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G R A Y




I R O N

F O U N D R I E S

I N D U S T R Y ,

1 9 5 4 - 6 6

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B U L L E T I N

1 6 3 6

D a y to n & M o n tg o m ery Co.
P ublic Lib rary
FEB 6

1370

NOVEMBER 1969

D O C U M E N T C O L LE C T IO N

U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

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For sa
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GRAY IR O N FO U N D R IES
INDU STRY, 1 9 5 4 - 6 6

NOVEMBER 1969

B ulletin

1636

H 2T T

U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
G e o r g e P. S h u ltz , S e c r e ta r y
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
G eo ffr ey H. Moore, C o m m iss io n e r

of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 3 5 cents




a




Preface

T he B u rea u o f L ab or S t a t is t ic s h a s b e e n p u b lish in g
m e a s u r e s o f output p e r m a n -h o u r fo r s e le c te d in d u s tr ie s
fo r m a n y y e a r s . T h e se m e a s u r e s a p p ea r in In d ex e s of
O utput p e r M a n -H o u r, S e le c te d I n d u s tr ie s , 1939 a n d
1 9 4 7 - 6 7 , B L S B u lle tin 1 6 1 2 , D e c e m b e r 19 6 8 . T h is r e ­
p o r t p r e s e n ts in d e x e s fo r th e g r a y ir o n fo u n d r ie s in d u str y
fo r th e f ir s t tim e .
T he stu d y w a s p r e p a r e d in th e O ffic e o f P r o d u c ­
t iv ity , T e c h n o lo g y and G row th . T he a n a l y s i s and th e
s t a t is t ic a l m e a s u r e s w e r e d e v e lo p e d b y Joh n L . C a r e y in
th e D iv is io n o f In d u stry P r o d u c tiv ity S tu d ie s . R ic h a rd W.
L yon in th e D iv is io n o f T e c h n o lo g ic a l S tu d ies w r o te th e
s e c tio n on te c h n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p m e n ts .

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Contents

re n d s in ou tp u t p e r m a n -h o u r , 1954—6 6 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------e c h n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p m e n ts ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a te r ia ls h a n d lin g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M o ld in g and c o r e m a k in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M e ta l m e lt in g -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I n s t r u m e n t a t io n ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C le a n in g o f c a s t in g s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O utput p e r m a n -h o u r in d e x e s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4
13
13
13
13
14
14
14

E m p lo y m e n t and m a n -h o u r in d e x e s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 18
E m p lo y m e n t and p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r m a n -h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------- 18
A ll e m p lo y e e m a n - h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
T a b le s:
G ra y ir o n fo u n d r ie s in d u stry :
1. G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r is t ic s , s e le c t e d y e a r s , 1 9 5 4 -6 6 -------------------------------------------------------2. O utput p e r m a n -h o u r , u n it la b o r r e q u ir e m e n ts , and r e la te d
d a ta , a ll e m p lo y e e s , 1 9 5 4 -6 6 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. O utput p e r m a n -h o u r , u n it la b o r r e q u ir e m e n t s , and r e la te d
d a ta , p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s , 1 9 5 4 -6 6 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------4. O utput p e r m a n -h o u r , u n it la b o r r e q u ir e m e n t s , and r e la te d
d a ta , n o n p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s , 1 9 5 4 - 6 6 ---------------------------------------------------------------------5. W h o le s a le p r ic e in d e x and p r o d u c t d e s c r ip t io n s ----------------------------------------------------6. P r o d u c t g r o u p s and w e ig h t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3
6
8
10
17
17

C h a r ts :
G ra y ir o n fo u n d r ie s in d u str y :
1. O utput p e r a ll e m p lo y e e m a n -h o u r , o u tp u t, and a ll e m p lo y e e
m a n - h o u r s , 1 9 5 4 - 6 6 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. O utput p e r p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r m a n -h o u r , ou tp u t, and
p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r m a n - h o u r s , 1 9 5 4 -6 6 -------------------------------------------------------------------3. O utput p e r n o n p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r m a n -h o u r , o u tp u t, and
n o n p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r m a n -h o u r s , 1 9 5 4 - 6 6 -------------------------------------------------------------4. O utput p e r m a n -h o u r fo r a ll e m p lo y e e s , p r o d u c tio n
w o r k e r s , and n o n p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s , 1 9 5 4 -6 6 -------------------------------------------------------

12

A p p e n d ix e s:
A . F o u n d r y o p e r a t io n s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B . G lo s s a r y o f t e r m s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C. A v e r a g e an n u a l r a te s o f ch a n g e ( p e r c e n t ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

20
21
22




v

7
9
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Indexes of Output Per Man-Hour: Gray Iron
Foundries Industry, 1954—66
Introduction

M easu rin g p rod u ctiv ity change is one w ay to d eterm in e w hether r e so u r c e s
a re being u sed e fficien tly — a p r im a ry r eq u isite fo r im p rovin g a n ation 's eco n om ic
w e ll-b e in g . If output p er m an -h ou r is in c r e a sin g , then m o re goods are being p r o ­
duced p er unit of labor input and the econ om y is p o ten tia lly r ic h e r . T h u s, kn ow l­
edge of the d e g r ee and d irec tio n of p rod u ctiv ity m o v em en ts is e s s e n tia l for th ose
r e sp o n sib le for en couraging eco n om ic grow th.
Industry p rod u ctiv ity m e a su r e s have s e v e r a l valu able u s e s . By com bining
th ese m e a su r e s w ith other in d u stry d ata, one can study the effe c ts of ch an ges in
m anpow er u tiliza tio n , p r o ject future m anpow er r e q u irem en ts, an a ly ze tren d s in
labor c o s ts , com p are p rod u ctiv ity p r o g r e ss am ong c o u n tr ie s, and exam in e the im ­
p a ct of tech n o lo g ica l im p ro v em en ts on em p loym en t.
The m e a su r e s p r esen te d in th is rep o rt r ela te output to one input— m a n -h o u rs.
They do not m ea su re the s p e c ific contrib ution of la b o r, ca p ita l, or any oth er sin g le
fa cto r. R ath er, th ey r e fle c t the jo in t e ffe c t of a num ber of in te r r e la te d in flu e n c e s,
such as ch an ges in tech n o lo g y, ca p ita l in v estm en t p er w o rk er, ca p a city u tiliza tio n ,
layout and flow of o p er a tio n s, s k ill and effo rt of the w ork fo r c e , m a n a g eria l a b il­
ity , and lab o r-m a n a g em en t re la tio n s.
T h ese m e a su r e s a re su b ject to cer ta in q u a lifica tio n s. B e ca u se of the d iffi­
cu lties of m ea su rin g qu ality ch an ge, of m ain taining c o n siste n t co v era g e betw een o u t­
put and lab or input, of reflectin g ch an ges in the d e g r ee of plant in teg ra tio n and
sp e c ia liz a tio n and other s ta tistic a l lim ita tio n s, p rod u ctiv ity in d ex es should be r e ­
garded as g en e ra l rath er than sp e c ific in d ica tio n s of output p er m an -h ou r m o v em en ts.
T his rep o rt p r e se n ts m e a su r e s of output p er m an -h ou r for the gray iro n
fou n d ries in d u stry . The in d ex es for th is in d u stry begin w ith 1954 sin ce annual
data on m a n -h o u rs w ere not a v a ila b le e a r lie r ; in add ition , prod uct d e ta il for e a r ­
lie r y e a r s w as not str ic tly co m p arab le w ith la ter y e a r s . The rep o rt in clu d es so m e
a n a ly sis of tren d s in output p er m an -h ou r and rela ted s e r ie s , as w ell as a d e s c r ip ­
tion of tech n o lo g ica l d evelo p m en ts that have o ccu rred in the in d u stry . It a lso co n ­
tain s a d eta iled tech n ica l note w hich d e sc r ib e s the data so u r c e s and s ta tistic a l
tech niq ues u tilized .
Coverage o f Report

The g ray iro n fou n d ries in d u stry in clu d es esta b lish m en ts that p r im a r ily
m anu facture g ra y iro n c a s tin g s , includ ing c a s t iro n p r e s su r e p ip e, s o il p ip e, and
pipe fittin g s. T his in d u stry is d esig n a ted Ind ustry 3321 in the 1967 Standard
In d u strial C la ssific a tio n M anual (SIC).




