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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
/WHOLE 0 0 1
B U R EA U O F LABOR S T A T IS T IC S / * ‘ ‘ \ NUMBER
1
IND U STR IA L

A C C ID E N TS

AND

HYGIENE

SE R IE S:

No.

15

HOURS, FATIGUE, AND HEALTH
IN BRITISH MUNITION FACTORIES




R E P R I N T S O F T H E M EM ORANDA
OF TH E B R I T I S H H E A L T H OF
M UNITION W O R K ER S CO M M ITTEE

APRIL, 1917

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1917




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
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AT
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V

C O N T E N T S .
Page.

Introduction......................................................................................................................
Summary of the comm ittee’s conclusions................................................................
Sunday labor.....................................................................................................................
Hours of work....................................................................................................................
Output in relation to hours of work, report by H. M. Vernon, M. D ..............
Industrial fatigue and its causes........................................- ........................................
Sickness and injury.........................................................................................................
Special industrial diseases.............................................................................................
Tetrachlorethane poisoning (report of the British medical inspector of facto­
ries) ........................... ......................................................................................................
Dope poisoning (leaflet issued by the British factory inspector’s office)..........
Ventilation and lighting of munition factories and workshops............ .............
Effect of industrial conditions upon eyesight..........................................................
British treasury agreement as to trade-union rules affecting restriction of out­
put....................................................................................................................................
Munitions of War Act, 1915, relating to labor disputes and restoration of
trade-union conditions after the w ar......................................................................
Munitions of War (amendment) Act, 1916...............................................................
Munitions tribunals (provisional), rules for constituting and regulating muni­
tions tribunals in England and W ales..................................................................
Compulsory arbitration in munitions industry in France.....................................




3

5-7
8-13
14-19
20-30
31-46
47-60
61-72
73-82
83-92
93-97
98-109
110-117
118-124
125-132
133-140
141-145
146,147

PREFACE.

This b u lletin is the first of a group of b u lletin s to be published by
the Bureau of Labor S ta tistics of the United States Department of Labor,
in com pliance w ith the fo llo w in g resolution voted April 7, 1917, by the
Council of N ation al D efense:
That the com plete reports of the com m ittee appointed by the B ritish
M inister of M unitions to in v estig a te conditions affectin g the h ealth and
w elfare of w orkers be edited so that the sa lien t features thereof may be
made applicable to the conditions pertaining in the U nited States and
printed in condensed form by the Department of Labor.
The m atter contained in the reports and memoranda issued by the
B ritish H ealth of M unition W orkers Committee is of such in terest and
importance that the documents relatin g to hours, fa tig u e , and occupa­
tio n a l diseases are reproduced in fu ll in th is b u lletin .
Later b u lletin s w ill contain documents, official and nonofficial, dealing
w ith w elfare work and the em ploym ent of women and ju v en iles and
such related docum ents, eith er official or nonofficial, as are of sufficient
in terest and importance to warrant reprinting or sum m arizing in b u l­
letin form.
I t is though t th at these b u lletin s, published at the request of the
Council of N ation al D efense, w ill be of great service to the country by
g iv in g w ider circulation to the experiences of Great B ritain, France,
Canada, and other countries in dealing w ith labor in the production of
the largest q u an tity of m unitions in the shortest space of tim e.
ROYAL MEEKER,
U nited States Commissioner of Labor S tatistics.




B U L L E T IN O F T H E

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 221.

WASHINGTON.

APRIL, 1917

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , A N D H E A L T H IN B R IT IS H
M U N IT IO N FA C T O R IE S,
INTRODUCTION.
The British Health of Munition Workers Committee was ap­
pointed in the middle of September, 1915, by the Minister of Muni­
tions, with the concurrence of the Home Secretary, “ to consider and
advise on questions of industrial fatigue, hours of labor, and other
matters affecting the personal health and physical efficiency of
workers in munition factories and workshops.”
The composition of the committee is as follows:
Sir George Newman, M. D. (chairman).
Sir Thomas Barlow, Bart., K. C. V. O., M. D., F. R. S.
G. Bellhouse, factory department, Home Office.
Prof. A. E. Boycott, M. D., F. R. S.
J. R. Clynes, M. P.
E. L. Collis, M. B., factory department, Home Office.
W. M. Fletcher, M. D., F. R. S., Secretary of Medical Research
Committee.
Leonard E. Hill, M. B., F. R. S.
Samuel Osborn, J. P., Sheffield.
Miss R. E. Squire, factory department, Home Office,
Mrs. H. J. Tennant.
E. H. Pelham (secretary).
The committee took evidence in various industrial centers from
employers, representatives of workers, and other interested persons,
and made numerous special studies and investigations. In addi­
tion, members visited a large number of factories and workshops,
and discussed matters with the management, with foremen, and with
individual workers. W ith this information, and having the advan­
tage of the special knowledge and experience already possessed by
members of the committee, it has published up to the present time
(April, 1917) 15 memoranda, dealing with one or more of the sub­
jects intrusted to it.
As these memoranda are the work of a committee especially quali­
fied by technical knowledge and special experience, and present
many suggestions and recommendations made with the purpose of




6

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

securing maximum output over a period of months, or even years,
and at the same time safeguarding the health and physical efficiency
of the workers, it is believed that their reproduction at this time
will be of value in-a similar way to industry and labor in this coun­
try. The memoranda have been arranged in three, groups, the
related subjects being brought together, and are reprinted as bulle­
tins of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics under the
following titles:
BULLETIN NO. 221, HOURS, FATIGUE, AND HEALTH IN BRITISH MUNI­
TION FACTORIES.

Sunday Labor (Memorandum No. 1 ).
[Cd. 8132.]
(Sum m arized in M o n
May, 1916, pp. 66, 67.)

th ly

R e v ie w

November, 1915.

6 pp.

of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,

Hours of Work (Memorandum No. 5). January, 1916. 9 pp.
[Cd. 8186.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, pp. 77- 79.)
Statistical Inform ation Concerning O utput in Relation to Hours
of Work (Memorandum No. 12). (Report by H. M. Ver­
non, M. D.) August, 1916. 1 1 pp. [Cd. 8344.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , December, 1916, pp. 105- 119.)
Industrial Fatigue and its Causes (Memorandum No. 7). Jan u ­
ary, 1916. 1 1 pp. [Cd. 8213.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, p p . 79- 81.)
Sickness and In ju ry (Memorandum No. 10 ). January, 1916. 10
pp. [Cd. 8216.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, pp. 88- 90.)
Special Industrial Diseases (Memorandum No. 8 ). February,
1916. 8 pp. [Cd. 8214.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, pp. 83- 88.)
Ventilation and Lighting of Munition Factories and Workshops
(Memorandum No. 9). January, 1916. 9 pp. [Cd. 8215.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, pp. 81- 83.)
The Effect of Industrial Conditions Upon Eyesight (Memorandum
No. 15). October, 1916. 8 pp. [Cd. 8409.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , April, 1917, pp. 538- 540.)
BULLETIN NO. 222, WELFARE WORK IN BRITISH MUNITION FACTORIES.

W elfare Supervision (Memorandum No. 2 ). December, 1915. 7
pp. [Cd. 8151.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , May, 1916, pp. 68, 69.)




INTRODUCTION.

7

Industrial Canteens (Memorandum No. 3). November, 1915. 7
pp. [Cd. 8133.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , May, 1916, pp. 69, 70.)
Canteen Construction and Equipment (Memorandum No. 6).
(Appendix to No. 3.) January, 1916. 7 pp. and plates.
[Cd. 8199.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, p. 91.)
Investigation of Workers’ Food and Suggestions as to Dietary
(Memorandum No. 1 1 ). (Report by Leonard E. Hill, F. R.
S.) August, 1916. 1 1 pp. [Cd. 8370.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , January, 1917, pp. 56, 57.)
W ashing Facilities and Baths (Memorandum No. 14). August,
1916. 8 pp. [Cd. 8387.]
(Sum m arized in M onthly

R e v ie w ,

January, 1917, pp. 150, 151.)

BULLETIN NO. 223, EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND JUVENILES IN GREAT
BRITAIN DURING THE WAR.

Employment of Women (Memorandum No. 4). January, 1916.
10 pp. [Cd. 8185.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , June, 1916, pp. 74- 76.)
Juvenile Employment (Memorandum No. 13). August, 1916. 8
pp. [Cd. 8362.]
(Sum m arized in M o n t h l y R e v i e w , December, 1916, pp. 92- 97.)
In the present bulletin the memoranda relating to hours of labor
and industrial fatigue are reproduced in full, preceded by a sum­
mary of the more im portant suggestions and recommendations of
the committee.
There has been added also the report of the Treasury agreement
of March 17, 18, and 19, 1915, between representatives of the British
Government and representatives of the trade-unions, in which it
was agreed in behalf of the trade-unions that all trade-union or
shop rules and customs tending to restrict production or to limit the
employment of semiskilled or female labor should be suspended for
the period of the war, the Government on its part agreeing to re­
quire all contractors and subcontractors on munitions or other war
work to bind themselves to restore such trade-union rules and cus­
toms after the war. I t was further agreed that machinery should
be provided for the prompt settlement of all labor disputes and
that no dispute should be allowed to result in a suspension of work.
The text of the Munitions of W ar Act, 1915, and the Munitions
of W ar (Amendment) Act, 1916, under which the terms of this
agreement were enacted into law, is also given.




S U M M A R Y O F T H E C O M M I T T E E ’S C O N C L U S I O N S .

Upon the subject of Sunday labor (Memorandum No. 1 ), the evi­
dence before the committee led them to hold th at “ if the maximum
output is to be secured and maintained for any length of time a
weekly period of rest must be allowed. Except for quite short
periods, continuous work, in their view, is a profound mistake and
does not pay—output is not increased. On economic and social
grounds alike this weekly period of rest is best provided on Sunday.
“ The committee desire to state that, in their opinion, the fore­
men and the higher management even more certainly require definite
periods of rest. These individuals have never spared themselves,
they carry a heavy burden of responsibility and they can not be re­
placed. * * * I t is of prim ary importance in the interests of
the nation that they should be allowed that rest which is essential
to the maintenance of their health.
“ In conclusion, the committee desire to emphasize their conviction
th at some action must be taken in regard to continuous labor and ex­
cessive hours of work if it is desired to secure and maintain, over a
long period, the maximum output. To secure any large measure
of reform it may be necessary to impose certain restrictions on all
controlled establishments, since competition and other causes fre­
quently make it difficult for individual employers to act independ­
ently of one another.”
In the preparation of the memorandum on Hours of icork in muni­
tion factories (Memorandum No. 5) the committee seem to have
been influenced by consideration of what is immediately practicable
regarding the health of the worker in relation to a maximum out­
put, in view of exceptional conditions entailed by the w ar. I t is sug­
T
gested that an increased number of hours may be obtained by over­
time or by a system of shifts and that the committee greatly prefers
the latter, although recognizing that it is impracticable to establish
shifts universally. The committee’s objections to overtime, briefly
stated, are: (1) I t is liable to impose too severe a strain upon the
workers, which adversely affects the rate of production and quality
of output during the whole period of work as well as during the
hours of overtime; ( 2 ) it frequently results in a large amount of lost
time, which is attributed to workers becoming exhausted and taking
a rest, and also to sickness; (3) it imposes a very serious strain upon
the management, the executive staff, and foremen, since they can not
take days off, like the ordinary worker; (4) it is liable to curtail
8




SUM M ARY OF TH E COMMITTEE *S CO NCLUSIONS.

9

unduly the period of rest and sleep available for those who have to
travel long distances to and from their work, a matter of special im­
portance in the case of young persons; (5) the fatigue entailed in­
creases the temptation to men to indulge in the consumption of al­
cohol.
A dm itting that overtime must continue, the committee suggested
definite restrictions to govern it. For adult male workers the com­
mittee recommends:
1. The average weekly hours (exclusive of m eals) should not exceed 65 to 67,
including overtime. Hours in excess of 65 should only be worked for short
periods and to meet sudden and unexpected circum stances. It may be de.sirable to differentiate to some extent between different kinds of work, and to
fix a rather low lim it o f hours for work requiring close individual attention.
2. W here practicable, the overtim e should be concentrated w ithin three or
four days in the week, which should preferably not be consecutive.
3. Where overtim e is worked, it is specially important that there should be
no Sunday work.

As respects women, the committee expresses the belief that the
strain of long hours is serious and th at conditions of work in excess
of the normal legal limit of 60 hours a week ought to be discontinued
as soon as practicable, although little objection is seen to such mod­
erate overtime during the week as can be compensated for by an
earlier stop on Saturdays. The committee feels that the need for
overtime among women and girls is much less pressing than it is
for men, and that wherever practicable the system should be aban­
doned in favor of shifts. Although it is recommended that boys
should be allowed to be employed overtime up to the maximum
suggested for men, it is thought that every effort should be made
not to work boys under 16 more than 60 hours a week.
Although work on shifts involves night work, the committee
makes it clear th at night work is not to be regarded as a good thing
in itself and offers the following objections to the system:
1. It is uneconomical. Though w ages are paid at a higher rate, the rate of
output, more particularly during the last two or three hours of the 12-hour
shift, is generally lower.
2. Supervision is frequently unsatisfactory.
3. Conditions of lighting are seldom so good as in daytim e and make fine
work more difficult.
4. W orkers experience great difficulty in sleeping by day.
5. The unfam iliar meal hour makes it difficult for the workers to consume
substantial food, and their digestion is liable to become deranged.

In its special study of Output in relation to hours of tcorfo (Memo­
randum No. 1 2 ) the object of the committee was to ascertain the
hours of employment most likely to produce a maximum output over
periods of months or even years. I t held that output can not be
maintained at the highest level for any considerable period if the




10

H O U R S, FATIG UE, E T C ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

conditions were such as to lead to excessive fatigue and to deteriora­
tion in the health of the w orkers. The committee’s investigations
T
covered operations of distinctly different character, some demand­
ing heavy manual labor, others of a light, more or less sedentary,
nature. I t was found that the time schedule producing the maxi­
mum output varied with the character of the operation.
The committee found that for men engaged in very heavy labor
the maximum hours of actual work yielding the most effective re­
sults appear to be 56 or less per week, for men engaged in mod­
erately heavy labor probably 60 per week, while for men and youths
engaged in light labor, such as tending semiautomatic machines,
probably 64 hours per week should be the maximum.
As a method of speeding up production, the committee recom­
mended the careful regulation of rest pauses. I t was found that
the operatives, if left to themselves, took rests at irregular and often
unsuitable times, hence it would be much better if the rest pauses
v^ere chosen for them. F or instance, a 10-minute break in the middle
of the morning and afternoon spells during which the operatives
remained at their machines, but took tea or other nutriment brought
them by boys or by traveling canteens, has been found a valuable
aid to output. Some types of work need longer and more frequent
rest pauses than others, and the best time can only be determined by
experience. A fter being fixed, they should remain compulsory and
rest pauses at other times be checked so far as possible.
The committee’s study of Industrial fatigue and its causes (Memo­
randum No. 7) is closely related to its three memoranda dealing
with hours of labor. The committee had the benefit of studies of
fatigue made by the Home Office1 and by a committee of the British
Association for the Advancement of Science,2 and the committee’s
report may be regarded as the summing up of these various studies
of fatigue and its own studies of hours of labor. The committee
again emphasize the importance of the regulation of hours and of
daily and weekly rests, made with due consideration of the char­
acter of the work performed.
The committee in recording their conclusions say : “ The com­
mittee are bound to record their impression that the munition workers
in general have been allowed to reach a state of reduced efficiency
and lowered health, which m ight have been avoided without reduc­
tion of output by attention to the details of daily and weekly rests.
1 Great Britain, Home Office. Second interim report on an investigation of industrial
fatigue by physiological methods, by A. F. Stanley Kent, M. A., D. Sc., professor of
physiology in the University of Bristol. London, 1916. 76 pp., 18 charts.
2 British Association for the Advancement of Science. u The question of fatigue from
the economic standpoint.” Interim report of the committee, Manchester, 1915. 67 pp.
British Association for the Advancement of Science. “ The question of fatigue from the
economic standpoint.” Second interim report of the committee, Newcastle, 1916. 24
pp. See M o n t h l y R e v ie w of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December, 1916,
p. 97.




SUM M AKY OF TH E COMMITTEE *S CONCLUSIONS.

11

The signs of fatigue are even more noticeable in the case of managers
and foremen, and their practical results are probably more serious
than in the case of the workmen.
“ I t is of great importance to note that a special and strenuous
voluntary effort in labor, if it be maintained under a badly arranged
time-table of work and rest, does not necessarily bring increased
output over a long period, however praiseworthy the intention of
effort may be. Under wrong conditions of work, with excessive over­
time, it is to be expected, indeed, that some deliberate 6slacking ’ of
the workers might actually give an improvement of output over a
period of some length by sparing wasteful fatigue, just as the
4nursing ’ of a boat crew over a part of a long course may improve
their performance. I t can not under such circumstances be said
th at a workman so restraining himself, consciously or unconsciously,
is doing more to damage the output, on the whole, than the employer
who has arranged overlong hours of labor on the baseless assumption
that long hours mean high output.”
In its report on Sickness and injury (Memorandum No. 10 ) the
committee pointed out certain injurious conditions which should be
guarded against as likely to diminish seriously the efficiency of the
labor force. The injurious conditions enumerated are:
( 1) E xcessively long hours of work, particularly by night, if continued, pro­

( 2)
(3)
( 4)
( 5)

( 6)

( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
( 10)

duce fatigue, irritation, and sickness. “ You w ill find,” wrote Sir
James Paget, “ that fatigue has a larger share in the promotion or per­
mission of disease than any other single casual condition you can
name.”
Cramped and constrained attitudes or posture during work, which prevent
the healthy action of lungs and heart.
Prolonged or excessive muscular strain, e. g., the liftin g of heavy weights,
prolonged standing, may produce rupture or varicose veins.
Machinery accidents.
W orking in unventilated or insufficiently ventilated workshops predis­
poses to disease and gravely interferes w ith individual energy and
physical capacity. The effect of continuously working in a stagnant or
polluted atmosphere is not trifling or insignificant.
The air, even if fresh, may be too hot or too cold, too humid or too dry;
either extrem e should be avoided to insure reasonable bodily comfort
and the most efficient work.
Imperfect lighting, whether by day or night, conduces to eyestrain and
headaches.
W orking w ith or in the presence of gases, vapors, poisons, and irritating
substances (e. g., “ d op in g ” ) may lead to direct poisoning.
D ust produced in certain industries, unless effectually safeguarded, may
induce lung diseases.
The m anufacture and use of high explosives involve risk to the workman.

Equally im portant with these influences, in the opinion of the
committee, is the predisposition to disease arising from a failure to
give proper attention to personal hygiene. In commenting upon




12

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

these influences likely to impair industrial efficiency, the committee
pointed out that, 6 in the past, when the supply of labor was plenti­
6
ful, the necessity for a study of the influences which affect human
efficiency may have escaped recognition, but to-day, when skilled
labor is scarce, the necessity is obvious. To conserve energy and
efficiency is, other things being equal, the way to improve output.”
For the purpose of remedy and treatment, the committee finds two
elementary principles; namely, that prevention is better than cure,
and that for treatment to be most effective it must deal with the
beginnings of disease. The committee recommends, as a preliminary
safeguard, the medical examination of all workers on their admission
to the factory, in order to secure, as far as may be, their initial
physical fitness for employment. In the opinion of the committee,
the factory management has two further duties in the m a tter: First,
they must reduce to a minimum any unfavorable conditions obtaining
in the plant, providing proper sanitary conditions and accommoda­
tions, safeguarding machinery, controlling hours of labor, furnish­
ing canteen facilities, and securing sufficiently warmed, lighted, and
ventilated workrooms; second, they must make arrangements for an
adequate medical and nursing scheme.
The committee points out the urgent necessity and value of firstaid work because of the increased number of accidents due to the
abnormal demands of munitions work. To meet these increased
dangers, the committee suggests the adoption of various methods of
prevention, such as the proper and effective guarding of machinery,
the adoption of safety appliances, the proper regulating of dangerous
processes, the adequate lighting of the factor}^ and the more careful
cleaning of machinery. The committee emphasizes also the pressing
need for the provision of suitable means of treatment, especially firstaid treatment for minor injuries and the instruction of employees in
first aid, and the thorough organization of first-aid and surgical
provision. Systematic recording of all cases of sickness and ac­
cident the committee regards as of the utmost importance in the
effective treatment of sickness and injuries.
The committee’s report on Special industrial diseases (Memoran­
dum No. 8 ) gives the causes, methods of prevention, and treatment
for the principal industrial diseases which have been found to
affect munition workers. These diseases a re : Poisoning due to lead,
trinitrotoluol, tetryl or tetranitromethylanilin, fulminate of mer­
cury, tetrachlorethane, and nitrous fumes. Dermatitis, or eczema,
caused by exposure to trinitrotoluol, tetryl, and fulminate of mer­
cury, are also discussed.
The committee emphasizes the importance of facilities for the
prompt treatment of all cases of sickness and injury, especially in
those establishments where poisonous substances are used.




SUM M ARY OF TH E COMMITTEE *S CO NCLUSIONS.

13

In its report on Ventilation and lighting (Memorandum No. 9)
the committee calls particular attention to the importance of ade­
quate provisions for ventilation and lighting, in view of the special
conditions under which work in munition factories is carried on
at the present time. Efficient ventilation is absolutely essential
for the maintenance of the health and comfort, and therefore the
efficiency and capacity of the workers. The need of effective methods
of ventilation is intensified at this time, not only by the increase
in the number of workers, but also by the continuous occupation
of shops by day and night. There is under these conditions no
interval in which natural ventilation can restore a vitiated atmos­
phere, and each shift succeeds to the bad conditions left by its
predecessor.
The committee calls attention to the fact that bad lighting affects
output unfavorably, not only by making good and rapid work more
difficult but by causing headaches and other effects of eyestrain.
The difficulties of supervision, which are always considerable, are
further increased if the lighting facilities of the workshops are
insufficient. The committee names as the essentials of good light­
ing: ( 1 ) Adequacy; (2 ) a reasonable degree of constancy and uni­
formity of illumination over the necessary area of work; (3) the
placing or shading of lamps so that light from them does not fall
directly on the eye of the operator when engaged at his work or
when looking horizontally across the workroom; (4) the placing
of lights so as to avoid the casting of extraneous shadows on the
work.
In its report on the Effect of industrial conditions upon eyesight
(Memorandum No. 15) the committee calls attention to the need
of special measures to prevent undue strain upon the eyesight or to
reduce the liability to accidents to a minimum. These are: ( 1 )
Testing of eyesight of operatives to be employed on close work and
supplying them with glasses where necessary; and ( 2 ) guarding
the eyes from flying particles of metal by the use of goggles.
General measures designed to improve the physical health of
the workers and so to enable them to resist the effects of fatigue
include the proper lighting of factories, the provision of canteens,
and adequate time for rest and sleep.




SU N D A Y

LABOR.

[Memorandum No. 1 ]

To the R ight Honorable D avid Lloyd George, M . P ., M inister of
Munitions.
S i r : 1 . The committee were appointed by you, with the concur­
rence of the Home Secretary “ To consider and advise on questions
of industrial fatigue, hours of labor, and other matters affecting the
personal health and physical efficiency of workers in munition fac­
tories and workshops.”
2 . Since their appointment in the middle of September, the com­
mittee have taken evidence in London and other important centers
from employers, representatives of workers, and other interested
persons. In addition a large number of factories and workshops
situated in different parts of the country have been visited by one or
more members of the committee. A t such visits the opportunity
has been taken to discuss matters with the management, with fore­
men, and with individual workers. The committee have also had
the advantage of the special knowledge and experience already
possessed by some members of the committee at the time of their ap­
pointment.
3. In the course of their investigations the committee have found
that both employers and workers were specially concerned at the
present time with the problem of Sunday labor. The committee
have been so impressed with the urgency and importance of this
question that they have thought it right to submit an interim report
dealing with this question at once without waiting until they were in
a position to deal also with other questions falling within their
terms of reference.
4. The problem of Sunday labor, though materially affected by va­
rious industrial questions and the established custom of Sunday rest,
is—as regards munition works—prim arily a question of the extent
to which workers actually require weekly or periodic rests if they
are to maintain their health and energy over long periods. In ter­
vals of rest are needed to overcome mental as well as physical fa­
tigue. In this connection account has to be taken not only of the
hours of labor (overtime, 12 -hour shifts, 8-hour shifts), the environ­
ment of the work and the physical strain involved, but also the men­
tal fatigue or boredom resulting from continuous attention to work.
14




SU NDA Y LABOR.

15

As one manager put it, it is the monotony of the work which kills—
the men get sick of it.
5. The great majority of the employers consulted are unfavorably
disposed to Sunday labor. Their objections may be broadly classi­
fied under three heads:
(a) Administrative.—Supervision is difficult and imposes a
severe strain on the foremen; yet deputies are not easy
to obtain.
<&) Economic.—Sunday labor means high wages often cou­
pled with increased cost of running the works. Though
attendance on Sundays is generally good it is not, for
various reasons, always accompanied by a satisfactory
individual output. Moreover, Sunday labor is fre­
quently accompanied by bad timekeeping on other days
of the week.
( c) Religious and social.—There is a considerable feeling
that the seventh day, as a period of rest, is good for
body and mind.
Although, therefore, employers generally are opposed to Sunday
work, it has been widely adopted, (a) on account of heavy demands
for output, or (b) because employers have been forced into it by a
desire of their workpeople to obtain the double, or at least increased,
pay. When adopted, the hours are often considerably shorter than
on an ordinary day. The work may begin later and end earlier; over­
time is generally dispensed with. In at least one instance the work
is confined to a morning of four hours. Saturday night shifts are
frequently abandoned, and Sunday night shifts started at a later
hour than usual. On the other hand there are still a number of fac­
tories where the hours on Sunday are as long as on other days, or
even longer, as in cases where transfer from a 12 -hour day shift to
a 12 -hour night shift is made by working for a continuous period of
18 hours at the change.
6. The committee understand that, in response to the request of
employers, the Home Secretary has issued orders permitting Sunday
labor by “ protected ” persons (i. e., women and young persons under
18 years of age) in a limited number of cases. A t the present mo­
ment, for the whole United Kingdom, there are about 50 orders cov­
ering women, girls, and boys, and also about another 30 for boys
only. As a rule employment on Sundays has only been sanctioned
when the hours of work on other days of the week are moderate, and
even when Sunday work has been allowed it has been usual to impose
conditions restricting employment as regards individuals, e. g ,:
(a) That women and young persons shall not be employed on
two consecutive Sundays;




16

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

(5) That they shall have time off on Saturday;
( c) That they shall only be employed on Sundays in cases of
emergency;
( d) That they shall be employed for a portion of the day only.
7. Evidence in the form of statistics of output in regard to Sunday
labor is hardly obtainable; even where the output of work may be
such as would in normal circumstances permit of the collection of
such figures, the rapid growth in the number of persons employed,
the greater employment of women, the increasing efficiency of in­
experienced workers, and other similar causes render comparison
difficult, unreliable, or impossible. Even where the requisite data
might be available it has not generally been found possible for the
management to find the necessary time for its collection and tabula­
tion. The representative of one important firm, however, informed
the committee th at in one of their shops where heavy machine
work was done by men of a good average trade-union type they
had recently extended the relief at the week end and so re­
duced1the average weekly hours from 78^ to 6 5 Though the normal
hours were thus reduced by 13, the average number of hours (60)
Avorked during the three months succeeding the change exceeded the
average number of hours (59^) worked during the six months pre­
ceding the change. Moreover, in his opinion, the output per hour was
improved. Though accurate figures of this kind are not generally
available, statements are made by many employers that seven days’
labor only produces six days’ output; th at reductions in Sunday
work have not, in fact, involved any appreciable loss of output, and
even the less observant of the managers seem to be impressed with
the fact that the strain is showing an evil effect. The loss of time on
other days has led an employer to the somewhat paradoxical posi­
tion of confining Sunday work to those who have attended regularly
during the week, i. e., to give a rest on Sundays to those who, in fact,
need it least. There is undoubtedly some tendency toward a reduc­
tion or discontinuance of Sunday labor. I t is becoming increasingly
realized that there are limits to hours of labor beyond which no
commensurate ^oiftput is obtained. Perhaps inevitably, employers
started their production of munitions by sprinting as if for a short,
race whereas it is becoming evident th at the course will be a long
one and that the hours of labor must be so organized as to enable
the output to be maintained at a regular level for a lengthy period.
This is all the more im portant in that employers have been compelled
to engage many untrained men who lacked both the skill and the
reserve of energy and staying power possessed by the regular muni­
tion worker.
8. The evidence from the side of the employees is naturally less
definite. The trade-union officials seem clearly of opinion that the




SU NDAY LABOR.

17

men are beginning to get u fed up 5 and are feeling the need of more
1
rest, to which need is attributed much of the lost time. I t is stated
that many men continue at work who in ordinary times would be ab­
sent on account of ill-health. Though a high rate of wages may
have rendered Sunday labor popular in the first instance, the com­
mittee are not convinced that this is still everywhere the case. A t
one im portant center the representatives of the workers urged the
abolition of the long “ change over ” shifts and the stoppage of all
ordinary work on Sundays between 8 a. m., and 8 p. m. They defi­
nitely preferred relief on Sunday to relief on Saturday afternoon
(though elsewhere the Saturday relief is preferred). An employer
in the same place informed the committee that at his factory work
was generally stopped from 10 p. m. on Saturday to 6 a. m. on Mon­
day, and that the day shift preferred to work on from 6 p. m. to
10 p. m. on Saturday afternoon in order that they might be set free
on Sunday. A t another im portant center the representatives of the
workers, while they thought that an immediate stoppage of all
Sunday work might lead to trouble over wages, definitely urged that
the workers should be given one Sunday off in every two or three.
Certainly, whatever difficulties there may have been or sti1! are,
the fact remains that a number of prominent employers have suc­
ceeded in reducing or abolishing seven days’ labor.
9.
The evidence before the committee has led them strongly to hold
that if the maximum output is to be secured and maintained for any
length of time, a weekly period of rest must be allowed. Except
for quite short periods, continuous work, in their view, is a pro­
found mistake and does not pay—output is not increased. On
economic and social grounds alike this weekly period of rest is best
provided on Sunday, and the committee are strongly of opinion that
Sunday work should be confined—
(a) To sudden emergencies, including the occasional making
up of arrears in particular sections; and
(b) To repairs, tending furnaces, etc. (the men so employed
being given a corresponding period of rest during some
other part of the week).
Speaking generally, the need for this relief from work on Sunday
is more urgent for “ protected” persons than for adult males, and
for men on overtime than for those on double shifts, and the need
may also vary somewhat according to the number of hours worked
during the week and the environment and character of the w ork; but
the committee consider that the discontinuance of Sunday labor
should be of universal application and should extend to all classes of
workers, except that where the work must necessarily be continuous
special arrangements will be necessary.
92103°— Bull. 221—17------ 2




18

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

10. Should the early stoppage of all Sunday work be considered
for any reason difficult, if not impossible, to bring about, the com­
mittee trust that it will at least be practicable to lay down the
principle that Sunday labor is a serious evil which should be steadily
and systematically discouraged and restricted. They suggest that,
pending a general discontinuance of such labor, there are various
ways in which an im portant improvement might be effected:
(ia) Where two shifts (one for day and one for night) are
worked, to discontinue the practice by which the change
from one shift to the other is made by requiring the
men to work continuously for a period and a half in ­
stead of by closing down on Saturday night or during
the period of the day shift on Sunday. Closure on
Saturday nights seems desirable even when the change
of shift is made less often than once a week, since the
night shift seems to be generally regarded as a greater
strain than the day shift.
( b) Where three 8-hour shifts are worked, to omit one or
two shifts on Sunday.
{c) Where workers are employed only during the day with
overtime, to reduce so far as possible the hours of work
on Sunday.
(d) To give all workers alternate Sundays off, or at the very
least a Sunday off at frequent intervals:
(i) By allowing a certain number to get off each
Sunday;
(ii) By closing completely, say, one Sunday in every
two or three;
(iii) By closing alternately in particular depart­
ments.
( e) To give another day off in place of Sunday or, at any
rate, to let workers on long hours off early on Saturdays
or at other times.
(/) To increase* the employment of relief gangs where this can
be satisfactorily arranged for, by obtaining either—
(i) Relief workers amongst ordinary staff; or
(ii) Relief week-end shifts of volunteers.
11. The above conclusions have reference to the hours of labor of
workers, but the committee desire to state that, in their opinion, the
foremen and the higher management even more certainly require
definite periods of rest. These individuals have never spared them­
selves ; they carry a heavy burden of responsibility and they can not
be replaced. The committee have with regret noted among them
obvious signs of overwork. I t is of prim ary importance in the in-




SU NDA Y LABOR.

19

terests of the nation th at they should be allowed th at rest which is
essential to the maintenance of their health.
12 . In conclusion, the committee desire to emphasize their con­
viction that some action must be taken in regard to continuous labor
and excessive hours of work if it is desired to secure and maintain,
over a long period, the maximum output. To secure any large meas­
ure of reform it may be necessary to impose certain restrictions on all
controlled establishments, since competition and other causes fre­
quently make it difficult for individual employers to act independ-.
ently of one another.
Signed on behalf of the committee,
George N ewman.
E. H. Pelham , Secretary.
N ovember, 1915.




HOURS OF W ORK.
[Memorandum No. 5.]

In the preparation of this memorandum the committee have neces• sarily been influenced by considerations of what is immediately prac­
ticable regarding the health of the worker in relation to a maximum
output, in view of the exceptional conditions entailed by the war.
The limits of hours which they propose are based on the expectation
that the war will be of long duration, and are such as they think
can reasonably be continued over a protracted period. Many diver­
gent factors have had to be weighed one against another and a num­
ber of the suggestions made are the resultant of a balance of consid­
erations. The memorandum is directly concerned only with the
hours of employment of workers engaged on the production of those
munitions of war for which the ministry are directly responsible;
it is not, for example, concerned with the hours in the shipbuilding or
textile trades. One aspect of the question of hours of employment
has already been considered in the committee’s memorandum on
“ Sunday la b o r” (Memorandum No. I 1) ; but even though a weekly
or Sunday rest be conceded, important questions will remain as to
how far an extension of the working hours during the week can be
maintained and made to secure a maximum of output over a long
period of time. An increased number of hours may be obtained
either by overtime (by which is meant a lengthening of the normal
daily hours of work) or by a system of shifts. The committee greatly
prefer the latter alternative, but recognize that, for reasons which
will be discussed later, it is impracticable to establish shifts uni­
versally.
OVERTIM E.

Overtime is commonly justified on the ground that no other ar­
2.
rangement is possible owing to a dearth of workers and to the diffi­
culties of increasing plant, and it is contended that, though the out­
put per hour may not be maintained, the system does result in in­
creased production. I t should be noted that as the most highly
skilled workers (tool and gauge makers, tool setters, etc.) are the
most difficult to obtain, they have been most generally employed on
overtime, and have frequently had to work exceedingly long hours.
A t one time cases of men working as much as 90 hours per week
were common; more recently there has been a tendency to reduce
hours, but even so, weekly totals of 70 to 80 hours are still frequent.
20




HOURS OF WORK.

21

Some overtime amongst this class is no doubt inevitable, but the com­
mittee are satisfied that hours such as these can not be worked with
impunity, and they most strongly urge that every effort should be
made, either by “ dilution ” of labor or otherwise, to extend the shift
system to this branch of the industry as rapidly as possible.
3. The objections to overtime may be briefly stated as follows:
( 1 ) I t is liable to impose too severe a strain on the workers.
Many witnesses assert that while for an emergency
overtime is effective, after a period the rate of produc­
tion tends to decrease and the extra hours to produce
little or no additional output. Moreover the quality of
the output may be adversely affected during the whole
period of work and not only during the hours of over­
time.
(2 ) It frequently results in a large amount of lost time. In
part this is to be attributed to the workers becoming ex­
hausted and taking a rest, and also to sickness, notice­
able chiefly amongst the older men and those of weak
constitution.
(3) I t imposes a very serious strain upon the management, the
executive staff, and the foremen, both on account of the
actual length of the hours worked and the increased
worry and anxiety to maintain output and quality of
work. These men can not take days off duty like the
ordinary workers.
(4) I t is liable to curtail unduly the period of rest and sleep
available for those who have to travel long distances to
and from their work, a matter of special importance in
in the case of young persons.
(5) The fatigue entailed increases the temptation to men to
indulge in the consumption of alcohol; they are too
tired to eat and seek a stimulant.
4. The committee have not found that as yet the strain of long
hours has caused any serious breakdown among workers, though
many general statements indicative of fatigue have been received by
the committee; in particular there is medical evidence to the effect
that the long hours are beginning to make themselves felt upon the
older men and upon those who suffer from physical infirmity. I t is
noticeable, too, that there is a general tendency toward a reduction of
hours. There is good reason for believing th at the increased pay
and the better food th at workers have been able to enjoy in conse­
quence have helped to counteract the strain of long hours, and there
is little doubt, too, that both men and women have been stimulated
to make a special effort by an appreciation of the national importance




22

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

of their work. These influences have been thus summarized by a
trade-union official:
<1 ) W ill power. Men have continued at work in a condition that (under
ordinary circum stances) would have put them off for a week or
two. Even when a man comes off for a tim e he is anxious to get
back again as quickly as possible. I have had one or two cases of
serious breakdown. The main factor is that practically all the
men w ant to do their best.
( 2 ) B etter w ages mean better food for a large number of men w ith
fam ilies, and they mean a little better provision for those fam ilies,
which again reacts upon the m an’s health and his work. In these
cases it is not so much the saving or possibility of saving money,
but the satisfactory spending of it which is the factor of im­
portance.
( 3 ) The possibility o f getting more money has also its effect. You read
much about the slacker. There is quite a large proportion of
workmen really too anxious for overtime— employers w ill corrobo­
rate— even under normal conditions.

I t would be a mistake, however, to depend too largely upon the
operation of influences of this kind, or to hope that they can continue
indefinitely to be effective against fatigue. The committee are satis­
fied that if men are asked to work for 15 hours a day for weeks
and months on end (as is the case now in certain areas) one of two
results must follow. Either the health of the workers will break
down or they will not work at full pressure. In either case output
must suffer. I t must be remembered, moreover, th at the problem
to be considered is not so much whether the workers have been able
to withstand the strain of extra hours up to the present, as whether
they are likely to continue to withstand it under similar conditions
for a further protracted period.
5. Amongst the executive and foremen there is already evidence
of considerable fatigue, and numerous instances have been brought to
the notice of the committee where men of this class have had to be
allowed special holidays to enable them to recuperate. I t is hardly
necessary to emphasize the importance of maintaining the health and
physical efficiency of this class, upon whom depends principally the.
organization and discipline of the works. In some instances ft has
been found possible to arrange for members of the executive and
foremen to share the duty during hours of overtime, an obviously
desirable arrangement where it can be managed.
6. While, then, the committee recognize that overtime must con­
tinue, they suggest that it should be subject to certain definite restric­
tions somewhat on the lines indicated in the following paragraphs.
They feel, however, that a final judgment upon overtime must be re­
served until there has been an opportunity to observe the effects of
restricted Sunday work, a reform which they hope will follow as a




H OURS OF WORK.

23

result of the recommendation put forward in their first memo­
randum.
7.
Adult moles.—There is an extraordinary conflict of opinion as
to the number of hours that can profitably be worked. On the one
hand the advocate of the 48-hour week is emphatic in his view that
this is the maximum a man can be employed effectively. “All over­
time is bad,” said the representative of one large firm, “ we only
work if driven to do so by urgent demands from the ministry, and
even then our men become disorganized, and it is doubtful if our
output is in any way increased.” On the other hand, those who are
employing their workers for 15 hours a day, sometimes with Sunday
work in addition, state with apparently equal confidence th a t such
hours are not excessive, that they have been worked in times of
peace, and that they can not be reduced without loss of output. I t
is noticeable th at amongst those in favor of shorter hours are em­
ployers who have given the most careful study to the question of in­
dustrial fatigue and scientific management, and it is at least signifi­
cant that, so far as the committee can learn, no employer who has
once adopted the shorter scale of hours ever desires to return to a
longer period. If, however, the 48-hour week is to be made a suc­
cess, the reduction of hours must be accompanied by a reorganization
in factory management, which it would be difficult or impossible to
carry out at the present time. Am'ongst those who favor the longer
hours are to be found some of the largest employers of labor. While
the committee hesitate to criticize the action of firms of such great
experience, it seems self-evident that men can not work continually
for 15 hours a day with good effect, more particularly when, as is
often the case at the present time, there has to be added to the day’s
labor a journey of an hour or more to and from the works. The
hours thus described—6 a. m. to 9 p. m.—appear to have their origin
in trade custom—they add “ a quarter ” to the ordinary day’s work
and have been adopted in normal times to meet temporary trade
pressure. The pressure now, however, is not temporary, and prepa­
ration must be made for a prolonged period of overtime. “ The
longer the hours, the greater the amount of broken time,” is a maxim
th at has been repeated again and again, and the committee feels th at
much of the broken time is due to a sense of fatigue which leads the
workers to take time off for rest. There remains, however, between
these two courses a via media, which the committee believe to be
satisfactory and which they find has in its favor a great body of
public support. I t allows a maximum of 10 to 12 hours of overtime
a week. One large employer, who is also engaged in organizing some
of the national factories, expressed the view that a 65-hour week
averaged over a period of time, with a maximum of 80 hours in any




24

H O U R S, FATIGUE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

one week, was as much as men ought to be asked to work. Another
put the limit at 2 hours’ overtime a day. The following statement by
a trade-union representative is to the same effect:
Where there is overtime beyond two hours daily there is evidence of fatigrue
and men can not be employed economically, from health and production point
of view, on continuous overtim e o f three and four hours daily. F atigue is
rarely reaching the point of breakdown, but does affect health and produc­
tion, and in my opinion w ill m anifest itse lf later. In some cases where such
overtim e is worked, apart from night shifts, men are allowed one early night
p er week, and I think this is w ise and economically sound.

Again, in the agreement between the Engineering Employers’ Fed­
eration and the Engineering Trade Unions a limit of 32 hours of over­
time per month was adopted, while the Home Office general order
for munition factories (which, though it applies directly only to the
labor of women and young persons, affects indirectly the hours of
work of male adults, since their work is generally dependent upon
that of the protected persons) provides for a maximum of 67-J hours
a week and has been found to meet the needs of the great majority of
the employers. I t is evident that within the limits of prescribed
hours the speed of work and the energy exerted differ widely; the
committee, however, think that such hours can not reasonably be ex­
ceeded without affecting the physical efficiency of the workers, and
accordingly, on the facts at present before them, they make the fol­
lowing recommendations as appropriate to the special conditions
imposed by the w a r:
(a) The average weekly hours

(exclusive of mealtimes)
should not exceed 65 to 67, including overtime. Hours
in excess of 65 should only be worked for short periods
and to meet sudden and unexpected circumstances. I t
may be desirable to differentiate to some extent between
different kinds of work, and to fix a rather lower limit
of hours for work requiring close individual attention.
(b) Where practicable the overtime should be concentrated
within three or four days in the week, which should
preferably not be consecutive.
(c) Where overtime is worked it is specially im portant th at
there should be no Sunday work.
(d) The practice prevailing in certain districts of working
from F riday morning, all through Friday night, and
until noon on Saturday should be discontinued. Such
hours may be permissible for short spells, but can not
be satisfactory from the point of view either of health
or output if continued for indefinite periods.
8.
Women and girls.— Im portant as it is that hours of work for
men should be kept within reasonable .limits, it is essential that




H O U RS OF WORK.

25

hours of work for women and girls should be even more closely
safeguarded. There is a general consensus of opinion (it is indeed
beyond dispute) that women are unable to bear the strain of long
hours so well as men, and, though there is some divergence of views,
opinions as to what hours can profitably be worked vary to a much
less extent than was found to be the case in regard to men. The
great majority of the employers, when making their applications to
the Home Office for exemption orders, have not asked to be allowed
to work more than 65 hours per week, but beyond this the committee
have been struck by the fact that in many of the works they visited
the maximum hours allowed by the orders have seldom been worked
continuously. Employers, not unnaturally, have sought permission
for a wider limit of hours than is ordinarily necessary or desirable,
in order that they may have latitude for dealing with special emer­
gencies, and the Home Office orders were so drawn up as to provide
for exceptional occasions of this kind. In order to investigate more
closely the effect of, long hours upon the health of operatives, the
committee have recently instituted a series of intensive inquiries 1
among munition workers. Up to the present, only a few returns
relating to women operatives have' been collected; but, so far as they
go, they do to some extent suggest progressive deterioration of health
in proportion as the operatives had been employed for long hours
and for long periods.
The committee are satisfied that the strain of long hours is serious,
and they are of opinion th at continuous work in excess of the normal
legal limit of 60 hours per week ought to be discontinued as soon as
practicable, though they think that some greater elasticity of hours
might be allowed than is provided for by the factory acts, and they
see, for instance, little objection to such moderate overtime during
the week as can be compensated for by an earlier stop on Saturdays.
They recognize, however, that the character of much of the work
on which women and girls are engaged is at present such th at it
may be impracticable to carry this recommendation into effect forth­
with, and some reasonable limit of time should be allowed for read­
justment. Much necessarily depends upon the character of the em­
ployment, upon the conditions (including factory environment and
piecework or time-work) under which it is performed, upon the
sufficiency of food, upon whether the workers can sit while at work,
and upon whether they live close to the factory or have to undergo,
in addition to their actual labor, the added strain of traveling in
crowded conveyances to and from their work. The committee feel
1 T h ese in q u iries are b ein g co n d u cted by m ed ica l w o m e n ,'a c t in g in co n ju n c tio n w ith
la d y in sp e c to r s o f th e H om e Office a n d th e N a tio n a l In su ra n ce C om m ission.
S im ila r
in q u ir ie s a m on g m en are a lso in c o n te m p la tio n . T h e v a lid ity o f su c h in q u ir ie s m u st
la r g e ly depend upon th e ir c o n tin u a n c e OA^er a c o n sid erab le period, upon ree x a m in a tio n s
and upon th e sufficiency o f th e num bers exam in ed .




26

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

that the need for overtime amongst women and girls is much less
pressing than it is for men; they are rarely employed on highly
skilled work, and where there is still a good reserve of labor there
should be little difficulty in gradually introducing shifts, or in
other ways redistributing the work among a large number of oper­
atives. They strongly urge th at wherever practicable overtime
T
should be abandoned in favor of shifts.
9. Boys.—In view of the extent to which boys are employed to
T
assist adult male workers and of the limitation of supply, the com­
mittee, though with great hesitation, recommend th at boys should be
allowed to be employed on overtime up to the maximum suggested
for men, but every effort should be made not to work boys under 16
more than 60 hours per week. Where overtime is allowed substan­
tial relief should be insisted upon at the week ends, and should be so
arranged as to permit of some outdoor recreation on Saturday
afternoon.
S H IFT S .

10 . Where shifts can be arranged they are to be preferred to over­
time, not only because they involve less strain on foremen and work­
ers, but because they enable the machines to be used for the w
rhole 24
hours, and, in addition, produce a better and more uniform rate of
output. Shifts are either double (day and night) or consist of three
8-hour periods.
1 1 . Day and night shifts.—These are not always of equal length.
Where the normal hours of work during the day are less than 12
(e. g., 6 a. m. to 5 p. m.) it is usual to place the remaining hours in
the night shift. The ordinary daily hours have been fixed after pro­
longed struggles and negotiations between operatives and employers,
and it has no doubt been thought advisable not to interfere w ith
T
customs thus established; it may be argued, too, that by making the
night shift somewhat longer than the day shift the total weekly
hours for each shift are more nearly equalized, since there are usually
fewer night shifts than day shifts. A t the same time the committee
can not but feel some regret that the strain of the night work should
be increased by these additional hours, and they think it desirable
th a t whenever practicable the night shift should not exceed the day
shifty in length. The two shifts are generally continuous and some­
times even overlap to enable the work in hand to be transferred to
the new set of workers. I t has been observed, however, th at in some
cases there is a short interval between the two shifts, which affords
opportunity for cleaning and ventilating the shops, a m atter to
which the committee attach much importance.
12 . While it is no part of the duty of the committee to express
any views on the “ 8-hour day ” as understood in the engineering




H O U R S OF WORK.

27

trades, the system of 8-hour shifts is one that has come very forcibly
under their attention. There are undoubtedly certain advantages to
be derived from this system of horn's. They involve little or no
strain upon the workers; the periods during which machinery must
stand idle for meals are very much reduced, while significant state­
ments have been put before the committe claiming beneficial effects
upon output. Unfortunately, apart from any other reason, a short­
age of workmen and the difficulties of supervision, as well as prob­
lems of housing and transit, to a large extent exclude 8-hour shifts
from practical consideration, so far as male workers are concerned.
The difficulties in the case of women are much less, and it is the more
im portant to establish the 8-hour shift, in their case, because there
are being attracted into munition works at the present time women
who hitherto have been entirely unaccustomed to factory life, and
T
who are on that account not unlikely to find the strain of a 12 -hour
day too great, while they could work readily and effectively through
an 8-hour period.
Mention should also be made of a variant of the 3-shift system
under which the first day shift works from 6 a. m. to 10 a. m. and
again from 2 p. m. to 6 p. m., while the second day shift works
from 10 a. m. to 2 p. m. and again from 6 p. m. to 10 p. m. This
system is stated to produce a larger output because no intervals for
meals are required and because the worker benefits from the four
hours’ interval, but it appears to be unpopular with the workers,
chiefly because of the difficulty of occupying*satisfactorily the four
hours’ interval, which is too short to allow the worker to go home
and take up other occupation and too long to be spent in idleness at
the works. The committee consider that the system should be dis­
couraged, even where facilities for rest and recreation are provided
at the factory, and they regard it as altogether unreasonable where
such facilities do not exist.
13. Adult male workers are almost universally employed on double
shifts. They appear on the whole to be standing the s3^stem well,
more particularly where relief is given at the week ends. The com­
mittee see no reason to suggest any change.
14. Women workers are employed sometimes on 12-hour and some­
times on 8-hour shifts, but the latter arrangement is becoming, the
committee are glad to note, increasingly common. The strain of the
12 -hour night shift for women is considerable, even where workers
are provided with seats, and the committee consider that the system
should be abandoned wherever local difficulties of labor supply, hous­
ing, and transit can be overcome, and in no case should the hours
worked at night exceed 60 per week. Whatever system of shifts is
adopted, girls under 18 should not be employed on a night shift




28

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

unless the need is urgent and the supply of women workers is insuffi­
cient. In such cases the employment should be restricted to girls
over 16 years of age, carefully selected for the work.
15. Boys, like the men, are generally employed on 12 -hour shifts.
I t does not seem practical to suggest any change of system, but the
committee hope that care will be taken to w atch the effect of night
T
work on individual boys and to limit it as far as possible to those
over 16.
N IG H T WORK.

16. I t has already been stated in paragraph 10 th at shifts, where
practicable, are preferable to overtime, but the committee do not
desire it to be thought th at they regard night work as a good thing
in itself, and they deem it advisable to set out some of the objections
to it which have come under their notice.
(a) I t is uneconomical. Though wages are paid at a higher rate,
the rate of output, more particularly during the last 2 or 3 hours of
the 12 -hour shift, is generally lower. The committee feel that this
objection would be largely overcome by the workers being afforded
an opportunity to obtain suitable refreshment about 4 a. m.
< (b) Supervision is frequently unsatisfactory. This is chiefly due
to the fact that not infrequently fewer and less experienced foremen
are employed at night.
(c)
Conditions of lighting are seldom so good as in daytime, and
make fine work more difficult.
(cl) Workers experience great difficulty in sleeping by day, partly
because of the dislocation of the ordinary habits of life and partly
because of the noises and disturbances which are almost inevitable
in the daytime, except under specially favorable conditions.
( e)
The unfamiliar meal hours make it difficult for the workers
to consume substantial food and their digestion is liable to become
deranged.
17. A question of considerable importance in connection with the
shift system is how long the workers should remain on the night shift
at any one time. A week is the most common period, more particu­
larly where the three-shift system is in vogue. Elsewhere the
changes are sometimes made fortnightly or monthly, and in some
instances there is no alternation at all, the workers remaining con­
tinuously on day or night work, except for occasional changes amongst
individuals carried out for the convenience of the persons concerned.
There has been so much divergence of opinion as to the merits of
the different systems that the committee have found it difficult to
arrive at any definite conclusions. Those who favor the weekly
change argue that the strain of the night work and the difficulties of
obtaining adequate sleep during the day are such that it is unde-




H OURS OF WORK.

29

sirable for workers to remain on night work for more than a week at
a time. On the other side it is stated th at repeated changes make it
more difficult to settle down to either system, and that the night work
after the first week becomes less trying, while the ability to sleep by
day increases. 'While on pl^siological grounds the committee con­
sider that much is to be said for infrequent changes, they think that
this is a m atter which must be settled locally largely on social con­
siderations, and should be left to individual employers to determine
in consultation with their workpeople. W hatever may be settled,
provision should be made for the worker to have a period of rest
before and after period of the night shift. Change of shift should
be effected by dropping one or more shifts and not by working for
one and a half periods.
S PE L LS AND BREAKS.

18. W ith certain minor qualifications existing arrangements for
spells and breaks are generally satisfactory, and the committee have
but few suggestions to make. Where work commences at 6 a. m. the
ordinary breaks are half an hour for breakfast, and one hour for
dinner. A t some factories work only begins at 7 a. m. or 8 a. m., the
workers being expected to have had their breakfast before arrival.
The committee do not feel that there is any real objection to the sys­
tem, though the earlier of these two hours is liable to involve a long
spell of work,, and even if the men have had a good meal before
starting the distance to be traveled to work may necessitate a very
long period between breakfast and dinner. In such cases a brief
interval, when tea can be taken, may prove beneficial. A tea interval
is usually allowed for men only when overtime is worked; it usually
consists of half an hour, but in some cases it is reduced to a quarter
of an hour or 20 minutes. A reduced mealtime of this kind has gen­
erally been established in order to enable the workers to get home at
an earlier hour, and there is much to be said for it on this account;
it affords, however, little enough time to get a meal, and it should
only be permitted where arrangements are made for the tea to be
actually ready for the workers as soon as they stop work. Women
workers are frequently allowed short intervals in the morning or the
afternoon or both. I t seems to be generally agreed that women can
not profitably work long spells without any break or refreshment,
and the committee feel that breaks of this kind are to be encouraged.
An opportunity for tea is regarded as beneficial both to health and
output, and a break in the morning is specially im portant where
women are expected to have breakfasted before starting work.
19. Where double shifts are worked two intervals usually are
allowed at night, one of an hour and the other half an h o u r; but in a




30

H O U R S, FATIG UE, E T C ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

number of cases the first interval is also reduced to half an hour.
The committee are very strongly of the opinion th at this is a mistake
and recommend that intervals amounting to not less than one and
one-half hours should be allowed as on the day shifts. Night work
is certainly more strenuous than day work, and it is* illogical therefore to allow a reduced period for meals and rest during the night.
These objections are particularly valid in the case of women, since
they often experience difficulty in eating a proper meal at night
unless they are allowed plenty of time, and they appear to benefit
in other ways by the opportunity of rest afforded by the longer
interval. I t has been argued th a t as the workers have nowhere to
go during the night, an hour at a time is too long. This objection
would, however, be overcome by the adoption of two intervals of
three-fourths of an hour each, which would allow adequate time for
taking a meal and at the same time not make either interval un­
necessarily long. The committee think it important that there should
be some opportunity for rest and refreshment, more particularly in
the case of women, between about 3 a. m. and 4 a. m. The postpone­
ment of the second break until this hour helps the workers to carry
on through the trying hours at the end of a night shift.
20. Where women are employed on 8-hour shifts an interval of
half an hour is allowed, occasionally with a brief second interval.
Provided that no considerable part of the time has to be spent in the
preparation of the meal this interval appears to be sufficient.
HOLIDAYS.

2 1 . The committee consider it most im portant that the ordinary
factory holidays should not be interfered with. They afford a defi­
nite break in a long period of strain, and a favorable opportunity
for recuperation, This opportunity could be used to fuller advantage
if adequate traveling accommodation and railway facilities were pro­
vided for conveying large numbers of workers to convenient health
resorts and holiday centers.
Signed on behalf of the committee,
G eorge N e w m a n , M. D.,
Chairman.
E . H . P e l h a m , Secretary,
J a n u a r y , 1916.




