 .)
153. P r o f . L o v e d a y , in h is m e m o r a n d u m o n T h e C a u s e s a n d C o n ­
d i t i o n s o f L o s t T i m e , w h i c h is i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m m i t t e e ’ s i n t e r i m
r e p o r t o n I n d u s t r ia l E ffic ie n c y a n d F a t i g u e ,1 a ls o s u p p lie s v a lu a b le
d a ta , th o u g h o f a s o m e w h a t d iffe r e n t c h a r a c te r .
I n th e fir s t p la c e , h e
p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f l o s t t i m e t h a t is d u e t o s i c k n e s s a n d
o t h e r u n a v o i d a b l e c a u s e s is , a s a r u l e , g r e a t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i n f a c ­
t o r y r e c o r d s , a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n d u e t o s la c k n e s s c o n s e q u e n t l y o v e r ­
e s tim a te d .
I n th e s e c o n d p la c e , h e e x p r e s s e s th e v ie w th a t l o n g
h o u r s , m u c h o v e r tim e , a n d e s p e c ia lly S u n d a y la b o r , e x e r t a p e r n ic io u s
e ffe c t u p o n h e a lth , p a r t ic u la r ly o f p e r s o n s o c c u p ie d in h e a y y tra d e s .
I n p a r a g r a p h 33 ( 5 ) o f t h a t m e m o r a n d u m h e g iv e s t w o ta b le s , th e
fir s t d e a lin g w it h a b o d y o f a b o u t 180 m e n , a n d th e s e c o n d w it h
b e tw e e n th re e a n d fo u r h u n d r e d m e n e m p lo y e d o n h e a v y w o r k , th e ir
n o r m a l h o u r s b e in g f r o m 65 t o 70.
I n b o t h th ese ca ses, w h e n c o m ­
p a r i s o n is m a d e w i t h t h e f i g u r e s o f l o s t t i m e f o r J u n e , 1 9 1 5 , a n d f o r a
y e a r la te r, th e fa c t e m e rg e s th a t th e re w a s a m a te r ia l in c re a s e in th o
a m o u n t o f lo s t tim e , a n d t h a t b y f a r th e la r g e r p o r t io n o f th e in c re a s e
w a s d u e t o r e c o r d e d s ic k n e s s .
I n b o th cases, th r o u g h o u t, r e c o r d e d
s ick n e s s r e p r e s e n t e d a n o t ic e a b ly h ig h p r o p o r t io n o f th e t o t a l a m o u n t
o f tim e lo s t.
154. P r o f . L o v e d a y a ls o d e v o t e d c o n s id e r a b le s t u d y t o th e e x a m in a ­
t io n o f fig u r e s c o n c e r n in g th e a m o u n t o f tim e lo s t b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t.
H e c o n c lu d e s —
(a)
T h a t i f e a r l y h o u r s b e w o r k e d , t h e l o s s is l i k e l y t o d e c r e a s e i f
t h e s t a r t b e l a t e r t h a n 6 a. m .
(& ) T h a t w h e n t h e t o t a l h o u r s o f t h e d a y - s h i f t w e e k a r e t h e s a m e ,
th e re a re lik e ly to b e m o r e h o u r s a c tu a lly w o r k e d w ith o u t th a n w ith
w o r k b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t , o t h e r c o n d it io n s b e in g s im ila r .
(c)
T h a t a r e d u c tio n o f h o u r s m a y b e c o m p e n s a te d f o r o r e v e n o u t­
w e ig h e d b y th e a b o lit io n o f e a r ly h o u r s , p a r t ly o w in g to r e d u c e d
a b se n ces, p a r t ly o w i n g t o r e d u c e d w a ste o f tim e , a n d p a r t ly t o th e
g re a te r v ig o r o f w o r k a fte r ta k in g fo o d .
155. H e q u o te s fig u r e s f o r a n u m b e r o f d iffe r e n t fa c t o r ie s w h ic h
c o n fir m th e se c o n c lu s io n s .
H e s t r o n g ly p resses th e v ie w th a t fo o d
s h o u ld p r e c e d e w o r k .
H e p o in t s o u t th e u n d e s ir a b ilit y o f h u n g e r
w o r k , its b a d e ffe c t u p o n h e a lt h a n d th e t e m p t a t io n t o lo s e t im e in th e
s h o r t e a r l y s p e l ls .
156. T h e r e c a n b e lit t le d o u b t t h a t t h e r e is a n in c r e a s in g r e c o g n i ­
t io n o n th e p a r t o f b o t h e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k e r s o f th e b r o a d fa c t
w h ic h e m e rg e s fr o m th e in v e s tig a tio n s o f D r . V e r n o n a n d P r o f .
L o v e d a y , n a m e ly , th a t s u b s t a n t ia l r e d u c t io n o f h o u r s c a n b e e ffe c t e d
w ith o u t a n y r e d u c tio n o f o u tp u t.
W h e r e a s at th e b e g in n in g o f




1 Cd. 8511.

HOUES OF LABOR.

81

t h e w a r t h e r e w a s a g e n e r a l b e l i e f t h a t lo n g e r h o u r s n e c e s s a r ily
p r o d u c e d la r g e r o u tp u t, it h a s n o w b e c o m e w id e ly r e c o g n iz e d th a t a
13 o r 1 4 -h o u r d a y f o r m e n a n d a 1 2 -h o u r d a y f o r w o m e n , e x c e p t in g
f o r q u it e b r i e f p e r io d s , a r e n o t p r o f it a b le f r o m a n y p o i n t o f v ie w .
F e w , p r o b a b ly , w o u ld d is a g r e e w it h th e s ta te m e n t c o n t a in e d in th e
su m m a r y p r e p a r e d b y th e R ig h t H o n . G . N . B a rn e s , M . P ., o f th e
r e c e n t r e p o r t o f th e c o m m is s io n s o n in d u s tr ia l u n r e s t 1 th a t—
There is a general concensus of opinion that Sunday and overtime labor
should be reduced to a minimum, that holidays should not be curtailed, and
that hours of work should not be such as to exclude opportunities for recreation
and amusement.

157.
I t m u s t b e r e c o g n iz e d th a t th e c o n d it io n s a re n o t th e sa m
n o w as th e y w e r e in th e e a r ly d a y s o f th e w a r ; n o t o n ly h a v e la r g e
n u m b e r s o f th e y o u n g e s t a n d s tr o n g e s t w o r k e r s b e e n w it h d r a w n f o r
m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , b u t t h o s e w h o r e m a i n h a v e u n d e r g o n e thfc s t r a i n
in s e p a r a b le f r o m a c o n tin u o u s p e r io d o f lo n g h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t.
T o t h is m u s t b e a d d e d th e s t r a in c a u s e d b y f a m i l y a n d o t h e r
a n x ie tie s a r is in g o u t o f th e w a r. W h ile m u c h h a s b e e n d o n e t o im ­
p r o v e c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t th e y a re s t ill in m a n y ca ses f a r fr o m
id e a l, n o t a b ly as r e g a r d s h o u s in g a n d t r a n s it. F u r t h e r , la r g e n u m ­
b e r s o f w o m e n a r e n o w e m p lo y e d o n h e a v y w o r k a n d o n s k ille d
o p e r a t io n s w h ic h w e r e c o n s id e r e d t w o y e a r s a g o t o b e q u it e b e y o n d
t h e ir c a p a c it y . I t m a y b e tr u e th a t n o s e r io u s b r e a k d o w n o f h e a lt h
h as as y e t b een ob se rv e d a m o n g th e g r e a f m ass o f th e w o rk e rs, b u t
it c a n n o t b e a s su m e d t h a t t h is c o n d it io n w il l c o n t in u e in d e fin it e ly .
T h e e ffe c ts o f th e s t r a in m a y e v e n h a v e b e e n a lr e a d y m o r e s e r io u s
t h a n a p p e a r s o n t h e s u r f a c e , f o r w h i l e i t is p o s s i b l e t o j u d g e r o u g h l y
th e g e n e r a l c o n d it io n o f th o s e w o r k in g in th e fa c t o r y t o -d a y , lit t le
in fo r m a t io n is a v a ila b le c o n c e r n in g th e la r g e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s
w h o , f o r o n e r e a s o n o r a n o th e r, a n d o ft e n b e ca u se t h e y fin d th e w o r k
t o o a r d u o u s , a r e c o n t in u a lly g i v in g u p th e ir e m p lo y m e n t.
T h is
is a n im p o r t a n t p o in t w h ic h is lia b le t o b e o v e r lo o k e d , s in c e th e
s u p p l y o f la b o r h a s h it h e r t o b e e n a d e q u a te t o fill t h e ir p la c e s . T h e
i r r it a b ilit y a n d n e rv o u s n e s s m e n tio n e d b y th e c o m m is s io n o n in ­
d u s tr ia l u n re st a re m o r e o v e r w e ll-r e c o g n iz e d s y m p to m s o f fa t ig u e ,
w h ile it m u s t n o t b e fo r g o t t e n th a t th e e ffe c ts o f fa t ig u e a re a c ­
c u m u la t iv e .
H o w g r e a t is t h e b u r d e n im p o s e d u p o n w o m e n b y a
1 2 -h o u r s h if t is s h o w n b y th e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t f r o m a r e p o r t
r e c e n t ly p r e p a r e d f o r th e c o m m itte e u p o n a n in q u ir y a m o n g s t
in d iv id u a l w o m e n as t o th e c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t in a fa c t o r y ,
w h e r e m u c h o f th e w o r k w a s h e a v y in c h a r a c t e r :
1 These reports (eight in number) have been published and can be purchased through
the usual channels.

80935°—19------6




82

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

It appears that out of 140 women 99 were having under eight hours* sleep to
fit them for a night of 12-hour shift plus traveling time. Moreover, out of
146 women only 16 felt that they were able to go out at all during the week.
Where replies were not given it was in general because of the obvious absurdity
of asking the women what they did in their spare time, after having heard
their account of domestic responsibility.
It may therefore be very strongly urged that these hours of work, coupled
with the distances to be traveled, are such as to preclude the women taking any
outside interests if they are to get sufficient rest. It is obvious that the majority
of the women recognize this and are content to save themselves only for their
work. Such a sacrifice may be with justice demanded for a short period
through the exigency of a great and unexpected emergency, but should certainly
not be enforced for a longer duration than is absolutely necessary. It may
again be noted that already many of these women have worked on these long
hours for j 3 months.

158. A f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s id e r a t io n o f a ll t h e c ir c u m s t a n c e s , th e c o m ­
m itte e a r e c o n v in c e d t h a t th e m a x im u m lim it s o f w e e k ly e m p lo y m e n t
p r o v is io n a l l y s u g g e s t e d a r e t o o h ig h e x c e p t f o r q u ite s h o r t p e r io d s ,
o r p e r h a p s i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e w o r k is l i g h t a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f e m ­
p lo y m e n t e x c e p t io n a lly g o o d .
I n th e g r e a t m a jo r it y o f cases, h o w ­
e v e r , th e h o u r s o f w o r k s h o u ld n o w b e r e s tr ic te d w it h in lim its lo w e r
t h a n t h o s e q u o t e d i n p a r a g r a p h 1 4 0 a b o v e . I t is i m p o s s i b l e t o l a y
d o w n a s in g le r u le as t o th e b e s t h o u r s in a ll c a s e s ; th e b e st sch e m e
c a n o n ly b e d e te r m in e d a ft e r a c a r e fu l c o n s id e r a t io n o f a n u m b e r
o f d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s , e. g . :
(a) T h e s t r a i n i n v o l v e d i n t h e w o r k , i t s c h a r a c t e r ( h e a v y o r l i g h t ,
c o n tin u o u s o r in t e r m it t e n t ), th e m e n ta l d e m a n d w h ic h it m a k e s u p o n
th e w o r k e r , a n d th e le n g th o f p rocess.
(b) T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p a c e o f t h e w o r k i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e
m a c h in e .
( c) T h e f a c t o r y e n v ir o n m e n t — te m p e r a tu r e , v e n t ila t io n , e tc.
(d) T h e i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y o f t h e w o r k e r s , a n d t h e i r
a g e , se x , a n d e x p e r ie n c e .
(e) T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r y
(in c lu d in g w e lfa r e su p e r­
v is io n .
( / ) T h e s u ffic ie n c y a n d s u it a b ilit y o f t h e w o r k e r s ’ f o o d , c a n te e n
a c c o m m o d a t io n , e tc.
(g) T h e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e h o u r s o f w o r k ( s p e l l s , b r e a k s , a n d
p a u se s).

(h) C o n d i t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e f a c t o r y — e. g . , h o u s i n g a n d t r a n s i t .
159. I n a r r a n g in g th e h o u r s o f w o r k f o r a f a c t o r y a llo w a n c e
s h o u ld b e m a d e , as f a r as d is c ip lin e a n d o r g a n iz a t io n p e r m it, f o r th e
fa c t th a t th e b e s t h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t w ill n o t b e th e sa m e f o r a ll
p ro c e s s e s , e v e n in th e sa m e fa c t o r y .
1 6 0 . T h o u g h n o e x a c t s t a t e m e n t is p o s s i b l e a s t o h o w f a r t h e r e d u c ­
t io n o f h o u r s c a n a d v a n t a g e o u s ly b e c a r r ie d o u t , e it h e r n o w o r in
th e n e a r f u t u r e , i t is n o t w it h o u t s ig n ific a n c e t h a t s o e x p e r ie n c e d a n




HOUES OF LABOR.

83

e m p lo y e r as L o r d L e v e r h u lm e s h o u ld b e n o w a d v o c a t in g th e e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t o f a s ix -h o u r d a y . T h o u g h m a n y w il l n o t b e p r e p a r e d a t
th e p r e s e n t tim e t o a g r e e as t o th e f e a s ib ilit y o f s o r a d ic a l a p r o p o s a l
t h e g r o u n d o n w h i c h t h e p r o p o s a l is a d v o c a t e d , a s s t a t e d i n a m e m o ­
r a n d u m s u b m itte d t o th e c o m m itte e , a p p e a r s w o r t h y o f q u o t a t io n :
But under the present system o f hours o f work the thorough education o f our
children is practically impossible. An absolutely essential step in the direction
o f a more efficient educational system is the shortening o f the hours o f labor
and the improving o f the conditions o f living for the worker.
W e are only just beginning to make a considered study o f the inefficiency
and resulting waste that is produced by fatigue. W e can not claim even yet
that we have any very profound knowledge on the subject, but the w asteful­
ness o f fatigue has been abundantly proved by the researches already made.
Therefore it is essential that work in the factory, the workshop, and the office
should be so arranged as to avoid fatigue, and by maintaining the general
health o f the workers, to prolong their activity and increase their skill and
efficiency.
Moreover, modern conditions o f production requiring costly plant, machinery,
and factory buildings make it obvious that such division o f the 24 hours must
be made as will (w hilst utilizing the mechanical utilities to their utmost
capacity so as to get as large an output from plant, machinery, and mechanical
utilities as possible) tend to relieve the human element from fatigue. Only by
so doing can we reduce to a minimum all overhead charges for interest, depre­
ciation, and rent, etc.
It is obvious from the above that when our modern industries are run on a
less fatiguing system o f say two shifts each o f six and a half hours with half
an hour olf for meals (making six working hours in all per d a y), the efficiency
o f the worker by thus avoiding fatigue can be increased by at least 33 per cent,
and consequently that as much work can readily be done in six working hours
as under present conditions is done in eight. But in addition to the ability o f
the employee to produce as big an output in six hours as is now produced in
eight, there would be the added advantage that the plant, machinery, etc., would
be running for 50 per cent longer time, viz, 12 hours instead of eight, which
running of machinery would reduce the overhead charges proportionately and
Increase the output enormously.
At the close o f the war we shall be in a unique position to try this experiment
as a Nation. W e shall want all the output o f manufactured goods we can pro­
duce. W e shall not have immediately the power largely to increase our plant
and machinery. W e shall have the return o f our heroes from the field of b a ttle;
therefore we shall have ample supply of labor to test the experiment. The
w orld’s demand for manufactured articles after the war w ill be overwhelming
and unprecedented.
The six-hour working day does not mean some hours gained for loafing. It is
not intended to produce a loa fer’s paradise within the United Kingdom, and I
say, without hesitation, that there is not a single man or woman o f those who
would be benefited by a six-hour working day who would not feel themselves
to be insulted if he or she were thought capable o f viewing the proposal in
that light.

161.
T h o u g h th e e x te n t to w h ic h h o u rs o f la b o r ca n b e a d v a n t
g e o u s ly r e d u c e d m u s t n e c e s s a r ily v a r y , th e c o m m it t e e d e s ir e s t r o n g l y
to e m p h a s iz e th e ir o p in io n th a t th e tim e is n o w r ip e f o r a fu r t h e r su b ­




84

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND EFF IC IE N C Y .

s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n t l ie h o u r s o f w o r k . I f t h i s b e e f f e c t e d w i t h d u e
r e g a r d t o th e v a r y in g c o n d it io n s p r e v a ilin g in d iffe r e n t b r a n c h e s o f
i n d u s t r y , t h e y a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t r e d u c t i o n s c a n b e m a d e w i t h b e n e f it
t o h e a lt h a n d w it h o u t i n ju r y t o o u t p u t . I t is h ig h l y s ig n ific a n t in
t h is c o n n e c t io n th a t th e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u ld h a v e r e c e n t ly a n n o u n c e d
th e ir d e cis io n t o in tr o d u c e a n e x p e rim e n t in som e G o v e rn m e n t n a ­
t io n a l f a c t o r ie s o f a w e e k o f 50 h o u r s . I t is t o b e h o p e d t h a t th e e x ­
p e r im e n t w i l l b e c lo s e ly w a t c h e d a n d its r e s u lt s a c c u r a t e ly r e c o r d e d .
162.
I t m u s t b e o b v io u s th a t a n y r e d u c t io n o f h o u r s w h ic h c a n b
a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t l o s s o f o u t p u t is p r o f i t a b l e n o t o n l y t o t h e e m ­
p lo y e r , in t h a t it r e d u c e s r u n n in g e x p e n s e s , b u t t o th e w o r k e r s in c e
e v e n i f h is o r h e r d a ily m e a s u r e o f w o r k in v o lv e s t h e sa m e a m o u n t o f
f a t ig u e a lo n g e r p e r io d is l e f t f o r r e c o v e r y , f o r th e e n jo y m e n t o f
a d e q u a te s le e p a n d r e s t, a n d f o r th e n e c e s s a r y o p p o r t u n it y f o r r e c r e a ­
t io n , e x e r c is e , a n d t h e d is c h a r g e o f th e o r d in a r y d u tie s o f c it iz e n s h ip
a n d d o m e s t ic l i f e .




SECTION VI.— SHIFTS, BREAKS, SPELLS, PAUSES, AND HOLIDAYS.
SHIFTS AND DAILY HOURS OF EMPLOYMENT.

163. I f w e e k ly h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t a r e lim it e d , as s u g g e s t e d in
th e la s t s e c t io n , it n e c e s s a r ily f o l l o w s t h a t a v e r a g e d a ily h o u r s o f e m ­
p lo y m e n t w il l a ls o b e c o n fin e d w it h in m o d e r a t e lim it s . T h e s p e c ia l
q u e s t io n s w h ic h a r is e in r e g a r d t o th e m c a n t h e r e f o r e b e d e a lt w it h
b r ie fly .
1 6 4 . T h e d a i l y e m p l o y m e n t o f w o r k e r s is o r g a n i z e d i n s i n g l e s h i f t s ,
in d o u b le s h ift s , o r in th r e e s h ift s . F r o m th e p o in t o f v ie w o f o u t p u t
s in g le s h ift s a re o p e n t o o b je c t io n o w in g t o th e la r g e n u m b e r o f h o u r s
o u t o f th e 2 4 d u r in g w h ic h t h e m a c h in e r y lie s id le . I n t h e e a r lie s t
s ta g e s o f th e w a r , w h e n it w a s fr e q u e n t ly fo u n d im p o s s ib le t o o r g a n ­
iz e a s e c o n d s h if t o w in g t o th e d e a r th o f w o r k e r s , a n d e s p e c ia lly o f
s k ille d o p e r a t iv e s , a n e n d e a v o r w a s m a d e t o s e c u re la r g e r o u t p u t b y
p r o lo n g in g th e h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t, m e n , a n d e v e n w o m e n , b e in g e m ­
p lo y e d o v e r l o n g p e r io d s f o r 14 o r e v e n 15 h o u r s a d a y . F o r r e a s o n s
a lr e a d y e x p la in e d it is n o w g e n e r a lly r e c o g n iz e d t h a t th e se l o n g h o u r s
a r e u n p r o fita b le , a n d th a t m u c h s h o r te r h o u r s c a n b e w o r k e d w it h o u t
a n y lo s s o f o u t p u t . M a n y m u n it io n e m p lo y e r s , a s a r e s u lt o f r e c e n t
e x p e r ie n c e , n o w ta k e th e v ie w th a t f o r w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s a
1 2 -h o u r d a y is t o o lo n g , a n d h o u r s a re n o w fr e q u e n t ly lim it e d t o a 1 0 h o u r o r e v e n a s h o r te r d a y , lo n g e r h o u r s b e in g o n ly w o r k e d o c c a s io n ­
a lly t o m e e t s p e c ia l e m e r g e n c ie s .
165. D o u b le s h ift s a re th e f o r m o f e m p lo y m e n t n o w m o s t c o m m o n ly
a d o p t e d . T h o u g h f o r r e a s o n s t o b e s ta te d in a la t e r s e c tio n , n ig h
w o r k is i n i t s e l f o p e n t o s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n s a s a p e r m a n e n t p a r t o f t h e
in d u s t r ia l o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e c o u n t r y — a t le a st, s o f a r as w o m e n a re
c o n c e r n e d — it m u s t f o r th e p r e s e n t b e r e g a r d e d as in e v it a b le , a t a n y
r a te , f o r a d u lt w o r k e r s , s in c e it e n a b le s th e m a c h in e r y t o b e e m p lo y e d
f o r th e g r e a te r p a r t o f th e 2 4 h o u r s ; a n d so lo n g as th e h o u r s o f w o r k
a r e n o t u n d u ly lo n g , a n d d u e a t t e n t io n is p a id t o th e e n v ir o n m e n t o f
th e w o r k e r , it is u n d o u b t e d ly p r o d u c t i v e o f in c r e a s e d o u t p u t .
166. F o r m e n th e t w o s h ift s a re m o s t c o m m o n ly e a c h o f 12 h o u r s ’
d u r a tio n , th o u g h o c c a s io n a lly t o m e e t lo c a l c o n d it io n s th e n ig h t s h ift
is o f 1 3 h o u r s , a s c o m p a r e d t o 11 h o u r s o f t h e d a y s h i f t .
S u ch a
a r r a n g e m e n t c a n h a r d ly b e e c o n o m ic a l, in v ie w o f th e g r e a t e r s t r a in
in v o lv e d b y n ig h t w o r k , a n d th e a r r a n g e m e n t s h o u ld c e r t a in ly b e
a v o id e d w h e r e v e r p o s s ib le . W h e r e th e n a tu r e o f th e w o r k d o e s n o t
r e n d e r i t e s s e n t ia l t h a t t h e e n d o f o n e s h i f t s h o u l d c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e
85




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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

c o m m e n c e m e n t o f th e n e x t, i t is u n q u e s tio n a b ly a d v a n ta g e o u s to le a v e
a n in t e r v a l b e tw e e n th e t w o s h ift s . T h e s h o r t e r h o u r s th u s r e n d e r e d
p o s s ib le a r e b e n e fic ia l f r o m th e p o in t o f v ie w o f b o t h th e h e a lt h o f th e
w o r k e r s a n d o f o u t p u t . A p a r t f r o m t h is , o p p o r t u n it y is a ffo r d e d f o r
c le a n in g a n d v e n t ila t in g th e s h o p s — a m a tte r o f m u c h im p o r ta n c e .
T h i s p o i n t w a s e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e c i r c u l a r i s s u e d b y t h e H o m e O f f ic e
w ith th e ir g e n e r a l o r d e r o f S e p te m b e r , 1916. T h e y s t a t e d :
The Secretary o f State desires to emphasize the desirability o f allow ing an
interval o f half an hour or more between the two shifts unless the process is one
which must necessarily be carried on continuously. Such an interval is o f great
value in affording an opportunity for cleaning and ventilating the shops.

167. M e n a re o c c a s io n a lly e m p lo y e d o n a s y s te m o f th re e 8 -h o u r
s h ift s .
O f th e o p e r a t io n o f t h is s y s te m in c e r t a in stee l w o r k s a
p r o m in e n t t r a d e s -u n io n is t s p o k e as f o l l o w s :
W hile it is too early to make any definite statement as to the effect o f the
change upon the health o f the workers, employers had borne testimony to the
great success o f the ch an ge; bad men had become good and good men better.
Under the old system a worker was completely worn out by his w ork ; under
the new system he was able to take up hobbies such as allotments, bowling, or
fishing, which kept him out o f the public house. Thus at one place it was re­
ported that among a population o f over 30,000 people there had not been during
the last year a single conviction for drunkenness; the shorter hours enabled
the worker to get home and get dressed and generally encouraged self-respect.

168. I f o n ly o n a c c o u n t o f th e d e a r t h o f m a le w o r k e r s th e s y s te m ,
w h a t e v e r i t s a d v a n t a g e s , is n o t c a p a b l e o f g e n e r a l a d o p t i o n a t t h e
p r e s e n t tim e .
169. T h e th r e e -s h ift sy ste m , e s p e c ia lly f o r w o m e n , h a s m u c h t o
c o m m e n d it w h e r e i t c a n b e o r g a n iz e d . I t im p o s e s lit t le o r n o s t r a in
u p o n th e w o r k e r s , w h ile th e p e r io d s f o r w h ic h th e m a c h in e r y s ta n d s
id le a r e m u c h r e d u c e d . D iffic u lt ie s in r e g a r d t o a n a lt e r n a t iv e s u p p ly
o f la b o r d o n o t a r is e t o th e s a m e e x t e n t as in th e ca s e o f m e n , a n d
t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t t h e t h r e e - s h i f t s y s t e m y i e l d s t h e b e s t r e s u lt s
w h e r e it c a n b e a r r a n g e d fo r . T h e s t r a in o f n ig h t w o r k , in d e e d , th e
s t r a i n o f w o r k g e n e r a l l y , is s e n s i b l y d i m i n i s h e d .
G re a ter v ig o r o f
w o r k i s m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s h i f t ; le s s t i m e is l o s t b y u n ­
p u n c t u a l i t y o r ill n e s s . I n t h e e i g h t - h o u r s h i f t e a c h h o u r h a s a s u s ­
t a in e d v a lu e in c o n t r a s t t o th e d im in is h in g v a lu e o f th e la t e r h o u r s in
a lo n g e r s h ift.
T h e n ig h t s h if t , w h ic h is th e m o s t t r y in g , r e c u r s
e v e r y t h ir d in s te a d o f e v e r y o th e r w eek .
1 70. O n th e o t h e r h a n d t h e r e a r e c e r t a in d iffic u ltie s o f o r g a n iz a t io n
v /h ic h h a v e t o b e s u r m o u n t e d :
(a)
M a le t o o l sette rs h a v e o r d in a r ily t o b e e m p lo y e d o n t w o 12h o u r s h i f t s . D i f f i c u l t i e s c o n s e q u e n t l y a r is e i n c o m b i n i n g t h e h o u r s o f
m e n a n d w o m e n w o r k e r s , n o ta b ly as r e g a r d s m e a l h o u r s a n d th e
s u p e r v is io n o f w o r k .




SHIFTS, BREAKS, SPELLS, PAUSES, AND HOLIDAYS.

87

(b) T h e b r e a k f o r m e a ls b e i n g l i m i t e d t o h a l f a n h o u r m a y a f f o r d
a n in a d e q u a t e tim e f o r r e fr e s h m e n t , e s p e c ia lly a t n ig h t .
( c) T im e m a y b e lo s t a t th e c h a n g e o f s h ifts .
(d) W o r k e r s m a y o b j e c t t h r o u g h f e a r t h a t s h o r t e r h o u r s w i l l m e a n
s m a lle r w a g e s.
(e)
T h e b e n e f it o f s h o r t e r h o u r s o f e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e f a c t o r y
m a y b e lo s t t h r o u g h m is u s e o f le is u r e tim e , o r b y it s d e v o t io n t o
h o u s e h o ld d u tie s . D iffic u lt ie s a re a ls o s o m e tim e s e x p e r ie n c e d in t h e
h o m e a n d i n l o d g i n g s t h r o u g h m e a ls b e i n g r e q u i r e d a t t i m e s i n c o n ­
v e n ie n t f o r o t h e r w o r k e r s .
1 7 1 . E x p e r i e n c e s h o w s t h a t t h e s e d if f ic u l t i e s , t h o u g h s u b s t a n t i a l i n
p a r t ic u la r ca ses, a r e s e ld o m in s u r m o u n ta b le ; th e r e a re n u m e r o u s
in s ta n c e s th r o u g h o u t th e c o u n t r y w h e r e th e t h r e e -s h ift sy ste m h a s
b e e n s u c c e s s fu lly o r g a n iz e d .
T h u s , it w a s r e p o r t e d o f o n e fir m —
The firm believe the three-shift system to be the best for output and health.
They are satisfied that the difficulties are not substantial and that they can all
be met by reorganization and shop management. They consider there should
never be a shortage o f material, loss o f time, friction in taking over shifts, or
any o f the other difficulties alleged against the three-shift system. In their
opinion * * * all the alleged difficulties can be overcome.
•
BREAKS.

172. T h e o r d in a r y d a ily h o u rs o f w o r k a re o r g a n iz e d u n d e r th e
“ t w o -b r e a k ” sy ste m o r th e u o n e -b r e a k ” sy stem . U n d e r th e fo r m e r
w o r k u s u a l l y c o m m e n c e s a t 6 a . m ., a n d t h e o r d i n a r y b r e a k s a r e h a l f
a n h o u r f o r b r e a k fa s t a n d o n e h o u r f o r d in n e r . U n d e r th e “ o n e
b r e a k ” s y s t e m w o r k c o m m e n c e s a f t e r b r e a k f a s t a t 7 o r 8 a. in ., a n d
t h e r e is g e n e r a l l y o n l y a s i n g l e b r e a k o f o n e h o u r f o r d i n n e r , t h o u g h
a b r e a k f o r t e a is p r o v i d e d w h e r e i t is n e c e s s i t a t e d b y t h e h o u r s o f
A v o r k in g . T h i s b r e a k i s g e n e r a l l y o f h a l f a n h o u r ’ s d u r a t i o n b u t is
s o m e t i m e s r e d u c e d t o 15 o r 2 0 m i n u t e s i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t t h e w o r k e r s
t o r e t u r n h o m e e a r lie r .
I n th e ca se o f w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s
t h i s l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v a l f o r t e a is o n l y a l l o w e d w h e r e a d e q u a t e
p r o v i s i o n is m a d e f o r t h e w o r k e r s t o o b t a i n t e a i n t h e w o r k s a n d f o r
te a t o b e a c t u a lly r e a d y f o r th e m as s o o n as th e y s t o p w o r k .
173. P r o f . L o v e d a y h a s d e v o t e d c o n s id e r a b le a tte n tio n t o in v e s t i­
g a t i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e “ o n e - b r e a k ” s y s t e m , a n d t h e r e s u lt s o f
h is in q u ir ie s a r e set o u t in h is m e m o r a n d u m o n T h e C a u s e s a n d
C o n d i t i o n s o f L o s t T i m e , w h i c h is i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m m i t t e e
in t e r im r e p o r t o n I n d u s t r ia l E ffic ie n c y a n d F a t ig u e .
H e su g g ests
th a t th e sy ste m h a s th e fo llo w in g a d v a n ta g e s :
(a)
A la r g e n u m b e r o f 6 q u a rte rs ” a re lo s t b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t.
6
T
s o m e e x t e n t t h i s l o s s is n o d o u b t u n a v o i d a b l e a n d d u e t o t h e w o r k e r s
b e i n g f a g g e d , t o m i n o r a ilm e n ts ( c o l d s a n d r h e u m a t is m ) o r t o t r a n s it




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

d i f f i c u l t i e s ; b u t m u c h o f t h e l o s s is a v o i d a b l e .
I n h is o p in io n th e
s h o r tn e s s o f t h e s p e ll b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t in c re a s e s th e t e m p t a t io n t o
m is s it.
H e says:
The regularity with which a greater number o f quarters is lost on certain
days indicates deliberate choice o f those days, and the preference for “ sleeping
in ” on Monday even when there has been no Sunday shift disproves any direct
connection between overtime and much o f the loss o f early hours.

(b)
T h e a m o u n t o f t i m e l o s t b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t i s o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t ly
la r g e t o ca u se s e r io u s d is o r g a n iz a t io n .
(0) I t i s o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f w o r k e r s w h o c a n p u t i n t h e i r b e s t
w o r k b e fo r e h a v in g a p r o p e r m e a l in th e m o r n in g .
(d)
T h e r e i s le s s i n t e r r u p t i o n o f w o r k . D r . V e r n o n , i n h i s f i r s t
r e p o r t (s e e M e m o r a n d u m N o . 1 2 ) , h a s c a lle d a t t e n t io n t o th e la r g e
a m o u n t o f t i m e w h i c h is l o s t i n s t a r t i n g a n d f i n i s h i n g w o r k .
174. P r o f . L o v e d a y , in p a r a g r a p h s 5 1 -5 4 o f h is r e p o r t , g iv e s p a r ­
tic u la r s o f a n u m b e r o f fa c t o r ie s in w h ic h w o r k b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t h a s
b e e n a b a n d o n e d w i t h g o o d r e s u lt s .
E v e n w h e re th e ch a n g e h a s
in v o lv e d a s m a ll r e d u c t io n in th e n u m b e r o f w e e k ly h o u r s t h is r e d u c ­
t i o n ^has f r e q u e n t l y b e e n m o r e t h a n c o m p e n s a t e d f o r b y t h e r e d u c t i o n
in th e a m o u ift o f t im e lo s t.
A p a r t fr o m a c o n s e r v a tiv e ' fe e lin g
a g a in s t a n y c h a n g e o b je c t io n h a s b e e n m a d e t o th e a d o p t io n o f th e
“ o n e -b re a k ” sy stem o n th e g r o u n d th a t—
( 1 ) W h e r e a r e d u c t i o n o f h o u r s is i n v o l v e d a l o s s o f w a g e s i s
fe a r e d .
( i i ) D o m e s t ic in c o n v e n ie n c e m a y b e c a u s e d t h r o u g h th e w o r k e r
r e q u ir in g h is b r e a k fa s t b e f o r e h e le a v e s h o m e .
( i i i ) A la te r s ta r t m a y in v o lv e a la te r h o u r o f fin is h in g w o r k .
( i v ) T h e w o r k e r s d o n o t in fa c t a lw a y s g e t a g o o d b r e a k fa s t
b e fo r e th e y sta rt.
O n t h is p o i n t a r e p r e s e n t a t iv e t r a d e s -u n io n is t
sta ted th a t—
In some cases the “ single break ” system is in force under w hich work gen­
erally starts at 7. This arrangement is based on the assumption that the
worker w ill have had breakfast before he comes. Where, as is frequently the
case, workers have to travel an hour or more to reach the works, this involves
a very long period w ithout food, in addition to the fact that an early start
frequently involves at any rate a hurried breakfast and, in some cases, none
at all. Even the men get a sinking feeling and can not work properly. It is
worse for women.

1 7 5 . P r o f . L o v e d a y is d o u b t f u l a s t o t h e f o r c e o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e o f
th e s e o b je c t io n s .
A s r e g a r d s th e la s t h e s u g g e s t s t h a t , w h e r e t h e
w o r k e r s l iv e f a r f r o m h o m e , w o r k s h o u ld c o m m e n c e a t 8 a. m . r a t h e r
t h a n a t 7 a. m . W h e r e th e e a r lie r h o u r is a d o p t e d it is g e n e r a lly
d e s ir a b le th a t a s h o r t b r e a k f o r r e fr e s h m e n t s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d in
t h e m i d d l e o f t h e m o r n i n g , a n d t h e H o m e O f f ic e g e n e r a l o r d e r o f S e p ­
t e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 , r e q u ir e s in th e c a s e o f w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s t h a t — -




SHIFTS, BREAKS, SPELLS, PAUSES, AND HOLIDAYS.

89

When work commences before 8 a. m. and no interval is allowed for break­
fast an opportunity shall be given to the workers to take refreshment during
the morning.

176. P r o f .
a b le t o t h e “
p lo y e r s w h o
M a th e r , as a
th a t—

L o v e d a y ’s v ie w t h a t th e “ o n e -b r e a k ” s y s te m is p r e f e r ­
t w o - b r e a k ” s y s te m is c o n f ir m e d b y t h e e v id e n c e o f e m ­
h a v e p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e o f it.
T h u s S ir W illia m
r e s u lt o f h is g r e a t e x p e r ie n c e , i n f o r m e d th e c o m m it t e e

The two hours before breakfast were practically wasted owing to the long
walk to the works, the absence o f breakfast or the temptation to get a drink
on the way to work in order to keep warm. Both morally and physically the
worker was a better man if he had a good breakfast with his fam ily before
leaving for work. His firm tried the experiment fo r a whole year and the
results were such as to leave them no hesitation in adopting the system per­
manently and nothing had since occurred to m odify their views. The chango
had proved salutary as well as profitable. T h rift and sobriety had been en­
couraged. The worker was a better individual. Even now that owing to the
w ar they w ere working two 12-hour shifts they still attached great importance
to the day shift only starting work after breakfast.

177. D r . Y e r n o n , in h is m e m o r a n d u m (s e e A p p e n d i x C ) o n A C o m ­
p a r is o n o f th e S y s te m s E m p lo y e d f o r D iv i d i n g U p W o r k i n g H o u r s
i n t o S p e l l s a n d B r e a k s , g i v e s t h e r e s u lt s o f i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e o u t p u t
o f w o r k e r s b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t ; h e th u s s u m m a r iz e s h is c o n c lu s io n s :
Day-shift workers on the one-break system were found to work up to their
maximum output each morning rather more quickly than the night shift
worked up to their m axim um ; but day-shift workers on the two-break system,
in which work was begun at 6 a. m., and was follow ed by a breakfast interval
at 9 a. m., had 7 per cent to 18 per cent less output in these three prebreakfast
hours than the night-shift workers had in their first three working hours. This
was presumably due to the night shift having had a good meal before starting
work.
SPELLS AND PAUSES.

178. A t t e n t io n h a s a lr e a d y b ee n d r a w n to th e im p o r ta n c e o f th e
p r o p e r d is t r ib u t io n o f re st p a u s e s in p r o v id i n g a g a in s t fa t ig u e . I n
A m e r ic a , m u c h a tte n tio n h a s b e e n d e v o t e d t o th e p r o p e r le n g th a n d
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a u s e s , a n d t h i s is o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s
o f “ s c ie n t ific m a n a g e m e n t .” I n t h is c o u n t r y , as y e t , th e s u b je c t h a s
r e c e iv e d b u t lit t le a tte n tio n .
E x p e r ie n c e h a s in d e e d p r o v e d th a t
u n d e r p r e s e n t c ir c u m s t a n c e s m any* w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s c a n
n o t p r o f it a b ly b e e m p lo y e d f o r th e f u l l s p e ll o f fiv e h o u r s o n c o n t in u ­
o u s w o r k as a llo w e d b y th e f a c t o r y a c t, a n d e v e n w h e r e th e s p e ll is
s o m e w h a t le s s t h a n f i v e h o u r s , t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y a m o n g
e m p lo y e r s t o a llo w s h o r t in t e r v a ls f o r r e fr e s h m e n t in th e a ft e r n o o n ,
a n d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e m o r n i n g a ls o . T h e s e p a u s e s n o t o n l y p r o v i d e
an o p p o r t u n it y f o r r e fre s h m e n t, b u t a p e r io d o f re st a n d r e c o v e r y
f r o m fa t ig u e , a n d a b r e a k in th e m o n o to n y o f th e w o r k .




90

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

179. D r . V e r n o n , in p a r a g r a p h 31 o f h is r e p o r t o n S t a t is t ic a l in ­
fo r m a t io n c o n c e r n in g o u tp u t in r e la tio n t o h o u r s o f w o r k (M e m o r a n ­
d u m N o . 1 2 ) , d r a w s a t t e n t io n t o th e im p o r t a n c e o f t h is s u b je c t. H e
says:
The custom in many munition works is for the operatives to w ork for a spell
o f five hours, and then, after an hour’s interval, for another spell o f fou r and
a h alf to five hours. Such spells are undoubtedly too long in many types o f
munition work, but if a second break is introduced in the working day much
extra time is lost in starting and stopping work. I f the operatives, are left to
themselves, they take rests at irregular and often unsuitable times. Hence it
would be much better if the rest pauses were chosen for them. For instance, a
10-minute break in the middle o f the morning and afternoon spells, during
which the operatives remain at their machines, but take tea or other nutriment
brought them by boys or by traveling canteens, has been found a valuable aid
to output in some munition works. Some types o f work need longer and more
frequent rest pauses than others, and the best times can be determined only by
experiment. A fter being fixed they should be made compulsory, and rest pauses
at other times be checked so far as possible.

180. I n h is m e m o r a n d u m o n A C o m p a r is o n o f th e S y s t e m s E m ­
p lo y e d f o r D iv i d i n g U p W o r k i n g H o u r s in t o S p e lls a n d B r e a k s , D r .
V e r n o n r e c o r d s t h e r e s u lt s o f c e r t a i n i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e o u t p u t o n f i v e
h o u r s ’ s p e lls ; h e c o n c lu d e s th a t—
Five-hour spells o f work are too long, for it appeared that by cutting up the
10-liour day into three spells of, e. g., 4, 3 and 3 hours, separated by two breaks
(the first o f which is too late to function as a breakfast break) the output might
be increased 5 per cent to 12 per cent above that experienced when two 5-hour
spells were worked. W hat is probably a better system still o f avoiding 5-hour
spells is to stop work for a quarter o f an hour in the middle o f each spell and
provide the workers with refreshment by means o f traveling canteens. The
introduction o f one such extra |-hour break in a cartridge factory, together with
the abolition o f the breakfast interval, increased the hourly output 5 per cent.

181. I n th e sa m e m e m o r a n d u m D r . V e r n o n a ls o r e c o r d s c e r t a in d a t a
h e c o lle c t e d as t o rests v o lu n t a r ily t a k e n b y w o r k e r s . I n th e ca se o f
so m e m e n e n g a g e d o n h a n d -t a p p in g fu s e s h e fo u n d th a t—
On an average they took seven to nine minutes o f voluntary rest pauses in all
except the first full hour o f w o r k ; and as they were all o f them men who had
been engaged for many months on the operation and were paid at piece rates,
there can be no doubt that they found by experience that such pauses improved
their total output. It was curious to note, however, that they worked on no sort
o f system, but often took rests in a most irregular manner.

1 8 2 . D r . V e r n o n e x p r e s s e s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t r e s t p a u s e s a r e e s s e n t ia l
in a c t iv e w o r k f o r b o t h m e n a n d w o m e n , t h o u g h as m ig h t b e a n t ic i­
p a t e d h e fo u n d th a t th e e x te n t o f th e se v o lu n t a r y rests v a r ie d g r e a t ly
a c c o r d in g t o th e e x te n t to w h ic h th e n a tu r e o f th e w o r k in v o lv e d
e n fo r c e d p e r io d s o f in a c tiv ity .
183. S o f a r as th e c o m m it t e e a r e a w a r e , b u t f e w fir m s h a v e m a d e
a n y e n d e a v o r t o in v e s t ig a t e s c ie n t ific a lly th e p a r t ic u la r d is t r ib u t io n
o f re st p a u se s n e e d e d t o s e c u re th e b e s t o u t p u t in t h e ir o w n w o r k s .
T h e fo llo w in g case o f th e a d v a n ta g e o f su ch p a u ses m a y b e q u o te d




SHIFTS, BREAKS, SPELLS, PAUSES, AND HOLIDAYS.

91

f r o m th e m e m o r a n d u m o n In c e n tiv e s to W o r jc , in c lu d e d in th e c o m ­
m it t e e ’s in t e r im r e p o r t :
A group o f workers, men and women, paid on a time wage, were found em­
ployed from 6 a. m. to 6 p. m., with two half-hour meal intervals, at the
process o f emptying and filling a series o f presses. Bach press, after being
filled, has to be left under hydraulic pressure for 85 minutes, during which
time other presses in the series are emptied and filled. The management calcu­
lated the number o f presses to each series, which would allow the w ork to be
done in 35 minutes at a reasonable p a ce ; but the workers on their own initiative
have adopted a different method. They work with a rapidity so organized that
the series o f presses is emptied and filled in less than 25 minutes, after which
they rest for 10 or 12 minutes until the time comes to begin again. The w ork
entails the expenditure o f a fair amount o f physical energy, and it was interest­
ing to watch these operatives swing into their labor in order to obtain their
rest pause.
HOLIDAYS.

184. T h e c o m m itte e c o n s id e r it m o s t im p o r t a n t th a t th e o r d in a r y
f a c t o r y h o lid a y s s h o u ld b e m a in t a in e d . A s a t r a d e s -u n io n is t p u t it — >
I f once in every two or three months a man could have two or three days off
it would prove the finest medicine, much better than a bonus as extra pay.

185. T h e e v id e n c e le a v e s n o
h o lid a y s b o t h o n h e a lth a n d
p o r t o n o u t p u t in r e la tio n t o
th u s d e s c rib e s o n e ca se w h ic h

d o u b t as t o th e b e n e fic ia l e ffe c t o f s u c h
o u t p u t . D r . V e r n o n , i n h is f u r t h e r r e ­
h ou rs o f w o r k (M e m o ra n d u m N o. 1 8 ),
h e in v e s tig a te d :

In the February-April period * * * the hourly output had risen to
123. * * * Though the hourly output during the February-April period
was fairly steady, the workers had not become completely adapted to the re­
duction o f hours from a normal 12-hour to a normal 10-hour day which had
been effected four weeks previously. After Easter, when they had a full week’s
holiday, their relative hourly output went up to 134 on the average and re­
mained fairly steady for the next eight weeks, although the actual hours o f
work were slightly greater than before Easter. * * *
After a week’s holiday at the end of August the hourly output went up again
to its May-June level, but it was not. until October or after another holiday
(the fou r days ordered by Government) that a marked rise of hourly output
set in. This rise continued in subsequent weeks until, in the fortnight before
Christmas week, it reached the astonishing figure o f 177.

186. I n c o m m e n t in g o n th e se fig u r e s D r . V e r n o n p o in t s o u t th a t—
The workers, refreshed and more vigorous, unconsciously start work on a
, higher level o f speed and maintain that level permanently, whereas a reduction
of hours unaccompanied by a holiday, i. e., by a chance o f breaking through
settled habits o f work, is generally very much slower in conducing to the de­
sired reaction.

1 8 7 . P r o f . L o v e d a y , i n h is m e m o r a n d u m o n T h e C a u s e s a n d C o n d i ­
t i o n s o f L o s t T i m e ( s e e t h e c o m m i t t e e 's i n t e r i m r e p o r t , p p . 5 2 , 5 3 ) ,
d r a w s a t t e n t io n t o th e b e n e fic ia l e ffe c t o f a h o l id a y in r e d u c in g t h e
a m o u n t o f b r o k e n t i m e d u e t o s ic k n e s s .
H e q u o te s a n in s ta n c e in




92

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y ,

w h i c h t h e s i c k n e s s r a te 0 f o r t h e t h r e e w e e k s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g a
c o n s id e r a b le h o l id a y a t th e e n d o f A u g u s t a n d b e g in n in g o f S e p ­
t e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 , w a s 4 .2 p e r c e n t a s a g a i n s t 5 .4 p e r c e n t i n t h e w e e k i m ­
m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e h o l i d a y , a n d 8 .6 p e r c e n t i n t h e w e e k b e f o r e
th a t. T h e r a te h a d n o t b e e n so lo w f o r m a n y m o n th s p r e v io u s ly .
188. A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f th e q u e s tio n o f h o lid a y s is t h a t t h e y a ffo r d
m u c h n e e d e d o p p o r tu n itie s f o r c a r r y in g o u t r e p a ir s t o p la n t a n d
m a c h in e r y ; in th e a b se n ce o f su ch o p p o r tu n itie s th e d e fe c t iv e c o n ­
d it io n s m a y b e c o m e so s e r io u s as m a t e r ia lly t o a ffe c t o u t p u t .
189. T h e c o m m itte e d e s ir e s p e c ia lly t o e m p h a s iz e th e n e e d f o r
g iv in g p e r io d ic h o lid a y s to m e m b e rs o f th e m a n a g e m e n t a n d t o fo r e ­
m e n . T h e y c a n n o t ta k e o d d d a y s o ff lik e th e o r d in a r y w o r k e r , a n d
ca ses o f te m p o r a r y b r e a k d o w n h a v e b ee n r e g r e tta b ly co m m o n .




SECTION VII.— SUNDAY LABOR AND NIGHT WORK.
SUNDAY LABOR.

Man, man is the great instrument that produces wealth. The natural differ­
ence between Campania and Spitzbergen is trifling when compared with the
difference between a country inhabited by men full of bodily and mental vigor,
and a country inhabited by men sunk in bodily and mental decrepitude. There­
fore it is that we are not poorer but richer, because we have, through many
ages, rested from our labor one day in seven. That day is not lost. While
industry is suspended, while the plough lies in the furrow, while the Exchange
is silent, while no smoke ascends from the factory, a process is going on quite
as important to the wealth of nations as any process which is performed on
more busy days. Man, the machine of machines, the machine compared with
which all the contrivances of the Watts and Arkwrights are worthless, is
repairing and winding up, so that he returns to his labors on the Monday with
clearer intellect, with livelier spirits, with renewed corporal vigor. Never will
I believe that what makes a population stronger, and healthier, and wiser, and
better, can ultimately make it poorer.— (Macaulay, speech on the 10-hour bill,
House of Commons, May 22, 1846.)

190. T h e m o s t u r g e n t p r o b le m a w a it in g th e c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e
c o m m itte e a t th e tim e o f th e ir a p p o in t m e n t w a s th a t o f S u n d a y
la b o r . P a r t ly o n a c co u n t o f th e h e a v y d e m a n d f o r o u tp u t a n d p a r t ly
t h r o u g h th e a ttr a c tio n o f th e h ig h e r r a te o f w a g e s p a y a b le , S u n d a y
la b o r f o r m e n w a s c o m m o n .
S o m e tim e s th e h o u r s w e r e th e s a m e
a s o n w e e k d a y s ; s o m e tim e s t h e y w e r e s h o r t e r , w o r k c o m m e n c in g
la t e r o r f in is h in g e a r lie r .
E ls e w h e re th e y w e r e lo n g e r th a n o n
o r d in a r y d a y s as w h e n th e t r a n s fe r fr o m th e 1 2 -h o u r d a y s h ift to a
1 2 -h o u r n ig h t s h if t w a s m a d e b y w o r k in g f o r a c o n t in u o u s p e r io d
o f 18 h o u r s , o n e s h if t w o r k in g (s a y ) f r o m 6 p . m . o n S a t u r d a y t o
1 2 n o o n o n S u n d a y , a n d t h e o t h e r f r o m n o o n o n S u n d a y t o 6 a. m .
on M on day.
191. T h e e m p lo y m e n t o n S u n d a y s o f w o m e n a n d b o y s w a s m u c h
m o r e r e s t r ic t e d a n d w a s o n ly a llo w e d o n s p e c ia l a p p lic a t io n t o th e
H o m e O ffic e . I n O c t o b e r , 1 9 1 5 , f o r t h e w h o l e o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g ­
d o m th e re w e re in o p e r a tio n a b o u t 50 o r d e r s a llo w in g th e e m p lo y ­
m e n t o n S u n d a y s o f w o m e n , g ir ls , a n d b o y s , a n d a ls o a b o u t a n o t h e r
SO f o r b o y s o n l y . A s a r u l e s u c h e m p l o y m e n t w a s o n l y s a n c t i o n e d
w h e n h o u r s o f w o r k o n o th e r d a y s o f th e w e e k w e r e lim ite d , a n d e v e n
w h e n i t w a s a llo w e d it w a s u s u a l t o im p o s e r e s t r ic t io n s , s u c h as—
(a)
T h a t w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s s h o u ld n o t b e e m p lo y e d o n
t w o c o n s e c u tiv e S u n d a y s ;
( J ) T h a t t h e y s h o u ld h a v e tim e o f f o n S a t u r d a y ;




93

94

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AN D E FF IC IE N C Y .

( c) T h a t t h e y s h o u l d o n l y b e e m p l o y e d o n S u n d a y i n c a s e s o f
em ergen cy;
(d) T h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e e m p l o y e d f o r a p o r t i o n o f S u n d a y o n l y .
1 9 2 . Sunday labor is in itself wnpopular.— T h e r e e x i s t s a l a r g e
b o d y o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e s e v e n t h d a y , a s a p e r i o d o f r e s t , is g o c J
f o r b o d y a n d m in d .
E m p l o y e r s o b je c t t o it o n th e g r o u n d t lia i
s u p e r v is io n is d iffic u lt, a n d t h a t it im p o s e s a s e v e r e s t r a in o n f o r e ­
m e n , s u b s titu te s b e in g d iffic u lt t o o b t a in .
I n t h e e a r ly d a y s o f th e
w a r h ig h ra te s o f p a y m a d e S u n d a y la b o r p o p u la r w it h m a n y
w o r k e r s , b u t t h i s p o p u l a r i t y h a s s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e d a n d a n y d if f ic u l t i e s
i n v o lv e d h a v e g e n e r a lly p r o v e d c a p a b le o f a d ju s tm e n t.
H i g h ra tes
o f p a y o n th e o t h e r h a n d h a v e b e e n a n o t h e r o b je c t io n r a is e d b y e m ­
p lo y e r s w h o h a v e a ls o c o m p la in e d o f in c r e a s e d c o s t o f r u n n in g t h e ir
w orks.
S u n d a y la b o r is in f a c t o n ly d e fe n s ib le i f it c a n b e s h o w n t o
b e p r o d u c tiv e o f g r e a te r o u tp u t o v e r a lo n g e r o r sh o r te r p e r io d .
1 9 3 . But Sunday labor is uneconomical .— A s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n
p o in t e d o u t, fa t ig u e m a y b e m e n ta l as w e ll as p h y s ic a l.
A ccou n t has
t o b e ta k e n n o t o n ly o f th e h o u r s o f la b o r , f a c t o r y e n v ir o n m e n t, a n d
th e p h y s ic a l s t r a in i n v o l v e d b u t a ls o o f m o n o t o n y , w h ic h m a y p r o v e
as s e r io u s a n o b s ta c le to g o o d o u t p u t as p h y s ic a l fa t ig u e .
T h e cu re
f o r f a t i g u e , w h e t h e r p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l , l ie s i n a d e q u a t e p e r i o d s o f
r e s t , a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f S u n d a y l a b o r is p r i m a r i l y o n e o f t h e e x t e n t
t o w h ic h th e w o r k e r r e q u ir e s w e e k ly o r p e r i o d i c r e s ts i f h e is t o r e ­
t a i n h is h e a l t h a n d e n e r g y o v e r l o n g p e r i o d s .
1 9 4 . T h e e v i d e n c e is c o n c l u s i v e t h a t S u n d a y l a b o r b y d e p r i v i n g
t h e w o r k e r o f h is w e e k l y r e s t o f f e r s h i m n o s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r
r e c o v e r i n g f r o m fa t ig u e , a n d is n o t p r o d u c t i v e o f g r e a t e r o u t p u t e x ­
c e p t f o r q u it e s h o r t a n d is o la t e d p e r io d s .
E m p lo y e r s s ta te d in e v i­
d e n c e , t h a t t h o u g h a t t e n d a n c e o n S u n d a y i s g e n e r a l l y g o o d i t is n o t
a lw a y s a c co m p a n ie d b y a s a tis fa c to r y in d iv id u a l o u t p u t ; n o t in fr e ­
q u e n t l y a h o l i d a y s p i r i t is a p p a r e n t .
M o r e o v e r, a tte n d a n ce at w o r k
o n S u n d a y is o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d b y b a d t i m e k e e p i n g o n o t h e r d a y s
o f th e w eek .
S ta te m e n ts h a v e b ee n m a d e th a t sev en d a y s ’ la b o r o n ly
p r o d u c e s s ix d a y s ’ o u tp u t, a n d th a t r e d u c tio n s in S u n d a y w o r k h a v e
n o t in f a c t in v o lv e d a n y a p p r e c ia b le lo s s o f o u t p u t .
T r a d e s -u n io n
o f f ic ia ls h a v e c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r m e m b e r s w e r e g e t t i n g t i r e d a n d
n e e d e d m o r e re st.
I n s e v e r a l in s ta n c e s t h e y p r e s s e d f o r th e r e d u c ­
tio n o f S u n d a y w o rk .
195. E v id e n c e in th e fo r m o f s ta tis tic s o f o u tp u t in r e g a r d t o S u n ­
d a y l a b o r is n o t e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e . E v e n w h e n t h e o u t p u t o f w o r k
h a s b e e n s u c h as w o u ld in n o r m a l c ir c u m s t a n c e s p e r m it o f th e c o l ­
le c t io n o f e x a c t d a ta , th e r a p id g r o w t h in t h e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s e m ­
p l o y e d , t h e g r e a t e r e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n , t h e i n c r e a s e d e f f ic ie n c y
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s , a n d o th e r s im ila r ca u se s h a v e g e n e r a lly




SUNDAY LABOR AND NIGHT WORK.

95

r e n d e r e d c o m p a r is o n s d iffic u lt, u n r e lia b le , a n d im p o s s ib le .
E ven
w h e r e th e d a ta w a s a v a ila b le th e M a n a g e m e n t h a v e n o t g e n e r a lly
fo u n d it p o s s ib le t o a r r a n g e f o r it s c o lle c t io n a n d ta b u la t io n . T h e
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f o n e im p o r t a n t fir m , h o w e v e r , i n f o r m e d th e c o m -*
m itte e t h a t in o n e o f t h e ir s h o p s w h e r e h e a v y m a c h in e w o r k w ah
d o n e b y m e n o f g o o d a v e ra g e tr a d e -u n io n t y p e th e y h a d b y e x te n d ­
in g th e r e lie f a t th e w e e k e n d r e d u c e d th e a v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s
fr o m 78J t o 65|.
T h o u g h th e n o r m a l h o u rs w e re th u s re d u ce d
b y 13, th e a v e ra g e n u m b e r o f h o u rs (6 0 ) a c tu a lly w o r k e d d u r in g
th e th re e m o n th s s u c c e e d in g th e c h a n g e e x ce e d e d th e a v e ra g e n u m ­
b e r o f h o u r s (5 9 £ ) w o r k e d d u r in g th e s ix m o n th s p r e c e d in g th e
c h a n g e . M o r e o v e r , in h is o p i n i o n th e o u t p u t p e r h o u r w a s im p r o v e d .
196. P r o f . L o v e d a y , w h o c o n d u c t e d c e r t a in in q u ir ie s in t o lo s t tim e ,
s ta te s in p a r a g r a p h 11 o f h is m e m o r a n d u m (s e e th e c o m m it t e e ’s in ­
t e r im r e p o r t o n I n d u s t r ia l E ffic ie n c y a n d F a t ig u e ) —
In so far as long hours lead to loss o f time by fatigue and sickness, insistence
on them is most deplorable. The keenest men are not always the most robust,
and it is the keenest who have most strain to bear. The hours gained are more
costly than the hours lost. * * * The effects o f Sunday labor are, as has
now been recognized, still worse than those o f overtime hours in the evening or
on Saturday afternoon.

197. D r . V e r n o n , in th e c o u r s e o f h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 c o n c e r n in g
o u t p u t in r e la tio n t o h o u r s o f w o r k , h a s s h o w n th a t in th e ca s e o f a
b o d y o f 80 to 100 w o m e n th a t th e r e d u c t io n o f th e h o u r s o f e m p lo y ­
m e n t b y th e s to p p a g e o f S u n d a y w o r k in v o lv e d n o r e d u c tio n o f o u t ­
p u t, t h o u g h th e f u ll e ffe c t o f th e c h a n g e t o o k a fe w m o n th s to o p e r a te .
A s im ila r in v e s t ig a t io n in r e g a r d t o a b o d y o f 56 m e n , s iz in g a n d
fu s e b o d ie s , s h o w e d t h a t t h o u g h th e n u m b e r o f n o m in a l h o u r s o f
w o r k w e r e b y th e c e s s a tio n o f S u n d a y la b o r r e d u c e d b y s ix , th e t im e ­
k e e p in g w a s so m u ch im p r o v e d th a t th e a ctu a l h o u rs o f w o r k r e ­
m a in e d th e sam e. T h e w it h d r a w a l o f S u n d a y la b o r seem s t o h a v e le d
th e m e n to o b s e rv e m u ch m o r e r e g u la r h o u rs a n d d u r in g th e ir r e g u la r
h o u r s t o in c r e a s e t h e ir o r d i n a r y o u t p u t s o m e 16 p e r c e n t a b o v e its
p r e v io u s le v e l. T h e a b o lit io n o f S u n d a y la b o r h a s s o m e tim e s b e e n
d e m u r r e d to o n a c c o u n t o f th e lo w M o n d a y o u tp u t, w h ic h fr e q u e n t ly
fo llo w s a w e e k -e n d rest. D r . V e r n o n , h o w e v e r , p o in t e d o u t th a t in
th e ca ses q u o te d , th o u g h th e M o n d a y o u t p u t w a s lo w c o m p a r e d to
o t h e r d a y s o f th e w eek , it r e a ch e d a c o n s id e r a b ly h ig h e r le v e l th a n
wT s e v e r o b t a i n e d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a w e e k - e n d r e s t .
a
198. T h e c o m m itte e , in t h e ir M e m o r a n d u m N o . 1, s u b m it t e d in
N o v e m b e r , 1915, t o th e m in is tr y , o n S u n d a y la b o r , e x p r e s s e d th e ir
c o n v ic t io n th a t i f th e m a x im u m o u t p u t w a s t o b e s e c u r e d a n d m a in ­
ta in e d f o r a n y le n g t h o f tim e a w e e k ly p e r io d o f re st m u s t b $ a llo w e d .
E x c e p t f o r q u it e s h o r t p e r io d s , c o n t in u o u s w o r k , in t h e ir v ie w , is a




1 See paragraphs 1 4 6 -1 5 0 above.

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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

p r o f o u n d m is ta k e a n d d o e s n o t p a y .
O u t p u t is n o t in c r e a s e d .
On
e c o n o m i c a l a n d s o c i a l g r o u n d s a l ik e t h i s w e e k l y p e r i o d o f r e s t i s
b e s t p r o v id e d o n S u n d a y . S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly , th e r e lie f fr o m w o r k
o n S u n d a y is m o r e u r g e n t f o r w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s t h a n f o r
a d u lt m e n a n d f o r m e n o n o v e r tim e t h a n f o r th o s e o n d o u b le s h ift s .
T h e n e e d m a y a ls o v a r y s o m e w h a t a c c o r d in g t o th e n u m b e r o f h o u r s
w o r k e d d u r in g th e w e e k a n d th e e n v ir o n m e n t a n d c h a r a c te r o f th e
w o r k , b u t th e c o m m it t e e c o n s id e r th a t th e d is c o n t in u a n c e o f S u n d a y
la b o r s h o u ld b e o f u n iv e r s a l a p p lic a t io n a n d s h o u ld e x te n d t o a ll
c la s s e s o f w o r k e r s , e x c e p t t h a t w h e r e t h e w o r k m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e
c o n t in u o u s s p e c ia l a r r a n g e m e n ts w ill b e n e ce sssa r y .
199. A c t i n g o n th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s o f th e c o m m it t e e , t h e m in is t r y .
in D e c e m b e r , 19 1 5 , issu e d a c ir c u la r o n S u n d a y la b o r t o a ll c o n t r o lle d
e s t a b li s h m e n t s , i n w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n s * w e r e e x p r e s s e d :
The minister is o f opinion that it is necessary in the interests both o f the
workers and o f production that a weekly rest period— preferably Sunday—
should be secured to all workers.
This recommendation applies equally to all classes o f labor, male and female,
adult and juvenile, though there must be certain necessary exception s. in the
case o f labor such as that employed upon furnaces which could not be discon­
tinued without grave dislocation. Even in these cases, though it may not be
possible to arrange fo r a general rest on any particular day in the week, it
would still be desirable so to arrange the w ork that all persons engaged upon
the w ork had, if on different days, a regular period o f rest.
It is in 'th e opinion o f the minister preferable to w ork a moderate amount
o f overtime in the w^eek, allowing a break on Sunday, rather than work con­
tinuously from day to day. It is still more strongly his view that where over­
time is worked in the week Sunday labor is not desirable.

2 0 0 . T h e m in is t r y s u b s e q u e n tly a p p o in t e d in c o n s u lt a t io n w it h th e
H o m e O ffic e a c o m m i t t e e t o c o n s i d e r d e m a n d s f o r S u n d a y l a b o r a n d
t o s e c u re its d is c o n t in u a n c e w h e r e v e r p o s s ib le .
I n A p r il, 1917, a
f u r t h e r le t t e r w a s is s u e d b y t h e m in is t r y , in w h ic h i t w a s s ta te d
th a t—
The minister, after further consultation with the various departments con­
cerned, is o f opinion that it is advisable that Sunday labor, with the exception
o f shifts beginning on Sunday night or ending on Sunday morning, or o f work
in connection with the necessary repair o f plant machinery, should be discon­
tinued as far as possible from the beginning o f May, and would be glad if you
would make arrangements in your establishment to that end.

201. D u r in g th e p a s t tw o y e a rs th e re h a s b ee n a ste a d y a n d c o n ­
t in u o u s r e d u c tio n o f S u n d a y la b o r .
F r o m r e p o r ts o f th e v a r io u s
c o m m is s io n s a p p o in t e d in J u ly , 1917, t o in q u ir e in t o th e ca u ses o f
i n d u s t r ia l u n r e s t i t is e v id e n t t h a t w h a t S u n d a y la b o r s t ill r e m a in s
is u n p o p u la r a n d m o r e th a n o n e c o m m is s io n u r g e d its d is c o n t in u a n c e :
The temptation to engage on Sunday labor so as to earn higher rates o f pay
has been pointed out to us as being conducive to overstrain, and we believe
that it will be generally recognized that Sunday labor (w hich still prevails to




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SUNDAY LABOR AND N IGH T WORK.

some extent) should be discontinued except to meet absolute emergencies.
(Northeast area.)
W e consider that overtime and Sunday work should be reduced as much as
possible. W e do not believe that they increase production in the long run. W e
recognize that things are much better in this respect than they were, but there
is still room for improvement. (W est Midlands area.)
The amount o f overtime and week-end and Sunday work should be reduced
to a minimum, subject to the exigencies of the national requirements. (Lon­
don and Southeastern area.)

202. T h e c o m m itte e r e c o g n iz e th a t th e a m o u n t o f S u n d a y la b o r
a t a n y m o m e n t m u s t n e c e s s a r ily v a r y t o s o m e e x t e n t a c c o r d in g t o
th e n a tu r e a n d d e g r e e o f th e u r g e n t d e m a n d s f o r th e im m e d ia te d e ­
l iv e r y o f p a r t ic u la r t y p e s o f m u n it io n s . F ig u r e s , h o w e v e r , c o lle c t e d
b y th e M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s s h o w t h a t in c o n t r o lle d e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n g a g e d o n n o n c o n tin u o u s p ro ce ss e s th e n u m b e rs o f m e n a n d w o m e n
e m p lo y e d o n S u n d a y w e r e , in J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 8 , v e r y s u b s t a n t ia lly
s m a lle r th a n t h e y h a d b e e n 12 m o n t h s e a r lie r .
2 0 3 . A s r e g a r d s o r d e r s m a d e b y t h e H o m e O ffic e a u t h o r i z i n g t h e
e m p lo y m e n t on S u n d a y o f w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e rs o n s (o th e r th a n
v o lu n t e e r w o r k e r s n o t e m p lo y e d d u r in g th e w e e k ) , th e p o s it io n o n
J a n u a r y 31, 1918, w a s s h o r t ly as f o l l o w s :
General Orders.— (i) The general order (Munitions o f W ar) allows the Sun­
day employment o f workers employed on the three-shift system, and also (w here
authority is granted by the superintending inspector o f factories) o f workers
on the two-shift system, if a day off is given in lieu o f Sunday. No inform a­
tion is available as to the number o f firms taking advantage o f these con­
cessions.
(ii)
An order for national filling factories authorizes the employment o f
women and young persons over 16 years on alternate Sundays, with a weekly
limit o f 60 hours (excluding mealtim es). Little use is made o f this alternative.
Special orders fo r individual w orks.— Particulars o f these orders are set out
in the follow ing ta b le :
N u m b e r o f orders affecting—
E x te n t o f Sunday w ork.

T o ta l
n u m b e r of
factories.

W om en
(o v e r 18).

A .— E v e r y S u n d a y .......................................................................
13.—In special e m e rg en cy ................................... : .....................
0 .—Cases in w h ich a d a y o ff is allow ed in li e u ..................
D .— Cases under 8 -hour sh ift sy ste m s....................................
1 0 .— O ther cases:
T w o Sundays in th re e .................................................
One Sunday, in t w o ......................................................
One Sunday*in th re e........ ..........................................

*1
6
33
17

1
5
20
16

1
9
5
6

7
5
6

T o t a l..............................................................................

s 73

G ir ls 1
(14 to 18).

• B oy s
(14 to 18).

3
4
4

5
8
6

2

1
4

2

3

1
.........

N. B.— The above statements take no account o f course o f cases where night
work ends on Sunday morning or begins on Sunday night.
1 O n ly one of these allow s th e e m p lo y m e n t o f girls u n d e r 16 on Sunday.
2 In th is case th e w om en w o rk n o t m ore th an s ix hours on Sun day, a n d on ly three hours on tw o M ondays
in three—th e th ird M on d a y b e in g free fro m em p lo y m e n t.
3 In five instances the sam e fa c to r y is represented tw ice u n d er the headings A to E .

80935°— 19-------7




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

204. S u b s e q u e n t e x p e r ie n c e h a s f u l l y c o n fir m e d t h e o r ig in a l r e c o m ­
m e n d a t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e t h a t i t is e s s e n t ia l f o r h e a l t h a n d o u t p u t
a lik e t h a t S u n d a y la b o r s h o u ld b e c o n fin e d t o —
(a)
S u d d e n e m e r g e n c ie s , in c lu d in g th e m a k in g u p o f a r r e a r s in
p a r tic u la r s e c t io n s ; a n d
(& ) R e p a i r s , t e n d i n g f u r n a c e s , e t c . ( t h e m e n s o e m p l o y e d b e i n g
g iv e n a c o r r e s p o n d in g p e r io d o f rest d u r in g som e o th e r p e r io d o f
th e w e e k ).
2 05. S u c h t e m p o r a r y c o n c e s s io n s as m a y b e u n a v o id a b le s h o u ld b e
c o n fin e d w it h in n a r r o w lim it s a n d t e r m in a t e d as s o o n as p r a c t ic a b le .
NIGHT WOBK.

206. T h e r e is n o le g a l r e s t r ic t io n u p o n n ig h t w o r k f o r m e n . I t is
o n l y le g a l f o r b o y s in c e r t a in s p e c ifie d c o n t in u o u s p r o c e s s e s .
The
e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n a t n ig h t h a s b ee n p r o h ib it e d f o r m o re th a n 70
y e a r s in th e t e x t ile tra d e s , a n d h a s n e v e r b e e n a llo w e d in n o n t e x t ile
tr a d e s s in c e th e y w e r e b r o u g h t u n d e r th e p r o v is io n s o f th e fa c t o r y
a c ts 50 y e a r s a g o . I t w a s fin a lly a b o lis h e d b y in t e r n a t io n a l a g r e e ­
m e n t f r o m 12 E u r o p e a n c o u n t r ie s w h ic h s ig n e d a c o n v e n t io n d r a w n
u p a t th e in t e r n a t io n a l c o n fe r e n c e h e ld a t B e r n e in 1906. T h e s e c o u n ­
tr ie s in c lu d e d , in a d d it io n t o G r e a t B r it a in , A u s t r ia a n d F r a n c e ,
G e r m a n y , B e lg iu m , I t a ly , P o r t u g a l, S p a in , a n d S w itz e r la n d . T h e
a g r e e m e n t w a s b a s e d u p o n t h e r e s u lt s o f i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e e f f e c t s —
e c o n o m ic a l, p h y s ic a l, a n d m o r a l— o f n ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n .
T h e o b je c t io n s t o n ig h t w o r k m a y b e s h o r t ly s u m m a r iz e d as f o l ­
lo w s :
(a) I t i s u n e c o n o m i c a l o w i n g t o t h e h i g h e r c o s t o f w a g e s , l i g h t i n g
a n d h e a tin g .
(b) S u p e r v i s i o n a t n i g h t is n o t a l w a y s s o g o o d a s b y d a y o w i n g
t o le s s e f f e c t i v e l i g h t i n g o r t o t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f f e w e r o r le s s e x ­
p e r ie n c e d fo r e m e n .
( c) T h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f l i g h t i n g m a y m a k e w o r k a n d e s p e c i a ll y
fin e w o r k m o r e d if f ic u l t .
(d) T h e w o r k e r s m a y b e u n a b l e t o o b t a i n a d e q u a t e s l e e p b y d a y .
T h i s m a y b e th e r e s u lt o f th e d is lo c a t io n o f th e o r d in a r y h a b it s o f
l i f e o r o f s o c ia l c a u se s, e. g ., n o is e s a n d d is t u r b a n c e s , o r t h e c a r e o f
c h ild r e n .
W o r k e r s a r e t e m p t e d t o c u r t a il t h e ir p e r i o d o f s le e p
th r o u g h r is in g to jo in th e fa m ily m id d a y m e a l o r t o o b ta in som e
r e c r e a tio n a n d a m u sem en t.
(e) S o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , r e c r e a t i o n a n d a m u s e m e n t m a y b e s e r i o u s l y
i n t e r fe r e d w it h .
S u ita b le o p p o r t u n it ie s f o r a tte n d a n c e a t in s tr u c ­
t io n a re im p o s s ib le , u n le s s s p e c ia l f a c il i t ie s a r e a llo w e d .
( / ) F i n a l l y i t is n o t n a t u r a l t o t u r n t h e n i g h t i n t o d a y a n d t o
d e p r iv e th e b o d y o f th e b e n e fic ia l e ffe c ts o f s u n lig h t .




SUNDAY LABOR AND NIGHT WORK.

99

207. U n d e r e x is tin g c o n d it io n s n ig h t w o r k at a n y r a te f o r m e n
a n d w o m e n is in e v it a b le . I t is th e m e a n s b y w h ic h th e m a c h in e r y
is e m p lo y e d f o r t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e 2 4 h o u r s a n d s o l o n g
a s t h e h o u r s o f w o r k a r e n o t u n d u l y l o n g a n d d u e a t t e n t i o n is p a i d
to th e e n v ir o n m e n t o f th e w o r k e r , it is u n d o u b t e d ly p r o d u c t iv e o f
in c r e a s e d o u t p u t .
N ig h t w o r k m u st th e r e fo r e c o n tin u e f o r m en a n d
w o m e n w h i l e t h e p r e s e n t e m e r g e n c y la s t s , h o w e v e r c o n c l u s i v e m a y b e
th e a r g u m e n ts a g a in s t its in t r o d u c t io n as a p e r m a n e n t p a r t o f th e
in d u s tr ia l o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e c o u n tr y .
2 0 8 . T h e c o m m i t t e e a r e n o t s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e r e is t h e s a m e j u s t i f i ­
c a t io n f o r th e e m p lo y m e n t a t n ig h t o f g ir ls a n d -b o y s .
T h e o b je c ­
t io n s t o n ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n a re g r e a t ly a c c e n t u a t e d in th e ca s e o f
g r o w i n g g ir ls a n d th e c o m m itte e a re s t r o n g ly o f o p in io n th a t a ll
n i g h t w o r k f o r g i r ls u n d e r 18 s h o u ld b e t e r m in a t e d .
A s a lre a d y
s ta te d in p a r a g r a p h 144, step s h a v e a lr e a d y b e e n ta k e n b y th e H o m o
O ffic e a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i t i o n s t o t e r m i n a t e a l l n i g h t e m p l o y ­
m e n t o f g ir ls u n d e r 16 a n d t o r e s t r ic t w it h in v e r y n a r r o w lim it s th e
e m p lo y m e n t o f g i r ls b e tw e e n 16 a n d 18. F o r b o y s a ls o , a n d e s p e ­
c ia l l y th o s e u n d e r 16, n ig h t w o r k is h ig h l y u n d e s ir a b le , a n d th e c o m ­
m it t e e f u ll y in d o r s e th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n c o n t a in e d in th e r e p o r t o f
th e d e p a rtm e n ta l c o m m it t e e 1 o n T h e N ig h t E m p lo y m e n t o f M a le
Y o u n g P e rson s th a t—
W e are strongly o f opinion that the employment of boys under 18 years o f
age at night in factories is undesirable and ought not to be allowed to any
greater extent, or at an earlier age, than is absolutely necessary. This applies
specially to boys between 14 and 16 years o f age, when the rate o f growth is
most rapid, and when the conditions o f life ought to be rendered as favorable as
possible for mental and physical development.

2 0 9 . A q u e s tio n o f c o n s id e r a b le im p o r t a n c e in c o n n e c t io n w it h th e
s h i f t s y s t e m is h o w l o n g t h e w o r k e r s s h o u l d r e m a i n o n n i g h t s h i f t
a t a n y o n e tim e .
A w e e k is th e m o s t c o m m o n p e r io d .
C h a n g es are
so m e tim e s m a d e f o r t n ig h t l y o r m o n t h ly a n d in s o m e in s ta n c e s t h e r e
is n o a l t e r n a t i o n a t a l l , t h e w o r k e r s r e m a i n i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y o n d a y o r
n ig h t w o r k , e x c e p t f o r o c c a s io n a l c h a n g e s a m o n g s t in d iv id u a ls c a r ­
r ie d o u t f o r th e c o n v e n ie n c e o f th e p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d .
O n p h y s io ­
lo g ic a l g r o u n d s in fr e q u e n t c h a n g e s are to b e p r e fe r r e d .
T h e qu es­
t i o n is , h o w e v e r , o n e t h a t is l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e s o c i a l c o n ­
d it io n s u n d e r w h ic h th e w o r k e r liv e s a n d w o r k s .
I n th e H o m
O ffic e g e n e r a l o r d e r o f S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 , n o r e q u i r e m e n t i s m a d e a s
t o p e r i o d i c a l c h a n g e s . T h e m a t t e r is l e f t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e r s
t o s e ttle w it h t h e ir w o r k p e o p le .
210. I n v ie w o f its im p o r t a n c e th e c o m m it t e e d ir e c t e d t h e ir in v e s ­
t ig a t o r s to p a y s p e c ia l a t t e n t io n t o t h is s u b je c t. T h e d a ta c o lle c t e d
b y th e m h a s b e e n b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r in th e m e m o r a n d u m o n T h e C o m ­
p a r a t iv e E ffic ie n c ie s o f D a y W o r k a n d N i g h t W o r k in c lu d e d in t h e




1Cd. 6503, 1912.

100

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

c o m m it t e e ’s in te r im r e p o r t.
th e fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s :

An

e x a m in a tio n o f th e d a ta s u g g e sts

W om en.— (i) In monotonous processes which call for little physical effort,
such as those concerned with cartridge making, discontinuous night work o f
women gives an output which rarely falls much more than 10 per cent below,
and usually approximates closely to that obtained by day.
(ii) Continuous night work is productive o f definitely less output than is the
discontinuous system ; and the committee have failed to obtain evidence that
the output o f the continuous day shift balances this inferiority.
(iii) The timekeeping o f girls and o f women o f 10 years o f age and upward,
working for alternate weeks o f day and night shifts, is even better maintained
than when they work on permanent day shifts.
(iv ) Timekeeping o f girls o f 14 to 18 is practically the same whether they
work on permanent day shifts or on day and night shifts.
The committee, basing their opinion upon these conclusions, consider it
undesirable to adopt for women continuous night shifts in any factory not at
present so working or not yet open, and suggest that wherever practicable
this system should be discontinued.
M en.— The conclusions arrived at with respect to women are true, with
slight modifications, for men.
(i) There is no significant difference between the rate o f output in niglit
and day shifts managed on the discontinuous system.
(ii) W ith men, as well as with women, the discontinuous system is prefer­
able to continuous night work.

211.
T h e in fe r io r it y o f c o n tin u o u s n ig h t w o r k ca n p r o b a b ly
r e f e r r e d t o a f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e p r o p e r r e s t a n d s le e p in t h e d a y t im e .
W o m e n o n c o n tin u o u s n ig h t w o r k a re l ik e ly t o p e r f o r m d o m e s t ic
d u tie s , w h ic h w h e n t h e y w o r k a lt e r n a t e ly in th e t w o s h if t s , is i m ­
p r a c t ic a b le . E v id e n c e , in d e e d , e x is ts o f w o m e n e m p lo y e d in p e r m a ­
n e n t n ig h t s h ifts w h o s till c a r r y o n th e ir o r d in a r y d a y tim e a v o c a ­
t io n s . t h o u g h it is n o t s u ffic ie n tly e x t e n s iv e ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) t o b e
o ffe r e d as a p r o o f o f th e s u g g e s tio n ju s t m a d e .




SECTION VIII.— LOST TIME AND INCENTIVE.

212. T lie a m o u n t o f tim e lo s t in in d u s t r y v a r ie s w id e ly in d iffe r e n t
fo r m s a n d p ro c e s s e s , a n d in a c c o r d a n c e w it h v a r y in g c o n d it io n s a n d
c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f l a b o r , e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d p e r s o n a l . I t r is e s i n t h
b u lk o ft e n t o as m u c h as h a lf a d a y p e r w e e k , t h o u g h it v a r ie s
o c c u r r e n c e b o t h in th e d a y a n d in t h e w e e k , b e in g g r e a t e s t as a r u le
a t th e t w o e n d s o f th e d a y a n d th e t w o e n d s o f th e w e e k , v a r y i n g in
r e l a t i o n t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e w o r k i n g d a y . I t is f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a
it is n e c e s s a r y , in t h e c o n s id e r a t io n o f lo s t t im e , fir s t t o a s c e r t a in th e
t im e w o r k e d . I t is o f n o v a lu e t o d e t e r m in e t h e t im e lo s t u n le s s
b e c o r r e la t e d w it h th e t im e w o r k e d , w h e t h e r n o r m a l o r o v e r tim
T h e m e re r e c o r d o f so m a n y h o u rs lo s t o r su ch a n d su ch a p e rc e n ta g e
o f l o s t t i m e is v a lu e l e s s a n d e v e n m i s l e a d i n g .
213. S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly th e c o m m itte e h a v e fo u n d th a t th e w h o le
s u b je c t o f lo s t tim e c a lls f o r m u c h m o r e c a r e f u l c o n s id e r a t io n a n
d e t e r m in a t io n th a n it h a s h it h e r t o r e c e iv e d . T h e t e r m is o n e w h ic h
c o v e r s v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e r e is w h a t m a y b e d e s c r i b e d a
g r o s s lo s t tim e , n a m e ly , a c t u a l a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k , f o r w h o le d a y
o r w e e k s , o r s u b s t a n t ia l p o r t io n s o f d a y s o r w e e k s , a d e g r e e o f b r o k e n
tim e w h ic h g r a v e ly in te r fe r e s w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t o f a f a c t o r
a n d w h i c h is d u e t o v a r i o u s d o m i n a n t f a c t o r s , s o c i a l o r i n d u s t r i a
S e c o n d l y , t h e r e is w h a t is k n o w n a s l o s s o f “ q u a r t e r s , ” a n d p a r t i c u
la r l y o f th e “ m o r n in g q u a r t e r .”
I n h is in v e s t ig a t io n s f o r t h e c o m
m i t t e e , P r o f L o v e d a y e x a m i n e d t h i s p o i n t i n 1 4 c la s s e s o f w o r k —
l i g h t , m e d i u m , a n d h e a v y ( i n c l u d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 7 ,0 0 0 p e
s o n s ) — w o r k in g a n o r m a l d a y s h if t o f 53 h o u r s , c o m m e n c in g a t
a. m . o r b e t w e e n G a n d 7 a . m ., w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t h e f o u n d t h a
th e p e r c e n ta g e o f lo s t tim e b e fo r e b r e a k fa s t v a r ie d f r o m 2 0 t o 5
W i t h o u t d e c id in g w h e th e r t h is lo s s w a s “ a v o id a b l e ” o r n o t, th e f a c
is th a t it o c c u r r e d , a n d it o c c u r r e d in t h e m o r n in g q u a r t e r , a n d w a
g r e a t ly in e x ce ss o f a n y s im ila r lo s s in f a c t o r ie s w h ic h s ta r te d w o r
la te r th a n 6 a. m . A l l o v e r th e c o u n t r y m u n it io n w o r k s h a v e h a
th is e x p e r ie n c e o f lo s t tim e in th e “ m o r n in g q u a r t e r ” u n d e r th e t w o
b r e a k sy ste m (w h ic h b e g in s b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t a n d so in v o lv e s t w
m e a l b r e a k s d u r in g th e d a y ) . T h e m a g n it u d e o f t h is c o m m o n e x p e
r ie n c e , t h e a c t u a l n u m b e r o f a b s e n c e s , th e f u t i l i t y o f w o r k in g b e f o r
h a v i n g h a d a m o r n in g m e a l, a n d th e w a s t e o f tim e in c u r r e d in t w
b re a k s d a ily , h a v e le d m a n y e m p lo y e r s t o th e v ie w th a t th e tw
b r e a k s y s te m m ig h t w e ll b e a b o lis h e d .
T h ir d ly , th e r e is tim e lo
in s t a r t in g w o r k , e v e n b y th e g o o d tim e k e e p e r , a n d s im ila r ly tim
101




102

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

is lo s t in e n d in g w o r k . A s ta t e m e n t 1 m a d e to th e c o m m itte e b y D r .
V e m o n m ay be q u oted :
In most works the motive pow er is electric, and in some the pow er supplied
to each section is registered by a separate wattmeter. The machinery is
started running shortly before w ork begins, and as the operatives get going,
one after another, the power consumption steadily rises to a maximum, which
is attained when all the operatives have started. By means o f these power
records the rate o f starting and stopping w ork can readily be ascertained in
many instances, though not in factories where time is spent in a prelim inary
collection o f necessary tools and material, and in their adjustment. The ac­
companying figure records the increments o f electric power, over that required
to drive the- free-running machinery, on starting and stopping the afternoon
spell o f work. The continuous line represents the power supplied to. a large
shell shop which turned out 30,000 3-inch shrapnel shells per week. W e see

Starting work.

Stopping work.

that the pow er supplied started mounting up twT minutes after starting time,
o
and reached h alf its fu ll value in fou r minutes. The dotted-line curve, repre­
senting the power supplied to a section o f 200 women turning fuse bodies, did
not begin to rise till five minutes after starting time, and did not attain h alf
its maximum value until 11 minutes after starting time. In other words, the
operatives wasted about seven minutes more in starting than did the operatives
in the shell shop, most o f whom were men. On the other hand, the fuse turners
finished m ore strongly than the shell-shop operatives, as can be seen by com­
paring the tw o curves given on the right side o f the figure, and it was found
that both sets o f operatives lost, on an average, about the same aggregate of
time in starting and finishing during the course o f the wT
hole day, viz, 34 min­
utes. The shell-shop operatives did not start much more prom ptly than the
fuse turners in the morning, partly because there was more delay in the arrival
o f their material, but in spite o f this, if the operatives o f both shops had
started equally prom ptly and finished equally strongly, 9 minutes out o f the
34 would have been saved. There was no inherent reason why w ork should




iSee Memorandum No. 12 (Cd. 8344),,

LOST TIME AND INCENTIVE.

103

have been started promptly in one shop and not in the other. It was merely
a custom o f the particular shop, and even then the custom was not a fixed one.
A series of meter readings of the women’s section were taken for several days
before and after the Easter holiday, and 9 days before the holiday the aver­
age amount o f time wasted in starting after dinner was found to be 11 minutes;
2 days before it was 14 minutes. Two days after the holiday it was 16 min­
utes ; 3 days after it was 15 minutes; and 5 days after it was 12 minutes.
That is to say, it increased with the slackness o f the operatives caused by the
immediate approach of the holiday, and still more with their postholiday
lassitude.
There can be no necessity for the waste even of 25 minutes in starting and
finishing work. Ten or 15 minutes should be an ample allowance, and the
20 minutes thereby saved could be deducted from working hours without any
reduction of output At dne large works the manager informed me that he
made a point o f going into the various shops at starting time, and seeing that
the operatives began work promptly. In this way a considerable amount at
time was saved.

214.
S u b s e q u e n tly 1 D r . V e r n o n w a s a b le t o r e p o r t a fu r t h e r in v e
g a t i o n in r e g a r d t o w o m e n t u r n in g a lu m in u m fu s e b o d ie s .
T
m a c h in e r y w a s s ta r te d u p a fe w m in n te s b e f o r e n o r m a l s t a r t in g t im e
th e p o w e r ( r e c o r d e d b y w a t t m e t e r ) r e q u ir e d f o r t h is p u r p o s e b e in
d e d u c te d f r o m s u b se q u e n t r e a d in g s .
T h e r e s u lt s w e r e :
TIME LOST IN STARTING AND STOPPING W O R K .

Average number of minutes lost w h e n Time of year at which power records were
taken.

Apr. 13-May 1,1916........................................
June 6 7, 1916...................................................
Jan. 10-18, 1917................................................

Total
Relative
number
hourly
starting Finishing Starting Finishing of min­
work in work in work in work in utes lost. output.
morning. morning. afternoon. afternoon.
U.O
12.5
10.0

L5
15
.5

12.3
10.0
7.0

9.3
S.0
0.0

37.1
33.0
26.5

13*
137
151

In an adjoining section, consisting mostly of women turning smaU brass
time fuses and primers, but including also the women engaged in milling a
screw thread, the total times lost in starting and stopping were 34.7, 33.5 and
28.3 minutes in the April, June, and January periods, respectively. In the next
two sections, occupied by men engaged in tool making and in controlling automatic
machines, the average times lost were nearly the same throughout, but thin
may have been due to the fact that most of the workers were paid at a time rate
and not at a Apiece rate. However, in two other sections o f lathe workers,
mostly women, which were situated in a different part of the factory, there
was likewise no appreciable reduction in the time lost, though these workers
were paid at a piece rate and must have had a bigger hourly output in
January, 1917, than in April, 1916. It is very likely that they wasted less
time by taking fewer and shorter rest pauses during the progress of their work,
but on this point I made no observations.

215.
I t is o f in t e r e s t t o n o t e in p a s s in g t h a t D r . V e r n o n c la im s t
th e in c r e a s e d h o u r l y o u t p u t r e s u lta n t o n a r e d u c t io n o f h o u r s is d e
p e n d e n t , a s a r u le , o n t w o fa c t o r s .
F ir s t, a s p e e d in g u p o f m a n y o




• See Memorandum No. 18 (Cd. 8628),

104

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

a ll o f th e a c t u a l m o v e m e n t s r e q u ir e d in th e m e c h a n ic a l p r o c e s s ; a n d
s e c o n d ly , th e a v o id a n c e o f lo s t tim e b y s t a r t in g w o r k p r o m p t ly , b y
t a k in g fe w p a u se s d u r in g th e p r o g r e s s o f th e w o r k , a n d b y c o n t in u in g
th e w o r k m o r e n e a r ly t o th e n o m in a l s t o p p in g tim e .
T h is o b s e rv a ­
t io n le a d s u p t o a fo u r t h k in d o f lo s t tim e , n a m e ly , th a t d u e t o u n ­
r e g u la t e d r e s t p a u s e s , a b s e n c e o f p a u s e s , t o o l o n g s p e lls a n d o t h e r
s im ila r p o in t s in f a c t o r y o r g a n iz a t io n o f h o u r s .
T h e c u s to m in
m a n y w o r k s is f o r o p e r a t iv e s t o w o r k f o r a s p e ll o f fiv e h o u r s , a n d
th e n a ft e r a n h o u r ’s m e a l in te r v a l f o r a n o th e r s p e ll o f fo u r a n d ah a l f t o fi v e h o u r s . S u c h s p e l l s , i n t h e v i e w o f t h e c o m m i t t e e , a r e t o o
l o n g f o r m o s t w o r k e r s , a n d y e t , i f a s e c o n d o r t h i r d i n t e r v a l w7e r e
in t r o d u c e d , e x t r a tim e w o u ld b e lo s t in s t a r t in g a n d s t o p p in g . U n d e r
p r e s e n t c ir c u m s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r , m u c h tim e is o f t e n lo s t b y th e o p e r a ­
t iv e s t a k in g r e s t a t ir r e g u la r o r u n s u it a b le tim e s .
T h e c o m m itte e
r e co m m e n d a p r o p e r ly r e c o g n iz e d sy ste m o f rest p a u ses.
A d e fi­
n it e ly fix e d te n -m in u te b r e a k in th e m id d le o f th e m o r n in g a n d a ft e r ­
n o o n s p e l ls , d u r i n g w h i c h o p e r a t i v e s r e m a i n a t t h e i r m a c h i n e s ( a n d
p o s s ib ly ta k e l ig h t r e fr e s h m e n t c o n v e y e d t o t h e m ) , h a s b e e n f o u n d in
p r a c t ic e a v a lu a b le a id t o t h e r e d u c t io n o f lo s t t im e a n d in c r e a s e in
ou tp u t.
S o m e t y p e s o f w o r k n e e d lo n g e r a n d m o r e fr e q u e n t re st
p a u s e s th a n o th e r s , a n d th e b e s t tim e s a n d o c c a s io n s c a n b e d e t e r m in e d
o n ly b y e x p e r im e n t.
L a s t l y , t h e r e is t h e l o s t t i m e d u e t o t o o l o n g
h o u r s o f w o r k a n d e x c e s s iv e o v e r tim e .
“ O v e r t im e m a y a c t ,” w r it e s
P r o f . L o v e d a y , “ e i t h e r a s f i n a l o r e ff ic ie n t c a u s e o f l o s t t i m e . ”
Em ­
p lo y e e s m a y d e lib e r a t e ly m is s n o r m a l h o u r s , o r w o r k s la c k , in o r d e r
t o m a k e th e b e tte r -p a id h o u rs o f o v e r tim e m o re e x p e d ie n t o r e v e n
n ecessa ry.
O r , a g a in , o v e r tim e o r t o o l o n g h o u r s , b y t h e ir e x h a u s t­
i n g e ffe c t, r e s u lt in lo s t t im e as a c o n s e q u e n c e .
T h e p r o lo n g e d h o u rs
a n d th e S u n d a y la b o r d u r in g th e e a r ly p e r io d o f th e w a r p re s s u r e
o n in d u s t r y a c t u a lly r e s u lt e d a f t e r a t im e in m a n y ca s e s in r e d u c in g
s t a y in g p o w e r a n d in c r e a s in g lo s t tim e , o w i n g t o in c r e a s e o f fa t ig u e
a n d s ick n e s s , o f d e c r e a s e d b r is k n e s s a n d r e s ilie n c e a m o n g t h e w o r k ­
ers. “ T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t ,” a c c o r d in g to P r o f . L o v e d a y , “ th a t
f o r th e a v e ra g e m a n h ig h w a g e s e a r n e d b y lo n g h o u r s a re t o o d e a r ly
e a r n e d .”
THE CAUSES OF LOST TIME.

216.
A c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e c h a r a c te r o f lo s t tim e m a k e s m a n ife s t
it s p r in c ip a l ca u se s. S o m e o f th e m a re in h e r e n t in th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s
o f t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e w7a r o r t h e e x c e p t i o n a l c o n d i ­
t io n s o f i n d u s t r y ; o th e r s a re r e la tiv e ly m o r e “ a v o id a b le .” T h e m o r e ,
h o w e v e r , th a t th e ca u se s a re e x a m in e d o r c o n s id e r e d in r e la tio n t o
t h e v a r y i n g l o c a l o r o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e le s s i s i t p o s s i b l e t o
c l a s s i f y wTt h a n y d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n , o r s a y o f a n y g i v e n c a u s e t h a t
i




LOST TIME AND INCENTIVE.

105

i t is i n h e r e n t a n d u n c o n t r o l l a b l e , o r t h a t i t i s c o n t r o l l a b l e a n d a v o i d ­
a b le . I t w i l l b e f o u n d i n p r a c t i c e t o b e s o m e t i m e s o n e a n d s o m e t i m e s
th e o th e r . I t s h o u ld b e u n d e r s t o o d t h e r e fo r e th a t th e f o l l o w i n g c la s s i­
fic a t io n is m e r e ly m a d e f o r c o n v e n ie n c e .
( i ) C a u ses m a in ly in h e r e n t:
(a) N e c e s s i t y o f e m p l o y i n g p e r s o n s o f i n f e r i o r p h y s i q u e , i r r e g u ­
la r h a b it s , a n d w it h o u t e x p e r ie n c e o f f a c t o r y l i f e o r d i s c i p l in e ;
(b) I n m a n y d i s t r i c t s i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n s . a n d i n ­
s u fficie n t t r a n s p o r t f a c ilit ie s , b o t h c o n d it io n s m a d e m o r e a c u te b y
a b n o r m a l c o n g e s tio n o f in d u s tr ia l p o p u l a t io n ;
(c) W i n t r y w e a t h e r , d a r k e n e d s t r e e t s , a n d i n e q u a l i t i e s o f f o o d
supply;
( d) I n s u ffic ie n c y o r ir r e g u la r it y

o f s u p p ly o f r a w m a t e r ia l, m a ­
c h in e r y , o r to o ls c o m in g t o th e f a c t o r y ;
( e) D o m e s t ic d u tie s o f m a r r ie d w o m e n a n d w a r p r e o c c u p a t io n s
a n d e x ig e n c ie s o f a ll w o r k e r s ;
( / ) S i c k n e s s a n d d is e a s e c a u s e d b y c o n d i t i o n s e x t e r n a l t o t h e
fa cto ry .
( i i ) C a u ses m a in ly c o n t r o l l a b le :
(a) F a t i g u e , s i c k n e s s , a n d a c c i d e n t o f f a c t o r y o r i g i n ;
( b) I n s u f f i c i e n t w a g e i n c e n t i v e ;
( c) F a u l t y i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , l e a v i n g th e e m p l o y e e w it h o u t
w o r k , le a d in g to t e m p o r a r y a n d s p o r a d ic b r e a k d o w n o r d e la y in m a n ­
a g e m e n t, o r fa i l in g to p r o v id e f o r th e r e a s o n a b ly c o m fo r t a b le c o n ­
d it io n s ( l ig h t in g , h e a t in g , re s t, f e e d in g , e t c .) f o r m a x im u m a n d s u s­
ta in e d e f f o r t ;
(d) I n d i f f e r e n c e , s la c k n e s s , l a z i n e s s , d i s c o n t e n t ;
( e) T h e p r a c t ic e o f e a r ly m o r n in g “ q u a r te r s ” o r d is lo c a t io n b e ­
tw een s h ifts ;
( / ) P r o l o n g e d h o u r s , o v e r t i m e , i n s u f f i c ie n t r e s t p e r i o d s o r h o l i ­
d ays;
(g) E x c e s s i v e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s .
217.
O t h e r c a u s e s o f le s s i m p o r t a n c e u n d o u b t e d l y o c c u r , a n d e v e n
th o s e m e n tio n e d d iffe r c o n s id e r a b ly , b o t h in e ffe c t a n d in lo c a lit y .
W h i l s t th e c o m m it t e e d e c lin e t o g e n e r a liz e o r d r a w fin a l c o n c lu s io n s ,
t h e y a re s a tis fie d t h a t th e lo s s o f t im e , d ir e c t ly a n d in d ir e c t ly , d u e to
f a t i g u e a n d i l l h e a l t h i s s u b s t a n t i a l , a n d is , a s a r u l e , g r e a t l y u n d e r '
e s tim a te d .
O n th e o th e r h a n d th e re w o u ld seem to b e a te n d e n c y
t o o v e r e s tim a te th a t d u e t o s la ck n e s s , la z in e s s , o r w il l f u l id lin g . O n
th e w h o le , e v id e n c e fr o m a ll p a r t s o f th e c o u n t r y s h o w s , b e y o n d q u e s­
t io n o r d is p u t e , th a t a v e r y r e m a r k a b le a n d e n t ir e ly e x c e p t io n a l e ffo r t
h a s b e e n m a d e b y a ll g r a d e s o f w o r k e r s t o m e e t th e in d u s t r ia l d e ­
m a n d s o f th e n a t io n a l e m e r g e n c y . T h is lo n g -s u s ta in e d w ill t o serv e
t h e c o m m o n w e a l h a s p l a y e d , i n t h e c o m m i t t e e ’s v i e w , a p r o m i n e n t




106

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

p a r t in t h e m a in t e n a n c e o f o u t p u t u n d e r d iffic u lt c ir c u m s t a n c e s a n d
h a s c o n t r ib u t e d t o r e d u c e t h e lo s t t im e d u e t o i ll h e a lt h . I n s p it e o f th e
p r o l o n g e d a n d h e a v y s t r a in th e c o m m it t e e ’s m e d ic a l in v e s t ig a t o r s h a v e
fo u n d a n u n e x p e c t e d ly la r g e m e a su re o f g o o d h e a lth a m o n g b o t h
m e n a n d w o m e n , d u e , a s f a r as th e e v id e n c e g o e s , t o th e p o w e r f u l
im p e tu s o f a sen se o f p a t r io t is m , t o in c r e a s e d s o b r ie t y , t o h ig h w a g e s
a n d t h e ir r e s u lt a n t h o m e c o m f o r t , t o th e r e s t r ic t io n o f h o u r s , a d o p t e d
n o n e t o o s o o n , t o d iv is i o n o f la b o r , a n d t o a v a s t im p r o v e m e n t in
th e c o n d itio n s o f fa c t o r y life , e s p e c ia lly th e a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r “ w e l­
fa r e ” s u p e r v is io n a n d th e p r o v is io n o f c a n te e n fa c ilit ie s . W it h o u t
th e o p e r a t io n o f th ese f a v o r i n g c o n t r ib u t o r y fa c t o r s th e c o m m itte e
b e lie v e th a t th e r e w o u ld h a v e b e e n m u c h h e a v ie r lo s s o f tim e a n d
w i d e s p r e a d b r e a k d o w n o f h e a l t h . E v e n a s i t is , t h e c o m m i t t e e c a n
n o t e s c a p e th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e im m e n s e in d u s t r ia l e f f o r t o f th e
w a r is l i k e l y t o l e a v e b e h i n d m a n y s e r i o u s p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s .
218. T h e ca u se s a n d c o n d it io n s o f lo s t tim e a re m a tte r s o f n a tio n a l
im p o r ta n c e f o r th e fu tu r e , a n d th e c o m m itte e h o ld s t r o n g ly th a t th e
p a s t n e g le c t o f t h is s u b je c t s h o u ld b e r e m o v e d o n c e a n d f o r a l
T h e y a d v o c a te s h o r te r h o u r s , im p r o v e d c o n d it io n s o f la b o r , a n d a
h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f e f f ic ie n t w o r k m a n s h i p i f i n d u s t r y i s t o c o m e i n t o
its o w n a n d w o r k e r s o f a ll g r a d e s a re t o o b t a in t h e ir f u l l r e w a r d
w i t h o u t le t , h i n d r a n c e , o r i m p a i r m e n t .
T o t h is e n d th e c o m m it t e e
r e c o m m e n d th a t m a n a g e r s a n d o t h e r r e s p o n s ib le a u t h o r it ie s in f a c ­
to r ie s s h o u ld k e e p c a r e f u l r e c o r d s —
(a) O f l o s t a n d b r o k e n t i m e ;
' (h) O f a b s e n c e o r b r o k e n t i m e d u e t o s i c k n e s s ; a n d
(c) W h e r e p r a c t i c a b l e , o f t h e o u t p u t p e r w o r k e r p e r h o u r .
T h e r e g u la r s t u d y o f th e se r e c o r d s c a n n o t f a i l t o p r o v e v a lu a b le
'a s a g u i d e t o t h e c a u s e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f l o s t t i m e a n d t h e m e a n s
o f its r e d u c t io n o r r e m o v a l in in d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s . I t is im p o r t a n t
to r e m e m b e r th a t th e m a n o r w o m a n is n o t a m a c h in e , a n d s h o u ld
n o t b e t r e a t e d a s s u c h . W h a t i s n e e d e d is n o t a c a s t - i r o n s y s t e m o f
e m p lo y m e n t, b u t a s y m p a th e tic a n d c o r r e c t u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e
p h y s ic a l a n d m e n ta l c a p a c it ie s o f e a c h w o r k e r a n d t h e ir m o s t s a tis ­
fa c t o r y a n d e c o n o m ic a l a p p lic a tio n .
INCENTIVES TO WORK.

