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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
/WHOLE t C 7
BUREAU OF LAB O R STATISTICS y * ‘ * I NUMBER 1 J /
IN D U S T R IA L

A C C ID E N T S

AND

H Y G IE N E

S E R IE S :

No.

5

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT
STATISTICS




MARCH, 1915

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1915




CONTENTS.
Pago.

Introduction....................................................................................................................... 5-12
General accident problem in the United States......................................................... 12-20
Occupational accident mortality statistics of the United States Census.............. 20-31
Industrial accident statistics of the State of New Y ork ........................................... 31-48
Industrial accident statistics of Massachusetts......................................................... 48-57
Industrial accident statistics of Illinois....................................................................... 57-78
Industrial accidents in Wisconsin............................................................................... 78-101
Special causes of industrial accidents in Wisconsin........................................ 80-101
Industrial accidents in the mineral industries..................................................... 101-112
Occupational mortality statistics of the Prudential Insurance Co. of America . 112-120
Industrial accident statistics of the United Kingdom.......................................... 120-126
Kate of mortality from accidents, by occupations, England and Wales.......... 126-136
Industrial accident statistics of Norway.................................................................. 136-141
Accidents in the Norway fisheries..................................................................... 139-141
German industrial accident insurance experience................................................ 141-145
Austrian industrial accident insurance experience............................................... 146-150
Standard industrial accident reporting, classification, tabulation, and analysis. 150-173
Classification of industrial accidents, by industries...................................... 155-158
Classification of industrial accidents, by causes............................................. 159-162
Classification of industrial accidents, by nature of in ju ry........................... 162-173
Appendix I.— Requirements as to accident reporting in the various States.. 174,175
Appendix I I .— Questions asked in accident report forms of 26 States............ 176, 177
Appendix I I I .— Official classification of industrial accidents, b y causes— Ger­
m any............................................................................................................................ 178,179
Appendix IV .— Official classification of industrial accidents, b y causes—
Austria......................................................................................................................... 180, 181
Appendix V .— Official classification of industrial accidents, by causes— Indus­
trial Commission of O hio.............................................................................................
182
Appendix V I.— Official classification of industrial accidents, b y causes— Indus­
trial Commission of Wisconsin................................................................................ 183-185
Appendix V II.— Classification of industrial accidents, b y nature of injury—
Prudential Insurance Co........................................................................................*. 186-188
Appendix V III .— Official classification of industrial accidents, b y nature of
injury—Austria.......................................................................................................... 189,190
Appendix I X .— Classification of industrial accidents, b y nature of injury and
degree of physical impairment, proposed by Workmen’s Compensation Serv­
ice Bureau................................................................................................................... 191-193
Appendix X .— Official classification of industrial accidents, b y nature of injury
and degree of physical impairment— Industrial Accident Commission of
California..................................................................................................................... 194-202
Appendix X I .— Official classification of industrial accidents, by degree or kind
of disability, or part or portion of body injured— Industrial Commission of
W isconsin.................................................................................................................... 203, 204
Appendix X I I .— Standard form for reporting industrial diseases, used by
New York State Department of Labor................................................................. 205, 206







BULLETIN OF THE
U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 157.

W ASHINGTON.

MARCH, 1915.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
BY FREDERICK L. HOFFMAN.

INTRODUCTION.
The industrial accident problem in the United States is one of
increasing social and economic importance. The adoption of the
principle of workmen’s compensation by 24 States within the last
few years foreshadows a time when such compensation for industrial
accidents, and possibly industrial diseases, will become universal
throughout the United States. It is also a foregone conclusion that
the principle of compensation will be perfected in many important
directions, in conformity with enlarged conceptions of social justice
insisting upon the most prompt and adequate methods of relief.
The elementary considerations of the problem are largely statistical,
but unfortunately the statistical data required for a full under­
standing of the questions involved are wanting in completeness
and comparability. In 1908 the writer made a first effort to bring
together the general industrial accident data then available, includ­
ing an estimate of the probable number of fatal and nonfatal
injuries to wage earners, placed conservatively at 30,000 to 35,000
deaths per annum and at 2,000,000 casualties of all kinds.1 The
estimate was inclusive of casualties due to causes other than those
arising out of the occupations of the injured; it was assumed at
the time that about 50 per cent of such injuries were safely charge­
able against the industries, or, in other words, were the direct result
of the occupational risk. In view of the rapid development and
broadening scope of the doctrine of workmen’s compensation during
the intervening period of years, it has seemed best for present pur­
poses to limit the following discussion chiefly to industrial accidents,
and this limitation explains an apparent material reduction in the
estimate of the probable loss of life and of the serious nonfatal injuries
to wage earners in American industries.
The number of salary and wage earners in the United States may
be conservatively estimated for 1913 at 30,760,000 males and 7,200,000
females. This estimate is subject to correction on the basis of the
1 Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor, No. 78, September, 1908.




5

6

BULLETIN OF THE B U R E A U

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

census returns of 1910, which were not available when this estimate
was made.1 The probable approximate number of fatal industrial
accidents among American wage earners, including both sexes, may
be conservatively estimated at 25,000 for the year 1913, and the
number of injuries involving a disability of more than four weeks,
using the ratio of Austrian experience as shown by the table on page
147, at approximately 700,000. This estimate is arrived at by cal­
culating separately the probable accident rates for the more impor­
tant groups of occupations, of which the following may be considered
typical and representative:
T a b l e 1 .—

E S T IM A T E OF F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S IN
1913, B Y IN D U S T R Y G R O U P S .

[The fatality rates used in this estimate are approxim ations. They are slightly at variance w ith the
exact rates for certain industries, particularly mining, for the year 1913. For metal mines in 1913 the fatality
rate, according to the Bureau of Mines, was 3.54 per 1,000; for coal mines, 3.73; for quarries, 1.72. In the
estimate it is assumed that for these industries in particular the approximate rates indicate more accurately
the average risk for a period of years, it being considered that even the official rates fall short o f absolute
accuracy and completeness in the absence o f a Federal law m aking the reporting of mine accidents com ­
pulsory upon all operators. The estimate was arrived at before Technical Paper 94 of the Bureau of
Mines was published.]

Number of
employees.1

Industry group.

Fatal in­
dustrial Rate per
a cci­
1,000.
dents.1

MALES.

Metal m ining..............................................................................................
Coal m in ing................................................................................................
Fisheries......................................................................................................
N avigation..................................................................................................
Railroad employees...................................................................................
Electricians (light and p ow er)...............................................................
N avy and Marine Corps..........................................................................
Q uarrying...................................................................................................
Lum ber industry.......................................................................................
Soldiers, U nited States A rm y................................................................
B uilding and construction......................................................................
Draym en, teamsters, etc..........................................................................
Street railway em ployees........................................................................
W atchm en, policemen, firemen.............................................................
Telephone and telegraph (including linem en)...................................
Agricultural pursuits, including forestry and animal husbandry
Manufacturing (general)..........................................................................
A ll other occupied males.........................................................................

170,000
750,000
150,000
150,000
1,750,000
68,000
62,000
150,000
531,000
73,000
1,500,000
686,000
320,000
200,000
245,000
12,000,000
7,277,000
4,678,000

680
2,625
450
450
4,200
153
115
255
797
109
1,875
686
320
150
123
4,200
1,819
3,508

A ll occupied males.........................................................................

30,760,000

22,515

A ll occupied females.................................................................................

7,200,000

540

4.00
3.50
3.00
3.00
2.40
2.25
1.85
1.70
1.50
1.49
1.25
1.00
1.00
.75
.50
.35
.25
.75
.73
.075

i Partly estimated.

Metal mining ranks as most hazardous, with a fatality rate of 4.0
per 1,000, and manufacturing industries in general rank lowest, with
a rate of 0.25 per 1,000. All of the rates are for groups of occupations
and not for specific employments. In coal mining, for illustration, the
rate of 3.5 per 1,000 represents the accident hazard for the coal­
mining industry as a whole, and not for the occupation of coal miner
separately considered. The same observation applies to the other
i This report was made public under date of June 20, and made available during the m onth of August,
1914. The total number of persons aged 10 and over occupied in gainful occupations at the census of 1910
was returned as 38,167,336, of which 8,075,772 were females. Of the total at all ages, 1,990,225 were of ages
10 to 15, inclusive, the large majority of whom were engaged in nonhazardous occupations.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

7

industries and occupational groups, all of which are subject to a
widely varying individual occupational hazard, subsequently to bo
considered in detail as far as this is practicable at the present time.
The table is derived from the best sources available. A t the
present time there are no entirely complete and trustworthy indus­
trial accident statistics for even a single important industry in the
United States. The most reliable data are those for the iron and
steel industry, mining, and railways. For most of the other groups
the assumed industrial accident rates are relatively low, and in all
probability the actual hazards for the groups are somewhat higher
than is indicated by the table.
The lack of trustworthy industrial accident statistics in the United
States is due to the absence of any uniform requirements in the vari­
ous States as to reports of industrial accidents. Prior to the estab­
lishment of workmen’s compensation systems no State received
reports of all the accidents, or even of all the fatal accidents, in its
industries. With the coming into force of workmen’s compensa­
tion laws, with a strong motive for careful reporting, the methods of
reporting are being gradually improved, but this applies only in a
few of those States where such systems have been introduced, and
even in such States there is as yet a regrettable lack of uniformity
which stands in the way of comparison and combination of the
statistics. Moreover, very few of the compensation States are
yet securing information at all accurate in regard to the number of
employees and the period during which they are at work, informa­
tion which is absolutely essential in the computation of accidentfrequency rates.
The extent to which the lack of uniformity in the definition of acci­
dents which are reportable and tabulatable impairs the comparability
of accident statistics may be seen by an examination of the distribu­
tion of a typical group of accidents according to the character or dura­
tion of disability. The Bureau of Labor Statistics found in the study
of some 10,000 accidents in the iron and steel industry, involving dis­
ability of one day and over, that the disability terminated in 41.2 per
cent in the first week, in 59.8 per cent in two weeks, in 77.7 per cent in
four weeks, and in 93.1 per cent in 13 weeks. These periods are men­
tioned especially because under the compensation laws in force in many
American and foreign States accidents involving a disability, in some
States of less than one week, in others of less than two weeks, are
ignored. In Austria those involving a disability of four weeks or less
are not included in the accident insurance statistics, and in Germany
those involving a disability of 13 weeks or less are not included.
As accident frequency rates have usually been computed in this
country they have been upon the basis of the average number of men




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

employed, this average being obtained by no uniform method and
oftentimes being little better than a guess. The figures representing
number o f men are, in American practice, further defective, as they
take no account of the period during which the force was employed,
and thus exposed to the risks of the employment. It is obvious that
this factor is quite as important as that of the number of men. For
an establishment working 365 days the employment of 1,000 men
would mean 365,000 days, while in an establishment with the oper­
ating time limited, say, to 240 days in the year the employment of
1,000 men would mean exposure for only 240,000 days. It is obvi­
ous that in order to represent accurately the true hazard in two such
establishments the accident rates must be computed with due regard
to both number of men and period of employment. Of course, it is
not possible to correct American figures at the present time so as to
eliminate these defects, but it seems necessary to point out here the
importance of an accurate knowledge of the number of men employed
and the time at work and the somewhat limited value of accident
rates when such accurate information is lacking.
Notwithstanding the lack of any thoroughly scientific study of the
rate of accident frequency in different occupations in American indus­
tries, much valuable and suggestive information has been brought
together during recent years, largely in connection with special inves­
tigations of commissions or committees appointed to consider the
subject of workmen's compensation. Foremost among-these investi­
gations which are of permanent value are those covered by the reports
of the New York Commission on Employers’ Liability, 1910; the report
of the Employers’ Liability Commission of Ohio, 1911; the reports of
the Iowa Employers’ Liability Commission, 1912; the report of the
Massachusetts Commission on Compensation for Industrial Acci­
dents, 1911, and the report of the Massachusetts Industrial Accident
Board for the year ending June 30, 1913; the report of the Employ­
ers’ liab ility Commission of the State of Illinois, and, finally, the
report of the United States Employers’ Liability and Workmen’s
Compensation Commission, published in two volumes in the year
1912. Among other important publications are the report of the
Department of Commerce and Labor, prepared by the Commis­
sioner of Labor, on Compensation for Injuries to Employees of the
United States, published in February, 1913; a similar report, pub­
lished in September, 1914, as Bulletin of the United States Bureau of
Labor Statistics, No. 155; and a volume of opinions of the Solicitor for
the Department of Commerce and Labor, dealing with workmen’s
compensation under the act of Congress granting to certain employ­
ees of the United States the right to receive from it compensation
for injuries sustained in the course of their employment, approved
May 30, 190S. Considerable information of value on the subject



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

9

of industrial accidents is contained in the first two annual reports
of the Industrial Insurance Department of the State of Washing­
ton, for the years 1912 and 1913. Other official sources of informa­
tion will be referred to in the discussion of the industrial accident
hazard by industries and occupations.
Among important general works of reference mention may be made
of the treatise on “ Work Accidents and the Law,” by Crystal East­
man, published in 1910 in connection with the Pittsburgh Survey;
the volume on “ Risks in Modern Industry,” published by the Ameri­
can Academy of Political and Social Science in 1911, and, finally, the
proceedings of the first and second annual meetings of the National
Council for Industrial Safety, better known as the Cooperative Safety
Congress.1
The medical aspects of the subject are well considered in Saunders’s
“ Medical Hand Atlas of Diseases Caused by Accident,” translated
from the German by Pearce Bailey, M. D., published in 1900; Greer’s
“ Industrial Diseases and Accidents,” published in Bristol, 1909;
Lawes’s “ Compensation for Industrial Diseases,” published in 1909;
Sir John Collie’s treatise on “ Malingering and Feigned Sickness,”
published in London, 1913; and Magruder’s treatise on “ Claims
Arising from Results of Personal Injuries,” published by the Spec­
tator Co., New York, 1910.
All of these and many other sources of information are available
for a scientific study of the industrial accident problem, but it is
regrettable that as yet no thorough technical study has been made
of industrial accidents with special reference to the causes of
their occurrence or rate of frequency in particular occupations, the
amount of resulting incapacity for work, and the most practical
methods and means of prevention. All of the investigations which
have been made thus far are somewhat general, but they are sug­
gestive of the factors demanding consideration in a thoroughly
technical study of the industrial accident problem of a particular
industry, with a due regard to details. The most conclusive study
which as yet has been made of the industrial accident problem in a
particular industry is the report of the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics on accidents and accident prevention in the iron and steel
industry, published as Volume IV of the “ Senate Report on Condi­
tions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry in the United
States. Washington, 1913.” This report admirably illustrates the
general method of inquiry to be followed, but the investigation
falls short of the required degree of completeness in that the acci­
i The following are some of the principal works in German: 1. Ilan dbu ch der Unfallmedizin, b y Dr. C.
Kaufm ann, Stuttgart, 1907. 2. Lehrbuch der aerztlichen Sachverstaendigen Taetigkeit fuer die Unfallund Invaliditaets-Versicherungs-Gesetzgebung, b y D r. L . Becker, Berlin, 1907. 3. Unfallverhuetung und
Betriebssicherheit, Memorial of the Verband der Deutschen Berufsgenossenschaften, Berlin, 1910. 4.
Jahresberichte der gevrerbliehen Berufsgenossenschaften ueber Unfallverhuetung fuer 1911, V olum e V I,
Berlin, 1913.




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

dents reported on were not considered in sufficient detail. This
phase of the subject is partly brought out by the investigation of
Miss Eastman on “ Work Accidents and the L a w /’ and the writer’s
analysis of nonfatal accidents in the coal-mining industry of Illi­
nois. In other words, an investigation into the subject of industrial
accidents, to be practically useful and conclusive, should include
a large amount of descriptive material, in much the same manner
as the facts regarding numerous industrial accidents are discussed
from the legal point of view in the opinions of the Solicitor of the
Department of Commerce and Labor dealing with workmen’s com­
pensation cases previously referred to.
The technical difficulties of a scientific study of the industrial
accident problem are numerous and serious. Workmen’s compensa­
tion legislation will necessarily lead to an increase in the reported
number of accidents, particularly those of a trivial nature, involving a
comparatively short incapacity for work. This has been the observed
experience in foreign countries, and in 1908 a committee was ap­
pointed by the Home Office of the British Government “ to inquire
into the causes and circumstances of the increase in the number of
reported accidents in certain classes of factories and workshops and
other premises under the factory acts, and to report what addi­
tional precautional means are, in their opinion, necessary or desirable.”
This report,1 including the evidence, which makes a volume of some
700 pages, constitutes one of the most useful contributions to the
scientific study of the accident problem from a practical point of view.
The report includes a preliminary survey of accident statistics, particu­
larly those of the factory inspection department, and an extended
consideration of the important question as to how far the increase of
reported accidents represents a real increase of the risk or is due to
an increase in reporting or to an expansion of the industries under
consideration. As regards the causes tending to increase or decrease
the accident risk, the committee considered the question of an
increase in speed and pressure of work, the problem of fatigue in
its particular relation to an increase of machinery, the operation
of the workmen’s compensation act, and finally, the important
question of carelessness on the part of the workpeople themselves,
with observations on the necessity of improvements in the guarding
of machinery, the problem of casual, intermittent, and unskilled
labor, the really serious problem of the employment of young and
inexperienced persons, and also the subject of blood poisoning,
particularly in its relation to minor injuries. The subject of the
preparation of accident statistics was given separate consideration,
with particular regard to the standard of reportability, the classifi­
i Great Britain. H om e Department. Accidents Committee. Report of the Departmental Com m ittee
on Accidents in Places under the Factory and Workshop Acts. London, 1911. (Cd. 5535.)




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

11

cation of accidents, and the number of persons emplo}7ed. The lack
of accurate information in regard to number of employees seriously
hampered the committee in its investigation.
As the result of their deliberations and special investigations, the
committee concluded “ that a large proportion of the increase shown
in the figures up to 1907 was apparent rather than real.” They also
thought that there had been a further increase in reporting since 1907,
and therefore that the actual decrease of accidents in 1908 and 1909
was somewhat greater than shown by the figures. The committee
further arrived at the important conclusion that “ On the whole, in
well-organized industries, in large industrial centers, it appeals that all
reportable accidents are now reported.” In reply to the question
as to how far the accident risk is affected by the state of trade, the
committee pointed out that the reported accidents increased largely
in 1907, when trade began to decline, and fell off in 1908, when trade
was bad, but they had continued to fall in 1909, when trade recovered.
They therefore concluded that—
Some increase of accident risk is to be expected in the course of a
long period as the total volume of trade grows, and the area of risk
is consequently enlarged. Apart from this gradual growth, there
must also be an effect produced by any cyclical expansion or con­
traction of trade. It is impossible not to think that in times when
trade is booming, when factories are working overtime, and when new
and perhaps inexperienced hands are engaged, the tendency to acci­
dents is increased. These tendencies, however, are masked in the
statistics by other causes. There is, for instance, little doubt that
the increase of reported accidents in 1907, when trade was slack,
is due to the increase in reporting brought about by the workmen's
compensation act of 1906, which came into force in the middle of
1907. Again, while growth of trade may increase the area of risk,
this cause may be counteracted by improved precautions.
The foregoing observations are of special significance in view of
the general acceptance of the doctrine of workmen’s compensation
by the several States, including at the present time approximately
60 per cent of the wage-earning population of the United States.
The statistical frequency of fatal and nonfatal industrial accidents
in the United States requires, therefore, to be considered with extreme
care in view of the probable effect of workmen’s compensation
legislation in causing an increase in accident reporting. In any event,
there can be no question but that workmen’s compensation legislation
tends to direct the attention of employers to the occurrence of
accidents, and aside from suggesting methods and means for their
prevention, tends to bring about improved recording and reporting of
the facts, and their subsequent utilization for scientific tabulation
and analysis. It may not be out of place to quote in this connection
the final conclusion of the departmental committee previously referred




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to, to the effect that ‘ ‘ The committee conclude that the workmen's
compensation act [of 1906] has reduced the accident risk by directing
the attention of employers to the occurrence of accidents and the
importance of preventing them, but has led to some increase in the
number of reported accidents for the reasons given above.”

GENERAL ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN THE UNITED STATES.
The approximate number of accidental* deaths in the United States
may be conservatively placed at 82,520 per annum. For the United
States registration area the mortality from accidents of all kinds was
equivalent to a rate of 84.9 per 100,000 of population during the
period 1901 to 1905, against 86.0 during the first five years ending
with 1910, 84.6 during 1911, and 82.4 during 1912. For certain
States, however, the rates 1 are much higher, as, for illustration, in
1911, in the order of their importance, 126.9 for Montana, 110.5 for
California, 106.2 for Pennsylvania, and 102.2 for Colorado. These,
it will be observed, are all mining States, and, as previously pointed
out, the highest rate of accident frequency occurs in metal mining,
estimated at 4.0 per 1,000 employed; and in coal mining 3.5 per 1,000.
Excessive general accident rates 1 also are met with in typical mining
centers, the rates, for illustration, for Birmingham, Ala., having been
151.9; for Scranton, Pa., 177.3; and for Butte, Mont., 138. These
rates are no doubt in part affected by the admission to local hos­
pitals of injury cases from near-by mining regions.
The general mortality from accidents in the registration area, by
causes and according to sex, for the period 1910 to 1912, is given in
Table 8. In this table the accident rate per 100,000 of total popula­
tion has been estimated for each specific cause, according to sex,
some of the facts disclosed by this analysis being as follows: For
males the accident rate due to mining was 7.44 per 100,000 of popula­
tion. The rate for quarries, for males, was 0.37. For machinery the
rate for males was 4.29 and for females 0.11. For railway accidents
the rate for males was 25.03 and for females 1.72. Finally, mention
may be made of the casualties caused by electricity, for which the
respective rates were 1.70 for males and 0.05 for females. For all
causes combined the male accident rate was 125.90, against a rate of
39.14 for females. The estimated accident mortality of the United
States for 1914 may be conservatively placed at 63,880 deaths of
males and 18,640 deaths of females, or 82,520 deaths for the two
sexes combined.
The foregoing analysis brings forcibly to public attention the excess
in the mortality of males from casualties of all kinds, obviously more
or less the immediate results of industrial activity. At the present
1 These accident rates include homicides, as the Census Office excludes only suicides in calculating the
death rate from violence, for subdivisions of the registration area.




13

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

time the accidents due to industry are not separated in the United
States Census statistics from those not directly connected with, or
resulting from, the employment. It would not seem an impractical
suggestion that in the future such a separation should be attempted,
or that in any event the occupational mortality data published for
the two years 1908 and 1909, and for the principal industries, should
be continued and brought completely down to date.1 As emphasizing
the utility of general accident statistics, the brief table following is
included in the present discussion to show the prevailing fatality
rates by four divisional periods of life, of which the ages 15 to 64 may
be considered typical of the industrial activity of wage earners in the
United States.
Table

2 .—G E N E R A L M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS D U E TO A L L CAU SES, U N IT E D
S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , 1910 TO 1912.
[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.
Age group.
Population.1

Deaths.

Females.
Rate per
100,000
Population.1
population.

Deaths.

Rate per
100,000
population.

Under 15 years....................
15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................
65 years and over................
Age unknown. . . . . . . . . . . .

28,1*59,851
43,754,359
13,532,248
3,751,672

18,673
57,212
24,421
11,197
796

66.3
130.8
180.5
298.5

27,607,387
41,182,494
11,844,270
3,714,725

10,904
6,995
4,660
10,400
54

39.5
17.0
39.3
280.0

Total...........................

89,198,130

112,299

125.9

84,348,876

33,013

39.1

i The populations here given are the sums of the populations in the three years 1910,1911, and 1912, in
order that annual death rates m ay be com puted for deaths occurring in the 3-year period.

The important fact is disclosed by this table that while the male
accident rate is higher at all ages than the corresponding rate for
females, the relative differences vary considerably, largely, of course,
in consequence of the more general and hazardous industrial activity
of male wage earners, as contrasted with women workers, who are
employed usually in nonhazardous industries. A t ages under 15,
when the occupational risk is relatively slight, the ratio of the
female accident rate to the male rate, taken as 100, was 59.6, de­
creasing to 13 at ages 15 to 44, and to 21.8 at ages 45 to 64. At
ages 65 and over the relative rate for females was 93.8, as against the
male rate taken as 100. The details of this analysis, by five-year
periods of life and according to sex, and including the total popula­
tion considered for the three-year period ending with 1912, are given
in Table 9.
In continuation of this discussion it has seemed advisable to include
a brief analysis of the general mortality from accidents in the United
States registration area according to three of the more important




1 The data for 1908 and 1999 are discussed on pages 20 to 31.

14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

causes, or, specifically, railways, falls, and drownings. The details
for railway accidents, by four divisional periods of life, are given in
the table below:
Table

3 .—F A T A L ACC IDE N TS D U E TO R A IL W A Y S , U N IT E D
A R E A , 1910 TO 1912.

ST A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N

[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.
Age group.
Fatal
accidents.

Females.

Rate per
Fatal
100,000
population. accidents.

Under 15 vears...................................................
15 to 44 years.....................................................
45 to 64 years......................................................
65 vears and over..............................................
Age unknown....................................................

937
14,585
5,109
1,362
335

3.3
33.3
37.8
36.3

Total........................................................

22,328

25.0 1

Relative
female rate,
taking the
Rate per
male rate
100,000
as 100.
population.

256
606
352
236
4

0.9
1.5
3.0
6.4

27.3
4.5
7.9
17.6

1,454

1.7

6.8

The foregoing table is self-explanatory. It is evident that a large
proportion of the male cases of fatal accidents due to railways must
be the immediate result of employment in railway transportation.1
The rate for all ages is shown to have been 25 for males, against 1.7
for females, or, in other words, to every 100 railway accidents to
males the corresponding number of railway accidents to females is
only 6.8.
The accident mortality due to falls, according to sex, and for four
divisional periods of life, is given below:
T able

4 .—F A T A L A CC ID E N TS D U E TO F A L L S , U N IT E D ST A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A ,
1910 TO 1912.
[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.
Age group.
Fatal
accidents.

Females.

Rate per
Fatal
100,000
population. accidents.

Relative
female rate,
taking the
Rate per
male rate
100,000
as 100.
population.

Under 15 years..................................................
15 to 44 years.....................................................
45 to 64 years ...................................................
65 years and over ............................................
A ge unknow n....................................................

1,834
5,896
4,614
4,361
24

6.5
13.5
34.1
116.2

938
784
1,241
6,837
3

3.4
1.9
10.5
184.1

52.3
14.1
30.8
158.4

Total.........................................................

16,729

18.8

9,803

11.6

61.7

This table also is self-explanatory, but it may be pointed out that
the rapid rise with increasing age, and for both sexes, in the accident
i The number of such deaths of railroad employees reported to the Interstate Commerce Commission in
the fiscal year ending June 30,1913, was 3,351, of which 2,939 were of steam railway employees on duty, 362
steam railway employees not on duty, 50 electric railway employees on duty, and 3 electric railway em ploy­
ees not on d uty. See 27th Annual R eport of the Interstate Commerce Commission, December 15, 1913,
p. 53.




15

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

rato for falls, is in marked contrast to the almost stationary condi­
tion of the rato for railway accidents at ages 15 and over. Another
very marked feature of the fatality rate due to falls is that for all
ages the male rate is 18.8, and the female rate 11.6, or, in other words,
to every 100 deaths of males from falls the relative number for
females was 61.7, ojr decidedly higher than the corresponding ratio
of 6.8 of female to male accidents resulting from railway injuries.
Accidents due to drowning follow quite a different course from
accidents duo to railways and falls. The facts are sot forth in tho
table following:
T able

5 .—F A T A L A C C ID E N TS D U E TO D R O W N IN G , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N
A R E A , 1910 TO 1912.
[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.
A ge group.

Fatal
accidents.

Females.

Rate per
Fatal
100,000
population. accidents.

Relative
female rate,
taking the
R ate per
male rate
100,000
as 100.
population.

Under 15 years...................................................
15 to 44 years......................................................
45 to 64 years ....................................................
65 years and over..............................................
Age u n k n ow n ...................................................

3,329
7,895
2,227
472
205

11.9
18.0
16.5
12.6

675
686
138
61
14

2.4
1.7
1.2
1.6

20.2
9.4
7.3
12.7

T otal.........................................................

14,128

15.8

1,574

1.9

12.0

For males the general accident rate duo to drowning was 15.8,
against a female rate of only 1.9. In other words, to every 100 drown­
ing accidents to males the corresponding number of drowning accidents
to females was only 12. To a considerable extent this excess in the
drowning accident rate of males is to be attributed to the occupational
exposure on the part of men employed in navigation and the fisheries,
but also probably to greater carelessness or indifference in connection
with swimming, skating, and other sporting activities.1
All other or jionspecified accidents combined are given in tho
table following, according to four divisional periods of life. The
rates throughout are higher for males, and for all ages the rate was
66.3, against 23.9 for females. The differences are most pronounced
at ages under 15 and over 65. The relative accident frequency from
causes other than the three specified previously was, to every 100
deaths of males, 36 deaths of females. The details of fatal accidents
due to railroads, falls, drowning, and other causes are given in
Table 10.
1 There are no complete and trustworthy statistics for the United States of the loss of life in navigation
and the fisheries.




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

6 .—F A T A L A CC ID E N TS DU E TO CAU SES O T H E R T H A N R A IL W A Y S , F A L L S , A & D
D R O W N IN G , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , 1910 TO 1912.
[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.

Females.

Relativo
female rate,
taking the
Rate per
Rate per
Fatal
Fatal
male rate
100.000
100,000
accidents.
as 100.
population. accidents. population.

Age group.

Under 15 years..................................................
15 to 44 years......................................................
45 to 64 years......................................................
65 years and over..............................................
Age unknow n....................................................

12,573
28,836
12,471
5,002
232

44.6
65.9
92.2
133.3

9,035
4,919
2,929
3,266
33

32.7
11.9
24.7
87.9

73.3
18.1
26.8
65.9

T otal.........................................................

59,114

66.3

20,182

23.9

36.0

Additional to the foregoing information on the general subject of
accident frequency in the United States, the following table is in­
cluded as representative of industrial insurance experience for the
period 1904 to 1913. The table represents a total accident mor­
tality of 33,790 males and 11,726 females. The table shows the age
distribution of the deaths in the Prudential Insurance Co.’s expe­
rience by specified causes of accident and with distinction of sex.
For illustration, there were 8,037 deaths of males from railroad
accidents; and of this number 4,746, or 59 per cent of the total, were
of ages 15 to 44. There were 966 deaths of females from railroad
accidents; and of this total 296, or 30.6 per cent, were of ages 15 to
44. The details for accidents due to railways, mines and quarries,
electricity, and machinery, by sex and divisional periods of life, are
given below:
T able

7 .—M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS, B Y P R IN C IP A L CAU SES, 1904 TO 1913.
[Industrial experience, the Prudential Insurance Co. of America.]
Under 15 years.

15 to 44 years.

45 years and over.

Cause of accident.

Total.

j

Number, Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
MALES.

Railway accidents........................
Mines and quarries.......................
E lectricity......................................
Machinery......................................
A ll other accidents.......................
T otal.....................................

1,010
53
58
29
6,432

12.6
4.8
10.8
6.6
27.2

4,746
753
443
301
9,718

59.0
67.4
82.2
68.4
41.1

2,281
311
38
110
7,507

28.4
27.8
7.0
25.0
31.7

8,037
1,117
539
440
23,657

7,582 j

22.5

15,961

47.2

10,247

30.3

33,790

230

29.0

296

30.6

390

40.4

966

8

50.0

3,313

30.9

6
4
2,698

37.5
66.7
25.1

2
2
4,727

12.5
33.3
44.0

16
6
10,738

3,601

20.7 j

3,004

25.6

5,121

43.7

11,726

FEMALES.

Railway accidents........................
M in^ and o uarries.......................
E lectricity /....................................
Machinery - ...................
All other accidents....................... ij
T otal.....................................




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

17

The above-mentioned groups of accidents are typical of the more
dangerous industrial pursuits, and the facts available fully confirm
the previous conclusion that a large proportion of such accidents are
directly attributable to occupational causes or conditions. The de­
tails of this analysis, by specific causes, are given in Table 11.
The foregoing statistical data and observations have reference
chiefly to the general accident problem in its immediate relation to
the more practical question of industrial accidents and the related
economic problem of adequate compensation for injuries or diseases
resulting from occupational activity. In the absence of trustworthy
and complete statistics for American industries this brief survey will
serve the purpose of emphasizing the magnitude of the subject as
summed up in the statement that there are approximately 82,520
deaths per annum in the United States from accidents due to all
causes, and that of this large number of deaths some 25,000 may
safely be assumed to represent the loss of life directly due to occu­
pational activity, chiefly in connection with the carrying on of
dangerous industries, all of which are typical of the economic neces­
sities of modern life. Considered from this point of view the acci­
dent problem assumes serious and far-reaching social and economic
importance in that on the one hand the loss of life constitutes a
serious curtailment of the nation’s productive efficiency, while on
the other a heavy and costly economic burden results from the
required support of those who, deprived of the earnings of the bread­
winner, become a public charge. Out of these broad social and
economic considerations has developed the modern doctrine of work­
men’s compensation as a principle of social justice, and collateral
thereto has been evolved a still more recent and nation-wide con­
ception of the doctrine of community, corporate, and individual
responsibility for the prevention of industrial and other accidents as
a necessary prerequisite for the highest attainable degree of common
good.
58553°—Bull. 157—15------2




18
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LAB OK STATISTICS.
8 .—

G E N E R A L M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A CC ID E N T S F R O M E A C H C A U SE , U N IT E D
S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , 1910 TO 1912.
[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau o f the Census.]
Males.

Females.

A cci­
dent
N um ­ rate per Per
cent
ber of
distri­
deaths. 100,000 bution.
p op u ­
lation.

Cause of accident.

A cci­
N um ­
dent
Per
ber
rate per cent
of
100,G O distri­
O
deaths. popu­ bution.
lation.

E sti­
mate
for
1914.

E sti­
mate
for
1914.

646
Poisoning b y food...................................
2,286
Other acute poisonings..........................
1,523
Conflagration............................................
5,773
B um s.........................................................
4,066
Absorption of deleterious gases...........
Drowning.................................................. 14,128
Firearms.................................................... 3,412
Cutting or piercing instruments..........
268
Falls........................................................... 16,729
6,639
M ines.........................................................
331
Quarries
..............................................
3,826
Machines...................................................
R ailroad.................................................... 22,328
4,684
Street car..................................................
A utom obile..............................................
3,177
Other vehicles.......................................... 5,533
; 1,436
Animals..................................................... : 1,442
120
Starvation................................................ |
656
H eat........................................................... : 3,205
543
Lightning.................................................. 1
1,517
E lectricity................................................
896
Fractures..................................................
7,135
Other accidents.......................................

0.72
2.56
1.71
6.47
4.56
15.84
3.83
.30
18.76
7.44
.37
4.29
25.03
5.25
3.56
6.20
1.61
1.62'
.14
.74
3.59
.61
1.70
1.01
7.99

0.58
2.04
1.36
5.14
3.62
12.58
3.04
.24
14.90
5.91
.29
3.41
19.88
4.17
2.83
4.93
1.28
1.28
.11
.58
2.85
.48
1.35
.80
6.35

365
1,299
868
3,283
2,314
8,037
1,943
152
9,519
3, i / o
188
2,177
12,700
2,664
1,806
3,146
817
822
71
375
1,822
310
863
512
4,052

565
1,688
992
7,815
1,834
1,574
445
49
9,803
23

0.67
2.00
1.18
9.27
2.17
1.87
.53
.06
11.61
.03

1.71
5.11
3.00
23.68
5.56
4.77
1.35
.15
29.70
.07

319
952
562
4,415
1,033
891
252
29
5,529
14

91
1,454
980
852
865
61
123
62
102
1,565
96
41
555
1,378

.11
1.72
1.16
1.01
1.03
• .07
. 15
.07
.12
1.86
.11
.05
.66
1.63

.28
4.40
2.97
2.58
2.62
.18
.37
.19
.31
4.74
.29
.12
1.68
4.17

52
819
552
481
491
33
71
33
57
886
52
24
314
779

Total estimate.............................. 112,299
i ’

125.90

100.00

63,880

33,013

39.14

100.00

18,640

T able 9 .— G E N ER A L

M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS, A L L C AU SES, B Y A G S G R O U P S ,
U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , 1910 TO 1912.

[Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.
Age group.
Population.*

Deaths.

Females.
R ate per
Population.i
100,000
population.

Deaths.

Rate per
100,000
population.

Under 5 years......................
5 to 9 years............................
10 to 14 years........................
15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................
25 to 29 years........................
30 to 34 years........................
35 to 39 years........................
40 to 44 years........................
45 to 49 years........................
50 to 54 years........................
55 to 59 years........................
60 to 64 years........................
65 to 69 years........................ 1
70 to 74 years........................ 1
75 to 79 years........................ !
80 to 84 years........................ !
85 to 89 years........................ !
90 to 94 years........................ '
95 to 99 years........................ !
100 years and over...............
Ago unknown -....................

10,164,12S
9 ,3J2,473
8,693,250
8,552,317
8,052,218
8,018,020
6,907,504 |
6,360,718 1
5,263,582
4, 493,802
3,986,265
2,811,524
2,240,657
i; 632,326
1,060,566
626,170
290,786
106,146
27,650
5 ,3o2
2,676

9,540
4,764
4,369
7,080
10,810
11,055
9,633
9,927
8,707
7,856
6,997
5,155
4,413
3,471
2,823
2,07S
1,534
882
324
75
10
796

93.9
51.2
50 3
82.8
124.9
137.9
139.5
156.1
165.4
174.8
175.5
183.3
197.0
212.6
266.2
331.8
527.5
830.9
1,171.8
1,401.3
373.7

9,933,768
9,150,166
8,523,453
8,581,654
8,469,470
7,445,476
6,272,183
5,730,662
4,683,049
3,954,276
3,388,295
2,456,239
2,045,460
1,542,741
1,044,239
635,990
317,996
125,679
35,427
8,435
4,218

7,568
2,351
985
1,256
1,340
1,135
1,035
1,166
1,063
1,053
1,185
1,123
1,299
1,555
1,905
2,295
2,200
1,5-47
710
150
38
54

76.2
25.7
11.0
14.6
15.8
15.3
16.5
20.3
22.7
26.6
35.0
45.7
63.5
100.8
182.3
360.9
691.8
1,230.9
2,004.1
1,778.3
900.8

A lla g es...................... |

89,19S, 130 |

112,299

125.9

84,34 S,876

33,013

39.1

1 The population'* here given are the sums of the population in the three years 1910, 1911, and 1912, in
order that annual death rates m ay be com puted for deaths occurring in the 3-year period.
2 The population of a<res not specified was distributed o:i the basis of the percentage distribution in 1910
of th 3 population of specified ages.




19

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T a b l e 1 0 . — M O R T A L IT Y

F R O M A C C ID E N TS OF E A C H S P E C IF IE D CLASS, B Y A G E
G R O U P S , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A * 1910 TO 1912.
{Compiled from “ Mortality Statistics,” 1910 to 1912, Bureau of the Census.]
Males.

.

Females.

Males.

Females.

R ate per
R ate per
Rate per
R ate per
Num ber 100,000 N um ber 100,000
Num ber 100,000
N um ber
100,000
of deaths. popula­ of deaths. popula­ of deaths. popula­ of deaths. popula­
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.
Falls.

Railways.
Under 5 years.............
5 to 9 years...................
10 to 14 years...............
15 to 19 years...............
20 to 24 years...............
25 to 29 years...............
30 to 34 years...............
35 to 39 years...............
40 to 44 years...............
45 to 49 years...............
50 to 54 years...............
55 to 59 years...............
60 to 64 years...............
65 to 69 years...............
70 to 74 years...............
75 to 79 years...............
80 to 84 years...............
85 to 89 years...............
90 to 94 years...............
95 to 99 y e a r s ...........
100 years and over.. . .
Age unknown1...........

139
344
454
1,396
2,924
2,985
2,614
2,631
2,035
1,787
1,440
1,038
844
559
365
272
113
40
11
2

A ll ages.............

22,328

1.4
3.7
5.2
16.3
33.8
37.2
37.9
41.4
38.7
39.8
36.1
36.9
37.7
34.2
34.4
43.4
38.9
37.7
39.8
37.4

93
83
80
106
114
101
91
95
99
91
98
80
83
68
76
57
22
10
3

25.0

1,454

0.9
.9
.9
1.2
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.1
2.2
2.9
3.3
4.1
4.4
7.3
9.0
6.9
7.9
8.5

975
500
359
465
838
1,036
1,106
1,218
1,233
1,259
1,303
1,028
1,024
901
932
838
824
573
238
51
4
24

9.6
5.4
4.1
5.4
9.7
12.9
16.0
19.1
23.4
28.0
32.7
36.6
45.7
55.2
87.9
133.8
283.4
539.8
860.8
952.9
149.5

639
201
98
88
104
112
128
180
172
182
275
334
450
712
1,058*
1,499
1,619
1,233
575
122
19
3

1.7

16,729

18.8

9,803

4

335

786
1,230
1,313
1,686
1,790
1,342
1,037
1,087
953
795
703
434
295
234
124
50
44
17
2

7.7
13.2
15.1
19.7
20.7
16.8
15.0
17.1
18.1
17.7
17.6
15.4
13.2
14.3
11.7
8.0
15.0
16.0
7.2

1
205
14,128

15.8

364
148
163
220
185
86
67
64
64
54
34
28
22
17
17
17
8
2

37.4

A ll ages.............

11.6

Classes other than railways, falls, and
drowning.

Drowning.

Under 5 years.............
5 to 9 years...................
10 to 14 years...............
15 to 19 years...............
20 to 24 years...............
25 to 29 years...............
30 to 34 years...............
35 to 39 years...............
40 to 44 years...............
45 to 49 years...............
50 to 54 years...............
55 to 59 years...............
60 to 64 years...............
65 to 69 years...............
70 to 74 years...............
75 to 79 years...............
80 to 84 years...............
85 to 89 years...............
90 to 94 years.........
95 to 99 years...............
100 years and over___
Ago u n kn ow n 1.......

6.4
2.2
1.2
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
3.1
3.7
4.6
8.1
13.6
22.0
46.2
101.3
235.7
509.1
981.1
1,623.0
1,446.3
450.4

3.7
1.6
1.9
2.6
2.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.6
2.7
2.5
1.6

7,640
2,690
2,243
3,533
5,258
5,692
4,876
4,991
4,486
4,015
3,551
2,655
2,250
1,777
1,402
918
553
252
73
22
5
232

75.2
28.9
25.9
41.4
60.7
71.0
70.6
78.5
85.2
89.3
89.1
94.4
100.4
108.9
132.2
146.6
190.2
237.4
264.0
411.0
186.8

6,472
1,919
644
842
937
836
749
827
728
726
778
6S1
744
758
754
722
551
302
132
28
19
33

65.2
21.0
7.6
9.8
11.0
11.2
11.9
14.4
15.5
18.4
23.0
27.7
36.4
49.1
72.2
113.5
173.3
240.3
372.6
332.0
450.4

1.9

59,114

66.3

20,182

23.9

14
1,574

1 The population of ages not specified was distributed on the basis of the percentage distribution in 1910
cf the population of specified ages.




20

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

1 1 .—M O R T A L IT Y F R O II A C C ID E N TS, B Y C A U S E OF A C C ID E N T , 1904 TO 1913.
[Industrial experience, the Prudential Insurance Co. o f America.]
U nder 15 years.

15 to 44 years.

45 years and over.

Cause of accident.

Total.
N umber. Percent, Num ber. Percent. Num ber. Percent.

MALES.

Railroad...........................
D row ning........................
Falls................................ .
Miscellaneous..................
Vehicles, horses, e tc___
Burns, scalds, etc...........
Fractures.........................
Asphyxiation, gas, e t c ..
Gunshot...........................
Mining, quarrying, etc..
Heat, sunstroke, e tc___
Poison...............................
E lectricity...................... .
Machinery...................... .
Cold or exposure........... .
Cuts or stabs...................
Lightning........................
T otal.

Railroad..........................
D row ning.......................
Falls................................
Miscellaneous.................
Vehicles, horses, e t c .. .
B um s, scalds, etc.........
Fractures........................
Asphyxiation, gas, etc.
Gunshot..........................
H e a t, sunstroke, e t c . . .

Poison.............................
E lectricity......................
Machinery......................
Cold or exposure...........
Cuts or stabs..................
Lightning.......................
Total.

1,010
1,762
584
616
804
1,533
172
176
330
53
83
335
58
29
4

12.6

20

13

2.5
18.3
18.6

4,746
2,459
1,642
1,473
1,057
451
749
517
649
753
290
296
443
301
47
46
42

’,582

22.5

15,961

47.2

10,247

0.3

281
226

29.0
36.3
16.1
27.3
45.3
51.4

296
363
315
235
118
807
220
78

40.4
16.7
65.9
44.3
29.5
24.7
88.0
45.5

66

17.5
39.2
9.3
32.1
50.0

390
129
1,151
366
138
833
1,086
271

542
154

2

6.5

2
2
22

18
5

76.6
19.9
12.5
33.3
70.9
54.6
19.2

5,121

43.7

34.8
13.9
20.0
30.8
67.3
9.2
14.0
31.0
4.8

8.6

37.2

10.8

6.6

59.0
48.5
39.0
47.7
40.5
19.8
39.9
41.1
61.0
67.4
30.1
32.9
82.2
68.4
29.4
42.3
60.0

2,281
848
1,985
995
749
295
957
566
85
311
591
269
38

28.4
16.7
47.1
32.3
28.7
12.9
50.9
44.9

110

27.8
61.3
29.9
7.0
25.0

109
43
15

68.1

39.4
21.4

8,037
5,069
4,211
3,084
2,610
2,279
1,878
1,259
1,064
1,117
964
900
539
440
160
109
70
33,790

7

21.2

42.3

10

30.6
47.0
18.0
28.4
25.2
23.9
5.4
37.0
52.7
14.1
48.0
37.5
66.7
22.6
24.2
38.5

3,601

30.7

3,004

25.6

212
1,737
81
104
58
248

11

6.6

66

100
371

6
4
7

8

12

8.0

8.1

772
1,747
827
468
3,377
1,233
595
148
708
773
16

6
31
33
26
11,726

OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENT MORTALITY STATISTICS OF THE
UNITED STATES CENSUS.
The Division of Vital Statistics of the United States Census has
published the mortality statistics of occupations, by age, sex, and
principal causes of death, for the two years 1908 and 1909, in a pre­
liminary .form, in anticipation of more extended treatment on the
basis of the results of the census for 1910. It was pointed out in the
discussion for the year 1908 that—
It seemed unwise to amplify the discussion of the data, which
should be regarded as merely provisional in character until such
time as detailed and specific figures can be presented after the popu­
lation returns for 1910 are available and after a more satisfactory
classification of occupations has been prepared. The cautions given
relative to the use of ratios based upon deaths alone should be care­
fully heeded in all references to the occupational data in the present
report.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDEKT STATISTICS.

21

The analysis for 1908 included a total of 196,207 deaths in which
the occupation was returned in the death certificate, out of a total of
262,859 male deaths, ages 10 and over, or 74.6 per cent. The number
of female deaths subjected to analysis by occupation was 26,205, out
of a total number of deaths of 223,028, or 11.7 per cent. The highest
proportion of occupational deaths, by divisional periods of life, for
males, was obtained for the age period 25 to 34, or 86.5 per cent of
the total; and for females at ages 20 to 24, for which 28 per cent of
the deaths were returned with the occupation stated. In explaining
the difficulties of an analysis of this kind, limited to deaths only, it
is pointed out in the report for 1908 (published in 1910) that—
The relation of occupation to mortality is one of the most important
and also one of the most difficult subjects of vital statistics. Diffi­
culties are met with even when the investigation is confined to the
aggregate death rates of the various occupations, and are even more
in evidence when the effects of individual causes of death are to be
considered. After a given mass of statistical returns of deaths is
subdivided with reference to individual occupations, and the deaths
by occupations again subdivided with reference to causes of death, it
is evident that, except for the most common occupations and the
most common causes of death, the statistical groups are likely to
become so much reduced in size as to be unreliable for the computa­
tion of rates.
An inherent difficulty in the compilation of reliable statistics of
the mortality of occupations is that the data are derived from two
different and largely independent sources. The returns of deaths
received from registration States and cities are copies of the original
certificates of death, upon which the statements in regard to the
occupations of decedents may be made by the relatives or friends, by
the undertakers, or by the attending physicians. The occupations of
the living population are stated by the census enumerators in more
or less strict compliance with detailed instructions prepared for their
use. It is evident that the accuracy of statement may vary greatly
in the two sets of returns, notwithstanding which fact the only method
of obtaining the death rates and derived “ mortality figures7 of occu­
’
pations is by the direct comparison of the mortality and population
returns.
It is further pointed out in the report that one of the two essential
factors being unobtainable for the correct calculation of mortality
rates by occupations— that is, the numbers employed—
If, then, it is impossible to compute accurate rates of occupational
mortality on the basis of the data obtainable, it may be asked whether
it is worth while to present the figures contained in the present report.
The answer is that such figures of relative mortality, although based
solely upon the returns of deaths, afford much information of practical
sanitary value, which may be safely used as a guide to the prevention
of excessive ratios of mortality in certain occupations from various
diseases, e. g., tuberculosis, or from accidents. They are frequently
suggestive and point the way to more conclusive investigations.




22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Moreover, at the present moment, when a concerted effort is to be
made by sanitary and statistical authorities and by the organized
medical profession to improve the quality of registration returns of
deaths with respect to the statement of the occupations of decedents,
it is desirable to have a compilation for a recent year prior to the
attempt at improvement, to serve as a basis for measurement of the
results obtained.
The same difficulty is inherent in the occupational accident mor­
tality statistics of the Prudential Insurance Co. of America, else­
where discussed, but for the same reasons as here pointed out the
data there considered seem to justify publication on the ground
that, in the absence of more trustworthy statistics, they provide at
least an approximate indication of the accident factor as experienced
in the principal industries of the United States at the present time.
These observations have reference only to the inherent limitations
in the published information of deaths, by occupations, without ref­
erence to the corresponding numbers employed. The conclusions
of the Division of Vital Statistics of the Census Office, of 1910, with
reference to the report of 1908, are, therefore, still applicable to
the present situation, and they are included as a useful contribu­
tion to the more scientific study of occupational classification and
analysis:
What is needed, both for the mortality statistics and for the popu­
lation statistics, is a list containing all the more important individual
occupations, and with an exact statement of the terms included under
each of its titles. Such a list is being prepared by the Bureau of the
Census, based on the terms employed by the census enumerators in
1900 in reporting the occupations of the general population. For the
purpose of securing a satisfactory adjustment of this list to the require­
ments of mortality statistics a recent compilation of the occupations
reported on the certificates of death is necessary. Such a compila­
tion will, moreover, furnish a means of determining the comparative
value for mortality statistics of the old and the new classifications of
occupations.1
It would be of considerable practical value if a determined effort
were made to bring about a strictly scientific classification of indus­
tries and employments, with a due regard possibly to variations in
local conditions, since frequently the same terms are not used, as, for
illustration, in mining and lumbering, in different sections of the
country.
The risk of error is, of course, much less in the statistical analysis
of deaths by occupations only than in efforts which combine the num­
bers employed and the deaths assumed to have occurred on the basis of
an identical classification which, unfortunately, is, as a rule, not the
i See in this connection Bulletin No. 61 of the Bureau of Forestry, W ashington, 1905, for terms used
in forestry and logging, and report on the Mining Methods and Appliances Used in the Anthracite Coal
Fields, V olum e II, Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, 1SS3, also the descriptive report on Conditions of
E m ploym ent in the Iron and Steel Industry, Volum e III, W ashington, 1913.




23

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

case. In the tables following the returns for the two years are com­
bined and the facts are given in identically the same manner as sub­
sequently for the experience data of the Prudential Insurance Co. of
America, on the proportionate basis— that is, the mortality from acci­
dents is shown in the form of a percentage of the deaths from all
causes, by separate industries or occupations and divisional periods
of life. The data, as pointed out, are of limited utility, but they
are the only information available for the country at large at the
present time aside from the statistics of the insurance company
previously referred to.
The term “ accidents” in the census report excludes suicides bat
includes homicides, which, however, are numerically so infrequent that
their inclusion does not materially affect the calculation of the per­
centages. The information is given in two groups—first, deaths due
to poisonous gases and other accidental poisonings; and second, all
other accidents and injuries. To facilitate the scientific study of
the subject the information is given in the tables following in cor­
responding detail, but the two groups are also combined so as to
facilitate comparison with the accident mortality statistics, by occu­
pations, of the Prudential Insurance Co., which experience, it is
hardly necessary to point out, is practically derived from the same
area, except that it includes also the principal Canadian provinces.
T a b l e 1 2 . — A C C ID E N T

M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N * A R E A , B Y OCCU­
P A T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S , 1908 A N D 1909.1

[Compiled from data in “ Mortality Statistics, ” 1908 and 1909, Bureau of the Census. ]
Occupied, males .
Number of deaths from—

Age group.

Number of deaths from—

Per '
Poison­
cent of
Poison­
deaths
ous
ous
Other
Total due to
gases
Other
gases
Total
and
acci­
acci­
acci­
and
acci­
acci­
A ll
A ll
other
dents
dents
dents
other
dents
dents
causes.
acci­ and in­ and in­ and in­ causes.
acci­ and in­ and in­
dental juries. juries. juries.
dental juries. juries.
poison­
poison­
ings.
ings.
A ll occupations.

Clergymen.

391
10,789
24,196
56,001
63,093
68,903
69,254
113,469
618

5
101
234
561
594
540
348
294
17

171
2.752
4,985
9,472
8,261
6,444
4,000
3.753
220

176
2,853
5,219
10,033
8,855
6,984
4,348
4,047
237

45.0
26.4
21.6
17.9
14.0
10.1
6.3
3.6
38.3

3
10
111
213
342
494
1,194
3

T otal................ 406,714

2,694

40,058

42,752

10.5

2,370

10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 t o 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
A ge unknow n...........

Per
cent of
deaths
due to
acci­
dents
and in­
juries.

4
2
1

1
2
3
8
10
13
25

1
2
4
8
14
15
26

33.3
20.0
3.6
3.8
4.1
3.0
2.2

8

62

70

3.0

1

i A number of nonindustrial occupations have been included in Table 12 and in other tables for the
purpose of convenience in comparing the accident liability in dangerous and nonhazardous employments.




24

BULLETINS' OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

12 __ A C C ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
PA T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U PS , 1908 A N D 1909—Continued.

Occupied males.
Number of deaths from -

Age group.

Number of deaths from—

Pois­
onous
Other
Total
gases
and
acci­
acci­
All
other
dents
dents
causes.
acci­ and in­ and in­
dental juries. juries.
poisonings.

Per
cent of
deaths
due to
acci­
A ll
dents
and in­ causes.
juries.

Pois­
onous
Total
gases
Other
and
acci­
acci­
other
dents
dents
acci­ and in­ and in­
dental juries. juries.
poison­
ings.

Engineers and surveyors.
10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
A ge unknown...........
Total.

2.6

19

239

258

23
207
280

100.0

2

1,641

Lawyers.

38.3
22.9
21.4
18.3
10.9
6.7

47
210
415
300
257
180
230

1,004
3

15.7

2,537

Physicians and surgeons.
10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknow n...........
Total..

2

1

2,794

38

94

132

Total................

222

123
91
68
61

232
180
225
147
112
77
71

933

4.7

202

17,834

119

53.3
17.3
7.3
5.4
4.8
4.5
3.4
3.6

Total­




65

83

3.8

66.7
19.5
9.8
6.7
4.5
3.2

2.8

1

2,199

12

92

104

4.7

Merchants and dealers.

1

is

40

41
164
283
404
524
776

17.1
10.5
13.0
9.8
2.2
4.3

3
41
143
185
256
230
163
3

1.2

1.9
2.3

Bankers, brokers, and officials o f com ­
panies.

Commercial travelers.
10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years*and over___
Age un know n...........

106

14.3
10.5
6.7
4.4

1,124

1,052

158

12

163
137
161
208
348

Accountants, bookkeepers, clerks, and
copyists.
10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age u n kn ow n ...........

8.7
8.7
4.3
4.6
3.4
3.4

School-teachers.

21.7
10.6
6.3
5.6
4.1
2.7

23
207
382
486
589
1,104

Per
cent of
deaths
due to
acci­
dents
and in­
juries.

67
304
1,464
2,459
3,521
3,918
5,407
5

8.1

17,146

1

11

28
84

111

152
94
126
607

1

11

30
95
132
176
108
141

1

695

100.0
16.4
9.9
6.5
5.4
5.0

2.8
2.6

20.0
4.1

25

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
Table

1 2 ___ A C C ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
P A T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U PS , 1908 A N D 1909—Continued.
Occupied males .
Number of deaths from—

Age group.

Number of deaths from—

Per
Per
cent of
Pois­
Pois­
cent of
deaths
onous
onous
deaths
Other
Total due to
gases
gases
Other
Total due to
acci­
acci­
acci­
and
and
acci­
acci­
acci­
A ll
A ll
dents
dents
dents
other
other
dents
dents
dents
causes.
acci­ and in­ and in­ and in­ causes. acci­ and in­ and in­ and in­
dental juries. juries. juries.
dental juries. juries. juries.
poison­
poison-;
ings.
ings.
Hucksters and peddlers.

1

2
6
6
12
21
23
26
308
23

2
8
6
15
23
23
26
24

33.3
22.2
10.7
7.2
7.9
6.5
8.4
7.3

8

119

127

8.0

6
36
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years......... .
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknow n...........
T otal................

H otel and boarding-house keepers.

2

207
290
352

3
2

328
1,583

1,613

Saloon keepers, liquor dealers, bartend­
ers, and restaurant keepers.

14
137
1,133
1,670
1,225
566
240
5

1
7
10
4
4
1

1
13
62
62
41
10
8
1

1
14
69
72
45
14
9
1

7.1
10.2
6.1
4.3
3.7
2.5
3.8
20.0

1
77
177
555
691
589
342
248
7

Total................

4,990

27

198

225

4.5

2,687

8.3
7.0
4.8
3.7
2.2
2.1

47

57

3.5

10
11
5
3

1

10
4
22
43
24
8
6
2

J1
4
32
54
29
11
6
2

14.3
2.3
5.8
7.8
4.9
3.2
2.4
28.6

30

119

149

5.5

10
38
145
281
425
525
566

1
2
3
6
4

7
12
25
30
16
20

7
13
27
33
22
24

18.4
9.0
9.6
7.8
4.2
4.2

4
65
364
653
1,017
1,226
1,203

4
12
10
8
10
7

2
18
63
65
93
94
58

2
22
75
75
101
104
65

50.0
33.8
20.6
11.5
9.9
8.5
5.4

1,990

16

110

126

6.3

4,533

51

393

444

9.8

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (United
States).
1A f A 1A T O TS
T Q*
C
15 to 19 years.............
on tn 24
25 to 34 years.............
Qi to 44 vPflrs
J
45 to 54 years............
55 to 64 y e a rs .... . . . .
65 years and over___
Age unknow n...........

39
150
195
87
66
42
45
2

Total................

626




1
8
17
16
8
7

Policemen, firemen, watchm en, and
detectives.

Janitors and sextons.

Total................

1
7
12
15
5
7

Barbers and hairdressers.

1A frt 1/1 TA I^ J
TG C
15 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknow n...........

90 1n 94
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknow n...........

1
5
1
3

10

12
115
351
435
358
339
3

5
2

8

6
24
29
9
3

7
24
34
9
5

17.9
16.0
17.4
10.3
7.6

2

1

2

4.4

73

81

12.9

Laborers (not agricultural).

49
2,018
4,694
10,056
11,000
10,971
9,360
9,170
65

19
56
118
119
86
37
26
7

24 .
350
668
1,260
1,216
912
478
317
13

24
369
724
1,378
1,335
998
515
343
20

49.0
18.3
15.4
13.7
12.1
9.1
5.5
3.7
30.8

57,383

468

5,238

5,706

9.9

26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 1 3 .—A CC ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
P A T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S , 1908 A N D 1909—Continued.
O ccupied males.
Number of deaths from—

Age group.

Pois­
onous
Other
Total
gases
and
acci­
acci­
A ll
other
dents
dents
causes.
acci­ and in­ and in­
dental juries. juries.
poison­
ings.

Number of deaths from —
Pois­
Per
onous
cent of
gases
Other
Total
deaths
and
acci­
acci­
A ll
due to
other
dents
dents
acci­ causes.
acci­ and in­ and indents
dental juries. . juries.
and in­
poison­
juries.
ings.

Per
cent of
deaths
due to
acci­
dents
and in­
juries.

1

Servants and waiters.

20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
T otal................

7
201
441
1,361
1,398
1,246
792
474
6

1
3
25
14
14

5,926

1
32
47
84
82
71
• 30
13
1

73

2

361 |
|

Bakers and confectioners.

2
35
54
109
96
85
37
15
1

28.6
17. 1
12.2
8.0
6.9
6.8
4.7
3.2
16.7

1
65
149
348
432
450
381
426

5
6
5
5
3
3

1
13
17
31
28
29
9
16

1
13
22
37
33
34
12
19

100.0
20.0
14.8
10.6
7.6
7.6
3.1
4.5

434

7.3

2,252

27

144

171

7.6

Blacksmiths.

|
i
i

10 to 14 years
15 to 19 years
. .
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over . . .
Age unknown

39
117
408
574
796
944
1,880
6

T otal................

4,764

1
5
5
3
4
4

9
14
42
58
66
43
68
1

9
15
47
63
69
47
72
1

22

301

23.1
12.8
11.5
11.0
8.7
5.0
3.8
16.6

323

B oot and shoe makers and repairers.
1
146
239
517
535
686
884
2,252
6

6.8 1 5.266

1
1
5
3
14
6

22
29
38
35
26
30
58

22
30
39
40
29
44
64

15.1
12.6
7.5
7.5
4.2
5.0
2.8

30

238

268

5.1

7
12
35
36
33
24
11

7
17
42
42
38
25
12

15.9
12.5
10.1
7.4
5.9
4.5
2.1

158

183

6.3

Browers, maltsters, distillers, and recti­
fiers.
i
1
i

10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years
20 to 24 vears.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and o v e r ....
Age unknown

4
16
45
117
166
137
- 87
1

2
2

T otal................

573

4

!
!

Butchers.

I

1
3
3
10
10
9
2

1
3
3
12
12
9
2

38

42

44
136
416
569
641
552
566
4

5
7
6
5
1
1

7.3 : 2,928

25

25.0
18.8
6.7
10.3
7.2
6.6
2.3

Cabinetmakers and upholsterers.
10 to 14 years
...
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknown...........

1
21
74
164
230
300
346
737
3

T otal................

1,876




Carpenters and joiners.

3
5
2
3

8
15
20
16
18
15

9
15
23
21
20
18

12.2
9.1
10.0
7.0
5.8
2.4

14

92

106

5.7

1

!

4
83
375
1,076
1,671
2,448
3,124
6,231
18

4
4
12
9
20
12
19

2
18
93
231
225
290
217
238
3

2
22
97
243
234
310
229
257
3

50.0
26.5
25.9
22.6
14.0
12.7
7.3
4.1
16.7

15,030

80

1,317

1,397

9.3

27

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T a b l e 1 3 .— A C C ID E N T

M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OOC
P A T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S , 1908 A N D 1909—Continued.

Occupicd males.
Number of deaths from—

Number of deaths from—

Age group.

Poison­
ous
Other
Total
gases
acci­
acci­
and
All
dents
dents
other
causes.
and in­ and in­
acci­
dental juries. juries.
poison­
ings.

Poison­
Per
Per
ous
cent of
gases
Other
Total ccnt of
deaths
deaths
and
acci­
acci­
A ll
due to
other
dents
dents due to
acci­
causes. acci­ and in­ and in­ acci­
dents
dental juries. juries. dents
and in­
and in­
poison­
juries.
juries.
ings.
Compositors and printers,^lithographers
and pressmen.

Cigar makers and tobacco workers.

10 to 14 years.......
15 to 19 years.......
20 to 24 years.......
25 to 34 years.......
35 to 44 years.......
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.......
65 years and over.
Age unknown—
T otal..........

20.9
7.0
5.1
8.5
5.2
3.4

43

100

11

256
341
443
380
392

2.0

2

1,957

102

12

5.2

Coopers.

10 to 14 years........
15 to 19 years........
20 to 24 years........
25 to 34 years........
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years........
55 to 64 years........
65 years and over___
A ge unknow n----Total.

1,062

8.3
12.4
5.2
4.7

11
45

2

2,848

2.1

50

4.7

►
,278

8.0

9.9
7.7
9.4
5.0
3.0

202

169
117

101

101
1

Total..




44
103
237

200

117
46

21

1

5,038

27
87
177

6.4

200

136
80
43
5

53

28
92
192
216
145

45.9
31.8
20.4
18.8
10.6

44
5

3.7
38.5

86

755

81

46
107
248
209
124
51

21

1

807

6.8

12.9

9.3

447

12.5
7.4
3.2
2.9
6.5
5.2
4.3

27
63
102
77
77
93

100.0
74

3
115
345
915
1,084
992
754

182

Hat and cap makers.

Iron and steel workers.

10 to 14 years.......
15 to 19 years.......
20 to 24 years.......
25 to 34 years.......
35 to 44 years.......
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.......
65 years and over___
A ge unknow n___

157

33.3
28.6

3
63
113

Total..

25

61
289
942
1,151
1,372
1,262
1,188
13

Glass blowers and glassworkers.

10 to 14 years........
15 to 19 years........
20 to 24 years........
25 to 34 years........
35 to 44 years........
45 to 54 years........
55 to 64 years........
65 years and over___
Age unknown___

16.7
11.3
5.6
6.5
5.0
3.7
3.1
100.0

Engineers and firemen (not locom otive).

50.0
20
60
113
153
172
536

100.0

1

162
265
551
614
522
350
381

18

21

4.7

Leather makers.

40.0
31.0
27.1
19.3
12.5

15
42
109

26.7
11.9
8.3
5.7
5.4
6.6
3.5

122

6.8

167
152
228

16.0

836

2.5
25.0

100.0

1
47

6.3

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

28
T able

12.—ACC ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 190S A N D 1909—Continued.
O c cu p ied m a les.
Num ber of deaths from—

Ago group.

Number of deaths from—

Per
cent of
Poison­
Poison­
deaths
ous
ous
gases
Other
Total due to
gases
and
acci­
acci­
acci­
and
All
A ll
dents
dents
dents
other
causes. other
acci­
and in­ and in­ and in­ causes.
acci­
dental juries. juries. juries.
dental
poison­
poison­
ings.
ings.
Leather workers.

20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.........
65 years and over___
Age unknow n...........
T otal................

13
31
46
98
147

2
2

1

3
7

221

1
2

417

3

2

1

973

8
8
8

8

38

Per
cent of
deaths
Other Total due to
acci­
acci­
acci­
dents
dents
dents
and in­ and in­ and in­
juries
juries. juries.

Machinists.

10
11
1

50.0

214
609
1,175
1,077
1,087
1,03!
1,179
4

46

4.7

6,376

2

3
3
7
9

15.4
9.7
6.5
7.3
6.1

4.5
2 .6

Marble and stone cutters.

12

45
83
145

14

111

10
10
1

80
56
37
2

2

8.3
6.4
3.2
50.0

54

559

613

9.6

7

45
90
157
125
90
66

38

21.0

14.8
13.4
11.6

Masons (brick and stone).

|
15 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years.............
3 5 10 4.4 years
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over—
A(yA nnlrnmvn
Total................

16
45
170
299
401
407
316
3

i
:
i
!

2

17
23

3

21

1

2

13

6
8

11

5

i

1,657 :
!

1
8 j

1

99

6
8

19
23
24
15

37.5
17.8
11.2

7.7
6.0

11
1

3.7
3.5
33.3

107

6.5

30
115
351
625
771
960
1,599

13
174
234
510
529
587
514
660
3

Total.............; -

3,224

30.0
15.7
17.1
14.7
11.5
7.4
4.2

38

368

406

9.1

9
12

7

4,453

Millers (flour and grist).

3
42
32
54
53
39
27
31

23.1
24.1
13.7
10.6
10.0
6.6
5.3
4.7
66.7

5
13
25
51
85
164
412

1

4
1

3
39
31
51
49
32
27
27
1

23

260

283

8.8

755

1 |

3
1
3
4
7

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers.

1
1

1
1

2
10
7
5
13

2
11
7
5
13

7.7
8.0
21.6
8.2
3.0
3.2

39

40

5.3

20.0

Plasterers and whitew ashes.

fA f a 1i vM V
C
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over—
Age unknow n...........

1
105
324
968
1,423
1,598
1,474
1,398
4

2
5
11
15
17
12
6

28
65
150
159
167
100
46
1

30
70
161
174
184
112
52
1

28.6
21.6
16.6
12.2
11.5
7.6
3.7
25.0

8
40
108
177
189
205
249
1

Total................

7,295

68

716

784

10.7

977




9
18
60
92
89
71
67

8

2

Mill and factory operatives (textiles).
1ft
1A
1%tn 10 VfiATS
90 tn 9A vporQ
95 ^0 34 years
35 to 44 yea rs..........
j ; ffi R4 vppr«s
L.
r x IU O jtd lb
00 -j-A Aj. vftorcs . - - - - '*
65 years and o y er----Ac’li nnlrnrAvn

6

17
58
83
77
64
61

1
1
2

2
3
1
3
3
12

2
8
18
11
19
13
4
1

2
10
18
14
20
16
7
1

25.0
25.0
16.7
7.9
10.6
7.8
2.8
100.0

76

88

9.0

29

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

12.—A CC ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
PA T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1908 A N D 1909—Continued.

Occupied males.
Number of deaths from -

Age group.

N umber of deaths from -

Per
Poison­
cent of
ous
deaths
Total due to
Other
acci­
and
acci­
acci­
A ll
dents
dents
dents
other
causes.
acci­ and in­ and in­ and in­
dental juries. juries. juries.
poison­
ings.

Poison­
ous
gases
and
All
other
causes. acci­
dental
poison­
ings.

Plumbers, gas and steam fitters.
10 to 14 years............
15 to 19 years............
20 to 24 years............
25 to 34 years............
35 to 44 years...........
45 to 54 years............
55 to 64 years...........
65 years and over.
A geu n kn ow n ..........
T otal.

84
202
579
648
389
263

2,353

Tailors.

27.4
12.9
11.4
9.6

10.0

7.6
4.8
50.0

21

225

246

10.5

1
35
69
166
201
248
241
268
1

2
1
1

T otal................

1,230

5

1

1

100

297
605
820
868
733
1,329

14.0
4.4
6.3
3.7
5.1
4.1

15

2.6

1

4,754

41

162

203

4.3

Sailors, pilots, fishermen and oystermen,
boatm en and canal men.

Tinners and tinware makers.

10 to 14 y ea rs....
.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over—
Ago un know n .. . . .

Per
cent of
deaths
Other Total due to
acci­
acci­
acci­
dents
dents
dents
and in­ and in­ and in­
juries. juries. juries.

5
5
15 to 19 years
12
12
21
23
24
25
20
19
10
10
8
9

14.3
17.4
13.9
12.4
8.1
4.1
3.4

6
96
293
598
630
724
752
1,278
26

3
2
14
11
6
5
3

3
39
89
161
143
130
77
48
15

3
42
91
175
154
136
82
51
15

50.0
43.8
31.1
29.3
24.4
18.8
10.9
4.0
57.7

104

8.5

4,403

44

705

749

17.0

99

Draymen, hackmen, teamsterss etc.
,

Farmers, planters, and farm laborers.

10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknown...........

10
365
874
2,516
2,621
2,082
1,432
1,168
6

4
6
14
16
6
9
5

4
96
168
329
356
268
150
85
1

4
100
174
343
372
274
159
90
1

40.0
27.4
19.9
13.6
14.2
13.2
11.1
7.7
16.7

121
2,340
3,803
6,674
7,249
10,239
14,861
45,535
203

15
22
50
69
70
47
80
2

36
590
755
1,116
1,003
917
851
1,380
45

36
605
777
1,166
1,072
987
898
1,460
47

29.8
25.9
20.4
17.5
14.8
9.6
6.0
3.2
23.2

Total................

11,074

60

1,457

1,517

13.7

91,025

355

6,693

7,048

7.7

Gardeners, florists, etc., nurserymen,
vine growers.

Livery-stable keepers and hostlers.

10 to 14 years
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknown

1
21
41
148
216
344
483
1,152
2

T otal................

