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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R STATISTICS
Isador Lubin, Commissioner (on leave)
A . F. Hinrichs, Acting
Commissioner
•

Hours and Earnings
in the United States, 1932-40
With Supplement for 1941, Page 135

By ALICE OLENIN and T H O M A S F. CORCORAN
of the

DIVISION OF EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS
Lewis E. Talbert, Chief

Bulletin 7S[o. 697

NOTE
To economize in the use of paper and printing during the war,
the Bureau of Labor Statistics will discontinue the practice of
placing heavy paper covers on its bulletins, except where con^
ditions require them.

UNITED STATES
G O V E R N M E N T PRINTING
WASHINGTON

OFFICE

: 1942

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D . C.




Price 25 cents

UNITED

STATES

D E P A R T M E N T

FRANCES PERKINS,
B U R E A U

OF

ISADOR L U B I N ,
A.

L A B O R

OF

LABOR

Secretary
STATISTICS

Commissioner (on leave)

F . HINRICHS,

Donald Davenport, Chief, Employment and Occupational Outlook
Branch
Henry J. Fitzgerald, Chief, Business
Management Branch
Hugh S. Hanna, Chief, Editorial and
Research

Acting Commissioner

Aryness Joy, Chief, Prices and Cost of
Living Branch
N.

Arnold Tolles, Chief, , Working
Conditions and Industrial Relations
Branch

Sidney W. Wilcox, Chief Statistician

C H I E F S OF D I V I S I O N S

Herman B. Byer, Construction and
Public Employment

Charles F. Sharkey, Labor Law Information

J. M. Cutts, Wholesale Prices

Boris Sterni L a b o r I n f o r m a t i o n

W. Duane Evans, Productivity and
Technological Developments
Swen Kjaer, Industrial Accidents
John J. Mahaney, Machine Tabulation
Robert J.

Myers, Wage and Hour

Statistics
Florence Peterson, Industrial Relations
i i




Stella

Service

Stewart, Retail Prices

Lewis E. Talbert, Employment Statistics
Emmett H. Welch, Occupational Outlook

Faith M. Williams, Cost of Living

CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER

CHAPTER

CHAPTER

I.—Movements of hours and earnings, 1932-40
Comparison of 1932 and 1940
General movements of hours and earnings, 1932-40
Changes in selected industries and industry groups
Durable and nondurable goods
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills; automobiles
Foundries and machine shops; machine tools
Aircraft and shipbuilding
Lumber; paper and pulp
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal; fertilizers
Cotton goods; woolen and worsted goods
Slaughtering and meat packing; bread and bakery products
Private building construction
Anthracite and bituminous-coal mining
Crude-petroleum production; metalliferous mining
Laundries; dyeing and cleaning
Range of hours and earnings in 1940
II.—Scope and method
Manufacturing industries
Nonmanufacturing industries
Average hourly earnings and average hours per week__
Average weekly earnings
III.—General tables

1
2
4
4
6
9
11
13
15
15
17
19
19
23
23
26
26
34

39
41
42
45
47

SUPPLEMENT.—Hours and earnings in 1941

135

Appendixes:
A.—Hours and earnings, 1932-34, by months, manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries
B.—Hours and earnings, 1932-41, class I steam railroads
C.—Farm wage rates, January 1932 to October 1941
General index of industries in tables 5-10

155
199
203
206

Tables
TABLE

1.—Average hours worked per week in 1 9 4 0 in the individual
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries arranged in
descending order and grouped by class intervals
2.—Average hourly earnings in 1940 in individual manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing industries arranged in descending
order and grouped by class intervals
3.—Average weekly earnings in 1940 in individual manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing industries arranged in descending order
and grouped by class intervals
4.—Estimated total employment in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries in 1940, the percentage of wage earners
in the total reporting sample in 1932, 1934, and 1940, and
the percentage of wage earners in the man-hour sample in
1932, 1934, and 1940




TTI

29

31

32

35

IV
TABLE

CONTENTS

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by
years, 1932-40, and by months, January 1935 to December
1940
5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by
months, 1941
6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by
years, 1932-40, and by months, January 1935 to December
1940
6-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by
months, 1941

Page

48
137

122
150

Appendix Tables
7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by
months, January 1932 to December 1934
8.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by
months, January 1932 to December 1934
9.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and
average weekly earnings, class I steam railroads, by years and
months, 1932-41
10.—Farm wage rates, by years and by quarters, 1932-41

156
193
201
205

Charts
CHART

1.—Hours and earnings in manufacturing industries, 1 9 3 2 - 4 0 — a l l

industries combined
2.—Hours and earnings in manufacturing industries—durable and
nondurable goods, 1932-40
3.—Hours and earnings in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
mills, and automobiles, 1932-40, where available
4.—Hours and earnings in foundries and machine shops, and
machine tools, 1932-40
5.—Hours and earnings in aircraft and shipbuilding, 1932-40,
where available
6.—Hours and earnings in sawmills and paper and pulp, 1932-40-_
7.—Hours and earnings in cottonseed oil, cake, and meal, and fertilizers, 1932-40, where available
8.—Hours and earnings in cotton goods and woolen and worsted
goods, 1932-40
9.—Hours and earnings in bread and bakery products, and slaughtering and meat packing, 1932-40, where available
10.—Hours and earnings in private building construction, 1934-40
where available
11.—Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous-coal mining,
1932-40, where available
12.—Hours and earnings in crude-petroleum production and metalliferous mining, 1932-40, where available
13.—Hours and earnings in laundries and dyeing and cleaning
establishments, 1932-40, where available
14.—Hours and earnings in class I steam railroads and all manufacturing industries, 1932-40




5
7
10
12
14
16
18
20
21
22
24
25
27
200

Letter of Transmittal

U N I T E D STATES D E P A R T M E N T
BUREAU

OF L A B O R ,

OF L A B O R

STATISTICS,

Washington, D. C., June 21, 1941.
T h e SECRETARY

OF L A B O R :

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on hours and earnings in the United States, 1932-40.
This work was directed and the report prepared by Alice Olenin and
Thomas F. Corcoran, under the general direction of Lewis E. Talbert,
Chief of the Bureau's Division of Employment Statistics. The compilation of this material and much of the research work was accomplished by Irvin W. Schmidt, assisted by Ruth Newman, Margaret
V. V. Buffum, and Joseph A. Vigness, while Theodore Westerman and
Thomas F. Mosimann rendered valuable assistance in connection with
manufacturing industries and Susan T. Waite and Joseph F. Bober
in nonmanufacturing industries. Harrison F. Houghton assisted
with the preparation of the text.
The Bureau's regular staff was augmented by additional clerical
assistance made available through the District of Columbia W. P. A.,
which aided in compiling and assembling the data contained in this
publication.
Respectfully submitted.
A . F . H I N R I C H S , Acting Commissioner.
H o n . FRANCES PERKINS,




Secretary of Labor.
v




Bulletin 1S[o. 697 of the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

Hours and Earnings in the United States, 1932-40
Chapter I
Movements of Hours and Earnings, 1932-40
The monthly compilations of data on average weekly and hourly
earnings and average weekly hours of work in 90 individual manufacturing and 16 nonmanufacturing industries were begun by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1932, almost at the low point of the
depression in both employment and earnings. Since that time hoursand-earnings averages have been published each month in the Monthly
Labor Review and the Employment and Pay Rolls pamphlet. They
are assembled for the first time in this publication in convenient form
for analysis and comparison, by months and by years, from 1932 to
1940, inclusive.1 This comprehensive presentation of the information
also permits the inclusion of revisions as well as corrections in the
figures previously published.
Averages for combined groups of industries fail to reveal many
highly important variations between individual industries, just
as averages for individual industries do not indicate equally important differences between individual establishments and between
individual employees of the same establishment. It should be
pointed out, also, that although industry averages of hourly and weekly
earnings and hours worked are considered adequate for measuring
levels and trends, they may vary somewhat from averages computed
from special industry surveys. In these surveys it is possible to give
more adequate consideration to such factors as size and type of plant,
1 Recent publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics relative to the hours and earnings of industrial
workers include: Hours and Earnings Before and After the N. R. A., Monthly Labor Review, January 1937
(reprinted as Serial No. R. 496); Average Hourly Earnings in Manufacturing, 1933 to 1936, Monthly Labor
Review, April 1937 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 542); Work and Wages in 1939, Monthly Labor Review,
March 1940 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 1088); Wages, Hours, and Productivity of Industrial Labor, 1909 to
1939, Monthly Labor Review, September 1940 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 1150); Employment and Earnings in 1940, Monthly Labor Review, March 1641 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 1269); and Average Weekly
Hours in Manufacturing, October-November 1940, Monthly Labor Review, April 1941. Two important
monographs concerning hours and earnings were published in 1940 by the Temporary National Economic
Committee in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics: Monograph No. 5, Industrial Wage Rates,
Labor Costs, and Price Policies, and Monograph No. 14, Hourly Earnings of Employees in Large and Small
Enterprises.




1

2

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

unionization, corporate affiliation, size of community, regional location,
and occupational coverage. Therefore, an industry average shown
in this report may differ from the average for the same industry
obtained in a special wage survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
because of such circumstances as differences in the period covered
or the avoidance in the special survey of abnormal or exceptional
pay-roll periods.
Before the inauguration of the regular monthly series of reports
herein summarized, the Bureau of Labor Statistics had secured wageand-hour data periodically through field representatives for a number
of industries of major importance. These special field surveys were
continued after 1932 at less regular intervals with a broader range
of industries and for somewhat different purposes. The great amount
of work required for these intensive industry surveys has so far prevented the Bureau from compiling such detailed data for all industries
or for any one industry at short intervals.
The methods used in the compilation of the hours-and-earnings
data contained in this bulletin, the scope of the Bureau's monthly
employment and pay-roll surveys, sample adequacy, and the limitations of the figures presented, are discussed in chapter II.
Comparison of 1932 and 1940
In 1940 wage earners in manufacturing industries in the United
States as a whole earned an average of 67.0 cents per hour, according
to data compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Measured from
1932, the first year for which data were compiled on a monthly basis,
this represented an increase of 46 percent over the average hourly
earnings of 45.8 cents shown for that year. The average number
of hours worked per week by factory employees in 1940 was 38.1,
a negligible decrease from the 1932 average of 38.2 hours. These
hours and hourly earnings, as explained under "Scope and methods,"
page 34, are weighted averages based on the relative importance of
the various industries included in the survey. The unweighted
weekly earnings of these workers in 1940 averaged $26.11 as compared
with an average of $17.86 in 1932. Thus, the many forces at work
in the industrial economy between 1932 and 1940, including more
full-time employment in the higher-paid industries, higher wage
rates resulting from collective agreements, and minimum hourly
rates of pay and overtime premiums established by legislation,
resulted in substantially larger weekly earnings to the average factory
wage earner.
Among the nonmanufacturing industries which report to the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, the increase in the average hourly earnings of
bituminous-coal miners was the most outstanding, the 1940 average
of 88,3 cents representing a rise of 70 percent over the 1932 average




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

3

of 52.0 cents. The average hours worked per week in this industry
showed a small increase over this period—27.2 hours in 1932 as
compared to 28.1 hours in 1940. Average weekly earnings of bituminous-coal miners in 1940 amounted to $24.71, whereas in 1932 they
were $13.91, an increase of 78 percent.
Average hourly earnings in 1940 in other mining industries surveyed
were w^ell above the averages shown for 1932. Employees in anthracite mines averaged 92.4 cents per hour in 1940, an increase of 12
percent over the 1932 figures; in metal mining they averaged 73.3
cents per hour in 1940, an increase of about 48 percent over 1932;
and in the quarrying and nonmetallic mining industry workers earned
56.8 cents per hour in 1940, an increase of 28 percent over the 1932
average. The average weekly hours (27.2) in anthracite mining in
1940 fell below the 1932 level of 30.3 hours. On the other hand,
average hours in 1940 for both the metalliferous and the quarrying
and nonmetallic mining industries were over 6 percent above those
in 1932, the 1940 figures indicating 40.9 and 39.3 hours, respectively.
Adequate data for the crude-petroleum-production industry are not
available prior to 1935. Average hourly earnings and average hours
in this industry in 1940, however, showed increases over the averages
for 1935. Average weekly earnings in 1940 in all of the mining
industries except anthracite were well above those for 1932. In
anthracite there was a slight decrease of 0.2 percent over the interval,
the decrease in hours worked offsetting the gain in hourly earnings.
Employees in the electric light and power and street railway and
motorbus industries of the public-utilities group surveyed also received
higher average hourly pay in 1940 than in 1932. While averages for
these industries prior to 1938 are not strictly comparable with later
data, since the figures for 1938 and subsequent years exclude corporation officers, executives, and other employees whose duties are mainly
supervisory, a substantial increase is indicated when the figures are
adjusted for the change in employee classification. Average hours
in these industries in 1940 were lower than in 1932 while average
weekly earnings were higher. Data relating to average hours of work
per week and average hourly earrings for telephone and telegraph are
not available prior to 1938, those for wholesale trade are not available
prior to 1935, and for retail trade, hotels, laundries, dyeing and cleaning establishments, and private building construction, they are not
available prior to 1934. For the most part, the levels of average
hourly and weekly earnings in 1940 in these industries were above
those for the earliest year shown. The average weekly earnings of
employees in insurance and brokerage companies in 1940 showed
slight changes from those for 1932, according to the Bureau's records.
Here again, however, direct comparison cannot be made because of
the inclusion of corporation officers, executives, and other supervisory




4

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

employees in the figures prior to 1938. Average hours and average
hourly earnings data are not available for either brokerage or insurance employees.
General Movements of Hours and Earnings, 1932-40
In industry at large, two major upward movements in average
hourly earnings occurred during the period covered by this report,
one in the summer and early fall months of 1933, mainly as a result
of the President's Reemployment Agreement and the provisions of
the N. R. A. codes, and the other in the late months of 1936 and early
months of 1937, when wage increases were widespread. The second
general rise was followed by a slight recession during the first 8 months
of 1938, although the level of hourly earnings of factory workers (see
chart 1) remained relatively high in comparison with other indices.
Hourly earnings began to move upward again in September 1939, due
primarily to increased activity in the durable-goods industries, and
by December 1940, when the National Defense effort was characterized by overtime hours at premium rates in many key defense industries, hourly earnings had reached 68.3 cents per hour, the highest
level up to that time.
Average weekly hours in manufacturing reached 41.1 in December
1936, the highest figure in recent years except for the brief period in
1933, prior to the introduction of N. R. A. codes. By January 1938,
however, factory hours had receded on an average to 33.3 per week.
Improvement in conditions beginning in the fall of 1938 and continuing through 1939 and 1940 resulted in substantial increases in
hours worked and by December 1940, when overtime conditions prevailied in many defense industries, factory hours reached an average
of 39.8 per w^eek. Small reductions in average hours worked per
week were noted in November 1938 and again in November 1939 and
1940, partly as a result of the establishment of maximum hours and
overtime pay under the Fair Labor Standards Act. The effects of
this law are more apparent, however, on nondurable industries in
which exceptionally long hours were worked.2
Changes in Selected Industries and Industry Groups
The following charts present graphic comparisons of monthly
movements of average weekly earnings, average hourly earnings, and
average hours worked per week in selected industries and industry
groups. Data are shown from 1932 to 1940 in a number of industries,
and from 1933, 1934, or 1935 to 1940 in others for which data for the
earlier periods were not considered adequate for presentation. The
2 See Work and Wages in 1939, Monthly Labor Review, March 1940 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 1088);
also Employment and Earnings in 1940» Monthly Labor Review, March 1941 (reprinted as Serial No. R .
1269).




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

5

ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
O LA S
OL R




AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

dollars

6

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

detailed data on which these charts are based appear in tables 5, 6, 7,
and 8 at the end of this bulletin. Owing to the wide field covered, a
detailed analysis of the significant changes shown in each chart is not
feasible. Attention, however, will be called to some of the highlights. Only a few industries have been selected for graphic presentation. In most cases, these few were chosen with a view to presenting
a cross section of all industry surveyed by the Bureau, i. e., manufacturing and nonmanufacturing, durable goods and nondurable
goods, high-paid and low-paid industries, and key industries in the
National Defense program. In some cases the selected industries
illustrate the effects of recent legislation on industry averages (see
cotton goods and cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal).
Durable and Nondurable Goods
The influence exerted on the movements of hours and hourly earnings in total manufacturing by the fluctuations of the two components,
the durable- and nondurable-goods groups, is graphically presented
in chart 2. The contrast between the movements of hours worked in
these two groups is striking. Reduction of hours in many of the
nondurable-goods industries as a result of the N. R. A. codes in the
summer of 1933 and the rise of production in durable-goods industries
brought the two levels into closer conformity until they became
practically identical early in 1935. By December 1936, when industrial activity had increased sharply, especially in the heavy industries, the workweek in the durable-goods group rose to an average of
42.9 hours, the highest level reached during the period 1932-40.
Many collective agreements signed in 1937 made provisions for a
40-hour maximum workweek and some of these contracts established
a workweek of less than 40 hours. Most agreements tended to regulate rather than prohibit overtime work.3
In October 1939, the allocation of French and British orders for
materials, particularly machine tools, was reflected by sharply increased weekly hours. By December of that year, average hours in
durable-goods industries had reached 39.6 as against 37.1 in December
1938. Over the same interval, hours in nondurable-goods industries
showed but slight change—37.5 in December 1938 to 37.7 in December
1939.
The first significant rise in average weekly hours in durable goods
as a result of expenditures for national defense was noted in August
1940. As the defense program unfolded, the need to effect a rapid
expansion of output led to a lengthening of the workweek in the key
defense industries, even though many plants were required to pay
premium rates for overtime hours under the terms of collective agree3 Monthly Labor Review, February 1938 (pp. 341-348), Hours of Work Provided in Collective Agreements
in 1937.




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

1932-40

DURABLE AND NONDURABLE GOODS
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40

DUR A B L E v y ,
^ALLMFCT\

lONDURAt 3LE

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

D URABLEv
!

Jr—i

1

.ALL MANUFACTURINGy

/

^ NONDU R A B L E

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60

DUR A B L E ^

. A L L MFG.

1932

7

\

1933

U. S. BUREAU. OF LABOR STATISTICS




NONDUf

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

7

8

SOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

ments or those of the Fair Labor Standards Act. Labor shortages
ill some occupations and localities contributed to the increase in
hours. Such important industries as aircraft, shipbuilding, machine
tools, aluminum manufactures, engines and turbines, and electrical
machinery reported widespread use of overtime in order to meet
delivery schedules on defense contracts.4 By December 1940,
weekly hours in the durable-goods group had reached 41.2, a general
average in excess of the Fair Labor Standards individual maximum
(without extra compensation) established in October 24, 1940.
The consistency of trends in average hourly earnings in the durableand nondurable-goods industries and their effect on earnings in all
manufacturing are also shown in chart 2. Earnings in both groups
tend to move uniformly. Both durable and nondurable goods reflect
the upswing in rates of wages in 1933-34 and again in 1936-37, with
a general leveling off after each of these rises. Workers in durable
goods, however, generally profited more from wage increases
during 1937. Average hourly earnings in the durable-goods industries
increased 16.9 percent from 1936 to 1938 as against an increase of 10.4
percent in the nondurable industries over the same period. Few
changes in the general averages were recorded during 1938 and 1939
with the result that the levels at the end of 1939 were not significantly
different from levels at the beginning of 1938.
During 1940, hourly earnings in most durable-goods industries
showed sizeable increases. Changes in rates of pay had comparatively
little to do with the rise. Two important factors contributed to the
increase in hourly earnings in durable-goods industries: (1) The
large increase in the numbers of workers employed in the high-wage
industries, such as iron and steel automobiles, and shipbuilding; and
(2) the increase in overtime payable at premium rates. After October
24, 1940, under the Fair Labor Standards Act, the number of hours
payable at straight-time rates was limited to 40 per week. It was
estimated that this change affected about 2,650,000 wage earners in
any week of average activity. It was, however, further estimated
that as many as 700,000 of these workers were already being paid
time and a half for overtime when the normal hours were reduced
from 42 to 40.5
Average hourly earnings in the nondurable-goods industries were
61.7 cents in December 1940 as against 60.5 cents in December 1939.
These earnings were affected to some degree by the applications of
recommendations of industry committees under the Fair Labor
Standards Act. Although there w^as no general increase in the minimum rate in 1940, orders effective in 1940 were issued for the following
4 See Extent of Week End Shut-Downs in Selected Defense Industries, Monthly Labor Review, March
1941 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 1270).
4 See Employment and Earnings in 1943, Monthly Labor Review, March 1941 (reprinted as Serial No.
R . 1269).




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

9

industries: January 15, millinery, with a minimum of 40.0 cents an
hour; April 29, boots and shoes, 35.0 cents; May 6, knitted underwear
and commercial knitting, 33.5 cents; June 17, woolen textiles, 36.0
cents; July 1, knitted outerwear, 35.0 cents; July 1, fur-felt hats, 40.0
cents; July 15, 26 branches of apparel manufacturing, minimum rates
ranging from 32.5 to 40.0 cents; September 16, leather, 40.0 cents;
and September 16, pulp and primary paper products, 40.0 cents.
The estimated number of workers whose wages were increased by
these orders ranged from 2,700 in the leather industry to approximately
200,000 in the apparel group.
Previous orders effective on October 24, 1939, provided a minimum
wage of 32.5 cents an hour in the textile industry (except wool) and
the seamless branch of the hosiery industry, and for a minimum
wage of 40.0 cents in the full-fashioned brauch of the hosiery industry.
Blast Furnaces, Steel Works, and Rolling Mills; Automobiles
The fluctuations of hours and earnings in two important durablegoods industries, blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills, and
automobiles—the largest consumer of steel products—are shown in
chart 3. The similarity of trends in weekly hours in these industries
and also the higher level of average hourly and weekly earnings
in the automobile industry, as well as the greater seasonality of the
latter industry, are clearly portrayed in this chart. Average weekly
earnings in blast furnaces rose from a depression low of $11.52 in July
1932 to an all-time high of $36.07 in April 1937. After decreasing
sharply through the 1937-38 recession, weekly earnings rose to $33.91
in October 1939, due primarily to the stimulus given to heavy industry
by the European War, and rose further to $34.65 in December 1940
as a result of National Defense orders. Weekly earnings in the automobile industry reached the highest figure shown ($39.25) in October
1940, contrasted with the low average of $14.14 in September 1932.
The figures for the automobile industry relate to employees engaged
in the production of motor vehicles and motor-vehicle bodies and
parts as well as those employed in certain integrated plant departments
engaged in the manufacture of basic materials.
Average hourly earnings and average hours per week by months are
not available for the automobile industry for years prior to 1934.
The greatest rise in hourly earnings in both automobiles and blast
furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills occurred between October 1936
and July 1937. In the latter alone, during this period, wage increases
affecting approximately 150,000 wage earners were reported to the
Bureau. Collective agreements in both industries negotiated in 1937
and renewed periodically have tended to keep hourly earnings at
or above the 1937 level.




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

10

BLAST FURNACES AND AUTOMOBILES
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40

o.

AUTOMOBILES^

A

/ ^ A / ^ l ^ S f

ff^ir^^jC^^^Lf^TURING
1
1 BLAST Fl
JRNACES

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
100

AUTO MOBILES-

- H

1

1
1
i
I J ^ B L A S T FURNACES
1
ALL MANlIFACTURING

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
50

1

1 ALL
IUFACTURING

|

BLAST F

V.
URNACES
lOBILESft

^AUTOM

1932

1933

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

11

Average weekly hours in the automobile industry have a distinct
seasonal pattern, whereas those for blast furnaces show but slight
seasonal fluctuation, being affected more by the placement of orders
as conditions warrant. Average hours in blast furnaces reached
43.5 in late 1936 and early 1937. In the summer of 1937, average
hours fell substantially as a result of strikes, which at one time involved
over 100,000 employees in the industry. Sharp curtailment of operations during the latter half of 1937 resulted in further declines, and
by January 1938 an average of only 24.9 hours per week was reported.
The general average did not return to the scheduled 40-hours-perweek level until October 1939, when the industry was operating near
capacity. The average fell below this level, however, in the early
months of 1940, dropping to 34.4 hours in April. National Defense
contracts awarded in June 1940 and later months made unprecedented
demands upon the man power of the steel industry. By December,
therefore, when operations were close to theoretical capacity, hours
in the industry were at 40.4. This increase in hours was coincident
with a sharp rise in employment.
Average hours in the automobile industry were substantially
below 40 per week from December 1936 until October 1940, when they
rose to 41.3. The December 1940 figure (38.2) was the highest
December level since 1936. Employment in December 1940 was also
at the highest December level on record.
Foundries and Machine Shops; Machine Tools
Chart 4 shows the movements of average weekly earnings, average
hourly earnings, and average hours per week in two other closely
related durable-goods industries-—foundries and machine shops,6 and
machine tools, key industries in the National Defense program. Neither of these industries shows more than slight seasonal fluctuations.
In fact, the movements of earnings in the foundries and machineshops industry bear an impressive similarity to the movements of earnings in all durable-goods industries combined. Wage earners in the
more highly specialized machine-tool industry received more pay than
those in the foundries and machine-shops industry and in general
worked longer hours per week. The increase in weekly earnings in
machine tools from $24.26 in July 1938 to $39.56 in December 1940,
a rise of about 63 percent, serves to emphasize the "boom" character
of conditions in the industry at the end of 1940. Over the same period
weekly earnings in foundries and machine shops rose from $23.99 to
$32.85, an increase of 37 percent. It is noteworthy, moreover,
6 The foundries and machine-shops industry as classified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics includes
establishments manufacturing cranes and dredging machinery, boiler-shop products, foundry products,
and machinery and machine-shop products,
402097°—42




2

12

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

MACHINE TOOLS
FOUNDRIES AND MACHINE SHOPS
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40 r

DOLLARS
40

[
1
MACHINE TOOLS!

I_
i

30

;
^ UAT R G
N FCUI
N

1

W\

1
FOl INDRIES & MACHINE SHOPS

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

IMACHINE T O O L S ^ f A ^ F O U N O R I E S

L—iv^

^ ALL MANUF<ICTURINO
| ^

\ J

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60

^ - ^ M A C H I N E T(DOLS

tILL MANUFACT 1
URING

/

\N

OUNORIES a MACHINE SHOP's

1932

1933

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

13

that in December 1940 average hours worked per week in machinetool plants were 50.6, substantially in excess of the 40 hours set by the
Fair Labor Standards Act as the level where overtime pay shall
begin.
A survey of the extent of the so-called week-end blackout in the
machine-tool industry made during the midweek of December showed
that 91 percent of the wage earners in the industry were working
overtime. The average number of overtime hours per overtime worker
was in excess of 11 hours during the week reported. Workers in some
plants were averaging as high as 60 hours per week.7 The shortage
of skilled workers trained for the production of highly specialized
precision machine tools, such as turret lathes, planers, and shapers,
made firms resort to overtime in order to meet delivery schedules.8
The weekly pay rolls in this industry in December 1940 were approximately three times as great as in December 1938.
Aircraft and Shipbuilding
The movements of hours and earnings in two key defense industries,
aircraft (exclusive of aeroengines) and shipbuilding, are shown in
chart 5. Monthly data relative to hours and hourly earnings are not
available for these industries prior to 1935. The rapid growth of the
aircraft industry as a result of the European War has been reflected in
sharp increases in employment and pay rolls. During the year 1940,
emplo37ment increased from 63,700 wage earners in January to 131,200
in December. Weekly pay rolls increased from $1,846,000 to $4,499,000 over the same period.9
The movements of hours and earnings in the aircraft industry,
however, have been fairly steady over the past several years. Hours
per week in December 1940 (44.6) were actually lower than in June
1937 (44.9), prior to the Fair Labor Standards Act. Hourly earnings
of 75.7 cents in December 1940 were lower than the 76.5 figure reported
in December 1938. The average weekly earnings of $31.40 in 1940
were virtually at the 1932 level ($31.42). Several factors were involved
in the relatively slight change in earnings levels—the establishment of
new aircraft plants in areas where wage levels are lower, the hiring
of a huge number of new workers at entrance rates, and the expansion
of plants into volume production with vastly improved technology
permitting a wider use of unskilled or semiskilled workers on jobs
previously handled by skilled workers only. The lower level of hours
in aircraft in 1940 (43.2) as compared with hours in the machine-tool
industry (48.2) indicates that airplane plants have been able to secure
7 See note 4, p. 8.
8 See Estimated Labor Requirements for the Machine-Tool Industry Under the National Defense Program, Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 1941 (mimeographed release).
• See Expansion of Aircrait Industry to Meet War Demands, Monthly Labor Review, February 1941.




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

14

STATES

AIRCRAFT AND SHIPBUILDING
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
50 |

^ALL MANUFACTURING

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
100

ShIIPBUILDI

eo

|

|

AIRCRAFT—V
1

70

V ^ v ,

I /

60

50
» L MN FC
L
A UA "
40

30

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

^ A L L MANUFACTURING

1932

1933




1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS

OF

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

15

new workers on a scale not possible in an industry such as machine
tools requiring a large proportion of highly specialized skills.
In private shipyards, average weekly earnings in 1940 were $34.81
compared with $23.62 in 1932, an increase of 47.4 percent. Average
hours and average hourly earnings in the industry have risen steadily
since 1934; hours reached 42.6 in December 1940 and hourly earnings
89.5 cents, the highest levels on record. During 1940, employment
in private shipyards increased from 74,800 wage earners in January
to 120,200 in December, as thousands of new workers were called in
to speed the Government's 5-billion-dollar shipbuilding program. A
special survey of the shipbuilding industry covering the midweek of
December 1940 showed that 62 percent of the wage earners were averaging in excess of 11 hours overtime.10 Moreover, an extensive building program was being undertaken under Government direction to
increase the number of shipways.11
Lumber; Paper and Pulp
The comparison of wages and hours in the lumber (sawmills) and
the paper and pulp industries is shown in chart 6. The average-hourly
earnings curves reveal the substantial increases in these industries
since 1932. In the sawmill industry hourly earnings rose from a
depression low of 24.9 cents in June 1933 to 50.7 cents in December
1940, and hourly earnings in the paper and pulp industry rose from
39.9 cents in June 1933 to 66.0 cents in December 1940.
The strike affecting approximately 32,000 workers in the lumber
industry on the Pacific coast in May 1935 is reflected in the level of
average weekly hours—most of the workers affected were paid on a
monthly basis and were employed part of the month. As a result,
average hours in the industry dropped to 33.0. Since the 1937 high
of 45.8 hours in June, average hours in the sawmill industry have remained substantially below that figure. In December 1940 the
average was 38.0 hours.
Cottonseed—Oil, Cake, and Meal; Fertilizers
Data for cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal, and fertilizers, two lowwage nondurable-goods industries in the chemical group, are graphically presented in chart 7. That wage earners in the former benefited
by the Fair Labor Standards Act is apparent from the rise shown in
the average-hourly-earnings curve in November 1938 and November
1939. Average hourly earnings in this industry increased from 25.2
cents in October 1938 to 28.8 cents in November 1938, and from 28.6
cents in October 1939 to 33.0 cents in November of that year. They
"> See note 4, p. 8.
Labor Requirements for Shipbuilding Industry Under Defense Program, Monthly Labor Review,
March 1941.




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

16

SAWMILLS
PAPER AND PULP
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40

Pi \PEB ANC> P U L P ^ ,
I

"

AL,L M
IANUFACTURINC

*SAWMIL

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

ALL 1
MANUFACTURE

aA
SAWMILL S

1
1
PAPE R AND PULP
w

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60

l^-pi ANC)
*PER

^SAWMILLS

PULP

ALL MANUFAC TURING

1932

1933

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

1936

1937

\

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS

OF

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

17

rose slightly above this level in 1940, reaching a high of 34.7 cents in
September. Moreover, this increase in the hourly rate was reflected
in larger weekly earnings—the $15.60 average-weekly-earnings figure
in November 1939 marking the first time that average weekly earnings
in this industry had passed the $15 level, according to the Bureau's
records. By December 1940 average weekly earnings had reached
$16.08, the highest shown for this industry. Average hours are comparatively high, standing, for example, at 46.8 in December 1940.
Some operations in this industry are exempted from the hours provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. The seasonal demands in
the cottonseed-oil industry, and also in the fertilizer industry are
reflected in the monthty movements of average hours.
Average hourly earnings and average hours per week for the fertilizer industry are not available by months prior to 1935. Annual
averages indicate, however, that hourly earnings in this industry have
increased substantially since 1933, when they averaged 26.5 cents as
compared with the average of 43.0 cents for 1940. The seasonal
decreases in hourly earnings in the fertilizer industry in the spring
months are due primarily to the hiring of large numbers of common
laborers during the peak shipping season. As these low-paid workers
are released, the level of earnings rises accordingly.
Cotton Goods; Woolen and Worsted Goods
Movements of hours and earnings in two important textile industries—cotton goods and woolen and worsted goods—have been
portrayed in chart 8. The generally lower level of weekly earnings
in the cotton-goods industry is readily apparent, as is the tendency,
particularly of hourly earnings, to move uniformly in the two industries. The two general upward movements in hourly earnings which
occurred throughout all industry in 1933 and again in 1936-37 were
experienced in the textiles. The 32}{ cents per hour minimum for
textiles established by administrative order under the Fair Labor
Standards Act on October 24, 1939, is reflected in the rise in average
hourly earnings in the cotton-goods industry from 38.4 cents in October
to 41.0 cents in November.
The precipitous downward shift in the levels of hours worked in
cotton and in woolen and worsted textile mills in August 1933 and
subsequent months as the result of N. R. A. codes, and the failure of
these averages to return to their former levels after the N. R. A. codes
were invalidated, are illustrated in chart 8.12
The. serious effect of the textile strike in the summer of 1934 is also
shown by the movements of average hours. Part-time operation as
a result of decreased production was the cause of the decline of hours
12 See Wage Rates and Weekly Earnings in the Cotton Textile Industry, 1933-34, Monthly Labor
Review, March 1935 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 225).




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

18

FERTILIZERS
COTTONSEED-OIL, CAKE AND MEAL
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40

— -

ALL MANU FACTimiNOy
/—

f: E R T I L I Z l

COTTONSEED OIL

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

i

J

FE: r t i l i z e f i s y
i

r

v

NS
^CcouoE E D

0I L

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60 r

1

1

i

1

I

\ n

COTTONSEED O I L * / A ,
m

-V

J
n
-

.1

ValiL

\J MANUFACTUI

i

AvJ

'^'^FERTILIZERS

1932

1933

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

19

worked in both cotton and woolen goods in late 1937 and early 1938.
The upswing in weekly hours immediately following this period placed
the length of the workweek on a level which has since been fairly well
maintained. In December 1940 average weekly hours in cotton
mills reached 38.0 while in woolen and worsted mills they were 38.9.
Slaughtering and Meat Packing; Bread and Bakery Products
A comparison of movements in two relatively stable consumers7
goods industries is shown in chart 9. Average hourly earnings and
average hours worked per week for the bread and bakery products
industry are not available prior to 1934. The effect of the meat
packing industry code (effective August 1, 1933, in response to the
President's Reemployment Agreement) on hourly earnings and hours
per week in this industry is quite apparent. The general rise in
hourly earnings and the general decrease in hours worked in early
1937 were the results of widespread wage adjustments and collective
agreements. In March 1937 alone, 72 meat-packing firms employing
approximately 50,000 workers reported wage increases averaging
about 15 percent. Since that time, there has been but slight change
in the level of hourly or weekly earnings in this industry.13
Average hourly earnings in the bread and bakery products industry
have shown a steady increase since data first became available.
There have been numerous wage increases to small numbers of workers
month by month, with most wage earners affected during 1937. In
December 1940 hourly earnings in the industry were at 64.4 cents, the
highest figure recorded. Weekly hours in the bread and bakery
products industry in 1940 averaged 41.4.14
Private Building Construction
Movements of average weekly earnings, average hourly earnings,
and average hours per week in one of the country's major industrial
groups, private building construction, are shown in chart 10. Adequate data for weekly earnings in private building construction are
not available prior to 1934, nor are data for hourly earnings and hours
per week available by months prior to 1935.
The regular pattern of seasonal activity in the private building
construction industry is revealed in the monthly movement of average
hours worked per week. Average hours reached 35.4 in October 1940,
the highest figure in recent years. Hourly earnings in building construction showed a steady rise through 1936 and 1937, decreased
somewhat during the 1938 recession, and rose to the highest figure of
is See Earnings and Hours in the Meat-Packing Industry, December 1937, Monthly Labor Review, October
1939, p. 936.
w For data concerning conditions in union bakeries, see Bull. No. 673: Wages, Hours, and Working
Conditions in Union Bakeries, June 1, 1939.




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

20

COTTON GOODS
WOOLEN AND WORSTED GOODS
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
401

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

KANUrACTURlN G
ALL 1
I
j-

A

[J
1

S v O O L E f I AND W O R S T E D
1

40

1

1 —

"cotton1
30

AVERAGE HOURS' WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60 r

HOURS
60

^ A L L MAN UFACTURING

TTON

1932

1933

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

WO OLEN AN D WORST ED

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

1932-40

21

BREAD AND BAKERY PRODUCTS
SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40

MEAT PACKING
^BREAD
ALL MANU FACTURING

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

MEAT PACKING

'

L

vALL MANlJFACTURING/

1

i / W E AD

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60 r

IEAT PACIKING

HOURS
60

BRE AD

1

L MANUFACTUI*IN9

\

20

1932

1933

U. S. BUREAU. OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

22

PRIVATE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40 |

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
100

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
50

1932193319341935
U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1936

1937

1938

1939

HOURS
50

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

23

the period covered herein (97.1 cents per hour) in January and March
1940, after which they receded very slightly. In December 1940
average hourly earnings were 96.7 cents.
A comparison between hours and hourly earnings in manufacturing
(see chart 1, p. 5) and in building construction is noteworthy. Notwithstanding the fact that private building construction employees
worked shorter hours than employees in manufacturing, their weekly
earnings far outstripped those of the factory employees because of the
generally higher hourly earnings in the construction industry.
Anthracite and Bituminous-Coal Mining
Chart 11 presents the movements of hours and earnings in the
anthracite and bituminous-coal mining industries. Market conditions
resulting in the intermittent operation of anthracite mines account in
general for the erratic seasonal pattern of average weekly hours of
work in that industry. Fluctuations in hours worked by bituminouscoal miners follow a somewhat more regular seasonal pattern. Average hourly earnings and average hours per week for bituminous-coal
workers are not available by months prior to 1934. Average weekly
hours in bituminous-coal mining in 1940 (28.1 hours) show an increase
of 3 percent from the 1932 average (27.2 hours).
The increases in hourly earnings of both bituminous-coal and
anthracite workers are apparent in chart 11. Hourly earnings
paid to bituminous-coal workers increased from 58.9 cents in January
1934 to 88.7 cents in December 1940, an increase of almost 51 percent.
Hourly earnings of anthracite workers increased from 85.0 to 91.9
cents over the same period, an increase of 8 percent. The increased
earnings of bituminous-coal workers resulted from new wage contracts
negotiated in April-May 1934, September 1935, and April 1937.15
The sharp declines in weekly earnings and hours per week in AprilMay 1939 were caused by the general closing of mines pending negotiations for new contracts.
Crude-Petroleum Production; Metalliferous Mining
Data for two other extractive industries are shown in chart 12—
crude-petroleum production and metalliferous mining. Average
hourly earnings and average hours per week data for crude petroleum
are not available prior to 1935 nor for metalliferous mining by months
prior to 1934. Average weekly earnings in metalliferous mining made
a substantial recovery from the depression low of $17.77 in July 1932
to $32.24 in May 1937, the highest recorded, while weekly earnings
in crude-petroleum production remained relatively stable throughout
15 Previous to 1934, earnings of bituminous-coal miners had shown sharp declines from earlier levels according to special studies of the Bureau. In contrast, wages of anthracite miners were much more stable.




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

24

ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL MINING
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
100

1
^ A N T H I RACITE

J

I
1V
BITUMINO US COAL

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK
i
HRACITE
fl

HOURS
50

J\JfrVjpl
TUMINOU! 5 COAL

1932

1933

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

1932-40

CRUDE - PETROLEUM
METALLIFEROUS MINING
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

OOLLARS
Or

1

1 1

CRUDE PETROLEUM*

J

^METALLIFEROUS MINING

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
100

CRUDE P ETROLEUI
^ ^METAILLIFEROUS MINING

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
50

METALL IFEROUS 'MINING^ |

|

r

^CRUDI l PETROL EUM

1932

1933

1934

U. S. BUREAU. OF LABOR STATISTICS




1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

25

26

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

the period shown. Earnings of clerical field employees are included
in the crude-petroleum averages.
Average hourly earnings in the metalliferous mining industry were
at 74.6 cents in December 1940, the highest figure recorded up to that
time. The greatest gains in hourly earnings made by metalliferous
miners were in late 1936 and early 1937. New agreements in this
industry signed about this time resulted in substantial increases in
hourly earnings—1937 average hourly earnings were 16 percent higher
than the 1936 figure. Daily wages in a number of copper, lead, and
zinc mines are dependent upon the selling price of these metals and
considerable fluctuation is shown from time to time, depending on
changes in current quotations. Average hours in metalliferous mining
fluctuate with market conditions and are generally dependent on
industrial activity but have been affected, as in other industries connected with interstate commerce, by the Fair Labor Standards Act.
The 1940 average was 40.9 hours per week compared to the 1937
average of 43.8. Average hours worked per week in crude-petroleum
production have shown but slight variation since 1936.
Laundries; Dyeing and Cleaning
The fluctuations of earnings and hours in two service industries,
laundries and dyeing and cleaning, are contrasted in chart 13. Monthly
data for average hourly earnings and average hours per week are
not available prior to 1935 for dyeing and cleaning nor prior to 1934
for laundries. Neither of these industries has shown significant change
in average weekly earnings since depression levels of early 1932.
Hourly earnings have shown small but steady increases since 1934 and
1935, the first years for which data were compiled. The greater
seasonal demands of the dyeing and cleaning industry are illustrated
by the curves showing average hours per week. Workers in both
industries averaged approximately 43 hours per week in 1940.
Range of Hours and Earnings in 1940
There was a wide range in the average number of hours worked per
week in 1940 in the 103 manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries
for which information is available, as shown in table 1. Employees in
machine tools averaged the highest number of hours per week (48.2)
while employees in anthracite mining averaged only 27.2 hours, the
lowest number shown.
A distribution of average weekly hours, by 2-hour intervals shows
that the largest group of industries, 35 in all, fell within the range of
38.0 to 39.9 hours. The next largest group, consisting of 19 industries,
came within the 40.0 to 41.9 hours class. The average weekly hours in
2 other sizable groups, covering 17 and 14 industries each, fell within




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

19 3 2 - 4 0

LAUNDRIES
DYEING AND CLEANING
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS
40 r

DYEING (\ CLEANIf

LAUf sIDRIES

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS
90

70

>YEING a
C

1

1

SUNDRIES

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS
60 r

DYEING a CLEANING*
^^

^W

L A I JNDRIES

1932

1933

1934

U.S.BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

402097°—42




3

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

27

28

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

classes ranging from 36.0 to 37.9 hours and 34.0 and 35.9 hours, respectively. The remaining industries fell within classes as follows:
Twelve averaged in excess of 42 hours per week, six averaged less than
34 hours per week.
The level of average hours in any given month or year is not necessarily a measure of activity in the industry. For example, among the
industries averaging in excess of 40 hours per week in 1940 (table 1),
the following could be characterized as "long-hour" industries: Butter;
ice cream; cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal; beet sugar; flour; baking;
hotels (year-round); street railways and busses; wholesale trade;
retail trade; laundries; and dyeing and cleaning. Similarly, rubber,
coal mining, and clothing are "short-hour" industries.
The industry averages shown in table 1 for 1940 were, of course,
different in many instances from those for the year 1939. In all
manufacturing there was only a small general increase in hours of work,
the average of 38.1 hours in 1940 comparing with 37.6 in 1939. As
noted elsewhere,16 the defense industries, such as aircraft, machine
tools, engines and turbines, shipbuilding, explosives, and electrical
machinery, showed substantial increases especially during the last half
of the year. The provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act called
for a reduction of time payable at straight-time rates from 42 to 40
hours per week in October 1940. In many industries such as those
listed above, however, overtime operations prevailed in spite of overtime premiums. The effects of the act were apparent after October
1938, particularly in several nondurable-goods industries in which
hours of work were usually long, such as cottonseed—oil, cake, and
meal; 17 flour; and cane-sugar refining.
1 See footnote 2, p. 4.
6
Some operations of the cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal—industry are exempted from the overtime provisions of the act. See Interpretative Bull. No. 14, p. 15, Office of the General Counsel, Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS, 19 3 2 - 4 0

29

1.—Average number of hours worked per week in 19J+0 in the individual
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, arranged in descending order
and grouped by class intervals

TABLE

Industries and class intervals

Average
hours
worked
per
week

38.0-89.9 hours—85

Over 46.0 hours—4 industries
Machine tools
Hotels (year-round)
Butter
Street railways and busses.

48.2
46.3
46.2
46.1

44.0-45.9 hours—1 industry
Ice cream.

45.4

42.0-43.9 hours—7 industries
Cottonseed—oil, cake and meal
Engines, turbines, water wheels, and
windmills
Aircraft
Sugar, beet—
Laundry
Retail trade
Dyeing and cleaning

43.7
43.7
43.2
43.1
43.0
42.9
42.9

41.4
41.4
41.3
41.2
41.2
41.1
41.0
40.9
40.7
40.7
40.6
40.6
40.5
40.4
40.3
40.2
40.1
40.1
40.0

88.0-39.9 hours—85 industries
Shipbuilding..
Explosives
Soap.
Electric light and power.
Druggists' preparations
Wire work
Typewriters and parts
Cutlery (not including silver plated cutlery) and edge tools
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
Telephone and telegraph
Clocks and watches and time-recording
devices
Furniture
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining
Structural and ornamental metalwork
Boxes, paper
Stamped and enameled ware
R a y o n and allied products
Jewelry




Average
hours
worked
per
week

industries—Continued

Agricultural implements (including tractors)
Hardware
Tin cans
Locomotives
..
Beverages
Lighting equipment
Stoves
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and
zinc
Rubber goods, other
Book and job printing
Radios and phonographs
Cement
Rubber boots and shoes
Confectionery
Knitted cloth
Sawmills
Cars, electric- and steam-railroad

39.1
39.0
39.0
39.0
39.0
38.9
38.8
38.8
38.7
38.5
38.5
38.5
38.3
38.1
38.0
38.0
38.0

86.0-37.9 hours—17 industries

40.0-41.9 hours—19 industries
Flour
Baking
Forgings, iron and steel
Wholesale trade
Brass, bronze, and copper products
Tools (not including edge tools, machine
tools, files, and saws)
Foundry and machine-shop products
Metalliferous mining
Mill work
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
Paints and varnishes
Silverware and plated ware
Paper and pulp
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus
and steam fittings
Textile machinery and parts
Slaughtering and meat packing
Aluminum manufactures
Cash registers, adding machines, tod calculating machines
Chemicals

Industries and class intervals

39.8
39.8
39.8
39.7
39.6
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.4
39.4
39.3
39.3
39.2
39.2
39.1
39.1
39.1

Automobiles
Cotton small wares.
Plumbers' supplies
Crude-petroleum production
Sugar refining, cane
Leather
Dyeing and finishing textiles
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills
Cast-iron pipe
Pottery
Brick, tile and terra cotta
Knitted outerwear
Canning and preserving
Cigars and cigarettes
Woolen and worsted goods
Petroleum refining
Cotton goods

37.9
37.8
37.8
37.8
37.6
37.6
37.6
37.3
37.2
37.2
37.0
36.4
36.3
36.3
36.1
36.1
36.0

84.0-85.9 hours—14 industries
Newspapers and periodicals
Glass
Corsets and allied garments
Silk and rayon goods
Knitted underwear
Marble, granite, slate, and other productsFertilizers
Carpets and rugs
Chewing and smoking tobacco and s n u f f . .
Rubber tires and inner tubes
M e n ' s furnishings
Boots and shoes
Shirts and collars..
Hosiery

35.9
35.8
35.7
35. 7
35.6
35.6
35.4
35. 2
34.9
34.8
34.4
34.2
34.1
34.0

82.0-38.9 hours—4 industries
Clothing, women's
Building construction..
Clothing, men's
Hats, fur-felt

33.1
32.5
32.5

Less than 82.0 hours— 2 industries
Bituminous coal.
Anthracite

28.1
27.2

30

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

The range of average hourly earnings by industries in 1940 is shown
in table 2. Wage earners in the newspapers and periodicals industry
had the highest hourly earnings in 1940, averaging 103.3 cents, while
those in the petroleum refining industry were second highest in 1940,
averaging 97.4 cents. Other industries in which the average earnings
were over 90 cents per hour in 1940 were rubber tires and inner tubes,
96.7 cents; private building construction, 95.8 cents; automobiles,
bodies, and parts, 94.8 cents; and anthracite mining, 92.4 cents.
Of the 103 industries for which average-hourly-earnings data are
available for 1940, the year-round hotels paid the lowest, employees
averaging 33.2 cents per hour. This average, however, does not
include value of board, room, and tips, which cannot be computed.
Wage earners in the cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal—industry
received the second lowest, averaging 33.5 cents.
On the basis of a 10-cent class interval, approximately one-half of
the industries fell within the 2 class intervals, 60.0-69.9 cents and
70.0-79.9 cents. Earnings in 19 industries were above 80 cents and
34 averaged under 60 cents per hour.
The Fair Labor Standards Act provided for a minimum of 25 cents
per hour after October 24, 1938, and a minimum of 30 cents per hour
after October 24, 1939, in the covered industries. In most industries,
the average was already above the minimum established by the act.
Since there is a wide range of rates within each industry, however,
in many industries some workers were affected by the minimum.
The effects of the law were more apparent in the industry averages of
those industries with low rates of pay, notably cottonseed—oil, cake,
and meal; men's furnishings; cotton goods; and shirts and collars.
These industries showed significant increases in hourly earnings immediately following the application of the general industry minimum
or of the recommendations of industry committees.
In 1940, average hourly earnings in most industries showed substantial increases over 1939. As stated elsewhere, the wage orders
issued as a result of recommendations of industry committees under
the Fair Labor Standards Act established new minimum rates in many
industries, particularly in the textile and apparel lines. In addition,
overtime hours at time and a half resulted in higher hourly earnings,
especially in many defense industries.




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS, 1 9 3 2 - 4 0

31

2.—Average hourly earnings in 1940 in individual manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries arranged in descending order and grouped by class
intervals

TABLE

Average
hourly
earnings

Industries and class intervals

Over 90 cents—6 industries
Newspapers and periodicals
Petroleum refining
Rubber tires and inner tubes
Building construction
Automobiles
Anthracite

—

Cents
103.3
97.4
96.7
95.8
94.8
92.4

80.0-89.9 cents—IS industries
Electric light and p o w e r . .
Beverages
Bituminous coal
Crude-petroleum production
Shipbuilding
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills.
Explosives
Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating machines
Engines, turbines, water wheels, and windmills
Book and j o b printing
Telephone and telegraph
Chemicals
!
Agricultural implements (including tractors)

88.4
88.3
88.3
88.1
87.0
84.8
84.7
82.9
81.7
81.1
80.6
80.4
80.0

70.0-79.9 cents—23 industries
Forgings, iron and steel
Locomotives
Brass, bronze, and copper products
Machine tools
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
Cars, electric- and steam-railroad
Glass
Aircraft
Wholesale trade
Structural and ornamental metalwork
Foundry and machine-shop products
Hats, fur-felt
Metalliferous mining
Paints and varnishes
Street railways and busses
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and
zinc
Marble, granite, slate, and other products,.
Aluminum manufactures
Soap
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and
steam fittings
Cement
Wire work
Lighting equipment

79.1
78.5
76.9
76.8
75.8
75.0
74.5
74.3
73.9
73.6
73.4
73.4
73.3
72.2
72.2
72.1
71.9
71.6
71.5
71.4
71.0
70.3
70.1

60.0-69.9 cents—27 industries
Plumbers' supplies
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
Slaughtering and meat packing
Hardware
Stoves
R a y o n and allied products
Carpets and rugs
Textile machinery and parts

69.7
69.6
68.6
68.3
68.0
67.9
66.9
66.1

Industries and class intervals

60.0-69.9 cents—27
industries—Continued
Typewriters and parts
Silverware and plated ware
Stamped and enameled ware
Leather
Paper and pulp
Sugar refining, cane
Ice cream
Baking
Tools (not including edge tools, machine
tools, files, and saws)
Pottery
T i n cans
Cutlery (not including silver and plated
cutlery) and edge tools
Rubber goods, other
Rubber boots and shoes
Sugar, beet
Radios and phonographs
Flour
Druggists' preparations
Cast-iron pipe
50.0-59.9 cents—17 industries
Clocks and watches and time-recording devices
Clothing, men's
Jewelry
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining
Woolen and worsted goods
Brick, tile, and terra cotta
Boxes, paper
Hosiery
Furniture
Mill work
Dyeing and finishing textiles
Retail trade
Clothing, women's
Chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff..
Boots and shoes
Confectionery
Sawmills
40.0-49.9 cents—15 industries
Cotton smallwares
Knitted cloth
Dyeing and cleaning
Cigars and cigarettes
Butter
Knitted outerwear
Corsets and allied garments
Canning and preserving
Silk and rayon goods
Knitted underwear
Fertilizers
Laundries
Men's furnishings
Cotton goods
Shirts and collars
Less than 40.0 cents—2 industries
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal
Hotels (year-round) 1

1 Cash payments only; additional value of board, room, and tips cannot be computed.




32

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

3.—Average weekly earnings in 1940 in individual manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries arranged in descending order and grouped by class
intervals

TABLE

Industries and class intervals

Average
weekly
earnings

Industries and class intervals

$38. 23
36. 97
36. 86
36. 55
35. 88

Tools (not including edge tools, machine
tools, files, and saws)
Typewriters and parts
Stamped and enameled ware
Marble, granite, slate, and other products. _.
Flour
Druggists' preparations

$25-$29.99—80

Over $35—7 industries
Newspapers and periodicals
Machine tools
Brokerage
Insurance
Automobiles
--Engines, turbines, water wheels, and windmills
Electric light and power

35. 60
35.10

$30-$S4.99—21 industries
Petroleum refining
..
Shipbuilding
Beverages
Crude-petroleum production
Street railways and busses
Explosives
R u b b e r tires and inner tubes
Cash registers, adding machines and calculating machines
Forgings, iron and steel
Chemicals
Building construction
Brass, bronze, and copper products
Telephone and telegraph
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills.
Agricultural implements (including tractors)
Book and job printing
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
Locomotives
Wholesale trade
Foundry and machine-shop products

34. 98
34.81
34. 07
34.03
33. 75
33. 73
33. 55
33. 06
32. 56
32.17
31.62
31.61
31.60
31.54
31.40
31.18
30. 78
30. 72
30. 58
30. 39
30.13

$25-$29.99—30 industries
Metalliferous mining
Ice cream
Paints and varnishes
Structural and ornamental metal work
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus
and steam fittings
Aluminum manufactures
Cars, electric- and steam-railroad
Soap
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and
zinc
Wire work
Slaughtering and meat packing
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
Cement
Lighting equipment
Hardware
Glass
Textile machinery and parts
Rayon and allied products
Silverware and plated ware
Stoves
Baking
Plumbers' supplies
—
Paper and pulp
Sugar, beet
1

29. 86
29.47
29. 26
28. 83
28.
28.
28.
28.

71
71
47
45

27. 97
27. 74
27. 60
27. 50
27. 34
27. 29
26. 64
26. 63
26. 56
26. 51
26. 46
26. 33
26. 32
26. 31
26.13
26.07

industries—Continued

$20-$24.99—26 industries
Anthracite
Bituminous coal
Tin cans
Leather
Sugar refining, cane
Cutlery (not including silver and plated
cutlery) and edge tools
Millinery
Rubber goods, other
Hats, fur-felt
Rubber boots and shoes
Clocks and watches and time-recording devices
Radios and phonographs
Carpets and rugs
Jewelry
Pottery
Butter
Cast-iron pipe
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining
Mill work
Boxes, paper
Furniture
Retail trade
Brick, tile, and terra cotta
Dyeing and finishing textiles
Dyeing and cleaning
Wooien and worsted goods
$15-$19.99—19 industries
Clothing, women's
Clothing, m e n ' s . .
Confectionery.
Sawmills
Knitted cloth
Hosiery
Chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff.
Cotton smallwares
Laundries
Boots and shoes
Cigars and cigarettes
Knitted outerwear
Corsets and allied garments
Canning and preserving
Silk and rayon goods..
Hotels (year-round) 1 ..
Knitted underwear
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal
Fertilizers
Less than $15—8 industries
Cotton goods
M e n ' s furnishings
Shirts and collars

Cash payments only; the additional value of board, room, and tips cannot be computed.




MOVEMENTS OF HOURS AND EARNINGS,

1932-40

33

Table 3 shows average weekly earnings in 1940. As in average
hourly earnings, the newspapers and periodicals industry topped the
list with average weekly earnings of $38.23. Machine-tools employees were next with earnings of $36.97 per week while insurance
and brokerage employees ranked third and fourth with earnings of
$36.86 and $36.55, respectively. On the other hand, lowest on the
list of the 106 industries for which weekly earnings are available for
1940 was the shirts and collars manufacturing industry with average
weekly earnings of $13.91. Other industries showing average weekly
earnings of less than $15 per wage earner in 1940 were men's furnishings, $14.56, and cotton goods, $14.85. The total number of industries
shown in table 3 is 106. Data are included for the millinery, brokerage, and insurance industries, for which information concerning average hours and average hourly earnings (tables 1 and 2) is not available.




Chapter II
Scope and Methods
The employment and pay-roll figures published by the Bureau each
month for the 90 manufacturing and 16 nonmanufacturing industries
surveyed are, of necessity, based on samples secured from representative
firms which cooperate by supplying, on a voluntary basis, employment, pay-roll, and man-hour data for the pay period ending nearest
the 15th of the month. Early in 1932, however, when the Bureau first
requested man-hour information, many companies did not keep records
of hours. As additional firms began to keep such records for various
purposes, the reported man-hour sample increased sufficiently so that
within a relatively short period of time the average hours and average
hourly earnings derived from these data were considered adequate to
indicate levels and movements in virtually all of the industries surveyed.
In manufacturing industries, for instance, the firms furnishing manhour data in 1932 employed only 28 percent of all factory workers,
whereas the number of wage earners in all reporting firms constituted
approximately 50 percent of total factory employment. By 1940 firms
employing 55 percent of all factory workers were supplying man-hour
figures to the Bureau each month, the total reporting sample at this
date representing 59 percent. Thus, in terms of the reporting sample,
the workers in factories supplying man-hour information in 1932
constituted about 56 percent of those in all reporting establishments,
and in 1940 over 90 percent. In 1940, an average of 26,065 manufacturing establishments employing more than 5,000,000 wage earners
reported to the Bureau each month. Of these, 23,259 establishments
employing nearly 4,700,000 wage earners reported man-hours.
Similarly, in the nonmanufacturing industries for which the Bureau
requests man-hour data, namely, the mining, public utilities, trade,
service, and private building construction industries, the proportion
of firms supplying man-hour information also has increased noticeably
since 1932.
The increase in coverage in the man-hour sample from 1932 to 1934,
the period of greatest expansion, and from 1934 to 1940 can readily be
seen in table 4, which gives by industries (1) estimated total employ34




SCOPE AND METHODS

35

ment in 1940/ presented for the purpose of showing the relative importance of each industry, (2) percentages of estimated total employment in 1932, 1934, and 1940 in all firms reporting to the Bureau, and
(3) percentages of estimated total employment in 1932, 1934, and 1940
in firms reporting man-hour data.
4.—Estimated total employment in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
industries in 1940, and the percentages of estimated total employment in the total
reporting sample and in the man-hour sample in 1932, 1934, and 1940

TABLE

MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRIES
Percentage of
Percentage of
wage earners in wage earners in
the total report- the reporting
man-hour
ing sample
sample

1940

Industries

Estimated
employment

19321 19341 1940 19321 19341 1940

8,483, 900

Durable goods
Nondurable goods..

50

51

59

28

42

55

4,014, 700
4,469, 200

All manufacturing.

57
46

55
48

65
54

37
22

49
37

63
49

61
73
84
65

76
92
74
88

47
65
69
52

56
67
79
59

74
88
74
86

Durable goods
Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery.
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
Cast-iron pipe
Cutlery (not including silver and plated cutlery) and edge
tools
Forgings, iron and steel
Hardware
Plumbers' supplies
Stamped and enameled ware
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and steam fittings.
Stoves
Structural and ornamental metalwork
Tin cans and other tinware
Tools (not including edge tools, machine tools, files, and
saws)
Wirework

64
977, 300
483,600
79
16,400 2 100
17,800
62
17, 500
17, 500
50,800
26,000
55,900
38,900
44, 400
38, 400
30,000

87
71
84
36
50
81
57
67
37

60
83
79
76
49
65
70
71
41

68
65
84
85
63
78
71
68
88

49
32
58
25
28
55
32
52
13

55
79
73
72
45
62
56
68
33

63
64
84
85
61
77
68
68
82

17, 700
30, 300

80
32

85
18

80
72

63
8

79
16

78
72

33
22

48
61

67
90

Machinery, not including transportation equipment
56
59
69
1, 058, 300
61,100
78
92
Agricultural implements (including tractors)
58
Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating machines
18,100 2 100 2 100 2 100
72
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
85
87
240, 200
Engines, turbines, water wheels, and windmills
52,400
54
56
85
Foundry and machine-shop products
402, 600
53
51
65
Machine tools
66,000 2 100 96
94
Radios and phonographs
42, 400
67
68
95
44
68
72
Textile machinery and parts
25, 200
16.800 2 100 96
Typewriters and parts
90
Transportation equipment
Aircraft
Automobiles
Cars, electric- and steam-railroad..
Locomotives
Shipbuilding

687, 900
90,100
447, 600
35,800
6, 400
93, 700

82
91
87
35
84
81

74
86
92
88
75
88
71
77
85 2 100
80
87

96 2 100 2 100
58
85
45
84
56
30
62
31
47
93
81
95
94
45
28
71
30
60
89
56
93
65
46
76
9
23
35

70
70
72
68
85
68

83
76
87
76
2 100
82

See footnotes at end of table.
i T h e estimates of employment for manufacturing industries are based on the Bureau's indexes of employment and 1937 Census of Manufactures' data. Those for all manufacturing industries combined,
the durable- and nondurable-goods groups, and the aircraft industry are based on indexes and the preliminary Census of Manufactures figures for 1939 and are subject to revision when final census data for 1939 become
available. The totals shown for all manufacturing industries combined and for the various groups relate to
total employment and are not the sums of the industry figures shown. The estimates for nonmanufacturing
industries shown are likewise based on the Bureau's indexes of employment and respective census data and
are subject to revision when more recent census data are made available. With regard to the four industries
for which no information is shown, estimates of total employment were not possible because of lack of comparable census data.




HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

36

4.—Estimated total employment in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
industries in 19^0, and the percentages of estimated total employment in the total
reporting sample and in the man-hour sample in 1932, 1984, and 1940—Con.

TABLE

MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRIES-Continued

Industries

Estimated
employment
1940

Durable

Percentage of
Percentage of
wage earners in
wage earners in
the reporting
the total reportman-hour
ing sample
sample
1932

1934 1940 1932 1934

1940

goods—Continued

Nonferrous metals and their products.,Aluminum manufactures
Brass, bronze, and copper products
Clocks and watches and time-recording devices.
Jewelry
Lighting equipment
Silverware and plated ware
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and z i n c . . .

284,600
28, 300
90.600
20,800
24,300
20, 900
12, 200
30, 500

44
45
69
35
56
27
79
57

45
41
59
68
41
22
82
74

56
55
69
92
59
52
90
86

23
11
38
19
18
10
50
38

40
25
57
63
26
18
78
67

55
55
68
92
49
52
84
86

Lumber and allied products
Furniture
Lumber:
Millwork__
Sawmills.

