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and Other Technological Developments

A Selected Annotated Bibliography

B u lle tin No. 1319-1
December 1963

U.S. Department of Labor
W. W i l l a r d W i r t z , Secretary
B u r e a u of Labor Statistics

Ewan Ciague. Commissioner

I n d u s t r i a l R e t r a i n i n g P r o g r a m s fox- T e c h n o l o g i c a l C h a n g e (B u l l e t i n 1368, 1963), 34 pp. , 25 c e n t s .
A s t u d y of the p e r f o r m a n c e of o l d e r w o r k e r s b a s e d on f o u r c a s e s t u d i e s of i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s .
I m p a c t of Office A u t o m a t i o n in the I n t e r n a l R e v e n u e S e r v i c e (B u l l e t i n 1364, 1963), 74 pp. , 45 c e n t s .
A c a s e s tu d y of a m a j o r c o n v e r s i o n to office a u t o m a t i o n in the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t . I n c l u d e s
i n f o r m a t i o n on p la n n in g an d a d m i n i s t e r i n g m a n p o w e r p o l i c i e s , i m p a c t on e m p l o y e e s a n d o c c u p a t i o n s ,
s ta ff in g a n d t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , m a n p o w e r p r o b l e m s , and o u tl o ok .
I m p a c t of T e c h n o l o g i c a l C ha n g e and A u t o m a t i o n in th e P u l p an d P a p e r I n d u s t r y ( B u ll e ti n 1347, 1962), 92 pp. ,
50 c e n t s .
S u r v e y s the n a t u r e , s t a t u s , a n d o ut lo ok of t e c h n o l o g i c a l in n o v a t i o n s an d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y ,
production, em p lo y m en t, occupational r e q u ir e m e n ts , and in d ustrial re lations p ra c ti c e s . Includes th ree
c a s e s t u d i e s of r e c e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s .
I m p l i c a t i o n s of A u t o m a t i o n and O t h e r T e c h n o l o g i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t s : A S e l e c t e d A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y
(B u l l e t i n 1319, 1962), 136 pp. , 65 c e n t s .
D e s c r i b e s o v e r 500 b o o k s , a r t i c l e s , r e p o r t s , s p e e c h e s , c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g s , v i s u a l a i d s , an d
o t h e r r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s p u b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y s in c e 1956.
T e c h n o l o g i c a l C h a n g e an d P r o d u c t i v i t y in the B i t u m i n o u s C o a l I n d u s t r y , 192 0-6 0 (B u l l e t i n 1305, 1961),
136 p p . , 65 c e n t s .
T r e n d s in t e c h n o l o g y an d p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e m p l o y m e n t , u n e m p l o y m e n t , w a g e s , p r i c e s ,
and p rofits.
I m p a c t of A u t o m a t i o n (B u ll e ti n 1287, I960), 114 pp. Out of p r i n t , a v a i l a b l e in l i b r a r i e s .
A c o l l e c t i o n of 20 a r t i c l e s a b o u t t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , f r o m the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w .
A d j u s t m e n t s to the I n t r o d u c t i o n of Off ice A u t o m a t i o n ( B u ll e ti n 1276, I960), 86 pp. , 50 c e n t s .
A s tu d y of s o m e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i n s t a l l a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g in 20 o f f i c e s in p r i v a t e
i n d u s t r y , w it h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to o l d e r w o r k e r s .
S t u d i e s of A u t o m a t i c T e c h n o l o g y ( F r e e ) .
A s e r i e s of c a s e s t u d i e s of p l a n t s i n t r o d u c i n g a u t o m a t i o n . D e s c r i b e s c h a n g e s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s fo r
p r o d u c t i v i t y , e m p l o y m e n t , o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , an d i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s .
A C a s e Study of a C o m p a n y M a n u f a c t u r i n g E l e c t r o n i c E q u i p m e n t .
T he I n t r o d u c t i o n of a n E l e c t r o n i c C o m p u t e r in a L a r g e I n s u r a n c e C o m p a n y .
A C a s e Study of a l a r g e M e c h a n i z e d B a k e r y ( R e p o r t 109).
A C a s e Study of a M o d e r n i z e d P e t r o l e u m R e f i n e r y ( R e p o r t 120).
A C a s e Stu dy of a n A u t o m a t i c A i r l i n e R e s e r v a t i o n S y s t e m ( R e p o r t 137).
T r e n d s in Out put p e r M a n - H o u r in the P r i v a t e E c o n o m y , 1909-1958 (B u l l e t i n 1249, 1959), 93 pp. , 50 c e n t s .
I n d e x e s of o ut pu t p e r m a n - h o u r , o u t p u t, a n d e m p l o y m e n t in m a j o r s e c t o r s . A n a l y s i s of t r e n d s and
f a c t o r s a f fe c ti n g c h a n g e s .
S a l e s p u b l i c a t i o n s m a y be p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of D o c u m e n t s , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. 20402,
o r f r o m r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s of the B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s at the a d d r e s s e s s h o w n b e l o w . F r e e p u b l i c a t i o n s
a r e a v a i l a b l e , a s long as the s u p p l y l a s t s , f r o m th e B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r ,
W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . 20210.
R e g i o n a l O ff ic e s:
N ew E n g l a n d R e g i o n
18 O l i v e r S t r e e t
B o s t o n , M a s s . 02110

M id d le A t l a n t i c R e g i o n
341 Nin th A v e n u e
N e w Y o r k , N. Y. 10001

E a s t C en tral Region
1365 O n t a r i o S t r e e t
C l e v e l a n d , Ohio 44114

North C en tral Region
105 W e s t A d a m s S t r e e t
C h i c a g o , 111. 60603

Southern Region
1371 P e a c h t r e e S t r e e t , N E .
Suite 540
A t l a n t a , Ga. 30309

W e ste rn Region
630 S a n s o m e S t r e e t
S an F r a n c i s c o , C al if. 94111

and Other Technological Developments

A Selected Annotated Bibliography

BULLETIN No. 1319-1
December 1963
W. W illard W irtz, Secretary
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 50 cents



Introduction ................................................


Impact of automation and technological change: some general
surveys . . ..............................................


Technological changes in some leading industries
A. Surveys of broad technological trends ................
B. Agriculture and m i n i n g ................................
C. . Data processing--office............................
D. Data processing--research and control ................
E. Government............................................
F. Metal industries ......................................
G. Other ma n u f a c t u r i n g ........................ . . . . .
H. T r a d e ................................................
I. Transportation . . . ..................................
J. Utilities and communications ..........................



Impact of industrial a u t o m a t i o n .................... . . . .



Impact of office automation




Implications for employment, unemployment, and manpower
t r e n d s ....................................................


Implications for occupational requirements, skills, and
working conditions ........................................



Implications for training, retraining, and education . . . .




Implications for labor-managernent relations and policies . . .



Implications for business management and organization









Automation in foreign countries





Index to authors ............................................
Index to s u b j e c t s ..........................................
List of periodicals and publishers...............




A Selected Annotated Bibliography

This bibliography is a supplement to BLS Bulletin 1319, Implications of
Automation and Other Technological Developments. which was published in
February 1962 and covered publications issued from 1956-61. Copies of Bulle­
tin 1319, which lists over 500 references, may be obtained from the Superin­
tendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402,
price 65 cents.
This supplement cites 307 references published mainly between the latter
part of 1961 and early 1963. Some earlier references, not included in Bulle­
tin 1319 are included in this bulletin. The references have been classified
under 11 sections, as in Bulletin 1319.
Scope and Limitations
Books, articles, reports, pamphlets, speeches, conference proceedings,
and other readily available materials are included. The term "automation" is
used broadly to cover a variety of technical developments. A number of refer­
ences describing these developments in different industries, useful to the
nonspecialist, are listed. Most of the references, however, relate to the
social and economic aspects of automation: The implications for employment,
unemployment, occupational and skill requirements, training and retraining,
collective bargaining, business management and organization, and the progress
of automation in other countries.
No effort was made to include references on certain subjects indirectly
related to the general topic, such as the problem of economic growth and
stability; the impact of research; and the history of science and invention.
Publications in foreign languages are also excluded.
Using the Bibliography
Effective use of the bibliography may be facilitated by the following
Classification by Subject. References are classified under 11 broad
topics. The second section, on technology, is further divided into 10
subdivisions covering different industries. When a reference pertains to
more than one section, it is listed only once, under the section to which a
major portion of it relates. However, the item is cross-referenced in the
subject index.



Alphabetical Arrangement by Authors. Most references are arranged and
numbered alphabetically by author within each section. The number to the left
of the decimal indicates the section and the number to the right represents
the item within the section.
Brief Annotations, Most of the references are briefly annotated to
indicate the subjects covered, the general content of the publication, and
the principal ideas and viewpoints of the author where appropriate. Annota­
tions are not written for most of the items on technical trends in specific
industries listed in section 2, and for items in other sections where the
content and/or viewpoint are indicated by the title.
Index to Authors, Appendix A presents an alphabetical listing of authors,
with the numbers of all references cited. Writers of articles included in
collections are not listed unless designated in the reference.
Index to Subjects. Appendix B presents an alphabetical listing of
subjects with the number of all references related to them. Where a reference
is related to more than one subject, it is cited under each subject.
Periodical and Publisher List. Appendix C is an alphabetical listing of
periodicals and publishing organizations, with addresses, cited in the
This bibliography was prepared by John J. Heberle, assisted by David Tatel,
under the supervision of Herbert Hammerman, in the Bureau's Division of
Technological Studies, under the general direction of Leon Greenberg, Assist­
ant Commissioner for Productivity and Technological Developments.




This section includes references to publications providing general
discussions on the concept, scope, development, and characteristics of auto­
mation as well as the economic and social implications of automation for
management, labor, government, education, leisure, culture, and philosophy.


AFL-C10 Industrial Union Department. Automations Unkept Promise.
Publication No. 47 (Washington, AFL-CIO Industrial Union Department,
June 1962). 28 pp.
The ability to consume has not increased as rapidly as the ability to
produce, with resultant idle capacity and unemployment. Suggests ways
to cushion the impact of displacement because of automation, e.g.,
maintenance of income, early retirement, increase worker mobility,
retraining, and shorter hours with no loss in pay. Also suggests that
Government establish a permanent clearing house to gather and maintain
information on technological change.


Brady, Robert A. Organization. Automation, and Society (Berkeley,
University of California Press, 1961). 481 pp.
Impact of science and technological change on the organization of
industry and society. Discusses the best method of organizing productive
resources in an age of advanced technological knowledge.


Bush, Vannevar. "Automation*s Awkward Age,*1 Saturday Review. August 11,
1962, pp. 10-11.


Diebold, John. "Facing Up to Automation,11 Saturday Evening Post.
September 22, 1962, pp. 26-29.


Diebold, John. "Urgent Need:
July 1961, pp. 178-182.

All-Out Automation,11 Nation*s Business.



Dunlop, John T., editor. Automation and Technological Change. The
American Assembly, Columbia University (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
Prentice-Hall, 1962). 184 pp.
Leading authorities consider several aspects of the impact on
society of automation and technological change. Includes 10 articles
covering subjects such as educational and social consequences, psycho­
logical and organizational impacts, significance for collective
bargaining, effects on employment, and on managerial decisions. For
annotations of individual articles, see 1.11, 2.05, 3.04, 5.10, 5.36
7.11, 8.37, 9.02, and 10.03.


Ferry, W. H. Caught on the Horn of Plenty (Santa Barbara, Fund for the
Republic, Inc., January 1962). 8 pp.
Suggests that the replacement of scarcity by abundance has outmoded
traditional economic thought; national planning, accompanied by radical
changes in public attitudes toward work and leisure, is required to
overcome technological unemployment.


Fuchs, Victor R. “Fallacies and Facts About Automation,11 The New York
Times Magazine. April 7, 1963, p. 27ff.
Author examines two prevailing attitudes concerning automation and
concludes that either position involves some fallacious thinking.
Concludes that the danger is not from rapid technological change, but
rather that institutional adaptation to change is too slow.


Gomberg, William. "Problems of Economic Growth and Automation,"
fornia Management Review. Summer 1961, pp. 4-17.


Maintains that, while automation creates unemployment and downgrades
skilled labor, other forces constrict capital formation. Suggests
increased public investment, tax reforms, and new concepts of wages and
profits, as against an economy based on "compulsive consumption" and
"synthetic obsolescence."


Goodman, Edith Harwith, editor. "Effects of Computers on Personnel,"
Data Processing. Part I, November 1961, pp. 8-24; Part II, December
1961, pp. 17-24.
A roundtable discussion by educators, employer and union representa­
tives, consultants, and others. Part I considers displacement, psycho­
logical reactions, and job opportunities. Part II is primarily concerned
with skill requirements, education, training, and social responsibilities.



Heilbroner, Robert L. MThe Impact of Technology: The Historic Debate,11
Automation and Technological Change. The American Assembly, Columbia
University (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962), pp. 7-25.
Cites contributions to the theory of technological change from
Adam Smith to Josef Schumpeter, in an attempt to place the economic and
social impacts of contemporary automation in perspective.


How to Handle the Impact of Automation. Report on Business (Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, December 16, 1961). 32 pp.
General characteristics, examples, and benefits of automation.
Effects on employment, productivity, composition of the workforce, and
skill requirements. Discussion of labor's viewpoint and the responsi­
bilities of government.


"Is Automation a Boon or a Menace?" Mill and Factory. February 1962,
pp. 65-70.
Arthur J. Goldberg, George Meany, and John I. Snyder present,
respectively, the viewpoints of government, labor, and business on
problems and solutions of automation.


Johnson, Richard A. Employees-Automation-Management. Management Series
No. 3, (Seattle, University of Washington, 1961). 31 pp.
Effects of automation on the employee in terms of long-run and short*
run demand for labor, skill requirements, training, wages, workweek,
and working conditions. Reasons for worker resistance to change.
Suggests program to reconcile differences between labor and management.


Killingsworth, Charles, issue editor. "Automation," The Annals of the
Americal Academy of Political and Social Science. March 1962. 198 j
Scientists, engineers, social scientists, and spokesmen for labor,
management, and government consider various aspects of automation. Tl
14 articles are concerned with the nature of automation, the current
state-of-the-art, individual and social impacts, private and public
policies, and an international perspective. For annotations of indi­
vidual articles, see 2.08, 2.16, 2.17, 2.44, 2.51, 4.02, 5.07, 5.12
5.15, 6.09, 8.20, 8.31, 9.20, and 10,06.



Michael, Donald N. Cybernation: The Silent Conquest (Santa Barbara,
Fund for the Republic, Inc., January 1962). 46 pp.
Cybernation11 is a term coined by the author as a composite of
‘'cybernetics*1 and "automation.*' Its effects, within 20 years, are
predicted to include unemployment in most occupational groups and
industries, psychological frustration due to enforced leisure, and
inadequate consideration of the individual due to computerized
decisionmaking. Concludes that, if these problems are to be met in
time, many traditional attitudes and beliefs will have to be changed.


Philipson, Morris, editor. Automation--Implications for the Future
(New York, Vintage Books, 1962). 456 pp.
A collection of 18 articles concerned with various aspects of auto­
mation, including implications for industry, labor, social sciences,
government, education, and leisure. For references to selected articles,
see 2.10, 2.40, 8.16, and 9.16.


President's Advisory Committee on Labor-Management Policy. The Benefits
and Problems Incident to Automation and Other Technological Advances
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, January 11, 1962).
11 pp. Summarized by Lloyd W. Larson in Monthly Labor Review.
February 1962, pp. 139-144.
A tripartite body representing the public, industry, and labor
presents a program concerning:
(1) the necessity of automation; (2) the
need to preserve human values; and (3) the importance of both private
and governmental action. Recommends 11 specific measures on subjects
such as economic growth, education, retraining, dissemination of infor­
mation, cushioning the impact of change, and job placement.


Quinn, Francis X., editor. The Ethical Aftermath of Automation
(Westminster, Kd., The Newman Press, 1962). 270 pp.
Based on a seminar held at Woodstock College, August 6 to 11, 1961.
Eighteen contributors, including Seymour L. Wolfbein, Abraham Weiss,
Joseph D. Keenan, Senators Barry Goldwater and Eugene J. McCarthy, and
the Rt. Rev. Msgr. George G. Higgins. Covers moral implications of
automation as it affects employment and unemployment, working conditions,
older workers, collective bargaining, economic security, leisure, and
decisionmaking by management. Underlying theme is that automation is
not an end in itself, but must serve the ends of social justice.
Includes a bibliography of 50 books and publications.



