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and Other Technological Developments

A Selected Annotated Bibliography

Bulletin No. 1319
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

Technological Change and Productivity in the Bituminous Coal Industry, 1920-60 (Cull. 1305, 1961),
65 cents

136 pp.

Trends in technology and productivity and implications for employment, unemployment, wages, prices,
and profits.

Indexes of Output per Man-Hour:

Petroleum Refining Industry, 1919-59 (January 1962) 20 pp.

Indexes of output, employment, man-hours, and output per man-hour.
industry, analysis of trends, tables, charts, and technical notes.


Includes characteristics of

Impact of Automation (Bull. 1287, 1960), 114 pp., 60 cents.
A collection of 20 articles about technological change, from the Monthly Labor Review.

Adjustments to the Introduction of Office Automation (Bull. 1276, 1950), 86 pp., 50 cents.
A study of some implications of the installation of electronic data processing in 20 offices in
private industry, with special reference to older workers.

Studies of Automatic Technology (Free).
A series of case studies of plants introducing automation. Describe changes and implications for
productivity, employment, occupational requirements, and industrial relations.
A Case Study of a Company Manufacturing Electronic Equipment.
The Introduction of an Electronic Computer in a Large Insurance Company.
A Case Study of a Large Mechanized Bakery (Report 109).
A Case Study of a Modernized Petroleum Refinery (Report 120).
A Case Study of an Automatic Airline Reservation System (Report 137).

Trends in Output per Man-Hour in the Private Economy, 1909-1958 (Bull. 1249, 1959), 93 pp., 50 cents.
Indexes of output per man-hour, output, and employment in major sectors.
factors affecting changes.

Indexes of Output per Man-Hour for Selected Industries, 1939 and 1947-60.
(December 1961), 21 pp. Free.” "

Analysis of trends and

Annual Industry Series

Indexes of output per man-hour, output per employee, and unit labor requirements for 22 industries,
including coal and metal mining,, various foods and fibers, basic steel, etc.

Labor Requirements for School Construction (Bull. 1299, 1961), 50 pp., 35 cents.
The first of a series of studies of on-site and off-site labor requirements in each of the major
types of construction.

Sales publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C.
from regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics at the addresses shown below. Free publications
are available, as long as the supply lasts, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington 25, D.C.
Regional Offices:
New England Region
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
Southern Region
1371 Peachtree Street, NE
Suite 540
Atlanta 9, Ga.

Middle Atlantic Region
341 Ninth Avenue
New York 1, N.Y.

North Central Region
105 West Adams Street
Chicago 3, 111.

Western Region
630 Sansome Street
San Francisco 11, Calif

and Other Technological Developments

A Selected Annotated Bibliography

Bulletin No. 1319
February 1962

Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 65 cents




Introduction ................................................


Impact of automation and technological change: some general
surveys. ............... * ................................


Technological changes in some leading industries
A. Surveys of broad technological trends . .
B. Agriculture..............
C. Automobiles .............................................
D. B a n k i n g ................................................
E. Chemicals....................
F. Communications.........................................
G. Data processing in research and e n g i n e e r i n g ............
H. Electric power . . . . .
I. Electronics.............................
J. F o o d ...................................................
K. Foundries
L. Government ..............................
M. Metalworking
N. M i n i n g ................................................
O. Office data p r o c e s s i n g ..............
P. P e t r o l e u m ...................................
Q. Pulp and paper ..........................................
R. S t e e l ...................................................
S. Textiles................................................
T. Trade ...................................................
U. Transportation...................................



Impact of industrial automation




Impact of office automation .




Implications for employment, unemployment, and manpower
trends ..........................................


Implications for occupational requirements, skills, and
working conditions . . . . . . . . .















Implications for training, retraining, and education


Implications for labor-management relations and policies


Implications forrbusiness management and organization


Automation in foreign countries





. . .


. . .





Visual aids on automation
Index to authors
Index to subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of periodicals and publishers
. . . . . . .




A Selected Annotated Bibliography

This bibliography is a guide to the voluminous literature recently pub­
lished about the benefits and problems of automation and related technological
changes. Because changes in technology underlie many critical manpower de­
velopments, public interest has been greatly intensified in the progress and
implications of these innovations.
Scope and Limitations
This bibliography lists over 500 references. It supplements BLS
Bull. 1198, Automatic Technology and Its Implications (a bibliography pub­
lished in August 1956 and now out of print). The current bulletin covers
primarily publications issued since 1956. Only a few important items from
the previous publication have been included in this bulletin.
Books, articles, reports, pamphlets, speeches, conference proceedings,
and other readily available materials are included. The term ••automation"
is used broadly to cover a variety of technical developments. A number of
references describing these developments in different industries, useful to
the nonspecialist, are listed. Most of the references, however, relate to
the social and economic aspects of automations the implications for employ­
ment, unemployment, occupational and skill requirements, training and re­
training, collective bargaining, business management and organization, and
the progress of automation in other countries.
No effort was made to include references on certain subjects indirectly
related to the general topic, such as the problem of economic growth and
stability; the impact of research; and the history of science and invention.
Publications in foreign languages are also excluded.
Because of the great interest in the subjects covered, an annual supple­
ment will be issued to bring the bibliography up to date. Important references
that may have been overlooked in preparing this bulletin will be included.


Using the Bibliography

Effective use of the bibliography may be facilitated by the following
Classification by Subjects References are classified under 11 broad
topics. The second section, on technology, is further divided into
21 subdivisions covering different industries. When a reference per­
tains to more than one section, it is listed only once, under the
section to which a major portion of it relates. References in sections
1, 3, and 4 are broad in scope, often including several topics.
Alphabetical Arrangement by Authors. References are arranged and
numbered alphabetically by author within each section. The number to
the left of the decimal indicates the section and the number to the
right represents the item within the section.
Brief Annotations. References are briefly annotated, except most of
those on technical trends in specific industries listed in section 2t
to indicate the subjects covered.
List of Visual Aids on Automation. Appendix A contains an annotated list
of available films on automation. Inquiries should be directed to the
source given in the film citation.
Index to Authors. Appendix B presents an alphabetical listing of authors,
with the numbers of all references cited. Writers of articles included
in collections are not listed unless given in the reference.
Index to Subjects. Appendix C presents an alphabetical listing of sub­
jects with the number of all references related to them. Where a refer­
ence is related to more than one subject, it is cited under each subject.
Periodical and Publisher List. Appendix D is an alphabetical listing of
periodicals and publishing organizations, with addresses, cited in the
This bibliography was prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Productivity
and Technological Developments by James R. Alliston, under the direction of
Edgar Weinberg, Chief, Branch of Technological Studies. William Alii and
Richard Lyon assisted in annotating references.




This section includes references to publications providing general
discussions on the concept, scope, development, and characteristics of
automation as well as the economic and social implications of automation
for management, labor, government, education, leisure, culture and


Barkin, Solomon. ''Implications of Developments in Automation for Our
Economy," The American Economy; An Appraisal of Its Social Goals
and Impact of Science and Technology, Haig Babiari, editor (New York,
Joint Council on Economic Education, 1958), pp. 97-113. Reprinted
by Textile Workers Union of America, Research Department, New York.
Implications for the industrial system, productivity, plant
obsolescence, depressed areas, full employment, collective bargaining,
and occupational requirements.


Barkin, Solomon. "More Implications of Automation," I.U.D. Digest,
Fall 1959, pp. 115-123. Reprinted by Textile Workers Union of
America, Research Publication No. P-221B, New York.
Implications for skills, productivity, research, management, unions,
and economic stability.


Barkin, Solomon. "Statement Before the Subcommittee on Unemployment
and the Impact of Automation" (and 3 papers), Impact of Automation
on Employment; Hearings, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee
on Education and Labor, 87th Cong., 1st sess., March 21, 1961
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961), pp. 170-256.
Developments in the textile industry. Implication for productivity;
obsolescence of industrial processes, plant, and skills; job patterns and
depressed areas and communities, with New York examples. National
programs proposed to accelerate application of automation and collective
bargaining agreements for cushioning adjustment of workers.



Brozen, Yale. "The Economics of Automation/1 American Economic Review,
May 1957, pp. 339-350.
Influence of recent inventions, growth in capital, and rising
marginal productivity of labor on technological change. Effects of
automation on the capital-labor ratio in the national economy and
the railroad and automobile industries.


Buckingham, Walter. Automation: Its Impact on Business and People
(New York, Harper, 1961). 196 pp.
Fundamental principles, history, extent, characteristics, objectives,
and limits of automation. Effects on management theory and practice,
industrial organization and structure, small business, prices, stability,
and economic growth. Social implications for leisure, cultural progress,
and philosophy.


Buckingham, Walter. f,The Human Side of Automation,” Personnel Adminis­
trator, May/June 1961, pp. 1-2 ff.
Reason for automating. Effects on commerce, management, and labor:
specifically, on basic philosophies, skills, working conditions, emo­
tional hazards, and labor displacement.


Colomb, Serge and Lienart, Pierre. About Automation (Paris, Trade
Union Information and Research Service, European Productivity
Agency, Organization for European Economic Cooperation, 1956).
62 pp.
Technical and economic problems: productivity, price and quality,
investment, competition, industrial structure, production and markets,
new skills, and extent and rate of introduction. Problems for trade
unionists: employment, labor mobility, working conditions, safety,
wages, hours of work, and leisure.


Cornog, Geoffrey Y. "Automatic Data Processing--Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde,"
Public Administration Review, Spring 1961, pp# 105-114.
Review of Congressional hearings, Government reports, and other
literature on implications of automatic data processing for employees
and management in industry and government. Effects on displacement
and occupational change, management organization and control, work
environment and satisfaction.



Diebold, John. Automation? Its Impact on Business and Labor
(Washington, National Planning Association, 1959). 64 pp.
Developments in manufacturing, processing, and office work and
implications for labor, upgrading and downgrading, retraining, and
society as a whole. Presents a framework for a study of the extent
of automation, rate of introduction, and effects on management and
labor. Policy statement by the NPA.


Dreher, Carl, Automation: What I t Is, How It Works, Who Can Use It
(New York, W. W. Norto'n & Co., 1957). 128 pp.
Popular discussion of nature and examples of automation, technolog­
ical history, and rate of development. Description and implications
of automation in communications, transportation, manufacturing, data
processing, and research. Implications for economic growth, small
business, and military and welfare spending.


Drucker, Peter F. Americats Next Twenty Years (New York, Harper,
1957), ’’The Promise of Automation,” pp. 17-34.
Implications for business management, production, employment, dis­
placement, qualifications and functions of workers, upgrading and
downgrading, education, and economic stability. Principles of


”Effects of Business Automation in the Sixties,” Management and Business
Automation, January 1961, pp. 18-23 ff.
Roundtable discussion by six business experts. Effects on employ­
ment, banking, outlook for electronic data processing, and computer’s
role in business forecasting.


Einzig, Paul. The Economic Consequences of Automation (London, Seeker
& Warburg, 1957). 226 pp.
Economic and social aspects, advantages and disadvantages of automa­
tion. Implications for employment, unemployment, production, inflation,
wages, profits, prices, capital requirements, business cycles, monetary
and fiscal policy, balance of payments, underdeveloped countries, and
national defense.



Electronic Industries Association. Automation Systems; Proceedings,
2d EIA Conference on Automation Systems for Business and Industry
(New York, Engineering Publishers, 1958). 180 pp.
Discussion of automation within and outside electronics industry
and its economic, training, education, and social aspects.


Gass, J. R. ’’Research Into the Social Effects of Automation,*’
International Social Science Bulletin, Vol. 10.,No. 1, 1958,
pp. 70-83.
Survey of research work on the implications of automation: social
effects of productivity increase; effects on skills, occupational
structure, and work satisfaction; case material showing effects on
employment, wages, and hours of work. Task of the social scientist,
circumstances favorable to his success, and dangers.


Goldberg, Arthur J. "Challenge of ’Industrial Revolution II*,"
New York Times Magazine, April 2, 1961, pp. 11 ff. Condensed in
Management Review, May 1961, pp. 51-53.
Concept and development of present needs for automation. Effects
on productivity, employment, unemployment, and labor-management
relations. Examples of joint advance planning for automation and of
community retraining programs to update skills.


Goodman, L. Landon. Man and Automation (Harmondsworth, Middlesex
/Eng^T, Penguin Books, 1957). 286 pp.
Applications of automation in industry, offices, insurance, banking,
commerce, catering, warehousing, transport, and building. Impact on
labor, management, trade unions, and education.


Greenberg, Leon. "Statement before the Subcommittee on Unemployment
and the Impact of Automation," Impact of Automation on Employment;
Hearings, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education
and Labor, 87th Cong., 1st sess., March 10, 1961 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961), pp. 85-108.
Reviews work and plans of Bureau of Labor Statistics in studying
automation. Discussion of findings of BLS studies on automation as
affecting layoffs, retraining, transfers, skills, growth of new
industries, etc.



Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Automation: A Report on the Technical Trends and Their Impact
on Management and Labour (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery
Office, 1956V. 106 pp.
Concept of automatic production and trends in production, process
control, and data processing. Factors governing extent and rate of
development. Impact on management organization, manpower require­
ments, employment, skills, and work satisfaction, with illustrative
company case studies.


Halsbury, Earl of. "Integrating Social with Technological Change,"
Impact of Science on Society, March 1957, pp. 3-15.
Transition from primitive to industrial man. Worker-manager
relationships. Challenge to industrial psychology.


Hugh-Jones, Edward Maurice, editor. The Push-Button World; Automation
Today (Norman, Okla., University of Oklahoma Press, 1956). 158 pp.
Essence of technology of automation. Implications for labor,
management, unions, upgrading, training, leisure, living standards,
and mental fatigue. Changes in skills, employment, unemployment,
and productivity.


International Labor Office.

Automation (Geneva, 1958).

26 pp.

Concept of automation. Impact on jobs, skills, training, retraining,
layoffs and reemployment, safety, job satisfaction, social security,
management, trade unions, and government.


International Labor Office. "Automation and Other Technological Devel­
opments," Pt. 1, Report of the Director-General to the 40th sess.,
International Labor Conference (Geneva, 1957). 105 pp. Excerpted
in Monthly Labor Review. July 1957, pp. 841-845.
Recent worldwide trends and pace of automation, atomic energy, and
other technological changes. Impact on employment, skills, education
and training, planning, layoffs and recalls, labor mobility, wages and
hours, safety and health, and job satisfaction.



Jacobson, Howard Boone and Roucek, Joseph S., editors. Automation and
Society (New York, Philosophical Library, 1959). 553 pp.
Reports on automation in automobile, metalworking, electronics,
telephone, and railroad industries, data processing, teaching, and the
post office by 15 business and labor leaders, educators, publishers,
and government officials. Also 16 papers on economic, social, and
political implications. Automation in the USSR. Includes a glossary
of automation terms, and 37 short technical case studies.


Lilley, Samuel. Automation and Social Progress (New York, International
Publishers, 1957). 224 pp.
Development of automation and technical forecast of its progress,
particularly in engineering and automobile industry. Implications
for labor productivity, production costs, skills, working conditions,
employment, and monopoly. Problems and policies for socialist and
capitalist economies.


Macmillan, Robert Hugh. Automation, Friend or Foe?
University Press, 1956). 100 pp.

(Cambridge f & n g j

Historical landmarks in the development of automatic control and
production. Economic advantages and difficulties. Problems of
control system design. Influence of electronic computers on future
developments. Based on radio talks and lectures.


Maher, Edward I. Automation: A Background Memorandum (New York,
National Association of Manufacturers, April 1960). 13 pp.
Presents management’s basic views on automation’s effects on jobs
and people. Recommends policies.


Massachusetts. Governor’s Conference on Automation; Proceedings,
June 2-3, 1960 (Boston, Harvard University, Graduate School of
Business Administration, 1960). 40 pp.
Statements and discussions by 18 leading officials from management,
labor, government, and universities. Programs proposed to stimulate
automation. Organized labor’s programs and collective bargaining ap­
proaches to alleviate hardships. The role of government. Implications
for economic development, investment, community readjustment, social
legislation, unemployment, standard of living, wages, education,
training, retraining, skills, maintenance, medicine, placement services,
and equipment.



Moos, S. ’’The Scope of Automation,” The Economic Journal, March 1957,
pp. 26-39.
Rate of development and extent to which automation will influence
structure of industrial organization: size and location of firms,
growth of new industries, employment and investment, and size of
production run. Industries already affected and those likely to be
affected. Nature and size of electronic computers and their effects
on office work, cost, depreciation, and centralization.


National Bureau of Economic Research. Productivity Trends in the
United States, by John W. Kendrick (Princeton, Princeton University
Press, 1961). 630 pp.
Concept and meaning of productivity changes and methodology whereby
it can be measured. Estimates of productivity in the U.S. economy and
major industrial sectors over an extended time period. Impact of
economic aggregates and structure.


New York. Governor1s Conference on Automation; Proceedings, June 1-3,
1960, Cooperstown, N.Y.(Albany, 1960). 144 pp#
Address on accelerated economic growth by Gov. Nelson A# Rockefeller
and papers by John T. Dunlop, John Diebold, Eli Ginzberg, and
Solomon Barkin. Impact on communities, skills, wages, labor relations,
maintenance, management organization, government, employment, education,
and training. Consequences for New York State and distressed labor
markets. Guidelines for private and public policies.


Phillips, Almarin. Automation; Its Impact on Economic Growth and Stabil­
ity (Washington, American Enterprise Association, 1957). 36 pp.
Impact of automation and implications for national policy. Magnitude
of potential economic growth based on continued technological progress
and possible effects on population, occupational composition, productiv­
ity, exports, skills, and gross national product. Problems of business
cycles and periodic unemployment.



Pollock, Frederick. Automation, A Study of Its Economic and Social
Consequences. Translated by W. 0. Henderson and W. H. Chaloner
(New York, Praeger, 1957). 276 pp.
Survey of automation^ rapid development, problems raised by its
introduction (e.g., threat of unemployment) and factors influencing
economic and social aspects, based mainly on developments in the
United States. Influence on concentration of economic power, com­
position of the labor force, managements role, economic stability,
and threat of a totalitarian society.


Pyke, Magnus. Automation; Its Purpose & Future (New York,
Philosophical Library, 1957). 191 pp.
Implications for industrial work. Trends in computer technology,
engineering, chemistry, accounting, petroleum, and transport indus­
tries, retailing, food and catering, translation, and missiles.


Religion and Labor Foundation.
Ohio, 1957). 32 pp.

The Impact of Automation (Columbus,

Addresses to a conference. "Impact on ethics and culture," by
Margaret Mead, covers world implications, attitudes, education,
training, mobility, accuracy, and skills. "Impact on production
and employment," by James B. Carey, includes effects on cost,
collective bargaining, job content, leisure, productivity, occu­
pational structure, depressed areas, and education.


Rogers, Jack. Automation; Technology^ New Face (Berkeley, Institute
of Industrial Relations, University of California, 1958). 94 pp.
Concept and examples in processing and metalworking industries and
office work. Implications for employment, standard of living, unem­
ployment, wages, hours, working conditions, job content, and management.


"Sharing the Benefits of Productivity," International Labour Review,
July 1960, pp. 1-25.
Beneficiaries of more output or more leisure and economic conse­
quences: lower prices, higher wages, higher employer income, and
shorter hours of work.



"Social Consequences of Automation," International Social Science
Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1958, whole issue.
Papers by nine experts on effects on employment structure, industrial
relations, and management; also, on translating machines, problems in
the USSR, international organizations, and research into social effects.


Steele, George and Kircher, Paul. The Crisis We Face: Automation and
the Cold War (New York, McGraw-Hill, I960!). 220 pp.
Military and economic necessity for substantial advances in
automation to improve productive efficiency and weapon control.
Technical problems and those of management, organization, and design.


U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. Automation and Recent Trends;
Hearings, Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization, 85th Cong.,
1st sess., November 14 and 15, 1957 (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1957). 100 pp.
Statements by a research scientist and a publisher on general trends,
outlook, and need for automation; by banking officials, on reasons for
bank automation; and by a labor leader, on implications in retail trade.


U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. Automation and Technological
Change; Hearings, Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization,
84th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1955). Summarized by Edgar Weinberg in Monthly Labor Review,
January 1956, pp. 7-14.
Statements by 27 leaders in business, labor, Government, economic
and scientific research. Nature and implications of automation, in
metalworking, data processing, chemical, electronics, and communica­
tion fields. Extent of displacement, training and retraining, dis­
tribution of productivity gains, and proposed policies.


U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. Instrumentation and
Automation; Hearings, Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization,
84th Cong., 2d sess., December 12, 13, and 14, 1956 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1957). 202 pp.
Statements by 14 businessmen, scientists, educators, and Government
and labor officials on developments and implications in petroleum,
aeronautics, instruments, nucleonics and the economy. Effects on
investment, education, training, and skill development.



U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. New Views on Automation;
Papers submitted to the Subcommittee on Automation and Energy
Resources, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, I960). 604 pp.
Statements by 38 leaders in business, labor, Government and univer­
sities on trends, outlook, and implications in various industries and
sectors: chemicals, electronics, automobile, telephone, railroad,
petroleum, metalworking, electrical machinery, retail trade, and office
work. Policy proposals.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Impact of
Automation, BLS Bull. 1287 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1960). 114 pp.
Collection of 20 articles from Monthly Labor Review based on
studies, reports, and speeches by researchers and officials in Govern­
ment, labor, management, and universities. Includes reports of general
surveys and BLS case studies, and discussion of the implications for
industrial relations.


Watson, Thomas J., Jr. "Technological Change," Goals for Americans,
Report of the President*s Commission on National Goals (Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1960), pp. 193-204.
Recommends encouragement of technological change because of its use
in improving men*s lives, and sharing technological knowledge. State­
ment on implications for workers and policies recommended to ease
impact through planning, collective bargaining, and Government partici­


Wiener, Norbert.

"Man and the Machine," Challenge, June 1959, pp. 36-41.

Implications of automation for displacement, planning and government
regulation. Potential capabilities of machines and problems of opera­
tions. Questions and answers.


Wiener, Norbert. "Some Moral and Technical Consequences of Automation,"
Science, May 6, 1960, pp. 11-15.
Strategies developed by game playing machines.



This section includes references describing important technical inno­
vations in key industries. Surveys of technical trends are annotated. Indus­
try references are annotated only when titles do not indicate the contents.


American Management Association. Toward the Factory of the Future.
Special Report No. 28 (New York, 1957). 96 pp.
Reviews new dimensions in industry, such as electronics and atomic
energy. A case study of important innovations in the machine tool
industry and 12 papers on impact of automation on maintenance, materials
handling, transportation, purchasing, and manpower utilization.


Armour Research Foundation. Automation, A Conference for Executives;
Proceedings, 1st Automation Conference, February 14 and 15, 1956
(Chicago, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1956). 116 pp.
Papers by 11 engineers, scientists, and industrial specialists.
Motives, benefits, and implications of automation for labor, management,
and operations research. Examples in the watchmaking and oil industries.
Technical case studies in check processing, electronic component assem­
bly, automotive wheel welding, and cam milling machine control. Instru­
mentation, control, and engineering tools.


Bello, Francis. ’’The 1960*ss a Forecast of the Technology,” Fortune,
January 1959, pp. 74-78 ff.


Bright, James R. "Are We Falling Behind in Mechanization?" Harvard
Business Review, November/December, 1960, pp. 93-106.
Examples of U.S. production leadership challenged by foreign advances.
Sunniary of trends in work feeding and removal, materials handling,
inspection and testing, assembly, factory communications, containers,
warehousing, machine program and feedback control, compounding of equip­
ment, and integration of data processing with production machinery.
Implications (qualitative and quantitative) for labor, training, main­
tenance, cost, investment, and flexibility.



Bright, James R* "Progress and Payoff in Industrial Automation,"
Dun*s Review of Modern Industry, January 1960, pp. 44-46 ff.
Benefits, disadvantages, and operating characteristics of automatic
plants. Trends in mechanization of work feeding and removal, materials
handling, assembly, inspection, distribution, testing, packaging, data
processing, maintenance, communications, feedback and program controls,
setup operations and integration of production and data processing.


Fortune editors.
266 pp.

Markets of the Sixties (New York, Harper, 1960).

Twelve articles from Fortune on potential developments in the frame­
work of consumer markets, technology, productivity, and income distri­
bution during the 1960*s.


Goodman, L. Landon. Automation Today and Tomorrow (London, Oxford
University Press, 1958). 275 pp.
Survey of trends and new methods in 14 industries in computer con­
trol, instrumentation, processing, assembly, finishing, inspection, and
testing. Implications for planning, manpower, research, sales and
distribution, packaging, warehousing, and building design* Annotated
bibliography (158 pp.) on 20 industries, management theory and tech­
niques, labor, economic and social implications.


Grabbe, Eugene Munter, editor. Automation in Business and Industry
(New York, Wiley, 1957). 611 pp.
Technical lectures by engineers and scientists on fundamentals of
automation, new techniques, and system application. Integration of
feedback control, instrumentation, analog and digital computation, and
data processing. Application on broad scale to control systems.


Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Automation in North America. Overseas Technical Reports, No. 3
(London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1958). 66 pp.
Technical report by British engineer, S. B. Bailey, on visits to
United States and Canadian plants in selected industries. Covers air­
craft and engines, motor vehicles and accessories, distribution, elec­
tronics, general engineering, household appliances, instruments and
control equipment, machine tools and control systems, meat processing,
pipefittings, plywood, and steel.



Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Automation in Perspective. The D.S.I.R. report on automation in
brief (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1956). 28 pp.
A review of developments and potential. Implications for management
organization, techniques, and structure, employment, skills, work
satisfaction, and pay.


Hawley, George F. Automating the Manufacturing Process (New York,
Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1959). 147 pp.


"Industrial Automatic Systems: Progress and Payout," Control Engi­
neering. September 1960, whole issue.
Articles and reports of 17 cas.2 studies on automatic business con­
trols and process systems, and applications of automation in unit
operations, evaluation, and materials handling, and in metalworking.


Rusinoff, Samuel Eugene. Automation in Practice (Chicago, American
Technical Society, 1957). 261 pp.