636, 600
157, 700

31
44

32
48

38
54

17
21

27
38

36
50

68, 500
300, 000

50
39

60
39

52
39

25
24

51
32

50
38

Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c t s . . .
—
Brick, tile, and terra cotta.
Cement
Glass
Marble, granite, slate, and other products..
Pottery

290,100
62, 500
25, 400
75,300
17, 600
35, 200

53
59
81
82
30
65

52
51
81
79
32
72

51
58
81
80
33
74

26
29
56
34
16
26

40
34
73
65
29
43

47
51
81
78
30
57

1,648, 700
1,022,200
26, 300
409. 400
12, 700
81,800
12,800
135,900
23,000
35,100
9,100
81, 300
149,800

45
58
76
68
82
56
47
64
30
69
32
45
50

51
66
63
79
72
94
75
88
79
95
56
58
54
48
65
67
36
69
73 2 100
36
70
44
90
73
86

23
35
24
46
49
37
3
36
10
24
8
33
26

40
51
64
59
65
47
36
51
26
55
16
39
65

60
75
94
85
88
56
46
60
64
95
61
84
84

552,900
191,400
209, 900
17, 200
23, 800
24, 000
69, 400

27
39
17
41
28
38
27

33
49
19

4o

34
34
37

53
66
38
65
57
38
74

5
7
3
11
6
6
5

23
39
11
23
21
14
25

41
53
26
59
46
18
63

Leather and its manufactures.
Boots and shoes
Leather

297, 800
192, 500
45, 300

49
58
63

50
58
68

59
74
74

14
15
26

31
35
52

47
56
68

Food and kindred productsBaking..

864, 500
235,100
76, 700
18, 500
122, 200
53, 600
26, 500
18,100
139, 600
9, 000
13, 900

46
46
48
34
33
36
55
51
46
26
31
38
52
60
67
72
69
71
67
73
58
65
56
80
82
82
79
2 100
96 2 100
72
94
74

21
14
22
11
22
31
38
29
43
64
24

34
25
46
15
40
56
55
37
56
91
53

42
29
47
25
62
61
54
40
76
89
94

62
88
58

33
65
29

49
84
44

Nondurable goods
Textiles and their products.
Fabrics
Carpets and rugs
Cotton goods
Cotton smallwares
Dyeing and finishing textiles.
Hats, fur-felt
Hosiery
Knitted outerwear
Knitted underwear
Knitted cloth
Silk and rayon goods
Woolen and worsted goods. __
Wearing apparel.
Clothing, men's
Clothing, women's
Corsets and allied garments.
M e n ' s furnishings
Millinery
Shirts and collars

Butter .
Canning and preserving
Confectionery
Flour
Ice cream
Slaughtering and meat packing..
Sugar, beet
Sugar refining, c a n e . - .
T o b a c c o manufactures
Chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff.
Cigars and cigarettes
See footnotes at end of table.




88,400
9, 300
79,100

77
61
95 2 100
57
71

1

73
2 100
68

SCOPE AND METHODS

37

4.—Estimated total employment in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
industries in 1940, and the percentages of estimated total employment in the total
reporting sample, and in the man-hour sample in 1932, 1984, and 1940—Con.

TABLE

MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRIES—Continued

Industries

Estimated
employment
1940

Nondurable

Percentage of
Percentage of
wage earners in
wage earners in
the reporting
the total reportman-hour
ing sample
sample
1932

1934 1940 1932 1934 1940

goods—Continued

Paper and printing..
Boxes, paper
Paper and pulp
Printing and publishing:
Book and job
Newspapers and periodicals

614, 700
67, 200
138, 700
134, 000
135,900

57
44

50
33

Chemical, petroleum and coal products
Chemicals
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and meal
Druggists' preparations
Explosives
Fertilizers
Paints and varnishes
Petroleum refining
Rayon and allied products
Soap

404, 700
80,100
12, 900
16,100
7, 600

61
72
43
66
75
68
72
87
96
2 100

58
71
40
45
75
67
70
79
96
»100

Rubber products
Rubber boots and shoes
Rubber tires and inner tubes.
Rubber goods, other

118, 700
14,500
54, 500
49, 600

93

91
' 100
99
77

NONMANUFACTURING
Coal mining:
Anthracite
Bituminous
Metalliferous mining
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining
Crude-petroleum production
Public utilities:
Telephone and telegraph
Electric light and power
Street railways and busses
Trade:
Wholesale
Retail
General merchandising
Other than general merchandising,.
Hotels (year-round)
Laundries
Dyeing and cleaning
Brokerage
Insurance
Building construction.

44
58

20, 000

29, 800
78,800
49,600
13,600

2 100

2 100

80

INDUSTRIES

72,400
403,900
76, 900
42,900

88
48
58
47

84
57
61
70

84
59
83
83

79
30
50
34

74
38
57
59

73
44
82
78

392, 600
249, 900
192, 200

70
75
81

73
93
81

74
98
71

56
46
55

62
66
58

73
83
57

1,450, 700
3, 535, 900
818,100
2, 717,800

6
12
35
6

15
21
44
14

23
29
59
20

2
4
13
2

9
12
24
8

16
18
36
12

268, 500
229,900
61,400

62
30
25

57
35
28

56
35
29

17
12
12

23
25
20

29
27
20

(3)

(3)
(3)
(3)

(3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3)

(3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3)
3
3
(3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3)
(3) (3) (3) ( ) (3) ( )

1 T h e percentages for 1932 and 1934 are based on the estimated employment figures for the respective
years and not on those shown for 1940.
2 Where reporting establishments manufacture products falling into more than 1 industry classification
and separate employment reports are not available, the classification of establishments b y major product
results in a coverage of wage earners equal to, or in excess of, total employment based on a more refined
census industry total.
3 N o t available.

As a general rule, the Bureau does not publish average hours and
average hourly earnings for an industry if the number of employees in
firms reporting man-hours is less than 20 percent of total employment.
An exception to this rule, however, has been made for wholesale trade




38

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

and for retail trade other than general merchandising, notwithstanding
the fact that the employment coverage in these man-hour samples is
considerably below that in other industries. The reason for this is
twofold. First, in many lines of both wholesale and retail trade, the
average number of employees per establishment is relatively small
when compared with other industries. The collection of data from a
sufficient number of the smaller establishments (employing only a few
workers) to bring the employment coverage into line with that in other
industries, would not be feasible on a current reporting basis. It
would require handling thousands of additional reports each month,
which would result in unnecessary delay in compiling the monthly
tabulations. Secondly, because of the fairly wide distribution and
comparatively even geographical representation, it may be assumed,
with a fair degree of accuracy, that a larger sample would not materially affect the representativeness of the man-hour data. Averages
based on a sample of less than the usual 20 percent have, therefore,
been published monthly in recent years for these two fields and are
shown in this bulletin.
The general expansion in the Bureau's reporting man-hour sample
in manufacturing industries between 1932 and 1934 as shown by the
percentages in table 4 was due largely to the cooperation of the various
code authorities during N. R. A. days. The durable-goods industries,
as contrasted with the nondurable, have had in all periods a higher
coverage in employment in both the industry and man-hour samples as
indicated in this table. Between 1932 and 1940, however, the number
of establishments in the nondurable industries reporting man-hour
data increased to such an extent that in 1940 the Bureau's coverage in
the nondurable-goods industries compares favorably with that in the
durable-goods industries.
The rubber industries as a group, in 1940, had the highest proportion
of employment in the man-hour sample, 91 percent, the transportation
group coming next with 83 percent. The iron and steel and tobacco
groups ranked third and fourth, showing 74 and 73 percent, respectively, although the fabrics subdivision of the textile group showed a
slightly higher coverage, 75 percent.
The lumber group, on the other hand, had the lowest coverage
(36 percent), notwithstanding the fact that each of the individual
industries within this group showed a higher percentage coverage.
(See footnote 1, table 4.) Considered from the standpoint of a total
group, food and kindred products had the next lowest proportion of
employment in the man-hour sample, representing 42 percent.
Apparel, a subgroup of textiles, showed only 41 percent.
Of the 90 manufacturing industries, only 14 showed that the
number of wage earners in 1940 in establishments reporting man-hour
information represented less than 50 percent of total wage earners in




SCOPE AND METHODS

39

the industry* The millinery industry had only an 18-percent coverage,
the lowest shown under manufacturing.
There were 18 manufacturing industries in 1940 in which practically
all reporting establishments furnished man-hour data. There were 14
in which employment in the man-hour sample covered over 90 percent
of the total wage earners in the industry, 19 in which it represented
between 80 and 90 percent, 43 between 50 and 80 percent, and only 1
(millinery) in which it was less than 20 percent.
In the nonmanufacturing industries surveyed, the employment
coverage in the man-hour sample in 1940 varied considerably as compared with estimated total employment, ranging from 83 percent in
electric light and power to 12 percent in retail trade other than general
merchandising. This range does not, however, take into account the
crude-petroleum production, brokerage, insurance, and building construction industries. Estimates of total employment for these
industries are not available because of lack of comparable census data
from which such estimates could be derived. As a result, the percentage coverage in these industries could not be computed. The
Bureau does not compile man-hour data for the brokerage and insurance industries, due to the impracticability of securing information
for some types of personnel. In building construction, man-hon^
information was not collected prior to 1934.
Manufacturing Industries
The data for manufacturing industries shown in tables 5 and 7
cover the 90 individual industries for which the Bureau compiles
monthly information, the several industry groups, the durable- and
nondurable-goods groups, and all manufacturing industries combined.
The figures relate to wage earners only, as the original reports from
which they are compiled request the exclusion of office, sales, executive,
managerial, supervisory, technical, and professional personnel.2
Several outstanding changes affecting the composition of the manufacturing industries for which the Bureau publishes monthly employment and pay-roll data have been made within recent years. Although the effects of these changes were incorporated in the regularly
published figures of average hours and earnings, comparable data by
months for all earlier periods except for total manufacturing and the
2 Wage earners —Covers all skilled and unskilled piece and time workers in production and other departments such as maintenance, shipping, warehousing, power plant, etc., including working foremen and gang
and straw bosses, but not those whose work is primarily supervisory. Does not include office and clerical,
sales, executive, managerial, supervisory, technical, and professional personnel nor persons working in their
homes or in other establishments on materials furnished by the reporting company nor those who are
installing products or who are engaged in construction, if such work involves additions to or major repairs of
equipment or plant. Pay rolls— Covers wages, including overtime and vacation pay for the period covered.
Includes employee contributions for old-age benefits, unemployment insurance, and jgroup insurance; but
does not include estimated value of free rent, fuel, and other payments in kind. Bonus payments, unless
earned and paid more or less regularly each pay period, are not included.




40

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

durable- and nondurable-goods groups have not been published
heretofore. Revised data are now shown for all periods from 1932
to date. There were several important changes: (1) The railroad
repair-shop group, which was formerly included as a component of
the Bureau's manufacturing series, has been omitted and removed
from the durable-goods group and from all manufacturing industries
combined. (2) The iron and steel group was revised by including
data for the stamped and enameled ware industry which was formerly
in the nonferrous metals group. (3) The nonferrous metals group
was revised by deleting stamped and enameled ware data. (4) The
agricultural implements industry has been revised by the inclusion
of data for tractor manufactures, which the Bureau formerly classified
in the engines, turbines, tractors, and water wheels industry. (5)
The latter industry was consequently revised by excluding such data
and the name of the industry changed to engines, turbines, water
wheels, and windmills. These shifts were made in connection with
the revision of the indexes of factory employment and pay rolls to
conform to 1935 Census of Manufactures data,3 and were based on
similar changes made in the 1935 Census of Manufactures, with the
exception of the exclusion of the railroad repair-shop group, which
the census abandoned in connection with the 1937 survey.
In addition, the series here presented also differs in some instances
from previously published figures because of revisions in the basic
material due to such factors as (1) the inclusion of reports received
too late for the regular monthly tabulations, (2) the reclassification of
certain establishments according to the latest information regarding
their principal products, and (3) the weighting of certain averages to
overcome unbalanced distribution of samples. In three industries,
sawmills, fertilizers, and soap, the average weekly earnings, average
hours, and average hourly earnings as presented in these tables have
been completely revised and are not comparable to those published
prior to September 1939, at which time the revised figures were
published for the first time. The revisions in the averages for these
three industries are the result of special studies made of the currently
reporting sample, and in the fertilizer and soap industries, of surveys
made by the Bureau's Division of Wage and Hour Statistics. These
studies revealed the fact that the currently reporting sample in
sawmills was not proportionately balanced geographically, while that
in fertilizers was not well distributed by type of establishment. In
the soap industry it was disclosed that the sample lacked balance
by size of establishment. In order to correct these biases the basic
material for each of these industries was broken down into the neces3 In keeping with a Bureau policy, the indexes of factory employment and pay rolls are adjusted biennially
to conform to trends indicated by Census of Manufactures data as described in Bull. No. 610, Revised
Indexes of Factory Employment and Pay Rolls, 1919 to 1933, and in subsequent press releases. Indexes
revised to conform to 1937 Census of Manufactures data were released in September 1939.




SCOPE AND METHODS

41

sary segments, which were variously weighted by factors designed to
equalize the effects of the uneven distribution in the reporting sample.
These weighting processes will be continued until the reporting
sample can be properly stratified as to geographic area, type of
establishment and size of establishment, respectively.
Although every effort has always been made to keep the reporting
sample in the industries surveyed as well balanced as possible, difficulties are encountered in securing adequate data for the smaller
establishments and from certain geographic areas. From time to
time, therefore, similar tests for other industries will be undertaken
w^hich may result in additional revisions.
Nonmanufacturing Industries
The 16 nonmanufacturing industries for which information is
shown in tables 6 and 8 are anthracite mining, bituminous-coal
mining, metalliferous mining, quarrying and nonmetallic mining,
crude-petroleum production, telephone and telegraph, electric light
and power, street railway and bus, 4 wholesale trade, retail trade,
year-round hotels, laundries, dyeing and cleaning, brokerage, insurance, and private building construction.
The figures presented for these industries show the hours and earnings of the major categories of workers. Data relate to wage earners
only in building construction, in laundries and dyeing and cleaning
establishments, and in the mining industries. In crude-petroleum
production both wage earners and clerical field force employees are
included.
In the public utilities industries, the data pertain to wage earners
and salaried employees, and in hotels to both office and service personnel. In all of the other nonmanufacturing industries shown,
namely, retail and wholesale trade and brokerage and insurance,
the figures consist largely of data for salaried workers. The definition
of salaried employees, however, as relating to these industries and to
public utilities was revised in January 1938 to exclude corporation
officers, executives, and other employees whose duties are mainly
supervisory, although prior to that date such employees were in
many instances included in the data supplied by cooperating companies. Therefore, the average weekly earnings, the average hours
and the average hourly earnings for periods prior to January 1938 for
the industries concerned are not strictly comparable with those for
January 1938 and later months, and are shown in italics in tables 6
and 8.
* This industry was formerly designated as electric-railroad and motorbus operation and maintenance.
The Bureau's coverage of this industry includes both private and municipal street railway companies and
affiliated, subsidiary, or successor trolley-bus and motorbus companies.




42

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

As for changes in industry composition, the only changes made in
the nonmanufacturing series which affect the levels of the hours and
earnings presented are in the street railway and bus industry, and the
electric light and power industry. These changes in composition
were, in general, made in connection with the recent revision of the
Bureau's indexes of employment and pay rolls in these industries for
conformity with the classifications as shown in the Censuses of Electrical Industries.5 The employment, pay-roll, and man-hour figures
for the electric railroad repair-shop industry formerly shown as a
separate industry under the manufacturing series (see p. 40) were
combined with those for street railways and busses, whereas the
former electric light and power and manufactured gas industry was
revised by deleting data for manufactured gas. All averages shown
in tables 6 and 8 for these industries are based on the revised series.
Although the Bureau has in recent months revised its indexes of
employment and pay rolls in retail trade, making certain changes in
composition, these changes have not been carried through the manhour sample for periods prior to January 1939 since the change in
procedure did not result in significant differences in hours-and-earnings levels. As in manufacturing industries, the averages shown in
tables 6 and 8 differ in some instances from those previously published
because of revisions in the basic material due to the inclusion of late
reports or additional information, or for other reasons previously
mentioned.
Average Hourly Earnings and Average Hours Per Week 6
In some industries, the samples of man-hour data did not meet one
or more of the various tests of adequacy as to representative character,
and in consequence the computed average hours or average hourly
earnings figures, even though published currently in the Bureau's
earlier monthly reports, are omitted from the accompanying tables,
especial^ in some of the earlier years. As has been pointed out elsewhere, during the earlier years of this series inadequate man-hour
coverage in some industries caused considerable variation in the
month-to-month industry averages, rendering them noncomparable.
The introduction into the sample of new man-hour reports from geographic areas in which wage-and-hour differentials affected the levels
of existing averages; the inclusion of data for single large establishments in which levels of hours and earnings differed materially from
those of firms already reporting; a refinement in the Bureau's defmi« Revised indexes of employment and pay rolls are available in mimeographed form upon request. They
will also be shown in a forthcoming bulletin.
6 Average hours worked per week are computed by dividing the total number of man-hours reported for
an industry for the week ending nearest the fifteenth of the month by the total number of employees who
worked any part of the same period. Average hourly earnings are obtained by dividing the total pay rolls
for the week covered by the corresponding total number of man-hours worked.




SCOPE AND METHODS

43

tion of wage earners which in a few industries resulted in deleting many
of the higher-paid employees from the data submitted—all these
causes served to impair comparability over the period as a whole.
In cases, however, where such discrepancies in the monthly figures
did not have an appreciable effect on the annual figures, yearly averages are presented. As explained heretofore, certain of the averages
presented for individual industries and groups may differ from previously published figures because of revisions in the basic material.
Tables 6 and 8, which show averages by months for 1932, 1933, and
1934, are published as appendix tables since considerable data are not
available for the earlier years when man-hour coverage was limited.
It should be noted, moreover, that since some reporting firms do, not
furnish man-hour data, average hours and average hourly earnings
are based on reports from a slightly smaller number of establishments
than the average weekly earnings.
An average, of course, may represent a wide range of individual
observations. In the shoe-pattern branch of the boot and shoe
industry, recently surveyed by the Bureau, wage earners averaged
81.5 cents per hour during the first quarter of 1939. Yet, 2.7 percent of these workers earned less than 30 cents per hour. Likewise
in the Bureau's 1939 survey of hourly entrance wage rates for common laborers, individual rates varied from 72.5 cents to less than
25 cents per hour in the fertilizer industry and from $1.10 to less than
20 cents in building construction. Wage rates, however, should not
be confused with earnings. A wage rate represents a scale of pay for
a specified unit of time (or product in the case of piece work). Earnings consist of compensation actually received and are affected by
overtime rates, bonuses, deductions, and other factors.
Fluctuations in average hourly earnings in an establishment from
one period to another may be caused by (1) changes in wage rates,
(2) overtime pay, shift premiums, production bonuses, commissions,
and similar factors, (3) deductions such as for damaged work, or in
mining industries for explosives or other supplies furnished by the
company, and (4) changes in the actual composition of the working
force such as male or female, skilled or unskilled, etc. Average hourly
earnings in an industry group may rise from one month to the next if
the number of wage earners employed in a high-wage industry increases proportionally more than employment for the entire group.
This increase might take place even though there was no change whatsoever in the rate of pay of any wage earner in any one of the establishments. It is apparent, therefore, that the Bureau's averages reflect
not only changes in the individual rates of pay but also various other
changes, notably the changes in the composition of the wage earners
in the group.
402097°—42




\

44

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

Variations from month to month in the average hours of work in
a plant may be caused not only by changes in scheduled hours but
also by short time, overtime, labor turnover, or the shifting of work
from one department to another. The causes of variations in industry averages from month to month have been discussed elsewhere.
The average hours worked per week and the average hourly earnings
in the accompanying tables for total manufacturing industries and
total retail trade are weighted. In the manufacturing series, each of
the several groups and the durable- and nondurable-goods groups are
also weighted. Group averages for a given month are obtained by
multiplying the average hours (or the average hourly earnings) in
each industry in the group by the estimated number of employees
and dividing the sum of the products by the sum of the employees.
Hence, the weights vary from month to month in accordance with
changes in the level of employment. The durable- and nondurablegoods group averages are computed by multiplying the component
industry group averages by the respective group employment estimates and dividing the sum of the products by the sum of the employment totals. In turn, those for all manufacturing industries combined
are computed in like fashion from the weighted durable- and nondurable-goods averages.
The retail-trade hours and hourly earnings shown in this bulletin
for periods prior to 1939 are the weighted averages of the two main
groups shown, namely, general merchandising and retail trade other
than general merchandising. As mentioned heretofore, the Bureau has
completed the work of compiling the retail-trade employment and
pay-roll data by lines of trade, and has made available indexes of
employment and pay rolls, but a similar break-down of the manhour sample has not been undertaken for the years 1932 to 1938.
The average hours and average hourly earnings for total retail trade
for subsequent periods have been weighted, however, by a method
similar to that used for manufacturing industries, as described above.
So far as possible, a like process will be followed in the weighting of
the average hours and average hourly earnings for wholesale trade
when the work incident to the construction of indexes for separate
wholesale lines is completed.
The annual averages for the separate industries are computed from
yearly aggregates of employment, pay rolls, and man-hours in the
reporting sample and are not the arithmetic means of the 12 monthly
averages. For all manufacturing industries combined and for the
several industry groups, annual averages are computed not from the
reporting samples but from the estimated totals as computed from
the indexes of employment and pay rolls.
Every effort has been made to exclude nominal man-hour data,
derived by multiplying establishment operating time by number of




SCOPE AND METHODS

45

Workers employed. The average hours-per-week data as used in this
bulletin are the averages worked by all employees in reporting establishments, including part-time and overtime, and are not to be
confused with "normal" hours, shifts, or hours of operation.
Average Weekly Earnings
The average weekly earnings shown in tables 5 to 8 were obtained
by dividing the total weekly pay rolls reported by cooperating establishments by the total number of wage earners who worked in these
establishments during any part of the pay period ending nearest the
15th of the month. They relate, therefore, to the earnings of fulltime, part-time, and overtime workers combined and cannot be considered as representing full-time or straight-time earnings of employees
in any industry.
These average weekly earnings may differ from the weekly earnings
obtained by multiplying the average hours worked per week by the
average hourly earnings as stated elsewhere, because not all of the
firms which report employment and pay-roll figures, from which the
average weekly earnings are computed, supply man-hour data. In
addition, average weekly earnings as computed from the comparatively
large employment and pay-roll samples may be affected by bonuses,
vacation pay, or other forms of income not reported in such way as
to have equivalent effect on average weekly earnings as computed
by multiplying average weekly hours by average hourly earnings.
The annual average weekly earnings are not the arithmetic means of
the 12 monthly averages but are averages derived by dividing the
sum of the total weekly pay rolls reported by cooperating firms for
the 12 months of a given year by the total number of employees
reported by these firms.
The average weekly earnings for all manufacturing industries combined, for the several manufacturing groups, and for total retail trade,
unlike the average hours and average hourly earnings, are not
weighted.
As an exception to the usual procedure, the average weekly earniings for sawmills, soap, and fertilizers, which had special handling as
described elsewhere, have been obtained by multiplying the weighted
;average hourly earnings by the weighted average hours. The respective group averages in which these industries appear have been adjusted accordingly.
In private building construction, although average weekly earnings
for the years 1932 and 1933 were published in monthly issues of the
Employment and Pay Rolls pamphlet and in the Monthly Labor Review,
they are not shown in tables 6 and 8 because of noncomparability with
the weekly averages for later years.




46

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

Fluctuations in average weekly earnings, as in average hourly earnings, may result from a number of causes, such as changes in wage
scales, changes in hours, bonuses, commissions or deductions, and
changes in the composition of the working force.
The fluctuations of weekly earnings in dollars and cents without
reference to the cost of living do not give a complete picture of the
wage earner's economic status. Changes in the purchasing power of
earnings may be shown approximately by reducing earnings to index
form and dividing this index by the index of the cost of living.7 Recent
trends in real earnings have been discussed in other articles in the
Monthly Labor Review.8
i For the Bureau's cost-of-living index, June 1933 to March 1940, see Monthly Labor Review, July 1940,
p. 145.
8 For comparison of real earnings between 1929 and 1939, see Wages, Hours, and Productivity of Industrial Labor, 1909 to 1939, Monthly Labor Review, September 1940 (reprinted as Serial No. R. 1150).




Chapter III
General Tables
Tables 5 and 6 following show average hours worked per week,
average hourly earnings, and average weekly earnings in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries respectively, by years from 1932
to 1940, and by months from January 1935 to December 1940. These
tables represent in general a recapitulation of the averages published
monthly since 1932 in the Monthly Labor Review, the Employment and
Pay Bolls pamphlet, and more recently in mimeographed releases
showing data by years from 1932 to 1939 and by months from January
1938 to August 1940.
The averages presented for some of the individual industries and
groups may differ from previously published figures because of revisions
in the basic materials, as explained in chapter II, " Scope and
Methods." Monthly averages for the years 1932, 1933, and 1934 for
those industries and groups in which man-hour data were considered
adequate to indicate monthly movements are published as separate
tables (tables 7 and 8) in appendix A. It will be noted that considerable data are not available for these earlier years when many
firms did not keep man-hour records. An analysis of sample coverage
by industry for the years 1932, 1934, and 1940 will be found in table
4 on page 35.
Average hours and average hourly earnings are computed from
figures furnished by establishments reporting man-hour information,
whereas average weekly earnings are based on the reports received
from all cooperating establishments. As all firms do not supply
man-hour figures, the results obtained by multiplying average weekly
hours by average hourly earnings derived from the man-hour sample
do not necessarily produce the average weekly earnings obtained by
dividing total weekly pay rolls for the more complete sample by
number of workers employed. Although the averages are not strictly
comparable from month to month because of changes in the size and
composition of the reporting sample, the variations in the averages
due to such changes are relatively unimportant.




47

48

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked -per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1

TABLE

Total manufacturing
Year and month

1932.
13
93
1934.
1935.
13
96
1937.
1938.
19391940.

Durable-goods group

Nondurable-goods group

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours.
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly worked hourly
weekly
worked earnings
worked
earnings
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week

__
__
—

38.2
37.8
34.5
36.5
39.1
38.6
35.5
37.6
38.1

Cents

45.8 $ 7 8
1. 6
45.5 1 . 3
7 6
54.1 1 . 9
8 3
55.9 20.85
56.4 22. 6
0
63.4 24.95
63.9 22. 7
0
64.4 24. 5
8
67.0 26.11

32.5
34. 7
33.7
37.1
40.8
39.8
34.8
37.8
39.2

35.0
36.3
36. 4
36.1
35.5
35.3
35.2
36.6
37.4
38.1
37.6
38.5

55.7
55.9
56.1
56.2
56.2
56.5
55.9
55.8
55.3
55.5
55.7
56.2

1. 8
9 3
20. 7
6
20. 9
0
20. 9
6
20. 5
5
20. 3
2
1. 9
9 1
20. 6
4
20.93
2. 4
1 3
21.59
22.10

37.3
37.3
38.5
38.6
39.1
39.1
38.5
39.5
38.8
40.5
40.5
41.1

56.3
56.1
56.2
56.3
56.3
56.3
56.2
56.0
55.7
56.2
56.9
58.3

39.6
40.5
41.0
40.4
39.7
39.2
38.0
38.7
37.5
37.6
35.4
34.5
33.3
34.4
34.7
34.3
34.5
34.5
35.0
36.5
37.1
37.6
36.6
37.3

Cents

Cents

50.8
48.5
5. 7
6
58.7
59.7
68.6
69.8
71.0
73.4

$7 6
1. 6
17.80
19.81
22. 7
2
25. 2
4
2. 0
8 9
2. 7
4 7
27.83
29.88

41.9
39.7
35.1
36.1
37.7
37.4
36.1
37.4
37.0

34.5
36.6
36.8
37.0
36.0
35.5
34.8
36.9
38.0
39.3
39.1
39.7

58.3
58.4
58.7
58.8
58.7
59.2
58.7
58.5
58.1
58.4
58.9
59.2

20.99
22. 6
2
22. 7
0
22. 9
2
22. 2
9
21.90
21. 2
1
22. 2
1
22. 7
2
2. 6
3 6
24.19
24. 5
2

35.4
36.0
36.1
35.5
35.1
35.0
35.5
36.4
37.0
3. 2
7
36.4
37.5

53.8
54.0
54. 2
54.2
54.3
54.4
53.8
53.8
53.2
53.2
53.2
53.7

18.87
19.14
1. 3
9 3
1. 2
9 1
18.94
1. 8
8 9
1. 7
8 4
1. 2
9 6
19. 4
3
1. 4
9 6
19.15
1. 8
9 5

2. 4
1 0
21. 2
1
21.99
22. 4
4
22. 7
2
22.70
22.19
22. 4
6
21.97
23. 2
0
23. 6
9
2. 6
4 5

37.9
37.8
39.7
40.8
41.4
41.3
39.8
40.8
40.5
42. 7
42.8
42.9

59.3
59.1
59.3
59.6
59.5
59.5
59.4
59.0
58.8
59.4
60.4
62.3

23. 3
4
22. 8
0
24. 3
0
25.42
25. 6
9
25. 5
6
24. 5
8
24. 7
6
24. 4
6
26.13
26. 8
3
2. 7
7 9

36.8
37.0
37.5
36.8
37.1
37.2
37.3
3. 5
8
37.5
38.7
38.5
39.5

53.8
53. 7
53.6
53. 5
53.6
53.6
53.6
53.6
53.2
53.6
53.8
54.8

1. 5
9 8
19. 9
5
19. 8
4
1. 5
9 8
1. 7
9 9
19.87
1. 8
9 7
20. 3
6
1. 7
9 1
20. 3
9
20.53
21.42

58.7
59.2
60.4
62.9
64.0
64.4
64.8
64.8
6. 7
4
65.5
65.6
65.6

2. 8
3 3
24. 5
4
25. 3
5
26.12
2. 2
6 2
25. 8
0
25. 1
6
25. 6
4
2. 7
4 3
25.17
23. 6
6
22. 6
8

40. 7
41.9
42.5
42.1
41.4
40.8
38.7
40.2
38.8
39.1
36.2
34.2

62.3
63.1
65.1
68.6
69.6
69.6
70.5
70.3
70.3
71.0
71.3
71.0

26. 3
3
2. 3
7 5
2. 6
8 2
29. 8
7
29. 9
0
29.19
28. 2
3
29.10
2. 0
8 1
28. 6
1
26. 4
7
24. 5
9

38.7
39.3
39.6
3. 7
8
38.2
37.7
37.3
37.3
36.3
36.2
34.7
34.7

55.5
55. 7
56.2
57.5
58.7
59.4
59.5
59.6
59.6
60.3
60.2
60. 7

21. 2
9
21.67
21.96
22.12
22.16
22.13
21.80
21.98
21.28
21.36
20. 5
2
20. 6
9

65.2
64.7
6. 5
4
64.2
64.0
63.8
63.1
62.5
62.6
63.4
63.9
64.2

21.66
22. 0
7
22. 2
3
22. 0
5
21.92
22. 0
7
21.95
22. 8
3
23. 2
4
23. 9
0
23. 7
7
24. 2
6

32.2
33.0
33.6
33.5
33.8
33.9
33.4
35.8
36.4
37.5
36.7

70.5
70.2
70.2
70.1
69.9
69.6
•8
6.
8
68.5
69.0
69.6
70.6
70.9

22.90
23. 4
2
23. 6
9
23. 8
0
23. 9
3
23. 8
6
23. 3
2
24. 8
4
25. 6
5
26. 8
6
2. 0
7 2
27. 2
7

34.3
35.5
35.6
35.0
35.1
35.0
36.1
37.0
37.6
37.6
36.5
37.5

60.9
60.3
60.1
59.6
59.5
59.4
59.0
58. 5
58.2
58. 7
58.6
58,9 ,

20. 4
7
20. 8
3
2. 9
0 2
20. 4
9
20.11
20. 5
1
20. 8
4
2. 2
1 4
2. 3
1 2
21. 3
4
20.84
21.52

42.7 $ 8 0
1. 1
4 . 7 17.04
3
52.3
1. 2
8 3
1. 2
9 0
53.8
20. 0
9
53.7
58.5
21. 6
0
59.3
2. 8
0 9
59.1
21. 5
4
22. 0
3
61.2

1935
January
February
March...
April
May.
June.

__

July....
August..
September..
October
November
December
1936
January
February
March
April
May
June
July....
August...
September
October
November
December
1937
January
February
March..
April
May
June
July.
August
September
October
November.
December
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June.
July...
August
September.
October
November
December

See footnotes at end of table,




37.1

GENERAL TABLES

49

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December 19401—Continued

TABLE

Total manufacturing
Year and month

Durable-goods group

Nondurable-goods group

Average
Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hours Average
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1939
January
February
March.
April
May...
June

36.6
37.1
37.3
36.6
36.8
37.3

Cents
64.4
64.3
64.5
64.2
64.3
64.2

July
August
September.
October
November
December

36.7
38.0
38.0
39.1
38.5
38.6

63.7
63.4
63.8
64.6
65.3
66.2

23.
24.
24.
25.
25.
26.

37.4
37.3
37.5
37.2
37.2
37.5
37.3
38.4
38.8
39.3
38.6
39.8

36.1
36.6
36.8
36.6
36.9
37.4

Cents
71.0
70.9
71.1
71.0
70. 7
70.8

64
52
70
81
73
26

36.2
38.4
38.2
40.1
39.6
39.6

66.3
66.3
66.5
66.5
66.9
67.2

25. 51
25. 20
25. 46
25. 33
25. 43
25.79

66.7
66.8
67.1
67.3
67.8
68.3

25. 25
26. 10
26. 54
27.13
26.93
27.89

$23.80
24. 01
24.18
23. 79
23. 84
24.17

53
78
02
92
82
26

37.0
37.5
37.7
36.6
36.7
37.2

Cents
59.2
59.1
59.1
58.8
59.2
59.0

$21.29
21. 47
21. 58
20.89
21.09
21.31

70.2
69.9
70.9
71.3
71.5
72.7

26. 31
27.92
28.15
29. 71
29.41
30.04

37.1
37.8
37.8
38.2
37.6
37.7

58.7
58.5
58.3
59.0
59.9
60.5

21. 25
21. 58
21.54
22.02
22.03
22.03

38.1
37.9
38.3
38.2
38.2
38.7

72.7
72.6
72.8
72.9
73.0
73.2

28. 96
28. 60
28.90
28. 92
28.80
29. 48

36.9
36.8
36.9
36.2
36.3
36.4

60.7
60.8
61.0
60.9
61.5
61.7

21. 87
21. 73
21. 86
21.49
21. 72
21. 81

37.9
39.7
40.2
41.0
40.2
41.2

72.7
73.1
73.7
73.9
74.4
74.9

28. 52
29.98
30. 57
31. 42
31.11
31.96

36.7
37.2
37.5
37.6
37.1
38.4

61.5
61.3
61.1
60.9
61.3
61.7

21. 87
22.10
22. 20
22. 28
22.08
23.09

$26.
26.
27.
26.
26.
27.

1940
January
February
March.
April.
May__
June
July
August.
September
October
November
December __

_
_

-

See footnotes at end of table.




50

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
to 1940, and
months,
January 1935 to December 19401—Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery
Blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling mills

"Iron and steel' group
Year and month

Bolts, nuts, washers, and
rivets

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

30.0
33.8
32.3
36.0
40.8

Cents
50.6
50.3
59.1
61.2
62.0

1937
1938
1939
194fr:

39.1
31.5
36.8
38.1

73.7
75.3
75.9
77.3

28.
23.
28.
29.

33.6
36.1
35.9
35.7
35.1
34.0

26.1
32.5
30.5
34.9
40.9

Cents
52.7
53.1
63.2
66.4
67.1

$13.91
17.27
19. 25
23.12
27. 37

32.8
37.1
41.9

54.1
56.9
57.5

$15.54
16.91
17.82
21.12
24. 08

92
37
00
57

38.7
28.7
35.5
37.3

81.8
83.5
84.3
84.8

31.46
23. 78
29. 92
31. 54

39.5
30.5
37.7
39.5

65.4
70.2
69.0
69.6

25. 79
21.42
26. 04
27. 50

61.1
61.4
61.4
61.5
61.2
61.1

20. 37
22. 21
22.12
21.96
21.56
20. 78

32.2
35.9
35.2
34.7
34.2
32.4

66.4
66.8
66.8
66.7
66.3
66.2

21.19
23. 81
23. 45
23. 05
22. 65
21.39

34.8
37.1
38.8
38.6
37.5
33.7

56.1
55.5
56.6
56.8
56.7
57.3

19. 51
20. 54
21.97
21.92
21.24
19.48

32.4
35.9
37.0
38.1
37.6
39.5

60.8
60.9
61.1
61.0
61.2
61.5

19. 72
21.98
22. 80
23. 34
23.13
24. 47

30.2
34.9
36.0
36.5
36.4
38.9

65.7
66.0
66.2
66.3
66.3
66.7

19. 96
23.05
23. 80
24.15
24.10
25. 89

32.6
36.2
36.6
39.3
37.9
41.4

57.5
57.2
57.5
57.1
57.0
57.3

18. 81
20. 72
21.04
22. 38
21.62
23. 73

37.3
37.9
39.9
41.0
41.5
41.4

61.2
60.9
61.4
61.4
61.3
61.7

23.
23.
24.
25.
25.
25.

09
33
74
49
80
95

36.9
37.5
39.8
41.4
41.9
41.7

66.1
65.7
66.2
66.3
66.2
66.7

24.
24.
26.
27.
27.
27.

39
60
38
47
75
86

40.4
39.3
40.0
43.0
42.7
41.0

57.1
56.9
57.0
57.3
56.7
56.6

23. 06
22. 34
22. 85
24. 65
24. 21
23.24

39.1
40.7
40.3
42.8
43.3
43.6

61.8
61.9
61.6
61.8
62.6
66.2

24. 55
25. 50
25.13
26. 48
27. 23
28. 97

39.2
40.9
40.8
42.2
43.5
43.5

66.9
66.8
66.1
66.4
67.3
73.0

26. 40
27.31
26.90
27. 91
29.04
31.41

39.7
40.9
40.5
44.3
44.2
45.4

56.9
57.7
57.8
57.7
57.5
60.2

22. 75
23. 59
23. 34
25. 53
25. 41
27.24

January.
February
March
April
May
June

41.9
42.2
43.1
42.4
41.3
40.1

66.2
66.4
68.1
74.8
76.5
75.1

28.
28.
29.
32.
32.
30.

21
43
67
22
04
64

42.7
42.9
43.5
42.6
41.3
40.2

72.6
72. 7
74.8
85.0
86.6
85.4

30. 95
31.16
32. 29
36. 07
35.61
34. 32

43.2
45.4
44.9
43.3
41.6
39.8

60.6
61.0
61.9
66.5
66.4
65.2

26.12
27.66
27. 79
28. 76
27. 56
25.96

July
August
September
October...
November
December

38.1
39.9
37.8
37.2
32.8
30.3

76.6
76.8
76.1
76.1
75.6
75.5

29. 62
31.09
28. 99
28. 16
24. 37
22. 28

38.1
40.5
37.5
35.7
30.7
27.3

85.8
85.7
84.2
83.7
82.8
82.8

32. 57
34. 56
31.48
29. 73
25. 01
22.18

36.4
39.6
37.6
38.2
32.3
29.7

66.8
67.3
67.3
68.0
68.8
68.9

24. 29
26.48
25. 21
25. 94
22.16
20. 39

$15.20
17. 03
18. 96
22.10
25.61

Cents

1985
January
February-.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

_
__

1936
January
February
March,
April
May
June

-

July
August
September..
October
November _ _
December.
1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

51

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 19 40, and by months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery
"Iron and steel" group
Year and month

Blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling mills

Bolts, nuts, washers, and
rivets

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
weekly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
hourly
worked
worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week
1938
27.9
29.2
30.0
30.1
30.4
29.8

Cents
74.8
75.2
75.1
75.3
75.5
75.6

$20.36
21.41
21.96
22.28
22. 54
21.99

24.9
26.4
27.1
27.6
27.6
26.5

Cents
81.8
82.6
82.6
83.2
83.7
84.1

$19. 93
21.39
22. 00
22. 65
22. 82
21.97

25.3
27.0
27.3
27.1
29.2
28.3

Cents
69.7
70.2
70.7
70.5
70.5
71.1

$17.62
18.94
19. 34
19.11
20. 56
20.16

29.4
32.2
32.9
34.8
35.1
35.6

75.5
75.1
75.2
75.3
75.7
75.7

21.51
23. 90
24.40
25. 94
27. 64
26.91

25.8
29.2
29.7
31.9
33.6
33.8

84.0
83.3
83.8
S3. 9
84.2
84.2

21.51
24. 35
24.92
26. 79
28. 48
28. 49

27.3
30.7
32.5
35.0
37. 1
38.0

70.9
70.7
70.5
69.9
69.5
69.6

19. 37
21.68
22. 82
24. 42
25. 69
26. 36

34.8
35.4
35.8
35.1
34.9
35.6

75.5
75.3
75.2
75.2
75.2
75.6

26. 37
26. 70
27. 01
26. 46
26.17
26. 89

33.7
34.0
34.4
33.6
32.8
33.6

83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
83.5
84.2

28.18
28. 47
28. 81
28. 07
27. 40
28. 30

36.1
37.9
36.9
33.5
33.7
34.0

69.7
69.6
69.5
69.4
69.6
69.5

25.11
26. 33
25. 64
23. 26
23. 46
23. 59

34.2
37.0
37.0
40.3
39.6
39.4

75.9
75.7
76.1
76.4
76.7
77.2

25. 81
28.17
28. 25
31.09
30. 55
30. 71

32.1
35.7
35.2
40.0
39.2
39.0

84.9
84.3
84.5
84.8
84.7
85.1

27.12
30.13
29. 77
33. 91
33. 08
33.19

31.8
38.0
39.2
42.8
43.0
42.3

68.5
68.9
68.7
68.9
68.2
68.3

21.79
26.17
26. 90
29. 56
29. 32
28.91

January
February
March
April
May..
June

37.6
36.5
36.1
36.0
36.6
37.6

76.6
76.4
76.3
76.4
76.7
77.4

29. 07
27. 95
27. 47
27. 50
28.16
29.30

37.1
35.4
34.7
34.4
35.5
37.1

84.1
83.8
83.8
83.8
84.2
84.9

31.25
29. 69
28. 88
28. 73
29. 87
31.53

37.4
39.0
37.2
37.0
36.5
37.3

68.4
68.2
68.3
68.4
68.7
69.1

25. 61
26. 54
25. 40
25.31
25. 07
25. 79

July
August.
September
October.
November.
December

37.2
38.8
39.2
39.9
39.6
41.0

77.7
77.7
77.9
77.8
78.1
78.0

28. 89
30.24
30. 60
30. 97
31.01
32.18

36.4
38.1
38.4
38.8
39.1
40.4

84.7
84.8
85.4
85.1
85.7
85.8

30.
32.
32.
33.
33.
34.

35.4
41.5
40.9
42.4
42.4
44.4

69.5
70.0
69.4
70.0
71.5
71.7

24. 60
29.02
28. 38
29.68
30. 30
31.82

January
February
March
April
May
June

__

July
August
September
October
November
December
1939
January.
February
March
April
May...
June
July
August
September.
October
November
December

_.
.
_.

mo

See footnotes at end of table.




75
25
77
04
43
65

52

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1985 to December 1940 1—Continued

TABLE 5 . —

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery--ContinuedCutlery (not including silver and plated cutlery)
and edge tools

Cast-iron pipe
Year and month

Forgings—iron and steel

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

32.5
29.7
29.7
31.0
38.2

Cents
44.4
45.3
48.9
49.0
49.3

$14.21
13. 33
14. 57
15. 40
18. 99

35.8
37.8
41.0

37.8
32.8
36.4
37.2

55.5
57.7
58.1
60.1

21.17
19.15
21. 33
22. 51

28.9
28.9
28.3
30.3
30.8
31.1

49.2
49.3
48.5
49.3
49.0
48.9

30.4
31.5
32.0
31.3
32.4
35.5

January..
February
March
April
May
June..
July.
August
September
October.
November
December.

3932
1933
1934
1935
1936

Cents

Cents

51.9
53.5
52.6

$18. 67
17.53
18. 66
20. 30
21.53

38.5
41.7

61.5
62.7

$16.06
17.28
20. 46
23. 62
26.11

41.2
35.7
39.1
39.5

59.0
61.3
60.1
62.2

23. 81
21.36
23.11
24.19

40.9
32.3
38.4
41.2

71.1
74.4
76.7
79.1

28. 84
23. 97
29. 45
32.56

14.78
14. 39
13. 91
15.09
15. 26
15. 42

36.1
37.7
37.3
36.2
36.4
36.8

53.5
53.8
53.9
54.2
54.3
53.7

19. 34
20.37
20.18
19. 63
19.83
19. 92

37.6
40.3
39.7
38.9
37.3
34.4

60.5
60.5
61.4
61.7
62.3
61.9

22.49
24. 27
24. 39
24.00
23. 41
21. 25

49.0
49.5
48.7
48.9
49.1
48.7

15.08
15.81
15.80
15. 49
16. 09
17.46

35.9
37.1
38.0
39.9
40.5
41.4

54.7
52.8
52.7
52.1
52.8
54.2

19. 71
19. 66
20.11
20. 92
21.34
22. 39

33.2
37.9
38.5
39.2
40.2
42.1

61.3
62.5
62.0
61.5
61.5
61.7

19. 85
23. 59
23. 85
24.15
24. 71
25. 97

34.1
34.5
35.6
36.4
39.5
39.4

49.2
49.6
48.8
48.8
48.2
48.4

16. 96
17. 31
17. 50
18.16
19. 34
19. 26

38.6
39.0
38.6
39.7
38.8
40.4

52.6
51.9
51.5
52.4
52.9
53.0

20. 26
20.28
19.88
20.70
20.39
21.23

39.5
40.8
41.8
41.8
41.9
41.1

62.1
61.8
62.3
62.5
61.7
61.5

24. 48
25.22
26. 05
26. 15
25. 89
25.30

39.1
39.6
37.2
40.0
39.6
41.3

48.4
48.6
49.4
49.7
49.7
51.1

18. 97
19. 59
18. 54
20.17
19. 92
21. 33

38.2
41.0
40.8
44.6
45.4
45.8

53.2
52.8
52.9
52.3
52.3
53.6

20.37
21.54
21.52
23. 27
23. 75
24.18

38.8
40.0
38.7
42.1
44.5
47.3

61.7
63.1
62.9
62.7
63.6
65.2

23.98
25.16
24. 33
26. 35
28. 21
30.79

January.
February
March-.
April.
May
June

38.7
40.1
40.9
41.6
41.0
39.6

51.1
51.0
52.0
55.3
56.6
57.0

20. 03
20. 69
21.63
23. 28
23. 47
22. 73

42.6
42.4
43.3
42.6
42.6
42.9

55.3
55.6
56.5
58.2
59.1
60.1

23.24
23.31
23. 89
24. 21
24. 60
25.22

43.8
44.6
44.9
44.4
42.9
42.0

67.3
67.3
68.9
70.7
71.7
72.3

28.74
29.39
30. 37
31.29
30.71
30.25

July.
August.
September.
October
November
December

36.5
37.2
35.2
34.4
33.5
33.7

56.8
56.9
56.8
57.7
58.5
58.1

20. 85
21.28
20.15
19. 98
19. 68
19. 65

39.6
40.9
40.7
40.4
38.9
37.5

60.1
60.1
61.0
60.6
60.2
61.2

23.44
24.09
24. 32
24.06
22.94
22.32

38.3
39.8
39.7
39.5
35.6
33.7

70.7
72.2
73.9
73.3
74.1
73.3

27.00
28. 53
29.14
28.79
26.28
24.64

-

1937
1938.
1939.
1940-

1935

January
February
March
April
May
June

__

July
August
September..
October..
November.
December
1986

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

53

5,—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued
Cutlery (not including silver and plated cutlery)
and edge tools

Cast-iron pipe
Year and month

Forgings—iron and steel

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
1988
February
March
April
May

29.3
29.5
31.9
32.5
32.7
32.7

Cents
58.5
57.3
57.9
57.6
57.5
57.6

$17.37
17.24
18.80
19. 03
19.06
19.11

33.6
34.2
35. 2
33.4
33.9
33.6

Cents
62.5
61.5
61.6
61.6
62.1
62.8

$20. 27
20. 38
20. 96
20.04
20. 28
20. 51

28.6
29.2
30.7
30.0
29.6
28.9

Cents
74.7
74.2
73.8
73.3
73.9
73.8

$21. 22
21.58
22. 59
21.96
21.82
21.36

July
August
September
October
November
December

34.4
34.3
34.2
34.1
33.9
34.0

57.9
57.8
57.4
56.9
58.0
58.4

20. 02
20.00
19. 77
19. 54
19.71
20.01

33.6
34.6
36.9
39.3
39.0
39.8

62.5
60.8
60.1
59.7
60.2
61.0

20. 59
20. 63
21.88
23. 22
23.11
24.06

29.5
33.0
34.5
36.3
36.3
38.4

74.8
74.1
73.9
74.3
74.9
76.2

22.06
24. 48
25. 45
26. 94
27.18
29.25

January
February
March
April
May
June

32.5
34.3
33.7
35.4
38.2
37.2

58.3
57.8
58.0
58.2
58.1
58.0

19.15
20.06
19.80
20.71
22. 32
21.73

38.1
38.3
38.7
37.6
38.1
38.8

60.9
59.9
60.0
59.8
60.4
61.4

22. 95
22. 65
22. 94
22.17
22. 65
23. 56

36.3
37.4
37.3
36.8
36.7
36.5

76.3
76.0
75.2
76.0
77.0
76.6

27. 74
28. 48
28.10
28. 05
28.17
27. 95

July
August
September
October
November
December

36.6
37.4
34.9
38.5
39.4
37.9

57.8
58.0
57.9
58.3
58.3
58.7

21.28
21.81
20.48
22. 60
23.12
22. 43

37.6
38.1
39.3
41.0
41.3
41.3

61.2
59.8
59. 0
58.8
59.8
60.2

22.66
22. 34
22. 72
23. 54
24. 22
24. 46

36.2
38.3
38.4
40.4
41.8
42.1

75.8
76.0
75.8
77.4
78.1
78.6

27. 43
29.10
29.15
31.24
32. 59
33.05

35.1
2 35.5
31.4
33.0
34.6
35.9

59. 8
2 59.5
59.9
60.1
60.3
60.5

21.14
2 21. 30
18. 98
19. 96
21.00
21.80

38.8
38.3
38.5
38.9
38.7
38.4

60.5
60.5
60.6
61.4
61.4
62.3

23.12
22. 74
22. 92
23. 47
23. 40
23. 63

41.3
40.8
39.7
39.3
38.5
39.1

78.2
78.2
77.6
78.0
77.7
78.1

32. 27
31.86
30. 79
30. 60
29. 90
30.48

37.9
37.9
38.3
39.8
40.6
43.0

60.3
59.4
59.7
60.2
60.3
61.3

22. 97
22. 72
23. 02
24.10
24. 57
26. 44

38.6
38.8
40.2
40.9
40.4
42.2

62.4
62.6
62.4
62.2
63.5
65.3

23.81
23.91
24. 65
25. 02
25.13
27.11

39.4
40.6
3 41.4
43.1
42.6
45.0

79.1
79.3
3 78.4
79.7
80.7
80.8

31.09
32. 22
32. 51
34.30
34. 35
36.28

1939

mo
January
February
March
April
May
June
—
July
August
September
October
November
December

-

See footnotes at end of table.




54

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery--Continued
Hardware

Plumbers' supplies

Stamped and enameled ware

Year and month
Average

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

31.4
35.2
33.1
37.1
41.0

Cents
50.6
46.5
53 8
54.9
56.2

$14.98
15. 61
17.74
20.27
22.90

30.6
37.4
39.0

1937
1938
1939
1940

38.5
33.6
38.1
39.0

64.1
66.2
66.8
68.3

24. 69
22. 25
25. 47
26.64

34.4
37.2
35.9
36.0
34.8
36.0

54.5
55.2
54.8
54.8
54.5
54.9

35.0
35.5
37.7
39.6
41.0
41.7

Cents

Cents

54.1
55.6
57.0

$15. 66
15. 73
16. 65
20.74
22. 23

35.2
37.4
40.0

52.7
53.4
55.8

$16.85
15 gg
18.' 56
19. 97
22. 44

38.9
33.4
38.2
38.9

63.4
66.6
67.6
69.1

24. 70
22. 28
25. 80
26.83

38.8
35.9
38.1
39.1

62.5
62.9
62.7
65.2

24. 29
22. 65
23.92
25. 51

18.74
20.42
19.61
19. 69
18. 65
19. 59

36.2
36.3
36.9
37.3
36.5
36.0

54.7
55.2
55.2
55.5
55.8
55.6

19. 75
20. 01
20. 35
20. 68
20. 33
19.93

35.3
37.9
38.4
37.6
36.4
34.2

53.5
52.6
52.7
53.1
52.9
52.7

18. 97
19. 92
20.22
19.96
19. 24
18.06

54.6
54.1
54.9
55.2
55.8
55.7

18. 87
19.14
20. 63
21. 80
22. 71
23.08

35.6
38.2
38.5
39.6
37.4
38.7

55.3
55.1
56.0
55.9
55.9
56.2

19. 34
21.03
21.58
22.13
20.95
21.74

32.8
36.7
38.2
40.2
39.4
40.8

53.4
53.5
53.9
53.7
53.8
54.4

17.61
19. 65
20. 54
21. 46
21.17
22.14

39.2
38.0
39.1
39.9
41.0
40.9

54.7
54.1
54.7
55.6
55.8
56.1

21. 27
20.47
21.27
22. 03
22. 77
22.80

35.9
38.3
39.2
37.6
39.7
40.1

56.0
56.5
57.4
57.0
57.4
56.7

20.15
21.67
22. 50
21. 45
22. 77
22. 75

37.2
38.2
40.9
41.0
40.5
40.1

54.2
53.5
54.5
54.6
54.4
54.8

20.19
20.60
22.24
22. 40
22.09
21.88

37.8
39.1
39.4
44.6
44.8
46.2

55.6
54.7
55.2
55.8
59.3
60.3

21.04
21. 28
21.68
24. 76
26. 20
27.43

36.4
38.9
38.0
41.5
39.1
42.8

55.6
56.3
57.1
58.0
57.8
57.9

20. 24
21.94
21. 73
23.89
22.61
24.78

37.2
39.9
38.2
43.4
42.8
43.2

55.8
55.5
55.6
56.9
57.1
57.0

20.88
22.16
21. 46
24.79
24.63
24.68

41.6
37.6
43.3
42.4
41.5
36.1

55.5
55.8
61.1
61.1
65.0
62.4

22.98
20.97
26. 31
25.79
26.96
22. 53

40.6
40.1
43.3
41.2
40.5
40.7

57.9
59.0
60.6
61.8
63.2
63.7

23. 50
23. 49
26. 24
25. 64
25.59
25.96

40.5
41.5
41.2
40.8
39.5
38.7

58.3
57.9
57.9
60.1
62.5
62.9

23. 70
23.99
23.96
24.53
24.69
24.30

38.0
38.6
36.5
39.3
35.4
32.2

68.8
67.5
67.2
69.3
69.4
67.2

26.
26.
24.
27.
24.
21.

38.4
39.7
37.0
39.0
33.6
32.3

64.3
65.5
65.9
66.4
66.8
67.9

24. 69
25.98
24. 40
25.83
22.45
21.96

36.3
38.9
37.3
38.8
36.6
34.6

64.4
65.0
64.8
65.5
66.8
66.4

23.43
25. 21
24. 22
25. 58
24. 54
23.14

1935
January
February
March
April..,
May
June.
July
August
September.
October...
November
December

_

_

1936
January..
February
March
April
May
June
July
August.
September.
October
November _
December

_

...

1937
January
February
March
April
May
June

...

July
August...
September__ __ ___
October
November.
December

See footnotes at end of table.




09
02
58
26
55
63

GENERAL TABLES

55

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and &?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including m a c h i n e r y --Continued
Plumbers' supplies

Hardware

Stamped and enameled ware

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
27.4
30.1
29.9
30.0
31.4
31.8

Cents
65.1
66.6
65.1
64.6
64.9
65.3

$17.94
20.07
19. 47
19.42
20. 37
20. 77

32.3
30.8
31.3
32.1
34.7
34.1

Cents
66.5
67.0
67.1
67.5
67.0
66.0

$21.45
20. 61
21.06
21.66
23. 28
22.55

31.8
34.2
35.5
35.3
33.9
33.8

Cents
64.6
63.0
63.4
63.0
62.9
62.7

$20. 64
21.54
22. 45
22.26
21. 45
21. 35

31.8
35.2
36.3
38.8
39.0
38.0

65.2
65.7
65.8
68.0
68.9
66.7

20.77
23.06
23. 86
26. 32
26. 79
25.31

33.0
34.0
35.0
36.1
32.0
35.7

65.6
65.8
66.3
66.7
66.6
66.8

21.70
22. 38
23. 21
24.14
21.34
23. 83

34.0
37.0
37.9
39.7
38.1
38.5

61.8
62.7
62.6
62.7
63.0
62.9

21.14
23.13
23. 67
24.88
24.03
24. 33

35.5
35.4
36.6
35.2
36.7
38.5

66.0
65.1
65.5
65.5
65.1
65.5

23. 42
23.04
23. 93
23. 05
23. 87
25.21

35.9
37.1
36.1
37.0
38.2
38.1

66.8
67.2
67.2
67.6
67.6
67.1

23. 95
24. 95
24.28
24.98
25. 81
25. 56

36.9
37.6
38.1
36.9
37.1
37.3

63.7
62.5
62.7
63.0
62.4
62.5

23. 50
23. 55
23. 92
23. 34
23.19
^3. 44

37.4
39.0
41.4
40.2
40.3
40.2

62.5
66.9
72.2
67.6
68.5
68.0

23. 38
26.10
29.85
27. 13
27. 58
27.44

36.8
38.9
38.8
41.3
39.7
39.4

67.3
68.0
67.4
68.3
68.2
68.4

24. 70
26. 43
26,13
28.18
27. 07
26. 96

36.1
38.8
38.5
40.4
39.3
39.4

62.8
62.5
62.5
62.1
62.2
63.4

22.68
24. 37
24. 07
25.08
24.49
25. 01

January
February
March
April
May
June

38.8
36.8
38. 4
38.1
37.8
38.0

67.0
67.1
68.1
68. 5
69.2
68.0

26. 01
24. 65
26.15
26.13
26.14
25. 85

38.1
37.8
37. 7
38.3
38.4
38.2

67.3
68.2
68.4
69.2
69.2
69.1

25. 63
25.78
25. 82
26. 42
26. 59
26. 35

37.9
37. 7
37.8
38.0
38.1
38.3

63.5
62.6
63.6
63.8
64.3
65. 7

24.18
23. 69
24.10
24. 37
24. 67
25. 34

July
August
September. _
October
November
December

37.3
39.1
39.8
40.6
40.4
41.2

68.3
69. 7
69.1
68.4
68.3
68.1

25. 45
27.29
27.53
27.74
27.56
28.03

37.9
39.6
39.1
40.1
39. 7
40.5

69.4
69.3
68.9
69.0
69.7
70.2

26. 28
27.42
< 26. 93
27. 66
27.66
28. 42

38.6
39.9
40.5
40.9
38.9
40.8

66.5
65.7
66.0
65.7
66.2
66.1

25. 68
26. 21
26. 71
26.81
25. 76
26. 91

January
February
March
April
May
June

-

July
August
September
October
November
December
1939
January
February
March _
April
May
June... _

_

July
August
September
October
November.
December

mo

See footnotes at end of table.




4

56

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued

Year and month

Steam and hot-water heat
ing apparatus and steam
fittings

Structural and ornamental
metalwark

Stoves

Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
worked
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
Cents

Cents
35.8
35.1
38.1
41.7

48.2
54.0
56.6
58.2

$17. 34
17. 67
18. 94
21.58
24.12

32.2
32.8
33.3
35.2
41.7

Cents
54.3
48.0
57.9
58.6
58.4

$18.42
16. 08
19. 27
20. 58
24. 32

27. 08
23.15
26.19
28. 71

39.4
36.0
38.1

63.8
66.3
66.6
68.0

25. 02
23. 67
25. 25
26.33

41.2
36.0
38.5
39.2

68.4
72.3
72.7
73.6

28.18
25. 98
27. 95
28. 83

59.2
58.0
58.3
58.0
58.3
58.7

20. 71
21.16
21.03
21.13
21.24
21.11

34.7
35.2
36.9
37.1
36.8
36.9

54.3
55.9
56.5
57.3
57.3
57.1

18. 92
19. 72
20. 95
21.26
21.06
21.05

33.9
32.9
33.6
34.1
34.4
34.5

58.2
59.6
58.8
58.9
59.1
58.2

19. 80
19. 61
19. 70
20. 05
20.28

35.3
37.2
38.9
41.3
38.8
38.8

57.9
58.0
58.4
57.8
. 57. 7
58.1

20. 48
21.69
23.94
22. 36
22. 61

36.7
39.0
40.9
43.2
38.6
39.7

56.1
56.3
56.6
56.4
57.5
57.3

20.
21.
23.
24.
22.
22.

42
94
24
44
19
65

34.9
36.1
37.1
37.6
36.1
37.6

58.9
58. 2
58.0
58.1
58.6
58.1

20. 53
20. 99
21.44
21.80
21.14
21.86

January...
February .
March
April
May
June

38.1
38.9
39.7
39.7
41.0
41.9

58.6
58.2
58.4
58.2
58.1
58.2

22.
22.
23.
23.
23.
24.

38
70
22
13
84
44

36.4
40.3
41.3
40.7
41.3
41.7

57.1
58.2
58.3
57.3
57.2
58.0

20. 67
23.24
23. 85
23.18
23. 51
24. 05

37.3
36.8
39.0
40.6
42.6
43.1

58.4
57.9
58.1
57.9
57.1
58.2

21.80
21.35
22.72
23. 52
24. 34
25. 03

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

40.6
42.6
39.7
43.6
43.3
43.9

57.5
58.4
58.5
59.4
59.5
60.6

23. 44
24. 94
23.31
25.91
25. 79
26. 61

39.5
46.1
44.2
43.7

56.4
58.7
58.5
58.8
59.1
59.3

21.99
24. 01
24. 34
26. 89
25. 99
25. 73

41.8
42.6
42.4
44.0
43.0
43.4

58.4
58.1
58.3
58.5
58.7
60.8

24. 37
24. 70
24. 69
25. 76
25. 23
26.37

January...
February.
March
April
May
June.

42.1
44.1
44.5
44.0
43.0
40.5

64.7
63.7
64.0
68.2
68.0
68.3

27. 20
28.15
28. 46
29.91
29. 23
27. 67

42.8
42.7
42.8
41.6
40.5

59.2
62.1
62.2
63.6
64.4
65.1

23.18
26. 30
26. 63
27. 09
26. 75
26. 24

40.6
42.3
43.0
42.7
41.7
42.3

62.1
62.4
63.5
68.2
69.0
69.5

25. 27
26. 32
27. 38
29.17
28. 80
29. 36

July..
August
SeptemberOctober
NovemberDecember.

39.0
39.1
38.7
37.7
33.1
32.8

68.2
69.0
69.7
69.4

26. 61

37.1
39.3
38.9
39.3
32.3
33.1

62.6
64.7
65.3
65.4
65.5
65.5

23.15
25. 28
25. 37
25. 59
21.02
21.26

40.6
41.5
40.7
40.9
39.3
38.4

70.8
70.5
70.6
71.2
71.4
72.0

28. 67
29.20
28. 69
29. 04
27. 99
27. 59

1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..

33.5
34.6
37.3
41.2

51.6
57.6
58.1
58.7

$17. 73
17. 38
19. 92
21.76
24. 25

40.0
33.1
37.6
40.3

67.6
69.9
69.7
71.4

January...
February.
March
April
May
June

34.9
36.4
36.0
36.4
36.4
35.9

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

1937..
1938..
19391940-.
1935

22. 80

41.0
41.9

20.11

1937

69.6

See footnotes at end of table.




27.11
26. 97
26. 24
23.18
22. 90

GENERAL

57

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued
Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and steam
fittings

Year and month

Structural and ornamental
met.alwork

Stoves

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
weekly
worked hourly weekly worked hourly earnings worked hourly weekly
earnings earnings per week earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June

31.1
30.9
30.5
30.4
30.9
34.1

Cents
70.9
70.6
70.9
71.4
70.9
69.8

$22.21
21.94
21.76
21.76
22. 01
23. 79

31.8
34.5
35.2
35.0
35.7
34.9

Cents
65.0
66.5
66.2
66.2
66.6
66.4

$20.21
22. 56
23. 21
23. 09
23. 61
22. 95

35.8
35.8
35.9
35.4
35.8
34.7

Cents
72.1
72.0
71.5
71.8
72.2
72.8

$25.74
25.74
25. 63
25. 41
25. 77
25.26

July.
August
September.
October
November
Decemtsr.