2 19. C lo s e ly r e la te d t o th e q u e s tio n o f lo s t t im e is th a t o f in c e n t iv e
t o w o r k , a n d in th e c o u r s e o f th e ir in v e s tig a tio n s th e c o m m itte e h a v e
o b s e r v e d a r e la t io n e x is t in g b e tw e e n su ch in c e n t iv e s a n d th e h e a lt h
o f th e w o r k e r .
I n d e e d , th e y are d is p o s e d t o p la c e th e h e a lth a n d
p h y s i c a l fit n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r a s t h e f i r s t n e c e s s a r y c o n d i ­
t io n o f o u t p u t , a n d t o th a t e n d t h e y d e s ir e t o la y e m p h a s is u p o n th e
e x tr e m e v a lu e o f a ll f a c t o r y c o n d it io n s w h ic h c o n t r ib u t e t o s u c




LOST TIME AND INCENTIVE.

107

h e a lt h — g o o d l i g h t i n g , e ff e c t iv e v e n t ila t io n , s u ffic ie n t h e a t i n g , c le a n ­
l in e s s , r e s t r o o m s , p r o p e r c a n t e e n a c c o m m o d a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m
in d u s t r ia l p o i s o n in g a n d d a n g e r o u s m a c h in e r y , s u r g e r ie s , s u it a b le
w e lfa r e w o r k w ith in a n d o u ts id e th e fa c t o r y — a ll th ese a re c o n d itio n s
o f fir s t a n d fu n d a m e n t a l im p o r t a n c e f r o m th e p o in t o f v ie w o f
h e a lth a n d in c e n tiv e t o w o r k . A h y g ie n ic e n v ir o n m e n t a t h o m e a n d
i n t h e w o r k s h o p is i n d e e d t h e f ir s t n e c e s s i t y f o r s e c u r i n g a h e a l t h y
p o p u la t io n o f w a g e e a r n e r s t o w h o m a w a g e s y s te m m a y a p p e a l as
a n in c e n t iv e t o w o r k . S e c o n d ly , th e c o m m it t e e w o u ld p la c e a p r o p ­
e r ly o r g a n iz e d f a c t o r y , g o o d o r d e r a n d d is c ip lin e , a n d s u it a b le h o u r s
o f w o r k (c o m b in e d w it h p r o p e r rests a n d p a u se s, a n d a m in im u m o f
n i g h t e m p l o y m e n t ) a s c o n d u c i v e t o e f f ic ie n t w o r k m a n s h i p . “ W h e n
o n c e in d u s tr ia l l if e h a s b e e n e n te r e d u p o n ,” w r ite s P r o f . L o v e d a y ,
“ th e o r d e r e d a n d s y s te m a tic r o u t in e o f a m o d e r n f a c t o r y is a d ir e c t
s t im u lu s d u r in g e v e r y 2 4 h o u r s t o th e r h y t h m o f a c t iv it y a n d r e s t ;
th e b e tte r th e o r g a n iz a tio n , a n d th e b e tte r th e h y g ie n ic e n v ir o n m e n t
t h e g r e a t e r is t h e s t i m u l u s t o a c t i v i t y . ” T h e t h i r d i n c e n t i v e , t h o u g h
p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y o n e t h o u g h t o f b y m a n y e m p l o y e r s , is t h a t o f w a g e .
T o b e a n in c e n tiv e in a c tu a l p r a c t ic e , h o w e v e r , th e w a g e s y s te m
a d o p t e d m u s t b e e q u it a b le , w e ll a d ju s t e d a n d c le a r ly u n d e r s t o o d .
T h e c o m m i t t e e h a v e b e e n t h e w it n e s s e s o f n o t a f e w m i s u n d e r s t a n d ­
in g s le a d in g t o lo s t tim e , r e d u c e d o u t p u t , a n d d is c o n t e n t w h ic h a r o s e
n o t o n th e a m o u n t o f w a g e , b u t o n th e sy s te m o r m a n n e r o f its p a y ­
m e n t.
F o u r t h ly , u n d e r c o n d it io n s o f r e p e t it io n w o r k , e s p e c ia lly i f
m o n o to n o u s , p ie c e ra te s a p p e a r t o p r o v id e b e tte r in c e n t iv e t h a n t im e
w a g e s , a n d t i m e w a g e s w i t h a b o n u s t h a n a fla t t i m e r a t e .
F in a lly ,
in r e la t io n t o in c e n t iv e s t o l a b o r it is n e c e s s a r y t o r e m e m b e r t h e
se r io u s e ffe c t u p o n tim e k e e p in g a n d o u t p u t o f h o u r s o f la b o r , w h ic h
p r e c lu d e a tte n tio n to h e a lth a n d r e c r e a tio n a n d d o m e s tic l ife , a n d
o f a s c a le o f w a g e s w h ic h p la c e s th e w a g e e a r n e r a b o v e o r b e y o n d
th e o r d i n a r y a n d c u s t o m a r y r e q u ir e m e n t s o f h is s t a n d a r d o f c o m f o r t .
T h e c o m m it t e e h a v e seen lo s t tim e d ir e c t ly r e s u lt in g f r o m b o t h o f
th e se c o n d it io n s a n d th e y h a v e n o d o u b t th a t m u c h o f th e p r e s e n t
la b o r u n r e s t is d u e t o th e in t e r r e la t io n s h ip o b t a in in g b e tw e e n w a g e s
a n d th e s ta n d a rd o f c o m fo r t .
I t is , o f c o u r s e , o b v i o u s t h a t s u c h
c o n d it io n s r a is e f a r - r e a c h i n g a n d c o m p le x s o c ia l issu e s w h ic h lie
o u ts id e th e s c o p e o f th e p re s e n t r e p o rt.
B u t th e y a re m a tte rs w h ic h
m u s t b e b o r n e in m in d in c o n t r i v i n g s c h e m e s f o r r e d u c in g lo s t t im e
a n d e n c o u r a g in g stea d y w o r k .




SECTION IX.— FOOD AND CANTEENS.

2 2 0 . T h e r e is n o w a n o v e r w h e lm in g b o d y o f e x p e r ie n c e w h ic h
p r o v e s th a t p r o d u c t iv e o u t p u t in r e g a r d to q u a lity , a m o u n t, a n d sp e e d
i s l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e p h y s i c a l e f f ic ie n c y a n d h e a l t h o f t h e
w o r k e r . I n it s t u r n s u c h p h y s ic a l fitn e s s is d e p e n d e n t u p o n n u t r it io n .
T h e p u r p o s e o f n u t r i t i o n is t o s e c u r e t h e h e a l t h , t h e p r o p e r d e v e l o p ­
m e n t a n d g r o w t h , th e r e p a ir a n d v it a l e n e r g y , o f th e h u m a n b o d y .
F o o d e n e r g y is s p e n t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e t is s u e s o f t h e b o d y a n d t h o
b o d y h e a t a n d i n d o i n g w o r k . N u t r i t i o n is s t i m u l a t e d b y t h e c o o l i n g
e ffe c t o f fr e s h a ir , a n d b y b o d i l y e x e r c is e , a n d it s n e e d s m u s t b e m e t
b y a f o o d s u p p l y s u i t a b l e i n c h a r a c t e r a n d s u f f ic ie n t i n a m o u n t t o
m e et th e e x p e n d itu r e o n b o d y h e a t a n d w o r k .
22 1 . T h e h u m a n b o d y c a lls th e n f o r a c o n s t a n t s u p p ly o f f o o d , fir s t
f o r i t s g r o w t h , f o r t h e b u i l d i n g u p o f i t s t is s u e s a n d f o r r e p a i r , a n d
s e c o n d ly as fu e l f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f h e a t a n d e n e r g y . B o t h r e q u ir e ­
m e n t s a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e , a n d f r o m t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e s e t h e r e is n o
e s c a p e . T h o u g h n o h a r d a n d f a s t lin e o f d iv is io n c a n b e d r a w n , it
m a y b e s a id th a t c e r t a in k in d s o f f o o d w h ic h a re r e la t iv e ly r ic h in
p r o t e in a n d m in e r a l m a tte r (m e a t, ch ee se, m ilk , h e r r in g s , d r ie d p e a s ,
b e a n s, b r e a d , o a tm e a l, flo u r ) c o n t r ib u t e b o t h t o th e fo r m a t io n o f th e
b o d y a n d its r e p a ir a n d s u p p ly it w it h fu e l f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f h e a t
a n d e n e r g y ; o th e r k in d s su ch as fa t (la r d , b u tte r , d r ip p in g , m a r ­
g a r in e ) , s u g a r , s a g o , a n d ta p io c a , a ffo r d an a b u n d a n t s u p p ly o f fu e l,
b u t c a n n o t m a in t a in g r o w t h a n d r e p a ir . S t ill o t h e r k in d s o f f o o d s
( f r e s h fr u it s , g r e e n v e g e t a b le s ) c o n t a in a s m a ll p r o p o r t io n o f n u t r i­
m e n t, b u t in s u r e th e p r o v is io n o f th e b o d y w it h c e r t a in im p o r t a n t
p r in c ip le s c o n d u c iv e t o g o o d h e a lt h .1 T h e c o n s t it u e n t p a r t s o f a
d i e t a r y a r e i m p o r t a n t i f t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e is t o b e o b t a i n e d , b u t
s p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y , f r e s h , d i g e s t i b l e a n d a p p e t i z i n g f o o d is m o r e i m ­
p o r t a n t th a n c h e m ic a l c o m p o s it io n o r p r o p o r t io n . I t w il l b e u n d e r ­
s t o o d t h a t d i g e s t i b i l i t y is d e p e n d e n t p a r t l y u p o n t h e f o o d i t s e l f b e i n g
o f a n a t u r e w h i c h is e a s i l y d i g e s t i b l e a n d p a r t l y u p o n t h e o r g a n s o f
d ig e s t io n b e in g h e a lt h y a n d in g o o d w o r k in g o r d e r .
F u rth er, i
1 When work is nervously exhausting, e. g., night work, the food of the worker re­
quires to be particularly light and digestible, well cooked and appetizing, for the organs
of digestion then lack an adequate supply of nervous energy, and can not deal success­
fully with heavy indigestible and unappetizing meals. The warmth of the food is o f
great importance. Hot drinks stimulate the tired worker. The proper adjustment of
the food to the expenditure of nerve energy saves a great deal of indigestion and the
minor complaints and lost time which result.




108

FOOD AND CANTEENS.

109

s h o u ld b e n o t e d t h a t a v a r ie t y o f f a c t o r s a ffe c t th e r e la tiv e v a lu e o f
f o o d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u m i n g it . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e is t h e n a t u r e
o f th e e m p lo y m e n t , w h e t h e r s e d e n ta r y o r a c t iv e , a n d th e a m o u n t o f
e n e r g y c a lle d f o r . W i t h in c r e a s e o f w o r k th e r e m u s t b e p r o p o r t io n a t e
i n c r e a s e i n q u a n t i t y a n d in n u t r i t i v e v a l u e o f t h e f o o d e a t e n . I l l - p a i d
la b o r e r s a n d o th e r s w h o s e f o o d a m o u n ts o n ly t o a b a r e m in im u m c a n
n o t e ith e r p u t fo r t h th e sa m e e n e r g y o r w o r k at th e sa m e sp e e d as a
w e ll-n o u r is h e d m a n . T h e m a n w h o h a s t o w o r k h a r d , lo n g , o r r a p i d l y
n e e d s a p r o p o r t io n a t e ly a m p le f o o d s u p p ly , c o m p o s e d o f h ig h ly
n u t r i t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s , t o w i t h s t a n d t h e s t r a in . F a t i g u e b o t h p r e v e n t s
d ig e s t io n a n d d e m a n d s f o o d . A g e , se x , w e ig h t , a n d c o n s t it u t io n lik e ­
w is e e x e r t in flu e n c e . W o m e r r e q u ir e o n a n a v e r a g e a b o u t f o u r - f i f t h s
o f th e f o o d s u p p ly o f a m a n a n d a n a d o le s c e n t a b o u t s e v e n -te n th s .
S e a s o n a n d c lim a t e a ls o a ffe c t th e q u e s tio n . L a s t ly , th e p r e d i s p o s in g
i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e a l c o h o l i c h a b i t o f 'm a l n u t r i t i o n , b a d f e e d i n g , a n d
l o n g p e r io d s o f w o r k w it h o u t r e fr e s h m e n t s h o u ld b e b o r n e in m in d .
T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t “ i n d u s t r i a l a l c o h o l i s m ” is , i n p a r t , d u e
t o th e la c k o f c h e a p , g o o d fo o d .
222.
W h a t , t h e n , i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , is t h e n e c e s s a r y d i e t a r y f o r
w o r k e r ? B r o a d l y , t h e a n s w e r i s a d i e t a r y c o n t a i n i n g a s u f f ic ie n t p r o ­
p o r t i o n a n d q u a n t it y o f n u t r it iv e m a t e r ia l, s u it a b ly m ix e d , w h ic h is
e a s ily d ig e s t ib le , a p p e t iz in g , a n d o b t a in a b le a t a r e a s o n a b le c o st.
Character of food required.— The amount o f physical force expended in daily
w ork and the environment o f the work have a great effect on the requirements
o f the body for food. Hard labor and exposure to open air together call for
increased food su pply; sedentary work in an artificially heated and confined
atmosphere, on the other hand, reduces the output o f energy and less food is
required.
Natural foods yield the essentials required to replace the energy expended
and for the repair and growth o f the body. They contain these essentials in the
form o f protein, fat, and carbohydrates, and also supply salts and certain sub­
stances o f unknown nature, called vitamines, which exist in minute quantities
in fresh foods and are necessary for the growth and health o f the body. Vita­
mines are removed by some o f the processes o f milling, e. g., in the preparation
o f white flour, and polished white rice. They are destroyed by prolonged cook­
ing, and are absent from foods preserved in tins; they are present in butter,
dripping, and margarine when made from beef fat, though absent when it is
made from vegetable fat. For the preservation o f good health it is essential
that fresh natural foods should be eaten in sufficient amount. Fortunately, the
potato affords such a cheap natural food and makes a good diet with bread and
tinned food. Protein is the chief solid constituent o f lean m eat; it is also pres­
ent in milk, cheese, and eggs and occurs in all vegetables, particularly in flour
(bread ), peas, and beans; it is not only a source o f energy, but it is also a body
builder, and no dietary can be complete without it. The body requires protein
in the food in order to build up its cgvn living substance, and can not do so with
the aid o f fat and carbohydrate alone. Protein stimulates the body to a greater
expenditure o f energy than does an equivalent value o f carbohydrate or fat.
There is reason to believe that more protein is required by tkose who work
forcibly and rapidly than by those who work in a slow, steady manner, e. g.,




110

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

soldiers in the front line require more protein than agricultural laborers. Fat is
chiefly derived from anim als; nuts (from which one kind o f margarine is made)
also are rich in fat, but other vegetables only contain fat in a much smaller
degree. Carbohydrates are mainly derived from vegetables in the form o f flour,
potatoes, or sugar.
Fat and carbohydrate can replace one another in a diet, but the body digests
and deals best with a certain proportion o f each. Fat, however, yields weight
fo r weight more than twice as much energy as carbohydrate, and so in cold
climates and cold weather more fa t is naturally eaten. Experience shows that
the diet should inelude raw food, fruit, or salads, in order to secure the vitamines
which prevent scurvy. Fruit which is not overripe is particularly valuable.1
Potatoes, cabbage, onions, carrots, and turnips also contain the vitamines which
prevent scurvy. Eight ounces o f potatoes a day w ill supply sufficient. Particu­
larly in times o f scarcity, when there is any restriction o f diet, it is advisable
that vegetable food, such as potatoes, should form a large proportion o f the
available diet, for the vegetables contain salts which neutralize the acids formed
in the vital processes o f the body.
Fortunately, the cheaper foods (bread, margarine, porridge, milk, herrings,
cheese, beans, onions, cabbages, swedes, and the cheapest cuts o f meat) provide
all the requisite nourishment, and are probably better adapted to maintain
health than are more highly flavored and expensive foods which artificially
stimulate the appetite. The drinking o f strong tea many times in the day is
physiologically unsound, as also is the consumption o f sweetmeats between
meals, especially by boys and girls. Sugar is not a natural food, but an arti­
ficially separated foodstuff. It should not be allowed to lessen the appetite for
the natural complete foods.
Calculation of energy value o f foodstuffs.— The energy value o f a foodstuff can
be determined by burning a weighed quantity o f it in a suitable apparatus called
a calorimeter and ascertaining how much heat it gives off. The large calorie,
which is used as the unit o f energy value, is the amount o f heat required to
raise 1 kilogram (2.1 pints) o f water fr o m ^15° to 16° C. through 1° C. (1.8° F .).
Calculation has shown that, when dried, foodstuffs possess the follow ing energy
v a lu e :
One gram * o f—
Calories.

Protein is equivalent to___________________________________ 4 .1
Carbohydrate is equivalent to_____________________________4.1
Fat is equivalent to_______________________________________ 9. 3
The energy expended in mechanical work can also be expressed in calories,
for 1 calorie has been found by experiment to be equivalent to the energy e x ­
1 It should, however, be remembered that at the present time fruit, with few e x c e p ­
t io n s , is a prohibited import, and that foreign fruit is consequently in very short s u p p ly .
Supplies should, therefore, as far as possible, be d r a w n f r o m home-grown fruit or s a la d s
Children will eat this
a n d vegetables. Raw fruit can be replaced by r a w s w e d e turnip.
r a w , or it can be grated down and eaten on bread.
2 To express in terms of calories per pound it should be remembered that one pouiid
is equal to 453.6 g r a m s; one ounce is equal to 28.35 g r a m s .
Jirwample.— ^Suppose 1 pound of roast beef contained—
Per cent.
Protein----------- -------------------------------------------------------- — —.— 26. 75
F a t _______________________________________ __________ ______ 12. 90
In this case there would be ( 2 6 .7 5 X 4 .1 ) + ( 1 2 .9 0 X 9 .3 ) = 2 2 9 calories per 100
grams.
In the pound of meat there would, therefore, be 2 2 9 X 4 .5 3 6 = 1 ,0 4 0 calories.
F o r fuller information reference should be made to A n Inquiry into the Composi­
tion o f D ie ta rie s, with Special Reference to the Dietaries o f Munition W o r k e r s , by
Viscount D un lu ce an d Capt. M. Greenwood, R. A. M. C. (T ), published as a special

report

by th e m ed ica l research com m ittee.




Ill

FOOD AND CANTEENS.

pended in lifting 1 kilogram through 425.5 meters, which is about the energy
expended by a man 70 kilograms (11 stone) in weight in walking up a staircase
6 meters (about 20 feet) in height. Sueh a man would require 1 extra calorie
in the energy value o f his food to make good this expenditure o f energy. Even
in walking on the level the body is raised at each step, and the calculation has
been made that to walk 2.7 miles in an hour on a level road calls for the ex­
penditure o f 160 calories in a man o f 11 stone.
Investigations made by a number o f scientific w orkers indicate, that about 15
per cent o f the energy expended is derived from protein, and about 80 per cent
from fats and carbohydrates com bined; that is to say, that normally protein
supplies only one-fifth o f the total energy expended. Numerous investigations
have shown that the energy daily required by a man engaged in moderately
light munition work is about 3,500 calories o f food as purchased. W here calcu­
lations are based on food as eaten, the minimum diet may be taken to be about
3,000 calories when balanced among the three classes o f foodstuffs in the fol­
low ing proportions o f dried w eigh ts:
Protein--------------------------------------------------------------- ----------- grams__100
F a t______________________________________________________ do____ 100
C arbohydrate___________________________________________ do____ 400
Such would be contained in the follow ing d i e t : 1
Lean m ea t________________ ____ ____________ _________ ounces___
F a t ___ ____ _ ________________________ _____________d o ____
B u tter_____________________________________
do
B r e a d ______ ___ _________________ ____
Potatoes
^ r
.
_
_ ____ ....
__ ______ do_____
Ofltmpfll
_____________ ________________
_ do
_
M ilk
.
. _
__
pin t-

5
31
1
16
16
3

t
An average adult woman worker requires rather less (about 0.8 or 0.9) than
a man.
Men engaged in hard physical work, especially in the open air, require a good
deal more energy-producing food, and may consume as much as 4,500 calories
with advantage. On the other hand, the energy required from fo#d by a man
clothed, lying at complete rest, at ordinary room temperature, in a still atmos­
phere, is about 1,600 calories o f eaten f o o d ; while for a man engaged in a
sedentary occupation, tailor or clerk working in warm room, as little as 2,200
calories may suffice.*
A STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.

223.
T h o u g h th e r e is lit t le d o u b t t h a t w o r k e r s , o n t h e w h o le , a r
g e t t in g a b e tte r t y p e o f f o o d th a n a g e n e r a tio n a g o , it m u st b e
a d m itte d th a t la r g e n u m b e rs o f w o r k e r s o f b o th sex es a re n o t g e t­
t i n g a n e ffe c t iv e d ie t a r y d a y b y d a y . M u c h e v id e n c e is f o r t h c o m in g
t h a t t h i s is b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d b o t h b y e m p l o y e r s a n d
w o r k e r s . T h e d if f ic u l t i e s i n t h e w a y o f a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g a r is e m a i n l y
w h e r e t h e w o r k e r m u s t h a v e h i s m e a ls a w a y f r o m h o m e .
I n p ast
1 Temporary shortages of supplies of particular articles of food may, of course, involve
modifications of this diet.
2 There is evidence that the workers in Germany are not getting more than this value
in their ration, and the remainder of the civil population considerably less, receiving, in
fact, a ration which has not beea regarded hitherto as sufficient for maintenance.




112

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

y e a r s , a n d e v e n n o w in n o r m a l tim e s , th e w o r k e r l iv e d f a i r l y c lo s e
t o h is w o r k , a n d w a s f r e q u e n t l y a b le , t o r e t u r n h o m e f o r h i s m e a l.
A t p r e s e n t ( a p a r t f r o m f o o d s h o r t a g e ) t h e d if f ic u l t i e s o f s e c u r i n g
a d e q u a te f o o d a re in c r e a s e d o w i n g t o th e p r e v a le n c e o f n ig h t la b o r ,
a n d to th e f a c t th a t th e la r g e n u m b e r o f m e n a n d w o m e n h a v e t o
t r a v e l a c o n s id e r a b le d is t a n c e t o t h e ir w o r k .
(a) I n s u c h c a s e s t h e s i m p l e s t a l t e r n a t i v e is f o r t h e w o r k e r t o
b r i n g o r r e c e iv e f r o m h is h o m e o r l o d g i n g s f o o d r e a d y p r e p a r e d f o r
e a t i n g . T h e o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t is t h e l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e
k i n d s o f f o o d s u it a b le , a n d t h a t i t is n e c e s s a r i l y c o l d , a n d l i a b l e t o
b e s t a le . T h e r e i s a s p e c i a l d a n g e r o f i t s b e i n g c o n f i n e d t o w h a t c a n
b e m o s t q u ic k ly p r e p a r e d th e n ig h t b e fo r e , w it h o u t m u c h r e g a r d t o
i t s n o u r i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r . W h e n t h e w e a t h e r is w a r m , o r t h e f o o d is
k e p t f o r a n y le n g t h o f tim e in a h o t w o r k s h o p , it r e a d ily u n d e r g o e s
d e g e n e r a tio n .
( b ) A s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e is f o r w o r k e r s t o b r i n g f o o d w h i c h c a n
b e e i t h e r w a r m e d u p o r c o o k e d a t t h e f a c t o r y . T h i s is s o m e t i m e s
d o n e b y th e w o r k e r h im s e lf, o r fa c ilit ie s f o r th e p u r p o s e a re p r o ­
v id e d b y th e e m p lo y e r .
A r r a n g e m e n t s o n th e s e lin e s a r e p r o b a b ly
b e tte r th a n th o s e u n d e r w h ic h th e w o r k e r b r in g s h is f o o d w it h h im
rea d y p rep ared .
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t is t o b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t
w a r m e d -u p f o o d is g e n e r a lly n o t s o n o u r is h in g as f r e s h ly c o o k e d
f o o d , t h a t i f a l a r g e a m o u n t o f f o o d is t o b e w a r m e d u p i t is a l w a y s
d iffic u lt t o d e a l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w it h w id e l y v a r y i n g k in d s o f f o o d , a n d
t h a t v a l u a b l e t i m e i s l o s t i f t h e w o r k e r is c o m p e l l e d t o c o o k h i s o w n
m e a l.
(c) I n s o m e d i s t r i c t s w o r k e r s c a n o b t a i n a s u b s t a n t i a l m e a l a t
p u b l i c h o u s e s , c o o k s h o p s , o r o t h e r p r o p r ie t a r y e s t a b lis h m e n t s in t h e
n e i g h b o r h o o d , b u t t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n t h e s e p l a c e s is o f t e n i n a d e ­
q u a te a n d u n s u ita b le .
(d) L a s t l y , t h e r e i s t h e i n d u s t r i a l c a n t e e n a t o r n e a r t h e w o r k s . 1
22 4 . T h i s th e n is t h e p r o b le m — t o s u p p ly s u it a b le f o o d a t a lo w
p r i c e f o r la r g e n u m b e r s o f p e r s o n s a t s p e c ifie d tim e s . T h e m o d e m
p r o g r e s s o f f a c t o r y m a n a g e m e n t r e v e a ls a v a r ie t y o f e ff o r t s t o fin d a
s o lu t io n . T h e r e h a s b e e n , it is tr u e , c o n s id e r a b le d e v e lo p m e n t in th e
p r o v is io n o f p r o p r ie t a r y c o n c e r n s in th e fo r m o f im p r o v e d c o ffe e ­
h o u s e s a n d r e fr e s h m e n t r o o m s . P h i la n t h r o p i c m o v e m e n t s h a v e a ls o
b ee n in itia te d w it h a s im ila r p u r p o s e . B u t b y f a r th e m o s t h o p e fu l
e n t e r p r is e h a s b e e n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t b y e m p lo y e r s o f in d u s t r ia l c a n ­
te e n s, o r w o r k p e o p le ’s d in in g r o o m s in o r n e a r th e f a c t o r y it s e lf.
H it h e r to th e re h a s b e e n n o s ta tu to r y o b lig a t io n u p o n th e e m p lo y e r ,
1 In Memorandum No. 19 (Cd. 8798) will be found the results of a number of analyses
made by Dr. Leonard Hill, F. R. S., of the caloric value of various workpeople’s dietaries.
Canteen meals yielded 8 0 6 -1 ,4 3 3 calories (1 6 3 -3 0 5 dry weight in grams) ; “ carried food,”
6 8 3 -1 ,7 1 9 ; and women’s dietaries, 397 (tea shop) to 1,143 (carried food). Particulars
are also given of caloric value of hostel dietaries, food substitutions, and ration?




FOOD AND CANTEENS.

113

t h o u g h a c t io n in t h is d ir e c t io n h a s r e c e iv e d th e w h o le -h e a r t e d c o m ­
m e n d a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r y d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e H o m e O f f ic e a n d t h e
M i n i s t r y o f M u n i t i o n s . T h e e a r l i e s t a n d b e s t e x a m p l e s o f s t ic h r e s ­
ta u ra n ts in fa c t o r ie s a re to b e fo u n d in th e f o o d in d u s tr y , b u t m a k e rs
o f s o a p , p a p e r , c lo t h , t o b a c c o , a n d t in b o x e s h a v e f o l l o w e d s u it, a n d
n o w i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f g r e a t e r o r le s s
d e g r e e o f s u it a b ilit y a n d a t tr a c tiv e n e s s is b e in g p r o v id e d .
T h is
p io n e e r p r a c t ic e h a s a b u n d a n t ly ju s t ifie d i t s e lf f r o m a b u s in e s s a n d
c o m m e r c ia l p o in t o f v ie w , a n d in th e o p in io n o f th e c o m m itte e th e
t im e h a s c o m e f o r a la r g e e x t e n s io n o f t h is m e t h o d o f s o l v in g th e
p r o b le m .
225. S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly , it m a y b e s a id th a t th e a c c o m m o d a tio n
p r o v id e d a c c o r d s w it h o n e o r o th e r o f th e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s :
(a) A n a v a i l a b l e r o o m f o r t h e w o r k e r s t o e a t t h e i r p r e p a r e d f o o d ;
( b) A r o o m f u r n i s h e d w i t h a “ h o t - p l a t e ” o r “ w a r m i n g c u p ­
b o a r d ” 1 a n d p r o v id e d w it h h o t w a t e r ;
( c) A r e fr e s h m e n t b a r r o w t o p e r a m b u la t e th e w o r k s h o p s a t a p ­
p o in t e d h o u rs (p a r t ic u la r ly u s e fu l f o r lig h t r e fr e s h m e n ts d u r in g lo n g
s p e lls o r n ig h t s h i f t s ) ;
( d) A fix e d r e fr e s h m e n t b a r o r b u f f e t ;
(e} K d i n i n g - r o o m o r c a n te e n s u p p l y i n g c h e a p h o t a n d c o l d d i n ­
n ers;
( / ) S u c h a d in i n g r o o m a s s o c ia te d w it h a n in s t it u t e o r c lu b , w it h
f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e s t a n d r e c r e a t i o n (e . g . , r e s t r o o m s , r e c r e a t i o n o r r e a d ­
in g ro o m s , p o r ta b le g y m n a s iu m , b a th s, r o o f g a rd e n , o r e d u ca tio n a l
c la s s e s , e t c . )
226. S o m e o f th ese t y p e s m a y b e s u it a b ly c o m b in e d , a n d a lt h o u g h
a r r a n g e m e n t s i n d i c a t e d ic ) (a n d (d) m a y p r o v e s u ff ic ie n t a n d s a t ­
n
i s f a c t o r y in c e r t a in c ir c u m s t a n c e s , th e p r o v is io n o f p r o p e r m e a ls
s e e m s o b t a i n a b l e o n l y i n t h e t y e )e s a n( d ( / ) .
p
T h e c o m m itte e
r e c o g n iz e t h a t th e n e c e s s ity f o r , a n d c h a r a c te r o f , a n in d u s t r ia l c a n ­
te e n a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e n a t u r e o f th e n e e d a n d its d e g r e e in e a c h
fa c t o r y . T h e y a re , h o w e v e r , c o n v in c e d t h a t in th e h ig h e s t in te r e s t
o f b o th e m p lo y e r a n d w o r k e r , p r o p e r fa c ilit ie s f o r a d e q u a te fe e d in g
a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u ld b e a v a ila b le in o r n e a r , a n d s h o u ld f o r m a n in t e ­
g r a l p a r t o f th e e q u ip m e n t o f , m o d e r n fa c t o r ie s a n d w o r k s h o p s .
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDUSTRIAL CANTEEN.

2 2T . I n o r d e r t o i n s u r e e f f e c t i v e r e s u lt s f r o m t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f
i n d u s t r i a l c a n t e e n s , c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s s e e m t o b e e s s e n t ia l .
Speak­
1 “ Warming cupboards ” can be installed in or near the mess-room and heated by steam.
The cabinet may be constructed of sheet iron (finished off with asbestos and wood cov­
ering). with shelves of perforated sheet iron. Employees deposit their food in basins or
dishes when they come to work, the cupboard is closed and steam applied under regula­
tion for a specified time. At the dinner hour the employees fetch their food.
8 0 9 3 5 ° — 19-------- 8 •




114

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

ing generally, these conditions concern— (a) establishment and (b)
management, the former including questions of site, building, and
equipment.
ESTABLISH M ENT.
S it e .

228. The first important consideration in the erection o f a new can­
teen is the question of a site for the building. The site should, if
possible, have a pleasant, open outlook and southern aspect, and
should be central and easy o f access for the workers. With high
buildings adjoining and mess rooms looking out upon blank walls
not many yards distant, the canteen may prove unattractive and its
success be to a great extent impaired. The canteen should, if prac­
ticable, be placed where water, gas, and electric mains are adjaeent,
as well as drainage capable of carrying off the discharge of soil and
rainwater pipes and of sinks and lavatory wastes. An appropriate
proximity to the works must also be considered.
B

u i l d in g s .

229. Much will depend on the nature of the scheme adopted,
whether it is (a) a mess room, with or without hot closet, hot plates,
or hot water; (b) a buffet bar; or (c) a full restaurant canteen with
kitchen, scullery, larder, stores, etc. There may be a combination
o f the three types. The amount and character o f the accommodation
necessary depends—

( 1 ) O n th e s itu a tio n o f th e f a c t o r y a n d th e o p p o r t u n it y f o r a ll o r
a n y o f th e w o r k e r s t o g o h o m e fo r m e a ls ;
(2) On the proximity of outside restaurants;
(3) On the hours of work (day or night) and the meal intervals;

( 4 ) O n th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w o r k (h e a v in e s s , e x p o s u r e , p o is o n , o r
dan ger z o n e s );
(5) On the usual customs of the district and the particular food
necessities o f the workpeople.
The seating accommodation must also be considered from the point
o f view of shifts and relays.
230. The attached plans have been prepared showing canteens
suitable for 200 and 500 diners (pages 341 and 344). The ques­
tion which immediately arises is whether the building shall be of
(a) temporary or (b) permanent construction. During the early
stages o f the war there was much to be said for the erection o f a
temporary building, mainly on the ground of cost, rapidity o f erec­
tion, and the smaller demands made upon labor.
231. Permanent buildings naturally take longer to erect, the cost




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KITCHEN OF A LARGE C ANTEEN.

115




CANTEEN K ITCH EN.

FOOD AND CANTEENS.

115

v a r ie s fr o m 25 t o 40 p e r c e n t m o re th a n in th e ca se o f a t e m p o r a r y
b u ild in g , a n d th e d e m a n d s m a d e u p o n la b o r a re g re a te r.
O n th e
o t h e r h a n d , a p e r m a n e n t b u i l d i n g is , o f c o u r s e , m o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
a n d c o s t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y le s s t h a n t h e t e m p o r a r y b u i l d i n g f o
m a in te n a n c e . I n n o r m a l t im e s th e ca se f o r th e p e r m a n e n t b u ild in g
is a s t r o n g o n e , b u t a t th e p r e s e n t t im e f o r c a n t e e n p u r p o s e s th e
t e m p o r a r y b u il d in g s h o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d , t h o u g h it m a y b e f o u n d in
p r a c t i c e t h a t e v e n n o w a p e r m a n e n t b u i l d i n g is p r e f e r a b l e .
2 3 2 . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g s i s i n d i c a t e d i n s u ffi­
c ie n t d e t a il o n th e d r a w in g s . I t s h o u ld n o t b e o v e r lo o k e d t h a t th e
w e a r a n d t e a r o f th e flo o r s is c o n s id e r a b le , w h e t h e r in t h e m e ss
r o o m s o r in th e k it c h e n s , a n d , in v ie w o f t h is , t h e flo o r s g e n e r a lly
s h o u ld b e o f c o n c r e t e , fin is h e d w it h a g r a n o lit h i c fa c e . T h is t y p e o f
f l o o r is s m o o t h , h a r d , d u r a b l e , a n d i m p e r v i o u s , a n d i s e a s i l y w a s h e d
d o w n a f t e r m e a ls .
A d v a n t a g e s h o u ld , w h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , b e ta k e n
o f u s in g lo c a l m a t e r ia l t o s a v e c a r r ia g e , e tc.
233. I n a la r g e n u m b e r o f ca n te en p r o p o s a ls it m a y b e fo u n d th a t
t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f a v a i l a b l e s it e s w i l l n o t a d m i t o f t h e b u i l d i n g s
b e in g e r e c te d in a c c o r d a n c e w it h th e s u g g e s te d d e s ig n s , b u t th e p r in ­
c ip le s a re th e sa m e. T h e ca n te e n o r d in in g h a ll, b e in g th e p r in c ip a l
a p a r t m e n t , s h o u ld b e a r r a n g e d w it h th e m o s t c o n v e n ie n t m e th o d s
o f e g re s s a n d in g r e s s f o r t h e w o r k e r s a n d w it h d ir e c t a p p r o a c h t o th e
s e r v in g c o u n te r , so th a t t r a v e r s in g th e w h o le o r a n y g r e a t p o r t i o n
o f t h e d i n i n g h a l l t o o b t a i n f o o d is a v o i d e d . S h o r t b a r r i e r s i n f r o n t
o f th e c o u n te r s a re a d v is a b le t o a llo w o f e a c h d in e r o b t a in in g h is o r
h e r f o o d in th e o r d e r o f a r r iv a l a n d t o p r e v e n t c o n g e s t io n a n d d is ­
o r d e r . A d e q u a te g a n g w a y s o r p a s s a g e w a y s f o r e a c h d in e r t o p r o c e e d
t o t h e d i n i n g t a b l e s w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n t o o t h e r d i n e r s a r e e s s e n t ia l .
F r o m 8 t o 10 s q u a r e fe e t s u p e r fic ia l a re a s h o u ld b e a llo w e d p e r p e r s o n
se a te d .
S e p a r a t e d in i n g r o o m s a re u s u a lly p r o v id e d f o r m e n a n d
w o m e n , b u t th e y m a y b e so d e s ig n e d as t o b e t h r o w n t o g e th e r f o r
s o c ia l, r e c r e a tiv e o r e d u c a t io n a l p u r p o s e s .
T h e k itc h e n s h o u ld b e
s it u a t e d as c e n t r a lly as p o s s ib le w it h r e g a r d t o th e d in in g r o o m , w h ic h
it s h o u ld a d jo in in o r d e r to fa c ilit a t e c o u n t e r s e r v ic e .
It m ay be
u c e n t r a l ” o r “ t e r m in a l.” T h e w a s h u p o r s c u lle r y s h o u ld o p e n o u t
o f th e k it c h e n a n d s h o u ld a b u t im m e d ia t e ly u p o n th e m a in d in in g
h a ll. A c o u n t e r o r s h e lf w it h c o m m u n ic a t in g h a t c h s h o u ld b e p r o ­
v i d e d t o a d m i t o f d i r t y c r o c k e r y b e i n g h a n d l e d d i r e c t t o t h e s in k s .
I n a d d it io n t o th e s in k s in th e s c u lle r y , su ch a c c o m m o d a t io n is a ls o
r e q u ir e d in th e k it c h e n f o r th e u se o f th e c o o k in th e p r e p a r a t io n o f
fo o d .
T h e s in k s s h o u ld b e s u p p lie d w it h h o t w a t e r f r o m a n in d e ­
p e n d e n t b o ile r , w h ic h s h o u ld b e p la c e d as n e a r as p r a c tic a b le to th e
s in k s .
T h e la r d e r a n d s t o r e s h o u ld o p e n u p o n a y a r d w it h e a s
a c c e s s f o r t r a d e s m e n ’s c a r t s . T h e y s h o u l d b e f i t t e d w i t h s h e l v i n g o f
d e a l, 1 in c h t h ic k s u p p o r te d o n 2 -in c h b y l| -in c h fr a m e d b e a re rs




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

a n d u p r ig h t s . T h e s h e lv in g s h o u ld b e k e p t 1 in c h a w a y f r o m th e
w a lls . T h e la r d e r s h o u ld , i f p o s s ib le , f a c e n o r t h a n d b e p e r m a n e n t ly
v e n t i l a t e d b y p e r f o r a t e d z i n c p a n e ls . T h e s a n i t a r y a c c o m m o d a t i o n
f o r th e c a n te e n s h o u ld p r e f e r a b ly b e s itu a te d in a n is o la te d b lo c k o f
b u ild in g s a d ja c e n t t o th e c a n te e n , b u t th e r e q u ir e m e n t s in t h is r e s p e c t
d e p e n d u p o n th e s a n ita r y a c c o m m o d a tio n a lr e a d y e x is tin g in a d jo in ­
i n g b u ild in g s , a n d e a c h ca se w il l h a v e t o b e c o n s id e r e d o n its m e rits .
V e n t il a t io n , W a r m in g , a n d L ig h t in g .

234. A m p le w in d o w s p a ce (w it h a la r g e p r o p o r t io n o f th e w in ­
d o w s o p e n in g ) is d e s ir a b le f o r lig h t a n d v e n t ila t io n , a n d in n o ca se
s h o u l d t h e t o t a l g l a s s a r e a o f t h e w i n d o w s b e le s s t h a n o n e - t e n t h o f
th e flo o r a rea o f th e v a rio u s r o o m s in w h ic h th e y o c cu r . T h e fa n ­
lig h t s f o r c a s e m e n t w in d o w s s h o u ld b e h in g e d a t th e b o t t o m a n d f a l l
in w a r d s . G la z e d c h e e k s o r g u sse ts s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d t o a d m it o f
c o n tin u o u s v e n t ila t io n , a n d a t th e sa m e tim e p r e v e n t d o w n d r a u g h t.
A l l ca s e m e n t w in d o w s s h o u ld b e m a d e t o o p e n f o r u se in w a r m
w e a t h e r a n d t o f l u s h t h e r o o m s w i t h a i r a f t e r t h e p r i n c i p a l m e a l.
L o u v e r v e n t ila t o r s u n d e r th e r o o f o r in tu r r e ts p r o v id e v e n tila tio n
f o r th e m a in m e ss r o o m . A s im p le c o r d a tta c h m e n t t o w o o d e n fla p s
s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d to a d m it o f th ese v e n t ila t o r s b e in g c lo s e d d u r in g
c o ld o r w in d y w e a th e r . T h e k it c h e n s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d w it h a c o n ­
t in u o u s lo u v e r v e n t ila t o r , as in d ic a t e d o n th e d r a w in g s .
I t is d e ­
s ir a b le , w h e r e e le c t r ic o r o t h e r p o w e r is a v a ila b le , t h a t a n e x h a u s t
f a n s h o u ld b e p la c e d in th e k it c h e n t o e x t r a c t th e h e a t a n d s te a m
f r o m t h e k i t c h e n a n d s c u l l e r y a n d , i n c i d e n t a l l y , a s s is t i n t h e g e n e r a l
v e n tila t io n o f th e d in in g r o o m s .
L a r d e r s s h o u ld fa c e n o r t h a n d
h a v e n e a r l y h a l f t h e g l a s s o m i t t e d i n t h e w in d o w - p a n e s a n d p e r f o ­
r a t e d z in c p a n e ls s u b s t it u t e d t o p r o v id e s u it a b le v e n t ila t e d s t o r a g e
f o r p e r is h a b le fo o d .
235. C e n tr a l h e a t in g b y r a d ia t o r s o r h o t-w a te r p ip e s w o u ld , n o
d o u b t, p r o v id e th e m o s t s a tis fa c to r y m e a n s o f h e a tin g th e b u ild in g .
T h e c o st, h o w e v e r , o f su ch a h e a tin g in s ta lla t io n a d d s so c o n s id e r a b ly
t o th e in it ia l c o s t o f th e w h o le sch e m e th a t it b e c o m e s e x tr e m e ly
d o u b t f u l i f th e e x p e n d it u r e is w a r r a n t e d , e s p e c ia lly in v ie w o f th e
f a c t t h a t f o r f o u r o r f i v e m o n t h s o f t h e y e a r n o a r t i f i c i a l h e a t i n g is
r e q u i r e d . W h e r e c e n t r a l h e a t i n g is n o t p r o v i d e d , u s e m a y b e m a d e o f
in d e p e n d e n t s to v e s , s t a n d in g o n th e c o n c r e t e flo o r , tlie s t o v e p ip e
b e in g c a r r ie d u p t h r o u g h th e r o o f.
S u c h sto v e s m a y b e o b ta in e d
fr o m a n y ir o n fo u n d e r o r ir o n m o n g e r a t v a r y in g p r ic e s .
2 3 6 . T h e s t e p s t o b e t a k e n f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n a n d e x t i n c t i o n o f fi r e s
s h o u ld b e f u l l y c o n s id e r e d . T h e m e t h o d o f c a r r y i n g th e s t o v e p ip e
t h r o u g h th e r o o f s h o u ld b e c a r e f u l ly p la n n e d , as, o w i n g t o th e c o m ­
b u s t ib le n a t u r e o f th e t im b e r in r o o f s , d e f e c t iv e c o n s t r u c t io n a t t h is




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COUNTER SERVICE.

SURGERY.

117




{See

page 144.)

FOOD AND CANTEENS.

117

p o i n t m a y p r o v e a s o u r c e o f c la n g e r t o t h e b u i l d i n g f r o m fir e . T h e
c o n s t r u c t io n m a y s im p t y c o n s is t o f a sb e sto s p a c k in g , a s h e e t -ir o n
s le e v e p ie c e , w it h l | - in c h s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e s le e v e p ie c e a n d th e s t o v e ­
p ip e , a n d h o o d t o k e e p th e r a in o u t.
2 3 7 . W h e r e e l e c t r i c i t y i s a v a i l a b l e i t is , n o d o u b t , t h e m o s t s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y m e a n s o f a r t ific ia l illu m in a t io n , o t h e r w is e g a s s h o u ld b
u sed.
E xternal

and

I n t e r n a l M a t e r ia l s .

2 38. F o r in e x p e n s iv e p e r m a n e n t c o n s t r u c t io n w a lls m a y b e 9 -in c h
b r ic k w o r k r e n d e r e d e x te r n a lly w ith P o r t la n d c e m e n t f in c h t h ic k a n d
fin is h e d w it h r o u g h c a s t s u r f a c e ; w it h la r g e s p a n r o o f s , b r ic k p ie r s o f
g r e a t e r t h ic k n e s s w il l b e r e q u ir e d u n d e r t h e r o o f p r in c ip a ls . R o o f s
m a y b e b o a r d e d a n d s la te d , a n d flo o r s m a d e o f c o n c r e t e w it h g r a n o ­
lit h ic su rfa ce .
2 3 9 . T h e s e le c t io n o f m a t e r ia ls , o w i n g t o th e h ig h p r ic e s o b t a in in g ,
p r e s e n ts s o m e d iffic u lt y a t th e p r e s e n t tim e .
F o r m e r ly on e o f th
m o s t fa v o r e d e x te rn a l c o v e r in g s f o r t e m p o r a r y b u ild in g s w a s g a l
v a n iz e d c o r r u g a t e d sh e e t ir o n . T h e c o s t a n d s u p p ly o f t h is m a t e r ia l,
h o w e v e r , is n o w p r o h i b i t i v e , a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s m u s t b e s o u g h t i
fe l t a n d o t h e r fo r m s o f r o o fin g . F e lt s a re u s u a lly la id o n th e b o a r d
i n g w it h a la p p e d jo i n t a n d p a t e n t c e m e n t s u p p lie d b y th e m a k e rs
th e . sh e e ts b e in g th e n s e c u r e d w it h g a lv a n iz e d c lo u t o r la r g e fla t
h e a d e d n a il s .
O n ly th e sto u te st m a te r ia l o f th e r e s p e c tiv e m a k e r
s h o u l d b e u s e d t o i n s u r e a w a t e r - t i g h t r o o f . L i g h t a s b e s t o s s la t e s a l s o
p r o v id e a s a t is fa c t o r y , a lth o u g h s o m e w h a t h e a v ie r , r o o f c o v e r in g
A l l r o o fin g fe lt s n e e d c a r e fu l la y in g , o t h e r w is e b u lg in g o c c u r
w h i c h , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g u n s i g h t l y , is a f r e q u e n t c a u s e o f a d e f e c ­
tiv e r o o f.
2 4 0 . A la r g e v a r ie t y o f m a t e r ia ls h a v e b e e n a v a ila b le d u r in g th e
w a r f o r th e e x t e r n a l c o v e r in g s o f th e w a lls , a m o n g s t w h ic h m a
b e m e n tio n e d fe a th e r -e d g e d w e a th e r b o a r d in g (tr e a te d w it h c r e o
s o t e ) , u n g a lv a n iz e d p a in t e d sh e e t ir o n , p la s t e r fin is h e d in c e m e n t
s e c u r e d t o th e w o o d f r a m i n g b y e x p a n d e d m e ta l, a s b e s to s s la te s , o r
o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . I n t e r n a H y ,- p l a s t e r a n d c e m e n t o n e x p a n d e d m e t a l ,
a sb e s to s sh e e ts (t h e jo i n t c o v e r e d b y a s m a ll f i ll e t ) , m a t c h b o a r d in g ,
o r v a r io u s o th e r m a t e r ia ls h a v e b e e n u se d a b o v e th e d a d o . T h e d a d o
s h o u ld , h o w e v e r , b e s o m e w h a t s t r o n g e r ; th r e e -fo u r th s -in c h m a tc h
b o a r d i n g i s s u it a b le . T h i n s h e e t i r o n ( p a i n t e d ) h a s a l s o b e e n u s e d
o r lin o le u m o n fla t - jo in t e d b o a r d in g p r o v id e s a s u ita b le d a d o a n d is
e a s i l y c l e a n e d . T h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d p r e s e n t a c le a n
a n d c h e e r fu l a p p e a r a n c e , a n d d is t e m p e r s o f a f a i r l y l ig h t t in t a r
p r e f e r a b l e . S t r a w c o l o r , p r i m r o s e , d u c k ’s - e g g g r e e n , o r F r e n c h g r a y
a r e s u g g e s t e d a s s u it a b le . A n a l t e r n a t i v e c o l o r s c h e m e w o u l d b e
d a r k -g r e e n d a d o a b o u t 5 fe e t h ig h w it h 2 -in c h b la c k lin e , a n d th




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

r e m a in d e r o f th e w a lls , in c lu d in g th e r o o f , fin is h e d w h it e , th e r o o f
p r in c ip a ls b e in g s ta in e d a d a r k b r o w n .
C o o k in g A p p a r a t u s

and

K

it c h e n

E q u ip m e n t .

2 41. T h e c o o k in g a r r a n g e m e n ts in a n in d u s t r ia l c a n te e n n a t u r a lly
f o r m a n im p o r t a n t p a r t in th e e q u ip m e n t o f th e b u ild in g . T h e r e a re
v a r io u s m e a n s o f c o o k in g f o o d , b u t f o r c a n te e n p u r p o s e s a tte n tio n
m a y b e c o n fin e d t o :
(а) G a s .
( б ) C o a l.
(ic ) S t e a m .
( d) E l e c t r i c i t y .
2 4 2 . G a s , b y r e a s o n o f i t s c l e a n l i n e s s , e f f ic ie n c y , a n d t h e s a v i n g i n
l a b o r w h i c h r e s u lt s f r o m i t s u s e , is p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t c o o k i n g f a c t o r
in s m a ll a n d m e d iu m s iz e d c a n te e n s .
I n la r g e ca n te en s, w h ile th e
r o a s t i n g is d o n e b y g a s , i t is e c o n o m i c a l t o u s e s t e a m f o r b o i l i n g ,
s t e a m i n g , a n d f o r w a r m i n g t h e h o t c lo s e t s .
T h e u se o f s te a m is
e s p e c ia lly e c o n o m ic a l i f it c a n b e d r a w n fr o m th e f a c t o r y b o ile r s , b u t
i n t h e l a r g e r c a n t e e n s i t is w o r t h w h i l e t o i n s t a l l a n i n d e p e n d e n t
b o ile r to s u p p ly th e stea m f o r c o o k in g p u r p o s e s i f it ca n n o t be s u p ­
p li e d o t h e r w is e . C o a l is u s e d w h e r e g a s is u n o b t a in a b le o r e x p e n s iv e .
I t i s m o s t e ff ic ie n t a s a m e a n s o f c o o k i n g , b u t is le s s c l e a n l y t h a n g a a
a n d is o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n s u m m e r o n a c c o u n t o f t h e h e a t d e v e l o p e d b y
l a r g e c o a l r a n g e s . E l e c t r i c i t y is t h e n e w e s t m e a n s o f c o o k i n g ; n o t
o n l y , h o w e v e r , is t h e o r i g i n a l i n s t a l l a t i o n c o s t l y b u t , u n l e s s t h e
s u p p l y o f c u r r e n t i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y c h e a p , t h e r u n n i n g c o s t is h i g h .
2 43. T h e r e la tiv e p o s it io n o f c o o k in g a p p a r a t u s n a t u r a lly v a r ie s
w it h th e t y p e o f a p p a r a tu s u sed , b u t, g e n e r a lly s p e a k in g , it h a s b ee n
fo u n d b e tte r to h a v e th e s to v e s a n d r o a ste r s in th e c e n te r o f th e
k it c h e n , w it h th e s te a m e r s o r b o ile r s b e h in d a n d th e c a r v in g ta b le
a n d h o t c lo s e t s a d ja c e n t t o th e s e r v in g c o u n t e r . T h e s e r v in g o f te a ,
e t c ., s h o u l d b e k e p t q u i t e s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e g e n e r a l s e r v i c e t a b l e .
2 4 4 . I t i s m o s t e s s e n t ia l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d a l w a y s b e a p l e n t i f u l
s u p p ly o f h o t w a te r t h r o u g h th e s in k ta p s f o r w a s h in g -u p p u r p o s e s .
T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a lt e r n a t iv e m e t h o d s ’ o f p r o d u c i n g t h is , a m o n g
w h ic h a re th e f o l l o w i n g :
( 1 ) C ir c u la t o r b o ile r c o n n e c t t o a s to r a g e sy stem .
(2 ) L a r g e h o t-w a te r g e y se r.
( 3 ) S e p a r a t e b o i l e r o v e r e a c h s in k .
2 4 5 . T h e m a in t e n a n c e o f c le a n lin e s s is o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
p o in t s in th e w h o le s c h e m e o f a c a n te e n , a n d i t is o n e t h a t th e w o r k e r s
a r e q u ic k t o a p p r e c ia t e . I n t h e m e s s r o o m a ll flo o r s , ta b le s , se a ts ,
a n d w in d o w s s h o u ld b e t h o r o u g h l y c le a n s e d e v e r y d a y , a n d in th e
k itc h e n a ll c o o k in g a p p a r a tu s s h o u ld b e w e ll s c o u r e d a n d k e p t
s c r u p u lo u s ly d e a n .
T h e ta b le e q u ip m e n t s h o u ld a lw a y s b e w e ll



FOOD AND CANTEENS.

119

w a s h e d a n d p o lis h e d . T h e im m e d ia t e s u r r o u n d in g s o f th e c a n te e
s h o u ld b e k e p t fr e e f r o m a c c u m u la t e d r u b b is h a n d r e fu s e , as b y th i
m e a n s t r o u b l e f r o m f l ie s i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . 1
M ANAGEMENT.

2 46. I n t h e e a r ly p a r t o f th e w a r e x c e lle n t a n d d e v o t e d w o r k w a
a c c o m p lis h e d b y s o m e 8 o r 10 p u b lic -s p ir it e d v o lu n t a r y s o c ie tie
i n c l u d i n g t h e Y . M . C . A . , L a d y L a w r e n c e ’s M u n i t i o n M a k e r s ’ C a n
te e n C o m m itte e , th e S a lv a tio n A r m y , th e C h u r c h A r m y ,
W o m e n ’ s L e g i o n , e t c ., i n r e g a r d t o c a n t e e n m a n a g e m e n t .
On t
w h o le , h o w e v e r , th e c o m m it te e a r e s a tis fie d t h a t th e in d u s t r ia l c a n
te e n s h o u ld b e u n d e r t a k e n b y th e p r o p r ie t o r s o f th e f a c t o r y (w h e t h e r
p u b lic o r p r iv a t e ) a n d s h o u ld b e r e g a r d e d as a n in t e g r a l a n d p e
m a n e n t p a r t o f th e f a c t o r y o r g a n iz a t io n , c o n t r o lle d lik e a n y o t h e
b r a n c h o f th e w o r k s u n d e r a d u ly a p p o in te d a n d c o m p e te n t m a n a
g e r o r m an ageress.
T h e p r o p r ie t o r s h o u ld s c r u t in iz e th e a c c o u n
o f th e t r a d in g , o r a r r a n g e f o r t h e ir p r o p e r a u d it. H e s h o u ld w a t c
t h e w o r k in g a n d s a t is fy h im s e lf t h a t f u l l v a lu e is b e in g o b t a in e d i
t h e s h a p e o f i n c r e a s e d n u t r i t i o n , e f f ic ie n c y a n d c o n t e n t m e n t . o f t h
w o r k e r , a n d th a t c u r r e n t c h a r g e s a re r e a s o n a b le . T h e s e le c t io n o
t h e c a n t e e n m a n a g e r d e m a n d s - n o le s s c a r e t h a n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a h e a d
o f a n y d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e b u s in e s s .
T h e q u a lific a tio n s p r i n c i p a l
r e q u ir e d a r e o r g a n iz in g a b ilit y , p o w e r s o f d is c ip lin e , a t h o r o u g
k n o w le d g e o f b u y in g fo o d s tu ffs a n d a fa ir w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f th
e c o n o m ic a l p r e p a r a t io n a n d c o o k in g o f fo o d .
S y m p a th y , ta ct an
a n u n d e r s t a n d in g o f t h e p u r p o s e o f th e c a n te e n a re a ls o n e c e s s a r y
F ood

and

D i e t a r ie s .

2 47. T h e f o o d s u p p lie d s h o u ld b e v a r ie d , fr e s h a n d g o o d ; s u ita b l
i n q u a l i t y a n d s u f f ic ie n t i n q u a n t i t y ; w e l l c o o k e d , a p p e t i z i n g , a n d o b
t a in a b le a t l o w c o s t. I t is o b v io u s t h a t th e t a r if f m u s t d if f e r in a
c o r d a n c e w it h f o o d p r ic e s , a n d a d m in is tr a tiv e c h a r g e s a n d in c id e n t a
e x p e n d itu r e . I t w il l o ft e n b e f o u n d e x p e d ie n t t o a llo w t h e w o r k m e n ’
c o m m itte e o f m a n a g e m e n t to e x a m in e th e t r a d in g a c co u n ts p e r io d i
c a lly .
T h e f o l l o w i n g fig u r e s s h o w a p p r o x im a t e ly th e n a tu r e o f
c a n te e n t a r iff d u r in g th e e a r lie r w a r p e r i o d :
Dinner ; meat or fish, tw o vegetables----------------------- 4d.
Hot-pot, cottage pie, meat puddings------------------------- 3d.
Meat pies and other prepared meat dishes_________ 3d.
Soup, bovril, oxo, etc. (w ith b r e a d )------------------------- 2d.

to8d.
to 6d.
to 6d.
to 3d.

[8.1
[6.1
[6.1
[4.1

to
to
to
to

16.2 cents.]
12.2 cents.]
12.2 cents.]
6.1 cents.]

1
C o st.— About 6d. [12.2 cents] per foot cube, exclusive of central heating and lighting,
Is now (1 9 1 8 ) the standard cost for building the fabric. Equipment varies from 30s. to
50s. [$ 7 .3 0 to $12.17] per person seated. Total cost for building and equipment of can­
teen for 500 persons will work out from £7 to £9 [$34.07 to $43.80] per place.




120

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

Puddings and stewed fruits_________________________ 2d. to 3d.
Suet, bread, currant, jam, or fruit puddings----------- 2d. to 3d.
Bread and cheese___________________________________ Id. to 2d.
Vegetarian and cheese dishes_______________________ 2d. to 4d.
Cakes, buns, tarts, bread and butter, sandwiches___Id. to 3d.
Tea, coffee, cocoa, milk, lemon, barley, aerated and
mineral waters, etc., per cup or glass____________Id. to 2d.
(Good quality important.)
Fresh fruit in season, as practicable.

248. I n
b e a case
beverages
n ecessary

c e r ta in
fo r th e
m ay be
in su ch

[4.1
[4.1
[2
[4.1
[2

to
to
to
to
to

6.1 cents.]
6.1 cents.]
4.1 cents.]
8.1 cents.]
6.1 cents.]

[2

to' 4.1 cents.]

d is t r ic t s a n d in s p e c ia l c ir c u m s t a n c e s , th e r e m a y
e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a “ w e t ” c a n te e n , w h e r e a l c o h o li c
o b ta in e d . S p e c ia l s u p e r v is io n a n d r e s t r ic t io n s a re
cases.
P r o m p t S e e v ic e .

2 4 9 . T h e q u i c k s e r v i c e o f m e a ls i s e s s e n t ia l. T h r e e m e t h o d s a r e
p r a c tic a b le .
(M e t h o d ( 1 ) is p r o b a b ly b e s t, as a r u le , f o r la r g e
n u m b e r s ):
(1 ) L o n g s e r v in g co u n te rs (w it h s h o r t b a r r ie r s as a t r a ilw a y
b o o k i n g o ff ic e s ) f r o m w h i c h w o r k e r s f e t c h t h e i r f o o d .
A num ber
o f p o r t i o n s s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d b e f o r e h a n d a n d s t o r e d i n h o t c lo s e t s
u n d e r th e c o u n te r . P o r t io n s s h o u ld b e s ta n d a r d iz e d .
( 2 ) F o o d p la c e d r e a d y o n th e ta b le b e f o r e w o r k e r s a d m itte d .
T h is m a y b e c o n v e n ie n t f o r b r e a k fa s ts o r tea s, o r w h e re th e f o o d
p r o v i d e d is c o l d a n d t h e s a m e f o r a l l, b u t i t is n o t a l w a y s p r a c t i c a b l e
f o r h o t d in n e r s .
( 3 ) W a i t e r s o r w a i t r e s s e s , o r g a n i z e d in s h i f t s .
C o n v e n ie n t H o u r s .

250. T h e ca n te e n s h o u ld b e o p e n a t a n y h o u r s w h ic h m e e t lo c a l
n e e d s a n d c ir c u m s t a n c e s . M i d d a y is c l e a r l y t h e p r i n c i p a l o c c a s i o n
o f its u t ilit y . B u t in m a n y w o r k s it s h o u ld a ls o b e o p e n in th e e a r ly
m o r n i n g h o u r f o r b r e a k f a s t , a n d a t s u p p e r t im e . W h e r e t h e r e a r e
n i g h t s h i f t s m e a ls a n d r e f r e s h m e n t s s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e a s b y d a y .
P r o v is io n s h o u ld a ls o b e m a d e f o r th e s u p p ly o f w a te r , m ilk , tea , o r
c o f f e e a t s p e c i f i e d t im e s .
P aym ent.

251. D iffe r e n t m e th o d s o f p a y m e n t a re in v o g u e , b u t i f p a y m e n t a t
th e t im e b y b i l l o r c h e c k is f o u n d , w h ic h is u s u a lly t h e ca s e , t o b e
i m p r a c t i c a b l e , t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d is f o r w o r k e r s t o b u y
b o o k s o r s e r ie s o f t i c k e t s o r c h e c k s p r e v i o u s l y t o t h e m e a l o r a t t h e
door.




FOOD AND CANTEENS.
A

121

ccounts.

2 5 2 . T h e f a c t o r y a c c o u n t s h o u ld b e a r th e c a p it a l c h a r g e s a n d c e r ­
ta in c u r r e n t ex p e n se s, le a v in g to th e ca n te e n a c c o u n t th e c o s t o f
f o o d , w a g e s , a n d g e n e r a l a d m in is t r a t iv e c h a r g e s .
O r g a n iz a t io n .

2 5 3 . T h e c o m m i t t e e h a v e b e e n i m p r e s s e d wT t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f
i
p r o p e r e c o n o m ic a l a n d e ffe c tiv e o r g a n iz a t io n o f in d u s tr ia l c a n te e n s.
T h e i r p u r p o s e , i t m u s t b e c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d , is t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t
a n d s u it a b le f o o d a n d n o t t o y i e l d a r e v e n u e . T h e r e v e n u e o f a c a n ­
t e e n i s i m p r o v e d h e a l t h , c o n t e n t m e n t , a n d p h y s i c a l e f f ic ie n c y o f t h e
w o r k e r s , a n d n o t a c a s h b a la n ce .
254. S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly , th re e m e th o d s o f o r g a n iz a t io n a re a v a ila ­
b le a n d a r e n o t m u t u a lly e x c lu s iv e . F i r s t , th e e m p lo y e r m a y m a n a g e
d i r e c t l y ; s e c o n d ly , h e m a y h a n d o v e r th e m a n a g e m e n t to a p r o p e r ly
c o n s t itu t e d c o m m it te e o f th e w o r k e r s o r o f th e w o r k e r s a n d th e s ta ff
c o n jo i n t l y ; o r t h ir d ly , th e e n tir e d ir e c t io n m a y b e c o n t r a c t e d o u t t o
a p r o fe s s io n a l o r v o lu n ta r y ca te re r. I n n o t a fe w o f th e m o st su cce ss­
f u l c a n t e e n s j o i n t c o n t r o l is e x e r c i s e d b y e m p l o y e r a n d m e n ( e . g . ,
an e le c te d s h o p c o m m it t e e w it h a c h a ir m a n r e p r e s e n t in g th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t )-w h o m a y o r m a y n o t c o n t r a c t o u t th e c a te r in g . T h e m e th o d
o f c o n t r o l is m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p . I n a l l c a s e s
it s h o u ld b e d is in t e r e s t e d a n d s o le ly f o r th e b e n e fit o f th e w o r k e r s .
E x p l o i t a t i o n i n a n y f o r m s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d a n d e f f ic ie n c y , e c o n o m y ,
a n d s m o o th w o r k in g k e p t s t e a d ily in v ie w .1 I t m u s t b e b o r n e in m in d
th a t m o n e y ca n n o t b e d e d u c te d fr o m w a g e s b y th e e m p lo y e r f o r
f o o d o r d r in k w it h o u t a c o n t r a c t u n d e r th e t r u c k a c t .2
255. I t is n o t p o s s ib le f o r th e c o m m it t e e t o la y d o w n h a r d a n d fa s t
lu le s o r m e th o d s f o r th e s u c c e s s fu l o r g a n iz a t io n o f ca n te en s. I n o n e
d is t r i c t o r se t o f c ir c u m s t a n c e s , o n e c o n d it io n o r f a c t o r , a n d in a n ­
o t h e r d i s t r i c t a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n is p r e d o m i n a t e . B u t w h a t e v e r b e t h e
lo c a l c ir c u m s t a n c e s t o s e c u re a n e ff e c t iv e in d u s t r ia l c a n te e n it is n e c e s ­
s a r y (a) t h a t i t s h o u l d b e a c c e s s ib l e a n d a t t r a c t i v e ; (& ) t h a t i t s h o u l d
b e s u i t a b l y c o n s t r u c t e d a n d e q u i p p(c)d ;t h a t t h e d i e t o f f e r e d s h o u l d
e
b e f r e s h , v a r i e d , g o o d , a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p o p u l a(d) t a s t e ;
r
t h a t t h e s e r v i c e s h o u l d b e p r o m(e) t ; t h a t t h e c a n t e e n s h o u l d b e
p
1 T h e t a r if f c a n b e k e p t l o w o n l y b y c a r e f u l m a n a g e m e n t .
T h e f o o d m a t e r ia l s c a n
u s u a l l y be m a d e t o p a y , b u t t h e i n c id e n t a l e x p e n d it u r e is r e la t i v e l y h e a v y .
W orkers
a r e n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o p a y i n g f o r f o o d in c a n t e e n s , a n d w il l n o t a l w a y s p u r c h a s e t h e
m o s t n u tr itio u s fo o d .
T a c t , d i s c r e t i o n , a n d a n a p p r o p r i a t e m e n u o f p o p u la r d is h e s a r e
necessary.
C o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s io n a n d t h e c a r e f u l a d a p t a t i o n o f m e a n s t o e n d s a r e
n e e d e d t o p r e v e n t l o s s i f g o o d f o o d is t o b e s o ld q u ic k ly , a t t h e l o w p r i c e t h e w o r k e r
c a n a f fo r d t o p a y .
2 T h e T r u c k A c t , 1 8 3 1 , S e c. 2 3 , p r o v i d e s t h a t “ n o d e d u c t i o n s h a ll b e m a d e f r o m th e
w a g e s o f a w o r k m a n in r e s p e c t o f v i c t u a ls d r e s s e d a n d p r e p a r e d u n d e r t h e r o o f o f
t h e e m p lo y e r u n le s s a n a g r e e m e n t o r c o n t r a c t f o r s u c h s t o p p a g e o r d e d u c t i o n s h a ll
b e m a d e in w r i t i n g a n d s ig n e d b y th e a r t if i c e r .”
S u c h a n a g r e e m e n t c a n be r e a d i ly
m a d e a n d m a y p r o v e t o s a v e t im e a n d p r e v e n t w a s te .




122

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

o p e n a t c o n v e n ie n t h o u r s o f th e d a y o r n ig h t ; a n d ( / ) th a t th e a r ­
r a n g e m e n ts f o r p a y m e n t s h o u ld b e s im p le a n d c o n v e n ie n t .
2 5 6 . T h e c o m m it t e e r e c o g n iz e t h a t s in c e t h e is s u e o f t h e ir fir s t m e m ­
o r a n d u m o n t h e s u b je c t ( C d . 8 1 3 3 ) in N o v e m b e r , 1 9 1 5 , s u b s t a n t ia l
p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n m a d e , d u e in n o s m a ll d e g r e e t o th e a c t iv it y o f
th e ca n te e n c o m m itte e o f th e C e n tr a l C o n t r o l B o a r d . T h e in d u s tr ia l
c a n te e n is r a p i d l y b e c o m in g a s o c ia l a g e n c y . T h e c o m m it t e e w e lc o m e
th e P o lic e , F a c t o r ie s (M is c e lla n e o u s P r o v is io n s ) A c t o f 1916, s e c tio n
7 (s e e A p p e n d i x H , ) a s a s t a t u t o r y e n a c tm e n t lik e ly t o m a k e u n i­
v e r s a l a n d p e r m a n e n t th e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h is a g e n c y .
RESTTLTS.

257. T h e c o m m itte e h a v e b e e n im p r e s s e d w it h th e c o n s e n su s o f
o p i n i o n w h ic h th e y h a v e r e c e iv e d f r o m a ll p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y as
t o th e s u b s t a n t ia l a d v a n t a g e s b o t h t o e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k e r s f o l ­
l o w i n g th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a n e ffe c t iv e a n d w e ll- m a n a g e d c a n te e n .
T h e s e b e n e f it s h a v e b e e n d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t . A m o n g t h e f o r m e r h a s
b e e n a m a r k e d im p r o v e m e n t in th e h e a lth , n u tr it io n , a n d p h y s ic a l
c o n d i t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r s , a r e d u c t i o n i n f a t i g u e a n d s i c k n e s s , le s s
a b s e n c e a n d b r o k e n t i m e , le s s t e n d e n c y t o a l c o h o l i s m , a n d a n i n ­
c r e a s e d e f f ic ie n c y a n d o u t p u t ; a m o n g t h e l a t t e r h a s b e e n a s a v i n g o f
tim e o f th e w o r k m a n , a s a lu ta r y t h o u g h b r i e f c h a n g e f r o m th e w o r k ­
s h o p , g r e a te r c o n te n tm e n t, in c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n it y f o r r e c r e a tio n , a n d
a b e tte r m id d a y v e n tila tio n o f th e w o r k s h o p .
T h e c o m m itte e a re
s a tis fie d t h a t t h e e v id e n c e o f th e s e r e s u lt s is s u b s t a n t ia l, i n d i s p u t ­
a b le , a n d w id e s p r e a d .
I n th e is o la t e d ca se s w h e r e th e c a n te e n h a s
f a i l e d it h a s b e e n e v id e n t th a t it s fa ilu r e h a s b e e n d u e t o e x c e p t io n a l
c ir c u m s t a n c e s , m i s u s e b y t h e w o r k e r s , o r m i s m a n a g e m e n t . I n a l m o s t
a ll la r g e w o r k s th e c o m m it t e e fin d th a t th e r e is a b o d y o f m e n o r
w o m e n ( a v e r a g i n g a t le a s t 2 5 p e r c e n t ) w h o in t h e in t e r e s t o f p h y s i ­
c a l h e a lth a n d v i g o r n e e d ca n te e n p r o v is io n a t th e fa c t o r y .
T hey
a r e c o n v in c e d t h a t t h is g r o u p o f i l l - f e d w o r k e r s a c c o u n t s in a la r g e
d e g r e e f o r s u c h i n e f f i c i e n c y a s e x is t s a n d t h a t i t s e n e r g y a n d o u t p u t
a r e r e d u c e d in th e a b s e n c e o f s u it a b le f e e d i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . W h i l s t
i t is i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e b e n e f it d e r i v e d f r o m c a n t e e n s f r o m
o t h e r w e lfa r e a g e n c ie s o r t o r e n d e r s ta tis tic a l e v id e n c e a s t o th e e ffe c t
u p o n o u t p u t , th e c o m m it t e e h a v e r e c e iv e d a n u m b e r o f s ta te m e n ts in
f a v o r o f in d u s t r ia l c a n te e n s , f r o m w h i c h t h e y s e le c t t h e f o l l o w i n g :
(a)
In answer to your inquiry as to the effect which our canteen arrangements
have had upon the health and efficiency of our own workpeople, we were so fully
alive to the importance of this as to erect a complete installation, separated
from the factory proper, for the use of those who live too far away from the
works to dine at home. From 1,500 to 2,000 workpeople make use of these
rooms daily.
The building has a well-equipped kitchen, but the majority of those who din*
at the works, although buying tea and light refreshments, bring their own dinner.




FOOD AND CANTEENS.

123

This habit obtains elsewhere. W e make a point, however, o f having, in addition
to other things, one or two cheap and very nutritious dishes, e. g., a Id. [2-cent]
basin o f soup or stew, o f which some hundreds are sold daily. In fa n n in g the
dining block we felt it was not m erely^ question o f supplying food, but o f doing
so under restful and com fortable conditions in rooms well lighted and ventilated
and properly warmed. A great deal more was done than was required for bare
efficiency, and it is not necessary to build on so costly a scale. W e have never
had a moment’s doubt as to the importance o f a comfortable dinner hour for our
people from the point o f view o f their efficiency in the afternoon.
The health o f our workpeople has unquestionably improved in recent years,
and we feel sure that the dining room has helped to bring about this result. At
the same time, as there are many factors which have come into play, it is im­
possible to value with any approach to accuracy the part that each o f these has
played. The proper ventilation o f the workrooms, medical and dental attendance
freely given at the works, with facilities for those in poor health getting to a
convalescent home, are among the many factors which have each exercised an
influence.
(b )
A large number o f our men workers still prefer to bring their own food
with them and to infuse their own tea in a building which we have supplied for
the purpose.
About 80 per cent o f our female workers earn a perfect timekeeping bonus each
week, which means that they have not lost a minute, whereas the percentage o f
men who do so rarely exceeds 55 and is generally under that figure. I do not
suggest that the whole o f the credit for these differences is due to the fact that
the women feed in the canteen and the men do not, but I have no hesitation in
giving it as my opinion that this is one o f the factors o f the question.
Especially as this factory is placed 11 miles from Glasgow and miles removed
from the nearest village, we simply could not do without a canteen, and I think
you will agree that it is very satisfactory to know that although all our workers
have to spend practically *an hour morning and evening in getting from their
homes to the factory and vice versa, which has the effect o f keeping many o f
them out o f their homes for a round o f the clock, w e have an excellent bill o f
health and have so far been able to resist very satisfactorily even the special
dangers to health which attend working with amatol, TNT, and cordite.
At the present moment in our whole staff o f 10,000 workers w e have not a single
TN T sickness case.
I might add that our medical officer fully concurs in the opinion given as re­
gards the value o f a canteen from the health point o f view.
At first we had some trouble in getting our girls to take a substantial meal in
the middle o f the day. The home conditions o f many o f them had evidently
been such that they were accustomed to a diet consisting largely o f tea, bread
and butter, pastry, etc., and they preferred to continue to feed themselves in
that way even when they did buy food in the canteen. There are clear evi­
dences that their tastes in this respect are improving and they are appreciating
a properly cooked meal. It has taken a good deal o f effort on the part o f the
management to get as fa r in this matter as we have, but I feel certain that
once they fu lly experience the advantages to their own health with better food
the workers will not readily return to their old methods.
W hilst our experience in this respect is principally in regard to women w ork­
ers, we are certainly o f opinion that the benefit is a very considerable one, as
not only have the canteens conduced to better timekeeping, but the direct effect
o f the substitution o f well-cooked food for the cold (often tipped) or even re­
heated food brought by the workers and eaten under uncomfortable and often




124

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

insanitary conditions, has certainly liad an excellent effect 011 the healtli and
appearance^of the women.
The provision o f canteens where the workers can obtain well cooked and suit­
able food at a minimum cost is th e r e fo r advantageous— apart from whether
there are other means for them to obtain their food in the neighborhood o f the
factory— whilst the provision o f hot drinks and soups on cold nights tends
considerably to improve production.
The institution o f a canteen is also essential if a three-shift system (as in the
case o f our women w orkers) is to be adopted without an undue loss o f time for
meal hours.
(d ) One solution o f the problem, both from the point o f view o f the girl her­
self, who will get a good meal cheaply (ow ing to wholesale buying and more
expert cooking) and from that o f the factory, both as to health and output o f
energy, is undoubtedly the provision o f meals by the canteen for all workers.
Practical proof o f this is shown by this factory, where incidentally the pro­
vision of two square meals a day, with 1| hours each to take them in and get
out in the fresh air afterwards, has put a stop to the fa r too frequent fainting
whilst at work, to much constipation and other disorders, due often to defective
nutrition, and to much dissatisfaction among the workers themselves, really
due to their feeling out o f sorts from these causes.
Proper feeding and proper ventilation, with cleansing o f the workers before
food and after leaving work, and attention to the flushing o f the internal drain­
age o f the body, will produce the maximum of immunity to TN T poisoning or
any other infection which may be prevalent, provided the w orker starts
healthy. Of this I am quite convinced. The medical department is occupied
in sifting applicants for work in order to exclude obviously unsound persons
and to put less unsound persons into working order— by regulating their
bowels and cleansing their mouths from the far too frequent sepsis before
allowing them to work in TNT. It is the privilege o f the management to see
that these reasonably sound workers get suitably fed and housed, that their
w ork is suitably apportioned, and that they are trained up by competent per­
sons to do this work with as little waste o f energy as is compatible with the
perfect performance o f the particular duty on which they are engaged.
( e ) The advantage o f having freshly cooked meals, well served in the can­
teen, removed from the noise o f machinery and the odor o f the factory, has had
a marked beneficial effect on the health and spirits o f the workers. The meal
hours in the canteen are now welcome breaks in the monotony o f what was
previously too often a 12-hour “ shift.” Since the introduction o f canteens the
employees have really worked in a “ shift ” which consists o f three parts, with
added initial energy for each part. The increased energy, good spirits, im­
proved health, and “ staying ” power is appreciably noticeable to the most
casual observer.
An experiment has been tried in this factory o f having concerts in the can­
teen during the long meal hour. The conduct o f the workers is the best index
o f their success. The employees have packed the canteen; the best o f their
talent has been freely given for the benefit o f their w ork ers; the audience has
been ideal in discipline and appreciation o f the efforts o f the entertainers.
( / ) A canteen properly managed and in which the management o f the fac­
tory take*as great an interest in regard to its efficiency as they would do in any
department of their work presents an unlimited scope for all high-thinking
employers for the betterment o f their workers. The first advantage o f this is
that it w ill d r a # employees and employers together on domestic matters, as I
consider that the management o f the canteen should be under the factory con­
trol, and that all supervision should be undertaken by a committee o f the em­




FOOD AND CANTEENS.

125

ployees w ith the manager or some high official as ex officio chairman. The vari­
ous little questions that arise for discussion, though small in themselves, w ill
be found to be o f that nature which w ill inevitably result in the chairman hav­
ing the opportunity o f displaying a “ human touch ” which he may rarely have
an opportunity o f at present, I do not wish to be misunderstood by this, that
the manager would be reduced to coddling or merely sentimental action; such
w ould be strongly resented by the workers themselves; but the very fact that
there would be the “ chief ” taking an interest in the questions o f their daily
livelihood w ill be, I venture to believe, a big advance in bringing the two
together.
( g ) Knowing your interest in the details o f these matters, wre would like to
mention how useful has been the installing o f a number o f small tea depots,
distributed throughout the shops, which are open for a quarter o f an hour in
the afternoons and again fo r a quarter o f an hour during the night shift, for
the sale o f tea and cakes. This has been done that we might put an end to the
promiscuous tea making that went on previously. The running o f these tea
depots has been only possible by the existence o f the canteen, and from an
administrative point o f view we are indebted to the canteen management that
it has been possible to adopt this system o f tea depots.

2 5 8 . S u c h d e c la r a t io n s a re , a f t e r a ll, s u b s t a n t ia l e v id e n c e , a n d t h e y
c o n f ir m th e c o n v ic t io n o f th e c o m m it t e e a s t o t h e b e n e fit a r is in g a s a
r e s u lt o f a g o o d in d u s t r ia l c a n te e n .
T h e c o m m itte e h a v e b e e n im ­
p re s s e d n o t o n ly w it h th e im p r o v e d n u tr itio n m a n ife s te d b y th e
u se rs o f th e c a n te e n , b u t b y a le sse n e d t e n d e n c y t o e x c e s s iv e c o n s u m p ­
t io n o f a lc o h o l, b y th e p r e v a le n c e o f th e s p ir it o f h a r m o n y a n d c o n ­
t e n t m e n t e n g e n d e r e d , a n d b y a d e c l a r e d i n c r e a s e i n e f f ic ie n c y a n d
o u tp u t.
CONCLUSIONS.

2 5 9 . F r o m w h a t h a s b e e n s a id in t h e p r e s e n t s e c t io n it w i l l b e
u n d e r s to o d th a t th e c o m m itte e w e r e c o n v in c e d a t a v e r y e a r ly sta g e
o f t h e ir in q u ir ie s o f th e v a lu e a n d , in d e e d , n e c e s s ity o f e s t a b lis h in g
in d u s tr ia l ca n te e n s in o r d e r t o p r o v id e f o r th e p r o p e r n o u r is h m e n t
o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s . A s h o w e v e r , th e C e n tr a l C o n t r o l B o a r d (liq u o r
t r a f f i c ) , o f w h i c h L o r d D ’A b e r n o n w a s c h a i r m a n , h a d i n J u n e , 1 9 1 5 ,
a p p o in t e d (u n d e r th e s ta tu to r y p o w e r s c o n fe r r e d o n th e m b y D e fe n s e
o f th e R e a lm R e g u la t io n N o . 5 o f 1 9 1 5 ) a c a n te e n c o m m itte e (th e
c h a ir m a n o f w h ic h w a s S ir G e o r g e N e w m a n ), th e h e a lth o f m u n itio n
w o r k e r s c o m m itte e d e e m e d it in e x p e d ie n t t o in te r v e n e in th e w o r k
w h ic h th a t c a n te e n c o m m itte e h a d a lr e a d y c o m m e n c e d . A c c o r d in g l y
t h e b u r d e n o f w o r k in c o n n e c t io n w it h th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f in d u s t r ia l
ca n te e n s h a s fa lle n u p o n th e ca n te e n c o m m itte e o f th e liq u o r -c o n t r o l
b o a r d , a s s i s t e d b y H i s M a j e s t y ’ s O ffic e o f W o r k s , w h o h a v e t h u s f a c i l i ­
t a t e d t h e s u p p l y o f p r o p e r a n d s u f f ic ie n t n o u r i s h m e n t f o r t h e m u n i t i o n
w o r k e r n o t o n l y i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s o b r i e t y , b u t a l s o i n t h e i n t e r e s t s <f
i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y .1 I n t h e f i r s t e n t h u s i a s m o f t h i s g r e a t m o v e m e n t
1 See first [Cd. 8 1 1 7 ], second [Cd. £ 2 4 3 ] , third [Cd. 8 5 5 8 ], an d -fourth [Cd. 9 0 5 5 ]
reports of the Central Control Board (liquor traffic) appointed under the Defense of the
Realm Consolidation Act, 1914, and Defense of the Realm (Amendment) (No. 3) Act,
1915.




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

a n u m b e r o f v o lu n t a r y a s s is ta n ts a n d v o lu n t a r y w o r k e r s u n d e r t o o k
th e r e s p o n s ib le d u t ie s in c o n n e c t io n w it h t h e e s ta b lis h m e n t a n d m a in ­
te n a n ce o f ca n te en s.
E v e n tu a lly , h o w e v e r , it b e ca m e n e ce ssa ry o w in g
t o th e m a g n it u d e o f th e u n d e r t a k in g t h a t th e S t a t e s h o u ld s h o u ld e r
in c r e a s e d r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s in th e m a tte r . T h e M u n it io n s o f W a r A c t ,
1 9 1 5 , p r o v i d e d t h a tc o n t r o l l e d ” e m p l o y e r s , i n w h i c h c a t e g o r y w e r e
“
in c lu d e d p r a c t ic a lly a ll m a n u fa c t u r e r s o f m u n it io n s , in th e w id e
m e a n in g t h a t m o d e r n w a r f a r e im p a r t e d t o t h e te r m , w e r e t o r e c e iv e
o n ly t h e ir s t a n d a r d p r e w a r p r o fit s p lu s o n e -f ift h , t h e r e m a in d e r b e in g
p a id to th e e x ch e q u e r.
I t see m ed h a r d ly r e a s o n a b le t o e x p e c t th e m t o
s a c r ific e p r o fit s s o r ig id l y lim it e d in o r d e r t o p r o v id e c a n te e n s f o r
th e ir w o r k e r s , a n d it c o u ld f a ir ly b e a r g u e d th a t, as th e a d v a n ta g e s
o f th e in c r e a s e d o u t p u t a n t ic ip a t e d f r o m t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f in d u s ­
t r ia l c a n te e n s w o u ld a c c r u e t o th e S ta te , th e S ta te s h o u ld fin d th e
m oney.
O n th e in itia tiv e o f th e liq u o r -c o n t r o l b o a r d it w a s th e re ­
f o r e d e c id e d t h a t “ c o n t r o lle d ” e m p lo y e r s s h o u ld b e a llo w e d t o
c h a r g e t o r e v e n u e th e e x p e n d itu r e w h ic h th e y m ig h t in c u r w it h th e
a p p r o v a l o f t h e b o a r d o n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f c a n te e n s a t t h e ir w o r k s ;
in o t h e r w o r d s , t h a t t h e c o s t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c a n t e e n s s h o u l d
b e b o r n e f r o m fu n d s w h ic h w o u ld o t h e r w is e a c c r u e t o th e e x c h e q u e r .
A t th e sa m e t im e t h e m in is t e r g a v e in s t r u c t io n s f o r th e p r o v is io n ,
w h e r e n e c e s s a r y , a t a ll G o v e r n m e n t m u n it io n e s t a b lis h m e n t s ( r o y a l
a r s e n a ls , n a t i o n a l f a c t o r i e s , e t c . ) o f a d e q u a t e c a n t e e n a c c o m m o d a t i o n
at th e e x p e n s e o f th e S ta te , a n d in tr u s te d th e b o a r d w it h th e g e n e r a l
r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r t h e o r g a n iz a t io n o f t h e c a n te e n a t th e s e e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts.
26 0 . T h e l iq u o r - c o n t r o l b o a r d h a v e th u s b e e n th e r e s p o n s ib le a u ­
t h o r it y f o r th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f in d u s t r ia l c a n te e n s in m u n it io n w o r k s
th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n tr y .
T h e y e s t a b lis h e d t h e n e c e s s a r y d e p a r t ­
m e n ta l a n d e x p e r t s ta ff f o r th e e ffe c t iv e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h is d u t y , a n d
in it s e x e c u t io n h a v e t h r o u g h t h e ir r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s v is it e d a ll th e
la r g e r a n d m a n y o f th e s m a lle r m u n itio n w o r k s , a n d h a v e u r g e d th e
p r o v is io n o f ca n te en s w h e r e v e r a re a l a n d u n d o u b te d n e e d w a s fo u n d
t o e x is t, w h e t h e r t h a t n e e d a r o s e o n g r o u n d s o f liq u o r c o n t r o l o r o f
n u t r it io n o f th e m u n itio n w o r k e r .
T h e b o a r d h a v e m a d e it th e ir
s t u d y t o d o a l l t h a t w a s p o s s i b l e t o a s s is t e m p l o y e r s i n t h e d e s i g n ,
e q u ip m e n t, a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f ca n te en s. T h e s e r v ic e s o f th e ir e x ­
p e r t s ta ff h a v e b e e n p la c e d fr e e ly a t th e d is p o s a l o f e m p lo y e r s , a n d
th e y h a v e p u b lis h e d a h a n d y c o m p e n d iu m o f in fo r m a t io n o n th ese
s u b je c t s in th e fo r m o f a p a m p h le t e n title d “ F e e d in g th e m u n it io n
w o r k e r ,” t o th e u s e fu ln e s s o f w h ic h t h e y h a v e r e c e iv e d n u m e r o u s
te s tim o n ie s .
261. T h e p o l ic y o f th e liq u o r -c o n t r o l b o a r d , w it h w h ic h th e c o m ­
m it t e e h a v e f u l l y c o n c u r r e d , h a s b e e n fir s t t o e n c o u r a g e th e e m p lo y e r
o r o w n e r t o m a k e s u it a b le p r o v is io n f o r c a n te e n a c c o m m o d a t io n




FOOD AND CANTEENS.

127

w h e r e n e c e s s a r y ; s e c o n d ly , t o fa c ilit a t e s u ch p r o v is io n b y v o lu n t a r y
o r o t h e r a g e n c i e s ; o r , t h i r d l y , t o e s t a b li s h a c a n t e e n t h e m s e lv e s , e i t h e r
m a n a g in g d ir e c t ly o r h a n d in g o v e r th e m a n a g e m e n t to a p r o p e r ly
c o n s t it u te d c o m m itte e o f e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m a n . A t th e e n d o f
1 9 1 7 s o m e 8 4 0 in d u s t r ia l c a n te e n s h a d b e e n e s t a b lis h e d in n a t io n a l
a n d c o n t r o l l e d m u n it io n , f a c t o r i e s a n d a t d o c k s c o n c e r n e d i n t r a n s p o r t
in c o n n e c tio n w it h th e w a r (a t a n a p p r o x im a t e c o s t o f u p w a r d o f
o n e a n d o m e -q u a r t e r m i l l i o n s ) .
T h e c a n te e n s e s t a b lis h e d u n d e r th e
a u s p ic e s o f th e liq u o r -c o n t r o l b o a r d h a v e b e e n , w it h fe w e x c e p tio n s ,
k n o w n a s t e m p e r a n c e ” o r “ d r y ” c a n t e e n s — t h a t is t o s a y , n o i n t o x i ­
u
c a n ts h a v e b e e n s u p p lie d .
I n a fe w e x c e p tio n a l eases th e liq u o r
b o a r d h a v e m a d e s p e c i a l o r d e r s p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e “ o n ” s a le a n d
c o n s u m p t i o n Off b e e r l i m i t e d i n s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y a n d i n q u a n t i t y p u r ­
c h a s a b le .
E x c e p t io n a l c o n d it io n s in v a r io u s a rea s, o w i n g t o c o n ­
c e n tr a tio n o f m u n itio n w o r k e r s , c o n g e s tio n o f p o p u la t io n , th e b u ild ­
i n g o f l a r g e f a c t o r i e s in i s o l a t e d p l a c e s , t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n
a n d n ig h t e m p lo y m e n t , h a v e n e c e s s ita te d e x c e p t io n a l a r ra n g e m e n ts .
S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly , th e c o m m it t e e a re g la d t o r e c o g n iz e th a t th e
l i q u o r - c o n t r o l b o a r d h a v e i n i t i a t e d , g u i d e d , o r a s s is t e d a s o c i a l a n d
in d u s t r ia l r e f o r m w h ic h f o r c e o f c ir c u m s t a n c e s h a s r e n d e r e d im p e r a ­
t iv e in th e p r e s e n t e m e r g e n c y , a n d w h ic h h a s, th e c o m m itte e a re s a tis ­
fie d , c o n t r ib u t e d s u b s t a n t ia lly t o th e s u c c e s s fu l o u t p u t o f m u n it io n s .
T h e i n d u s t r i a l c a n t e e n h a s , in f a c t , p r o v e d i t s e l f o n e o f t h e m o s t
e ff e c t iv e in s tr u m e n ts in s e c u r in g a n d m a in t a in in g a h ig h s t a n d a r d
of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k .
I t h a s c o n t r ib u t e d t o in c r e a s e d s o b r ie t y ; it h a s
r e d u c e d “ in d u s t r ia l d r in k in g ” ; it h a s s e r v e d a s a c o u n t e r a t t r a c t io n
t o the pu blic-bouse; i t h a s s u p p l i e d i m p r o v e d n u t r i t i o n t o orker,
wth e
w h ic h h a s l e d t o a r e d u c t io n in s ic k n e s s a n d t o in c r e a s e d e n e r g y ,
b e tte r tim e k e e p in g , a n d im p r o v e d o u tp u t.
T h e c o m m itte e e a r n e s tly
t r u s t t h a t th e s e s u b s ta n tia l g a in s m a y b e m a in t a in e d in t h e fu t u r e
a n d th a t t h e in d u s tr ia l ca n te e n w ill b e c o m e a p e r m a n e n t a n d essen ­
tia l fa c to r o f th e m o d e rn fa c to r y .




SECTION X.— SICKNESS AND ILL HEALTH.

262. T h e e ffe c t o f in d u s t r ia l o c c u p a t io n u p o n th e h e a lth o f th e
w o r k e r h a s b e e n a s u b je c t o f m e d ic a l in v e s t ig a t io n sin c e th e s e v e n ­
te e n th c e n tu ry .
E a r l y in th e n in e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s im ila r in q u ir ie s
w e re in s titu te d in E n g la n d , a n d in 1831 T h a c k r a h s h o w e d th a t th e
e n v ir o n m e n t a n d c o n d it io n s o f fa c t o r y life , o r th e m e n ta l a n d p h y s i­
c a l s t r a in e n t a ile d , w e r e a s s o c ia t e d w it h e x c e p t io n a l d is a b le m e n t , d is ­
ease, o r m o r t a lit y a m o n g th e p e r s o n s e m p lo y e d . N u m e r o u s c o m m is ­
s io n s h a v e b e e n a p p o in t e d b y th e G o v e r n m e n t t o a s c e r t a in m o r e p r e ­
c is e ly th e e x a c t c a u s e s o f s u c h e ffe c ts , a n d th e s e h a v e c o n s id e r e d s u c ­
c e s s iv e ly th e g e n e r a l c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f th e w o r k e r , t h e in ju r io u s in ­
flu e n c e s o f th e f a c t o r y s y s te m , th e s p e c ia l c o n d it io n s o f c e r t a in o c c u ­
p a t i o n s , t h e r i s k s i n c u r r e d i n t h e u s e o f m a c h i n e r y , a n d t h e r e s u lt s
a r is in g a m o n g th o s e e m p lo y e d in d a n g e r o u s tra d e s . T h u s h a s b ee n
a c c u m u la te d a b o d y o f m e d ic a l e x p e r ie n c e , g r o w i n g w it h t h e g r o w t h
o f in d u s t r y a n d w it h th e in c r e a s e o f o u r k n o w le d g e o f th e ca u se s o f
d is e a s e . C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f e v i d e n c e o f a m e d i c a l
a n d s o c ia l c h a r a c te r fu r t h e r lig h t h a s b e e n t h r o w n u p o n th e s u b je c t
b y a c t u a r ie s , i n s u r a n c e a g e n t s , a n d s t a t i s t i c i a n s .
A s lo n g a g o as
1853 F in la is o n , th e a c t u a r y o f th e n a t io n a l d e b t, s a id t h a t “ th e r e a l
p r a c t ic a l d iff e r e n c e in th e d is t r ib u t io n o f s ick n e s s se e m s t o t u r n u p o n
th e a m o u n t o f e x p e n d itu r e o f p h y s ic a l f o r c e ,” a n d 50 y e a r s la te r , in
19 0 3 , W a t s o n , w h o h a d s t u d ie d th e s u b je c t fr o m a n a c t u a r ia l p o i n t
o f v ie w , w r o te th a t “ th e p r o p o r t io n o f m e m b e rs s ic k d u r in g a n y y e a r
v a r ie s w it h o c c u p a t io n .” A g a in , th e e x p e r ie n c e o f in s u r a n c e a u t h o r i­
tie s c o n fir m s th e s a m e v ie w .
T h e r e p o r t o n n a tio n a l h e a lth in s u r ­
a n c e f o r 1 9 1 3 - 1 4 s t a t e s t h a t “ i n m a n y c a s e s t h e r a t e o f s i c k n e s s is
a ffe c te d b y o c c u p a t io n s o r b y th e c o n d it io n s in c id e n t a l t o p a r t ic u la r
o c c u p a t io n s .”
L a s t l y , t h e r e is t h e i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e e v i d e n c e f u r ­
n is h e d b y th e b ills o f m o r t a lit y s t e a d ily a c c u m u la t in g in p r o o f as th e
y e a r s p a ss. T h e d e c e n n ia l r e p o r ts o f th e r e g is tr a r g e n e r a l d e m o n ­
str a te th a t c e r ta in o c c u p a t io n s h a v e a h ig h c o m p a r a tiv e m o r t a lit y ,
t h a t t h i s m o r t a l i t y is d u e t o w e l l - d e f i n e d a n d p r e v e n t i b l e d is e a s e s ,
t h a t th e o c c u p a t io n m a y e x e r t a g r e a t e r in flu e n c e o n m o r t a lit y th a n
th e a g g r e g a t io n o f p o p u la t io n a n d its a s s o c ia te d c o n d it io n s , a n d
t h a t o c c u p a t io n a l m o r t a l it y is a ffe c t e d b y th e a g e in c id e n c e o f th e
w ork er.
CAUSES OF SICKNESS.

2 63. S ick n e s s d u e , d ir e c t ly o r in d ir e c t ly , t o th e in d u s t r ia l o c c u p a ­
t io n ta k e s v a r io u s fo r m s a n d d e g re e s , fr o m th e p a s s in g h e a d a ch e t o
128




SICKNESS AND ILL HEALTH.

129

s e r i o u s o r g a n i c d is e a s e o f f a t a l is s u e .
T h e lu n g s , th e h e a r t, th e
d ig e s t iv e o r g a n s , th e n e r v o u s s y s te m , th e m u s c u la r s y s te m — e a c h o r
a l l m a y b e a f f e c t e d w i t h r e s u lt s h a r m f u l b o t h t o i n d u s t r i a l e f f ic ie n c y
a n d o u t p u t , a n d a ls o t o p e r s o n a l h e a lt h a n d e x p e c t a t io n o f life .
M o r e o v e r it m u st b e re m e m b e re d th a t an u n d u e p r o p o r t io n o f s ic k ­
n ess in a n y g r o u p o f w o r k e r s u s u a lly r e p r e s e n ts a m o n g th o s e n o t
a c t u a l l y s i c k le s s e n e d v i g o r a n d a c t i v i t y w h i c h c a n n o t f a i l t o r e d u c e
o u t p u t . D is a b li n g c o n d it io n s o r in flu e n c e s w h ic h in ju r e s o m e h a v e
a t e n d e n c y t o m a r k a l l.
E m p lo y e r s a n d t h e ir w o r k p e o p le s h o u ld
t h e r e fo r e h a v e a g e n e r a l a p p r e c ia t io n o f th ese in ju r io u s c o n d it io n s i f
t h e y a r e t o b e o n t h e o u t l o o k t o g u a r d a g a i n s t o r m i t i g a t e t h e i r e v il
e ffe c t. S p e a k in g g e n e r a lly , a tte n tio n s h o u ld b e g iv e n t o th e f o l l o w ­
in g p o in t s :
(a) E x c e s s i v e l y l o n g h o u r s o f w o r k , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y n i g h t , i f c o n ­
t i n u e d , p r o d u c e f a t i g u e , i r r i t a t i o n , a n d s ic k n e s s .
“ Y o u w il l fin d ,”
w r ite s S ir J a m e s P a g e t , “ th a t fa t ig u e h a s a la r g e r sh a re in th e
p r o m o t i o n o r t r a n s m i s s i o n o f d is e a s e t h a n a n y o t h e r s i n g l e c a u s a l
c o n d i t i o n y o u c a n n a m e .”
(b) C r a m p e d a n d c o n s t r a i n e d a t t i t u d e s o r p o s t u r e s d u r i n g w o r k
w h ic h p r e v e n t th e h e a lt h y a c t io n o f th e lu n g s a n d h e a rt.
(c) P r o l o n g e d a n d e x c e s s i v e m u s c u l a r s t r a i n , e. g ., t h e l i f t i n g o f
h e a v y w e ig h ts o r p r o lo n g e d s ta n d in g , m a y p r o d u c e r u p tu r e o r v a r i­
c o s e v e in s .
(d) M a c h i n e r y a c c i d e n t s .
* (e) W o r k i n g i n u n v e n t i l a t e d o r i n s u f f i c i e n t l y v e n t i l a t e d s h o p s
p r e d i s p o s e s t o d is e a s e a n d i n t e r f e r e s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l e n e r g y a n d
p h y s ic a l c a p a c it y . T h e e ffe c t o f c o n t in u o u s ly w o r k in g in a s ta g n a n t
o r p o l l u t e d a t m o s p h e r e is n o t t r i f l i n g o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t .
( / ) T h e a ir , e v e n i f fr e s h , m a y b e t o o h o t o r t o o c o ld , t o o h u m id
o r t o o d r y ; e ith e r e x tr e m e s h o u ld b e a v o id e d i f r e a s o n a b le b o d i ly
c o m f o r t a n d t h e m o s t e ff ic ie n t w o r k a r e t o b e i n s u r e d .
( g) Imperfect lighting, whether by day or night, conduces to eye­
strain and headache.