Seligman, Ben B. "Man, Work, and the Automated Feast," Commentary,
July 1962, pp. 9-19.
Discussion of various forms of automation--computers, "Detroit"
automation, and advanced instrumentation. Predicts effects of automa­
tion: 8 to 10 million unemployed by end of decade; reduction in union
membership and strength; and greater managerial inflexibility. Offers
reduction in workweek as the only practical solution.


Velie, Lester. "Automation--Friend or Foe," Reader's Digest. October
1962, pp. 101-106.


Walker, Charles R., and Walker, Adelaide G. Modern Technology and
Civilization: An Introduction to Human Problems in the Machine Age
(New York, McGraw-Hill, 1962). 469 pp.
A book of readings on ways in which industrial technology affects
people, organizations, and values. Attempts (1) to place modern tech­
nology in historical perspective, (2) to outline the problems and
benefits resulting from automation, (3) to reveal basic problems now
evident in developing non-Western countries due to technology, and (4)
to provide an interdisciplinary approach to assessing the impact of
automation. Short bibliographies after each topic.


Zelomek, A. W. A Changing America: At Work and Play (New York,
John Wiley and Sons, 1959). 181 pp.
A discussion of current trends relating to automation, culture,
leisure, services, suburban living, and woman's role. Chapter on auto­
mation mentions what has been learned from case studies as to employment
and other effects upon labor.


Laridsberg, Hans H., Fischman, Leonard L., and Fisher, Joseph L.
Resources in America's Future (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1963).
1017 pp.
Comprehensive projections to year 2000 of the adequacy of our
resource base (in terms of land, water supply, energy and nonfuel mate­
rials) on the basis of projections of requirements for future living
and demand for key materials.



National Bureau of Economic Research. The Rate and Direction of
Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors (Princetown,
Princetown University Press, 1962). 635 pp.
Collection of 23 papers and 17 commentaries represents both the­
oretical and empirical findings covering: allocation of resources to
inventive effort; output of inventions; and case studies of effects of
research and development programs.



This section includes references describing important technical inno­
vations in key industries. Surveys of technical trends are annotated. Indus­
try references are annotated only when titles do not adequately indicate the


Amber, George H., and Amber, Paul S. Anatomy of Automation (Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962). 245 pp.
A detailed summary in text, schematic and table form, of the princi­
ples, philosophy, and different forms of automation. Covers computers
tooling, feedback and control, and information theory. Discusses auto­
mation trends. Bibliography.


American Data Processing, Inc. Data Processing Yearbook 1962-63
(Detroit, American Data Processing, Inc., 1962). 299 pp.
A state-of-the-art presentation of the scope of data processing and
management information systems. Includes papers by 32 experts in their
respective fields. Subjects covered include:
(1) developments in
equipment; (2) advanced applications, e.g., information retrieval and
operations research; (3) impact on management and corporate structure;
(4) developments in selected industries and specialized fields; e.g.,
insurance and finance, government, utilities, medicine, law; and (5) a
survey of computer use and personnel (with coverage, however,7 limited to
subscribers) and directories of computers and computer courses in
universities and private data-processing schools. Bibliography.


Barach, Arnold., and the Kiplinger Washington Editors. 1975 and the
Changes to Come (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1962). 195 pp.
Summarized in Changing Times Family Success Book. HThe Fabulous Years
Ahead 11 (Washington, D.C., Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc., 1963
Edition;, pp. 5-19.
Popularized preview of technological progress with particular
reference to marketable consumer goods expected to be technically
feasible and in sufficient supply by 1975, and an indication of social
changes which may result from them.



Bauer, W. F., Gerlough, D. L., and Granholm, J. W. '‘Advanced Cpmputer
Applications," Proceedings of the IRE. January 1961, pp. 296-304.
Detailed summary of the most advanced applications. Emphasis on
utilization in literature and the arts, medicine, business and govern­
ment, "on-line" applications, air transportation, communication,
automobile traffic control, and language translation. Extensive


Bello, Francis. "The Technology Behind Productivity," Automation and
Technological Change. The American Assembly, Columbia University
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962), pp. 153-168. Summa­
rized in Monthly Labor Review. August 1962, pp. 865-867.
States that increased industrial research provides the best means of
attaining the 4.5 percent growth rate which should be a major objective
of government policy and is necessary to fulfill domestic and foreign
obligations. Distinguishes between types of research expenditures with
respect to their ability to increase productivity.


Berkeley, Edmund C. The Computer Revolution (Garden City, N.Y.,
Doubleday, 1962). 249 pp.
Concise description of the computer, its history, functions, and
principal applications. Extensive discussion of the computer's
capacity to converse in ordinary language with human beings, the use of
the computer for war and peace, its impact on employment and on society,
and the social responsibilities of computer users. Glossary of computer


Dickinson, William B. Jr. "New Products of Industry and Changes in
Markets," Editorial Research Reports. September 12, 1962, pp. 665-671.
Summarizes the need for and impact on the economy as a result of the
introduction of new products and materials. Discusses the contributing
influence of research and development.


Diebold, John. "The Application of Information Technology," The Annals
of the American Society of Political and Social Science. March 1962,
pp. 38-45.
Discusses various applications of electronic computers. Concludes
that immediate advantages will be less important than the long-range
effects and that the most critical problems stemming from information
technology are not yet generally recognized.



Engineering Research Committee, The Nation's Engineering Research
Needs, 1965-1985 (New York, Engineers Joint Council, Hay 25, 1962),
50 pp.
Examines future responsibilities of engineers for the creative
application of science and technology to meet changing needs of our
society. Appraises some engineering research opportunities for which
existing programs appear inadequate,


Gabor, Dennis, ‘’Inventing the Future,11 Automation--Implications for
the Future (New York, Vintage Books, 1962), pp, 131-161.
Discusses such topics a.s the possibility of a prediction computer,
mechanization of creative activity, the role of the individual inventor
versus the corporate inventor, and the imminence of a leisure-dominated


Klaw, Spencer. "What Can We Learn From the Teaching Machines," The
Reporter, July 19, 1962, pp. 19-26.


Leaver, Eric W. “The Next Fifteen Years of Automation,'1 Automation,
September 1962, pp. 52-58.


Lessing, Lawrence.
pp. 140-144 ff.


Neisser, Ulric. "The Imitation of Man by Machine," Science, January 18,
1963, pp. 193-197.

"The Mighty Mix of New Materials," Fortune, May 1962,

Asserts that, while computers are purposive, capable of learning from
experience, and of creating novelty, they are different from men in that
they do not grow, have no emotions, and are shallowly motivated. Warns
against using them for making social decisions.


Pierce, J. R. "How Smart are Computers," Saturday Evening Post,
November 4, 1961, p. 25 ff.



Reintzes, J. F. "The Intellectual Foundations of Automation,11 The
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
March 1962, pp. 1-9.
Historical outline of man's efforts to increase his productivity by
using mechanical devices, outside power sources, and automatic control
systems. Discusses the foundations of modern technology in the physical,
chemical, mathematical, and electrical sciences as well as other engi­
neering disciplines. Specifically discusses feedback control, digital
computers, tape control, and man-machine integration.


Samuel, Arthur L. Artificial Intelligence: A Frontier of Automation,"
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
March 1962, pp. 10-20.
Discusses approaches to use of the computer as a problem-solving
machine: one aimed at a complete understanding of intellectual
processes, another at duplicating the behavior of the brain. Believes
artificial intelligence will reduce rather than increase technological


Science. (Instrument Issue), October 20, 1961. 216 pp.
Nine articles describe and evaluate advanced instrumentation in such
fields as astronomy and medicine.


U.S. Army, Ballistic Research Laboratories. Thesaurus of the Names of
Electronic Digital Computers and Data Processors, by Martin H. Weik,
BRL Technical Note No. 1492. (Aberdeen, Md., U.S. Army Ordnance
Computing Laboratory, September, 1962). 17 pp.
A listing of computer names and their manufactures.


Worsnop, Richard L. "Approach to Thinking Machines," Editorial Research
Reports. July 25, 1962, pp. 539-554.
Discusses the development, uses, and limitations of contemporary
computers, and their impact on employment.



"The Challenge of Coal1s New Growth Era," Coal Age, October 1961, entire
issue. 328 pp.
Several articles on technological change in the coal raining industry,
including forecasts of developments up to 1970.


"Invention Sprouts on California's Farms," Fortune, January 1963,
pp. 90-99.
Pictorial presentation of agricultural mechanization. Captions
summarize costs, savings, productivity, and manpower requirements.


Zeller, W. L. "Underground Planning and Control Using Electronic
Computers," Mining Congress Journal, January 1961, pp. 43-46.


Bailey, Mildred L. "Cobol:
October 1962/ pp. 13-19.

A User's Progress Report," Data Processing,

Application of a program language to computer inventory control and
Impact on managers, analysts and programers, and machine


"A Computer Market Survey: The Banking Industry," Computers and Auto­
mation, October 1962, pp. 14-20.
Surveys current use of electronic banking aids, and analyzes the
market for computers during the coming half decade.


Dun's Review and Modern Industry. September 1962, entire issue.
Special report on office equipment and techniques.


Ferguson, William A. "Establishing Centralized Data Processing,"
Automation, May 1962, pp. 50-56.

100 pp.



Investment Bankers Association of America. "A Survey and Study of the
Computer Field,1* Computers and Automation Part I, January 1963,
pp. 15-25; Part II, February 1963, pp. 25-29.
Report of the Association's Industrial Securities Committee,
November 25-30, 1962, reprinted In full. Covers computer technology,
history, economics, current state-of-the-art, and expected developments.


Johnson, Robert B. "Automation Data Input," Systems and Procedures
Journal, January-February 1962, pp. 29-31.
Discusses various forms of input media for high speed computers,
including punched cards, punched paper tape, magnetic ink character
recognition, and optical scanning.


Kornfeld, Leo L. "Mechanizing Higher Education," Systems and Procedures
Journal. Part I, January-February 1962, pp. 11-14; Part II, MarchApril 1962, pp. 36-40.
Discusses the desirability of installing data processing equipment
to meet challenges of larger enrollment and of paperwork growth in
colleges. Suggests possible applications and presents hypothetical
cost projections.


Life Office Management Association. EDP in Life Insurance. Proceedings
of the Automation Forum (New York, Life Office Management
Association, 1962). 544 pp.
Collection of papers presented by life insurance industry executives
and some computer manufacturers' representatives, covering various
applications of computer systems to life insurance office functions.
Briefly covers selection and training of electronic data processing
personnel, and salary determination.


Meacham, Alan D., and Thompson, yan B., editors. Computer Applications
Service (Detroit, American Data Processing, Inc., 1962). 300 pp.,
Two volumes, each containing description of 50 computer applications.
Subjects are indexed by equipment used, industry, and type of



Reistad, Dale L. Banking Automation and the Magnetic Ink Character
Recognition Program (Detroit, Detroit Research Institute, 1961).
184 pp.
Study of the development of the magnetic ink character recognition
(MICR) program, the automatic processing of documents, and the role of
the computer in the MICR program.


Rieser, Carl.
pp. 90-95.

"The Short Order Economy,11 Fortune. August 1962,

Shows that manufacturers are introducing computers to facilitate
order filling, inventory handling, and production scheduling, that
major benefits are improved customer service and reduced inventory
requirements. Among the results are centralizing organizational control
and freeing salesmen from clerical duties.


Roach, Charles J., Ellestad, Myrvin, and Lake, Raymond B. 9lKadical Data
Processing and Computer Automated Hospitals,11 Datamation. June 1962,
pp. 25-28.


Ronayne, Maurice F. "SDA: Starting Point for ADP," Systems and Proce­
dures Journal. March-April 1962, pp. 17-21.
Discusses methods of applying automation techniques from the point
where information originates.


"Scanning the Gas Bill,11 Business Automation. December 1962, pp. 35-37.
Optical scanning equipment is combined with an EDP system to process
utility payments.


Borko, Harold, editor. Computer Applications in the Behavioral Sciences
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962). 633 pp.
Specialists present and evaluate computer applications in such fields
as psychological research, statistical computation, language analysis,
simulation of neurophysiological models, and simulation of social system



Bushor, William E. "Information Storage/Retrieval," Electronics.
June 29, 1962, pp. 40-62.
Exploration of the technology of information retrieval. Consideratioi
of user needs, costs, and available equipment (including manual, punched
card, and computer equipment) provides a background for discussion of
specialized systems.


Crane, Diana. "Computer Simulation: New Laboratory for the Social
Sciences," Automation--Implications for the Future (New York, Vintage
Books, 1962), pp. 339-353.
Illustrates use of computers to simulate the behavior of large groups
of individuals, and suggests computers may provide the means to
understand and control the variables affecting human relations.


Johnson, Ernest F, "Automatic Process Control," Science. February 9,
1962, pp. 403-408.


National Science Foundation, Office of Science Information Service.
Current Research and Development in Scientific Documentation No. 10.
NSF-62-20 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, May 1962).
383 pp.
Descriptive report of current research in government, industry, the
universities, and other organizations on information requirements and
uses, information storage and retrieval, mechanical translation,
character and pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, and equipment.


"Robot in the Workshop," Dunfs Review and Modern Industry. March 1962,
pp. 88-108.
Discusses control of industrial processes by computers, illustrating
computer use in the oil and chemical industries, in the numerical
control of machine tools, and in the development of robots which perform
actions resembling human motions. Predicts extensive replacement of
production workers.



Stout, Thomas M. "Process Control: Past, Present, and Future," The
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
March 1962, pp. 29-37.
Describes process control and evaluates it from manual adjustment
through automatic control towards computer-controlled plants. Shows
that advantages of process control include greater capacity, lower raw
material and utility costs, and improved quality control. Labor savings,
already achieved by automatic equipment, are minimal.


Williams, T. J. "Digital Computers in Process Control," Automation.
March 1962, pp. 56-60.


"EDP in Public Administration, a Symposium," Public Administration
Review. September 1962, pp. 129-152.
Six articles discuss applications, effects, and plans regarding use
of electronic data processing in Federal, State, and local governments.


Hearle, Edward F. R., and Mason, Raymond J. "Data Processing:
Future in State Government," State Government. Winter 1961, pp. 47-51.


U.S. Bureau of the Budget.
Inventory of Automatic Data Processing (ADP)
Equipment in the Federal Government (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, August 1962). 126 pp.
Inventory of ADP equipment by Government department, location, and
make and model of computer, including costs, categories of use, and
personnel utilization. Contains charts on ADP growth and applications.


Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. Aerospace Technical
Forecast 1962-72 (Washington, Aerospace Industries Association of
America, Inc., 1962). 144 pp.
Summarizes broad trends and requirements for propulsion systems,
materials, ground support equipment, manufacturing processes, testing
and related aerospace vehicle systems development.



American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers. Collected Papers:
Numerical Control (Detroit, American Society of Tool and Manufac­
turing Engineers, 1963). 83 pp.
Fourteen selected technical papers covering history, equipment,
methods, outlook, advantages and limitations, training experience and
requirements, and other technical considerations of numerical control.
For annotations of particular articles, see 2.57 and 7.06.


Ashburn, Anderson. "Detroit Automation.11^The Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science. March 1962, pp. 21-28.
Discusses various types of industrial automation, including mechani­
cal transfer of work between linked machine tools, transfer machines,
and numerically controlled machines. Considers factors limiting growth
of automation in metalworking and concludes that rate of growth in
metalworking is rising after a recent tapering off.


Benton, Rufus R.C., Bauchspies, David A., and Woodring, G. Daniel.
MA Production Man's Guide to Chemical Machining," American
Machinist/Metalworking Manufacturing. August 6, 1962, pp. 73-80.


Black, T. W. "Lasers Cast Light on Machining, Welding Problems," The
Tool and Manufacturing Engineer. June 1962, pp. 85-91.


Black, T. W. "Lightning Strikes Manufacturing--Electrical Materialworking Processes," The Tool and Manufacturing Engineer.
January 1963, pp. 87-94.


Black, T. W. "West Coast Industry," The Tool and Manufacturing
Engineer. September 1962, pp. 123-128.
Survey of 20 metalworking companies. New materials, vacuum welding,
numerical control and computer controls are among subjects covered.


Boulger, Francis W. "Review of Some Unconventional Methods of
Machining," Machinery.. April 1961, pp. 140-146.