33.4
35.2
33.3
36.3
33.9
35.9

69.1
69.2
69.1
69.0
68.9
69.9

23.18
24. 27
23.00
24. 98
23. 27
25.05

34.4
36.0
39.4
41.0
35.5
36.9

66.1
66.6
65.9
66.2
66.7
67.2

22. 51
23.95
25. 71
26. 98
23.55
24. 30

35.8
36.9
35.8
36.3
36.0
37.4

72.8
73.1
72.6
72.0
72.5
72.7

26.01
•26. 94
25.93
26.12
26. 07
27.18

35.4
36.3
36.0
35.2
35.7
36.9

69.7
69.5
68. 2
69.7
69.6
69.6

24. 71
25. 24
24. 56
24. 52
24. 92
25. 66

35.0
37.4
38.3
38.1
37.3
37.9

65.9
66.9
66.7
66.7
66.5
66.6

22. 78
24. 72
25. 21
25.19
24. 77
25. 20

36.5
37.0
37.7
38.4
38.2
39.1

73.1
72.9
73.1
73.1
72.7
72.1

26. 59
26. 93
27. 54
28.06
27. 71
28.13

35.1
37.9
38.6
41.8
40.1
40.2

69.1
69.9
69.7
70.6
69.9
70.5

24. 23
26.47
26. 84
29.49
28. 00
28. 38

37.0
37.7
38.8
41.2
39.3
38.0

66.1
66.0
66.3
67.4
67.4 .
66.9

24. 13
24. 78
25. 65
27. 68
26.51
25. 24

38.1
39. 7
38.3
39.9
39.3
39.3

72.2
72.6
72.1
72. 5
72.5
73.1

27. 42
28. 74
27. 62
28.87
28. 52
28.74

January
February
March
April
May
June

38.7
38.9
38.3
38.5
37.8
39.2

70.4
70.6
70.3
71.2
70.9
70.3

27. 20
27. 45
27.04
27. 36
26. 77
27. 47

35.7
36.8
37.6
37.9
38.4
37.3

66.7
67.4
67.4
68.4
68.8
68.4

23.
24.
25.
25.
26.
25.

75
71
40
95
35
49

37.9
37.3
37.3
38.6
38.0
38.6

73.0
73.2
73.5
73.7
74.1
74.1

27. 65
27. 27
27. 39
28. 42
28.13
28. 56

July
August
September
October
November
December

39.8
40.3
41.2
43.2
42.2
43.0

71.1
71.6
71.5
72.7
72.8
72.3

28. 25
28. 80
29. 34
31. 34
30. 65
31.04

37.3
38.6
40.4
42.0
40.1
40.4

67.7
67.7
68.2
68.6
68.2
68.2

25. 20
26. 09
27. 54
28. 79
27.14
27. 37

39.0
40.1
39.5
41.0
40.0
41.6

73.8
73.6
73.5
73.3
73.2
74.3

28.87
29. 51
28. 99
30. 02
29. 26
30. 80

1939
January.
February
March
April..
May...
June
July...
August
September
October
November.
December

-

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




58

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery--Continued

Tin cans and other tinware
Year and month

Tools, not including edge
tools, machine tools, files,
and saws

Wirework

Average
Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
Cents

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

36. 5
38.3
39.3

1937
1938
1939
1940

Cents

52.7
51.3
52.5

$19.89
18. 95
19.31
19. 75
20. 69

39.7
43.5

39.2
37.7
38.8
39.0

57.9
60.5
61.1
63.0

22. 65
22. 68
23.61
24.46

January
February
March
April
May
June

37.2
35.3
37.3
37.1
38.0
38.7

53.3
51.7
51.5
51.2
51.0
50.5

July
August
September
October.
November
December

39.2
40.8
39.4
39.4
37.6
37.8

Cents

54.1
53.8

$16.12
16. 87
19.31
21.55
23. 43

37.6
40.4

55.6
55.4

$19. 71
20. 97
22. 36

41.6
35. 7
39.7
41.1

59.5
61.5
61.8
63.5

' 24. 82
22.03
24.49
26.06

37.6
34.1
38.1
39.5

64.9
67.3
68.3
70.3

24.39
22. 89
25. 96
27. 74

19. 86
18.39
19.37
19.16
19.49
19. 67

36.9
39.2
39.7
39.2
39.1
38.6

55.1
54.7
54.5
54.8
54.2
54.0

20.31
21.41
21.68
21.40
21.30
20. 94

36.9
38.3
38.7
40.2
34.7
36.4

55.1
55.2
55.9
56.3
56.3
56.8

20. 55
21.13
21.62
22.59
19. 51
20.67

50.4
50.6
51.2
51.7
52.4
52.4

19. 87
20.63
20. 25
20. 42
19. 81
19. 60

37.0
38.2
39.0
41.8
42.1
44.0

53.8
54.1
53.9
53.5
53.7
53.4

19. 87
20. 81
21.21
22. 44
22. 63
23.59

31.9
33.1
35. 5
39.4
41.2
42.5

56.6
55.1
56.5
54.6
55.1
55.3

18.07
18.28
20. 05
21.52
22. 68
23. 46

37.7
36.5
38.9
39.0
39.6
40.2

52.8
53.0
52.7
52.1
52, 2
51.6

19. 98
19.31
20. 48
20.28
20. 77
20. 84

42.6
42.8
43.3
43.7
43.3
43.3

53.3
53.4
53.2
53.6
53.8
53.8

22.80
22. 88
23.05
23.44
23.19
23.30

37.5
37.6
40.9
42.8
42.2
41.2

55.2
55.2
56.1
55.2
54.8
55.1

20. 71
20. 74
22. 88
23. 59
23.14
22.73

39.6
40.9
41.1
39.3
38.5
39.6

51.9
52.2
52.3
52.6
53.4
53.6

20.67
21.39
21.59
20. 68
20. 56
21.15

40.4
42.6
41.6
46.5
45.1
46.1

54.3
53.9
54.2
52.7
53.9
55.1

21.91
22. 94
22. 64
24. 56
24.34
25.40

38.1
36.8
35.7
42.9
45.2
42.3

54.6
55.0
54.2
54.4
55.4
58.2

20. 81
20.26
19. 33
23.30
25.04
24.62

January
February._
March.._ __
April
May
June

38.6
39.5
40.1
40.5
40.1
40.0

53.9
54.1
54.8
56.7
58.3
57.9

20. 85
21.42
22. 01
23.03
23. 11
23 10

44.7
46.0
45.1
45.2
42.8
43.5

55.4
55.5
56.3
58.5
59.9
60.5

24.69
25. 59
25. 42
26. 44
25. 68
26.36

40.0
38.6
41.0
40.1
40.1
39.6

57.1
58.5
59.8
63.0
65.4
66.5

22. 80
22. 55
24.38
25. 08
26. 21
26.33

July
August.
September...
October..
November
December.

39.3
40.5
39.3
38.1
36.8
37.3

58.3
58.6
60.1
60.7
60.3
60.5

22.86
23. 73
23. 46
23. 09
22.11
22.38

40.1
40.2
39.7
39.0
36.7
35.2

61.3
61.6
61.6
61.9
62.2
62.2

24. 58
24. 81
24. 54
24.20
22.95
21.96

36.5
34.8
35.6
39.2
33.5
31.5

67.3
67.8
68.7
70.2
68.7
68.2

24. 55
23. 57
24. 58
27. 48
23.00
21.47

1935

1936
January
February.
March
April
Mav._
June

_
...

July
August
September
October...
November..
December
1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

59

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued

Tin cans and other tinware
Year and month

Tools, not including edge
tools, machine tools, files
and saws

Wirework

Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hourly weekly
weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
January,
February..
March
April
May
June

36.8
36.9
37.5
36.9
37.6
37.9

Cents
61.0
61.3
61.4
61.1
61.0
60.2

$22. 21
22. 46
22. 92
22. 42
22. 89
22.62

34.7
34.4
36.0
34.1
34.0
33.4

Cents
62.0
61.4
61.8
61.8
61.8
61.7

$21. 60
21.32
22. 36
21.18
21. 25
20. 71

30.2
30.4
32.2
31.8
31.6
31.3

Cents
66.8
67.1
67.6
67.9
66. 5
65.8

$20.17
20. 38
21. 70
21.56
20. 99
20. 59

July....
August.
September
October
November
December

38.1
39.2
38.2
37.3
37.3
37.7

58.9
59.7
59.9
60.6
60.7
60.8

22. 44
23. 40
22. 85
22. 50
22. 50
22.76

32.7
35.2
36.4
38.2
38.0
39.6

61.8
61.3
61.5
60.8
61.2
61.2

20. 40
21.64
22. 28
23.11
23.24
24.19

30.6
34.0
36.9
37.9
38.8
38.6

65.1
66.7
68.7
68.0
68.1
67.8

19. 87
22. 64
25. 31
25. 65
26. 39
26.16

January
February
March
April
May
June

37.4
36.8
38.7
38.1
38.9
39.4

61.3
61.0
60.8
61.1
60.9
60.4

22. 78
22.33
23.57
23.19
23.66
23. 82

39.3
39.9
40.0
39.1
38.8
39.0

60.4
61.5
61.4
61.4
61.5
61.8

23.75
24. 45
24. 45
23. 95
23. 83
24.05

35.9
36.8
37.7
36 7
35.9
37.6

67.1
66.9
67.5
67.5
66.8
67.3

24. 01
24. 60
25. 36
24. 68
23. 91
25. 26

July....
August
September
October...
November.
December.

38.1
39.9
40.5
39.1
38.9
38.6

60.5
60.8
61.5
6.1.0
61.4
61.9

23.12
24.20
24. 86
23. 86
23.70
23.82

36.8
38.6
38.9
41.2
41.7
43.0

62.3
62.3
61.9
62.2
62.0
62.2

22. 88
23.97
24. 02
25. 58
25. 77
26. 66

35.9
36.8
39.4
40.3
41.1
40.9

68.4
67.4
70.4
68.2
70.0
70.5

24. 54
24.76
27.70
27.47
28. 73
28. 81

January
February
March...
April
May
June

37.9
36.8
38.7
38.9
38.6
39.8

61.9
62.0
62.6
62.4
62.4
63.2

23. 46
22. 82
24.15
24.20
24. 04
25.04

41.3
40.7
39.8
39.3
39.6
38.9

62.6
62.6
62.4
62.6
62.7
62.8

25. 71
25. 37
24. 74
24. 57
24. 75
24. 42

39.3
38.4
39.1
38.0
37.2
37.5

69.5
70.2
70.6
71.7
71.1
70.7

27. 31
26.93
27.51
27.16
26. 42
26. 48

July
August
September
October
November
December.

39.1
40.4
39.6
40.0
37.0
40.5

62.7
63.9
6 63.4
63.2
63.5
63.8

24. 38
25.61
25.01
25.16
23.47
25. 72

39.0
39.8
41.4
42.5
43.6
45.4

63.1
63.4
63.8
64.1
64.9
65.7

24. 60
25. 22
26. 33
27.15
28. 24
29. 79

37.1
39.7
40.2
41.9
40.7
41.1

69.7
70.2
70.7
69.9
69.9
69.8

25.87
28. 00
28.39
29. 26
28. 45
28. 68

1939

mo

See footnotes at end of table.

402097°—42




5

60

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including transportation equipment

"Machinery" group
Year and month

Agricultural implements
(including tractors)

Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating
machines

Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings

30.8
33.5
34.9
37.7
41.2

Cents
56.5
54.1
59.0
61.0
61.3

$18. 99
18.86
20. 90
23. 20
25. 29

37.7
39.4
39.4

59.6
64.6
66.1

$18. 90
18. 86
22. 56
25. 28
25. 94

38.2
39.5
41.3

40.9
34.9
38.9
41.3

69.6
72.5
72.5
74.5

28. 47
25.44
28.19
30.82

39.7
35.8
37.7
39.1

77.3
79.1
78.9
80.0

30.60
28. 25
29.61
31.18

41.5
35.5
37.2
40.1

35.5
36.4
37.1
36.9
37.0
36.5

61.1
61.1
61.0
61.2
61.4
61.6

21.93
22. 59
22. 81

22. 80
22. 95
22. 78

39.1
38.8
39.6
39.7
39.9
39.8

63.4
63.4
63.3
63.2
64.6
64.3

24.38
24. 36
24. 78
24. 87
25. 45
25.20

37.9
39.2
39.2
39.1
39.1
39.4

36.4
37.9
38.7
39.8
39.4
40.1

61.1
60.9
60.5
60.2
60.7
61.1

22. 53
23. 26
23.67
24.12
23. 99
24.62

39.5
39.5
39.3
39.1
39.1
39.7

64.6
65.1
65.4
65.6
65.8
65.7

25. 35
25. 55
25.48
25. 62
25. 61
26.04

39.7
40.0
40.2
40.2
38.5
41.3

38.9
39.5
40.4
41.2
42.0
41.8

61.2
61.0
61.2
61.1
60.9
61.0

24.02
24.26
24. 80
25. 27
25. 58
25. 55

39.8
39.9
40.6
40.5
40.3
40.1

65.9
65.3
65.4
65.2
65.5
65.1

26.12
26. 00
26. 52
26. 34
26. 34
25. 87

41.8
41.0
41.0
41.5
42.0
42.3

40.5
40.8
39.9
42.3
42.4
43.6

60.8
60.7
60.9
61.1
61.8
63.0

24. 67
24. 88
24.31
25. 92
26.16
27. 43

38.2
37.5
35.1
40.0
40.0
40.5

65.1
66.4
66.0
66.2
66.8
70.0

24. 64
24. 69
23.11
26. 32
26. 62
28.26

40.9
40.2
39.0
42.9
40.0
42.9

41.8
42.7
43.3
43.1
42.4
41.9

63.8
64.5
65.9
69.0
69.7
70.4

26. 67
27. 50
28. 51
29. 75
29. 54
29.41

40.1
40.2
41.1
40.9
40.5
40.0

71.3
71.2
72.4
77.1
78.0
78.5

28.44
28. 53
29. 67
31.45
31.45
31.02

41.7
42.8
42.5
43.6
43.0
41.7

40.2
40.9
39.7
39.9
38.0
37.0

70.8
71.1
71.6
72.0
72.6
73.0

28. 51
28. 97
28. 47
28. 86
27. 79
27.25

38.9
39.9
39.2
40.2
39.1
37.0

78. 5
78.9
79.9
79.5

30.49
31. 28
31.31
31.89
31.24
29. 58

41.3
40.3
40.8
41.0
39.2
39.5

See footnotes at end of table.




Cents

80.0

80.1

GENERAL

61

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Machinery, not including transportation equipment

"Machinery" group
Year and month

Agricultural implements
(including tractors)

Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating
machines

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly weekly worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week earnings earnings per week
per week
1988
January _
February
March
April
May
June

34.5
34.6
34.5
34.1
34.1
33.8

Cents
73.2
72.9
73.0
73.0
72.9
72.8

$25.61
25. 48
25.34
24.94
24. 96
24.68

36.7
36.7
37.2
36.0
35.7
35.1

Cents
80.4
80.0
79.4
79.5
79.6
78.1

$29.50
29.28
29. 54
28. 61
28. 37
27. 36

37.6
36.3
36.8
34.0
34.8
35.2

Cents
81.0
80.4
80.7
80.9
81.2
81.8

$30.34
29.13
29.54
27.49
28.16
28. 56

July
August
September
October
November
December

33.6
34.7
35.4
36.3
36.2
37.4

72.4
72.0
72.1
71.8
71.9
72.1

24. 34
25.08
25. 57
26.07
26. 04
27.00

34.7
34.5
34.6
35.2
34.3
37.4

78.1
76.8
77.1
77.7
79.4
80.3

27.05
26.43
26. 55
27.11
27. 08
29. 85

35.8
35.7
35.3
34.9
35.0
35.1

81. 7
81.6
81.8
82.2
82.3
82.1

28.93
28.82
28. 62
28. 43
28. 57
28. 51

January
February
March_.
April
May.
June

36.6
37.6
38.0
37.7
38.3
38.6

72.4
72.5
72.8
72.6
72.5
72.5

26. 51
27.27
27. 67
27.45
27. 86
27.97

35.3
37.5
37.8
37.9
37.7
37.1

79.4
80.4
80.3
79.5
78.7
78.0

27.92
29.96
30.19
30.00
29. 56
28. 85

35.0
35.7
35.9
36.7
37.3
37.6

82.2
81.9
82.0
81.8
82.0
82.1

28.47
28.93
29.17
29. 81
30. 29
30.62

July
August
September
October..
November
December

38.0
39.0
39.1
40.6
40.9
41.3

72.4
72.1
72.2
72.1
72.3
73.2

27. 55
28.07
28. 23
29.20
29. 51
30. 25

37.4
37.4
37.3
38.4
38.7
39.3

78.5
78.1
77.8
78.2
78.7
79.3

29. 20
29.11
28. 91
29. 92
30. 27
31.07

37.5
37.0
37.5
38.4
38.9
39.4

81.8
82.2
82.5
82.2
82.3
82.8

30. 52
30. 23
30. 80
31.50
31.93
32.48

January
February..
March. _ _ _ ___
April
May
June

40.4
40.1
40.7
40.5
40.5
40.8

73.5
73.7
73.9
73.9
74.1
74.3

29. 74
29. 67
30.15
29. 97
30.11
30.41

38.9
39.2
39.5
39.3
39.4
38.6

79.6
79.7
79.7
80.1
79.9
79.8

30.91
31.14
31.37
31.43
31.42
30.74

39.1
39.1
40.1
39.9
39.7
40.4

82.5
82.5
82.4
82.4
82.4
83.0

32.11
32.17
32. 94
32. 75
32.58
33. 32

July
August _ _ _
September
October. _
November
December

40.5
41.2
41.8
42.4
42.0
43.6

74.4
74. 5
74.6
74.9
75.2
76.1

30. 29
30. 67
31. 22
31.71
31. 65
33.13

38.3
38.6
39.1
39.2
39.0
39.5

79.5
80.1
79.9
80.2
80.6
81.0

30.42
30. 87
31.17
31.41
31.29
31.87

40.0
40.2
40.2
40.6
40.6
41.1

82.7
82.7
83.1
83.3
83.4
83.7

32.92
33.11
33.23
33. 58
33.64
34.15

1939

__

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




62

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including transportation equipment—Continued

Year and month

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies

Engines, turbines, water
wheels, and windmills

Foundry and machine-shop
products

Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average Averaee
hours
hours
hours
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly'
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
Cents

32.8
34.6
36.2
37.5
40.6

Cents
58. 3
57.5
63.4
65.1
66.3

$19. 65
19. 77
22. 93
24. 40
26.87

30.0
32.7
34.7
37.8
42.4

Cents
55.1
53.2
58.7
59.9
60.1

$17.03
17.32
20. 30
22. 66
25. 55

05
37
43
72

40.5
36.2
40.0
43.7

75.7
78.6
79.0
81.7

30. 47
28.31
31. 44
35. 61

41.9
35.0
38.9
41.0

68.0
71.1
71.6
73.4

28. 51
24. 94
27. 83
30.13

62.8
62.9
62.6
63.1
62.8
63. J

22. 06
22. 87
22. 82
22. 80
22. 68
22. 23

35. 3
37.5
38.2
38.3
37.6
37.5

64.2
63.7
63. 1
64.3
65.0
64.9

22. 67
23. 89
24.10
24. 62
24. 48
24. 35

35.1
36.6
37.1
37.0
37.0
36.3

59.7
59.9
59.9
59.8
60.0
60.3

20. 95
21.93
22. 23
22.10
22.20
21.92

34.8
36.6
37.8
39. 1
38.3
39.0

62.3
62.1
61.7
61.1
61.5
61.9

21.64
22. 71
23. 33
23. 85
23. 50
24. 08

35. 8
37.9
37.4
37.8
37.6
39.0

65.7
66. 1
66.5
66.0
65.7
65.9

23. 42
25. 03
24. 78
24. 94
24. 68
25. 69

36.3
38.2
38.7
40.0
40.0
41.1

59.8
59.7
59.6
59.5
59 9
60.0

21. 78
22. 88
23. 12
23. 84
24.00
24. 67

37.3
37.8
38.8
40. 1
40.7
40.9

62.3
62.3
62.8
62.4
62.2
62.2

23. 24
23. 54
24. 34
25. 03
25. 30
25. 34

38.7
39.5
41.0
40.8
41.2
41.5

65.9
66.7
65.5
65.4
65.2
65.9

25. 62
26. 32
26. 87
26. 65
26.86
27. 26

39.7
40.5
41.5
42.5
43.3
43.0

59.8
59.4
59.6
59.7
59.6
59.8

23. 82
24.16
24. 75
25. 42
25. 84
25.84

39.5
39.6
38.7
40.9
41.4
42.1

62.4
61.6
61. 5
62.3
62.3
63.4

24. 59
24. 55
24. 09
25. 69
25. 97
26. 86

40.3
39.8
39. 2
40.6
41.0
42.3

65.8
65.8
65.9
66. 1
67.3
70.0

26. 37
26. 23
25. 69
26.81
27. 54
29. 50

41.5
41.8
41.3
43.4
43.8
45.1

59.6
59.9
60. 2
60.0
60.9
61.8

24.79
25.18
24. 99
26.19
26. 71
27.96

January
February
March
April
May
June

40.1
41.3
41.7
41.2
40.2
39.9

64.3
65. 6
66.6
70.6
71.8
72.5

25. 75
27. 11
27. 82
29.16
28. 85
28. 95

42.3
42.4
42.5
42.5
41.8
41.1

70.4
70.6
71.3
76. 2
76.6
77.2

29. 62
29. 82
30. 18
32. 25
31.67
31.46

43.1
44.3
44.9
44.7
43.9
43.2

62.5
63.0
64.6
67.2
67.7
68.5

27.05
27.94
28. 99
30. 09
29. 77
29. 58

July...
August.
September
October
November
December

38.8
39.5
38.4
39.0
37. 2
36.1

72.7
72.7
73. 1
73.6
74.6
74.8

28. 29
28. 72
28. 05
28. 65
27. 74
27.01

39.2
38.9
38.5
38.6
39.1
39.8

76.2
76.6
77.1
79.1
78. 1
78.8

29. 73
29. 83
29.29
30. 20
30. 27
31.20

41.0
42.0
40.4
40.6
38.3
37.0

69.2
69.9
70.3
70.6
70.8
71.3 1

28.41
29.19
28. 42
28.69
27.12
26.47

$20. 44
19. 83
20. 83
22. 90
24.98

1932
1933...
1934
1935
1936..

33.1
34.0
36.8
39.9

57.1
60.4
62.3
62.4

1937
1938
1939
1940

39.4
34. 2
38.5
40.7

71.1
74.1
74.0
75.8

28.
25.
28.
30.

January
February.
March
April
May.
June

35.2
35.9
36.5
36.2
36.2
35.2

July
August.
September
October.November
December

1935

1936
January
February
March
April
May
June..
July
August
September.
October-..
November.
December

_ .__
..
... _
...

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

63

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Machinery, not including transportation equipment—Continued
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies

Year and month

Engines, turbines, water
wheels, and windmills

Foundry and machine-shop
products

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly weekly worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings per week
1938

July
August
September
October
November
December

Cents
74.9
74.5
74.9
74.6
74.9
74.7

$25.17
24. 88
24. 73
24. 42
24. 27
24. 49

36.4
36.6
37.7
36.9
35.9
34.6

Cents
78.1
78.7
79.5
78.8
77.6
78.3

$28. 32
28. 72
29. 85
28. 94
27. 78
26. 98

34.4
34.8
34.7
34.4
34.7
33.9

Cents
71.4
71.2
71. 2
71.2
71.3
71.4

$24. 70
24. 85
24. 72
24. 47
24. 74
24. 30

74.2
73.8
73. 7
73.2
73.0
73.6

24. 33
25. 28
26. 07
26. 71
26.69
27. 26

34.6
35.9
35.6
35.8
36.2
37.7

78.5
78.7
78.8
78.5
78.6
79.3

27. 05
28. 13
28. 00
28.01
28. 35
29. 73

33.7
34.9
35. 2
36.0
35.8
37.2

71.0
70.9
71.0
70.9
71.1
71.2

23. 99
24.87
25. 02
25. 54
25. 51
26. 48

36.4
37.3
37.8
37.2
37.8
38.3

.

33.5
33.3
32.9
32.6
32. 3
32.7
32.7
34.2
35.3
36.5
36.7
37.1

January
February
March
April
May
June

74.4
74.3
74.5
74.2
74.4
74.4

27. 05
27. 63
28. 09
27. 57
28.11
28. 42

37.2
39.0
39.5
39.3
39.5
39.2

78.8
78.7
78.8
79.2
78.7
78.2

29.21
30. 50
30. 92
30. 94
30. 95
30. 57

36. 6
37.5
37.8
37.4
38.3
38.7

71.3
71.1
71.5
71.4
71.0
71.6

26.11
26. 69
27. 02
26. 70
27. 23
27. 71

37.8
38.8
38.9
40.0
40.2
40.4

74.3
73.7
74.0
73.3
73. 1
74.2

28. 05
28. 50
28.71
29. 24
29. 34
29. 89

39.2
40.1
39.6
41.1
42.1
43.0

77.9
77.8
78.7
79.4
79.9
80.5

30. 36
31.01
30. 97
32. 48
33. 46
34. 49

37.6
38.9
38.9
40.8
40.9
41.7

71.5
71.4
71.5
71.8
72.0
72.7

26. 95
27. 78
27. 86
29. 27
29. 43
30. 35

39.7
39.3
39.8
39.4
39.8
40.2

74.9
75.3
75.5
75.6
75.7
76.4

29. 67
29. 53
29. 98
29. 70
30.01
30. 52

42.6
42. 1
42.9
42.9
43. 1
43.8

80.4
81. 3
80.7
80.3
79.7
80.3

34.10
34. 09
34. 43
34. 35
34.21
35. 05

40.4
39.9
40.5
40.3
40.1
40.4

72.6
72. 3
72.5
72.6
73.0
72.8

29.
28.
29.
29.
29.
29.

39.8
40.7
41.3
41.7
41.9
43.2

76.2
76.3
6 75.7
75.2
75.7
76.6

30.14
30. 92
31. 21
31. 26
31.61
32.95

43.5
44.0
44.7
44.4
43.2
45.5

80.7
81.9
81. 2
83.0
84. 2
84.1

35.04
36. 00
36.24
36. 74
36. 35
38.20

40.1
41.0
41.2
42. 1
41.6
43.6

73.0
73. 3
73.4
74.0
74.5
75.5

29. 33
30.12
30. 31
31. 18
30. 95
32. 85

1939
Januarv
February
March
April.
May..
June
July
August
September
October
November
December.

_.
-

mo
January.
February
March..
April
May
June.

_ .
.

July
August
September
October
November.
December

.

See footnotes at end of table.




27
89
39
27
29
41

64

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including transportation equipment—Continued
Machine tools

Radios and phonographs

Textile machinery and
parts

Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly worked hourly
earnings per week earnings
per week
per week

31.0
33.9
37.2
41.5
44.6

Cents
60.4
56.8
60.4
62.4
63.6

$19. 48
19. 44
22. 49
25. 89
28. 40

33.7
35.9
37.3

54.0
54.2
54.0

$19. 92
18. 30
18. 45
19. 40
20.10

36.5
35.2
36.7
41.0

45.1
36.3
42.9
48.2

71.6
73.3
75.2
76.8

32. 24
26.61
32. 25
36.97

36.3
36.0
38.5
38.5

60.1
58. 1
61.4

21.26
21. 55
22. 34
23. 60

42.4
34.7
39.8
40.3

38.7
39.9
40.5
40.1
40.7
40.5

61.4
61.4
61.9
61.7
62.3
62.2

23.74
24. 45
25. 09
24. 75
25. 34
25.25

32.3
31.0
33.2
32.9
33.6
34.1

57.8
56.8
55. 9
57.0
57.2
56.3

17.63
18. 57
18.71
19.16
18. 49

18. 62

36.1
36.3
36.5
35.9
36.3
36.7

41.0
42.1
42.2
43.2
42.6
44.6

62.5
62.5
62.8
62.7
63.0
63.2

25. 59
26. 24
26. 48
27.12
26. 85
28. 23

34.9
36.8
39.5
40.0
39.0
35.3

54.3
52.8
51.3
51.0
52.7
55.0

18. 87
19. 46
20. 24
20. 60
20. 52
19. 37

36.2
36.5
35.8
37.6
36.7
40.7

44.0
44.2
44. 1
43.6
44.6
44.7

62.7
62.9
62.9
63.1
63.1
63.6

27. 62
27. 87
27. 77
27. 54
28. 22
28. 45

33.5
32.7
33.4
35.5
38.2
38.7

54.9
55.2
54.7
54.6
53.5
53.5

18. 37
18. 04
18.23
19. 36
20. 42
20. 69

40.5
41.0
42.0
41.0
41.6
39.7

43.9
44.9
42.4
45.8
45.5
47.5

62.8
63.6
63.8
63.8
64.3
65.6

27. 58
28. 52
27. 04
29.24
29. 28
31.16

37.8
39.4
37.6
40.1

52.4
52.8
52.4
54.0
54.7
55.7

19.74
20. 71
19.68
21. 55
21.11
21. 67

40.7
39.4
40.9
40.7
44.6

45.8
46.4
46.8
46.8
46.6
46.3

67.2
67.3
69.1
71.4
71.6
71.8

30. 73
31.18
32. 42
33. 39
33.28
33. 21

36.4
34.1
36.5
36.8
37.8
38.4

56.3
56.0
56.0
57.0
54.3

20.48
19.11
20. 36
20. 95
20.41
22. 47

45.2
46.2
45.4
45.3
44.8
43.8

44.4
44.0
44.2
45.1
42.9
42.2

72.5
72.7
73.3
73.9
73.8
73.5

32.14
31.94
32. 36
33.31
31. 63
31.03

37.4
38.5
36.5
35.6
33.2
33.2

59.9
59.8
60.6
61.1
62.5
63.0

22.16
22.78
21.94
21. 67
20.74
20.90

42.2
41.6
41.3
39.3
37.0
35.7

See footnotes at end of table.




Cents

GENERAL

65

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Machinery, not including transportation equipment--Continued
Radios and phonographs

Machine tools
Year and month

Textile machinery and
parts

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked earnings earnings
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week
1938

32.7
31.7
30.7
33.5
35.9
36.9

Cents
63.8
62.8
61.6
62.6
60.7
59.9

$20.81
19.99
18. 78
20.91
21. 64
22. 07

32.8
32.6
32.9
33.2
33.4
33.7

Cents
66.0
66.5
66.4
66.9
66.9
67.8

$21.61
21. 65
21. 82
22.18
22. 30
22.80

26
86
87
12
78
44

36.3
35.7
37.5
39.1
38.5
38.9

61.0
59.5
59.4
57.7
58.2
58.2

22.11
21. 20
22. 21
22. 53
22. 40
22. 62

33.2
33.9
35.5
36.6
36.6
41.0

66.1
67.3
66.6
66.0
67.9
63.5

21.92
22.78
23.56
24.09
24. 83
25.98

74.0
74.6
74.2
74.6
74.9
75.0

28.17
29. 75
29. 83
30. 46
31. 70
31.78

37.7
36.7
36.6
36.2
36.9
37.2

59.1
57.7
57.8
58.6
58.9
58.3

22.15
21.15
21.14
21.19
21. 73
21. 63

38.1
38.2
39.0
38.8
38.7
40.5

65.4
66.5
65.9
66.6
66.4
66.1

24.
25.
25.
25.
25.
26.

41.8
42.6
43.0
44.9
47.0
48.2

74.8
74.6
75.0
75.4
76.5
77.0

31.23
31. 72
32. 19
33. 80
35. 91
37. 03

37.7
38.9
39.8
41.6
40.3
38.6

57.6
57.6
57.7
57.3
58.3
59.0

21.71
22. 38
22. 92
23.79
23. 47
22.71

40.5
40.1
39.8
40.2
41.2
41.5

65.8
66.1
65.8
65.0
65.7
66.3

26. 63
26. 47
26. 15
26. 14
27. 01
27.48

47.4
47.8
48.3
47.9
47.5
47.9

76.9
76. 6
76.7
76.7
76.6
76.6

36.41
36. 60
36 99
36. 72
36.35
36. 68

36.9
36. 6
36.4
36.8
38.2
38.5

59.5
60.6
61.4
61.1
60.6
61.4

22.12
22. 19
22. 30
22. 46
23. 09
23. 61

40.6
39.9
40.3
40.1
39.6
39.4

65.8
65.2
65.2
65.0
65.1
65.4

26. 65
25. 97
26. 23
26. 01
25. 71
25. 70

47.5
46.7
48.4
49.1
48.0
50.6

76.8
76.0
76.6
76.9
76.8
78.1

36. 45
35. 48
37. 02
37. 73
36. 85
39. 56

38.5
38.5
40.2
40.1
39.2
40.5

62.1
61.1
62.1
61.8
61.3
62.6

23.
23.
24.
24.
23.
25.

39.2
39.6
40.4
41.0
39.9
42.8

66.8
66.6
66.6
66.5
66.7
67.8

26.13
26. 30
26. 84
27.24
26. 56
28. 94

January
February
March
April
May
June

39.7
38.0
37.0
35.0
34.9
33.4

Cents
73.2
72.8
73.1
72.9
73.0
72.7

July
August
September
October
November
December

33.3
35.4
36.3
36.8
36.3
38.4

72.8
73.2
74.1
73.8
73.8
74.0

24.
25.
26.
27.
26.
28.

January
February. _
March
April
May
June

38.1
39.9
40.2
40.9
42.4
42.4

July
August
September
October
November
December.

$29.01
27. 64
27.01
25. 51
25. 54
24.31

1939
89
32
68
79
65
70

1940
January .
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October _
November
December

_

See footnotes at end of table.




90
49
89
74
97
32

66

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —'Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including
transportation
equipment— C ontinued

Year and month

Typewriters and parts

Transportation equipment

"Transportation"
group

Aircraft

Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked hourly
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..

26.1
36.3
39.2
38.2
42.1

Cents
51.7
48.0
54.7
57.4
56.9

$15.11
17.04
21.44
21.92
23.98

33.3
36.7
38.3

1937..
1938..
1939..
1910.

40.2
32.5
37.3
39.5

62.0
64.8
64.3
65.7

24. 92
21.05
23.98
25.94

January. __
February.
March
April
May
June

37.8
36.2
37.5
37.4
37.2
36.1

57. 6
57.8
57.5
57.0
57.5
56.9

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

36.3
36.7
40.2
40.7
40.9
39.8

57.7
57.1
57.6
57.5
57.6
57.5

January._
February .
March
April
May
June

37.8
38.7
39.2
40.4
40.6
40.1

56.9
57.5
56.6
57.2
57.4
57.2

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

42.3
43.9
43.7
45.8
45.5
44.5

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

Cents

Cents

69.6
73.3
75.9

$21. 74
21.05
23.13
26.83
29.08

39.4
40.9
42.1

63.6
65.0
63.2

$31.42
27.46
24. 65
25. 75
26.08

36.6
33.8
36.3
38.9

86.3
89.2
89.4
89.9

31.26
30.25
32.30
34. 65

42.3
40.1
41.5
43.2

66.6
72.8
74.5
74.3

27.83
29.02
30.34
31.40

21.79
20.94
21.62
21.34
21.44
20. 62

35.0
38.9
38.9
39.5
37.0
34.1

70.7
70.7
71.3
71.9
72.2
75.1

24. 81
27.18
27. 41
28.19
26. 39
25. 62

40.1
43.0
39.7
40.2
39.9
40.6

63.2
61.9
67.7
67.1
66.9
66.7

24.06
25.75
26.37
25.98
25. 86
25. 68

20.92
20.98
23. 17
23.45
23. no
22. 84

33.3
33.2
34.2
36 9
39.6
37.7

75.2
75.6
74.7
74.4
74.4
74.5

25.05
25.06
25.32
27.42
29.58
28. 34

39.5
41.3
40.9
41.3
41.5
42.1

64.8
65.0
64.5
63.9
64.4
64.8

24.88
26. 32
25. 82
26.19
25.34
26.43

21.54
22. 27

74.9
75.0
75.2
75.6
75.4
75.7

26. 60

23. 09
23.29
22. 92

35.7
33.1
36.6
40.2
40.5
39.5

24.66
27. 42
30. 32
30.47
29.79

41.6
41.4
40.9
40.9
42.5
43.0

63.7
64.1
63.8
63.5
63.5
63.7

26.24
25. 45
25.60
25. 38
26.30
26. 72

57.4
55.6
56.8
56.2
56.8
57.4

24.28
24.42
24.77
25. 85
25. 81
25. 59

38.2
36.5
36.9
39.7
40.9
40.2

75.9
75.7
75.2
75.2
77.0
78.9

28.92
27.56
27. 59
29. 69
31.29
31.46

40.9
39.5
41.4
43.1
43.1
45.3

61.6
62.9
62.8
63.1
63.0
62.9

24.88
24.54
25.40
26. 78
26.86
28.21

41.9
43.0
44.1
42.9
42.7
41.6

57.2
58.3
60.7
63.1
63.2
63.0

23.95
25.07
26. 76
27.11
26. 96
26.22

36.7
38.9
39.2
38.1
38.4
37.0

77.5
80.0
83.5
85.8
87.0
87.4

28.21
30.67
32.43
32.47
33.19
32.00

42.7
44.0
45.3
45.2
44.4
44.9

62.3
62.6
62.6
62.9
64.8
64.3

26.29
27.08
27. 87
28.32
28.33
28.37

40.4
39.7
39.5
37.0
32.5
35.2

63.1
63.6
63.8
62.6
62.7
63.7

25. 53
25. 25
25.20
23.17
20.43
22.40

34.7
35.8
34.9
37.6
35.0
31.8

89.0
88.2
89.4
89.4

30. 89
31.71
30. 57
33. 37
31.03
27.40

39.7
40.6
38.8
41.2
40.4
40.3

70.2
70.1
69.6
70.0
70.9
70.7

27.25
28.14
26.62
28.60
28.44
28.39

1935

1936

22.21

1937

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




GENERAL

67

TABLES

5.-—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
1940, and
months, January 1985 to December 1940
Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including
transportation
equipment—Continued
Typewriters and parts

Year and month

Transportation equipment

"Transportation"
group

Aircraft

Average
Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1938

Cents
64.6
65. 7
66.0
65.1
64.9
65.1

$17.69
21.04
19. 58
19. 27
19.19
19. 56

29.9
30.1
30.7
32.8
31.9
33.4

Cents
88.3
88.5
88.5
88.6
88.4
88.8

$26.23
26. 86
27.05
28. 94
28.14
29.64

39.4
40.4
40.3
39.8
40.3
39.6

Cents
71.3
71.1
70.9
71.4
72.1
72.6

$27. 85
28.52
28. 33
28. 20
28.81
28.66

65.0
64.3
64.6
64.6
64.4
64.1

19.02
19. 97
22.85
24. 55
24.39
24.46

33.3
35.2
36.4
37.6
37.1
36.4

88.7
88.9
89.7
90.0
90.7
90.1

29. 43
31.22
32. 64
33. 88
33.64
32. 72

39.4
39.6
39.9
40.2
40.2
42.0

72.5
72.5
73.6
74.1
75.1
76.5

28.27
28. 49
29.28
30.20
29.81
31.72

35.4
36.6
39.0
38.5
37.1
34.5

63.7
64.1
65.7
65.3
66.0
64.0

22.60
23. 45
25. 63
25.13
24. 49
22.13

35.0
34.3
34.4
35.5
34.9
35.6

89.8
89.7
90.0
89.7
89.4
89.5

31.32
30. 69
30.81
31.80
31.04
31.73

41.7
41.8
42.1
40.8
41.2
42.0

76.8
75.8
76.1
74.6
73.7
73.6

31.61
31.18
31.38
30.09
30.04
31.17

36.0
37.8
38.5
39.2
37.9
36.6

64.0
64.1
63.8
63.5
63.5
64.0

23.05
24. 24
24. 58
24.88
24.09
23. 41

35.1
38.1
37.3
38.1
37. 6.
38.5

88.6
88.8
89.5
89.1
88.6
90.1

31.06
33.71
33.25
33.82
33. 26
34. 51

40.7
42.0
40.0
41.8
41.8
42.3

73.7
73.8
74.2
74.8
74.8
73.5

29. 94
30.59
29.07
30.30
30. 65
29. 39

34.9
35.6
36.6
37.2
38.1
37.7

63.7
64.4
64.7
64.7
64.9
65.6

22. 27
22. 96
23. 72
24.06
24. 73
24. 75

37.4
37.6
38.4
38.3
36.7
38.1

89.4
89.6
90.0
90.2
90.2
90.5

33. 23
33.47
34.39
34. 40
32. 83
34.21

41.5
41.1
42.1
41.4
41.2
42.7

74.1
73.0
73.4
73.3
73.2
74.2

29.21
28. 73
29. 96
29. 75
29. 69
31.18

38.5
39.7
42.1
45.8
45.5
41.7

65.1
65.6
65.2
68.9
68.4
65.4

25.05
26.04
27. 43
31.52
31.13
27.31

36.2
39.9
40.0
41.6
40.4
40.2

89.1
89.7
90.0
89.8
90.2
90.0

31.88
35. 41
35. 60
37. 39
36. 39
35.96

42.0
43.8
44.6
44.3
44.3
44.6

73.8
73.9
73.8
75.0
75.5
75.7

30. 48
31.79
32. 37
32. 62
32.93
33.25

January
February
March___
April
May
June.

27.3
32.0
29.6
29.5
29.5
30.0

July
August
September
October
November
December

29.3
31.0
35.4
38.0
37.9
38.1

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

1939

1940
January
February
March
April
May.
June
July
August
September.
October
November
December

_

See footnotes at end of table.




68

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Transportation equipment—Continued
Cars, electric- and
steam-railroad

Automobiles
Year and month

Locomotives

Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936-_

31.3
35.2
33.3
37.1
38.5

Cents
68.0
59.3
70.0
73.9
77.4

$21. 27
20 96
23.31
27. 41
29. 75

33.9
35.2
38.1

59.0
62.0
62.2

1937
1938
1939
1940

35.9
32.9
35.5
37.9

89.1
92.5
92.9
94.9

31.94
30. 45
32. 90
35. 88

39.4
34.8
36.0
38.0

35.3
39.7
39.7
40.4
37.3
34.2

71.0
71.1
71.6
72.4
72.7
76.2

25. 26
28. 20
28. 38
29. 24
27.12
26. 02

33.3
33.0
34.1
37.1
40. 5
38.0

76.2
76.7
75.7
75.2
75.2
75.2

35.6
32.4
36. 5
40.9
41. 1
39.8

Cents

$18.
18.
19.
21.
23.

Cents

51
85
99
77
74

34.9
34.4
40.4

61.9
63.0
63.3

$22. 72
18. 71
21. 65
21.70
25. 54

71.5
74.3
74.1
75.0

28.14
25. 82
26.71
28. 47

43.7
34. 2
36.7
39.4

72.5
77.2
77. 1
79.3

31.79
26. 43
28. 33
31.25

33.0
34.6
36.0
37.2
36. 6
33.2

60.2
61.4
62.0
63.3
63. 9
63.2

19. 87
21.16
22. 24
23. 43
23.37
20.91

34.4
34.2
34.1
34.7
33.8
32.9

62.0
62.5
63.9
64.1
64.8
65.4

21.31
21.38
21. 77
22. 22
21.91
21. 54

25. 38
25. 38
25. 76
27. 76
30. 33
28. 59

31.5
33.6
34. 2
30. 4
35.5
37.3

61.7
61.1
59.8
60.1
61.6
62.4

19. 32
20. 43
20. 46
21.86
21.83
23. 25

31.0
31.5
33.4
36.8
36.4
38.7

63.1
63.7
63.8
62.0
60.9
60.9

19. 57
20. 08
21.29
22. 84
22. 16
23.61

75.8
76.0
76.6
77.1
76.9
77.4

26. 93
24. 66
27. 96
31.44
31. 50
30. 75

36.2
36.1
37. 2
38.1
38.0
38.7

61.9
62.5
62.1
62. 5
61. 5
60.8

22. 40
22. 58
23. 12
23.80
23. 37
23. 52

33.3
36. 5
37.4
39.0
39.5
39.4

61.3
61.8
62.1
62.3
63.1
63.4

20. 39
22. 56
23.18
24. 26
24.89
24.99

38.4
36. 2
36.9
40.0
41.5
40.4

77.7
77.7
77.0
76.6
78.6
80.4

29. 74
28.11
28. 34
30. 53
32. 52
32. 40

38.1
38.6
36.4
40.2
38.7
40.0

61.0
60.4
62.3
62.8
63. 2
64.7

23. 23
23. 52
22. 80
25. 25
24. 50
25.83

40. 2
41.9
42.0
42.3
42.9
43.6

63.6
63. 7
64.1
63.4
63.6
64.4

25. 55
26. 72
26. 92
26. 82
27.31
28.10

36.2
38.9
38.8
37.5
38.0
36.1

79.0
82.2
86.6
88.8
90.3
90.7

28. 50
31. 67
33. 59
33.27
34.31
32. 67

39.9
39.7
41.2
41.3
40.0
40.1

64.9
65.3
66.8
69.9
70.3
72.7

25. 90
25. 96
27. 51
28. 85
28.16
29.12

41.5
43.5
43.9
43.9
44.4
46.9

65.3
66.0
66.6
69.6
70.3
71.1

27. 07
28.81
29. 39
30. 56
31. 50
33.49

33.8
34.8
34.1
37.2
34.2
29.9

93.3
92.6
91.4
92.3
91.9
91.4

31.50
32. 26
31.18
34. 34
31.40
27. 34

38.5
39.4
37.4
38.9
38.5
36.9

72.7
73.3
74.7
74.8
76.9
75.7

27. 97
28. 84
27. 89
29.13
29. 58
27. 93

44.0
43.6
43.7
44.0
41.4
43.5

70.9
74.0
76.1
77.4
78.5
80.8

31.16
32. 25
33. 28
34. 08
32. 47
35.15

1985
January
February
March __
April
May
June.
July
AugustSeptember
October
November
December

___

...

1936
January
February
March
April
May
June

_

July
August.
September
October
November
December
1937
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

.

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

69

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Transportation equipment—Continued
Cars, electric- and
steam-railroad

Automobiles
Year and month

Locomotives

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly
earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
27.6
27.7
28.4
31.4
30.0
31.9

Cents
91.5
91.6
91.9
92.0
92.0
92.5

$25. 27
25. 34
26.10
28. 83
27. 65
29. 49

35.4
36.1
35.4
34.2
34.6
35.0

Cents
74.6
75.6
75.5
74.8
74.2
74.6

$26.41
27. 25
26. 72
25. 56
25. 67
26.14

36.4
38.4
37.6
34.5
33.8
32.7

Cents
77.3
78.4
77.5
77.4
78.0
76.8

$28.14
30. 09
29. 09
26. 68
26. 38
25. 08

31.8
34.6
36.3
37.7
37.5
36.0

93.0
93.6
93.3
92.8
93.2
92.4

29. 56
32. 33
33. 81
34. 98
34. 89
33. 22

32.9
34.7
34.9
34.7
32.7
35.5

74.3
72.8
73.0
73.9
74.0
73.0

24. 45
25. 26
25. 48
25. 62
24.21
25. 96

32.1
31.1
29.0
29.2
31.7
32.9

76.4
75.2
76.4
75.9
76.5
77.0

24. 51
23. 37
22.13
22.14
24. 30
25. 34

34.3
33.3
33.3
34.9
33.5
34.3

92.1
92.4
92.6
92.8
93.1
93.3

31.55
30. 80
30. 87
32. 33
31.18
31.94

34.5
35.5
35.4
34.6
36.7
36.5

73.0
73.2
74.8
75.3
74.0
73.8

25. 21
26. 00
26. 44
26. 06
27. 21
26.94

33.9
31.5
34.4
35.2
36.6
37.7

77.7
76.9
77.5
77.1
77.0
77.0

26. 38
24. 22
26. 67
27.14
28.15
29. 01

34.0
37.7
36.9
37.7
37.2
38.1

92.8
93. 5
93.4
92.2
92.2
94.0

31.50
35. 15
34 41
34. 75
34. 25
35.81

32.8
36.2
34.8
37.5
37.1
38.6

74.2
74.4
74.6
76.8
72.8
72.9

24. 36
26. 90
25. 96
28. 85
27. 03
28.12

37.2
37.6
37.3
38.5
38.0
38.6

76.3
76.4
76.6
77.3
77.8
78.1

28. 38
28. 72
28. 57
29. 75
29. 54
30.12

January
February
_ _. .
March.. _
April
May
June
...

36.7
37.1
37.7
37.9
35.4
37.0

93.4
93.8
94.4
94.5
94.7
95.4

34.
34.
35.
35.
33.
35.

38.5
39.1
39.4
37.4
37.2
36.7

72.9
73.8
75.9
75.7
75.4
75.3

28. 06
28. 83
29. 92
28. 36
28. 05
27. 68

37.7
37.4
36.3
36.7
37.4
38.2

78.2
77.3
77.4
77.9
78.5
78.9

29. 49
28. 93
28. 08
28.61
29. 35
30.12

July
August.
September
OctoberNovember
December

34.0
38.8
38.6
41.3
39.8
38.2

94.9
95.6
95.0
95.1
95.7
95.4

32. 26
37.06
36. 67
39. 25
38.05
36. 49

35.0
38.4
38.0
37.7
7 37. 9
39.8

75.5
75.3
76.3
74.3
7 73. 5
75.6

26. 43
28. 87
28. 94
28. 12
7 27. 73
30. 08

39.1
38.6
41.3
41.4
40.2
41.9

79.2
79.2
79.9
79.2
80.6
81.1

30. 99
30. 62
32.98
32. 79
32.43
34.00

January . . .
February.
March
April.
May
June
July
August.
September
October
November
December.

-

1939
January
February
March _
April
May
June

_

.

July
August.
September
October
November
December
1940

__

See footnotes at end of table.




28
80
53
78
47
28

70

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940,
6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Transportation equipment—Continued
Shipbuilding

Year and month

Nonferrous metals and their products
"Nonferrous" group

Aluminum manufactures

Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings

1932
1933
19341935
1936

34.4
31.0
31.0
32.8
35.7

Cents
63.5
60.8
72.8
75.0
76.0

$23. 62
20.81
22. 80
24.77
27. 35

38.8
41.1

1937
1938
1939
1940

-

37.1
36.6
38.0
39.8

81.4
83.7
83.5
87.0

30. 51
30.91
31.91
34.81

January
February. _ _ . _.
March . _ ___ __
April
May
-.
June

31.7
31.8
32.0
32.1
33.4
32.4

74.4
73.7
75.3
74.0
74.8
74.1

July
August. September
October
November...
December

32.6
32.8
32.9
33.5
32.7
34.3

Cents

Cents

55.5
57.0

$17. 57
17.69
19. 57
21.63
23. 57

39.0
41.3

54.2
57.0

$15. 64
16.85
18. 24
21.09
23.52

39.9
35.6
39.0
40.0

65.4
67.1
67.7
70.8

26.09
23.88
26. 36
28. 39

40.7
36.7
39.2
40.4

65.9
69.6
70.1
73.3

26. 78
25. 50
27.55
29.64

23. 57
23. 61
24.48
23.86
25. 04
24. 33

37.0
38.4
38.1
37.7
37.2
37 2

55. 0
54.8
55. 5
55.7
55.9
56.2

20.19
21.17
21.18
21.02
20. 95
21.08

36.8
39.0
39.5
39.4
38.8
37.7

54.5
53.8
53.8
53.9
53.9
53.9

19. 47
20.81
21.25
21.25
20. 91
20. 34

73.3
73.9
75.5
75.9
76.4
77.4

24.15
24. 64
24.98
25. 57
25. 35
26.86

36.2
38.3
39.7
41.7
41.1
41.8

56.2
55.6
55.4
55.0
55.2
55.5

20.45
21.45
22.14
23.05
22.84
23.33

34.6
39.1
39.1
41.2
40.7
41.0

54.6
53.9
54.5
54.1
54.7
54.5

18. 90
21.08
21.35
22. 28
22. 47
22. 58

34.6
34.9
35.9
36.2
36. 7
36.7

76.0
75.8
74.5
74.9
74.9
75.1

26. 56
26. 49
27. 03
27.60
27. 86
27. 57

39.5
39.3
39.6
39.5
40.2
40.4

56.0
55.9
56.1
56.4
56.9
56.8

22.19
22.11
22. 39
22. 42
22. 96
22. 95

40.1
40. 3
40.6
40.2
40.4
40.3

55.2
56.1
55.9
56.0
56. 9
56.5

22.13
22. 60
22. 74
22. 59
23.00
22. 79

35.9
35.4
35.0
36.2
35.8
35.0

76.1
75.9
76.1
76.8
77.1
79.3

27. 55
27. 06
26. 84
27. 78
27. 70
27. 97

39.5
41.4
41.6
43.7
43.9
43.4

56.8
56.5
57.4
57.5
57.8
59.0

22. 64
23. 32
23.95
25. 28
25. 48
25. 80

40.3
41.6
40.4
42.4
43.3
43.3

56.0
56.2
57.1
58.1
58. 4
58.6

22. 53
23.41
23.09
24.59
25. 24
25. 36

35.9
35.5
38.0
37.9
37.5
37.6

78.2
78.3
78.5
81.6
81.0
80.3

28. 40
27.47
29. 99
31.06
30. 79
30. 57

41.2
42.0
42.7
42.0
40.8
40.2

60.3
60.7
62.8
64.8
65.5
66.4

24.90
25. 54
26. 88
26. 46
26. 89
26.95

41.5
43.4
53.6
42.6
42.2
40.2

60.2
59.7
62.5
63.5
66.6
67.9

24.99
25.92
27. 24
27.05
28. 03
27. 23

36.9
38.2
35.8
37. 3
36.9
37.9

81.6
81.7
83.2
83.0
83.8
85.0

30.22
31.44
30. 34
31.49
31.13
32. 79

38.5
39.7
39.5
39.8
37.2
35.0

67.2
66.9
67.3
67.4
67.4
68.0

26.02
26. 74
26. 68
26.74
25.04
23. 84

39.0
40.8
39.2
40.3
38.9
36.3

68.1
67.9
68.2
70.7
68.4
69.0

26.53
27.68
26. 69
28.41
26. 57
25. 04

1935

1936
January
February
March—
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November
December

-_-

_
__

1937
January
February
March—
April
May
June
July
August
September.
October.
November
December

.

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

71

TABLES

5.-—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Transportation equipment—Continued
Shipbuilding

Year and month

Nonferrous metals and their products
"Nonfcrrous" group

Aluminum manufactures

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Averasre
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
1938
36.4
36.2
37.1
36.4
37.0
37.3

Cents
84.2
84.3
83.2
84.2
82.7
83.3

$31. 21
31.15
31.22
31.57
30. 92
31.61

33.3
33.6
33.9
32.6
33.8
33.3

Cents
68.5
68.1
68.2
67.7
67.2
67.2

$22. 87
22. 87
23.08
22.12
22. 80
22.38

34.5
35.5
37.1
35.0
35.2
33.4

Cents
69.7
69.2
69.7
70.1
69.8
70.0

$23.99
24. 55
25. 87
24. 54
24. 55
23. 39

37.0
35.9
36.5
36.9
34.5
37.5

83.1
83.6
83.7
83.2
83.8
84.7

30. 90
29. 99
30. 60
30. 75
29.05
31.87

34.1
36.3
38.0
39.7
38.7
38.6

66.7
66.6
66.2
65.9
66.2
67.0

22. 79
24.13
25.14
26. 06
25. 70
25.81

33.4
37.0
38.6
39.8
40.1
39.1

70.8
69.8
69.7
69.1
68.1
69.8

23.60
25. 82
26. 92
27. 48
27. 32
27. 29

January
February
March
April,
May__
June..

37.5
37.6
37.9
37.6
38.9
38.5

83.7
83.3
83.8
83.1
82.1
83.2

31.60
31.65
31.78
31.22
32. 29
32. 53

37.3
38.3
38.3
37.2
37.7
38.2

66.7
66.6
66.7
67.0
67.3
67.1

24. 85
25. 48
25. 60
24. 90
25. 38
25. 52

38.5
39.6
39.6
39.4
39.1
39.0

70.2
69.3
69.1
69.5
69.2
70.1

27. 03
27.42
27. 36
27.33
27.10
27. 41

July
August
September
October
November
December

37.6
38.1
37.4
38.3
37.9
38.2

83.2
82.9
82. 5
84.2
84.4
85.3

31.71
31.69
31.41
32. 26
31. 85
32. 73

37.4
39.0
39.9
41.4
41.0
40.9

67.2
66.8
67.4
69.1
69.0
70.3

25.11
25. 98
26. 69
28. 58
28. 26
28. 67

34.4
38.3
39.6
41.0
40.5
41.0

72.3
70.1
70.3
69.9
70.1
71.4

24. 95
26. 88
27.94
28. 80
28. 41
29. 33

38.2
37.1
39.0
38.5
39. 5
39.2

84.6
• 85.7
86.0
85.9
86.2
86.9

32. 32
31. 53
33. 68
33. 25
34.20
34.17

39.2
38.4
38.9
38.6
38.8

39. U

• 70.1
69.6
69.7
70.0
70.1
70.2

27. 37
26. 65
26. 96
26. 76
27.02
27.25

39.6
40.1
39.9
40.3
40.2
40.0

71.6
71.4
71.7
72.4
72.8
72.7

28. 46
28. 69
28.62
29.17
29. 25
29. 08

39.3
40.3
40.9
41.7
38.5
42.6

86.2
86.4
87.4
87.7
s 88.4
89.5

34.03
34.88
36.08
36.93
s 34.46
38.37

38.6
40.1
41. 5
42.0
41.4
42.7

70.1
70.3
71.0
71.2
72.7
73.8

27.12
28.18
29. 38
30.00
30. 02
31.63

36.6
40.4
41.4
41.7
41.7
42.3

73.4
74.2
74.6
74.2
74.5
74.9

26. 90
29. 94
30.88
30. 97
31.04
31.70

January _
February
March
April
May...
June
July
August.
September
October
November
December

..

1939

.

19/,0
January
February
March
April
May
June
July...
August
September
October
November
December

_

...
.

See footnotes at end of table.




72

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 u—Continued

TABLE

Nonferrous metals and their products—Continued

Year and month

Brass, bronze, and copper
products

Clocks, watches, and timerecording devices

Jewelry

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings
per week
per week
per week

32.1
35.6
35.7
39.3
41.6

Cents
49.4
49.3
56.3
58.2
59.5

39.6
34.6
39.6
41.3

$17. 26
18.07
20.07

Cents

$14. 29
15. 26
18.08
19. 51
21.50

24. 75

37.7
38.2
39.9
41.9

41.9
47.3
48.5
50.5

69.7
71 9
72.3
77.0

27. 59
24.81
?8. 57
31.67

40.5
33.0
37.9
39.4

56.2
58.9
58.7
59.9

22.
19.
22.
23.

38.4
39.2
38.8
38.8
37.8
37.7

57.0
57.1
58.5
58.5
58.5
58.7

22. 36
22. 57
22. 62
22.13
22.13

21.81

34.7
38.5
39.4
38.0
37.2
38.3

47.9
47.7
48.0
48.7
48.8
49.1

16.84
18.49
19.00
18.61
18.41
19.07

37.0
38.7
39.7
41.3
41.2
41.8

58.7
58.7
58.5
57.7
57.5

21. 96
22.80
23.28
24. 21
23. 77
24.04

35.7
39.3
41.4
44.2
45.0
44.0

49.5
49.1
48.1
48.2
48.3
48.2

17.97
19. 52
20.19
21.53
21.74
21.45

40.7
40.2
39.7
40.2
41.2
40.9

58.1
58.0
58.3
58.5
58.7
58.6

23. 62
23. 38
23. 21
23. 57
24.19
24.04

38.0
40.6
40.6
39.1
39.3
40.8

48.8
48.6
49.4
50.5
51.5
51.6

19.52
20.40
20.48
20. 34
20. 61
21.01

36.4
35.6
35.6
35.7
36.5
37.0

40.4
42.3
42.0
43.4
43.3
44.0

58.5
58.9
60.6
60.7
60.8
62.1

23. 67
24. 86
25. 40
26. 40
26.28
27. 31

39.8
42.5
42.8
46.7
46.6
43.1

50.9
51.0
50.8
50.4
50.5
51.2

21.68
20.85
21.91
23. 31
23. 92
23.08

36.1
40.8
42.4
45.0
41.7
41.9

42.8
43.7
43.7
42.9
41.1
40.6

63.3
64.3
66.6
68.6
69.1
71.4

27.05
28.11
29.06
29. 43
28. 43
28. 91

41.8
42.6
43.1
42.0
40.7
40.2

52.1
53.2
54.4
56.1
56.0
56.0

21.62
22.68
23. 47
23. 56

37.8
38.6
39.4
38.5
38.7

38.2
38.7
38.1
36.7
33.7
31.9

72.5
73.0
73.4
73.0
73.4
73.0

27. 58
28. 21
27.94
26. 76
24. 77
23. 36

39.8
40.2
41.2
38.7
35.6

57.4
57.0
58.2
58.5
58.3
59.3

21.97
22.70
23. 39
24.10
22. 54

See f o o t n o t e s a t end of table.




22. 86

74
44
27
64

22. 82

22. 51

21.12

39.1
39.4
38.1
39.3
39.1

37.8
39.8
40.9
43.2
40.3
38.4

GENERAL

73

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Nonferrous metals and their products—1Continued
Brass, bronze, and copper
products

Year and month

Clocks, watches, and timerecording devices

Jewelry

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
worked hourly weekly worked
worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1938
30.8
30.6
31.6
31.9
33.4
32.6

Cents
73.8
74.3
74.3
72.0
71.4
70.9

if 22.73
22. 77
23. 44
22. 95
23. 78
23.14

33.8
33.6
32.0
27.2
28.5
27.9

Cents
60.5
60.0
60.6
61.3
60.5
60.0

$20. 48
20.19
19.41
16.70
17. 25
16. 75

36.3
36.9
37.0
33.9
33.9
35.2

Cents
61.9
60.3
59.5
60.7
61.2
60.9

J22. 52
22. 26
21.85
20. 58
21.00
21. 82

34.7
35.9
36.9
38.5
38.3
38.2

71.4
71.5
71.3
70.9
71.0
70.7

24. 74
25. 63
26. 32
27.28
27.14
26. 92

29.5
33.0
36.3
37.7
38.1
36.9

57.8
57.8
56.9
57.5
57.4
57.6

17.11
19.11
20.66
21.66
21.88
21.23

36.2
38.6
41.0
45.2
39.2
40.8

58.6
57.7
57.4
56.3
57.6
59.2

21.49
22. 70
23.87
25. 89
22. 81
24.11

36. 9
37.6
38.3
37.6
38.5
38.8

70.1
70.4
70.5
70.4
70.8
70.7

25. 79
26. 42
26. 98
26. 43
27.18
27. 32

35.0
38.0
37.1
36.2
35.6
36.4

58.2
58.5
58.3
58.7
59.1
58.5

20. 41
22. 25
21.63
21.24
21.03
21.30

38.7
39.2
39.3
36.7
37.3
38.8

58.1
57.4
57.9
59.1
59.9
59.1

22. 77
22. 82
23.03
21.90
22. 46
23.12

38.6
39.5
40.9
42.6
41.7
41.8

71.5
71.0
71.4
75.7
75.3
75.8

27. 53
28.00
29.15
32. 21
31.39
31.63

36.3
39.2
39.1
41.4
40.4
38.9

58.7
58.4
58.4
59.0
59.1
59.3

21.34
22.88
22.86
24. 39
23. 84
23.09

37.7
39.7
40.8
41.5
41.0
40.1

57.9
56.8
57.9
58.2
57.7
60.7

22.20
22.89
23. 54
24.50
23. 94
24. 63

January
February
March
April- _
M ay
June

40.5
39.2
39.0
38.6
38.8
39.8

74.9
74.3
74.8
74.9
75.0
75.5

30.28
28. 96
29.01
28. 74
29.00
29.95

38.4
38.5
38.8
38.0
38.9
37.5

59.2
59.6
59.6
59.9
59.7
59.8

22. 75
22. 96
23.14
22. 74
23. 25
22. 44

37.7
35.5
38.2
37.0
37.7
38.7

60.2
59.6
59.0
59.9
59.9
59.5

22.89
21.30
22.87
22. 44
22. 84
23. 35

July
August September
October
November
December

40.4
41.4
42.7
43.4
42.7
44.4

76.2
76.5
77.5
77.7
80.2
80.8

30. 73
31.55
32. 97
33. 64
34.17
35. 80

37.6
39.6
40.3
42.0
41.6
40.8

59.5
59.7
59.4
60.3
60.6
61.0

22. 42
23. 67
23. 98
25. 35
25. 20
24.88

38.1
39.4
41.8
41.8
39.6
41.5

58.1
57.9
58.2
9 56. 2
57.4
59.6

22.49
23.19
24. 45
9 23. 78
22.97
25.00

January
February
March
April
May
June

_

July
August.. _
September
October
November
December
1939
January
February,
March
April
May .
June
July
August.
September
October.-.
November
December-

.
_

_

_

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




74

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Nonferrous metals and their products—Continued
Lighting equipment

Silverware and plated
ware

Smelting and refining—
copper, lead, and zinc

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average hours Average Average
hours Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly
per
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per
per
earnings
week
week
week
Cents
36.2
36.6
37.2
39.0

49.1
54.6
58.3
58.4

$19. 51
18.06
20.12
21.85
22.90

38.4
41.6

55.1
55.6

$19.18
17.61
19.02
21.14
23.05

38.9
33.7
37.1

64.1
67.6
69.3
70.1

24. 85
22. 74
25. 73
27. 29

40.2
36.7
40.7
40.6

63.1
64.0
64.3
65.5

25. 27
23. 48
26. 03
26.46

41.3
38.2
38.2

January
February
March
April
May
June

36.4
37.3
36.3
36. 4
34.8
36.3

57.4
55.6
55.5
56.2
55.9
56.4

20. 91
20. 51
20.16
20. 46
19. 51
20. 50

34.4
37.2
37.2
34.7
37.6
37.7

57.3
57.8
57.7
58.3
57.8
58.3

19. 87
21.67
21.65
20. 35
21.78
21.96

37.7
38.6
38.1
38.5
38.3
37.8

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

36.4
38.8
39.2
41.7
41.9
42.6

55.4
54.7
53.7
53.3
54.2
54.7

20. 23
21.25
21.05
22.19
22. 70
23.09

35.0
35.5
38.0
39.7
40.0
39.3

59.4
58.9
59.0
58.5
58.1
58.8

20. 75
21.06

37.8
37.8
38.8
39.7
40.3
42.1

January _ _
February.
March
April
May
June

40.9
38.5
38.9
40.2
41.6
41.7

54.9
54.9
55. 7
56.4
55.4
55.6

22. 34
21.19
21.69
22. 65
22. 96
23. 04

35.2
35.2
37.9
36.7
35.9
35.0

59.3
58.8
58.1
57.3
59.1
59.7

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

39.2
39.9
41.6
43.1
45.4
44.2

56.6
54.5
54.1
53.8
56.0
58.7

22.11
21.72
22. 40
23. 17
25.31
25. 91

33.6
37.5
38.9
46.2
46.6
45.8

60.5
57.6
59.1
57.5
57.4
58.1

20. 36
21. 66
22. 90
26. 88
26. 76

40.6
41.1
41.1
41.9
43.5
42.4

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June.