(A ) W o r k i n g w it h , o r in th e p r e s e n c e o f g a se s, v a p o r s , p o is o n s , o r
o t h e r ir r it a t in g s u b sta n ce s m a y le a d t o d ir e c t p o is o n in g .
(i)
D u s t p r o d u c e d in c e r t a in in d u s t r ie s , u n le s s e ff e c t u a lly s a f e ­
g u a r d e d , m a y p r o d u c e l u n g d is e a s e .
(j) T h e m a n u f a c t u r e a n d u s e o f h i g h e x p l o s i v e s i n v o l v e s r is k s t o
th e w o rk e rs.
264.
In considering the physical capacity of a woman for with­
standing the fatigue consequent upon prolonged industrial employ­
ment, it has to be remembered that her body is physiologically differ­
ent from and less strongly built from that of a man. Her muscular
system is less developed. Account must also be taken of the fact that
80935°— 10-------9




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

a t th e p re s e n t tim e m a n y w o r k e r s h a v e u n til r e c e n tly liv e d a s e d ­
e n t a r y o r d o m e s t ic l i f e a n d h a v e n o t b e e n in th e h a b it o f t a k in g
a c t iv e a n d r e g u la r e x e r c is e . C e r t a in a ilm e n ts a n d f o r m s o f p h y s ic a l
d is a b ilit y t o w h ic h w o m e n a r e lia b le a r e r e a d ily c a u s e d o r a t le a st
a c ce n tu a te d b y in a t t e n t io n t o th ese c o n s id e r a t io n s ; a m o n g s u ch c o n ­
d itio n s a re —
( i ) D is t u r b a n c e s o f d ig e s t io n d u e t o u n s u ita b le f o o d , ir r e g u la r
a n d h u r r i e d m e a ls , o r t o f a t i g u e ;
( i i ) A n e m i a , w i t h p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d d is e a s e o f t h e h e a r t a n d c i r ­
c u la to r y s y s te m ;
(iii) H e a d a ch e;
( i v ) N e rv o u s e x h a u s tio n ;
( v ) M u s c u la r p a in a n d w e a k n e s s , fla t f o o t , e t c .;
( v i ) D e r a n g e m e n t o f s p e c ia l p h y s io lo g ic a l fu n c t io n s .
265. T h o u g h th ese c o n d it io n s m a y n o t in a ll ca ses b e im m e d ia t e ly
in c a p a c it a t in g , th e y fr e q u e n t ly te n d t o b e c o m e c h r o n ic in n a tu r e a n d
f a r r e a c h in g in e ffe ct, a n d t h e y le a d d ir e c t ly t o m a ln u t r it io n a n d t o
r e d u c t i o n o f b o d i l y e n e r g y . I f a l l o w e d t o p e r s is t t h e y i n v a r i a b l y l a y
t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f i l l h e a l t h a n d d is e a s e i n l a t e r y e a r s .
2 6 6 . S p e c i a l p r o b l e m s a l s o a r is e i n t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f s i c k n e s s
a m o n g s t b o y s a n d g ir ls .
B o t h p h y s ic a lly a n d m e n ta lly th e y a re
le s s c a p a b l e t h a n a d u l t s o f p r o l o n g e d e f f o r t o r s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n t o
w ork.
T h e y n e e d v it a l e n e r g y n o t o n ly f o r th e m a in te n a n c e o
h e a lth b u t f o r g r o w t h ; e v e n t h o u g h th e r e a r e n o s ig n s o f im m e d ia t e
i l l h e a l t h t h e i r f u t u r e g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t m a y b e c o m e stunte<J.
2 6 7 . T h o u g h t h e s e a r e a s u f f i c i e n t ly f o r m i d a b l e l i s t o f d i s a b l i n g
c o n d it io n s , o r c o n d it io n s w h ic h w ith o u t p r o p e r c a re a n d p r e c a u t io n
m a y r e a d ily c a u s e d is a b le m e n t , t h e y d o n o t c o m p le t e t h e in v e n t o r y .
A t le a s t as im p o r t a n t as a n y o f th e s e o c c u p a t io n a l in flu e n c e s , b u t
i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m t h e m , is t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o d is e a s e a r i s i n g f r o m
t h e a b s e n c e o f p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . T h e n e c e s s i t ie s o f i n d i v i d u a l h e a l t h
a r e f e w a n d s i m p l e , b u t t h e y a r e e s s e n t ia l .
S u i t a b l e a n d s u f fic ie n t
f o o d , f r e s h a ir , w a r m t h , m o d e r a t io n , c le a n lin e s s in w a y s a n d h a b it s
o f life , th e p r o p e r in te r r e la t io n o f w o r k , r e p o s e , a n d r e c r e a tio n o f
m in d a n d b o d y a r e la w s o f h y g ie n e , th e e le m e n ts o f v it a l im p o r t a n c e
f o r w h ic h fa c ilit ie s m u s t b e p r o v id e d i f th e m a x im u m in d u s tr ia l o u t ­
p u t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l is t o b e s e c u r e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d . T h e s e m a t ­
te r s n e e d c o n s id e r a tio n b y th e m a n a g e m e n t ju s t as m u c h as th e
h e a lt h y s u p e r v is io n o f th e e x t e r n a l c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f th e f a c t o r y a n d
its te c h n ic a l p ro ce ss e s.
IN D IC A T IO N S OF S IC K N E S S .

2 6 8 . I n a d d it io n t o t h e c lin ic a l s ig n s a n d s y m p t o m s o f i l l h e a lth
a n d d is e a s e , t h e r e a r e t h r e e g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s o f s i c k n e s s i n a f a c ­
t o r y w h ic h ca n b e g a u g e d b y th e m a n a g e m e n t:




SICKNESS AND ILL HEALTH.

131

( a ) A b s e n c e , b r o k e n t im e , ir r e g u la r t im e k e e p in g , o r d im in is h e d
o u tp u t o f th e in d iv id u a l w o rk e r.
(& ) S i c k n e s s r e g i s t e r .
(c)
D e a t h c e r tific a te s .
T h e s e , t h o u g h fe w in n u m b e r , f o r m im
p o r t a n t in d ic a t io n s o f t h e h e a lth o f th e w o r k e r s as a w h o le .
269. E v e r y c a se o f lo s t t im e o r a b s e n c e c a lls f o r in q u ir y .
I t s h o u ld
b e p r o p e r ly r e co rd e d .
T h e s t u d y o f s u ch r e c o r d s is c e r t a in t o d is ­
c lo s e th e e x is te n c e o f a d v e r s e in flu e n c e s o r c ir c u m s t a n c e s p r e v io u s ly
u n s u s p e c t e d w h ic h m a y d e n o t e th e b e g in n in g o f s ic k n e s s .
U n fo r ­
t u n a t e ly th e n u m b e r o f in s ta n c e s w h e r e r e lia b le r e c o r d s a r e k e p t is
c o m p a r a t iv e ly fe w .
E v e n w h e n t h e ir im p o r t a n c e is r e c o g n iz e d
d i f f i c u l t i e s h a v e a r is e n o w i n g t o p r e s s u r e o n t h e t i m e o f t h e s t a f f o r
o w i n g t o th e u n s a t is fa c t o r y c h a r a c t e r o f m a n y o f th e m e d ic a l c e r ­
t ific a t e s s u p p lie d b y w o r k e r s .
T h e s e c e r tific a te s fr e q u e n t ly g iv e n o
i n f o r m a t io n a s t o t h e c a u s e o f illn e s s o r a s t o it s p r o b a b le d u r a t io n .
T h e y s e ld o m sta te w h e th e r im m e d ia te a b se n ce f r o m w o r k is essen ­
t ia l o r w h e t h e r it c a n b e p o s t p o n e d f o r a b r ie f p e r io d u n t il a p a r ­
t ic u la r jo b h a s b e e n c o m p le t e d .
A p a r t f r o m th e se , c e r t ific a t e s a re
s o m e t im e s g iv e n o n o d d s lip s o f p a p e r o r d o n o t s h o w th e a d d r e s s o f
th e m e d ic a l p r a c titio n e r . I n th e ir M e m o r a n d u m N o . 1 6 1 th e c o m ­
m itte e h a v e s u g g e s te d th e n e e d f o r a fo r m o f m e d ic a l c e r tific a te
w h i c h , i f a d o p t e d , s h o u l d d o m u c h t o o b v i a t e t h e s e d if f ic u l t i e s .
A
m o d e l f o r m is g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x G .
2 7 0 . P r o f . L o v e d a y , in h is m e m o r a n d u m o n T h e C a u s e s a n d C o n ­
d it i o n s o f L o s t T i m e , w h ic h is in c lu d e d i n t h e c o m m it t e e ’s in t e r im
r e p o r t o n I n d u s t r i a l E f f i c i e n c y a n d F a t i g u e , s e t s o u t t h e r e s u lt s o f a
s e r ie s o f in v e s t ig a t io n s w h ic h h e m a d e o n b e h a l f o f th e c o m m it t e e
i n t o t h e l o s t t im e ^ H e c o n c l u d e s t h a t n e a r l y a l l r e c o r d s u n d e r s t a t e ,
a n d m o s t r e c o r d s u n d e r s ta te g r e a t ly , th e p r o p o r t io n o f lo s t tim e d u e
t o s ic k n e s s a n d o t h e r u n a v o id a b le c a u se s.
T h i s is p a r t l y d u e t o t h e
d iffic u lt y in r e g a r d t o m e d ic a l c e r tific a te s , a lr e a d y r e fe r r e d t o , a n d
p a r t ly to th e f a c t th a t m a n y a b sen ces f o r w h ic h n o m e d ic a l c e r tifi­
c a te s a r e o r c a n b e f o r t h c o m in g a re a t t r ib u t a b le t o f a t ig u e , c o ld s , o r
o t h e r m in o r a ilm e n ts . W h i l e s u c h a b s e n c e s m a y in a sen se h a v e
b e e n a v o id a b le , th e y fr e q u e n t ly se rv e t o p r e v e n t fu t u r e b r e a k d o w n .
H e g i v e s r e a s o n s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e v i e w t h a t , e x c e p t w h e r e t h e r e is
a n u n d u e d e g r e e o f s la ck n e s s , m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e t im e lo s t is lo s t
t h r o u g h u n a v o id a b le ca u se s. V a r io u s m e th o d s a re s u g g e s te d f o r
t e s t in g t h e a c c u r a c y o f s ic k n e s s r e c o r d s :
( a ) I f th e r e t u r n s o f b a d t im e k e e p in g a n d s ick n e s s c o in c id e in
d ir e c t io n .
(& ) I f t h e n u m b e r o f w h o l e w e e k s l o s t t h r o u g h s i c k n e s s i s a b n o r ­
m a lly h ig h w h e n c o m p a r e d w it h th e s h o r t e r p e r io d s s im ila r ly lo s t.




* Cd. 8522.

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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

( c) I f t h e n u m b e r o f d a y s lo s t t h r o u g h s ic k n e s s is a b n o r m a lly
h ig h w h e n c o m p a r e d w it h th e n u m b e r o f “ q u a rte rs ” s im ila r ly lo s t.
2 7 1 . A n a f f i r m a t iv e a n s w e r t o a n y o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , u n l e s s e x ­
p lic a b le o t h e r w is e , g iv e s g o o d r e a s o n f o r s u p p o s in g th e r a te o f s ic k ­
n ess to b e u n d e r s ta te d .
W h il e n o d o u b t in s o m e p la c e s a n d in s o m e
t r a d e s t im e k e e p in g h a s r e a lly b e e n s la c k , th e r e see m s lit t le d o u b t
t h a t th e u n d e r e s t im a t e o f s ic k n e s s a n d u n a v o id a b le a b s e n c e g e n e r a lly
h a s le d to m a n y m is in f o r m e d a n d u n ju s t s ta te m e n ts a b o u t th e le t h ­
a r g y a n d ir r e g u la r it y o f th e w h o le b o d y o f w o r k e r s in c o n t r o lle d
fa c to r ie s .
2 7 2 . I n s c r u t in iz in g s ic k n e s s r e t u r n s a n d in s t u d y in g t h e ir r is e a n d
f a ll a cco u n t m u st b e ta k e n o f v a r io u s cau ses o f flu c tu a tio n :
(a) Climatic conditions .— I t m a y b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r a t e o f s i c k ­
n ess w ill b e a b o v e th e a v e r a g e in J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y , M a r c h , A p r i l ,
a n d o c c a s io n a lly in N o v e m b e r .
I n th e r e m a in in g m o n th s it w ill
o r d in a r ily b e b e lo w th e n o r m a l.
I f th e s ic k n e s s r a t e d o e s n o t r e ­
s p o n d t o c o n s id e r a b le c h a n g e s in w e a th e r , o r flu c tu a te s in d e p e n d e n t ly
o f th e m , o t h e r ca u se s o f flu c t u a t io n m u s t b e o p e r a t iv e a n d s h o u ld b e
d e te r m in e d .
(5 )
The approach o f a holiday. — A w o r k e r , t h o u g h f e e l i n g u n w e l l ,
m a y h o l d o n i f a h o l id a y is a p p r o a c h in g , a n d a r e d u c t io n in t h e s ic k ­
n e s s r a t e m a y a c c o r d i n g l y r e s u lt .
(c) A holiday just past. — I f t h e s i c k n e s s c u r v e f a i l s t o r e s p o n d t o
a h o lid a y , a n d e s p e c ia lly t o a b r e a k o f s e v e r a l d a y s , o r i f its s t e a d i­
n e ss o r r is e c a n n o t b e a t t r ib u t e d t o w o r s e n e d c li m a t i c c o n d it io n s ,
e p i d e m i c s , o r t h e l i k e , t h e r e is r e a s o n f o r r e c e i v i n g s t a t e m e n t s a s t o .
s ick n e s s w it h c a u t io n a n d s o m e tim e s w it h s u s p ic io n .
(d) Patriotic enthusiasm. — M a n y w o r k e r s w i l l k e e p a t w o r k w h e n
t h e y a re c o n v in c e d o f its u r g e n c y a n d n a t io n a l im p o r t a n c e e v e n
t h o u g h th e y m a y b e u n w e ll a n d n e e d rest.
C o n s e q u e n tly w h e n a
p e r io d o f r e la x a t io n o c c u r s th e ra te o f lo s t tim e a n d a ls o o f s ick n e s s
m a y r is e s u b s t a n t ia lly .
( e ) Long hours , much overtime , and especially Sunday labor ,
u n d o u b t e d ly e x e r c is e a m o s t d e t e r io r a t in g e ffe c t.
P r o f. L o v ed a y
q u o te s th e case o f a f a c t o r y w h e re th e re w a s m u c h S u n d a y la b o r d u r ­
in g th e s p r in g a n d w h e re n o fe w e r th a n 22 p e r ce n t o f th e m e n w ere
a t o n e t im e s ic k .
D u r in g th e f o llo w in g A u g u s t, w h e n S u n d a y la b o r
h a d b e e n m u c h r e d u c e d (b u t o v e r tim e o n w e e k d a y s r e m a in e d h e a v y ) ,
t h e s ic k n e s s r a te w a s lit t le o v e r 4 p e r c e n t.
T h is r e d u c tio n w a s p a r t ly
a t t r ib u t a b le t o th e c h a n g e o f s e a s o n , b u t th e fig u r e s o f a n e ig h b o r in g
f a c t o r y s h o w e d th a t in th a t d is tr ic t th e w e a th e r d u r in g th e s p r in g ,
t h o u g h in c le m e n t , w a s n o t a b n o r m a lly u n h e a lt h fu l, a n d P r o f . L o v e ­
d a y sees n o r e a s o n t o d o u b t th e m a n a g e r ’s v ie w th a t th e w e a th e r w a s
le s s a c c o u n t a b le f o r th e im p r o v e m e n t t h a n th e r e s t r ic t io n o f S u n d a y
w ork.




SICKNESS AND ILL HEALTH.

133

2 7 3 . A s r e g a r d s th e s ig n s o f i l l h e a lt h m o s t c o m m o n ly m e t w it h
a m o n g s t m u n itio n w o r k e r s , a la r g e b o d y o f in fo r m a t io n h a s b een
r e n d e r e d a v a i l a b l e a s t h e r e s u lt o f t h e m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f m a l e
a n d fe m a le w o r k e r s w h ic h w e r e c o n d u c te d o n b e h a lf o f th e c o m
m itte e . F u l l p a r t ic u la r s o f th e a ilm e n t s a n d d e fe c t s f o u n d b y D r
A g n e w a s t h e r e s u lt o f e x a m i n i n g o v e r 3 ,0 0 0 m e n a n d b o y s a r e g i v e n
in a ta b le se t o u t o n p a g e s 98 a n d 99 o f th e c o m m it t e e ’s in t e r im r e p o r t
o n I n d u s t r ia l E ffic ie n c y a n d F a t ig u e . D r . A g n e w r e p o r t s :
There is no one defect that points conclusively to overwork or strain, but
many o f the symptoms taken collectively indicate severe strain, and I would
suggest that sleepiness on the night shift, headache, foot ache, and muscular
pains are probably the most common signs o f overwork. The nervous symptoms
added to these go far to complete the picture. The effect o f noise upon the
individual and its contribution to feelings o f overtiredness and exhaustion
must be considerable. In many o f the factories, though the work w as not
heavy, the noise was such that the result of lengthened periods in these fa c­
tories was almost as severe as exposure to high temperature coupled with
hard work.

2 74. O n p a g e s 120 a n d 121 o f th e sa m e r e p o r t s im ila r p a r t ic u la r s
a r e g i v e n o f t h e d e f e c t s f o u n d a s t h e r e s u l t o f e x a m i n i n g o v e r 1 ,3 0 0
w o m e n a n d g i r l s ; t h e r e s u lt s o f t h e s e e x a m i n a t i o n s w e r e t h u s s u m ­
m a r iz e d :
The ailments most frequently observed included indigestion, constipation,
headache, anemia, and muscular pains. These are all frequently met with
among women workers and can not be attributed especially to munition work.
The great difficulty in estimating their precise importance is the lack o f any
control investigation or data. In some cases the ailment had undoubtedly been
caused or accentuated by conditions o f factory work. In other cases it has
existed before beginning munition work.
In others, again, the workers
expressed themselves as in better health than formerly.
METHODS OF R E M E D Y AN D TR EATM ENT.

275. A t th e fo u n d a t io n o f a n y s o u n d s y s te m o f d e a lin g w it h in d u s ­
t r i a l d is e a s e s l i e t w o e l e m e n t a r y p r i n c i p l e s : F i r s t , t h a t p r e v e n t i o n
is b e t t e r th a n c u r e ; a n d , s e c o n d ly , t h a t f o r tr e a t m e n t t o b e im p o s e d
e f f e c t i v e l y i t m u s t d e a l w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f d is e a s e .
B e a r in
th e s e in m in d , th e p r e lim in a r y s a fe g u a r d s h o u ld b e t o p r o v id e f o r
t h e m e d ic a l e x a m in a t io n o f a ll w o r k e r s in o r d e r t o s e c u re as f a r as
m a y b e t h e i r p h y s i c a l fit n e s s f o r e m p l o y m e n t .
I n so m e m u n itio n
w o r k s , a n d e s p e c ia lly in th o se w h e r e d a n g e r o u s su b sta n ce s a re m a ­
n ip u la te d , a p r e lim in a r y m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f a ll w o r k e r s i
u s u a l. D e n t a l t r e a t m e n t is a l s o s o m e t i m e s p r o v i d e d .
S u ch ex a m i
n a tio n s a re s p e c ia lly im p o r t a n t a t th e p r e s e n t tim e o w in g t o th e
s t r a in i n v o lv e d b y th e c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t a n d o w i n g t o t h e
la r g e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s w h o a re t a k in g u p in d u s tr ia l e m p lo y m e n t
f o r th e fir s t t i m e ; b u t s u c h e x a m in a t io n s a r e a lw a y s lik e ly t o b
d e s ir a b le w h e r e th e w o r k in v o lv e s a n y s p e c ia l s tr a in , a n d p a r t i c u ­




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INDUSIKIAL HEALTH AJSD EFFICIENCY.

l a r l y s o in th e ca s e o f w o m e n . A p a r t f r o m t h e ir v a lu e in d e t e c t in g
e a r ly s ig n s o f a ilm e n t o r d e f e c t , m e d ic a l e x a m in a t io n s a re v a lu a b le
a s a ffo r d in g c o n v e n ie n t o p p o r t u n it y f o r th e in c u lc a t io n o f s o u n d
d o c t r in e s a s t o p e r s o n a l h y g ie n e , c le a n lin e s s , a n d h e a lt h y h a b its .
P e r i o d ic r e e x a m in a t io n is p r a c t ic a lly c o n fin e d t o c e r t a in d a n g e r o u s
tra d e s a n d p rocesses, th e w o r k e r s in w h ic h h a v e t o b e p e r io d ic a lly
e x a m in e d u n d e r t h e r e g u la t io n s o f t h e H o m e O ffice o r t h e M in i s t r y
o f M u n it io n s . W h e r e t h e y c a n b e a r r a n g e d f o r , s u ch e x a m in a t io n s
m ig h t u s e fu lly b e e x te n d e d t o w o r k e r s e n g a g e d in o th e r p r o c e s s e s
i n v o l v i n g s p e c ia l s t r a in o r r is k .
276. I t is tr u e th a t u n d e r s e c tio n 63 o f th e f a c t o r y a n d w o r k s h o p
a c t i t is n e c e s s a r y f o r e v e r y b o y a n d g i r l u n d e r 1 6 t o b e c e r t i f i e d b y
t h e f a c t o r y c e r t i f y i n g s u r g e o n * a s p h y s i c a l l y fit f o r e m p l o y m e n t i n
t h e fa c t o r y . U n fo r t u n a t e ly , t h is c e r t ific a t e is n o t a lw a y s a d e q u a te
f o r its p u r p o s e .
T h e d e c is io n o f th e s u r g e o n h a s n o r m a lly t o b e
b a s e d s im p ly o n o n e b r ie f e x a m in a tio n . M o r e o ft e n th a n n o t h e h a s
n o p r e v io u s k n o w le d g e o f th e b o y o r g ir l, a n d g e n e r a lly th e r e c o r d s
o f th e s c h o o l m e d ic a l s e r v ic e a r e n o t a v a ila b le . A f t e r a y o u n g p e r s o n
h a s o n ce b ee n a d m itte d t o a fa c t o r y n o fu r t h e r m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n
is r e q u ir e d e x c e p t in th e r a r e in s ta n c e s w h e r e th e f a c t o r y in s p e c t o r
m a y s p e c ia lly r e q u ir e it.
I n v ie w o f th e s t r a in w h ic h in d u s t r ia l
e m p lo y m e n t m a y o ft e n im p o s e o n g r o w in g b o y s o r g ir ls , it w o u ld
u n d o u b t e d ly b e a n a d v a n ta g e i f a r r a n g e m e n ts c o u ld b e m a d e f o r t h e ir
p e r io d ic re e x a m in a tio n . I t m a y b e p o in te d o u t th a t th e d e p a r tm e n ta l
c o m m it t e e o n th e n ig h t e m p lo y m e n t o f m a le y o u n g p e r s o n s e m ­
p h a s iz e d t h e n e e d f o r s u c h p e r i o d i c a l e x a m in a t io n s o n c e a t le a s t in
e v e r y s ix m o n t h s , a n d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t r e c o r d s o f t h e r e s u lt s s h o u ld
b e k ep t.
2 7 7 . T h e s e c o n d s t e p is t o r e d u c e t o a m i n i m u m a n y u n f a v o r a b l e
c o n d it io n s o b t a in in g in th e f a c t o r y b y p r o v i d i n g p r o p e r s a n ita r y
c o n d it io n s a n d a c c o m m o d a t io n , s a fe g u a r d in g m a c h in e r y , c o n t r o llin g
h o u r s o f la b o r , f u r n i s h i n g c a n te e n fa c ilit ie s , a n d s e c u r in g s u ffic ie n tly
w a rm e d , lig h t e d , a n d v e n tila te d w o r k r o o m s .
2 7 8 . T h i r d l y , a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u ld b e m a d e f o r a d e q u a te m e d ic a l
a n d n u r s in g sch e m es. M e d ic a l a tte n d a n c e is o b ta in a b le u n d e r th e
n a t io n a l in s u r a n c e s y s te m , o r m a y b e m a d e a v a ila b le b y th e s p e c ia l
p r o v is io n o f a m e d ic a l a n d h o s p it a l s e r v ic e f o r th e f a c t o r y . N u r s in g
c a n o n ly b e o b t a in e d b y th e e m p lo y m e n t o f o n e o r m o r e t r a in e d
n u r s e s t o u n d e r ta k e d u tie s in th e f a c t o r y b y n ig h t as w e ll a s b y d a y .
S u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s h a v e b e e n in s t it u t e d in m a n y m u n it io n fa c t o r ie s ,
e s p e c ia lly w h e re w o m e n a re e m p lo y e d , a n d h a v e p r o v e d o f g r e a t
v a l u e t o e m p l o y e r s a n d w o r k e r s a l ik e .
T h e d u tie s o f th e fa c t o r y
n u r s e m a y in c lu d e —
1 See memorandum on Certificates of Fitness, issued by the Home Office in 1915, and
obtainable on application to that office.




SICKNESS AND ILL HEALTH.

135

(a) S u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e h e a l t h o f t h e w o r k e r s .

(& )
S u p e rin te n d e n c e o f th e rest r o o m f o r th o se w h o a re
p o r a r ily in d is p o s e d .
( c) F o l l o w i n g u p c a s e s o f s ick n e s s a t h o m e .
(d) T a k i n g c h a r g e o f f i r s t - a i d t r e a t m e n t o f i n j u r i e s .
(e) I n t h e a b s e n c e o f m e d i c a l a d v i c e , o b s e r v i n g a n d c o n t r o l l i n g in
it s in it ia l s ta g e s a n y th r e a te n e d o u t b r e a k o f t h e in flu e n z a t y p e o
s ick n e s s, w h ic h , i f it e x te n d s , m a y t e m p o r a r ily p a r a ly z e o u t p u t .
279.
T h e c o m m itte e a re g la d t o r e c o g n iz e th e in c r e a s in g fr e q u e n
w it h w h ic h n u rse s a re n o w b e in g e m p lo y e d in fa c t o r ie s t o p e r f o r m
s o m e o r a ll o f th e d u tie s m e n tio n e d a b o v e .
T h e e m p lo y m e n t
d o c t o r s is , o f c o u r s e , le s s c o m m o n .
I n fa c to r ie s e n g a g e d u p o n th
m a n u fa c t u r e o r m a n ip u la t io n o f p o is o n o u s s u b s ta n ce s a n d g a s e s 51
m e d i c a l o ff ic e r s a r e a t p r e s e n t e m p l o y e d .
O f th ese 14 a re w h o l
t i m e o ff ic e r s a n d 3 7 p a r t t i m e . T h e i r d u t i e s i n c l u d e t h e p r e l i m i n a r y
m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f th e w o r k e r s , th e s u p e r v is io n o f t h e ir h e a lth
w h ils t a t w o r k , a c o n s ta n t in s p e c t io n o f th e w o r k in g c o n d it io n s o
t h e f a c t o r y , a n d t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f s u s p e n s io n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y a r e
c o n s t a n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h o t h e r m a t t e r s m o r e o r le s s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t ­
in g th e h e a lth o f th e w o r k e r s .
T h e y r e p o r t p e r io d ic a lly to t
m in is t r y o n m e d ic a l p r o b le m s a r is in g in t h e ir w o r k ,
A t m any o
th ese fa c t o r ie s d e n tis ts a re e m p lo y e d b y th e m a n a g e m e n t t o tr e a
n e w w o r k e r s w h o r e q u ir e t o h a v e c a r io u s te e th r e m o v e d b e f o r e t h e y
c a n b e s a fe ty e m p lo y e d . I n o th e r fa c t o r ie s th e e m p lo y m e n t o f m e d i
c a l o ff ic e r s is s t i l l r a r e , t h o u g h i t i s i n c r e a s i n g , a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i
l ik e ly to b e e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h th e n e e d f o r s e c u r in g th e p r o p e
s u p e r v i s i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t lie f i r s t - a i d a p p l i a n c e s , t h e p r o v i s i o n
o f w h i c h is r e q u i r e d b y t h e r e c e n t H o m e O ffic e o r d e r . 1 T h e n e e d f o r
t r a in in g w o r k e r s in th e u se o f th e s e a p p lia n c e s w il l a ls o r e q u ir e t
b e p r o v id e d fo r . T h e th re e ca ses q u o te d b e lo w in d ic a te o th e r d ir e c
t io n s in w h ic h d e v e lo p m e n t m a y b e a n t ic ip a t e d :
(a)
At an engineering factory employing about 2,250 workers (m ostly men)
whole-time medical officer has been appointed, who acts also as panel doctor
fo r most o f the employees. He makes a medical examination o f all new
employees. Absentees are follow ed up by him if they have not seen him before
leaving work, and they again see him before resuming work. The number o f
patients seen varies from 60 to 75 a day, and the medical officer’s work consists
in the supervision o f the dressing carried out by his male dresser, ordinary
diagnosis, minor surgical treatments, and any attendance on the workers where
necessary in their homes or at the neighboring cottage hospital.
(&) At an engineering factory, where about 2,500 men and women are em­
ployed, a medical officer attends at the surgery daily from noon till 1 p. m.
H e sees cases o f injuries which have been held over fo r his inspection or which
have come up to be redressed. He also examines all workers before engage­
ment, when any physical defects, such as hernia, hydrocele, varicocele, varicose
veins, or heart trouble are entered in a book and the entry countersigned by

a




*See paragraph 289 and Appendix !•

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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

tlie w orker; in this way claims in respect o f that particular defect at some
later date are avoided. The medical officer also treats at his own house cases
sent to him by the nurses on duty.
Employees have to report every accident, no matter how slight, to the fore­
man, who passes the case on to the ambulance room. The workers are in no
case allowed to treat any wound themselves. A ll wounds are dressed by nurses
under the supervision o f the medical officer. Patients are not sent to their own
doctor, for the latter have not time for, and can not be expected to, treat daily
a large number o f minor and apparently trifling injuries. Under the system
adopted every wound, however slight, is dressed within a few minutes o f its
occurrence, and is properly cared for until it is healed. As a result, the
proportion o f workers who lost time on account o f accidents was markedly
lowered, and there was an increase in the proportion o f cases that lost no time
at all. This scheme is also o f interest because the firm on starting it decided
to carry their own insurance for all claims less than £100 ($486.65), and they
found after, due allowance was made for tlie doctor’s salary and the expenses
associated with the nurses, that they had at the end o f 18 months a credit
balance o f nearly £500 ($2,433.25). To this balance must be added the indirect
though considerable value o f working hours and weeks saved.
(c )
A group of factories are employing one medical man, paid on a capitation
basis, to make not less than four health inspections annually. His inspection
includes the organization o f first-aid treatment; records o f the health and
progress o f each w ork er; the condition o f the sanitary conveniences; the
cleanliness o f the w indow s; the ventilation, temperature, and cleanliness o f
each w orkplace; the facilities for obtaining food and drinking w a te r ; and the
cloakroom and washing accommodation. He also advises on any medical sub­
ject connected with the work o f the factory and as to the health o f any worker
specially referred to him. Any necessary observations or suggestions are en­
tered in writing fo r the inform ation o f the management and for reference on
subsequent visits.




S E C T I O N X I .— I N J U R I E S A N D A C C I D E N T S .

280. T h e p r o v is io n s o f th e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t in r e g a r d
t o a c c i d e n t s f a l l i n t o t w o m a i n c a t e g o r i e s — t f ie p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i ­
d e n ts , a n d th e n o tific a tio n a n d in v e s t ig a t io n o f c e r ta in k in d s o f a c c i­
d e n ts.
T h e p r o v is io n s f o r th e p r e v e n t io n o f a c c id e n ts in c lu d e th e
p r o p e r f e n c in g o f m a c h in e r y (se c. 1 0 ) , s a fe t y v a lv e s f o r b o ile r s
(s e c . 1 1 ) , t h e p o s it io n a n d o p e r a t io n o f s e l f - a c t i n g m a c h in e s (s e c .
1 2 ) , th e c le a n in g o f m a c h in e r y b y w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s (s e c.
1 3 ) , m e a n s o f e s c a p e in c a s e o f fire (s e c . 1 4 ) , a n d th e m a k in g o f
d o o r s t o o p e n o u t w a r d (s e c . 1 6 ) .
T h e o c c u p ie r o f th e f a c t o r y is
r e q u ir e d to n o t i f y t o th e fa c t o r y in s p e c to r a ll fa t a l a c c id e n ts a n d a ll
a c c i d e n t s s u f f i c i e n t ly s e r i o u s t o n e c e s s i t a t e a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k f o r a
p e r io d o f o n e d a y in s o m e ca se s a n d o f se v e n d a y s in o th e r s .
N o ti­
fi c a t io n is a ls o r e q u ir e d o f d a n g e r o u s o c c u r r e n c e s , s u c h as fir e s , o r
c e r t a in t y p e s o f e x p lo s io n s o r a c c id e n t s t o m a c h in e r y o r p la n t .
U n d e r th e P o li c e , F a c t o r ie s , e tc. (M is c e lla n e o u s P r o v i s i o n s ) , A c t ,
1 9 1 6 , s e c t i o n 8 , i t is t h e d u t y o f t h e f a c t o r y c e r t i f y i n g s u r g e o n t o
in v e s tig a te a n d r e p o r t u p o n c e r ta in k in d s o f in ju r y c a u se d b y e x ­
p o s u r e t o g a s , fu m e s , o r o t h e r n o x io u s s u b s ta n ce s , a n d a ls o u p o n a n y
o t h e r c a s e s w h i c h m a y b e s p e c i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o h im .
2 8 1 . H o w g r a v e is t h e a m o u n t o f d i s a b l e m e n t c a u s e d b y i n j u r i e s
a n d a c c i d e n t s is s h o w n b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h o u g h o n l y a c c i d e n t s o f a
c e r t a in d e g r e e o f s e v e r it y a re n o t ifia b le , th e n u m b e r n o t ifie d a n n u a lly
a m o u n t s t o o v e r 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 .
T o th ese m u st b e a d d e d a v a st n u m b e r o f
m in o r in ju r ie s a n d a c c id e n t s w h ic h in th e a g g r e g a t e c a u s e p e r h a p s a n
e v e n la r g e r a m o u n t o f in t e r r u p t io n to w o r k . A s o m e w h a t fo r m id a b le
r e t u r n o f a c c i d e n t s is t h e r e f o r e t o b e a n t i c i p a t e d i n m u n i t i o n f a c ­
to r ie s , w h ic h in c lu d e n o t o n ly m e ta l a n d e n g in e e r in g w o r k , b u t c e r ­
ta in d a n g e r o u s tr a d e s a n d th e m a n u fa c tu r e o f e x p lo s iv e s .
M oreov er,
th e in t r o d u c t io n o f n e w la b o r , a n d o f e m p lo y e e s u n a c c u s to m e d t o th e
p ro c e s s e s c o n c e r n e d , p a r t ic u la r ly in c o n ju n c t io n w it h th e n e e d f o r
s p e e d a n d p re s s u r e , o v e r tim e , a n d n ig h t w o r k , w ith th e c o n s e q u e n t
f a t ig u e , m u s t in e v it a b ly le a d t o g r e a t e r r is k o f a c c id e n t.
T h e in ­
ju r ie s in a t y p ic a l m u n itio n w o r k s a re n o t o n ly o p e n w o u n d s , c o n ­
t u s io n s a n d a b r a s io n s , in ju r ie s t o th e e y e , s p r a in s , s im p le a n d c o m ­
p o u n d fr a c t u r e s , a n d in ju r e d lim b s , b u t a ls o s c r a tc h e s , cu ts , b u r n s ,
a n d o t h e r m in o r in ju r ie s w h ic h m a y r e a d ily le a d t o m o r e s e r io u s
c o n d it io n s b y n e g le c t.
T h e s lig h t e s t w o u n d m a y b e c o m e in fe c t e d
w it h g e r m s , a n d a g r e a t e r o r le s s d e g r e e o f s e p s is o r b l o o d p o is o n -




137

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

138

i n g s u p e r v e n e , w it h t h e r e s u lt a n t s e r io u s lo s s o f t im e a n d e ffic ie n c y ,
a n d p o s s ib ly e v e n r is k o f l i f e a n d lim b .
An insurance company reports that out o f 27,500 accident claims in 1917,
2,700 were septic claims, over 2,000 o f these being septic conditions caused
through wounds on the hand.

2 8 2 . .M u c h v a l u a b l e a n d s u g g e s t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e r e l a t i o n o f
th e in c id e n c e o f a c c id e n t s t o o u t p u t a n d t o f a t i g u e is c o n t a in e d in D r ,
V e r n o n ’s m e m o ra n d u m o n A n In v e s tig a tio n o f th e F a c to r s C o n
c e r n e d in th e C a u s a t io n o f I n d u s t r i a l A c c id e n t s .1 T h e in q u ir y is o f
th e g r e a te r im p o r ta n c e in th a t so f a r as th e c o m m itte e a re a w a re
n o in q u ir y o f a s im ila r n a tu r e h a d p r e v io u s ly b e e n c o n d u c te d , a t a n y
r a te in t h is c o u n t r y .
A s h e p o in ts o u t p r e v io u s in q u ir ie s o n th
s u b je c t h a v e s u ffe r e d f r o m c e r ta in d e fe c ts .
I n th e fir s t p la c e th e
a c c id e n t d a ta a re in n o ca se c o r r e la t e d w it h th e o u t p u t d a ta .
S ec­
o n d ly , n o a llo w a n c e h a s b e e n m a d e f o r th e c o n s id e r a b le p e r io d o f
t im e o f t e n lo s t a t th e b e g in n in g a n d e n d o f a s p e ll.
A n d t h ir d ly
n o a llo w a n c e h a s b e e n m a d e f o r th e tim e w h ic h h a s e la p s e d b e tw e e n
th e o c c u r r e n c e o f th e a c c id e n t a n d th e tim e w h e n th e w o r k e r a p p lie s
f o r tre a tm e n t.
T h i s p e r i o d is a l w a y s a p p r e c i a b l e , a n d i n t h e c a s e
o f so m e t y p e s o f a c c id e n t (e . g ., s p r a in s ) m a y b e c o n s id e r a b le .
283. A s to w h a t are th e p r in c ip a l ca u ses o f a c c id e n ts D r . V e r n o n
sta tes :
Speed o f production is the essential factor in accident causation which can
never be neglected. Its action depends especially on the degree o f nervous
and muscular coordination possessed by the worker, and on psychical condi­
tions such as his alertness and attention.
The various factors concerned in accident production may be classified under
two main headings, according as they depend on the worker himself, L e., are
o f personal origin, or depend on external conditions not directly under his
control.
Factors o f personal o rig in :
I. Nervous and muscular coordination in relation to speed o f produc­
tion.
II. Fatigue.
III. Psychical influences.
IV. Nutrition and alcohol consumption.
Factors of external o rig in :
V. Lighting.

VI. Temperature, humidity, and ventilation.
VII. Defects o f machinery and absence o f guards.

28 4 . F o r a n a d e q u a te a p p r e c ia t io n o f th e c h a r a c t e r a n d s c o p e o f
D r . V e r n o n ’s in q u ir y , r e fe r e n c e s h o u ld b e m a d e t o th e r e p o r t i t s e l f .2
H e r e i t m u s t s u ffic e t o g i v e a b r i e f s u m m a r y :
Accident data were collected at fou r factories, for periods o f 9 to 25£ months.
The accidents (over 50,000 in number) were classified separately under the
headings o f cuts, foreign bodies in the eye, burns, sprains and injuries incurred




*Cd. 9046.

* See Committee’s Memorandum No. 21.

(Cd. 9046.)

INJURIES AND ACCIDENTS.

139

one or more days before they were first treated. Eye accidents afford the most
reliable index o f accident incidence, as they are almost invariably treated
within a few minutes o f their occurrence. Cuts are fairly reliable, but sprains
are quite unreliable, as the workers generally do not come fo r treatment till
some time after they are incurred. Hence their incidence resembles that of
“ previous injuries,” or depends on the inclination o f the worker to attend the
dressing station. This inclination varies greatly at different times. For in­
stance, day-shift women attended three times more frequently toward the end*
o f the morning spell than at the beginning, but night-shift women attended
most frequently at the beginning o f the shift, and only a fifth as frequently
towards the end o f it.
Speed of production.— Output determinations at a fuse factory were made by
measuring the excess electric power supplied to the various sections o f the
works, and verifying the results by direct enumerations o f the articles produced.
The output rose steadily during the morning spell and was 11 per cent greater
in the fourth hour o f full work than in the first hour. It remained high during
the first hour o f the afternoon spell, but fell off during the rest o f the after­
noon. The incidence o f accidents showed a qualitative resemblance to these
output variations but not a quantitative one, for accidents increased 10 to 30
times more rapidly than output during the morning spell. Nevertheless it was
concluded that varying speed o f production is the factor largely responsible
for the day-shift variations o f accidents in men, and not fatigue. Though the
night-shift output follow ed a similar course to the day-shift output, the accident
incidence, except that o f eye accidents, was entirely different. It was at a
maximum at the beginning o f the shift, and fell gradually the whole night
through to about half its initial value. This was due to the fact that the nightshift workers started work in a careless and excited state, and calmed down
gradually during the night. At the other factories, where 6 , 9.2 and 15-inch
shells were manufactured, there was very little hourly variation in the speed
with which the operations on these shells were performed, and in correspond­
ence therewith the hourly incidence o f accidents incurred by the day shift was
fairly steady. The night-shift accidents dwindled rapidly the whole night
through, because o f the psychical factor.
The diurnal variations o f accidents at the fuse factory generally corre­
sponded with the output variations, as both rose to a maximum in the middle
o f the week and declined at the end o f it. This correspondence held for night
shift as well as day shift, and the diurnal variation o f eye accidents was
especially marked. In the shell factories the night-shift accidents rose rapidly
in the course o f the week, and in women were 47 per cent more numerous on
the last day than on the first day. This was a fatigue effect. The monthly
variations o f accidents at the fuse factory corresponded with output variations,
for the accidents gradually increased about 40 per cent, whilst the hourly out­
put at the same time increased 30 per cent.
Fatigue.— The influence o f fatigue on accidents to women was strikingly
shown at the fuse factory when the operatives were working a 1 2 -hour day, or
75 hours a week. The women’s accidents were tw o and a half times more
numerous than in the subsequent 10 -hour day period, but the men’s accidents
were not affected. The women’s accidents showed a five-fold increase during
the course o f the morning spell, as compared with a three-fold increase during
the subsequent 1 0 -hour day period, but the men’s accidents did not change as
between these two periods. The women’s accidents were 45 per cent times more
frequent in the afternoon spell than in the morning spell, whilst the men’s
accidents were only 7 per cent times more numerous. Also the women were
treated for faintness nine times more frequently than the men, and were givea




140

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

sal-volatile 23 times more frequently, whereas in the subsequent 10-hour day
period they were treated for faintness and given sal-volatile only three times
more frequently. When the hours o f work at one o f the shell factories w ere
equalized for the men and the women, whereby the women were made to work
9£ hours more than they had done previously, and the men 9 i hours less, the
ratio o f women’s accidents to men’s accidents (corrected for the alteration o f
hours) increased 19 per cent for the day shift and 61 per cent for the night
shift.
Psychical influences.— At ali the factories the night-shift workers suffered
few er accidents than the day-shift workers, the average defect being 16 per
cent. This was not due to the output being smaller, as at the fuse factory it
was distinctly bigger by night than by day. It was psychical in origin, and due
to the night-shift workers settling down to a calmer mental state than the dayshift workers, and so becoming less careless and inattentive. The psychical
factor is one o f the most important in accident causation.
Alcohol consumption.— Indirect evidence as to the effects o f alcohol con­
sumption was obtained by assuming (a ) that the increasing restrictions on the
alcohol consumption o f the Nation in general during the w ar applied also to
the munition w orkers; (b ) that such o f the ngiht-shift wT
orkers astook alcohol
did so shortly before coming on to work. It was found that the accidents
treated during the three spells o f the niglit shift at the fuse factory fell off
much more rapidly in men than in women— as one would expect them to do if
the excess o f accidents in the first spell were due partly to alcohol consump­
tion— and that between February, 1916, and December, 1917, the fall steadily
became less. Again, in the 12-hour day period (November, 1915, to January,
1916) the accidents were at a maximum on Monday and fell gradually to a
minimum on Friday, which was 30 per cent less than the Monday value. Then
they shot up again nearly to the maximum on Saturday. This suggests week­
end drinking, as no such variations were observed during the subsequent 1 0 -hour
day period.
Lighting.— Accidents due to foreign bodies in the eye were 7 to 27 per cent
more numerous in the night shift than in the day shift, though all the other
accidents were considerably less numerous. This was due to the artificial
lighting, as the excess o f eye accidents was most marked in the worst lit fac­
tory. During day shift the eye accidents to men were most frequent in the
winter months and most infrequent in the summer months, but this relation­
ship was- not observed in the women. Other accidents were not affected, for
during day shift they were not more numerous in the hours o f artificial light­
ing than in those o f natural lighting.
Temperature.— The temperature at the fuse factory was recorded continu­
ously for six months by means o f a thermograph. Accidents wT
ere at a mini­
mum at 65° to 69° F. and increased rapidly at higher temperatures (e. g., by
30 per cent at temperatures above 75°) and slowly at low er temperature?.
Continuous records were obtained o f the external temperature o f the town in
which the shell factories were situated, and it was found that in all o f them
the accidents increased considerably as the wT
eather grew colder and dimin­
ished as it grew warmer. In one factory the women’s accidents w^ere nearly
two and a h alf times more numerous when the temperature was at or below
freezing point than when it was above 47°, whilst the men’s accidents were
twice as numerous.
Prevention of accidents.— Various directions in which accidents could be
diminished were suggested by comparing the accident frequency o f men and
women at the different factories. The women suffered twT
ice as frequently as




INJURIES AND ACCIDENTS.

141

the men from sprains and were especially liable to w rist sprains at the fuse
factory, as they had not sufficient strength to push home the clamping lever o f
the lathes. Both men and women suffered many more sprains at the 6 -inch
shell factory than at the other shell factories, as they often moved the
90-pound shells by hand, instead o f with the tackle provided. The women at
the shell factories suffered three times more burns than the men, chiefly from
the hot metal turnings. Accidents arising from carelessness and inattention
can be diminished by preventing the workers from talking to one another in
the shops.
M E A N S OF P R E V E N T IO N .

285. I t h a s b e e n e s tim a te d th a t f r o m 25 t o 40 p e r c e n t o f a ll in d u s ­
t r ia l a c c id e n ts a re p r e v e n ta b le i f a ll p r a c t ic a b le m e a n s a re ta k e n .
I n A m e r ic a it h a s b e e n e s tim a te d t h a t r o u g h ly 3 0 p e r c e n t o f a c c i­
d e n t s a r e d u e t o i ll n e s s o r t o i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n m a c h i n e s o r i n g u a r d ­
in g d a n g e ro u s p a r t s ; th a t 60 p e r ce n t a re d u e to a p a th y a n d la c k o f
a p p r e c ia t io n o f d a n g e r o n th e p a r t o f o p e r a t iv e s a n d o n ly 10 p e r
c e n t to w h o lly u n p re v e n ta b le causes.
W h a te v e r th e p r o p o r t io n s
m a y b e , t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t a l a r g e n u m b e r o f a c c i d e n t s a r e
p r e v e n t a b le , a n d th e S ta te w h ic h d e s ir e s th e m a x im u m o u t p u t o f
m u n it io n s , th e e m p lo y e r w h o p a y s c o m p e n s a t io n , th e u n io n s w h o
s u b s id iz e a b se n te es, a n d th e o p e r a t iv e w h o u n d e r g o e s s u ffe r in g a n d
p a in , a n d p e r h a p s , p e r m a n e n t d is a b le m e n t , a r e a lik e c o n c e r n e d t o
se c u re a r e d u c t io n in th e n u m b e r o f a c c id e n ts .
286. I t is o b v io u s t h a t m u c h c a n b e d o n e b y a d o p t in g v a r io u s
m e th o d s o f p r e v e n t io n , s u c h as th e p r o p e r a n d e ffe c tiv e g u a r d in g
o f m a c h in e r y , th e p r o v is io n o f s a fe t y a p p lia n c e s , th e p r o p e r r e g u la ­
t io n o f d a n g e r o u s p ro ce ss e s, th e a d e q u a te lig h t in g o f th e fa c t o r y ,
a n d th e m o r e c a r e f u l c le a n in g o f m a c h in e r y .
B u t h o w e v e r c o m p le te
th e p r o v is io n m a d e f o r s e c u r in g th e s a fe t y o f th e w o r k e r , its su cce ss
m u st la r g e ly d e p e n d u p o n th e in t e llig e n t c o o p e r a t io n o f w o r k e r s
a n d fo r e m e n in th e m a in te n a n c e a n d u se o f th e a p p lia n c e s p r o v id e d
a n d in th e e n fo r c e m e n t o f p r e c a u t io n a r y r e g u la t io n s .
A s a lr e a d y
su g g e s te d , m a n y a c c id e n ts o c c u r th r o u g h ig n o r a n c e o r a p a th y —
“ f a m ilia r it y b r e e d s c o n t e m p t .”
O n e m e th o d o f s e c u r in g th e n e ce s­
s a r y c o o p e r a t io n w h ic h m ig h t w it h a d v a n ta g e b e m o r e w id e ly
a d o p t e d is b y t h e e s t a b li s h m e n t o f c o m m i t t e e s o f w o r k e r s .
The
d u tie s o f s u ch c o m m itte e s a re t o s t u d y th e ca u se s o f a c c id e n ts , t o
s u g g e s t a n d a d v is e s u ita b le m e a n s f o r p r e v e n t io n , t o k e e p c a r e f u l
r e c o r d s , t o m a k e fr e q u e n t in s p e c t io n o f m a c h in e r y a n d p la n t , a n d t o
n o te a n y d e fe c ts o r d a n g ers.
T h e in te r e s t o f th e w o r k e r s m a y b e
fu r t h e r e n c o u r a g e d b y g iv in g p r iz e s f o r s u g g e s tio n s o r b y a w a r d s t o
th e c o m m itte e o f th e d e p a r tm e n t w h e r e th e g r e a te s t r e d u c t io n o f
a c c id e n ts h a s b e e n se cu re d .
I n s o m e in s ta n c e s m o n t h ly p a m p h le t s
o r b u lle t in s h a v e b e e n p u b lis h e d d e a lin g w it h th e s a f e t y a n d h y g ie n e ,




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

w it h p a r t ic u la r s o f a c c id e n ts , w ith n o te s as t o th e ir p r e v e n t io n a n d
illu s t r a t io n s o f s a fe a n d d a n g e r o u s m e th o d s o f w o r k in g .
2 8 7 . H o w e v e r p e r f e c t a n d c o m p le t e m a y b e th e m e th o d s o f p r e v e n ­
t io n a d o p te d , a c c id e n ts w ill a lw a y s o c c u r , a n d p r o v is io n m u st th e re ­
f o r e b e m a d e f o r t h e ir s u it a b le t r e a t m e n t , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r th e
fir s t -a id tr e a t m e n t o f m in o r in ju r ie s .
W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le t r a in in g
i n t h e e s s e n t ia l s o f f i r s t a i d s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o a s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s t o p r o v i d e th a t in e a c h s h o p t h e r e a r e a t le a s t o n e o r t w o
p e r s o n s w h o k n o w h o w t o r e n d e r fir s t a id in ca se o f i n ju r y , a n d m u c h
v a lu a b le w o r k h a s b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d in s p r e a d in g k n o w le d g e o f
fir s t-a id p r a c t ic e b y th e S t. J o h n A m b u la n c e A s s o c ia t io n a n d s im ila r
o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w i t h a r e s u lt t h a t i n m a n y m u n i t i o n w o r k s t h e r e a r e
e m p lo y e e s w h o p o s s e s s th e r e q u is it e t r a in in g .
U n fo r tu n a te ly a t th e
p r e s e n t tim e l o n g h o u r s o f w o r k a n d th e d iffic u lt y o f o b t a in in g
t e a c h e r s m a k e s t r a in i n g d iffic u lt to o r g a n iz e .
D is t r ib u t io n m a y a ls o
u s e f u l ly b e m a d e o f le a fle ts o r p la c a r d s o f i n s t r u c t io n a n d a d v ic e .
A n y in s t r u c t io n o r a d v ic e s h o u ld b e s im p le a n d p r e c is e a n d s h o u ld
e m p h a s iz e th e n e e d f o r tr e a tm e n t in a ll ca ses a s w e ll as m e th o d s o f
tr e a t m e n t .1
288. I n th e m a jo r i t y o f fa c t o r ie s s o m e p r o v is io n is m a d e f o r th e
tr e a tm e n t o f in ju r ie s , b u t in s p e c t io n in d ic a t e s t h a t t h e r e is g r e a t a n d
u r g e n t n e e d o f im p r o v e m e n t , e s p e c ia lly f o r t r e a t in g m in o r in ju r ie s .
W h ile o n e fa c t o r y m a y p o sse ss a w e ll-e q u ip p e d s u r g e r y w it h a tr a in e d
n u rse in c h a r g e , a t a n o th e r p r o v is io n f o r tre a tm e n t m a y b e w h o lly
a b se n t, o r th e s u r g ic a l e q u ip m e n t m a y b e r e p r e s e n te d b y a s o ile d r o ll
o f s o m e s o -c a lle d “ a n t is e p t ic ” lin t o r g a u z e , a n o p e n p a c k e t o f a b ­
s o r b e n t w o o l, a fe w b a n d a g e s , s o m e a n t is e p t ic lo t io n , o r a n u n c le a n
p a i r o f s c is s o r s , a l l k e p t i n a d u s t y d r a w e r .
I t is o b V io u s t h a t p r o ­
v i s i o n o f e q u i p m e n t f o r f i r s t a i d i s w o r s e t h a n u s e le s s u n l e s s i t is
p r o p e r ly k e p t a n d m a in t a in e d .
2 8 9 . W h a t i s r e q u ir e d is a n a d e q u a te t h o u g h s im p le o r g a n iz a t io n
w h ic h p r o v id e s —
( a) a l o c a l d r e s s i n g s t a t i o n o r a i d p o s t i n e a c h
w o r k p l a c e f o r m i n o r i n j u r i e s , abn) d a ( c e n t r a l d r e s s i n g s t a t i o n o r
s u r g e r y f o r m o r e s e r io u s c a se s o r ca ses r e q u ir in g c o n t in u o u s t r e a t ­
m e n t . A n o r d e r 2 r e c e n t l y m a d e b y t h e H o m e O f f ic e u n d e r t h e P o l i c e ,
F a c t o r i e s , e t c . ( M i s c e l l a n e o u s P r o v i s i o n s ) , A c t , 1 9 1 6 , s e c t i o n 7 ,3 r e ­
q u ir e s t h a t in th e c a s e o f b la s t f u r n a c e s , c o p p e r m ills , i r o n m ills ,
f o u n d r ie s , a n d m e ta l w o r k s a fir s t -a id b o x s h a ll b e p r o v id e d in th e
p r o p o r t i o n o f a t le a s t o n e t o e v e r y 1 5 0 p e r s o n s , a n d a n a m b u la n c e
r o o m w h e re v e r 500 o r m o re p e rs o n s a re e m p lo y e d .
A rra n g e m en ts
1 A leaflet (see note at end of section) has been issued by the Home Office and is
tainable on application.
*T he terms of the order are given in Appendix I.
9 The terms of the section are given in Appendix H.




ob­

IN J U E IE S ^ N D ACCIDENTS.

143

s h o u ld a ls o b e m a d e f o r th e im m e d ia t e c o n v e y a n c e t o h o s p it a l o f
ca ses w h ic h c a n n o t b e tre a te d o n th e sp o t.
LOCAL DRESSING STATION OB AID POST.

290.
I n o r d e r t o b e e ffe c tiv e u n d e r in d u s tr ia l c o n d it io n s a n y fo r
o f tr e a t m e n t f o r m in o r in ju r ie s m u s t b e e x t r e m e ly s im p le , e a s ily u n ­
d e r s to o d , a n d r e a d ily a p p lica b le .
E l a b o r a t e p r o v is io n f o r th e tre a t
m e n t o f m i n o r i n j u r i e s is t h e l e s s n e c e s s a r y , b e c a u s e o f i t s u n s u i t a ­
b i l i t y u n d e r f a c t o r y c o n d it io n s a n d b e c a u s e in m a c h in e s h o p s w o u n d s
a r e u s u a lly c o m p a r a t iv e ly f r e e f r o m g e r m s .
F u r t h e r , th e tre a tm e n t
m u s t b e a lw a y s a n d p r o m p t l y a v a ila b le .
T h e w o rk m a n w h o su s­
ta in s a s lig h t i n ju r y w h ile at w o r k w ill o ft e n d e c lin e t o s u r r e n d e r a
q u a r t e r o f a n h o u r o f tim e a n d e a r n in g s in g o in g t o a n d f r o m a c e n ­
t r a l s u r g e r y t o h a v e h is w o u n d d re s s e d .
T i m e is a c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
a n d th e e x ig e n c ie s o f f a c t o r y l if e d o n o t a llo w o f an e la b o r a te p r o ­
cedu re.
T h e a id p o s t m a y ta k e th e f o r m o f a c u p b o a r d o r b o x c o n ­
t a i n i n g fir s t - a id m a t e r ia ls , w it h b r ie f , s im p le , a n d c le a r in s t r u c t io n s
as t o t h e ir u se.
T h e b o x s h o u ld c o n t a in p a c k e t s o f s t e r iliz e d d r e s s ­
in g s , a s u p p ly o f io d in e s o lu tio n ( a lc o h o lic s o lu t io n c o n t a in in g 2 p e r
c e n t i o d i n e ) , a b o t t l e o f “ e y e d r o p s , ” a p a i r o f d r e s s i n g s c is s o r s , s o m e
t r ia n g u la r b a n d a g e s , s a fe t y p in s , a n d a r o ll o f p la s t e r (1 in c h w i d e ) .
T h e s t e r i l i z e d d r e s s i n g s m a y s u i t a b l y b e o f t h r e e s iz e s :*
(a) T h r e e d o z e n s m a l l s iz e , f o r f i n g e r s , c o m p o s e d o f a s t r i p o f
g a u z e o r lin t 8 in c h e s l o n g a n d 1 in c h w id e , w it h n a r r o w ta p e a t ta c h e d
to one end.
T h e t a p e s h o u l d b e r o l l e d u p i n s i d e t h e s t r i p , w h i c h is
t h e n w r a p p e d in a c o v e r o f o r d in a r y n o n a b s o r b e n t w o o l a n d th e
w h o le s t e r iliz e d .
I n u s e t h e w o o l is f i r s t r e m o v e d a n d t h e d r e s s i n g
u n r o l l e d r o u n d t h e i n j u r e d f i n g e r , w h e n t h e t a p e is d i s c l o s e d r e a d y
f o r t y in g th e d r e s s in g in p o s it io n .
(b) O n e d o z e n m e d i u m s i z e , f o r h a n d s o r f e e t , s i m i l a r t o t h e a b o v e ,
b u t 1 8 i n c h e s l o n g a n d 1^ i n c h e s w i d e ; a n d
(<?) O n e d o z e n l a r g e s i z e , f o r w h i c h t h e o r d i n a r y f i e l d d r e s s i n g
m a y b e ta k e n as a p a tte rn .
T h e a i d p o s t s h o u l d b e u n d e r t h e c a r e o f a n o f f ic e r , p r e f e r a b l y t h e
fo r e m a n o r fo r e w o m a n , t r a in e d in fir s t -a id w o r k .
T h i s o f f ic e r s h o u l d
k e e p a n o te o f e v e r y ca se d re s s e d , a n d s h o u ld b e r e s p o n s ib le f o r see­
i n g t h a t th e b o x is k e p t s t o c k e d a n d in p r o p e r o r d e r .
O r d in a r ily
o n e s u ch a id p o s t s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d in e a c h w o r k p la c e , b u t in la r g e
e n g in e e r in g s h o p s s e v e r a l m a y b e r e q u ir e d .
1 Such dressings may be obtained, amongst others, from Messrs. Cuxson, Gerrard &
Co., Oldbury, Birmingham, and Southall Bros, and Barclay, Birmingham. Dressings are
also prepared by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., Reynolds & Bransom, 13, Briggate,
L e e d s ; C. P. Thackray. Great George Street, L e ed s; and the St. John Ambulance Asso­
ciation, St. John’s Gate, Clerkenweil.




144

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.
CENTRAL DRESSING STATION OE SURGERY.1

2 9 1 . T h e c e n t r a l d r e s s in g s t a t i o n 2 s h o u ld b e e a s ily a c c e s s ib le a n d
s p e c ia lly c o n s tr u c te d o r a d a p te d f o r th e p u r p o s e .
T h e room or room s
s h o u ld , in la r g e fa c t o r ie s , p r o v id e f o r a s u r g e r y , a r e s t r o o m , a n d a
s t o r e r o o m a n d n u r s e ’s r o o m .
W h e r e a s u r g e r y is u s e d f o r w o r k e r s o f
b o th sex es a s e c o n d s m a ll r o o m w ill b e fo u n d a d v a n ta g e o u s .
The
w a lls s h o u ld b e c o v e r e d w it h g la z e d tile s , e n a m e le d i r o n sh e e ts , o r
w a s h a b le p a in t .
T h e flo o r s h o u ld b e o f s m o o th , h a r d , d u r a b le , a n d
im p e r v io u s m a t e r ia l; th e n a tu r a l a n d a r tific ia l lig h t in g s h o u ld b e
a m p l e ; h o t a n d c o ld w a te r s h o u ld b e la id o n o r b e im m e d ia t e ly a v a il­
a b le ; th e r o o m s h o u ld b e w a r m e d in w in t e r .
A g l a z e d s i n k is n e e d e d ,
th e w a ste p ip e o p e n in g o v e r th e d r a in , a n d t r a p p e d o u ts id e th e
su rg ery.
A f o o t b a th , p r e fe r a b ly fix e d a n d p r o v id e d w it h h o t a n d
c o l d w a t e r , is d e s i r a b l e .
T h e fu r n it u r e s h o u ld c o n s is t o f a ta b le ,
s c o u c h , c h a ir s , a n d c u p b o a r d s .
T h e r o o m s h o u ld n o t c o n t a in a c a r ­
p e t , r u g s , c u r t a in s , t a b le c lo t h , w in d o w b lin d s , o r w a ll p ic t u r e s .
The
k e y n o t e s h o u l d b e s i m p l i c i t y a n d c le a n l i n e s s .
T h e flo o r s h o u ld b e
w a s h e d o n c e a d a y w it h a n t is e p t ic flu id , a n d th e w a lls a t le a s t o n c e a
w eek.
292. T h e o b je c t o f th e c e n t r a l d r e s s in g s ta tio n b e in g th e tr e a tm e n t
o f m o r e s e r io u s ca ses th a n c a n b e d e a lt w it h a t th e a id p o s t , a n d th e
r e d r e s s i n g o f c a s e s o f m i n o r i n j u r y , i t is d e s i r a b l e t h a t i t s h o u l d b e
p r o p e r ly e q u ip p e d .
I t m a y a ls o b e c o n v e n ie n t t o u se it f o r th e m e d i­
c a l e x a m in a tio n o f a p p lic a n ts f o r w o r k .
293. T h e s ta tio n m u st b e in c h a r g e o f a c o m p e te n t p e r s o n w ith
k n o w le d g e o f a m b u la n c e w o r k .
W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , a tr a in e d n u r s e
s h o u ld b e o n r e g u la r d u t y , a m b u la n c e a s s is ta n ts b e i n g s e le c te d f r o m
e m p lo y e e s t r a in e d in fir s t -a id w o r k .
M a n y la r g e w o r k s n o w h a v e
a m e d i c a l o ff ic e r o n t h e s t a f f , w h o is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f
th e s u r g e r y a n d a v a ila b le f o r s e r io u s ca se s b e f o r e r e m o v a l t o h o s p it a l.
T h e e q u ip m e n t o f th e s u r g e r y w ill la r g e ly d e p e n d u p o n th e c h a r a c te r
o f th e a c c o m m o d a t io n p r o v id e d a n d th e e x p e r ie n c e o f th e p e r s o n in
ch a r g e , b u t th e f o llo w in g w ill g e n e r a lly b e r e q u ir e d :
( i ) S tr e tc h e r s , s p lin t s , a n d s t r o n g b a n d a g e s f o r m a jo r a c c id e n t s ;
( i i ) B a n d a g e s a n d d r e s s in g f o r m in o r in ju r ie s (a s to c k s h o u ld b e
k e p t t o r e p le n is h th e a id p o s t s ) ;
( i i i ) A s im p le s t e r iliz e r a n d n e ce s s a r y s u r g ic a l in s tr u m e n ts su ch
a s s c is s o r s , f o r c e p s a n d t o u r n i q u e t ; a n d
( i v ) S i m p l e l o t i o n s a n d d r u g s ( w i t h s u ffic ie n t e n a m e l e d b a s i n s ) .
W h e r e a m e d i c a l o f f ic e r is e m p l o y e d a t t h e f a c t o r y h e s h o u l d b e
p r o v id e d w it h a c c o m m o d a t io n a d jo i n i n g th e c e n t r a l d r e s s in g s ta tio n .
T h e a c c o m m o d a tio n s h o u ld o r d in a r ily in c lu d e a c o n s u lt in g r o o m
1 F o r in fo r m a tio n
la n c e

room

as

to

th e

can be reg a rd e d

as

c o n d it i o n s
an

s e e A p p e n d ix K .

* See illustration facing page 117.




u n d e r w h ic h

ex pense

fo r th e

c a p ita l

p ui poses

e x p e n d it u r e
of

th e

ex cess

on

an

p r o fits

am bu­
d u ty ,

INJURIES AND ACCIDENTS.

145

( f i t t e d w i t h h o t a n d c o l d w a t e r a n d a s t e r i l i z e r ) , a c l e r k ’ s o ff ic e , a n d
a w a itin g ro o m .
I f a rra n g e m e n ts are m a d e f o r m en a n d w o m e n to
a tte n d at d iffe r e n t h o u r s s e p a r a te w a it in g r o o m s w ill n o t o r d in a r ily
b e r e q u ir e d .
294.

T h e fo llo w in g statem ent is o f interest, as show ing the ar­

rangem ents m ade at a large national fillin g fa cto ry fo r dealin g w ith
eases o f sickness and in ju r y :
Ambulance equipment.— At each o f our two factories we have a roomy ambu­
lance with accommodation for doctors’ consultations, first-aid dressings, sick­
ness cases. Each ambulance building has two separate casualty dressing rooms,
one for men and one for women, a ward with eight beds where sickness and
accident cases can be treated at ordinary times, and where in the event o f an
explosion the victims can be promptly attended, a small emergency operating
room, with sterilizers for dressings and instruments and a roomy cupboard for
surgical emergency appliances. At the other end o f the ward there are two
doctors’ consulting rooms, patients’ waiting room, storeroom, etc.
The staff of the ambulance consists o f two doctors, one sister, and four nurses
in the shell-filling factory (where we have 7,000 workers and a night shift as
well as a day shift) and one sister with two nurses in the cartridge-filling fac­
tory (where we have about 8,000 workers and a day shift on ly).
In connection with our ambulance station, we have an ambulance wagon,
which is at our disposal day or night for removing patients to their homes
to hospital.
Arrangements are also made with the local ambulance association for the
expedition o f ambulance wagons in the event o f any serious explosion at the
factory.
Tw o large local hospitals have arranged to receive our urgent cases when
required in the event o f explosion or otherwise. Liberal contributions are made
by the factory workers to these institutions.
Any o f our TNT cases who have been ill enough to require hospital treat­
ment have been sent to the * * * Infirmary, where I am in touch with the
superintendent and also with the house doctors and the pathologist, who inform
me immediately o f any matter o f importance concerning a worker.
Convalescent home for workers.— The Y. W. C. A. very kindly opened a con­
valescent home about 6 miles from here in a bracing part o f the country, and
this has been kept almost entirely at our disposal and has been o f inestimable
value to us. The expenses o f this establishment are defrayed partly by the
Y. W. C. A. and partly by donations from our workers’ hospital fund.
Home visitation of ivorkers who are sick.— Chiefly in order to obviate the risk
o f girls suffering from TN T poisoning lying ill at home, undiagnosed, and pos­
sibly untreated, we adopted from the beginning a system o f home visitation.
A postcard is sent to all workers in TNT parts o f the factory who are reported
absent for two days or more. As soon as the postcard is returned asking for
a visit our health visitor calls at the house and immediately reports to me.
If, as a result o f this visit, it seems necessary that the doctor should call,
that is done later. Girls who are in financial difficulties are assisted and in­
fectious cases may be reported. W orkers requiring subscribers’ lines for ad­
mission to hospital or to convalescent homes are notified, and so on. In con­
nection with this home-visiting department we have a w elfare secretary and
a health visitor. The wrelfare secretary deals with all returned postcards. She
arranges the work o f the health visitor and makes reports to the doctor, keeps
a card index o f those visited, deals with the subscribers’ lines for convalescent

or

80935°— 19------ 10




146

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

homes, infirmaries, etc., keeps the “ com forts fund ” money and the accounts
connected therewith, and so on. The health visitor is not a trained nurse, but
is sympathetic, tactful, and conscientious, and is liked by the girls, who give
her their confidence.
Financial aid to sick workers.— A fund has been in our hands for about a
year and a half. The money is spontaneously voted by the workers’ committee
at their monthly meetings, and it is entirely subscribed by the w orkers them­
selves. Help is given from this fund to any worker who seems to be in finan­
cial distress, especially through illness or accident, and who is unable to pro­
vide herself with the necessary food and comfort. It is also given at times
to provide holidays for necessitous cases. The money is chiefly distributed
through the health visitor on the recommendation o f the doctor. This system
has the advantage over other systems o f financial aid that it is given fo r neces­
sity observed by the doctors, nurses, or health visitors, and does not conduce
to begging.

295.
T h e f o l l o w i n g is a n a c c o u n t o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h h a v
b e e n m a d e a t a m u n itio n w o r k s in th e M id l a n d s :
I commenced work here in 1914; for about two years I did the w elfare work
and nursing, but by that time the number o f employees had increased so much
that I had to give up the w elfare work and specialize on the w ork I was
engaged for (nursing). W e have tw o ambulance rooms in different parts o f
the works, but new; and larger ambulance rooms with rest rooms attached are
under consideration.
W e are starting classes in connectioh with St. John Ambulance and hope
to have four St. John Ambulance people— two men and two girls— in each de­
partment, in charge o f an ambulance cupboard. At present all accidents are
attended to by m yself in the daytime and a night nurse at night. Serious
cases only are sent to hospital and minor cases attended to here. Repeated
dressings are done each day at the w orks; this is more satisfactory, as it
keeps us in touch with the people and we know when to expect them back at
work. W e also give electrical massage to those patients recommended by the
doctor. Besides this I am qualified to treat simple medical cases, and we find
this prevents a great loss o f time by the employees. W e keep a report o f all
accidents.
All children under 16 are examined by a doctor when engaged; if they have
bad teeth a note is given them and they are sent to the dental hospital for
treatm ent; if anything is wrong with their eyes, to the eye hospital; if any­
thing is wrong with their throat, to the ear and throat hospital, and so on.
The employees pay Id [2 cents] per week and from this fund so s u b s c r ib e
they receive hospital notes and obtain free treatment at the hospitals. The
m ajor portion o f this fund goes to the local hospital Saturday fund, and our
employees can, when recommended by their doctor for a change o f air, get
a fortnight’s free treatment at a convalescent hom e; there are two at
Llandudno, one at Malvern and one at Droitw ich (fo r rheumatic subjects).
Through the hospital Saturday fund our people can be supplied with artificial
appliances, such as glasses and elastic stockings. The children o f our work­
people obtain the same benefits, the convalescent home for children being the
Red House, Great Barr, near Birmingham. The distribution and the clerical
w ork in connection with these notes is done e n t i t y by the nursing depart­
ment. The welfare superintendent looks the cases up and refers them all to me.




147

IN JU M E S AND ACCIDENTS#
SYSTEMATIC RECORDS.

29 6 . A s a lr e a d y s u g g e s te d , it is im p o r t a n t th a t a f u l l a n d a c c u r a te
r e g is t e r s h o u ld b e k e p t o f a ll ca s e s o f s ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t , w it h
p a r t ic u la r s o f d r e s s in g s , r e d r e s s in g s , a n d t r e a tm e n t.
297. A ca se b o o k s h o u ld b e d r a w n u p s o m e w h a t a s f o l l o w s :
Id e n ti­
fic a tio n
num ­
ber.

1 ..............

N a m e of
injured
person.

1915
N o v . 25

N atu re of in ju ry
or illn ess.

H o w caused.

M ary S m it h .

D a te.

Crushed t h u m b

F all of s h e ll. .

Progress of case w ith dates
B a te of
of su bsequen t dressings,
final
an d th e occurrence of a n y
dressing.
sepsis.

1915
N o v . 25, N o v . 26, N o v . 3 0 . . .

1915
D e c. 3

E a c h ca s e w h e n fir s t t r e a t e d m a y a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e c e iv e a c a r d ,
n u m b e r e d t o c o r r e s p o n d w it h th e e n t r y in th e ca se b o o k , t o b
b r o u g h t o n t h e o c c a s i o n o f s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s in g s .
This card must be brought to the surgery each time the patient comes for
treatment.
Identification
n u m b e r.

N am e.

N atu re of in ju r y
or illn ess.

1 ..................................

M ary S m it h .............

C rushed t h u m b . . .

N

ote.

D a te .

N o v . 25,1915
N o v . 26,1915
N o v . 30,1915

In stru ction s.

T o com e tom orrow .
T o com e on 30th.
T o com e on D e c . 3.

— E x t r a c t f r o m f i r s t - a i d l e a f l e t i s s u e d b y t h e H o m e O ffic e .
TR EATM EN T

OF M IN O B

IN J U R I E S .

The follow ing suggestions have the approval of H. M. medical inspectors o f
factories in rendering first aid in factories and workshops so as to prevent sub­
sequent septic infection or blood poisoning:
A scratch or slight wound*
D o not touch it.
D o not bandage or wipe it with a handkerchief or rag o f any kind.
D o not wasb it.
Allow the blood to dry and so close the wound naturally; then apply
sterilized dressing and bandage .1
I f bleeding does not stop, apply a sterilized dressing and sterilized w ool;
then bandage firmly.
I f the wound is soiled with road dirt or other foul matter, swab freely with
w ool soaked in tbe iodine solution,® and allow the wound to dry before applying
sterilized dressing.
A bum or scald.
Do not touch it.
D o not wash it.
Do not apply oil or grease o f any kind.
W rap up the injured part in a large dressing o f sterilized w ool*

a

a

1 Minute wounds can be efficiently closed by applying collodion.
* An alcoholic solution containing 2 per cent of iodine.

• This would not exclude treatment by prepared paraffin or picric acid.




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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

An acid burn.
Do not touch it, 01* apply oil or grease o f any kind.
Flood the burn with cold water.
Sprinkle it (after flooding) with powdered bicarbonate o f soda.
Apply a sterilized burn dressing of suitable size .1
However slight the burn, if the area affected is extensive a doctor must be
consulted.
Do not remove any dressing, but, if the injured part becomes painful and
begins to throb, gQ to a doctor at once.
Destroy all dressings which have been opened but not u se d ; they soon become
infected with microbes and then are not safe to use.
N o t e . — Danger from minor injuries arises from blood poisoning which is
caused when microbes infect a wound. The m ajority o f wounds are at first
“ c l e a n t h a t is, they are not infected with m icrobes; such infection usually
occurs later and comes from handkerchiefs or other materials applied to stop
bleeding or to wipe away blood, and, in the case of eye injuries, from efforts to
remove fixed particles with unclean instruments. It is better to leave a wound
alone than to introduce microbes by improper treatment. The congealing o f
blood is Nature’s way o f closing wounds against infection and should not be
interfered with.
Burns and scalds when the skin is not broken w ill heal if left a lo n e ; all that
is necessary is rest and a protective covering. When blisters form they must
not be pricked, except under medical advice.
Rest is an important aid to healing. A short rest at first allows healing to
commence and often saves a long rest later. An injured hand or finger can
be rested in a sling, and an injured eye by a bandage, but an injured foot
or toe can only be rested in bed.
RESULTS.

298.
T h e c o m m it t e e a r e s a tis fie d o f th e u r g e n t n e c e s s ity a n d v a lu
o f s o m e s u ch o r g a n iz a t io n as t h a t s u g g e s te d a b o v e . T h e y h a v e b e e n
m u c h im p r e s s e d in v is it in g m u n it io n w o r k s w it h th e u s e fu l p a r t
p e r fo r m e d b y c o m p e te n t n u rses a n d th e la r g e n u m b e r o f ca ses o f
i n j u r y a n d s ic k n e s s w h ic h r e c e iv e t r e a tm e n t. T h u s in o n e m u n it io n
w o r k s e m p l o y i n g r a t h e r over* 4 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s t h e a m b u l a n c e d e p a r t ­
m e n t d u r i n g D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 7 , d e a l t w i t h 1 ,2 6 0 a c c i d e n t s ( i n c l u d i n g
t6 3 5 c u t s , 2 9 1 b r u i s e s , a n d 1 5 0 e y e c a s e s ) , 1 ,7 0 3 r e d r e s s i n g s , a n d
1 ,4 2 8 m e d i c a l c a s e s ( i n c l u d i n g 4 1 5 i n d i g e s t i o n , e t c ., 4 8 6 h e a d a c h e s ,
a n d 3 5 1 ~ c o l d s ) , a t o t a l o f 4 ,3 9 1 . F o r J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 8 , t h e f i g u r e s w e r e
1 ,1 8 6 a c c i d e n t s ( i n c l u d i n g 6 7 0 c u t s , 2 1 8 b r u i s e s , a n d 2 0 2 e y e c a s e s ) ,
1 ,9 5 6 r e d r e s s i n g s , a n d 2 9 6 m e d i c a l c a s e s ( i n c l u d i n g 1 1 8 i n d i g e s t i o n ,
e t c ., 7 1 h e a d a c h e s , a n d 7 0 c o l d s ) , a t o t a l o f 3 ,4 3 8 .
1 This would not exclude treatment by prepared paraffin or picric acid.




S E C T IO N

X I I .— E Y E

IN J U R IE S .

T H E E F F E C T OF IN D U S T R IA L C O N D IT IO N S U P O N E Y E S IG H T .

2 9 9 . T h e r a p id e x t e n s io n o f m u n it io n w o r k h a s b r o u g h t in its
t r a in a g r e a t in c re a s e in th e n u m b e r o f a c c id e n t s a n d in ju r ie s t o e y e s .
T h e r e s u lt h a s b e e n n o t o n l y p e r s o n a l s u f f e r i n g a n d i n c o n v e n i e n c e
b u t a ls o s e r io u s lo s s o f tim e a n d a r e d u c t io n o f o u tp u t.
T h e eye
e r e a m o n g th e h a rd e s t w o r k e d o f a ll th e o r g a n s o f th e b o d y , a n d
th e y a re e x t r e m e ly s e n s itiv e t o e x t e r n a l c o n d it io n s .
I t is t h e r e f o r e
n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l e y e d is e a s e s a n d i n j u r i e s
f r o m a c c id e n ts t o th e e y e s h a v e c o m e t o b e a s s o c ia te d w it h p a r tic u r
la r p ro c e s s e s in c e r ta in in d u s tr ie s .
D is e a s e d c o n d it io n s o f th e e y e
a n d d e fe c t iv e e y e s ig h t a re v e r y c o m m o n a n d a re a s e r io u s a n d w id e ­
s p r e a d ca u s e o f in e ffic ie n c y .
E v e r y e ffo r t , t h e r e fo r e , s h o u ld b e m a d e
to p re v e n t th em .
T h e f o l l o w i n g sta te m e n t e m p h a s iz e s th e p o i n t
The treatment o f superficial injuries o f the eyes is a subject which has
during the past year acquired increased importance on account o f the large
number o f superficial injuries occurring daily to the eyes o f workers in mu­
nition factories. The out-patient book kept at the ophthalmic department o f
the Glasgow Royal Infirmary shows that the number o f those suffering from
“ fires ” and other trivial eye injuries who applied for relief during August,
1916, was more than double the number o f those who had come suffering from
similar injuries during the corresponding month in previous years. The fig­
ures in 1914 and 1915 are practically identical, and a scrutiny o f patients dur­
ing 1916 shows that the great increase has been brought ab 6 ut almost entirely
by the attendance o f men and women engaged in the manufacture o f mu­
nitions. In such cases it is a matter o f national importance that patients
should receive skillful medical help as soon as possible after the occurrence
o f the accident, in order that there may be no unnecessary delay in their return
to work.

300. T h e f o l l o w i n g sta te m e n ts a re a ls o o f in t e r e s t :
I
think that it is somewhat o f an exaggeration to say that each o f these cases
loses three days’ work. I f we take an average I should put it as more IJan
h alf a day and less than a whole day. I think that I can safely say that these
small accidents cause the loss o f about 2,000 days’ work in the town o f Cov­
entry alone. The mare serious ones are responsible for the loss o f weeks for
each man, and I have in the past year had to remove about a dozen eyes after
industrial accidents. Practically all o f them could be avoided by the use o f
goggles. Most o f the trivial accidents would be prevented if the men would
wear goggles at the emery wheel and for grinding.
. ,
At the Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle Eye Infirmary there has
been an increase in the number o f patients in 1914 and 1915, and this is largely
due to the number o f people engaged on munition work. For example, in 1914,
2,491 eye^cases were referred for treatment from the Elswick W ork s; in 1915




149

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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

there were 4,973 similar ca ses; and in 1917, 4,567 in spite o f the present atten­
tion at the spot by ambulance workers.

3 0 1 . I n d u s t r i a l w o r k m a y c a u s e i m p a i r m e n t o f e y e s i g h t in t h r e e
p r in c ip a l w a y s—
(a) I n j u r i e s d u e t o e x p o s u r e t o i n t e n s e h e a t o r i n d u s t r i a l p o i s o n s .
(b) A c c i d e n t s d u e t o f l y i n g p a r t i c l e s , e t c .
( c) E y e s t r a in d u e t o u n c o r r e c t e d e r r o r s o f r e fr a c t io n o r o th e r
causes.
302. A p a r t f r o m th e im m e d ia t e ly ir r it a t iv e e ffe c t a s s o c ia te d w it h
su ch w o r k as a c e ty le n e w e ld in g , th e in flu e n c e o f p r o lo n g e d e x p o s u r e
t o in te n s e h e a t a n d l ig h t m a y t a k e s o l o n g a p e r i o d t o m a n ife s t it s e l f
t h a t t h e d a m a g e w h i c h m a y r e s u lt is n o t l i k e l y t o a p p e a r d u r i n g t h e
w a r.
T h e e ffe c t a ls o u p o n e y e s ig h t o f c e r t a in in d u s t r ia l p o is o n s , s u ch
a s l e a d , is i n t h e b u l k s m a l l , a n d n o s p e c i a l a c t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e
m a t t e r is c a lle d fo r .
3 0 3 . Accidents .— I t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t n o r m a l l y i n a n y g e n ­
e r a l g r o u p o f in d u s tr ia l a c c id e n ts o v e r 5 p e r c e n t m u s t b e a s c r ib e d
t o e y e in ju r ie s . T h e r e is r e a s o n f o r b e l i e f th a t e y e in ju r ie s in m u n i­
t i o n w o r k s a re r e la t iv e ly m o r e f r e q u e n t t h a n in n o r m a l tim e s , a n d
th a t f o r e n g in e e r in g fa c t o r ie s th ese ca ses p r o b a b ly r e p r e s e n t a b o u t
7 p e r c e n t o f a ll a c c id e n ts , a to t a l w h ic h m a y , h o w e v e r , b e g r e a t ly
e x c e e d e d . T h e a c c id e n ts a re m a in ly d u e t o p a r tic le s o f m e ta l w h ic h
en ter th e e y e ; th e m a jo r it y
a re s lig h t in c h a r a c te r a n d s h o u ld g iv e
r i s e t o n o p e r m a n e n t d a m a g e . T o t h e d a m a g e w h i c h r e s u lt s f r o m
i n j u r i e s s u f f i c i e n t ly s e r i o u s t o c o m e u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n m u s t b e a d d e d
t h e g r a v e r c o n d i t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m i n f e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g u p o n “ f ir e s ”
o r o t h e r t r iv ia l e y e in ju r ie s . A c c o u n t m u s t a ls o b e ta k e n o f t h e t im e
lo s t a n d t e m p o r a r y in c o n v e n ie n c e s u ffe r e d f r o m a m u c h la r g e r n u m ­
b e r o f s lig h t ca u se s w h ic h m a y o n ly in c a p a c it a t e th e s u ffe r e r f o r
s h o r t p e r io d s , p e r h a p s h a lf a d a y . I n so f a r as im m e d ia te r e d u c t io n
o f o u t p u t is c o n c e r n e d , th e se s lig h t ca se s h a v e p r o b a b ly a g r e a t e r
e ffe c t th a n th e m o r e s e r io u s in ju r ie s .
S p e a k in g o f th ese cases, a n
o p h t h a l m i c s u r g e o n i n G l a s g o w w r i t e s :l
In most instances the actual physical damage is slight, and the w orker w ill
be«able to resume his duties in a few hours, or utmost in one or tw o days, if
only the injury to the eye be promptly and skillfully treated. If, on the other
hand, the injury be neglected, or i f it be treated by anyone who is unskillful
or careless sepsis w ill almost certainly occu r; and all experience teaches that
infection o f the wound is a fa r greater danger than the actual physical damage
to the ocular structures. The occurrence o f sepsis at once transform s a very
trivial injury to the cornea into a suppurative keratitis, which may run a pro­
longed 'course, lead to more or less impairment o f sight, and in serious cases
even destroy the eye.

3 0 4 . Eyestrain .— B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , e y e s t r a i n m a y b e d u e t o d e ­
1 The Treatment of Superficial Injuries of the Eyes, paper by A. Maitland Ramsay
M. D., lecturer on the eye, University of Glasgow.




EYE IK JURIES,

fe c t s o f v is io n o r t o th e n a tu r e a n d c o n d it io n s o f w o r k . I t m a y
a c c e n tu a te d b y a g e , fa t ig u e , o r u n s a t is fa c t o r y h e a lth o f th e w o r k e r
b y n e a r - d i s t a n c e w o r k , in s u f f i c ie n t o r e x c e s s i v e i l l u m i n a t i o n , a b n o r m a l
p o s it io n , o r lo n g h o u rs .
F o r m u n itio n w o r k th e e y e s ig h t o f
w o r k e r s h o u ld n e v e r fa ll m u c h b e lo w th a t o f n o r m a lly u s e fu l v is io n
F o r fin e w o r k t h e e y e s i g h t s h o u l d b e a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r m a l . N o
w it h s t a n d in g th e im p o r t a n t b e a r in g o f g o o d e y e s ig h t u p o n o u t p u
th e q u e s tio n h a s n o t h it h e r t o r e c e iv e d a d e q u a te a tte n tio n . E v id e n c e
h a s b e e n f o r t h c o m i n g o f e y e s t r a i n a n d h e a d a c h e s r e s u l t i n(a) f r o m
g
i n a d e q u a t e l i g h t , b o t h a r t i f i c i a l a n d n a t u )r a la; r t i f i c i a l l i g h t s ,
(b
a d e q u a te in a m o u n t, b u t so p la c e d a s to t h r o w a g la r e u p o n th e e y e
o f t h e w o r k e r s ;c ) ( e m p l o y m e n t o f w o r k e r s ( w h o s e e y e s i g h t s h o u l d
b e a i d e d b y s u i t a b l e g l a s s e s ) t o c a r r y o u t fin e w o r k w i t h o u t f i r s t t e s t ­
i n g th e ir e y e s ig h t. E y e s tr a in , in c lu d in g h e a d a ch e , m a y b e o n e m a n i
f e s t a t i o n o f g e n e r a l f a t i g u e . I t is t h u s l i k e l y t o b e c o m e m o r e m a r k e d
w h e n lo n g h o u r s a re w o r k e d , w h e n n ig h t s h ift s a re n e ce s s a r y , o r w h e n
w o r k e r s a re u n d e r n o u r is h e d , a n e m ic , o r o f p o o r g e n e r a l p h y s iq u e .
305.
S e v e r a l o f th ese p o in t s a r e e x e m p lifie d b y th e r e p o r t
m e d ic a l in v e s t ig a t io n in r e g a r d t o th e h e a lth o f w o m a n w o r k e r s , i
th e c o u r s e o f w h ic h a n in q u ir y w a s m a d e in to th e e y e s ig h t o f 1
w o r k e r s e n g a g e d in d iffe r e n t d e p a r tm e n ts o f a fa c t o r y . M o s t o f th
e y e d e f e c t s w e r e f o u n d i n t h e f u s e d e p a r t m e n t , w h e r e fin e p r o c e s s e
w e r e in o p e r a t io n i n v o l v i n g c lo s e a t t e n t io n a n d c o n s id e r a b le l ik e l
h o o d o f e y e s t r a i n . I n t h e w o r k o f m a c h i n i n g s h e l ls o n l y a b o u t
p e r ce n t o f e y e d e fe c t s w e r e n o te d , b u t in th e fu s e d e p a r tm e n t th
p r o p o r t i o n r e a c h e d 6 4 p e r c e n t . T h e r e s u lt s o f t h e i n q u i r y w e r e t h u
s u m m a r iz e d :
It w ill be noted that in the fuse department 8 per cent o f the workers were
obliged to obtain glasses since starting factory work, 19 per cent complained
o f eyestrain, o f whom 1 2 per cent found sight difficult on the night shift, and
2 per cent found the eyestrain increasing in severity. Besides these, 10 per
cent appeared to have latent eyestrain, as shown by severe headache, blepha­
ritis, etc., and probably required to have their eyes tested. Conjunctivitis was
present in 11 per cent. Many workers complained o f the artificial light falling
directly on their eyes, and others said that the reflection o f the brass work o f
the fuses was dazzling. The artificial lighting in the factory was by electric
lights placed over the benches. Owing to difficulty in train service it was not
possible to visit the factory during the night shift in order to watch the effect
on the girls, or to observe if shade could be adjusted without undue interfer­
ence with the work, but this point appeared to need consideration.
On the other hand, it must be remembered that cases of eyestrain or frequent
headaches may not be due entirely to factory conditions- Several girls had
been warned at school by the school medical officer that their sight was defec­
tive and had neglected to obtain glasses. Five workers had obtained glasses
but did not wear th em ; in one instance the previous occupation o f dressmaking
was probably responsible for the initial eyestrain, and in another case a girl
who had previously been a domestic servant now visited the cinema three times
a week, although suffering from marked eyestrain. It is also probable that




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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

some o f the employees were still feeling tlie effects o f overtime and seven days’
weekly work, which had recently been discontinued, and some visual improve­
ment might be expected on subsequent examinations.
P R E V E N T IO N A N D T R E A T M E N T .

306. M a n y c o n d it io n s lik e ly to ca u se t e m p o r a r y o r p e r m a n e n t d a m ­
a g e to th e e y e s ig h t o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s a re a d m itt e d ly p r e v e n ta b le ,
w h ile p r o m p t a n d e ffe c tiv e tre a tm e n t o f th e in ju r y w h e n it h a s
o c c u r r e d w i l l r e d u c e s u f f e r i n g , h a s t e n r e c o v e r y , a n d le s s e n t h e c h a n c e
o f p e rm a n e n t in ju r y .
3 0 7 . Methods o f prevention c o n s i s t f i r s t o f g e n e r a l m e a s u r e s d e ­
s ig n e d t o im p r o v e th e p h y s ic a l h e a lt h o f th e w o r k e r s , a n d so t o e n a b le
th e m t o r e s is t th e e ffe c ts o f f a t i g u e , a n d , s e c o n d ly , o f s p e c ia l m e a s u r e s
d e s ig n e d t o a v o id u n d u e s t r a in o n th e e y e s ig h t o r t o r e d u c e th e l ia ­
b i li t y t o a c c id e n t t o a m in im u m . T h e g e n e r a l m e a su r e s in c lu d e th e
p r o v is io n o f s u it a b le l ig h t i n g , th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f c a n te e n s , t h e
a llo w a n c e o f a d e q u a te t im e f o r s le e p a n d re s t, a n d h a v e a lr e a d y b e e n
d e a lt w it h e ls e w h e r e . T h e s p e c ia l m e a s u r e s n a t u r a lly v a r y a c c o r d in g
t o c ir c u m s t a n c e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t io n s m a y , h o w e v e r , b e m a d e :
3 0 8 . Examination o f eyesight .— W h e n o p e r a t i v e s a r e b e i n g e n ­
g a g e d f o r fi n e w o r k t h e i r e y e s i g h t s h o u l d b e t e s t e d b y a m e d i c a l
o ff ic e r , o r , i f h e is n o t a v a i l a b l e , a n u r s e o r w e l f a r e s u p e r v i s o r s h o u l d
a p p l y s i m p l e e y e t e s t s 1 t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e v i s i o n is n o r m a l . A n y
w o r k e r w h o fa ils t o r e a c h th e s t a n d a r d a d o p t e d s h o u ld b e r e fe r r e d t o
a n o p h th a lm ic s u r g e o n o r e y e h o s p it a l f o r r e g u la r e x a m in a tio n a n d ,
i f n e c e s s a r y , b e s u p p l i e d w i t h g la s s e s . W h e n w o r k e r s a r e e x a m i n e d
f o r g la s s e s th e n a tu r e o f th e w o r k t o b e p e r f o r m e d s h o u ld b e s p e c ifie d
w h e n e v e r p o s s ib le .
F o r m a n y p e o p le , a n d p a r t ic u la r ly th o s e p a s t
m id d le l i f e , th e g la s s e s w h ic h g iv e th e b e s t a c u te n e s s o f d is t a n t v is io n
w o u ld n o t e n a b le th e o w n e r a ls o t o d o fin e w o r k a t c lo s e r a n g e , a n d
v ic e versa .
W o r k e r s w h o c o m p la in o f fr e q u e n t h e a d a c h e , p a in in
th e e y e s, o r s h o w s ig n s o f c o n ju n c t iv it is s h o u ld a ls o b e te s te d .
3 0 9 . E ye guards and goggles .— U n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s t h e e y e s
s h o u l d a l w a y s b e g u a r d e d f r o m f l y i n g p a r t i c l e s o f m e t a l.
O n th is
p o i n t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a n o f f ic ia l A m e r i c a n p u b l i c a t i o n 2 m a y b e
q u oted :
The one feature o f safety in nearly all of these occupations is the use o f suit­
able goggles in those occupations known.to cause injuries to the eyes. No other
protection can take the place o f this one. It is one o f the most difficult meas­
ures in accident prevention to carry out. Workmen object to the use o f these
protectors, and even when provided they are not worn. The fault for this lies
1 Each eye should be tested separately, and the following standard is suggested as a
minimum: 6 /9 in both eyes (Smellen’s types), though 6 /1 2 in one of the eyes may be
sufficient in some cases, and the ability to read standard type 0.45 at 1 foot distance.
The necessary standard types can be procured from any optician.
2 The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, State Board of Labor and Industries, Indus­
trial Bulletin No. 5, Boston, 191j
6.




EYE INJURIES.

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often in the type or kind o f goggles that have been provided. Many o f these
not only, decrease the efficiency o f the w orker who wears them but they cause
injury to the eyes o f the wearer. Many conscientious w orkers refuse to wear
goggles that are provided fo r the common use o f all workers in the establish­
ment. In this they are justified, as many infections o f the eye are capable o f
transm ission by means o f eye protectors. The remedy is a better mutual under-

‘FrflTTRE 1.

F igure 2.

standing between employer and employee and an insistent educational cam­
paign on the value o f this protection. Frequently the nature o f the w ork is
such that the lenses become clouded with steam or perspiration. Antisweat
pencils should be provided to prevent this. The goggles worn should be o f such
a thickness o f glass that they w ill withstand a hard blow, and o f such a quality
and so securely fitted into the fram e that if broken the glass w ill not fly into
small pieces but w ill remain in the frame. Goggles should be fitted to the
wearer.




154

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

T o b e e ffe c tiv e an e y e g u a r d s h o u ld —
(a) P r e v e n t p a r t i c l e s r e a c h i n g t h e e y e f r o m i n f r o n t , f r o m e i t h e r
s id e , o r fr o m b e lo w . P r a c t ic a lly n o t h in g e n te r s f r o m a b o v e ;
(b) B e l i g h t a n d c o m f o r t a b l e , a l l o w i n g f r e e p l a y o f a i r ;
(c) N o t i m p e d e v i s i o n o r b e c o m e o b s c u r e d b y t h e i m p a c t o f p a r ­
ticle s ;
(d) B e s t r o n g a n d c h e a p .
310. T w o f o r m s o f e y e g u a r d a r e h e r e illu s t r a t e d w h ic h h a v e b e e n
d e s ig n e d t o m e e t th e r e q u ir e m e n t s s ta te d a b o v e .1 T h a t s h o w n in
fig u r e 1 2 h a s th e a d v a n t a g e t h a t s p e c ta c le s r e q u ir e d t o c o r r e c t a n y
e r r o r o f r e f r a c t i o n c a n b e w o r n b e h in d it. T h e e y e g u a r d s h o w n in
f i g u r e 2 3 is c o m p o s e d o f a s t r i p o f l e a t h e r w i t h d e t a c h a b l e e y e p i e c e s
(s e e f i g . 3 ) p i e r c e d w i t h h o l e s f o r v e n t i l a t i o n .
311. T h e fa c t th a t n o p a r tic le s a re lik e ly t o e n te r fr o m a b o v e i
im p o r ta n t, b eca u se th e u p p e r p a r t o f th e g o g g le c a n b e le ft o p e
t o a llo w o f v e n t ila t io n . A c lo s e d s c re e n is n o t o n ly h o t a n d u n c o m
fo r t a b le , b u t th e t r a n s p a r e n t m e d iu m , u s u a lly g la s s , m a y b e c o m e
o b s c u r e d b y c o n d e n s a t io n o f m o is t u r e .
W h e r e f in e w o r k h a s to. b
e x e c u t e d t h e r e m u s t b e c l e a r v i s i o n a n d f o r t h i s t h e r e is n o b e t t e
m e d iu m t h a n g la s s . T h e o b je c t i o n h a s B een r a is e d t h a t g la s s b r o k e n
b y a fly in g p a r tic le m a y b e d r iv e n in t o th e ey e a n d ca u se a w o r s
in ju r y th a n i f it w e r e n o t p re s e n t. S u c h a c c id e n ts a p p e a r , h o w e v e r ,
t o b e v e r y e x c e p t io n a l a n d a f o r e i g n b o d y o f c o n s id e r a b le s iz e w o u ld
b e r e q u i r e d t o i n f l i c t it . G l a s s , s u c h a s is u s e d f o r s h o o t i n g g o g g l e s
o f s u ffic ie n t s t r e n g t h t o s t a n d t h e i m p a c t o f p e l l e t s o f s h o t s h o u l d b e
e m p lo y e d .
T h e m a in o b je c t io n t o g la s s , o r in d e e d t o a n y o th
t r a n s p a r e n t m e d iu m , is th a t a f t e r a t im e i t b e c o m e s p it t e d a n
obscu red.
E y e g u a r d s s h o u ld t h e r e f o r e b e s o m a d e t h a t th e g la s
c a n b e e a s ily r e m o v e d a n d c le a n e d o r r e p la c e d .
W h e r e th ere
e x p o s u r e t o b r ig h t lig h t , as in th e p r o c e s s o f a c e t y le n e w e ld in g , th e
g la s s s h o u ld b e tin t e d o r s p e c ia lly p r e p a r e d t o o b s c u r e th e c h e m ic a lly
a c tiv e r a y s a t o r b e y o n d th e v io le t e n d o f th e sp e c tr u m . D a r k -b lu e
g la s s is u s u a lly e m p lo y e d f o r th e p u r p o s e , t h o u g h as th e f o l l o w i n g
s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t s , i t i s n o t t h a t b e s t s u it e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e .
My own experience has been that workmen at acetylene welding have generally
been provided with very dark neutral smoked protection glasses, and not with
dark-blue glasses. These would certainly be better than dark-blue glasses,
and of all the tints which could be employed probably a very deep rose tint
would be the best that could be selected— dark blue would, in my opinion,
certainly be unsatisfactory. As regards the use o f Crooks’ glass in protection
goggles, this glass is very expensive, and is certainly unnecessary for ordinary
mechanical protection purposes. The virtue o f it is the same as that o f rosetinted glass, for it has the power o f excluding the actinic rays. I should
1 Some oculists recommended Crook’s glass No. 1 or No. 2, with fine gauze side pieces.
* From a design prepared by the Mentor Safety Appliance Co.
•From a design prepared by Messrs. Wallach Bros.




EYE INJURIES.

155

think it could hardly be necessary to employ this glass, o f which I believe
only a limited quantity is available, for workers’ goggles.