1

2
Two types of esta b lish m en ts m ake up the ind ustry: (1) C o m m ercia l (jobbing)
fo u n d ries; and (2) cap tive fou n d ries o p erated as sep a ra te e sta b lish m e n ts. T h ese
two groups accoun t for about tw o -th ird s of the tonnage of g ray iro n ca stin g s m ade
each y e a r . The rem ain in g p rod u ction of g ray iro n ca stin g s r e p r e se n ts eith er s e c ­
ondary p rod u cts of esta b lish m en ts c la s s ifie d in other in d u stries or in term ed ia te
p rod u cts of ca p tiv e fou n d ries that are in teg ra ted o p eratio n s of other m anufacturing
p la n ts. T h ese in teg ra ted ca p tiv e fou n d ries prod u ce about 25 p e rcen t of the annual
output of g ray iro n c a stin g s. In tegrated ca p tiv e fou n d ries and the e sta b lish m en ts
w hich prod u ce g ray iro n c a stin g s as seco n d a ry p rod u cts a re not includ ed in th is r e ­
p o rt b e ca u se th ey are not includ ed in the Standard In d u stria l C la ssific a tio n d efin ition .
In add ition , sep a ra te em p loym en t and m an -h ou r data d ir e c tly rela ted to the p ro d u c­
tion of g ray iro n ca stin g s in th ese other esta b lish m en ts a re not a v a ila b le.
General Characteristics

O ver 1,100 esta b lish m en ts w ere op eratin g in the g ray iro n fo u n d ries in d u stry
in 1963. (See table 1 .) M ost w ere of in term ed ia te s iz e — the 255 esta b lish m en ts
w h o se em p loym en t ranged fro m 100 to 1 ,0 0 0 accoun ted fo r m o re than h a lf of in d u s­
try em p loym en t and valu e added. O nly 14 esta b lish m en ts had m o re than 1 ,0 0 0 e m ­
p lo y e e s; th is group, h o w ev er, rep resen ted m o re than a fourth of in d u stry em p lo y ­
m en t and valu e added. S in ce 1958, esta b lish m en t s iz e has grow n— the a v era g e
num ber of em p lo y ees p er esta b lish m en t w as 106 in 1963, 86 in 1958.
E m p loym en t in gray iro n fo u n d ries to ta led 1 4 0 ,7 0 9 in 1966 and m a k es up a
m ajor p a rt of em p loym en t in a ll iro n and s te e l fo u n d ries— n e a r ly 60 p e rcen t in
1966. P ro d u ctio n w ork er em p loym en t in g ray iro n fou n d ries has b een co n siste n tly
high as a p ercen ta g e of to ta l em p lo y m en t, ranging b etw een 85 and 90 p e rcen t th rou gh ­
out the p erio d . (The ratio for a ll m anu facturin g w as 76 p e rcen t in 1966; for
p r im a ry m e ta ls , it w as 82 p e r c e n t.)
The in d u stry 's to ta l sh ip m en ts clim b ed to $ 2 .7 b illio n in 1966 from le s s
than $ 1 .5 b illio n in 1958. P a r t of th is grow th r e fle c ts p r ic e in c r e a s e s . About
tw o -fifth s of the valu e of sh ip m en ts r e p r e se n ts the c o s t of m a te r ia ls; the other
th r e e -fifth s is valu e added. In tu rn, w a g es and s a la r ie s m ake up about th r e e fifth s of valu e added.
F o r ty -fiv e S tates had esta b lish m en ts c la s s ifie d in the g ra y iro n fou n d ries
in d u stry in 1963, but m o st of the em p lo y ees w orked in g ray iro n fou n d ries located
e a s t of the M iss is sip p i R iv er. M ichigan and Ohio to g eth er had about 33 p ercen t of
the em p loym en t and 39 p e rcen t of the valu e added in 1963. T h ese S tates tog eth er
w ith I llin o is , Indiana, and W isco n sin accoun ted fo r o v er h a lf of the in d u stry 's e m ­
p lo y m en t and valu e added.




3

T able 1. G ray Iron F ou n d ries Industry: G en era l C h a ra cte ristics,
S e lec ted Y e a r s , 1954—66
Item

E s ta b lis h m e n ts --------------------T otal em p loym en t ---------------E m p lo y ees p er esta b lis h m e n t------------------------

Unit

1954

1958

1963

1965

1964

1966

1 ,4 1 4
N um ber
1 ,3 1 0
1 ,1 3 9
(M
(M
- - d o - - 1 3 3 ,9 1 4 1 1 2 ,6 7 0 1 2 0 ,5 2 8 1 2 6,3 2 9 1 3 4 ,8 9 4 1 4 0 ,7 0 9
95
- -d o -86
106
(M
(M
O
( l )

P rod u ction w ork er em p loym en t ----------------------------- -do - - 1 1 8 ,2 8 8 9 6 ,4 1 4 1 0 4 ,2 3 9 1 0 9 ,8 2 8 1 1 7 ,1 0 9 1 2 2 ,1 4 2
P ro d u ctio n w o rk ers per
84
74
e s ta b lish m e n t---------------- -do - 92
(M
(M
(l )
R atio of p rod uction
w o rk ers to a ll em 85. 6
p lo y e e s ---------------------------- P e r c e n t
88. 3
86. 5
86. 8
86. 8
86. 9
N onproduction w orker
em p loym en t ------------------------ N um ber 1 5 ,6 2 6 1 6 ,2 5 6 1 6 ,2 8 9 16,50 1 1 7 ,7 8 5 1 8 ,5 6 7
64. 8
75. 9 171. 5 221. 3
32. 6
C apital exp en d itu res (new)— $ M illion s
49. 9
C apital exp en d itu res p er
373
e m p lo y e e ------------------------ D o lla rs
538
601
1 ,5 7 3
1,271
289
1 ,4 3 5
1 ,9 8 5
2, 286 2, 603 2 ,7 2 8
V alue of sh ip m en ts 2 ------------ $ M illion s 1 ,4 4 2
C ost of m a te r ia ls (including
593
623
814
e le c tr ic ity )-------------------------954 1 ,0 5 8
- -d o -1 ,0 9 7
V alue added by m anu fa ctu re --------------------------------811
- -d o -847
1 ,1 6 8
1 ,3 5 4
1 ,6 4 6
1 ,5 5 9
531
W ages and s a la r ie s ---------- - -d o -558
825
7 30
922
978
W a g e s -------------------------------- - -d o -596
680
760
80 3
459
419
1 N ot a v a ila b le.
2 Inclu des r e s a le s and other m isc e lla n e o u s r e c e ip ts.
SOURCE: B ureau of the C en su s, U. S. D ep artm en t of C o m m erce.




4
Trends in Output Per Man-Hour, 1954—66

/

Output p er m an -h ou r of a ll em p lo y ees in the g ray iro n fou n d ries in d u stry
g rew 32 p e rcen t betw een 1954 and 1966— in c r e a sin g at an a v era g e rate of 2. 2 p e r ­
cen t a y e a r . (See ch art 1 and appendix C .) 1 O ver the sa m e p e rio d , output p er
m an -h ou r in a ll m anu facturin g w ent up at an a v era g e rate of 3. 1 p ercen t.
P ro d u ctiv ity in g ray iro n fo u n d ries g rew u n even ly b etw een 1954 and 1966.
The la r g e s t annual change w as an in c r e a se of 7 .8 p e rcen t in 1955, w hich m arked
the in d u stry 's r e c o v e r y from the 1954 r e c e s s io n . Y e a r -to -y e a r in c r e a s e s ranged
from 2. 1 to 5. 6 p ercen t in m o st su b seq u en t y e a r s w h ile th ere w ere sm a ll d e ­
c r e a s e s in 4 y e a r s — only one d eclin e (2. 8 p e rcen t in 1957) w as of sig n ifica n t s iz e .
G ray iro n fou n d ries output r o se an a v era g e of 2. 4 p e rcen t a y ea r ov er the
sa m e p erio d . The y e a r -to -y e a r ch an ges in gray iro n fou n d ries output ranged from
a 1 7 -p er cen t d e c r e a se to a 2 3 -p er cen t in c r e a s e .
The slo w o v e r a ll grow th in output w as m atch ed w ith a com p arab le m o d est
grow th in output p er m an -h ou r resu ltin g in a slig h t in c r e a se in m a n -h o u rs— about
0. 1 p e rcen t a y ea r during the 1954 -6 6 p erio d .
The gray iro n fo u n d ries' e x p e rie n ce d iffered sh a rp ly b etw een the fir s t and
secon d h a lv es of the p erio d . B etw een 1954 and 1961, output d eclin ed at an annual
rate of 2. 4 p e rcen t d esp ite a su b stan tia l gain betw een 1954 and 1955. The annual
rate of gain in output p er m an -h ou r w as only 1 .4 p e rcen t. In 1955, output r o se
23 p e rcen t from the r e c e s s io n le v e l of 1954, only to drop by 1958 to 13 p ercen t
b elow the le v e l of 1954. Output in c r e a se d 23 p e rcen t again in 1959; sub sequ ent
d e c r e a s e s w ere su b stan tia l but le s s s e v e r e than th o se of p rev io u s y e a r s . T otal
m a n -h o u rs a lso d eclin ed during 1 9 5 4 -6 1 , av era g in g 3 .7 p e rcen t a y e a r . Sharp d e ­
c lin e s betw een 1956 and 1958 and in I960 and 1961 m o re than o ffse t in c r e a s e s in
1955 and 1959.
The d eclin e in the in d u stry 's output during the 1955-61 p erio d w a s, for the
m o st p a rt, rela ted to the g en e ra l b u sin ess c y c le . F ro m 1955 to 1958, the p erio d
in w hich the m o st s e v e r e drop in output o ccu rred , the output of four m ajor gray
iro n consu m in g in d u str ie s— m a ch in ery , co n stru ctio n , s te e l, and a u to m o b iles— fe ll
su b sta n tia lly . F or ex a m p le, the num ber of p a sse n g e r ca rs prod uced in 1958 w as
47 p e rcen t b elow the 1955 le v e l. The d eclin e in the output of th ese in d u stries no
doubt a ffected the p rod uction of gray iro n c a stin g s. The d e c r e a se in r e sid e n tia l co n ­
stru ctio n in I960 contributed to the d e c r e a s e in the output of gray iro n c a stin g s
during that y e a r , w h ile dow nturns in s te e l, a u to s, r e sid e n tia l and n o n resid en tia l
co n stru ctio n , and m a ch in ery in 1961 help ed to continue the d eclin e in the p rod uction
of g ray iro n c a stin g s. R ela tiv ely low ca p ita l ex p en d itu res w ere a lso a fa cto r co n ­
tribu ting to the low p rod u ctiv ity gain. C apital ex p en d itu res p er g ra y iro n foundry
em p lo y ee w ere le s s than the a v era g e p er m anu facturin g em p lo y ee in ev e r y y ea r
fro m 1954 to 1961.