40.8
39.8
42.5
41.4
39.6
38.5

58.4
58.7
62.4
64.3
65.0
64.8

23. 73
23. 36
26. 45
26. 52
25. 66
24.91

37.7
39.6
41.7
41.3
41.0
39.8

61.5
60.8
61.2
61.8
62.9
63.9

23.08
24.12
25. 40
25. 32
25. 65
25. 50

40.7
41.7
42.7
42.3
42.2
41.8

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

37.2
37.4
39.1
39.9
37.9
31.8

65.6
64.7
65.4
65.7
66.5
67.0

24. 32
24.10
25. 50
26.18
25. 22
21.22

38.6
40.2
43.2
42.4
38.8
37.7

64.0
63.9
64.5
64.2
64.1
64.1

24. 57
25. 56
27. 55
27.09
24.86
24.13

40.0
42.3
40.2
41.7
39.9
40.2

1932_.
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936..
1937...
1939..
1940..

37.6
38.9
41.5

1935

See footnotes at end of table.




22. 62

23. 43
23. 45
23. 34

20. 95

20. 80
22. 16

21.13
21.38
20. 92

26. 62

40.0
40.1
42.0
40.8
41.6
42.3

GENERAL

75

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Nonferrous metals and their p r o d u c t s - Continued
Lighting equipment

Silverware and plated
ware

Smelting and refining—
copper, lead, and zinc

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average
hours
Average Average hours Average Average
weekly worked hourly
weekly worked hourly
worked
hourly
weekly
earnings earnings
per
per
earnings earnings
per
earnings earnings
week
week
week
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June

Cents
$21.11
63.6
63.2
21.80
63.1 ' 22.68
21.00
63.0
63.0
21.41
63.4
20. 85

28.8
30.5
31.1
29.2
31.4
32.1
31.5
35.4
38.1
38.7
37.6
36.6

___
__.

July
August
September
October
November _ _ _ _ _
December

Cents
67.9
67.5
67.6
68.0
67.2
68.8

39.1
38.7
37.8
38.1
39.1
38.4

Cents
68.9
68.5
68.5
68.1
67.6
68.2

$26.92
26. 52
25. 91
25. 96
26. 42
26.14

67.9
67.1
66.5
65.9
67.7
69.1

21.33
23. 73
25.31
25. 53
25.43
25. 26 •

31.7
35.9
39.5
41.5
42.4
43.3

64." 7
64.6
64.6
64.5
64.9
65.0

20. 55
23.13
25. 56
26. 77
27. 39
28.07

37.1
37.6
37.7
38.2
37.9
38.4

67.7
68.4
68.8
69.9
68.8
69.2

25.09
25. 72
25. 95
26. 34
26.03
26.58

35.2
37.6
35.9
33.2
35.1
35.6

69.3
69.5
69.2
69.9
70.1
69.7

24. 47
26.13
24. 89
23. 27
24.63
24. 79

38.8
40.1
41.4
39.0
39.3
38.5

63.7
64.1
64.8
63.4
63.7
64.0

24. 58
25. 56
26. 64
24.61
24. 80
24. 53

38.6
37.9
37.8
37.5
38.0
38.1

69.1
69.0
69.1
69.1
69.2
69.1

26.68
26. 27
26. 23
25.90
26. 29
26. 34

35.8
37.6
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5

68.9
69.3
69.4
68.3
68.0
70.0

24. 66
26. 06
27.42
27. 03
26.84
27. 66

37.0
39.0
41.4
43.6
44.0
44.2

64.0
64.1
64.6
64.8
65.2
65.1

23. 44
24.88
26. 54
27.98
28. 52
28.72

37.5
38.2
36.9
38.5
39.1
39.6

69.5
69.8
70.0
70.7
71.2
71.7

26. 05
26. 64
25. 85
27. 20
27.80
28.36

36.2
36.5
38.5
38.1
38.3
36.9

70.6
70.5
71.5
71.7
71.0
70.9

25. 54
25. 68
27. 55
27. 32
27.21
26.19

39.1
38.1
38.7
39.5
38.6
36.5

63.3
63.7
64.1
65.1
65.1
64.7

24.74
24.18
24. 90
25. 60
25. 06
23.58

38.9
38.8
38.8
39.0
38.9
38.7

71.9
71.5
70.7
70.8
71.2
71.3

27. 94
27. 75
27. 44
27. 59
27. 71
27. 57

37.7
39.1
•40.8
40.7
41.1
40.7

69.3
69.4
69.3
69.5
io 68. 6
70.2

26.13
27.17
28. 26
28.28
io 28.18
28. 59

36.4
39.0
42.4
45.2
44.7
46.8

64.6
65.0
65.8
67.1
67.4
68.0

23.44
25. 25
27. 69
29.91
29. 91
31.62

38.2
38.4
39.1
38.3
38.3
40.0

71.5
71.2
71.8
72.7
74.3
75.0

27.29
27. 35
28. 05
27. 82
28. 47
29. 96

$19. 54
20. 61
21.03
19. 86
21.14
22.10

33.2
34.6
36.1
33.4
33.9
32.6

1QOQ
luotf
January
February
March.
April
May
June..

__

•

___

July
August-.September
October
November
December

_

mo
January _
February
March
April
May
June

_

July
August
September
October
November
December

__
___

See footnotes at end of table.

402097°—42




0

76

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings,
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
months, January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

and average
and by

Lumber and allied products
" L u m b e r " group

Furniture

Lumber, millwork

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hours Average
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings
per week
per week
per week
Cents

Cents

38.1
43.0

41.3
42.4

$12. 86
12.63
14. 09
15. 92
18. 34

42.4
39.0
38.9
38.7

47.0
48.4
50.1
52.1

19. 95
18.95
19. 71
20.37

40.7
36.3
38.9
39.3

50.7
52.9
53.0
54.7

20. 50
19. 22
20.51
21.36

42.0
39.2
41.1
40.7

33.7
35.6
36.0
36.8
34.7
37.6

40.6
40.5
41.1
41.1
40.0
40.4

13.87
14. 59
14.97
15. 33
14.45
15.64

35.0
37.4
38.0
37.8
36.8
37.7

44.1
43.6
44.6
44.8
44.9
45.3

15. 68
16. 39
17. 03
16.94
16. 65
17.15

33.6
36.3
36.8
37.2
38.0
39.5

37.0
39.8
40.8
42.1
40.0
40.9

41.0
42.2
42.4
42.0
41.9
41.7

15. 30
16. 67
17. 34
17. 73
16.82
17.12

36.5
40.2
41.5
42.9
40.5
40.8

44.9
44.8
45.0
45.0
45.1
45.4

16. 54
18.13
18. 79
19. 37
18.43
18. 70

39.9
40.6
42.2
43.5
41.4
41.7

39.8
39.7
41.9
41.9
42.7
43.4

41.5
41.6
42.0
42.5
42.7
42.5

16. 54
16. 52
17. 59
17.89
18. 22
18. 50

38.2
39.5
40.1
40.0
40.3
42.1

45.2
45.4
45.6
46.0
45.8
44.9

17.27
17. 86
18. 25
18.31
18. 44
18.89

39.1
39.3
41.9
41.9
43.5
44. 1

41.9
44.3
44.2
45.5
44.5
44.5

42.3
42.5
42.5
42.8
42.6
42.7

17.70
19. 06
18. 79
19. 78
19. 32
19.49

41.1
44.1
44.0
46.2
45.3
45.2

45.1
45.2
44.8
45.3
46. 1
46.8

18. 55
19. 82
19.69
20.80
20. 76
21.11

42.1
44.4
43.6
45.8
45.4
45.7

41.9
43.9
44.4
44.8
43.6
44.1

42.6
43.0
44.9
46.6
47.1
48.7

17.98
18. 92
19. 96
20.79
20.58
21.22

41.8
43.5
43.1
43.0
41.3
41.0

47.6
48.0
48.8
49.7
50.3
51.0

19.69
20.69
20. 81
21.21
20.63
20.80

42.5
44.2
44.8
44.9
43.5
43.9

41.4
43.6
42.1
41.9
38.7
37.6

48.5
48.8
49.0
48.7
48.4
47.7

20.08
21.06
20. 68
20. 48
18. 78
17. 98

39.4
41.2
40.5
40.4
37.0
36.0

51.2
51.3
51.6
52.4
53.2
53.7

20.01
21.04
20.85
21.11
19.66
19.19

41.4
42.3
40.8
40.2
37.7
37.0

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




36.2
34.6
38.9
42.4

37.7
44.2
44.8
45.5

$14.02
13. 71
15. 37
17. 58
19. 25

39.5
43.2

GENERAL

77

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, AND average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Lumber and allied products
Lumber, millwork

Furniture

" L u m b e r " group
Year and month

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly worked earnings weekly
earnings earnings per week
earnings
per week
per week
1938
36.0
37.9
38.8
37.5
38.1
38.9

Cents
47.6
47.3
48.5
49.2
49.0
48.9

$17.06
17.97
18.77
18. 33
18. 60
18.94

31.7
34.8
35.2
33.2
33.2
35.0

Cents
53.9
53.4
53.8
54.4
54.3
53.1

$17.16
18. 56
18. 87
17. 92
17.89
18.42

34.1
36.9
37.8
37.7
38.9
39.0

Cents
55.6
53.8
54.3
54.1
55.1
54.9

$18. 98
19. 89
20. 56
20.43
21.39
21.36

37.6
41.7
41.5
41.9
38.6
38.9

47.5
48.5
48.3
47.9
49.0
49.2

17. 95
20. 30
20.43
20.19
19. 06
19. 36

34.3
39.3
39.9
40.5
37.9
39.5

52.2
52.2
52.4
51.8
52.4
52.6

17.87
20.43
21. 50
20. 77
19. 75
20. 60

39.4
41.8
41.6
42.4
39.7
40.2

54. 5
54.6
53.4
52.8
54.0
54.1

21. 52
22. 79
22.17
22.40
21.40
21. 71

January
February
March
April
May,
June

37.9
38.5
38.5
38.2
39.1
39.4

49.0
48.7
49.2
49.8
50.2
50.4

18.71
19. 04
19.19
19.18
19. 72
19.95

36.9
38.8
38.5
37.3
37.5
38.0

52.1
52.3
52.7
53.2
53.0
52.7

19.13
20. 26
20.20
19.74
19. 86
19.91

39.0
40.0
39.9
39.7
41.0
41.4

54.8
54.2
54.4
54.0
53.8
54.3

21.33
21.64
21.65
21.40
21.99
22. 45

July
August
September
October
November
December.

36.9
39.6
39.3
40.9
39.7
38.6

49.8
50.2
50.1
50.2
51.4
51.3

18. 61
20.14
19. 95
20.80
20.63
20.18

37.1
39.7
39.8
41.3
40.5
40.3

52.8
52.9
53.0
52.7
53.6
54.4

19.47
20.90
20.95
21.72
21.63
21.87

39.7
42.3
42.1
43.0
42.6
41.9

54.0
53.7
53.5
53.2
54.0
54.2

21.41
22. 70
22. 51
22.91
22. 94
22. 73

January
February
March
April
May
June

36.9
38.0
38.4
38.4
38.7
38.5

51.2
51.3
51.5
51.8
52.1
52.3

19.10
19. 69
19. 91
20. 00
20.22
20.17

37.4
39.2
39.2
38.3
38.0
38.1

53.8
53.9
54.7
54.6
54.6
54.8

19.95
20.91
21.15
20. 70
20. 59
20.67

39.3
39.7
39.9
40.0
40.3
40.2

54.2
54.4
54.3
54.7
54.6
54.5

21.27
21.58
21. 59
21.84
22. 02
21. 82

July
August
September
October
November
December

37.0
39.4
39.9
40.7
38.9
39.5

51.9
52.6
52.5
52.4
52.6
52.8

19. 37
20.81
21. 06
21.49
20. 75
21. 06

37.1
39.4
40.6
41.3
40.2
41.0

55.0
54.6
54.6
54.7
55.5
55.2

20.28
21. 39
22. 07
22.49
22. 23
22. 64

39.7
41.5
41.8
42.6
41.2
41.7

54.4
54.5
54.6
54.7
54.7
55.0

21. 66
22.69
22.84
23. 30
22.58
23.01

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

-

1939

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




7 8

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 Continued

TABLE

Lumber and allied products—Continued

Lumber, sawmills

Year and month

Stone, clay, and glass products
"Stone, clay, and glass"
group

Brick, tile and terra cotta

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1932-.
1933..
1934..
1935..
1936-

36.9
37.4
33.2
37.2
43.1

Cents
30.6
30.0
38.9
38.7
39.8

$11.30
11.14
12.90
14.41
17.18

32.9
35.3
39.1

1937..
1938..
1939..
1940..

43.3
40.4
38.4
38.0

43.8
44.6
47.6
50.1

18. 97
18. 01
18. 29
19.09

January. _.
February _
March
April
May
June

33.1
34.5
34.8
36.2
33.0
37.1

38.0
38.1
38.7
38.4
36.7
36.9

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

36.7
39.4
40.2
41. 4
39.5
40.8

January...
FebruaryMarch
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

Cents
52.9
54.8
55.5

$17.12
16. 30
17. 63
19. 34
21.47

31.7
32.2
31.8
35.8
41.9

Cents
38.8
36.7
43.7
45.0
45.3

$12. 54
11.88
14. 06
16.14
18.94

38.8
35.2
36.8
36.7

61.5
63.9
65.0
66.8

23. 79
22. 62
24. 01
25.19

40.2
36.1
37.8
37.0

51.9
52.3
54.3
56.3

20. 88
18.88
20. 55
20.95

12. 58
13.14
13. 47
13.90
12.11
13. 69

32.1
33.1
34.1
34.6
34.8
34.7

54.2
54.7
54.9
55.0
55. 1
54.9

17. 60
18. 33
19.18
19. 05
19.06

30.7
32.5
33.2
33.6
34.2
34.6

45.0
45.8
45.6
44.6
44.5
45.0

13. 79
15. 06
15.12
15.11
15. 34
15.44

38.2
40.2
40.6
39.8
39.4
38.8

14. 02
15. 84
16.32
16. 48
15. 56
15. 83

34.4
35.6
36.5
37.6
37.2
38.1

54.8
54.5
54.6
54.8
54.9
55.4

18. 61
19.17
19. 79
20. 45
20. 34
21.13

35.4
36.2
38.0
39.0
39.0
39.4

45.3
45.0
44.6
45.2
45.1
45.1

15.82
16.19
17. 06
17.50
17. 49
17.83

40.8
39.9
42.7
42.8
43.6
43.9

38.7
38.6
39.3
40.2
40.6
40.6

15. 79
15. 40
16.'78
17.21
17. 70
17. 82

35.2
35.9
38.1
38.8
39.6
39.3

55.6
55.2
55.4
55.2
55.5
55.2

19. 53
19. 76
20. 96
21.19
21.46
21. 21

36.7
37.4
40.0
41.4
43.3
42.9

45.5
45.2
45.1
44.4
44.7
44.8

16. 65
16. 76
18.02
18.29
19. 23
19.17

42.2
44.3
44.5
45.1
43.8
43.8

40.0
40.3
40.3
40.5
39.6
39.2

17. 85
17.93
18. 27
17. 34
17.17

16. 88

38.6
39.9
39.3
41.1
41.5
40.2

55.3
55.3
55. 8
56.0
55.6
56.0

20. 90
21. 71
21.64
22. 95
23. 23
22.32

42.1
43.1
42.4
43.9
44.0
43.2

45.1
44.5
44.9
45.4
46.1
47.6

18. 96
19. 21
20. 03
20.17
20.31

January...
February.
March
April
May
June

41.8
44.0
45.0
45.7
44.8
45.8

38.4
38.8
41.9
44.1
44.6
46.5

18. 86

20.15
19. 98
21.30

38.3
39.5
40.5
40.9
40.0
39.9

56.2
57.5
59.0
61.5
61.5

21.38
22.66
23.95
24.80
24. 59
24. 53

40.5
41.9
43.2
43.4
42.0
41.9

48.0
47.7
49.2
52.2
52.1
52.4

19. 29
19.83
21.07
22.60
21.91
22.13

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

42.4
45.2
43.2
43.0

46.0
46.4
46.6
45.5
44.3
42.5

19. 50
20. 97
20.13
19. 57
17.68
16.41

38.1
39.8
38.3
38.6
36.5
33.9

62.0
62.5
63.6
63.7
63.9
64.5

23.41
24. 84
24. 38
24.74
23.71
21.86

39.7
40.9
39.4
39.0
35.8
33.8

52.8
53.1
54.0
54.0
53.4
53.5

20.96
21.75
21.37
21.15
19.18
17.95

18. 88

18. 98

1937

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b l e .




16. 05
17. 07

61.0

GENERAL

79

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hoxwly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Lumber and allied products—C ontinued
Lumber, sawmills

Year and month

Stone, clay, and glass products
"Stone, clay, and glass"
group

Brick, tile, and terra cotta

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings
1938
38.8
39.9
40.9
39.6
40.4
40.9

Cents
42.3
42.3
44. 4
45.5
45.1
45.4

$16. 41
16.88
18.16
18. 02
18. 22
18.57

31.2
33.1
34.1
34.7
36.1
35.9

Cents
64.6
64.5
64.0
63.3
63.5
63.5

$20.03
21. 47
21.95
22. 00
23.12
22. 77

31.2
32.1
32.9
34.6
36.6
37.7

Cents
54.1
53.5
52.4
51.6
51.8
51.8

$16. 53
17. 26
17.24
17. 89
19.17
19.43

38.9
42.9
42.4
42.6
38.7
38.3

43.4
45.3
44.9
44.7
46.0
46.0

16.88
19.43
19. 04
19.04
17. 80
17.62

34.7
35.9
36.2
37.1
36.3
36.9

63.1
63.4
63.4
64.0
64.5
64.9

21.90
22. 77
23. 00
23.96
23. 82
24.03

37.0
38.3
38.0
38.8
36.5
37.2

51.1
51.1
51.6
52.6
53.1
53.7

18. 83
19. 56
19.77
20.37
19. 46
20. 06

January
February
March.
April
May_June..

38.2
38.0
38.2
38.3
39.4
39.7

45.8
45.2
46.0
47.1
48.1
48.4

17. 50
17.18
17. 57
18.04
18.95
19.21

35.1
35.7
33.2
35.5
36.5
37.2

65.1
64.9
65.2
64.8
64.4
64.7

22. 98
23.43
23.72
22.96
23.47
23.94

36.5
36.1
36.1
36.4
37.4
39.5

54.0
54.2
54.4
53.5
53.4
53.8

19.65
19. 47
19. 59
19. 46
19.91
21.25

July
August
September
October
November.
December

36.1
39.0
38.4
40.3
38.6
37.0

47.3
48.1
47.9
48.3
49.7
48.9

17. 08
18. 76
18. 39
19. 45
19. 20
18.11

35.1
37.7
37.0
39.2
37.9
37.5

64.6
64.6
64.7
65.4
65.7
66.0

22. 58
24. 26
24. 03
25. 98
25. 24
25. 01

36.6
39.2
38.1
40.5
38.5
37.9

53.1
53.9
54.0
55.1
55.6
55.8

19. 58
21.17
20. 66
22. 51
21.58
21.18

January
February___ __ _
March
___
April
May
_June _

36.1
37.0
37.6
38.1
38.7
38.3

49.1
49.1
49.2
49.7
50.3
50.5

17. 73
18.19
18. 49
18. 93
19. 43
19. 32

35.1
35.3
35.7
36.5
37.1
36.3

66.4
66.2
66.4
66.4
66.4
66.4

23. 58
23.71
24. 03
24. 49
24. 79
24. 20

34.8
34.6
35.0
36.1
37.2
37.4

55.8
55.4
55.3
55.1
55.1
55.1

19. 52
19. 30
19. 55
19. 97
20. 65
20. 74

July
August
September-__
October
November.
December

36.4
38.9
39.2
40.0
37.7
38.0

49.6
50.9
50.7
50.6
50.5
50.7

18. 02
19. 79
19.85
20. 23
19. 06
19. 29

35.5
37.0
37.4
38.1
37.1
38.2

66.5
66.8
67.2
67.1
67.1
68.0

23. 49
24. 81
25. 27
25. 75
25.17
26. 25

» 36. 8
37.7
38.1
38.5
37.4
38.5

ii 56. 6
56.8
56.5
56.6
57.2
58.2

ii 20. 95
21.49
21.62
21.87
21.47
22. 52

January
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August. _
September _
October
November.
December

_

_

1989

mo

See footnotes at end of table.




*

80

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
£o iP^O, °<nd by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Stone, clay and glass products—Continued
Marble, granite, slate, and
other products

Glass

Cement
Year and month

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average
hourly
worked hourly weekly worked earnings weekly worked hourly
earnings
earnings
earnings earnings per week
per week
per week

39.8
34.1
32.8
33.9
38.5

Cents
44.1
46.7
56.2
57.2
57.9

$18.44
16. 55
18. 64
19. 39
22. 27

37.3
35.9
33.8
35.4

Cents
47.8
48.2
55.7
58.4

37.1
38.2
38.5

65.5
68.7
69.9
71.0

25. 35
25. 47
26. 67
27. 34

37.1
33.6
35.2
35.8

29.6
30.3
31.6
33.8
34.2
35.4

59.8
58.6
57.7
57.1
56.6
56.5

17. 56
17. 73
18. 24
19. 25
19. 37
19.98

35.1
35.4
35.0
34.0
34.8
36.0

56.1
56.0
57.3
57.7
57.2
57.2

31.3
32.1
36.4
37.7
38.9
39.4

$18. 73
18.07
18. 78
20. 56
22. 35

30.7
33.9
38.0

67.5
70.7
72.1
74.5

24. 97
23. 72
25. 32
26. 63

38.2
36.2
36.9
35.6

33.2
33.6
35.1
35.2
34.6

57.4
57.6
58.5
58.8
58.8
58.0

18.97
19. 30
20. 40
20. 54
20.25
20.18

28.5
31.0
31.5
33.4
36.7
33.4

19. 70
19. 78
20.10
19. 63
19. 88
20. 57

34.0
35.2
35.9
37.4
36.9
37.8

58.0
57.4
58.5
58.7
59.0
60.0

19. 52
20.11
20. 93

34.7
35.4

57.9
57.4
57.0
57.2
56.3
57.1

18.13
18. 42
20. 75
21.59
21.95
22. 47

34.7
35.0
36.5
36.8
36.9
36.6

60.8
59.7
60.2
60.4
60.9
60.6

21.01
20. 91
21.90
22.18
22. 38
22.11

33.5
32.4
36.6
38.7
41.4
38.3

39.3
40.0
39.7
40.3
41.6
39.7

58.0
58.1
58.8
58.4
58.6
59.1

22. 79
23. 26
23.33
23. 54
24. 37
23.42

35.4
36.9
35.8
38.8
40.3
37.7

60.7
61.0
62.1
61. 9
60.9
60.4

21.48
22. 48
22.17
24. 00
24. 50
22. 74

38.4
39.4
38.7
40.0
37.2
38.2

35.7
36.8
39. 1
39.5
39.4
40.6

60.6
60.4
62.2
64.5
65.9
66.2

21.63
22. 24
24. 33
25. 48
25. 97
26.90

36.8
37.8
38.4
39.1
37.8
38.2

60.0
63.8
65.6
67.4
67.8
67.5

21.98
23. 98
25. 15
26.18
25. 53
25.61

36.1
37.7
37.6
40.0
40.7
38.5

39.0
41.2
38.7
39.3
38.3
36.1

66.5
67.1
68.1
67.5
67.6
67.8

25. 95
27. 63
26.20
26. 34
25. 73
24. 34

35.9
38.7
36.8
37.5
35.8
32.4

68.2
68.5
70.0
70.0
70.5
71.2

24. 36
26. 35
25. 68
26.10
25. 21
23. 01

38.7
39.1
38.7
38.7
36.2
35.1

See footnotes at end of table.




21.86

21.73

22. 62

GENERAL

81

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December
19401—Continued

TABLE

Stone, clay and glass products—Continued
Marble, granite, slate, and
other products

Glass

Cement
Year and month

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
32.8
33.7
35.0
36.7
40.2
38.9

Cents
68.4
68.3
68.1
68.1
68.3
68.4

$22.45
22. 99
23. 86
24. 98
27. 44
26. 62

30.1
32.4
33.6
33.2
33.6
33.4

Cents
70.5
69.9
69.7
69.1
69.8
70.5

$21.10
22. 56
23. 31
22. 88
23. 44
23. 48

32.6
36.0
37.0
37.9
39.3
37.1

Cents
68.7
69.7
69.2
69.2
68.6
67.8

$22.28
24. 94
25.16
26. 02
26. 77
25.19

37.8
37.8
37.4
37.8
38.0
37.1

69.0
69.0
69.4
69.2
68.8
68.8

26.13
26. 06
25. 96
26.02
26.15
25. 50

31.5
33.6
34.3
35.6
35.7
35.7

70.4
71.2
70.7
71.6
72.2
72.3

22. 15
23. 95
24.13
25.47
25. 68
25.76

36.4
35.7
35.7
35.2
34.9
35.9

68.8
67.7
67.1
66.8
68.8
69.8

24. 93
24. 37
24.31
23. 87
24.12
25.08

35.7
36.1
36.9
37.6
38.0
39.1

69.0
69.1
69.2
68.9
69.8
69.6

24. 54
24. 94
25. 56
25. 91
26. 50
27.31

34.0
34.8
35.4
33.1
34.2
35.0

72.8
72.0
71.6
70.7
70.6
71.1

24. 72
25.04
25.30
23. 37
24.15
24. 86

34.1
34.6
36.3
37.0
39.5
37.5

69.8
68.8
71.8
74.9
72.7
71.8

23. 62
23. 68
25.92
27. 55
28. 63
26. 76

38.0
38.9
38.3
40.4
38.8
39.0

70.6
70.3
70.7
70.5
69.8
70.1

26.84
27. 32
27. 04
28. 48
27.06
27. 33

32.5
35.8
35.4
38.0
36.9
36.4

71.6
71.4
71.8
73.0
73.4
73.7

23. 26
25. 45
25. 43
27.71
27.06
26.78

35.7
37.6
36.9
38.2
38.0
36.0

72.9
71.1
70.3
70.0
71.4
70.4

25. 83
26. 54
26.00
26.71
26. 76
25.00

January
February
March
April
May
June

35.5
35.0
36.7
38.1
39.3
38.9

70.4
70.4
70.3
70.0
70.6
70.4

24. 96
24. 63
25.81
26. 68
27. 78
27. 42

35.2
35.2
35.2
36.0
35.6
35.1

74.6
73.8
74.1
73.9
73.9
74.0

26. 20
25. 89
26. 02
26. 49
26.18
25. 89

31.4
34.0
34.3
36.9
37.9
34.9

69.0
71.0
70.8
72.6
73.3
74.4

21.54
23. 96
24.24
26. 47
27.84
25.84

July
August
September...
October
November
December

37.9
38.8
40.1
39.8
39.5
40.5

71.5
72.0
72.7
71.4
70.7
70.9

27.12
27. 94
29, 18
28. 44
27.96
28. 70

33.8
35.9
36.0
37.4
36.6
37.7

74.2
74.3
75.0
74.7
74.6
76.4

24. 91
26. 56
26. 90
27. 90
27.26
28. 77

34.7
36.4
36.9
37.8
34.0
36.6

1 72. 2
2
72.0
72.7
71.7
71.1
71.3

January
February
March
April.
May.._
June.

.
...

July.
August
September
October
November
December
1939
January.
February
March
April
May
June

.

July..
August
September
October
November
December..
mo

See footnotes at end of table.




1 24. 97
2
26.06
26. 87
27. 03
23.95
25.85

82

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing % industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Stone, clay, and glass products—C ontinued
Pottery

Year and month

Textiles and their products
"Textiles" group

"Fabrics" (subgroup)

Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hours Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings
Cents

1932..
1933..
1934..
1935..

Cents

33.8
30.3
39.9

49.8
54.0
55.3

$15. 92
15. 82
16. 75
19. 08
21.22

1937..
1938..
1939..
1940..

39.9
35.0
37.2
37.2

59.6
63.2
62.5
63.4

23.12
21. 67
22. 74
23.10

34.7
33.3
35.7
35.0

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June.

34.4
35.5
35.8
36.0
35.5
34.6

51.7
51.9
52.2
52.7
54.0
54.8

17.18
18.31
18. 73
18. 98
18. 37
18. 30

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

34.0
35.9
37.2
38.9
38.6
39.0

55.0
55. 5
54.7
55.1
55.0
55.8

January
February
March
April..
May
June.

37.3
39.2
40.3
39. 7
38.0
38.5

July..
August
September..
October
November..
December..

$13. 47
13. 54
14. 89
16.13
16. 53

42. 7
40.4
33. 5
35.1
37.0

50.5
49.2
48.4
50.4

17. 39
17. 04
17. 44

36.0
34. 3
36.6
35.8

33.2
34.2
34.4
33.5
32.6
31.8

48.6
49.0
49.3
49.0
48.2
48.3

15. 96
16. 42
16. 70
16. 34
15. 53
15.20

35.3
35.8
35.4
34.1
33.8
33.1

17. 71
18. 71
19. 47
20. 87
20. 79
21.53

31.9
34.0
35.2
35.4
34.3
35.2

48.0

15. 07

47.9
46. 7
47.1

16.
16.
15.
16.

33.0
34.9
36.0
36.7
36.0
37.1

55.1
55. 7
55.7
55. 3
55.7
54.9

19. 81
21.12
21.81
21.23
20. 20
19. 62

34.5
35.3
35.9
35.1
34.9
35.0

47.2
46.8
47.1
46.3
45.8
45.8

16. 68
16.16

15. 90
15. 95

35.8
36.3
36.3
36.2
35.9
35.9

38.1
40.3
40.5
42.4
42.0
41.8

54.8
54.7
55.0
55.7
55.7
55.4

19. 29
20. 43
21.62
23. 02
23. 35
22. 71

34.9
36.6
34.9
36.6
36.3
37.7

46.2
47.2
47.0
47.3
46. 5
47.6

16. 04
16. 99
16.14
16. 94
16. 76
17. 98

36. 5
38.0
36. 5
38.0
38.1
39.8

January. _.
February.
March
April
May.
June

40.4
42.2
43.2
41.7
41.2
40.5

55.8
55. 8
56.0
57.4
59.8
60.2

22. 45
23.18
24.17
23. 42
24. 44
23. 28

36.9
37.6
38.1
36.8
35.8
34.9

48.2
48.4
48.9
49.6
50.0
50.8

17. 80
18.17
18. 42
18. 34
18.02
17. 73

38.7
38.9
38.8
38.1
37.3
36.4

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

38.4
39.6
39.4
39.8
37.8
34.9

60.1
60.6
61.6
62.1
62.7
63.1

21.47
22.47
22. 71
24. 29
24.05
21.19

34.3
33.0
32.8
30.6
30.4

50.9
52.2
52.4
52.7
51.2
51.6

17.18
17. 72
16. 99
16. 87
15. 37
15.42

35.4
35.4
34.4
33.7
31.5
31.5

33.8
35.7

48.3
46.8

16. 21

16. 21

78
63
99
50

16.16
16. 41

19S7

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

83

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 191+0, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Stone, clay, and glass products—Continued

"Textiles" group

Pottery

Year and month

Textiles and their products
"Fabrics" (subgroup)

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings
1938
January _
February
March
April
May___
June

$19. 27
21.94
22. 31
21.49
22. 38
20.93

30.2
32.5
32.7
31.7
31.8
31.4

Cents
51.5
51.5
51.1
49.8
48.2
47.9

$15. 34
16.41
16. 37
15. 60
15. 23
15. 03

30.8
32.8
32.9
31.9
32.3
32.5

Cents
49.3
48.9
48.5
48.4
47.7
47.3

$15.08
15.82
15. 66
15.16
15.12
15. 29

62.3
62.9
62.4
62.6
62.4
61.9

19.14
20. 40
21.40
23. 41
23.12
23.56

32.6
34.8
35.4
35.5
34.6
35.8

48.3
49.0
49.1
48.6
47.7
48.0

15. 67
16. 87
17.03
17.00
16. 35
17.00

33.9
36.1
36.3
37.0
36.4
37.2

46.8
46.4
46.2
45.9
45.9
46.0

15. 72
16. 56
16. 43
16. 65
16. 35
16.82

35.5
37.2
37.7
36.5
36.6
36.2

62.8
62.9
62.9
63.1
62.3
63.1

21.83
23.46
23. 38
22. 82
22. 46
21.59

35.0
36.1
36.3
34.7
34.8
35.4

48.4
48.8
48.9
48.0
47.8
47.3

16. 75
17. 35
17. 38
16. 36
16. 36
16. 51

36.5
37.1
36.7
35.3
35.5
35.9

46.1
46.1
45.9
45.8
46.0
45.9

16. 55
16. 81
16. 56
15.86
16. 02
16.20

35.2
37.9
36.7
38.-8
38.4
39.0

62.2
62.2
62.0
61.8
62.1
62.7

20.28
22. 34
22.00
24.15
23.83
24.12

35.2
36.1
35.5
36.7
36.1
35.9

47.2
48.3
48.2
48.6
49.3
49.7

16. 46
17. 20
16. 91
17. 58
17. 68
17. 72

35.9
36.7
37.0
37.8
37.4
37.2

46.0
46.0
46.1
46.4
47.7
47.9

16. 23
16. 63
16. 73
17. 21
17. 64
17. 54

37.0
37.5
37.6
37.1
37.5
35.4

July
August
September..
October
November
December

Cents
63.8
64.6
64.5
63.8
64.2
63.6

32.5
34.4
35.7
37.2
36.8
38.0

_.

31.8
34.4
34.8
34.4
34.9
34.0

62.9
62.9
63.7
63.9
63.8
64.0

22. 20
23. 03
23. 26
23. 28
23. 64
21.52

34.8
35.1
35.1
34.2
33.7
33.5

49.9
50. 5
50.5
49.5
49.6
49.6

17. 26
17. 48
17. 45
16. 74
16. 52
16.43

36.0
35. 7
35.1
34.5
34.3
34.1

48.1
48.4
48.2
48.2
48.4
48.4

17.07
16. 98
16. 62
16.40
16. 35
16. 24

34.6
36.2
37.5
37.9
37.9
38.5

63.7
64.0
63.1
63.4
63.3
63.4

20. 53
22. 75
23. 45
24. 06
24.00
24. 47

33.8
34.9
35.7
35.9
35.5
36.7

50.2
51.2
51.4
50.9
50.4
50.7

16. 85
17. 64
18. 09
18.10
17. 80
18. 46

34.8
35.7
36.4
37.3
36.8
37.9

48.6
48.6
48.7
48.7
48.7
48.8

16. 71
17.15
17. 57
17. 95
17. 71
18.28

1939
January
February
March.
April
May..
June.
July..
August..
September
October
November.
December

.

mo
January
February.
March
April
May.
June...
July
August
September
October
November
December

_

See footnotes at end of table.




84

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Carpets and rugs

Cotton goods

Cotton small wares

Year and month
Average, Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hourly
worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

31.6
36.8
31.3
36.5
36.7

Cents
45.4
45.5
54.8
56.4
56.3

$15. 71
16. 68
17.45
20. 55
20.61

44.5
41.4
33.2
34.6
37.5

Cents
23.9
27.7
37.8
37.6
36.8

$10.85
11.56
12.58
13.06
13. 79

35.2
37.2
38.6

45.2
44.8
44.7

$15.34
14.91
15. 85
16. 69
17. 26

1937
1938
1939
1940

34.1
31.4
36.1
35.2

62.2
63.8
64.4
66.9

21.28
20. 00
23. 25
23.56

36.2
33.7
36.7
36.0

41.3
39.6
38.9
41.2

14.97
13. 35
14. 26
14.85

37.7
36.8
39.0
37.8

48.1
47.6
47.4
49.2

17. 85
17.40
18. 22
18.41

34.0
35.6
37.1
37.8
37.2
38.1

55.9
55.7
55.9
56.6
57.0
56.7

19.11
19. 78
20. 71
21.37
21.17
21.61

35.4
35.7
35.0
33.3
33.4
32.0

37.9
38.0
38.1
38.1
38.0
37.9

13.41
13. 55
13. 36
12. 71
12. 67
12.15

37.2
38.4
37.2
36.7
36.2
35.1

45.1
44.7
44.7
44. 5
44.7
44. 5

16.81
17. 26
16. 84
16.39
16.19
15. 57

37.3
38.3
38.5
34.6
33.8
35.8

56.3
57.1
57.4
56.3
56. 0
55.5

20.98
21.86
22. 03
19.44
18. 95
19.83

32.4
33.2
35.1
36.3
36.0
37.5

37.9
37.7
37.2
37.1
36.8
37.0

12. 31
12. 51
13.11
13. 55
13. 34
13.86

35.1
35.7
37.5
38.4
37.7
40.0

44.6
44.8
44.4
45.0
45.3
45.2

15.74
16.12
16. 76
17. 25
17.02
18.03

34.1
36.0
34.1
34.3
34.1
33.7

56.0
56.0
56.5
56.3
55.7
55.7

19. 05
20.15
19. 25
19. 27
19. 00
18. 77

36.5
36.9
36.5
36.8
36.9
36.9

36.8
36.7
36.7
36. 7
36.6
37.0

13.46
13. 54
13.39
13. 45
13. 48
13. 51

37.7
37.5
38.2
38.9
37.5
37.3

45.1
44.8
44. 5
44. 6
44. 5
44.9

16.99
16. 77
16.94
17. 25
16.71
16. 71

34.8
37.1
38.7
40.7
40.0
40.7

56.1
56.4
56.3
56.0
56. 3
57.5

19. 51
20. 93
21. 74
22. 75
22. 51
23. 34

37.3
38.1
37.0
38.3
38.3
39.8

36.4
36.5
36.3
36.6
36.6
38.5

13.63
13.91
13. 50
14.08
14.02
15. 34

37.7
39.0
37.8
40.5
39.3
41.4

44.2
44.2
44.8
44. 6
44. 5
45.6

16. 66
17. 35
16. 90
18.10
17.47
18.83

40.2
40.1
40.2
38.1
37.2
36.7

58.0
58.0
59.1
61.2
62.7
63.1

23.10
23. 29
23. 71
23. 25
23.24
23.14

39.4
39.0
39.1
38.6
37.9
36.9

39.0
39.0
39.0
41. 6
42.0
42.1

15. 43
15. 22
15. 27
16.11
15. 95
15. 55

39.8
40.5
41.2
39.9
38.2
36.8

45. 9
45.2
45. 9
47. 6
48.1
48.2

18. 25
18. 26
18. 76
18. 75
18.14
17.49

35.8
35.4
30.8
26.4
21.2
25.6

64.0
64.5
65.0
64.6
64.9
64.4

22. 89
22.80
20. 05
17.07
13. 77
16. 50

35.5
35.8
34.9
33.7
31.5
30.9

42.2
42.2
42.4
42.4
42.1
42.3

14.97
15.11
14. 84
14.30
13. 25
13.13

36.7
35.8
37.1
37.1
33.1
33.5

48.7
49.7
50.3
50.3
50.0
50.0

17.49
17. 50
18. 02
18. 35
16.10
16. 47

Cents

1935
January.
February
March. __
April
May
June..
July
August
September
October
November. __
December

_

.
...

1936
January
February
March.
April
M ay
June.

.

July
Aueust
September
October
November
December
1937
January
February...
March
April
May
June

.

July
August
September
October
November
December

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

85

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Textiles and their products—Continued
Carpets and rugs

Cotton goods

Cotton small wares

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly worked hourly weekly
weekly worked hourly
worked hourly
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week earnings earnings per week
1938
24.6
27.3
29.1
27.8
27.1
30.5

Cents
65.9
65.6
64.3
64.7
64.2
64.3

$16.24
17. 92
18. 68
17. 96
17.41
19. 61

30.2
31.4
31.8
31.1
31.1
31.3

Cents
42.0
41.3
41.2
41.1
40.8
40.1

$12. 73
12. 99
13.16
12.78
12.70
12. 52

33.1
36.4
37.4
34.6
34.8
34.7

Cents
48.7
48.1
48.1
48.2
48.2
48.4

$15.96
17. 44
17. 89
16. 69
16. 89
16.82

29.8
34.1
35.0
36.0
35.5
36.8

63.2
63.7
63.3
63.2
62.8
62.6

18.82
21.65
22.15
22. 78
22. 29
23.03

33.9
35.6
36.2
36.8
36.2
36.8

39.1
38.3
38.3
38.2
38.3
38.4

13. 23
13. 67
13. 83
14.04
13. 89
14.13

35.6
36.8
38.8
39.9
38.0
39.0

47.3
46.6
46.4
46.9
47.4
47.5

16. 57
17.17
17. 89
18. 56
17. 81
18. 39

35.7
36.6
37.4
35.6
33.8
34.3

62.7
62.7
63.3
63.0
63.7
63.6

22. 38
22. 94
23. 64
22. 39
21.53
21.77

36.4
36.6
36.5
35.6
35.7
35.8

38.3
38.4
38.5
38.4
38.6
38.3

13. 93
14.08
14. 06
13. 72
13. 78
13. 69

38.8
39.9
39.5
38.8
37.6
37.9

47.5
47.0
46.8
45.5
46.7
47.4

18.07
18. 48
18. 21
17. 34
17. 34
17. 75

33.9
35.8
36.8
37.7
37.5
37.6

63.7
65.3
65.9
66.4
65.7
66.1

21.61
23. 34
24. 28
25. 01
24. 67
24.86

36.1
36.6
37.8
38.0
37.4
37.6

38.3
38.2
38.4
38.4
41.0
41.0

13.83
14. 01
14. 49
14. 61
15. 36
15.43

38.5
38.6
39.5
39.6
39.8
39.0

47.1
47.7
48.3
48.2
48.1
48.1

17.78
18.18
18. 81
18. 85
18. 89
18. 61

January
February
March-.
April
May
June

36.8
36.0
35.2
35. 5
32.7
32.4

66.2
66.0
66.3
66.6
67.0
66.6

24.31
23. 76
23. 30
23.61
21.91
21. 55

36.8
36.2
35.6
35.0
34.5
34.0

41.2
41.1
41.0
41.0
41.2
41.0

15.18
14.92
14. 59
14.39
14. 24
13. 92

37.9
36.2
38.0
37.4
35.9
36.3

48.4
48.5
48.8
49.0
48.6
48.7

18. 05
17. 23
18. 17
18.05
17. 38
17. 54

July
August
September
October .
November
December

31.7
33.8
35.6
37.5
36.6
37.9

66.5
67.4
67.1
67.5
67.9
67.6

21.11
22. 78
23.90
25.31
24. 80
25. 64

34.9
35.5
36.4
37.2
36.9
38.0

41.2
41.3
41.5
41.4
41.2
41.3

14.43
14. 67
15.11
15. 41
15. 23
15.70

37.0
37.1
38.2
39.2
39.1
39.9

49.0
49.5
49.9
49.6
49.7
49.8

18.12
18. 36
19. 01
19.41
19.39
19. 87

January
February
March
April
May
June

:
__

July
August
September
October
November
December

-

_

1939
January
February._
March
April
May....
June

___
_

July
August
September
October
November
December

.

mo

^

See footnotes at end of table.




86

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued

Year and month

Dyeing and finishing tex
tiles

Hats, fur-felt

Hosiery

Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings worked earnings
per week
per week
per week

44.5
42.4
34.2
35.4

Cents
41.9
42.5
52.3
53.3
51.7

$18.81
17.97
17.95
18.95
20.17

31.8
34.4

37.5
37.2
38.6
37.6

56.1
54.1
53.5
54.5

21.23
20.27
20.82
20. 62

37.0
36.7
36.5
35.7
33.7
31.8

54.2
53.5
54.0
53.8
53.6
53.3

31.6
36.2
36.3
35.9
35.1
37.6

Cents

70.0
67.5

$17. 98
19.09
21.04
22.62
23.29

43.1
39.9
34.0
34.3
35.5

33.0
31.5
32.2
32.5

72.3
71.1
70.7
73.4

23.73
22.39
22. 73
23.71

35.5
34.9
35.6
34.0

20.10
19.66
19. 77
19.31
18.15
17.03

27.5
32.6
31.9
27.3
28.3
31.6

71.8
71.1
70.5
70.6
70.2
69.2

20.13
23.17
23.06
20.01
19.98
21.55

34.8
35.7
36.2
33.9
32.4
30.0

53.0
53.4
53.0
52.8
52.7
52.3

16.86
19.31
19.38
19.16
18.54
19.74

36.1
38.5
36.1
27.5
28.3
35.5

69.5
70.6
68.7
70.0
68.2

24.70
27.20
25.71
20. 58
20.43
24.43

28.6
34.1
35.8
37.2
37.4
35.6

37.2
37.2
38.0
38.6
36.6
36.3

52.7
52.6
52.9
52.3
52.1
51.4

19.56
19.59
20.09
20.12
19.11
18.82

34.4
38.6
35.8
28.0
31.1
34.8

67.1
64.2
67.8
67.3
67.9
67.2

23. 28
24.47
24.22
20.19
21.69
23.24

32.8
34.7
36.0
34.7
33.9
33.5

38.4
40.5
39.8
40.4
40.4
42.8

50.5
50.6
50.1
50.5
50.8
53.3

19.51
20.66
20.16
20. 60
20.66
22.92

35.9
40.2
34.7
27.8
32.3
38.2

68.0
68.6
67.8
70.2
67.7
68.0

24.25
26.54
23.10
19.82
22.18
26.18

33.9
36.8
35.7
36.9
37.7
38.4

40.8
40.6
40.3
39.6
37.8
36.3

53.8
53.3
54.2
55.9
56.2
57.4

22.17
21.99
22.04
22.45
21.57
21.07

36.9
39.7
37.4
27.8
31.6
33.7

71.3
71.5
70.4
70.5
70.9
72.8

26.49
28.18
26.74
20.33
22.65
24.14

35.9
37.5
37.4
36.8
36.4
35.1

36.3
36.4
36.3
35.3
34.4
34.0

57.2
56.8
57.1
57.5
57.6
58.0

20.93
20.83
20.86
20.49
19.87
19.92

37.3
36.0
30.2
26.2
28.1

75.0
77.0
71.2
72.7
72.1
70.7

26.24
26.76
21.92
20.20
19.96
21.13

33.4
35.3
34.6
35.9
35.0
32.3

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

87

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industriesby
years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Dyeing and finishing textiles

Year and month

Hosiery

Hats, fur-felt

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly weekly worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings per week
1938
34.3
37.3
37.2
36.8
36.0
34.5

Cents
56.6
55.1
54.6
54.1
54.4
54.7

$19.57
20.63
20.40
20.10
19.74
18.97

31.4
33.6
29.3
23.2
28.0
29.6

Cents
71.6
71.9
73.0
72.3
72.9
72.0

$21.35
23.58
21.94
17.94
19.20
20.05

31.6
34.5
35.4
33.9
34.1
33.3

Cents
55.3
56.4
56.3
56.5
55.3
55.7

$17.00
18.98
19.52
18.82
18.54
18.07

35.7
38.3
38.6
39.2
38.2
39.0

54.6
53.8
53.4
53.0
53.0
53.2

19.60
20.75
20.85
20.99
20.47
20.87

34.3
35.3
36.4
31.2
31.5
34.0

70.1
73.1
71.1
67.2
69.7
69.8

23.85
25. 21
26.85
22.13
21.77
23.74

32.2
35.7
36.2
37.5
37.4
37.1

55.3
55.5
54.9
54.4
53.8
53.3

17.51
19.38
19.60
20.13
19.74
19.62

January
February
March
April
May
June

38.3
39.6
39.3
38.1
37.6
37.4

54.1
53.8
53.4
53.9
53.5
53.7

20.85
21.39
21.22
20.64
20. 29
20.29

34.5
35.5
30.6
25.0
30.9
33.4

71.4
71.4
69.5
69.5
70.0
70.9

24.58
24.75
22.07
17.48
21.33
23.24

35.7
37.0
37.0
35.5
34.1
34.3

53.8
53.2
53.0
52.2
52.4
52.0

19.14
19.63
19.38
18.40
17. 75
17.95

July
August
September.
October __
November.
December

37.6
38.5
39.1
39.5
38.7
39.1

52.4
52.9
53.1
53.1
53.7
54.0

19.87
20. 56
20.99
21.21
20.96
21.33

34.6
34.3
31.1
27.6
31.4
36.6

71.1
70.1
69.3
69.7
71.2
73.2

24.35
24.24
21.95
19.34
22.41
26. 23

33.7
36.0
35.5
37.1
36.0
35.4

52.6
53.3
53.4
55.5
55.4
55.4

17.53
19.14
18.85
20.40
19.95
19.52

January.
February
March
April
May..
June.

37.6
37.3
37.5
36.5
35.6
35.5

54.4
54.3
54.6
55.0
54.9
54.9

20.64
20.46
20.62
20 28
19.70
19.67

35.0
34.8
29.3
22.2
26.3
31.6

73.0
72.8
71.4
71.5
71.7
72.4

25. 26
25.13
21.50
16.12
18.98
22.08

33.1
33.8
34.0
33.2
32.5
32.2

55.5
55.3
55.5
55.8
55.8
55.3

18.24
18.59
18.60
18.41
17.81
17. 52

July
August __
September
October
November
December

36.4
37.1
38.2
39.1
38.6
40.2

54.6
54.6
54.2
53.9
54.3
54.6

20.05
20.37
20.81
21.15
21.07
21.94

35.9
36.2
33.1
31.1
33.6
35.6

1 73.4
3
72.9
73.8
73.0
73.0
75.3

25.84
26.17
25.00
23.19
24.49
26.78

31.7
34.0
34.3
36.2
36.1
35.8

55.8
55.6
55.1
54.8
54.7
54.9

17.57
18.86
18.90
19. 71
19.71
19.62

January
February
March
April
May
June

_
_

July
.
August
September
October
November..
December
1939

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




88

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 194-0, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Knitted outerwear

Knitted underwear

Knitted cloth

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
hourly weekly
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
Cents

Cents

Cents

34.4
36.3
37.8

44.3
45.7
44.6

$15.13
14.12
15. 64
16. 78
16. 99

1937
1938
1939
1940

37.1
35.6
37.0
36.4

46.3
46.4
46.1
47.8

17. 33
16. 77
17.14
17. 63

35.7
33.0
36.9
35.6

41.0
42.2
41.0
43.1

14. 67
13.90
15. 05
15.29

January
February _ _ . _
March _ _.
April
May
June

35.1
34.9
34.4
33.2
33.5
34.9

45.0
45.7
45.7
46.3
46.3
46.5

16. 24
16. 73
16.14
15. 76
15. 51
16. 21

32.0
34.3
34.5
33.6
33.7
32.9

41.5
40.8
40.7
41.4
40.2
40.0

13.00
13.88
13.89
13.90
13. 58
13. 21

14.97
15.16
15. 21
15. 88
15. 77
15.69

July
August
__ . . .
September
October. . . .
November-December _ _ __

34.1
37.4
39.9
40.2
37.5
36.5

45.9
45.7
46.1
45.0
45.0
45.6

15. 98
17. 29
18. 21
18. 24
16. 99
16. 73

32.2
34.0
35.7
36.3
36.8
35.9

39.9
40.4
40.1
39. 7
39.0
39.3

12.89
13.68
14.22
14. 28
14. 40
14.23

14.79
15.94
16. 06
15. 70
15. 43
15.94

January
__ _
February
March... _ _ _ _ _ _
April
May
_ _
June

36.7
36.9
36.6
37.2
36.2
36.0

45.3
44.8
45.6
44.7
45.6
46.0

16. 85
16. 65
16. 86
16. 66
16. 39
16. 58

34.1
36.8
37.8
37.2
37.3
37.0

39.2
38.3
38.5
38.8
38.3
38.5

13. 44
13. 99
14. 57
14.49
14.31
14. 27

38.7
39.0
38.9
38.7
36.9
38.5

43.1
43. 5
43.4
44.3
44.3
43.7

15. 99
16. 47
16. 36
16. 62
15. 79
16.04

July
August.
September.
October..
November.
December _

36.2
39.5
37.8
41.1
39.7
38.9

44.3
44.2
44.4
44.1
43.5
43.8

16. 26
17. 33
16. 99
18. 46
17. 57
17.12

36.2
38.5
37.4
39.6
39.4
39.4

38.7
38.8
38.5
38.3
38.2
38.7

14. 02
14. 87
14. 24
15.11
14. 94
15.13

37.8
40.4
36.3
40.3
39.4
41.3

43.9
43.3
43.7
43.8
42. 6
42. 5

16.68
17.00
15. 98
17.13
16.80
17. 54

37.3
37.7
38.7
39.2
37.7
37.7

45.5
45.1
44.8
45.8
46.6
46.7

17.01
17. 29
17.47
17. 91
17.69
17. 67

38.7
40.0
40.2
38.7
37.1
35.9

39.1
38.7
39.0
39.4
39.9
41.7

15. 01
15. 36
15. 68
15. 47
15.13
15.04

39.7
41.4
41.7
41.2
38.6
37.7

44.9
43.7
43. 6
44.6
44.5
45.6

17.92
17. 84
18. 00
18. 28
17. 33
16. 90

36.0
37.0
34.5
38.6
34.4
35.0

46.7
46.8
46.7
47.0
47.2
47.5

16. 93
17. 63
16. 25
18. 40
16. 44
16. 91

34.8
34.7
32.7
33.3
29.7
28.9

42.0
42.3
42.9
43.2
44.0
43.8

14. 58
14. 70
14.08
14. 41
13.08
12.49

37.1
38.2
39.0
38.7
35.4
32.8

46.2
47.8
46.2
47.7
48.0
48.3

16.64
17.84
17.02
17. 55
15. 70
14.62

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

.

...

39.3
33.3
34.5
37.6

30.4
40.0
40.1
38.5

$12.14
12.19
13.33
13.80
14.47

38.9

43. 5

38.7
37.2
38.4
38.0

45.7
47.4
46.8
48. 9

$14.
13.
15.
15.
16.

54
79
44
56
56

17. 22
17.19
18.15
18. 91

1936

_

. .

1937
January.
February
March
April
May
June

. . . . . .
.

July
August
September
October
November
December

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

89

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Textiles and their products—Continued
Knitted outerwear

Knitted underwear

Knitted cloth

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1988
January
February
March
April
May
June.

30.4
34.6
33.6
32.8
34.5
34.4

Cents
51.2
48.4
49.2
47.3
46.6
46.0

$15. 70
17. 22
16. 81
15. 78
16.34
16.17

29.3
31.2
31.4
31.4
32.3
32.0

Cents
44.1
43.4
42.9
42.8
42.1
41.7

$12. 76
13. 36
13.38
13.59
13.60
13. 38

32.8
36.6
36.5
35.7
33.9
33.7

Cents
48.9
47.9
47.3
49.0
48.4
48.1

$15.27
16.28
16. 33
16. 64
15.89
15.92

July
August
September
October
November
December

35.4
37.1
38.2
39.2
36.6
38.0

43.9
44.6
44.8
45.4
45.9
46.7

15. 65
16. 89
17.27
17.91
16. 81
17.87

32.4
34.1
34.6
36.1
35.0
35.2

41.6
41.6
41.6
41.5
41.5
41.9

13.58
14.12
14. 39
15.06
14. 58
14. 75

38.3
40.4
40.8
40.8
37.3
38.1

47.5
47.0
47.6
46.0
46.2
46.9

17.47
18. 91
19.06
18.99
17.45
17.93

January
February
March___
April
May
June

35.4
37.2
36.8
35.5
37.0
36.7

47.5
47.2
45.9
46.1
46.1
46.1

16.89
17. 72
16. 89
16. 32
16. 98
16.96

34.5
37.0
36.9
36.2
36.2
37.5

41.8
40.7
41.0
41.0
40.7
40.5

14.39
14.98
15.05
14. 77
14. 74
15.13

38.3
38.2
37.6
35.9
36.6
38.3

46.8
46.6
46.3
45.9
46.1
45.8

18.03
17.83
17.53
16.68
17. 07
17.87

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November.
December

36.9
38.7
36.8
39.4
37.2
34.7

45.3
44.8
45.6
45.9
46.8
47.1

16. 76
17.45
16.90
18.31
17. 62
16. 54

37.1
37.0
36.4
38.4
37.5
37.0

40.2
40.4
40.4
40.7
42.1
41.9

14.90
14. 92
14. 66
15.60
15. 72
15.48

39.2
39.3
39.6
41.0
39.2
37.0

46.1
46.9
47.1
46.8
48.0
48.7

18.34
18. 86
19.17
19. 74
19.27
18.34

January
February
March__
April
May
June. .

35.0
36.8
35.7
34.9
36.0
35.8

48.4
47.8
47.7
47.6
47.5
47.1

17.12
17. 83
17. 28
16. 79
17.30
16. 99

35.3
36.1
36.6
35.5
34.6
34.4

42.4
42.1
42.3
42.2
43.0
43.0

14.78
15.11
15. 37
14. 93
14.82
14.68

37.6
36.7
36.4
34.5
36.3
37.0

47.9
47.7
47.8
49.0
48.9
50.0

18. 51
17.94
17.86
17. 46
18.26
18.76

July
August
—
September
October
November
December.

35.9
37.0
38.0
37.4
36.9
36.4

47.2
47.6
48.0
47.9
48.4
48.2

17.07
17.88
18.41
18. 22
18.15
17.89

34.3
35.0
36.0
36.7
36.3
36.6

43.4
43.6
43.6
43.8
44.2
44.1

14.76
15. 24
15. 59
16.03
16.02
16.14

39.0
39.7
40.7
39.6
38.7
39.3

49.3
49.4
49.5
48.2
49.5
50.0

19.34
19. 73
20. 25
19.34
19.24
19.64

.

1939

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




90

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Silk and rayon goods

Woolen and worsted goods

Year and month

"Wearing apparel" (subgroup)

A verage Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average
. hours
hours
hours
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings

38.7
37 1
33.4
34.8
36.2

Cents
34.3
35.6
44.3
44.7
42.6

35.9
34.9
36.5
35.7

$13.44
13. 29
14. 82
15. 55
15.44

42.8
41.3
33.3
36.8
36.2

Cents
38.0
39.6
49.3
49.3
50.1

45.0
43.5
42.9
45.5

16.16

35.3
34.1
36.4
36.1

34.4
34.6
34.6
33.9
32.9
32.9

45.1
45.8
45.3
45.6
45.8
45.4

15. 52
15. 66
15. 40
15.04
14.90

33.7
35.9
35. 5
36.6
35.2
36.6

44.4
44.3
44.4
43.9
43.7
43.5

34.7
33.8
35.3
35.5
34.8
35.2

$16. 32
16. 26

16.44
18.13
18.11

31.4
33.4

56.9
54.5
52.8
56.4

19. 99
IS. 53
19. 21
20.33

32.5
31.7
34.0
33.4

37.0
37.0
36.2
35.5
36.2
37.2

49.2
49.4
49.5
49.3
49.6
49.2

18.19
18. 27
17. 93
17. 50
17.94
18. 26

31.2
32.6
32.5
30.3
29.3

14.94
15.92
15. 77
16.09
15. 40
15.86

36.7
36.6
36.7
37.6
36.3
38.3

49.3
49.5
49.4
49.0
48.8
49.4

18.12
18.10
18.12
18. 42
17. 69
18. 89

29.7
32.3
33.9
33.1
31.1
31.6

43.2
42.9
43.0
42.8
42.9
43.0

15.00
14.44
15.15
15.12
14. 96
15.17

37.0
36.8
35.5
35.3
35.6
35.8

49.4
49.8
49.9
50.1
50.0

18. 39
18.18
17.64
17.58
17.76
17.84

32.2
33.5
35.3
33.3
33.3
33.4

36.4
38.3
36.2
38.1
37.5
38.7

42.6
42.3
42.5
42.0
42.2
42.3

15. 53
16.17
15. 39
16.04
15.84
16.42

36.0
36.5
33.3
36.0
36.7
40.0

49.8
49.7
49.2
49.4
49.6
53.0

17.90
18. 09
16. 38
17. 73
18.15
21.18

31.9
34.1
32.3
34.3
33.0
33.9

38.1
38.7
38.1
37.8
37.0
36.6

42.4
42.7
43.5
44.6
45.2
45.4

16.10
16.52
16. 56
16. 76
16. 79
16. 70

38.8
38.4
37.8
37.7
36.9
36.1

53.4
53.6
53.5
57.5
58.0
58.6

20.66
20. 52
20.18
21.57
21.36
21.08

33.5
35.4
36.8
34.5
33.1
32.0

35.7
34.1
35.1
34.2
31.7
32.0

45.6
46.0
46.9
46.9
46.2
46.0

16. 33
15.89
16. 55
16.02
14.54
14.75

35.6
34.4
32.1
30.3
27.7
31.7

57.9
58.9
58.9
58.6
59.4
59.2

20. 51
20.18
18.82
17.73
16. 43
18.69

30.6
32.4
30.7
31.3
28.9

See footnotes at end of table.