312. W h ile g o g g le s m u st b e r e g a r d e d as th e p r in c ip a l a n d m o st
e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e y e a c c i d e n t s , i t is p o s s i b l e i n . s o m e
g r i n d i n g a n d c h i p p i n g p r o c e s s e s t o fix a w ir e o r g la s s s c re e n t o th e
m a c h in e in s u ch a m a n n e r as t o p r o t e c t th e w o r k e r s ’ ey es. S u c h an
a r r a n g e m e n t m a y , f o r e x a m p le , b e u s e fu l in e m e r y -w h e e l g r i n d i n g
w h e r e th e m a c h in e is u s e d b y m a n y d iff e r e n t w o r k e r s ir r e g u l a r l y
t h r o u g h th e d a y .
3 1 3 . Treatment o f accidents .— F i r s t - a i d t r e a t m e n t i s a l l t h a t c a n
b e r e n d e r e d e ffe c t iv e ly in th e f a c t o r y . E v e r y p r e c a u t io n s h o u ld b e
ta k e n to a v o id in c r e a s in g th e in ju r y b y w e ll m e a n t b u t m is d ir e c te d
e ff o r t s t o g iv e r e lie f . W h e r e a s u r g e r y e x is ts a ll e y e in ju r ie s s h o u ld
b e sen t d ir e c t to it, n o tr e a tm e n t b e in g a t te m p t e d in th e w o r k s h o p .
I f a d o c t o r is a v a i l a b l e t h e c a s e s h o u l d b e r e f e r r e d t o h i m a t o n c e .
I f t h e i n j u r y is n o t s e r i o u s a n d h e is n o t a v a i l a b l e t h e n u r s e i n
c h a r g e o f th e s u r g e r y s h o u ld r e n d e r fir s t a id , th e p a t ie n t b e in g t h e n
s e n t t o a d o c t o r o r h o s p i t a l , e v e n t h o u g h t h e i n j u r y is a p p a r e n t l y
s lig h t .
A t a n y f a c t o r y w h e re su ch in ju r ie s a re c o m m o n th e n u r s e
s h o u ld h a v e h a d s o m e o p h t h a lm ic t r a in in g . T h e f o l l o w i n g s ta te m e n t
e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u it a b le p r o v i s i o n f o r f i r s t a i d :
In every factory where such accidents are o f frequent occurrence there
ought to be a rule that injuries should be reported at once, and provision
should be made whereby “ first a i d ” may be given with the least possible
delay. Such an arrangement would not be difficult to carry out, and timely
first aid would effect a cure in the mildest cases and prevent, as far as possible,
extension or increase in severity of the injury in those that were more serious.

31 4 . I f t h e r e is n o a m b u la n c e p r o v is io n o r a n u r s e , fir s t a id c a n
o n ly b e g iv e n b y a f e llo w w o r k m a n w h o s h o u ld b e in s t r u c t e d as t o
th e r o u t in e tr e a tm e n t w h ic h m a y s u it a b ly b e a p p lie d .
H e s h o u ld
b e f o r b i d d e n t o e x c e e d h is in s t r u c t io n s , o t h e r w is e , t h o u g h h e m a y
b e s u c c e s s fu l in r e m o v in g t h e o f f e n d in g p a r t ic le , i n f e c t e d u lc e r s m a y
f o l l o w th e o p e r a tio n , o r h e m a y e v e n p e r fo r a t e th e c o rn e a .
F ir s t
a i d is m a i n l y n e e d e d t o r e l i e v e p a i n a n d s h o u l d u s u a l l y b e l i m i t e d
e it h e r t o t h e u se o f e y e d r o p s , w h ic h m a y b e a p p lie d f r o m a s u it a b le
b o t t l e , o r t o a p a d a n d b a n d a g e . 1 A c a m e l ’s - h a i r b r u s h k e p t i n t h e
i Eye Injuries (Home Office first-aid leaflet) :
Apply the eyedrops (see note) to the affected eyeball by means of the camel’s-hair
brush in the bottle.
Do not try to remove any particle which can not be brushed away.
Tie up with a clean handkerchief or bandage.
Go to a doctor at once.
Prevention is better than cure; therefore if your work entails danger to the eyes,
wear goggles.
Goggles have saved hundreds of eyes ; thousands have been lost for want of them.
N ote.— Instructions to chemist for making eyedrops :
Cocaine------------------------- --------------------------------------------- ------------------ 0.5 per cent
Hyd. perchlor------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 in 3,000
In castor oil.
Weigh 95 grams of castor oil into a flask capable of holding twice the quantity. Add
0.5 gram of powdered cocaine. Warm in a water bath till dissolved. While the solution




156

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

a p p r o p r ia t e s o lu tio n m a y b e p r o v id e d f o r th e r e m o v a l o f v is ib le
p a r t ic le s w h ic h a re n o t im p a c t e d o r e m b e d d e d , b u t its u se s h o u ld
n ot be en cou raged .
A f t e r r e li e f f r o m p a in th e p a t ie n t s h o u ld b e
s e n t at o n c e t o a d o c t o r o r h o s p it a l.
is still warm (but not
of mercuric chloride in
rotating the flask.
About half an ounce,
bottle from the cork of




hot) add 1 cubic centimeter of a solution containing 3.3 grams
100 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol. Mix the solutions by
or 15 cubic centimeters, of this solution should be supplied in a
which a camel’s-hair brush is pendent in the fluid.

S E C T IO N

X I I I .— S P E C IA L

IN D U S T R IA L

D IS E A S E S .

315. T h e m a n u fa c t u r e a n d m a n ip u la t io n o f t o x ic c h e m ic a l s u b ­
s ta n c e s u p o n th e im m e n s e s c a le r e q u ir e d in w a r f a r e h a v e b r o u g h t
m a n y s p e c ia l d a n g e r s t o th e h e a lth a n d liv e s o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s .
T o so m e o f th ese th e c o m m itte e m a d e r e fe r e n c e in th e ir m e m o r a n d u m
N o . 8 ( S p e c i a l in d u s t r ia l d is e a s e s ) , is s u e d in A p r i l , 19 1 6 , in w h ic h
th e y g a v e a b r ie f a c c o u n t o f th e in fo r m a t io n w h ic h w a s th e n a v a il­
a b le a n d lik e ly t o b e u s e fu l.
L E G IS L A T IV E P R O V IS IO N S .

316. T h e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t , 1901, c o n ta in s n u m e r o u s p r o ­
v is io n s f o r s a fe g u a r d in g th e h e a lth o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in c e r t a in
‘" d a n g e r o u s a n d u n h e a lt h fu l in d u s t r ie s .”
S e c t io n 73 r e q u ir e s th e
n o t ific a tio n t o th e c h ie f in s p e c to r o f fa c t o r ie s o f cases o f p o is o n in g
’ f r o m l e a d , p h o s p h o r u s , a r s e n ic , m e r c u r y , a n d a n t h r a x b y t h e m e d i c a l
p r a c t it io n e r a t t e n d in g th e ca se. B y a n o r d e r o f J a n u a r y . 1916, t o x ic
j a u n d i c e w a s a d d e d , t h a t is t o s a y , j a u n d i c e d u e t o t e t r a c h l o r e t h a n e ,
T N T , o r o t h e r n i t r o o r a m ic lo d e r i v a t i v e s o f b e n z i n e , o r o t h e r p o i s o n ­
o u s s u b s ta n ce . T h e e m p lo y e r m u s t a ls o n o t i f y th e se ca se s t o th e i n ­
s p e c t o r o f fa c t o r ie s . S e c t io n 79 g iv e s th e s e c r e t a r y o f s ta te p o w e r t o
c e r t i f y th a t a p r o c e s s is d a n g e r o u s , a n d to m a k e s u c h r e g u la t io n s as
a p p e a r t o h im r e a s o n a b ly p r a c t ic a b le a n d t o p r e s c r ib e th e c o n d it io n s
u n d e r w h ic h e m p lo y m e n t in th e p r o c e s s s h a ll b e c a r r ie d o n . T h e s e
r e g u la t io n s im p o s e d u tie s o n b o t h th e e m p lo y e r a n d th e w o r k e r .
S u c h r e g u la t io n s h a v e b e e n m a d e f o r v a r io u s le a d p r o c e s s e s , a n d a ls o
i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f T N T . S e c t i o n 82 r e q u i r e s t h a t
th e r e g u la t io n s s h a ll b e p o s t e d u p in c o n s p ic u o u s p la c e s w h e r e th e y
m a y be c o n v e n ie n tly r e a d b y th e p e rs o n s e m p lo y e d .
A c t in g u n d e r p o w e r s c o n f e r r e d b y r e g u la t io n 35 A A . o f th e d e ­
fe n s e o f th e r e a lm r e g u la t io n s , th e M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s , w it h th e
c o n c u r r e n c e o f th e s e c r e ta r y o f sta te, h a s m a d e r e g u la t io n s d e a lin g
w it h th e u se a n d m a n ip u la t io n o f T N T .
U n d e r s e c tio n 8 o f th e W o r k m e n ’s C o m p e n s a t io n A c t , 1906, th e se c ­
r e ta r y o f sta te h a s p o w e r t o m a k e o r d e r s e x t e n d in g th e p r o v is io n o f
t h e a c t t o d is e a s e s c o n t r a c t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f e m p l o y m e n t . S e v e r a l
o r d e r s 1 h a v e b e e n m a d e e x t e n d in g th e p r o v is io n o f th e a ct, u n d e r c e r 1 Statutory rules and orders, 1913, No. 8 1 4 ; 1914, No. 1 0 0 7 ; 1915. No. 660 ; 1916,
No. 280.




157

158

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , e. g . , t o t o x i c j a u n d i c e , d e r m a t i t i s , a n d o t h e r d is e a s e s
a r is in g f r o m th e m a n ip u la t io n o f T N T a n d o th e r in d u s tr ia l p o is o n s .
T R I N IT R O T O L U E N E ( T N T ) .

317. A t th e v e r y b e g in n in g o f th e ir w o r k th e c o m m itte e h a d th e ir
a t t e n t io n c a lle d t o ca s e s o f s ic k n e s s a p p a r e n t ly d u e t o th e e x p lo s iv e
t r in it r o t o lu e n e ( T N T ) , o f w h ic h th e m a n u fa c t u r e a n d u se w a s th e n
r a p id ly in c r e a s in g . T h is su b sta n ce h a d h a r d ly b e e n r e g a r d e d as t o x ic
b e f o r e th e w a r ; n o i l l e ffe c ts h a d b e e n t r a c e d t o t h e s m a ll q u a n titie s
p r e v io u s ly u s e d , a n d it w a s g e n e r a lly b e lie v e d t o b e m u c h le s s t o x ic
t h a n d i n i t r o b e n z e n e , w h i c h h a d b e e n m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d U se d i n t h i s
c o u n t r y f o r m a n y y e a rs . A fa t a l ca se o f t o x ic ja u n d ic e , h o w e v e r ,
d e fin ite ly a s c r ib e d t o T N T p o is o n in g , w a s r e p o r t e d t o th e H o m e
O ffic e i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 5 , a n d t h i s a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n t h e f i r s t
r e c o r d e d f a t a l i t y f r o m t h is ca u se . A t t h e t im e o f th e a p p o in t m e n t
o f th e c o m m it t e e in S e p t e m b e r , 1915, th e fir s t f a t a l i t y f r o m t o x ic
ja u n d ic e d u e t o th e m a n ip u la t io n o f T N T h a d ju s t o c c u r r e d a t a
fillin g fa c t o r y , a n d d u r in g th e s u c c e e d in g w in t e r m o n th s s ick n e s s
d u e t o T N T p o is o n in g b e c a m e g e n e r a lly r e c o g n iz e d as a g r o w i n g
m e n a c e p la in ly c o n c o m it a n t w it h th e in t r o d u c t io n o f n e w la b o r in
r a p id ly e x p a n d in g p ro ce ss e s o f m a n u fa c tu r e a n d m a n ip u la tio n w h ic h
h a d n e c e s s a r ily b e e n h a s t ily o r g a n iz e d .
318. T h e u r g e n t c a lls f o r a n in c r e a s e b o t h in th e v o lu m e a n d r a te
a t w h ic h T N T c o u ld b e s u p p lie d m a d e th e p o s it io n o n e o f g r a v e
a n x ie ty , a n d h a d it n o t b e e n f o r th e p r e v e n tiv e m e a su re s, b a s e d o n
p r e v io u s k n o w le d g e a n d e x p e r ie n c e o f th e n e a r e s t a n a lo g ie s , w h ic h
w e r e t h e n p r o m p t l y a d v o c a t e d b y t h e H o m e O ffic e , t h e m o r t a l i t y f r o m
t h is p o is o n in g , w h ic h a d v a n c e d d u r in g 1 9 1 5 -1 6 u n t il th e a u tu m n o f
1 9 1 6 , w h e n it r e a c h e d its g r e a te s t h e ig h t , m u s t h a v e b e e n f a r h ig h e r .
I n J u l y , 1 9 1 5 , t h e H o m e O f f ic e h a d w a r n e d t h e f a c t o r i e s t h e n c o n ­
c e r n e d t h a t T N T m ig h t b e a b s o r b e d t h r o u g h th e s k in , o r b y th e
in h a la tio n o f d u s t a n d fu m e s , a n d h a d r e c o m m e n d e d a c c o r d in g ly th a t
s u it a b le p r e c a u t io n s s h o u ld b e ta k e n a g a in s t b o t h a v e n u e s o f e n t r y .
319. D u r in g th e se m o n th s th e c o m m itte e g a v e t h e ir c o r d ia l c o ­
o p e r a t io n to w a r d b r in g in g t o b e a r u p o n th e p r o b le m s c o n f r o n t in g th e
m in is t r y th e a d v ic e w h ic h th e s k ill a n d e x p e r ie n c e o f th e f a c t o r y
d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e H o m e O ffic e c o u l d s u g g e s t , a s w e l l a s t h e k n o w l ­
e d g e g a in e d b y s c ie n t ific in v e s t ig a t io n s o r g a n iz e d f o r t h is p u r p o s e .
F r o m th e a u tu m n o f 1915 th e r e so u rce s o f th e a p p lie d -p h y s io lo g y
d e p a r tm e n t o f th e m e d ic a l-r e s e a r c h c o m m itte e , u n d e r th e d ir e c tio n ,
f o r t h is p u r p o s e , o f D r . B e n ja m in M o o r e , F . R . S ., h a d b e e n a p p lie d
t o th e d e te r m in a tio n o f th e m o d e , o r m o d e s , o f e n try o f th e p o is o n to
th e b o d y w it h a v ie w t o its e ffe c t iv e p r e v e n t io n ; a n d o t h e r c o lla t e r a l
in q u ir ie s w e r e set o n f o o t .
T h e s y m p to m s o f T N T p o is o n in g a lr e a d y
r e p o r t e d se e m e d c lo s e ly s im ila r , in r e s p e c t a t le a s t o f t h e f a t a l ca ses




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

159

in w h ic h ja u n d ic e w a s c h a r a c te r is tic , t o th o se w h ic h h a d o c c u r r e d
e a r lie r in 1915 as d u e t o e x p o s u r e t o th e fu m e s o f te t r a c h lo r e t h a n e ,
u s e d as a c o n s t it u e n t o f v a r n is h a p p lie d t o a e r o p la n e s — a ca u se o f
in d u s tr ia l p o is o n in g t o w h ic h fu r t h e r r e fe r e n c e w ill b e m a d e b e lo w .
T h is c o in c id e n c e in tim e o f th e t w o f o r m s o f p o is o n in g m a d e it n a t u ­
r a l t o l o o k th e n u p o n th e in h a la t io n o f th e fu m e s o r th e d u s t o f T N T
a s p r o b a b l y t h e c h i e f c a u s e o f t h is n e w a n d u n e x p e c t e d d a n g e r a t t h e
f illin g fa c t o r ie s , in s p it e o f th e fa c t th a t th e p a t h o f e n t r y t o th e b o d y
in th e m o s t fa m ilia r e x a m p le s o f p o is o n in g f r o m th e in d u s t r ia l u se o f
n it r o c o m p o u n d s w a s w e ll k n o w n t o b e b y w a y o f th e s k in . A d m i n ­
is tr a tiv e m e a su re s a t th e fa c t o r ie s w e r e c h ie fly a d d r e s s e d d u r in g th e
s p r in g a n d e a r ly su m m e r o f 1916, as n e w fa c t o r ie s s p r a n g in to e x is t­
e n ce , t o th e p e r fe c t io n o f v e n tila tio n a n d th e r e m o v a l o f d u s t a n d
fu m e s f r o m th e a ir.
A lt h o u g h it w a s w e ll k n o w n th a t d in itr o b e n ­
z e n e a n d o th e r n it r o c o m p o u n d s c o u ld r a p id ly e n te r th e b o d y t h r o u g h
th e s k in , th e a p p a r e n t im m u n it y w it h w h ic h th e g r e a t m a jo r it y o f
p e r s o n s c o u ld fr e e ly h a n d le T N T w ith o u t s ig n s o f p o is o n in g h a d
d o n e m u c h to d iv e r t g e n e r a l a tte n tio n f r o m th e e x p lic it w a r n in g
g i v e n b y t h e H o m e O f f ic e i n 1 9 1 5 t h a t a b s o r p t i o n o f T N T b y t h e s k i n
w a s t o b e g u a r d e d a g a in s t .
320.
W i t h th e a d v e n t o f w a r m w e a th e r in th e s u m m e r o f 1 9
c o in c id e n t w it h t h e p r e p a r a t io n s f o r th e S o m m e o ffe n s iv e , a la r g e
in c r e a s e in t h e a m o u n t o f T N T s ick n e s s o c c u r r e d ; a n d a c o n f e r e n c e
u p o n t h is w a s h e ld o n A u g u s t 2 5 , 1 9 1 6 , a t th e m in is t r y , w h e n r e p r e ­
s e n ta tiv e s o f th e h e a lt h o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s ’ c o m m it t e e m e t th o s e o f
t h e f a c t o r y d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e H o m e O ffic e a n d o f t h e f a c t o r y m a n ­
a g em en ts.
T h e e x p e r ie n c e o f o n e v e r y la r g e f a c t o r y in w h ic h u p t o
t h a t tim e n o d e a th h a d o c c u r r e d w a s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d t o s h o w th a t
i f p r o p e r v e n t ila t io n w a s s e c u r e d th e r is k o f p o is o n in g w a s s m a ll in
s p it e o f a n a lm o s t u n iv e r s a l d is t r ib u t io n o f T N T p o w d e r o v e r t h e
f a c t o r y flo o r s a n d fu r n it u r e , a s w e ll as u p o n t h e s k in a n d c lo t h e s o f
th e w ork ers.
I n th e f o l l o w i n g m o n th , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l ca ses o f fa t a l
t o x i c ja u n d ic e * w e r e n o t ifie d f r o m t h is f a c t o r y , w h i l e a t th e sa m e t im e
e x p e r im e n t s c o n d u c t e d b y D r . M o o r e a n d h is c o lle a g u e s , b o t h in t h e
la b o r a t o r y a n d in fa c t o r ie s , s h o w e d c o n c lu s iv e ly n o t o n ly th a t th e
p o is o n c o u ld e n te r th e sy s te m f r e e ly b y w a y o f th e s k in b u t th a t
p o is o n , h a v in g s o e n te r e d , c o u ld b e h e ld w it h in o r u n d e r th e s k in
i t s e l f a n d s o r e m a i n f o r c o n t i n u e d a b s o r p t i o n e v e n a f t e r , a n d s o m e -tim e s f o r m a n y d a y s a fte r , th e w o r k e r h a d b e e n a lto g e th e r r e m o v e d
fr o m th e n e ig h b o r h o o d o f T N T .
T h e e x p e r im e n t a l e v id e n c e g a v e n o
g r o u n d f o r a t t r ib u t in g a n y im p o r t a n t s h a re in th e p o is o n in g t o th e
in h a la t io n o f d u s t o r f u m e s ; t h e v a lu e o f v e n t ila t io n f r o m t h is p o i n t
o f v ie w a p p e a r e d t o c o n s is t in a id in g th e m a in te n a n c e o f th e c h e m ic a l
b a la n c e o f th e b l o o d a n d in r e m o v in g d u s t w h ic h m ig h t o th e r w is e




160

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H A N D E F F IC IE N C Y .

#
s e ttle u p o n th e s k in o r f o o d , o r e n te r th e n o s e s a n d m o u t h s , o f w o r k ­
e rs, a n d f o r th ese p u r p o s e s v e n t ila t io n w a s n u g a t o r y in th e fa c e o f
m a n u a l p ro ce ss e s in v o lv in g th e s c a tte r in g o f T N T d u s t u p o n e v e ry
e x p o s e d s u r fa c e o f th e w o r k s h o p a n d o f th e w o r k e r s .
I t becam e
a p p a r e n t th a t a c a m p a ig n h a d t o b e fo u g h t in d e ta il f o r th e r e d u c tio n
o f d a n g e r b y th e tr ia l a n d a d o p tio n o f e v e r y e x p e d ie n t f o r m in i­
m iz in g p h y s ic a l c o n ta c t b e tw e e n th e w o r k e r s a n d th e m a n ip u la te d
TNT.
F o r th e in t r o d u c t io n o f th e n e ce s s a r y m e a su r e s w h e n d e v is e d ,
a n d , fu r th e r , f o r th e ir g e n e r a l e n fo r c e m e n t, n e w le g a l p o w e r s w ere
r e q u ir e d .
321. W i t h a v ie w t o a n im m e d ia t e c o n c e n t r a t io n o f e ffo r t u p o n
th ese p r o b le m s , M r . M o n t a g u , in O c t o b e r , 1 9 16, a p p o in t e d a c o m ­
m itte e t o c o n s id e r a n d a d v is e h im as to ( 1 ) th e p r e v e n t io n o f p o is o n ­
i n g in f illin g fa c t o r ie s , a n d ( 2 ) th e t r e a t m e n t o f c a s e s o f s u c h p o i s o n ­
in g , a n d to m a k e su ch in q u ir ie s a n d e x p e r im e n ts as th e y m ig h t d e e m
d e s ir a b le f o r th ese p u r p o s e s .
T h is T N T a d v is o r y c o m m itte e c o n ­
t a i n e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e f a c t o r y d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e H o m e O ffic e ,
m e m b e r s o f th e h e a lth o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s ’ c o m m itte e , th e m e d ic a l
o ff ic e r f o r t h e f i l l i n g d e p a r t m e n t , t o g e t h e r w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a d ­
m in is tr a t iv e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e v a r io u s d e p a r tm e n ts c o n c e r n e d
w it h i n th e m in is t r y . T h i s c o m m it t e e , s it t in g d a il y a t fir s t , w o r k e d
a c t iv e ly t o w a r d th e f r a m i n g o f d e fe n s iv e r e g u la t io n s a g a in s t T N T
p o is o n in g .
T h e y m a d e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s u p o n th e o r g a n iz a t io n a n d
f u n c t i o n s o f t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r s o f t h e f i l l i n g f a c t o r i e s , u p o n t h e
p r o b a b le s c o p e o f th e le g a l p o w e r s lik e ly t o b e r e q u ir e d b y th e e x e c u ­
t iv e , a n d th e y c o n s id e r e d a n d a d v is e d u p o n th e b e s t m o d e s o f t r a n s ­
l a t in g in t o p r a c t ic a l p r e v e n t iv e m e th o d s th e k n o w le d g e th e n b e in g
g a in e d o f th e p o s s ib le m o d e s o f T N T p o is o n in g a n d o f t h e ir p a t h o ­
l o g i c a l r e s u lt s . I n D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 , D r . A d d i s o n , h a v i n g s u c c e e d e d
M r . M o n t a g u as m in is t e r , r e a p p o in t e d th e a d v is o r y c o m m it t e e , w h o
s u b m it t e d t o h im , in J a n u a r y , 191 7 , a d e t a ile d c o d e o f r e g u la t io n s
g o v e r n i n g t h e u s e <rf t r i n i t r o t o l u e n e i n a l l f a c t o r i e s a n d w o r k s h o p s i n
w h i c h i t , o r a n y m i x t u r e c o n t a i n i n g i t , is u s e d o r m a n i p u l a t e d . T h e
n e c e s s a r y p o w e r s h a v in g b e e n o b t a in e d , th ese r u le s w e r e f o r m a l l y
g iv e n le g a l e ffe c t in F e b r u a r y , 1 9 17, t h o u g h d u r in g s e v e r a l p r e c e d in g
.m o n th s th e y h a d b e e n w id e ly in t r o d u c e d in t o p r a c tic e , o w in g t o th e
d is s e m in a t io n o f k n o w le d g e o f th e d a n g e r s o f T N T b y th e m in is t r y ’s
m e d i c a l o ff ic e r s a n d t h e s c i e n t i f i c w o r k e r s e n g a g e d , a n d n o le s s t o t h e
g o o d w ill o f th e fa c t o r y m a n a g e m e n ts.
T h e s e r e g u la t io n s , s t ill in
fo r c e , a re g iv e n b e lo w in su m m a ry fo r m .
322. B e f o r e o u t lin in g th e p a t h o lo g y o f T N T p o is o n in g as su ch ,
r e fe r e n c e m a y b e m a d e t o th e r e m a r k a b le p r a c t ic a l r e s u lts w h ic h
h a v e c o in c id e d w ith th e p r o g r e s s iv e a p p lic a t io n o f th e fin d in g s o f
s c ie n t ific in v e s t ig a t io n t o p r a c t ic a l m e a s u r e s f o r th e p r e s e r v a t io n o f
th e T N T w ork e rs.
T h e r e t u r n s o f t h e H o m e O ffic e o f c a s e s o f




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

161

t o x ic ja u n d ic e f r o m T N T f o r th e q u a rte r O c t o b e r -D e c e m b e r , 1916,
s h o w 86 ca ses, in c lu d in g 23 d e a th s , as c o m p a r e d w it h 29 ca ses (4
f a t a l) in th e c o r r e s p o n d in g q u a rte r o f 1917, th o u g h th e n u m b e r o f
t h e w o r k e r s e x p o s e d i n t h e l a t t e r }^ear t o r i s k w a s f a r g r e a t e r t h a n i n
1916. A c c o m p a n y i n g th e ca ses o f ja u n d ic e th e r e h a s a ls o b e e n a n
u n m e a s u r a b l e v o l u m e o f m i n o r i ll n e s s , w h i c h h a s s h o w n a p a r a l l e l
r e d u c tio n in a ll f a c t o r ie s ; in o n e o f th e la r g e s t fa c t o r ie s , f o r in s ta n c e ,
in w h ic h th e s ic k n e s s r e tu r n s h a v e b e e n g e n e r a lly th e h ig h e s t , s ic k ­
n e s s a t t r i b u t e d t o T N T h a s d e c l i n e d f r o m b e i n g 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e
o p e r a t iv e s in A u g u s t , 1 9 1 6 , t o 1 p e r c e n t in J a n u a r y , 1918. T h e la te s t
r e t u r n s s h o w t h a t T N T s ick n e s s h a s b e e n a lm o s t a b o lis h e d , w h ile n o
f a t a l c a s e h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d s i n c e F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 8 , a n d t h e r e is n o w
g o o d g r o u n d f o r b e lie v in g th a t w h e n a ll fa c t o r ie s h a v e r e a c h e d th e
s t a n d a r d s a t t a in e d b y th e b e s t o f th e m f r o m t h is p o in t o f v ie w , a n d
n o w w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f a l l, T N T p o i s o n i n g m a y b e c o m e s o r a r e a s
t o b e a l m o s t u n k n o w n . T h e r e s u lt s s o o b t a i n e d m u s t b e r e g a r d e d a s
a s t r ik in g t e s t im o n y t o th e v a lu e o f c lo s e c o o p e r a t io n b e tw e e n r e ­
s e a rc h w o r k o n th e o n e h a n d , c a r r ie d o u t n o t o n ly in th e la b o r a t o r y
b u t a ls o in th e fie ld o f its p r a c t ic a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d a d m in is t r a t iv e
a c t i o n o n t h e o t h e r . T h e y s h o w f u r t h e r t h e b e n e f it s o f a c o o p e r a t i o n
b e tw e e n f a c t o r y d o c t o r a n d f a c t o r y m a n a g e r e s ta b lis h e d n o w t o a
d e g r e e a lm o s t u n k n o w n b e fo r e .
323.
W h il e th e e x p e r im e n t a l a n a ly s is o f th e p a t h s b y w h ic h T N
m a y e n te r th e b o d y , th e n e w tests w h ic h h a v e b e e n d e v is e d f o r t r a c ­
i n g its e lim in a t io n in c h a n g e d fo r m , a n d o t h e r g a in s in k n o w le d g e
h a v e g o n e to se cu re th e p re s e n t s u c c e s s fu l m e a su re s o f p r e v e n tio n ,
m u c h s t ill r e m a in s t o b e d is c o v e r e d w it h r e g a r d t o th e d e t a ile d n a tu r e
o f th e c o m p le x t o x ic e ffe c ts o f T N T o r o f its d e r iv a t iv e s , w h e n it h a s
on c e g a in e d a ccess t o th e sy ste m . W h e n M r . W in s t o n C h u r c h ill s u c ­
c e e d e d D r . A d d i s o n as M in is t e r o f M u n it io n s in th e s u m m e r o f 1 9 1 7 ,
th e p r a c t ic a l p r o b le m s o f T N T p o is o n in g h a d b ee n so fa r s o lv e d , a n d
th e m a in te n a n c e o f th e p r e v e n tiv e m e a su re s so o r g a n iz e d in th e
h e a lth a n d w e lfa r e s e c tio n o f th e m in is t r y th a t h e f o u n d it u n n e c ­
e ss a ry t o r e a p p o in t th e fo r m e r la r g e T N T a d v is o r y c o m m itte e , w h o s e
wT r k h a d b e e n i n t h e m a i n c o m p l e t e d , a n d i n s t e a d h e f o r m e d a s m a l l
o
c o m m itte e o f m e d ic a l e x p e r ts f o r th e p u r p o s e o f m a in t a in in g a n d c o ­
o r d i n a t in g f u r t h e r in q u ir ie s in t o t h is s u b je c t a n d o f a d v is in g h im
w it h a v ie w t o a d m in is t r a t iv e a c t io n th a t m ig h t see m d e s ir a b le in
th e lig h t o f fr e s h k n o w le d g e . F u r th e r r e se a rch e s a re b e in g a c tiv e ly
p r o s e c u t e d in t o th e t o x i c o l o g y o f T N T , a n d in t h is d ir e c t io n
d e f i n i t e a d v a n c e i n t h e c u r a t i v e t r e a t m e n t is s t i l l t o b e . h o p e d f o r .
B u t w h ile th e s e s tu d ie s h a v e g r e a t t h e o r e t ic in te r e s t a n d a re lik e ly
t o h a v e im p o r t a n c e in th e s t u d y o f t o x ic ja u n d ic e , k n o w n t o b e p r o ­
d u c e d in s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o r i n p e r s o n s s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e , b y
8 0 9 3 5 ° — 1 9 -------- 11




1G 2

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

o t h e r p o is o n s a n d c e r ta in d r u g s , th e p re s e n t su ccess o f p r e v e n tiv e
m e a s u r e s a g a in s t T N T p o is o n in g a llo w s th e h o p e th a t th e se in v e s t ig a ­
t io n s m a y h a v e o n l y a n a c a d e m ic in te re s t f o r th e M in i s t r y o f M u n i ­
tio n s as su ch .
3 2 4 . The pathology o f TN T poisoning .— I t w o u l d b e o u t o f p l a c e
h e r e t o g i v e d e t a ile d d e s c r ip t io n s o f th e p a t h o lo g i c a l r e s u lts th a t
m a y b e p r o d u c e d b y th e a b s o r p tio n o f T N T .
F o r th e se , r e fe r e n c e
m a y be m a d e c o n v e n ie n tly t o th e f o l l o w i n g :
Trinitrotoluene Poisoning (an account communicated on behalf o f the TNT
advisory com m ittee; references to earlier work may be found here). British
Medical Journal, December 16, 191(3. Report o f Discussion at the Royal Society
o f Medicine. Proceedings Royal Soc. Med., January, 1917.
The Causation and Prevention o f Trinitrotoluene (T N T ) Poisoning, by Dr.
Benjamin Moore, F. R. S., medical research committee, Special Report Series
No. 31, 191T.
The Effect o f Trinitrotoluene upon the Blood, by Dr. P. N. Panton. The
Lancet, July 2 1 , 1917.
Preventive Measures against TN T Poisoning, by Dr. \V. D. O’Donovan.
Proceedings Roy. Soc. Med., April, 1918.

325. T N T w h e n m a n u fa c t u r e d a n d u sed in a p u r e c o n d it io n o r
c o m p o u n d e d w i t h a m m o n i u m n i t r a t e ( a m a t o l o r a m m o n a l ) is b y f a r
th e m o st im p o r t a n t o f th e d a n g e r o u s su b s ta n ce s u se d in th e p r o d u c ­
t i o n o f h i g h e x p l o s i v e s . D a n g e r a r is e s n o t o n l y f r o m i t s e x p l o s i v e
p o w e r b u t f r o m its l ia b i l it y t o a ffe c t th e h e a lt h o f th e w o r k e r s
e x p o s e d t o it .
O p e r a t iv e s e n g a g e d in its m a n u fa c t u r e , p a c k i n g , o r
lo a d in g m a y b e c o m e a ffe c t e d . A p a r t f r o m th is , u n le s s th e in c id e n c e
o f p o i s o n i n g is r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d , o t h e r w o r k e r s m a y b e c o m e d i s ­
o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h f e a r o f c o n t a c t , a n d fr e s li la b o r m a y b e c o m e d iffi­
c u lt t o o b ta in .
3 2 6 . T N T m a y b e a b s o r b e d t h r o u g h th e s k in o r t h r o u g h th e
d ig e s t iv e t r a c ts , o r b y in h a la t io n o f fu m e s o r d u st. P o is o n in g m a y
ta k e on e o r m o re o f th e f o l l o w i n g f o r m s :
(a)
T N T s t a i n s t h e s k i n y e l l o w . S k i n d is e a s e ( D e r m a t i t i s ) is clu e
t o a d ir e c t ir r it a n t a c tio n . S o m e w o r k e r s a re m o r e s u s c e p t ib le th a n
o th ers.
T h e e ffe c ts , lik e th o s e o f o t h e r ir r it a n t s , a re in c r e a s e d b y
flu s h in g , p e r s p ir a t io n , a n d m e c h a n ic a l f r ic t io n .
L o c a liz e d rash es,
e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e t h e r e is p r e s s u r e o r f r i c t i o n , a s f r o m b a n d s o r i l l f i t t i n g c lo t h e s , a r e c o m m o n . T h e p a r t s m o s t f r e q u e n t l y a f f e c t e d a r e
th e h a n d s , w r is ts , fa c e , n o c k , a n d ’ fe e t.
T h e r e is g r o u n d f o r t h e
y ie w t h a t d e r m a t it is is d is t in c t in it s in c id e n c e f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f
its p o is o n in g .
(7)) Digestive troubles .— G a s t r i t i s , s h o w n b y p a i n i n t h e s t o m a c h ,
v o m i t i n g , a n d c o n s t i p a t i o n , is t h e m o s t c o m m o n o f t h e i l l e f f e c t s o f
p o is o n in g .
(c)
Blood changes.— B l u e n e s s o f t h e l i p s a n d , r a r e l y , b r e a t h l e s s ­
n e ss o n s lig h t e x e r t io n a re e v id e n t s ig n s o f a b s o r p t io n o f T N T .




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

1G 3

T h e s e s ig n s a re a n in d ic a t io n f o r c e s s a tio n f r o m T N T w o r k , d u r in g
w h ic h t h e y w il l g e n e r a lly d is a p p e a r r a p id ly .
T h e y m u st b e ta k en
a s a w a r n i n g t h a t t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f T N T is g o i n g o n , a n d i f t h i s
c a n n o t b e e x p la in e d b y f a u l t y f a c t o r y c o n d it io n s o r b y c a r e le s s a n d
u n n e c e s s a r y h a n d l i n g . wTie n p r o p e r p r e c a u t i o n s o u g h t t o p r e v e n t
l
r e c u r r e n c e , t h e y p o in t t o a s p e c ia l s u s c e p t ib ilit y , a n d th e w o r k e r
s h o u ld b e t r a n s fe r r e d t o o t h e r e m p lo y m e n t . P a ll o r d o e s n o t n e c e s ­
s a r i l y s i g n i f y a n e m i a , w h i c h is u n c o m m o n a m o n g T N T w o r k e r s . A
r a r e a n d f a t a l f o r m o f a n e m i a ( a p l a s t i c a n e m i a ) h a s o c c u r r e d in a
v e r y f e w i n s t a n c e s a n d is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a s l o w l y , i n c r e a s i n g d e ­
b i li t y o r b y s u d d e n u n e x p la in a b le s u b c u ta n e o u s o r u te r in e h e m o r ­
rh ages.
(d)
Liver degeneration , “ toxic 'jaundice.” — J a u n d i c e i s h e r e a s i g n
o f g r a v e l y s e r i o u s i ll n e s s , a n d w i l l b e s h o w n b y a y e l l o w t i n g e f i r s t
o f th e w h it e s o f th e e y e s a n d la t e r b y y e llo w n e s s o f th e s k in .
(T h is
m u st n o t b e c o n fu s e d w ith th e y e llo w s t a in in g w h ic h T N T it s e lf
m a y ca u se in th e s k in b y d ir e c t c o n t a c t .)
J a u n d ic e m a y a p p e a r
w i t h o u t o b v i o u s w a r n i n g , t h o u g h r a r e l y b e f o r e t h e f o u r t h wT e k o f
e
e m p l o y m e n t , a n d i t is p o s s i b l e t h a t i n h a l f t h e c a s e s i t a r is e s a f t e r
a p r e lim in a r y w a r n in g , w h ic h h a s b ee n g iv e n b y th e b lo o d c h a n g e s
ju s t m e n tio n e d b u t w h ic h m a y h a v e b e e n o v e r lo o k e d . E v e r y e ffo r t
s h o u ld b e m a d e t o r e c o g n iz e th e fir s t b e g in n in g s o f t h is illn e s s , a n d
t o ta k e th e m as a n in d ic a t io n f o r im m e d ia t e c e s s a tio n f r o m a ll T N T
w o r k a n d f o r p r o p e r m e d ic a l tre a tm e n t. M a n y cases a re n o w k n o w n
o f a p p a r e n t ly c o m p le t e r e c o v e r y a ft e r s e r io u s illn e s s o f t h is k in d .
327.
T o d e te ct a case o f T N T p o is o n in g ca re m u st b e ta k e n
a v o id c o n fu s io n w it h d ig e s t iv e d is t u r b a n c e s d u e t o o th e r ca u ses.
A c c o u n t s g iv e n b y p a t ie n t s m a y b e u n in t e n t io n a lly m is le a d in g . T h e
y e llo w s t a in in g w h ic h u s u a lly o c c u r s w it h T N T c a n n o t b e ta k e n as
in it s e lf a s ig n o f p o is o n in g .
T h e f o l l o w i n g p o in t s a re th e m o r
im p o r ta n t in d ic a tio n s o f T N T p o is o n in g :
(a) P a l l o r o f t h e f a c e a n d a n a s h e n - g r a y c o l o r o f t h e lip s> t e n d i n g
t o d is a p p e a r i f th e w o r k e r b e c o m e s e x c ite d , as b y m e d ic a l e x a m in a ­
tio n . S o m e tim e s th e lip s a n d to n g u e a re p u r p le in c o l o r ; th e t o n g u e
is g e n e r a l l y f r e e f r o m f u r .
(b) T h e c h a r a c t e r a n d s i t u a t i o n o f t h e s t o m a c h p a in s .
(c) T h e p r e s e n c e o f c o n s t i p a t i o n a n d s t o m a c h d i s t e n t i o n .
T r e a t m e n t w h e n ja u n d ic e is a b s e n t s h o u ld b e s im p le a n d s u c c e s s fu l.
I t s h o u ld in c lu d e ( 1 ) th e im m e d ia te r e m o v a l f r o m c o n t a c t , a n d a ll
th e fr e s h a ir p o s s ib le , ( 2 ) re st in b e d f o r a d a y o r t w o , ( 3 ) a d ie t
c o n s i s t i n g o f m i l k , m i l k p u d d i n g s , f r u i t , a r id g r e e n v e g e t a b l e s , w i t h
d r in k s s u ch as b a r le y w a te r , te a , a n d c o ffe e . I f ja u n d ic e is p r e s e n t,
h o s p i t a l i n - p a t i e n t t r e a t m e n t is n e c e s s a r y . M i l k s h o u l d b e g i v e n i n
s m a ll q u a n titie s t o b e g in w it h , th e a m o u n t b e in g s lo w ly in c r e a s e d
t o 2 p in ts a d a y .




164

INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY,

T h e o c c u r r e n c e o f T N T p o is o n in g d e p e n d s s o m e tim e s u p o n p e r ­
s o n a l id io s y n c r a s y . W o m e n d o n o t a p p e a r to b e m o re r e a d ily a ffe cte d
th a n m e n . B o y s a n d g ir ls m a y b e m o r e s u s c e p tib le t h a n a d u lts , a n d ,
in co n s e q u e n ce , t h e ir e m p lo y m e n t h a s b e e n f o r b id d e n u n d e r th e a g e
o f 1 6 , a n d is o n l y a l l o w e d u n d e r t h e a g e o f 1 8 w i t h t h e s p e c i a l c o n ­
sen t o f th e m in is tr y .
S e r io u s p o is o n in g s e ld o m o c c u r s w it h in th e
fi r s t f o u r w e e k s o f e m p l o y m e n t . W h i l e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s
a re in s u s c e p t ib le a n d r e m a in so, a s m a ll m in o r it y a re s u s c e p tib le a n d
lia b le to su cc u m b b e tw e e n th e fift h a n d fifte e n th w e e k o f e x p o s u r e .
T h e fe w a ffe c te d a re n o t a lw a y s th o se w h o o w in g t o ill h e a lth o r m a l­
n u t r it io n m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d t o b e e s p e c ia lly lia b le . I n d u s t r ia l c o n ­
d i t i o n s , t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t , h a v e p e r h a p s le s s i n f l u e n c e t h a n p e r s o n a l
id io s y n c r a s y .
3 2 8 . I t i s e s s e n t ia l t h a t s t r i c t m e a s u r e s b e t a k e n f o r p r e v e n t i o n .
T h e p r e c a u t io n s p r e s c r ib e d b y th e r e g u la t io n s o f th e m in is t r y f o r
th e u se a n d m a n ip u la t io n o f T N T a re as f o l l o w s :
(a) E x p o s u r e t o d u s t a n d f u m e s s h o u l d b e r e d u c e d t o a m i n i m u m
b y c le a n ly m e th o d s o f w o r k a n d b y v e n t ila t io n a n d c le a n in g o f
w o r k p la c e s .
(b) N o p e r s o n m a y b e e m p l o y e d f o r m o r e t h a n a f o r t n i g h t w i t h o u t
a n e q u a l p e r io d o f w o r k at a p r o c e s s n o t in v o lv in g c o n ta c t w it h
T N T , u n le s s s u c h e m p lo y m e n t h a s b e e n s p e c ia lly a p p r o v e d b y t h e
m e d i c a l o ff ic e r o f t h e f a c t o r }^ .
(<?) I t is o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t h a t a l l w o r k e r s s h o u l d o b t a i n
a m p le a n d s u it a b le f o o d .
E v e r y p e r s o n e m p lo y e d s h o u ld b e s u p ­
p lie d g r a t is d a ily w it h h a lf a p in t o f m ilk o r so m e e q u a lly n u t r it io u s
su b s titu te .
(d) S p e c i a l w o r k i n g c o s t u m e s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d f o r a l l p e r s o n s
e m p lo y e d .
T h e s e s h o u l d b e c le a n s e d o r r e n e w e d a t l e a s t o n c e a
w eek .
(e) C l o a k r o o m s s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e w h e r e c l o t h i n g p u t o f f d u r i n g
th e w o r k in g h o u r s s h o u ld b e p la c e d .
( / ) W a s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e e s s e n t ia l , w i t h a s u i t a b l e s u p p l y o f s o a p ,
n a ilb r u s h e s , a n d t o w e ls .
(g)
A c o n s ta n t m e d ic a l s u p e r v is io n s h o u ld b e e x e r c is e d , n o t o n ly
b y f o r m a l m e d ic a l e x a m in a t io n b u t a ls o b y s c r u t in y o f t h e w o r k e r s
w h i l e a t w o r k . T h e m e d i c a l o ff ic e r s h o u l d h a v e p o w e r o f i m m e d i a t e
s u s p e n s io n w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . C a r e f u l h e a lt h r e c o r d s s h o u ld b e k e p t.
(.h) A s p e c i a l o f f ic ia l s h o u l d b e a p p o i n t e d t o s e c u r e t h e c a r r y i n g
o u t o f th e p r e s c r ib e d r e g u la t io n s .
A w o m a n w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r is
a l s o e s s e n t ia l w h e r e v e r w o m e n a r e e m p l o y e d .
3 29. S im ila r p r e v e n t iv e m e a s u r e s a r e r e q u ir e d b y th e H o m e O ffic e
a n d th e m in is tr y f o r th e m a n u fa c tu r e o f T N T .
T h e f o l l o w i n g s ta te m e n t d e s c r ib e s th e m e d ic a l a r r a n g e m e n ts m a d e
in a la r g e n a tio n a l fillin g f a c t o r y :




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

165

In the early days we were confronted by the specter o f TN T poisoning in
a wide variety o f processes— shell filling with amatol and TNT blocks, liquid
filling, “ hot-mixed ” filling press houses, incorporating houses, trotyl bag filling,
etc.— and no one could tell us how it might be exorcised.
Cleanliness.— Our first preventive measure was cleanliness. The method was
to watch the shops from day to day, instruct workers and overseers in the
meaning o f “ physiological cleanliness/’ and devise means o f preventing TX T
from entering the bodies o f the workers by any o f the possible channels of ab­
sorption. A fter some initial difficulty with the management (who were natu­
rally chary o f m oisture) we wT
ere allowed to introduce our system o f damp
dusting o f benches and damp mopping o f floors. A slightly moistened cloth was
used for dusting the table, and the girls were instructed that the powder on
tables and floors must be “ kept damp and kept down,” in order to prevent it
getting into the air, and being thus swallowed and inhaled. The method o f
dusting was to “ coax ” the powder off the table with the slightly moistened
cloth, instead o f flicking it about and contaminating the atmosphere. The
floors were swept with damp sawdust.
This method was easily adopted in the trotyl bag-filling shops, and was most
successful. In other parts o f the factory, such as the melts, press houses,
rectifying rooms, etc., it was a much more difficult matter to obtain perfect
physiological cleanliness, and it was only after many months o f hard, uphill
work that any approach to this was reached.
Every foreman, forewoman, and wT
orker had to be convinced o f the necessity
o f this cleanliness, and we had a long educative campaign. Then we had to
introduce a new TNT cleansing department, with reliable overlookers, whose
duty it was to keep all TNT shops free from powder. The staff o f this cleans­
ing department has been large and the expense to the factory has been con­
siderable, but the results have afforded ample repayment.
Lectures to overlookers.— A necessary part of the doctor’s duty in a TNT fac­
tory is the education o f overlookers, foremen, etc., in the rationale o f the
prophylactic measures to be employed. In this factory it has been our practice,
as each new group o f overlookers was engaged, to devote one lecture of the
course o f preliminary instruction to the question o f TNT poisoning and its
prophylaxis. The overlookers are thus from the outset cooperators with the
doctor in all efforts to prevent TN T sickness.
Mouth icash and gargle.— As an additional precaution each worker is made
to wash out her mouth and throat at lunch hour, and after each shift with a
fluid provided (popularly called “ the g a rg le” ). Special “ gargling lavatories,”
with numerous basins, are built for this purpose in connection with each TN T
shop. These basins are also supplied with hot and cold water and the workers
are encouraged to wash their hands thoroughly with hot water and soap before
proceeding to the shifting house. (N. B.— Cold water has no advantages and
many disadvantages.)
Ventilation and other such obvious health measures are also kept under
medical supervision.
Questions of suitable clothing, boots, gloves, etc., are discussed jointly betflPfeen the doctor and the lady superintendent.

Questions of food and canteen arrangements are discussed with the lady
superintendent and the canteen superintendent.
The doctor advises regarding suitable menus, adequate food substitutes, etc.
On the advice o f the doctor a free breakfast consisting o f porridge and milk,
sausage or egg, bread and butter and tea, is given to all workers while em­
ployed on TNT. This takes the place o f the milk originally recommended by
the health o f munitions w orkers’ committee.




166

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

In our early clays it was difficult to persuade tlie women workers to e*t
substantial meals, and the doctor was asked to publish a leaflet making an
appeal for more adequate feeding on tlie grounds o f health and patriotism.
“ Post h o c ” (but due also to many other causes) we now find that the great
m ajority o f our workers take a substantial midday dinner in the canteens.
Choosing of suitable workers for TXT processes.— No worker is engaged for
any occupation involving exposure to T X T without being passed by the doctor
as suitable.
During the first few months we engaged girls at the rate o f 500 to 600 per
week. As, according to present knowledge, the chief dangers o f TNT are to
the liver and the bone marrow, the attention of the doctor is directed chiefly
to the detection o f anemia and “ biliousness ” or any liver trouble. No girl
with any trace o f cyanosis o f lips or yellowness o f sclefotics is admitted as,
although possibly healthy, such a girl would lead to difficulty for the doctor at
her weekly medical inspection. The result o f this preliminary medical ex­
amination is that the TN T workers in the factory conform to a certain stand­
ard which, although arbitrary, is o f great assistance to the doctor in her sub­
sequent work o f inspection and diagnosis.
Inquiry into epidemics, etc.— The doctor takes measures against the spread
o f infectious diseases, and sees to the occasional examination o f water supply,
milk supply, etc. A thresh disinfector for the sterilization o f clothing is in­
stalled in the factory.
LEAD.

8 3 0 . Disease and its causes.— O p e r a t i v e s c o m e i n c o n t a c t w i t h l e a d
a n d its c o m p o u n d s in a v a r ie t y o f p r o c e s s e s in m u n it io n f a c t o r ie s ,
e. g ., i n s m e l t i n g l e a d a n d s p e l t e r ; i n m a k i n g s h e e t l e a d a n d b u l l e t s ;
i n fi le c u t t i n g ; i n h a r d e n i n g a n d t e m p e r i n g m e t a l s ; i n c o m m o n t i n ­
n in g ; in s o ld e r in g a n d p lu m b in g ; in th e m a n u fa c tu r e o f a c cu m u ­
la t o r s a n d o f in d ia r u b b e r ; a n d in th e u se o f le a d p a in t s a n d r e d
le a d . U n d e r in d u s t r ia l c o n d it io n s le a d g a in s a ccess t o th e b o d y p r i n ­
c ip a lly b y th e in h a la t io n o f le a d fu m e s o r d u st. L e a d te n d s t o a c ­
c u m u la t e in t h e b o d y , a n d c a r e f u l in v e s t ig a t io n s h a v e e s t a b lis h e d
th a t a d a ily d o s e o f as lit t le as 2 m illig r a m s m u s t b e r e g a r d e d as
c a p a b le , w h e n in h a le d as fu m e o r d u st, o f s e ttin g u p c h r o n ic p o is o n ­
in g .
L e a d m a y a ls o e n te r th e sy s te m t h r o u g h th e d ig e s t iv e t r a c t,
b y e a t in g w it h u n c le a n h a n d s , o r b y p u t t i n g p ip e s o r o t h e r a r t ic le s
in t o th e m o u t h w h ile th e h a n d s a re s o ile d w it h le a d .
L e a d is a
c u m u la t iv e p o is o n , t h a t is t o s a y , e v e n s m a ll d o s e s a b s o r b e d d a y a ft e r
c la y t e n d t o c o l l e c t i n t h e s y s t e m a n d f i n a l l y c a u s e ill n e s s . T h e e x i s t ­
e n c e o f a b l u e l i n e a t t h e g u m s is a n i n d i c a t i o n o f l e a d a b s o r p t i o n ,
a n d h e a d a c h e , c o l i c , c o n s t i p a t i o n , a n d m a r k e d p a le n e s s a r e e a r l y
m a n ife s ta tio n s o f p o is o n in g .
3 3 1 . Prevention .— T h e p r e v e n t i o n o f i n h a l a t i o n o f d u s t o r f u f t ie s
is th e p r in c ip le u n d e r ly in g th e r e g u la t io n s m a d e b y th e S e c r e t a r y o f
S ta te f o r th e c h i e f in d u s t r ie s c o n c e r n e d w it h th e m a n ip u la t io n o f
le a d a n d its c o m p o u n d s . I n h a la t io n o f le a d in th e f o r m o f fu m e s
o r d u st c a n o n ly b e a v o id e d w it h c e r ta in ty b y p r e v e n t in g th e p r o ­
d u c t i o n o f d u s t (e . g . , b y k e e p i n g a l l l e a d m a t e r i a l d a m p ) , a n d b y




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

167

in s u r in g th e le a d fu m e s d o n o t e sc a p e in t o a n y p la c e in w h ic h w o r k
is c a r r ie d o n . T h e n a t u r e o f c e r t a in p r o c e s s e s , h o w e v e r , m a y r e n d e r
th e p r o d u c t io n o f d u s t in e v it a b le o r th e e s c a p e o f fu m e s p o s s ib le .
U n d e r s u ch c o n d it io n s lo c a liz e d e x h a u s t v e n t ila t io n s h o u ld b e a p ­
p l i e d a s c l o s e l y a s is p r a c t i c a b l e t o t h e p o i n t o f o r i g i n , s o a s t o w i t h ­
d r a w th e d u s t o r fu m e s f r o m th e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e w o r k p la c e .
R e s p ir a t o r s m a y b e r e q u ir e d in a fe w e x c e p t io n a l ca ses, b u t, as a
p r o t e c t io n a g a in s t d u s t, o n l y a f e w o f th e m a n y f o r m s o f r e s p ir a t o r s
o b t a i n a b l e a r e e f f e c t i v e , a n d n o o n e o f t h e m is c o m f o r t a b l e t o w e a r ;
w h i l e a s a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f u m e s n o r e s p i r a t o r e x is t s w h i c h a n
o p e r a tiv e ca n b e a sk e d t o w e a r f o r p r o lo n g e d p e r io d s .
332. T o p r e v e n t le a d e n t e r in g th e s y s te m t h r o u g h th e d ig e s t iv e
t r a c t th e f o l l o w i n g s p e c ia l ste p s s h o u ld b e t a k e n :
(a) S m o k i n g s h o u l d b e p r o h i b i t e d i n a l l p l a c e s w h e r e l e a d is
m a n ip u la te d .
(b) N o p e r s o n s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o t a k e a m e a l o r t o r e m a i n d u r ­
i n g t h e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r m e a ls in a n y r o o m w h e r e l e a d i s u s e d .
(c) S p e c i a l m e s s r o o m s o r c a n t e e n s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d w h e r e
w o r k e r s c a n t a k e t h e i r m e a ls . G o o d f o o d i s o f s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e in
h e l p i n g a w o r k e r t o r e s is t p o is o n in g . I n p a r t ic u la r , w o r k e r s s h o id d
n o t c o m m e n c e w o r k w ith o u t h a v in g ta k e n fo o d .
E v id e n c e sh o w s
th a t h u n g r y a n d ill-fe d w o r k e r s su ccu m b m o re r e a d ily th a n o th e rs,
a n d e x c e lle n t r e s u lt s h a v e b e e n o b t a in e d f r o m s u p p l y i n g w o r k e r s
w i t h a t le a s t h a l f a p i n t o f m i l k o r c o c o a b e f o r e s t a r t i n g w o r k i n t h e
m o r n in g .
(d) O v e r a l l s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d a n d c l o a k r o o m s e s t a b l i s h e d , s e p a -.
r a te p r o v is io n b e in g m a d e f o r th e k e e p in g o f o u t d o o r c lo t h e s a n d
o v e r a lls r e s p e c t iv e ly ; th e y s h o u ld n e v e r b e a llo w e d t o c o m e in c o n ­
t a c t w it h o n e a n o th e r.
(e) S p e c i a l w a s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d , a n d s h o u l d b e
s u ffic ie n t t o e n a b l e t h e w o r k e r s n o t o n l y t o w a s h t h e i r h a n d s b u t a l s o
t h e i r fa c e s * n e c k s , a n d a r m s . S u c h f a c i l i t i e s w i l l o n l y b e e f f e c t i v e i f
a s u ffic ie n t s u p p l y o f h o t a n d c o l d w a t e r , c le a n t o w e l s , s o a p , a n d n a i l ­
b r u s h e s is a lw a y s a v a ila b le .
I n som e p ro ce ss e s th e e m p lo y m e n t o f
w o m e n , b o y s , a n d g i r l s is f o r b i d d e n .
W h e r e t h e ir e m p lo y m e n t is a llo w e d , b o y s a n d g ir ls s h o u ld b e
c lo s e ly w a tc h e d , b eca u se th e y a re n o t so lik e ly t o o b s e rv e th e n ece ssa ry
p r e c a u t io n s as g r o w n -u p p e o p le . W o m e n s h o u ld b e e s p e c ia lly c a r e ­
f u l , as th e in ju r io u s e ffe c t o f le a d in th e m s e r io u s ly in t e r fe r e s w it h
th e h e a lt h o f t h e ir c h ild r e n .
O n ly h e a lth y a n d te m p e r a te p e r s o n s
s h o u ld b e e m p lo y e d .
333. T h e m a n ife s ta tio n s o f p o is o n in g ca n b e d e te cte d b y a m e d ic a l
m a n , a n d t h e ir p r e s e n c e in d ic a t e s th a t th e w o r k e r s h o u ld b e t r a n s ­
f e r r e d t o o t h e r w o r k . T h e H o m e O ffic e r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e e m p l o y e r s
t o h a v e p e r s o n s e n g a g e d in v a r io u s le a d in d u s tr ie s e x a m in e d p e r i ­




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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

o d i c a l l y b y a s u r g e o n w h o is i n t r u s t e d w i t h p o w e r s o f s u s p e n s i o n
f r o m w o r k . T h i s m e d ic a l s u p e r v is io n h a s b e e n f o u n d o f m u c h v a lu e ,
a n d h a s b ee n w id e ly a d o p te d e v e n in in d u s tr ie s n o t g o v e r n e d b y r e g u ­
la t io n s . I t m a y b e u s e f u lly e x t e n d e d t o a ll f a c t o r ie s w h e r e th e u se
o f le a d o x id e s o r o t h e r o f its m a n y c o m p o u n d s m a y h a v e b e e n i n t r o ­
d u c e d in t o th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f m u n it io n s . I n th e h a n d lin g o f m e ta llic
l e a d , e. g . , b u l l e t s , t h e r i s k o f p o i s o n i n g is v e r y s l i g h t , a n d m e d i c a l
s u p e r v i s i o n is l e s s i m p o r t a n t .
A E R O P L A N E DOPE.

3 34. I n th e e a r lie s t s ta g e s o f th e w a r , c e r t a in d o p e s u s e d f o r a e r o ­
p la n e s c o n t a in e d a p o is o n — t e t r a c h lo r e t h a n e — w h ic h g a v e r is e t o
ca ses o f t o x ic ja u n d ic e a m o n g s t th o s e e n g a g e d in its m a n u fa c t u r e a n d
m a n ip u la t io n .
I n a d d it io n , n u m e r o u s ca ses o f ill h e a lth o c c u r r e d .
T h e m a n u fa c t u r e o f th ese d o p e s ce a s e d in S e p te m b e r , 1916.
The
d o p e s n o w in u se, th o u g h fr e e f r o m te tr a c h lo r e th a n e , a re s t ill n o t
w it h o u t h a r m fu l e ffe c ts u p o n th e h e a lth o f th e w o r k e r .
V o la t ile
c o n s t it u e n t s o f t h e n e w d o p e s a n d v a r n is h e s , s u ch as a c e t o n e s u b ­
s t i t u t e s , b e n z o l , e t c ., t h o u g h t h e y h a v e n o t b e e n f o u n d s o f a r t o p r o ­
d u c e i ll n e s s o f t h e n a t u r e p r o d u c e d b y t e t r a c h l o r e t h a n e , c a u s e h e a d ­
a c h e , d r y n e s s o f t h e t h r o a t , c o u g h s , n a u s e a , s ick n e s s , a n d s e r io u s
a n e m ia .
335. G o o d v e n tila tio n o f th e d o p e r o o m d e cre a se s th e in te n s ity o f
th e s y m p to m s . O n th e o th e r h a n d , th e e ffe cts a re a g g r a v a t e d b y th e
t e m p e r a t u r e o f 6 5 t o 7 0 ° F . w h i c h h a s t o b e m a i n t a i n e d , a n d i t is o f
g r e a t im p o r t a n c e t o p r o c u r e a s a t is fa c t o r y s o lu t io n o f th e p r o b le m
o f v e n t ila t in g th e d o p e r o o m s w h ile m a in t a in in g th e r e q u is it e
te m p e ra tu re .
The localized exhaust o f the dope fumes at the point o f their origin is hardly
practicable in the case o f parts having the size o f aeroplane wings. In some
works, however, a partial solution on these lines is obtained by laying the wing
to be doped in a large shallow tank connected to an exhaust fan, and as the
doping proceeds, drawing a spring roller-blind arrangement in stages across the
open top o f the tank. Small components such as wheel covers can be doped
under suitable lioods having a localized exhaust. The fuselage and cockpit can
be doped separately in the doping room before the machine is erected, or the
machine, when completed, can, if practicable, be run for doping into a cubicle
provided with exhaust fans. I f the size or weight of tlie machine make it im­
practicable to use a doping cubicle the dope can be applied to the fuselage when
in the erecting shop, provided the shop is o f large size and well ventilated by
natural means, and provided the doping is done after the ordinary hours o f
employment.
The Home Office requirement with regard to the ventilation o f dope rooms is
that the air shall be changed thirty times per hour. This standard also applies
to doping cubicles. In order to attain it, in conjunction with the maintenance of
a temperature o f 65° to 70° F., economy demands that the height o f the room
should not be much more than sufficient to accommodate the largest size o f wing




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

169

to be doped. The average height, the Home Office recommends, should not be
greater than 15 to 20 feet or less than 10 feet.
Dope rooms and cubicles should preferably be ventilated by means of extrac­
tion or propeller fans o f the open-blade type, having a free intake to the fan
and a free discharge to the open air. Louvers* wind screens, or other obstruc­
tions should not be fitted on the discharge side, as these considerably reduce the
output. As the fumes are heavier than air, the fans should be installed at, or
arranged so as to draw from, a point near the floor level. I f the air inlets into
the dope room are properly proportioned— the total inlet area should not be less
than three times the discharge area of the fans— no draft should be felt in
the room, either with the doors closed or opened temporarily to allow passage
o f persons or materials. The air inlets should be provided at the side o f the
room opposite the fans and at about 10 feet above the floor level. They may be
o f the open hopper type, or be covered with cheesecloth, to serve as a dust
filter and to diffuse the in-coming air currents. The provision of ample air inlets
prevents the formation o f pockets of dense fumes in the room by drafts o f
high velocity, and the impingement o f such drafts on the doped surfaces, with
the consequent form ation o f white patches on the fabric. It may be remarked
that the Home Office authorities have always been strongly opposed to plenum
ventilation in dope rooms.
The heating o f the air may be effected by means o f numerous steam or hotwater pipes and radiators placed close to the air-inlet openings, by hot-air
plenum ducts, hot-air stoves, slow-combustion stoves, or hot chambers heated
by steam pipes. It should always be remembered that the temperature and rate
o f change o f air with a given plant are interconnected, and that if the air inlets
are closed, the fans slowed down, or the outlets partially obstructed so as to
attain the temperature required, the standard o f ventilation is correspondingly
reduced. It is not advisable greatly to exceed the specified number o f changes
o f air per hour— 30— as some have done to be on the safe side. I f the changes
are made 60 to 100 per hour, the maintenance o f the required temperature in
cold weather becomes impossible. In lofty shops, if difficulty is experienced with
regard to the temperature, the height o f the room should be reduced by matchboarding or other nonconducting material, and the walls o f temporary buildings
should be lined with wood.
Doping should be commenced at the end o f the wing nearest the exhaust fan.
The workers, when not applying the dope, should stand as near the fresh-air
inlets as possible. W ork should not be commenced on an empty stomach. The
workers must not be allowed to take a meal in the dope room. I f no provision is
made for removing the wings to a separate drying room as soon as the dope is
tacky, the wings should be placed to dry in a position between the workers and
the fans, but not so as to obstruct the fans.

336.
W i t h a v ie w t o r e d u c in g ill h e a lth a m o n g s t th e w o r k e r s so fa
as p o s s ib le , th e f o l l o w i n g p r e v e n t iv e m e a s u r e s a re a ls o d e s ir a b le :
(a) P e r i o d i c m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l w o r k e r s s h o u l d b e p r o ­
v id e d fo r .
(b) P e r i o d s o f e x p o s u r e s h o u l d b e r c d u c e d t o a m i n i m u m a n d n o t
p r o lo n g e d b y o v e r tim e .
( c) O p e r a t iv e s s h o u ld n o t b e a llo w e d t o r e m a in in th e w o r k p la c e
d u r in g m e a l h o u rs .
( d ) A d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d b e x > r o v id e d f o r o b t a i n i n g s u f f ic ie n t
a n d n o u r is h in g fo o d .




INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY,

170

( e)

(/)

O v e r a lls s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d .
A d e q u a t e w a s h in g a c c o m m o d a t io n s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d .
p o is o n o u s

gases

.

337. T h e c h ie f d a n g e r s a r is in g fr o m th e m a n u fa c tu r e a n d m a n ip u ­
la t io n o f p o is o n o u s g a ses are—
(a) P o i s o n i n g b y t h e l e t h a l a n d l a c h r y m a t o r y g a s e s ;
(& )
I r r i t a t i o n o f th e s k in , ey es, a n d o th e r e x p o s e d p a r t s o f th e b o d y ,
c a u s e d b y th e h a n d lin g o f r a w m a t e r ia ls o r fin is h e d p r o d u c t s ;
(c) M e c h a n i c a l a c c i d e n t s ; t h e s e , h o w e v e r s l i g h t i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e ,
m a y b e c o m e s e r io u s u n le s s t h e y r e c e iv e p r o m p t m e d ic a l a t t e n t io n o n
a c c o u n t o f th e p o is o n o u s c h a r a c te r o f th e b o d ie s h a n d le d o r m a n u ­
fa ctu re d .
338. A p a r t f r o m m e c h a n ic a l s a fe g u a r d s a g a in s t a c c id e n t s , th e p r i n ­
c ip a l m e a su re s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r e v e n t io n a n d tr e a tm e n t a re —
(a) T h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a m e d i c a l o ff ic e r f o r e a c h f a c t o r y ;
( b) T h e m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l w o r k e r s b e f o r e e n g a g e m e n t ,
a n d a t fr e q u e n t in t e r v a ls d u r in g e m p lo y m e n t ;
(<?) S u i t a b l y e q u i p p e d a m b u l a n c e s t a t i o n s i n c h a r g e o f a t r a i n e d
n u r s e a n d u n d e r th e c o n s ta n t s u p e r v is io n o f th e m e d ic a l o ffic e r ;
( d) H o s p i t a l a c c o m m o d a t io n f o r s p e c ia l c a s e s ;
(e) S u i t a b l e p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g ( i n c l u d i n g o v e r a l l s , h e l m e t s , r e s p i ­
r a t o r s , g lo v e s , g o g g le s , a n d c l o g s ) : a ll s u ch c lo t h i n g m u s t b e w o r n
o n l y d u r in g th e p e r io d o f a c tu a l w o r k in g . O v e r a lls s h o u ld b e w a s h e d
w e e k ly .
( / ) S u it a b le c lo a k r o o m s ;
(g ) W a s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s s u f fic ie n t t o e n a b l e w o r k e r s t o w a s h t h o r ­
o u g h ly at th e en d o f ea ch p e r io d o f w o r k ;
( h) N o f o o d m a y b e t a k e n i n t o a w o r k p l a c e ;
(i) A d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r o b t a i n i n g f o o d .
33 9 . N o t ific a t io n is r e q u ir e d o f a ll c a s e s o f g a s in g , e c z e m a t o u s
a ffe c t io n o f th e s k in , in fla m m a t io n o f th e e y e s, p o is o n in g , a n d m e ­
c h a n ic a l a c c id e n ts .
F U L M IN A T E OF M E R C U R Y .

3 4 0 . Disease and its causes.— I n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e a n d u s e o f f u l m i ­
n a te o f m e r c u r y th e r e is a lia b ilit y o f m e r c u r ia l p o i s o n in g a n d e cz e m a .
O w in g , h o w e v e r , t o th e s m a ll a m o u n ts m a n ip u la t e d , th e s y m p t o m s o f
m e r c u r ia lis m a re s e ld o m m a r k e d , b u t a b lu e lin e m a y b e seen o n th e
g u m s , a p p e tite m a y b e im p a ir e d , h e a d a ch e m a y b e p re s e n t, a n d th e re
m a y b e n e r v o u s n e s s a n d d e p r e s s io n . T h e la s t s y m p t o m is i m p o r t a n t
n o t m e r e ly as a s ig n o f illn e s s b u t as a n in d ic a t io n t h a t th e o p e r a t iv e
s h o u ld b e r e m o v e d f r o m d a n g e r o u s w o r k w h ic h c a lls f o r a s te a d y h a n d
a n d a c le a r h e a d . E c z e m a o f t h e h a n d , f o r e a r m , a n d f a c e o c c u r a n d
m a y ca u se s e r io u s d is a b ilit y .




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

171

A medical examination of 60 women workers employed on manipulating sub­
stances containing mercury fulminate showed that only 5 had remained in good
health throughout their work at the factory. The most common symptoms were
rasli on face or hands (41.6 per cent) often associated with severe internal
pains, sickness, and diarrhea (30 per cent). The eyes are often affected, either
with conjunctivitis (35 per cent) or inflamed lids (20 per cent). Soreness o f
mouth and gums occurred in 21.6 per cent, though salivation was infrequent (7
per cent), and a blue hue on gums was only noticed in two instances. W orkers
complained o f the difficulty caused by soreness o f the mouth, as this affected
their appetite and was most painful if artificial dentures were worn. Disorders
o f menstruation occurred in 20 per cent o f those examined, and depression was
marked in 25 per cent. Sleeplessness was generally due to the irritation pro­
duced by the rash, probably increased by the fact that at least 25 per cent o f
the women admitted that they slept in some clothes worn during the day. It
was ascertained that 41.6 per cent w^ore neither veil nor respirator, although in
about 30 per cent the onset o f symptoms was associated with sneezing or signs
o f “ cold ” due to the inhalation o f the mercurial powder.
The greatest susceptibility was shown in the case o f a woman in whom mere
contact with a mercury worker wearing a dirty overall was sufficient to pro­
duce a rash. Rashes were more severe in those women who did not wear veils
or respirators. It was noted that one worker who remained immune for tw o
months habitually used a veil, respirator, and goggles, though it can not be said
that these afford complete protection.

3 4 1 . Prevention .— T h e p r i n c i p a l p r e v e n t i v e m e a s u r e s t o b e a d o p t e d
s h o u ld in c lu d e —
(a) T h e p r o v i s i o n o f o v e r a l l s a n d o f a d e q u a t e c l o a k r o o m
and
w a s h in g a c c o m m o d a t io n ;
(b) A d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r o b t a i n i n g f o o d .
N o w o r k e r s h o u ld b e
a llo w e d t o c o m m e n c e w o r k w it h o u t f o o d ;
(c) C a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f w o r k e r s ;
(cl) W h e r e e x p o s u r e is m a r k e d , p e r i o d i c a l m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n ;
(e) T r a n s f e r e n c e t o o t h e r w o r k o f t h o s e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d .
T E TR Y L (T E T R A N IT R O M E T H Y L A K IL IN ).

3 4 2 . Disease and its causes.— M a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h i s e x p l o s i v e p r o ­
d u c e s a l ig h t d u s t, w h ic h m a y c a u s e t r o u b le s o m e e cze m a .
In d i­
v id u a ls v a r y in t h e ir s u s c e p t ib ilit y ; s o m e a p p e a r t o b e a lm o s t i m ­
m u n e , w h ile o th e r s c a n h a r d ly e n te r a r o o m w h e r e t e t r y l is h a n d le d
w it h o u t s u ffe r in g s e v e r e ly .
O b s e r v a t io n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h is m a y d e ­
p e n d o n t h e v a r y i n g n a t u r a l d r y n e s s o r m o is t n e s s o f th e s k in o f d i f ­
fe r e n t p erson s.
T h e p a r t s m o st fr e q u e n t ly a ffe cte d a re th e c o n ju n c ­
t i v e , th e o p e n in g s o f th e n o s t r ils , a n d th e c h in . T h e h a n d s a n d a r m s
a r e le s s o f t e n a f f e c t e d , a n d i n t h i s t h e e c z e m a c a u s e d b y t e t r y l d i f f e r s
f r o m t h a t d u e t o t r i n i t r o t o l u e n e ,’ w h i c h u s u a l l y a f f e c t s t h e f o r e a r m s
an d h ands.
O p e r a t iv e s m a n ip u la t in g t e t r y l m a y a ls o s u ffe r f r o m
h e a d a c h e , d r o w s in e s s , a n d la c k o f a p p e tit e in v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f in ­
te n s ity .




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INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

3 4 3 . Prevention .— T h e p r i n c i p a l m e a s u r e s t o b e t a k e n c o n s i s t i n —
(a) A v o i d i n g t h e e s c a p e o f d u s t b y c a r r y i n g o u t m a n i p u l a t i o n s i n
g la s s c u p b o a r d s w it h a r m h o le s f o r i n t r o d u c t io n o f th e h a n d s ;
(b) P r o v i d i n g l i g h t g a u z e v e i l s t o p r o t e c t t h e f a c e s o f t h e w o r k e r s ;
( e) S u p p l y i n g , i f v e ils a re n o t w o r n , s o m e s im p le p o w d e r (s u c h as
a m ix t u r e o f o n e p a r t o f z in c o x id e t o t w o p a r t s o f s t a r c h ) f o r a p p l y ­
i n g to th e fa c e b e f o r e b e g in n in g w o r k ;
(cl) P r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e w a s h i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g ­
i n g th e use a ft e r w a s h in g o f a n a p p lic a t io n f o r th e s k i n ; 1
(e)
E x c l u d i n g w o r k e r s w h o s h o w s p e c ia l s u s c e p t ib ilit y o r i d i o
syn cra sy.
3 4 4 . A p a r t f r o m i t s te n d e n c }^ t o c a u s e e c z e m a , t e t r y l s t a i n s t h e s k i n
a n d h a i r ; i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h is , o v e r a l l s a n d g l o v e s s h o u l d b e w o r n ,
a n d , w h e r e w o m e n a r e e m p lo y e d , s u it a b le h e a d c o v e r in g s s h o u ld b e
u sed.
P IC R IC A C ID .

3 4 5 . P i c r i c a c id ( m e lin it e o r l y d d i t e ) is k n o w n c h e m ic a lly a s t r i n it r o p h e n o l, a n d is m a d e b y th e n it r a t in g a c t io n o f m ix e d a c id s u p o n
c a r b o lic a c id .
T h e m a n u fa c t u r e , t h o u g h s im p le , e x p o s e s t h o s e e n ­
g a g e d in it t o r is k o f th e in h a la t io n o f n itr o u s fu m e s .
W orker
e n g a g e d in th e u se o f p i c r i c a c id , h o w e v e r , a r e u s u a lly r e g a r d e d a s
b e in g e m p lo y e d in a n o n p o is o n o u s o c c u p a tio n .
T h o s e h a n d lin g it
u s u a l l y b e c o m e d u s t e d o v e r w i t h a f in e y e l l o w p o w d e r w h i c h s t a i n s
t h e h a ir a n d e x p o s e d s k in s u r fa c e s o f th e b o d y a b r ig h t c a n a r y y e llo w
c o lo r .
O c c a s io n a lly a n ir r it a t in g d e r m a t it is o f a s im p le t y p e i
fo u n d o n th e h a n d s a n d fo r e a r m s ; a n d th o s e w h o a re c o m m e n c in g
w o r k f o r th e fir s t t im e in p i c r i c a c id m a y h a v e a n in i t i a l g a s t r it is ,
w h ic h p a sse s o ff in t w o o r t h r e e d a y s .
S y s te m a tic p o is o n in g , h o w ­
e v e r , is p r a c t ic a lly u n k n o w n a m o n g p ic r i c w o r k e r s , a n d m u c h c o n ­
f u s i o n h a s a r is e n b e t w e e n t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f p i c r i c a c i d a n d t h e
i l l e ffe c t s o f T N T , s in c e b o t h s ta in th e s k in a y e llo w is h c o lo r a n d
w o r k e r s a re a p t to c a ll a ll s h e ll-fillin g w o r k T N T .
3 46. E x c e p t in r e la t io n t o n it r o u s fu m e s , w h ic h a r e d e a lt w it h
b e lo w , n o. s p e c ia l p r e c a u t io n s a re c a lle d f o r .
N IT R O U S FTJMES.

847. T h e p r e s e n t d e m a n d f o r e x p lo s iv e s , n e a r ly a ll o f w h ic h a re
p r o d u c t s o f n it r a t io n , h a s in t r o d u c e d in c r e a s e d r is k o f e x p o s u r e t o
n it r o u s fu m e s , n o t o n ly in n it r a t in g p r o c e s s e s , b u t a ls o in th e m a n u ­
fa c t u r e o f n it r ic a c id t o b e u se d in th ese p ro c e s s e s .
T h e fa cto ry d e­
p a r t m e n t o f t h e H o m e O f fi c e h a v e i s s u e d t h e f o l l o w i n g m e m o r a n d u m :
1 An application found of value to prevent eczema is a mixture of two parts of castor
oil to one part of lanolice ; this mixture, which should be rubbed into the skin after
washing on leaving work, should be placed in the lavatories for general use.




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

173

In the manufacture o f nitric acid, and in its use for various purposes, par­
ticularly in the manufacture o f explosives, danger exists o f accidental escape
o f nitrous fumes into the work places. The full effect of inhaling these fumes
is not felt immediately, and unless workers are warned of the danger they may
continue at work and unwittingly inhale a fatal dose.
In such a case the affected person develops an irritating cough, which becomes
steadily worse, until, three or four hours after exposure, he becomes seriously
ill, suffering from marked dyspnoea and collapse; sometimes these symptoms
have come on after leaving work on the way home. The secretion o f mucus
now becomes profuse, and vomiting, which helps to clear the air passages, may
occur. The congestion o f the bronchioles and alveoli progresses, and, if the
case survives for 48 hours definite pneumonic consolidation may develop. More
frequently a fatal issue results in about 30 hours, the patient remaining con­
scious until near the end.
Every case exhibiting the initial symptoms does not progress to a fatal ter­
mination, and recovery has occurred even after marked collapse and dyspnoea.
Prevention.— Notices warning those employed o f the danger of remaining in
an atmosphere containing nitrous fumes should be posted in every place where
there is any possibility o f these fumes escaping.
Emergency helm ets 1 o f a pattern which can be easily and quickly put on and
provided with a fresh air supply from without should be kept in accessible places
near at hand, and the efficiency o f such helmets should be tested at least once
a month.
R e^ ira tors such as are efficient to intercept dust are useless against gases
and must not be used.
Treatment.— The follow ing routine may usefully be pursued pending the ar­
rival o f a medical m a n :
Make the patient lie down.
Keep him warm.
See that he has plenty o f fresh air.
I f he is blue in the fa c e :
( i ) Administer oxygen; and
(ii) I f he has not been sick, give a drink o f 1 ounce o f salt in 10 ounces of
lukewarm water, and repeat the dose until he is s ic k ;
(iii) Meanwhile, send for a doctor.
Persons even apparently slightly affected must not be allowed to walk home
until permitted to do so by the doctor.
D E R M A T I T IS .

3 4 8 . Disease and its causes.— T h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s e r i o u s d e r m a t i t i s ,
o r e cze m a , c a u se d b y e x p o s u r e to tr in itr o to lu e n e a n d t o t e tr y l h a s
a l r e a d y b e e n r e f e r r e d t o , a n d s i m i l a r t r o u b l e m a y r e s u lt f r o m e x p o ­
su re to fu lm in a te o f m e r c u r y .
A p a r t , h o w e v e r , f r o m th ese s p e c ia l
su b sta n ce s, e c z e m a is lia b le t o o c c u r a m o n g m u n it io n w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d in e n g in e e r in g w o r k s w h o c o m e in c o n t a c t w it h c e r t a in flu id s
u s e d t o l u b r i c a t e a n d t o c o o l m e t a ls .
T w o f o r m s o f in fla m m a t io n o f
t h e s k i n , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , m a y c o e x i s t , r e s u lt , ( i ) y e l l o w p u s t u l e s a n d
b o ils , a n d ( i i ) m o r e g e n e r a l in fla m m a t io n w h ic h in m a r k e d c a s e s d e ­
1 Such helmets can be procured from Messrs. Siebe, Gorman & Co. (L td .), 187, W est­
minster Bridge Road, London, S. E.




174

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

v e lo p s in to t y p ic a l w e e p in g eczem a .
P r o b a b ly th e o ccu r re n c e o f p u s ­
t u le s a n d b o i l s i s clu e t o s e b a c e o u s g l a n d s a n d h a i r f o l l i c l e s b e c o m i n g
b lo c k e d a n d i n f e c t e d w it h o i l y g r im e r u b b e d in b y s o ile d o v e r a lls .
T h e m o r e g e n e r a l in fla m m a t o r y c o n d it io n s a p p e a r t o b e c a u s e d b y th e
d ir e c t a c t io n o f th e flu id s u se d , a c c e n tu a te d b y th e a b r a s iv e e ffe c t o f
f in e p a r t i c l e s o f m e t a l p r o d u c e d d u r i n g m a c h i n i n g p r o c e s s e s .
3 4 9 . Prevention .— C l e a n o v e r a l l s a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n a n d u s e o f
s u it a b le w a s h i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n w i t h h o t w a t e r l a i d o n h a v e p r o v e d
t o b e th e b e s t m e a n s o f p r e v e n t io n .
350. T h e fir s t - a id le a fle t is s u e d b y th e f a c t o r y d e p a r t m e n t o f th e
H o m e O ffic e c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g a d v i c e i n r e g a r d t o e c z e m a f r o m
lu b r ic a tin g o il:
Dermatitis and eczema from oils and fluids used to lubricate and cool metals
can best be prevented by cleanliness of (1 ) the overalls, and (2 ) the skin. All
overalls should be washed weekly, and the hands and forearms daily in warm
water before leaving the factory. Lanoline and castor oil ointment (equal parts)
applied to the skin after washing is a help. When dermatitis and eczema occur
washing should be stopped and a doctor seen at once.

351. E x p e r ie n c e h a s s h o w n th a t i f lu b r ic a t in g a n d c o o lin g flu id s
a r e filt e r e d f r e e f r o m m e ta l p a r t ic le s , a n d i f t h e y c o n t a in a s m a ll
a m o u n t o f so m e a n t is e p t ic , s a y c a r b o lic a c id u p t o 1 p e r c e n t, o r o t h e r
c o a l- t a r a n t is e p t ic , ca s e s o f e c z e m a d o n o t o c c u r .
A n t is e p t ic lu b r i­
c a n t s a n d c o o l i n g f l u i d s a r e r a p i d l y c o m i n g i n t o g e n e r a l u s e in e n g i ­
n e e r i n g s h o p s , a n d c a s e s o £ e c z e m a a r e le s s p r e v a l e n t t h a n f o r m e r l y .




SECTION XIV.—CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, HEATING, AND
LIGHTING.
FACTORY ENVIRONMENT.

352. T h e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t , 1901, s e c tio n 1 ( i ) p r o v id e s
as f o l l o w s :
The follow ing provisions shall apply to every factory as defined by this act,
except a domestic fa c to r y :
(a ) It must be kept in a cleanly state.
(b) It must be kept free from any effluvia arising from any drain, watercloset, privy, urinal, or other nuisance.
(e ) It must not be so overcrowded while work is carried on therein as to be
dangerous or injurious to the health o f the persons employed therein.
( cl) It must be ventilated in such a manner as to render harmless, so far
as is practicable, all the gases, vapors, dust, or other impurities generated in the
course o f the manufacturing process or handicraft carried on therein that may
be injurious to health.

353. I n s u b s e q u e n t s e c tio n s th e s e v a r io u s r e q u ir e m e n t s a r e e la b ­
o r a te d . I t w ill b e c o n v e n ie n t t o d e a l w it h th e m s e p a r a te ly .
CLEANLINESS OE FACTORY.

354. A s h a s a lr e a d y b e e n p o in t e d o u t, th e fir s t p r o v is io n o f th e
f a c t o r y a c t is t h a t t h e w o r k s h o p m u s t b e k e p t i n “ a c l e a n l y s t a t e .”
S e c t io n 1 ( 3 ) d e a ls w it h lim e w a s h in g .
3 5 5 . A h i g h s t a n d a r d o f c le a n l i n e s s n o t o n l y is e s s e n t ia l f o r h e a l t h
b u t a ls o h a s a n im p o r t a n t b e a r in g o n th e s e lf-r e s p e c t o f t h e w o r k e r s .
T h e d if f ic u l t i e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g s u c h a s t a n d a r d a r e f r e q u e n t l y s u b ­
s t a n t i a l , a n d c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n is n e c e s s a r y .
I n th e m a jo r it y o f
m u n i t i o n w o r k s t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h is r e s p e c t ,
b u t in s o m e w o r k s , a n d e s p e c ia lly in th e o ld e r a n d m o r e c r o w d e d o n e s ,
th e c o n d it io n s le a v e m u c h m o r e t o b e d e s ir e d .
I f d u s t is a llo w e d
f r e e l y t o a c c u m u l a t e , it s i n e v i t a b l e c i r c u l a t i o n in t h e a i r r e p r e s e n t s
a m a t e r i a l d a n g e r t o h e a l t h e v e n w h e r e i t is n o t d e r i v e d f r o m p o i s o n ­
o u s su b sta n ce s.
3 5 6 . Flooring .— ( S e c . 8 ( 1 ) . )
I f t h e f l o o r is t o b e k e p t c le a n i t
s h o u ld b e h a r d , s m o o th , d u r a b le , a n d im p e r v io u s .
W h ile flo o r in g
o f c o n c r e te o r s im ila r m a te r ia l m a y b e best f o r th e p a r t s o f a s h o p
w h e r e t h e m a c h i n e r y is p l a c e d a n d f o r p a s s a g e w a y s , i t is n o t t h e
m a t e r ia l m o s t s u ita b le f o r w o r k e r s t o s ta n d o n .
I t is a m a t t e r o f
c o m m o n k n o w l e d g e t h a t s o m e s o f t e r m a t e r i a l s u c h a s w o o d is m u c h
le s s f a t i g u i n g t o s t a n d o n f o r a n y c o n t i n u o u s p e r i o d .
I t is a l s o
w a r m e r f o r th e fe e t — a m a tte r o f n o s m a ll im p o r t a n c e in c o ld




175

176

INDUSTRIAL, H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

w e a t h e r . W h e r e t h e p r o c e s s e s r e n d e r a w e t f l o o r u n a v o i d a b l e i t is
e x tr e m e ly d e s ir a b le , h o w e v e r e ffe c tiv e th e d r a in a g e m a y b e , t o p r o ­
v id e lo w w o o d e n p la t fo r m s u p o n w h ic h th e w o r k e r ca n sta n d .
GENERAL VENTILATION AND HEATING.

357. T h e p r o v is io n s o f
m a tte rs a re as f o l l o w s :

th e

fa c to r y

a ct in

regard

to

th ese tw o

Sec. 7 ( i ) . In every room in any factory or workshop sufficient means o f
ventilation shall be provided and sufficient ventilation shall be maintained.
S e c . 6 ( i ) . In every factory and workshop adequate measures must be taken
for securing and maintaining a reasonable temperature in each room in which
any person is employed, but the measure so taken must not interfere with the
purity o f the air o f any room in which any person is employed.

358. I n th e ir r e p o r t d a te d 1902 th e d e p a r tm e n ta l c o m m itte e o n
th e v e n t ila t io n o f fa c t o r ie s a n d w o r k s h o p s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t —
such a standard o f ventilation should be prescribed for all classes o f factories
and workshops not otherwise specially dealt with, that the proportion o f
carbonic acid in the air at about the breathing level and away from the imme­
diate influence o f any special source o f contamination, such as a person or
light, shall not (except on very foggy days, when no tests should be made, on
account o f the vitiated state o f the outside air) rise during daylight, or after
dark when only electric light is used, beyond 1 2 volumes o f carbonic acid per
30.000 o f air, and that when gas or oil is used for lighting the proportion shall
not exceed 20 volumes after dark or before the first hour after daylight.

359. T h e s ta n d a rd th u s re co m m e n d e d h a s g e n e ra lly b ee n a d o p te d
b y t h e H o m e O ffic e i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r t h e v e n t i l a t i o n o f a f a c ­
t o r y is s u ffi c i e n t w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e a c t .
3 6 0 . T h e f a c t o r y a n d w o r k s h o p a c t is c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e
m in im u m n e c e s s a r y in o r d i n a r y tim e s , b u t p r e s e n t c o n d it io n s a n d
c ir c u m s t a n c e s r e n d e r it n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s id e r th e p r o b le m .o f v e n t ila ­
t io n fr o m a s o m e w h a t d iffe r e n t s ta n d p o in t.
A t p re s e n t th e im p o r ­
ta n c e o f p r o p e r a n d e ffe c t iv e m e th o d s o f v e n t ila t io n a r e in te n s ifie d
b y th e in c r e a s e in th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s (m a n y o f w h o m a r e n e w
t o in d u s tr ia l c o n d it io n s ) , b y th e lo n g h o u r s o f w o r k , a n d b y th e c o n ­
tin u o u s o c c u p a t io n o f th e s h o p s b y d a y a n d b y n ig h t.
F r e q u e n tly
t h e r e i s n o i n t e r v a l i n wT i c h n a t u r a l v e n t i l a t i o n c a n r e s t o r e a v i t i a t e d
h
a tm o s p h e r e , a n d e a c h s h if t su cc e e d s to th e c o n d it io n s o f v e n t ila t io n
le ft b y its p r e d e c e s s o r .
T h e o b je c t s o f v e n t ila t io n a re t o p r o v id e —
(a) A i r w h i c h i s p u r e a n d c l e a n f o r t h e w o r k e r s t o b r e a t h e ;
( i ) A n a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h is s t i m u l a t i n g a n d r e f r e s h i n g .
3 6 1 . A i r w h i c h is e n t i r e l y p u r e f r o m t h e c h e m i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w
m a y a ffo r d a n a t m o s p h e r e o f a m o s t d e p r e s s in g c h a r a c t e r , w h ic h is
h i g h l y d e t r i m e n t a l t o p h y s i c a l e f f ic ie n c y .
I t is n o t e n o u g h t o a i m
o n l y a t c le a n a ir , a s h a s b e e n o f t e n th e c u s t o m in t h e p a s t , o r o n l y




CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, HEATING, AND LIGHTING.

at a s tim u la tin g a tm o s p h e r e .

177

B o t h o b je c t s m u s t b e c o n s ta n tly b o r n e

m m in d .
3 6 2 . Clean air.— T h e

im p u r it ie s w h ic h a re lia b le to b e a d d e d t o
t lie a i r i n s i d e t h e w o r k s h o p a r e —
(a) C a r b o n i c a c i d g i v e n o f f i n t h e b r e a t h o f h u m a n b e i n g s , a n d b y
fir e s , g a s l i g h t s , o r a n y o t h e r f o r m o f o p e n c o m b u s t i o n .
C a r b o n ic
a c i d i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e f o u n d i n r o o m s a n d f a c t o r i e s is h a r m le s s , b u t
i t a f f o r d s a u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f ic ie n c y o f v e n t i l a t i o n .
I f it is
e ff ic ie n t , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c a r b o n i c a c i d w i l l n o t m e a s u r a b l y e x c e e d
th a t in th e a tm o sp h e re .
T h i s is t h e i d e a l t o b e a i m e d a t , r a t h e r th a n ,
th e p r a c t ic e h it h e r t o f o l l o w e d o f k e e p in g th e a c id b e lo w 12 p a r t s
p e r 1 0 ,0 0 0 o f a i r i n d a y t i m e a n d b e l o w 2 0 a t n i g h t .
( b) V a r i o u s i l l - d e f i n e d v o l a t i l e s u b s t a n c e s a r i s i n g f r o m h u m a n
b e in g s , f r o m th e s k in a n d th e a lim e n t a r y c a n a l, e s p e c ia lly w h e n p e r ­
s o n a l c le a n l i n e s s is d e f e c t i v e .
T h e s e su b sta n ce s a re p r o b a b ly h a r m ­
le s s i n t h e m s e lv e s , b u t t h e y e x c i t e a f e e l i n g o f d i s c o m f o r t o r e r e n o f
d is g u s t .
(c) B a c t e r i a a r i s i n g f r o m h u m a n b e i n g s f o r m a m o r e d e f i n i t e a n d
m o r e d ir e c t ly h a r m fu l s o r t o f im p u r ity .
C o ld s , so re th r o a t, in flu ­
en z a a n d th e lik e a re la r g e ly s p r e a d f r o m a n in fe c t e d in d iv id u a l t o
h is n e i g h b o r s b y o r g a n i s m s w h i c h a r e c a r r i e d i n t h e a i r . T h o u g h
t h e s e d is e a s e s m a y b e r e g a r d e d a s t r i v i a l i n c h a r a c t e r , t h e r e c a n b e
n o d o u b t as t o th e a m o u n t o f in d u s t r ia l in e ffic ie n c y w h ic h th e y ca u se .
O f d is e a s e s m o r e s e r i o u s a s r e g a r d s l i f e a s w e l l a s h e a l t h , t u b e r c u l o s i s
o f th e lu n g s is u n d o u b t e d ly f o u n d d is s e m in a te d in a lik e m a n n e r .
( d ) I n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s m a y g i v e r is e t o v a r i e d i m p u r i t i e s s u c h
as d u s t a n d fu m e s . S o m e a re s im p ly u n p le a s a n t, o t h e r s a re d ir e c t ly
h a r m fu l. F u lle r r e fe r e n c e t o th ese h a s b e e n m a d e in S e c t io n X I I I .
3 6 3 . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e k i n d o f i m p u r i t y p r e s e n t in a n y p a r ­
t ic u la r w o r k s h o p w il l v a r y w id e ly w it h th e p r e v a le n t c o n d it io n s .
G iv e n n o r m a l c o n d it io n s , im p u r it ie s c a n b e r e m o v e d b y a n e ffe c tiv e
s y s te m o f g e n e r a l v e n t ila t io n .
3 6 4 . Stimulating atmosphere } — A t f i r s t s i g h t a w o r k s h o p m a y
1 Whether a workshop has an atmosphere which is satisfactory in this sense may gen­
erally be judged by the sensations, especially on first entering from the outside air.
More accurate information may be obtained by the study of the particular way in which
a “ stuffy ” atmosphere may be made “ fresh.” The ordinary thermometer measures the
temperature of the a ir ; the wet-bulb thermometer determines the humidity and gives an
important measure of the facility with which the body can be cooled by sweating. These
instruments, however, give only very imperfect data as to the cooling and skin-stimulating
properties of any atmosphere, and it is necessary to have in addition some measure of
the rate at which a warm body will lose heat.
In the observations made for the committee by Dr. Leonard Ilill, the rate of cooling
has been investigated by means of the K ata thermometer (purchasable from J. Hicks, 8 ,
Hatton Garden, E. C .). A large bulbed spirit thermometer (of standard size) is u sed ;
this is heated in hot water, and the rate of cooling measured by taking the time which
the meniscus takes to drop from 100° F. to 9 5 ° F. while the instrument is suspended in
the atmosphere. This gives the dry reading, and shows the rate of cooling due to radia­
tion and convection. To take the wet reading the bulb of the K ata thermometer is coy8 0 9 3 5 0— 19^------ 12




178

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

h a v e so la r g e a c u b ic c a p a c it y in r e la tio n t o th e n u m b e r o f w o r k ­
p e o p le a n d th e k in d o f p r o c e s s in o p e r a t io n th a t it d o e s n o t r e q u ir e
a n y d e f i n i t e v e n t i l a t i o n . T h i s is w h o l l y f a l s e . I n l a r g e s h o p s t h e r e
i s a m a s s o f s t a g n a n t a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h is o b v i o u s l y d e p r e s s i n g a w l
r e la x in g , a n d f a i l s e n t ir e ly t o p r o v id e th e s t im u la t in g e ffe ct o f c o o l
a i r i n g e n t l e m o t i o n w h i c h is p r o v o c a t i v e o f t h e b e s t p h y s i c a l a n d
m e n t a l e x e r tio n . T h is e x h ila r a t in g in flu e n c e o f a t m o s p h e r e d e p e n d s
e s s e n t i a l l y u p o n t h e c o o l i n g o f t h e s k i n b y m o v i n g a i r , a n d is c l o s e l y
c o n n e c t e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f t e m p e r a t u r e a n d h e a t . C o o l a i r is m o r e
s tim u la tin g th a n w a r m , a n d m o r e c o n d u c iv e to p h y s ic a l e ffo r t. D a m p
w a r m a i r is m o r e r e l a x i n g t h a n d r y a i r a t t h e s a m e t e m p e r a t u r e .
T h e s e c o n s id e r a t io n s a re f u l l y b o r n e o u t b y d ir e c t e x p e r im e n t a t io n in
t h e l a b o r a t o r y , a n d t h e d e s i r e d a t m o s p h e r e is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y
b e in g —
(a) C o o l r a t h e r t h a n h o t ;
(b) D r y r a t h e r t h a n d a m p ;
(c) D i v e r s e in i t s t e m p e r a t u r e i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s a n d a t d i f f e r e n t
t im e s r a th e r th a n u n ifo r m a n d m o n o t o n o u s ;
(d) M o v i n g r a t h e r t h a n s t i l l .
365.
T h e e x p la n a tio n o f th e fa m ilia r c o n d it io n s o f su ch an a
m o s p h e r e a p p e a r s t o lie in th e c o o l in g a n d v a r y in g s tim u la t io n o f
t h e s k in o f th e e x p o s e d p a r t s o f th e b o d y . T h e c o n c e n t r a t io n o f a
c u r r e n t o f a i r o n t o o s m a l l a p a r t o f t h e b o d y o n l y c a u s e s w h a t is
c o m m o n ly k n o w n as a d r a u g h t.
I t is a c o m m o n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a
s lig h t ly o p e n w in d o w cau ses a d ra u g h t, w h e re a s a w id e ly o p e n w in ­
d o w d o e s n ot.
e r e d w it h a d a m p m u s lin g lo v e a n d t h e o p e r a t io n r e p e a te d , g i v i n g t h e r a t e o f c o o lin g
w h e n e v a p o r a t io n is a d d e d t o r a d ia t io n a n d c o n v e c t io n .
T h e r a t e o f c o o lin g a t b o d y
t e m p e r a t u r e is r e c o r d e d b y m e a n s o f a f a c t o r (d e t e r m in e d f o r e a c h K a t a t h e r m o m e t e r )
in m ille c a lo r ie s p e r sq u a r e c e n t im e t e r p e r s e c o n d .
T h e n u m b e r o f s e c o n d s o c c u p ie d in
t h e f a l l f r o m 1 0 0 ° t o 9 5 ° is d iv id e d in t o t h e f a c t o r .
I n a d d it io n t o t h e r e a d in g s o f t h e K a t a t h e r m o m e t e r , t h o s e o f t h e w e t a n d d r y b u lb
th e rm o m e te r w ere ta k e n .
T h e r e c o r d s s h o w h o w w it h th e s a m e w e t a n d d r y b u lb r e a d ­
in g s , t h e r a t e o f c o o lin g m a y b e s t r i k i n g ly d if f e r e n t.
T h e K a t a t h e r m o m e t e r , lik e t h e
h u m a n b o d y , n o te s t h e r a t e o f c h a n g e , w h ile t h e t h e r m o m e t e r n o t e s a g iv e n s t a t e o r t h e
r e s u lt o f c h a n g e . T h u s t h e K a t a t h e r m o m e t e r t a k e s c o u n t o f th e m o v e m e n t o f th e a ir a n d
in d ic a t e s c o n d itio n s o f c o m f o r t .
T h e f o llo w i n g e x a m p le s a r e g iv e n in illu s t r a t i o n

o f t h e r e s u lt s o b ta in e d .

T h e fir s t s o t

o f r e a d in g s a r e f o r a b r ig h t , p le a s a n t d a y in M a y , a n d t h e o t h e r f o u r a r e f o r t y p ic a l
s h o p s a s a c o n t r a s t o f t y p e s o f “ b a d ” a n d “ g o o d ” sh o p s .
A c o m p a r is o n o f t h e fir s t,
s e c o n d , a n d t h ir d s e t s o f r e a d in g s s h o w s t h a t w it h t h e s a m e t e m p e r a t u r e w id e ly d iffe r e n t
r a t e s o f c o o lin g m a y

e x is t .

Rate of cooling at body temperature in mille calories per square centimeter per second.

W et
b u lb.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

B right, pleasant d a y in M a y , out of d o o r s................
Brass foundry (g o o d ) ............................................................
Machine shop (b a d )................................................................
Cartridge annealing and cleaning (b ad) ..................
Cartridge
and cleaning (g o o d )...................




D ry
b u lb .

60
60
61
6 4 .5
54 .5

68
72
72
8 0 .5
6 0 .0

R a d ia ­
tion, con­ R adia­
vection, tion , con­
evapor­
vection.
ation.

27 .2
24
15
17.5
24 .0

7 .5
7.3
4 .6
3 .0
9 .0

Evapo­
ration.

19.7
16.7
10.4
14,5
15.0

CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, HEATING, AND LIGHTING.

179

W A Y S AND M EANS.