2,408




7
3
2

4
7
18
22
16
28
40

4
9
18
22
23
31
. 42

19.0
22.0
12.2
10.2
6.7
6.4
3.6

1
19
51
214
350
414
347
249
1

14

135

149

6.2

1,646

2

1
1
6
3
1

12

6
9
32
33
31
26
13

7
10
32
39
34
27
13

36.8
19.6
15.0
11.1
8.2
7.8
5.2

150

162

9.8

3(
T
.\

of

the

bureau

of

s t a t is t ic s .

labor

2N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D ST A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
PATIONS A N D A G E G R O U PS, 190S A N D 1909—Continued.

Occupied males.
N umber of deaths from -

Number of deaths from -

Per
Poison­
cent of
Poison­
deaths
ous
ous
Total due to
Other
Other
Total
acci­
and
acci­
acci­
acci­
acci­
and
A ll
All
other
dents
dents
dents
dents
dents
other
causes.
and in­ and in­ and in­ causes. acci­
and in­ and in­
acci­
dental juries. juries. juries.
dental juries. juries.
poison­
poison­
ings.
ings.
Lumbermen and raftsmen.

10

15
20
25
35
45
55
65

Miners and quanymen.

2
2

21
72
115
85
76
25
17
15

67.7
60.5
53.7
36.8
25.6
9.4
4.9
60.0

35
436
1,055
2,184
2,122
1,869
1,430
1,657
47

1
8
12
18
4
4

23
313
697
1,339
990
511
191
109
32

25
313
698
1,347
1,002
529
195
113
32

71.4
71.8
66.2
61.7
47.2
28.3
13.6
6.8
68.1

11

415

426

27.8

10,835

49

4,205

4,254

39.3

2
3

Steam-railroad eiuployees.

10

M

4
377
1,227
2,703
2,319
1,855
1,438
1,088
71

5
9
10
3
3
3

11,082

15
20
25
35
45
55
65

2

20
71
115
83
73
25
15
13

1
1

31
119
214
231
297
2G7
348
25
1,532

M

Per
cent of
deaths
due to
accidcnts
and in­
juries.

33

Stock raisers, herders,, and drovers.

4
304
894
1,779
1,283
844
418
196
63

4
100.0
304
80.6
899
73.3
G6.1
1,788
1,293 ' 55.8
45.7
847
421
29.3
199
18.3
88.7
63

1
28
55
170
194
263
295
551
3

5,785

5,818

52.5

1,5G0

1

4

8
14
32
31
32
27
20

9
14
34
32
33
29
24

32.1
25.5
20.0
16.5
12.5
9.8
4.4

11

164

175

11.2

3

7
13
18
8
10
6
9

8
17
21
12
12
6
12

8.8
4.5
3.9
3.0
3.8
2.5
4.0

17

71

88

3.9

1
2
5
15
14
10
10
3

20.0
2.2
2.7
3.6
3.1
2.1
3.2
1.3

60

2.8

1
1

Occupied fem ales.
A ll occupations.
10
15

20

25
35
45
55
65

Ag

School-teachers.

54
84
72
52
45
30
17

53,664 j

11
184
192
240
192
205
173
l$j
1

11
238
276
312
244
250
203
202
1

7.1
5.3
3.8
3.1
2.8
2.9
2.5
3.1
2.3

91
382
543
401
319
240
300
3

354

156
4,465
7,196
10,138
8,720
8,499
8,026
6,420
44

1,383

1,737

3.2

2,279

Bookkeepers, accountants, clerks, and
copyists.
10
15

20
25
35
45
55
65




330
682
692
321
152
69
51
2

!
1
;
!
i

2,355 j

i
1 !
7
6
6
1

Laundresses.

22
11
15
11
1
1
4

23
18
21
17
1
2
4

6.0
2.6
3.0
5.3
.7
2.9
7.8

5
93
183
420
458
477
311
230
2

2
5
2
1

1
2
3
10
12
9
10
3

65

86

3.7

2,179

10

50

.............
21

1
4
3
4
2

31

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

TABLE 1 2 .—A CC ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y , U N IT E D S T A T E S R E G IS T R A T IO N A R E A , B Y OCCU­
PA T IO N S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1908 A N D 1909—Concluded.
Occupied fem ales .
Number of deaths from—

A ge group.

Number of deaths from—

Per
Poison­
Poison­
cent of
deaths
ous
ous
Other
Total due to
gases
gases
acci­
acci­
and
acci­
and
A ll
A ll
dents
other
other dents
dents
causes. acci­
and in­ and in­ and in­ causes.
acci­
dental
dental juries. juries. juries.
poison­
poison­
ings.
ings.
Nurses and m id wives.

Per
cent of
deaths
Other
Total due to
acci­
acci­
acci­
dents
dents
dents
and in­ and in­ and in­
juries. juries. juries.

Servants and waitresses.

10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over—
Age unknown...........

61
172
299
233
284
323
416
1

1
1
3
2
2
3
2

5
8
4
10
8
9
14

6
9
7
12
10
12
16

9.8
5.2
2.3
5.2
3.5
3.7
3.8

91
2,096
3,358
5,258
4,982
5,159
5,350
2,817
23

23
45
32
20
27
16
9

6
86
93
118
86
107
107
83
1

6
109
138
150
106
134
123
92
1

6.6
5.2
4.1
2.9
2.1
2.6
2.3
3.3
4.3

T otal................

1,789

14

58

72

4.0

29,134

172

687

859

2.9

Mill and factory operatives (textiles).
10 to 14 years.............
15 to 19 years.............
20 to 24 years.............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............
45 to 54 years.............
55 to 64 years.............
65 years and over___
Age unknown...........

10
281
284
299
205
160
93
89
1

T otal................

1,422

Dressmakers and seamstresses.
1

1
1
2
1

13
7
7
5
7
6
2

14
8
9
6
7
6
2

5.0
2.8
3.0
2.9
4.4
6.5
2.2

2
178
369
624
658
625
491
582
2

2
4
3
5
3
4
2

4
11
14
11
18
9
12

6
15
17
16
21
13
14

3.4
4.1
2.7
2.4
3.4
2.6
2.4

5

47

52

3.7

3,531

23

79

102

2.9

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF THE STATE OF NEW
YORK.
There is at the present time no uniformity in either the reporting
of industrial accidents or the methods of tabulation and analysis for
the several States. The subject is still in its initial stage, and mere
arbitrary conformity to the precedent set by even an important indus­
trial State would not be justified in the absence of thoroughly well-con­
sidered fundamental principles of accident reporting, as well as the use
of standard certificates and standardized methods of classification, tab­
ulation, and analysis. A study of the methods in use for a period of
years in representative States provides a considerable amount of use­
ful and suggestive information, emphasizing the great practical
importance of complete returns and the necessity of a supplementary
analysis of the facts in full detail. The returns of fatal industrial
accidents in the State of New York for the period April, 1911, to
March, 1913, although probably incomplete, are of much practical
utility in that they bring out the main sources of fatalities, or, in



32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

other words, the returns localize the immediate causes or conditions
responsible for their occurrence. The tables and text following pre­
sent an analysis of 1,047 fatalities officially reported during the two
years under consideration, subdivided under (1) fatal accidents in
factories; (2) fatal accidents in mines and quarries; and (3) fatal acci­
dents in building and engineering. Each of these three main groups
is subdivided according to well-defined general conditions more or
less connected with the immediate circumstances responsible for fatal
accidents in industry. The main divisions are: (a) Mechanical power;
(b) heat and electricity; (c) fall of person; (d) weights and falling
objects; (e) vehicles and animals; and (f) miscellaneous. The table
following exhibits the fatal accidents in connection with mechanical
power in factories, numbering 172, equivalent to 16.4 per cent of the
378 fatalities due to all causes:
T able

1 3 _ CAU SES OF F A T A L I N D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS, S T A T E O F N E W YO RIC, 1911
_
TO 1913.

Factories: Mechanical power*
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of N ew York.]

Cause.

Transmission of power:
Motors (engines, dynamos, flywheels, e t c .).............................................................
Gearing............... . ...........................................................................................................
Shafting............................................................................................................................
Belts and pu lleys...........................................................................................................
Conveying and hoisting m achinery:
Elevators and lifts .........................................................................................................
Cranes (steam, electric, portable, e tc .)......................................................................
Hoisting and conveying machinery, not elsewhere specified..............................
Locom otives and trains...............................................................................................
W oodworking m achinery:
Lathes..............................................................................................................................
Paper and printing machinery:
Calenders and other paper-making m achinery...................................................
Printing presses............................................................................................................
Textile m achinery:
Picking m achines..........................................................................................................
' Other or indefinite.....................................................................................................
Leather-working m achinery............................................................................ ............. ..
Metal-working machinery:
Drop hammers................................................................................................................
Rollers..............................................................................................................................
Other or indefinite........................................................................................................
Polishing m achines:
Struck b y fragments of wheels...................................................................................
Other or indefinite.........................................................................................................
Machines used in bakeries, confectionery establishments, e tc ...................................
Machines, not elsewhere specified.....................................................................................
T ota l............................................................................................................................

Number.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

3
8
24
19

0.3
.8
2.3
1.8

33
15
13
31

3.2
1.4
1.2
3.0

8
1

.8
.1

2
1

.2
.1

1
1
3

.1
.1
.3

1
1
2

.1
.1
.2

1
1
1
2

.1
.1
.1
.2

172

16.4

It is brought out by this table that the principal causes of fatal
accidents in factories in connection with mechanical power were (1)
elevators and lifts, causing 33 deaths; (2) locomotives and trains,
causing 31 deaths; and (3) shafting for the transmission of power,
causing' 24 deaths. These three causes combined account for 51.2



33

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

per cent of the 172 fatalities in connection with mechanical power due
to all causes.
The next table exhibits the accidents in factories in connection with
heat and electricity. There were 82 of these fatalities, equivalent to
7.8 per cent of the fatal accidents due to all causes:
T able 1 4 .—CAU SES OF F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L ACC IDE N TS, S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Factories: Heat and electricity.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New York.]

Cause.

; Per cent of
: total fatal
Number. | accidents
i (all indus­
tries).
1

Explosions (powder, dynamite, etc.) *............................................................................
Explosion and ignition of gases, dust, etc.......................................................................
Explosion of boilers, steam pipes, etc...............................................................................
Other injuries from steam or hot liquids.........................................................................
Caustics....................................................................................................................................
Explosion o f molten m etal.................................................................................................
other accidents from, molten rnetal.. ______ _____________________________________
Vats pans, etc. (containing hot liquid, etc.)..................................................................
Electricity....................................................................................................................- .........
Fire and heat, not elsewhere specified.............................................................................

2
12
13
4
1
5
1
3
24
17

0.2
1.1
1.2
.4
.1
.5
.1
.3
2.3
1.6

Total.............................................................................................................................

82

7.8

The principal cause of the fatalities in this group was electricity,
accounting for 24 deaths, followed by fire and heat not otherwise speci­
fied, 17 deaths; explosions of boilers, steam pipes, etc.,.13 deaths, and
explosions of gas, dust, etc., 12 deaths. These four groups of causes,
therefore, account for 80.5 per cent of the 82 deaths from all causes
occurring in connection with heat and electricity.
Fatal industrial accidents caused by the fall of the person numbered
67, or 6.4 per cent of the fatalities due to all causes. The details are
given in the following table:
T able 1 5 .—CAU SES OF F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L ACCIDEN TS, S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Factories: Fall of person.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New York.]

Cause.

Number.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

Fall of person—
From ladder, scaffold, platform, e tc .........................................................................
From machinery, trucks, engines, e tc......................................................................
B y collapse o f support..................................................................................................
Through opening in floor.............................................................................................
In hoistway, shaft, e tc .................................................................................................
On stairs, steps, e t c .......................................................................................................
On level b y tripping
..............................................................................................
On level b y slipping of tool.........................................................................................
Other or indefinite........................................................................................................

21
2
6
6
11
2
2
1
16

2.0
.2
.6
6
1.1
.2
.2
.1
1.5

T otal.............................................................................................................................

67

6.4




.

84

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The principal cause of fatalities in this group was falls from lad­
ders, scaffolds, platforms, etc., accounting for 21 deaths, followed by
falls in hoistways, shafts, etc., 11 deaths. These two specified classes
of causes account for 47.8 per cent of the 67 fatalities due to all
causes in this group.
Fatal accidents in connection with weights and falling objects
numbered 28, or 2.7 per cent of the fatalities due to all causes, as
follows:
T able

1 6 .—C AU SES O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S, S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Factories: Weights and falling objects.
[Compiled from Bulletins 4S to 55, Department of Labor, State o f New Y ork.]

Cause.

Falling objects (not dropped):
R ock , earth, etc..............................................................................................................
Pile o f material or part thereof...................................................................................
Objects from trucks in transit.....................................................................................
Other or indefinite.........................................................................................................
Fall or weight o f objects being handled b y injured person:
Objects in course o f manufacture or repair...............................................................
Objects being m oved or carried b y hand.................................................................
Objects being loaded or unloaded..............................................................................
A il other or indefinite...........................................................................................................
T otal..............................................................................................................................

Number.

Per cent o f
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

1
10
1
2

0.1
1.0
.1
.2

3
4
5
2

.3
.4
.5
.2

28

2.7

The leading cause of fatalities in this group was falls of material,
or a portion thereof, numbering 10, followed by objects falling in the
course of being loaded or unloaded, which accounted for 5 deaths.
These two groups of causes, therefore, accounted for 53.6 per cent of
the 28 fatalities from all causes.
Fatal accidents caused by vehicles and animals numbered only 4.
This class of causes, in connection with factories, is therefore rela­
tively unimportant. The question may arise here as to how far
these accidents were accurately and completely reported, for in view
of the extended use of industrial railways in connection with the
operation of large factories it is reasonable to suppose that the fatali­
ties on this account were more numerous than is disclosed by the
official returns.
Fatal accidents in factories due to miscellaneous causes numbered
25, or 2.4 per cent of the fatalities from all causes. The details of
this group are given in the table following.




35

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

1 7 . — C AU SES

O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S, S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Factories: Miscellaneous causes.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Departm ent of Labor, State o f N ew Y ork .]

Cause.

Num ber.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

Hand tools...............................................................................................................................
Tools in hands o f fellow w orkm en.....................................................................................
Striking against projecting parts.......................................................................................
Injuries from nails, slivers, etc...........................................................................................
Poisonous gases......................................................................................................................
A ll other causes......................................................................................................................

1
1
1
3
12
7

0.1
.1
.1
.3
1.1

T otal................................................. .............................................................................

25

2.4

The principal cause of death in this class of causes was poisonous
gases, which accounted for 12, or 48 per cent, of the 25 fatalities
from all causes in this group.
The second large group of industries under consideration is mines
and quarries, accounting for 40 deaths, or 3.8 per cent, of the mor­
tality from all causes. Fatal accidents resulting from the use of
mechanical power, or in connection therewith, numbered 14, as
shown in detail in the table below:
T a b l e 1 8 . — CAU SES

O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L ACCIDEN TS, S T A T E
TO 1913.

OF ft E W Y O R K , 1911

Mines and quarries: Mechanical power.
fCompiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State o f New Y ork.]

Cause.

Number.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

Conveying and hoisting machinery:
Skips and cages..............................................................................................................
Other conveying and hoisting....................................................................................
Mine and quarry cars and locom otives.....................................................................
Machinery not otherwise specified....................................................................................

4
3
6
1

0.4
.3
.6
.1

T otal.............................................................................................................................

14

1.3

The principal cause of fatalities in this class of causes was mine
and quarry cars and locomotives, which accounted for 6 deaths, or
42.9 per cent of the total mortality from accidents in the group.
Fatal accidents in connection with heat and electricity accounted
for 13 deaths, or 1.2 per cent of the fatalities from all causes. The
details are given in the table following.




36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table

1 9 .—CAU SES OF F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A CC ID E N TS, ST A T E OF N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Mines and quarries: Heat and electricity.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Departm ent of Labor, State of N ew York.]

Cause.

Number.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

0.1

Powder, etc. (except blasts)
Blasts.......................................
E lectricity...............................

1.5
.1

T otal..............................

13

1.2

The principal cause of death in this group was blasts, win0*1 ac­
counted for 11 deaths, or 84.6 per cent of the 13 fatalities in this
group.
Weights and falling objects accounted for 12 deaths, or 1.1 per
cent of the fatalities from all causes. The details are given in the
table below:
T able

2 0 .—CAU SES OF F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A CCIDEN TS, S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Mines and quarries: Weights and falling objects.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New York.]

Cause.

i Per cent of
1 total fatal
Number. \ accidents
; (all indus| tries).

Fall or slide of rock or ore (quarry)...................................................................................
Fall or slide of rock or ore (m in e)...................................................... ..............................
Piles of material....................................................................................................................
Other or indefinite................................................................................................................

3
7
1
1

0.3

T otal..............................................................................................................................

12

1.1

The principal cause of death was falls or slides of rock or ore in
mines, which accounted for 7 deaths, or 58.3 per cent of the deaths
from all causes in this group.
There was only 1 fatality due to vehicles and animals in the group
of mines and quarries, the conclusion in this case being the same as
with regard to factories, but there is a possibility of accidents of
this kind not being accurately and completely reported.
The third large group is building and engineering. The total num­
ber of deaths in this group w 629, or 60.1 per cent of the-fatalities
ras
due to all causes. In the subdivision mechanical power there w
rere
225 fatalities, or 21.5 per cent of the deaths from all causes, as shown
in detail in the table following.




37

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able 2 1 .—

CAUSES O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS, S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Building and engineering: Mechanical power.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of N ew Y ork.]

Cause.

Number.

Transmission of power:
Motors (engines, flywheels, e t c .).................................................
Gearing..............................................................................................
B elts..................................................................................................

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

0.1

A
.2

T otal..............................................................................................

.7

Conveying and hoisting machinery:
Elevators and hoists—
Breaking and slipping of apparatus....................................
Unexpected starting or stopping.........................................
Struck b y elevators, e tc .........................................................
Struck b y counterweights............................... .....................
Caught between elevator and shaft...................... ..............
Other or indefinite..................................................................

3
3
8
2
8
6

.3
.3
.8
.2
.8
.6

T otal.......................................................................................

30

2.9

Derricks, cranes, shovels, e tc.:
Breaking or slipping of apparatus.......................................
Swinging of load, bucket, e t c ...............................................
Unexpected starting or stopping.........................................
Loading or unloading.................................................. - .........
Other or indefinite..................................................................

23
9
1
6
9

2.2
.9
.1
.6
.9
4.6

T otal.......................................................................................

48

Conveying and hoisting apparatus, not elsewhere specified.
Locomotives and cars—
Boarding and alighting.........................................................
Coupling or uncoupling..........................................................
Unexpected starting or stopping.........................................
Collisions or derailments........................................................
Struck b y train........................................................................
Fell from train.........................................................................
Other or indefinite...................%
.............................................

9

.9

6
4
4
14
81
10
1

.6
.4
.4
1.3
7.7
1.0
.1

T otal.......................................................................................

120

11.5

Other machinery used in building, etc.:
Crushers and m ixers......................................................................
Drills, hammers, e tc ......................................................................
Pile drivers.......................................................................................
Jacks and other mechanical instruments..................................
Compressed-air hose.......................................................................
Other or indefinite.........................................................................

1
1
2
2
2
3

.1
.1
.2
.2
.2
.3

T otal.......................................................................................

11

1.1

Total, mechanical pow er....................................................

225

21.5

The principal cause of fatalities in this group was locomotives and
cars, which accounted for 120 deaths, or 53.3 per cent of the 225 deaths
due to all causes in this group.
Heat and electricity accounted for 114 deaths, or 10.9 per cent of
the fatalities from all causes. The details of this group are given in
the table following.




38
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

able

2 2 .—C AU SES O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS, S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , 1911
TO 1913.

Building and engineering: Heat and electricity.
[Compiled from Bulletins 4S to 55, Department of Labor, State of N ew Y ork.]

Cause.

Number.

Explosives:
Blasts—
Delayed or premature shots___
Drilling into blasts......................
Tam ping........................................
Other (including flying objects)
T otal...........................................

1.1
1.7
.2
39

3.7

~75

Explosion and ignition of gas or d u s t...
Explosion of boilers, steam pipes, e t c ...
E lectricity....................................................
Fire and heat, not elsewhere specified. .
Total, heat and electricity___

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

5.9

.1

114

10.9

The principal cause of death was electricity, accounting for 62
deaths, followed by premature or other blasts, 39 deaths, the two
causes combined accounting for 88.6 per cent of the 114 fatalities from
all causes in this group.
Industrial accidents resulting from the fall of the person numbered
159, or 15.2 per cent of the fatalities from all causes. The details of
this group are given in the table following:
T

able

2 3 . — CAUSES

O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S, S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , 1911
T O 1913.

Building and engineering: Fall of person.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New Y ork.]

Cause.

Number.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

Fall of person—
From ladders:
B y breaking of ladder....................................
B y slipping or twisting of ladder............... .
B y fall from ladder........................................ .
Other or indefinite..........................................

1
4
6
1

0.1
.4
.6
.1

T ota l............................................................. .

12

1.1

From scaffolds:
B y breaking of scaffold................................. .
B y breaking o f tackles or supports.............
B y tilting of scaffold..................................... .
B y slipping or tilting of loose boards........ .
Fall from scaffold, not elsewhere specified.
Other or indefinite..........................................

10
4
1
1
18
2

1.5
.4
.1
.1
1.7
.2

T ota l...............................................................

42

4.0

Collapse of structure or part................................
From telephone poles, e tc ...................................
Into shafts, hoistways, etc...................................
From girders, joists, roof, e tc ..............................
Into trenches, excavations, e tc ..........................
Fall b y tripping, not elsewhere specified.........
Other or indefinite................................................ .

2
7
10
51
2
1
26

.2
.7
1.5
4.9
.2
.1
2.5

Total, fall of person.....................................

159

15.2




39

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

The principal cause of accidents in this group was falls from girders,
joists, roofs, etc., accounting for 51 deaths, followed by falls from
scaffolds, etc., accounting for 42 deaths, the two causes combined
accounting for 58.5 per cent of the fatalities from all causes in this
group.
Fatal industrial accidents caused by weights and falling objects
numbered 93, or 8.9 per cent of the fatalities from all causes. The
details of this group are given in the following table:
Table

2 4 .—C AU SES O F F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L ACC ID E N TS, S T A T E
TO 1913.

OF N E W

Y O R K , 1911

Building and engineering: Weights and falling objects.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State o f N ew Y ork.]

Cause.

Number.

Per cent of
total fatal
accidents
(all indus­
tries).

Falling objects not dropped:
R ock, earth, etc. (open excavation)..........................................................................
R ock, earth, etc. (tunn els)..................................... ....................................................
Pile o f material or part thereof...................................................................................
Objects from trucks in transit....................................................................................
Collapse o f structure or p a rt........................................................................................
Other or indefinite.........................................................................................................

25
26
4
1
4
20

2.4
2.5
.4
.1
.4
1.9

T o ta l................................*...........................................................................................

80

7.6

Falling tools or objects dropped b v other persons.........................................................
Fall or weight o f objects being handled b y injured person:
Objects used in construction or repair b y injured person.....................................
Objects being m oved or carried b y hand..................................................................
A ll other or indefinite...........................................................................................................

1

.1

3
6
3

.3
.6
.3

T o ta l.............................................................................................................................

12

1.1

Total, weight and falls of objects...........................................................................

93

8.9

The principal cause of death in this group was the falling of rock
or earth in tunnels, accounting for 26 deaths, followed by falls of rock
and earth in open excavations, 25 deaths, making a total for the two
causes of 51 deaths, or 54.8 per cent of the 93 fatalities in this group.
Fatal accidents caused by vehicles and animals in connection with
building and engineering numbered 8, or 0.8 per cent of the deaths
from all causes. One of these was due to unexpected starting or
stopping, 3 to falls from wagons, cars, etc., 3 to falls from dump
wagons, cars, etc., and 1 to a cause not assigned.
In the group hand tools (hammers, hatchets, etc.) there was only
1 fatal accident, or 0.1 per cent of the deaths from ail causes.
There were 29 fatalities in the group building and engineering due
to miscellaneous causes, or 2.8 per cent of the deaths from all causes,
being as follows: One due to striking against or catching between
edges or projecting parts, etc.; 1 due to flying objects not from
machines, tools, or explosions; 4 due to poisonous gases; and 23 due
to all other causes.



40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The foregoing analysis is of considerable practical importance.
The tables visualize at a glance the causes or conditions more or less
directly responsible for the occurrence of fatal accidents in some of the
principal industries of New York State. It is to be regretted that
corresponding information should not be available for nonfatal inju­
ries, but for present purposes the foregoing tabulation is sufficient to
emphasize the social and economic importance of a strictly technical
study of the industrial accident problem in American industry.
Additional details regarding fatal accidents reported in New York
State during the 18 months ending with March 1, 1913, differen­
tiating groups of employments and the sex of the injured, are given in
Table 31. It is shown by this table that the larger numbers of
fatalities occurred in the order named: In open excavations (96
deaths), excavations in shafts and tunnels (93), track laying, etc.
(82), the iron and steel industry (55), electric wiring and installa­
tion (51), in the manufacture of vehicles (44), structural iron and
steel work (42), wood construction (38), masonry (34), painting and
decorating (31), manufacture of pulp and paper (20), and mines
(20). In these 12 groups there occurred 606 fatal accidents, or
65.5 per cent of the 925 fatalities in all industries subject to the
New York factory inspection laws.
Reports are required to be made of industrial diseases in the State
of New York, and the returns for the period September, 1911, to
August, 1913, are available for analysis. The returns give the num­
ber of cases reported and the fatalities according to the disease con­
tracted, and the industry or employment in which the same occurred.
The details of this analysis are given in full in Table 32. During the
period under observation there were 284 cases of industrial diseases,
with 33 deaths, or a fatality rate of 11. 6 per cent. The number of
cases of lead poisoning was 239, with 29 deaths, or 12.1 per cent;
there were 4 cases of arsenical poisoning, with no deaths; 1 case of
brass poisoning, with no death; 3 cases of mercury poisoning, with
1 death; 1 case of phosphorus poisoning, with 1 death; 1 case of
wood-alcohol poisoning, with no death; 5 cases of anthrax, with
1 death; and 30 cases of caisson disease, with 1 death. Most of the
cases of lead poisoning occurred in connection with house painting,
or 99 cases, with 14 deaths, or 14.1 per cent, and in the manufac­
ture of electric storage batteries, in which there were 35 cases with 1
death, or 2.9 per cent. Another suggestive return is for the paint­
ing of carriages, wagons, automobiles, and cars, there having been
25 cases of lead poisoning in this group, with 4 deaths, or 16 per
cent. The returns, in all probability, are wanting in absolute accu­
racy and completeness, but they afford a fairly trustworthy indica­




41

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

tion of the extent of industrial diseases under the limitations of the
terms as used in the New York factory-inspection law.
Some interesting additional information is made available by
the returns of the Department of Labor of the State of New York,
for the two years ending March, 1913. During this period there
were 137,384 accidents reported in all industries, or, respectively,
132,185 accidents to males and 5,199 to females. As the reports were
not made under a compensation law, it is probable that many acci­
dents were unreported. In the absence of information as to number
of employees accident frequency rates can not be computed. The
accidents in manufacturing establishments, according to age and sex,
are given in the table following:
T

able

2 5 .—IN D U S T R IA L A CCIDEN TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y A G E A N D S E X ,
A P R IL , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913.

Manufacturing: industries.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New Y ork.]
Accidents to males.

Accidents to females.
Total
accidents.

Age group.
Number.
Under 16 years..................................................
16 to 18 years.....................*..............................
Over 18 years.....................................................

278
3,564
89,436

Total................. .......................................

Per cent.

}

93,278

/
41 1
95.9
100; 0

Number.
112
1,202 }
3,885
5,199

Per cent.
25.3 /
\
74.7
100.0

390
4,766
93,321
98,477

According to this table, of the accidents to males 4.1 per cent
occurred at ages 18 and under against 25.3 per cent for females.
The details for accidents in mines and quarries are given in the
table below:
T a b l e 2 6 . — IN D U S T R IA L

ACCIDEN TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y A G E A N D S E X
A P R I L , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913.

Mines and quarries.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New Y ork .]
Accidents to males.

Accidents to females.
Total
accidents.

Age group.
Number.
Under 16 years..................................................
1fi tn IS vAarcj
Over 18 years.....................................................

1
21
1,523

T o t a l..! ...................................................

1,545

Per cent.

}

J- 4
98.6
100.0

Number.

Per cent.

{

21
1,523
1,545

Since women are not permitted to be employed in the mines and
quarries of New York State, the accidents in this group are limited
to males. Of the total number, 1.4 per cent were accidents to per­
sons 18 years of age and under.



42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The details for accidents in building and engineering are given in
the table following:
Table

2 7 _ IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y A G E A N D S E X ,
_
A P R I L , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913.

Building and engineering,
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New Y ork.]
Accidents to males.

Accidents to females.
Total
accidents.

Age group.
Number.
Under 16 years...................................................
16 to 18 years......................................................
Over 18 years.....................................................
T otal.........................................................

Per cent.

24
303 \
f
37,035

Number.

Per cent.
f
\

0.9
99.1

37,362

24
303
37,035
37,362

100.0 j

In this group also few if any women are employed, and in any event
none were injured, according to the reports of the labor department.
Of the total number injured, only 0.9 per cent were persons 18 years
of age and under.
The final summary for all industries subject to the factory-inspection laws of the State of New York are given in the table below:
T able

2 8 .—IN D U S T R IA L ACC ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y A G E A N D S E X ,
A P R I L , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913.

All industries.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New Y ork .]
Accidents to males.

Accidents to females.
Total
accidents.

Age group.
Number.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

Under 16 years..................................................
16 to 18 years......................................................
Over 18 years.....................................................

303
3,888
127,994

0.3
2.9
96.8

112
1,202
3,885

2.2
23.1
74.7

415
5,090
131,879

T otal.........................................................

132,185

100.0

5,199

100.0

137,3S4

According to this tabulation, of the accidents to males, 3,2 per cent
were to persons 18 years of age and under, against 25.3 per cent for
females.
Tables 25 to 28, inclusive, and observations refer exclusively to
nonfata! accidents. The inclusion of fatalities would not have ma­
terially affected the general conclusions The table following exhibits
in brief outline the nature of the injury sustained in accidents in the
three different groups— factories, mines and quarries, and building
and engineering.




43

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T a b l e 2 9 . — IN D U S T R IA L

A C C ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y N A T U R E
O F T H E IN J U R Y , A P R I L , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913.

[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New York.]
Nature of injury.
Factories.
Lacerations, cuts, and bruises.........
B um s...................................................
Sprains or dislocations.....................
Fractures..............................................
Suffocation, effect of heat, gas, e tc ..
Multiple or other injuries..................

Number.

Per cent.

68.7
7.9
4.1
2.5
.2
16.6

102,083

100.0

378
3., 143

.4
3.1

28,317
1,324
2,000
1,580
200
9,545

64.1
3.2
5.0
3.9
.5
23.3

41,032

Total..
Fatalities (included above)................................................
Complete severance or loss of member or part..............

70, €09
8,088
4,232
2,539
211,
%
17,004

100.0

029
429

1.5
1.0

1,112
39
07
102
7
340

66.7
2.4
4.0
6.1
.4
20.4

1,067

100.0

40
30

2.4
1.8

98,038
9,451
6,359
4,227
418
20,889

67.4
6.5
4.4
2.9
.3
18.5

145,382

100.0

1,047
3,602

.7
2.5

Building and engineering.
Lacerations, cuts, and bruises..........................................
Burns......................................................................................
Sprains or dislocations........................................................
Fractures...............................................................................
Suffocation, effect of heat, gas, etc...................................
Multiple or other injuries...................................................
Total..
Fatalities (included above)...................................
Complete severance or loss of member or x>art..
Mining and quarrying.
Lacerations, cuts, and bruises........
B um s...................................................
Sprains or dislocations.....................
Fractures.............................................
Suffocation, effect of heat, gas, etc.
Multiple or other injuries.................
T otal.
Fatalities (included above)...................................
Complete severance or loss of member or part..
A ll industries.
Lacerations, cuts, and bruises.........
B u m s....................................................
Sprains or dislocations.....................
Fractures..............................................
Suffocation, effect of heat, gas, e t c .,
Multiple or other injuries..................
Grand tota l.
Fatalities (included above)...................................
Complete severance or loss of member or part..

This is an exceptionally interesting and suggestive table concisely
emphasizing the material differences in the nature of the injuries sus­
tained in different groups of employment. The table affords only a
general survey of a situation which is of great practical importance
in the administration of workmen’s compensation laws. For illus­
tration, burns caused 7.9 per cent of the accidents in manufactures,
against 2.4 per. cent in mines and quarries, and 3.2 per cent in
building and engineering. In contrast, fractures caused 2.5 per
cent of the accidents in manufactures, against 6.1 per cent in mines
and quarries, and 3.9 per cent in building and engineering. Of the




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

total accidents in manufactures 0.4 per cent were fatal, against 2.4
per cent in mines and quarries, and 1.5 per cent in building and engi­
neering. The complete severance or loss of a member, or part of the
same, at the time of the accident— that is, without reference to sub­
sequent operative results— occurred in 3.1 per cent of the accidents
in manufactures, 1.8 per cent in mines and quarries, and 1.1 per cent
in building and engineering.
A further analysis, according to the part of the body injured, of
the industrial accident experience of New York State is available.
The details in the table below are given for each of the three main
divisions of New York State injuries— that is, manufacturing, build­
ing and engineering, and mining and quarrying:
T able

3 0 .—IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y P A R T S O F T H E
B O D Y IN JU R E D , A P R I L , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of New Y ork .]
Accidents in—

Part injured.

Manufacturing.

Number.

Per cent.

Building and
engineering.
Number.

Mining and quarrying.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

E yes..............................................
Other head injuries....................
Trunk or internal......................
Arms or hands............................
Fingers.........................................
Legs or feet..................................
Multiple or other........................

10,312
8,548
5,402
17,197
38,400
18,1(32
4,602

10.0
8.3
5.3
16.8
37.4
17.7
4.5

1,331
7,305
2,602
6,050
8,259
11,032
4,453

3.2
17.8
6.3
14.8
20.1
26.9
10.9

128
194
91
197
451
435
171

7.7
11.6
5.5
11.8
27.0
26.1
10.3

Total..................................

102,683

100.0

41,032

100.0

1,667

100.0

This table confirms the previous observation that an analysis of
this kind must needs prove of practical value in the framing of
workmen's compensation legislation or the administration of work­
men's compensation laws. It is shown, for illustration, that of the
accidents in manufacturing industries 10 per cent were accidents to
the eyes, against 7.7 per cent in mines and quarries, and only 3.2
per cent in building and engineering. In contrast , accidents to fingers
account for 37.4 per cent of the total number of accidents in manu­
facturing industries, against 27 per cent in mining and quarrying,
and 20.1 per cent in building and engineering.
The foregoing statistics and observations apply not only to the
State of New York but, it may safely be assumed, to American
industries generally, unless, obviously, carried on or operated under
fundamentally different conditions than those known to prevail in
the Empire State. This conclusion applies particularly to mining,
which in New York State is of very limited extent and which can not
be considered representative of the vastly more developed mining




45

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

industries, for illustration, of Pennsylvania or Montana. The
methods of tabulation and analysis, however, suggest the direction in
which uniformity in the presentation of the facts for the several States
is particularly desirable, aside, of course, from the urgently required
adoption of a standard accident certificate with regard to the essen­
tial facts of industrial accidents as to the age, sex, specific occupa­
tion, industry, previous duration of employment, nature of the
injury, part of the body injured, cause of the injury, and the economic*
medical and surgical results.
T able

3 1 .—F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , B Y
IN D U S T R Y A N D S E X , S E P T E M B E R , 1911, T O M A R C H , 1913.1
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 55, Department of Labor, State of N ew Y ork.]
Industry.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Factories.
Stone, clay, and glass products:
Stone..........................................................................................................
Miscellaneous mineral products...........................................................
Lime, cement, and plaster....................................................................
Brick, tile, and p ottery.........................................................................
Glass..........................................................................................................

5
4
12
5
1

5
4
12
5
1

T otal.......................................................................................................

27

27

i In this connection the following statistics, derived from tho report of the P ublic Service Commission
(First District), New Y ork, should be of interest:

,

,

Number of employees hilled or disabled for 3 or more days by accident and
accident rate per 1,000 employees for public-service employees, 1908 to
1911

.

[Compiled from reports of New Y ork P ublic Service Commission, First District.]

Year.

Number
of wage
earners,
midDeccmbcr.

Disabled for 3 days
and over.

Killed.

Number.

Rate per
1,000 wageeamers.

Number.

Rate per
1,000 wage
earners.

Gas-ivorks employees.
1908...........................................
1909...........................................
1910...........................................
1911...........................................

5,721
0,585
7,581
8,767

1
1
6
11

0.2
.2
.8
1.3

171
306
535
1,142

29.9
46.5
70.6
130.3

to ta l, 1908 to 1911..........

28,654

19

.7

2,154

75.2

1908...........................................
1909...........................................
1910...........................................
1 911.........................................

3,856
4,680
5,085
5,711

6
9
9
12

1.6
1.9
1.8
2.1

66
408
442
607

17.1
87.2
86.9
106.3

1,523

78.8

Electrical employees.

Total, 1908 to 1911..........

19,332

36

1.9

Street railway, including sur­
face, elevated, and subway,
employees.
1908...........................................
1909...........................................
1910...........................................
1911...........................................
1912...........................................

29,591
36,799
37,339
39,937
39,275

55
46
53
45
36

1.9
1.3
1.4
1.1
.9

Total, 1908 to 1912___

182,941

235

1.3




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 8 1 .—F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K , B Y
IN D U S T R Y A N D SE N , S E P T E M B E R , 1911, T O M A R C H , 1913—Continued.
Industry.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Factories—Concluded.
Metals, machines, and conveyances:
Brass, copper, aluminum, etc___
Iron and steel products.................
Electrical apparatus......................
Vehicles............................................
Boat and ship building.................
Agricultural m achinery................
T otal.

G
55
8
44
8
4
125

125

12

12

W ood manufactures:
Sawmill products............................................
Planing-mill products...................................
Miscellaneous w ood articles..........................
Furniture and cabinetwork ........................
Pianos, organs, and musical instruments.
Total.
Leather, canvas, and rubber goods:
Leather.............................................
Leather and canvas goods............
R ubber and gutta-percha goods..
Total.

11

Chemicals, oils, paints, etc.:
Drugs and chemicals.......................
Paints, dyes, and colors.................
W ood alcohol and essential oils. . .
Animal and mineral oil products.
Soap, perfumery, and cosm etics..
Miscellaneous chemical products..

15

2
1

4
3

1

T otal...............
Paper:
Pulp and paper.
Printing and paper goods:
Paper goods..........................
Printing and bookmaking..
W a llp a p er............................
Total.
Textiles:
W ool manufactures.................................
Cotton goods.............................................
Hosiery and knit goods..........................
Other textiles of silk, wool, or cotton.
Total.
Clothing, millinery, laundry, etc.:
Men’s garments and furnishings____
W om en’s garments and furnishings.
Men’s hats and caps............................
W om en’s headwear.............................
Laundering............................................

17

T otal.
F ood, liquors, and tobacco:
Flour, cereals, and groceries____
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Dairy products.............................
Bakery and confectionery.......... .
Beverages.......................................

15

1
1

7
8

T otal.
Water, light, and power:
Water pum ping...............
Gas......................................
Gas and electric pow er...
Electric light and power.
Steam heat and p ow er...
Garbage disposal..............

32

Total.
Miscellaneous:
Elevators in tenant factories.

29




32

1
1
15
1
H

3

2
i)
G

47

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
table

3 1 .—F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN T H E S T A T E O F N E W Y O R K , B Y
IN D U S T R Y A N D S E X , S E P T E M B E R , 1911, TO M A R C H , 1913—Concluded.
Industry.

1

Males.

Females.

Total.

M ines and quarries.
20
14

20
14

34

31

Dredging............................................ ......................................................

96
93
18

98
93
13

T otal........................................................................................ i ............

207

207

Erecting and structural work:
Iron and steel...........................................................................................
Masonry.........
...............................................................................
Concrete..
..
.........................................................................
W ood
..
.
...................................................................
Structural work, not specified.............................................................

42
34
16
38
14

42
34
16
38
14

Building and engineering.
Excavating:

iI

T otal......................................................................................................
Finishing and furnishing:
Roofing (except sheet m etal)...............................................................
Sheet-metal w ork......................................................................... ..........
Painting and decorating......... ..............................................................
Plum bing, piping, etc ............................... •
.........................................
Electric wiring and installation...........................................................
Installation of m achinery, boilers, etc................................................

144
4
9
31
5
51
16

4
9
31
5
51
16

T otal......................................................................................................

116

116

W recking and m oving..................................................................................
Other, or miscellaneous:
Road making and paving......................................................................
Track laying, e tc............: .......................................................................

6

6

9
82

9
82

T otal.......................................................................................................

91

Grand total................ ..........................................................................

919

144

T able 3 2 .—

91
6

925

IN D U S T R IA L D ISEA SES R E P O R T E D IN N E W Y O R K S T A T E , D U R IN G T H E
2 Y E A R S F R O M S E P T E M B E R , 1911, TO A U G U ST , 1913.
[Compiled from Bulletins 48 to 56, Department of Labor, State of N ew York.]

Industry.

Lead 'poisoning.
Manufacturing:
W hite lead• ........................................................................................................
W hite metal goods.............................................................................................
Paints, inks, and colors.....................................................................................
Electric batteries................................................................................................
Tinware................................................................................................................
Brass goods..........................................................................................................
W ire and wire goods. . ..................................................... ................................
Electric cables.....................................................................................................
Cut glass...............................................................................................................
R ubber goods.....................................................................................................
Linoleum .............................................................................................................
Cigars (labeling).................................................................................................
Artificial flowers.................................................................................................
Casket trim m ings..............................................................................................
Surgical instruments.........................................................................................
Smelting...............................................................................................................
Printing................................................................................................................
Shipbuilding.......................................................................................................
Painting (in shops, etc.):
Carriages, wagons, automobiles, and cars.............................................
Agricultural implem ents.......................................................................
Heating apparatus.....................................................................................
Metal house trim .........................................................................................
Pianos...........................................................................................................
Architectural ironwork..............................................................................
Theatrical scenery, signs, e tc ...................................................................
Miscellaneous...............................................................................................




Cases re­
ported.

Fatal
cases.

8
1
9 I
35 1
4
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
4
1

;

Per cent
fatal.

l
l

11.1
2.9
i

25
5 !
1
3
1
2
o
1

50.0

1

i
i
]

i

100.0

1
1

25.0
25.0

4

16.0

1

20.0

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

3 2 .—IN D U S T R IA L D IS E A S E S R E P O R T E D IN N E W Y O R K S T A T E , D U R IN G T H E
2 Y E A R S F R O M S E P T E M B E R , 1911, TO A U G U S T , 1913—Concluded.

Industry.

Cases re­
ported.

Fatal
cases.

Per cent
fatal.

Lead poisoning—Continued.
Building:
House painting...................................................................................................
Plumbing, e tc................................. ....................................................................
Other or indefinite.., ..............................................................................................

99
4
9

14
2
2

14.1
50.0
22.2

Total..................................................................................................................

239

29

12.1

Poisonings other than lead.
Arsenic poisoning:
Manufacture of—
Colors.............................................................................................................
P ain t..............................................................................................................
Tanning of leather..............................................................................................

2
1
1

T otal..................................................................................................................

4

Brass poisoning:
Setting gun sights..............................................................................................
Mercury poisoning:
Manufacture of—
R ubber goods...............................................................................................
Fur goods......................................................................................................
Hair goods....................................................................................................
Total..................................................................................................................
Phosphorus poisoning:
Manufacture of m atches....................................................................................
W ood-alcohol poisoning:
Varnishing...........................................................................................................
Anthrax.
Tanning of leather....................................................................................................
Baggage handling (steam ship)...............................................................................
Manufacture of rugs..................................................................................................
Veterinary...................................................................................................................
T otal..................................................................................................................
Caisson disease.
Shafts and tunnels...................................................................................................
Grand total...................................................................................................

|

1

1
1
1

1

100.0

i

3

1

1

1 I

1

!

33.3

2
1
1
1

1

5 |

1 j

30
284 |

100.0

50.0
!
20.0

1

3.3

33

.11.6

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF MASSACHUSETTS.1
The experience of the State of Massachusetts under the work­
men’s compensation law adopted in 1911 and amended in 1912
includes 474 fatal accidents and 89,694 nonfatal accidents reported
to the Industrial Accident Board. The statistical digest of these
accidents is briefly summarized as follows:
Aside from the 474 fatal accidents occurring to persons entitled
to compensation for injury, if insured, there were 71 additional
fatalities reported to the Industrial Accident Board, which on
investigation were found not to have occurred in the course of the
employment, or which for other reasons were not subject to the
workings of the compensation act. In other words, out of 545
fatal accidents in Massachusetts industries during the year ending
June 30, 1913, the proportion entitled to compensation, if protected
by insurance, was 87.0 per cent. Of the 474 fatal injuries to which
1 Data are from First Annual R eport of the Massachusetts Industrial Accident Board.




49

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

the act applied, 290, or G1.2 per ccnt, were insured. In 112 of
these cases no dependents were left, but in the remaining 362 cases
there w^ere 873 dependents, and of this number 770 were totally
dependent, and 103 were partially dependent, upon the supporting
member of the family. The economic importance of workmen’s
compensation is therefore clearly brought out by the provision made
for the needs of dependent survivors in cases of fatal industrial
accidents. The large majority of the persons fatally injured were
married, and in about 60 per cent of the cases the surviving
widows were left in a state of dependency.
Of the 89,694 nonfatal accidents, 68,586, or 76.5 per cent, were
reported as injuries which incapacitated the employee for two weeks
or less, and of this number 36,901, or about 41 per cent of the non­
fatal accidents reported, represented injuries incapacitating the
employee for one day only. The practical usefulness of requiring
the reporting of industrial accidents involving less than one day’s
loss of labor is clearly established by the results of this analysis.
Even though no compensation is ever likely to be paid for such
accidents the reporting of the same does not involve a serious office
difficulty, whereas from an economic as well as from a medical
point of view the facts are of considerable importance. The details
of the Massachusetts experience for the year ending June 30, 1913,
are given in the table below:
3 3 .—D U R A T IO N O F D IS A B IL IT Y C AU SED B Y N O N F A T A L IN JU R IE S A C C O R D IN G
TO E X P E R IE N C E U N D E R T H E W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N SA T IO N L A W O F M ASSACH U ­
S E T T S F O R Y E A R E N D IN G JU N E 30, 1913.

T able

Persons injured.
Duration of disability.
Number.

Per cent.

2 weeks and u n d er1.............................................................................................................
2 to 4 weeks............................................................................................................................
4 to 8 weeks............................................................................................................................
8 to 13 weeks..........................................................................................................................
13 to 26 weeks...... .................................................................................................................
Over 26 weeks........................................................................................................................

68,586
10,568
6,638
2,355
1,275
272

76.5
11.8
7.4
2.6
1.4
.3

T otal.............................................................................................................................

89,694

100.0

i Of the accidents causing disability of less than two weeks, 36,901, or 41 per cent of the nonfatal acci­
dents, caused a disability duration of one day or less.

The number of days’ work lost as the result of nonfatal industrial
accidents in Massachusetts during the year ending June 30, 1913,
estimated on the basis of the mean duration of disability, was
1,156,787; or in weeks the amount of time lost was 165,255. On
the basis of days lost the Industrial Accidqjit Board found that the
number of persons employed in Massachusetts industries and con­
stantly disabled on account of industrial accidents was 3,855 during
the year ending June 30, 1913. The average duration of disability,
58553°— Bull. 157— 15------ 4




50

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of 89,694 accidents, was 12.9 days, but this duration includes the
accidents involving the loss of one day’s labor, which it would seem
requires to be construed as the first day of the injury, although the
actual loss may not have been for the entire day.
The wage loss resulting from the industrial accidents was esti­
mated by the board at $2,965,225, or approximately $10,000 for
each working day. Of this amount, $2,631,085, or 88.7 per cent,
was a wage loss to insured wage earners and $334,140 was a wage
loss to uninsured injured employees, or their dependents. The esti­
mated payments by insurance companies for medical and hospital
attention, disability and dependency compensation, including the
estimated contingent liabilities to dependents of workmen fatally
injured, and for those whose disability had not terminated at the end
of the calendar year, was $1,677,380.82. This amount is exclusive of
the cost of insurance administration. The average amount paid for
disability and medical attention, according to the estimate of the
Industrial Accident Board, was $5,000 for each working day, and
the average cost for each reported accident, not including the cost
of insurance administration, was $18.70.
In considering the results of this experience it is necessary to keep
in mind the nature of the industries carried on in Massachusetts,
and particularly the predominance of the textile industries and the
boot and shoe industries, both of which are relatively free from
extreme occupational hazard .but peculiarly liable to injuries of
a minor character involving but a comparatively short duration
of disability. .An additional factor peculiar to Massachusetts is the
unusually large proportion of women employed in industry, for
according to the returns of the United States census for 1910 the
number of occupied males was 1,086,767, and the number of occu­
pied females was 444,301. The relative proportion of female em­
ployees to every 100 males was, therefore, 40.9, as compared with
24.0 for Pennsylvania, 32.6 for New York, and 26.8 for the conti­
nental United States. The Massachusetts experience, therefore, can
not safely be applied to the Nation as a whole, if only because of
the comparative absence of the most dangerous industries, such as
mining, smelting, logging, etc. The three Massachusetts industry
groups showing the largest number of nonfatal accidents are the
metal or iron and steel group, the textile group, and road, street, and
bridge transportation. The 474 fatal accidents in Massachusetts in­
dustries subject to the workmen’s compensation act were distributed
by industrial groups as follows.




51

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

3 4 .—N U M B E R O F F A T A L A C C ID E N T S, B Y IN D U S T R Y G R O U P S , U N D E R T H E
M A SSA C H U SE TTS W O R K M E N ’ S C O M PE N SA TIO N A C T , J U L Y 1, 1912, TO JU N E 30, 1913.

T able

Fatal acci­
dents.

Industry group.

183
71
42
31
25
24

R oad, street, and bridge transportation
Building trades.........................................
Trade...........................................................
Miscellaneous industries..........................
Textiles.......................................................
Iron and steel............................................
Water transportation...............................
Food and kindred products...................
Lum ber and its manufacture.................
Leather and its finished products.........
Domestic and personal service...............
Liquors and beverages............................

21
10

9

Fatal acci­
dents.

Industry group.

Agriculture and forestry............
Paper..............................................
Chemical products.......................
Metal and metal products.........
Extraction of minerals...............
Clay, glass, and stone products.
Express companies......................
Post, telegraph, and telephone.
Professional service.....................
Printing and bookbinding....... .
Total....................................

474

The principal causes of these fatal accidents, represented by at
least 10 deaths or more, are summarized in the table below:
T able

3 5 .—CAU SES O F F A T A L A C C ID E N TS, U N D E R T H E M A SSA C H U SE T T S W O R K M E N 'S
C O M P E N SA T IO N A C T , J U L Y 1, 1912, T O JU NE 30, 1913.

Cause.

Fatal
accidents.
119

Railroad equipm ent
Falls............................
Vehicles......................
Hand labor................
Elevators...................
E lectricity.................
Street railways.........

Fatal
accidents.

Cause.

43
37
33
25
20

Boiler explosions and burns.
E xcavating..............................
Cranes.......................................
Miscellaneous (unclassified)..
A sphyxiation, drowning, etc
A ll other causes......................

15
14

T ota l...............................

66

474

11
11

10

70

The ages of the persons fatally injured, by divisional periods of
life but without reference to the exposure to risk, are given in the table
following, which brings out the fact that of the 474 accidents, 248,
or 52.3 per cent, occurred at the age period of 21 to 39, which from
an economic point of view must be considered of most importance.
T able

3 6 .—A G E S O F PE R S O N S F A T A L L Y IN J U R E D , U N D E R T H E M A SSA CH U SETTS
W O R K M E N 'S C O M PE N SA TIO N A C T , J U L Y 1,1912, TO JU N E 30, 1913.

Age group.

Under 16 years...............................................................
16 to 20 years..................................................................
21 to 29 years..................................................................
30 to 39 yea rs.................................................................
40 to 49 years.................................................................. '
50 to 59 years.................................................................. !
60 years and over...........................................................




T otal.........................................................

Num ber
fatally
injured.
4

Per cent
at each
age.

18
135
113
83
66
55

0.8
3.8
28.5
23.8
17.5
13.9
11.6

474

100.0

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The classified weekly wages of those fatally injured indicate that
the large majority were persons earning wages not much above the
minimum for family existence and inadequate as a source of pecuniary
provision for dependent survivors in the event of death. Of the
474 persons fatally injured, 27, or 5.7 per cent, earned $8 or less;
288, or 60.8 per cent, earned from $8 to $15; 102; or 21.5 per cent,
earned from $15 to $20; and only 57, or 12 per cent, earned over $20.
Among the 89,694 nonfatal accidents there were 967 cases of special
injuries, for which additional compensation is provided by the act.
The periods for which this compensation is paid are shown in the
table following:
T able

3 7 .—S U M M A R Y OF S P E C IA L IN JU R IE S , U N D E R T H E M A SSA CH U SETTS W O R K ­
M E N ’ S C O M P E N SA T IO N A C T , J U L Y 1,1912, T O JU NE 30,1913.
Cases.

Period of
additional
compensa­
tion
(weeks).

Nature of injury.
Number.

Both, feetl ost...................................................................................................
B oth eyes lost..................................................................................................
One eye lost.....................................................................................................
One hand lost..................................................................................................
One foot lost................................ ...................................................................
T w o or more fingers lost...............................................................................
T w o or more toes lost.....................................................................................
One finger lost.................................................................................................
One toe lost......................................................................................................

1
2
47
35
22
133
21
672
34

T otal......... ............................................................................................

967

Per cent.

0.1
.2 }
4.9
3.6
2.3
13.7
2.2
69.5
3.5

}

100
50
25

12

100.0

The frequency of nonfatal accidents in proportion to the exposure
to risk has not as yet been accurately determined in connection
with the Massachusetts experience otherwise than as subsequently
stated. The most recent data of the bureau of statistics show that
there are approximately 600,000 wage earners employed in manu­
facturing occupations in Massachusetts, all of whom, if insured,
come under the act. This number, however, is exclusive of those
engaged in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, quarrying, trans­
portation, trade, express companies, personal and domestic service,
telegraph and telephone companies, and a number of other trades
and occupations not specifically enumerated by the Industrial
Accident Board. With the exception of those employed in do­
mestic service, farm laborers, and railway employees, who are
otherwise covered by Federal legislation, all these employees,
when insured, are subject to the operations of the act. Including
steam railway employees engaged in interstate business and other
classes of labor not specifically classified by the Massachusetts
Bureau of Statistics and those employed in construction work
on buildings, trade, express business, and various other forms




53

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

of transportation, and excluding all domestic service and all agricul­
tural laborers specifically exempt by the act, according to the mini­
mum estimate of the board there are at least 800,000 wage earners
in Massachusetts eligible, if insured, to come under the workmen’s
compensation act. In adopting the exact terms of the report of
the board in the foregoing observations, it is practically certain
that the best possible estimate of persons subject to the opera­
tions of the act has been arrived at, and additional thereto it
may be stated, in the words of the commission, that approxi­
mately 81 per cent of the injured were insured. Unfortunately
there are no accurate data as regards the number of employees
covered by insurance under the act, and with special reference to
specific employments or occupations, in the aggregate, and making
allowance for a reasonable margin of error, the minimum number
of persons insured under the act is fixed by the board at 600,000.
For certain groups of employments the number of persons insured
has been estimated b y the board with approximate accuracy, and
the following table shows the number of accidents per 1,000 em­
ployees for 25 selected branches of industry:
3 8 .—A C C ID E N T R A T E S P E R 1,000 E M P L O Y E E S IN T H E P R IN C IP A L IN D U S T R IE S
O F M A S SA C H U S E TTS , J U L Y 1, 1912, TO JU N E 30, 1913, U N D E R T H E W O R K M E N 'S COM­
P E N S A T IO N A C T .

Table

Industry.

A utom obile factories......................................................................................
Electrical supplies..........................................................................................
Foundries ana metal w orking.....................................................................
B o x m akers^w oocl).. . . 5 ............................................................................
Car and railroad shops..................................................................................
R ubber factories.............................................................................................
Printing and publishing...............................................................................
Bakeries............................................................................................................
Pianos and organs..........................................................................................
Furniture.........................................................................................................
Paper and pulp m ills....................................................................................
Tanneries.........................................................................................................
Cotton m ills....................................................................................................
Jewelry factories.............................................................................................
B o x makers (p a p er)......................................................................................
W oolen and worsted m ills...........................................................................
Candy................................................................................................................
Carpet m ills.....................................................................................................
K nitting m ills........................ ........................................................................
Shoes.................................................................................................................
Marble and stone cutters..............................................................................
D yeing and finishing textiles......................................................................
Makers of blank books, envelopes, tags, patter bags, e tc......................
Clothing makers.............................................. ^.............................................

Average
number of N um ber of
employees. accidents.

3,654
20,317
37,544
3,871
3,887
5,569
16,885
7,518
6,868
4,125
8,453
15,620
11,372
112,384
9,899
4,186
54,248
6,794
5,928
10,142
91,602
4,885
10,757
4,421
12,052

779
4,119
6,868
611
541
741
2,020
792
675
364
684
1,233
858
7,467
654
266
3,360
418
360
510
4,516
236
458
167
188

Accident
rate per
1,000
em ployees.
213.2
202.7
182.9
157.8
139.2
133.1
119.6
105.3
98.3
88.2
80.9
78.9
75.4
66.4
66.1
63.5
61.9
61.5
60.7
50.3
49.4
48.3
42.6
37.8
15.6

According to this tabulation the eight most dangerous industries
were automobile factories, electrical supplies, foundries and metal
working, slaughtering and packing houses, box makers (wood), car
and railroad shops, rubber factories, and printing and publishing.




54

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The average rate for the entire group of 25 selected branches was 82.2
per 1,000 employees, or 8.2 per cent.
The causes of fatal and nonfatal accidents in Massachusetts are
given in considerable detail, arranged in alphabetical order, with
numerous subdivisions. The large majority of accidents occurred
in connection with hand labor, which, of course, as such, can not be
considered the cause of an accident but rather a contributory con­
dition. The subdivision of direct causes in connection with the 29,737
nonfatal accidents attributed to hand labor was as follows: Caught
by material, 12,632 accidents; flying particles from hammering tools,
539; slivers, sharp edges, corners, etc., 11,641; strains from lifting,
etc., 1,832; struck by tools, 3,093. The proportion of all nonfatal
accidents attributed to hand labor or contributory conditions was
33.2 per cent of the total of nonfatal accidents due to all causes.
Occupational diseases were included in this classification, and it is
of interest to note that there were 104 cases attributed to nonfatal
occupational diseases, or, respectively, 13 to anthrax, 12 to lead poi­
soning, 2 to arsenic poisoning, and 77 to miscellaneous occupational
diseases. Of the 13 cases of anthrax, 9 occurred at tanneries and 2
in the manufacture of shoes. The 12 cases of lead poisoning were too
generally distributed to connect the same conclusively with any specific
industrial process. There were only two fatal cases of occupational
diseases, one of whieh was a case of anthrax in a tannery, and one
r
classed under miscellaneous causes in chemical work.
Additional to the statistics published by the Industrial Accident
Board, a considerable amount of useful information regarding the
workmen’s compensation experience of Massachusetts is published
in the annual report of the insurance commissioner.1 The total
amount of pay roll upon which premiums were based was $489,795,362.
The amount of earned premiums was $5,252,667, and the amount
paid in losses was $1,071,101, resulting in a loss cost of $0.35 per $100
of pay roll. The total amount incurred in losses was 32.6 per cent of
the earned premiums. The losses were distributed as follows: The
amount paid on account of death and specified injuries was $161,788;
the amount paid in weekly indemnities was $571,984; and the amount
paid for medical services was $337,329. The estimated outstanding
liabilities amounted to $642,742, of which $382,672 was charged to
deaths and specified injuries, $230,438 to weekly indemnities, and
$29,632 to medical services. The experience, according to the prin­
cipal classifications, with terminated policies between July 1, 1912,
and December 31, 1913, limited to risk classes having pay rolls of
$3,000,000 and over, was as follows.
1 Fifty-ninth Annual Report of the Insurance Commissioner of Massachusetts, Part II.




55

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

3 9 .—M A SSA C H U SE TTS W O R K M E N ’S C O M PE N SA T IO N E X P E R IE N C E IN P R IN C I­
P A L R IS K C L A S S IF IC A T IO N S A N D W IT H T E R M IN A T E D P O L IC IE S , J U L Y 1, 1912, TO
D E C . 31, 1913.

T able

Per $100 of
pay roll.

R isk classification.

B oot and shoe manufacturers....................
B oot and shoe machinery manufacturers___
Calico printers.....................................................
Carpenters, construction work, not bridge
building.............................................................
Carpet and rug manufacturers........................
Clerical office employees in manufacturing
plants.................................................................
Clerical office employees not in manufac­
turing plan ts....................................................
Clothing and garment manufacturers............
Contractors: W ooden residences, private
stables, e t c ........................................................
Drivers..................................................................
Dry-goods stores.................................................
Hotels (excluding laundry)..............................
Jewelry manufacturers......................................
Machin3 shop without foundry.......................
Masonry work (not otherwise classified); no
blasting.............................................................
Printers (power), publishers, lithographers,
and newspaper offices....................................
Restaurants and counter lunch rooms...........
Salesmen, collectors, and messengers.............
Stores (n ot otherwise classified), retail.........
Stores (n ot otherwise classified), wholesale..
Street railway companies: Electric, all sys­
tems, urban and interurban.........................
Tanners and curriers.........................................
Textile manufacturers, cotton and woolen
mills, excluding shoddy m anufacturers.. .
W ire-drawing works..........................................
W riting and blank-book paper manufac­
turers.................................................................

P ay rolls
upon
which
premiums
are based.

Earned
premi­
ums.

T otal
losses
paid.

Total
esti­
mated T otal
losses
losses
in­
out­ curred. Net
loss
stand­
cost.
ing.

parti­
cipat­
ing
rates,
March,
1J14.

2
$42,264,508 $294,731 $36,224 $14,417 $50,641 $0. 1 $0.30
6,514
6,776
.23
.60
31,716
262
3,007,881
7,814
.22 .75
6,534
35,547
1,280
3,485,358
4,170,829
3,814,409

129,687
27,576

31,747
3,782

21,006
1,764

52,753
5,516

1.26
.15

.01
.0
1

2.62
.50

.1 |
2
.10

24,945,105

46,589

2,160

378

2,538

25,572,328
3,774,171

39,937
18,095

2,646
1,970

148
1,057

2,794
3,027

4,003,998
12,932,321
3,519,255
4,535,176
4,832,453
9,491,841

98,907
184,952
14,530
33,809
40,512
119,094

8,504
45,612
2 ,23o
6,484
5,311
29,259

1,802
40,625
411
3,475

10,306
86,237
2,646
9,959
7,511
36,894

.22

.16
.39

.25
.30
.40

3,000,890

139,325

36,458

27,243

63,701

2.12

3.75

7,810,831
3,403,833
5,261,289
14,524,238
3,954,502
^10,244,046

12,179
6,720
1,092
7,369
6,074
34,126

9,185
3,761

21,364
10,481
1,158
8,908
7,315

.27
.31

.GO
.35

13,832

.06
.18
.62
.36

.35
5.00

3,795,431

69,616
20,632
9,786
49,496
18,120
182,213
51,464

86,339,122
3,879,764

571,404
45,602

10 0
2 ,1 1

.23
.70

.35

16, 416

80,994 201,095
10,553 26,969

2.00

4,874,252

46,424

12,480

22,173

.45

.75

9,196

2,200
7.635

6
6

1,539
1,241
29,677
4.636

63,803

.08

.26
.67
.08

.02

.30
1.87

12
.1

.1 |
2
.20

2.20
.85

With regard to the rates charged, the following quotation from the
report of the insurance commissioner for 1913 is of interest:
We have now had two years of workmen’s compensation in Massa­
chusetts. At the outset there was very little in the way of pertinent
experience to guide the companies or the insurance department or
independent experts in the judging of rates for insurance covering
this liability. As, however, the companies had the service to sell and
the public were the buyers, rates w^ere naturally fixed by the sellers,
and high enough so that they would not lose by the transactions, the
same as the dealer in any line of goods makes a price that will give
him a profit. It was soon seen that the rate was too high, and a
horizontal cut of 25 per cent was made. Other changes followed,
all in the direction of reducing rates, until now they are at a level
where there is probably no question of their sufficiency as a whole,
but rather one of adjustment; that is, the lowering of one rate that
experience shows to be too high and the increase of another which
is too loWj the increases and the decreases about offsetting each other,
and thus leaving the total costs of this insurance about the same as
at present.



56

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

As regards individual rates, the report states that:
Since the enactment of the workmen’s compensation law it has
been evident to all who have considered the matter that justice
demands that an individual plant which is conspicuously meritor­
ious by reason of its physical condition should not pay as high a
rate for its workmen’s compensation coverage as another* plant in
the same industry where conditions are only average. In recognition
of this view the insurance commissioner, as outlined in the fiftyseventh annual report,, established an inspection bureau, which
became operative soon after the enactment of the workmen’s com­
pensation act. Its duties were to inspect the plants of those employ­
ers for whom applications for special reduced rates were made by the
insurance companies. Application blanks were prepared by the
insurance department and furnished to the insurance companies,
together with a blank designed to afford an opportunity for giving
the experience of the applicant for a reduced rate in respect to acci­
dents in his plant covering a series of years of its operation.
The subject of schedule rating is briefly referred to in part as
follows:
The establishment of this system means: First, that a schedule be
prepared by experts in modern methods of accident prevention which
will show what charge should be made for each defect which causes
the risk to be poorer than the standard with which it is compared,
and what credit shall be allowed for each point in respect to which
it is a better risk than the standard; second, that every risk must be
inspected by capable disinterested inspectors in order to ascertain
the actual iacts to be used in making the charges and allowing
credits for establishing the rates. This method must be followed
for each and every one of the thousands of risks in a given State.
It is evident that the task of applying such an analytical standard
in Massachusetts would be a worn: of great magnitude, and that its
very basis is a correct rate for the average risk of the various classes.
It is undoubtedly a fact that inspections made by individual
companies are not absolutely satisfactory for the reason that the
competitive element is always present, and presumably to some extent
influences the inspector’s report and the underwriter’s conclusions
drawn therefrom. Individual company inspections mean a dupli­
cation of labor, since several companies under competition would
repeat each other’s work. Furthermore, the inspections are not
uniform. Some are good, others indifferent. A central bureau,
therefore, which would make inspections for all insurance carriers
(both stock and mutual) without prejudice, absolutely free from*the
conscious or subconscious element of competition, would be in a
position to produce results which would be uniform and free from
many objections inherent in rating systems operated by individual
companies independently of each other, and would bring about a
standardization in accident prevention methods, as well as cut down
the expenses of rate making. While such inspections would natur­
ally be verified in some cases by representatives of the State for the
purpose of determining the good faith of the bureau making the
inspections, it would not seem to be necessary for the State to employ
a sufficient staff to verify all such inspections, since the principle
having been established and its operation placed in competent hands



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

57

there should be no difficulty in accurately measuring each varying
degree of hazard according to the principles of the schedule. This
system would not take into consideration a generally recognized
factor in the establishment of individual rates— namely, the moral
hazard of the risk. It should be possible, however, to work out a
scheme for recognizing this factor. Such a scheme would probably
give due weight to the actual experience which any given risk can
show from its past record.
The experience winch has thus far been had under the Massachusetts
workmen’s compensation act seems to have met the reasonable ex­
pectations of employers, employees, and the general public. The ad­
justments of claims under the act have, as a rule, been prompt, and the
number of requests for arbitration proceedings has not been excessive.
Only 26 cases have been appealed to the supreme judicial court. About
3,000 claims regarding which there was some dispute were adjusted
by the mediation members of the board by conference with employees
and insurers. The amount paid by employers in Massachusetts for
premiums under the workmen’s compensation act is estimated, at
1.2 per cent of the pay roll. The average wages in the manufacturing
industries were estimated at $551.36 a year. The actual cost of
losses under the workmen’s compensation act, to be charged against
the finished product of Massachusetts industries, according to the
Industrial Accident Board, was $0.0009 for each dollar of product,
exclusive of the cost of insurance administration; or, in the words
of the board, “ the consumer paid for every $10 unit o f purchased
product less than 1 cent as the per capita cost for the actual losses
paid under the workmen’s compensation act.”

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF ILLINOIS.1
Commencing with the six months ending December 31, 1907, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of Illinois has issued reports of considerable
interest and value on industrial accidents. The reports are in con­
formity with a law which became effective July 1, 1907, providing as
follows:
Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois,
represented in the General Assembly: That it shall be the duty of
every person, firm or corporation employing laborers, artisans, me­
chanics, miners, clerks, or any other servants or employees of any
character, to make a report to the State bureau of labor statistics of
every serious injury entailing a loss of thirty or more days’ time, or
death of every employee caused by accident while in the performance
of any duty or service for such employer within thirty (30) days from
the date of such injury or death. Such report shall give the name
of the employer, character of business of such employer, where lo­
cated, date of injury or death, name of person killed or injured,
character of employment or service, and cause of such injury or death,
and when injury alone, then the character and extent of such injury,
1 Data are com piled from reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Industrial Accidents 1007 to 1912.




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

residence, nativity and age of the person injured or killed, whether
married or single, and, if known, how many persons are dependent
upon such employee.
Sec . 2. It shall be the duty of the State bureau of labor statis­
tics to cause such reports to be made and to enforce the provisions
of this act and shall cause all of such accidents or deaths by accidents
to be classified into trades or kinds of employment, and shall cause
the same to be published at least once each year on or before Jan­
uary 1st.
Sec . 3. Any person, firm, or corporation failing or refusing to make
the reports as provided in section 1 of this act shall be deemed guilty
of a misdemeanor and shall, upon conviction, be fined in a sum not
less than twenty-five ($25.00) dollars nor more than two hundred
($200.00) dollars.
In accordance with this act, employers were required to report
all fatal and nonfatal accidents involving a loss of thirty days' work­
ing time or more.
During the six months ending December 31, 1907, a total of 1,392
casualties were reported, of which number 298, or 21.4 per cent,
were fatal. Out of this beginning a considerable experience has
developed, which is briefly presented, chiefly in the tables (47 to 57)
following this discussion. The reports published annually are
unusually complete and contain much information in detail regard­
ing the causes of accidents and the character of the injury, together
with information as to time and place, ago, sex, conjugal condition,
etc., and, of course, the occupation at the time of injury. Com­
mencing with the year 1912 the scope of the inquiry was enlarged to
include accidents causing a loss of 15 days' time or more, and also
all accidents occurring under the workmen's compensation act, which
became effective May 1, 1912, and which, therefore, on December 31
had been in operation for eight months. Under this law reports
were required to be made by employers (electing to come under the
act) of nonfatal accidents causing a loss of time of more than one
week, together with information as to the wages paid, tho hours
employed, the amount of compensation received or payable, and the
expenses of taking care of the victims of industrial accidents. It is
conceded that tho reports are not entirely complete, owing to the
fact that some fatal accidents, and probably many minor injuries^
are not reported to the labor bureau. During the year 1912 there
were 589 fatal accidents, of which 183, or 31.1 per cent, occurred to
employees under tho compensation act, and 406, or 68.9 per cent,
to employees whose employers had rejected the act. Of the total
nonfatal accidents reported, 8,730 occurred under the compensation
act and 3,409 outside of the law ; the total number of nonfatal acci­
dents reported for the year was, therefore, 12,139, as compared with
4,510 nonfatal accidents reported in 1911. The increase is largely




59

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

in consequence of the workmen's compensation law requiring the
reporting of accidents causing less than 30 days' loss of time.
With special reference to compensation, the report for 1912 states
that out of 183 fatal accidents, compensation was allowed in only 79
cases, for a total sum of $177,317, or an average compensation at
death of $2,245. Additional thereto the sum of $2,153 was allowed
for medical and other services. This information, however, is incom­
plete, for considerable sums were paid on account of cases in which
the final settlement had been delayed, including 23 cases, with a total
allowance of $42,032. In view of the changes in the law, and the
incomplete reports, the consolidated statistics for the period 1908 to
1912 are not as satisfactory as would be desirable. It has seemed
best not to include, as a rule, the data contained in the first report
for 1907 for reasons which do not seem to require discussion. The
table following exhibits the economic aspects of the industrial acci­
dent problem in the State of Illinois as emphasized by the number
of children and dependents of persons killed or injured during the
five-year period ending with 1912:
Table 4 0 .— N UM BER

O F D E P E N D E N T S OF P E R S O N S K I L L E D O R IN JU R E D IN IN D U S­
T R I A L A C C ID E N TS IN IL L IN O IS , B Y IN D U S T R IE S , JAN . 1, 1908 T O D E C . 31, 1912.
Fatal accidents.
Industry.