OUTPUT

IN

R E L A T IO N T O

HOURS OF W ORK.

BEPORT BY H . M. VERNON, M. D.
[M em orandum N o. 12.]

1. In a previous memorandum (No. 5) the committee recom­
mended that the average weekly hours of labor, including overtime,
should not exceed 65 to 67 for men, and 60 hours for women. They
suggested that it might be desirable to differentiate to some extent
between different kinds of work, but they did not offer any detailed
information, because at the time they had not sufficient data at their
disposal to w arrant definite conclusions. In order to remedy this
deficiency, special investigators, including myself, have been en­
gaged for many months past in collecting statistics concerning out­
put in relation to hours of labor at a number of munition works,
and I am now bringing forward a portion of the data which I have
obtained as they appear to me, not only to afford information con­
cerning the most suitable hours of labor in certain specific munition
operations, but also to suggest some of the principles which should
be followed in fixing the hours of labor for munition work in
general.
2 . I understand th at the object of the committee is in many ways
similar to that of the managers of munition works, and is to ascer­
tain the hours of employment most likely to produce a maximum
output over periods of months, or maybe even of years. They hold
that output can not be maintained at the highest level for any con­
siderable period if the conditions are such as to lead to excessive
fatigue and to deterioration in the health of the workers. I f
health and physical efficiency are maintained they would raise no
a priori objections to any given number of hours, however long.
Further, in considering the relative value of, say, a 65-hour week as
compared with a 55-hour week the question is whether the former
or the latter will produce the greater total weekly output, rather
than whether any extra cost involved by the additional output is
justified by the economic or military conditions existing at any
given time.
3. The statistical data collected with one exception concern the
output of day shifts, and they were collected in large and recently
built munition works, where the conditions of labor, such as lighting,
warming, ventilation, and the provision of canteens, were as favor­
able as possible. All classes of operatives were on piecework, they
were paid at a high rate of wages, and there were no trades-union
31




32

H O U R S, FATIG UE, E T C ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

restrictions AvhateA^er upon output. Hence there was every possible
stimulus for them to exert their maximum powers of production.
I t is more convenient to describe first the data obtained relating to
the output of women, as one group of them is specially complete.
WOMEN ENGAGED IN MODERATELY HEAVY LABOR.

4.
The complete series of output data just referred to concerns
women engaged in turning aluminum fuse bodies. The operatives
were standing all day at capstan lathes and had to subject each fuse
body to seven successive boring and cutting operations. These op­
erations required close attention throughout and some delicacy of
manipulation, so that no relaxation of effort was permissible during
the actual turning. Nearly 200 operatives w
rere engaged on the
work, but for the purposes of statistical analysis the output of only
100 of them could be considered. None were included unless they
had attained their maximum output (wT
hich statistical examination
of individual output showed was attained after 3 weeks’ experience)
and were engaged on the operation for 15 or more weeks out of the
24 weeks of the statistical period dealt with. F or many months
previous to this period the hours of labor had usually been 77£ per
week, except th at in the second week of each month there was no
Sunday labor, or the hours were reduced to 69^ per week. From
Table I we see th at in the 6-week period just before Christmas the
actual hours of work averaged 68.2 per week, or 6.6 hours less than
the nominal hours (74.8 h ours).' Taking the average hourly output
of fuse bodies as 100 , the total (relative) output per week comes to
6,820. The next fortnight was much broken by the Christmas holi­
day. This amounted practically to a week if the days taken without
permission be added to those officially sanctioned. I t will be noted
that in the week and a half before this holiday the output rose dis­
tinctly above the previous average (viz, 6 per cent), but in the half
week immediately following it fell considerably below the average
(viz, 11 per cent). Both of these variations form a typical feature
of output data in relation to holidays, while another typical fea­
ture is the considerable and persistent rise which follows on a holi­
T
day. In the present instance this rise amounted to 11 per cent more
than the average for the pre-Christmas period, or the total output
reached its absolute maximum of 7,615 per week. The beneficial
effects of the holiday upon output undoubtedly lasted four weeks
and probably more, but the reduction in the hours of labor from
January 24 onward precluded the possibility of tracing it further.
A fter a 4 days’ holiday at the beginning of August the output of a
smaller group of the operatives, 40 in number, remained high for 5
w eeks and was 7 per cent greater than the average output during
7
the next 8 weeks.




O U TPU T IN

R E L A T IO N TO H O U R S OF W O R K .

33

T able I.—O NE H U N D R E D WOMEN T U R N IN G FU SE BO D IES.
Nomi­
Actual
nal
Hours of R elative
output
Week
hours of hours of broken
per
ending— work per
work tim e per working
week.
per
week.
hour.
week.
N ov.
N ov.
N ov.
Dec.
D ec.
D ec.
D ec.
Jan.

14
21
28
5
12
19
26
2

62.01
68.8
66.7 8.2
70.9
69.1
71.8
41.8
32.

67.5
75.5
75.0
77.2
76.2
77.3
46.0

5.5'
6.7
8.3
6.3
7.1
5.5
4.2

Jan. 9
Jan. 16
Jan. 23

65.21
» 2]
•
1.31-6;
70.
!.3j
70.

69.3
77.2
76.3

4.1]
6. 9}5. 7
6. O
j

Jan. 30
Feb. 6

62.41
60.

is}6
1-*

68.5
66.5

1%5.9

Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.

61.4'
62.2
54.8
62.1
60.4 ■59.7
58.6
54.9
62.9
47. 0'

52.0
52.0
66.5
66.5
58.5
66.5
66.5
64.8
58.5
66.5
49.5

5.1
4.3
3.7
4. 4 1, R
6.1 4‘6
6.2
3.6
3. 6,
2.5

13
20
27
5
12
19
26
2
9
16
23

99
102 100
99
107
105

/
\
f
t

Hours
of work
multi­
plied by
relative
output,

6,820

Remarks concerning output.

Hourly output fairly steady.

j Typical rise in hourly output before holiday.
r
Great fall in hourly output im m ediately after
holiday.
Subsequent considerable increase of hourly
1131
output, w hilst total output rises to a m axi­
107>111
7,615
mum, 12 per cent greater than that of pre112]
Christmas period.
R eduction of hours of labor from 74.3 to 67.5
has no im m ediate effect on hourly output,
IIII 107
6,591
102/
hence a considerable reduction of total out­
put.
1081
fT emporary shortage 0 f mat erial and reduction
\ in hours of labor.
106/— ■
118
125
Effect of shorter hours of labor now estab­
127
lished and hourly output reaches a m axi­
123
7,343
mum. Total output 8 per cent greater than
in preiChristmas period.

11
2
11
2
11
2
11
2
126,
125

epical rise in hourly output before holiday
(Easter).

r

5. The output data of Table I indicate that the beneficial effect on
output of a reduction in the weekly hours of labor from 74.3 to 67.5
was not immediately manifest. Even a reduction to 52 hours seems,
to have no influence, but this was owing to a temporary shortage of
material. From February 27 onward the hours of labor were 66^
per week (or 58-J in the second week of each month, when there was
no Sunday labor), and we see that during a period of eight weeks
the hourly output now averaged 23 per cent more than in the preChristmas period. The total output is 7,343 per week, or 8 per cent
more than in the pre-Christmas period, in spite of the hours of labor
being nominally 10.5 less, and actually 8.5 less. I t is probable that
the 60 hours worked per week were still too many to give the best
total output, but at least they justify the statement that in order to
attain a maximum output women engaged in moderately heavy
manual labor should not work for more than 60 hours per week.
Observations adduced below suggest that an equally good total out­
put could be maintained if the actual working hours were reduced to
56 or less per week.
6. I t might be thought that the great improvement in hourly out­
put under the shorter hours regime was due, partly or wholly, to in­
creased skill of the operatives or improvements in the machinery.
Neither of these hypotheses can be substantiated. On classifying
the operatives into two groups, according as they had been engaged
92103°— Bull. 221—17------ 3




34

H O U R S, FA TIG U E, E T C ., JN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

in turning fuse bodies for about five months previous to the sta­
tistical period dealt with, or for about one and a half months on an
average, the hourly output of the former group was found to be 1
per cent less than th at of the latter group during the pre-Christmas
period, and 1 per cent more than it was during the spring period, or
in other words, it was the same within the limits of chance error. As
regards the other alternative, no change had been made in the tools,
the machinery, the nature of the operation, or the quality of the
alloy used during the statistical period dealt with, or for 4^ months
previous to it.
7. F urther proof of the advantage of shorter hours was afforded
by the output data of some of the operatives on an earlier occasion.
One group of them, 17 in number, worked only 51.8 to 62.6 hours
per week for five weeks in June and July, and during the last three
weeks of this period their hourly output was 18 per cent greater than
th at of another group of 14 operatives who were working the usual
long hours. Subsequently, when both groups worked the same long
hours, their output was identical.
B R O K E N T IM E A N D SIC K N E SS .

8. I t will be seen from Table I th a t the operatives lost on an
average 6.6 hours per week of “ broken ” time before Christmas and
4.6 hours per week in the final 8-week period, or th at they lost prac­
tically half a day per week in this w ay. But even this does not
T
represent by any means the total time lost, for I have put in a sepa­
rate category such time as was presumably lost by indisposition. I
have made the arbitrary assumption that operatives who put in less
than 45 hours per week of actual work put of a nominal 58J or more
did so because of sickness rather than slackness, and I have excluded
them in calculating the broken time data quoted in the table, though
I retained them when calculating the output of fuse bodies per work­
ing hour. In the 6-week pre-Christmas period 4.1 per cent of the
weeks worked by the operatives were “ short ” weeks of less than 45
hours, the average time of actual work amounting to 30.2 hours per
week. In addition, the operatives were absent altogether for 2.1
per cent of the weeks. Sickness increased considerably after Christ­
mas, for in the 5-week period, January 3-February 6, 5.7 per cent of
the weeks were short weeks, and 3.6 per cent of them were absent
weeks^ whilst in the 7-week period, February 2 1 - A pril 9, no less than
12.4 per cent of the weeks were short weeks (averaging 28.6 hours),
and 5.4 per cent of them were absent weeks, in spite of the fact th at
the nominal hours of labor were 10.8 less than in the pre-Christmas
period.




OUTPUT IN RELATION TO HOURS OF WORK.

35

9.
There can be no doubt that the frequent occurrence of these
short and absent weeks was due very largely to fatigue resulting from
the strain of the heavy lathe work, for women engaged in light
sedentary occupations showed only about a third as many lapses.
I was able to obtain data concerning the timekeeping of no less
than 400 women and girls engaged in the sedentary occupations of
viewing, gauging, and assembling the component parts of fuses, and
in Table I I are given the average numbers of short and absent weeks
observed in the 6 weeks before Christmas, when the nominal hours
of labor were 76 per week; in the 5 weeks after Christmas, when
they were 75 per week; and in the subsequent 7 weeks (Feb. 7-Mar.
26), when they were 64 per week. Taking first the women of 21 and
over, for they alone are strictly comparable in age with the fuseturning women, it can be seen th at in each of the statistical periods
dealt with these women put in only about a third as many short
weeks as the fuse turners, while they were absent three times less
frequently in two of the statistical periods and about half as fre­
quently in the third period.
T able I I .-W E E K S IN WHICH O PER A T IV E S W O R K ED L FSS T H A N 45 H O U R S OR W H ER E
A B SE N T .
Absent weeks.

Short weeks.

Age of
operatives.

Number of
operatives.

14-16............
17-18............
19-20............
21 and over.
21 and over.

71...........................
58 (fuse)...............
96 (gaugers)........
175.........................
100 (fuse turners)

7 weeks
following
6 weeks
6 weeks
5 weeks
(Feb. 7before
after
before
after
Christmas. Christmas. Mar. 26, or Christmas. Christmas.
Feb 21Apr. 0).
Per cent.
1.3
2.4
1.4
4.1

Per cent.
1.7
3.1
2.8
2.1
5.7

Per cent.
3.6
5.0
6. 4
3.4
12.4

Per cent.
2.9
.7
2.0
.7
2.1

Per cent.
1.7
3.8
1.7
2.1
3.6

7 weeks
following.

Per cent.
1 4
2.4
3.3
1.8
5.4

10 . As regards the girls engaged in sedentary work, the table
shows that those of 19 to 20 years put in the most short and absent
weeks, while those of 14 to 16 put in the least, and in this respect
corresponded closely with the women of 2 1 and over. In Table I I I
are recorded the average hours of broken time observed in the three
statistical periods mentioned, and it will be seen that here again the
girls of 14 to 16 resembled the women of 21 and over in keeping the
best time, while the young women of 19 to 20 were on the whole the
worst timekeepers. -If comparison be made with the data relating to
the fuse-turning women, it will be seen th a t on an average the
adult women engaged in this sedentary work lost only about half
as much time as they did.
1 1 . I t should be mentioned th at these gauging women were not on
piece rates like all the others, but were on day rates with the addi-




36

H O U R S , FA T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

tion of a large bonus on output if above a certain minimum. Doubt­
less this system of remuneration tended to improve their time keep­
ing to some extent, though probably not much. Thus the group of
women recorded in the next section, who were engaged on the light
labor of milling a screw thread, were paid at piece rates, and yet kept
time very much better than the fuse-turning women, and not much
worse than the gauging women.
T able III.—B R O K E N TIME OF W OM EN GAUGING FU S E S .
Average hours of broken tim e per
week during—
Age of operatives.

14-16...............................................................................................
17-18...............................................................................................
19-20...............................................................................................
21 and over...................................................................................

Number of
operatives.

71
58
96
175

6 weeks
5 weeks
after
before
Christmas. Christmas.
2.9
3.9
3.5
2.5

3.9
5.2
5.9
4.7

7 weeks
following.
3.2
3.0
4.0
3.0

12 . I t is evident that in fixing the number of hours required to pro­
duce a maximum output close attention must be paid to the effect of
any given number of hours on timekeeping. I f an increase in the
hours of labor from 50 to 60 per week caused the total output of the
operatives, taken as a group, to increase permanently by, e. g., 10 per
cent, it would be worth while to adopt these hours, but if after a few
weeks of the longer hours it were found that 5 per cent more of the
operatives were absent from sickness, and 10 per cent more of them
were putting in short weeks of an average of 30 hours instead of the
nominal 60 hours, there would be no gain whatever in the total out­
put. Now, it will be seen from Table I I that in the third of the sta­
tistical periods dealt with 9 per cent more of the fuse-turning women
were putting in shorter weeks than of the gauging women, while 3.6
per cent more of them were absent. If, therefore, it were found that
by cutting down the hours of actual work of the fuse-turning women
from 60 to 56 they were able to reduce their short and absent weeks
to those shown by the gauging women, the output would remain
practically unchanged. F or other and independent reasons, to be
mentioned later on, it seems probable th at a reduction of the work­
ing hours to 56 per week would have no adverse effect on output, and
hence there can be little doubt that this number of hours is the
absolute maximum for the type of work under consideration, and
that if anything it errs on the side of excess.
13. Another point to be borne in mind in fixing hours of labor is.
the time taken by the operatives to get from their homes to the works,
and vice versa. Personal observation leads me to think that the
operatives referred to in this memorandum took on an average some­




37

O U T P U T IN RE LA TIO N TO H O U R S OF W O RK .

what less than an hour each way, though I have no exact statistical
data on the subject. There was an efficient tram service at their
disposal.
W O M EN EN G A G ED IN L IG H T LA BO R.

14.
In the next type of munition work to be described, the opera­
tives were milling a screw thread on the fuse bodies. This necessi­
tated their standing at semiautomatic machines, where they removed
one fuse body and inserted another every minute or so. The requisite
muscular effort was .moderate and simple in character, and took up
only about a fifth of the total time required for the operation. F or
the remaining four-fifths of the time the operative had nothing
whatever to do, and so the call upon her attention and her muscles
was very much less than that experienced by the operatives pre­
viously described. The output of 2 1 women was investigated over a
similar statistical period, but it seems unnecessary to quote the results
in full. The average records adduced in Table IV show that the
hourly output varied in the same direction as that of the fuse-turning
operatives, but to a very much more limited extent. In the 3 weeks
after Christmas it was only 6 per cent greater than in the 5 weeks
before it, and since the average hours of work were somewhat shorter,
the total output remained practically unchanged. A considerable
reduction of working hours did not lead at first to any improvement
of hourly output, but this established itself after 4 weeks, and was
maintained at a steady level during the next 8 weeks. In that the
average excess of hourly output amounted only to 9 per cent above
that of the pre-Christmas period, the total output became reduced
to 4 per cent below it. However, in the 3 weeks after Easter the
hourly output improved a further 3 per cent so that the total output
reached to within 0.6 per cent of the pre-Christmas value. Probably
the best number of hours is something between the limiting values
investigated, or about 62 hours, for if the output of 109 per hour were
maintained over this time, the total output would work out at 6,758,
or slightly above that the the pre-Christmas period.
•T able IV .—T W EN T Y -O N E W OM EN M ILLING A SCREW T H R E A D .

Statistical period.

5 weeks preceding Christmas (N ov. 15-Dec. 19)...............
2 weeks at Christmas (Dec. 20-Jan. 2)
...................
3 weeks after Christmas (Jan. 3-Jan. 23).............................
4 weeks later (Jan. 24-Feb. 20)..............................................
8 weeks later (Feb 21—
Apr 16)
.............................
2 weeks at Easter (Apr 17-Apr 30)
...
3 weeks after Easter (litay 1—
May 21) ...................................




Average
hours of
actual
work.
67.4
44.7
63. 7
53.1
59.3
39.4
59.8

Average
hours of
broken
tim e.
4.4
3.5
3.0
2.6
3.6
2.7
2.6

Average
(relative)
hourly
output.
100
98
106
104
109
108
112

Hours mul­
tipled by
output.
6,740
6, 752
5, 522
6, 463
6,698

38

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I K B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

M EN EN G A G E D IN H EA V Y LABOR.

15.
The labor assigned to male munition workers is, as a rule, con­
siderably heavier than that assigned to women; but making due
allowance for the greater strength and endurance of the man, we
find that his output is similarly affected by a reduction in the hours
of labor. One of the most fatiguing types of munition work so far
investigated by me is that of “ sizing.” In the sizing of fuse bodies
the article is usually subjected to four separate operations, in each of
which it is clamped to a small flywheel and handle and is screwed
through a steel tap so as to cut a screw thread on it. The operations
require no manual dexterity, but they are a great and continuous
strain on the muscles of one arm and shoulder and to a less extent on
those of the back. The operatives seldom use both arms, as they pre­
fer to keep the u screwing ” hand dry and use the other for picking up
the oil-covered fuse bodies. The output of a group of 27 operatives
was investigated and the mean results are given in Table V. The
hours of labor were always shorter than those worked by the women.
They never exceeded 71 hours in any one week and seldom included
Sunday labor. The hourly output showed a marked drop during the
Christmas fortnight and a considerable rise (to 118) for the first week
after this fortnight, but the average output during the six weeks after
Christmas was only 9 per cent greater than that of the pre-Christmas
period in spite of the fact that the weekly hours of labor were 10.4
shorter. Evidently the operatives took a long time to adapt their
rate of production to the shorter hours, for the hourly output subse­
quently averaged 22 per cent in excess of that of the pre-Christmas
period. This caused the total output to be no less than 10 per cent
greater, and it is probable th at even this figure does not represent
the full effect of reducing the hours of labor, for after Easter the
hourly output improved a further 2 per cent and the total output was
increased to 13 per cent above that of the pre-Christmas period.
However, a part of this improvement may have been only the tem­
porary effect of the holiday. The week February 14-20 is omitted,
as the operatives worked only 41 hours, owing to shortage of material.
T able V .—T W E N T Y -SE V E N MEN SIZING FU SE B O D IE S.

Statistical period.

6 weeks preceding Christmas (N ov. 8-Dec. 19)..........................

2weeks at Christinas (Dec. 20-Jan. 2).................

6 weeks after Christmas (Jan. 3-Feb. 13)...............
8 weeks later (Feb. 21-Apr. 16)................................
2 weeks at Easter (Apr. 17-Apr. 30)...................
3 weeks later (May 1-May 21).........................




Average
hours of
actual
work.
61.5
38.3
51.1
55.4
41.0
56.2

Average
(relative)
hourly
output.

Hours mul­
tiplied by
output.

100
6,150
so
109 ............5*570
loo
6,759
112
1O
A
l&k
6,969

39

O U T P U T IN R E LA TIO N TO H O U R S OF W O RK .

16. The broken time is not quoted in the above table, as the nominal
hours of labor were rather uncertain. Moreover, the operatives ap­
peared to have had some freedom in selecting their own hours of
work. The plan adopted in calculating the weekly hours of actual
work was different from that observed in the other data quoted in
this memorandum, for all weeks were included in which 20 hours
or more were worked. The reason of this change was that these
sizers, though they were absent altogether for only 1.8 per cent of
the weeks included in the statistical period dealt with, were in the
habit of putting in short weeks of 40 hours or less with some fre­
quency. I f only those operatives who put in 45 hours or more had
been included, the average weekly hours of actual work would have
come to about two hours more than the figures quoted in the table.
17. The operatives engaged in sizing fuse bodies were all fullgrown men, but certain other sizing operations were performed by
youths. The output of one of these groups may be quoted, but in
that it concerns only nine operatives, the data are not so reliable as
those just recorded. The youths 14 to 17 years of age were sizing
steel base plugs, and from Table V I we see th at their hourly output
was 16 per cent greater in the 4 weeks after Christmas than it had
been before, in spite of a slight increase in the hours of labor, whilst
it was no less than 42 per cent greater in the 11 subsequent weeks
when the hours of labor were reduced from 70.3 to 57. In conse­
quence, the total output attained a value 19 per cent in excess of th at
of the pre-Christmas period. Even this value does not represent the
full effect of the reduced hours of labor, for in the three weeks after
Easter the hourly output was 55 per cent above that of the preChristmas period and the total output 38 per cent above it. Such
results are so astonishing that one is naturally inclined to doubt their
validity, but there appears to be no reason for denying their sub­
stantial accuracy. The boys must have been seriously overworked
by the long hours, and hence the 8 to 12 hour reduction of the work­
ing week accelerated their rate of production much more than did
the 6-hour reduction accelerate that of the men “ sizers.”
T able V I.—N IN E Y O U T H S SIZING B A SE PLU G S,

Statistical period.

5 weeks preceding Christmas (N ov. 15-Dec. 19)......................................
2 weeks at Christmas (Dec 20-Jan. 2)..............................
after Christmas (Jan 3-Jan. 30)....................................................
11 weeks later (Jan 31—
Apr. 16)........................................ - ..........................
2 weeks at Easter (Apr 17 Apr 30)
................. ............

4




Average
hours of
actual
work.
68.3
46.3
70.3
57.0
42.1
60.9

Average
(relative)
hourly
output.

Hours mul­
tiplied by
output.

100
106
116
142
135
155

6,830
8,155
8,094
9,440

40

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

M EN E N G A G E D IN M O D E R A T ELY H EA V Y LABOR.

18. Typical examples of moderately heavy labor are found in shell
making, and all the data described in this section relate to the out­
put of 3 -inch shrapnel shells. One of the most im portant and lengthy
of the operations is th at known as boring the powder chamber. This
operation is performed on capstan lathes provided with three sets
of boring tools, and it requires considerably more muscular energy
than that involved in turning fuse bodies, though not so much as
in sizing. A t one shell factory, where the male operatives were
being largely replaced by women, I was informed th at though the
women attained a good output in most operations, they produced
only about half ag many shells as the men did in this particular
operation, since they had not the necessary strength.
19. The data in Table V II concern the output of 23 operatives, all
of whom had been 4 months or more at the process previous to the
statistical period recorded. D uring these months they worked at
first for 53 hours per week, and subsequently for 49J hours, and had
attained their maximum output for these particular hours of labor.
When their hours were suddenly increased to 64 per week (7 hours
on Sunday), we see that they maintained their hourly output for
three weeks with very little diminution. A fter this time there was
a shortage of material at irregular intervals, so the output data were
rendered valueless for statistical purposes, but even if the hourly
output had fallen considerably lower, the total output would still
have remained higher during a 60-hour week than during a 48-hour
week.
T able V II.— T W E N T Y -T H R E E MEN BORING THE PO W D E R C HAM BER.

N ov. 1 4 ........................................................................................
Nov. 21..........................................................................................
Nov. 28........................- ................................................................
Dec. 5.............................................................................................

Weekly
hours of
actual
work.

I?:?}47-8
59.5}
60.5V59.7
59. l]

Hours of
broken
time.

{
1
I
I

(Relative)
hourly
output.

4-5l
3 .5f3.1 {
I
1.4J

Hours mul­
tiplied by
output.

Ill
8

Week ending—

4,780

98>100
94j

5,970

20.
An im portant operation is to “ finish, turn, and form ” the
shell, which consists in taking off a fine turning, and afterwards
filing down the shell. This operation probably needs the expendi­
ture of about as much muscular energy as that of turning fuse
bodies. The data in Table V III show the output of 22 men who had
been engaged at this work for 10 weeks, on an average, previously
to the statistical period dealt with.




41

O U T P U T I N RE LA TIO N TO H O U R S OP W O R K .
T a b l e V I I I .— T W E N T Y -T W O M E N , F I N I S H I N G , T U R N I N G , A N D F O R M I N G

W eek ending—

W eekly
hours of
actual work.

Nominal
hours of
work.

Hours of
broken
tim e.

3- I N C H S H E L L S .

(R elative) Hours mulhourly
tiplied by
output.
output.

Aug. 29.
Sept. 5..
Sept. 12.
Sept. 19.
Sept. 26.
Oct. 3.
Oct. 10
Oct. 17
Oct. 24

2 1 . The hours of labor in th 6 immediately preceding week had

been 64, but before th at they had been 49 for 3 weeks, preceded by 64
or more for 7 weeks. We see that, on an average, the hourly output
during the last 3 weeks recorded in the table, when the hours of labor
averaged 51.8 hours, was 14 per cent greater than in the first 4 weeks
when they averaged 60.3 hours. I t is probable that a portion of this
improvement was due to increased skill of the operatives, who were
found to require 3 or 4 months’ experience before attaining their
maximum output, but assuming that the whole of the improvement
was the direct result of the reduced hours of labor, the total output
is still less for the short-hour weeks than for the long ones. The
timekeeping was extremely good and suggests that the operatives
could easily stand the 60-hour week, for not only was the broken
time 1 hour per week or less, but during the 60-hour period re­
corded the operatives were never absent for a whole week, and they
put in only 4 per cent of short weeks. I t should be mentioned that
in calculating broken time the 45-hour limit referred to previously
was retained for operatives working 58J hours or more per week,
but with operatives working a nominal 52 hours only those were
excluded who put in less than 40 hours of actual work, and with
operatives working a nominal 49J hours only those who put in less
than 38 hours of actual work.
M EN A N D Y O U T H S EN G A G ED IN L IG H T LABOR.

22 . In the operation known as “ rough turning,” the rough shell is
turned approximately to size. During four-fifths of the time re­
quired the operative merely watches the lathe, so the labor is very
much lighter in type than that previously described and resembles
that required for milling a screw thread on fuse bodies. The hourly
output of 18 men was investigated and was found to be constant
within the limits of chance error, whether they were working 49,
53 , or 64 hours per week. F or instance, on changing from a 49£hour to a 64-hour week, the hourly output during three consecutive
weeks was 100 , 102 , and 10 1 on that of the preceding weeks taken as




42

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

100 . Again, when the 20 operatives of a permanent night shift had
their hours increased from 47^ to 53^ for one week, and then to 67
hours for two weeks, their output was 99, 97, and 96 in the 3 weeks
respectively, that of the preceding weeks being taken as 100 . There
can be little doubt, therefore, that these operatives could have worked
longer weekly hours than 64 or 67 without greatly diminishing their
hourly output, and so have attained a greater total output. This
conclusion is strongly supported by the data for youths which are
now to be recorded,
23.
The youths, 15 to 18 years of age, were engaged in boring out
the top caps of fuses by means of semiautomatic machines. About
four times a minute they unclamped one cap and clamped in another,
these two clampings together occupying less than two seconds. F or
the rest of the time they stood at their machines doing nothing.
From the average data recorded in Table IX , which concern the
output of 17 operatives, it will be seen that before Christmas they
averaged 75.6 hours per week of actual work out of the 78J nominal
hours. In the 6 weeks after Christmas their hourly output went up
6 per cent, but in that they averaged 4.7 hours a week less than
before, their total output was slightly diminished. The output of
the week February 14-20 is omitted, as there was a shortage of
material, but in the next 8 weeks, when the average hours were re­
duced to 59.4 per week, the output rose another 2 per cent. This
rise by no means compensated for the considerable reduction in
working hours, so we find that the total weekly output was actually
15 per cent less than in the pre-Christmas period.
T able I X .—SE V E N T E E N Y O U T H S BO R IN G TOP CAPS.

Statistical period.

5 weeks preceding Christmas (N ov. 15-Dec. 19)................
2 weeks at Christmas.................................................................
6 weeks after Christmas (Jan. 3-Feb. 13)............................
8 weeks later (Feb. 21-Apr. 16)................. .......... ................
2 weeks at Easter (Apr. 17-30)..............................................

Average
hours of
actual
work.
75.6
50.0
70.9
59.4
40.8

Average
hours of
broken
tim e.
2.0
2.7
4.6
4.4
4.6

Average
(relative)
hourly
output.
100
106
106
108
95

Hours
m ultiplied
by output.
7,560
7,515
6,415

24.
I t seems probable, therefore, that to attain maximum output
70 hours or more per week of this light labor must be worked. I t
will be seen from the table that when the operatives were working
over 70 hours per week their broken time was not excessive. More­
over, they put in only 2 per cent of short weeks and 3.6 per cent of
absent weeks on an average, so the long hours did not appear to affect
their health.




OUTPUT

m

R E LA TIO N TO H O U R S OF W O R K .

43

CO M PA RISO N O F R E S U L T S .

25. The various types of labor investigated may conveniently be
divided into five, viz, very heavy, heavy, moderately heavy, light,
and very light. O f these types the “ very heavy,” such as sizing
fuse bodies, and the “ heavy,” such as boring the powder chamber,
are not well suited to women. On the other hand, the “ lig h t”
type, such as boring top caps and rough-turning 3-inch shells, had
better be confined to women, as it is waste of muscle to appropriate
them to men, or even to youths. Very light types of labor such as
sedentary gauging operations should evidently be confined to
women and girls.
26. We have seen th at for men engaged in the very heavy labor of
sizing fuse bodies the maximum hours of actual work appeared to
be 56 or less per week for men engaged in boring the powder cham­
ber and in turning and finishing shells they were probably 60 or
rather more, whilst for men rough-turning shells and for youths
boring top caps they were probably 70 or even more. On the other
hand, for women engaged in the moderately heavy labor of tu rn ­
ing fuse bodies the maximum hours were 56 or less, whilst for women
on the light labor of milling a screw thread they were rather over 60
hours. In so far as time keeping is a criterion, women and girls on
the very light work of gauging fuses appeared to stand even 76
hours fairly well, but it is more than likely that their actual output
was little, if any, greater than when they were working 64 hours,
and so it is probable that this figure should be regarded as their
maximum.
27. I t must be realized that all of these data are provisional, but
they clearly justify the conclusion th at the hours of labor should be
varied between wide limits according to the character of the work
performed. This obvious fact is not realized by many managers
of munition works, and the tendency is usually toward uniformity
of hours for all types of labor and for workers of both sexes. The
data adduced suggest th at not only are women unsuited to the
heavier types of work, but that even when engaged on the moderate
and light types they are unable to stand such long hours as the
men. Several sets of operatives, both male and female, were kept
under close observation for many days in order th at their powers
of application might be investigated. Men engaged in boring the
powder chamber and in turning and finishing shells were found,
almost without exception, to stick to their work with admirable
persistence, and it was very seldom that they rested even for a
minute. On the other hand, women engaged in turning fuse bodies
rested for times which in aggregate amounted to 1 ^ hours out of
the 12 -hour day,* and over an hour out of the 10 -hour day, in addi­




44

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

tion to the hour or so of compulsory rest required for attention to
their lathes at the hands of the tool-setters. About half an hour
of the voluntary rest pauses occurred on starting and stopping work,
but much of the remaining hour or half hour was probably due,
net to idleness on the part of the women, but to fatigue, and to an
instinctive knowledge that short rest pauses helped to prevent undue
fatigue. Still, it would have been better if these pauses and the
times lost in starting and stopping had been curtailed by, e. g.,
half an hour a day, and the women had been permitted a corre­
sponding reduction in their weekly hours of labor.
28. I t is to be borne in mind that all of the times mentioned are
the maximum hours of actual work, supposing th a t a maximum
output is required regardless of cost production. They necessarily
impose a great strain on the operatives, and there can be no doubt
that in many instances the strain was too great to be borne, and
th a t the operatives had to drop out altogether. T hat is to say,
the data quoted relate to the fittest who were strong enough to survive
in the struggle, and not to the general mass of workers of all
classes who tried their hand at munition work. I t is almost impos­
sible to discover the extent of this weeding out, but it is inevitably
considerable. Hence the best hours of work, suited for peace times,
are in every case considerably shorter than those mentioned, though
the principle of graduating the number of hours of labor to the
type of work performed still holds with undiminished force.
F U R T H E R P O IN T S FO R C O N SID E R A T IO N .

29. Though stern necessity may compel long hours of labor on
the part of many munition workers, it is evident that, provided
maximum output is maintained, the shorter the times for which
they are shut up in the factories the better their chances of health
and happiness. Hence everything possible should be done to speed
up the rate of production so far as this can be done without making
an extra call upon the physical energies of the operatives. Though
I have no intention on the present occasion of discussing the m atter
in detail, I wish to suggest two simple plans of appreciably increas­
ing the rate of production. The first depends on greater prom pt­
ness in starting work. A few concrete instances will bring home
the importance of this point, at least in some munition factories.
In most works the motive power is electric, and in some the power
supplied to each section is registered by a separate wattmeter. The
machinery is started running shortly before work begins, and as the
operatives get going, one after another, the power consumption
steadily rises to a maximum, which is attained when all the oper­
atives have started. By means of these power records the rate of




O U T P U T I N RE LA TIO N TO H O U R S OF W O R K .

45

starting and stopping work can readily be ascertained in many
instances, though not in factories where time is spent in preliminary
collection of necessary tools and material, and in their adjustment.
The accompanying figure [figure not reproduced] records the incre­
ments of electric power over that required to drive the free-running
machinery, on starting and stopping the afternoon spell of work.
The continuous line represents the power supplied to a large shell
shop which turned out 30,000 3-inch schrapnel shells per week.
We see that the power supplied started mounting up 2 minutes after
starting time, and reached half its full value in 4 minutes. The
dotted-line curve, representing the power supplied to a section of 200
women turning fuse bodies, did not begin to rise till 5 minutes after
starting time, and did not attain half its maximum value until 1 1
minutes after starting time. In other words, the operatives wasted
about 7 minutes more in starting than did the operatives in the shell
shop, most of whom were men. On the other hand, the fuse-turners
finished more strongly than the shell-shop operatives, as can be seen
by comparing the two curves given on the right side of the figure,
and it was found that both sets of operatives lost, on an average,
about the same aggregate of time in starting and finishing during
the course of the whole day, viz, 34 minutes. The shell-shop opera­
tives did not start much more promptly than the fuse turners in the
morning, partly because there w as more delay in the arrival of their
T
material, but in spite of this, if the operatives of both shops had
started equally promptly, and finished equally strongly, 9 minutes
out of the 34 would have been saved. There was no inherent reason
why work should have been started promptly in one shop and not
T
in the other. I t was merely a custom of the particular shop, and
even then the custom was not a fixed one. A series of meter readings
of the women’s section were taken for several days before and after
the Easter holiday, and 9 days before the holiday the average amount
of time wasted in starting after dinner was found to be 1 1 minutes;
2 days before it was 14 minutes. Two days after the holiday it was
16 minutes; 3 days after it was 15 minutes; and 5 days after it
was 12 minutes. That is to say, it increased with the slackness of
the operatives caused by the immediate approach of the holiday, and
still more with their post-holiday lassitude.
30.
There can be no necessity for the waste even of 25 minutes in
starting and finishing work. Ten or 15 minutes should be ample
allowance, and the 20 minutes thereby saved could be deducted from
working hours without any reduction of output. At one large works
the manager informed me that he made a point of going into the
various shops at starting time and seeing that the operatives began
work promptly. In this way a considerable amount of time was
saved.




46

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I K B R IT IS H ’M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

31.
The other method of speeding up production on which I wish
to lay stress has already been referred to in an earlier memorandum
(No. 7). It consists in the regulation of rest pauses. The custom in
many munition works is for the operatives to work for a spell of five
hours, and then, after an hour’s interval, for another spell o f 4^ to 5
hours. Such spells are undoubtedly too long in many types of muni­
tion work, but if a second break is introduced in the working day
much extra time is lost in starting and stopping work. I f the opera­
tives are left to themselves they take rests at irregular and often un­
suitable times. Hence it would be much better if the rest pauses were
chosen for them. For instance, a 10-minute break in the middle o f
the morning and afternoon spells, during which the operatives re­
main at their machines, but take tea or other nutriment brought them
by boys or by traveling canteens, has been found a valuable aid to
output in some munition works. Some types of work need longer and
more frequent rest pauses than others, and the best times can be
determined only by experiment. After being fixed they should be
made compulsory and rest pauses at other times be checked so far
as possible.
Signed on behalf of the committee,
G e o r g e N e w m a n , M. D.,
Chairman.
E . H. P e l h a m , Secretary.
A u g u s t , 1916.




INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND ITS CAUSES.
[Memorandum No. 7.]

DEFINITION AND CAUSATION OF FATIGUE.

1. Fatigue is the sum of the results of activity which show them­
selves in a diminished capacity for doing work.
In ordinary language fatigue is generally associated with familiar
bodily sensations, and these sensations are often taken to be its
measure. It is of vital importance for the proper study of indus­
trial fatigue, however, to recognize not only that bodily sensations
are a fallacious guide to the true state of fatigue which may be
present, and a wholly inadequate measure of it, but also that fatigue
in its true meaning advances progressively, and must be measureable at any stage by a diminished capacity for work, before its signs
appear plainly, or at all, in sensation.
2. In the animal body the performance of work depends on the
activities of parts which are best considered under three groups—
first, the complex nervous mechanisms of the brain and spinal cord,
which are concerned in the initiation and distribution of impulses
to action; second, the nerves, which conduct the impulses to muscles;
and third, the muscles themselves, which by contracting finally per­
form external work.
Fatigue has been separately studied in all these parts. In its
essential features the fatigue of all alike has been found, when it
occurs, to depend not upon the simple using up (“ exhaustion ” ) of
the substances supplying the chemical energy which is liberated
during work, but upon the accumulation within the living elements
of the products of the chemical changes involved. Fatigue of the
animal machine, that is to say, is not to be compared with the failure
o f fuel as in a steam engine or with the running down o f a clock
weight, but rather with the clogging of the wheels in some mecha­
nism by dirt.
The chemical products of activity in the nervous and muscular
elements are removed by the blood, in part directly by irrigation
and in part indirectly through chemical changes in the tissue itself
induced by constituents of the blood. Rest after activity is not a
passive state, therefore, but is itself an active process, or a series o f
active processes, leading to a restoration o f the normal capacity for
work. Time is required for these, and the time taken will be in pro-




47

48

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

portion to the amount o f restoration needed. There will be a definite
relation accordingly between the degree of any given activity and
the time necessary for the completion of the subsequent restoration
process. I f the activity is repeated too quickly to give time enough,
for restoration after each action, fatigue will become progressively
more intense as the debit balance accumulates, and each repeated act
in consequence will be more and more impeded and will become
smaller, until further action is impossible.
O f the three groups of organs just mentioned, the nervous system,
the nerves, and the muscles, particular chemical and structural char­
acters will decide in each case what time relation must exist between
action and the rest needed for complete repair. In the conducting
nerve fibers fatigue may be said not to occur; it is unrecognizable
probably because of the extreme rapidity with which recovery here
follows the very small changes associated with activity. O f the
other two groups, the initiating and distributing nervous mecha­
nisms of the brain and spinal cord are more quickly fatigued than
the contracting muscles, and the important result follows that in
the animal body the impulses to activity springing from the brain
can not bring the muscles far toward complete fatigue before their
sources are themselves fatigued and impotent. Even beyond that
point, when the central nerve cells are inactive, impulses artificially
sent, in experiment, along the indefatigable nerve fibers will still
fail to produce more than partial fatigue in the muscles, for fatigue
advances faster still in certain structures known as the end organs,
which connect nerve fiber and muscle; there the impulses become
blocked so that the muscle again escapes from further activity.
In the tired man the symptoms of fatigue are referred to the
muscles; they ache, or they may appear to “ give way under him,”
but in reality the most severe bodily activity fails to produce any
close approach to complete fatigue of the muscles. The fatigue is
fatigue o f the nervous system, though in sensation its effects may be
referred to the muscles themselves. A hunted animal may be driven
to intense muscular fatigue, but in this extreme case the blood
becomes charged with chemical products of activity, for the elimina­
tion of which no opportunity is given, and the muscles, with every
other organ o f the body, become poisoned. Even in laborious work
it is doubtful whether a man by voluntary effort can cause his muscles
to approach advanced fatigue. It is well known that a man appar­
ently “ run to a standstill ” in a race may upon some new excitement
run freshly again, under augmented stimulus from the nervous sys­
tem, initiated there perhaps in part along new paths.
The problems then of industrial fatigue are primarily and almost
wholly problems of fatigue in the nervous system and of its direct
and indirect effects.




IN D U S T R IA L F A T IG U E AND IT S CAUSES.

49

THE RHYTHM OF ACTION AND REST.

3. The necessary time relation between an action and the recovery
from it in rest has been mentioned already. For every acting ele­
ment a given rhythm of activity will allow exact recovery after each
act, and will maintain the balance between action and repair through­
out a long series. The heart, for instance, in alternating contraction
and relaxation, may continue to beat incessantly through the life of a
man without any accumulated fatigue for 70 years or more. Among
the great variety of nerve centers there will be found a great variety
in these time relations. Some may allow a relatively rapid rhythm,
as in the act of breathing, where the rhythm, which is a nervous
rhythm, may be almost incessant for years, while at the other end
o f the scale there are slower rhythms like those shown in the need for
diurnal sleep.
In connection with this natural pace of the animal machine, to
and fro, from action to rest, reference must be made to the wide
adaptability o f the animal mechanisms, and especially to that of
the nervous system, in response to training and use. Complicated
coordinations in the nervous system, at first easily fatigued, may
by training, and, as it seems, by some improvement in the routes of
connection due to the increase of traffic itself, become capable o f
maximum efficiency at a more rapid rhythm. A man will swing
each leg, weighted with a heavy boot, as in walking, for 10,000 times
in an unbroken march without notable fatigue, but he can not as an
impromptu exercise raise his lightly weighted finger for more than a
few score times at no faster rate before the movement comes to com­
plete standstill.
4. The problem o f scientific industrial management, dealing as it
must with the human machine, is fundamentally a problem in in­
dustrial fatigue. The rhythms of industrial conditions, given by
the hours of labor, the pace of machinery or that of fellow workers,
or otherwise, are imposed upon the acting bodily mechanisms from
outside. I f these are faster than the natural rhythms, they must give
accumulated fatigue, and cause an increasing debit, shown, in a
diminished capacity for work. It is therefore the problem of scien­
tific management to discover in the interests o f output and o f the
maintained health o f the w
rorkers what are the “ maximal efficiency
rhythms” for the various faculties o f the human machine. These
must be determined by the organized collection o f experience or by
direct experiment. They must be separately determined, more­
over, not only for the performance of relatively simple muscular
movements, all of which depend on the action of “ low er” nervous
centers, but also for the “ higher ” coordinating centers, and for both
of these the natural rhythms must be studied for the best arrange9 2 1 0 3 ° — B u l l . 2 2 1 — 1 7 ------ 4




50

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

ment o f short spells, and again for that o f the hours o f shifts, o f the
periods o f sleep, and, at the last point of the scale, of holidays.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FATIGUE*

5. I t must be repeated that the subjective sensations of fatigue
are not a measure, or even an early sign, of it. Beal or objective
fatigue is shown and is measurable by the diminished capacity for
performing the act that caused it.
6. B o d ily fa tig u e.— Fatigue following muscular employment is
primarily nervous fatigue, as explained already, and we have seen
that no advanced degree of muscular fatigue as such can be obtained
by voluntary action, for fatigue in the nervous system outstrips in
its onset fatigue in the muscles. In accustomed actions, however,
as in walking or digging, where there has been habituation, the
activity may be so prolonged without great nervous fatigue as to
give approaching “ exhaustion”—that is, notable loss of chemical
substance— in the muscles. Industrial work is habitual work, but
the case in which muscular labor is so intense and prolonged as to
give exhaustion in this sense need not be considered here, nor the
causation of the special symptoms which arise. It must be noted,
however, that practically the whole of the mechanical energy and
heat yielded by the body during work comes from the chemical
energy stored in the muscles. In proportion as this store is called
upon, and quite apart from the question of fatigue, it must be made
good by supplies from the blood and ultimately from the food.
Practically the whole of the energy transformed in the muscles is
derived from carbohydrate material, and the importance o f this in
relation to the diet of workers is discussed in Memorandum No. 3.1

For work in which severe muscular effort is required it seems
probable that the maximum output over the day’s work and the best
conditions for the workers’ comfort and maintained health will be
secured by giving short spells of strenuous activity broken by longer
spells of rest, the time ratio of rest to action being here, for maximal
efficiency, greater than that for the employments in which nervous
activity is more prominent or more complicated than in the processes
involved during familiar muscular work.2 This difference may be
connected directly with the greater bulk of chemical material which
must be mobilized when, as in severe muscular exercise, so large a
1 R e p rin ted in B u lle tin N o. 222.
2 T h is p o in t is one o f in c e ss a n t p r a c tic a l in te r e st in m an y in d u s tr ie s , an d it m ay be
n o ted th a t i t h a s an im m ed ia te b ea rin g upon th e r ou tin e proper for rapid tren ch
d ig g in g . T w o officers a t th e fr o n t r ec e n tly , for a fr ie n d ly w a g er, com peted in m ak in g
eq u al le n g th s o f a c er ta in tr en ch , each w ith an equal squad o f m en. One le t h is m en
w ork a s th e y p lea sed , b u t a s h ard a s p o ssib le. T he o th er d ivid ed h is m en in to th ree
s e ts, to w ork in r o ta tio n , ea ch s e t d ig g in g th e ir h a r d e st for 5 m in u te s an d th en r e stin g
fo r 10, t ill th e ir sp e ll o f la b o r cam e a g a in . T h e la tte r tea m w on e a sily . T he problem
h ere g iv e s a n o th e r o b viou s o p en in g fo r scie n tific o r g a n iz a tio n based on th e r e su lts o f
e x p erim en t.




IN D U S T R IA L F A T IG U E AN D IT S CAU SES.

51

proportion o f the whole body mass is engaged in the chemical events
involved in movement and doing work; but further scientific study
is needed here.
7.
N ervous and m ental fa tig u e.— It is under this head, as we have
seen, that the special problems o f industrial fatigue arise. The signs
and symptoms of the fatigue will depend upon the nature of the
particular work done, whether it be general bodily work of this or
that kind, carried out in fixed routine, or whether it involve mental
activity of a simple or of a more complicated kind. The fatigue may
spring from the maintained use of intelligence and observation with
varying degrees of the muscular effort necessary in every kind of
work, or from the maintenance of steady attention upon one skilled
task, or o f distributed attention, as when several machines are to be
tended or other manipulations performed; or, again, it may depend
upon the continued use of special senses and sense organs in dis­
crimination, whether by touch or sight. It will be affected greatly
according to whether the worker has opportunity for obeying his
natural rhythms, or whether unnatural rhythm is imposed upon him
by the pace of the machine with which he works or by that of his
fellow workmen. Considerations so inexplicable at present in terms
of physiology as to be called 4 psychological ” will also arise; if the
4
work is of a 4 worrying ” or 4 fussy ” kind, with a multiplicity,
4
4
that is to say, of imposed and irregular rhythms, fatigue will be
more rapid, perhaps on account of the more numerous and 4 higher ”
4
nervous centers which become implicated.
Monotonous work— and much industrial work is monotonous—
offers some special problems. It has been seen that uniformly re­
peated acts tend to become in a sense 4 automatic,” and that the nerve
4
centers concerned become less liable to fatigue—the time ratio of
necessary rest to action is diminished. But when monotonous series
are repeated, fatigue may appear in what may be called the psychical
field, and a sense of 4 monotony ” may diminish the capacity for
4
work. This is analogous to, if it does not represent, a fatigue process
in unrecognized nervous centers. Conversely, 4 interest ” may im­
6
prove the working capacity even for a uniform monotonous activity,
and the interest may spring from emotional states, or, as some think,
from states of anticipatory pleasure before mealtime and rest (4 end
4
spurt” ), or again, from a sense of patriotism eager to forward the
munitions output.
It may be remarked that mental processes, like those involved, for
instance, in adding up figures, may be maintained for very long
periods—subject to the needs of change of posture and o f diurnal
sleep— with no great loss of capacity, that is, without marked fatigue
in that particular process. Such diminution of capacity as occurs,
and the sense of fatigue that is felt subjectively by common expe­




52

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

rience in such a task, appear to be due to “ monotony,” and to be
removable by means of “ interest.”
8. For practical purposes in industrial management two chief
characters o f nervous fatigue must be observed. First, during the
continued performance o f work the objective results of nervous fa­
tigue precede in their onset the subjective symptoms of fatigue.
Without obvious sign and without his knowing it himself, a man’s
capacity for work may diminish owing to his unrecognized fatigue.
His time beyond a certain point then begins to be uneconomically
spent, and it is for scientific management to determine this pointy and
to determine further the arrangement of periods of rest in relation
to spells of work that will give the best development over the day
and the year of the worker’s capacity. Second, the results o f fatigue
w^hich advances beyond physiological limits (“ overstrain” ) not only
reduce capacity at the moment, but do damage of a more permanent
kind which will affect capacity for periods far beyond the next
normal period of rest. It will plainly be uneconomical to allow
this damage to be done.
For these reasons, chief among others, it will be important to
detect latent fatigue, and since sensations of fatigue are unpunctual
and untrustworthy, means must be sought of observing the onset
o f fatigue objectively.
TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE.
(a )

O UTPUT.

9. The true sign of fatigue is diminished capacity, and it follows
from what has been said that measurement of output in work will
give the most direct test of fatigue.
The output must be measured under the ordinary conditions o f the
work, and, in cases where from the nature of the work the output is
not automatically measured, it must be tested by methods which do
not allow the workers to be conscious at particular times of the test
being made. In this way the errors due to special effort from interest
or emulation will be eliminated. The results o f work expressed in
output must be corrected by allowance for all variable factors save
that o f the workers’ changing capacity; changes in supply of steam
or electric power and of raw material, for instance, must be deter­
mined for the correction and interpretation of the actual output
returns. The output must be estimated for successive short periods
(e. g., each hour) of the day’s work, so that the phenomena o f “ be­
ginning spurt ” and “ end spurt ” and other variations complicating
the course o f fatigue as such, may be traced and taken into account.
Isolated tests of output taken sporadically will be meaningless. The
records must also extend over longer periods to show the onset of




IN D U S T R IA L FA TIG U E A N D IT S CAUSES.

53

fatigue over the whole day and over the whole week, and under
particular seasonal or other conditions, in order to detect and
measure the results of accumulating fatigue.
10. Measurements of output must obviously be recorded at so much
for each individual or for each unit group. The size of total output
will be meaningless, o f course, without reference to the numbers en­
gaged. But it will also be important for proper management to take
account of the output of particular individuals. This in many fac­
tory processes is easily possible, and when it has been done the results
have shown surprising variations of individual output which are
independent of personal willingness and industry and have generally
been quite unsuspected by the workers and their supervisors before
the test w as made. Information so gained is valuable in two respects.
T
Good individual output is often the result of escape from fatigue by
conscious or unconscious adoption of particular habits of manipula­
tion or o f rhythm. Its discovery allows the propagation of good
method among the other workers. In the second place, these tests of
individual capacity (or its loss by fatigue) give an opportunity for
a rearrangement of workers and their assignment to particular proc­
esses of work. Astonishing results, bringing advantage both to em­
ployers and employed, have been gained in other countries by the
careful selection of individuals for particular tasks, based not upon
the impressions of foremen but upon the results of experiment.1
11. I f the proper adaptation to particular kinds of labor of the
relations of spells or shifts of work to rest intervals and to holidays is
to be determined, as it can alone he, by appeal to experiment, it will,
of course, be an essential condition for success that the workers should
cooperate with the employing management and give their highest
voluntary efforts toward the maximum output during the spells o f
work. It is not surprising that where employers, following tradi­
tion rather than experiment, have disobeyed physiological law in the
supposed interests of gain— and for a century this has been almost
universal—the workers have themselves fallen very commonly into a
tradition of working below their best during their spells of labor.
In so far as hours of work in excess of those suitable for maximal
efficiency have been imposed during the last two or three generations
of modern industry upon the workers a tradition of slowed labor
1 In cer ta in sp c cia l d ir e c tio n s, and w ith sp e cia l regard to m u n itio n w ork, th e com ­
m itte e are c a u sin g som e ex p e rim e n ta l o b serv a tio n s to be m ade fo r th e ir gu id an ce. T he
ser v ic e s o f Mr. S a r g a n t F lo ren ce, w o rk in g on b e h a lf o f th e M ed ical R esea rch C om m ittee
(N a tio n a l H e a lth I n su r a n c e ), h a v e been placed a t th e d isp o sa l o f th is com m ittee, and
h e is en g a g ed in s tu d y in g p a r tic u la r fe a tu re s o f o u tp u t u n d er sp e cia l c o n d itio n s o f
labor a t p a r tic u la r fa c to r ie s.
In th is w ork he h a s en joyed th e cord ial coop eration o f
th e m a n u fa c tu r in g firm s concerned, and to th ese th e c o m m ittee w ou ld offer th e ir g r a te ­
fu l a c k n o w led g m en ts. T he co m m ittee propose la te r to m ake a p p rop riate u se o f th e re­
s u lts o f th ese in v e s tig a tio n s.




54

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

must necessarily have arisen, probably in large part automatically,
as a kind of physiological self-protection. Without some conscious
or unconscious slackening of effort indeed during working hours of
improper length in the past, the output might have been even more
unfavorable than we know it to have been for the hours of work con­
sumed.
It has happened, moreover, that, rightly or wrongly, a suspicion
has grown up among workers that any device for increasing out­
put will be used for the profit of the employer rather than for the
increased health and comfort of the workers. It would be out
of place here to touch on the economic and social problems which
arise in this connection, but until such solutions are found for
them as will bring a hearty cooperation between employers and
employed, in the task of finding the optimum condition of work
for the benefit o f both, there will be no certain prospect of deter­
mining the true physiological methods for getting the best results
in modern industrial occupations.
The committee believe that in the present time of crisis patriotic
incentive has done much to abolish customary reduction of effort
among munition workers, but it is of great importance to note that
a special and strenuous voluntary effort in labor, if it be main­
tained under a badly arranged time-table of work and rest, does
not necessarily bring increased output over a long period, however
praiseworthy the intention of effort may be. Under wrong con­
ditions o f work, with excessive overtime, it is to be expected in­
deed that some deliberate “ slacking ” of the workers might actually
give an improvement of output over a period o f some length by
sparing wasteful fatigue, just as the “ nursing” o f a boat crew
over part o f a long course may improve their performance. It
can not in such circumstances be said that a workman so restrain­
ing himself, consciously or unconsciously, is doing more to damage
the output on the whole than the employer who has arranged overlong hours of work on the baseless assumption that long hours
mean high output.1
In a specific instance before the committee, a group of five male voluntary
Sunday workers in a certain m unitions factory w ere able in 8 hours (or 7 hours
free of m eals) to exceed the average days’ output of eight week-day men, who
work 14 hours (or 12£ hours free of m eals). These five men worked, no doubt,
at a “ sprint,” which could not perhaps have been m aintained daily. B ut there
1
I t is sa id th a t w om en w ork ers n o w en gaged upon m u n itio n s h a v e no c u sto m a r y
u sa g e s o f sp a r in g th em se lv e s, a n d th a t th e w eek ly o u tp u t per w om an o ften exceed s th a t
per m an. T he ex p erien ced m a n a g er o f a la r g e sh e ll fa c to r y em p lo y in g 1 ,2 0 0 m en and
1 ,5 0 0 w om en ex p ressed h is confidence th a t th e th ree 8-hour s h ift sy ste m g iv e s better
o u tp u t and m a in ta in s b e tter h e a lth th a n th a t o f tw o 12-hour s h ifts . H e is “ sa tisfie d
th a t th er e is a period o f sla ck in g , o fte n q u ite u n co n sc io u s, d u rin g a 12-hour s h if t w h ic h
is d e tr im e n ta l to o u tp u t.” In v e stig a tio n e lsew h ere su g g e sts, h ow ever, th a t th e o u tp u t
fo r th e lo n g s h ift m ig h t be ev en w o rse w ith o u t th is u n co n scio u s r e str a in t.




INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND ITS CAUSES.

55

can be little doubt that they could repeat their eight hours’ effort on, say, four
days in a w eek; and, if so, the startling result follow s that they could do in
those four days rather more than the w hole w eek’s work of an equal set of
men adopting the other system o f hours. W ith this, moreover, they could enjoy
not only longer nights and more recreation tim e in each working-day, but could
also have three whole holidays in the week. W ould these five volunteers be
“ slackers ” if they did a fu ll w eek’s work judged by the 14-hour standard, or
more, but had three holidays a week (available perhaps for a change o f w ork)
and slept longer at night? It is impossible to resist the conclusion th at the
paid week-day workers at this factory, who have been working their long hours
for many months, m ight have greatly improved both their output and their
comfort under a better chosen system of special efforts alternating w ith su it­
able rests. The work in question w as work of a uniform “ repetitive ” kind,
involving moderate physical exertion.
A t another large factory the manager is considering closely the problems
raised here. H e is proposing to aim at “ sprint,” and hopes to get the sam e
output from
hours’ work as from the present 10£ hours’ work. H e instituted
a com petition as to which sh ift and which group of men could do m ost as an
experim ent. H e found that a sm all bonus “ increased the output of a group of
boys 120 per cent.”
A t one long-established factory a new shop has been built and staffed so as
to produce 5,000 of a particular stock article of w arfare per week, that estim ate
being based upon the results of the older shops doing the same work. N ew
hands were engaged, and these in the new shop are now, after six months, pro­
ducing in spite of their inexperience not only 5,000, as expected, but 13,000 of
these articles per week. The older hands in the other shops do not approach
th is output, though all the mechanical conditions o f work are practically equal.
As patriotic interest in their output appears to be shared here by all the men
alike, the lower output by the more experienced hands appears to be assignable
only to the effects of long-standing customary restrictions u£on habits or
rhythm of work from which the newer hands are free.

In addition to the direct measurement of output certain secondary
symptoms of fatigue may be studied usefully as its index.
(b )

A C C ID E N T S A N D S P O IL E D

W ORK.

12.
An important and early sign of fatigue in the nervous centers
is a want of coordination and failure in the power of concentration.
This may not be subjectively realized but may be shown objectively
in an increased frequency of trifling accidents. The accidents are
due to momentary loss of attention and may result in personal
damage to the worker, trifling or serious, breakages of tools or
materials, or the spoiling of work. In well-managed factories the
incidence o f accidents of this kind is recorded for unit periods
throughout the day, and these records may provide a good second­
ary index to fatigue^ but only in so far as they are corrected by
reference to the rate of work being done and other variables. Re­
sults of the use of this method by Mr. Sargant Florence have re­
cently been published in the report made to the British Association
at Manchester in last September, but at present these results lack
the necessary parallel determinations of rate o f output and other
factors for their correction.




56

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.
(c )

A S S O C IA T E D

F A T IG U E

AND

LABORATORY

TESTS.

The primary sign o f fatigue in a given function is diminished
capacity. But there is evidence to show that accumulated fatigue
in connection with a given act may affect adversely the condition
o f other parts of the nervous system not immediately employed.
There is little experimental knowledge, however, as to whether this
effect, shown in associated fatigue, is more direct and definite in
kind than the effect upon general health to be mentioned below.
The appearance o f associated fatigue will need for its detection and
study the application o f special tests, involving the use of suitable
apparatus and laboratory accommodation. The committee are caus­
ing some observations o f this kind to be made, and the results o f
these will be the subject o f a later report if it appears desirable.
It should be remembered, however, that experiments of this kind
will have no validity unless the fallacies due to emotions and ideas,
such as a sense of novelty, interest in the desired result, anticipation
o f release from experiment, unconscious suggestion by the observer,
and so on, are eliminated by the most rigid attention to experi­
mental conditions and by long series of control observations. The
objects of experimentation must be trained for the purpose, and it
is unlikely that tests of this kind will offer results of sufficient value
to justify the special education of teams of selected workers for the
prolonged studies which the method demands.
Prof. Stanley K ent has communicated recently to the Home Office1 the results
of some prelim inary experim ents in th is connection. H e has inquired whether
fatigu e due to industrial work show s its effects in associated changes of
nervous functions not directly employed in it, as, for instance, in dim inishing
the quickness of response to signals, in blunting the acuity of hearing, or the
acuity of vision, or in low ering other nervous functions. H is general findings
are sufficient to show th at these indirect associated results of fatigu e provide
110 regular and trustw orthy index of the primary fatigue. They give indica­
tions, but irregularly in some cases and not at all in others, that the general
“ tone ” of the nervous system is depreciated after a day’s work, and declines
also during a w eek’s work.
(d )

S IC K N E S S , LOST T IM E , A N D “ S T A L E N E S S .”

13.
The accumulated results of fatigue are damaging to general
health, and they will be reflected in the sickness returns and in the
returns of lost time. Many problems arise here which can not be dis­
cussed in detail,2 and they are complicated by the influence of other
factors, which will be discussed in the following section. Without
1 In te r im rep o rt on an in v e s tig a tio n o f in d u s tr ia l fa tig u e by p h y sio lo g ic a l m eth od s
(Cd. 8 0 5 6 ). P r ic e 4^d. (9 c e n ts ).
2 F u rth e r r eferen ce is m ade t o th is su b ject in th e c o m m ittee m em orand um on sick n e ss
an d in ju ry .




INDUSTBIAL FATIGUE AND ITS CAUSES*

57

complete analysis o f other variables, sickness returns will be only an
indirect guide in the study of fatigue as such.
14.
Reference must be made here, however, to a pronounced and
common symptom of industrial fatigue, which appears to be the
reflection in the workman’s general health and “ spirits ” of the<
results of accumulated nervous fatigue rather than a direct or meas­
urable sign o f it. A t the present time in very many munition fac­
tories the complaint is made by workers, and not least by the most
intelligent and willing of them, that they are feeling “ done up,” or
fair whacked,” to use local phrases, and the evidence shows that
this state of “ staleness ” is becoming increasingly common and
obvious. By experienced managers and medical officers this condi­
tion of staleness is attributed almost wholly to persistent long hours
and the deprivation of weekly rest. It has grave accompaniments,
which paradoxically appear not only in a state of lethargy and
indifference, but also in a craving for change and excitement. No
doubt the restlessness of the condition must often predispose also to
indulgence in the alleviations given by alcohol. At all points the
state is apt to set up a vicious circle in which the very need for
change and rest prevents the proper use of such chances of rest as are
given.

The following is typical of many reports made to the committee:
The works manager who showed me round had worked 361 days out of 365,
and looked worn. He would welcome Sunday holidays. A skilled toolmaker
had had eight days’ holidays— including one for a funeral— since the war
began (14 m onths). He complained of the strain on his nerves.
The officials of a very large trade-union said th at overtime wras generally
considered to be excessive. The most skilled workmen were becoming nervy.

Proper attention earlier in the war to the need for weekly rest
would have prevented a large part of the diminished capacity of
this kind that has been allowed to appear and would have averted
much costly and wasteful expenditure upon imperfect work. But
stress must be laid here on a further point. For the avoidance of
staleness in conditions of strenuous labor it is not enough to treat
workmen in the bulk and to regulate daily and weekly rests upon a
physiological basis devised for the average. I f that he done, wide­
spread evils like those too commonly present now may be avoided,
but good management will consider always the individual work­
man as well. The committee have no doubt that in very many
cases— perhaps in almost all— in which staleness is well marked or
has even advanced to definite sickness, a single “ day off,” given
occasionally at the right time, would have avoided much wasteful
reduction of capacity and in the worst cases the total loss of many
days o f work.




58

HOURS, FA T toU E , ETC., IN BRITISH M UNITION FACTORIES.

THE STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE.

15. By studies of industrial fatigue measured by tests of individual
output a large body of valuable information has already been gained
in various countries, and its application wherever management is
scientific has become a commonplace of administration .1 I t must be
admitted, however, th a t in England—and, no doubt, to the detriment
of both health and wealth—management based upon the experi­
mental science of industrial fatigue is far less common than in the
factories and business concerns of America and of Germany. The
committee, in their memorandum (No. 5) upon hours of work, para­
graph 7 , have already pointed to the surprising uncertainty com­
monly found in this country, even where professional knowledge is
to be expected, with regard to the proper solution of some of the
most elementary practical problems of labor management.
16. In the rapid enlargement and organization of munition fac­
tories in this country there has been, and is, the most urgent need for
the application of the results of experience scientifically acquired.
Upon a sudden national emergency the accumulation of fatigue and
its results in workers might well be temporarily disregarded, but
now, though the special need persists, the race is to be a long one,
and a failure to conserve the maximum efficiency of the workers must
be disadvantageous. Misguided efforts to stimulate workers to fever­
ish activity in the supposed interests of the country are likely to be
as damaging to the desired result as the cheers of partisans would be
if they encouraged a long-distance runner to a futile sprint early in
his race.
Even during the urgent claims of a war the problem must always
be to obtain the maximum output from the individual worker which
is compatible with the maintenance of his health. In war time the
workmen will be willing, as they are showing in so many directions,
to forego comfort and to work nearer the margin of accumulating
fatigue than in time of peace, but the country can not afford the
extravagance of paying for work done during incapacity from
fatigue just because so many hours are spent upon i t 2 or the further
extravagance of urging armies of workmen toward relative inca­
pacity by neglect of physiological law.
The committee have found many isolated instances in which the
onset of industrial fatigue has been avoided by intelligent observa­
1 R eferen ces to p u b lish ed w ork m a y be fou nd c o n v e n ie n tly in F a tig u e and E fficiency,
by J o sep h in e G oldm ark, N ew York, 1 9 1 3 (3 d e d .), an d in th e in ter im rep o rt to th e
B r itis h A sso c ia tio n (M a n ch ester, 1 9 1 5 ) by th e co m m itte e upon th e q u estio n o f fa tig u e
from th e econ om ic sta n d p o in t.
2 On th e q u estio n o f Su nday w ork by e x h a u ste d m en, one forem an sa id he did n o t
b elie v e in “ a h o lid a y on double p a y .” A n o th er rem ark ed t h a t S u n d ay w ork g a v e “ s ix
clays’ o u tp u t for sev en d a y s ’ w ork on e ig h t days* p a y .”




IN DUSTRIAL FATIGUE AN D IT S CAUSES.

59

tion of the output and of the returns of sickness and of lost time,
and by prompt initiative in adapting the hours of work to physio­
logical need; but these instances are exceptional. Taking the coun­
try as a whole, the committee are bound to record their impression
that the munition workers in general have been allowed to reach a
state of reduced efficiency and lowered health which might have been
avoided without reduction of output by attention to the details of
daily and weekly rests. The signs of fatigue are even more notice­
able in the case of the managers and foremen, and their practical
results are probably more serious than in the case of the work­
men.
Examples may be given of the value of intelligent management:
At a large shell-m aking factory the men for the early months of war worked
seven 12-hour day and seven 12-hour night sh ifts in the week. More recently
Sunday work has been stopped (or at least every man has a w eekly day o f
r e s t), and the men work from 6 a. m. to 7.80 p. m., w ith h a lf an hour for
breakfast and an hour for dinner, tea being brought to the men by the boys
w hile the m achinery is running. T hese hours are long, but, as a result of
im provements in organization, they now produce an increased number of
shells from h a lf the number o f workers. The manager here “ attaches the
greatest importance to the week-end rests.”
At another large munitions factory men engaged in the heavy work of
molding are required by the managem ent to rest 15 minutes in every hour
of work. The manager w as satisfied that this w as an arrangement good for
the men and for the output. B ut the men objected to th is long spell o f rest
in each hour because the work w as piecework, and they thought the production
would be lessened by it. The manager accordingly found it necessary to set
a forem an to w atch and to make the hourly rest compulsory. When th is
was done the output per hour w as found to be actually increased.
At another m unitions factory the com m ittee learned that the m anager had
given a break of 15 m inutes daily at 11 a. m. to girls engaged in sedentary
work of a monotonous repetitive kind. D uring the break the girls had recre­
ation in the open air. In spite o f this deduction from their working hours
of the tim e so spent, the output per day w as increased.

17. The problems of industrial fatigue, already soluble in part by
reference to an available body of knowledge well known and used
in other countries, have become acute during the great recent develop­
ment of the munitions industries of Great Britain. I t is not too
much perhaps to hope that the study of industrial fatigue and the
science of management based upon it, which is now being forced into
notice by immediate need, may leave lasting results to benefit the
industries of the country during succeeding years of peace.
Our national experience in modern industry is longer than that of
any other people. I t has shown clearly enough th at false ideas of
economic gain, blind to physiological law, must lead, as they led
through the nineteenth century, to vast national loss and suffering.




60

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., I N BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

I t is certain that unless our industrial life is to be guided in the
future by the application of physiological science to the details of
its management, it can not hope to maintain its position hereafter
among some of its foreign rivals, who already in th at respect have
gained a present advantage.
Signed on behalf of the committee,
G eo r g e N e w m a n , M . D .,

Chairman.

E. H.

P e lh a m ,

Jan u ary,

Secretary.

1916.
NOTE.

Several other im portant studies of industrial fatigu e were published during
1915 and 1916 in Great B ritain, and it is understood that the results of all of
these studies were available to the comm ittee and that its own report on indus­
trial fatigue may be regarded as a sum ming up of these .various studies of
fatigu e and its own studies of hours of labor. The studies referred to are
the follow ing:
“ Interim Report on an Investigation o f Industrial F atigu e by P hysiological
Methods ” ; by A. F. Stanley Kent, M. A., D. Sc., Professor of Physiology
in the U niversity o f B ristol. Great B ritain, Home Office, London, 1915.
34 pp.
“ Second Interim Report on an In vestigation o f Industrial F atigu e by
Physiological M ethods ” ; by A. F. Stanley Kent, M. A., D. Sc., Professor
o f Physiology in the U niversity of B ristol. Great B ritain, Home Office,
London, 1916. 76 pp., 18 charts.
“ The Question o f F atigu e from the Economic Standpoint.” Interim Report
of the Committee, B ritish A ssociation for the Advancement o f Science.
Manchester, 1915. 67 pp.
“ The Question o f F atigu e from the Economic Standpoint.” Second Interim
Report of the Committee, B ritish A ssociation for the Advancement of
Science. N ew castle, 1916. 24 pp.
These various reports w ere summarized in an article entitled, “ Some New
Studies of Industrial F atigu e,” in the December, 1916, issue of th e Monthly
R eview of the U nited States Bureau of Labor Statistics, page 97.




SICKNESS AND INJURY.
[M em orandum N o. 10.]

INTRODUCTION.

1.
The effect of industrial occupation upon the health of the worker
has been a subject of medical investigation since the seventeenth cen­
tury. Early in the nineteenth century similar inquiries were insti­
tuted in England, and in 1831 Thackrah showed th at the environment
and conditions of factory life, or the mental and physical strain
entailed, were associated with exceptional disablement, disease, or
mortality among the persons employed. Numerous commissions have
been appointed* by the Government to ascertain more precisely the
exact causes of such effects, and these have considered successively
the general circumstances of the worker, the injurious influences of
the factory system, the special conditions of certain occupations, the
risks incurred in the use of machinery, and the results arising among
those employed in dangerous trades. Thus has been accumulated a
vast body of medical experience, growing with the growth of industry
and withr the increase of our knowledge of the causes of disease.
Concurrently with the appearance of evidence of a medical and social
character further light has been thrown upon the subject by actuaries,
insurance agents, and statisticians. As long ago as 1853, Finlaison,
the actuary of the national debt, said that “ the real practical d if­
ference in the distribution of sickness seems to turn upon the amount
of expenditure of physical force,” and 50 years later, in 1903,
Watson, who had studied the subject from an actuarial point of
view, wrote that “ the proportion of members sick during any year
varies with occupation.” Again, the experience of insurance au­
thorities confirms the same view. The report on national health
insurance for 1913-14 states th at “ in many cases the rate of sickness
is affected by occupations or by the conditions incidental to particular
occupations.” Lastly, there is the incontrovertible evidence fu r­
nished by the bills of mortality steadily accumulating in proof as
the years pass. The decennial reports of the registrar general dem­
onstrate that certain occupations have a high comparative mortality,
th at this m ortality is due to well-defined and preventable diseases,
that the occupation may exert a greater influence on mortality than
the aggregation of population and its associated conditions, and that
occupational mortality is affected by the age incidence of the worker.




61

62

H O U R S, FATIG UE, E T C ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

SICKNESS AND ITS CAUSES.

2.
Sickness due, directly or indirectly, to industrial occupation
takes various forms and degrees, from a passing headache to serious
organic disease of fatal issue: The lungs, the heart, the digestive
organs, the nervous system, the muscular system—each or all may be
affected, with results harm ful both to industrial efficiency and output
and to personal health and expectation of life. Moreover, it must be
remembered that an undue proportion of sickness in any group of
workers usually represents among those not actually sick, lessened
vigor and activity, which can not fail to reduce output. Disabling
conditions or influences which injure some have a tendency to mark
all. I t is desirable th at employers and their workpeople should have
a general appreciation of these injurious conditions in order to be on
the outlook to guard against them or mitigate their evil effect.
Speaking generally, attention should be given to the following
points:
( 1 ) Excessively long hours of work, particularly by night,
if continued, produce fatigue, irritation, and sickness.
4 You will find,” wrote Sir James Paget, “ th at fatigue
6
has a larger share in the promotion or permission of
disease than any other single casual condition you can
name.” (See Memorandum No, 7 on “ Industrial
fatigue and its causes.” )
(2 ) Cramped and constrained attitudes or postures during
work, which prevent the healthy action of lungs and
heart.
(3) Prolonged or excessive muscular strain—e. g., the lifting
of heavy weights, prolonged standing—may produce
rupture or varicose veins.
(4) Machinery accidents. (See below.)
(5) W orking in unventilated or insufficiently ventilated work­
shops predisposes to disease and gravely interferes with
individual energy and physical capacity. The effect of
continuously working in a stagnant or polluted atmos­
phere is not trifling or insignificant.
( 6 ) The air, even if fresh, may be too hot or too cold, too
humid or too d r y ; either extreme should be avoided to
insure reasonable bodily comfort and the most efficient
work.
(7) Imperfect lighting, whether by day or night, conduces to
eyestrain and headaches.
( 8 ) W orking with or ip the presence of gases, vapors, poisons,
and irritating substances (e. g., “ doping”) may lead to
direct poisoning.




SICKNESS AND IN JU R Y .

63

(9) Dust produced in certain industries, unless effectually
safeguarded, may induce lung diseases.
( 10 ) The manufacture and use of high explosives involve risk
to the workman.
While this seems to be a sufficiently formidable list of disabling
conditions, or conditions which without proper care and precaution
may readily become disabling, it does not complete the inventory.
A t least as im portant as any of these occupational influences, but
inseparable from them, is the predisposition to disease arising from
an absence of personal hygiene. The necessities of individual health
are few and simple, but they are essential. Suitable and sufficient
food, fresh air, warmth, moderation, and cleanliness in the ways and
habits of life, the appropriate interrelation of work, repose, and
recreation of mind and body—these are the laws of hygiene, the
elements of vital importance, for which facilities must be provided
if the maximum industrial output of the individual is to be secured
and maintained. Hence arises the necessity for the management to
consider these matters for the workpeople in their charge, in addition
to the health supervision of the external circumstances of the factory
and its technical processes.
INDICATIONS OF SICKNESS.

3.
The indications of siekness in a factory fall into four groups of
facts, which come before the management. First, there is absence,
broken time, irregular timekeeping, or diminished output of the
individual worker. Every case of lost time or absence calls for
inquiry. It should be properly recorded. A study of such records
is certain to disclose the existence of adverse influences or circum­
stances, to-day unsuspected, which may denote the beginning of
sickness. Secondly, there are the ordinary signs of ill health, the
listless or jaded worker^ lassitude, headache, faintness, cough,
vomiting, etc* Thirdly, there is the sickness register which should
be kept in all well-organized factories. The keeping and exami­
nation of this register should be the duty of a duly authorized
officer, possibly a trained nurse or welfare supervisor. Medical cer­
tificates should be required, correctly recorded and carefully ex­
amined. Week by week the management should scrutinize their
chart of sickness returns and study their rise and fall. Only thus
can they keep themselves informed on this vital matter. Lastly,
there are the death certificates, few in number, but extremely
im portant as indications of the health of the workers as a whole. In
the past, when the supply of labor was plentiful, the necessity for a
study of the influences which affect human efficiency may have es­
caped recognition, but to-day, when skilled labor is scarce, the neces­




64

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

sity is obvious. To conserve energy and efficiency is coeteris paribus
the way to improve output.
4. The subject of the sickness rate is perhaps the most im portant
of these four signs of a significant amount of il] health among em­
ployees, and it may be well to give an example in illustration thereof.
A well-known and typical munition works had some 14,000 employees
in July, 1914. A fter the outbreak of war the number rapidly in­
creased ; by the end of the year it had doubled, and in March, 1915,
the number employed was upwards of 36,000. The percentage of
sickness in July was 2.9; in December it was 2.4; and in the first
quarter of 1915 it exceeded 4 per cent, to some extent probably owing
to seasonal causes. D uring the same period the accident rate also
showed some increase. A recent inquiry showed th at in two depart­
ments the sickness rate among men on overtime was 5.5 as against 3.7
among those on double shifts. In one of these departments among a
body of nearly 1,000 men working overtime the sickness rate reached
8 per cent, the leading causes being probably the greater age of. the
wrorkers, a 15-hour day, frequent Sunday work, and the special strain
of the work. The medical officer of the works attributed the increase
of sickness and injury in the factory as a whole to {a) a large in­
crease of employees (many new hands), (b) overtime, with its at­
tendant fatigue, and (<?) night work. The principal forms which the
sickness took in order of importance were medically reported as in­
fluenza, digestive diseases, bronchitis and bronchial catarrh, naso­
pharyngeal catarrh, rheumatism, nervous diseases and neuralgia,
tonsilitis, myalgia, and skin diseases. In another large works the
sickness rate had risen to 4 per cent and was still rising, and at a
third it was 7 per cent.
METHODS OF REMEDY AND TREATMENT.

5. A t the foundation of any sound system of dealing with indus­
trial disease lie two elementary principles, viz, that prevention is
better than cure, and that for treatment to be most effective it must
deal with the beginnings of disease. Bearing this in mind the pre­
liminary safeguard is to provide for the medical examination of all
workers on their admission to the factory in order to secure as far as
may be their initial physical fitness for employment. In some muni­
tion works this preliminary medical examination is the usual prac­
tice and has been found of the greatest advantage, and in special
departments, danger zones, etc., there is a periodical medical inspec­
tion. Such a procedure forms a convenient opportunity for the in­
culcation of sound doctrine as to the extreme importance of personal
hygiene, cleanliness, and healthy habits. Having thus made sure
that the individual worker begins well, the management has two




SIC K N ESS AN D IN J U R Y .

65

further duties in the matter. First, they must reduce to a minimum
any unfavorable conditions obtaining in their works—providing
proper sanitary conditions and accommodations, safeguarding ma­
chinery, controlling hours Qf labor, furnishing canteen facilities, and
securing sufficiently warmed, lighted, and ventilated workrooms;
secondly, they must make arrangements for an adequate medical and
nursing scheme. Medical attendance is obtainable under the national
insurance system or may be made available by special provision of a
medical and hospital service for the factory; but nursing can only be
obtained by the appointment of one or more trained nurses to under­
take duties in the factory for both day and night shifts. Such ar­
rangements have been instituted in many munition works, particu­
larly where women are employed and have proved of great value to
employers and workers alike. The duties of a factory nurse may in­
clude (a) supervision of the health of the workers, (b) superintend­
ence of the rest room for those who are temporarily indisposed, ( c)
following up cases of sickness at home, (d ) taking charge of first-aid
treatment of injuries, and (e) in the absence of medical advice ob­
serving and controlling in its initial stages any threatened outbreak
of the influenza type of sickness, which, if it extends, may temporarily
paralyze output. Wherever nurses have been appointed the com­
mittee have found that the scope of their services has extended in
many useful directions and they have no hesitation in recommending
such appointments.
INJURY.

6.
I t is a matter of common knowledge that a large number of
accidents of great or less severity occur in factories, and particu­
larly in the nontextile trades, metal, engineering, and shipbuilding
works. In 1913 178,161 accidents were reported in factories and
workshops in the United Kingdom. Moreover, only accidents of a
certain degree of severity are reported. A somewhat formidable
return of accidents must therefore be anticipated in munition fac­
tories, which include not only metal and engineering work but cer­
tain dangerous trades and the manufacture of explosives. Moreover,
at the present time, the introduction of new labor, and of employees
unaccustomed to the processes concerned, particularly in conjunction
with the need for speed and pressure, overtime, and night'w ork with
the consequent fatigue, must inevitably lead to greater risk of acci­
dent. In view of these facts, the committee have not been surprised
to learn of the occurrence of many injuries among munition workers.
The injuries in a typical munition works are not only open wounds,
contusions, and abrasions, injuries to the eye, sprains, simple and
compound fracture, and injured limbs, but also scratches, cuts, burns,
92103°— Bull. 221— 17------ 5




66

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

and other minor injuries which may readily lead to more serious con­
ditions by neglect. The slightest wound may become infected with
germs, and a greater or less degree of sepsis or blood poisoning super­
vene, with a resultant serious loss of time and efficiency, and possibly
even risk to life and limb. The committee have therefore had to con­
sider the prompt treatment of minor injuries, as well as the preven­
tion or treatment of more serious conditions. I t is obvious that much
can be done by adopting various methods of prevention, such as the
proper and effective guarding of machinery, the adoption of safety
appliances, the proper regulation of dangerous processes, the adequate
lighting of the factory, and the more careful cleaning of machinery.
But whatever means be adopted the avoidance of accidents must
largely depend on the intelligent cooperation of operatives and fore­
men in the maintenance and use of the appliances provided, and the
committee would be glad to see an extension of the practice of form­
ing committees of workers intrusted with the duty of investigating
every accident which occurs in their own work place. In spite, how­
ever, of the most perfect regulations and precautions accidents will
happen, and the committee desire, whilst drawing attention to the
importance of prevention, to emphasize also the pressing need for
the provision of suitable means of treatment, and particularly of
A v h a t may be thought of as first aid treatment for minor injuries,
which, by reason of their number, cause perhaps even more interrup­
tion to work than those of a more serious character.
7. Much has been accomplished in spreading knowledge of first-aid
practice by the St. John Ambulance Association and similar organiza­
tions, and in many munition works there are employees who have had
some such training. The committee fully recognize that in recent
years there has been a marked advance in the provision made by the
more enlightened employers for the treatment of injuries in factories.
The day is past for condoning slovenly or inadequate provision, and
they are satisfied that not only should advice and instruction be given
to the worker as to the proper steps to be taken on the occurrence of
accidental injuries, but that suitable arrangements should be made in
all munition factories for the effective organization of means of
emergency treatment.
INSTRUCTION OF THE WORKER.

8. The three methods of advising and instructing the employee,
which commend themselves to the committee, are (a) intelligent and
vigilant supervision by the foreman; (b) a training in the essentials
of first aid of a sufficient number of workers to provide that in each
shop there are at least one or two persons who know how to render
first aid in cases of injury; such instruction may well include some
lessons on the value of ventilation and the importance of using the




SIC K N ESS AND IN J U R Y .

67

means provided to secure i t ; unfortunately, long hours of work and
the difficulty of obtaining competent teachers make traning difficult
to organize at present, and more use must therefore be made of
method (a) ; and also of (<?), the distribution of leaflets or placards
of instruction and advice. Any instructions issued should be simple
and precise. The placards should be prominently displayed and a
supply of leaflets kept readily available for distribution .1
ORGANIZATION OF TREATMENT.

9. In the majority of factories some provision is made for the
treatment of injuries, but inspection has indicated that there is great
and urgent need of improvement,-especially for treating minor in­
juries, which must always be numerous in munition factories. A t
one factory a well-equipped surgery, with a trained nurse in charge,
may be found; at the next the surgical equipment is represented by a
soiled roll of some so-called “ antiseptic ” lint or gauze, an open packet
of absorbent wool, a few bandages, some antiseptic lotion, a bottle of
carron oil, and an unclean pair of scissors, all kept in a dusty drawer.
This is not sufficient and can not be approved.
W hat is required is an adequate though simple organization which
provides (a) a local dressing station or aid post in each work place
for minor injuries, and ( b) a central dressing station or surgery for
more serious cases or cases requiring continuous treatment. Any
organization should make provision for an aid post in every work
place for prim ary and emergency first aid, the several aid posts being
kept in close touch with the central dressing station. Arrangements
should also be made for the immediate conveyance to hospital of
cases which can not be treated on the spot.
(a) LOCAL DRESSING STATION OR AID POST.

10 . In order to be effective under industrial conditions any form
of treatment for minor injuries must be extremely simple, easily
understood, and readily applicable. Elaborate provision for the
treatment of minor injuries is the less necessary because of its un­
suitability under factory conditions, and because in machine shops
wounds are usually comparatively free from germs. Further, the
treatment must be always and promptly available. The workman
who sustains a slight injury while at work will often decline to sur­
render a quarter of an hour of time and earnings in going to and
from a central surgery to have his wound dressed. Time is a con­
sideration, and the exigencies of factory life do not allow of an
elaborate procedure. The aid post may take the form of a cupboard
[or box containing first-aid materials, with brief, simple, and clear
1 A le a fle t issu ed by th e H om e Office is p rin ted in th e A ppend ix.




68

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

instructions as to their use. The bcx should contain packets of
sterilized dressings, a supply of iodine solution (alcoholic solution
containing 2 per cent iodine), and a bottle of “ eye drops.” A pair
of dressing scissors, some triangular bandages, safety pins, and a
roll of plaster (1 inch wide) may also be found desirable. The
sterilized dressings may suitably be of three sizes: (a) Three dozen
small size, for fingers, composed of a strip of gauze or lint 8 inches
long and 1 inch wide, with narrow tape attached to one end. The
tape should be rolled up inside the strip, which is then wrapped in
a cover of ordinary nonabsorbent wool and the whole sterilized. In
use the wool is first removed and the dressing unrolled round the
injured finger, when the tape is disclosed ready for tying the dress­
ing in position; ( i ) one dozen medium size, for hands or feet, simi­
lar to the above but 18 inches long and 1 ^ inches wide; and (c) one
dozen large size, for which the ordinary field dressing may be taken
as a pattern. The aid post should be under the care of an officer,
preferably the foreman or forewoman, trained in first-aid work.
This officer should keep a note of every case dressed, and should be
responsible for seeing that the box is kept stocked and in proper
order. Ordinarily one such aid post should be provided in each
work place, but in large engineering shops several may be required.
(b) CENTRAL DRESSING STATION OR SURGERY.

11.
The central dressing station should be an easily accessible room
specially constructed or adapted for the purpose. The room or
rooms set apart as a central dressing station should in large fac­
tories provide for a surgery, a rest room, and a storeroom and nurse’s
room. Where a surgery is used for workers of both sexes, a second
small room will be found advantageous. The walls should be cov­
ered with glazed tiles, enameled iron sheets, or washable paint; the
floor should be of smooth, hard, durable, and impervious m aterial;
the natural and artificial lighting should be ample; hot and cold
water should be laid on or be immediately available; the room
should be warmed in winter. A glazed sink is needed, the pipe be­
ing well trapped from the drain. A foot bath, preferably fixed and
provided with hot and cold water, is desirable. The furniture should
consist of a table, a couch, chairs, and cupboards. The room should
not contain a carpet, rugs, curtains, table cloth, window blinds, or
wall pictures. The keynote should. be simplicity and cleanliness.
The floor should be washed once a day with antiseptic fluid, and the
walls at least once a week.




SIC K N ESS AN D IN J U R Y .

69

The object of the central dressing station being the treatment of
.more serious cases than can be dealt with at the aid post and the re­
dressing of cases of minor injury, it is desirable th at it should be
properly equipped. I t may also be convenient to use it for the
medical examination of applicants for work.
The station must be in charge of a competent person with knowl­
edge of ambulance work. Wherever possible a trained nurse should
be on regular duty, ambulance assistants being selected from em­
ployees trained in first-aid work. Many large works now have a
medical officer on the staff, who is responsible for the supervision of
the surgery and available for serious cases before removal to hospi­
tal. The equipment of the surgery will largely depend upon the
character of the accommodation provided and the experience of the
person in charge, but the folloAving will generally be required:
(i) Stretchers, splints, and strong bandages for major acci­
dents ;
(ii) Bandages and dressings for minor injuries (a stock
should be kept to replenish the aid posts) ;
(iii) A simple sterilizer and necessary surgical instruments,
such as scissors, forceps, and tourniquet ; and
(iv) Simple lotions and drugs (with sufficient enameled
basins).
SYSTEMATIC RECORDS.

12 .
As already suggested, it is important that a full and accurate
register should be kept of all cases of sickness and accident, with
particulars of dressings, redressings, and treatment.
Inquiry at many munition factories in regard to the records of
first-aid treatment indicates that advantage would be gained by the
adoption of some system of keeping records. Different methods of
first aid and preliminary treatment are practiced at different fac­
tories, but no comparison of results can be made, owing to the lack
of records.. The committee therefore suggest that a case book should
be kept, drawn up somewhat as follows:
Iden­
tifica­
tion
num­
ber.
1

Date.

Name of
injured
person.

Nature of
injury or
illness.

IIow
caused.

Progress of case with
Date
dates of subsequent of final
dressings, and the oc­ dress­
currence of any sepsis.
ing.

25.11.15 Mary Smith Crushed thumb Fall of shell 25.11.15, 26.11.15, 30.11.15 3.12.15

Each case when first treated may appropriately receive a card,
numbered to correspond with the entry in the case book, to be
brought on the occasion of subsequent dressings.




70

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
[This card must be brought to the surgery each time the patient comes for treatment.]
Iden­
tifica­
tion
num­
ber.

Name.

Nature of injury
or illness.

1

Mary Sm ith.

Crushed thumb.

Date.

25.11.15

Instructions.

To come to-morrow.

23.11.15

To come on 30th.

SO. 11.15

To come on 3d December.

3.12.15

R ESU LTS.

13. The committee are satisfied of the urgent necessity and value
of some such organization as that suggested above. They have been
much impressed in visiting munition works with the useful part
performed by competent nurses and the large number of cases of
injury or sickness which receive treatment. In 11 moderately sized
works, employing about 35,000 workers, 38,000 surgical dressings
were performed in the first 10 months of 1915, varying in ratio from
19 per 1,000 employed per month to 221 per 1,000 per month. A t
Woolwich Arsenal the medical department is organized centrally
and locally, and is at present staffed by nine (including two women)
medical officers, a matron, and four nursing sisters, with a large
staff of nursing orderlies, clerks, etc. In the year 1914-15 there w
rere
150,000 attendances for treatment or medical examination. Two
other munition works report that in the last half of October, 1915,
their nursing staff dealt with 2,348 and 2,028 cases, respectively.
While such data point to the need for first-aid work, information
obtained from another munition factory suggests that the need to-day
is proportionately greater than in normal times. In the autumn of
1914, when the hours of work were from 8 a.m. to 5.45 p.m ., an
average of 100 first-aid dressings were done at this factory each
month per 1,000 employed; in 1915, for the same period of the year,
when the hours of work were from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m., the average rose
to 292, and at night when the hours of work were from 8 p. m. to
8 a. m. to 508. The firm attribute the increased proportion of cases
to (i) longer hours, (ii) more thorough organization of first-aid
treatment, and (iii) the fact that a greater proportion of the workers
are at night employed on machines as compared with daytime, when
about 20 per cent of the operatives are employed on inspecting and
sorting. They further state that accidents occur more frequently
among workers recently engaged or moved to new work.
14. The committee have received evidence and reports from all
parts of the country of the economic and industrial value of the
proper organization of a medical service within the factory, and they




SIC K N ESS AN D IN J U R Y .

71

are convinced that both on grounds of health and of securing im­
proved output this subject demands the immediate attention of em­
ployers, and that adequate schemes of treatment, especially of minor
injuries, are an im portant means of preventing loss of time and effi­
ciency among the workers. They recommend, therefore, that pro­
vision for organized treatment should be made in every munition
factory.
Signed on behalf of the committee,
G e o r g e N e w m a n , M., D.
Chairman.
E. H. P e l h a m , Secretary.
J a n u a r y , 1916.
A PP E N D IX .
[A le a fle t issu ed by th e H om e Office.]
A SCRATCH OR SLIG H T W OUND.

Do not touch it.
Do hot bandage or w ipe it w ith a handkerchief or rag o f any kind.
Do not w ash it.
A llow the blood to dry and so close the wound n a tu r a lly ; then apply a steril­
ized dressing and bandage.
If bleeding does not stop, apply a sterilized dressing and sterilized wool, then
bandage firmly.
I f the wound is soiled w ith road dirt or other foul m atter, swab freely w ith
wool soaked in the iodine solution1 and allow the wound to dry before applying
a sterilized dressing.
a

burn

or

sc a ld .

Do not touch it.
Do not w ash it.
Do not apply oil or grease of any kind.
Wrap up the injured part in .a large dressing of sterilized wool.
Do not remove any dressing, but, if the injured part becomes painful and be­
gins to throb, go to a doctor at once.
D estroy all dressings which have been opened but not u se d ; they soon become
infected w ith microbes, and then are not sa fe to use.
EYE IN J U R IE S .

Apply the eye drops2 to the affected eyeball by means of the camel-hair brush
in the bottle.
1 An a lc o h o lic so lu tio n c o n ta in in g 2 per cen t o f iod in e.
2 In str u c tio n s to c h e m ist for m a k in g eye drops :
C o c a in e __________________________________________________________ 0 .5 per cen t,
H yd. P e r c h lo r ____________________________________________________ 1 in 3,000,
in c a sto r o il.
W eig h 95 g ra m s o f c a sto r o il in to a flask capable o f h o ld in g tw ic e th e q u a n tity . Add
0 .5 gram o f pow dered cocaine. W arm on a w a te r b a th till d isso lv ed . W h ile th e so lu ­
tio n is s t ill w arm (b u t n o t h o t) add 1 cubic c en tim e te r o f a so lu tio n c o n ta in in g 3.3
gram s o f m ercu ric ch lo rid e in 100 cubic c e n tim e te r s o f ab so lu te a lcoh ol. M ix th e .solu­
tio n s by r o ta tin g th e flask.
A bout h a lf an oun ce, or 15 cc., o f th is so lu tio n sh o u ld be su p p lied in a b o ttle from
th e cork o f w h ic h a ca m e l’s-h a ir brush is p e n d en t in th e fluid.




72

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., I N BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

Do not try to remove any particle which can not be brushed away.
T ie up w ith a clean handkerchief or bandage.
Go to a doctor a t once.
Prevention is better than c u r e ; therefore, if your work entails danger to the
eyes,
WEAR GOGGLES.

Goggles have saved hundreds o f e y e s ; th o u sa n d s have been lost for w ant of
them.
N o t e . —D anger from minor injuries arises from blood poisoning which is
caused when microbes infect a wound. The m ajority o f wounds are at first
“ clean ” that is they are not infected w ith m icrobes; such infection usually
occurs later, and comes from handkerchiefs or other m aterials applied to stop
bleeding or to w ipe aw ay blood, and, in th e case of eye injuries, from efforts
to remove fixed particles w ith unclean instrum ents. I t is b e tte r to le a v e a
w o u n d alon e th a n to in tro d u c e m ic ro b e s b y im p r o p e r tre a tm e n t. The con­
gealing of blood is nature’s w ay of closing wounds against infection and
should not be interfered with.
Burns and scalds when the skin is not broken w ill heal if left a lo n e ; all
that is necessary is rest and a protective covering. W hen blisters form they
must not be pricked, except under m edical advice.
R est is an im portant aid to healing. A short rest at first allow s healing
to commence and often saves a long rest later. An injured hand or finger
can be rested in a sling, and an injured eye by a bandage, but an injured foot
or toe can only be rested in bed.




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.
[Memorandum No. 8.]

1. Work at certain industrial processes entails special risks ftom
exposure to lead, tetrachloride of ethane, nitrous fumes, and certain
explosives, each of which may cause serious and possibly fatal ill­
ness; while contact with trinitrotoluol, tetryl, fulminate of mer­
cury, and certain lubricating and cooling fluids used in metal turning
may result in the occurrence of troublesome skin affections (der­
m atitis). The committee recognize that this list is not exhaustive
of the industrial diseases which may affect munition workers, but
they consider th at no useful purpose would be served by dealing
with others of less immediate importance. The number of munition
workers exposed to these risks, although not large when each disease
is taken separately, is in the aggregate considerable; and interference
with output would result if protective measures were not adopted.
W hat these measures are is briefly indicated below. The medical
aspect of each disease is only reviewed so far as is necessary to
explain the reason for the precautions indicated.
L EA D .

2 . Disease and its causes.—Operatives come in contact with lead
and its compounds in a variety of processes in munition factories; in
smelting lead and spelter; in making sheet lead and bullets; in file
cutting; in hardening and tempering m etals; in common tin n in g ; in
soldering and plumbing; in the manufacture of accumulators and of
india rubber; and in the use of lead paints and red lead. Under in­
dustrial conditions lead gains access to the body principally by the
inhalation of lead fumes or dust. Lead tends to accumulate in the
body, and careful investigations have established that a daily dose
of as little as 2 milligrams must be regarded as capable, when inhaled
as fume or dust, of setting up chronic poisoning. Lead may also
enter the system through the digestive tract, by eating with unclean
hands, or by putting pipes or other articles into the mouth while the
hands are soiled with lead. Lead is a cumulative poison, that is to
say, even small doses absorbed day after day have a tendency to
collect in the system and finally to cause illness. The existence of a
blue link at the edge of the gums is an indication of lead absorption,
and headache, colic, constipation, and marked paleness are early
manifestations of poisoning.




74

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

3. Prevention,—The prevention of inhalation of dust or fumes has
been the principle underlying the regulations established by the
Home Office under the Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, section 79,
for the chief industries concerned with the manipulation of lead and
its compounds. Under these regulations the incidence of lead poison­
ing through the past 15 years of industrial expansion has not
only been held in check, but has been reduced by one-half. Inhala­
tion of lead in the form of fumes or dust can only be avoided with
certainty by preventing the production of dust (for example, by
keeping all lead material dam p), and by insuring that lead fumes do
not escape into any place in which work is carried on. The nature
of certain processes, however, may render the production of dust
inevitable or the escape of fumes possible. Under such conditions
localized exhaust ventilation should be applied as close as prac­
ticable to the point of origin so as to withdraw the dust or fumes
from the atmosphere of the workplace. Respirators may be required
in a few exceptional cases, but as a protection against dust only a
few of the many forms of respirator obtainable are effective, and no
one of them is comfortable to wear; while as a protection against
fume>s no respirator exists which an operative can be asked to wear
for prolonged periods.
4. To prevent lead entering the system through the digestive tract
the following special steps should be tak en :
(a) Smoking should be prohibited in all places where lead is
manipulated.
<&) No person should be allowed to take a meal or to remain
during the times allowed for meals in any room where
lead is used.
( 0) Special provision should be made to enable the workers
to take their meals elsewhere.
( d ) Special washing facilities should be provided .1 These
will only be effective if a sufficient supply of clean
towels, soap, and nailbrushes is always available.
5. The manifestations of poisoning can be detected by a medical
man, and their presence indicates that the worker should be trans1 T h e sta n d a r d ad op ted u n der fa c to r y reg u la tio n s is as fo llo w s : T he w a sh in g con­
v e n ie n c e s sh o u ld be un der cover, an d m a in ta in e d in a c le a n ly s ta te an d in good rep air.
T h ere sh o u ld be e ith e r —
(a ) A tro u g h w ith a sm o o th im p erv io u s su rfa ce (fitted w ith a w a ste p ip e w ith o u t p lu g)
and o f such le n g th a s to a llo w a t le a s t 2 fe e t for every five p erson s, and h a v in g a
c o n s ta n t su p p ly o f w arm w a te r from ta p s or je ts above th e trou gh a t in te r v a ls
o f n o t m ore th a n 2 f e e t ; or
(&) A t le a st one la v a to r y ba sin fo r ev ery five p erson s, fitted w ith a w a ste pipe and
plu g or placed in a tro u g h h a v in g a w a ste pipe, and h a v in g eith e r a c o n s ta n t supply,
o f h o t an d cold w a te r or w arm w a te r la id on, or ( i f a c o n s ta n t su p p ly o f h e a ted
w a ter be n o t r ea so n a b ly p r a c tic a b le ) a c o n s ta n t su p p ly o f cold w a te r la id on and
a su p p ly o f h o t w a te r a lw a y s a t han d w h en required fo r u se by p erson s em ployed.




SPECIAL IN DUSTRIAL DISEASES.

75

ferred to other work. The Home Office regulations require em­
ployers to have persons engaged in various lead industries examined
periodically by a surgeon who is intrusted with powers of suspen­
sion from work. This form of medical supervision has been found
to be of such value and has in consequence been so widely adopted
even in industries not governed by regulations, th at the committee
desire to urge its adoption in all factories where the use of lead
oxides or other of its many compounds may have recently been intro­
duced in the manufacture of munitions. In the handling of metallic
lead, e. g ., bullets, the risk of poisoning is very slight, and medical
supervision is less important.
T R IN IT R O T O L U O L .

6. Disease and its causes.—Trinitrotoluol (also known as trotyl
and TNT) is, like dinitrobenzol, a substance the manufacture of
which, on account of its toxic nature, is controlled by regulations.
The extended use of this material, which has followed the increased
demand for high explosive munitions, has brought its poisonous
properties into prominence. Operatives employed in its manufac­
ture and in loading it, either pure or mixed with other substances,
into munitions have been found affected with unusual drowsiness,
frontal headache, eczema, and loss of appetite. Exceptional cases
may occur with sudden collapse after a few hours’ work on a hot day,
but generally the symptoms are at first slight and, if exposure ceases,
quickly disappear. If, however, the exposure be continued, the
symptoms tend to become more severe and may be associated with
cyanosis (ashen gray and livid color of the lips), shortness of breath,
vomiting, anemia, palpitation, bile-stained urine, constipation, rapid
weak pulse, pains in the limbs, and jaundice; while in a few cases
profound jaundice with danger to life has supervened; and even
death has resulted.
7. Prevention.—Trinitrotoluol, like nitro derivatives of benzine,
may be absorbed by inhalation of vapor or dust, through the skin,
and through the digestive tra c t; and at least the following preventive
measures should be taken accordingly :
(a) Every possible step should be taken to prevent the pro­
duction of dust and the escape of fumes into the air of
workplaces. Persons employed in packing trin itro ­
toluol, or at other processes in which the production of
dust is unavoidable, should be called upon to wear
respirators. When melted, trinitrotoluol gives off
fumes, and arrangements should be made by localized
exhaust ventilation for all fumes to be discharged into
the outside air without escaping into the work place;




76

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

this can be effected by inclosing the vessel containing
the melted trinitrotoluol in a bell-shaped hood term i­
nating in an upcast shaft about 20 feet in length,
guarded at the top by a cowl. The working opening to
the hood should only be of sufficient size to permit neces­
sary manipulations.
(&) To protect the skin overalls should be worn; the sleeves
of the overall should fasten at the neck and the wrist
and have no opening in the cuff. Gloves of leather,
strongly sewn, have been recommended, and, if worn,
the cuff of the glove should be inside, th at is under, the
sleeve of the overall. Where women are employed head
coverings should be worn.
(<?) To prevent absorption through the mouth the same pre­
ventive measures should be taken as in the case of lead
(see par. 4 above) ; the provision and maintenance of
adequate washing accommodation is ‘
specially impor­
tant. Output has been so urgently required that at
some factories work has commenced before building has
been completed; at one such factory many cases of
troublesome dermatitis (eczema1) occurred and caused
considerable interference with work, but as soon as
suitable lavatories were completed the trouble ceased.
( d ) The period of exposure should be reduced to a minimum
and should not be prolonged by overtime.
The slow and progressive action of the poison allows further pre­
cautions to be taken, and periodical medical examination, with power
to suspend from employment any person who is affected should,
therefore, always be arranged; indeed this has already been exten­
sively done with beneficial results.
The necessity for adopting preventive measures was recently
shown by the death of a woman, aged 22 years, exposed during about
5 weeks’ employment in a munitions works, to dust generated in
manipulating a powder containing a moderate amount of trin itro ­
toluol. She left her home, which was 5 miles from the factory, often
without sufficient food, at 4.45 a. m .; and no adequate provision was
made for her to take food on arrival before commencing work at 6
a. m. Washing conveniences were primitive, cloakroom and overall
accommodation was inadequate, and personal supervision was insuf­
ficient. At the same factory several other less severe cases of illness
occurred. Probably such cases can be avoided by attention to details,
in particular by using means to prevent dust and by insuring that
sufficient food is taken before work commences.
1 A n a p p lic a tio n fou n d o f v a lu e to p rev en t eczem a is a m ixtu re o f tw o p a rts o f c astor
o il to one p a r t o f la n o lin e ; th is m ix tu re, w h ich sh o u ld he rubbed in to th e sk in A fter
w a sh in g on le a v in g w ork, sh o u ld be p la ced in th e la v a to r ie s for gen eral use.




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

TETRYL

77

(T E T R A N IT R O M E T H Y L A N IL IN ).

8. Disease and its causes.—Manipulation of this explosive produces
a light dust, which may cause troublesome eczema. Individuals vary
in their susceptibility; some appear to be almost immune, while
others can hardly enter a room where tetryl is handled without suf­
fering severely. Observation suggests that this may depend on the
varying natural dryness or moistness of the skin of different persons.
The parts-most frequently affected are the conjuctivae, the openings
of the nostrils, and the chin. The hands and arms are less often
affected, and in this the eczema caused by tetryl differs from that due
to trinitrotoluol, which usually affects the forearms and hands. Op­
eratives manipulating tetryl may also suffer from headache, drowsi­
ness, and lack of appetite in varying degrees of intensity; but the
committee understand that up to the present no case of illness en­
dangering life has come to the notice of the Home Office.
9. Prevention.—The principal measures to be taken consist in—
(a) Avoiding the escaping dust by carrying out manipula­
tions in glass cupboards with armholes for introduction
•of the hands,
(&) Providing light gauze veils to protect the faces of the
workers.
(c) Supplying, if veils are not worn, some simple powder
(such as a mixture of one part zinc oxide to two parts
starch) for applying to the face before beginning work.
(d) Providing adequate washing accommodation (see foot­
note on page 74), and encouraging the use after wash­
in g of an application for the skin .1
(e) Excluding workers who show special susceptibility or
idiosyncrasy.
10 . A part from its tendency to cause eczema, tetryl stains the skin
and hair; in order to prevent this, overalls and gloves, similar to
those recommended for workers manipulating trinitrotoluol (see
paragraph 7 above), should be worn^ and, where women are em­
ployed, suitable head coverings should be used.
F U L M IN A T E O F M ER C U R Y ( C N 0 2)H g .

1 1 . Disease and its causes.—In the manufacture and use of fulm i­
nate of mercury there is a liability of mercurial poisoning and
eczema. Owing, however, to the small amounts manipulated, the
symptoms of mercurialism are seldom marked; but a blue line may
be seen on the gums, appetite may be impaired, headache may be
1 See note on page 76.




78

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

present, and there may be nervousness and depression. The last
symptom is important, not merely as a sign of illness, but as an
indication that the operative should be removed from dangerous
work which calls for a steady hand and clear head. Eczema of the
hands, forearms, and face occur, and may cause serious disability.
12. Prevention.—Measures to prevent these conditions from arising
should include—
{a) Provision of overalls and of adequate washing accommo­
dation.
(b) Transference to other work of those specially affected.
And,
( c) Where exposure is marked, periodical medical examina­
tion.
T E T R A C H L O R E TH A N E .

13. Disease and its causes.—Tetrachlorethane is a noninflammable
liquid and a solvent for acetate of cellulose. I t has formed an ingre­
dient of the u dope ” varnish applied to the canvas coverings and
tapes of aeroplane wings, and to aeroplane bodies, in order, by
impregnating them with cellulose, to render them impervious to
moisture and air. This liquid is volatile at ordinary temperatures;
its vapor smells like chloroform, is a powerful anesthetic, and, being
twice as heavy as air, tends to sink to the floor. The poisonous effect
of the vapor depends not only on the amount of vapor in the air, but
also upon the time for which the air is breathed. Inhalation of this
vapor, even in small amounts, when spread over prolonged periods,
has caused drowsiness, loss of appetite, constipation, and pains in the
stomach; and, in more serious cases, jaundice, liver destruction, coma,
and death.
14. Prevention.—The committee are glad to learn that an appar­
ently effective varnish has been found which does not contain the
poisonous chemical, though unfortunately the supply of its ingredi­
ents is at present insufficient to meet the demands. Meanwhile strict
precautions should be taken to lessen the risk associated with its use:
(a) The number of workers exposed to the vapor should be
reduced to a minimum; all processes of u doping ”
should be in a separate place where no other work is
undertaken. A t first, before the poisonous nature of
the vapor was recognized, this precaution was not taken
and workers employed on other operations suffered in
consequence.
(&) Adequate exhaust ventilation must be arranged for; if
the ventilation is to be adequate and sufficient to sweep
away the heavy vapor, the entire air contents of the
workroom should be extracted (preferably by volume




SPECIAL IN D U STR IA L DISEASES.

( c)
{d)

( e)

(/)

79

or propeller fans), at or n e a r’the floor level, about
30 times every hour, while for adm itting fresh air
supply there should be high up in the room numerous
hopper openings, the combined superficial area of which
should be at least three times that of the area of the
exhaust openings.
Operatives should not be allowed to remain in the work
place during meal hours.
The process of “ doping” should as far as possible be
alternated with other work.
The period of exposure should be reduced to a minimum
and not prolonged by overtime. Ventilation on the
lines suggested above is only adequate to bring the
amount of vapor inhaled within safe limits for ordinary
hours of work. Undue extension of these hours not
only lengthens the exposure, but lengthens it for indi­
viduals who being already tired are less able to resist it.
Periodical medical examination should be provided for,
with power to suspend from employment any persons
affected.

PERSONAL HEALTH IN RELATION TO INDUSTRIAL POISONS.

15.
The poisons so far considered have two points in common,
more or less prolonged exposure before symptoms develop and per­
sonal susceptibility. Cases of poisoning may occur among men who
have worked for a long time previously without any apparently
ill effect, while others who suffer on commencing work may later on
preserve their health with unaltered conditions. These apparent
anomalies probably depend on varying conditions of personal health,
an individual in good health resisting a dose to which he may suc­
cumb if, for any reason, he is overtired or subnormal. Maintenance
of good health, therefore, is even more im portant for workers exposed
to these poisons than for other workers. Two matters are of special
importance in this connection:
{a) Workers should not commence work without having taken
food, for evidence shows that hungry and ill-fed work­
ers succumb more readily than others. Such workers
should be supplied with at least half a pint of milk or
cocoa before starting work in the morning. This prac­
tice, the committee are informed, has been followed with
excellent results for many years in certain factories
where there is danger of lead poisoning. At the present
time when women, who as a class are less concerned
about their food than men, are being so largely em­
ployed, the practice should, in the opinion of the com­




80

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

mittee, be adopted for all workers exposed to these
poisons. Moreover, study of output indicates that gen­
erally in factories less work is done per hour from
6 a. m. to 8 a. m. than after the breakfast interval, and
the committee consider this is largely due to workers
hurrying to the factory without previously taking food.
The establishment in munition factories of the canteen
system, as advocated in an earlier memorandum, should
provide an effective means for dealing with this matter.
(b) Workers exposed to poisonous substances should be care­
fully chosen. Only healthy and temperate persons
should be employed.
NITROUS FUMES.