Santesmases, J. Garcia. "A Few Aspects of the Impact of Automation on
Society," Impact of Science on Society, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1961, pp. 107126.
Development of feedback systems, electronic computers, and digital
techniques in data transmission and interpretation, application to
machine tools, and maximizing utilization. Economic and social aspects.
Automation in less developed countries.


Schurr, Sam H., Netschert, Bruce C.^and others. Energy in the American
Economy, 1850-1975, Its History and Prospects. Published for
Resources for the Future, Inc. (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1960).
774 pp.
Century of energy history. Estimated future demand and supply of
energy, by sectors and activities.


Siegel, Irving H. "Technology and Population as Factors in the LongTerm Outlook," Proceedings of the Business and Economic Statistics
Section (Washington, D.C^, American Statistical Association, 1957),
pp. 163-166.



Soule, George. The Shape of Tomorrow (New York, New American Library,
1958). 141 pp.
Summary of technical progress and prospects for machinery, energy,
new materials, farming, transportation, housing, food and consumer
goods, medicin^and health. Outlook for income, work, leisure time,
water supply, and living standards.


"Survey Report and Autonation Forecast," Automation, January 1959,
pp. 17-23.
Survey of trends and plans for automating manufacturing facilities
in food, tobacco, textiles, apparel, lumber, furniture, paper, printing,
chemicals, petroleum and coal, rubber, leather, stone, clay and glass,
metals, machinery, transportation, instruments, engineering, and


U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Radioisotopes in Science and Industry
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1960). 176 pp.


U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. Energy Resources and Technology
Hearings, Subcommittee on Automation and Energy Resources, 86th Cong.,
1st sess., October 12, 13, 14, and 15, 1959 (Washington, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1959). 352 pp.
Statements by 19 experts from Government, business, and research
organizations. Impact of technology on production, cost, and use of
energy. Prospective needs and cost relationships among conventional
sources— coal, water, oil, and natural gas. Outlook for cost-reducing
techniques, and nuclear and solar power.


U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. Energy Production and
Consumption in the United States: an Analytical Study Based on 1954
Data, by Perry D. Teitelbaum. Report of investigations 5821. Based
on work done in cooperation with Resources of the Future, Inc.
(Washington, 1961). 145 pp.
Structure of the U.S. energy economy and relationship of various
fuels and electric energy to each other.


Vannah, William E. "Control Enters a New Decade."
January 1960, pp. 101-107.

Control Engineering,

Forecast of scope, form, and direction of automation control systems.



Weidenbaum, M. L. "The Military Research and Development Market,"
Journal of Marketing. April 1961, pp. 38-41.


Street, James H. "Mechanizing the Cotton Harvest," Smithsonian Report,
1957 (Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1958), pp. 413-427.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
Changes in Farm Production and Efficiency, A Summary Report, (191059). Statistical Bull. 233 (Washington, revised July I960). 48 pp.


U.S. Department of Agriculture. Power to Produce: The Yearbook of
Agriculture, 1960 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1960). 480 pp.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Potato
Harvest Mechanization: Effect on Seasonal Hired Labor, 1950-60,
BES No. R-204 (Washington, August 1961). 21 pp.


Custer, James R., editor.
1956). 236 pp.

Applied Automation (Philadelphia, Chilton,

Selected articles published during 1952-56 in Automotive Industries,
on automation application in automotive and aircraft production.
Examples in machining, stamping, welding, forging, heat treating,
plating, painting, inspection, testing, assembling, and other operations.


De Groat, George H. "Automatic Assembly ... The Latest Step in Auto­
mation," American Machinist, September 10, 1956, pp. 131-148.


Geschelin, J. "Trends in Automotive Industry Uses of Machine Tools,"
Automotive Industries, September 1, 1960, pp. 71-73 ff.


Quinn, H. C. and Campbell, C. B. "Tool Builders Hopeful; Big Changes
Due in Next Few Years in Automobile Production," Automotive Indus­
tries, September 1, 1960, pp. 37-38.



American Bankers Association* Bank Management Commission. Account
Numbering and Check Imprinting for Mechanized Check Handling.
Recommended by Technical Committee on Mechanization of Check
Handling. Publication 144. June 1958. Reprinted in New Views on
Automation. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, 86th Cong., 2d
sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960), pp. 443478.


American Bankers Association, Bank Management Commission. The Common
Language for Mechanized Check Handling; Final Specifications, and
Guides to Implement the Program. Recommended by Technical Committee
on Mechanization of Check Handling. Publication 147. April 1959.
Reprinted in New Views on Automation, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic
Committee, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1960), pp. 367-421.


American Bankers Association, Bank Management Commission. Location and
Arrangement of Magnetic Ink Characters for the Common Machine Lan­
guage of Checks. Recommended by Technical Committee on Mechanization
of Check Handling. Publication 142, January 9, 1958. Reprinted in
New Views on Automation, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee,
86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1960), pp. 347-366.


"How Banking Tames Its Paper Tiger: Series on Bank Mechanization,”
Business Review (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia), May, pp. 211; June, pp. 11-31; July 1960, pp. 2-8.


Mignone, A. E. "Application of Automated Procedure to Banking Practice,"
Automation Systems; Proceedings, 2d Electronic Industries Association
Conference on Automation Systems for Business and Industry (New York,
Engineering Publishers, 1958), pp. 73-77.


Silberman, Lee and Spivak, Jonathan. "Banks Rush Automation Programs to
Cope With Soaring Check Volume," Wall Street Journal, September 11,
1959, p. 1.
Development of a "common numerical machine language" for banking.
Description of electronic accounting systems at Bank of America and
other banks.



Bello, Francis. "The New Breed of Plastics,"
pp. 172-175 ff.

Fortune, November 1957,


Carr, R. H. "Autonomy and Automation in the Chemical Industry,"
Chemistry and Industry, August 8, 1959, pp. 1006-1009.


"Computers Start To Run the Plants,"
pp. 50-55 ff.


"Monsanto Unveils Integrated Computer-Controlled Process," Instruments
and Control Systems, November 1960, pp. 1888-1893.

Business Week, November 5, 1960,


Bello, Francis.
p. 117.

"Tomorrow's Telephone System," Fortune, December 1958,


Craig, John H. "Data-Phone Offers Improved Communications for Data
Processing," Bell Telephone Magazine, Autumn 1959, pp. 33-39.


Gorman, Paul A. "Statement to the Subcommittee on Automation and Energy
Resources," New Views on Automation, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic
Committee, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1960), pp. 255-267.
Trends and outlook for telephone technology.

Economic and social


Ketchledge, Raymond W. "Electronic Switching," Bell Telephone Magazine,
Autumn 1960, pp. 2-7.


McMains, Harvey J. "It's Data-Phone in 1961!" Bell Telephone Magazine,
Winter 1960-61, pp. 13-20.


Bello, Francis.
pp. 162-167.

"How To Cope With Information," Fortune, September 1960,



"Computer Uses," Instruments and Control Systems, April 1961, pp. 662663.


National Science Foundation, Office of Science Information Service.
Current Research and Development in Scientific Documentation No. 7,
NSF 60-65 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, I960).
153 pp.
Descriptive report on current research and development in scientific
documentation. Includes projects on information requirements and uses,
storage and retrieval, mechanical translation, and equipment.


Taube, Mortimer and Wooster, Harold. Information Storage and Retrieval:
Theory, Systems, and Devices. Studies in Library Service,No. 10
(New York, Columbia University Press, 1958). 228 pp.


United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
"Information Processing," Proceedings of the International Conference
on Information Processing, Paris, June 15-20, 1959 (Paris, UNESCO;
Munich, R. Oldenbourg; and London, Butterworths, I960). 520 pp.
Contains 59 papers on digital computing methods, common symbolic
languages for computers, translation, pattern recognition and machine
learning, design, and future techniques.


U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Government Operations. Documen­
tation, Indexing, and Retrieval of Scientific Information, a Study
of Federal and non-Federal Science Information Processing and
Retrieval Programs, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1961). 283 pp.
Summaries of scientific information activities and development of
processing systems of 21 selected Government agencies and 19 private
groups. Programs to expand and modernize, and descriptions of latest
mechanized systems.


"Automation and the Power Field," Power Engineering, January 1960,
pp. 49-81.


Barnard, C. H. "From Here to the Ultimate— What*s In Between," Power
Engineering. March 1960, pp. 62-63.



Kovalcik, F. J. "Electronic Data Processing," Electrical World,
March 28, 1960, pp. 65-80.


Krieg, E. H. "Look at Future in Power Station Design,"
Engineering. November 1958, pp. 66-70.


"Next— Computers Run Plants," Business Week, November 22, 1958,
pp. 64 ff.


Daystron, Inc., computer at a Louisiana power station starts 6-month
test. Description, reliability, space savings, costs, and efficiency.


Sporn, Philip. "Technological Developments in Electric Power Supply:
Their Effect on Reduction of Cost and Extension of Use of Electrical
Energy; Future Technological Developments," Energy Resources and
Technology; Hearings, Subcommittee on Automation and Energy Resources.
U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, 86th Cong., 1st sess.
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959), pp. 79-96.


Summers, W. A. "Central Station— Today and Tomorrow," Combustion,
July 1958, pp. 34-42.


Warren, G. B. "What May Be Ahead in Power Production," Mechanical
Engineering, May I960, pp. 61-65.


2d Electronic Industries Association Conference on Automation Systems
for Business and Industry. "Automation Within the Electronics
Industry," Automation Systems; Proceedings (New York, Engineering
Publishers, 1958), pp. 17-58.


Institute of Radio Engineers. Transactions on Production Techniques.
First National Symposium on Production Techniques (Washington, D. C.,
June 6 and 7, 1957). 75 pp.
Papers by business and government experts on problems of management
in preparing for automation, by engineers on new production techniques,
and by military and industry officials on military problems in imple­
menting automation.



Sideris, George. ’’Production Machinery for the Electronics Industry,”
Electronics, October 24, 1958, pp. 73-84.


Weinberg, Edgar and Siegel, Irving H. ’’Development and Implications of
First Transistor Patents,” Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Journal
of Research and Education, Winter 1959, pp. 392-397.


”15 New Packing, Handling, Processing Units; Brewing Industries
Exposition, Cleveland,” Food Engineering, December 1959, pp. 93-95.


"Four Major Developments, 17 Important Innovations; Annual Canning
Equipment Show,” Food Engineering, March 1960, pp. 84-87.


"Mixing Bread Dough Continuously,” Automation, January 1960, pp. 50-54.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. Output
per Man-Hour in Factories Processing Farm Food Products, by William H.
Waldorf. Technical Bull. 1243, May 1961. 36 pp.


Ziemba, John V. "New Handling Techniques and ’Shipper’ Bottlenecks;
Packaging Report," Food Engineering, October 1959, pp. 64-68.


Ziemba, John V. "Weighing Makes Big Strides; to New Precision, to New
Savings,” Food Engineering, March 1960, pp. 93-111.



"Foundries To Spend More for Plant and Equipment,” Foundry, May 1960,
pp. 136-138.


"Foundry Technology . . . Where Is It Headed,” Foundry, January 1961,
pp. 68-77.


Gude, William G., and others.
pp. 118-151.

"Foundry Technology,’’ Foundry, May 1961.



"New Technical Advances," Foundry Marketing Guide. 1960. pp. 14-15


"Shell Molding--Ten Years of Progress," Foundry, April 1958, pp. 80-109.


Von Ludwig, Davidlee. "Investment Castings Move Toward Tougher Materials,
Patterns," American Machinist, January 12, 1959, pp. 119 ff.


Astin, A. V. "Statement to the Subcommittee on Automation and Energy
Resources," New Views on Automation, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic
Committee, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1960), pp. 157-165.
The National Bureau of Standards central service role in data
processing for other Government agencies and technical assistance
projects of other agencies. Relationship between physical measurement
and automation.


"Automation Peps Up Post Office," Business Week, April 25, 1959,
pp. 166-167 ff.


Bergamini, David. "Government by Computers," The Reporter, August 17,
1961, pp. 21-28.
Descriptive examples of computer use in Federal, State, and local
governments. Advantages and dangers of use. Effects on defense deci­
sions and research, economic analysis and planning, and income tax
audi ts.


U.S. Bureau of the Budget. Inventory of Automatic Data Processing
Equipment in the Federal Government, Including Costs, Categories of
Use, and Personnel Utilization (Washington, May 1961). 127 pp.


U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Conmittee on Post Office and
Civil Service. Report on the Use of Electronic Data Processing
Equipment in the Federal Government. Prepared by Subcommittee on
Census and Government Statistics, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, August 31, 1960). 113 pp.
Applications in major agencies. Magnitude of the manpower problem.
Inventory of computers. Guidelines to a feasibility study.



U.S. General Accounting Office. Survey of Progress and Trend of
Development and Use of Automatic Data Processing in Business and
Management Control Systems of the Federal Government as of December
1957. Special report to the U.S. Congress by the Comptroller
General (Washington, June 1958). 170 pp.


De Groat, George H. and Ashburn, Anderson. "Ultra-High-Speed Machining;
Lockheed Report on Major Basic Research for the Air Force,"
American Machinist/Metalworking Manufacturing, February 22, 1960,
pp. 110-126.


"The Eighth American Machinist Inventory of Metalworking Equipment,"
American Machinist, November 17, 1958, 96 pp.


Greve, John W., editor. Numerical Control Today (Detroit, American
Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers, November 1, 1960). 130 pp.
Collection of articles from Tool and Manufacturing Engineer and
technical papers presented at ASTME seminars.


"The Impact of Automation— a 9-Year Evaluation," American Machinist,
October 21, 1957, pp. 166-180.


Keebler, James C. "Trends in Automation and Production Equipment,"
Automation, June 1958, pp. 121 ff.


Knopf, G. S. "What Does the Future Hold for Numerical Controls?,"
Iron Age, July 24, 1958, pp. 77-80.
Savings reported and plans of selected aircraft firms.
costs and future uses.



McRainey, J, H., and Miller, Lee D.
August 1960, pp. 70-100.


"Mechanization Know-How Handbook," Mill & Factory, May 1961, entire
issue, 394 pp.


"Numerical Control," Automation,


Melloan, George. "New Tape-Controlled Tools Help Automate Low-Produc­
tion Plants," Wall Street Journal, October 14, 1959, p. 1.
Description, cost, and manufacturers of new multipurpose machine
tools. Advantages for small metalworking shops and problems of high
investment and skilled worker displacement.


Miller, Lee D. "Progress in Automation," Automation, August 1958,
pp. 115-121.


"More Old Machines Than Ever," American Machini st/Metalworking Manu­
facturing, May 29, 1961, pp. 55-57.


"Plan *59, Modernize Now for Growth and Profits," American Machinist,
October 20, 1958, pp. 151-182.


Stocker, William M., Jr. "The ABC’s of Numerical Control," American
Machinist, August 8, 1960, pp. 93-108.


Stocker, William M., Jr. "How to Prove the Profit in Numerical Control,"
American Machinist/Metalworking Manufacturing, October 30, 1961,
pp. 77-120.
Approach to selecting, justifying, and financing numerically con­
trolled equipment. Analysis of cost savings and return on investment.
Directory of manufacturers with price and equipment characteristics.


Tilton, Peter. Retrofit Applications of Numerical Controls for Machine
Tools (South Pasadena, Stanford Research Institute, December 1957!).
116 pp. Prepared for U.S. Department of the Navy, Bureau of


Weiner, Charles. "Which Door to Tape Control?" Tooling and Production,
January 1961, pp. 49-58.


Wilburn, Robert C. "Tape Preparation Centers Provide Answers to Numer­
ical Control," Automation, April 1961, pp. 83-86.




Anderson, A. L. "Continuous Mining Productivity," The Mining Congress
Journal, May 1958, pp. 54-57.


"Hie coal future and its challenge," Coal Age, October 1961, pp. 109204.


Southern Research Institute, Coal*s New Horizons; Proceedings, Confer­
ence on Future Technological Trends, October 3-4, 1961 (Birmingham,
Ala., 1961). 86 pp.


U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. Mechanical Mining in
Some Bituminous Mines. Information Circular No. 7696 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1954). 118 pp.


U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. "Review of Mining
Technology," by Paul T. Allsman and James E. Hill, Minerals Yearbook,
Vol. 1, 1960 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 196l).
pp. 47-56.


American Management Association. Data Processing Today: A Progress
Report; New Concepts, Techniques, and Applications. AMA Management
Report No. 46 (New York, I960). 143 pp.


Bello, Francis. "The War of the Computers," Fortune, October 1959,
pp. 128-133 ff.


Boehm, George. "The Next Generation of Computers," Fortune, March 1959,
pp. 132-135 ff.


"Business Week Reports to Readers on;
June 21, 1958, pp. 68-92.


Chapin, Ned. An Introduction to Automatic Computers (New York, Van
Nostrand Co., Inc., 19^7). ^25 pp.


Computers," Business Week,


"Faster, Brainier Computer Breed To Devour Business Data,"
Week, May 30, 1959, pp. 64-65 ff.


Gregory, Robert H. and Van Horn, Richard L. Automatic Data Processing
Systems: Principles and Procedures (San Francisco, Wadsworth
Publishing Co., 1960). 705 pp.


Hilton, Alice Mary. "Digital Computing Machines,"
October 1960, pp. 163-185.


"Layman’s guide to computers," Business Week, September 1960, pp. 163173.


Organization for European Economic Cooperation, European Productivity
Agency. Integrated Data Processing and Computers: Working Docu­
ments (Paris, 1961). 323 pp.


"Packaged Logic for Computers: Software To Make Them Work," Business
Week, September 23, 1961, pp. 70-78.


U.S. Department of the Army, Ballistic Research Laboratories. A Third
Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems, by
Martin H. Weik, Report No. 115 (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., 1961).
1131 pp.



Engineering and programming characteristics of 222 different systems.
Includes personnel requirements, discussion of trends, bibliography,
and glossary.


"Computer Runs Refinery Unit," Business Week, April 4, 1959, pp. 4446 ff.


"Computers Set to Guide Oil Operations," Control Engineering. January
1961, pp. 27 ff.


Farrar, Gerald L. "Extent of Oil Industry’s Use of Electronic Digital
Computers," Oil and Gas Journal, April 13, 1959, pp. 116-121.



Lowy, L. "Automation in Refinery Product Blending," Petroleum-Engineer
for Management, September, pp. 50 ff; October, pp. 53-54; and
December, pp. 50 ff, 1957.


Ryan, J. L. "How Automated Are You?," Oil and Gas Journal, May 2, 1960,
pp. 100-103. Paper presented at National Gasoline Association of
America Convention, Houston, Tex., 1960, on results of NGAA auto­
mation survey.


Candey, M. "Practical Automation in Pulp and Paper Handling," Tappi,
November 1958, supplement A, pp. 58 ff.


Casey, James P. Pulp and Paper-Chemistry and Technology, 2d ed., 3
vols.: Pulping and Bleaching, Paper making, Paper testing, and
Converting (New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc., 19S0).


Eberhardt, Lee. "Economic Impact of New Processes on the Pulp and
Paper Industry," The Paper Industry, March 1958, pp. 982-983 ff.


McCutcheon, John 0. "Continuous Pulping," Paper Mill News, March 28,
1960, p. 46 ff.


U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. "Review of Metallurgi­
cal Technology," by Rollien R. Wells and Earl T. Hayes, Minerals
Yearbook, Vol. 1, 1960 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
1961). pp. 35-44.


"Automation, of Course; but How Far, How Fast?" Steel, July 4, 1960,
pp. 68-71.


"Continuous Casting Faces Test," Iron Age, May 18, 1961, pp. 110 ff.


Dauberman, W. H. "Automatic Processes in the Production of Steel,"
Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, January 1959, pp. 72-78.



"1959 Forum on Technical Progress; Drives and Controls," Steel,
January 5, 1959, pp. 285-286 ff.


Kirkpatrick, J. W. "Oxygen in Open Hearth Steelmaking," Blast Furnace
and Steel Plant, July 1961, pp. 621-632.


Lumb, Harold C. "The Outlook for Coal and Steel," Blast Furnace and
Steel Plant, August 1961, pp. 770-772.


Miller, W. E. "Trends and Developments in Electrical Automation Systems
for Steel Plant Processes," Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, January
1959, pp. 64-71.


Oram, J. E. "Automation in Iron and Steel Making Processes," Blast
Furnace and Steel Plant, July 1959, pp. 716-724.


Siegel, Irving H. "Patents and Other Aspects of the New Steel Technol­
ogy, " Patent, Trademark, and Copyright Journal of Research and
Education, June 1958, pp. 278-2S5.


Sills, R. M. and Terwilliger, G. E. "Steel Opens Three Doors to Auto­
matic Data Processing," Control Engineering, December 1959, pp. 99104.


U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. "Steel," by
James C.O. Harris, Mineral Facts and Problems, 1960 ed.,Bull. 585
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960), pp. 767-791.


Fox, Kenneth R. Survey and Trends in Fabrics and Fabric Processing
(Paper before American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Textile
Engineering Conference, North Carolina State College, Raleigh,
March 20, 1958). 14 pp.


Parker, R. E.
pp. 94-97.

"Textile Mill of 1968," Textile Industries, March 1958,



Rusca, R. A. "Coming:
pp. 46-47.

The Push-Button Mill?" Textile World. May 1960,


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service.
Changes in American Textile Industry, Technical Bull. 1210 (Washing
ton, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959). 337 pp.


U.S. Department of Commerce, Business and Defense Services Admini­
stration. Basic Research Related to New Uses for Textiles (Washing­
ton, 1961). 86 pp.


Journal of Retailing, Spring 1959.
Entire issue devoted to automation in retail distribution.


National Retail Merchants Association, Retail Research Institute. A
Report on Data Processing Equipment in Member Stores of the National
Retail Merchants Association (New York, 1958). 20 pp.


"The Push-Button Warehouse," Fortune, December 1956, pp. 140-143 ff.


Retail Clerks International Association. Automation in Retailing and
Distribution (Washington, 1960). 22 pp.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. Methods
of Increasing Labor Productivity in Multistory and Small One-Floor
Grocery Warehouses, Marketing Research Report No. 1 4 2 (Washington.
November 1956). 42 pp.


Bello, Francis. "V T 0 L - the next way to fly," Fortune, March 1958,
PP. 136-139 ff.


McKnight, Robert W. "Computers Sharpen Controls," Railway Age.
December 7, 1959, pp. 13-23.



National Academy of Sciences. U.S. Transportation: Resources, Per­
formance and Problems, Papers prepared for the transportation
Research Conference, Woods Hole, Mass., August 1960. Publication
841-S (Washington, 1961). 319 pp.


Nelson, Robert S. and Johnson, Edward M., editors. Technological
Change and the Future of the Railways (Evanston, 111., Northwestern
University Transportation Center, 1961). 239 pp. Selected papers
by 17 experts presented at a conference in January 1961.


"Rail Automation:


The Revolution in Transportation . . . What Does It Mean to the Shipper?
(New York. Journal of Commerce, 1959). 91 pp.

Here Now," Railway Age, October 17, 1960, p. 13.

A comprehensive survey of developing changes in the transportation


Shaffer, Frank E.
pp. 22-23.


Southern Research Institute. Tomorrow^ Transportation; Proceedings,
Conference on Future Technological Trends, September 29-30, 1960
(Birmingham, Ala., 1960). 96 pp.


U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board. General Characteristics of Turbine
Powered Aircraft; Air Transport Economics in the Jet Age, Staff
Research Report No. 2 (Washington, February 1960). 62 pp.

"Rundown on Automation," Trains, March 1961,



This section includes case studies and other research into the effects
of automation and other technological changes in plants and industries and on
workers, managers, and industrial relations.


Adams, Leonard P. and Aronson, Robert L. Workers and Industrial Change:
A Case Study of Labor Mobility, Cornell Studies in industrial and
Labor Relations (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University, 1957). 209 pp.
Adjustment of 1,800 workers, displaced by a plant shutdown, over a
3-5 year period. Changes in job content, wages, etc.


Banks, Olive. The Attitudes of Steelworkers to Technical Change, Social
Research Series (Liverpool University Press, I960). 152 pp.
Attitudes to a recent technical change in the melting shop of a
large British steelworks. Effect of displacement and changes in earn­
ings, hours and conditions of work, job content and satisfaction, social
relationships, promotion chances, family life, and leisure activities on
attitudes toward change. Relative experiences and their effects on at­
titudes of different occupational groups of older and younger men.


Baumgartel, Howard and Goldstein, Gerald.

"Some Human Consequences of

Technical Change,'’ Personnel Administration, July/August 1961,


Social-psychological consequences of the relocation and technical
reorganization of three shops in an airline overhaul base. Factors
causing worker dissatisfaction, negative attitudes, and how they might
have been prevented. Patterns of leadership, status relationships,
participation, and group cohesiveness.


Bright, James R. Automation and Management
(Boston, Harvard University,
Graduate School of Business Administration, 1958). 270 pp.
Study based on firsthand observation of experiences in a number of
automated plants. Analyzes nature and characteristics of automation,
benefits and disadvantages, major effects on business operations, im­
plications for business management.



Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. Company Experiences With Automation,
Survey No. 46 of BNA's Personnel Policies Forum (Washington, January
1958). 10 pp.
Survey of personnel and industrial relations executives on extent
and effects of automation, absorbing displaced employees, human rela­
tions problems, and educating employees to accept automation.


Canada, Department of Labor. Technological Changes and Skilled Man­
power: The Automobile and Parts Manufacturing Industries, Report
No. 8 issued by Interdepartmental Skilled Manpower Training Research
Committee (Ottawa, September 1960). 54 pp. Summarized by James R.
Alliston in Monthly Labor Review, April 1961, pp. 388-392.
Effects on production, employment, skills, training, retraining, and
occupational requirements.
Impact and frequency of specific technolog­
ical changes.


Canada, Department of Labor. Technological Changes and Skilled Man­
Electrical and Electronics Industry and Heavy Machinery
Industry, Report No. 2 Issued by Interdepartmental Skilled Manpower
Training Research Committee (Ottawa, August 1957). 30 pp.
Effects on employment, manpower requirements, and training. Current
sources and shortages of engineers, technicians, and skilled tradesmen.