1

Average annual rates in this report are based on the least squares trend line fitted to logarithms of the index numbers.




In sharp co n tra st to the e a r lie r h a lf of the p e rio d , g ray iro n fou n d ries output
in c r e a se d at an a v era g e annual rate of 10. 3 p e rcen t b etw een 1961 and 1966. At the
sa m e tim e , output p er m an -h ou r r o se at an a v era g e annual rate of 3 .4 p e rcen t— m o re
than tw ice the e a r lie r ra te. M an-h ours w ent up at the rate of 6. 7 p ercen t. The
in c r e a se in g ray iro n output r e fle c ts the extended eco n o m ic b oom , p a rticu la r ly in
p r o d u c ers' du rable equipm ent. Output for th is com pon ent of G ro ss N ation al P rod u ct
in c r e a se d co n sid era b ly fa ste r than for the econ om y as a w h ole. The four m ajor
gray iro n consu m in g in d u stries m en tion ed p r e v io u sly a ll enjoyed la rg e in c r e a s e s in
output. (T he num ber of p a sse n g e r c a r s prod uced in c r e a se d 56 p e rcen t from 1961
to 1966.)
O ther fa cto rs a sso c ia te d w ith the grow th in output and p rod u ctiv ity in gray
iro n fou n d ries w ere quality im p ro v em en ts and in c r e a se d atten tion to the sp e c ific
need s of the c u sto m e r s. In addition, m o re r e s o u r c e s w ere a llo ca ted to r e s e a r c h ,
m a rk et d evelo p m en t, a d v ertisin g , and p rom otion . C apital exp en d itu res p er em p lo y ee
m o re than trip led betw een 1961 and 1966 and su rp a ssed the m anufacturing avera g e
for the fir s t tim e in 1965. B eca u se of the u su a l lag b etw een ca p ita l exp en d itu res and
resu lta n t p rod u ctiv ity in c r e a s e s , th is rapid in c r e a s e in ex p en d itu res m ay lead to
fu rth er gain s in p rod u ctiv ity . The trend tow ard few er but la r g e r and m o re m e c h ­
anized fo u n d ries undoubtedly has had a p o sitiv e effe c t on p rod u ctiv ity .




6
Table 2. G ray Iro n F ou nd ries Indu stry: Output P e r M an-H our, Unit L abor
R eq u irem en ts, and R elated D ata,
A ll E m ployees, 1954—
66

Y ear

1954______
1955______
1956______
1957______
1958______
1959------I960______
1961______
1962............
1963______
1964 _____
1965______
1966............

(Indexes 1957—59 = 100)
Unit lab or re q u ire ­
Output p e r—
m ents in te rm s of—
All
All
All
All
em ployee em ployees em ployee
em ployee m an-ho ur
m an -h o u rs
Indexes
94.0
107. 2
103. 8
96. 4
96. 9
106. 6
102. 5
103. 7
112. 7
118. 8
130. 1
136. 6
134. 4

92. 8
100. 1
99.4
96. 6
100. 1
103.4
102. 8
105.4
109. 5
111. 8
118. 0
123. 0
122. 9

106. 3
93. 3
96. 4
103. 7
103. 2
93. 8
97. 6
96. 4
88. 8
84. 2
76. 8
73. 2
74. 4

107. 7
99. 9
100. 6
103. 5
99. 9
96. 7
97. 3
94. 9
91 .4
89. 4
84. 7
81. 3
81. 4

Output
100. 9
124. 2
118. 6
105. 1
87. 4
107. 5
99. 7
94. 5
107. 6
114. 6
131. 7
147. 5
151. 5

R elated data
All
All
em ployee
em ployees m an -h o u rs
107. 3
115. 9
114. 3
109. 0
90. 2
100. 8
97. 3
91. 1
95. 5
96. 5
101. 2
108. 0
112. 7

108. 7
124. 1
119. 3
108. 8
87. 3
104. 0
97. 0
89. 7
98. 3
102. 5
111.6
119. 9
123. 3

Source: O utput, em ploym ent, and hours b ased on data from the B u reau of the C ensus,
U. S. D ep artm ent of C o m m erce; and the B u reau of L abor S ta tistic s, U. S. D ep artm ent of Labor.




7

C h a r t 1. G r a y Ir o n

F o u n d r ie s I n d u s tr y :

O u tp u t P e r A ll E m p lo y e e
O u tp u t, a n d A ll E m p lo y e e

M a n -H o u r :

M a n -H o u r s , 1 9 5 4 - 6 6

RATIO SCALE

INDEX (1957-59=100)

1954

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

Note: The measures of output used in this chart represent the total production of the industry resulting fromall employees
and do not represent the specific output of any single group of employees.




8
Table 3. G ray Iron F ou nd ries Industry: Output P e r M an-H our
Unit L abor R eq u irem en ts, and R elated D ata,
P ro du ctio n W o rk ers, 1954r-66

Y ear

1954______
1955______
1956______
1957______
1958______
1959--------I960______
1961____
1962______
1963______
1964--------1965______
1966______

(Indexes 1957—59 = 100)
Unit lab or re q u ire ­
Output p e r—
R elated data
m ents in te rm s of—
P ro du ctio n
P ro du ctio n P ro du ctio n
P ro du ctio n P ro du ctio n P ro du ctio n w o rk er
w o rk er
rk er
w o rk er
w orke rs m an -h o u rs Output 1 w o rk ers mw o -h o u rs
m an-ho ur
an
Indexes
92. 1
104. 8
102. 2
95. 7
98. 0
106.4
103. 2
104. 8
113. 0
118. 8
129. 6
136. 1
134. 1

90. 9
97. 0
97. 5
96. 0
101. 9
102. 7
103. 6
106. 7
109. 3
110. 9
115. 9
121. 0
121. 0

108. 5
95. 4
97. 8
104. 5
102. 1
94. 0
96. 9
95. 4
88. 5
84. 2
77. 1
73. 5
74. 6

110. 0
103. 1
102. 6
104. 2
98. 2
97. 4
96. 5
93. 8
91. 4
90. 1
86. 3
82. 6
82. 6

100. 9
124. 2
118. 6
105. 1
87. 4
107. 5
99. 7
94. 5
107. 6
114. 6
131.7
147. 5
151. 5

109. 5
118. 5
116. 0
109. 8
89. 2
101. 0
96.6
90. 2
95. 2
96. 5
101.6
108. 4
113. 0

111. 0
128. 0
121. 7
109. 5
85. 8
104. 7
96. 2
88. 6
98. 4
103. 3
113.6
121. 9
125. 2

1
The m e a su re s of output u sed in this table re p re se n t the to tal production of th
in d u stry re su ltin g from all em ployees and do not re p re se n t the specific output of any single
group of em ployees.
S ource: O utput, em ploym ent, and hours b ased on data from the B u reau of the C ensus,
U. S. D ep artm ent of C o m m erce; and the B u reau of L abor S ta tistic s, U.S. D ep artm ent of L abor.




9

C h a r t 2 .

G r a y Ir o n

O u tp u t P e r P r o d u c tio n
a n d

P r o d u c tio n

W

F o u n d r ie s I n d u s tr y

W

o r k e r M a n -H o u r , O u tp u t

o r k e r M a n -H o u r s ,

1 9 5 4 - 6 6

RATIO SCALE

INDEX (1957-59=100)

1954

55

56

:

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

Note: The measures of output used in this chart represent the total production of the industry resulting fromall employees
and do not represent the specific output of any single group of employees.




10

Y ear

1954______
1955______
1956______
1957______
1958______
1959--------I960______
1961______
1962____
1963______
1964______
1965______
1966______

Table 4. G ray Iron F ou nd ries Industry: Output P e r M an-H our,
Unit L abor R eq u irem en ts, and R elated D ata,
N onproduction W o rk ers, 1954—66
l
(indexes 1957—59 - 100)
Unit lab or re q u ire ­
Output p e r—
R elated data
m ents in te rm s of—
Non­
Non­
Non­
N on­
Non­
Non­
production production production
production
production w rk
production w o rk er
rk
w o rk er m a n -h o u r1 w o rk ers m w o-h oer rs 1 Output 2 w o rk ers m ano-h oerrs1
u
an u
Indexes
108. 5
126. 0
114. 6
101.4
90. 4
107. 9
97. 5
97. 9
110. 1
118. 3
134. 1
139.4
137. 1

(108. 0)
(126. 1)
(114.4)
(101. 3)
(90.4)
(108. 0)
(97.5)
(98. 0)
(109.8)
(117.9)
(133. 2)
(138. 9)
(137. 2)

92. 2
79. 4
87. 3
98. 7
110. 6
92. 7
102. 6
102. 1
90. 8
84. 6
74. 6
71. 7
72. 9

(92.6)
(79. 3)
(87.4)
(98. 8)
(110.6)
(9 2 . 6 )
(102.6)
(102.0)
(91. 1)
(84. 8)
(75. 1)
(72.0)
(72.9)

100. 9
124. 2
118. 6
105. 1
87. 4
107. 5
99. 7
94. 5
107. 6
114. 6
131.7
147. 5
151. 5

93. 0
98. 6
103. 5
103. 7
96. 7
99. 6
102. 3
96. 5
97. 7
96.9
98. 2
105. 8
110. 5

(93.4)
(98.5)
(103.7)
(103.8)
(96.7)
(99. 5)
(102. 3)
(96.4)
(98. 0)
(97.2)
(98. 9)
(106.2)
(110. 4)

1 The fig u res shown in p a re n th eses are sub ject to a w ider m arg in of e r r o r than other
m e a su re s for this in d u stry because of the m ethod for estim atin g nonproduction w o rk er m a n ­
h o u rs. (See tech n ical note, p. 14.)
2 The m e a su re s of output u sed in th is table re p re se n t the to tal production of the in ­
d u stry re su ltin g from all em ployees and do not re p re se n t the specific output of any single
group of em ployees.
S ource: O utput, em ploym ent, and hours b ased on data from the B ureau of the C ensus,
U. S. D ep artm ent of C om m erce; and the B u reau of L abor S ta tistic s, U.S. D ep artm ent of L abor.