15. 32
15. 78
16. 33

15. 82

GENERAL

91

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Silk and rayon goods

Woolen and worsted goods

Year and month

"Wearing apparel" (sub
group)

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1938
29.5
33.3
34.4
33.8
34.0
33.5

Cents
45.5
44.2
44.2
43.8
44.6
44.2

$13.55
14. 87
15. 29
14. 90
15. 30
15.04

32.0
33.0
29.8
28.7
30.6
33.7

Cents
59.4
58.6
58.3
58.4
54.6
53.7

$18.97
19. 32
17.41
16. 74
16. 65
18. 02

29.0
31.9
32.4
31.3
31.1
29.2

Cents
55.5
55.9
55.0
52.1
49.1
49.1

$16.09
17.94
18.12
16. 69
15. 52
14.31

33.7
36.7
35.7
37.2
35.6
37.2

44.4
43.8
44.5
42.2
42.1
42.3

15.17
16. 22
15.99
15.83
15.15
15. 79

35.4
36.4
35.0
35.6
35.8
37.8

53.4
52.9
52.7
52.7
52.6
52.4

18. 85
19. 21
18. 39
18. 75
18. 78
19.80

30.2
32.6
33.9
33.1
31.4
33.2

51.2
53.3
53.7
53.1
51.0
52.0

15.50
17. 68
18. 68
18.01
16.35
17.61

January
February
March
April
May
June

36.4
37.6
37.5
35.2
35.1
35.4

42.0
42.2
42.1
42.3
42.9
43.0

15.45
15.97
15.93
15.02
15.19
15.38

37.0
36.8
35.3
33.3
35.7
36.7

52.6
53.0
52.9
52.7
52.6
52.6

19.48
19. 50
18. 66
17. 54
18. 77
19. 32

32.3
34.4
35.7
33.6
33.6
34.6

52.7
53.8
54.1
51.8
51.1
49.9

D
17. 38
19. 03
19. 91
17.84
17.43
17.46

July
August..
September..
October
November..
December

35.3
37.0
36.6
38.0
37.4
36.5

42.5
42.2
42.6
42.6
44.9
45.2

15.15
15. 71
15. 71
16.31
16.90
16. 58

36.8
36.3
36.0
37.1
37.8
37.1

53.0
52.9
52.9
52.5
52.7
53.4

19.42
19.18
19.00
19.46
19. 89
19. 83

33.6
35.0
32.8
34.5
33.7
33.5

49.6
52.3
51.9
52.7
52.5
53.3

17.14
18. 77
17.40
18.63
17.81
18. 26

January
February
March
April
May
June

35.0
35.6
35.5
35.2
35.1
34.2

45.5
45.1
45.4
45.6
45.7
45.8

16.03
16.17
16. 25
16.16
16.15
15. 78

36.2
34.4
32.6
32.5
34.5
35.3

53.7
56.6
56.7
56.5
56.3
56.3

19.46
19. 47
18. 42
18. 35
19. 38
19.87

32.5
34.0
35.2
33.6
32.7
32.5

53.4
54.4
54.3
51.9
51.8
51.8

17. 85
18.86
19. 54
17. 63
16.97
16.96

July
August
September
October.
November.
December

34.4
36.8
36.1
36.6
36.0
37.3

45.9
45.5
45.5
45.3
45.4
45.8

15.86
16.79
16. 50
16.63
16.43
17.13

36.4
36.5
37.6
38.2
36.8
38.9

56.4
56.6
57.1
56.6
56.9
56.9

20. 47
20. 63
21.47
21.62
20.92
22.15

31.9
33.5
34.4
33.4
33.0
34.3

53.4
55.8
56.3
55.2
53.9
54.4

17. 26
18.95
19. 51
18. 53
18.05
18.98

January
February
March...
April
May
June
July....
August.
September
October
November.
December

_.

1939

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




92

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and. average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Clothing, men's

Clothing, women's

Corsets and allied garments

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly worked hourly
earnings
per week
per week earnings
per week
Cents
27.8
30.4
32.2

58.0
59.5
56.0

$13. 78
14.30
16.26
18.27
18. 39

32.0
29.5
33.2
32.5

59.1
58.6
58.1
59.3

18.98
17. 35
19. 32
19.31

26.5
30.2
32.9
32.7
28.4
28.6

60.1
61.4
62.1
62.9
58.5
59.1

29.1
31.5
33.2
31.4
29.1
30.3

Cents

55.7
52.9

$18.33
17.03
18.47
18. 59
18.81

32.8
35.0

56.8
53.8
51.9
53.8

19. 35
19.00
19. 20
19.65

34.4
35.1
37.5
35.7

16.04
18.48
20.39
20.42
16. 97
17.06

18.97
19.45
20. 02
18.41
17.40
16.51

33.1
35.8
34.7
35.4
32.5
31.6

57.8
58.1
58.1
57.3
56.9
57.8

17.00
18.61
19. 71
18. 56
16. 98
17.74

16.72
20.04
20.87
19.80
16.87
17. 51

31.4
28.8
34.1
31.4
31.4
31.7

31.7
33.0
34.1
30.5
30.6
32.1

56.4
56.7
56.7
55.6
55.1
56.2

18.43
19. 27
19. 99
17. 37
16.97
18.27

18.44
18.69
20.20
18.86
18. 37
16.88

31.9
35.8
36.8
35.4
34.2
34.9

31.2
32.9
31.4
33.0
32.1
33.6

56.6
56.1
55.8
55.6
55.2
55.7

18.08
19.15
17. 72
18.31
17.90
18.95

17. 25
20. 73
18. 73
20. 23
18.25
18. 60

34.4
33.7
34.7
36.7
35.0
36.2

33.7
35.7
37.2
34.8
34.0
32.4

55.9
56.9
57.7
57.0
56.3
59.9

19.29
20. 77
21.69
19.88
19.15
19.24

32.6
34.3
35.5
33.2
31.9
30.9

55.3
56.4
57.0
54.1
54.3
55.8

19.12
20.75
22.12
19.06
18.82
18.29

35.9
37.8
38.9
37.1
35.2
32.9

31.0
31.6
29.8
29.5
26.1
25.3

61.3
61.1
61.5
62.1
61.1
62.2

19.02
19.45
18.12
18.14
15.82
15. 54

29.3
32.3
30.0
31.2
29.2
29.4

55.4
60.1
59.2
61.7
55.5
57.8

16. 78
21.47
19.08
20.24
17.25
18.05

32.3
32.2
32.6
33.4
32.1
32.0

See footnotes at end of table.




31.9
33.3
31.8
32.4
33.9
33.8

GENERAL

93

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and, by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Clothing, men's

Clothing, women's

Corsets and allied garments

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
1938
26.7
29.4
30.0
28.5
27.1
26.2

Cents
61.8
60.6
59.6
58.1
55.1
54.8

$16.44
18.19
18.24
16. 77
14.86
14.09

29.8
33.2
33.4
32.4
33.1
30.2

Cents
56.0
58.6
57.5
52.9
49.7
49.3

$17.87
20. 72
20.86
18.92
18.14
16.25

31.7
35.6
36.7
35.4
34.9
31.7

Cents
46.5
45.2
46.0
46.1
46.3
46.5

$14.64
15.99
16. 95
16.47
16.27
14. 91

28.3
31.3
32.3
31.4
28.9
31.6

58.2
58.6
59.4
59.1
57.2
58.5

16. 37
18.40
19. 33
18.68
16. 73
18.39

31.3
32.9
34.0
33.0
31.1
33.5

52.1
54.8
55.4
54.8
50.5
51.8

17.14
20.23
20.69
19.94
17.10
18.88

31.9
33.3
36.2
38.8
36.8
37.3

46.7
46.0
45.7
45.8
46.0
46.2

14.92
15.27
16. 54
17. 75
16.96
17.35

31.2
33.7
35.1
32.6
31.9
33.8

58.6
59.2
59.9
57.7
57.4
56.8

18. 52
20.07
21.07
18.85
18.04
19.04

32.7
34.4
35.6
33.8
34.7
35.6

52.2
55.1
54.6
51.6
50.1
47.8

18.70
20.81
21.51
18.86
19.03
18.06

36.2
38.6
39.3
38.7
38.9
38.0

45.7
45.5
45.1
45.4
45.3
45.1

16.54
17.45
17.61
17.58
17. 57
17.09

33.4
34.7
31.9
33.6
32.2
33.5

56.6
57.8
57.5
57.8
58.4
59.2

19. 07
20.24
18.62
19.65
18.84
19. 76

34.1
34.8
31.8
33.6
33.6
32.6

48.6
52.4
51.2
54.0
51.8
53.3

17. 71
20.14
17.82
20.15
18.64
19.04

37.1
35.2
37.4
38.6
36.6
35.7

44.9
45.8
45.4
45.6
46.1
46.7

16.73
16.27
17.13
17.78
17.12
16.95

January
February
March___ _ ___ _
April
May
June

33.0
34.0
34.3
31.6
31.0
32.3

59.4
58.7
58.8
57.4
57.3
58.1

19.60
20.18
20.43
18.09
17. 59
18.69

32.0
33.4
35.1
34.3
33.8
32.7

52.8
55.5
" 55. 7
51.8
51.2
49.6

18.67
20.46
21.07
19.04
18. 59
17.22

33.7
35.7
36.0
36.0
35.5
34.0

46.8
46.8
46.4
46.8
46.6
46.6

16.02
16.86
16. 99
17.20
16.82
16.16

July
August
September
October.
November
December

32.2
32.4
32.7
31.5
31.1
33.7

59.8
60.5
60.3
60.2
60.1
60.4

19. 29
19.64
19. 72
18.96
18.70
20.42

31.6
34.0
35.1
33.8
33.7
34.7

51.4
56.7
" 56. 3
55.0
53.4
54.2

17. 33
21.12
u 21.82
20. 03
18.98
20.09

34.2
33.7
37.8
38.0
36.1
37.3

47.2
48.5
48.3
48.3
48.5
48.5

16.22
16.49
18.35
18.49
17. 95
18.23

January
February
March
April
May.
June—

_ .

July
August
September
October
November
December
1939
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
AugustSeptember
October
November
December

_

-

mo

See footnotes at end of table.




94

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Men's furnishings

Millinery

Shirts and collars

Year and month
Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average hours Average
hourly
worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly
earnings
earnings earnings per week earnings
per week
per week
Cents

32.3
36.5

39.9
34.2

$11. 98
11.49
13.81
14.18
13. 92

34.6
34.3
35.9
34.4

35.5
36.2
38.3
41.4

13. 86
13.61
14. 16
14. 56

21.25
21. 73
22.19
24.07

34.0
32.9
34.9
34.1

30.7
32.5
33.6
32.7
30.4
29.2

40.9
40.3
41.7
40.5
41.6
40.4

13. 68
14. 52
15. 20
14.05
13.51
12. 81

20. 22
20. 37
23. 29
23. 94
18. 84
20.92

28.1
30.4
30.5
31.7
31.2
31.1

27.6
31.0
31.7
36.0
35.7
35.7

40.4
39.0
39.9
39.6
38.0
37.6

12. 35
13.91
14. 54
15. 59
15.51
14. 56

17.18
21.43
26. 80
19.01
17.24

30.7
33.1
33.9
35.8
35.5
34.3

34.9
35.6
35.8
35.7
36.6
38.6

34. 2
33.9
34.4
32 9
32.3
32.9

12. 95
13. 60
14.00
12. 77
13. 38
13.43

20.18
19. 91
25. 30
21.99
20.24
18. 33

32.2
33.2
35.7
35.5
34.8
34.2

35.7
34.4
33.7
39.0
38.6
38.5

32.5
34.7
34.9
36.3
36. 3
34.8

12. 92
13. 66
13. 30
15. 52
15. 99
14.94

17. 07
21. 58
22. 27
19. 31
18. 03
17. 73

33.0
36.3
34.8
38.2
37.9
36.8

36.1
37.7
39.0
38.0
35.5
33.2

32.3
32.9
33.6
33.3
34.0
35.5

13. 04
14.33
14. 83
13. 99
13. 32
13. 43

20.14
22.41
26. 72
22. 09

20. 93

33.6
36.4
37.5
35.6
33.4
33.9

30.5
32.9
31.6
35.6
32 8
31.5

38.0
39.1
38. 1
37.6
37.3
36.6

13.19
14.28
13. 43
14. 79
14 36
13.16

17. 76
22.12
25.05
19. 54
17.54
18.00

33.0
34.0
32.8
34.7
33.1
30.2

See footnotes at end of table.




$17.60
16. 22
19. 60
20.80
20.46

32.3
35.3

16. 62

20. 06

GENERAL

95

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Textiles and their products—Continued
Men's furnishings

Millinery

Shirts and collars

Year and month
A verage Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly
worked hourly
earnings earnings per week earnings
per week earnings earnings per week

29.2
32.1
34.6
33.8
33.0
34.3

Cents
37.8
37.6
35.9
34.5
34.1
35.1

$12. 05
13.41
13. 44
12. 55
12. 17
12. 74

32.2
33.8
34.9
36.7
38.4
35.8

35.0
36.0
35.7
36.4
38.2
37.6

33.6
36.6
36.3
34.3
33.8
35.7

Cents

$20. 02
22. 53
25. 46
22. 42
19. 72
18. 35

30.4
32.0
32.0
31.2
32.1
30.8

12.17
13.46
14.17
14. 85
15. 87
15.08

18. 41
21.98
28. 29
21.92
18. 99
19.12

30.9
33.9
34.9
34.7
35.3
35.5

36.3
35.9
37.6
36.5
36.7
37.7

13. 03
14. 22
14. 20
12. 96

21.16

13. 83

23.
27.
21.
19.
18.

35
80
70
99
43

32.6
34.8
35.2
34.7
34.3
34.2

34.5
36.2
35.7
39.0
37.4
35.2

37.5
38.7
38.0
38.4
41.1
41.3

13.19
14. 27
13. 99
15. 33
15. 73
15.13

18.06
24.05
25. 70
21.11
20.94
20. 21

32.8
35.8
34.5
37.3
36.1
35.5

32.3
34.0
35.3
33.5
32 4
31.9

40.1
41.4
40.1
39.5
39.8
41.1

13.15
14. 43
14. 54
13. 34
13.05
13. 36

21.47
24. 92
30. 59
» 24. 95
21.40
21.08

32.4
35.0
36.0
35.3
33.4
32.1

31.7
33.8
34.6
36.7
37.2
36.5

41.2
42.2
41.7
42.3
43.1
43,0

* 13. 48
14. 72
14. 88
15. 84
16. 43
16.17

19. 84
26.14
31.87

32.0
33.1
33.8
35.6
34.8
35.0

See footnotes at end of table.




12. 88

21.62

20.07
20. 39

96

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Leather and its manufactures
"Leather" group

Boots and shoes

Leather

Year and montn
Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly j weekly
earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
Cents

Cents

36.1
36.3

52.2
51.1

$15. 75
16.15
17. 86
18. 71
18. 49

36.7
34.8
36.2
34.9

53.5
52.1
52.8
55.0

19. 48
18. 22
19. 09
19. 07

36.1
34.3
35.7
34.2

51.5
49.7
50.3
52.6

18. 38
17.02
17. 83
17. 85

36.2
37.4
37.0
34.9
34.3
35.6

51.5
52.0
52.4
52.5
52.9
52.6

18. 88
19. 59
19. 60
18. 63
17. 92
18.36

35.9
37.4
36.7
34.3
33.5
35.1

50.4
51. 0
51.5
51.5
52.0
51.7

19.13
19.09
17. 94
16. 98
17. 48

18. 20

37.6
37.6
38.2
37.5
37.4
37.6

37.3
37.8
35.6
35.3
33.9
37.2

51.7
51.9
52.8
52.7
52.0
51.9

19. 09
19. 57
18. 59
18. 25
17. 22
18.74

37.2
37.7
34.9
34.2
32.4
36.6

50.7
50.9
51.9
51.8
50.9
50.7

18. 52
19. 02
17. 76
17.13
15. 69
17.64

37.8
38.4
38.3
39.3
38.9
39.6

37.9
37.6
35.4
33.3
32.3
34.2

51.2
50.9
51.4
51.4
51.3
51.2

19. 33
19. 25
18. 36
17.43
16.80
17. 40

37.6
37.3
34.8
32.0
30.6
33.0

50.1
49.8
50.3
50.2
50.1
50.0

18. 54
18. 58
17. 59
16. 25
15. 32
16.11

37.7
38.2
38.9
38.6

37.7
39.5
37.0
36.7
35.0
39.0

50.8
50.9
51.6
50.8
50.9
51.1

18. 97
19.92
18. 83
18. 53
17. 45
19.40

37.5
39.5
36.4
35.7
33.6
38.4

49.4
49.6
50.4
49.5
49.3
49.5

18. 26

19. 32
17. 93
17. 33
15.90
18.14

38.3
39.5
39.2
40.6
40.1
41.3

40.6
41.5
40.9
38.9
37.4
38.0

51.6
51.9
52.5
53.7
54.5
53.4

20. 69
21.32
21. 50
20. 82
19. 98
20. 01

40.7
41.7
40.9
38.5
36.8
37.7

49.9
50.2
50.9
51.8
52.5
51.0

20.00
20. 69
20. 84
19. 82
18. 76
18.80

40.2
40.5
40.9
40.6
39.7
39.3

38.3
37.8
32.9
31.8
28.6
31.1

54.2
54.0
54.9
54.1
54.4
53.5

20. 57
20. 29
17.94
17.14
15.48
16. 61

38.2
37.6
31.7
30.4
26.9
30.1

52.0
51.9
53.0
51.9
52.3
51.1

19. 68
19. 24
16. 49
15. 50
13. 72
15. 25

38.6
38.9
37.7
37.5
35.2
35.2

See footnotes at end of table.




35.5
35.6

51.2
49.8

$14. 99
15. 41
17.21
17. 90
17.47

42.0
41.1
38.2
39.2
37.3
38.7
37.6

GENERAL

97

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued
Leather and its manufactures
"Leather" group

Boots and shoes

Leather

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly weekly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June—
July..
AugustSeptember
October
_ __
November.
December

Cents
53.6
52.5
52.3
51.2
51.0
51.2

$17.96
19.09
18. 90
17.84
16.66
16. 30

32.9
35.9
35.2
33.8
30.4
30.4

Cents
51.4
50.3
50.0
48.7
48.4
48.6

$16.94
18. 21
18. 04
16. 90
15.12
14. 71

35.4
36.6
36.1
35.1
35.8
36.8

Cents
63.8
63.4
63.8
63.6
63.3
63.0

$22. 43
23.11
22.91
22. 32
22. 57
23.11

51.1
51.6
52.4
53.0
53.3
52.6

18. 51
19.80
18. 98
18. 32
17. 22
18.62

35.8
38.4
36.3
34.6
31.3
35.6

48.2
49.3
50.1
50.6
50.8
49.9

17.48
18. 85
17. 87
16. 97
15.41
17.11

37.4
38.7
38.7
38.5
38.6
39.2

62.8
62.9
62.9
63.0
62.9
63.1

23. 44
24. 29
24. 24
24. 23
24. 30
24.77

38.1
39.2
38.2
35.7
33.0
35.3

52.5
52.2
52.4
52.4
52.8
52.9

19. 71
20.19
10.12
18. 73
17. 43
18. 65

37.9
39.1
38.0
35.3
31.8
34.5

49.8
49.6
50.0
50.1
50.4
50.5

18. 54
19.13
19.17
17. 58
15. 93
17.28

39.0
39.4
38.9
37.8
37.9
38.7

63.9
63.4
63.0
62.9
62.9
63.0

24. 70
24.88
24. 47
23. 83
23. 78
24. 30

37.8
37.7
34.8
35.3
33.8
35.7

--

33.3
36.0
35.3
34.0
31.3
31.6
36.1
38.5
36.7
35.3
32.8
36.3

-

52.2
52.6
53.2
53.2
53.9
53.7

19. 72
19. 78
18. 45
18. 74
18. 20
19.09

37.7
37.5
33.9
34.3
32.5
34.9

49.8
50.2
50.8
50.8
51.4
51.1

18.74
18.74
17. 04
17.20
16. 46
17.62

38.0
38.6
38.6
39.4
38.7
38.8

62.9
63.3
63.4
63.3
63.9
64.3

23.96
24. 29
24. 32
24. 91
24. 76
24.88

37.2
36.7
35.6
32.5
30.9
33.2

53.4
53.7
54.1
54.3
55.5
55.3

19. 89
19. 61
19. 23
17. 68
17. 26
18.17

37.0
36.6
35.2
31.5
29.5
32.3

50.8
51.4
51.9
52.1
53.3
53.1

18. 78
18.59
18. 20
16. 30
15. 65
17.00

38.3
37.4
37.3
36.9
37.0
36.9

64.2
63.9
63.8
64.2
64.2
64.2

24. 55
23.96
23.83
23. 63
23.74
23. 56

19.80
55.3
55.4
19. 86
55.8
19. 37
55.7
19.28
1 55. 5 1 18.19
6
0
55.2
20.05

35.7
35.5
34.3
34.0
1 31.8
7
35.7

53.2
18.92
53.3
18.94
53.7
18. 32
53.3
17. 93
17 52. 9 1 16. 65
7
52.6
18. 54

36.7
37.3
37.1
38.3
37.9
39.9

64.6
64.6
65.3
65.7
65.8
65.9

23.69
23.96
24.09
25. 04
24. 57
26.16

1939
January
February.
March..
April
May
June

- -

July
August
September
October
November
December
1940
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August...
September
October
November
December

__

35.9
35.8
34.8
34.8
" 33. 0
36.5

See footnotes at end of table.




98

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE 5.—Average

Food and kindred products
"Food" group

Baking

Year and month
Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours Average
weekly
worked hourly earnings worked hourly weekly worked hourly
earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings
Cents

Cents

38.7
39.3
41.1

50.9
52.0
53.0

$20. 30
18. 75
20.14
20. 66
21.78

41.3
40.6
40.3
40.0

58.7
61.0
61.8
63.0

24.06
24. 46
24. 74
24. 72

42.6
42.0
41.7
41.4

59.0
61.1
62.1
63.8

24.98
25. 47
25. 70
26.32

40.4
39.1
39.0
39.0

38.3
38.4
38.5
38.4
38.9
39.3

52.7
53.0
53.3
53.3
53.7
53.2

20. 57
20. 31
20. 59
20. 74
21.30
21.29

40.3
40.1
39.8
39.9
40.2
40.5

53.0
52.4
52.7
53.4
54.0
53.7

21.31
21.05
20. 50
21.51
21.77
21.88

37.0
36.9
38.2
38.6
39.1
39.7

40.3
39.5
39.6
39.9
39.7
40.6

51.1
50.7
48.8
50.5
52.5
53.2

20. 81

20. 30
19. 70
20.18
20. 90
21.62

40.7
39.7
41.4
41.2
41.0
41.1

53.6
54.0
53.5
53.3
53.9
54.2

21.85
21.54
22. 27
22.10
22. 07
22. 27

42.2
41.5
39.5
38.2
38.4
38.0

40.2
39.7
40.7
39.7
41.3
40.9

53.9
54.3
54.4
54.1
54.3
53.3

21.89
21. 49
22.19
21.54
22. 39
21.94

41.4
41.7
41.8
41.4
42.4
42.7

53.9
54.1
54.1
54.0
53.9
54.0

22. 40
22. 59
22. 36
22. 89
23. 09

37.8
37.6
39.6
39.6
41.6
41.7

41.0
41.4
40.9
42.0
42.4
42.0

52.7
51.6
49.9
51.4
53.5
54.5

21.90
21.39
20. 42
21.26
22. 63
22. 82

42.9
42.1
42.2
42.8
43.0
42.4

54.2
55.1
54.5
54.7
55.0
55.3

23.19
23.12
23. 08
23. 38
23. 57
23. 36

44.9
42.0
40.8
39.9
39.3

41.4
41.8
41.8
41.2
41.9
41.4

55.8
56.2
57.2
59.2
60.0
60.3

22. 96
23.12
23. 72
24. 43
25.05
24.86

42.2
43.3
43.1
42.3
43.3
43.3

55.7
55.9
56.7
57.7
58.2
59.3

23. 54
23. 98
24.19
24. 23
25.11
25.48

38.4
38.8
40.7
41.3
41.4
41.7

42.4
41.1
40.8
41.4
40.4
40.5

59.3
58.3
57.4
59.2
60.4
61.5

24.88
23.80
23. 03
23. 77
24. 46
24.93

43.0
42.3
42.8
43.0
41.4
41.4

60.0
60.4
60.8
60.6

25. 56
25. 37
25.90
25.84
25.10
25. 22

43.0
42.1
40.2
39.2
38.8
37.9

See footnotes at end of table.




40.5
40.5
42.3

53.1
53.4
54.4

$23.12
21.66
21.80
21.70
22. 98

41.7
38.4
39.0
40.5

61.1

61.3

22. 66

GENERAL

99

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
Zo 1940, and by
months, January 19S5 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products
Baking

" F o o d " group

Beverages

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June__

40.5
40.1
40.2
40.2
40.8
40.8

Cents
62.1
62.0
62.3
62.4
62.7
61.7

$25. 24
24. 74
24. 78
24. 89
25. 40
24. 98

41.6
42.0
42.1
41.8
42.3
42.3

Cents
61.3
60.6
60.8
61.0
61.5
61.3

$25.26
25. 30
25.42
25. 36
25. 84
25. 76

37.7
38.6
38.8
39.1
39.7
40.3

Cents
84.0
84.1
84.5
84.7
84.4
84.1

$31.38
32.22
32. 57
32.83
33.30
33. 51

July
August
September
October...
November
December

41.2
39.7
41.2
41.4
40.1
40.5

59.9
58.6
57.6
60.6
61.1
61.7

24. 53
23.18
23. 43
24.11
24.22
24. 75

42.3
41.6
42.8
42.0
41.6
41.4

61.2
61.5
61.0
60.9
61.1
61.5

25.79
25. 33
25. 86
25.30
25. 21
25.26

41.2
40.8
39.2
38.5
37.8
37.5

85.1
85.2
85.4
85.5
85.7
86.1

34.73
34. 51
33.12
32. 50
32.11
32.02

January
February
March
April
May
June

40.0
39.8
40.1
39.3
40.5
40.3

62.8
63.2
62.9
62.7
63.1
62.2

24. 96
24. 83
25. 00
24. 57
25. 48
25.13

41.6
41.6
41.8
41.1
42.2
42.2

61.7
61.5
61.5
61.3
61.7
61.8

25.47
25. 40
25. 52
25.11
25.91
25.96

37.1
37.2
37.8
38.8
40.0
40.8

85.9
85.9
85.8
86.2
85.8
85.5

31.61
31.69
32.15
33.15
33.92
34.78

39.9
40.5
41.6
40.5
40.1
40.5

61.3
59.6
58.5
60.8
62.5
63.3

24.61
23.95
24.19
24. 34
24. 80
25.48

42.1
41.1
42.1
41.4
41.7
41.0

62.4
62.4
62.0
62.3
62. 7
63.3

26.05
25.49
26.00
25. 65
25. 97
25.83

40.7
40.4
39.8
38.7
37.7
38.5

86.8
86.8
86.4
87.1
88.1
88.0

34.93
34. 74
34.04
33.29
32.89
33.56

January
Feburary.. __ _
March
April
May
June

39.6
39.4
39.8
39.4
40.1
40.1

64.1
63.9
64.1
64.3
64.7
64.1

25. 32
25. 00
25. 25
25. 17
25. 64
25.54

40.9
41.2
41.6
41.4
41.7
41.7

63.5
63.1
63.0
63.6
63.7
63.9

25.84
25. 84.
26.12
26. 22
26. 46
26. 57

36.9
37.6
38.4
39.0
40.0
41.6

87.7
87.8
88.2
88.0
87.9
88.7

32.13
32.69
33. 53
34.00
34. 68
36.52

July
August
September
October
November
December

39.9
40.4
40.3
40.0
39.3
40.6

62.5
61.5
60.3
61.0
63.2
64.1

24. 33
24.17
23. 48
23. 82
24. 43
25. 78

41.8
41.2
41.6
41.5
41.0
41.0

64.0
64.3
64.1
63.5
64.0
64.4

26. 69
26. 40
26. 60
26.31
26.31
26. 39

39.3
• 40.1
39.2
38.7
38.0
38.1

88.5
88.6
0
88.3
89.3
88.8

34.14
35.07
34. 25
33. 38
33. 61
33.54

_
_

July
August
September
October..
November
December
1940

__
___ .

See footnotes at end of table.




J888.

100

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years] 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December
19401—Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued
Butter

Canning and preserving

Confectionery

Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
hourly
worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
$22. 87
20. 58
20. 54
20. 70
21.38

Cents

22.71

45.7
45.4
46.4
46.5

16. 76
15. 86
16. 77
16. 61

39.3
37.9
38.1
38.1

45.4
47.6
49.2
50.5

33.2
34.5
33.4
32.9
34.1
35. 3

38.6
40.2
40.2
40.9
40.6
39.5

13. 21
13. 95
13. 61
13. 74
14.13
14. 21

34.8
35.4
34.2
34.8
35.4

44.0
44.2
44.1
44.2
44.7
44.4

39.3
38.1
35.9
36.7
33.8
35.6

36.9
38.4
35.9
36.9
38.6

14. 46
14.16
12. 72
13. 61
13. 37
14.19

33.6
35.3
41.8
38.2
37.6
41.6

44.6
44.8
42.7
42 5
42.2
41.6

21. 27
20. 48
21.91
21.56

33.3
33.5
36.0
33.1
36.5
33.7

40.4
41.7
41.9
41. 5
41.8
39.5

13. 90
14. 24
15.14
13. 95
15. 06
13.28

38.3
37.4
38.6
36.4
37.0
37.1

42.9
43.0
42.7
43.3
43.0
43.3

21.30
21.34
21.55
21.69
22. 43
21.49

33.1
38.9
38.0
40.0
36.0
36.7

38.6
38.9
37.0
38.1
39.8
42.4

12. 82
14. 73
13. 66
14. 69
14.00
15. 25

36.0
38.4
42.5
43.3
41.7
42.4

43.4
42.8
39.8
40.0
40.3
40.7

21.22
21.78
21.77

22. 32
22. 29

37.2
40.2
37.5
36.4
38.5
35.9

42.7
44.0
44.7
46.6
46.7
46.6

15. 49
17. 00
16.15
16.49
17.45
16.17

41.0
39.7
39.7
38.6
38.5
37.7

42.5
42.9
43.6
44.8
46.1
47.1

22. 33
22.99
22. 35
22.71
22. 36
22. 32

46.6
48.3
48.4
48.6

37.9
36.0
36.9
36.3

20. 90

44.3

47.9
47.0
46.7
46.2

38.3
39.3

19. 70
20. 33
20. 38
20.19
20. 74
21.00

47.3

35.9
36.5

$12. 48
11. 35
12. 64
13. 72
14.14

42.3
38.5
37.9
38.4
33.8
33.6

45.8
45.5
44.3
46.1
47.8
49.6

18.93
16. 90
16.17
16. 99
15. 74
16. 22

35.4
38.6
40.8
41.3
38.7
39.7

47.8
48.3
46.5
45.5
45.6
45.6

22.24
22. 70
22. 60

20. 80

21.12
21.49
20. 40
21. 38

20. 53

20. 60

22. 08

See footnotes at end of table.




37.2
36.3
36.7
39.5

36.6
41.8
43.6
41.8

36.1

GENERAL

101

TABLES

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December
19401—Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued
Butter

Canning and preserving

Confectionery

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly
earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
January.
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Cents
49.1
49.5
48.6
47.7
48.2
48.0

$22. 54
22. 83
22. 35
22.31
23. 37
23.18

34.5
34.4
34.5
34.6
34. 5
34.9

Cents
48.0
48.8
48.9
49.4
50.5
46.7

$16.11
16. 30
16. 32
16. 53
17. 05
15. 98

36.8
37.0
37.1
35.1
35.8
37.4

Cents
47.6
47.7
47.8
47.9
48.8
48.9

$17. 52
17. 67
17. 76
16. 79
17. 26
18.19

47.9
47.7
46.9
46.6
45.8
45.8

..
_

46.3
46.5
46.3
47.2
48.5
48.1

47.6
47.8
48.3
48.3
48.7
48.4

23. 01
22. 89
22. 76
22. 52
22. 27
22.10

38.2
35.1
38.3
37.3
33.5
35.4

42.9
42.9
42.3
44.9
47.0
48.1

16. 06
14. 67
15. 76
16.07
15.14
16. 55

35.4
37.0
42.1
40.2
37.8
40.4

49.6
49.0
46.2
45.9
46.7
46.5

17. 47
18. 03
19. 22
18. 23
17.40
18. 65

45.5
45.7
46.0
46.2
46.7
47.7

49.8
49.2
48.8
48.3
48.3
47.3

22. 37
22. 52
22. 47
22. 33
22. 53
22. 63

34.7
35.6
35.5
34.0
34.9
34.2

48.6
51.5
49.4
48.9
50.0
46.4

16.47
17. 75
17.13
16.13
17. 01
15. 54

37.4
37.3
37.0
35.3
36.7
36.6

48.2
48.4
48.5
48.4
50.0
50.5

18. 02
18.15
17. 96
17. 27
18. 33
18. 52

48.0
47.2
47.1
47.2
46.1
45.8

48.0
47.9
48.3
48.7
48.4
48.8

22.96
22. 57
22. 72
22.99
22.49
22. 51

34.6
39.5
41.0
38.3
34.5
35.6

44.5
44.7
43.2
45.6
49.0
50.6

15.49
17. 24
17. 32
16.97
16. 53
17. 37

34.0
37.9
40.6
40.7
39.5
41.4

51.9
50.6
48.6
48.0
48.8
49.3

17.66
18.93
19. 43
19. 25
19. 06
20. 25

45.1
45.7
46.6
46.8
46.8
47.7

49.8
49.6
48.9
48.7
47.9
47.6

22.47
22. 78
22. 97
22. 92
22. 63
23. 04

35.3
34.6
34.8
31.6
34.9
34.3

50.2
49.5
49.5
50. 5
50.7
47.0

17. 41
16. 69
16. 88
15. 64
17. 37
16. 05

37.8
37.7
36.8
36.8
37.9
36.8

50.0
50.1
50.2
51.1
51.5
51.6

18. 87
18.74
18. 47
18. 83
19. 46
18.98

9
47.3 1 22. 52
22. 79
47.9
23. 30
49. 2
22. 55
48.8
21. 77
48. 7
22. 89
49.7

36.3
39.6
38.5
37.4
33.4
34.4

43.6
46.4
43.5
44.2
47.8
51.0

15. 73
18. 02
16. 40
16. 23
15.74
17.10

35.7
36.7
40.3
40.1
38.7
40.0

51.9
51.9
50.1
49.3
49.5
49.8

18. 48
18. 96
19. 94
19. 63
19. 05
19. 92

1939
January.
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November. . . .
December

..
.

__

1940
January
February
March
April
May.
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

.._

1 46.9
9
47.0
46.9
45.5
44.3
45.5

See footnotes at end of table.




102

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, andby months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued
Flour

Slaughtering and meat
packing

Ice cream

Year and month

Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

47.9
43.4
38.6
39.4
43.8

Cents
45.3
46.0
53.5
54.8
53.6

$22. 01
20. 34
20.81
21.68
23.60

51.8
47.6
44.1
45.4
47.4

Cents
54.1
52.3
56.5
55.5
55.5

$28.07
25. 06
24. 84
25. 59
26. 56

46.3
43.3
40.8
40.4
42.2

Cents
46.5
46.2
52.8
55.9
56.5

$21.61
20.00
21.93
22. 84
23.89

1937
1938.
1939
1940

44.3
43.7
42.3
41.4

57.1
59.3
60.5
61.1

25. 59
26.12
25. 80
25. 42

47.9
46.6
46.2
45.5

58.5
61.2
62.6
64.0

28. 25
28. 83
29. 24
29. 47

41.0
41.0
40.6
40.2

66.5
68.8
68.6
68.6

27. 27
28.10
27. 85
27.60

January
February
March-__
April
May
June

37.5
38.3
37.8
37.7
38.0
38.2

55.1
54.9
54.8
54.6
54.7
55.1

20. 59
21.31
20. 78
20.69
20. 88
21.15

42.3
43.2
44.2
44.4
44.4
46.2

58.2
57.2
57.1
55.9
55.8
54.4

25. 27
25. 35
25. 62
25. 34
25.11
25.46

39.3
38.8
39.1
39.8
40.0
40.0

55.1
55.7
55.8
56.1
56.2
56.3

22.21
21.83
22.13
22. 70
22. 81
22.85

July
August
September
October
November
December

39.3
39.7
42.5
43.8
41.0
40.3

54.5
54.3
54.7
54.6
55.0
55.7

21.44
21.50
23. 34
23. 80
22. 64
22. 41

48.0
47.1
46.5
45.4
45.5
46.5

52.8
53.2
54.2
55.9
57.0
56.9

25. 74
25. 34
25. 47
25. 88
26.14
26. 69

40.8
40.1
40.9
41.4
41.1
42.1

55.9
56.5
56.4
56.1
56.4
55.8

23.17
22.88
23. 34
23. 52
23.31
23. 51

42.5
43.0
43.0
41.5
43.0
43.8

54.6
54.5
53.7
53.5
53.4
53.5

23.07
23. 33
23. 32
22. 37
23. 42
23. 52

45.0
45. 1
46.8
46.2
48.6
48.1

57.3
57.1
56.6
56.0
53.6
52.9

26. 31
26. 27
26. 93
26.11
26. 33
25. 60

42.7
39.7
40.4
40.0
41.6
42.5

55.7
56.3
56.4
56.6
56.2
55.9

23.91
22. 56
22. 95
22. 72
23. 34
23. 73

46.0
45.6
43.8
45.0
44.6
43.9

53.4
53.7
53.3
53.3
53.0
53.5

24. 78
24. 54
23.23
23. 99
23. 89
23. 67

50.9
48.1
46.9
46.6
47.3
46.7

53.8
54.3
56.0
56.4
57.5
57.8

27.21
26. 26
26. 42
26. 58
27. 64
27. 45

42.9
42.8
41.4
43.2
44.1
44.2

55.7
55.8
56.6
56.1
58.4
58.1

23.85
23.91
23. 50
24. 23
25. 77
25. 61

January
February
March
April
May
June

43.9
44.1
43.4
44.3
44.3
44.1

54.2
54.2
54.9
55.5
56.6
57.5

24.06
24.11
24.13
24. 75
25. 35
25. 68

46.6
46.4
47.6
48.2
48.9
49.2

58.6
58.4
57.6
58.5
57.9
56.0

27. 72
27. 61
27. 94
28. 36
28.14
27. 36

42.3
40.8
41.0
40.9
40.6
40.8

59.4
59.8
61.3
68.6
68.5
68.7

24.90
24. 27
25. 26
27. 99
27. 80
27.97

July...
August
September
October
November
December

44.9
44.9
45.3
45.6
43.7
42.7

57.8
58.4
59.2
59.0
58.8
58.9

26. 26
26. 65
27.15
27.14
26.10
25. 52

50.3
49.8
46.3
46.2
46.5
46.6

56.3
58.1
59.7
60.4
61.3
61.7

28. 28
28. 83
27. 77
28. 65
29.16
29. 25

40.4
40.2
41.1
40.8
41.1
42.2

69.2
69.6
69.1
68.8
68.1
68.0

27.85
27.99
28. 35
28.01
28.31
28.89

1936
January ___ _
February
March
April
May
June

_

July...
August
September
October
November. __ __
December
1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

103

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and
6?/
1 —Continued
months,
January 1935 to December 1940
Food and kindred products—Continued
Slaughtering and meat
packing

Ice cream

Flour
Year and month

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings
1988
January
February
March.
April
May
June.

43.4
43.1
42.9
42.8
43.4
44.5

Cents
58.6
58.9
58.9
59.7
59.3
59.6

$25. 86
25. 87
25. 67
25. 76
26.00
26.66

45.6
45.7
46.3
46.9
47.6
47.6

Cents
62.2
61.4
61.7
61.7
59.6
60.1

$29. 39
28.89
29. 20
29.06
28.43
28.42

42.7
39.7
39.4
40.1
41.2
40.7

Cents
68.8
68.9
69.3
69.1
68.8
69.0

$29.30
27.32
27.26
27. 73
28.38
28.19

45.4
44.6
46.1
45.2
41.6
40.8

59.3
59.6
59.9
58.7
59.5
59.7

27. 06
26. 75
27. 72
26. 88
24.67
24.42

48.1
48.3
46.0
45.1
44.9
45.2

59.4
59.8
60.7
63.4
63.5
63.8

28.69
28. 92
28.19
29. 06
28.89
29.21

41.6
40.6
41.9
41.8
40.5
41.0

69.1
68.9
68.6
68.5
68.5
67.9

28.63
27.93
28.66
28. 51
27.54
27.69

January
February
March
April
May
June

41.6
40.6
41.9
41.5
42.0
42.0

60.1
60.0
59.8
59.8
60.0
60.3

25.18
24. 57
25c 13
24. 96
25.29
25.40

45.3
45.4
46.0
46.5
47.1
47.1

63.9
64.4
63.4
62.5
61.5
59.9

29.46
29. 52
29. 47
29. 22
29.02
28.42

41.3
39.5
39.8
39.3
41.2
40.9

68.3
68.4
68.9
69.4
68.9
69.1

28.05
26.98
27. 32
27. 23
28. 39
28.25

July
August.
September
October
November
December

43.3
42.4
47.3
43.1
40.5
40.8

60.4
60.5
62.8
61.4
60.2
60.4

26. 28
25.95
29.98
27.06
24. 48
24.83

47.5
46.8
46.1
46.3
44.1
45.2

60.4
62.3
63.1
63.9
64.2
64.0

29.03
29. 29
29.31
29. 97
29. 32
29.62

41.6
40.4
40.8
40.3
40.1
42.1

68.7
68.8
68.6
68.5
68.4
67.8

28. 54
27. 77
27.99
27.60
27.45
28.51

January
February
March..
April
May
June

41.2
41.0
40.7
40.6
41.1
41.2

60.8
60.9
61.1
60.8
60.7
60.9

25.18
25.14
25.01
24. 79
25.17
25.13

44.3
45.0
45.4
45.6
46.2
46.6

65.5
65.2
64.8
63.5
63.0
62.5

29. 50
29. 73
29. 68
29. 30
29. 30
29. 63

41.2
39.5
40.0
40.3
39.9
40.2

67.7
68.0
68.1
68.9
68.8
69.1

27. 94
26.88
27.26
27. 76
27.43
27.82

July.
August
September.
October
November
December

41.8
41.8
43.7
42.0
40.2
40.7

60.8
61.4
61.6
61.2
60.9
60.8

25. 49
25.74
27.04
25. 98
24. 59
25.12

45.9
46.6
45.6
44.5
43.7
44.7

63.1
63.0
63.3
65.1
65.2
65.2

29. 41
29.46
29.18
29. 53
29. 23
29.79

40.3
39.8
39.6
40.3
39.0
42.3

68.9
69.1
69.1
68.4
68.6
68.0

27. 76
27. 57
27.38
27.64
26.82
28. 77

July
August
September..
October
November
December
1939

1940

See footnotes at end of table.




104

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 191+0, and by months,
January 1935 to December 191+0 1 —Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—1Continued
Sugar, beet

Tobacco manufactures

Sugar refining, cane

"Tobacco" group

Year and month
Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hourly
worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
Cents

Cents

1932„
1933
1934.
1935
1936...

49.0
40.5
42.1
43.8

42.6
48.0
49.8
49.5

$19. 53
19.26
18. 75
20. 57
21. 38

37. 5
38.5
38.8

1937
1938
1939.
1940

42.6
44.0
42.9
43.1

57.4
57.8
58.5
61.4

23.91
25. 08
24. 68
26. 07

January
February
March.
April
May..
June

33.7
38.0
38.6
38.4
38.2
36.2

62.3
66.9
66.5
65.2
63.0
64.6

July
August..
September.
October.
November
December

36.3
43.5
46.7
38.8
48.5
44.6

January
February
March.
April.
May
June.
July
August
September
October
November
December

Cents

54.9
56.8
57.9

$25. 58
22. 83
21. 28
22. 04
22. 71

35.0
36.2

39.9
41.0

$12. 96
12. 60
13. 27
14! 12
14. 95

41.0
39.1
37.6
37.6

62.9
61.3
63.6
64.6

26.18
24. 02
23. 91
24. 25

37.1
35. 5
35.4
36.2

44.5
46.3
47.6
49.3

16. 60
16.46
16. 84
17.81

22. 52
25. 47
24. 78
23. 51
22. 63
22. 52

38.2
38.3
37.9
39.9
40.7
39.3

54.8
56.9
56.9
58.0
56.3
57.5

21.36
21.70
21.79
23.05
23. 65
22. 47

33.2
31.8
33.6
33.2
33.8
35.4

38.6
38.9
40.0
39.9
40.3
40.2

12.94
12. 58
13. 59
13. 45
13. 80
14. 38

62.7
51.2
51.0
43.2
42.4
46.5

22.14
21.96
23. 43
16. 59
20. 33
20. 09

37.6
37.2
38.4
36.8
36.5
40.7

57.0
58.9
58.6
56.3
55.0
55.8

21.65
22.12
22.14
21.09
20. 40
23.02

36.7
35.4
36.6
37.1
35.9
36.9

40.0
40.1
40.0
40.0
40.2
40.8

14. 71
14. 30
14. 85
14.91
14. 58
15.12

38.4
38.1
40.7
38.9
39.7
39.8

61.5
70.3
68.6
63.0
61.9
60.7

23. 52
26. 68
27. 29
24. 03
23.84
23. 63

38.9
37.0
40.9
40.2
39.1
38.0

58.7
58.1
58.5
56.6
57.7
58.7

22. 68
21.62
24.18
22. 90
22. 91
22. 52

34.2
33.8
34.6
32.6
36.1
36.8

41.4
40.9
40.9
41.2
40.7
40.8

14. 26
13. 96
14. 34
13.72
14. 77
15.15

39. 2
40.9
45.3
37.8
53.9
44.9

59.7
53.9
52.1
44.8
43.1
45.1

23.00
21.80
23.18
16 90
22. 82
20.12

38.7
36.9
37.4
36.4
41.3
41.1

60.3
59.6
58.7
59.4
53.0
54.3

23. 53
22. 34
21.97
21.68
23.13
23.08

37.6
38.4
37.4
37.7
36.9
37.7

40.7
40.3
40.7
40.8
40.9
42.3

15.35
15.47
15. 35
15. 50
15. 21
16.10

January.
February
March.
April
May.
June

37.8
39.1
39.8
40.5
38.8
40.7

67.5
69.0
68.7
67.3
67.2
64.9

25.29
26. 88
26. 51
26. 25
25.20
25.74

38.1
38.2
45.9
44.1
40.4
39.4

56.6
60.7
60.8
60.1
62.4
64.3

22.15
23. 58
28. 42
26. 77
25. 44
25. 40

35.0
36.6
36.7
36.7
37.1
38.0

43.4
43.5
42.8
43.4
44.3
45.1

15.27
15. 98
15. 82
16.05
16. 49
17.15

July
August
September.
October..
November
December

37.6
39.9
43.7
41.3
49.7
40.4

66.8
63.5
61.0
52.2
50.8
55.6

24. 33
24. 95
25. 99
20.79
25.10
21. 92

42.4
42.9
36.3
38.5
40.9
43.0

64.3
67. 1
68.7
66.8
62.8
60.8

27. 77
29. 36
24. 90
25.97
26.41
26.87

37.6
37.8
36.9
37.7
37.5
37.1

45.1
45.2
45.3
45.1
44.9
45.5

17. 33
17.13
17.12
17. 03
16. 72
16.88

1936

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

105

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by months,
January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued

Tobacco manufactures

Sugar refining, cane

Sugar, beet

"Tobacco" group

Year and month
Average
Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
weekly
hourly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings per week earnings earnings
per week earnings
per week
1938
38.4
41.6
41.3
39.9
39.4
40.8

Cents
76.5
76.4
74.4
72.9
75.2
70.8

$28. 38
31.38
29. 36
27. 74
28. 52
27. S9

38.1
38.4
36.7
41.2
39.7
39.7

Cents
59.6
61.9
61.9
60.9
61.8
61.0

$23. 72
23. 75
22. 66
25. 05
24. 50
24. 22

33.3
33.1
34.1
33.0
35.2
37.0

Cents
47.6
45.9
46.0
46.6
46.3
46.1

$15. 85
15. 32
15.79
15.54
16.31
16.91

36.6
36.2
41.3
42.5
51'2
47.0

71.7
64.6
61.7
51.4
50.6
53.0

25. 66
23. 33
25. 00
21. 74
25. 77
24. 75

41.7
38.8
40.3
38.5
37.7
38.2

59.9
61.6
61.0
62.3
62.2
61.0

24. 82
23. 90
24.59
23. 96
23. 46
23. 29

37.2
36.7
37.1
37.2
35.8
36.0

46.2
46.4
45.8
45.7
46.2
46.9

17.18
16. 89
16. 96
16.84
16. 55
16.92

January
Februarv
March
April
May
June

33.5
40.3
40.1
37.0
40.5
41.1

65.6
74.5
75.7
76.5
70.9
70.0

22. 08
29.11
28. 85
26. 94
27. 71
27.89

36.3
35.0
40.8
38.7
36.6
37.0

65.4
64.8
64.2
63.0
63.8
64.5

23. 77
22. 67
26. 21
24. 42
23. 36
23. 87

32.1
32.0
34.2
34.0
35.3
36.6

48.1
47.3
47.4
47.4
47.2
47.4

15.59
15.19
16. 22
16.08
16. 60
17.19

July
August...
September
October
November
December.

32.5
40.1
42.1
42.3
50.3
45.2

75.7
63.8
61.4
52.6
51.6
53.0

23. 96
25 22
25.12
22. 25
25. 69
23. 54

36.1
36.6
43.0
38.1
36.9
36.2

64.1
63.0
62.2
63.3
62.8
61.8

23.15
23.05
26. 75
24.12
23. 21
22.39

37.0
36.9
36.9
37.0
36.6
35.8

47.6
47.2
47.5
47.4
47.9
48.9

17.19
17. 43
17.44
17. 55
17.50
17.47

January
February
March
April
May
June

33.9
40.3
39.8
39.4
37.9
37.1

68.4
77.6
77.3
74.3
74.2
73.6

23. 38
30.41
29. 74
28. 38
27.04
26. 55

34.2
36.1
36.6
36.5
37.1
38.9

65.6
64.8
63.4
63.1
63.6
65.2

22.41
23.41
23.18
23. 05
23. 64
25. 37

33.3
32.8
34.5
34.7
36.4
38.1

49.6
49.1
49.0
49.3
49.7
50.5

16. 52
16. 25
16.88
17.07
18.02
18. 98

July
August
September.
October..
November
December

35.8
38.4
42.7
36.4
49.3
52.6

71.8
67.3
71.0
57.0
55.1
56.3

24. 88
25. 40
29. 55
20. 98
26.81
28.87

39.3
37.9
36.9
38.2
39.5
38.9

64.7
64.3
65.7
64.6
64.1
65.6

25.45
24. 39
24. 23
24. 71
25. 36
25. 53

36.8
36.1
37.8
37.6
37.2
38.1

49.9
49.2
48.7
48.4
48.6
49.0

18. 36
17. 79
18. 42
18.25
18.14
18. 70

January
February
March
April.
May
June
July
August
September
October
November.
December

.

1939

mo

See footnotes at end of table.




106

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Tobacco manufactures—Continued
Chewing and smoking
tobacco and snuff

Year and month

Paper and printing

Cigars and cigarettes

"Paper and printing" group

Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average hours Average Averasre
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
Cents

Cents

38.8
34.5
34.9
35.7

34.2
39.0
43.2
44.4

$13.85
13.46
13. 70
15. 03
15. 81

35.0
35.7

1937
1938
1939
1940

36.2
35.1
34.1
34.9

49.1
50.5
51.4
53.5

17. 67
17. 64
17. 53
18. 61

January
February
March
April
May
June - - -

35.2
33.4
34.2
33.7
34.7
35.9

41.5
42.9
43.9
43.4
43.3
43.7

July
August
September
October
November
December

35.6
35.7
35.6
34.6
34.1
35.9

Cents

39.5
40.5

$12.76
12.40
13.17
13. 97
14. 77

36. 6
37.8
39.3

66. 5
68.8
69.9

$25.96
23. 25
23. 41
24. 56
26. 25

37.2
35.6
35.6
36.3

44.0
45.7
47.1
48.7

16. 32
16.19
16. 69
17.64

39.4
37.5
38.5
38.4

74.1
76.8
77.3
79.2

27.99
27. 55
28. 45
29.36

14. 56
14.29
14.98
14. 59
15. 02
15. 65

32.9
31.6
33.5
33.1
33.7
35.3

38.2
38.3
39.5
39.5
39.9
39.8

12. 65
12. 25
13.37
13. 24
13. 58
14.15

37.1
37.5
37.8
37.4
37.3
37.3

68.4
68.1
68.3
68.6
68.7
69.4

23. 76
24.09
24.33
24.20
24. 32
24. 46

44.4
44.1
43.6
43.3
42.6
42.3

15. 75
15. 66
15.45
14.94
14.47
15.14

36.8
35.4
36.7
37.4
36.1
37.0

39.5
39.6
39.6
39.6
39.9
40.6

14. 53
14.07
14.75
14.90
14.60
15.12

36.6
37.4
38.2
38.9
38.6
39.4

69.0
68.6
68.8
68.8
68.9
69.8

23.88
24.18
24.96
25. 36
25.10
25. 91

35.8
34.7
35.8
34.6
35.6
34.2

43.2
42.9
43.2
44.1
45.3
44.4

15.42
14.87
15. 42
15.19
16. 08
15.14

34.0
33.6
34.5
32.4
36.2
37.1

41.2
40.6
40.6
40.8
40.1
40.4

13.98
13.76
14.10
13.41
14.49
15.15

38.5
38.7
39.1
39.0
39.2
38.8

69.4
69.3
69.8
69.9
70.0
70.2

25. 36
25.48
26. 02
26. 00
26. 30
26. 04

35.5
35.0
37.5
36.3
35.9
37.7

44.5
44.5
44.9
44.4
45. 3
46.0

15. 76
15. 51
16. 74
16.05
16.21
17.28

37.9
38.8
37.4
37.9
37.0
37.7

40.3
39.8
40.2
40.4
40.4
41.9

15. 26
15. 46
15.07
15. 39
15.04
15.86

38.1
39.0
38.7
40.3
40.8
41.7

69.5
69.3
70.3
70.0
70.1
70.8

25.31
25.91
25. 88
26. 92
27. 32
28. 03

January
February
March
April
May.
June.

36.8
37.3
37.1
36.3
36.3
37.1

45.5
46.0
46.2
48.5
49.2
50.1

16. 68
17.09
17.16
17. 50
17. 76
18.39

34.8
36.5
36.7
36.8
37.2
38.1

43.2
43.2
42.4
42.8
43.7
44.5

14.81
15.84
15. 56
15. 73
16.22
16.89

40.3
40.5
41.0
40.7
40.3
39.7

71.1
71.0
71.7
72.7
74.1
74.7

27. 50
27. 68
28. 21
28.30
28. 49
28. 61

July....
August...
September
October
November
December-

35.6
35.5
37.2
35.8
33.7
35.8

50.4
50.7
51.0
51.3
50.4
50.5

17.83
17.85
18.81
18. 20
16. 89
17.91

37.8
38.1
36.9
37.9
37.9
37.3

44.5
44.6
44.6
44.4
44.2
44.9

16.83
16.99
16. 52
16.85
16.70
16. 65

38.6
39.0
38.4
38.6
37.7
37.7

74.8
74.6
75.2
76.1
76.1
76.8

27.74
28.03
27.89
28.26
27.48
27.62

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

—

1936
January
February
March
April
May
June
July..
August
September
October.
November
December

..

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

107

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and
6?/
1 —Continued
months,
January 1935 to December 1940
Paper and printing

Tobacco manufactures—Continued
Chewing and smoking
tobacco and snuff

Year and month

"Paper and printing" group

Cigars and cigarettes

A verage Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings
per week
per week
per week

34.8
35.4
34.5
35.2
34.3

Cents
50.5
49.3
50.5
50.3
50.4
50.9

$17. 43
17. 39
17. 31
17. 57
17.16
18.49

33.1
32.8
34.1
32.7
35.3
37.0

Cents
47.2
45.5
45.4
46.1
45.8
45.1

35.5
34.0
35. 5
35.0
34.2
3G.3

51.1
50.7
50.7
49.3
51.3
50.9

18.07
17.17
17. 97
17.17
17.47
18.40

37.4
37.0
37.2
37.4
35.9
35.9

34.3
32.4
33.9
33.2
33.8
33.9

50.6
50.4
51.0
50.2
51.1
51.2

17.29

17.18
16. 59
17.26
17. 25

35.3
34.9
34.4
35.2
34.2
34.2

52.4
51.7
51.5
52.1
52.4
52.5

33.4
34.6
34.3
33.5
34.7
35.4
35.4
34.6
35.7
35.7
35.0
37.0
See footnotes at end of table.

402097°—42




8

$15.48
14.89
15.47
15.10
16.13
16. 57

36.7
37.3
37.5
36.9
36.9
36.4

45.6
45.9
45.3
45.2
45.6
46.4

16.96

72
77
33
56

37.0
37.7
38.0
38.6
37.8
38.7

31.9
32.0
34.2
34.1
35.5
36.9

47.7
47.0
46.9
47.0
46.7
47.0

15.14
14.91
15.98
15.96
16.45
17.17

37.8
37.9
38.3
38.1
38.2
38.0

18. 52
18. 04
17. 73
18.37
17.92
17. 90

37.2
37.1
37.2
37.2
36.9
36.0

47.0
46.7
47.0
46.9
47.4
48.4

17.26
17.30
17. 37
17. 36
17.40
17. 37

37.5
38.1
39.0
39.7
39.5
39.4

51.9
52. 2
52.3
53.1
53.2
53.5

17. 33
18. 05
17. 90
17. 78
18.38
18. 77

33.3
32.5
34.6
34.8
36.6
38.4

49.3
48.7
48.5
48.8
49.3
50.1

16. 35
15.80
16. 64
16.91
17. 92
19.03

38.1
37.8
38.0
38.1

54.3
54.7
54.4
54.3
54.9
53.5

19.16
18. 86
19. 32
19. 28
19. 21
19. 60

36.9
36.2
38.0
37.8
37.4
38.2

49.4
48.6
48.2
47.8
47.9
48.5

18.19
17. 57
18. 24
18.05
17.95
18. 53

38.4
38.2
38.4
38.7
38.4
39.3

16. 28

16. 82

16.
16.
16.
16.

108

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 191+0, and fo/ months
January 1935 to December 191+0 1 —Continued

TABLE

Paper and printing--Continued
Boxes, paper

Printing and publishing,
book and job

Paper and pulp

Year and month

Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
worked earnings
worked hourly weekly
earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
Cents

41.2
40.6
36.4
38.9
41.6

Cents
45.2
44.3
51.5
52.9
53.7

57
72
78
92

41.0
38.1
40.3
40.5

51.3
50.8
50.4
50.6
50.1
50.6

18.42
18. 46
18. 94
18. 58
18. 09
18. 42

36.0
37.9
39.9
41.9
40.7
41.2

50.4
49.8
49.0
48.3
48.1
47.9

37.6
38.8
39.4
39.4
39.6
39.5

$18. 33
17.15
18.16
18. 92
19. 55

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

36.6
38.1
40.9

49.6
49.7
48.1

1937
1938
1939
1940

40.4
38.4
40.2
39.2

51.5
54.4
54.7
56.2

20.
20.
21.
21.

36.0
36.5
37.7
36.8
36.2
36.4

$18.
17.
18.
20.
22.

Cents

79
97
74
56
33

36.1
37.4
38.6

72.5
73.7
74.2

$27.86
2b. 14
26.' 12
27. 48
28. 41

60.4
61.9
62.0
64.6

24. 75
23. 57
24. 92
26.13

39.4
37.5
38.3
38.5

77.3
79.8
80.4
81.1

30.05
29. 55
30. 30
30.78

37.7
38.5
38.9
38.1
38.1
38.5

52.6
52.7
52.7
52.6
52.6
53.0

19. 83
20. 28
20. 49
19. 95
20.01
20. 36

37.3
37.3
37.5
37.2
37.3
37.2

73.3
72.8
73.1
74.0
74.2
75.2

27.22
27.04
27. 25
27. 35
28.15
27. 59

18.15
18. 86
19. 47
20.19
19. 57
19. 75

37.2
38.2
39.7
40.8
40.3
40.9

53.1
52.8
53.3
53.3
53.1
53. 4

19.69
20.19
21.14
21. 71
21.33
21.80

36.8
37.1
37.4
37.6
37.5
39.0

74.1
73.0
73.2
73.2
73.6
74 6

27.16
26. 94
27.34
27. 35
27.44
28. 91

48.8
48.5
48.9
48.4
48.7
48.9

18.31
18. 71
19.08
18. 96
19. 24
19. 21

40.3
40.9
41.4
41.6
41.7
40.9

53.2
53.2
53.1
53.2
53.2
53.9

21.38
21.71
21. 97
22.08
22. 14
22.06

38.7
38.4
38.5
38.3
38.7
38.1

74.3
74.0
75.0
75.0
74.8
74.2

28.42
28. 22
28. 68
28. 56
28. 79
28.17

39.1
41.0
42.0
44.4
44.6
44.0

48.4
48.2
47.6
47.2
47.0
47.4

18. 79
19. 63
19. 77
20. 80
20. 81
20. 63

40.0
41.6
40.1
43.1
43.5
44.1

53.8
53.9
54.3
53.8
54.0
55.0

21.45
22. 35
21.76
23.13
23. 47
24. 25

37.4
37.9
37.6
38.6
39.6
41.4

73.1
72.6
74.7
74.3
74.5
74.2

27.22
27.28
27.64
28. 41
29.09
30. 32

January
February.
March
April
May
June

40.9
42.7
43.1
42.2
41.1
40.3

49.0
48.9
49.2
50.5
51.5
51.9

19. 84
20. 67
20. 93
21.10
20. 90
20. 70

43.3
43.6
43.7
43.4
42.8
42.2

55.9
56.4
56.8
58.4
59.5
61.4

24. 22
24. 58
24. 88
25. 29
25. 44
25.90

40.5
39.9
40.5
40.4
40.3
39.5

75.8
75.2
75.7
76.2
77.9
77.8

30.24
29.60
30.24
30. 45
30. 70
30. 26

July
August
September
October
November
December.

38.8
39.3
39.2
40.8
39.0
37.3

52.2
52.8
52.8
52.7
52.8
53.4

20. 00
20. 57
20. 53
21.35
20. 42
19. 78

40.3
41.5
39.2
39.5
36.9
35.6

62.2
62.8
63.0
63.1
63.2
63.1

25. 03
26. 01
24.71
24. 90
23. 26
22. 47

38.7
38.5
38.6
38.3
38.7
39.7

78.1
77.0
77.9
78.5
78.5
78.7

29. 76
29.30
29.69
29. 71
29.96
30. 75

1935
January
February
March
April.
May
June_.

.

July
August
September
October
November
December
1936
Januarv
February
March
April
May
June

__
__ .
-.

July
August
September
October
NovemberDecember
1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

109

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Paper and p r i n t i n g --Continued
Printing and publishing,
book and job

Paper and pulp

Boxes, paper
Year and month

Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
35.2
36.9
37.5
36.8
36.9
36.7

July....
August
September
October
November
December

..

Cents
54.9
55.1
54.7
55.0
55.5
55.3

$19.18
20.16
20. 37
20.10
20. 33
19. 89

35.7
37.7
38. 2
37.4
37.3
36.7

Cents
62.7
62.4
62.2
62.0
62.3
62.5

$22. 36
23.51
23. 73
23.16
23. 20
22. 89

38.4
38.0
37.8
37.1
37.3
36.5

Cents
79.3
78. 5
80.3
79.9
79.9
80.6

$29.95
29. 59
29. 93
29. 27
29. 40
29. 02

37.6
38.9
40.8
42.2
40.4
40.4

54.7
54.2
53.8
53.2
53.3
53.7

20. 42
20. 90
21.74
22. 29
21.34
21.49

37.8
39.4
39.1
40.6
38.9
39.0

61.9
61.7
61.3
61.3
61.2
61.3

23. 37
24. 26
23. 92
24.85
23. 78
23. 85

36.9
37.1
37.5
37.3
37.1
39.3

80.0
79.3
80.0
79.9
79.8
79.8

28. 96
29.01
29. 68
29. 35
29. 22
31.10

38.4
39.2
39.8
39.2
39.1
39.8

54.4
54.7
54.6
54.6
55.0
55.1

20. 68
21.24
21.54
21.13
21.28
21.75

38.7
39.6
39.8
39.4
39.4
39.0

61.6
61.1
61.4
61.2
61.6
61.8

23. 82
24.16
24. 43
24.11
24. 25
24.13

38.6
37.5
38.2
38.0
38. 5
38.1

79. 9
80.2
81.1
80.5
80.2
80.9

30.
29.
30.
30.
30.
30.

38.9
40.2
41.3
43.4
41.7
40.1

January
February
March
April
May
June

54.8
54.4
54.4
54.6
54.5
55.0

21.19
21.71
22. 28
23. 46
22. 60
21.92

38.0
39.9
41.4
43.2
42.5
41.6

61.6
61.8
62.0
62.9
62.7
63.1

23. 40
24. 65
25. 64
27.19
26. 61
26.19

38.3
37.8
38.3
37.8
38.7
39.6

80.2
79.7
80.5
80.1
80.6
80.9

30.16
29. 78
30. 38
29. 76
30. 71
31. 63

37.6
37.3
38.1
37.9
38.7
39.0

55.7
55.7
55.8
56.2
56.3
56.7

20.85
20. 75
21. 16
21.25
21.72
21.99

40.0
39.8
39.5
39.9
41.6
41.5

63.5
63.8
63. 7
63.7
63.8
64.4

25.
25.
25.
25.
26.
26.