Canada, Department of Labor. Technological Changes and Skilled Man­
power: The Household Appliance Industry, Report No. 3 Issued by
Interdepartmental Skilled Manpower Training Research Committee
(Ottawa, September 1958). 25 pp.
Trends in production, employment, and productivity, occupations and
skill level. Types and effects of technological change on manpower and
skill requirements.


Eels, F.R., and others.
"Innovation and Automation:
a discussion based
on case studies," Bulletin,Oxford University Institute of Statistics,
August 1959, whole issue. 7$ pp.
Description of selected automatic processes in three electrical
equipment plants and a foundry: transfer pressing, hobbing, preparing
and painting components, and machine molding. Effects on laborsaving
and productivity, utilization, flexibility, and replacement of equip­
Importance of depreciation calculations.



Faunce, William A. "Automation and the Automobile Worker," Social
Problems, Summer 1958, pp. 68-78. Reprinted by Michigan State Univer­
sity, Labor and Industrial Relations Center, 1958-59 reprint series,
East Lansing, 1959.
Individual and organizational adjustments to changes in production
technique. Nature of job changes and effects on work satisfaction and
attitudes in an automated engine plant. Based on interviews.


Faunce, William A. "Automation in the Automobile Industry: Some Con­
sequences for In-Plant Social Structure," American Sociological
Review, August 1958, pp. 401-407. Reprinted by Michigan State Uni­
versity, Labor and Industrial Relations Center, 1958-59 reprint series,
East Lansing, 1959.
Effects of the introduction of automatic transfer machines upon in­
teraction patterns in an automobile engine plant. Based on interviews.


Faunce, William A. "The Automobile Industry," Automation and Society,
H.B. Jacobson and J.S. Roucek, editors.
(New York, Philosophical
Library, 1959), pp. 44-53. Reprinted by Michigan State University,
Labor and Industrial Relations Center, 1959-60 reprint series, East
Lansing, 1959.
Comparison of work force characteristics, personnel policies and
practices, industrial relations, job content, informal social structure,
and work satisfaction in an automated plant and an older plant of the
same company producing automobile engines.


Mann, Floyd C. and Hoffman, L. Richard. Automation and the Worker; A
Study of Social Change in Power Plants (New York, Holt, 1960).
2?2 pp.
Case study of social and psychological effects of advances in steam
electric technology on employees of a new and older plant in the same
utility. Job changes, shift work problems, and administrative and
research implications.


Mann, Floyd C. and Hoffman, L. Richard.
"Individual and Organizational
Correlates of Automation," Journal of Social Issues, No. 2, 1956,
pp. 7-17.
Preliminary findings of a study on effects of technical advances in
power plant technology, comparing a modern to an older plant.
on employment, job content and satisfaction, worker tension and asso­
ciation, supervisory structure and behavior, and maintenance.



Mann, Floyd C. and Neff, Franklin W. Managing Major Change In Organi­
zations (Ann Arbor, Foundation for Research on Human Behavior, 1961).
99 pp.
Four case studies discuss principles and procedures used by manage­
ment in inducing major organizational changes; two deal with introduc­
tion of computers, a third with start-up of a semiautomatic steel pipe
mill; a fourth with efforts to decentralize a food chain company.
Description of the organization before change, recognizing the need,
planning for, introducing, and stabilizing the change. Highlights of
managing the change.


Organization for European Economic Co-operation, European Productivity
Agency. Automation in the Renault Works, Case Study on Automation,
No. 12 (Paris, 1957). 3$ pp.
Working paper presented at the Conference on Automation, April 8-12.
1957, Paris. Description of automatic production lines. Effects on
production, employment, working conditions, power consumption, vehicle
prices, and employee benefits.


Organization for European Economic Co-operation, European Productivity
Agency. Steel Workers and Technical Progress; A comparative report
on six national studies, EPA Project No. 1<>4, Industrial Version
No. 2 (Paris, June 1959). 65 pp.
Findings by six research institutes, in Belgium, France, Germany,
Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, on attitudes of steel­
workers to technological change. Description of change, impact on
employment, wages, working conditions, job content, and social life.


Political and Economic Planning.
(London, July 1957).
58 pp.

Three Case Studies in Automation

Studies on the use of a computer in clerical work, a platformer in
automatic process control in a refinery, and mechanized bearing tube
manufacture, presented at a Conference on Automation, European Produc­
tivity Agency, April 8-12, 1957, Paris. Description and advantages of new
technology, implications for management, labor, training, and changes in
skills, conditions of work, and job satisfaction.



Scott. W.H.^ and others. Technical Change and Industrial Relations,
Social Research Series (Liverpool University Press, l9t>6). 356 pp.
Summarized in Men, Steel, and Technical Change, by Department of
Scientific and Industrial Research (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery
Office, 1937). 36 pp.
Study of relations between technical change in a large British
steelworks and social structure and attitudes, ownership and control,
employee services, occupational structure, education, and training*
Effects on management structure, labor unions, and industrial relations.
Pilot study of impact of a recent change on the furnace crews of the
melting shop.


Sheppard, Harold L . , and others. Too Old To Work--Too Young To Retire:
A Case Study of a Permanent Plant Shutdown, U.S. Senate, Special
Committee on Unemployment Problems, 86th Cong., 1st sess.
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960). 74 pp.
Psychological reactions of Packard Motor Co. employees to shutdown
announcement, based on interviews. Experiences in seeking new jobs and
relationship of age, race, and skill level to such experiences. Financial
difficulties. Nature and wage rates of new jobs compared with old ones.
Workers* judgments of adequacy of unemployment compensation, relative
savings position, assistance, etc.


Sheppard, Harold L. and Stern, James L. "Impact of Automation on Workers
in Supplier Plants," Labor Law Journal, October 1957, pp. 714-718.
Example of an automotive supply plant shutdown due to automation and
mergers in the industry. Reemployment problems of older workers,
women, and Negroes. Duration of unemployment and exhaustion of unemploy­
ment benefits.


U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. A Case Study
of A Company Manufacturing Electronic Equipment (Washington, 1956).
19 pp. Summarized in Monthly Labor Review, January 1956, pp. 15-19.
Effects of the introduction of automatic production methods, at a
company manufacturing electronic equipment, on employment, productivity,
and working conditions. Outlines some problems and methods of adjust­
ment adopted by management and labor.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Studies of
Automatic Technology? A Case Study of a Large Mechanized Bakery,
BLS Report 109 (Washington, 1957). 26 pp. Summarized by Herman J.
Rothberg in Monthly Labor Review, September 1956, pp. 1037-1040.
Effects of the introduction of more automatic production methods at
a large perishable goods bakery on employment, productivity, working
conditions, displacement, job content, transfers, and skills.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Studies of
Automatic Technology: A Case Study of A Modernized Petroleum Refinery,
BLS Report 120 (Washington, 1957). 44 pp. Summarized by Herman J.
Rothberg in Monthly Labor Review, September 1957, pp. 1083-1087.
Effects of technological change during 1948-56 in a medium-size oil
refinery on employment, working conditions, occupational requirements,
industrial relations, labor relations, and other labor problems. Also
trends and impact on the industry.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Impact on Workers
and Community of a Plant Shutdown in a Depressed Area, Bull. 1^64
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960). 58 pp.
Summarized by Richard C. Wilcock in Monthly Labor Review, September
1957, pp. 1047-1052.
Characteristics and employment experience of displaced workers after
railroad equipment plant shutdown. Factors in deciding where to live
and work.
Community problems. Earnings and attitudes of the reemployed.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Technological
Change and Productivity in the Bituminous Coal Industry. l9lO-6(J7
BLS Bull. 1305 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, l$6l).
140 pp. Summarized by Robert T. Adams in Monthly Labor Review,
October 1961, pp. 1081-1086.
Recent trends in technology and output per man-hour. Implications
for employment, unemployment, wages, prices, and profits. Text
supplemented by charts and supporting tables.



Walker. Charles R. "Life in the Automatic Factory." Harvard Business
Review, January/February 1958, pp. 111-119.
Impact of automatic technology on job content, skills, working
conditions, workers' attitudes, human relationships, pay, method of
payment, training, and education.
Based on field research at a semi­
automatic mill.


Walker, Charles R. Toward the Automatic Factory: A Case Study of Men
and Machines (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1957). £52 pp.
Psychological and social effects of technological change on steel­
workers and crews during the breaking in of the first continuous seam­
less pipe mill. Effects on supervision, job satisfaction, pay and
incentives, working conditions, and promotions.
Implications for
management and labor and adjustment of human nature to technological



This section contains case studies and larger surveys into the effects
of and adjustment to the introduction of electronic data processing systems
in offices in private industry and government.


American Management Association. Gaining Acceptance for Major Methods
Changes, by Ben Miller, AMA Research Study 44 (New York, I960).
&3 pp.
Comparison of attitudes and reaction of management and worker groups
in six large companies to the introduction of electronic or punched
card data-processing machines. Case studies of Installation procedures
in a paper, telephone, and drug company, two banks, and a public utility.
Examination of some prevalent assumptions and of factors engendering
resistance to change.


Bell, James R. and Steedman, Lynwood B. Personnel Problems in Con­
verting to Automation, The Inter-University Case Program, 44
(University of Alabama Press, I960).
14 pp.
Case study of the introduction of electronic computers into California
Department of Employment.
Factors in management decision and plans for
Personnel planning and impact.
Conversion problems.
Training programmers and operators, transfer, and retraining.


Controllers Institute Research Foundation, Inc. Business Experience
With Electronic Computers (New York, 1959). 1^1 pp.
Examples of ideas, approaches, and techniques from 17 large companies.
Factors in arriving at a decision as to size and scope of an electronics
Preparing for, introducing, and operating electronic equipment.
Developing applications and conversion. Relations with the manufacturer.


Ginder, Charles E. Why Automation? (Willow Grove, Pa., National Office
Management Association, 1^9).
7 pp.
Findings of a survey by NOMA. Company experience with electronic
and integrated data processing. Installations by size, type of business,
and application. Job losses, transfers, and integration of affected
personnel. Annotated bibliography.



Baddy, Pamela*
"Some Thoughts on Automation in a British Office,"
Journal of Industrial Economics, February 1958, pp. 161-170.
Case study reconstructs some aspects of the decision by J* Lyons & Co.
(England) to automate some clerical operations. Factors leading to the
decision, tasks performed by the computer, and labor employed.


Hardin, Einar.
"Computer Automation, Work Environment, and Employee
Satisfactions A Case Study," Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
July 1960, pp. 559-567.
Introduction of a medium-size computer into operations of an insurance
company. Changes in various job aspects, worker attitudes to changes,
and job satisfaction, compared in computer-affected departments with
departments affected by other types of changes occurring simultaneously.


Hardin, Einar.
"The Reactions of Employees to Office Automation,"
Monthly Labor Review, September 1960, pp. 925-932.
Characteristics of changes in work environment caused by the instal­
lation of a medium-size computer in an insurance company. Impact on
work and job content.
Comparison of worker attitudes and job satisfaction
of affected and unaffected employees in experiences with changes.


Hoos, Ida Russakoff. Automation in the Office (Washington, Public
Affairs Press, 1961).
138 pp. _
Effects of automation on office workers as individuals and groups.
Scope, rate, and extent of introduction. Implications for occupational
structure, employment, skills, new job opportunities, upgrading and
downgrading, job content, and organizational structure. Role and
responsibilities of management, labor, and government.
Based on empirical
field research in numerous business and government offices.


Hoos, Ida Russakoff.
"The Impact of Office Automation on Workers,"
International Labour Review, October 1960, pp. 363-388.
Summary of part of a study on effects in 20 organizations (banking,
railroads, insurance, utilities and government agencies) in the
San Francisco area. Impact on workers, work groups, organization,
jobs, supervisors, older workers, and transferred workers. Organized
labor*s efforts to mitigate effects.



Hoos, Ida Russakoff.
"When the Computer Takes Over the Office,"
Harvard Business Review, July/August 1960, pp. 102-112.
Impact of electronic data processing on management organization,
advanced planning, outlook, and on office workers, specific jobs,
displacement, upgrading, job satisfaction, and transfers.


Jacobson, Eugene, and others.
"Employee Attitudes Toward Technological
Change in a Medium-Sized Insurance Company," Journal of Applied
Psychology, December 1959, pp. 349-353.
Report on Michigan State University case study.
Discusses nonsupervisory employees' general attitude toward technical change and
perception of impact of machines on the office situation and jobs.


Mann, Floyd C. and Williams, Lawrence K. "Observations on the Dynamics
of a Change to Electronic Data-Processing Equipment," Administrative
Science Quarterly, September 1960, pp. 217-266.
Presents findings from a longitudinal case study of effects of the
introduction of EDP in a light and power company. General management
problems of introducing change and effects on organizational structure,
policies, philosophy, job structure, and personnel at all levels.
Discusses reassignment of workers and other transitional problems.


Mann, Floyd C. and Williams, Lawrence K. "Organizational Impact of
White-Collar Automation," Industrial Relations Research Association
Proceedings, 1958, pp. 59-6$.
Effects of electronic data processing on industrial relations,
organization, and personnel; problems of changeover and managing data
systems; changes in management philosophy, organizational structure,,and
job content. Based on case studies.


"National Survey of Computer Department Salaries," Management and
Business Automation, June 1960, pp. 1-7.
Thirty-five computer jobs analyzed for salary, responsibilities,
and job content.



Riche. Richard W. and Alii, William E. "Office Automation in the
Federal Government," Monthly Labor Review, September 1960,
pp. 933-938.
Computer applications and savings, problems of displacement and
reassignment, personnel planning for technological change, selecting
and training personnel for electronic data-processing positions, and
attitudes of employee organizations.
Based on hearings before the
Subcommittee on Census and Government Statistics of the House of
Representatives, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.


Southern California, University of, Department of Psychology. The
Role of Humans in Complex Computer systems: A Description of the
Study. Programming, and Maintenance, Technical Reports Nos. 24, ^5,
and 26 (Los Angeles, 1959). 226 pp.
Psychological issues in the programming and maintenance of digital
computers, as indicated in interviews. Report 24 describes methodological
aspects of the research, with a glossary; Report 25, practices and
problems of programming, programmers, and the implementations of large
integrated data-processing systems; Report 26, problems and issues of
maintenance and the selection, training, and supervision of maintenance
technicians. Future trends.


Stieber, Jack. "Automation and the White-Collar Worker," Personnel,
November/December 1957, pp. 8-17. Reprinted by Michigan State
University, Labor and Industrial Relations Center, 1957-58 reprint
series, East Lansing.
Case studies illustrate implications of extended use of computers
for employment, displacement, transfers, skill and job changes,
occupational distribution, employee attitudes, white-collar unionization,
and management.


U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Post Office and
Civil Service. Office Automation and Employee Job Security; Hearings,
Subcommittee on Census and Government Statistics, 86th Cong.,
2d sess., March 2 and 4, 1960 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1960). 84 pp. Summarized by Richard W. Riche and William E.
Alii in Monthly Labor Review, September 1960, pp. 933-938.
Introduction of computer operations in Veterans Administration and
Department of the Treasury. Resultant economies and impact on 'employees.
Statements by union leaders on their policies and recommendations on
technological change.



U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Post Office and
Civil Service. Use of Electronic Data-Processing Equipment; Hearings,
Subcommittee on Census and Government Statistics^ 8oth Cong.,
1st sess., June 5, 1959 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office,
142 pp. Summarized by Richard W. Riche and William E. Alii
in Monthly Labor Review, September 1960, pp. 933-938.
Extent and uses of electronic data-processing equipment in Federal
agencies. Includes testimony on Budget Bureau and General Accounting
Office experiences. Findings of a study of personnel problems related
to adopting and using EDP systems.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Adjustments to
the Introduction of Office Automation, Bull. 1276 (Washington,
U.S. Govenuaent Printing Office, 1966). 86 pp. Summarized by
Edgar Weinberg in Monthly Labor Review, April 1960, pp. 376-380.
A study of some implications of the installation of electronic data
processing in 20 offices in private industry, with special reference to
older workers.
Practices of each office in reassigning, selecting, and
training employees. Statistical data on extent of displacement, trans­
fer, upgrading, and downgrading. Objectives and results of changes,
ages, occupational characteristics of displaced workers and those
assigned new jobs. Aptitudes required on new jobs. Implications for
older workers.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Studies of
Automatic Technology: A Case Study of an Automatic Airline Reservation
System, BLS Report 13} (195^). 2 1 p p .
Summarized by Edward B.
Jakubauskas in the Monthly Labor Review, September 1958, pp. 1014-1016.
Introduction of electronic data-processing system in an airline office
and implications for employment, job and occupational requirements, and
industrial relations.
Developments and Impact on the industry.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Introduction
of an Electronic Computer in a Large Insurance Company (Washington,
October 1955). 18 pp.
Nature of the innovation of the computer and impact on employment,
productivity, and working conditions. Outlines management planning to
prevent layoffs and cushion worker adjustment.
Based on field study.



Weber, C. Edward.
"Change in Managerial Manpower with Mechanization of
Data Processing," Journal of Business, April 1959, pp. 151-163.
Manpower changes which accompanied electronic data-processing
applications in a job-shop fabricating company and a basic steel works.
Relative rise in administrative and professional employment and
association of increase with efforts to change operations, relation
between technological development and bureaucratization. Based on
field interviews.


Weber, C. Edward.
"Impact of Electronic Data Processing on Clerical
Skills," Personnel Administration, January/February 1959, pp. 20-26.
Experience of a metal fabricating firm and a basic steel works with
electronic computers for inventory control and cost accounting. Effects
on occupational composition, clerical skills, and job structure.



This section includes references on automations implications for
employment, unemployment, displacement, productivity, manpower trends
and outlook, and leisure time.


Acton Society Trust. Redundancy:
(London, 1958). 56 pp.

A Survey of Problems and Practices

Effects of automation on displacement. Policies to reduce economic
and human cost. British Government programs.


’’Adapting Farm Labor Services to Changing Time,” Employment Security
Review, January 1961, whole issue.
Problems of increasing mechanization on farms and how government
employment services are helping agricultural workers to adjust.
Implications for migrant workers. Examples in various types of
farming throughout United States.


Automation and Jobs,” Steel, September 4, 1961, pp. 53-92.
A collection of articles on implications for employment, causes of
unemployment, creation of new jobs, and ways to sell benefits of auto­
mation to employees. Role and responsibilities of management, unions,
and Government.


’’The Automation and Unemployment Problem:
September 1961, pp. 79-83.

How Big Is It?** Factory,

Reports survey findings on displacement prospects in 500 plants.
Management attitudes.


Barkin, Solomon. ’’Automation and the Community,” Governor's Conference
on Automation; Proceedings, June 1-3, 1950, Cooperstown, N.Y.
(Albany, I960), pp. 93-128. Reprinted by Textile Workers Union of
America, Research Publication Mo. E-101A, New York.
Problems of adaptation faced by communities adversely affected by
technological change. Need for social policies, agencies, and programs
to promote economic development of distressed communities.



Bogardus, Emory S* "Social Aspects of Automation,w Sociology and Social
Research, May/June 1958, pp, 358-363.
Implications for office and factory workers, leisure, education, and
social change.


Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Economic Research Department.
Automation and Unemployment (Washington, 1961). 34 pp.
Analysis of labor-displacing effects of automation, structural
unemployment, unemployables, and depressed areas. Other types of
unemployment and measures to cope with it through unemployment com­
pensation, providing income security, improved labor mobility,
training and retraining, flow of information, and economic growth.


Chamber of Commerce of the United States. Employment and Unemploymentt
The Problem of the 1960*s; Proceedings, 2d 1961 Economic Institute,
May 17, 1961 (Washington, 19(>i). 1 0 0 pp.
Papers by Clarence D. Long, Yale Brozen, Neil W. Chamberlain, and
Robert J. Myers on unemployment propsects of the 1960*s, causes of
unemployment, problems and correctives, and measurement of employment
and unemployment. Panel discussion by Burton N. Behling, Peter Henle,
and George Terbough.


Clague, Ewan. ’’Automation and Youth in the 1960*s,” The American Child,
March 1960, pp. 1-4.
Technical, economic, and social factors emphasize needs of youth for
education, vocational guidance, and realistic information concerning
job trends.


Clague, Ewan. ’’The Interest of the Federal Government in Automation,”
Automation Systems; Proceedings, 2d Electronic Industries Association
Conference (New York, Engineering Publishers, 1958), pp. 151-158.
Mimeographed by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1958. 13 pp.
Automation as a useful technique of production in business-type
activities. Implications for productivity, displacement, skills,
occupations, training. Manaeement planning for personnel adjustment.



Clague, Ewan. "Social and Economic Aspects of Automation5»t Labor Law
Journal, September 1961, pp. 795-810. Mimeographed by U.S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, 1961. 30 pp.
Excerpted in Monthly Labor Review, September 1961, pp. 957-960.
Measures of technological change and labor implications for the
economy, specific firms, and industries.
Effects on employment, unemploy­
ment, and occupational structure. Examples of company and industrywide
labor-management responses to automation in meatpacking, steel, coal,
and longshoring. Government activities in automation and manpower and
responsibilities of engineers.


Dankert, Clyde E. "Automation and Unemployment," Studies in Unemployment.
U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Unemployment Problems, 86thCong..
2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960), pp. 225250.
Concept of automation and effects feared. Definitions and characteris­
tics of technological unemployment and policy suggestions for coping with
it. Impact of technological change on employment.


Denise, Malcolm L. "Statement before the Subcommittee on Unemployment
and the Impact of Automation," Impact of Automation on Employment;
Hearings. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and
Labor, 87th Cong., 1st sess., April 17, 1961 (Washington, U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1961), pp. 509-574.
Describes Ford Motor Co. programs to minimize and alleviate unemploy­
ment through shorter model change time, supplemental unemployment benefits,
training and retraining, application of seniority in job preference,
transfers, retirement plans, and separation payments. Examples of
specific applications of programs and policies.


Oymond, W.R. Technological Changes and Their Impact on Employment,
Occupations, and Industrial kelations. Address to McGill Industrial
Relations Conference, Toronto, June 6, 1961. Reprinted by Canadian
Department of Labor, Economics and Research Branch, Ottawa.
Discusses findings of Canadian research on implications of technolog­
ical changes for employment, production, occupational composition, skill
requirements, training, and retraining.



Farrar, L.D. "Kennedy's Automation Doctor," Administrative Management,
June 1961, pp. 13-16*
Seymour L. Wolfbein, director of U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of
Automation and Manpower, reviews his assigned duties as Government
adviser and plans for meeting problems arising from automation.


Faunce, William A. "Automation and Leisure," Automation and Society,
H.B. Jacobson and J.S. Roucek, editors (New York, Philosophical
Library, 1959), pp. 297-308.
Reprinted by Michigan State University,
Labor and Industrial Relations Center, 1959-60 reprint series, East
Lansing, 1959.
Effect of automation on amount of available leisure time, leisure
use patterns, and American culture patterns.


Fernstrom, John R. "Community Attack Upon Chronic Unemployment - Hazle­
ton, Pa.: A Case Study," Studies in Unemployment* U.S* Senate,
Special Committee on Unemployment Problems, 86th Cong., 2d sess.
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960), pp. 367-409.
Community efforts to retain local industries, provide new jobs, and
encourage new industry location.


Ginzberg, Eli. "Automation and Manpower," Governor’s Conference on
Automation; Proceedings* June 1-3, 1960, Cooperstown, N.Y. (Albany,
1966), pp. 8(5-92.
Significance of current technical changes. Effect on level of employ­
ment, labor force, education and training. Policy recommendations for
State governments.


Ginzberg, Eli.

"Machines vs. Men?"

Challenge, June 1961, pp. 26-29.

Manpower trends and sources of future workers.
Implications for
unemployment, employment, education, retraining, and government policy.



Goldberg, Arthur J. "Statement before the Subcommittee on Unemployment
and the Impact of Automation," Impact of Automation on Employment;
Hearings, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and
Labor, 87th Cong., 1st sess., April 25, 1961 (Washington, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1961), pp. 651-677.
Examples of unemployment under the impact of technological changes
and productivity gains. Special problems of youth, older workers,
unskilled workers, and those in depressed areas.
Programs and policies
recommended for labor, management, and governments to alleviate unemploy­


Goldberg, Arthur J. "What Can Be Done About Unemployment? " The Saturday
Evening Post, April 29, 1961, pp. 15 ff.
Causes and kinds of unemployment. Impact of structural unemployment
upon communities and people. Effects of automation in manufacturing.
Government and private programs and proposals to alleviate unemployment
and cushion the effects of automation.


Haber, William, and others. Maintenance of Way Employment on U.S.
Railroads: An Analysis of the Sources of Instability and Remedial
Measures {Detroit, Brotherhood ol Maintenance of Way Employees, 1957).
237 pp.
Analysis of technological displacement and employment instability by
four economists.


Hansen, Alvin H. "Automation and the Welfare State," The New Republic,
April 10, 1961, pp. 10-11.
Technological progress and structural unemployment.
Decline in pro­
duction workers, increase in service employment and implications for
education and welfare.


Heckscher, August. "The New Leisure," The Nation>s Children 1; The
Family and Social Change, Eli Ginzberg, editor.
Published! for
Golden Anniversary White House Conference on Children and Youth (New
York, Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 227-247.
Impact on youth.

Teenager leisure and consumption.


The role of work.


Henderson, John P. Changes In the Industrial Distribution of Employment,
1919-59, Bull. 87 (Champaign, 111., University of Illinois,
Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 1961).
104 pp.
Examines long-range shifts in employment from agriculture to man*
ufacturing, and from manufacturing to the service industries, using
annual statistical series. Also examines productivity effects of inter*
industry employment shifts and problems of unemployment.


"The Impact of Automation**A Challenge to America," The American Federa*
tionlst, August 1961, pp. 12*19.
Federal responsibility for economic planning, technological surveys,
and continuing review. Cooperative programs proposed for training,
retraining, employment service improvement, distressed areas, and older
workers. Examples of useful negotiated adjustment procedures in the
railroad, meatpacking, longshore, and other industries.