Carlberg, Edward F. “Trends and Future Directions of Numerical Control,“
Collected Papers: Numerical pontrol (Detroit, American Society of
Tool and Manufacturing Enginefers, 1963). 8 pp.
Finds growing use for numerical control in industry because of the
trend toward shorter production tuns, more complex products, increasing
use of exotic materials, declinihg cost of manufacturing as related to
research and testing, and increasing technical capabilities of machines
and electronic controls.


Erbe, J. Raymond. “Electrical Equipment for Automation of the Blast
Furnace,“ Blast Furnace and Steel Plant. July 1962, pp. 641-652.


Jollis, G. S. “The Advantages of Numerically Controlled Machine Tools,“
Computers and Automation. March 1961, pp. 15-19.


Klein, Herbert E. “New Glow in the Foundry,11 Dun's Review and Modern
Industry. August 1962, pp. 30-32.


“Latest Foundry Census,“ Foundry, April 1963, pp. 62-65.
Findings show fewer but larger plants in the foundry industry, and
an increase in the number of plants utilizing advanced technology.


“1962 Production Preview,'1 American Machinist/Metalworking Manufacturing.
January 22, 1962, pp. 101-132.
Summary of metalworking technology and research. Considers economic
outlook and various technological advances being made in cutting,
forming, materials and components, welding, inspection, finishing,
assembly, heat treating, materials handling, and manufacturing controls.


“Technical Surge Reshapes Steel Industry," Iron Age. September 13, 1962,
pp. 163-170.


U.S. Army, Ordnance Weapons Command. Ordnance Corps Study of Numeri­
cally Controlled Machine Tools (Joliet, Illinois, Headquarters,
Ordnance Weapons Command, I960). 131 pp.



Weidenbaum, Murray L.
pp. 15-20.

"Aerospace Industry," Manage. September 1962,

Finds that rapid technological development is the dominating factor
in the aerospace industry and may be expected to accelerate, resulting
in a changing occupational structure with a smaller ratio of industrial
workers to nonproduction workers.


Baum, Arthur W. Part I; "The Turbine Auto," Part II; "Where Are Those
Dream Cars," Saturday Evening Post. March 24, 1962, pp. 38-41, and
March 31, 1962, pp. 34-35 ff.
Part I compares the gas turbine's performance with conventional
engines. Part II discusses new advances in automobile design, power
plants, and control.


Boehm, George A. W. "Electronics Goes Microminiature," Fortune.
August 1962, pp. 99-102 ff.
Development of "thin-film" as computer memory device, and its impli­
cations for computer users.


"Greenville Show Foreshadows Coming Age of Automated Mills," Modern
Textiles Magazine. December 1962, p. 30 ff.


"Latest Word in All-Out Automated Spinning," Textile World. October 1962,
pp. 78-83.


"Trends in the Fast-Moving World of Synthetic Fibers," Chemical and
Engineering News. August 20, 1962, pp. 86-96.


Yasaki, Ed. "The Computer and Newsprint," Datamation. March 1963,
pp. 27-31.



Goeldner, Charles R. '‘Automation: Evolution in Retailing," Business
Horizons, Summer 1962, pp. 89-98*
Describes forms of retail automation including automated stores,
vending machines, electronic data processing, and automatic materials
handling. Analyzes feasibility of automation by type of retail
institution, such as mail-order houses, supermarkets, chain stores, and
department stores.


Goeldner, Charles R. "Automation in Marketing," Journal of Marketing.
January 1962, pp. 53-56.
Describes types of automatic equipment, and suggests that greatest
impact of marketing automation will be at wholesale level.


"A New Systems Concept for Retail Automation," Data Processing.
December 1962, pp. 42-44.
Suggests use of optical scanning equipment as a means of making auto­
mation of retailing operations more practical.


Schrieber, G. B.
pp. 20-50.

"1962 Census of the Industry," VEND. March 15, 1962,

Analysis, including numerous charts, of the automatic vending industry,
comparing sales and numbers of machines in relation to product vended.


Seligman, Ben B. "Automation Comes to the Supermarket," Challenge.
November 1962, pp. 25-29.
Discusses specific developments involving prepackaging, material
handling, automatic vending and electronic control, and the pace of
technological change in retailing and distribution. Notes implications
for the future, and employment effects.


Shenton, D. W. "Automatic Order-Picking of Case Goods," Automation.
Part I, "Justifying Order Picking Systems," April 1962, pp. 52-59;
Part II, "Controlling Order-Picking Systems," May 1962, pp. 62-70.
Discussion of the problems involved in the selection and operation of
order filling and materials handling equipment for an automated warehouse
or manufacturing concern.



“Airline Passenger Processing: It Takes Nerves of Steel--Literally!“
Systems Management, March 1962, pp. 13-15 ff.
Description of computer-controlled airline reservation systems.


Clayton, Curtis T. “Automatic Ships--Only Hope for the U.S. Merchant
Marine?11 Control Engineering, July 1962, pp. 73-76.


Federal Aviation Agency. Report of the Task Force on Air Traffic
Control (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, October 1961).
109 pp.
Review of technological changes in aviation facilities and related
research and development to assure safe and efficient utilization of


Gellman, Aaron J. “Why Railroad Innovation Gets Sidetracked,1* Business
Horizons. Spring 1962, pp. 55-60.


Report of Task Force on National Aviation Goals. Project Horizon
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1961).
339 pp. Annex to Project Horizon. Selected Characteristics of U.S.
Air Carrier. General Aviation, and Military Flying Activity-Histori­
cal and Projected Through 1970. November 1961. 55 pp.


Shott, John G. Progress in Piggyback and Containerization (Washington,
Public Affairs Institute, 1961). 67 pp.
Discusses the. developments and economies of “piggyback** service and
the prospects for containerization. Examines the opposition of the motor
carrier industry to these innovations.


“A Survey of Airline Reservation Systems,1* Datamation. June 1962,
pp. 53-55.


U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.
Operating the Jet. Subcommittee on Aviation. Together with A Report
of Progress and Developments on Jet Age Planning by the Civil Aero­
nautics Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 85th Cong.,
2nd sess., May 9, 1958 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1958). 100 pp.



U.S. Department of the Interior. Report to the Panel on Civilian Tech­
nology on Goal Slurry Pipelines (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, May 1, 1962). 330 pp.
Evaluates the economic potentials for transporting and utilizing
coal in the form of slurry. Concludes that transportation via pipeline
would result in average net savings of approximately $1.93 per ton.
Appraises the economic impact on the railroad, coal, petroleum, and
natural gas industries, as well as on consumers.


Blair, Claude M. "Todays Challenges, Tomorrow's Promise in Communi­
cations Technology," Bell Telephone Magazine. Summer 1962, pp. 20-26.


Dulberger, Leon H., and Vogel, Sy. "Lasers: Devices and Systems,"
Reprinted from Electronics. October 27, 1961, and November 3, 10, and
24, 1961. 26 pp.


Feder, H. S., and Spencer, A. E. "Telephone Switching," Scientific
American. July 1962, pp. 132-142.


Kremers, John E., and Durkee, Paul C. "Electronic Data Processing in
the Bell System," Bell Telephone Magazine. Winter 1961-1962, pp. 12-20.


Sheldon, I. R., and Luzon, T. B. "Facts and Cautions for Planning Data
Communications," Control Engineering. August 1962, pp. 105-108.


"Today: Automatic Dispatch Systems Control Over 80% of U.S. Capacity,"
Electrical World. April 9, 1962, pp. 36-42.


U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Civilian Nuclear Power--A Report to the
President (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962). 67 pp.
Report on nuclear technology, its development, the role of government,
and the legal, financial and administrative matters surrounding the
development of civilian nuclear power. Considers possible industrial



This section includes case studies and other research into the effects
of automation and other technological changes in plants and industries and
on workers, managers, and industrial relations.


Christenson, C. L. Economic Redevelopment in Bituminous Coal: The
Special Case of Technological Advance in United States Coal Mines,
1930-I960 (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1962). 312 pp.
Attempts to determine the impact of technological advances on
employment and earnings. Considers changing patterns of fuel consump­
tion, competition in the industry, and pressures toward mechanization.
Assesses social costs of mechanization and proposes increasing the
mobility of the unemployed through retraining, encouraging area redevel­
opment, and inducing miners to accept wage variation.


"Displaced Labor:

1962,” Factory, October 1962, pp. 78-81.

Survey of 500 plants representing a cross section of industry in the
first 6 months of 1962. Several findings, e.g., changes in work methods
eliminated more jobs than did new equipment, and, in some plants, skilled
workers were affected more than the unskilled.


Goldstein, Sidney. The Norristown Study (Philadelphia, University of
Pennsylvania Press, 1961). 366 pp.
Progress report on a long-term, interdisciplinary research program
conducted by the University of Pennsylvania, covering numerous studies
on social adjustments to technological change. Subjects include worker
mobility, readjustment of unemployed workers within the community,
changing attitudes of workers, and the changing job structure. Research
methods involve household enumeration, case studies, and historical


Mann, Floyd C. "Psychological and Organizational Impacts," Automation
and Technological Change. Thq American Assembly, Columbia University
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962), pp. 43-65.
Summarizes findings of six empirical studies of plant and office
automation. Draws several conclusions for the plant and office sepa­
rately. Generally finds an increasing similarity between work in plant
and office, increasing worker awareness of the personal impact of auto­
mation, and the probability of extended periods of disruption in basic
working patterns.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Impact of Tech*
nological Change and Automation in the Pulp and Paper Industry,
Bulletin 1347 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
October 1962). 92 pp. Summarized by Richard W. Riche in Monthly
Labor Review, October 1962, pp. 1114-1119.
Surveys the nature, status and outlook of technological innovations
and implications for productivity, production, employment, occupational
requirements, and industrial relations practices. Includes case studies
of three different types of technological innovations.



This section contains case studies and larger surveys into the effects
of and adjustment to the introduction of electronic and other data process­
ing systems in offices in private industry and government.


Eckert, James B., and Wyand, Robert R. '‘Automation at Commercial
Banks," Federal Reserve Bulletin, November 1962, pp. 1408-1420.
Survey of commercial banks shows: (1) 2 out of 5 banks with total
deposits of $25 million or more are using or are planning to use com­
puter systems; (2) nearly all large banks are acquiring such systems;
(3) regular checking accounts are foremost among automated functions;
and (4) almost universal preprinting of checks in magnetic ink may be
expected within 3 years.


Faunce, William A., Hardin, Einar, and Jacobson, Eugene H. "Automation
and the Employee," The Annals of the American Academy of Political
and Social Science» March 1962, pp. 60-68.
Summarizes the results of case studies of both office and factory
automation with respect to material welfare, job satisfaction, atti­
tudes toward change, and the role of work in the life of the employee.
Reveals a considerable diversity in the effects of automation and in
attitudes, and a tendency to welcome change. Suggests decreasing
importance of work in a more leisure-oriented society.


Scott, W. H. Office Automation find the Non-Manual Worker (Paris,
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1962).
50 pp.
Progress report of current studies of office automation in five
European countries. Primarily concerned with current status* Considers
structure and size of office force, job content, working conditions,
rewards, qualifications and attitudes of employees prior to automation.
Analyzes the decision to install a computer and the problems involved
in its implementation. Tentatively assesses the long-term effects of
computer installations.



Siegman, Jack, and Karsh, Bernard. "Some Organizational Correlates of
White Collar Automation," University of Illinois Bulletin, Reprint
Series No. 110, February 1962, pp. 108-116.
Case study of the sociological effects of the introduction of elec­
tronic data processing in a State government bureau. Finds an increase
in the authority of specialists who direct the EDP program, conflict
between them and the existing bureaucracy, and a change in customary
mobility patterns within the organization.


U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Post Office and
Civil Service. Use of Electronic Data Processing Equipment; Hearings,
Subcommittee on Census and Government Statistics, 87th Cong., 2nd
sess., October 2, 3, and 5, 1962 (Washington, U.S. Government Print­
ing Office, 1962). 328 pp.
Extent and uses of electronic data processing in Federal agencies
and affiliated State agencies. Statistical data from Civil Service
Commission on growth of EDP in Federal Government by agency, grade,
and occupation. Data on costs and requirements for specific agency
and bureau programs.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Impact of Office
Automation in the Internal Revenue Service, Bulletin 1364 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, April 1963). 108 pp. Summarized
by Richard W. Riche and James R. Alliston in the Monthly Labor Review,
April 1963, pp. 388-393.
Case study of introduction of ADP equipment in the Atlanta regional
offices of IRS, the first region to be converted. Covers the nature
and objectives of the conversion, the planning of manpower changes,
administration of personnel procedures, impact on employees, staffing
of ADP jobs, training and retraining of employees, manpower problems
and outlook. Based on IRS documents and interviews with officials,
employees, supervisors and union officials concerned with the new ADP


Wiener, Rose. "Changing Manpower Requirements in Banking," Monthly
Labor Review, September 1962, pp. 989-995.
Considers current trends in employment and occupational structure as
a result of changes in bank activities and organization. Suggests that
employment will continue to increase during the next decade, although
conversion to EDP will slow the rate of expansion and cause further
changes in occupational structure.



This section includes references on automations implications for
employment, unemployment, displacement, productivity, manpower trends and
outlook, and leisure time.


American Iron and Steel Institute. The Competitive Challenge to Steel
(New York, American Iron and Steel Institute, March 1963). 84 pp.
Comprehensive analysis of the economics of the steel industry.
Covers a wide range of topics including research and development,
profits, economic growth, costs, productivity, and prices. A sepa­
rate chapter on employment and unemployment emphasizes the impact of


Anderson, Nels.
Inc., 1961).

Work and Leisure (New York, Free Press of Glencoe,
266 pp.

Examines concepts of leisure from historical viewpoint. Concludes
that the traditions of dedication to work which helped to increase
leisure time now hinder its enjoyment. Suggests that the refusal of
youth to become work-centered should be viewed as a natural adjustment
to impersonal technological changes.


Apel, Hans. "Should We Shorten the Workweek?"
pp. 28-31.

Challenge, March 1962,

Suggests, as a partial solution to technological unemployment, a
return to the historical practice of reducing hours of work.


"Automation,11 Forbes, June 1, 1963, pp. 27-30.
Survey of employment and investment trends in 65 of the largest
corporations in the United State* (5 from each of 13 industries) from
1957 to 1962. Finds employment declining, output increasing, sales
increasing and, despite a lower teturn, an increase in the amount of
capital in use. Concludes that the consumer is the beneficiary of
automation through lower or stable prices.


Bernstein, Peter L. "The Rewards of Leisure," Challenge» April 1962,
pp. 40-43. From The Price of Prosperity (New York, Doubleday, 1962),
pp. 129-142.



Brozen, Yale. Automation: The Impact of Technological Change
(Washington, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy
Research, March 1963). 47 pp.
Maintains automation has not resulted in unemployment and, because
of a slow rate of technological change, the unemployment situation
will not be worsened by more automation. Also considers effects on
occupational structure, older workers, and skill requirements.


Buckingham, Walter. "The Great Employment Controversy," The Annals
of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1962,
pp. 46-52.


Buckingham, Walter. “Technology and a Changing Economy,n Challenges
to Labor Education in the 60*5 (Washington, National Institute of
Labor Education, 1962). pp. 3-12.
Discusses the role of technology in increasing unemployment and the
need for a higher rate of economic growth. Considers the problems
created by the boredom in work and by increased leisure time.


Chamber of Commerce of the United States. A Shorter Workweek? An
Information Manual on Key Questions (Washington, Chamber of Commerce
of the United States, 1962). 114 pp.
Social and economic implications of a shorter workweek and factual
material concerning the effects on efficiency, consumption, fatigue,
and multiple jobholding. Opinions by management and labor leaders,
educators, writers, public officials, and government specialists.


Clague, Ewan and Greenberg, Leon. “Employment,“ Automation and Techno­
logical Change, The American Assembly, Columbia University (Englewood,
N.J., Prentice-Hall., 1962), i>p. 114-131. Summarized as “Technological
Change and Employment," Monthly Labor Review, July 1962, pp. 742-746.
Attempts to answer the question--“How much unemployment is due to
technological change?" Analyzes production-worker employment associated
with decreases in unit man-hours, indicating a substantial disemployment
of 200,000 a year over a period of little economic growth, 1953-59, and
as much as 90,000 a year over a period of considerable growth, 1947-57.
Assuming greater economic growth in the next decade than in 1953-59,
estimates that technological disemployment will average 200,000 a year
for all nonagricultural industry<



Dankert, Clyde E. "Shorter Hours, In Theory and Practice," Industrial
and Labor Relations Review, April 1962, pp. 307-322.
Discusses objectives of "hour policy" in light of physical output,
worker satisfaction, and employer profit. Suggests that increased
worker satisfaction should be the basic guide of policy.