16.
The present demand for explosives, nearly all of which are
products of nitration, has introduced increased risk of exposure to
nitrous fumes, not only in nitrating processes, but also in the manu­
facture of nitric acid to be used in these processes. A memorandum
dealing with the danger from these fumes, especially in relation to
the present risk, has recently been issued by the factory department
of the Home Office, and the committee consider that advantage may
accrue from drawing the attention of employers to this memorandum
with which they are in entire agreement:
In the m anufacture of nitric acid, and in its use for various purposes, par­
ticularly in the m anufacture of explosives, danger ex ists of accidental escape
of nitrous fum es into the work places. The fu ll effect of inhaling these fum es
is not felt im m ediately, and unless workers are warned of the danger, they
may continue at work and unw ittingly inhale a fa ta l dose.
In such a case the affected person develops an irritating cough which be­
comes steadily worse, until, three or four hours after exposure, he becomes
seriously ill, suffering from marked dyspnea and co lla p se; som etim es these
symptoms have come on after leaving work on the w ay home. The secretion
of mucus now becomes profuse, and vomiting, which helps to clear the air pas­
sages, may occur. The congestion of the bronchioles and alveoli progresses,
and, if the case survives 48 hours definite pneumonic consolidation may de­
velop. More frequently a fa ta l issue results in about 30 hours, the patient
rem aining conscious until near the end.
Every case exhibiting the in itial symptoms does not progress to a fatal
term ination, and recovery has occurred even after marked collapse and
dyspnea.
P r e v e n tio n .—N otices w arning those employed of the danger of rem aining in
an atmosphere containing nitrous fum es should be posted in every place where
there is any possibility of these fum es escaping.
Emergency helm ets of a pattern which can be easily and quickly put on,
and provided w ith a fresh air supply from without, should be kept in accessi­
ble places near at hand, and the efficiency of such helm ets should be tested at
least once a month.
R espirators such as are efficient to intercept dust are useless against gases,
and must not be used.




SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL DISEASES.

81

T r e a tm e n t .—The follow ing routine may u sefully be pursued pending the
arrival of a medical m a n :
Make the patient lie down.
Keep him warm.
See that he has plenty of fresh air.
I f he is blue in the face—
( i ) adm inister oxygen ; and
(ii) if he has not been sick, give a drink of 1 ounce of salt iji 10 ounces
of lukewarm w ater and repeat the dose until he is sick;
(iii) m eanwhile send for a doctor.
Persons even apparently slightly affected must not be allowed to w alk home
until permitted to do so by the doctor.

DERMATITIS.

17. Disease and its causes.—The occurrence of serious dermatitis,
or eczema, caused by exposure to trinitrotoluol and to tetryl has
already been referred to, and similar trouble may result from ex­
posure to fulminate of mercury. A part, however, from these special
substances, eczema is liable to occur among munition workers em­
ployed in engineering works, who come in contact with certain fluids
used to lubricate and to cool metals. Two forms of inflammation of
the skin, which, however, may coexist, result— ( 1 ) yellow pustules
and boils, and ( 2 ) more general inflammation which in marked cases
develops into typical weeping eczema. Probably the occurrence of
pustules and boils is due to sebaceous glands and hair follicles be­
coming blocked and infected with oily grime rubbed in by soiled
overalls. The more general inflammatory conditions appear to be
caused by the direct action of the fluids used.
18. Prevention.—Clean overalls, and the provision and use of suit­
able washing accommodation with hot water laid on, go far to pre­
vent cases of pustules and boils. The committee have observed that
reasonable facilities for personal cleaning after work are seldom
provided in engineering factories, and desire to say that in their
opinion, even apart from questions of health, the provision of such
facilities should be considered a necessary part of the equipment of
every factory.
Experience has shown that, if lubricating and cooling fluids con­
tain a small amount of some antiseptic, say carbolic acid up to 1 per
cent or other coal ta r antiseptic, cases of eczema do not occur. The
committee have learned with satisfaction that so-called antiseptic
lubricants and cooling fluids are rapidly coming into general use in
engineering shops, and that cases of eczema are less prevalent than
formerly. They consider that against this condition also good wash­
ing conveniences are a powerful preventive.
92103°— Bull. 221— 17------ 6




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H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

GENERAL.

19. Facilities for the prompt treatment of all cases of sickness and
injury are of special importance in factories where poisonous sub­
stances are used. The nature and extent of the facilities necessary
have already been discussed in the committee’s memorandum on
“ Sickness and in ju ry ” (Memorandum No. 10 ). Careful instructions
should be drawn up and issued to every worker and also to every
person in charge of a dressing station.
20. Various leaflets and memoranda dealing in greater detail with
industrial diseases and their prevention are issued by the factory
department of the Home Office. The committee desire to acknowl­
edge the help they have received from Dr. T. M. Legge, senior med­
ical inspector, in drawing up the present memorandum.
Signed on behalf of the committee,
G e o r g e N e w m a n , M. D.,
C hairman.
E. H. P e l h a m , Secretary.
F e b r u a r y , 1916.




TETRACHLORETHANE POISONING.1
B y T. M. L e g g e , M. D., H. M. Medical Inspector of Factories.

Poisoning by chlorine derivatives of ethane and ethylene.—Before
the illnesses due to inhalation of tetrachlorethane, of which jaundice
has been so prominent a symptom, came to my notice, occurrence of
jaundice as a symptom of industrial poisoning had been familiar to
me as following on, first, inhalation of arseniureted hydrogen gas
in chemical works, and, secondly, absorption of nitro derivatives of
benzene in factories for the manufacture of explosives. Poisoning
by arseniureted hydrogen, of which some TO cases have come to the
knowledge of the factory department during the last 15 years, is
characterized by the rapid development, in the course of a few days,
of an intense coppery jaundice, no doubt haemohepatogenous in char­
acter. In the first instance a destruction by the gas of the elements
of the blood takes place with subsequent increased formation, from
the haemoglobin liberated, of bile pigments in the liver, which lead
to increase in the viscidity of the bile and temporary obstruction of
the ducts. Onset of the symptoms is usually within a few hours of
exposure. The .jaundice observed in cases of absorption of nitro
derivatives of benzene is of the same kind and is caused by the
haemolytic action of the compound on the blood with formation of
methaemoglobin. I have never seen or heard of jaundice produced
industrially from phosphorus.
On thinking over whether there was any other process in my
experience which had given rise to jaundice, I recalled having once,
on complaint, examined a number of women engaged in an india
rubber factory, obtaining from them evidence of gastric derangement
and, in addition, from one of them a history of “ yellow jaundice.”
The solution which they were using was a mixture of carbon tetra­
chloride and chloride of sulphur in equal parts.
The chlorine derivatives of ethane and ethylene have recently been
produced by an inexpensive process, and as they are noninflammable,
noncombustible, and nonexplosive the reason for their use as solvents
of fat, resins, and rubber, in preference to benzene, carbon bisulphide,
alcohol, ether, and turpentine, is obvious. Explosions from benzine in
industrial premises, as, for example, that of a few years ago at a large
oil-cake works at Liverpool, from naphtha, and from carbon bisul1 G reat B rita in . F a c to r y in sp e c to r ’s office. A n n u a l rep ort o f th e c h ie f in sp ector o f
fa c to r ie s and w ork sh op s fo r th e year 1914. L ondon, 1 915. Pp. 1 0 7 -1 1 2 .




83

84

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

phide, have been attended with loss of life and much damage to
property.
Of these derivatives trichlorethylene (C 2HC13) is that which has
come most into use, mainly for the extraction of oil from seed and
for the removal of grease spots in dry cleaning. In one oilextracting works where the process of extraction was done auto­
matically in closed iron chambers and every effort made to remove
the last traces of trichlorethylene before the seed was withdrawn, no
case of jaundice had occurred among the seven men employed. The
conjunctiva), however, were muddy and injected, and one of them,
six weeks before I saw him, after working a short time was seized
with vomiting and removed to the infirmary. The physician’s notes
were, briefly: “ Vomiting; very violent and excited on admission;
could give no account of himself; appeared dazed and had both
pupils contracted.” His condition was put down to epilepsy.
Another worker, in charge of the reservoir in the basement, stated
that he had been once rendered insensible by the fumes, and one of
the principals of the firm suffered from a severe bilious attack the
first day he took over the management of the department. So far
I have visited but few premises in which trichlorethylene is used in
other than small quantities and so can not express further opinion as
to its toxic quality. No case of jaundice has come to my knowledge.
A paint containing trichlorethylene, used almost exclusivsely in the
brewing industry for coating the inside of fermenting vats and
casks, caused the death of a man engaged in applying it. The paint
has the merit of noninflammability. Directions for its use issued by
the makers recommend ( 1 ) the workman to wear “ an india rubber
tube, one end of which is fitted to a mouthpiece and the other end
secured to a point above and outside the vessel undergoing treat­
ment,” of which they supply a special form, and ( 2 ) application of
a “ suction pump to the cleaning-out vent in the bottom of the ves­
sel, whereby the heavier fumes are withdrawn.”
Tetrachlorethane
is used mainly as an ingredient of
the varnish or “ dope,” as it is called, for covering the wings of
aeroplanes to make them impervious to moisture and air. This
“ dope ” consists of powdered acetate of cellulose dissolved in various
organic solvents such as acetone, amyl acetate, benzene, carbon tetra­
chloride, tetrachlorethane and others, in order to bring the cellulose
to the needed dilution. Acetone is the best solvent apparently, but
the current price of it is about £100 ($486.65) per ton, whereas
tetrachlorethane is only £28 ($136.26) per ton. And, moreover,
tetrachlorethane seems to have the remarkable property of tighten­
ing up the fabric which is stretched to form the wing in a way that
nothing so far tried can do.
»




TETRACHLORETHANE POISO NING.

85

The development in the manufacture of aeroplanes has been rapid,
carried on as it is now in at least 27 factories, employing, roughly,
some 6,500 workers. In one factory alone 1,500 hands are employed.
Perhaps 300 persons—men and women in equal proportions—are
engaged in doping operations, but before the recent occurrence of
poisoning a far greater number than this was exposed to the fumes,
as in only a few factories was the process separated off from the
general atmosphere of the usually large shed in which the wood
working, fitting, and erecting processes were carried on. Further,
in order to keep the fabric dry—considerable importance being
attached to this, as the fabric, if moist, tends to rot under the var­
nish—the air was kept at a temperature of about 65° F., or more,
and ventilation intentionally reduced to a minimum unless the air
introduced was warmed. The wing surfaces vary in size—from 20
to 30 feet long by 6 to 8 feet wide in biplanes, and perhaps 20 by
10 in monoplanes, thus affording many square yards of evaporating
surface. Four to six coats of varnish are applied, each coat being
allowed to dry before the next is applied. In order to secure finish
two men work simultaneously opposite one another on either side of
the plane. Each carries the “ dope ” mixture in a can in his left
hand and brushes it on to the wing supported on trestles with his
right. In large factories where the output amounts to, say, three
aeroplanes a week, as much as 80 gallons may be used per week,
and as the dope is of value in proportion to the rapidity with which
it dries, the amount of fume evaporated may be imagined. On the
outbreak of the war not only was the personnel largely increased but
also overtime was worked in the large factories, the hours being from
6 a. m. to 9 p. m., with half an hour’s break for breakfast, one hour
for dinner, and half an hour for tea. In the factory where incidence
has been greatest there was no available place for the mess room, so
meals even had to be taken in the shop, and the sanitary accommoda­
tion (sufficient for the needs before the war) became inadequate,
plans for extension having to be submitted to the urban district
council.
I t may be well to deal first with this factory, as Dir. W. H. Willcox and I found it early in December. The premises consisted of
one large shed, of a superficial area of about 32,400 square feet, with
a double-ridged roof. There were windows in the walls; the main
lighting, however, came through the whole length of the ridged roof.
N atural ventilation was arranged for by three large lantern open­
ings at intervals along the two ridges. Mechanical ventilation
which, it is important to note, played a part in the outbreak, was
arranged on a plenum system—a high-pressure fan distributing
warmed air near the ground level through well-arranged tapering
trunks with subsidiary branch ducts.




86

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

44D oping” was carried on by about five men in the part of the
shed farthest from the main entrance. The portion of the room
where it was done was not screened off from the general atmosphere
of the shed, nor was there any attempt at local removal of the
fumes. The peculiar smell given off by the “ dope ” was distinctly
perceptible on entering the building. In the vicinity of actual
“ doping ” it was very strong. The head “ doper,” however, who had
done the work for nearly a year, only complained of drowsiness
caused by it. Questions addressed by Dr. Willcox and myself to
men and women (about half a dozen women only are employed in
sewing strips of fabric together) at the benches on the carpenter’s
landing elicited evidence of recent gastric attacks which, however,
had not caused absence for more than a day or two and had been
unattended by obvious jaundice. Some of them looked poorly. The
accompanying list gives the order in which the cases succeeded one
another, the precise occupation, the date of illness, the date of
return to work, and subsequent further absence either from renewed
illnesses because of the decision of the firm not to reemploy them
at that time.
No.

Date
started.
5, 6,14
lo, 9,14
12, 8,14
12, 8,14
8, 8,14
31, 8,14
13, 8,14
22, 9,14
19, 6,14
6,10,14
12, 8,14
13, 8,14
22, 9,14
22, 9,14
22, 8,14
26, 8,14

Department.

Fuselage shop—
Assembling plane
Front elevator. . .
Spars......................
Fabric doping---Ailerons gallery. .
----- do.............
Assembling plane
Panel beating---Fitters...................
Spars......................
Fuselage shop---Assembling plane
Fabric....................
Assembling plane
Fitters...................

When
left.
15, 9.

it , io;

17.10,
17.10,
24.10,
27.10,
7,11,
10.11,
11,11,
11,11,

1
2,11

14.11
14.11
23.11
30 ,11;
30,11,

When When left
returned. (second
time).

Remarks.

2,11,14

20,11,14

27,’i i ,14

30,11,14

36,ii,"ii

3oJii,'i4

26.11.14
23.11.14
30.11.14
27.11.14

27.11.14 Paid off, 30,11,14.
30.11.14 ►Left by order.
30.11.14
Paid off, 27,11,14.

Left bv order.
Died, 25,11,14.
Left by order.

Incidence was greatest in the neighborhood of the doping area,
where 8 of the cases (including the fatal case and the 2 which have
proved most severe) were employed. Cases 3, 4, 6, 7, and 1 1 are
also not difficult to account for in the same way. I t is more dif­
ficult to explain cases 9, 10, and 16, who were working quite 50
yards away. They did not appear to me to have been severe attacks.
There is free communication between the erecting shop and the fit­
ters’ shop, where they worked, both above the general and private
office and by a wide opening between the private office and the
main entrance. The vapor of the dope is twice as heavy as air, and
it has therefore had a tendency to keep near the floor level. I
believe the plenum system of ventilation served simply to stir up the
vapor and to distribute it in all parts of the shed.




TETRACHLORETHANE POISO NING.

87

The “ dope ” used was that known as emaillite No. 1 , and contained
about 12 per cent of tetrachlorethane. Other varieties contain a
considerably higher proportion. I visited the premises where the
mixture was prepared. The quantities having been weighed out
are placed in revolving drums. While mixing in these revolving
drums goes on no smell is noticeable in the room. No chemical
action is believed to take place. When the acetate of cellulose has
been dissolved the material is emptied into large jugs and transferred
from there to barrels, where it is stored.
I examined the three men employed. W ork here was commenced
two years ago. One man had been employed for the whole two years,
another for four months, and the third for four months. None
showed any sign of effect from the fume. The short duration of em­
ployment of one of the men was due to his taking the place of a
workman who enlisted. A volume fan, electrically driven, was placed
in the wall of the room in which the drums were placed and was in
action at the time of my visit. The foreman spoke of the value of
the fan in removing the fumes. Subsequently, on the 4th of Decem­
ber, I visited the premises again and took samples of “ dope ” No. 1 ,
and of each of the ingredients separately, and delivered them
personally to Dr. Willcox at the medical department of St. M ary’s
Hospital.
I ascertained that another firm manufactured a dope in common
use known as cellon. On going there I obtained all the information
I wanted. As in the case of emaillite, the mixing is done in closed,
T
'revolving cylinders; the shed is well open to the air, and no sign
of illness in the two men employed has ever been noted. The com­
position of the dope varied only slightly from that of emaillite
No. 1 , and contained about 11.5 per cent of tetrachlorethane.
I obtained the addresses of the 16 men absent on account of
jaundice, and saw 8 of them in their homes. I tried also, whenever
possible, to see the medical man in attendance. I arranged for 6
of these subsequently to attend at Dr. Willcox’s out-patient depart­
ment, St. Marys Hospital. The symptoms in all were remarkably
uniform. The rapidity with which the attacks followed one another
when pressure of work became abnormal—a considerable amount of
overtime had been worked since the beginning of August—was re­
markable. The jaundice showed itself in about six weeks’ time. The
symptoms appear to have been accompanied by little, if any, fever.
The men complained at first of drowsiness and of a nasty taste in the
mouth and of effects on the throat. There was a sickly feeling and
marked distaste for food. In at least two of the cases seen by me
meals taken to the factory could not be eaten, so that a condition of
semistarvation was set up. There w
ras, as a rule, very obstinate con­
stipation, and in some cases vomiting. W ith the onset of jaundice




88

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

the stools became clay colored and the urine thick and very dark
in color. Pain over the region of the liver and stomach was a promi­
nent symptom in some. Two of the men seen reported that on
recovery from the jaundice they went back to work, but after a
few days jaundice returned in a more pronounced form. In very
severe cases haematemesis or convulsions may occur. Coma super­
venes, and death results with suppression of urine. All but 2 of
the 8 men seen by me were convalescent. All the cases examined by
Dr. Willcox on the 12 th of December showed signs of enlargement
of the livgr. None of the men had obvious anemia, and the condi­
tion in this respect, therefore, differs from the haematogenous jaun­
dice not infrequent in workers coming into contact with nitroderivatives of benzene, which cause haemolysis of the red-blood cells. They
bore no resemblance to workers coming into contact with anilin or
dinitrobenzol.
The post-mortem changes have been most marked in the heart,
liver, kidneys, and mesentery. The notes of one typical case, a
female aged 19, are as follows:
The skin was intensely jaundiced. The liver was hard and firm;
it was very yellow and showed marked congestion; weight 34^
ounces. The kidneys showed marked yellow staining of the cortex,
the pyramids being intensely congested. The medulla was yellow
and congested. The kidneys weighed each 5 ounces. The heart
weighed 7J ounces. The muscle showed yellow staining; some pink
staining of endocardium. Numerous petechiae were present over
surface of left ventricle. The small intestine showed intense pe­
techial hemorrhage over the surface. There w^as marked conges­
tion of the small intestine. The spleen weighed 8 ounces; it was
hard and firm. Microscopical examination of the liver showed ex­
tensive necrosis, and in the kidney fatty degeneration was present.
Experiments were instituted by Dr. W. H. Willcox ,1 at the re­
quest of the Home Office, to test each of the constituents of the
dope and the dope itself as regards the toxic action of the vapor on
the liver. H is report on this aspect of the subject which interested
him exceedingly—an interest which has been of the greatest help
and value to the factory department—was as follows:
“F or each experiment a large glass chamber (desiccator) was
used. In the bottom of this were placed daily 10 c. c. of the
liquid to be tested. A perforated zinc platform was stretched
across the middle of the chamber, i. e., half way up. On this were
placed the animals (white rats) to be experimented upon. The
top of the chamber was covered with a perforated zinc roof. Eats
1 A n outbreak o f to x ic ja u n d ice due to te tr a c h lo r e th a n e p oison in g, by W. H. W illcox,
L a n cet, M ar. 13, 1915.
_




T E T R A C H L O R E T H A N E P O IS O N IN G .

89

were selected as the most suitable animals. The animals were kept
in the glass chamber for eight hours a clay for a week.
“The liquids tested were dope, tetrachlorethane, acetone, benzene,
and methylated spirit, respectively. Two rats were placed in each
chamber, five experiments being carried out together.
u The rats thus exposed to dope vapor and tetrachlorethane vapor
became very drowsy and slept all day. A fter removal from the
chamber they remained drowsy for some little time, and on some
occasions they were quite ataxic in gait, falling over on to their
sides. A fter an hour or more usually they fed and became active.
These animals did not gain in weight during the week’s treatment.
“ In the experiments with acetone, benzene, and methylated spirit
the animals were drowsy while exposed to the respective vapors,
but on removal from it they immediately became lively and fed
well. No ataxic symptoms were observed. All these animals gained
markedly in weight during the week.
“A fter seven days’ treatment the animals were killed and post­
mortem examinations were made on them by Dr. Spilsbury and my­
self. The tetrachlorethane rats showed marked changes in the
liver to the naked eye, there being fatty degeneration and bilestaining present. The dope rats showed similar changes, but less
marked. The rats exposed to the vapor of benzene, acetone, and
methylated spirit showed no changes in the livej* to the naked eye.
“ Careful microscopical examination of the organs showed marked
fatty degeneration and cloudy swelling in the liver and kidneys
of rats exposed to dope vapor and tetrachlorethane vapor, but no
abnormal change in the animals exposed to the other vapors. Rats
were also exposed to the action of dope vapor and tetrachlorethane
vapor for five weeks. Marked diminution in size of the liver oc­
curred in each case. The liver and kidneys were pale on section.
They showed cloudy swelling and fatty degeneration.”
The above experiments showed conclusively that tetrachlorethane
is a powerful liver poison, and also they showed that dope vapor is
a liver poison, and that the poisonous property of dope vapor is
due to tetrachlorethane being present in it.
I have visited several of the aeroplane factories and examined all
the persons in them employed in doping and certain others working
near them. Having already dealt so fully with the conditions in the
factory where incidence has been highest, I summarize merely the
conditions found in the others. Nearly all the premises were new,
cubic space ample, and the conditions for normal work not involving
exposure to poisonous fumes excellent. The seaplane works are on
the edge of the sea, and the natural thorough ventilation in them
was in itself almost sufficient to neutralize the effect of the fumes.
Inquiry in one factory brought to light the significant fact that as




90

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

long ago as February, 1913, one man employed in doping had died,
the symptoms being those of acute yellow atrophy of the liver.
Here also a fellow worker, whom I saw, had also suffered at the
same time from jaundice and other typical symptoms, although he
had not given up work. Work had been carried on in a confined
space, and probably with a dope containing high proportion of tetra­
chlorethane. In another factory a man testing the engine suffered in
the middle of the year, and in yet a third I saw a man who had had
jaundice in August last—all these cases, therefore, dating from a
time anterior to the war pressure.
Altogether I have traced 25 cases, including 4 deaths ,1 in which
jaundice has been the prominent symptom; many others have suffered
from gastric and intestinal symptoms without jaundice noticeable
to themselves or their friends, and from symptoms diagnosed as
4 influenza ” and “ tonsillitis.”
4
The fact that the vapor is twice as heavy as air has had notice­
able effect in affecting workers engaged at sitting work near the
place where doping was carried on. One seamstress died, partly, no
doubt, as the result of her relatively lower position. In another
factory six men engaged in wire splicing and seated on benches in a
portion of the doping room screened off by a low wooden partition
exhibited more marked effect than the dopers who were standing.
As soon as the danger was recognized the factory department, in
conjunction with the Adm iralty and W ar Office, took prompt action.
All firms were asked ( 1 ) to carry out doping in a separate shop or
portion of a larger shop screened off so as to limit the number of
persons exposed to the fumes; ( 2 ) to provide exhaust fans at the
floor level to remove the vapor which is heavier than air directly
into the outside atmosphere; (3) to permit no workmen or women to
remain in the doping shop during meal times.
I t has interest to follow the steps taken to minimize the danger.
The person who experiments with the ingredients with a view to
perfecting the dope wears a smoke helm et; that is, a mouthpiece fit­
ting over the nose and mouth and communicating with the outside
air by a long, flexible pipe. Through this he injiales fresh air, breath­
ing of the contaminated atmosphere being prevented by a valve
through which he exhales only. Workpeople, however, can not be
expected to wear such an apparatus, except for short periods for
cleaning operations or rescue work. Seeing that the vapor of tetra­
chlorethane is considerably heavier than air (the specific gravity
is 1 .6 ), district inspectors recommended thorough ventilation of the
room with mechanical exhaust below the breathing level, drawing
1 One fu rth e r d eath o f a w om an (w ith con sid erab le len g th o f em p loym en t before e x h a u st
v e n tila tio n w as in s ta lle d ) occurred in F ebruary, 1915.




T E T R A C H L O R E T H A N E P O IS O N IN G .

91

the air down and away from the w
rorkers. As it was thought possi­
ble that under certain conditions the vapor arising from the varnish
might form an explosive mixture with air, attention had to be di­
rected to this danger in connection with the installation of power
for the exhaust ventilation. Locally applied exhaust ventilation was
not thought possible at first, owing to the size of the aeroplane wings,
the general guiding principle being to introduce air (preferably
warmed) at a point on one side of the room considerably above the
workers’ heads and extract it by volume fans placed at the ground
floor opposite the air inlet. In some cases the downward exhaust
was arranged through gratings in the floor. As, however, two men
are doping at the same time, the one nearest to the fan could not
escape inhaling some of the vapor. To avoid this and to reduce
still further the amount of vapor in the atmosphere, one firm suc­
cessfully arranged for actual doping to be done on the wings placed
on trestles in long boxes with flap sides, the bottom of the box be­
ing connected up with a volume fan. Thus the whole surface of
the wing was swept by moving air, which constantly passed to the
exhaust.
The use of tetrachlorethane and of other substances such as car­
bon tetrachloride (which might be expected to have similar detri­
mental effect on the health) has been entirely dispensed with by one
or two firms; others maintain that no substance so far tried gives
such flexibility and durability as a dope containing some proportion
of tetrachlorethane.
A fter occurrence of the outbreak in this country, I ascertained th at
late in 1913 and in the beginning of 1914 the same trouble had been
experienced in Germany. In one factory, among 15 persons em­
ployed in doping, 12 were affected, of whom 2 had died. The symp­
toms fell into two clearly defined types. In the one the symptoms
had been nausea and vomiting, feeling of general discomfort, pains
in the stomach, and marked jaundice with enlarged liver. In one
instance basophil granules were observed in the red-blood cells. In
the other group, in addition to loss of appetite and nausea, nervous
symptoms predominated—marked tremor of the hands, pins-andneedles feeling in the hands and feet, diminution or loss of the knee
jerks, headache, pains in the limbs, and excessive sweating. The
dope contained from 30 to 50 per cent of tetrachlorethane. In 1911
Prof. K. B. Lehmann made comparative experiments as to the poi­
sonous nature of a number of chlorinated hydrocarbons, among;
them being tetrachlorethane. Commencement of narcosis was taken
as the measure of the poisonous nature. Slight narcosis was caused
in cats with a proportion of 5.7 mg. per liter within 4 | hours, and
severe narcosis in 5J hours. W ith stronger proportions, the animals
were generally clearly ill on the following day. Judging by this




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H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

standard of the commencement of narcosis, when compared with
other chlorine derivatives of hydrocarbons, tetrachlorethane comes
out as much the most poisonous, e. g., nine times as poisonous as
carbon tetrachloride and four times as poisonous as chloroform.
In experiments on chronic poisoning, the animals exposed to air con­
taining 1 to 2 mg. of tetrachlorethane per liter for four weeks, over
a period of 67 hours, showed slight or severe drowsiness and a not
inconsiderable diminution in body weight. No post-mortems were
made.
Even if, as is to be hoped, use of tetrachlorethane may be elimi­
nated from the dope, I am still of opinion that exhaust ventilation
will be necessary to prevent ill effects (dryness of throat, headache,
giddiness, amblyopia, and even unconsciousness) from such solvents
and diluents as benzene, acetone, and methylated spirit, which must
necessarily continue to be used.




DOPE POISONING.1
Continued incidence of poisoning in aeroplane factories has led to
the addition of the main symptom caused by tetrachlorethane—toxic
jaundice—to the diseases which, if contracted in a factory, must be
notified to the factory department. The occupier [employer] is re­
quired to report every such case to the district inspector and to the
certifying surgeon, and the medical practitioner in attendance has
also to report it to the chief inspector. (S. 73, Factory Act, 1901, and
order of Nov. 27, 1915.)
Not every symptom set up by tetrachlorethane, it should be ob­
served, is reportable. The requirement is limited to the serious sign
of jaundice, and in view of its unmistakable character the difficulty
of compliance should be small.2
Tetrachlorethane (of which the specific gravity is twice th at of
air) is a most powerful cumulative liver poison, even when present in
the dope mixture to the extent of only 10 or 12 per cent. Among
some 43 cases of jaundice in aeroplane factories which have come to
the knowledge of the department there have been 7 deaths (2 males
and 5 females). The fatal issue generally has occurred in about a
fortnight after the apparently slight initial symptoms had shown
themselves.
The size of the aeroplane wings unfortunately makes it imprac­
ticable to remove the vapor completely at the point of origin by local
exhaust which would carry it off without allowing any to pass into
the air of the room. Reliance, therefore, in minimizing the noxious
effect has to be placed on dilution of the air so as to keep down the
tetrachlorethane and other vapors to a nontoxic proportion. The
standard needed for securing this is 30 changes of the air of the
doping room per liour. Where this standard has been secured and
maintained for all processes in which tetrachlorethane in dope may be
used illness, if not altogether prevented, has ceased to cause serious
anxiety. On the other hand, where it has fallen short of 20 changes
toxic jaundice has not failed eventually to show itself except in the
1 G reat B rita in . F a c to r y in sp e c to r ’s office. F orm 356, D ope p oison in g. F eb., 1910.
4 pp.
2 On th e o th er han d, “ dope p o iso n in g ,” i. e., any illn e s s a ttrib u ta b le to th e in g r e d ie n ts
o f th e dope, h a s been add ed to th e sch ed u le o f d ise a se s to w h ic h sec tio n 8 of th e W ork­
m en ’s C o m p en sa tio n A ct, 1 906, a p p lies.




93

94

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

few factories where use of dope has been so interm ittent as never to
have exposed the workers to a toxic dose.
The means of ventilation must be mechanical, preferably by volume
or propeller fans with free discharge to the open air. Owing to the
high specific gravity of the vapor the fans should be fixed at the
floor level or below this level where space allows the construction of
large ducts under the floor. A ir inlets of the hopper type, the total
area of which should be not less than three times the discharge area
of the fans, should be provided at the side of the room opposite the
fans at a height of about 10 feet above the floor level. Exceptionally,
however, where the fresh air is supplied by a satisfactory plenum
system or direct from the erecting shop over a partition of sufficient
height, screening the doping room from the rest of the shop, such
air inlets may be unnecessary.
Owing to varying conditions of construction in different factories
it is impossible to standardize methods of ventilation for doping
rooms, but in new works or extension of existing plant plans of pro­
posed ventilating arrangements should be submitted to the inspector
for dangerous trades, Home Office, before the work is put in hand.
A t the commencement of the war several cases occurred among
persons employed in fabric making, erecting fittings, etc., before ex­
haust ventilation and separation of the process of doping from others
was recognized as indispensable. These two conditions have now
been secured for doping the wings, but recent experience has shown
th at insufficient attention has been paid in some factories to the neces­
sity of exhaust ventilation in all processes in which tetrachlorethane
d.ope is constantly used. This applies especially to taping—now
sometimes found carried on in the general erecting shop without any
precautions—to which operation the three last fatal cases have been
mainly due. Notwithstanding the comparatively small amount of
dope used the close application required brings the face right into
the fumes. And it is the same with the fuselage and other compo­
nents—struts and landing gear. One attack was traced to the doping
on one occasion of especially large wings in the general erecting shop
because (it was alleged) the doping room proper could not accom­
modate them. There was a tendency in some premises before the
great development of the industry was fully realized, to make the
doping room too small. This should be avoided in future construc­
tion, but the risk involved by such a procedure as that described
makes it incumbent on the occupier to improvise for any exceptional
occasion a special exhaust system.
Pending the introduction of an efficient substitute for tetrachlore­
thane, it is most important that occupiers should (in addition to pro­
vision and maintenance of a high standard of exhaust ventilation)




DOPE P O IS O N IN G .

95

consider and apply as fa r as they can the following fu rth e r sugges­
tions for safeguarding the health of the workers, which are the out­
come of experience gained in various works.
(1) Exclusion of other work from the doping room.
The need for this has already been pointed out.
(2) A lternation of employment.
Considerable periods of overtime or long spells in doping
or taping have been noted as having preceded some of the
fatal attacks. Obviously, as poisoning is a m atter of dosage,
and the effect of tetrachlorethane is cumulative, the object
aimed at by ventilation is defeated if hours of workers are
prolonged beyond th at fo r which the ventilation has been de­
signed. In factories where alternation of employment has
been arranged, e. g., two days doping and two in other work,
or one week in and one week out, improvement in health has
resulted. A nd when such an arrangem ent is adopted occa­
sional necessary overtime m ight, it is suggested, be undertaken
by those on the out tu rn rath er than by those who have already
worked a full day in doping.
In addition to the alternation referred to, in one factory
the women engaged in doping are made to spend h alf an hour
m orning and afternoon in the open air, so th at no spell of
work in contact with the fumes lasts longer th an two hours.
(8) Periodic medical examination.
A fortnightly medical exam ination has served useful p u r­
pose, both in reassuring the workers and also in enabling those
showing prem onitory symptoms to be suspended or transferred
to other work. The objective signs, however, which the sur­
geon has to guide him are few, and he can be m aterially as­
sisted by inform ation from the forem an or m atron as to the
state of health of the workers in the intervals between his ex­
aminations. A fter each visit the surgeon should state in
w ritin g the names of those (if any) whom he considers should
T
be—
{a) suspended as definitely suffering from dope poison:
ing, necessitating absence from work until they
are quite well, or
( b ) transferred tem porarily to other work as a precau­
tionary measure on account of equivocal signs.
Medical supervision on these lines has been adopted on
their own initiative or on suggestion from the factory d epart­
ment in several aeroplane works, and the same course should
be pressed in all where doping is continuous. I t is im portant
th a t it should be carried out by a medical practitioner who is




96

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

fam iliar w ith the nature of the work and the symptoms to
which it may give rise, preferably by the certifying surgeon,
as he is in touch w ith the departm ent and is thus kept in­
formed of the latest observations on the subject. A health
register and instructions as to the conduct of the exam ination
will be sent by the medical inspector to the medical m an whom
you appoint for the purpose as soon as notice of his name is
received here.
A worker suffering from effects of dope should be excluded from
all contact with it until he is quite well, a medical certificate to th a t
effect being obtained. Instances are known in which prem ature re­
sumption led to recurrence of symptoms in an aggravated form.
Instruction to workers.—Certain apparently small points have been
noticed which have a bearing on liability to attack.' Some instruc­
tion to new workers as to how they can best avoid inhalation of fumes
without interfering w ith work is called for, especially bearing in
m ind the youthfulness of some of them.
(i) D oping should be commenced at the end of the wing near­
est to the exhaust fans, and should proceed backward
from th a t point.
(ii) In some factories the wings, as soon as the doped surface
is “ tacky,” are carried to a drying room or closed cham­
ber (separately ventilated), thus dim inishing largely
risk from inhalation of fumes. W here no such arrange­
m ent exists, the wings should be placed to dry in a posi­
tion between the workers and the exhaust d raft, but
not so as to obstruct the fans.
(iii) A fter doping, the safest position for the worker is th a t
nearest to the fresh-air inlets, but frequently men and
women are seen standing close to the exhaust and there­
fore breathing the air which is most highly charged
with the noxious vapor, the reason being th a t either the
flat top of the outlet duct has been found a convenient
place to keep dope pots, brushes, etc., or the light is
better there than a t the fa r side. Shortsightedness,
unless corrected by glasses, should debar from tap in g
if not from doping.
(iv) W ork should not be commenced on an em pty stomach,
and where tetrachlorethane is an ingredient of the dope
a worker “ m ust not be allowed to take a meal or to re­
m ain during the tim es allowed to him for meals in any
room in which such substance is used.” (Factory act,




DOPE PO IS O N IN G .

97

1901, S. 75.) Hence the need for provision of a prop­
erly equipped meal room on lines suggested by the health
of m unition-workers committee.1
Even if, as is hoped, discovery of an efficient substitute
enables use of tetrachlorethane to be eliminated from the dope,
exhaust ventilation will still be necessary to prevent the effects
(fortunately much less-noxious) from such solvents and dilu­
ents as benzene, acetone, and m ethylated spirit, which m ust
necessarily continue to be used.
1 M em orandum on ind u strial ca n teen s, 1915, Cd. 8 133, p rice I d (2 c e n ts ).
9 2 1 0 3 °—

B u ll.




2 2 1 — 1 7 ------ 7

VENTILATION AND LIGHTING OF MUNITION FACTORIES
AND WORKSHOPS.
[M em orandum No. 9.]

I.—INTRODUCTION.

1. A t the present tim e a large num ber of new m unition factories
and workshops are being erected, altered, or enlarged. I f the p u r­
pose of this extended provision is to be fully attained it is of the
utm ost im portance th at in the planning of the buildings everything
possible should be done to secure th a t the work is carried on under
the conditions most favorable to the m aintenance of the health and
physical energy of the workers. I t m ust be borne in m ind th a t
however free the industry itself may be from unfavorable condi­
tions, overtime and night work inevitably place a serious strain on
the worker. The factory acts are concerned to secure in existing
factories the minimum necessary in ordinary times, but present con­
ditions and circumstances have brought into prominence problems
which deserve special consideration in the building of new factories
and the enlargem ent of old ones. The solution of these problems
m ust largely depend on the p articular circumstances of each case,
and in the* present mem orandum the committee have set out certain
considerations and suggestions, which they hope may prove of
assistance to those imm ediately responsible for the satisfactory ven­
tilation and heating of old factories, and for the planning of new
factories and workshops.
II.—VENTILATION.

2. I t has long been recognized th a t efficient ventilation of factories
and workshops is essential for the maintenance of the health and
comfort, and therefore of the efficiency and capacity^ of the workers,
and general regulations to secure this result are contained in the
F actory Acts. The inquiries of the committee, however, have led
them to believe th a t the attention paid to ventilation and to the
closely associated problem of heating is in the m ajority of workshops
insufficient; the ends to be aimed at are frequently misunderstood,
and the means of securing them in consequence ill directed or alto­
gether neglected. A t the present time the im portance of proper and
effective methods of ventilation is often intensified not only by the




V E N T IL A T IO N A N D L IG H T IN G OF M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

99

increase in num ber of workers, but by the continuous occupation of
shops by day and n ig h t; there is under these conditions no interval
in which n atu ral ventilation can restore a vitiated atmosphere, and
each sh ift succeeds to the bad conditions left by its predecessor.
3. The object which ventilation seeks to secure is tw ofold—namely,
the removal of foul, exhausted or polluted a ir and the supply of
fresh air in its place—th a t is, (1) a ir which is pure and clean for
the workers to breathe, and (2) an atm osphere which is stim ulating
and refreshing. A ir which is entirely pure from the chemical point
of view may afford an atm osphere of a most depressing character
which is highly detrim ental to physical efficiency. I t is not enough
to aim only at clean air, as has been often customary in the past, or
only a t a stim ulating atmosphere. In any consideration of ventila­
tion both objects must be constantly in mind.
4. Clean air.—The im purities which are liable to be added to the
air inside the workshop are—
(i) Carbonic acid, given off in the breath of hum an beings
and by fires, gas lights or any other form of open com­
bustion. The increase in the amount of carbonic acid
is accompanied by a parallel dim inution in the oxygen
of the air. The chemical changes produced in this way
are not perceptible by the senses and there is no reason
to suppose th a t they are, even under the most defective
systems of ventilation to be found in factories, in any
substantial degree harm ful in themselves. Since, how­
ever, they are capable of easy and accurate measure­
m ent they are recognized as a useful index of the preva­
lence of more harm ful im purities. I t should not be
assumed th a t a low percentage of C 0 2 necessarily indi­
cates a satisfactory atmosphere.
(ii) Various ill-defined volatile substances arising from hum an
beings, from the skin and the alim entary canal, espe­
cially when personal cleanliness is absent tttid ^ t^ i ^ n g
is profuse. The sum of these ctm‘ iti##%>- g iv ^ M ie
d
fam iliar “ smell o f hum anity ” ; the
atfe j$Pbably harm less in themselves, b u t they fexeitfc1# fd e lin g
of discom fort in m any persons and, in the more refined
and cleanly individuals, one of disgust, which is detri­
m ental to com fort and efficiency.
(iii) Bacteria arising from hum an beings form a more defi­
nite and a more directly harm ful sort of im purity.
There is no doubt th at the common catarrhal conditions
(colds, sore throats, “ influenza” ) are fo r thp most p a rt
spread from an infected individual to his neighbors by




100

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

organisms which are carried in the expired air w ith
droplets of m oisture especially during coughing and
sneezing, though also during ordinary breathing and
speaking. These diseases are often regarded as triv ia l
in c h aracter; it appears likely, however, th a t if any cor­
rect estim ate of lost time and diminished output owing
to 4 colds ” could be obtained, these would prove to be
4
the most im portant infectious source of industrial inef­
ficiency. O f diseases more serious as regards life as
well as health, tuberculosis of the lungs is undoubtedly
often disseminated in a like m anner.
(iv) Industrial processes give rise to a variety of im purities,
dust, and fumes. Some of the most common of these
im purities are injurious because they are unpleasant,
e. g., the smell of hot oil, of various varnishes, and the
like. O thers are directly harm ful, e. g., fumes from
stoves, smoke, dust, etc., and a fu rth e r group are of the
nature of poisons, e. g., fumes of lead, of brass, or of
tetrachlorethane. The last-nam ed conditions occur only
in exceptional cases, and th eir appropriate treatm ent
presents problems of local ventilation which are special
to each case (see A p p e n d ix 1). Reference should be made
to the committee’s M emorandum, No. 8, on “ Special in ­
dustrial diseases.”
I t is evident th a t the kinds of im purity present in any particular
instance will vary widely w ith the prevalent conditions; a shop w ith
a few clean men and m any unhooded furnaces will present im p u ri­
ties chiefly of an inorganic kind, while m any d irty men in a crowded
machine shop will foul the air w ith organic im purity. Given norm al
conditions of personal and workshop cleanliness, the remedy is in
all cases the same, and im purities of all kinds can be removed by
an effecfee system of general ventilation which secures th at the
insi4$ of the shop is well flushed w ith outside air. Sm all crowded
slfgp&e\44fmtiy require more flushing w ith outside air th an large
snm p w ith & ssparsfc population, and in very large and spacious shops
the lA pgrliy of air may seldom reach a degree which is noticeably
injurious.
5.
Simulating atmosphere.2—The proposition which at first sight
arises from these considerations is th a t a workshop may have so
1 P a g e 107.
2 W h eth er a w o rk sh o p h a s an a tm o sp h ere w h ic h is s a tis fa c to r y in th is se n se m ay gen ­
e r a lly be ju d g ed by th e s e n sa tio n s, e sp e c ia lly on first e n te r in g from th e o u tsid e air.
M ore a c cu ra te in fo rm a tio n m ay be o b ta in ed by th e stu d y o f th e p a r tic u la r w a y in w h ic h
a “ stu ffy ” atm o sp h ere m ay be m ade “ fr e sh .” T he o rd in ary th erm om eter m easu res th e
te m p er a tu re o f th e a i r ; th e w et-bu lb th erm o m eter d eterm in es th e h u m id ity and g iv e s an
im p o r ta n t m ea su re o f th e fa c ilit y w ith w h ic h th e body can be cooled by sw e a tin g . T h ese
in str u m en ts, how ever, g iv e o n ly v ery im p erfect d a ta a s to th e c o o lin g and s k in -stim u la tin g




V E N T IL A T IO N AN D L IG H T IN G OF M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

101

large a cubic capacity in relation to the num ber of workpeople and
the kind of process in operation th at it does not require any definite
ventilation. T his is wholly false. I n large shops there is a mass
of stagnant atmosphere which is obviously depressing and relaxing,
and fails entirely to provide the stim ulating effect of cool air in gen­
tle motion, which is provocative of the best physical and m ental
exertion. This exhilarating influence of atm osphere depends essen­
tially upon the cooling of the skin by m oving air, and it is necessarily
closely connected w ith questions of tem perature and heating. I t is
a m atter of common experience th a t on the whole, cold air is more
stim ulating than warm, and is more conducive to physical effort.
I t is also w ithin everyone’s experience th a t damp warm air is more
relaxing th an dry a ir a t the same tem p eratu re; the contrast between
a rainy, windless, “ stuffy,” summer day and a day, perhaps actually
fa r hotter, of blazing sunshine, w ith a brisk wind is fam iliar enough.
Every-day observation fu rth e r suggests th a t the relaxing effect of a
warm , damp atmosphere is much reduced if moving air is brought
to play on the body, e. g. by rid in g on the top of a bus, and th a t
change of skin tem perature is one of the essential features of w hat
we call a fresh, pleasant air. These considerations are fully borne
out by direct experim entation in the laboratory, and the desirable
atmosphere is characterized by being:
(a) Cool rath er than hot;
(b) D ry rath er th an dam p;
(e) Diverse in its tem perature in different parts, and at d if­
ferent times, rather th an uniform and m onotonous;
and (which is intim ately connected w ith this diversity)
(d ) M oving rath er than still.
Th& explanation of the fam iliar advantages of such an atm osphere
seems to lie in the cooling and varying stim ulation of the skin of
p ro p erties o f a n y a tm o sp h ere, and it is n ecessa ry to h a v e in a d d itio n som e m easure o f
th e r a te a t w h ic h a w arm body w ill lo se h ea t.
In th e o b se rv a tio n s m ade for th e co m m ittee th e ra te of co o lin g h as been in v e s tig a te d
by m ea n s o f th e K a ta th erm o m eter (p u rch a sea b le from J . H ick s, 8, H a tto n G arden, E. £ . ) .
A la rg e bulbed s p ir it th erm om eter (o f sta n d a rd siz e ) is u s e d ; th is is h eated in h o t w a ter,
and th e r a te o f c o o lin g m easured by ta k in g th e tim e w h ic h tlie m en iscu s ta k es to drop
fro m 1 0 0 ° F . t o 9 5 ° F . w h ile th e in str u m en t is susp en ded in th e atm osph ere.
T h is
g iv e s th e dry read ing, and sh o w s th e rate o f co o lin g du e to r a d ia tio n and co n v ectio n .
T o ta k e th e w e t read in g th e bulb o f th e K a ta th erm om eter is covered w ith a dam p m u slin
g lo v e and th e o p era tio n rep ea ted , g iv in g th e r a te o f c o o lin g w h en e v a p o r a tio n is added to
r a d ia tio n and co n v ectio n . T he ra te o f co o lin g a t body tem p era tu re is recorded by m eans
o f a fa c to r (d eterm in ed fo r each K a ta th erm o m eter) in m ille c a lo r ies per square c en ti­
m eter per second . T he num ber o f secon d s o ccu pied in th e fa ll from 100° to 9 5 ° is d ivid ed
in to th e fa c to r .
I n a d d itio n to th e r ea d in g s o f th e K a ta th erm o m eter th o se o f th e w e t and dry bulb
th erm om eter wT
ere ta k en . T he records sh o w how w ith th e sam e w e t and dry bulb read in gs,
th e ra te o f co o lin g m ay be str ik in g ly d ifferen t. T he K a ta th erm om eter, lik e th e hu m an
body, n o tes th e r a te o f change, w h ile th e th erm om eter n o tes a giv e n s ta te or th e r e su lt
o f change. T hus th e K a ta th erm om eter ta k es co u n t of th e m ovem ent o f th e a ir and
in d ic a te s co n d itio n s o f com fort.




102

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I K B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

the exposed p arts of the body. P u ttin g the hands or the head under
a cold-water tap removes most of the unpleasant sensations of being
overheated, which follow violent exertion in hot dam p air. The
concentration of a current of air on too small a p a rt of the body
only causes w hat is generally known as a draught. I t is a common
experience th a t a slightly opened window causes a draught, whereas
a widely opened window does not.
6.
The close connection between tem perature and the stim ulating
factors of an atm osphere renders it necessary to take also into con­
sideration the question of w arm th and cold in workshops. F o r a
shop to be too hot is disadvantageous from every point of view, but
the stim ulation of too cold an air m ay be more th an counterbalanced
by the physical depression which results, and it is not difficult in
cold weather for efficiency to deteoriate because the w orker becomes
uncom fortably chilled. I t is h ardly desirable to attem pt any defi­
nition of the “ best ” tem perature, since this m ust be subject to wide
variations w ith the character of the work and the h ab it of the
worker. I t is evident th a t sedentary workers require a, w arm er
atm osphere th an those engaged in more violent labor, and attem pts
to obtain conditions satisfactory for both classes in the same shop
will probably end in suiting neither. I t may, however, be suggested
th a t where the a ir is stagnant the tem perature should not exceed
about 60° F . ; though it may be somewhat higher where the air is
kept in motion.
The following examples are given in illustration of the results
obtained. The first set of readings are for a b rig h t pleasant day in
May, and the other four are for typical shops as a contrast of types
of “ bad ” and “ good ” shops. A comparison of the first, second,
and th ird sets of readings shows th a t w ith the same tem perature
widely different rates of cooling may exist.
B A T E OF COOLING AT B O D Y T E M P E R A T U R E IN MILLE C A LO RIES P E R SQ. CM. P E R SEC.

Wet bulb.

(1) Bright, pleasant day in May, out of
doors...........................................................
Brass foundry (good).................................
Machine shop (bad)....................................
Cartridge annealing and cleaning (bad).
Cartridge annealing and cleaning (good)

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Dry bulb.

60
60
61
64.5
54.5

68
72
72
80.5
60.0

Radiation,
convection, Radiation, Evapora­
tion.
evapora­ convection.
tion.

27.2
24
15
17.5
24.0

7.5
7.3
4.6
3.0
9.0

19.7
16.7
10.4
14.5
15.0

7.
The problem, of heating and ventilation will therefore appear
in various forms according to the variations in local conditions—the
cubic capacity and the shape of the workroom, the nature of work,
the number of workers, the situation in relation to other buildings
and hills and valleys, topographical position, season of year, climate,




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103

etc. I t is of the utm ost im portance th a t those responsible for plan­
ning the means of ventilation of any building should realize th a t
each workshop provides a separate problem and th a t there is no uni­
form and stereotyped method which will give satisfactory results
everywhere. I t is impossible here to consider the innum erable com­
binations of circumstances which arise, but two broad groups may
be mentioned.
(a) A common case is where the air in the shop tends to be
too hot or too stagnant, and, indeed, the observations
of the committee would lead them to believe th a t this
is one of the most frequent defects found in m unition
works. The production of heat depends in general
on the same sources as those which produce carbonic
acid and other im purities—hum an beings, lights, m a­
chinery, and furnaces. A bout four-fifths of the total
energy expended by an active m an appears in the form
of heat,1 and the friction of m oving m achinery also
contributes. I n sunny w eather the u greenhouse effect”
of a glass roof is an im portant factor. The atmos­
phere is fu rth e r deteriorated by the m oisture given
off by the workers, and it m ay be by hot w ater used in
some industrial process.
(b) In cold weather, especially in shops where little heat is
produced and the occupation is relatively sedentary,
the problem is to m aintain such a degree of ventilation
as will keep the air pure and at the same tim e to have
a com fortably warm atmosphere. This can be done
only by the use of artificial heat. To shut off the venti­
lation and allow the shop to warm up w ith the heat
naturally produced w ithin it can not be too strongly
condemned. W here possible it is better th at additional
clothing should be used. H eat produced by workers
is always, and th at arising from artificial lighting or
processes of m anufacture nearly always, accompanied
by a proportionate quantity of im purities which are
injurious and which must be got rid of. The hum an
1 In sed en ta r y o ccu p a tio n s a s t ill la rg er p ro p o rtio n app ears as h ea t. N ow an a d u lt g iv e s
off from h is body per hou r a b o u t en o u g h h e a t to r a ise 2 ,0 0 0 cubic fe e t o f a ir from 60° to
70 ° F . S u p p o sin g th a t h a lf o f th e h e a t is lo s t by r a d ia tio n to w a lls an d roofs, it w ou ld
req uire th e in c o m in g o f a b ou t 2 ,0 0 0 cubic fe e t o f o u tsid e a ir a t 50° F . per hou r per m an to
keep th e te m p er a tu re from r isin g above 6 0 ° F . I f th e o u tsid e a ir w ere a t 6 0 ° F ., m ore th a n
2 0 ,0 0 0 cubic fe e t per hou r per m an w o u ld h a v e to com e in . S u ch e x te n s iv e v e n tila tio n
is a g ood d ea l m ore th a n w o u ld be r eq u isite to m a in ta in th e a ir a t a h igh d egree o f chem ­
ic a l p u rity , a n d un der su c h c ir cu m sta n c es th e carb on ic ac id t e s t for a s a tis fa c to r y a tm o s­
phere is w h o lly fa lla c io u s. If, how ever, p h y sic a l efficiency is to be m a in ta in ed , th e rise o f
tem p era tu re m u st be con trolled . T h e ex a g g era ted c o n d itio n s p r e v a ilin g in stok eh old s of
ste a m sh ip s h a v e been s u c c e s sfu lly d e a lt w ith by th e in tro d u c tio n o f fr e sh a ir by m eans
o f a p o w erfu l fa n .




104

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

im purities are especially objectionable since cold
w eather commonly coincides w ith the special preva­
lence of catarrhs and a special abundance of th eir
causative bacteria. A t the same time the ventilation
required is clearly less th an in hot weather, and it will
suffice if clean air is obtained w ith such degree of move­
m ent and variability as will prevent it from being
stagnant.
8. The means by which satisfactory n atu ral ventilation is to be
attained are, as has been already m entioned, subject to local con­
siderations in every case, and general lines alone can be indicated
here.
(a) Local sources of im purity and heat production should
be dealt w ith by the provision of hoods, exhausts, flues,
etc.; smoke and fumes from neighboring workshops
and chimneys m ay require attention. W orkers should
be so arranged in relation to each other th a t they do
not cough and sneeze in one another’s faces.
(&) Definite openings comm unicating w ith the outside air
should be provided in every workshop, and the com­
m ittee would again emphasize the fact th a t the largest
shop requires some system of ventilation. The form
and nature of such openings can not be defined in a
general way, but it appears to the committee th a t the
average machine shop and all sim ilar one-story shops
should be provided w ith louvers along the roof ridges
and in m any cases also w ith narrow openings where
the roof meets the walls. Such louvers should be per­
m anently open, and will generally ensure th at the
atmosphere will at least not be grossly bad.
(c) Such fixed openings do riot, however, allow of the flexi­
bility required to meet varying internal and external
conditions, and should be supplem ented by the use of
doors, windows (which will open) and fans. Fans are
especially valuable to meet emergencies and abnorm al
conditions, and provide for a thorough cleaning of
the air during meal times.
III.—HEATING.