International Labor Office. Effects of Mechanisation and Automation in
Offices. Report No. 3, ILO Advisory Committee on Salaried Employees
and Professional Workers, 5th sess., Cologne, 1959 (Geneva, 1959).
121 pp.
Characteristics, introduction, and spread of office automation.
Effects on employment, job and skill requirements, training and retrain*
ing, older workers, occupational structure, working conditions, health
and morale, and labor-management relations.


International Labor Office. Effects of Technological Developments on
Wages and on Conditions and"Level of Employment in the Textile
Industry. Report No. 3, ILO Textiles Committee, 6th sess. (Geneva,
166 pp.
Scope of technical developments, and effects on wages, wage structure,
income security, hours of work, shift work, training and other working
conditions, levels of employment, and work force composition. Problems
of reabsorbing displaced workers.


Kahn, Herbert L. "Automation and Employment," Labor Law Journal, November
1959, pp. 796-805.
Concept and examples of automation. Effects on employment, produc­
tivity, skills, displacement, and policy proposals.



Kerr, Clark. "The Prospect for Wages and Hours In 1975," U.S. Industrial
Relations; The Next Twenty Years, Jack Stieber, editor (Cast Lansing,
Mich., Michigan State University Press, 1958), pp. 169-194.
Outlook for leisure, wage structure, skills, income, and productivity.


Killingsworth, Charles C. "Automation in Manufacturing," Industrial
Relations Research Association Proceedings, 1958, pp. 19-34.
Concept and definition. Effects on employment, job requirements and
occupational structure, and labor-management relations.


Killingsworth, Charles C. Effects of Automation on Employment and Man­
power Planning, "Statement before the Subcommittee on Employment and
Manpower of the Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare," June 14
and 15, I960. Reprinted by Michigan State University, Labor and
Industrial Relations Center, 1960-61 reprint series No. 37, East
9 pp. Also in The Nation, December 17, I960* pp. 467-470,
and The American Federation!st, January 1961, pp. 20-23.
Concept of automation, rate of introduction and labor displacement,
skill changes, upgradings, and downgradings.


Lasser, David. "The Impact of Unions and Technological Change on Wage
Payment Systems,” West Virginia University Institute of Industrial
Relations Proceedings, 9th Labor-Management Conference, 1959, pp. 15-

Trends in pay systems. Effects of technological changes on individual
incentives, work quotas, and job evaluation.


Levitan, Sar A. "Structural Unemployment and Public Policy," Labor Law
Journal, July 1961, pp. 573-582.
Rise in unemployment, extent of and trends in structural unemployment.
Recommends Federal programs to reduce future impact by improved employ­
ment services, retraining facilities, labor mobility, and aid to depressed



Livernash, E. Robert.
"The Impact of Unions and Technological Change on
Wage Payment Systems," West Virginia University Institute of Industrial
Relations Proceedings, 9th Labor-Management Conference, 1959, pp. 1-14.
Trends and potential developments in wage payment systems. Influence
of unions and technological change on performance of work and method of


McIntyre, William R. "Automation and Jobs," Editorial Research Reports,
June 3, 1959, pp. 403-420.
Impact on factory and office jobs, occupational trends, collective
bargaining, and the labor movement. Means of easing impact and results
of union efforts.


Meredith, Jane L. "Long-Term Unemployment in the United States,"
Monthly Labor Review, June 1961, pp. 601-610.
Examines sources of unemployment and characteristics of the long­
term unemployed, influence of automation, and future labor force growth.


Myers, Robert J. "Social Ramifications of Automation," Pittsburgh
Business Review, September 1961. Address at commencement week
seminar of the University of Pittsburgh, June 9, 1961. Mimeographed
by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1961. 14 pp.
Trends in productivity and examples of technological change in the
coal, railroad, and steel industries. Implications for unemployment.
Measures to prevent displacement and hardships and to retrain workers.


National Association of Manufacturers. Automation: A Prime Source of
More and Better Jobs, Economic series. No. 81 (New York, September
B W . I T ' pp'.--------Impact of automation on labor, employment, and investment. Implica­
tions for layoffs, transfers, labor relations, retraining, downgrading,
and wages.
Challenge for labor, management, and government.


Navi lie, P. "The Structure of Employment and Automation," International
Social Science Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1958, pp. 16-29.
Interactions of automation and employment.
Factors determining
quantitative changes in employment, structural changes in manpower
composition, and changes in cost, value of human effort, and employee



New York, Department of Labor. Jobs, 1960-1970. The Changing Pattern;
Manpower and Technological Change in New York State (Albany, 1960!>.
40 pp.
Implication of changing technology for the labor force, manpower
needs, training needs and facilities, retraining, skills, and unemployment.


Piel, Gerard. "End of Toil; Science Offers A New World,” The Nation,
June 17, 1961, pp. 515-519. Same text published as Consumers of
Abundance, an Occasional Paper on the Role of the Economic Order in
the Free Society (Santa Barbara, Calif., Center for the Study of
Democractic Institutions, June 1961). 10 pp.
Adjustments to the reduction in worktime and implications for the
distribution system, employment, and social values. Increased production,
leisure, and redistribution of income. Subversion of property as an


Piel, Gerard. wThe Revolution in Man’s Labor," New York, Scientific
American, 1959 • 16 pp.
Comparison of labor in ancient and contemporary economies. Revolu­
tion in science, technology, and labor, with implications. Want as a
social problem. Program to increase production in undeveloped countries.


Raskin, A. H. "Hard-Core Unemployment: A Rising National Problem,"
and 3 other articles. New York Times, April 6-9, 1961.
Problems of chronic unemployment, how automation affects it, fears of
displacement, implications for skills and retraining and other human
efforts, and efforts in and outside Government to ease its impact.


Reuther, Walter P. "Statement to the Subcommittee on Automation and
Energy Resources," New Views on Automation, U.S. Congress, Joint
Economic Committee, 66th Cong., £d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1960), pp. 551-583.
Implications of automation for productivity, economic growth, auto­
mobile employment and industry location, and community problems.
Collective bargaining provisions to cushion impact and protect job
rights. Government responsibilities and recommended policies.



Rezler, Julius. "The Impact of Automation on the Stability of Manufac­
turing Employment," Current Economic Comment, May 1958, pp. 55-62.
Impact on employment stability, business cycles and investment.
Speed of introduction and limits to application.


Rosen, Howard. "Technicians in the Labor Force of Russia and America,
Monthly Labor Review, January 1958, pp. 1-5.
Growth in importance of semiprofessional occupations in the industrial
labor force and implications for their training and supply. Comparison
by occupational choice, source of supply, ratio of technicians to
professionals, and evaluation of technician training programs in the
United States and Russia.


Ruttenberg, Stanley H. "Statement before the Subcommittee on Unemploy­
ment and the Impact of Automation," Impact of Automation on Employ­
ment; Hearings, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education
and Labor, 87th Cong., 1st sess., March 29, 1961 (Washington, U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1961), pp. 379-403.
Federal responsibility for economic growth, technological outlook
studies, training and education, employment service, depressed areas,
older workers, shorter hours, and a continuing review of automation's
impact. Collective bargaining responsibility of management and labor
for retraining, providing financial cushions, preventing downgrading,
etc. Examples of the Washington Agreement and Armour automation' fund.


Smith, Georgina M. Office Automation and White Collar Employment. Insti­
tute of Management and Labor Relations, Bull. No. 6 (New Brunswick,
N.J., Rutgers University, 1959). 26 pp.
Trends in office machine technology and applications to office func­
tions. Economic rationale. Effects on white-collar employment: dis­
placed clerks, the group not hired, and new technicians. Implications
for transfers, training and retraining, skills, shift work, and unionism.


Soule, George. Time for Living (New York, Viking Press, 1955). 184 pp.
Same text published under title What Automation Does to Human Belngfc
(London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1956). lift pp.
Implications of technological developments for a new stage of civili­
zation, productivity, skills, population, occupational change, work,
leisure, and pursuit of happiness.



Stern, James. "A Union View of Automation,"Antioch Review, Winter 1956-57,
pp. 419-434.
Description of automation in an automobile plant. Effects on produc­
tivity, employment, displacement, occupational requirements, skills,
and hours of work.
Policies of the United Auto Workers and management.


Ture, Norman B. "New Wine for Old Bottles:
Challenge, May 1961, pp. 6-9.

The Depressed Areas,"

Technological change as a factor creating depressed areas.
in the automobile and steel industries.



U.S. Civil Service Commission, Bureau of Programs and Standards.
Personnel Impact of Automation in the Federal Service (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1^58). 2l pp.
Nature of major technological changes.
Recruiting, training, quali­
fication and position classification standards of automatic data-processing personnel.
Impact on hours of work, displacement, and employee rela­


U.S. Congress, House of Representatives. "Employment in the Dynamic
American Economy--With Study Papers," Congressional Record, 87th
Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961).
139 pp.
Speeches by 19 Republican members of the House, incorporating back­
ground study papers.
Includes effects of automation on employment
and unemployment and retraining of workers. Other topics include con­
ditions which will best afford useful employment opportunities, the role
of government, business, and labor, and policies for maximum employment,
production, and purchasing power.


U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor.
Impact of Automation on Employment; Hearings, Subcommittee on Unemploy­
ment and the Impact of Automation, 8)th Cong., 1st sess., March 8-April
25, 1961 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961). 793 pp.
Statements by 31 labor, business, university, and Government officials.
Also papers, letters, and supplementary materials.
Impact of automation
in the textile, communications, steel, electronics, railroad, automobile,
trucking, metalworking, and mining industries, and the general economy.



U.S. Congress, Senate. Report of the Special Committee on Unemployment
Problems. 86th Cong., 2d sess., Report 12:66 (Washington, U.S. Government printing Office, 1960), pp. 44-55.
Automation as a factor related to unemployment. Nature of automation.
Effects on agriculture, manufacturing, railroads, coal mining, and
examples of labor-management attempts to anticipate automation in meat­
packing and longshoring.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Background
Information on Impact of Automation and Technological Change on
Employment and Unemployment, BES No. R-206 (Washington, September
1961). 50 pp.
Summarizes materials on effects of automation and technological change
on employment and unemployment. Viewpoints of management and labor, and
research in universities, foundations, and government agencies are included.
Prepared for use by State employment security agencies. Includes 125item bibliography.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Computing
Machines; Labor Market Developments. Industry Manpower Surveys,
No. 98 (Washington, D.C., January 1961). 15 pp.
Trends in production, employment, and labor requirements in manufacture
of computing machines. Growth and employment outlook. Recruitment pro­
blems, earnings, turnover, and major labor market areas.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Trends in Ouput
per Man-Hour in the Private Economy, 1909-1958, Bull. 1249 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959). 4? pp. (1960 supplement
available from Bureau of Labor Statistics.)
Indexes and average rates of change in output, man-hours, output per
man-hour, and employment in major sectors, with explanatory notes.
Analysis of trends and factors affecting changes.


Wilson, George W. "Technological Change and Unemployment," Current
Economic Comment, May 1958, pp. 47-54.
An investigation of conditions under which a technological change
which involves a reduction in per unit labor costs will or will not cause



Wolfbein , Seymour L. "Automation and Unemployment," paper prepared for
the President's Advisory Committee on Labor Management Policy (Mimeo­
graphed by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
May 1, 1961). 4 pp.
Different types and causes of unemployment.
Special problems of
youth, unskilled workers, older workers, Negroes, and workers in depressed
areas. Courses of action in education, training, skill development,
mobility, and reducing and preventing automation's impact.


Wolfbein, Seymour L. "Automation and the Labor Force," Challenge,
October 1961, pp. 24-28.
Questions and answers on implications for unemployment, skills,
labor mobility, and Government policies.



This section contains references to automation's Implications for
occupational requirements and structure, skills, job content, upgrading and
downgrading, hours of work, health, and safety.


Abruzzi, Adam. "The Power of Automation; New Horizons in Labor Dignity."
Automation, December 1956, pp. 38-42.
Implications of automation for the dignity of human labor, and
appreciation of human skills.


Barry, John M. "The Pressure Builds for Shorter Workweeks," The
American Federation!st, November 1961, pp. 6-9.
Historical trend toward shorter workweek and current union demands
for more leisure. Implications of technological change for shorter
working hours.


Bell, Daniel.
56 pp.

Work and Its Discontents (Boston, Beacon Press, 1956).

Implications of automation for concepts of work organization,
content, and measurement.
Industry decentralization, decline of
production workers, multiple work shifts, and other social effects.
(See also extract, "Living with Automation: A Look Ahead,"
Management Review, January 1957, pp. 75-83.)


Bendiner, Robert. "Could You Stand a Four-Day Week?"
August 8, 1957, pp. 10-14.

The Reporter,

Social consequences of extended leisure through reduction of the
workweek, and implications for selected occupations. Advantages of
the 4-month vacation versus 4-day week. Trends and opportunities in
leisure activities.



Bergmann, R. H. "Moonlighting and the American Dream," The Nation,
July 1, 1961, pp. 3-5.
Attitudes toward, motives for, and extent of, moonlighting in
various occupations. Influence on unions and on labor-management


Bloomberg, Warner, Jr.
"Requiem for the Laboring Man," Harper's,
June 1959, pp. 60-64.
Decline of unskilled workers and increase in leisure for factory


Bright, James R. "Does Automation Raise Skill Requirements?"
Business Review, July/August 1958, pp. 85-98.
A theory of the impact of automation on skill requirements.
demand on worker's skill, education, and attention.




"Close Up of the Technician: Engineering Semipro?" Parts 1-4 in Machine
Design, May 12, 1960, pp. 24-28; May 26, 1960, pp. 25-28; June 9, l9bd,
pp. 2$-28; June 23, 1960, pp. 25-28.
Based on Managing Technician
Manpower. Technical Manpower Associates, Scarsdale, N.Y.

Definitions, types of technicians, role in engineering activities,
engineer-technician ratios. Technicians' attitudes toward status,
supervision, professional societies, unions, and wages. Attitudes of
management on technician's role and status in industry, hiring techniques,
special inducements, and on-the-job training.


"Effects of Mechanization and Automation in Offices" (I-III), Inter­
national Labour Review, February 1960, pp. 154-173; March 1960,
pp. 255-2M; April i960, pp. 350-369.
Developments, spread, and effects of office mechanization and
Characteristics of electronic data-processing systems.
Effects on job and skill requirements, training and retraining, older
workers, occupational structure, environment, and working conditions.
Based on ILO report, see 5.27.



Pine, Sidney A. "A Reexamination of 'Transferability of Skills',"
Monthly Labor Review, Pt. I, July 1957, pp. 803-810; Pt. II,
August 1957, pp. 938-948.
Part I examines some difficulties about transferability. Part II
draws upon U.S. Employment Service work in occupational classification
research which provides criteria and guidelines in developing a
systematic approach to the study of skill transferability.


Foulger, John H. "The Anticipated Effect of Automation on Industrial
Medicine," Industrial Medicine and Surgery, February 1960, pp. 86-89.
Implications for worker's medical problems. Experiences in the
chemical industry. Discussion of frustration, monotony, and safety.


Galbraith, John Kenneth.
"The Decline of the Machine," The Liberal
Hour (New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1960), pp. 28-43.
Factors of change in relative value position of human skills and
intelligence compared to capital plant. Need for and ways of investing
in personal development.


Ginzberg, Eli. Human Resources: the Wealth of a Nation (New York,
Simon and Schuster, 1958).
183 pp.
Popular book on manpower problems and policies, based on research
in human resources at Columbia University. Marginal workers, unem­
ployment, underemployment, barriers to employment, training, and
Nature of talent and determinants of superior performance.
Changes in working hours and conditions.


Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Automation and Skill, by E.R.F.W. Crossman.
Problems of Progress
in Industry, No. $ (London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1960).
58 pp.
Features of work and skill requirements of continuous flow production,
programmed machines, and centralized remote control. Implications for
maintenance work, supervision, responsibility, and social skills.
Personnel problems of selection, training, and incentives.



Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Ergonomics of Automation by A.T. Welford.

Problems of Progress in

Industry, No. 8 (London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1960).
60 pp.

Reviews research relevant to problems of human operators in automated
plants, with emphasis on equipment design. Considers human factors of
responsibility, isolation, shift work, training, job satisfaction, and
capacity for monitoring and control operations. Changes in skill and
maintenance requirements.


Hayes, A. J. "Labor's Aims in Adjusting to the New Technology,"
Monthly Labor Review, February 1959, pp. 160-163. Excerpts from
address, "Filling the Demand for Manpower," before the Conference
on Labor and Science in a Changing World, AFL-CIO, Washington,
January 7-8, 1959.
Impact of population growth and research and development on manpower
requirements, skills, apprenticeship, training and education.


Hill, Samuel E. and Harbison, Frederick. Manpower and Innovation in
American Industry (Princeton, N.J., Princeton University, Industrial
Relations Section, 1959). 85 pp.
Implications of technological and organizational innovation for
employment of high-talent manpower— executives, managers, engineers,
and scientists.
Based on interviews in 50 companies covering a wide
range of manufacturing and other industries.


Janssen, Richard F. "More Companies Teach Men New Skills, Ease Impact
of Automation," Wall Street Journal, August 23, 1961, pp. 1 ff.

Description of corporate retraining programs and other means used
in petroleum, steel, chemical, electronics^and meatpacking firms to
ease impact of automation. Performance of retrained workers, job
satisfaction, problems of older workers, union-management relations,
and costs.


Karsh, Bernard.
"The Meaning of Work in an Age of Automation,"
Current Economic Comment, August 1957, pp. 3-13. Reprinted' by the
Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of Illinois,
reprint series No. 52, Champaign, 111., August 1957.
Effects on work as a status source, the concept of work and leisure,
work satisfaction, skills, and the labor force.



Karsh, Bernard.
pp. 93-96.

"White-Collar Labor," The Nation, January 31, 1959,

Discusses decrease in number of blue-collar workers and increase in
white-collar workers, and concern of both groups for safeguarding their
future against growing automated machine competition. Examples of
trade union implications in longshoring, airline, auto, electronics,
machinery, and printing industries.


Malabre, Alfred L. "Automation’s Impact," Wall Street Journal,
August 27, 1959, p. 1 ff.
Effects of automation on Whirlpool’s Evansville, Ind., plant work
force; new trades, transfers, downgradings, layoffs, and relief payments.
Effects on community business, population, and example of joint citybusiness new industry promotion.


McGill, George S. "Staffing an Atomic Energy Plant; the Shippingport
Experience," Labor Market and Employment Security. March 1959,
pp. 1-7.
Presents unique staffing problems of first large-scale nuclear power
plant. Selection and training, initial organization, occupational com­
position and functions, employee characteristics, and factors affecting


McKenna, J. V. "Must Automation Destroy Labor?"
1961, pp. 661-663.

America, February 18,

Trends in industrial technology and implications for jobs, skills,
manpower, and occupational structure. Examples of union and Air Force
sponsored retraining programs.


New York, Department of Labor. Manpower Requirements in Electronics
Manufacturing; Outlook to 1964 in the New York metropolitan area
(New York, December 1966).
l!>4 pp.
Survey data from 288 firms on current employment, hiring specifications,
and future demand and supply for 41 occupations. Detailed job guides
to 36 occupations, nature of jobs, and employment prospects.



Northrup, Herbert R. "Automation: Effects on Labor Force, Skills and
Employment," Industrial Relations Research Association Proceedings,
1958, pp. 35-45.

Meaning of automation and effects on occupations, skills, unemploy­
ment, and union relations.


Patterson, William F. "The Changing Technology," Personnel Administrator,
February 1960, pp. 5-8.
Effects on skilled crafts, manpower, jobs, and skill requirements.
Urgency of updated training and retraining programs. Rise of new


Ronayne, Maurice F. "The Personnel Side of Automatic Data Processing,"
Public Personnel Review, October 1960, pp. 243-248.
Definition, scope, and purpose of, and organizing for, automatic
data processing. Jobs in automatic datarprocessing systems. Qualifi­
cations required of applicants. Probable extent of job displacement.
Education for automatic data processing. Importance of cooperation of
all personnel and support of top management.


Ruttenberg, Stanley H. "Economic and Social Implications," Monthly
Labor Review, February 1959, pp. 164-165. Excerpts from an address
before the Conference on Labor and Science in a Changing World,
AFL-CIO, Washington, January 7-8, 1959.

Implications of new technology for occupational requirements, wages,
seniority practices, work habits and content, attitudes, and unemploy­
ment. Goals for policy decisions.


Scanlon, Burt K. "After You Automate, Then What?"
and American Business. March 1961, pp. 30-32.

Office Management

Effect of data-processing equipment in an insurance firm and a bank
on employment, job content, salaries, cost, and occupational structure.
Use of attrition to prevent layoffs.



Slater, Robert £. "Thinking Ahead: How Near Is the Automatic Office? "
Harvard Business Review, March/April, 1958, pp. 27-31.
Limitations of data-processing equipment. Effects on organizational
Selection, training, and utilization of computer personnel.


Smith, Robert M.

"Sweeping Personnel Changes Foreseen As Result of New

Automation Developments," Office Management and American Business,
August 1960, pp. 11-14 ff; September 19(>0, pp. 42-44.

Shifts in occupational requirements and defense manpower demands and
implications for skills, office employment, unemployment, and labor
market, research, and service industries. Effects on clerical workers
and management.


Tewson, Vincent. "Shorter Hours and Automation," Free Labour World,
December 1960, pp. 497-500.

Problems of and motives for, shorter working hours. Implications
for labor mobility, easing the transition, and problems of shift work.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Occupations
in Electronic Data-Processing Systems (Washington, U.S. Government
Printing Office, January 1959). 44 pp.
Thirteen occupations analyzed according to: job definition; education,
training, and experience; special characteristics; aptitudes; interests;
temperaments; and physical demands and working conditions.
on automation.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Selected
Occupations Concerned with Atomic Energy. No. E-197 (Washington,
U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1961). 57 pp.
Job definitions, education, training, and experience requirements;
special worker characteristics, aptitudes, and temperaments required;
physical demands and working conditions.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security. Technical
Occupations in Research, Design, and Development Considered as
Directly Supporting to Engineers and Physical Scientists, No. E-194
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1961). 113 pp.
Characteristics and sources of research, design, and development
technicians. Work activities, where employed, educational and training
requirements; aptitudes, interests, and temperaments required; physical
demands and working conditions by occupational category.
Job summary
and nature of work by occupation.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Automation and
Employment Opportunities for Officeworkers, Bull. 1241 (Washington,
1958). 14 pp.

Effects of installation of electronic computers on employment of
clerical workers and occupations. Industries affected. Special report
on programmers: nature of work, training, qualifications, earnings,
working conditions, and employment outlook.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Factory Jobs:
Employment Outlook for Workers in Jobs Requiring Little or No
Experience or Specialized Training, Bull. 1268 (Washington, 1961).
2o pp.

Nature of selected operative occupations in manufacturing. Industries
where found, training and qualifications for; earnings, and working


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Outlook Handbook, Bull. 1300 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 19(>1). 850 pp.
Appraisal of the employment outlook, nature of work, training and
other qualifications needed for entry, lines of advancement, job
location, and earnings and working conditions in over 650 occupations.


Wecksler, A. N. "Mechanization Speeds the Shift in Workers' Skills,"
Mill and Factory, May 1961, pp. 9-13.
Shift in the ratio of white-collar to blue-collar workers in
petrochemicals, missiles, electronics, and the electrical field.
Trends and experience at General Motors and American Bosch Arma Corp.
in occupational mix, labor relations, upgrading, and recruitment.



Uolfle, Dael. "Forecasting Surpluses and Shortages in Key Occupations,"
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
September 1959, pp. 29-37.
Supply-demand relationships for various categories of scientists
and engineers in the United States and Europe. Future trends, methods,
problems, and uses of forecasting.


World Health Organization. Mental Health Problems of Automation;
Report of a Study Group, Technical Report Series No. 183 (Geneva,

30 pp.

Scope of the human impact of automation. Mental health consequences
of strain among individual workers in automated plants; repercussions
of social change through the introduction of automation; and needed
activities in the mental health field arising from the introduction
of automation.



This section contains references on automation's implications for train­
ing, retraining, education, apprenticeship, and counseling. Examples of
training programs are included.


Adams, Alexander and Guerin, Q. W. "Selection and Training of Computer
Programmers at the Navy’s Electronics Supply Office," Journal of the
American Society of Training Directors, November 1959, pp. 22-26.

Description of hiring standards, selection tests, weeding out
process, and training program.


"Auto Workers Learn New Skills," Business Week, July 29, 1961, pp. 74-75.
Description of successful Chester, Pa., retraining programs for
workers displaced by auto plant shutdown.


Barry, F. Gordon and Coleman, C. G., Jr. "Tougher Program for Manage­
ment Training," Harvard Business Review, November/December 1958,
pp. 117-125.

Some characteristics of Bendix Aviation Corp.'s management training
program to keep managers alert to changing conditions. Experiences,
methods used, and success achieved.


Brown, Gordon S. "New Scientific Developments in the Area of Automation,"
The American Economy: An Appraisal of Its Social Goals and the Impact
of Science and Technology, Haig Babian, editor (New York, Joint
Council on Economic Education, 1958), pp. 87-96.
Technical achievements and their social effects, with emphasis on
implications of automation for education.



MChemical Technician Training: A Stepping Stone,” Chemical and
Engineering News, June 13, 1960, pp. 52 ff.
Technician training in State junior colleges
compared with other areas.


New York system

Council for Technological Advancement. Trends in Education and Utili­
zation of Technical Manpower--A Critical National Issue, No. 5 of
a series on technology and employment (Washington, 1957). 25 pp.
Growth of science and technology and transition in education.
Government, industry, and education programs to alleviate the technical
manpower shortage.


Diebold, John.
pp. 42-46.

"Automation Needs A Human Policy," Challenge, May 1959,

Social obligations and economic problems of management in introducing
automation. Displaced workers, older workers, training, retraining,
and sharing productivity gains.


Emerson, Lynn A. Industrial Education in a Changing Democratic Society,
Bulletin 33 (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University, New York State School
of Industrial and Labor Relations, October 1955). 94 pp.
Ten selected papers, 1939-55. Effects of changing production
techniques on education and manpower requirements. Need for changes
in vocational education and programs to meet future requirements.