Denise, Malcolm L. "Automation and Unemployment: A Management View­
point," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social
Science, March 1962, pp. 90-99.
Asserts that automation is not displacing workers more rapidly than
in the past and has not caused decreased employment at the Ford Motor
Co. Maintains unemployment is caused by many factors, and that efforts
to explain it as a result of automation confuse and delay the search
for adequate solutions.


Denise, Malcolm L. "Unemployment and Automation," The Personnel
Administrator, May-June 1962, pp. 18-21.
States that high rates of unemployment are the result of population
growth rather than technological change. Draws on Ford Motor Co.
experience to show that automation creates jobs.


Friedmann, Georges. "Leisure in an Automated World," The Nation,
September 1, 1962, pp. 89-92.
States increased leisure time can create personal dissatisfaction.
Alternatives to regular work as a center of psychic equilibrium may
be second jobs, hobbies, and recreational activities. Democratic
governments have an obligation tp provide and promote educational
leisure-time activities.


Goldberg, Arthur. "The Role of Government," The Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1962, pp. 110-116.
States that the private sectors of the economy cannot cope adequately
with the complex problems caused by technological change. A Federal
program, including training, aid to industry, and aid to education, is
essential to achieve full employment and full production.



Henle, Peter. "Recent Growth of Paid Leisure for U.S. Workers,"
Monthly Labor Review, March 1962, pp. 249-257.
Statistical analysis of the trend and outlook on hours of work,
paid vacations, and paid holidays. Finds that leisure time per full­
time employed worker increased by 155 hours a year between 1940 and
1960. However, additional leisure time represents a small fraction
of the productivity increase during that period. Provides essential
background for the consideration of leisure as a consequence of techno­
logical change.


Hirsch, Phil. "Automation, Clerks, Bookkeepers," The New Republic,
May 7, 1962, pp. 13-14.
States that office automation has slowed the rate of increase in
clerical employment while increasing productivity, and predicts wide­
spread clerical unemployment.


Horowitz, Morris A. "Automation and Full Employment: A Public Point
of View," New York University Fourteenth Annual Conference on Labor
(Albany, N.Y., Matthew Bender and Company, 1961), pp. 329-338.
Concludes that neither currenc public nor union policies are
adequate to handle the growing technological unemployment trend.
Proposes a program to include extension of unemployment compensation,
retraining and relocation of the unemployed, and early retirement
benefits under social security fpr "unemployables".


International Labour Organisation, Metal Trades Committee. The
Acceleration of Technological Progress and Its Influence on the
Effective Utilisation of Manpower and the Improvement of Workers1
Income (Geneva, International Labour Organisation, 1962). 122 pp.
Discusses types gf_technological changes occurring in metalworking
industry, e.g., machine tools, snipbuilding, foundry7, and aerospace.
Considers influence of research And development and new management
techniques. Impact of change on workers is considered in terms of
man-machine relationships, job enlargement, shift working, qualifica­
tions and skill requirements, education and training, measures to
alleviate burden of displacement on workers; and the impact on incomes.



Jakubauskas, Edward B. MTechnological Change and Recent Trends in the
Composition of Railroad Employment,” Quarterly Review of Economics
and Business, November 1962, pp. 81-90.
Finds the principal effects of technological change to have been
( l ) a large reduction in man-hours worked in 1947-53, and (2) a sharp
decline in employment in 1953-59. Also, finds that shifts in occupa­
tional structure may be as significant as total employment decline.


Keller, Leonard A. ‘'Automation and the True Causes of Unemployment,”
Personnel Journal, July-August 1962, pp. 331-334.
Asserts that unemployment is mainly the result of competition, and
suggests more automation as a remedy.


Lineberry, William P., editor. The Challenge of Full Employment
(New York, H. W. Wilson Co., 1962). 214 pp.
This book, compiled from newspaper and magazine articles, describes
the unemployed, the causes *)f unemployment (with special emphasis on
automation), and proposed solutions to the problem. Extensive bibliog­
raphy .


McCarthy, Russell C. "Automation and Unemployment:
Management Review, May 1962, pp. 34-43.

A Second Look,”

States rapid increase in automation stems from increasing wage rates,
competition, obsolescence, and increasing research and development.
Changing skill requirements necessitate broad education and continued
retraining. Maintains that increased investment and stable wage rates
are necessary to overcome unemployment.

The President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped. Report of
the Advisory Council's Ad Hoc Committee on Automation (Washington,
The President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped,
December 18, 1962). 5 pp.
A survey of 18 representative private firms and 13 government
agencies indicated that, by reducing physical demands, automation is
making more jobs compatible with more types of handicapping conditions,
but that higher educational and skill requirements may disfavor the
mentally retarded.



Rutzick, Max, and Swerdloff, Sol, “The Occupational Structure of
U.S. Employment, 1940-60,“ Monthly Labor Review, November 1962,
pp. 1209-1213. Manor, Stella F. “Geographic Changes in U.S.
Employment from 1950 to 1960,“ Monthly Labor Review, January 1963,
pp. 1-10.
First article describes the employment trend among occupational
groups and individual occupations for the entire country. The second
discusses the effect of geographic differences in the growth of employ­
ment on the distribution of occupational groups among the regions and
States and the resulting changes in regional occupational profiles.
The basic data for both articles are from the decennial censuses.


United Steelworkers of America. Steelworkers and Automation, Pamphlet
No. PR-129 (Pittsburgh, United Steelworkers of America, 1962).
Brief description of technological changes in the steel industry,
emphasizing the impact on wages and employment.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. “Changing
Farm Technology Challenges Employment Service,“ Employment Security
Review, January 1962, pp. 10-17.
Effect of mechanization and scientific advances in three specific
areas of the farm economy, i.e., the green pea harvest, described by
Vincent J. Brings, the blueberry harvest, by Fred Watts, and the pro­
duction of sugar beets, by Louis Gillespie. Emphasis is on labor dis­
placement and changing skill requirements.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Cotton Harvest
Mechanization: Effect on Seasonal Hired Labor, BES No. 209 (Washington,
June 1962). 17 pp.
Finds increasing mechanization has resulted in a one-fourth decline
of seasonal workers over a 2-year period with very little change in
production. Describes form and extent of mechanization and its effects
on production and employment by region and State, and includes estimates
of future employment needs.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. “Impact of the
Changing Economy on Our Manpower Resources,“ Employment Security
Review, April 1962, pp. 8-20.
Analysis, with charts, of postwar developments in employment, unem­
ployment, population change, urban growth, and other economic forces,
with particular references to youth, the professions, minorities, and
and farm workers.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. "Meeting
the Manpower Problems of: I. Area Redevelopment; II. Automation,"
Employment Security Review, July 1962* 43 pp.
Part I includes an analysis of the ARA training program by USES
Director, Louis Levine, and contains articles on specific State pro­
grams. Part II contains:
(1) a discussion of the role of the Bureau
of Employment Security in automation by Administrator Robert G. Goodwin;
(2) a description of community and worker response to layoffs resulting
from the mechanization of a meatpacking plant in Omaha; (3) discussions
of Pennsylvania’s program to establish studies of automation.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. "Telephone
Industry Continues Long-Term Employment Decline," The Labor Market
and Employment Security, July 1962, pp. 7-12.
(1) continued downward trend (1957-61) in telephone
industry employment due to technological developments, despite growth
of telephone services; (2) changes in occupational structure; (3)
skill requirements; and (4) earnings.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment and
Changing Occupational Patterns in the Railroad Industry, 1947-60,
Bulletin 1344 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
February 1963). 32 pp. Summarized by Bernard Yabroff and
William J. Kelly as "Employment Changes in Railroad Occupations,
1947-60," Monthly Labor Review, October 1962, pp. 1129-1135.
Shows that postwar employment declined 42 percent while produc­
tivity rose more than 70 percent.
Labor displacement resulted
from extensive technological changes and from loss of traffic to
other modes of transportation. Varying rates of employment decline
in different occupations have resulted in changed occupational struc­
ture, increasing the percentage of operating and white-collar workers
and greatly reducing employment in maintenance occupations.


U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and Training.
"Automatic Data Processing in the Federal Government--Its Manpower
Requirements," Manpower Report, Number 6 (Washington, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, May 1963). 11 pp.
Analyzes distribution of ADP equipment, and number of employees
using the equipment, by agency of the Federal Government; geographic
distribution of computers. Estimates growth in employment and com­
puter use, and discusses training requirements.



U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and Training.
MManpower and Training: Trends, Outlook, Programs,11 Manpower
Research, Bulletin No. 2 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, March 1963). 26 pp.
Reviews background and current status of employment and unemploy­
ment, and the programs developed to help solve the problems of dis­
placement caused by rapid structural changes.


U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation and
Manpower Report of the President and a Report on Manpower
ments, Resources, Utilization, and Training. Transmitted
Congress March 1963 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
1963). 204 pp.

to the

Eleven-page report to the Congress by the President outlines exist­
ing and proposed programs to solve manpower problems. Report by the
Department of Labor surveys current manpower changes and projections
to 1975. Includes effects of technological change on occupations,
geographic distribution of industry, and productivity. Contains
chapters on the problems of unemployment and worker mobility. Stresses
throughout the need for higher levels of education and training to
satisfy increasing skill requirements. Seventy-one page statistical


Wallis, W. Allen. "Some Economic Considerations,n Automation and
Technological Change, The American Assembly, Columbia University
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962), pp. 103-113.
Examines several reasons for the development and introduction of
technological changes. States that higher wages increase the pace of
automation. Concludes that there is no problem of general unemploy­
ment due to automation and that problems caused by dislocations due
to technological change are identical to problems caused by disloca­
tions due to a shift in demand.


Weinberg, Edgar. The Effects of Technology on Employment of the
Handicapped. Paper presented before the Mountain States Regional
Meeting of the Presidents Committee on Employment of the Handi­
capped, Pueblo, Colo., June 29, 1962 (Mimeographed by U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, 1962). 9 pp.


Wolfbein, Seymour L. "Automation and the Labor Force," Challenge,
October 1961, pp. 24-28.



Worsnop, Richard L. "Shorter Hours of Work," Editorial Research
Reports, June 13, 1962, pp. 419-435.
Summarizes positions taken by unions, government, and business
concerning proposals for a shorter workweek.


California Department of Employment. Employment Trends in California^
Canning and Preserving Industry, 1950-1961 (San Francisco,
California Department of Employment, October 1962). 102 pp.
Finds technological change resulted in employment decline over
1950-61 period with substantial gains in output.


Haber, William, Fermarl, Louis A., and Hudson, James. The Impact of
Technological Change: The American Experience (Kalamazoo,
W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1963).
Summary and evaluation of 17 case studies published between 1929
and 1961 and dealing with displaced workers.


"Manpower Implications of Technological Change," Labor Law Journal,
August 1963, pp. 655-676.
Reprint of papers discussing research programs and findings in the
United States and Canada by Seymour Brandwein, John P. Francis, and
Gerald G. Somers, delivered at the Spring 1962 meeting of the Indus­
trial Relations Research Association.


Smigel, Edwin 0., editor. Work and Leisure: A Contemporary Social
Problem (New Haven, College and University Press, 1963). 208 pp.
Nine papers on the changing roles of work and leisure among
different occupational groups in our society. Technologically


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Technologi­
cal Changes in Sugar Beet Cultivation: Effect on Seasonal Hired
Labor, BES No. F-219 (Washington, April 1963). 27 pp.
Use of improved seeds and increased use of thinning and weeding
machines reduced seasonal hired labor requirements between 1960 and
1962. Predicts significant declines in seasonal hired work force,
specifically in the use of migrant workers.



U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation, and Train
ing. "Reading Machines for Data Processing: Their Prospective
Employment Effects," Manpower Report, No. 7 (Washington, U.S.
Government Printing Office, June 1963). 12 pp.
Discusses status of optical character recognition, prospects for
widespread adoption and its current limited impact on employment of
key punch operators. Predicts significant declines in key punch
operator employment after 1968.


Wilcock, Richard C., and Franke, Walter H.
Free Press of Glencoe, 1963). 340 pp.

Unwanted Workers (New York,

Analysis of studies of long-term unemployment due to plant shut­
downs, particularly the Armour studies. Points up the limitations
of present methods of dealing with worker displacement. Argues for
an "active labor market policy" of coordinated programs for mainte­
nance of income, upgrading skills, increasing mobility, and providing
employment information.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Employer
Attitudes Toward Advance Notice of Technological Change (Washing­
ton, June 1962). 41 pp.
Results of a pilot study by the U.S. Employment Service in
developing an "Advance Notice System" designed to permit early iden­
tification of scheduled technological changes and render assistance
to both the employer and workers with the aid of the State employment


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Work Force
Adjustments to Technological Change: Selected Employer Procedures.
BES E-215 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, January
1263). 62 pp.
A study of personnel procedures used by employers in planning and
administering technological change, with specific reference to
manpower planning for impending change, reassignment and relocation
of workers, training programs, and minimizing income loss of displaced



This section contains references to automation's implications for
occupational requirements and structure, skills, job content, upgrading and
downgrading, hours of work, health, and safety.


Brooks, Thomas R. "Bleaching the Blue Collar," Dun's Review and
Modern Industry, January 1962, pp. 58-64.
States that by making blue-collar jobs much more like white-collar
occupations, automation is having a significant impact upon the atti­
tudes and aspirations of the workers, methods of compensation, and
outlook of the unions.


Buckingham, Walter. "The Impact of Automation on Skills and Employment," Computers and Automation, April 1963, pp. 16-18 ff.
Considers effects of technological change on physical working con­
ditions, psychological adjustments, skill requirements, job content
and opportunities, wages, the necessity of planning for change, and
the impact on total employment.


Davis, Louis E. "The Effects of Automation on Job Design," Industrial
Relations, October 1962, pp. 53-71.
States that variations in "operator level jobs" under automation
prohibit direct comparisons of content and skills. Many skills appear
to be nontransferable. Automation increases an operator's responsi­
bility and confronts him with an overall view of the process. Mainte­
nance work will require an increase in skills required. Automation
will upgrade the job structure of the economy as a whole, since more
professional workers will be required*


Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. "Automation and Shifting Skill Needs,"
New England Business Review, October 1962, pp. 1-4.
Analysis of changes in the occupational structure of New England.
Projections of the data to 1970 reveal shifts toward higher skills.



Foundation for Research on Human Behavior. The Worker in the New
Industrial Environment (Ann Arbor, Mich., Foundation for Research
on Human Behavior, 1962). 50 pp.
Report of a seminar discussing workers1 needs and values, effects
of automation on industrial and clerical workers, job enlargement,
and the management of change. Contributors include Robert L. Kahn,
Gerald Gurin, Solomon Barkin, Floyd Mann, Otto Pragan, and Arnold S.
Tannenbaum. Bibliography.


Friedmann, Georges. The Anatomy of Work (New York, The Free Press of
Glencoe, Inc., 1961). 203 pp.
Intensive inquiry into the nature of job specialization and job
enlargement, leisure time, and dissatisfaction with work. The author
draws on European and American research to analyze results of mechani­
zation and automation on the work force. Speculates on the psycho­
logical and social impact of the reduction of manual labor and hours
of work.


Nordenskiold, Otto. ’’Trends in Non-Manual Employment and Their Social
Effects,” Economic and Social Bulletin, November-December 1961,
pp. 1-8.
States that statistical analysis reveals that the proportion of
nonmanual workers in European countries has been increasing, as it
has in the United States. Stresses importance of education for social


Snyder, John I., Jr.
pp. 20-23.

’’The Impact of Automation,” Challenge, May 1962,

Questions and answers on implications for employment, skills, labor
mobility, and government policies, by a manufacturer of automation

Wolfbein, Seymour. ’’Automation and Skill,” The Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1962, pp. 53-59.
States that in the fifties, automation contributed to an accelera­
tion in the long-term growth of higher skilled, white-collar, and
service-oriented occupations. One effect was the concentration of
unemployment among the unskilled and semiskilled. Since this trend
is continuing, the work force must be made flexible and responsive
to change through education and training.



Wolfbein, Seymour L. -"The Outlook for the Skilled Worker in the
United States: Implications for Guidance and Counseling,M
Personnel and Guidance Journal, December 1961, pp. 334-339.
Projections show an increasing need for skilled workers during
the 1960's. Suggests seven specific areas for consideration in
counseling young people.