366. T h e v e n t ila t io n a n d h e a t in g o f e v e r y w o r k s h o p p r o v id e s a
s e p a ra te p ro b le m . T h e r e is n o u n ifo r m o r s te r e o ty p e d m e th o d w h ic h
w i l l g i v e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u lt s e v e r y w h e r e . T h e m be nasd o o t e d
ea
tp
m u s t b e s u b je c t t o lo c a l c o n s id e r a t io n s in e a c h ca se , a n d th e g e n e r a l
l i n e s a l o n e c a n b e 'i n d i c a t e d h e r e :
(a) C u b i c c a p a c i t y is t h e f i r s t e s s e n t ia l.
T h o u g h th e m in im u m o f
2 50 c u b ic fe e t p e r w o r k e r (4 0 0 d u r in g a n y p e r io d o f o v e r tim e ) p r e ­
s c r ib e d b y s e c tio n 3 ( 1 ) o f th e f a c t o r y a c t is s e ld o m in f r i n g e d , t h e
p r o v is io n o f a d e q u a te v e n t ila t io n m a y b e r e n d e r e d d iffic u lt o w i n g t o
t h e c lo s e p r o x im it y o f th e w o r k e r s t o o n e a n o th e r . T h e y s h o u ld a t
l e a s t b e s o a r r a n g e d t h a t t h e y d o n o t c o u g h o r s n e e z e i n e a c h o t h e r ’s
fa c e s .
(b) D e f i n i t e o p e n i n g s c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e o u t s i d e a i r s h o u l d
b e p r o v id e d in e v e r y w o r k s h o p , p r e f e r a b ly o p p o s it e e a c h o th e r . T h e
a v e r a g e m a c h in e s h o p a n d a ll s im ila r o n e -s t o r y s h o p s s h o u ld b e p r o ­
v id e d w it h lo u v e r s a lo n g th e le n g t h o f th e r o o f r id g e s , o r , b e tte r , w it h
n a r r o w o p e n in g s w h e r e th e r o o f m e e ts th e w a ll. S u c h lo u v e r s s h o u ld
b e p e r m a n e n t ly o p e n , a n d w o u ld g e n e r a lly in s u r e th a t th e a t m o s p h e r e
w il l a t le a s t n o t b e g r o s s ly b a d .
(c) S u c h f i x e d o p e n i n g s d o n o t , h o w e v e r r a l l o w o f t h e f l e x i b i l i t y
r e q u ir e d t o m e e t v a r y i n g in t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l c o n d it io n s , a n d s h o u ld
b e s u p p le m e n te d b y th e u se o f d o o r s a n d w in d o w s (w h ic h w ill o p e n )
a n d fa n s . F a n s a r e s p e c ia lly v a lu a b le t o m e e t e m e r g e n c ie s a n d a b ­
n o r m a l c o n d itio n s a n d p r o v id e f o r th e t h o r o u g h c le a n in g o f th e a ir
d u r i n g m e a lt i m e s .
(d) L o c a l s o u r c e s o f i m p u r i t y a n d h e a t p r o d u c t i o n s h o u l d b e d e a l t
w it h b y th e p r o v is io n o f h o o d s , e x h a u s ts , e tc .
(S e e , a ls o , p a r s . 3 7 2 3 7 9 .) S m o k e a n d f u m e s f r o m n e i g h b o r i n g c h i m n e y s m a y a l s o r e q u i r e
a tte n tio n .
3 67. A s a r e s u lt o f a d e t a ile d in q u ir y in t o t h e c o n d it io n s o f v e n t ila ­
t io n a t an im p o r t a n t fa c t o r y , a m e m b e r o f th e c o m m itte e r e p o r t s :
Tlie skylight method o f ventilation is a bad on e; unfortunately it pertains
throughout the factory, both in old and new shops* The opening o f a skylight
leads to a local draft, and this usually entails its cloture. The skylights, too,
take time and trouble to open and shut, and rain comes in when they are open
and may rust metal work upon which it falls. F or these reasons the opening
o f the skylights is generally neglected, except at the intervals when a special
set o f men carry out the duty* Moreover, skylights opened here and there do
not ventilate the shop in all its parts. The warm, smelly air rises up against the
r o o f and does not escape in parts where no skylights are open. A very great
improvement would be made in all these shops if louvers w^ere introduced, run­
ning continuously along the whole length o f each serration o f the roof. These
louvers would allow’ a ceaseless, draftless, and equal ventilation o f every part
o f the shops. It is regrettable that the new shops should not have been designed
with such louvers, for the efficiency o f their action is demonstrated in many
factories.




180

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

The smell o f oil and soapsuds can be lessened by strict attention to cleanliness.
Similarly, the cleaning o f machines and floors is the first thing to pay attention
to in regard to the smell o f the machine shops. In the stress o f present condi­
tions and lack o f labor cleaning is sure to suffer. Continuous roof louvers
would insure ceaseless change o f air and a cooler temperature, and these
together would insure much fresher atmosphere. The monotonous smell and
lack o f freshness o f the air nervously disturbs the more sensitive men who are
working long hours and at a high pitch, men some o f whom have been used to an
open-air life and who, acquainted with the popular but erroneous doctrine of
ventilation, concern themselves over chemical poisons in the air, the presence
©f which they believe to be indicated by the close smell.
In the days o f hot summer weather there is no means provided o f cooling the
workers beyond the stirring o f the air produced by the shafting and belts. In
some o f the shops the committee saw in action impulsion fans, each placed
high up on the wall o f the factory with a sheet o f canvas placed below it and
stretching out into the shop so as to act as a baffle. These fans sent a grateful
current o f moving air through the shop in hot weather. Such an installation
repays itself by the increased efficiency o f the workers.

368. I t is u n n e c e s s a r y t o e m p h a s iz e th e c lo s e c o n n e c t io n w h ic h e x ­
is t s b 'e t w e e n v e n t i l a t i o n a n d t e m p e r a t u r e . F o r a s h o p t o b e t o o h o t i s
d is a d v a n t a g e o u s f r o m e v e r y p o in t o f v ie w , b u t th e s t im u la t io n o f t o o
c o ld a ir m a y b e m o r e t h a n c o u n t e r b a la n c e d b y th e p h y s ic a l d e p r e s s io n
w h i c h r e s u lt s , a n d i n c o l d w e a t h e r e f f ic ie n c y m a y d e t e r i o r a t e b e c a u s e
th e w o r k e r b e c o m e s u n c o m f o r t a b ly c h ille d .
I n h is m e m o r a n d u m o n T h e C a u s a t io n o f I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t s ,
D r . Y e r n o n sta tes t h a t —
At each o f the three shell factories B, C, and D the women’ s accidents greatly
increased during cold weather. The men’s accidents increased, though to a less
extent, at two o f the three factories, and but for exceptional conditions -would
have increased at the third factory likewise. At factory A there was no detect­
able seasonal change in the number o f accidents, and so there can be very little
doubt that if the shell factories had been more adequately heated the whole o f
the seasonal increment o f accidents might have been avoided. The data col­
lected at factory A showT that in order to reduce accidents to a minimum the
temperature should be kept at 65 to 69°, but probably not much harm would be
done so long as it was not allowed to fall below about 55°. As the temperature
falls below 50°, however, there can be little doubt that accidents increase very
rapidly. An external temperature at freezing point probably meant an internal
temperature o f about 45° at factory C, and a temperature o f 40° or less at cer­
tain parts o f factory B, and we saw that under such conditions the women’s
accidents were, respectively, 48 per cent and 143 per cent greater than when the
external temperature was above 47°.

369. D r . V e r n o n a d d s th e o p in io n th a t “ th e o p t im u m te m p e r a tu r e
f o r a c c i d e n t l i m i t a t i o n is h i g h e r t h a n t h e o p t i m u m f o r o u t p u t . ”
W h a t is t h e b e s t t e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d s o n . th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w o r k
a n d th e h a b it o f th e w o r k e r .
S e d e n t a r y w o r k e r s r e q u ir e a w a r m e r
a tm o s p h e r e th a n th o s e e n g a g e d in m o r e v io le n t la b o r . I t m a y , h o w ­
e v e r, b e s u g g e s te d th a t w h e n th e a ir is s ta g n a n t th e te m p e r a tu re
s h o u ld n o t e x c e e d a b o u t 6 0 ° F ., th o u g h it m a y b e s o m e w h a t h ig h e r
w h e n t h e a i r is i n m o t i o n .




CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, H EATING, AND LIGHTING.

181

37 0 . M e a n s o f h e a t in g a re u s u a lly r e s t r ic t e d b y p r a c t ic a l c o n s id e r ­
a tio n s t o s o m e s y s te m o f s te a m * h e a tin g o r h o t -w a t e r p i p e s ; th e id e a l
f o r m is , n o d o u b t , b y r a d i a n t h e a t , a s m a y b e s e e n f r o m t h e e x c e l l e n t
a n d i n v ig o r a t in g c o n d it io n s w h ic h p r e v a il in m a n y s m ith ie s a n d
fo r g e s .
G a s -h e a te c l r a d ia t o r s in w h ic h th e b u r n t g a s e s c a p e s in t o
th e s h o p a r e n o t p e r m is s ib le .
A p la n b y w h ic h w a r m e d a ir i
p u m p e d in t o th e s h o p (c o m m o n ly k n o w n as th e “ p le n u m s y s te m ” )
te n d s t o cre a te a n a tm o s p h e r e o f a h ig h l y r e la x in g a n d d e p r e s s in g
c h a r a cte r. T h e m e a n s o f v e n tila tio n s h o u ld b e k e p t s e p a r a te fr o m
th a t o f h e a t in g , a n d th e “ p le n u m s y s te m ” s h o u ld o n ly b e u se d to
p u m p in c o o l a ir in su m m e r.
3 7 1 . Maintenance.— T h e m o s t c o m p l e t e i n s t a l l a t i o n f o r v e n t i l a t i o n
a n d h e a t in g m a y b e r e n d e r e d in e ffe c t iv e b y in ju d ic io u s m a n a g e m e n t
o r fa ilu r e in p r o p e r o r c o n t in u o u s m a in te n a n c e .
R a p id ch a n g e s o f
c lim a t e a t d iff e r e n t t im e s o f th e d a y , v a r y i n g c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f u se
a n d o c c u p a t io n , a ll r e q u ir e a p p r o p r ia t e t r e a tm e n t. M is m a n a g e m e n t
is f r e q u e n t l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t is t h e p r e s c r i b e d d u t y o f n o o n e
in p a r t ic u la r t o o b s e r v e th e p r e v a ilin g c o n d it io n s a n d t o p u t in
o p e r a tio n th e a p p r o p r ia t e a p p lia n c e s f o r th e s u p p ly o f a ir a n d h e a t,
a n d th e c o m m itte e a re o f o p in io n th a t s o m e r e s p o n s ib le p e r s o n s h o u ld
b e s p e c i a l l y d e t a i l e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e . W h i l e i t is f o r t h e m a n a g e ­
m e n t t o p r o v i d e t h e m e a n s , i t is f o r t h e w o r k e r s t o a i d i n t h e i r u s e
a n d a p p lic a tio n .
T h e e f f e c t i v e m a i n t e n a n c e o f v e n t i l a t i o n is t h e
m o r e im p o r t a n t o w in g t o th e la r g e n u m b e r o f w o m e n n o w e m p lo y e d
in m u n it io n w o r k s , s in c e w o m e n a re e s p e c ia lly s u s c e p t ib le t o th e
e ffe c ts o f d e fe c t iv e v e n t ila t io n .
LOCAL A N D E X H A U S T V E N T IL A T I O N .

372. I n a d d it io n t o th e g e n e r a l p r o v is io n s in r e g a r d t o v e n t ila t io n ,
th e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t c o n t a in s v a r io u s s p e c ia l p r o v is io n s in
r e g a r d to th e p r o v is io n o f lo c a l o r e x h a u s t v e n tila tio n in th e ca se o f
d a n g e r o u s o r u n h e a lt h y in d u s tr ie s .
S e ctio n 74 p r o v id e s —
I f in a factory or workshop where grinding, glazing, or polishing on a wheel,
or any process is carried on by which dust or any gas, vapor, or other impurity
is generated and inhaled by the workers to an injurious extent, it appears to
an inspector that such inhalation could be to a great extent prevented by the
use o f a fan or other mechanical means, the inspector may direct that a fan or
other mechanical means o f a proper construction for preventing such inhalation
be provided within a reasonable tim e; and if the same is not provided, main­
tained, and used, the factory or workshop shall be deemed not to be kept in
conform ity with this act.

S e c tio n 79 p r o v id e s th a t—
Where the secretary o f state is satisfied that any manufacture, machinery,
plant, process, or description o f manual labor used in factories or workshops




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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

is dangerous or injurious to health or dangerous to life or limh, either generally
or in the case o f women, children, or a**y other class o f persons, he may
certify that manufacture, machinery, plant, process, or description o f manual
labor to be dangerous, and thereupon the secretary o f state may, subject to
the provisions o f this act, make such regulations as appear to him to be reason­
ably practicable and to meet the necessity o f the case.

373. L o c a l o r e x h a u s t v e n t ila t io n is n o r m a lly r e q u ir e d t o r e m o v e
fr o m th e a tm o s p h e r e d u s t, h e a te d fu m e s , o r v o la t ile v a p o r s .
The
e s s e n t ia l s t o s u c h v e n t i l a t i o n a r e —
(a) A d u c t a l o n g w h i c h a f l o w o f a i r i s m a i n t a i n e d i n a d e f i n i t e
d ir e c t io n .
( b) S u i t a b l e o p e n i n g o r o p e n i n g s i n t h e d u c t , t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e
d a n g e r o u s su b sta n ce s a re w ith d r a w n .
(c) S u i t a b l e o p e n i n g s f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n o f a i r i n t o t h e w o r k r o o m .
3 74. N e a r ly e v e r y w o r k p la c e h a s s p e c ia l p r o b le m s in th e s o lv in g
o f w h ic h e x p e r t a d v ic e m a y b e n e ce ssa r y . T h e r e a re , h o w e v e r , c e r ta in
p r in c ip le s t h a t a r e g e n e r a lly a p p lic a b le t o a ll s u ch in s ta n c e s .
The
d u c t a l o n g w h i c h a f l o w o f a i r is m a i n t a i n e d s h o u l d b e o f s u f f i c i e n t
l e n g t h a n d s iz e . I t m u s t n o t c o n t a i n b e n d s s o s h a r p a s t o i m p e d e
th e flo w o f a ir.
T h e o p e n in g o r o p e n in g s th r o u g h w h ic h th e a ir
e n te r s th e d u c t m u s t n o t b e t o o s m a ll o r th e y m a y b e c o m e c h o k e d
w it h d u st. T h e o p e n in g s s h o u ld h a v e h o o d s s o a r r a n g e d as t o s u r ­
r o u n d so f a r as p o s s ib le th e s e a t o f o r ig in o f th e s u b sta n ce t o b e
r e m o v e d . I n th e ca se o f d u s t f r o m a r e v o lv in g w h e e l, th e h o o d a n d
d u c t s h o u ld b e p la c e d so as t o in t e r c e p t th e d u s t w h ic h is t h r o w n
ta n g e n tia lly f r o m th e w h e e l a n d t o c a tc h d u s t w h ic h w o u ld o t h e r ­
w is e f a l l t o th e g r o u n d ; th e d u s t t h e n c o m e s u n d e r t h e in flu e n c e o f
t h e a i r c u r r e n t i n t h e h o o d a n d is d r a w n i n t o t h e d u c t , w h i l e t h e
a i r c u r r e n t i t s e l f is a s s i s t e d b y t h e a i r t h r o w n o f f b y t h e w h e e l .
W h e r e d u s t is c r e a te d b y m a n u a l la b o r th e o p e r a t iv e s h o u ld s ta n d
o r s it f a c in g th e o p e n in g o f th e h o o d s o th a t th e c u r r e n t o f a ir d r a w s
t h e d u s t a w a y f r o m h im .
375. F o r h e a te d fu m e s th e h o o d s h o u ld b e b e ll-m o u t h e d , a n d its
lo w e r e n d s h o u ld e n v e lo p a n d e x t e n d b e lo w t h e p la c e f r o m w h ic h th e
fu m e s o r ig in a te .
T h e o p e n in g o f th e h o o d s h o u ld b e a t s u c h a n
a n g le as t o p r e v e n t a c c u m u la t io n o f d u s t, o r , in th e ca se o f h e a te d
fu m e s , t o p r e v e n t th e e x p a n d in g g a se s f r o m r e b o u n d in g a n d e s c a p in g
lik e s m o k e fr o m th e b a d ly c o n s tr u c te d c h im n e y .
V o la t ile su b sta n ce s
a r e d iffic u lt t o lo c a liz e . I f , a s is u s u a lly th e c a s e w h e n n o x io u s v a p o r s
h a v e t o b e d e a l t w i t h , t h e v a p o r is h e a v i e r t h a n a i r , t h e o p e n i n g s t o
th e d u s t m u s t b e a t th e g r o u n d le v e l a n d as n e a r as p r a c tic a b le to th e
p la c e w h e r e th e v a p o r is g iv e n o ff.
376. T h e r e m o v a l o f d u s t o r v o la t ile s u b s ta n ce s is g e n e r a lly b e s t
e ffe c te d b y a c u r r e n t o f a ir p r o d u c e d b y m e c h a n ic a l m e a n s.
G en­
e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , w h e r e a k e e n d r a u g h t , a s f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f d u s t , is




CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, H EATING, AND LIGHTING.

183

r e q u ir e d , p r e s s u r e fa n s s h o u ld b e e m p lo y e d , s in c e th e s e fa n s , t h o u g h
r e q u ir in g m o r e p o w e r t o d r iv e th e m , c a n w o r k a g a in s t c o n s id e r a b le
p re s s u r e a n d s m a lle r d u c ts m a y b e u sed .
W h e r e , o n th e o th e r h a n d ,
la r g e v o lu m e s o f a ir a re t o b e r e m o v e d , v o lu m e fa n s c a n b e m o r e
e c o n o m ic a lly e m p lo y e d , b u t w it h su ch fa n s a tte n tio n t o th e s e c tio n a l
a r e a o f t h e d u c t s is o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e .
T h e d u cts m u st n ev er b e
c o n s tr ic te d at a n y p o in t ; th e to ta l area o f th e o p e n in g m u s t b e g r e a te r
t h a n th a t o f th e fa n , a n d a ll s h a r p b e n d s in th e d u c t m u st b e a v o id e d .
F u r t h e r , th e d e liv e r y s id e o f th e fa n m u st n o t b e im p e d e d o r s o p la c e d
as t o b e e x p o s e d t o th e a c t io n o f w in d .
377. H e a t e d fu m e s c a n u s u a lly b e r e m o v e d w it h o u t u s in g m e c h a n i­
c a l p o w e r , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e d u c t is v e r t i c a l a n d o f a m p l e d i a m e t e r
a n d h e ig h t.
D o w n d r a f t s s h o u ld b e g u a r d e d a g a in s t b y th e p r o v i ­
s io n o f w in d c o w ls o r b y o t h e r m e a n s.
378. T h e d is t r ib u t io n a n d s iz e o f o p e n in g s f o r th e a d m is s io n o f a ir
t o t h e w o r k r o o m is a m a t t e r o f e s s e n t ia l i m p o r t a n c e .
T o o b ta in a n
in t e r c h a n g e o f a ir a n d so se cu re g e n e r a l v e n t ila t io n , th e se o p e n in g s
s h o u ld b e p la c e d as f a r as p o s s ib le fr o m th e e x h a u s t o p e n in g s , p r e f e r ­
a b ly o n th e o p p o s it e s id e o f th e w o r k r o o m , a n d , t o a v o id d r a f t s , s u ch
o p e n in g s s h o u ld c o m p r is e a n a rea th r e e tim e s th a t o f th e e x h a u s t
o p e n in g s .
W h e r e v o l a t i l e v a p o r s a r e b e i n g d e a l t w i t h , i t is s p e c i a l l y
im p o r t a n t th a t th e o p e n in g s s h o u ld b e a m p le a n d s h o u ld b e a r r a n g e d
h ig h u p in th e w o r k r o o m .
T h e s u p p l y o f i n c o m in g s a i r m a y .in s o m e
ca ses b e in s u r e d b y th e u se o f a p re s s u r e fa n d r i v i n g in a ir t h r o u g h
w e ll-d is t r ib u t e d o p e n in g s .
370.
E x p e r ie n c e s h o w s t h a t in s t a lla t io n s w h ic h a re in th e m s e lv e
s a t i s f a c t o r y f r e q u e n t l y f a i l t o e f f e c t t h e i r p u r p o s e t h r o u g h i n s u f f i c ie n t
a tte n tio n t o t h e ir c a re a n d m a in te n a n c e .
H o o d s b ecom e d eta ch ed
fr o m d u c ts , h o le s a re b r o k e n in to th e d u c ts , a n d d u c ts h a v e b ee n
f o u n d b lo c k e d w it h e v e r y k in d o f d e b r is .
T h e w h o le in s t a lla t io n
m a y b e im p a ir e d b y a d u s t -c o lle c t in g a p p a r a t u s w it h e x it s o f in a d e ­
q u a te area.
. L IG H T IN G .

380.
T h e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t d o e s n o t c o n ta in a n y p r o v
s io n in r e g a r d t o th e l ig h t i n g o f fa c t o r ie s . T h e q u e s tio n h a s , h o w e v e r ,
b e e n e x h a u s t iv e ly d e a lt w it h in th e r e p o r t o f th e d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m ­
m itte e o n l i g h t i n g in f a c t o r ie s a n d w o r k s h o p s , p u b lis h e d in 1 9 1 5 .
T h e e s s e n t ia l s o f g o o d l i g h t i n g a r e s u m m a r i z e d a s—
( « ) Adequacy;
(h)
A reasonable degree o f constancy and uniform ity o f illumination over
the necessary area o f w o r k ;
(c ) The placing or shading o f lamps so that the light from them does not
fall directly on the eyes o f an operative when engaged oil his work or when
looking horizontally across the w orkroom ;
(d) The placing o f lights so as to avoid the casting o f extraneous shadows on
the work.




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INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

3 8 1 . A n e x p e r t w it n e s s b e f o r e th e c o m m it t e e th u s s u m m a r iz e d th e
p r i n c i p a l e ffe c ts o f g o o d l i g h t i n g :
(a ) Tlie quality o f work and output both suffer if the illumination is inade­
quate, particularly in the-case o f delicate operations often called for in munition
factories. Adequate illumination assisted the supervision o f workers, with the
result that carelessness and errors on the part o f newly trained workers were
more readily detected, and instances in which a worker required a rest were
noticed more speedily.
(b) Inadequate illumination, by adding to the difficulties o f skilled labor, in­
creases the nervous strain on operators and reacts on their physical condition.
( c) The risk o f accident is in many cases increased by inadequate lighting.
(d) In cases where machines do not receive sufficient attention the risk o f
breakdowns is increased.
(e) It is generally recognized that operators work more cheerfully in welllighted room s; bad lighting, on the other hand, has a depressing effect on the
spirits, and thus affects the operator's capacity for work.

.

3 8 2 . N a t u r a l l i g h t i n g is t o b e p r e f e r r e d t o a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g o n
g r o u n d s o f h e a lt h as w e ll as o f e c o n o m y . W h e r e it c a n b e p r o v id e d ,
r o o f l i g h t i n g is g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o l a t e r a l l i g h t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t
ca n b e a r r a n g e d th a t th e lig h t en ters fr o m th e n o r th .
In a good
s y s t e m o f r o o f l i g h t i n g t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n is v e r y u n i f o r m . I n m o d e r n
f a c t o r i e s w h e r e l a t e r a l l i g h t i n g is e m p l o y e d a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e w a l l s
a r e d e v o t e d t o w i n d o w s , b u t i t is e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e is a l i m i t t o t h e
w id th o f th e r o o m b e y o n d w h ic h th e illu m in a tio n fa lls b e lo w w h a t
is a d e q u a t e . W h a t t h i s w i d t h is w i l l d e p e n d p a r t l y u p o n t h e n a t u r e
o f th e w o r k t o b e d o n e in th e s h o p a n d p a r t ly o n th e e x te n t t o w h ic h
l ig h t is im p e d e d b y o u t s id e o b s ta c le s s u ch as n e ig h b o r in g b u ild in g s
o r in s id e o b s ta c le s s u ch as m a c h in e r y .
3 83. T h e e ffe c t o f l ig h t - c o lo r e d w a lls a n d w h it e c e ilin g s o n th e
g e n e r a l b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e r o o m s a n d i n f o r m i n g a n e f f e c t i v e back-*
g r o u n d t o d a r k o b je c t s s h o u ld n o t b e o v e r lo o k e d .
S o m e tim e s th e
n a tu r a l lig h t in g m a y be im p r o v e d b y d e fle c tin g v e r tic a l lig h t in to
th e r o o m b y m e a n s o f r e fle c to r s o r p r is m a t ic g la s s o r b y w h it e n in g
th e s u r fa c e o f a n e x te r n a l w a ll o r b u ild in g w h ic h o b s tr u c ts th e lig h t .
T h e p o s it io n o f p e r m a n e n t w o r k in g p o in t s s h o u ld b e so a d ju s te d in
r e la t io n t o th e w in d o w s a n d t o in t e r n a l o b s ta c le s o f w h a te v e r k in d
as t o se cu re so f a r as p r a c t ic a b le a d e q u a te lig h t f o r e a ch .
384. T h e n e c e s s ity f o r r e g u la r ly c le a n in g th e w in d o w s o n th e in n e r
a n d o u t e r s u r fa c e s c a n n o t b e t o o s t r o n g ly in s is te d o n . N o t o n ly d o
d ir t y w in d o w s s e r io u s ly h in d e r d a y lig h t f r o m e n t e r in g th e s h o p , b u t
t h e d a y l i g h t p e r i o d o f w o r k is c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e n e d a n d n e e d l e s s
e x p e n d it u r e o n a r t ific ia l l ig h t i n g in c u r r e d in c o n s e q u e n ce . A i r - r a i d
r e g u la t io n s h a v e t e n d e d t o in c r e a s e t h is lo s s o f n a t u r a l lig h t .
D r.
A g n e w , in t h e c o u r s e o f h is m e d ic a l in q u ir ie s , in q u ir e d in t o t h is
q u e s tio n . H e r e p o r t s —
The natural lighting in almost every case would be good if the windows were
cleaned regularly, but owing to the anti-air-raid darkening regulations the




CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, HEATING, AND LIGHTING.

185

windows were not cleaned regularly, or if cleaned regularly tlie transmission
o f daylight is interfered with by blinds which have become dislodged or have
got out o f order and hang loosely about the windows. The advantage o f white­
washing the walls and keeping the ceilings clean was shown by contrast with
some workshops where these processes are sadly neglected.

385. I n th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f s h o p s c a re s h o u ld b e ta k e n to r e n d e r th e
o u t s i d e o f w i n d o w s e a s i l y a c c e s s ib l e f o r c l e a n i n g . I n m a n y e x i s t i n g
s h o p s a c c e s s is s o d i f f i c u l t a s t o m a k e c l e a n i n g a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e .
3 86. A r t if i c ia l l i g h t i n g is o f s p e c ia l im p o r t a n c e a t th e p r e s e n t t im e
w h e n n i g h t w o r k is d o n e , a n d w h e n w o m e n a n d b o y s a r e e m p l o y e d
in la r g e n u m b e r s . B a d l ig h t i n g a ffe c ts o u t p u t u n fa v o r a b ly , n o t o n l y
b y m a k i n g g o o d a n d r a p i d w o r k m o r e d if f ic u l t b u t b y c a u s i n g h e a d ­
a c h e s a n d o t h e r e f f e c t s o f e y e s t r a in . T h e d if f ic u l t i e s o f s u p e r v i s i o n ,
w h ic h a re a lw a y s c o n s id e r a b le , are fu r t h e r in c r e a s e d i f th e g e n e r a l
l i g h t i n g o f t h e w o r k s h i p i s i n s u f f ic ie n t . A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e p a i d t o
th e lig h t in g o f p a ssa g e s a n d th e im m e d ia te s u r r o u n d in g s o f th e
f a c t o r y as w e ll as t o th a t o f th e f a c t o r y it s e lf.
387. I n th e r e p o r t o f th e d e p a r tm e n ta l c o m m itte e s ta n d a r d s o f
l ig h t i n g f o r fa c t o r ie s a re s u g g e s te d , a n d t h o u g h th e fig u r e s g iv e n .a r e
th e m in im a c o n s id e r e d n e ce s s a r y , t h e y m a y a t a n y r a te p r o v e o f
a s s is ta n ce in c o n s id e r in g th e r e la t iv e a m o u n t o f l ig h t n e c e s s a r y in
d iffe r e n t p a r t s o f th e f a c t o r y . T h e u n it o f illu m in a t io n is th e “ f o o t c a n d l e ; ” 1 t h a t is , t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n p r o d u c e d b y a l i g h t o f o n e s t a n d ­
a r d c a n d le a t a p o in t o f a s u r fa c e 1 f o o t fr o m th e s o u r ce a n d so p la c e d
t h a t th e l i g h t s tr ik e s th e s u r fa c e a t r ig h t a n g le s . T h u s , 1 c a n d le 1
f o o t f r o m t h e s u r f a c e is 1 f o o t - c a n d l e , 5 0 c a n d l e s a t a d i s t a n c e o f 1
f o o t is 5 0 f o o t - c a n d l e s , a n d 5 0 c a n d l e s a t 1 0 f e e t d i s t a n c e is 0 .5 f o o t c a n d le .2 L i g h t s h o u ld a ls o b e c o n s ta n t a n d u n ifo r m , w it h o u t g la r e
a n d w i t h o u t ^ c a s t in g e x t r a n e o u s s h a d o w s o n t h e p o i n t t o b e i l l u m i ­
n a t e d . A r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g is u s u a l l y o b t a i n e d b y u s e o f c o a l g a s , o i l s ,
o r e le c tr ic lig h t .
C a n n e l - c o a l g a s is m o r e i l l u m i n a n t t h a n b i t u m in o u s -c o a l g a s. T h e c h i e f r e s u lts o f th e b u r n in g o f c o a l g a s a re a n
in c r e a s e in C 0 2 a n d w a t e r y v a p o r , r a is in g o f te m p e r a tu r e , w it h s o m e
p r o d u c t io n o f s u lp h u r o u s a c id a n d o t h e r c o n s t it u e n t b o d ie s .
E ach
c u b ic f o o t o f g a s p o llu te s th e a tm o s p h e r e t o th e sa m e d e g r e e as o n e
a d u l t p e r s o n . T h e b e s t f o r m o f g a s i l l u m i n a t i o n is n o w c o m m o n l y
o b t a in e d b y th e u se o f a n in c a n d e s c e n t -m a n t le b u r n e r p r o p e r ly v e n ­
t i l a t e d . O i l l a m p s g i v e f a i r r e s u lt s , b u t r a is e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a n d
g iv e o ff C 0 2 a n d w a t e r y v a p o r . E le c t r ic l ig h t is th e m o s t h y g ie n ic
f o r m o f i l l u m i n a t i o n . N o o x y g e n i s u s e d u p , n o C 0 2 o r m o i s t u r e is
p rod u ced .
1 On

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0 .2 5

E urop e
areas ”

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w ork room s
o p en

is

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p la c e s , r o a d w a y s ,

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at

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of

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(s e e r e p o r t o f d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m it t e e o n lig h t in g in f a c t o r ie s a n d w o r k ­

sh ops,

1 9 1 5 ).

Cd.

8000,




SECTION XV.— SANITARY ACCOMMODATION, WASHING FACILITIES,
AND CLOAKROOMS.
S A N I T A R Y A C C O M M O D A T IO N .

3 8 8 . S e c t io n 9 o f th e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p A c t r e q u ir e s t h a t —
(1) Every factory and workshop must he provided with sufficient and suit­
able accommodation in the way o f sanitary conveniences, regard being had to
the number o f persons employed in or in attendance at the factory or w ork­
shop, and also where persons o f both sexes are or are intended to be employed
or in attendance, with proper separate accommodation for persons o f each sex.
( 2 ) The secretary o f state shall, by special order, determine what is sufficient
and suitable accommodation within the meaning o f the section.

389. T h is s e c tio n o n ly a p p lie s to th o s e p a r ts o f th e c o u n t r y in
w h ic h th e a n a lo g o u s p r o v is io n s o f s e c t io n 22 o f t h e P u b l i c H e a lt h
A c t s A m e n d m e n t A c t , 1890, a n d o f s e c tio n 3 8 o f th e P u b l ic H e a lt h
( L o n d o n ) A c t , 1891, d o n o t h a v e e ffe c t. A s p e c ia l o r d e r w a s issu e d
b y t h e H o m e O f f ic e i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 3 . W h i l e t h i s o r d e r s t r i c t l y o n l y
a p p lie s t o ’ th o s e d is tr ic ts in w h ic h th e p r o v is io n s o f th e F a c t o r y A c t
h a v e e ffe c t, it m a y b e r e g a r d e d as p r e s c r ib in g th e m in im u m c o n d i­
t io n s w h ic h a r e g e n e r a lly c o n s id e r e d a s s u fficie n t a n d s u it a b le . T h e
o r d e r in c lu d e s th e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s :
(a ) Not less than one sanitary convenience shall be provided fo r every 25
females.
(b ) Not less than one sanitary convenience shall be provided for every 25
m en ; provided that—
( i)
W here the number o f males exceeds 100 and sufficient urinal accommo­
dation is also provided, it shall be sufficient i f there is one sanitary convenience
fo r every 25 males np to the first 100 and one for every 40 a ft e r ;
( ii)
WT
here the number o f males exceeds 500, and proper supervision and con­
trol is exercised by a special officer, one convenience for every 60 men need only
be provided in addition to sufficient urinal accommodation.
(c ) Tlie accommodation must be so arranged and maintained as to be con­
veniently accessible at all times to all persons employed.
(d) Every sanitary convenience must be kept in a cleanly state, sufficiently
ventilated and lighted, and must not communicate with any workroom except
through the open air or through an intervening ventilated space.
( e ) Every sanitary convenience must be under cover and so partitioned off
as to secure privacy, and if for the use of females must have proper doors and
fastenings.
( / ) W here persons o f both sexes are employed, the accommodation for each
sex shall be so placed that the interior shall not be visible, even when the door
o f a convenience is open, from any place, where persons o f the other sex have
to w ork or p a ss; i f the conveniences for one sex adjoin those fo r the other, the
approaches must be separate.

186




SANITARY ACCOMMODATION, W ASH ING FACILITIES, ETC.

187

390. I n s o m e n e w fa c t o r ie s o r in is o la t e d s itu a tio n s th e m o s t a p ­
p r o v e d s y s te m o f d r a in a g e a n d c o n s tr u c tio n c a n n o t b e c a r r ie d o u t,
a n d r e co u rse m u st be h a d to p a il c lo s e t s ; in su ch ca ses th e a c c o m m o ­
d a t io n s h o u ld b e at a h ig h e r ra te in r e la tio n t o th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d t h a n th e r a te set o u t a b o v e u n le s s p r o p e r a r r a n g e m e n ts
ca n be m a d e f o r d a ily s c a v e n g in g (o u t o f w o r k in g h o u r s ).
391. W h a t e v e r t h e a r r a n g e m e n ts m a d e i t is o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r ­
ta n c e th a t a h ig h s t a n d a r d o f c le a n lin e s s s h o u ld b e m a in t a in e d ;
e s p e c ia lly at th e p r e s e n t tim e t h is m u s t b e r e g a r d e d as o n e o f th e
e s s e n t ia l s f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e h e a l t h o f w o m e n w o r k e r s , m a n y
o f w h o m a re n e w t o in d u s tr ia l c o n d itio n s . I t w ill g e n e r a lly b e f o u n d
d e s i r a b l e , i f n o t e s s e n t ia l , t o a p p o i n t s o m e o n e t o b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
p r o p e r s u p e r v is io n a n d m a in te n a n c e .
A t o n e tim e p r o v is io n f o r
w o m e n w a s o ft e n u n s a tis fa c to r y , la r g e ly , n o d o u b t, o w in g t o th e
r a p id in c r e a s e in t h e ir n u m b e r s a n d t o t h e ir e m p lo y m e n t i n m a n y
fa c t o r ie s f o r th e fir s t tim e . N o w , h o w e v e r , c o n d it io n s a re b e t t e r a n d
th e n e e d f o r p r o p e r p r o v is io n a n d m a in te n a n c e is g e n e r a lly r e c o g ­
n iz e d . W h il e t h e r e h a s p r o b a b ly b e e n a n im p r o v e m e n t a ls o in t h e
p r o v is io n f o r m e n , it is in s o m e p la c e s s t ill h ig h l y u n s a t is fa c t o r y .
T h u s D r . A g n e w r e p o r ts o f th e fa c t o r ie s in o n e d is tr ic t w h ic h h e
v is ite d —
The appalling condition of the sanitary accommodation calls fo r immediate
action. In some cases the provision is insufficient, and almost everywhere the
condition o f such conveniences as are provided is so revolting that it is im­
possible to describe. They are also commonly situated in almost inaccessible
places, the approach to which is particularly dangerous at night.

C o n d it io n s s u ch as th e se s h o u ld o b v io u s ly b e r e f o r m e d a t th e fir s t
o p p o r tu n ity .
W A S H I N G F A C IL IT IE S A N D BA T H S *

3 9 2 . U n d e r t h e F a c t o r y A c t a n d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e H o m e O f f ic e
a n d M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s th e p r o v is io n o f w a s h in g a c c o m m o d a t io n
is o n l y r e q u i r e d w h e r e w o r k e r s a r e e n g a g e d o n p r o c e s s e s i n w h i c h
p o is o n o u s m a t e r ia ls s u ch a s le a d o r T N T a re m a n ip u la t e d . T h o u g h
p r o v i s i o n is m o s t n e e d e d w h e r e p o i s o n o u s s u b s t a n c e s a r e u s e d o r
w h e re h ea t, d u st, o r d ir t a re p re s e n t t o an u n u su a l d e g r e e , th e re is a
g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t w a s h i n g is b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e h e a l t h a n d e ffi­
c ie n c y o f a ll w o r k e r s a n d th a t fa c ilit ie s s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d w h e r e v e r
p o s s ib le .
A c c o u n t m u s t a ls o b e ta k e n o f th e e ffe c t u p o n t h e s e l f r e s p e c t o f t h e w o r k e r , w h o is a b l e t o l e a v e h i s e m p l o y m e n t c l e a n a n d
tid y .
T h e r e is t h e m u t u a l d i s c o m f o r t o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s
f e llo w tr a v e le r s o f a m a n w h o r e tu r n s h o m e s tr a ig h t fr o m w o r k f r o m
s o m e d u s ty o r d ir t y e m p lo y m e n t.
L a s t ly , th e re is th e r e la tio n o f
c le a n l i n e s s t o g o o d h e a l t h a n d p e r s o n a l e f f ic ie n c y , a r e l a t i o n w h i c h i s
s u f f i c i e n t ly o b v i o u s t o m a k e e m p h a s i s u n n e c e s s a r y .




188

INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

393.* T h e r e is a m p l e e v i d e n c e o f t h e d e s i r e o f w o r k e r s f o r a m o r e
e x te n d e d p r o v is io n . T h u s a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e tr a d e s -u n io n is t sta te d , in
e v id e n c e b e f o r e th e c o m m it t e e , th a t—
Material improvements in the arrangements for washing are desirable. It
would be a great help if a worker could have the opportunity for really washing
up and putting him self in a condition to go out with his fam ily without having
to return home first. Anything in the nature o f evening recreation is rendered
almost impossible if a worker has to travel all the w ay home, perhaps right
through the city, and get cleaned up before returning to the city .with his
family.

394. T h e r e p o r ts u p o n th e m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f in d iv id u a l w o r k ­
e rs c o n t a in fr e q u e n t r e fe r e n c e s t o th e d e s ire f o r b e t t e r fa c ilit ie s .
T h u s—
In the bullet department there are only nine basins with cold water and nail­
brushes provided for 130 girls, 30 o f whom handle lead. Soap can nominally
be obtained from the forewoman, and towels, conspicuous by their absence, are
supposed to be provided biweekly to each o f two sets o f basins. Complaints are
made by foremen that towels, etc., are stolen, and the workers complain o f lack
of. accommodation. Very little washing is done, I think, although the girls had
their hands jet black. In another case washing facilities are quite inadequate,
workers in some departments being unable to wash their hands at all before
meals, though at most processes they become very dirty. Many state that they
clean their hands with oil, though they are not supposed to use oil for this pur­
pose ; others wash their hands in the water running from their machines. Even
those who handle lead do not always wash their hands before meals ; these latter
state that five minutes is allowed for washing, and that hot water is provided
but no soap or towels.

3 9 5 . S in c e t h is r e p o r t w a s w r it t e n t h e r e h a s b e e n a m a r k e d a d v a n c e
in th e w a s h in g fa c il i t ie s p r o v id e d f o r w o m e n , b u t t h e r e is s t ill r o o m
f o r im p r o v e m e n t. E x p e r ie n c e sh o w s th a t w h e n fa c ilit ie s f o r w a s h in g
a re p r o v id e d a n d m a in t a in e d in a d e c e n t sta te t h e y a re u s u a lly u s e d ;
t h e r e m a}^ b e a s h o r t p e r i o d o f i n e r t i a a t f i r s t , b u t wro r k e r s h a v e n o t
o n l y n o in n a te d e s ir e t o b e o t h e r w is e t h a n c le a n , b u t s o o n b r i n g i n ­
flu e n c e t o b e a r u p o n a n y o f t h e ir f e llo w s w h o d o n o t a v a il th e m s e lv e s
o f th e fa c ilit ie s o ffe re d .
396. W h ile th e g e n e ra l p r o v is io n o f b a th s ca n n o t b e r e g a r d e d as a
p r a c t i c a l p r o p o s a l , t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t e x t e n d e d p r o v i s i o n i s h i g h l y
d e s i r a b l e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f h e a l t h a n d e f f ic ie n c y . P r o v i s i o n is a t p r e s ­
e n t m a i n l y l i m i t e d t o a f e w w o r k s c o v e r e d b y t h e H o m e O f f ic e r e g u l a ­
tio n s o r w h e re th e p ro c e s s e s in v o lv e str e n u o u s w o r k in a h ig h t e m p e r a ­
tu re . W h e n m e n a re e m p lo y e d u n d e r c o n d it io n o f g r e a t h e a t, b a th s
m a y p r o v e a n e ffe c t iv e a n t id o t e t o m u s c u la r r h e u m a tis m . I t is u n*
n e c e s s a r y t o e m p h a s i z e t h e b e n e f it a n d r e f r e s h m e n t d e r i v e d f r o m a
b a th a fte r w o r k u n d e r stren u ou s c o n d it io n s ; w h e re th e y are p r o v id e d
t h e y a re a p p r e c ia t e d . T h u s a n e m p lo y e r h a s in fo r m e d th e c o m m it t e e
th a t-—




SANITARY ACCOMMODATION, W A S H IN G . FACILITIES, ETC.

189

Spray baths are provided for the foundrymen, who number about 100. Tickets
can be bought at the rate o f 10 for*3d. [6.1 c e n ts ]; this charge includes the use
o f towel and soap. Seven minutes out o f working hours are allowed each man
in the foundry to wash thoroughly before stopping time. Though the foundry­
men are not in any way specially selected they use the spray baths greatly,
especially in summer.

397. T h e n e e d f o r b a th s is u n d o u b t e d ly a c c e n t u a t e d b y th e lim it e d
f a c ilit ie s f o r w a s h in g g e n e r a lly a v a ila b le in th e w o r k e r ’s h o m e . A
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e N a tio n a l F e d e r a tio n o f B la s t F u r n a c e m e n h a s
in fo r m e d th e c o m m itte e th a t n o t m o r e th a n 5 p e r ce n t o f th e m e m b e r s
o f h is u n io n h a v e a h o u s e w it h fiv e o r s ix r o o m s a n d a b a t h . “ I n
L a n c a s h ir e a n d S o u t h Y o r k s h ir e m a n y a re l iv in g in h o u se s o f t h r e e
s m a ll r o o m s w it h n o s c u lle r y . C o n s id e r in g th e d ir t y sta te in t o w h ic h
th e m e n ’s b o d ie s a n d c lo t h in g g e t w h e n w o r k in g , b a t h s s h o u ld b e g e n ­
e r a l . ” T h e n e e d f o r b a t h s is a l s o m u c h f e l t b y w o m e n l i v i n g i n l o d g ­
in g s , m a n y o f w h o m h a v e c o m e fr o m g o o d h o m e s. I n s o m e d is tr ic ts
c o n s i d e r a b l e u s e is m a d e o f p u b l i c b a t h s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e a r e
f r e q u e n t l y n o p u b l i c b a t h s w i t h i n e a s y a c c e s s , o r t h e y a r e n o t o p e n afc
h o u r s w h e n th e y c a n b e u se d b y m u n itio n w o r k e r s .
W h ile th e in ­
a d e q u a c y o f t h e h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r h i s w o r k e r s is
n o t a m a tte r f o r w h ic h th e e m p lo y e r ca n o r d in a r ily b e h e ld r e s p o n ­
s i b l e , y e t i t is o n e w h i c h h e c a n n o t a l t o g e t h e r n e g l e c t i n d e t e r m i n i n g
w h a t is n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e t h e i r h e a l t h a n d e f f ic ie n c y .
WASHING FACILITIES.

3 9 8 . Lavatories .— I t is o f t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e t h a t a t t e n t i o n
s h o u ld b e p a id t o d e t a ils o f c o n s t r u c t io n .
F r e q u e n t ly th e d e t a ils
se e m t o h a v e b e e n l e f t t o a b u il d in g c o n t r a c t o r w it h n o s p e c ia
k n o w le d g e o f th e h a r d u s a g e t o w h ic h fit t in g s a re s u b je c t e d u n d e r
th e c o n d it io n s o f in d u s t r ia l l i f e ; a s a r e s u lt la v a t o r ie s , t h o u g h a d e ­
q u a te w h e n n e w , m a y q u ic k ly f a l l in t o d is r e p a ir .
S e p a r a t e b a s in s ,
o r g in a lly p r o v id e d w it h p lu g s a tta c h e d b y c h a in s , a re f o u n d w it h
th e c h a in s b r o k e n , th e p lu g s lo s t, a n d th e w a ste p ip e s s tu ffe d u p w it h
rags.
W a l ls a g a in s t w h ic h b a s in s a r e fix e d , u n le s s p r o t e c t e d b y a n
e n a m e le d s u r f a c e , s o o n b e c o m e s p l a s h e d w i t h s o a p s u d s , a n d p r e s e n t
an u n in v it in g a s p e c t w h ic h c a n n o t b e e a s ily o r q u ic k ly im p r o v e d .
W a s t e p ip e s a re o ft e n t o o n a r r o w f o r c o n v e n ie n t c le a n s in g , o r c o n ­
t a in s h a r p b e n d s a n d a n g le s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly b e c o m e b lo c k e d o r
broken .
399. S u ffic ie n t p r o v is io n m u s t b e m a d e f o r d r a i n in g th e la v a t o r y
flo o r , w h ic h , i f n o t p r o p e r ly c o n s t r u c t e d , b e c o m e s u n e v e n a n d th e s ite
o f p o o ls o f d ir t y w a ter.
T h e flo o r s s h o u ld b e s m o o th , h a r d , im
p e r v io u s , a n d p r o p e r ly s lo p e d a n d g r a d e d .
N a ilb r u s h e s a n d s o a p ,
e v e n t h o u g h fr e q u e n t ly r e n e w e d , d is a p p e a r , a n d th u s in v o lv e a c o n ­
sta n t s o u r c e o f a n n o y a n c e a n d e x p e n s e . T h e s e t r o u b le s m a y b e




INDUSTRIAL H EALTH AND EFFICIENCY.

la r g e ly o v e r c o m e b y a d h e r in g to c e r ta in p r in c ip le s in c o n s tr u c tio n .
T h e in s t a lla t io n s h o u ld b e—
(a) A s s i m p l e a s p o s s i b l e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d a r r a n g e m e n t ;
( 5 ) S t r o n g a n d d u r a b le , a b le t o w it h s t a n d c o n s id e r a b le w e a r a n d
te a r;
( c)
S u ffic ie n t a n d s u it a b le in a c c o m m o d a t io n s o t h a t a la r g e n u m
b e r ca n w a sh to g e th e r o r in a s h o rt t im e ; 1
Supfib
(<*) E c o n o m i c a l i n s p a c e ;
(e)
S o co n s tru cte d th a t
it c a n b e e a s ily c le a n e d ,
a n d c o n t a in a m in im u m
o f r e m o v a b le o r d e ta ch a b le
a r t ic le s ;
( / ) B a s in s , i f p r o v id e d ,
s h o u ld n o t b e t o o s m a ll a n d
s h o u ld n o t h a v e g r o o v e d
r im s ;
(g ) P r o v i d e d
w it h a n
a m p le s u p p ly o f w a te r ( h o t
a n d c o ld ) ;
(h) S o s i t u a t e d i n t h e
fa c t o r y as to b e r e a d ily a c ­
c e s s ib le ; a n d
(i) W e l l l i g h t e d , t h o r ­
o u g h ly v e n tila te d , a n d k e p t
a t a r e a s o n a b le t e m p e r a ­
tu re.
400.
a r is e i n r e g a r d t o th e u se
o f o r d in a r y la v a t o r y b a ­
s in s , t h e y m a y in c e r t a in
ca ses b e o v e r c o m e b y u s in g
su ch a w a s h in g t r o u g h as
t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u2. e
r
H e r e t h e n e c e s s a r y p l u m b i n g i s r e d u c e d t o a m i n i m u m ; t h e r e is n o
p l u g ; w a s h in g is d o n e u n d e r a s p r a y o f w a t e r ; th e w a s te p ip e o p e n s
d ir e c t l y o v e r th e d r a i n ; a n d th e d r a in i t s e l f is flu s h w it h th e flo o r ,
w h i c h i s s l o p e d t o w a r d it .
T h e t r o u g h s ta n d s in th e c e n te r o f th e
1
T h e s t a n d a r d a d o p t e d u n d e r f a c t o r y r e g u la t i o n s is a s f o l l o w s : T h e w a s h i n g c o n ­
v e n ie n c e s s h o u ld be u n d e r c o y e r a n d m a i n t a i n e d in a c le a n ly s t a t e a n d in g o o d r e p a ir .
T h e r e s h o u ld be e i t h e r ( a ) a t r o u g h w i t h a s m o o t h , i m p e r v i o u s s u r f a c e ( f i t t e d w i t h a
w a s t e p ip e w i t h o u t p l u g ) , a n d o f s u c h l e n g t h a s t o a l l o w a t l e a s t 2 f e e t f o r
p e r s o n s , a n d h a v i n g a c o n s t a n t s u p p ly o f w a t e r f r o m t a p s o r j e t s a b o v e t h e

e v e r y fiv e
tro u gh a t

i n t e r v a l s o f n o t m o r e t h a n 2 f e e t ; o r ( b ) a t le a s t o n e l a v a t o r y b a s in f o r e v e r y fiv e
p e r s o n s , f it t e d w i t h a w a s t e p ip e a n d p lu g , o r p la c e d in a t r o u g h h a v i n g a w a s t e p ip e ,
a n d h a v i n g e it h e r a c o n s t a n t s u p p ly o f h o t a n d c o ld w a t e r o r w a r m w a t e r la i d o n , o r
( i f a c o n s t a n t s u p p ly o f h e a t e d w a tfc r be n o t r e a s o n a b ly p r a c t i c a b l e ) a c o n s t a n t s u p p ly
o f c o ld w a t e r la i d o n , a n d a s u p p ly o f h o t w a t e r a l w a y s a t h a n d w h e n r e q u ir e d f o r u s e
by

p erson s

e m p lo y e d .




SA N ITARY ACCO M M OD ATION , W A S H IN G FA C ILITIE S, ETC.

191

room* free from the walls, and the wall space can be used for cloak­
room accommodation, whether hooks or lockers. A useful modificatoin of the water supply is to hare only two spray taps for occasional
use and a series of flush holes in both sides of the water pipe, the
suppfy to which is controlled by a cock on the far side of the taps.
This cock is turned on just before the operatives come to wash at the
close of each spell of work. Arrangements can be made for control­
ling the temperature of the water. Where space is limited, say near
the exit of a big engineering shop, a more compact installation may
be used. This may take the form of a large circular basin with spray

taps radiating from a central supply pipe coming down from above
and with an open pipe in the center for carrying off the w
^aste water
to a drain in the floor, as shown in figure 2. Wherever spray taps are
used, advantage is gained by so arranging the height and position of
the taps that a douche bath for the head, neck, and arms can be taken
if desired.
401.
Nailbrushes.— The difficulty occasioned by the disappearance
of nailbrushes may be overcome by having large brushes made and
fixed in position so that they can drain into the trough. In use the
hand is rubbed against such brushes instead of the usual reverse
process. In a number of factories stout nailbrushes are provided
attached to the washing troughs by chains; and, on the whole, this
plan appears to work satisfactorily.




192

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

402. Soap.—Soap may be supplied economically in small boxes,
kept locked and fixed in convenient positions above the trough, say
on or near the water pipe; the soap, of the consistency of butter or
jelly, is obtained by inserting a finger into a round hole in the bottom
of the box. Soap for use in this way can be obtained in powder
form,1 which sets to a jelly on the addition of water; by buying soap
thus in powder form the cost of carriage is diminished. Alterna­
tively the soap may be served out as powder placed in a flour dredger
chained to the trough. If this latter plan is adopted care must be
taken to prevent the holes getting clogged with wet powder. Another
plan is to make the powder into blocks and then to cut it into small
cubes just sufficient for one “wash.” One point, however, should be
borne in mind—the natural oil of the skin and hair may be removed
by the use of strong alkaline soaps; if such soaps are used, as may
be necessary to cleanse hands soiled with oil and grime in engineering
works, then some ointment, glycerine, or lanoline should be employed
after washing to restore the suppleness of the skin. Without this
precaution the skin may become dry and cracked, and so be unable
to resist bacterial infection, when dermatitis results.
403. Towels.—The supply of clean, dry towels should be adequate;
for this purpose it is desirable that (a) a towel at least 5 square feet
in area should be provided for each worker, and should be renewed
or washed daily; or (h) one roller towel fastened in position, at least
15 square feet in area, should be provided for every three workers,
and should be renew or washed daily; or should be provided for every
nine workers, and should be washed or renewed after every mealtime
and at the close of the day’s work.2
The provision of separate towels is preferable, and is made in na­
tional filling factories, partly because the danger of infection is mini­
mized, and partly because each worker thus obtains a dry towel.
They should be numbered or otherwise separately marked.
404. Mirrors.—A mirror is desirable, especial^ for women.
BATHING FACILITIES.*

405. Baths.—For men, the simplest and at the same time the cheap­
est and most efficacious installation is that of shower or douche baths.
In comparison with other types, a shower bath economizes space,
time, and water, and possesses the advantage that the stream of water
is constantly clean. Moreover, the stimulating effect on the skin of
the falling water is greater than is obtained by total immersion.
Douche baths have been strongly recommended for use by coal miners,
1 Such soap is prepared by Messrs. Lever Bros., Port Sunlight, Cheshire.
2 These suggestions are identical with the requirements of the Ilome Office order for
the manufacture and decoration of pottery.
3 Reference may usefully be made to the report of the departmental committee on
washing and drying accommodation at mines. (Cd. G724, 1913.)




SA N IT A R Y ACCO M M O DATION , W A S H IN G FA C ILITIE S, ETC.

193

and have been installed with success in many factories (see figs. 3
and 4). For women, ordinary shower baths are unpopular, because
of the difficulty of keeping the hair dry or of drying it after bathing;
a horizontal spray fixed at the level of the shoulders, or obtained
from a movable nozzle or ring on a flexible tube, may meet this ob­
jection. Such an arrangement may also be found preferable for men.
406.
Cubicles.— The cubicles in which the baths are placed should
be arranged to secure privacy. In order to reduce the time which
each worker spends in the cubicle it may be possible to arrange for
the workers to dress and undress in a separate compartment, but at
any rate in the case of women some provision for dressing, includ-

FIGURE 3.1

ing a seat and pegs, must be provided inside the cubicle. Where this
is done the size of the cubicle should not be less than 3 feet wide by 4
feet deep. The walls should ordinarily not be less than 6 feet high.
A space should be left between the floor and the walls of the cubicles
sufficient to permit of drainage and cleaning.
407.
Cleaning.— The building and fittings should be so constructed
as to facilitate the maintenance of absolute cleanliness. Square cor­
ners, ledges, or rough inner surfaces should be avoided. Wood should
be used only for seats, and for this purpose hard wood should be em­
ployed with spaces between the wood for ventilation. The walls and
partitions (and this applies also to lavatories and sanitary con­
veniences) should always have smooth and curved surfaces which
1 From a design by Messrs. Doulton & Co.

80935°— 19------- 13




194

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AN D E F F IC IE N C Y .

can be readily washed down and which can not be used for writing
on. Enamel tiles and bricks or enamel metal sheets may be used for
this purpose; any initial cost thus incurred is soon recouped by sav­
ing in cleaning and lime-washing.
408.
Water.— The water used should, of course, be clean and should
not be liable to cause injury to the health of the workers or to yield
effluvia. It will generally be found preferable for the temperature
of the water to be regulated by an attendant rather than for the tem­
perature of each bath to be regulated separately by the worker. A
temperature of about
100° F. is usual. A
thermometer should
be placed in a con­
venient position for
noting the tempera­
ture of the water.
409. Soap and tow­
els. — A simple and
economical method of
supplying soap is to
provide small tablets
sufficient for one bath.
A convenient size for
towels is 25 by 60
inches. W h en the
baths are used by a
large number of
FIGURE 4.1
workers it may be
found convenient and economical to provide a small laundry for
washing the towels.
M
AINTENANCE.

410.
The maintenance of any installation provided is as important
as its construction. This should be made the definite duty of an
appointed officer, who should keep the lavatory clean, control the
supply of nailbrushes and soap, and arrange that dry, clean towels
are available. Such an officer may also usefully be employed in at­
tending to the sanitary conveniences, and in supervising the cloak­
room. While the ultimate responsibility for upkeep must rest with
the employer,^ it may be found, at any rate in the case of baths, that
the worker can, with advantage, be encouraged to participate in the
management by a special committee or otherwise. Since periodic
baths are of special benefit to health and efficiency, it is desirable to
allow workers time for bathing within working hours.




1 From a photograph taken in a munition factory.

SAN ITARY ACCOMMODATION, W A S H IN G FACILITIES, ETC.

195

CLOAKROOMS.

411. The committee are strongly of opinion that the provision of
cloakrooms is a matter of great importance to the health and comfort
of workers, and especially of women and girls. If, however, full
advantage is to be taken of them it is essential that they should be
well equipped and adequately maintained.
412. Cloakroom accommodation in order to be satisfactory should
comply with the following conditions:
(a) It should be conveniently situated not only for the workshop,
but should also be close to the canteens, lavatories, and sanitary
accommodation.
( b ) It should provide a separate peg or locker for each worker,
which should bear the worker’s name or work number.
Hanging pegs should be at least 18 inches apart, and 24 inches is desirable;
and may be usefully separated by a small partition. I f economy of space is
of importance, two horizontal row s of pegs may be provided about a foot apart,
the pegs in each row being at least 24 inches apart, and the pegs in the lower
rowr being placed midway between those in the upper row.
Lockers may be made in metal openwork in preference to wood to allow free
circulation of air.
Another alternative is to arrange for the suspension, of the clothes from the
roof of the building by rods which can be raised to the roof and fastened
securely in position.

(e) There should be ample space for changing clothes and boots.
( d ) Provision should be made for drying wet outdoor clothes in
bad weather as well as the clothes worn for work at certain processes.
Steam pipes placed under the hanging pegs or lockers have proved useful for
this purpose; care must, however, be taken, otherwise the damp clothes steam
and become more objectionable than if spread out in the open air and allowed
to dry. Ample space and ventilation are required between the pegs or in
the lockers. Where pegs are used the clothing should not hang against a w all
or wooden partition, but provision should be made for ventilation behind the
clothing by covering the walls with laths or strong wire netting so that the
clothes are kept at least an inch from the wall.

(e) A high standard of cleanliness should be maintained, and all
practicable precautions should be taken against vermin.
(/) Cloakrooms should be thoroughly ventilated.
(g) Cloakrooms should be in charge of an attendant, and means
taken to prevent petty pilfering and theft,




SECTION XVI.— SEATS, WEIGHTS, CLOTHING, DRINKING WATER.

413. The committee have not made any detailed laboratory study
of methods for eliminating fatigue in regard to industrial machinery,
lifting tackle, motion, etc., or of the application of American schemes
of “ scientific management5 to factory conditions in this country.
?
They have regarded such studies, important though they are, as
lying outside their reference. There are, however, certain matters
intimately affecting the health and efficiency of the worker to which
some brief reference should be made.
SEATS.

414. Fatigue and ill health and consequent loss of time and output
are often due among women and girls to prolonged standing. The
following extracts from recent reports emphasize the point:
Women here are* employed on 30 different processes on lathes, milling and
drilling machines, chiefly on shells weighing 130 pounds in the rough and 90
pounds when complete. Certain operations, e. g., nose blending, are difficult
and arduous. * * * W hat renders the operations most trying is the lack
of seating accommodation.
Many of the women and girls complained that they could not sit down even
when waiting for work, as no seats were provided and they were not allowed
to sit. One chair in the welfare supervisor’s room is supposed to be for girls’
use, but they have never used it. At night this room is locked up and a girl
who is taken ill has to sit on a chair in the cloakroom until it is light enough
to go home.

415. The Factory Act does not require seats to be provided for
workers such as is the case for shop assistants under the Shops Act,
1912, but the secretary of state has now power under the Police, Fac­
tories, etc. (Miscellaneous Provisions), Act, 1916, section 7, to make
an order requiring an employer to make reasonable provisions for
u the supply and use of seats in workrooms.” No order 1 has as yetbeen made under this section, but in a general order made in December,
1916, governing the employment of women at night on wool combing
a condition was inserted that “ the employer shall provide suitable
1 On Apr. 23, 1918, the Home Office published a draft order requiring the provision of
facilities for sitting for all female workers employed in any process in turning or
machining shells or shell bodies.

196




NO. I.— FOLDING SEAT TO SCREW TO WAL L OR PARTITION.

NO. 2.— SWING SEAT TO SCREW TO LEG
OF TABLE, AND WHEN NOT IN USE
TO SWING UNDER TABLE.




NO. 3.— SWING SEAT WITH IRON PILLAR
SUPPORT TO SCREW UNDER TABLE
IN AN Y POSITION, AND W H EN NOT
IN USE TO SWING UNDER TABLE.

1

TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
197




SEATS, W EIGHTS, CLOTHING, DRINKING WATER.

197

seats for the use of women and ©
girls at times when their work is not
in need of attention.”
41G. Though opportunities for sitting are being provided to an
increasing extent there are still a number of employers who hesitate
to provide such facilities through fear that they will be abused.
Experience, however, can not be regarded as justifying this fear.
It should be explained that the object of the provision of seats is not
to secure that all work should be done seated, since a sedentary life
has its own disadvantages, but rather that means should be provided
for varying the position wherever possible and for occasional use
when the work necessitates a standing position. There are many
types of munition work in which for a considerable proportion of
her time the worker is simply standing by watching her machine,
which she could do sitting equally well. In almost all the munition
work which must be done standing pauses occur while the worker
waits for the readjustment of the tool or some slight repair or is
held up for material or for some other reason. During such pauses
the workers should be allowed to sit. The need for such seats is often
felt more at night than by day. Much ingenuity has been shown in
providing seats which occupy little space. At the machine it is often
practicable to fix a seat or bar at the side of the lathe ; a flap seat
attached to the wall or pillar; a leather strap may be hung between
the machines or other fixtures; or a suitable form of high stool pro­
vided for use while at work with or without caster wheels.
417. The intervals between spells of work should be times of real
rest and recuperation. This can not be obtained on the wooden forms
without backs in canteens or mess rooms, which are too often the only
seats provided. Forms with backs or chairs are generally much to be
preferred. In addition comfortable chairs for women who may be
overtired or faint should be provided, preferably in a rest room
adjacent to the surgery. A brief rest under the supervision of the
nurse frequently enables a woman or girl to return to work recuper­
ated for the remainder of the spell.
WEIGHTS.

418. Admittedly women and young persons are physically weaker
than men. Apart from this they are more liable to strain from the
lifting of weights and other analogous operations which involve
sudden muscular efforts. The matter is one of special importance
at the present time owing to the large number of women now em­
ployed in munition works and the rapidly increasing extent to which
they are being employed to replace men on “ heavy ” operations. The
following tables are of interest as conveying some indications of the




198

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AN D E FF IC IE N C Y .

amount of the weights handled in certain operations connected with
the manufacture of 18-pounder and 4.5-incli and 6-inch shells:

Operation.

18-pounderhigh explosive
shell, Mark III:
Finish recess..............
Turn band.................
Faee base to weight...
Thread mill................
4,5-inch high explosive
shell,Mark VII:
Center.........................
Base to length............
Faee t© weight and
rough recess base...

Approxi­
Output of
mate
shells per weight hanlathe per
died by
hour.
operator
per hour.

60
48
40
30

Pounds.
1,S07
1,466
1,197
889

60
24

2,840
1,686

18.4

1,012

Operation.

Approxi­
Output of
mate
shell? per weight han­
lathe per
dled by ~
operator
hour.
per hour.

4.5-inch high explosiveshell, Mark VII—Contd.
Face base...................
Turn band.................
Thread mill................
5.6-inch high explosive
shell, Mark XII:
Cut-off........................
Center.........................
Rough face base.........
Recenter.....................
Turn band.................
Thread mill................

Pounds.

2,59?
1,850
1. (>50
3.000

6.000
3.195

6,120

4,014
5,040

419.
The framers of the tables give the following explanation in
regard to them:
The weights on which the entries in coininn 3 are based were obtained by
actually weighing each shell before and after each operation in a typical factory.
The entries given were obtained by adding the weights of the shell before and
after each operation and multiplying by the number of shells turned out per
hour.
The actual amount of work done in handling these weights depends upon the
methods employed. These methods vary in different factories with the opera­
tion and the type of shell. In some cases the heavier shell are only handled by
men, laborers lifting the shell in and out of the lathe for the girls; o;: lifting
tackle of one type or another may be provided. Sometimes also there are tables
along which the shell may be rolled so as to obviate the necessity for lifting the
shell from the floor to the lathe at each operation. A detailed inquiry into the
. methods prevailing at individual factories would be necessary in order to calcu­
late the actual work done in each case. As an illustration: The work done per
hour in lifting the shell bodies from the floor to the lathe (assuming no lifting
tackle to be provided and the height of the lathe from the floor to be 3.5 feet)
for the operations of centering and boring is given below.
[Foot-pounds per liour.J
Shell.

18-pounder

.............................................. ........................................................... ..................... ..

Boring.

350
367
902

Centering:.

8 ,8 6
4,<T0
10,500

420.
As the result of his inquiries into the causation of industrial
accidents Dr. Vernon writes as follows in regard to the incidence of
accidents due to strain:
At factory A the cuts, burns, and eye accidents were only a fourth to twothirds as numerous in women as in men. This depended on the less risky




SEATS, W E IG H T S , C LO T H IN G , D R IN K IN G W ATER.

199

character of their work. The sprains, on the other hand, were 47 to S3 per
cent more numerous in the women than in the men, or taking the other acci­
dents as a standard, one may say that sprains were relatively three times more
numerous in the women than in the men. The majority of these sprains were
wrist sprains incurred in pushing home the lever which clamped the fuse part
in the lathe. Evidently this clamp was designed for men with stronger wrists,
and it would be quite easy by lengthening or otherwise altering it to make it
more suited to the weaker wrists of the women. Thereby a considerable num­
ber of these sprains would be prevented, and a by no means negligible amount
of wasted time be saved.
r
In that the work at factories B, C, and D was very similar in character, one
would expect to find similar ratios between the women’s and men’s accidents.
The sprains were nearly twice as numerous in the women as in the men at
factories C and D, where 9.2-inch and 15-inch shells were made and showed
a similar excess at factory B where 6-inch shells were made. Hence, it is
probable that the liability of women to sprains is inherent and can not be
altogether avoided by more suitable mechanical appliances.

421. Apart from the provisions of the employment of children act,
1903, which only apply to children up to the age of 14, there are no
legislative provisions imposing restrictions on the weights which
may be lifted by workers. The matter was considered by the de­
partmental committee on accidents, who reported—
The danger of internal injuries to women from lifting heavy weights is a
matter of great importance. To lay down, however, any detailed and definite
provisions on the subject seems impracticable, as so much depends on indi­
vidual cases and circumstances. The position in which the weight to be lifted
lies, the shape of the burden, the manner of carrying it, the place in which
it has to be carried, are all important factors. We suggest, however, that there
might be some advantage in a general provision with regard to women similar
to the provision in section 3 (4) of the employment of children act with regal'd
to children. A provision that a woman shall not be employed to lift, carry,
or move anything so heavy as to be likely to cause her injury might be useful,
chiefly, perhaps, in calling the attention of occupiers to the matter and
strengthening the hands of inspectors when dealing with cases in which they
judged women liable to injury from this cause.

422. The Home Office, however, in their general order of Septem­
ber, 1910, prescribed that “ a woman or young person should not be
allowed to lift, carry, or move anything so heavy as to. be likely to
cause injury to them.” The weight which can safely be lifted de­
pends not only on the physique of the worker but on the position in
which the weight lies, its shape, the manner of carrying it, and the
place to which it has to be carried. Again, much depends on the
acquisition of knack. Given, however, reasonable conditions and a
good physique, women and girls over 18 have been found able to
handle weights up to 50 pounds in the ordinary course of work with­
out difficulty. Such a weight would, of course, be too great for
women of less than normal strength, or if the weight is of awkward
bulk or has to be raised to a special height.




200

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

423. I f weights are properly adjusted to physical capacity, experi­
ence suggests that a woman can frequently perform as much work
as a man owing to her capacity for quicker movement and sustained
work. In order to prevent strain and to secure the best results
attention should be paid to the following among other points:
(a) Adaptation of the size and shape of the burden.
(b) The provision of labor-saving appliances, such as overhead
cranes or inclined planes.
(c) The size and shape of boxes, trolleys, or other receptacles and
vehicles.
(d) Long handles and other methods of reducing leverage.
( e ) Methods of reducing the height through which weights have
to be raised—e. g., by the provision of benches for the temporary
storing of shells by the machine.
(/) Instruction in the knack of lifting weights.
(g) Limitation of hours of employment.
(A) Careful selection of workers.
424. If adequate attention is paid to these points experience shows
that dangers of straining can be very largely obviated. As showing
what may be done the following report is of interest:
Women are engaged in making and finishing crucibles. The heaviest han­
dled by one woman alone weighs 57 pounds. Lifting is intermittent, occurring
in the intervals of manufacturing work. The girls have been carefully chosen
for their good physique and appeared to lift the crucibles with complete ease.
TIius of one factory it is reported that “ the forewoman took pains to instruct
the girls in the right way of handling the heavy ‘crucibles. She said some re­
quired considerable instruction how to carry, as they often began by attempt­
T
ing to do the whole work with their forearms and wrists, bringing no other
muscles into play and consequently quickly exhausting themselves, but practice
soon helped them over this difficulty. If a girl could not acquire the knack of
right handling she hurt herself and injured the crucibles and was taken off
that work.”
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.

425. For women and girls protective clothing is essential where
risk to health is involved from—
(a) Dust, dirt, or wet.
(b) Acid burns.
(c) Dangerous machinery.
(d) Work involving climbing.
(e) Exposure to excessive heat.
(/) Exposure to inclement weather.
426. Protective clothing is desirable for all women and girls. It
adds to their smartness and neatness, and so to the general appear­
ance of the factory. It also aids discipline and promotes esprit de
corps.




3

4
TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.

200-1







TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.




7

8

9

10

11

12

TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.

13

14

15




16

17

TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.

18

SEATS, W E IG H TS, C LO TH IN G , D E IN K IN G W ATER.

201

427. There are four main types of costume1
—
(a) The overall dress, for general factory wear (see illustrations
Nos. 1, 6, and 15).
(b) The trouser or knicker suit with tunic, for outdoor work,
climbing ladders, etc., or for very dirty work (see illustration No.
11). These suits are not suitable for machine workers as the ends of
the tunic are apt to catch in the machinery.
(c) The boiler suit, for dangerous work where close-fitting clothes
are essential for safety (see illustrations Nos. 14 and 18).
(d) The impervious apron and bib, worn with either the overall
dress or the trouser suit, for protection against wet, oil, acid, or the
wear and tear of friction (see illustrations Nos. 5, 7,13, and 16).
428. With the costume a cap should be worn for protection against
dust and dirt, for safeguarding the hair from dangerous machinery,
and for keeping the head dry out of doors. Accessories, such as
globes, veils, clogs, or respirators, are also necessary in the cases of
certain processes, especially where there is a risk of fire or of poison­
ing from dust or fumes.
429. The proper selection of materials is important. Woolen ma­
terials are less inflammable and more durable than cotton, but for
general use cotton materials such as drills, dungaree, or (when thin
material is required) jean or linen are suitable. For resistance to
moisture good waterproof cloth, oiled or American cloths, are ob­
tainable. Aprons can be obtained of these materials, also of rubber
or leather. Sound acid-resisting materials can be had for aprons,
leggings, and clogs, also oil-proof materials for protecting machinists
from the lubricating oil which penetrates ordinary clothing. For
outdoor wear in wet weather a mackintosh or perhaps preferably a
good woolen coat, trousers, and sou’wester hat, with leggings and
strong boots are frequently provided. A corduroy suit is also suit­
able for all weathers, and is very durable. In some cases a mackin­
tosh coat to wear over the cotton drill trouser suit may be enough. In
explosive factories (except national factories) the clothing must be
approved by the chief inspector of explosives at the Home Office, who
supplies particulars respecting materials and fireproofing. The Min­
istry of Munitions give advice for other explosive and filling factories.
430. Protective clothing for men and boys is equally important,
especially when they are engaged in processes involving exposure to
dust, dirt or wet, acids or alkalis.
1 These types of costume are illustrated and described in the Ministry of Munitions
Journal for May, 1917, pp. 183, 184, as well as in a special leaflet issued by the ministry
with the concurrence of the Home Office ; this leaflet contains particulars of various
types of costumes, gloves, boots, etc., which can be purchased through the explosives
supply department, 37-41, Old Queen Street, Westminster, S. W. 1.
A memorandum on Protective Clothing for Women and Girls has been issued by the
Home Office, illustrating different types of costume; a schedule is added stating in
detail the type of costume suitable for different types of employment. The memorandum
may be purchased through the usual channels.




202

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

431. Protective clothing should be provided by the employer. The
cost of caps and overalls (within a maximum limit of price), at the
rate of two to each woman worker, is allowed as a working expense
for the purposes of Part II of the munitions of war act, 1915, and the
rules thereunder. The employer should also be responsible for wash­
ing, mending, and renewing the clothing.
DRINKING WATER.

432. The committee consider it unnecessary to elaborate the reasons
why an adequate supply of good drinking water should always be
available in the factory. The following extract from a recent report
issued by the United States Public Health Service is of interest:
Since so much body water is lost under conditions which provoke free perspira­
tion, it is important that an ample amount of water be drunk to replenish the
tissues thus deprived of their normal water content. Without this, their proper
functions will be hampered and health and efficiency can not be expected.* The
worker should be furnished with an abundant supply of water, together with
drinking facilities which are clean, attractive, and placed so as to be conven­
iently accessible at all times. The water should never be below 53° F. in tem­
perature, as the drinking of cold water is likely to cause gastrointestinal dis­
orders. The jet sanitary fountain is the best drinking facility. Though under
ordinary conditions the amount of heat lost in bringing the temperature of water
up to that of the body is small, this amount, by judicious drinking, can be in­
creased, Water should be drunk in small quantities and at frequent intervals,
not in large quantities at infrequent intervals.1

433. An order2 has recently been made by the Home Office under
the Police, Factories, etc. (Miscellaneous Provisions), Act, 1916, sec­
tion 7, under which, in all factories and workshops in which 25 or
more persons are employed, provision shall be made at suitable points,
conveniently accessible at all times to all persons employed, for—
(a) An adequate supply of wholesome drinking water from a
public main or from some other source of supply approved in writing
by the local authority of the district in which the factory or workshop
is situated, which shall be either laid on or contained in a suitable
vessel;
( b ) (Except where the water is delivered in an upward jet from
which the workers can conveniently drink) at least one suitable cup
or drinking vessel at each point of supply, with facilities for rinsing
it in drinking water.
434. Each drinking water supply shall be clearly marked “ Drink­
ing water.” All practicable steps shall be taken to preserve the water
and vessels from contamination.
1 P u b li c H e a lt h R e p o r t s , is s u e d w e e k ly b y t h e U n it e d S t a t e s P u b l i c H e a lt h
▼ol. x x x i i , N o . 5 0 , D e c . 1 4 , 1 9 1 7 . W a s h i n g t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O ffice .
* S t a t u t o r y r u le s a n d o r d e r s , 1 9 1 7 , N o . 1 0 6 8 .




S e r v ic e ;

SECTION XVII.—WELFARE SUPERVISION FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS.
THE NEED.

435. The war, and all the novel and strange conditions which it
has created, has served to give a new perspective to many social prob­
lems, and to none more than to the problem of improving and main­
taining the health of the industrial worker. The problem has many
aspects, all of which have a direct or indirect bearing on the em­
ployee. There is the health of the infant and its mother, of the
school child, and of the adolescent and adult worker. Regard must
be had to mental good health as well as to physical. Apathy, lassi­
tude, lack of interest in life may be as detrimental as physical ail­
ments and defects and may equally involve an irreparable loss of
efficiency. There is need not only for improved physical strength and
power of endurance, but also for mental alertness, the development
of individuality and the capacity for wise citizenship.
436. The committee are satisfied that the interests of employer and
employed are in this respect identical. Apart from physical and
mental health, the worker can not earn a sufficient livelihood or
rightly use and enjoy its proceeds. Equally, the prosperity of indus­
try is dependent upon the health and efficiency of the worker.
Though the employer can not, as a rule, directly control some of the
conditions, such as housing, that affect the welfare of his workers,
there is yet much that he can do to improve and humanize the con­
ditions of their employment.
(a) Preceding sections will have shown that the provision of a
thoroughly satisfactory environment largely depends upon the initia­
tive of the individual employer. Legislative enactments and statu­
tory regulations, valuable though they are, can only prescribe minima.
They can not take account of the varying circumstances of individual
factories.
(b) Certain provision, e. g., of canteens, overalls, cloakrooms,
lavatories, or first-aid appliances, may be of material benefit.
(r) Even though the provision is adequate and sufficient^ constant
care and attention on the part of the management are essential for
effective maintenance. Though Government inspection can do much,
it is necessarily intermittent and can not be sufficient in the presence
of apathy or neglect on the part of the employer or workers..
(cl) Regard must be had to the individuality of the workers and
to the wide variations that exist in their physical and mental capac­
ity and in their social circumstances and habits.




203

204

IN DU STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

( e)
Conditions of work may exist which are prejudicial to the
health of certain sections of workers in the factory on account of the
heaviness of the work or the conditions under which it is carried on.
Partly on these grounds a wage s3^stem, though generally equitable,
may cause unexpected hardship to particular individuals.
(/) Conditions prejudicial to health may arise through the exist­
ence of circumstances, causing avoidable irritation or discomfort
either to the whole body of workers or to certain sections of them.
(g) The surroundings of the worker outside the factory also call
for consideration. Account must frequently be taken not only of
conditions of housing and transit, but also of circumstances peculiar
to the social or family circumstances of individual workers.
437. As has been pointed out in Section II, it is no new phenome­
non to industrial life in this country for employers to desire the pro­
motion of the health and well-being of their workers, not only be­
7
cause such action may be profitable to themselves as well as for their
r
workers, but because they recognize the right of the worker, as a fel­
low citizen, to be regarded not as a machine, but as a human being
possessing an individuality of his O vn Under modern industrial
A .
conditions the employer usually has neither the time nor, frequently,
the experience to give the requisite personal attention to the many
and complicated problems affecting the health and welfare of the
workers. There has, therefore, been an increasing tendency, notably
where women are employed, to appoint an officer specially for the
purpose. This officer is generally designated “ welfare supervisor”
or “ welfare superintendent.” The idea underlying such appoint­
ments is not a new one, and it is of interest to note that in the sum­
maries of the evidence given before the royal commission 0 11 labor,
which was appointed in 1892, attention is drawn to the importance of
securing a good moral tone among women workers. It is added—
In those cases where women overlookers or forewomen can be employed diffi­
culties of this nature were obviated; hence, when this is possible, it was said
to be a very desirable arrangement. Even where this is not possible, however,
it was suggested that in all cases where a certain number of women are em­
ployed there should be a woman in a position of authority to whom all com­
plaints concerning officials, health, sanitary arrangements, etc., can be brought
in the first instance. The very natural dislike of women to approach men on
these subjects was constantly brought forward by the witnesses. Were some
carefully chosen woman put into this responsible position much of the danger
and discomfort which is unavoidable under the present state of things would
be removed and some of the chief difficulties connected with the employment of
women would also disappear. This system is already adopted in a few of the
best-regulated establishments.

438. Previously to the war, however, appointments of welfare
supervisors were comparatively rare and were practically confined to
T
so-called model factories or particular industries.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND GIRLS.

205

439. For the reasons given in Section IV, the stress and strain of
the war have tended greatly to emphasize the importance of atten­
tion to all matters affecting health and welfare of women and ado­
lescents. The appointment of the committee in September, 1915,
afforded in itself striking evidence of the recognition by the State of
the fact that it was a matter of national concern to secure that the
personal health and physical efficiency of the worker were so safe­
guarded as to prevent not only immediate breakdown but permanent
injury in the future. The employment of women in new industries,
the number of women engaged for the first time in engineering
works, their frequent employment in places remote from their own
homes, and the increasing occupation of married women and young
girls, have raised urgent problems which can not be neglected or
overlooked. On the other hand, many of these problems could not
be dealt with through the ordinary channels of factory manage­
ment—at any rate, under war conditions—and special provision was
necessary if the true causes of disability and discontent were to be
ascertained and removed.
440. Such were the circumstances which led the committee in
their memorandum No. 2 (Welfare Supervision),1 which was pre­
pared in January, 1916, to recommend that welfare supervisors
should be appointed in all factories where women were employed.
They recognized the risk involved in the rapid appointment of
large numbers of persons of varying qualifications for the perform­
ance of new and largely undefined duties, but the urgency of the
need made this inevitable. The policy recommended was that
adopted by the welfare department shortly afterwards established
at the ministry. The appointments of welfare supervisors have
been made compulsory in all factories where TNT is used and have
been actively encouraged in all munition factories. In this policy
the committee had the cordial cooperation of the Home Office, who
only permit women and girls to be employed at night where a wel­
fare worker or a responsible forewoman has been appointed for
their supervision. As the result, several hundreds of women welfare
supervisors have been appointed during the past two years.
STATUS AND DUTIES OF WELFARE SUPERVISORS.

441. While the opportunities of useful work open to a welfare
supervisor may be almost unlimited and can not in all directions
be clearly defined, experience shows that it is essential that welfare
supervisors should possess a recognized status and equipment and
should have certain specified duties,2 and, further, that they should
'C d . 8151.
* A p a m p h le t o n D u t ie s o f W e l f a r e S u p e r v is o r s f o r W o m e n h a s b e e n is s u e d b y t h e
M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s (s e e A p p e n d i x J ) .
C o p ie s c a n b e o b t a in e d o n a p p li c a t io n t o t h e
m in is t r y .




IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H A N D E FF IC IE N C Y .

be €lirectly responsible to the general manager, should act on in­
structions received from him and should refer to him direct on all
questions of difficulty.
442. Before setting out the various duties which may be assigned
to welfare supervisors, it may be well to enter a caution against
certain, misunderstandings which are liable to arise as to the aim
and purpose of welfare supervision. In the first place, it will per­
manently succeed only in so far as it receives the support of the
employer and employed alike, and it will fail in so far as any en­
deavor is made to conduct it in a spirit of patronage or superficial
philanthropy. Secondly, any scheme of welfare supervision must
be based on an adequate w
^age system. Without this failure is in­
evitable. Thirdly, welfare supervision is not intended to and can
not replace trades-unionism. Welfare supervisors,, if they are to
be successful in removing adverse conditions, must be in sympathy
personally with the workers and able to keep the employer informed
of their circumstances and desires, both individually and collectively.
They must not, however, interfere with the work of the trades-unions;
they are* after all, the servants of the employer and can not as such
be accepted as the authorized and official representatives of the work­
ers. even as regards matters which aifect only tlie conditions in the
particular factory in which they are employed. Lastly, welfare
T
supervision must not be regarded as in any sense a substitute for
factory inspection by the State, whose duty it is to secure an agreed
minimum of sanitation and safety in all factories equally and to en­
force a standard of hours and of intervals.
443. What duties are allotted to any particular supervisor will
depend to a considerable extent upon the circumstances of the fac­
tory and upon the age, circumstances, and characteristics of the
workers. They will also in some measure vary with the capacity and
status of the supervisor. The following include the principal duties
which have been successfully undertaken in different factories:
444. (a) Engagement of workers.—The selection of women work­
ers as regards their general suitability should be undertaken by the
welfare supervisor, persons to be employed in a particular depart­
ment being if necessary subsequently chosen by a foreman or other
person responsible for the work from a technical standpoint. When
workers are medically examined the supervisor should be informed
of any physical conditions likely to affect their w'ork. Whatever
their exact duties in these respects may be, supervisors should always
have an early opportunity of getting into touch with a new worker
r
in order from the first to establish those personal relationships upon
which the success of her work largely depends. A few words of
friendly conversation may be of great assistance in making the new




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND GIRLS.

207

workers appreciate the aim and the purpose of the work and in
familiarizing them with their strange surroundings.
445. In the case of women and girls it is also important that the
supervisors should be consulted as regards the character and general
suitability as distinct from the technical qualifications of candidates
for appointment as overlookers or forewomen.
446. (b) Records.—A record should be opened for each new
worker containing information as to age, physical condition, home
circumstances, etc. To this record should be added from time to
time details of progress, ill health, broken time, and other matters
likely to prove of value. Apart from their immediate purpose, such
records may prove of material assistance in determining the suita­
bility of the worker for other employment after the war.
447. (c) Lost time, sickness, low output, incapacity.—All such
cases should be reported to the supervisor, whose duty it should be
to investigate the causes, and, where practicable, to take steps to
remove them. Experience has shown that abnormally slow work
"
may be due to laziness, unsuitability or incapacity, and ill health,
448. (d) Wages.—Though the supervisor has no responsibility for
fixing the wages, she should receive particulars of the wages earned
by all workers, or, at any rate, by all those who fall below a certain
level. The amount of the wage may afford a valuable indication of
the progress of the worker. Further, low wages mean low output,
and it is obviously important that the causes should be ascertained
in each case. Low wages may be due to illness, fatigue, slackness,
unsuitability of the worker for the job, difficulties of housing and
transit, home troubles, and sometimes the inequitable operation of
the wage system.
449. (e) Dismissals or withdrawals.—It is a common experience
of industrial firms that large numbers of workers leave work for
various reasons within the first few months of their employment.1
This leakage represents a serious loss of efficiency, and all cases
should be investigated by the supervisor. Departure may be due to
ill health, change of residence, or marriage, or it may be due to
general dissatisfaction, dislike of work, disappointment over wages,
or a simple desire for change. Cases of proposed dismissal in par­
ticular should be carefully investigated in order to determine the
real causes of trouble and to remove possible misunderstandings.
450. (/) Working conditions.— Supervisors should always be inti­
mately acquainted with the working conditions in the factory (e. g.,
hours of work, wages, ventilation, heating, seats, lavatories, rest
rooms and cloakrooms). Any complaints or representations should
be fully and promptly investigated. In some instances the remedy




1 See Appendix D.

208

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

for defects may lie within their competence. More often it will be
their duty to bring them to the notice of the general manager or
other officers, according to their nature or importance. These duties
are fundamental, and the evidence shows that if wisely performed
they do not, as has sometimes been feared, in any way undermine
the authority of the foreman or other officials.
451. (g) General discipline.—As a rule the welfare supervisor is
only responsible for the good conduct of the workers apart from
their technical work; though she is free to visit the shops to super­
vise general behavior and to speak to individual workers, she is
mainly concerned with maintenance of the necessary standard of
conduct in the cloakrooms and lavatories, when going to and from
the shops, and at meal times.
452. ( h) Night supervision.— Specially close supervision of wo­
men and girls is needed at night, owing to the strain of the night
shift and on moral grounds, and it should form an important duty
of the welfare supervisor. Ordinary factory oversight is often more
difficult at night than during the day and may become somewhat lax.
453. (i) Home visiting.—Where necessary and desirable, home
visiting may be undertaken. Workers who are ill may be visited
in order to ascertain that they are properly cared for—a matter
often of considerable difficulty in crowded areas. Apart from this,
visits may usefully be paid to the parents of the younger girls and
the opportunity taken to discuss with them the merits and progress
as well as the demerits of their children. Misunderstandings as to
wages can be removed. Parents as a rule greatly appreciate periodi­
cal reports as to progress, conduct, and timekeeping. Minor offenses
by girls can sometimes be better dealt with by the parent than
through the factory organization.
454. (j) Feeding arrangements.—The supervisor should ascertain
that workers are obtaining suitable and nourishing food, and that
adequate and convenient facilities are available for its preparation,
purchase, or consumption. Where mess rooms or canteens are pro­
vided by the firm the supervisor will often be charged with their
direction.
455. (h) Thrift and benevolent funds.—The supervisor should
assist in any scheme for encouraging thrift which may be established
through war-savings associations or by other means. The arrange­
ments, at any rate in the case of the younger workers, are generally
most successful when organized in close connection with the payment
of wages. They should be such as to attract those who are not
-naturally thrifty. The supervisor may also be called upon to assist
with the formation of sick and benevolent funds among the workers,
and may also be consulted as to applications for help from such funds.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AN D GIRLS.

209

The following account has been received of the benevolent fund
established at Woolwich Arsenal:
This fund was opened in July, 1917. The absolute necessity for the existence
of such a fund had for a long time past been one of my many aims. Over and
over again I came up against the fact that with a fund to draw on I could do
a great deal to help and ease those who were working under me in the arsenal.
There are those who, through sickness of themselves or their families, get into
financial and often absolutely unavoidable difficulties, as rent must be paid and
children fed, even if the mother is laid up and unable to work. To secure this
fund a huge fete was organized and when all expenses were paid there was a
profit of £1,504 15s. 8}d. [$7,323.04] in hand.
This fund does not allow gifts of money, except in exceptional cases; when a
worker applies for assistance her case is thoroughly investigated, her home
being visited by a supervisor, and a report sent in. I f the case is satisfactory,
a loan is granted, which has to be paid back at the rate of 2s. 6d. [60.8 cents]
or 5s. [$1.22] per week, without any interest being charged. No return is ex­
pected until the second pay day after the loan has been granted, and longer
time is given if necessary. It is a rule that no claims for lost money or stolen
purses or clothing are dealt with, the reason for this being obvious. During the
six months, July-December, 963 applications for help have been received; of
these 890 were granted assistance; this has meant an outlay of £1,388 8s. li d .
[$6,756.87] and of this £319 9s. 8d. [$1,552.41] has been repaid by small install­
ments. All confinement cases are dealt with separately and not financed out
of the benevolent fund at all.
The 890 cases assisted included temporary sickness involving absence for a
week or more, 233; injury and back pay delayed, 101; surgical appliances, 3 7 ;
absence through infection illness in the house, 3 9 ; sending sick children and
husbands to convalescent homes and sanatoria, 8 1 ; assistance to new entries,
7 7 ; railway fares for holidays in distant places or in sudden emergencies, 5 6 ;
purchase of boots, 43.

456. (I) Training and instruction.—Though supervisors do not
usually themselves undertake the instruction of workers, they are
frequently responsible for securing the establishment of suitable
courses and for encouraging the workers to take advantage of them.
At the present time special facilities for attendance at classes are not
always easy to provide, though some firms have found it practicable
to do so, while others have made arrangements for new workers to
be instructed in the technical methods of the work they are to under­
take and for them to be given a general outline of the aim and pur­
pose of the work of the factory. Such instruction has proved to be
valuable in promoting technical efficiency and in stimulating interest.
It also affords an opportunity for determining the kind of employ­
ment for which the Avorker is likely to be best fitted.
457. ( m) Housing and transit.— Supervisors should acquaint them­
selves with the facilities for housing available for the workers. It
may be necessary to keep lists of suitable lodgings where this duty
is not otherwise undertaken. The adequac}^ of means of traveling
to and from the factory is a proper subject for the supervisor’s at80035°— 19-------14




210

IN B O ST E IA L H E A L T H A N D EFF IC IE N C Y .

teniion, as is also the consideration of local railway or tramway time
tables in relation to the hours of changing shifts.
458. (n) Recreation.—Facilities for indoor and outdoor recrea­
tion are of extreme importance for the health and welfare of the
worker. Where existing organizations are insufficient to meet the
needs, the supervisor may have to take steps to secure some provision
for organized games and evening clubs. Facilities for rest and
recreation during intervals of work may prove of much benefit and
be greatly appreciated. The conduct of arrangements for recreation
should be so far as possible in the hands of the members themselves,
and the position of the supervisor should, so far as possible, be one
of advising rather than of controlling.
459. (o) Cooperation ivith outside agencies.—For an adequate
performance of their duties it is essential that welfare supervisors
should possess an intimate knowledge of the agencies—educational,
social, industrial—outside the factory which are concerned with th*,
life of the worker,
4#0. The duties outlined above, though mainly concerned with
matters of health and individual welfare, are to some extent distinct
from those usually intrusted to trained nurses or the medical staff
engaged to render first-aid or subsequent treatment of accident and
sickness. The advantage, however, of bringing the work of the
nurse into touch with that of the welfare supervisor is manifest, and
in suitable eases the duties of a welfare supervisor of women and
girls may be properly undertaken by the nursing staff—increased
and, if necessary, reorganized for the purpose. When the numbers
are small and full-time service is not required the duties of a welfare
supervisor may be undertaken by an existing member of the staff
who possesses special qualifications for the work and is given the
time and status requisite for their proper performance.
461.
The following statements will afford some indication of the
present purpose and scope of welfare supervision among women.
Thus, a leading munition firm writes:
The welfare work has been organized on broad lines and its development left
to the individual views of the management and welfare staff concerned in
accordance with the special requirements of each factory or department and
the nature of its work. Its aim has been to relieve the pressure of industrial
life and protectfthe workers’ interests both individually and collectively. Tlte
general policy has been to study, adapt, and improve existing conditions o f
labor on such practical lines as may be suitable to the requirements of the
workers concerned, with a view to future progress and development. The
Worth Country workers ^re more independent in spirit and advanced in thought
than southerners, and strongly resent any suggestion of patronage or inter­
ference with their liberties; in consequence, the welfare worker must adapt
lierseif to their requirements and not expect them to readily accept her views.
T h e qualities most necessary to a successful welfare worker are good heal tlx,




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND <HRLS.

211

common sense, justice, loyalty, love of humanity, and a sense o f humor, and
any training which has inculcated habits of discipline and application is very
desirable, more especially shop training. The management do not allow the
welfare workers to deal with any labor or wages questions or rates of pay,
as they consider it essential that these should remain in the hands of tin.
management.
Every female candidate applying for employment at these works is taken on
through a labor bureau, who interview every girl and obtain reference as to
character. In addition, each girl is examined by a trained nurse prior to being
engaged Should the nurse be doubtful about the physical suitability of the
candidate, the works doctor is asked to decide.

462.
A departmental supervisor at this factory describes her duties
as including—
Engagement o f labor .— Requisitions from foremen as to number of girla
required, type, and class of w ork; interviewing girls recommended by foremen,
forewomen, or other workers, and placing those approved in touch with labor
bureau; change of work, if unsuitable, arranged with the concurrence o f the
foreman concerned; transfers to another department arranged, if desirable, and
approved by foremen and supervisors concerned; restarters interviewed and ap­
proved or sent to doctor or labor bureau for medical report; signing on new
starters, impressing them with the reputation of the shop for good work and
conduct, and giving them useful h in ts; interviews with labor bureau respecting
matters concerning employment or reemployment of women.
General .— Reporting to the departmental manager, as and when required, on
any questions connected with shop discipline, and seeking his advice if any
extreme difficulty or question of principle arises; consulting with shop man­
agers and taking instructions on all matters concerning shop discipline; inter­
viewing head foremen, forewomen, and others in reference to various matters
concerning the girls, taking care that no action is taken by any supervisor
without proper consultation and agreement with the executive authority con­
cerned ; investigating all serious complaints personally, and keeping in close
personal touch with grievances, real or im aginary; receiving reports from and
advising subordinate supervisors on matters concerning the shifts for which
they are responsible; advising girls on any question, on her own application
01* through the supervisor in charge of her sh ift; interviews with medical
officer of works re medical points arising; investigating, consulting, advising,
and dealing with all kinds of problems, moral or otherwise, some petty but
irritating, others of importance and affecting principle or precedent; visiting
any special cases an infirmary or at home.
Social.— Attending committees of the girls re entertainments, and where re­
quired assisting in their organization. Seeking out and recommending cases
for rest home or other assistance.
Office.— Organization and supervision of various records concerned with the
girls, their overalls and other clothing, and of war-savings associations and
other thrift funds.
Countersigning all requisitions for clothing, cleaning*
or other materials from stores.
Inspection .— Of shops, cloakrooms, dining rooms, and cookhouses, to see
everything is in proper order; of shop supervisors’ registers and records; of
ambulance-room records, to see what girls have met with accident or were
passed out sick; of medical certificates from absentees; of timekeeping records
and lists of absentees.




212

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AN D E FF IC IE N C Y .

463. The following statement, received from another important
firm, affords some idea of how the work has developed during the
war:
% Taking up my duties on August 10, 1914, there were 13 girls employed in the
factory on aircraft work. At that time the accommodations for girls consisted
of 1 spacious cloakroom, 20 hand basins, and 30 lavatories, and this for the
first six months became my headquarters, and as we possessed only a small,
dingy mess room, which was used by the men, the cloakroom became office, mess
room, sewing, and ambulance room. In February, 1915, a small portion of the
men’s mess room was partitioned off for the use of the girls, and at the same
time a r.oom was taken over and converted into a rest room and surgery, and
this proved very valuable indeed, as just at this time we experienced much dif­
ficulty brought about by dope poisoning; in fact, two girls died as the result of
poisoning. Therefore, a strict watch had to be kept on the health of the work­
ers, helped by doctor’s inspection once a fortnight. In addition, we had by this
time another large cloakroom, consising of 4 hand basins and 30 lavatories, fully
equipped with the necessary sanitary arrangements. In our new building we
now have a cloakroom in every department where girls are employed. This
prevents waste of time, and sickness is also prevented, as the girls are not com­
pelled to leave a heated shop. In September, 1916, a large drawing office was
converted as follow s: Rest room, waiting room, surgery, and office. In Janu­
ary, 1917, the sewing room was enlarged and we are now able to employ girls
who may be temporarily unemployed by strikes or breakdown of machinery, and
in numerous cases when the girls are indisposed but not ill enough to go off
work. Since September, 1917, we have had in use a girls’ recreation room,
where they may spend their time when not on d u ty ; that is, mealtimes both
©n day and night shift.
In addition, we have a female labor bureau, consisting of waiting room and
interviewing room. W e have for the benefit of the workers benevolent and
hospital funds, girls’ savings bank or holiday fund, clothing club, and have
recently organized a girls’ welfare fund. W ith reference to the social side,
there are various organizations— girls’ gymnasium class, tennis and hockey
club, football team, home nursing and first-aid classes, and we now have a girls’
ambulance corps trained at the works to render first aid in the shops. These
are also on duty during air raids. On January 22, 1917, the new club and mess
room was opened with accommodation for approximately 600 girls. There is
also accommodation for 300 girls in the Y. W . O. A. A new feature which has
been recently introduced— the want of which has been sadly felt— is that help
should be given to employees whose wives are laid up owing to illness or child­
birth. W e have engaged the services of a couple of women whom we send out
to do the housework in these cases.

464. Thirdly^nay be quoted the following extracts from an account
supplied by a welfare supervisor of “A day of my life as a welfare
supervisor ” :
One of the chief advantages of a welfare supervisor’s life is its variety. Each
hour brings its own difficulties, each day produces fresh problems, and each
week opens up new possibilities. The scope of the work is limited only by imagi­
nation and ability and things accomplished serve as milestones on an endless
road of possibilities. This variety makes the task of describing a welfare super­
visor's day a difficult one.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND GIRLS.

213

A t 9 a. ni. I clock on (we all do this, from the manager downward) and start
dealing with letters. These are of all kinds— postcards returned by absentees
explaining why they are away from work, letters from other factories asking
for the characters of women who have left us, letters from solicitors and the
finance department of the Ministry of Munitions about compensation cases, let­
ters from women and girls asking for work.
I read the report left by the assistant supervisor on night duty. Perhaps the
shop has been too hot or too cold, there has been a theft in the cloakroom, an
operator and a viewer have had a quarrel, a pipe has burst in the lavatory;
there are also several complaints that the train from W -----------arrives so late
that the women have to run from the station to be at the factory before the
gates close, and reach their work in an exhausted condition. * * *
The next business is to deal with absentees. Every morning a list of the pre­
vious day’s absentees is sent from the time office and the cards are taken out
of the current index and filed in a special drawer. After three days’ absence
each case is either visited or written to, and by the end of seven days we are
in a position to know whether the worker is coming back or not. The assistant
supervisor goes through the absentees each day and decides which are to be
written to and w hieh visited, and in the first case sends reply postcards asking
7
for an explanation of absence and in the second gives the welfare visitor the
cards of those who are to be visited. Before going off every morning the visitor
discusses with me points arising out of her visits of the previous day, and in
many cases we decide to ask for help from the welfare committee. This com­
mittee is a kind of benevolent society to which all workers subscribe and which
gives grants in cases of necessity, hospital notes when special medical attention
is needed, convalescent changes, etc.
Choosing labor can be a very skilled work when there is an ample supply to
choose from and no great hurry in filling vacancies. Each worker should be just
the right type for the work she is put to ; she should be examined medically
and her references taken up, or, in the case of young workers, her character
from school inquired into. Few labor offices, however, are able to carry out
this regime at the present time, and engaging is often reduced to eliminating
the least fit. One rejects the old, the infirm, the undersized, the shortsighted,
the dirty, the flashy, the anemic, and the corpulent, and the remainder are
taken on for the jobs for which they are most suitable.
I must explain that ever since I came in at 9 o’clock there has been a constant
stream of women from the shop with questions and complaints, and that to
write one letter or engage one person without interruptions is quite unusual.
Mrs. A wants a job on days as her husband is ill and can not be left at night;
Elsie B complains that the charge hand is always “ shouting ” to h er; three
viewers state that their rises are due but have not been given; two operators
are not satisfied that their w^ages are correct, and the matter has to be thrashed
out. In the one case I show the girl that she has calculated wrongly, and that
she has been paid correctly; in the other I think the wages office has made a
mistake, and I promise to see to it. * * *
Although I have not been in the shop, however my assistant has been there
off and on all the morning since the shift started at 8 a. m., either in the little
works office or walking about the shop. The women know they will find her
in the office between 10 and 11 o’clock, and they go to her with difficulties and
complaints and to get badges, etc. The forewomen, too, go to her for advice,
and she is in close touch with superintendents and foremen, helping them to
smooth over the many difficulties arising out of the employment of large num­
bers of both sexes. When she is not in the office she is walking round the




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IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AN D E FF IC IE N C Y .

sliop seeing that the girls are behaving well, wearing their caps, and are not
loitering about the cloakrooms and lavatories, also that the latter are well
supplied with towels, soap, etc.
I take with me into the shop notes of the matters I have to discuss with the
superintendent and works manager, and when I have seen them I walk round
and note new developments, the drinking fountains for which I have agitated
and which are being put up— a new pattern of seat which is being fixed to the
machines— a big draught from an opening which might be closed up, and the
extra high skies for the slurry pans on the drilling machines which have been
made and are giving great satisfaction to the operators.
On my way back to the office I call at the ambulance room and see that all
is well there. The sister in charge tells me of a woman who has been in with
bad varicose veins who should not be standing at her work; she tells me that
one of the nurses wants to leave, and warns me that a woman has been in with
an old wound which lias broken out again, but which she is claiming to be a
fresh injury for which she requires compensation. The ambulance room is in
my charge, but it carries on mainly on its own.
My assistant comes back before 1.30 so as to be free during the last half of
the dinner hour. Sometimes she has arranged a concert, and sometimes the
members of the military band or the orchestra bolt their own meal so as to
entertain the others, but none of these things happen as often as we would like,
as, unfortunately, our canteen does not lend itself to entertainment Occasion­
ally we have a war-saving or other meeting, but here again we are hampered
by the unsuitability of the building.
A little before 0 o’clock the matron comes down and speaks to me about
towels and soap and overalls, and other domestic details. She acts as a kind
o f chief forewoman and frees the assistant supervisors and myself from a good
deal of necessary work which does not require careful handling.
A t 6.15 p. m. there is a meeting of the sports and recreation committee. H av­
ing held a most successful dance the night before (which, by the way, kept me
up until after 11 o’clock, though I was only a wallflower), we decide to organize
a series o f whist drives for the Various sections of the works, followed in each
case by a few dances. The football section sends a report on the first half­
season’s play, and we get a satisfactory account from the choral society of the
financial result of their performance of the concert version of “ Merry E nglan d/’
A discussion on finance follows, and it is about 7.30 when we get away. I f this
imaginary day is a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, I am now free to go
home, but two nights a week I go back to tlie factory after a hasty dinner and
stay until 9 o’clock seeing the new people who are turning in for the night
shift and making a final tour of the shop before the night supervisor takes over
the work.
In conclusion, it may perhaps be of interest to note that the welfare staff
consists, besides myself, of two shift supervisors, a matron and a welfare visitor,
one adult clerk, a stenographer, and two office girls. In the ambulance room
are a sister in charge, two fully trained and two partially trained nurses, and
a clerk. The number of women we deal with is just under 3,000. It is only
possible to manage with such a small staff of welfare supervisors ©wing to the
presence of forewomen. There are eight of these, and they act as kind of
liaison officers between the welfare supervisor and tlie works. They are only
appointed with my approval, and I find that in many ways there are ad­
vantages in making use of them instead of increasing the staff of supervisors.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND GIRLS.