Nonfatal accidents.

Children Depend­
Persons of persons ents of
killed.
persons
killed.
killed.

D epend­
Persons Children ents of
injured. of persons persons
injured.
injured.

Coal mining.......................................................
Contracting........................................................
Manufacturing..................................................
Railroading:
Elevated....................................................
Interarban..................................................
Steam...........................................................
Street...........................................................
Underground..............................................
Stone quarrying................................................
Miscellaneous....................................................

1,014
118
512

1,391
73
1248

2,068
125
392

3,955
702
13,061

4,976
538
15,428

7,061
845
8,667

22
37
1,214
36
9
17
105

37
17
1,284
44
4
14
97

44
37
1,936
67
11
23
169

1
108
5,206
284
96
123
2,160

128
5,239
315
87
92
1,417

204
8,634
522
148
162
2,383

Total.........................................................

3,084

3,209

4,872

25,696

18,223

28,626

1 Data cover only 1908, 1939, and cases under workmen’s compensation law, 1912.

According to this table, there were 3,084 persons killed in the indus­
tries of the State of Illinois during the five years ending with 1912, and
25,696 were injured, a total of 28,780 accidents, limited in the manu­
facturing industries, however, to the years 1908 and 1909, and the
workmen's compensation cases for 1912. The table is therefore
merely a consolidated return of available statistics, and useful chiefly
for the purpose of emphasizing the relative loss of life, according
to principal industries, and the resulting economic loss as measured
by the number of children and dependents; for, as shown by the
table, in the case of fatal accidents there were 4,872 dependents, and



60

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

in the case of nonfatal accidents, 28,626, a combined total of 33,498,
which, however, is unquestionably a considerable understatement of
the facts.
The conjugal condition of the persons injured in Illinois industries
is briefly set forth in the next table for the further purpose of em­
phasizing the economic aspects of the industrial accident problem in
a representative industrial State. For all industries combined, it
appears that the conjugal condition was reported for 3,283 persons
fatally injured, and of this number 2,048, or 62.4 per cent, were
married. The details, by industries, are given in the table below:
T able

4 1 .—CON JUG AL C O N D IT IO N AS F A R A S R E P O R T E D OF P E R S O N S K I L L E D O R
IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO DE C . 31, 1912.

I
!
j

Fatal accidents.

Industry.
Persons
killed.

Married
persons
killed.

Nonfatal accidents.

Per cent
married.

Persons
injured.

Injuries to
married
persons.

Per cent
married.

Coal m ining.................................
Contracting.................................
Manufacturing............................
Railroading:
Elevated...............................
Interurban............................
Steam ....................................
Street.....................................
Underground.......................
Stone quarrying.........................
Miscellaneous..............................

1,112
81
540

665
50
349

59.8
61.7
64.6

4,225
623
13,221

2,357
377
7,470

55.0
60.5
56.5

22
40
1,301
44
10
19
114

15
21
846
28
4
10
60

68.2
52.5
65.0
63.6
40.0
52.6
52.6

5
116
5,581
304
106
127
1,995

2
72
3,516
187
62
75
1,102

40.0
62.1
63.0
61.5
58.5
59.1
55.2

T otal..................................

3,283

2,048

62.4

26,303

15,220

57.8

The age factor is also of considerable economic importance. In
the table following the accidents are summarized by divisional periods
of life, but unfortunately the data can not be correlated to the ages
of the industrially employed population. Such information is not
available through the census,, and it w^ould be hazardous to apply an
assumed age distribution on the basis of past experience, in view of
the practical certainty that conditions have undergone a material
change in recent years.
T a ble 4 2 .— AGES

OF P E R SO N S K I L L E D O R IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y
1, 1907, T O DE C . 31, 1912.
Fatal accidents.
Age group.

Number
killed.

Per cent
of total.

Nonfatal accidents.
N um ber
injured.

Per cent
of total.

Under 20 vears.........................................................................
20 to 24 years.............................................................................
25 to 29 years.............................................................................
30 to 34 years.............................................................................
35 to 39 years.............................................................................
40 to 44 years.............................................................................
45 to 49 years.............................................................................
50 to 54 years.............................................................................
55 to 59 years............................................................................
60 years and over.....................................................................
Age not reported......................................................................

158
498
619
475
464
295
253
202
127
131
100

4.7
14.7
18.3
14.0
13.7
8.7
7.5
6.0
3.8
3.9
4.7

1,872
5,088
5,139
3,856
3,207
2,527
1,927
1,154
680
571
709

7.0
19.0
19.2
14.4
12.0
9.4
7.2
4.3
2.5
2.1
2.9

Total................................................................................

3,382

100.0

26,790

100.0




61

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

The table itself is self-explanatory, but additional details for 10
separate industrial groups are given in Tables 50 and 51.
A large proportion (62.7 per cent) of persons killed or injured in
Illinois industries are of foreign birth. The nativity factor is one of
considerable importance in the settlement of workmen’s compensa­
tion claims, wliicli call for the payment of indemnities to the widows,
living in their native land, of foreigners killed in this country. The
table following exhibits the consolidated returns for the ten principal
industry groups.
4=3.—N A T I V I T Y O F PE R S O N S K I L L E D O R IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S ,
J U L Y 1, 1907,T O D E C . 31, 1912 (CASES U N D E R W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N S A T IO N L A W , 1912,
N O T IN C L U D E D ).

T able

Fatal acci­
dents.

Nonfatal acci­
dents.

N ativity.

Fatal acci­
dents.
N ativity.

Per
Per
N um ­
N um ­
ber
cent
ber
cent
killed. of total. injured. of total.
American.............
A rm enian............
Austrian..............
Belgian.................
B ohem ian...........
Bulgarian............
Canadian.............
Danish.................
English................
Finnish................
F ren ch.................
Germany.............
Greek...................
Hungarian...........
Irish......................
Tfo 1fQ 1
T
Lithuan ia.n.........
Macedonian........

Nonfatal acci­
dents.

1,431

44.7

114
12
25
8
9
3
69

3.6
.4
.8
.2
.3
.1
2.1

28
245
43
48
165
307
86
5

.9
7.7
1.3
1.5
5.2
9.6
2.7
.2

6,732
17
834
10
225
88
31
23
319
2
119
1,543
83
297
645
1,352
383
27

37.3
.1
4.6
.1
1.2
.5
.2
.1
1.8
.7
8.6
.5
1.6
3.6
7.5
2.1
.2

N um ­
Per
N um ­
Per
ber
ber
cent
cent
killed. of total. injured. o f total.
M exican..............
Norwegian..........
Polish ...................
Roum anian.........
R ussian...............
Scandinavian
S cotch..................
Servian................
S la v ic...................
Sw edish...............
S w is s ................
Turkish...... .........
W elsh ..................
Miscellaneous.. . .
N ot rep orted .. . .

7
18
184
5
56

T otal.........

0.2
.6
5.7
.2
1.7

44

1.4

71
96
1
2
9
18
90

2.2
3.0
.3
.6
2.8

3,199

100.0

2
77
2,173
14
611
6
113
22
102
469^
3
7
18
604
1,109
18,060

0.4
12.0
.1
3.4
.6
.1
.6
2.6
.1
3.3
6.1
100.0

This table requires no extended analysis. Of the 3,199 persons
killed in Illinois industries, 1,431, or 44.7 per cent, were native-born
Americans, while 307, or 9.6 per cent, were Italians; 245, or
7.7 per cent, were Germans; 184, or 5.7 per cent, were Poles; and 165,
or 5.2 per cent, were Irish. Of the 18,060 nonfatally injured persons,
6,732, or 37.3 per cent, were native-born Americans; 2,173, or 12 per
cent, were Poles; 1,543, or 8.6 per cent, were Germans; 1,352, or 7.5
per cent, were Italians; 834, or 4.6 per cent, were Austrians; 645, or
3.6 per cent, were Irish; and 611, or 3.4 per cent, were Russians. The
percentage distribution varies, therefore, considerably for the two
classes of accidents, due to causes which can be disclosed only by a
specialized analysis, with a due regard to the numbers of various
nativities employed in the industries of the State of Illinois, ascer­
tainable only by means of a special inquiry. The details of this
group are given in Tables 52 and 53.
The accident frequency, by month of occurrence, is disclosed in the
next table. This table has not been corrected for the varying lengths
of the different months, which, however, can easily be done if more
refined methods of statistical analysis appear to be desirable. The



62

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

statistics in the consolidated table for all industries are materially
disturbed by the Cherry Hill mine disaster, which occurred in the
month of November, 1909. The additional details of this analysis
are given in Tables 54 and 55.
4 4 .—IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN IL L IN O IS , B Y M O N TH O F O C C U R R E N C E , J A N .
1, 1008, TO DE C . 31, 1912 (C ASE S U N D E R W O R K M E N ’S C O M P E N SA T IO N L A W , N O T
IN C L U D E D ).

T able

Fatal acci­
dents.
Month.

N um ­
ber
killed.

January.................
February..............
March....................
A pril......................
M ay.......................
June
J uly......................

345
250
211
148
144
166
197

Nonfatal acci­
dents.

Fatal acci­
dents.

Nonfatal acci­
dents.

N um ­
Per
Per
cent of
ber
cent of
total. injured. total.

Month.

1,728
1,630
1,699
1,227
1,135
1,174
1,281

August................
September..........
October...............
N ovem ber..........
December...........

192
223
252
517
256

6.6
7.6
8.7
17.7
8.9

1,416
1,388
1,527
1,459
1,292

8.4
8.2
9.0
8.6
7.6

T otal........

2,901

100.0

16,956

100.0

11.9
8. 7
7.3
5.1
5.0
5.7
6.8

10.2
9.6
10.0
7.2
6.7
6.9
7.6

Num ­
ber
killed.

Per
N um ­
Per
ber
cent of
cent of
total. injured. total.

The hour of the day is a factor of special importance in connec­
tion with the problem of fatigue. Investigations of this kind have
usually been more or less inconclusive, and this would seem to
apply to the following table of accidents in manufacturing indus­
tries of Illinois, by the hour of the day of their occurrence, during
the three years 1910 to 1912. The hour of occurrence appears not
to have been reported for other industries, but the present analysis
includes 11,825 accidents, of which 364, or 3.08 per cent, were fatal.
T able

4 5 .—A C C ID E N TS I X M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R IE S IN IL L IN O IS , B Y H O U R
OF O C C U R R E N C E , JAN . 1,1910, TO DE C . 31, 1912.
Fatal accidents.

Nonfatal accidents.

Total.

Hour.
Number
killed.
A .M .
12 to 1...........................................
1 to 2 .............................................
2 to 3 .............................................
3 to 4 .............................................
4 to 5 .............................................
5 to 6 .............................................
6 to 7 .............................................
7 to 8 .............................................
8 to 9 ............ ...............................
9 to 10...........................................
10 to 11......................................... I
11 to 12......................................... |
P. M .
12 to 1........................................... 1
1 to 2 ............................................. '
2 to 3 .............................................
3 to 4 ............................................. :
4 t o o .............................................
5 to 6 .............................................
Gto 7.............................................
!
8 to 9 ............................................. i
9 to 10........................................... |
10 to 11............ ............................. I
11 to 12..................... ................... i
T otal..................................




Per cent.

Num ber
injured.

Per cent.

Accidents.

Per cent.

3
1
9
8
1
6
7
20
20
33
33
30

0.8
.3
2.5
2.2
.3
1.6
1.9
5.5
5.5
9.1
9.1
8.2

62
101
130
116
110
104
148
596
826
1,008
1,169
1,182

0.5
.9
1.1
1.0
1.0
.9
1.3
5.2
7.2
8.8
10.2
10.4

65
102
139
124
111
110
155
616
846
1,041
1,202
1,212

0.5
.9
1.2
1.0
.9
.9
1.3
5.2
7.2
8.8
10.2
10.2

14
31
37
25
29
20
7
9
5
3
6

3.8
8.5
10.2
6.9
8.0
5.5
1.9
2.5
1.4
.8
1.9
1.6

337
745
986
1,137
1,084
627
188
192
164
147
151
151

2.9
6.5
8.6
9.9
9.5
5.5
1.6
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3

351
776
1,023
1,162
1,113
647
195
201
169
150
158
157

3.0
6.6
8.7
9.8
9.4
5.5
1.7
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3

364

100.0

11,461

100.0

11,525

100.0

7

63

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

According to the above table, the largest number of fatal accidents
occurred between 2 and 3 o'clock in the afternoon, or 10.2 per cent
of the total fatal accidents. The largest number of nonfatal acci­
dents occurred between the hours of 11 and 12 in the morning, or
10.4 per cent of the total nonfatal accidents. There is naturally a
reduction in the number of accidents, both fatal and nonfatal, dur­
ing the noon hour. The table does not appear to warrant final con­
clusions regarding the possible relation of accident liability to fatigue,
but a slight tendency of this kind would seem to be apparent; it
would, however, hardly be possible to disclose so subtle a factor as
fatigue in industry and its relation to accident liability by a crude
and very general statistical analysis of the facts.
A summary statement of the fatal and nonfatal accidents in Illi­
nois industries during the period 1907 to 1912, according to groups
of industries, with a differentiation of nonfatal accidents according
to the different legal requirements, is set forth in the following table.
Workmen's compensation cases, for the eight months ending with
December 31, 1912, are also included.
T

able

46.—F A T A L A CC ID E N TS A N D LOSS OF T IM E C AU SED B Y N O N F A T A L ACCIDEN TS
IN IL L IN O IS , B Y IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO DE C . 31, 1912.

[Data for nonfatal accidents cover only cases w ith tim e loss of 30 days and over, except in manufactur­
ing for the years 1910,1911, and 1912, where data cover tim e loss of 15 days and over, and in cases under
w orkmen’s compensation, May to Dec., 1912 (all industries), w ith time loss o f 7 days and over.]
Nonfatal accidents with a time
loss of—
Industry.

Fatal acci­
dents.
7 days
and over.

15 days
and over.
7,619

Manufacturing..........................................................................
Coal m ining...............................................................................
Contracting...............................................................................
Stone quarrying.......................................................................
Railroading:
Elevated.............................................................................
Inter urban.........................................................................
Steam..................................................................................
Street...................................................................................
U nderground.....................................................................
Miscellaneous............................................................................

549
1,114
124
20

4,441
388
544
54

22
40
1,343
44
10
116

61
1,168
58
44
1,972

Total ..............................................................................

3,382

8,730

30 days
and over.
1,303
3,854
168
76
5
55
4,450
248
62
220

7,-619

10,441

This table emphasizes the predominating importance of coai min­
ing and steam railroading as the principal dangerous industries in
the State of Illinois, accounting for 2,457 fatal accidents and 9,860
nonfatal accidents, or a total of 12,317 accidents in all industries.
The aggregate for the 10 groups of industries and employments
shows that there were 30,172 accidents of all kinds, and that of this
number 3,382, or 11.2* per cent, were fatal. The detailed analysis
of these groups is given in Table 56.




64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The specific occupations of persons killed or injured in the 10
industrial groups of the State of Illinois for the period 1907 to 1912
are given in Table 57. The tabular analysis is of practical interest, but
the data can not be conveniently summarized for the present purpose.
There is a further disadvantage, that the facts can not be correlated
to the numbers employed, according to occupation, as to which no
precise information is at present available. In other words, specific
accident rates by occupations can not be calculated except for the
coal-mining industry, which has been discussed with reasonable full­
ness in Bulletin No. 90 of the United States Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, published in September, 1910.
The large variety of causes responsible for accidents in the Illinois
industries is disclosed by a special analysis of the accidents in coal
mining. The details are set forth in Table 47. These facts also can
not be conveniently summarized, but the table is of unusual interest
as illustrating the complexity of the problem of accident prevention.
The analysis includes 1,114 fatal accidents and 4,242 nonfatal in­
juries.
T able

4=7.—CAUSES OF A C C ID E N TS IN C O A L M IN IN G IN IL L IN O IS , J U L Y 1, 1907, T O
DEC. 31,1912.

Cause.

N um ber
killed.

A d z or a x ....................................
3
Afterdam p..................................
1
A p op lex y ....................................
B lood poisoning........................
B o x .. .......................................
B ox, e t c .......................................
B rake...........................................
Cable............................................
2
Cage,ascending or descending.
7
Cage, cribbing, etc....................
2
Car fell off ca g e.........................
2
Car unloader..............................
1
Caught between objects...........
Caught in objects......................
Chain, b o x and tongs...............
1
Coal and props..........................
Coal con veyor............................
Coal falling dow n shaft............
1
Coal washer................................
Collision of m en.........................
Crank shaft and d isk................
Hrnwhnr _
___ __________
D oor, or Barts o f . .................... 1
..................
Dragged b y team ...................... !..................
Drainpipe................................... !..................
..................
D rillm ? out shot....................... 1
Drill TrP ?<
v<?
___ ______ __ .................
1
D row ned.....................................
D u m p boxin< o n . . . . . .
)
p
13
E lectric shock............................
1
Engine, or Darts o f ..................
E xplosion :*
1
B oiler ...............................
2
Cartridge...............
.. .
D ynam ite............................
Firedam p............................ •
00
Gas ...................................
Gasoline ..........................
49
Powder
...............
7
Premature b la s t ...............
30
Shots
............................
6
N ot specified......................
Falling b a r.................................
Falling board.............................




Number
injured.

Cause.

8 ! Falling boiler, shaker, etc.......
Falling b o x .................................
Falling b rick ..............................
Falling cage................................
2
Falling cap piece.......................
6
5
Falling car..................................
1
Falling casting..........................
1
Falling c lo d ................................
8
Falling coal.................................
Falling coupling.................... ~.
17
Falling crossbar.....................
Falling d oor...............................
Falling drum ..............................
226
17
Falling frog.................................
Falling jackscrew......................
8
1
Falling objects...........................
1
Falling piDe............................
2
Falling prop...............................
Falling rail.................................
1 Falling ro ck ..........................
1
Falling roof.................................
1
Falling scaffold..........................
Falling shed...............................
7
1
Falling sheet..............................
1
Falling slate...............................
1 Falling tim ber..........................
1 Falling trestle............................
Falling weight...........................
1 Falling wheel..........................
5
F a n ...............................................
Fell...............................................
4
Fell against object.....................
Fell dow n shaft.........................
Fell dow n stairway...................
2
Fell from building.....................
1 Fell from cage............................
Fell from car..............................
86
1
Fell from d u m p .........................
Fell from m otor.........................
56
11
Fell from platform ....................
Fell from railroad cars.............
29
Fell from scaffold......................
6
Fell into hole..............................
1 Fell into p it ................................

Num ber
killed.

1
1
13
123
1
1
3
140
1

131

1
24
2
3

1

Number
injured.
16
1
37
1
2
131
849
2
3
3
1
1
1
36
1
27
7
602
9
2
1
1
380
15
1
1
2
1
59
12
10
2
1
15
1
2
2
1
1
1
5

65

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able 4 7 .—CAU SES OF A CC ID E N TS IN C O A L M IN IN G IN IL L IN O IS , J U L Y
D EC. 31,1912—Concluded.
N um ber
injured.

Number
killed.

Cause.

2
2
1
2
3
1
31
38
1
2

Fell into sum p ...........................
Fell on i im p ..............................
Fell on ra il..................................
Firf> in mina. - .......

1
256
14

Flying objects............................
Grading roa d .............................
Guardrail.: .................................
Gunshot.......................................
JTflTnTners _ ______ _____________
H atchet.......................................
Heat prostration........................
Horse and m ule.........................
Horse, stepped on b v ..............
H ot water and steam ...............
Jack
................................
Jumped from car or motor .
L ifting.........................................
Lockjaw .......................................
Machinc
..............................
M otor...........................................
M ule.............................................
Fell o n ..................................
K icked b y ............................
R u n a w a y......................
Stepped on b y .................
N ail.
................................
Open switch...............................
Pick
.........................................
Pipe
.
................................
Pit cars........................................
Prop, b o x and r ib .....................
P u m p ...........................................
Railroad cars.
....................
Railroad sw itch.........................
R evolving fan............................
R evolving screen......................
R oad, brushing..........................
R oof and b ox
R ope and d rum .........................
Rushing.......................................

T

able

4 8 .—C ON JU G AL

Married.
Single...
Total..............
Not rep orted ...
Grand total. .

2

1
1
11

71
32
34
4
86
6
2
3
2
6
1
930
3
1
11
4

7

1
143
17

1
1

1
2
2
1
1
2
1
5

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
18
5
9
3
3
21
1
1
6
1
2
1
36

1,114

4,242

Contracting.

Manufactur-

59.8
40.2

61.7
38.3

349
191

100.0

100.0

540

100.0

Railroading,
elevated.

64/6
35.4

Num­
ber
killed.

124

1,114

100.0

10

Stone quar­
rying.

10

1

10

58553°—Bull. 157—15-----5

20

Per
cent.

Railroading,
interurban.
Num ­
ber
killed.

22

100.0

40

Per
cent.

Num ­
ber
killed.
846
455

65.0
35.0

100.0

1,301
42

100.0

40

Miscellane­
ous.

1,343

Total.

52.6
47.4
114
2
116

Railroading,
steam.

52.5
47.5

68.2
31.8

52.6
47.4

100.0

100.0

Num ­
ber
killed.

22

549

40.0
60.0

63.6
36.4




2
2

2

2

44

4
1
5
1
1

4

1

Railroading, Railroading,
street.
underground.

Grand to ta l..

3

W agon.........................................
W indlass.....................................
W indy shot................................
W rench.......................................
N ot reported..............................

Per
cent.

665
447

T otal..........
N ot reported.

1
2
1

T otal.................................

2
1

Number
killed.

Per
cent.

Married.
Single...

R un over b y —
E n g in e ................................
Pit cars.................................
Train.....................................
T ru ck...................................
Safety catch................................
Saw ..............................................
Screen...........................................
Screening con veyor...................
Shooting dead h ole...................
Skid..............................................
Sliver of w o o d ............................
Spike............................................
Sprag............................................
Sprinkler and roof.....................
Steam p ip e .................................
Stepped in hole..........................
Stepped on nail..........................
Struck bar...................................
Struck b y —
C a b le ...................................
Car.........................................
L ever....................................
M otor....................................
Objects.................................
P ick.......................................
p r o p ......................................
W ire.....................................
Struck objects............................
Sulphur from pick.....................
Switch points.............................
Tail ch a in ...................................
Throwing sw itch.......................
Trolley w ire...............................

Per
cent.

N um ­
ber
killed.

1,112

3
1
1
2
1
10
1
3
33

!
Num ber j Number
killed. | injured.

Cause.

C O N D ITIO N OF P E R S O N S K IL L E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S ,
J U L Y 1, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1912.

Coal mining.
Conjugal
condition.

1

1, 1007, TO

2,048
1,235

62.4
37.6

100.0

3,283

100.0

3.382

Per
cent.

66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 4 9 . — CON JU G AL

C O N D ITIO N OF P E R SO N S N O N E A T A L L Y IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1912.

Coal mining.
Conjugal
condition.

Married.
Single...

Contracting.

Num­ Per
ber in­ cent.
jured.

Num­ Per
ber in­ cent.
jured.

Num­ Per
ber in­
jured. cent.

2,357
1,868

T ota l..............f 4,225
17
N ot rep orted ...

55.8
44.2
100.0

Grand to ta l.. 4,242

246
623
89

60.5
39.5

7,470
5,751

112

Num­ Per
ber in-1
ju re d .;

56.5
43.5

Railroading,
interurban.

Railroading,
' steam.

Num ­
Per
ber in­ cent.
jured.

N um ­
Per
ber in­ cent.
jured.

62.1
37.9

40.0

C.O
O

10 I
0 .0

100.0

116

12 ........... 13,363
Railroading,
underground.
58.5
41.5

M arried.............
Single.................

187
117

61.5
3&. o

T otal..............
Not reported...

304
2

100.0

Grand tota l..

305

able

ing.

100.0 13,221

Railroading,
street.

T

Railroading,
elevated.

Manufactur­

106

C3.0
37.0

100.0

5,581
37

100.0

116

Stone quar­
rying.

Miscellane­
ous.

Total.

59.1
40.9

1,102
893

55.2 15,220
44.8 11,083

57.9
42.1

100.0

52

100.0

1,995
197

100.0 26,303
487

100.0

2,192

26,790

130

106

3,516
2,065

5 0 .—A G E S OF P E R S O N S N O N F A T A L L Y IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S ,
J U L Y 1, 1907, TO DE C . 31, 1912.

Coal mining.
A ge group.

U nder 20 years.
20 to 24 years...
25 to 29 years...
30 to 34 years...
35 to 39 years...
40 to 44 years...
45 to 49 years...
50 to 54 years...
55 to 59 years...
60 years and
over................
N ot rep orted ...
T o t a l ... .

Manufactur­
ing.

Railroading,
elevated.

Railroading,
interurban.

Railroading,
steam.

Num­
Per Num.- Per Num- j Per Num - ■ Per Num ­ Per I NumPer
ber in­ cent of ber in- cent of ber in-: cent of ber in- cent of ber in­ cen tof ber in- cent of
jured. total. jured. j total. jured. total, jured. total. Ijured. total. Ijured. total.
311
726
718
580
468
455
366
223
146

122

127

4,242

7.3
17.1
16.9
13.7

22
71
112

5.3
3.5

94
96
63
49
59
15

2.9
3.0

16
115

100.0

712

1 .0
1
10.7
8.6

Railroading,
street.

3.1
10.0
15.7
13.2
13.5

8.8
6.9
8.3

2.1
2.2

16.2

1,167
2,756
2,646
1.923
1,528
1,169
902
49S
282
244
248

100.0 13,363

Railroading.
underground.

I

2.3
2.3

1.9

5.4

100.0

106 ; 100.0

9.5

10.5
5.2
2.3

306




t!

130

.9
.9

140

88

2.5

100.0

5,618

100.0

5.2
7.8
.9

1.9

8.5
11.5
14.6
13.8
20.0
13.1
6.9
5.4

100.0

2.7

1 .1
S

21.0

2.1
1.8
100.0

154
1,019

1,1 1
S

6.0

Stone
quarrying.

20

3.4
17.2
26.7
13.8
17.2

60.0
20.0

2
1.9
; 18.9
29 ! 27.4
18 j 17.0
19
17.9
io ! 9.4
4.7

1.3
17.0
19.9
17.6
12.1

Under 20 years.
20 to 24 years...
25 to 29 years...
30 to 34 years...
35 to 39 years...
40 to 44 years...
4 513 40 years...
50 to 54 years...
55 to 59 years...
60 years and
over................
N ot rep orted ...
Total..

Contracting.

5 i 100.0

Miscellaneous.

197
406
341
282
247
201
147
94
63

9.0
18.5
15. 5
12.9
11.3
9.2
6.7
4.3
2.9

40
174

1.8
7.9

116

Total.

872

08
S

139
856
207
527
927
154
680

571
769

100.0 20,790

7.0
19.0
19.2
14.4
12.0
9.4
7.2
4.3
2.5

2.1
2.9

871
766
576
410
247
166

15.5
13.6
10.3
7.3
4.4
3.0

1.6

67

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS*
T

able

5 1 .—A G E S O F P E R S O N S K I L L E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1.1907, TO DEC.
31, 1912.
Coal mining.

Age group.

Manufactur­
ing.

Railroading,
elevated.

Railroading,
interurban.

Railroading,
steam.

Num ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of
killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. total.
86
158
221
185
157
101
62
55
35

7.7
14.2
19.8
16.6
14.1
9.1
5.6
4.9
3.1

4
15
11
14
10
7
4
2

3.2
12.1
8.9
11.3
8.1
5 6
3 2
1.6

25
79
81
75
95
47
49
29
19

4 5
14.4
14.7
13.7
17.3
8.6
8.9
5.3
3.5

4
2
2
1
6
2
2
1

18.2
9.1
9.1
4.5
27.3
9.1
9.1
4.5

29
25

2.6
2.3

46.0

29
21

5.3
3.8

2

9.1

57

1,114

100.0

124

100.0

549

1C0.0

22

Under 20 years.
20 to 24 years...
25 to 29 years...
30 to 34 years...
35 to 39 years...
40 to 44 years...
45 to 49 years...
50 to 54 years...
55 to 59 years...
60 years and
over................
Not reported...
Total

Contracting.

Railroading, Railroading,
underground.
street.
Under 20 years.
20 to 24 years...
25 to 29 years...
30 to 34 years...
35 to 39 years...
40 to 44 years...
45 to 49 years...
50 to 54 years...
55 to 59 years...
60 years and
over................
N ot reported
Total

1
4
10
11
5
1
7
3
1

2.3
9.1
22.7
25.0
11.3
2.3
15.9
6.8
2.3

1

2.3

44

Stone quar­
rying.

35
220
250
165
163
113
116
102
63

2.S
16.4
18.6
12.3
12.1
8.4
8.7
7.6
4.7

2.5

66
50

4.9
3.7

100.0

1,313

100.0

11
12
6
9
1

1
40

100.0

Miscellaneous.

27.5
30.0
15.0
22.5
2.5

Total.

1
3
2
1
2-

1
3
3
1
4
1
2
1
2

5.0
15.0
15.0
5.0
20.0
5.0
10.0
5.0
10.0

9
12
23
18
14
15
8
6
4

7.8
10.4
19.8
15.5
12.1
12.9
6.9
5.2
3.4

158
498
619
475
464
295
253
202
127

4.7
14.7
18.3
14.0
13.7
8.7
7.5
6.0
3.8

1

10.0

2

10.0

4
3

3.4
2.6

131
160

100.0

20

100.0

116

100.0

.! ...................
j
1 '
................... 1
....................
!
!

3.9
4.7

10

100.0

10.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
20.0

..

.

i
i

3,382 j 100.0

T able 5 2 .—N A T I V I T Y OF PE R S O N S K IL L E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907,
TO DE C . 31, 1912 (CASES U N D E R W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N SA T IO N L A W , 1912, N OT
IN C L U D E D ).
Coal
mining.

Con­
tracting.

Manu­
facturing.

Railroad­
ing, ele­
vated.

Railroad­
ing, interurban.

Railroad­
ing, steam.

N ativity.
N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
A m erican........
A ustrian.........
Belgian............
Bohem ian.......
Bulgarian........
Canadian.........
Danish.............
English............
French.............
German...........
Grosk...............
H ungarian___
Irish.................
Italian.............
Lithuanian___
Mexican...........
Norwegian___
Polish...............
Russian...........
Scotch..............
Slavic...............
Swedish...........
W elsh...............
Miscellaneous.
N ot reported..

363
60

11

7
4

33.4
5.4

50.5

.6

2.8

131
35

27.8
7.4

28

;o.o

5.7
41
24
91

3.7

.9

8.3

*i*9

11.9

.9
19.7
.9

4.4
5.1

2.2

2 .2
11 1.0

19
180
70

1.7
16.3
6.4
4.8
2.5
3.5
5.3
1.7
.7

.2

.7

.6

2.8

9.1
4.5
4.5

5.7
31.9
*2.*9

1.3

2.8

29
.*

782

59.7
.7

3

.4

T otal.................. ..........1,102 j100.0




22.$

.9
1.9

1.0

.1

18
3
75
33
14
80
109
8
7

1.4

1
6
1

6
11

3.7
1.9

1.7
11.7
3.4

4.5
4.5

52

4.5

4

5.6

2.4
5.9

i-3." 7

1.9
3.7

3.2
5.9

107 100.0

.2
.5

.1

.2

5.7
2.5

1
.1
6
.1

8.3
.6
.5
.5
4.0
.8
.3
2.5

.1

.8
3.3
103.0

1,310

10
0 .0

68
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

5 2 ,—N A T I V I T Y OF P E R S O N S K IL L E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907,
T O DE C . 31, 1912 (C ASE S U N D E R W O R K M E N ’S C O M P E N S A T IO N L A W , 1912, N O T
IN C L U D E D )—Concluded.

able

Railroad­
ing, street.

Railroad­
ing, under­
ground.

Stone
quarrying.

Miscel­
laneous.

Total.

N ativity.
Num ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Am erican..
A ustrian...
Belgian___
Bohemian..
Bulgarian..
Canadian...
Danish.,
English............
French.............
German...........
Greek...............
Hungarian___
Irish.................
Italian.............
Lithuanian___
Mexican...........
Norwegian___
Polish...............
Russian...........S cotch ..............
S lavic..............
Swedish...........
W elsh...............
Miscellaneous.
N ot reported..
Total___

23.5
23.5

40.9
2.3

30

43.9 1,431
2.4
114
12

44.7
3.6
.4

25

.8

9
3
69
28
215
43
48
165
307

.1
2.1

*
8

2.3 :
13.7
4.5
25.0

5.9
5.9
5.9

1i 1.5
2

1 i 5.9
2.3
4.5

1 i 5.9
1 | 5.!

4.5
44

13.5

11.7

10
0 .0

8 100.0

17 1100.0

1.2

2.4
2.4

1 1.2
22.0

18

8
6
7
IS

.2
.3

.9
7.7
1.3
1.5
5.2
9.6
2.7 !.

.2
!e u

184
5.7 |
.
5(3
1.7 |
44
1.4 .
1.2 71 2.2 i.
3.7
96
3 ! 5
9
.3
1.2 31 1.0
90
3.7
2.8 I
82 j100.0 3,199 100.0

L

T able 5 3 .—N A T IV IT Y OF P E R S O N S N O N F A T A L L Y IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S ,
J U L Y 1, 1807, TO DE C . 31, 1912 (CASES U N D E R W O R K M E N ’ S C O M PE N SA TIO N L A W , 1912,
N O T IN C L U D E D ).
Coal
mining.

Contract­
ing.

Manufac­
turing.

Railroad­
ing,
elevated.

Railroad­
ing,
inter urban.

Railroad­
ing,
steam.

N ativity.
N um ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
American.............................. 1,321 34.3
A rm enian.............................
no
2.9
A ustrian...............................
6
.2
Belgian.................................
Bohem ian.............................
55
ll4
B u lga ria n ............................
.1
2
Canadian..............................
1
Danish...................................
English.................................
175
4.5
F innish.................................
02
1.6
French.................................
343
8.9
German.................................
1
Greek.....................................
^7
28
Hungarian.................... .
75
2.0
I r i s h .....................................
770 20.0
Italian...................................
22S
5.9
Lithuanian...........................
Macedonian ........................
Mexican................................
4
.1
Norwegian............................
172
4.5
P o lish ...
.................
1
R oum anian..........................
R ussian................................
115
3.8
Scandinavian.......................
S cotch..................................
1.7
C
6
.1
Servian................................
1.8
S la v ic ....
..
__
70
35
.9
Swedish.................................
1
Swiss......................................
Turkish.................................
W elsh....................................
13
.3
2.1
Miscellaneous....................... ' 82
2 2
8>
N ot reported
T ota l........................... 3^854 100.0




40

23.8 2,224
17
653
.6
4
2.4
125

4

24.9

86

1

19
12
2
1

14
2
1

82

i

i
!

2

•6
8 .3
L2
.6

28 i 16.7
8 ! 4.7
4 ; 2.4

24

1
2

24

32
817
37
229
269
300
125

38
14.3 1,738
1.2

10

1

.6

431
6

1

’ ii

24

3

60.0

48

87.3

2,884

64.8

7.3

39

.9

1.4

27

.6

1.0
.2

2

.2

1 | 20.0
j

.4
9.2
.4

1 ; 20.0

3

5.5

2

3.6

2.6

3.0
3.4
1.4
.3
.4
19. S
.1
4.8
.

!

.8
.8

4.6
5.1
.5
.1

2

26
176
1

1.8

20

.1
.6

.3

8

**

4.0

15

!’

6 .5

.3
.2
*0
3. 7

14.3

4
435
794

4.9
8.9

2
6

.5
6.5

291
36
37
205
226
23
3

.2
1.8

.6

1

30
IS
24
32)

.6

.2
.2
1.1

20

.1
.9

9
7
51

79

.1

168 100.0 s, 922 100.0

1
1
1

5 100.0

1.8

53 jioo. 0

79
174

3.9

4,450

100.0

1.8

69

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

5 3 .—N A T I V I T Y OF P E R S O N S N O N F A T A L L Y IN JU R E D IN IL L IN O IS IN D U S T R IE S ,
J U L Y 1, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1912 (CASES U N D E R W O R K M E N 'S C O M P E N S A T IO N L A W ,
1912, N O T IN C L U D E D )—Concluded.

T able

Railroading, Railroading, Stone quar­
under­
street.
rying.
ground.

Miscella­
neous.

Total.

N ativity.
Num ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. |
Am erican..............................
Armenian..............................
Austrian...............................
B elgian..................................
Bohem ian.............................
Bulgarian..............................
Canadian..............................
Danish...................................
English..................................
Finnish..................................
French...................................
German.................................
Greek.....................................
Hungarian............................
Irish.......................................
Italian...................................
Lithuanian...........................
Macedonian..........................
M exican................................
Norwegian............................
Polish....................................
Roum anian..........................
Russian.................................
Scandinavian.......................
Scotch...................................
Servian..................................
Slavic.....................................
Swedish................................
Swiss.....................................
Turkish.................................
W elsh....................................
Miscellaneous.......................
N ot reported........................
T otal.........................

06

•26.6

42 j 67.7

7

9.2

97

.9
1.3

16

6.5

13

17.1

3

1.2

8

10.6

3

2
5

.8
2.0

3
21
5
1
36
43
2

1.2
8.5
2.0
.4
14.5
17.4
.8

7
14

2.8
5.7

5

2.0

44.1

2

1
10

5
3

1
1

1

13
2
1
2

2.6

.5
15.9

19
1

17.1
2.6
1.3

1.3

1
35

17.8
1
i
!

8.6
.5
.5

1
!

i
1 | 1.6

1
.4 !

25.0

19

1 ‘ 1.3
10 1 13.2
76 100.0

13.6
.5

1

62 100.0

30
1

:
I
l
i
4 .0 :
i
..........!.......... 1
..........
!
l
2.0 ;
i i i.6
1.2

248 100.0

i
I
3

5 | 8.1
11

■
i

1.6
1.6

.5

!
2.2

5
1
1
20

.5
9.1

6,732 37.3
17
.1
S3 4
4.6
10
.1
225
1.2
88
.5
31
.2
23
!i
1.8
319
2
119
.7
1,543
8.5
83
.5
297
1.6
645
3.6
1,352
7.5
2.1
383
.1
27
2
77
.4
2,173 12.0
.1
14
3.4
611
6
.6
113
.1
22
102
.6
469
2.6
3
7
.1
18
604
3.3
6.1
1,109

'
1
i **

i
i
1

i
I
i..........i..........
■
!
1
:
!

:

I

220 mn n 18,060 100.0
!

i

F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN IL L IN O IS , B Y M O N T H OF O C C U R R E N C E ,
JA N . 1, 1908, T O D E C . 31, 1912 (C ASE S U N D E R W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N S A T IO N L A W ,
1912, N O T IN C L U D E D ).

T able 5 4 .—

Coal mining.
Month.

Contracting.

Manufactur­
ing.

Railroading,
elevated.

Railroading,
interurban.

Railroading,
steam.

Num­ Per Num ­
Per Num ­ Per
N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of ber cent of ber j cent of
killed. total. i killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. i total.

January.............
F e b r u a r y ..* ...
M arch................
A p ril..................
M ay...................
June...................
J u ly...................
A ugu st..............
Septem ber........
October.............
N ovem ber........
December..........

94
64
65
24
28
36
52
51
56
101
343
88

9.4
6.4
6.5
2.4
2.8
3.6
5.2
5.1
5.6
10.1
34.2
8.8

54
1
7
6
2
4
4
5
5
9
3
1

53.5
1.0
6.9
5.9
2.0
4.0
4.0
4.9
4.9
8.9
3.0
1.0

47
34
38
42
28
38
42
44
31
30
32
29

10.8
7.8
8.7
9.7
6.5
8.7
9.6
10.1
7.1
6.9
7.4
6.7

5
1
2
2
1
4

22.7
4.5
9.1
9.1
4.5
18.3

1
1
2
3

T o t a l.. . .

1,002

100.0

101

100.0

435

100.0

22




.2
2

6.3
0.3
6.3
0.3
3.1
1.8
0.3
6.3
5.0
0.3
0.3

130
138
87
64
04
73
84
83
116
99
125
121

10.0
11.7
7.4
5.4
5.4
6.2
7.1
6.8
9.8
8.4
10.6
10.2

4.5
4.5
9.1
13.7

2
2
1
7
2
2
8
2
2

100.0

32

100.0

1,181

100.0

70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

TABLE 5 4 . — F A T A L

IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN IL L IN O IS , B Y M O N T H OF O C C U R R E N C E ,
JA N . 1, 1908, TO D EC. 31, 1912 (CASES U N D E R W O R K M E N ’S C O M P E N SA T IO N L A W ,
1912, N O T IN C L U D E D )—Concluded.
Railroading,
street.
Month.

Railroading,
underground.

Stone quar­
Miscellaneous.
rying.

Total.

N um ­ Per
N um ­ Per
N um ­ Per N um ­ Per
N um ­ Per
ber cent of
ber cent of
ber cent of
ber cent of
ber cent of
killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. total. killed. total.

2
5.6
January
1
2.8
February
M arch................
"ii.T
A p ril. ................ .......
4
u .i
M a y ...................
4
11.1
5.6
2
July .
4
11.1
August
5.6
2
September »
8.2
3
October
13.9
5
N ovem ber. . . .
5
13.9
December

X

36

Total___

100.0

1
3
1
2
1

14.3
28.6
14.3

7.1
21.4

1

7.1

1

14.3

1

14.3

6
1
2

7

100.0

14

14
6
5
6
3

14.3

1

10
6
11

14.1
8.4
15.5
1.4
19.7
8.4
7.1
8.4
4.2

71

100.0

1

42.9
7.1
14.4 ....... 2* *” 2.*8’
7
9.9
100.0

345
11.9
250
8.7
211
7.3
148
5.1
144
5.0
166
5.7
197
6.8
192
6.6
223
7.6
252
8.7
517
17.7
256 • 8.9
2,901

100.0

T able 5 5 .— N ON FATAL

IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS IN IL L IN O IS , B Y M O N T H OF OCCUR­
R E N C E , JAN . 1, 1908, TO D E C . 31, 1912 (CASES U N D E R W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N SA T IO N
L A W , 1912, N O T IN C L U D E D ).

Coal mining.
Month.

Contracting.

Manufactur­
ing.

Railroading,
elevated.

Railroading,
steam.

Num­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per N um ­ Per Num ­ Per N um ­ Per
ber in-! cent of ber in­ cent of ber in­ cent of ber in­ cent of ber in­ cent of ber in­ cent of
jured. total. jured. total. jured. total. jured. total. jured. total. jured. total.
366
308
384
116
184
185
250
285
328
416
392
353

10.3
8.6
10.8
3.3
5.2
5.2
7.0
8.0
9.2
11.5
11.0
9.9

19
11
6
14
4
15
9
23
15
12
16
14

12.0
7.0
3.8
8.9
2.5
9.5
5.7
14.5
9.5
7.6
10.1
8.9

875
822
919
757
650
638
639
736
690
698
644
542

10.2
9.5
10.7
8.8
7.6
7.4
7.4
8.5
8.0
8.1
7.5
6.3

1

100.0

T otal____ 3,567

100.0

158

100.0

8,610

100.0

1

100.0

January
February. . . . .
M arch..............
A p ril..................
M a y ...................
June...................
J u ly ...................
A u gu st. . .
Septem ber. . .
O ctober.............
N ovem ber. . . .
December

Railroading,
interarban.

Railroading,
street.

Railroading,
underground.

Stone quar­
rying.

4

8.7
13.0
4.3
5.8
11.6
3.0
5.8
14.5
5.8
8.7
13.0
5.8

26
17
12
13
15
13
15
13
21
19
U
18

69

100.0

188

January.............
F ebruary..........
M arch. . . . . . . . .
A p ril..................
M a y............ ......
June...................
J u ly...................
A ugu st..............
Septem ber........
O ctober.............
N ovem ber........
D ecem ber.. . .

19
18
19
16
22
23
24
23
23
18
11
10

8.4
8.0
8.4
7.1
9.7
10.2
10.6
10.2
10.2
8.0
4.8
4.4

7
5
7
10
4
3
1
2
3
2
5
3

13.5
9.6
13.5
19.2
7.7
5.8
1.9
3.8
5.8
3.8
9.6
5.8

6
9
3
4
8
2
4
10
4
6
9

T o t a l.. . .

226

100.0

52

100.0




Miscellaneous.

13.8
9.0
6.4
6.9
5.0
6.9
8.0
6.9
11.2
10.1
5.9
9.6

2
6
7
2
3
2
7
1
1
9
4
3

4.3
12.8
14.9
4.3
6.4
4.3
14.9
2.1
2.1
19.0
8.5
6.4

408
434
342
295
250
293
331
323
303
347
367
345

10.1
10.7
8.5
7.3
6.2
7.3
8.2
8.0
7.5
8.6
9.1
8.5

47

100.0

4,038

100.0

Total.

1,728
1,630
1,699
1,227
1,131
1,174
1,281
1,416
1,388
1,527
1,459
1,292

10.2
9.6
10.0
7.2
6.7
6.9
7.6
8.4
8.2
9.0
8.6
7.6

100.0 16,956

100.0

l
1

!
!
!
!

71

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able 5 6 .—

F A T A L A C C ID E N TS A N D LOSS OF TIM E C AU SED B Y N O N F A T A L A CCIDEN TS
IN IL L IN O IS , B Y IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1912.,

[Data for nonfatal accidents cover only cases w ith time loss of 30 days and over, except in manufacturing
for the years 1910,1911, and 1912, where data cover time loss of 15 days and over, and in cases under
workmen’s compensation, May to Dec., 1912 (all industries), with time loss of 7 days and over.]
Manufacturing.

Coal mining.

Nonfatal accidents
with loss of—
Year.

1907 (G m onths).....................
1908 .........................................
3909 .........................................
1910
.....................................
1911..........................................
(not under workm en’s
1qi oj compensation law . . .
y 1under workmen’s coml pensation la w ...........
Total (5| vears)..........

Contracting.

Nonfatal accidents
with loss of—

Fatal
Fatal
Fatal
acci­
acci­ 7 and 15
30
15
7
15
7
30 acci­
30
dents. days days days dents. days days days dents.
and
under under days
and and and
and and and
15
and
30
over. over. over.
over. over. over.
days.
days. over.
i
37
52
63
120
120

302
505
496
2,707
2,791

100
189
442
114
151

80

2,121

106

287
997
793
463
697

388

11

388

549 4,441 7,619 1,303 1,114

6
7
69
6
8

617

12

77 4,441

Stone quarrying.
7
24
24
12
7

20

54

7

4

54

Total (5J years)..........

3,854

6
3
2
4

2

3

1

76

129
218
239
292
242

412
787
890
918
880

190

124

544

5

8
10
11
9
6

563

3
6
5
10
9

8
6
8
10
12
11
61

40

61

22
47
82
47
18

1
2
2
3

10
23
12
3
8

32

44

6
2

58

248

44

10

44

Total.

11
30
18
7
7

32
64
42
25
14

298
524
855
564
552

1,094
2,494
2,359
2,707 1,487
2,791 i;? i9

9

43

406

il

2,121 1,288

1907 (6 months').....................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................
fnot under workmen’s
191 oJ compensation law . . .
1under workm en’s coml pensation la w ..........

34 1,972

Total (5J years)..........

116 1,972

55

Railroading, under­
ground.

58
4,450

168

Railroading, interurban.

2

Railroading, street.

Miscellaneous industries.




1

22

33 1,168

Total (5J years).......... 1,343 1,168

14
544

5

Railroading, steam.

(not under workm
en’s
iqi *J com
>
pensation law...
under w
orkm com
en’s l pensation law.......

10
41
11
9
83

17

Railroading, elevated.

3
4
3
1
5

1907 (6 m on th s)....................
1908..........................................
1909..........................................
1910..........................................
1911
.................................
fnot under workmen’s
1Q d compensation law . . .
1
I under workmen’ s coml pensation la w ...........

1907 (6 m onths).....................
1908...........................................
1909...........................................
1910..........................................
1911..........................................

Nonfatal accidents
with loss of—

183 8,730
220 3,382 8,730 7,619 10,441 ___ . j ............

1

62

72
T a b l i;

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
5 7 .—OCCUPATION S
OF
PERSONS
K IL L E D
OR
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, T O DE C . 31, 1912;
Number
killed.

N um ber
injured.

Coal mining.
A gen t............................ .
Bellm an........................
B it carrier.................... .
Blacksm ith.................. .
Boss............................... .
Brakeman.................... .
Brattice worker............
Brusher........................ .
Cager..............................
Car builder....................
Car coupler..................
Car piler........................
Car pincher..................
Carpenter.....................
Car trimm er.................
Car p uller.....................
C artm an......................
Company man.............
Driver............................
D u m per........................
Electrician...................
Engineer.......................
Fire hunter..................
Fireman........................
Flagm an.......................
Forem an.......................
Gripper.........................
Helm et m an.................
H elper...........................
Inspector......................
Iron w orker..................
Jack m an .....................
Laborer.........................
Loaders.........................
Machine boss...............
Machine helper...........
Machine repairer....... •
.
Machine runner...........
Machinist.....................
Master mechanic.........
Mine examiner............
Mine manager.............
Miner.............................
Motor m an....................
Mule tender or feeder.
Operator.......................
Painter..........................
Oiler..............................
Parting tender.............
Property m a n ._______
Pillar man....................
Powder man................
P um p man..................
Repair m an.................
R oadm an......................
Pusher...........................
R ock man....................
Shot firer......................
Screen operator...........
Sawyer..........................
Shift worker.................
Shoveler........................
Signalman....................
Sinker............................
Slate cleaner................
Spragger........... ............
Stableman....................
Superintendent...........
Switch tender..............
Teamster......................
Tim ber m an..................
Topm an........................
Trackm an....................
T ra ckla yer..................
Trapper........................
Trip rider.....................
W atchm an...................
Weigh man....................
Washer..........................




IN

IL L IN O IS

N um ber
killed.

Number
injured.

Coal mining—Concluded.

10

1
1
1
11
6
1
8
12
105
1
13
1
18
9

1
157

1
1

14
924
2

2

275
187

1
1

18
140
3

1
1
4
9

08
0
3

.,891
23

22

Water boiler..
Y ardman........
Zinc w ork er..
N ot reported.
T o ta l...

Apprentice..........
Assembler...........
Blacksm ith.........
Bricklayer...........
Bridge b u ild er...
Bridgem an.........
Cage m an............
Carpenter............
Cement w orker..
Chipper...............
Contractor...........
C ook .....................
Dock man...........
D river..................
Electrician..........
Engineer.............
Fireman...............
F itter...................
Forem an.............
H andy m an.......
H elper.................
Iloister.................
H older.................
Iron setter...........
Iron w ork er........
Joiner...................
Laborer...............
Linem an.............
Loader.................
M achinem an___
M achinist............
Metal worker___
H old er.................
Mucker.................
Painter................
Plasterer.............
R eam er...............
R iveter................
R oofer..................
Sawyer................
.Shearman...........
Skinner...............
Steam fitter........
Stone setter........
Superintendent..
Teamster.............
Tile setter...........
Tim ekeeper____
T inner.................
T oolm an.............
Trucker...............
W atchm an.........
Water b o y ..........
W inch m an ____
N ot reported___
Total......................
Stone quarrying.

11
32
53
3;)
4
4

1

1,114

4,242

Contracting.

3

3
4
196

1

54

Blacksm ith’s helper.
Blaster........................
Brakeman..................
Carpenter...................
Car repairer................
Car spotter.................
Contractor..................
Craneman...................
Crusher m an.............
Driller..........................

2

2
3
2
6
23

1
1

51

3

"3i
1
389
3

'"*3
5
2
3
2

5
2

1
1

15
124

712

73

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

87—

O CCU PATION S
OF
PE R SO N S
K IL L E D
OK
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1013—Continued.
Number
killed.

Num ber
injured.

2
1

Laborer.......................................
L oader.........................................
Mechanic.....................................
Oiler.............................................
Painter.........................................
Quarry m an ................................
Repair m an...............................
Superintendent..........................
Switchman.................................
Teamster.....................................
N ot reported..............................
T otal.................................




N um ber
killed.

Number
injured.

M anufacturing—Continued.

3
1
8
1
1
1
1
20

Manufacturing.
A ctor............................................
Alarm ringer..............................
A pprentice.................................
Asphalter....................................
Assembler...................................
Baker...........................................
Baler............................................
Barn m an....................................
Battery m an ..............................
Beamster.................................
Bear d ow n .................................
Bench h and ................................
Blacksmith.................................
Blaster.........................................
B locker........................................
B od y builder, fitter...................
Boiler cleaner.............................
Boiler maker..............................
B olt maker, cuttcr.....................
B ookkeeper................................
Bottle blower.............................
B ottle labeler.............................
B ottler.........................................
Bottle washer............................
B ox m aker................................
Braider........................................
Brewer.........................................
Bricklayer ........................
Bridgem an.................................
B ucker.........................................
B uffer..........................................
B u ild e r ............
B undler.......................................
B utcher.................................
Cabinetm aker...........................
Calker..........................................
Call b o y .......................................
Candy m a k e r ............................
Car builder.................................
Car cleaner.................................
Carpenter....................................
Car repairer................................
C hain m an .......................
Charger........................................
Chaser..........................................
Chauffeur.........................
Checker.......................................
Chemist.......................................
Chipper.......................................
Cinder forker..............................
Cinder snapper..........................
Clay m iner.................................
Cleaner........................................
Cleater.........................................
Clerk............................................
Clipper........................................

IL L IN O IS

9
3

Stone quarrying—Concluded.
Driver.........................................
Engineer.....................................
Feeder.........................................
Fireman.......................................
Forem an.....................................
H elper.........................................

IN

1
1
1

1

4

3
1

1

1
1
2
1
1

14
7
1
2

1
1

3

Coke puller...........
Collector......................................
2
Conductor.................................
2
Constructor.................................
Conveyor man...........................
8
1
C ook...........................
H ooker.........................................
Cooper.........................................
48 Core m aker.................................
9 Corning m an..............................
1 i Cotton card tender...................
! Craneman...................................
1
Cross cu tter................................
2
Cupola tender.................
1
Cutter...........................................
Cut-off m an................................
2
3 Dauber.........................................
Dem onstrator.............................
6
Dial m aker.................................
5
Die maker .
130 D ip p er........ ................................
Detective .
Die setter.....................................
Dismantling steam boxes........
Draftsman ........................... .. .
Driller..........................................
Drill-press m an..........................
102
Driver..........................................
38 D ropper.......................................
D ryer...........................................
2
1
D u ste r.. ............. .......................
4 D ynam iter..................................
1
Electrician..................................
Elevator m an.............................
1
Enameler....................................
Engineer.....................................
45
C3 Errand b o y .................................
2
Errand girl.................................
1
Feeder.........................................
U
Feeding-box board machine
Feeding heeler............................
5
Felt puller...................................
68
3 F iler.............................................
FiHer............................................
1
Finisher......................................
Firfiman_____________
1
F itter...........................................
8
1
Flanger........................................
Fence m aker................. ...........
2
Flue setter..................................
2
10
Forelady.....................................
Forem an.....................................
20
4
F orgem an......... ........................
Foundry m an............................
5
Furnace tender..........................
12
Gagger.........................................
74
1
Gas maker...................................
7
Gas tester....................................
General worker..........................
22
Glazier.........................................
38
1
Glove cutter................................
1
Gluer............................................
36
5 H a m m erm a n ................... ........
234 H andler.......................................
158 H andy m an...............................
114 H at m aker..................................
30 Heater.........................................
1
H elper.........................................
7 H ooker.........................................
Hostler.........................................
3
H ot-bed m an..............................
2
130 Hustler........................................
2 Inspector.....................................
2 Ironw orker.................................
Janitor.........................................
6
Janitress......................................
1
Joiner...........................................
49
2
K iln m an....................................

1

3
2
1
1
1

1
6

4
44
1

14
3

33
1
11
2

4

1
1
1
3

14
1
1
1

1
1

j
1
1

12
1

63
3
1
1

G
4
1
10
1
1
1

39
32
3
89
2
1

7
1
2
2

i
i
6

3

3
16
167
99
1
1
1
1

15

1
1

184
3
26
33

1

18

1

1
1

2

7
1

2
114
4

1

64

1

1
1

34

26
1,691

8

120

15
1
1

7
3
2
2

64
37
13
3

6
3
6

74
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
5 7 .— OCCUPATION S
OF
PE R S O N S
K IL L E D
OR
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO D EC. 31, 1912—Continued.
N um ber
killed.

Num ber
injured.

Labeler........................................
Laborer.......................................
197
Ladle m an..................................
1
L am p trim m er..........................
1
Lathe hand.................................
Leather cutter............................
Leader......................................... 1
..................
Lever m an................................. 1
..................
1
L id m an......................................
8
L inem an.....................................
Q
14
Machine worker........................
Machine girl...............................
Machinist....................................
1G

5
3,887
55
2
4
1
1
1

M anufacturing—Continued.

IN

IL L IN O IS

Num ber
killed.
Manufacturing—Continued.

32
30
1,554
4
403
5
3
1

R iveter........................................
R oadm an....................................
R oller...........................................
Roofer..........................................
Rougher.................................
Runner m an ..............................
R unw ay m an.............................
Salesman.....................................
Sailor............................................
Saw b o y.......................................

1

1 i
Ar
*
>
1

Sam pler.......................................
Scrap m a n .................................
Screen tender.................
Scrub wom an.
Seamstress..................................
Shaper hand...............................
Shaker.........................................
Snapper.......................................
Ship£>er........................................
Shcrk handler............................

43
5
37
9

1 i

1 j
1

1
Maltster.......................................
Mangier.......................................
Marble coi>er..............................
1
1
Marker. .7 ...................................
1
Master m echanic.......................
i
1
Mattress maker..........................
Meat cutter................................. .................
2
Mechanic..................................... .................
27 Soap cutter.................................
1 Sold orer.......................................
Melter.......................................... ................. !
1 1
Soda dispenser...........................
3
1
Metal worker.............................
9 Sorter...........................................
1
Meter m an..................................
5
Spooler.........................................
M ille r ..........................................
3
7 Stamper.......................................
M illman......................................
:
16 Stable boss..................................
r
}
37 Steam fitter................................
Millwright...................................
1
Minor...........................................
3
12 Stem m er.....................................
M older.........................................
697 Sticker.........................................
1 S to c k e r___ - ...............................
M older’s helper..........................
1 Stock keeper...............................
M onkey m an..............................
1 Stocking w ire.............................
Mirror m aker.............................
Motorman................................... i
7 Stove cleaner..............................
Oiler.............................................
126 Stove m an ..................................
10
O-nfirator
_____ ____________ 1
7 Storekeeper................................
1
On flavor. . .................... .........i_________
1 Stripper.......................................
O
P acker.........................................
52 Superintendent..........................
1
1 Survevor.....................................
Paddler.......................................
Painter........................................
60 Sweater........................................
1 Sweeper.......................................
Panm an.......................................
j
1 Switchboard operator..............
1
Paper-box m aker......................
Pattern maker........................... i................. 1
2
19 Shearman....................................
Pattern filer...............................
!
3 S pin ner.......................................
1
l
l
Pho tograplier.............................
Stoker..........................................
!
i
Stonemason................................
Piano m over...............................
P ickier.........................................
i
3 Straightener...............................
5
Pipe fitter.................................
1
20 Switchm an.................................
P ipem an.....................................
Table m a n ..................................
i
Pitm an........................................
i
5 Take-olT m an..............................
5 Tallvm an.....................................!..............
Planer..........................................
1 Tarmer..................................... . J _______
P later..........................................
q
1 Teamster..................................... i
Platform m a n ............................
1 Tft!fi{rrn.r>]ier_____ _______ I
P low m aker...............................
___ ____
Plum ber......................................
Temperer.....................................1
I
2
President o f com p a n y..............
Tending coa l.............................. 1
.................
i I
Polisher.......................................
1
15 Tftst. b o v ........ ..................... .......!___
Porter.......................................... 1
2 1
9 Test carrier.................................
Pourer......................................... i
'
9 Tim berm an................................
Pressman....................................
1
47 Tim ekeeper................................
|
9
Tinner..........................................
Presser.........................................
P rinter........................................ I
1
18 Throwing p ip e ...........................
P uller..........................................
1
1 Tire bender.................................
P un cher..................................
1
6 Toolm aker..................................
Pum p m an................................. 1
.................
3 T op charger................................
Punch-press m an...................... 1
..................
3 Tool b o v ......................................
1 Trackm an...................................
1
Punch-press e i r l ____________ !
Quarrvman..-.............................. 1
Train tender...............................
2 I.................
1
i
R ock cleaner.............................. 1
Trackwalker...............................
1
!
52 Trim m er.....................................
R am m er......................................
R e a m e r .....................................
2
1
28 Trucker.......................................
Reeler..........................................
1
7 Tun er...........................................
4
Repair m a n ................................ !
52 Turner.........................................
Rigger.......................................... |
48 Vam isher....................................
8 '
2
R ivet heater...............................
1
2 Vessel m an .................................
R iv e t maker............................... 1
i
2 • Veneer puller..............................




Number
injured.

2
30
1
178
1

10
5
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
23
1
1
1
3
1
1
9
4
1
1
1
"id
43
26

1
8
113
1
1
2
1
51
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

11

229
1
1
3
3
1

75

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

5 7 .—OC C U PA TION S
OF
PE R S O N S
K IL L E D
OR
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1,1907, TO DEC. 31,1912—Continued.
N um ber
killod.

Number
injured.

2

3

43
1

2

Waitftr.
___________________
W elder
................................... 1
..................
W el t m aker...........................* J .................
W eigher......................................
2
W heeler ...................................
W heelwright
........................

1
1
1
1

4
97
17
3

2
1

3

1
1
1

G

240

549

13,363

Railroading, elevated.
Car cleaner..................................
C arpenter...................................
Car repairer................................
Conductor...................................
D vnam o tender.........................
Electrician..................................
Guard..........................................
H elper.........................................
Laborer.......................................
Switchman.................................
Ticket agent...............................
Trackwalker...............................
Trackm an...................................
Trainm an...................................
W atchm an.................................
T otal.................................

1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

1
2




1

T otal.................................

40

116

5
3
5

5
34
17

1
1
2
1

Railroading, steam.
Apprentice.................................
Baggageman...............................
B eit m a n ....................................
Blacksm ith.................................
Blacksmith’s h elp er.................
Boiler m aker..............................
Boiler washer.............................
Holt cu tter..................................
Brakeman...................................
Brick m ason...............................
Bridgem an.................................
Biidge tender............................
Cabinetmaker............................

PfonflTn orj
Pnctftfl ion
thqcfov
fpll D*
T

4
2
1

1

22

5

2
1
1

2

5

12
1
1
1

1

3

4

1
1

D um per.......................................
Electrician..................................
Elevator m a n .............................
Engine cleaner...........................
Engine herder............................
Engineer.....................................
Feeder .......................................
Filler............................................
Fire cleaner................................
Fireman......................................
Flagm an......................................
Forem an..................................
Freight agent............. ...............
Gateman.....................................
Guard...........................................
Handv m a n ................................

5
236

762

2

4

1
1
1
2
1

18
3
1

3

4

2
2
21

1
8

10

G
1

5
2

13
1
3
1

1
21

2

3
4
G
28
24

2

7
18
7

302
166
2

Q
O

A
*
*
52
l

3
1

37
i
1
i

219
3
l

o
o
1
1
2

1

o
q
0

1
6
1
2

1

79

311

79
19
44

392
29
132

1
1

2

3

1

16
4
31
3

1

CaHer__ ......................................
Car cleaner.................................
Car inspector
Carpenter....................................
Car repairer................... ............
Car sealer.....................................
Checker
Clerk
pAol llOQVAf
Coal m iner..................................
Collector......................................
Conductor...................................

1

Railroading, interurban.
A gent...........................................
Assistant train-master.............
A u d itor.......................................
Baggageman...............................
B lacksm ith.................................
Brakeman...................................
Bridgeman.................................
Car cleaner..................................
Car inspector..............................
Carpenter....................................
Car repairer................................
Civil engineer.............................
C onductor...................................
Electrician..................................
Engineer.....................................
Forem an.....................................
H elper.........................................
Inspector............. ...................
L aborer.......................................
Land commissioner..................
L inem an.....................................
M achinist....................................
Master m echanic.......................
Motorm an...................................
Oiler.............................................
Painter.........................................
P orter..........................................

Number
injured.

Tim ekeeper................................
T inner.........................................
Truckm an...................................
W inder........................................
N ot reported..............................

7
1
1
1
2
1

1

......................

N um ber
killed.

U

3

Total

IL L IN O IS

Railroading, interurban—Con.

31 anufacturing—Concluded.
V eneer stacker...........................
"Wat^hTTifvp........ .
. ,. .

IN

1
1
2

5
1

14
2

5
H elper.........................................
4
Hostler.........................................
Tceman.........................................
Inspector.....................................
24
Instructor...................................
1
Interpreter *................................
1
Ironworker.................................
Janitor.........................................
5
Laborer.......................................
343
Lam p m an.................................
3
Laundress...................................
............. 1
Levelm an...................................
1
Lever man . . ..........................
8
Linem an.....................................
M achinem an.............................
6
Machinist....................................

191
33

1

45
1
6

3
1,171
2
2

11
25
166

76

OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

BULLETIN

T able

5 7 .—O CCU PATION S
OF
PE R S O N S
K IL L E D
OR
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO D EC. 31, 1912—Continued.
Number
killed.

Number
injured.

Railroading, steam—Conoid.

Pum p m an.................................
Pum per ...................................

2
1

Repair m an ................................
R iv et heater...............................

20

R oofer..........................................
Sawye»*
...................................
Sealer .......................................
Seamstress..................................
Section m an ...............................
Sheet-iron worker......................
Signalm an.................................
Station a( c n t ............................
/
Steam fitter ..............................
Stenographer.............................
S tev ed ore..................................
Stock keeper ..........................
Strapper
..........................
Superintendent.........................
Supply m a n ......................... . . .
Switchman ...............................

1
1
1

6

1
1
1
1
5
2
10
5
3
35
2
2
9
1
1
1
5
1
7
1
2
45
4
2
9
1
8
1
15

1
1
1
1
1
212
7

Teamster
..........................
Telegrapher................................
Tie inspector..............................
Timekeeper
..........................
Tinner
..........................
Tinner’s helper
Towerman
...................
Trackm an
. .
Trackwalker...............................
Train m aster............................
Trnin service
Trucker
- W aiter
W areh ou^eman
Watchman
'W
T
W ei"hm ao

A
*
±
1
1
1
1
4
2

1

Wrecl-er
W reck mas ter
...
Yard brakem an........................
Yard clerk
V o T -ic fov
f\rn
Y ardm m
N ot reported.............................. !

1
1
1

|
1,343 !

Total.................................
,

Airm an........................................
A s h m a n . . . . . . .......................... ;..................i




IL L IN O IS

Number
killed.

Num ber
injured.

Railroading, street—Concld.

Machinist helper........................
i
Mail b o y ......................................
Mail handler...............................
l
Master m echanic......................
M echanic....................................
l
Messenger...................................
Messenger b o v ............................
M illman........" ............................
Millwright,...................................' .................
Miner............................................
l
Motorm an............... '...................
4
Oiler.............................................
1
Operator.....................................
P acker.........................................
4
Painter........................................
Patrolman...................................
Pattern maker...........................
1
Pipe fitter...................................
1
Pit cleaner..................................
2
Pitm an........................................
Plum ber......................................
Policem an...................................
i
Porter..........................................

Railroading, street.

IN

5
1
1
1
5
1
901
10
2
1

Barn m an.................................
Boiler washer...
Brakeman. . . .
B rick la ye r........
Cable puller..............................
Car cleaner................................
Car coupler...............
Car ereascr ___
Car repairer.....................
Carpenter................
.
!
Clerk________________________ i
Conductor.............
Crane onerator_____________ J !
!
Electrician______________
Engineer_____
F ireman...................................... ! .
Firftrnnn’s ho.lrif-r
!
Forem an........* ..........................
Helper.........................................
Iron .Yorker.................................
L a b o r e r ..........
Linem an..........................
M aehineman..............................
Machine helper...............
M a ch in ist..*..............................
Motorman.................................
Oiler
Painter...................................
Paver...........................................
Punch nresscr______________
R e p a irm a n ............................... i

3
1
1
2
1 ;

10
i
1
5
7
1

i

Total.................................

44

2
4
10
1
45
1
2
1
2
1
4
6
1
123
14
1
1
38
1
3
2
1
6
2

i

Steam fitter’s helper................. i
i
Switchm an_____ t ______
1
Teamster................................... i
Truckm an___________________ i
Track renairer............. .............. i
Trim m er____________________ !
Trolley b o y ................................ 1
Trollev m an._________________
Trollev renairer______________
___
Trollev tender............................ 1
W atchm an................................. !
W irem an.....................................
Y ardman.....................................
N ot reported..............................

1
1
2
6

1
5
4
1
1

i

i i
4
!
!

2
1
i

l
2
300

Railroading, underground.

1
8
1
6
8
3
2
1
151
1
19
5

i
I
Checker.....................................V i
1
Civil engineer............................. j
Clerk............................................
Coal d u m n er..............................1 ________
Conductor................................... i
i
Elevator m an.............................
i
Engineer.....................................
Freight clerk.............................. '.................
Inspector.....................................:_________
i
Laborer....................................... i
j
Linem an.....................................

Mail handler...............................______ ___
1
6
Pim m m an........................... .
1 Switchm an....................................................
Switch tender............................ ...................
1 : Trucker_____________________ __________
IS
2 j
Total................................. !
10
18
|
Miscellaneous.
5, GIS |
I
i Arir5r<*5R r
A
! Affent______ ___________ _______________
Apprentice................................. !
1
1 Assembler...................................
1 il Attendant...................................;..................
9

1
1
1
13
30
1
1
2
9
1
1
2
30
1
5
2
5
106

1
3
11
4
1

77

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
^ . —O C C U PA TIO N S
OF P E R S O N S
K IL L E D
OR
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1912—Continued.

IN

N um ber
killed.

N um ber
injured.

N um ber
killed.

Barra^emfvn............ ........... .....
Baker...........................................
Barn m an...................................
Bartender...................................
1
Bell b o y .......................................
Bolt m a^ .. J
,
Billposter....................................
Blacksm ith.................................
B o iW m aker............. .........
Bookkeeper .............................
Bottle washer.............................
Tinv maker , ___ ___________
Bricklayer..................................
B rid gem an................................
Buffer..........................................
B utcher.......................................
Cabinetmaker............................
Cable m an..................................
Calciminer..................................
Caller...........................................
Captain........................................
Car cleaner..................................
2
Carpenter....................................
Car repairer................................
Cash girl.................. .*..................
Cashier.........................................
Cement worker..........................
Charger........................................
Chauffeur....................................
1
Checker........................................
Chipper....................................
1
Civil engineer............................
1
Cleaner........................................
1
Clerk............................................
2
C lim b e r......................................
Collector......................................
C o n d u cto r.................................
1
Constructor.................................
C o o k ...........................................
Cooper..........................................
Core maker.................................
C r a n e m a n ...................................
Cupola ten d er............................
Cutter..........................................
2
D eck h a n d ..................................
D ip p er.........................................
Dishwasher.................................
D istiller.......................................
Driller..........................................
2
Driver..........................................
2
Electrician..................................
1
Elevator helper..........................
1
Elevator m an.............................
1
E ngineer.....................................
Engine-room helper..................
_____ _______
Errand h o v
F iler............................................. !.................
F in ish e r ________ _____ _________________
1
Fireman......................................
Fitter...........................................
Folder..........................................
2
Forem an.....................................
Gas fitter.....................................
Glazier.........................................
Grinder........................................
Groundm an................................
H andy Tnqn................................
Heater..........................................
1
Helper .. ...............................
H ooker.........................................
Hostler.........................................
House m over.............................
Icem an.........................................
Inspector.....................................
1
Installer......................................
Ironer..........................................
1
Ironw orker................................
1
J a n itor....................................
K itchen w orker........................