U.S. Department of Labor, taen's Bureau. Women Telephone Workers
and Changing Technology. WB Bulletin 286 (Washington, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1963). 46 pp.
Analyzes effects of technological change on women in the telephone
industry, their employment, job content, job opportunities, earnings
and hours of work.



This section contains references on automation’s implications for train­
ing, retraining, education, apprenticeship, and counseling. Examples of
training programs are included.


Ambre, Ago. "Breakthrough in High School Computer Education," Occu­
pational Outlook Quarterly, December 1962, pp. 3-8.
Short description of a successful high school course on digital
computers in the Washington, D.C. area. Presents course prerequisites,
course description, and general sources of information.


Auman, Fred A. "Retraining--How Much of an Answer to Technological
Unemployment?", Personnel Journal, November 1962, pp. 505-507 ff.
Reviews results of several private and State-financed training pro­
grams, concluding that retraining is, at best, a partial solution to
unemployment situation.


pp. 1-15.

Outlook for Youth," American Child, November 1962,

Four articles by leading authorities (Seymour Wolfbein, Louise Kapp,
T. Stanley Warburton, and William Gomberg) on training of youth to meet
the skill requirements of today’s automated society.


Clark, Harold F., and Sloan, Harold S. Classrooms in the Factories
(New York, N.Y., University Press, 1958). 139 pp.
Report of extensive training activities among 500 of the largest
corporations in the United States. Describes the scope of training in
American industry, types of programs, and cooperation with educational


Clark, Harold F., and Sloan, Harold S. Classrooms in the Stores
(Sweet Springs, Mo., Roxbury Press, Inc., 1962). 123 pp.
Report of the training activities of 36 of the largest retailing
establishments in the United States. Considers effect of education,
research, and increased mechanization on retail productivity. Concludes
productivity in retailing can be appreciably increased through training
and serve to spur economic growth.



Clark, Robert E. "Methods of Training Plant Personnel for Numerical
Control," Collected Papers: Numerical Control (Detroit, American
Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers, 1963). 7 pp.
Experiences in selection and training of personnel at the U.S. Army
Weapon Command^ Rock Island Arsenal. Considers problems in the evalu­
ation of job content, background requirements for training, and length
of training programs for various jobs.


Cruikshank, Nelson H. "Retraining the Unemployed," AFL-CIO American
Federationist, May 1962, pp. 16-21.
Cites need for the employment service to develop procedures which
would enable it to recognize occupational changes created by automation
and the shifting economy, and aid workers in obtaining employment in
new occupations and areas.


Dickinson, William B. "Retraining for New Jobs," Editorial Research
Reports, 1962. 20 pp.
Points to changing composition of work force and skill requirements
due to automation. Experiences with State training programs, and train­
ing under Federal Area Redevelopment Act. Obstacles to effective re­
training. Foreign retraining experiences.


Diebold, John. "Automation: Its Implications for Counseling," Occu­
pational Outlook Quarterly, September 1962, pp. 3-6.
Asserts that counselors should study and use new information-handling
techniques, to help students discover occupational possibilities for
which they might qualify.


Drucker, Peter. "Education in the New Technology," Think Magazine,
June 1962. 3 pp.
Analyzes the impact of technological change on skill requirements
and its challenge to the educational system, to society, and to the
cultural and intellectual life of the Nation.



DuBridge, Lee A. Educational and Social Consequences,11 Automation
and Technological Change, The American Assembly, Columbia University
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962), pp. 26-42.
Discusses the social benefits of technological advances. Presents
the problems of building an educational system capable of meeting the
effects of automation and helping people adjust to it.


Duscha, Julius. "Retraining the Unemployed: Little, Late, and Limping,"
The Reporter, September 27, 1962, pp. 35-37.
Account of the events that influenced and delayed the passage of the
Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962. Suggests that insuffi­
cient funds will restrict the training program.


Evans, Luther H. "The Challenge of Automation to Education," The
American Behavioral Scientist, November 1962, pp. 16-19.


Evans, Luther H., and Arnstein, George E., editors. Automation and the
Challenge to Education (Washington, National Education Association,
199 pp.
Symposium including 14 working papers by specialists and scholars
in several fields of education, the social sciences, industry, and
labor. General agreement that automation will require more intensive
education to achieve the welfare of both the individual and society.
Among the contributors are Wilma T. Donahue, Harold F. Clark,
Einar Hardin, Stanley H. Ruttenberg, Frank H. Cassell, James E. Russell,
and Harold Spears.


Fine, Benjamin. Teaching Machines (New York, Sterling Publishing Co.,
176 pp.
Discusses use of teaching machines and programmed learning, the
machines’ operations, capabilities, advantages and disadvantages, and
the effects upon students, teachers, administrators, and the educa­
tional system as a whole. Belieyes that teaching machines result in
more learning and more efficient use of teaching staffs.



Glazier, William. Automation and Joblessness,n Atlantic Monthly,
August 1962, pp. 43-47.
Concludes that skill requirements are reduced by automation, and
that retraining will not overcome unemployment. Finds recent private
training programs unsuccessful. Suggests increased leisure and earlier
retirement as solutions to technological unemployment.


Hammerman, Herbert. Implications of Automation for Business Education.
Paper presented before the Workshop on Automation and Business Edu­
cation at the convention of the United Business Schools Association,
Washington, D.C., November 1, 1962 (Mimeographed by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, 1962).
12 pp
Status of office automation and implications for levels of office
employment, office occupations, and management training. Finds a grow­
ing need for training and retraining in business subjects and in data


Lipstreu, Otis. ’’Training Implications of Automation,” Journal of the
American Society of Training Directors, June 1960, pp. 48-51.


Mali, Paul. ’’Retraining for the Unemployed,” Journal of the American
Society of Training Directors, August 1962, pp. 44-51.
Discusses institutional barriers to full employment, e.g., low
school standards, archaic education laws, and limits on apprentice­
ships. Cites the success of Connecticut's training program in satisfy­
ing the demand for skilled workers.


Meuche, Howard 0. ’’Machines, Materials and Manpower,” American
Vocational Journal, April 1962, pp. 11-13.
Maintains that existing student training programs are inadequate to
supply the skilled workers requited by technological advances in indus­
try. Advocates the use of teaching machines to assist in worker


Morman, Robert R. "Automation and Counseling,” Personnel and Guidance
Journal, March 1962, pp. 594-599.


New York State Department of Labor. Apprenticeship Training Is One
Hope for Filling Skilled Jobs," Industrial Bulletin, July 1962,
pp. 2-7.
States the main conclusions reached by delegates to the 18th Annual
Eastern Seaboard Apprenticeship Conference.


Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction. Education for Auto­
mation, Pennsylvania Curriculum Improvement Series, No. 2 (Harrisburg,
Pa., Department of Public Instruction, 1961). 8 pp.
Study of the implications of automation for education and, more
specifically, for the large number of high school dropouts. Suggests
major objectives for educational programs in terms of tools and


Peterson, Esther. MTraining-Key to Employment,M American Vocational
Journal, April 1962, pp. 14-15.
Discussion of special problems in training women for skilled jobs.
Includes a short summary of job opportunities and limitations for


Sprowls, R. Clay. “Computer Education in the Business Curriculum,M
The Journal of Business, January 1963, pp. 91-96.


Townsend, Edward.
pp. 26-29.

“More Education, More Pay,“ Challenge, October 1962,

Educational level of the work force is gradually being upgraded
because of changing skill requirements occasioned by automation and
the trend to hire high school graduates.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. “An Approach
to the Problems of Automationi,*1 Employment Security Review,
April 1962, pp. 28-32.
Study of changes in the U.S. Employment Service instituted to meet
the needs of technological change. Includes brief case history of
an automated meatpacking plant and an outline of the activities of the
Omaha automation demonstration project.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. MNew Programs
and Policies,11 Employment Security Review, April 1962, pp. 21-27.
Discussion of the programs to deal with the problems of employment,
automation and training. Programs cover revitalization of the Employ­
ment Service, the youth program, farm labor program, as well as the
programs under the Manpower Development and Training Act and the Area
Redevelopment Act.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Industrial
Retraining Programs for Technological Change. Bulletin 1368
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1963). 34 pp.
Summarized by Edgar Weinberg under the title M01der Workers* Per­
formance in Industrial Retraining Programs,11 Monthly Labor Review,
August 1963, pp. 935-939.
Pilot study on older worker adaptability to technological change.
Analyzes results of retraining programs of four companies in different
industries, to compare performance of older workers with that of
younger workers. Confirms conclusions of earlier studies that age
alone is an insufficient criterion for determining capacity of older
workers to adapt to technological change.


U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Automation and Manpower. The Man­
power Development and Training Act of 1962 (Washington, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1962). 8 pp.
Highlights of the developments leading to the passage of the Man­
power Development and Training Act, and a summary of the major pro­
visions of the act.


U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Manpower, Automation, and Training.
On Research and Training Activities Under the Manpower Development
^nd^xaxnxng^ct^.^.Transmit tad.~ta the^.Gongress F ebrnary 1963
(Washington, U.S. Government printing Office, 1963). 135 pp.
Analysis of the framework and operations of the training program
under the M.D.T.A., and the characteristics of the trainees. Describes
programs authorized under the act--including studies of mobility, auto­
mation, manpower development, utilization and requirements, and infor­
mation and communications programs. Section on training contains charts,
tables, and illustrations.



Weber, Arnold R. Retraining thej Unemployed. Selected Papers No. 4
(Chicago, University of Chicago, 1963).
17 pp.
Critical appraisal of retraining as a means of overcoming unemploy­
ment. Examines potential difficulties in implementing government pro­
grams and the problems of selecting trainees and training programs.
Draws on private experience to illustrate operational problems and
concludes that retraining is a limited remedy which will function best
in a climate of rapid economic growth.


Willis, Earl S. "General Electric*s Plan for Financing Retraining,*1
Management Record, April 1962, pp. 21-25.
Explanation of General Electric*s retraining and income extension
program designed to increase job security. Payments based on longev­
ity and previous pay rates are made either weekly, in a lump sum, or
to finance retraining. Concludes that displaced workers tend to be
less mobile and less interested in learning new skills while under the
security of company-financed benefits.


Wolfbein, Seymour L.
1962, pp. 9-11.

Automation and Education,1* New Leader, April 30,

Examines structural characteristics of unemployment, and proposes
four major steps for adjustment to the impact of automation.


Smith, Harold T. Education and graining for the World of Work
(Kalamazoo, W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research,
July 1963). 165 pp.
Discusses vocational training as preparation for technological


Watson, Goodwin, editor. No Room at the Bottom: Automation and the
Reluctant Learner (Washington-, D.C., National Education Association,
102 pp.
A symposium of psychologists and educators, sponsored by the Project
on the Educational Implications pf Automation, on how to motivate
school dropouts and other "reluctant learners" to attend school and
develop occupational skills.



This section cites examples of collective bargaining approaches to
automation’s impact, union attitudes, and advance personnel planning. Impli­
cations for unions, collective bargaining, seniority, work rules, and unem­
ployment benefits are covered.


Aaron, Benjamin. nReflections on the Legal Nature and Enforceability
of Seniority Rights,” Harvard Law Review, June 1962, pp. 1532-1564.
Takes issue with two recent court decisions extending seniority pro­
visions beyond termination of the collective bargaining agreement to
relocated plants. The attempt to convert a negotiated employment
relationship into rights protected by law is considered undesirable.
Concludes that as a result of fundamental and irrevocable changes in
the economic system, ’’the very concept of seniority is doomed to


’’Adaption to Technological Change Under Collective Bargaining,” Pro­
ceedings of the Twelfth Annual Labor-Management Conference
(Morgantown, W.Va., Institute of Industrial Relations, April 12-13,
1962), pp. 1-15.
Roger C. Sonnemann, Otto Pragan, and Arnold R. Weber discuss the
responsibilities of labor and management to mitigate the adjustments
necessitated by automation. The ability to reach a settlement through
collective bargaining, and under the pressures of technological change,
is considered for issues such as training, wages, job security, and
hours of work.


’’Automation Issues and Arbitration” : 1. F.A. O ’Connell, ”A Management
View” ; 2. Sylvia Gottlieb, ”A Labor View” , ILR Research, Volume VIII,

Kcl. 2, 1962,*. pp, 3-9,

Asserts management view that arbitration has become increasingly
legislative in nature, instead of restricting itself to interpreting
the agreement. The recognition clause of the contract, particularly
in automation cases, has been abused, resulting in the creation of
property rights in a job. The labor view is that rapid technological
change is increasing the areas of conflict where ’’creative and original”
contributions can be made by arbitrators to cushion the impact of tech­
nological and social change.



Baekman, Jules. ’’Cushioning the Impact of Technological Change,n
Labor Law Journal, September 1962, pp. 731-746.
Asserts that programs to counter the adverse effects of automation
should be designed to protect the worker, not to preserve the job.
Discusses various labor-management programs and analyzes the methods
of protecting the worker, such as through attrition, retraining, pro­
viding other jobs, and protecting wage levels.


Baekman, Jules. "Rigid Railroad Seniority System," Labor Law Journal,
February 1962, pp. 117-129.
Discusses economic restrictions placed on the railroad industry
because of failure of the seniority district system and jurisdictional
work rules to change with changes in railroad technology. Suggests
revisions of seniority rules.


Billera, I. John. The Challenges and Opportunities of Automation
(New York, U.S. Industries, Inc., June 25, 1962).
14 pp.
Describes program for labor-management cooperation to cushion the
impact of automation through the formation of the Foundation on Auto­
mation and Employment, sponsored by U.S. Industries, Inc., and the
International Association of Machinists.


Blum, Albert A. "Fourth Man Out--Background of the Flight EngineerAirline Pilot Conflict," Labor Law Journal, August 1962, pp. 649-657.
Reviews the conflict between pilots and flight engineers, and between
unions and airlines. Concludes that technological change is operating
against the flight engineer, since many of his functions are now auto­
matic while the responsibilities of the pilot have increased.


Coburn, Carrol L. "A Union View of Automation," Proceedings of
New York University Fourteenth Annual Conference on Labor (Albany,
N.Y., Matthew Bender a Co., Inc., 1961), pp. 313-327.
Suggests a number of short-ruh and long-run measures to alleviate
technological unemployment, including: (1) a contractual right to move
with the job with company paying costs of retransfer; (2) unlimited
duration of unemployment insurance benefits; (3) reduction of working
time; and (4) replacement of the hourly wage by a weekly salary.



Coughlin, Howard.
"Union Profile:
Record, June 1962, pp. 14-21.

The Office Workers," Management

Interview with president of Office Employes International Union
concerning problems of white-collar organization, including effect
of automation in organizing white-collar workers.


Fanning, John H. "Some Challenges of the Sixties," Social Order,
April 1961, pp. 159-177.
Anticipation of the general economic and social impact of automation
within a decade: more specifically, the possible issues which may
arise in collective bargaining, arbitration, and the courts in the
settlement of disputes, and the role of Government in national emer­
gency disputes.


Fleming, R. W. "The Problem of the Displaced Worker," Atlanta Economic
Review, March 1962, pp. 7-11.
Findings of the Armour Automation Committee are discussed by its
executive director. Considers limitations of collective bargaining,
including problems posed by severance pay provisions, "crash" retrain­
ing programs, and interplant transfers.


Gomberg, William. "Featherbedding: An Assertion of Property Rights,"
The Annals of the /merican Assembly of Political and Social Science,
January 1961, pp. 119-129.
Discusses "featherbedding" as a conflict over the job as a property
right, and the unsuccessful legislative and judicial attempts to re­
solve it. Proposes that arbitration be used to determine amounts of
money due to recompense workers for their surrender of this property


Helstein, Ralph. "Bargaining Isn't Enough," I.U.D. Digest, Summer
1962, pp. 3-8.
President of the Packinghouse Workers asserts that programs devel­
oped by collective bargaining to study unemployment and to retrain
workers cannot solve the problems created by automation. Suggests a
shorter workweek and national, long-range planning to achieve human



Hildebrand, George H. The Use of Informed Neutrals in Difficult Bar­
gaining Situations (Ithaca, N.Y., New York State School of Industrial
and Labor relations, 1961). 19 pp. Also, nThe Use of Tripartite
Bodies to Supplement Collective Bargaining,n Labor Law Journal,
July 1961, pp. 655-664.
Suggests that recommendations by consultants and study committees
can prepare the way for labor-management negotiations in difficult bar­
gaining situations which arise from the need to revise work rules.
Discusses the manner in which neutrals have been used in the railroad,
meatpacking, longshoring, steel, and glass industries.