215

QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAINING OF W ELFARE SUPERVISORS.

465. The duties of a welfare supervisor are many and difficult;
she requires to be possessed of strength of character, tact, and broad­
mindedness, such as will fit her for responsibility and will command
the respect of workers and foremen. She should be of good standing
and education, and should possess a good understanding of industrial
conditions. Apart from these broad essentials much necessarily de­
pends upon the conditions of work, the size of the factory, the nature
of the management, the type and characteristics of the workers, the
nature of the industry, and the conditions under which it is carried
on. The duties of the supervisor may have an industrial or an
ameliorative bias. Provided only that they possess the requisite
qualifications, welfare supervisors can be and are drawn from all
classes of the community. It has been suggested that there are five
essentials for the work of a welfare supervisor—
(a) An intimate knowledge and sympathy with women and girls.
This can best be acquired by such methods as teaching in a primary
school, life in a settlement, work in a women’s trade-union office,
living at the same time in a poor neighborhood. Without this funda­
mental experience no one should take up welfare work.
(b) A careful study of industrial problems which affect women’s
labor—such problems as the displacement of men by women, married
women’s work, the educational needs of “ young persons,” the home
life of women and girls, the working of such acts as the insurance
acts and the workmen’s compensation act.
(c) A knowledge, both theoretical and practical, of the health
of women and girls and how it is affected by speed of output, the
kind of commissariat provided, the questions of ventilation and heat­
ing, and questions of housing accommodation.
(d) A knowledge of the technical side of the work, indexing, filing,
T
account keeping, domestic arrangements in rest rooms, cloakrooms,
the organization of a factory, and the relations between general
managers, managers, foremen, and forewomen.

(e) A conception of the right relation between the life of the fac­
tory with all its agencies for good, and the life of the community,
the interaction of each upon the other. This involves a serious study
of the social structure of the community.1
466. The previous experience and knowledge possessed by persons
desiring to become welfare supervisors will necessarily vary. Their
experience may be mainly practical or mainly theoretical. Though
there will be exceptions, it will generally be desirable that candidates
should undergo a special period of training. During the past two
1 I n d u s t r ia l W e l f a r e W o r k , b y M is s H il d a
S t r e e t , B r i s t o l.
P r i c e , 6d.




C a s h m o r e ; G e o . G o r d o n & S o n s , O ld K i n g

216

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

years the universities have provided a number of courses of training
of a few weeks’ duration, which have been attended largely by persons
already provisionally selected by the Ministry of Munitions as suit­
able for employment, and in some cases in receipt of special allow­
ances from the ministry. While these courses have been of practical
value in meeting the temporary emergency, they have admittedly been
provisional in character. The need for such emergency courses is,
however, rapidly passing, and the committee desire to express the
oj)inion that longer courses of not less than one year’s duration should
at an early date become the established minimum of training. They
recognize the difficulty of persuading candidates to equip themselves
by longer training as long as emergency courses are still in existence.
467.
In considering the scope of courses of training it can not be
too strongly emphasized that welfare supervision as it is known to-day
is only a phase, and possibly only a temporary phase, of a much wider
movement toward industrial betterment. The present time is essen­
tially one of change and development. The welfare supervisor of the
future may not be an officer appointed ad hoc. She may in future be
a manageress or forewoman, or hold some technical position in the
executive. Account must also be taken of the developments which
may arise from the proposed establishment of joint industrial coun­
cils 1 of employers and workers. Apart from this allowance must be
made for the wide variety in the types of post which the supervisor
may be called upon to undertake. In any case the essential object
must be a right outlook upon her future work; for its absence no
knowledge, however large, of technical detail will compensate. The
committee are accordingly of opinion that it is essential that any
course of training should, while allowing for a special study of wel­
fare problems, be grounded on a wide study of social questions. Sub­
ject to this institutions may properly be encouraged to elaborate
their courses according to what each may conceive to be best for their
T
students, regard being also had to the special bent of the teachers
available, and the particular sphere for which they are preparing.
The committee generally concur in the recommendations on this sub­
ject contained in the report made by a committee of university repre­
sentatives in July, 1917, upon the selection and training of welfare
supervisors in factories and workshops.2 This report suggests that
the course of training should fall into three main divisions, viz:
Lectures and class teaching .— The subjects to be dealt with would include
some study of industrial history, the outlines of social economics and local
government, modern institutions such as trade-unions or the cooperative move­
ment, industrial law, including some knowledge of factory legislation, hygiene,
1 S ee in t e r i m r e p o r t .on j o i n t s t a n d i n g i n d u s t r ia l c o u n c i ls b y t h e s u b c o m m it t e e o f t h e
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m m i t t e e o n r e la t i o n s b e t w e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d .
Cd. 8606, 1917.
* P u b li s h e d b y P . S . K i n g & S o n ( L t d . ) , O r c h a r d S t r e e t , W e s t m i n s t e r .
P r ic e , 3d.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND GIRLS.

217

the health of the individual worker, and workmen’s compensation. Special at­
tention should be paid to the general organization of a factory, the duties of
managers, the principal types of production, and the methods of remuneration,
relation of factory organization to problems of continuation-school education.
Some, at any rate, of the instruction on the duties of a welfare supervisor
should be given by those who are actually engaged in the work.
Visits o f observation .— These would have regard to public health, housing,
conditions of factory life, poor law, hostels employment exchanges, e tc .; they
would be supplementary and explanatory of the lectures.
Practical w ork .— A t least half the time of a social student should be spent
upon practical work. This should be divided roughly into two sections, the
first section aiming at giving the student an acquaintance with normal workingclass life ; in the second the future welfare supervisor should visit a consider­
able number of factories in which welfare work is carried out, and should, where
this can be arranged, work under a welfare supervisor. Finally, it is desirable
that wherever possible students should gain some actual experience of life
as a wage earner in a factory.1

468. At a recent conference 2 of welfare supervisors a speaker thus
described the object of training:
Part of the real object of training, combined with association, was to make a
standard of work and worker which would endure, and which would be a
guaranty of good work in the future. The standard required was not merely
one of expert administration, but of breadth of judgment, wise understanding,
good sense, and all that general combination of qualities which belonged to the
educated man or woman. Efficiency merely would not give the standard. Some
professions had got efficiency but not the standard— for instance, nursing.
Others had both efficiency and the standard, as the medical and legal profes­
sions. These had not been obtained by tests, examinations, or difficulty of
training, but by pattern and length and character of the training. Some parts
of the training might be necessary merely to compel thinking. The shortness
of the training made it all the more necessary to include something which
would bring out the capacity to think. Perhaps next to good judgment and
tact, power to think quickly and sympathetically was most important. Only
by contact with the mental struggles of other people could be obtained that
sense of the relation of class to class, of the attitude of working people to
social usages, their feeling about this or that. Only the study of the most
human questions, i. e., mind (psychology), of aim (philosophy), of the struggle
to make the best of life (social economics), could give this sense. * * * By
training, much of the shortsightedness and narrowness which spoiled social
work could be avoided.

469. If the committee are correct in their view that courses of
training should be primarily based on a wide study of social prob­
lems, it may be anticipated that a large part of the course will be
suitable for all students who are desirous of taking and are qualified
by attainments to take a course of social study; and the committee
1 C o u r s e s o f t h e k in d h e r e c o n t e m p la t e d h a v e b e e n , o r a r e b e in g , o r g a n i z e d b y o r u n d e r
t h e a u s p ic e s o f t h e u n i v e r s it i e s o f L o n d o n ( S c h o o l o f E c o n o m i c s ) , B ir m in g h a m , B r i s t o l,
B e l f a s t , E d in b u r g h , G la s g o w , L e e d s , L i v e r p o o l , M a n c h e s t e r , S h e ffie ld , a n d e ls e w h e r e .
P r o v i s io n i s a ls o s o m e t im e s m a d e f o r s h o r t o r p a r t - t i m e c o u r s e s .
P r o s p e c t u s e s o f th e
c o u r s e s c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a u t h o r i t ie s o f the- u n i v e r s it i e s c o n c e r n e d .
2 C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t io n o f W e l f a r e W o r k e r s , n o t e s o f a d d r e s s e s g i v e n a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e
o n J a n . 1 2 a n d 13 , 1 9 1 8 . P r i c e , I s .




218

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

would not favor an attempt to limit admission to any part of the
course to persons who had been previously selected as likely to prove
at the end of the course suitable candidates for the posts as welfare
supervisors. Further, while particular candidates will doubtless
from time to time be assisted from private funds to undergo a course
of training with a view subsequently to taking up employment as a
welfare supervisor, perhaps in a particular factory, the committee
would be opposed to any scheme of granting financial assistance from
public funds to candidates who undertook as a condition of the
assistance to take up such an appointment on the completion of the
course. Sueh a restriction is only justifiable (except to meet a special
and temporary emergency) where the numbers required are large and
the prospects of permanent employment are substantially secure.
SELECTION OF WELFARE SUPERVISORS.

470. Though the State may properly undertake responsibility for
satisfying itself that adequate provision is made for supervision, and
may require modification to be made where they are not so satisfied,
the State can not in the opinion of the committee itself undertake re­
sponsibility for actual appointments, if only because it can not pos­
sess a sufficiently intimate acquaintance with the particular condi­
tions of individual factories. Apart from this the State would only
be justified in itself making appointments if it paid for the super­
vision provided; and it would appear obvious that welfare super­
vision—at any rate as it is at present conceived— could not be suc­
cessfully carried out by a paid agent imposed on the factory from out­
side. Up to the present the welfare supervisors have been appointed
and paid by the employer, and it seems probable that for some time
to come at any rate the employer must ordinarily continue to accept
ultimate responsibility if only that upon him rests the duty of secur­
ing that the conditions of employment within his factory are satis­
factory. It may be anticipated, however, that the workers, whose
confidence and support are essential to success, will to an increasing
extent seek some voice in the selection.
471. The peculiar conditions which have justified the making of
several hundred appointments of women welfare supervisors within
the last two years, necessitated that some organization should be
established through which empk^ers could obtain information as to
suitable candidates. To meet this demand the Ministry of Munitions
established a special panel. Though this panel has undoubtedly
served a useful purpose, the committee are not satisfied that it is
desirable as a permanent arrangement. If admission to such a panel
were at all narrowly limited it would probably fail to secure the con­
fidence and support of employers. Apart from this, the fact that a




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AN D GIRLS.

219

particular supervisor had been selected from the Government panel
might subsequently prove an embarrassment if it became necessary
to comment adversely on the provision made for supervision at the
factor}^ in question. Any agenc}^ established should in the opinion
of the committee be entirely free of all Government control.
CONCLUSION.

472. The time has not }^et arrived when any definite judgment can
be passed on the developments of welfare supervision during the past
two years. Still less can prophecy safely be made as to the future.
For permanent success welfare work must gain the confident approval
and support of the workers. At present their judgment is in sus­
pense. The old antagonism of “ capital ” and “ labor ” makes the
motive of the employer in appointing a welfare supervisor subject to
the suspicion that he is seeking profit at the expense of his workers.
Again, there is the natural objection to anything savoring of philan­
thropy. The demand is for justice not for charity. Fussy inter­
ference represents another danger. As a prominent employer has
pointed out—
It would be a great mistake for employers to force themselves into the lives
of the men whom they employ. W e must avoid smothering them with our good
intentions * * *. The point is that men must have a definite responsibility
of their own, and we must not try to interfere with that in any way.

473. Further, there is the fear that the movement, whether deliber­
ately or not, may be opposed to the development of the aim of tradesunionism. On the other hand, the following remarks of a representa­
tive trades-unionist at the recent conference already referred to, show
a more favorable attitude:
Wages and hours, though of primary importance, were not the whole matter.
Tone and atmosphere might still be wrong. There was still the relationship
between the sexes in a factory to be considered, and also the shameful fact
that there were still many men supervisors who w ere in charge of women in
T
every respect. Also, though good wages and good hours always tended to raise
the standard of life and manners, the connection was not always immediate.
For instance, in the Lancashire cotton trade, where before the war women
were best paid, standards of comfort were deplorably low. After all had been
done in respect to w^ages and hours there still remained something to do.
There would be a great many other matters— for instance, dismissal and en­
gagement of workers. Engagement was of most far-reaching importance, be­
cause bound up with the extraordinary difficult question of the slow w orker, who
T
was often slow because in an unsuitable trade. The welfare worker would
after a time be able to select people with the precise qualifications necessary
for the particular trade; would probably get rid of, substantially at any rate,
the problem of the slow worker. Again there would be questions like the lift­
ing of heavy weights, the danger of particular processes, etc. The welfare
worker would be the intermediary between employer and employee. Any fac­
tory act, or any observation forced upon employers by the trade-union, could
only be a minimum. The conscientious employer would still have to decide




IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND EFF IC IE N C Y .

220

how far he could go in advance of the minimum and would more and more need
the expert advice that a trained welfare superintendent could give him.
The supervisory powers which, by degrees, the welfare worker would attain to,
were very valuable. Canteens, rest rooms, clean water, overalls, etc., were in­
valuable, but would mean nothing unless there was somebody to see that each
of these things was what it ought to be. In those things was the basis of wel­
fare work. It was part of the functional management of a great factory.
Sidney Webb had appealed for frankness. It should be known that the welfare
worker was there for efficiency; she represented the management and not the
worker. There was no shame in working on the side of efficiency, and in any
system of industry efficiency would be necessary. The welfare worker who
came forward in the name of efficiency, and to do what she could for the
workers, would incur no misunderstanding or resentment 011 their part. If she
were also able to work cordially with trade-unions and direct people to join
unions any barrier between her and the workers would be broken down.

474.
Considerable interest attaches to the following constructive
proposals which were recently put forward in a memorandum1 pre­
pared by the joint committee of the Woolwich Trades and Labor
Council and Woolwich Labor Party:
The statement of the duties of welfare supervision contained in memorandum
No. 2 (Welfare Supervision) of the health of munition workers committee may
be taken as a working basis for the purpose of welfare supervision. The
memorandum states that “ the duties here outlined are chiefly concerned with
matters of health and individual welfare which are of immediate urgency
to-day.” Modification of or addition to these duties will doubtless be brought
about by increasing experience, and by the changes which are likely to arise
in the industrial system after the war; but we submit that the following con­
ditions are essential to any scheme of welfare supervision that is to win the
full confidence and support of the workers:
(1) Welfare supervision must aim primarily at promoting the welfare of
the workers, and not at increasing the workers’ output.
(2) In the interest of welfare supervision and of the workers, duties which
conflict with welfare supervision must not be included in the work of welfare
supervisors.
(3) Welfare schemes and supervisors must be under a democratic system of
control in which the workers shall have equal participation with the employers.
(4) The established field of operations of trade-unions and their officials
must be clearly and loyally recognized by welfare schemes and supervisors.
(5) Welfare supervisors should be drawn, as far as possible, from among
the workers.
(6) Welfare supervisors should not be appointed without preliminary train­
ing or experience, such training to include a knowledge of trade-union aims and
methods.
(7) The remuneration and hours of all assistants in welfare supervision
work (e. g., canteen workers) must be of a trade-union standard.
(8) If Government control of welfare supervision is maintained after the
war, such control must be transferred from the Ministry of Munitions to the
Ministry of Labor.
We submit further—
(9) That there should be the maximum of efficient cooperation among local
welfare schemes, especially with regard to small factories.
1 Reprinted in the W oolw ich Pioneer for Feb. 22, 1918.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR W O M E N AND GIRLS.

221

(10) That there should be the maximum of efficient cooperation between
local welfare schemes and the municipality, especially with regard to health,
housing, transit, and recreation.
(11) That as welfare supervision will probably become a permanent and ex­
tending element of the industrial system, there should be held in each in­
dustrial center, one or more conferences, convened by the trade council, or,
where there is also a local labor party, both bodies jointly, for the purpose of
considering the aims, scope, and methods of welfare supervision; that such
local conferences should be followed by a joint conference of the Trade-union
Congress and the National Labor Party.

475.
The committee can not escape the conclusion that unwise and
unsatisfactory appointments have been made, that friction and mis­
understandings have been created, and that complaints have at times
been considerable in volume and extent. Further, it may be freely
granted that many of these complaints were well founded, though
their extent and importance must not be overestimated. More is
frequently heard of one failure than of many successes. The prob­
lems at issue can not be solved in a day. If not entirely new, they
are for the first time becoming of direct interest and importance to
any large section of the industrial community. Allowance, too, must
be made for the limited experience of industrial conditions inevitably
possessed b j many of the welfare supervisors when first appointed,
and also for the difficulties due to the newness of many of the con­
ceptions of industrial organization involved in the work, and to the
absence of any substantial body of experience or tradition to guide
welfare supervisors in their work. Failure where it has occurred
has quite as often been due to slowness of the management or the
workers to understand the aim and purpose of welfare supervision
as to the incapacity or unsuitability of the supervisor. On the whole
the committee are convinced that it can at least be said that the con­
ditions of employment of women workers have been substantially
and widely improved and that they are as a rule to-day greatly
superior to those usually existing in industry before the war. The
fact that in spite of the strain of the last three years there has not
hitherto been a general breakdown of health is in no small degree
due to the work of the welfare supervisors. There can too be no
doubt as to the advantage derived from the presence of a person
whose special duty it is to give constant attention to many matters
which, though often trivial in themselves, are yet vital to the main­
tenance of a healthy environment. Again, it can not but be of
service to the solution of future industrial problems that there should
exist a large number of persons who are daily devoting their atten­
tion to an aspect of these problems which has too frequently been
overlooked in the past but which can not safely be neglected. The
experience and knowledge now accumulated must certainly prove a
notable contribution to the wise handling of many questions vitally




222

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y ,

affecting the future prosperity of the nation. The association1 of
welfare supervisors now being established should do valuable work
in collecting and focusing information. The committee in fact
tire satisfied that the experiment of the last two years has been of
inestimable benefit to the nation, and that in one form or another
welfare supervision should certainly continue to play an important
part in all future schemes for the industrial betterment of the race.
1 The aim of the Central Association of Welfare Supervisors is defined in the constitu­
tion as being—
To promote the well-being of the workers by securing, in the cooperation with em­
ployer and employed, the best possible conditions of work. To help all efforts, inside and
outside of the £actory» to place the industrial relationship on a basis of goodwill awl
understanding.
Tlie secretary of the association may be addressed at the School of Economics, Clare
Market, W. C. 2.
District associations are also being formed in London and other industrial areas.
The association has upward of G O members.
O




SECTION xvm.—WLFARE SUPERVISION FOR 'BOYS AND MEN.
WELFARE

TOB BOYS.
THE NEED.

470.
The problems involved in the welfare supervision of boys,
though in some measure similar to those which arise in the case of
women and girls, are in certain respects distinct and call for special
consideration and treatment. The employment of boys in engineer­
ing and other munition works, unlike that of women and girls, is
not a new development arising out of the war. Nearly every firm
has employed boys before the war. The war has not introduced a
new farm of labor for which employers might expect to be asked to
provide new conditions, nor, again, has the war introduced difficul­
ties in regard to boys which did not exist before. The war has only
T
magnified the difficulties; it has not created them. High wages in
certain occupations, large demands for boy labor, restlessness and the
habit of wandering from one employer to another, the trouble of se­
curing proper control, all these were boy problems during times of
peace, but war conditions have emphasized the difficulties, while the
need for conserving all possible labor has made their solution a matter
of national importance.
477. The first and most essential object of welfare supervision
among boys is to bring to bear upon them through the management
a definite personal influence. They are at an impressionable age,
when the influences to which they are subject will largely determine
r
their ultimate outlook upon life. They are not adults; many are as
young as 14, some are even younger. They are not old enough to be
allowed imguided to control their own destiny. At the same time,
existing conditions, such as Irigh wages, the absence of the father or
the elder brother, have tended to relax home control. Hours of work
frequently prevent attendance at clubs or classes and healthy out­
door recreation is too seldom available. As might be anticipated
under such conditions, the conduct of the boys is the subject of fre­
quent complaint. From whatever aspect the matter is viewed, it is
essential-that the causes of alleged ill behavior and conduct should be
ascertained and appreciated. It is only by such means that improve­
ment can be obtained.
478. While at school boys have been accustomed to a sympathetic
discipline and friendly interest. Similar discipline and interest
should be present also in the factory, Where these are not assured




223

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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

it is, as a rule, useless to secure the provision of what may be called
the material apparatus of welfare. Facilities alone are inadequate;
the boys must be led to avail themselves of the opportunities offered.
Experience shows that canteens and mess rooms may be erected, but
boys, in many cases, have not used them, preferring to consume 4 car­
4
ried” food in some corner of the factory. Similarly, washing ap­
paratus has been supplied, but left neglected or abused; towels have
been converted into footballs and soap used as a handy missile. The
first-aid arrangements may be excellent, but for minor injuries the
boys will not trouble to make use of them. There are, of course, ex­
ceptions to these statements, but they are not sufficiently numerous to
modify the conclusion that what the boys need most is definite per­
sonal influence.
479. Such personal influence can, in general, only be secured where
definite duties with regard to the boys are delegated to some one indi­
vidual. Collective and indiscriminate responsibility is unsuccessful.
The mixed method, usually the practice, of leaving the boys to the
control of the manager and foremen has been proved a failure in
actual experience. The manager, even when possessing the necessary
qualifications, has not the time to carry out the work. The foremen,
not infrequently keenly interested in the boys, lack the requisite
breadth of outlook and training. Their immediate concern is 4 out­
4
put,” and they tend to regard only the obvious and often superficial
effects as distinguished from the more important but less arresting
consequences of any action on their part. To take a single example:
Experience has shown that boys are ill suited to stand the monotony
of purely repetition work. To keep them long to one operation is to
injure output by increasing lost time and frequency of leakage.
But the foreman knows that a boy when transferred to a new job
lequires time before he becomes expert and that temporary loss of
Gutput is the result of transfer. He fails to appreciate that in the
absence of such transfers output suffers more seriously. • It is not pos­
sible, therefore, to count on securing the necessary personal influence
from either the manager or the foremen. In small works, employing
B boys or less, where the management are interested in the boys,
O
this personal influence can often be secured without delegation of
responsibility to an individual. Occasionally, in large factories,
where welfare work has been of long standing and created its own
iumosphere, the same may hold good. But such cases are rare, and,
i n general, and certainly where welfare work is being introduced,
success depends on the presence of a definite individual, termed a wel­
fare supervisor.
480. As a recent speaker has pointed out—
You can not expect a shop manager or the manager of a works to have any
particular and peculiar intimate knowledge of one special section of his staff of




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR BOYS AND M E N .

225

employees. Therefore, it seems to me only natural to demand that the boys’
case shall be stated first of all to the man who understands them, who has made
it his special business to know all about them, and to go intimately into a study
of their nature. * * *

481. The committee, in their memorandum No. 2 on Welfare Super­
vision, recommended the appointment of a welfare supervisor wher­
ever 100 boys are employed, and experience has shown that where
there is this number a whole-time officer can be usefully employed.
It is, however, only a minority of factories in which so large a num­
ber is employed, and it is therefore a matter of considerable prac­
tical importance to devise means for providing for welfare super­
vision in the numerous factories where only about 30 to 100 boys are
employed. Various alternatives have been adopted in practice—
(a) A special whole-time officer is appointed and his services
shared by two or more firms;
(b) A special officer is appointed who gives part of his time to
other duties in the factory;
( c ) An existing officer is relieved of part of his other work in order
to give time to welfare supervision.
(cl) The boys may be placed under the charge of the welfare super­
visor for women.
482. A problem of great difficulty arises from the practice still
prevalent in some districts under which the boys, though normally in
the service of the employer, are for all effective purposes in that
of the men for whom they work, and who engage them, dismiss them,
and pay them. Their work is sometimes casual; the employers know
little of their conditions and are inclined to contend that thev have
no responsibility for their welfare. It is, however, hoped that in
two centers the experiment will shortly be started of a special insti­
tute for such boys in charge of a welfare supervisor. It is suggested
that the institute should act not only as a center of recreation but
also as a kind of labor bureau dealing with the difficulties arising out
of the casual nature of the employment.
THE DUTIES OF THE SUPERVISOR.

483. While the duties1 of a welfare supervisor of boys may use­
fully include most of the various matters specified in the preceding
section for welfare supervisors for women, there are certain aspects
which need to be particularly emphasized. It is essential that a
wide view should be taken of this sphere and influence. He is con­
cerned with boys in their critical stage of growth and development,
1 The ministry have issued a memorandum on the duties of a welfare supervisor for
boys. Reference may also be made to The Boy in Industry, and Report of a Conference
of Boy Welfare Supervisors. All of these documents may be obtained on application to
the ministry.

S09350— 19------ 15




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

and nothing which makes for their well-being should be regarded as
alien to his duties. From his presence inside the factory he occupies
a unique position for guiding effectually the careers of the boys under
his charge, and experience shows that the wider his outlook the
stronger his position. The following scheme prepared for a govern­
ment factory illustrates the point:
The boy visitors’ work is directed to improving the boy workers’ moral and
material well-being and to reducing the difficulties which slackness, ill disci­
pline, etc., cause the factory staff.
The present abnormal conditions of work, high wages, lack of healthy recrea­
tion, and in many cases the absence of the father tends to thriftlessness, ill
discipline, and other evils.
In fairness to the boy it should be said that bad timekeeping, etc., may be the
outcome of genuine fatigue, illness, home troubles, or discontent. It is the
business of the boy visitor to get at the root of these troubles by personal
work amongst the boys and to inform the factory officials of the knowledge
which his investigation of the boys’ circumstances, home life, etc., will give him.
The boy visitor will, by personal guidance, work toward getting contented,
well-disciplined boy workers, and the information he gathers will always be
available to assist the staff in the smooth working of the factory.
(1) To meet new boys on entry and keep a record of the boys’ progress and
career in the factory.
(2) To deal with absence and bad timekeepers—first with the boy; then, if
necessary, with parents.
(3) To see boys before dismissal or leaving, and, if necessary, to see the
parents.
(4) To investigate shop and police reports and make recommendation thereon.
(5) To keep an eye on the feeding arrangements, dining halls, lavatory accom­
modation, etc., and to report and make suggestions thereon to the welfare super­
vision department.
(6) To inquire into and discuss with the boys their complaints and troubles,
and, where necessary, present them on behalf of the boys to the proper
authorities.
(7) To overlook the general conditions and health of the boys, and, where
necessary, arrange for medical inspection.
(8) To suggest suitable candidates for convalescent homes after sickness or
injury.
(9) Where necessary, to visit the homes of the boys who are evidently ill
cared for, and report upon the home conditions, etc. To note specially the state
of clothing and boots of boy workers.
(10) To encourage and arrange recreation, sports, etc., at spare times.
(11) To keep in personal touch with the boys by means of individual talks,
meeting them at meal times, etc., and advising them in difficulties, encouraging
them to thrift and well-doing.
(12) To gather information as to boys’ characters and progress and capabili­
ties for promotion, and for post-war employment.
N. B.—The boy visitor has no executive authority and his function is to
assist the boy when he is in difficulty or trouble and to place his case in a
very tactful way before the foreman or manager. It is emphasized that great
tacc is necessary in the relations of the boy visitors as the boys’ friend with the
foreman and officials. The boy visitor should clearly show to the officials that




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR BOYS AND M E N .

227

his work will not in any way reduce their authority but will strengthen it and
help to secure efficiency and discipline in the factory.

484. The first essential of success is that the welfare supervisor
should gain the confidence not only of the boys and the management
but also of the foreman and local trade-unions. He should keep in
touch with all other persons and organizations in the district which
are concerned with the wellbeing of the boy. He should establish
friendly relations with the school authorities and the employment
bureaus, also with any club organizations which may be available
for providing healthy recreation. In order to encourage the interest
and influence of the home, he should be in touch with the parent.
Lastly, he should recognize a responsibility for boyhood in general,
and not merely for the boy while still in his factory. Boys are con­
tinually leaving through the unsuitability of the work, reduction of
staff, or other causes. He must regard his responsibility as continu­
ing until the bo}^ has found other occupation. Deterioration, now so
common, can only be prevented by recognizing this continued re­
sponsibility.
485. Recreation.—The boy is in special need of change and variety,
and adequate facilities for recreation are accordingly of primary
importance. Where it can be arranged for, recreation during the
dinner hour is valuable in the form of games indoors or football or
cricket on some odd piece of ground adjoining the factory. In the
main, however, the boy must rely for recreation on leisure time out­
side factory hours. Where, as is most frequently the case, local
clubs are insufficient to meet the need, special provision should be
made. In some centers schemes for the whole district are being
organized largely on the initiative of the local welfare officer of the
Ministry of Munitions, the organization being in the hands of a
local committee, and are supported by contributions from employers
on a capitation basis. Such schemes have much to commend them
when they can be arranged. More often, however, if recreation is
to be provided at all, it must be by one or more employers inde­
pendently of any local club. Indeed, practically every welfare
supervisor has in operation some recreation scheme for his own
boys. The provision should include not only indoor games and
amusements but also foptball, cricket, and cadet corps. Week-end
camps have been organized with success.
486. Training and instruction,—Training and instruction are
needed both for the immediate purpose of increasing the boy’s
interest in his work and so relieving its monotony, and also for
improving his technical efficiency and his capacity for undertaking
his future responsibilities as a man and a citizen. It is very desirable
that boys on appointment should be instructed in the best method
of performing their work, and, if possible, also in its aim and pur­




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

pose. By such means they would not only become more quickly effi­
cient but interest may be stimulated and monotony relieved. Boys
have normally entered on an occupation in which when men they
hope to find a definite career. Their technical training—whether
from the point of view of the nation or themselves—is a matter of
importance. On the other hand, war conditions and the great
increase of repetition work have not proved favorable to such train­
ing. There has been a tendency to keep the boy on the performance
of a single operation. Certain employers, however, to the benefit of
both output and the boy's training, have found it possible to vary the
work and so provide at least some training. To an increasing extent
also facilities are being given for attendance at technical and con­
tinuation classes, both during the day and in the evening. In such
cases boys are generally allowed time off from the factory without
loss of pay, and the fees for their instruction are paid by the firm.
Thus, one welfare supervisor is able to report:
I liave succeeded in getting every apprentice to attend evening technical
classes two or three times per week. The managing director was very sympa­
thetic toward this, and readily granted concessions which enabled me to obtain
this splendid result. The boys are allowed to miss a quarter without loss of
pay the next morning after attending evening school. When on night shift
they go to school and then come on to work, thus missing a quarter. The
employment of boys on night shifts is a difficulty we are up against all the time.
Many of the other lads are attending evening classes with similar concessions.
* * * I am arranging a series of lectures in scientific and general subjects
and physics.

487.
Thrift.—While the high wages now generally earned have
undoubtedly been beneficial to health to the extent that they have
brought good food and suitable clothing within the reach of all,
they have undoubtedly encouraged some undue indulgence and ex­
travagance. The possession of a large amount of pocket money is
a serious temptation to indulge in thriftlessness and gambling. The
need for saving against periods of sickness or other future difficulties
is seldom appreciated. It is therefore of urgent importance that
saving should be encouraged and its national as well as its personal
aspect emphasized. The arrangements should be so organized as
to attract the support of those who are not naturally thrifty. The
rules should be few and easily understood. The collection of deposits
should be made in close connection with the payment of wages, and
should ordinarily be in the hands of the welfare supervisor, who,
through his acquaintance with the boy and his home, can advise him
as to the amount which he can properly put by. Upon the wisdom
and tact of the supervisor rather than upon formal regulations
should the restriction of improper withdrawals depend. If a boy
thinks that he can not get his money out whenever he wants to, he
may hesitate to deposit it.




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR BOYS AND M E N .

229

488.
The wide scope and variety of the duties which may be
undertaken by a welfare supervisor are well illustrated by the follow­
ing account by a welfare supervisor of how his time is ordinarily
occupied:
Arriving at the factory in the morning, the welfare supervisor usually finds
several boys waiting to see him in the hope of finding employment. Of these,
some have probably been sent by the employment exchange, either in response
to previous requests or on the chance of a vacancy existing. A glance at the
notification of vacancies in different departments received from the foremen
concerned, enables the boys to be roughly classified according to suitability
for the jobs for which they may be needed. They are then interviewed sepa­
rately and questioned closely. * * * His answers give some indication of his
mental ability and intelligence, and may prevent a dull boy from being set
to work which requires thought, or a bright intelligent boy from being- allocated
to a task which could as well be performed by one who is mentally dull. Each
boy is required to give some account of his health. * * * If he has not
just left school, he is questioned as to his previous employment, the number of
•changes he has made since leaving school, his wages and reasons for leav­
ing. * * *
Full particulars of the boys engaged are entered on special record cards
which provide also for entries dealing with tlieir careers while at the factory.
The supervisor’s attention may now be given to the weekly forms showing
the time lost by the boys in the various departments. He probably finds that
some have lost several quarters or have been absent during periods ranging
from one day to a week. Where he is unaware of any reason, he makes a note
so that the matter may be investigated later. Similarly the reports on at­
tendance received from the local evening continuation or technical schools are
dealt with.
The supervisor may now make a visit to the various shops, bearing in mind
any boys whose timekeeping or irregularity at evening classes call for inquiry.
He looks out for boys who have been recently engaged and makes a friendly
inquiry as to their progress. Other boys are on the lookout for him, being
anxious to make inquiries or complaints which perhaps would seem trivial to
the foreman, but which the supervisor knows may be of real importance to a
boy. The foreman also may have complaints or suggestions to make. If these
matters can not be dealt with speedily on the spot, arrangements are made for
special interviews. Such interviews take up a portion of each day. Every
case of dismissal or of a boy giving notice is a matter for inquiry on the part
of the supervisor, and he is frequently able to adjust matters so that both boy
and foreman are satisfied.
The weekly visit of the Home Office certifying surgeon calls for the super­
visor’s presence, especially when boys are examined as to their fitness for night
employment. He is in a position, from the knowledge gained at his preliminary
interviews with the boys, to draw the doctor's attention to any physical weak­
ness which, while of little importance in itself, may prove a danger to the boy
as a result of his employment* He can arrange for a reexamination of boys
whose health seems to be affected by working at night, and keeps a record of
all cases where boys are declared unfit for any work other than in the day­
time, so that arrangements may be made, if necessary, for the transfer of a
boy to a department where there is no night employment.
On most days the supervisor has visits to make. These may be to local
schools or members of care committees, but generally they are visits to the




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y ,

boys’ homes, made in order that parents may be consulted and made aware
that an interest is taken in the boys, and that the cooperation of the parents
with the supervisor is desirable. Matters of health, wages, timekeeping, prog­
ress, companionship call for such visits which are made, not for the purpose
of lodging complaints, but in order that friendly inquiry may help to make
things better for the boy and prevent him going astray at a critical period of his
life. Experience shows that such visits are welcomed by the parents, while
the boys sometimes ask the supervisor to call at their homes in order that the
parents’ consent may be given to some change which the boy desires.
In cases of accident or sudden illness the foremen send for the supervisor,
to whom they leave the responsibility of seeing that proper treatment is given,
either in the works ambulance room or, if necessary, at the local hospital.
* After the night turn has commenced the supervisor makes another round of
the shops, with the same objects in view which called for his earlier visit.
H e will also have been sought by some of the boys engaged on night work before
they entered the shops.
In the evenings the boys’ club calls for the supervisor’s time. Football or
cricket committees ask his advice or help; he has to see that the fixture list
is kept f u ll; he arranges evening concerts, billiard matches, or contests for*
which the club has facilities.
It is here that he gets to know the boys
well. * * *

489. The following statement recently received from a large muni­
tion works is also of interest:
In the early part of last year a cadet corps for lads between 16 and 18, and
a boy scout troop for boys between 14 and 16 were started, and in both cases
were restricted to lads employed in the factory; over 100 are enrolled in the
former and between 60 and 70 in the latter. Some of these scouts have gone
through a primary first-aid course, and several of them are learning the duties
of auxiliaries to the fire brigade. They also render every assistance in their
power on the occasion of any social or athletic event.
W hilst on the subject of boys, we would point out that every boy, on being
engaged by our labor bureau to work in. this factory, receives a notice asking
him to call at the welfare department to see our welfare supervisor, who takes
full particulars of the boy’s circumstances and points out what facilities are
suitable in each case, e. g., scouts or cadet corps, technical classes, etc.
At the present moment about 300 of our boys, as well as a good many girls,
are attending evening classes. These boys are given facilities for getting away
in time to attend such classes.
Every new boy is medically examined after he has been at work in the fac­
tory for a fortnight. At the Y. M. C. A. a gymnastic class is held for youths
every Friday and Monday evening, and every Sunday afternoon a youths’ red
triangle club and tea.
CONCLUSION.

490. For the reasons already stated the#
need for the welfare super­
vision of boys has not been so readily recognized as in the case of
women and girls, and progress has been slower. Time has been
required for securing appreciation of the need by the foreman and
the local trades unions as well as by the employer. Apart from this,
under existing conditions, it has been a matter of considerable diffi­
culty to find suitable candidates for posts as they were established,




W ELFARE SUPERVISION FOR BOYS AND M E N .

231

though this difficulty has grown somewhat less as the need has become
better known.1 Over 150 appointments of welfare supervisors are
known to have been made up to the end of April, 1918, and the com­
mittee have little doubt that the movement is now steadily gaining
force.2 As in the case of the welfare supervision of women it is as
yet too early to form any final judgment as to the work now being
done or as to the lines on which it is likely to develop in the future;
The committee have, however, substantial grounds for the view that
the work has commenced on sound lines. The need for overcoming
initial indifference or opposition has not been without its compen­
sating advantages, since it has tended to prevent hasty and illconsidered schemes or appointments, and thus to reduce causes for
misunderstanding and suspicion.
WELFARE SUPERVISION FOR MEN.

491. Though the committee in their memorandum No. 2 on Wel­
fare Supervision recommended the appointment of a welfare super­
visor for men wherever 500 were employed, they have always recog­
nized that the problems involved were much more difficult than in
the case of women or boys, and they did not anticipate anything but
a gradual development, even had the difficulties in the way of obtain­
ing suitable men for the work been less insuperable than they are,
and must continue to be, so long as the war continues. The whole
question is intimately connected with that of the establishment of
works councils, and it is interesting to note that so recognized an
authority as Mr. Sidney Webb has recently suggested that 3
—
Such subjects as the cleanliness, ventilation, lighting, and temperature of
the work place (upon which maximum efficiency depends much more than man­
agers commonly realize) ; the hours of beginning and ending w ork ; the inter­
vals for meals; the dates of holidays; the welfare arrangements, including
especially the accommodation for meals; the precautions against accidents;
the benevolent funds; the workshop rules, and any arrangements about fines,
deductions for breakages or inferior work, or charges made for requisites of
work, or for hot water, etc., together with any alleged infringements of work­
shop rules or district agreements as to wages or hours, might all be consid­
ered with advantage by such a workshop committee, and brought to the notice
of the management at a joint conference.

492. In the immediate future at any rate it appears probable that
any welfare work among men will generally grow spontaneously out
of the work of the welfare supervision for boys. In several instances
already a boy welfare supervisor, usually at the request of the men
themselves, has found himself called upon to deal with matters affect­
1 For the assistance of employers the ministry have established a panel of suitable
candidates.
2 An association of boy welfare supervisors is being formed. The acting chairman is
Mr. C. W. Hodder, Messrs. Denny & Co., Dumbarton.
s The Works Manager To-Day, by Sidney Webb; Longmans Green & Co., 1917*




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

ing tlieir welfare. He naturally sees much of them, and if of the
right type soon establishes friendly relations with them. If a men’s
recreation club is started, he is likely to be asked to assist in its
organization, or he may be selected to act as secretary of a work­
shop committee or works council. Often he is in charge of the firstaid arrangements, which are available for men as well as for boys.
He is not infrequently consulted by men in regard to personal diffi­
culties, and one welfare supervisor reports that he has had over 200
such inquiries in a few weeks.




SECTION XIX.—WELFARE OUTSIDE THE FACTORY.

493. In previous sections the committee have dealt mainly with
the health and welfare of munition workers as affected by the con­
ditions of employment inside the factory, and have only referred
incidentally to other conditions of almost equal importance outside
the factory, such as housing, transit, and recreation. The demands
for labor in munition areas have involved the employment of large
numbers of workers at places remote from their own homes, and have
thus raised problems of first importance for the physical and moral
welfare of the nation, and especially of women and girls. In the
earlier stages of the War these problems were mainly left to the
energy and initiative of private bodies and of individual firms, who
took steps to provide hostels, to find lodgings, and to provide facili­
ties for recreation. The local advisory committees appointed by the
central advisory committee on Women’s War Employment (Indus­
trial), though primarily established to assist the local employment ex­
changes in the recruitment and distribution of workers, found them­
selves concerned with problems of transit, housing, and welfare.
Much valuable work was performed through the agency of these
various bodies and committees, but their usefulness was frequently
limited by the lack of the requisite organization and funds. They
were dependent for funds upon voluntary sources, but the localities
in which by the action of the Stale the munition workers were con­
centrated were not always willing to contribute to wliat they often,
not unreasonably regarded as a matter of national rather than of
local concern.
494. The committee, in their memorandum No. 17 (Health and
Welfare of Munition Workers Outside the Factory), which was sub­
mitted to the ministry in January, 1917, thus summarized the
position: By the agency of the State women and girls are being ex­
ported from their homes and imported into munition areas; by the
agency of the State the liberty of the individual to throw up her
work and to take her labor elsewhere is restricted.
495. On the State, therefore, the responsibility lies, not only for
suitably housing these transported workers but also for securing
the safeguards needful for their health and morals, the maintenance
of which is essential to the nation.
496. Though the restrictions on the movement of labor have since
been removed, the proposition still holds good that it is the duty of




233

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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

the State to determine the nature and extent of the provision to be
made in each area and to take such steps as are requisite for its
attainment. Every advantage should be taken of existing facilities
and experience possessed by local bodies, whether voluntary or statu­
tory. In the opinion of the committee the aim should be not to sup­
plant the work of these bodies, but to supplement and coordinate.
In submitting the memorandum to the ministry the committee sug­
gested that it was necessary not only to provide or aid the provision
of hostels, maternity homes, and facilities for recreation, but also to
arrange for the appointment of local officers, whose duty it would be
to organize outside welfare in all its aspects in their particular
locality. It was added that these officers were likely to need assistants
for the inspection of lodgings, organization of recreation, and other
similar purposes.
497. Though various departments of state—as, for example, the
Ministry of Labor and the Home Office—are in various degrees con­
cerned to secure a proper solution of the problems at issue, it is clear
that the primary responsibility must rest upon the Ministry of
Munitions as the department responsible for creating the need. In
March, 1917, the Ministry of Munitions definitely recognized their
responsibility for outside welfare, and through their Welfare Depart­
ment arranged for the appointment of a number of extramural wel­
fare officers. At present there are about 20 of these officers, who
are stationed in the principal centers of munition work. Their duties
to some extent vary according to the needs of each locality, but they
are normally concerned with the following matters:
(a) Provision for meeting girls and providing them with suitable
lodgings;
( b) Registration and supervision of lodgings;
( c) Care of sick and stranded workers;
(id) Day nurseries for children of munition workers;
( e) Transit facilities; and
(/) Provision of recreation facilities for women and girls and
occasionally for men also.
498. As in the case of welfare supervision inside the factory, expe­
rience shows that these officers have many opportunities for useful
work outside their specified duties. There is little doubt as to the
valuable effects produced in a locality by the presence of a definite
person to whom women and girls can apply for help in a moment of
difficulty or emergency.
499. The problems connected with the welfare of the worker out­
side the factory may be roughly grouped under four heads:
(а) The recruitment of suitable workers;
(б) Housing accommodation and transit;




W ELFARE OUTSIDE T H E FACTORY,

235

( c ) Sickness and other personal questions; and
(d) Leisure.
500. It will be convenient to set out shortly the problems which
fall under each of these heads, and to state briefly what is being done,
and what, in the opinion of the committee, should be done to meet
them.
THE RECRUITMENT OF SUITABLE WORKERS.

501. The problems involved in the recruitment of suitable workers
and their conveyance to the place of future employment are primarily
the concern of the Ministry of Labor.
502. Only normally healthy, clean and wholesome-minded women
and girls should be exported.—In some cases women and girls received
in lodgings and hostels have been found to be in such a condition of
person and clothing that the assistance of the sanitary authority had
to be invoked for cleansing or disinfection. In other cases women
and girls have been imported who suffer from physical disabilities
or are in an unsuitable physical condition. In some instances women
of bad character have been associated in lodgings or hostels with
respectable women and girls. Such instances, even if not numerous,
exert far-reaching effect, and rumors spread quickly through a neigh­
borhood, losing nothing by repetition, and cause many housewives to
close their doors against munition workers as lodgers.
503. The committee accordingly suggest that all women and girls,
before being exported, should be examined by a doctor or by a nurse
working under his supervision. They are glad to learn that arrange­
ments to this end have been made by the Ministry of Labor with the
help of the Ministry of Munitions.
504. Mothers of infants or of families of young children should not#
be exported.—The arrival of mothers in a town accompanied by quite
young infants, or three or four young children, having traveled long
distances, is by no means uncommon—the mother is attracted, in the
absence of the father on active service, by the prospect of high wages
in munition works, and brings her baby or children with her. To find
lodgings where these are not unwelcome, and where some one will
undertake the care of the children while the mother is out at the fac­
tory, is no easy task. The committee consider that this practice of
taking children across country by train to some distant munition area
and leaving them to strangers all day or all night should be discour­
aged, and they suggest that inquiry into such matters should be made
at the source of supply by the nurse mentioned above, or by volun­
tary helpers of experience.
505. No woman or girl should be exported without a sufficiency of
clothing or of money.—Women and girls frequently arrive at muni­
tion centers without luggage or any clothing except what they are




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

wearing, and without any money; they are often hungry and thirsty,
having had n food on a long journey. In some cases poverty is the
o*
cause, in many others the reason given has been that they had heard
that everything necessary, including the first week’s lodging, was
provided free. As the first wages are not due for a week, and fre­
r
quently are not paid until after 10 days or a fortnight (the first week’s,
or a few days’ wages being kept back,) the plight of these women and
girls in a strange town is not only uncomfortable but a serious
danger.
506. The committee accordingly suggest that information should
always be given at the employment exchange, verbally and by printed
notices, that sufficient change of clothing, as well as money for emer­
gency expenses on the journey, must be taken. When the need is
proved, financial help should be forthcoming from a fund adminis­
tered locally, safeguards being taken for the refunding of the loan
out of wages. The practice already sometimes adopted of giving ad­
vances pending the first payment of wages might be extended.
507. Travelers across country should be seen off and met at the
station.—The need for this protection of those unaccustomed to travel,
especially if the distance is great, is well recognized. Where such
services have not been organized, serious inconvenience and evil has
arisen in many instances. To meet these difficulties, arrangements
arc generally made for local agents to see the women and girls off by
train, receive them at the station on arrival, and direct them to their
employment exchange or lodging. In some cases arrangements have
been found necessary for meeting parties in the course of their jour­
ney, when they have to change stations or trains. The Ministry of
Munitions have made an arrangement with the Travelers’ Aid So­
ciety for meeting workers at junctions, and also on arrival, and con­
ducting them to their lodgings. Where nccessary, light refreshments
are provided. At one junction a special canteen has been established
by a local committee.
HOUSING ACCOMMODATION AND TRANSIT.

508. Suitable and sufficient board and lodging should be provided
for all exported women and girls not otherwise provided for. For
this purpose there should be provided—
(«) Reception or clearing houses;
(b) Lodgings;
(c) Hostels; and
(d) Convenient means of transit.
509. A reception or clearing house should be provided for any
women and girls arriving without having secured lodgings, and for
whom such can not be found before nightfall, or whose circunibtances




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237

or condition make it difficult to allot lodgings without further inquiry. Such a clearing house has already been provided in some dis­
tricts, generally with the help of the Ministry of Munitions, and is,
indeed, essential in localities where large numbers of women and
girls arrive by train from distant places, often late in the day, with­
out any arrangements having been previously made for lodgings.
The house needs to be suitably equipped for receiving all classes. It
should be under the charge of a lady superintendent with consider­
able experience in dealing with women under any emergency; she
should preferably have had some nursing training, and be a person
of kindly, tactful character. The inmates should have separate
cubicles, adequate washing and bathroom accommodation, and facil­
ities for washing clothing should also be provided. Good plain ap­
petizing food and a cheerful, warm sitting room are necessary. A
homeless woman or girl, full of vague fears at taking up unaccus­
tomed work, especially in an explosive factory, may spread uneasiness
and even alarm among her associates. Depression and fear are con­
tagious, and have been known to cause many to return home the day
after arrival. But cheerfulness and courage are also contagious, and
the influence of a lady superintendent or voluntary helpers among
new arrivals at a reception hostel is of great value. The stay is gen­
erally only for a night or two— a week should, unless the case is excep­
tional, be the maximum—the inmates being found suitable lodging
at the earliest moment. At some of these reception hostels arrange­
ments are made with the factory to refund the cost of board and lodg­
ings from wages on the first day by consent of the employee.
510.
Lodgings with or without board in a family is the readiest
and generally the most acceptable arrangement for women and girls.
In most centers of munition work some efforts have been made to
obtain information as to possible lodgings, visits being paid and lists
of lodgings prepared. To begin with voluntary effort was mainly
relied on for this purpose working under a voluntary organization or
local advisory committee. Experience, however, proved that for an
efficient list constant visiting was necessary in order to secure up-todate information as to lodgings actually vacant, and as to those
which were suitable in character. Difficulties also sometimes arose
from overlapping of different agencies, and in their memorandum
No. 17 the committee, while cordially recognizing the value of the
work being done, suggested the necessity for a larger and more
elaborate organization than could be carried out by voluntary effort,
and they urged the desirability of establishing some system of billet­
ing analogous to that employed for army purposes. During the past
12 months the ministry have established special lodgings committees
in 8 of the principal munition districts, and 100 lodging inspectors




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E F F IC IE N C Y .

have been employed in dealing with the many problems involved in
the satisfactory housing of large numbers of girls in lodgings.
511. On the 24th of May, 1917, the billeting of civilians act, 1917,
was passed “ to make provision for the billeting of persons engaged on
work of national importance for the purposes of the present war.”
A central billeting board was established, consisting of represents
tives of the Government departments concerned and of other suita bi >
persons.
512. The method by which the board proceeds is to set up a local
billeting committee on which are represented the local authorities, the
local lodgings committee (if one already exists), the employers, and
the workers. An executive officer (who may be a man or woman) is
appointed, who with the assistance of investigators makes a house to
house canvass of the town and afterwards as an officer of the com­
mittee adjusts as far as possible any complaints which arise between
landlady and tenant. Where the problem is chiefly concerned with
men a male officer is appointed; where it is chiefly concerned with
women there is usually a woman officer. The local committee has
power to fix scales of payment for lodging and accommodations sub­
ject to the approval of the central board, and to guarantee payment,
up to a reasonable extent, of charges incurred by defaulting lodgers.
Machinery is in operation for recovering such charges from the
defaulter, but in no case has it yet been found necessary to prose­
cute under the act. No compulsory billeting has yet taken place, and
though compulsory powers are contained in the act, they are prob­
ably unworkable in practice.
In the areas referred to them, the amount of accommodation which
would be obtained by compulsory billeting is, generally speaking, so
slight as to be negligible^ practically all the available lodgings being
obtainable by voluntary means when once the payment of rent is
guaranteed. A surprising number of voluntary lodgings has been
forthcoming even in the most congested areas when once a house to
house canvass has been made, and on one side the patriotism and good
feeling of the people as a whole has been appealed to, and on. the
other they have been secured against loss. In one of the most
crowded centers 900, and in another 1,500, additional lodgings were
found to be available after such a canvass. In one area, where the
importation of additional labor has decreased, it has been found
possible, in conjunction with the medical officer of health, to relieve
the worst cases of overcrowding. This, of course, is only possible in
cases where the supply of billets exceeds the number required to
satisfy the demand of imported workers for accommodation.
In cases where the Ministry of Munitions has already been employ­
ing lodgings investigators under the extramural welfare officer a




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239

certain number of these investigators are usually transferred to
the billeting board. An arrangement is come to whereby cases of
hardship and distress which the billeting officer comes across in lodg­
ings are referred to the welfare officer for assistance, and she retains
one or two of her original staff to assist in dealing with these. The
billeting officer and the welfare officer are therefore in close touch in
all questions relating to lodging accommodation and are often able
to be of considerable use to each other.
513.
Hostels.—In most areas, however, the problem is one not of
lodgings but of housing. The towns were underhoused before the
war, and the importation of large numbers of munition workers has
simply served to accentuate a problem which already existed before
the war. In a number of areas the Ministry are accordingly assist­
ing local authorities and private firms to carry out new schemes for
increasing the permanent housing accommodation of the locality.
But such schemes are not in themselves usually sufficient, and it has
been found necessary to supplement them by the provision of tem­
porary dwellings, hostels, and hutments. Prior to the war hostels
were provided by firms for the accommodation of their workers. A
number of boarding houses for educated working women and for
workingmen were also in existence. In addition, voluntary bodies
and private persons had provided hostels intended to afford decent
accommodation for girls with low wages; these were of necessity
not run on a commercial basis. Conditions arising out of the war
have led not only to increased provision by voluntary bodies, but
have caused the Ministry of Munitions, acting either directly or
through private firms, to erect temporary hutments, providing in
some instances for many thousand workers. Such provision is not
to be regarded as in any sense a permanent solution of the housing
question, but simply as a temporary measure essential for the health,
comfort, and efficiency of the workers who have been temporarily
imported, not only into manufacturing towns but also into villages
and rural districts. The following account of the experiences of a
single district represents conditions which are by no means unique:
Owing to the great influx of workpeople into this comparatively tiny village,
it soon became apparent that housing would have to be arranged. W e therefore
centered our efforts on this, with the result that we caused houses to be built
on the Garden City principle, and there are now houses standing which were
built by our own instigation, to the number of 625 on one estate, and on the
other 100. In addition to this, we scoured the neighborhood and rented as many
large unoccupied houses as w e could lay our hands on. In this way we are now
in possession of over 70 hostels, where we house 1,600 people. The state of
affairs at present is such that we have a long waiting list of people who desire
to reside in the place. As soon as sanction is obtained ■
we shall immediately
start building houses, of which quite 1,000 are absolutely necessary.




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

514. For various reasons hostels have not always been popular.
The objections most commonly put forward by women and girls and
by their trades-unions have included the following:
(a) Girls dislike the idea of living in large communities or of
spending their leisure hours with the persons with whom they work
and with whom they may have no sympathy or social affinity.
(b) However well organized a hostel may be, some restrictions on
personal liberty are inevitable.
(c) Where a hostel is provided by a private firm the girls are sub­
ject to the control of the firm during the whole 24 hours. If th*ey lose
their job they are likely at the same time to lose their place of board
and residence.
(d) Hostels are not always self-supporting, and girls object to
being “ beholden ” to anyone, most of all to the firm by whom they
are employed.
515. More recently the numbers seeking admission to the hostels
have steadily increased. It is not easy to determine how far this
increase is due to a change of attitude in regard to the above points
of objection, or, on the other hand, to improvements in the organiza­
tion and management of the hostel and to the greater difficulties at­
tending housekeeping in lodgings. In any case there can be no doubt
of the essential importance of special care and attention being be­
stowed on the planning, equipment, and management of hostels.
Some detailed suggestions on these points are given in Appendix F
and only one or two points need be referred to here.
Much depends upon the personality of the superintendent and upon
the character of her assistants and staff, who should be carefully
chosen and controlled. As much freedom as is compatible with good
order should be allowed; the inmates are independent workers not
living under any community rule. The bedrooms should be separate
self-contained cubicles. The dining and recreation rooms should be
bright, airy, and well warmed. In addition the need should be recog­
nized for rest and companionship of a few friends, and should be met
by the provision of a sufficient number of small sitting rooms. The
absence of these has doomed otherwise satisfactory hostels to failure,
since many women and girls soon tire of organized recreation night
after night, and having worked hard in a factory for many hours
crave the quiet rest of a room more nearly resembling home.
516. Transit.—The suitability of the lodgings and housing accom­
modation of a district is closely affected by the existence of reasonable
facilities for traveling between the place of residence and the factory.
The committee have been greatly impressed with the extent to which
health, temper, timekeeping, and output suffer, when to the day’s
work is added the discomfort and fatigue of long walks in bad
weather or in darkness, the long waits resulting from inconvenient




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241

services, overcrowded railway carriages, trams, and buses. Ad­
mittedly the problems involved in the conveyance of large numbers
of workers at particular times of day are not easy of solution and are
increased by difficulties of staff and rolling stock created by the war,
but experience conclusively proves that additional and more con­
veniently timed services can be provided; shelters at tram and omni­
bus termini have been erected. In some districts special fleets of chara-bancs have been provided. In the darkness of early morning and
at night, if no lights are allowed on the railways, workers should not
be crowded together in the darkness, and separate compartments for
women are desirable.
517. To sum up the evidence collected by the committee and the
results of their medical inquiries have emphasized the large extent to
which the capacity and efficiency of the worker are affected by unsat­
isfactory conditions of housing and transit—conditions which fre­
quently existed before the war, though they have undoubtedly been
accentuated since. Sufficient attention does not appear to have been
given to the matter in the past, but it is essential that these factors
should be taken into account in determining the best conditions of
employment in different factories and areas. There can be do doubt
(hat provision of better housing accommodation and of more rapid
and convenient means of transit would have a beneficial effect on the
industrial efficiency of the country.
SICKNESS AND OTHER PERSONAL QUESTIONS.

518. Arrangements for sickness.—Large hostels have, as a rule, a
small hospital with a nurse. Smaller hostels should be provided with
sick rooms to which the patients may be removed if nursing and at­
tention are needed beyond what the servants can render. But illness,
even of quite a temporary character, presents more difficulty among
women and girls in lodgings in a strange place. For lodgers living
with the family and sharing a room or a bed with other lodgers ill­
ness is a great misfortune, and may through neglect become very seri­
ous; it may, if infectious or contagious, be a source of danger to
others and cause absence from work of many who are needed at the
factory. Home visiting by the factory supervisor and the better or­
ganization now generally established have undoubtedly served to
bring such cases to the notice of welfare officers and to secure suitable
treatment. They have also served to bring to light cases of girls who
are sufficiently unwell to be out of work for a few days or sometimes
longer, but w
fyo are not ill enough to require hospital treatment.
Here again action is necessary to prevent hardship and distress. In
one instance an arrangement has been made with a Government hostel
under which a certain number of beds are reserved for these cases and
S0935°— 19-------16




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AN D E FF IC IE N C Y .

are filled on the recommendation of the outsicte welfare officer by girls
who need rest and good food for a day or two. A certain number
of rest homes have been established to which workers can be sent, and
special pro-vision for sending them to convalescent homes has also
been made.
519*. Stranded workers.—A certain number of girls come to muni­
tion centers not through the agency of the employment exchange and
are either unable to obtain work or have after a short experience
proved unsuited to the work and become stranded, often without
money enough to return home. Such girls frequently require assist­
ance to obtain other and more suitable work or to return home.
Where girls are dismissed through no fault of their own they are
under certain conditions provided through the ministry with repatri­
ation railway warrants.
520. Maternity cases.—The numerous and urgent problems in­
volved in the care and treatment of maternity problems have already
been discussed in Section IV , and need not be again referred to.
The question involved in the provision of day nurseries for the chil­
dren of munition workers are also discussed in that section.
LEISURE.

521. Recreation.—Emphasis has already been laid on the impor­
tance of recreation in providing the relief from monotony and the
change of environment which are essential aids to recovery from
fatigue. The question is one of special importance in areas where
large numbers of workers have been congregated, and are thus de­
prived of the means of recreation to which they are accustomed.
Especially should the leisure of the week-end be provided for. This
important matter can not be left to chance. If opportunities of
wholesome amusement* refreshment, and recreation are not provided,
the public houses and less desirable places of entertainment may
benefit, but everybody else suffers.
Until recently there has not been in any munition area a sys­
tematic attempt to cope with the problems of industrial recreation,
or even to coordinate the activities of such organizations as exist.
The committee are, however, glad to recognize the increased atten­
tion now being paid to the subject. The clubs established are very
varied in character and provide for men and women, as well as for
boys and girls. In addition to the usual games, indoor recreation
includes concerts, dances, theatricals, lectures, cinemas, classes of
various kinds, including physical exercises, dancing, and dress­
making. Open-air provision includes games, swimming, and openair camps. Mixed clubs for men and women are increasingly popu­
lar, and most of the central schemes referred to below contain at




W ELFARE OUTSIDE T H E FACTORY.

24$

least one mixed club. The need should not be overlooked for pro­
viding small clubs easily accessible to tired workers, who desire quiet
occupation, and may not wish to journey to more central institutions.
In more than one instance, it has been found practicable to arrange
for well-to-do residents to offer hospitality in their own houses dur­
ing Saturday and Sunday to parties of women and girls, and to
allow the use of their gardens in summer. Such facilities are greatly
appreciated, and may do much to remove class prejudices and mis­
understandings.
Recreation schemes are generally of one of two kinds: Central
schemes available for all workers in the district, and factory schemes
which are confined to the workers in a particular factory.
522.
In a considerable number of areas, central recreation schemes
have been set on foot through the cooperation of the civic author­
ities, existing agencies, the employers, and the workers. It is indeed
an essential of the success of any recreation scheme that the workers
should take a large share in the management, and that care should
be taken to provide what they themselves desire. Arrangements
have been made for cooperation with the juvenile organization com­
mittees, which are being established throughout the country by a
central committee under the auspices of the home office. These com­
mittees are being encouraged to deal with adults as well as juveniles,
and so to facilitate the establishment of schemes embracing the
whole industrial population of a town. Under certain conditions
(see Appendix K ), contributions by employers to recreation schemes
may be written off as a working expense.
The most detailed central scheme which has yet been worked out is that of
Birmingham.
There is a finance committee, of w hich the Lord Mayor is
r
chairman, an executive committee on which are represented various organiza­
tions and individuals interested in recreation. The city is divided into 14
areas, each of which has its own area committee consisting partly of employees;
each committee has a representative on the central executive committee. The
finance committee has complete control over all the funds raised and applica­
tions for funds come to it from the executive committee which is responsible,
for weighing the various claims of the different areas or different organizations
one against the other. Girls’ and boys’ clubs, recreation halls, playing fields,
and open-air concerts are among the activities supported. The following state­
ment by the welfare supervisor of a local factory affords some indication of
the value of the w ork:
“ Welfare work in Birmingham is very much helped by the extremely good clubs
started by the Civic Recreation League. There is one near our factory to which
a large number of our girls go, and I have found it the very greatest help to ms
in my work. In this club the girls have drilling, dancing, singing, embroidery,
dressmaking, liiiflinery, dramatic, and shorthand classes, and, in summer, ram­
bles, cycle rides, swimming and tennis in connection with it. I go myself regu­
larly. A club of this sore is more satisfactory than one belonging and limited
to employees of the w orks; it is more of a change for the girls. They can meet
friends who go to other factories; with larger numbers it is possible to run it
greater variety of classes. I can not speak too strongly of the importance I
attach to these clubs, and any success I have had in my work I attribute largely




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

to the very pleasant conditions under which I got to know a large number of
girls out of work hours at the Civic Recreation League Club. It is neither com­
fortable nor good discipline to talk to the girls more than is absolutely necessary
in work hours, and unless one does talk to them they will never dare to come for
help and advice on the many small points that are always cropping up in a large
factory. One shop has a ladies’ football club, but I am hoping that next year
the Civic Recreation League may have started hockey and netball teams and
that the girls will join those instead. I feel most strongly that the ‘ playing of
game ’ idea is in many cases lacking, and any possible kind of organized game
should be encouraged in every way.”
In other centers, instead of one big comprehensive scheme being set on foot
at once, a small central club has started as a nucleus, and from that developments
have gradually sprung. In one case a girls’ club was first set on foot, a boys'
cadet corps speedily followed, and the town in question is now contemplating an
ambitious scheme for a people’s palace. A most encouraging sign has been the
interest and cooperation of the trades-unionists, both men and w omen, in certain
areas as soon as they have realized the elasticity and freedom of the schemes.

523. Central schemes are, on the whole, to be preferred where they
can be established, but in many cases, owing to the isolated position
of the factory, the lack of local initiative or other causes, provision for
recreation can only, or, at any rate, can most conveniently be made in
connection with a particular firm. It forms, indeed, a natural develop­
ment of the w
^ork of the welfare supervisor, and the committee are
convinced that their activities have proved of the highest value and
have been widely appreciated. Factory schemes are, however, liable
to be objected to by the workers on the ground that they represent an
endeavor on the part of the employer to bind them to the firm, or be­
cause they object to being tied to the works during their leisure time.
Apart from this, a proportion of the employees may live at such a dis­
tance from the factory that they are unable to avail themselves of
factory clubs. In such cases employers have sometimes found it
desirable also to contribute to central schemes if they exist.
524. The following account has been received from a firm whose
works are situated in an isolated position:
On the social side everything possible is being done to interest and amuse our
employees after working hours. W e have a good works orchestra, and our brass
band is being organized, as theie is plenty of talent in the factory. This neigh­
borhood suffered a very severe blow when the theater was burnt down. W e are
compelled to fall back upon a cinema annex (which is merely a large drafty
marquee) and our Y. M. C. A. hut as the only available buildings outside the
factory in which to hold entertainments. Our two mess rooms are in constant
demand for socials and dances and whist drives, w hich are held almost every
T
Saturday night, the proceeds from which are always devoted to some charitable
object, such as the entertainment of wounded soldiers and sailors, etc. The
employees support most generously any collection lists which are sent round
the factory for charitable purposes. W e had a four weeks’ collection for
Christmas parcels for soldiers and sailors on active service which realized over
£600 [$2,919.90]. W e also raised over £400 [$1,946.60] for the Victoria buffet
fund, and at the end of last year £438 [$2,131.53] was collected to entertain
the wives and children of men from the neighborhood who have gone to the front.
This enabled us to entertain 1,800 mothers and children on the two consecutive




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245

Saturdays— January 26 and February 2. A visit from the Coldstream Guards
Band was very much enjoyed by our workers a few weeks ago, and a novelty in
the form of a recital by Mark Hambourg and the Gresham Singers last Sunday
afternoon was highly appreciated by some 600 of our employees. A t the Y. M.
O. A. hut we have a concert every Thursday evening and a lecture every Tuesday
evening and a mid-day lecture every Wednesday.
Club .— W ith regard to sports, our athletic club was thoroughly reorganized
last spring. The following sections are now in full swing: Cricket, football,
harriers, hockey, gymnastics, wrestling and boxing, and rifle club. W e also hope
to start in the near future bowls, tennis, quoits, and a swimming club. Ladies
and boys are included in these sections as well as men. For instance, the rifle
club has a membership of 490 men, 53 ladies, and 51 boys, and the football section
492 men and 60 boys. W e also run a ladies’ football team. There are also about
80 lady members of the hockey section. Altogether we have about 1,400 members
of the athletic club. W e are at present running an association football league
in the factory in which 18 teams are competing.
A new sports ground has just been acquired, and we should in the near future
be fully equipped with good playing grounds for the various branches of sport.
Throughout, our chief difficulty has been the securing of sufficient grounds for
play. The above-mentioned grounds are a desirable estate situate close to the
eliiirch, comprising about 45 acres in all, with a large private residence; the
latter we intend fitting up as a maternity home (should we obtain the necessary
grant from the ministry). The circumstances surrounding the purchase of this
ground are extremely gratifying, inasmuch as we have the assurance of the
workers here that the whole of the money will eventually be contributed by
themselves. Not only is the proposition one of welfare from an athletic point
of view, but a good housing venture, as it is proposed to build in due course.
Magazine .— In July last we started the works magazine, w ith the double
T
object of (1) saving paper and labor by avoiding the printing and circulation
of notices on every variety of topic throughout the factory; and (2) giving the
employees some idea of w hat is going on in their midst and to keep before them
T
the facilities that are offered them for recreation, etc. The magazine seems to
be answering its double purpose very satisfactorily; 8,600 copies of the special
Christmas number were sold, and the sales in an ordinary month are now
between 7,000 and 8,000 copies. An abundance of subject matter is contributed
from all parts of the factory, and the advent of the magazine is eagerly looked
forward to each month, proving the need of such a channel to break down
(lass prejudice and build up cooperation.

525.
The following statement gives some account of what is being
T
done for the women workers at Woolwich Arsenal:
About 18 months ago, bearing in mind that many of the women and girls
employed in the Royal Arsenal were living in hostels or lodgings away from
home, I drewr up and inaugurated a scheme to provide for them social and
educational facilities out of arsenal hours. The result has more than passed
my expectations, as during the above-named period some hundreds of the
women workers have availed themselves of the opportunities offered. As many
of the workers are engaged in processes necessitating a sitting position while
at work, it seemed to me that provision should be made to counteract any ill
effects that might accrue from long hours of sedentary work; therefore I ar­
ranged that gymnastics, physical exercises, Morris and country dancing be
included in the scheme. During the summer months swimming is also included.
I am sure that it is far better for women and girls to perform health-giving
exercises under wise and trained supervision than for them to walk about the




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IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

darkened streets of the neighborhood aimlessly. Many workers are engaged in
purely mechanical processes* and for these I felt that opportunity should be
given for them to use their reasoning powers and to develop their intelligence.
Therefore I arranged for classes in dramatic literature and elocution, thus
giving students a taste for good reading.
A large proportion of the women being engaged on more or less dangerous
work, I felt it would be wise for them to have some knowledge of first aid,
home nursing* etc. These classes are most popular and have attracted large
numbers, many of whom presented themselves for special examination and were
granted certificates of proficiency by the London County Council.
T desired to launch my scheme without incurring expense or increased lia­
bility on the part of the Ministry of Munitions. I applied to the London
County Council for the loan of a neighboring school and met with a ready
response. On guaranteeing a sufficient number of students, the council offered
to provide and remunerate instructors and instructoresses, and even appointed
a responsible mistress to take charge of both the teaching staff and students
and to keep in close touch with me as regards the carrying out effectively the
details of my scheme. A charge of Is. [24.3 cents] per student per subject is
made for each session. In order that the hours of work at the arsenal are not
fn any way interfered with I arranged that classes should sit both shifts, the
hours of instruction being from 5 to 6 for the night shift, and from S.15 to 9.15
for the day shift. The curriculum includes such subjects as gymnastics,
physical exercises, Morris and country dancing, singing, dress and blouse mak­
ing. etc. I may add here that the men employed in the arsenal are permitted
to join the singing, and the addition of their voices enables the class to enjoy
the rehearsal of four-part glees, choruses, etc. This class also has rehearsed
Elgar’s Banner of St. George and assisted in the chorus of the mystery play
Eager Heart.
At varying times the students arrange social gatherings on Saturday even­
ings ; each member of the class is allowed to invite a nonmember, and the girls
are specially encouraged to introduce their male friends. In addition to the
monthly socials, twice at least during the season, the members of the gym­
nastic classes give displays at the town hall and in this w ay further recruits
T
from the arsenal to the classes are obtained. The literature class also con­
tributes a public performance, producing scenes from standard plays and
authors. But though a large number can and do attend these classes, there is a
far larger number w ho have no time for recreation except on Sundays. I there­
T
fore, in cooperation with Mr. Howard Jones, organized Sunday concerts at the
Woolwich Town Hall, for which we obtain the best talent possible, and at
which we endeavor to reach a very high standard and tone. These concerts
have done untold good; but now that the factories are closing half days on
Saturdays, I am proposing to drop the Sunday during the summer months and
organize Saturday afternoon outings into the country.
Several hockey and football clubs have been organized throughout the winter
under the supervision of some of my staff.
The members of the various classes and clubs from time to time have given
performances for the entertainment ©f wounded soldiers. Another outcome of
the scheme has been the inauguration during the winter season of a series of
dunces under welfare supervision.

526. What may be clone on a smaller scale by an energetic welfare
supervisor is illustrated by the following account:
W e are in need of recreation room s; we have to use our dining rooms for alt
recreation schemes. In these dining rooms we have a cinema box and stages




W ELFARE

o u t s id e

the

factory.

24-7

W e liave concerts, dances, or whist drives all through the winter months every
Saturday night. The girls’ club runs a gymnasium class on Wednesday even­
ings and a dance every Monday, to which men and nonmembers are allowed to
come on payment of 3d.

5 2 7 . I n 1 9 1 5 t h e M a h a r a j a h S c in c li a o f G w a l i o r g e n e r o u s l y g a v e a
s u m o f £ 6 ,0 0 0 f o r m u n i t i o n w o r k e r s .
U p to th e p re s e n t a b ou t th re e q u a rte rs o f t h is su m h a s b e e n d is t r ib u te d b y th e w e lfa r e d e p a r t m e n t
o f th e M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s o n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f sch e m e s f o r
r e c r e a t io n , i n c lu d in g le c tu r e s a n d c o n c e r t s in c lu b s a n d c a n te e n s ,
p i a n o s , l a n t e r n s l id e s , b o o k s o r p i c t u r e s f o r c l u b s , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
r e c r e a tio n , a n d a h o lid a y c a m p f o r b o y s .
5 2 8 . Facilities fo r divine ivorship , r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , a n d s p i r ­
it u a l m in is t r a t io n a c c o r d in g t o th e c o n v ic t io n s o f th e v a r io u s d e n o m i­
n a t i o n s a r e n o le s s w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r m u n i t i o n w o r k e r s t h a n
f o r th e A r m y a n d N a v y .
T h e e x is tin g lo c a l p r o v is io n m a y n o t a l­
w a y s b e a d e q u a te o r c o n v e n ie n t ly s itu a te d .
5 2 9 . Public order .— T o b r i n g l a r g e n u m b e r s o f y o u n g p e o p l e i n t o
a n y lo c a li t y m u s t in c r e a s e th e d iffic u lt y o f m a in t a in in g p u b lic o r d e r
a n d g o o d b e h a v io r a t a ll tim e s . J u s t as in u n iv e r s it y t o w n s t h e r e a r e
p r o c t o r s a n d in m ilit a r y ce n te rs th e re a re m ilit a r y p o lic e , s o w h e r e
la r g e n u m b e r s o f w o m e n a n d g i r ls a r e a s s e m b le d f o r m u n it io n w o r k
w o m e n p o lic e a n d p a t r o ls a re r e q u ir e d .
S p e c ia l d a n g e r s b eset y o u n g
w o m e n a w a y f r o m h o m e a n d f r ie n d s ; th e im p o s s ib ilit y o f e x c lu d in g
a lto g e th e r fr o m th o se w h o flo c k in t o m u n itio n area s som e w o m e n o f
b a d c h a r a c t e r , th e n e c e s s ity f o r s u b d u in g th e lig h t i n g o f stre e ts a n d
c o u r t s a n d o p e n sp a ce s, a n d th e c h a n g e o f s h ift s a t th e fa c t o r y e a r ly
a n d la t e — a ll c o n t r ib u t e t o c o n d it io n s o f d iffic u lt y f o r w h ic h t r a in e d
w o m e n are w e ll a d a p te d .
A la r g e n u m b e r o f w o m e n p o lic e a re e m ­
p lo y e d b y th e M in is t r y o f M u n itio n s in s id e fa c t o r ie s ; in o n e a rea
e ig h t a re e m p lo y e d b y th e m in is t r y in th e t o w n it s e lf.
I n m a n y tow n s
w o m e n p o lic e a re n o w w o r k in g s u c c e s s fu lly u n d e r th e c h i e f c o n s t a b le ;
th e y a re u n ifo r m e d a n d t r a in e d as r e c o g n iz e d m e m b e r s o f th e fo r c e ,
a n d in s o m e t o w n s t h e y a r e “ s w o r n i n . ”
W o m e n p a tr o ls h a v e b een
f o u n d v e r y u s e f u l w o r k i n g in c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e .
T h e y are
m o r e e s p e c ia lly h e l p f u l in d e a lin g w it h y o u n g g ir ls w h o s e t h o u g h t ­
le s s n e s s m a y b e p l a c i n g t h e m i n t h e w a y o f t e m p t a t i o n . I n t h e r e p o r t
o f I I . M . i n s p e c t o r o f c o n s t a b u l a r y , H o m e O ffic e , 1 9 1 8 , i t is s t a t e d t h a t
7 c o u n t ie s a n d 2 4 c it ie s s h o w w o m e n as p a r t o f th e a c tu a l s tr e n g th o f
th e p o lic e fo r c e .
T h e in s p e c t o r m e n t io n s in h is r e p o r t th e d u t ie s
a llo t t e d t o w o m e n p o lic e .
A m o n g th e m “ th e m a in te n a n c e o f p u b lic
d e c o r u m a m o n g g ir ls u p o n w h o m th e p re s e n ce a n d a d v ic e o f w o m e n in
a u t h o r i t y h a s a m o r e r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e t h a n t h o s e o f a m a n .* '
He
a ls o c o m m e n ts on th e g o o d w o r k d o n e b y w o m e n p a t r o ls , a n d w r it e s :
“ T h e su ccess o f th e w o m e n p a t r o ls w ill, to m y m in d , p r o v id e s t r o n g
a r g u m e n t f o r t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f w o m e n in t h e r e g u l a r p o l i c e f o r c e . ”




248

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

5 3 0 . The encouragement o f sobriety among the population i s a n
i m p o r t a n t b r a n c h o f th e w e lfa r e w o r k ; q u e s tio n s as t o th e n u m b e r
a n d th e sta tu s o f th e p u b lic h o u se s in m u n itio n a rea s, th e h o u r s d u r ­
i n g w h i c h d r i n k m a y b e s o l d , a n d o t h e r m a t t e r s o f a l i k e n a t u r e * a r is e
f o r c o n s id e r a t io n a n d a c t io n in a c c o r d a n c e w it h th e n e e d s o f e a ch
lo c a lit y .
531. M u c h h a s b e e n d o n e t o im p r o v e th e h e a lt h a n d in c r e a s e th e
e f f ic ie n c y o f t h e m u n i t i o n w o r k e r b y t h e r e d u c t i o n i n e x c e s s i v e d r i n k ­
in g w h ic h h a s b ee n b r o u g h t a b o u t t h r o u g h th e r e s tr ic tiv e m e a su re s
o f th e c e n t r a l c o n t r o l b o a r d ( l iq u o r t r a ffic ) u n d e r th e c h a ir m a n s h ip
o f L o r d D ’A b e r n o n a n d o f w h ic h th e c o m m it t e e ’s c h a ir m a n ( S i r
G e o r g e N e w m a n ) is a m e m b e r .
T h e s t a t is t ic a l e v id e n c e w h ic h is a t
p r e s e n t a v a ila b le w it h r e g a r d t o th e e ffe c t o f th e se m e a su r e s d e a ls
w it h th e g e n e r a l p o p u la t io n , a n d d o e s n o t in c lu d e d a ta h a v in g s p e c ific
r e f e r e n c e t o m u n i t i o n w o r k e r s a s a d i s t i n c t c la s s .
I t m ay, h ow ever,
b e a ssu m e d w it h o u t q u e s tio n th a t a n y g e n e r a l m o v e m e n t in th e p r e v a ­
l e n c e o f a l c o h o l i s m m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t t h e i n d u s t r i a l c la s s e s a s
m u c h as, i f n o t, in d e e d , m o r e th a n th e o t h e r s e c tio n s o f th e c o m m u ­
n it y ; so th a t, i f th e r e h a s b e e n a n y c o n s id e r a b le d e cr e a s e in a lc o h o lic
m o r t a l i t y a n d a l c o h o l i c d is e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e , i t is c l e a r
th a t th e re m u st h a v e b ee n a c o r r e s p o n d in g , o r ev en g r e a te r e ffe c t o f
th e sa m e s o r t in th e ca se o f m u n itio n w o r k e r s .
A n d th e s ta tis tic a l
e v i d e n c e t h a t s u c h a d e c r e a s e o f a l c o h o l i s m h a s , i n f a c t , o c c u r r e d is
d e fin ite a n d c o n v in c in g .
T h u s , t a k in g th e fig u r e s f o r th e p r e w a r
y e a r 1913 as th e b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n , th e r e tu r n s o f th e r e g is t r a r
g e n e r a l s h o w th a t th e m o r t a lit y fr o m c h r o n ic a lc o h o lis m , w h ic h in
1 9 1 4 s h o w e d a s lig h t d e c r e a s e in tlie ca se o f fe m a le s a n d a s l ig h t
in c r e a s e in th e c a s e o f m a le s , f e l l in t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r b y 22 p e r
c e n t in m e n a n d b y 19 p e r c e n t in w o m e n , a n d in 1916, w h e n th e
r e s tr ic tiv e o r d e r s o f th e c o n t r o l b o a r d w e r e in o p e r a t io n o v e r th e
g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e c o u n t r y th e n u m b e r o f d e a th s f r o m t h is c a u se
d r o p p e d b y n o le s s t h a n 4 4 p e r c e n t a n d 5 4 p e r c e n t in m a le s a n d
fe m a le s , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
T h is d o w n w a r d m o v e m e n t c o n tin u e d in 1917,
t h e f i g u r e s f o r t h e 1 2 m o n t h s b e i n g 6 7 .8 p e r c e n t b e l o w t h e 1 9 1 3
s t a n d a r d i n t h e c a s e o f m e n , a n d 6 9 .1 p e r c e n t in t h e c a s e o f w o m e n .
D e a t h s f r o m c ir r h o s is o f th e liv e r s h o w a s im ila r d e cr e a s e , t h o u g h
s m a lle r in d e g r e e , as w o u ld n a tu r a lly b e a n tic ip a te d , h a v in g r e g a r d
t o th e c h r o n ic n a tu r e o f t h is a ffe c tio n a n d th e lim it e d e x te n t t o w h ic h
its p r o g r e s s c a n b e d e la y e d e v e n b y r ig o r o u s a b s tin e n c e f r o m a lc o h o l.
532. S t a tis tic a l d a ta o f a c o m p a r a b le c h a r a c te r r e fe r r in g to a lc o ­
h o l i c d is e a s e a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y v e r y s c a n t y , b u t , s o f a r a s t h e y a r e
a v a ila b le , t h e y f u l l y a g r e e w it h th e m o r t a lit y r e tu r n s o f th e r e g is t r a r
g e n e r a l in s h o w in g a m a r k e d a n d p r o g r e s s iv e d e cr e a se o f a lc o h o lis m
d u r in g th e la s t th r e e y e a rs .
T h u s , in c e r ta in lo c a lit ie s w h e re it h a s
b e e n p o s s ib le t o o b ta in r e c o r d s o f th e ca ses o f d e lir iu m tre m e n s o v e r




W ELFARE OUTSIDE T H E FACTORY.

249

a t e r m o f y e a r s , i t h a s b e e n f o u n d t l i a t t l ie p r e v a l e n c e o f t l i i s u n e ­
q u iv o c a ll y a l c o h o li c d is o r d e r h a s f a l l e n b y as m u c h a s 81 p e r c e n t
b e tw e e n 1914 a n d 1917. I n L i v e r p o o l, f o r e x a m p le , th e ca ses r e
c o r d e d in e a c h y e a r w it h in t h is p e r io d n u m b e r e d as f o l l o w s : 1914,
511 (8 6 6 m a le s , 145 f e m a l e s ) ; 1 9 1 5 , 4 2 1 (2 6 3 m a le s , 1 5 8 f e m a l e s ) ;
1 9 1 6 , 205 (1 2 8 m a le s , 7 7 fe m a le s ) ; 1 9 1 7 , 99 (7 1 m a le s , 2 8 f e m a le s ) .
O f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s o f a l c o h o l i c m o r t a l i t y a n d a l c o h o l i c d is e a s e d o n o t ,
o f c o u r s e , f u r n i s h a n y m e a s u r e o f t h e a b s o lu t e a m o u n t o f i l l - h e a l t h
a n d in e ffic ie n c y d u e t o e x c e s s iv e d r i n k i n g ; b u t t h is f a c t d o e s n o t
d e t r a c t f r o m t h e ir v a lu e as i n d ic a t in g b y t h e ir flu c t u a t io n s th e g e n ­
e r a l m o v e m e n t o f a lc o h o lis m , a n d its r e a c t io n t o th e in flu e n c e s w h ic h
te n d t o in c r e a s e o r d im in is h it s p r e v a le n c e .
R e g a r d e d fr o m t h is
p o in t o f v ie w , th e s ta tis tic s q u o te d a b o v e j u s t if y th e in fe r e n c e th a t
th e u n p r e c e d e n te d r e d u c tio n in th e d e a th ra te fr o m a lc o h o lis m a n d
i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f t h e g r a v e r f o r m s o f a l c o h o l i c d is e a s e s i n c e t h e
e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e r e s t r i c t i v e m e a s u r e s o f t h e c o n t r o l b o a r d , is a
s i g n a n d i n d e x o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e i n t h e le s s s e r i o u s a n d
le s s o b v i o u s e f f e c t s o f i n t e m p e r a n c e o n t h e h e a l t h a n d w o r k i n g e n e r ­
g ie s o f ’ th e m u n it io n w o r k e r .
A n d t h i s i n f e r e n c e is f u l l y b o r n e o u t
b y th e t e s t im o n y o f e m p lo y e r s o f la b o r a n d b y th e e v id e n c e o f c o m ­
p e te n t o b s e rv e r s w h o h a v e h a d o p p o r t u n it ie s o f in v e s t ig a t in g th e
e ffe c t o f liq u o r c o n t r o l o n th e c o n d it io n o f th e in d u s t r ia l w o r k e r
a n d h is o u t p u t .
T h e l i q u o r b o a r d n o t o n l y r e d u c e d t h e h o u r s o f s a le ,
b u t c o n c e n t r a te d th e m at th e w o r k m e n ’s m e a l tim e s a n d a ls o im p o s e d
r e s t r i c t i o n s u p o n t h e s a l e o f s p i r i t s , c r e d i t s a le s , a n d t h e h a b i t o f
t r e a t in g .1
1 See first [Cd. 8 1 1 7 ], second [Cd. 8 2 4 3 ], third [Cd. 8 5 5 8 ], and fourth [Cd. 9 0 5 5 ]
rep orts of the central control board (liquor traffic).




SE CTIO N X X .— S U M M A R Y OF CO N CLU SIO N S.

533.
T lie c o m m it t e e c o n s id e r th a t i t is b o t h d e s ir a b le a n d c o
v e n ie n t th a t t h e y s h o u ld c o n c lu d e t h e ir fin a l r e p o r t b y s h o r t ly s u m ­
m a r iz in g th e v a r io u s p r in c ip le s e n u n c ia te d , th e c o n c lu s io n s a r r iv e d
a t , a n d t lie r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a d e i n t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e r e ­
p o r t . W h i l e t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t s in c e th e a p p o in t m e n t o f th e
c o m m i t t e e i n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 5 , t h e is s u e o f t h e i r m e m o r a n d a , t h e
a c t io n o f th e c e n tr a l d e p a r tm e n ts c o n c e r n e d , a n d th e tr e n d o f o p i n ­
io n a m o n g e m p lo y e r s , w o r k e r s , a n d th e p u b lic g e n e r a lly h a v e c o m ­
b in e d t o s e c u re a v e r y s u b s t a n t ia l im p r o v e m e n t in th e c o n d it io n s o f
e m p l o y m e n t , i t w o u l d b e a v e r y g r a v e m i s t a k e t o a s s u m e t h a t a l l is
n o w w e l l , o r t h a t f u r t h e r c a r e a n d a t t e n t i o n a r e n o t s t i l l e s s e n t ia l
i f a s e r i o u s b r e a k d o w n o f i n d u s t r y is t o b e a v o i d e d . F u r t h e r , w h i l e
th e c o m m itte e h a v e o f n e c e s s ity b ee n p r im a r ily c o n c e r n e d w it h th e
h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e f f ic ie n c y o f t h e m u n i t i o n w o r k e r u n d e r - t h e a b ­
n o r m a l c o n d it io n s c r e a te d b y th e w a r , th e y a re s t r o n g ly o f o p in io n
t h a t th e p r in c ip le s u n d e r ly in g r ig h t a c tio n a t th e p r e s e n t t im e a re
p e r m a n e n t a n d n o t m e r e ly t r a n s it o r y in im p o r t a n c e , a n d s h o u ld b e
a c c e p t e d a ls o a s fu n d a m e n t a l t o a ll s c h e m e s f o r in d u s t r ia l h e a lth a n d
b e tte rm e n t a ft e r th e w a r.
O n e o f th e v it a l a n d p r e s s in g p r o b le m s
b e f o r e th e c o u n t r y a t th e p r e s e n t m o m e n t a n d in th e im m e d ia te
f u t u r e is t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e h e a l t h a n d c o n t e n t m e n t , t h e c a p a c i t y ,
s t a t u s , a n d e f f ic ie n c y o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r , w h o s e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o
t h e c o m m o n w e a l t h is o f e v e r - g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e .
F o r c o n v e n ie n c e o f r e fe r e n c e th e s u m m a r y f o llo w s th e o r d e r o f
th e s e c tio n s o f th e r e p o r t.

I.—INTRODUCTORY.

(i)
S in c e th e c o m m itte e w e r e a p p o in t e d in S e p te m b e r , 1915, th e re
h a s b e c o m e a p p a r e n t a n in c r e a s e d a p p r e c ia t io n o f th e im p o r t a n c e
o f t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l h y g i e n e ; t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t
th e e n v ir o n m e n t a n d c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t o f , th e w o r k e r a re
v a s t ly b e t t e r t h a n t h e y w e r e , t h o u g h t h e r e is s t ill m u c h n e e d f o r
fu r t h e r im p r o v e m e n t.
A p a r t fr o m th e q u ic k e n in g o f th e n a tio n a l
c o n s c io u s n e s s a n d sen se o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y r e s u lt in g f r o m th e w a r , th is
d e v e lo p m e n t m a y b e a ttr ib u te d to th re e m a in ca u se s, th e w id e s p r e a d
a d o p t io n o f th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s c o n t a in e d in th e c o m m it t e e ’s m e m o ­
r a n d a a n d r e p o r t s , th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a h e a lt h a n d w e l f a r e s e c ­
t io n a t th e M in is t r y o f M u n it io n s a n d th e in c r e a s e d p o w e r s f o r se250




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251

c u r i n g t l ie w e l f a r e o f w o r k e r s c o n f e r r e d u p o n t h e H o m e O f fic e b y
th e p o lic e , fa c t o r ie s , etc. (m is c e lla n e o u s p r o v is io n s ) , a c t, 1 9 1 6 .
(S e o
p a r a g r a p h s 1 -1 0 .)

II.—PRELIMINARY AND HISTORICAL SURVEY.
( i i ) T h e p r o b le m s c o n c e r n e d w it h th e w e ll-b e in g o f th e w o r k e r
a re n o t n ew , th o u g h th e y h a v e been a ccen tu a ted b y th e w a r. E v e r
s in c e th e fir s t b e g in n in g s o f th e m o d e r n f a c t o r y s y s te m th e s e p r o b ­
le m s h a v e r e c e iv e d in c r e a s in g a t t e n t io n f r o m th e S t a t e , t h e e m p lo y e r ,
a n d f r o m t h e w o r k e r s t h e m s e lv e s . M a n y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d
in t h is r e p o r t a r e in t im a t e ly c o n n e c t e d w it h w id e r s o c ia l a n d in d u s ­
t r ia l q u e s tio n s w h ic h f a l l o u ts id e th e te r m s o f r e fe r e n c e o f th e
c o m m itte e .
( i i i ) T h e w o r k o f t lie c o m m i t t e e h a s b e e n g r e a t l y e m b a r a s s e d b y
t h e lim it e d e x t e n t t o w h ic h in th e p a s t s c ie n t ific in v e s t ig a t io n h a s
b e e n m a d e i n t o t h e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s a f f e c t i n g i n d u s t r i a l e f f ic ie n c y .
I n q u ir ie s in t o th e e ffe c t o f in d u s t r y u p o n h e a lth h a v e b e e n la r g e ly
lim it e d t o s p e c ia l in q u ir ie s c o n d u c t e d in t o p a r t ic u la r “ d a n g e r o u s ”
t r a d e s . T h e r e h a s e x i s t e d n o p e r m a n e n t o f f ic ia l b o d y c h a r g e d w i t h
t h e d u t y o f c o n t in u in g th e se in q u ir ie s o r o f in v e s t ig a t in g th e e ffe c t
u p o n h e a lth o f in d u s tr ie s w h ic h , t h o u g h n o t t e c h n ic a lly u d a n g e r o u s ,”
m a y s t i l l e x e r c i s e a p o t e n t i n f l u e n c e u p o n h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e ffi­
c i e n c y . R e s e a r c h is g r e a t l y n e e d e d i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o c c u p a ­
t i o n t o f a t i g u e , i n v a l i d i t y , a n d m o r t a l i t y . I t is o n l y w i t h i n t h e l a s t
2 0 y e a r s t h a t m e d i c a l o f f ic e r s h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d t o t h e f a c t o r y
d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e H o m e O ffic e , a n d t h e l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f t h o s e
o ff ic e r s h a s m a d e i t i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d b e l a r g e l y
c o n fin e d t o q u e s tio n s o f im m e d ia te a d m in is t r a t iv e im p o r t a n c e .
It
is g r e a t l y t o b e h o p e d t h a t p e r m a n e n t p r o v i s i o n w i l l b e m a d e f o r a
w id e r a n d m o r e c o n t in u o u s in v e s t ig a t io n o f th e in flu e n c e s o f in d u s t r y
u p o n h e a lth th a n h a s h it h e r t o b e e n p r a c t ic a b le .
(S e e p a r a g ra p h s
1 1 -5 0 .)

III.—THE RELATION OF FATIGUE AND ILL HEALTH TO INDUSTRIAL
EFFICIENCY.
( i v ) T h e s u b j e c t o f i n d u s t r i a l e f f ic ie n c y i n r e l a t i o n t o h e a l t h a n d
f a t i g u e is i n l a r g e d e g r e e o n e o f p r e v e n t i v e m e d i c i n e , a q u e s t i o n o f
p h y s i o lo g y a n d p s y c h o lo g y , o f s o c io lo g y a n d in d u s t r ia l h y g ie n e .
( v ) F a t i g u e i s t h e s u m o f t h e r e s u lt s o f a c t i v i t y w h i c h s h o w T t h e m ­
se lv e s in a d im in is h e d c a p a c it y f o r d o i n g w o r k . F a t ig u e m a y s p r in g
fr o m th e m a in t a in e d u se o f in t e llig e n c e , th e m a in te n a n c e o f s te a d y
a t t e n t io n , o r th e c o n t in u e d u se o f s p e c ia l sen ses. W h e n th e w o r k is
m o n o to n o u s fa t ig u e m a y a p p e a r in th e p s y c h ic a l fie ld ; m o n o to n y
m a y d im in is h c a p a c it y f o r w o r k ; o n th e o th e r h a n d “ in t e r e s t ” m a y
in c r e a s e it .




252

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

( v i ) F a t i g u e s h o u l d b e d e t e c t e d a n d i t s c a u s e s d e a l t 'w i t h w h i l e i t
is s t ill la t e n t a n d b e f o r e it b e c o m e s e x c e s s iv e .
T h e te sts o f fa t ig u e
a re d im in is h e d o u t p u t , th e fa ilu r e o f c o n c e n t r a t io n a s s h o w n in in ­
c r e a s e d a c c i d e n t s a n d s p o i l e d w o r k , s t a le n e s s , i l l h e a l t h , a n d l o s t t i m e .
( v i i ) W it h o u t h e a lth t h e r e is n o e n e r g y ; w it h o u t e n e r g y th e r e is n o
ou tp u t.
M o r e im p o r t a n t th a n o u t p u t is th e v ig o r , s tr e n g th , a n d
v i t a l i t y o f t h e n a t i o n . T h e c o n d i t i o n s e s s e n t ia l t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e
o f h e a lt h a re , firs t, p e r s o n a l c o n d it io n s o r th o s e f a v o r a b le t o th e b o d y
i t s e l f (e . g . , f o o d , f r e s h a i r , e x e r c i s e , w a r m t h , a n d a d e q u a t e r e s t ) , a n d ,
s e c o n d ly , a s a t is fa c t o r y e n v ir o n m e n t (e . g ., a s a fe a n d s a n ita r y f a c ­
t o r y , s u it a b le h o u r s o f w o r k , g o o d h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n , a n d c o n ­
v e n ie n t m e a n s o f t r a n s it ).
(S e e p a r a g r a p h s 5 1 -8 2 .)

IV.— THE INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN.

( v i i i ) I n c o n s id e r in g c o n d itio n s o f e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n as c o m ­
p a r e d w it h th o s e o f m e n a c c o u n t m u st b e ta k e n n o t o n ly o f p h y s i o lo g i ­
c a l d iffe r e n c e s b u t a ls o o f th o s e c o n t r ib u t io n s w h ic h w o m e n a lo n e c a n
m a k e t o th e w e lf a r e o f th e c o m m u n it y . C e r t a in a ilm e n t s a n d f o r m s o f
p h y s ic a l d is a b ilit y t o w h ic h w o m e n a re lia b le are r e a d ily c a u s e d , o r
a t le a s t a c c e n t u a t e d , b y l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r s p e c i a l n e e d s .
( i x ) U p t o th e p r e s e n t th e r e h a s b e e n n o m a r k e d b r e a k d o w n in th e
h e a l t h o f w o m e n i n i n d u s t r y . I t is p r o b a b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s t r a i n
h a s b e e n g r e a t e r th a n is a t p r e s e n t a p p a r e n t , h a v in g b e e n h it h e r t o
c o u n t e r a c t e d o r d is g u is e d b y c e r t a in fa c t o r s , s u ch as im p r o v e d f o o d
a n d b e tte r f a c t o r y e n v ir o n m e n t , w e lfa r e s u p e r v is io n , a n d th e d r o p p in g
o u t o f th e p h y s ic a lly w e a k e r. U n d o u b te d ly m a n y w o m e n a re o n ly
a b le t o k e e p w o r k in g b y a t o t a l a b a n d o n m e n t o f a ll r e c r e a t io n o r
s o c ia l in te rc o u rs e .
( x ) C e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s o f e m p l o y m e n t a r e e s s e n t ia l i f t h e r i s k o f
f u t u r e b r e a k d o w n is t o b e a v o i d e d , i n c l u d i n g s h o r t h o u r s o f w o r k c o n ­
v e n ie n t ly a r r a n g e d , m e d ic a l s u p e r v is io n (i n c l u d i n g re st r o o m s , fir s t
a id , e t c .) , c a r e fu l s e le c tio n o f w o r k e r s , g o o d f o o d , a fa v o r a b le fa c t o r y
e n v ir o n m e n t , s y m p a th e t ic m a n a g e m e n t a n d s u p e r v is io n .
( x i ) I n th e ca se o f m a r r ie d w o m e n , t o th e s t r a in o f t h e ir w o r k m u s t
g e n e r a l l y b e a d d e d t h e s t r a i n i n v o l v e d i n h o u s e w o r k , a s w e l l a s in
f a m i l y w o r r ie s a n d a n x ie tie s .
C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y a r e le s s a b l e t o
b e a r th e s t r a in o f e m p lo y m e n t , a n d s p e c ia l a t t e n t io n is n e c e s s a r y t o
th e c o n d it io n s o f th e ir w o r k , p a r t ic u la r ly in r e la tio n t o th e p e r io d o f
p r e g n a n c y a n d th e c a re o f y o u n g c h ild r e n . A n y g e n e r a l p r o h ib it io n
o f t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t is i m p r a c t i c a b l e , b u t i t s h o u l d b e c o n f i n e d s o
f a r a s p o s s i b l e tuo l i g h t ” w o r k , a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y m i g h t b e c o n ­
s id e r e d o f a llo w in g th e m s o m e r e la x a tio n a t th e b e g in n in g a n d e n d
o f th e d a y a n d a ls o d u r in g th e d in n e r in t e r v a l, as is s o m e tim e s d o n e
i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a n d a ls o in F r a n c e . T h e c o m m i t t e e d e -




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253

s ir e t o d r a w s p e c ia l a tte n tio n t o th e c o n c lu s io n s o f th e ir m e d ic a l in ­
v e s t i g a t o r s . ( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 8 3 - 1 1 5 .)

V.—IIOURS OF LABOR.