5
4
10
2
2
1
2
4
4
1
3
1
2
3
2
41
3
1
3
1
1
1
61
3
1
1
1
1
10
4
11

T able

Miscellaneous—Continued.




.

2
39
2
1
6
4
3
1
5
7
5
1
2
1
6
125
15
25
17
1
9
1
3
13
1
1
30
1
7
5
1
14
1
190
2
3
1
4
5
29
3
12
U

1

IL L IN O IS

M iscellaneous—Continued. i
1
K nitter........................................ !
Labeler........................................ i____ _____
Laborer........................................
42
Lather..........................................
Linem an.....................................
11
L oad er.........................................
Machineman...............................
Machine worker................... ... \
.................
..................
M achinist.................................... 1
M atron........................................ ‘..................
..................
M echanic..................................... J
Messenger................................... ...................
..................
Metal w orker..............................1
M illm an.......................................!__________
1
1
M illwright...................................
M older_____________________ 1
M onitor........................................‘..................
Office b o v ................................... j__________
Oiler............................................. !
3
Operator....................... ............. 1
Order filler..................................1
__________
l
Packer.......................................... !
Painter................................. ...... i
2
Paner cutter............................... 1
Pile driver.................................. !..................
P later...........................................i..................
Plum ber...................................... i..................
Polisher.......................................J
..................
Porter.......................................... !..................
Presser.........................................1
___
Press feeder................................ i ................
Pressman.................................... i .
P rinter........................................ I
P roof rea d er ........................... . J __________
l
Pum per....................................... |
P u n ch er _____________________ I
Rfvnair man . _ ______________ '
Rigger.......................................... 1
1
R iv e te r _________ ______________
R oofer.......................................... !..................
S ailor.............................. .............. 1___________
S a lesm a n .....................................
Sawyer.........................................
Scrub w om an.............................
Sculptor.......................................
Seamstress..................................
Shearer........................................
Shearm an...................................
Signalman...................................
Smelter........................................
Solicitor.......................................
Sorter...........................................
Stamper.......................................
1
Steam fitter............ •
...................
Stereotyper.................................
S ticker........................................
Stock keeper..............................
1
Stock b o y ....................................
Stonecutter.................................
Stonemason................................
Stripper.......................................
Stuner..........................................
S uperintendent.........................
2
Sweeper.......................................
Switchm an.................................
Tacker..........................................
T ailor...........................................
Tallym an....................................
Teamster.....................................
9
Tinner..........................................
T oolm ak er.................................
Trim m er.....................................
Trucker.......................................
Truckm an...................................
T vp ist..........................................
W agon b o v .................................
W agon m aker............................
W aiter....................................... .
W aitress......................................

Num ber
injured.

1
3
559
1
42
27
5
77
25
1
6
9
2
1
8
73
1
1
11
14
1
15
37
1
2
1
6
3
37
2
1

12
2
2
4
1
32
5
6
3
1
3

11
2
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
8
1
1

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
106
4
1
10
45
1
1
7
2
5
1

78
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
5 7 .—O C C U PA TIO N S
OF
PERSON S
K IL L E D
OR
IN JU R E D
IN D U S T R IE S , J U L Y 1, l ‘K)7, TO DEC. 31, 1912— Concluded.
Number
killed.

IL L IN O IS

1 Number
| killed.

Number 1
inj ured. !

M iscellaneous—Continued.
W arehouseman..........................
W asher___1................................
W atch m an.................................
W eigher.......................................
W indow cleaner
W indow trimm er......................
W ip er..........................................

IN

Number
injured.

Miscellaneous—Concluded.
!
j
7 !
1
!
2
1

4
l
12
1
4

W rapper.....................................
l Wirero.au............................
1
i Y ardm an.................................... !!
i N ot reported.............................. 1
j
T otal................................. !
i
i
!i
!

1
i
1
2

3
66

11G

2,192

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN WISCONSIN.
The following is a brief analysis of the industrial accident expe­
rience of the State of Wisconsin, including 21,374 cases of injuries,
and involving an estimated cost of compensation of $1,936,849.95.
There were 429 fatalities, or 1 death to every 50 injuries of all kinds,
or 2.01 per cent of the total. The number of permanent injuries
was 139, and the number of temporary injuries was 20,806, or 97.3
per cent of the whole. Disabilities of 7 days’ duration or less are
not included.
The compensation cost in this analysis is an estimate and not an
exact statement. The Wisconsin workmen’s compensation act
being quasi elective, the experience thus far has been as follows:
During the period ending June 30,1912, only one-third of the acci­
dents reported to the commission were under compensation. During
the year ending June 30, 1913, the proportion of such accidents under
compensation had increased to 45 per cent. According to an official
statement dated June 6, 1914, the proportion of injuries under com­
pensation at the present time is estimated at 98 per cent of the total
number reported to the commission in conformity to law. Of the
21,374 accidents in the following tabulation, 13,981, or 65.4 per cent,
were under compensation. The estimate of cost was arrived at by
applying to all of the accidents classified as fatal, serious permanent,
minor permanent, and temporary, the average cost of indemnity as
ascertained for the accidents under compensation. The analysis is
exceedingly instructive and brings out the main causes responsible
for the more serious cases of injury in Wisconsin industries.




79

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

JAUSES OF IN D U S T R IA L ACC ID E N TS A N D COST OF C O M P E N SA TIO N IN
W ISCON SIN , S E P T . 1, 1911, TO A P R . 1, 1914.

Accidents.
Cause.
■T
N
ber.

Motors and engines................................
Shafting.....................................................
Pulleys..................................................... .
Gears........................................................ .
B elts...........................................................
Ropes and cables.....................................
Chains and sprockets............. ................
Barkers.......... . .........................................
Boring machines.....................................
Calenders—Paper stacks, winding
machines, etc........................................
Conveyors.................................................
Edgers.................................................. .
Em ery wheels (and polishing).............
C om shredders.........................................
Feed and ensilage cutters......................
Jointers......................................................
Lathes........................................................
Planers.......................................................
Presses.......................................................
Rolls, feed.................................................
Sanders........................................... ..........
Saws............... ...........................................
Set screws..................................................
Shapers......................................................
Staying and ending machines...............
Stickers......................................................
V eneer clippers........................ ................
Drills, well and diam ond.......................
Power shears............................................
Riveters.....................................................
Power ham mer........................................
Milling machines.....................................
Unhair ing machines...............................
Concrete m ixers.......................................
Sole cutters...............................................
A ll other machinery...............................
Elevators...................................................
Cranes and derricks................................
Boiler explosions.....................................
Other explosions......................................
Escaping steam ........................................
E lectricity.................................................
H ot metals................................................
Nonmetal b u m s.......................................
H it b y flying nails, chips, etc...............
H it b y hoisted or m oved objects..........
H it b y vehicles, cars, trucks, etc.........
H it b y objects falling from piles..........
H it b y falling trees or parts of trees...
H it b y broken machine parts...............
A ll other hits............................................
Falls down stairs.....................................
Falls from ladders...................................
Falls from scaffolds.................................
Falls from buildings...............................
Falls into excavations............................
Falls from wagons, cars, e tc..................
Falls from boxes, chairs, e tc .................
Slipping or stum bling............................
Falls into vats, pits, holes, e tc.............
Falls from piles, poles, trees..................
Falls from tramways and trestles........
Falls from runways and loading plat­
forms.......................................................
Other falls..................................................
Lifting heavy objects..............................
Dropping objects while lifting..............




Per
cent of
total.

Estimated cost of all
accidents.

Amount.

Per
cent of
total.

93
74
55
252
213
79
101
50
55

0.4
.4
.3
1.2
1.1
.4
.5
.2
.3

$9,128.49
15,851.03
6,780.91
55,313.16
23,358.47
8,249.19
5,512.58
2,729.00
3,001.90

0.47
.82
.35
2.86
1.21
.43
.29
.14
.15

164
95
18
280
67
55
178
134
111
578
223
42
948
35
63
80
14
19
38
60
30
44
57
17
7
15
736
228
162
13
178
77
175
837
362
623
1,121
583
1,412
260
211
874
123
268
374
93
87
569
55
1,073
96
120
37

.8
.4
.1
1.3
.3
.3
.8
.6
.5
2.7
1.1
.2
4.2
.2
.3
.4
.1
.1
.2
.3
.1
.2
.3
.1
.1
.1
3.2
1.1
.8
.1
.8
.4
.8
4.3
1.3
2.9
5.3
2.7
6.5
1.2
1.1
4.0
.5
1.2
1.8
.4
.4
2.7
.3
5.1
.4
.6
.2

12,888.49
11,800.17
982.44
21,888.47
33,968.12
9,290.25
10,974.91
8,573.39
8,577.72
35,325.25
16,029.53
14,120.61
59,283.72
1,910.30
4,698.21
4,366.40
764.12
1,037.02
3,412.89
3,274.80
1,637.40
3,740.37
3,111.06
927.86
1,720.91
818.70
62,060.35
41,661.40
16,637.42
3,387.24
34,747.49
9,558.06
49,717.00
45,683.46
25,113.36
71,772.62
94,397.07
78,452.35
135,823.00
59,971.37
23,249.31
87,450.39
8,052.19
22,660.54
59,080.21
17,125.59
15,459.56
51,138.77
3,001.90
63,919.74
13,272.78
18,599.25
6,036.01

.67
.61
.05
1.13
1.75
.48
.57
.44
.44
1.82
.83
.73
3.06
.10
.24
.22
.04
.06
.18
.16
.08
.19
.16
.05
.09
.04
3.20
2.15
.86
.17
1.79
.49
2.56
2.35
1 T9
3.70
4.87
4.05
7.02
3.09
1.20
4.51
.42
1.17
3.05
.88
.80
2.64
.15
3.30
.69
.96
.31

93
197
416
1,233

.4
.9
1.9
5.7

22,480.99
28,157.31
22,705.28
69,895.66

1.16
1.45
1.17
3.67

Serious injuries.
Fatal
inju­
ries.

3
6

Per­
ma­
nent.

2
5
2

3
3
10
4
1

2
4

1
1

4
1

1

1
23
5
1
1
2
3
2

6

9
1

1
1
1
6
19
3
2
14
4
30
4
1
23
32
42
34
5
23
1
6
27
9
8
15

11
3
3
5

29
2
3
2
1
4
1
2

4
6
9
3
13
13
i

1

Tem­
p o­
rary.
90
65
52
240
204
76
101
50
55
161
9-3
18
275
43
50
177
133
109
575
220
42
933
35
62
80
14
19
37
60
30
43
57
17
6
15
719
206
156
11
159
73
145
837
358
593
1,096
548
1,333
225
202
845
122
202
345
84
79
554
55
1,069
90
111
34
80
184
416
1,231

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

80
T a b le

5 3 .—C AU SES OF I N D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS A N D COST OF C O M P E N SA T IO N IN
W ISC O N SIN , S E P T . 1, 1011, TO A P R . 1, 1914—Concluded.

Accidents.

j Estimated cost of all
j
accidents.

Cause.

Serious injuries.
Fatal
inju­
ries.

N um ­
ber.

All other accidents while handling
objects....................................................
Teaming and trucking............................
Animals—Bites and k ick s .....................
Tools and hand apparatus.....................
Stepping or kneeling 011 nails or sharp
objects....................................................
Other causes.............................................
Causes not stated..................................... :

Per
cent of
total.

991
349
188
1,403

4.7
1.6
.9
6.6

§51,427.63
25,742.67
12,938.74
77,914.59

2.66
1.33
.67
4.02

1

900
472
41

4.2
2.2
.2

51,799.70
44,451.78
6,254.33

2.67
2.30
.32

2
14
3

1

8S8
457
38

100.0

1,936,849.95

100.00

429

139

20,806

5,080
390
1,642
5,084
3,185
2,640
3,353

23.8
1.9
7.7
23.7
14.9
12.3
15.7

467,108.19
58’, 298.82
168,206.61
551,121.11
328,984.84
144,028.57
219,101.81

24.11
3.01
8.65
28.44
16.98
7.50
11.31

45
22
54
165
114
2
27

82
6
5
42
2
1
1

4,953
362
1,583
4,877
3,069
2,637
3,325

21,374

100.0

1,936,849.95

ICO.00

429

139

20,806

Total................................................ ! 21,374

1

A mount.

Per
cent of
total.

Per­
ma­
nent.

1
5
2

Tem ­
po­
rary.

990
344
186
1,402

CLASSIFICATION BY GROUPS.

Machinery.................................................
Hoisting apparatus................................. 1
Explosions and burns............................ ' ■
H its............................................................. !
Falls...........................................................
Handling objects..................................... i
Other causes............................................. |
Total................................................

SPECIAL CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN WISCONSIN.

In the State of Wisconsin, under the direction of the industrial
commission, special efforts have been made to improve the statistics
of industrial accidents, both on the basis of a better guaranty of
accuracy and completeness in the original reports and by more practi­
cally useful methods of tabulation of results. Under date of July
20, 1912, the commission published an anafysis of 5,241 accidents,
by causes, of which 112, or 2.14 per cent, were fatalities. The prin­
cipal cause of accidents was collapse, falls, or hit by objects, num­
bering 1,102, or 21.03 per cent of the total. The next most im­
portant cause was accidents in connection with the loading or
unloading of heavy objects, numbering 600, or 11.45 per cent of
the accidents due to all causes. Accidents due to falls of all kinds
numbered 684, or 13.05 per ccnt of the aggregate. These three groups
of causes, therefore, accounted for 2,386 accidents, or 45.53 per cent
of the aggregate, for the year ending June 30, 1912. The details of
this interesting study are given in the table following.




81

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

T able 5 9 .—CAU SES OF IN D U S T R IA L ACC IDE N TS IN W ISC O N SIN , J U L Y 1, 1911, T O JUNE
30,1012.
A ll injuries.

Fatal inj uries.

Num ber.

Per cent
fatal inju­
ries were of
all injuries.

3
1
2

12.5
1.5
3.2

1
2
1
3
1
2

1.7
6.3
7.1
4.0
2.0
6.3

5
2

i.6
5.1

1
2
2
6
2

3.3
18.2
9.1
16.7
5.1

40

3.6

1
8
5
2
4
2
1
5
1
1
5
1

1.3
6.3
13.2
13.3
6.8
.6
.2
2.7
2.4
.3
2.6
4.8

112

2.1

Cause.
Num ber.

Per cent
of total.

Motors—Engines......................................................................
Shafting.....................................................................................
Gears..........................................................................................
Belts...........................................................................................
P u lleys......................................................................................
Ropes and cables.....................................................................
Chains and spro^Vpits..... ........... ............. .......
Barkers......................................................................................
Boring machines......................................................................
Calenders—Paper m achines..................................................
C onveyors.................................................................................
D rills..........................................................................................
Emery wheels.............................. ..........................................
Corn shredders.........................................................................
Feed cutters.............................................................................
Corn huskers.............................................................................
Jointers......................................................................................
Lathes........................................................................................
Planers......................................................................................
Presses.......................................................................................
R olls...........................................................................................
Sanders......................................................................................
Saws............................................................................................
Set screws..................................................................................
Shapers..................................................................................
Staying and ending m achines..............................................
Miscellaneous machines.........................................................
Elevators...................................................................................
H o ists ........................................................................................
Cranes........................................................................................
Boiler explosions................................................. - .................
Escape o f steam from pipes...................................................
E lectricity.................................................................................
Explosions or explosives........................................................
Inflammable, h ot or corrosive substances..........................
Collapse, fall or hit b y objects..............................................
Falls from stairs.......................................................................
Falls from ladders....................................................................
Falls from scaffolds.................................................................
Falls from buildings................................................................
Falls down elevator shafts.....................................................
Falls into excavations............................... ............................
Miscellaneous falls...................................................................
Loading or handling heavy objects....................................
Teaming, draying or hauling................................................
Animals—B ite, kick, e t c .......................................................
Tools, hand apparatus...........................................................
Miscellaneous causes..............................................................
Causes not specified............. ..................................................

12
24
67
62
29
35
29
13
14
59
32
14
75
49
32
14
51
49
29
175
55
14
247
12
16
22
308
39
26
30
U
22
38
39
293
1,102
29
78
128
38
15
59
337
600
182
42
384
192
21

0.23
.46
1.28
1.18
.55
.67
. 55
.25
.27
1.13
.61
.27
1.43
.94
.61
.27
.97
.94
.55
3.34
1.05
.27
4. 71
.23
.31
.41
5.88
. 74
.50
.57
.20
.41
.69
.74
5.59
21.03
. 55
1.49
2.44
.73
.29
1.13
6.43
11.45
3.47
.80
7.33
3.66
.40

T ota l...............................................................................

5,241

100.00

o 8 o u 3 ° — B u ll. l o t —




j « --------G
lj

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
ACCIDENTS DUE TO FALLS.

A special analysis of 1,3S7 accidents caused by falls of workmen,
according to cause and degree of disability, was published under date
of June 20, 1913, in Shop Bulletin No. 4 of the Industrial Commission
of Wisconsin, as follows:
T able GO.—A CC ID E N TS C AU SED B Y F A L L S O F W O R K M E N , W ISC O N SIN ; S E P T . 1, 1911,
TO M A R . 1, 1913.

Nature of fall.

Deaths.

19
50

61
6

28

20

41
17

25
12

76

50

14

82
48

15
42

104
8

D ow n stairs........................
From ladders......................
From scail'olds, tram­
ways, trestles, etc..........
Dov.ii elevator shafts____
Into vats, bins, holes, and
trenches...........................
From piles, poles, ma­
chines, boxes, e tc......... .
From buildings..................
From wagons, cars, and
other vehicles................ .
Slipping, stumbling, and
jum pin g...........................
Total.

Total.
Loss Inter­
In­
Lac­
nal Frac­
of
Sprains. era­ Bruises. Burns. jured
fin­ inju­ tures.
tions.
eyes. N um ­ Per
gers. ries.
ber. cent.
52
141

147

39

425

3S4

110

292
28

30

22

18

3.7
10.2
21.1
2.0

53
20
346

7.6
9.2
3.2

204

3

105
127
45

11

14.7

393

28.3

I 11,387

100.0

The total number of accidents causing disability of more than seven
days reported to the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin during the
period September 1, 1911, to March 1, 1913, was 10,517. Of this
number 1,387, or 13.2 per cent, were caused by the falls of the work­
men, and most of these accidents, as shown by the above table, were
of a serious nature, 48 having resulted in death, 425 in fractured
bones, and 30 in serious internal injuries. The industrial commission
estimates that the total loss in wages suffered by the injured workmen
on account of these accidents amounted to approximately $70,000.
The commission points out that under the provisions of the compen­
sation law, which provides for compensation at 65 per cent of the wage
loss and additional thereto medical aid in case of temporary dis­
ability, and a maximum compensation of $3,000 in fatal cases, this
class of accidents alone would have cost employers over $175,000.
In discussing the 52 accidents caused b y workmen falling down
stairs, the commission points out that in two cases the stairs broke
while objects were being taken down; in three cases the stairs were
icy; in one case the injured person caught his heel in an iron stairway.
Emphasizing the required precaution against accidents of this kind,
the commission refers to the orders and rules relating
stairways,
which require that “ All stairways must be equipped with handrails,
and the rails must be kept smooth and free from nails and splinters.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

83

Where the stairway is not built next to a wall or partition, rails must
be provided for both sides.” It is further pointed out that—
Many of the accidents due to falls downstairs might have been pre­
vented had the stairs been equipped with rails in compliance with the
above order. It is also very important to provide proper lighting
for all stairways and landings, especially when these are inclosed.
All stairways should be kept in good repair and at all times be clean
and free from objects to prevent people from stumbling and slipping
while going up and down. Rubber mats or other nonslippery sub­
stance nailed to stairs will help to prevent these accidents.
With regard to the 141 accidents caused by falls from ladders, most
of which were of a serious nature, and two of which resulted fatally,
it is stated in the bulletin referred to that—
All ladders used in working on transmission apparatus should be
equipped with safety hooks or other effective means at the top, to
prevent slipping sideways. Order 15 of the commission requires that
all permanent elevated platforms in frequent use must be equipped
with a permanent stairway or stationary ladder. All ladders other
than stepladders, used to gain access to elevated platforms not fre­
quently used, must also be provided with safety hooks at the top.
All stepladders used should have the legs securely bound together to
revent spreading. Great care should be taken in placing ladders.
>ne man set a ladder upon three beer cases. It slipped and he re­
ceived a bad sprain. In several cases the ladders were not placed
at a proper slant and tipped backward. Eight accidents were due
to defective ladders; the rounds pulled out or broke, or the ladder
collapsed under the weight of the man. All ladders should be kept
in good repair; broken parts replaced— not patched. In one case
the man w^as on a defective ladder which had been reenforced. It
broke again and the man fell, fracturing his ribs.

8

There were 292 accidents due to falls from scaffolds, tramways,
trestles, runways, and platforms, including 21 deaths, or 7.2 per cent
of the total. The commission expresses the important conclusion
that “ practically all of these accidents might have been avoided.”
They observe further that—
The greatest danger to men working on trestles and tramways is
caused by the lack of proper walks and rails. Thirty-five men were
injured for want of proper walks. In one case the tramway had a walk
but it did not extend far enough and an employee stepped, off and was
killed. Several men were knocked from tramways by cable cars. One
of the largest steel plants in the country provides that “ all trestles
shall be equipped with walks, the outer edge of which shall be at
least 6 feet from the rail. Where practical, the floor of this walk
shall extend to within at least 4 inches of the end of the ties. Each
walk shall be equipped with a substantial metal railing and toe board.
Where there is a driveway or passageway under the trestle it shall be
completely planked over at that point between the rails and between
the tracks.
All tramways and trestles should be rigidly inspected




84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

and kept in the best of repair. Two men were drowned when a bridge
they Vrere dismantling collapsed. In another case three men were
v
hurt by the collapse of a trestle. Runways and oilers* platforms
should be equipped with a sound railing and toe board. Permanent
stairways or stationary ladders should lead up to these platforms.
Loading platforms and gang planks leading from warehouses to cars
and trucks should be made of selected material of sufficient strength.
They should be made of sufficient width and should be attached
securely to prevent slipping. Several men were injured by the collapse
of loading platforms under the weight of trucks. In constructing these
latforms care should be taken to make them of sufficient width.
>ne man was killed by falling off a runway leading from a warehouse.
He was carrying a bundle of shingles and stepped off the edge, striking
on his head. A railing would have prevented this accident. Several
men were severely injured by falling from^ gangplanks while pushing
wheelbarrows. Planks only 12 inches wide too often are used for
runways, especially in construction work.

S

Of the 28 accidents due to falls down elevator shafts, 4 resulted in
death, 2 in serious internal injury, and 8 in bad fractures. It is
held that all but three of these accidents might have been prevented
had the elevators and shaftways been safeguarded in compliance
with the commission’s orders. The order relating to gates on freight
elevators reads in part that: “ All freight elevators must be equipped
at each landing with self-closing gates.” It is stated that 11 accidents
occurred because no gates at all were provided, and in several of these
cases the men were walking backward pulling trucks, and fell down
the shaft with serious results. Defective gates at elevator landings
were the. cause of seven accidents, of which three were fatal. The
rule of the commission requires that—
Gates must not be less than 5^ feet in height, except at the top land­
ing, where such gate must be not less than 3^ feet in height. The
bottom rail on all gates must be not more than 12 inches from the
floor. All gates or doors for entrances to freight elevators must be of
sufficient strength to withstand a lateral pressure at the center of not
less than 250 pounds. Freight elevators already installed, if equipped
with doors instead of gates, which doors are made of solid wood, or
metal or of wire, glass, grill work, or screen of proper strength— as
provided in order 402—will be permitted if such doors are equipped
with self-closing locks which can not be opened from the outside
except by means of a key.
The commission therefore concludes that had the elevator shafts
on which the seven accidents occurred been equipped in compliance
with this order, three men would not have been killed and the others
would not have been seriously injured.
There were 105 accidents due to falls into vats, bins, pits, trenches,
holes, and trapdoors. Of this number 6, or 5.7 per cent, were fatal,
while 2 men were injured internally, and 28 received fractured bones.
Of the total, 35 were due to falls into vats in tanneries and veneer




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

85

factories. Several men were injured when planks over the vats
broke or slipped aside. It is stated that—
Others were walking near the vats and slipped on the floor, falling
in. While pulling out logs and hides, several men slipped in. The
most serious accidents occurred in* veneer plants. One man was
scalded to death by falling into a vat, and 18 others were seriously
burned.
It is therefore suggested by the commission that—
All veneer vats must be guarded by rails or fences in order to pre­
vent men from slipping into them. Planks over the vats should be
made of sound material, which will not give way under the weight
of a man. These planks should be secured firmly to prevent their
slipping to the side. All parts of vats not in actual use should be se­
curely covered. In removing logs and hides, men should be provided
with suitable poles or other effective tools for use in floating logs and
drawing hides to the edge of the tanks. All work should be done
from the edge of the vat and never from planks placed across. Sev­
eral bad accidents might have been prevented had this practice been
followed.
Among other suggestive accidents, mention is made of two men
who were smothered in wheat bins. Eepair pits in car barns were
the cause of 10 serious accidents, one of which resulted fatally. It
is therefore suggested that warning signs should be placed near pits,
and wherever possible temporary movable railings should be used.
The same conclusion is made to apply to the 30 accidents caused by
workmen running into holes and open trapdoors. It is held that
“ Trapdoors should be constructed in such a way that three sides are
guarded at all times. Traps should never be without some form of
guard, pits about boilers and machines should be covered up securely
at the close of the day's work. In working about ore and coal
pockets on docks several men fell in and were seriously injured.”
Similar accidents occurred to men employed about boats and ves­
sels, two being fatally injured by falling into the hatches, which sug­
gest the necessity for better means of protection. Eleven accidents
were caused by persons falling down embankments, with regard to
which it is said that the majority could have been prevented if
proper railings had been provided.
There were 127 accidents due to falls from piles, poles, machines,
boxes, chairs, and benches, of which 6, or 4.7 per cent, proved fatal.
In commenting upon this class of accidents the commission states
that—
Most of these were due to falls from piles of lumber, pulp, coal,
castings, and other things. All piles should be made perfectly stable,
especially if men work upon them. Men should be careful not to
stand upon boards extending from lumber piles. One man was stand­
ing on a plank near the top of a lumber pile, when it broke the fall



86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

killed him. Several men fell from lumber piles while pulling wood
up to be piled. Several others fell while climbing up. One man was
working on a coal pile when the coal began to roll and he fell.
With special reference to men working as linemen, or in any other
capacity requiring work on poles, the commission suggests the en­
forcement of a rule requiring the use of life belts. Referring to two
fatalities caused by falls from poles, it is pointed out that had the
deceased worn life belts they probably would not have been killed,
at least in consequence of falls, though, of course, the fatalities
might have been due to the severity of electric shock.
Falls from buildings caused 45 accidents, of which 7, or 16 per cent,
T
resulted in death, 17 caused broken bones, and 12 serious sprains.
Of the total, 13 occurred as the result of the collapse of buildings in
course of demolition. In one case a roof collapsed and 10 men were
injured. The prevention of such accidents depends on the careful­
ness of the men and proper supervision of the work by competent
foremen. With regard to this class of accidents the commission
points out that—
In working on roofs of buildings the greatest care should be used
by workmen. Two men were working on the roof of a barn, when
they slipped and fell off. Both were killed. One man was leaning
over to catch a mason's line when he lost his balance and was killed.
Another man fell from a steel girder while reaching for tools and was
killed. Ladders used in roof work should be provided with proper
hooks at the top. Braces should be nailed down properly to prevent
giving way. Men should exercise the greatest care in and about
buildings where there is any danger of falling.
Falls from wagons, cars, trucks, and other vehicles caused 204
accidents, with only 2 deaths. The details of this experience are
briefly summarized in the statement that—
For the most part these accidents are caused by the carelessness
and inexperience of teamsters and men working about wagons and
trucks. In 30 cases the accidents were due to horses. They either
ran away or started suddenly, throwing men from the wagons. In
one case the horses shied and ran away, throwing the man from the
wagon, killing him. Several bad accidents were caused by the sud­
den starting of horses. Twelve men were jolted from wagons and
cars by collisions with other vehicles and cars, and 37 men were
injured by being jolted from wagons, because of the skidding of the
w heels against tracks and curbs and other objects and driving over
7
uneven roads. One man was driving into a barn up a curb, when he
was jolted off. Several men were thrown from logging sleighs when
they skidded on the ice roads. - Such roads should be w ell sanded
T
on grades to prevent skidding.
As regards the causes of and personal responsibility for accidents
of this kind, it is pointed out that—
Too little care is taken by men getting on and off from wagons.
One man fell from a sleigh pole while reaching for the reins. He was



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

87

dragged under the sleigh for half a mile and badly injured. The
ordinary delivery man jumps onto the hub of the wheel while the
wagon is moving. Twenty-one men were injured because of this
careless habit. One conductor jumped from a moving car, landed
against a post, and was killed. Even while getting on and off from
vehicles which are not moving, too little care is used. Men slip from
the footstep and sprain an ankle or fracture a bone. In all, 22
accidents were caused in this way. In loading and unloading wagons
and cars proper loading platforms should be provided. Twentyseven men were injured by falls while loading and unloading. In
handing down objects they lose their balance or slip, and a broken
bone results. Carelessness on tower wagons used in linework caused
three accidents. The men remained in the tower while the wagon
was being moved and fell out. The tower should have been lowered
in each case. Several men were intoxicated and fell. In a few cases
loads shifted, throwing men off. Loads should always be securely
bound when there is any danger of shifting.
Slipping, stumbling, and jumping caused 393 accidents, with no
fatalities. In the opinion of the commission a large proportion of
these accidents could have been prevented if the order of the com­
mission requiring that all passageways must be kept smooth and in
good repair and free from nails or obstructions over which persons
may stumble and fall, had been complied with. It therefore suggests
that—
All slippery floors about machinery should be covered with rubber
mats or other equally effective means to prevent slipping, as required
by order 201. Had this order been complied with many of the above
accidents would not have occurred. Many accidents have been
reported where men were caught in machinery, because they slipped
while operating the machines. Men should be cautioned about
jumping from low objects. Fifteen serious accidents were caused by
this practice.
The foregoing facts and conclusions regarding this very important
group of industrial accidents are especially significant. They are
emphasized in practically every case by carefully drawn suggestions
or rules which make it apparent that a considerable proportion of
these accidents could have been prevented by conformity to more
intelligent conceptions of shop management and a higher sense of
responsibility on the part of both employer and employee. The
analysis brings forcibly to public attention the preventable causes
and conditions of numerous industrial accidents, which in the aggre­
gate entail a considerable economic loss. The suggestions by the
commission prove that the prevention of such accidents is not a
matter of serious expense, but quite frequently is rather a question
of carefulness and attention on the part of both the employer and
the employee.




88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
ACCIDENTS DUE TO OBJECTS STRIKING WORKMEN. *

A second large group of industrial accidents considered in detail
by the Industrial Commission, of Wisconsin is regarding injuries
caused by objects striking workmen, with, observations as to their
prevention. The number of such accidents considered was 2,659, of
which 86 were fatal, and 107 were cases of permanent disablement.
The commission estimates that in less than two years 65,000 working
days were lost on account of this class of accidents, and it estimates
the cost of the same under the present compensation laws at about
$400,000. It says that “ Mechanical safeguards would have prevented
but a small proportion of these accidents. They must be avoided, if
at all, through the cooperation of employer and employee, which is
only made possible to any great extent by better shop organization.”
The details of the analysis are as follows:
T able 61*—A C C ID E N TS

C A U SE D B Y OBJECTS S T R IK IN G
S E P T . 1, 1911, T O M AH. 1, 1913.

WORKMEN,

W ISC O N SIN ,

Accidents causing—

Nature of injury.
Death.

Objects falling—
From piles, rollways, stopes, and trenches...........
From vehicles...............................................................
From cranes and derricks..........................................
From buildings, trestles, scaffolds, and hoppers..
From racks, machines, and benches........................
From convevors, slides, and chutes........................
Struck b y falling trees................................................
Struck b y windows, doors, counterweights...........
Struck b y nails, chips, and other small objects
T otal....................................................................

Loss of
arms,
legs,
feet,
or eyes.

21
12
23
8
4

2
2

18

1

Loss of
toes and
fingers;
impaired
sight.

8
7
23
1
15
2

Tem po­
rary
dis­
ability.

32
86

5
7

467
380
517
101
357
107
119
105
307

39

68

2,466

2

Total.

496
407
565
110
378
109
138
110
346
2,659

The first large subgroup of this class of accidents is with regard to
objects falling from piles, rollways, stopes, and trenches. There were
496 of these accidents, of which 21, or 4.2 per cent, were fatal. The
commission points out that too little care is taken in the construction
of piles of various kinds, and bad practices in removing objects from
piles were also responsible for many accidents which, by better super­
vision of the work by competent foremen, could have been avoided.
Among other details mention is made of 59 men being injured by
logs rolling from piles, 19 of the accidents being caused by the break­
ing of rollways while the men were employed near thereto. Ten men
were caught in the log roll. Twenty-six accidents, with 5 fatalities,
occurred to men working about sand, coal, and gravel piles, with
regard to which it is pointed out that—
Foremen should see that men never follow the dangerous practice
of undermining frozen piles. When working at the bottom of coal,




1 Industrial Commission of W isconsin, Shop Bulletin N o. 6.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

89

ore, and stone piles, or on raises, drifts, or stopes at mines, great care
should be exercised to avoid rolling lumps of coal and rock. Men
barring ore and rock from stopes should signal workers below. When
iles become too steep, or largo chunks overhang, they should be
arred to a safe angle before work is continued.

E

There were 20 accidents in connection with the caving in of trenches,
including 2 fatalities; and 42 accidents caused by the fall of ore or
rock from the roofs and walls of mines, with 9 fatalities, in connection
with which it is stated that—
In excavating for the laying of gas, water, and sewer pipes, trenches
should always be shored up to prevent caving in. In all, 20 men were
injured, 2 fatally, due to this cause. Lack of proper roof and wall
supports in Wisconsin mines has been the cause of 42 accidents, of
which 9 were fatal. Walls and ceilings of mines should be tested for
loose slabs and pieces of ore and rock at frequent and regular intervals
and all loose pieces removed. Proper braces and supports should be
used in shafts. Competent foremen should personally oversee all
testing for loose material, especially after blasts.
Objects falling from trucks and vehicles caused 407 accidents, with
12 deaths. Perhaps the most serious risk is in connection with the
unloading of logs from cars, wagons, and sleighs, there having been
74 accidents of this kind, suggesting the urgency of better safety
precautions and the adoption of the recommendation by the commis­
sion that—
The common method of unloading logs from cars when the sapling
stake is used as a binder, is to notch the stake and then cut the binding
wire.' For this purpose a long handled ax or nippers are used. The
workmen must make a quick getaway as tho stake breaks the minute
the wire is cut. The cutting of the wire is one of the most dangerous
parts of the work as this is done in front of the logs. The use of the
bunk and chain is equally, if not more, dangerous. The fit-hook
must first be driven out in front of the load to a certain height before
it can be tripped from the other side* Expert judgment is required
not to drive the hook out too far before the trip chain is used. The
only way of avoiding these accidents is by the use of an automatic
“ safety car stake,” which can be tripped from the side opposite to
that from which the unloading is done. Several large lumber com­
panies in the State have equipped cars with these stakes at their own
expense, and report that no accidents have occurred since the stakes
were used.
Objects falling from cranes and hoists caused 565 accidents, with
23 fatalities, or 4.1 per cent. The transfer or moving of objects by
cranes, derricks, and hoists, as pointed out by the commission, involves
great danger to workmen engaged in this class of work. In addition
to the 23 deaths there were 25 accidents requiring amputation. The
observations of the commission in connection with this class of
accidents are in part as follows:
The selection of chains, rope slings, hooks, and other parts of hoists
is of the utmost importance. In all, 90 accidents were caused when



90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

chains and hooks broke under the strain of a load or rope slings tore.
Chains and hooks should be of standard quality and should never be
used in lifting more than a designat ed weight. One large manufactur­
ing company has not had any accidents caused by breaking chains,
since it required all requisitions for chains to be signed by the safety
inspector. He purchases only the very best quality. The use of
chains, however, should be^ avoided where possible. Companies
having had long experience in accident prevention have discarded
chains where possible and have substituted wire cables and ropes.
The most rigid inspection of chains sometimes fails to disclose the
weak link, while a weak spot in a cable or rope is always readily
detected by broken strands. When rope slings bocomo worn, they
should be discarded entirely.
Objects falling from buildings, trestles, scaffolds, and hoppers were
responsible for 110 accidents, of which 8, or 7.3 per cent, resulted
fatally. In connection with the tearing down of buildings, 23 persons
were caught by unexpected falls of walls, roofs, or pillars. It was
suggested by the commission that the work of razing buildings should
be under the close supervision of competent foremen, and that work­
men should be instructed to avoid taking chances as far as possible.
Thirty-one men were injured by tools and other objects falling from
buildings, and it was recommended that temporary floors should be
constructed in new buildings to prevent tools falling through the open
spaces and striking men working below. It was further suggested
that—
All scaffolds should be constructed with toe boards as well as rails
to keep tools and materials from falling off. Trestles leading over
roadways should always be boarded over completely so that objects
falling from passing loads can not fall through to the ground beneath
the trestle. All chutes and hoppers should be substantially con­
structed. Two men were killed and 7 severely injured when they
were struck by chutes which had broken.
Objects tipping over or falling from racks, machines, and benchos
caused 378 accidents, with 4 deaths, or 1.1 per cent. For the purpose
of preventing accidents of this kind it is pointed out that—
Most accidents caused by objects falling from racks, machines, and
benches, or tipping over, can be prevented by more care on the part of
the workmen and better supervision by foremen. Objects falling
from racks, hooks, and shelves caused 18 accidents. All racks ana
hooks should be substantially constructed and objects liable to fall or
tip over should be blocked or hooked firmly. Seventy men were
hurt by objects falling from machines. In most cases the men were
working on the objects when they fell from the rests. Whenever
large jobs are placed on machines having small rests, extensions
should be used to prevent the jobs from slipping off.
It is further suggested that—
When working on jobs lying on benches, the same precautions
should be taken to block them properly as when the jobs are on the



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

91

.machine. When jobs are placed on horses or blockod up, it is impor­
tant to see that horses and blocks are of sufficient strength to hold tho
jobs. Jacks should never be used when working on large heavy
objects, but such objects should be blocked up with horses. In one
case a painter had a three-ton pushcart jacked up to paint tho
bottom, when it tipped over, and crushed him to death. Proper
T
blocking would have prevented this accident. In another case a
heavy machine was being moved on rollers when the rollers ran from
the plank, tipping the machine over and crushing the man. When­
ever objects are moved on rollers, care should be taken that fingers
and toes are kept from under such objects.
Finally, it is recommended by the commission that—
Where practicable, ladders, doors, tools, etc., should be placed
on racks or piles instead of being leaned against walls or machines.
Jobs lying on floors should be blocked, especially if they are of irregu­
lar shape, such as castings, rough stones, etc. Thirty men were
hurt, one fatally, when struck by objects knocked over by other
objects. In one case a crane raised a heavy flywheel from a rack
in which several flywheels stood. Some chippers were working on a
wheel leaning against the rack. As the wheel in the crane was
raised it struck an adjoining wheel, causing the entire line of wheels
to tip over. The one on the end crushed a chipper, killing him.
The company has now built a pit to hold these flywheels. This
will prevent a similar accident. # The accident clearly shows the
need of safely blocking all materials about plants. When manhole
covers are removed, they should be laid to one side to prevent their
falling over. Several serious accidents were caused in this way.
Objects falling from conveyors, slides, and chutes caused 109 acci­
dents, with no deaths. The accident risk in connection therewith is
quite considerable, and 51 men were injured by objects falling from
the ends and sides of conveyors, with more or less serious results. It
is therefore recommended by the commission that—
Where possible^ these conveyors should be inclosed entirely, espe­
cially at all turning points. All live rolls should also be guarded
to protect the men from being caught and to prevent objects from
falling off. The greatest care should be exercised by men to keep
from being caught between objects on conveyors. While releasing
or straightening parts there is always danger of having fingers or
hands crushed. Sides used for loading should be equipped with
side boards to prevent parts from falling off. Several men^ were
hurt when flour bags, which were being loaded, fell from the side of
wooden slides.
Falling trees caused 138 accidents, with 18 deaths, or 13 per cent.
Fifty-nine of these accidents, with 9 deaths, were due to trees kicking
back, and 41 accidents, with 3 deaths, were caused by the fall of
limbs from trees. The number of men employed in logging operations
during the winter months in Wisconsin is estimated by the commis­
sion at 17,000, which in the summer months is reduced to 5,000. It is
therefore held that the men employed in the woods, as a rule, are



92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

not sufficiently skilled in the work which they perform, and it is
suggested that employers should bear this fact in mind and see to it
that each new man is carefully instructed as to the dangers of his
occupation. Many logging accidents no doubt could be prevented
if such instructions were given the new employees. The commission
suggests that—
The men should be required to have sharp calks in their shoes to
help them make a quick getaway when the butt suddenly jumps back
on the stump. The springboards on which fellers work when cutting
a tree above a pitch pocket should be strongly built. Nine men were
killed when trees unexpectedly kicked back or fell in the wrong
direction. Whenever a tree is ready to fall, the sawyer should give
sufficient warning to buckers or swampers working close to where
felling is being done. If possible, swampers should follow the fellers
at a sufficient distance to be out of danger of trees. In 38 cases, 6 of
which were fatal, men were struck by trees felled by other men, or by
branches knocked down by falling trees.
There were 110 accidents, with no deaths, caused by workmen being
struck by windows, doors, counterweights, etc., and objects falling
down shafts. In no case where accidents were caused by falling win­
dows were the windows provided with sash cords, but simply propped
up with sticks. Sliding doors, it is suggested, should be properly
secured to prevent falling from hangers, since several accidents
were due to the falling of doors of box cars when being opened.
As regards counterweights of all kinds, it is recommended that they
should always be inclosed, and with special reference to counter­
weights on elevators, the order of the commission is that—
Where counterweight runways are located in the elevator shaftway,
the outside must be entirely inclosed with a solid guard. The run­
ways must be entirely inclosed on the inside with a solid guard to a
height of 8 feet from the bottom of the pit and 10 feet down from
the top limit of travel of the car. Where counterweight runways are
located outside of the elevator shaftway they must be entirely
inclosed on all sides with a solid guard.
There were 346 accidents, with no deaths, caused by chips, nails,
and other small objects, with 32 cases involving the loss of one eye,
7 resulting in impaired sight, and 217 resulting in the eyes being
more or less seriously injured. Of all injuries caused by chips, nails,
and other small objects, over 70 per cent affect the eyes of the
workmen. Of this large number and proportion it is estimated that
at least three-fourths could easily be avoided by the wearing of
suitable goggles. As the result of an active propaganda for the
prevention of accidents of this kind, following an extended discussion
of such eye injuries in one of the shop bulletins of the commission,
many Wisconsin plants, within the last year, have required the use
of goggles and eliminated such accidents almost entirely. The com­




93

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

mission, in its bulletin, quotes from a letter received from a large
manufacturing company, as follows—
We take great pleasure in sending you two photographs. One
shows 12 pairs of glasses placed in a box. This box we have placed
conspicuously in our iron-bed foundry as an object lesson. The
other shows 16 pairs. In no instance was an eye even slightly
injured by flying glass where the lens was broken by a flying chip.
The 16 pairs were all broken in service and in addition to these we
have others. We might say that we gathered up 12 pairs over a
period of only 10 days. In addition, the writer has on his desk one of
the side guards removed from a pair of goggles. This guard has a
pellet of iron about the size of a small pea firmly embedded upon the
wire mesh, showing where molten metal struck, and instead of entering
the eye, lodged in the side guard.
ACCIDENTS DUE TO JOINTERS.1

A third group of industrial accidents discussed in some detail by
the Wisconsin Industrial Commission was injuries caused by jointers
in woodworking occupations during a period of 15 months. There
were 77 such accidents, as shown in detail in the table below:
T able 6 2 .—A CC ID E N TS C AU SED B Y JO IN T E R S IN W ISCON SIN D U R IN G 15 M O NTH S.
Fingers cut off.

All
acci­
dents.

Total
fin­
gers
cut
off.

Hand
cut
off.

Four.

Unguarded............................................................
Guarded only with movable slide...................
Guarded with safety head.................................

53
22
2

59
12

1

4

2

9
2

19
8

18
12
2

T otal...........................................................

77

71

1

4

2

11

27

32

T yp e of machine.

Three. Two.

One.

Lacera­
tions
or
abra­
sions. .

The observations of the commission on this class of accidents are,
in part, as follows:
Of all the hazards of the woodworking industry, none is so great
as the old-fashioned square-head jointer or buzz planer. The annual
harvest of fingers and hands in this State alone is appalling. Four
out of every one hundred accidents in this industry occur on jointers.
No other machine on which any number of accidents occurred,
with the exception of corn shredders and feed cutters, has caused so
many permanent disabilities in proportion to the number of acci­
dents. Of the 77 accidents reported, 44, or 57 per cent, resulted in
the loss of one or more fingers. In 1 case the operator had his
entire hand removed. In all, a total of 71 fingers or parts of fingers,
and one hand, were cut off by these machines. In 4 cases 4 fingers
were cut off; in 2 cases, 3 fingers; in 11 cases, 2 fingers, and in 27
cases, 1 finger. All but 2 of these accidents occurred on the square­
headed jointer. In the 2 instances reported, in which the machines
were equipped with safety cylinder heads, the injured person merely
suffered a slight abrasion at the tips of his fingers. Germany has long
since prohibited the use of this old type of “ head.”




1 Industrial Commission of W isconsin, Shop Bulletin No. 1.

94

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Reference is made to an order of the industrial commission aiming
at the prevention of accidents of this kind, which reads that: “ All
hand jointers must be equipped with safety cylinder heads and a
guard must be placed over the knives to protect the hands of the
operator.” The commission observes that if this order had been
complied with very few of the accidents referred to would have
occurred, and that at least 44 persons, they say, would have the use
of their fingers instead of being maimed for life. The cost of installing
the required safety device would average about $50. According to
the compensation payable in certain States for the loss of fingers or
hands, it is pointed out, the amount of money which employers
would have had to pay for the injuries sustained on jointers would
have paid for the installation of new “ heads” on over 300 jointers.
The table shows that 53 of the accidents occurred on machines with­
out any guard or safety device, and in 22 cases the machine had
merely the movable wing, but even this guard without a safety head
furnishes partial protection to the workmen. The efforts of the com­
mission to reduce this class of accidents to the minimum have been
remarkably successful.
ACCIDENTS DUE TO BURNS.1

Still another subject of considerable importance is metal burns
and their prevention. The statistical facts of this group of accidents
have not been reported on in full detail. The hazard is naturally
typical of hot-metal-working industries, particularly foundries, where
there is a considerable risk of serious burns from sparks and splashes
of molten metal. The records of the Industrial Commission of Wis­
consin show that up to April 20, 1913, there have been 311 accidents
of this kind resulting in the disablement of the employee for more
than seven days on account of serious burns from molten metal. The
total number of working days lost was 5,700, which on the basis of a
S3 wage, would amount to a wage loss of §17,000, excluding accidents
resulting in less than eight days’ disablement. Among other details
of interest and importance the commission points out that—
Of the 311 accidents reported, 62, or 20 per cent, occurred while
metal was being poured into molds; 53, or 17 per cent, while molten
metal was being carried in hand ladles; 32, or 11 per cent, because of
stumbling and obstructed passageways; 30, or 10 per cent, while
ladles were being filled at the cupola. Metal explosions caused 19
accidents; 18 were caused by metal running out of molds, and in 12
cases the ladle was defective and the hot metal broke through. The
remaining accidents were due to various other causes; men carrying
ladles bumped into each other, spilling the metal; on tapping the
cupola the sparks of metal burned men standing near; ladles and
crucibles fell from crane hooks and tongs, splashing the contents in all




1 Industrial Commission of W isconsin, Shop Bulletin No. 3.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

95

directions; ladle trucks jumped the tracks, tipping over and spilling
the metal, etc. In over 70 per cent of these accidents described
above the injured persons had one or both feet seriously burned.
"Forty-three cases resulted in injured eyes, one of which caused perma­
nent impairment of sight; 19 cases resulted in burns to the legs, and
26 to other parts of the body.
As a safety protection against accidents of this kind the commission
suggests, on the basis of experience, the adoption of more suitable
clothing for molders and helpers. It therefore recommends that—
All men engaged in handling molten metal should Jbe dressed in
hard cloth (jean) pants and congress or gaiter shoes. These shoes
shed the metal, but in case some should enter the shoe, it can be
removed quickly. Some employers also suggest the wearing of leg­
gings to shed the metal. In one of the largest foundries in the State
accidents were reduced 85 per cent by having the men wear congress
shoes. Several other large foundry departments have installed as a
part of their regular foundry store stock a suitable shoe which is
retailed by the company to its men at cost price. This shoe finds
general favor with foundry workers, especially because of its low
rice. In addition to the special shoes and pants, all molders should
e supplied with glasses to protect their eyes from sparks and splashes.
All hand ladles should be equipped with a hancl shield. This will
protect the molder’s hand from the excessive heat, and will also
guard his hand from possible splashes of metal.
Great care should be used in filling the ladles. In catching the
metal the only correct and safe way is to cut the stream in toward the
furnace. This is less liable to cause the metal to splatter outward
and burn a man’s feet. Ladles should always be property lined—
never higher than the ladle shell— and dried before using. In 12
cases serious burns resulted because the ladle was not properly lined,
and consequently the metal burned through and ran on the injured
person’s feet. Molding sand should be properly tempered. Several
serious explosions occurred because the molds were too damp. All
mashes and gangways in a foundry should be smooth and kept free
from obstructions. Several bad accidents were caused by men stum­
bling over and running into objects piled along the gangways. Too
much care can not be exercised in the handling of molten metal.
Much depends on the carefulness of the men, but by the wearing of
proper clothes and shoes a large percentage of the more serious burns
can be prevented.

E

In concluding their observations on metal burns and their preven­
tion, the commission quotes the experience of a large company located
at Beloit, which in December, 1911, adopted the plan of selling con­
gress shoes to foundrymen at cost. The plan was popular with the
men from the start, and soon resulted in every molder wearing shoes
adapted to his work. At the end of six months the record of acci­
dents showed a decrease of 85 per cent in burns in this particular
foundry, and since the adoption of the plan the company has not had
a serious burn to feet in its establishment.




96

BULLETIN OP THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
EYE INJURIES.1

Eye injuries are of much more serious importance than is generally
assumed. They occasionally result in the permanent incapacity of a
thoroughly competent workman earning substantial wages and pro­
viding for the full support of his family. Subsequent to the acci­
dent such a man not infrequently becomes a burden to society and
an object of pity to his fellow workmen. During the period Septem­
ber 1,1911, to January 1, 1913, there were 366 eye accidents reported
to the Wisconsin commission, including 24 cases in which the sight
of one eye was completely lost; in 7 cases the sight was permanently
impaired; and in the remaining 335 cases the injured person was
disabled for at least 8 days. Approximately 1 out of every 25 acci­
dents in Wisconsin results in an injury to the eye-. The details of this
class of accidents are given in the table below:
T able 6 3 .—A C C ID E N T A L E Y E IN JU R IE S IN W ISC ON SIN , S E P T . 1, 1911, T O JAN . 1,1913.

Cause.

A cid s.........................................................................................................
Belts..........................................................................................................
Chipping...................................................................................................
E lectricity..............................................................................................
E m ery wheels..........................................................................................
E xplosions...............................................................................................
Flying nails.............................................................................................
Machine chips.........................................................................................
Molten metnls..........................................................................................
Power drills.............................................................................................
R ivetin g...................................................................................................
Miscellaneous..........................................................................................
Total...............................................................................................

Loss of
one eye.

Impaired
sight.

1
11

4

4
4

1

1
3
24

Tem po­
rary
injury.

Total.

2

5
2
107
6
50
10
11
44
41
9
8
42

5
3
122
6
50
10
15
49
41
9
9
47

7

335

366

The commission points out that the large majority of these accidents
can be easily prevented. In the experience of the American steel
foundries the adoption of the required protective devices reduced
the frequency of eye accidents to chippers, during three years, about
80 per cent. As regards men employed in chipping by hand, the
commission recommends that—
All employees engaged in this occupation should be furnished with
goggles, and they should be required to wear them. Chipping tools
should also be kept properly dressed. The cut on another page
[not reproduced] shows a large number of eyeglasses and goggles which
were broken by the impact of chips of steel. In all probability
most of these cases would have resulted in serious injury to the eye
of the workmen who wore them.
There were 15 accidents to eyes caused by flying nails, of which 4
involved the complete loss of the sight of one eye. In the experience
of one large concern these accidents were practically eliminated by
corrugating or scoring the heads of hammers, which also served the
purpose of protecting the hand. Another class of operators much
exposed to eye accidents are the men who work on emery or other




1 Industrial Commission of Wisconsin, Shop Bulletin No. 2.

97

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

grinding or polishing wheels. Such accidents can easily be pre­
vented by proper safety precautions. Molders also, as elsewhere
pointed out, are constantly exposed to the risk of eye injuries from
splashes and sparks of molten metal. The use of safety goggles
would have prevented a large number of the accidents reported.
There is the additional liability of serious injury to the eye by
intense heat at blast furnaces. The use of eye and face shields pro­
vided with colored glass lenses should be enforced at all furnaces
for the adequate and certain protection of the employees.
THE DANGER OF SMALL INFECTIONS.1

A large number of minor accidents result in infection, which often
can be prevented only by the earliest possible qualified treatment.
Of the accidents reported to the commission during the two years
ending with September 1, 1913, 721, or 4.8 per cent, resulted in
infection of the injured member. The accidents themselves were,
with few exceptions, trivial, and would have resulted in but a very
few days’ disability each if properly treated. On account of neglect
or indifference, over 12,500 working days were lost, or an average of
17 days per case. In five cases the injuries terminated fatally, and
in four others the injured member had to be amputated to save the
patient’s life. The commission estimates that the compensation and
medical aid in the 721 cases referred to under the present workmen’s
compensation law of Wisconsin would have cost employers about
$40,000. They refer to the experience of several large Wisconsin
manufacturing companies in preventing infection by the proper
handling of all accidents, no matter how slight, and the consequent
practical elimination of serious results. The details of the 721 acci­
dents, in tabular form, are given below:
T able 6 4 .—C AU SES O F A C C ID E N TS R E S U L T IN G IN IN F E C T IO N , W ISC O N S IN , S E P T . 1,
1911, TO S E P T . 1, 1913.
Infected—
Cause.

Fatal
inju­
ries.

1
Nails in floor............................................................
Scratched on sharp objects..................................
2
Cut on sheet m etals...............................................
Handling scrap and castings...............................
Slivers from handling obiects..............................
Hot or corrosive substances................................. 1
_______
Tools..........................................................................
Flying ch ips............................................................
1
Machinery................................................................
Bum ping into objects...........................................
Dropping objects....................................................
1
Objects falling.........................................................
Falling and slipping..............................................
Animals....................................................................
N ot know n...............................................................
Total...............................................................

1
1

Cuts
and
punc­ Bruises. B um s.
tures.

Total.
Eyes.

31
129
57
27
92

1

53

4

511

102

32
131
57
27
93
57
88
48
52
23
29
44
24
4
12

46

721

4

27

1
1

60
14
40
U
12
17
11
2
8

34
7

4
12
16
25
13
2
3

1 Industrial Commission of Wisconsin, Shop Bulletin No. 5.

5S5530—Bull. 157—15----- 7



5

A m pu­
tations.

53

98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In the discussion of this table the commission points out that one
of the greatest sources of infection is nail punctures, and that the
wounds are usually deep and therefore difficult to clean in an anti­
septic manner without qualified assistance. They suggest that the
men should be cautioned always to wear shoes with good soles, and
they refer to the case of a man who died from an infection caused
by stepping on a tack. In continuation of their observations the
commission points out that—
It is also important that all nails and sharp projections be removed
from walls where there is danger of persons scratching themselves.
Scratches of this kind caused 131 of tlie accidents resulting in infec­
tion. In two cases the injury proved fatal. The deceased scratched
themselves on sharp projections and neglected to attend to the wound.
Several bad infection cases were caused when men scratched them­
selves on nails while unpacking boxes and barrels. They had neg­
lected to remove all projecting nails. This is a common practice, and
ought to be stopped. While handling sheet metal, 57 men received
injuries resulting in infection. The sharp edges of the metal make
the danger of cuts very great. All men engaged in the occupation
of handling sheet metal should wear gloves where it is practicable.
Lumber handlers, casting cleaners, and men employed at handling
scrap and other rough objects, should be required to wear gloves. A
special glove is used in the International Harvester Works and other
large plants, and has been found very successful in preventing cuts
and lacerations. Ninety-three men alone were laid up for more than
seven days each as the result of running slivers into their fingers.
The wearing of gloves would have prevented most of these injuries.
In continuation of their observations on the causes of infection
from accidents and its prevention, the commission states that in con­
nection with the use of tools there were 88 cases of infection, and
that hammers glancing off caused 12 of these cases. It therefore rec­
ommends that, oi? all rough work, hammers with corrugated heads
should be used; and it further suggests that all shovels, picks, and
other tools should have smooth handles and should be free from
slivers. Recognizing the importance of immediate and qualified
treatment, the commission concludes its recommendations as follows:
Many of the larger plants in the State have a plant hospital with a
doctor or nurse in constant attendance for the treatment of injuries.
Where this is not the case, a separate room should be set aside, if pos­
sible, where injuries can be treated. In small plants a corner of a
room may be used. In every plant a “ first-aid*' kit should be kept.
This should contain the necessary medicines and appliances for firstaid treatment, and should be in charge of some foreman or superin­
tendent. About the plant should be posted notices to the effect that
all injuries, no matter how slight, must be reported at once and be
given proper treatment. The main difficulty in first-aid work is to
get the men to have all injuries treated immediately.
Wounds heal very fast if they are clean. “ Clean” means clean
from germs as w ell as dirt. The best way to prevent blood poison
T



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

99

is: Clean the wound at once with a good disinfectant. Be sure to
wash into the wound itself. Don’ t be afraid of bleeding, as the
bandage will stop that. In no case should men be alknvecl to keep
on working with an unbandaged injured member. All foremen
should be responsible for the reporting of injuries by men under
them.
It is a common practice in many plants to allow workmen or fore­
men to remove foreign matter from eyes. This is a bad practice
and ought to be prohibited. One large steel company testifies that
250 men have lost their eyesight by permitting other workmen to
remove foreign bodies from their eyes. The loss of sight in these
cases resulted from perforation of the cornea; the transmission of
infection by finger nails, or other means, resulting in corneal ulcers,
forming large scars. The experience of this one company teaches
that workmen should be instructed never to allow anyone but a
doctor to remove a particle from the eye.
ACCIDENTS DUE TO CORN SHREDDERS, HUSKERS AND FEED CUTTERS.*

The last group of industrial accidents considered in detail by the
Industrial Commission of Wisconsin is farm accidents on corn shred­
ders and huskers and feed cutters. During the year 1911, 94 farmers
in the State of Wisconsin were seriously injured on corn shredders,
corn huskers, and feed cutters, resulting in 4 deaths, in 6 cases the loss
of an arm, and in 21 cases the loss of a hand. The commission esti­
mates the economic loss resulting from these and other injuries within
the group at $307,000. Special information was secured in regard to
the nature, cause, and possible prevention, of 19 accidents reported
on in detail. The investigation convinced the commission that all
of the old-style machines could and should be equipped with self-feeds
and safety levers. The details of corn husker and shredder acci­
dents are given in the table following.
i The subject of accidents on the farm is of m uch greater importance than generally assumed. The
exposure to the accident risk is practically continuous on the farm, and modern machinery as well as the
increasing use of blasting in connection with the removal of stumps, etc., has introduced new dangers,
which, as a rule, are inadequately provided for b y proper safety precautions. Farm accidents are less
likely to be accurately reported than accidents in industry. The following is an interesting illustration
of the risks in agriculture not generally recognized:
“ A recent fatal accident in Ohio calls attention to a danger to farmers which can not be too widely cir­
culated. Since 1875, when the first American silo was built b y Dr. Manly Miles, this m ethod o f preserving
forage for live stock has been generally adopted. A lthough the Department o f Agriculture has frequently
called attention to the danger of carbon dioxid gas accumulating in silos under certain conditions, no
fatalities have been reported heretofore. On the morning of September 19, four workmen on the farm of
the Athens (Ohio) State Hospital, ascended the ladder on the outside o f a silo to an open door about 12
feet from the top and jum ped down one after another on to the silage, the top o f which was about 6 feet
below the door. A bou t five minutes after, two other workmen following them found them unconscious.
Although a large force of workmen were immediately summoned and the bodies o f the four men removed
at once through a lower door, the physicians of the hospital who were at once on the ground were unable
to resuscitate any of the four men. E vidently the carbon dioxid gas had accumulated during the night,
filling the silo up to the level of the door and forming a layer of carbon dioxid gas 6 feet deep. Such acci­
dents m ight easily be repeated on any m odem farm. Agricultural journals should call the attention of the
farmers to this danger and should urge that silos be carefully ventilated before being entered.” —[Press
bulletin, American Medical Association, Oct. 31, 1914. This editorial was based upon facts originally
reported in the M onthly Bulletin, Ohio State Board of Health, Oct. 9,1914, p . 1436.]




100
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
6 5 .—ACC IDE N TS CAU SED B Y C ORN H U S K E R S A N D S H R E D D E R S IN W ISC O N ­
SIN , 1911.

Loss of—
Part of machine.

Fatal
inju­
ries.

Chain..........................
Cutter.........................
1
H o o d ..........................
Delivery p ip e............
Gears..........................
Husker.......................
Iron throw -off______
R olls...........................
B low er........................
Not ffiven...................!..............
T otal................

1

Arm .

Hand.

Fracture of—
F in­
gers.

6

9
3

6

16

Lacera­
Bruises. Total.
tions.
Thumb.

1

2
2
1
1
9
1
1
29
1
12

1

............. !..............1
..............1
..............
............. !..............1
............ i..............
_____
! .
6 i_______ 1
!
!
I
!
i .............
I
ii
1
i........;..j
i
7 i
i
i
1
25

According to the table there were 59
Accidents at rolls numbered 29, or 49.2
6 accidents involving the loss of an
feed, ensilage, and silo cutter accidents
T a b l e 6 6 . — ACC IDE N TS

Fin­
gers.

1

1
2
1

Skull.

1
1
3
1
7

1

59

accidents, including 1 fatality.
per cent of the total, including
arm. Information regarding
is given in the table following:

C AU SED B Y F E E D , E N S IL A G E , A N D SILO C U T T E R S IN W ISCON ­
SIN , 1911.

Loss of—
Part of machine.

Fatal
injuries.
Hand.

Fingers.

Frac­
tures of
fingers.

Lacera­
tions.

1

Blowers...............................................................
B urrs..................................................................
Gears
.............................................................
Knives
......................................................
Pulleys...............................................................

Total ......................................................

3
4

2

1
3

1
1

1

N ot given...........................................................

Total.

1
4

1

6

1
1
8
9
1
1
14

5

12

1

14

35

1

!
!
I

1
3
4

On the basis of the statistical data and the special investigations
following, the commission recommends the adoption of the following
eight rules:

1. Never use the hands to unclog the rolls—use a stick or stop the machine. Eight
men were caught in the rolls because they tried to unclog them with their hands.
2. Every husker should be equipped with a self-feed—either an apron or gravity
self-feed—so the feeder will not have to stand within reach of the rolls. Fifteen arms
and hands were lost because self-feeds had not been provided.
3. Every husker and shredder on which it is possible for the feeder to get caught in
the rolls should be provided with a safety lever so attached that the feeder’s body
will strike it if his hands are caught in the rolls. Efficient safety levers would have
prevented eight accidents.
4. It is always dangerous for the feeder to cut bands while standing within reach of
the snapping rolls, especially if the knife is tied to the wrist.
5. The footboard should always be kept free from ice or snow. Two hands were
lost because the feeders slipped on icy footboards.



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

101

6. Every gear can be covered so as to make it impossible for fingers to get caught.
Don't buy a machine with uncovered gears. Nine men are one-handed because of
exposed gears.
7. Every sprocket should be covered at the point where the chain runs onto it.
Hands and fingers are liable to injury at this point.
8. Belts are dangerous and should be guarded, especially at the point where they
run onto the pulley. Hundreds of workers in the various industries can testify to
this statement.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN THE MINERAL INDUSTRIES,

Mining is probably one of the best illustrations of an industry
subject to an inherent accident liability, or of conditions giving rise to
bodily injuries largely beyond the control of either the employer or
the employee. At the same time no industry better emphasizes the
possibilities of rational and even drastic methods of accident preven­
tion, particularly in the direction of minor casualties and of accidents
resulting in the loss of a single life. It requires only to be pointed
out that the average fatality rate in coal mining in the United States
during the five years ending with 1912 was 3.71 per 1,000, in com­
parison with a rate of 1.36 for the United Kingdom, 1.02 for Belgium,
2.25 for Prussia, and 1.15 for Austria. The excessive frequency of
fatal accidents in the mineral industries of the United States can not
be attributed to inherently more dangerous conditions, for, on the
contrary, there are strong reasons for believing that these conditions
are often decidedly less satisfactory in certain foreign countries where
mining has been carried on for a longer period of time than in this
country, or where, on the average, lower depths have been reached,
or where the geological formations involve more serious technical
problems than in this country. The necessity for a national interest
in the problem of accident prevention in the mineral industries is
best emphasized in the program of the First National Mine Safety
Demonstration, under the auspices of the United States Bureau of
Mines, the American National Red Cross, and the Pittsburgh Coal
Operators’ Association, held in Pittsburgh, October 30-31, 1911. A
full report regarding this remarkable national gathering has been
published by the Bureau of Mines, with an instructive chapter on the
explosion at the experimental mine for the purpose of visualizing to
those present the supreme importance of guarding against the
extreme danger of coal-dust explosions, by the use of permissible
explosives on the one hand and by recognized methods of mechanical
prevention on the other. Since the organization of the Bureau of
Mines, in 1910, an increasing amount of attention has been given to
the subject of accident prevention on the basis of educational efforts
among employees and the development of first-aid organizations in
cooperation with the mine-rescue crews of the Bureau of Mines and
the use of mine-rescue breathing apparatus, of which a large number
have since been installed in coal and metal mines throughout, the



102

BULLETIN OF THE BUBiLUI OF LABOR STATISTICS.

United States. Mention, may be made of a primer on explosives for
coal miners, a report on safety and efficiency in mine tunneling,
a technical paper on training with mine-rescue breathing apparatus,
a series of circulars on accidents from mine-car locomotives, accidents
from falls of roof and coal, electrical accidents in mines, safety
electrical switches, inflammable gases in mine air, mine fires, etc., as
concrete illustrations of the practical nature of the efforts made on
the part of the Bureau of Mines to reach the miner as well as the
mine owner in an effort to eliminate the causes and control the con­
ditions responsible for a considerable loss of life and physical injury
in the mineral industries of the United States at the present time.
The following discussion of accidents in mining is limited to the
essentials of a national safety problem of direct importance to more
than one million persons employed in the mineral industries, and to
their dependents. For several years bulletins have been published
annually by the United States Bureau of Mines on accidents in coal
mines, metal mines, and quarries, of which the following is a brief
summary for the year 1912:
T able

6 7 .—F A T A L A C C ID E N TS IN T H E M IN ES A N D Q U A R R IE S OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S
D U R IN G 1912.
[Source: Metal-mine Accidents in the U nited States, 1912, Bureau of Mines.]

Number killed.
K ind of mine.

Number em­
ployed.
Total.

Per 1,000 em­
ployed.

Metal m ines..........................................................................................
Coal m ines.............................................................................................
Q uarries................................................................................................

109,199
722,602
113,105

661
2,360
213

3.91
3.27
1.88

Total............................................................................................

1,004,960

3,234

3.22

The important fact is disclosed by this comparison that 3,234 men
were killed in and about mines and quarries during the year 1912,
or, on the basis of the number employed, the fatality rate was 3.22
per 1,000. The rate wa3 highest for metal mines, or 3.91 per 1,000,
in comparison with a rate of only 1.53 for Great Britain, 1.51 for Ger­
many, and 1.76 for Japan.
The rate for the Transvaal, however, is still higher, or 4.14 per
1,000, largely, no doubt, in consequence of the fact that the mining
industries in that country are carried on under physical and labor
conditions quite similar to those of the United States. As observed
by Mr. Albert H. Fay, in his report1 on metal-mining accidents in
the United States for the calendar year 1912—
Both countries are comparatively new; English is spoken in both;
and both employ much foreign labor. The Transvaal field employs




1Technical Paper Cl, Bureau of Mines, Washington, 1913.

103

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

more than 150,000 Kaffirs, who come from the uncivilized or the
grazing and agricultural districts of Africa. They can neither speak
nor understand the language of their superiors, they know nothing
about machinery, and they do nqt realize the dangers of mining.
A large percentage of the miners of the United States come from the
agricultural districts of southern Europe. They do not understand
the language of the country, they have practically no knowledge of
machinery, and do not realize the dangers of electricity, explosives,
etc. Some may pretend, often with disastrous results, to understand
orders given by their superiors.
The validity of the comparative method in international mine
accident statistics has been seriously called into question. Few
industries are more liable to abnormal conditions of employment, as
best illustrated in the statement that the average number of days’
work in American coal mines during 1912 was only 225 (for metal
mines the average number of days’ work was 287). Since the acci­
dent rate, as elsewhere discussed, to be strictly comparable should be
reduced to a standard working year of 300 days’ labor of 10 hours
each, it is self-evident that the true hazard in mining can be disclosed
only by corrected fatality and injury rates calculated on a basis of
standard conditions of employment. The subject is fully discussed
by Mr. Fay in Technical Paper 61 of the United States Bureau of
Mines, in which it is pointed out that gross errors are likely to occur
in the calculation of fatality rates on the basis of the average number
employed, without reference to the actual days of employment dur­
ing the year. The practical importance of such a correction is
brought out in the following comparison for the year 1912, derived
from the report of the United States Bureau of Mines on metal-mine
accidents for that year:
T a b l e 6 8 . — C O M PA R IS O N

OF F A T A L I T Y R A T E S IN C O A L A N D M E T A L M IN IN G ON T H E
B A SIS O F T H E A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F M E N E M P L O Y E D , A N D T H E E Q U IV A L E N T OF
300-DAY W O R K E R S , D U R IN G 1912.
[Source: Metal-mine Accidents in the United States, 1912, Bureau of Mines.]
Num ber killed.
Basis of figures.

Number em­
ployed.
Total.

Metal mines:
Average number em ployed........................................................
Number of 300-day workers.......................................................
Coal mines:
Average number em ployed........................................................
Number of 300-day workers.......................................................

Per 1,000 em­
ployed.

169,199
161,661

661
661

3.91
4.09

722,662
541,776

2,360
2,360

3.27
4.36

It is shown by this comparison that the fatality rates are sub­
stantially changed when reduced to a standard basis of 300-day
workers. For both classes of miners the rates are increased, but the
increase in fatality rate is decidedly greater in the case of persons em­
ployed in coal mining, for whereas the fatality rate in metal mines



104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

during 1912 was 3.91 per 1,000 employed, and for coal mines 3.27, or
0.64 less per 1,000; on the corrected basis of calculation the re­
spective rates are shown to be 4.09 per 1,000 for metal miners,
against 4.36 for coal miners, or 0.27 more per 1,000. This change is
the result of the important fact that metal miners worked on an aver­
age 287 days during 1912, as compared with only 225 days for coal
miners. They were, therefore, during the year, exposed to the risk of
mining 62 days longer than were the coal miners, and in fairness to
the industry it is only proper, aside from the general requirements
for scientific exactitude, that the rates should be calculated on a
standard basis of 300 working days.
The following table will further illustrate the practical importance of
making statistical corrections for the actual working time. The figures
for 1896 to 1911 are derived from the report by Mr. Frederick W.
Horton on Coal-mine Accidents in the United States and Foreign
Countries, published by the United States Bureau of Mines, in 1913,
and the figures for 1912 and 1913 are taken from the Monthly State­
ment of Coal-mine Fatalities in the United States, December, 1913,
U. S. Bureau of Mines:
T able 6 9 .— F A T A L

A C C ID E N TS IN C O A L M IN IN G IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S , 1896 TO 1913.