9. Means of heating are usually restricted by practical consider­
ations to some system of steam or hot-w ater pipes. The ideal form
is no doubt by rad ian t heat and the committee have found th a t rath e r
old-fashioned stoves scattered about a shop may give good results
and they have observed the excellent and invigorating conditions
which prevail in m any smithies and forges. Gas-heated radiators,




V E N T IL A T IO N AND L IG H T IN G OF M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

105

in which the burned gas escapes into the shop, are not p e r m i s s i b l e .
The plan by which warmed air is pum ped into the shop—commonly
known as the u plenum system ”—tends to create an atmosphere of a
highly relaxing and depressing character. I t affords a striking ex­
ample of how chemically pure air may by its uniform ity and mo­
notony constitute an atmosphere in which good work is hardly pos­
sible. The means of ventilation should be kept separate from th a t
of heating and the “ plenum system ” should only be used to pum p in
cool air in summer.
10. The most complete installation for ventilation and heating may
be rendered ineffective by injudicious1 m anagement or failure in
proper and continuous maintenance. R apid changes of climate, d if­
ferent times of day, varying circumstances of use and occupation, all
require appropriate treatm ent. I f, for example, the windows are
shut because it is a cold m orning there is a probability th a t they will
usually not be opened again till the shop is much too hot. Such m is­
m anagement is frequently due to the fact th a t it is the prescribed duty
of no one in p articular to observe the prevailing conditions and p u t
in operation the appropriate appliances for the supply of air and
heat. The committee are of opinion th a t the ventilation and heating
of each shop or group of shops should be in th£ charge of some re­
sponsible person specially detailed for the purpose and they recognize
th a t the effective m aintenance of ventilation depends in large degree
upon the vigilance of the workers. I t is fo r the m anagement to p ro ­
vide the means, it is for the employee to aid in their use and applica­
tion. The effective maintenance of ventilation is becoming increas­
ingly im portant owing to the large number of women now employed
in m unition works, since women are especially susceptible to the effect
of defective ventilation.
11. The preceding paragraphs are prim arily concerned w ith fac­
tories and workshops in which the nature of the work or the char­
acter of the m aterial employed involve no special danger to the
health of the worker. The serious problems of localized exhaust
ventilation in shops where dust or poisonous fumes are evolved is
the subject of a special m em orandum (see A ppendix) and the com­
m ittee do not desire to add anything on the subject except to em­
phasize the extreme im portance of tak in g all possible steps to p ro ­
tect the health of the workers.
IV.—LIGHTIN G.

12. T his question, has been treated with thoroughness and care in
the R eport of the D epartm ental Committee on L ighting in Factories
and W orkshops,1 which has recently been published, and little more
1 F ir s t R eport o f D e p a r tm e n ta l C om m ittee on L ig h tin g in F a c to r ie s and W orkshops,
10 1 5 (Cd. 8 ,0 0 0 ).




106

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., IN B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

is necessary than to refer briefly to the m ain conclusions of th a t
report.
The essentials of good lighting are there summarized a s :
(a) Adequacy.
(b) A reasonable degree of constancy and uniform ity of illu­
m ination over the necessary area of work.
(c) The placing or shading of lamps so th a t light from them
does not fall directly on the eyes of an operator when
engaged on his work or when looking horizontally
across the workroom.
(d) The placing of lights so as to avoid the casting of extrane­
ous shadows on the work.
13. N atural lighting is to be preferred to artificial lighting on
grounds of health as well as of economy. W here it can be arranged,
roof lighting is generally to be preferred to lateral lighting. I n a
good system of roof lighting the illum ination is very uniform . I n
modern factories where lateral lig hting is employed a large p a rt of
the walls are devoted to windows, but it is evident th a t there is a
lim it to the w idth of the room, beyond which the illum ination falls
below w hat is adequate; w hat this w idth is will depend partly on the
nature of the work to be done in the shop and p a rtly on the extent to
which the light is impeded by outside obstacles such as neighboring
buildings or inside obstacles such as machinery.
14. The effect of light-colored walls and white ceilings on the gen­
eral brightness of the room and in affording an effective background
to dark objects should not be overlooked. In some cases the n atu ral
lig h tin g may be improved by deflecting vertical lig h t into the room
by means of reflectors or prism atic glass or by w hitening the surface
of an external wall or building which obstructs the light. The posi­
tion of perm anent w orking points should be so adjusted in relation
to the windows and to internal obstructions of w hatever kind as to
secure, so fa r as practicable, adequate daylight for each.
15. The necessity for the regular cleaning of windows on the inner
and outer surfaces can not be too much insisted on. Not only do
d irty windows prevent a large proportion of daylight from entering
the shop, but the daylight period of work is considerably shortened
and needless expenditure on artificial lighting incurred in conse­
quence. A t the present tim e the an tiair raid darkening regulations
have much intensified this loss of natural light. I n the construction
of shops care should be taken to render the outsides of windows easily
accessible for cleaning. I n m any existing shops access is so difficult
as to make cleaning almost impossible.
16. The question of artificial lighting is of special im portance at
the present time when night work is general and when women and




V E N T IL A T IO N A N D L IG H T IN G OF M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

107

boys are employed in large numbers. B ad lighting affects output
unfavorably, not only by m aking good and rap id work more difficult,
but by causing headaches and other effects of eyestrain; the difficul­
ties of supervision, which are always considerable, are fu rth e r in ­
creased if the general lighting of the workshops is insufficient.
A

fa c to ry

m a y

be

in s t a n c e d

w h it e n e d

a n d

illu m in a t e d

b y

T h e

w a s

illu m in a t e d

b y

sho p

T o

p ro d u c e

m e ta l

a n d

c o s t ly
o f

in

th e

th e

b e st

up keep ,

w o rk e rs

sh a d e d

to

b u t

to

be

so

a n d

th a t

g as

th e y

w a s
On

o f

g as

lig h t in g

p re s s u re .

a

la t h e

p o o r

d if f u s e

T h e

lig h t

lig h t
ca n

w o rk e rs .

no

sh a d o w s.

c a st

m a y

w it h

p ro v e

p r o m o t in g

in

th e

b y

e le c t r ic

n o t

o n

a n d

q u it e

u se

w ith o u t

la m p s

in

eyes

th e

lo f ty

ea ch

u se

o f

ca n

t h r o w in g

o f

m o re
h e a lt h
In

a n

s u it a b ly

th e

w e re

w o rk e rs ..

in

O w in g

sho ps

d ir e c t ly

th e

use,

th e

th e

im ­

to

in c a n d e s c e n t

b y

be

ru n .

o f

b u rn e rs

u n sh a d e d .

o b t a in e d

w ith o u t

th e

gas

lo n g

la m p s ,

s h e e ts

to

in

a n d

it s

u n if o rm ly

th e

c o v e re d

lig h t in g

f ls li- t a il

is

w h ic h

be

w a s

fro m

e c o n o m ic a l
o u t

fa c to ry

v e ry

p o w e r

u n d e r

th e

o f

c e ilin g

sh a d ed

a d v a n ta g e s

b e

c a r rie d

sa m e

b e in g

to

th e

w e re

s u rfa c e

m e th o d

p ro v e

E x c e lle n t

sh ed

to p

a

sho p

d if f u s e

c o m p e n s a to ry

th e

illu m in a t in g

o ne
w h ic h

a g r e e a b le

e n t ir e

m a y

d o w n
o f

m ea n s

cond em ned.

m a n t le s
u p

lig h t
sho p

su c h

p o v e r is h e d

h a s

lig h t in g

a n o th e r
b y

it

in

lig h t s

S u c h

th u s

th ro w

In

lig h t in g

th e

th e

sh o p

a n

w h it e .

a n d

a d jo in in g

s t ill

e ffe c t

e n a m e le d

w h e re

a rc

m a n tle s

is

in c a n d e s c e n t

be
a

p la c e d

g la r e

h ig h

in to

th e

w o rk e rs ’ eyes.

17.
A ttention should be paid to the lighting of the passages and
imm ediate surroundings of the factory as well as to th a t of the w ork­
shops themselves. In the report of the departm ental committee,
standards of lighting for factories are suggested, and though the
figures given are the m inima considered necessary, they may, at any
rate, prove of assistance in suggesting the relative amount of light
necessary in different p arts of the factory.
Signed on behalf of the committee.
G e o rg e
N e w m a n , M. D.,
Chairman.
E . H . P e l h a m , Secretary.
J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 6 .
A P P E N D IX .

LOCALIZED EXHAUST VENTILATION.
T h e
a

e s s e n t ia ls

f lo w

o f

o r

a ir

o p e n in g s

f lo w

o f

fu m e s
fo r

a ir

in
to

th e

th e

(2 )

is

lo c a liz e d

t h is
be

d u c t

p u rp o s e

m a t e r ia ls ,

a

o f

o f

w h ic h

r e m o v in g
su c h

(3 )

v o la t ile

p r in c ip le s

as

a ir

fro m

v a p o rs

th e
fro m
su c h

u n d e rly in g

t h is

m e lt in g
as

a re

e f f e c t iv e

is

o f

a lo n g

lo c a liz e d

w it h

m a y

w o rk

s c ra p

d u c t
a

a d m itte d

c a r r ie s

a c t io n

a tm o s p h e re

a

(6 )

a ir

a d m itte d

a n d

(a )

a n d

s u f f ic ie n t
so

d e s ire d ;

a r is e

a re

d ir e c t io n

w h ic h

T h e
is

v e n t ila t io n

d e f in it e

th ro u g h

fu m e s

o r

T h e

e x h a u s t

in

m a in ta in e d .

re m o v a l

h e a te d

ra te s .

o f

m a in ta in e d

le a d

be

e v o lv e d

w h e n
d if f e r

fo r

th e

d u s t

o r

e f f e c t iv e

o f

(1 )

o th e r

dope

a c t io n

a llo w

a n y

m a d e

p la c e s
a n d

to

it

w h ic h
o p e n in g

d u s t,

p o is o n o u s

v a r n is h
ea ch

e va p o ­

o f

th e s e

p u rp o s e s .
1.

T h e

c h a n ic a l
th e

d u s t

g e n e ra l

re m o v a l

p o w re r ,

p a r t ic le s

d u s t

F o r

is
b y

e s c a p in g

a tm o s p h e re .




o f

p r e f e r a b ly

b e st
a

fro m

t h is

e ffe c te d

p re s s u re
th e

p u rp o s e

b y

fa n ,

a n
a n d

a ir

c u rre n t

so

a rra n g e d

p la c e

w h e re

th e y

th e

o p e n in g s

in

a re
th e

p ro d u c e d
as

to

p ro d u c e d
d u c ts

b y

m e­

p re v e n t
in t o

s h o u ld

th e

te r m i­

108

H O U R S , F A T IG U E , E T C ., I N B R IT IS H M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.

n a te
o f

in

ho o d s

th e

s h o u ld

b e

w h e e l

a n d

th e n

th e

th e

In

to

o r

s it

fro m

2.

T h e

d u s t

re m o v a l

d ia m e te r

a n d

s h o u ld

o f

T h e

to

h e ig h t ,

e n v e lo p

o p e n in g

a re

( i)

to

w it h in

a t

th e

d ra w n

a n d

a n

o f

a re a

m a y,

th e

th e

th e
b y

h o o d

th e

a ir

th e

th e
is

d u s t

d ra w n

th ro w n

o p e r a t iv e
o f

d u c t

fro m

a n d

a ir

o r ig in

a n d

g ro u n d ;

th e

c u rre n t

d u c t

a

s u ita b le

b y

b e lo w

th e

h o o d

m a y

be

o ff

s h o u ld

d ra w s

b y

s ta n d

th e

d u s t

c o w l,

th e

( iii)

a n d

p e r m it
e x h a u s t

a ir

o f

neces­

v e n tila ­
in

h e ig h t o f

th e

m a y

th e

o f

in f lu e n c e
th e

th e

o r ig i­

c u rre n ts

th e

a p p r o a c h in g

p r o v is io n

lo w e r
o f

fu m e s

to

u n d e r

th e

( iv )

th e

o f

m e­

a m p le

e n d

h e a te d

fo rm

la r g e ,

o f

w h ile

lo w e r

e n o u g h

com e

u s in g

v e r tic a l,

T h e

t h is

n e a r ly

s m a ll;
a n d

w in d

w h e re

in

w ith o u t

b e

hood.

to o

to o

e ffe c te d

s h o u ld

la rg e

th e y

ho o d

to o

b e

fo u n d

b e fo re

o f th e
be

be

p la c e

o n ly

u s u a lly

th o s e

g iv e n

o ff w h e n

u s u a lly

case

a ir ,

th e

th a n

p r a c t ic a b le

as

m u s t

be

o p e n in g s

so

fo r

a e r o p la n e

th e

n e a r

as

a m p le

is

h e a v ie r

c u rre n t

fa r

a ir

as

m a y

be

a n d

th a t

cases,

th e

a

w h e n

th e

h o r iz o n ta l,

u p c a s t s h a ft

n o t

w in g s

n o x io u s

o p e n in g s

to

be

m a d e

to

a re

to

in c o m in g

v a r n is h e d

v a p o rs

h a v e

to

d u c t

th e

m u s t

be

th e

v a p o r

th e

p la c e

w h e re

th a t

a rra n g e d

in

m a y
th e

la r g e

v o lu m e s

a ir

m u s t

b e

o f

is

a re

h ig h

a rra n g e d

a ir

u p

w a s te d

in

o f a ir ;

( v i)

o r

a t t e n t io n
d u c ts ,

w h e re

h o le s

in

b ro k e n




su c h

o p e n in g s .
u se

o f

case

th a n

is

th e

g e n e r a lly .
th e s e

p r e f e r a b ly

o n

o b t a in

o f

fa n

s h o u ld

th e

s h o u ld

s u p p ly

p re s s u re

d is tr ib u ­
T o

o p e n in g s

o p e n in g s

T h e

a

to

a n d

f r e e ly

d u c ts ,

in

a n d

m a y
to

th e
d u c ts

o n

o f

o ppo ­

c o m p r is e

in c o m in g

d r iv in g

escape

( iii)

a ir

in

a ir

th e

if

a

d u c ts

o f

fa n
if

to o

d u s t - s e t t lin g

h a v e

b ee n

p la n t
b lo c k e d

o r,

th e

d u c t

( iv )

w it h

ho o d

a ir

in le t s

s h a rp

case

be

th e
in

o f

sm o ke
so

w o rk
w h ic h

p o w e r
th e

is

f lo w

o f in s u f f ic ie n t

( v ii)

k in d

in
th e

in c lin a ­

m a y
to

im p e d e

ho o d s

o f

lik e

u se d

c h a m b e rs

e v e ry

a n
th e

r e q u ir e d ,

b e in g

p r o v id e d ;

e re c te d ;

in

b y

s m a ll,

sh a p e

o p e n in g

th e

is

to o

h a v in g

d u s t,

fro m

im p a ir e d

be
th e

a re a s

th e

a m o u n t

a n d

fo u n d

m a y
( ii)

th e

o p e n in g ;

th e

d e a lt w it h ,

p a id

re s t

a n d

th e

d u s t

in te rc e p te d ;

o f

s lo w e d ,

b e n d s

b e in g

f r e q u e n tly

c o lle c t

c h im n e y ;

o p e n in g s

b ee n

a n g le

b lo c k s

is

n o t

re b o u n d

a d m it

( v )

is

is

to

d u s t a c c u m u la te s

th e

gases

p la n ts

ho o d

w h e e l

d u c ts

d u s t is

in to

o p e n in g s ,

d ra fts ,

th e

T h e

d o m e s t ic

fa n ;

in s u f f ic ie n t
h a v e

b y

v e n t ila t io n

w o rk ro o m

v e n tila tio n ,

e x h a u s t

a v o id

e x h a u s t

a

th e re

th e

th e

th e

g e n e ra l

e x h a u s t

( i)

w h ic h

in s u f f ic ie n t
f lo w

m a y

o f

e x p a n d in g

d r iv in g

w it h

th e

e x h a u s t

in

o p e n in g s .

c o n s tru c te d

be

a ir

a ir

th e
to

in s u r e d

le s s

s m a ll t h a t d u s t c o lle c t s
p la c e

fro m
a n d

fro m

th ro a t

lo c a liz e d

s e c u re

d e t a ils :

f ly in g

th e

b a d ly

so

e f f ic ie n c y
to

o f

in c o m in g

o f

b e

f a u lt y ,

th e

fu m e s ,

fo rm

fo r

p o s s ib le

tim e s

d u s t

to w a rd

fro m

a n y

w o rk ro o m ;

a t t e n t io n
case

h e a te d

o f

th e

p r a c t ic e

h o o d s

s iz e

th a t

u s u a lly

s h o u ld

as

is

w e ll- d is t r ib u t e d

o f

w h ic h

ca se

as
If ,

a n d

a ir

som e

th ro u g h

tio n

la b o r ,

o f

ho o d

w in d .

o f o p e n in g s

th re e

in

In

in

se a t

th e

ta n g e n t ia lly

to

a s s is t e d

th e

in s u f f ic ie n t ;

to

e s s e n t ia l t o

as

s id e

la c k

c u rre n t
is

m a n u a l
so

f a ll

b e ll- m o u t h e d

a w a y

m a y

b e

v a p o r

a n d

s iz e

p la c e d

s it e

th rc n v n

e n d

a

th e

s id e s

su c h

le v e l

in t e r c h a n g e

b e

is

th e

w h e e l,

w o rk ro o m .

fa c to r

a n

th e

T h e

a w a y,

th e
A

w it h ,

o ff.

to

lo c a liz e .

g ro u n d

g iv e n

tio n

v a p o rs
to

ho o d

ho o d

m a y

d ra ft d u e

V o la tile

d e a lt

p r a c t ic a l,

m a y

t h is

in to

fu m e s
th e

th e

d u c t

d if f ic u lt

fu m e s

e rro rs

o p e n in g

o w in g

( ii)

b e

a ir

it s e lf

hood,

e x te n d

th e

th e

d o w n

3.
a re

w h ic h

th e

b y

as

r e v o lv in g

o t h e r w is e

s u rm o u n te d

T h e

c a rry

v e r tic a l

a v o id

in

th e

p la c e

a re a

o r

th e

a t t a in

a n d
to

t io n

th e

o f

a n d

m a n ip u la tio n s .

d r a f t ;

o f

c re a te d

g r a d u a lly

s a ry

w o rk

is

d u s t

c u rre n t

h e a te d

b u t

o p en

s h o u ld

n a te .

a ir

fa r

a

w o u ld

in f lu e n c e

th e

o p e n in g

p o w e r,

h o o d

th e

th e

w h ic h

as

fro m

h im .

c h a n ic a l

e n d

e n v e lo p ,

d u s t

in te rc e p t

w h ile

th e

to

o f

d u s t

W h e re

f a c in g

a w Ta y

to

u n d e r

w h e e l.

as

case

c a tc h

d u c t,

so

th e

p la c e d

com es

in t o

sh a p e d

d u s t.

in s u f f ic ie n t

d e ta c h e d
o f

d e b ris

fro m
h a v e

109

V E N T IL A T IO N AND L IG H T IN G OF M U N IT IO N FA CTO RIES.
b een
is

fo u n d

b e in g

in

G e n e r a lly
r e q u ir e d ,
m o re
be

th e

b e

fa n s

ca n

th a n

th a t

d e liv e r y

th e

a c t io n

N e a r ly
p re s e n ts
m a y

be

g re a t
s t a lle d

o f

a n y

fa n ,

e v e ry

w o rk

b u t

im p r o v e m e n t .

o f

to
th e

a ll

fa n

d ra ft,

h a n d ,

is

th e

la r g e

as

w h e re

fo r

g re a t
a re a

b en d s

n o t be

in

th e

th e s e

c o n s id e r a b le

re m o v a l
fa n s ,

p re s s u re ,

v o lu m e s

e m p lo y e d ;

o f

to ta l

s h a rp

m u s t

d u ty
th e

p la c e

p r o b le m s

n e c e s s a ry ,

th e

a n d

p la c e s

e m p lo y e d ; s in c e

d u c ts

p o in t ;

o f th e

k e e n

e c o n o m ic a lly

th e

in

a g a in s t c o n s id e r a b le

o th e r

m o re

a n d

p o w e r

fa n s .

o f

b u t

a ir

d u c ts

th e

im p e d e d

o p e n in g s
m u s t be

o r

so

p la c e d

d u c ts

m a y

b e

re m o v e d ,
a t te n tio n

d u c ts

th e

is

fa n s

su c h

im p o r ta n c e ; th e
o f

to

d u s t,

r e q u ir in g

S m a lle r
a re

w it h

o f

th o u g h

m u s t

m u s t

be

n e v e r

g re a te r

a v o id e d ; f u r t h e r ,

as

to

b e

e xp o sed

to

w in d .

s p e c ia l

re p o r t in g
n a n c e

s id e

o f

w o rk

th e

be

a t

o f th e

th e

b e

a re a

s e c t io n a l

c o n s t r ic t e d

a

s h o u ld

c a n

o n

e x h a u s t

w h e re

fa n s

d r iv e ,

W h e re ,

in s t a lla t io n s

d r iv e

s p e a k in g ,

p o w e r to

v o lu m e

to

p re s s u re

used.

to

w e ll- p la n n e d

e xp e n d e d

it s

a d h e re n c e
In

s h o u ld

be

to

p la c e d
a t

lo c a liz e d

o w n ,

p a r t ic u la r ,

m a n a g e m e n t

in s t a lla t io n .




w Th e r e

o f

fo r

th e

th e

p r in c ip le s

w 7h e r e v e r
o n

s ta te d

e x h a u s t
s o lv in g

som e

a n

o f

a b o ve

w h ic h

o n

th e

is

s y s te m

p e rs o n

r e q u ir e d

t e c h n ic a l

e n u m e ra te d

e x h a u s t

r e s p o n s ib le

in t e r v a ls

v e n t ila t io n

h a s
o f

e f f ic ie n c y

a d v ic e

w ill

t e s t in g
a n d

e ffe c t

b een

in ­
a n d

m a in te ­

THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS UPON EYE­
SIGHT.
[Memorandum No. 15.]

1.
The committee have found it necessary to give special attention
to the effect of m unition work on the eyesight of the workers. As
a result of their inquiries they have received num erous communica­
tions from various authorities and individuals interested in this
im portant m atter. Speaking generally, there has been a considerable
increase at the hospitals in the num ber of eye cases among m unition
workers, partly due to the increase in the num ber of such workers
and p artly due to their inexperience of m etal and engineering works.
The result has been not only personal suffering and inconvenience,
but also a serious loss of tim e and a reduction of output. I t must
be remembered th a t the eyes are among the hardest worked of all
the organs of the body, and th a t they are extremely sensitive to
external conditions. I t is, therefore, not surprising th a t a num ber of
special eye diseases and injuries from accidents to the eyes have
come to be associated w ith the p articular processes of certain in­
dustries. Yet m any of these diseases and injuries are preventable.
A few instances communicated to the committee may be quoted.
A b o u t

1 5 ,0 0 0
E y e

cases

o f

o f th e

e s t im a t e

th e

is

to

a re
th e

sa y,

lo s t

n o t
to

le s s

th a n

h a v e

fro m

th e
a n d

w ill

lo s e

A t

th e

R o y a l
p in g s

E y e
o f

fo r

A t

th e

th re e

ea ch

p e r

m a n

t r iv ia l

le s s

th a n

th re e

re p r e s e n tin g

t h is

300

500

B ir m in g h a m

H o s p it a l.
a t

a

T h e

c o n s e r v a tiv e

h a lf
to

H o s p it a l

a

700

th e re

e n g in e e r in g

o f
in

d a ys

th e s e

a v e ra g e s

u s u a lly

s a y

th e

d a y ;
d a y s ’

th a t
w o rk

a c c id e n ts .

fro m

p r o p o r tio n

f a c t o r ie s ,

in

fro m

E y e

d ie m

a t

C o v e n try

e ve n

a lo n e

o b je c t s ,

la rg e

a n n u a lly
th e

b u t

A

m e ta l

th e s e
a ll

fro m

o r

p e r

t h is ,

d a y s ’ w o rk ,

in

com e

s a y

m u n i­

E a c h

cases,

40

com e

re m o v e d

fro m

w e e k.

m o st

o r,

p r o b a b ly
w h o

e m e ry ,

cases

100

a re

sho p s

m e n

m a n

p re v e n t­
id le

p e r

cause.

H o s p it a l,

m e ta l

te n

a t

f o r e ig n

eye.

fro m

seen

M o o r f ie ld s

m en

a rm a m e n t
n o t

to

d is tr ic t
th e s e

th e

20

a re
1 ,5 0 0

s lig h t ,

tim e

o ne
fro m

a t

a c c id e n t,

w e e k

o f

in

s m a ll

tio n

a b le

lo s s

th a t

tim e

a b o u t

cases a re

a n n u a lly

p re s e n t

in ju r ie s

a n d

m a jo rity

A t

e ye

H o s p it a l,

in

d a ys,

M a n c h e s te r,

th e
a n d

e ye

“ it

is

e s t im a t e d

ab sence

N o r t h u m b e r la n d ,

t h is

110




a n
is

in c re a s e
la r g e ly

D u rh a m
in

d u e

th e
to

s e r io u s

a n d

n u m b e r

th e

cases

fro m

th a t

w o rk

N e w c a s t le
o f

n u m b e r

w o u ld

o n

s m a ll

c lip ­

a n

a v e ra g e

p r o b a b ly

a v e ra g e

d a ys .”

b ee n

m o re

ca use

E y e

p a t ie n t s
o f

p e o p le

In f ir m a r y

in

1914

a n d

eng a g e d

o n

th e re

h a s

1915,

a n d

m u n it io n

I ll

EFFECT OF IN DUSTRIAL CONDITIONS U P O N EYESIG H T.
w o rk .

F o r

e x a m p le ,

tre a tm e n t fro m

th e

in

1914,

E ls w ic k

W

2 ,4 9 1

e ye

o r k s ; in

cases

w e re

1915 th e re

re fe rre d

w e re

4 ,9 7 3

fo r

s im ila r

cases.

Lastly,

a t

th e

a n d
in

R o y a l

in c r e a s in g
th e

E y e

c a s u a lt y

b o d ie s ,

e tc .

w o rk e rs ,
o n e - h a lf

to

L o n d o n ,

o f m u n it io n

d e p a rtm e n t,

W e

b u t

H o s p it a l,

n u m b e r

h a v e

I

am

c h ie f ly

n o t h it h e r t o

a s s u re d

t w o - t h ird s

b y

is

fo r

k e p t

th e

s ta te d

a

a re

th a t

“ a

la rg e

tre a te d

b e in g

s lig h t

d a ily

a c c id e n ts ,

s p e c ia l r e c o r d

n u rs e s

the c a s e s

o f

it

w o rk e rs

th a t

th e y

f o r e ig n

o f m u n it io n

n u m b e r

fro m

tre a te d .”

The following letter from one of the honorary surgeons of the
,Wolverhampton Eye Infirm ary illustrates the nature of the problems
under review : *
T h e

n u m b e r
E y e
o f
a

a n d

c h a ra c te r

In f ir m a r y

m u n it io n
s m a ll

T h e

n u m b e r

m o v a l a n d
d id

1915.
n it io n

b y

a

w o u ld

a b o u t

tw o

A

be

to

b een

b ee n

fe w

w o rk e rs
lik e
th e s e

ca use

th e

cases

w h e re

sa m e

o r
in

in

a n d

u s u a lly

1913

a n d
m u ­

b o d ie s ,

p r o d u c in g
b u t

c h ie f ly
a w a y

a v e ra g e
cases

it
th e

o th e r

a n d

u lc e r s ,

re ­
th e y

n o t,

p e r f o r a t in g

s e r io u s

re g a rd

seen

b u t
fo r

b y

to

b y

m e d ic a l s t a f f

b ee n

a w a y

in

o b je c t e d

b y

w o rn

m o re

d is e a s e s ,

b e in g

th e

as

th e m .
t h is

is

t r o u b le d

fro m

tim e

w o rk

in

w o u ld

th e s e

a v e ra g e

w ee ks.

h a v e

k e p t

W o rk e rs
a re

th e

th e

tr a u m a t ic

a n d

d a y ;

e ye

s k ille d

th e m

in c r e a s e d

o th e r

im p a c t e d

a

re m o v e

p r o lif ic

re m o v e d ,

ir r it a t io n ,

th o s e

a n d

in f e c t iv e

fo r

e n g in e e r in g

m o st

c o m m e n t.

d if f ic u lt ie s

u rg e d

h a s

p r a c t ic a lly

th e

b y

2 ,7 9 6 ;

in

im p a c te d

in

c o m in g

in c r e a s e

in

e x t e n s io n

in c r e a s e d

8 ,5 4 4 .

to

in ju r y

th e

h a v in g

1915,

w o rk e rs

n o

W o lv e r h a m p t o n
b y

in c re a s e d ; 19 13 ,

h a s

th e m

h a lf

th e

8 ,4 9 1 ;

w o rk e rs

e y e s t r a in

b e in g
in

1913,

b o d ie s

h a d

th o u g h

cases

c h e m ic a l

to

in

f e llo w

e ye

a t

a ffe c te d

o u t - p a t ie n t s

th e

b e in g

o f

w it h

im p a c te d

b ee n

in c r e a s e

th re e
no

g o g g le s ,

tim e

to

h a v e

cases

h a v e

d u e

o f

to

w h e th e r

g r in d in g

f o r e ig n

th e y

t h e ir

tre a te d

s lig h t

h a v in g

o f

d u e

ca uses

a re

a n d

s u f f ic ie n t

u n til

b o d ie s

h a s

sa y

d e a lt

a p p r e c ia b ly

o u t - p a t ie n t s

is

T h e re

cases

a re a s

is

t h is

to

cases

n u m b e r

f o r e ig n

c h ie f

w o rk

T h e re
n o t

o f

T h e

la t h e

th e

n o t t r u s t in g

im p o s s ib le

n u m b e r

th e
b ee n

o n ly ;

b u t

f o r m e r ly .

is

T h e re

o f

3 ,0 8 3 ;

o f

n o t

w o rk ,

n u m b e r

1915,

h a s

a

la t e ly

th e y
fe w

tre a tm e n t.
w o rk e rs ,

as a

T h e

p r o t e c t io n

o f

h a v e
d a ys.

m o t o ris t s

ir r it a t in g

to
th e

A

p a ir
be
gases

w e a r in g

fo r

a

a g a in s t

re c o v e re d
o f

a

a re

in

d u e

w h e n

c lo s e - f it t in g
g re a t

lo n g

in ju r y .

c o n ju n c t iv it is

q u ic k ly

w o u ld

c h e m ic a l

a c u te

h a s

to
th e

g o g g le s

p r o t e c t io n

in

e v id e n c e .

2. In d u stria l work may cause im pairm ent of eyesight in three
chief ways:
(a) Injuries due to exposure to intense heat or industrial
poisons.
(b) Accidents due to flying particles, etc.
(c) Eyestrain due to uncorrected errors of refraction or other
causes.
3. Effect of intense heat, etc.—The effect exerted upon the eyesight
by certain industrial poisons used in m unition works, such as lead,
is in the bulk small, and the influence of prolonged exposure to in ­
tense heat and light may take so long a period to m anifest itself




112

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

(e- g -5 glassm akers’ and furnace workers’ cataract) th a t the damage
which may result is not likely to appear during the period of the
war. These two occupational influences upon eyesight, therefore,
hardly call for consideration here, nor is it w ithin our province to
deal w ith the serious eye injuries which occur among stonemasons,
m iners, etc. The imm ediately irritativ e effect associated w ith such
work as acetylene welding will be referred to later.
4.
Accidents.—I t has been estim ated th a t in norm al times in any
general group of industrial accidents, over 5 per cent must be ascribed
to eye injuries, and th a t on this basis in 1913 over 8,000 more or
less severe eye injuries occurred in the factories of the U nited K ing­
dom. The views expressed by ophthalm ic surgeons and others indi­
cate th a t eye injuries in m unition work are relatively more frequent
th an in norm al times, and th a t for engineering factories these cases
probably represent about 7 per cent of all accidents, a total which
may, however, be greatly exceeded and even reach 20 per cent.
A uthorities are unanim ous in considering th a t such accidents are
largely preventable.
A n

im p o r ta n t

t r a d e s - u n io n

p e rc e n ta g e
o f

( n e a rly

a c c id e n t s

th e

to ta l

n e a r ly
y e a r,
e ye

n o t

a s s o c ia t io n
p e r

a c c id e n ts

p e r

c e n t

a n d

th e

s u g g e s t io n

so

fa r

tu r n in g s

a re
as

c e n t)

a p p r e c ia b ly
o f

50

in ju r ie s

w o rk ,
th e

is

n u m b e r

7

g re a te r

r e s u lt in g

o r

f ly

is

th a n

th !s

fo r

th e

m a d e

o ff,

s ta te d
in ju r ie s

fo r

b ec a use

m a c h in e r y

b re a k

e ye

g re a te r

th a n

is

h a s

o f

th a t
th e

th e

b e fo re

y e a r

a lth o u g h
to ta l
th e

(1 9 1 6 )

c o r r e s p o n d in g
a

g re a te r

m a jo r

c o n c e rn e d ,

s t r ik in g

th a t,
to

th e

is

to

w a r,

o f

y e t

d a te

p e r io d

n u m b e r

p o r t io n

th e

n u m b e r

o f

is

la s t

s lig h t

m u n it io n

la t h e - t u r n in g ,

w h e n

o p e ra to r.

From the reports sent to the committee by hospital surgeons it
appears th a t accidents are m ainly due to particles of m etal which
enter the eye; th at the m ajority of these accidents are slight in char­
acter and should give rise to no perm anent damage, but th a t there is
a certain proportion of serious accidents which cause perm anent in­
jury. “ The causes of eye injury are due largely, if not m ainly, to
the bursting of emery wheels, steel splinters, etc.,” says the report of
an eye hospital at Liverpool, which records th a t betAveen three and
four times as m any cases per annum have been treated since the
w ar began. To the damage which results from injuries sufficiently
serious to come under observation and be included in statistical in­
quiries m ust be added the much more grave conditions arising from
infection following upon “ fire s” or other triv ial eye injuries. Ac­
count m ust also be taken of the tim e lost and tem porary inconven­
ience suffered from a much larger num ber of slight causes which may
only incapacitate the sufferer for short periods, perhaps h a lf a day.
In so fa r as immediate reduction of output is concerned, these slight
cases have probably a greater effect th an the more serious injuries.




EFFECT OF IN DUSTRIAL CONDITIONS U P O N EYESIG H T.

113

Speaking of these cases, an ophthalmic surgeon in Glasgow w rites:
“ In most instances the actual physical damage is slight, and the
worker will be able to resume his duties in a few hours, or utm ost in
one or two days, if only the injury to the eye be prom ptly and skill­
fully treated. I f, on the other hand, the injury be neglected or if it
be treated by anyone who is unskillful or careless, sepsis will almost
certainly occur; and all experience teaches th a t infection of the
wound is a fa r greater danger than the actual physical damage to the
ocular structures. T he occurrence of sepsis at once transform s a
very triv ial injury to the cornea into a suppurative keratitis, which
may run a prolonged course,* lead to more or less im pairm ent of
sight, and in serious cases even destroy the eye.”
5. Eyestrain.—Broadly speaking, this may be due to defects of
vision or to the nature or conditions of the work. I t may be accen­
tuated by the age, fatigue, or unsatisfactory physical health of the
worker, by near distance work, insufficient or excessive illum ination,
abnorm al position, or long hours. O perators employed on m unition
work should possess and m aintain a certain standard of visual acuity
if they are to perform satisfactorily the work expected of them.
This standard, though it may vary for different processes, should
never fall much below th a t of norm al useful vision. F o r fine work
the eyesight should be approxim ately normal. N otw ithstanding the
im portant bearing which good eyesight m ust have upon output, the
question is not to-day receiving adequate attention at the hands of
those whose duty it is to obtain this output. Instances have come
under the notice of the committee of headaches and eyestrain result­
ing from (a) inadequate light, both artificial and n a tu ra l; (&)
artificial lights adequate in amount but so placed as to throw a
glare on the eyes of the w orkers; and (c) employment of workers
(whose eyesight should be aided by suitable glasses) to carry out
fine work w ithout first testing their eyesight. E yestrain, including
headache, may be one m anifestation of general fatigue. I t is thus
likely to become more m arked when long hours are worked, when
nig h t shifts are necessary, or when workers are undernourished,
anemic, or of poor general physique.
6. The lighting of factories has so recently been dealt w ith in
detail in the report of the committee on lighting in factories and
workshops th at no fu rth er reference is here needed. B ut the question
of supervision of the eyesight of workers employed on fine work calls
for special comment. A t one factory where a medical investigation
of women workers was carried out on behalf of the committee, the
reporter states th a t “ although the general conditions of employment
are satisfactory and the management has given considerable thought
to the comfort of the employees, in one process which involved fine
9 2 1 0 3 °—

B u ll. 2 2 1 —




1 7 ------ 8

114

H O U R S, FATIG UE, E T C ., I N BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

work, out of seven girls one suffered from severe, and the other six
from occasional, frontal headache attributable to eyestrain. One girl
wore glasses obtained from an optician nine years previously. I t
would be an advantage if all girls before being employed on this
process had their eyes medically examined.” From another factory
it is reported th a t “ in contrasting the eye conditions found in the
different workshops the w orst effects were found in the fuse dep art­
m ent, where the fine process involved close attention. H ere 8 per
cent of the workers had been obliged to obtain glasses since startin g
th e work, 12 per cent found sight difficult at night, another 7 per
cent complained of eyestrain, and 2 per.cent found eyestrain increas­
ing in severity. Besides these, 10 per cent appeared to have latent
eyestrain, as shown by severe eyestrain and conjunctivitis, and they
should have th eir eyes tested.” A nother medical reporter rem arks
th a t “ great carelessness was displayed among those whose ocular
defects required attention. Repeatedly I called attention to the
necessity of having these adjusted and arranged w ith the m anagers
to allow individuals so affected leave of absence, b u t no advantage
was taken of the opportunity.” The diseased conditions arising from
eyestrain or accidents are num erous and include not only the presence
of foreign bodies, m etal dust, or steel splinters in the eye, bu t various
form s and degrees of inflammation, ulceration, myopia, astigm atism ,
and visual deterioration.
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT.

7.
M any conditions likely to cause tem porary or perm anent damage
to the eyesight of m unition workers are adm ittedly preventable,
while the prom pt and effective treatm ent of the in ju ry when it has
occurred will reduce suffering, hasten recovery and lessen the chance
of perm anent injury. The following letter received by the committee
is of interest in this connection:
O f

re c e n t
th e

m o n th s
e ye

in ju r y

to

th e

in ju r ie s
a ls o

h a v e

b een

n u m b e r

I f

su c h

fe w

o f

o f

o f

a re

le a v e

no

fo r

m o re

d u ty

th e

th e

p h y s ic a l
ju r e d
fe w




th e

v e ry

t r iv ia l

cases
in

o f

a p p ly in g
o r

a tte n d e d

to

T h e

h a s

a

a t

in ju r y

h o u rs

th a t

d e p en d s

is

th e

th e

th o s e

a t te n d in g

s u f f e r in g

th e

f o r e ig n

w o u n d s ;

p r o m p t ly

b u t

b e fo re

m o st
th e

F o r

th e

b u t

la tte r ,

m a rk e d

fro m

m o s t p a rt

b o d ie s ,

o u t - p a t ie n t

h e

s e v e ra l w e e k s .

u p o n

f o llo w in g

th e

o f

In f ir m a r y

th e

th e re

h o w e v e r,

in c r e a s e

d e p a rtm e n t

in

th e

o n

ac­

d is e a s e s .

s u b s e q u e n t in f e c t io n

e ye

to

w it h

d a ys,

o c c u rre d
fo r

d u e

w o rk m a n ,

fe w

n u m b e rs

R o y a l

p e n e t r a t in g

c o m p a r is o n

th a n

th e

n o t ic e a b le .

a n d

a c c id e n t s

w o rk

in

G la s g o w

b een

tra c e .

w o u n d

a b s e n t fro m
cases,

h a s

p a t ie n t s

s lig h t

in c r e a s e

o f

b een

b een

a ilm e n ts

a n d

g re a t

e ye

h a v e

h a v e

c o u n t

th e

d e p a rtm e n t

to

o f th e
be

th e y

if

o n

th e

seeks
I t

in

d re a d e d ,
it

to

o u g h t
o th e r

s k ille d

is ,

w o u n d

tre a tm e n t

a c c id e n t .

o u g h t

th e re fo re ,

th e

h e lp ,
g re a t

be

o ff

in f e c tio n
m a y

b e

m a jo r it y

he

o f

th a n

th e

r e c e iv e s

r a p id ly

to

h a n d

ra th e r
a n d

h e a l
n o t

fa te

w it h in

th e
o f

a c tu a l
a n

th e

in ­
f irs t

EFFECT OF IN D U STR IA L CONDITIONS U P O N EYESIG H T.
M o s t

o f

th e s e

a c c id e n ts

s u ita b le
fe w

if

th e

in ju r y

to

re n c e ,

a n d

e x p e rt
tio n s

th e
if

eye,

in ju r y

th e

do

to

m o re

no

in

e ye

be

w a s

h o w

as

to

a n
th a n

th a t

th e

w o rk m a n

t r iv ia l,

th e

to

w h e re b y
as

se nd

f irs t

to

h e

p o s s ib le .

n u rs e
a ll

o p h t h a lm ic
g iv e

o u g h t

in

a n d

w e a r

b e

re p o rt
o n

o c c u r­
r e c e iv e

T h e s e

c o n d i­
a t

s u f f e r in g
n e v e r

v e ry e v e ry

it s

c o u ld

a tte n d a n c e

p a t ie n t s

c lin ic

w o u ld

w o u ld

im m e d ia t e ly

m a d e

if

r e s u lts

h e

s p e e d ily

in s tru c te d

cases

if

d is a s tr o u s

w e re

f u lf ille d

d ir e c t

th e s e

and*

m a tte r

a s s is ta n c e

e a s ily

w o rk s

p re v e n te d

u n d e rs to o d

a rra n g e m e n ts

m e d ic a l
m ig h t

be

g la s s e s ,

w o rk m a n

m u n it io n

to

w o u ld

p r o t e c t iv e

115

th e
fro m

a tte m p t

a id .

8. Methods of prevention consist, first, of general measures de­
signed to improve the physical health of the workers and so enable
them to resist the effects of fatigue and, secondly, of special measures
intended to avoid undue strain on the eyesight or to reduce the
liability to accident to a minimum.
General measures, such as the suitable lighting of factories, the
provision of canteens, adequate tim e for sleep and rest, have been
dealt w ith in other mem oranda and need no fu rth er reference here.
Special arrangem ents necessarily vary in different cases and should
be under the general supervision of the medical officer of the factory.
The following suggestions are m ad e:
9. Examination of eyesight.—W hen operatives are being engaged
fo r fine work which calls for close attention, the eyesight of each
should be tested by the medical officer, or, if he is not available, the
nurse or welfare supervisor should apply simple eye te s ts 1 for the
purpose of discovering those whose vision is not normal. A ll who
fail to reach the standard adopted should be sent to the medical
officer or to an ophthalm ic surgeon or eye hospital to be fully
examined and, if necessary, supplied w ith glasses. W hen workers
are examined for glasses the nature of the work to be perform ed
should be specified whenever possible. In m any people and particu ­
larly those past middle life, the glasses which give the best acuteness
of distant vision would not enable the owner also to do fine work
at short range and vice versa. W orkers who complain of frequent
headache, pain in the eyes, or show signs of conjunctivitis should
also be tested in this way.
10. E ye guards and goggles.—U nder certain conditions the eyes
should always be guarded from flying particles of metal. To be effec­
tive, an eye guard—
(a) Should prevent particles reaching the eyes from in front,
from either side or from below. Practically nothing
enters from above.
1 Each eye should be tested separately, and the following standard is suggested as a
minimum: 6 /9 in both eyes (Snellen’s types), though 6/12 in one of the eyes may be
sufficient in some ca ses; and the ability to read standard type 0.45 at 1 foot distance.
The necessary standard types can be procured from any optician.




116

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

(b) Should be light and comfortable, and allow free play* of
air so th at moisture does not condense on the tran s­
parent medium.
(e) Should not impede vision, or become obscured by the im ­
pact of particles.
(d ) Should be strong and cheap.
The fact th a t no particles are likely to enter from above is im ­
portant, because the upper p a rt of the goggle may be left open and
so allow of ventilation. A closed screen not only becomes hot and
uncomfortable, but the transparent medium, usually glass, may be
obscured by condensation of moisture. W here fine work has to be
executed, there must be clear vision, and for this purpose no medium
is better than glass. The objection has been raised th a t glass broken
by a flying particle may be driven into the eye and cause a worse
in ju ry than if it were not present. I t is stated, however, th a t “ in ­
juries to eyes by glasses or spectacles broken by a foreign body are
very rare. I t is a very exceptional accident, and a considerable sized
foreign body would be necessary to inflict it, and the damage to the
eye would probably not be less if no spectacles or protecting glass
were in use. Glass such as is used for shooting goggles, of sufficient
strength to w ithstand the im pact of pellets of shot, should be em­
ployed.” A n Am erican shop bulletin states th a t “ in no instance was
an eye even slightly injured by flying glass where the lens was broken
by a flying chip.” The m ain objection to glass, or indeed to any
other transparent medium, is th at after a time it becomes pitted and
obscured. F o r this reason eye guards should be so made th a t the
glass can be easily removed and cleaned or replaced.
Two form s of eye guard have been designed to meet the require­
m ents stated above. One has the advantage th at spectacles required
to correct any error of refraction can be worn behind it. The other
is composed of a strip of leather with detachable eyepieces pierced
w ith holes for ventilation.
A t one factory it has been found possible almost to elim inate acci­
dents due to flying nails, which are particularly serious, by corrugat­
ing or scoring the heads of the hamm ers used.
W here there is exposure to bright light, as in the process of acety­
lene welding, the glass of the goggles should be tinted or specially
prepared to obscure the chemically active rays at or beyond the violet
end of the spectrum, otherwise troublesome irrita tio n and conjunc­
tivitis result. D ark-blue glass is usually employed fo r th is purpose.
11.
Treatm ent of accidents.—F irst-aid treatm ent is all th a t can be
rendered effectively in the factory, but as the subsequent history of
the case depends so largely on the way in which first aid is applied
every precaution should be taken to avoid increasing the injury by
well-meant but m isdirected efforts to give relief. M any factories




EFFEC T OF IN D U STR IA L CONDITIONS U P O N EYESIG H T.

117

are now provided w ith ambulance stations or surgeries, and where
this is the case all eye injuries should be sent direct to the surgery, no
treatm ent being attem pted in the workshop. I f a doctor is on the
premises, the case should be referred to him a t once. I f the injury is
not serious, and he is not available, the nurse in charge of the surgery
should render first aid and subsequently refer the patient to his own
doctor or a hospital. I t is most desirable th a t even apparently slight
injuries should be seen by a doctor. A t any factory where eye in­
juries are common the nurse should have had some ophthalmic
training.
12.
I f there is no ambulance station or nurse, first aid can only be
given by a fellow workm an who should be instructed as to the routine
treatm ent which may suitably be applied. H e should be forbidden
to exceed these instructions in any way, otherwise, though he may
be successful in removing an offending particle, infected ulcers may
follow the operation or he may even perforate the cornea, F irs t aid
is m ainly needed to relieve pain, and should as a rule be lim ited either
to the use of eye d ro p s1 which may be applied-from a suitable bottle,
or to a pad and bandage. A camel’s h a ir brush kept in the appro­
priate solution may be provided for the removal of visible particles
which are not im pacted or embedded, bu t its use should not be en­
couraged. A fter relief from pain the patient should be sent at once
to a doctor or a hospital.
G e o r g e N e w m a n , M. D.,
Chairman.
E . H. P e l h a m , Secretary.
O

ctober,

1 9 1 6 .

1 A leaflet issued in 1915 by the Home Office contains information on this point.




TREASURY AGREEMENT AS TO TRADE-UNION RULES
AFFECTING RESTRICTION OF OUTPUT*—CONFERENCE
AT THE BRITISH TREASURY, MARCH 17,18, AND 19,1915.
In opening the conference proceedings, the chancellor of the ex­
chequer made the following statem ent: 1
“ You know th a t the position is a serious one. You know it by the
speech delivered by L ord K itchener in the House of Lords, I th in k
on M onday last. In every country engaged in the w ar they have
discovered th a t the expenditure of war m aterial is considerably in
excess of any anticipation ever made by the general staff; so th at,
even in the best-prepared countries, the pressure is beyond anything
th a t anyone ever expected.
“ I have no doubt you have read the account of the battle which*
took place last week, which gives you a very good idea of w hat the
increase in the output of m unitions means, not merely from the point
of view of success, but from the point of view of the lives which you
save if an arm y is well equipped. The position for the attack was
prepared by the most trem endous concentration of artillery fire th at
has probably been witnessed upon any given point during the whole
of this war.
“ W hat was the effect of th a t ? I t was not m erely to insure suc­
cess, but, w hat was equally im portant, its effect was to save the lives
of B ritish soldiers in the attack th a t was made. The French told me
in France when I was there th a t by a concentration of fire upon a
particu lar point they were able to achieve th eir purpose w ith onetenth of the loss of life which they otherwise would have needed to
accomplish th at object.
u T h a t is why it is not m erely urgent th a t we should get an in ­
creased output; it is urgent th a t we should accelerate it. E very
m onth th a t there is delay in the output may mean two or three
m onths added to the duration of the war, w ith all its horrors.
“ The Government have, therefore, decided to take action—abso­
lutely unprecedented action—in organizing the industries of this
country for the purpose of increasing the output, in order to give
support to our gallant countrym en when they advance to the attack
against the enemy.
1 Trades-Union Congress, Forty-seventh Annual Report, 1915, p. 220 et seq.
118




TREASURY AGREEM ENT AS TO TRA DE-UN IO N RU LES.

119

“ W hat does it mean ? I do not w ant to use the term i taking over ’
w ithout explaining th a t it is capable of an interpretation which I do
not wish to p u t upon it.
“ By tak in g over a works we do not mean to establish an adm iral
or a general in command of the works, tu rn in g a d rift those who are
m anaging them a t the present moment^ th a t is an impossible task.
“ W e mean to assume control of works which are now being exclu­
sively devoted to th a t purpose. There are certain works which are
not adapted for th a t kind of control, but there are others which are,
and the great works which are now being used for the purpose of the
production of m unitions of w ar are eminently works of th a t kind.
“Above all, we propose to impose a lim itation of profits, because
we can quite see th a t it is very difficult for us to appeal to labor to
relax restrictions and to pu t out the whole of its strength unless
some condition of this kind is imposed.
“ The workmen of the country, I am perfectly certain, are pre­
pared to put their whole strength into helping the war, so long
as they know th a t it is the State th a t is getting the benefit of it,
and th a t it does not merely inure to the profit of any particular indi­
vidual or class.
“ I f we are merely to take over the works and assume control and
guarantee profits w ithin th a t lim it, you will realize th at means th a t
the employer has not quite the same interest as he has now in lim it­
ing expenditure. Therefore we m ight be face to face not merely
w ith the employees m aking demands upon the State which we for
the moment m ight regard as unreasonable, but we m ight find the
employers in combination w ith them, and therefore we should
have employers and employed combining to bring pressure upon the
State, and we should not be in a position to deal w ith it unless we
had a complete understanding in advance.
“ T hat is exactly w hat we want. Before we undertake the control
and direction of these works, and undertake the responsibility for
them , we must have a complete understanding with the employers
and employed.
“ W hat understanding can be asked for? The understanding we
m ust get w ith the employers is an understanding w ith regard to
the lim itation of profits; th a t we must get, and an understanding,
of course, th a t whatever the State wants done there shall be done.
I do not dwell upon those two points; those are m atters which I
shall have to put before the employers when the time comes, but
these are the points I wish to put before the representatives of the
workmen.
“ F o r the moment we are liable to have im portant work inter­
rupted by labor disputes. As I have said before, it is not a question
of who is to blame there. The question is, How is the interruption




120

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

of work to be prevented while you are settling the dispute % T h a t is
the m atter which it is im portant to us to consider.
“ Speaking on behalf of the Government, we do not say th a t the
workmen ought never to complain, or th at the workmen ought never
to ask for an increase of w ages; th a t is not our point. O ur point is
th a t during the tim e the questions at issue are being adjudicated
upon the work shall go on.
“ The first proposition, therefore, which I shall put before you
for your consideration is th is: 6W ith a view to preventing loss of
production caused by disputes between em ployers, and workpeople,
no stoppage of work by strike or lockout should take place on work
fo r Government purposes.
“ 6I n the event of difficulties arising which fail to be settled by
the parties directly concerned, or by th eir representatives, or under
any existing agreement, the m atter shall be referred to an im partial
tribunal nom inated by H is M ajesty’s Government for imm ediate
investigation and report to the Government w ith a view to a settle­
m ent.’ A ll this is purely during the continuation of the war, and
does not bear on anything th a t m ight happen after A v a r .
“ There are three suggestions which I put forw ard for the settle­
ment of disputes. The first is th a t a single arbitrator, agreed upon
by the parties or appointed by the B oard of T rade, should adjudi­
cate—th a t is the first one.
“ The second one is the committee on production. I th in k th a t
consists of S ir George Askwith, S ir Francis Hopwood, and S ir
George Gibb. The th ird proposition is th at a court of arbitration
shall be set up, upon which labor is represented equally w ith the em­
ployers. Those are the three methods I p ut before you for your
consideration.
“ T hat is my first proposition. I should like, on behalf of the Gov­
ernm ent, to establish an understanding w ith labor th at in works
which are tu rn in g out m unitions and equipments for the war, where
there is a dispute occurring, there shall be no dropping of tools, but
th a t some means shall be established by which the dispute shall be
settled w ithout any interruption of the work.
“T he second point is a very difficult and a very delicate one to
handle, as I know. I am very glad at this point to be able to give
you good news from the Clyde. There are some of you here who
know it, but there are others who, perhaps, have not heard it. I be­
lieve there has been a ballot on the Clyde, which began about a week
ago, and I understand th at although the ballot is scarcely completed
the result is overwhelmingly in favor of accepting the Governm ent’s
proposals for arbitration in the m atter.
The second proposition is the suspension, where necessary during
the war, of restrictions of output. H ere again I want to make it




TREASURY AGREEMENT AS TO TRA DE-UN IO N RULES.

121

perfectly clear th a t I am only discussing this suspension during
the war.
“ There is the question of the number of machines which one man
is perm itted to attend to; there is the question of the employment
of semiskilled labor, where under norm al conditions you could not
assent to i t ; and there is the question of the employment of female
labor.
“ In France there is a vast amount of work being done by women
and by girls in the amm unition factories. In th at country they have
suspended all these rules and regulations for the time being, because
they realize th a t the security of their country depends upon it.
“ There are two alternatives before this country, and they are
alternatives which must be presented to every class here. A t the end
of this w ar we shall either be the vassals of the German m ilitary caste
(drunk with success) or we shall have broken m ilitarism forever.
“ I t is because I realize as a democrat how very im portant th a t is,
th at I am m aking this appeal to the leaders of the workmen to assist
us to organize our industries.
“ The president of the Board of T rade and myself will make exactly
the same appeal to the employers—th a t it is im portant for us to
mobilize to the last the whole of our resources, so th at we shall be
able as a nation, perfectly united, to m arch to a victory which is
essential, I can assure, to hum an liberty.”
The following trade-union representatives were appointed by
and from the conference to act as an advisory committee to assist
in d raftin g the proposed scheme: Messrs. A. Henderson, M. P .,
J . T. Brownlie (engineers), A. W ilkie, M. P. (shipw rights), J . H ill
(boilerm akers), W. Mosses (patternm akers), F. Sm ith (cabinet­
m akers), and C. W. Bowerman, M. P . (P arliam entary Committee
T rades-U nion Congress).
PR O PO SALS AGREED U P O N A S R E SU L T OF T H E C O N F E R E N C E .

I.
D u r in g
u p o n

fa c to ry
A ll
w a r

th e

w a r

m u n it io n s

p e r io d

a n d

c o m p le tio n
d if f e r e n c e s

s h a ll

be

Q u e s t io n s
s to p p a g e

d e a lt
n o t

d u r in g

o f
o n

th e

s h a ll
o f

o r

o u t

w a r

no

case

o r

c o n d it io n s

w ith o u t

a r is in g

in

w a r

o th e r

be

a n y

w o rk

s to p p a g e

r e q u ir e d

o f

w o rk

a

s a tis ­

fo r

w a r.

w a g e s

w it h

th e

th e re

e q u ip m e n t s

o f

s to p p a g e
th e

o f
in

w a r

e m p lo y m e n t

a c c o rd a n c e

s h o u ld

n o t

a r is in g

w it h
be

o u t

o f

P a ra g ra p h

m a d e

th e

th e

II.

ca use

o f

p e r io d .
II.