( x i i ) A t th e b e g in n in g o f th e w a r th e r e e x is te d a m a r k e d d iv e r g e n c e
o f o p in io n as to th e le n g th o f h o u r s th a t m e n c o u ld p r o fita b ly w o r k ,
b u t th e re w a s a w id e s p r e a d b e lie f th a t l o n g h o u r s p r o d u c e d a la r g e r
o u t p u t , t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r ily p r o p o r t io n a t e ly so. M e n , a n d e s p e ­
c ia lly th e m o r e h ig h l y s k ille d w o r k e r s , w e r e fr e q u e n t ly e m p lo y e d f o r
as m u c h as 90 h o u r s a w e e k . I n J a n u a r y , 1916, th e c o m m itte e p r o v i ­
s io n a lly r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t th e a v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t
o f m e n s h o u ld b e lim it e d t o 6 5 - 6 7 ; th a t is t o s a y , a 1 3 -1 4 h o u r w o r k in g
day.
( x i i i ) I n th e e a r lie r s ta g e s o f th e w a r m a n y w o m e n w e r e e m p l o y e d '
f o r o v e r 70 h o u r s a w e e k , b u t th e re w a s a m u c h s m a lle r d iv e r g e n c e o f
o p in io n as t o th e le n g th o f h o u r s w h ic h w a s p r o d u c t iv e o f th e g re a te st
o u t p u t , a n d th e c o m m it t e e in J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 6 , p r o v is io n a l l y r e c o m ­
m e n d e d th a t th e h o u r s o f w o m e n s h o u ld b e r e s t r ic t e d w it h in th e lim it
o f 60 p r e s c r ib e d b y th e F a c t o r y a n d W o r k s h o p s A c t , 1901, a n d th a t
th e e m p lo y m e n t at n ig h t o f g i r l s u n d e r 18 s h o u ld b e l im it e d s o f a r
a s p ovssible.
( x i v ) I n v ie w o f th e e x te n t to w h ic h b o y s a re e m p lo y e d to h e lp
m e n , th e c o m m itte e in J a n u a r y , 1 9 16, p r o v is io n a lly r e c o m m e n d e d
th a t th e y s h o u ld b e a llo w e d t o w o r k f o r th e sa m e h o u r s a s m e n , B u t
it w a s u r g e d th a t, so f a r as p o s s ib le , b o y s u n d e r 16 s h o u ld n o t b e e m ­
p lo y e d f o r m o r e th a n 60 h o u r s o r at n ig h t .
( x v ) T h e s c ie n t ific d a ta c o lle c t e d f o r th e c o m m it t e e a n d th e e x p e r i ­
e n ce g a in e d d u r in g th e p a s t t w o y e a rs c o m b in e t o s u p p o r t th e v ie w
th a t th e le n g th o f h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t p r o v is io n a lly r e c o m m e n d e d
t w o y e a r s a g o a r e n o w t o o lo n g a n d c a n b e r e d u c e d w it h o u t lo s s o f
ou tp u t.
( x v i ) B y e c o n o m iz in g tim e , a p a r t f r o m a n y in c r e a s e d r a p id it y o f
w o r k in g , th e h o u r l y r a te o f o u t p u t c a n b e c o n s id e r a b ly in c r e a s e d .
( x v i i) T h o u g h h o u r s o f w o r k h a v e b ee n m u ch r e d u c e d d u r in g th e
p a s t t w o y e a r s , t h e t i m e is r i p e f o r f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n s .
W h a t th e e x te n t o f th e r e d u c t io n s h o u ld b e in a n y p a r t ic u la r ca se
ca n o n ly b e d e te r m in e d a ft e r c o n s id e r in g a n u m b e r o f fa c to r s , su ch
as th e p h y s ic a l o r m e n t a l s t r a in o f t h e w o r k , th e e x t e n t t o w h ic h
t h e p a c e o f t h e w o r k is g o v e r n e d b y t h e m a c h i n e , t h e f a c t o r y e n v i r o n ­
m e n t, th e p h y s ic a l c a p a c it y , th e a g e, sex , a n d e x p e r ie n c e o f th e
w o r k e r , th e s u it a b ility o f th e f o o d ta k e n b y th e w o r k e r , th e a r r a n g e ­
m e n t o f h o u r s o f w o r k , a n d c o n d it io n s o u t s id e th e f a c t o r y (e . g .,
h o u s in g a n d t r a n s i t ) . (S e e p a r a g r a p h s 1 1 6 -1 6 2 .)




254

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

VI.— SHIFTS, BBEAXS, SPELLS, PAUSES, AND HOLIDAYS.
( x v i i i ) P r o v id e d th a t th e w e e k ly h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t a re r e a s o n ­
a b le , it f o l l o w s in p r a c t ic e t h a t th e d a il y h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t w ill
a ls o b e c o n fin e d w it h in m o d e r a t e lim it s .
( x i x ) T h e d a il y e m p lo y m e n t o f w o r k e r s is o r g a n iz e d , e it h e r in
s in g le s h ift s , o r in d o u b le s h ift s , o r in t h r e e s h ift s . F r o m t h e p o in t
o f v ie w o f o u tp u t s in g le s h ift s a re o p e n t o o b je c t io n o w in g to th e
l a r g e n u m b e r o f h o u r s d u r i n g w h i c h t h e m a c h i n e r y l ie s i d l e . D o u b l e
s h ifts a re th e f o r m o f e m p lo y m e n t m o st c o m m o n ly a d o p te d . T h o u g h
n i g h t w o r k is o p e n t o s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n , a t a n y r a t e f o r w o m e n a n d
a d o le s c e n ts , d o u b le s h ift s u n d e r r e a s o n a b le c o n d it io n s a r e u n ­
d o u b t e d ly p r o d u c t iv e o f in c r e a s e d o u t p u t , s in c e t h e y e n a b le th e m a ­
c h in e r y t o b e e m p lo y e d f o r th e g r e a te r p a r t o f th e 2 4 h o u rs .
( x x ) W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le a n in t e r v a l s h o u ld b e l e f t b e tw e e n th e
t w o s h ift s . T h e s h o r t e r h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t in v o lv e d a r e w id e ly
r e c o g n iz e d t o b e a d v a n ta g e o u s fr o m th e p o in t o f v ie w b o t h o f th e
h e a lt h o f t h e w o r k e r a n d o f o u t p u t . A p a r t f r o m th is , o p p o r t u n it y
is a ffo r d e d f o r c le a n in g a n d v e n t ila t in g th e sh o p s .
( x x i ) T h e t h r e e - s h i f t s } rs t e m , e s p e c i a l l y f o r w o m e n , h a s m u c h t o
c o m m e n d i t w h e r e i t ca n * b e o r g a n i z e d .
T h e d iffic u lt ie s i n v o l v e d
a r is e i n c o m b i n i n g t h e h o u r s o f m e n a n d w o m e n w o r k e r s , f r o m t h e
s h o r tn e s s o f m e a l in t e r v a ls , f r o m th e w o r k e r s ’ fe a r t h a t s h o r t e r h o u r s
w i l l m e a n s m a l l e r w a g e s , a n d f r o m t h e b e n e f it o f t h e s h o r t e r h o u r s
b e in g lo s t t h r o u g h m is u s e o f le is u r e t im e o r b y it s d e v o t io n t o h o u s e ­
w o r k d u tie s . T h e n u m e r o u s in s ta n c e s in w h ic h th e t h r e e -s liift s y s ­
t e m h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u lly o r g a n iz e d s h o w t h a t th e s e d iffic u lt ie s a re
o r d in a r ily s u r m o u n ta b le .
( x x i i ) T h e o r d in a r y d a ily h o u r s o f w o r k a re o r g a n iz e d e ith e r
u n d e r th e “ tw o -b r e a k ” sy ste m o r th e a o n e -b r e a k ” sy stem . U n d e r
th e fo r m e r s y s te m w o r k u s u a lly c o m m e n c e s a t 6 a. m ., a n d th e n o r m a l
b r e a k s a re h a lf h o u r f o r b r e a k fa s t a n d o n e h o u r f o r d in n e r . U n d e r
t h e l a t t e r s y s t e m t h e w o r k c o m m e n c e s a f t e r b r e a k f a s t , a t 7 o r 8 a . m ..
a n d t h e r e is f r e q u e n t l y o n l y a s i n g l e b r e a k o f o n e h o u r f o r d i n n e r ,
t h o u g h a b r e a k f o r t e a is s o m e t i m e s n e c e s s i t a t e d b y t h e h o u r s o f w o r k .
( x x i i i ) T h e e v id e n c e s u g g e s t s th a t w o r k b e f o r e b r e a k fa s t is a
m is ta k e .
O n ly th e m in o r it y o f w o r k e r s ca n p u t in t h e ir b est w o r k
b e f o r e h a v i n g a p r o p e r m e a l in th e m o r n in g .
T h e tim e lo s t o fte u
c a u se s s e r io u s d is o r g a n iz a t io n , a n d e v e n w h e r e th e d is c o n t in u a n c e o f
w o r k b e fo r e b r e a k fa s t in v o lv e s a s m a ll r e d u c tio n in th e n o m in a l
h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t th e lo s s is g e n e r a lly m o r e th a n m a d e g o o d b y
th e r e d u c t io n in th e tim e lo s t.
( x x i v ) M a n y w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e rs o n s ca n n o t p r o fit a b ly b e e m ­
p lo y e d f o r th e f u l l s p e ll o f fiv e h o u r s o n c o n t in u o u s w o r k a llo w e d b y
th e f a c t o r y a ct.




SU M M A R Y OF CONCLUSIONS.

255

(xxv) Even where the spell is somewhat less than five hours, em­
ployers frequently allow- short intervals for refreshment in the after­
noon and also in the morning. These pauses not only provide an
opportunity for refreshment, but a period of rest and recovery from
fatigue and a break in the monotony of work.

( x x v i ) A l l w o r k e r s e n g a g e d o n a c t iv e w o r k ta k e v o lu n t a r y rest
p e r i o d s , g e n e r a l l y q u i t e u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . I t is d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e s e
r e sts s h o u ld .b e r e p la c e d b y a u t h o r iz e d re s t p a u s e s s y s t e m a t ic a lly
d e te r m in e d .
( x x v i i ) A l l w o r k e r s s h o u ld b e a llo w e d p e r io d ic h o lid a y s — p r e f e r ­
a b ly o f s e v e r a l d a y s ’ d u r a t io n . T h e y a re e q u a lly im p o r t a n t f o r th e
m a n a g e m e n t a n d fo r e m e n .
T h e y a ls o a ffo r d an o p p o r t u n it y f o r
r e p a ir s to p la n t a n d m a c h in e r y .
( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 1 G 3 - 1 8 9 .)

VII.—SUNDAY LABOR AND NIGHT WORK.
(xxviii) A t the commencement of the W ar Sunday labor, espe­
cially for men, was widely adopted in the hope of increasing output.
The evidence, however, proves conclusively that Sunday labor is
unpopular, uneconomical, and not productive of increased output.

( x x i x ) I n a c c o r d a n c e w it h an e a r ly r e c o m m e n d a tio n o f th e c o m ­
m it t e e , S u n d a y la b o r is n o w a lm o s t e n t ir e ly c o n fin e d to s u d d e n
e m e r g e n c ie s , r e p a ir s , a t t e n d in g fu r n a c e s , a n d c e r t a in c o n t in u o u s
p r o c e s s e s . C o n s t a n t s c r u t i n y is , h o w e v e r , n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e
th a t su ch e x c e p t io n s as c o n t in u e are c o n fin e d w it h in th e n a r r o w e s t
lim it s . W h e r e S u n d a y l a b o r b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y , a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u ld
b e m a d e b y a s y s te m o f r e lie f s h ift s th a t n o in d iv id u a l w o r k e r is
e m p lo y e d m o r e th a n s ix d a y s in th e w eek .
( x x x ) E v e n f o r m e n n i g h t w o r k is o p e n t o s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n . I t
is u n e c o n o m ic a l o w in g t o th e h ig h e r c h a r g e s f o r w a g e s , lig h t in g , a n d
h e a t i n g . L i g h t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y i n f e r i o r a n d s u p e r v i s i o n m o r e d if f i ­
c u l t . A d e q u a t e s l e e p b y d a y is d if f ic u l t , o w i n g t o d i s l o c a t i o n o f o r d i ­
n a r y h a b it s o r f r o m s o c i a l c a u s e s . S o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e a n d r e c r e a t i o n
c a n h a r d l y b e o b t a i n e d e x c e p t b y a n u n d u e c u r t a i l m e n t o f s le e p .
C o n t i n u a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n is g e n e r a l l y i m p r a c t i c a b l e .
F i n a l l y , i t is
u n n a tu r a l to tu r n n ig h t in t o d a y .
( x x x i ) N ig h t w o r k f o r w o m e n a n d g ir ls h a s b e e n ille g a l f o r o v e r
50 y e a rs . A lt h o u g h in e v it a b le f o r a d u lt w o m e n u n d e r e x is t in g c o n ­
d i t i o n s , i t s h o u l d b e s t o p p e d a s s o o n a s i t c e a s e s t o b e e s s e n t ia l.
N i g h t w o r k f o r g i r l s u n d e r 1G h a s n o w b e e n e n t i r e l y s t o p p e d ; f o r
g i r l s b e t w e e n 1G a n d 18 i t h a s b e e n l a r g e l y c u r t a i l e d a n d s h o u l d
b e e n d e d as s o o n as p o s s ib le .
( x x x i i ) N i g h t w o r k f o 3^s bis o n l y l e g a l i n c e r t a i n c o n t i n u o u s
r o
p rocesses.
I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c u r t a i l e d f o r b o y s u n d e r 1G, a n d
s h o u ld b e a lt o g e t h e r s t o p p e d .
T h e c o m m itte e f u l l y in d o r s e th e




256

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

a r g u m e n t s a g a in s t th e e m p l o y m e n t .o f a n y b o y s u n d e r 18 a t n ig h t
w h ic h w e r e p u t f o r w a r d in th e r e p o r t o f th e d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m it t e e
<m t h e N i g h t E m p l o y m e n t o f M a l e Y o u n g P e r s o n s i n F a c t o r i e s a n d
W o r k S h ops.
( x x x i i i ) T h e r e is n o u n i f o r m i t y o f p r a c t i c e a s t o h o w l o n g
w o r k e r s h o u ld r e m a in o n th e n ig h t s h if t a t a n y o n e tim e . A w e e k
is t h e c o m m o n e s t p e r i o d , b u t m u c h d e p e n d s o n t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s
u n d e r w h ic h h e liv e s . I n v e s t ig a t io n s s u g g e s t th a t c o n t in u o u s n ig h t
w o r k is p r o d u c t i v e o f le s s o u t p u t t h a n t h e s y s t e m u n d e r w h i c h a
w o r k e r is e n g a g e d o n d a y a n d n i g h t s h i f t s a l t e r n a t e l y . T h e r e i s n o
e v id e n c e t h a t th e o u t p u t o f a c o n t in u o u s d a y s h if t b a la n c e s t h is i n ­
fe r io r ity .
( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 1 9 0 - 2 1 1 .)

VIII — LOST TIME AND INCENTIVE.
( x x x i v ) T im e m a y b e lo s t t h r o u g h th e fa ilu r e o f th e w o r k e r t o
a tte n d th e f a c t o r y r e g u la r ly , o r it m a y b e lo s t a t th e f a c t o r y b y s la c k ­
n e ss a t th e b e g in n in g o r e n d o f th e s p e ll, u n r e g u la t e d r e s t p a u s e s ,
o r la c k o f m a t e r ia l.
( x x x v ) T h e ca u se s o f lo s t tim e (a s o r d in a r ily u n d e r s t o o d ) m a y b e
b r o a d ly d iv id e d in t o th o s e th a t a re m a in ly in h e r e n t (e . g ., s ick n e s s
a n d a c c id e n ts e x te r n a l t o th e fa c t o r y , b a d c o n d itio n s o f h o u s in g a n d
tr a n s it, b a d w e a th e r , d o m e s t ic d u tie s , o r la c k o f m a t e r ia l) , a n d th o s e
w h i c h a r e m a i n l y c o n t r o l l a b l e (e . g . , s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t s o f f a c ­
t o r y o r ig in , d r in k , in d iffe r e n c e , d is c o n t e n t , o v e r tim e a n d S u n d a y
w o r k , la ck o f w o r k ).
( x x x v i ) T h e p r o p o r t io n o f lo s t t im e d u e t o s ic k n e s s is g e n e r a lly
g r e a t ly u n d e r e s tim a te d .
( x x x v i i ) T h e c a u s e s o f lo s t t im e s h o u ld b e c a r e f u l l y a s c e r t a in e d
a n d r e m e d ie s s o u g h t .
( x x x v i i i ) I n c e n t iv e s t o w o r k in c lu d e p a t r io t is m , a g o o d f a c t o r y
e n v ir o n m e n t , s o c ia l a m e n itie s , in s t r u c t io n o f th e n e w w o r k e r , s u ita b le
a n d s u ffic ie n t r e s t p a u s e s , a n d w a g e s .
( x x x i x ) W a g e s a re p r o b a b ly th e m o s t im p o r t a n t in c e n t iv e .
No
w a g e s y s te m c a n a f f o r d a n e ff e c t iv e in c e n t iv e u n le s s t h e r e is a h e a lt h y
b o d y o f w o r k e r s . T h e s y s te m m u s t b e e a s ily u n d e r s t o o d a n d p r o p e r l y
a d ju s t e d . T h e in c e n t iv e f a i l s i f t h e w o r k e r s c a n o b t a in t o o e a s ily
th e m o n e y r e q u ir e d t o m e e t t h e ir s o c ia l a s p ir a t io n s , o r i f th e h o u r s
o f w o r k p r e v e n t th e ir s p e n d in g th e m o n e y e a r n e d .
(S e e p a ra g ra p h s
2 1 2 -2 1 9 .)

IX.—FOOD AND CANTEENS.

( x l ) T h e r e q u ir e m e n t s o f th e b o d y f o r f o o d a r e la r g e l y a ffe c t e d
b y th e a m o u n t o f p h y s ic a l e n e r g y e x p e n d e d in d a il y w o r k a n d b y t h e
e n v ir o n m e n t o f th e w o r k e r .
G r o w in g b o y s a n d g ir ls r e q u ir e r e la ­




SU M M A R Y OF CONCLUSIONS.

257

t i v e l y m o r e f o o d t l ia n a d u l t s .
F o r th e m a in te n a n c e o f in d u s t r ia l
e f f ic ie n c y t h e w o r k e r m u s t h a v e f o o d w h i c h is a d e q u a t e i n a m o u n t ,
n u t r it io u s , fr e s h , d ig e s t ib le , a n d a p p e t iz in g .
( x l i ) A p a r t f r o m j aq u e s t io n o f s h o r t a g e o f f o o d s u p p lie s m a n y
n
w o r k e r s d o n o t o b t a i n s u i t a b l e f o o d o w i n g t o d o m e s t i c d if f ic u l t i e s ,
d is t a n c e o f th e h o m e f r o m th e f a c t o r y , n ig h t w o r k , a n d ig n o r a n c e o f
th e n e e d (in th e ca se o f w o m e n ).
( x l i i ) C a r r i e d f o o d i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y o w i n g t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n in
t h e k i n d s o f f o o d s u it a b le .
F u r t h e r , th e f o o d is n e c e s s a r ily c o ld
a n d m a y d e t e r io r a t e e a s ily . M e a n s o f h e a t in g u p f o o d a r e u s e fu l,
b u t a r e i n a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e s u c h f o o d l o s e s n u t r i t i v e v a lu e . T h e h e a t ­
i n g u p o f a n y l a r g e n u m b e r o f m e a ls i s d i f f i c u l t t o d o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .
( x l i i i ) T h e o n ly s a t is fa c t o r y s o lu t io n o f th e p r o b le m o f p r o v i d ­
i n g s u it a b le f o o d a t lo w p r ic e s f o r la r g e n u m b e r s a t c o n v e n ie n t tim e s
l ie s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f - i n d u s t r i a l c a n t e e n s .
A p a r t fr o m th e
s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e f o o d p r o v i d e d t h e e s s e n t ia l s f o r s u c c e s s o f a c a n t e e n
in c lu d e a c c e s s ib ilit y , th e c o n v e n ie n c e a n d a ttr a c tiv e n e s s o f th e
p r e m is e s , p r o m p t s e r v i c e , c o n v e n i e n t h o u r s o f o p e n i n g , a n d a s y s t e m
o f m a n a g e m e n t a c c e p ta b le to th e w o r k e r s .
( x l i v ) A t th e e n d o f 1917 th e re w e r e a b o u t 840 ca n te e n s in m u n i­
t io n w o r k s a n d d o c k s . T h e c o m m itte e a re s t r o n g ly im p r e s s e d w it h
th e v a lu e o f th e fa c il i t ie s th u s a ffo r d e d , a n d a r e c o n v in c e d t h a t t h e y
h a v e v e r y m a te r ia lly c o n tr ib u te d t o th e m a in te n a n c e o f th e h e a lth
o f th e w o r k e r , t o th e p r e v e n t io n o f a s e r io u s b r e a k d o w n u n d e r th e
s t r a i n i m p o s e d b y w a r c o n d i t i o n s , a n d t o i n c r e a s e d e f f ic ie n c y a n d
e n e r g y a n d c o r r e s p o n d in g o u tp u t.
T h o u g h th e n e e d f o r ca n te en s
h a s b e e n a c c e n t u a t e d b y w a r c o n d i t i o n s , i t is i n a l a r g e m e a s u r e a
p erm a n e n t on e.
( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 2 2 0 - 2 6 1 .)

X.— SICKNESS AND ILL HEALTH.

( x l v ) A n u n d u e p r o p o r t io n o f s ic k n e s s in a n y g r o u p o f w o r k e r s
u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a m o n g s t t h o s e n o t a c t u a l l y s i c k le s s e n e d v i g o r a n d
a c t iv it y w h ic h ca n n o t f a il t o re d u ce o u tp u t.
( x l v i ) C o n d it io n s o f in d u s t r ia l o c c u p a t io n m a y a ffe c t h e a lth b y
r e a s o n o f l o n g h o u r s o f w o r k , c r a m p e d a n d c o n s t r a in e d a ttitu d e s ,
p r o l o n g e d o r e x c e s s iv e m u s c u la r s tr a in , b a d v e n t ila t io n a n d lig h t i n g ,
d u s t a n d fu m e s . T o th e in flu e n c e s o f o c c u p a t io n u p o n h e a lt h m u s t
b e a d d e d t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o d is e a s e a r i s i n g f r o m t h e a b s e n c e o f
p e r s o n a l h y g ie n e .
( x lv ii ) M e d ic a l in q u irie s s u g g e st th a t th e p r in c ip a l fo r m s o f
m in o r i ll h e a lth t o b e f o u n d a m o n g s t m a le w o r k e r s a re h e a d a c h e ,
fo o t a c lie , m u s c u la r p a in s , s le e p in e s s o n th e n ig h t s h if t , a n d n e r v o u s
s y m p t o m s ; a m o n g s t w o m e n w o r k e r s in d ig e s t io n , h e a d a c h e , a n e m ia ,
a n d m u s c u la r p a in s .
80935°— 19-------17




258

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

( x l v i i i ) K e c o r d s o f s ick n e s s , b r o k e n t im e o r d im in is h e d o u t p u t
s h o u ld b e c a r e f u lly k e p t a n d s c r u t in iz e d .
F o r a c o r r e c t a p p r e c ia ­
t io n o f t h e ir s ig n ific a n c e a c c o u n t m u st b e ta k e n o f v a r io u s ca u se s o f
f l u c t u a t i o n j. s u c h a s c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , a p p r o a c h i n g o r r e c e n t h o l i ­
d a y * , p a t r io t ic e n th u s ia s m , l o n g h o u r s , a n d S u n d a y la b o r .
( x l i x ) A n y s o u n d s y s t e m f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d is e a s e m u s t
b e b a s e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s , fi r s t , t h a t p r e v e n t i o n i s b e t t e r t h a n c u r e ,
a n d , s e c o n d ly , th a t th e tr e a tm e n t, t o b e im p o s e d e ff e c t iv e ly , m u^t
d e a l w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e d is e a s e .
I t fo llo w s th a t th e p r e ­
lim in a r y s a fe g u a r d s h o u ld b o t o e x te n d t o a ll w o r k e r s th e p r e l i m i ­
n a r y m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n a lr e a d y p r o v id e d f o r in c e r ta in m u n i­
tio n w o r k s a n d e s p e c ia lly in th o se w h e re d a n g e r o u s su b sta n ce s a r e
m a n ip u la te d .
S u c h a n e x a m i n a t i o n is e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y a t t h e
p r e s e n t t im e o w i n g t o th e s t r a in i n v o l v e d b y p r e s e n t c o n d it io n s o f
e m p lo y m e n t a n d o w in g t o th e la r g e n u m b e r o f p e rs o n s w h o are t a k ­
i n g u p in d u s t r ia l e m p lo y m e n t f o r t h e fir s t t i m e ; b u t s u ch e x a m in a ­
tio n s a re lik e ly to b e a lw a y s d e s ir a b le w h e r e th e w o r k in v o lv e s
s p e c ia l s tr a in a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y so in th e ca s e o f w o m e n .
T h e r e is a
s im ila r n eed f o r th e p e r io d ic r e e x a m in a tio n o f su ch w o r k e r s ,
(1 ) T h e p r e s e n t p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e f a c t o r y a c t f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n
o f t h e p h y s i c a l f it n e s s f o r e m p l o y m e n t o f c h i l d r e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n s ,
ca n h a r d ly be r e g a r d e d as a d eq u a te.
T h e f a c t o r y ’s c e r t i f y in g s u r ­
g e o n h a s s e ld o m a n y p r e v io u s k n o w le d g e o f th e ease.
T h e v a lu e o f
h i s c e r t i f i c a t e w o u l d b e g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i f it w e r e o n l y g i v e n a f t e r
c o n s id e r a t io n o f th e m e d ic a l r e c o r d s in t h e p o s s e s s io n o f th e s c h o o l
m e d ic a l s e r v ic e , a n d c lo s e r c o o p e r a t io n a p p e a r s t o b e d e s ir a b le .
At
p r e s e n t th e se r e c o r d s a re s e ld o m a v a ila b le .
P r o v i s i o n is n o w s e l d o m
m a d e f o r p e r i o d i c r e e x a m i n a t i o n , b u t i t is e x t r e m e l y d e s i r a b l e h a v i n g
r e g a r d to th e e ffe c t o f e n tr y in t o in d u s t r ia l life .
T h e d e p a rtm e n ta l
c o m m itte e o n th e n ig h t e m p lo y m e n t o f m a le y o u n g p e r s o n s e m p h a ­
s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r p e r i o d i c e x a m i n a t i o n s o n c e a t l e a s t in e v e r y s i x
m o n t h s , a n d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t r e c o r d s o f t h e r e s u lt s s h o u l d b e k e p t .
( l i ) T h e s e c o n d p r e v e n t iv e m e a s u r e is t o r e d u c e t o a m in im u m
u n fa v o r a b le c o n d it io n s o f e n v ir o n m e n t.
T h ird ly ^ a rra n g e m e n ts
s h o u l d b e m a d e f o r a d e q u a t e m e d i c a l a n d n u r s i n g s ch e m e s ^
M e d ic a l
a tte n d a n c e is u s u a lly o b t a in a b le u n d e r th e n a t io n a l in s u r a n c e s y s ­
tem , b u t n u r s in g c a n o n ly b e o b ta in e d b y th e e m p lo y m e n t o f o n e o r
m o r e t r a in e d n u r s e s t o u n d e r t a k e d u tie s in th e f a c t o r y b y n ig h t as
w e ll as b y d a y .
T h e d u tie s o f th e n u r se w o u ld in c lu d e s u p e r v is io n
o f th e h e a lth o f th e w o r k e r s a n d e s p e c ia lly o f th o s e t e m p o r a r ily
in d is p o s e d , f o l l o w i n g u p ca se s o f s ic k n e s s a n d t a k in g c h a r g e o f fir s ta id tr e a tm e n t o f in ju r ie s .
S u c h a r r a n g e m e n ts h a v e b e e n in s titu te d
in m a n y m u n it io n fa c t o r ie s , e s p e c ia lly w h e re w o m e n a re e m p lo y e d ,
a n d h a v e p r o v e d o f g r e a t v a l u e t o e m p l o y e r s a n d e m p l o y e d a l ik e .
( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 2 6 2 -2 7 9 .)




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259

XI.—INJURIES AND ACCIDENTS.

( l i i ) A g r a v e a m o u n t o f d is a b le m e n t is c a u s e d b y a c c id e n t s s u ch
a s fr a c t u r e s , o p e n w o u n d s , a n d in ju r e d lim b s , b u t p r o b a b ly a n e v e n
l a r g e r a m o u n t o f i n t e r r u p t i o n t o w o r k is c a u s e d b y s l i g h t e r i n j u r i e s ,
s u c h a s s c r a t c h e s a n d b u r n s , w h i c h m a y , h o w e v e r , b e c o m eit s e r i o u s
n e g le c te d .
T h e p r in c ip a l ca u se s o f a c c id e n ts a re s p e e d o f w o r k in g ,
fa t ig u e , p s y c h ic a l in flu e n c e s , n u t r it io n , a n d a lc o h o lic c o n s u m p t io n ,
lig h t in g , a n d tem p e ra tu re .
( l i i i ) A l a r g e n u m b e r o f a c c i d e n t s a r e p r e v e n t a b l e , a n d i t is t o
th e in te r e s ts o f a ll p a r t ie s t h a t th e n u m b e r s h o u ld b e r e d u c e d .
H ow e v e r c o m p le t e th e in s t a lla t io n f o r s e c u r in g th e s a fe t y o f w o r k e r s *
su ccess m u st la r g e ly d e p e n d u p o n t h e in t e llig e n t c o o p e r a t io n o f
w o r k e r s a n d fo r e m e n , a n d th e ir h e lp s h o u ld b e se c u re d in s t u d y in g
ca u se s a n d m e th o d s o f p r e v e n t io n .
( l i v ) H o w e v e r e ffe c tiv e m a y b e th e m e th o d s o f p r e v e n t io n
a d o p te d , som e a c c id e n ts w ill o c cu r .
I t is a c c o r d in g ly im p o r t a n t t h a t
in e a c h s h o p t h e r e s h o u ld b e o n e o r t w o w o r k e r s tr a in e d t o r e n d e r
fir s t a id in c a s e o f a c c id e n ts .
L e a fle ts o f in s t r u c t io n a n d a d v ic e
s h o u l d b e is s u e d .
( l v ) T h o u g h in m a n y fa c to r ie s g o o d p r o v is io n h a s b e e n m a d e
f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a c c i d e n t s , g r e a t i m p r o v e m e n t s s h o u l d r e s u lt f r o m
t h e r e c e n t H o m e O f f ic e o r d e r r e q u i r i n g e m p l o y e r s i n c e r t a i n i n d u s ­
t r ie s t o p r o v id e a n d m a in t a in —
(a)
F ir s t - a id p o s ts o r lo c a l d r e s s in g s ta tio n s f o r e v e r y 1 5
w ork ers; and
(Z>) A n a m b u l a n c e r o o m o r c e n t r a l d r e s s i n g s t a t i o n w h e r e v e r t h e
t o t a l n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s is 5 0 0 o r m o r e .
T h e r o o m is t o b e in
c h a r g e o f a n u r se o r o t h e r p e r s o n tr a in e d in fir s t -a id w o r k .
R ecords
o f a ll ca ses t r e a t e d a re t o b e k e p t .
P r o v i s i o n is a l s o t o b e m a d e f o r
th e c o n v e y a n c e t o h o s p it a l o f th e m o r e s e r io u s ca ses.
(S e e p a r a ­
g r a p h s 2 8 0 -2 9 8 .)
#

X II.—EYE INJURIES.
( I v i ) I n ju r i e s t o a n d d is e a s e d c o n d it io n s o f th e e y e a r e a w id e s p r e a d
c a u s e o f in e ffic ie n c y . T h e p r i n c i p a l ca u s e s a r e a c c id e n t s f r o m f ly in g
p a r t ic le s a n d im p a c t e d b o d ie s a r is in g f r o m g r i n d i n g a n d s im ila r
o p e r a t io n s , i n ju r ie s d u e t o e x p o s u r e t o in te n s e h e a t a n d e y e s t r a in f r o m
in fe r io r lig h t in g , u n c o r r e c te d e r r o r s o f r e fr a c t io n , o r o th e r causes.
( l v i i ) T h e p r in c ip a l m e a su res o f p r e v e n tio n a re th e p r o v is io n o f
e y e g u a r d s o r g o g g le s , g o o d lig h t in g , e x a m in a tio n o f e y e s ig h t, a n d
t h e p r o v is io n o f s u it a b le s p e c ta c le s .
A c c id e n t s i f n e g le c te d m a y
e a s ily c a u s e s e r io u s in c a p a c it y , a n d t h e y s h o u ld r e c e iv e im m e d ia t e
a tte n tio n f r o m a d o c t o r , o r , f a i l in g h im , a q u a lifie d n u rse .
(S e e
p a r a g r a p h s 2 9 9 -3 1 4 .)




IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

2G 0

X III.—SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

( l v i i i ) F r o m th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f m u n it io n w o r k T N T is m u c h th e
m o s t im p o r t a n t o f th e “ d a n g e r o u s ” o c c u p a t io n s , b o t h o n a c c o u n t o f
t h e s e r i o u s e f f e c t s w h i c h m a y r e s u lt a n d t h e l a r g e n u m b e r s o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo j^ e d .
I t m a y b e a b s o r b e d t h r o u g h th e s k in o r t h r o u g h th e d ig e s ­
t iv e tr a c t o r b y th e in h a la t io n o f fu m e s o r d u st.
P o is o n in g n o im a lly
ta k e s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o llo w in g fo r m s : D e r m a titis , d ig e s tiv e
t r o u b le s , b l o o d c h a n g e s , a n d liv e r d e g e n e r a t io n ( t o x i c j a u n d i c e ) . T h e
o ccu rre n ce o f p o is o n in g d e p e n d s to som e ex ten t u p o n p e rs o n a l id io s y n ­
cra sy .
T h e g r e a t m a jo r i t y o f w o r k e r s a re in s u s c e p tib le , a n d r e m a in
so , b u t a fe w a re a ffe cte d , b u t n o t a lw a y s th o s e w h o , o w in g t o ill
h e a lth a n d m a ln u t r it io n , m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d t o b e s p e c ia lly lia b le .
( l i x ) T h e c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t in th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f T N T
a r e g o v e r n e d b y a H o m e O ffic e o r d e r , w h i l e i t s u s e a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n
a re g o v e r n e d b y R e g u la t io n s o f th e M in is t r y .
T h e p r in c ip a l m ea n s
o f p r e v e n t io n a d o p t e d a r e : T h e r e d u c t io n t o a m in im u m o f d u s t a n d
fu m e s , c o n s t a n t m e d ic a l s u p e r v is io n , lim it a t io n o f th e p e r io d o f e x ­
p o s u r e , p r o v is io n o f a m p le a n d s u it a b le f o o d , s p e c ia l w o r k in g c o s ­
tu m e s a n d s u it a b le c lo a k r o o m s , a n d w a s h in g f a c ilit ie s .
(lx) Other substances in the manufacture and use of which special
precautions are necessary include lead, fulminate of mercury, tetryl,
aeroplane dope, picric acid, poisonous gases, and nitrous fumes. The
preventive measures adopted are on similar lines to those for TNT.
(See paragraphs 315-351.)

XIV.— CLEANLINESS, VENTILATION, HEATING, AND LIGHTING.
( l x i ) A h i g h s t a n d a r d o f c l e a n l i n e s s i s e s s e n t ia l n o t o n l y f o r h e a l t h
b u t b eca u se it h a s an im p o r ta n t b e a r in g o n th e s e lf-r e s p e c t o f th e
w ork er.
( l x i i ) F l o o r i n g s h o u ld b e s m o o th , h a r d , d u r a b le , a n d im p e r v io u s .
W o o d e n f l o o r i n g s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d f o r s t a n d i n g o n , a s c a u s i n g le s s
f a t ig u e a n d b e in g m o r e c o n d u c iv e t o w a r m t h a n d d r y n e s s o f th e fe e t.
( l x i i i ) T h e o b je c t o f v e n tila tio n is to p r o v id e a ir w h ic h is p u r e ,
c le a n , s t im u la t in g , a n d r e fr e s h in g .
T h e a ir s h o u ld b e c o o l a n d d r y ,
n o t m o n o to n o u s in te m p e ra tu re , a n d m o v in g r a th e r th a n sta g n a n t.
T h e p r i n c i p a l im p u r it ie s a re c a r b o n ic a c id ( p r i n c i p a l l y im p o r t a n t as
a f f o r d i n g a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f ic ie n c y o f v e n t i l a t i o n ) , v o l a t i l e s u b ­
s t a n c e s g iv e n o f f f r o m t h e s k in a n d a lim e n t a r y c a n a l o f h u m a n b e in g s ,
b a c te r ia , d u st, a n d fu m e s .
( l x i v ) T h e v e n t ila tio n a n d h e a tin g o f e v e r y w o r k s h o p p re s e n ts a
se p a ra te p r o b le m .
T h e r e s h o u ld b e a d e q u a te c u b ic c a p a c it y , lo u v e r s
o r o t h e r d e fin ite o p e n in g s in t o th e o u ts id e a ir , s u p p le m e n t e d b y th e
u se o f d o o r s , w in d o w s , a n d fa n s .




SU M M A R Y OF CONCLUSIONS.

261

( I x v ) W h a t is t h e b e s t t e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d s o n t h e w o r k a n d h a b i t s
o f th e w o r k e r .
S e d e n t a r y w o r k e r s m a y r e q u ir e a t e m p e r a t u r e o f
a b o u t 6 0 ° F., t h o u g h i t m a y b e s o m e w h a t h i g h e r i f t h e a i r is in
m o tio n .
(Ixvi) Some one person should be made responsible for securing
the proper use and maintenance of any installation for ventilation
and heating.
(lxvii) Lighting should be adequate, reasonably uniform, shaded
from the eyes of the worker, and should not cause extraneous shad­
ows. Windows should be cleaned regularly. (See paragraphs 3 5 2 -

3 8 7 .-

XV.—SANITATION, WASHING, AND CLOAK ROOMS.
(lxviii) For the proper maintenance of health it is essential that
the sanitary accommodation should be adequate, conveniently ar­
ranged, and kept thoroughly clean.

( l x i x ) W a s h i n g i s b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e h e a l t h , e f f ic ie n c y , a n d s e l f r e s p e c t o f th e w o r k e r , a n d th e r e is a g r o w i n g d e m a n d f o r th e p r o v i ­
s io n o f fa c ilit ie s .
T h e in s t a lla t io n m u s t b e a d e q u a te in a m o u n t
r e a d i l y a c c e s s ib l e , a n d e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e d . W a s h i n g t r o u g h s a r e g e n ­
e r a lly t o b e p r e f e r r e d t o s e p a r a te b a s in s .
A n a m p le s u p p ly o f h o t
a n d c o l d w a t e r , n a i l b r u s h e s , s o a p , a n d t o w e l s a r e o t h e r e s s e n t ia ls .
(lxx) The provision of baths is recommended where workers are
employed on hot or dusty processes. In such cases they may prove
an effective antidote to muscular rheumatism.

( l x x i ) C lo a k r o o m s a re n e c e s s a r y f o r h e a lth , e s p e c ia lly o f w o m e n
a n d g ir ls . T h e y s h o u ld b e c lo s e t o th e c a n te e n s , l a v a t o r y , a n d s a n i­
t a r y a c c o m m o d a t io n . S e p a r a t e lo c k e r s s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d f o r e a ch
w o r k e r . T h e r e s h o u ld b e a m p le a c c o m m o d a t io n f o r c h a n g i n g c lo t h e s
a n d b o o t s a n d f o r t h e d r y i n g o f c lo t h e s .
T h e y s h o u ld b e k e p t t h o r ­
o u g h l y c le a n a n d v e n t ila t e d . M e a n s s h o u ld b e ta k e n t o p r e v e n t p e t t y
p ilfe r in g o r th e ft.
( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 3 8 8 - 4 1 2 .)

XVI.— SEATS, WEIGHTS, CLOTHING, AND DRINKING WATER.

( l x x i i ) P r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g , t h o u g h e s s e n t ia l f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f
e m p lo y m e n t (e . g ., t h o s e i n v o l v i n g d ir t , d u s t, d a m p , h e a t , o r d a n g e r ­
o u s m a c h i n e r y ) , is d e s i r a b l e f o r a l l w o r k e r s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y f o r w o m e n
a n d g ir ls . I t a d d s t o t h e ir s m a r tn e s s a n d n e a tn e s s , a n d a ls o a id s d is c i ­
p lin e a n d e s p r it d e c o r p s .
( l x x i i i ) W h a t e v e r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t , w o r k e r s s h o u ld
h a v e o p p o r t u n it ie s o f s it t in g d o w n f r o m t im e t o tim e .
C o m fo r t a b le
s e a ts s h o u ld a ls o b e p r o v i d e d f o r u se d u r in g m e a l h o u r s , a n d f o r
w o r k e r s w h o a re t e m p o r a r ily in d is p o s e d .




262

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

( l x x iv ) A p a r t fr o m th e ir in fe r io r p h y s ic a l s tr e n g th , w o m e n are
m o r e lia b le th a n m e n t o s t r a in f r o m s u d d e n m u s c u la r e ffo r t . T o o b v i ­
a te th is , a t t e n t io n s h o u ld b e p a id t o th e s iz e a n d s h a p e o f b u r d e n s ,
r e c e p t a c le s a n d v e h ic le s , la b o r - s a v in g c o n t r iv a n c e s , t o th e k n a c k o f
l if t i n g , a n d to h o u r s o f e m p lo y m e n t.
( l x x v ) T h e c o m m itte e f u ll y in d o r s e th e p o l ic y u n d e r ly in g th e
o r d e r r e c e n t l y m a d e b y t h e H o m e O ffic e r e q u i r i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f
a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s f o r o b t a i n i n g d r i n k i n g w a t e r in a l l f a c t o r i e s . ( S e e
p a r a g r a p h s 4 1 3 —1 3 4 .)

XVII.—WELFARE SUPERVISION FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS.
( l x x v i ) U n d e r m o d e r n in d u s t r ia l c o n d it io n s th e e m p lo y e r u s u a lly
h a s n e ith e r th e tim e n o r , fr e q u e n t ly , th e e x p e r ie n c e t o g iv e th e r e ­
q u is it e a t t e n t io n t o m a n y o f th e s p e c ia l p r o b le m s a ff e c t in g th e h e a lt h
a n d w e lfa r e o f w o m e n w o rk e rs .
T h e re h as, th e r e fo r e , b een an in ­
c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y t o a p p o i n t a s p e c i a l o f f ic e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e , w h o is
g e n e r a lly c a lle d a “ w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r ” o r “ w e lfa r e s u p e r in te n d e n t .”
( I x x v i i) T h e stress o f w a r c o n d it io n s , th e w id e s p r e a d in t r o d u c t io n
o f w o m e n in t o in d u s t r y , a n d th e in c re a s e d e m p lo y m e n t o f m a r r ie d
w o m e n a n d y o u n g g ir ls g r e a t ly in c r e a s e d th e n e e d f o r a d e q u a te
s u p e r v i s i o n a n d l e d t h e c o m m i t t e e t o r e c o m m e n d i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 G,
th e a p p o in t m e n t o f w e lf a r e s u p e r v is o r s in a ll f a c t o r ie s w h e r e w o m e n
w e re e m p lo y e d .
( I x x v i i i ) T h e w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r s h o u ld h a v e a c le a r ly d e fin e d
sta tu s a n d d e fin ite d u tie s , a n d s h o u ld b e d ir e c t ly r e s p o n s ib le to th e
m a n a g e r . W h a t h e r e x a c t d u tie s m a y b e w ill, t o som e e x te n t, d e p e n d
u p o n th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f th e f a c t o r y a n d h e r o w n c a p a c it y .
E x­
p e r ie n c e , h o w e v e r , s h o w s th a t h e r d u tie s m a y p r o p e r ly in c lu d e th e
e n g a g e m e n t o f w o r k e r s ( s o f a r a s t h e i r g e n e r a l s u i t a b i l i t y is c o n ­
c e r n e d ) ; k e e p in g o f r e c o r d s o f in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s ; in v e s tig a tio n o f
ca se s o f lo s t tim e , s ick n e s s , l o w o u t p u t , o r w a g e s , in c a p a c it y , d is ­
m is s a ls o r w it h d r a w a ls , w o r k in g c o n d it io n s , h o m e v is it in g , f e e d in g
a r r a n g e m e n ts , t r a in in g a n d in s tr u c tio n , h o u s in g , tr a n s it, a n d r e c r e a ­
tio n . T h e y s h o u ld n o t in t e r fe r e w it h th e w o r k o f tr a d e s -u n io n s .
( l x x i x ) T h e w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r m u st b e o f g o o d s ta n d in g a n d e d u ­
c a tio n , a n d m u st p o sse ss s tr e n g th o f c h a r a c te r , ta c t, a n d b r o a d m in d ­
e d n e s s , s u c h a s w i l l s e c u r e t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t a s w 'e ll
as o f th e w o r k e r s ; p r o v id e d o n ly th a t th e y a re p o sse sse d o f th e r e ­
q u i s i t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t h e y c a n b e a n d a r e d r a w n f r o m a l l c la s s e s o f
t h e c o m m u n it y .
( l x x x ) I t is , a s a r u l e , d e s i r a b l e t h a t w e l f a r e s u p e r v i s o r s s h o u l d
h a v e u n d e r g o n e a p r e l i m i n a r y c o u r s e o f t r a in i n g o f n o t le s s t h a n
o n e y e a r s d u r a t io n , w h ic h s h o u ld , w h ile a llo w in g o f a s p e c ia l s t u d y
o f w e lfa r e p r o b le m s , b e g r o u n d e d on a w id e s t u d y o f s o c ia l q u e s tio n s .




SU M M A R Y OF CONCLUSIONS.

263

A la r g e p a r t o f th e tim e s h o u ld b e d e v o t e d t o p r a c t ic a l w o r k . N e it h e r
a d m is s io n t o th e c o u r s e n o r fin a n c ia l a s s is ta n c e s h o u ld b e c o n d it io n a l
o n th e s tu d e n t s u b s e q u e n tly t a k in g u p w e lfa r e w o r k .
( I x x x i ) W e l f a r e s u p e r v is o r s s h o u ld n o t b e a p p o in t e d b y th e S ta te .
T h e y w ill p r o b a b ly c o n tin u e f o r so m e tim e to c o m e at a n y ra te to
b e a p p o in t e d b y th e e m p lo y e r , a s th e p e r s o n r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e m a in ­
te n a n ce o f s a tis fa c to r y c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t, th o u g h th e w o r k e r s
a r e l i k e l y t o a n i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t t o s e e k s o m e v o i c e in t h e s e l e c t i o n .
T h o u g h th e e s t a b lis h m e n t b y th e M in i s t r y o f M u n it io n s o f a p a n e l
o f c a n d i d a t e s h a s b e e n j u s t i f i e d a s a t e m p o r a r y e x p e d i e n t , i t is n o t
d e s ir a b le th a t a n y d e p a r t m e n t o f S ta te s h o u ld d o so as a p e r m a n e n t
a rra n g em en t.
( l x x x i i ) T h e tim e h a s n o t y e t c o m e w h e n a d e fin ite ju d g m e n t c a n
b e p a s s e d o n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f w e lfa r e w o r k d u r in g th e p a s t t w o
y e a r s , s t i l l le s s i s i t p o s s i b l e t o p r o p h e s y a s t o f u t u r e l i n e s o f d e v e l o p ­
m e n t. T h e c o n fid e n t s u p p o r t o f th e w o r k e r s h a s y e t t o b e o b t a in e d .
U n d o u b t e d ly u n w is e a p p o in t m e n t s h a v e b e e n m a d e ; c o m p la in t s h a v e
b e e n c o n s id e r a b le a n d o ft e n w e ll fo u n d e d , t h o u g h t h e ir im p o r t a n c e
m a y h a v e b e e n o v e r e m p h a s iz e d . O n th e o t h e r h a n d , s o m e m is ta k e s
w e r e in e v ita b le in th e in it ia t io n o f w h a t w a s la r g e ly a n e w e n t e r ­
p r i s e in i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e c o n d i t i o n s o f e m p l o y m e n t o f
w o m e n h a v e v a s t ly im p r o v e d .
I t h a s b e e n a n d is l i k e l y t o b e o f
m a t e r ia l a d v a n t a g e t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld e x is t a b o d y o f p e r s o n s s p e c ia lly
c o n c e r n e d t o p r o m o t e th e h e a lth a n d w e ll- b e in g o f th e w o r k e r .
(S e e
p a r a g r a p h s 4 3 5 -4 7 5 .)

XVIII.—WELFARE SUPERVISION FOR BOYS AND MEN.

( l x x x i i i ) T h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d in t h e w e l f a r e s u p e r v i s i o n o f b o y s
a re n o t n e w t h o u g h th e y h a v e been a cce n tu a te d b y th e w a r.
The
e s s e n t ia l r e m e d y i s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e . T h e i n f l u e n c e s t o w h i c h t h e y
a re s u b je c t w ill la r g e ly a ffe c t t h e ir p e r m a n e n t o u t lo o k o n lif e . H i g h
w a g e s , r e s t le s s n e s s , l a c k o f c o n t r o l , a ll h a v e d e m o r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s ,
w h ic h s p e c ia lly n e e d c o n t r o l a t th e p r e s e n t tim e .
( l x x x i v ) P e r s o n a l in flu e n c e t o b e e ffe c t iv e m u s t o r d i n a r i l y b e e x ­
e r c is e d b y s o m e o n e in d iv id u a l, a n d th e c o m m itte e in J a n u a r y , 1910,
r e c o m m e n d e d th e a p p o in t m e n t o f w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r s w h e r e v e r 100
b o y s a re e m p lo y e d . E x p e r ie n c e h a s s h o w n th a t f o r th is n u m b e r o f
b o y s a f u l l - t i m e a p p o i n t m e n t is d e s i r a b l e . W h e r e , a s i s m o r e o f t e n
t h e c a s e , a s m a l l e r n u m b e r a r e e m p l o y e d , a p a r t - t i m e a r r a n g e m e n t is
u s u a l.
( l x x x v ) T h e d u tie s o f a w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r f o r b o y s m a y u s e fu lly
in c lu d e m o s t o f t h o s e s p e c ifie d in th e ca s e o f w o m e n , b u t n o t h in g
w h ic h m a k e s f o r t h e ir w e ll- b e in g s h o u ld b e a lie n t o h is d u tie s . T h e
w i d e r h i s o u t l o o k t h e s t r o n g e r is l i k e l y t o b e h i s p o s i t i o n .
It i




264

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E F F IC IE N C Y .

s p e c ia lly d e s ir a b le th a t h e s h o u ld k e e p in to u c h w it h a ll o th e r p e r ­
so n s a n d b o d ie s in th e d is t r ic t w h o a re c o n c e r n e d w it h th e w e ll-b e in g
o f boys.
R e c r e a tio n , tr a in in g , a n d in s tr u c tio n a re m a tte r s c a llin g
f o r s p e c ia l c o n c e r n .
( l x x x v i ) T h e n e e d f o r t h e w e l f a r e su j^ er v i s i o n o f b o y s h a s n o t
b e e n so r e a d ily a p p r e c ia te d as in th e ca se o f w o m e n a n d g ir ls , a n d
t im e h a s b e e n r e q u ir e d f o r o b t a in in g th e s u p p o r t o f th e fo r e m e n a n d
th e lo c a l tr a d e -u n io n s as w e ll as o f th e e m p lo y e r .
T h e s e in itia l
d if f ic u l t i e s h a v e , h o w e v e r , n o t b e e n w i t h o u t t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s i n p r e ­
v e n t in g h a s t y o r ill-c o n s id e r e d sch e m e s, a n d w h ile it is as y e t t o o
e a r ly t o f o r m a n y fin a l ju d g m e n t th e w o r k a p p e a r s t o h a v e s ta r te d
o n s o u n d l in e s .
( i x x x v i i ) T h e p r o b le m s o f th e w e lfa r e s u p e r v is io n o f m e n a re
m u c h m o r e d if f ic u l t , a n d o n l y g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o b e a n t i c i ­
p a t e d . T h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n is i n t i m a t e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e g r o w t h s
o f w o r k s c o u n c i l s n o w b e i n g s o w i d e l y d is c u s s e d . I n t h e i m m e d i a t e
f u t u r e at a n y r a t e a n y w e lf a r e w o r k a m o n g m e n is l ik e ly t o g r o w
s p o n t a n e o u s ly o u t o f th a t f o r b o y s .
( S e e p a r a g r a p h s 4 7 6 -4 9 2 .)

XIX.—WELFARE OUTSIDE THE FACTORY.
( l x x x v i i i ) T h e S ta te b e in g r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e e m p lo y m e n t o f
la r g e b o d ie s o f w o r k e r s , a n d e s p e c ia lly w o m e n , in p la c e s r e m o te f r o m
t h e ir o w n h o m e s , h a s a s p e c ia l r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r t h e ir w e lfa r e o u t ­
s id e th e fa c t o r y .
T h e M in is t r y o f M u n itio n s h a v e p la c e d in th e
p r i n c i p a l m u n i t i o n a r e a s a n u m b e r o f o ff ic e r s s p e c i a l l y c h a r g e d w i t h
th e d u t y o f lo o k in g a ft e r th e h e a lth o f th e w o r k e r o u ts id e th e f a c ­
t o r y ; t h e y d e a l w it h s u c h m a t t e r s as h o u s in g a n d t r a n s it , s ic k n e s s ,
a n d r e c r e a tio n .
( l x x x i x ) I t is o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t h a t o n l y h e a l t h y , c l e a n ,
a n d w h o le s o m e -m in d e d w o m e n s h o u ld b e e x p o r t e d .
M o th e r s w ith
y o u n g c h ild r e n s h o u ld n o t b e e x p o r t e d .
N o w o m a n o r g i r l s h o u ld
b e e x p o r t e d w it h o u t a s u ffic ie n c y o f m o n e y a n d c lo t h in g . T r a v e le r s
a c r o s s c o u n t r y s h o u ld b e se e n o f f a n d m e t.
( x c ) I n a ll la r g e c e n te rs c le a r in g h o s te ls s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d , in
w h ic h w o m e n c a n b e h o u s e d u n til o th e r a c c o m m o d a tio n c a n b e f o u n d
f o r th em .
( x c i ) L o d g i n g s w it h o r w it h o u t b o a r d in a f a m i l y is g e n e r a lly
th e r e a d ie s t a n d m o s t a c c e p ta b le m e a n s o f h o u s in g w o m e n a n d g ir ls .
A n o r g a n iz e d s y s te m is r e q u ir e d f o r p r o v i d i n g s u it a b le l o d g i n g s a n d
k e e p in g th e m u n d e r s u p e r v is io n . I n th e m o r e im p o r t a n t a rea s t h is
w o r k i s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r t a k e n t h r o u g h o ff ic e r s o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f
M u n it io n s , o r b y lo c a l b i ll e t i n g c o m m it t e e s e s t a b lis h e d b y th e c e n t r a l




SU M M A R Y OF CONCLUSIONS.

265

b ille t in g b o a r d u n d e r th e b ille t in g a ct.
U n d e r th a t- a c t p a y m e n ts
fo r ren t a n d b o a rd ca n b e g u a ra n te ed .
N o u se h a s h ith e r to b e e n
m a d e o f t h e p o w e r o f c o m p u l s o r y b i l l e t i n g , a n d i t is d o u b t f u l h o w
f a r i t is w o r k a b l e i n p r a c t i c e .
( x c i i ) I n m o s t a r e a s t h e p r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , is o n e n o t o f l o d g i n g s
b u t o f h o u s in g , a n d e x is te d b e f o r e th e w a r . A s s is t a n c e h a s b e e n g iv e n
in so m e a re a s t o lo c a l a u t h o r it ie s f o r th e p r o v is io n o f a d d it io n a l
p e r m a n e n t a c c o m m o d a t io n , b u t in th e m a in th e r e q u is it e h o u s in g h a s
h a d t o b e p r o v id e d b y th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f h o s t e ls a n d h u tm e n ts .
( x c i i i ) H o s t e l s h a v e n o t alw T y s b e e n p o p u l a r . O b j e c t i o n h a s b e e n
a
ta k e n t o l i v i n g in la r g e in s t it u t io n s o r u n d e r th e c o n t r o l o f th e
e m p lo y e r ; a ls o t o th e r e s t r ic t io n s o n in d iv id u a l lib e r t y w h ic h a re
in v o lv e d .
S o m e wro r k e r s o n l y u s e t h e m o n a c c o u n t o f t h e l a c k o f
o t h e r d e c e n t a c c o m m o d a t io n s a n d th e d iffic u lt y o f h o u s e k e e p in g u n d e r
p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s . I t is o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g
a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f h o s te ls s h o u ld b e t h o r o u g h ly s a t is fa c t o r y .
In
A p p e n d ix F d e ta ile d s u g g e s tio n s a re g iv e n .
( x c i v ) S ic k n e s s , h o w e v e r t e m p o r a r y , a m o n g g ir ls in l o d g i n g s in ­
v o lv e s m u c h h a r d s h ip , a n d m a y b e c o m e s e r io u s i f n e g le c t e d , a n d s p e ­
c i a l s t e p s s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o d e a l w i t h i t . A c t i o n is a l s o n e c e s s a r y in
th e ca se o f g ir ls t h r o w n o u t o f w o r k o r o t h e r w is e s tr a n d e d , o f t e n
th ro u g h n o fa u lt o f th e ir o w n .
( x c v ) R e c r e a t i o n is a n e s s e n t ia l a i d t o r e c o v e r y f r o m f a t i g u e , a n d
a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r i t s h o u l d b e m a d e , e s p e c i a l l y in t h o s e a r e a s
w h e re la rg e n u m b e rs o f im p o r te d w o r k e r s a re e m p lo y e d .
M uch
a t t e n t io n is n o w b e in g g iv e n t o th e s u b je c t a n d fa c ilit ie s a re s t e a d ily
in c r e a s in g . W h e r e t h e y c a n b e o r g a n iz e d c e n tr a l s ch e m e s a v a ila b le
f o r a ll w o r k e r s in th e d is t r ic t a r e t o b e p r e f e r r e d . M o r e o f t e n , h o w ­
e v e r , p r o v i s i o n d e p e n d s u p o n t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l f i r m tin d
its w o r k e r s , a n d m o s t w e lf a r e s u p e r v is o r s a re c o n c e r n e d w it h s c h e m e s
f o r r e c r e a tio n .
( x c v i ) T h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p u b l i c o r d e r , n o t a b l y in c e n t e r s w h e r e
la r g e n u m b e r s o f g i r ls a r e a s s e m b le d , h a s le d t o t h e e m p lo y m e n t o f
w o m e n p o lic e a n d p a tro ls .
T h e y h a v e d o n e v a lu a b le s e r v ic e , b o t h
i n s i d e t h e f a c t o r y a n d o u t s i d e t h e f a c t o r y : a l s o in a s s i s t i n g t h e
r e g u la r p o lic e .
( x c v i i ) M u c h h a s b e e n d o n e t o im p r o v e th e h e a lth a n d in c r e a s e
t h e e ff ic ie n c y o f t h e m u n i t i o n w o r k e r b y t h e r e d u c t i o n i n e x c e s s i v e
d r in k in g w h ic h h a s b e e n b r o u g h t a b o u t t h r o u g h th e r e s t r ic t iv e m e a s ­
u re s o f th e c e n tr a l c o n t r o l b o a r d (liq u o r t r a ffic ).
(S e e p a r a g r a p h s
493-532.)
534.
The committee desire to place on record their warm appre­
ciation of the unfailing courtesy, the devotion to duty, and the ability




266

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

o f t h e ir s e c r e t a r y , t o w h o m t h e y o ffe r t h e ir b e s t th a n k s f o r th e a s s is t­
a n c e h e h a s r e n d e r e d th e m in th e p e r fo r m a n c e o f th e ir ta sk .
(S ig n e d )
G eorge N e w m a n , Chairman .

E . H . P e l h a m , Secretary .
A p r il , 1 9 1 8 .




T h o m a s B a rlo w .
G erald B e l l iio u s e .
A . E . B oycott .
J . E . Clynes.
E dgar L . C o l l is .
W . M . F letcher.
L eo n a r d H il l .
S a m u e l O sb o r n .
E ose E . S q u ir e .
M ay T e n n a n t .

A P P E N D IX A .— L IS T O F P E R S O N S W H O G A V E E V ID E N C E O R O T H E R ­
W IS E A S S IS T E D T H E C O M M IT T E E .
(a)
The persons giving evidence before the committee included the
following, many of whom have also assisted the committee in other
ways:
London : Mr. F. S. Button, Mr. A. B. Swales, Amalgamated Society of Engi­
neers; Mr. Ii. J. A. Pearson. Messrs Vickers (L td .), E r ith ; Mr. H . S. Adams,
Messrs. The Projectile Co. (1902) (Ltd.) ; Capt. Pasley, Messrs. Eley Bros.
(L td .).
Birmingham: Mr. J. E. Harston, H . M. I., deputy superintending factory
inspector for the Birmingham district; Miss Hilda Martindale, H. M. I., His
Majesty's senior lady inspector of factories under the Home Office for the
Midland division; Mr. George Ryder, Amalgamated Society of Engineers; Mr.
George Wilkinson, Amalgamated Society of Tool M akers ; Councilor John
Beard, Mr. John Wliiston, Mr. J. E. Grobey, Workers’ Union.
Sheffield: Mr. W illiam Ireson, Messrs. Thomas Firth & Sons ( L t d .) ; Mr.
G. H. Wilkinson, chief assistant overseer of the townships of Sheffield and
Eccleshall; Mr. W illiam Marshall, Messrs. Vickers (L td .), Sheffield; Mr. A. J.
Bailey, National Amalgamated Union of L abor; Mr. Green and Mr. R. E. Jones,
Amalgamated Society of Engineers; Mr. M. Humberstone, National Steel W ork­
ers’ Association, Engineering and Labor League; Mr. A. R. Fearnley, general
manager, Sheffield Corporation Tramways.
Neweastle-on-Tyne: Mr. Thomas Bowmaker, Amalgamated Society of Engi­
neers ; Mr. E. Gilbert, Blacksmiths’ Society; Mr. I. D. Hebron, Pattern Makers’
Society; Mr. J. Wile, Brass Founders’ and Turners’ Society; Mr. D. S. Marjoribanks, Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & C o .; Miss E. Sadler, His M ajesty's
senior lady inspector of factories; Mrs. Fawcett, National Federation of Women
W ork ers; Mr. G. B. Hunter, Messrs. Swan, Hunter & Wigliam Richardson
(L td .).
Glasgow: Sir W . W eir, formerly director of munitions for Scotland ; Mr.
Harold D. Jackson, Messrs. Barr & Stroud (Ltd.) ; Mr. H . J. Wilson, His
Majesty's inspector of factories; Dr. Alexander Scott, medical referee for indus­
trial diseases for the west of Scotland district, workmen’s compensation act,
190G; Mr. G. Moore, Mr. W alter Hicks, Mr. R. Polgrean, representative munition
workers.
Representatives of women w orkers: Miss Lois Young, secretary National
Federation of Women W orkers; Mrs. Gibb, Miss Fanny Workman, Miss Anna
Howatt, Miss Nellie McGregor, workers; Miss Vines, His M ajesty’s senior lady
inspector of factories for Scotland.
Woolwich arsenal: Royal gun factory department— Messrs. Cardwell, Keir,
Mills, Savage, Stratton ; mechanical and inspection department— Messrs. Ilsley,
Taylor, B lake; royal laboratory— Messrs. Pendtey, Falconer, Franks. Cage,
H i ll; royal carriage department— Messrs. Thompson, Leighton, Wallis.
Manchester: Mr. Robert H. Coates. United Machine Workers’ Association;
Miss A. Tracey, His Majesty’s senior lady inspector of factories; representatives
of the National Union of Gas Workers and General Laborers— Messrs. Eccles,
J. Cummings, masterman; Mrs. Annot E. Robinson, women’s war interests com­
mittee; Mr. Edward Hopkinson, Messrs. Mather & P latt; Mr. M. A. Mcl^ean,
the British Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing C o .; Mr. E. Reid, Sir
W illiam Armstrong, Whitworth & Co.




267

268

IN D U STBIAL H E A L T H AK D E FF IC IE N C Y .

Coventry: Mr. C. Greenway, Amalgamated Society of Engineers; Mr. W . T .
Smith, Toolmakers’ Society. Representative of the trades council— Mr. Chater,
secretary. Representative of the workers’ Union— Mr. Morris. Representa­
tives of the Coventry branch of the National Federation of Women Workers—
Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. H. E. Givens. Representatives of the Women’s Cooperative
Guild and the women’s hostel committee— Mrs. -Collington, hostel committee;
Miss Selina Dix, president women’s hostel committee; Averal C. W ilks, Mrs.
Eleanor Kirkman Gray, Annie E. Corrie, women’s hostel committee; Mrs.
Mary A. Keene, president Women’s Cooperative Guild, poor-law guardian;
Mrs. Mary Biggs, Emily Clialker, hostel committee and poor-law guardian;
Hon. Mrs. Baillie, chairman voluntary committee on supply of labor; Mr. A.
W all, Coventry Labor Exchange. Dr. T. M. Legge, Home Office; Mr. Leon
Gaster, honorable secretary Illuminating Engineering Society; Mr. John Hodge,
M. P., secretary British Steel Smelters, Mill, Iron, Tinplate, and Kindred
T rad es; Mr. C. E. B. Russell, chief inspector of reformatory and industrial
schools; Dr. E. F. Armstrong, D. Sc., technical adviser and managing director
of Messrs. Crossfield & Co., and of William Gossett & Son ; Mr. T. North, super­
intendent, Vickers & Co., Crayford; Mr. J. J. Mallon, Miss Macartliur, Na­
tional Federation of Women W orkers; Mr. P. B. Brown, director and gen­
eral manager of Messrs. Hadfields (L td .), Sheffield; Right Hon. Sir W . Mather,
Messrs. Mather & Platt. Representatives of the following bodies concerned
with the welfare of women and girls— Women Police Service, National Associa­
tion for Women’s Lodging Homes, National Association for Women’s Lodging
Houses, Young Women’s Christian Association, Church Army, Salvation Army,
Catholic Women’s League, League of Honor, National People's Palace Asso­
ciation.

( b ) Persons who assisted in the medical inquiries conducted by the
committee included the following:
( 0 Medical officers: Dr. Ethel Stacey; Dr. Beatrice W eb b ; Dr. Ethel W il­
liam s; Dr. Mabel Campbell; Dr. L. M. Chesney; Dr. Margaret Thackrali; Dr.
Mary Phillips; Dr. Rhoda Adam son; Dr. Lilian Wilson, board of education;
Dr. John B radley; Dr. Ada Whitlock, Home Office.
( ii) Inspectors and others: Mr. P. A. H eath; Miss E. G. W oodgate; Miss
C. M. Thompson; Miss E. M. Gardner; Miss H o w a tt; Miss W orkm an ; Mrs.
George Young; Mrs. Osborne, M. S c .; Miss Gordon; Mrs. Bankes; Miss M iller;
Miss Irene Whitworth, Home Office; Miss H. C. Escreet, Home Office; Miss
Isabel Taylor, Home Office; Miss Elizabeth Macleod, Home Office; Miss Carbutt,
Home Office; Mrs. C. D. Rackliam, Home Office; Miss E. G. Colies, board of
education; Miss G. M. Broughton, Ministry of Munitions; Miss Hilda Walton,
Ministry of Munitions.

(c) Amongst other persons who have by the submission of memo­
randa or by other means, placed their special knowledge at the dis­
posal of the committee were:
Lord Leverhulme; Mr. B. Seebohm Rowntree; Mr. A. H. Self and Miss Lilian
Barker, C. B. E., Woolwich A rsen al; Mr. A. Maitland Ramsey, opthalmic
surgeon, Glasgow; Dr. Elizabeth Butler, National Filling Factory, Georgetown;
Miss Hilda Caslimore, Bristol University Settlement; and Miss Elizabeth
Macadam, University of Liverpool; Mr. R. A. Bray, Viscount Dunluce, and Miss
G. E. Hadow, Ministry of Munitions; Mr. A. F. Agar and Mr. P. R. Higgins,
canteen committee of liquor board.




A P P E N D IX B ( I ) .— A F U R T H E R IN Q U IR Y IN T O T H E H E A L T H O P
W O M E N M U N IT IO N W O R K E R S .
BY MISS JANET M . CAMPBELL, M. D., M. S.

(A

SENIOK MEDICAL OFFICER OF THE

BOARD OF EDUCATION.)

In accordance with the instructions of the health of munition
workers’ committee, an inquiry was arranged in the autumn of
1917 to follow up the medical investigation of the health of woman
munition workers which had been made in 1915 and 1916, and with
a view to ascertaining in a general way the effect of continued
munition work upon the health and physique of women.
The inquiry was carried out by Dr. Lilian Wilson (one of the
medical officers of the board of education), Dr. Mary Phillips and
Dr. Ehoda Adamson, assisted by Miss E. G. Colles (board of edu­
cation), Miss Hilda Walton (welfare department, Ministry of Mu­
nitions), Mrs. George Young and Mrs. Osborne, M. Sc. The fac­
tory conditions were reported on by His Majesty’s factory inspec­
tors, Miss Irene Whitworth, Miss H. C. Escreet, Miss Isabel Tay­
lor, Miss Elizabeth Macleod and Miss Carbutt. Miss Gordon, Mrs.
Bankes and Miss Miller of the welfare department gave assistance
in following up workers who had left the factory. Every endeavor
was made to secure comparable results, and the following report has
been compiled from the accounts written by the investigators.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS.
The inquiry was made at eight factories at which the general
conditions may be regarded as reasonably typical. Five of them
were chosen on account of the heavy nature of the work done by the
women. At all the factories the management and welfare staff
were most courteous and considerate and gave every facility for the
inquiry.
The women examined were chosen at random and were not se­
lected on account of physical weakness or strength. As a general
rule, only women who had worked for at least nine months were
seen. A considerable number was drawn from heavy operations
likely to cause strain or fatigue, and from operations at which
women had only recently been tried. The proportion of married
women seen was also intentionally high. No compulsion was exer­
cised and women were free to refuse to be examined if they wished.
The numbers examined were as follows:
Factory No. 1 (northeast coast)________________________________
Factory No. 2 (M idlands)______________________________________
Factory No. 3 (Yorkshire)--------------------------------------------------------




269

193
264
110

270

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .
Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory
Factory

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

4
5
6
7
S

157
199

(London)
(Yorkshire)
(M idlands)____
(near London)
(near London)

1,1S3

Total

DESCRIPTION OF W O R K U NDERTAKEN B Y THE FACTORIES*

Factory

No. 1

(Northeast Coast).

Workers were selected from nine departments doing heavy work
and including the following processes:
Six-inch shell, all machine processes.
Eighteen-pounder shell, a few of the heavier machine processes, copper bend­
in g gauging, filling with shrapnel.
Making fuses, most machine processes.
Cartridge cases, shoveling coke in brass casting shop, oiling machinery and
wheeling bogeys in rolling mill on acid tanks in annealing shop* automatic
presses, all heavy machine processes.
Traffic department, unloading and loading wagons— IS-pounder shell only.

Factory No. 2 (Midlands).

Shells.—Women are employed on practically all processes of man­
ufacture of 9.2 and 6 inch shells in various stages of heaviness.
They are also employed on overhead cranes and as slingers.
Guns.—About 60 women are employed as assistant operators to
men on machines in this section. The work is less heavy than that
of the shells, as the articles manufactured are very large and the
work consists of machine minding pure and simple. Some of the
operations take as long as 10 hours.
Factory No. 3 (Yorkshire).

The main part of the factory is used for the manufacture of 4.5inch and 60-pounder shells. A small part is used for the manu­
facture of gun parts.
The great majority of the workers concerned in the output of shells can be
divided into three classes— machine operators, laborers, and inspectors. The
factory is arranged in such a way that so far as possible the first process starts
from the right-hand side of the factory, on which the rolling way for billets is
situated, and the shells are then worked gradually along toward the left. W ith
the exception of the initial process of centering, the machine operator is not
concerned with the transit of shells, and her heavy work consists in lifting
the shells in and out of the machine and in the necessary “ tightening up ”
of the machine. No lifting tackle is provided for the 4.5 shells, but it is pro­
vided for the 60-pound shells up to the process of fnse-hole boring, when the
shell is reduced in weight to 53 pounds 4 ounces. The centering is done on
rather a different system. All the laboring and machine work is done by a




A PPEN D IX B

(I).

271

sang of four women to each machine, so that in addition to lifting the shell
into the machine they load up the trolleys and pull them toward the tables
and unload them at the tables.
The primary work of the laborers is the moving of shells from one process
to another. This is done by means of trolleys onto which the shells are loaded.
In the early processes the trolleys and the tables onto which the shells go
are about the same height so that in most cases the shells can be rolled mi and
oil the trolleys instead of being lifted. This considerably lightens the work,
but tlie trolley loads seem in many cases to be unnecessarily heavy. As tlie
shells proceed down the shop and gradually become lighter, the trolleys in many
cases are lower, and shells, owing to lack of table space, are stacked on the
floor, so that they have to be lifted up constantly from the floor to tables
about 3 feet high. By this time the 4.5 shells have been reduced in weight,
to under 30 pounds, hut the 60-pound shells still weigh about 50 pounds.

Factory No. 4 (London).

Women are employed on about 30 different processes, on lathes,
milling and drilling machines, examining, cleaning, and checking,
and also in the tool room. Although the majority of the w-ork entails
handling 6-inch shells which weigh 130 pounds in the rough and
nearly 90 pounds in the complete state, practically all the heavy
handling is done by men, and the placing of the shells in the machines
is done by sliding them down a sloping plane so that there is no
particular strain placed on the workers when they are actually han­
dling the shells.
Factory No. 5 (Yorkshire).

Factory (a) is engaged in the manufacture of 9.2-inch shells, and
women are machine operators on most operations. Owing to the size
of the shell (the initial weight of the forging is about 440 pounds)
women were not employed as laborers or shell movers in this factory
until recently. Now, since the introduction of the rolling bench and
hydraulic cranes, the men laborers have been extensively replaced by
women who assist in craning up the shells with the women operators.
Some women do their own craning in. As a result of the introduction
of the aforementioned rolling bench system the energy required for
laboring has been considerably reduced and the shells have merely
to be craned from the bench to the machine, instead of, as formerly,
from the ground. Men fix practically all the shells into the machines
and all through skilled men act as tool setters.
In Factory (5) 6-inch shells are made. Women are at work on
practically all the operations to which the shell is submitted and these
vary very considerably in time occupied per shell, and in the skill
required. The forging at its heaviest stage weighs about 130 pounds,
and before it leaves the shop its weight has been reduced to about 86
r
pounds. The machine operator fixes her own shells in the lathe, and
the methods of fixing vary very considerably from automatic clamps




272

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

to chucks, the fastening of which requires a series of violent jerks at
the end of a long crowbar.
Factory No. 6 (Midlands).

The women are engaged in making fuses. The work is light in
character and in itself involves little or no physical strain.
Factory No. 7 ( near London).

The firm is now mainly engaged on gaines and gaine caps, having
only a small number of 12 and 14 pound shells in hand to finish a
contract. Therefore practically all the work is light. The women
are employed on turning the shells throughout after the first two
operations (cutting off and roughing out); melting and centering
fuse plugs; parting off, drilling, screwing, and forming gaines;
boring, screwing, and forming caps; besides lacquering and inspec­
tion.
Factory No. S ( near London).

The firm makes and assembles ball bearings which consist of
T
“ races ” and balls or rollers, and in some cases of “ cages ” and balls,
and vary in size from those having a bore of 5 millimeters to the large
ones with a 12-inch bore, whilst the balls vary from one-sixteenth of
an inch to 4| inches in diameter. The women are engaged in making
and assembling the small ones throughout, but only on some lathe,
processes and on viewing parts of the larger ones. They are em­
ployed on the automatic and semiautomatic machines, grinding on
the presses, viewing, gauging, ball viewing, assembling, testing, and
packing. It is all unskilled or semiskilled work and does not entail
any heavy lifting, but is monotonous and in certain cases demands
great concentration.
HOURS OF W ORK .

Most of the work is done on the two-shift system.
below :

Typical hours are given

Factory No. 1 ( northeast coast).
Day. — 7 a. m. to

6.30 p. m. Monday to Friday, 7 a. m. to 12.30 p. m Saturday;
12 m to 1 p. m., 4 to 4.30 p. m. (10 minutes for te a )— total, 55 hours.
Niglit.—7 p. m. to 6.30 a. m. Sunday to F rid ay ; meals, 11 to 12 p. m., 2.30
to 3 a. m. (10 minutes for tea )— total, 60 hours.

meals,

Factory No. 7 ( near London).
Da y .— 7 a.
10 to 10.10 a.

m. to 7 p. m. Monday to Friday, 7 to 12 a. m. Saturday; meals,
m., 12 to 1 p m., 4 to 4.20 p. m.— total, 57£ hours.




273

APPENDIX B ( I ) .

Night .— 7 p. m. to 7 a ra. Monday to F riday; meals, 10 to 11 p. m., 3.30 to 4
a. m.— total, 52^ hours.
F

actory

No. 8 ( n e a r L o n d o n ) .

D a y .— 7 a. m. to 6 p. ra. Monday to Friday, 7 to 12 a. m. Saturday; meals,
8.30 to 8.45 a. m., 12 to 1 p. m., 3 to 3.15 p. m.— total, 52| hours.
Night .— 7 p. m. to 6 a. m. Monday to F riday; meals, 10.30 to 11 p. m., 3 to
3.30 a. m.— total, 50 hours.

At Factory No. 2 (Midlands) the work is arranged on both two and
three shift systems. Broadly speaking, the supervisors (e. g., fore­
men, tool setters, etc.) work two shifts, the day shift 11 hours, the
night shift 13 hours, with mealtimes of 1 hour and 1^ hours, re­
spectively. The actual operators work on a three-shift system, the
shifts being slightly uneven, and a mealtime of half an hour being
given in each case. Where men and women work together on a lathe
the women work the same hours as the men.
At Factory No. 3 (Yorkshire) practically all women work on the
three-shift system:
Morning shift .— Monday to Friday, 7 a. m. to 2.30 p. m .; meals, 10 to 10.30
a. m.

Saturday, 7 a. m. to 5 p. m .; meals, 1 hour.

Weekly total, 44 hours.

Afternoon shift .— Monday to Friday, 2.30 to 10 p. m .; meals, 6 to 6.30 p. m.
Weekly total, 35 hours.
Night shift .— Monday to Friday, 10 p. m. to 7 a. m .; meals, 2.30 to 3 a. m.,
and about 10 minutes for tea at 11.40 p. m. Weekly total, 42£ hours.

At Factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) until June, 1917, women in factory
(a) were working on 8-hour shifts with a half hour meal break, the
men being on 12-hour shifts—so that each set of men worked with two
sets of women each day. In June, 1917, a change over was made—■
the hours then being 10 hours’ shift for day and 11J for night work.
Work starts at 8 p. m. on Sunday and finishes at noon on Saturday.
It is noticeable that the night shift is of longer duration than the day
shift, and the work in addition includes a long Sunday night. No
reason has been discovered as to the object of having longer night
work than day other than that this scheme of hours fits in with the
existing train service, for this factory is situated some four miles out
of the city in almost rural surroundings. It is not unlikely that the
train service could readily be modified to suit the convenience of the
large numbers of daily workers if it were proved desirable to equalize
the length of shift. There can be little doubt that from an efficiency
point of view it is desirable, where other than automatic work is being
done, that the shifts should be of equal duration, as the worker must
be tuned to a certain speed dependent on length of shift, and a varia­
tion in ^duration of shift weekly must necessitate some loss of effi­
ciency.
80935°— 19-------18




274

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AN D E F F IC IE N C Y .

In factory (b) the hours are as follows:

Shift.

Time.

Meals.

Longest
Total
hours
period
without worked
break. per week.

DAY.

Week day........................ 6 a. m . to 6 p. m . . 9 to 9.30 a. m .; 1 to 2 p. m .; unofficial
break, 3.45 to 4 p. m .
Saturday
. . . . . . . . . 6 a. m . to 1 p . m . . 9 to 9.30 a. m ...................... ......................

3a
3i

NIGIIT.

Sunday-Friday.............. 6 p .m . to 6 a. m ...

9 to 10 p. m .; 1.15 to 1.45 a. m .; unoffi­
cial break, 3.45 to 4 a. m .

3i

G
3

Just at the time of the investigation the question of shortening the
hours had been considered and practically decided on, when it was
announced that the matter had been postponed. In order to fit in
the working time of the men on two shifts with that of the women on
three, the working hours of the women on the new shifts were to be
74-, 7-J and 6-J This reduction of hours to 6^ naturally caused many
,
.
of the women to feel that they would not be able to earn a “ living
wage.”
An endeavor was made to ascertain the views of the women them­
T
selves on the question of the two and three shift systems. The main
objection to the eight-hour shift seems to be that less money can be
earned. On the other hand, the short shift is obviously more con­
venient for women with children and home duties and provides a
reasonable opportunity for rest and recreation.
The factory No. 2 (Midlands) report states “ the general impression was
gathered that married women prefer shorter hours, as they like to undertake
the management of their own homes without outside assistance. The unmar­
ried women, on the other hand, evidently feel that they ought to be helping
in home work when they are not at the factory, and prefer the increased pay
of the longer shift to indefinite unpaid home duties. One point raised against
short shifts w as that on two out of three shifts workers were always about at
r
10 p. m. either ceasing afternoon work or starting on the night shift, and w ith
r
decreased lighting and lonely roads some found the journey a considerable
strain to their nerves. On the whole, it appeared that there is less disturbance
to home life if the shorter shift is in use, but the question of strain for individual
women needs careful consideration, as the 8-hour factory shift, in addition to
heavy household w ork, involves a heavier day’s toil than factory work alone
T
through a 12-hour shift when it is obviously impossible to undertake home
duties.”
The report on factory No. 1 (northeast coast) states : “ On the point of shorter
shifts (e. g., the substitution of eight-hour shifts I gathered that many shop
managers would welcome it and would expect to obtain the same output in two
eight-hour shifts as they do at present, but that the many difficulties in the
way include (1) the strong opposition of the men fitters and tool setters ; (2) the
objection of the women themselves, who are in most shops on the premium-




APPEN D IX B

(I).

275

bonus system, and who would object to the lower wage (this objection does not
hold in the piecework shops) ; and (3) the reorganization of the transit arrange­
ments which in a factory of this size would be a big problem. Many women
themselves told me that they could easily produce the same output in an eighthour shift. In all cases there appeared to be considerable waiting about for
work owing to the work not coming through quickly enough from the men on
the previous process. In one shop at least the daily output is limited, and when
the girls have finished they hang about the shop sometimes for an hour or an
hour and a half— being on the premium-bonus system (which is based partly
on a time wage) they have to put in their hours at the shop. In no shop on
the premium-bonus system did it appear to me that much work was done during
the last hour of the shift.”
At factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) : “ The general impression gathered from the
women in factory (b) is that the large majority would be glad to return to
the eight-hour shift, even though their weekly earnings were reduced. A
minority, composed of very strong women who had reached middle age after
hard-working lives and the younger single women with no home ties, are satis­
fied with the 12 hours, and feel quite able to continue at this rate and to earn
their present rate of pay. There were on 12-hour shifts, many who openly won­
dered how long they could continue to work under present conditions, and a
few definitely intended to give up munition work this winter, as they felt the
long hours were ruining their health.
“ The general impression gathered from the women in factory ( a) is that
there is a greater appearance of wr
ell-being and satisfaction with the work and
hours. The weekly earnings for each process appear a little higher than those
earned in corresponding processes in 6-inch shells.”
N

ig h t

S h if t s .

A s a r u le d a y a n d n ig h t s h if t s w e r e w o r k e d a lte r n a te w e e k s .
At
fa c t o r ie s 7 a n d 8, h o w e v e r , o n ly a p r o p o r t io n o f th e w o r k e r s w e r e
r e q u ir e d f o r n ig h t w o r k a n d t h e r e w a s n o r e g u la r a lt e r n a t io n .
At factory No. 8 (near London) 16 permanent night-shift workers were
examined. Nine were classified as A and six as B. Workers in class A had
worked continuously on night for periods varying from 3^ to 11 months, the
average time being
months. The average time of the remainder was also 4 i
months. The nutrition and general health of the night workers examined (and
they were picked at random) was much better than that of the day workers.
This is probably because it is only the stronger girls and women who “ can
stick it.” There is no regular alternation of day and night work, and if a
worker agrees to go on night she is left on until she “ knocks up.” It was said
that numbers of girls had had to give up night work because they could not
stand it. Several had left because they were not allowed to change to day
work.
The night workers examined w ere satisfactory. Their feeding is better on
r
night shift, as they have two good hot meals, one before coming out in the
evening and a good breakfast. The breakfast of the day workers is nothing
but tea, bread, and butter, as they have to leave so early that there is no one
to prepare a meal for them. The majority of the night workers apparently pre­
ferred night because of the long week end. They work five nights and rest
from Saturday morning till Monday night. Even those who complained that
they were tired at the end of the w^eek said that they got rested during the week
end.




276

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AN D EFFICIENCY*

At factory No. 7 (near London), where there is also no regular alternation

pi day and night work, 19 workers on different processes were examined.
Twelve were classed as A and seven as B. The average time worked continu­
ously on night was 13.5 months in class A and 15 months in class B.

O n t h e w h o l e n i g h t it fo r k w a s n o t u n p o p u l a r a m o n g t h e w o m e n ,
p a r t ly b eca u se o f th e h ig h e r w a g e s e a rn e d , p a r t ly b eca u se th e y fo u n d
m o r e o p p o r t u n it ie s f o r s h o p p in g a n d p e r s o n a l a ffa ir s . M o s t w o r k e r s
f o u n d n o d iffic u lt y in s le e p in g d u r in g th e d a y , t h o u g h m a n y , f o r
r e a s o n s w h ic h w e r e n o t o f t e n u n a v o id a b le , d id n o t a llo w th e m s e lv e s
s u ffic ie n t t i m e f o r s l e e p . W o r k o n S u n d a y n i g h t w a s d i s l i k e d , f e w
w o m e n c a r e d t o s p e n d S u n d a y in b e d a n d m a n y u s e d t h is d a y f o r
h e a v y d o m e s t ic w o r k f o r w h ic h th e y h a d n o o p p o r t u n it y d u r in g th e
w eek.
SEATS.

A l t h o u g h in s o m e ca se s se a ts h a d b e e n p r o v id e d f o r u se w h e n
w o r k e r s h a v e p r o p e r o p p o r t u n it y f o r r e s t in g , t h is w a s b y n o m e a n s
g e n e r a l. F o r e x a m p le —
The report on factory No. 1 (northeast coast) states: “ There is a great
grievance in certain shops. Sitting is generally not allowed and in many cases
this appears to cause quite unnecessary fatigue to the workers. There is no
provision of stools or benches except for certain drilling machines and benches
where the work must be done sitting. No stools are provided for workers on
such processes as rough turning (6-inch shell and 18-pounder shell) and on cer­
tain automatic machines where the worker might often sit for some minutes at
a time.”
The report on factory No. 4 (London) calls attention to the lack of seating
accommodation.
At factory No. 7 it is stated that “ only the viewers and lacquering girls
have stools; in none of the other shops is provision made for sitting, though I
noted many times when workers were waiting either for the tool setter or
material.” Many women complained that they could not sit down while wait­
ing for work as no seats were provided and they were not allowed to sit. In
this factory the proportion of tired and swollen feet was noticeable. On the
other hand, the report on factory No. 8 states: “ In nearly every department
seats were provided for the workers; some had metal backs for support, while
some were merely stools.”
#

T h e p r o v is io n o f se a ts a n d th e u se m a d e o f th e m u n fo r t u n a t e ly
o ft e n a p p e a r s t o d e p e n d t o o m u c h o n th e c a p r ic e o r p r e ju d ic e s o f
in d iv id u a l m a n a g e r s a n d fo r e m e n , w h o d o n o t y e t r e a liz e th a t, i f
s u it a b ly u s e d , se a ts r e d u c e f a t ig u e a n d d o n o t e n c o u r a g e h a b it s o f
id le n e s s a n d sla ck n e s s .
S ea ts a re p a r tic u la r ly n eed ed w h e re th e
o p e r a t i o n s a r e l o n g a n d c a n n o t b e a c c e l e r a t e d , w h e r e w a i t i n g is a p t
t o o c c u r f o r m a t e r ia l o r a s s is ta n c e a n d w h e r e t h e t w o - s h i f t s y s te m
is f o l l o w e d .
NUTHITION.

C a n te e n s h a d b e e n e s t a b lis h e d in c o n n e c t io n w it h a ll th e fa c t o r ie s
v is it e d a n d o n t h e w h o le w e r e s u it a b le a n d c o n v e n ie n t , t h o u g h n o t




APPEN D IX B

(I)•

•277

a lw a y s as p o p u la r w it h th e w o m e n as h a d b e e n h o p e d . I n s p it e o f
t h e p r o v is io n o f c h e a p , a p p e t iz in g d in n e r s , m a n y w o m e n s t ill p r e f e r
t o b r in g th e m a in p o r t io n o f th e ir f o o d fr o m h o m e , m e r e ly s u p p le
m e n t in g t h is w it h “ e x t r a s ” o r te a f r o m t h e c a n t e e n .1 O n a n e ig h t h o u r s h if t a d is in c lin a t io n t o p u r c h a s e a f u l l m e a l is u n d e r s ta n d a b le .
T h e s h i f t is r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t a n d a l l o w s t i m e f o r m e a ls a t h o m e , w h i l e
t h e f a c t o r y m e a l t i m e is o n l y h a l f a n h o u r a n d d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d
w i t h a n y o f t h e o r d i n a r y p r i n c i p a l m e a ls o f t h e d a y .
At factory No. 2 (M idlands), for example, only 20 of tlie workers stated that
they used tlie canteen entirely, getting their dinners there. The remainder
took their solid meals at home, and brought sandwiches, cake, and bread and
butter to the factory, getting “ what they fancied,” in the canteen, and making
tea there. This incomplete use of the canteen may be attributable to the short
meal times to which workers have grown accustomed on the three shifts, and
to the consequent difficulty of serving rapidly enough to allow proper time
to eat.
Factory No. 5 (Yorkshire). At factory (a) the girls take all their meals in
the canteen— a fair proportion actually buying all their food there; that is to
say, on day shift they buy good breakfasts and good dinners, whilst the re­
mainder bring their food from home, often prepared dishes which they can
warm up in the canteen and which they supplement with small purchases at
the tanteen. On night shift the usual plan is to have substantial food before
leaving home, many having a good meat meal often with the members of the
household who have returned from day work. They make this their main meal
and purchase light suppers and breakfasts during the night or bring light
meals with them. The women have certainly learned the lesson, and act on
it, that they can not continuously work at their strenuous occupations unless
they get adequate food. Occasionally one would say “ we are really doing men’s
work, we can not expect to do it on bits of thing that would keep us going at
home, we have to have real meals.” These inquiries were made at the time
when the great difficulties in obtaining certain provisions arose and many of
them told of the hardships which were being experienced by themselves or
their mothers in obtaining food. It was common at this time for the women to
leave work in the early morning after the H i hours of night shift, with perhaps
two hours’ traveling in addition, and line up in the food queues in order to
obtain supplies. In many cases this resulted in the w^omen not getting home
until midday, so that their rest was hopelessly interferred with. A t this time,
too, the weather was very cold, heavy snow having fallen.
The women on the heavy work in factory ( b ) have also realized that they
require substantial food, if they are to carry out their duties continuously.
Of the women interviewed the following analysis gives roughly the system
in food taking:
124 good meals every day at home.
24 bay good meals at canteen.
64 buy some light food at canteen.
45 buy no food at canteen.
An interesting comparison between the two factories is to be noted. The
average wages are lower in factory (b) though the hours are longer. A rela­
tively small proportion is buying full meals at the canteen and a relatively
1 S in ce the in q u iry w as m ade th e d ifficulties o f sh o p p in g h a ve becom e g re a tly a cce n tu ­
a ted and the dem an ds fo r fo o d a t ca n teen s has co r re sp o n d in g ly in creased .




278

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

large proportion buys nothing at all at the canteen. Apparently the higher
wages insure a greater expenditure on food by these workers on heavy opera­
tions.

O n th e 1 2 -h o u r s h if t a n d at n ig h t s th e p r a c t ic e o f b u y in g a f u ll
m e a l seem s t o b e in c r e a s in g , a n d in s o m e ca ses i f m o r e w e r e d o n e t o
m e e t t h e w i s h e s a n d t a s t e s o f t h e w o r k e r s t h e m e a ls w o u l d p r o b a b l y
b e co m e m u ch m o re p o p u la r .
I t is n o t a n e a s y t a s k a lw a y s t o s a t is f y
a n d m e e t t h e lik e s a n d d is lik e s o f f a c t o r y w o r k e r s u n u s e d t o r e s t a u ­
r a n t m e a ls a n d v e r y r e a d y t o c r i t i c i z e , b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e r e is
r o o m f o r im p r o v e m e n t in ca n te e n m a n a g e m e n t.
For example, one factory has a canteen to seat 4,000. It is run by an outside
caterer so badly that very few will use it. The supervisor offered to take it
over, but was refused. The caterer has been reprimanded, and it is hoped
the management will be improved.
A t factory No. 4 (London) the canteen is too small to hold the workers, the
food is only fairly good, the service is inadequate, especially at night, and the
tea is particularly bad and strong.

I n o t h e r c a s e s , a l t h o u g h t h e f o o d a t t h e c a n t e e n is g o o d , t h e w o r k e r s ,
t h r o u g h f o r c e o f h a b i t , p r e f e r t o t a k e t h e i r m e a ls i n t h e s h o p s .
T h is
is u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f r o m e v e r y p o i n t o f v i e w , b u t i t s e e m s p r a c t i c a l l y
im p o s s ib le a lw a y s t o e x c lu d e th e m f r o m th e s h o p s in c e r t a in fa c t o r ie s .
T y p i c a l p r ic e s a re as f o l l o w s :
(1 ) Meat and vegetables
Soup
____
___ ____
Pudding - (This is considered too dear for some girls.)
(2 ) Boiled beef and vegetables
_ _
________ _
Steamed pudding
___
_
_____
Custard
-------- ---------_ _
Rice pudding _
Soup with dumpling
Bread and cheese
(The food appeared well cooked and of good
quality.)
_________
(3 ) Tripe and onions
Savory (a kind of rissole)
Fish
_
P u d d in g ____
(The quality of the food seemed good, but the
dinner is not often purchased, although
there is a big trade in meat pies, cakes,
beverages, chocolate, etc.)

d.
9
2
3

Cents.
[18. 3]
[ 4 .1 ]
[ 0 .1 ]

6
2
1
1
2

[12. 2]
[ 4 .1 ]
[ 2 .0 ]
[ 2 .0 ]
[ 4 .1 ]
[ 1 .0 ]

i

4
2
5
3

[ 8 .1 ]
[ 4 .1 ]
[1 0.1 ]
[ G .l]

T h e n u t r i t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r s w a s g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , e x c e p t in
th e ca se o f f a c t o r y N o . 8, w h e r e “ th e n u t r it io n w a s v e r y p o o r a n d
t h e d i e t u n s u i t a b l e a n d i n s u f f i c ie n t f o r w o m e n w o r k i n g l o n g h o u r s .
B r e a d a n d b u t t e r a n d te a fo r m e d t o o la r g e a p a r t o f th e d ie t a r y , a n d
41 o u t o f 114 e x a m in e d w e r e c o n s id e r e d t o b e s u ffe r in g f r o m u n d e r ­
fe e d in g .”
T h i s m a l n u t r i t i o n is d u e m a i n l y t o l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d h a b i t




279

APPENDIX B ( I ) .

a n d c a n n o t b e a s c r ib e d t o w a r c o n d it io n s .
I t m a y b e h o p e d th a t
th e w e ll-m a n a g e d c a n te e n , w h ic h th e fir m h a v e n o w p r o v id e d , w ill
e n c o u r a g e a b e tte r a n d m o r e s u b s t a n t ia l d ie t a r y .
T R A N S IT .

C o n v e n ie n c e o f tr a n s it v a r ie s g r e a tly .
A t f a c t o r y N o . 1 (n o r th e a s t
c o a s t ) t h e d if f ic u l t i e s o f t r a n s i t s t i l l f o r m a n u n s o l v e d p r o b l e m .
O f
193 w o r k e r s e x a m in e d 39 w a lk to w o r k , 64 t r a v e l b y tr a in , 2 b y th e
fa c t o r y b u s, 1 b y b o a t, 1 c y c l e s ; th e r e m a in d e r tr a v e l b y tra m .
The
j o u r n e y o c c u p i e s 1 h o u r o r m o r e i n 4 1 c a s e s , 2 h o u r s a n d m o r e i n 19
c a s e s , 3 h o u r s i n 3 c a s e s , 4 h o u r s i n 1. T h e t r a i n s e r v i c e is s t a t e d
t o h a v e im p r o v e d , b u t th e t r a m s e r v ic e is s t ill w h o ll y in a d e q u a te a n d
u n s a tis fa c to r y .
T h e la r g e m a jo r it y o f w o r k e r s , m en a n d w o m e n ,
is o b l i g e d t o u s e th e tr a m s , a n d t h e e x t r e m e o v e r c r o w d i n g a n d b a d
a ir a re c e r t a in ly r e s p o n s ib le f o r m u c h o f th e tir e d n e s s a m on g : th e
w om en.
T h e c r o w d in g in it s e lf m a y b e d a n g e r o u s , a n d o n e g ir
e x a m in e d h a d r e c e n t ly b e e n s e r io u s ly c r u s h e d a n d in ju r e d in th e
a tte m p t t o fin d a p la c e .
A t f a c t o r y N o . 2 ( M i d l a n d s ) a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f wro r k e r s
( 1 1 8 ) a r e a b l e t o w a l k o r c y c l e t o a n d f r o m t h e f a c t o r y i f t h e y wT s h .
i
T h e r e m a in d e r c o m e b y b u s o r t r a in .
T h ir ty -e ig h t w o rk e rs c o m ­
p la in e d o f d iffic u lt y in t r a n s it o r m e n t io n e d c o n d it io n s w h ic h in v o l v e d
c o n s id e r a b le a d d it io n t o t h e ir h o u r s o f w o r k in g e t t in g t o , a n d f r o m
th e fa c to r y .
T h e d e c r e a s e d s e r v ic e o f tr a in s p r o v e s m o s t in c o n v e n ie n t
i n c e r t a i n c a s e s ; w o r k e r s w h o a r r i v e b y t r a i n m a y h a v e t o wxa i t a n
h o u r a t t h e f a c t o r y b e f o r e t h e ir s h if t b e g in s .
I n o n e in s ta n c e
w o r k e r o n t h e a f t e r n o o n s h i f t ( 2 .3 0 t o 1 0 p . m . ) a r r i v e d r e g u l a r l y
a t h e r h o m e a t 1 2 .3 0 a. m ., a n d f o r t h e m o r n i n g s h i f t ( 7 a. m . t o 2 .3 0
p . m .) s h e r o s e a t 4 a. m . T h e t r a m s e r v ic e v a r ie s . M a n y o f t h
w o r k e r s h a v e n o c o m p la in t t o m a k e , b u t o n s o m e lin e s c a r s a r e
c r o w d e d , a n d w o m e n s ta n d h a b itu a lly , t r a v e lin g an h o u r e a ch w a y .
A t f a c t o r y N o . 3 ( Y o r k s h ir e ) p r a c t ic a lly a ll th e w o r k e r s c a m e b y
car or t r a in :
15 m in­
15-30
utes and
under. minutes.
A ........................................................................
B ........................................................................
C.........................................................................

4
4

Total (116).............................................

S

30minutes-1
hour.

1 hour
and over.

25
18
4

32
24
2

2

47

58

3

Tram or
train.

Walk.

4
5

59
4J
.

9

107

1

C e r t a in tr a m s w e r e s a id t o b e c r o w d e d , a n d t h e w o m e n c o m p la in e d
o f th e c o ld a n d fa t ig u e o f w a it in g in q u eu es at th e e n d o f th e d a y ’s
w ork.




280

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

A t f a c t o r y N o . 4 ( L o n d o n ) 1 1 4 o u t o f 1 5 7 w e r e a b le t o w a lk h o m e ;
1 3 8 t a k e le s s t h a n 1 0 m i n u t e s f o r t h e j o u r n e y a n d o n l y t w o m o r e t h a n
an h ou r.
15 m in­
15-30
utes and minutes.
under.
A ........................................................................

Total (157)........... ..................................

30 minutes-1
hour.

1 hour
and over.

Walk.

Bus or
train.

64
16
2

37
18
1

10
6
1

1
1

*3
28
3

29
13
1

82 ;

56

17

2

114

43

A t f a c t o r y N o . 8 (n e a r L o n d o n ) 90 o u t o f 114 w a lk h o m e , a n d in
8 8 c a s e s t h e j o u r n e y o c c u p i e s le s s t h a n 3 0 m i n u t e s . T h e f i r m h a s a r ­
r a n g e d f o r a s p e c ia l t r a in m o r n in g a n d e v e n in g , a n d s h o u ld a n y fa r e
e x c e e d 4 s. [9 7 .3 c e n t s ] w e e k l y t h e f i r m p a y s t h e e x c e s s .
LOST T IM E .

N o a tt e m p t w a s m a d e in th e c o u r s e o f t h is in q u ir y t o o b ta in a c ­
c u r a t e d a t a in r e g a r d t o l o s t t im e a n d its ca u se s.
I n th e case o f
w o m e n w o r k i n g l o n g h o u r s t h e r e a r e c l e a r l y n u m e r o u s m o r e o r le s s
le g it im a t e r e a s o n s f o r b r o k e n tim e in a d d it io n t o t e m p o r a r y i ll h e a lth .
T h e r e is , f o r e x a m p l e , g e n u i n e f a t i g u e a n d t h e n o t u n n a t u r a l d e s i r e
f o r a n o c c a s io n a l “ d a y o f f .” T h e r e a r e a ls o d o m e s tic d u tie s o r e m e r ­
g e n c ie s in r e g a r d t o th e h o m e o r c h ild r e n w h ic h , in th e ca se o f m a r ­
r ie d w o m e n , a lm o s t n e c e s s a r ily e x e r t a p r i o r c la im t o th e f a c t o r y .
At factory No. 1 (northeast coast), for example, the report states: “ I gath­
ered on all hands that most workers deliberately stay away from work one day
a week or a fortnight; this is sometimes for domestic reasons, but often because
they feel the need of a day’s rest. The timekeeping records are consequently
bad. In two shops where the timekeeping is much better I found that this was
due to the strict discipline; any girl who stays away for a week, except it be
on sick leave, loses her machine— she is put on some time work, such as laboring,
and has to wait her turn to get a machine again. It is interesting that these
were the only shops in which I had emphatic complaints from the girls as to the
length of hours. Roughly speaking and simply from the general statements
given, the timekeeping in these two shops was 50-75 per cent better than in the
other shops.”
At factory No. 5 (Yorkshire), the information given by the workers them­
selves indicated that the lost time at factory (a) was low. There was in gen­
eral a high sense of duty in this respect, great pride being taken in the posses­
sion of a “ clean slate,” both in respect of absence and lateness. Occasionally
a woman stopped aw7
ay as she was “ just done up ” or “ dead beat ” and felt
that she must rest. The records of time lost during the last six months (since
the introduction of longer hours) compared with the records for the previous
two months when the women were on eight-hour shifts, show a rise in the total
percentage of time lost which must be due largely to increased fatigue.