Friedmann, Georges. Industrial Society: The Emergence of the Human
Problems of Automation (Glencoe, 111., The Free Press, 1955). 436 pp.
Implications for skills, training, and the human factor in work.


Goldberg, Arthur J. "Statement before the Subcommittee on Employment
and Manpower," Training of the Unemployed; Hearings, U.S. Senate,
Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, 87th Cong., 1st sess-,
June 7, 1961 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961),
pp. 219-260.
Effects of technological developments on workers, employment, produc­
tion, productivity, skills, and occupational requirements. Implications
for training, retraining, counseling, and labor-management relations.
Summary of the Administration-sponsored bill, S. 1991 (Clark).



Groom, Phyllis P. "Retraining the Unemployed,I--European Government
Frograms," Monthly Labor Review, August 1961, pp. 823-828.
First of a series on retraining; summary of recent congressional
retraining legislation. Structure of Government retraining programs
in Sweden and France.


Groom, Phyllis P. "Retraining the Unemployed II--Federal and State
Legislation on Retraining,11 Monthly Labor Review, September 1961,
pp. 939-943.
Early training legislation, provisions of the Area Redevelopment
Act, and State training legislation and unemployment insurance laws.
Second in aseries; articles are to follow on a community retraining
program, retraining by unions, and considerations in developing a
Government program.


"The Hard Realities of Retraining,,f Fortune, July 1961, pp. 241-242 ff
Results and problems of various retraining programs undertaken by
industry and government. Need for upgrading labor force.


Hart, Dale J. and Lifton, Walter M. "Automation and Counseling,ff
The Personnel and Guidance Journal, December 1958, pp. 282-287.
Examination of psychological phenomena resulting from technological
change# Meaning for the individual. Effect on schools.


Hathaway, A. G. "Nettf Tools for Technical Trainers,11 I.S.A. Journal,
December 1960, pp. 46-47.
Instrument Society of America task force defines technical
instrumentation personnel in terms of their job functions.


Hoy, George A.
pp. 89-100.

"Maintenance Training," Factory, February 1960,

Advantages of training and faults in U.S. maintenance training prac
tices. Standards of training. Trainee selection problems and aids.
Description of training programs at selected large and small plants.
Typical training problems and solutions reported by 40 plants.



Hughes, J. L. "Industrial Applications of Teaching Machines," Journal of
the American Society of Training Directors. July 1961, pp. 30-41.
Summary of some research findings from industrial studies. Effects
of programmed instructions on employee attitudes, learning time, and
achievements. Preparation of, time, and cost of programmed instruction
materials. Introduction into company training programs.


Hull, George F., Jr. and Cummings, H. B., Jr. "TVA Courses Develop
Engineering Assistants," Electrical World, January 30, 1961,
pp. 40-42.
Benefits from training program. Problems in trainee selection.
Lecture courses and on-the-job training.


Hyman, I. Harry. "The Craftsman--Today*s Vanishing American," American
Machinist/Metalworking Manufacturing, April 4, 1960, pp. 121-124.
Reprinted by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Qualifications and shortages of trainees.


Revising outmoded training.

"ITU Meets New Technology Head On!" Graphic Arts Monthly, October 1960,
pp. 34-40. Reprinted by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training.
International Typographical Union training program and center for
retraining skilled printers and mailers. Content of courses offered.


Karp, H. R. "How Two Companies Train Technicians," Control Engineering,
December 1956, pp. 65-69.
Description of training programs at Carbide and Carbon Chemical Co.,
and Ford Motor Co. Selecting trainees, classroom and laboratory
training, apprenticeship and refresher courses, curriculum, textbooks,
and training aids.



Katis, R. F. "Training for Automation," American Machlnlst/Metalworking
Manufacturing, November 28, 1960, pp. 152-153. Reprinted by U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. 2 pp.
Description of a technician training program designed to help staff
a new and highly automated electrical machinery plant.


Kaufman, Jacob J. "Labor Mobility, Training, and Retraining," Studies
in Unemployment, U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Unemployment
Problems, 86th Cong., 2d sess. (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1960), pp. 343-365.
Factors influencing labor mobility and labor surplus areas. Changes
in the labor force and skill requirements. Objectives of training and
retraining programs, types and facilities of training. Labor mobility
in Pennsylvania.


"Macy's Contract Pledges Retraining," Business Week, April 29, 1961,
pp. 81.
Describes retraining clause in union contract requiring retraining of
department store employees whose jobs are eliminated by automation.


McCauley, John S. "BAT and Community Apprenticeship Committees,"
Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, November 1953,
pp. 16-19. Reprinted by U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training, 1958. 4 pp.
Trends in industrial training. Promotion of training, research, and
technical assistance by Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. Findings
of BAT studies on effects of mechanization on foundry skill requirements.


Metaxas, Ted. "Maintenance Training . . . Your Best Source of New
Skills," Mill and Factory, April 1960, pp. 81-84. Reprinted by
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training. 3pp.
Description of skilled trades training program of a large appliance
manufacturer. Selection of trainees, training on the job and in class,
and apprenticeship.



Mueche, Howard 0. "The Demands of Automation,” American Vocational
Journal, April 1961, pp. 12-13 ff.
Implications for skills, training, employment, with special attention
to older workers.


Peters, Otis F., Jr. ''Plant Craft Training Responsibility," Bell
Telephone Magazine, Autumn 1959, pp. 51-58.
Objectives and methods of plant craft employee training program as
a continuous activity. Areas of responsibility for staff and line
organizations and individual craftsman.


"Retraining Works for the Fortunate Few," Business Week, June 17, 1961,
pp. 73-74.
Describes retraining program for displaced miners near abandoned
coal pits in Belgium. Problems of older workers, new skills, and
job acquisitions.


Statt, C. J. "Automation and Its Demands on the Technical Institutes,"
Technical Education News, Vol. 16, special issue, 1956, pp. 7-9.
Points out demands on technical institutes for training more, better,
and new kinds of technicians.


Steel, Marion. "Vocational Counseling for the Future," The American
Child, March 1960, pp. 17-20.
Effects of automation on future work opportunities and workers.
New opportunities in both automated and nonautomated fields.


U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor.
Manpower Utilization and Training; Hearings, Subcommittee on Unemploy­
ment and the Impact of Automation, 87th Cong., 1st sess., June 6 , 13,
14, 1961 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961). 171 pp.
Statements by 12 educators, businessmen, and Government and union
officials on the manpower training and utilization bill, H.R. 7373
(Holland). Includes examples of training and retraining, effects of
changing technology on occupational requirements, skills, training,
retraining, and education.



U.5. Congress, Senate, Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Training
of the Unemployed; Hearings, Subcommittee on Employment and Manpower,
87th Cong., 1st sess., March 20, 21, June 5 and 7, 1961 (Washington,
U.3. Government Printing Office, 1951). 405 pp.
Statements by 21 educators, business, labor, Government, and indus­
trial development officials on manpower training and utilization bills;
periodical articles, and other information. Examples of State and local
training and retraining programs. Impact of technical change on train­
ing, retraining, skills, occupational requirements, and labor-management


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Apprenticeship and Training in the Contract Tool and Die Industry,
T-150 (Washington, November 1959). 31 pp.
Study of training practices and needs in 2,434 firms.
of technological change for skills and training.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Foundry Training Needs (Washington, May 5, 1956). 20 pp. Summarized
by John S. McCauley in Monthly Labor Review, October 1957,
pp. 1224-1228.
Study of effects of mechanization on training, skills, occupations,
and employment, in 41 large highly mechanized foundries.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Foundry Training Meeds: Job Foundries (Washington, May 8, 1957).
18 pp. Summarized by John S. McCauley in Monthly Labor Review,
October 1957, pp. 1224-1228.
Survey of changes in mechanization, employment, occupational
structure, skill and training requirements in 101 semiproduction,
specialty, and job foundries.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Manpower Requirements and Training Needs in Construction Industry
Occupations, 1960-70 (Washington, December 1959). 12 pp.
Examples of, and need for, training programs to keep workers abreast
of new methods and materials. Number of journeymen required and number
in apprenticeship training.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Training and Retraining in Depressed Areas: A Case Study of How
BAT Works With Community Groups in ilazelton, Pa,, Bull. T-152
(Washington, March 1961). 8 pp.
Description of the organization of a communitywide training
program and industrial development efforts.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Training--The Key to the Future: Apprenticeship in Electronic
Occupations, Special Program Report No. 2 (Washington, April 1961).
97 pp.
Report on electronic technician training at Raytheon Co. Qualifi­
cations, selection, and training of apprentices. Industry advisory
committee operations. Apprentice wages and ratio to journeymen,
standards, training schedule, test questions, forms, and reports.


Viscardi, Henry, Jr. "Can Disabled Workers Meet the Demand of
Automation?” Advanced Management, July 1957, pp. 14-16.
Implications of automation for disabled workers. Describes growth
of a manufacturing firm employing only disabled workers, training, and
mechanization experiences.


Wilcox, Glad. "The Challenge of Automation to Technical Education,"
School Shop, June 1957, pp. 9-11.
Implications for technical education. Reports findings of company
studies on impact on education. Technical training needs.


Winthrop, Henry. "Some Psychological and Economic Assumptions Under­
lying Automation," Pts. I-II. The American Journal of Economics
and Sociology, July 1958, pp. 399-412; October 1958, pp. 69-82.
Analysis of representative ideas presented at the 1956 symposium
on "the social meaning of automation" (sponsored by the American
Psychological Association), regarding retraining, upgrading and
intelligence, job satisfaction, occupational change, unemployment,
leisure, consumption, natural resources, and the role of banking.



Wolfbein, Seymour L. "Education and Employment," The Nation>s
Children 2: Development and Education, Eli Ginzberg, editor
(New York, Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 138-157.
Published for the Golden Anniversary White House Conference on
Children and Youth.
Youth in the work force of the 1960*s. Industrial and occupational
change. Importance of education and training in responding to new


Yearley, C* K., Jr. "Automation and Public-Sponsored Education,"
Adult Education, Spring 1957, pp. 169-173.
Effects on adult education, training, skills, and management


Zollitsch, Herbert G. "Maintenance Training Methodology for Automation
Some Findings From a Pilot Study in a New Factory," ILR Research.
March 1957, pp. 14-16.
Techniques and methods in training maintenance mechanics to keep
automatic equipment breakdown time to a minimum. Training require­
ments and preparation of instructional materials.



This section cites examples of collective bargaining approaches to
automation's impact, union attitudes, and advance personnel planning.
Implications for unions, collective bargaining, seniority, work rules, and
unemployment benefits are covered.


"A Bigger Role for the Clerks?”

Railway A g e , July 29, 1957, pp. 19 ff.

Statement of George Harrison, president, Brotherhood of Railway
Clerks, on union policy toward introduction of electronic computers in
the railroad industry.


"Adjustment to Technological Change," AFL-CIO Collective Bargaining
Report, April/May 1958, pp. 25-31.
Union attitudes and bargaining approaches. Examples of negotiated
adjustment programs for workers displaced by automatic elevators; rail­
road office employees affected by adoption of an electronic computer;
and production workers affected by new technology at an oil refinery.


The Changing Character of American Industry. Papers delivered
at the Conference on the Changing Character of American Industry,
sponsored by the American Federation of Labor and Congress of
Industrial Organizations, January 16, 1958. Publication No. 67
(Washington, 1958). 86 pp.
Papers by Ewan Clague, George W. Taylor, Walter Isard, and Victor
Fuchs on the shifting composition of the work force, movement of industry
to new locations., and impact of industrial and technological change on
collective bargaining.


AFL-CIO, Department of Research. Labor Looks at Automation, Publication
No. 21 (Washington, revised July 1959).

Concept of continuous automatic production, feedback controls, data
processing, and numerically controlled machine tools. Implications for
productivity, displacement, job opportunities, collective bargaining,
seniority, wages, etc. Need for cushioning impact of layoffs, transfers,
and changes in skill requirements.



AFL-CIO, Industrial Union Department. Automation and Major Technological
Change, Collective Bargaining Problems. Papers presented at a confer­
ence held April 2 2 i9$& (Washington, 1958). 45 pp.


Describes effects of automation on wages, working conditions, and
labor relations at Ford Motor Co. Job and income security ramifications
of railway mergers and abandonments. Handling wage incentive problems
which are due to technological change.


AFL-CIO, Industrial Union Department. Automation and Major Technological
Change, Impact on Union Slse, Structure and Function, conference
panel discussion, April 22, 1958 (Washington, 1958). 25 pp.
Comments by Daniel Bell, James Stern, Otto Pragan, Warren Woods, and
Everett M. Kassalow. Implications of increase in number of nonproduction
workers. Jurisdictional problems.
Changes in union power, job character,
working conditions, and pay methods.


AFL-CIO, Industrial Union Department.
Labor Looks at the White-Collar
Worker; Proceedings, Conference on Problems of the White-Collar
Worker (Washington, February 20, 1957). 79 pp.
Papers and addresses by eight labor and Government officials.
of automation on white-collar workers. Summary of labor's views of
white-collar workers and their problems.


Aronson, Robert L« "Automation--Challenge to Collective Bargaining,"
New Dimensions in Collective Bargaining, edited by Harold W. Davey
and others (New York, Harper, 1959), pp. 47-70. Reprinted by
Cornell University, New York School of Industrial and Labor Relations,
Reprint No. 79. Ithaca, 1959. 70 pp.
Effects on union structure and Government, union policies, scope
and content of the collective agreement, and labor relations.


Association of Supervisory Staffs, Executives, and Technicians.
Automation: A Challenge to Trade Unions and Industry (London, 1956).
2? pp.
Nature of automation and function of unions during transition.
Implications for skills, unemployment, wealth, living standards, leisure,
power, and raw materials.



"Automation and the IBEW," The Electrical Workers* Journal, March 1961,
pp. 2-5 ff.
Technical trends in utilities, construction, atomic power and use of
radioisotopes, instruments and controls, railroads, radio-television,
and telephone, and effects on jobs, skills, and transfers. Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electrical Workers* attitudes, collective
bargaining, and other activities.


Automation Committee (chairman, Clark Kerr). Progress Report (Chicago,
June 19, 1961). 29 pp. Excerpts in Monthly Labor Review, August 1961,
pp. 851-857.
Committee formed under agreements of September 1, 1959, between
Armour and Co. and United Packinghouse, Food and Allied Workers, and
between Armour and Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of
North America. Findings in committee research on plant closings, labor
market, and transfers. Description of reemployment efforts, retraining
program, and experimental transfer plan. Separate statement by the
unions on impact of automation and Government responsibilities.


Backman, Jules.
pp. 805-815.

"The Size of Crews," Labor Law Journal, September 1961,

Effects of technological change on crew size. Railroad contractual
arrangements and State laws. Crew size in maritime, airline, longshore,
construction, and other industries.
Flexibility in crew rules and cost.


Baker, Elizabeth F. Printers and Technology: A History of the Inter­
national Printing Pressmen and Assistant's Union (New York, Columbia
University Press7 1957). 545 pp.
Effects of changing technology upon printing and printing trades'
unionism, union-management relations, unemployment, and job content.


Bannon, Ken and Samp, Nelson.
"Impact of Automation on Ford-UAW
Relationships," Monthly Labor Review, June 1959, pp. 612-615.
Effects on wage rates and classifications of automated jobs, skills,
retraining, seniority adjustments, and highly skilled trades.



Barbash, Jack. "Automation and Collective Bargaining," The American
Federationist, June 1957, pp. 18-19.

Union objectives: resistance to reductions in job opportunities,
participation in introduction of technological changes, resistance to
wage cuts, enforcement of safe working conditions, conservation of a
craft’s skill standards, and protection of union jurisdiction.


Beirne, Joseph A. The Job Revolution in Telephones (Washington, 1959).
Communications Workers oi: America, Education Department.
10 pp.
Changes in number and job composition of telephone industry workers.
Portent for union activities. Steps to cope with decreasing employment.


Beirne, Joseph A. Why We Welcome Automation (Washington, 1959).
Communications Workers of America, Education Department.
11 pp.

Automation in telephone industry:
mitigating harmful effects.


Potential gains and ways of

Black, James Menzies. "The Hidden Trap in Automation,” Dun’s Review
and Modern Industry, May 1961, pp. 53-54 ff.
Implications and outlook for labor relations, retraining, skills,
productivity, and Government. Problems of displacement and older


Braunthal, Alfred. "The Trade Union Movement Faces Automation,”
International Labour Review, December 1957, pp. 540-557.
Predicted effects on union structures. Responsibilities of employers
and the community to cope with unemployment through retraining and
relocating of workers. Ways of sharing the gains.


Brooks, Thomas.

"Displaced Workers," Challenge, January 1960, pp. 18-22.

Cushioning impact on displaced workers through union-management
Union approaches in the steel, garment, printing, railroad,
1ongshoring,and meatpacking industries.



Burtle, James. "Automation, the Guaranteed Wage and Hours of Work,"
International Labour Review, December 1957, pp. 540-557.
Implications of automation for guaranteed annual wage and shorter
hours of work. Tensions of adjustment. Advantages and disadvantages
of the dual job.


Einzig, Paul. "Automation and Industrial Relations," International
Social Science Bulletin, vol. 10, no. 1, 1958, pp. 19-37.

Outlines problems, their range and variety, difficulty and importance
of finding solutions. Importance of economic background in displacement
effects of automation. Effects on wages, wage differentials, living
standards, allocation of benefits, and occupational structure. Ways
to mitigate hardships.


Fairley, Lincoln. "Problems of the West Coast Longshore Mechanization
Agreement," Monthly Labor Review, June 1961, pp. 597-600.

Problems in bargaining, tax liability of contributions to automation
fund, and third party participation. Effects on load size, multiple
handling of cargo on the dock, future wage negotiations, unemployment,
and on other industries.


Fleming, R.W. "Collective Bargaining Approaches to Job Security."
Address to the Seventh Annual Industrial Relations Conference,
University of Michigan, March 29, 1961. U.S. Senate, Committee on
Labor and Public Welfare, Training of the Unemployed; Hearings,
Subcommittee on Employment and Manpower, 67th Cong., 1st sess.
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961), pp. A39-45.
Operations and experience of the Armour Automation Committee. Aiding
displaced workers through severance pay, training and retraining, inter­
plant transfers, spreading the work, and advance notice of plant changes.


Gallagher, B.F. "Con Edison Automation Lauded by Labor, Press,"
Industrial Bulletin, April 1960, pp. 2-7.
Describes technological developments at Consolidated Edison, changes
in production and employment, and company experience with attrition,
transfers, and upgrading of employees. Description of new Indian Point
atomic generating station and implications for labor-management relations.



Goldberg, Arthur J. "Mechanization...A Problem for Management, Labor
and Government," Mill & Factory, May 1961, pp. 7-9.
Need for rapid improvement in plant and equipment and examples of
labor-management contributions to problems of training, relocation,
and other employee adjustments. Role of Government.


Goldfinger, Nathaniel.
"Dealing With Automation in the Contract,"
Automation and the Union Health and Welfare Dollar; Proceedings,
Ninth Annual Industrial Relations Center Labor Conference, February 14-15, 1957 (Minneapolis, Minn., 1957), pp. 13-18.

Need for advance notice to unions of plans for introducing automation,
broader seniority concepts, retraining, layoff, recall and rehiring
provisions. Problems in bumping, transfer, wage rates, downgrading, and
incentive and job evaluation plans.


Gomberg, William. "The Work Rule Problem and Property Rights in the
Job," Monthly Labor Review, June 1961, pp. 595-596.
Necessity for acknowledgment of worker's property right in his job.
Labor viewed as capital charge on enterprise.
Plea for experimentation
in collective bargaining.


Gomberg, William.
"The Work Rules and Work Practices Problem,"
Industrial Relations Research Association Proceedings, 1961 Spring
Meeting 1961, pp. 643-(>i>4.
Conflicting property concepts and evolution of property rights in
Conflicts over jurisdication and featherbedding.
bargaining approaches to develop a solution to work rules controversy
in the longshore, railroad, and steel industries, and procedural
changes likely to develop.


Hayes, A.J. "Automation and Featherbedding," AFL-CIO Free Trade Union
News, June 1961, p. 8.

Examples of featherbedding in labor and management; how, where, and
why it occurs. Proposals to help workers adjust to technological change.



Hildebrand, George H. "The Use of Tripartite Bodies to Supplement
Collective Bargaining.*Industrial Relations Research Association
Proceedings, 1961 Spring Meeting. 19t>l. pp. 655-664.

Examples of tripartite study committees and arbitration boards formed
to deal with adjustment to change. Purpose, duties, and contributions
to collective bargaining. Experiences of bilateral cooperation and the
case for introducing neutrals.


Horowitz, Morris A. "The Diesel Firemen Issue on the Railroads,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review, July 1960, pp. 550-558.
Describes background of diesel firemen issue, summarizes findings
and recommendations of a Canadian Royal Commission Investigation of
this issue on the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1957, and appraises
factors influencing U.S. railroad negotiations.


International Association of Machinists. Meeting the Problems of
Automation Through Collective Bargaining (Washington, December 1960).
41 pp.
Compilation of union contract clauses and case descriptions related
to automation. Specific data presented on such topics as advance notice,
training, seniority, maintenance of income, establishing new jobs, and
sharing productivity gains.


International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (Ind.) Information
and Union Comment on the 1960 Mechanization and Modernization Fund
Agreement between the Longshoremen of the Pacific Coast and the
Steamship and Stevedoring Employers (San Francisco, November 1960).
12 pp.
Summary of provisions, worker benefits, employer guarantees, and
changes in methods, with union comment on each item.


Kassalow, Everett M. "Formula for Industrial Progress," I.U.D. Digest,
Winter 1960, pp. 79-88.
Implications of automation and plant relocation and kinds of employ­
ment and income protection needed. Examples of union-management
experience in dealing with automation's effects in railroads, longshoring,
meatpacking, electrical work, electric and gas utilities, and in the
chemicals, food, automobile, and steel Industries.



Kossoris, Max D. "Working Rules in West Coast Longshoring," Monthly
Labor Review, January 1961, pp. 1-10.
Recent history of labor relations between Pacific Maritime Association
and International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (Ind.).
Development of restrictive work rules and recent changes in union
strategy removing restrictions and allowing mechanization in exchange
for gain sharing and mechanization-fund payments. Development and use
of a man-hour measurement and reporting system.
Potential impact on
the work force and cost to employers.


"Labor Problems of Modernization in the Textile Industry," International
Labour Review, June 1960, pp. 527-556.
Reviews modernization plans in selected industrially advanced and
developing countries. Discusses problems of redundancy, displacement,
transfers, application of work study methods, training, working
conditions, and labor-management relations.
Examples of solutions.


Lasher, Albert C. "How To Avoid Labor Woes When You Automate,"
Dun's Review and Modern Industry, April 1960, pp. 42-44.
Use of manpower planning, attrition, retraining, collective bargaining,
and communication to dispel worker fears and prevent hardships.
of joint labor-management cooperation.


Livingston, John W. "The Transitional World of the White-Collar." The
American Federationist, March 1961, pp. 6-9.
Increase in number of white-collar workers and decline of their
advantages in wages, job security, and stability.
Changes in working
conditions and job content. Obstacles to and guidelines for organizing.


Minnesota, University of.

Dollar; Proceedings.

Automation and The Union Health and Welfare

Ninth Annual Industrial Relations Center Labor

Conference, February 14-15, 1957 (Minneapolis, 1957).

52 pp.

Includes papers by Frank McCallister, Nathaniel Goldfinger, and
Jules Pagano and three workshop discussions on types of automation,
management motives, labor's attitudes, industrial relations, arid
Government role. Collective bargaining problems: advanced notice to
union, seniority and severance-pay provisions, retraining, and wage
rates. Effects in the communication industry on job content, skills,
transfers, bargaining unit, and seniority.



"More Machines, Fewer Men--A Union That’s Happy About It," U.S. News
and World Report, November 9, 1959, pp. 60-64.

Interview with John L. Lewis. Attitude of United Mine Workers
(Ind.) toward improved technology, increased mining efficiency, loss
of jobs, and foreign competition. Gains of miners from increased


National Association of Manufacturers. Labor-Management Developments-Challenge to the Nation (New York, 1961). 36 pp.
Excerpts from panel discussion at NAM's 65th Congress of American
Industry, with introduction by C. Kothe.
Policies to encourage and
create public understanding of automation, to dispel worker's fears
and prevent hardships, by J. Diebold.
Unemployment problems by
M. Robertson.
Basic premises underlying Government interest, nature
of unemployment, and Government proposals to minimize impact on work


Neuloh, Otto. "Paving the Way for Technological Change," Personnel,
March/April 1958, pp. 21-26.
Long-term benefits and worker attitudes toward automation.
Based on
studies of West German workers in automated plants.
Precepts for
management to allay fears and prepare workers for radical changes in
job content.


New York City Central Labor Council.

Unions Meet Automation and a

Program for Action, Conference on automation, November 29, 1960
(New York, 1960).

14 pp.

Effects on jobs, productivity, and employment.
Plant, unit, company,
and industry collective bargaining goals, government programs, shorter
workweek, and community facilities and services.


"No Shuttlecocks at Parlin," Fortune, February 1961, pp. 189-190.
Union-management relations in introducing technological change at
the Parlin, N.J., plant of du Pont Photo Products Dept. Problems
created by shift work and absenteeism among women workers.



Pastin, John J. "Office, Technical Workers Weigh USW Protection,"
Steel Labor, March, 1961, p. 1.
Automation's effects on white-collar workers and United Steelworker's
organizing efforts. Need for retraining and new seniority provisions.


"Pressures in the Print Shop," Fortune, July 1960, p. 214.
Effect of technical progress on labor relations in printing industries.


Raskin, A. H.
pp. 55-60.

"The Squeeze on the Unions," Atlantic Monthly, April 1961,

Impact of technology on unions' strength and ability to successfully


Rush, C. H. "Implications of Electronic Data Processing for Industrial
Relations Research," Industrial Relations Research Association
Proceedings, 1957, pp. 63-)^.
Relationship between EDP and research.


Research needs and problems.