11

Chart 3. Gray Iron Foundries Industry:
Output Per Nonproduction Worker Man-Hour,
Output, and Nonproduction Worker Man-Hours, 1954-66
INDEX (1957-59=100)

1954

55

56

RATIO SCALE

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

Note: The measures of output used in this chart represent the total production of the industry resulting from a ll employees
and do not represent the specific output of any single group of employees.




12

Chart 4. Gray Iron Foundries Industry:
Output Per Man-Hour for A ll Employees,
Production Workers, and Nonproduction Workers, 1954-66
INDEX (1957-59=100)

1954




55

56

RATIO SCALE

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

13
Technological Developments2

A lthough ch an ges in output g rea tly in flu en ce sh o rt-ru n p rod u ctivity m o v em en ts,
lo n g -te r m tren d s are a ffected by a d d ition al, in te r r e la te d fa c to r s— tech n o lo g y, c a p i­
ta l in v estm en t, r e s e a r c h and d evelo p m en t, sk ill and effo rt of the w ork fo r c e , m a n ­
a g e r ia l a b ility , and lab o r-m a n a g em en t r e la tio n s. C hanges in tech n o lo g y a re e s p e ­
c ia lly im p ortan t, although th eir p r e c ise im p act cannot be m ea su re d .
A utom ation in gray iron fo u n d ries red u ced labor req u irem en ts in m a te r ia ls
handling and other key foundry op eration s over the p eriod co v ered by th is rep o rt.
H ow ever, d iffu sio n of tech n ology w as reta rd ed to som e d eg ree by the r e la tiv e ly
la r g e num ber of sm a ll plants in the in d u stry and the su b stan tia l volu m e of p rod u c­
tion in sm a ll lo ts.
M a teria ls H andling
M ech anization of m a te r ia ls handling, in volvin g in c r e a se d u se of c r a n e s,
h o is ts , lift tr u c k s, lo a d e r s, and co n v ey o rs w as a m ajor fa cto r in the red u ction of
in d u stry m an -h ou r req u irem en ts. Of p a rticu lar im p ortan ce w as the ex ten sio n of
co n v ey o riza tio n from high volu m e production fo u n d ries to s m a lle r , jobbing fo u n d ries
for fu n ction s such a s sand d e liv e r y , m old han dling, shak eout, and ca stin g fin ish in g .
The a v a ila b ility of lo w -c o st m odu lar con veyor sy ste m s fa cilita ted th is ex ten sio n of
co n v ey o riza tio n .
M olding and C orem aking
Im proved m old ing m a ch in es red u ced unit labor req u irem en ts in th is op eration
w hich en g a g es about o n e-fifth of a ll production w o r k e r s. F a ste r m old c y c le s ,
m o re m a ch in e-co n tr o lled fu n ctio n s, and la r g e r fla sk s c h a r a c te r iz e th is new eq u ip ­
m en t. One new m a ch in e, for ex a m p le, a cco m m o d a tes four p a ttern s p er fla sk in ­
stead of tw o but d o es not req u ire ad d ition al o p er a to r s. M o reo v er, autom atic
m old in g equipm ent su ited to high v o lu m e prod uction in sm a lle r fo u n d ries w as
in sta lle d on a lim ited b a s is . N ew er co rem ak in g equipm ent introd uced featu red
rapid op eratin g c y c le s , sim u ltan eo u s production of s e v e r a l c o r e s , and adap tability
to im p roved co rem ak in g m a te r ia ls .
A gradual in c r e a se in the u se of the s h e ll, carb on d io x id e, and other s p e ­
c ia liz e d m old in g and co rem ak in g p r o c e s s e s a ls o im p roved e ffic ie n c y and ca stin g
q u a lity . T h eir g r e a te st ap p lication w as in corem a k in g w h ere th ey g rea tly red u ced
or elim in a ted the tim e and labor con su m in g baking op eration . T h ese new p r o c e s s e s
lend th e m se lv e s to m ech a n iza tion and w ere in trod u ced m o st w id ely in high volu m e
prod uction .
M etal M elting
C upolas continued to undergo im p ro v em en t and rem a in ed the p rin cip a l m eltin g
u n its in the in d u stry . H ow ever, e le c tr ic m e ltin g , w hich a ffo rd s c lo se r co n tro l and
p erm its g rea ter u tiliza tio n of scra p m e ta l, cam e into in c r e a se d u s e . E n actm en t of
a ir pollution co n tro l law s w as anoth er fa cto r w hich en cou raged a shift to e le c tr ic
m eltin g .
G en era lly g rea ter p u rch ase and op eratin g c o s ts of e le c tr ic fu r n a c e s, on
the other hand, reta rd ed th eir in trod u ction in som e fo u n d ries.

2 S ee app en dix A , p. 20, for a d iscu ssion o f foundry operations and appendix B, p. 21, for a glossary of term s.




14

In stru m en tation
In cr ea se d em p h a sis on product quality and op eratin g e ffic ie n c y re su lte d in
m o re in stru m en ta tio n for m ea su re m e n t and co n tro l. R adiograp hic (X -r a y ), su p er­
so n ic , p y ro m eter, and ra d io iso to p e u n its w ere in trod u ced m o re w id ely in m eltin g ,
sand p rep a ra tio n , in sp e ctio n , and other m ajor o p era tio n s. C om p u ters w ere in ­
sta lled in s e v e r a l la r g e r fo u n d ries for accoun ting and production co n tro l.
C leaning of C a stin g s
T ech n o lo g ica l a d v a n ces have been introduced in the labor in ten siv e o p er a ­
tion of clea n in g c a stin g s— a b o ttlen eck in foundry o p era tio n s— and have red u ced
unit labor r eq u irem en ts. A sig n ifica n t num ber of high er sp eed grinding w h eels
have been put into s e r v ic e in fo u n d ries of a ll s iz e s . H o w ev er, the a p p lication of
contin uous b la st clea n in g to rep la ce batch m eth od s h as been lim ited to high
v olu m e production fo u n d ries.
M etallu rgy
A d van ces in m eta llu rg y stren gth en ed the in d u stry 's co m p etitiv e p o sition
r e la tiv e to other ty p es of m eta l fo rm in g . M ost im p ortan t h as been the d e v e lo p ­
m en t of nodular (d u ctile) iron w hich accoun ted for about 5 p ercen t of to ta l gray
iro n sh ip m en ts in 1966. N odular iron p o s s e s s e s m any p r o p erties of s te e l, in ­
cluding high stren gth and d u ctility , that en a b les m any m eta l p a rts to be ca st in ­
stead of fo rg ed , stam ped or w eld ed . A utom ob ile cra n k sh a fts, for ex a m p le, now
can be ca st in stea d of fo rg ed .
Technical

Note

Output P er M an-H our In d exes
The in d ex es of output per m an -h ou r p resen ted in th is rep ort have been
d evelop ed acco rd in g to p ro ced u res fo llo w ed by the B ureau of Labor S t a t is t ic s 3 for
m ea su rin g change in the rela tio n b etw een in d u stry output and the m a n -h o u rs expended
on that output.
F or an ind ustry producing a sin g le un iform product or p erform in g a sin g le
un iform s e r v ic e , the in d ex es sim p ly m e a su r e the change ov er tim e in the ratio:
U nits p r o d u ced /m a n -h o u rs. F or an in d u stry producing a num ber of p rod u cts, the
in d ex es r e p r e se n t the change o v er tim e in the ratio: W eighted output (of a sp ec ified
co m p o site of p ro d u cts)/m a n -h o u r s. The sim p le st p roced u re for d evelop in g an ind ex
of output per m a n -h ou r is to d ivid e the output ind ex by a m an -h ou r ind ex. The in ­
d e x e s have been co n stru cted for th is in d u stry beginning in 1954, sin ce annual data
for m a n -h o u rs w ere not a v a ila b le e a r lie r ; in add ition , product d eta il for e a r lie r
y e a r s w as not s tr ic tly com p arab le w ith la ter y e a r s .
Output Index
F or co n stru ctin g in d ex es of output per m a n -h o u r, the id ea l output index
w eig h ts (m u ltip lies) the q u a n tities of a ll prod ucts produced in the in d u stry by the
m a n -h o u rs req u ired to m ake one unit of each product in a sp e c ifie d y ea r. T hus,
th o se p rod ucts w hich req u ire m o re labor tim e a re given m o re im p o rta n ce. A l­
though unit m an -h ou r w eigh ts a re p refera b le for com bin in g prod uct data, they are
3 For a m ore d eta iled d escrip tion o f th e gen eral con cep ts and procedures, see C hapter 2 3 , "Output Per M an-H our
M easures: Industries," BLS H andbook o f M ethods for Surveys and S tu d ies, B u lletin 1458, O ctober 1966.