Jacobs, Paul. Dead Horse and the Featherbird (Santa Barbara, Calif.,
Fund for the Republic, Inc., 1962). 62 pp.
History of alleged "featherbedding" practices in the printing and
airlines industries and labor-management disputes involving them.
Finds that, in both industries, industry as well as unions have been
responsible for creation of "unwork" jobs. Concludes that such prac­
tices will be more generally extended unless limitations are placed
upon technological change.


Kassalow, Everett K. "Labor Relations and Employment Aspects After Ten
Years (1962)," Automation - Implications for the Future (New York,
Vintage Books, 1962), pp. 316-336.
Discusses the changing attitudes toward automation and its effects
on employment, citing as obsolescent, beliefs that machines create more
jobs, increase skill requirement^, and do not affect white-collar work­
ers. Calls attention to the need for "solutions," particularly in the
longshoring and meatpacking industries and in government programs.


Kassalow, Everett M.

"New Union Frontier:

White-Collar Workers,"
1262*. .pp* 41-52.

Believes that automation will make white-collar workers more recep­
tive to unionism as the number oif these workers in the labor force
increases. Compares (1) different forms of unionism in view of needs
of white-collar workers, (2) the importance of different bargaining
issues to white-collar and blue-Collar workers, and (3) European experi­
ences with white-collar unions.



Kennedy, Thomas. Automation Funds and Displaced Workers (Boston,
Harvard University, 1962). 374 pp.
Analysis of six funds established by collective bai~gaining to share
the benefits of automation between management and labor, and one supple­
mentary unemployment benefit fund which accomplishes some of the same
purposes. Finds that most automation funds are more for the benefit of
the workers retained than those displaced and suggests improvements in
future funds. Bibliography.


Killingsworth, Charles C. "Collective-Bargaining Approaches to Employee
Displacement Problems (Outside the Railroad Industry)," Report of the
Presidential Railroad Commission, Appendix Volume IV, Studies Relat­
ing to Collective Bargaining Agreements and Practices Outside the
Railroad Industry (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1962),
pp. 194-228.
Description of the principal collective bargaining developments which
attempt to reconcile apparent labor-management conflicts concerning job
security and management rights and flexibility in eliminating jobs to
improve efficiency. Summary of agreements in the steel, automobile,
rubber, meatpacking, and Pacific maritime industries. Specifically,
considers limitations on plant relocation, employment guarantees,
advance notice of displacement, training provisions, payment of moving
costs by the employer, and severance pay.


Killingsworth, Charles C. "Industrial Relations and Automation,"
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
March 1962, pp. 68-80.
Maintains that elimination of jobs, or parts of jobs, requires new
combinations of skills, and affects the worker*s control over his rate
of output. States that automation is causing a greater emphasis on
job security, labor-management conflict has arisen mainly where, as in
the airline industry* automation has encountered rigid job lines.


Killingsworth, Charles C. "The Modernization of West Coast Longshore
Work Rules," Industrial and Lftbor Relations Review, April 1962,
pp. 295-306.
Discusses the history of restrictive work rules in West Coast Longshoring and the development of labor-management attitudes which led to
the 1960 agreement between the P&cific Maritime Association and Inter­
national Longshoremen*s and Warehousemen*s Union. Analyzes the agree­
ment provisions and the effects upon employers and employees.



Kirstein, George. ’’Labor's Ebbing Strength," The Nation, September 1,
1962, pp. 86-89.
Asserts that automation has reduced union strength by eliminating
jobs, and that unions are ’’burying" themselves by seeking programs
which soften the impact of unemployment, rather than reducing the
workweek to spread employment and increase membership.


Lawrence, James S. "Agreement Between Labor, Management Smoothes
Shuttle Train Differences," Industrial Bulletin, March 1962,
pp. 8-15.
Demonstrates how joint planning and mutual adjustment, including
arrangement to use attrition rather than layoffs, resulted in unionmanagement agreement on the introduction of an automated subway train.


Livingston, Frederick R. "An Approach to Automation," Proceedings of
New York University Fourteenth Annual Conference on Labor (Albany,
N.Y., Matthew Bender and Co., Inc., 1961), pp. 301-311.
Summary of the development, organization, and operations of the
Armour Automation Committee.


Loewenberg, J. Joseph. Effects of Change on Employee Relations in the
Telephone Industry (Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Business Administration,
Graduate School of Business Administration, George F. Baker Founda­
tion, Harvard University, June 1962). 289 pp.
Outlines changes in operations, implementation of change, impacts of
change on the organization and policies of both management and unions,
and on collective bargaining. Bibliography.


"Long Range Sharing Plan for Kaiser Steel Corporation Employees,"
Monthly Labor Review, February 1963, pp. 154-160.
Text of the plan (except for introductory sections) agreed to by
Kaiser Steel and United Steelworkers and providing for sharing of sav­
ings through automation and other efficiency gains.


McConkey, Dale D. ’’The NLRB and Technological Change,11 Labor Law
Journal, January 1962, pp. 43-48.
Believes that changes in work, force composition, brought about
largely by technological change, will cause the National Labor Relations
Board to reevaluate its criteria for determining bargaining units.
Increasing numerical importance of white-collar groups and the widening
gap between skilled and unskilled workers may require a greater number
of bargaining units of narrower coverage. On the other hand, the influ­
ence of the integration of production operations and pressures for
broadening seniority appear to indicate a move toward wider bargaining


’’Mechanisation Clause in New United States Dockworker’s Agreement,H
International Labour Review, July 1962, pp. 42-49.
Analyzes agreement reached in 1957 between the Pacific Maritime
Association and the International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s
Union concerning installation of cargo-handling equipment, changes in
work rules, job security, and methods of cushioning the impact of new
procedures upon the dockworkers.


Presidential Railroad Commission, Report of the Presidential Railroad
Commission (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1962).
324 pp. Summarized in Monthly Labor Preview, April 1962, pp. 375-389.
Appendix Vol. I, Index-Digest,to the Record of the Commission’s Hear­
ings. 135 pp. Appendix Vol. II, Pay Structure Study, Railroad
Operation Employees, 267 pp. Appendix Vol. Ill, Studies Relating
to Railroad Operating Employees. 269 pp. Appendix Vol. IV, Studies
Relating to Collective Bargaining Agreements and Practices Outside
the Railroad Industry. 434 pp.
Extensive study of the disagreement between the railroad carriers
and the operating employee unions concerning work rules and compensa­
tion^ iha $uhl±£^mQmbzxji of JLhis
xo&wn&jd that .agement
be accorded the right to make technological changes, subject to pro­
cedures for collective bargaining and arbitration, and to the provision
that employees deprived of employment be entitled to dismissal allow­
ances, retraining programs, and preferential hiring status. Appendix
Vol. Ill details employment trends and manpower characteristics of
operating employees, their history and experience, including case
studies under railroad employee protection plans, and seniority prac­
tices in the railroad and other industries.



Report to the President by the Emergency Board, Appointed by Executive
Order 11015, Dated April 23, 1962, Pursuant to Section 10 of the
Railway Labor Act, as Amended (Washinton, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1962). 38 pp.
Results of an investigation of a dispute between the Chicago and
North Western Railroad Telegraphers concerning job security and manage­
ment's right to make technological changes to improve efficiency.
Board recommends that negotiation between the parties include considera­
tion of preferential hiring, maintenance of income, retraining, and
other employee protection plans to cushion the impact of technological


Reuther, Walter P. "Policies fop Automation: A Labor Viewpoint,"
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
March 1962, pp. 100-109.
Asserts cost of technological change, now borne by the workers, must
be shared by the whole community* that collective bargaining cannot
solve the problems of structural unemployment, and the Government must
help in instituting a flexible workweek and controlling corporate pric­
ing power and plant relocation.


Rose, William T. "Lithographers Condemn Featherbedding, Welcome Auto­
mation as Tool for Progress," Industrial Bulletin, March 1962,
pp. 3-7.


Ruttenberg, Stanley H.
pp. 46-56.

"The Future of Labor," Union Review, 1962,

Asserts that automation has reduced the wage share of production
costs and that the "wage-price spiral" is a myth. Maintains that
future of unionism, as of the Nation, depends on rate of growth and
oix .exLant. La which ...growth, creates jahsu.


Severo, Richard. "Automation and the News Strike," The Reporter,
March 14, 1963, pp. 29-32.
Description of technological changes in the newspaper industry and
their implications for labor. Discusses the automation issues in the
New York strike as they concern production, job security, union member­
ship, and work rules.



Sinler, Norman J. '‘The Economics of Featherbedding,M Industrial and
Labor Relations Review, October 1962, pp. 111-121.
Economic analysis of the impact of featherbedding work rules on
output, prices, and the distribution of income under conditions of
competition and of monopoly in the product market.


Stieber, Jack. "Work Rules Issue in the Basic Steel Industry,"
Monthly Labor Review, March 1962, pp. 267-268.
Presents background of the work rules issue in the steel industry.
Asserts that the work rules, rather than limiting technological change,
have encouraged it.


Taylor, George W. "Collective Bargaining," Automation and Technological
Change. The American Assembly, Columbia University (Englewood Cliffs,
N.J. , Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962), pp. 84-102.
Discusses problems created by technological change and restrictive
union policies. Suggests the need for institutional changes to protect
the public interest, including changes in units of representation, and
greater use of tripartite bargaining and continuous bargaining. Believes
that collective bargaining can aid in securing agreement on objectives
and increasing employee acceptance of changes.


U.S. Commission to Inquire into & Controversy Between Certain Air
Carriers and Certain of Their Employees. Report and Recommendations
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, May 24, 1961). 59 pp.
Supplementary Report to the President (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, October 17, 1961). 15 pp.
Background of the dispute between the Flight Engineers1 International
Association, the Air Line Pilots Association, and the carriers. Recom­
mends solutions to the issues of representation, jet crew complement,
job security, and transition to a three-man crew.


Velie, Lester. "The Empty Chair by the Featherbed," The Reader*s Digest.
April 1963, pp. 97-102.
Cites two examples to demonstrate advantages of facing automation
problems long before contract expiration dates.



Wirtz, W. Willard. Address before the National Academy of Arbitrators,
Chicago, Illinois, February 1, 1963 (Washington, U.S. Department of
Labor, 1963).
16 pp.
States that job security has become an important issue in collective
bargaining because of technological change and increased competition;
the public interest demands both an end to disruptions of economic life
and the preservation of free collective bargaining. Points to necessity
of achieving both a satisfactory rate of growth and developing ’’creative
bargaining** procedures, e.g., consideration of issues, such as adjust­
ments to automation in advance of contract negotiations.


Beirne, Joseph A. New Horizons for American Labor (Washington, Public
Affairs Press, 1962). 89 pp.
Discusses the changing composition of the work force, the employment
impact of automation, and the adequacy of collective bargaining tactics.
Urges unions to adapt attitudes and policies to the new environment
caused by social, economic, and technological change.


’’Labor on United States and Canadian Railroads,’’ Labor Lav; Journal,
August 1963, pp. 677-699.
Reprint of papers delivered at the Spring 1963 meeting of the Indus­
trial Relations Research Association, discussing findings of the
Presidential Railroad Commission, new technologies and manpower require­
ments in Canadian railroads, and the diesel-fireman issue by Philip Arnow,
Phillip Cohen, and Morris
Horowitz, respectively.



Shi Is, Edward Benjamin. Automation and Industrial Relations (New York,
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963). 360 pp.
Analyzes effects of automation on national economy, security, worker
skills,, waga administration, job satisfaction, and .managerial methods.
Describes labor attitudes, effects on union organization, and the role
of restrictive work practices. Summarizes case studies and government



Somers, "Qrald G., Cushman, Edward L., and Weinberg, Nat, editors.
Adjusting to Technological Change (New York, Harper and Row, 1963).
230 pp.
Publication of the Industrial Relations Research Association con­
taining 8 papers on impact of technology on organized labor and labormanagement relations, cooperative approaches by labor and management,
the interplant transfer of displaced workers, technological change and
the community, and technological change in Western Europe. Contributors
include Walter Buckingham, Philip Taft, Jack Barbash, Charles C.
Killingsworth, Arnold R. Weber, Edwin Young, Bertil Olsson, Sar A.
Levitan, and Harold L. Sheppard.



This section includes references on automation's consequences for busi­
ness management, organization, techniques, policy, and planning. Examples
and case studies of company planning for conversion to automation and guides
for personnel planning are included.


American Management Association. Advances in EDP and Information
Systems. AMA Management Report No. 62 (New York, American Manage­
ment Association, 1961). 187 pp.
Based on contributions of 21 participants at AMA's Seventh Annual
Data Processing Conference in March 1961. Critical evaluations of
management information systems. Covers advances and applications in
EDP equipment, information retrieval, on-line and real-time systems and
inventory control. Case histories of integrated data processing systems.


Anshen, Melvin. "Managerial Decisions," Automation and Technological
Change. The American Assembly* Columbia University (Englewood Cliffs,
N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962), pp. 66-83.
Focuses on decisionmaking to achieve defined objectives as the criti­
cal characteristic of a management job. Considers computer techniques
for improving the quality of information to be used in decisionmaking;
and concludes that information technology will result neither in the
displacement of middle management nor in changing the organizational
structure. However, the trend toward decentralization will be slowed
or reversed with the increased ability to transmit information rapidly.


"Automation and the Foreman," Manage. February 1962, pp. 23-25.


Boehm*. George A. ML.. "Helping the Executive to Make Up His Mind,"
Fortune. April 1962, pp. 128-131 ff.
Use of computers to aid in business decisionmaking.



Bright, James R., editor. Technological Planning on the Corporate Level
(Boston, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administra­
tion, 1962). 253 pp.
Proceedings of a conference designed to serve management's under­
standing of technological change. Includes 14 contributors from
academic and business life with special experience in some facet of
technological change. Subjects cover the new technologies, their
effects on the corporation, methods and evaluation of research planning,
and the role of natural resources in technological change.


Burlingame, John F. "Information Technology and Decentralization,"
Harvard Business Review. November-December 1961, pp. 121-126.
Disagrees with the widely expressed prediction that the rise of the
computer will reverse the trend toward decentralization of business
management decisionmaking and will reduce the need for lower and
middle management.


Friedman, Jack J. "The Other Side of Automation," Dun's Review and
Modern Industry. May 1962, pp* 42-44 ff.
Survey of 300 corporation presidents and chairmen covering subjects
such as effects of automation on employment, impact on management, and
responsibility for retraining.


Gallagher, James D. Management Information Systems and the Computer
(New York, American Management Association, Inc., 1961). 191 pp.
Attempts to set up guidelines for the introduction of an information
handling system. Concentrates on the objectives, problems, and control
of such a system with emphasis on "software." Presents two case studies
(American Airlines Sabre System and Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.)
in which planning* implementation* and organizational impacts are


Gerold, Charles. "ADP in Federal Personnel Management: The Sleeping
Giant," Public Administration,Review. Spring 1962, pp. 71-74.
Discussion of the fears associated with, and benefits to be derived
from, the full utilization of ADP equipment in Federal personnel


Goodman, Edith Harwith. “The Effects of Computers on Corporate Manage­
ment," Data Processing. Part I, January 1963, pp. 11-29; Part II,
February 1963, pp. 19-26.
Report of a roundtable discussion by 11 specialists in information
technology. Considers various impacts on the corporation, including
the trend toward centralization, changes in corporate structure and
decisionmaking processes, and the education of management personnel in
the new technology.


Jacoby, Neil H. “Impacts of Scientific Change Upon Business Management,"
California Management Review, Summer 1962, pp. 31-43.
States that long range accelerated scientific change has made
“techno-economic" planning by firms essential to their survival.
Relationships between different levels of management and between various
organizational departments are being changed. Marketing and research
and development are being upgraded at the probable expense of production
and finance.


Klein, Herbert E. “The Missing Links in Automation," Dun*s Review and
Modern Industry. February 1963, pp. 38-41.
Describes some of the managerial, technical problems of computer con­
trol, advanced instrumentation, and systems engineering which hinder
fully automatic operations and make the production line a series of
interdependent links.


Leavitt, Harold J., and Whisler, Thomas L. "Management in the 1980*s,"
Harvard Business Review. November-December, 1938, pp. 41-48.
Defines "information technology" as including high-speed, large
quantity information processing, applications of mathematical methods
to decisionmaking^ and computer simulation of high-order thinking.
(1) greater centralization with top management assuming more
of the creative functions; (2) most middle management jobs becoming
highly structured and declining in status and compensation, and (3) the
line between top and middle management becoming similar to that betwee?
hourly workers and first-line supervisors.