Fatality rates.
Year.

1896......................................................................
1897......................................................................
1898......................................................................
1899......................................................................
1900....................................... ..............................
1901......................................................................
1902......................................................................
1903......................................................................
1901......................................................................
1905......................................................................
1906.......................................................................
1907..
.................................................
1908......................................................................
1909......................................................................
1910......................................................................
1911......................................................................
1912...................................................... ...............
1913..
.......................................

Number
employed.

383,258
3S5,846
391,841
396,624
432,453
476,655
510,437
547,431
573,373
615,628
631,086
655,418
672, 794
666,523
725,030
728,348
722,662
2 728,355

1 Estimated; no official figures available.

Days
worked.

Number
killed.

185
179
190
214
212
216
197
220
202
212
209
231
195
225
220
220
225

2 Estimated.

1,089
975
1,064
1,216
1,492
1,549
1,895
1,752
2,004
2,232
2,116
3,197
2,449
2,668
2,840
2,719
2,360
2,785

Per 1,000
employed.

Per 1,000
employed
300 days
per annum.

2.84
2.53
2.72
3.07
3.45
3.25
3. 71
3.20
3.50
3.63
3.35
4.88
3.64
4.00
3.92
3.73
3.27
3.82

4.61
4.23
4.29
4. 30
4.88
4. 51
5. 65
4.36
5.19
5.13
4.81
6.33
5.60
5.34
5. 34
5.09
4.36
4.70

Subject to revision.

The necessity for correction on account of working time becomes
essential in an international comparison, for which unfortunately the
required data for such correction are often wanting. It has been
pointed out b y Mr. Horton that it would manifestly be unfair to
make a comparison of the coal-mining industries in Belgium and in
the United States on the average number employed. First, because




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

105

in Belgium the coal mines are operated about 80 days more per
annum than in the United States; and second, because the American
coal miner produces about five times as much coal in a day, and 011
account of his greater speed of work he is naturally subjected to a
greater personal risk. The second factor, however, can not be taken
into account in the calculation of fatality rates, but the difference in
operating methods is referred to as an additional illustration of the
need for extreme caution in comparing international accident statistics
without regard to special conditions affecting the employment. Grant­
ing these objections to the noncritical use of crude data, it may safely
be assumed, however, that in a general way the rates based on the
average number employed, when calculated by uniform and trust­
worthy methods, measure approximately the occupation hazard; and
in this connection it may be stated that in comparison with the
average fatality rate in the coal-mining industry of the United States
for the 10-year period 1901 to 1910 of 3.74 per 1,000 employed,
the corresponding rate for Japan was 2.92, for Germany 2.11, for
New South Wales 1.74, for France 1.69, for Great Britain 1.36, for
Austria 1.04, and for Belgium 1.02. When correction is made for
the differences in working time, it is shown by the calculations of
Mr. Horton that the fatality rate in coal mining for the decade end­
ing with 1910 was for the United States 5.26 per 1,000 employed, on
the basis of a year of 300 working days, against only 1.76 for France
and 1.04 for Belgium. Mr. Horton points out in this connection,
however, that the average production of short tons per man per day
was 3.01 for the United States, 0.76 for France, and 0.62 for Belgium,
but it would seem to be a wrongful use of the statistical method to
employ this factor of production in a calculation of fatality rates, or,
in other words, determine the relative frequency of accidents on the
basis of equal daily production per man employed. In this country
coal-mining machinery is much more extensively used than in foreign
countries, but how far this factor in precise correlation to the daily
amount of coal produced per man affects the fatality rate can not be
determined.
The causes of coal-mining accidents are numerous and varied.
The table following exhibits in full detail the causes of 2,360 fatal
accidents in American coal mines during 1912, together with the per­
centage distribution, which is generally more useful for practical
purposes in connection with efforts in the direction of mine safety
than the corresponding rate per 10,000 employed. For the purpose
of an exact comparison, however, as regards the underlying causes
responsible for mine fatalities, the rate per 10,000 employed, even
without correction for working time, is to be preferred.




106

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

T able 7 0 .—CAU SES O F F A T A L C O A L -M IX IX G A CC ID E N TS I X T H E U X IT E D S T A T E S , 1912.

Cause of accident.

Number
killed.1

Per cent Rate per
of total.1 10 000 em­
ployed. 2

UNDERGROUND ACCIDENTS.
Falls of roof (coal, rock, e tc .) ...........................................................................................
Falls of coal (other than roof coa l)........................................................................
Mine cars and locom otives......................................................................................
Gas explosions and burning gas.............................................................................
Coal-dust explosions............. ....................................................................................
F.xplosinns of
dnst and pns toother .
..
.......... ....... ...................
Explosives (includes premature blasts, explosion o f misfires, suffocation
b y gases from explosives, e tc.)...........................................................................
Siif¥nr.fl.t.ion from mine pasps , . ..................................... t____________________
Electribity (shocks, or b u rn s)...............................................................................
Animals___________________
--___ - ______________ ______ _
Mining machines.......................................................................................................
Machines other than locom otives and mining machines.................................
Mine fires (burned, suffocated, etc.).....................................................................
Other causes...............................................................................................................

972
179
362
164
30
107

41.19
7.58
15.34
6.95
1.27
4.53

16.17
2. 98
6. 02
2. 73
.50
1.78

133
10
76
7
10
4
11
54

5. 64
. 42
3.22
.30
.42
. 17
. 47
2.29

2. 21
. 17
. 26
. 12
. 17
.07
. 18
.90

Total..................................................................................................................

2,119

89. 79

35. 25

Falling down shafts or slopes.................................................................................
Objects falling down shafts or slopes....................................................................
Breaking of cables, chains, etc...............................................................................
Overwinding..............................................................................................................
Other causes...............................................................................................................

2S
5
2
2
17

1.19
.22
.08
.08
.72

.47
.08
.03
. 03
.28

T otal..................................................................................................................

54

2.29

.90

68
9
30
1
14
65

2.88
.38
1.27
.04
.59
2.76

5.55
.74
2.45
.08
1.14
5.31

1

SHAFT ACCIDENTS.

SURFACE ACCIDENTS.
Mine cars and mine locom otives............................................................................
Electricity (shocks, or b u r n s )...............................................................................
Machinery...................................................................................................................
Boiler explosions.......................................................................................................
Railway cars and locom otives................................................................................
Other causes................................................................................................................
T otal..................................................................................................................

1S7

7.92

15.27

Grand total.......................................................................................................

2,360

100.00

32. 66

1 Source: Coal-mine Accidents in the United States, 1S9G-1912, United States Bureau of Mines.
2 Computed.

Of all the fatalities in coal mining, 89.79 per cent occurred under­
ground. Of the total, 41.19 per cent were caused by falls of roof
(coal, rock, etc.), and 7.58 per cent additional by falls of coal other
than roof coal. The next most important cause of mine accidents
was mine cars and locomotives, responsible for 15.34 per cent of the
total, followed by gas explosions and burning gas, accountable for
6.95 per cent. Coal-dust explosions during the year accounted for only
1.27 per cent of the accidentsfrom all causes, and explosions of coal dust
and gas combined, but exclusive of coal-dust explosions separately
considered, account for 4.53 per cent. Probably no industry is so
subject to. exceptional hazards as coal mining unless it be the manu­
facture of explosives, with regard to which trustworthy American data
are not available at the present time. The considerable range in the
fatality rate in coal mining, as determined by the occurrence of gas
or dust explosions of exceptional violence, is well shown by the fol­
lowing table on coal-mine disasters in the United States since 1869 in
which 100 or more persons lost their lives.



107

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T a b l e 7 1 . — CO A L-M IN E

D IS A S T E R S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S IN W H IC H 100 OR M O RE
M E N W E R E K I L L E D , 1869 TO 1914.

[Source: Figures for 1869 to 1911 from Coal-mine Accidents in the United States, 189G-1912, Bureau of
Mines; for 1913 and 1914 from Coal-mine Fatalities in the United States, April, 1914, Bureau of Mines.]
Number
killed.

Date.

Location of mine.

Nature o f accident.

Sept. 6,1869.........................
Mar. 13,1884........................
Jan. 27,1891.........................
Jan. 7,1892..........................
May 1,1900..........................
May 19,1902........................
July 10,1902.......................
June 30,1903........................
Jan. 25,1904........................
F eb. 20,1905........................
D ec. 6,1907..........................
Dec. 19,1907........................
N ov. 28,1908..................
N ov. 13,1909.......................
Apr. 8,1911..........................
Oct. 22,1913........................
A pr. 28,1914........................

Plym outh, P a .........................
Pocahontas, V a .......................
Mount Pleasant, P a ...............
Krebs, Okla..............................
Scofield, U tah..........................
Coal Creek, Tenn....................
Johnstown, P a ........................
Hanna, W y o ............................
Cheswick, P a ...........................
Virginia City, A la...................
Monongah, W . V a ..................
Jacobs Creek, P a .....................
Marianna, P a ..........................
Cherry, 111................................
Littleton, A la ..........................
Dawson, N. M ex.....................
Eccles, W . V a..........................

Mine fire..............................................
Mine explosion...................................
........d o ...................................................
........d o ...................................................
Powder and mine explosion............
Mine explosion...................................
........d o ....................................................
Mine explosion and fire....................
Mine explosion...................................
........d o ....................................................
........d o ....................................................
........d o ...................................................
........d o ....................................................
Mine fire..............................................
Mine explosion...................................
........d o ...................................................
........d o ...................................................

179
112
109
100
200
184
112
169
179
108
351
239
154
256
128
263
180

Statistics of metal-mine accidents have been collected by the United
States Bureau of Mines for comparatively recent years only. For cer­
tain States the data are available for longer periods, but they are of
rather limited usefulness for comparative purposes. The table fol­
lowing exhibits the facts for the two years 1911 and 1912 as returned
in the special report of the United States Bureau of Mines on metalmine accidents for the calendar year 1912:
T able 7 2 .— F A T A L IT Y

R A T E S IN M E T A L (A N D M IS C E L L A N E O U S M IN E R A L ) M IN E S OF
T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S ON T H E B A S IS OF T H E A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F M EN EM ­
P L O Y E D , A N D T H E E Q U IV A L E N T OF 30C-DAY W O R K E R S , 1911 A N D 1912.
[Source: Metal-mine Accidents in the U nited States, 1912, Bureau of Mines.]
1912

1911
N um ber killed.
Basis of figures.

Average number em ployed............................
Number of 300-day workers...........................

Number
em­
ployed.

165,979
156,088

Total.

695
695

Per
1,000 em­
ployed.
4.19
4.45

N um ber killed.
N umber
em­
ployed.

169,199
161,661

Total.

661
661

Per
1,000 em­
ployed.
3.91
4.09

The returns for metal mines include the statistics of the seriously
and the slightly injured. For the year 1912 the fatality rate of acci­
dents occurring underground (including shaft accidents) was 4.74 per
1,000, and above ground 2.35, or for both classes of employees com­
bined, 3.91. The number seriously injured was 31.32 per 1,000 under­
ground, 17.84 per 1,000 on the surface, and 26.61 for both classes of
employees combined. The numbers slightly injured were 194.56 per
1,000 underground, 81.48 per 1,000 on the surface, and 155.04 for both
classes combined.



108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

With reference to the definition of the term “ serious and slight
injuries, ” it is stated in the bulletins referred to that a serious acci­
dent was considered to be one disabling a man and keeping him from
work for “ 20 days or more.” This class of injuries includes broken
arms and legs, the loss of an eye or eyes, and severe cuts and bruises.
A slight injury is considered as one involving loss of time of “ not less
than 1 day nor more than 20 days.” Under this group of injuries
are classified cuts, sprains, mashed fingers, bruises, slight burns,
effect of powder smoke, etc. It is observed, however, that any slight
injury may become infected, and thus result in a serious accident, as
previously defined. In an interesting discussion of the technical
difficulties regarding the required scientific methods of classification
according to the degree of injury, it is pointed out by Mr. A. H. F ay1
that—
In the tabulation of the serious and slight injuries, it has been found
advisable to change the grouping slightly from that used in 1911. This
change is due to the irregular manner in which these classes of injuries are
reported. In some States there is no law whatever requiring a record
of injuries or a report to any industrial or insurance board, commis­
sioner of labor, or inspector, whereas in other States strict laws govern
this feature. In those States where there are such laws the majority
of the mining companies keep excellent records from which reports
for the Bureau of Mines are compiled, and it is in these States that
the injury ratio in many cases is very high. Unless all States report
on the same basis, just comparisons can not be made.
In maldng comparisons of serious and slight injuries in the various
States, it is necessary to take into account some of the features of
the law governing the report of such injuries. One State may report
fatal and serious injuries only, but without defining a “ serious injury,”
and require no reports for"slight injuries. One State may require
reports of all fatalities and injuries incapacitating the employee for
one week; others may specify the reporting of accidents causing dis­
abilities ranging from 1 to 14 days. Thus one State may report,
perhaps, only 25 per cent as many injuries as some other States in
which the mining industry is of no greater magnitude. A t first
glance it would appear that mining is much safer in the former State
than in any of the latter, but this, however, is a wrong conclusion.
The major difference is largely a matter of recording and reporting
the serious and slight injuries.
The table following shows the causes of fatal, serious, and slight
accidents in metal (and miscellaneous mineral) mines in the United
States during the calendar year 1912, together with the percentage
distribution of such accidents and the rate per 10,000 employed.




^.Technical Paper 40, Bureau of Mines, 1913.

109

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

N U M B E R A N D P E R C EN T O F M EN K IL L E D A N D IN J U R E D IN A N D A B O U T
M E T A L (A N D M IS C E L L A N E O U S M IN E R A L ) M IN E S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S A N D
R A T E P E R 10,000 E M P L O Y E D , B Y CAU SES, 1912.

T able 7 3 .—

Fatally injured.

Cause.

Num­
ber.1

Seriously injured.

Slightly injured.

Rate
Rate
Rate
Per
Per
Per
per
per
per
N um ­
N um ­ cent
cent
10,000 ber.1 cent
10,000 ber.1
10,000
of
of
of
em­
em ­
em­
total.1
total.1
total.1
ployed.2
ployed.2
ployed.2

U N DERGROUND ACCIDENTS.

Fall of rock or ore from roof or w all.
R ock or ore while loading at work­
ing face..............................................
Tim ber or hand tools........................
E xplosives...........................................
Hauling accidents..............................
Falling dow n chute, winze, raise,
or s to p e ............................................
R un of ore from chute or p o c k e t...
Drilling accidents...............................
E lectricity............................................
Machinery (not including locomo­
tives or d rills).................................
Mine fires..............................................
Suffocation from natural gases........
Inrush of water...................................
Stepping on nail.................................
Other causes.................................

212

32.10

19.26

1,102

24.48

100.13

5,882

22.42

534.46

2
6
73
35

.30
.90
11.04
5.29

.18
.54
6.63
3.18

261
313
153
579

5.80
6.95
3.40
12.86

23.72
28.44
13. 90
52.61

2,873
2,543
246
2,732

10.95
9.70
.94
10.41

261.04
231.06
22.35
248.24

43
10
2
19

6.50
1.51
.30
2.87

3.91
.91
.18
1.73

201
113
203
7

4.46
2.51
4.51
.16

18.26
10.27
18.45
.64

740
928
1,410
32

2.82
3.54
5.38
.12

67.24
84.32
128.12
2.91

2
1
4
5

.30
.15
.61
.76

.18
.09
.36
45.

8

1.21

.73

51
1
5
3
9
269

1.13
.02
.11
.07
.20
5.97

4.63
.09
.45
.27
.82
24.44

420
11
30
7
232
2,723

1.60
.04
.11
.03
.89
10.38

38.16
.99
2.73
.64
21.08
247.42

Total..........................................

422

63.84

38.34

3,270

72.63

297.12 20,809

79.33 1,890.76

SHAFT ACCIDENTS.

Falling dow n shafts.........................
Objects falling dow n shafts..............
Breaking of cables..............................
Overwinding...................................
Skip or cage.........................................
Other causes......................................

40
12
2

6.05
1.82
.30

3.64
1.09
.18

35
50
3

.78
1.11
.07

3.18
4.54
.27
6. 45
1.64

69
228
3
5
174
125

.26
.87
.01
.02
.66
.48

6.27
20.72
.27
.45
15.81
11.36

37
9

5.60
1.36

3.36
.82

71
18

1.57
.40

T otal..........................................

100

15.13

9.09

177

3.93

16.08

604

2.30

54.88

Mine cars or mine locom otives........
R ailway cars and locom otives........
R u n or fall o f ore in or from ore bins.
E lectricity............................................
Machinery............................................
Other causes........................................

6
5
2
5
11
30

.91
.76
.30
.76
1.66
4.54

1.01
.85
.34
.85
1.86
5.07

32
27
19
4
104
279

.71
.60
.42
.09
2.31
6.20

5.41
4.56
3.21
.68
17.58
47.17

138
52
101
25
369
1,525

.53
.20
.38
.09
1.41
5.81

23.33
8.79
17.08
4.23
62.39
257.85

T otal..........................................

59

8.93

9.98

465

10.33

78.61

2,210

8.42

373.67

Falls or slides of rock or ore.............
E xplosives...........................................
Haulage accidents..............................
Steam shovels.....................................
Falls of persons...................................
Falls of derricks, boom s, e tc ___ . . .
R u n or fall of ore in or from ore bins
Machinery (other than locomotives
or steam shovels)...........................
E lectricity...........................................
H and tools...........................................
Other causes........................................

16
21
20
4
3
2

2.42
3.17
3.03
.61
.45
.30

2.71
3.55
3.38
.68
.51
.34

124
54
77
70
46
13
1

2.751.20
1.71
1.55
1.02
.29
.02

20.97
9.13
13.02
11.84
7.78
2.19
.17

433
120
301
238
285
35
8

1.65
.46
1.15
.91
1.08
.13
.03

73.21
20.29
50.89
40.24
48.19
5.92
1.35

6
1

.91
.15

1.01
.17

25
6
45
129

.56
.14
1.00
2.87

4.23
1.01
7.61
21. 81

147
7
330
705

.56
.03
1.26
2.69

24.86
1.18
55.79
119.20

7

1.06

1.18

Total..........................................

80

12.10

13.53

661 100.00

39.06

590

13.11

99.76

2,609

9.95

441.13

SURFACE ACCIDENTS.

SURFACE (W H E R E SURFACE MINING
IS D O N E ).

Grand total...............................

4,502 100.00

266.08 26,232 100.00 1,550.36

1 Source: Metal-mine Accidents in the U nited States, 1912, Bureau of Mines.




2 Computed.

110

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

This analysis is of unusual interest in that as far as known a cor­
responding statement has not heretofore been published for the
American metal-mining industry considered as a whole. The analysis
includes 661 deaths, 4,502 serious injuries, and 26,232 slight injuries.
Statistics of accidents in quarries have been compiled by the
United States Bureau of Mines1 for only the three years 1911 to
1913. The table following will show the number employed, the
number killed, and the rate per 1,000 employed for each of the
three years and for the three years combined:
T able

7-4.—N U M B E R O F M E N E M P L O Y E D A N D N U M B E R K IL L E D IN A N D A B O U T A L L
Q U A R R IE S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S , 1911, 1912, A N D 1913.
Num ber killed.
Number
em ployed.

Year.

Per 1,000
em ployed.

Total.

1911..................................................................................................
1912..................................................................................................
1913......................................... ........................................................

110,954
113,105
106,278

188
213
183

1.69
1.88
1. 72

Average, 3 years.................................................................

110,112

195

1.77

According to this table the average fatality rate per 1,000 employed
was 1.77, which compares with a rate for the corresponding period of
3.58 for coal mines and 3.86 for metal mines. The average number
of days worked in quarries during 1913 was 246. If the required
correction is made for differences in working time, it appears that
the fatality rate per 1,000 of 300-day workers for the year 1913 was
2.10 for quarries, 3.72 for metal mines, and 4.70 for coal mines.
The returns are available for quarries regarding serious and minor
accidents, and for the year 1913 the results are briefly summarized
as follows: The fatality rate per 1,000 employed inside the quarries
was 1.84, and outside, 1.43, or for both groups combined, 1.72.
The serious-injury rate was 10.85 per 1,000 employed inside, 8.87
outside, and 10.28 for both groups of employees combined. The
slight-injury rate was 71.62 per 1,000 employed inside, 40.40 for
persons outside, and 62.55 for both groups combined. The rates
varied considerably according to the kind of quarry, in much the
same manner as material variations are met with in metal mining
according to the product mined. The statistical bulletins of the
United States Bureau of Mines should be consulted for additional
details.
The causes of accidents in quarries are less varied than in coal
and metal mining. They are briefly summarized in the table follow­
ing, according to the degree of injury— whether fatal, serious, or
slight. This table is based upon 183 fatal accidents, 1,092 serious
injuries, and 6,647 minor accidents.




1 Technical Paper 92, Bureau of Mines.

I ll

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

7 5 .—N U M B E R A N D P E R C EN T OF M E N K IL L E D A N D IN JU R E D IN A N D A B O U T
Q U A R R IE S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S A N D R A T E P E R 10,000 E M P L O Y E D , B Y CAU SES,
1913.

T able

Fatally injured.

Cause.

IN

Num ­
bers

Seriously injured.

Slightly injured.

Rate
Rate
Rate
Per
per
Per
per
Per
per
cent 10,000 N um ­ cent 10,000 N um ­ cent 10,000
of
em*
ber.^
of
em­
ber.1
of
em­
total.1 ploy­
total.1 pi«ytotal.1 ploy­
ed.2
ed.2
ed.2

QUARRY.

Falls or slides of rock or overburden..
R ock while loading at working fa c e ...
Tim ber or hand tools..............................
E xplosives.................................................
Haulage accidents...................................
Falling into quarry from surface,
benches, or face.....................................
Falling from hoists, derricks, ladders,
etc............................................................
Drilling accidents (b y machine or
hand drills)............................................
E lectricity (shocks or b u rn s)...............
Machinery ( pum ps, hoisting and haul­
age m achinery, not including loco­
motives or d rills)..................................
Flying pieces o f rock from sledging___
Stepping on nail.......................................
Other causes.............................................
Total................................................

741
1,113
483
233
653

11.15
16.74
7.27
3.51
9.82

98.29
147.64
64.07
30.91
86.62

5.04

99

1.49

13.13

3.58

63

.95

8.36

6.23

322
14

4. 84
.21

42.71
1.86

7.56
4.11
.40
12.87

252
592
48
786

3.79
8.91
.72
11.82

33.43
78.53
6.37
104.26

74.91 108.51

5,399

81.22

716.17

116
40
160
19
100
1
352
7
20
82
351

1.74
.60
2.41
.29
1.50
.02
5.30
.11
.30
1.23
5.23

37.55
12.95
51.80
6.15
32.37
.32
113.95
2.27
6.47
26. 54
113.63

1,248

18.78

404.00

6,647 100.00

625. 45

27
11
3
42
20

14.76
6.01
1.64
22.95
10.93

3.58
1.46
.40
5.57
2.65

10

5.46

1.33

38

3.48

3

1.64

.40

27

2.47

3
2

1.64
1.09

.40
.27

47

4.30

8
2
1
7

4.37
1.09
.55
3.83

1.06
.27
.13
.93

57
31
3
97

5.22
2.84
.27
8.88

139

75.96

18.44

818

4
8
12
2
4

2.19
A. 37
6.55
1. 09
2.19

1.29
2.59
3. 89
.65
1.30

3

1.64

.97

1
10

.55
5.46

.32
3.24

33
17
67
6
29
3
24
5
5
14
66

3.48
1.56
6.13
.55
2.66
.27
2.20
.46
.46
1.28
6.04

12.30
5.50
21. 69
1.94
9.39
.97
7. 77
1.62
1.62
4.53
21.37

44

24.04

14.25

274

25.09

88.70

183 100.00

17.22

139
150
36
74
119

12.73
13.74
3.30
6.78
10.90

18.44
19.90
4. 78
9. 82
15. 79

OUTSIDE OF Q U AR R Y .

Quarrv cars or locom otives...................
Railway cars or locom otives.................
Machinery..................................................
E xplosives.................................................
Falls of persons.........................................
Boiler explosions.....................................
Tim ber or hand tools..............................
Electricity (shocks or b u rn s)...............
Stepping on nail......................................
Horse or m ule...........................................
Other causes..............................................
T otal................................................
Grand total.....................................

1,092 100.00 102. 75

1 Source: Quarry A ccidents in the U nited States, 1912, Bureau of Mines.

2 Computed.

Combining the available information for all of the mineral indus­
tries of the United States, the facts are briefly set forth in the table
following, which has also been derived from Technical Paper No. 92
of the United States Bureau of Mines, on Quarry Accidents in the
United States, for the calendar year 1913:
T able

7 6 .—N U M B E R O F M EN E M P L O Y E D A N D N U M B E R K IL L E D IN A N D A B O U T A L L
M IN ES A N D Q U A R R IE S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S , 1911,1912, A N D 1913.
N um ber killed.
Year.

Number
em ployed.
Total.

Per 1,000
em ployed.

1911 ..............................................................................................
1912..................................................................................... ............
1913..................................................................................................

1,005,281
1,004,966
1,047,010

3,602
3,234
3,651

3.58
3.22
3.49

Average, 3 years................................................................

1,019,086

3,496

3.43




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

According to this table the average number of persons employed
in the mines and quarries of the United States during the three years
ending with 1913 was 1,019,086, the average number of persons
killed each year was 3,496, and the fatality rate was 3.43 per 1,000.
This rate would be somewhat increased if reduced to a standard
working year of 300 days. The number of persons seriously and
the number slightly injured are not obtainable at the present time
for the coal-mining industry, and there are reasons for believing that,
in the light of available information in States with workmen’s com­
pensation laws applicable to mines, the number of serious injuries
will be found to be considerably in excess of the number at present
reported to the State mining departments.1 The same conclusion
applies to the existing returns regarding the number of persons made
dependents on account of fatalities in the mining industry, for which,
under existing conditions in most of the mining States, only inade­
quate provision is made, largely on the basis of the voluntary action
of the employers. The possibilities of reducing the excessive fatality
and injury rates common to the mining industry at the present
time are well brought out by the statistics of causes, which indicate
the direction in which specialized effort can unquestionably produce
far-reaching and extremely desirable results.

OCCUPATIONAL MORTALITY STATISTICS OF THE PRUDENTIAL
INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA.
On the occasion of the Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene
and Demography The Prudential Insurance Co. of America gave
publicity to a considerable amount of new information regarding the
mortality from accident in more or less dangerous trades. The data
were derived from the company’s extensive industrial experience,
subsequently brought down to date for the period 1907 to 1912,
and exhibited in a modified form and illustrated by numerous charts
on the occasion of the first International Exposition of Safety and
Sanitation, held in the city of New York. The original data were fully
discussed in a paper on industrial accidents and trade diseases, read
on the occasion of the Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene
and Demography, and in a separate publication issued by the com­
pany in explanation of its exhibit, with particular reference to its
utility in connection with investigations into the more important as­
pects of the problem of industrial hygiene. The earlier experience
data of the company were also quite fully discussed in Bulletin No. 78
1 In Great Britain, of the mine and quarry accidents com pensated under the workm en’s compensation
act, the ratio of fatal to nonfatal accidents for the period 1909 to 1913 was one fatal accident to each 120
disablements resulting in com pensation for one w eek and over. These figures do not include industrial
diseases compensated under the British act.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

113

of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 011 Industrial Acci­
dents, published in September, 1908. The data, however, are of only
limited utility for the present purpose in that they are not correlated
to the exposure to risk. The published information consists of an
analysis of the causes of death in different occupations, the propor­
tionate mortality from accidents (both occupational and nonoccupational) being calculated in the form of a percentage of such deaths
of the mortality due to all causes, by divisional periods of life. This
method is open to the criticism that the results are impaired by the
possible exceptionally common or exceptionally rare occurrence of
other causes, and that they therefore do not in all cases warrant
definite conclusions regarding the true incidence of fatal accidents
in particular industries, or specified occupations, as the case may be.
For personal accident and workmen’s compensation insurance
purposes the data are unquestionably of only limited value. An
occupation may exhibit a high proportionate mortality from acci­
dents, but it does not necessarily follow that the rate per 1,000
exposed to risk would, for that reason, be in excess of the nor**
mal. The proportionate mortality warrants only conclusions regard­
ing the relative importance o f specified causes o f mortality, and to
that extent the method visualizes the facts as they require to be
known and understood for the larger purposes of public health ad­
ministration and industrial hygiene. In other words, if it is shown
that a given group of employments is subject to a proportionate mor­
tality from accidents of say 23.5 per cent, as is true for quarrymen,
whereas in the aggregate experience with all occupations the corre­
sponding mortality figure is only 9.4 per cent, it is obvious that acci­
dents in the occupation referred to are relatively of exceptional
importance as a cause of death, although it does not necessarily fol­
low that the rate of frequency, on the basis of the exposure to risk,
is in excess of the normal. The proportionate mortality is therefore
often more useful in connection with occupational investigations to
determine the underlying causes of an excessive death rate than
in inquiries for the purpose of determining the true rate of frequency
in proportion to the number employed.
f The statistics of the Prudential are unique in that they afford at
the present time the only measurable basis of accident occurrence
in a large number of specified occupations typical of American indus­
tries. The only corresponding effort to disclose the facts for the
registration area of the United States is limited to the two-year
period 1908 and 1909, published in the census mortality reports in 1909
and 1910.1 The census publication, however, is much more limited
1 Fully discussed on pages 20 to 31 of this Bulletin.

58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 8



114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

in scope and includes only groups of occupations, against groups and
specified occupations available through the experience data of the
Prudential. There is the additional advantage of the insurance com­
pany^ experience in that the same is derived from a typical body of
industrial policy holders for the period 1907 to 1912, and including
every section and all the representative industries of the United
States. The tables exhibit in each case for particular groups of occu­
pations or specified employments, (1) the number of deaths from all
causes, by six divisional periods of life; (2) the corresponding number
of accidents; (3) the percentage of such accidents of the mortality from
all causes in each age group in the specified occupation; and (4) the
standard accident mortality percentage for all occupied males. The
accident figures are inclusive of all accidents and do not represent acci­
dents due to industrial or occupational causes only. They require,
therefore, to be used with caution in that they do not warrant the infer­
ence that the proportion of deaths from accidents in any given industry
or occupation is entirely chargeable as an occupational risk. It may
be safely asserted, however, that any marked departure from the
normal average for all occupations marks invariably an excess in
mortality strictly chargeable against the industry as an inherent
occupational hazard. For some industries or occupations the num­
bers are relatively small, but the facts are given as far as available
to facilitate the most complete study of the subject. As an illustra­
tion of the method adopted, a brief reference may be made to coal
miners; there were 2,719 deaths during the period 1907 to 1912,
of which 631 were due to accidents, or 23.2 per cent of the mortality
from all causes. The corresponding average proportion for all occu­
pied males was 9.4 per cent. The excess becomes much more
marked when the percentages are compared for the separate divi­
sional periods of life: At ages 15 to 24, out of every 100 deaths from
all causes of coal miners, 56.9 were deaths caused by accidents,
against 20.7 for all occupied males; at ages 25 to 34 the respective
figures were 42.3 and 12.8; at ages 35 to 44 they were 34.3 and 10.2;
at ages 45 to 54 they were 20.4 and 8.9. The excess in the mortality
figures for coal miners continues throughout life, for at ages 55 to 64
the accident percentage for coal miners was 12.9, against 6.4 for all
occupations; whereas at ages 65 and over the respective percentages
were 5.1 and 4.1. The analysis, therefore, proves conclusively that
throughout every year of the working period of life the mortality of
coal miners includes a relatively much higher proportion of deaths
from accidents than is found to prevail among all occupied males.
The facts are therefore, quite conclusive of the need of a nation-wide
effort to bring about a material reduction of the accident frequency
in mines. The same conclusion, as shown by the tables following,
applies to numerous other occupations. Since the standard mor­
tality figures for all occupied males include all the dangerous occupa


115

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

tions, the differences disclosed by the comparative method fails to
bring out fully the true excess of accident frequency in dangerous
trades.
Table

7 7 .—P R O P O R T IO N A T E M O R T A L IT Y OF M A LE S FR O M A CC ID E N TS, B Y OCCUPA­
TION S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1907 TO 1912.
Lum berm en.

Farm laborers.

Deaths from —
Age group.
A ll
causes.

A cci­
dents.

15 to 24 years.......
25 to 34 years.......
35 to 44 years.......
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.......
65 years and over.
T otal..........

Per cent of deaths
due to accidents.
In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.
21.3
19.0
14.3
22.7
23.4
11.4

195

18.5

T otal..........

9.4 |

3.5

15.5

106

Total.

85.7
80.0
50.0

28

23

82.1

16.7
20.0
10

T otal..........

16

T otal..........

9.4




22

12.8

•56

14

10.2

25.0

9.4

8.9
6.4
4.1

Coal miners.

30.8

267
281
341
623
699
508

152
119
117
127
90
26

56.9
42.3
34.3
20.4
12.9
5.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

2,719

8.9
6.4
4.1

10.2

631

23.2

9.4

Miners (other than coal or lead and zinc).

60.0
18.5
12.5
28.6
14.3
89

9.4

20.7

10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Lead and zinc miners.
15 to 24 years.......
25 to 34 years.......
35 to 44 years.......
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.......
65 years and over

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
C. 4
4.1

50.0
50.0
18.2
7.1
33.3

12.8

10.0

52

20.S

20.7

20.7
12.8

11.1

8.9
6.4
4.1

Coal mines— Foremen.

63.6
50.0

25.0

12.8
10.2

19.8

29.2

Coal mines— Laborers.
15 to 24 years.......
25 to 34 years.......
35 to 44 years.......
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.......
65 years and over,

21

20.7

Coal mines—Breaker hands.

Coal mines— Drivers.
15 to 24 years.........
25 to 34 years.........
35 to 44 years_____
45 to 54 years.........
55 to 64 years.........
65 years and over.

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.
100.0
33.3
35.0
16.7
14.3
3.0

9.4

11.1

29

A cci­
dents.

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

60.0
29.2
30.4
15.2

187

A ll
causes.

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Fishermen (not including oystermen).
15 to 24 years.......
25 to 34 years.......
35 to 44 years.......
45 to 54 years.......
55 to 64 years.......
65 years and over,

Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths fro m -

24.7

9.4

33.3
72.2
35.5
12.5
6.7
13.3

10.2

20.7
12.8

8.9
6.4
4.1
119

30

20.7
12.8

25.2

9.4

10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

7 7 .—P R O P O R T IO N A T E M O R T A L IT Y O F M A LE S F R O M A C C ID E N T S, B Y OCCUPATION S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
Quarrymen.
Per cent of deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from—
Age group.
A ll
causes.

Powder makers.

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

A cci­
dents.

Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from—

A ll
causes.

A cci­
dents.

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years..............
65 years and over.......

7
8
16
19
29
23

6
5
3
4
5
1

85.7
62.5
18.8
21.1
17.2
4.3

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

9
6
3
3
3
1

6
5
2
2
3

66.7
83.3
66.7
66.7
100.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

102

24

23.5

9.4

25

18

72.0

*9.4

Brickyard workers.

Car builders and repairers.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

11
10
18
28
30
35

2
2
4
6
5
1

18.2
20.0
22.2
21.4
16.7
2.9

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

23
35
21
33
24
20

13
12
3
4
5
3

56.5
34.3
14.3
12.1
20.8
15.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total.................

132

20

15.2

9.4

156

40

25.6

9.4

Boiler makers.

Foundrym en—Chippers.

18
19
16
12
2
1

32.7
21.3
13.0
11.8
2.5
1.4

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

3
2
6
14
9
5

1
1

33.3
50.0

45 to 54 years..............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

55
89
123
102
80
71

5
1

35.7
11.1

Total..................

520

68

13.1

9.4

39

8

20.5

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............

Q£ +/\ A . \£ € *G
A r k IT

Puddlers.

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1
9.4

Structural iron— Riggers.

25 to 34 vears...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

1
13
20
32
40
34

1
3
5
4
4

7.7
15.0
15.6
10.0
11.8

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

5
15
35
29
21
10

2
5
10
5
2
1

40.0
33.3
28.6
17.2
9.5
10.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

140

17

12.1

9.4

115

25

21.7

9.4

IK

9 1 TTMrc

Iron and steel mills— Miscellaneous
workers.

Iron and steel mills—Cranemen.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......
Total..................




44
24
9
3
2
1

15
8
2
1
1

34.1
33.3
22.2
33.3
50.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

168
259
303
244
203
164

43
67
48
25
16

83 j

27

32.5

9.4

1,341

8

25.6
25.9
15.8
10.2
7.9
4.9

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

207

15.4

9.4

117

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

T able 7 7 .—P R O P O R T I O N A T E M O R T A L IT Y OF M A LE S FR O M A CC ID E N T S, B Y OCCUPA­
TION S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.

Printing and publishing— Engravers.

Per cent of deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from —

Age group.

'

A ll
causes.

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

A cci­
dents.

1 " to 24 years...............

8

2

25 to 34 years...............

16
3
3

4
1

25.0
25.0
33.3

8.9
6.4
4.1

1

3
Total..................

34

20.7
12.8
10.2

7

20.6

9.4

E lectric light and power—Linemen.

72
138
76
34
irD
QrG onrl H P *
VT
T o t a l.. ...........

49
76
26
13

12
2

334

Printing and publishing— Pressmen
and press feeders.

A ll
causes.

A cci­
dents.

75
62
56
16

224

13
9

20.7

1
1

8.9
6.4
4.1

8
2
2
1

166

49.6

9.4

35

Total..................

272

31

78
224
333
453
552
459

Total..................

2,099

34
48
74
47
43

6

30

13.5

8.9
6.4
4.1
9.4

7.7
66.7
12.5

2

100.0

8.9
6.4
4.1

10

28.6

9.4

35.7

20.7

8.6

12.8
10.2

13.0
16.7
2.9

71.4
•55.6
33.3

20.7

6

11.4

8.9
6.4
4.1

3

20.0

8

2
1

13.3
12.5

8.9
6.4
4.1

9.4

72

22

30.6

9.4

43.6
21.4

7
9
18
15
15

20.7
12.8
10.2

20.7

74
177
228

20.7

161
71

45.9
23.7
15.8
15.7
3.1
5.6

921

154

16.7

9.4

12.8
10.2

8.9
6.4
4.1

210

22

10.4
7.8
4.8

268

12.8

9.4

35
24
14

9
4
3

12
8

1

25.7
16.7
21.4
8.3

13

2

Total......... ........

106

19

12.8
10.2

34
42
36
33
5
4

22.2

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years......... j. .
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

5
5

Firemen (not specified).

Machine operators (industry not speci­
fied.)




12.8
10.2

Slaters.

Engineers (not specified).
15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

20.7

8.1

8.9
37.5

1
6
1

Roofers.

1

18.7

Electric light and power— Power-house
em ployees.

12.8
10.2

5
5
10
10

14
5
5

8

68.1

14
58
77
60
34
29

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

7

55.2
34.3
38.3
8.3
50.0

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from—

20.7
12.8
10.2

12.8
10.2

8.9
6.4
4.1

Millwrights.

5
6

15.4

8.9
6.4
4.1

17
14
26
38

17.9

9.4

106

1
1

20.0

20.7
12.8
10.2

3

16.7
29.4
7.1
7.7
7.9

13

12.3

9.4

5
1
2

8.9
6.4
4.1

118
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
7 7 .—P R O P O R T IO N A T E M O R T A L IT Y OF M A LE S F R O M A C C ID E N T S, B Y O C C U PA ­
TION S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
Boatmen.
Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from —
Age group.
A ll
causes.

Sea captains.

In speci­ A m ong
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

A cci­
dents.

Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from—
A ll
causes.

In speci­ Am ong
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

A cci­
dents.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

26
44
69
80
82
129

10
10
14
17
11
7

38.5
22.7
20.3
21.3
13.4
5.4

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

11
14
32
33
60
63

9
5
12
6
11
3

81.8
35.7
37.5
18.2
18.3
4.8

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

430

69

16.0

9.4

213

46

21.6

9.4

Deckhands.

Engineers, boat.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

19
21
17
12
11
3

14
5
1
1
1

73.7
23.8
5.9
8.3
9.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

5
8
4
14
13
8

3
3
1
3
1

12.5

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

83

22

26.5

9.4

52

11

21.2

9.4

Longshoremen, stevedores, etc.

60.0
37.5
25.0
21.4

Sailors, merchant shipping.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over____

11
93
159
104
83
41

3
18
22
9
4
1

27.3
19.4
13.8
8.7
4.8
2.4

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

69
47
29
41
53
85

29
11
10
3
2
3

42.0
23.4
34.5
7.3
3.8
3.5

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

491

57

11.6

9.4

324

58

17.9

9.4

Stokers, steamship. 15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years.. . .
55 to 64 years...
65 years and over

3
12
7
6
5

2
5
5

66.7
41.7
71.4

1

20.0

T otal..................

33

13

39.4

Chauffeurs.
20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

89
91
28
11
3

21
13
3

23.6
14.3
10.7

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

9.4

222

37

16.7

9.4

Draymen, teamsters, etc.

Street-car conductors.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over......

936
2,189
2,175
1,581
1,097
821

201
272
251
195
110
42

21.5
12.4
11.5
12.3
10.0
5.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

140
213
129
88
68
25

24
28
21
12
8
2

17.1
13.1
16.3
13.6
11.8
8.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

8,799

1,071

12.2

9.4

663

95

14.3

9.4

Street-car motormen.

Railroad brakemen.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 vea rs.............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 vears...............
65 years and over.......

45
124
116
78
45
17

11
33
13
4
2

24.4
26.6
11.2
5.1
4.4

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

314
296
134
45
28
8

242
188
52
19
7

77.1
63.5
38.8
42.2
25.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total_______ ..

425

63

14.8

9.4

825

508

61.6

9.4




119

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

7 7 .—P R O P O R T IO N A T E M O R T A L IT Y OF M A LE S F R O M A CC ID E N TS, B Y OCCUPA­
TION S A N D A G E G R O U PS, 1907 TO 1912—Continued.
Railroad conductors.
Per cent of deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from —

Age group.

A ll
causes.

Locom otive engineers.

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

A cci­
dents.

Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from —
A ll
causes.

A cci­
dents.

In speci­ Am ong
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

4
33
27
26
18
6

1
10
7
7
2

25.0
30.3
25.9
26.9
11.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
.4 .1

4
34
28
33
30
31

2
18
14
4
3
1

50.0
53.0
50.0
12.1
10.0
3.2

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

Total..................

114

27

23.7

9.4

160

42

26.2

9.4

Locom otive firemen.
42
44
7
1

65 years and over.......

91
91
18
9
3
6

1

T o ta l..................

218

95

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to

24 years...............
34 vears...............
44 years...............
54 years...............

46.1
48.3
38.9
11.1

Railroad foremen (track, etc.).

16.7

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

' 8
11
38
37
48
32

3
4
12
8
9
1

37.5
36.4
31.6
21.6
18.8
3.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

43.6

9.4

174

37

21.2

9.4

Railroad freight handlers.
15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 vears...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

12
29
21
22
18
8

6
3
2
4

50.0
10.3
9.5
18.2

1

T ota l..................

110

16

Car inspectors.

12.5

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

17
34
34
34
29
24

12
14
6
7
4
2

70.6
41.2
17.7
20.6
13.8
8.3

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

14.5

9.4

172

45

26.2

9.4

Railroad switchmen.

Railroad section hands.
15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

17
15
22
39
61
22

8
8
11
13
22
2

47.1
53.3
50.0
33.3
36.0
9.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

94
142
143
147
268
276

65
68
43
32
35
21

69.2
67.9
30.1
21.8
13.1
7.6

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

T ota l..................

176

64

36.4

9.4

1,070

264

24.7

9.4

Railroad men (other than those specified,
but not including agents or clerks).

Telegraph and telephone linemen.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years‘and over.......

104
150
132
125
134
131

53
62
35
28
25
5

51.0
41.3
26.5
22.4
18.7
3.8

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

8
24
4
3
1

2
8
1

25.0
33.3
25.0

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

T o ta l..................

776

208

26.8

9.4

40

11

27.5

9.4

Delivery men.

Messengers and office boys.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 vears...............
55-to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

41
46
39
35
21
15

9
6
7
3
1
2

22.0
13.0
17.9
8.6
4.8
13.3

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

368
13
6
12
9
20

80
1
1
1
1

21.7
7.7
16. 7
8.3
11.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

T ota l..................

197

28

14.2

9.4

428

84

19.6

9.4




120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

7 7 .—P R O P O R T IO N A T E M O R T A L IT Y OF M A LE S F R O M A C C ID E N T S, B Y
TION S A N D A G E G R O U PS , 1907 TO 1912—Concluded.
City firemen.

A ll
causes.

Sailors—U . S. N avy.

Per cent of deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from—
Age group.

In speci­ Among
fied oc­ occupied
cupation. males.

A cci­
dents.

O CCU PA­

Per cent o f deaths
due to accidents.

Deaths from—

A ll
causes.

In speci­ Among
A cci- . fied oc­ occupied
dents.
cupation. males.

1
12
11
3
2

33.3
40.0
35.5
16.7
15.4

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

27
9
3
4
3
10

14
3

51.9
33.3

45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 yftfiTs and o v e r.., - -

3
30
31
18
13
3

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

T o t a l . . . . . ........

98

29

29.6

9.4

56

17

30.4

9.4

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............

Soldiers— U. S. A rm y.

Electricians.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

67
65
31
15
30
72

20
11
2
1
2
1

29.9
16.9
6.4
6.7
6.7
1.4

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

241
265
160
63
38
5

53
53
28
7
2

22.0
20.0
17.5
11.1
5.3

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

T otal..................

280

37

13.2

9.4

772

143

18.5

9.4

Engineers and surveyors.

Showmen.
15
20
19
15
9
9

9
6

13.6

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

14.7

9.4

87

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

14
32
18
15
8
22

2
5
1
5

14.3
15.6
5.6
33.3

3

Total..................

109

16

Elevator tenders.

60.0
30.0

1

6.7

1

11.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

17

19.5

9.4

Stewards.

15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............
45 to 54 years...............
55 to 64 years...............
65 years and over.......

77
53
40
42
38
28

14
4
6
5
3
2

18.2
7.5
15.0
11.9
7.9
7.1

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

6
20
30
26
26
22

3
3
5
5
1
1

50.0
15.0
16.7
19.2
3.8
4.5

20.7
12.8
10.2
8.9
6.4
4.1

T otal..................

278

34

12.2

9.4

130

18

13.8

9.4

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF THE UNITED
KINGDOM.
The industrial accident statistics of the United Kingdom are
exceptionally instructive and fairly applicable to American condi­
tions. The experience under the workmen's compensation act of
1906 is reflected in the statistical data for recent years, emphasizing
with at least approximate accuracy the relative accident hazard in the
more important groups of industries. The workmen's compensation
statistics are more trustworthy and conclusive than the returns of
factory inspectors or certifying surgeons, except as regards the



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

121

degree of injury sustained. Accidents involving a disability of less
than one week are not included in the statistics of the workmen’s
compensation act.
The returns of accidents compensated under the workmen’s com­
pensation act are given, first, for the shipping industry, differenti­
ating steam and sailing vessels; second, for factories, differentiating
(a) cotton, (b) wool, worsted, and shoddy, (c) other textiles, (d) wood,
(e) metals, (/) shipbuilding and engineering, (g) other metal work,
(7 paper and printing, (i) china and earthenware, (j) miscellaneous
*0
industries; third, for docks; fourth, for mines; fifth, for quarries;
sixth, for construction work; seventh, for railways, differentiating
the clerical staff and other railway service. The total number of
employees within the operation of the act in 1912 was 7,411,005,
among whom the number of accidents compensated were 3,544 fatal
accidents, equivalent to a rate of 0.48 per 1,000; and 417,694 non­
fatal accidents, equivalent to a rate of 56.36 per 1,000. The cor­
responding rates for the previous year were 0.55 for fatal and 56.57
for nonfatal injuries. The highest fatality rate was experienced
among employees on sailing vessels, or 4.13 per 1,000, followed by a
rate of 1.86 for steam vessels, 1.42 for dock laborers, and 1.15 for
mines, including both coal and metal mines. The average rate for
railway employees, excluding the clerical staff, was 0.95 per 1,000,
and for all factory employees the rate was only 0.20 per 1,000.
The highest disability rate, excluding fatal accidents, occurred
among persons employed in mining, or 154.64 per 1,000, followed by
dock laborers, with 107.02, and engine and ship building with a
rate of 92.79. In the railway service, excluding the clerical staff, the
nonfatal accident rate was 62.97 per 1,000, and in all factory indus­
tries combined the rate was 35.90. The details for the several groups
are given in Table 78.
The financial statistics of the operation of the workmen’s com­
pensation act for the year 1912 are given in full, for the separate indus­
tries considered, in Table 79. The average compensation for fatal
cases during 1912 was $765, against $751 paid during 1911. The
average compensation paid for nonfatal cases was $29, against $28 paid
during the previous year. The highest compensation was paid in
the case of fatal accidents on steam vessels, or $879, the lowest average
amount being paid in the case of fatal accidents in miscellaneous or
nonspecified textiles, or $551. The highest compensation for nonfatal
accidents was also paid in the case of persons employed and injured
on steam vessels, or $67, the lowest average compensation paid being
$25 in the case of miscellaneous or nonspecified textiles, metallic
industries, and miscellaneous metal workers. The aggregate amount
paid out on account of fatal accidents during the year 1912 was
$2,711,224, against $2,995,097 in 1911. The amount paid out on



122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

account of nonfatal injuries was $12,181,803 in 1912, against
$11,452,286 in 1911.
The British workmen’s compensation act of 1906 includes a pro­
vision for compensation on account of scheduled industrial diseases.
The original act scheduled only six industrial diseases, but on the
recommendation of a departmental committee, the Home Secretary,
by order, added 16 more diseases to the list in 1907, two more diseases
in 1908, and one more disease (writer’s cramp) in 1913. The principal
diseases on account of which compensation is required are anthrax, lead
poisoning, mercury poisoning, phosphorus poisoning, arsenic poison­
ing, ankylostomiasis, poisoning by nitro- and amido-derivatives of
benzene, poisoning by carbon bisulphide, poisoning by nitrous fumes,
chrome ulceration, eczematous ulceration of the skin, epitheliomatous
cancer, chimney-sweep’s cancer, nystagmus, glanders, compressed-air
illness, cataract in glassworkers, and telegrapher’s cramp. The term
“ industrial disease” does not occur in the original act, the same being
referred to as “ disease due to the nature of the employment.” In the
sense of this definition, compensation was paid during the year 1912
on account of 55 fatal cases of industrial disease, and 6,712 non­
fatal cases. The corresponding rates for 1911 were 33 deaths and 5,737
nonfatal cases. The fatality rate on account of industrial diseases
in 1912 was only 0.01 per 1,000. The highest rate was experi­
enced in the manufacture of china and earthenware, or 0.21 per 1,000.
The mortality in this group was largely the result of lead poisoning.
The nonfatal injury rate on account of industrial diseases was 0.91 per
1.000, the highest rate having been experienced in mining, or 5.48 per
1.000, largely on account of nystagmus. The next highest rate was
experienced in the manufacture of china and earthenware, largely,
as previously said, on account of lead poisoning. The details for the
several industries are given in Table 80.
The financial statistics of the operation of the act, with reference
to industrial diseases, are given in detail in Table 81. The aggregate
amount paid out on account of fatal cases of industrial disease during
1912 was $48,602, against $22,887 paid out during the previous year.
The amount paid out on account of nonfatal industrial diseases during
1912 was $505,133, against $403,720 paid out during 1911. The
average amount paid out on account of fatalities during 1912 was $884,
and on account of nonfatal injuries caused by industrial diseases, $75.
The corresponding figures for 1911 were $694 and $70, respectively.
Of the 55 fatal cases of industrial disease in 1912, 44 were cases of
lead poisoning, 9 were cases of anthrax, 1 was a case of chrome
ulceration, and 1 a case of nystagmus.
The four tables which follow (Nos. 78, 79,80, and 81) were compiled
from “ Statistics of compensation and of proceedings under the work­
men’s compensation act of 1906, and the employers’ liability act of



123

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

1880, for the year 1912.” Disablements of less than one week’s
duration are not compensated under the British act.
7 8 .—A C C ID E N T R A T E S A C C O R D IN G TO A C C ID E N T S C O M P E N S A T E D U N D E R T H E
W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N SA T IO N A CT O F T H E U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1912, B Y IN D U S T R IE S .!

T able

Accidents resulting in

Industry.

Employees.

Death.

Number.

Disablement.

Rates per
1,000.

Number.

Rates per
1,000.

Shipping:
Steam vessels..........................................
Sailing vessels.........................................

236,004
18,394

439
76

1.86
4.13

7,668
633

32.49
34.41

T otal.....................................................

254,398

515

2.02

8,301

32.63

Factories:
Cotton.......................................................
W ool, worsted, and shod d y..................
Other textiles..........................................
W ood ........................................................
Metal (extracting, e t c .)........................
Engine and ship building.....................
Other metal w o r k .................................
Paper and printing................................
China and earthenware........................
Miscellaneous..........................................

612,985
280,573
248,669
135,257
437,160
348,212
801,814
322,447
72,834
1,990,480

54
15
10
39
168
210
148
22
7
364

.09
.05
.04
.29
.38
.60
.18
.07
.10
.18

13,252
3,271
3,275
5,478
34,323
32,310
39,722
4,679
1,143
51,027

21.62
11. 66
13.17
40.50
78.51
92.79
49.54
14.51
15.69
25.64

Total.....................................................

5,250,431

1,037

.20

188,480

35.90

D ocks...............................................................
Mines................................................................
Quarries...........................................................
Constructional w ork.....................................
Railways:
Clerical staff............................................
Other railroad servants.......................

158,598
1,086,113
84,703
115,218

225
1,246
64
85

1.42
1.15
.76
.74

16,973
167,959
5,440
6,111

107.02
154.64
64,22
53.04

74,575
386,969

3
369

.04
.95

62
24,368

.83
62.97

T otal.....................................................

461,544

372

.SI

Grand total, 1912................................

7,411,005

3,544

.48

417,694

56.36

Grand total, 1911................................

7,305,997

3,988

.55 j

413,294

56.57

24,430 1

52.93

i The following abstract is from the Statistics of Compensation and the Proceedings under the W ork­
m en’s Compensation A ct of 1906 and the Employers’ Liability A ct of 18S0 for the year 1913, recently
issued:
“ According to the returns, compensation was paid under the act in the 7 industries during 1913 in respect
of 3,748 cases of death and 470,920 cases of disablement, and that the gross total of compensation amounted
to £3,361,650 [.$10,359,470]. The corresponding figures for the previous four years are shown in the fol­
lowing table:
Year.

1909................: .........................................................................
1910...........................................................................................
1911...........................................................................................
1912...........................................................................................
1913..........................................................................................

Fatal cases.

3,341
3,510
4,021
3,599
3,748

Nonfatal
cases.
332,612
378,340
419,031
424,406
476,920

Total compensation.

£2,274,238 [S ll.007,579]
2,700,325 13,141,132]
3,056^404 14,873,990]
3,174,101 15,440,763]
3,361,650 16,359,470]

“ The gross total of the persons employed in the 7 industries, according to the returns, was 7,509,353,
and the annual charge per person em ployed works out for each of the industries as follows: Shipping, 15s.
2d. [$3.69]; factories, 5s. [$1.22]; docks, £1 4s. [$5.85]; mines, £1 4s. 3d. [85.91]; quarries, 10s. 2d. [S2.47]t
constructional work, 13s. 3d. [$3.22]; railway, 8s. 5d. [$2.05]. For all the industries taken together tho
charge per person em ployed was 8s. lid . [82.17].”
The differences in the figures for 1911 and 1912 with those given in the text-table are probably the result
of clerical corrections and of changes due to the consideration of subsequent reports.




124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

7 9 .—A V E R A G E A M O U N T P A ID P E R CASE OF F A T A L A C C ID E N T A N D P E R CASE OF
D IS A B L E M E N T F R O M A C C ID E N T , U N D E R T H E W O R K M E N ’ S C O M PE N SA TIO N A C T O F
T H E U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1912, B Y IN D U S T R IE S .

T able

Disablement from industrial
accidents.

Fatal industrial accidents.
Industry.
Number.

Total
amount
paid.

Average
amount
paid.

Num ber.

T otal
am ount
paid.

Average
amount
paid.

Shipping:
Steam vessels-......................
Sailing vessels......................

439
76

$385,821
45,521

$879
599

7,668
633

$510,977
37,448

$67
59

T otal..................................

515

431,342

838

8,301

548,425

66

Factories:
C otton...................................
W ool, worsted, and shoddy
Other textiles......................
W o o d .....................................
Metals (extracting, e t c ). . .
Engine and ship bu ild in g..
Other metal w ork ...............
Paper and printing............
China and earthenware___
Miscellaneous.......................

54
15
10
39
168
210
148
22
7
364

31,024
9,913
5,509
23,875
127,634
158,439
103,564
13,582
4,224
265,545

575
661
551
612
760
754
700
617
603
730

13,252
3,271
3,275
5,478
34,323
32,310
39,722
4,679
1,143
51,027

419,215
116,942
82,278
252,596
872,899
992,153
999,073
177,564
32,177
1,572,639

32
36
25
46
25
31
25
38
28
31

T ota l..................................

1,037

743,309

717

188,480

5,517,536

29

D ocks............................................
M ines............................................
Quarries.......................................
Constructional w ork .................
R ailw ays:
Clerical staff.........................
Other railroad servants.. . .

225
1,246
64
85

175,223
984,819
42,168
60,593

779
790
659
713

16,973
167,959
5,440
6,111

649,955
4,365,688
190,489
264,047

38
26
35
43

3
369

2,273
271,497

758
736

62
24,368

1,757
643,906

28
26

T otal..................................

372

273,770

736

24,430

645,663

26

Grand total, 1912.............

3,544

2,711,224

765

417,694

12,181,803

29

Grand total, 1911.............

3,988

2,995,097

751

413,294

11,452,286

28




125

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T

8 0 . — D E A T H R A T E S A N D D IS A B L E M E N T R A T E S F R O M IN D U S T R IA L D IS E A S E S
A C C O R D IN G TO E X P E R IE N C E U N D E R T H E W O R K M E N ’ S C O M P E N SA T IO N A CT OF
T H E U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1912, B Y IN D U S T R IE S .

able

Diseases resulting in D eath.
Industry.

Disablem ent.

Employees.
Number.

Shipping:
Steam vessels.........................................................
Sailing vessels ...... ............ .......

R ate
per
1,000.

Num ber.

R ate
per
1,000.

236,004
18,394

Total....................................................................

254,398

Factories:
Cotton.....................................................................
W ool, worsted, and shoddy...............................
Other textiles........................................................
W o o d ......................................................................
Metals (extracting, e t c .).....................................
E ngine and ship b uildin g...................................
Other metal w ork................................................
Paper and prin tin g..............................................
China and earthenware.......................................
Miscellaneous........................................................

612,985
280,573
248,669
135,257
437,160
348,212
801,814
322,447
72,834
1,990,480

Total....................................................................

5,250,431

D o c k s ............................................................................
M ines.............................................................................
Quarries.........................................................................
Constructional w ork...................................................
R ailw ays:
Clerical staff...........................................................
Other railroad servants.......................................

158,598
1,086,113
84,703
115,218
74,575
386,969

5
1

0.02

5
3
9

.01
.01
.01

15
11

.21
.01

4
37
4
10
84
45
123
18
144
264

49

.01

733

.14

2
2

.01

7
5,949
2
3

.04
5.48
.02
.03

2

.01

1
17

.01
.04

18

.04

.01

6,712

.91

5,737

.79

T otal....................................................................

461,544

2

Grand total, 1912..............................................

7,411,005

155

Grand total, 1911...........................................

7,305,997

33

0.01
.13
.02
.07
.19
.13
.15
.06
1.98
.13

i Including 44 cases of lead poisoning, 9 cases of anthrax, 1 case of chrome ulceration, and 1 case of
nystagmus.




126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

8 1 . — A V E R A G E A M O U N T P A ID P E R CASE OF D E A T H A N D T E R CASE OF DIS­
A B L E M E N T F R O M IN D U S T R IA L D IS E A S E S U N D E R T H E W O R K M E N ’ S COM PEN SA­
T IO N A C T OF T H E U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1912, B Y IN D U S T R IE S .

Table

Deaths from industrial
diseases.

Disablement from industrial
diseases.

Industry.
Total
amount
paid.

Average
amount
paid.

5
1 i

84,229
316

$846
316

Number.

Shipping:
Steam vessels.............................................
Sailing vessels............................................

Total
amount
paid.

$204
1,163
83
1,105
18,512
3,986
11,991
1,314
20,746
24,678

Sol
31
21
111
220
89
97
73
144
93

Average
amount
paid.

I

T otal.......................................................

Number.

i

Factories:
C otton.........................................................
W ool, worsted, and sh od d y....................
Other textiles............................................
W o o d ...........................................................
Metals (extracting, e tc.)..........................
Engine and ship building........................
Other metal w ork .....................................
Paper and printing...................................
China and earthenware............................
Miscellaneous.............................................

5
3 !
9 j

5,227
2,278
6,706

1,045
759
745

15
11 |

15,169
10,244

1,011
931

4
37
4
10
84
45
123
18
144
264

T otal........................................................

49 i

44,168

901

733

83,782

114

D ocks..................................................................
Mines..................................................................
Quarries.............................................................
Constructional w o r k .......................................
Railways:
Clerical staff.................................. ............
Other railroad servants............................

2 i
2 i
1

83
2,136

42
1,068

7
5,949
2
3

603
417,697
24
467

86
70
12
156

|
2 !

2,214

1,107

1
17

224
2,336

224
137

T otal........................................................

2 i
55 |

2,214

1,107

18

2,560

142

Grand total, 1912...................................

48,602

884

6,712 | 505,133

75

Grand total, 1911...................................

33

22, S87

694

5,737 1 403,720

70

1

RATE OF MORTALITY FROM ACCIDENTS, BY OCCUPATIONS,
IN ENGLAND AND WALES.
The most useful and conclusive occupational mortality statistics
are those published at decennial intervals as a supplement to the
annual report of the registrar general for England and Wales. The
rates are computed on a three-year period, including the census year
and the one immediately preceding and following. This method
provides a reasonably trustworthy basis for estimating the liability
to specific diseases or accidents in specified occupations or grouj^s of
employments. Since the census occupation classification is under the
same direction as the mortality occupation classification, the risk
of serious errors is materially reduced. Two methods are employed
in computing the mortality rates by causes— that is, either by the
inclusion or exclusion of those retired from the occupations considered.
Since the accident liability, for the present purpose, is chiefly with ref­
erence to industrial accidents, it would obviously be less scientific to
include the retired, who as a class would be removed from the con­
ditions of work giving rise to accidents in industry. The analysis for



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

127

the three years 1900 to 1902 includes 24,948 deaths due to accidents
among males of the ages of 15 and over, with 31,389,807 years of life
exposed to risk— that is to say, the actual number of persons exposed
to risk during the period was one-third of the number of years of life
just given, or 10,463,289; and the average number of deaths due to
accidents for each one of the three years was one-third of the total
previously given, or 8,316. The aggregates for the three years are
given in each case, not only as a matter of convenience, but also to
show the true numerical basis of the facts under observation. Since
the age distribution in different occupations varies widely it is essen­
tial that the rates should be calculated for divisional periods of life.
In the tabulations which follow for each occupation or group of em­
ployments, the facts are given for seven divisional periods of life,
commencing with ages 15 to 19 and ending with ages 65 and over.
It would no doubt be of interest to know the exact rate for shorter
periods of life, and especially at the more advanced ages, but the
numbers under consideration would frequently be too small to war­
rant safe conclusions. No data for years later than 1900 to 1902
are as yet available, and it is quite doubtful whether the facts for
1910 to 1912 will be published much before 1918.
In the tabulations following, the accident rates, as a matter of
convenience, have been computed on the basis of 100,000 population
for each period of life. For all ages, 15 and over, the rate was 79.5
per 100,000 of population, which, in round numbers, would be
equivalent to a rate of 0.8 per 1,000. By reference to the estimate of
fatal industrial accidents in theUnited States for 1913 (Table 1), it will
be found that the rate assumed for occupied males was 0.73, but this
rate, of course, is exclusive of nonindustrial accidents, which would,
according to circumstances, materially increase the rate. In the occu­
pational mortality study of the United States census of 1900 (no later
data being available) the accident rate, including industrial as well as
other injuries, but excluding suicides, was 113.2 per 100,000 of popula­
tion, ages 10 and over, which conforms to the expected result in view of
the known higher accident liability of American wage earners in most of
the dangerous trades in which they are employed. For reasons which
can not at present be explained in a satisfactory manner, the accident
rate among unoccupied males is higher for every period of life under
55 than for the occupied. This result may be due to errors in clas­
sification, particularly of the deaths, in that by the omission of the
occupation the deaths would be assigned to the group of the unoc­
cupied, whereas in fact the deceased might have been employed.
This difficulty can not be easily overcome in a general system of
death classification, but it is almost entirely avoided in compulsory
or private insurance experience, where the deaths are assigned, with
accuracy, to the occupations to which they belong.



128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

According to tho English experience, the accident mortality rate
rises from an average of 44.6 per 100,000 at ages 15 to 19 to 52.6
at ages 20 to 24, to 57.8 at ages 25 to 34, to 78.8 at ages 35 to 44,
to 103.5 at ages 45 to 54, to 133.8 at ages 55 to 64, and finally to
182.2 at ages 65 and over. The rates for occupied males do not
vary decidedly from the rates for all males, but it seems best to
compare any particular occupation or group of employments with the
average rate for occupied males only.
The present analysis of the English experience, which is fully set
forth in the table which follows, shows for each occupation or in­
dustry as enumerated by the Registrar General the numbers exposed
to risk (given in years of life), the deaths from accident, and the result­
ing rates for seven divisional periods of life. The totals for ages 15
and over are not comparable for the separate occupations and indus­
tries, on account of wide variations in the age distribution of different
employments. A table, however, is given at the end (No. 89), in
which all of the occupations or industries are reduced to a standard
age basis, and these rates, for ages 15 and over, are strictly comparable.
T able

8 2 .—M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS IN E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y
O C C U PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S .
A ll males.
Age group.
Years of life.

Occupied males.

Deaths
from
accidents.

Rate per
100,000
population.

Years of life.

Deaths
from
accidents.

Rate per
100,000
population.

15 to 19 years.................
20 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
45 to 54 years.................
55 to 64 years.................
65 years and over.........

4,822,566
4,417,932
7,457,862
5,795,829
4,188,627
2,723,835
1,983,216

2,152
2,322
4,314
4,568
4,334
3,645
3,613

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

4,526,391
4,336,335
7,337,565
5,668,233
4,024,074
2,424,456
1,202,520

1,946
2,270
4,182
4,275
4,037
3,241
2,421

43.0
52.3
57.0
75.4
100.3
133.7
201.3

15 years and o v e r ..

31,389,867

24,948

79.5

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

Occupied males in London.

Unoccupied males.
15 to 19 years.................
20 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
45 to 54 years.................
55 to 64 years.................
65 years and over.........

296,175
81,597
120,297
127,596
164,553
299,379
780,696

206
52
132
293
297
404
1,192

69.6
63.7
109. .7
229.6
180.5
134.9
152.7

576,099
637,374
1,095,027
823,536
562,533
313,266
122,007

193
225
485
529
575
410
260

33.5
35.3
44.3
64.2
102.2
130.9
213.1

15 years and over..

1,870,293

2,576

137.7

4,129,842

2,677

64.8

Occupied males in industrial districts.
15 to 19 years.................
20 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
45 to 54 years.................
55 to 64 vears.................
65 years and over.........
15 years and over..




Occupied males in agricultural districts.

1,187,061
1,189,341
2,014,302
1,511,544
1,051,485
575,952
218,604

416
511
1,057
1,095
1,024
820
478

35.0
43.0
52.5
72.4
97.4
142.4
218.7

661,200
525,798
893,781
784,014
610,221
447,492
313,359

251
312
444
497
488
464
524

38.0
59.3
49.7
63.4
80.0
103.7
167.2

7,748,289 j

5,401

69.7

4,235,925

2,980

70.4

129

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS*
T a b l e 8 2 . — M O R T A L IT Y

F R O M A C C ID E N TS IN E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y
O C C U PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S —Continued.
Clergymen.

Physicians.

Stand­
Rate
Deaths
per
ard
from
rate
100,000
acci­
popu­ for all
dents. lation. males.

Age group.
Years of
life.

A ll occu p ied males 15 years
a n d o v e r ................................

29,519,574

15 to 19 years........... .................
20 to 24 years..............................
25 to 34 years..............................
35 to 44 years..............................
45 to 54 years..............................
55 to 64 years..............................
65 years and over......................

3
1,788
24,615
29,556
25,275
20,238
17,493

22,372

2
2
4
7
12

75.8

79.5

8.1
6.8
15.8
34.6
68.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

School-teachers.
15 to 19 years..............................
20 to 24 years..............................
25 to 34 years..............................
35 to 44 years..............................
45 to 54 years..............................
55 to 64 years..............................
65 years and over......................

26,481
24,228
49,305
42,138
19,464
9,789
2,082

4
6
9
8
8
2
4

15.1
24.8
18.3
19.0
41.1
20.4
192.1

25
29
42
47
36
22
10

241,647
216,378
284,646
161,574
91,770
46,353
15,984

29,519,574
1,380
19,701
21,405
12,366
7,239
5,367

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

48,675
32,784
42,699
24,828
14,625
7,170
2,499

107
140
184
100
88
72
22

49,140
73,137
128.430
82,749
54,099
24,519
6,306

10.3
13.4
14.8
29.1
39.2
47.5
62.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

30,756
42,102
56,496
35,616
22,962
8,739
1,257

5,448
10,512
20,484
10,872
4,866
1,491
315

3
3
9
4
4
1

217.7
191.4
143.3
120.8
162. 7
293.6
348.9

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

16,575
29,913
70,287
67,371
49,347
24,405
7,182

58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 9



79.5

60.9
84.1
137.5
55.3
205.0

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

14
10
17
7
7
4
2

28.8
30.5
39.8
28.2
47.9
55.8
80.0

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

55.1
28.5
43.9
36.8
82.2
67.1

9
54.3
21
70.2
81
115.2
86
127.7
90
182.4
57 , 233.6
21 .292.4

37
49
59
26
12
17
3

120.3
116.4
104.4
73.0
52.3
194.5
238.7

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

74,754
92,688
177,330
137,301
88,551
43,599
15.297

30
39
88
110
112
92
35

40.1
42.1
49.6
80.1
126.5
211.0
228.8

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

375.6
324.1
306.5
419.0
414.2
405.4
344.4

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Seamen.
44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

D ock laborers.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 vears.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years'and over......................

12
18
17
4
11

75.8

Cab drivers.

Tramway employees.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

22,372

Railway engine drivers and stokers.

Railway guards and porters.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

Rate Stand­
Deaths
per
ard
from
rate
acci­ 100,000
popu­ for all
dents. lation.
males.

Domestic indoor servants.

Clerks.
15 to 19 years..............................
20 to 24 years..............................
25 to 34 years..............................
35 to 44 years..............................
45 to 54 years..............................
55 to 64 years..............................
65 years and over......................

Years of
life.

25,824
44.745
83,535
61,335
43,698
23,928
8,130

97
145
256
257
181
97
28

Farmers and graziers.
44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

85,365
79,677
161,586
160,149
143.787
126,306
101.595

25
27
68
61
93
88
146

29.3
33.9
42.1
38.1
64.7
69.7
143.7

44.6
52.6
57.8
' 78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

130
T able

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
8 2 .—M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N T S IN E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 T O 1902, B Y
OC C U PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S —Continued.
Farm laborers.

Age group.
Years of
life.

Gardeners.

Deaths R ate Stand­
per
ard
from 100,000
rate
acci­
for all
dents. p op u­
lation. males.

Years of
life.

Stand­
Deaths R ate
per
ard
from
100,000
rate
acci­
popu­ for all
dents.
lation. males.

A ll o ccu p ied m ales 15 years
a n d o v e r ...............................