freq u en tly not a v a ila b le. T h erefo r e, it is often n e c e s s a r y to su b stitu te w eig h ts b e ­
lie v e d p rop ortion al to unit m an -h ou r w eig h ts— u su a lly unit valu e w eig h ts. Both unit
m an -h ou r w eig h ts and unit valu e w eig h ts w ere u sed at d ifferen t sta g es in co n ­
stru ctin g the output ind ex for gray iro n fo u n d ries.
The output in d ex es r e ly h ea v ily on co m p reh en siv e data c o lle c te d for the
C en su s of M anu factures for 1954, 1958, and 1963. In d exes w ere com puted from
the d eta iled quantity and valu e data for 1954-58 and 1958-63 and are r e fe r r e d to
a s b ench m ark in d e x e s. A nnual in d ex es for in te r c e n sa l y e a r s a re b a sed on le s s
d eta iled in form ation and a re adju sted to the bench m ark le v e ls .
The 1954-58 and 1958-63 bench m ark in d ex es w ere co n stru cted in the fo l­
low ing m anner:
1. P h y sic a l quantity of sh ip m en ts in d ex es w ere com puted for each of the
p rim a ry product c la s s e s in th is in d u stry .
SIC 33211 M olds and sto o ls for h eavy s te e l in gots
SIC 33212 C ast iro n p r e ssu r e pipe and fittin g s
SIC 33213 C ast iro n s o il pipe and fittin g s
SIC 33214 A ll other gray iro n c a stin g s
F or each product c la s s , the q u a n tities of ind ividu al p rod ucts (SIC 7 -d ig it
le v e l) w ere w eighted w ith 1958 unit v a lu es to obtain the p h y sica l quantity in ­
d e x e s. T h ese in d ex es r e fle c t sh ip m en ts of c a stin g s from the gray iron
fo u n d ries in d u stry and a lso c a stin g s shipped a s seco n d a ry p rod ucts from
other in d u str ie s. (The q u a n tities and v a lu es of gray iro n c a stin g s m ade by
co m p lete ly in teg ra ted cap tive fo u n d ries of plants c la s s ifie d in other in d u strie
are ex clu d ed . ) B eca u se the gray iro n fou n d ries in d u stry a ccou n ts for about
88 p ercen t of the to ta l valu e of th e se p rim a ry product sh ip m en ts, it w as
a ssu m ed that th ese product (w h erev er m ade) in d ex es w ere r e p resen ta tiv e of
sh ip m en ts of p rim a ry prod ucts in the in d u stry.
2. The p h y sica l quantity in d ex es for SIC 5 -d ig it p rim a ry product c la s s e s
w ere com bined w ith app rop riate 1958 m an -h ou r w eigh ts for a ll em p lo y ees to
obtain an output ind ex of the in d u stry 's p rim a ry p rod u cts. M an-hour
w eig h ts for 1958 w ere u sed for both 1954-58 and 1958-63 b en ch m ark s b e ­
ca u se m an -h ou r e s tim a te s for 1954 w ere not a v a ila b le at the 5 -d ig it p rod ­
uct le v e l. T h ese m an -h ou r w eig h ts w ere d evelop ed a s fo llo w s:
(a) T otal m a n -h o u rs for plants sp ec ia liz in g in each 5 -d ig it product
c la s s w ere d eriv ed fro m data on production w ork er m a n -h o u rs and
nonproduction w ork er em p loym en t rep o rted in the C en su s of M anufa ctu res and from data on a v era g e h ou rs for nonproduction w ork er
m a n -h o u rs estim a ted in th is study.
(b) R atios of m a n -h o u rs to valu e of sh ip m en ts w ere com puted for
each c la s s of sp e c ia liz e d p lan ts.
(c) The ra tio s w ere m u ltip lied by the co rresp o n d in g valu e of p r i­
m a ry p rod ucts shipped by the w hole in d u stry to obtain the m an -h ou r
w eig h ts. (T his p roced u re a ssu m e s that m a n -h o u rs per d ollar for
ea ch product c la s s shipped by the w hole in d u stry a re the sam e as
th o se for plants sp e c ia liz in g in that product c la s s . )
3. The index of p rim a ry prod ucts of the in d u stry is fin a lly m u ltip lied by a
" coverage" adju stm ent to rep r e se n t the to ta l output of the in d u stry . T his
" coverage" adju stm ent is the ratio of the ind ex of valu e of ind ustry sh ip ­
m en ts (after e x clu sio n of r e s a le s and in clu sio n of net add ition s to in v en ­
to r ie s ) to the index of valu e of sh ip m en ts of p rim a ry p rod u cts. The fin a l
in d u stry output index thus r e fle c ts in ven tory buildups and changing p r o ­
p ortion s of seco n d a ry p rod u cts. The la tter effe ct ten d s to be m in im a l sin ce
seco n d a ry prod ucts rep resen t only about 5 to 7 p ercen t of total sh ip m en ts.



16

A nnual p rod uction in d exes for in te r c e n sa l y ea rs w ere co n stru cted from d e ­
flated v a lu es. A lthough e stim a te s of p h y sica l quantity a re a v a ila b le, th ey eith er
u n d erstate or o v ersta te in d u stry output. The sh ip m en ts data rep orted in C urrent
In d u strial R eports pu b lish ed by the B ureau of the C ensus and B u reau of M ines in ­
clude captive foundry o p eratio n s w hich a re in tegrated co m p lete ly w ith the op eration s
of esta b lish m en ts c la ss ifie d in other in d u stries so th ey o v e r sta te in d u stry production.
The data on " sh ip m ents for sa le" exclu d e in terp la n t tr a n sfe r s , and u n d erstate in ­
d u stry sh ip m en ts.
F or 1958 and the y e a r s fo llo w in g , the value of sh ip m en ts of each p rim a ry
prod uct c la ss (w h erev er m ade) w as d eflated by the app ropriate W h olesale P r ic e
Index (ta b les 5 and 6). Ind exes of th e se d eflated valu es w ere com bined into a
w h erev er m ade product index by w eighting them w ith m an -h ou r w eig h ts. M an-hour
w eigh ts for 1958 w ere u sed from 1958 to 1963, w h ile 1963 m a n -h ou r w eigh ts w ere
u sed after 1963. The in d exes w ere linked in 1963 to m ain tain a continuous s e r ie s .
In each y ea r a sp e c ia l co v era g e ratio (to ta l valu e of in d u stry sh ip m e n ts/
total valu e of p rim a ry p rod ucts w h erev er m ade) w as u sed to adjust the w h erev er
m ade index to an in d u stry index. T his in d u stry index w as adjusted to r e fle c t
ch an ges in in v en to ries by the ratio: T otal valu e of in d u stry p rod uction to total
valu e of in d u stry sh ip m en ts. The r e su lt w as the estim a ted in d u stry index of
prod uction .
F or the 1954 -5 8 p erio d , valu e data w ere not a v a ila b le annually for the s e p ­
a rate p rim a ry product c la s s e s so the total valu e of sh ip m en ts w as d eflated by an
ap p rop riate p r ic e ind ex. The W h olesale P r ic e Indexes fo r the 5 -d ig it p rim a ry
prod u cts w ere w eighted w ith co rresp o n d in g 1958 p rim a ry product sh ip m en ts (w h er­
ev er m ade) to obtain a p rim a ry prod uct p r ic e ind ex. T his p r ic e index w as u sed
to d efla te the total valu e of the p r im a ry p rod u cts (w h erev er m ad e). The index of
d eflated valu e w as adjusted to an in d u stry b a sis by the sp e c ia l co v era g e ratio
d e sc rib ed e a r lie r . T his ind ex w as adjusted for changes in in v en to ries to obtain
the annual prod uction index.
The annual in d ex es for the two p erio d s w ere adjusted to the in d ex es for the
bench m ark y ea rs by lin ea r in terp o latio n . The ad ju stm en t fa cto rs w ere sm a ll;
betw een 1954 and 1963, the cu m u lative adju stm ent w as 1 p ercen t.




17
T able 5. G ray Iron F ou n d ries Industry: W h olesale P r ic e Index
and P rod u ct D escrip tio n s
WPI D escrip tio n

WPI Code
1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -1 1
1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -2 6

1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -3 1
1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -3 2
1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -0 1

Standard ingot m o ld , 7 ,0 0 0 pounds and o v er.
P r e s s u r e pip e, c a st iro n , 6 in ch es to 24 in ch es in ­
c lu s iv e , 1 8 -fo o t len g th s (con form in g to F ed e ra l
sp e c ific a tio n s W. W -P -42 1 c la s s 150 or c la s s 250
or A m erica n W ater W ork A sso c ia tio n , C la ss B
sp e c ific a tio n ).
S o il pipe, ca st iro n , 4 in ch es, sin g le hub, extra
heavy w eigh t, a v era g in g 60 pounds p er 5 -fo o t length.
S o il pip e, ca st iro n , 4 in c h e s, sin g le hub, s e r v ic e
w eigh t, a v era g in g 40 pounds per 5 -fo o t length.
G ray iron c a s tin g s . (O ther than ingot m o ld s,
c a st iron p r e ssu r e pipe and c a st iron so il pipe. )

T able 6. G ray Iron F o u n d ries Industry: P rodu ct G roups and W eights
SIC
code