MSieniority--Fair Play on the Job," The American Federation!st, September
1961, pp. 24-28.
Influence of seniority rights on workers' attitudes to technological
Types of rights and benefits usually linked to length of
service. Development and advantages of preference by seniority. Effects
of seniority on labor efficiency and mobility.


Shultz, George P. and Weber, Arnold R. "Technological Change and
Industrial Relations,” Employment Relations Research, edited by
Herbert G. Heneman, Jr., and others (New York, Harper, 1960),
pp. 190-221.
Analysis of major academic and Government research projects conducted
during 1950-60 and statements by union and management officials. Effects
on working conditions, employment, occupational structure, and industrial



Siegel, Abraham and Myers, Charles A.

"Continuity and Change in

American Labor Problems," Postwar Economic Trends in the United States,
Ralph E. Freeman, editor (New York, Harper, 1960^, pp. 191-234.
Includes section on growing impact of science and technology on labor.


Si Ivey, Ted F. "Automation:
1956, pp. 74-76.

Labor's Viewpoint," Tool Engineer, November

Impact of changing technology on workers, education, and skill require­
ments. New, broadened responsibilities for management. Methods of
sharing gains. Trade union views.


Slichter, Sumner H. , Mealy, James J . , and Livernash, E. Robert.


Policies Toward Technological Change," The Impact of Collective
Bargaining on Management (Washington, Brookings Institution, 1960),
pp. 342-371.
Determinants and consequences of policy. Policies of willing
acceptance, opposition, competition, encouragement, and adjustment.


"Special bargaining Convention of the United Auto Workers," Monthly
Labor Review, June 1961, pp. 611-613.
Summary of resolutions on job security and technological change;
legislative and bargaining goals.


Stern, James L. "Fact, Fallacy, and Fantasy of Automation," Industrial
Relations Research Association Proceedings, 1958, pp. 46-56.

Need for broad integrated research. Problems of upgrading, displace­
ment, and economic growth. Impact on productivity, occupational require­
ments, and employment.


Stessin, Lawrence. "Spell Out Freedom To Mechanize in Your Contract,"
Mill and Factory, May 1961, pp. 18-20.
Recent union reaction to technological changes.
Innovations in
management upgrading policy. Examples of "management rights" contract
clauses spell out right to make changes* Increased importance of
retraining and severance pay in collective bargaining, with examples.



Stieber, Jack. The Steel Industry Wage Structure: A Study of the Joint
Union-Management Job Evaluation Program In the Basic Steel Industry
(Cambridge, Mass.^ Harvard University Press, 1^59). Chapter 8,
pp. 135-158.
Classification negotiations, labor market pressures, and technological


Strong, George E. "The Need for Factual Data in Dealing With Problems
of Technological Change," Labor Law Journal, December 1960, pp. 10931096.
Speech before the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service's Fifth
Annual Southeastern Conference on Current Trends in Collective Bargaining,
November 30-December 2, 1960. Stresses need for a central clearinghouse
for information on automation, more research, and more complete and
accurate data.


Suffridge, James B. "Automation's Impact Has Us Worried," The American
Federationist, May 1958, pp. 12-13, 28-29.

Technical trends and outlook in retail trade.


Implications for labor.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Union Adjustment
to Technological Change," A Guide to Labor-Management Relations in the
United States, BLS Bull. 122$, section 2:0$ (Washington, U.&. Government Printing Office, March 1958).
Union attitudes, collective bargaining provisions, and specific
examples of adjustment to change.


"Why This Union Boss— And His Local - G o For Automation," Factory Manage­
ment and Maintenance, April 1957, pp. 88-89.
Lithographers' Local No. 1 president reports his union supports
automation, on the grounds that labor benefits.


Wilcock, Richard C. "Fast-Changing Technology— Its Impact on Labor
Relations," The Pennsylvania Business Survey, December 1959, pp. 3-9.
Reprinted in University of Illinois Bulletin, Urbana, 111., Reprint
Series No. 81.
Occupational trends and changes in employment, unemployment, labor
mobility, and skill levels.
Impact on union membership and economic
power, labor relations, collective bargaining, education, and worker



Uirtz, W. Willard.
"The Future of Collective Bargaining," Monthly
Labor Review, November 1961, pp. 1206-1209.
Includes discussion of some problems automation poses for collective
bargaining, such as work rules and retraining.



This section includes references on automation's consequences
for business management, organization, techniques, policy, and planning.
Examples and case studies of company planning for conversion to auto­
mation and guides for personnel planning are included.


American Management Association. The Changing Dimensions of Office
Management: Technical and Managerial Trenas In Administrative Opera­
tions , AMA Management Report No. 41 (New York, 1960).
159 pp.
Papers by 25 experts describe changes in data processing, systems
planning, office services, design, and maintenance of office facilities.
Impact of change on traditional concepts of office management, effective­
ness of office operations, the office manager's job, and outlook.


American Management Association.
Electronics in Action; The Current
Practicality of Electronic Data Processing, Special report No. 22
(New York, 1957).
1^6 pp.
Papers by representatives of companies with well-established programs,
concerning feasibility studies, installation, selection and training of
personnel, applications' evaluation, and new frontiers.


American Management Association. Keeping Pace With Automation;
Guides for the Company Executive. Special Report No. 7 (New York 1956).
136 pp.
Papers by 13 business experts on effects of automation on manufact­
uring, equipment, product design, plant layout, and manpower.
tions for management, unemployment, workers' welfare, industry, and
society as a whole.
Successful company experiences with automated pro­
cesses at Stromberg-CarIson, Carborundum, Dixie Cup, and Minute Maid.
Basic concepts, approaches, and future trends.


Anshen, Melvin. "The Manager and the Black Box,” Harvard Business
Revi e w , November/December 1960, pp. 85-92.
— —— — — — —
Classification of potential and limitations of new mathematical
techniques in business by different types of management decisions.
Implications for business policy and planning.



Baumes, Carl G. Administration of Electronic Data Processing. Studies in
business policy, No. 98 (New York. National Industrial Conference
Board, 1961).
136 pp.
Administrative problems in change from conventional to electronic data
Case studies of how experienced companies surmounted the
problems. Planning feasibility and systems studies, studying equipment,
organizing computer operations, defining jobs and selecting personnel,
evaluating performance and progress, and gaining employee cooperation.


Becker, Esther R. and Murphy, Eugene F. The Office in Transition: Meeting the Problems of Automation (New York, Harper 1957).
1§0 pp.
Implications for personnel planning, human relations, unionization,
and management* Description of punch card, computers, integrated data
Standardizing work methods, programming, and controlling
accuracy in the automatic office.


Bekker, John A. "Automation: Its Impact on Management," Advanced
Management. December 1959, pp. 20*24.
Effect on organization and techniques, manpower and maintenance
requirements, education, and training.


Canning, Richard G.
Installing Electronic Data Processing Systems (New
York, Wiley, 1957)1
1^3 pp.
Covers planning, installing, programming, conversion, and early phases
of operation for management officials. Appendix on personnel problems.


Coburn, H.B. "Alerting the Staff on the Move to Automation," Burroughs
Clearing House, June 1961, pp. 39*40.
Describes personnel planning by Chase Manhattan Bank prior to intro­
ducing electronic data processing equipment.


Creamer, Daniel. "Is Automation Capital Saving?"
Business Record, November 1958, pp. 482-484.

Conference Board

Implications for space requirements, utilization of materials and
equipment, safety, inventories, and cash requirements.



Diebold, John.
••Automation As a Challenge to Management," International
Social Science Bulletin, vol. 10, no. 1, 1958, pp. 37-43.
Discussion of four common stereotyped ideas on automation concerning
size and production of firms, types of potentially automated operations,
laborsavings, and best applications.


"Free Hand for Sun's Automaters," Business Week, January 10, 1959, pp.
45 ff.
Describes staff reorganization to spur automation and renovation of
oil company's older plants.


Ginzberg, Eli and Reilley, Ewing W . , and others. Effecting Change in
Large Organizations (New York, Columbia University Press).
155 pp.
Focuses on the process of decentralization in large enterprises. Role
of the president and vice president during period of organizational change.


Gustafson, Philip.
"What Management Is Learning From Computers," Nation's
Business, November 1958, pp. 38-39 ff.
Examples of computer application and implications for management
organizational patterns and personnel planning.


"It Doesn't Always Pay to Put All Your Chips on Automation," Business
Week, August 10, 1957, pp. 58-64.
Construction, production, and labor difficulties at an automatic
assembly line for automobile frames.


Jasinski, Frank J. "Adapting Organization to New Technology," Harvard
Business Review. January/February 1959, pp. 79-86.
Organizational changes and readjustments to new technologies. Examples
of mechanisms to reduce conflict between technological change and current


Johnson, Gerald E.
pp. 62-67.

"Better Decisions on Mechanizing,” Factory, July 1959,

Cost types and sources, measuring and computing actual and alterna­
tive costs. Cost evaluation methods applied to four typical mechaniza­
tion problems (1) system reliability, (2) scrap inventory, (3) startup
costs, and (4) mechanization limits.



Lipstreu, Otis. "Personnel Management in the Automated Company," Person­
nel, March/April 1961, pp. 38-44.
Experiences of some large corporations and recommendations to improve
personnel management in automated plants.
Implications for skill levels,
selection of employees, job structure, performance evaluation and finan­
cial incentives, employment, and labor relations.


Lowe, Robert A. "Cost Analysis and Machine Replacement," Automation,
August 1959, pp. 46-56.
Implications of automatic manufacturing processes for cost analysis
and methods of computing return on capital investment in current account­
ing practice.


McManus, G. J. "Automation Aims at Managers," Iron Age, February 25,
1960, pp. 28-29.
Effect of computers on management control at all levels of steel


Miller, Ben. "Look Beyond the Change; Introducing New Methods," Super­
visory Management. February 1961, pp. 14-19.
Role of supervisor and suggestions for effective functioning in change­
over to new operating methods.
Problems of transfers, deadlines, exces­
sive workloads, training, and older workers.


Morrow, L. C.

"Managed Maintenance," Factory, January 1960, pp. 64-71.

Trends in maintenance organization, administration, skills, and tech­


Muschamp, George M. "Tomorrow's Integrated Offices and Plants,"Automation,
May 1961, pp. 46-51.
Significance of linking industrial automatic control to office data
processing. Evolution of integrated controls.
Implications for manage­
ment and need for higher grade personnel.



National Industrial Conference Board. Management*s Role in Electronic
Data Processing. Studies in business policy. No. 92 (New York, 19159).
64 pp.
Reasons for management participation, organizing for study and computer
planning, evaluating proposed programs, approval of equipment contracts,
computer department organization and employee relations, measuring results
of computer programs, company experiences, and case studies.


National Office Management Association. "Automation Salary Survey,"
Office Management. March 1959, pp. 25-28.


Nett, Roger and Hetzler, Stanley A. An Introduction to Electronic Data
Processing (Glencoe, 111., The Free Press 1959). 287 pp.
History of electronic data processing, applications, and personnel
problems surrounding adoption.


Newcomb, Robert and Sammons, Marg. "How to Sell Your Employees on Mecha­
nization," Mill and Factory, May 1961, pp. 14-17.
Guidelines for management in explaining mechanization programs and
effects, to allay workers' fears. Examples of company experiences \*ith
information programs and cushioning the impact of transfers, demotions,
and separations.


Niland, Powell. "The Special Pitfalls of Investing in Special Automatic
Equipment," Harvard Business Review, November/December 1957, pp. 7382.
Comparison of average life expectancy, estimating investment require­
ments, degree of risk, and need for comparative analysis of conventional
and automatic equipment.


Nolan, C. G. and Murrin, T. J. "Establishing an Automated Plant," Auto­
mation, January 1960, pp. 40-48.
Evaluation of economic, technical, and human factors (Including person­
nel training) involved in planning and expediting Westinghouse facility



Parsons, Stuart 0. and Wait, William B. "Automation and Personnel Inven­
tory," Personnel Journal, April 1960, pp. 413-417.
Description of skill inventory procedures developed by a missile firm
for locating and selecting personnel for specialized jobs, promotions,
and transfers.


Postley, J. A. Computers and People: Business Activity in the New World
of Data Processing (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1960). 246 pp.
Impact of computers on day-to-day activities of business people and
persons closely associated with computers.
Relationship of computers to
business activities, fitting equipment to operations, new concepts of
operation, decisionmaking, problems of transition, manufacturer's role,
and outlook.


Purdue University. Third Conference on Manufacturing Automation, March
23-25, 1959.
Cosponsored and published by Automation (Cleveland,
1959). 72 pp.
Papers by 13 business officials and engineers. Establishing, develop­
ing, and applying an automation program through organization and coordina­
tion of management functions, study of operations, developing hardware,
data processing, and economic research.
Implications for engineering,
cost analysis, assembly, materials handling, distribution, and numerical
and other controls.


Puutio, A. E.

"Economics of Automation," Automation, March 1956, pp. 26-

Effects on accounting systems, design, production, and general busi­
ness management.


Reid, Peter C. "Supervision in an Automated Plant," Supervisory Manage­
ment, August 1960, pp. 2-10. Based on Automation and the Worker, by"
Floyd C. Mann and L. Richard Hoffman (New York}Holt, I960). 272 pp.
See 3.13.
Comparison of workers' attitudes in an old and a new electric power
Importance of supervisor's human relations skills in the automated
plant. Discussion of worker motivation, job satisfaction, monotony, ten­
sion, dependence, isolation, and team work.
Changes in ski 11% responsi­
bility, job content, and training.



Ryan, James X. "Automation:
November 1956, pp. 77-79.

Management Views," Tool Engineer,

Implications for production cost, market potential, productivity,
and education.


Schleh, Edward C. "Selling Technological Change as the Company's Way
of Life," Personnel, July/August 1960, pp.57-66.
Making technological improvement personally advantageous to each
employee. Avoiding layoffs, developing new skills, broader personnel
planning and policy. Adjusting seniority and pensions to mobility.
Pay and bonus systems as incentives to improvement. Personnel policies
affecting attitudes of employees and management.


Shultz, George P. and Whisler, Thomas L., editors. Management Organi­
zation and the Computer; Proceedings, Seminar, sponsored by University
of Chicago's Graduate School of Business, and the McKinsey Foundation
(Glencoe, 111., Free Press, 1960). 257 pp.
Essays and reports on company experience, by seven corporation man­
agers and seven professors and researchers. Topics include the inte­
gration of men and machines into management systems, effects on staff
line structure and role, technological feasibility and economic effi­
ciency, and effects of computer-facilitated communications on
decentrali zati on.


Simon, Herbert A. "Management by Machines: How Much and How Soon,"
Management Review, November 1960, pp. 12-19 ff.

Predicted longrun effects of technical change and data processing on
occupational structure, management supervision, decisionmaking, and
organization, as well as social and psychological needs. Application of
comparative advantage doctrine to automation. Man as a production
resource, and computer potential in problem solving.


Slater, Robert E. "Conditioning Management for Machine Applications,"
Office Executive, November 1958, pp. 9-11 ff.
Implications of computer installations for managers.
Impact on
decisionmaking, organization, and personnel relations. Computer appli­
cation and employee participation.



Stewart, Nathaniel. "Change Requires Employee Support," Nation*s Busi­
ness, August 1959, pp. 33; 37-59.
Building psychological foundations for employee acceptance of
technological change through: employee identification with, and par­
ticipation in change, reassurance of employees, communication with
employees and emphasis on mutual interest of management and labor.


Thayer, Clarence H. "Applying an Automation Philosophy,"
January 1959, pp. 44-49.


Experiences of Sun Oil Co. management in designing and fitting auto­
mation systems into existing plants. Economic and organizational
requirements. Techniques used to stimulate team effort, upgrade employee
relations, avoid layoffs, and effects on future job opportunities.


"Timing Automation to Turnover," Factory Management and Maintenance,
March 1957, pp. 96-97.
Use of normal employee attrition in a plant to take care of readjust­
ments caused by new laborsaving equipment.


U.S. Small Business Administration.
"Using Computer Services in Small
Business," by I. J. Seligsohn (Management Aids for Small Manufacturers,
Washington, November 1959). Help from Outside Series, No. 109, 4 pp.
Services available, representative business problems, and cost.


Weinberg, Edgar. Social Implications of Office Automation. Paper
presented before 15th Annual Conference of the Association for Com­
puting Machinery, Milwaukee, Wis., August 24, 1960 (Washington, U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1960).
12 pp.
Guidelines, based on BLS case studies of experiences with automation,
for minimizing hardships through advanced planning, prior notice, trans­
fer and retraining, reliance on attrition, recruitment from within,
creation of new jobs, and use of older workers.


Worthman, L. H. and Lemelson, J. H. "Guideposts to Automation Planning,"
Automation, February 1958, pp. 52-56.
Relation of supplemental unemployment benefits to automation. Impli­
cations for product design, employee selection, maintenance, industrial
engineering, collective bargaining, and management controls.



Examples of developments and applications of automation in foreign
plants and offices are presented in this section.


"Automation Dominates New Russian Tire Plant," Rubber Age, May 1960,
pp. 272-278


"Automation in Russia— As Viewed by Soviet Engineers," American Machi­
nist /Metalworking Manufacturing. March 21, 1960, pp. 125-1^2.
Summary of progress and problems in applying automation to manufac­
turing in the U.S.S.R., based on Soviet publications.


Blau, Paul F. "Office Automation in Austria," Trade Union Information,
No. 24, 1959, pp. 18-25.
Extent of automation in office work and effects on workers in a Post
Office, insurance company, glue works, and steel mill.


Canada, Department of Labor. The Current Status of Electronic Data Pro­
cessing in Canada. Report No. $A," issued by Interdepartmental Manpower
Training Research Committee (Ottawa, December I960). 30 pp.
Number and type of computers in use in Canada. Type and size of
organization utilizing computers, and kinds of work done. Employment in
new occupations and potential impact on employment.


Feyeux, M. and Farrough, M. "Productivity in European Railways,"
Productivity Measurement Review, August 1959, pp. 27-38.
Calculation of separate productivity ratios, each corresponding to a
given input factor for nine main European railway networks over the
years 1950-57.


Great Britain, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
matic Control in Soviet Industry (London, 1959). 64 pp.


Progress of industrial application in the Soviet Union. Detailed
accounts of work seen in various establishments by British engineering
team in May 1959.



Henriksson, Arne. "A Swedish Approach to Automation," Free Labour World.
August 1957, pp. 31-33.
Implications for productivity, role of unions, and developments in


Kirchmayer, L. K. "U.S.S.R. Computer Use Growing," Electrical World,
December 12, 1960, pp. 70-71.
Analysis of Russian developments in theories of computer power system
control and application to plant and system control and use.


Klimenko, K. and Rakovsky, M. "The Technological and Economic Problems
of Automation in the U.S.S.R.," International Social Science Bulletin,
vol. 10, No. 1, 1958, pp. 44-54.
Problems of introducing automation in a planned economy.
Soviet workers, skills, wages, education, and training.


Effects on

Miller, W. E. "American Automation Expert Evaluates Russian Efforts,"
Steel, September 19, 1960, pp. 171-172.
Comments on Soviet developments In the iron and steel industry.


Oldenburger, Rufus. "Automatic Control Education in U.S.S.R.," Mechan­
ical Engineering. October 1960, pp. 107-108.
Description of educational procedures, curriculum, and postgraduate


Southwell, Eric. Application of Automation in Europe (Paris, Trade
Union Information and Research Service, European Productivity Agency,
Organization for European Economic Cooperation. April 1958, Union
Studies No. 12). 50 pp.
Study of a total of 33 plants in Great Britain, France, Holland,
Belgium, and Germany. Economic and technical reasons for automation.
Extent and nature of development in different Industries; technical,
social, and economic aspects.



U.N. Economic and Social Council. Automation; Report by the Executive
Secretary. E/ECE/374.
15th seas., item 5c of the agenda (New York.
March $, 1960). 5 pp.
Report on meeting of experts convened in 1959 by the Executive
Development of automation in Europe, as of 1955-57. Problem
of obtaining additional detailed case studies on economic aspects of
automation, need for improved methods of reporting, and guide to types
of information desirable.


U.N. Economic and Social Council, Economic Commission for Europe.
Economic Implications of Automation, Annex II of Report on the Industry
and Materials Committee E/ECE/334-G.
14th sess., item 4 of the agenda
(New York, February 23, 1959). 48 pp.
Nature and growth of automation. Examples of economic effects based
on case material from various countries: materials cost, raw materials
input, energy consumption, unit cost, and cost of space, capital, and
labor. Outline for case studies on economics of automation.
of determining automation efficiency and specialist training in the
U.S.S.R. Selected case studies from the United Kingdom, U.S.S.R., and


"U.S. Expert Evaluates Soviet Computers," Chemical and Engineering News.
August 1, 1960, pp. 48 ff.
Reports interview with Robert A. Brand of International Business
Machines. Compares developments in the Soviet Union and the United States.


Walker, K. F., editor. Automation, Addresses to the Second Labor-Man­
agement Conference. University or Western Australia, October 27-28,
1956 (Perth, Australia, University of Western Australia Press, 1957).
93 pp.
Appraisal of overseas experience and implications for Australian
industry. References to developments in the United States. Five
papers on nature of automation and on economic, psychological, man­
agement, and labor problems. Three papers on labor-management con­
tributions toward solution of the problems and on public policy aspects.



This section includes references to other recent bibliographies on


American Library Association, Joint Committee on Library Service to
Labor Groups. "Automation and Its Implications, 1956-60: A
Selected Bibliography," Library Service to Labor, Spring 1961,
Chicago, pp. 1-9.
Automation,in its general, economic, social, and industrial relations
aspects, manpower and employment, office automation and bibliographies.


Association for Computing Machinery, Computing Reviews (New York,
July/August 1961). 21 pp.
Contains reviews and abstracts of current publications in all areas
of the computer sciences.
Published bimonthly.


Cheek, Gloria. Economic and Social Implications of Automation: A
Bibliographic Review. (East Lansing, Michigan State University,
Labor and Industrial Relations Center, 1958). 125 pp.
Contains over 600 references, some annotated, on implications for
manpower and employment, society and government, training and job
requirements, human relations, collective bargaining, and management.
Also items on general surveys, case studies and company experience,
office automation and white-collar workers, and bibliographies.


Controllership Foundation, Inc. Business Electronics Reference Guide,
Vol. 4, Peggy Courtney, editor (New York, 1958). 583 pp.
References to electronic computer installations and applications,
commercial computing centers, training courses and programs, visual
presentations, periodicals, pamphlets, proceedings, reports, and books.



European Coal and Steel Community, High Authority. Automation, 1949-1959
(Bibliography), Bibliographies de la Haute Autorite 19 (Luxembourg,
1959). 67 pp.
Items of a general nature, social and economic aspects, conferences,
bibliographies, and periodicals. Text in various languages.


Goodman, L. Landon, "Bibliography of the Automatic Factory," Automation
Today and Tomorrow (London, Oxford University Press, 1958), part 2,
pp. 1-158.
Annotated bibliography of trends in 20 British industries and in
the U.S.S.R. Management theory and techniques, trade unions and labor,
economic and social implications, bibliographies, conferences, and


International Cooperation Administration, Office of Industrial Resources.
Industrial Technical Library--A Bibliography (Washington, 1960).
?65 pp.
Annotated listings of 3,000 books and periodicals on technology,
automation, production, and engineering in selected industries; also
on vocational, apprenticeship, and informal training; and on science,
economics, sociology, politics, law, graphic arts, etc.


Mesics, Emil A. Training in Organizations: Business, Industrial,
Government. Bibliography series No. 4 (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell
University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations,
October 1960). 77 pp.
Contains 356 annotated references on general training, orientation,
work-skill training, technical training and education, supervisory and
executive development, group participation techniques, audio-visual
aids, and training evaluation.


National Science Foundation.
Bibliography on the Economic and Social
Implications of Scientific Research and Development, NSF 59-41
^Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, July 20, 1959). 53 pp.
Lists 235 references on science and technology: nature, philosophy,
and history; expenditure and manpower statistics; social and institutional
framework and public policy; patents and invention; administration and
management; economic and social implications; and other bibliographies.



National Science Foundation.
Current Projects on Economic and Other
Impacts of Scientific Research and Development, 19f>9, NSF 59-51
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959). 59 pp.
Survey of advanced postgraduate university projects underway, listed
by author, giving title, institution, dates started and estimated com­
pletion, and annotation. Impact in selected industries and on industry
location, administration, organization, personnel, agriculture, capital
formation, automation, productivity, innovation, patents, and decision­
making. New power sources; sociological, and manpower studies.


National Science Foundation. Current Projects on Economic and Social
Implications of Scientific Research and Development, 1960, NSF 66-79
(Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 19(>0). 124 pp.
Expands 1959 survey coverage to nonprofit research organizations
and to include impact on labor, scientific and engineering manpower,
performance, education, and public policy and national defense.
216 items.


U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Productivity;
A Bibliography, Bull. 1226 (Washington, U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1958).
182 pp.
Over 800 annotated references present technical and nontechnical
descriptions of productivity measurement, factors which affect produc­
tivity, and the significance of productivity changes.




"Automation," CBS Television.
(Released by McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1957.
84 minutes, sound, black and white, 16 mm.
From the CBS television
program "See It Now.")

Explores the many problems connected with automation and shows auto­
mation at work in many industries ranging from aviation to banking.


"Automation," Report from America, No. 6. U.S. Information Agency, 1956
(Made by National Broadcasting Co. Released for public educational use
in the United States through U.S. Office of Education, 1958. 30
minutes, sound, black and white, 16 mm. and 35 mm.).
Describes the nature and future of automation and implications for
labor, management, industry, and politics. Includes interviews with
John Diebold, Peter Drucker, Walter Reuther, and Wright Patman. Pro­
duced for overseas use.


"Automation and Mr. Halstead," General Electric Co., 1958 (Made by
Raphael G. Wolff Studios,
28 minutes, sound, color, 16 mm.).

Discusses the role of electrical equipment and technology in develop­
ment of automation systems. Explains the need for keeping abreast of
developments in electrical technology in order to recognize when auto­
mation becomes practical in given production problems. Describes the
growing advantages of automation and the need for flexibility in auto­
mated processes.


"Automation on the Farm," U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1956 (6 minutes,
sound, black and white, 16 mm.).