35
42
17
35
52
70

38.9
37.9
38.4
38.2
38.7
37.9

81.7
80. 4
81.7
81.6
82.1
82.0

31.30
30. 05
30. 85
30. 73
31.11
30. 59

38.9
39.4
39.8
40.9
40.4
41.2

56.6
56.4
56.0
56. 1
56. 5
56.6

21.87
22.10
22.19
22. 77
22. 79
23.19

40.8
40.4
39.9
40.5
40.2
41.3

64.9
64.8
65.4
65.4
65. 6
66.0

26. 47
26. 14
26. 12
26. 45
26. 35
27.30

38.4
37.9
38.5
38.8
38.2
39.9

80.5
79.9
80.5
80.7
81.2
81.3

30.
29.
30.
30.
30.
32.

1939
January
February
March
April
May
June

-

July
August
September
October
November
December

37
58
55
01
31
28

1940
January
February... .
March.
April
May
June

_ -

July
Ausust
September
October
November
December

_

.
.

See footnotes at end of table.




35
93
55
89
62
28

110

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Paper and printing—Con.

Year and month

Printing and publishing,
newspapers and periodicals

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products
"Chemicals" group

"Other than petroleum
refining" group

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly
per week
per week earnings earnings
per week
Cents

Cents

84.5
89.2
92.2

$35.13
31.18
32. 32
33.11
35.15

37.0
37.8
39.2

37.0
36.3
36.1
35.9

96.2
98.7
100.4
103.3

36.85
37.13
37. 58
38. 22

January
February
March
April.
May.
June..

36.8
37.2
36.9
37.0
37.0
36.6

87.5
87.7
88.4
88.4
88.5
89.4

July..
August
September
October
November
December

36.1
36.5
36.6
36.9
36.8
37.5

January
February
March
April.
May
June
July
August
September.
October
November
December.

Cents

58.3
61.0
63.0

$22. 95
21.24
21.90
22. 90
24. 34

37.8
38.8
40.4

52.0
53.9
55.7

$20.10
18. 76
19. 62
20. 75
22. 29

39.4
37.7
38.6
38.7

71.4
74.4
74.5
76.3

27. 67
27. 97
28.85
29.80

40.5
38.3
39.5
39.7

63.2
65.4
66.1
69.0

25. 31
24. 89
26. 25
27.81

33.20
32. 93
32.80
33.09
33.04
33.23

37.2
37.4
37.6
37.2
37.2
37.2

59.7
59.5
58.6
59.7
61.4
62.6

21.92
22.13
22.02
22. 25
22. 83
23.19

38.3
38.3
38.5
37.9
38.1
38.3

52.6
52.4
51.6
53.0
54.8
55.7

19.89
20.00
19. 75
20.04
20.80
21.21

89.2
89.8
90.0
90.2
90.5
91.8

32.03
32. 64
33.15
33. 41
33.49
34. 26

37.3
37.8
38.3
38.7
38.2
39.0

63.4
62.8
61.4
60.3
60.9
61.4

23.42
23. 53
23. 33
23. 24
23.06
23. 76

38.5
38.9
39.3
39.9
39.5
39.9

56.3
55.6
54.1
53.0
53.8
54.2

21.35
21.42
20.98
21.10
21.10
21.40

36.7
36.6
37.1
37.0
37.1
36.9

90.3
90.3
90.8
91.2
91.8
92.3

33. 79
33.68
34. 44
34. 56
35.23
35.16

38.2
38.0
39.2
39.1
39.5
39.2

61.4
62.0
60.7
61.5
62.4
64.0

23. 25
23. 35
23. 59
23. 77
24. 36
24. 77

39.3
39.1
40.3
40.4
40.6
40.3

54.3
54.6
53.2
54.2
55.4
57.1

21.23
21.36
21.31
21.70
22.36
22. 75

36.3
36.4
36.9
37.3
37.6
38.3

92.0
92.1
93.2
93.5
93.4
94.9

34. 44
34.70
35. 52
36.10
36. 32
37. 33

38.4
39.1
39.2
40.0
39.9
40.1

64.7
64.5
63.1
62.8
63.3
65.1

24.60
24. 67
24. 33
24. 69
24.82
25. 63

39.6
40.5
40.7
41.4
41.0
41.4

57.4
57.1
55.6
55.4
56.0
57.9

22. 59
22. 73
22. 32
22. 75
22. 59
23. 55

January
February
March.
April
May.
June

36.7
36.9
37.7
37.4
37.0
36.8

92.7
93.1
94.2
95.3
96.8
97.1

35. 23
35.83
36. 75
36.70
37.00
37.18

39.4
39.8
40.4
40.4
39.9
39.5

66.4
66.4
66.1
69.2
72.3
73.6

25. 77
26.27
26.35
27. 37
28.09
28. 75

40.8
41.2
41.7
41.8
41.2
40.7

58.8
59.0
58.7
60.7
64.0
65.4

23. 76
24.21
24.33
24.98
25.92
26. 33

July....
August...
SeptemberOctober
November..
December

36.3
36.5
36.9
36.9
37.1
37.7

96.6
96.0
96.5
98.5
97.1
99.1

36. 66
36.16
37.03
37. 59
37.42
38.45

38.4
39.3
39.1
39.3
38.7
38.1

74.8
74.8
73.0
72.7
73.2
73.7

28.19
29.21
28.06
28.19
27. 93
27.79

39.4
40.1
40.3
40.4
39.6
38.7

66.8
66.6
64.6
64.3
64.8
65.1

25.88
26. 55
25. 73
25.81
25.40
24.87

1932.
1933-..
1934.
1935
1936....

37.3
36.8
37. C

1937...
1938
1939....
1940
1935

1936

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

111

5 . — A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
to 191+0. and by months,
January 1935 to December 191+0 1 —Continued

TABLE

Paper and printing—Con.

Year and month

Printing and publishing,
newspapers and periodicals

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products
"Chemicals" group

"Other than petroleum
refining" group

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June

36.5
36.4
36.5
36.2
36.1
35.8

Cents
98.1
97.7
97.8
98.3
99.4
99.4

$36.88
36. 74
37.01
36. 97
37.03
36.81

36.8
37.5
37.6
37.2
37.7
37.4

Cents
74.2
73.5
72.7
73.2
75.0
76.5

$27.03
27.35
27. 22
27.07
28. 29
28. 66

37.4
37.9
38.1
37.7
38.0
37.9

Cents
65.3
64.6
63.9
64.3
66.0
67.5

$23.93
23.94
23.95
23.81
24.86
25.43

July
August
September
October
November
December

35.9
36.1
36.2
36.5
36.3
36.8

97.8
97.1
98.8
99.1
99.8
100.7

36.39
36. 25
37.26
37.82
37. 70
38. 56

36.9
38.1
38.3
38.7
37.8
38.2

77.0
76.0
74.1
73.4
74.0
73.9

28. 33
28.88
28. 21
28. 27
28.11
28.36

37.6
38.9
39.4
39.9
38.5
38.8

67.7
66.8
64.9
64.5
65.2
65.4

25.32
25.95
25.49
25. 58
25.20
25.43

January
February
March
April
May..
June-

35.8
36.0
36.2
36.3
36.3
36.0

99.5
99.6
99.4
99.8
100.1
99.9

37.00
37. 30
37. 65
37.66
37. 62
37.28

38.2
38.2
38.5
38.2
38.4
38.4

74.1
73.8
72.8
72.1
74.0
75.7

28.48
28. 38
28.14
27.63
28.60
29.23

38.8
38.8
39.4
39.1
39.1
39.3

65.3
65.4
64.3
63.5
65.6
67.2

25.44
25.51
25.31
24.88
25.80
26.57

July..
August
September
October
November.
December

35.5
35.7
36.3
36.2
36.1
36.7

100.1
99.8
100.7
101.3
101.6
102.7

36. 78
36. 75
38.03
37. 92
37.81
39.04

37.8
38.4
38.8
39.8
38.9
39.0

76.6
76.6
74.1
73.8
75.1
75.1

28.85
29.49
28.74
29. 54
29.49
29.61

39.1
39.5
39.9
40.8
39.8
39.8

67.8
68.0
65.8
65.7
67.4
67.5

26. 54
26.99
26.31
26.99
27.26
27.35

January
February
March
April..
May—
June

35.7
35.9
36.0
36.2
36.2
35.9

101.8
101.8
102.3
102.9
103.5
103.6

37. 55
37. 59
38.19
38. 27
38. 56
38. 55

38.4
38.4
38.4
38.5
38.8
38.5

75.6
75.6
74.6
74.2
76.0
77.7

29.22
29.31
29.14
28.99
29. 73
30.08

39.4
39.2
39.2
39.2
39.7
39.6

68.0
68.1
67.0
66.5
68.6
70.2

27.24
27. 24
26.86
26. 51
27. 47
28.09

July...
August.
September
October
November
December

35.5
35.7
36.1
35.9
35.7
36.4

37. 72
103. 3
37. 73
103.1
102.9
38. 46
37. 98
102. 6
2 104. 9 2 38. 57
0
0
105.9
39. 33

38.5
38.7
38.9
39.3
38.8
39.6

78.3
77.8
77.3
75.7
76.5
76.6

30.12
30.16
30.08
29. 96
29.87
30. 90

39.7
39.8
39.8
40.2
39.8
40.4

70.9
70.7
70.0
68.7
69.6
70.1

28. 27
28. 34
28.31
28.13
28. 23
28.92

1939

194.0

See footnotes at end of table.




112

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by months,
January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products--Continued
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and
meal

Chemicals
Year and month

Druggists' preparations

Average

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
Cents

Cents

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

41.0
38.6
39.7
40.6

56.6
61.6
63. 6
65.3

P4. 66
23. 42
23. 80
25. 29
26. 54

43.5
44.7
49.1

1937__
1938
1939
1940

39.9
38.0
40.0
40.0

75.5
78.6
78.4
80.4

30.13
29. 86
31.30
32.17

January
February
March
April
May
June

39.3
39 4
40.0
39.5
39.5
38.9

62.4
61.9
62.6
63.0
63.7
64.3

July
August
September
October
November
December..

39.9
40.3
39.2
39.8
40.2
40.2

January.
February
March
April
Mav
June
July
August
September
October
November
December. _

Cents

22.9
22.8
22.0

$11.18
9. 70
9.99
10.14
10. 75

38.2
38. 5
39.5

50.7
54.4
55.0

$20. 48
19. 90
20.07
20. 75
22.18

52.2
49.1
44.3
43.7

23.9
26.0
30.2
33.5

12.41
12.90
13. 70
15.10

39.8
38.6
39.8
39.6

57.2
59.6
59.6
60.7

23.94
24. 23
25.06
25.08

24. 48
24. 63
25. 00
24.88
25.16
25. 05

42.8
42.9
43.5
39.8
38.3
40.0

22.1
23.8
23.6
23.9
25.0
26.2

9.40
10.14
10.18
9. 53
9. 53
10. 29

38.9
38.0
38.5
39.5
37.8
38.5

53.4
54.2
53.7
53.9
54.9
54.5

20. 51
20. 55
20. 58
21.02
20.64
20.74

65.1
64.5
63.9
63.2
63.6
64.2

25. 96
25. 97
25.19
25. 23
25. 60
25. 79

41.7
43.2
47.8
48.4
47.9
48.7

25.4
24.2
21.4
21.5
21.8
21.9

10. 46
10.37
10.16
10. 26
10.34
10. 52

38.3
36.9
39.0
40.1
37.4
39.1

55.3
55.3
54.8
53.6
54.9
55.0

20. 97
20. 35
21. 00
21.11
20. 34
21.23

39.6
39.8
40.7
40.9
41.0
40.7

63.8
64.1
63.8
64.3
64.6
65.3

25. 32
25. 52
26. 03
26. 31
26. 47
26. 56

46.0
44.6
45.1
44.0
43.7
43.5

22.5
22.4
22.3
22.1
22.6
23.6

10. 23
10. 03
10.08
9. 63
9. 91
10. 22

39.1
37.9
40.2
39.7
38.0
39.0

54.8
55.4
55.1
54.9
55.5
56.1

21.04
20.82
21.75
21.44
22.14
21.65

39.7
40.7
40.1
40.8
41.6
41.3

65.9
65.5
65.7
65.7
65.9
68.8

26. 37
26. 44
26. 33
26. 95
27. 38
28. 48

45.9
47.4
51.5
53.3
53.6
54.3

23.5
24.0
21.6
21.3
20.9
21.5

10. 62
11.25
11.05
11.31
11.20
11.63

38.7
40.5
39.4
40.2
40.4
40.1

54.9
54.6
55. 2
55.3
54. 1
54.1

22.02
22. 82
22. 51
23. 33
22.88
22.93

January
February
March
April
May
June..

40.2
40.9
40.9
41.1
40.7
40.5

69.7
69.9
71.0
74.9
75.9
76. 2

28. 06
28. 59
29. 03
30. 76
30. 84
30. 81

53.2
50.6
49.2
49.6
49.2
48.7

21.6
22.3
23.8
23.9
25.0
25.1

11.44
11. 23
11.64
11.73
12.15
12.07

39.8
40.7
40.5
40.0
39.3
40.0

56.1
55.3
55.2
56.0
57.2
58.1

23. 23
23. 73
23. 62
23. 48
23.85
24.40

July
August
September
October
November
December

39.4
40.6
38.9
39.6
38.7
37.4

77.5
77.8
78.4
77.9
78.2
78.9

30. 55
31.56
30. 47
30. 84
30. 25
29. 51

46.6
48.0
54.3
54.6
54.3
55.1

24.9
25.4
24.1
23.9
24.4
24.6

11.61
12.14
12. 97
13. 02
13.19
13.48

37.8
39.8
40.8
39.5
39.1
39.8

58.0
57.6
58.1
58.7
58.9
57.9

23.14
24.12
24. 29
24. 47
24. 33
24.40

1935

1936

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

113

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and
6?/
1 —Continued
months,
January 1935 to December 1940
Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and
meal

Chemicals
Year and month

Druggists' preparations

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June

30.8
37.3
37.0
37.2
37.6
37.7

Cents
79.3
79.0
79.0
79. 5
78.9
79.3

$29. 18
29. 45
29. 23
29. 42
29. 63
29. 90

53.2
52.7
50.5
49.0
49.3
48.3

Cents
25.0
24.5
25.3
25.3
25.4
26.1

$13.18
12. 89
12. 76
12. 29
12. 82
12. 87

38.9
38.7
3<?. 1
37.7
37.6
37.8

Cents
60.7
59.1
59.5
60.0
59.8
59.7

$24.37
23. 79
23. 92
23. 89
23. 89
23. 95

July
August
September
October-,
November
December

37.3
38.8
38.3
39.8
38.9
39.4

78.7
78.5
78.1
77.5
77.6
78.1

29. 40
30. 39
29. 90
30. 88
30. 22
30. 72

48.3
46.8
50.8
51.3
44.7
43.4

26.7
26.8
25.3
25.2
28.8
29.0

13.31
12. 83
12. 93
13.04
13.11
12. 76

37.5
39.3
39.4
40.3
38. 7
39.6

60.9
58.9
58.7
58.9
59.2
59.3

23. 46
24. 48
24. 40
25. 31
24. 54
24.80

39.3
39.7
39.9
39.5
39.9
40.0

78.0
78.0
78.0
77.7
77.6
77.7

30. 63
30. 89
31.08
30. 66
31.00
31.07

43.1
41.7
43.9
42.2
40.5
42.2

28.8
29.7
29.1
29.9
30.0
30.5

12.
12.
12.
12.
12.
13.

61
57
93
75
39
37

39.1
39.2
39.2
39.1
39.3
39.8

60.3
59.6
59.3
60.0
59.7
59.2

24. 93
24. 73
24. 86
25. 05
24. 85
24. 95

39.3
40.1
39.8
41.2
40.3
40.3

78.3
78.5
78.1
78.9
79.2
79.6

30. 74
31. 48
31.08
32. 51
31.86
32. 07

41.1
42.3
47.1
48.5
46.0
46.2

31.3
31.0
28.9
28.6
33.0
33.1

13.
13.
13.
14.
15.
15.

55
69
76
21
60
64

40.5
39.9
39.3
41.5
40.6
40.2

59.5
59.9
59. 6
59.5
69.5
60.0

24. 93
25.15
24. 65
25. 82
25. 37
25. 37

39.8
39.6
39. 7
39.8
40.0
40.0

80.0
80.3
80.0
80.1
80.3
80.2

31.
31.
31.
31.
32.
32.

82
79
72
83
09
08

45.0
42. 7
42.4
41.4
39.6
39.5

33.2
33.4
33.1
32.8
34.2
34.3

15. 29
14. 55
14. 37
13. 86
14. 02
14. 27

39.6
39.4
40.0
39.4
39.0
38.3

59.0
60.0
60.3
60.2
60. 5
61.1

24. 76
24. 74
25. 09
24. 88
24. 64
24.71

39.7
39.9
39.8
40.6
40.4
40.8

80.4
80.6
2i 79. 9
79.8
81.1
81.6

31. 95
32.18
31.80
32. 39
32. 72
33. 33

42.4
41.8
2 43. 5
2
46.3
45.1
46.8

40.1
39.5
40.1
40.0
39.5
39.5

61.2
61. 5
61.2
60.6
61.3
61.2

24. 94
25.16
25. 58
25. 43
25. 44
25.42

1939
January
February
March
April
May
June-..

_

July
August
September
October
November
December-.
1940
January.
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October.
November. __
December

.

See footnotes at end of table.




33.9
15.15
33.5
14. 56
2 34. 7 2 15. 5(T
2
2
33. 0
15. 84
33.3
15. 50
33.5
16. 08

114

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED

STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
to 191+0, and &?/ months,
January 1935 to December 191+0 1 —Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Explosives

Paints and varnishes

Fertilizers

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average
weekly
worked hourly
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

34.3
35.2
34.6
35.9
39.6

Cents
58.6
57.7
62.7
67.6
70.6

$?0. 26
20. 55
22.12
24. 27
27. 95

40.0
32.6
33.6
38.5

26.5
33.6
32.7
33.2

$11.80
10. 39
10. 97
11.00
12. 77

40.8
40.5
38.1
39.8
41.9

Cents
55. 7
51.2
55.7
58.6
60.0

$22. 73
20. 95
21.40
23. 32
25.12

1937
1938
1939
1940

39.6
36.9
38.9
39.6

78.3
80.9
81.2
84.7

31. 03
29. 85
31. 62
33.50

40.1
37.1
35.8
35.4

37.8
40.1
41.2
43.0

15. 05
14.86
14. 71
15.07

41.2
39.1
40.5
40.6

67.0
69.7
70.4
72.2

27. 59
27. 21
28.48
29.26

33.9
37.3
36.1
35.0
36.4
34.7

65.4
65.6
65.9
67.3
67.0
69.6

22.17
24. 42
23.80
23. 56
24. 35
24.15

32.3
31.9
34.1
32.0
32.3
33.1

31.2
30.2
28.6
30.1
32.5
33.9

10.08
9. 63
9.75
9.63
10. 50
11.22

38.6
38.9
39.3
40.4
40.6
40.3

58.7
57.9
58.4
57.8
57.9
58.0

22. 61
22. 54
22. 94
23. 35
23. 47
23. 36

34.1
37.1
34.4
37.6
37.5
36.9

68.5
68.5
68.7
68.6
68.5
68.8

23. 35
25.42
23.64
25. 79
25.64
25.38

33.6
34.1
35.3
35.1
33.8
35.3

35.9
35.7
35.1
33.2
33.2
33.1

12. 06
12.17
12. 39
11.65
11.22
11.68

38.8
39.3
39.3
41.1
40.4
40.6

58.8
59.0
59.3
58.8
59.3
59.5

22. 78
23.17
23.29
24.16
23.95
24.13

35.9
38.8
40.3
38.0
39.1
39.7

69.4
68.7
68.8
69.2
70.4
71.5

24.93
26. 65
27.73
26. 28
27. 52
28.41

36.0
34.1
39.9
40. 2
42.2
38.4

31.5
31.3
28.7
29.0
32.3
35.2

11.34
10. 67
11.45
11.66
13. 63
13. 52

39.8
40.4
41. 2
42.3
43.7
43.3

59.5
59.8
59.0
59.1
58.8
59.3

23. 80
24.14
24. 31
25. 01
25. 68
25. 67

38.7
39.7
40.4
41.6
40.6
41.9

71.8
Y0.9
70.8
70.2
71.1
73.6

27. 58
28.01
28. 61
29. 22
28.87
30. 85

37.1
38.0
41.2
39.1
37.9
38.0

35.3
35.6
35.6
34.3
35.0
34.1

13.10
13. 53
14. 67
13.41
13. 27
12.96

41.5
41.8
41.1
42.6
42.2
42.3

59.9
60.3
60.4
60.3
60.9
62.3

24. 83
25. 27
24. 87
25. 66
25. 61
26. 24

January
February
March
April
May
June

38.6
38.6
41.3
42.3
40.9
39.0

74.2
73.7
74.7
78.5
79.7
79.4

28. 59
28. 44
30. 83
33.19
32. 62
30.99

39.1
40.2
44.1
44.9
43.8
39.6

33.1
32.1
30.4
31.1
36.4
38.4

2.94
12.90
13.41
13. 96
15. 94
15.21

41.2
42.5
42.9
43.4
43.5
42.5

63.0
63.1
63.5
65. 0
66.2
67.4

25.91
26. 74
27.21
28. 39
28. 67
28. 54

July
August.
September.
October
November
December

39.1
39.5
38.9
40.5
39.7
37.7

79.8
80.1
79.5
79.5
79.8
79.4

31.18
31.68
30.89
32.18
31.64
29. 94

39.1
38.5
40.1
37.6
37.1
36.7

42.1
42.7
43.6
41.2
41.2
41.0

16. 46
16. 44
17. 48
15. 49
15. 29
15.05

40.9
40.7
39.6
40.5
38.8
37.8

68.8
69.7
69.6
69.7
69.6
69.9

38. 04
38. 30
27.44
28.17
26.95
26.44

Cents

1935
January
February
March
April
May
June

__ --

July
August
September
October
November
December

_

1936
January
February
March
April
May
June

__
.

July
AugustSeptember
October
November
December
1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

115

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 6?/ years, 1932 to 1940, and
6?/
1 —Continued
months,
January 1935 to December 1940
Chemical, petroleum, and coal products--Continued
Explosives

Fertilizers

Paints and varnishes

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly
earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
JanuaryFebruary...
March
April
May.
June-..

33.0
37.5
36.2
34.9
34.9
36.4

Cents
79.0
80. 7
81.8
81.1
81.7
81.5

$26.11
30. 25
29. 57
28. 32
28. 52
29. 65

36.8
38.3
40.3
40.2
37.9
37.9

Cents
38.0
36.6
34.1
35.1
40.0
41.5

$13.98
14.02
13. 74
14.11
15.16
15. 73

35.9
37.6
38.3
39.4
40.7
39.9

Cents
70.1
69. 7
69.7
68.9
69.3
69.7

$25.16
26.26
26.70
27.11
28.17
27. 79

July-.
AugustSeptember
October
November
December

36.7
38.6
37.7
39.4
38.0
39.5

83.2
80.9
80.1
80.3
80.2
80.1

30. 52
31.26
30.16
31.62
30.45
31.64

37.6
36.6
37.4
35.6
32.7
34.4

44.6
43.9
42.8
41.8
42.3
40.9

16. 77
16. 07
16.01
14. 88
13.83
14.07

38.8
39.2
39.7
40.1
39.4
39.9

70.7
70.0
69.9
69.4
69.5
69.9

27. 38
27. 39
27. 70
27.83
27. 34
27.80

37.7
39.1
38.5
37.7
38.3
38.4

80.6
80.6
80.4
81.1
80.0
80.6

30.40
31.52
30. 96
30. 57
30. 68
30.92

34.3
34.1
37.4
39.4
38.0
34.9

39.3
37.9
34.9
34.9
40.9
42.9

13.48
12.92
13.05
13. 75
15. 54
14. 97

39.2
40.0
40.6
40.7
41.5
41.1

69.9
69.7
69.8
69.7
70.1
69.7

27. 34
27.84
28. 30
28.24
29.12
28.62

38.4
40.2
39.0
39.9
39.9
39.5

80.7
80.2
80.7
83.0
82.6
82.8

30. 97
32. 20
31.52
33.07
32. 98
32. 74

36.0
35.2
36.8
35.5
34.0
34.2

44.4
44.6
44.2
42.0
45.1
42.8

15. 98
15. 70
16. 27
14. 91
15.32
14. 65

40.0
40.3
40.7
41.4
40.2
40.3

70.4
70.7
70.4
71.2
71.5
71.4

28.14
28.47
28.65
29.46
28. 72
28. 75

38.2
39.4
39.1
38.4
39.7
39.9

83.9
84.2
83.9
83.3
82.5
83.6

32.08
33.16
32. 80
31.99
32.80
33.32

34.0
34.2
35.3
36.4
38.4
36.1

42.0
40.4
38.4
37.9
43.0
44.3

14.27
13.81
13.52
13. 81
16. 50
15. 99

39.7
39.6
40.4
40.6
41.4
41.2

71.8
71.9
71.8
71.7
71.6
71.7

28.44
28. 43
28. 93
29. 02
29. 62
29. 55

40.9
40.6
39.0
40.0
39.4
39.5

84.7
83.6
84.0
86.4
2 87.2
3
87.4

34.67
33. 94
32. 74
34. 53
2 34. 31
3
34.47

35.2
34.6
36.1
35.5
33.8
35.3

44.9
46.6
45.9
44.2
45.1
43.5

16. 05
16.14
16. 59
15.71
15. 24
15.35

40.4
40.6
40.8
41.1
40.2
40.8

72.1
72.0
72.2
72.0
73.3
74.1

29.13
29. 28
29.40
29.60
29.39
30.15

1939
January
February
March
April
May.
June

---

July..
AugustSeptember..
October
November
December
1940
January
February
March
April
May
June.

— __

July
AugustSeptember
October
November.
December

See footnotes at end of table.




116

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by monihsy
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products--Continued
Petroleum refining

Rayon and allied products

Soap

Year and month
Average
Average Average
Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

41.8
37.9
34.9
35.0
35.8

Cents
63.8
65.5
75.0
80.1
82.7

$28.22
26. 46
26. 72
27. 81
29.36

43.5
41.2
37.0
37.9
38.6

Cents
39.8
42.0
50.4
51.4
53.2

$17.32
17.01
18.59
19. 48
20. 52

44.7
40.5
38.0
38.0
39.4

Cents
46.2
46.9
54.5
59.3
60.1

$20.64
18.94
20. 70
22.53
23.69

1937
1938
1939
1940

36.0
35.9
36.1
36.1

94.5
97.8
97.4
97.4

33. 72
34.91
34.97
34.98

38.5
35.3
37.9
39.1

61.7
64.5
64.6
67.9

23.76
22. 78
24.52
26. 51

39.8
39.0
39.8
39.8

68.2
70.8
70.7
71.5

27.10
27. 65
28.11
28. 45

January
February
March
April
May—
June.

34.2
34.7
35.0
35.1
34.9
34.6

78.5
79.1
78.7
78.7
78.9
80.4

26.68
27.18
27.48
27.48
27.36
27. 55

38.3
38.2
37.6
37.0
37.1
37.8

50.4
50.5
51.1
52.0
52.2
51.6

19. 32
19.29
19. 21
19. 25
19. 35
19. 51

37.6
37.9
38.4
37.9
37.9
38.1

57.4
57.6
57.2
59.3
60.3
60.7

21.58
21.83
21.96
22.47
22.85
23.13

July
August
September
October
November
December.

34.5
35.0
35.7
35.5
34.5
36.5

81.3
80.9
81.1
80.6
80.5
80.8

27.80
28.07
28.67
28. 32
27.60
29. 25

37.7
38.3
38.6
38.2
38.0
38.3

51.4
51.4
51.2
51.3
51.5
51.9

19.38
19. 70
19. 73
19. 56
19. 58
19. 84

37.3
37.7
38.6
38.6
37.5
38.6

60.5
60.2
59.3
59.1
59.6
60.2

22. 57
22.70
22.89
22. 81
22.35
23. 24

January
February.
March
April
...
May
June... . . . . .

35.5
34.8
36.2
35.5
36.3
36.2

80.4
81.8
82.0
81.4
81.0
81.8

28.14
28.07
29. 46
28.69
29.17
29.43

38.3
38.2
38.8
39.1
38.6
38.8

52.1
52.4
52.1
52.4
52.3
52.2

19. 91
20. 00
20. 22
20. 48
20.18
20.28

38.8
39.1
39.1
38.2
39.3
39.8

59.6
59.6
60.3
60.7
60.8
59.8

23.12
23.30
23.58
23.19
23.89
23.80

July
August
September
October
November
December

35.4
35.3
35.1
35.8
36.5
36.5

83.0
83.9
84.0
83.5
83.9
85.7

29. 22
29.41
29. 41
29. 76
30. 43
30. 95

38.7
39.3
38.9
39.0
37.0
38.4

52.8
52.8
53.2
53.7
54.8
57.0

20. 41
20. 72
20. 68
20. 95
20. 24
21. 90

39.5
40.5
38.5
40.3
39.8
40.3

60.2
58.9
58.8
58.6
60.1
63.5

23.78
23. 85
22.64
23.62
23.92
25. 59

January
February
March
April
May
June

35.5
35.7
36.5
36.2
35.9
36.4

88.2
88.2
88.3
94.9
95.8
95.9

30.98
31.20
31.83
34.05
34.03
34. 58

39.0
39.1
39.8
39.8
39.6
39.8

58. 1
58.6
58.0
59.8
61.9
62.0

22. 65
22.90
23. 07
23.79
24.53
24.69

39.8
42.2
40.9
39.5
39.3
39.3

64.4
64.4
65.0
65.4
67.1
67.9

25.63
27.18
26.59
25.83
26.37
26.68

July
August
September
October
November
December

35.5
37.2
35.5
35.9
35.8
36.3

96.6
97.1
97.4
96.9
97.0
97.1

34.08
35. 66
34.16
34. 43
34. 42
34.88

38.6
38.8
37.8
37.4
37.0
35.3

62.7
63.1
63.1
63.8
64.4
65.1

24.20
24.53
23.88
23.89
23. 79
22. 98

38.9
39.3
39.9
40.0
39.2
38.9

69.7
70.0
71.0
70.3
70.8
72.1

27.11
27.51
28.33
28.12
27. 75
28.05

1936

1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

117

TABLES

5.-—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years,
to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Petroleum refining

Rayon and allied products

Soap

Year and month
Average Average
Average
Average Average Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours
hourly
worked hourly weekly worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings per week earnings earnings
per week earnings earnings per week
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June

35.3
36.4
36.2
35.8
37.0
36.3

Cents
97.8
97.6
97.0
96.8
97.5
97.8

$34.28
35.23
34.89
34.47
35. 78
35. 26

32.9
32.6
34.3
32.6
34.6
34.6

Cents
65.7
65.3
64.7
65.0
64.6
64.8

$21.58
21.26
22.19
21.21
22.34
22.42

38.6
38.8
39.2
38.6
39.0
39.0

Cents
71.7
70.9
70.7
71.2
71.3
71.2

$27. 68
27. 51
27.71
27. 48
27. 81
27.77

July
August
September
October
November. __
December

35.2
36.0
35.3
35.5
35.8
36.4

98.8
98.6
98.4
97.6
97.9
97.4

34. 60
35.25
34.58
34. 45
34.86
35.30

35.1
37.8
37.7
37.0
37.0
37.1

64.5
63.9
63.8
63.9
64.1
64.1

22.68
24.16
24.02
23. 63
23.74
23.80

38.8
39.3
40.0
39.7
38.3
39.0

70.3
70.2
70.2
70.3
71.1
71.0

27.28
27. 59
28.08
27. 91
27.23
27.69

January
February
March
April
May
June

36.6
36.5
36.3
35.6
36.3
36.1

98.0
97.0
97.3
97.3
97.0
97.2

35.75
35.23
35. 20
34.39
35.10
34.99

38.0
37.7
37.7
36.5
36.6
37.9

63.7
64.0
64.3
63.7
63.7
64.3

24. 22
24.15
24. 24
23.64
23. 70
24.38

39.4
39.4
39.6
39.5
39.3
40.1

71.5
70.6
70.5
71.4
71.6
71.4

28.17
27.82
27.92
28. 20
28.14
28. 63

July
August
September
October
November
December

34.7
35.8
35.6
36.9
36.1
36.4

98.5
97.5
96.9
97.4
97.2
97.2

33.91
34. 76
34.38
35. 77
34.94
35.27

38.3
38.6
37.9
38.7
38.6
38.8

63.9
64.3
64.6
64.6
'65.9
66.5

24.47
24.81
24. 49
25.03
25. 42
25.82

39.8
39.7
40.3
40.6
39.6
39.7

71.1
70.1
70.3
69.6
69.7
70.7

28.30
27.83
28. 33
28. 23
27.60
28.09

35.5
35.9
36.2
36.5
36.2
35.7

97.4
97.5
97.1
97.4
97.5
98.3

34. 42
34. 78
34. 96
35.34
35.14
34.84

38.8
39.1
39.1
38.9
39.0
39.1

67.6
67.4
67.2
67.2
67.3
67.5

26.24
26. 33
26. 26
26.12
26. 27
26. 36

39.4
39.1
39.2
39.4
39.5
40.4

71.3
71.1
71.7
71.7
71.4
71.5

28.12
27. 81
28. 08
28. 27
28.19
28.85

35.3
35.8
36.2
36.4
35.7
37.3

98.6
97.7
97.5
96.3
96.6
96.8

34. 73
34.94
35.32
34.93
34.32
36.00

38.9
39.4
39.6
38.7
39.1
39.1

67.6
67.2
68.2
68.5
69.0
69.4

26.32
26. 53
26.99
26. 53
26.95
27.15

40.4
40.3
40.5
39.9
38.9
40.3

71.2
71.2
70.9
71.1
71.8
73.3

28. 77
28. 68
28.69
28. 42
27. 93
29. 54

1939

mo
January
February..
March.,. _
April
May
June—
July
August
September
October
November
December

r

_

See footnotes at end of table.




118

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and &?/ months,
January 1985 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Rubber products
"Rubber" group

Rubber boots and shoes

Rubber tires and inner tubes

Year and month
Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly weekly
worked earnings weekly worked earnings earnings worked hourly weekly
earnings per week
earnings earnings
per week
per week
Cents

Cents
49.4
52.3
52.3

$17.14
17.45
17. 58
18. 93
20. 20

32.5
31.6
30.7
32.3
35.4

Cents
62.5
64. 2
77.9
84.2
87.3

$20.61
20. 53
23. 65
27.01
30. 72

38.3
33.9
37.5
38.3

59.0
60.2
60.7
61.7

22.64
20.41
22. 80
23. 64

31.8
29.6
35.0
3.48

95.0
94.8
95.7
96.7

30. 08
28.11
33. 36
33. 55

23. 67
24. 26
23. 53
23. 82
22. 62
22. 51

36.3
35.8
36.4
34.9
34.0
33.5

52.3
51.9
52.2
52.7
53.1
52.3

18. 97
18. 58
19.01
18. 36
18. 04
17. 52

33.2
33.7
32.3
33.2
30.6
30.9

81.3
83.8
84.3
84.8
83.7
84.5

26.70
28. 54
27.14
27.80
25. 43
25. 85

68.5
68.2
68.1
67.9
67.9
68.4

21.78
22. 65
23. 55
23. 71
24. 28
25. 75

34.6
36.6
37.0
38.2
36.5
40.1

52.3
51.9
52.0
52.0
52.3
52.2

18.08
19.00
19. 25
19. 90
19.07
20. 96

29.6
30.5
32.1
31.9
33.8
35.8

84.3
84.4
84.5
84.6
85.2
85.5

24. 66
25. 59
26. 82
26. 70
28. 61
30. 34

36.3
35.5
37.5
37.6
37.6
38.0

68.7
68.1
64.4
67.8
69.9
70.9

24. 77
23. 81
23.97
25. 50
26. 33
26. 86

38.5
36.8
38.0
37.2
37.1
39.4

51.9
51.8
51.8
51.8
51.6
52.0

19. 98
19.05
19. 66
19. 26
19.13
20. 51

34.1
32.8
35.5
36. 1
36.3
35.9

85.8
85.2
81.3
84.4
88.2
88.9

28. 94
27.66
28. 59
30.28
31.79
31.86

37.0
37.7
37.5
38.3
38.8
39.2

70.3
71.0
71.2
70.5
71.3
71.9

25.99
26. 70
26. 44
26. 62
27. 30
27. 67

36.8
38.5
38.0
39.4
40.8
41.7

51.6
52.0
52.0
52.2
52.8
55.6

18. 99
20.01
19. 80
20. 58
21. 55
23.19

35.7
35.8
35.4
35.2
36.1
35.8

87.5
87.8
89.1
88.1
89.0
88.7

31.03
31.36
31.34
30. 95
31. 82
31. 56

January
February
March.
April
May
June.

37.0
37.6
38.2
37.8
36.9
35.8

72.5
74.3
73.4
74.6
77.8
78.2

26. 30
27. 54
27. 69
27. 67
28.13
27. 51

38.6
39.2
39.9
39.1
39.2
39.6

55.7
56.2
56.2
57.2
61.1
61.0

21.50
22.04
22. 39
22. 36
23. 95
24.18

33.4
34.3
35.1
34.6
33.2
32.1

89.3
92.5
93.0
93.8
96.3
96.3

29. 83
31.74
32. 57
32. 37
31.91
30. 77

July....
August
September.
October
November.
December.

34.8
34.8
34.6
34.0
31.8
31.1

79.0
78.3
78.6
78.3
78.3
78.4

26.84
26.53
26.64
25.83
24.11
23.90

37.3
39.7
40.0
37.3
36.0
33.6

59.7
60.1
60.6
60.8
60.0
59.8

22. 27
23. 85
24. 24
22. 83
21.70
20.08

31.7
30.9
30.8
29.3
27.2
28.0

96.9
96.3
97.0
96.6
97.2
96.7

30. 37
29. 55
29.76
28.24
26. 26
26.91

1932
1933__
1934.
19351936—

64.3
68.3
69.8

$19.45
19. 25
21.35
23. 52
26. 08

32.9
34.7
37.6

34.3
36.2
38.6

1937__
19381939...
1940

35.4
32.9
36.9
36.9

76.8
76.5
76.7
77.9

26. 61
24. 69
28. 22
28. 62

January
February
March.
April...
May.
June. -

34.5
35.3
34.6
34.7
33.2
32.8

67.2
68.3
68.8
69.1
68.6
68.8

July..
August
September
October
November
December .

32.5
33.8
35.3
36.0
36.0
37.8

1935

1936
January
February.
MarchAprilMayJune

___

July
August
September
October
November
December
1937

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

119

5.—Average hours worked -per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Rubber products
" R u b b e r " group

Rubber boots and shoes

Rubber tires and inner tubes

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1988
29.2
28.5
29.7
30.2
31.1
31.4

Cents
78.3
76.4
76.5
76.2
76.5
76.5

$22.42
20. 97
22.08
22.47
23. 39
23. 75

30.7
29.5
30.6
29.3
31.4
32.1

Cents
61.1
60.5
60.3
60.5
60.5
59.8

$18.76
17.86
18.47
17. 72
18. 98
19.18

26.2
23.8
25.3
26. 6
27.9
28.7

Cents
95.7
93.8
94.9
94.6
95.0
94.5

$25.02
22. 33
24. 02
25. 21
26. 67
27. 35

32.5
33.9
35.9
36.6
36.7
37.4

77.3
76.0
75.8
75.6
75.6
76.5

24.84
25. 39
26. 91
27.27
27. 58
28.40

33.3
35.8
37.7
38.7
36.6
38.8

59.7
60.2
60.5
60.7
59.7
59.7

19.86
21.54
22. 79
23.48
21.88
23.17

30.0
30.3
33.0
33.1
34.5
35.2

94.5
94.1
94.6
94.4
95.2
96.1

28.43
28. 73
31.27
31.25
32. 77
33.76

January.
February. _
March
April
May
June

36.0
35.9
36.1
35.7
35.5
36.5

77.0
76.1
76.3
76.0
76.0
76.5

27.59
27.11
27. 40
27.00
26. 78
27. 88

37.0
37.4
35.9
37.1
35.8
37.3

61.0
59.9
60.3
59.9
59.7
60.8

22.54
22.41
21.65
22. 23
21.35
22.69

34.2
33.2
34.0
33.3
33.2
34.9

95.7
95.3
95.7
94.7
94.4
94.7

32.59
31.68
32. 54
31.48
31.46
33.06

July
August
September
October
November
December

36.5
37.0
37.6
39.2
38.0
38.1

77.2
77.0
76.8
76.9
76.8
77.6

28. 22
28. 52
28. 93
30.11
28.95
29.50

35.7
37.3
38.8
38.4
40.1
39.1

60.5
61.5
61.6
61.1
61.1
61.1

21.61
22. 92
23. 89
23.45
24. 51
23.90

35.6
35.5
36.2
37.5
35.1
36.1

95.6
95.6
95.9
96.1
96.1
97.4

33. 84
33. 77
34. 55
35. 91
33.64
35.11

36.6
35.3
35.8
36.0
36.4
36.4

77.6
77.8
77.9
77.9
77.8
78.0

28. 54
27. 40
27. 66
27.98
28. 39
28. 27

36.0
35.5
37.2
37.1
37.3
38.3

60.8
60.6
61.6
61.1
61.3
61.4

21.92
21. 55
22.90
22. 66
22. 85
23.50

35.2
33.7
33.5
34.1
35.1
34.3

96.5
96.4
96.3
96.6
96.8
96.7

33. 96
32.29
31.98
32. 77
33. 88
33.11

35.7
36.3
37.5
38.0
37.9
39.7

78.5
77.9
78.0
77.4
78.1
78.4

27. 76
27. 81
29.15
29.31
29. 45
31.13

35.7
38.3
39.2
39.5
40.1
43.9

60.9
62.3
62.2
62.4
61.7
63.6

21. 77
23.86
24. 38
24.64
24. 76
27.92

33.8
33.0
35.2
35.7
36.1
37.8

97.1
96.0
97.1
96.2
97.1
97.1

32. 66
31.64
34.08
34. 28
34. 92
36. 59

January
February __
March
April
May
June

_

July
August
September
October
November
December
1939

19Jt0
January
February
March.
April
May
June

__

July...
August
__
September
October
November
December

See footnotes at end of table.




120

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December 1940 1 —Continued

TABLE

Rubber products—Continued

Year and month

Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes,
tires, and inner tubes
Average
hours worked
per week

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
earnings

1932,.
1933..
1934-.
1935..
1936..

38.1
37.9
35.3
37.5
40.3

Cents
46.9
45.5
51.3
52.7
53.5

$18.22
17.19
18. 39
19.65
21.39

1937..
1938-.
1939-.
1940..

39.1
36.5
38.9
38.7

59.2
59.7
60.5
62.1

22.99
21. 66
23. 34
23.80

35.6
37.5
37.1
37.0
36.6
35.5

52.4
52.3
53.1
53.0
53.2
52.7

18.88
19. 54
19. 63
19. 45
19. 27
18.60

July
August
September..
October
November.
December..

35.8
37.2
38.9
40.4
38.7
39.4

52.5
52.3
52.6
52.4
52.3
53.1

18.24
19. 37
20.42
21.00
20. 22
20. 85

January. __
February.
March
April
May
June.

38.3
38.6
39.3
39.9
39.7
40.5

53.0
52.6
52.9
52.7
52.7
53.2

20. 24
20. 02
20. 53
21.00
20.90
21.24

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

39.2
40.2
40.3
42.3
41.8
42.9

53.4
54.1
53.8
53.6
54.3
55.3

20. 57
21.50
21.53
22. 49
22. 48
23.41

41.3
41.7
41.2
41.1
41.1
39.4

55.7
55.9
57.2
58.9
59.2
59.8

22.69
23.07
23.36
23.62
24.15
23. 54

38.0
38.0
37.6
38.9
36.1
34.2

60.7
60.9
60.9
61.1
60.8
61.5

22.78
22.89
22.60
23.61
21.93
21.15

32.8
34.1
34.8
35.0
35.1
34.5

61.1
60.1
59.6
59.3
59.4
59.7

20.00
20.43
20.88
20. 70
20. 72
20.49

35.3
37.7
38.5
40.0
39.2
39.4

59.9
59.7
59.4
59.2
59.5
60.1

20.81
22.34
22. 73
23. 43
23.09
23.44

January...
February.
March
April
May
June

January...
February.
March
April
May
June

1935

1037

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..
January...
February.
March
April
May.
June

1938

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL

121

TABLES

TABLE 5.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by months,
January 1935 to December
19401—Continued
Rubber products—Continued

Year and month

Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes,
tires, and inner tubes
Average
hours worked
per week

19S9

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
earnings

January.
February
March.
April
May„
June.

37.9
38.5
38.6
38.0
38.1
38.1

Cents
60.5
59.9
59.9
60.2
60.1
60.3

$22.75
22.88
22.91
22. 62
22. 65
22. 77

July.
August
September.
October
November
December

37.6
38.8
38.8
41.3
40.4
39.9

60.4
60.5
60.3
61.2
61.2
61.2

22. 47
23. 23
23. 20
25.01
24. 55
24.19

38.5
37.2
38.0
37.8
37.7
38.2

61.7
61.6
61.8
61.9
61.4
61.9

23. 53
22.69
23. 22
23.11
22. 87
23. 42

37.7
39.0
39.7
40.0
39.0
40.4

62.2
61.9
62.0
62.0
62.7
63.4

23.
24.
24.
24.
24.
25.

January
February
March.
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November.
December

1940

25
00
38
57
29
39

1 The figures published are based on the reports available from cooperating firms for the month shown and
the reporting sample is not identical from month to month. Where significant shifts in levels between
the averages shown for 2 consecutive months were caused by changes in the reporting sample, footnotes
giving directly comparable data are shown.
2 Strictly comparable averages for January are 34.7 hours, 59.4 cents, and $20.77.
3 Strictly comparable averages for August are 41.2 hours and 78.1 cents.
* Strictly comparable averages for August are 68.6 cents and $27.13.
« Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for August are 63.3 cents.
« Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for August are 75.6 cents.
i Strictly comparable averages for October are 38.2 hours, 74.8 cents, and $28.46.
8 Strictly comparable averages for October are 87.1 cents and $36.57.
» Strictly comparable averages for September are 56.3 cents and $23.84.
10 Strictly comparable averages for October are 68.4 cents and $27.83.
u Strictly comparable averages for June arc 37.0 hours, 56.4 cents, and $20.97.
I2 Strictly comparable averages for June are 72.9 cents and $25.45.
Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for June are 70.9 cents.
H Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for February are 56.5 cents. Strictly comparable averages
for August are 55.4 cents and $20.80.
15 Strictly comparable average weekly earnings for March are $31.43.
isa strictly comparable average weekly earnings for June are $13.10.
1 Strictly comparable averages for October are 34.3 hours, 55.3 cents, and $18.87.
6
17 Strictly comparable averages for October are 33.3 hours, 52.8 cents, and $17.53.
18 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for August are 87.5 cents.
19 Strictly comparable averages for June are 47.2 hours and $22.63.
2 Strictly comparable averages for October are 104.5 cents, and $38.41.
0
2 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for August are 79.8 cents.
1
2 Strictly comparable averages for August are 42.2 hours, 34.2 cents, and $14.91.
2
23 Strictly comparable averages for October are 85.3 cents and $34.13.




122

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940

TABLE

Mining
Anthracite

Bituminous coal

Metalliferous

Year and month
Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings
worked hourly
worked
earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings

1932
1933
1934
1935.
1936..

30.3
31.4
33.2
31.7
30.8

Cents
82.5
81.8
82.6
82.3
83.3

$24.99
25. 74
27. 35
25. 98
25.63

27.2
29.5
27.0
26.4
28.8

Cents
52.0
50.1
67.3
74.5
79.4

$13.91
14. 47
18.10
19. 58
22.71

37.7
39.1
36.8
38.7
42.0

Cents
49.7
49.5
55. 9
59.3
60.5

$18.64
19. 32
20.83
?3.33
25.45

1937.
1938.
1939.
1940

28.8
25.3
27.7
27.2

87.3
92.2
92.3
92.4

25.19
23. 76
25. 67
24. 94

27.9
23.5
27.1
28.1

85.6
87.8
88.6
88.3

23. 84
20. 80
23.88
24. 71

43.8
38.8
40.0
40.9

70.0
67.7
70. 5
73.3

3Q. 59
26.19
28. 05
29.86

January
February
March
April
May.
June.

33.0
35.2
27.2
34.0
32.6
41.1

82.1
82.0
81.4
82.5
82.2
82.8

26. 68
29.11
22.09
27. 64
26.94
33.83

27.2
29.9
30.2
21.4
23.1
30.1

71.2
71.8
71.2
73.2
73.6
71.7

19. 30
21.02
21.30
15. 57
16.77
21.43

36.0
37.3
37.9
37.8
38.3
37.6

60.6
58.5
57.6
58. 6
59.9
59.7

22.03
22.02
22. 25
22. 49
23. 23
22. 74

July....
August
September
October
November
December

27.3
25.0
29.9
33.5
22.3
33.5

82.3
82.8
82.4
82.5
80.5
83.1

22.11
21.28
24.11
27. 66
17. 69
28.08

18.1
21.6
26.8
30.0
27.5
29.2

74.0
73.8
73.4
80.1
81.8
78.8

13. 27
16.03
19. 99
24.18
22. 34
22. 71

37.9
38.6
39.3
39.9
40.2
42.7

59.6
59. 6
58.9
59.7
59.4
59.4

22. 72
23.24
23. 42
24.05
24.13
25. 58

31.4
44.6
27.8
20.7
35.1
29.2

83.1
82.3
83.2
81.9
83.9
83.2

26. 77
36. 44
23. 58
16. 72
29. 79
23.81

29.4
32.7
28.0
25.8
25.5
25.5

77.9
76.9
78.9
80.1
80.5
80.3

22.66
24.87
21.99
20.58
20.62
20.47

40.9
40.9
42.8
41.6
41.6
40.9

59.2
59.0
58.9
59.3
59.0
59.5

24.
24.
25.
24.
24.
24.

26.9
26.6
26.0
33.2
27.5
34.7

83.7
83.9
83.9
84.3
83.0
84.0

22. 37
22. 25
21. 31
28. 30
22. 75
29.41

26.3
26.9
28.9
31.3
31.7
32.7

79.6
81.0
80.1
79.3
79.2
79.5

20.91
21.53
22. 95
24. 68
24.89
25. 73

39.7
41.5
42.0
43.0
44.1
44.5

60.1
60.2
60.2
61.9
62.7
64.3

23.94
24.92
25.08
26. 54
27. 60
28. 52

January
February
March.
April
May
June

27.7
28.3
28.5
41.8
27.8
31.2

81.2
79.4
78.8
82.6
91.2
91.7

22. 97
22. 66
22. 51
34.40
25. 32
28. 99

30.6
31.4
33.8
21.7
24.9
25.9

79.4
79.7
78.6
87.8
90.1
88.6

23.86
24. 65
26. 22
19.06
22. 20
23.19

43.2
43.9
45.0
44.5
44.6
43.5

64. 5
65.9
68.1
72.0
72.6
71.7

27. 77
28. 89
30. 57
32.06
32. 24
31.11

July
August.
September.
October.
November...
December

26.0
21.7
20.8
31.4
28.3
28.9

91.5
92.1
90.8
91.2
90.7
92.0

22. 78
19.25
18.99
29.14
26.00
27.02

25.0
26.6
27.5
29.6
26.9
29.1

88.1
89.4
89.0
88.7
87.8
86.6

22.18
23. 58
24. 37
26.25
24.00
25. 49

42.4
44.5
43.6
44.2
43.1
43.1

71.2
71.1
71. 6
70.8
69. 9
68.6

30.02
31. 62
31.22
31. 26
30.05
29.43

1935

1936
January
February
March
April
May.
June.
July...
August
September
October
November
December..

—

40
31
38
85
76
59

1937




GENERAL TABLES

123

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Mining
Bituminous coal

Anthracite

Year and month

Metalliferous

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average
Average Average
hours Average
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
worked
worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
27.0
26.5
28.0
23.5
25.1
30.6

Cents
92.3
93.1
92.2
92.7
92.3
93.2

$25.27
24. 86
26.01
22. 26
23. 61
28.94

21.6
23.6
22.2
19.8
19.7
21.0

Cents
87.0
87.2
86.8
86.8
88.4
87.9

$19. 27
20. 53
19. 43
17. 39
17.81
18. 92

39.6
39.6
40.7
39.1
39.2
36.9

Cents
67.8
67.7
67.8
67.5
67.7
67.7

$26.79
26.76
27. 55
26. 38
26.46
24. 97

14.4
18.6
22.1
28.8
24.9
29.3

91.6
90.5
91.1
92.5
91.7
91.7

14. 76
17.35
20. 64
26. 99
23.14
26. 99

21.3
23.6
26.0
26.8
27.7
27.4

88.3
88.8
88.2
88.7
87.8
88.1

19.16
21.38
22.86
23.84
24.31
24.00

35.1
38.5
38.1
39.5
38.7
39.8

66.5
67.6
66.9
67.5
68.4
68.5

23. 25
25.90
25. 35
26. 52
26. 36
27.16

January
February
March
April
May
June

27.0
30.9
23.3
29.2
38.8
25.4

92.8
92.0
92.0
92.3
91.8
92.8

24. 74
28. 20
21.55
27.08
35.84
23. 30

26.5
27.6
26.5
21.4
14.1
25.2

88.4
88.4
88.4
88.4
86.0
88.6

23. 29
24. 29
23. 49
18.10
11.32
22. 75

40.4
39.9
40.2
39.1
40.0
39.4

68.9
69.0
69.3
69.5
69.1
69.5

27. 69
27.38
27. 66
27.03
27. 50
27.26

July
August
September.
October
November
December

20.2
24.2
28.4
35.6
28.8
18.9

93.1
92.8
92.0
93.0
92.3
91.2

18. 65
23.13
26. 64
33. 03
26.90
17.16

24.4
27.4
28.5
32.6
31.4
28.1

89.2
89.0
89.6
88.2
88.8
88.9

22.03
24.61
25. 51
28. 49
27. 59
24. 65

36.4
39.5
39.6
42.4
41.5
41.2

68.8
70.1
70.1
72.7
73.6
73.7

24. 91
27. 47
27. 60
30.64
30. 36
30. 25

January..
February
March
April
May
June..—

36.8
22.4
26.3
26.2
27.9
29.3

91.9
91.7
92.5
91.5
92.4
93.0

33.46
20.94
24. 22
23. 31
25. 38
26.85

29.4
29.2
26.5
25.6
27. 1
26.8

87.6
87.8
88.4
88.0
88.2
88.7

25. 71
25. 73
23. 57
22. 63
23. 85
23.48

41.0
41.3
41.2
40.4
41.2
40.1

73.7
73.9
73.0
72.8
72.2
72.5

30.05
30. 35
29.88
29. 30
29. 59
28. 95

July
August
September
October
November.
December.

26.5
24.3
28.4
22.8
26.2
29.7

92.6
92.6
93.6
92.5
92.6
91.9

23. 79
21.82
25. 96
21.48
24. 56
27.60

26.6
28.5
28.7
28.3
28.6
31.0

88.0
88.7
88.3
88.6
88.9
88.7

23. 36
25. 32
25. 25
25. 03
25. 21
27.12

38.7
41.2
41.1
42.0
40.7
42.2

72.4
73.1
73.2
73.6
74.3
74.6

27.95
29. 99
29. 97
30. 75
30.10
31.41

January
February
March.
April
May
June

-

July
August
September
October
November
December
1939

19^0

402097°—42




9

124

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Mining-- C o n t i n u e d
Quarrying and nonmetallic
Year and month

Public utilities

Crude-petroleum production

Telephone and telegraph i

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly worked hourly
weekly
worked hourly
worked
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings

1932
19331934
1935
1936

37.0
36.3
33.3
34.9
41.4

Cents
44.3
41.0
47.4
47.5
47.5

$15.99
14.64
15.69
16. 68
19. 69

36.1
38.2

78.5
76.8

$30.01
27. 51
27. 48
28. 88
29. 93

1937
1938.
1939_
1940

41.6
38.6
39.2
39.3

53.3
54.3
55.0
56.8

22. 20
21.00
21.61
22.33

39.7
39.7
38.?
37.8

82.7
84.4
87.3
88.1

33. 24
34.12
34.09
34. 03

January
February
March
April
May
June

30.5
32.4
32.8
33.5
33.9
34.4

46.9
46.5
47.5
47.9
47.5
47.4

14.38
15.08
15. 60
16.08
16. 79
16. 38

34.1
34.6
34.8
34.9
35.2
35.5

82.1
82.0
82.9
81.7
80.7
77. 7

28.16
28. 76
29.01
29. 27
28. 48
28.16

27.77
27. 65
28. 59
27.80
27.91
28.10

July,.
August
September
October..
November
December

35.2
37.5
37.3
38.7
35.6
35.4

47.6
47.0
47.1
47.2
48.1
48.8

16. 57
17. 58
17. 60
18. 30
17. 28
17.39

36.0
36.2
37.8
36.3
36.2
38.4

77.1
76.7
77.3
76.4
78.1
77.6

28.42
28. 53
30. 01
28. 53
28. 73
30. 33

28.56
28.38
28.16
28. 79
28.87
29.25

January
February
March
April
May
June

33.7
34. 7
39.2
39.3
43.2
43.5

47.4
46.4
45.8
46.6
46.9
47.2

15. 96
15. 98
17. 93
18. 36
20. 30
20.46

37.2
36.7
37.4
38.2
38.1
38.4

77.4
78.1
77.8
77.0
76.8
76.3

29. 35
29. 53
29. 79
29. 98
29. 53
29.65

28. 81
29.19
29.53
28.80
29.47
28.79

July
August .
September
October
November
December

42.5
43.6
42.7
43.8
42.9
41.2

47.6
47.5
47.6
48.2
48.3
49.3

20. 24
20.88
20. 46
21.19
20.80
20.14

38.0
37.9
38.6
38.9
39.2
40.3

76.4
76.4
76.5
75.7
77.1
76.8

29. 53
29. 56
30.12
29. 95
30.49
31.31

29.18
29.41
28.61
30.09
29.65
29.86

January
February
March
Anril
May
. . .
June

38.3
40.3
42.0
43.1
43.9
44.4

50.2
50.5
50.5
52.6
53.0
53.8

19. 04
20.35
21.11
22. 70
23.44
23.84

39.0
39.2
39.6
40.1
39.1
40.1

79.2
80.9
79.8
82.0
83.8
82.5

31.21
32. 35
32.14
33. 27
33.17
33.50

30.18
29. 57
31.10
30.18
30.86
29.95

July
August
September
October
November
December

42.3
44.3
42.1
42.6
38.9
34.7

54.3
54.1
53.9
55.4
55.0
55.8

22.84
24. 06
22. 86
23. 70
21.48
19. 32

39.8
39.5
40.0
39.9
39.9
40.1

83.6
83.9
83.9
83.3
84.3
83.8

33. 58
33. 50
33.93
33. 64
34.12
34.11

31.02
30.94
80.93
SI. 01
SO. 12
31.44

Cents

Cents

39.1
39.1
39.4

79. 7
80.0
80.6

$27.55
26.11
27.10
28.32
29.29
30.61
30. 89
31.07
31.60

1935

1936

1937

_

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b l e .




GENERAL TABLES

125

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1982 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Mining—Continued
Quarrying and nonmetallic
Year and month

Public utilities

Crude-petroleum production

Telephone and telegraph J

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
weekly
hourly
worked
worked hourly
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1988
33.3
35.0
36.6
37.8
41.0
40.4

Cents
55.6
55.0
53.8
54.2
53.9
53.5

$18. 56
19. 29
19.74
20. 55
22.11
21. 61

39.5
40.1
40.2
39.9
39.2
40.2

Cents
84.3
85.4
84.0
84.3
84.2
83.6

$33.80
34.88
34. 32
34. 28
33. 64
34.23

39.8
38.2
39.3
39.6
38.6
38.6

Cents
78.2
79.9
80.9
79.8
81.1
81.0

$30.76
30. 30
31.61
31. 30
31.14
31.08

39.2
41.2
40.6
40.9
38.1
37.2

54.2
53.7
53. 5
54.4
55.4
55.1

21.38
22.17
21.68
22. 37
21.03
20. 42

39.8
40.5
40.2
39.7
39.0
38.7

84.2
82.9
83.8
83.9
86.1
85.9

33. 94
34.11
34.38
33. 81
34. 22
33.89

38.6
38.8
39.3
39.7
39.2
39.2

78.4
78.4
78.7
80.1
80.1
79.3

30.19
30. 25
30. 72
31.57
30. 96
30.85

36.1
35.4
37.5
37.9
40.0
40.1

54.9
55.6
55.4
55. 4
54.5
54.9

19. 76
19. 52
20. 80
21.11
21. 74
22.15

37.6
38.7
38.7
38.1
38.8
38.8

87.5
87.5
86.3
87.2
86.1
86.7

33. 60
34.70
34.00
33. 90
34.04
34. 38

39.0
39.0
38.9
39.0
39.2
39.1

80.1
80.3
80.1
79.5
79.7
79.3

30.90
31.09
30.96
30.81
31.05
30.79

39.0
40.5
40.4
42.3
40.1
39.5

55.5
54.6
54.9
54.3
54.8
55.9

21.69
22.17
22. 25
23. 23
22.14
21.99

37.7
38.8
38.3
37.5
38.3
37.8

88.0
86.4
87.8
88.5
87.8
88.3

33.82
34.18
34. 33
33. 71
34.31
34.11

39.4
39.1
39.5
39.1
39.1
38.8

79.4
79.7
79.6
80.5
80.3
80.9

31.06
30. 92
31.22
31.25
31. 22
31.62

January
February
March...
April.
May
June..

34.4
35.6
36.9
38.4
40.3
40.2

55.6
56.2
56.0
55.6
56. 1
56.7

19.19
20. 02
20. 67
21.33
22.74
22.89

37.9
38.2
37.8
38.2
38.3
37.4

87.8
88.3
88.4
87.9
87.3
88.3

33.
34.
34.
34.
34.
33.

98
51
02
20
05
74

39.2
39.1
39.4
39.3
39.3
39.5

80.8
80.8
81.1
80.9
80.4
80.3

31.46
31.34
31. 73
31. 58
31.43
31.54

July
August.
September
October
November
December.

39.7
40.9
41.8
42.1
38.9
40.0

56.9
56.7
56.7
57.0
58.5
58.7

22.
23.
23.
23.
22.
23.

38.2
38.1
36.9
38.0
37.8
36.9

87.4
87.6
89.5
87.5
88.1
89.4

33. 97
33. 99
33. 98
33.89
34.11
33. 96

39.5
39.3
39.7
39.5
39.9
39.5

80.4
79.8
80.1
80.8
80.7
81.1

31.56
31. 23
31.66
31.75
32. 01
31.88

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September.
October
November..
December

.

1939
January.
February
March
April
May
June

__

July.
August.
September
October..
November
December
1940

See footnotes at end of table.




57
20
75
98
64
42

126

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Public utilities—Continued
Electric light and power
Year and month

Average
hours
worked
per
week

U-0
42.0
40.1

Average
hourly
earnings
Cents
69.6
69.3
77.5
79.0

1

Average
weekly
earnings

Trade

Street railways and busses 1 2
Average
hours
worked
per
week

Average
hourly
earnings

45.4
45.2
45.3
46.3

$28. 56
26.56
27.41
28.31
30.03

34.15
34. 38
35.10

44.9
45.9
46.1

67.6
70.7
71.4
72.2

31.48
32. 23
33.13
33. 75

42.8
42.2
41.7
41.2

61. S
60.8
61.0

27.97
28.15
28.13
28.05

40.4
40.7
41.0
41.1
40.9
41.0

31.07
32.22

39.6
39.7

38.5
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.7
38.8

79.4
78.9
77.1
78.3
78.0
79.6

30.55
30. 71
31.19
30. 86
30.97

45.4

39.4
38.9
40.0
39.5
40.0

79.9
78.6
80.8
78.2
78.3
80.5

31.15
30. 96
31.44
31.30
30. 77
32.10

44.6
44-8
45.1
45.4
44-9

61.6
61.8
62.0
61.9
62.1
62.4

81.6

45.6
45.7
45.2
45.2
45.1

61.2

61.1
61.4

42.8
42.5
42.5
43.0
43.2
43.0

30.56
66.1
66.5
66.8
67.3

31.03
31.09
31.24
31.66

42.1
42.6
42.9
42.7
43.1
43.3

68.0

SI. 44
32. 49
31.53
31.76
31.99
32.16

43.0
43.4
42.6
42.9
42.7
42.5

63.9
63.7
62.9
63.1
63.4

40.5
40.1
39.8
40.5
39.9
40.7

78.0
81.0
80.5
81.9
81.9

80.0

32.35
31.42

45.7
46.1
45.4
45.9
46.7

40.5
40.1
40.6
39.4
40.2
40.5
40.3
40.1

86.5
87.7
87.0
86.8
87.3
87.3

34.53
34.33
34. 65
34.94

84.0
84.1

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b l e .