APPENDIX B

(I).

281-

In factory (b) there is the same pride in many of the women in having “ no
broken time ” to show. The machine operator who is fond of her work dislikes
very much to stay away, for she is always anxious lest she should have “ her
machine taken away.” Some cases were noted of women who took “ breakfast
time,” because they felt “ too done up ” to come, but felt that the three hours
extra rest they would obtain would set them up for the rest of the week.
W E L F A R E S U PE R V IS IO N .

I n a ll fa c t o r ie s v is it e d w e lf a r e s u p e r in te n d e n t s h a d b e e n a p p o in t e d
w h o w e r e c h a r g e d w it h th e g e n e r a l o v e r s ig h t o f th e p h y s ic a l w e ll­
b e in g o f th e w o rk e rs.
At factory No. 1 (northeast coast) the lady superintendent has a large staff
of supervisors allocated to the different shops. Each supervisor has under her
at least one assistant supervisor and an adequate number of attendants for
cloakrooms, cookhouses, etc. The workers say that conditions have much im­
proved since the appointment of these officers and evidently regard them as
valuable acquisitions. Welfare supervisors have nothing to do with the manage­
ment of the canteens, and the ambulance arrangements are in charge of the
firm’s medical officer. The ambulance rooms are staffed by nurses and first-aid
attendants who have no relation to the welfare supervisors.
At factory No. 2 (Midlands) a welfare supervisor with three shift supervisors
under her is in charge of the welfare work. The department is a branch of the
labor department of the factory and the welfare supervisor is consulted by the
management on questions concerning women. There are two surgeries in charge
of nurses which can be used as rest rooms, if required.
At factory No. 3 (Yorkshire) there is a welfare staff of 19. This includes the
head welfare superintendent, 15 supervisors in the works, 1 in the record office,
and 1 for engaging the workers. The vaftous processes are divided into five
sections and each of the 15 supervisors has her own section under her control
on each shift. She has a desk in the middle of her section and is therefore
always accessible to the women. Of late a large number of athletic and social
societies have been instituted in connection with the factory, and a welfare com­
mittee, which brings matters to the notice of the management, has also been
formed. Various classes are also soon to be started in cooperation with the local
education authority.
An extremely well-equipped surgery with a separate department for men and
women is in charge of the firm’s medical officer and staffed by nurses.
At factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) the care of the workers at factory ( a) is in
charge of a well-developed welfare department under the control of a lady
supervisor and assistant supervisor. In each shop there is a shop supervisor
who takes a personal interest in the women. A night matron has charge of the
welfare of the girls during the night shift. A good spirit of comradeship has
been developed amongst the women due to the energy of the welfare department.
Games, football, and cricket on Saturdays and sports meetings are participated
in by the women with great enjoyment. The welfare work at factory (b) is un­
der the direction of a lady supervisor and assistants, and working in the shops
under the direction of the lady supervisor are the shops supervisors.
At both factories all the w omen who are engaged are required to undergo a
T
medical examination by a woman medical officer within the first week or two
r.fter engagement. Practically all the women who are employed have been
examined, or will have been, in a very short time. Recommendations of the
medical officer as to transference of women to light work are attended to by




282

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

the lady supervisor and any other recommendations made by the medical offi­
cer are followed up by the welfare department.
At factory No. 7 (near London) the welfare superintendent does not engage
or dismiss workers but interviews them after the assistant manager has taken
them on. She is responsible for first aid and supervises the mess room. She
engages mess-room and lavatory attendants. For first aid the supervisor has
a well-fitted Red Cross box in her surgery for the treatment of minor injuries.
Serious cases can be taken to the hospital close at hand. In her absence a
lavatory attendant applies bandges, etc.
At factory No. 8 (near London) two welfare supervisors have been appointed,
but they have not as yet any very effective grip of their work. The canteen
is not under their control and the first-aid arrangements are separately man­
aged. The present ambulance room is only temporary. It is well equipped, but
there is no waiting room. Different hours are arranged for men and women.
Three nurses take spells of eight hours each.
GENERAL HYGIENE.

A p a r t f r o m t h e l o n g h o u r s u s u a l l y w o r k e d a n d d if f ic u l t i e s o f t r a n ­
s it in s o m e ca ses, th e g e n e r a l a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r th e h e a lt h a n d c o m ­
f o r t o f th e w o r k e r s a p p e a r r e a s o n a b ly g o o d in m o s t cases.
The
c o n d it io n s o f th e s h o p s as r e g a r d s v e n tila t io n , h e a tin g , lig h t in g , r e ­
m o v a l o f f u m e s , e t c ., h a v e o f t e n b e e n m u c h i m p r o v e d , a n d s p e c i a l
c o n t r iv a n c e s h a v e b e e n d e s ig n e d t o ea se th e s t r a in o f h e a v y w o r k .
T h e c l o a k r o o m s , l a v a t o r i e s , e t c ., a r e u s u a l l y f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
t h o u g h t h e r e is o f t e n n o p r o v i s i o n f o r d r y i n g w e t g a r m e n t s . O v e r ­
a l ls o f a s u i t a b l e p a t t e r n a r e n o w g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h
s p e c ia l m e a n s o f p r o t e c t i o n { c lo g s , w a t e r p r o o f a p r o n s , e t c .) f o r
w o m e n c a r r y in g o u t w e t o r d ir t y o p e r a t io n s . R e s t r o o m s f o r w o r k ­
e r s t e m p o r a r ily in d is p o s e d a r e u s u a lly a v a ila b le , a lt h o u g h t h e y a r e
p r o b a b ly n o t m a d e fu ll u se o f . I n th e p e rs o n o f th e w e lfa r e s u p e r ­
v i s o r a n o ff ic e r e x i s t s t o w h o m w o m e n m a y b r i n g p e r s o n a l c o m p l a i n t s
o r req u ests f o r a d v ic e o r h e lp .
T h e o r g a n iz a t io n is b y n o m e a n s
p e r fe c t , b u t it r e p r e s e n ts a n im m e n se a d v a n c e o n th e c o n d it io n s
w h ic h o b ta in e d tw o o r th re e y e a rs a g o .
A n e n d e a v o r is o ft e n m a d e b y th e f a c t o r y to a r r a n g e lo d g in g s f o r
w ork ers.
I t is f o u n d t h a t w o m e n u s u a lly p r e f e r t o liv e a t h o m e ,
e v e n t h o u g h t h is e n t a ils a l o n g d a il y jo u r n e y , t h a n in l o d g i n g s c lo s e
at h and.
At factory No. 8 (near London) as the number of women employed increased
and it became necessary to draw workers from a distance the housing ques­
tion became urgent. The firm persuaded the local authorities to make a can­
vass in the town and find out the householders willing to take lodgers and the
prices they would charge. The names are kept on a card register and given
to workers who require rooms. Unfortunately the register has not been kept
up to date. The firm has also provided two small houses to be used as recep­
tion houses, one for men and one for women. These are placed under the
management of the canteen supervisor, and workers may remain for three
nights while looking for permanent lodgings. A woman cleans both houses
and cooks, the charge being 2s. 6d. [60.8] per day. The houses are well kept,




APPEN D IX B

283

(I).

are furnished with single beds, not more than two in a room, and chests of
drawers. Each house has a bath with hot water.

KEDICAL EXAMINATION.
T h e a r ra n g e m e n ts w e r e g e n e r a lly s im ila r t o th o s e o f th e p r e v io u s
in q u ir y .
E a c h w o m a n w e n t fir s t t o t h e a s s is ta n t in v e s t ig a t o r , w h o
a sk e d v a r io u s q u e s tio n s in r e g a r d t o g e n e r a l a n d s o c ia l c o n d it io n s ,
a n d th e n to th e d o c t o r w h o m a d e th e m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n s . E x c e p t
a t f a c t o r y N o . 5 ( Y o r k s h i r e ) , w h e r e t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r w a s p e r ­
s o n a lly k n o w n t o m a n y o f t h e w o m e n , t h is e x a m in a t io n w a s n e c e s ­
s a r ily s o m e w h a t c u r s o r y in n a tu r e , p a r t ly b e ca u se o f th e c ir c u m ­
v
sta n ce s u n d e r w h ic h th e in q u ir y w a s c o n d u c te d , b u t m a in ly b e c a u s e
i t w a s e s s e n t ia l t o a v o i d a l a r m i n g o r i r r i t a t i n g p r e s u m a b l y h e a l t h y
w o m e n b y r e q u ir in g m u c h u n d r e s s in g o r b y m a k in g a s e a r c h in g e x ­
a m in a t io n .
T h e in q u ir y w a s v o lu n t a r y a n d its r e s u lts d e p e n d e d
e n tir e ly o n th e su cce ss w it h w h ic h th e in v e s tig a to r s w e r e a b le t o
o v e r c o m e th e s h y n e s s o r e v e n s u s p ic io n o f th e w o m e n . F o r e x a m p le ,
in s o m e f a c t o r ie s w h e r e n u m e r o u s d is m is s a ls h a p p e n e d t o b e t a k i n g
p l a c e , t h e A v o rk e rs n a t u r a l l y s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e i n q u i r y m i g h t b e
i n t e n d e d t o w e e d o u t t h e m o s t u n fit . I n a n o t h e r f a c t o r y i n a t o w n
w h e r e t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r o f h e a l t h h a d r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t
o n ill h e a lth a n d e s p e c ia lly a c h e s t t r o u b le ” a m o n g m u n itio n w o r k ­
ers, a n u m b e r o f th o s e w h o w e r e n o t in th e b e s t o f h e a lth r e fu s e d t o
b e e x a m in e d as t h e y fe a r e d s u b s e q u e n t a c t io n . N o d e t a ile d e x a m in a ­
tio n o f th e c h e s t w a s m a d e as a r o u tin e . T h e d o c t o r s e n d e a v o r e d t o
e lic it th e m e d ic a l h is t o r y b y s y m p a th e t ic in q u ir ie s .
A s b e f o r e , t h e w o r k e r s w e r e c la s s if i e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s , A , B , a n d
C . A d e n o te s a p p a r e n t g o o d h e a lt h ; B d e n o te s s o m e s ig n s o f fa t ig u e
o r ill h e a l t h ; C d e n o te s m a r k e d fa t ig u e o r i ll h e a lth .
N um ber
of w ork­
ers e x ­
am ined.

E n gland.

A (h ealth y ).
Num ­
ber.

P er­
centage.

B (slight fatigu e). C (m a rk ed fatigu e).
N um ­
ber.

P er­
centage.

N um ­
ber.

P er­
centage.

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

1 ...............................................
2 ..........................................
3 ..........................................
4 ..........................................
5 ..........................................
6 ..........................................
7 . ......................................
8 ..........................................

193
284
116
157
199
73
67
114

no
199
63
112
77
45
35
51

56.9
75.3
54.3
71.3
38.6
61.6
52.2
44.7

70
53
46
41
114
19
30
52

36.2
20.07
39.6
26.1
57.2
26.02
44.7
45.6

13
12
7
4
8
9
2
11

1,183

F a ctory
F a ctory
F a ctory
F a ctory
F a ctory
F a ctory
F a ctory
l actory

692

58.4

425

35.8

66 |

6.7
4.5
6. 03
2. 5
4.02
12.3
2.9
9.6
5.5

CAUSES OF FATIGUE IN WOMEN WORKERS.

T h e c a s e s c la s s if i e d a s “ C ” w e r e t h o s e r e g a r d e d b y t h e m e d i c a l
o ff ic e r a s d e f i n i t e l y u n f i t f o r t h e w o r k t h e y w e r e d o i n g .
In som e
in s ta n c e s th e p h y s ic a l c o n d it io n a p p e a r e d d u e t o th e n a tu r e o f th e




284

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND EFF IC IE N C Y .

w o r k a l o n e , b l it i n m o s t t o h e a v y w o r k c o m b i n e d w i t h d o m e s t i
d u tie s a n d p e r h a p s m e n ta l a n x ie ty .
T h e ca se s c la s s ifie d a s u B ” w e r e th o s e in w h ic h s ig n s o f w e a r i­
n ess a n d th e b e g in n in g s o f i ll h e a lth w e r e o b v io u s t o th e e x a m in e r .
N o s c ie n t ific te sts o f f a t ig u e w e r e a p p lie d . T h e o p i n i o n f o r m e d w a s
b a s e d u p o n a p p e a r a n c e , s ig n s o r s y m p to m s o f i ll h e a lth , p h y s ic a l
a n d s o c ia l h is t o r y , e tc. A t tim e s o b v io u s ly t ir e d w o m e n w e r e lo a t h
t o a d m it a n y s ig n s o f fa t ig u e , f o r e x a m p le , a t N o t t in g h a m , as t h e y
f e a r e d d i s m is s a l. T i r e d n e s s a n d “ n e r v o u s n e s s ” w e r e c o m m o n c o m ­
p la in t s a m o n g th e s e w o m e n .
A t f a c t o r y N o . 1 (n o r th e a s t c o a s t )
w h e r e a ll th e w o r k e r s h a d b e e n w o r k in g f o r a t le a s t a y e a r , a n d m a n y
f o r o v e r t w o y e a r s , a n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s s ta te d th a t o n e o f th e fir s t
s i g n s o f f a t i g u e n o t i c e d b y t h e m s e l v e s is t h a t t h e y “ d r e a d t h e b e l t . ”
S l e e p l e s s n e s s a n d r e s t le s s n e s s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y c o m m o n ; i n d i g e s t i o n ,
l o s s o f a p p e t i t e , h e a d a c h e , e t c ., w e r e o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t i r e d ­
n ess. S o m e h a d d e fin it e ly lo s t w e ig h t , m a n y lo o k e d p a le , t h in , a n d
w orn.
A m o n g th e s p e c ia l ca u se s o f f a t ig u e m a y b e m e n t io n e d h e a v y
w o r k , e s p e c ia lly w h e n a s s o c ia te d w it h l o n g h o u r s , a g e a n d g e n e r a l
u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c u l a r w o r k , l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , i n s u f f i c ie n t a t ­
t e n t io n t o “ w e lfa r e ” in s id e th e f a c t o r y , h o m e d u tie s , m e n ta l a n x ie t y ,
tr a n s it , d ie ta r y , e tc . S o m e o f th ese h a v e b e e n r e fe r r e d t o a lr e a d y ;
o t h e r s m a y n o w b e c o n s id e r e d in s o m e d e t a il.
&
(a )

H eavy

W ork

and

L ong H ou rs.

A s a n e x a m p l e o f f a t i g u e d u e t o t h e s e c a u s e s , t h e r e s u lt s o f a n
e x a m in a tio n o f 199 w o m e n a t L e e d s m a y b e m e n tio n e d .
A t factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) of 146 women employed on 6-inch shells the
medical officer reported that 51 were physically lit and able and willing to
continue at the present pressure of work. Of these the greater number were
women living in lodgings or in homes where they had no work to do after
their munition s h ift; a few had spent many years as charwomen, working
hard for little remuneration, and these looked upon the regular long hours of
munition work as a well-paid rest. Of the remainder 95 women showed signs
of fatigue varying from those who were moderately tired and unable to spare
any energy for recreation to those who were completely exhausted and unfit for
recreation or work. O f these, seven were entirely broken down in health.
The most noticeable point about these women was a general appearance of
weariness and loss of tone. There seemed to be a general want of alertness,
as though it needed a definite effort of concentration before they could bring
their minds to bear upon any given question. Many had the appearance of a
rapid loss of weight, and those who did not know’ their weight could remem­
ber that their clothing had to be definitely taken in to make it fit the present
waist measurement.
Women suffered from loss of appetite, with fullness and epigastric pain after
food, having the appearance of atonic dyspepsia in varying degrees. A few
suffered from cough, the result of bronchitis, which was started or aggravated
by work in a munition factory. Many showed signs of cardiac insufficiency,




APPEN DIX B

285

(I ).

a

with weak heart sounds, irregular in time and force, while
few had definite
cardiac dilatation. Some of these women were dyspnceic while at rest, and
more were definitely so on moderate exertion.
The evidence of nervous fatigue varied from staleness, with loss of interest
in or inclination for amusement or work in the milder cases, up to exhaustion
of a marked degree, with nervousness, loss of control of temper, and depres­
sion in the more marked cases. The loss of voice occurring in women, especially
011 tlie night shift, appears to be the outcome of exhaustion and loss of tone.
The general impression gained from these women (working on 12-hour shifts)
suggests that they are not physically fit to continue indefinitely on these long
hours. Some will voluntarily leave at an early date, and others from economic
necessity will continue to work above their strength and will become per­
manently damaged members of society. The ones who will remain at work
at all costs are those who have many dependents. These threaten to become
prematurely old, losing all the joy of life and continually haunted by the fear
of a breakdown in health.
As regards the examination of 58 women working on 9.2-inch shells (10hour day and Ill-h o u r night shifts) they can not by any effort lift them from
place to place as they do in the case of the 6-inch shells. The chucks of the
machines are tightened by men, and the result is that though the shells are
heavier and the machines larger the women actually carry out lighter work
than they do when working on 6-inch shells. Of those examined, 23 were
physically fit, and again those were usually women with few home duties.
The remaining 27 showed signs of varying degrees of fatigue.
But their
fatigue, generally speaking, was not so obvious as the fatigue of those on the
lighter shells.
At factory No. 2 (Midlands) where the women are engaged on 9.2-inch and
6-inch shells (eight-hour shifts usually), it appears that the processes which
caused most strain were those of boring, drilling, and rough-turn body. The
latter involves an upward jerk to tighten the shell in the machine, which the
majority of women find fatiguing, especially on night work or during men­
struation. On the other hand, seven 3T
oung women and four elder workers
of an especially wiry type had suffered 110 inconvenience of any kind beyond
a temporary muscular stiffness.
At factory No. 3 (Yorkshire) the women are engaged on 4.5 and 5 inch
shells (eight-hour shifts) ; 24 workers on the rough-turn body process were
examined for the purpose of comparison with findings at other factories where
similar work is undertaken. It was observed at factory No. 2 (Midlands) that
robust young women suffered little inconvenience at this work beyond tem­
porary stiffness, but that there was a tendency to cause pelvic disorder in
elderly married women with weak abdominal muscles.
Here it appeared
usual to employ younger women. Seventeen out of 24 examined at this factory
were under 24 years of age and only two women were 30 years old. Some of
the more delicate workers had found this work too heavy and had been trans­
ferred to other operations. There were four cases of dysmenorrhea, seven of
irregularity of menstruation, where it was said that the complaint had arisen
or had become worse since working at the factory.

I t is e v i d e n t l y m o s t d e s i r a b l e t h a t w o r k e r s s h o u l d b e c a r e f u l l y
s e le c te d f o r h e a v y w o r k , s u ch as r o u g h -t u r n b o d y , r ip p i n g , a n d
c e n t e r i n g , i f u n d u e f a t i g u e o r p h y s i c a l i n j u r y is t o b e a v o i d e d . T h e
l e n g t h o f t h e s h i f t s is c l e a r l y o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e .




286

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .
(b)

A ge an d G e n e ra l U n s u ita b ility fo r W o r k .

O t h e r t h in g s e q u a l, w o r k e r s u n d e r 18 a n d t h o s e o f m i d d l e a g e
m a y n a tu r a lly b e e x p e c te d to s h o w fa t ig u e m o r e r e a d ily th a n th o s e
in th e p r im e o f life .
Young workers.— A t t h e p r e v i o u s i n q u i r y c o n s i d e r a b l e f a t i g u e w a s
m a n ife s t e d b y g i r l s u n d e r 18 w h o w e r e w o r k i n g e x c e p t i o n a ll y l o n g
h o u r s u n d e r s o m e w h a t u n fa v o r a b le c o n d itio n s . ' A la r g e n u m b e r
w a s n o t e x a m i n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , b u t in
th e fa c t o r y w h e r e th ese fin d in g s w e r e n o te d th e c o n d it io n s o f w o r k
a n d c o m fo r t h a v e b een g r e a tly im p r o v e d a n d th e fa t ig u e h as
d im in is h e d a c c o r d in g ly .
At factory No. 7 (near London) nine workers under 18 were examined, eight
were classified A and one as B. Their general condition was satisfactory.
One strong girl of 16 is in the foundry sand placing, another girl of 17 has
already worked three years at munitions.

Middle-aged workers m a y b e d i v i d e d b r o a d l y i n t o t w o d i v i s i o n s :
( 1 ) T h e th in , w i r y w o m e n w h o h a v e w o r k e d a ll t h e ir liv e s a n d s ta n d
h e a v y w o r k m o r e e a s ily t h a n m a n y y o u n g e r a n d a p p a r e n t ly s t r o n g e r
w o m e n ; a n d ( 2 ) t h e w o m e n w h o m a y a p p e a r s t r o n g a n d wT l l - n o u r e
i s h e d , b u t w h o s e a b d o m i n a l m u s c le s a r e l a x a n d f l a b b y f r o m l a c k o f
e x e r cis e , fr e q u e n t c h ild b e a r in g , etc.
T h e l a t t e r t y p e is a p t t o s u f f e r
u n d u ly f r o m fa t ig u e o r in t e r n a l in ju r y w h e n o n h e a v y m a c h in e w o r k
o r o n o p e r a t io n s w h ic h e n ta il je r k s o r th e l i f t i n g o f h e a v y w e ig h ts .
(c )

L e n g t h of S e r v ic e .

I t is o n l y t o b e e x p e c t e d t h a t w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s
u n d e r a r d u o u s c o n d it io n s w ill te n d to s h o w in c r e a s in g s ig n s o f s la c k ­
n ess a n d fa tig u e .
T h e r e e x a m in a tio n o f w o r k e r s at fa c t o r y N o . 6
( M i d l a n d s ) w h o h a d a l r e a d y b e e n e x a m i n e d t w i c e b e f o r e is o f i n t e r e s t
in t h is c o n n e c t io n , a lt h o u g h th e n u m b e r s a r e s m a ll.
January,
1916.

.Tulv,
1916.

O ctober,
1917.

A .............................................................................................................................................
V,...............................................................................................................................................

Per cent.
38
49
13

Per cent.
52.6
33.7
13.7

Per ccnt.
56

T otal e x a m i n e d .....................................................................................................

10
0

c

.............................. ..............................

80

2
2
2
2

27

T h e fig u re s in d ic a t e t h a t w o m e n s h o w in g s lig h t s ig n s o f f a t ig u e in
1 9 1 6 a r e n o w f e e l i n g i n c r e a s e d s t r a in .
( d ) I n s u ffic ie n t A tte n tio n t o W e lfa r e .

I t is o b v i o u s t h a t d i s c o m f o r t i n s i d e t h e f a c t o r y — f o r e x a m p l e , d a m p
f l o o r s , n o s e a ts , c o l d r o o m s a n d l a c k o f v e n t i l a t i o n , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a r ­
r a n g e m e n t s f o r m e a ls , e t c .— w i l l t e n d t o c a u s e a v o i d a b l e f a t i g u e a n d
m i n o r a i lm e n t s .




APPENDIX B ( I ) .

287

At factory No. 4 (London), for example, many of the women who complained
of special “ tiredness ” on the night shift stated that they brought their own
food instead of purchasing a hot meal from the canteen. The night service of
this particular canteen was evidently so bad that workers had often given up
the attempt to obtain food within a reasonable time.
The conditions of factory ( b ) at factory No. 5 (Yorkshire), where a large
number of women appeared definitely fatigued, is another case in point.
In the shell shop there is considerable congestion. The number of machines
installed is probably much too high, leaving the alleyways too narrow, with the
result that the continual passing up and down of the bogies with and without
shells, bookers, gaugers, laborers, sweepers, barrows, etc., causes an unpleasant
overcrowding. The factor most to be criticized in the building is the existence
of wooden galleries, which are used as a fuze department and in which approxi­
mately 400 people are constantly at work. The presence of these galleries re­
moves all feeling of air space and gives a depressing overcrowded sensation in
the shops. The hanging of clothes in the shops, the absence of provision in
cloakrooms and elsewhere for shoes and garments which are changed by the
girls, contributes to the sense of congestion.
Large gates at the one end swing open to admit truck loads of forgings. Until
recently these gates opened directly on to the machines in this part of the shop,
giving rise to pronounced fluctuations in temperature and in the cold weather to
great discomfort of the workers. But recently a high screen has been erected
which should be some protection against the sudden changes of temperature.
As to the general cleanliness, sweepers are continually at work, but the
crowded state prevents the work being carried out as well as might be. The
splashing of the cooling liquor from the machines leads to an unwholesome
dampness of the floor; sawdust is sprinkled to absorb the wet and standing
boards are provided, but too much wet remains lying about.
(c) H ome D uties , E tc .

T h e r e la tiv e ly la r g e n u m b e r o f m a r r ie d w o m e n n o w e m p lo y e d i n ­
crea ses th e a m o u n t o f fa t ig u e lik e ly to b e o b s e rv e d a m o n g th e w o r k ­
ers. A c e r ta in p r o p o r t io n o f th ese w o m e n a re th e r e c e n t ly m a r r ie d
w iv e s o f s o ld ie r s a n d h a v e n o c h ild r e n o r d o m e s t ic r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s .
T h e m a jo r it y , h o w e v e r , a re o ld e r w o m e n w ith c h ild r e n a n d h o m e s o f
th e ir o w n .
At factory No. 2 (M idland), 105 out of 264 women were married, 56 had young
children, and about half of these were doing heavy housework. Fourteen women
had sick husbands at home, in some cases needing special diet. As a rule the
children were left with neighbors or were sometimes taken charge of by other
relatives.
At factory No. 3 (Yorkshire), 48 out of 116 women were married; 37 had chil­
dren at home. Of the latter, 20 were classed as A, 15 as B, and 2 as C ; 18 had
heavy housework and 26 lighter home duties. Of the 18, 7 were classified as A,
8 as B, and 3 as G, while of those with lighter housework 18 were A, 7 B, and
1 was C.
A t factory No. 8 (near London) only 16 out of 114 women were married.
Eight had children at home and 5 were doing considerable housework. Two of
these were classified as A, 2 as B, and 1 as C.
At factory No. 4 (London), 53 out of 157 women were married; 26 had chil­
dren at home and of these 21 were classified as A, 4 as B. and 1 as C. Of 26




IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

288

married women who had considerable housework, 18 were classified as A, 7 as
B, and 1 as C. It may be added that there was little evidence of fatigue in this
factory.

M a r r ie d w o m e n a re o ft e n fu lly c o m p e te n t p h y s ic a lly to c a r r y o u t
d u t ie s a t t h e f a c t o r y . I t is o n l y w h e n th e s e d u t ie s a r e s u p p le m e n t e d
b jr h o m e w o r k a f t e r l o n g h o u r s o f f a c t o r y w o r k , b y t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f
m a k in g p r o p e r a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r th e c h ild r e n d u r in g t h e ir a b se n ce ,
b y th e e v e r -in c r e a s in g d iffic u lt y o f s h o p p in g d u r in g th e lim it e d in t e r ­
v a l, a n d o f t e n b y w o r r y o r a n x ie t y in r e g a r d t o h u s b a n d o r r e la tiv e s
a t th e fr o n t th a t th e b u r d e n b e co m e s t o o h e a v y to b e a r w ith o u t m e n ta l
o r p h y s ic a l d a m a g e . I f m a r r ie d w o m e n m u st b e e m p lo y e d , e ith e r
b e c a u s e t h e y n e e d m o n e y t o s u p p o r t th e m s e lv e s o r t h e ir f a m ilie s o r
b e c a u s e th e G o v e r n m e n t n e e d s th e ir la b o r , s o m e s p e c ia l a r r a n g e m e n t
o u g h t t o b e p o s s ib le b y w h ic h t h e y c o u ld b e r e lie v e d o f a p o r t i o n o f
t h e w o r k w h ic h n o w d e v o lv e s u p o n th e m .
G E N E R A L A IL M E N T S .
T A B L E OF C H IE F D E FE C TS D E T E C T E D .

•

Total
Fac­
Fac­
FacFac­
Fac­
Fac­
Fac­
Fac­
tory 1. tory 2. tory 3. tary 4. tory 5. tory 6. tory 7. tory 8. per
cent.

Number examined................................ 193
Percentage of defects noted................. 100
Digestive system:
Indigestion (pain, flatulence, etc.). 23
14.5
Constipation....................................
Teeth:
31
Several carious.......................... .
8
Oral sepsis........................................
32
Artificial teeth................................
Nervous system (tired, nervous, irri­
table).................................................... 30
Headache (frequent)............................. 42
13
Anem ia....................................................
10
Aching and swollen feet......................
Muscular pains (including rheuma­
14.5
tism) ....................................................
Nose and throat (pharyngitis, un­
5.7
healthy tonsils, etc.)..........................
6
Eve strain, etc.......................................
Disorders of menstruation................... 35

264
100

116
100

157
100

199
100

46
100

67
100

114
100

1,156
100

15.5
7

25.5
9.5

16.5
14.5

24.5
16

13
26

31
16.5

37.5
12

23.5
12.5

26.5
10.5
15.5

20
13.5
20.5

29
5
12.5

32
20.5
36.5

17
8.5
10.5

24
7.5
18

29
3.5
10.5

27.5
10.5
21.5

13
13.5
12
5.5

20
33.5
23
4

18
24
14.5
3

26.5
19
22.5
21

15
28
15

15
59.5
22
19.5

17.5
41
50
9.5

20
28.5
20
9.5

28

14

12.5

10.5
15
37

22.5
17.5
29.5

7.5
8.5
26.

8
2
2.5
17.5

20
3.5
22.5
27.5

7.5
18.5
5
25

14
3
5.5
19.5

4
2
17
28

D igestive disorders .— L o s s o f a p p e t i t e a n d p a i n a f t e r f o o d w e r e t h e
m ost co m m o n sy m p to m s.
C o n s t ip a t io n w a s c o m p a r a t iv e ly s e ld o m
c o m p la in e d o f . T h is w a s p a r t ly d u e , n o d o u b t, to th e fa c t th a t a p e r i­
e n t s ( s a l t s o r s e ic llit z p o w d e r s ) a r e o f t e n t a k e n a s a r o u t i n e .
At factory No. 7 (near London) 21 out of 67 complained of indigestion, and
here bad cooking and catering seemed the main cause. Bread and butter and
tea formed far too large a portion of the dietary.
At factory No. 8 (near London) 43 cases of indigestion were noted among 114
examined. This was not due to bad teeth, but seemed caused partly by hurrying
over meals before a long bicycle ride, by bad cooking and an inadequate dietary
and partly by fatigue. Forty-one girls were noted as underfed.

Decayed teeth and oral sepsis w e r e c o m m o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n s o m e f a c ­
t o r ie s , t h o u g h as f a r as th e w o r k e r s ’ o w n s ta te m e n ts w e n t t h e y a p ­




APPEN D IX B

(I).

289

p e a r e d t o h a v e lit t le d ir e c t e ffe c t u p o n th e d ig e s t iv e s y ste m . S o o n e r
o r la te r th e y a r e b o u n d t o a ffe c t th e h e a lth a d v e r s e ly a n d a re in d e e d
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a l a i s e , h e a d a c h e s , e t c ., w i t h w h i c h t h e w o r k e r s d o n o t
a s s o c ia te th e m .
At factory No. 6 (Midlands) some of tlie youngest workers had excellent sets
of teeth and had been educated in good habits of dental hygiene, thus illustrating
the effect of the school medical service which in Birmingham pays special atten­
tion to the care of the teeth.
At factory No. 4 (London) “ the women are paying increased attention to den­
tal hygiene. During last year several had visited the dentist and had carious
teeth out and plates in.”
At factory No. 2 (Midlands) “ the teeth were usually extremely bad, dental
hygiene seemed unknown and pyorrhea occurred in most of the women over 30
years of age. Considerable Reluctance was shown at the prospect of a visit to the
dentist and conservative treatment was rarely sought in time even by young
girls of otherwise good appearance. There was a general impression that stop­
ping always hurt more than having a tooth out and as a result no treatment
was sought.”
At factory No. 8 (near London) the teeth were exceptionally good. Only
33 out of 114 had carious teeth, and it was noticed that those who had bad teeth
lived out of the district.

Headache i s p r o b a b l y o f t e n m e r e l y a s y m p t o m o f g e n e r a l t i r e d n e s s
a n d m a y b e c a u se d o r a g g r a v a te d b y n o is e in th e f a c t o r y a n d b a d c o n ­
d i t i o n s o f t r a n s i t ( e . g . , N e w c a s t l e ) , i n s u f f i c ie n t f r e s h a i r a n d e x e r c i s e .
I n o t h e r ca se s it a p p e a r e d t o b e a s s o c ia t e d w it h a n e m ia o r w it h d ig e s ­
t iv e d is tu r b a n c e s .
A t factory No. 7 (near London), where the factory is old and crowded with
machines, 40 out of 67 complained of headache, many attributing it to the noise
of the machinery; the long hours and constant standing also made them “ so
tired and headachey.”
A t factory No. 8 (near London) 47 out of 114 complained of headache, and it
was often attributed to noise. For the most part the girls were unused to fac­
tory life. The high temperature at which the work has to be carried out in some
of the rooms is also responsible for headache.

Anemia w a s s e l d o m m a r k e d i n t y p e a n d u s u a l l y n o s p e c i a l t r e a t ­
m e n t w a s b e in g o b ta in e d . A t fa c t o r y N o . 4 ( L o n d o n ) , f o r e x a m p le
(w h e r e lit t le fa t ig u e w a s o b s e r v e d ), o n ly 3 w e ll-m a r k e d ca ses w e r e
o b s e r v e d , a n d 20 s lig h t on es, a m o n g 157 w o m e n . A t fa c t o r y N o . 5
( Y o r k s h ir e ) , o n th e c o n tr a r y , w h e re th e re w a s m u c h fa tig u e , 45 eases
w e r e n o t e d a m o n g 199 w o m e n . A n e x c e p t io n w a s a ls o n o t e d a t f a c ­
t o r y N o . 8 w h e r e 57 o u t o f 114 g ir ls s u ffe r e d w it h a n e m ia , w h ic h in 19
ca ses w a s se v e re w ith d y s p n e a a n d h e m ic m u rm u r s . M a n y o f th e se
g i r ls w e r e u n d e r 18, th e ir d ie t w a s u n s a t is fa c t o r y , a n d th e c o n d it io n s
o f t h e ir w o r k in h o t , s t u ffy r o o m s w o u ld n a t u r a lly p r e d is p o s e t o
a n e m ia .
Muscular pains and swollen fe e t .— M u s c u l a r p a i n s , a c h i n g b a c k ,
s h o u ld e r s a n d a r m s w e r e o ft e n e x p e r ie n c e d a t th e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f
• 80935°— 19-------19




290

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

fa c t o r y l if e , a n d a ft e r w a r d s te n d e d to d is a p p e a r as th e w o r k e r b e c a m e
a c c u s t o m e d t o th e p h y s ic a l e x e r c is e . I n o t h e r ca se s, h o w e v e r , w h e r e
th e w o r k w a s h e a v y a n d th e w o r k e r n o t r o b u s t, m u s c u la r p a in s w e r e
fr e q u e n t ly c o m p la in e d o f to w a r d th e e n d o f th e s h if t a n d e s p e c ia lly
a ft e r n ig h t w o r k .
T h e p re v a le n c e o f s w o lle n o r a c h in g fe e t a p p e a rs to d e p e n d a g o o d
d e a l o n th e c o n d it io n s o f w o r k a n d e s p e c ia lly o n th e n a tu r e o f th e
f l o o r a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e a ts .
At factory No. 7 (near London), for example, the heating of the factory w as
not good and the floors were complained of as uneven and wet, making the feet
very sore. Muscular pains and swollen, aching feet were common.
At factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) many women in factory (5 ) complained of sore
or swollen feet which they attributed to standing on a concrete floor; the condi­
tion was sometimes improved by the wearing of clogs or standing on a board.
Varicose veins were relatively common among the older workers and often asso­
ciated with aching legs and feet and swollen ankles.
G ynecological C o n d itio n s .

D is o r d e r s o f m e n s t r u a tio n o c c u r r e d w it h s o m e fr e q u e n c y a n d a p ­
p e a r e d t o b e a s s o c ia te d p a r t ic u la r ly w it h h e a v y w o r k , e s p e c ia lly i f
o t h e r ca u se s o f fa t ig u e w e r e p r e s e n t. T h e y u s u a lly t o o k th e f o r m o f
d y s m e n o r r h e a , w h i c h in s o m e c a s e s h a d a p p e a r e d s i n c e f a c t o r y w o r k
h a d c o m m e n c e d , m e n o r r h a g ia o r in c r e a s e d fr e q u e n c y .
T h e d y s m e n o r r h e a d id n o t seem as a r u le t o b e s e v e re in t y p e , b u t
t h e p a i n w a s s u f f ic ie n t t o c a u s e c o n s i d e r a b l e t i r e d n e s s a n d m a l a i s e
ev e n w h e n it d id n o t e n t a il a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k .
At factory No. 1 (northeast coast) 58 out of 185 complained of dysmenorrhea,
for which 15 lost time every month, 10 suffered from menorrhagia. Serious
complaints having been made of the bad effect of the work in a particular shop
on menstruation, 11 girls about whom the supervisor was concerned were
specially examined in this respect.
Of these 4 cases were normal, 6 had
dysmenorrhea, 2 suffered from menorrhagia. In 2 cases the girls were obliged
to lose time, but in only 1 case had the symptoms appeared since the work was
commenced. The medical officer came to the conclusion that there was no
special cause for alarm and that the conditions were fairly typical of the factory
as a whole.
At factory No. 2 (Midlands) 80 out of 264 suffered from dysmenorrhea and 9
from frequency. An inquiry among 34 women engaged on the rough turn-body
process showed that considerable pelvic discomfort occurred in those women
whose pelvic and abdominal muscles were weakened either through pregnancy,
overfatigue, or lack of muscular power. In 6 of the cases women had observed
Irregularity of menstruation, in 8 there was some degree of menorrhagia, 3
cases of prolapsus uteri had occurred and 3 suffered from some weakness of the
bladder. Dysmenorrhea had increased in 3 cases; 1 woman had undergone
spontaneous extrusion of a fibroid while engaged on this process and was feeling
considerably better in health.
At factory No. 3 (Yorkshire) 23 out of 116 women suffered from dysmenor­
rhea, and in about half the number of cases the pain was sufficiently severe to




APPEN D IX B

(I).

291

necessitate absence from the factory. Eleven severe cases and five slighter ones
were stated to have arisen from or to have been aggravated by factory work.
Two women complained of menorrhagia and seven of increased frequency.
A t factory No. 4 (London) 39 women out of 157 suffered from menstrual dis­
orders, 12 losing time every month. In 1 case improvement had taken place
since working at the factory, in 6 cases the reverse.
At factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) of 146 women engaged on 6-inch shells menstrua­
tion was unchanged in 88 cases, decreased in 12, and increased in 5 cases. In
the last group the loss was so excessive as practically to amount to actual flood­
ing. These latter cases were women who had borne children and were working
on processes involving heavy lifting, such as tightening the chuck of machines.
A few complained of backache and bearing down sensation, amounting to definite
prolapse in 1 case. These were directly attributable to overstrain and gave a
fairly typical picture of endometritis following hard work and want of rest.
O f 53 women engaged on 9-inch shells menstruation was increased in 9 cases
and diminished in 10. There was no history of severe flooding.
A t factory No. 7 (near London) 20 out of 67 girls complained of dysmenorrhea
and 2 of menorrhagia; 7 lost time every month.
At factory No. 8 (near London) 31 out of 114 suffered from dysmenorrhea, of
whom 19 lost time every m onth; 2 stated that they were worse since coming to
the factory.

V e r y fe w w o m e n w h o s u ffe r e d f r o m d y s m e n o r r h e a h a d e v e r c o n ­
s u lt e d a d o c t o r .
T h e y a p p e a r e d to c o n s id e r it a n e ce ssa r y e v il to b e
p u t u p w it h a n d m a d e th e b est o f .
M a n y w o m e n w e re s u rp ris e d th a t
i t s h o u ld b e r e g a r d e d as a n a b n o r m a l c o n d it io n f o r w h ic h m e d ic a l
a d v ic e a n d tr e a tm e n t s h o u ld b e s o u g h t.
T h e r e see m ed in d e e d a g r e a t
d is in c lin a t io n t o c o n s u lt t h e ir d o c t o r s , a n d “ h e ’s n o tim e f o r s u ch
t h i n g s ” w a s a c o m m o n r e p ly t o th e q u e s tio n as t o w h e t h e r a d v ic e
h a d b e e n o b ta in e d .
A t fa c to r y N o. 3 (Y o r k s h ir e ) “ th ere w a s a
t e n d e n c y f o r m o th e r s o r e ld e r ly w o m e n r e la tiv e s t o p r e s c r ib e g in
a s a s p e c ific r e m e d y , a n d t h o u g h th e y o u n g e r w o m e n d is lik e d it s
ta s te a t fir s t it s u se m ig h t e a s ily le a d t o a lc o h o lis m in la t e r y e a r s .
I n som e cases th e m e d ic a l tre a tm e n t o b ta in e d a p p e a r e d to b e p a llia ­
t iv e r a th e r t h a n c u r a t iv e , p o w d e r s a n d lin im e n t b e in g g iv e n .”
O t h e r g y n e c o lo g ic a l c o n d it io n s w h ic h w e r e n o te d (in a d d it io n
t o b a c k a ch e a n d s y m p to m s p o s s ib ly d u e to c h r o n ic p e lv ic tr o u b le )
w e r e p r o la p s u s u te r i a n d m is c a r r ia g e .
B o t h th ese c o n d it io n s m a y
b e ca u s e d p a r t ly o r e n t ir e ly b y th e h e a v y w o r k , b u t w it h o u t d e t a ile d
i n q u ir y i t is d iffic u lt t o a t t r ib u t e th e ca u s e s o le ly t o f a c t o r y w o r k ,
w h e n t h e w o m a n m a y a ls o b e u n d e r t a k in g h e a v y o r u n s u ita b le w o r k
a t hom e.

ADDENDA.
I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n q u i r y t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r s
w a s d ir e c te d to t w o p ro c e s s e s w h ic h f o r d iffe r e n t re a so n s p r e s e n te d
f e a t u r e s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , n a m(al)y , c o p p e r b a n d t u r n i n(b ;)
e
g
c o n t i n u o u s w o r k i n a r t i f i c i a l l i g c ) t ; f o (l l o w i n g u p w o r k e r s w h o
h
h a v e le ft th e fa c t o r y .




292

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AN D E FF IC IE N C Y .

( a) Coppeb B a n d T u r n in g .

D u r i n g t h is p r o c e s s w o r k e r s a r e a p t t o in h a le m e t a llic d u s t o r
fu m e s , a n d s y m p to m s s u g g e s t in g ir r it a n t p o is o n in g w e r e n o te d in a
n u m b e r o f cases.
At factory No. 1 (Northeast coast) there was an unusual amount of digestive
disturbance among the workers in copper and brass. The girls themselves
have a fixed idea that the copper “ gets on their stomach ” or “ on their chest.”
They complained of dust in the mouth like verdigris, and purgatives are taken
regularly to counteract this. In 11 cases inflammation of the gums and nausea
and vomiting were noted, while diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 4.
At factory No. 2 (Midlands) 28 women on copper band turning were ex­
amined, and, generally speaking, the w ork was popular, but a fairly large
T
number appear to have had symptoms suggestive of mild poisoning, possibly
due to the inhalation of impurities in copper dust. About 18 were aware of a
metallic taste in their mouths, 10 had noticed dryness of the throat, and about
7 suffered at intervals from nausea, indigestion, and diarrhea. Actual vomiting
occurred in 4 cases. Other who did not complain of nausea suffered from nose
bleeding with occasional loss of voice, especially after night) duty. A certain
amount of eye strain was noticed from the dazzling reflection of the rotating
copper band.
It was observed that about 10 of the workers who complained of a metallic
taste with digestive disturbance or nose bleeding had extremely bad teeth with
marked oral sepsis. Conversely 10 women with clean and well-kept teeth
had remained healthy at this work. Only two employees were examined who
had good teeth but yet showed some symptoms on this process; and one of these
stated that her sister had been away for some weeks with “ copper poisoning ”
so that allowance may be made for personal susceptibility.
At factory No. 3 (Yorkshire) an examination of 26 women showed that at
least 20 of the workers were conscious of a metallic taste with dryness and
pricking of the throat, especially after night duty. Nausea was present in 16
and 4 had occasional attacks of vomiting and diarrhea. Nose bleeding occurred
in two w orkers.
T
Fatigue of the eyes and headache were observed in a large number of cases
from the glare of artificial light on the rotating copper band. These symptoms
suggest that women are occasionally suffering from mild attacks of irritant
poisoning due to impurity in the copper dust, and it seems possible that arsenic
may be the exciting cause. This is supported by a conversation with the
manager, who stated that arsenic is frequently found as an impurity in the
copper and that the amount varies at different tim es; occasionally the copper
bands are unduly soft and more dust is produced in rotation.
In favor of arsenic is the apparent connection between the condition of the
teeth and the susceptibility of the worker, thus pointing to the existence of a
volatile irritant. Forty per cent of the workers who showed symptoms had
several carious teeth, often with marked oral sepsis. Conversely, five workers
with good, well-kept teeth had remained quite healthy, and three women with
excellent teeth who had attacks of vomiting or colic admitted that they
never used a toothbrush. The known variation in susceptibility of persons to
the influence of irritants such as arsenic should also be taken into account.
At factory No. 5 (Yorkshire) the work of the copper-band turners is highly
paid and not so exacting physically as in the case of some other operations.
It involves deftness and close visual attention and the girls employed are picked
at the outset. In the summer of 1917 it was recognized by the medical officer




A P P E F D IX B

(I).

293

o f the factory that the girls working in brass and copper were suffering to a
certain extent from copper absorption as shown by a taste of copper in the
mouth, sore dry throat and nose, pain after food, colic, constipation, and in some
cases a green line of the gums corresponding to the lead line produced in cases
of plumbism. At that time the worst cases were recommended for transfer to
other work, washing before meals encouraged, saline drinks supplied in the
ambulance room, and a half pint of milk per shift given to each worker. After
this line of treatment the conditions improved greatly, so that the girls ex­
amined for the purpose of this inquiry showed no very marked evidence of
injurious results. In 10 girls examined there were 6 cases of irritation, as
shown by a copper taste in the mouth, and sore nose and throat, 3 cases o f
mild absorption; 1 girl had no evidence of injurious effects.

T h e s e fin d in g s p o in t t o th e d e s ir a b ilit y o f s p e c ia l a tt e n t io n b e i n g
d e v o t e d t o w o r k e r s in t h is p r o c e s s .
A l l p o s s ib le m e a n s s h o u ld b
ta k e n f o r p r e v e n t in g th e in h a la tio n o f ir r it a n t d u st, a n d th e w o m e n
so e m p lo y e d s h o u ld b e u n d e r th e o b s e r v a t io n o f th e w e lfa r e s ta ff, w h o
s h o u ld a t o n c e r e p o r t s y m p to m s s u g g e s tiv e o f p o is o n in g to th e m e d i­
c a l o ffic e r . A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d b e p a i d t o d e n t a l' h y g i e n e a n d p e r s o n a l
c le a n l i n e s s s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d .
(b) C o n tin u o u s W o e k in A r t i f i c i a l L ig h t .

B a l l v ie w in g is a m o s t t r y i n g t y p e o f w o r k as it h a s t o b e d o n e in
s tr o n g e le c tric lig h t , e x c e p t in th e ca se o f la p p in g v ie w in g w h e r
d iff u s e d l ig h t is u s e d . F o r t h is p r o c e s s th e w o m e n a n d y o u n g p e r s o n a
h a v e to w o r k in a r o o m w h e n ce d a y lig h t is e x c lu d e d b y s h u tte r s
s t r o n g a r c la m p s , h a n g in g lo w o v e r o c t a g o n a l ta b le s a n d s h a d e d b y
c a r t r id g e p a p e r , t h r o w a d iffu s e d l ig h t o n t o t r a y s c o n t a in in g
c e r t a in n u m b e r o f b a lls ( v a r y in g a c c o r d in g t o s iz e ). E a c h w o r k e
k e e p s h e r tr a y c o n tin u a lly r o t a t in g w h ile sh e w a tch e s in te n tly f o r
a n y f l a w , r e m o v i n g a n y d e f e c t i v e b a l l s h e m a y fi n d .
In order t
d e t e c t a n y fla tte n e d s u r fa c e s th e b a lls a r e e x a m in e d a g a in in t h e
“ t w ilig h t ” r o o m , s im ila r ly s h u tte re d , b u t w it h th e o r d in a r y e le c t r ic
l ig h t so d im m e d t h a t th e r o o m is in a s ta te o f s e m io b s c u r it y , in w h ic h
th e ir r e g u la r it ie s a re s a id t o b e m o r e q u ic k ly seen .
T h e w o r k is v e r y l i g h t a n d r e q u ir e s n o p h y s ic a l s t r e n g t h . I t th e r e *
f o r e a ttr a c ts g i r ls w h o a r e p e r h a p s u n fit f o r o r d i n a r y f a c t o r y e m
p lo y m e n t. T h e w o r k e r s s a y th a t th e ir e y e s a ch e a n d th e y h a v e h e a d ­
a c h e s f o r th e fir s t w e e k , b u t a ft e r t h a t t h e y b e c o m e a c c u s to m e d t o th e
lig h t. A t f a c t o r y N o . 8 so m e w o m e n h a d b e e n w o r k in g f o r se v e r a
y e a r s in d iffu s e d lig h t a n d a p p e a r e d w e ll. T h e p a u s e s in t h is w o r k
a r e f r e q u e n t . T h e r e a r e t w o a d d i t i o n a l b r e a k s a t 1 0 .4 5 a n d 2 .1 5 a n d
t h e w o r k is n o t c o n t i n u o u s f o r m o r e t h a n
h o u rs. D u r in g th es
b r e a k s th e g ir ls a re sen t o u t o n to a r o o f p la y g r o u n d f o r e x e r c is e a n d
r e c r e a tio n ,
A t f a c t o r y N o . 8 (n e a r L o n d o n ) th e re w e r e sev en g ir ls in th
44t w i l i g h t ” r o o m a n d f i v e w e r e e x a m i n e d .
A l l fiv e s u ffe r e d f r o m




294

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AJtfD E FF IC IE N C Y .

'e n l a r g e d c e r v i c a l g l a n d s w h i c h w e r e p r e s u m a b l y t u b e r c u l a r , t w o h a d
s ca rs o f o ld a b scesses, a n d o n e h a d h a d fo u r o p e r a tio n s f o r th e r e ­
m o v a l o f g la n d s . I n th e la t t e r ca se th e la s t o p e r a t io n h a d b e e n d o n e
th r e e w e e k s p r e v io u s ly , a n d th e w o r k e r , w h o s u ffe r s f r o m in d ig e s t io n
a n d is s u b je c t t o f a i n t i n g , h a d a lr e a d y b e e n b a c k a t t h e f a c t o r y f o r
a w eek.
N in e te e n g ir ls w e r e e x a m in e d w h o w o r k in d iffu s e d a r t ific ia l lig h t .
O f th ese 6 h a d e n la r g e d c e r v ic a l g la n d s , 7 w e r e a n e m ic , a n d 7 h a d
e y e a ffe c tio n s .
O f th e 2 4 w o r k e r s 7 w e r e c la s s ifie d a s A , 13 a s B , a n d 4 a s C .
T h e p r e s e n c e o f so m a n y e n la r g e d a n d p o s s ib ly tu b e r c u lo u s g la n d s ,
n o t a c o m m o n c o m p l a i n t a m o n g m u n i t i o n w o r k e r s , a s s o c i a t e d w it h ,
c o n t i n u e d w o r k i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u n l i g h t is w o r t h y o f n o t i c e .
It
s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t i n u e d e m p l o y m e n t i n a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t is u n d e s i r a b l e
a n d th a t th e re s h o u ld b e so m e a r r a n g e m e n t b y w h ic h a lt e r n a t io n o f
e m p lo y m e n t c o u ld b e p r o v id e d f o r w o r k e r s in t h is p r o c e s s .
(c) F ollow ing

u p of

W orkers

who

have

L eft

the

F actory .

I t is c le a r t h a t th e e x a m in a t io n o f w o m e n a c t u a lly e m p lo y e d a t
a n y g iv e n m o m e n t in th e fa c t o r ie s w ill n o t r e v e a l a c o m p le te p ic ­
t u r e o f t h e e ffe c t t h e w o r k is h a v i n g u p o n h e a lt h a n d p h y s iq u e .
T h o s e w h o h a v e b e e n a b le t o r e m a in f o r a y e a r o r m o r e in c o n t in u o u s
e m p l o y m e n t w i t h o u t a b r e a k d o w n a r e t o s o m e e x t e n t t h e r e s u lt s o f a
p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e le c t io n a n d r e p r e s e n t th e m o s t p h y s i c a l l y fit a m o n g
t h e w o m e n w o r k e r s . A n e x a m in a t io n o f t h is k in d ta k e s n o a c c o u n t o f
th e w o m e n w h o h a v e d r o p p e d o u t o f e m p lo y m e n t b e ca u se th e y w e r e
u n a b le t o s u p p o r t th e s t r a in o f l o n g h o u r s , n ig h t s h if t s , o r h e a v y
w o r k . I t is n o t a n e a s y t a s k t o t r a c e w o r k e r s w h o h a v e l e f t t h e f a c ­
t o r y , e s p e c ia lly w h e n th e w o r k e r s a re d r a w n f r o m a w id e a rea . L a c k
o f t im e a n d o p p o r t u n it y h a v e p r e v e n t e d a n y e x t e n s iv e in q u ir ie s b e ­
i n g m a d e in t h is d ir e c t io n . A t th e s a m e tim e i t w a s t h o u g h t t h a t
e v e n lim it e d in v e s tig a tio n s m ig h t b e w o r t h m a k in g a n d th e f o l l o w ­
i n g r e s u lt s a r e t h e r e f o r e g i v e n .
F a c t o r y N o . 2 (M id la n d s ) : H o m e v is its p a id to 56 w o r k e r s w h o
h a d r e c e n tly l e f t s h o w e d th a t w o m e n lik e d th e f a c t o r y a n d w e r e
u s u a lly s o r r y t o le a v e . T h e c a u s e o f a b s e n c e as e n t e r e d in t h e r e c o r d s
o f th e w e lf a r e s u p e r in t e n d e n t a g r e e d c lo s e ly w it h t h e r e s u lts o f p r i ­
v a te in q u ir y in th e h om e s o f w o rk e rs.
T h e f o llo w in g ta b le s h o w s
causes o f le a v in g :
Cases.
18
Left for other work_______________ 11
Care of children or home duties__
8
Long h ou rs_________________________
8
Left district____ ____ __ ___ ______ _
7

11 health___________________________
1




Cases.
Long distance from work_.
Not traced__________________
Total.

2
2
56

APPEN D IX B

(I)•

295

C a se s o f ill h e a lth in c lu d e d f o u r w o m e n w h o l e f t f o r a p p r o a c h in g
c o n fin e m e n t s a n d o n e w o m a n w h o g a v e u p f a c t o r y w o r k o w i n g t
sev ere h e m o r r h a g e d u r in g th e m e n o p a u se . O n e s in g le w o m a n w h o
w o r k e d u n t il t h r e e w e e k s b e f o r e th e b ir t h o f h e r c h i ld h a d a d iffic u lt
c o n fin e m e n t a n d t h e c h i ld w a s s a id t o b e v e r y d e lic a t e . T h i s w a
a ttr ib u te d b y th e d o c t o r in c h a r g e to th e p r o lo n g e d w o r k d u r in
p r e g n a n c y . T h e m o th e r w a s at a n u r s in g h o m e f o r f o u r w eek s, b u
h a s n o w r e c o v e r e d a n d is w o r k i n g o n m u n i t i o n s e l s e w h e r e . A n o t h e r
m a r r ie d w o m a n w a s a m a c h in e o p e r a t o r a n d w o r k e d a t h e r la t h
u n t il th e d a y o f h e r c o n fin e m e n t w h e n sh e h a d a 7 -m o n t h s s t illb o r n
c h ild . A m o n g th e w o m e n w h o l e f t f o r o t h e r w o r k a re in c lu d e d c e r
t a in ca ses w h o g a v e in n o t ic e t o s e c u re e m p lo y m e n t e ls e w h e r e f e a r ­
i n g d is m is s a l o w i n g t o s h o r t a g e o f w o r k . T h e e ig h t ca se s w h o f o u n d
h o u r s l o n g w e r e u n a b le t o s ta n d th e f a t ig u e o f th e 1 2 -h o u r s h ift .
F a c t o r y N o . 6 (M id la n d s ) : V is its w e re p a id to 37 w o r k e r s w h
h a d b ee n e x a m in e d a t th e p r e v io u s in q u ir y b u t w h o w e r e n o t a v a il­
a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n b y t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r o n t h i s o c c a s i o n . T h e r e
s u lt s s h o w e d t h a t o n l y t w o w o r k e r s l e f t a c t u a l l y o n a c c o u n t o f i l l
ness.
F a c t o r y N o . 4 ( L o n d o n ) : V i s i t s w e r e p a i d b y t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r t o
14 ca ses w h o w e r e s a id to h a v e l e f t th e f a c t o r y o n th e g r o u n d s o f i ll
h e a l t h . T h e r e s u lt s w e r e a s f o l l o w s :
1. Aged 18. Normal pregnancy; no complications.
2. Aged 20. Normal pregnancy, together with a mastoid abscess not attrib­
utable to factory conditions.
3. Aged 22. Left on account of slackness of work; in good health.
4. Aged 26. On base-facing process. Miscarriage at four months attributed
to pulling levers. Work probably too heavy. Normal health at present.
5. Aged 38. Engaged in sweeping floors. Left on account of hemorrhage
from piles. E^ound work too heavy. At present thin, w orn; subject to bron­
chitis.
6. Aged 22. Worked on base plates. Constantly got steel splinters in her
eyes— wore no goggles. Left on this account. Is in normal health now.
7. Aged 19. Left on account of slackness of work. Is in good health. W ork­
ing at a tailor shop.
8. Worked as a checker. Sight was poor and could not do work properly.
Left on this account. Thin, delicate girl.
9. Aged 38. Found standing tiring and got varicose veins. Left on this
account.
10. Aged 25. Found work too hard— refused to be medically examined.
11. Aged 18. Left because she could not stand the night work. Is anemic,
blit now works at a tailor’s.
12. Aged 28. Worked on base plates at first and then on boring. The latter
operation caused menorrhagia. She became very tired and worn out, especially
as she did her own housework, including washing. Is at present strong and
well, and menstruation is normal.
13. Left on account of night work. Is now a guard on a tram ; strong,
healthy, and well.
14. Left on account o£ pregnancy; normal confinement. Quite well now.
,




296

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H AND E F F IC IE N C Y .

F a c t o r y N o . 8 (n e a r L o n d o n ) : T h e to ta l n u m b e r (a c c o r d in g t o th e
f i r m ’ s r e c o r d s ) o f w o r k e r s w h o h a v e l e f t s i n c e A u g u s t 1 , 1 9 1 7 , i . e .,
d u r in g f o u r m o n th s , w a s 131.
T h e fo llo w in g reason s fo r le a v in g
w ere g iv e n :
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ill health_______________________
U n kn ow n _______________________
Bad timekeeping________________
Other disciplinary reasons____

34
7
13
20

5.
6.
7.
8.

Own accord_____________________ _IS
Home duties____________________ _11
Not suitable___ _________________ _15
Leaving town or to be married- 16

A n e n d e a v o r w a s m a d e t o v is it th e w h o le o f th ese w o r k e r s t o a s c e r ­
ta in w h e th e r th e re a so n s g iv e n t o th e fir m c o r r e s p o n d e d g e n e r a lly
w i t h t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n o n i n q u i r y . T h e r e s u lt s o f 1 0 2 v i s i t s w e r e a s
fo llo w s :
Visited at addresses recorded (reasons for leaving) —
(a ) Effective:
1. Ill health______________
2. Maternity cases_______
3. To be married_________
4. Home duties___________
5. Still w orking at same
T
fa c to r y ______________
6. Dismissed ____________
Total_______________

1
5

(&) Ineffective:
1. No information______
2. Left addresses— forms
sent
in, 1 2 ; no
forms, 17____________
3. Not traced or out —
forms sent in, 8 ; no
forms, 5______________

57

Total_______________

34
3
7
7

3

29

13
45

J t is o f in te r e s t t o n o t e th e p r e s e n t o c c u p a t io n s o f 17 o f th e w o m e n
v is ite d —
Laundry____________________________ ___ 2
S h op________________________________ ___ 2
Flour m ills ____________________________ 1
Gas works__________________________ ___ 1

Work at same factory________________ 1
Munition work_____________________ ___ 4
Work in recruiting office__________ ___ 1
Domestic service_______________ _______ 5

F a c t o r y N o . 7 (n e a r L o n d o n ) : T h e t o ta l n u m b e r (a c c o r d in g t o th e
f i r m ’ s r e c o r d s ) o f w o r k e r s w h o h a v e l e f t s i n c e A u g u s t 1 , 1 9 1 7 , i. e ..
d u r in g fo u r m o n th s, w a s 42.
T h e f o llo w in g rea so n s f o r le a v in g w e re
g iv e n :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ill health_______________________
Prolonged absence______________
Bad timekeeping_______________
Other disciplinary reasons_____
Own accord_____________________

9
3
4
4
13

6. Not required (probably owing
to slackness)_________________ ___C
7. Not suitable_____________________ ___1
8. Left town_______________________ ___2

V is its w e r e p a id t o th e h o m e s o f th e w o r k e r s w it h th e f o l l o w i n g
r e s u lts in 14 c a s e s :
Visited at addresses recorded (reasons for leaving) —
Effective:
1. Ill health______________________0
2. Maternity cases___________ ___2
3. To better position_________
1
4. Dismissed______________________ 1




Effective— Continued.
5. Still at same factory_______
T o ta l.

1
14

APPEN D IX B

(I).

297

Eight of the women visited are now employed as follow s:
Sh op _______________ :_______________
Ticket collecting__________________
Waiting at aeroplane canteen___
Work at same factory___
Work at munition factory.

1
1

W . A. A. C. baker.
Domestic service.

1
1

1
Total.
8
1
2
I n o n ly a fe w ca ses w a s it p r a c t ic a b le f o r th e w o m e n to b e e x a m in e d
b y a d o c t o r , s o , u n f o r t u n a t e ly , f e w d e t a ils a re a v a ila b le as t o th e
p r e c i s e a i l m e n t s o f t h o s e w7 o l e f t w o r k b e c a u s e o f i l l h e a l t h .
h
As
fa r as th e y g o , th ese fin d in g s d o n o t s u g g e s t th a t an u n d u ly la r g e
p r o p o r t i o n o f w7o m e n i s l e a v i n g t h e f a c t o r i e s o n a c c o u n t o f p h y s i c a l
breakdow n.
T h e n u m b e r s a r e h i g h e s t a t f a c t o r y N o . 8, w h e r e 3 4 o u t
o f 57 in t e r v ie w e d h a d l e f t f o r r e a s o n s o f h e a lth .
T h e p h y s iq u e o f
th e w o m e n a t t h is f a c t o r y , h o w e v e r , w a s d e c id e d ly b e lo w th e a v e r a g e
o f w o r k e r s e x a m in e d , a n d a la r g e n u m b e r o f w o m e n a p p e a r e d t o b e
u n d e r n o u r is h e d .
S u c h w o r k e r s m ig h t b e e x p e c te d to b e u n a b le t o
s t a n d t h e s t r a i n o f m u n i t i o n wT r k a n d a l l t h a t i t e n t a i ls , e v e n w h e n
o
th e w o r k is l ig h t in c h a r a c t e r .
J a n e t M . C a m p b e ll, M . D ,
F e b r u a r y , 191 8 ,




A P P E N D IX B ( I I ) .— G E N E R A L F IN D IN G S O F IN Q U IR IE S IN T O T H E
H E A L T H O F W O M E N M U N IT IO N W O R K E R S .
B Y M I S S J A N E T M . C A M P B E L L , M . D ., M . S .

T h e r a p id m u ltip lic a t io n a n d g r o w t h o f m u n itio n fa c t o r ie s s in c e
th e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f th e w a r h a v e b e e n a s s o c ia te d w it h c o r r e s p o n d ­
in g ly w id e a n d u r g e n t d e m a n d s u p o n w o m e n t o e n te r in d u s tr ia l
life .
T h e r e h a s b e e n a m p le r e s p o n s e n o t o n ly f r o m w o m e n a lr e a d y
a ccu sto m e d to fa c t o r y w o r k b u t fr o m la r g e n u m b ers o f o th e rs w h o
e n t e r e d u p o n s u c h e m p lo y m e n t f o r t h e fir s t t im e .
L a tte r ly m a n y
p la c e s h a v e b e e n fille d b y m a r r ie d w o m e n , s o m e o f w h o m o ff e r e d
t h e m s e lv e s b e c a u s e o f t h e u r g e n t n a t i o n a l n e e d , b u t m o s t p e r h a p s
b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e u n a b le o t h e r w is e t o s u p p o r t th e m s e lv e s a n d t h e ir
c h ild r e n .
T h e e x is tin g c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t a re in m a n y r e ­
s p e c t s a b n o r m a l , b u t i t is i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r e f f e c t s o n t h e
h e a lth o f th e w o m e n w it h a v ie w t o p re s e n t a n d fu t u r e g u id a n c e .
I t w a s f o r th e p u r p o s e o f o b t a in in g so m e r e lia b le d a ta a n d fir s t-h a n d
e v id e n c e o f th e e ffe c t o f e m p lo y m e n t u p o n th e in d iv id u a l w o m a n
t h a t th e h e a lth o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s c o m m it t e e m a d e a r r a n g e m e n t s
f o r t w o m e d ic a l in q u ir ie s w h ic h w ere c a r r ie d o u t in v a r io u s fa c t o r ie s
in 1915, 1916, a n d in 1917.
I n t h e f i r s t i n q u i r y 1 ,3 2 6 w o m e n w e r e e x a m i n e d i n 1 1 t y p i c a l e n g i ­
n e e r in g fa c to r ie s . I n m o s t ca ses th e w o r k w a s f a i r l y lig h t in c h a r ­
a c t e r , n o t h i n g h e a v i e r t h a n 4 . 5 - i n c h s h e l ls b e i n g h a n d l e d . T h e h o u r s
o f w o r k w e r e o ft e n e x ce s s iv e . I n o n e ca se w o m e n w e r e e m p lo y e d 7 7
h o u r s w e e k l y , a n d h e r e 1 5 .5 p e r c e n t s h o w e d e v i d e n c e o f s e v e r e
f a t i g u e . I n o t h e r c a s e s t h e h o u r s , e x c l u d i n g m e a ls , w e r e 6 8 | , 6 3 , 6 7 ,
a n d 69 a w e e k . S u n d a y w o r k w a s g e n e r a l. O n th e w h o le th e w o m e n
r e a liz e d th e n e e d f o r a n a d e q u a te d ie t a r y a n d u s u a lly h a d s u b s t a n t ia l
m e a ls , b u t t h e c a n t e e n a n d m e s s - r o o m a c c o m m o d a t i o n a t t h e f a c t o r i e s
w a s w h o l l y i n s u f f i c ie n t a n d s o m e t i m e s n o n e x i s t e n t , w e l f a r e s u p e r ­
v is io n w a s lit t le d e v e lo p e d , a n d th e a r ra n g e m e n ts f o r th e p e r s o n a l
h y g ie n e a n d c o n v e n ie n c e o f th e w o r k e r s o ft e n l e f t m u c h t o b e d e s ir e d .1
I n t h e s e c o n d i n q u i r y 1 ,1 8 3 w o m e n w e r e e x a m i n e d i n e i g h t t y p i c a l
fa c t o r ie s . P r a c t ic a ll y a ll th e w o m e n h a d b e e n e n g a g e d in m u n it io n
wT r k f o r a t l e a s t n i n e m o n t h s , a n d m o s t o f t h e m f o r l o n g e r . T h o s e
o
e x a m in e d in c lu d e d a la r g e p r o p o r t io n o f m a r r ie d w o m e n w ith d o * A re p o rt on th is in q u iry w as pub lish ed in th e In te rim R e p o r t o f th e
M u n ition W o rk e rs C om m ittee on In d u s tria l E fficien cy a n d F a tig u e , 1917.

298




H e a lth

APPEN D IX B

(II).

299

m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a n d t h e d if f ic u l t i e s o f s h o p p i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g
f o o d w e r e b e g in n in g t o b e s e v e r e ly f e l t in s o m e d is t r ic t s .
M any
w o m e n w e r e e m p l o y e d o n h e a v y w o r k ( 5 , 6 , a n d 9 .2 i n c h s h e l l s ) .
T h e g e n e r a l c o n d it io n s o f e m p lo y m e n t h a d c o n s id e r a b ly im p r o v e d .
T h e h o u rs h a d b e e n s h o rte n e d , th e re w a s n o o v e r tim e o r S u n d a y
la b o r (e x c e p t S u n d a y n ig h t in som e c a s e s ) ; g o o d ca n te e n s w e re a v a il­
a b l e f o r m e a ls , a n d t h e “ w e l f a r e ” o f t h e w o r k e r s w a s c a r e f u l l y
o r g a n iz e d . T h e c o n d it io n s o f w o r k d e se rv e a b r ie f r e c a p itu la tio n .

CHARACTER OF THE WORK.
I n th e e a r lie r d a y s o f t h e w a r w o m e n w e r e o n ly e m p lo y e d o n t h e
lig h t e r p ro c e s s e s o f m u n it io n w o r k a n d in th e m a k in g o f s m a lle r
s h e l ls u p t o 3 - i n c h s h e l ls .
T h e n a ft e r so m e h e s ita t io n t h e y w e r e
a l l o w e d t o b e g i n w o r k o n 4 . 5 - i n c h s h e l ls , w h i c h w e i g h 4 8 p o u n d s i n
th e r o u g h a n d a b o u t 2 7 J p o u n d s in t h e c o m p le t e sta te. F o r th e s e a n d
h e a v i e r s h e l ls t h e y n o w c a r r y o u t a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h
in c lu d e w o r k in g o n la th e s , m i l li n g a n d d r i l l i n g m a c h in e s , e x a m in in g ,
c le a n in g , c h e c k in g , a n d a ls o lo a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g w a g o n s .
T hey
a re e m p lo y e d a s c r a n e d r iv e r s a n d s lin g e r s .
N o l i f t i n g t a c k le is
p r o v i d e d f o r t h e 4 . 5 - i n c h s h e l ls , a n d t h e t o t a l w e i g h t o f s h e l l h a n d l e d
d a i l y is c o n s i d e r a b l e . F o r 5 a n d 6 i n c h s h e l ls l i f t i n g t a c k l e is u s u a l l y
a v a i l a b l e , b u t is n o t a l w a y s u s e d b y t h e w o m e n , w h o s o m e t i m e s f i n d
i t q u i c k e r t o l i f t t h e s h e l l t h a n t o a d j u s t t h e t a c k l e . T h e 6 - i n c h s h e l ls
w e ig h a b o u t 130 p o u n d s in th e r o u g h a n d 9 0 p o u n d s w h e n fin is h e d ,
s o t h a t th e w o m e n a r e ju s t a b le t o l i f t th e m . F o r t h is r e a s o n t h is
t y p e o f s h e l l is p e r h a p s t h e m o s t l i k e l y t o c a u s e o v e r s t r a i n a n d
fa tig u e , a lth o u g h m u ch h a s b ee n d o n e in m a n y fa c to r ie s to r e d u ce
t h e s t r a in o f m a n ip u la t io n b y a r r a n g in g r o l l i n g w a y s , t r o lle y s o f
t h e r i g h t h e i g h t , e t c ., a n d g i v i n g t h e m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s t h e a s s i s t a n c e
o f l a b o r e r s t o l i f t t h e s h e l ls i n t o t h e m a c h i n e s . T h e 9 - i n c h a n d a l l
h e a v i e r s h e l ls c a n n o t b e h a n d l e d e x c e p t b y t a c k l e , a n d t h e r i s k o f
s t r a i n f r o m l i f t i n g is m u c h r e d u c e d , t h o u g h t h e m a c h i n e s t h e m s e l v e s
a re o ft e n h e a v y t o w o r k .1
W o m e n e n g a g e d i n l o a d i n g a n d u n l o a d i n g s h e l ls a r e u s u a l l y o r ­
g a n iz e d in g a n g s a n d g iv e n d u e re st b e tw e e n e a ch s p e ll o f w o r k .
M u c h ca n b e d o n e t o m in im iz e e n e r g y b y p r e v e n t in g u n n e c e s s a ry
l ift in g , as fr o m th e g r o u n d o r a lo w t r o lle y t o a h ig h b e n c h o r w a g o n
above.
F o r g e w o r k , f o r e x a m p le , l i f t i n g s h e lls o u t o f th e fu r n a c e o r
c a r r y in g th e m o u t o f th e f o r g e p re s s, is d o n e b y a fe w w o m e n . A t
1 T h e n u m ber o f sh ells a n d con seq u en tly th e w e ig h t h a n d led by in d iv id u a l w om en
v a ries g re a tly o n th e d ifferen t op era tion s. In ord er to giv e som e in d ica tio n the a vera g e
in d iv id u a l ou tp u t p er 1 2-h ou r s h ift a t one fa c t o r y en g ag ed In 6 -in ch sh ells m ay be
cite d fo r th e d ifferen t p rocesses : R ip p in g , 79 ; rou g h tu rn in g , 35 ; rou gh and base b orin g ,
3 7 ; finish and cou n ter b orin g , 2 5 ; fa c e base, 8 2 ; co u n te r b o rin g and chase, 50 ; rou gh
profile, 1 2 0 ; finish tu rn , 4 3 ; g r o o v in g , 1 1 0 ; w a v in g , 2 1 8 ; ro u g h recess, 1 1 4 ; finish
recess, 5 8 ; co p p e r ban d tu rn in g, 130.




300

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

o n e f a c t o r y t h e l a r g e r s h e l ls s o h a n d l e d w e i g h e d 9 6 p o u n d s a n d t h e
s m a lle r o n e s 45 p o u n d s . W o m e n t o o k tu r n s in l i f t i n g a n d c h a n g e d
a f t e r e v e r y 2 0 - 3 0 s h e l ls .
I t i s a s t o n i s h i n g how~ d e f t w o m e n b e c o m e
in d e a lin g w it h h e a v y w e ig h ts , a n d th e y o ft e n ta k e g r e a t p r id e in
th e ir m u s c u la r s tr e n g th a n d d e x t e r it y .
B u t c le a r ly it is m o s t i m ­
p o r t a n t fir s t t o se le c t th e w o r k e r s p r o p e r ly a n d n e x t t o w a t c h th a t
t h e y d o n o t a t t e m p t t o o m u c h in t h e ir e a g e r n e s s t o d o w e ll.

THE LONG HOURS OF WORK.
E v e n th o u g h th e e x c e s s iv e h o u r s w o r k e d a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e
W a r h a v e n o w b e e n r e d u c e d , i t is s t i l l p e r m i s s i b l e f o r w o m e n t o w o r k
60 h o u r s a w e e k , ir r e s p e c t iv e o f p a u s e s a n d m e a ltim e s . T h i s u s u a lly
m e a n s in p r a c t ic e t w o 1 2 -h o u r s h ift s w it h n o S u n d a y d a y w o r k . I n
m a n y fa c t o r ie s w o r k in g th e t w o -s h ift sy ste m th e h o u r s a r e s o m e w h a t
le s s t h a n t h i s ( 5 5 o r 5 7 | ) a n d a h a l f h o l i d a y is g i v e n o n S a t u r d a y .
A 1 2 -h o u r s h if t m e a n s in p r a c t ic e 1 3 -1 4 h o u r s a w a y f r o m h o m e .
T h e w h o l e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t i m e o u g h t t o b e o c c u p i e d w i t h m e a ls a n d
s l e e p i f t h e w o m e n a r e t o h a v e s u ff i c i e n t r e s t t o o v e r c o m e f a t i g u e .
B u t th o u g h m a n y o f th e y o u n g e r w o m e n a re fa ir ly fr e e fr o m d o m e s ­
t i c r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s m o s t o f th e o ld e r o n e s a r e b u r d e n e d w it h t h e c a r e
o f h o u s e o r c h ild r e n a f t e r w o r k in g h o u r s . T h e i r “ le is u r e ” is o c c u ­
p ie d w it h s h o p p in g , m e n d in g , c le a n in g , a n d o t h e r d u tie s . T h e tim e
f o r s l e e p is p e r i l o u s l y r e d u c e d a n d r e c r e a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e .
E ven
S u n d a y , w h ic h s h o u ld b r in g r e lie f, m u s t o ft e n b e s p e n t in d o in g th e
w e e k l y w a s h i n g , b a k i n g , o r c l e a n i n g , a n d i f s u c h a d a y is f o l l o w e d
b y a n ig h t s h i f t it is s m a ll w o n d e r i f th e o u t p u t o f w o r k is n o t a s
g o o d as it m ig h t b e.
E v e n g ir ls w h o h a v e fe w o r n o h o m e d u tie s o n ly o b ta in th e tim e
t h e y d e s ir e , a n d in d e e d r e q u ir e , f o r e x e r c is e in th e fr e s h a ir , r e c r e a ­
t io n , a n d a m u s e m e n t a t t h e e x p e n s e o f m u c h -n e e d e d s le e p . I t m a y
h a v e b e e n n e ce s s a r y a n d e v e n d e s ir a b le a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e W a r
t o im p o s e th e se l o n g w o r k in g h o u rs . F o r a tim e i t w a s p o s s ib le , b y
g i v in g u p m a n y t h in g s th a t m a k e l i f e w o r t h w h ile , f o r w o m e n to
s ta n d th e p h y s ic a l s t r a in r e a s o n a b ly w e ll, b u t a ft e r m o r e th a n th r e e
y e a r s o f w a r d o m e s t ic c o n d it io n s h a v e b e c o m e m o r e a r d u o u s , s ta le ­
ness a n d fa t ig u e a re b e in g e x p e rie n ce d b y m a n y w o m e n w h o h a v e
w o r k e d c h e e r fu lly u n t il n o w , a n d th e q u e s tio n w h e t h e r , h a v in g r e ­
g a r d t o th e p re s e n t a n d fu t u r e h e a lth o f th e w o m e n , th ese l o n g h o u r s
ca n r ig h t ly b e c o n tin u e d b e co m e s e v e r m o re u rg e n t. T o p u t th e ca se
a t it s lo w e s t i t is n o t e c o n o m ic a lly s o u n d t o e x h a u s t a n d c a s t a s id e
w o m e n w h o h a v e b e c o m e e x p e r ie n c e d a n d c a p a b le w o rk e rs .
E ven if
th e r e w e r e n o d is a d v a n t a g e s in c o n s t a n t ly t r a in in g n e w r e la y s o f
w o r k e r s , it s h o u ld b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t th e b e s t o f th e a v a ila b le
w o m e n h a v e p r o b a b ly a lr e a d y b e e n a ttr a c te d to th e m u n it io n f a c ­




APPEN D IX B

(II).

301

t o r ie s , a n d i f t h e y b e c o m e p h y s ic a lly u n fit t h e y c a n o n ly b e r e p la c e d
b y t h e l e s s e ffic ie n t*
S o m e fa c to r ie s , r e c o g n iz in g th e n e e d o f th e ir w o r k e r s f o r p r o p e r
r e s t a n d r e c r e a t io n a n d f o r a t le a s t a m in im u m o f t im e t o d e v o t e t o
th e ir o w n a ffa ir s , a re w o r k in g a t h r e e -s h ift s y s te m o f a b o u t 8 h o u r s
e a ch . T h i s in v o lv e s a w e e k ly t o t a l o f 3 5 -4 4 h o u r s . I n s o m e r e s p e c t s
th e h o u rs o f w o r k a re n o t a lto g e th e r co n v e n ie n t, b u t th e m a in o b je c ­
t io n o n th e p a r t o f th e w o r k e r s t o t h e s h o r t e r s h if t is th e r e d u c t io n
in t h e ir p o s s ib le e a r n in g s . F r o m t h e f a c t o r y ’s p o i n t o f v ie w t h e r e is
t h e d iffic u lt y o f p r o v i d i n g w o m e n f o r t h r e e s h if t s in s t e a d o f t w o a n d
o f s u itin g th e h o u r s w o r k e d b y th e w o m e n t o th o s e w o r k e d b y th e
m en.
I f it is c o n s id e r e d im p o s s ib le t o e ffe c t a g e n e r a l r e d u c t io n o f w o r k ­
i n g h o u r s f o r w o m e n , i t m i g h t a t le a s t b e p r a c t ic a b le t o a r r a n g e f o r
s h o r te r h o u rs f o r c e rta in g r o u p s , f o r e x a m p le :
(a) A l l w o m e n e n g a g e d i n h e a v y w o r k s h o u l d n o t w o r k l o n g e r
t h a n e i g h t - h o u r s h i f t s . A s u ff ic ie n t m i n i m u m wT g e w o u l d b e n e c e s ­
a
s a r y , as m a n y o f th e o p e r a t io n s a re le n g t h y a n d c a n n o t b e m u c h
a c c e le r a te d b y th e s k ill o f th e w o r k e r .
(b ) T h e h o u r s f o r l i g h t w o r k , t h e o u t p u t o f w h i c h c a n b e i n c r e a s e d
b y s k ill a n d in d u s t r y , m ig h t b e r e d u c e d e ith e r b y w o r k in g t w o s h ift s
o f , s a y , 9 o r 1 0 h o u r s in le n g t h (e . g ., b e g i n n i n g a f t e r b r e a k f a s t i n ­
s te a d o f b e f o r e ) o r th re e s h ift s o f 8 h o u r s e a ch . I t m ig h t e v e n b e
p o s s ib le in so m e ca ses t o w o r k tw o 8 -h o u r s h ift s a n d a b a n d o n th e
n ig h t s h if t w it h o u t m a t e r ia lly a ffe c tin g o u tp u t.
P r o p o s a ls h a v e b e e n m a d e a t tim e s f o r r e d u c in g th e h o u r s o f w o r k
f o r m a r r ie d w o m e n , a llo w in g th e m t o c o m e la te r , le a v e e a r lie r , o r
w o r k h a l f s h ift s .
S u ch a rra n g e m e n ts w o u ld n o t seem to b e p r a c t i­
c a b le , a t a n y r a t e , o n a g e n e r a l s c a le f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e
f a c t o r y , a n d t h e o n l y t r u e r e m e d y l ie s i n a g e n e r a l s h o r t e n i n g o f
h o u r s , so , th a t as l o n g as w o m e n h a v in g o t h e r d u tie s m u s t b e e m ­
p lo y e d , th e y m a y h a v e r e a s o n a b le t im e in w h ic h t o p e r f o r m th e m .
I t h a s b e e n s h o w n so r e p e a te d ly th a t u n d u ly lo n g h o u r s d o n o t y ie ld
a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y la r g e o u t p u t , t h a t it see m s n o t u n r e a s o n a b le , f o r
th e sa k e o f th e h e a lth o f th e w o m e n , t o a sk u r g e n t ly f o r a fu r t h e r
r e c o n s id e r a t io n o f t h is m a t t e r , e v e n t h o u g h a r e d u c t io n in h o u r s o f
w o r k w o u ld i n v o lv e d iffic u lt q u e s tio n s o f f a c t o r y r e o r g a n iz a t io n ,
w a g e s , a n d a d ju s tm e n t w it h th e h o u r s o f m e n w o r k e r s .

NUTRITION.
W o m e n a re n o w b e g in n in g t o r e a liz e t h a t a h e a v y d a y ’s w o r k in a
f a c t o r y u n d e r d is c ip lin e a n d in t o u c h w it h th e r h y t h m o f m a c h in e r y ,
r e q u ir e s a b e t t e r a n d m o r e s u b s t a n t ia l d ie t a r y t h a n m is c e lla n e o u s
w o rk at h om e.
M o s t w o r k in g w o m e n h a v e n e v e r a c q u ir e d th e h a b it




302

IN D U STRIAL H E A L T H A N D E FF IC IE N C Y .

o f t a k i n g s o l i d a n d r e g u l a r m e a ls , p a r t l y b e c a u s e w h e n f o o d i s n o t
a b u n d a n t th e w o m a n g o e s s h o r t r a th e r th a n th e m a n , p a r t ly b eca u se
w o m e n , a s a w h o l e , h a v e n e v e r c o m m a n d e d s u f f i c i e n t ly g o o d w a g e s t o
e n a b le th e m t o p u r ch a s e a d e q u a te fo o d , as w e ll a s th e v a r io u s o th e r
a r t i c l e s , n e c e s s i t ie s , o r l u x u r i e s w h i c h t h e y a l s o d e s i r e .
T h e bread
a n d b u t t e r a n d t e a d i e t a r y is p r a c t i c a l l y a t h i n g o f t h e p a s t a s f a r a s
m u n itio n w o r k e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d , th o u g h th e e v id e n c e f r o m o n e f a c ­
t o r y v is it e d in d ic a t e s c le a r ly th e d is a d v a n t a g e s t o h e a lt h o f u n s u ita b le
fo o d .
T h is is d u e t o th e h ig h e r w a g e s , w h ic h a llo w b e t t e r f o o d t o
b e b o u g h t, t o th e in c r e a s e d a p p e tite a n d d e s ir e f o r s o lid f o o d f o l l o w ­
i n g u p o n r e g u la r w o r k u n d e r f a i r l y g o o d c o n d it io n s o f h y g ie n e , a n d
t o th e g r o w i n g ta s te f o r t h e s u b s t a n t ia l m i d d le - d a y m e a l in p la c e o f
s a n d w ic h e s b r o u g h t f r o m h o m e a n d s u p p le m e n te d b y sw e e ts, p a s tr y ,
t i n n e d p i n e a p p l e , e t c ., f r o m t h e c a n t e e n . T h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r
o f w e ll-e q u ip p e d a n d m a n a g e d ca n te e n s , a n d th e d a ily o b je c t le s s o n
o f c h e a p , a p p e t i z i n g m e a ls , n i c e l y s e r v e d , a r e g r a d u a l l y p r o m o t i n g a
h a b it o f e a tin g w e ll, w h ic h h a s, u n d o u b t e d ly , s a v e d m a n y w o m e n
f r o m u n n e c e s s a ry fa t ig u e a n d p h y s ic a l d is a b ility , o r b r e a k d o w n .
S w e e t s , p a s t r y , e t c ., a r e p o p u l a r , a s t h e y a l w a y s w i l l b e . m T a k e n
e x c e s s b y th e m s e lv e s a n d in s t e a d o f p r o p e r f o o d , t h e y a r e u n ­
w h o le s o m e in m a n y w a y s .
I t is q u it e a n o t h e r m a t t e r w h e n t h e y a r e
ea te n as p a r t o f a fu ll, w e ll-p r o p o r t io n e d d ie ta r y .
T h e cu sto m o f
d r in k in g te a fr e q u e n t ly is w id e s p r e a d , b u t as th e te a is a lm o s t a lw a y s
fr e s h ly m a d e , it p r o b a b ly d o e s little , i f a n y , h a rm , a n d it fo r m s th e
b e s t a n d m o s t a c c e p t a b le s t im u la n t f o r t h e t ir e d w o r k e r .

TRANSIT AND HOUSING DIFFICULTIES.
T r a n s i t a n d h o u s in g d iffic u ltie s h a v e p r e s s e d h a r d l y u p o n w o m e n ,
a n d m u c h o f t h e ir f a t ig u e is c e r t a in ly d u e t o c o n d it io n s in c id e n t a l t o
th e fa c t o r y l if e r a th e r th a n t o th e n a tu r e o f th e w o r k its e lf.
T h e w a it­
i n g in a ll w e a th e r s f o r th e o ft e n c r o w d e d tr a m o r tr a in , th e s t r u g g le
f o r a p la c e , th e fr e q u e n t o b lig a t io n t o s ta n d f o r p a r t o r th e w h o le o f
t h e jo u r n e y , is f a t i g u i n g t o m e n , b u t u s u a lly f a r m o r e so t o w o m e n .
M o s t m e n h a v e fe w , i f a n y , d u tie s o n c e t h e y a re fr e e o f th e fa c t o r y .
P r a c t ic a lly a ll w o m e n r e tu r n h o m e t o so m e w o r k , w h ic h v a rie s fr o m
t h e ir p e r s o n a l w a s h in g a n d m e n d in g t o th e c a r e o f a h o u s e a n d fa m ­
ily .
I t is t h is c o m b in a t io n o f h o m e a n d f a c t o r y d u t ie s w h ic h b e a r s
so h a r d ly o n th e w om e n .

THE IMPORTANCE OF WELFARE WORK.
A l l a v a ila b le e v id e n c e g o e s t o s h o w th e v a lu e o f w e lf a r e s u p e r v is io n
w h e n s u it a b ly o r g a n iz e d , a t a n y r a te , as f a r as g i r ls a n d w o m e n a r e




303

APPENDIX B ( I I ) .

con cern ed .
I t is v a lu a b le , n o t s o m u c h f r o m t h e p o in t o f v ie w o f
in c r e a s in g o u t p u t , t h o u g h t h is u s u a lly f o l l o w s w h e n w o r k e r s a r e
h e a lth y a n d co n te n te d a n d th e fa c t o r y e n v ir o n m e n t s a tis fa c to r y , b u t
p r i m a r il y in o r d e r t o r a is e th e s t a n d a r d o f h e a lt h , c o n t e n t m e n t, a n d
h a p p in e s s as a w h o le .
W o m e n h a v e b ecom e so a ccu stom e d to w o r k
fo r lo w w a g e s a n d u n d e r b a d c o n d itio n s th a t th e y a re o n ly b e g in n in g
t o le a r n w h a t is n e e d f u l f o r t h e ir m e n t a l a n d p h y s ic a l h e a lt h .
Som e
o n e , t h e r e fo r e , is r e q u ir e d t o s u p e r v is e o n t h e ir b e h a lf c o n d it io n s w h ic h
d o n o t b e lo n g t o th e a c tu a l t e c h n ic a l w o r k , f o r e x a m p le , t o m a k e s u re
t h a t t h e l a v a t o r y a n d s a n i t a r y a c c o m m o d a t i o n is c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e
w o m e n a n d is p r o p e r ly u s e d a n d s u p e r v is e d ; t o see th a t th e r e a r e o p p o r ­
tu n itie s f o r d r y in g w e t c lo t h i n g ; t o w a t c h th a t m in o r a c c id e n t s a n d
i n ju r ie s r e c e iv e p r o m p t a n d c o n t in u e d t r e a t m e n t ; t o in s u r e f u l l a n d
s u it a b le u se b e in g m a d e o f th e r e s t r o o m f o r t e m p o r a r y illn e s s ; t o e n ­
c o u r a g e w h o l e s o m e o u t s i,d e i n t e r e s t s a n d r e c r e a t i o n , s u c h a s g a m e s ,
g y m n a s t i c s , d a n c i n g , c la s s e s , c l u b s , e t c . ; i n s h o r t , t o m a k e t h e w e l l ­
b e in g o f th e w o m e n h e r c h i e f c a r e a n d t o e s ta b lis h s u c h f r i e n d l y r e la ­
t io n s w it h th e m t h a t th e y w il l n o t h e s ita te t o see k f r o m h e r h e lp , a d ­
v ic e , o r g u id a n c e .
W h e t h e r th e w e lfa r e s u p e r v is o r s h o u ld r e m a in a n
ad hoc o ff ic e r , a s is c o m m o n a t p r e s e n t , i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t , p r o ­
v i d e d h e r c h i e f f u n c t i o n is n o t i n a n y w a y o v e r s h a d o w e d o r l o s t
s ig h t o f.

MEDICAL FINDINGS.

T h e m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n c o u ld n o t b e m a d e as c o m p le te a n d e x ­
h a u s t iv e as m ig h t h a v e b e e n w is h e d , p a r t l y b e c a u s e s u it a b le a c c o m ­
m o d a t io n w a s n o t a lw a y s a v a ila b le , p a r t ly b e c a u se th e tim e w a s
lim ite d (w o m e n w e r e s u m m o n e d f r o m th e ir w o r k ) , b u t c h ie fly b e ­
ca u s e p r e s u m a b ly h e a lt h y w o m e n a re n a t u r a lly s h y o f s e a r c h in g
m e d ic a l e x a m in a tio n s .
I n e s tim a tin g th e p h y s ic a l c o n d it io n a n d th e
a m o u n t o f fa t ig u e , r e lia n c e h a d t o b e p la c e d t o a la r g e e x te n t o n
sta te m e n ts a n d d e s c r ip t io n s o f s y m p t o m s v o lu n t e e r e d b y th e w o m e n .
T h e h e a rt, lu n g s , a n d a b d o m e n c o u ld n o t b e f u l l y e x a m in e d as a
r o u tin e .
A s i n t h e p r e v i o u s i n q u i r y , t h e w o r k e r s w e r e c la s s if i e d i n t o
th re e g r o u p s — A , B , a n d C — a n d it w ill b e in t e r e s tin g t o o b s e r v e th e
r e s u lt s o f t h e t w o i n q u i r i e s , w h i c h , i n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s
o f th e e x a m in a t io n , a r e s u r p r is in g ly s im ila r .

•

Inquiry No. 1 .................. . ........ ...........................................
Inquiry No. 2 ...................... ....................................




Number
of workers
examined.

1,320
1,183

Class A
(healthy).

Class B
(some
fatigue or
ill health).

Class C
(marked
fatigue or
ill health).

Per cent.

Per cent.

Per cent.

763=57.5
692= 58.5

451=34.0
425= 35.8

112=8.5
66= 5.7

304

IN D U ST R IA L H E A L T H AND E FF IC IE N C Y .

FATIGUE.
T h e s e ta b le s in d ic a t e g e n e r a lly th e a m o u n t a n d d e g r e e o f fa t ig u e
o b se rv e d a m o n g ty p ic a l w o rk e rs ch osen at ra n d o m . T h e fo llo w in g
p o in ts c le a r ly e m e r g e :
( 1 ) T h e p r o p o r t io n o f s e r io u s fa t ig u e a m o u n t in g t o m a r k e d i l l
h e a lt h a n d in c a p a c i t y f o r w o r k is r e la t iv e ly s m a ll, a p p r o x im a t e ly
5 t o 6 p e r c e n t o f th e ca ses e x a m in e d .
( 2 ) T h e r e is a c o n s id e r a b le a m o u n t o f s lig h t f a t ig u e , w h ic h v a r ie s
fr o m 20 t o 57 p e r cen t.
( 3 ) T h e t o t a l p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n e x h ib it in g d e fin ite s ig n s o f
f a t i g u e is a b o u t 4 0 p e r c e n t o f a l l c a s e s .
T h is p r o p o r t io n , n a m e ly , 40 p e r ce n t, d o e s n o t, h o w e v e r , re p r e s e n t
th e f u ll b u r d e n o f fa t ig u e , f o r th e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s :
(a) M u c h e a r l y f a t i g u e is l a t e n t a n d o b j e c t i v e l y u n r e c o g n i z a b l e .
(b ) T h e w o m e n m o s t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t e n d t o d r o p o u t o f f a c t o r y
l if e b e fo r e th e y h a v e se rv e d f o r a n y lo n g p e rio d .
( c) W o m e n k n o w i n g t h e m s e lv e s t o b e f a t i g u e d d i d n o t v o l u n t e e r
f o r e x a m in a tio n .
(d) T h e e x a m i n a t i o n w a s n e c e s s a r i l y s u p e r f i c i a l a n d o n l y s u c h a s
c o u ld d e te c t d e fin ite a n d r e la t iv e ly w e ll-m a r k e d fa t ig u e .
(a) Latent or undetected fatigue .— F a t i g u e , a p a r t f r o m r e d u c e d
c a p a c it y a n d d im in is h e d o u t p u t , is a lw a y s d iffic u lt t o m e a s u r e , a n d
p a r t i c u l a r l y s o w h e n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r is d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e s t a t e ­
m e n t s o f wT r k e r s w h o m a y b e i n t e r e s t e d i n e x a g g e r a t i n g o r m i n i ­
o
m iz in g th e e ffe cts o n th e ir w o r k . A t ir e d w o m a n w h o fe a r s in a n y
w a y t o p r e ju d ic e h e r p o s it io n a t th e fa c t o r y m a y m a k e a p o in t o f
a p p e a r i n g b r i g h t a n d c h e e r f u l t o t h e m e d i c a l o f f ic e r a n d g i v e a n
e x c e lle n t a c c o u n t o f h e r h e a lth . A l t h o u g h f r o m h e r n u t r it io n , c o m ­
p le x io n , a n d g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e th e d o c t o r m a y b e d is in c lin e d t o
a c c e p t h e r s t a t e m e n t s a s a c c u r a t e , i t is a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e i n a s h o r t
in t e r v ie w to e lic it th e w h o le tr u th . A g a in , th e b e g in n in g s o f fa t ig u e
m a y s h o w t h e m s e l v e s i n A vays u n r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e w o r k e r s .
A
g r e a te r n u m b e r o f a c c id e n ts , m o r e s p o ilt w o r k , d im in is h e d o u t p u t
o ft e n p a ss u n n o tic e d b e ca u se u n r e c o r d e d , a n d e v e n w h e n fa t ig u e
b e c o m e s o b je c t iv e a n d p a t h o lo g ic a l m a n y o f th e p h y s ic a l s y m p to m s ,
s u c h a s h e a d a c h e , i n d i g e s t i o n , s l e e p l e s s n e s s , i r r i t a b i l i t y , e t c ., a r e d i s ­
r e g a r d e d o r m a d e lig h t o f b e ca u se th e y h a v e o ft e n b e e n e x p e rie n ce d
b e fo r e , a n d a re ta k e n as a m a tte r o f co u rse . W o r k i n g w o m e n are
so a ccu s to m e d to b e in g w e a r y a n d o v e r tir e d th a t th e y fr e q u e n tly
a c c e p t p a t i e n t l y a c o n d i t i o n o f p h y s i c a l m a l a i s e w h i c h w7o u l d b e t h e
s u b je c t o f d e fin it e c o m p la i n t b y w o m e n in b e t t e r c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
( b) Disappearance o f women most affected .— T h e f a c t t h a t a
w o m a n i s a b l e t o w o r k r e g u l a r l y f o r m a n y m o n t h s is i n i t s e l f e v i d e n c e
o f g o o d p h y s i q u e . T h e le s s r o b u s t w o m e n , w h o a r e u n a b l e t o s t a n d




APPEN D IX B

(II).

305

th e s t r a in , t e n d e ith e r t o le a v e v o lu n t a r i l y o r t o b e d is m is s e d f o r b a d
tim e k e e p in g . N o a c c u r a t e e s tim a te o f th e fa t ig u e c a u s e d b y th e c o n ­
d it io n s o f w o r k c a n b e m a d e u n le s s th e w o m e n w h o d r o p o u t o n
p h y s ic a l g r o u n d s a re e x a m in e d as w e ll as th o s e w h o r e m a in .
(c) W om en knowing themselves to be fatigued a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e
r e fu s e d t o p r e s e n t th e m s e lv e s f o r e x a m in a t io n , e s p e c ia lly in f a c t o r ie s
w h e r e d is m is s a ls w e r e t a k in g p la c e o r k n o w n t o b e p e n d in g , f o r f e a r
t h a t th e d e t e c t io n o f p h y s ic a l d is a b ilit y m ig h t , i f r e p o r t e d t o th e
m a n a g e m e n t , r e s u lt in t h e ir d is c h a r g e .
T h e e x a m in a tio n w a s, in
p o i n t o f f a c t , w h o ll y c o n fid e n t ia l, b u t n o c o m p u ls io n w a s e x e r c is e d ,
a n d a n y w o m a n a p p r o a c h e d w a s fr e e t o d e c lin e t o see th e d o c t o r .
(d) T h e n e c e s s a r i lsuperficial character o f the examination m a d e
y
it im p o s s ib le t o d e te c t a n y t h in g b u t f a i r l y w e ll m a r k e d fa t ig u e . N o
s p e c ia l te sts w e r e e m p lo y e d , a n d th e r e w a s n o o p p o r t u n it y o f e x a m ­
in in g th e r e c o r d s o f in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s as r e g a r d s lo s t tim e , a c c i­
d e n t s , e t c ., e v e n h a d s u c h r e c o r d s a l w a y s b e e n a v a i l a b l e .
F a tig u e
in its e a r lie s t s ta g e s is t h e r e f o r e n o t r e c o r d e d .
T h u s it is c le a r t h a t th e a m o u n t o f f a t i g u e r e v e a le d b y th e i n q u i r y
i s le s s , a n d p o s s i b l y m u c h le s s , i n a m o u n t a n d d e g r e e t h a n t h e a c t u a l
f a t ig u e e x p e r ie n c e d b y th e w o r k e r s as a w h o le . O n th e o t h e r h a n d ,
th e r e a re v a r io u s re a so n s w h y th e fa t ig u e s h o u ld n o t b e so g r e a t as
m ig h t b e a n tic ip a te d f r o m a m e re r e c ita l o f h o u r s a n d p ro c e s s e s .
F o r e x a m p le :
(a) The interest o f the w ork .— I n t e r e s t i n g w o r k i s le s s f a t i g u i n g
th a n d u ll a n d m o n o to n o u s w o rk .
W o m e n h a v e ta k e n e x tr e m e ly
k i n d l y t o m a c h in e w o r k . T h e f o r m e r ta ilo r e s s e s , m i l l h a n d s , d o m e s ­
t i c s e r v a n t s , c h a r w o m e n , e t c ., f i n d e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k u n e x p e c t e d l y
c o n g e n ia l a n d t h e y e n jo y it f o r its in t r in s ic in te r e s t a p a r t f r o m a d d e d
in c e n t iv e s s u ch as h ig h w a g e s , r e s p