S u b je c t
s e ttle m e n t
s h a ll,

to
o f

u n le s s

a n y

e x is t in g

d is p u t e s ,
m u t u a lly




a g re e m e n ts

d if f e r e n c e s
a rra n g e d ,

b e

o f

o r
a

th e

m e th o d s

p u r e ly
s u b je c t

n o w

in d iv id u a l
o f

a

p r e v a ilin g
o r

lo c a l

d e p u ta tio n

to

fo r

th e

c h a ra c te r
th e

f irm

122

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., I N B R ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

r e p r e s e n t in g
a f f e c tin g
be

th e

s u b je c t

In

a ll

m a tte r

th e

o f

c o n fe re n c e s

o f

in

f a ilu re

b o a rd

(a)
(b)

o r

d is p u te
as

be

o f

to

d if f e r e n c e s

re a c h

th e

a

b e

d e a lt

a

g e n e ra l

o u t

o f

c h a ra c te r

th e

w a r

s h a ll

p a r t ie s .

s e t t le m e n t

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s ,

m u t u a lly

o f

a r is in g

w it h

u n d e r

a g re e d ,

o f

o r

o r,

d is p u t e s

u n d e r

a n y

in

b y

th e

e x is t in g

o ne

o f

d e f a u lt

th e

o f

p a r t ie s

a g re e m e n ts ,

th re e

f o llo w in g

a g re e m e n t,

s e t t le d

tra d e :

T h e

c o m m itte e

s in g le

o n

p r o d u c t io n .

a r b itr a to r

a g re e d

b o a rd
(c )

a n d

e m p lo y m e n t

b e tw e e n

t h e ir

s h a ll

m a y

o f

A

c o n c e rn e d ;

c o n d it io n s

c o n c e rn e d ,

a lt e rn a t iv e s
b y

w o rk m e n
a n d

cases

d ir e c tly
th e

th e

w a g e s

o f

c o u rt

o f

a r b itr a tio n

u p o n

b y

th e

p a r t ie s

o r

a p p o in t e d

b y

th e

tra d e .

A

th e

u p o n

w h ic h

la b o r

is

re p re s e n te d

e q u a lly

w it h

e m p lo y e r s .
I I I .

A n

a d v is o r y

p r o d u c t io n
m e n t
a n d

fo r

fo r

c o m m itte e

fo r

th e

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

G o v e rn m e n t

p u rp o s e

o f

c o n s u lt a t io n

f a c ilit a t in g

b y

th e

o f

r e q u ir e m e n ts
th e

th e

o r g a n iz e d

s h a ll

b e

c a r r y in g

G o v e rn m e n t

o r

b y

o u t

th e

w o rk e rs

a p p o in t e d
o f

b y

th e s e

w o rk m e n

eng a g e d
th e

in

G o v e rn ­

r e c o m m e n d a t io n s

c o n c e rn e d .

IV .

P r o v id e d

th a t

G o v e rn m e n t
a n d

th e

as

e q u ip m e n t s ,

th a t

d u r in g

s id e ra tio n

th e

w a r

a n d

th a t

su c h
a

se t

a ll

p e r io d
ea ch

ch a ng es

w it h

to

w o r k m e n ’s

th e

im p e ra tiv e ,

n e c e s s a ry

c o n d it io n s

a p p lic a b le

v ie w

in

in

P a ra g ra p h
fo r

th e

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

th e

r e la x a t io n

u n io n

to

o u t

c o n tra c ts

b e

a t

o f

th e

th e

w o r k in g

c o n d it io n s
th e

a re

a c c e p te d

o r

w a r

c o n fe re n c e

to

o u tp u t

o f

p re s e n t

re c o m m e n d e d

a c c e le r a t in g

V

e x e c u t io n

ta k e

in t o

tra d e
o f

a re

tra d e

th e

o f

o p in io n

p r a c t ic e s

f a v o r a b le

c u s to m s

w a r

b y

m u n it io n s

as

m u n it io n s

m a y
o r

is

co n­
b e

e q u ip ­

m e n ts .

V.
T h e

r e c o m m e n d a t io n s

G o v e rn m e n t
a n d

e q u ip m e n t s

o f th e

w a r

A n y

to

th e

in

a n d

c h a n g e
p o s it io n

re g a rd

c u s to m s
In

w a r
a n

c o n t a in e d

a ll
o r

o th e r

d u r in g

th e

to

w a r

in d u s t r ie s

P a ra g ra p h
a n d

w o rk

u n d e rt a k in g

o th e r

in

c o n tra c to rs

r e q u ir e d

th e

fo r

f o llo w in g

fro m

p r io r

I V

th e
to

a re

s u b c o n tra c to rs
th e

o n

o n

th e

m u n it io n s

s a t is f a c t o r y

c o m p le tio n

e ffe c t:

p r a c t ic e

th e

c o n d it io n a l

eng a g e d

w a r,

r u lin g

s h a ll

in

o n ly

o u r

b e

w o rk s h o p s ,

fo r

th e

p e r io d

w a r.

N o
th e

o f

g iv e

d e p a rtu re

s h ip y a r d s ,
o f

r e q u ir in g

in

p r a c t ic e

o f

to

th e

th e

e x is t in g

a n y

r e s u m p t io n
p r io r

to

r e a d ju s t m e n t

p r io rity

o f

b e g in n in g

th e

w a r

th e

o f

e m p lo y m e n t
o f

m a d e

d u r in g

w o r k p e o p le

w h o

a n d

th e

o u r

w a r

s h a ll

e m p lo y m e n t

m a in t e n a n c e

b e
o r

a fte r

a llo w e d
o f

th e

to

t h e ir

w a r

p r e ju d ic e

t r a d e - u n io n s

o f

a n y

r u le s

o r

w a r.

s ta ff

w ill

in

w h ic h

be

a re

g iv e n

s e r v in g

m a y
to

h a v e

to

w o rk m e n

w it h

th e

b e
in

c o lo r s ,

e ffe c te d
o u r
o r

a fte r

th e

e m p lo y m e n t
w h o

a re

n o w

w a r,

a t

th e

in

o u r

e m p lo y m e n t .
W h e re

th e

o f
o f

h ig h e r

c u s to m

s e m is k ille d

c la s s

o f

T h e
s k ille d
fo r

th e

m en

s k ill,

th e

o f

to

a

sho p

p e rfo rm

ra te s

p a id

is

c h a n g ed

d u r in g

w o rk

h it h e r t o

s h a ll

b e

th e

th e

p e rfo rm e d

u s u a l

ra te s

w a r
b y
o f

b y
a
th e

th e
c la s s

in t r o d u c t io n
o f

d is t r ic t

w o rk m e n
fo r

th a t

w o rk .

r e la x a t io n
o r

f e m a le

jo b .

In




o f

e x is tin g

la b o r
cases

s h a ll
w h e re

d e m a rc a tio n
n o t

a ffe c t

m e n

w h o

r e s t ric t io n s

a d v e r s e ly
o r d in a r ily

th e
do

o r

a d m is s io n

ra te s
th e

o f

c u s t o m a r ily

w o rk

a re

s e m i­
p a id

a d v e r s e ly

TREASURY AGREEM ENT AS TO TR A DE-UN IO N RULES.
a ffe c te d

th e re b y

m a in t a in
A

t h e ir

re c o rd

o f

t lie

th e

d a te

th e

a u t h o r iz e d

D u e
o f

o f

r e s u lt

n a tu re

s h a ll

be

o f

A ll

a r is in g
w ith

is

g ra p h

w ith

o f th e

c le a r ly

e m p lo y e r s

a n d

V ,

th e

a n d

s h a ll

w o rk m e n
w it h

be

m a d e

so

th a t

th e y

ca n

w o rk m e n

th a t,

if

a fte r

th e

be

p r e v a ilin g

o p en

fo r

b e fo re

in s p e c t io n

b y

is

w h e re v e r

d e s ire d

lo c a l

to

p r a c t ic a b le ,

in t r o d u c e

c o n s u lt a t io n

as

w ith

th e

m en

o r

d e s ire d .

to

o n

G o v e rn m e n t w o rk

w a g e s

w ith o u t

P a ra g ra p h

t h is

it
o f

en g a g e d

e xc e p t

in

c o n d it io n s

s h a ll

c o n c e rn e d ,

w h ic h

s e t t le d

in

th e

a n d

G o v e rn m e n t.

re g a rd

be

n o t h in g

fro m

k e p t,

o p p o r t u n it y

g iv e n

d o w n

e m p lo y e e s

th e

to

s h a ll

la id

be

c o n d it io n s

o r

u n d e rs to o d

C la u s e

o f

b e

o u r

w a r,

p ro c e d u re

o f

s h a ll

d e p a rtu re

s h a ll

g iv e n

in tr o d u c e d ,

o u t

th e

th e

a rra n g e m e n t,

d if f e r e n c e s
so

o f

w o r k in g

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

r e a d ju s t m e n t s

e a r n in g s .

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

t h is

c h a n g e s

I t

n e c e s s a ry

u n d e rt a k in g

ch a n g es
o f

t h e ir

t h is

n o t ic e

a n y

th e

p r e v io u s

123

as

o r

c o n d it io n s

s to p p a g e

o f

a r is in g
o f

w o rk ,

o u t

o f

e m p lo y m e n t

in

a c c o rd a n c e

II.

e x p r e s s ly

u n d e rt a k in g

p r o v id e d

is

to

in

th e

p r e ju d ic e

fo u rth

th e

p a ra ­

p o s it io n

o f

w a r.

L loyd G eorge.

D .

W

alter

R

u n c im a n

A

rthur

H

end erso n ,

.

C h a ir m a n o f W o r k m e n 's R e p r e s e n ta ti v e s .
W

m

. M

o sses,

S e c r e t a r y o f W o r k m e n 's R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .
T R A D E -U N IO N S
F r ie n d ly
B r it is h

S o c ie t y
S te e l

N a t io n a l

S o c ie t y

o f

b u ild in g

Iro n

F o u n d e rs .

a n d

U n io n

S h ip ­

T ra d e s .
T ra n s p o rt

W o rk e rs ’

G e n e ra l

U n io n

o f T e x t ile
S o c ie t y

F e d e ra ­

W o rk e rs .

o f

b u ild e r s ’

Iro n

a n d

S te e l

S h ip ­

a n d

S h ip w r ig h t s ’

A s s o c ia t io n .
S h e e t

M e ta l

W o rk e rs .
U n it e d

P lu m b e r s ’

A s s o c ia ­

tio n .
a n d

G e n e ra l

L a b o re rs ’

U n io n .
G e n e ra l

o f

C a rp e n te rs

a n d

T ra d e s
N a t io n a l

A m a lg a m a t e d

F u r n is h in g

A s s o c ia tio n .

A m a lg a m a t e d




a n d

U n io n

H o u s e

D e c o ra to rs .

a n d

o f

o f

L a ­

T o o lm a k e r s .
T ra d e s

A g re e m e n t

C o m ­

F e d e r a t io n

o f T r a d e - U n io n s .

E le c t r ic a l T r a d e s - U n io n .
B la c k s m ith s

a n d

Iro n

W o rk e rs .
Ir o n m o ld e r s

N a t io n a l A m a lg a m a te d
E n g in e

G e n e ra l

S h e e t

o f

M a k e r s ’ S o c ie t y .

U n io n

o f

B r a z ie r s

a n d

S h e e t

W o rk e rs .
P a i n t e r s ’ S o c ie t y .

Iro n

N a t io n a l

S c o t la n d .

C a b in e t m a k e rs .

W o rk e rs

a n d

S o c ie t y .

A m a lg a m a t e d

P a in t e r s

W o rk e rs

m it t e e .

S c o ttis h

P a t t e r n m a k e r s ’ A s s o c ia tio n .

N a t io n a l

A s s o c ia tio n .

S te e l

W o r k e r s ’ U n io n .

M e ta l

J o in e r s .

W o rk e rs ’
a n d

B r it a in .

A m a lg a m a t e d

S te a m
U n io n

T ra d e s -

O p e r a t i v e s ’ S o c ie t y .

Ir o n

A s s o c ia t e d

G a s w o rk e rs

S h ip

S ho e

A s s o c ia t e d

O p e r a t iv e

R a ilw a y m e n .

C o m m it t e e

b o r.

G e n e ra l

A m a lg a m a t e d

o f

M a c h in e

S h ip b u ild in g

S o c ie t y .

C o n s tru c to rs

N a t io n a l

U n it e d

a n d

A s s o c ia te d

T h e
a n d

U n io n

N a t io n a l

C a rp e n te rs

J o in e r s .

B o ile r m a k e r s

CONFERENCE.

C o n g re s s .

G re a t

A m a lg a m a t e d

S h ip

B o o t

U n it e d

tio n .

a n d

THE

P a r lia m e n t a r y

o f E n g in e e r s .

E n g in e e r in g

AT

N a t io n a l

S m e lt e r s ’ A s s o c ia t io n .

A m a lg a m a te d
F e d e r a t io n

o f

R E PR ESEN TED

B ra s s

W o rk e rs .

L ig h t

P la t e r s ’

124

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

The invitation to your com m ittee1 to be represented at the T reas­
u ry Conference was in the following te rm s:
B

7, W h it e h a l l G a r d e n s , L o n d o n ,
S ib :

I

m it t e e
fe re n c e
th e

am

o f
a t

d ir e c te d

th e
th e

c h a n c e llo r

c e rt a in

T re a s u ry
o f

m a tte rs

G o v e rn m e n t
fu rth e r

o f

th e

th e

to

o n

B o a rd

in

th e
th e

T ra d e
to

W e d n e s d a y,

e x c h e q u e r

o r g a n iz e

o f

C o n g re s s

im p o r ta n c e

e m b o d ie d

s te p s

b y

T r a d e s - U n io n

to

a n d

D e fe n s e
re s o u rc e s

M a rc h

th e

la b o r

to

se nd

th e

o f th e

o u t

of

T

rade,

th e

p a rlia m e n t a r y

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

a t

p r e s id e n t

a r is in g
o f

in v it e

th re e
17,

oard

W ., M a r c h 12, 1 915.

11

o f

o f

a.

th e

th e

m .,

to

B o a rd

re c e n t

to

c o n s u lt
o f

R e a lm

(A m e n d m e n t)
to

co n­
w ith

T ra d e

d e c is io n

c o u n try

com ­

a

A c t,

m e e t n a v a l a n d

o f
to

m

o n
th e

ta k e

ilit a r y

re q u ir e m e n ts .
I

am ,

s ir ,

y o u r

o b e d ie n t

s e rv a n t,
H .

T h e

S ecretary, T




r a d e s-U n io n

C o ng ress P

L

a r l ia m e n t a r y

lew ellyn

S

C o m m it t e e .

m it h

.

MUNITIONS OF WAR ACT (JULY 2, 1915).
PART I.
SETTLEMENT OF LABOR DIFFERENCES.
1 .—

(1 )

p e rs o n s
a n d

I f

a n y

o r

d if f e r e n c e

is

th e

ence,

if

tiv e s

o r

u n d e r

b y

o n

b e h a lf

o r

n o t

o f

T ra d e

as

to

fo r

a ll

a c t

w h e th e r

in

o r,

if

(3 )

in

in

o f

in

o f

t h e ir

a n y

W h e re

t h is

a c t,

a n d

o r

t h is

m o re

p a rt

b e

t h is

b ee n

h a s

a c t

re p o rte d

a p p lie s ,

so

b een

re p o rte d

so

to

re p o rte d ,

th a t

o f

th e m

T ra d e ,

th e

o f

s h a ll

d if f e r ­

re p re s e n ta ­

B o a rd

d e c is io n

a n d

e m p lo y e d ,

t h e ir

th e

th e

e m p lo y e r

p e rs o n s

o r

to

a n d

a n y

o f

c o n c e rn e d

d if f e r e n c e ,
h a s

b e tw e e n

c la s s e s

o f

d ir e c t ly

m a y

th e

d if f e r e n c e

T h e

th e

w it h

be

s u ita b le

is

B o a rd

o r
be

n o t,

a n d

c o n c lu s iv e

a n d

is

a c ts

in

a n

u n d e r

in

th e

su c h

be

m a y

fo r

so

th e

th e

th e
fo r

f irs t

s c h e d u le

a lr e a d y

p e rs o n s

a n d

o f

m a tte r

re fe r

o f

a n d

re p o rte d

s e t t le m e n t

s e t t le m e n t

e m p lo y e r s

th e

w ith

th e

o f

ta k e

d if f e r ­
s e t t le ­
to

t h is

in

e x is t

e m p lo y e d ,

th e

p u r­

fo r

s e t t le ­

u n d e r

t h is

s u b s e c t io n

th e
o f

B o a rd

f irs t
T ra d e

th e re fo r

fo r

s c h e d u le

a

u n d u ly

re fe re n c e

s c h e d u le .

a n d

o f,

th e

o f

s u b s t it u t e

s h a ll

r e t r o s p e c t iv e ;

c o n t ra v e n tio n

o f

a n d

s a id

f o r e g o in g

p r o v is io n s

o p in io n

s e ttle m e n t

o ffe n s e

la s t

th e

re fe re n c e

p r o v is io n s

m a y

o f

m ea ns

a c c o rd a n c e

a n n u l

a n y

f it,

a

m eans.

s e t t le m e n t

th e

d if f e r e n c e

p ro m o te

p r o v is io n s

re fe rre d
in

a n y

to

t h in k

th e

b e tw e e n

th a n

o n

g u ilt y

th e y

w ith

th o s e

m a y

c o n s id e r

e x p e d ie n t

w h ic h

m a tte r

th e re a fte r

s h a ll

in

w it h

a w a rd

e m p lo y e d

p lo y e d ,

s h a ll

o p in io n

B o a rd

a c c o rd a n c e
(4 )

h e

to

th e m

a g re e m e n t

a

th e

to

case

a c c o rd a n c e

d e la y e d ,

a n d

a

a p p re h e n d e d

p a r t ie s

d if f e r e n c e

a c c o rd a n c e

s e t t le m e n t o t h e r w is e

in

a

T ra d e

seem

a n y

e ith e r

su a n c e

to

w h ic h

th e

p a rty

w h ic h

B o a rd
w h ic h

and,

m e n t

is
tw o

a g re e m e n ts ,

e ith e r

a t

to

b y

o r

a n y

p u rp o s e s .

s te p s

m e n t

to

tim e

T h e

ence,

o ne

e x is t in g
o f

e x is ts

b e tw e e n

d e te r m in e d

as

th e

(2 )
a n y

d if f e r e n c e

e m p lo y e d ,

o r

be

if

b in d in g

a n y

f a ils

b o th

e m p lo y e r ,

to

c o m p ly

o n
o r

e m p lo y e r s
p e rs o n

w it h ,

th e

em ­

a w a rd ,

a c t.

PROHIBITION OF LOCKOUTS AND STRIKES IN CERTAIN CASES.
2 .—
a

(1 )

A n

p e rs o n

d if f e r e n c e
re p o rte d
th e

o f

(2 )
o f

to

a n

w h ic h

to

re p o rt,

B o a rd

e m p lo y e r

e m p lo y e d

th e

s h a ll

s h a ll
t h is

n o t

n o t

p a rt

B o a rd

o f

o f

th e

d if f e r e n c e

T ra d e

fo r

s e t t le m e n t

o ffe n s e

a n y

p e rs o n

u n d e r

a c ts

t h is

in

in

a c t

a n d

h a s

cause,

p a rt

t h is

T ra d e ,

a n d

I f

d e c la r e ,

ta k e

in

o r

d a ys

d u r in g

a c c o rd a n c e

h a v e
th a t

o f

p a rt

in

u n le s s

w ith

c o n t ra v e n tio n

ta k e

s t rik e ,

a p p lie s ,

21

n o t

a

in

a

lo c k o u t ,

c o n n e c t io n

th e

a n y

h a s

b een

d if f e re n c e

e la p s e d
tim e

s in c e

b een

t h is

s e c tio n ,

th e

d a te

o f

re fe rre d

b y

th e

h e

be

g u ilt y

a c t.

t h is

a n d

w it h

s h a ll

a c t.

DIFFERENCES TO W HICH PART I APPLIES.
3.
ra te s

T h e
o f

a f f e c t in g
v e h ic le s ,
m e ta ls ,

d if f e r e n c e s
w a ges,

to

h o u rs

e m p lo y m e n t

w h ic h
o f

o n

th e

a ir c r a f t ,

o r

a n y

m a c h in e s ,

o r

to o ls




t h is

w o rk ,

p a rt

o r

o f

m a n u fa c tu re
o th e r

a r tic le s

r e q u ir e d

t h is

o t h e r w is e

fo r

o r

a c t
as

a p p lie s
to

r e p a ir

r e q u ir e d
th a t

a re

te rm s
o f
fo r

a rm s ,
u se

m a n u fa c tu re

o r

d if f e r e n c e s

as

to

c o n d it io n s

o f

o r

a m m u n it io n ,
in

w a r,

o r

o r

r e p a ir

s h ip s ,
o f

( in
125

th e
t h is

126
a c t

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., I N BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
re fe rre d

w a g es,

to

h o u rs

e m p lo y m e n t
a p p lie d
th a t

in

ence

to

is

o f

o n

th e

m u n it io n s

w h e th e r

a

a n y

t io n

o r

t h is

a n d
as

a ls o

to

a n y

H is

a n y

te rm s

d if f e r e n c e s

th e

b y

th e

to

o f

o r

if

t h is

p a rt

p r o c la m a t io n

e x is te n c e

p r e ju d ic ia l to

as

c o n d it io n s

o r

d e s c r ip t io n ,

M a je s t y

M a je s t y

o r

o r

o f

t h is

o n

c o n t in u a n c e

m a n u fa c tu re ,

ra te s

a c t

th e

o f

o f

a f f e c t in g

th e

tra n s p o rt,

is

g ro u n d
d if f e r ­

o r

s u p p ly

th e

o f

o n
t h is

a n y
to

to

su c h

in

a

d if f e r e n c e

c o n n e c t io n

is

th a n

w it h

o n

to

a t

w it h

a n y

tim e ,

th e

d if f e r e n c e

o f

M u n it io n s

d if f e r e n c e

m u n it io n s

o f

th e

to

a n y

w ith o u t

w o rk ,

su c h

s h a ll

b e

th e

t h is

w o rk

r e m u n e r a t io n

c o n t in u e d

o f

s to p p a g e
p r o c la m a ­

c o n c e r n in g

a n d

p r o v is io n s

no

d if f e r e n c e .

d if f e r e n c e
la b o r

a ro s e

w ith

M in is t e r

s e ttle m e n t

a n y

c o n d it io n s

a c c o rd a n c e

th e

th e

re s p e c t

a p p lie d

th e

th e

in d u s try

s e c u re

o th e r

s e c tio n

a c t

b e fo re

o f

e x is t

w o rk

w o rk

in

a p p lie d
e x is te n c e

case

t h is

m u n it io n s

so
in

m e a n s

u n d e r

s e ttle d

b e
is

n o t:

in

a r is in g

p a rt

is

m a y

e f f e c t iv e

p r e v a ilin g

d if f e r e n c e

o f

b y

s t rik e

if

m a d e

t h is

th e re o f

a c t

a p p lie d

th a t

th a n

H is

o r

T h a t

s h a ll b e

o th e r

o f

;

w a r.

d if f e r e n c e

W h e n

w o rk

in d ire c tly

o f

is

s a t is f ie d

w o rk )

o t h e r w is e

o th e r

lo c k o u t

it

o r

d if f e r e n c e

o f

P r o v id e d ,
o f

a

o p in io n

p a rt

is

a n y

d ir e c t ly

w h ic h

m u n it io n s

w o rk ,

su c h

T h is

to

as

o f

u n t il

p a rt

o f

s a id

t h is

a c t.

PART II.
CONTROLLED ESTABLISHMENTS.

4.

I f

th e

s u c c e s s fu l
w o rk
o f

is

o f
o f

c a r rie d

e m p lo y e r s ’

t a in e d
to

M in is t e r

p r o s e c u tio n

be

in
a

t h is

s h o u ld

s e c tio n ,

s h a ll

A n y

excess

o f

a n y

t h is

o f

th e

o f

23 d

th e

th e

th e

th e

e ffe c t
I f

o f

T h a t

to

as

th e

th e

o rd e r

p u rp o s e

w h ic h
as

th e

lim it a t io n

m a tte rs

th a t

b e in g

o f

m u n it io n s

to

o th e r

d e c la r in g

th e

c o n t ro lle d

as

a s c e r t a in e d

p a id
in

in t o

th e

th e

a

co n­

e s t a b lis h m e n t

m a d e

th e

f o llo w in g

1 9 1 5 ),

o v e r

th e

in

w it h

th e

fo r

o r

th e

w ages,
in

h is

to

be

o r

g iv in g
a n y

th e

to

a n y

w it h in

to

o f

th e

G o v e rn ­

m a d e

th e

14

o th e r

b e tw e e n

w as

w h ic h

o r

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,
d ir e c t io n

e ffe c t

s u b m it t e d

co n se n t

s a la r y ,
th e

a g re e m e n t

w o rk m e n

s h a ll

a c c o rd a n c e

e x c h e q u e r.
o f

m a n a g e m e n t

w a g e s

w it h h o ld

e s ta b lis h m e n t

e m p lo y e d

c h a n g e

a n d

th e

ra te

p e rs o n s

in

f a ir

o f

M in is t e r




o f

p r a c t ic e ,

r e s t r ic t

s h a ll
th e

th e

o f

th e

o r

be

o r

g u ilt y

c u s to m
o r

a n y

o f

th e

b e fo re

M in is t e r

d a ys

o f

th e

o f

d a te

n o t

d ir e c ts ,

s e ttle m e n t
t h is

in

a n y

su c h

th a t

a c t,

o r

if

th e

in

th e

c h a n g e

a c c o rd a n c e

a n d

case

c o n tra c to r

chang e,
th e

th e

a n

h a v in g

e m p lo y m e n t

so

p r o p o s in g

th e

h a v e

c o n se n t

th e

sam e

M u n it io n s .

o r

w iie n
o f

to

s h a ll

s u b m it t in g

M u n it io n s

fo r

s c h e d u le

g iv e n ,

m a ke s

p e rs o n s

re fe rre d

e s ta b lis h m e n t

s h a ll

M u n it io n s

th e

M in is t e r

w ith o u t

p r o d u c t io n

be

if

o f

a n d

f irs t

t r ib u n a l,

t h e r e in

h e

M in is t e r

w it h h e ld

o f

c o n se n t

w it h h e ld ,

th e

is

m a tte r

o w n e r

su c h

r u le ,

if

p r o v is io n s

chang e,

A n y

su c h

th e

in

a n d

o f

o f

th a n

Ju n e ,

a n y

(3 )

fo r

p r o v is io n s

e m p lo y e d

o rd e r

o n

s h a ll b e

to

m a y

a r b itr a tio n

th e

th e

s p e c ia l

a c t,

t h is

c la s s

as

la b o r

to

a n d

en g a g e d

e m p lo y in g

b ee n

a n

ch a n g e

(o th e r

co n se n t

r e q u ir e ,

o f

th e

m a k e

e x p e d ie n t

s u b m is s io n :

m i n i s t e r ’s
so

a n y

w h o

P r o v id e d ,

w it h

it

e s t a b lis h m e n t

p e rs o n s

e s t a b lis h m e n t

d a y

M u n it io n s ,
o f

a c t,

c o n d it io n s

o w n e r

to

o f

p r o f it s

a n y

p e rs o n s

e s t a b lis h m e n t
m e n t

n e t

u n d e r

fo r

e m o lu m e n t s
o f

m a y

th e

o f

p ro p o s a l

o r

s u b je c t

a n y

th e re to :

d iv is ib le

p r o v is io n s
A n y

b e

th a t

c o n tro l

h e

c o n s id e r s

w ra r

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

a p p ly

a m o u n t

(2 )

th e

p r o f it s . a n d

c o n t ro lle d

p r o v is io n s
(1 )

o n

M u n it io n s

p ro p o s a l

c o n se n t

o ffe n s e
th e

s h a ll

o r

fo rc e
be

o f

u n d e r
o f

o r

s u b c o n tra c to r

a tte m p ts
fo r
th e
t h is
la w

su sp e n d e d

to

th e

m a k e
c h a n g e

m in is t e r

h a s

a c t.
w h ic h
in

th e

te n d s
e s ta b -

127

M U N IT IO N S OF WAR ACT, 1915.
lis h m e n t ,
p e rs o n

a n d

c o n t in u e
s h a ll

to

be

I f

m e n t,

th a t

B o a rd

o f

if

t h in k

th e y

o f

o ffe n s e

a r b itr a tio n

s h a ll

s h a ll

b e

t h is

t r ib u n a l,

as

th e

r u le ,

to

o r

a n y

to

o th e r

c o m p ly ,

c u s to m ,

to

w it h

p r a c t ic e ,

r e s tric t
th e

th a t

th e

m a y

o f

o r

p e rs o n

it,

be,

th e

d eem ed

to

a

th e
o r,

th e

q u e s t io n

c o n t a in e d

be

is

e m p lo y ­
a n d

B o a rd

s h a ll

o r

t h e m s e lv e s

re fe r

p r o v is io n s
o f

c u s to m

T ra d e ,

q u e s tio n

re q u ir e s

d e c is io n

o r

p r o d u c t io n

B o a rd

th e

p a rty

case

in d u c e

a c t.

d e te r m in e

T h e

to

g e n e r a lly )

a n y

e it h e r

a c t.

o r

t h is

re fe rre d

o r

a tte m p ts

p r a c t ic e ,

te n d s

a c c o rd a n c e

to

r u le ,

u n d e r

e ith e r

e x p e d ie n t
in

s c h e d u le

a

w h ic h

o r

p e rs o n

w h e th e r

c u s to m

q u e s tio n

it

su c h

a r is e s

T ra d e

in d u c e s

p a r t ic u la r

w it h

a n

o r

s e ttle m e n t

f irs t

p e rs o n

a n y

q u e s tio n

p r a c t ic e ,

fo r

a n y

c o m p ly ,

g u ilt y

a n y

r u le ,

if

(w h e th e r

o f

in

th e

T ra d e

c o n c lu s iv e

o r

fo r

a ll

p u rp o s e s .
(4 )

T h e

o w n e r

a n

o f

s c h e d u le
w h o
o f
(5 )

to

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o r

o ffe n s e

b y

a

in

p ro p e r

o b s e rv a n c e
I f
o r

th e

s h a ll
T h e

to

o f
o f

be

g u ilt y

o f

o f

in

to

t h in g s

a ll

s e c tio n ,

a n y

a n d

th e

if

h e

o t h e r w is e
do

in

a n y

a n d

so,

m a d e

s h a ll

b u t

th a t

in

p r o v is io n s

it

o f

is

n o t

m u n it io n s

th e

be

o r

fo r

fo r

t h is

a c t

is

th e

s h a ll

w it h

g u ilt y

s h a ll

e s ta b lis h m e n t

g e n e ra l

o r d e r in g

a n d

re s p e c t

e m p lo y e d

a c ts
th a t

t h is

o f

m a in t a in ­

to

th e

d u e

u n d e r

to

o f

p u rp o s e s

w o rk

do

ta k e

is

th e

so,

c a r rie d

a n y

o f

p e rs o n

t h is

u n d e r

as

a n y
a

g o v e rn e d ,

c o m p ly
as

t h is
a n y

in f o rm a ­

and,

if

in

som e

p a rt

M u n it io n s

p a rt

h e

a c t.

o n
o f

o f

w it h

to

s e c tio n ,
t h is

c a r rie d

tre a t

a re

p r o v is io n s

s h a ll

M in is t e r

o n

e ffe c t

o r

n o t w it h s t a n d in g

th e y

M u n it io n s
o f

o ffe n s e

p a rts ,

c o n t ra v e n tio n

p o w e r,
w h ic h

w ith

M in is t e r

a n

in

e m p lo y e r

a c t.
h a v e

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o f

n o t

a n d

s h a ll

th e

p r a c t ic a b le

th a t

a t t a in in g

deed

o th e r

w o rk

be

e s t a b lis h m e n t

to

r e g u la tio n ,

m u n it io n s

in

th e

to

v ie w

c o m p lia n c e

g u ilt y

e s ta b lis h m e n t

e s ta b lis h m e n t

w h ic h

o rd e r,

in

to

u n d e r

th e

c o n s id e r s

m e n t

o ffe n s e

o f

to

in t o

second

s u b c o n tra c to r
s h a ll

a

so

su c h

a n

o r

W h e re

p e rs o n
a n y

o f

tio n

th e

e s ta b lis h m e n t.

o w n e r

f a ils

o r

re s p e c t

e f f ic ie n c y
th e

n e c e s s a ry

a n y

e n te re d

in

u n d e rt a k in g

a p p lic a b le

w ith

e s t a b lis h m e n t
a c t,

a n

e m p lo y e d

w it h

re q u ir e m e n ts

r e a s o n a b le

o f

a n y

w ith
a n

a n

a n y t h in g
do

r u le s
o r

o u t

o r 'c o n tra c to r

su c h

m a d e

M u n it io n s

s ta n d a rd

c o m p ly

o w n e rs

p e rs o n

e s t a b lis h m e n t

e m p lo y e r

f a ils

o w n e r

h a v e

se t

a c t.

th e

o f

be

p r o v is io n s

b re a k

r e g u la t io n s

o f

th e

th e

a n y

to

t h is

s h a ll

o u t

a n d

e v e ry

a n y

M in is t e r

w o rk

in g

a c t,

a tte m p ts

a n d

w it h

th e

th e

c a rry

u n d e r

e m p lo y e r

c o m p ly

to

t h is

b re a k s

a n

T h e

(6 )

th e

u n d e rt a k in g

o f

s e p a ra te

th e

m a y,

e s t a b lis h ­

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

a c c o r d in g ly .

SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS AS TO THE LIMITATION OF THE PROFITS OF A CON­
TROLLED ESTABLISHMENT.
5 .—

(1 )

T h e

a c c o rd a n c e
th e

(2 )
th e

o f

p r o f it s

b y

T h e

a v e ra g e

s ta n d a rd
o f

(3 )
th a t
sa m e

p a rt
I f

th e

in

th e

o f

a

c o n t ro lle d

p r o v is io n s

o n e - f if th

e s t a b lis h m e n t
tio n a t e

p r o f it s

th e

a m o u n t

e x c e e d in g

n e t

w ith

o f

d iv is ib le
th e

u n d e r

s ta n d a rd

a m o u n t

a m o u n t

c o m p le te d

t h is

o f

o f

n e x t

t h is

a c t

a m o u n t

p r o f it s

th e

e s t a b lis h m e n t

s e c t io n

n e t

b e fo re

fo r

p r o f it s
th e

a n d
s h a ll

o f

s h a ll

r u le s
be

be

m a d e
ta k e n

a s c e r t a in e d

th e re u n d e r,
to

be

a n

in
a n d

a m o u n t

p r o f it s .

a n y

p e r io d

fo r

th e

o u tb re a k

tw o
o f

s h a ll

be

f in a n c ia l
th e

w a r,

ta k e n

to

b e

y e a rs

o f

th e

o r

a

p ro p o r­

th e re o f.
a n y

case

it

a p p e a rs

n e t

p r o f it s

o r

lo s s e s

o w n e r

s h o u ld

b e

b ro u g h t




o f

o r
a ll

in t o

is
o r

re p re s e n te d
a n y

o th e r

a c c o u n t,

o r

to

th e

M in is t e r

e s ta b lis h m e n ts
th a t

th e

o f

M u n it io n s

b e lo n g in g

a v e ra g e

u n d e r

to

t h is

th e
sec­

128

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

tio n

a ffo rd s

a rd

o r m a y

a ffo rd

o f c o m p a ris o n ,

lo s e s
as

to

b e

th e

th e

th e

b ro u g h t

s ta n d a rd

a n

u n f a ir

m in is t e r

in t o

a c c o u n t,

a m o u n t

o f

s ta n d a rd

m ay,

if

o r

h e

o f c o m p a r is o n

t h in k s

s u b s t it u t e

p r o f it s

as

m a y

ju s t,

fo r

be

o r

a llo w

th e

a ffo rd s

th o s e

a v e ra g e

a g re e d

no

s ta n d ­

n e t p r o f it s

su c h

u p o n

w ith

s h a ll,

if

th e

d e te r m in e d

b y

a n

th e

o r

a m o u n t

o w n e r

o f

e s t a b lis h m e n t .

T h e

M in is t e r

e s t a b lis h m e n t
b o a rd

o f

c is io n

o f th e

s e c t io n
in

s p e c ia l

c h in e r y

o r

o f

e ffe c t,

c a r r y in g

a n y

o r

o r b o a rd

M in is t e r

in t o

m a y,

re fe r

a p p o in t e d

re fe re e

T h e

g iv e n
to

M u n it io n s
r e q u ir e s ,

re fe re e s

(4 )
t h is

o f
so

c o n s id e r a t io n

a n d

o u t th e

d e s ig n a te d

th e s e

o f

to

h im

m a ke

fo r

o n

th e

th e

m a tte r

c a r r y in g

fo r

d u e

s e c t io n

in c r e a s e
o r

a n d
a ll

a n y

w h ic h

th e
o r

th e

d e­

p u rp o s e s .

th e

p r o v is io n s
b e in g

e s ta b lis h m e n t

p r o v is io n

m a tte rs

o f

re fe re e

c o n s id e r a t io n

re s p e c ts

o u tp u t,

o th e r

p a r t ic u la r

as

o f

a

fo r

fo r

o f t h is
as

o w n e r

p u rp o s e ,

r u le s

c a p it a l

th e

b y

a n d

be

s h a ll p r o v id e

r u le s

su c h

f it,

to

c o n c lu s iv e

m a y

p r o v is io n s

r e la t io n

t h in k s

m a tte r

s h a ll b e

a lt e ra t io n

in

he

M u n it io n s

c irc u m s ta n c e s

p la n t ,

if
th e

o f

n e w

r e q u ir e

m a ­

s p e c ia l

e s ta b lis h m e n t.

VOLUNTARY UNDERTAKING TO WORK FOR MINISTER OF M UNITIONS.
6 .—

(1 )

is t e r

o f

w it h

I f

th e

a n y

m e n t to

b y

I f

o ffe rs

a c t

h is

a n y

a n

if

h is

a fte r
to

o f

be
h e

o ffe n s e

a c ts

h e

t h is

w ill

m in is t e r ,

if

he

o r

a c ts

o f

a n

o f
in

to

be

o r

to

to

w h o

th e

M in is t e r

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

th a t

o f

p e n a lt y
w it h

o r

th e

f a ils

to

a c t.

w o rk m a n

s e c tio n ,

h a s

M in ­

e s ta b lis h ­

th e

c o m p ly

t h is

a

t h is

th e

u n d e rt a k in g

c o n t ro lle d

f a ils

d is s u a d e

b y

a n

s u b je c t

u n d e r

u n d e r

fro m

a n y

m a d e

in t o

c o n t ra v e n t io n

w o rk m a n

n o t ic e

o th e r

a t
a n d

o ffe n s e

a tte m p ts

a n y

e n te rs

w o rk

u n d e rt a k in g

r e c e iv e d
som e

he

g u ilt y

a n

a rra n g e m e n ts

u n io n s

c o n t ra v e n tio n

e m p lo y m e n t

a t

u n d e r

be

d is s u a d e s

h a s

w o rk

in

w it h

tra d e

th e

b y

s h a ll

in t o

o f

th a t

a s s ig n e d

w o rk m a n

in

u n d e rt a k in g
is

b e h a lf

u n d e rt a k in g

w o rk m a n

a c c o rd a n c e

o n

M u n it io n s

e n t e r in g

r e t a in

in

o r

e m p lo y e r

fro m

to

o f
m a y

th a t

w it h

p lo y m e n t

h e

t h is

u n d e rt a k in g ,
c o m p ly

w it h

M in is t e r
w h ic h

im p o s e d

(2 )

w o rk m a n

M u n it io n s

in

o r

e n te re d

h is

in t o

s h a ll

o r

su c h

o f M u n it io n s

e m p lo y e r

em ­

r e t a in s

a n

th a t th e
be

g u ilt y

a c t.

PROHIBITION OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF PERSONS WHO HAVE LEFT WORK IN MUNITION
FACTORIES.
7 .—
th e
o f

(1 )

la s t
th e

o n

w h ic h

o r

th e

(2 )
tio n s
th a t

I f

th e

th a t

h e
h e

co n se n t

a fte r
fo r

le f t

as

a n

p u rp o s e s

s e c t io n

w it h

th a t

h is

a c c o rd a n c e
o f

re s p e c ts

o f

th e

t h is

h a s

case,

th e

s e c tio n ,

m a y

b e

b y

o rd e r

h is

b ee n

w it h

h a v e

t h in k

e m p lo y e r

th e

a

e ffe c t

a

as

w a s

o f

la s t

c e r t if ic a t e

to

th a t

a

m u n i­

tr ib u n a ls
tr ib u n a l

c e r t if ic a t e
a

em ­
c la s s

w it h h e ld .

th o s e

w it h h e ld

g ra n t

sa m e

to

a

M in is t e r
h e

o r

o rd e r

b een
o f

c o m p la in s

re s p e c t

f it,

th e

w h o m

u n r e a s o n a b ly

u n r e a s o n a b ly

th e y

o f

b y

w it h in

b y

e s ta b lis h m e n t

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

m a d e

h a s

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

e m p lo y e r
o f

w h o

p r o v id e d

o f

a p p lie d

co n se n t

b ee n
if

w o rk m a n ,

a n y

in

c o n se n t h a s

r u le s

a
as

c la s s

w o rk

tr a d e - u n io n
w it h

e m p lo y e r
in to

a n y

fro m

th e

th e

to

p e r io d

a re

c e r t if ic a t e

w w k

o r

o th e r

m u n it io n s

t h is
a

t r ib u n a l

e x a m in in g

th e

o f

e m p lo y m e n t

su c h

w it h

h o ld s

w o rk m a n
in

g iv e
o r

M u n it io n s

p r o v is io n s

a n y

n o t

w ee ks,

c o n n e c t io n

trib u n a l

s h a ll,

o f

m u n it io n s

th e

m a y,

s h a ll

s ix

u n le s s

e m p lo y e d

fro m

in

th e

M u n it io n s ,
so

p e rs o n

M in is t e r

p lo y e d
to

A

p r e v io u s

w h ic h

c e r t if ic a t e

fro m

e m p lo y e r .
(3 )

I f

s e c tio n ,

a n y
h e

p e rs o n

s h a ll b e

g iv e s

g u ilt y

e m p lo y m e n t
o f a n

o ffe n s e

in

c o n t ra v e n tio n

u n d e r

t h is

o f

th e

p r o v is io n s

o f

t h is

a c t.

RULES AS TO BADGES.
8 .—
b ad g es

(1 )
o r

T h e
o th e r

M in is t e r

o f M u n it io n s

d is t in c t iv e




m a rk s

b y

m a y

m a k e

p e rs o n s

r u le s

a u t h o r iz in g

th e

w e a r in g

e n g a g e d o n m u n it io n s w o r k

o f

or other

o f

129

MUNITIONS OF WAR ACT, 1915.
w o rk

fo r

w a r

m a rk s ,

a n d

b ad g es

o r

eng a g e d
th o s e

p u rp o s e s ,

m a y

o f

o n

b y

a n y

a n d

th o s e

b ad g es

m u n it io n s

as

to

r u le s
o r

th e

m a rk s

w o rk

is s u e

p r o h ib it

o r

a n d

re tu rn

use,

th e

w e a r in g

in d ic a t in g

w o rk

fo r

o r

w a r

o f

a n y
o r

s u g g e s t in g

p u rp o s e s

su c h

is s u e
th a t

e xc e p t

b ad g es

o f

a n y

a n y

as

o r

su c h

p e rs o n

a u t h o r iz e d

is
b y

r u le s .

(2 )

I f

r u le s

a n y

h e

p e rs o n

s h a ll

a c ts

* g u ilt y

in

o f

c o n t ra v e n tio n

a n

o ffe n s e

o f

u n d e r

o r

t h is

f a ils

to

c o m p ly

w ith

a n y

su c h

a c t.

APPLICATION OF PART II TO DOCKS USED BY ADMIRALTY.
9.
a n y

T h is

n it io n s
o r

p a rt

p u rp o s e s
w o rk

p e rs o n s

o f

t h is

a c t

c o n n e c te d
is

a p p ly

th e

w a r

on,

w ith

th e

c a r rie d

e m p lo y e d

s h a ll

w ith

in

a n y

su c h

to

a n y

as it

d o c ks

a p p lie s

to

s u b s t it u t io n

d o c ks

o f

th e

u se d

b y

th e

A d m ir a lt y

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

in

r e la t io n

to

A d m ir a lt y

in

w h ic h

a n y

fo r

su c h

th e

fo r
m u ­

d o c ks

M in is t e r

o f

M u n it io n s .

PART III.
*

*

*

*

*

*

♦

POWER TO REQUIRE INFORMATION FROM EMPLOYERS.
1 1 .—
if

so

( i)

T h e

r e q u ir e d

tio n ,

in

su c h

o w n e r o f a n y

b y

th e

fo rm

a n d

in

(a )

th e

n u m b e rs

(& )

th e

n u m b e rs

(c )

th e

n a tu re

in

th e

a n y

d

(

)

a n y

su c h
a n d

th e

th e

m a tte rs

(2 )

I f

s h a ll b e

th e

g u ilt y

m a y

a n y

a n

o f

w h ic h

t im

w it h

o f

to

a n y

e m p lo y e d

m a y

su c h

r e q u ir e

o r lik e ly

as

s h a ll,

in f o r m a ­
to —

t o b e e m p lo y e d

e ;

a t

a n y

su c h

fro m

su c h

tim e

to

tim

th e

p o w e rs

o th e r

e s t a b lis h m e n t ;

p e rs o n s

w h ic h

h is

a re

m in is t e r

e m p lo y e d

a n y

re s p e c t

p u rp o s e

th e

m in is t e r

to

eng a g e d

p e rs o n s

to

m a c h in e s

o n

w it h

th e

th e

tim e

o f

a re

g iv e

p e rs o n s

fro m

a rra n g e

su c h

o w n e r
o f

fo r

as

o f

w o rk

m a c h in e s

o th e r

o f

m a n n e r,

c la s s e s

th e

w h ic h

M u n it io n s ,

c la s s e s

a n d

o f

su c h

m in is t e r

c o lle c tio n

o f

e s ta b lis h m e n t

in f o r m a t io n
a n d

e s ta b lis h m e n t in

M in is t e r

a re

e m p lo y e d

m in is t e r

a n d

o r

e ;
m a y

d e s ire

d u tie s ;

G o v e rn m e n t

d e p a rtm e n t

fo r

in f o r m a t io n .
a n y

o ffe n s e

e s ta b lis h m e n t

u n d e r

t h is

f a ils

to

c o m p ly

w ith

t h is

s e c tio n

a c t.

PUN ISH M ENT FOR FALSE STATEMENTS, ETC.
12.
th e

I f

a n y

p u rp o s e

e m p lo y e r ,
o f

r e p r e s e n t a t io n ,
h e

s h a ll b e

o r

th e

o w n e r

o f

e v a d in g

a n y

p r o v is io n

o r

a n y

f a ls e

g u ilt y

g iv e s
o f

a n

o ffe n s e

a n y

o f

e s t a b lis h m e n t

t h is

c e r t if ic a t e ,

u n d e r

t h is

a c t,
o r

m a ke s

f u r n is h e s

o r

a n y
a n y

a n y

w o rk m a n ,

f a ls e

s ta te m e n t

f a ls e

fo r
o r

in f o r m a t io n ,

a c t.

PAYMENT OF MEMBERS OF ARBITRATION AND MUNITIONS TRIBUNALS, ETC.
13.

T h e re

b e in g

a

re fe re e s
o f f ic e r s
tio n
as

b e

p a id

o f

a n

u n d e r

t h is

re q u ir e d

in

a n d

th e

s h a ll

m e m b e r

tr a v e lin g

M in is t e r

s a n c t io n

o f

o f

o u t

a c t,

o th e r

m o n e ys

b e in g

T re a s u ry ,

9 2 1 0 3 °—

B u ll. 2 2 1 —

w it h

m a y

o r

p r o v id e d

t r ib u n a l,
a

re fe re e
a n y

exp e n se s

M u n it io n s

th e




o r

c o n n e c t io n
o r

o f

a r b itr a tio n

su c h

o f

d e te r m in e .

1 7 ------ 9

u n d e r

P a r lia m e n t

t h is

tr ib u n a l

( in c lu d in g

B o a rd

b y

m u n it io n s

o r

a c t,

as

th e

a n d

b o a rd ,

c o m p e n s a tio n

Tp ad e,

to

t r ib u n a l,

case

a n y
o r

to

su c h

fo r
m a y

p e rs o n

b o a rd
a n y

o f

o th e r

re m u n e ra ­

lo s s
be,

o f

tim e )

w it h

th e

h e

130

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC ., I N BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
PENALTIES.

1 4 .—

(1 )

a

(

A n y

)

p e rs o n

s h a ll,

if

a n

a

d a y

tin u e s ,
ea ch

b e

and,

p la c e ;

th e

if

s h a ll,

th e

if

a n y

(e )

to
A

f in e

m u n it io n s

a

a c t—

o f

o r

f a ilu re

e x c e e d in g

o f

w h o m

th e

£5

o r

fo r

to

f a ilu re

d a y

a n

w it h

o r

o r

p a rt

c o m p ly

to

c o n t ra v e n t io n

th e

o ffe n s e

c o m p ly

ea ch

is

fo r

t r ib u n a l

a

o f

o f

co n­

e m p lo y e r ,
f a ilu r e

d a y

fo r

ta k e s

m a n

lo c k e d

o f

o f

o u t,

is

a

a

to

o ffe n s e

f in e

is

n o t

o f

I I

o r

o f

fo r

a c t

f in e

n o t

ea ch

lia b le

d u r in g

d a y

o r

o f

t h is

a c t

a

f in e

n o t

to

a c t,

be

o f

w h ic h

f a ilu re

t h is

o r

a c t,

£ 3 ;

c o n t ra v e n tio n

to

co n­

c o m p ly

a n y

b e

th e

w ith

u n d e rt a k in g

lia b le

in

re s p e c t

a n d

o r

lia b le

f a ilu re

in

to

re s p e c t

c o m p ly

o f ea ch

w ith

o ffe n s e

£50.

u n d e r

e s t a b lis h e d

d a y

e x c e e d in g

o f t h is

e x c e e d in g

o ffe n s e

a

t h is

a

p r o v is io n s
be

e s ta b lis h m e n t

P a rt

n o t

a

p r o v is io n s

o f

c o n t ra v e n tio n

c o n t ro lle d
u n d e r

a

p a rt

o f

to

c o n t in u e s ; a n d

th e

s t rik e s ,

lia b le

a n d

in

o r

p r o v is io n s
b e

c o n t ra v e n t io n

c o n t ra v e n t io n *

e a ch

th e

lo c k o u t s ,

e a c h
th e

p r o h ib it io n

w o rk m a n

th e

f in e

o f

w h ic h

is

o ffe n s e

a

a n y

a' c o n t r a v e n t i o n

c o n t in u e s ;

o th e r

fo r

t h is

c o n t ra v e n tio n

p r e v e n t io n

th e

o ffe n s e

if

a n y

(2 )

to

£5

b y

is

o ffe n s e

th e

ea ch

s h a ll,

n o t

g u ilt y

re s p e c t

r e g u la t io n s

g iv e n
o f

th e

o f

d u r in g

re s p e c t

t r a v e n t io n

d)

f in e

p e rs o n

th e

in

d a y

e x c e e d in g

(

to

£5,

o f a

w it h

w h ic h

o ffe n s e

e x c e e d in g

s h a ll,

a

re s p e c t

u n d e r

c o n t ra v e n tio n

to

th e

in

re s p e c t

p a rt
(c )

if

o ffe n s e

a

a n d

if

w ith

a n
is

lia b le

d u r in g

m a n

s h a ll,

o f

o ffe n s e

a w a rd ,

o f

(& )

g iiilt y

th e

t h is

fo r

a c t

th e

s h a ll

p u rp o s e

be

r e c o v e r a b le

u n d e r

t h is

o n ly

b e fo re

th e

a c t.

MUNITIONS TRIBUNALS.
1 5 .—
b y

(1 )

th e

T h e

a s s e s s o rs ,

o ne

c o n s t it u t e d
th e

m u n it io n s

M in is t e r

o th e r

o f

h a lf

b y

th e

h a lf

b e in g

o f p e rs o n s

c o n s t it u t e

tw o

so

d e a l

w it h

ju r is d ic t io n ,
t io n

o f,

o r

as

to

o r

fro m

c o m p ly

a n y

o r

o f

tr ib u n a ls ,

a re

w ith ,

a n y

th e

d e a l

r e g u la t io n

g iv e n

b y

c la s s

a c t,

to

th e

a n d

o f M u n it io n s

w it h

o f

p a n e l

M in is t e r

h a v in g

o f

m a y

ju r is d ic t io n
c la s s

a n y

u n d e r

h a v in g

c o n tra v e n ­

a p p lic a b le t o

w o rk m a n

a

e m p lo y e r s

th e

seco nd

o n ly

m a d e

a

b y

p u rp o s e

n u m b e r

fro m

r e p r e s e n tin g

M in is t e r

th e

e ve n

M u n it io n s

f ir s t

t h is

fo r

o th e r

c o n s t it u t e d

th e

u n d e r

c o n c e rn e d ,

u n d e rt a k in g

o f

p e rs o n s

p a n e l

a p p o in t e d

som e

M in is t e r

a

m a tte rs

o ffe n s e s

p e rs o n ,

w o rk m e n ; a n d

m u n it io n s
a n d

a

tw o

a c o n t r o lle d
P a rt

I I

o f

a c t.

T h e

A d m ir a lt y

p r o v is io n
b u n a l

as

to

(2 )

(3 )

T h e

o f

o f

p r o v is io n s

p r o v is io n s

o f

be

th e

b y

b y

so

a c t

b y

th e

in

A d m ir a lt y

r e g u la t in g

a s

as

r e la te s

w it h

to

th e

ju r is d ic t io n

a p p ly

w h ic h
to

th e

M u n it io n s

a n y

o f

a

u n d e r

t h is

m u n it io n s

d o c ks

s h a ll

d e c la r e d

c o n s t it u t e

m u n it io n s

r e la te s

M in is t e r

ju r is d ic t io n ,
s h a ll

o r

fa r

a p p ly ,

s u m m a ry

e m p lo y e d

o f

m e m b e rs

t r i­

to

be

m u n it io n s

r e q u ir e s .

so

th e

M in is t e r

choose

A d m ir a lt y .

fo r

f a r

th e

a n d

p e rs o n s

th e

m a d e

fo r

a p p o in t

o c c a s io n

m a y

a p p lie d




to

tr ib u n a ls

t h is

s ta te

s u m m a ry
so

s u b s t it u t e d

M u n it io n s

w h e n

m a y

u n d e r

o f

b e

o ffe n s e s

o f s ta te , a n d

s e c re ta ry

c o u rt

a n d

m u n it io n s

s e c re ta ry
th e m

w it h

M in is t e r
as

R u le s
o f

s h a ll

a u t h o r it y

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

t r ib u n a ls

c la s s

th e

d e a l

c o n t ro lle d

to

fa r

f a ilu re

e s t a b lis h m e n t
t h is

o f

th e

M u n it io n s

cho sen

a ll % ffe n s e s
o
so

o f

be

w it h

b y

re p r e s e n tin g

c la s s e s

s h a ll

s ittin g

ch o sen

M in is t e r

b e in g

M u n it io n s

to

t r ib u n a l

M u n it io n s ,

a n y
o f

o ffe n s e s

o th e r

o r

a n y

a p p e a rs

m u n it io n s

t r ib u n a ls
u n d e r

m a tte rs

M u n it io n s ,

n e c e s s a ry
a c ts

it

to

a n d

t h is

w h ic h
r u le s

m o d if ic a t io n s ,
p r o v is io n s

e x p e d ie n t

tr ib u n a ls

to

o r

e ith e r

a c t

a re

b y

a

re fe rre d

m a d e

b y

th e

a n y

o f

th e

a p p lic a b le
a p p ly ,

a c c o r d in g ly .

a n d

to

a

a n y

OF WAR ACT, 1915.