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

79.5

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

79.5

15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 2-1 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

330.042
203,373
294,123
233,055
215,895
181.137
150.189

129
118
150
187
191
239
310

39.1
58.0
51.0
70.9
88.5
131.9
200.4

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

73,158
64,905
125,709
111, 882
98,877
79,524
60,837

13
11
25
31
29
54
07

17.8
10.9
19.9
27.7
29.3
67.9
110.1

44.6
52.6
57. S
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

12.1
03.7
71.7
80.1
55.9
133.5
118.3

44 0
52.0
57.8
7S.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

28.5
22.8
34.9
110.4
125.4
26.6
170.1

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
1S2.2

25.0
15.2
14.1
14.4
45.5
72.7
205.3

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Brewers.

Fishermen.
15 to 19 vears.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 y ea rs............................
65 years and over......................

7,380
9,009
17,130
14,940
10,890
7,035
3,990

12
22
35
27
14
14
9

1G2.5
242.0
204.2
180.7
128.5
199.0
225.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

8,238
10,992
22,314
18,720
12,531
6,744
2,535

Waiters.

Innkeepers.
15 to 19 years........................... .
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over.....................

1,905
7,284
56,532
75,801
61,086
36,684
14,403

2
25
48
51
41
20

27.5
44.2
63.3
83.5
111.8
138.9

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

26,385
39,477
43,011
18,111
8,769
3,753
1,176

87,777
75,459
108,672
70,440
45,927
29,961
16,806

9
13
14
17
15
13
7

10.3
17.2
12.9
24.1
32.7
43.4
41.7

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

56,076
46,080
78,153
48,465
28,542
13,752
4,383

Watchmakers and jewelers.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over.....................

54,165
55,620
85,698
53,313
31,797
18,675
7,542

10
22
29
21
16
17
11

18.5
39.6
33.8
39.4
50.3
91.0
145.8

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2




7,083
8,496
16,347
14,553
10,605
6,825
3,675

3

42.4

5
11
10
7
14

30.6
75.6
93.8
102.6
381.0

14
7
11
7
13
10
9

Butchers.
56,763
56,637
87,975
56,697
34,266
17,688
7,230

6
8
22
28
25
25
14

10.6
14.1
25.0
49.4
73.0
141.3
193.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

15.5
18.3
30.4
44.1
38.6
56.0
124.4

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Bakers.

Corn millers.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and ov er......................

7
9
15
20
11
1
2
Printers.

Grocers.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 yea rs............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over.....................

1
7
10
15
7
9
3

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

51,735
49,218
78,903
54,450
33,645
19,653
8,844

8
9
24
24
13
11
11

131

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

8 2 .—M O R T A L I T Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS IN E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y
O C C U PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S —C ontin ued.

Tailors.

Age group.
Years of
life.

Shoemakers.

Stand­
Rate
Deaths
ard
per
from
rate
100,000
acci­
popu­ for all
dents. lation. males.

Rate
Deaths
per
from
100,000
acci­
popu­
dents.
lation.

Years of
life.

Stand­
ard
rate
for all
males.

A ll occu p ied m ales 15 yea rs
a n d o v e r ..............................

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

79.5

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

79.5

15 to 19 years.............................
201 o 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

49,719
60,624
107,910
77,061
51,510
34,008
22,530

7
3

14.1
13.2
17.6
23.4
71.8
55.9
146.5

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

77,043
76,101
136,935
103,839
77,217
61,776
40,899

8

10.4
9.2
16.1
25.0
42.7
56.7
102.7

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

19
18
37
19
33

19 years.............................
24 years........................ .....
34 years.............................
44 years.............................

55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

3,582
3,975
7,050
5,550
4,314
2,559
1,185

1
1
2

27.9
25.2
28.4

2

46.4
117.2
168.8

3
2

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

166,098
149,145
239,118
160,284
110,60J
56,922
16,725

22,389
19,380
36,282
26,799
19,128
9,747
2,517

53.6
67.1

12

13
24
32
17
22

5

66.1

119.4
88.9
225.7
198.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

17,721
15,942
29,904
24,387
18,522
11,415
5,067

Blacksm iths.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 vears.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years#............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

60,771
57,477
92,622
75,615
61,827
38,829
16,101

20

17
27
42
46
26
33

32.9
29.6
29.2
55.5
74.4
67.0
205.0

127,221
167,823
263,715
238,800
184,578
99,282
40,566

36
51
130
162
167
129
99

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

93,294
75,360
121,944
89,466
57,408
30,672
11,469




95,316
101,193
168,345
138,471
97,206
47,832
15,888

36
35
59
83
91
67
43

85
72
59
22

31.3
34.2
27.6
53.0
65.1
103.7
131.5

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

3

16.9

6

20.1

12
11

28.7
64.8
96 4
177.6

7

9

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

17
27
40
40
39
14
20

18.2
35.8
32.8
44.7
67.9
45.6
174.4

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Carpenters.
28.3
30.4
49.3
67.8
90.5
129.9
244.0

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

337,667
119,556
157,539
147,279
120,978
78,063
38,382

Painters.
15 to 19 years..............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 vears.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

66

Metal workers.

Masons.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 vears and over...............*_
_

52
51

Toolmakers.

B oiler makers.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 vears.............................
45 to 54 vears.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

22

26
33
35
42

Engine makers.

Tanners.
15 to
20 to
25 to
35 to

7

37.8
34.6
35.0
59.9
93.6
140.1
270.6

29
42
55
64
88

89
63

21.1

35.1
34.9
43.5
72.7
114.0
164.1

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Cabinetmakers.
44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

54,741
46,614
72,924
55,869
39,957
22,842
10,194

9
7
14
9
28
15
10

16.4
15.0
19.2
16.1
65.1
65.7
98.1

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

132
TABLE

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
8 2 .—M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS IN E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1992, B Y
OC C U PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S —Continued.
Employees in shipbuilding.

Employees in w ool manufacture.

Stand­
Deaths Rate
ard
per
from
100,000
rate
acci­
popu­ for all
dents.
lation. males.

Age group.
Years of
life.

Stand­
Deaths R ate
per
ard
from
100,000
rate
acci­
pop u ­ for* all
dents. lation. males.

Years of
life.

A ll occu p ied m ales 15 years
a n d o v e r ...............................

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

79.5

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over.....................

39,492
34,254
61,266
47,361
37,989
25,509
8,727

27
21
39
45
50
51
20

68.4
61.3
63.7
95.0
131.6
199.9
229.2

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

39,249
30,222
56,322
44,046
33,132
20,268
8,610

5
6
7
10
17
16
15

12.7
19.9
12.4
22.7
51.3
78.9
174.2

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

25.7
23.4
30.5
49.9
54.3
78.0
243.3

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Employees in cotton manufacture.
107,298
82,88]
135,507
98,739
59,079
27,948
7,965

15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 vears.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

13
10
30
44
36
28
9

12.1
12.1
22.1
44.6
60.9
100.2
113.0

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Potters.
19,455
17,112
29,463
20,043
12,894
6,408
2,055

Glassworkers.
17,700
11,589
20,166
13,167
9,030
4,374
1,290

15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

9
8
7
3
7
3
2

50.8
69.0
34.7
22.8
77.5
68.6
155.0

*

4,869
6 ,9S4
13,104
10,422
8,583
4,827
1,506

8
5
20
15
12
14
7

164.3
71.6
152.6
143.9
139.8
290.0
464.8

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

307,785
301,512
510,879
345,939
224,634
107,454
30,003

5,247
14,679
41,067
38,718
24,918
12,393
3,798

2
2
25
18
20
9
5

38.1
13.6
60.9
46.5
80.3
72.6
131.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2




137,919
161,739
281,736
245,052
193,623
123,969
71,004

98
154
345
400
406
305
295

71.1
95.2
122.5
163.2
209.7
246.0
415.5

119.6
118.7
122. 9
163.6
210.6
276.4
386.6

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

24,282
30,906
52,494
43,467
33,705
19,206
7,683

18
19
51
48
54
55
14

74.1
61.5
97.2
110.4
160.2
286.4
182.2

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Brickmakers.
44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133. 8
182.2

34,734
28,458
42,024
30,222
20,226
11,943
5,373

15
14
20
20
H
9
10

43.2
49.2
47.6
66.2
54.4
75.4
186.1

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

Chimney sweeps.

General laborers.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 vears.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 vears.............................
65 years'and over......................

368
358
628
566
473
297
116

Quarrymen.

Employees in gas works.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

5
4
9
10
7
5
5

Coal miners.

Ironstone miners.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 vears and over......................

79.5

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

1,128
1,551
4,146
5,079
4,536
2,724
1,146

1

88.7

1
3
3
6
4

24.1
59.1
66.1
220.3
349.0

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

133

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
table

8 2 .—M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A C C ID E N TS IN E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 T O 1902, B Y
O C C U PA TIO N S A N D A G E G R O U P S —Concluded.
Commercial travelers.

Age group.
Years of
life.

All occu p ied males 15 years
a n d o v e r ...............................

29,519,574

15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years.............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

3,768
20, 739
66,327
49, 722
31,431
14,925
4,908

Coal heavers.

Deaths Rate Stand­
per
ard
from 100,000
rate
acci­
popu­ for all
dents. lation. males.

75.8

79.5

29,519,574

22,372

75.8

79.5

9.6
27.1
28.2
66.8
60.3
122.2

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

6,018
8,574
22,008
19,725
12,768
6,141
2,112

4
11
18
30
23
12
8

66.5
128.3
81.8
152.1
180.1
195.4
378.8

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

22,372
2
18
14
21
9
6

Bargemen and lightermen.
15 to 19 years.............................
20 to 24 years.............................
25 to 34 years.............................
35 to 44 years............................
45 to 54 years.............................
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over......................

9,780
11,604
21,168
18,276
14,436
8,985
3,783

48
51
61
65
45
39
16

Deaths Rate Stand­
ard
per
from 100,000
rate
acci­
popu­ for all
dents. lation. males.

Years of
life.

490.8
439.5
288.2
355.7
311.7
434.1
422.9

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

N a vvy laborers.
27,717
60,591
123,555
108,972
87,735
60,807
33,903

31
67
127
125
129
124
81

111.8
110.6
102.8
114.7
147.0
203.9
238.9

44.6
52.6
57.8
78.8
103.5
133.8
182.2

The concluding summary observations regarding the occupation
accident data of England and Wales should prove practically useful
in studies of workmen’s compensation problems. The table following
shows the mortality from accidents by industries or occupations,
for five danger classes, as subsequently explained in detail, first,
on the basis of the crude rate, and, second, on the basis of rates
corrected for variations in the age distribution of the different
employments considered. It will be observed that the changes are
not very material, but the rates are slightly increased for all occupied
males and for all of the five danger classes except Class III, for which
the corrected rate is slightly lower than the crude rate.
T able 8 3 .—C R U D E A N D C O R R E C T E D A C C ID E N T M O R T A L IT Y R A T E S P E R 100,000 P E R ­
SONS E X P O S E D T O R IS K , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 T O 1902, B Y O C C U P A T IO N A L
D A N G E R CLASSES.

Class.

A ll m ales................................................................................
A ll occupied males..............................................................
Danger
Danger
Danger
Danger
Danger

Class I ..................................................................
Class I I ....................................................................
Class I I I ..................................................................
Class I V ..................................................................
Class V ....................................................................

Years of life. Number of
deaths.

Crude
rates.

Corrected
rates.

31,389,867
29,519,574

24,948
22,372

79.48
75.79

79.48
78.66

5,347,332
6,970,230
2,896,260
4,837,752
379,227

1,547
3,796
2,396
7,353
1,386

28.93
54.46
82.73
151.99
365.48

30.36
56.40
81.76
158.81
374.13

The range in accident liability for the five groups is shown to be
very considerable. For Danger Class I the corrected rate was only
30.4 per 100,000, against a rate of 374.1 for Danger Class V.



134

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Considering first in detail Danger Class I, the corrected fatal accident
rates are given for 15 occupations in the following table:
T able 8 4 .—M O R T A L IT Y FR O M A CC ID E N TS P E R 100,000 P E R S O N S E X P O S E D TO R IS K ,
C O R R E C T E D F O R A G E , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y OC C U PA TION S.

Danger Class I.
Years of life.

Number of
deaths.

Clergy m en.............................................................................
Grocers...................................................................................
Clerks......................................................................................
School-teachers.....................................................................
Shoemakers...........................................................................
Printers..................................................................................
Cab inetmakers......................................................................
Gardeners...............................................................................
W ool manufacture...............................................................
Tailors....................................................................................
Commercial travelers...........................................................
Bakers....................................................................................
Cotton manufacture.............................................................
Tanners..................................................................................
T oolm ak ers..........................................................................

118,968
435,042
1,058,352
173,487
573,810
275,451
333,141
615,012
231,849
403,362
191,820
296,448
519,417
28,215
122,958

27
88
211
41
173
71
90
230
76
141
70
100
170
11
48

22.7
20.2
19. 9
23.6
30.1
25.8
29. 7
37.4
32.8
35. 0
36.5
33.7
32. 7
39.0
39.0

17.4
22.1
23.9
26.4
29.1
30.9
31.7
33.4
34.0
35.4
36.7
37.0
37.4
39.2
39.5

T otal............................................................................

5,347,332

1,547

28.9

30.4

Occupation.

Crude
rates.

Corrected
rates.

The lowy
est accident rate for this group was experienced by clergy­
men, or 17.4 per 100,000, against a rate of 39.5 for toolmakers.
The average for the group was 30.4.
Danger Class II includes 17 specific occupations. The details for
this group are given in the table following:
T able 85.—M O R T A L IT Y F R O M A CC ID E N T S P E R 100,000 PE RSO N S E X P O S E D TO R IS K ,
C O R R E C T E D F O R A G E , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y OCCUPATIONS.

Danger Class II.
Occupation.

Years of life- Number of
deaths.

Crude
rates.

Corrected
rates.

Domestic indoor servants..................................................
Butchers................................................................................
Metal workers.......................................................................
Watchmakers and jewelers...............................................
Potters....................................................................................
Engine makers.....................................................................
Blacksmiths..........................................................................
Tramway service.................................................................
Carpenters.............................................................................
Gasworks service..................................................................
Painters.................................................................................
Glassworkers........................................................................
W aiters..................................................................................
Brickmakers.........................................................................
Farmers and graziers...........................................................
Innkeepers.............................................................................
Masons....................................................................................

173,280
317,256
479,613
306,810
107,430
80S, 893
403,242
53,988
799,464
140,820
664,251
77,316
140,682
172,9S0
858,465
253,755
1,121,985

61
128
197
126
45
407
211
24
430
81
414
39
65
99
508
187
774

35.2
40.3
41.1
41.1
41.9
45.3
52.3
44.5
53.8
57.5
62.3
50.4
46.2
57.2
59.2
73.7
69.0

43.1
45.6
45.6
46.3
47.0
50. 7
53.1
53.2
54.2
56.7
57.4
57.8
58. 7
59.8
61.3
63.1
69.7

T otal............................................................................

6,970,230

3,796

54.5

56.4

The range in the rates for this group was from a minimum of 43.1
per 100,000 for domestic indoor servants to a maximum of 69.7 for
masons. The average for the group was 56.4.
The third danger class includes eight specified occupations, as
shown by the table following.



135

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

8 6 .—M O R T A L IT Y FR O M A CC ID E N TS P E R 100,000 PE R S O N S E X P O S E D TO R I S K ,
C O R R E C T E D F O R A G E , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y OC C U PA TION S.

Table

Danger Class III.
Years of life.

N um ber of
deaths.

Corn millers...........................................................................
Brewers..................................................................................
Farm laborers.......................................................................
Chimney sweeps...................................................................
Physicians.............................................................................
Cab drivers............................................................................
Boiler makers........................................................................
Shipbuilding.........................................................................

67,644
82,074
1,638,414
20,310
67,458
629,520
136,242
254,598

50
58
1,324
18
62
506
125
253

73.9
70. 7
80.8
88.6
91.9
80.4
91. 7
99.4

71.6
72.3
76.7
79.0
80.4
85.5
99.6
101.8

T o ta l...........................................................................

2,896,260

2,396

82.7

81.8

Occupation.

Crude
rates.

Corrected
rates.

The minimum rate in this group was experienced by corn millers,
or 71.6 per 100,000, against a maximum rate of 101.8 for men em­
ployed in shipbuilding. The average rate for this group was 81.8.
Danger Class IV includes 10 occupations, as shown by the table
below:
8 7.—M O R T A L IT Y FR O M ACC ID E N TS P E R 100,000 PE RSO N S E X P O S E D TO R IS K ,
C O R R E C T E D F O R A G E , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y OCCU PATION S.

T able

Danger Class IV.
Years of life. Number of
deaths.

Occupation.

Crude
rates.

Corrected
rates.

Railw ay engine drivers and stokers.................................
Quarrvm en.....................................................................
N avvies...................................................................................
D ock laborers........................................................................
Coal heavers..........................................................................
General laborers....................................................................
Ironstone miners.................................................................
Coal m iners............................................................................
Fishermen..............................................................................
Railw ay guards and porters..............................................

197,928
211,743
503,280
265,080
77,346
1,215,042
50,295
1,828,206
70,452
418,380

203
259
684
365
106
2,003
81
2,806
133
713

102.6
122.3
135.9
137.7
137.0
164.9
161.0
153.5
188.8
170.4

120.1
123.8
124.8
135.8
139.0
159.5
161.7
172.3
182.9
188.8

Total.............................................................................

4,837,752

7,353

152.0

158.8

The minimum rate in this group was experienced by railway
engine drivers and stokers, or 120.1, and the maximum by railway
guards and porters, or 188.8. The average for this group was 158.8.
Danger Class Y includes only two occupations. The details are
given in the table below:
T a b l e 8 8 . — M O R T A L IT Y

FR O M ACC ID E N TS P E R 100,000 P E R SO N S E X P O S E D TO R I S K ,
C O R R E C T E D F O R A G E , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y O CCU PATION S.

Danger Class V.
Occupation.

Years of life. Num ber of
deaths.

Crude
rates.

Corrected
rates.

Bargemen and lightermen.................................................
Seamen...................................................................................

88,032
291,195

325
1,061

369.2
364.4

364.3
377.2

Total.............................................................................

379,227

1,386

365.5

374.1




186

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The average for the two occupations combined was 374.1.
As a matter of convenience the crude and corrected rates for the
separate occupations considered, together with the factor used for
corrections, are given in Table 89.
T able 8 9 .—M O R T A L IT Y FR O M A CC ID E N TS P E R 100,000 P E R S O N S E X P O S E D TO R IS K ,
C O R R E C T E D F O R A G E , E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S , 1900 TO 1902, B Y OC C U PA TION S.

Crude and corrected death rates.
Occupation.
A ll males, 15 years of ago and ov er...........
Occupied m ales..............................................
Unoccupied m ales.........................................
Occupied males in L on d on .........................
Occupied males in industrial districts___
Occupied males in agricultural d istricts..
Clergymen.......................................................
Physicians......................................................
School-teachers..............................................
Domestic indoor servants............................
Clerks...............................................................
Commercial travelers..................................
Railway engine drivers and stokers.........

Years of life.

Number
of deaths.

31,389,867
29,519,574
1,870,293
4,129,842
7,748,289
4,235,925

24,948
22,372
2,576
2,677
5,401
2,980

Crude
rates.
79.5
75.8
137.7
64.8
69.7
70.4

118,968
22. 7
• 27
62
67,458
91.9
41
23.6
173,187
35.2
173,280
61
1,058,352
211
19.9
36. 5
70
191,820
102.(3
197,928
203
713
170.4
418,380
506
629,520
80. 4
24
Tramway service...........................................
44.5
53,988
364.4
Seamen............................................................
1,061
201,195
D ock laborers................................................
365
137. 7
369.2
Bargemen and lighterm en..........................
88,032
325
59.2
858, 465
...................................Farmers and graziers 508
1,324
Farm laborers................................................
1,638, 414
80.8
37.4
615,012
Gardeners.......................................................
230
70,452
Fishermen.......................................................
188.8
133
82,074
58
Brewers...........................................................
70.7
187
253, 755
73.7
Innkeepers......................................................
140,682
46.2
Waifcors............................................................
65
435,042
20.2
88
Grocers.............................................................
2.'5,451
25.8
71
Printers...........................................................
Watchmakers and jewelers........................
306.810
126
41.1
317,256
B utchers.............................................. *
..........
128
40.3
67,614
50
73.9
Corn m illers....................................................
296,448
100
33. 7
Bakers.............................................................
403,362
141
35.0
Tailors.............................................................
573,810
30.1
Shoemakers....................................................
173
11
28,215
39.0
Tanners...........................................................
898,893
407
45.3
Engine m akers..............................................
136, 242
125
91.7
Boiler makers................................................
122,958
39.0
48
Toolm akers....................................................
403,242
211
62.3
Blacksm iths...................................................
479,613
41.1
197
Metal workers................................................
1,121,985
774
69.0
Masons............................................................
799, 464
430
53.8
Carpenters.. .................................................
664,251
414
62.3
P a in te rs .........................................................
303,141
90
29.7
Cabinetmakers..............................................
254,598
99.4
253
S hipbuilding..................................................
76
32.8
231,849
W ool manufacture........................................
519,417
170
32.7
Cotton manufacture.....................................
107,430
45
41.9
Potters ...........................................................
50.4
77,316
39
G lassworkers..................................................
153.5
1,828,206
2,806
Coal m iners....................................................
50,295
81
161.0
Ironstone m iners...........................................
211, 743
259
122.3
Quarrymon.....................................................
57.5
140,820
81
Gas works service.........................................
172,980
57.2
99
Brickm akcrs..................................................
20,310
18
88.6
Chimney sw eep s...........................................
106
137.0
77,346
Coal heavers..................................................
1,215,042
2,003
164.9
General laborers............................................
684
503,280
135.9
N avvies...........................................................

Factor for
correction.

Corrected
rates.

1.0000
1.0379
.6357
1.0597
1.0677
.9599
.7650
.8747
1.1193
1.2243
1.2028
1.0003
1.1705
1.1080
1.0630
1.1952
1.0350
. 9861
265,080
. 9868
1.0350
.9495
.8933
.9688
1.0225
. 8560
1.2707
1.0957
1.1608
1.1258
1.1307
. 9687
1.0975
1.0113
.9654
1.0056
1.1193
1.0861
1.0127
1.0152
1.1097
1.0095
1.0074
.9210
1.0676
1.0241
1.0364
1.1449
1.1220
1.1464
1.1223
1.0044
1.0120
.9861
1.0463
.8918
1.0144
.9675
.9185

79.5
78.7
87.5
68.7
74.4
67.6
17.4
80.4
26.4
43.1
23.9
36.7
120.1
188.8
85.5
53.2
377.2
135.8
364.3
61.3
76.7
33.4
182.9
72.3
63.1
58.7
22.1
30.9
46.3
45.6
71.6
37.0
35.4
29.1
39.2
50.7
99.6
39.5
53.1
45.6
69.7
54.2
57.4
31.7
101.8
34.0
37.4
47.0
57.8
172.3
161.7
123.8
56.7
59.8
79.0
139.0
159.5
124.8

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF NORWAY.
The industrial accident experience of Norway is of practical impor­
tance in that the data have been consolidated for a 16-year period
ending with 1910 and correlated to the wages paid, with the resulting
cost of industrial accident insurance determined per 1,000 crowns of



137

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

wage expenditures. The experience is for a large number of repre­
sentative industries, and includes 1,512,491,000 crowns ($405,347,588)
paid in wages, and 25,771,000 crowns ($6,906,628) paid in accident
compensation.. Relatively 17.04 crowns ($4.57), or 1.7 per cent were
required for payments on account of accidents out of every 1,000
crowns ($268) paid in wages.
The most hazardous employments, in the order of their importance,
were rock blasting, with a cost rate of 72.6; tunnel construction, with
a rate of 59.3; canal building and operation, with a rate of 50.7;
sawmills, with a rate of 41.1; laundries, with a rate of 38.4; powder
mills, with a rate of 32.7; metal mining, with a rate of 32.4; furniture
workers, with a rate of 31.9; and river regulation, with a rate of 30.3.
The least hazardous occupations, in the order of their importance,
were tailors, with a rate of 0.2; hatters, with a rate of 2.3; pottery
and earthenware makers, with a rate of 2.4; tobacco manufacture,
with a rate of 2.5; printers, with a rate of 2.6; gold and silver
workers and bookbinders, each with a rate of 3.1; rubber manufac­
turers, with a rate of 3.3; candy makers, with a rate of 3.5; glassworkers, with a rate of 3.8; and shoe factories, with a rate of 3.9.
The details for 78 occupations or industries are given in Table 90.
T able

9 0 .—COST O F IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T IN SU R A N C E OF N O R W A Y * 1895 TO 1910,
B Y IN D U S T R IE S O R OC C U PA TION S.

[Source: Ulykkesforsf.:ringen, 1910.

Utgit av Riksforsikringsanstalten.
Officielle Statistik, V . 195).]

Christiania, 1913 (Norges

I. Accident cost under 10 crowns per 1,000 crowns wages.

Total wage pay­
ments (crowns).

A m ount
paid in com ­
pensation
(crowns).

Compen­
sation in
crowns
per 1,000
crowns
wages.

Tailors.............................................................................................
H at m anufacture..........................................................................
Pottery and earthenware makers.............................................
Tobacco m anufacture..................................................................
Printers...........................................................................................
B ook binderies..............................................................................
Gold and silver works..................................................................
R ubber manufacture...................................................................
Candy m akers...............................................................................
Glassworkers.................................................................................
Shoe manufacture.........................................................................
Cotton industry.............................................................................
N ail m anufacture..................................................................... .
N avy yards....................................................................................
Bakeries..........................................................................................
Tanneries........................................................................................
Brass and copper in d u stry.........................................................
Oleomargarine manufacture.......................................................
Match factories..............................................................................
Dairies.............................................................. ..............................
S teelw orks.....................................................................................
Carriage and car shops................................................................
R ope and net industry......................................*.........................
M eatpacking................................................................................
W ool in d u stry ..............................................................................
Soap and tallow factories............................................................
Iron and steel foundries..............................................................
Canneries........................................................................................

3,689,348
1,970,709
6,256,584
13,365,762
28,732,519
10,375, 111
6,309,765
1,276,715
3,860,791
12,669,977
12,3S8,055
34,656,862
11,999,950
14,077,292
17,862,961
6,521,267
4,227,328
5,165,028
8,204,594
8,735,701
852,870
6,556,631
7,035,531
4,917,449
25,103,186
2,660,943
13,792,113
14,752,096

772
4,498
14,797
33,478
73,812
31,988
19,614
4,207
13,624
48,771
48,457
143,354
56,175
70,921
91,604
35,453
22,763
29,590
50,581
61,353
6, 111
48,795
53,242
38,714
199,984
22,729
118,122
135,305

0.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.8
3.9
4.1
4.7
5.0
5.1
5.4
5.4
5.7
6.2
7.0
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.9
8.0
8.5
8.6
9.2

Total.'..........................................................................................

288,017,138

1,478,814

5.1

Industry or occupation.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
10.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.




138

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 9 0 — COST OF IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T IN SU R A N C E OF N O R W A Y , 1895 TO 1910,
B Y IN D U S T R IE S O R OC C U PA TION S—Concluded.

II.

Accident cost 10 to 19.9 crowns per 1,000 crowns wages.

Industry or occupation.

T otal wage pay­
ments (crow ns).

29. Dyehouses......................................................................................
30. Iron fnrnaces..................................................................................
31. Private railways...........................................................................
32. Street railways...............................................................................
33. Electric construction and repair................................................
34. T ool manufacture.........................................................................
35. Painters..........................................................................................
36. Chimney sweeps...........................................................................
37. Breweries........................................................................................
38. Machine shops.................... .........................................................
39. Paper m anufacture......................................................................
40. F lou rm ills...................................................................................
41. Brickmakers...................................................................................
42. Celluloid m anufacture.................................................. ..............
43. Blacksm iths...................................................................................
44. Plum bers and gas fitters.............................................................
45. Cement workers.............................................................................
46. Distilleries......................................................................................
47. Carpenters......................................................................................
48. R afting............................................................................................
49.. W ood-pulp m anufacture.............................................................
50. Coopers............................................................................................
51. Sheet-iron workers........................................................................
52. Shipbuilding (iron )......................................................................
53. Lim e workers.................................................................................
54. Chemical industry........................................................................
T otal............................................................................................ ;

Compen­
Am ount
paid in com ­ sation in
crowns
pensation
per 1,0€0
(crow ns).
crowns
wages.

2,917,210
1,542,002
11,319,967
8,401,961
6,857,116
1,218,400
14,122, 200
1,263,071
24,505,673
56,931,447
31,611,124
16,734,902
24,735,3G0
45,332,145
5,576,434
5,264,097
4,091,015
2,257,167
118,505,943
34,449,556
41,070,956
3,868, 7C1
4,142,925
83,324,602
1,635,747
4,756,599

29,116
15,840
122,732
91,890
74,800
13,640
160,511
14,500
285,496
671, 040
385,088
212, ISO
334,675
627,011
76,742
75,674
59,955
33,150
1,754,875
560,823
672,770
64,038
69,630
1,517,125
31,233
92,998

10.0
10.3
10.8
10.9
10.9
11.2
11.4
11.5
11.7
11.8
12. 2
12. 7
13.5
13. 8
13.8
14.4
14. 7
14. 7
14.8
16.3
in. 4
16.6
16.8
18.2
19.1
19. 6

556,436,445

8,047,560

14.5

III. Accident cost 20 to 29.9 crowns per 1,000 crowns vjages.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
C9.

Electric power plants.................................................................. ■
Shipbuilding (w ood ).................................................................... ■
Forestry..........................................................................................
Lighthouse service........................................................................i
Fish and whale oil manufacture................................................1
Docks and wharves......................................................................i
R oad constraction........................................................................!
Copper smelters............................................................................. !
W ood carvers and turners...........................................................;
Government railways.................................................................. 1
Masons.............................................................................................1
H ou seb u ild in g............................................................................. i1
Peat manufacture......................................................................... I
Railway construction.................................................................. !
Stone and slate quarries.............................................................. i|

3.733,731
9,245,033
17,811,322
1,907,744
4,208,680
127,522,405
3,892,052
1,922,779
3,406,4/5
43,797,954
10,883,200
60,906,139
1,109,256
9,928,775
34,946,310

74,663
187,535
369,136
41,451
94,655
2,883,936
91,525
45,375
85,074
1,112,105
287,831
1,637,559
33,092
297,017
1,045,259

20.0
20.3
20.7
21.7
22.5
22.6
23.5
23. 6
25.0
25.4
26.4
26.9
29.8
29.9
20.9

T otal............................................................................................

335,221,855

8,286,213

24.7

IV . Accident cost SO to 39.9 crowns per 1,000 crovms ivages.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.

River regulation. .
Furniture workers
Metal m ining........
Powder m ills........
Laundries..............

3,895,591
15,922,171
48,534,396
1,434,621
1,469,210

118,157
507,306
1,570,721
46,967
56,475

30.3
31.9
32.4
32.7
38.4

Total...................

71,255,989

2,299,626

32, a

V. Accident cost 40 crowns and over per 1,000 crowns wages.
75.
76.
77.
78.

S aw m ills........................................................................................
Canal construction and operation.............................................
Tunnel construction....................................................................
R ock blasting........... ....................................................................

18,624,827
9,667,5?5
1,974,099
4,583,118

766,057
490,181
117,124
332,787

41.1
50.7
59.3
72.6

T otal............................................................................................

34,849, CO

1,706,149

49.0

A 11industries and occupations.........................................................

1,512,491,030

25,771,224

17.0




139

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

ACCIDENTS IN THE NORWAY FISHERIES.1

There are few occupations for which the available data regarding
accident liability are of more interest than the fisheries. For the
United States, excepting the Gloucester fisheries,2 practically no
useful and conclusive data are obtainable. The following statistics,
derived from official sources, for the Norway fisheries are, therefore,
of special value. The table following exhibits the number of acci­
dents reported and compensated for under the Norwegian law pro­
viding for the compulsory accident insurance of fishermen:
9 1 .—A C C ID E N TS R E P O R T E D A N D C O M P E N S A T E D A N D R A T E P E R 10,000 P E R ­
SONS IN S U R E D , F IS H E R M E N ’ S A C C ID E N T IN S U R A N C E D E P A R T M E N T , N O R W A Y ,
1909 TO 1912.

T able

Compensated accidents result­
ing in—

Accidents reported.

Year.

Num ber
insured.

Death.
Com­
pen­
sated.

N ot
com ­
pen­
sated.

Total.

Rate
per
10,000.

Disability.

Num ­
ber.

Rate
per
10,000.

Num ­
ber.

Rate
per
10,000.

1909........ ............................
1910.....................................
1911................... .................
1912.....................................

91,240
89,925
87,832
87,890

422
342
291
260

116
122
92
102

538
464
383
362

59.0
51.6
43.6
41.2

186
199
163
131

20.4
22.1
18.6
14.9

236
143
128
129

25.9
15.9
14.6
14.7

Total........................

350,893

1,315

432

1,747

49.0

679

19.0

636

17.8

The total number of accidents, whether compensated for or not,
during the four-year period was 1,747, which on the basis of the total
number of 356,893 exposed to risk one year results in an accident
rate of 49 per 10,000 persons insured. The maximum rate of 59
prevailed in 1909, and the minimum rate of 41.2 prevailed in 1912.
Considering compensated accidents only, it is shown that the fatality
rate was 19 per 10,000 and the serious disability rate was 17.8. The
fatality rate of 1.9 per 1,000 is relatively low, but in determining this
rate fishermen in all branches of the industry are considered.
Differentiating the three branches— that is, coast fisheries, highsea fisheries, and whalers and sealers— it is shown by the following
table that the fatality rates vary considerably, but unfortunately
the data in detail are available for only the year 1912, when the com­
bined accident rate was exceptionally low.
1 Data are from the official annual reports of “ Fiskerforsikringen,” Norway. 1912.
2 During the period 1896-1910 the average fatality rates in Gloucester (Mass.) fisheries was 12.8 per
thousand em ployed. The total num ber of lives lost during this period was 791. This calculation is
based upon special returns m ade and com piled for m any years b y Procter Bros., Gloucestor, Mass.




140

BULLETIN OF XHrJ BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 9 2 ,-N U M B E R A N D R A T E

P E R 10,000 P E R S O N S IN S U R E D OF A C C ID E N TS R E ­
S U L T IN G IN D E A T H A N D IN D IS A B IL IT Y , F IS H E R M E N ’ S A C C ID E N T IN SU R A N C E
D E P A R T M E N T , N O R W A Y , 1912, B Y C LASSES O F F IS H E R IE S .

Compensated accidents resulting in—

Class of fisheries.

Number
insured.

Total compensated
accidents.

Death.

Disability.

Number. Rate per Number. Rate per Number. Rate per
10,000.
10,000.
10,000.
Coast fisheries............................
High-sea fisheries......................
Whalers and sealers..................

18,540
07,013
2,337

35
91
5

18.9
13.6
21.4

31
95
3

10.7
14.2
12.8

66
186
8

35.6
27.8
34.2

Total.................................

87,890

131

14.9

129

14.7

260

29.6

It is shown by this table that the fatality rate was highest in whaling
and sealing, or 21.4 per 10,000, against a rate of only 13.6 in the highsea fisheries and 18.9 in the coast fisheries. The very low rate in the
high-sea fisheries is particularly significant and may be accepted as
evidence of an unusually careful and skilled body of employees.
The conditions under which the North Sea fisheries are carried on are
well brought out in the report of the Scottish departmental com­
mittee on the North Sea fishing industry, including notes on the
fishing fleets of Norway and maps illustrative of the fisheries in the
North Sea and the adjacent seas, by the principal countries interested.
The Norwegian fishery administration is described, but there are no
data in the report regarding the hazards of the industry.
The accident liability, by age, is brought out with approximate
accuracy in the returns for 1912. A strictly conclusive statement
should represent the experience for a period of years, for which,
however, the data are not available at the present time.
9 3 .—N U M B E R A N D R A T E P E R 10,000 P E R S O N S IN S U R E D O F A C C ID E N TS R E ­
S U L T IN G IN D E A T H A N D IN D I S A B IL IT Y , F IS H E R M E N ’ S A C C ID E N T IN SU R A N C E
D E P A R T M E N T , N O R W A Y , 1012, B Y A G E G R O U P S .

T able

Compensated accidents resulting in—
Total compensated
accidents.
Age group.

Number
insured.

Death.

Disability.

Number. Rate per Number. Rate per Number. Rate per
10,000.
10,000.
10,000.
15 to 24 years..............................
25 to 31 years..............................
35 to 44 years..............................
45 to 54 years..............................
55 to (1 years. ....................
(v> to 74 years..............................
75 to 84 years
R5 to 04 von in

23,884
18,702
10,403
14,138
10,031
4,038
677
23

43
38
18
14
13
5

18.0
20.3
11.0
9.9
13.0
12.4

23
19
21
30
25
11

9.6
10.2
12.8
21.2
24.9
27.2

66
57
39
44
38
16

27.6
30.5
23.8
31.1
37.9
39.6

T otal..................................

87,890

131

14.9

129

14.7

260

29.6




141

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

This table would seem to warrant the conclusion that the fatality
risk is slightly greater at ages under 45 than at 45 and over, but that
the serious disability risk increases gradually from youth to old age.
During the four years ending with 1912 there were 636 compen­
sated accidents resulting in invalidity, of which number 434, or 68.2
per cent, caused a degree of invalidity equivalent to less than 20 per
cent of the earning capacity; 157 accidents, or 24.7 per cent, caused
a degree of invalidity equivalent to an earning capacity of from 20
to 49 per cent; and 45 accidents caused a degree of invalidity equiva­
lent to an earning capacity of from 50 per cent to 100 per cent, or 7.1
per cent of the total number of compensated invalidity cases.
The insurance experience is not given in complete detail. It ap­
pears that the premiums collected are insufficient to pay the claims
for each branch of the fisheries, as shown by the following table,
which gives the combined results for the four years ending with 1912:
T a b l e 9 4 . — PR E M IU M S

A N D CLAIM S P A ID , F IS H E R M E N ’ S A C C ID E N T IN S U R A N C E D E ­
P A R T M E N T , N O R W A Y , 1909 TO 1912, B Y CLASSES OF F IS H E R IE S .

Class of fisheries.

High-sea fisheries............................... .................................................................................
Coast fisheries.......................................................................................................................
Whalers and sealers............................................................................................................
Boatmen...................... .........................................................................................................
Total.........................................................................................................................

Premiums
paid.

Claims
paid.

$111,562.77
30,338.41
2,761.47
826.24

$123,418.29
33,624.62
6,192.67
1,608.00

145,488.88

164,843.58

The total premiums received, according to this table, amounted to
542,869 crowns ($145,488.88), whereas the claims paid amounted to
615,088 crowns ($164,843.58); in other words, during the four years
all the administration expenses and in addition thereto 11.74 per
cent of the claims, must have been provided for by general taxation.
It may be stated in conclusion that the fishery industry of Norway
is one of the most important industrial pursuits, and that according
to the industrial census of 1909 no other industry approaches it in
the number employed. In fact, all the manufacturing industries
combined during that year employed only 95,251 males, against 91,240
males employed in the fisheries.

GERMAN INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE EXPERIENCE.
The German industrial accident experience data are of special
interest on account of the long period of years that the compulsory
system of workmen’s compensation insurance has been in operation.
The experience data are separately reported for the 66 industrial acci­
dent associations, conveniently consolidated for the years 1901 to 1912
in the table below. This table shows, first, the number of full-time




142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

workmen on the basis of 300 working days per annum, or 3,000 work­
ing hours. In addition to the number of industrial accidents of all
kinds the table shows the degrees of injury— fatal, permanent (total
or partial), and temporary. The table gives the actual numbers as
well as the relative rates per 1,000 of full-time workmen employed.
The experience is exclusive of the persons employed in connection
with governmental administrative bodies, employing 728,415 full-time
workmen in 1912.
T able

9 5 .—N U M B E R OF IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S C O M P E N SA T E D F O R F IR S T TIM E ,
B Y R E S U L T S O F IN J U R Y , IN G E R M A N Y , 1901 TO 1912.
[Source: Am tliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1901 to 1912.]

Year.

Full-time
(300-day)
employees.

Total
num ber of
accidents.

Permanent Permanent Temporary
Fatal
total in­
partial in­ disability
(over 13
accidents. capacity.
capacity.
w eeks).

1901.........................................
1902.........................................
1903.........................................
1904.........................................
1905.........................................
1903.........................................
1907.........................................
1908.........................................
1909............................ ...........
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912........................................

6,000,615
6,226,5S4
6,553,514
6,868,496
7,159,842
7,512,728
7,869,421
7,868,531
7,945,797
8,291,936
8,653,302
9,011,570

55,525
57,244
60,550
65,205
68,300
71,227
75,370
74,581
70,986
69,311
70,423
74,488

4,979
4,572
4,720
4,976
5,154
5,398
6,078
5,939
5,612
5,292
5,832
6,594

595
605
621
603
572
578
571
566
453
453
413
352

26,158
26,680
27,427
28,8C8
29,423
30,134
30,280
29,114
25,726
23,800
22,878
23,566

23,793
25,387
27,782
30,758
33,211
35,117
38,441
38,962
39,195
39,766
41,300
43,976

Total...........................

83,962,336

813,270

65,146

6,382

324,054

417, CSS

9 6 .—N U M B E R O F IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS C O M P E N SA T E D F O R F IR S T TIM E ,
P E R 1,000 F U L L -T IM E W O R K E R S , B Y R E S U L T S O F IN J U R Y , IN G E R M A N Y , 1901 TO
1912.
[Source: A m tliche Nachrichten des Reiehs-Versicherungsamts, 1901 to 1912.]

T able

Rates per 1,000 full-tim e employees.
Year.

Full-time
(300-day)
employees.

A ll acci­
dents.

Fatal
accidents.

Permanent Permanent Temporary
total in­
partial in­ disability
(over 13
capacity.
capacity.
weeks).

1901.........................................
1902.........................................
1903.........................................
1904.........................................
1905.........................................
1903.........................................
1907.........................................
190S.........................................
1909.........................................
1910.........................................
1911.........................................
1912.........................................

6,000,615
6,226,584
6,553,514
6,868,496
7,159,842
7,512,728
7,869,421
7,868,531
7,945,797
8,291,936
8,653,302
9,011,570

9.25
9.19
9.24
9.49
9.55
9.48
9.58
9.48
8.93
8.36
8.14
8.27

0.83
.73
.72
.72
.72
.72
.77
.76
.70
.64
.68
.73

0.10
.10
.09
.09
.08
.08
.07
.07
.06
.05
.05
.04

4.36
4.28
4.19
4.20
4.11
4.01
3.85
3.70
3.24
2.87
2.64
2.62

3.96
4.08
4.24
4.48
4.64
4.67
4.89
4.95
4.93
4.80
4.77
4.88

T otal...........................

89,962,336

9.04

.73

.07

3.60

4.64

The average industrial accident rate in the experience of industrial
accident insurance institutions for the 12-year period under obser­
vation was 9.04 per 1,000 full-time workmen employed. Based
upon the average number of persons employed, the rate would be




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

143

7.94 per 1,000, a difference of 1.10 per 1,000 when compared with
the rate determined on the basis of the full-time employees; but for
strictly scientific purposes this method is to be preferred to the more
crude method in common use, of determining the rate on the basis
of the average number employed, which is frequently obtained only
by a simple addition of the numbers ascertained at different periods
during the year and divided by the number of periods considered.
For the year 1912 the accident rate as determined on the basis of the
average number of persons injured was 7.32, against a rate of 8.27
as determined on the basis of 1,000 normal full-time employees.
The fatal accident rate was increased from 0.65, as ascertained by
the first method, to 0.73 according to the second. The practical
difficulty in the way of the universal adoption of the more useful and
conclusive rate, based on full-time employees only, lies in the reluc­
tance on the part of employers to undertake the necessary calcula­
tions, involving a slightly more complex method of bookkeeping, to
determine at the end of each year the actual number of hours of
labor performed, which, divided by 3,000, would give the number
of full-time employees during the year. In other words, by thus
reducing the number of employees from a theoretical average to a
true exposure the accident rates are necessarily increased. For
the year 1912, the average number of workmen insured under the
German industrial accident system was 10,178,577, whereas the num­
ber of full-time employees, as determined by the method explained,
was 9,011,570. Or, to express it differently, reducing the average
number of employees to 100, the number of full-time workmen would
be represented by 88.5.
The German industrial accident experience data have been made
available in several important and conveniently accessible publica­
tions. It would therefore not seem necessary to enlarge upon the
details of the German experience, but for the purpose of comparison
with other data, the following tables are included. The statistics are
for the period 1897 to 1908, and it has not seemed necessary to
bring them down to date on account of the large amount of labor
involved and the practical certainty that the results would probably
not be modified in essential particulars. Accidents resulting in tem­
porary incapacity of 13 weeks or less are not included.




144

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

9 7 .—N U M B E R O F IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N TS R E P O R T E D A N D N U M B E R COM­
P E N S A T E D B Y R E S U L T S O F I N J U R Y , C O M P E N SA T IO N P A ID , A N D COST O F ACCI­
D E N T P R E V E N T IO N , G E R M A N IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T A SSO C IA T IO N S, 1897 TO 1908,
B Y IN D U S T R IE S .1

T able

Accidents resulting in—
7 otnl accidents.
Industry.

Mining..........................................
Quarrying.....................................
Glass, potteries, and brickm aking......................................
Iron and steel..............................
Small metal ware, tools, and
musical instruments...............
Chemicals.....................................
Gas works and waterworks-----Textiles.........................................
Paper and printing....................
Leather ana clothing.................
W oodw orking.............................
Food and toba cco......................
Flour milling, sugar, dairies,
distilleries, and scarch...........
Private b u i l d i n g .....................
Private railways.........................
Warehousing and teaming.......
Inland shippin g.: ......................
Merchant marine........................
Total...................................

Total
number of
full-time
(300-day)
employees.

7,388,942
1,867,734

Death.

N um ­
Percent N um ­ Percent N um ­ Percent
of total
Number
ber
o ftota l
reported. compen­ compen­ ber. compen­ ber. compen­
sated.
sated.
sated.
sated.
862,582 104,207
108,018 26,470

12.08
24.51

15,243
2,974

14.63
11.24

915
254

4,021,251
108,251 25,311
12,667,661 1,104,080 136,021

23.38
12.32

2,203
7,504

8.70
5.52

128
1,465

.51
1.08

25,261
17,382
3,925
30,452
17,018
11,351
49,858
16,988

16.05
15.18
9.27
23.36
18.53
24.49
25.23
23.87

811
1,386
354
1,199
905
466
1,885
497

3.21
7.97
9.02
3.94
5.32
4.11
3.78
2.93

279
323
53
249
145
113

1.10

88

1.00

64

.18
.38

237,029 39,996
667,652 139,204
6,462
67,765
237,820 52,497
35,930
8,108
5,050
37,261

16.87
20.85
9.54
22.07
22.57
13.55

3,416
12,753
785
4,987
1,871
1,322

8.54
9.16
12.15
9.50
23.08
26.18

511
1,762
223
378
77
20

1.28
1.27
3.45
.72
.95
.40

78,496,277 j4,317,977 |715,561

16.57

60,561

8.46

7,047

.98

4,200,992
2,037,878
636,133
9,715,484
3,621,155
3,109,049
3,902,851
3,900,8o2
3,493,496
12,118,060
957,256
3,539,708
615,463
702,302

157,409
114,530
42,325
130,333
91,842
46,358
197,620
71,172

Accidents resulting in—

Industry.

1.86
1.35
.82
.85

Compensated
accidents.

Accident Cost of
com pen­ accident
Tem po­
sation
Per cent
rary in­
preven­
paid
caused
capacity. Total per
tion per
per 1,000
b y ma­
$1,000
1,000
chinery full-time received
full-time per 1,000
em ­
in wages.
em ­
Per cent
full-tune ployees.
o f total
Number. com pen­ Number. ployees.
em ­
ployees.
sated.
Permanent partial
incapacity.

37,787
10,118

36.26
38.22

50,262
13,124

14.10
14.17

1.60
1.68

$20.11
18.97

$0.02
.43

8,466
72,033

33.45
52.96

14,514
55,019

6.29
10.74

1.68
3.62

7.82
11.84

.12
.10

18,779
11,220
1,291
18,152
8,770
8,151
23,456
5,870

74.34
64.55
32.89
59.61
51.53
71.80
47.05
34.55

5,392
4,453
2,227
10,852
7,198
2,621
24,429
10,557

6.01
8.53
6.17
3.13
4.70
3.65
12.78
4.35

3.46
1.82
.56
1.84
2.88
1.95
7.31
1.15

5.45
12.00
9.26
5.02
6.19
4.61
13.98
4.98

.07
.47
.11
.08
.11
.03
.17
.18

19,186
54,505
3,399
15,486
2,017
1,620

47.97
39.15
52.60
29.50
24.88
32.08

16,883
70,184
2,055
31,646
4,143
' 2,088

11.45
11.49
6.75
14.83
13.17
7.19

2.85
1.00
.38
1.05
1.44
1.41

.19.64
14.61
9.54
16.66
20.79
15.96

.24
.27
.07
.10
.16
1.70

320,306

44.76

327,647

9.11

2.29

12.20

.20

M ining.............................................
Quarrying.......................................
Glass, potteries, and brickmaking.........................................
Iron and steel.................................
Small metal ware, tools, and
musical instruments.................
Chemicals......................................
Gas works and waterworks........
Textiles..................................... .
Paper and printing......................
Leather and eloih m g...................
W oodw orking................................
Food and tobacco.........................
Flour milling, sugar, dailies,
distilleries, and starch..............
Private building............................
Private railways............................
Warehousing and team ing.........
Inland shipping............................
Merchant m arine..........................
T otal.....................................

Permanent
total incapacity.

1 Source: Verein dcutschcr Rcvisions-Ingenieure.

Schriften, N o. 10 (25 Jahre Unfallverhutung.

B e arb . von E. Bauer, Berlin, 1910).

2 This total is not the correct sum of the items.




The figures are given as show n in the original report.

145

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

The tables give only tho averages for certain specified groups of
industries. For additional information regarding subgroups or im­
portant branches, the original experience as published in the annual
reports of the imperial insurance office,1 and in the review of 25 years
of accident prevention in German industry, published by the German
Society of Supervising Engineers,2 must be consulted. Considering
the experience as a whole, it is shown that for the period 1897 to
1908 the rate of compensated accidents per 1,000 of full-time em­
ployees was 9.11; the accident rate due to machinery only was 2.29
per 1,000; the average compensation cost per $1,000 paid in wages
was $12.20, equivalent to 1.22 per cent; and the average cost of
accident prevention was $0.20 per $1,000 paid in wages. The in­
dustry best illustrating the very material differences in the average
number of persons employed and the number of full-time workmen
on the basis of 3,000 working hours per annum is the German stone
industry, which in 1908 returned 439,719 insured persons, but only
109,566 full-time employees. The accident rate in this industry was,
therefore, increased from 6.04 on the basis of the average number
insured, to 15.67 as determined on the basis of full-time employees.
In other words, industries with much irregularity of employment, par­
ticularly seasonable trades, require to be considered on the basis of
full-time employees rather than on the average number of persons
employed as usually determined by calculating a mean of the num­
ber at work on January 1 and July 1.
The general causes or contributing factors of industrial accidents
in German industry during the period 1885 to 1908 are given, in
conclusion, to afford a convenient means of comparison with corre­
sponding statistics for other countries:
T able

9 8 .—G E N E R A L CAU SES OF C O M P E N S A T E D IN D U S T R IA L A CC ID E N TS, E X P E R I ­
ENCE O F G E R M A N IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T ASSO C IATIO N S, 1885 TO 1 9 0 8 .2
Compensated accidents.
Cause.
Number.

Motors and transmission of power
Lifts, cranes, e t c . ............................
Boiler and steam-pipe explosion s.
E xplosives............. ..........................
Heat, acids, steam, gases, etc........
Collapses or breakdowns................
Falls from ladders, stairs, etc........
Loading, lifting, and carrying. . . .
Teaming, vehicles, e tc ....................
R ailw ays...........................................
Shipping............................................
Anim als.............................................
T ools...................................................
A ll others...........................................
T otal........................................

Per cent.

210,558
35,715
3,572
9,993
33,689
165,410
162,074
131,240
61,808
40,355
10,089
13,968
71,911
51,792

21.01
3.56
.36
1.00
3.36
16.51
16.17
13.10
6.17
4.03
1.01
1.39
7.18
5.17

1,002,174

100.00

1 Am tliche Nachriehten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts. Jahresberichte der gewerblichen Berufsgenossense'naften uber Unlallverhutung fur 1911, V olum e V , Berlin, 1912.
2 Verein deutscher Revisions-Ingenieuro. Schriften, No. 10 (25 Jahre Unfallverhiitung. Bearb. v cn E.
Bauer. Berlin, 1910).

58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 10




146

BU LLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

AUSTRIAN INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE EXPERIENCE.1
The compulsory industrial accident insurance experience data of
Austria extend over a period of 20 years, but the complete details
are available only for the last 15 years. The most recent statistics are
for the five years ending with 1911, including summary observations
for the two previous five-year periods. The experience is published
in detail for the purpose of providing an adequate basis for the
required readjustment in the insurance rates, according to danger
classes. The table following exhibits the general accident experience
for the period 1897 to 1911, limited, however, to compensated acci­
dents, with the rates of accident frequency calculated on the number
of full-time workmen employed, instead of the average number
insured. Disabilities of four weeks or less are not subject to accident
compensation, but are cared for by the sickness insurance associa­
tions.
T able

9 9 .—N U M B E R OF C O M PE N SA TE D A C C ID E N TS P E R 1,000 F U L L -T IM E W O R K M E N
IN A U S T R IA , 1897 TO 1911.

Year.

Num ber of
full-time
(300-day)
workmen.

N um ber of Rate per
com pen­
1,000
sated
full-tim e
accidents. workmen.

1897 to 1901...................................................................................................
1902 to 1906...................................................................................................

6,164,095
7,011,595

95,269
119,396

15.46
17.03

1907.................................................. : ............................................................
1908.................................................................................................................
1909.................................................................................................................
1910.................................................................................................................
1911.................................................................................................................

1,608,939
1,661,979
1,702,149
1,767,615
1,813,553

28,696
29,585
28,897
29,695
30,570

17.84
17.80
16.98
16.80
16.86

Total, 1907 to 1911............................................................................

8,554,235

147,443

17.24

The general accident rate increased in the Austrian experience from
15.46 per 1,000 during the five years ending with 1901, to 17.03 during
1902 to 1906. Subsequently thereto the rate increased during the first
two years, but diminished during the three years following, remaining
at practically a stationary level. The average rate for the five years
ending with 1911 was 17.24 per 1,000. The table does not sustain
the frequently expressed opinion that in all compulsory industrial
accident experience of European countries the degree of accident
frequency has constantly and rapidly increased.
The changes in accident frequency, differentiating fatal and non­
fatal injuries, and in the latter case accidents causing permanent and
temporary incapacity for work are disclosed in the table following.
Only compensated accidents, however, are considered.
1Data are taken from Ergebnisse der Unfallstatistik der fiinfjiihrigen Beobachtungs-periode 1907-1911.
Vienna, 1914.




147

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
T able

1 0 0 .—N U M B E R O F C O M P E N S A T E D A C C ID E N T S P E R 1,000 F U L L -T IM E W O R K E R S ,
B Y R E S U L T S O F IN J U R Y , IN A U S T R IA , 1897 TO 1911.
Fatal accidents.

Year.

Number of
full-time
(300-day)
workmen.

Nonfatal injuries.
Tem porary disabili­
ties lasting more
than 4 weeks.

Permanent.
Num ber.

Rate per
1,000
full-tim e
workmen.
Num ber.

R ate per
1,000
full-tim e
workmen.

Number.

Rate per
1,000
full-tim e
workmen.

1897 to 1901...............
1902 to 1906...............

6,164,095
7,011,595

3,871
4,478

0.63
.64

35,940
46,506

5.83
6.63

55,458
68,412

9.00
9.76

1907.............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910............................
1911.............................

1,608,939
1,661,979
3,702,149
1,767,615
1,813,553

1,010
1,038
1,010
975
1,001

.63
.62
.59
.55
.55

10,600
10,310
9,813
10,146
10,781

6.59
6.20
5.77
5.74
5.94

17,086
18,237
18,074
18,574
18,788

10.62..
10.97
10.62
10.51
10.36

Total, 1907 to 1911.

8,554,235

5,034

.59

51,650

6.04

90,759

10.61

Fatal accidents are shown to have decreased from an average of
0.63 per 1,000 during the first five years and 0.64 during the second
to 0.59 during the third five years. The lowest fatality rate prevailed
during the last two years of the 15-year period under observation.
Serious injuries causing permanent incapacity for work increased
from 5.83 per 1,000 during the first five years, to 6.63 during the
second, but the rate diminished to 6.04 during the last five years,
and reached a point as low as 5.74 per 1,000 during the year 1910.
Serious injuries causing temporary incapacity for work increased
from 9 per 1,000 during the first five years to 9.76 during the
second and 10.61 during the third. There was a slight decrease in
the rate during the year 1911, but the increase observed during the
15-year period can not be considered alarming or evidence of an
excessive amount of malingering.
The financial statistics of the experience are given in detail in the
table following, exhibiting (1) the amounts of pay roll contributing
the required premium charges, (2) the amounts paid in premiums,
(3) the per cent of pay roll required for premium payments, (4) the
amounts paid in compensation, and (5) the per cent of claims paid, on
the basis of the pay roll.




148

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

A M O U N T A N D P E R CEN T OF P A Y R O L L OF P R EM IU M S A N D O F C O M PE N ­
S A T IO N P A ID F O R A C C ID E N T IIsS U R A X C E IN A U S T R IA , 1897 TO 1911.

1 0 1 .—

Premium payments.
Year.

Am ount of pay­
roll insured
(crowns).

Am ount
(crowns).

Per cent
of
pay roll.

Compensation paid.

A m ount
(crowns).

Per cent
of
pay roll.

1S97- to 1901.......................................
1902 to 1900.......................................

4.450.232.300
5,423,487,400

77,774,968
301,668,625

1.75
1.87

87,481,675
108,132,872

1.97
1.99

1907....................................................
1908....................................................
1909....................................................
1910....................................................
3911....................................................

1.377.035.000
1,466,064,600
1,543,848,900
1.647.243.000
3.752.169.300

27,549,395
30,308,094
31,923,605
36,029,951
38,110,499

2.00
2.07
2.07
2.19
2.18

25,920,735
26,520,566
25,484,405
26,917,325
28,230,937

1.88
1.81
1. 65
1.63
1.61

Total, 1907 to 1911...............

7,786,360,800

163,921,544

2.11

133,073,968

1.71

The interesting fact is brought out by this table that the cost of
insurance on the pay-roll basis increased from 1.75 per cent of the
amount paid in wages during the first five years to 1.87 per cent during
the second and to 2.11 per cent during the third five-year period.
The percentage of pay roll paid out in compensation increased very
slightly, from 1.97 per cent during the first five years to 1.99 during
the second, but diminished to 1.71 per cent during the third
period. During the year 1911 the percentage was as low as 1.61.
The differences in the two results are probably due to higher expenses
of administration and possibly to increased expenditures on account
of accident prevention.
Considering briefly the results for the year 1911, it is shown that a
contributing pay roll o f-1,752,169,300 crowns ($355,690,367.90) pro­
vided 38,110,499 crowns ($7,736,431.30) in premium payments, or
2.18 per cent. Assuming that the approximate annual earnings of
30,760,000 American male wage earners for the year 1913 were
$15,380,000,000, and of 7,200,000 female wage earners $2,160,000,000,
the total pay roll of American wage earners of both sexes would be
$17,540,000,000, which, contributing at the rate of 2.18 per cent,
would require a compensation cost of $382,372,000 to provide total
compensation payment on the Austrian basis of 1.61 per cent for
the year 1911 of $282,294,000. It must be kept in mind, of course,
that under the Austrian method of compulsory industrial accident
insurance all the required contributions are paid by the employer.
The Austrian industrial accident experience is published in detail
for 625 industries and occupations. For the present purpose the
discussion of the experience is limited to the following table, illus­
trating the accident experience for the five years ending with 1911
for 15 representative groups of employments. It is necessary to
take into account the important fact that Austrian labor and indus­
trial conditions vary quite considerably from those common to the
United States; but, as a rule, the degree of fatal accident frequency



149

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

at least is relatively less in Austria than in this country. This per­
haps is best illustrated by the average fatality rate in coal mining,
which for Austria is 1.19 per 1,000 against *3.71 for the United States.
Accidents resulting in incapacity of 4 weeks or less are not included.
T able

1 0 2 .—N U M B E R OF C O M P E N S A T E D A CC ID E N TS P E R 1,000 F U L L -T IM E W O R K E R S ,
B Y IN D U S T R Y G R O U PS, IN A U S T R IA , 1897 TO 1911.
Rates per 1,000 full-time workmen.
Industrial group.

Incapacity for work.
A ll acci­
dents.

Fatal ac­
cidents.
Permanent. Temporary.

Agriculture (including corn m illing)...................................
Transportation and warehousing.........................................
Metallurgical industries, e t c ..................................................
Stone ind ustry.........................................................................
Metal manufacturing industries...........................................
Machinery, to o l manufacture, etc........................................
Chemical industry..................................................................
KJas, oilj petroleum, etc..........................................................
Textile in d u stry......................................................................
Paper,leather, and rubber....................................................
W oodworking industry.........................................................
Food-producing industry......................................................
Clothing industry....................................................................
Building and contracting.......................................................
Printing, lithographing, e tc ..................................................

22.99
23.82
39.87
16.55
20.15
29.46
13. 64
17. 38
6.22
13. 73
32. 98
13. 00
4. 48
20.61
5.98

1.12
1.10
1.05
.92
.21
.36
.70
.64
.14
.43
1.00
.47
.12
1.01
.04

11.97
8.89
8.15
6.41
5.50
8.13
4.24
4.81
2.51
4. 86
12.81
4.56
1.85
7.82
2.00

9.90
13.83
30.67
9.22
14.44
20.97
8.70
11.93
3.57
8.44
19.17
7.97
2.51
11.78
3.94

T o t a l...............................................................................

17.24

.59

6.04

10.61

The practical utility of this table is quite limited on account of the
occupational and industrial combination unavoidable in a condensed
presentation of the facts. For all industries the general accident
rate was 17.24 per 1,000, the fatal-accident rate was 0.59, the rate of
frequency for accidents causing serious permanent incapacity, 6.04,
and for serious temporary incapacity, 10.61. The highest rate
prevailed in the metallurgical industries, or 39.87, and the lowest in
the clothing industry, or 4.48 per 1,000. The highest fatality rate
prevailed in agriculture, including corn milling, or 1.12 per 1,000, and
the lowest rate in the printing,lithographing, and allied trades, or 0.04.
In the earlier report on fatal industrial accident frequency in the
United States1 the rate assumed for American industry (males) was
0.565 per 1,000. The rate for males now assumed as an average
fatality rate resulting from industrial causes is 0.73. This , latter
estimate, being based on wider experience, is probably nearer the
truth. It is practically certain that the Austrian fatality rates
throughout are lower than the corresponding fatality rates for Amer­
ican industries. It is doubtful, however, whether the same conclu­
sion applies to the Austrian rates for serious injuries causing perma­
nent and temporary incapacity for work.




1 Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor N o. 78, p. 422.

150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

For the purpose of illustrating the variations in the rate of accident
frequency, by single years, during the 15-year period ending with
1911, the present discussion is concluded with the following table,
which fully sustains the earlier observation that there has been no
pronounced upward tendency in the serious accident frequency in
Austrian experience, and that the increase in the accident rate for
injuries causing temporary incapacity for work was also not of an
alarming character, an apparently stationary condition having been
reached during the last six years.
T able

1 0 3 .—N U M B E R OF C O M P E N S A T E D A CC ID E N TS P E R 1,000 F U L L -T IM E W O R K E R S
IN A U S T R IA , 1897 T O 1911, B Y Y E A R S .i

Serious accidents.

Serious accidents.
A ll comYear.

1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

accidents.

14.92
15.01
15.51
15.73
16.07
16.48
16.31
17.02

Fatal
acci­
dents.

0.67
.61
.63
.61
.63
.64
.62
.67

Perma­
Tem po­
nent in­ rary inca­
capacity pacity for
for work.
work.
5.32
5.58
5.95

6.11
6.16
6.42
6.37
6.64

8.82
8.93
9.01
9.28
9.42
9.32
9.71

Year.

1905,
1906,
1907,
1908,
1909,
1910,
1911,

A ll com­
pensated
acci­
dents.

17.39
17.80
17.84
17.80
16.98
16.80
16.86

Fatal
acci­
dents.

0.67
.59
.63
.62
.59
.55
.55

Perma­
Tem po­
nent in­ rary inca­
capacity pacity for
for work. work.

6.81
6.59

6.20
5. 77
5.74
5.95

9.84
10.40
10.62
10.98
10.62
10.51
10.36

i l n comparing the Austrian industrial accident statistics -with corresponding data for the U nited
States, it is necessary to keep in m ind the im portant fact that the Austrian experience rates are calcu­
lated on the num ber o f full-tim e w orkm en—that is, 300 da ys’ labor per annum — w hich, according to
the industries considered, materially changes rates based on the average num ber o f persons em ployed,
as fully brought ou t in the discussion of the com pulsory industrial accident insurance statistics of Ger­
m any. It is also necessary to bear in m ind that, in Austria, disabilities o f four weeks or less are not
covered b y the accident insurance.

STANDARD INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT REPORTING, CLASSIFI­
CATION, TABULATION, AND ANALYSISThe reporting, classification, tabulation, and analysis of industrial
accidents is far from having been developed into a thoroughly wellconsidered branch of statistical science. Even the fundamental
requirement for the accurate and complete reporting of industrial
accidents by uniform methods, and upon uniform blanks, has prob­
ably not yet been attained for any American State.
On the occasion of a conference of the American Association for
Labor Legislation, held in September, 1911, a com m ittee1 was
appointed charged with the specific duty “ to frame a uniform system
of reporting industrial accidents and occupational diseases and tab­
ulating accident statistics.”
i The members of the committee were: Leonard W . H atch, chief statistician of the New Y o rk State
Departm ent of Labor, chairman; Lucian W . Chaney, U nited States Bureau of Labor Statistics; John R .
Commons, at the tim e a member of the industrial commission of W isconsin; D on D . Lescohier, statistician,
Minnesota State Bureau of Labor; and John B . Andrews, secretary, American Association for Labor
Legislation.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

151

The committee, in cooperation with persons and official bodies
interested in accident reporting, prepared a tentative schedule which
was subsequently submitted to public officials, insurance companies,
and representatives of employers and employees, and numerous help­
ful suggestions were received and utilized, and the final draft was
formally adopted at a joint meeting, held in Washington in Decem­
ber, 1911, of the American Association for Labor Legislation and the
American Statistical Association.
Copies of the final draft of the standard schedule for accident
reports were sent out with explanatory letters early in 1912 to State
officials, with urgent suggestions for its adoption. In a majority of
the States it was found, however, that insufficient legal authority
precluded the securing of all the information desired. It therefore
became apparent that legislation would be necessary in many States
before the standard schedule could be generally adopted. The com­
mittee in charge, therefore, agreed upon a standard reporting bill,
as follows:
S t a n d a r d B il l

fob

I n d u s t r ia l A

c c id e n t

R

eports.

An act to require the recording and reporting of certain industrial accidents, and to provide
for its enforcement.
Be it enacted, etc. , as follows:
S e c t i o n 1 .—

Record of accidents.

Every employer of labor, except agricultural or domestic labor, in this State, whether
a person, partnership, or corporation, including the State and all governmental agencies
created by it, shall keep a record of every accident which causes personal injury to
an employee in the course of his employment. The record shall contain such informa­
tion as the (proper official) may require and shall be open to inspection by him at all
reasonable times.
S e c t i o n 2 .—

Report of accidents.

Within 48 hours after any such accident the employer shall send to the (proper
official) a report thereof, stating:
(a) Name, address, and business of employer.
( b) Name, address, and occupation of employee.
(c) Cause of injury.
(d) Nature of injury.
(e) Time of injury.
(f) Place of injury.
(g) Such other information as may be reasonably required by the (proper official).
Subsequent reports of the results of the accident and of the condition of the injured
employee shall be made by the employer at such times and containing such informa­
tion as the (proper official) may require. The reports herein required shall be on or in
conformity with the standard schedule blanks hereinafter provided for. The posting
of the report, within the time required, in a stamped envelope addressed to the office
of the (proper official) shall be a compliance with this section.
S e c t i o n 3 .—

Blanks for reports.

The (proper official) shall prepare and furnish, free of cost, to the employers included
in Section 1 standard schedule blanks for the reports required under this act. The
form and contents of such blanks shall be determined by the (proper official).
S e c t i o n 4.—Reports not evidence.
Reports made under this act shall not be evidence of the facts therein stated in any
action arising out of the accident therein reported.



152

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
S e c t io n

5 .—

Penalty.

Any employer who neglects or refuses to send the report or reports as herein required
shall be liable to the State for a penalty of--------dollars for each offense, recoverable
by civil action by the (proper official).
S e c t io n

6 .—

Time of taking effect.

This act shall take effect on the first day o f .........., 19........
The accident report schedule as agreed upon by this committee
was subsequently modified in minor particulars, largely with reference
to the practical requirements of workmen’s compensation laws. The
blank for first reports, as adopted b y the committee, has served as a
basis, with minor changes, of the accident report blank adopted by
a number of the principal States. It also served as the basis of the
discussion in nearly all the conferences on the subject which have
been subsequently held, and differs but slightly from the standard
blank which was adopted b y the Chicago conference of labor and
workmen’s compensation officials and others interested, which was
held in October, 1914.
The practical difficulties in the way of making comparisons of the
accident statistics of various countries had made the subject of uniform
accident reporting and standard methods of tabulation and analysis
one of serious concern to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
for several years. A conference of labor and workmen’s compensa­
tion officials upon this subject had been under consideration for some
months, and the first meeting was finally held in New York City on
February 26, 1914, chiefly for the purpose of devising a plan for
standardizing forms and methods of reporting and tabulating accident
statistics collected by Federal and State labor bureaus and work­
men’s compensation commissions. The subjects discussed in detail
at this first conference were: (1) The definition of a reportable acci­
dent; (2) the unit of risk; (3) the classification of industries; (4) the
computation of the rate of accidents; (5) accident report forms, and
(6) the time of reporting accidents.
The second meeting of the committee was held in New York City
on April 10, 1914. Among the additional matters taken up were: (1)
The method of reporting accidents causing a disability of less than
the time covered by the adopted definition of a reportable accident;
(2) the classification of accidents according to their consequences;
and (3) the standard method of determining the average number of
men exposed to risk.
The third meeting of the conference was held at Harrisburg, Pa.,
September 2, 1914, in conjunction with a committee of the National
Council for Industrial Safety on standard forms for accident report­
ing. The chief business of the conference was the consideration of a
revision of the Pennsylvania accident report blank. The form ten­
tatively adopted was considerably at variance with the standard



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

153

blank recommended by the earlier meetings of the conference, but it
was explained that the additional items were in conformity to special
State requirements.
The fourth meeting of the conference was held in Chicago on
October 12 and 13, 1914. Among those present1were representatives
of official and corporate bodies directly interested in the subject of
standardization of accident reports and tabulations. The ground
covered by the previous conferences was first gone over with care
and close attention to even minute details of far-reaching practical
importance to those interested. The resolutions finally adopted by
the conference were as follows:
1 . Definition of reportable accident.—(a) All accidents causing death, permanent
disability, or loss of time other than the balance of the day, turn, or shift on which the
accident occurred shall be classified as reportable accidents, and a report of all such
accidents to some State or national authority shall be required, (b) Where a com­
pensation act provides for any expense on account of medical attendance or hospital
treatment, thus necessarily involving a report of such cases, even though resulting in
no loss of time or in a loss less than that specified above, such minor accidents should
be classified separately in all tabulations and compiled reports, (c) The employer
shall be required to enter upon his record all reportable accidents as above defined,
and also all accidents causing a loss of time less than that above specified or requiring
any medical attention.
2. Classification of accidents according to their consequences.—(a) Accidents should
be classified according to their consequences, as resulting in death, total permanent
disability, partial permanent disability, and temporary disability, (b) Accidents
resulting in temporary disability should be classified according to length of tempo­
rary disability so as to show the number terminating in the 2d and 3d days, number
terminating in the 4th to 7th days, inclusive, number terminating in the 2d week,
in the 3d week, in the 4th week, in the 5th to 13th weeks, inclusive, in the 14th week
and later. (Clear definitions of the classes are yet to be adopted.)
3. Time of reporting accidents.—(a) In the case of accidents terminating fatally
within 7 days of the accident occurrence, notice shall be given within 24 hours of
death.. All reportable accidents shall be reported, upon standard accident blanks,
in full, within 7 days of the occurrence of the accident, (b) A committee shall be
appointed to formulate a resolution covering the subject of the final report.
i The minutes of the meeting give the following list of the persons present:
Representatives of official bodies handling accident statistics.—Commissioner Meeker, C. H . Verrill, United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics; A . H . F ay, H . M . W ilson, F. H . W illcox, J. M. Sampson, United
States Bureau of Mines; J. B . Vaughn, P. J. Angsten, R obert Eadie, W . V . Conley, Thomas A . M urphy,
Industrial Board of Illinois; E dw in Mulready, Commissioner of Labor, Massachusetts; Richard L . Drake,
Michigan Industrial Accident Board; Fred C. Croxton, Industrial Commission o f Ohio; A . R . H ouck,
Lew R . Palmer, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry; E. H . D ow ney, W . H . Burhop, Wis­
consin Industrial Commission.
Members o f National Council of Safety Committee on Standard Forms.—C. L . Close, U nited States Steel
Corporation; James B . Douglas, United Gas Im provem ent Co.; Frederick L. Hoffm an, Prudential Insur­
ance Co.; W . B . Spaulding, St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co.
Representative of committee on standard schedules, American Association for Labor Legislation.—Dr.
John B . Andrews.
Representatives of Workmen’s Compensation Servke Bureau, insurance companies, and employers.—
Albert W . W hitney, C. E. Scattergood, C. M. Hanson, W orkm en’s Compensation Service Bureau, New
Y ork C ity; E. G. Trimble, Em ployers’ Indem nity Corporation, Kansas C ity, M o.; Louis I. D ublin,
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.; D udley R . ICennedy, Youngstow n Sheet and Tube Co., Y oungstorm ,
Ohio; George T. Fonda, Bethlehem Steel Co.; R . C. Richards, Chicago & N orth Western Railw ay Co.;
Dr. D . Z. D unott, Western Maryland Railway Co.