42.4

29.70
29.83
29.25

47.0
47.0
46.3
46.4
46.5

33.17
33.52
33.79
33.74
33.84
34.11

28.41

29.62

41.3
41.5
42.0
41.9
41.7

63.7
63.7
63.0
64.0
64.9
64.9

31.80
32. 28
31.99
32.14
32.11

83.4
83.2
83.1
83.2

28.15
28. 44
28.56

42.6

41.6
41.9
42.7
42.5
42.7
42.9

80.8
80.3
79.1
79.4
79.2

32. 52
33.00

18.11

41.3

29.52
30. 59
30. 59
29.69
29.76

39.2
39.9
40.4
40.5
40.5

40.1
40.6
40.8

Average
hours
worked
per
week

Cents
59.1
57.7
60.0
61.6
63.8

$30. 78
29. 23

85.3
85.8
86.9
88.4

40.3

Average
weekly
earnings

Wholesale 1

45.8
45.7
46.2
46.0
46.0

46.4
45.7
45.6
45.6
45.6

68.4
68.1
'9.3

30.84

Average
hourly
earnings

GENERAL TABLES

127

6.--Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Public utilities—Continued
Electric light and power 1
Year and month

Average
hours
worked
per
week

1938

Trade

Street railways and busses 12

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
earnings

Average
hours
worked
per
week

Wholesale 1

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
earnings

Average
hours
worked
per
week

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
earnings

January
February
March..
April
May
June

39.5
40.0
40.2
40.1
39.3
40.3

Cents
86.3
85.4
85.5
85.0
86.9
85.2

$33. 92
34.02
34.28
34.00
33. 99
34. 22

44.9
45.3
45.1
44.9
45.7
44.9

Cents
69.9
70.3
70.3
70.3
70.6
70.7

$31.84
32.16
32.15
32.09
32. 76
32. 23

42.1
42.2
42.4
42.6
42.8
42.5

Cents
68.6
68.6
68.3
69.8
71.3
70.7

$28.96
29.08
29.09
29. 59
30. 30
29.83

July
August.. .
September
October.
November
December.

39.6
40.5
39.7
39.9
39.9
40.0

86.4
85.0
85.1
86.0
86.4
86.1

34.12
34. 27
33.80
34. 52
34. 32
34. 33

44.2
45.1
44.5
44.4
44.7
45.6

71.2
71.3
71.3
71.1
70.9
70.7

31.98
32. 57
32.16
31.95
32.14
32. 71

42.1
42.3
42.1
42.3
41.8
41.6

70.6
69.9
70.3
70.6
70.1
70.7

29. 71
29. 35
29. 35
29.70
29. 35
29. 38

January
February..
March.
April
May
June

38.6
39.7
39.8
39.2
40.0
40.2

88.1
86.3
86.6
87.0
86.2
86.2

33. 94
34. 21
34. 25
34.12
34.49
34.63

46.3
45.4
45.7
45.6
45.6
46.2

71.5
71.5
71.5
71.2
71.2
71.1

33. 53
32.87
33.12
32.83
32.89
33. 21

41.6
41.5
42.0
41.6
42.1
42.0

71.1
71.1
70.7
71.9
71.1
71.5

29. 72
29. 54
29. 62
29. 75
29. 72
29.90

July
August
September
October
November
December

38.9
40.0
39.7
39.2
40.0
39.7

88.1
86.2
87.0
87.6
86.5
87.1

34.29
34.40
34. 55
34.41
34. 62
34. 64

45.8
46.0
45.4
46.5
45.7
46.0

71.4
71.2
71.5
71.6
71.5
71.5

33.02
33.17
32.91
33. 75
33.02
33. 29

41.3
41.9
41.6
42.1
41.5
41.6

72.6
71.1
71.6
71.8
72.4
71.5

29. 92
29. 82
29.99
30. 27
30.18
29. 79

39.5
39.9
39.9
39.9
40.1
39.3

88.0
87.4
87.6
87.8
87.4
89.0

34. 69
34.93
34.96
34. 98
35.09
35.03

45.5
47.0
46.3
46.0
46.1
46.3

72.0
71.9
71.8
71.7
71.6
72.3

33.18
34. 35
33.60
33.37
33.39
33.80

40.7
40.9
41.2
41.3
41.4
41.2

72.4
72.6
73 1
73.7
74.1
73.7

29. 52
29.68
30.08
30.33
30. 54
30.41

39.5
40.0
39.1
40.3
39.8
39.1

88.7
88.5
89.2
88.0
89.3
90.4

34.96
35. 39
34. 86
35. 37
35. 53
35.37

45.8
46.0
46.5
45.7
45.4
47.4

72.4
72.2
72.6
72.5
72.6
73.0

33. 62
33. 66
34.15
33.63
33.40
34.91

41.0
41.2
41.5
41.3
40.8
41.5

74.0
73.6
74.8
73.9
74.7
75.6

30. 36
30.32
31.08
30. 61
30. 43
31.25

1989

_

mo
January . __ _
February
M a r c h . __
April
May
June

_.

July
August
September.
October
November
December

See footnotes at end of table.




128

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 191+0, and by
months, January 1935 to December 191+0—Continued

TABLE

Trade—Continued
Retail, general
' merchandising 1

Retail (total) i
Year and month

Retail, other than general
merchandising 1 3

Average
Average
Average Average Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
worked
worked : hourly
worked
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings
Cents

$20.71
19.18
19. 86
19.96
20.68

Cents

88.1

41.5
41.8
48.5

52.8
52.1
52.2

43.3
42.6
43.0
42.8

55.1
54.3
53.4

21.73
21.14
21.17
21.17

41.6
40.9
41. S
41.1
41.1
41.5

58.4
54.8
52.6
52.6
52.7
52.7

20.80
20.21
20.17
19. 94
20.00
20.17

41.6
42.0
42.4
42.5
42.3

52.1
51.7
51.5
51.5
51.1
49.2

20.01
19.98
20.04
20.05
19.60
19.22

38.0
88.4
39.8
39.8
39.4
41.9

43.8
43.4
43.4
43.1
43.4
43.5

51.7
52.0
51.9
52.1
52.1

20.99
20.85
20.80
20. 42
20.69
20.71
21.00
20.99
20. 61

39.0
40.8

39.4
38.8
38.7

50.3
48.1
45.4
45.8

18.49
17. 82
17. 80
17.81

44-4
43.7

47.6
47.7
48.3
47.3
48.2
47.6

17.21
17.27
17. 44
17.07
17.20
17.19

42.5
41.7
42.2
42.0
42.1
42.5

46.2
46.0
45.6
41.4

17.32
17.08
17.02
17.07
16.63
16.27

43.0
43.4
43.3
43.2
43.9

40.9
40.8
40.5
40.1
40.4
40.7

46.7
46.7
46.0
45.9
46.2
46.0

18.08
18.13
17.52
17.21
17.56
17.48

44.0
44.1
44-3
44.1
44.3

40.0

47.6
48.2
46.7
46.0
46.1

17. 77
17. 78
17. 46
17.43
17. 41
16.90

44-6
44.6
44-1
44.7
44.8
44.9

47.7
48.4
49.0
50.0
50.4
50.6

18.88
18.35
18.24
18.63
18.73
18.74

44.8
418
44.6
44.6
44.5

52.8
51.6
51.5
51.2

19.07
19.21
18. 62
18.55
18.37
17.

U.7
418

38.6

88.8
38.1
38.2
37.7
88.3

44.8

52.9
53.0
52.4
52.8
52.2
50.8

43.9
43.8
43.5
48.5
43.4
48.4

52.9
52.7
53.5
54-4
55.8
55.5

41.1

43.4
43.5
42.7
43.0
42.7
48.0

56.9
56.6
56.2
56.5
55.9
54.7

39.0
39.0
89.1

48.5
48.5
43.1

See f o o t n o t e s a t end o f table.




20.73
20. 67
20.01

$19.11
17.57
17.21
17.02
17.51

47. G
46.6
46.0

89.9
40.1

40.8
40.8
42.9

40.6
40.2
89.9
89.8
89.7

40.1,

48.2

4*. 4

44-•

44-4

44.5

43.9
44.2
43.9

411

GENERAL TABLES

129

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and 6?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Trade—Continued
Retail, other than general
merchandising 1 3

Retail, general
merchandising 1

Retail (total) 1
Year and month

Average
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly worked
hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings
per week

43.1
42.9
42.8
42.6
42.7
42.7

Cents
54.5
54.2
54.5
54.5
54.5
55.0

$21.43
21.45
21.46
21.09
21.45
21. 46

39.9
39.3
39.1
39.5
39.3
39.3

42.6
42.7
42.3
42.4
42.3
42.7

55. 9
54. 6
53.2
53.9
54.0
52.7

21.72
21.38
20. 80
21.04
20. 76
20.10

39.0
38.7
38.6
39.0
39.1
40.9

43.4
43.1
43.0
42.8
42.8
43.4

53.4
53.4
53.2
53.5
53.6
53.8

21.71
21.55
21. 28
21.29
21.19
21.36

43.0
43.1
42.9
43.1
42.7
43.0

54.3
53.9
53.4
53.8
53.7
51.6

43.0
42.9
42.6
42.9
42.6
42.9
43.0
43.1
43.2
42.7
42.3
42.9
See footnotes at end of table.




Cents
48.9

49.4

$18.37
18.16
18.11
17. 66
18.15
18. 22

44.0
43.9
43.8
43.6
43.7
43.7

49.8
47.9
48.1
47.9
44.4

18.33
18.12
17.47
17.62
17. 43
16.95

43.6
43.8
43.4
43.5
43.4
43.5

39.7
38.8
38.7
38.5
38.5
38.7

45.9
45.7
45.9
45.8
46.0
46.2

18.38
18.19
17. 84
17.86
17. 90
18.05

21.58
21.39
20. 95
21.17
20. 82
20.19

38.3
38.2
38.6
38.5
38.4
40.4

47.2
47.1
45.5
45.7
45.0
41.6

18.25
18.07
17. 62
17.71
17. 30
17.05

54.3
54.3
54.0
54.6
54.5
54.8

21. 51
21.46
21.02
21.46
21.32
21.51

39.2
38.9
38.4
38.8
38.2
38.9

46.5
46.3
45.7
46.3
46.1
46.9

18.30
18.12
17.62
18.02
17. 88
18. 20

54.9
54.1
53.3
53.2
53.7
52.2

21.71
21. 35

38.4
38.1
39.0
38.4
38.1
40.0

47.6
47.1
45.6
45.6
45.2
42.8

18. 29
17. 65
17.83
17. 59
17. 34
17.35

21.16

20. 87
20. 76
20. 37

48.7
47.6

130

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Service
Hotels (year-round) 1

Year and month

Laundries

Dyeing and cleaning

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings4 earnings4 \yorked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
Cents

1932
19331934
1935
1936.

47.2
47.8
48.3

1937
1938
1939_
1940

Cents

Cents

37.7
36.6
37.4

$16.25
14. 74
15.03
15. 55
16.06

40.4
41.7
42.8

44.3
43.7
44.2

$18. 86
16. 78
17.90
18.27
18. 65

42.9
42.0
42.7
43.0

39.1
41.1
41.7
42.2

16. 82
17.15
17. 69
18.10

42.7
41.8
41.8
42.9

47.0
48.3
49.0
48.9

19. 72
19. 93
19. 96
20.44

13. 4.8
13.66
13. 81
13. 67
13. 58
13.57

39.9
40.4
40.5
40.5
40.7
40.9

37.0
36.2
36.4
36.8
36.7
36.9

15.12
15.19
15. 38
15. 53
15.60
15. 75

40.1
40.4
41.0
42.3
42.0
43.0

43.5
43.4
43.8
44.5
44.0
44.3

17. 55
17.42
17. 97
18. 81
18.49
19.12

9.7.4
27.5
27.7
27.9
28.2
28.2

18.86
18.26
13. 40
13. 59
13. 71
18.75

41.8
41.3
40.6
40.5
40.7
41.2

36.6
36.3
36.8
36.8
36.7
36.6

15.98
15. 56
15. 58
15. 56
15. 63
15.71

41.9
41.4
42.7
42.2
41.1
41.2

43.9
43.1
43.9
44. 1
42,9
42.6

18.46
17.98
18. 82
18. 60
17. 90
17. 74

48.8
48.7
48.6
48.5
48.3
47.9

28.5
28.5
28.5
28.6
28.6
28.8

18. 92
14.12
14.04
14.01
13. 94
13.90

41.3
41.7
42.2
42. 1
43.0
42.7

37.2
37.2
37.4
37.3
37.8
37.3

15.90
15. 66
15.97
15.85
16. 46
16.13

41.0
40.1
42.8
43. 1
45.2
43.9

42.3
43.6
43.9
44.4
45.7
44.5

17.40
17.03
18. 47
19.19
20. 30
19. 23

48.4
48.2
47.9
48.4
47.7
48.2

28.4
28.3
28.5
29.2
29.6
28.9

13. 96
13. 75
13.80
14-13
14.18
18.92

43.6
42.9
42.5
42.5
42.1
43.0

36.9
37.4
37.5
37.6
37.6
37.4

16. 26
16. 07
16.00
16. 09
15.95
16. 28

43.1
43.2
42.8
43.4
42.2
41.9

43.6
43.1
44.9
45.0
44.3
44.0

18. 62
18. 42
18.78
19.17
18.15
18.17

January. . .
February
March
April
May..
June.

48.1
48.2
48.8
47.9
47.8
47.7

28.8
29.9
29.7
30.1
30.4
30.7

14.24
14.44
14.4S
14. 59
14.59
14.83

42.8
42.9
43.0
43.1
43.4
43.6

37.5
37.7
38.0
38.6
38.8
39.1

16.18
16. 20
16.41
16.79
16. 94
17.18

40.7
41.2
42.5
43.8
44.6
45.4

44.2
44.5
45.5
46.3
46.8
47.1

17.67
17.71
18. 76
19. 94
20. 61
21.32

July...
August
September.
October
November.
December

47.4
47.3
47-4
47.1
47.2
47.4

31.2
31.1
31.6
81.7
32.2
82.2

14.88
14. 86
15.00
15.11
15.25
15.25

43.9
43.5
42.5
42.1
41.6
42.0

39.0
39.6
39.7
40.3
40.7
40.5

17.15
17.17
16. 84
16.96
16.90
17.03

42.5
43.1
43.9
42.5
40.8
40.2

46.1
47.2
47.5
50.5
49.1
49.1

19.50
20.09
20.60
20. 89
19. 53
19.09

27.8
27 9
28.7

$14. 25
19.79
13.17
13. 57
13. 97

39.4
40.7
42.5

47.7
46.8
47.1
46.3

30.8
31.5
32.4
33.2

14. 78
14.93
15. 25
15. 52

47.2
47.6
48.2
47.7
47.9
47.6

27 9
28.0
28.0
28.1
28.0
28.0

47.8
47.8
47.7
47.9
48.1
48.8

January
February
March
April
May.
June
July....
August
September-.
October
November
December

1935
January
February
March
April.
May
June.
July
August
September
October
November
December

—
—

1986

1937

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b l e .




GENERAL TABLES

131

TABLE 6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and 5?/
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued
Service
Laundries

Hotels (year-round) 1

Dyeing and cleaning

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly
earnings
per week
per week
per week
1938
January
February
March
April
May
June

46.5
47.1
47.3
46.9
46.6
46.8

Cents
31.4
31.8
31.2
31.6
31.5
31.4

$14.95
15. 25
14. 97
14.87
14.80
14. 95

41.8
41.8
41.8
42.1
42.0
42.4

Cents
40.9
40.5
40.6
41.1
41.1
41.0

$16.96
16.86
16. 92
17.20
17.10
17. 20

39.1
39.5
40.4
44.1
42.1
43.3

Cents
49.1
49.0
47.8
49.1
48.4
48.6

$18.64
18.94
19. 24
21.58
20. 30
20. 93

July
August
September
October
November.
December

46.7
47.1
46.4
46.7
47.2
46.2

31.2
30.7
31.6
31.9
31.8
32.5

14. 65
14.64
14. 81
15.01
15.07
15.15

42.3
42.5
41.9
41.4
41.8
42.2

41.1
41.1
41.3
41.8
41.6
41.4

17. 24
17.36
17.05
17. 24
17. 30
17. 43

42.0
42.0
43.5
42.1
41.4
40.7

47.6
46.8
48.3
47.9
48.5
48.7

19. 85
19. 47
20. 85
19. 91
10. 66
19.23

46.4
46.9
46.7
46.6
46.6
46.8

31.7
32.1
31.7
31.7
32.4
32.6

14. 95
15. 29
15. 09
15.01
15.22
15. 30

42.1
42.2
42.3
42.2
43.0
43.2

41.4
41.3
41.7
42.1
42.4
41.9

17.41
17. 32
17. 54
17. 57
18.07
17.95

40.4
39.7
41.1
41.0
43.9
43.4

48.7
48.6
49.2
49.2
49.1
49.1

19.12
18. 95
19. 48
19.71
21.12
21.00

46.8
47.1
46. 5
46.4
46.5
46.4

32.0
32.2
32.6
33.0
33.2
33.1

15.15
15. 20
15.25
15.43
15. 54
15. 51

43.3
42.9
42.5
42.7
42.4
42.9

41.6
41.0
41.4
41.8
41.7
41.7

17. 85
17. 58
17.59
17.84
17.68
17. 88

42.1
41.6
42.7
42.5
41.2
41.5

48.2
48.3
49.3
49.1
50.0
49.5

19. 81
19. 42
20. 48
20. 32
19. 89
19. 86

January
February.. .
March. .
April...
May
June

46.0
46.4
46.2
46.6
46.3
46.3

33.1
33.2
32.9
33.0
33.1
33.3

15.
15.
15.
15.
15.
15.

37
55
44
60
36
47

42.9
43.0
43.0
43.0
43. 5
43.9

41.5
41.3
41.7
42.0
42.1
42.2

17.76
17. 74
.17.87
18. 03
18. 32
18. 51

40.1
40.4
42.4
43.5
44.7
45.0

49.5
48.5
48.8
49.4
48.9
49.1

19. 37
18. 83
20.10
20. 99
21.46
21.57

July
August
September
October
November
December

46.7
46.7
46.2
46.3
46.1
45.7

32.9
33.0
33.6
33.3
33.6
33.9

15. 42
15. 46
15. 51
15. 57
15. 75
15. 78

43.0
43.0
42.8
42.6
42.3
43.2

42.1
42.2
42.7
42.8
43.1
42.6

17.96
18.09
18. 20
18.18
18.13
18. 36

42.5
42.9
44.3
43.0
41.9
42.4

48.6
48.1
49.2
49.0
49.4
48.6

20.13
20. 05
21.30
20.61
20.13
20.09

1939
January
February
March __
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

.

__
...

1940

See f o o t n o t e s at end of table.




132

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940•—Continued

TABLE

Brokerage 1

Private building construction

Insurance 1

Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked
earnings
per week
per week
per week
Cents

Cents

$36. 99
34. 29
35. 02
36. 22
37.99

28.9
30.1
32.8

35. 24
36. 63
37. 46

36. 30
36. 32
36. 55

33.4
32.1
32.6
33.1

34- 77
84.41
34-29
84.55
34.74

35. 49
36.45
36.95
36.38
35.77
36.29

27.3
27.4
27.6
28.4
29.9

34. 79
85.18
34. 88
85.08
35.15
35.71

37.37
85.66
36.13
35.55
36.03
36.59

30.8
31.1
31.8
32.3
30.3
31.2

86. 49
36.15
86.90
37.30
37.52
37.59

87.86
88.45
87.66
87.83
38.16
38.26

30.8
29.1
30.8
31.7
33. 4
33.2

37.45
37.40
87.35
37.54
87.75
87.80

37.99
38.17
87.74
37.44
88.02
88.25

33.0
33.7
33.1
34.0
34.0
33.2

88.83
38.63
38. 89
89.17
89.42

38.74
41.09
39.50
39. 78

31.7
31.8
31.6
33.3
34.3
33.9

39.22
38. 85
88.77
38.52
38. 60
38.86

40.38
38. 93
38.59
38.45
39.15
38.91

34.1
35.0
34.4
34.4
33.2
31.1

36. 23
36.11
35.15
34.47
33.61
34. 06

37.19
36. 53
36. 36
36. 90
36. 27
36. 64

30.5
30.4
30.8
31.4
32.3
32.6

34. 53
34.71
34. 82
35. 76
36. 22
93.56

36. 63
35. 70
35. 48
35. 56
36. 00
36.70

33.0
32.9
32.8
33.8
31.9
31.7

$85.64
33. 83
85.34
34.88
37.28
88. 88

See footnotes at end of table.




GENERAL TABLES

133

6.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by years, 1932 to 1940, and by
months, January 1935 to December 1940—Continued

TABLE

Year and month

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week

1939

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June

Private building construction

Insurance 1

Brokerage 1

Cents

30.3
29.2
30.4
31.3
33.5
33.4

Cents
93.1
93.8
95.2
95.9
94.1
92.8

$28.15
27. 36
28.91
29.87
31.40
30.87

36
91
84
22
00
99

36. 20
35. 77
35. 94
36.14
36.21
36. 34

33.6
33.5
33.9
34.0
33.4
32.8

92.0
92.4
91.8
91.6
92.6
94.3

30.85
30.91
31.05
31.08
30.89
30.91

37. 62
37. 62
37.49
38. 29
37.95
37. 27

36. 51
36. 44
36. 79
36. 90
37.01
36. 90

30.8
30.2
30.9
31.8
33.6
33.8

97.1
96.3
97.1
95.8
95.5
94.8

29.75
28.97
29. 93
30. 35
32.04
31.95

36.88
35. 76
36. 54
37. 70
37. 55
38. 86

-

$36.49
36.11
36. 32
36. 71
36. 82
36. 75

36. 45
36.10
35. 89
36. 32
36. 42
36.95

33.6
34.1
34.8
35.4
31. 6
33.8

94.7
95.6
94.7
95.7
96.6
96.7

31.78
32. 47
32.92
33.84
30. 44
32. 63

$35.93
36.27
36. 50
36. 45
36. 69
36. 29
36.
35.
36.
37.
37.
37.

July
August
September . _
October
__ __
November
December -

mo
January
February
March __
April
May.
June

-

July
August
September
October
November
December

i Figures shown in italics are not strictly comparable with figures for later years as the latter exclude data
for corporation officers, executives, and other employees whose duties are mainly supervisory. Data for
December 1937 excluding corporation officers, executives, etc., but not based on a strictly identical sample
with that used in compiling the December 1937 figures shown in italics, are:
Industry

Telephone and telegraph
Wholesale trade.
Retail trade . . . . . .
General merchandising
Retail trade, other.
Hotels
Brokerage
Insurance

Average
hours

Average hourly Average weekly
earnings
earnings
Cents

42.7
43.1
40.9
44.1
46.5

68.4
52.4
45.5
55.4
31.7

$31.00
29.14
19.94
16. 79
23. 74
15.05
36. 79
37.40

Similar figures for electric light and power and street railways and busses not available because of change
in composition of sample. (See chapter II).
2 Covers street railways and trolley and motorbus operations of affiliated, subsidiary, and successor
companies.
3 T h e "Retail, other than general merchandising" group was discontinued after 1938. Beginning with
January 1939, a new series showing hours-and-earnings data for 5 additional lines of retail trade, namely,
food, apparel, furniture, automotive, and lumber, was computed. These data are available in mimeographed form.
* Cash payments only. T h e additional value of board, room, and tips cannot be computed.







Supplement
Hours and Earnings in 1941
The body of this report brings the data on hours and earnings to
the end of 1940. Similar data for the same manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries are presented in this supplement by months
for 1941. Averages for manufacturing industries are shown in table
5a; those for nonmanufacturing other than steam railroads and farm
labor are shown in table 6a. The 1941 data for class I steam railroads
and farm wages have been added to the original tables 9 and 10 shown
in appendixes B and C, respectively.
In general, average weekly and hourly earnings in manufacturing
industries rose sharply during 1941. The rise in hourly earnings in
the individual industries varied according to the extent of (1) wagerate increases and (2) premium payments for overtime, which were
extensive in many industries. The rise in weekly earnings was, of
course, affected by these two factors and the generally lengthened
hours of work, while the increases in the average hourly earnings and
average weekly earnings for all manufacturing industries combined
were further influenced by the fact that there was a disproportionate
increase in the number of persons employed in the higher-wage
defense industries. Thus, average hourly earnings in all manufacturing industries combined rose from 67.3 cents per hour in October
1940 to 77.0 in October 1941. Over the same period average hours
increased from 39.3 to 41.1, and average weekly earnings of factory
wage earners rose from $27.13 to $32.92.
During the first 10 months of 1941 wage-rate increases affecting
nearly 4,400,000 factory wage earners were made by firms reporting
to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, while increases affecting only
326,000 workers were reported during the corresponding months of
1940. The greater proportion of the increases during the early part
of the year were granted to workers in the heavy durable-goods industries. During September and October, however, the majority of
wage-rate increases occurred in plants manufacturing nondurable
goods.
As a result of the defense production effort, many durable-goods
industries expanded working hours considerably, and overtime became
widespread. Certain key defense industries (notably, machine tools,
engines, foundries, aircraft, and shipbuilding) reported average hours
in excess of 45 per week. By October 1941, hours worked per week




135

136

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

in durable goods had reached an average of 42.9 hours, a rise of 5 percent over October 1940; for nondurable goods the average was 39.1
hours, a gain of 4 percent over the year.
Among the nonmanufacturing industries substantial increases in
hourly earnings occurred during 1941 in anthracite and bituminouscoal mines, due largely to wage-rate advances affecting a major
proportion of the workers in the summer of 1941. Metal mines,
quarries, and oil wells also showed considerably higher levels in the
latter part of the year than in January. Hourly earnings in each of
the remaining nonmanufacturing industries for which monthly data
are available showed smaller gains except in the telephone and telegraph industry. Increases in hours worked per week wTere general
from January to October in nonmanufacturing industries, reflecting
the increased activity developing either directly or indirectly from the
defense program. Average hours worked per week in retail trade
establishments were slightly lower in October than in January. In
this industry the extent of part-time employment affects the levels
of average hours worked per week at certain seasons. Weekly earnings
were greater in October than in January 1941 in every instance except
in the telephone and telegraph industry.
The figures given for the later months are preliminary.




SUPPLEMENT

137

5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 1 by months, 1941

TABLE

Total manufacturing

Durable-goods group

Nondurable-goods group

Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings
earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

Year and month

mi
January
February
March
April
May
June

39. 0
40.0
40.4
40.0
40.8
41.3

Cents
68.9
69.2
69.7
70.8
72.6
73.8

$27.74
28. 58
29.11
29.17
30. 78
31.88

40.6
41.6
42.0
41.5
42.5
43.1

Cents
75.8
76.2
76.8
78.5
80.6
82.2

$31.93
32. 92
33. 49
33. 54
35. 57
36.91

37.3
38.3
38.8
38.4
38.9
39.4

Cents
62.0
62.1
62.4
62.9
64.1
65.0

$22.65
23. 22
23.63
23.62
24.48
25.11

July
August
September
October
November
December . . . .

40.3
41.0
40.9
41.1
40.3

74.4
74.5
75.8
77.0
78.1

31.22
31.66
32. 06
32. 89
32. 80

41.5
42.6
42.3
42.9
41.8

82.6
83.0
84.3
85.3
86.5

35. 84
36. 55
36. 82
37.92
37. 65

39.0
39.4
39.5
39.1
38.6

65.7
65.8
66.8
68.0
68.8

25.07
25.38
25. 78
26.11
26.09

_

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery

"Iron and steel" group

mi

Bolts, nuls, washers, and
rivets

39.8
40.7
41.0
40.8
41.5
42.0
.

Cents
78.6
79.1
79.5
84.1
85.8
86.3

$31.43
32. 20
32. 65
34.40
35.71
36. 40

39.1
40.0
40.1
39.8
40.4
40.9

Cents
86.1
86.6
87.3
95.4
96.7
96.4

$33.66
34.51
34. 94
37. 87
38. 98
39. 46

41.9
44.3
44.0
44.7
45.1
45.8

Cents
70.6
71.9
72.4
73.8
77.5
78.7

$29. 58
31.87
31.87
32.99
34. 92
36.02

39.9
41.4
40.7
41.5
40.9

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
A u gu s t .
September
October
November
December

Blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling mills

86.2
87.1
87.5
87.7
88.6

35. 53
36. 07
35. 60
36. 49
36.40

38.7
40.1
38.9
39.9
40.0

96.5
96.8
97.1
96.9
97.7

38. 90
38. 81
37.81
38. 63
39. 06

41.6
45.0
42.9
44.2
43.0

77.2
80.0
80.5
81.4
83.9

34.22
36.02
34. 51
35.96
36. 08

Cutlery (not including silver
and plated cutlery) and
edge tools

Cast-iron pipe

mi
January
February
March
April
May
June.
July
August
September
October
November
December

__
-

40.5
41.3
41.5
41.8
41.7
41.9

Cents
62.6
62.9
62.8
64.1
66.6
67.0

40. 4
41. 1
41.4
41.3
40.8

67.7
67.6
68.3
70.0
70.2

See footnotes at end of table




$25. 42
26. 07
26. 22
27. 00
27.93
28. 25
27.
27.
28.
29.
28.

45
91
42
16
74

40.5
41.6
42.6
42.6
43.4
43.9

Cents
65.2
67.1
67.8
67.3
69.4
69.9

42.0
44.0
44.2
44.5
43.9

69.1
70.2
70.2
71.7
73.3

$25.90
27.44
28. 44
28.16
29. 73
30. 32
28.
30.
30.
31.
31.

65
38
68
55
77

Forgings—iron and steel

45.0
45. 2
45.8
45.5
46.4
47.4

Cents
81.8
82.7
83.5
84.6
87.3
89.7

44.4
45.9
45.7
46.7
45.1

89.6
90.8
92.7
93.4
95.1

• $36. 75
37. 29
38.19
38. 37
40. 45
42. 45
39. 68
41.58
42. 30
43. 52
42. 87

138

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

TABLE

5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 1 by months, 1941—Con.
Iron and steel and th<3ir products, not including machinery—Continued
Hardware

Plumbers' supplies

Year and month

Stamped and enameled
ware

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1941
January
February
March
April
May
June.

40.8
41.9
42.0
41.4
42.3
42.5

Cents
69.5
68.9
69.0
69.3
70.7
73.7

$28.30
28.84
28.95
28. 64
29. 89
31.26

39.0
39.6
40.4
39.4
40.6
40.4

Cents
69.6
71.1
71.5
71.6
73.0
74.0

$27.13
28.15
28. 97
28.18
29. 64
29.90

39.4
40.4
40.4
40.4
40.5
41.7

Cents
66.5
66.3
66.7
2 67.2
70.5
71.2

$26.32
26.99
27.04
27.08
28. 51
29. 67

July
August
September
October
November
December

41.1
42.7
42.1
43.1
42.9

71.0
73.6
74.4
74.9
75.4

29. 30
31.42
31.35
32. 29
32. 32

38.9
40.1
40.5
42.0
39.6

74.2
75.3
76.4
78.7
78.9

28. 89
30.21
30. 97
33. 08
31. 29

40.0
41.5
41.3
41.7
40.7

71.7
71.9
72.4
73.2
74.2

28. 61
29. 82
29.81
30.48
30.18

Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and steam
fittings
1941
January.
February
March
April
May
June

Structural and ornamental
metalwork

Stoves

42.5
42.6
42.6
43.6
44.0
44.8

July
August. .
September
October. __
November
December

$30.98
31.28
31.49
32. 28
34. 63
36. 32

38.7
39.1
40.2
40.4
41.2
41.5

Cents
67.8
68.8
69.9
70.8
72.1
73.1

$26.07
26. 79
28.03
28.60
29. 66
30.33

41.8
42.2
42.9
43.2
44.0
44.4

Cents
74.3
75.0
75.6
78.2
82.5
83.6

$31.01
31.67
32.35
33. 71
36.13
36. 98

43.4
44.0
44.8
44.9
43.4

...

Cents
73.2
73.6
74.2
74.1
78.8
81.2
80.1
81.1
82.0
82.6
83.4

34. 65
35. 51
36. 64
37.00
35. 96

40.4
41.5
41.4
41.9
38.9

72.9
73.7
74.9
75.8
75.7

29. 43
30. 48
30. 97
31.70
29. 39

41.3
44.2
43.3
44.4
41.6

82.6
83.7
84.6
85.2
83.9

34.04
36. 92
36. 51
37. 59
34. 59

Tin cans and other tinware

1941

Tools, not including edge
tools, machine
tools,
files, and saws

Wirework

January
February
March.
April
May
June

39.8
39.4
40.1
41.0
42.1
42.1

Cents
63.9
63.8
63.9
64.2
65.2
66.0

$25. 31
24.98
25. 53
26.17
27. 27
27. 70

44.7
46.1
46.4
46.4
46.1
46.8

Cents
66.2
67.1
67.7
68.1
70.2
71.6

$29. 49
30. 86
31.36
31.57
32. 28
33. 45

39.7
41.7
41.7
40.1
42.9
42.9

Cents
71.2
71.3
3 71.1
70.5
73.1
74.3

$28.27
29. 71
s 29. 64
28. 22
31.32
31.88

July
August
September
October
November
December.

42.0
42.9
42.5
41.9
38.9

66.4
66.9
68.3
70.8
70.7

27.59
28. 42
28.92
29.56
27.39

43.4
46.5
46.3
47.0
46.8

73.1
73.5
75.2
75. 1
76.1

31.70
34.03
34. 80
35. 30
35. 58

42.0
42.0
41.3
42.0
41.9

73.5
75.5
76.8
77.9
79.3

30.85
31.68
31.70
32. 63
33.15

See footnotes at end of table.




SUPPLEMENT

139

5^-A.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 1 by months, 1941—Con.

TABLE

Machinery, not including transportation equipment

"Machinery" group
Fear and month

Agricultural implements
(including tractors)

Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating
machines

Average- Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1941
January
February
March
April
May
June

43.2
44.2
44.9
44.5
45.4
45.6

July
August
September..
October. __
November
December

_.

$33. 36
34. 28
35. 02
35. 20
37.17
38.00

44.6
45.1
45.1
45.4
44.6

.

Cents
76.8
77.2
77.8
78.9
81.8
83.2
83.6
84.4
85.0
86. 1
86.8

37. 53
38.19
38. 47
39. 23
38. 98

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
1941
January
February
March..
April
May
June

41.2
40.1
40.5
40.7
40.1

Cents
* 82.1 * $33. 25
81.8
33.13
82.0
33. 54
87.2
37. 52
88.6
36. 88
88.6
37. 32

41.4
43.4
44.3
45.3
45.9
45.3

Cents
84.6
86.2
87.3
87.7
88.8
92.4

$34. 78
36. 99
38. 25
39. 26
40.28
41. 34

36. 62
36.31
37.12
37. 46
36. 72

43.9
44.6
45.0
44.9
43.3

91.6
91.8
92.8
92.7
91.5

39. 74
40. 76
41.47
41.45
39.25

89.0
90.7
92.0
92.3
91.9

Engines, turbines, water
wheels, and windmills

Foundry and machineshop products

Cents
77.3
77.6
78.0
78.2
82.9
84.2

$33. 00
33. 87
34. 46
34.41
36. 68
37.01

45.4
45.3
46.1
43.3
46.5
46.7

Cents
86.5
85.3
87.3
88.7
93.6
96.7

$39.16
38. 56
40. 20
38. 30
43. 39
45. 03

42.9
44.0
44.7
44.5
45.4
46.1

Cents
75.7
76.2
76.9
78.0
80.3
81.9

$32. 51
33. 51
34. 39
34. 75
36.51
37. 78

43.5
43.9
43.6
44.0
43.1

July
August
September
October
November
December

85.0
85.1
85.5
86.0
86.4

37.06
37. 41
37. 24
37. 78
37.16

46.2
46.1
46.5
47.0
47.4

97.7
99.6
100.5
101.9
107.2

45. 02
45. 94
46. 62
47.81
50.64

44.6
45.6
45.4
46.0
44.6

81.8
82.6
82.9
84.3
84.9

36.61
37. 72
37. 77
38.84
38.00

Radios and phonographs

Machine tools
1941
.

July
August
September
October
November
December

50.4
51.9
51.9
51.0
52.1
52.0

Cents
79.7
80.1
79.9
80.6
82.2
83.1

$40.15
41.62
41.49
41.10
42. 79
43. 22

38.2
38.9
40.2
39.4
41.0
40.9

Cents
63.2
64.0
64.3
64.4
66.1
66.4

50.9
51.2
51.4
52.0
51.0

84.1
85.0
87.1
87.6
88.6

42. 80
43. 53
44. 74
45.54
45.17

41.2
41.3
42.1
41.9
42.9

69.3
68.7
69.7
70.1
70.4

See footnotes at end of table.

402097°—42




40.6
40.6
41.0
43.2
41.8
42.1

42.8
43.8
44.3
44.1
44.4
43.9

[

January
February
March
April
May
June

4

10

$24. 08
24. 80
25. 79
25.31
27. 02
27. 09
28.
28.
29.
29.
30.

30
32
25
42
16

Textile machinery and
parts

44.6
45. 6
45.9
45.0
46.4
46.8

Cents
67.7
69.0
69.3
69.7
72.8
74.5

$30.13
31. 36
31. 77
31.32
33. 72
34.84

46.5
46.6
47.6
47.4
46.6

74.2
74.4
75.4
76.0
76.8

34. 31
34.49
35.84
35.95
35.71

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

140
TABLE

5-A.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 1941—Con.
Machinery, not including
transportation equipment—Continued

Year and month

Typewriters and parts

Transportation equipment

"Transportation" group

Aircraft

Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average hours Average Average
hourly
worked earnings weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings
1941
January._
February.
March
April
May
June

39.1
40.9
42.3
43.8
45.3
45.8

Cents
67.5
67.4
69.1
70.6
71.6
74.9

$26. 40
27.58
29.20
30. 93
32. 40
34.31

40.4
42.1
42.3
39.7
42.4
43.8

Cents
91.1
91.7
92.0
92.3
94.5
97.6

$36. 61
38.46
38.80
36.41
39. 90
42. 70

44.7
45. 5
45. 2
45.1
45.4
45.0

Cents
77.6
78.4
78.3
78.8
79.4
79.7

$34.13
35.14
35.02
35.15
35.84
35.63

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

46.4
46.4
47. 7
47.0
47.2

74.9
75.4
75.8
75.6
75.9

34. 77
35.01
36.16
35. 52
35. 80

41.2
41.8
41.7
43.0
41.4

100.3
101.9
104.2

40. 51
41.23
41.72
43. 60
43. 01

44.8
45.6
45. 6
45. 2
44.3

81.2
84.5
84.5
87.0
90.2

36. 57
38. 08
38.19
39. 20
39. 74

Transportation equipment—Continued
Cars, electric- and steamrailroad

Automobiles

Locomotives

41.2
41.4
37.0
41.0
43.0

Cents
96.9
97.4
98.2
98.3
101.4
106.3

$37. 66
40. 06
40. 61
36. 36
41. 56
45. 68

38.5
39.5
37.7
40.3
41.6
41.7

Cents
76.8
78.1
78.0
79.7
82. 2
83.3

$29.57
30.88
29. 42
32.14
34.16
34. 73

42.8
43.6
43.7
44.4
43. 9
45.8

Cents
81.4
82.0
82.2
84.6
89.1
• 90.9

$34.79
35. 72
35.91
37. 59
39. 08
41.62

38.3
39.0
38.7
40.7
39.3

106.6
105.5
107.9
109.1
111.6

40. 79
41.09
41.72
44. 32
43. 84

39. 7
39.4
38.9
42.6
40.3

81.6
84.4
86.8
88.5
91.0

32. 43
33.29
33. 80
37. 69
36. 62

45.3
44. 7
45.2
45.8
44.9

92.0
91. 1
92.3
92.0
93.5

41.70
40. 71
41.68
42. 12
42. 00

Transportation equipment
—Continued
Shipbuilding

Nonferrous metals and their products
Nonferrous" group

Aluminum manufactures

42.0
42.8
44.0
42.8
43.9
45.4

Cents
89.3
90.0
89.0
90.6
92.8
95.4

$37. 69
38.71
39. 30
39.17
41.00
43.83

41.4
41.8
42.1
42.0
42.8
43.1

Cents
74.0
74.0
74.8
74.9
77.0
79.4

$30. 69
31.00
31.67
31.50
33.12
34.30

41.4
42.0
38.1
41.7
42.5
42.2

Cents
75.3
75.5
75.5
75.4
80.8
83.0

$31.16
31. 73
28.74
31.40
34. 36
35.04

44.8
44.4
44.8
45.4
42.9

101.3
103.9
104.3
105.9
107.0

45. 54
46.47
46.82
47.84
45.90

42.0
43.0
43.1
42.7
41.6

80.3
80.8
82.1
82.2
83.1

33. 78
34.88
35. 22
35.09
34. 72

41.0
42.6
42.4
42.5
42.4

83.3
83.7
85.4
85.8
87.2

34.12
35. 67
36.21
36. 43
37.01

See footnotes at end of table.




SUPPLEMENT

141

TABLE 5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 191+1—Con.
Nonferrous metals and their products— Continued
Brass, bronze, and copper
products

Year and month

Clocks, watches, and timerecording devices

Jewelry

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1941
44.0
43.5
44.4
43.8
44.5
44.7

January
February
March
May
June
July
August
September
October
November

-

Cents
80.8
81.1
82.5
81.6
83.4
86.1

$35. 27
35. 20
36. 54
35. 70
37.10
38. 37

38.9
41.2
41.8
41.2
42.3
42.4

Cents
61.4
61.4
61.2
62.7
64.6
66.0

$23.90
25. 27
25. 58
25. 83
27. 36
27.94

38.4
39.8
40.9
40.3
40.9
41.3

Cents
58. 6
58.5
58.9
59.4
60. 7
61.2

$22. 78
23.41
24.14
24.07
25.08
25. 51

44.2
44.4
43.8
43.1
42.3

87.6
88. 7
88. 7
89. 0
89.4

38. 46
39.17
38. 65
38. 24
37. 79

38.5
43.0
42.7
43.3
42.1

67.1
68.2
69.2
69.6
70.5

25. 85
29. 30
29. 54
30.10
29. 64

41.5
42.4
43.6
43.1
40.2

60.7
60.5
62.5
63.2
64.5

25. 30
25. 76
27.04
27.10
25.90

Lighl:ing equip ment
1941

Silver ware and plated
ware

Smelti]ng and refining—
coppeir, lead, an d zinc

January
February
March. _
April
May
June

39.3
40.4
40.5
39.8
41.0
41.0

Cents
71.7
71.7
71.7
72.8
74.8
77.8

$28.19
29.00
29. 05
29.01
30. 62
31.86

41.4
42.7
44.3
43.2
45.1
44.0

Cents
66.6
67.0
68.0
67.9
70.8
74.4

$27. 37
28. 35
29.81
29. 07
31.64
32.32

38. 7
38.9
39.1
39.0
39.2
40.5

Cents
75.5
75.9
75.8
76.9
78.9
79.8

$29. 21
29.51
29. 60
29. 96
30. 94
32.28

July
August
September
October
November
December

40.5
41.9
43.6
42.4
39.9

77.6
78.4
83.1
81.1
81.0

31.43
32. 85
36.20
34. 38
32.35

42.1
44. 1
46.4
45. 7
45.2

73.1
74.1
76.3
75. 5
76.4

30. 43
32. 33
35.10
34. 41
34.40

39.4
39.5
39. 1
39.5
39.3

81.3
81.7
82.6
84.5
86.2

32.00
32.29
32.29
33.38
33.92

Lumber and allied products

1941
January
February
March.
April
May
June
July
August
September.
October.
November
December

..
-

38.9
39.4
39.7
40.2
40.1
40.9

Cents
52.9
53.4
54.1
54.7
55.6
57.0

$20. 72
21.23
21.68
22.16
22. 57
23. 57

39.0
40.0
40.8
40.8
42.0
42.4

Cents
55.2
56.0
56.5
57.0
58.4
59.7

$21. 42
22. 32
23. 03
23. 22
24. 35
25.12

40.5
41.3
40.4
41.1
42.2
42.5

Cents
55.4
55.0
56.2
56.6
57.5
59.3

$22. 51
22.81
22. 78
23. 36
24. 29
25. 21

39.9
41.8
41.1
41.5
39.5

57.7
58.8
59.0
59.8
60.2

23. 21
24. 68
24. 47
25.12
24.12

41.4
42.2
42.3
42.8
41.0

60.1
60.8
61.7
62.6
64.0

24. 68
25. 49
26. 03
26.71
26. 07

41.7
43.3
42.8
43.4
41.6

59.3
61.0
61.1
61.9
62.5

24. 74
26. 44
26.17
26.91
26. 05

See footnotes at end of table.




Lumber, mill work

Furniture

"Lumber" group

142

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

TABLE

5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,l by months, 1941—Con.
Lumber and allied
products—Continued
Lumber, sawmills

Year and month

Stone, clay, and glass products
"Stone, clay, and glass"
group

Brick, tile, and terra cotta

1
Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average hours Average Average
hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked
worked
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1W
January
February
March
April
May
June

___

July
August
September
October
November
December

38.4
38.5
38.9
39.7
38.6
39.7

Cents
51.0
51.7
52.3
53.0
53.7
55.2

$19. 59
19.89
20. 32
21.02
20. 74
21.89

36.5
37.2
37.2
38.0
38.5
38.6

Cents
68.2
68.5
68.9
69.5
71.0
71.7

$25.17
25. 61
25. 89
26. 50
27. 64
28. 04

36.9
37.5
37.4
38.4
38.4
38.8

Cents
58.7
58.9
59.4
60.6
63.9
64.2

$21. 74
22. 09
22. 30
23. 38
24. 58
24. 97

38.6
41.0
39.7
40.2
38.0

56.0
57.3
57. 2
57.8
57.3

21.60
23. 49
22. 72
23. 22
21. 79

37.4
38.5
38.2
39.2
37.8

72.0
72.1
73.6
74.4
74.9

27.02
27. 98
28. 28
29. 38
28. 59

38.2
38.8
38.7
39.2
38.1

64.5
64.8
65.3
65.5
65.7

24. 59
25. 30
25. 27
25. 71
25.11

Stone, clay and glass products—Continued
Marble, granite, slate,
and other products

Glass

Cement

37.9
38.0
38.2
40.3
40.6
41.7

Cents
70.9
70.9
71.0
71.3
75.7
76.7

$26. 82
26. 93
27.13
28. 72
30.71
32.02

36.3
37.0
37.1
37.4
37.8
38.5

Cents
77.2
77.4
77.8
77.0
76.9
78.0

$28. 02
28. 62
28. 76
28. 70
29. 53
29.91

40.2
40.7
40.2
41.0
39.7

77.5
78.2
78.7
78.3
78.7

31.14
31.82
31.64
32.08
31.22

36.1
37.6
37.3
38.6
37.0

78.2
78.2
81.2
83.6
84.4

28.19
29. 28
30.19
32.16
31.17

Stone, clay, and glass
products—Continued
Pottery

36.4
37.0
37.4
37.6
38.1
38.1
36.5
38.3
37.9
38.6
37.5

See footnotes at end of table.




34.6
35.6
35. 2
36.9
39.2
36.8

Cents
70.8
71.6
72.3
5 72.3
73.8
72.6

$24. 29
25. 33
25. 37
26. 80
29. 06
26. 71

36.8

73.3
73.1
73.1
72.8
72.1

27. 05
28. 30
28. 06
28. 32
26. 70

Textiles and their products
"Textiles" group

"Fabrics" (subgroup)

Cents
63.5
63.6
64.1
66.2
67.0
68.1

$22. 92
23. 38
23. 90
24. 88
25. 58
26. 06

35.7
37.4
37.8
37.3
37.9
38.1

Cents
51.2
51.5
51.7
52.4
53.0
53.4

$18.14
19.07
19. 37
19. 48
20.13
20. 33

36.9
38.3
38.6
38.3
38.8
39.1

Cents
49.2
49.2
49.4
50.9
52.0
52.2

$17.93
18.61
18.89
19. 33
20. 09
20. 28

68.3
68.7
69.1
69.5

24. 90
26. 22
26. 09
26.84
26. 25

37.4
38.1
38.3
37.6
37.1

55.0
55.4
56.9
58.1
57.9

20. 55
21.04
21.73
21.91
21.57

38.5
38.9
39.1
38.8
38.4

53.4
53.3
55.1
56.6
56.7

20. 43
20. 63
21.38
21. 80
21. 66

SUPPLEMENT

143

TABLE 5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 191+1—Con.
Textiles and their products—Continued
Carpets and rugs

Cotton goods

Cotton smallwares

Year and month
Average Average Average Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week

37.3
38.4
39.0
37.4
39.3
39.3

Cents
67.5
68.1
68.9
69.4
70.7
70.6

$25.18
26.10
26.86
25. 94
27.78
27. 71

37.2
38.4
38.8
39.3
39.5
39.6

Cents
41.9
41.8
42.3
44.6
45.1
45.1

$15. 60
16.04
16. 39
17. 54
17. 83
17.87

39.3
41.1
41.1
40.2
41.5
41.5

Cents
50.3
50.2
50.8
51.6
52.5
52.5

39.2
39.7
39.9
39.0
38.4

70.9
72. I
73.6
73.3
75.5

27. 77
28. 53
29. 33
28.58
28. 97

39.4
39.6
39.4
39.1

47.1
47.2
48.3
50.4
50.3

18.25
18. 58
19.12
19.80
19. 65

40.9
41.2
41.5
40.9
40.3

54.6
54.9
56.1
56.3
57.4

Dyeing and finishing
textiles

Hats, fur-felt

Hosiery

39.3
40.6
40.8
40.3
40.2
40.2

Cents
55.1
55.0
55.6
56.1
56. 9
57.2

$21. 65
22. 38
22.83
22. 78
23.06
23.21

36.2
38.4
38.5
29.1
34.1
36.1

Cents
75.5
77.2
76.7
75.6
77.1
80.2

$27.12
29.26
29.10
22. 50
26. 25
28. 60

33.8
35. 9
36.2
35.4
35.8
36.2

Cents
55.0
54.5
54.6
54.7
54.8
54.5

40.0
40.1
40.0
39.2
38.6

58.0
58.2
59.7
61.5
61.7

23. 43
23.57
24.14
24. 53
24.15

38.0
37.0
34.4
32.5
33.3

80.9
83.1
81.0
82.7
83.0

30.11
30. 38
27.87
26. 57
27. 23

36.0
35.7
35.6
36.6
36.5

55.2
53.8
54.9
57.3
57.0

Knitted outerwear

Knitted underwear

Knitted cloth

35.8
36.6
37.4
37.3
38.7

Cents
48.9
48.9
M8.5
48.9
49.8
49.9

$17. 65
18.14
18. 34
18. 50
19.36
19. 55

36.0
37.3
38.3
37.8
38.0
38.5

Cents
44.6
44.2
44.2
44.8
45.1
45.7

$16.06
16. 41
17. 00
17.03
17. 21
17.61

37.9
39.5
39.6
40.1
40.4
40.3

Cents
50.3
50.5
7 51. 7
52.6
53.3
53.4

37.9
38.6
38.9
38.1
37.5

50.3
50.6
51.1
51.8
52.0

19.29
19. 77
20. 22
19.' 92
19.83

38.8
38.5
39.2
39.0
38.6

46.1
45.8
46.3
48.1
48.1

17.89
17. 75
18.32
18.88
18. 72

39.9
40.1
39.9
39.7
38.4

54.5
55.1
55.1
56.4
56.7

See footnotes at end of table




144

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

TABLE

5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 1941—Con.
Textiles and their products—Continued
Silk and rayon goods

Woolen and worsted goods

Year and month

"Wearing apparel"
(subgroup)

Average Average
Average
Average
Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours Average Average
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1941
January
February...
March
April
May.
June

35.7
37.3
37.8
37.6
38.4
38.6

Cents
46.1
46.0
46.2
47.8
48.4
48.8

$16. 53
17. 22
17. 55
18.04
18. 67
18.95

37.9
39.2
39.1
38.7
39.7
40.1

Cents
57.6
57. 7
57.8
58.4
62.1
62.8

$21. 78
22. 57
22. 62
22. 58
24. 58
25.10

33.3
35. 7
36.3
35.3
36.2
36.0

Cents
55.2
9 56.1
56.1
55.3
55.0
55.9

$18. 73
20. 35
20. 68
19. 91
20. 22
20.48

July
August
September
October
November.
December

37.4
37.8
38.0
38.4
38.0

50.6
50.8
52.9
53.8
54.5

19.00
19. 37
20.16
20. 73
20.78

39.5
39.6
39.7
39.0
38.2

62.8
63.6
68.5
68.9
69.4

24. 75
25. 21
27.13
26.81
26. 45

35.4
36.4
36.7
35.4
34.4

58.2
59. 6
60.2
61.1
60. 4

20. 90
22.18
22.68
22. 21
21. 32

Clothing, women's

Clothing, men's
1941
January
February
March
April
May.
June.

_ __

July....
August
September
October
November
December

33.4
35.7
36.2
35.6
35.9
36.3

Cents
60.7
59.9
60.1
60.0
60.1
62.9

$20.40
21.43
21.90
21.32
21.66
22. 77

33.2
35.7
36.3
35.0
36.7
35.7

35.6
36.3
36.5
35.2
34.9

64.2
64. 4
64.5
66.0
66.0

22.91
23. 59
23. 64
23. 42
23. 08

35.0
36.0
36.5
34.9
32.8

Cents
55.3
io 57. 8
57.2
55.0
54.6
54.2
57.8
60.8
61.6
61.2
60.0

Men's furnishings

Cents

1941
33.3
36.0
36.1
34.9
36.5
36.1

Cents
42.2
42.3
42.4
42.6
42.7
43.3

$14.33
15. 54
15. 66
15.13
15.85
15.89

July
August
September
October
November
December

35.6
36.4
37.8
37.7
36.3

44.8
44.8
46.1
48.3
48.1

16. 37
16. 77
17. 72
18. 61
17. 86

See f o o t n o t e s a t end of t a b l e .




$19.47
21.92
22.12
20. 53
21.37
20.10

35.6
38.1
38.5
37.5
38.7
38.8

Cents
48.2
48.1
48.7
49.2
48.8
49.6

$17. 24
18.45
18.87
18.65
19.12
19. 49

21.25
23.45
24.54
22. 59
20. 58

37.9
37.4
38.8
38.9
36.8

50.1
51.6
52.3
53.7
54. 6

19.01
19. 49
20. 47
21.27
20. 34

Millinery

January
February .
March
April
May
June

Corsets and allied garments

Shirts and collars

$22. 31
26. 08
28. 50
26. 37
20.59
20. 66

33.1
35.8
36.2
36.4
37.0
37.3

Cents
42.0
41.5
41.7
42.6
42.9
43.7

$13. 86
14.86
15.04
15. 42
15. 74
16.29

21.05
28. 54
30.14
23. 57
20.09

36.9
37.4
37.8
37.9
37.5

43.8
44.8
45.4
48.1
48.4

16.11
16. 69
17.10
18.22
18.09

SUPPLEMENT

145

TABLE 5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 191+1—Con.
Leather and its manufactures
"Leather" group

Boots and shoes

Leather

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings
1941
January
February
March.
April
May
June
July...
August
September
October
November
December

-

..

37.3
39.1
39.7
38.0
37.5
38.7

Cents
55.5
56.4
57.2
57.9
59.0
59.9

$20.67
21.89
22.61
21.87
22. 09
22.99

37.0
38.9
39.7
37.7
36.9
38.2

Cents
53.0
54.0
54.9
55.5
56.7
57.3

$19. 58
20.92
21.77
20.84
20.89
21.66

38.3
39.6
39.6
39.2
40.1
40.8

Cents
66.2
66.4
67.0
67.7
68.1
70.0

$25. 27
26. 23
26.47
26.52
27.29
28.45

38. 7
39.2
38.0
37.7
36.4

60.9
61.5
63.0
63.5
64.4

23.68
23.97
23.71
23.59
23.16

38.4
38.8
37.4
37.0
35.4

58.4
59.0
60.1
60.5
61.4

22. 53
22. 90
22. 35
22. 07
21.45

40.2
40.7
40.0
40.4
40.3

71.0
71.4
74.0
74.8
75.3

28. 71
28.86
29. 51
30.22
30.40

Food and kindred products
Baking

" F o o d " group
1941

Beverages

January
February
March
April-.
May
June

39.0
39.5
40.0
39.6
40.3
41.0

Cents
64.9
65.1
65.5
65.5
67.0
67.2

$24.89
25. 25
25. 74
25. 56
26. 68
27.08

41.1
41.6
41.6
41.1
41.8
42.5

Cents
64.4
64.4
64.1
64.7
65.9
66.5

$26.46
26. 73
26.66
26. 59
27. 56
28. 21

37.2
38.1
38.9
40.1
40.7
41.3

Cents
89.5
89.2
90.1
89.8
89.8
90.4

$32. 96
33.69
34.63
35.67
36.19
36.93

July
August
September
October
November
December

40.9
41.0
41.6
40.9
40.2

66.2
65.8
65.7
67.9
69.5

26. 36
26. 33
26. 56
27.14
27. 39

42.1
41.8
42.0
41.9
42.0

67.4
67.2
67.4
67.5
68.8

28. 26
28. 06
28. 32
28. 18
28.81

42.1
42.4
41. 1
40.6
38.6

91.5
91.5
91.8
92.0
92.7

38.12
38. 49
37.38
36. 92
35.41

Canning and preserving

Butter
1941

Confectionery

January
February
March
April
May—
June

44.6
45.3
45.3
45.3
45.9
46.9

Cents
50.9
50.6
50.5
50. 0
49.5
51.0

$22.84
23. 15
23.14
22. 96
23.15
24.15

33.0
33.9
34.5
34.2
34.3
36.6

Cents
51.0
50.7
52. 5
51.4
51.7
51.9

$16.67
17. 02
17. 90
17. 33
17. 44
18.75

37.6
38.8
39.2
37. 1
37.6
38. 1

Cents
n 51.1
51.8
51.9
51.9
53.1
54.6

ii $19.19
20. 04
20.30
19.17
19.91
20.50

July
August
September
October
November
December

46.9
47.5
46.2
45.9
45.6

51.1
51.7
52.5
53.4
53.3

24. 29
24. 77
24. 39
24.74
24. 63

39.2
39.8
42.2
39.8
36.4

50.4
52.0
51.1
54.7
56.8

19. 52
20. 27
21. 21
21.23
20.27

35.6
38.6
40.2
40.6
40.2

54.8
55.5
54.5
54.7
54.9

19.68
21.39
21.81
22.16
21.96

See footnotes at end of table.




146
TABLE

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES
5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 1941—Con.
Food and kindred products—Continued
Flour

Slaughtering and meat
packing

Ice cream

Year and month

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week

41.0
41.3
41.0
42.5
42.0
43.3

Cents
60.8
61.6
61.6
62.3
62.6
63.0

43.3
42.9
45.5
44.3
42.3

63.5
64.4
67.2
66.1
65.7

27
66
48
59
44
28

44.2
44.6
45.2
45.9
45.4
46.8

Cents
65.3
65.4
65.1
64.2
63.9
64.0

$29. 41
30. 00
30.16
30.08
29.28
30. 20

39.3
39.0
39.2
39.1
40.5
40.4

27. 68
28. 07
30. 86
29. 66
28. 22

46.6
46.8
45.3
44.7
45.0

63.6
64.0
68.4
67.9
67.9

29.93
29.99
30.98
30.80
31.14

39.9
39.6
39.4
39.8

$25.
25.
25,
26.
26.
27.

Food and kindred products—Continued

36.5
38.1
34.6
37.9
39.5
39.8

Cents
63.0
76.1
81.9
78.6
77.2
79.0

37.3
36.4
35.7
36.8
49.0

78.3
77.4
77.4
65.3
62.3

$24.
27.
27.
28.
29.
30.

03
69
56
63
35
71

35.0
35.5
41.5
39.1
38.2
41.7

28. 47
27. 64
27. 41
24.41
30. 46

39. 5
44.0
41.5
37.7
38.2

Cents
65.0
65.6
65.8
65.2
65.2
67.0
67.0
67.7
68.0

68.4

34.9
33.7
35.3
33.7
36.4
36.4

Cents
53.7
53.9
54.3
54.9
56.4
57.4

36.4
36.6
36.6
36.7
36.5

58.0
57.8
57.4
57.9
58.1

See footnotes at end of table.




26. 81

27.14
29. 55
29. 79

73.7
76.6
78.0
78.7
79.3

29. 43
30.31
30. 63
31. 20
30. 79

" T o b a c c o " group

$22. 73
23. 33
27. 32
25. 53
24.89
27. 93
26.
29.
28.
25.
26.

47
77
22
75
20

Tobacco manufactures—Continued
Chewing and smoking
tobacco and snuff

$26. 84
26. 70

Tobacco manufactures

Sugar refining, cane

Sugar, beet

Cents
68.1
68.5
68.5
69.4
73.1
73.8

35.7
35.4
36.1
33.2
36.9
37.6

Cents
49.8
49.5
49.7
50.6
50.9
51.7

$17. 76
17. 54
17.99
16.88
18.82
19.48

37.3
37.2
38.3
38.7
38.5

52.3
52.0
52.5
52. 7
53.2

19.45
19. 37
20.00
20. 36
20. 45

Paper and printing

Cigars and cigarettes

"Paper and printing"
group

19.10
18. 50
20. 45
20. 76

35.8
35.6
36.1
33.0
36.9
37.8

Cents
49.3
49.0
49.2
50.1
50.3
51.3

$17. 57
17.42
17. 78
16. 58
18. 52
19. 25

38.8
39.1
39.7
39.6
40.0
40.1

Cents
12 80. 2
80.3
80.7
80.5
81.1
82.6

$29.77
30.04
30. 67
30. 54
31.13
32. 01

21.06
21.08
20. 87
21.14
21.12

37.4
37.3
38.4
38.9
38.7

51.7
51.4
51.9
52.2
52.7

19.16
19.06
19. 84
20. 22
20. 33

39.6
40.1
40.1
40.3
40.4

82.5
82.4
83.0
83.4
84.1

31.70
32.04
32. 34
32. 66
32.98

$18. 60
18.12

SUPPLEMENT

147

TABLE 5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, 1 by months, 19//.1—Con.
Paper and printing—Continued
Paper and pulp

Boxes, paper
Year and month

Printing and publishing,
book and job

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly worked hourly weekly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings

40.8
40.8
41.8
42.3

Cents
57.6
57.9
58.2
58.5
59.2
60.5

$22. 26
22.87
23. 54
23. 74
24. 55
25. 31

40.8
41.9
42.5
42.6
43.0
43.3

Cents
66.2
66.1
66.4
66.6
67.6
71.6

$27.02
27. 66
28.19
28. 31
29.07
30.97

39.6
39.2
39.8
39.4
39.7
39.7

Cents
81.0
81.0
81.7
81.4
81.9
82.6

$31. 64
31. 28
32.08
31.54
32.01
32. 30

41.2
41.9
42.3
42.7
42.0

61.4
61.8
62.0
62.5
63.2

25.13
25. 72
26. 06
26. 58
26. 40

42.0
43.1
42.9
43.4
43.3

72.7
72.5
72.8
73.2
73.8

30. 49
31.18
31.17
31.73
31.94

39.9
39.9
39.9
40.3

81.9
81.6
82.9
82.7
83.8

32. 24
32. 23
32.82
32.91
33. 56

Paper and printing—Con.
Printing and publishing,
newspapers and periodicals

Cents
is 105. 2
105.7
105.5
105.7
106.6
106.9

35.4
35.5
36.0
36.0
36.2
35.8
35.6
35.7
35.9
35.8
36.1

106.8
107.0
107.6

108. 2

108.6

$38.15
38. 54
39. 02
39. 01
39. 51
38. 93
38. 88
39. 63
39. 42
40.10

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products

"Chemicals" group

"Other than petroleum
refining" group

39.1
39.9
39.8
40.5

Cents
77.0
77.0
76.6
77. 3
80.6
82.4

$30. 31
30.24
30. 36
30. 96
32. 41
33. 63

39.8
40.1
40.7
40.7
41.2

Cents
70.6
70.7
70.5
70.7
74.4
76.1

$28. 81
28. 71
28. 83
29. 09
30. 78
31. 79

40.0
40.0
39.9
40.2
40.0

83.8
83.7
84.5
86.1
87.5

33.74
33. 78
34.12
34. 99
35. 23

40.8
40.6
40.7
41.2
40.9

77.7
78.0
77.6
79.4
80.6

32.16
32.16
32.17
33. 24
33. 55

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and
meal

Chemicals

Druggists' preparations

40.3
40.6
41.0
40.8
41.1
41.6

Cents
82.2
82.6
82.9
83.9
86.3
86.6

$33.10
33. 50
33. 93
34. 24
35. 48
36. 04

44.6
43.4
42.1
42.5
40.3
40.4

Cents
33.8
34.0
34.5
34.2
35.0
35.9

$15. 55
15. 02
14. 92
14. 90
14. 73
15.17

39.6
39.9
39.9
39.4
39.4
40.8

41.0
41.3
40.8
41.0
40.7

88.6
88.5
89.7
92.5
93.5

36. 38
36. 57
36.58
37.85
38.08

40.0
38.7
44.8
47.2
46.1

36.4
37.1
35.6
35.4
36.9

15. 23
14. 82
16. 05
17.13
17. 21

41.4
40.3
41.0
42.0
41.3

See footnotes at end of table.