M U N IT IO N S
(4 )

A

p e rs o n

th e

n o n p a ym e n t

th e

ju r is d ic t io n

p r e ju d ic e
su c h

to

a

o f a

a n y

f in e

w o rk m a n

trib u n a l o f

th e

b y

m a d e

e m p lo y e d

p e rs o n

b e

o r

w h o m

w a g e s

th e

a

s h a ll

seco nd

th e

a re

o f

to

im p r is o n e d
fo r

b u t th a t

re c o v e ry ,
th e

a n
th e

f it,
a n y

re s p e c t

m a y,

a n d

fo r

in

o ffe n s e

o rd e r

fro m

t h in k

a c c o u n t

a n

tr ib u n a l

m a k e

f in e

tr ib u n a l

p a id

be

trib u n a l

c la s s ,

o f

a c c o u n t

a s

n o t

m u n it io n s

m ea n s

o n

w o rk m a n

th e

w ith

b y

a v a ila b le

to

d e d u c t io n s

*

o r

im p o s e d

o th e r

p e rs o n

a c c o rd a n c e

e m p lo y e d

o f

131

w ith o u t

r e q u ir in g

w a g e s

o f

th e

r e q u ir in g

su m s

o f

w it h in

th e

d e d u c te d

in

o rd e r.

*

*

•

*

*

•

RULES TO BE LAID BEFORE PARLIAMENT.
17.

A n y

m e n t
o f

P a r lia m e n t

s a t

n e x t

m a d e
and,

a n y

H is

v o id ,

u n d e r

if

a n

w it h in

a fte r

a n n u lle d ,
b e

r u le

f o r t h w it h ,

t h is

th e

n e x t

su c h

r u le

is

s h a ll

b e

in

w ith o u t

la id

p re s e n te d

s u b s e q u e n t

is

M a je s t y

b u t

a c t

a d d re s s

to

21

d a ys

la id

p r e ju d ic e

b e fo re

it

m a y

c o u n c il

a n n u ll

th e

to

th e

b e fo re

H is
o n

th a t

r u le ,
o f

a n d

h o u se
b y

w h ic h

p r a y in g

v a lid it y

ea ch

M a je s t y

th a t
th e

it

P a r lia ­
h o u se

h o u se

r u le

s h a ll

a n y th in g

o f

e it h e r

h a s

m a y

b e

th e n c e fo rth

p r e v io u s ly

d o ne

th e re u n d e r.

*

#

*

*

*

*

*

INTERPRETATION.
19.

In

t h is

{a )

a c t,

T h e

u n le s s

th e

e x p r e s s io n

m e n t,
to

o r

th e

to

p e rs o n s , o r to

(& )

e m p lo y

co nseq uence

b y

h im ,

T h e

to

p e rs o n s

o r

a

a id

o f

te rm s

a f f e c t in g

a

d o n e

o r

th e
o f

o r

m ea n s
in

d o n e

as

o f

t h e ir

a

v ie w

o f

o r

m ea n s

to

o f

accep t

p e rs o n s

o f

te rm s

e m p lo y e d

b y

a

c o n c e rte d

o f

a n y

to
o r

o r

in

t h e ir
a id

b o d y

re fu s a l

n u m b e r

e m p lo y e r

p e rs o n

h im
th o s e

e m p lo y m e n t.

w o rk

a

o r

b y

c o m p e llin g

c o m p e llin g

a n y

e m p lo y ­
e m p lo y e r

e m p lo y e d

a n

e m p lo y e d ,

o f

a n

a f f e c t in g

o r

fo r

b y

to

c e s s a tio n

o r

p la c e

c o m p e llin g

w o rk

p e rs o n s

n o t

a

u n d e rs ta n d in g
to

e m p lo y e r

o r

a

c o m b in a t io n ,

co m m o n

b o d y

ac cep t

th e

o f

re fu s a l

p e rs o n s

w it h

c o n d it io n s

c o n t in u e

d is p u te ,

to

c lo s in g

o r

n u m b e r

a c t in g

to

c o m p e llin g

e m p lo y e d ,

r e q u ir e s —

th e

w o rk ,

a n y

“ s t rik e ”

p e rs o n

in

a

o f

d is p u te ,

u n d e r

q u e n ce
a n y

m ea n s

a n o t h e r e m p lo y e r in

e m p lo y e d

o r

m en

a

e m p lo y e d

re fu s a l

p e rs o n s

o f

accep t

e x p r e s s io n

o f

o t h e r w is e

s u s p e n s io n

c o n t in u e

in

c o n te x t

“ lo c k o u t”

e m p lo y e r

o th e r

b o d y

o f

conse­

w o rk ­

o f p e rs o n s

c o n d it io n s

o f

o r

M in is t e r

o f

a

o f

e m p lo y m e n t .

SHORT TITLE AND DURATION.
2 0 .—
<2)

(1 )

T h is

T h is

M u n it io n s

a n d

P r o v id e d ,
12
in

m o n th s
r e la t io n

ta k in g

to

a c t

a c t

th e

th e

h a v e

I

c it e d

o f

o f

th a t

t h is

a c t
o f

b y

o f f ic e

to

o f

M u n it io n s
so

o u t

M in is t e r

1.

A n y
w it h

f o llo w in g

(a )

d if f e re n c e ,
th e

T h e
as

m a tte r,

p r o v is io n s

a r b itr a tio n




A c t,

o f f ic e

1915.

o f

o f
in

to

a p p ly

to

a n y

w a r
a n y

th e

o f

o r

t h is

o f

fo r

e s t a b lis h m e n t
second

M u n it io n s

p e r io d

d if f e r e n c e
o f

a r is in g

h is

u n d e r­

s c h e d u le

to

a n d

M in is t r y

th e

t h is

a c t,
o f

I.

q u e s t io n

to

s c h e d u le

s h a ll

b e

re fe rre d
b e

fo r

re fe rre d

s e t t le m e n t
to

o ne

o f

in

th e

a c c o rd ­
th re e

tr ib u n a ls :

c o m m it t e e
th e

W a r

th e

e x is t.
S C H E D U L E

an ce

o f

as

c o n t in u e

p re s e n t

o w n e r

se t

lo n g

e x is t :

s h a ll

th e

th e

p r o v is io n s

th e

ceased

th e

o n ly

M u n it io n s

c o n c lu s io n

th e

as

e ffe c t

p e rfo rm a n c e
o u t

n o t w it h s t a n d in g
M u n it io n s

P a rt
th e

c a rry

be

h a v e

M in is t r y

T h a t
a fte r
to

m a y

s h a ll

a p p o in t e d

c o m m itte e

o n

b y

th e

f irs t

p r o d u c t io n ; o r

lo r d

o f

th e

T re a s u ry

k n o w n

132

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
(& )

A

s in g le
o f

(c )

A

a r b itr a to r

a g re e m e n t

c o u rt

o f

2.

T h e

m e n t
th e

trib u n a l

B o a rd

3.

T h e

v is io n s

to

th e

o f

w iiic h

th e
to

a n d

b y

b y
o f

o f

B o a rd
is

A n y

o f

th e
2.

a n d

A c t,

1889,

in

o r
In

s h a ll

th e

w a r

in d u s t r ie s

p r a c t ic e

th e

re g a rd

a n y

n o t

s h a ll

a p p ly

fro m

p r io r

to

th e

to

be

a n y

p e rs o n s

w o rk m e n

w it h

d e te r m in e d
o f

su c h

b y

a g re e ­

a g re e m e n t

b y

re fe re n c e

u n d e r

th e

p ro ­

II.

th e

p r a c t ic e

th e

to

w a r

e m p lo y m e n t

th e

o f

th e

th e

r u lin g

s h a ll

w a r

o w n e rs ’
a n d

p r io r

in

o n ly

th e

b e

w o rk s h o p s ,

fo r

th e

p e r io d

s h a ll

be

a llo w e d

e m p lo y m e n t ,

o f

to

th e

s ta ff
b e

w a r

w 7h i c h

g iv e n

w Th o

m a y

to

h a v e

e m p lo y m e n t

m a in t e n a n c e

o r

h a v e

to

w o rk m e n

in

b ee n

w h e n

th e

a fte r

to

o f

p r e ju d ic e

t h e ir

be

w a r

e ffe c te d

th e

s e r v in g

th e

tra d e

w a r.

w ill

th e

o w n e rs ’

d u r in g

in

re s u m p tio n

e x is tin g

b e g in n in g
in

m a d e

w o rk m e n

r e a d ju s t m e n t

o f

th e

w e re

in

o f

c u s to m s

p r io rit y
a t

d u r in g

o th e r

c h a n g e

u n io n s

3.

o f

n u m b e r

T ra d e .

d e f a u lt

in

d e f a u lt

w a r.

p o s it io n

r u le s

o f

in

s c h e d u le .

d e p a rtu re

N o

th e

e q u a l

o r

S C H E D U L E

1.

o r

r e p r e s e n tin g

m a d e

d if f e re n c e ,

p a r t ie s

T ra d e .

t h is

s h ip y a r d s ,

th e

T ra d e ; o r

a n

p e rs o n s

th e

re fe re n c e

th e

u p o n
B o a rd

th e

c o n s is t in g

a p p o in t e d

p a r t ie s

A r b it r a t io n

o f

a g re e d
b y

e m p lo y e r s

c h a ir m a n

b e tw e e n

be

a r b itr a tio n

r e p r e s e n tin g
a

to

a p p o in t e d

w it h

th e

a n y

th e

a fte r

o w n e rs ’

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o f

w Ta r

e m p lo y m e n t

c o lo r s

b ecam e

a

o r

w h o

c o n t ro lle d

e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4.

W h e re

tio n

o f

w o rk m e n
o f

th e
5.

o f

o r

a ffe c te d

D u e

r e s u lt

o f

t u n it y
g iv e n
8.
o f

n o t ic e

th e

fo r
if

A ll

a r is in g

9.

th e

p ie c e

ra te s

th e

w a r

b y

p e rfo rm e d

p a id

s h a ll

th e
b y

be

in tr o d u c ­

a

th e

c la s s

u s u a l

o f

ra te s

w o rk .
d e m a rc a tio n
a ffe c t

m en

w h o

r e s t ric t io n s

a d v e r s e ly

th e

o r d in a r ily

r e a d ju s t m e n t s

o f

th e

b ecam e
b y

a

th e

g iv e n

w o r k in g

do

s h a ll

o r

a d m is s io n

ra te s
th e

be

o f

s e m i­

c u s t o m a r ily

w o rk

m a d e

to

d e p a rtu re

fro m

th e

a re

so

p a id

a d v e r s e ly

th a t

c o n d it io n s

c o n t r o lle d

e s t a b lis h m e n t

a u t h o r iz e d

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

th e

w ro r k m e n

c o n d it io n s

w h ic h

b e c o m in g

c o n s u lt a t io n

d if f e r e n c e s
so

o u t
o f

th e y

ca n

w it h

a

c o n c e rn e d
it

is

w o rk m e n

o r

o f

th e

to

k e p t,

a n d

G o v e rn m e n t.
p r a c t ic a b le

in tr o d u c e

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

t h e ir

p r e v a ilin g

b e

w h e re v e r

d e s ire d

c o n t ro lle d

s h a ll

as

a n d

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

th e

o p p o r­

s h a ll

b e

w it h

in t r o d u c e d

o f

th e

w a r

w o rk m e n
o r

w ith

s h a ll

b e

eng a g e d

re g a rd
s e t t le d

to
in

o n

G o v e rn m e n t

w a g e s

o r

w o rk

c o n d it io n s

a c c o rd a n c e

w it h

o f

t h is

a r is in g

o u t

e m p lo y m e n t
a c t

w ith o u t

w o rk .

N o t h in g

th e re o f)

d u r in g

h ith e r to

e a r n in g s .

e s ta b lis h m e n t

lo c a l

w o rk

d e s ire d .

ch a ng es

s to p p a g e

be

ch a n g e d

a n d

n o t

w h e re

in s p e c t io n

o f

o f

n a tu re

s h a ll

c h a n g es

is

tim e

n e c e s s a ry

th e

fo r

th e

s h a ll

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o p en

a n y

o f

sh o p

p e rfo rm

c la s s

cases
th e

a
to

e x is t in g

p r e v io u s

re c o rd
th e

s h a ll b e
7.

In

t h e ir

o f

la b o r

th e re b y ,

A

w h e n

s k ill,
th a t

f e m a le

jo b .

m a in t a in

o f

fo r

o f

m en

r e la x a t io n

th e

6.

c u s to m

h ig h e r

d is tr ic t

T h e

s k ille d
fo r

th e

s e m is k ille d

s h a ll

in

t h is

s c h e d u le

p r e ju d ic e

w a r.




th e

(e xc e p t

p o s it io n

o f

as

p r o v id e d

e m p lo y e r s

b y
o r

th e

fo u rth

p e rs o n s

p a ra g ra p h

e m p lo y e d

a fte r

MUNITIONS OF WAR (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1916. [JAN. 27,
1916.]
POWER TO DECLARE GOVERNMENT FACTORIES, ETC., CONTROLLED ESTABLISHMENTS.
1.

T h e

M in is t e r

e s ta b lis h m e n t s
m e n t

D e p a rtm e n t

e s t a b lis h m e n t
th e

o r

p r o v is io n s

“ th e
a p p ly

to

M u n it io n s

su c h

in

o r

w h ic h

th e

a n

m a y

u n d e r

m u n it io n s

a n d

o f

t h is

W

a c t

e s ta b lis h m e n t

o r

n e c e s s a ry

to

as

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

be

o rd e r

d e c la r e

c o n tro l
w o rk

a r

o f

is

as

A c t,

a d a p t

in

to

o n

case

e s t a b lis h m e n t
o r

to

m a y

to

su c h

a

c o n t ro lle d

a n d

th e re u p o n

re fe rre d

su c h
a n

o r

G o v e rn ­

to

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

s u b je c t
to

a n y

b e

be,

{ h e r e in a f t e r

c o n t ro lle d

p r o v is io n s

su c h

a n y

M a je s t y

c a r rie d

1 9 1 5 1

r e la t in g

th o s e

H is

th e

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

s p e c if ie d

m a y

b y

th e

e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

M u n it io n s

a c t ” ),

e x c e p t io n s

to

c o n t ro lle d

o f

p r in c ip a l

a n d

o f

b e lo n g in g

as

s h a ll

m o d if ic a t io n s

e s ta b lis h m e n t

o r

o rd e r.

AMENDMENT OF SECTION 1 OF PRINCIPAL ACT.
2.

S u b s e c tio n

a fte r
th e

th e

w o rd s

w o rd s

e m p lo y e r
f id e

(2 )

“ a n d
a n d

s e c tio n

1

o f

a n y

in

th e

in

case
case

w h e re

p e rs o n s

d if f e r e n c e

a f o r e s a id ,

o f

“ in

a n d

e m p lo y e d

w h ic h

s h a ll w it h in

21

th e

w h ic h

th e

w h ic h

th e

fro m

t h in k

a c t
f it

d if f e r e n c e
a p p e a rs

B o a rd

d a ys

p r in c ip a l

th e y

h a v e

th e

is

to

o f

a

th e

f a ile d

d a te

s h a ll

m a y ”

e ffe c t

w e re

d if f e r e n c e

B o a rd

to

th e

h a v e

th e re

o f

s e t t le

b e tw e e n

T ra d e

b y

as

if

in s e r te d

su c h

a

a n

b o n a

s te p s

as

re p o rt.”

AMENDMENT OF SECTION 6 OF PRINCIPAL ACT.
3.
o f

(1 )

W h e re

M u n it io n s

in g

in t o

a

w o rk m a n

u n d e r

th a t

w it h in

d is m is s e s

th a t

u n d e r

p r in c ip a l

p ro v e s

th a t

(2 )

th e

a c t

w a s

I t

is

h e re b y

c o n tra c t

is

n e c e s s it y

is

a

in

re s p e c t

good

in t e r f e r e n c e

w it h s t a n d in g
(3 )
th e

p a s s in g

m e n t io n e d
te re d

in t o

6

o f
in

in

in t o

b y

d e fe n s e
th e

h e

th e

th e

th a t

lia b le
fo r

w h e re

th e

a n y

su c h

p rin c ip a l
s e c tio n

in

o f

a c t
lik e

th a t

OFFENSES BY EMPLOYERS IN

a

a c t

a n y
th e

h e

a

d a te

s h a ll

f in e

o n

s e c t io n
o r

o f
to

th e

a n y
o f

in t o

th a t

u n d e rt a k in g
o f

a n

£5

o ffe n s e

u n le s s

h e

a n

a n y
a n

a c t,

th a t

a g a in s t

ta k e n
fa r

o f
w it h

p r in c ip a l

so

su c h

w o rk m a n

c o m p ly in g

th e

c o n tra c t

e n te r

th e

e n te r­

if

w o rk m a n .

b y

o f

M in is t e r
o f

th e n

g u ilt y

p r o c e e d in g s

th e

th e
t im e

e x c e e d in g

p a rt

6

th e

o f

be

n o t

h is

w it h

a t

e m p lo y e r ,

f u lf illm e n t

a c t io n

e n t it le d

p r in c ip a l

o f

w a s

d is m is s in g

n e c e s s it y

n o n f u lf illm e n t

o f

to

u n d e r

a n d

fro m

ca use

h im
to

u n d e rt a k in g

a c t

e m p lo y m e n t

th e

s h a ll b e

p u rs u a n c e

w e e k s

b e

th a t

e x is t e n c e
o f

s ix

h is

b y

a n

e m p lo y m e n t

s h a ll

w it h

o f

a n d

th e

S e c t io n

fro m
a n d

in to

p r in c ip a l

th e
o f

d e c la r e d

w o rk m a n
th e

in

th e

r e a s o n a b le

in te rf e re d
e n te re d

e n te re d

o f

p e r io d

w o rk m a n

th e re

u n d e rt a k in g

6

u n d e rt a k in g

e m p lo y e r

th e

h a s

s e c t io n

th a t

as

it

is

d u e

u n d e rt a k in g

to

n o t­

c o n tra c t.

s h a ll

a p p ly

to

e n te re d

in t o

a n

m a n n e r

as

if

a

w o rk m a n

w h o

u n d e rt a k in g

th e

o f

u n d e rt a k in g

h a d

b e fo re

th e

n a tu re

h a d

b ee n

e n ­

s e c tio n .

CONNECTION WITH

MUNITIONS

WORKERS ASSIGNED

TO THEM.
4.

W h e re

s e r v ic e
o r

a

fo r

b y

e n te re d
o r

p e rs o n

w h o

u n d e r
t h is

in to

d e s c r ip t io n

w h o

p u rp o s e

w o rk m a n

M u n it io n s
p lie d

a
th e

o f




h a s

s e c tio n

a c t,
a n

h a s

h a s

e n te re d
6

o f

b ee n

t e m p o r a r ily

o n

th e

o r

o r

to

th e

in

a n

p r in c ip a l

w it h
in

o n

in t o

a s s ig n e d

u n d e rt a k in g
w o rk

b een

o f e m p lo y m e n t

re le a s e d

u n d e rt a k in g
a c t,

a n y

o r

to

w it h

o f

w it h

a n d

th e

m

ilit a r y

m u n it io n s

w o rk ,

th e

o r

M in is t e r

th a t

s e c t io n

th a t

e m p lo y e r

M u n it io n s

w h ic h

1 5 and 6 George 5, c. 54.

n a v a l

w it h

w h o m

e m p lo y e r ,

M in is t e r

c o n n e c t io n

fro m

c o n n e c t io n

as

p e rs o n

is

o f
a p ­
h a s

to

th e

o r

w o rk m a n

133

c la s s

134
so

H O U R S, FATIG UE, E T C ., IN' BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

a s s ig n e d

tio n
be

to

h im

o f o r f a ils
g u ilt y

in g

o f

to

a n

is

to

be

c o m p ly

o ffe n s e

e m p lo y e d ,

w it h

a n y

u n d e r

th e n ,

o f th e

th e

if

th e

e m p lo y e r

p r o v is io n s

p r in c ip a l

a c t

o f th e

a n d

a c ts

in

c o n tra v e n ­

u n d e rt a k in g ,

lia b le

to

a

f in e

h e

n o t

s h a ll

e xc eed ­

£5.

AMENDMENT OF SECTION 7 OF PRINCIPAL ACT.
5.

(1 )

(1 )

S e c t io n

a n d

(2 )

o f

“ (1 )

A

7

o f

th a t

th e

p e rs o n
th e

s h a ll

la s t

v id e d
o f

p r in c ip a l

s e c tio n

n o t

w o rk

in

o f

w h o m
h e

h e

is

w a s

fre e

a n y

to

th o s e

o r

n e g le c te d

m a y,

to

a

h o ld s

h is

a

o n

a

as

w h o

o rd e r

o f

b e

c la s s

w it h

th e

p ro ­

a n y

w h ic h

fro m

w it h in

m a y

c o n n e c tio n
to

a

h a s

as

re s p e c ts

c la s s

fro m

s u b s e c t io n s

s u b s t it u t e d :

m u n i­

th e

p ro ­

M in is t e r

m u n it io n s

o f

e m p lo y e r

th e

b y

t r ib u n a l

th a t

e m p lo y m e n t.

th a t

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e
w ith

a n

c e r t if ic a t e

r u le s

e m p lo y e r

a

su c h

o r

in

a

b y

a c c o rd a n c e

e x a m in in g

fo r

p e r io d

c e r t if ic a t e
o r

if

w e re

w ro r k m a n

o r

o f

t r a d e - u n io n

in

is s u e

c e r t if ic a t e

as

o th e r

a p p lie d

la s t s o e m p lo y e d

t r ib u n a ls ,

a fte r

su c h

a re

a c cep t o th e r
o r

to

su c h

e m p lo y e d

h e

t r ib u n a l,

to

o r

e s t a b lis h m e n t

s e c tio n

w o rk m a n

m u n it io n s

e ffe c t

s u b s e c tio n s

M in is t e r o f M u n it io n s

b e e n

u n le s s

h a v e

tw o

w e e ks,

a n y

t h is

s h a ll

e m p lo y m e n t

s ix

o rd e r o f th e

M u n it io n s ,

I f

g iv e

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

v is io n s

a c t

f o llo w in g

p r e v io u s

b y

t io n s

“ (2 )

th e

in t o

th e

o rd e r

h a s
as

case,

th e

if

is s u e

w it h

t h in k s

su c h

a

a

re fu s e d

th a t

f it,

to

re s p e c t

u n r e a s o n a b ly

a f o r e s a id ,
it

o f

c o m p la in s

m a d e

t r ib u n a l

its e lf

c e r t if ic a t e

is s u e

b y

th e

e m p lo y e r . ”
(2 )
in

W h e re

a n y

a

p r in c ip a l

a c t

d is m is s e d

o r

su c h

a

m a y,

in

o rd e r
th e

th e

o f

th a t h e

o f

a s

(3 )

if

th e

d is m is s a l

p r e s c r ib e d

th e

th e
s u m

o w in g

to

c o n d u c t
w o rk m a n
s h a ll

lie u

th e

r u le s

th e

a m o u n t,

so

in

to

e m p lo y e r

o f

th e

to

to

is

o f

n o t ic e ,
t h is

b y

a n y,
th e

a n d

th e

w o rk m a n ,
a

th e

w e e k ’s

w o rk m e n




re p o rt

a

in

lie u

w o rk m a n ,

n o tic e :

eng a g e d

o r

in

b y

th e

o f

ca se
o f

h a d

t im e

24

in

th e

o n

lik e

th e
th e

m a n ­

( in

fo r

th e

is

to

o n e

as

a n y

s h a ll,

m a y

be

p a id
o f

o p in io n
o r

d is m is s in g
t h is

c la s s

b e

s h a ll

d if f e r e n c e )

to

p a y m e n t

fo r

b y

n o t ic e

r u le s

o f

is

th e

w e e k ’s

g iv in g

o f

in

co n­

e m p lo y e r

e m p lo y m e n t

ca use

in

a p p lie d

su c h

th e

n o t h in g
o r

w h ic h

o f

case

t r ib u n a l
o f

o r

to

m a n n e r
a n d

£ 5 , w h ic h

a n d

o n

th a n

th e

h o u rs

su c h

tr ib u n a l

r e p a ir in g

o n

ju s t if y

b e in g

le s s

g iv e n ,

M u n it io n s ,

T h a t

a s

o p p o r t u n it y

in

c la s s

a n d

r e a s o n a b le

P r o v id e d ,
s h ip

b ee n

th e

£5,

w o rk m a n

c o n d u c t

s e r v ic e

a

th e

w it h in

n a tu re

t r ib u n a l

d is c h a r g e .

w o u ld

e m p lo y e d
o f

fo r

n o tic e ,

th e

n o

o f

is

h im

c e r t if ic a t e ,

c e r t if ic a t e

g iv e n

o f

g iv e

e x c e e d in g

a

th e

e m p lo y e r .

e x c e e d in g

u n le s s

fo r

w h ic h

h is

m a tte r

a

th a t

a c c o u n t

d is m is s a l,

h a v e

te m p o ra ry

e m p lo y e r

o n

c o n tra c t

a re

m u n it io n s

a n y

in

o r

b y

n o t

d a ys b ee n

w o rk m a n

a c t

M in is t e r

b y

w o rk m a n
to

h a s

a

s u b s e c tio n ,

th e

n o t

h is

s u c h

d is m is s a l o r

a p p lie s

e s t a b lis h m e n t

p r in c ip a l

w o rk m a n ,
m a d e

a n y

t e r m in a t e d

o f

d is c o n t in u a n c e

w ith o u t

a p p ly

th e

w it h

o f

sum ,

e m p lo y e r ,

o f

m u n it io n s

a

h im

w o rk
o f

th e re u n d e r

f o r t h w it h

o p in io n

e m p lo y m e n t

7

s h a ll

s u c h

tw o

th e

m a d e

is

w h o

s e c tio n

so,

d o
to

o f

m u n it io n s

o f

o rd e r

o f o b t a in in g

d is c h a r g e d

in

d e t e r m in a t io n
if

d e te r m in e d
th e

o f

p r o v is io n s

b y

fo r

7

o r

to

o f

th a n

o f

s e r v ic e

w o rk

th e re u n d e r

w a g e s

to

p r o v id e

s e c t io n

m a d e

o r

s u b je c t

o f

a n

is s u e

tr ib u n a l

w o rk m a n

d is m is s e d

c o n tra c t

f a ils

w o rk m a n

h is

b y

th e

w ith

p r o v is io n s

e m p lo y e r

e m p lo y e r

a g e n t

th e

h e

o f m o re

le a v e s

b y

if

th e

a

c o n n e c tio n

th e

th e

p u rp o s e

to

a n y

m u n it io n s

o f

th e

p e r io d

o r

b ee n

a

w it h

n o tic e ,

o f

h a d

th e

in

a p p lie d

o r d e r in g

u n le s s

w h o

e m p lo y e r ,

h e

o rd e r

o r

a

t e r m in a t io n

p r o v is io n s
a n

b y

s h a ll a p p ly
fo r

a n d

o r

f it,

o r

w h ic h

e m p lo y e r

a f o r e s a id ,

h im

o n

to

b e in g

h is

is s u in g
to

h a s

W h e re

n e c t io n

t im e

b y

t h in k

w a ges,

th e

im m e d ia te
n e r

c la s s

o f m is c o n d u c t f o r

e a r n in g

p a rt

m a y

s u b s e c tio n

g ro u n d

th e

as
to

p a y m e n t

g u ilt y

a

d is c h a r g e d

a d d it io n

e m p lo y e d

o f

fo r

c e r t if ic a t e

T h is

o f

a re

tr ib u n a l

w a s

w o rk m a n

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o f

b y
th e

th a t,
m is ­
th e

s u b s e c t io n
w o rk m e n

M U N IT IO N S O F*W A R A M E N D M E N T A C T, 1916.
e x e m p te d
t h e ir
to

in

th e

a p p ly
(4 )

to

s h a ll
a

M in is t e r
(5 )

n o t

s e c tio n ,

a

th e

w o rk m a n
a n y

h a s

b y

h e

(6 )

tra d e

m a y

su c h

fo r

o f

(c )

th e

fo r

(7 )

b y

th e

o f

a

d e s ire s

fo r

n a t io n a l
la id

h a s
o f

to
in

a

w o rk ­
b y

b y

q u e s tio n

th e

in

p u rp o s e

to

le f t

o r

th e

b e

a

f u ll

tra d e

m a k e

o r

o f

u n d e r­

in s e r t e d

o r

in

th e

c la u s e s
G o v e rn ­

le a v e

h is

w o rk

o f

le a r n ­

o f

w^ages

p e r io d

s ta n d a rd

c o u ld

w h e th e r

f a ir - w a g e s

to

t h is

w h e th e r

ra te

o c c u p a t io n .

r u le s

s e c t io n

a n d

d e s ire s

th e

u n r e a s o n a b ly

a m en d ed

in te r e s ts ,

d o w n

o b t a in

t h is

b ee n

th e

th a t

a c t.

as

a p p r e n tic e s h ip

h is

m a y

b y

w o rk

to

a s s ig n e d

h a s
a c t

th e

in

o t h e r p e r s o n a l q u a lif ic a t io n s

C o m m o ns

te rm

b ee n

c o n s id e r a t io n
h is

w o rk m a n

fo rm ,

case

o f

r u le s

a n y

fo r

in t o

c a r r y in g

e ffe c t,

th e

a n d

s e c tio n

in

7

p a r t ic u la r

b re a c h

s h a ll

n o t

to

p e rs o n s

in

a

o th e r

th a n

su c h

n o t

th e

a n d

eng a g e d

o n

in to

is s u e d

p r e s c r ib e d

b e in g

n o t e x c e e d in g

com e

up,

r e p la c e ­

c e r t if ic a t e s ;

c e r t if ic a t e

r u le s

o f

f in e

d e liv e r y

o f

o r

in

co n­

a n

em ­

w o rk ;

in s e r t io n

m a tte r

a

d u r a t io n ,

d e s tr u c tio n ,

c e r t if ic a t e s

w it h

m a d e

o r

m u n it io n s

a n y

a c t

c u s to d y ,

o f lo s s

o f

w it h

fo r

s e c t io n

th e

to

M u n it io n s

is s u e

p r in c ip a l

T h is

f ix e d

n o t

p r o h ib it

m e n t io n e d

p r in c ip a l

p r in c ip a l

s k ill o r

w To r k m e n

p r o h ib it in g

p r o v id e

th e

le a v e

o f th e

w in c h

e m p lo y m e n t

h a s

c e r t if ic a t e

th e

in to

H o u s e

th e

a n d

is s u e ,
in

p lo y e r
m a y

th e

a

a c t

o f

h e

6

c o n d it io n s

a m en d ed

n e c t io n

u n d e r

o f

o u g h t

p r o v id e —
th e

fo r

th e

o f

o f

h is

c o m p le t e d

as

m e n t
(& )

to

a d v a n ta g e

q u a lif ie d

a c t

7

ta k e

w h ic h

o f

g iv in g

w h ic h

g ra n t

s h a ll

w Th e t h e r

th e

to

o f s e c tio n

th e

d e s ire s
in

o c c u p a t io n

r u le s

p re v e n t

s e c t io n

o b s e rv e

M in is t e r

(a )

a n d

o f

o r

to

f u lly

to

w h e th e r

re c e n tly

p r in c ip a l

b y

as

g re a te r

a n d

o r

to

T h e

th e

c ir c u m s t a n c e s

p u rs u a n c e

r e s o lu t io n

h a s

a p p lic a b le

o f

p r in c ip a l

th e

tr ib u n a l

f a ile d

c o n tra c ts ,

h is

th e

in

le f t

w it h

e m p lo y e r h a s

in g

c ir c u m s t a n c e s

s u b s e c t io n

in

c la s s o f w o r k

e m p lo y e d

b ec a use

th e

t h is

o f

p u rp o s e s

m u n it io n s

r e q u ir e d

th a t

o f

7

s e c tio n

e s t a b lis h m e n t

d e te r m in in g
fo r

m e n t

g ro u n d

so

a p p ly

c o n t ro lle d

re fu s e d

t a k in g

th e

p r o v is io n s

w o rk m e n

o f

o f M u n it io n s

In

o n

th e

to

e m p lo y m e n t

in

th a t

th e m .

o f

m a n

m a n n e r

su c h

p r o v is io n s

s e c tio n

be

w e re

T h e

g iv in g

th e

p r e s c r ib e d

e m p lo y m e n t

135

p u n is h a b le

f iv e

o p e r a t io n

p o u n d s

u n t il

b y

p a r t ic u la r s ;
as

a n

o ffe n s e

[$2 4 .3 3 ].

su c h

d a te

as

m a y

b e

th e re u n d e r.

R A T E S OF W A G E S OF W O M E N E M P L O Y E D O N M U N I T I O N S W O R K .
6.

(1 )

W h e re

n it io n s

w o rk

t io n

o f

7

a p p lie d

in

th e

b y

f e m a le

a n y

p rin c ip a l

a n

o rd e r

p o w e r

b y

as

m a tte r

is

1911,

to

th e

1901

to

la b o r ,

o r

(2 )

be

c o n tra c to r

be

r e la t e ,

w a s

p r in c ip a l
(3 )
p ie r

N o
o f

v is io n s

a n

a n d
in

as

is

g iv e n

a n y
lik e

a w a rd

c la s s

b y

as

t h is

in

as

ra te

b y

o f

th e

if

th e re o f
th e

o r

o rd e r

s e ttle m e n t

o f

a

a n d

so

as

to

u n d e r

h a v e

so

f a r

A c ts ,

h o u rs

t h is

o f

s e c tio n

c o n tra c to r

w o rk e rs

w h ic h

b e in g

s h a ll

W o rk s h o p s

to

n o n c o m p lia n c e
in

tim e

m u ­

sec­

e m p lo y e d .

a n y

th e

d if f e r e n c e

o f

( s u b je c t,

S ta te )

a n d

f e m a le

th e

o r

M u n it io n s

e s ta b lis h m e n t
th e

fo r

w ages,

o f

w it h

p r o v is io n s

M u n it io n s

w o rk e rs

o f

c o n n e c t io n

a re
o f

S e c re ta ry
f e m a le

a n d

in
th e

F a c to ry

th e

M in is t e r

th e

c o n t ra v e n tio n
m a n n e r

th e

th e

o f

th e
o f

a c t

M in is t e r

to

o f

o r

w h ic h

th e

w it h

t h e r e in

m a d e

b y

o n

to

a m e n d e d

d e a lt

o w n e r

la b o r

a

th e re u n d e r,

e m p lo y m e n t

th e

e m p lo y e d

o f

c o n c u rre n c e

o f

e m p lo y in g

p u n is h a b le ,

t a in e d

o n

a re

d ir e c tio n s

w h ic h

d ir e c tio n s

b in d in g

r e c t io n s

g iv e

c o n d it io n s

A n y

s h a ll

to

a c t

m a d e

o ne

th e

o rd e r

w o rk e rs

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o r

w h o m

th e r e w ith

d ir e c tio n

u n d e r

su b ­

th e

P a rt

is
I

d i­

s h a ll
co n­

o f

th e

a c t.
d ir e c tio n

a n y
o f

r e g u la t io n s

g iv e n

fa c to ry

th e

F a c to ry

m a d e




o r

u n d e r

t h is

w o rk s h o p
a n d

s e c t io n

fro m

W o rk s h o p s

th e re u n d e r,

o r

to

th e

s h a ll b e

A c t,

a ffe c t

d eem ed

o b lig a t io n

th e

1901

to

lia b ilit y

to

1911,
o f

to

r e lie v e

c o m p ly
o r
a n y

o f

th e

w 7i t h
a n y

p e rs o n

th e

occu­
p ro ­

o rd e rs
to

b e

o r

p ro -

136

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ET C ., I N BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

ceeded
so,

a g a in s t

h o w e v e r,

RATES

fo r

th a t

a n

o ffe n s e

u n d e r

no

OF

OF W A G E S

p e rs o n

b e

S E M IS K IL L E D

th e

tw ic e

E m p lo y m e n t

p u n is h e d

AND

fo r

th e

U N S K IL L E D

o f

C h ild r e n

sam e

A c t,

1 9 0 3 ,1

o ffe n s e .

LA BO R I N

CONTRO LLED

ESTAB­

L ISH M E N T S.
7.
a s

T h e

to

M in is t e r

th e

s k ille d
t io n s

ra te

a n d
w o rk

w h ic h

b e in g
b y

s h e ll

m en
o f

a

a n d
w a s

o r

s u b c o n tra c to r
r e la t e ,

p u n is h a b le

o r

b in d in g

in

a n y

lik e

m a d e

th e

if

s e ttle m e n t

8.

(1 )

b u n a ls
r e la t e
to

T h e

to
to

m a tte rs

g iv e

m a y

r e f e r r in g

p r in c ip a l
(2 )

so

g iv e n

b y

(3 )

fo r

th e

w h ic h

th e

u n d e r

m a y

M in is t e r

th e

o f M u n it io n s

la s t

tw o

d if f e r e n c e

s e ttle m e n t

in

p r e c e d in g
fo r

I

o f

to

a n y

a n y

d ir e c t io n

c o n tra c to r

w h o m

th e

t h e r e w ith
is

o f

d ir e c ­

s h a ll

th e

w a s

p r in c ip a l

a c t* .

h a s

a r b it r a t io n

p r in c ip a l

g iv e n

‘s e c tio n s ,

o r

a n d

is

t r i­

a c t w h ic h

e m p o w e re d

th e

B o a rd

to

su c h

tr ib u n a l

in

th e

f irs t

s c h e d u le

s p e c ia l

o f

to

a

w it h

b e

c o n t a in e d

th e

s p e c ia l

o f

s e t t le m e n t

a c c o rd a n c e

c u s t o m a r ily

in

a n d

I

s e m i­
m u n i­

T R IB U N A L S .

c o n s t it u t e
P a rt

o f
o n

e s ta b lis h m e n t

d ir e c tio n

P a rt

u n d e r

d ir e c tio n s

m a n u fa c tu re

w a r ; a n d

w o rk e rs

re p o rte d

th e

su c h

M in is t e r

o f

c o n s t it u t e d ,
h im

T h e

to

it

a n y

th e

n o n c o m p lia n c e

d if f e r e n c e

M u n it io n s

w h ic h
u n d e r

a

w a s

th e

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

o r

in

w Ta r ,

fo r

c o n t ro lle d

to

g iv e

lie u
th e

a c t.

T h e

b u n a l

a re

o n

re fe r

o f

o rd e r

p r io r

a n d

th e re o f

th e

a n y

to

e m p lo y m e n t

e s ta b lis h m e n t

ra te s

in

th e

o f

OF S P E C IA L A R B IT R A T IO N

d if f e r e n c e s

d ir e c tio n s

T ra d e
o f

M in is t e r

d e a l w it h

o f

to

tim e

cases

t h e r e in ,

th e
o f

E S T A B L IS H M E N T

p r io r

c u s to m a ry

la b o r

as

c o n t r o lle d

th e

o w n e r

o rd e r

a n y

to

c o n t ra v e n tio n

m a n n e r

in

n o t

o n

b y

c o n d it io n s

w h ic h ,

as

p o w e r

o r

in

c a r t r id g e

e m p lo y in g

a n d

h a v e

la b o tf ,

c la s s

la b o r ,

fu s e s

s h a ll b e

s h a ll
o f

e m p lo y e d

m a n u fa c tu re

su c h

a w a rd

h o u rs

w o rk

a n d

g iv e n

a n

M u n it io n s

s k ille d

so

tio n s

o f

w a ges,

u n s k ille d

u n d e rta k e n
c o m p le te

o f

b e

u n d e r

th e

t r ib u n a l
re fe rre d

M u n it io n s

fo r

to

a d v ic e ,
s a id

a ls o

re fe r

q u e s tio n

to

as

to

w h a t

a r b it r a t io n

d ir e c t io n s

a re

t r i­

to

b e

s e c t io n s .

w h ic h

u n d e r

m a y
a n y

t h is

m a tte rs

a n d

s e c t io n

s h a ll

q u e s t io n s
in c lu d e

r e la t in g

o ne

o r

to

f e m a le

m o re

w o rk e rs

w o m en.

E X T E N S I O N OF D E F I N I T I O N OF M U N I T I O N S W O R K .
9.
a c t

(1 )
a n d

T h e
t h is

(a )

e x p r e s s io n
a c t

th e

“ m u n it io n s

m a n u fa c tu re

v e h ic le s ,

a n d

(w h e th e r
a d a p te d
o f

s h ip s

f u l

a

o r

fo r

a n y

o f

c la s s

as

m u n it io n s
t io n
fo r

o f
th e

p u rp o s e s

o f

w o rk

w a r;

in

th e

p r in c ip a l

m

o r

o r

is

o r

n o t)

n e c e s s a ry

o f

b e
a n y
o r

v e s s e ls ,

m e ta ls ,

r e p a ir ,

fo r

th e

u se

in

a r tic le s

in te n d e d
o r

w h ic h
fo r

o f

th e

b y

su c h

o r

c la s s e s
m a y

th e

b e

success­

m a c h in e s ,

a n d

p u rp o s e
a n y

v e s s e ls ,

o f

v e s s e ls ,

o r

r e p a ir

o f

o f

w o rk s

p u rp o s e s ,

in te n d e d

o r

to o ls

m a te r ia ls

th e

M in is t e r

m a n u fa c tu re

o r

to

t h e r e in ,

p e rs o n s

b e

a n d

o f
o f

c a r rie d

a n d

en g a g e d

th e
o r

c o n s tr u c tio n

b u ild in g s
on,

a n d

e r e c t io n
a b o u t

in

to

th e
o f

b e

a n d

w h ic h
e re c ­

h o u se s
e n g a g e d

a n d

a lt e r a t io n ,

w o rk

o r

s h ip s

s h ip s

fo r

ilit a r y

p la n t

a c c o m m o d a t io n

a n d

a f o r e s a id

s h ip s ,

p a rts

a n d

a n d

w o rk ;

o r

to

o rd e r
o r

a r tic le s

o th e r

o f

a n d

a n
fo r

o r

is

th e

T ra d e

a lt e ra tio n ,
n a v a l

to

m a n u fa c tu re

r e q u ir e d

c o n s tr u c tio n ,




th e

a m m u n it io n ,

o th e r

o f a n y

p a rts
o f

su c h

m a c h in e r y

m u n it io n s

h a rb o rs ,

o f

a f o r e s a id ;

fo r

a n d

o r

s p e c if ie d

c o n s t r u c t io n ,

th e

th e

a rm s ,

a n y

n a tu re

B o a rd

a n y

M u n it io n s ,

b u ild in g s

(c )

fo r

o f

a n d

w a r,

v e s s e ls ,
th e

o f

o n

in

p r o s e c u tio n

r e p a ir

r e p a ir

s im ila r

u se

b y

r e q u ir e d

th e

o r

a ir c r a f t ,

o f

fo r

c e r t if ie d

(6 )

w o r k ”

m e a n s—

in

r e p a ir ,

e s tu a r ie s

in

o r

m a in t e n a n c e

cases

1 3 Edward 7, c. 45.

w h e re

su c h

o f

d o c ks

a n d

c o n s t r u c t io n ,

M U N IT IO N S OF WAR A M E N D M E N T ACT, 1916.
a lte ra tio n ,
m

ir a lt y

r e p a ir ,

to

b e

m a in t e n a n c e ,

n e c e s s a ry

fo r

o r

th e

w o rk

is

s u c c e s s fu l

137

c e r t if ie d

b y

p r o s e c u tio n

th e

o f

A d ­

th e

w a r;

a n d
(d )

th e

s u p p ly

o f lig h t ,

f a c ilit ie s

in

su c h

s u p p ly

t io n s

w o rk ,

r e q u ir e d

e)

(

th e

is
(2 )

In

“ o r

in

tu re

o r

r e p a ir

o f

th e

o n ,”

in

o r

5

n o t

o f

o r

in

t h is

o f

tra m w a y s

c e r t if ie s

c a r r y in g

th a t

o n

m u n i­

a n d

m a c h in e r y ,

f ire - b rig a d e

p la n t

a p p lia n c e s

th a t

in

su c h

r e p a ir

th e

w o rd s

th e

w o rd s

b e

a d d e d

a fte r

th o s e

w o rd s

o c c u r,

s e c t io n

th e

d a te

w o rd s

to

as ”

u n t il

fo r

th e

“ th e

a ir c r a f t ,

m a c h in e s ,

re fe rre d

o p e r a t io n

th e

th e

v e h ic le s ,

m e ta ls ,

a c t

as

o f

c e r t if ie s

s h a ll

w h e re

s h ip s ,

o f

in t o

a c t

o th e r

th e re

sa m e

t h is

com e

p u rp o s e

M u n it io n s

p la c e s

th e

w a r,

r e p a ir

s h a ll

s e c tio n

in

s u p p ly

in te r e s t.

a c t

b o th

th e

M u n it io n s

b u ild in g s ,

a n y

n a t io n a l

in

th e

o f

o f

a m m u n it io n ,

u se

fo r

a n d

p r in c ip a l

a rm s ,

fo r

s e c tio n

u n d e r

in

o r
o f

a n d

M in is t e r

w it h , ’* a n d

m a n u fa c tu re

T h is

e n g in e s

p o w e r,

M in is t e r

e r e c t io n

s u p p ly ;

th e

th e

e m p lo y m e n t

re q u ir e d

th a t

(3 )
m a d e

o f

c o n n e c t io n

a r t ic le s
fo r

3

th e

f ire

n e c e s s a ry

o r

th e

im p o r ta n c e

su c h

o f

w a te r,

w h e re

o f

a n d

w h e re

s e c tio n

“ a f f e c tin g

is

fo r

r e p a ir

cases

h e a t,

cases

o r

o r

a n y

to o ls

s h a ll b e

th e

m a n u fa c ­

tim e

o th e r

r e q u ir e d

r e p e a le d .

f ix e d

b y

co m m e n cem en t

r u le s

o f

th a t

s e c tio n .

A M E N D M E N T OF SE C T IO N 9 OF P R IN C I P A L A C T .
10.
b e

A t

th e

en d

o f

s e c t io n

9

o f

th e

p r in c ip a l

a c t

th e

f o llo w in g

p r o v is o

s h a ll

in s e r te d :
“

P r o v id e d ,

a c t

to

a n y

T h a t

d o c k

th e

p o w e r

s h a ll

re s t

o f

m a k in g

w it h

th e

a n

o rd e r

M in is t e r

o f

a p p ly in g

s e c t io n

M u n it io n s

a n d

7

n o t

o f

t h is

w it h

th e

A d m ir a lt y . ”

A M E N D M E N T OF S E C T IO N 4 OF P R IN C I P A L A C T .
11.

S u b s e c tio n

w o rd s

“ o r

t r o lle d

(2 )

a n y

o f

w it h
th e

re g a rd

w o rd s

s e c t io n

a g re e m e n t

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

p lo y e e
a fte r

to

4

b e tw e e n

to

a n y

“ n in e te e n

o f

th e

h u n d re d

F o r

m a n

”

r e m o v in g

a n d

in c lu d e

d o u b ts

“ w o rk m e n ,”

n o t

o n ly

a ls o

fo re m e n ,

tio n

c o n s is t s

w h o lly

w h o se

t y p is t s ,
o r

is

m a in ly

in

13.

S u b s e c tio n
“ o f th e

(4 )

o f

second

OF TE R M

th e y

w o rk

s e c tio n

15

w e re

o f

th e
o f

s h a ll

b e

re a d

as

if

b ecam e

e s t a b lis h m e n t

r e m u n e r a t io n

”

th e
con­

a n

a n d
w e re

a

em ­

in s e r t e d

“ W O R K M A N .”

d e c la r e d
o c c u r

in

th a t
th e

o c c u p a tio n
a n d

o th e r

OF SE C T IO N

c la s s ”

o f

a c t

e s t a b lis h m e n t

f if t e e n . ”

d ra fts m e n ,

AM ENDM ENT

w o rd s

a n d

u s u a l

th e

in c r e a s e

h e re b y

w h e re v e r

p e rs o n s

c le r k s ,

it

p r in c ip a l

b e fo re

o w n e r

p e r io d ic a l

E X P L A N A T IO N
12.

th e

e x is t in g

c o n s is t s

o th e r
th a n

th e

e x p r e s s io n s

p r in c ip a l

p e rs o n s

in

a c t

m a n u a l

w h o se

“ w o rk ­

a n d

t h is

a c t,

la b o r

b u t

u s u a l

o ccup a­

m a n u a l la b o r .

1G OF P R IN C I P A L A C T.

th e

p r in c ip a l

s tru c k

a c t

s h a ll

b e

re a d

as

if

th e

o u t.

P U N I S H M E N T FOR F A L S E S T A T E M E N T S , ETC.
14.

F o r

s t it u t e d
“ 12.
a n y

s e c t io n

12

o f

th e

p rin c ip a l

a c t

th e

f o llo w in g

s e c tio n

s h a ll

be

su b ­

:
I f

f a ls e

a n y

p e rs o n

c e r t if ic a t e ,

“ (a )

fo r

“ (& )

in

th e
a n y

n a l,

o r

m a ke s

p u rp o s e

o f

p r o c e e d in g s

re fe re e ,

o r

th e re u n d e r;

o r




a n y

f u r n is h e s

f a ls e
a n y

e v a d in g
b e fo re

b o a rd

o f

s ta te m e n t

f a ls e
a n y
a n y

o r

r e p r e s e n t a t io n ,

o r

g iv e s

in f o r m a t io n —
p r o v is io n
m u n it io n

re fe re e s

u n d e r

o f

t h is

tr ib u n a l,
t h is

a c t

a c t;

o r

a r b itr a tio n
o r

th e

r u le s

tr ib u ­
m a d e

138

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., I N BRITISH' M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
“ (c )

to

th e

th e
o r
o r

if

a n y

t h is
s u c h
o f

a

a n d

su c h

w it h
n o t

o r

o n

c o n v ic tio n

w ith o u t

h a rd

f if t y

la b o r

W h e re

to

in

a

o f

th e

g u ilt y

f if t y

u n io n

to

b e

n o n u n io n

c o n t ro lle d

e m p lo y

d e em e d

p o u n d s

d eem ed

to

if

a n

a

is

FR O M

h e

th a t

b re a k s

o r

u n d e r
b u t,

c h a n g e

o f

a n y

g iv e n

o th e r
h e

u n d e r
a

b e

p e rs o n

s h a ll

be

J u r is d ic t io n

e x c e e d in g

U N IO N

in tro d u c e d

th e

su c h

fo r

o b t a in in g

s e c tio n

p e rs o n

to

A c ts

th re e

to

h a v e

g u ilt y

7

o f

w h o m

p o s s e s s io n

o f

to

a n

o ffe n s e

im p r is o n m e n t

m o n th s

s u b je c t

it

th e

w a s

o w n e r

to

p rin c ip a l
as

w o r k in g

N O N U N IO N

th e

o f

o r

to

a

f in e

b re a k

w a r

su c h

a f o r e s a id ,

in to

o n ly

a n

lia b le
su c h

a n y

p r io r

c la s s

to

th e

e s t a b lis h m e n t

s h a ll

a c t a n d

LABO R.

p r a c t ic e

th e

in t r o d u c t io n

a tte m p ts

th e

TO

d u r in g

w h ic h

e x c lu s iv e ly ,

[ $ 2 4 3 .3 3 ];

be

CHANGE

la b o r

o ffe n s e

h im ,

o f

to

h im s e lf

a lo n e ,

n o t

b y

o r

w o rk m a n ;
c e r t if ic a t e

S u m m a ry
te rm

e m p lo y e d

e m p lo y m e n t ,

[$2 4 3 .3 3 ] .

u n d e rta k e n

a n d

o f

a

u se

e s ta b lis h m e n t in

la b o r

h a v e

w a r,

ON

a

a llo w s

h is

th e

fo r

p o u n d s ”

o r

fo r

u n d e r

w it h

re p re s e n ts

g iv e n ,

is s u e d

R E S T R IC T IO N S
15.

a n y

f a ls e ly

e x c e e d in g

w o rk

o f

o r

b ee n

o f f ic e r

s e r v ic e s

th e

ta m p e rs

h a s

tin y

r e t a in in g

o r

c e r t if ic a t e

o r

o r

p e rs o n a te s

o r

lia b le

M u n it io n s

o b t a in in g

a lt e rs

c e r t if ic a t e

a n y

o f

o f

r e t a in in g

p e rs o n

a c t,

M in is t e r

p u rp o s e

be

fo r

s h a ll

th e

u n d e rt a k in g

to

a

f in e

n o t

in tr o d u c tio n

o f

w a r
b e

p e r io d

h e

s h a ll

e x c e e d in g

s h a ll

n o t

b e

c o n d it io n s .

E X T E N S I O N OF SE C T IO N 1 1 OF P R IN C I P A L A C T .
16.
th e

(1 )

In

s u b s e c tio n

m a tte rs

in

re s p e c t

e m p lo y e d

a re ,

f o llo w in g

p a ra g ra p h

(cc)

if

(1 )

T h e

11

o f

o w n e rs

o f

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

b y

r e q u ir e d

s e c tio n

w h ic h

o f

M in is t e r

s h a ll

a n d

I f

a c t,

as

a n y

u se

a m e n d e d

m is d e m e a n o r
la b o r ,

fo r

a n d

t h is

a n d

as

o r

a n y

n o t

te rm

be

e x c e e d in g

(c )

a r t ic le s
th e

a u t h o r iz e d
g iv e n

lia b le

tw o

to

y e a rs ,

o f

b y

th e

u n d e r

POW ERS
17.

(1 )

poses

o f

A n
th e

p r e m is e s
a

o f

a n y

w o rk s h o p )

fo rc e

as

w is e ,

o f

o r

s u p p ly

n e c e s s a ry

to

t io n

a ll

(2 )
a n y

th e

d e a lt
fo r
b y
to

M in is t e r
s e c t io n

a n y

a n y
su c h
m a y
I f

in

su c h

o f

su c h
th e

a n y

p e rs o n




t h is

o r

a

a n y

h e

su c h

to

su c h
th e m .

M u n it io n s ,
th e

b e

b o th

th e

w h o m

o f

o r

in

p ro d u c ­

s u p p ly

o f

s h a ll
w it h

o r

a n y

su c h
th e

d is ­

p r in c ip a l

g u ilt y

o f

w ith o u t

a

h a rd

im p r is o n m e n t

it

u n d e r

o w n e r

o f
o f

o th e r

is

th e

t h e r e in

to

a c t

in q u iry

p ro d u c e

d o c u m e n ts

o f

m a y

th e
b e

e v e ry

s h a ll

as

in
th e

o th e r­

a n d

fo r

th e

b e in g

w ith

as

e s ta b lis h m e n t

p u r­

p u t

o r

c o n n e c tio n

s h a ll

s im ila r

n o t

a n y

e s ta b lis h m e n t

th e

a n d

h o u se

p r in c ip a l
in

a n d

th e

th e
tim e s

d e s ira b le

e m p lo y e d

in f o r m a t io n

fo r

r e a s o n a b le

d w e llin g

e x a m in a t io n

a n d

a ll

w h e th e r

in f o r m a t io n ,

b o o ks,

M u n it io n s

a t

p r iv a t e

d ir e c tio n

o r

o f

e n te r

p e rs o n

w h e th e r

a n d

m a n a g e m e n t

w a g e s

to

a s c e r t a in in g

m a k e

a ll

M in is t e r

th a n

o b t a in in g

to

in s p e c t o r

u n d e r

(o th e r

p u rp o s e ,

r e g is t e r s ,

th e

p o w e r

M u n it io n s ,
o f

a n d

r e a s o n a b ly

p o w e r

b y

h a v e

o f

f in e ,

11

w it h

su c h

OF IN S P E C T O R S .

e s t a b lis h m e n t

p u rp o s e

m u n it io n s
fo r

s h a ll

p u rp o s e

a n y

M in is t e r
th e

eng a g e d

n is h

s p e c to r

th e

o f

p e rs o n

fo r

fo r

a p p o in t e d

a c t

e s ta b lis h m e n t

re s p e c ts

p o w e rs

o f

in s p e c t o r
p r in c ip a l

a

o r

p e rs o n s

e n a c tm e n t,

to

th e

c o n tra c t

im p r is o n m e n t ,
o r

a re

in f o r m a t io n ,

u se d

th e

s p e c if ie d

p e rs o n s

:

p ro d u c e d

u n d e r

w h ic h

w h ic h

g iv e

m a t e r ia ls

a re

su b s e q u e n t

c o n v ic tio n

to

p a ra g ra p h

o f

a c t,

in

M u n it io n s ,

o r w h o

in f o r m a t io n

o n

p r in c ip a l

a d d re s s e s

s u p p lie d

e xc e p t

a n y

th e

co st

th e

f in e .

a

a

b y

a n d

o f

o f

a fte r

o f

th e

n a m es

w e re

p e rs o n ,

m a ke s

a n d

th e

m a te r ia ls

o r

in s e r te d

c o s t o f p r o d u c t io n

tio n ,

(2 )

th e

b e

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

c lo s e s

o f

f u r­

in s p e c ­
th e

in ­

r e q u ir e .
w illf u lly
s e c t io n

d e la y s
o r

f a ils

o r

o b s tru c ts

a n

to

g iv e

in f o r m a t io n

su c h

in s p e c to r

in the exercise
o r

to

p ro d u c e

M UNITIONS OF WAR A M E N D M E N T ACT, 1916.
su c h

d o c u m e n ts

c ip a l

a c t,

a n d

(3 )

as

E v e ry

m e n t,

a n d

s e c tio n

a f o r e s a id ,

s h a ll

o n

b e

lia b le

in s p e c to r

a p p ly in g

s h a ll,

if

so

h e

to

s h a ll

fo r

s h a ll

a

f in e

be

g u ilt y

to

p ro d u c e

o f

a n

w it h

a n y

su c h

o ffe n s e

u n d e r

te n

e x c e e d in g

f u r n is h e d

a d m is s io n

r e q u ir e d ,

be

n o t

139

p o u n d s

[$ 4 8 .6 7 ] .

a

c e r t if ic a t e

p r e m is e s

fo r

as

th e

th e

to

p r in ­

h is

a p p o in t ­

p u rp o s e s

o f

t h is

c e r t if ic a t e .