154

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

4. Accident report forms.—The form of report adopted to be recommended for first
reports of accidents is as follows:
Stan d a rd Sch edu le

for

A

c c id e n t

R

eports.

FIRST REPORT OF ACCIDENT TO EM PLOYEE.

[To be M e d out and sent in within 7 days of the accident.]

a. Employer’s name...............................................................................................
b. Office address: Street and No.......................; City or village.....................
1. c. Business (goods produced, work done, or kind of trade or transporEmployer,
tation)............................................................................................................
place, d. Location of plant or place of work where accident occurred, if not at
and
office address: Street and No..................... ; City or village..................
time. e. Date on which accident occurred...................................................................
f. Hour of day..........; g. Hour injured person began work that day...........
a. Name.....................................
b. Sex..........; c. Age___ ; d. Single, married, widowed, or divorced.........
e. Number of children under 18 years...............................................................
f. Speak English?..................
2. g. Occupation when injured. ....................; In what department or branch
of work?............................; Was this regular occupation?..................
Injured
If not, state regular occupation..................................................................
person.
h. Length of experience both here and elsewhere in occupation followed
when injured.................
i. Piece or time worker?___ ; j. Wages, or average earnings, per day........
k. Working hours per day---- ; 1. Working days per week.............................
a. Name of machine, tool, or appliance in connection with which accident
occurred......................; By what kind of power driven?.......................
Hand feed or mechanical feed?..................; Part on which accident
occurred.........................................................................................................
Cause, k Describe in full how accident happened........................................................
a. State exactly part of person injured and nature of injury.........................
4.
Nature b. Did injury cause loss of any member or part of a member? If so, deand
scribe exactly...............................................................................................
extent c. Attending physician or hospital where sent: Name and address..............
of
........................................................................................................................
injury, d. Has injured person returned to work?.............................; If so, give date
and hour........................................................................................................
Date of report.................................................; Made out by...................................................
5. Average number of men.—(a) The basis used for the average number of men
should be the actual number of man-hours for the year; that is, the total working
time for all employees of the establishment or the department for the year reduced
to the number of hours required for one man to do the same work. This should be
taken from exact records if such records are in existence, (b) If this exact informa


INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS,

155

tion is not available in this form in the records, then an approximation should be
computed by taking the number of men at work (or enrolled) on a certain day of each
month in the year, and the average of these numbers multiplied by the number of
hours worked by the establishment for the year would be the number of man-hours
measuring the exposure to risk for the year.
6. Computation of rate of accidents.—Accident rates should be expressed in terms of
number of accidents per 1,000 full-time workers; that is, workers employed 300 days
of 10 hours each. (This is in accordance with the practice of Germany, Austria, and
a number of other European countries, and also in accordance with the recommen­
dations of a joint committee of the permanent international committee on social
insurance and the international institute of statistics.)
7. Classification of causes of accidents.—The chair shall appoint a committee on the
classification of causes of accidents, the committee to meet not later than early in
December and to submit its report to a later meeting of the conference.
8. Classification of nature and extent of injury.—The chair shall appoint a committee
on the classification of the nature and extent of injury, the committee to meet not
later than early in December and to submit its report to a later meeting of the con­
ference.
The foregoing results must be considered a decided step in advance
in the direction of efficient and trustworthy industrial accident report­
ing, tabulation, and analysis. The points of difference between the
final blank as adopted by the conference and the earlier form recom­
mended by the American Association for Labor Legislation must be
considered a satisfactory compromise in the direction of harmonizing
conflicting points of view in matters of theory and practice. The
chaotic condition of existing requirements as to accident reporting
in the various States is best shown in the form of an analysis pre­
pared by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics and furnished
for the use of the fourth meeting on standardization of accident
reports and tabulations, held on October 12 and 13,1914. The analysis
is given in full in Appendixes I and II, Appendix I showing the require­
ments as to accident reporting in the various States and Appendix II
the questions jwhich are asked in the accident report forms of 26
States."
Aside from the technical difficulties affecting the adoption of a
standard form of industrial accident reports, there is the additional
and even more complex question of strictly scientific yet practically
useful methods of accident classification by industries and by causes
and nature of injuries sustained.
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS BY INDUSTRIES.

A uniform classification of accidents b y industries is the classifica­
tion of the first importance for the comparison of accident hazards
or costs of compensation. Those classifications which have thus far
been used b y the various States show a great lack of uniformity. At
one extreme we find the list of the Washington compensation act with
only 48 classes and at the other the list of the Massachusetts insur­
ance department with nearly 1,300 classes.



156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The committee appointed according to the action of the Chicago
conference has held one meeting and agreed upon a preliminary report,
which is being used as the basis of the further studies of the com­
mittee. The preliminary report in full is as follows:
PR ELIM IN A R Y R E P O R T OF C O M M ITTE E ON S TAN D A R D CLASSIFICATION O F IN DU STRIES,
A PPO IN TED IN ACCORDANCE W IT H A CTIO N OF TH E JO IN T CONFERENCE ON STAN D ­
ARD IZATIO N O F ACCIDEN T R E PO R TS A N D TABULATIONS, H ELD A T C H ICAGO, OCTOBER
12 AND 13,1914.

The following committee was appointed by Commissioner Meeker
for the purpose of working out a standard classification of industries
for use m the tabulation of accident statistics. This committee w^as
authorized by the joint conference on standardization of accident
reports and tabulations, held at Chicago, October 12 and 13, 1914:

Mr. E. H. Downey, chairman, chief statistician, Wisconsin Industrial Commission,
Madison, Wis.
Mr. F. C. Croxton, chief statistician, the Industrial Commission of Ohio, Columbus,
Ohio.
Mr. L. W. Hatch, chief statistician, Bureau of Statistics and Information, Department
of Labor, Albany, N. Y.
Mr. W. N. Magoun, Insurance Department of Massachusetts, Boston, Mass.
Dr. Alba M. Edwards, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D. C.
Mr. C. E. Scattergood, chairman statistical committee, WorkmenCompensation
Service Bureau, New York City, N. Y.
Mr. W. J. Meyers, statistician, Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington, D. C.
The committee met in New York on December 1 and 2, the follow­
ing members being present: E. H. Downey, F. C. Croxton, L. W.
Hatch, W. N. Magoun, Alba M. Edwards, C. E. Scattergood, W. J.
Meyers.
The committee also had the assistance in its discussions of Mr.
A. H. Fay, United States Bureau of Mines, and Dr. I. M. Rubinow,
Ocean Accident and Guarantee Corporation, New York City.
The classification of industries tentatively agreed upon by the
committee is as follows. It was agreed that further work in arrang­
ing subclassifications should be carried on by various members of the
committee in preparation for a later meeting of the whole committee.
GENERAL GROUP.
Numbers assigned
for Hollerith card.

0000 Agriculture.
1000 Extraction of minerals.
20001
3000 > Manufacturing.
4000J
5000 Construction.
6000 Transportation and public utilities.
7000 Trade.
8000 Service:
Domestic.
Personal.
Professional.
Public, n. o. c.
9000 Miscellaneous.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.
SU B G R O U P S.

(The subgroup lists were not entirely completed.)
Agriculture:
General farming.
Dairy farming.
Power farming.
Stock farming.
Garden or truck farming.
Operating farm machinery—not by farmer—
Threshing.
Ensilage cutting.
Corn shredding.
Extraction of minerals:
Mining—
Coal mines.
Open-pit metal mining—
Copper.
Iron.
Lead and zinc.
Precious metals.
Mining, n. o. c.
Underground mining—
Copper.
Iron.
Lead and zinc.
Precious metals.
Mining, n. o. c.
Auxiliary operations.
Quarrying:
Building-stone quarries—
Blue stone.
Granite.
Limestone.
Marble.
Sandstone.
Slate.
Quarrying and stone crushing.
Cement rock.
Road material.
Clay digging.
Sand and gravel digging.
Ore reduction and concentration.
Manufacturing:
Stone and earth products.
Blast furnaces and smelting.
Rolling mills and steel works.
Machinery and instruments.
Metal products.
Vehicles.
Woodworking.
Leather, and manufactures of.
Rubber and composition goods.
Chemicals and allied products.



157

158

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Manufacturing—Concluded.
Paper, and manufactures of.
Printing, publishing.
Textiles.
Clothing and furnishings.
Food, beverages, and tobacco.
Miscellaneous manufacturing.
Construction:
Clearing, and wrecking and moving.
Grading, excavating, and foundation work—
Road making.
Tunneling.
Erecting—
Bridge.
Track laying
Finishing and equipping—
Plastering.
Plumbing.
Installing elevators, furnaces, boilers.
Tile laying, houses, tunnels, etc.
Transportation and public utilities:
Steam railroads.
Electric railroads.
Cartage and storage.
Livery stables.
Grain elevators.
Stockyards.
Transportation by water—
Steamships.
Sailing vessels.
Barges, lighters, and canal boats..
Stevedoring.
Electric light and power.
Telegraph and telephone.
Natural gas.
Gas works.
Pipe lines.
Waterworks.
Miscellaneous—
Central heating plants.
Garbage disposal.
Sewage disposal.
Trade:
Offices.
Salesrooms.
Yards.
Service:
Domestic—
Maintenance.
Personal—
Amusements.
Professional.
Public, n. o. c.



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

159

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS BY CAUSES.

A classification of accidents by causes involves unusual difficulties,
and in the absence of a satisfactory basis for preliminary considera­
tion, the adoption of a resolution providing for the appointment of a
special committee to consider the subject was evidently called for.
The industrial accident classification of any given State must
necessarily fall short of the degree of completeness required for the
United States as a whole. The limitations of any State classification
are inherent in that many industries important to other sections may
not be carried on at all, or to only a limited extent. In the present
state of imperfect development of workmen’s compensation admin­
istration and State control of industry for the specific purpose of
preventing accidents much may be learned by the study of local
practice in conformity to local conditions. In the classification of the
causes of industrial accidents in the State of Wisconsin an effort has
been made to bring together causes or conditions giving rise to
accidents which seem naturally to belong together. To permit of a
convenient extension or enlargement of the plan adopted, a decimal
numbering system was employed, so that, for illustration, all numbers
up to 400 refer to machine accidents, although as yet not all of
these numbers are actually assigned. The difficulty of cross
classification has been avoided by the omission of all reference to
fault, as, for example, intoxication, illness, improper clothing, etc.
Railway accidents are omitted in the Wisconsin classification, since
they do not come within the scope of the Wisconsin compensation
act. The classification of causes, it is frankly conceded, is also rather
weak with respect to mines, since the mining industry in the State
of Wisconsin is of rather limited extent, consisting chiefly of shallow
lead and zinc mines and open-pit iron mines.
As an aid to the more convenient study of this important aspect
of industrial accident statistics the accident classifications, by causes,
of Wisconsin and Ohio, together with those of the compulsory insur­
ance institutions of Austria and Germany, are given in full in Appen­
dixes III to VI. The translation of the foreign classifications was
provided by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics for the use
of the Chicago conference on standardization of accident reports and
tabulations. All these classifications are in actual use and the details
of the same should, therefore, prove of considerable practical interest
in the required scientific study of the industrial accident problem.




160

BULLETIN OF TIIE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

PR ELIM IN A R Y R EPO R T OF C O M M ITTE E ON STAN DARD CLASSIFICATION OF CAUSES
OF ACCIDENTS, APPOIN TED IN ACCORDANCE W IT H ACTION OF T H E JOIN T CON FER­
ENCE ON STAN DA R DIZA TION OF ACCIDENT R EP O RTS AND TABULATIONS, H E LD AT
CHICAGO, OCTOBER 12 AND 13, 1914.

The following committee was appointed by Commissioner Meeker
for the purpose of devising a standard form for the classification of
the causes of accidents. This committee was authorized at the
Chicago meeting of the conference on the standardization of accident
reports and tabulations called by Commissioner Meeker. At that
meeting there was not sufficient time to discuss this feature of the
work, and upon motion of Dr. Hoffman, of the Prudential Insurance
Co., the chairman of the meeting was authorized to appoint a com­
mittee to meet at a future date to consider the question of the stand­
ardization of a form to cover causes of acciclents. Commissioner
Meeker therefore appointed the following members as committeemen:

L. W. Hatch, chairman, chief statistician, Bureau of Statistics and Information,
Department of Labor, Albany, N. Y.
Mr. F. C. Croxton, chief statistician, the Industrial Commission of Ohio, Columbus,
Ohio.
Mr. E. II. Downey, chief statistician, Wisconsin Industrial Commission, Madison,
Wis.
Mr. A. II. Houck, chief, Bureau of Statistics, Department of Labor and Industry,
Harrisburg, Pa.
Robert E. Grandfield, secretary, Industrial Accident Board, Boston, Mass.
Mr. A. H. Fay, mining engineer, United States Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. 0.
Mr. C. E. Scattergood, chairman, statistical committee, Workmen’s Compensation
Service Bureau, New York, N. Y.
Mr. C. L. Close, member of the Committee on Standard Forms for Accident Report­
ing of the National Council for Industrial Safety, New York, N. Y.
Mr. W. J. Meyers, statistician, Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington, D. C.
The committee met on December 1, at the rooms of the committee
on organization of the ninth international congress on social insurance
in the Russell Sage Foundation Building, 130 East Twenty-second
Street, New York City. The following members were present: L. W.
Hatch, chairman; F. C. Croxton, E. H. Downey, A. R. Houck, A. H.
Fay, I. M. Rubinow, representing C. E. Scattergood; W. N. Magoun,
Robert E. Grandfield, C. L. Close, and W. J. Meyers.
The meeting was called to order by Chairman Hatch, and after a
brief informal discussion, it was decided to prepare a list of causes in
which the principal grouping should be small, not to exceed 10, and
that this should be followed by subgroups under each division. Mr.
Downey proposed the question, What shall be considered a primary
cause of accident? This was answered by adopting the following
definition: “ That the accident should be charged to that condition
or circumstance the absence of which would have prevented the acci­
dent; but if there be more than one such condition or circumstance,
then to the one most easily prevented.”
After three sessions of formal and informal discussion, the accom­
panying form showing causes of accident's was adopted.
With reference to railway accidents the committee recommended
the adoption of the form used by the Interstate Commerce Com­
mission.




161

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

With reference to mining accidents Mr. Hatch suggested that the
United States Bureau of Mines’ form be adopted, but as no agreement
could be decided upon the matter was left in abeyance for future
consideration.
Classification o f accidents, by causes.
Manner of occurrence of machine accident.
Ad­
just­
ing
ma­
chine
or
work.

Start­
ing.

Oper­
ating
and
feed­
ing.

Stop­
ping.

Oil­
ing.

1

2

3

4

5

Clean­ R e­
pair­
ing.
ing.

6

7

Break­
ing of
F ly­
ma­ ing ob­ All
chine
jects. others.
or
work.

8

I. Machinery:
(a) Boilers and steam
pipes..................................
(b ) Prime movers (engines
and m otors)......................
(c) Transmission
appa­
ratus...................................
(d ) W orking m achinery—
(Name, class, or type of
machine to be inserted
here)...................................
(e) Hoisting
apparatus
and conveyers..................
(f) Miscellaneous.................

II. Explosives, electricity, fires, hot and corrosive substances*
(a) Corrosive substances.
(b) Electricity.
(c) Explosives.
(d) Hot substances and flames.
(e) Conflagrations.
III. Falling objects:
(a) Rock, earth, etc.
(b) Collapse of building and walls.
(c) Collapse of scaffold and staging.
(d) Stored or piled-up material.
(e) Objects dropped by other persons.
(f) Objects falling from trucks or vehicles, not loading or unloading.
(g) Objects falling from buildings, trestles, or scaffold.
(h) All others.
IV. Falls of persons:
(a) From ladders.
(b) From scaffolds and platforms.
(c) From vehicles (trucks, wagons, cars, etc.).
(d) From structures in course of erection.
(e) From structures (all others).
(f) From other elevations.
(g) Into excavations.
(h) Into other openings.
(i) On level.
(j) All others.
58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 11



9

i

j

10

162

BULLETIN

OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

V. Handling of tools and objects:
(a) Hand tools in hands of injured person.
(b) Hand tools in hands of fellow workman.
(c) Handling sharp objects.
(d) Loading and unloading.
(e) Carrying and lifting heavy objects (not loading or unloading).
(f) All other objects.
VI. Power vehicles:
(a) Operated on tracks (or cables).
(b) Not operated on tracks.
(c) Operated on water.
VII. Stepping on sharp objects:
(a) On nails.
(b) All others.
VIII. Running into or striking against objects.
IX. Poisonous substances.
X. Miscellaneous:
(a) Flying objects, not from machines, tools, or explosives.
(b) Animals.
(c) Doors, windows, gates (exclusive of elevator gates).
(d) Asphyxiation and suffocation.
(e) Lightning.
(f) Heat prostration.
(g) Frostbites.
(h) Drowning.
(i) Intentional violence.
(j) All others.
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS BY NATURE OF INJURY.

The scientific classification of industrial accidents according to the
nature, extent, and location of injuries, requires to be made with a
due regard to medical and economic considerations. The standard
accident blank calls for information as to the exact part of the person
injured and the nature of the injury, but neither of these two require­
ments is specifically limited and defined. Bodily injuries are most
conveniently classified in conformity to the anatomical basis, but
thus far no generally accepted plan has been agreed upon.
On the occasion of an exhibit made by the Prudential Insurance
Co., at the First International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation,
held in the city of New York in 1913, four charts of industrial acci­
dents according to the nature of the injury were shown, on the princi­
ple of an anatomical basis, briefly described as follows:
Four general groups were adopted: (1) Accidents to the head and
face; (2) accidents to the upper extremities; (3) accidents to the
trunk; and (4) accidents to the lower extremities. The first group—
accidents to the head and face—was subdivided into accidents to
the head, the face, the eyes, and the nose; the second group—




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

163

accidents to the upper extremities—was subdivided into accidents to
the shoulder, the arm, the wrist, the hands, and the fingers; the
third group— accidents to the trunk—was subdivided into accidents
to the collar bone, the ribs, the trunk, and internal injuries; and the
fourth group— accidents, to the lower extremities—was subdivided
into accidents to the hip, the leg, the knee, the ankle, the feet and the toes.
Aside from the foregoing four groups, a fifth subgroup was found
necessary for “ Other and not specified” accidents, including multiple
injuries not admitting of being specifically assigned to any one of the
subgroups. The problem of classification in the case of multiple
injuries is exactly the same as the proper assignment of a primary
cause of death in cases where collateral or contributory causes are
given equal importance. The Prudential classification included
anthracite and bituminous coal miners of Pennsylvania, 1907-1911;
the railway service, New Jersey, 1888-1911; iron mining and lumber­
ing, Minnesota, 1910-1912; and United States Government employees,
compensation experience, 1908-1911. The details of these occupa­
tions are given in four tables of Appendix VII.
For general purposes this classification of the nature of injuries
would seem suitable and sufficient. For the more exacting require­
ments of workmen’s compensation experience, however, a much more
detailed classification is not only essential but, for other reasons,
desirable. The Prudential classification was primarily for exhibi­
tion purposes to visualize in a convenient form the salient facts of the
problem of nonfatal industrial accidents. The wide degree of varia­
tion in the nature of injuries sustained is well brought out by the
classification referred to. For illustration, injuries to the head con­
stituted 5.3 per cent of the total number of nonfatal injuries to
anthracite coal miners; 3.9 per cent to bituminous coal miners;
7,9 per cent to railway brakemen; 14.7 per cent to locomotive
firemen; 11 per cent to men employed in iron mining; 9.5 per cent
to men employed in the lumbering and woodworking industries;
6.7 per cent to the employees of the Isthmian Canal Commission;
and 5.8 per cent to employees of other United States Government
departments.
The corresponding percentages for injuries to the eyes were as
follows: Anthracite coal miners, 1 per cent; bituminous coal miners,
0.9 per cent; railway brakemen, 0.3 per cent; locomotive firemen,
2.6 per cent; iron mining, 9.9 per cent; lumbering and woodworking,
6.2 per cent; Isthmian Canal Commission employees, 6.5. per cent;
and employees of other United States Government departments, 5
per cent. For other details the tables should be consulted.




164

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The economic importance of a scientific and thoroughly compre­
hensive classification of industrial accidents, according to the nature
of the injury sustained, is clearly brought out by the actual experience
under workmen’s compensation law. The nature of the injury
in the case of many accidents is practically the equivalent of the
degree of seriousness, both physical and economic. The classification
previously referred to, however, leaves out of consideration the loss
of a member, or multiple injuries and occupational diseases. As an
illustration of a more precise method of classification the following
analysis of the Federal workmen’s compensation experience, for the
fiscal year 1910-11, will prove of interest:
A CCIDEN TS A C C O R D IN G TO TH E N A T U R E O F T H E IN J U R Y , F E D E R A L W O R K M E N 'S
CO M PE N SA TIO N E X P E R IE N C E , 1910-11.

Nature of injury.

Upper extremities:
Loss of right arm........................................................................................
Loss o f either arm, not specified.............................................................
Fracture o f arm or forearm.....................................................................
Other injuries to either arm or forearm................................................
Loss o f right h a n d .....................................................................................
Loss o f either hand, not specified...........................................................
Fracture o f bones o f h a n d ........................................................................
Other injuries to hand..............................................................................
Loss o f one finger, right hand .................................................................
Loss o f one finger, left hand....................................................................
Loss o f more than one finger, right hand.............................................
Loss o f more than one finger, left hand................................................
Loss of finger or fingers, both hands or either hand, not specified.
Fracture o f fingers.....................................................................................
A ll other injuries to fingers......................................................................
A ll other injuries, upper extremities.....................................................
Total.

Number o f
injuries.

6
2
SO
277
3
1
40
723
47
33
14
14
5
200
1,208
40

Ter cent
of total.

0.1
0)
C
1)
C
1)

1.0
3.0
.5
7.7
.5
.4
.1
.1
.1
2.1
13.5
.4

2,769

Lower extremities:
Loss of either leg...................................
Loss o f both legs................................... .
Fracture o f either thigh...................... .
Fracture o f either leg.............................
Fracture o f both thighs or legs.......... .
Other injuries to thigh or leg"............
Loss o f foot.............................................
Fracture of bones of foot..................... .
Other injuries to foot............................
Loss of toe or toes.................................
All other injuries, lower extrem ities.

29.5

23
8
17
123
1
899
7
163
1,792
21
54

.3
.1
.2
1.3

0)

3,110

Total.
Injuries affecting both upper and lower extremities:
Including fractures.....................................................
A ll other injuries to the extremities.......................

4
47

9.6
.1
1.7
19.1
.2
.6
33.2

(*)

.5

51

.5

Trunk:
Fracture of r ib ......................
Other chest injuries.............
Injuries to b a ck ....................
Hernias...................................
Other abdominal in ju rie s ..
A ll other injuries to trunk..

90
114
365
187
34
444

1.0
1.2
3.9
2.0
.4
4.7

T o ta l.................................. .

1,234

13.2

T otal.




1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

165

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

A C C ID E N T S A C C O R D IN G TO T H E N A T U R E OF T H E IN J U R Y , F E D E R A L TTORKM EN ’ S
C O M P E N S A T IO N E X P E R IE N C E , 1910-11—Concluded.

Nature of injury.

N um ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total.

Loss of either eye......................................
Other injuries to either eye....................
Other injuries to bath eyes....................

16
516

0.2
5.5
.5

Total........................................................

581

6.2

H ead:
Fracture o f skull.......................................
Fracture o f other bones...........................
Concussion o f brain without fracture..
A ll other injuries.......................................

.5
541

.1
.1

5.8
6.5

T otal.................................................... .
Neck:
A ll injuries.................................................

.2

Miscellaneous:
Internal injuries........................................
Poisoning...................................................
A ll other (including m ultiple injuries).
N ot reported.................. ...........................

31
10
784

is:)

8.4

T otal........................................................

1,014

10.8

Grand total............................................

9,381

looo

.3

.1

2.0

The classification used in this table has been rearranged for the two
separate groups of Isthmian Canal employees, and other Federal
employees, in Table D of Appendix VII, represented by one of the
charts of the Prudential exhibit on the occasion of the First Inter­
national Exposition of Safety and Sanitation. The more logical
arrangement of the injuries, according to a strict anatomical basis,
facilitates the study of the subject. The method used in the report
on compensation for injuries to employees of the United States, as
published in Bulletin No. 155 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
would seem to be less satisfactory except for the elaborate details.
It may prove useful in this connection to consider briefly the meth­
ods of accident tabulation, according to the nature of the injury,
in the reports of the chief inspector of factories and workshops for
the United Kingdom. The statistical data have been consolidated
for the period 1908 to 1913 in order to avoid the irregularities
which occur in the distribution of the smaller numbers of a single
year. The table following exhibits the details of 243,245 accidents
to males and 40,792 accidents to females, according to the degree and
the nature of the injury sustained.




166

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A C C ID E N TS, A C C O R D IN G TO D E G R E E A N D N A T U R E O F IN J U R Y , R E P O R T E D TO C E R ­
T IF Y IN G S U R G E O N S , U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1908 T O 1913.

All Ages.
Accidents to—
Degree of accidental injury.

Males.

Females.

Number.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

Nonfatal:
Loss of right hand or arm ...............................................
Loss of left hand or arm ..................................................
Loss o f part o f right h and..............................................
Loss of part o f left hand ..................................................
Loss o f part of leg or fo o t................................................
Fracture of lim bs or bones of trunk.............................
Fracture of hand or foot..................................................
Loss of sight o f one or b oth eyes...................................
Other injury to eyes.........................................................
Injuries to head or face...................................................
B um s or scalds.................................................................
Other injuries....................................................................

6,671

2.7

148

0.4

403
373
8,337
8,439
574
5,083
4,371
331
12,494
15,034
38,020
143,115

.2
.2
3.4
3.5
.2
2.1
1.8
.1
5.1
6.2
15.6
58.9

64
38
1,899
1,463
14
370
738
55
470
2,659
2,791
30,083

.2
.1
4.6
3.6

Total, nonfatal..............................................................
Total, fatal and nonfatal.............................................

236,574
243,245

97.3
100.0

40,644
40,792

(*)

.9
1.8
.1
1.2
6.5
6.8
73.8

99.6
100.0

i Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In this table the data have been classified and enumerated irre­
spective of age; but in order to facilitate the study of these interest­
ing statistics the same data have been arranged in the three following
tables according to age groups.
In the first table which follows, the data are for children 12 and
under 14 years, working half-time.
A C C ID E N T S, A CC O R D IN G TO D E G R E E A N D N A T U R E O F IN J U R Y , R E P O R T E D TO C E R ­
T IF Y IN G SU R G E O N S, U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1908 TO 1913.

Children, ages 12 and under 14 (half-timers).
Accidents to—
Degree of accidental injury.

Males.
Number.

Females.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

Fatal..... . ...................................................................................
Nonfatal:
Loss of right hand or arm ..............................................
Loss of left hand or arm ..................................................
Loss of part o f right h a n d..............................................
Loss of part o f left hand .................................................
Loss of part of leg or foot................................................
Fracture of lim b or bones o f trunk...............................
Fracture of hand or foot..................................................
Loss of sight of one or b oth eyes...................................
Other injurv to eyes........................................................
Injuries to head or face...................................................
Burns or scalds.................................................................
Other injuries....................................................................

8

1.0

1

2
1
36
36
1
31
13

.3
.1
4.7
4.7
.1
4.0
1.7

2

.7

16
14

5.3
4.7

4
36
79
528

.5
4.7
10.0
68.2

7
11
1
1
29
53
166

2.3
3.7
.3
.3
9.7
17.6
55.1

Total, non fatal......................................................
Total, fatal and nonfatal......................................

767
775

99.0
100.0

300
301

99.7
100.0

0.3

In the next table the data relate to young persons, ages 13 and
under 18.



167

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

A C C ID E N TS, A C C O R D IN G TO D E G R E E A N D N A T U R E O F IN J U R Y , R E P O R T E D
C E R T IF Y IN G S U R G E O N S , U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1903 TO 1913.

TO

Young persons, ages 13 and under 18.
Accidents to—
Degree of accidental injury.

Males.
Number.

Females.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

512
Nonfatal:
Loss of right hand or arm ..............................................
Loss of left hand or arm ..................................................
Loss o f part of right hand .............................................
Loss of part of left hand..................................................
Loss o f part o f leg or foot................................................
Fracture o f lim b or bones of trunk..............................
Fracture of hand or foot.................................................
Loss of sight of one or both eyes...................................
Other injury to eyes........................................................
Injuries to head or face'...................................................
Bum s or scalds............................................... ..................
Other injuries.............................................................. : . .

1.0

55

' 0.4

88
82
2,201
1,958
110
1,038
826
48
1,652
1,686
5,908
33,704

.2
.2
4.4
3.9
.2
2.1
1.7
.1
3.3
3.4
11.9
67.6

22
13
794
612
9
136
268
12
103
724
1,323
11,552

.1
.1
5.1
3.9
.1
.9
1.7
.1
.7
4.6
8.5
73.8

Total, nonfatal..............................................................
Total, fatal and nonfatal.............................................

49,301
49,813

99.0
100.0

15,568
15,623

99.6
100.0

And finally in the third table the data are for adults, or persons of
ages 18 and over:
A C C ID E N T S, A CC O R D IN G TO D E G R E E A N D N A T U R E OF IN J U R Y , R E P O R T E D
C E R T IF Y IN G SU R G E O N S , U N IT E D K IN G D O M , 1908 TO 1913.

TO

Adults, ages 18 and over.
Accidents to—
Degree of accidental injury.

Males.

Females.

Number.

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.

6,151

3.2

92

0.4

Nonfatal:
Loss of right hand or arm ..............................................
Loss of left hand or arm ..................................................
Loss o f part o f right h a n d ..............................................
Loss o f part o f left h a n d ................................................
Loss of part of leg or foot................................................
Fracture o f lim bs or bones of trunk.............................
Fracture o f hand or foot..................................................
Loss of sight of one or both eyes...................................
Other injury to eyes........................................................
Injuries to head or face...................................................
Burns or scalds.................................................................
Other injuries....................................................................

313
290
6,100
6,445
463
4,014
3,532
283
10,838
13,312
32,033
108,883

.2
.2
3.2
3.4
.2
2.0
1.8
.1
5.6
6.9
16.7
56.5

40
25
1,089
837
5
227
459
42
366
1,906
1,415
18,365

.2
.1
4.4
3.4

Total, nonfatal..............................................................
Total, fatal and nonfatal.............................................

186,506
192,657

96.8
100.0

24,776
24,868

C
1)

.9
1.8
.2
1.5
7.7
5.7
73.7

99.6
100.0

1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

All of these tables include fatal accidents, which of course modify
the resulting percentage of distribution of specific degrees of injury or
accidents according to the nature of the injury, as the case may be.
The two terms are largely interchangeable or inclusive of each other.
The practical importance of this tabulation is briefly illustrated by
the wide variation in the percentage of accidents due to the fracture



168

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

of limbs or bones of the trunk. For males at all ages the percentage
of such accidents was 2.1; for male children, ages 12 and under 14,
the proportion w^as 4.0 per cent; for young persons, ages 13 and under
18, 2.1 per cent; and for adults, ages 18 and over, 2.0 per cent. An­
other illustration is burns or scalds, which for males constitute 15.6
per cent of the accidents at all ages; 10.0 per cent for children, ages
12 and under 14; 11.9 per cent for young persons, ages 13 and under
18; and 16.7 per cent for adults, ages 18 and over.
The tables bring out the serious limitations of a general classifica­
tion combining the degree of injury and the nature of the injury. It
requires to be said in this connection that the tables condense the
more elaborate details given in the original reports. The classifica­
tion in full is contained in the annual reports of the chief inspector
of factories and workshops.
No matter how important a phase of the industrial accident prob­
lem, it would not be feasible to consider in a brief discussion all the
numerous variations in methods met with in official accident reports.
One of the best classifications of accidents, according to the nature of
the injury, is that of Austria, of which a translation was provided by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the use of the conference on stand­
ardization of accident reports and tabulations. This classification,
consisting of 110 classes, is given in full in Appendix VIII.
The official German classification is more condensed and arranged
upon a fundamentally different principle. This classification is also
derived from a translation by the Bureau of Labor Statistics provided
for the use of the conference on standardization of accident reports
and tabulations and given in full below:
Official classification (24 classes) o f industrial accidents according to the nature o f the injury, made use
o f in the reports o f the Imperial Insurance Office o f Germany.1

I. Burns and scalds.
1. Several parts of the body at the same time and the whole body.
2. Individual parts of the body (arms, legs, head, etc.), excluding eye injuries.
3. Injuries to the eyes.
II. Wounds, contusions, fracturesj etc.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Right arm (or right hand).
Left arm (or left hand).
Both arms (or both hands).
Right leg (or right foot).
Left leg (or left foot).
Both legs (or both feet).

(а) Arms.

(б) Legs.

1 Am tlicheN acliricliteiidesReidisversichcrungsam ts.
tik 1907. pp. 310 fl.




1910.

I.B eih eft.

P a rti.

Gewerbeunfallstatis-

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

169

(c) Nccl: and head.

10. Head and neck, excluding injuries to the eyes.
11. Injuries to the eyes.
id) Trunk.
12. Chest.
13. Back.
14. Shoulders.
15. Ribs.
16. Pelvis (hips).
17. Hernia.
18. Other and several injuries to the trunk.
19.
(e) Several parts of the body (a-d) at the same time.
20.
(/) Injuries to the whole body.
21. III. Injuries through frostbite and various other injuries.
22. IV. Suffocation.
23. V. Drowning.
24. VI. Other fatal injuries (freezing, lightning, heat stroke, etc.).
What is required is a precise differentiation of the facts according
to the objective nature of the bodily injuries sustained in consequence
of industrial accidents, and the degree of the injury sustained, as
measured by resulting incapacity for work, according to its length.
These two elements must not be confused with the cause or the
manner of the injury, as is frequently the case. The term nature of
injury should be strictly limited to the character of the bodily damage
done to the person injured, or rather the descriptive record of the
part or organ of the body injured. Such a classification, in other
words, should be strictly in conformity to an anatomical nomencla­
ture, and in the order of logical sequence the arrangement of the
facts should begin with the skull and end with the feet. As yet no
country, State, or insurance organization has adopted such a classi­
fication, which for many reasons would prove extremely convenient
and practically useful. In the German classification the first group
of accidents resulting in wounds, contusions, fractures, etc., is for
arms, divided properly according to whether the right arm or hand,
the left arm or hand, or both arms or both hands. This is followed
by legs, the neck and head combined, the trunk, and finally, multiple
injuries and injuries to the whole body. Where the line for the
different organs or parts should be drawn remains a matter for special
inquiry and compromise agreement. In this respect it would seem
best that the medical judgment should control. Any standard work
on anatomy and osteology would readily provide a basis for precise
delineation.1
i As an aid to the necessarily precise differentiation, the treatise b y L . Bathe Rawling, on “ Landmarks
and surface markings o f the human b o d y ,’ 7 m ay be referred to. This work is divided into five groups:
(1) The head and neck, (2) the upper extrem ity, (3) the thorax, (4) the abdomen, and (5) the lower extrem ­
ity . In the Prudential classification of industrial accidents according to the nature o f the injuries, the
thorax and the abdom en have been com bined into one group. Gray’ s A natom y m ay be referred to as a
standard work of reference w hich w ill meet all reasonable requirements.




170

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

At the present time no accident classification according to the
nature of the injury, or, more accurately, the part of the body
injured, conforms to strictly scientific requirements. The proposed
nature-of-injury code suggested by the Workmen’s Compensation
Service Bureau of New York fails partly in this respect. The code,
as far as completed, is given in Appendix IX . The injuries are
arranged as follows:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Injuries to the arm or arms.
Injuries to the hand or hands.
Injuries to the thumbs or fingers.
Fractures of thumbs or fingers.
Injury to foot or leg.
Injury to eye.
Injury to head.

These specific groups are followed by a number of special groups,
evidently without reference to a definite anatomical or other scientific
plan. Commencing with No. 251 of the code, the first two items are,
deafness in one ear or both, followed by injury to one ear or both,
injury to the shoulder (including the arm), fracture of the shoulder
blade or scapula, fracture of the collar bone, fracture of the sternum
or breast bone, fracture of the ribs, etc. No such classification can
be considered satisfactory for general purposes. The practical value
of the Workmen’s Compensation Service Bureau classification is to
be found in connection with the solution of administrative questions
in workmen’s compensation law. The details of injuries have been
worked out quite elaborately, so much so that there is a serious
risk of overclassification. This is best illustrated, perhaps, by the
following list of accidents resulting in stiffness of the first joint of
the thumb and fingers included in Nos. 136-150 of the classification
as given in full in the appendix, but reproduced in part below:
Classification o f accidents resulting in stiffness o f the first joint o f the thumb and fingers, according to
the Workmen’s Compensation Service Bureau o f New York.

136. Stiffness of the first
137. Stiffness of the first
138. Stiffness of the first
139. Stiffness of the first
140. Stiffness of the first
141. Stiffness of the first
142. Stiffness of the first
143. Stiffness of the first
144. Stiffness of the first
145. Stiffness of the first
146. Stiffness of the first
147. Stiffness of the first
148. Stiffness of the first
149. Stiffness of the first
150. Stiffness of the first



oint of the thumb, left hand,
oint of the thumb, right hand,
oint of the thumb, both hands,
oint of the first finger, left hand,
oint of the first finger, right hand,
oint of the first finger, both hands,
oint of the second finger, left hand,
oint of the second finger, right hand,
oint of the second finger, both hands,
oint of the third finger, left hand,
oint of the third finger, right hand,
oint of the third finger, both hands,
oint of the fourth finger, left hand,
oint of the fourth finger, right hand,
oint of the fourth finger, both hands.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

171

It is questionable whether such an elaboration in matters of
minute detail can be made to serve a practical purpose. A truly
enormous experience would be necessary to determine the true law
of average for so large a number of individual units, each of which
would be subject to a considerable variation in regard to the true
nature of the physical injury sustained and its relation to the degree
of resulting incapacity for work.
Perhaps the most elaborate attempt which has thus far been made,
and which more than any other conforms to the fundamental prin­
ciples of an anatomical classification, is the one adopted by the
Industrial Accident Commission of California. In this classification
there are 21 general groups, as follows:
Classification o f accidents according to the nature o f the injury, adopted by the Industrial Accident
Commission o f California.

I. The skull.
II. The eyes.
III. The ears.
IV. The face.
V. The neck.
VI. The chest.
VII. Shoulders and arms.
VIII. Hands.
IX. Thumb.
X. Index finger.
XI. Middle and ring fingers.
XII. Little finger.
XIII. Thumb and index finger.
XIV. Thumb, index, and middle fingers.
XV. Thumb and all the fingers.
XVI. All the fingers not including thumb.
XVII. Different fingers on both hands.
XVIII. The spine.
XIX. The abdomen.
XX. The pelvis.
XXI. The lower extremities.

The details of this classification are given in full in Appendix
X , together with the disability number. It is explained in the
introductory text of the classification that “ I refers to the group of
disabilities resulting from injury to the skull. These group num­
bers start with the skull and end with the toes. Under each group
the various degrees of disability are designated by Arabic numerals.
The whole of the disability number is therefore composed of a group
number and an injury number; that is, of a Roman and an Arabic
numeral.” It is further pointed out in the text that the list of
disabilities given is not intended to bg complete. Some disabilities
are of such varying degrees that it has become necessary to introduce
three ratings, to fit the degrees of slight, moderate, and severe. This




172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

makes the rating of the injury indefinite unless a physician is con­
sulted. The same applies to the nature of the injury, which, as a
rule, can not he precisely determined except on the basis of a medical
report.
The California classification involves serious difficulties. While
on an anatomical basis, it is largely medical as regards the nature of
the injury sustained. In other words, it is a combined classification
of accidents according to the part of the body injured and the medical
character of the injury sustained. From a workmen’s compensation
point of view such a classification has practical advantages. The
classification clearly shows the location of the injury and its patho­
logical consequences. . An injury to the skull may result in insanity
or paralysis. An injury to an eye may result in the complete loss of
both eyes, or such a permanent impairment of the vision of one eye
as to render it useless for purposes of high visual requirements, but
not affecting one’s ability to find one’s way, since the other eye re­
mains uninjured. An injury to the neck may require the constant
wearing of a tracheal tube, or cause loss of speech due to injury to the
vocal organs. It is self-evident that such a classification can not be
theoretically perfected, but must depend upon actual experience for
its completion. It is further evident that the California classification
proceeds upon a fundamentally different assumption from the classi­
fication adopted by the Workmen’s Compensation Service Bureau
of New York. In actual administration it will be found that the
California plan involves more serious difficulties, since the pathological
consequences of the injury will in each and every case require to be
determined by a qualified physician and even by a medical specialist.
As a matter of convenience, the classification of the Workmen’s Com­
pensation Service Bureau is more in conformity to the text of the
majority of our workmen’s compensation laws. Indeed the funda­
mental question is the mechanical nature of the injury rather than
its pathological character. Of course, most of the injuries which
require consideration are those to the hands and feet, the arms and
legs, and the eyes, where the consequences or the degree of impair­
ment are determinable physically rather than pathologically, and the
schedule of compensation for specific injuries is generally adapted
to such a situation. A t the present time it can not be said that a
definite principle of action has been evolved, and for this reason
the information here brought together from different sources should
prove practically useful.
The schedule for rating permanent disabilities under the Work­
men’s Compensation, Insurance, and Safety A ct of California, which
became effective on January 1, 1914, as published by the Industrial
Accident Commission, must be considered one of the most important
contributions to the scientific study of the accident problem from an



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS.

173

American point of view. In the introduction to the tables published
for rating permanent disability it is suggested as a first requirement
that, in case of an accident, as soon as possible the following facts are
to be determined: (1) The nature of the physical injury or disfigure­
ment, (2) the occupation of the injured person, (3) the age of the
injured person, and (4) the average weekly wage of the injured person.
After having determined the nature of the physical injury or dis­
figurement, Table I of the schedule1 (Appendix X ) must be con­
sulted for the determination of the proper line to be read for each
injury and disfigurement, in order to determine the proper line to be
consulted in taking the item of age into consideration. This reference
can not be fully understood without the elaborate tables printed in
the official report, which briefly serve as a guide to the determining
of the percentage of wages to be allowed in the fixing of the pension
for permanent disabilities.
The line thus determined remains fixed for each occupation, of
which a large number are given in detail in alphabetical order, show­
ing, respectively, (1) the specific occupation, and (2) the industry.
As an illustration of the use of this classification the following is
quoted from the report:
Case I:
Nature of physical injury or disfigurement: Loss of major arm
at shoulder joint.
Occupation: Laborer.
Age: 28 years, 9 months.
Wage: $15 per week.
(1) Table I shows that the correct line to be read for the given
injury is line 56.
(2) Table II shows that the correct talle to read line 56 in is
Table A.
(3) Table A shows that the correct entry corresponding to the
nearest enumerated age and the proper line is 57:2.
(4) Applying the general rules for determining the duration and
amount of compensation for the given entry, we find that the
injured person is entitled to 65 per cent of his wages ($9.75
per week) for 230 weeks.
It would not be feasible to explain further this seemingly rather
complex, but actually not very involved, method of computing the
exact compensation payable for specified accidents according to the
nature of the injury sustained. It may be proper, however, to point
out in this connection that the California law provides a limit to the
compensation at 65 per cent of the wages for one week must not
exceed $20.83 nor be less than $4.17; and in the case of pension pay­
ments, the percentage of weekly wages requires to be taken on not
more than $30.05 nor less than $6.41 as the full wages for one week.
1 Copies of this publication can be had free of charge on application to the Industrial A ccident Com­
m ission of California, San Francisco, Cal.




APPENDIX I.—REQUIREMENTS AS TO ACCIDENT REPORTING IN THE
VARIOUS STATES.
"When reports are required to be made.
State and office receiv­
ing report.

W liat accidents are required
to be reported.
First.

California:
A ccident
sion.

Industrial
Commis­

Colorado: Bureau of
Metal Mines, and
Bureau of Coal Mines.

Connecticut: Compen­
sation commissioner
in district in which
accident occurred.
Illinois: I n d u s t r i a l
Board.

Indiana: State Bureau
of Inspection.

Iowa: Iowa Industrial
Commissioner a n d
Bureau of Labor.
Kansas: Department of
Labor and Industry.

Maine: Departm ent of
Labor and Industry.

Massachusetts: Indus­
trial A ccident Board.
Michigan:
Industrial A ccident
Board.
Commissioner
Labor.

174




o f

E very industrial a c c i d e n t
which disables a m a n
through the day of injury or
requires the attention of a
physician. If not disabled,
bu t requires the attention of
some one skilled in the art of
surgery or medicine.
Metal mines, accidents serious
enough in character to cause
the injured party to stop
work for 2 consecutive days.
Coal mines, fatal accidents
and nonfatal accidents re­
sulting in disability of 5 days
or more.
Such injuries as result in inca­
pacity for 1 day or more.
A ll fatal accidents and all other
accidents which entail a loss
to the employee of more than
1 week’s time.
A ll accidents or injuries, re­
quired b y law. Department
requires reports when the
accident is of sufficient im ­
portance to have caused any
loss of time. Also encourage
the reporting of slight acci­
dents.
All accidents except those of
domestic service, farm labor­
ers, clerical help, and persons
whose em ploym ent is of a
casual nature.
All accidents sufficiently seri­
ous to cause the loss of more
than 1 day’s time.

A ll deaths, accidents, or seri­
ous physical injuries (every
accident which results in the
death of the em ployee or
causes absence from work for
at least 6 days).
A ll injuries which necessitate
any absence from work or
require medical attention of
any kind.
A ll accidents which result in
disabilit y of more than 1 day.
A ll causing death or in volv­
ing the loss of a member.
A ll accidents whether slight or
serious, at the end of each
month.

W ithin 7 days..

Others.
First supplemental re­
port within 30 days,
then supplemental
reports every 60 days
till disability ends.

Metal mines, im m edi­
ately. Coal mines,
fatal accidents, im ­
mediately; nonfatal
accidents in monthly
reports.
Each week to commis­
sioner, and b y him
to the factory inspec­
tor once in 3 months.
Fatal accidents, im m e­
diately; other acci­
dents between 15th
and 25th of each
month.
W ithin 48 liours...........

Further report in case
of permanent disabil­
ity.

W ith in 48 hours..

Im mediate r e p o r t
w ithin 24 hours.

R eport o f fatal acci­
dents as soon after
death as possible.
R eport of nonfatal
accidents when in­
jured em ployee re­
turns to work or at
the end of 3 months.

W ithin 10 days..

W ithin 48 hours..

U pon termination of
disability.

W eekly. In case of
death or loss of a
member, within 10
days.

One m onth after first
report. Final report
at death or the ter­
mination of disabil­
ity.

175

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

R E Q U IR E M E N T S A S TO A C C ID E N T R E P O R T IN G IN T H E V A R IO U S S T A T E S —Concluded.

W hen reports are required to be made.
State and office receiv­
ing report.

W hat accidents are required
to be reported.
First.

Minnesota: C o m m i s ­
sioner of Labor of De­
partment of Labor
and Industries.

Missouri:
Bureau
Labor Statistics.

of

Montana.
Nebraska: Bureau of
Labor and Industrial
Statistics.
N evada: Nevada Indus­
trial Commission.
N ew Hampshire: B u­
reau of Labor.
N ew Jersey: E m ploy­
ers7 Liability Com­
mission.
N ew Y ork........................

Ohio: Ohio Industrial
Commission.
Oklahoma: Department
of Labor.
Oregon: State Indus­
trial A ccident Com­
mission.
Pennsylvania: Division
of accident reports of
Department of Labor
and Industry.
R hode Island: Factory
inspectors.

Texas: Industrial A cci­
dent Board.
Utah: State coal mine
inspector.
Virginia: Factory in­
spector.
W ashington:
Indus­
trial Insurance Com­
mission.
W est Virginia: Public
Service Commission.
Wisconsin: Industrial
Commission.

A n y accident which causes
death or serious injury and
all other accidents. Letter
says: A reportable accident
is one which disables an em­
ployee for 1 week or which
causes permanent injury,
such as the loss of the end of
a finger.
A ll accidents where the serv­
ices of a physician or surgeon
are required.
Mines: Operator must make
and preserve a record of all
accidents.
A ll accidents...............................

Others.

Accidents which cause
death or serious in­
jury within 48 hours;
all other accidents
within 14 days.

A nnually.

Fatal, within 48 hours,
Other a c c i d e n t s
within 2 weeks.
N ot later than second
day after accident.
Im m ediately................. A t end of 2 weeks.

Each case of injury interrupt­
in g work for 1 day or longer.
A ll accidents that incapacitate
for a period of 2 weeks or over.
Accidents w hich result in a dis­ W ithin 4 weeks; or af­
ter the death of such
ability of 2 weeks.
person injured, with­
in 2 weeks.
'
W ithin 10 days;in case
A ll accidents.
of death resulting,
within 30 days after
death.
A n y injury which requires W ithin 1 w eek.............
medical attention or which
involves loss of time.
Each and every accident......... Im m ediately.................
A ll accidents.

W ithin 5 days..............

Such accidents as result in a
disability continuing 2 days
or more.

A ll injuries, fatal or otherwise.

Fatal and serious,
Within 24 hours.
A ll others, at end of
month.
Fatal, within 48 hours.
A ll others, within 1
week after the ex­
piration of the 2
weeks.
W ithin 8 d a y s ............. .

A ll accidents occurring in coal
mines.
A ll mine accidents.....................

Im m ediately.................

A ll fatal accidents and all acci­
dents which prevent the in­
jured from returning to work
within 2 days after injury.

A ll accidents resulting in a dis­
ability of more than 1£ days.

W ithin 5 days..............

All personal injuries.................

P rom p tly......................

Each accident which causes a
disability of more than 1
week.

8th day after accident.. Supplemental report
on 29th day after ac­
cident and at end of
each 4th week during
disability. A final re­
port is also required.




APPENDIX II.—QUESTIONS ASKED IN ACCIDENT REPORT FORMS OF 26
STATES.
Num ber
of States.

1. Name of injured person?........................................................................................
2. Name and address of the employer?....................................................................
3. Exact nature and extent of the accident?..........................................................
4. Date—month and day?..........................................................................................
5. Age of injured?.........................................................................................................
6. Nature of business or industry?............................................................................
7. Address of the injured?........................................................................................
8. Location of plant of employer?.............................................................................
9. Hour of day at which accident occurred?...........................................................
10. Occupation of the injured?....................................................................................
11. Sex of the injured?..................................................................................................
12. Wages of the injured?.............................................................................................
13. How did the accident occur?................................................................................
14. Name of the machine or part causing accident?................................................
15. Conjugal condition of the injured?.......................................................................
16. Probable period of disability?...............................................................................
17. Attending physicians—names and addresses?....................................................
18. Was the thing causing accident guarded? If not., why not?.........................
19. What caused the accident?....................................................................................
20. Has injured person resumed work? If so, on what date?..............................
21. Where was the injured person sent?....................................................................
22. Time or piece worker?............................................................................................
23. Nationality of the injured?....................................................................................
24. How long had the injured been in the occupation?.........................................
25. Did the injured person speak English?.............................................................
26. Was this regular occupation?................................................................................
27. Dependents of the injured?...................................................................................
28. Suggestions to prevent similar accidents?..........................................................
29. If injured did not speak English, then what language?..................................
30. Loss of time in working-days?...............................................................................
31. In what department or branch of work?.............................................................
32. Working-days per week?........................................................................................
33. Day of week of accident?.......................................................................................
34. Names and addresses of witnesses of accident?................................................
35. Was safety device removed?..................................................................................
36. If not, state regular occupation?...........................................................................
37. By what kind of power driven?............................................................................
38. How long had the injured person been at work with or at the thing causing
accident?................................................: .............................................................
39. Negligence of fellow servant?................................................................................
40. If away from plant, state where?..........................................................................
41. Was accident caused by removal of any safeguard?........................................
42. Hour at which injured employee commenced work on day of injury?.........
43. Hand feed or mechanical feed?.............................................................................
44. Describe guard or safety device?..........................................................................
176



26
26
26
26
24
24
23
22
21
20
20
19
18
17
17
17
17
13
12
12
12
12
11
10
10
10
9
9
9
7
7
7
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
3

IJSfDUSTKIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS— APPENDIXES.

177
N um ber
o f States.

45. Did the accident cause permanent total disability?......................................... ........ 3
46. Did the accident cause permanent partial disability?..................................... ........ 3
47. Has any accident occurred under similar circumstances, at same place, or
with same apparatus?........................................................................................ .........3
48. Medical and surgical attention since accident?.. . .....................................................3
49. Did accident happen on the premises?............................................................... .........3
50. Was workman in course of employment at time of injury?......................................3
51. Engaged in construction, operation, or repair?...........................................................3
52. What statement, if any, has injured person made?....................................................3
53. Responsibility: (a) Fault of employer, agent, or machinery admitted;
(b) willful misconduct of employee injured; (c) contributory negligence
of the injured?.................................................................................................... .........2
54. Hours of work on day of accident?................................................................................2
55. Was accident fatal, serious, severe, or slight?.................................................... .........2
56. Did the accident cause temporary disability?................................................... .........2
57. How long was the injured in the establishment?.......................................................2
58. Have you taken precaution against the repetition of the accident?............
2
59. In whose service was person who caused accident?...................................................2
60. Was accident caused by defective equipment?..........................................................2
61. Was the injured aware of danger; what instructions were given?...........................1
62. Did the injured make proper use of safety devices?..................................................1
63. Was the injury due to natural hazards of industry?......................................... .........1
64. Loss in wages?.............................................. ....................................................................1
65. Number of employees?.....................................................................................................1
66. Was the injured person insured?.......................................................................... .........1
67. Personal habits of the injured?............................................................................. .........1
68. In whose control was the machine or part causing injury at the time of
accident?........................................................................................................................1
69. Condition of lighting?......................................................................................................1
70. Define safety organization of plant?..............................................................................1
71. At what employed when injured?.................................................................................1
72. Had injured person worked on similar machinery prior to this employment?. 1
73. Was injured person skilled in this work? If not, why was he placed at this
machine?.............................................................................................................. .........1
74. Was injury purposely self-inflicted or the result of willful misconduct or
intoxication (give particulars)?.................................................................................1
58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 12




APPENDIX III.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY CAUSES—GERMANY.1

I. Power generators:
1. Steam engines.
2. Water-power engines.
3. Gas, pneumatic, and wind motors.
4. Electric motors and dynamos.
5. Animal-power motors.
II. Transmissions:
6. Shafting and shaft connections.
7. Toothed and friction gearing.
8. Belt pulleys.
9. Driving belts.
10. Bope and chain drives.
III. Working machinery:
11. Lathes (for metal, wood, horn, etc.).
12. Boring machinery.
13. Planing, shaping, nut, and striking machines for metal.
14. Planing machines for wood, slate, etc.
15. Milling machines for metal.
16. Milling machines for wood, pasteboard, etc.
17. Circular and band saws for metal.
18. Circular saws for wood.
19. Band and frame saws for wood, etc.; stone saws.
20. Grinding machines and emery wheels.
21. Cutting and chopping machines of all kinds.
22. Flour mills of all kinds; millstones and milling rollers; mixing, kneading,
mashing, rasping, sifting, and breaking machines.
23. Forging and stamping mills.
24. Presses and embossing or coining machines.
25. Hollers and calenders.
26. Printing, pressing, and embossing machines for paper, leather, textiles, etc.
27. Machines for the preparatory processes of spinning (carding, hackling, and
combing machines).
28. Spinning machines.
29. Weaving and knitting machines.
30. Finishing machines.
31. Basting, sewing, and embroidering machines.
32. Threshing machines and steam plows.
33. Centrifugal machines.
34. Ventilators and exhaust machines.
35. Pumps.
36. Other working machines.
IV. Hoisting machinery:
37. Lifts and elevators.
38. Tackles, winches, cranes, etc
39. Other hoisting machinery.
i Source: A m tliche Nachrichten des Reichsversicherungsamts.
Berlin, 1914.

178



1910.

I. Beiheft.

Part 2, pp. 352 fl.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

179

V. Steam boilers, steam cooking apparatus, and steam piping:
40. Explosions of steam boilers or steam cooking apparatus.
41. Other accidents (breaking of water gauges, etc.).
42. Steam piping.
43. VI. Electric currents.
44. VII. Explosives (explosions of powder, dynamite, etc.).
VIII. Inflammable, hot, and corrosive materials, etc. (incandescent metals, gases,
vapors):
45. Explosion and ignition of gases, petroleum, benzine, alcohol, etc.
46. Flames from furnaces, conflagrations.
47. Incandescent metal, slag, ashes, etc.
48. Steam, hot water, and hot fluids.
49. Corrosive materials, acids, quicklime, lye, etc.
50. Poisonous materials and noxious gases.
IX. Collapsing, caving in, and falling of objects:.
51. Masses of rock, sand, earth, etc.
52. Buildings, walls, vaults, cornices, etc.
53. Scaffolds, landing places, etc.
54. Merchandise, lumber, etc.
55. Other objects.
X. Falls from ladders, stairs, etc.; from hatchways, etc.; into excavations:
56. From ladders and stairs.
57. From scaffolds, beams, walls, etc.
58. From windows, hatchways, roofs, etc.
59. Into excavations, etc. (pits, cellars, wells, etc.).
60. On the floor, in the working place, etc.
XI. Loading and unloading by hand, lifting, carrying, etc:
61. Loading and unloading of wagons.
62. Transport of heavy loads without the aid of transportation apparatus.
63. XII. Vehicles.
64. XIII. Railway operation.
65. XIV. Navigation and transportation by water.
66. XV. Animals (kicking, biting, etc., inclusive of all accidents in riding).
67. XVI. Hand tools and simple appliances (hammers, axes, chisels, hatchets, spades,
etc.).
XVII. Miscellaneous:
68. Flying chips, splinters, etc.
69. Other miscellaneous causes.




APPENDIX IV.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY CAUSES—AUSTRIA.1

1. Use of hand tools; various manipulations.
2. Flying fragments in stone working (inclusive of stone breaking).
2a. Flying fragments in metal working.
3. Burns in general (incandescent, hot, and molten metals, slag, etc.; hot liquids
vapors, gases).2
4. Corrosive substances (acids, lye, quicklime, etc.) in other than building trades,
5. Injuries by quicklime (in building trades).
6. Lifting and moving of burdens by hand by means of handcarts, etc.
7. Loading and unloading by hand in transportation establishments.
8. Loading and unloading by hand in other than transportation establishments.
9. Vehicles in other than transportation establishments.
10. Industrial railroads.
11.' Electric currents.
12. Belting.
12a. Animal-power motors (inclusive of the lever and the draft animals).
13. Falls into the drums of threshing machines.
14. Other accidents caused by drums of threshing machines.
15. Toothed gearing and other moving parts of threshing machines.
16. Stones, sand, and kernels of grain hurled around by threshing machines.
17. Feed rolls of fodder-chopping machines.
18. Knives of fodder-chopping machines.
19. Toothed gearing and other moving parts of fodder-chopping machines.
20. Millstones.
21. Milling rollers in flour mills.
22. Kicks, pushes, and steps by draft animals (in transportation establishments).
23. Bites of draft animals (in transportation establishments).
24. Falls from vehicles (in transportation establishments).
25. Run over by own wagon (in transportation establishments).
26. Run over in getting on or off a vehicle in motion (in transportation establish­
ments).
26a. Rollers, also injuries by hot-rolled material (in iron and steel mills).
27. Fall or collapse of masses of stone, earth, or gravel in pits and quarries, and
excavation work for building purposes.
28. Explosion of blasting material and accidents in general through blasting work.
29. Brickmaking machinery (pressing, repressing, etc.) including that operated by
hand.
30. Grinding apparatus (in glass works).
30a. Use of blowpipe (in glass works).
30b. Breaking of glass, splinters, fragments (in glass works).
31. Hammers of all kinds, pile drivers.
32. Shearing and cutting machines.
33. Pressing, stamping, and coining machines.
1 Source: Ergebnisse der Unfallstatistik der fiinf jahrigen Beobachtungs-periode 1902-1906, Zweiter
T h eil,p p . 49 II. W ien, 1911.
2 B um s caused b y steam boilers or working machines are charged to those causes and therefore not
counted under this heading.

180



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

181

34. Boring machines (for metal).
35. Lathes for metal.
35a. Planing, shaping, and stamping machines for metal.
36. Flying fragments from bursting grindstones and emery wheels.
37. Other accidents by grinding machines and emery wheels.
38. Opening machines (willows, openers).1
39. Carding machines.
40. Self-acting mules.
41. Other spinning machines.
42. Calenders (textile industry).
43. Power looms.
44. Printing machines (textile industry).
45. Centrifugal machines (textile industry).
46. Yertical rolls (paper making).
47. Cylinder rolls (paper making).
48. Wood-grinding machinery.
49. Pasteboard-making machinery.
50. Paper-making machinery (including parts of such, as, for instance, drying
cylinders, calenders, wetting machines, etc.).
51. Leather rollers, mangles, etc.
51a. Frame saws.
52. Circular saws for wood.
53. Band saws for wood.
54. Milling machinery for wood.
55. Planing machinery for wood.
55a. Chopping and splitting machinery.
56. Lifting and moving of casks, etc., in breweries.
57. Machinery for compressing, cutting, etc., of meats.
58. Centrifugal machines (in sugar making).
58a. Ironing machines.
59. Hoists for brick.
60. Cylinder presses (printing).
61. Platen presses.
62. Cleaning and oiling of working machines while in motion.
i Accidents caused b y the cleaning and oiling of the textile machines subsequently enumerated were
charged to cause No. 62.




APPENDIX V.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY CAUSES—INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION OF OHIO.
(General Classifications.)

Machinery:
Motors and engines.
Transmission apparatus.
Working machines.
Hoisting machinery.
Assembling and fitting of parts.
Miscellaneous.
Nature of material used or similar working conditions:
Corrosive materials.
Electricity.
Explosions and inflammability of explosive substances.
Hot materials, hot objects, and great heat.
Poisonous material.
Glass.
Miscellaneous.
Objects:
Blows.
Bumps.
Falling, sliding, slipping.
Handling sharp edged objects.
Nails, splinters, wire screens, etc., attached.
Stepping on sharp or edged objects.
Doors.
Miscellaneous.
Great weights, strains, etc.
Falls:
From tools slipping.
From means of ascent.
From structural works, etc.
On floors and ordinary surfaces.
Falling, slipping, or stumbling over objects*
From trains, etc.
From other means of transportation.
Into elevator shafts.
Into mine shafts.
Into excavations and vats.
Miscellaneous.
Transportation on tracks.
Transportation not on tracks.
Animals.
Hand tools.
Not otherwise classified—more serious accidents.
Not reported or unknown.
Miscellaneous.
182




APPENDIX VI.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY CAUSES—INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION OF WISCONSIN.

Prime movers.

0. Gas and gasoline engines.
1. Steam engines.
X. Other prime movers.
Transmission apparatus.

20. Shafting.
21. Pulleys.
22. Tooth and friction gears.
23. Belts.
24. Belt shifters.
25. Chains and sprockets.
26. Ropes and cables.
27. Clutches.
28. Setscrews.
2X. Other transmission apparatus.
2Y. Shaft couplings and collars.
Woodworking machinery.

100. Boring machines (wood).
101. Edgers.
102. Jointers.
103. Lathes, woodworking.
104. Planers, woodworking.
105. Sanders.
106. Saws, n. o. c.
10Y. Saws, band.
107. Shapers.
108. Stickers.
109. Veneer clippers.
10X. Other woodworking machines.
110. Tenoners.
112. Veneer presses.
114. Matches.

—Concluded.

Paper and its products

125. Chippers.
126. Corner creasers.
127. Slatters.
128. Lacers.
129. Box bottomers.
12X. Paper machinery, n. o. c.
12Y. Rag cutters.
Metal.

130. Boring machines (metal).
131. Emery wheels.
132. Buffing and polishing wheels.
133. Lathes, metal.
.134. Planers, metal.
137. Presses, stamping.
138. Riveters.
139. Power shears.
13X. Milling machines.
13Y. Power hammers.
140. Reamers.
141. Bulldozers.
14X. Metal-working machinery, n. o. c.
Laundry.

150. Extractors.
151. Washing machines.
152. Collar ironers.
153. Body, sleeve, and bosom ironers.
154. Flat-work ironers.
15X. Laundry machinery, n. o. c.
Leather-worlcing machinery.

160. Sole cutters.
161. Sewing machines, shoe manufactur­
ing.
120. Barkers.
121. Calenders, paper stocks, drying and 162. Shanking machines.
winding machines, and other roll- 163. Pullers-over.
164. Tackers.
fed machines.
165. Cutters.
122. Staying and ending machines.
166. Heelers.
123. Paper cutters.
16X. Leather-working machinery, n. o. c.
24. Paper-box presses.
Paper and its products.




183

184

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Tannery.

170. Unhairing machines.
171. Setting out machines.
172. Glazing machines.
173. Brushing machines.
174. Splitters.
175. Shavers.
176. Fleshers.
17X. Tannery machinery, n. o. c.
Textile.

180. Knitting machines.
181. Spinning machines.
182. Power looms.
183. Carding machines.
184. Clamping machines.
185. Bobbin winders.
186. Beamers.
187. Sewing machines, cloth.
18X. Textile machinery, n. o. c.
Farm machinery.

190. Corn shredders and huskers.
191. Feed and ensilage cutters.
192. Other farm machinery.
Bakery and confectionery m
achinery.

200.
201.
202.
203.

Dough machines.
Bread-molding machines.
Bread cutters.
Confectionery machinery.
Printing.

220. Printing presses.
221. Embossing machines.
222. Perforators.
223. Linotype machines.
22X. Other printing machinery.
Miscellaneous.
250. Feed rolls.
251. Conveyors.
253. Electric fans.
254. Concrete mixers.
255. Pile drivers.
25X. Machinery, n. o. c.
Elevators.
300. Falls from car, not inclosed.
301. Falls from floor, down shaft.
302. Elevator dropping, broken cable.



—Concluded.
303. Elevator dropping, broken machine
parts.
304. Elevator dropping, cables unwind­
ing.
305. Struck by elevator, cleaning pit.
306. Caught between elevator platform
and floor.
307. Caught between elevator platform
and top of gate.
308. Hit by counterweights.
309. Hit by objects falling down shaft.
30X. Caught in hoisting machinery.
30Y. Other elevator accidents.
Elevators

Cranes and derricks.

320. Caught in hoisting machinery.
321. Caught in hook or sling while hitch­
ing.
322. Hit by moving cranes.
Explosions.

400. Boiler explosions.
401. Blasting.
402. Compressed air.
40X. Other explosions.
Hits.

500. Hit by particles while grinding or
chipping.
501. Hit by flying nails.
502. Hit by other flying objects.
503. Caught under object lowered by
crane.
504. Caught between object swinging in
crane and other object.
505. Hit by object swinging in crane.
506. Hit by objects falling from cranes—
Chain or hook broken.
507. Hit by objects falling from cranes—
Hook or sling slipping.
508. Hit by objects falling from hoisted
buckets or hoppers—Not in mines.
509. Hit by object on conveyor or slide.
510. Hit by dragged or skidded objects.
511. Hit or caught by loads shifting.
512. Hit by falling trees or parts of trees.
513. Hit by objects falling from pile.
514. Hit by falling piles.
515. Hit by trenches or ditches caving in.
516. Hit by rocks, etc., falling from roofs
of mines.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STxVTISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

—Concluded.
517. Hit by rocks, etc., falling from walls
and slopes of mines.
518. Hit by cave-ins in mines.
519. Hit by objects falling from buckets
or hoppers in mines.
520. Hit by objects falling from trucks or
vehicles (not loading or un­
loading).
521. Hit by objects falling from trucks or
vehicles—Loading or unloading.
522. Hit by objects falling from buildings,
trestles, scaffolds, etc.
523. Hit by objects falling from benches,
racks, and machines.
524. Hit by objects tipping over.
525. Caught by doors or windows.
526. Hit by broken machine parts.
527. Hit by vehicles, cars, trucks, etc.
528. Caught between two vehicles, cars,
trucks, etc.
529. Caught between vehicles and other
objects.
530. Other hits.
Hits

Falls.

600. Falls from stairs.
601. Falls from ladders, ladder slipping.
60X. Falls from ladders, ladder breaking.
60Y. Falls from ladders, loss of balance.
602. Falls from scaffolds.
603. Falls from tramways and trestles.
604. Falls from runways or loading plat­
forms.
605. Falls from buildings.
606. Falls down shafts.
607. Falls into excavations and down em­
bankments.
608. Falls into trenches.
609. Falls into holes and trapdoors.
610. Falls from horses.
611. Falls from wagons, cars, and trucks—
Not moving.




185

Falls—Concluded.
612. Falls from wagons, cars, and trucks—
Moving.
613. Falls from pile.
614. Falls from poles and trees.
615. Falls from machines and boilers.
616. Falls from boxes, chairs, tables, and
benches.
617. Falls from docks, boats, and bridges.
618. Falls from hoisted objects—Not ele­
vators.
619. Falls into vats, bins, and pits.
620. Slipping.
621. Stumbling.
622. Jumping.
623. Falls from cranes.
Handling objects.

700. Lifting or moving heavy objects.
701. Dropping objects while carrying or
lifting.
702. Dropping objects while loading or
unloading.
703. Caught between two object3 handled.
704. Caught between object handled and
other object.
705. Handling sharp objects—Nails, sliv­
ers, or sharp edges.
General causes.

800.
801.
802.
803.

Trucking—Truck or vehicle pro­
pelled by injured.
Animal bites, kicks, etc.
Tools and hand apparatus.
Stepping cr kneeling on nails or
sharp objects.
804. Bumping into objects.
805. Lightning.
806. Heat prostration.
807. Frostbites.
808. Asphyxiations.
809. Drowning.
850. Miscellaneous causes.
851. Causes not known.

APPENDIX VIL—CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS, BY
NATURE OF INJURY—PRUDENTIAL INSURANCE CO.
A .—N O N F A T A L

T able

IN D U S T R IA L A CC ID E N TS IN CO A L M IN IN G,
190? TO 1911.
Anthracite coal mines.

Part of b od y injured.
Num ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

P E N N S Y L V A N IA ,

B itum inous coal mines.

Num ber of
injuries.

Per cent
o f total
injuries.

Head and face:
Head....................................................................................
F a ce.....................................................................................
E y es ....................................................................................
N ose.....................................................................................