Describes how automation has come to the farm and shows uses of power
machines for lifting, chopping, hauling, etc. For television use.


"Automation Today," Mechanical Handling Systems (27 minutes, sound, black
and white, 16 mm.).

Motives and advantages of automation in production and processing.
Suggestions on plant installations.



"Automation--What Is It?" Industry on Parade, No. 462. National
Association of Manufacturers, 1959 (14 minutes, sound, black and
white, 16 mm.).
Explains automation as the latest extension of industryfs continuing
development of improved manufacturing methods. Describes application of
automation in a sawmill, in commercial mail handling, oil refining, lace
manufacture, the telephone industry, and in farming.


"Have I Told You Lately That I Love You?" University of Southern
California, Department of Cinema, 1958 (17 minutes, sound, 16 mm.).
A symbolic record of 1 day in the life of members of an upper middleclass American family, showing their dependence on machines and the
effect of automation on their relationships with each other.


"Introduction to Automatic Data Processing," U.S. Department of the Army,
1958 (31 minutes, sound, black and white, 16 mm.).
Describes automatic data-processing systems, explaining underlying
concept, capabilities, operations, and applications as a new management
tool. Using animation, the film analyzes features, operations, and
functional components. Shows several systems in use in Government
installations. A problem is processed, for demonstration.


"Machines for a Land of Plenty--Americafs Farm Miracle," Visual Education
Consultants, 1958 (Filmstrip, 36 frames, black and white, 35 mm.,
conservation series with teacher*s guide).
Traces development of power machinery in the United States from the
Civil War to the present. Explains how power machinery has revolution­
ized American farm methods and raised the Nationfs standard of living.

10. "Massachusetts Institute of Technology:
Automation," CBS Television,
1955 (Made by Information Productions. Released by Young America
Films. 28 minutes, sound, black and white, 16 mm. Reduction print
of the 35 mm. motion pictures made for the CBS television program
"The Search." With film users1 guide.)
Under the guidance of M.I.T. automatic control research engineers,
describes a cross-country tour of laboratories pioneering in the develop­
ment of robot machines designed to take over some of the duties once
performed only by man. Discusses longrun effects on employment.



"Men and Machines," U.S. Economic Cooperation Administration, 1950 (Made
by Wessex Film Productions, London. 15 minutes, sound, black and
white, 16 mm. and 35 mm.).
Discusses relationship between individual craftsmanship and massproduction methods and explains necessity in Europe for using massproduction methods where quantity and low costs are prime considerations.


"The Nature of Work: The Skilled Worker," World in Action Series.
National Film Board of Canada, Montreal (Released in the United States
by McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1958. 30 minutes, sound, black and white,
16 mm.).
Considers the displacement of skilled workers by machines, telling the
story of an immigrant from the Ukraine who, after coming to Canada, learned
the machinist trade and acquired pride in craftsmanship. His world
crumbled when the company installed automatic equipment to do work formerly
done by machinists.


"Productivity, Key to Plenty," Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, 1949 (21
minutes, sound, black and white, 16 mm., with teacher's guide).
Traces development of machine power in the United States from 1850.


"The Pulse of Automation," Miletron Corporation (16 minutes, sound, color,
16 mm.).
Shows how pressure switches replace slow human sensory perception and
reaction in effecting control; importance to automation.


"Technology and You," Neubacher Productions, 1959 (13 minutes, sound,
color, 16 mm.).
Shows recent developments in technology and explains how they affect
the life of the individual. Discusses vocations in technology and the
importance of preparing for employment in the modern technological


"This Is Automation," General Electric Co., Apparatus Sales Division,
1956 (Made by Raphael G. Wolff Studios, 30 minutes, sound, color,
16 mm., Kodachrome),
Defines automation and gives illustrations of industrial applications
in the manufacture and packaging of a variety of products.



"What Is Automation?" New York Journal**American. (Filmstrip. Made and
released by Audio-Visual Materials Consultation Bureau, Wayne State
University, Detroit, Mich., 1955. 36 frames, black and white, 35 mm.,
with discussion guide.)
Introduces the concept of automation, explaining it as an important
factor in the planning of both industry and labor. Discusses some



The number to the left of the decimal indicates the section under which
the reference is classified; the number to the right indicates the item under
the section.

Abruzzi, Adam
Acton Society Trust
Adams, Alexander
Adams, Leonard P.
Adams, Robert T.
AFL-CIO, Department of
AFL-CIO, Industrial Union
Alii, William E.
Alliston, James R.
Allsman, Paul T.
American Bankers Association
American Library Association

American Management Association
2.001, 2.103, 4.01, 9.01-9.03
Anderson, A. L.
Anshen, Melvin
Armour Research Foundation
Aronson, Robert L.
3.01, 8.08
Ashburn, Anderson
Association for Computing
Astin, A. V.

Backman, Jules
Bailey, S. B.
Baker, Elizabeth F.
Banks, Olive
Bannon, Ken
Barbash, Jack
Barkin, Solomon
1.01-1.03, 1.31,
Barnard, C. H.

Barry, F. Gordon
Barry, John M.
Baumes, Carl G.
Baumgartel, Howard
Becker, Esther R.
Behling, Burton N.
Beirne, Joseph A.
8.16, 81.7
Bekker, John A.
Bell, Daniel
6.03, 8.06
Bell, James R.
Bello, Francis
2.003, 2.038,
2.042, 2.047, 2.106, 2.148
Bendiner, Robert
Bergamini, David
Bergmann, R. H.
Black, James Menzies
Blau, Paul F.
Bloomberg, Warner, Jr.
Boehm, George
Bogardus, Emory S.
Brand, Robert A.
Braunthal, Alfred
Bright, James R.
2.004, 2.005, 3.04,
Brooks, Thomas
Brown, Gordon S.
Brozen, Yale
1.04, 1.24, 5.08
Buckingham, Walter
1.05, 1.06
Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.
Burtle, James

Campbell, C. B.
Canada, Department of Labour
3.06-3.08, 5.14, 10.04


Candey, M.
Canning, Richard G.
Carey, James B.
Carr, R. H.
Casey, James P.
Chaloner, W. H.
Chamber of Commerce of the United
States, Economic Research
5.07, 5.08
Chamberlain, Neil W.
Chapin, Ned
Cheek, Gloria
Clague, Ewan
5.09-5.11, 8.03
Coburn, H. B.
Coleman, C. G», Jr.
Colomb, Serge
Controllers Institute Research
Foundation, Inc.
Controllership Foundation,
Comog, Geoffrey Y.
Council for Technological
Courtney, Peggy
Craig, John H.
Creamer, Daniel
Crossman, E. R. F. W.
Cummings, H. B., Jr.
Custer, James R.

Dankert, Clyde E.
Dauberman, W. H.
Davey, Harold W.
DeGroat, Gaorge H.
2.029, 2.083
Denise, Malcolm L.
Diebold, John
1.09, 1.24, 7.07,
8.42, 9.11
Dreher, Carl
Drucker, Peter F.
Dunlop, John T.
Dymond, W. R.

Eberhardt, Lee
Eels, F. R.
Einzig, Paul
1.13, 8.22

Electronic Industries
Emerson, Lynn A.
European Coal and Steel
Community, High Authority
Fairley, Lincoln
Farrar, Gerald L.
Farrar, L. D.
Farrough, M.
Faunce, William A.
3.10-3.12, 5.16
Fernstrom, John R.
Feyeux, M.
Fine, Sidney A.
Fleming, R. W.
Foulger, John H.
Fox, Kenneth R.
Freeman, Ralph E.
Friedmann, Georges
Fuchs, Victor

Galbraith, John Kenneth
Gallagher, B. F.
Gass, J. R.
Geschelin, J.
Ginder, Charles E.
Ginzberg, Eli
1.31, 5.18, 5.19,
6.13, 7.43, 9.13
Goldberg, Arthur J.
1.16, 5.20,
5.21, 7.10, 8.26
Goldfinger, Nathaniel
8.27, 8.40
Goldstein, Gerald
Gomberg, William
Goodman, L. Landon
1.17, 2.007,
Gorman, Paul A.
Grabbe, Eugene Flunter
Great Britain, Department of
Scientific and Industrial
1.19, 2.009, 2.010,
6.14, 6.15, 10.06
Greenberg, Leon
Gregory, Robert H.
Greve, John W.
Groom, Phyllis P.
7.11, 7.12


Gude, William G.
Guerin, Q. W.
Gustafson, Philip

Haber, William
Haddy, Pamela
Halsbury, Earl of
Hansen, Alvin H.
Harbison, Frederick
Hardin, Einar
4.06, 4.07
Harris, James C. 0.
Harrison, George
Hart, Dale J.
Hathaway, A. G.
Hawley, George F.
Hayes, A. J.
6.16, 8.30
Hayes, Earl T.
Healy, James J.
Heckscher, August
Henderson, John P.
Henderson, W. 0.
Heneman, Herbert G., Jr.
Henle, Peter
Henriksson, Arne
Hetzler, Stanley A.
Hildebrand, George H.
Hill, James E.
Hill, Samuel E.
Hilton, Alice Mary
Hoffman, L. Richard
3.13, 3.14
Hoos, Ida Russakoff
Horowitz, Morris A.
Hoy, George A.
Hugh-Jones, Edward Maurice
Hughes, J. C.
Hull, George F., Jr.
Hyman, I. Harry

Institute of Radio Engineers
International Association of
International Cooperation
International Labor Office
1.23, 5.27, 5.28
International Longshoremen's and
Warehousemen's Union

Isard, Walter


Jacobson, Eugene
Jacobson, Howard Boone
1.24, 3.12,
Jakubauskas, Edward B.
Janssen, Richard F.
Jasinski, Frank J.
Johnson, Edward M.
Johnson, Gerald E.

Kahn, Herbert L.
Karp, H. R.
Karsh, Bernard
1.24, 6.19, 6.20
Kassalow, Everett M.
8.06, 8.35
Katis, R. F.
Kaufman, Jacob J.
Keebler, James C.
Kendrick, John W.
Kerr, Clark
5.30, 8.11
Ketchledge, Raymond W.
Killingsworth, Charles C.
5.31, 5.32
Kircher, Paul
Kirchmayer, L. K.
Kirkpatrick, J. W.
Klimenko, K.
Knopf, G. S.
Kossoris, Max D.
Kothe, C.
Kovalcik, F. J.

Krieg, E. H.


Lasher, Albert C.
Lasser, David
Lemelson, J. H.
Levitan, Sar A.
Lewis, John L.
Lienart, Pierre
Lifton, Walter M. 7.14
Lilley, Samuel
Lipstreu, Otis
Livernash, E. Robert
5.35, 8.54
Livingston, John W.
Long, Clarence D.
Lowe, Robert A.
Lowy, L.

Lumb, Harold C.


McCallister, Frank
McCauley, John S.
7.25, 7.35, 7.36
McCutcheon, John 0.
McGill, George S.
McIntyre, William R.
McKenna, J. V.
McKnight, Robert W.
McMains, Harvey J.
McManus, G. J.
McRainey, J. H.

Macmillan, Robert Hugh
Maher, Edward I.
Malabre, Alfred L.
Mann, Floyd C.
3.13-3.15, 4.12, 4.
Massachusetts, Governor's Conference
on Automation
Mead, Margaret
Melloan, George
Meredith, Jane L.
Mesics, Emil A.
Metaxas, Ted
Mignone, A. E.
Miller, Ben
4.01, 9.21
Miller, Lee D.
2.089, 2.092
Miller, W. E.
2.133, 10.10
Minnesota, University of
Moos, S.
Morrow, L. C.
Mueche, Howard 0.
Murphy, Eugene F.
Murrii^, T. J.
Muschamp, George M.
Myers, Charles A.
Myers, Robert J.
5.08, 5.38

National Academy of Science
National Association of Manufacturers
5.39, 8.42
National Bureau of Economic Research
National Industrial Conference Board

National Office Management Association
National Retail Merchants Association,
Retail Research Institute
National Science Foundation
Naville, P.
Neff, Franklin W.
Nelson, Robert S.
Netschert, Bruce C.
Nett, Roger
Neuloh, Otto
New York City Central Labor Council
New York, Department of Labor
5.41, 6.24
New York, Governor's Conference on
Newcomb, Robert
Niland, Powell
Nolan, C. G.
Northrup, Herbert R.

Oldenburger, Rufus
Oram, J. E.
Organization for European Economic
Cooperation, European Produc­
tivity Agency
2.114, 3.16, 3.17
Osborn, David G.

Pagano, Jules
Parker, R. E.
Parsons, Stuart 0.
Pastin, John J.
Patterson, William F.
Peters, Otis F . , Jr.
Phillips, Almarin
Piel, Gerard
5.42, 5.43
Political and Economic Planning
Pollock, Frederick
Postley, J. A.
Pragan, Otto
Purdue University
Puutio, A. E.
Pyke, Magnus



Quinn, H. C.


Rakovsky, M.
Raskin, A. H.
5.44, 8.43
Reid, Peter C.
Reilley, Ewing W.
Religion and Labor Foundation
Retail Clerks International
Reuther, Walter P.
Rezler, Julius
Riche, Richard W.
Robertson, M.
Rockefeller, Nelson A.
Rogers, Jack
Ronayne, Maurice F.
Rosen, Howard
Rothberg, Herman J.
3.23, 3.24
Roucek, Joseph S.
1.24, 3.12, 5.16
Rusca, R. A.
Rush, C. H.
Rusinoff, Samuel Eugene
Ruttenberg, Stanley H.
5.48, 6.28
Ryan, James X.

Sammons, Marg
Samp, Nelson
Santesmases, J. Garcia
Scanlon, Burt K.
Schleh, Edward C.
Schurr, Sam H.
Scott, W. H.
Seligsohn, I. J.
Shaffer, Frank E.
Sheppard, Harold L.
3.20, 3.21
Shultz, George P.
8.51, 9.37
Sideris, George
Siegel, Abraham
Siegel, Irving H.
2.016, 2.064,
Silberman, Lee
Sills, R. M.
Silvey, Ted F.
Simon, Herbert A.
Slater, Robert E.
6.30, 9.39
Slichter, Sumner H.

Smith, Georgina M.
Smith, Robert M.
Soule, George
2.017, 5.50
Southern California, University of
Southern Research Institute
Southwell, Eric
Spivak, Jonathan
Spom, Philip
Statt, C. J.
Steedman, Lynwood B.
Steel, Marion
Steele, George
Stem, James L.
3.21, 5.51, 8.06,
Stessin, Lawrence
Stewart, Nathaniel
Stieber, Jack
4.17, 5.30, 8.58
Stocker, William M.
Street, James H.
Strong, George E.
Suffridge, James B.
Summers, W. A.

Taube, Mortimer
Taylor, George W.
Teitelbaum, Perry D.
Terborgh, George
Terwilliger, G. E.
Tewson, Vincent
Thayer, Clarence H.
Tilton, Peter
Ture, Norman B.

U.N. Economic and Social Council,
Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Educational, Scientific,
and Cultural Organization
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
U.S. Bureau of the Budget
U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Bureau
of Programs and Standards


U.S. Congress, House of Represent­
atives, Committee on Education
and Labor
5.55, 7.32
U.S. Congress, House of Represent­
atives, Committee on Post Office
and Civil Service
4.18, 4.19
U.S. Congress, Joint Economic
1.40-1.43, 2.020
U.S. Congress, Senate
U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee
on Government Operations
U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee
on Labor and Public Welfare
U.S. Department of Agriculture
2.025, 2.026
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Marketing Service
2.068, 2.141, 2.147
U.S. Department of Commerce, Business
and Defense Services Administra­
U.S. Department of the Interior

U.S. Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Mines
2.104, 2.126, 2.137
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training
7.34- 7.39
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Employment Security
2.027, 5.57, 5.58, 6.33-6.35
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics
3.22-3.26, 4.20-4.22, 5.59,
6.356.38, 8.61, 11.12
U.S. General Accounting Office
U.S. Small Business Administration

Wait, William B.
Waldorf, William H.
Walker, Charles R.
3.27, 3.23
Walker, K. F.
Warren, G. B.
Watson, Thomas J., Jr.
Weber, Arnold R.
Weber, C. Edward
4.23, 4.24
Wecksler, A. N.
Weidenbaum, M. L.
Weik, Martin H.
Weinberg, Edgar
1.41, 2.064,
4.20, 9.44
Weiner, Charles
Welford, A. T.
Wells, Rollien R.
Whisler, Thomas L.
Wiener, Norbert
1.46, 1.47
Wilburn, Robert C.
Wilcock, Richard C.
3.25, 8.63
Wilcox, Glad
Williams, Lawrence K.
4.12, 4.13
Wilson, George W.
Winthrop, Henry
Wirtz, W. Willard
Wolfbein, Seymour L.
5.15, 5.61,
Wolfle, Dael
Woods, Warren
Wooster, Harold
World Health Organization
WOrthman, L. H.

Yearley, C. K., Jr.
Ziemba, John V.
2.069, 2.070
Zollitsch, Herbert C.

Van Auken, Kenneth 0., Jr.
Van Horn, Richard L.
Vannah, William E.
Viscardi, Henry, Jr.



The number to the left of the decimal indicates the section under which
the reference is classified; the number to the right indicates the item
within the section.

Accounting (See also Office data processing, and Cost and cost analysis.)
1.34, 9.19, 9.33
Advantages and disadvantages of automation
1.06, 1.09, 1.26, 2.005, 3.04
2.017, 2.024-2.027, 5.02, 5.27, 5.56
Aircraft industry
1.42, 2.009, 2.028
2.018, 8.20
Apprenticeship (See also Training, and Retraining.)
6.16, 7.21, 7.26, 7.34,
Armour Automation Fund
5.48, 8.11, 8.24
Assembly of materials
2.002, 2.004, 2.005, 2.007, 2.028, 2.029, 9.32
Atomic energy
1.23, 2.001, 2.019, 6.22, 6.34, 8.10, 8.25
Attrition as means of preventing layoffs
5.58, 6.29, 8.25, 8.38, 9.42, 9.44
Automobile industry
1.04, 1.24, 1.25, 1.43, 2.002, 2.009, 2.028-2.031,
3.10-3.12, 3.21, 5.12, 5.45, 5.51, 5.52, 5.55, 6.20, 8.14, 8.35, 9.15

1.12, 1.17, 1.40, 2.002, 2.032-2.037, 4.01, 4.09, 6.29, 7.42
3.17, 10.12
Benefits of automation (See Advantages and disadvantages of automation.)
2.007, 4.04, 5.57, 6.33, 11.01-11.12
Business cycles
1.12, 1.13, 1.32, 5.46
Business management (See also Supervision.)
1.02, 1.03, 1.08, 1.09, 1.11,
1.17, 1.21, 1.22, 1.33, 1.37-1.39, 2.002, 3.04, 3.18, 3.28, 4.08, 4.17
5.39, 5.57, 6.31, 8.58, 9.01-9.45
9.20, 9.45
1.05, 4.20, 8.40
1.05, 1.08, 1.19, 1.29, 1.31, 1.39, 2.010, 4.08-4.10, 4.13,
6.30, 9.07, 9.14, 9.16, 9.37-9.39, 9.41
Personnel planning
3.15, 4.22, 5.10, 9.09, 9.36, 9.40, 9.44
3.12, 9.04, 9.36
5.03, 5.54, 8.53, 9.21, 9.24, 9.37-9.39


1.05, 1.07, 2.010, 3.19, 4.12, 4.13, 6.30, 7.44, 9.37
1.05, 2.007, 2.010, 3.15, 4.03, 5.03, 8.43, 9.07, 11.06
Theory and philosophy
1.05, 2.007, 4.12, 4.13, 5.51, 9.01, 9.41, 11.06

2.009, 3.06-3.08, 5.14, 10.04
1.13, 3.26, 6.12, 9.10
Characteristics of automation
1.05, 1.10, 1.11, 1.21, 2.005, 2.008, 3.04,
Chemical industry
1.34, 1.41, 1.43, 2.018, 2.038-2.041, 6.11, 6.19, 6.39
Coal industry (See also Mining.)
2.018, 2.020, 2.132, 3.26, 5.11, 5.38,
5.56, 8.41
Collective Bargaining (See also Seniority, Work rules, Supplemental unemploy­
ment benefits, Severance pay.)
1.01, 1.35, 1.45, 5.36, 5.48, 8.03,
8.04, 8.08, 8.10, 8.15, 8.28, 8.31, 8.38, 8.40, 8.44, 8.55, 8.59, 8.63,
8.64, 9.45
Approaches to ease impact of automation
1.03, 1.28, 3.22, 4.09, 5.11,
5.26, 5.45, 5.56, 8.02, 8.20, 8.23, 8.24, 8.26, 8.27, 8.29, 8.33, 8.34,
8.35, 8.38, 8.61.
Communications industry
1.10, 1.24, 1*41, 1.43, 2.042-2.046, 4.01, 5.55,
8.10, 8.16, 8.17, 8.40
Community adjustment
1.28, 1.31, 3.25, 5.05, 5.17, 5.21, 5.45, 6.21, 7.02,
7.38, 8.44
Computers (See Office data processing and office work, and Data processing
in research and engineering, Numerical control.)
Concept of automation
1.16, 1.19, 1*36, 5.31
Congressional hearings and symposia
1.08, 1.40-1.43, 2.020, 2.081, 4*18,
5.54-5.56, 7.32, 7.33
Construction industry
1.17, 7.37, 8.10, 8.12
Cost and cost analysis
1.25, 1.29, 1.35, 2.004, 2.020, 5.40, 6.18, 6.29,
9.17, 9.19, 9.32, 9.43, 10.14
5.09, 6.38, 7.14, 7.31

Data processing in research and engineering
2.047-2.052, 8.49
Data processing and office work (See Office data processing and office work.)
1.29, 3.09
Depressed areas
1.01, 1.03, 1.35, 5.05, 5.20, 5.26, 5.34, 5.48, 5.52,
5.62, 7.38
Design of product, control system, etc.
1.26, 1.39, 2.007, 9.03, 9.33, 9.45
Development of automation (See History of automation.)


D— Continued
Disabled workers
Displacement of workers (See also Unemployment.)
1.06, 1.08, 1.11, 1.46,
3.23, 4.10, 4.15, 4.17, 5.01, 5.07, 5.10, 5.22, 5.28, 5.29, 5.51, 5.53
8.18, 8.22, 8.37, 8.56
Extent of
1.41, 4.20
Measures to prevent
Distribution of products
2.005, 2.007, 5.42, 9.32

Economic growth
1.05, 1.10, 1.28, 1.31, 1.32, 5.07, 5.45, 5.48, 8.56
Economic stability, implications of automation for L«02 1.05, 1.11, 1.32, 1.33
1.11,1.14, 1.17, 1.23, 1.24, 1.28, 1.31, 1.35, 1.42, 3.19, 3.27,
5.181 5.19, 5.23,5.48, 6.07, 7.04, 7.06, 7.32,7.43, 8.53,8.63, 9.07
Needs and requirements
5.09, 6.16, 6.33-6.35, 7.08, 7.41
Policies proposed
5.61, 6.12, 6.13
Electric power industry 2.021, 2.053, 2.060, 3.13, 3.14, 4.12, 6.39, 8.25,
8.35, 9.34
Electrical machinery
1.43, 3.09, 7.22
Electronic data processing (See Office data processing and office work, and
Data processing in research and engineering.)
Electronics industry
1.14, 1.24, 1.41, 1.43, 2.001, 2.002, 2.009, 2.0612.064, 3.22, 5.55, 6.19, 6.20, 6.24, 6.39, 7.39, 8.10
Employment, general
1.01, 1.07, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.15, 1.16, 1.21, 1.25,
1.29, 1.31, 1.35, 1.36, 5.03, 5.08, 5.11, 5.12, 5.19, 5.27, 5.29, 5.32,
5.40, 5.42, 5.46, 5.54, 5.55, 5.57, 6.17, 7.27, 8.56, 8.63, 9.18
5.45, 5.51
7.35, 7.36
5.25, 5.31, 5.46, 5.58, 6.24, 6.37
New job opportunities
5.17, 5.39, 8.04, 8.33, 9.44
5.49, 6.29, 6.31, 6.36
Plant and office studies
3.14, 3.16, 3.17, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.26,
4.08, 4.17, 4.20, 4.23, 5.51, 6.29, 8.25, 9.41
5.23, 5.25, 8.16
Energy resources
2.015, 2.017, 2.020, 2.021
1.25, 1.34, 2.009, 2.018, 6.08, 9.32, 9.45
3.18, 10.05, 10.12, 10.13, 11.05
Extent of automation
1.05, 1.07, 1.09, 1.19, 3.05, 4.08


2.081, 9.02, 9.05, 9.37
Featherbedding (See Work rules.)
Feedback control
2.004, 2.005, 2.008, 2.014, 8.04
Food industry
1.34, 2.017, 2.018, 2.065-2.070, 3.15, 3.23, 8.35
Foundry industry
3.17, 7.11, 10.12, 10.14
Gas, natural
3.17, 8.43, 10.12
1.22, 1.31, 2.052, 2.077-2.082, 4.02, 4.08, 4.09, 4.15, 4.18,
5.10, 5.11, 5.15, 5.20, 5.34, 5.39, 5.44, 5.45, 8.08, 8.18
1.09, 1.13, 1.32, 5.19, 5.62, 8.42, 8.44
1.28, 1,45, 5.03, 5.26, 5.48, 5.54, 8.26, 8.40
Great Britain
3.17, 6.14, 6.15, 10.12, 10.14, 11.06
Health (See Working conditions.)
History of automation
1.05, 1.10, 1.25, 1.26, 2.015
Hours of work
1.07, 1.15, 1.23, 1.36, 1.37, 5.28, 5.42, 5.48, 5.51, 5.53,
6.02, 6.04, 6.13, 6.32, 8.21, 8.44
Human relations
3.05, 3.27, 9.06, 9.34