P R O V IS IO N S A S TO O F F E N S E S .
18.

(1 )

A ll

p rin c ip a l

a c t,

($ 2 4 .3 3 ),
second

o th e r

s h a ll

c la s s

(2 )

o ffe n s e s

th o s e
to

s e c t io n

in

q u e s t io n s
g iv e
th a t

w h e re

w h o m

sons
(3 )

th e

o f

m a d e

b y

L o rd

s ta te m e n t

th o s e r u le s
b e in g
s io n ,

o r

w h ic h

o f

s p e c ia l

p r o v id e

r e d u c t io n
is

to

o f
be

o n

a n y

su c h

a p p e a l

(4 )

In

th e

case

o f

e v e ry

d ir e c to r ,

k n o w in g ly
o ffe n s e

a

a ls o

a

b e

a

th e

p o u n d s

t r ib u n a ls

o f

th e

o f

o r

(3 )

s e c t io n

as

in

a ll

re s p e c ts

q u e s tio n s

o r

o f

th e

be

la w ,

a g a in s t

m u n it io n s
w o rk e rs ,

p a n e l

o f

a p p e a l

p e r­

o r

su c h

a n d

as

to

a n d
a ll

o f f ic e r

b y

m u n it io n s

o f

th e

to

o f

a n d

th e r e in
r e m is ­
in

o f

th e

tr ib u n a ls .

th e

p r in c ip a l

c o m p a n y

n o n c o m p lia n c e

a n d

m a n n e r

d e c is io n

u n d e r

o f

r u le s

m ea n s

f ix in g ,
th e

th e

o ffe n s e

in

s p e c if ie d

th e

fo r

q u e s t io n

o t h e r w is e ;

o f cases
fo r

su c h

c o n d it io n s

o r

a n d

lia b le

a

w h e th e r

ju d g e

o n

to

C h a n c e llo r

p r e s c r ib e d

to

ju d g e ,

a n

to

la w

a n d

c o s ts ,

a n d

o r
a

f e m a le
th e

L o rd

o f

c la s s e s

o th e r

m o re

th e

s u b je c t

o f

b e fo re

fro m

m a y

o f

o r

o f w h o m

s u b je c t
b y

th e

o ffe n s e

b e

s h a ll,

a n d

w o m a n .

b in d in g

c o n t ra v e n tio n
th e

a

r u le s ,

g u ilt y

s e c re ta ry ,

tw o

m a n n e r

a n d

to

ch o sen

th a t

a n y

o f

c h a ir m a n

e xc e p t

b e h a lf

be

o p in io n

f in a l

o f

o r

a n d

in

th e

a s s e s s o rs ,

s h a ll,

q u e s tio n

su c h

s c a le s

g u ilt y

o n

be

a

cases

b e in g

th e

p r o c e e d in g s

s h a ll

d e c is io n

b e

o r

a n y

g ro u n d

th e

p r o v id e —

h e

a p p o in t e d

in

a n d

s h a ll

b y

in

s u m m a ry

th e

th e

u n d e r
f iv e

d e c is io n ;

s h a ll

a p p e a ls

in

to

exc eed s

trib u n a l

c h a ir m a n

h is

in v o lv e s

fo r

c o m p a n y

to

b e

su c h

su c h

m a n a g e r,

p a rty

s h a ll

in

fe e s

g iv e n

o ffe n s e s

f in e

s h a ll

a s s e s s o rs

o th e r

case

a n y

ju d g e

a c t,

m a y

d e te r m in e d

m a d e

m u n it io n s

w ith

w o rk e r,

th e

s p e c if ie d

fo r

th e

p e rs o n s

o f

a c t

a g re e d

in

f e m a le

a n y

be

to

m a d e

w h ic h

o n

m a y

a

a n d

e ffe c t

o r

a re

tr ib u n a ls

as

w h ic h

c o n s u lt

w o rk m e n

C h a n c e llo r ,

as

m a y

h e a rd

a

o ne

g ro u n d

fa c t,

m a n n e r

o r

m u n it io n s
C o u rt

a n y

a n d

th e

su c h

th e

o n

la w

o f

H ig h

p u rp o s e

m ix e d

in

th e

a re
o r

a c t

m u n it io n s

o p in io n

p e rs o n

o r

a

a p p e a r

r e p r e s e n tin g

D e c is io n s

ju d g e

is

w it h

a s s e s s o rs

c o m p la in t is

assesso r

t h is

m a x im u m

p rin c ip a l

b e fo re

t h e ir

th e

th e

tr ib u n a l
th e

th e

to

th e

d e c is io n ,

w h ic h

e ffe c t

u n d e r

d e a l.

o f th e

h is

w h e re

o r

w h ic h

o ffe n s e s

to

15

g iv in g

cases

(& )

be

p r o c e e d in g s

b e fo re

b y

fo r

ju r is d ic t io n

u n d e r

th a t

a re

th a n

d eem ed

be

h a v e

R u le s
(a )

w h ic h

w h o

is

c o n s t it u t in g

th e

lik e

th e

th e

f in e

as

co m p a n y.
(5 )
“ so

In

fa r

s u b s e c t io n
as

r e la te s

to

o f

o ffe n s e s ,”

15

th e re

o f

th e

s h a ll b e

p r in c ip a l

in s e r te d

a c t,

“ a n d

a fte r

th e

th e

w o rd s

e n fo rc e m e n t

o f

o rd e rs .”

M IN O R A M E N D M E N T S OF P R IN C I P A L A C T.
19.

In

s u b s e c t io n

“ a ffo rd s
th a t

no

th e re

no
su c h

s h a ll

second

be

th e

w o rd

s e c t io n

th e

5

o f

c o m p a r is o n , ”

e x is ts , ”

in s e r t e d
to

o f

o f

a v e ra g e

s c h e d u le

s t it u t e d

(3 )

s ta n d a rd

th e

a n d

a fte r

w o rd s

p rin c ip a l

“ o r

a c t,

fo r

T h e

e rn m e n t
a n y

o f

M in is t e r

o f

d e p a rtm e n t

h is

p o w e rs




th e

p r in c ip a l
s h a ll

w o rd s

r e q u ir e
th e

b e

” ;

w o rd

a c t,

a fte r

in s e r te d

“ if
a n d

h e

th e

t h in k s

in

th e

ju s t ,

p a ra g ra p h

“ fo u rth ,”

th e re

w o rd s

w o rd s

9

s h a ll

“ o r

a llo w , ”
o f
b e

th e
su b ­

“ t h ir d . ”

AR RA NG EM EN TS W IT H
20.

th e

th e re

M u n it io n s
fo r

a n d

th e

d u t ie s

m a y

e x e r c is e
u n d e r

OTHER D E PA R T M E N T S.

m a k e
a n d

th e

a rra n g e m e n ts
p e rfo rm a n c e

p r in c ip a l

a c t

o r

w it h

b y

a n y

th a t

t h is

a c t

o th e r

G o v ­

d e p a rtm e n t
w h ic h

o f

a p p e a r

140
to

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.

h im

a n d

to

in

th e

be

sa m e

t h is

su c h

su c h

case

as

c o u ld

th e

p o w e rs

a n d

a c t c o n fe rre d

be

m o re

d e p a rtm e n t
d u tie s

o n

th e

c o n v e n ie n t ly

a n d
th e

fo r

th e

p u rp o s e

M in is t e r

so

o f f ic e r s
as

o f M u n it io n s

e x e r c is e d

o f

th e

a re

a n d

a n d

p e rfo rm e d ,

d e p a rtm e n t

b y

h is

th e

s h a ll

p r in c ip a l

h a v e

a c t

a n d

p r in c ip a l

a c t,

o f f ic e r s .

A D M I S S I B I L I T Y I N E V ID E N C E OF C E R T IF IC A T E S B Y BOARD OF TR AD E.
21.
a

F o r

th e

c e r t if ic a t e

o* r

a

th e

in
it

th e

s e c re ta ry

a u t h o r iz e d
o f

p u rp o s e s

o f

cases

p r o c e e d in g s
o f

o r

a s s is ta n t

th e

fo r

p u rp o s e

p r in c ip a l

w a s

o f

B o a rd

a c t

w h e re

a

s h a ll

h a s

22.

(1 )
o r

W h e re

t h is

v e x a t io u s

o r

c o n tra ry ,
a n d

c o s ts

c o m p la in t

so

o r
is

to

as

s h a ll,

in c id e n ta l

m a d e

to

b e fo re

th e

th e

o f

o r
to

to

to

p r e s id e n t

b y

a

p e rs o n

w h ic h

th e

th e

fa c ts

a n y

case

th a t

u n le s s

it

P a rt

B o a rd ,

d a te

o n

th e r e in

I

and,

w h ic h

s ta te d .

ca u se

to

as

o f

to

th e

th e

th e

p rin c ip a l

p r o c e e d in g s
good

th e

exp enses,

a tte n d a n c e

u n d e r

th e

sees

w h o m

goo d

th e

trib u n a l

as

th e

th e

PR O C E E D IN G S.

a g a in s t

fo r

b y

T ra d e ,

re p o rte d

trib u n a l

u n le s s

c o m p e n s a t io n

th e

d if f e r e n c e

re p o rte d ,

s h a ll,

p e rs o n

o f

s ig n e d

o f

a

d is m is s e s

th e

2

b e

B o a rd

e v id e n c e

tr ib u n a l
to

to

b ee n

b ee n

V E X A T IO U S

th e

s e c t io n

th a t

n o t

as

t r ib u n a l

a w a rd e d

su m

in

th e

c o s ts

h a s

a p p e a rs

f r iv o lo u s ,

su c h

in c u r r e d

it

th e

h a s

a d m is s ib le

m u n it io n s

a n d

a w a rd

th e

in c lu d e

a

a c t,

o r

IN

o f

p r e s id e n t ,

d if f e r e n c e
b e

C O ST S

a c t,

th e

u n d e r

p u r p o r tin g

s e c re ta ry
b y

a p p lie s

su c h

re p o rte d ,

T ra d e ,

ca u se

c o m p la in t

th e

p e rs o n

trib u n a l

is

c o n tra ry

tr o u b le ,

a n d

w e re
to

a p p e a rs ,

lo s s

a g a in s t

th e

m ade,

o f

tim e

w h o m

th e

seem

ju s t

a n d

m a tte r

has,

m a y

r e a s o n a b le .
(2 )

W h e re

s u b s e c tio n
o f

o f

M u n it io n s

th a t

th e

o rd e r
o u t

a

(3 )

o n

re fe re e
s e c tio n

th e

a n y

o f th e

b o a rd

o f

th e

c o s ts

w a s

o f

re fe re e s

p r in c ip a l

r e q u ir e m e n t

r e q u ir e m e n t

th a t

o r
5

o f

th e

a m o u n t o f p r o f it s

b y

th e

th e

u n d e r

o f

o r

T h e

A r b it r a t io n
o f

b o a rd

A c t,

u n d e r

re fe re e s

1889,

s h a ll

th e

n o t

th e

th e

(5 2

a p p ly

p rin c ip a l

a n

b y

th e

b o a rd

o f

u n d e r

M in is t e r

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o r

c o n s id e r s

re fe re e s

m a y

s h a ll

e s t a b lis h m e n t

p a id

b e

a c t.

A N D 5 3 V IC T ., C. 4 9 ) .

to

a n y

o r

a c t

a

re fe rre d

p r in c ip a l

E X C L U S IO N OF A R B IT R A T IO N A C T , 1 8 8 9
23.

o f

re fe re e

o w n e r

d iv is ib le

w h o m

b ee n

o w n e r

u n r e a s o n a b le ,

p a y a b le

to

a c t,

t h is

re fe re n c e
a c t

o r

to

a n y

th e

re fe re e

r u le s

m a d e

th e re u n d e r.

E F F E C T OF R E VO CA TIO N OF ORDERS.
24.

W h e re

v io u s ly
s h a ll,
w a s

th e

m a d e

if

th a t

m a d e

tre a te d

M in is t e r

b y

h im

o rd e r

u n d e r

fo r

a ll

o r

o f

M u n it io n s

u n d e r
h a s

a

s e c t io n

n o t

b ee n

4

in

a n y

o f

th e

a c t
o f

R u le s

s h a ll
th e

a n d

p u rp o s e s

n o t

R u le s

R e g u la t io n s

b e

d eem ed

P u b lic a t io n

to

m a d e

b e

th e

In

s u b s e c t io n

d u r a t io n

(2 )

th e re o f,

th e

o f

AS

a n d
th e

T h is

s h a ll
a c t

a c t
be

m a y

b e

s e c tio n

w o rd s

c o n s tru e d

m a y h e

c ite d




c ite d
as

a s

o ne

to g e th e r

o rd e r

fo r

th e

th e re o f

r e v o k in g

a c t,

m o re

th a n

r e v o k in g

as

if

it

th e

a n y

o rd e r

o rd e r
th re e

so

m o n th s

o rd e r

so

n e v e r

h a d

h a d

p re ­

re v o k e d
a n d

d ir e c ts ,

be

e ffe c t.

TO R U L E S .

u n d e r

of

th e

p rin c ip a l

r u le s

w it h in

“ P a rt

th e

w it h
as

th e

p r in c ip a l

20

sh o rt

27.

a n

p rin c ip a l

a c t

th e

as

a m e n d e d

m e a n in g

o f

b y

t h is

s e c t io n

1

1 8 9 3 .1

d u r a t io n

26.

a n d

s ta tu to ry

A c t,

th e

o p e r a t io n

m is a p p r e h e n s io n

P R O V IS IO N
25.

m a ke s

o f

o f
I

th e

o f ”
t it l e

.

s h a ll b e

a c t,

w h ic h

r e la te s

to

r e p e a le d .

.

M u n it io n s
th e

act

p r in c ip a l

o f

p r in c ip a l

M u n it io n s

o f

W

a r

a c t,
W

1 56 and 57 Viet., c. 66.

(A m e n d m e n t)
a n d

a r

th e

A c ts ,

A c t,

p rin c ip a l
1915

a n d

1916,

a c t

1916.

a n d

THE MUNITIONS TRIBUNALS (PROVISIONAL) RULES, 1915,
DATED JULY 12, 1915, FOR CONSTITUTING AND REGU­
LATING MUNITIONS TRIBUNALS IN ENGLAND AND
WALES, MADE IN PURSUANCE OF SECTION 15 OF THE
MUNITIONS OF WAR ACT, 1915.
PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO TRIBUNALS OF THE SECOND CLASS.
1.

A

m u n it io n s

m u n it io n s
e h a ir m a i\ )
a s s e s s o rs
p a n e l
a n d

A

d ra w n

b y

th e
to

m u n it io n s
a n y

o r

is

h a s

re fe rre d

to

h e ld

c o n se n t u n d e r

3.

A

as

lo c a l

r e g u la t io n s
P a rt

II,

4.

in

fo r

th e

a t

no

c h a ir m a n

th a t

In s u r a n c e

w h ic h

p e rs o n

a

be

th e

c h a ir m a n
m a tte r

o f

as

lo c a l

s it t in g

fro m

a

th e
w it h

w o r k m e n ’s

w ith

d e a l

th e s e

o n ly

f a ile d
in

to

r u le s

a

h e

com ­

is

w ith
e ith e r

w o rk m a n

1 9 1 5 1

h a s

w it h

c o m p ly

w h ic h

w h ic h
A c t,

e m p lo y e r

c o n s t it u t e d

A c t,

lo c a l

th e

in to
W a r

h e re to ,

th e

a g g r ie v e d

to

a n

a

to

h a s

( h e r e in a f t e r

u n r e a s o n a b ly

w it h ­

a c t.

s c h e d u le

o f

to
o r

e s t a b lis h m e n t

o f

as

tr ib u n a l.

o f

u n d e rt a k in g

th e

a n d

ju r is d ic t io n

M u n it io n s

s h a ll

f irs t

w h ic h

in

s ittin g

a

lo c a l

c o m p la in t

s h a ll

ca use

in

g iv e n

W h e re
( i)

o f

su c h

tr ib u n a l

s h a ll b e
6.

o f

p u rp o s e s

w Ti t h

a n y

a n

M u n it io n s

a c c o rd a n c e

c o n t ra v e n tio n

to

re fe rre d

in

b e in g

1 9 1 1 ,2

a c c o rd a n c e

r e g u la t io n s

w it h

w it h

m a d e

re fe re n c e

to

th e

u n d e r

c o u rts

o f

a c t.

m u n it io n s
o r

b y

th e

o r

trib u n a l

o n

lo c a l m u n it io n s

a ro s e , o r

to

is

b e h a lf o f

som e

c o m p e te n t

th e

tr ib u n a l

o th e r p e rs o n

to

M in is t e r

d e a l

o f M u ­

a p p o in t e d

a p p o in t e d

b y

fo r
h im

p u rp o s e .

I f

w h ic h

th e

b y

th e

h a v e

o f

p a n e l

in

m u n it io n s

c o n t r o lle d

t r ib u n a l
th e

fo r

lo c a l

th e

7

M in is t e r

e m p lo y e r s ’

c o m p la in t s

N a t io n a l

w r it in g

d is tr ic t

a n d

o f

th e

re fe rre d

( h e r e in a f t e r

M u n it io n s

in

o r

(1 )

b y

s h a ll

th e

( h e r e in a f t e r

p e rs o n

a n

su c h

s e c tio n

in

c o m p la in t

th e

5.

th e

m a d e

n it io n s

a c t),

o u t

a d a p te d

A n y

s h a ll b e

6

m u n it io n s
se t

o f

re fe re e s ,

s e c tio n
th e

to

c la s s

a

o f

a c te d

e m p lo y e d

u n d e r

h is

fro m

o n

a p p lic a b le

e n te re d

o f

M in is t e r

t r ib u n a l

p e rs o n

m a d e

seco nd

p u rp o s e

s e rv e

th a t

e m p lo y e r

th e

r e s p e c tiv e ly

su m m o n ed

re g u la tio n s

th e

c o n s is t

fo r

lo c a l

p la in t s

a n

s h a ll

a p p o in t e d

c o n s t it u t e d

d u ly

2.

t r ib u n a l o f

t r ib u n a l)

w h e re v e r

f a r

be
as

r e la t e s

m a y
n o t

to

be
le s s

a n

o r

som e

o th e r

th a t

th e re

is

se t

o u t

s e c re ta ry

re s p e c t

o f

tr ib u n a l
n o t ic e

a t

o f

su c h

to

th e

d eem ed

la s t

as

o ne

u n d e r

p e rs o n

p r im a

m a y

d e te r m in e

p la c e
a

h a v e

c o m p la in t
a n d

t im e

r e g is t e r e d
p la c e
b een

o f

as

ab o d e

d u ly

ro ta .

to

th e

b een

be

h e a rd ,

in

th e
b y

o r

as

su c h

o f th e

o f

s ittin g

a f o r e s a id ,
a

su c h

p e rs o n
to

n o tic e

o th e r
o r

a p p e a r

c h a ir m a n
o n

th e

m e e t in g

ad vance .

is s u e

o r

th e

s p e c ia l

f ix e d

a c t:

ca se)

m ade,

o f

h a v e

N o t ic e

w Te e k

h e re to

is

le tte r

a

a p p o in t e d

f a c ie

s ta te

1 5 and 6 George, c. 5, 54; see p. 125.




th a n

s c h e d u le

th e

a tte n d

th e

seco nd

k n o w n
to

to

th e

w h o m

p o s te d

be

in

a

p r e v io u s ly

e x p e d it io u s ly

w it h

o ffe n s e

s a t is f ie d

fo rm

s h a ll

a n d

su m m o n ed

c h a ir m a n ,

( if

a

to

p r a c t ic a b le

c o m p la in t

T h e

so

trib u n a l

c o n v e n ie n t ly

a s s e s s o rs

a c c o rd a n c e

th e

m u n it io n s
m a y

b e h a lf
p e rs o n

m a y

s h a ll
in

fo rm

p e rs o n s
b e fo re

th e

o r

p e rs o n s

as
in
th e

a p p o in t .

o f

th e

A

c h a ir m a n

s e rv e d .

2 1 and 2 George c. 5, 55.
141

s h a ll

142

H O U R S, FA TIG U E, ET C ., I N BR ITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
( ii)

T h e

c h a ir m a n

send

to

a n d
( iii)

N o

p la c e

p e rs o n

S o

tr ib u n a l

fa r

as

m a d e
a n d

is

s h a ll

th e

o r

o th e r

to

a p p e a r

u n d e r

a n d

W h e re
b y

a

a

f in e

th e

t h in k

W h e re

th e

u n d e r

s e c t io n

7

T h e

su c h

a n d

o f

b y

th e

th e

c h a ir m a n

fo rm

o u t

in

( ii)

se t

re s p e c t

b e

se n t

to

tim e

th e

th e

th a t

th e

th e

o a th ,

o r

th e

a

a

th e

n o t ic e
o ffe n s e

w To r k m a n
a n

o rd e r

f in e

fro m

th e

w ra g e s

t r ib u n a l

a re

p a id

a p p o in t e d
so

peace

a n

th e

as

a s

c o n v ic t io n .

m a k e
o f

th a n

a c t

s u m m a ry

a n d

m a y

to

w h e re

s u m m a ry

o f

fo r

to
th e

d e d u c te d .

c o n se n t

h a s

a

to

p e rs o n

exp e n se s

in

a p p ro v e d

b y

w h ic h
th e
o r

o f

w h o m

o f

b y

a n

w ill

it

to

h im

a p p e a rs

p e rs o n s

o f th e
be

su c h

o f

e m p lo y e r

th e

o f

in
th a t

th e
su c h

o f
a n d

lo c a l

p e rs o n

case, th e

a tte n d a n c e

to

b e fo re

m a d e

so

le s s

b e

th e

o f

th a t

a n y

m a y

th e

s h a ll

b e

case,

m a y

b e

th a t

r u le .
p e rs o n
d ir e c t

t r ib u n a l,

a llo w e d

it
24

h is

case

t h is

o f

t r i­
s h a ll

th a n

p e rs o n

w it h

a tte n d

as

p e rs o n s

re fe rre d

th e

c h a ir m a n

s h a ll

fo rm

o r

n o t w it h s t a n d in g

e v id e n c e

th e

a p p o in t .

n o t

su c h

( if

in

m u n it io n s

o r

w ra s

a c c o rd a n c e

su m m o n e d

m a y

c o n s id e r a t io n

tr ib u n a l

th e

o th e r

a p p e a r

p o s t

s h a ll

n o t ic e

p e rs o n

to

c o m p la in t
c o u rs e

a

su c h

th e

re p o rte d

t r ib u n a l,

c o n se n t

o r
to

c h a ir m a n

be

d u r in g

a f o r e s a id

is s u e

m ade,

s ittin g

m u n it io n s

g iv e n

o f

is
th e

th e

th e

s ittin g

th e

h e re to ,

as

o r d in a r y

d e c is io n

re s p e c t
th e

b y
th e

lo c a l

n o t b een
in

t im e

a s

ca se)

d e t e r m in e ,

c o m p la in t

p la c e

su c h

w ith

b y

case

n e c e s s a ry
su c h

s e rv e d ,

a p p o in t e d

f a c ie

s c h e d u le
m a y

a n d

s ittin g

a tte n d

c o n s id e r e d

a n y

in

p e rs o n

c o m p la in t

p e rs o n

b e fo re

p r o v id e d

th e

a n d

h im

n o t ic e

u p o n

su m s

r u le s
a c ts 1

o t h e r w is e

o f

p e rs o n

a n y

su c h

re g a rd

p la c e

w o rk m a n

o th e r

is

o f s u m m a ry

o f

a c c o u n t

w it h h o ld in g

p r im a

t h ir d

t h is

re a c h

to

a

p la c e

h o u rs

In

a n y

ju s t ic e

o n

w h o m

th e

a n d

e m p lo y e d

o n

b y

o f M u n it io n s

to

a n d

o r

o r

a n y

u n d e r

th e

tr ib u n a l

m a d e

h a s

a p p e a r in g .

u p o n

c o u rt

la id

p e rs o n

o th e r

w h o m

su c h

w o u ld

( iii)

b e

so

c o u rt

a

p e rs o n

h e

ju r is d ic t io n

a

a

in

e m p lo y e d

M u n it io n s

w h ic h

e n t it le d

a

o f

o f f in e s

w e re

th a t

tr ib u n a l

is

th e

o f

th e

to

som e
th e re

o f

a t

o f

b u n a l

o n

to

th e

r e la te s

in

M in is t e r

N o t ic e

t im e

trib u n a l

1 9 1 4 ,2 w it h

w e re

is s u e d

u n le s s

th e

a c t

p r o c e e d in g s

p u n is h a b le

tr ib u n a l,

M in is t e r

o r

th a t

tr ib u n a l

s h a ll

th e

a c t:

s a t is f ie d

th e

im p o s e d

th e

a c t,

in f o r m a t io n

d u ly

th e

b e fo re

ju r is d ic t io n
a n

p e rs o n

to

o f

s u m m a ry

tr ib u n a l

o ffe n s e

r e q u ir in g

c le r k

c o m p la in t

o f

o a th .

re c o v e ry

c h a ir m a n

d e d u c t io n s

o f

th e

p u rp o s e
7.

th e

a n

b ee n

su c h

f it

to

to

su m m o n s

m u n it io n s

w a g e s

p a y

( i)

h a s

lo c a l

r e q u ir in g

th e

h a v in g

w e re

u p o n

p e rs o n s

to

a c t
o r

a d ju d ic a t in g

o f th e

a p p ly

m u n it io n s
if

o f

a d m in is t r a t io n

re g a rd

th e

o p p o r t u n it y

p r o v is io n s

o f a n y

s h a ll

a s

a

a c t

a f o r e s a id ,

n o t ic e

t r ib u n a l

e v id e n c e

th e

c o m p la in t w e r e

w e re

t h is

ta k e

p r o v is io n s

w it h

u n d e r

r e a s o n a b le

w it h

m a g is t r a t e

c o u r t s its , a

as

c o m p la in t

o ffe n s e

p u rp o s e

to

ju s tic e

lo c a l

ju r is d ic t io n ,

a p p o in t e d

th e

m u n it io n s

a

a tte n d a n c e

a n d

a n

th e

th e

im p r is o n m e n t ,

th o u g h

( v i)

fo r

p o w e r

c r im in a l

ju r is d ic t io n

fo r

h a d

c o n s is t e n t

th e

m a d e

lo c a l

h a s

th e re u n d e r,

th e

p e rs o n

h a s

f in e d
th e

h e

h a v e

r e q u ir in g

b y

b e

th a t

o th e r

w h o

h e a r in g .

b e fo re

c o m p la in t
( v )

th e

s h a ll

s a t is f ie d
T h e

so m e

p e rs o n

o f

a p p e a re d

( iv )

o r

th e

o n

a

is

th a t
a n d
s c a le

tre a s u ry .

1 “ The summary jurisdiction a c ts 9 means in relation to England and Wales, the Sum­
9
mary Jurisdiction Act, 1848 (11 and 12 Viet., c. 43), and the Summary Jurisdiction Act,
1879 (42 and 43 Viet., c. 49), and any act past or future amending those acts or either
of them. S e e Interpretation Act, 1889 (52 and 53 Viet., c. 63), s. 13 ( 7 ) ( 1 0 ) .
2 4 and 5 George, c. 5, 58.




M U N IT IO N S TRIBUNA LS
8.

N o

p a rty

re p re s e n te d

to

b y

a n y

p ro c e e d in g

c o u n s e l

o r

(PROVISIONAL) RU LES.

b e fo re

a

lo c a l

m u n it io n s

143

tr ib u n a l

s h a ll

b e

s o lic it o r.

PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO TRIBUNALS OF THE FIRST CLASS.
9.

A

e ra l

m u n it io n s

m u n it io n s

th e

a s s e s s o rs

m e n ’s

p a n e l

c o n s t it u t e d
10.

A

u n le s s

a n y

m u n it io n s
g e n e ra l

A n y

g r ie v e d
o n

th e

m a n

a

a

o r

( i)

( ii)

T h e
( if

se t o u t

to

to

a n y

w it h

w o rk ­

m a y

be

M u n it io n s .

d e a l

w ith

a ll

b u t

s h a ll

n o t

c o m p e te n t to

w it h

w h ic h

re a s o n

w h ic h

in

M in is t e r

a p p o in t e d

d e a l

a

lo c a l

re fe rre d

o r

lo c a l

b y

to

th e

b y

th e

s h a ll

m u n it io n s

a n y

a n y

p e rs o n

p e rs o n

o f M u n it io n s

fo r

w h o

a

w r it in g

M u n it io n s

o f th e

som e

th e re

o ffe n s e

d is tr ic t

to

th e

in

f o r t h w it h

a g ­

a c t in g
c h a ir ­

w h ic h

re fe r

th e

th e

case

th e

a

o r

t r ib u n a l”

p e rs o n

p r im a

h e re to

u n d e r

a t

a c t

th e

p r o v is io n s

o f

be

ca se)
o th e r

in

b y

h im

is s u e
fo rm

re s p e c t

su c h

s u b s t it u t e d

fo r

th e

o c c u r.

a p p o in t e d

su c h

p e rs o n s

tr ib u n a l

s h a ll

th e y

f a c ie

o r

th e

m o d if ic a t io n s :

w h e re v e r

o th e r

is

p e rs o n

b e fo re

a n

f o llo w in g

m u n it io n s

s c h e d u le

th e

a p p e a r

to

th e

t r ib u n a l ”

o r

th a t

fo u rth

o f

to

a

a n d

o f

a s

s it t in g

o f

a

as

fo r

a

a n d

[ $ 9 7 .3 3 ]

o r

p u rp o s e ,

in

th e

s e c re ta ry

w h o m

p la c e

th e

n o t ic e

th e

t im e

o f

fo rm
s ta te

c o m p la in t

as

th e

is

c h a ir m a n

a p p o in t .

( iii)
a

th e

d e te r m in e

m ade,
m a y

in

to

“ G e n e ra l

c h a ir m a n ,

fo r

m a d e

M u n it io n s

r e la t e s

s u b je c t

m u n it io n s

s a t is f ie d

o f

is

fro m

s p e c if ie d ,

t r ib u n a l is

g e n ­
to

t r ib u n a l.

c o m p la in t

w o rd s

M in is t e r

trib u n a l

M in is t e r

b e

a n d

M in is t e r

m a tte r

a

M u n it io n s .

m a tte r

s h a ll

g e n e r a l o r s p e c ia l,

th e

o r

th e

as

M u n it io n s

ju r is d ic t io n

a

to

re fe rre d

M u n it io n s

th e r e in

w it h

o f

o f

p a n e l
o f

b y

h a v e

d e a l

a n y

th e

m u n it io n s

a p p ly ,

“ L o c a l

to
d e a l

o f

b e h a lf

to

th e

s h a ll
T h e

s h a ll

o n

M in is t e r

s p e c if ie d

M in is t e r

to

M in is t e r

lo c a l m u n it io n s

th e

re fe rre d

( h e r e in a f t e r

e m p lo y e r s ’

m a tte rs

c o m p e te n t to
b y

th e

th e

s h a ll

o th e r
a

p e rs o n

b y

c o n n e c t io n

r e la t in g

m u n it io n s

W h e re

w o rd s

m a y

o r

a ro s e

6

n o t

in

c o m p e te n t

g e n e ra l

g e n e ra l

R u le

is

in s tr u c tio n s ,

o f

12.

b y

n o t

a n y

( h e r e in a f t e r

a

a n

b y

d is tr ic t

w h ic h

trib u n a l

c o m p la in t

is

o r b y

m a tte r
to

tr ib u n a l

fro m

tr ib u n a l

a r is e s

o f

p u rp o s e

a n y

a n d

m a tte r w it h

c la s s

p u rp o s e

fo r

a c t

m u n it io n s

trib u n a l

o r

m a tte r

th e

th e

m u n it io n s

t h is

f irs t

c o n s is t

r e s p e c tiv e ly
fo r

g e n e r a lly

su c h

11.

d ra w n

p r o v id e d

u n d e r

d e a l w it h

th e

fo r

g e n e ra l

o ffe n s e s

o f

s h a ll

a p p o in t e d

c h a ir m a n )

w it h

t r ib u n a l

t r ib u n a l)

A n y

p e rs o n

u p o n

g e n e r a l m u n it io n s

sa m e

m a n n e r

m a ry

S u b c la u s e

p r is o n m e n t ”
o f

a

lo c a l

13.

s e c t io n

w o rd s

h e

f in e

o f £20

a p p e a l to

th e
7

“ G e n e ra l

m u n it io n s

w e re

a p p e a lin g

s h a ll

( v )

w e re

b e

s tru c k

m u n it io n s

W h e re

u n d e r

if

a

o u t

re a d

e xc e p t

c o u rt

as

if

as

th e

m o re

h a s

o f q u a rte r

th e

c o n v ic tio n

w o rd s

re g a rd s

o f

b een

im p o s e d

s e s s io n s

a

c o u rt

in

“ o t h e r w is e

o ffe n s e s

w it h in

o f

th e

th a n

th e

su m ­

b y

im ­

ju r is d ic t io n

tr ib u n a l.

c o m p la in t r e la t e s
o f

fro m

a

ju r is d ic t io n .

( iv )

as

w h o m

tr ib u n a l m a y

th e

a c t

th e

m u n it io n s

to

th e

w it h h o ld in g

p r o v is io n s

t r ib u n a l ”

o f

R u le

w e re

o f c o n s e n t b y

7

s h a ll

s u b s t it u t e d

a p p ly

fo r

a n

as

th e

e m p lo y e r

th o u g h

w o rd s

th e

“ L o c a l

t r ib u n a l. ”

PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO BOTH CLASSES OF TRIBUNALS.
14.

N o

15.

T h e

c h a ir m a n

16.

T h e

q u e s tio n

w h o
in

case

m a y

su c h

h im s e lf

s h a ll b e

o rd e r
m a n n e r

o r

m a y




th e
as

h e a rd ,

s h a ll
o f

c o s ts

sam e
h e

re fe r

to

s h a ll

th e

t r ie d ,

c o n s u lt
s h a ll
be

b e

p a id

d ir e c t,

sa m e

o r

a d ju d g e d

w it h

fo r

in

e xc e p t

h is

a s s e s s o rs

th e

a b s o lu t e

b y
a n d

a n y

p a rty

m a y

asse ssm en t

o p en

o r

a n y

p a r t ie s
assess
o th e r

c o u rt.

g iv in g

d is c r e t io n

e it h e r
to

in

b e fo re

o f
to

th e

h is
th e

th e

d e c is io n .
c h a ir m a n ,

p r o c e e d in g s

a m o u n t

p e rs o n

th e re o f

a p p o in t e d

b y

144
th e

H O U R S, FATIG UE, ETC., IN BRITISH M U N IT IO N FACTORIES.
M in is t e r

b y

th e

o f

M u n it io n s

t r ib u n a l

17.

T h e

w h o m

f in e s

E v e ry

M u n it io n s

w it h

S u b je c t

a
20.

T h e
o f

21.

as

s h a ll

b y

S ta te

T h e s e

S ig n e d

r u le s

r u le s

in to

as

as

th e re o f

fa r

as

th e

fo r

ea ch

b y

o f

a c t,

o f

a

c it e d

to

b y

th e

1 2 th

b e

e n fo rc e d

a

c le r k ,

o ffe n s e s

fo r

th e

m u n it io n s
o f

th e m

a n d

M in is t e r

o f

so.

t r ib u n a l

s h a ll

b e

su c h

d e t e r m in e .

p u rp o s e
o f

a n

o f

a c t

( t r ib u n a ls )

J u ly ,

to

th e

do

to

E x c h e q u e r.

m a d e

to

m a y

in t e r p r e t a t io n

d a y

th e

f u r n is h

m u n it io n s

th e

o f

in t e r p r e ­

P a r lia m e n t .

r u le s ,

1915,

a n d

1915.

b y

J

One o f H
H

m a y

tr ib u n a l

in t o

h im

o f M u n it io n s

th e

as

th e

h im

s h a ll

r e q u ir e d

p ro c e d u re

to

c o s ts

c o m p la in t s

a n d

1 8 8 9 ,1 s h a ll a p p ly

fro m

r e la te s

fo r

p a id

r e g is t e r

w h e n

a p p lie s

be

as

o rd e r

a p p o in t
be

th e

M in is t e r

A c t,

it

m a y

fo rc e

a

A n

f in e .

s h a ll

u n d e r

o r th e

In t e r p r e t a t io n

a

s h a ll

ke e p

th e m

a f o r e s a id ,

o f

th e s e

s h a ll c o m e

p u rp o s e .
as

M u n it io n s

d u p lic a t e s

S e c re ta ry

t a t io n

o f

th e

w a y

s h a ll b e p a i d ; f in e s

ta k e n

19.

fo r

sa m e

t r ib u n a l

p r o c e e d in g s

a s

th e

M in is t e r

a ll

18.

in

S im

ohn

on

,

M . S e c r e ta r i e s o f S t a te .

.

O f f i c e , W h ite h a ll, S . W .

ome

S ig n e d

as

fa r

as

r e la te s

to

o th e r

m a tte rs

b y

L lo y d

T> .

G eorge,

M i n i s te r o f M u n itio n s .
M

in is t r y

M

of

u n it io n s ,

6 W h ite h a ll G a rd e n s, S . W .
Ju ly

12,

1915.

SCHEDULE
1.

U n le s s

th e

p a n e ls

o f

tio n

o f th e

90

w illin g
th e

to

3.

te rm

be

as

s h a ll

h o ld

th e

o f f ic e

s h a ll

h e

n o t be
s h a ll

E a c h

o n

as

p e rs o n

f ill

th e

m e m b e r

o t h e r w is e

a n d

d ir e c t,

w o rk m e n

1911, fo r

th e

t h e ir

p u rp o s e s

th e

s h a ll

p la c e

d is tr ic t

s e rv e

as

a s s e s s o rs

o f

th e

m e m b e rs

c o n s t it u t e d

r e s p e c tiv e

lo c a l

u n d e r

d is tr ic ts ,

m u n it io n s

o f

sec­

s h a ll, i f

t r ib u n a ls

fo r

o n

w h o

is

e it h e r




w h e th e r

o f

p e rs o n

o f

a n

th e

th e

p a n e ls , s h a ll

e m p lo y e r s

p e r io d

o r

w o rk m e n ,

e m p lo y e d
d u r in g

to

f ill

w h ic h

th e

p e rs o n

u n le s s

h e

f it

to

b e

im p r o p e r ly
n o t

p a n e l

b een

s h a ll,

n o t ic e

o f

g iv e n

o f

su c h

fa r

as

n o t

w h e re
o r

th e

a

le s s
a

a fte r

ro ta ,

th a n

do,

a n d

a

th a t

o n ly

a

m e e t in g

o f re fe re e s

b e

a

su m m o n ed

p re p a re d

o n e

m e e t in g

e m p lo y e r s ’ a n d

c o u rt

so

re a s o n

p r a c t ic a b le ,

tr ib u n a l fro m

b e fo re

b y

in

M in is t e r

f ille d .

so

T h a t

t h in k s

c o n s t it u t e d

b e

va c a n c y

th e

c a su a l v a c a n c y

to

m a y

a

T h a t

h a v e

m e m b e rs

su c h

a n y

o f

P r o v id e d ,

im m e d ia t e ly

s h a ll

m e m b e rs
d ir e c t .

o f f ic e :

P r o v id e d ,

th e

th e

m a y

h e ld

w o u ld

b y

o f

a n d

lo c a l m u n it io n s
b e

a n d

M u n it io n s

p a n e ls ,

a n y

m e m b e rs

c h a ir m a n

o f

e x p ir a t io n

th e

p r a c t ic a b le :

sa m e

c h a ir m a n

p a n e l h a s

o f

u p o n

tr ib u n a l ta k e s

T h e

th e

a p p o in t e d

b e

su m m o n s

5.

th e

d eem ed

tu rn

to

A c t,

fo r

M u n it io n s ,

to

S u c h

m o n ed

o n

b o u n d

in

th e

th e

n o t

s e rv e

w h e re v e r

o f

o f

u n t il
is

c a su a l va c a n c y
4.

p a n e ls

s h a ll

e m p lo y e r s

M in is t e r

M in is t e r

p la c e

p a n e l

a ls o

th e

C a s u a l v a c a n c ie s
b y

fo r

th e

o f o f f ic e

p e r io d

f ille d

w h o se

M u n it io n s

d is tr ic ts .

T h e

su c h

o f

r e p r e s e n tin g

N a t io n a l In s u r a n c e

s e rv e ,

sa m e

2.
be

M in is t e r

p e rs o n s

1.

w e e k

to

ad vance.

in

a d va n c e

o f

a

lo c a l

m u n it io n s

o f

a

c o u rt

o f re fe re e s

w o r k m e n ’s

m a y

in

p a n e ls

b e

su m m o n e d

o f

to

M u n it io n s ,

su m ­
s e rv e

t r ib u n a l.
b e

a p p o in t e d

e m p lo y e r

o r

a

b y

th e

w o rk m a n

M in is t e r
in

1 52 and 53 Viet., c. 63.

a n y

tra d e

o r g ro u p

a n d
o f

n o

tra d e s

145

MUNITIONS TRIBUNALS (PROVISIONAL) RULES.
to

w h ic h

th e

p r o v is io n s

a p p o in t m e n t a s
6.

In

th e

e v e n t

o f

a

m on ed

a c c o rd a n c e

su m m o n ed
7.

A

s ittin g

a n y

a t te n d in g
in

in

a t

th a t

d is tr ic t

n o tic e ,

h is

o f

a n y

if

P a rt

I I

o f

th e

a c t

a p p ly

s h a ll

be

q u a lif ie d

fo r

a

m e m b e r
lo c a l

w ith

tim e
m a y

th e

a

ro ta ,

b y
b e

lo c a l
th e

m u n it io n s

M in is t e r

su m m o n e d

p r a c t ic a b le .

9 2 1 0 3 ° — B u l l . 2 2 1 — 1 7 ------ 1 0




o f

p a n e l

m u n it io n s
a n y

b e in g

trib u n a l
o th e r

u n a v o id a b ly
a t

th e

tim e

m e m b e r

o f

p re v e n te d
w h e n

th e

h e

p a n e l

fro m

is

su m ­

m a y

b e

p la c e .

s u p p le m e n t a r y

t r ic t

o f

c h a ir m a n .

o f
to

t r ib u n a l

m a y

M u n it io n s ,
a tte n d

su c h

a n d

be

c o n s t it u t e d

m e m b e rs

trib u n a l

b y

o f

fo r
th e

o n e

a n y

d is ­

p a n e l

fo r

c le a r

d a y ’s

COMPULSORY ARBITRATION IN MUNITIONS INDUSTRY IN
FRANCE.
As a result of strikes in several French m unition factories in the
P a ris district following upon demands for increased wages, the
F rench M inister of M unitions, on Ja n u ary 17, 1917, issued a report
and decree providing for the establishment of perm anent boards of
conciliation and arbitration composed of equal num bers of repre­
sentatives of employers and of workers, for the im m ediate investi­
gation and adjustm ent of collective disputes.
Im m ediately upon notice of a dispute the establishment is placed
under m ilitary control, and any cessation of work is prohibited un­
der severe penalties. The decree provides for an immediate hearing,
and if conciliation fails a decision of the board as a rb itrato r w ithin
24 hours after the hearing. In the case of the failure of the board
to agree, a referee m ust be appointed without delay and a decision
rendered w ithin 24 hours a fte r a hearing. In case of difficulty in
agreeing upon appointm ent of a referee, the M inister of M unitions
m ay himself designate a referee or may himself render a decision
upon the m atters in dispute. The decision of the arbitration board
or of the referee becomes effective imm ediately upon its approval by
the M inister of M unitions, and if any employer or the employees
refuse to comply w ith the decision the establishm ent or the em­
ployees shall be imm ediately placed under m ilitary control.
The text of the decree follow s:
TEXT OF DECREE OF MINISTER OF MUNITIONS OE JANUARY 17, 1917, FOR
REGULATION OF DISPUTES IN MUNITIONS FACTORIES.
A rticle 1.
m e n ts ,

E m p lo y e r s ,

f a c t o r ie s ,

a n d

m u n it io n s ,

a n d

r e la t in g

c o n d it io n s

n o r

to

to
s to p

o r

c o n c ilia t io n

A rt.

2.

w a r

T h e re

su c h

p e rm a n e n t

b o a rd

T h e s e

A rt.

3.

m a n

o f

A rt. 4.
w h o

a

b y

o f

a

d is p u t e

p e r m it t e d

to

u n d e r
be

a n d

th e

w o rk e rs ,
be

e xe m p t

s h a ll

be

fo r

fre e

a

th e

th e

com posed
b u t

n o t

fro m

c o lle c t iv e

o f

th e

fo r
o f

th a n

le s s

tw o

a

d e c la r a t io n

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

s ta m p

d u ty ,

a

n u m b e r
o f

ea ch

d u ty .

b y

o f

o f

p u rp o s e ,

e q u a l

ilit a r y

to

a r t ic le s .

M in is t e r

t h is

m

la b o r ,

d is p u te

a n

o r

h is

in

n a tu re

o f

f o llo w in g

s u p e r v is io n
h im

e s t a b lis h ­

a rm a m e n ts ,

c o n tra c t

q u e s t io n s

in

b y

o f

s ta te d

e m p lo y e r

a u t h o r iz a t io n ,

th e

d e te r m n ie d

a r b itr a tio n

a n d
to

th e

p r iv a te

o f

b re a k

p r o v id e d

a re

in

m a n u fa c tu re

as

d if f e r e n c e s

e it h e r

w r it t e n

a re

case

p e rs o n s

th e

s ig n e d

m a d e

to

th e

o r

b y

a

w o rk ­

b y

a t

le a s t

20

w o rk m e n .
T h e

A r b it r a t io n ,

te e

c o lle c t iv e
L a b o r,

b e a r in g

o th e r

e m p lo y e r s

in

s u b m it t e d

s h a ll

c o n c ilia t io n

o f

in

be

e s t a b lis h e d
as

s a la r ie d

h a v in g

su c h

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

T h e

C o n t r o lle r

n o t

b e fo re

d is t r ic t s

o f

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s

be

a n d

eng a g e d

s h a ll,

la b o r ,

w o rk

s h a ll

in

c la s s .

o f

a r b it r a t io n ,

M u n it io n s ,

o f

m a t e r ia ls ,

cease

a n d

w o rk m e n ,

e n t e r p r is e s

s h a ll
fo r

th e

C o n t r o lle r

p r o v id e d

d e s ig n a te
h e a r in g .

146




a

fo r

o f
in

L a b o r

s h a ll

a r t ic le

r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

n o tif y

2,

a n d

o f

h is

th e

a d v is e
o f f ic e

to

B o a rd
th e

o f

C o n c ilia t io n

M in is t e r

a p p e a r

b e fo re

o f

a n d

M u n tio n s ,

th e

c o m m it ­

CO M PU LSO RY A RBITRA TIO N I N FR A N C E .
T h e
h e a r
b y

c o m m itte e

th e

s h a ll

p a r t ie s

th e m ,

it

a r b itr a to r

o ne

s h a ll

a s s e m b le

o r

m o re

is s u e ,

w h ic h

s h a ll

a t

w it h in
be

th e

tim e s ,
24

p la c e d

lo c a l

a n d

if

h o u rs
o n

m a y o r ’s

te rm s
a fte r

re c o rd

o f

w ith o u t

c o n c ilia t io n

th e

a n d

o f f ic e

147

la s t

h e a r in g

s ig n e d

b y

re n d e re d

b y

u n d u e

a re

n o t

it s

ea ch

d e la y ,

re a c h e d

d e c is io n

m e m b e r

as

o f

th e

c o m m it t e e .

A rt.
s h a ll

5.

I f

t h is

re fe re e s

A rt. 6.
L a b o r,
th e

tio n s

o r

if

A rt.

b y

I f

A rt.

8.

b o a rd ,

la w s

o f

J u ly

23,

A rt.

th e

M a rc h

9.

I f

th e

in
to

p la c e d ,

T h e
is t r y

th e

th e y

re a c h e d
e it h e r

as

to

to

d e s ig ­

d e la y

in

a n d

in

a t

as

re fe re e ,

C o n t r o lle r

24

a r tic le s

b y

th e

w o rk ro o m s

L a b o r,

th e

h o u rs

o f

a fte r

re p o rt.

fo r

a p p ro v e d
th e

b y

w it h in

th e

4

a n d

M in is t e r

b y

th e

e xp e n se

h is

d e c is io n

th e

d e c is io n

5

s h a ll

o f

M u n i­

e m p lo y e r

o f

o r,

th e

e m p lo y e r .

be

p u b lis h e d

s h a ll

m a n n e r.
to

c o n fo rm

to

s h a ll

60

p la c e d

o f

17,

o f

in

th e

w it h

be

th e

la w

1898,

o f

A p r il

o r

v ir t u e

o f

o f

th e

to

to

d e c re e

o t h e r w is e ,

u n d e r

J u ly

17,

3,

o f
m

th e

a r b itr a tio n

ilit a r y

1877,

1901,

th e

a n d

c o n tro l

a m en d ed

M a rc h

th e

o f

th e s e

10,

27,

th e

in

b y

th e

1906,

p a ym e n t

1899,

e m p lo y e r

th e

a b o ve

a n d

o f

re fu s e s

in d u s t r ia l

m e n t io n e d ,

to

sum s,
to

c o n fo rm

e s ta b lis h m e n t

u n d e r

m

th e

s u p p le ­

ilit a r y

to

s h a ll

c o n tro l

p a y m e n ts .

p a y m e n ts

s u b s e q u e n t ly

o rd e rs

A u g u s t

if

n e c e s s a ry

m a ke

be

b o a rd

o f

p e rs o n n e l

d is p o s it io n

e f f e c t in g

n e c e s s a ry

a r b itr a tio n

th e

a d m in is t r a t iv e

M u n it io n s ,

s h a ll

r e t a in e d

b e

fro m

a d va n c e d

su m s

d u e

to

b y

th e

th e

M in ­

e m p lo y e r

S ta te .
10.

d e c is io n ,

S h o u ld

th e y

5, p a r a g r a p h

A rt. 11.
le c t iv e

w ages,

th e

su m s

th e

d e c is io n

p u rp o s e

o f

A r t .

J u ly

a c c o rd a n c e

o rd e r,

th e

1890,

a n d

a r b it r a t o r s ,

n o t

a u t h o r it y

w r it t e n

o f

a c ts

re fu s e s

58

is

1911.

m e n ta ry

fo r

5,

p o s te d

e s t a b lis h m e n t

a r t ic le s

a

p r o v id e d

o f f ic ia lly

sa m e

th e

p a r t ie s ,

in

b o a rd

b een

th e

h a s

w ith o u t

th e

d e c is io n

b ee n

th e

a g re e m e n t

h im s e lf .

a n d

h im s e lf

in

a n

su m m o n e d

C o n t r o lle r

e m p lo y e r

w it h

w o rk m e n ,

su c h

M in is t e r

in d u s t r ia l

a c c o rd a n c e

h a s

b e

I f

d is p u te

t h e ir

th e

e f f e c t iv e

I f

th e

th e

a n d

b y

n o t

M u n it io n s

re fe re e s

it

o rd e r,

th e

o f

a r b itr a tio n

as

so,

ca n

re fe re e s .

a r b itr a to r s

th e

soon

do

becom es

o r

re n d e r

o f

h is
to

7.

re fe re e

th e

s h a ll

as

f a ils

h e

a n d

to

d e c is io n

m o re

M in is t e r

re fe re e

d e c is io n
fo rc e

o r

th e

h e a r

h e a r in g

in

b y

o ne

o r

T h e

s h a ll

T h e

b e

u n a n im o u s

a p p o in t m e n t ,

n a te

b e

a

d e s ig n a te

th e re

s h a ll
8, o r

be
o f

h e

w o rk m e n
u n d e r

a r tic le s

W h e n e v e r

d is p u t e ,

be

p la c e d

ilit a r y

s h a ll

a n d

60

o f

o f

L a b o r

im m e d ia t e ly

th e

g iv e

to

c o m p ly

c o n tro l

C o n t r o lle r

th e

58

r e f u s in g
m

la w
is

in

o f

J u ly

s e rv e d

n o t ic e

w it h

o f

it

th e

a r b i t r a t o r ’s

a c c o rd a n c e
3,

1877,

w it h
to

w it h

a

a r t ic le

b e fo re

n o t ic e
d is tr ic t

th e

c ite d .

o f

a

m

c o l­

ilit a r y

a u t h o r it y .
F ro m

th e

tim e

u n t il

th e

ta ry

a u t h o r it y

58

a n d

J u ly

p o s t in g

60

17,

o f

th a t

th e

A rt. 12. The
e s ta b lis h m e n ts

p o r t io n
g ro u p s
A r t .
sons,

o f
o f

13.

th e

o th e r
m a y

T h e

s p e c if ic

o f

J u ly

b e

o ne
be

L a b o r,

o f

m a d e

in

o f

c o n d it io n s
in

th e

1906,

th e

a r b it r a l
c la s s e s

in

o f

d e c re e
w o rk

in

t h is

c o m p a r a b le
t h is

d is tr ic t.

o

b y

be

la w s

J u ly

o f

23,

fo rc e

o f

th e

d is p u te

w ith

M a rc h

1911)
th e

m

ili­

a r tic le s
5,

th e

1890,
e n t ir e

e s t a b lis h m e n t ,

m a in t a in e d .
re n d e re d

w o rk e rs ,
th e

o f

ab o ve-nam ed

c o n f o r m it y

th e

a n d

L a b o r
th e

m ay,

d is tr ic t

d is tr ic t

o r

fo r
b y

o ne

a ffe c te d ,

to

o r

d e c is io n

o th e r

to

m o re
o f

a ll

th e
o r

a

o c c u p a t io n a l

c o n d it io n s .
a re

s h a ll

w ith

( in

d e c is io n ,
o f

o f

b o a rd

w o r k in g
m a y

a p p lic a b le

c o n f o r m it y
in

a m e n d e d
27,

a n d

m o re

C o n t r o lle r

c o n tro l

p r o d u c t io n

th e

o r

fo u n d

o c c u p a t io n s




1877,

M a rc h

o f

th e

a r b itr a tio n

ilit a r y

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

p r o v is io n s
th e

3,

o f
th e

m

p e rs o n n e l

c o n t in u it y

fo r

o f

u n d e r

1901,

p r o v is io n s
o r

w h o m

C o n t r o lle r
th e

o f
17,

M u n it io n s ,

w h ic h

fo r

la w

A p r il

a n d

n o t if ic a t io n
d e c is io n

p la c e

a d m in is t r a t iv e

o rd e r

M in is t e r

th e
th e

s h a ll

1898,

d ir e c t in g
so

o f
o f

th e

n o t

a p p lic a b le

c o n t in u e
n o rm a l

to
a n d

b e

to

m o b iliz e d

d e te r m in e d

c u rre n t

p e r­

b y

c o n d it io n s

th e
in