SIC title-p r o d u ct d escrip tio n

M an-hour w eigh ts V alue w eig h ts (p e r ­
(p ercen t of total) cent of product c la ss)
1963
1958
1963
1958
100. 0 100. 0
1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -1 1
2 .4
3. 2
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 .1 5 -0 1 -2 6
100. 0
100. 0
9. 7
9. 1
34. 8
23. 8 > 84. 5
24. 4 J
f 1 3 .4
17. 0
<
l 2. 1
1 0 -1 5 -0 1 31, 32
10. 4
100. 0
100. 0
8 .9
27. 8
55. 2 f 100. 0
WPI code

3321
G ray iron fou n d ries in d u stry
3321 1 M olds and sto o ls for heavy ste e l
in gots
33212 - - C ast iron p r e ssu r e pipe and
f it t in g s ___________________________
- -21
6 in ch es and under (in sid e
d ia m e te r )_____________________
--2 3
O ver 6 in ch es to 8 in ch es in e lu siv e (in sid e d ia m eter)-------2 5
O ver 8 in ch es to under 14
in ch es (in sid e d ia m eter)--------3 1
14 in ch es to 24 in ch es in clu siv e (in sid e d ia m eter )------------5 1
O ver 24 in ch es (in sid e d ia m eter )- —
— ------- — ---3 3 2 1 3 -- C ast iro n so il pipe and fittin g s,
includ ing sp e c ia l fittin g s ----------- -2 1
Up to 3 in ch es (in sid e d ia m e te r )------------------------------------------3 1
O ver 3 in ch es to under
5 in ch es (in sid e d ia m eter) —
- -41
5 in ch es and over (in sid e
d ia m e te r )-------------------------------3 3 2 1 4 -- A ll other gray iro n c a s t in g s ------- 1 0 -1 5 -0 1 -0 1
R o lls for ro llin g m i l l s ------------ -31
--9 8
A ll other gray iron c a s tin g s —




79. 6

76. 7

16. 9 J
100. 0
100. 0
4. 3
3. 8
95. 7
96. 2

18

E m p loym en t and M an-H our Ind exes
E m p loym en t and m an -h ou r in d ex es m e a su r e change in th e se c a te g o r ie s over
a p erio d of tim e . E m p loy ees and em p lo y ee m a n -h o u rs a re trea te d a s h o m o g en e­
ous and a d d itiv e. T hus, the in d ex es do not r e fle c t ch an ges in q u a lita tiv e a sp e c ts
of em p loym en t such a s sk ill, e ffic ie n c y , h ealth , e x p e r ie n c e , a g e, and sex of p e r ­
so n s co n stitu tin g the a g g r eg a te. The m an -h ou r data re la te to to ta l tim e expended
by em p lo y e e s in e sta b lish m e n ts c la s s ifie d in the in d u stry . T h ese data in clu d e hou rs
spent not only on production of p rim a ry p rod ucts but a ls o on seco n d a ry products
and m isc e lla n e o u s production.
S ix labor input in d ex es have been d evelop ed for the gray iro n fo u n d ries in ­
d u stry: A ll e m p lo y e e s, production w o r k e r s, nonproduction w o r k e r s, a ll em p lo y ee
m a n -h o u r s, production w ork er m a n -h o u r s, and nonproduction w ork er m a n -h o u rs.
"P rod uction w o rk ers" co v er w orking fo rem en and a ll n o n su p e rv iso ry w o rk ­
e r s (inclu ding lead m en and tr a in e e s) en gaged in fa b rica tin g , p r o c e s sin g , a sse m b lin g ,
in sp e ctin g , r e c e iv in g , sto ra g e, han dling, pack ing, w a reh o u sin g , shipp ing, m a in te ­
n a n ce, r e p a ir , ja n ito ria l and w atchm an s e r v ic e s , product d evelo p m en t, a u x ilia ry
production for p la n t's own u se (e. g. , pow erplant o p er a tio n s), reco rd k eep in g , and
other s e r v ic e s c lo s e ly a s so c ia te d w ith production a c tiv itie s . The term thus in ­
clu d es som e in d ire ct a s w ell a s d irec t plant lab or.
"N onproduction w o rk ers" includ e em p lo y ees en gaged in the fo llo w in g a c tiv ­
itie s: E x ec u tiv e, p u rch a sin g , fin a n ce, a ccou n tin g, le g a l, p e rso n n e l, c a fe te r ia ,
m e d ic a l, p r o fe ssio n a l and te c h n ic a l, s a le s , s a le s d e liv e r y , a d v e r tisin g , c r e d it,
c o lle c tio n , in sta lla tio n and se r v ic in g of own p rod u cts, routin e o ffice fu n ctio n s,
fa cto ry su p erv isio n (above the w orking fo rem a n lev el); and fo rce accoun t co n stru ctio n
e m p lo y ees on the p a y ro ll en gaged in co n stru ctio n of m ajor ad d ition s or a ltera tio n s
to the plant who a re u tiliz e d a s a sep a ra te w ork fo r c e .
"A ll em p lo y ees" r ep resen t the sum of production w o rk e rs and non pro­
duction w o rk e rs.
E m p loym en t and P rod u ction W orker M a n -H o u rs. The in d ex es of to ta l e m ­
p loym en t, production w o r k e r s, production w ork er m a n -h o u rs, and nonproduction
w o rk e rs w ere b a sed on data pu b lish ed by the B u reau of the C en su s. D ata for
1954, 1958, and 1963 w ere obtained from the C en su s of M a n u fa ctu res, and data
for the rem a in in g y e a r s fro m the A nnual Su rvey of M a n u fa ctu res. 4 P rod u ction
w ork er m a n -h o u rs includ e a ll the h ou rs at the plant, w orked or paid fo r, and
ex clu d e paid tim e for v a c a tio n s, h o lid a y s, and sic k le a v e . O vertim e and other
p rem iu m pay h ou rs a re includ ed on the b a s is of a ctu al tim e at the plant.
A ll E m p loyee M a n -H o u rs. The ind ex of a ll em p lo y ee m a n -h o u rs for th is
in d u stry is d e riv ed from th ree com p on en ts: (1) production w ork er m a n -h o u rs
(from C en su s data); (2) num ber of nonproduction w o rk e rs (from C en su s data); and
(3) an e stim a te of a v era g e annual h ou rs at w ork for nonproduction w o rk e rs (p r e ­
pared by the B u reau of Labor S ta tis tic s for th is rep o rt and d eriv ed p r im a rily
fro m D ep artm ent of Labor stu d ies).
A v era g e annual h ou rs for nonproduction w o rk ers w ere d eriv ed by
m u ltip ly in g estim a ted sch ed u led w eek ly h ou rs by the num ber of w eek s in the y ea r.
T im e aw ay fro m the job , a s rep r e se n te d by v a rio u s ty p es of le a v e , w as su b ­
tr a c te d fro m to ta l annual h ou rs to obtain annual hours at w ork.

4

Employees in central administrative offices and auxiliaries of gray iron foundries companies are not included.




Sched uled w eek ly h ou rs for nonproduction w o rk e rs w ere estim a ted fro m un­
p u blished data c o lle c te d in BLS su rv ey s of em p lo y er ex p en d itu res for s e le c te d
su p p lem en tary rem u n era tiv e p r a c tic e s . T h ese w ere a v a ila b le for SIC Group 33,
P rim a r y M eta ls In d u stries, of w hich the gray iron fo u n d ries in d u stry is a part.
The a v era g e annual hou rs w orked by nonproduction w o rk ers in th is in ­
d u stry for s e le c te d y e a r s w ere estim a ted a s fo llo w s:
Year

1954
1958
1963
1966

Average hours
1,884
1,876
1,882
1,874

T h ese e stim a te s w ere m u ltip lied by the num ber of nonproduction w o rk ers to
obtain the m an -h ou r in d ex es for nonproduction w o rk ers show n in table 4. S in ce em ­
p loym en t tren ds for nonproduction w o rk ers la r g e ly d eterm in e th eir m an -h ou r tren d s,
any rea so n a b le a ltern a tiv e e stim a te s of paid tim e off would r e su lt in only m inor
d iffe ren c es in the nonproduction w ork er m an -h ou r in d ex es and in no sig n ifica n t ch an ges
in the a ll em p lo y ee m an -h ou r in d ex es.




Appendix A.

Foundry Operations

F ounding or ca stin g is the p r o c e s s of form in g m eta l o b jects by pouring m o l­
ten m eta l into a m old and allow in g it to so lid ify . The shap e of the ob ject is d e te r ­
m ined by the shape of the ca v ity in the m old . The m o st com m on m ethod of ca stin g
m ak es u se of m old s co n stru cted of sand. M olding sand m ixed w ith a binding m a te ­
r ia l, g e n e ra lly a type of cla y , is c o m p r e sse d around a pattern or m od el of the ob ­
je c t to be ca st w hich has been p la ced in a fla sk or fra m e for containing the sand. The
p attern then is w ithdraw n lea vin g a ca v ity in the sand into w hich m o lten m eta l from
a fu rn ace is poured and allow ed to so lid ify . If the ca stin g is to be hollow or to
contain p a s s a g e s , baked sand fo r m s , ca lle d c o r e s , in the shape of the d e sir e d hole
or pavity are p laced in the m old b efo re the m eta l is pou red . When the ca stin g has
hard en ed, it is shaken fr e e of the m old and co re sand and put through any n e c e s ­
sa r y clea n in g and fin ish in g o p era tio n s.




20

Appendix B.