306
318
56
24

5.3
5.4
1.0
.4

217
146
52
11

3.9
2.6
.9
.2

T otal................................................................................

704

12.1

426

7.6

Upper extremities:
Shoulder.............................................................................
A rm .....................................................................................
W rist...... ............................................................................
H a n d ...................................................................................
Finger.................................................................................

86
453
28
519
129

1.5
7.9
.5
9.0
2.2

87
291
32
166
164

1.5
5.2
.6
3.0
2.9

Total................................................................................

1,215

21.1

740

13.2

Trunk:
Collar bone.........................................................................
R ib ......................................................................................
T ru nk .................................................................................
Internal ......................................................................... .

130
201
270
47

2.3
3. 5
4.7
.8

258
195
520
67

4.6
3.5
9.3
1.2

T otal................................................................................

648

11.3

1,040

18.6

Lower extremities:
H ip
.............................................................................
Leg .
......................................................................... .
K n e e ..................................................................................
Ankle
.............................................................................
F o o t.....................................................................................
T o e .......................................................................................

164
1,S20
49
1,115
118
47

2.9
31.7
.9
2.0
3.3
.8

195
2,121
45
170
380
78

3.5
37.9
.8
3.0
6.8
1.4

T o t a l ...............................................................................

3,313

41.6

2,989

53.4

0 ther and not specified........................................................ .

805

14.0

407

7.3

T able

1

B .—N O N F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S IN R A I L W A Y S E R V IC E , N E W J E R S E Y ,
1S88 TO 1911.
R ailw ay brakemen.
Part of bod y injured.
N um ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

L ocom otive firemen.

Num ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

Head and face:
Head....................................................................................
F a ce. . ...............................................................................
E yes....................................................................................
N ose....................................................................................

404
115
13
15

7.9
2.3
.3
.3

109
51
19
12

14.7
6.9
2.6
1.6

T otal................................................................................

547

10.8

191

25.8

Upper extremities:
Shoulder.............................................................................
A rm .....................................................................................
W rist...................................................................................
H and...................................................................................
Finger.................................................................................

146
549
116
758
1,018

2.9
10.7
2.3
14.8
19.9

32
56
25
55
57

4.3
7.5
3.4
7.4
7.7

T otal................................................................................

2,587

50.6

225

30.3

186



187

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.
T able

B .—N O N F A T A L I N D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S IN R A I L W A Y S E R V IC E , N E W J E R S E Y ,
1888 TO 1911—Concluded.
Railway brakemen.
Part of b od y injured.

L ocom otiv e firemen.

Num ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

N um ber of
injuries.

T runk:
Collar bone.........................................................................
R i b ......................................................................................
T ru nk ..................................................................................
Internal...............................................................................

29
60
486
48

0.6
1.2
9.5
.9

3
7
116
8

0.4
.9
15.6
1.1

T otal................................................................................

623

12.2

134

18.0

Lower extremities:
H ip ......................................................................................
L eg
K nee....................................................................................
Ankle...................... ............................................................
F o o t.....................................................................................
T o e .......................................................................................

169
371
147
273
343
50

3.3
7.3
2.9
5.3
6.7
1.0

25
59
15
40
37
16

3.4
8.0
2.0
5.4
4.9
2.2

T otal................................................................................

1,353

26.5

192

25.9

....................................................

T a b l e C .—

Per cent
of total
injuries.

N O N F A T A L IN D U S T R IA L ACCIDENTS IN IR O N MINING A N D L U M B E R IN G ,
M IN N ESOTA , 1910 TO 1912.
Lumbering and w ood­
working.

Iron mining.
Part of body injured.
Number of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

Number of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

Head and face:
H ead....................................................................................
Eyes....................................................................................
N ose.....................................................................................

1,130
1.024
11

11.0
9.9
.1

339
6
221

9.5
.2
6.2

T o ta l................................................................................

2,165

21.0

566

15.9

Upper extremities:
Shoulder.................................................................... ........
A rm .....................................................................................
W rist...................................................................................
H a n d ...................................................................................
Finger.................................................................................

242
342
206
986
2,271

2.4
3.3
2.0
9.6
22.0

52
157
80
348
868

1.6
4.3
2.2
9.7
24.3

T o ta l...............................................................................

4,047

39.3

1,505

42.1

Trunk:
Collar b on e.........................................................................
R ib ......................................................................................
T ru nk.................................................................................
Internal...............................................................................

13
41
1,013
60

.1
.3
9.8
.6

g
43
303
24

.3
1.2
8.5
.7

T o ta l...............................................................................

1,127

10.9

379

10.7

Lower extremities:
H ip......................................................................................
L e g ......................................................................................
K n ee...................................................................................
Ankle..................................................................................
F o o t....................................................................................
T o e ......................................................................................

87
692
281
354
935
412

.8
6.7
2.7
3.4
9.1
4.0

19
303
121
142
336
123

.5
8.5
3.4
4.0
9.4
3.4

T o ta l...............................................................................

2,761

1,044

29.2

Other and not specified.........................................................

214

79

2.2




26.7 |
2.1

188

BULLETIN

T a b le

D.—N O N F A T A L

OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

IN D U S T R IA L

A CCIDEN TS
1908 TO 1911.

TO

GOVERNM ENT

EM PLOYEES,

Em ployees of—

Part of bod y Injured.

Isthmian Canal Com­
mission.

N um ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

All other departments.

Num ber of
injuries.

Per cent
of total
injuries.

Head and face:
H ead ...................................................................................
E yes....................................................................................
N eck....................................................................................

701
679
20

6.7
6.5
.2

581
499
21

5.8
5.0
.2

T otal................................................................................

1,400

13.4

1,101

11.0

U pper extremities:
A rm .....................................................................................
H and...................................................................................
Finger.................................................................................

500
855
1,717

4.8
8.1
16.3

601
763
1,659

6.0
7.6
16.5

T otal................................................................................

3,072

29.2

3,023

30.1

Tnm k:
R ib ......................................................................................
T runk.................................................................................
Internal...............................................................................

54
1,146
13

0.5
10.9
.1

235
1,316
47

2.3
13.1
.5

T otal................................................................................

1,213

11.5

1,598

15.9

Lower extremities:
L e g......................................................................................
F o o t....................................................................................
T o e ......................................................................................

1,448
2,424
31

13.8
23.1
.3

1,273
1,625
11

12.6
16.1
.1

T otal...............................................................................

3,903

37.2

2,909

28.8

Other and no fcspecified..........................................................

925

8.7

1,426

14.2




APPENDIX Vin.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY NATURE OF INJURY—AUSTRIA.1

1. Loss of left arm (including total dis­
ability of).
2. Loss of right arm (including total dis­
ability of).
3. Fracture of left upper arm.
4. Fracture of right upper arm.
5. Fracture of left lower arm.
6. Fracture of right lower arm.
7. Other injuries of left arm.
8. Other injuries of right arm.
9. All injuries of left arm (titles 1, 3,
5, 7).
10. All injuries of right arm (titles 2, 4,

6, 8).

11. All injuries of the arm, right or left
(titles 1 to 8).
12. Injury of right and left arm at the
same time.
13. Loss of left hand (including total
disability of).
14. Loss of right hand (including total
disability of).
15. Fracture of bone of left hand.
16. Fracture of bone of right hand.
17. Other injuries of left hand.
18. Other injuries of right hand.
19. All injuries of left hand (titles 13,
15, 17).
20. All injuries of right hand (titles 14,
16, 18).
21. All injuries of the hand, right or left
(titles 13 to 18).
22. Loss of thumb of left hand (both
phalanges).
23. Loss of thumb of right hand (both
phalanges).
24. Loss of the index finger of the left
hand.2
25. Loss of the index finger of the right
hand.
26. Loss of middle finger of left hand.
27. Loss of middle finger of right
hand.
28. Loss of ring finger of left hand.
29. Loss of ring finger of right hand.

30. Loss of little finger of left hand.
31. Loss of little finger of right hand.
32. Loss of thumb and of one or more
fingers of left hand.
33. Loss of thumb and of one or more
fingers of right hand.
34. Loss of two or more fingers (not in­
cluding thumb) of left hand.
35. Loss of two or more fingers (not in­
cluding thumb) of right hand.
36. Loss of one phalanx of thumb of
left hand.
37. Loss of one phalanx of thumb of
right hand.
38. Loss of one phalanx of index finger
of left hand.
39. Loss of one phalanx of index finger
of right hand.
40. Loss of one phalanx of middle finger
of left hand.
41. Loss of one phalanx of middle finger
of right hand.
42. Loss of one phalanx of ring finger of
left hand.
43. Loss of one phalanx of ring finger of
right hand.
44. Loss of one phalanx of little finger
of left hand.
45. Loss of one phalanx of little finger
of right hand.
46. Stiffness of first joint of thumb of
left hand.
47. Stiffness of first joint of thumb of
right hand.
48. Stiffness of first joint of index finger
of left hand.
49. Stiffness of first joint of index finger
of right hand.
50. Stiffness of first joint of middle
finger of left hand.
51. Stiffness of first joint of middle
finger of right hand.
52. Stiffness of first joint of ring finger
of left hand.
53. Stiffness of first joint of ring finger
of right hand.

1 Ergebnisse der Unfallstatistik der fiinfJahrigen Beobachtungs-periode 1902-1906, Zweiter T h e il,p p . 123
ff. W ien, 1911.
2 In this and in the titles numbered 25 to 35 the word “ loss ” indicates the separation o f tw o phalanges.




189

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATJ OP LABOR STATISTICS.
190
54. Stiffness of first joint of little finger 75. Injuries of fingers of both hands
occurring at the same time.
of left hand.
55. Stiffness of first joint of little finger 76. Loss of one leg.
77. Loss of both legs.
of right hand.
56. Other injuries of thumb of left 78. Fracture of upper leg.
79. Fracture of lower leg.
hand.
57. Other injuries of thumb of right 79a. Injury of knee or fracture of knee­
cap.
hand.
5S. Other injuries of index finger of 80. Injury of ankle joint.
81. Other injuries of leg or foot.
left hand.
59. Other injuries of index finger of 82. Injuries of both legs.
83. Loss of toes.
right hand.
60. Other injuries of middle finger of 84. Injuries of toes.
85. Loss of or injury to legs and feet,
left hand.
61. Other injuries of middle finger of including toes (titles 76 to 84).
86. Loss of or injury to arm and leg in
riglit hand.
62. Other injuries of ring finger of various combinations.
87. Loss of one eye.
left hand.
C3. Other injuries of ring finger of 88. Loss of one eye accompanied by
injury of the other.
right hand.
64. Other injuries of little finger of 89. Loss of both eyes.
90. Injury of one eye.
left hand.
65. Other injuries of little finger of 91. Injury of both eyes.
right hand.
92. All injuries of eyes (titles 87 to 91).
66. Injury of thumb and one or more 93. Injury of the hand.
fingers of left hand.
*
94. Injury of shoulder, including those
67. Injury of thumb and one or more accompanied by injury of arm.
fingers of right hand.
95. Fractures of collar bone, including
68. Injury of several fingers (not in­ those accompanied by injury of arm.
cluding thumb) of left hand.
95a. Injury or fracture of spinal column.
69. Injury of several fingers (not in­ 95b. Injury of hip.
cluding thumb) of right hand.
96. Fractures of ribs.
70. Loss of fingers accompanied by in­ 97. Other injuries of trunk.
jury of other fingers of the same hand 98. Injuries of testicles.
(left).
99. Ruptures.
71. Loss of fingers accompanied by in­ 100. Injuries of several parts of the body.
jury of other fingers of the same hand 101. Internal injuries.
(right).
102. Concussion of the brain.
72. All injuries of fingers, left hand 103. Miscellaneous (stroke, paralysis,
(titles designated by even numbers from insect bite, sunstroke, lightning, burns,
22 to 70).
etc.).
73. All injuries of fingers, right hand 103a. Injuries by electric currents.
(titles designated by odd numbers from 104. Traumatic neurosis following in­
juries.
23 to 71).
74. All injuries of fingers, right and 105. Suffocation.
left hands (titles 22 to 71).
106. Drowning.




APPENDIX IX.—CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS, BY NATURE
OF INJURY AND DEGREE OF PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENT, PROPOSED BY
THE WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION SERVICE BUREAU.

—Continued.
51. First finger right hand, both pha­
1. Loss of left arm (upper).
langes.
2. Loss of left arm (lower).
. 52. Middle finger right hand, both pha­
3. Loss of right arm (upper).
langes.
4. Loss of riglit arm (lower).
53. Third finger right hand, both pha­
5. Loss of both upper arms.
langes.
6. Loss of both lower arms.
54. Little finger right hand, both pha­
7. Fracture of left upper arm.
langes.
8. Fracture of left lower arm.
55. Thumb of both hands, both pha­
9. Fracture of right upper arm.
langes.
10. Fracture of right lower arm.
56. First finger of both hands, both pha­
11. Fracture of both upper arms.
langes.
12. Fracture of both lower arms.
13. All other injuries to right upper 57. Second finger of both hands, both
phalanges.
arm.
14. All other injuries to left upper arm. 58. Third finger of both hands, both
15. All other injuries to right lower arm. phalanges.
16. All other injuries to left lower arm. 59. Fourth finger of both hands, both
phalanges.
Hand injury.
65. Two fingers of left hand, both pha­
21. Loss of left hand.
langes.
22. Loss of right hand.
67. Two fingers of right hand, both pha­
langes.
23. Loss of both hands.
24. Fracture of bones of left hand.
68. Two fingers of both hands, both pha­
langes.
25. Fracture of bones of right hand.
26. Fracture of bones of both hands.
69. Three fingers of left hand, both
phalanges.
27. All other injuries to left hand.
28. All other injuries to right hand.
70. Three fingers of right hand, both
29. All other injuries to both hands. phalanges.
71. Three fingers of both hands, both
Loss of thumb or finger.
phalanges.
45. Thumb of left hand, both pha­ 72. Four fingers of left hand, both pha­
langes.
langes.
46. Index or first finger of left-hand, 73. Four fingers of right hand, both
both phalanges.
phalanges.
47. Middle finger of left-hand, both 74. Four fingers of both hands, both
phalanges.
phalanges.
48. Third or ring finger of left-hand, 75. All fingers of left hand, both pha­
langes.
both phalanges.
. 49. Fourth or little finger of left-hand, 76. All fingers of right hand, both pha­
both phalanges.
langes.
50. Thumb of right hand, both pha­ 77. All fingers of both hands, both pha­
langes.
langes.
Arms injury.




Loss of thumb or finger

191

192

BULLETIN" OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

—Concluded.
85. Phalanx of the thumb, left hand.
86. Phalanx of the first finger, left
hand.
87. Phalanx of the second finger, left
hand.
88. Phalanx of the third finger, left
hand.
89. Phalanx of the fourth finger, left
hand.
90. Phalanges of all fingers, left hand.
91. Phalanx of the thumb, right hand.
92. Phalanx of the first finger, right
hand.
93. Phalanx of the second finger, right
hand.
94. Phalanx of the third finger, right
hand.
95. Phalanx of the fourth finger, right
hand.
96. Phalanges of all fingers, right hand.
97. Two phalanges of the left hand.
98. Two phalanges of the right hand.
99. Three phalanges of the left hand.
100. Three phalanges of the right hand.
101. Four phalanges of the left hand.
102. Four phalanges of the right hand.
103. First phalanx of the left hand, all
fingers.
104. First phalanx of the right hand,
all fingers.
Fracture of thumb or fingers.
109. Fourth finger of the left hand.
110. Thumb of the left hand.
111. First finger of the left hand.
112. Second finger of the left hand.
113. Third finger of the left hand.
114. Thumb of the right hand.
115. First finger of the right hand.
116. Second finger of the right hand.
117. Third finger of the right hand.
118. Fourth finger of the right hand.
119. All fingers of the right hand
120. All fingers of the left hand.
121. Two fingers of the left hand.
122. Two fingers of the right hand.
123. Three fingers of the left hand.
124. Three fingers of the right hand.
125. Four fingers of the left hand.
126. Four fingers of the right hand.
Loss of thumb or finger




.
136. First joint of the thumb, left hand.
137. First joint of the thumb, right
hand.
138. First joint of the thumb, both
hands.
139. First joint of the first finger, left
hand.
140. First joint of the first finger, right
hand.
141. First joint of the first finger, both
hands.
142. First joint of the second finger,
left hand.
143. First joint of the second finger,
right hand.
144. First joint of the second finger,
both hands.
145. First joint of the third finger, left
hand.
146. First joint of the third finger,
right hand.
147. First joint of the third finger, both
hands.
148. First joint of the fourth finger, left
hand.
149. First joint of the fourth finger,
right hand.
150. First joint of the fourth finger,
both hands.
All other injury to thumb or fingers.
155. Thumb, left hand.
156. Thumb, right hand.
157. Thumb, both hands.
158. First finger, left hand.
159. First finger, right hand.
160. First finger, both hands.
161. Second finger, left hand.
162. Second finger, right hand.
163. Second finger, both hands.
164. Third finger, left hand.
165. Third finger, right hand.
166. Third finger, both hands.
167. Fourth finger, left hand.
168. Fourth finger, right hand.
169. Fourth finger, both hands.
170. All fingers, left hand.
171. All fingers, right hand.
172. All fingers, both hands.
180. Injury to finger.
Stiffness of thumb or fingers

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

Injury to foot or leg.

181. Loss of one leg.
182. Loss of botli legs.
183. Fracture of one upper leg.
184. Fracture of both upper legs.
185. Fracture of one lower leg.
186. Fracture of both lower legs.
190. Injury to arch of one foot.
191. Injury to arch of both feet.
192. Injury to instep of one foot.
193. Injury to instep of both feet.
195. Other injuries to the right foot.
196. Other injuries to the left foot.
197. Other injuries to the right leg.
198. Other injuries to the left leg.
199. Other injuries to both legs.
200. Other injuries to both feet.
205. Loss of great toe, right foot.
206. Lost: of great toe, left foot.
207. Loss of great toe, both feet.
208. Loss of one other toe, right foot.
209. Loss of one other toe, left foot.
210. Loss of two other toes, right foot.
211. Loss of two other toes, left foot.
212. Loss of three other toes, right foot.
213. Loss of three other toes, left foot.
214. Loss of four other toes, right foot.
215. Loss of four other toes, left foot.
216. Loss of all toes, right foot.
217. Loss of all toes, left foot.
220. Injury to great toe, right foot.
221. Injury to great toe, left foot.
222. Injury to all other toes, right foot.
223. Injury to all other toes, left foot.
226. Loss of right arm and right leg.
227. Loss of left arm and right leg.
228. Loss of both arms and both legs. ,
Injury to eye.

235.
236.
237.
238.
239.
240.
241.

Loss of one eye.
Loss of both eyes.
Loss of one eye, injury to other.
Injury to both eyes.
Injury to one eye.
Loss of sight, one eye.
Loss of sight, both eyes.
58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 13




193

Injury to head.

245.
246.
247.
248.
249.
251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.

Injury to right side of head.
Injury to left side of head.
Injury to back of head.
Injury to front of head.
All other injury to head.
Deafness, one ear.
Deafness, both ears.
Injury to one ear.
Injury to both ears.
Injury to shoulder (with the arm).
Fracture of shoulder blade cf
scapula.
257. Fracture of collar bone.
258. Fracture of sternum or breastbone.
260. Fracture of ribs (one).
261. Fracture of ribs (several).
264. Injury to trunk.
265. Injury to penis.
266. Injury to testicles.
268. Rupture.
271. Injury to several parts of body.
275. Internal injuries.
280. Concussion of the brain.
285. Miscellaneous (stroke, hemorrhage,
blood poison, sunstroke, etc.).
290. Suffocation.
295. Drowning.
300. Traumatic neurosis.
305. Facial disfigurement and injury.
306. Fracture of the nose.
309. Scalds, bums, etc., not located.
315. Fatal.
Dislocations.

325.
326.
327.
328.
329.
330.
331.
332.
333.
334.
335.

Shoulder joint.
Elbow joint.
Wrist joint.
One finger joint.
More than one finger.
Hip.
Knee.
Ankle.
One toe.
Two or more toes.
Vertebrae.

APPENDIX X.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY NATURE OF INJURY AND DEGREE OF PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENT—
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT COMMISSION OF CALIFORNIA.

Disability
number.

Nature of disability.
Line.
I. Theshull.
I-1. Aperture unfilled with new bone:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 0
Moderate.................................................................................................... 21
Severe........................................................................................................ 59
1-2, Aphasia:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 6
Moderate.................................................................................................... 41
Severe........................................................................................................ 64
1-3. Ataxia:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 31
Moderate.................................................................................................... 56
Severe........................................................................................................ 64
1-4. Epilepsy:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 21
Moderate................................................................................................... 59
Severe........................................................................................................ 64
1-5. Insanity:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 62
Moderate.................................................................................................... 63
Severe....................................................................................................... 64
1-6. Paralysis:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 16
Moderate.................................................................................................... 56
Severe........................................................................................................ 64
1-7. Vertigo:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 6
Moderate.................................................................................................... 46
Severe........................................................................................................ 64
1-8. Weakening of the intellect:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 16
Moderate.......................................................................................... ......... 46
Severe........................................................................................................ 59
1-9. Traumatic neurosis:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 16
Moderate.................................................................................................... 46
Severe........................................................................................................ 57
II. The eye.
II-l. Complete loss of both eyes............................................................................. 64
II-2. Complete loss of the sight of both ayes........................................................ 64
II-3. Complete loss of one eye— ........................................................................ 26
11-4. Complete loss of the sight of one eye........................................................... 21




194

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

195

Disability
number.
Nature of disability.
Line.
II-5. Complete loss of the sight of one eye, plus such impairment of the sight
of the other as prevents reading or writing, but not the ability to find
one’s way:
Slight......................................................................................................... 58
Moderate.............................................................., . ................................ 60
Severe..................................................................................... '.................. 62
II-6. Loss of the sight of one eye, leaving no scar or blemish such as would
afford an observer evidence of such loss.................................................. 16
II-7. Permanent impairment of the vision of both eyes to the extent of ren­
dering them useless for purposes of high visual requirement, but not
for finding one’s way:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 57
Moderate.................................................................................................... 59
Severe........................................................................................................ 61
II-8. Such a permanent impairment of the vision of one eye as renders it
useless for purposes of high visual requirement, but not affecting
one’s ability to find one’s way, the other eye being uninjured.......... 6
II-9. Hemorrhage of the eye, causing defective vision at times only.............. 6
11-10. Paralysis of the muscles of both eyes by reason of injury to the sockets
causing double vision.................................................................................. 41
11-11. Paralysis of the muscles of one eye by reason of injury to the socket of
that eye, causing immobility and double vision................................... 21
11-12. Injury to the eye socket, causing immobility of eyeball with attendant
impairment of range of vision only........................................................... 16
II-13. Laceration of lachrymal duct, causing chronic overflow of tears............ 6
III. The ear.

III-l. Complete deafness in both ears.....................................................................
II1-2. Complete deafness in one ear, other normal...............................................
III-3. Such a degree of deafness in both ears as interferes with ability to com­
pete, without otherwise substantially interfering with the perform­
ance of industrial duties.............................................................................
III-4. Chronic inflammation of internal or middle ear with discharge.............

36
6
16
16

IV . The face.

IY-1, a.
IY-1, b.
IY-2.

IV-3.

Such injuries to the nasal bones, cheek bones, or jaws as interfere in a
positive deg.:ee with the performance of the normal functions of the:
a. Nose..................................................................................... V.............
b. Mouth—
Slight..............................................................................................
Moderate........................................................................................
Severe.............................................................................................
Such injuries of the nose and face as, by reason of the disfigurement,
make the injured person so repulsive as to interfere with his ability
to compete in obtaining employment, there being no permanent
functional impairment:
Slight.......................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................................................................................................
Such irreparable injury to or loss of teeth as produces deficient masti­
cation of foods and consequent malnutrition..........................................




6
0
16
26

6
11
16
11

196

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Disability
number.

Nature of disability.

Line.

V. The neck.

V -l. Such an injury to the throat as necessitates the constant wearing of a
tracheal tube................................................................................................ 40
V-2. Loss of speech due to injury to vocal organs.............................................. 26
V-3. Such a difficulty in speaking as results in loss of ability to compete,
through indistinct articulation.................................................................. 6
V-4. Permanent contraction of larynx, resulting in difficult breathing........ 36
VI. The chest.

VI-1. Reduction in mobility of the chest by reason of injury:
Slight..........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................................................................................................
VI-2. Chronic affections of the pulmonary tissues resulting from injury:
Slight..........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe.........................................................................................................
VI-3. Well marked dilation of the heart as a result of sudden violent and acci­
dental exertion, resulting in permanent “heart disease ”....................
VI-4. Rupture of the aortic valves as a result of sudden violent and accidental
exertion, resulting in permanent “heart disease”...............................
VI-5. Any other disease of the heart, induced by industrial accident, that
becomes chronic and incurable, such as myocarditis and aneurysm.

6
26
46
6
36
59

58
58
58

VII. Shoulders and arms.

VII-1. Irreducible fracture, or faulty union of collar bone, resulting in de­
cided limitation of motion of major arm................................................
VII-2. Same as foregoing to minor arm...................................................................
VII-3. Ankylosis (stiffness) of the major shoulder joint, not permitting arm to
be raised above a level with the shoulder............................................
VII-4. Same as foregoing to minor shoulder............................................................
VII-5. Fixation of shoulder joint of major arm more severe than above de­
scribed...........................................................................................................
YII-6. Same, severe fixation of shoulder joint of minor arm.............................
VII-7. Habitual dislocation of either shoulder as a result of industrial injury..
VII-8. Loss of major arm at shoulder or between shoulder and elbow.........
VII-9. Loss of minor arm at shoulder or between shoulder and elbow..............
VII-10. Loss of major arm at elbow joint..................................................................
VII-11. Loss of minor arm at elbow joint..................................................................
VII-12. Stiff elbow at full flexion, major arm (after operation)............................
VII-13. Stiff elbow at full flexion, minor arm (after operation)............................
VII-14. Stiff elbow joint at right angle flexion, major arm (after operation)___
VII-15. Stiff elbow joint at right angle flexion, minor arm (after operation)___
VII-16. Stiff elbow at full extension, major arm (after operation)......................
VII-17. Stiff elbow joint at full extension, minor arm (after operation)..............
VII-18. Loss of major arm between elbow and wrist..............................................
VII-19. Loss of minor arm between elbow and wrist.............................................
VII-20. Stiff wrist joint, major arm, severely involving fingers (after operation).
VII-21. Stiff wrist joint, minor arm, severely involving fingers (after operation).
VI1-22. Severe limited motion in elbow and wrist joints, major arm (after opera­
tion) ................................................................................................................



16
11
16
11
26
21
21
56
51
51
46
41
36
31
26
41
36
46
41
21
16
26

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

197

Disability
number.
Nature of disability.
Line.
VII-23. Severe limited motion in elbow and wrist joints, minor arm (after opera­
tion) ................................................................................................................ 21
VI1-24. Severe limited action, wrist of major arm (after operation).................... 16
VI1-25. Severe limited action, wrist of minor arm (after operation).................. 11
VI1-26. Loss of both arms at shoulder, or between shoulder and elbow.............. 64
VII-27. Loss of both arms at elbow joint.................................................................. 64
VII-28. Loss of both arms between elbow and wrist............................................... 64
VIII. The hands.

VIII-1. Loss of major hand at the wrist joint........................................................... 41
VIII-2. Loss of minor hand at the wrist joint........................................................... 36
VIII-3. Loss of both hands at the wrist joint............................................................ 64
I X . The thumbs.

IX-1.
IX-2.
IX-3.
IX-4.
IX-5.
IX-6.
IX-7.
IX-8.
IX-9.
IX-10.
IX-11.
IX-12.
IX-13.
IX-14.
IX-15.
IX-16.
IX-17.
IX-18.
IX-19.
IX-20.
IX-21.

Loss of thumb of major hand, involving the metacarpal bone...............
Loss of thumb of minor hand, involving the metacarpal bone...............
Loss of thumbs of both hands, involving the metacarpal bones.............
Loss of end of thumb of major hand at distal joint...................................
Loss of end of thumb of minor hand at distal joint...................................
Loss of end of thumbs of both hands at distal joint..................................
Loss of thumb of major hand at proximal joint.........................................
Loss of thumb of minor hand at proximal joint.........................................
Loss of thumbs of both hands at proximal joint........................................
Immobility of the distal joint of thumb of major hand............................
Immobility of the distal joint of thumb of minor hand...........................
Immobility of the distal joint of thumbs of both hands...........................
Immobility of proximal joint of thumb of major hand.............................
Immobility of proximal joint of thumb of minor hand............................
Immobility of proximal joint of thumbs of both hands...........................
Immobility of both thumb joints of major hand.......................................
Immobility of both thumb joints of minor hand.......................................
Immobility of both thumb joints of both hands.......................................
Contracture of thumb on major hand..........................................................
Contracture of thumb on minor hand..........................................................
Contracture of thumb on both hands.........................................................

12
11
26
2
1
6
6
5
14
2
1
6
2
1
6
6
5
14
6
5
14

X . Index finger.

X -l.
X-2.
X-3.
X-4.
X-5.
X-6.
X-7.
X-8.
X-9.
X-10.
X -ll.
X-12.

Loss of index finger at proximal joint, major hand................................... 4
Loss of index finger at proximal joint, minor hand................................. 3
Loss of index finger at proximal joint, both hands................................... 11
Loss of index finger at second joint, major hand....................................... 2
Loss of index finger at second joint, minor hand...................................... 1
Loss of index fingers at second joint, both hands...................................... 8
Loss of index finger at distal joint, major hand......................................... 2
Loss of index finger at distal joint, minor hand........................................ 1
Loss of index finger at distal joint, both hands......................................... 4
Immobility (ankylosis) of index finger, major hand................................. 2
Immobility of index finger, minor hand........ ........................................... 1
Immobility of index fingers, both hands.................................................... 6




198

Disability
number.
X-13.
X-14.
X-15.
X-16.
X-17.
X-18.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Nature of disability.
Line.
Immobility of distal and middle joints of index finger, major hand... 2
Immobility of distal and middle joints of index finger, minor hand... 1
Immobility of distal and middle joints, both hands................................. 4
Immobility of distal joint of index finger, major hand............................ 2
Immobility of distal joint of index finger, minor hand............................ 1
Immobility of distal joint of index fingers, both hands........................... 2
X I . Middle and ring fingers.

XI-1. Loss of either finger at proximal joint, major hand................................... 2
XI-2. Loss of either finger at proximal joint, minor hand.................................. 1
XI-3. Loss of either finger at proximal joint, both hands................................... 6
XI-4. Loss of both fingers at proximal joint, major hand................................... 6
XI-5. Loss of both fingers at proximal joint, minor hand................................... 5
XI-6. Loss of both fingers at proximal joint, both hands................................... 14
XI-7. Loss of either finger at second joint, major ha,nd....................................... 2
XI-8. Loss of either finger at second joint, minor hand...................................... 1
XI-9. Loss of either finger at second joint, both hands....................................... 2
XI-10. Loss of both fingers at second joint, major hand....................................... 2
XI-11. Loss of both fingers at second joint, minor hand....................................... 1
XI-12. Loss of both fingers at second joint, both hands........................................ 6
XI-13. Loss of either finger at the distal joint, major hand.................................. 1
XI-14. Loss of either finger at the distal joint, minor hand................................. 1
XI-15. Loss of either finger at the distal joint, both hands................................. 2
XI-16. Loss of both fingers at the distal joint, major hand................................... 2
XI-17. Loss of both fingers at the distal joint, minor hand.................................. 1
XI-18. Loss of both fingers at the distal joint, both hands................................... 2
XI-19. Immobility of either finger at proximal joint, major hand..................... 2
XI-20. Immobility of either finger at proximal joint, minor hand..................... 1
XI-21. Immobility of either finger at proximal joint, both hands...................... 6
XI-22. Immobility of both fingers at proximal joint, major hand...................... 6
XI-23. Immobility of both fingers at proximal joint, minor hand...................... 5
XI-24. Immobility of both fingers at proximal joint, both hands...................... 12
XI-25. Immobility of either finger at second joint, major hand......................... 2
XI-26. Immobility of either finger at second joint, minor hand......................... 1
XI-27. Immobility of either finger at second joint, both hands.......................... 5
XI-28. Immobility of both fingers at second joint, major hand........................... 5
XI-29. Immobility of both fingers at second joint, minor hand.......................... 4
XI-30. Immobility of both fingers at second joint, both hands........................... 11
XI-31. Immobility of either finger at distal joint, major hand............................ 1
XI-32. Immobility of either finger at distal joint, minor hand........................... 1
XI-33. Immobility of either finger at distal joint, both hands............................ 1
XI-34. Immobility of both fingers at distal joint, major hand............................ 2
XI-35. Immobility of both fingers at distal joint, minor hand............................ 2
XI-36. Immobility of both fingers at distal joint, both hands............................. 2
XI-37. Curvature of either finger, major hand........................................................ 1
XI-38. Curvature of either finger, minor hand....................................................... 2
XI-39. Curvature of either finger, both hands........................................................ 2
XI-40. Curvature of both fingers, major hand....................................................... 2
XI-41. Curvature of both fingers, minor hand........................................................ 1
XI-42. Curvature of both fingers, both hands......................................................... 6




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS---- APPENDIXES.

Disability
number.

Nature of disability.
X I I . The little finger.

XII-1. Loss of little finger at proximal joint, major hand....................................
XI1-2. Loss of little finger at proximal joint, minor hand....................................
XII-3. Loss of little finger at proximal joint, both hands.....................................
XII-4. Loss of little finger at second joint, major hand........................................
XII-5. Loss of little finger at second joint, minor hand........................................
XII-6. Loss of little finger at second joint, both hands........................................
XII-7. Loss of little finger at distal joint, major hand..........................................
XII-8. Loss of little finger at distal joint, minor hand..........................................
XII-9. Loss of little finger at distal joint, both hands...........................................
XII-10. Immobility of little finger, major hand.......................................................
XII-11. Immobility of little finger, minor hand......................................................
XII-12. Immobility of little finger, both hands.......................................................
XII-13. Curvature of little finger, major hand........................................................
XII-14. Curvature of little finger, minor hand.........................................................
XII-15. Curvature of little finger, both hands..........................................................

199

Line.
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2

X I I I . Thumb andforefinger.

XIII-1.
XIII-2.
XIII-3.
XIII-4.
XIII-5.
XIII-6.
XIII-7.
XIII-8.
XIII-9.
XIII-10.
XIII-11.
XIII-12.
XIII-13.
XIII-14.
XIII-15.
XIY-1.
XIY-2.
XIV-3.
XIV-4.
XIV-5.
XIV-6.
XIV-7.
XIV-8.
XIV-9.
XIV-10.
XIY-11.
XIV-12.
XIV-13.
XIV-14.
XIV-15.

Loss of thumb and forefinger at proximal joints, major hand.*..............
Loss of thumb and forefinger at proximal joints, minor hand................
Loss of thumb and forefinger at proximal joints, both hands.................
Loss of forefinger at second joint, thumb at distal joint, major hand...
Loss of forefinger at second joint, thumb at distal joint, minor hand...
Loss of forefinger at second joint, thumb at distal joint, both hands...
Loss of forefinger and thumb at distal joints, major hand.......................
Loss of forefinger and thumb at distal joints, minor hand.......................
Loss of forefinger and thumb at distal joints, both hands........................
Immobility of forefinger and thumb, major hand...............................-..
Immobility of forefinger and thumb, minor hand....................................
Immobility of forefinger and thumb, both hands.....................................
Curvature of forefinger and thumb, major hand......................................
Curvature of forefinger and thumb, minor hand................................... .
Curvature of forefinger and thumb, both hands......................................
X I V . Thumb, forefinger, and middle finger.
Loss of, at proximal joints, major hand.......................................................
Loss of, at proximal joints, minor hand.....................................................
Loss of, at proximal joints, both hands.......................................................
Loss of forefinger and middle finger at second joints, thumb at distal
joint, major hand.........................................................................................
Los3 of forefinger and middle finger at second joints, thumb at distal
joint, minor hand........................................................................................
Loss of forefinger and middle finger at second joints, thumb at distal
joint, both hands.........................................................................................
Loss of, at distal joints, major hand.............................................................
Loss of, at distal joints, minor hand............................................................
Loss of, at distal joints, both hands.............................................................
Immobility of, major hand..........................................................................
Immobility of, minor hand...........................................................................
Immobility of, both hands.. . . . ................................................................
Curvature of, major hand..............................................................................
Curvature of, minor hand............................................................................
Curvature of, both hands...............................................................................




26
23
51
11
8
21
8
5
16
16
13
31
14
11
21
31
29
61
21
19
41
16
14
31
21
19
41
18
16
31

200

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Disability
number.

Nature of disability.

Lino.

X V. Thumb and all the fingers.

XV-1. Loss of, at or above second joints, thumb.at proximal joint, major hand.
XV-2. Loss of, at or above second joints, thumb at proximal joint, minor
hand...............................................................................................................
XV-3. Loss of, at or above second joints, thumb at proximal joint, both
hands................................................................... ..........................................
XV-4. Loss of, at distal joints, major hand.............................................................
XV-5. Loss of, at distal joints, minor hand.............................................................
XV-6. Loss of, at distal joints, both hands.............................................................
XV-7. Immobility of, major hand............................................................................
XV-8. Immobility of, minor hand............................................................................
XV-9. Immobility of, both hands............................................................................
XV-10. Curvature of, major hand...............................................................................
XV-11. Curvature of, minor hand................................: ...........................................
XV-12. Curvature of, both hands...............................................................................
X VI. All the fingers, not including thumb.
XVI-1. Logs of, at or above second joints, major hand..........................................
XVI-2. Loss of, at or above second joints, minor hand..........................................
XVI-3. Loss of, at or above second joints, both hands...........................................
XVI-4. Loss of, at distal joints, major hand.............................................................
XVI-5. Loss of, at distal joints, minor hand............................................................
XVI-6. Loss of, at distal joints, both hands.............................................................
XVI-7. Immobility of, major hand............................................................................
XVI-8. Immobility of, minor hand...........................................................................
XVI-9. Immobility of, both hands............................................................................
XVI-10. Curvature of, major hand...............................................................................
XVI-11. Curvature of, minor hand..............................................................................
XVI-12. Curvature of, both hands...............................................................................

36
34
58
21
19
36
31
29
58
31
29
57
34
32
56
21
19
41
26
24
56
23
21
46

X VII. Injuries to different fingers on both hands.

XVII-1. Loss of thumb and index finger, or the use thereof, of one hand and the
middle, ring and little fingers of the other.............................................
XVII-2. Loss of thumb, index and middle fingers, or the use thereof, of one
hand, and the thumb and index finger of the other.............................
XVII-3. Loss of the middle, index and ring fingers, or the use thereof, of one
hand, and the index and middle fingers of the other...........................
XVII-4. Loss of all the fingers of one hand, except the index, or the use thereof,
and the thumb of the other......................................................................
XVII-5. Loss of thumb and index finger, or the use thereof, of one hand, and the
little finger of the other..............................................................................
XVII-6. Loss of thumb, ring and little fingers, or the use thereof, of the one
hand, and ring and little fingers of the other.........................................

41
58
36
56
26
36

X V I I I. The spine.

XVIII-1. Such fracture or dislocation of one or more vertebrae as, without
attendant injury to the spinal cord, proves irreducible and results
in deformity:
Slight.......................................................................................................... 16
Moderate.................................................................................................... 31
Severe........................................................................................................ C6



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT STATISTICS— APPENDIXES.

201

Nature of disability.

Line.

Disability
number.

XVI11-2. Loss of mobility of the spinal column:
Slight.........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................................................................................................
XVIII-3. Such injury to the coccyx as produces chronic neuralgia:
Slight..........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................................................................................................
XVIII-4. Such injury to the spinal cord as produces paralysis of the extremities..
XVIII-5. Such injury to the spinal cord as produces chronic incontinence of
urine or feces................................................................................................

26
46
64
0
6
46
64
64

X I X . The abdomen.

XIX-1. Chronic disease of any of the abdominal organs, arising from industrial
injury and resulting in permanent derangement of their functions,
or impairment of nutrition:
Slight..........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................................................................................................
XIX-2. Laceration of abdominal muscles, resulting in constant danger of hernia
as a consequence of overstrain:
Slight..........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe....................................................................................................
XIX-3. Chronic intestinal obstruction, consequent upon peritonitis arising
from industrial injury:
Slight........................................................................................................
• Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................................................................................................
XIX-4. Permanent adhesions of organs to wall of abdomen, or to other organs,
consequent upon peritonitis arising from industrial injury :
Slight.........................................................................................................
Moderate...............................................................................................
Severe.......................................................................................................
XIX-5. Rupture, must indubitably bo the result of accident:
Congenital inguinal.................................................................................
Direct inguinal............................................................................. ..........
Oblique inguinal................................................... .................................
XIX-6. Rupture, old, rendered irreducible through accident..............................
XIX-7. Bladder, chronic inflammation of, following accident.............................
XIX-8. Bladder, stone in, following accidental rupture........................................
X X . The pelvis.
XX-1. Such fracture of the pelvic ring as leaves deformity and lameness and
permanent incapacity for the performance of arduous employment:
Slight..........................................................................................................
Moderate....................................................................................................
Severe........................ ..............................................................................




16
46
60
6
26
46
6
26
46
6
36
58
6
6
6
6
26
26

46
59
64

202

BULLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

^numberf
XXI-1.
XXI-2.
XXI-3.
XXI-4.
XXI-5.

Nature of disability.

Line.
Loss of both legs at or above knee joint..................................................... 62
Loss of one leg at or above knee joint......................................................... 46
Failure of fracture of hips to unite (false joint), both hips....................... 63
Failure of fracture of hip to unite (false joint), one hip........................... 59
Irregular union of fracture in the thigh or leg, with considerable short­
ening of limb................................................................................................ 16
XXI-6. Irregular union of fracture, with such limitation of motion as produces
permanent lameness.................................................................................... 21
XX1-7. Complete immobility of hip joint in extension of the thigh..................... 21
XXI-8. Complete immobility of hip joint in flexion of the thigh......................... 56
XXI-9. Loss of both legs at or above ankle and below knee joint......................... 60
XXI-10. Loss of one leg at or above ankle and below knee joint............................. 36
XXI-11. Complete immobility of knee joint in extension....................................... 16
XXI-12. Complete immobility of knee joint in slight flexion, obtuse angle........ 14
XXI-13. Complete immobility of knee joint in strong flexion, in an acute angle.. 36
XXI-14. Loose knee joint.............................................................................................. 16
XXI-15. Such a stretching of the ligaments of the knee as results in chronic
instability of the joint................................................................................ 16
XXI-16. Loss of both feet, in tarsus............................................................................. 56
XXI-17. Loss of both feet, in metatarsus.................................................................... 36
XXI-18. Loss of one foot, in tarsus............................................................................... 21
XXI-19. Loss of one foot, in metatarsus...................................................................... 16
XXI-20. Loose ankle joint............................................................................................. 11
XXI-21. Complete immobility of ankle joint, one foot............................................ 11
XXI-22. Complete immobility of ankle joints, both feet........................................ 26
XXI-23. Fixation of ankle with foot at right angle to leg........................................ 6
XXI-24. Fixation of ankle with foot at oblique angle to leg.................................. 6
XXI-25. Loss of great toes of both feet........................................................................ 11
XXI-26. Loss of great toe of one foot........................................................................... 4
XXI-27. Loss of all toes of both feet, including great toes...................................... 21
XXI-28. Loss of all toes of one foot, including great toe.......................................... 11




X X I . Lower extremities.

APPENDIX XI.—OFFICIAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS,
BY DEGREE OR KIND OF DISABILITY, OR PART OR PORTION OF
BODY INJURED—INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION OF WISCONSIN.

I. General character of injury.
0. Loss or amputation.
1. Loss of function.
2. Fracture.
3. Dislocation.
4. Sprain or strain.
. Laceration or abrasion.
. Cut or puncture.
. Bruise or contusion.
. Bum or scald.
. Infection.
X. Rupture.
Y. All other.
II. Part of body affected.
a. Head:
00. Skull or scalp.
01. Nose.
02. Jaw or chin.
03. Teeth.
04. Eye.
05. Second eye.
06. Both eyes.
07. Ear.
08. Second ear.
09. Both ears.
OX. Other part of face or neck.
b. Trunk:
10. Chest.
11. Back.
12. Small of back.
13. Abdomen.
14. Groin.
15. Sternum.
16. Ribs.
17. Vertebrae.
18. Pelvis.
19. Genifcals.
IX. Viscera.
Hernia:
X13. Umbilical.
X19. Inguinal.
X14. Femoral or crural.
c. Upper extremities:
20. Clavicle.
21. Scapula.



II. Part of body affected—Continued.
c. Upper extremities—Concluded.
22. Arm, upper, right.
23. Arm, upper, left.
24. Arm, upper, both.
25. Arm, lower, right.
26. Arm, lower, left.
27. Arm, lower, both.
28. Wrist, right.
29. Wrist, left.
2X. Wrist, both.
2Y. Multiple arm injuries, n. o. c.
d. Lower extremities:
30. Leg, upper.
31. Leg, upper, both.
32. Knee.
33. Both knees.
34. Leg, lower.
35. Leg, lower, both.
36. Foot.
37. Both feet.
39. Leg and foot injuries, multiple,
n. o. c.
3X. Multiple leg and arm injuries,
n. o. c.
e. Hand:
40. Palm, right.
41. Palm, left.
42. Palm, both.
43. First metacarpal, right.
44. First metacarpal, left.
45. First metacarpal, both.
46. Thumb at proximal, right.
47. Thumb at proximal, left.
48. Thumb at proximal, both.
49. Thumb at second or distal, right.
4X. Thumb at second or distal, left.
4Y. Thumb at second or distal, both,
50. Second metacarpal, right.
51. Second metacarpal, left.
52. Second metacarpal, both.
53. Index finger at proximal, right.
54. Index finger at proximal, left.
55. Index finger at proximal, both.
56. Index finger at distal, right.
5X. Index finger at distal, left.
203

204

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

II. Part of body affected—Continued.
e. Hand—Continued.
5Y. Index finger at distal, both.
60. Third metacarpal, right.
61. Third metacarpal, left.
62. Middle finger at proximal, right.
63. Middle finger at proximal, left.
64. Middle finger at proximal, both.
65. Middle finger at second, right.
66. Middle finger at second, left.
67. Middle finger at second, both.
68. Middle finger at distal, right.
69. Middle finger at distal, left.
6X. Middle finger at distal, both.
70. Fourth metacarpal, right.
71. Fourth metacarpal, left.
72. Ring finger at proximal, right.
73. Ring finger at proximal, left.
74. Ring finger at second.
75. Ring finger at distal.
76. Fifth metacarpal, right.
77. Fifth metacarpal, left.
78. Little finger at proximal, right.
79. Little finger at proximal, left.
7X. Little finger at second.
7Y. Little finger at distal.
80. Four fingers, right hand.
81. Four fingers, left hand.
82. Four fingers, both hands.
83. Thumb and index fingers, right
hand.
84. Thumb and index fingers, left
hand.
85. Thumb and index fingers, both
hands.
86. Index and little finger, right
hand.

II. Part of body affected—Concluded.
e. Hand—Concluded.
87. Index and little finger, left
hand.
88. Index and little finger, both
hands.
89. Finger or fingers, n. o. c. (minoi
injuries only).
8X. Multiple finger injuries, n. o. c.
f. Toes:
90. Great toe and metatarsal.
91. Great toe at second or distal.
92. Lesser toe and metatarsal.
93. Lesser toe at proximal.
94. Lesser toe at second or distal.
95. Metatarsal.
96. All toes, one foot.
97. All toes, both feet.
98. Both great toes.
99. Great toe and one lesser toe,
same foot.
9X. Multiple toe injuries, n. o. c.
III. General result of injury.
000. Death.
001. Permanent total disability.
002. Permanent partial disability.
003. Temporary disability.
Degree of 'permanent partial disability.
004. 0 to 10 per cent.
005. 11 to 20 per cent.
006. 21 to 40 per cent.
007. 41 to 60 per cent.
008. 61 to 80 per cent.
009. Over 80 per cent.
Distribution of temporary disabilities by duration of disability.
Trivial, not over 1 day.
Minor, 1 to 7 days.
One to 2 weeks, 8 to 14 days.
Two to 3 weeks, 15 to 21 days.
Three to 4 weeks, 22 to 28 days.
Four to 6 weeks, 29 to 42 days.
Six to 8 weeks, 43 to 56 days.
Eight to 13 weeks, 57 to 91 days.
Three to 6 months, 92 to 182 days.
Over 6 months, over 182 days.




APPENDIX XII.—STANDARD FORM FOR REPORTING INDUSTRIAL DIS­
EASES USED BY NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

N

ew

Y

ork

!

State

D

of L a b o r — B u r e a u
S t a t is t ic s .

epartm ent

c e r t if ic a t e

of i n d u s t r i a l

Personal and statistical particulars.
Sex.

Age.

Color. Country of birth

> <*
D

•Si

19

Single, married, widowed or
divorced (write the word).

IH

fc
h
w
P
h

d
1
a
^

d
°
§
§

<
a
O
Q

d is e a s e .

Name of patient......................................................................
Address: Street and No............................ City or village.

u
s

i

L abor

of

-s i!
$ 3
gcQ

sz;
w

A*

*s

■ if
“

'd'd

C C
O O

Occupation.
(a) Present trade, profession, or
work.
Particular kind of work in such
trade, etc.....................................
Date of entering present occupa­
tion...............................................
Employer’s name...........................
Address........................................
Business (kind of goods made
or work done)..........................
(b) Previous occupations.
Name o f occupation.

Medical certificate of disease.

Diagnosis of present illness.
Chief symptoms and conditions..

Date first symptoms appear.
Complicating diseases (such as
alcoholism, syphilis, tubercu­
losis, etc.)

Additional facts.

® y‘ " e} ( ^ r . )
d

g

a
■§
>
P
Q

Previous illnesses, if any, due to Date of diagnosis.............. , 191..
occupation.
(Signed)..................., M. D.
Disease or illness.
Year.
............................., 191...
(Address).....................................




Mail to Bureau of Labor Statistics, Albany, New York.

(over)

205

206

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

N ew Y

ork

Sta t e D

epartm ent

of

Labor.

B U R E A U OP LABOR STATISTICS.

Y.
By section 58 of tlie labor law (added by chapter 258, Laws of 1911) every
medical practioner attending a patient suffering from poison by lead,
phosphorus, arsenic, or mercury, or their compounds, or from anthrax, or from
compressed-air illness, contracted as a result of the patient’s employment
is required to report such cases to the Commissioner of Labor with such
information in relation thereto as may be required by him% The co­
operation of the medical profession is sought by the Commissioner of
Labor, however, for the reporting not only of these industrial diseases
reportable by law, but also of any other cases of illness due, in the physi­
cian’s opinion, to the nature of the patient’s employment.
These forms are furnished by the Department of La,bor and should be
used for all reports. In filling out, note carefully the instructions below.
A lbany, N.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING OUT CERTIFICATE.

—The medical certifi­
on the right-hand side the phy­
sician alone can furnish. The per­
sonal and statistical particulars on
the left-hand side must be secured
by the physician either from the
patient, or, in fatal cases, from the
family precisely as for similar in­
formation in certificates of death
sent to boards of health.
Present occupation.—P r e c i s e
statement of occupation is very im­
portant so that the relative health­
fulness of various pursuits may be
known. It is necessary to know
both general trade or profession (for
example, printer or brass worker)
and also the particular kind of work
or branch of the trade (as hand com­
positor or linotype operator for a
printer, or polisher or buffer for a
brass worker).
Date of entering present occupa­
tion is important to determine how
long the worker may have been ex­
posed to the hazard before contract­
ing the disease.
Employer’s name, address and
business are necessary to ascertain
distribution of occupation diseases
by industries, many trades (e. g.,
machinists) being common to dif­
ferent industries.
Previous occupations need to be
known, if possible, because present
illness may be due to a former,
rather than present occupation,
and industrial disease is frequently
In general.
cate




a cause of change of occupation.
Give simply the name of each dis­
tinct occupation which the patient
may have followed, with the year
he entered, and the year he left,
each one.
^Previous illnesses.—This refers
either to previous attacks of pres­
ent disease, or to any other disease,
due to occupation. All that is re­
quired is the name of each such dis­
ease or illness with the year in
which it occurred. Such informa­
tion, when it can be secured, will
show whether the case reported is
the first attack or not, and when
combined with statement of pre­
vious occupations, will afford an
outline history of the patient as to
occupational disease.
Medical certificate.—Only the last
two items specified for this require
any explanation. In making these
reports it is necessary to con­
sider the possible influence of fac­
tors other than occupation as causes
of the disease. For this reason any
complicating diseases should be
noted, such, for example, as alco­
holism or syphilis in connection
with arteriosclerosis in cases of lead
or other metal poisoning. The pos­
sible effect of other factors, such as
oor
conditions in the
E hygienic personal conditions,
ome, or other
must be considered, and when dis­
coverable should be noted under
additional facts.

INDEX.
A ccidents, industrial:
Page.
Austria, industrial accident insurance experience................................................................................. 146-150
Causes of, standard classification of, preliminary report of com m ittee o n ....................................... 160-162
Classification o f........................................................................................................................ 153,155,159,161-165
Compensation, cost of, W isconsin, 1911 to 1914......................................................................................
79,80
Definition of reportable accidents.............................................................................................................
153
Germany,industrial accident insurance experience............................................................................. 141-145
Illinois, statistics o f.......................................................................................................................................
57-78
Massachusetts, statistics o f.........................................................................................................................
48-57
Mineral industries, statistics o f.......................................................................................... ...................... 101-112
Nature of injuries m ..................................................................................................................................... 162-173
N ew Y ork, statistics o f ................................................................................................................................
31-48
N orway, statistics o f. . ................................................................................................................................ 136-141
R ate or frequency of accidents, com putation o f.................................................................................... 126,155
Reporting, classification, etc., of, standardization o f............................................................................150-173
Reporting of, in 26 States, questions asked in forms o f............. .......................................................... 176,177
Reporting of, requirements as to, in 29 States........................................................................................174,175
R eporting of, standard legislative bill f o r ..............................................................................................151,152
Reporting of, standard schedule for.........................................................................................................
154
Risks, principal classifications of, Massachusetts workm en’s compensation experience, 1912,
1913..............................................................................................................................................................
55
United Kingdom , statistics o f................................. ................................ ................................................. 120-126
United States, problem of, in th e .............................................................................................................
12-20
W isconsin, statistics o f............................................................................................................................... 78-101
Age of employees killed and disabled b y industrial accidents:
Illinois............................................................................................................................................................ 60,66,67
Massachusetts................................................................................................................................................. '
51
United States......................................................................................................................................... 13,16,18,20
Austria, industrial accident insurance experience........................................................................................ 146-150
B ibliography.........................................................................................................................................................
8-10
Building and engineering, fatalities and disablements in , N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913................. 36-39,42-44,47
Burns, injuries due to, W iscon sin....................................................................................................................
94,95
Causes of industrial accidents, classification o f........................................................................ 154,155,159,161,162
Causes of industrial accidents, specified, fatalities and disablements due to each of:
Germany, 1885 to 1908..................................................................................................................................
145
Illinois, coal m ining, 1907 to 1912..............................................................................................................
64,65
Massachusetts, 1912-13................................................................................................................................
51
N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913................................................................................................................................
32-39
U nited States, 1904 to 1913..........................................................................................................................
16,20
U nited States, coal mining, 1912...............................................................................................................
106
U nited States, metal and miscellaneous mineral mines, 1912.............................................................
109
U nited States, quarries, 1913......................................................................................................................
.111
U nited States registration area, 1910 to 1912........................................... ...............................................
18
W isconsin.......................................................................................................................................................
79-81
W isconsin, eye injuries, 1911 to 1913.........................................................................................................
96
W isconsin, jointers........................................................................................................................................
93
W isconsin, small infections, 1911 to 1913.................................................................................................
97
Children and young persons killed and disabled, United Kingdom , 1908 to 1913.............................
166,167
Classification o f industrial accidents:
A ustria.......................................................................................... ................................................... 179,180,189-191
California................................................................................................................................................. 171,194-202
Germany......................................................................................................................................................... 180-182
Germany, according to nature of injury.................................................................................................. 168,169
188
Minnesota, iron mining and lum bering........................ . .........................................................................
N ew Jersey, railway service....................................................................................................................... 187,188
N ew Y o r k ............................................................................................................................................... 170,191-194
O h io.................................................................................................................................................................
178
Pennsylvania, coal m ining.........................................................................................................................
187
U nitea States, Government em ployees...................................................................................................
189
W isconsin........................................................................................................................................................182-186
Classification, reporting, etc., of industrial accidents, standardization of.............................................. 150-173
Coal mine accidents, list of, causing 100 or more deaths, United States, 1869 to 1914............................
107
Coal mining, accidents in:
Illinois, 1907 to 1912................... ............................................................................................ ....................
64,65
Pennsylvania, 1907 to 1911.........................................................................................................................
187
U nited States, 1896 to 1913..........................................................................................................................
104
U nited States, 1912.......................................................................................................................................
106
Compensation of industrial accidents and diseases:
Austria, 1897 to 1911.....................................................................................................................................
148
Germany, 1897 to 1908..................................................................................................................................
144
Massachusetts.................................................................................................................................................
55
N orway..................................................................................................................................................... 137,138,141
U nited K ingdom ..........................................................................................................................................124,126
W isconsin........................................................................................................................................................
79,80
Conjugal condition of employees killed and disabled, b y industries, Illinois, 1907 to 1912................. 60,65,66
Deaths. (See Fatalities and disablements from industrial accidents.)
Dependents of employees killed or disabled, number of, b y industries, Illinois, 1908 to 1912.............
59
D isability. (See Fatalities and disablements from industrial accidents.)
Diseases. (See Industrial diseases.)




207

208

INDEX.

Drowning, deaths due to, United States registration area, 1910 to 1912..................................................
15 19
Factories, fatalities in. New Y ork, 1911 to 1913................................................................................. 32-35*43-45’ 46
Fall of person, fatalities due to, New Y ork, 1911 to 1913.............................................................................
33* 38
Falls, fatalities due to, United States registration area, 1910 to 1912................................................ *. *‘
14 19
Falls, nature of injuries incurred b y , W isconsin, 1911 to 1913................................................................ ”
J82
Fatalities and disablements from industrial accidents:
Age and sex of employees killed, all causes, United States registration area.................................
13 is
16* 20
Age and sex of employees killed, each specified cause, United States..............................................
Age of employees disabled in specified industries, Illinois..................................................................
66’ 67
Age of employees killed, Massachusetts, 1912-13...................................................................................
151
Age of employees killed or disabled, Illinois, 1907 to 1912....................................................................
60
Building and engineering, employees disabled in, b y age and sex, New York, 1911 to 1913..........
42
Building and engineering, employees killed in, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913....................................... 37-39,47
Causes of accidents resulting in infection, W isconsin, 1911 to 1913....................................................
97
Causes of accidents, specified, cases compensated under each of, Germany, 1885 to 1908_____
145
Causes of accidents, specified, fatalities and disablements due to each of, in coal mining,
64,65
Illinois, 1907 to 1912............................................................................................................................... ...
Causes of accidents, specified, fatalities and disablements due to each of, W isconsin, 1911
to 1914...........................................................................................................................................................
79,80
Causes o f accidents, specified, fatalities due to each of, in coal mining, U nited States, 1912.......
106
51
Causes of accidents, specified, fatalities due to each of, Massachusetts, 1912,1913........................
Causes o f accidents, specified, fatalities due to each of, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913............................
32-39
Causes o f accidents, specified, fatalities due to each of, United S tates........................................... 16,18,20
Causes o f accidents, specified, fatalities due to each o f, Wisconsin, 1911-12.....................................
81
Causes o f injuries to eyes, W isconsin, 1911 to 1913.................................................................................
96
Children and young persons, killed and disabled, b y nature o f injury, U nited K ingdom , 1908
to 1913.......................................................................................................................................................... 166,167
Coal and metal mining, fatality rates in, compared, U nited States, 1912........................................
1C
3
Coal-mine accidents, list o f , causing 100 or more deaths, United States, 1869 to 1914.......................
107
Coal m ining, employees killed in, U nited States, 1896 to 1913............................................................
104
Conjugal condition o f employees killed or disabled, Illinois............................................................. 60,65,66
100
Corn huskers and shredders, employees killed or disabled b y , W isconsin......................................
Dependents of employees killed or injured, number of, b y industries, Illinois, 1908 to 1912___
59
Drowning, deaths due to, b y age and sex, U nited States registration area, 1910 to 1912.............
15,19
Factories, fatalities in, in specified industries, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913............................................
45,46
Factories, fatalities in, N ew Y ork , 1911 to 1913......................................................................................
32-35
Fall of person, deaths due to, in building and engineering, N ew Y ork , 1911 to 1913....................
38
Fall of person, deaths due to, in factories, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913...................................................
33
Falls, deaths due to, b y age and sex, U nited States registration area, 1910 to 1912.......................
14,19
Falls, nature of injuries incurred b y , W isconsin, 1911 to 1913.............................................................
82
Feed and ensilage cutters, employees killed or disabled b y , W isconsin, 1911.................................
loo
Fisheries, employees killed or disabled in, N orw ay............................................................................. 139,140
Germany, fatalities and disablements in ................................................................................................. 142,144
38
Heat ana electricity, deaths due to, in building and engineering, N ew Y o r k ...............................
Heat and electricity, deaths due to, in mines and quarries, N ew Y o r k ...........................................
36
Hour of occurrence of accidents, specified, fatalities or disablements in each of, Illinois.............
62
Industries, specified, employees killed in each of, Massachusetts........................ .............................
51,53
Injury, nature of, incurred b y accidents, Federal workmen’s compensation experience............. 164,165
Iniury, nature of, incurred b y accidents, Massachusetts.....................................................................
52
Iniury, nature o f, incurred b y accidents, N ew Y o r k ............................................................................
43
Injury, nature of, incurred b y accidents, United K ingdom ............................................................... 166,167
Iniury, nature of, incurred b y falls of workmen, W isconsin...............................................................
82
In ju ry, nature of, incurred b y objects striking workmen, W isconsin..............................................
88
Iniury to specified parts o f bod y, accidents resulting in, N ew Y o r k ................................................
44
Jointers or buzz planers, accidents due to, W isconsin..........................................................................
93
Loss of time caused b y nonfatal accidents, and employees killed, Illinois......................................
63,71
Loss of time caused b y nonfatal accidents, Massachusetts..................................................................
49
Manufacturing industries, employees injured in, b y age and sex, N ew Y ork , 1911 to 1913..........
41
Mechanical power, fatalities due to, in building and engineering, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913.........
37
Mechanical power, fatalities due to, in factories, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913......................................
32
Mechanical power, fatalities due to, in mines and quarries, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913....................
35
Mines and quarries, disablements in, b y age and sex, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913..............................
41
Mines and quarries, fatalities in, from heat and electricity. N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913....................
36
Mines and quarries, fatalities in, from mechanical power, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913.......................
35
Mines and quarries, fatalities in, from weights and falling objects, New Y ork, 1911 to 1913____
36
Mines and quarries, fatalities in, N ew Y ork , 1911 to 1913....................................................................
47
Mines and quarries, fatalities in, United States, 1912...........................................................................
102
Month of occurrence of accidents, specified, fatalities and disablements in each of, Illinois, 1908
to 1912...........................................- ........................................................................................................... 62,69,70
N ativity of employees killed or disabled, Illinois................................................................................ 61,67-69
Objects striking workmen, nature of injuries incurred b y, Wisconsin, 1911 to 1913......................
88
Occupations and age of employees killed, b y ssx, United States, 1908 and 1909 ............................
23-31
Occupations of employees killed or disabled, b y industries, Illinois, 1907 to 1912.........................
72-78
Poisoning, fatalities due to, b y sex, age, and occupation, U nited States registration area, 1908
and 1909.......................................................................................................................................................
23-31
Proportion of deaths caused b y accidents, males, b y occupations and age groups, U nited States,
1907 to 1912..................................................................................................................................................115-120
Public-service employees killed or disabled, num ber of, N ew Y ork, 1908 to 1911.........................
45
Railways, em ployees killed on, b y age and sex, U nited States registration area, 1910 to 1912..
14,19
W eights and falling objects, fatalities due to, N ew Y ork, 1911 to 1913........................................... 34,36,39
Fatality, rates of, from industrial accidents:
Austria, 1897 to 1911.............................................................................................................................. 146,147,149
Coal and metal mines, United States, 1912.............................................................................................
103
Coal mining, b y causes, United States, 1912...........................................................................................
106
Coal mining, U nited States, 1896 to 1913.................................................................................................
104
England and W ales, b y occupations and age groups, 1900 to 1902.................................................... 128-133
England and Wales, crude and corrected rates, 1900 to 1902............................................................... 133-136
Germany, 1897 to 1908, and 1901 to 1912...................................................................................................142,144
Massachusetts, principal industries, 1912-13..........................................................................................
53




INDEX.

209

F atality, rates of, from industrial accidents—Concluded.
Page.
Metal and miscellaneous mineral mines, b y causes, United States, 1912.........................................
109
Metal and miscellaneous mineral mines, United States, 1911 and 1912............................................
107
Mines and quarries, United States, 1912.......................................................................................... 102,103, 111
N orway, fisheries, 1909 to 1912.................................................................................................................. 139,140
Public-service employees, New Y ork, 1908 to 1911...............................................................................
45
Quarries, b y causes, United Statos, 1913..................................................................................................
I ll
Quarries, United Statos, 1911 to 1913.................................. .....................................................................
110
Railways, United Statos registration area, 1910 to 1912......................................................................
14
United Kingdom , b y industries, 1912......................................................................................................
123
United States registration area, all causes, 1910 to 1912.......................................................................
13
United States, in specified industry groups, 1913, estim ated .............................................................
6
Feed and ensilage cutters, employees killed or disabled b y , Wisconsin, 1911........................................
100
Fisheries, employees killed or disabled in, N orway, 1909 to 1912............................................................. 139,140
Germany, industrial accident insurance experience.................................................................................... 141-145
Government employees, United States, nonfatal industrial accidents to, 1908 to 1911........................
189
Heat and electricity, fatalities duo to, New Y ork, 1911 to 1913.................................................................
36,38
H our o f occurrence o f accidents, specified, fatalities and disablements in each of, Illinois, 1910 to
1912.......................................................................................................................................................................
62
Illinois, industrial accident statistics..............................................................................................................
57-78
Industrial diseases:
New Y ork , cases reported, 1911 to 1913....................................................................................................
47,48
N ew Y ork, standard form of reporting................1.................................................................................. 203,204
United Kingdom , death rates and disability rates from ......................................................................
125
Industries, specified, fatalities and disablements in each of:
Austria, 1897 to 1911.....................................................................................................................................
149
Germany, 1897 to 1908, and 1901 to 1912.......................................... ...................................................... 142,144
Illinois, 1907 to 1912 ........................................................................................................................ 59,60,63,65-71
Massachusetts, 1912-13................................................................................................................................
51,53
188
Minnesota, m ining and lumbering, 1910 to 1912....................................................................................
New Jersey, railway service, 1888 to 1891.............................................................................................. 187,188
New Y ork , Duilding and engineering, 1911 to 1913................................................................... 35-39,42-44.47
New Y ork , factories, 1911 to 1913................................................................................................. .32-35,43-45' 46
New Y ork , -mines and quarries, 1911 to 1913....................................................................... 35,36,41,43,44,47
N orway, 1895 to 1910.................................................................................................................................... 137,138
Norway, fisheries, 1909 to 1912................................................................................................................... 139,140
Pennsylvania, coal mining, 1907 to 1911..................................................................................................
187
United Kingdom , 1912................................................................................................................................. 123-126
United States, 1913, estim ated................................................... ..............................................................
6
United States, Government employees, 190S to 1911...........................................................................
189
United States registration area, railways, 1910 to 1912.......................................................................
14
Industries, standard classification of, preliminary report of committee o n ............................................ 156-158
Injuries, nature of, in industrial accidents..................................................................................................... 162-173
Injury, nature of, specified, disablements due to each of:
Massachusetts, 1912,1913............................................................................................................................
52
New Y ork , 1911 to 1913................................................................................................................................
43
U nited K ingdom , 1908 to 1913.................................................................................................................. 166,167
United States, Federal workmen’s compensation experience, 1910-11............................................ 164,165
Wisconsin, 1911 to 1913................................................................................................................................
88
Iron mining and lumbering, nonfatal accidents in, Minnesota, 1910 to 1912..........................................
188
Jointers or buzz planers, accidents due to, Wisconsin.................................................................................
93
Lead poisoning in specified industries, cases reported, New Y ork, 1911 to 1913....................................
47,48
Loss of tim e caused b y nonfatal accidents, Illinois, 1907 to 1912...............................................................
63,71
Loss of tim e caused b y nonfatal accidents, Massachusetts.......................................................................
49
Manufacturing industries, employees injured in, New York, 1911 to 1913.............................................
41
Massachusetts, industrial accident statistics.................................................................................................
48-57
Mechanical power, fatalities due to, New York, 1911 to 1913................................................................... 32,35,37
Mineral industries, industrial accidents in .................................................................................................... 101-112
Mines and quarries, fatalities and disablements in, New York, 1911 to 1913....................... 35,36,41,43,44,47
Mines and quarries, fatality rates, United States........*....................................................................... 102,103, 111
Month o f occurrence o f accidents specified, fatalities and disablements in each of, Illinois, 1908 to
1912..................................................................................................................................................................... 62,69,70
Mortality. (See Fatalities and disablements from industrial accidents.)
N ativity o f employees killed and disabled, Illinois................................................................................... 61,67-69
New Y ork, industrial accident statistics in ...................................................................................................
31-48
Norway fisheries, accidents in ........................................................................................................................... 139-141
Norway, industrial accident statistics in ....................................................................................................... 136-141
Objects striking workmen, nature of injuries incurred b y, Wisconsin, 1911 to 1913............................
88
Occupational accident m ortality rates, England and Wales...................................................................... 126-136
Occupational accident m ortality, U nited States Census Office statistics o f ...........................................
20-31
Occupational m ortality statistics, Prudential Insurance Co. experience................................................ 112-120
Occupations, specified, fatalities and disablements in each of:
England and Wales, fatalities in, b y a?re groups, 1900 to 1902............................................................ 128-136
Illinois, specified industries, 1907 to 1912.................................................................................................
72-78
Norway, 1895 to 1910.......................... .........................................................................................................137,138
U nited States, 1907 to 1912.......................................................................................................................... 115-120
U nited States registration area, 1908 and 1909.. - .................................................................................
23-31
Poisoning, fatalities due to, U nited States, 1908,1909 .................................................................................
23-31
Poisoning, from lead and other industrial poisons, cases reported, New Y ork, 1911 to 1913...............
47,48
Public-service employees killed or disabled, number of, New Y ork, 1908 to 1911..•............................
45
Railways, employees killed on, U nited States registration area, 1910 to 1912......................................
14,19
Reporting of industrial accidents:
Forms of questions asked in, 26 States..................................................................................................... 176,177
Requirements as to, in 29 States................................................................................................................174,175
Standard legislative bill for......................................................................................................................... 151,152
Standard schedule fo r..................................................................................................................................
154
Standardization o f ........ ............................................................................................................................... 150-173
Risks, principal classifications of, Massachusetts workmen’s compensation experience, 1912,1913..
55
U nited Kingdom , industrial accident statistics o f....................................................................................... 120-126

58553°—Bull. 157—15----- 14



210

IN D E X .

Page.
W eights and falling objects, fatalities due to, New York, 1911 to 1913.................................................. 34,36,39
Wisconsin, industrial accidents in .................................................................................................................... 78-101
Burns, injuries duo to...................................................................................................................................
94,95
Causes, special, of industrial accidents.....................................................................................................
80,81
Corn shredders and feed cutters, accidents due to................................................................................. 99-101
E ye injuries....................................................................................................................................................
96,97
Falls, accidents due t o .................................................................................................................................
82-87
Infections, small, danger of.........................................................................................................................
97-99
Jointers, accidents due to............................................................................................. ..............................
93,94
Objects striking workmen, accidents due t o ................... ......................................................................
88-93
W orkm en’s compensation laws, experience under:
Germany.........................................................................................................................................................
145
Massachusetts......................................................................................................................................... 49,51-53,55
Wisconsin........................................................................................................................................................
79,80
United K ingdom ........................................................................................................................................... 123-126
United States................................................................................................................................................. 164,165