Niland, Powell. Management Problems in the Acquisition of Special
Automatic Equipment (Boston, Harvard University, 1961). 336 pp.
Analysis of the experiences of 18 metalworking plants in purchasing
special automatic machinery, concentrating on:
(1) the decision to
make or buy equipment, (2) coordination of product and equipment design,
(3) problems during the period immediately following installation, and
(4) appraisal of financial problems. Questions the economic desira­
bility of investment under certain conditions.


Raffaele, Joseph A. "Automation and the Coming Diffusion of Power in
Industry," Personnel. May-June 1962, pp. 29-39.
Believes the present division of power among such groups in the
economy as managers, labor leaders, government officials, and tech­
nologists will be altered as a result of rapid technological change.


Simon, Herbert A. "The Corporation: Will It Be Managed by Machines?"
Automation--Implications for the Future (New York, Vintage Books,
1962), pp. 230-263.
Study of the economic factors that will determine the longrun
utilization of man and machine in productive processes. States manage­
ment functions will change as computers are adapted to make decisions
in those areas where computers enjoy a comparative advantage. Concludes
that, while the management of corporations by machines will be techni­
cally possible by 1985, it will not be economically feasible.


Simon, Herbert A. The New Science of Management Decision (New York,
Harper and Bros., 1960). 50 pp.
Intensive inquiry into the process of decisionmaking, considering
both traditional methods and the use of operations research and computers.
Plods that while new techniques are easily adapted to routine and repeti­
tive decisionmaking, programs to simulate the human thinking involved in
policymaking are uneconomical; man-machine systems for decisionmaking
will increase departmentalization and produce a pyramidal authority
structure, reducing the importance of middle management.



Speroff, B. J. “Automation and Human Relations: Some Problems and
Predictions,11 Personnel Administration, March-April 1962, pp. 4-11 ff.
Considers the special problems which technological change creates
for business management, unions, government, and the individual.
Emphasizes the effects of organizational decisions on personnel
problems and their possible solutions.


U.S. Civil Service Commission, Office of Career Development. Automatic
Data Processing Digest (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1962). 127 pp.
Report of the proceedings of a seminar conducted by the Civil
Service Commission in 1961 to acquaint middle and top Government offi­
cials with various considerations in automatic data processing.
Includes 13 selected discussions on topics such as the capabilities of
computers, their implications for decisionmaking, adjustment to change,
and methods of cushioning the impact on employees.


Whisler, Thomas L. and Shultz, George P. “Automation and the Manage­
ment Process,“ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science. March 1962, pp. 81-89.
Believes computers can take over some of the decisionmaking functions
of management, that effects will include reduction in the levels of
management and centralization of control. Social implications include
changing demands on the educational system and changes in managerial


Hearle, Edward F. R., editor. Automation in Government (Chicago,
American Society for Public Administration, July 1963). 37 pp.
Highlights of 15 presentations at the 1963 National Conference on
Public Administration, Discusses the special problems attending auto­
mation in government agencies and suggests solutions to facilitate
adj u stmen ts. Bib1iography.


Examples of developments and applications of automation in foreign
plants and offices are presented in this section.


"Automation Doesn't Scare Europe," Business Week, December 22, 1962,
pp. 56-57.


Bland, H. A. "Technological Change: Its Impact on the Work Force
and Labour Relations," Personnel Practice Bulletin, March 1962,
pp. 16-29.
Discussions of the impact of automation in Australia, emphasizing
the need for careful planning to ease the problems. Also, discusses
the economic and social effects, the need for training, and prospects
for the future.


Cooper, Richard N. "International Aspects," Automation and Techno­
logical Change, The American Assembly, Columbia University
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962), pp. 132-152.
Reviews the current developments in technology, rates of investment
abroad, and the possibilities for future economic growth. Assesses
the impact of these considerations on United States foreign trade.


Forssman, Sven. "Age and Employment," CIRF Training for Progress,
1962, pp. 10-13.
Findings of April 15-19, 1962, Organization for Economic Coopera­
tion and Development seminar on age and employment. Problems of age
and working capacity in the face of increased mechanization are dis­
cussed in the light of changing age distribution in Europe. Suggests
that "the problems of older workers should already be taken into ac­
count in the training of youth."


Kettl, Hans. "New Techniques--Different People," Economic and Social
Bulletin, July/August 1962, pp. 9-16.
Results of a cross sectional study of Austrian industry for the
period 1952-59.



Morse, David A, "Automation Outside the United States," The Annals
of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1962,
pp. 117-126.
Shows that automation is a rapidly growing movement in the indus­
trial countries, but examples of it are still rare and isolated in
developing countries. In Western Europe, it is seen as a possible
solution to the labor shortage rather than as a cause of unemployment.
The International Labor Organization will continue to devote much
attention to the social impact.


Netherlands Automatic Information Processing Research Centre. Develop­
ment of the Computer Market in Europe (Amsterdam, Netherlands Auto­
matic Information Processing Research Centre, June 1963). 57 pp.
Survey of the number and types of computer applications in Europe,
the number of computers installed and on order, forecast of develop­
ments in the European Economic Community computer market until 1970,
and corresponding need for computer personnel.


U.S. Department of Commerce, Business and Defense Services Administra­
tion. The Soviet Challenge to U.S. Machine Building (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963). 73 pp.
Description and evaluation of the economies and technology of
machinery production in the United States and the Soviet Union.
Appendix includes a summary comparison of 25 major metalworking
innovations. Numerous figures, charts, and tables. Bibliography.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Experience
of Other Countries in Dealing With Technological Unemployment.
BES ES-220 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1963).
42 pp.
Practices and policies of selected European countries to ease the
adverse effects of automation, with specific reference to location of
industry, relocation of workers, training programs, dismissal proce­
dures, vocational guidance, and reduction of hours of work.



This section includes references to other recent bibliographies on


Association for Computing Machinery.

Computing Reviews (Published

Contains reviews and abstracts of current publications in all
areas of the computer sciences.


Evans, W. H. "Small Office Automation," Small Business Bulletin
(Washington, Small Business Administration, January 1962). 8 pp.
Bibliography of references on the general subject of office


Hardin, Einar, Eddy, William B., and Deutsch, Steven E. Economic and
Social Implications of Automation (East Lansing, Michigan State
University, 1961). 78 pp.
Annotated bibliography on literature published during the period
1957-60 on economic and social implications of automation. References
cover subjects such as employment, skill requirements, training, labormanagement relations, and the administration of change.


Kreps, Juanita and Laws, Ralph. Automation and the Older Worker: An
Annotated Bibliography (New York, National Council on the Aging,
1963). 43 pp.


National Education. Association. Materials Generated by the Project
on the Educational Implications of Automation; Bibliography
(Washington, National Education Association, November 1962). 3 pp.



National Science Foundation. Current Projects on Economic and Social
Implications of Science and Technology, 1961. NSF-62-4 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1962).
116 pp.
Report on 262 projects being conducted in colleges and universities,
classified according to subject matter, and cross-referenced. Subjects
include the impact of technology on selected industries and firms,
decisionmaking, various aspects of labor, personnel relations, and
management organization.


National Science Foundation. Current Projects on Economic and Social
Implications of Science and Technology, 1962, NSF-63-8 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1963)* 126 pp.
Expands 1961 survey coverage, reporting 306 projects in colleges
and universities. Subjects include: automation and impacts on labor;
scientific and engineering manpower, performance, education, and crea­
tivity; history and philosophy of science and technology; innovation;
and impacts on selected industries.


Ronayne, Maurice F., editor. An Annotated Bibliography for the Systems
Professional (Detroit, Systems and Procedures Association, 1962).
353 pp.
Twenty-four sections covering a wide variety of subjects of inter­
est to systems analysts, such as organizational analysis, personnel
training, management principles, industrial engineering, automatic
data processing, information retrieval, and research and engineering.
Detailed and comprehensive annotations.




The number to the left of the decimal indicates the section under which
the reference is classified; the number to the right indicates the item
under the section.

Aaron, Benjamin
Aerospace Industries Association
of America, Inc.
AFL-CIO, Industrial Union
Alliston, James R.
Amber, George H.
Amber, Paul S.
Ambre, Ago
American Data Processing, Inc.

2.0 2
American Iron and Steel
American Management Association
American Society of Tool and
Manufacturing Engineers
Anderson, Nels
Anshen, Melvin
Apel, Hans
Arnow, Philip
Arnstein, George E.
Ashburn, Anderson
Association for Computing
Auman, Fred A.

Backman, Jules
8.04, 8.05
Bailey, Mildred L.
Barach, Arnold B.
Barbash, Jack
Barkin, Solomon
Bauchspies, David A.
Bauer, W. F.
Baum, Arthur W.
Beirne, Joseph A.
Bello, Francis
Benton, Rufus R. C.
Berkeley, Edmund C.

Bernstein, Peter L.
Billera, I. John
Black, T. W.
2.53, 2.54, 2.55
Blair, Claude M.
Bland, H. A.
Blum, Albert A.
Boehm, George A. W.
2.67, 9.04
Borko, Harold
Boulger, Francis W.
Brady, Robert A.
Brandwein, Seymour
Bright, James R.
Brings, Vincent J.
Brooks, Thomas R.
Brozen, Yale
Buckingham, Walter
5.07, 5.08, 6.02,
Burlingame, John F.
Bush, Vannevar
Bushor, William E.

California Department of
Carlberg, Edward F.
Cassell, Frank H.
Chamber of Commerce of the United
Christenson, C. L.
Clague, Ewan
Clark, Harold F.
7.04, 7.05, 7.14
Clark, Robert E.
Clayton, Curtis T.
Coburn, Carrol L.
Cohen, Phillip
Cooper, Richard N.
Coughlin, Howard
Crane, Diana
Cruikshank, Nelson H.
Cushman, Edward L.


Dankert, Clyde E.
Davis, Louis E.
Denise, Malcolm L.
5.12, 5.13
Deutsch, Steven E.
Dickinson, William B., Jr.
Diebold, John
1.04, 1.05, 2.08,
Donahue, Wilma T.
Drucker, Peter
DuBridge, Lee A.
Dulberger, Leon H.
Dunlop, John T.
Durkee, Paul C.
Duscha, Julius

Eckert, James B.
Eddy, William B.
Eilestad, Myrvin
Engineering Research Committee,
Engineers Joint Council,
Erbe, J. Raymond
Evans, Luther H.
7.13, 7.14
Evans, W. H.

Fanning, John H.
Faunce, William A.
Federal Aviation Agency
Feder, H. S.
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Ferguson, William A.
Ferman, Louis A.
Ferry, W. H.
Fine, Benjamin
Fischman, Leonard L.
Fisher, Joseph L.
Fleming, R. W.
Forssman, Sven 10.04
Foundation for Research on
Human Behavior
Francis, John P.
Franke, Walter H.
Friedmann, Georges
5.14, 6.06
Friedman, Jack J.
Fuchs, Victor R.

Gabor, Dennis
Gallagher, James D.
Gerlough, D. L.
Geliman, Aaron J.
Gerold, Charles
Gillespie, Louis
Glazier, William
Goeldner, Charles R.
2.72, 2.73
Goldberg, Arthur J.
1.13, 5*15
Goldstein, Sidney
Goldwater, Barry
Gomberg, William
1.09, 7.03, 8.12
Goodman, Edith H.
1.10, 9.10
Goodwin, Robert C.
Gottlieb, Sylvia
Granholm, J. W.
Greenberg, Leon
Gurin, Gerald

Haber, William
Hammerman, Herbert
Hardin, Einar
4.02, 7.14, 11.03
Hearle, Edward F. R.
2.47, 9.21
Heilbroner, Robert L.
Helstein, Ralph
Henle, Peter
Higgins, George G.
Hildebrand, George H.
Hirsch, Phil
Horowitz, Morris A.
5.18, 8.42
Hudson, James

International Labour Organisation ,
Metal Trades Committee
Investment Bankers Association
of America*Industrial Securities

Jacobs, Pau1 8.15
Jacobson, Eugene H.
Jacoby, Neil H.
Jakubauskas, Edward B.
Johnson, Ernest F.
Johnson, Richard A.
Johnson, Robert B.
Jollis, G. S.


Kahn, Robert L.
Kapp, Louise
Karsh, Bernard
Kassalow, Everette M.
8.16, 8.17
Keenan, Joseph D.
Keller, Leonard A.
Kelly, William J.
Kennedy, Thomas
Kettl, Hans
Killingsworth, Charles C.
8.20, 8.21, 8.44
Kiplinger Washington Editors
Kirstein, George
Klaw, Spencer
Klein, Herbert E.
2.60, 9.12
Kornfeld, Leo L.
Kremers, John E.
Kreps, Juanita

Lake, Raymond B.
Landsberg, Hans H.
Larson, Lloyd W.
Lawrence, James S.
Laws, Ralph
Leaver, Eric W.
Leavitt, Harold J.
Lessing, Lawrence
Levine, Louis
Levitan, Sar A.
Life Office Management
Lineberry, -William P.
Lipstreu, Otis
Livingston, Frederick R.
Loewenbarg, J. Joseph
Luzon, T. B.

Mason, Raymond J.
Meacham, Alan D.
Meany, George
Meuche, Howard 0.
Michael, Donald N.
Morman, Robert R.
Morse, David A.

National Bureau of Economic Research
I. 25
National Education Association
National Science Foundation
06, 11.07
Neisser, Ulric
Netherlands Automatic Information
Processing Research Centre
New York State Department of Labor


Niland, Powell
Nordenskiold, Otto

0 1Connell, F. A.
Olsson, Bertil

Pennsylvania Department of Public
Peterson, Esther
Philipson, Morris
Pierce, J. R.
Pragan, Otto
Presidential Railroad Commission
Pre&idantJ s Advisory Comrni11ee on
Labor-Management Policy
President's Committee on Employment
of the Handicapped

McCarthy, Eugene J.
McCarthy, Russell C.
McConkey, Dale D.

Quinn, Francis X.

Mali, Paul
Mann, Floyd C.
3.04, 6.05
Manor, Stella R.

Raffaele, Joseph A.
Reintjes, J. F.
Reistad, Dale L,



Reuther, Walter P.
Riche, Richard W.
3.05, 4.06
Rieser, Carl
Roach, Charles J.
2.36, 11.08
Ronayne, Maurice F.
Rose, William T.
Russell, James E.
Ruttenberg, Stanley H.
7.14, 8.33
Rutzick, Max

Samuel, Arthur L.
Schrieber, G. B.
Scott, W. H.
Seligpian, Ben B.
1.20, 2.76
Severo, Richard
Sheldon, 1. R.
Shenton, D. W.
Sheppard, Harold L.
Shils, Edward Benjamin
Shott, John G.
Shultz, George P.
Siegman, Jack
Simler, Norman J.
9.16, 9.17
Simon, Herbert A.
7.04, 7.05
Sloan, Harold S.
Smigel, Erwin 0.
Smith, Harold T.
Snyder, John I.
1.13, 6.08
5.42, 8.44
Somers, Gerald G.
Sonnemann, Roger C .
Spears, Harold
Spencer, A. E.
Speroff, B. J.
Sprowls, R. Clay
Stieber, Jack
Stout, Thomas M.
Swerdloff, Sol

Taft, Philip
Tannenbaum, Arnold S.
Task Force on National Aviation
Taylor, George W.
Thompson, Van B.
Townsend, Edward

United Steelworkers of America
U.S. Army, Ballistics Research
Laboratories 2.19
U.S. Army, Ordnance Weapons
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
U.S. Bureau of the Budget
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Office
of Career Development
U.S. Commission to Inquire into a
Controversy between Certain Air
Carriers and Certain of Their
U.S. Congress, House of Representatives,
Committee on Post Office and
Civil Service
U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on
Interstate and Foreign Commerce
U.S. Department of Commerce, Business
and Defense Services
U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of
Employment Security
5.27, 5.28
5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.44, 5.47,
5.48, 7.27, 7.28, 10,09
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics
3.05, 4.06
5.32, 7.29.
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of
Automation and Manpower
U.S. Department of Labor, Office of
Manpower, Automation and Training
5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.45, 7.31
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's

Velie, Lester
1.21, 8.39
Vogel, Sy

Walker, Adelaide G.
Walker, Charles R.
Wallis, W. Allen
Warburton, T. Stanley
Watson, Goodwin
Watts, Fred


Weber, Arnold R.
7.32, 8.02, 8.44
Weiderbaum, Murray L.
Weik, Martin H.
Weinberg, Edgar
5.37, 7.29
Weinberg, Nat
Weiss, Abraham
Whisler, Thomas L.
9.13, 9.20
Wiener, Rose
Wilcock, Richard C.
Williams, T. J.
Willis, Earl S.
Wirtz, W. Willard
Wolfbein, Seymour L.
1.19, 5.38,
6.09, 6.10, 7.03, 7.34
Woodring, G. Daniel
Worsnop, Richard L. 2.20, 5.39
Wyand, Robert R.