Glossary of Terms

B aking. The developm ent of d e sire d p ro p e rtie s in a co re through the action of heat
on its b in d er.
B in d er. A m a te ria l which se rv e s to hold m olding o r co re sand g rain s to gether.
CO 2 P ro c e s s . A sp ecialized m olding and corem aking m ethod em ploying a binder of
sodium silic a te which is "se t" by passing carbon dioxide gas into the m old or
c o re .
Cleaning and F in ish in g . The rem o val of ex ce ss m etal and rem aining m old m a te ria l
from a castin g . The casting m ay be buffed or polished to im p rov e its finish or
ap p e a ra n c e .
C o re . A body of sand placed inside a m old to form an in te rio r opening in or a hole
through a casting.
C upola. A fu e l-fire d furnace fo r m elting iron .
F la sk . A fram e or box of wood o r m e ta l for containing a sand m old.
G ray Iro n . The m o st w idely used c a st iro n . So called from the app earan ce of its
fra c tu re d su rface.
High P ro du ctio n F o u n d ry . C h a ra c te riz e d by rela tiv e ly long production runs of a
lim ited num ber of c a st shap es. H ighly m echanized.
Jobbing F o u n d ry . C h a ra c te riz e d by re la tiv e ly sm all lot production. L ess m ech a­
nized, as a group, than high production fo u n d ries.
\
M old. A body of sand or other heat re s is ta n t m a te ria l containing a cavity into
w hich m olten m e ta l is poured to obtain a casting.
M old C ycle. The s e rie s of step s com pleted in the production of a m old.
N odular Iro n . A specially tre a te d iro n p o ssessin g ductility and having g re a te r
stren g th than g ray iron.
P a tte rn . A fo rm , u su ally of wood or m e ta l, used to shape the m old cavity into
w hich a casting is form ed.
Shakeout. The rem o val of m old and co re m a te ria ls fro m a casting after it has
solidified.
Shell P ro c e s s . A sp ecialized corem aking and m olding m ethod em ploying a heated
m etal p a tte rn and a th erm o settin g p la stic b in d er. W ell suited for high
production w ork.




21

Appendix C.

Average Annual Rates of Change (Percent) 1

(To obtain annual r a te s of change b etw een any 2 y e a r s show n, find row for in itia l year at left
of tab le and read figu re in that row under the te r m in a l y ea r show n on top)

Initial year
1954_____
1955-------1956_____
1957_____
1958_____
1959-------I 9 6 0 _____
1 9 6 1 _____
1 9 6 2 _____
1963_____
1964_____
1965_____

1955
7. 8
.
-

1956

1957

3. 5 1 . 1
-. 7 - 1. 8
- -2.8
-

Term inal year
1958 1959 I 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1963
Output pei all employee m an-hour
1.2

-. 3
.4
3. 6
-

1. 5
.7
1. 5
3. 4
3. 2
-

1.4
.8
1. 4
2.2
1. 3
-.6
-

1. 4
1. 0
1. 5
2. 0
1. 5
1. 0
2. 5
-

1. 6

1. 4
1. 8
2.2
2.0
2.0
3. 2
3. 9
-

1. 7
1. 6
1. 9
2. 3
2.2
2. 2
2. 9
3. 0
2. 1
_
-

1964

1965

2. 0

2.2
2.2

2.2
2.2

2.8

2. 8
2.8

1.9
2.2
2.6
2.6
2. 8
3. 4
3. 7
3. 8
5.6
-

1966

2. 5
2.9
3. 1
3. 7
3. 9
4. 1
4. 9
4. 2
-

2. 5

3. 0
3. 3
3. 4
3. 3
3. 3
2. 0
-. 1

1.7
1. 7
3. 0
4. 8
6.4
6.3
9. 0
11. 5
11. 5
13. 4
12. 0
-

2. 4
2. 5
3. 7
5. 3
6.7
6.7
8.7
10. 3
9. 8
10. 0
7. 3
2. 7

-3 . 0 -2 . 3 -1 . 3 -0 . 5
-3 . 8 -2 . 7 -1 .5
-. 5
-3 . 0 - 1 . 8 - . 6
.5
-1 . 4 - . 3
.9
1. 9
2.6
3.4
1. 6
.9
-2 .4 - . 2
3. 0
1. 8
4. 2 5. 1
. 7 2.6
9.6
7. 2 7. 3
6.9
4. 3 6 . 6
7. 0
8.2
8.9
_
7.4
-

0. 1
.2
1. 2

Output
1954_____
1955_____
1956_____
1957_____
1958_____
1959-------I 9 6 0 _____
1 9 6 1 _____
1 9 6 2 _____
1963_____
1964_____
1965_____

23. 1 8 . 4 0 . 8 - 4 . 4 -2 . 4 - 2 . 2
- -4 . 5 - 8 . 0 - 1 1 . 1 -5 . 8 -4 . 4
- -11. 4 -14. 2 -4 . 7 -3 . 2
- - 16. 8
.5
1. 1
- 23. 0 6 . 8
- -7 . 3
- t
“
“

-2 . 4 -1 . 5 - 0 . 6
-4 . 0 -2 . 5 - 1 . 2
-3 . 1 -1 . 3 0
-. 8
.8 2.0
1. 6
2. 9 3. 8
—. 2 -. 5 2. 1
6
-5 . 2 3.9
5. 6
13. 9 1 0 . 1
6.5
-

0.6

.3
1.6
3. 5
5. 3
4.6
7. 8
11. 2
10. 6
14. 9
-

All employee man--hours
1954_____
1955_____
1956_____
1957_____
1958_____
1959-------I 9 6 0 _____
1 9 6 1 _____
1 9 6 2 _____
1963_____
1964_____
1965_____

14. 2 4. 8 -0 . 4 -5 . 5
- -3 . 9 -6 .4 - 1 0 . 8
- - 8 . 8 -14. 5
- -19. 8
“
“
“
“

-3 . 8
- 6.4
-6. 1
-2.2
19. 1
“

S ee footnote at end of tab le.




22

-3 . 5
-5 . 2
-A . 5
-1 . 7
5.4
- 6.7
-

-3 . 7
-5 . 0
-4 . 5
- 2.8
.1
-7 . 1
-7 . 5
“

2.4
3. 8
3. 6
5. 2
6.7
6.3
6.5
5. 1
2.8

23
(T o obtain annual ra tes of change b etw een any 2 y e a r s show n, find row for in itia l y e a r at left
of tab le and read figu re in that row under the term in a l y e a r show n on top)----C ontinued
In itial y ea r

Output p er a ll em p lo y ee

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

I960

1961

1962

1965

1963

1964

1.7
1.4
2. 3
3. 3
3. 5
3. 1
5. 4
7. 0
5. 4
-

2. 3
2. 2
3. 1
4. 0
4. 4
4. 4
6. 3
7. 6
7. 5
9. 6
-

2. 7
2.8
3. 6
4. 4
4. 8
5. 0
6.4
7. 2
6.9
7. 2
4.9
- -

2. 9
2.9
3. 6
4. 3
4. 5
4. 6
5. 5
5. 8
5. 1
4. 3
1. 6

2. 1
2.0
2. 2

2. 3
2. 4
2. 6
2. 5
2. 7
3.0
3. 2
3. 5
4. 4

1966

Output p er a ll em p lo yee

I 9 5 4 -------1 9 5 5 --------

1956-------1957-------1958-------1959-------I 9 6 0 -------1 9 6 1 -------1962-------1963-------1964-------1965--------

14. 0 5. 0 0.4 -0. 5
- -3. 2 - 5 . 1 - 3 . 7
- -7 . 1 -3 . 4
.5
“
-

0. 7 0 . 6 0.7
8
-. 4 -. 1
.8
.8
.9
5. 2 2 . 8 2 . 0
10. 1
2. 8
1.7
- - 3 . 9 - 1 .4
1.2
_
-

1.2
.8
1. 6

2. 7

2.8
1.8

4.9
8.6

-

-

1.6

Output p er p ro d u ction w o rk er m an - hour
1 9 5 4 --------

1955-------1956-------1 9 5 7 -------1958-------1 9 5 9 -------I 9 6 0 -------1 . 9 6 1 -------1 9 6 2 -------1.963-------1964-------1965

6.7

3. 5 1.7
.4 -. 5
- - 1 .5
-

-

2.2

1. 3
2.2
6.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

----------

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2. 1
1. 6
2.2

3. 4
.8
-

-

2. 0
1. 6

2.0

1.7
2.0
2. 3
1.5
1.9
2.9
-

1.9
2. 4
.9
.9
-

-

-

2.0
1.8
2.1

2.0

-

-

-

4. 4

2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
2. 4
2.6
2.8
2. 8
2. 9
3. 1
2. 2

-

-

-

-

.

2. 3
1.8
2. 2
2. 7
2. 5
-

1.9
2. 1
2.2
1.9
2. 1
2. 3
2.0
1. 5
-

2. 4
2. 2
2. 4
2. 7
2. 7
3. 0
4. 5

2.2

2. 2

0

P ro d u ctio n w o rk er m a n -h o u rs

1954
1955
1956
1957

1958

-------------------

-

----------

-

----------

-

1 9 5 9 -------I 9 6 0 ---------1 9 6 i ---------1 9 6 2 ----------

1963
1964
1965

15. 3

----------

4. 7 - 0 .9 - 6 . 5
-4 . 9 - 7 . 5 - 1 2 . 2
- 10.0 - 16. 0
- 21.6
-

-

-

-

._

-

-

-

--

-

-

i

-

-

-4 . 5
-7 . 2
- 6.7
- 2.2
22.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-4 . 1
-5 . 9
-5 . 0
- 1 .9
5.9
- 8. 1

-

i

-4 . 3
5. 6
- 4 .9
- 3 .0
1
- 8.0
- 7 .9
—

.

i

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

----------

-

-

-

-

_

-

----------

-

-

-

----------




_
-

-3 . 4 - 2.6 -1 . 5 - 0 . 6
-4 . 2 -3 . 0 - 1 . 6
5
-3 . 3 - 2.0
6
6
2
2. 1
-1 . 5
1. 1
3. 0 3. 9
1. 1
1.9
- 2. 6
2. 1
0
3. 4
3. 2 5. 0 5. 8
1 1
8 .0
8. 3
11. 1
8.1
5. 0 7. 4 7.7
10.0
8.6
7. 3

0.1
. 2

-.