Income (See Wages.)
Income and job security
5.28, 8.05, 8.24, 8.33, 8.35, 8.39, 8.55
Industrial growth (See also Economic growth.)
1.18, 1.29
Industrial relations (See also Collective bargaining, and Labor-management
1.38, 1.44, 3.12, 3.19, 3.24, 4.13, 4.21, 8.22, 8.40, 8.51
Inflation, implications of automation for
2.004, 2.005, 2.007, 2.028
Instrumentation 1.42, 2.002, 2.007-2.009, 2.018, 8.10
1.17, 4.06, 4.07, 4.09, 4.22, 6.29
1.07, 1.28, 1.29, 1.42, 2.004, 5.39, 5.46, 9.28
Isolation (See Working conditions.)
Job content
1.35, 1.36, 3.01, 3.02,~3.10, 3.12, 3.14, 3.17, 3.20, 3.23,
3.27, 4.06-4.08, 4.13, 4.14, 4.17, 6.03, 6.24, 6.28, 6.29, 6.36, 6.38,
8.13, 8.39, 8.40, 9.34
Job satisfaction (See Work satisfaction.)
Job security (See Income and job security.)
Jobs (See also Occupational requirements, Occupational structure, and Occupa­
tional trends and outlook.)
1.22, 1.27, 4.09, 5.36, 6.23, 6.25, 8.10, 8.44


Labor force
1.06, 1.09, 1.17, 1.21, 2.002, 2.004, 2.007, 3.18, 3.28, 5.18,
5.20, 5.39, 5.41, 6.19, 6.25, 8.36, 8.51, 8.53, 8.60
Labor-management relations (See also Industrial relations.)
1.09, 1.16,
1.20, 1.31, 3.24, 5.27, 5.31, 5.39, 5.53, 6.05, 6.18, 6.25, 6.39, 7.33,
8.05, 8.08, 8.13, 8.18, 8.25, 8.36, 8.37, 8.45, 8.47, 8.61, 8.63, 9.18
Labor mobility
1.07, 1.23, 1.35, 3.01, 5.07, 5.34, 5.61, 5.62, 6.32, 7.23,
8.63, 9.36
Layoffs and recalls
1.18, 1.22, 1.23, 3.21, 5.39, 6.21, 8.27, 9.36
1.05, 1.07, 1.21, 1.35, 1.37, 1.46, 2.017, 3.02, 5.06, 5.16, 5.24,
5.30, 5.42, 5.50, 6.02, 6.04, 6.06, 6.19, 7.42, 8.09
Living standards
1.21, 1.28, 2.017, 8.22
5.11, 5.26, 5.56, 6.20, 8.12, 8.20, 8.23, 8.29, 8.34-8.36

2.018, 6.20
1.28, 1.31, 2.001, 2.004, 3.14, 4.16, 6.14, 6.15, 7.16, 9.07,
9.22, 9.45
7.16, 7.26, 7.45
Management (See Business Management.)
Manpower requirements (See also Employment, and Occupational requirements.)
1.19, 2.001, 2.007, 2.081, 3.07, 3.08, 4.23, 5.18, 5.32, 5.41, 6.13,
6.17, 6.23, 6.24, 6.26, 6.31, 7.08, 7.37, 9.03
4.23, 5.19, 5.40
1.09, 1.10, 2.011, 5.21, 5.25, 5.56, 6.37, 9.03
Materials handling
2.001, 2.004, 2.005, 2.012, 9.32
Meatpacking industry
2.009, 5.11, 5.26, 5.56, 6.18, 8.11, 8.20, 8.35
1.28, 2.017, 6.11
Metalworking industries
1.24, 1.36, 1.41, 1.43, 2.001, 2.002, 2.012, 2.083
2.099, 4.23, 4.24, 5.48, 5.55
1.10, 1.13, 1.34, 1.39, 2.023, 2.062, 2.079, 6.23, 6.31, 6.39
Mining (See also Coal industry.)
2.100-2.104, 3.26, 5.55, 5.56
Monotony (See Work satisfaction.)
6.05, 8.21

Netherlands, the
Numerical control

3.17, 10.12
2.009, 2.014, 2.088, 2.089, 2.091, 2.096-2.099, 8.04,



Occupational requirements
1.01, 3.06, 3.08, 3.13, 3.24, 4.21, 5.10, 5.31,
5.36, 5.37, 5.51, 5.,04, 6.09, 6.27, 6.28, 6.31, 6.34-6.36, 6.40, 7.32,
7.33, 8.56
Occupational structure
1.,15, 1..32, 1,.35, 1..38, 3..19, 4.08, 4.12, 4.17,
4.24, 5.11, 5.14, 5,.27, 5.28, 6.03, 6.06, 6.09, 6.20, 6.23, 6.29, 6.39,
7.35, 7.36, 8.03, 8.,06, 8.22, 8.51, 9.18, 9.38
Occupational trends and outlook 1.08, 5.09,5.47, 5.50,6.38, 7.42, 7.43, 8.63
Office data processing and office work 1.09, 1.12, 1.17, 1.24, 1.29, 1.36, 1.41,
1.43, 2.005, 2.008, 2.105-2.116, 3.15, 3.18, 4.01-4.24, 5.27, 5.53, 6.09,
6.27, 6.29, 6.30, 6.33, 8.01, 9.01, 9.05, 9.08, 9.09, 9.26, 9.31, 11.04
3.02,, 3.20, 3.21, 4.09,, 4.20,, 5.13, 5.20, 5.26, 5.27,, 5.48,
Older workers
5.61, 6.09, 6.18, 7.27, 7.29, 8.18, 9.21, 9.44
2.005, 2.007
Personnel policies and practices (See Business Management: Policy.)
Petroleum industry
1.34, 1.42, 1.43, 2.002, 2.018, 2.020, 2.117-2.121,
3.18, 3.24, 6.18, 8.02, 9.12
1.28, 5.02, 5.26, 5.34, 5.48, 8.11
Planning, personnel and other (See also Business Management: Personnel Plan­
ning.) 1.16, 1.45, 1.46, 2.007, 3.15, 4.02, 4.10, 4.15, 8.38, 9.04, 9.05
Plant location
1.29, 5.17, 5.45, 8.03, 8.35
3.01, 3.20, 3.21, 3.25, 7.02, 8.11
Policies and programs proposed to ease impact (See also Business Management:
Policy, and Government: Policy.) 1.29, 1.41, 1.45, 5.01, 5.18, 5.20,
5.29, 5.34, 5.38, 5.44, 5.45, 5.48, 5.61, 8.17, 8.22, 8.41
Population, implications of automation for
1.32, 2.016, 5.51
Post office
1.24, 2.078
1.05, 1.07, 1.13, 1.37, 3.26
Principles of automation (See Characteristics of automation.)
2.018, 6.20, 7.20, 8.13, 8.20, 8.47
Process control
1.09, 1.19, 1.36, 2.007, 2.012
1.07, 1.11, 1.13, 1.19, 1.29, 1.35, 2.020, 3.06, 3.08, 3.10,
3.16, 5.14, 5.42, 5.43, 5.58, 9.33
1.01, 1.02, 1.03, 1.07, 1.15, 1.16, 1.21, 1.25, 1.30, 1.32,
2.006, 2.100, 3.08, 3.09, 3.22, 3.23, 3.26, 4.22, 5.10, 5.20,
5.25, 5.29, 5.30, 5.50, 5.52, 8.18, 8.56, 11.12
Distribution of gains
1.37, 1.41, 8.33
1.30, 5.38, 5.59, 10.05
4.16, 6.33, 6.36
Promotions (See Upgrading and downgrading.)
1.20, 4.16, 7.42
Pulp and paper industry
2.018, 2.122-2.125, 4.01


Qualifications of workers

1.11, 5.53, 6.36-6.38

Railroad industry
1.04, 1.24, 1.43, 2.151, 2.152, 5.26, 5.38, 5.48, 5.55,
5.56, 8.01, 8.02, 8.05, 8.10, 8.12, 8.20, 8.29, 8.32, 8.35
Rate of introduction
1.07, 1.09, 1.10, 1.19, 1.23, 1.29, 1.33, 4.08, 5.32,
4.15, 4.20, 5.13, 5.39, 6.21, 8.04, 8.11, 8.24, 8.27
Relocation (See Plant location.)
1.02, 1.10, 1.15, 1.38, 2.002, 2.007, 2.023, 3.13, 5.57, 6.31,
8.49, 8.51, 8.59, 11.09-11.11
Retail trade
1.34, 1.40, 1.43, 2.143-2.147, 4.01, 8.60
Retirement (See Older workers.)
1.09, 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, 1.28, 1.41, 3.06, 4.02, 5.07, 5.13, 5.14,
5.17, 5.19, 5.26, 5.27, 5.34, 5.38, 5.41, 5.44, 5.48, 5.49, 5.54, 6.09,
6.18, 6.23, 6.26, 7.02, 7.10, 7.13, 7.20, 7.23, 7.24, 7.42, 8.14, 8.18,
8.19, 8.27, 8.38, 8.40, 8.46, 8.57, 8.64, 9.44
7.10, 7.11, 7.12
7.29, 7.33, 8.11, 8.24
Rubber industry

Safety (See Working conditions.)
Selecting new employees
4.15, 4.16, 4.20, 6.22, 6.30, 7.01, 9.02, 9.05,
9.18, 9.30, 9.45
5.13, 6.28, 8.04, 8.14, 8.27, 8.33, 8.40, 8.46, 9.36
Service industries (See also specific industry.)
5.23, 6.31
Severance pay
5.13, 8.24, 8.40, 8.57
Shift work
3.13, 5.28, 5.49, 6.03, 6.15, 6.32, 8.45
1.02, 1.06, 1.07, 1.15, 1.16, 1.18, 1.21, 1.25, 1.28, 1.31, 1.32,
5.10, 5.14, 5.29, 5.30, 5.32, 5.41, 5.44, 5.62, 6.01, 6.07, 6.12,
6.14-6.16, 6.19, 6.23, 6.25, 6.26, 6.31, 7.29, 7.32, 7.33, 7.35, 7.44,
8.09, 8.10, 8.14, 8.18, 8.40, 8.53, 8.63, 9.18, 9.22, 9.34
Development of
1.42, 5.61, 9.36
Foreign countries
1.19, 1.23, 2.010, 3.06, 3.08
Office skills
5.27, 5.49, 6.09
Plant and office studies
3.18, 3.23, 3.27, 4.08, 4.17, 4.24, 5.51


Small business
1.05, 1.10, 9.43
Social relationships
3.02, 3.11, 3.17, 3.19
Status of workers
6.08, 6.19
Steel industry
2.009, 2.126-2.137, 3.02, 3.15, 3.17-3.19, 3.27, 3.28, 4.23,
5.38, 5.52, 5.55, 6.18, 8.29, 8.35, 8.58
3.14, 3.28, 4.09, 4.16, 6.14, 9.34, 9.38
Supplemental unemployment benefits (See Unemployment.)
7.11, 10.07

Technological outlook
1.25, 1.26, 5.48, 9.38
Telephone industry (See Communications industry.)
Testing of products
2.004, 2.005, 2.007, 2.028
Textile industry
1.03, 2.018, 2.138-2.142, 5.28, 5.55, 8.37
Tobacco industry
Training, general
1.14, 1.21 -1.23 , 1.28 , 1.31 , 1.41 , 1.42 , 3.06 , 3.07, 4.16,
5.07, 5.10, 5.14, 5.18, 5.27, 5.28, 5.41, 5.47, 5.48, 5.61, 6.13-6.16,
6.22, 6*34, 6.35, 6.38, 7.07, 7.09, 7.10, 7.23, 7.25, 7.27, 7.34, 7.35,
7.36, 7.37, 7.41, 7.43, 8.26, 8.33, 9.02, 9.07, 9.21, 9.34, 11.08
7.32, 7.33
Office workers
4.15, 4.20, 5.49, 5.53, 6.09, 6.30, 6.33, 6.36, 7.01
Plant and office studies
3.18, 3.19, 3.27, 4.02, 4.20
5.13, 5.26, 6.26, 7.01, 7.16, 7.18, 7.20, 7.21, 7.26, 7.28, 7.33,
7.38, 7.40, 8.24, 9.29, 11.04
Teaching machines
6.08, 7.05, 7.06, 7.22, 7.30, 7.39, 7.45
Trainee selection
7.18, 7.19, 7.21, 7.26, 7.39

Underdeveloped areas
1.13, 2.014, 5..43
Unemployment, general
1.13, 1.16, 1..21, 1..28, 1.32, 1.33, 1.36, 3.26, 5.11,
5.19, 5. 20, 5.25, 5.38, 5.41, 5..44, 5.,54, 5.56, 5.57, 5.62, 6.13, 6.25,
6.28, 6. 31, 7.42, 8.09, 8.13, 8<.63, 9.,03
Causes of
5.03, 5. 08, 5. 21, 5. 37,» 5. 60,, 5. 61
Characteristics of the unemployed
Duration of
Programs to minimize
5.12, 5.13, 5.20, 5.21, 5.34, 5.38, 5.44
5.04, 5.08
5.07, 5.21, 5.23, 5.34
Supplemental unemployment benefits
3.21, 5.07, 5.13, 9.45


Unions, labor

1.02, 1.17, 1.21, 1.22, 3.19, 4.17, 5.36, 5.49, 6.05, 6.08,

6.20, 9.06

5.57, 8.02, 8.10, 8.40, 8.41 , 8.57, 8.61
8.06, 8.09
8.15, 8.46
4.18, 5.51, 8. 01 , 8.07, 8.11, 8.17, 8.27, 8.36, 8.54, 8.62
1.07, 8.08
Size, implications of automation for
8.06, 8.48, 8.63
Structure, implications of automation for
8.06, 8.08, 8.19
Unskilled workers
5.20, 5.61, 6.06, 6.37
Upgrading and downgrading
1.11, 1.21, 3.02, 3*28, 4.08, 4.10, 4.20, 5.32,
5.39, 5.48, 6.21, 6.39, 7.42, 8.25, 8.27, 8.56, 9.27, 9.30
1.24, 1.38, 5.47, 10.01, 10.02, 10.06, 10.08-10.11, 10.14, 10.15, 11.06


1.07, 1.13, 1.15, 1.23, 1.28, 1.31, 1.36, 1.37, 2.010, 2.017, 3.01,
3.02, 3.17, 3.25, 3.26, 5.28, 5.39, 5.58, 6.08, 6.28, 6.29, 6.36, 6.37,
8.04, 8.05, 8.22, 8.39
Payment systems and incentives
3.27, 3.28, 5.35, 8.05, 8.21, 8.27
Structure and rates
3.20, 5.28, 5.30, 8.14, 8.27, 8.40, 8.58
1.17, 2.004, 2.007
Washington Agreement
Watchmaking industry
1.10, 5.23, 6.21, 8.40
White collar workers
4.01-4.24, 5.06, 5.27, 5.49, 6.20, 6.31, 6.36, 6.39,
8.39, 8.46
Women workers
3.21, 8.45
Work, impact of automation on
1.34, 2.017, 4.07, 5.24, 5.40, 5.43, 5*50,
6.01, 6.03, 6.19
Work rules
8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.32, 8.36, 8.64
Work satisfaction
1.08, 1.15, 1.19, 1.22, 1.23, 2.010, 3.02, 3.03, 3.10,
3.12, 3.14, 3.18, 3.28, 4.06, 4.07, 4.10, 6.11, 6.15, 6.18, 6.19, 7.42,
7.43, 9.34
Worker attitudes and reaction
1.35, 3.02, 3.03, 3.10, 3.17, 3.19, 3.20,
3.25, 3.27, 4.01, 4.06, 4.07, 4.11, 4.17, 5.40, 6.28, 8.43, 8.63
Worker characteristics
3.12, 3.20, 4.20, 5.37, 6.22, 6.33-6.35
Working conditions (See also Shift work, Hours of work.)
1.06-1.08, 1.25,
1.36, 3.02, 3.16-3.18, 3.22-3.24, 3.27, 3.28, 4.22, 5.27, 5.28, 6.09,
6.13, 6.34-6.37, 8.05, 8.06, 8.15, 8.37, 8.39, 8.51


1.06, 1.23, 2.017, 5.27, 6.41
6.15, 9.34
1.07, 1.22, 1.23, 6.11, 9.10
3.14, 8.21, 9.34


5.09, 5.20, 5.24, 5.61, 7.43



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McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
330 West 42d St.
New York 36, N.Y.
Mechanical Engineering
American Society of Mechanical
29 West 39th St.
New York 18, N.Y.
Michigan State University
Labor and Industrial Relations
East Lansing, Mich.
Michigan State University Press
Box 752
East Lansing, Mich.
Mill & Factory
Conover-Mast Publications, Inc.
205 East 42d St.
New York 17, N.Y.
The Mining Congress Journal
American Mining Congress
1102 Ring Bldg.
Washington 6, D.C.
Monthly Labor Review
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics
Available from: Superintendent of
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C.

The Nation
333 Sixth Ave.
New York 14, N.Y.
National Academy of Sciences
2101 Constitution Ave. NW.
Washington 25, D.C.


National Association of Manufacturers
Research Department
2 East 48th St.
New York 17, N.Y.

New York State Department of Labor
State Office Bldg.
Albany, N.Y.

National Industrial Conference Board
460 Park Ave.
New York 22, N.Y.


National Office Management
1927 Old York Rd.
Willow Grove, Pa.

W. W. Norton and Co., Inc.,
55 Fifth Ave.
New York 3, N.Y.

National Planning Association
1606 New Hampshire Ave. NW.
Washington 9, D.C.
National Retail Merchants Association
Retail Research Institute
100 West 31st St.
New York 1, N.Y.
National Science Foundation
1951 Constitution Ave. NW.
Washington 25, D.C.

Times Co.

Office Executive
National Office Management
1927 Old York Rd.
Willow Grove, Pa.
Office Management
Geyer•McAllister Publications
212 Fifth Ave.
New York 10, N.Y.
Office Management and American
(Name changed to Administrative

Nation*s Business
Chamber of Commerce of the
United States
1615 H St. NW.
Washington 6, D.C.

Oil and Gas Journal
Petroleum Publishing Co.
211 South Cheyenne Ave.
Tulsa 3, Okla.

The New American Library of World
Literature, Inc.
501 Madison Ave.
New York 22, N.Y.

Organization for European
Economic Co-operation
European Productivity Agency
2, Rue Andre-Pascal
Paris-16e, France

New Republic
1244 19th St. NW.
Washington 6, D.C.
New York City Central Labor Council
386 Park Ave.
New York, N.Y.

New York
New York
West 43d
York 36,

Oxford University Press
Amen House, Warwick Square
London, E.C. 4, England
417 Fifth Ave.
New York 16, N.Y.


Personnel Administrator
American Society for Personne1
3735 Indian Rd.
Toledo, Ohio

Paper Industry
Fritz Publications, Inc.
431 Dearborn St.
Chicago 5, 111.
Paper Mill News
L.D. Post, Inc.
1440 Broadway
New York 18, N.Y.

Personnel and Guidance Journal
American Personnel and
Guidance Association
1605 New Hampshire Ave. NW.
Washington 9, D.C.

Patent, Trademark, and Copyright
Journal of Research and Education
The Patent, Trademark, and Copyright
George Washington University
708 22d St. NW.
Washington 6, D.C.

Personnel Journal
The Personnel Journal, Inc.
P.0. Box 239
Swarthmore, Pa.
Petroleum-Engineer for Management
Petroleum Engineer Publishing Co.
800 Davis Bldg.
Dallas 2, Tex.

Penguin Books, Ltd.
Bath Rd.
Harmondsworth, Middlesex
Penguin Books, Inc.
3300 Clipper Rd.
Baltimore 11, Md.

Philosophical Library
15 East 40th St.
New York 16, N.Y.

Pennsylvania Business Survey
Bureau of Business Research
229 Boucke Bldg.
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pa.

Pittsburgh Business Review
2117 CL, University of Pittsburgh
Bureau of Business Research
Graduate School of Business
Pittsburgh 13, Pa,

The American Management Association
1513 Broadway, Times Square
New York 36, N.Y.

Political and Economic Planning
16 Queen Anne*s Gate
London S.W.I., England
Power Engineering
308 East James St.
Barrington, 111.

Personnel Administration
Society for Personnel Administration
715 G St. NW.
Washington 1, D.C.

Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.
64 University Pi.
New York 3, N.Y.


Religion and Labor Foundation
(Name changed in 1959 to Religion
and Labor Council of America)
34985? North High St.
Columbus 14, Ohio

Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Route 9 W
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
Princeton University
Department of Economics & Sociology
Industrial Relations Section
Princeton, N.J.

The Reporter
660 Madison Ave.
New York 21, N.Y.

Princeton University Press
Princeton, N.J.

Retail Clerks International
Connecticut Ave. and
DeSales St. NW.
Washington 6, D.C.

Productivity Measurement Review
Productivity Advisory Service
European Productivity Agency
Available from: O.E.E.C. Mission
Publications Office
Suite 1223
1346 Connecticut Ave. NW.
Washington 6, D.C.

Rubber Age
Palmerton Publishing Co.
101 West 31st St.
New York 1, N.Y.

Public Administration Review
American Society for Public
6042 Kimbark Ave.
Chicago 37, 111.

Rutgers University
Institute of Management and Labor
New Brunswick, N.J.

Public Affairs Press
419 New Jersey Ave. SE.
Washington 3, D.C.

The Saturday Evening Post
Curtis Publishing Co.
Independence Square
Philadelphia 5, Pa.

Public Personnel Review
Public Personnel Association
1313 East 60th St.
Chicago 37, 111.

School Shop
330 Thompson St.
Ann Arbor, Mich.

Railway Age
Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corp.
30 Church St.
New York 7, N.Y.

American Association for the
Advancement of Science
1515 Massachusetts Ave. NW.
Washington 5, D.C.

Reinhold Publishing Corp.
430 Park Ave.
New York 22, N.Y.

Scientific American
415 Madison Ave.
New York 17, N.Y.

Martin Seeker & Warburg, Ltd.
7 John St.
Bloomsbury, London, W.C.I.


Sidgewick & Jackson, Ltd.
1 Tavistock Chambers
Bloomsbury Way
London, W.C.I., England
Simon and Schuster, Inc.
630 Fifth Ave.
New York 20, N.Y.
The Smithsonian Institution
10th St. and Independence Ave. SW.
Washington 25, D.C.
Social Problems
Society for the Study of Social
Indiana University
Bloomington, Ind.
Sociology and Social Research
University of Southern California
University Park
Los Angeles 7, Calif.
Southern Research Institute
2000 Ninth Ave.
Birmingham, Ala.
Stanford Research Institute
Public Relations Department
Menlo Park, Calif.

Technical Association of the Pulp
and Paper Industry
360 Lexington Ave.
New York 17, N.Y.
Technical Education News
American Technical Education
22 Oakwood PI.
Delmar, N.Y.
Textile Industries
W.R.C. Smith Publishing Co.
806 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta 8, Ga.
Textile World
McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Inc.
330 West 42d St.
New York 36, N.Y.
Textile Workers Union of America
Research Department
99 University PI.
New York 3, N.Y.
Tool and Manufacturing Engineer
(Prior to September i960,
Tool Engineer)
American Society of Tool Engineers
10700 Puritan Ave.
Detroit 38, Mich.

The Penton Publishing Co.
Penton Bldg.
Cleveland 13, Ohio

Tool Engineer
(Name changed to Tool and Manufac­
turing Engineer, September 1960)

Steel Labor
United Steelmakers of America
2457 East Washington St,
Indianapolis 7, Ind.

Tooling and Production
Huebner Publications, Inc.
1975 Lee Rd.
Cleveland 18, Ohio

Supervisory Management
American Management Association
1515 Broadway
New York 36, N.Y.

Trade Union Information
European Productivity Agency
Trade Union Section
3 Rue Andre-Pascal
Paris-16e, France


U.S. Department of Commerce
Business and Defense Services
Washington 25, D.C.

Trade Union Information and
Research Service
European Productivity Agency
Organization for European Economic
3 Rue Andre-Pascal
Paris-16e , Prance

U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Mines
Washington 25, D.C.

Kalinbach Publishing Co.
1027 North Seventh St.
Milwaukee 3, Wis.

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Employment Security (and)
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Washington 25, D.C.

United Nations Educational,
Scientific, and Cultural
2 Place de Fontenoy
Paris-7e , Prance
Available from: UNESCO Publications
801 Third Ave.
New York 22, N.Y.
(and except
for periodicals)
International Document Service
Columbia University Press
2960 Broadway
New York 27, N.Y.

U.S. General Accounting Office
Washington 25, D.C.
U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington 25, D.C.
U.S. News and World Report
United States Publishing Corp.
2300 N St. NW.
Washington 7, D.C.
U.S. Small Business Administration
Washington 25, D.C.

U.S. Bureau of the Budget
Washington 25, D.C.

University of Alabama Press
Drawer 2877
University, Ala.

U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board
Washington 25, D.C.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Agriculture Research Service
Agricultural Marketing Service
Washington 25, D.C.

University of Illinois
College of Commerce and Business
Bureau of Economic and Business
Box 658, Station A
Champaign, 111.


U.S. Department of the Army
Ballistics Research Laboratories
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.


University of Illinois
Institute of Labor and Industrial
Editorial Office
704 South Sixth St.
Champaign, 111.
University of Illinois Bulletin
University of Illinois
Office of Publication
207 Administration Bldg.
Urbana, 111.
University of Minnesota
Industrial Relations Center
Minneapolis, Minn.
University of Oklahoma Press
Faculty Exchange
Norman, Okla.
University of Southern California
Department of Psychology
Los Angeles, Calif.
University of Western Australia Press
Nedlands, Western Australia

Wall Street Journal
Dow-Jones and Co., Inc.
44 Broad St.
New York 4, N.Y.
West Virginia University Institute
of Industrial Relations
Morgantown, W. Va.
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
440 Fourth Ave.
New York 16, N.Y.
World Health Organization
Geneva, Switzerland
Publications available from:
Columbia University Press
International Documents Service
2960 Broadway
New York 27, N.Y.

Yale University Press
143 Elm St.
New Haven, Conn.
336 Fourth Ave.
New York 16, N.Y.

D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.
120 Alexander St.
Princeton, N.J.
The Viking Press, Inc.
625 Madison Ave.
New York 22, N.Y.

Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc.
431 Clay St.
San Francisco 11, Calif.