Yabroff, Bernard
Yasaki, Ed
Young, Edwin

Zelomek, A. W.
Zeller, W. L.




The number to the left of the decimal indicates the section under which
the reference is classified; the number to the right indicates the item
within the section.


Advantages and disadvantages of automation
1.12, 1.18, 1.22, 9.09
Aerospace industry
2.49, 2.65, 5.19
2.22, 5.27
Apprenticeship (See also Training and retraining, and Education.)
Arbitration (See Collective bargaining: Arbitration.)
Area Redevelopment Act (See Training and retraining: Area Redevelopment Act.)
Armour Automation Fund
8.11, 8.19, 8.24
Assembly of materials
2.13, 2.62
Atomic energy
Attitudes toward automation
1.08, 4.02, 4.03
Attrition, as a means of preventing layoffs (See Policies and programs to
ease the impact: Attrition.)
Australia (See also Automation in foreign countries.)
Austria (See also Automation in foreigh countries.)
Automation in foreign countries
1.22, 4.03, 6.06, 6.07, 7.08, 10.01-10.09
Automation in the Federal Government (See Government.)
Automobile industry
2.66, 8.19

2.25, 2.28, 2.33, 4.01, 4.07
Benefits of automation (See Advantages and disadvantages of automation.)
1.19, 1.22, 2.01, 2.02, 3.09, 5.22, 6.05, 8.18, 8.25, 10.08,
10,09, 11.01-11.08
Business, management (See also Management, impact of automation on.)
5.19, 9.01-9.21
1.13, 5.12, 5.39, 9.20
1.22, 2.34, 3.04, 8.25, 9.02, 9.05, 9.06, 9.08, 9.10, 9.11,
9.13, 9.20, 11.06
Personnel planning
4.06, 9.18, 11*08
1.18, 8.06, 9.05


Capital requirements
1.09, 5.04, 10.03
Causes of automation
5.23, 5.36, 9.16
Centralization vs. decentralization of management (See Business management;
Characteristics of automation
1.12, 2.01
Chemical industry
2.43, 2.70
Coal industry
2.21, 2.23, 2.86
Collective bargaining (See also Labor-Management Relations; Policies and
programs to ease the impact; Job security, Training and retraining;
Hours of work; Labor mobility; Wages; Government; Policies and pro­
grams to ease the impact: Maintenance of income.)
1.19, 8.01, 8.07,
8.10, 8.11, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.17,, 8.19, 8.21, 8.23 , 8.25, 8.26
8.28-8.31, 8.34, 8.36, 8.37, 8.A0
8.03, 8.10, 8.12, 8.1A,, 8 .20, 8•29, 8.30 , 8.37, 8. A0
Jurisdictional problems
8.05, 8.27,, 8 .37, 8.38
8.01, 8.05, 8 .27, 8.29
Separation pay
8.08, 8. 11, 8. 19, 8. 29
Work rules
8.05, 8.12, 8. 1A, 8.15, 8. 21, 8. 28, 8.29, 8.32, 8.3A,
Communications industry
1.09, 2.04, 2.87-2.90, 5.31, 8.25
Community adjustment (See also Social adjustments to technological change.)
1.23, 3.03
Computer training (See Training and retraining; computer training; Education.)
Computers (See also Office data processing and office work; Data processing
in research and engineering; Cybernation; Numerical control; Process con­
trol; Information retrieval.)
2.01, 2.02, 2.06, 2.08, 2.14-2.17, 2.19,
2.20, 2.23-2.28, 2.31-2.42, 2.44, 2,45, 2.48, 2.55, 2.71, 2.76, 2.90,
2.91, 4.01, 4.03-4.06, 5.33, 7.25, 9.01, 9.04, 9.08, 9.10, 9.12, 9.16,
9.19, 10.07, 11.01, 11.08
Continuous processing
2.01, 2.04, 2.41, 2.43-2.45, 2.69, 9.12
Cost savings
2.22, 2.86, 4.05
Counseling, implications for
6.10, 7.09, 7.21, 7.27
1.16, 2.17

Data processing and office work (See Office data processing and office work.)
Data processing in research and engineering (See also Information retrieval;
Process control.)
2;39, 2.40, 2.42-2.44, 11.08
1.16, 1.19, 2.14, 9.02, 9.04, 9.10, 9.13, 9.16, 9.17, 9.19,
11.06, 11.07
Depressed areas
Design of product, control system, etc*
"Detroit Automation"
1.20, 2.51
Displacement of workers (See also Unemployment.)
1.01, 1.10, 1.18, 5.06,
5.36, 8.11, 8.18
Distribution of products


Economic growth
1.01, 1.09, 1.18, 2.05, 5.01, 5.08, 5.10, 5.35, 7.32, 8.33,
8.40, 10.03
Education (See also Training and retraining.)
1.10, 2.02, 2.30, 5.23, 6.10,
7.01, 7.03, 7.05, 7.09, 7.10, 7.11, 7.13, 7.14, 7.17, 7.19, 7.23, 7.25,
7.26, 7.34, 9.10, 9.20, 11.05
Needs and requirements
2.09, 5.15, 5.19, 5.23, 5.35, 6.09, 7.11, 7.14
Policies proposed
1.18, 2.30, 5.15> 7.23
Teaching machines
2.11, 7.15, 7.2D
Electrical machinery industry
Electronic data processing (See Computers, Office data processing and office
work, Data processing in research and engineering, Cybernation and numeri­
cal control, Process control, and Information retrieval.)
Electronics industry
1.01, 1.03-1.05, 1.08, 1.16, 1.18-1.20, 1.22, 1.23, 2.06, 2.17,
3.03, 5.01-5.39, 6.02, 6.08, 7.11, 9.07, 10.01, 10.02, 10.05, 10.06,
1.09, 1.20, 1.21, 3,01-3.05, 5.01, 5.04, 5.07, 5.12, 5.13,
5.19, 5.26, 7.21, 10.07
1.09, 1.18, 1.20> 1.21, 2.20, 2.76, 3.02, 3.04, 4.05,
4.07, 5.06, 5.17, 5.19, 5.20, 5.2?-5.29, 5.31, 5.32, 7.19, 7.21, 8.29,
Ethical aspects of automation
Europe (See also Automation in foreign countries.)
4.03, 6.06, 6.07, 10.01,
10.03, 10.04, 10.06, 10.07

Fear of automation
1.14, 9.09
Feedback control
Featherbedding (See Collective bargaining: Work rules.)
Food processing industry
5.30, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.19, 8.24
Foundry industry
2.60, 2.61, 5.19

1.01, 1.12, 2.93, 5.15, 5,30, 5.34, 5.35, 6.08, 7.07, 7.27, 7.28,
7.30, 7.31, 8.10, 8.16, 8.27, 8.3l, 8.40, 9.18, 11.06, 11.07
Automation in government
2.32, 2.46-2.48, 4.04-4.06, 5.33, 7.06, 9.09,
9.19, 9.21


Handicapped workers, impact of automation on
5.24, 5.37
Plistory of automation
1.11, 1.22, 2.16
Hours of work
1.01, 1.14, 1.20, 4.02, 5.02, 5.03, 5.09, 5.11, 5.16, 5.19,
5.39, 5.43, 8.02, 8.08, 8.22, 8.31

Income (See Wages.)
Industrial relations (See Labor-management relations and Collective
Information retrieval (See also Computers.)
2.39, 2.42, 9.01, 9.08, 11.08
Information Theory
2.01, 2.02, 2.08, 2.27, 2.29, 2.30, 2.36, 9.01, 9.08,
1.20, 2.18, 9.12
2.02, 2.31, 2.32
Investment (See Capital requirements.)

Job content
4.03, 6.02, 6.03, 7.06
Job enlargement (See Job content.)
Job opportunities (See Occupational trends and outlook.)
Job satisfaction
Job security
1.19, 5.18, 8.02, 8.20, 8.28, 8.30, 8.34, 8.38, 3.40
Jobs (See Employment, Occupational structure, and Occupational trends and
Jurisdictional problems (See Collective bargaining: Jurisdictional problems.)

Kaiser Steel agreement

8.19* 8,26

Labor force (See also Occupational structure.)
1.12, 3.03, 4.03, 5.06, 5.35,
7.08, 8.27
Labor-Management Relations (See also Collective bargaining, Policies and pro­
grams to ease the impact, Job security.)
1.14, 1.19, 8.01-8.40, 11.03
Labor mobility
1.01, 3.03, 4.04, 5.46, 7.07, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 8.08, 8.19
2.53, 2.88
1.07, 1.16, 1.19, 1.23, 2.10, 4.02, 5.02, 5.05, 5.08, 5.14, 5.16,
5.43, 6.06, 7.16

Longshore industry

8.14, 8.1b, 8.21, 8.28


Maintenance of income (See Policies and programs to ease the impact: Main­
tenance of income.)
Management, impact of automation on (See also Business management.)
1.20, 5.19, 9.02, 9.06, 9.10, 9.11, 9.13, 9.15-9.17, 9.20
Manpower Development and Training Act (See Training and retraining: Man­
power Development and Training Act.)
Manpower requirements (See also Employment, Occupational trends and outlook,
and Skill requirements.)
5.29, 5.35, 7.31
Materials, new (See Technological innovation: Materials, new.)
Materials handling
2.04, 2.18, 2.35, 2.38
Metalworking industries (See also Numerical control.)
2,01, 2.49-2.65,
5.19, 9.14, 10.08
Methods, new (See Technological innovation: Methods, new.)
Mining (See also Coal industry.)
2.21, 2.23
Minority groups, impact of automation on
Mobility of workers (See Labor mobility.)
Moonlighting (See Multiple job holding*)
Multiple job holding
5.09, 5.14

Numerical control (See also Metalworking industries.)
2.55, 2.57. 2.59, 2.64, 7.06

2.16, 2.43, 2.51,

Occupational structure (See also Labor force.)
2.65, 4.07, 5.06, 5.20,
5.25, 5.31, 5.32, 6.04
Occupational trends and outlook
4.07* 5.17, 5.35, 6.04, 7.22, 7.24
Office data processing and office work (See also Computers.)
2.02, 2 24
2.37, 2.91, 3.04, 4.02-4.04, 5.17, 6.05, 7.17, 9.19, 11.02
Older workers
1.19, 5.06, 7.29, 10.04
Optical scanning
2.29, 2.37, 2.74
Organizational impacts of automation (See Business management: Organization.)




Personnel policies and practices (See Business management: Personnel
planning, and Policies and programs to ease the impact.)
Petroleum industry
2.43, 2.86
Plant relocation
8.01, 8.08, 8.19, 8.31, 10.09
Policies and programs to ease the impact (See also Labor mobility, Training
and retraining, Business management: Personnel planning.)
1.01, 1.18,
4.05, 5.18, 5.19, 5.26, 5.35, 5.47, 5.48, 8.02, 8.03, 8.04, 8.06,
8.18, 8.26, 8.28, 8.30, 9.19, 10.09
1.20, 8.04, 8.34
Early retirement (See also Older workers.)
1.01, 5.18, 7.16, 9.18
Maintenance of income
1.01, 5.46, 8.04, 8.26, 8.30
Population, impact on
5.01, 5.04, 8.31
Printing and publishing
2.71, 8.15, 8.32, 8.34
Process control (See also Computers, and Continuous processing.)
2.01, 2.41,
2.05, 5.16
1.09, 2.05, 3.05, 5*01, 5.07, 5.12, 8.37
1.09, 5.20, 5.27, 5.28, 5.32, 7.05, 8.34, 8.37
Products, new (See Technological innovation: Products, new.)
Psychological impact
1.10, 3.04, 5.14, 6.02, 9.18
Pulp and paper industry

Qualifications of workers (See Occupational requirements, and Skill require­
ments. )
Quality control

Railroad industry
2.81* 2.83* 2.86, 5.20, 5-32* 8.05, 8.14, 8.29, 8.30,
Rate of introduction of technological Change
1.08, 1.25, 2.51, 2.65, 2.76,
5.06, 5.23, 5.36
Relocation (See Plant relocation.)
2.05, 2.07, 2.09, 2.80, 5.0l, 5.19, 9.11
Retail trade
2.72-2.76, 7.05
Retirement, early (See Policies and programs to ease the impact: Early
retirement; Older workers.)
Retraining (See Training and retraining, and Education.)
Rubber industry
8.19, 8.20


Safety (See Working conditions.)
School dropouts (See Youth.)
Seniority (See Collective bargaining: Seniority.)
Separation pay (See Collective bargaining: Separation pay.)
Service industries
Shift work (See also Hours of work.)
5.24, 5.19
Skill requirements
1.10, 1.12, 1.14, 3.05, 4.02, 5.06, 5.19, 5.27, 5.31,
5.35, 6.02-6.04, 6.08, 6.09, 7.03, 7.08-7.10, 7.26, 8.16, 8.20, 11.03
Social adjustments to technological change
3.03, 6.06, 7.10, 7.11, 9.20,
11.03, 11.06, 11.07
Soviet Union (See also Automation in foreign countries.)
Steel industry
2.63, 3.04, 5.01, 5.26, 8.19, 8.36
2.24, 9.13

Teaching machines (See Education: Teaching machines.)
Technological innovation
Materials, new
2.07, 2.13, 2.49, 2.55, 2.57
Methods, new
2.33, 3.02, 4.07
Products, new
2.07, 2.66, 2.67
Technological outlook
1.16, 2.03, 2.09, 2.12, 2.21, 2.25, 2.43, 2.46, 2.76,
2.87, 4.01
Telephone industry (See Communications industry.)
Textile industry
Training and retraining (See also Education.)
1.01, 1.14, 1.18, 5.15, 5.18,
5.23, 5.38, 6.09, 6.10, 7.01-7.34, 8.02, 8.04, 9.18, 10.04, 11.03
Area Redevelopment Act
5.30, 7.08, 7.28
Computer training
2.02, 2.31, 5.33, 7.01, 7.06, 7.17
Manpower Development and Training Act
7.12, 7.28, 7.30, 7.31
1.13, 2.31, 4.06, 5.19, 5.23, 5.30, 5.34, 7.02, 7.04, 7.05,
7.16, 7.19, 7.27, 7.32, 7.33, 10.09
2.04, 2.78-2.86, 8.23, 8.38, 9.08
Trends in technological development
2.12, 2.21, 2.28* 2.49, 2.57, 2.76,
2.93, 4.01, 5.04, 5.35

Underdeveloped areas
Unemployment, general
1.07, 1.09, 1.16, 1.19, 1.20, 2.17, 5.01, 5.03, 5.08,
5.10, 5.12, 5.13, 5.17, 5.18, 5.21-5.23, 5.29, 5.35, 5.36, 7.16, 8.08,
10.05, 10.06
Causes of unemployment
5.22, 7.19
Characteristics of the unemployed
3.05, 7.31
1.18, 5.18


U --Continued
Unions, labor:
1.12, 1.13, 1.19, 5.39, 8.08, 8.16, 8.31, 8.32
Impact of automation on
1.20, 8.07, 8.09, 8.17, 8.22, 8.25, 8.27, 8.33,
9.15, 9.18
8.37, 9.18
2.32, 2.37, 2.87-2.91, 2.93


1.09, 1.14, 3.01, 4.03, 5.26, 5.31, 5.36, 8.02, 8.04, 8.08, 8.26,
8.29, 8.33, 8.35
Payment systems and incentives
6.01, 8.26
Structures and rates
3.01, 5.19, 5.23, 8.26
Wholesale trade
2.34, 2.73, 2.77
Women workers
1.23, 6.11, 7*24
Work, attitude toward (See also, Psychological impact.)
1.07, 1.16, 3.03,
3.04, 4.02, 5.02
Work force (See Labor force and Occupational structure.)
Work rules (See Collective bargaining: Work rules.)
Work satisfaction
Worker characteristics
3.03, 6.01
Working conditions (See also Hours of work, Psychological impact.)
1.19, 4.03, 6.02


5.29, 7.03, 7.28



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