-.

.

- .

.

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

i

1. 3
2. 7
4. 2
3. 9
5. 8
7. 3
6.7
6.7
5. 0
2. 7

24

(To obtain annual rates of change between any 2 years shown, find row for initial year at left
of table and read figure in that row under the term inal year shown on top)--- Continued
Initial yc ai
1954_____
1955_____
1956_____
1957...........
1958_____
1959-------I 9 6 0 _____
1 9 6 1 _____
1 9 6 2 _____
1963_____
1964_____
1965_____

T erm inal year
1955

1956

1957

1958

13. 7
“

5. 3 0 . 9 0. 3
-2 . 5 -4 .4 - 2 . 6
- -6 .4 - 2 . 1
2. 4
“
“
“

1959 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1963
Output per production worker
1. 3 1 . 2
-. 1
.2
1. 5 1. 3
5.4
3. 1
8.6
2.6
-3 . 0
“

1. 2

.4
1. 2
2. 4
1. 7
-. 8
1. 5
-

1.6
1. 1

1.-9
2.9
2. 7
2.0
4. 6
7.9
”

2. 0

1. 7
2. 5
3. 3
3. 4
3. 1
5. 1
6.5
5. 1
-

1964

1965

1966

2. 5
2.4
3. 2
4. 0
4. 2
4. 3
6.0
7. 1
7. 1
9.2
-

2. 9 3. 0
2. 9 3. 0
3. 6
3. 6
4.4 4. 2
4. 6 4.4
4. 8 4. 5
6. 1
5. 3
6.8
5. 5
6.7
4.9
7. 0 4. 2
5. 0 1. 7
- -1 . 5

0. 6
.8

1.4
1. 8
1. 7 2 . 1
3. 1 3.4
4. 6 4.6
5. 8
5. 5
5. 7 5.4
8.2
7. 1
9. 3 7. 4
8.6
6.3
8. 5
5. 1
4. 3 1. 5
- - 1. 2

0

0. 3
0
-. 1
.1
.6
.5
.7
2.0
2.6
4. 5
7. 4
-

Output per nonproduction w orker m an-hour
1954_____
1955_____
1956_____
1957_____
1958____
1959-------I 9 6 0 _____
1 9 6 1 _____
1 9 6 2 _____
1963_____
1964_____
1965_____
1954_____
1955_____
1956_____
1957_____
1958_____
1959...........
I 9 6 0 _____
1 9 6 1 _____
1 9 6 2 _____
1963_____
1964_____
1965_____

16. 7
5. 5
-

- 2 . 6 - 1 . 6 -0 . 5
-3 . 5 - 2 . 0 - . 6
- 2 . 0 - .4
.9
.1
2. 7
1. 6
1.4
3. 0 4. 0
-4 . 7
. 5 3. 0
.6
6. 1
7. 1
12. 0
9. 7
7.4
Nonproduction w orker man- hours

2.9 -2 . 9 -5 . 6 -3 . 1 -3 . 0
-9 . 3 -1 0 .4 - 1 0 . 6 -5 . 3 —4. 4
- -11. 5 - 1 1 . 1 - 2 . 8 -2 . 5
- -10. 7 3. 3
.6
19. 5 3. 8
- -9 . 8
“
“
“
5. 4
5. 3
“

3. 8
0. 8
1. 2
2. 7 - . 5 - . 5
. 1 -3 .4 -1 . 9
- —.8 - 2. 1
6
2. 9
“

0. 8
0

0. 3 0 . 1 0
-. 5 -. 5 -. 5
-. 7 - 1. 1 -. 9 -. 9
-. 2 -. 9 -. 8 -. 7
0
2. 9
.2
-. 2
2.8
- 1.6 - 1. 0 -. 9
- -5 . 8 - 2 . 1 -1 . 4
.4
1.7
_
-. 8
_
_
_
_
“

2. 3
4. 0
5. 3
5. 1
8.4
10. 4
10. 1
12. 9
-

-. 4
-. 7
-. 5
-. 1
-. 5
-.6
.7
.5
1. 7
-

0. 5
.4
.3
.6
1. 1
1. 2
1.6
2. 7
3. 3
4. 6
5.7
4. 0

1
Average annual rates are based on the least squares trend line fitted to the logarithm s
of the index num bers.




Other Recent BLS Publications on Productivity and Automation

Indexes of Output P e r M an-H our—
S elected In d u strie s, 1939 and 1947—67 (B ulletin 1612). O ctober 1968. 102 pp.
65 cen ts.
A ir T ran sp o rtatio n In d u stry , 1947—64 (R eport 308). A ugust 1966. 14 pp. (F ree).
A lum inum Rolling and D raw ing In d u stry , 1958—65 (R eport 314). D ecem ber 1966.
20 pp. (F ree).
C oncrete P ro d u cts In d u stry , 1947— ( R eport 300). N ovem ber 1965. 20 pp.
63
(F ree).
F ootw ear Indu stry, 1947—63. July 1965. 17 pp. (F ree).
Gas and E le c tric U tilities In d u stry , 1932—62. A p ril 1964. 19 pp. (F ree).
H o siery In d u stry , 194 7—64. (R eport 307). June 1966. 22 pp. (F ree).
M an-M ade F ib e rs Indu stry, 1957—63. O ctober 1965. 20 pp. (F ree).
M otor V ehicles and Equipm ent In du stry, 1957—66 (B ulletin 1613). D ecem ber 1968.
31 pp. 45 cen ts.
P rim a ry A lum inum In d u stry , 1947—62. S eptem ber 1964. 15 pp. (F re e ).
Radio and T elev isio n R eceiving Sets In d u stry , 1958—66. N ovem ber 1968. 27 pp.
(F ree).
Im p licatio ns of A utom ation and O ther T echnological D evelopm ents—
T echnology and M anpow er in the T extile Indu stry of the 1970's (B ulletin 1578,
1 9 6 8 ).
60 cents.
M anpow er Planning for T echnological Change: C ase Studies of Telephone O p er­
a to rs (B ulletin 1574, 1968). 34 pp. 30 cen ts.
Job R edesign for O lder W o rk ers, Ten C ase Studies (B ulletin 1523, 1967). 63pp.
40 cents.
T echnological T rends in M ajor A m erican In d u stries (B ulletin 1474, 1966). 269pp.
$ 1. 50.
T echnological Change and D isem ploym ent of L abor a t the E stab lish m en t L evel.
1966. 17 pp. (F re e ).
Im pact of Office A utom ation in the Insurance In d u stry (B ulletin 1468, 1966).
71 pp. 45 cen ts.
Outlook fo r N u m erical C ontrol of M achine Tools: A Study of a Key T echnologi­
cal D evelopm ent in M etalw orking In d u stries (B ulletin 1437, 1965). 63 pp.
40 cen ts.
L abor and M a te ria l R eq uirem ents fo r—
School C o nstruction (B ulletin 1586, 1968). 23 pp. 30 cents.
P riv a te O n e-F am ily H ouse C o nstruction (B ulletin 1404, 1964). 37 pp. 30 cents.
P ublic Housing C onstruction (B ulletin 140 2, 1964). 42 pp. 30 cents.
C ollege Housing C o nstruction (B ulletin 1441, 1965). 34 pp. 30 cen ts.
Sew er Wrorks C o nstruction (B ulletin 1490, 1966). 31 pp. 30 cen ts.
C o nstruction of F e d e ra lly A ided H ighw ays, 1958, 1961, and 1964 (R eport 299,
1966). . 17 pp. (F ree).
P roductivity: A B ibliography, July 1966 (B ulletin 1514). 129 pp. 65 cen ts.
Indu stry P ro d u ctiv ity P ro je c tio n s, A M ethodological Study. 1966. 5 pp. (F ree).
Indexes of Output P e r M an-H our, H ourly C om pensation, and Unit L abor C osts in the
M anufacturing S ecto r, 1947—68. O ctober 1969. 1 p. (F re e ).
Indexes of Output P e r M an-H our for the P riv a te Econom y, 194 7 —6 8 . O ctober 1969.
4 pp. (F re e ).
Indexes of Output P e r M an-H our, H ourly C om pensation, and Unit L abor C osts in the
P riv a te S ector of the Econom y and th eN o nfarm S ecto r, 1947— O ctober 1969.
68.
2 pp. (F re e ).




S a les p u b lication s m ay be pu rch ased from the Superintendent of D ocu m en ts, U. S.
G overn m en t P rin tin g O ffice, W ashington, D. C. 20402, or fro m reg io n a l o ffic e s of
the B ureau of Labor S ta tistic s at the a d d r e sse s shown b elow . F r e e p u b lication s are
a v aila b le as long as the supply la s ts , from the B ureau of L abor S ta tis tic s , U .S .
D ep artm en t of L abor, W ashington, D. C. 20212.

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