148

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES
5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, 19J+1—Con.

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Explosives

Fertilizers

Paints and varnishes

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
weekly
hours
hourly
hourly
hours
weekly
hours
hourly
weekly
worked
earnearnworked
earnearnworked
earnearnper week
ings
ings
per week
ings
ings
per week
ings
ings
mi
January
February
March
April.
May...
June...

38.8
39.5
39.7
40.9
42.0
43.0

Cents
86.0
85.1
85.2
87.6
88.2
89.1

$33.36
33. 66
33.86
35. 80
37.02
38. 31

34.8
34.9
36.5
41.9
38.5
37.4

Cents
42.9
42.1
40.8
41.7
46.8
48.6

$14.89
14. 69
14.88
17.48
17. 99
18.20

40.3
40.6
40.8
41.9
43.0
43.4

Cents
74.1
74.6
74.9
75.5
77.0
78.0

$29.86
30. 22
30. 46
31.57
33. 05
33.81

July
August
September
October
November
December

42.8
43.1
43.2
43.7
45.0

89.9
89.6
90.5
93.3
94.0

38. 48
38.56
39.04
40.81
42.30

36.7
36.1
36. 5
36.8
35.5

49.4
51.7
51.4
50.1
51.1

18.11
18.67
18. 77
18. 45
18.14

41.8
41.7
41.3
41.2
40.8

78.1
78.4
78.9
80.8
81.8

32. 63
32. 65
32. 56
33. 33
33.30

Petroleum refining
1941

Rayon and allied products

Soap

January
February
March
April.
May...
June.

35.7
35.6
36.0
37.0
37.0
38.2

Cents
97.0
97.0
96.7
99.5
100.8
102.0

$34. 46
34. 36
34. 68
36.64
37.14
38. 74

39.2
38. 4
38.9
39.0
39.5
39.3

Cents
69.9
70.2
70.0
70.6
71.2
72.2

$27.40
26. 94
27. 28
27. 54
28.16
28.35

40.0
40.3
40.5
40.4
40.7
41.1

July...
August
September
October
November
December

37.4
38.0
37.2
36.9
36.6

103.0
102.5
108.3
109.7
111.1

38.26
38.57
40.14
40. 33
40.41

39.8
39.3
39.2
39.4
39.4

72.9
72.8
74.6
77.3
77.5

29.06
28.60
29. 29
30. 42
30. 50

41.2
41.3
41.1
41.2
40.5

.

Cents
74.0
73.4
73.6
73.7
78.9
79.3

$29. 58
29. 54
29. 84
29. 76
32.13
32.58

78.4
79.0
81.5
83.2
83.6

32. 30
32. 66
33. 50
34.28
33.82

Rubber products

" R u b b e r " group

39.0
39.3
39.7
39.4
40.3
41.4
39.2
39.4
38.5
39.1

See footnotes at end of table.




Cents
78.8
79.2
79.9
80.4
81.6
84.5
86.1

85.9
86.5
87.6

Rubber boots and shoes

Rubber tires and inner
tubes

$30. 85
31.20
31.67
31.62
32.82
34.70

41.9
41.3
41.7
40.9
41.2
43.0

Cents
63.9
64.5
64.3
64.9
65.8
67.2

$26.76
26. 66
26. 83
26. 54
27.11
28.91

37.7
37.8
37.9
37.9
38.6
39.9

Cents
97.5
98.1
99.2
99.5
100.8
103.7

33.18
33. 78
32. 65
33.54
34. 39

40.1
41.4
42.7
41.8
41.8

68.0
71.5
72.6
" 72.4
73.6

27.31
29.60
31.00
« 30.25
30.74

37.8
37.0
34.7
35.8
37.0

104.8
106.2
104.6
106.0
107.5

SUPPLEMENT

149

TABLE 5-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,1 by months, 191+1—Con.
Rubber products—Continued

Year and month

Rubber goods, other than
boots, shoes, tires, and
inner tubes
Average Average Average
hours
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings
per week

1941
January
February
March
April
May
June

39.4
40.3
41.0
40.4
41.7
42.3

July
August
September
October
November
December

40.5
41.3
41.2
41.5
40.9

Cents
63.9 v $24.97
64.3
25. 72
26.31
64.7
65.1
26.10
66.6
27.56
68.0
28.61
68.0
70.0
70.8
71.3
71.7

27.41
28.76
28.99
29. 53
29. 28

1 The figures published are based on the reports available from cooperating firms for the month shown and
the reporting sample is not identical from month to month. Where significant shifts in levels between the
averages shown for 2 consecutive months were caused by changes in the reporting sample, footnotes giving
directly comparable data are shown.
2 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for March are 67.1 cents.
3 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings and average weekly earnings for February are 70.4 cents
and $29.46.
* Strictly comparable averages for December are 40.3 hours, 81.8 cents, and $32.89.
« Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for March are 71.1 cents.
6 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for February are 48.3 cents.
7 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings and average weekly earnings for February are 51.1 cents
and $20.37.
8 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for M a y are 53.7 cents.
9 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for January are 55.7 cents.
10 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for January are 56.7 cents.
11 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings and average weekly earnings for December are 49.0 cents
and $19.75.
12 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for December are 80.5 cents.
13 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings for December are 106.3 cents.
14 Strictly comparable average hourly earnings and average weekly earnings for September are 72.0
cents and $30.67.




150

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

TABLE

6-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, 1941
Mining
Anthracite

Bituminous coal

Metalliferous

Year and month
Average Average Average Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings arnings
per week
per week
per week
1941
January-.
February.-March
April
May
June
--

27.0
31.4
29.9
18.5
22.9
34.0

October November

.

$25.13
29. 35
27.79
16.43
22. 59
34.20

29.7
30.9
31.6
22.8
30.9
31.7

Cents
88.5
88.4
88.3
84.1
100. 5
102.3

$26. 00
26.90
27.64
17.63
31.31
32. 37

40.7
41.0
41.0
41.2
41.8
42.7

Cents
74.8
75.6
75.4
78.5
79.9
80.2

$30. 31
30. 83
30.85
32.19
33.28
34.07

23.2
33.8
33.4
31.9
27.2

-

July
August

Cents
92.5
92.6
92.7
92.3
94.5
100.2
99.8
98.9
98.2
100.6
100.7

?3. 25
33. 56
32. 60
32. 12
27. 38

28.7
32.7
31.5
33.0
31.3

102.8
103.3
103.4
103.8
105.1

31.22
33.85
32. 75
34. 27
32. 62

39.6
41.9
41.6
42.5
42.1

79.5
80.8
82.1
82.3
85.0

31.62
33. 68
34.04
34. 86
35. 74

Mining—Continued
Quarrying and nonmetallic
1941
January
February _
March
April.
May
- _
June __
July
August
September
October
November
December

Crude-petroleum
production

38.2
38.9
38.9
40.7
42.5
42.8

-

Cents
57.6
58. 2
58.9
60.0
61.7
63.5

$22. 06
22. 64
22. 85
24.73
26. 30
27.19

37.7
37.4
37.3
38.0
37.9
37.1

42.0
43. 7
43.6
44.0
42. 1

-

Public utilities 1

63. 5
64.1
64.3
65.9
66.2

26. 67
27.91
28. 07
28.88
27. 66

38. 1
37.9
38.5
38.7
37.6

Telephone and telegraph

Cents
88.5
90.4
89.3
90.0
91.4
93.5

$33.99
34.91
34. 25
35. 31
35. 54
35. 67

39.7
39.5
39.8
39.8
40.3
40.2

Cents
80.4
80.5
80.6
79.9
79.7
80.2

$31.69
31.64
31.93
31.64
31.91
32.02

93.0
93.5
96.2
96.8
99.9

36. 05
36. 26
38. 28
38.39
38. 79

40.5
40.2
40.3
39.7
40.0

79.6
79.2
79.3
79.7
80.7

32.04
31. 75
31.75
31.53
32.08

Public utilities 1 —Continued
Electric light and power
1941

Trade 1

Street railways and busses

Wholesale

January
February
MarchApril
May
June

39.4
39.2
39.3
39.8
40.2
39.3

Cents
90.3
90.8
91.4
90.6
90.7
92.9

$35. 49
35. 57
35.82
35. 96
36. 32
36.44

45.3
45.8
46.6
46.4
46.4
47.7

Cents
73.1
73.4
73.2
73.1
73.0
74.5

$33.63
34. 00
34. 59
34. 37
34. 36
35.91

40.6
40.5
40.6
41.0
41.2
41.4

Cents
75.6
76.6
77.2
77.5
78.1
79.8

$30.59
30.96
31.17
31. 36
31.90
32.57

July
August
September.
October
November
December

39.9
40.3
40.0
40.6
39.9

91.9
91.5
92.5
92.9
94.5

36. 50
36.75
36.81
37. 50
37. 60

46.3
47.4
46.4
46.4
46.2

75.7
76.3
77.1
77.0
77.6

35. 54
36.67
36. 20
36. 32
36. 35

40.9
41.1
41.0
41.3
40.6

79.7
79.8
81.2
81.2
82.4

32.45
32.60
33.28
33.48
33.44

See footnotes at end of table.




SUPPLEMENT

151

6-a.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, 1941—Con.

TABLE

Trade 1 —Continued
Retail, general merchandising

Retail (total)

Retail, other than general
merchandising

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
hours
hours Average Average
hours Average Average
Average Average
weekly worked hourly
weekly worked hourly
hourly
worked
weekly
per
earnings earnings
per
per . earnings earnings
earnings earnings
week
week
week
1941
January
February
March
April
May
June

42.7
42.7
42.7
42.5
42.4
42.8

Cents
54.5
54.9
54.8
55.0
56.4
57.2

$21. 53
21.73
21.59
21.56
21.94
22. 31

38.8
38.9
38.5
38.7
38.4
38.7

Cents
46.5
46.7
46.6
46.1
47.6
48.0

$18. 22
18. 52
18.18
18.13
18. 55
18. 75

July
August
September
October. November

42.6
42.8
42.4
42.1
41.7

57.4
57.4
56.8
57.6
57.7

22. 54
22. 43
22.11
22. 07
21.88

38.9
38.5
38.0
38.4
38.2

48.6
48.9
47.8
48. 5
47.9

19.15
18. 94
18. 83
18. 69
18. 52

(2)
(2)
(2)
2
(2)
(2)
()
(2)
(2)
2
(2)
()

Cents

(2)
(2)
(2)
2
(2)
(2)
()
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
()
>
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

Service
Hotels (year-round)

Laundries

Dyeing and cleaning

Average
Average
Average
hours
hours
Average Average
hours
Average Average
Average Average
worked hourly
weekly worked hourly
weekly worked hourly
weekly
per
earnings3 earnings3
per
earnings earnings
per
earnings earnings
week
week
week
1941
January.
February
March
April
May
June

. . . --

July
August
September..
October
November
December

.

45.9
45.7
46.0
45.4
45.4
45.8

Cents
33.8
34.1
33.7
34.0
34.1
34.2

$15.65
15.81
15. 67
15. 87
15. 77
15. 86

42.9
43.2
43.3
43.8
43.7
43.7

Cents
42.9
42.7
42.6
43.4
43.7
43.9

$18.37
18.41
18. 37
18.98
19. 02
19.09

41.9
42.1
42.4
45.8
44. 7
44.7

Cents
48.8
49.0
49.4
51.1
50.2
50.6

$19.92
20.13
20. 34
22.94
22.04
22. 27

46.1
46.1
45.4
45.3
45.3

34.6
34.7
35.6
36.0
36.3

16.03
16. 13
16. 27
16.50
16. 77

43.6
43.2
43.3
42.9
42.6

43.9
44.1
44.9
45.3
46. 1

19.15
18. 94
19. 33
19. 31
19. 44

43.8
43.2
44. 7
43.9
42.7

50.8
50.8
51.9
52.7
53.1

21.92
21. 44
22. 69
22. 56
22. 09

Brokerage

Private building construction

Insurance

1941
January
February
March
April _
May
June
July
August
September.
October
November
December

.

$38.
37.
37.
38.
38.
39.

25
82
85
54
58
32

39. 57
39. 47
39. 79
39.72
40.22

52
26
24
34
55
65

32.6
32.8
32.8
34.4
35.1
35.3

Cents
98.6
99.7
99.6
98.9
99.3
99.7

$32.10
32. 67
32. 61
33.96
34.87
35.15

37.37
37. 33
37. 25
37.89
37. 73

35.4
35.7
36.5
35.7
34.6

100.0
100.1
101.7
102.3
103.9

35. 38
35. 76
37.10
36. 50
35.93

$37.
37.
37.
37.
37.
37.

1 N o t strictly comparable with figures prior to 1938 shown in tables 6 and 8 as the more recent fieures
exclude data for corporation officers, executives, and other employees whose duties are mainly supervisory.
2 Data not available; see footnote 3, p. 133.

? Cash payments only; the value o board, room, and tips cannot be computed.
f










Appendixes

153




Appendix A
Hours and Earnings, 1932-34, by Months,
Manufacturing and Nonmanufacturing Industries
Tables 7 and 8 show average hours worked per week, average hourly
earnings, and average weekly earnings in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, respectively, by months, where available
for the years 1932, 1933, and 1934. These data are supplementary to
those shown in tables 5 and 6 where annual averages for the years
1932, 1933, and 1934 will be found. In some cases, annual industry
averages are shown for the earlier years although no monthly data are
published because of fluctuations in monthly movements caused by
sampling technique. Average hours per week and average hourly
earnings are not available for a number of industries for the 1932-34
period, when man-hour coverage in some lines was not sufficiently
comprehensive. Figures shown in italics are not strictly comparable
with figures for later years because of the inclusion of executives and
supervisory employees in some lines previous to 1938. , A fuller discussion of the composition of these data appears in Chapter II,
Scope and Methods.
155

4 0 2 0 9 7 ° — 4 2!




11

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

156

1,—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934

TABLE

Total manufacturing
Year and month

Durable-goods group

Nondurable-goods group

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings weekly worked
earnings
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1932
January
February
March...
April
May.
June..

38.6
39.6
39.0
37.7
37.6
36.8

Cents
49.4
48.6
48.0
47.7
47.2
46.3

$19. 60
19. 78
19. 29
18. 55
18. 35
17. 62

33.5
34.6
33.4
32.4
33.0
31.5

Cents
54.6
53.9
53.2
53.1
52.6
51.1

July
August
September
October
November. _
December

35.9
36.6
38.9
40.2
38.9
38.5

46.0
44.7
43.2
42.7
42.6
42.6

16.95
16. 61
16. 60
17.15
16. 75
16. 65

30.1
30.0
30.9
33.8
33.1
32.4

January
February
March.
April
May___
June

37.6
38.3
36.6
38.1
40.8
42.8

42.1
41.9
42.0
41.6
41.1
40.7

16. 34
16. 21
15. 38
15. 98
17.10
17. 72

July
August
September
October
November
December..

42.6
38.4
36.1
35.6
34.2
34.0

41.1
47.2
50.1
50.8
51.0
51.7

17.
18.
18.
18.
17.
17.

33.6
35.5
36.0
35.9
35.4
34.6
33.1
33.8
33.2
34.1
33.8
35.0

60
96
01
48
72
33

42.0
43.0
42.7
41.3
40.8
40.3

Cents
45.8
45.0
44.5
44. 1
43.5
43.1

$19.59
19.63
19. 53
18. 61
18.03
17.87

50.5
49.4
48.2
46.9
46.8
46.6

16. 60
15.83
15. 42
16. 57
16. 50
16. 46

39.8
40.7
43.5
43.7
42.3
42.1

43.0
41.9
40.3
40.3
40.2
40.3

17. 24
17.18
17. 40
17. 52
16.92
16.78

31.3
31.9
30.2
32.6
36.6
39.3

46.3
45.9
46.0
45.2
44.7
44.1

16.15
15.87
14. 97
15.92
17. 64
18.52

41.3
42.0
40.3
41.3
43.3
44.9

39.7
39.6
39.7
39.5
38.9
38.6

16. 47
16. 45
15. 66
16. 02
16. 73
17.16

75
49
21
36
66
78

39.8
38.0
34.8
34.6
33.1
32.8

44.3
49.5
52.2
52.8
52.7
53.1

18. 62
19.70
18.81
19.04
18.12
18.10

44.4
38.7
37.0
36.3
35.0
34.9

39.1
45.7
48.8
49.5
50.0
50.8

17.13
17.60
17. 77
17. 86
17. 32
17.53

52.6
52.4
52.6
53.6
54.1
54.3

17. 86
.18. 83
19. 36
19. 74
19.61
19.23

32.4
34.6
35.7
35.8
35.3
34.8

53.8
54.0
54.5
56.6
57.5
57.5

18.18
19. 51
20. 47
21.30
21.19
20.70

34.5
36.2
36.2
35.9
35.4
34.5

51.8
51.4
51.3
51.3
51.6
51.9

17.62
18.29
18. 44
18.42
18. 22
17.94

54.9
54.7
55.0
54.6
54.8
55.4

18. 36
18. 68
18. 35
18. 68
18.68
19. 58

31.8
32.6
31.2
32.8
32.8
34.3

57.7
57.7
57.6
57. 2
57.4
58.0

18.89
19. 37
18. 22
19.24
19.41
20. 61

34.1
34.6
34.6
34.9
34.5
35.5

52.8
52.6
53.2
52.9
53.0
53.5

17. 93
18.13
18. 46
18.28
18. 14
18. 79

$19.
19.
19.
18.
18.
17.

1933

1934
January
February
March..
April
May
June.
July...
August
September.
October
November...
December

___'




APPENDIX A

157

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery
"Iron and steel" group
Year and month

Blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling mills

Bolts, nuts, washers, and
rivets

Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly worked
hourly
weekly
hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week

Cents

January
February.
March.
April
May
June

31.7
32.1
31.3
30.2
30.4
28.9

Cents
54.9
54.8
53.8
52.9
52.9
49.2

$17.12
17.38
16.91
15. 90
15. 85
14. 40

29.0
28.8
28.3
26.3
26.3
24.7

Cents
56.6
57.5
56.3
56.0
56.1
50.0

$16.06
16. 46
16. 17
14. 87
14. 93
12. 88

July
August
September. .
October
November. _
December. _

26.8
27.5
29.1
31.5
30.2
29.1

48.6
48.3
47.8
47.4
47.7
47.5

13.14
13.41
13. 84
14.86
14.44
13. 96

22.8
23.2
24.2
26.7
25.9
24.9

49.3
48.8
48.7
48.7
48.9
48.8

11.52
11. 74
11.99
13.19
13. 00
12. 50

13. 85
13. 34
13. 34
14.86
15. 44
15. 09

January
February. __
March
April
May
June..

28.6
29.9
28.5
30.7
35.1

46.8
46.7
47.1
46.6
46.6
46.1

13. 67
14. 09
13. 35
14.16
16.16
17.90

25.3
26.9
25.6
28.5
32.7
37.9

48.4
48.5
48.4
48.0
48.7
48.2

12. 71
13.31
12. 73
13. 79
16. 02
18. 33

14. 42
14. 95
13. 52
13.78
15.86
18.17

July
August
September. _
October
November. _
December. _

40.2
39.1
34.4
34.1
31.3
31.7

46.1
51.4
53.7
55.3
55.2
55.7

18.53
20.28
18. 48
18.93
17. 22
17.58

40.0
39.6
33.7
33.4
29.3
30.0

48.3
55.3
56.8
59.4
58. 5
58.5

19.19
21.94
19.19
19.71
17.20
17. 49

January
February...
March
April
May
June.

31.1
33. 0
34.8
35.5
36.0
36.1

56.3
56.1
56.2
58.9
58.9
59.8

17. 22
18. 41
19. 59
20. 85
21.72
21. 80

29.4
31.8
34.2
35.4
36.6
37.2

58.5
59.0
59.3
63.4
64.7
64.4

20. 26
22.19
23. 60
23. 86

32.6
35.7
36.2
37.2
36.9
35.4

51.4
50.3
52.6
53.6
54.6
55.3

17.08
18. 38
19. 38
19. 97
19.89
19. 61

July
August
September. _
October
November..
December..

30.2
29.9
28. 2
29.3
30.2
32.0

59.7
59.6
59.9
60.2
60.7
61.2

18.01
17. 64
16. 56
17. 36
18.04
19.29

28.1
27.0
24.1
25.1
26.7
29.1

63.5
64.0
64.4
64.8
65.6
66.2

18. 06
17.23
15. 56
16. 30
17. 43
19.12

31.7
32.2
25.5
28.0
28.1
33.0

55.6
54.6
55.2
55.1
55.5
55.3

17.68
17. 59
14.12
15.41
15. 76
18.12

$18.46
17. 76
17.17
16. 20
15.92
15. 21

1933

18. 07

18. 21

18.16
18. 27
17. 72
17.43

1934




17.19

18. 62

158

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued
Cutlery (not including silver and plated cutlery)
and edge tools

Cast-iron pipe
Year and month

Forgings—iron and steel

Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
weekly
worked hourly
worked hourly
worked
earnings
per week earnings earnings per week earnings
per week earnings earnings
1932
January
February
March.
April
_
May
June

Cents
__

July
August
September
October
November
December

Cents

$16.17
15. 97
16.11
15. 84
14. 28
13.61

$19. 34
20.63
19.81
19.93
19. 54
18. 26

Cents

$18. 73
18. 26
17. 16
16. 47
16. 19
16.19

13. 00
12. 55
13. 74
12. 24
11.67
12. 63

17. 74
17. 07
16. 78
18. 47
17.91
17.42

16.
14.
13.
14.
15.
15.

11.98
11.61
13. 80
12. 76
13. 07
13. 82

16. 38
17.05
13. 07
15. 00
16. 98
18. 39

15. 42
14. 56
13. 54
13.83
17. 02
18.44

13.16
13. 87
12.81
12. 85
13.87
15. 53

-

19. 32
18. 35
18.16
18. 45
18. 00
19. 23

18. 34
18. 97
16. 97
18. 71
18.67
19.41

66
39
37
44
30
08

1933
January
February
March. _
April
May
June

-

July
August
_
September . _ __
October
November.
December
1934
January February
MarchApril
May
June
July
August
September,
October. November
December

_

.

_




30.7
29.5
30.2
29.7
31.6
28.8

47.2
48.2
46.9
49.0
49.8
50.2

14. 50
14.43
14. 21
14.52
15. 57
14.41

36.5
36.9
36.9
37.3
35.4
34.0

50.1
50.4
49.4
50.2
53.0
52.7

18. 25
18. 85
18. 39
18.90
18. 79
18.16

19. 56
21.26
21.37
22. 04
21.71
21.45

28.9
29.7
29.7
29.2
28.9
30.4

50.1
49.6
48.5
48.3
48.7
49.3

14.39
14. 70
14.56
14. 27
14.22
15. 04

34.0
33.4
34.1
36.6
36.6
37.5

52.9
52.3
52.7
51.4
52.6
54.3

18. 28
17. 55
18.05
18. 80
19. 30
20.43

19. 26
19.61
17.64
18. 32
20. 05
22. 60

APPENDIX A

159

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued
Hardware

Plumbers' supplies

Stamped and enameled ware

Year and month
Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December^

$18.14
17.89
15. 99
14. 55
14. 58
13. 84

Cents

Cents

$15.26
16.01
16. 00
15.69
16.46
15.86

$17.30
18.50
18.85
18.10
17. 29
16.63

11.81
12. 36
13.41
14. 23
14.69
16.15

13.62
16. 88
15. 93
16. 34
16. 20
13. 00

15. 22
15. 54
16. 44
17.04
16. 01
14.92

1933
January
February
March..
April
May
June

35.6
34.5
30.2
32.0
35.9
37.0

43.8
45.1
44.7
44.7
44.1
43.6

14.61
14.66
12.70
13. 22
14. 88'
15.46

12.
13.
15.
14.
17.
18.

43
59
54
37
34
59

14. 51
15.18
14. 33
14.82
15. 87
16. 39

July
August
September
October
November
December

41.7
37.7
34.3
35.1
32.6
34.3

44.2
46.5
50.5
47.6
50.5
53.3

17.47
17. 02
16.61
16. 36
15. 97
17. 50

16. 00
16.64
16. 87
16. 04
14. 05
14.66

16.05
16. 58
16.12
16.68
16. 52
16. 22

33.1
34.4
36.4
36.3
32.5
31.5

52.9
52.2
52.5
54.1
54.5
53.7

17. 00
17.82
18. 92
19.44
17. 78
16. 97

13. 51
14. 20
14. 53
14.92
15.91
16.78

34.6
37.6
37.4
36.9
36.4
35.6

53.6
51.1
51.4
52.0
52.9
52.3

18. 57
19. 33
19. 33
19. 30
19.19
18. 64

30.0
32.3
28.5
31.7
33.2
35.7

54.0
55.0
53.6
54.5
54.3
54.4

16.19
17. 73
15.38
17. 36
18. 09
19.42

17. 08
17.41
16. 27
18. 84
19.38
20.15

31.7
32.5
32.2
34.6
35.3
36.4

52.5
51.8
53.7
53.8
53.7
54.1

16.84
16. 76
17. 23
18. 59
18.92
19.66

.

1934
JanuaryFebruary
March
April
May
June.
July
August
September
October
November
December




__

___
___

160

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued

Year and month

Steam and hot-water heating apparatus and steam
fittings

Structural and ornamental
metalwork

Stoves

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours Average
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

$17. 96
18. 44
17. 92
17. 30
17.25
16. 27

33.8
33.7
32.0
31.9
32.4
30.8

Cents
60.6
57.5
57.2
56.8
56.2
53.0

$21.16
20. 25
19. 37
19. 35
19. 02
17. 45

95
87
26
95
40
58

15. 88
16. 22
18. 21
19. 76
16.99
15. 36

30.7
30.9
32.1
33.2
33.4
31.6

52.5
53.1
51.1
49.8
50.2
47.7

16.95
17. 33
17.13
17. 57
17. 27
16.11

Cents

January. _.
February..
March
April
May
June

Cents
$18. 02
18. 80
17. 70
17. 35
18. 03
18.15
16.
16.
17.
18.
17.
16.

July
August
September..
October
November..
December. .

January...
FebruaryMarch
April
May.
June.

29.2
29.1
29.5
30.9
35.6
38.0

49.8
49.9
51.0
49.7
48.1
47.6

15. 77
15. 58
14.99
15. 30
16. 99
18. 06

14. 76
16. 06
15.18
16. 04
17. 67
18.31

28.4
29.7
28.6
30.9
33.6
35.2

45.3
42.9
43.2
42.5
42.6
41.6

14. 22
13. 86
13.40
14.17
15.03
15. 24

July
August
September
October^ ...
November..
December..

38.8
36.7
33.1
32.4
31.8
32.9

47.1
51.2
54.2
55.0
54.9
55.7

18. 30
18.91
18. 05
17. 96
17. 58
18. 43

18. 46
18. 27
18. 51
19. 82
18.08
16. 87

33.6
35.6
33.8
34.3
33.8
32.6

42.4
47.4
51.7
54.1
55.0
55.3

15.05
17.09
17. 58
18. 45
18. 51
18.04

January...
February.
March
April
May
June.

33.6
34.4
34.6
34.3
34.6
35.1

55.0
55.0
55.4
57.9
58.0
57.9

18. 52
18. 97
19.15
19. 84
20. 20
20. 32

30.5
33.9
36.1
36.2
36.8
35.7

52. 2
52.3
51.6
51.7
53.7
53.7

15. 84
17. 96
18.81
19.18
19. 62
19.15

31.1
32.3
32.4
33.0
34.7
34.7

55.5
54.6
55.4
56.4
56.9
58.4

17.20
17. 61

19.80
20.23

July..
August
September..
October
November..
December..

35.0
33.5
34.4
34.9
35.5
34.8

58.3
58.2
58.7
59.3
58.1
58.1

20. 40
19. 58
20.17
20.70
20. 66
20.22

32.8
33.1
35.6
37.2
35.3
35.4

54.2
54.1
55.6
55.7
55.5
55.0

17. 57
17. 82
19.84
20.89
19. 78
19. 52

33.2
34.1
32.9
34.1
33.9
32.3

59.5
59.6
59.3
58.5
58.7
59.0

19. 73
20.19
19. 47
19.93
19. 79
19.05

1934




18. 21
18. 80

APPENDIX

A

161

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery—Continued

T i n cans and other tinware
Year and month

Tools, not including edge
tools, machine tools, files,
and saws

Wirework

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week earnings earnings
per week
per week
1932

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June

$21.32
20.16
20.92
20.43
19.95
19. 96

Cents

$16.70
17.84
17.28
16. 53
15. 86
15.94

18. 78
19. 43
20. 94
19.91
18. 37
18.88

13. 45
13. 71
15. 55
16.47
16.33
16.07

January
February
March
April
May
June

18.90
18.10
17.58
18.18
19. 39
19. 97

15. 76
14. 67
13. 73
13. 65
15.07
17. 84

July.
August
September
October
November
December

20.02
18.98
18. 68
18. 75
18. 70
19. 81

Cents

18. 56
17.99
18.11
18. 25
17.91
18.18

July
August
September
October
November
December
1933

1934
January
February
March
April
May
June

34.3
33.8
36.1
36.9
37.1
38.0

55.4
54.7
53.1
53.6
52.4
51.8

19.01
18. 73
19. 35
19. 79
19. 60
19.96

18. 21
18. 79
19. 73
19. 04
19.96
19.76

$20.15
19.02
19. 98
20.89
20. 57
20.15

July
August
September
October
November
December

37.0
37.1
37.8
35.0
34.9
36.3

52.8
51.8
51.7
52.4
52.3
53.1

19.62
19. 54
19.65
18. 36
18.31
19. 36

19.10
19.66
18. 94
18.99
19.15
20.11

19.30
18.80
19.05
19.29
18.81
20. 52




162

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1984—Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including transportation equipment

" M a c h i n e r y " ?roup
Year and month

Agricultural implements
(including tractors)

Cash registers, adding machines, and calculating
machines

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
weekly
weekly
worked hourly
worked hourly
worked hourly
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1982
January __
February
March
April
May_
June

33.1
33.2
31.9
30.9
30.9
30.1

Cents
59.7
58.6
58.3
58.3
57.5
56.0

$21.37
21.01
20. 22
19.64
18.99
18.40

July...
August
September
October
November.
December

28.2
27.9
28.9
. 31.1
30.7
30.9

55.6
54.7
55.3
54.0
54.3
53.9

17.40
17.20
17. 72
18. 23
17. 96
18.16

17.09
17.18
17. 06
19. 67
18.15
18.04

21.50
23. 35
23.26
23. 74
23.20
23.30

January
February
March
April..
May
June

29.1
30.6
28.3
30.0
33.8
37.3

54.3
53.1
53.6
52.4
51.2
50.2

17. 45
17. 65
16.48
16. 87
18. 21
19. 27

17.40
18. 21
16. 81
16. 88
16. 75
18. 99

22. 44
22.12
21.61
23. 32
23. 99
24. 56

July
August
September.
October
November
December

37.9
35.0
34.2
34.8
34.2
33.6

50.2
55.5
55.8
56.4
56.6
56.7

19. 59
19. 65
19. 60
20. 22
20. 01
19. 51

18.44
18. 67
18. 80
19. 87
20. 67
21.42

24.96
24. 71
24. 87
25. 45
24. 78
25.22

January
February
March
April
May...
June

33.6
35.1
35.7
36.3
35.9
35.6

56.7
56.9
56.8
57.9
59.0
59.5

19. 27
20. 08
20. 47
21.24
21.43
21.47

37.5
37.8
37.9
38.1
37.1
37.4

55.8
55.2
55.3
56.1
56.8
58.6

20. 89
21.16
21.57
22. 04
22. 04
22. 92

39.2
37.2
37.2
38.1
39.0
38.7

65.0
64.7
64.8
64.7
67.1
68.6

25.13
23. 86
23. 86
24. 48
25. 82
26.10

July
August
September
October
November.
December

34.4
34.4
33.3
34.5
34.2
35.7

59.9
60.1
60.2
60.1
60.5
60.6

20. 89
20. 87
20. 47
21.09
21.01
21.99

34.1
36.3
38.0
37.9
38.6
39.1

59.6
61.0
61.0
61.5
62.9
63.1

21.39
22. 68
22. 55
23. 08
24.15
24. 32

38.7
38.3
38.5
35.4
38.1
40.4

71.2
68.4
69.2
68.7
67.4
66.4

27.12
25. 91
26. 30
24.16
25. 43
26. 59

Cents

Cents

$20. 40
20.47
19. 87
18. 56
18. 32
18. 39

$24. 67
23. 26
23. 38
22. 91
22. 58
21.55

1988

1934




APPENDIX

163

A

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
193 J,.—Continued
Machinery, not including transportation equipment—Continued

Year and month

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies

Engines, turbines, water
wheels, and windmills

Foundry and machine-shop
products

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly- weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings

January. _.
February..
March
April
May
June
July..
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

18. 67

Cents
58.8
58.1
56.6
56.2
55.5
53.9

$18. 56
18.83
18. 60
18.00
17. 61
16. 95

27.8
27.3
27.3
29.8
29. 1
29.8

54.0
53.9
53.3
52.2
53.2
52.0

15. 56
15. 44
15. 40
16. 09
15. 83
16.18

$21. 65
22. 21

20.
20.
19.
18.

18. 08

19.
19.
19.
19.

58
69
21
87

31.2
32.6
31.7
30.8
31.1
29.8

18. 59
18. 51
17. 43
20. 21
19. 47
18.68

Cents

$23. 55
22. 97
21.60
21.03
19. 97
19. 52

23
57
49
66

1933
January. _
February.
March
April
May
June

18.89
19. 24
18. 06
18. 61
19. 84
20. 70

32.0
31.7
31.3
32.7
37.1

56.4
55.3
55.5
56.2
53.6
52.0

18. 61
18.47
17. 99
18. 61
20. 51
21.00

27.8
29.6
27. 7
28.5
32.8
35.9

51.6
51.2
52.0
50.6
49.5
49.6

15. 21
15. 57
14. 40
14. 48
16. 26
17. 74

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

21.03
20. 64
20. 54
20. 47
20. 47
18. 63

37.4
34.2
34.4
33.9
34.4
36.1

55.6
57.1
58.9
60.0
61.5
61.4

20.04
18. 55
19.12
20. 74
20. 90
21.91

37.8
33.9
33.5
34.1
33.3
33.1

49.0
55.6
54.6
55.8
56.4
56.8

18.50
18. 74
18.45
19. 05
18. 57
18. 55

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June

31.9
33.9
34.2
34.6
34.5
35.3

57.0
58.0
57.9
59.7
60.2
60.5

18. 53
19. 50
19. 97
21.46
21.33
21.78

35.5
37.0
36.3
37.5
37.8
37.6

62.1
62.3
62.7
62.3
62.2
64.3

21.93
23. 06
22. 77
23. 37
23. 53
24. 26

33.4
34.9
36.0
36.8
36.5
35.6

56.8
56.6
56.4
57. 5
58.8
58.9

18.73
19. 68
20.23
21.08
21.36
20. 94

July..
August
September.. _
October
November.
December

33.7
33.5
32.3
34.0
33.8
35.4

62.0
61.3
61.9
61.3
61.2

21.06
21.15
20. 34
21.21
20. 93
22.05

35.5
36.6
33.9
35.8
35.3
35. 7

63.9
63.7
64.2
63.6
64.2
64.1

22.70
23. 34
21.79
22. 78
22. 65
22. 86

34.5
34.2
32.5
33.9
33.1
34.7

59.2
69.2
60.0
59.5
59.9
60.2

20. 35
20.16
19. 50
20.14
19. 88
20.89




164

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Machinery, not including transportation equipment—Continued
Machine tools

Radios and phonographs

Year and month

Textile machinery and
parts

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
worked
worked
worked
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings




32.9
33.9
31.1
30.9
30.4
28.5

Cents
63.9
62.9
62.4
61.7
71.0
61.2

$22. 47
22. 21
20. 70
20.02
18. 94
18.04

29.2
30.1
30.2
30.1
31.3
31.4

60.2
58.1
58.0
57.8
57.0
56.5

17. 51
18.15
17.93
17. 79
18. 48
18. 45

18. 75
17.60
20.41
19.61
18. 65
17.86

32. 5
30.4
28.5
27.0
29.9
34 6

56.6
55.9
54.5
54.9
53.4
53.9

18. 96
17. 79
16.01
15. 47
16. 58
19.16

18.02
18. 55
16.98
18. 57
18.86
17. 25

30. 8
34.3
35.0
35.7
30. 5
36.6

54.0
57.7
59.0
58.2
57.7
58.3

20.08
19.87
20. 79
20. 99

14. 80
17.32
17. 51
19. 69
19. 85
19.23

36.8
38.1
38.2
37.3

58.1
58.1
58.9
59.3
60.2
60.9

21.34
22. 60
22. 91
22. 64
23. 02
22. 70

31.5
32.8
33.5
34.6
32.6
32.6

51. 5
51. 6
51.4
51.4
53.0
55.3

17. 08
17. 57
17. 66
17. 57
18. 09
18. 46

37.3
37.8
37.4
37.1
36.5
35.6

36.2
36.0
35.8
35. 7
36.7
38.2

61.0
61.9
61.8
61.0
61.3
61.3

22.08
22. 41
22.13
21.83
22. 49
23.45

32.0
33.5
32.9
35.6
34.3
35.5

54.4
53. 8
53.1
52.3
56.7
56.9

17. 96
18.14
18. 49
19. 77
19.44
20.16

35.3
33.2
32.9
33.0
32.3
36.8

Cents

21.08

21.43

$22.37
20. 74
19. 40
19. 90
21.77
20. 81

APPENDIX

165

A

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, &?/ months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued
Machinery, not including
transportation
equipment—Continued

Year and month

Typewriters and parts

Transportation equipment

Aircraft

"Transportation" group

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
weekly worked hourly
hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week

Cents

January
February. . .
March
AprilMay
June

19.8
26.0
26.0
26.9
23.7
25.3

Cents
59.7
54.3
53.8
53.2
54.5
50.8

$15. 88
17. 03
16.31
15. 67
14. 56
13. 83

$23. 48
24. 74
22.81
23.08
24. 83
22.14

July
August
September-.
October
November..
December.—

25.6
22.3
25.4
27.3
28.9
35.1

49.9
51.3
50.6
49.7
48.1
47.5

13.18
14.00
13. 73
14. 30
14. 53
16. 29

21.70
18. 82
15. 64
18. 95
20.13
20. 77

30.56
30. 67
31.09
31.31
30. 54
30.90

January
February...
March
April
May.
June.

32.1
33.1
29.6
29. 5
33.9
35.1

47.1
45. 8
45.9
44.3
44.7
45.0

14.95
14 51
13.80
13.13
14. 43
15. 37

20.41
18. 79
17.95
20. 54
23.13
22.76

29.81
30.05
29. 66
29. 38
27.98
27.45

July.
August
September..
October
November..
December. .

39.4
37.7
37.1
39.0
39.0
40.7

42.9
50.2
51.2
51.0
48.9
50.2

16. 24
18.59
18. 86
19. 70
19.08
20. 32

21.60
23. 33
21.5 5
21.11
20.42
20.22

26.16
27. 55
25. 86
26.40
25. 63
24. 96

January
February...
March
April
May—
June

38.3
40.1
40.3
39.4
36.0
37.4

50.5
50.7
51.3
52.2
55.1
55.3

19.17
20.32
20. 74
20. 57
19.88
20.66

32.6
36.9
38.7
37.5
34.8
32.2

63.9
63.8
65.2
69.1
70.3
70.8

21.25
23. 71
25. 21
25. 88
24. 60
22. 71

39.3
39.4
39.2
39.4
40.1
40.9

66.1
64. 5
65. 3
62.2
61.9
60.2

24. 61
24. 87
24.87
24.13
24. 35
24.56

July.
August
September..
October
November..
December. _

38.9
38.4
40.0
38.5
40.5
40.8

56.1
56.4
56.9
57.3
56.6
56.9

21.85
21.66
22. 78
22. 05
22. 98
23. 39

28.7
32.1
26.7
31.0
31.2
34.6

71.8
72.3
72.7
72.6
72.5
71.7

20. 54
23.13
19. 52
22. 39
22. 58
24. 42

39.1
41.0
38.2
38.6
38.3
38.8

63.4
62.0
63.8
66.0
64.4

24.80
25.46
24.03
24. 97
24. 25
24.93

$32. 29
31.71
31.85
32. 73
31.29
31.41

1938

1934




166

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Transportation equipment—Continued
Cars, electric- and
steam-railroad

Automobiles
Year and month

Locomotives

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Cents

__

Cents

$22. 99
24. 63
22.44
22. 48
24. 99
21.80

Cents

$17. 09
18. 59
18. 87
18.61
18. 41
17. 30

$23.84
24.24
25.17
24. 44
23. 91
22. 81

21.24
18.15
14 14
17. 80
19. 64
20.17

20.14
18.16
17.18
20. 33
23. 45
23. 05

18. 92
18. 82
19. 20
19.11
19. 20

19.
18.
18.
17.
18.
18.

56
63
42
86
47
82

21.74
23. 72
21.60
20. 95
20.11
19. 97

__

16.
17.
17.
19.
19.
19.

16.
19.
18.
19.
18.
18.

20.
17.
17.
18.
19.
18.

24
21
80
94
54
83

21.76
21.69
19. 29
19. 72
20. 63
20.48

85
64
72
61
01
94

19SS
January
February..
March
...
April
May.
June

...

July.
August
September
October
. __
November.
.
December

99
36
57
95
81
56

1934
January
February
March
April
Mav
June

32.7
37.6
39.6
38.1
34.9
31.7

63.5
63.6
65.2
69.9
71.1
72.0

21.25
24.09
25. 81
26. 60
24. 90
22. 75

31.2
34.9
34.9
35.3
34.3
36.3

56.9
57.6
58.2
58.8
58.3
57.7

17. 71
19. 94
20.13
20. 61
20. 66
20. 90

32.1
33.4
32.9
35.4
35.2
35. 5

60.0
59.2
58.8
59. 8
60.6
62.2

18. 91
19. 76
19. 77
21.13
21. 30
22. 09

July
August..
September.
October
November
December

27.6
31.7
25.4
30.6
30.9
35.0

72.9
73.5
73.6
73.5
73.4
72.0

20.12
23. 20
18. 86
22. 39
22. 75
24. 80

33.4
35. 3
31.0
32.6
33.2
32.7

58.3
59.9
61.4
61.0
60.1
60.7

19.31
21.09
18.88
19.80
19. 85
19. 77

36.3
35.6
35.7
35.2
34.4
35.1

623
63.2
63.5
62.2
63.2
63.5

22. 61
22. 52
22. 69
21.91
21.74
22.28




APPENDIX A

167

7 A v e r a g e hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Transportation equipment—Continued

Year and month

Nonferrous metals and their products
Aluminum manufactures

"Nonferrous" group

Shipbuilding

Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
A verage Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932
January
February
March
April
May
June

Cents

_

$25. 86
25. 20
24. 23
25. 68
23. 33
23.11

Cents

$19. 34
19. 59
18. 53
17. 79
17.10
16. 49

Cents

$18. 47
18. 81
15.78
15. 70
14. 44
13. 59

24. 35
21.60
21.95
22. 66
21.04
22. 62

16.19
15. 86
16. 80
18. 09
17.58
16.89

13. 20
13. 34
14. 27
16.31
16. 63
16.04

January
February
March
April
May
June

20. 64
20.85
19. 98
20.15
20. 39
20.09

16.
15.
14.
15.
17.
18.

01
72
82
27
32
41

15. 75
16.20
15. 61
15.17
16. 61
17. 64

July
August
September
October
November
December

20. 58
20. 62
21.24
21.43
21.56
21. 41

18.
18.
18.
18.
18.
18.

83
58
63
98
58
58

17.
17.
16.
17.
17.
17.

July
August
September
October
November
December
1933

42
43
69
88
61
01

1934
January.
February
March
April.
May
June -

30.1
30.4
31.0
31.3
32.3
31.5

69.6
69.4
69.3
69.0
73.1
72.3

21.87
21. 71
22. 08
21.82
24. 05
22. 98

18. 25
18. 89
19.41
19. 95
20. 25
19. 78

15. 73
18. 48
18. 89
19. 55
19. 51
18. 74

July
August
September
October
November
December

31.6
31.3
30. 5
30.9
30.4
30.5

74.6
73.9
75.2
74.8
74.0
75.6

23. 53
23.16
23. 34
23.02
22. 31
23. 29

19.12
18. 91
19. 25
19. 84
20. 07
20. 74

15. 93
14. 80
16. 71
19.12
19. 88
20. 81




168

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934— Continued

TABLE

Nonferrous metals and their p r o d u c t s -Continued

Year and month

Brass, bronze, and copper
products

Clocks, watches, and timerecording devices

Jewelry

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
worked
worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932

Cents

January
February _____ _
March
ApriL_
May
_
June

Cents

$19 41
19 54
18. 50
17 50
16 97
16,41

$14. 65
14. 44
14. 08
15.00
13. 25
13. 25

Cents

$20.88
21.01
19. 98
18. 61
17.79
17.49

16. 05
15. 62
16.13
17.13
16. 88
16. 39

13.36
13. 08
14. 21
15. 84
15. 92
13.96

17. 41
17. 35
18. 99
20. 55
18.91
19. 74

January __
February._ _ _
March
April
May
-_June
__

16. 03
15. 38
14. 90
15. 51
18. 30
19. 63

12.87
12. 77
10. 25
11.16
12. 43
13. 51

17. 34
16.79
15. 90
16. 70
17.47
17. 55

July
August
SeptemberOctober _
November.
December

19. 70
19. 37
19. 23
18. 80
18.18
18.86

15.
16.
17.
18.
18.
17.

50
02
24
50
65
81

17. 68
17. 82
18.96
19. 87
19. 41
19. 22

July
August. _
September
October
November
December.1933

1934
January
February
March
April.
May
June

___

July
AugustSeptember
October
November
December




35.3
36. 4
37. 5
37.4
37.6
36. 5

53.4
53.0
53. 2
56.3
56.7
56.9

18. 84
19. 35
19. 87
21. 19
21.28
20. 73

35.8
39.4
39.0
39.6
39.2
35.9

45.8
45.6
45.4
45. 5
47.0
48.0

16. 58
17. 53
17. 38
17. 82
18.48
17.33

18. 90
19. 35
18.83
18. 68
18. 35
18. 36

35.0
34.1
33.0
33.7
34.4
36.6

57.7
57.2
57.7
58.0
57.6
57.1

20. 22
19. 57
19.11
19. 54
19. 81
20. 91

34.2
36.4
38.5
39.7
40.6
39.7

48.9
49. 1
48.1
48.1
47.4
48.5

16. 72
17. 92
18. 67
18.99
19. 25
19. 48

17.50
18. 39
19. 33
20.08
19.81
20. 69

APPENDIX A

169

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Nonferrous metals and their products—Continued
Silverware and plated
ware

Lighting equipment
Year and month

Smelting and refining—
copper, lead, and zinc

Average Average Average Average
Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked
worked hourly
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings
1932

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June
_

__

Cents

$20. 69
20. 46
20. 84
19.17
19. 05
19.04

Cents

$20.99
21.27
21.48
20.30
18. 76
17. 84

$18.90
19.27
17.95
17.93
18.15
17. 26

73
58
95
63
42
07

17. 96
17. 55
18. 62
21.20
20. 03
17. 95

16. 54
16. 07
17. 03
17. 38
17.13
16. 72

January
February
March
April _
May _
June

17. 53
17.24
15. 81
15. 87
17. 34
18.48

16.10
16. 02
15.69
15. 46
17. 22
17. 80

16. 50
16. 52
15. 58
16. 24
18.10
19. 54

July
August
September
October
November _
December

18.08
17. 61
17.81
17. 68
18. 35
18. 51

17. 97
18.41
18. 94
20. 75
20. 36
19.83

20. 31
19.32
18. 62
18.94
18. 48
17.87

July
August
September
October
November
December

17.
17.
18.
18.
19.
18.

__

1933

1934
17. 70
18. 22
19.05
18. 79
18. 98
18. 69

January
February
March
April
May
June.
July
August.
September
October
November.
December.




-

36.1
36.7
38.3
37.0
36.8
35.9

50.8
51.1
51.3
51.8
54.4
54.8

18.48
18. 96
19. 87
19. 33
20.13
19. 80

36.7
36.1
38.5
38.3
37.7
38.0

50.6
51.9
51.9
51.7
55.0
54.3

18. 83
18.98
20.11
19. 95
20. 81
20. 74

18.40
18.15
18. 91
19. 76
20.12
20. 69

34.2
33.3
35.8
36.5
38.4
39.2

57.1
57.1
56.7
56.7
56.8
56.3

19. 63
19.13
20. 48
20. 96
22. 08
22. 23

38.6
36.9
36.9
37.6
37.0
37.9

53.9
54.2
54.7
54.4
54.9
54.2

20. 41
20.14
20. 30
20. 56
20. 32
20. 54

170

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934— Continued

TABLE

Lumber and allied products
" L u m b e r " group

Furniture

Lumber, millwork

Year and month
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
weekly
weekly
worked
worked hourly
worked hourly
earnings earnings
per week
per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
1932
January
February
March
April . . .
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Cents

. _

__
_
.
.
.

$13. 94
13.80
13. 53
13. 28
13. 02
12.61

Cents

$15.
14.
15.
14.
13.
13.

53
82
06
28
43
03

Cents

$16.73
15.86
14. 68
15. 47
15. 53
15.11

11.94
12. 24
12. 76
12. 98
12. 35
11. 57

11.83
13. 35
14.38
14. 95
13. 58
13. 22

15. 06
14.62
14.83
14. 59
14. 55
13. 98

10. 75
10. 80
9. 79
10. 72
11.50
12. 25

11.85
12. 38
10. 55
11.73
12. 60
13.46

13. 58
12.42
11.58
12. 99
13. 56
14.36

12. 65
13. 90
14.63
14. 48
13. 57
13. 29

13.43
15.01
15.84
16. 08
14. 28
13. 98

14. 59
14. 72
14.85
15. 01
14.37
14. 75

12. 65
13. 44
13. 86
14.06
14. 30
14.11

13. 39
14.79
14.98
15.18
15. 23
15. 28

14.
14.
15.
15.
15.
15.

53
71
00
36
75
74

13. 50
14. 37
14.54
14. 87
14. 52
14. 56

14.62
15.70
15. 94
16.41
15. 85
16. 41

15.
16.
15.
16.
16.
16.

63
09
99
20
08
26

1933
January
February
March
April
May
June

.

July
August...
September
October
November
December

_

1934
January
February.
March __
April
May
June

_
_

July
August
September
October
November
December




APPENDIX

171

A

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,&?/months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued
Lumber and allied products—Continued

"Stone, clay, and glass"
group

Lumber, sawmills

Year and month

Stone, clay, and glass products

Brick, tile, and terra cotta

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

35.0
37.3
37.0
36.4
38.0
36.1

$18.16
18. 87
18. 38
18. 25
18.12
16. 92

31.0
31.2
29.7
30.7
33.7
32.7

Cents
44.2
42.9
40.9
40.1
39.9
38.2

$13.48
13. 22
12. 95
13.02
13. 66
12.44

30.7
29.4
28.6
28.0
28.2
27.8

11.08
10. 76
10. 93
11.03
10. 80
9. 65

15. 94
16. 20
16.01
16. 48
16.00
15. 66

32.4
33.3
32.4
33.4
30.2
29.5

37.7
36.3
36.9
35.7
34.6
36.0

12.09
12.31
12. 46
12.05
11. 26
11.25

34.2
35.8
33.8
37.4
40.5
43.2

26.6
25.2
25.8
25.0
24.9
24.9

9.10
9. 02
8. 72
9. 35
10.08
10. 76

15. 38
15. 44
15.13
14.96
16.01
16. 72

28.9
27.5
29.1
30.7
33.7
36.8

35.4
36.6
33.7
33.0
32.2
31.9

10.90
10.78
10.01
10.11
10.92
12.00

44.0
42.4
36.8
34.0
34.1
33.0

26.2
30.5
37.2
38.8
37.7
37.7

11.53
12. 93
13. 69
13.19
12. 86
12. 44

16. 22
17.10
16. 84
17. 38
16. 69
16. 51

37.2
35.2
32.7
31.1
30. 5
30.1

32.4
36.5
40.2
40.9
40.4
40.9

12.45
13.01
12. 69
12. 56
12. 38
12.37

31.8
32.9
34.1
33.9
34.4

37.0
37.7
38.0
38.7
39.1
38.5

11.77
12. 40
12. 96
13. 12
13. 45
13. 05

32.1
32.8
33. 2
34.0
33. 3
33.6

50.9
51.7
51.0
53.2
53.2
52.6

16. 63
17.41
17. 34
18. 36
17.81
17. 76

30.7
30.7
30. 7
32.8
31.7
33.1

42.4
42.1
41.4
42.0
43.6
44.2

13.02
13.42
13.19
14.16
14. 29
14. 70

31.6
33.1
33.1
33.6
32.9
32.8




$11.83
12.31
11.95
11.83
11. 93
11.52

36.1
36.6
38.2
39.4
38.3
34.7

402097°—42-

Cents
33.8
33.0
32.3
32.5
31.4
31.9

38.7
39.6
39.9
40.0
40.0
39.2

12.
13.
13.
13.
13.

32.6
32. 1
32.1
32.9
33.2
33.0

53.3
53.2
53.8
53.8
53.8
54.1

17. 48
17. 21
17. 27
17. 99
17. 97
18. 06

32.3
31.5
31.5
32.1
32.0
31.4

43.5
43.6
44.8
44.1
44.8
45.1

14.08
13. 91
14.12
14. 64
14. 37
14. 20

-12

23
11
21
44
16

12. 86

172

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to
December 1934—Continued

TABLE

Stone, clay, and glass products—Continued
Cement

Marble, granite, slate, and
other products

Glass

Year and month

Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1982

Cents

Cents

$19.42
20. 80
19. 82
20. 32
20.12
19. 23

Cents

-

$19. 54
19. 90
19.35
19. 04
20.08
19. 23

July
August
September
October
November
December

17. 80
18.32
17. 59
17. 59
16. 62
15. 61

17. 51
17.72
17.01
17. 50
17. 58
17. 00

21.50
22.10
21.70
21. 77
20. 20
20. 98

January
February
May
June

$25.40
24.99
25.12
25. 35
23. 79
21.43

1988
January
February
March
April
.
May
June.

30.8
32.5
34.9
32.9
37.5
38.7

44.6
42.6
41.2
41.6
40.8
40.6

14. 98
15. 08
15. 66
14. 58
16. 38
16.98

17. 50
17.31
16. 71
17. 32
18.43
18. 97

20.04
18. 86
19.06
16. 53
17. 98
18. 89

July
August
September
October
November
December

38.1
35.8
31.5
33.3
31.7
28.5

41.9
50.9
52.6
54.1
52.8
54.3

17.10
18. 21
16. 52
18. 50
16. 95
15. 90

17.93
18. 36
18. 56
18.64
18.13
18.15

19. 51
19. 51
18. 75
19.45
17. 58
17. 82

January
February
March
April
May
June

29.5
30.8
31.9
34.8
33.2
35.7

53.9
52.6
53.1
55.4
56.4
56.1

16. 46
16. 51
17. 08
19. 54
18. 80
20. 26

33.8
34.7
34.9
34.7
33.8
33.5

52.3
55.4
53.5
57.3
55.8
55.0

18. 29
19. 22
18.63
19. 84
18. 67
18. 42

15. 63
18. 22
19. 86
20. 86
22. 60
21.31

July
... _ .
August
__ _
September
October
November
December

34.7
32.9
32.9
33.0
32.2
30.6

56.8
57.5
57.2
57.6
56.9
57.4

20.11
19.31
19.05
19. 08
18. 35
17. 55

33.2
32.3
32.4
33.2
34.1
34.4

55.6
56.4
56.4
56.8
56.3
56.6

18.35
18.16
18.14
18. 83
19.16
19. 42

20. 43
20. 45
20. 27
20. 30
19. 96
19.70

1934




APPENDIX

173

A

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to
December 1934—Continued




Stone, clay, and glass products—Continued

Textiles and their products
"Textiles" group

Pottery

"Fabrics" (subgroup)

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
hourly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings
per week
per week
per week

Cents

Cents

$15.13
15. 42
15.10
13. 55
12. 37
12.06

42.6
44.1
43.5
40.4
38.3
38.0

13. 20
13. 71
14. 57
16. 53
15.87
15. 58

11. 58
13.73
13. 88
13.06
12. 62

38.4
41.4
46.1
46.9
45.0
44.5

13. 48
14. 59
14.48
13. 92
14. 46
15. 33

12.16
12.63
11.50
11.87
12. 36
13. 08

43.1
44.1
40.9
42.3
45.4
47.6

14. 88
17. 55
17. 33
18.01
16. 96
16. 44

13.32
14.91
15.27
15.31
14. 51
14.04

47.4
37.3
35. 8
35.6
34.4
33.6

34.8
34.6
32.9

46.8
48.6
48.5
49.1
49.0
50.0

15.93
16. 55
16. 99
17. 53
17. 09
16. 21

14.
15.
15.
15.
14.
13.

06
24
57
32
71
93

32.5
35.1
35.3
35.1
33.6
31.0

31.7
32.0
32.5
34.6
34.4
35.5

49.7
49.8
50.2
50.7
51.5
51.6

15. 33
15. 37
16. 09
17. 39
17. 70
18.38

13. 92
14. 53
15.10
15.47
15. 00
15. 66

31.0
31.4
32.2
34.1
34.0
35.4

$17. 49
18.11

18.01
16. 99
15.84
14. 21

12. 62

174

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1984—Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Cotton goods

Carpets and rugs

Cotton small wares

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
hourly- weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings earnings

$18. 67
17. 22
17. 35
16. 51
14. 40
13. 65

44.7
46.2
45.6
43.1
40.4
40.3

Cents
26.8
26.3
26.0
25.1
24.4
23.7

13. 51
13. 46
14.09
15. 79
15. 46

39.6
41.5
48.0
48.2
46.7
45.8

23.6
23.0
22.2
22.3
22.2
22.3

9. 36
9.86
10. 96
11.09
10. 67
10. 39

13.74
13. 53
15.16
15. 96
14. 60
14.58

January...
February .
March
April
May
June

13.81
13. 37
13. 83
13. 38
16.15
17. 93

45.0
45.3
44.1
45.0
47.9
49.1

22.4
21.9
21.4
21.4
21.6
22.6

10.10
10.08
9. 54
9. 69
10.40
11.11

14.02
14.88
13.20
13.13
14.87
15.20

July.
August
September..
October
November..
December..

17.70
18. 25
18. 89
19.14
16. 84
16. 47

48.9
36.5
35.8
35.4
34.6
33.5

23.1
36.1
36.4
36.9
36.4
36.9

11.37
13. 22
13.11
13.09
12. 64
12. 33

15. 60
15.78
15. 58
15.80
14. 82
15.00

37.4
37.2
37.3
37.5
37.4
38.1

12. 64
12. 98
13. 28
13. 41
12. 63
11.17

15. 39
16. 31
16. 53
16. 38
15. 69
15.31

37.6
37.8
36.9
38.0
37.7
37.7

11.56
11.45
12.42
13.17
12. 72
13. 39

15. 24
15. 31
15. 33
16.45
15. 52
16.41,

Cents

January...
FebruaryMarch
April
May.
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

16. 80

$12.04
12. 38
12. 21
11.17
10.18

Cents

$17.45
17. 52
16. 54
15. 35
14. 57
14.03

1933

1934
January. _.
February.
March
April
May
June

32.8
29.3
32.5
33.0
32.8
34.5

51.6
51.5
51.2
54.1
55.1
56.0

17.
15.
17.
17.

19. 35

34.1
34.9
35.6
35.6
33.5
28.7

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

29.7
30.2
28.8
29.3
29.5
32.6

56.1
56.2
56.5
56.3
56.1
56.7

16.84
17.11
16.83
16. 72
16.81
18. 50

30.1
29.7
33.6
34.9
33.8
35.5




23
97
52
99

18. 26

APPENDIX

175

A

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,&?/months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued
Textiles and their products—Continued

Year and month




Dyeing and finishing textiles

Hosiery

Hats, fur-felt

Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings
per week
per week
per week

49.1
49.9
42.3
38.0
36.6

Cents
45.1
44.2
43.3
44.0
43.8
42.6

$21. 30
22.16
21. 38
18. 76
16. 71
17. 46

$17.65
17.65
18.07
13. 63
13. 39
14. 82

42.1
44.8
45.3
41.9
38.9
39.5

36.4
43.4
49.6
47.9
44.6
45.0

40.8
41.4
40.2
39.4
39.3
39.1

14.97
17. 68
19. 60
18.80
17. 59
17.40

16. 63
19. 58
22. 98
20.78
18. 45
19. 01

39.2
39.0
45.1
48.1
47.0
45.1

45.2
47.8
43.3
46.2
48.1
50.8

38.5
39.1
38.3
38.4
36.9
37.0

17.30
18. 46
16.78
17.78
18.11
18. 71

17.81
16. 78
15. 63
15. 40
16.17
19. 24

40.8
41.9
40.0
42.0
44.3
46.5

49.6
36.3
35.1
36.6
35.9
35.5

36.6
49.7
49.5
50.0
51.8
51.6

18. 42

17. 30
18.18
18. 44
17. 94

19.74
20. 83
22. 46
22. 41
20. 62
19. 57

44.4
37.2
36.5
37.3
36.6
34.0

33.3
36.8
36.3
34.7
33.1
29.6

52.5
51.4
51.6
52.1
52.8
52.2

17. 56
19.20
18. 97
18. 33
17. 56
15. 62

19.44
21.29
21.00
18.13
21.09
20. 93

26.4
35.0
36.0
36.0
35.0
33.6

30.8
32.5
35.7
34.2
35.8

52.8
33.2
53.4
52.2
50.5
53.1

16.20
17.41
19.13
17. 81
18. 07
19. 55

24. 74
25. 07
21.38
18.14
19. 61
21. 63

32.1
32.6
35.5
35.6
35.9

18. 02

1 7 6

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Knitted outerwear

Knitted underwear

Knitted cloth

Year and month
Average
Average
Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours Average
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked hourly
worked
earnings worked earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week earnings
per week
1932
January
February
March
April
May
June

Cents
__
__ _

Cents

$16.69
17. 55
16.46
15. 21
14.21
13. 96

$12.85
13.18
12. 53
11.60
11.44
11.29

Cents

$16.07
17. 77
15. 33
13. 98
12.70
13. 22

12. 50
14. 94
16. 85
16.06
13. 79
13.05

10.11
11.16
12.20
13. 22
13.04
12. 35

12.84
14. 38
15. 56
15.47
13.40
13. 72

January
February
March..
April
May
June

13. 83
13.86
11.99
11.90
13. 38
13. 48

10. 65
10.80
10. 36
10. 53
11.27
11.87

12.84
11.61
10. 62
10. 89
11.89
13.32

July
August
September
October
November
December

13. 21
14.94
15. 54
15.84
14. 61
15. 52

12. 25
13. 65
13.51
13. 76
13.23
12. 91

14.40
15. 52
15. 93
15. 76
14. 52
14.41

July
August
September
October
November
December
1933

1934
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

__
___
_
. .




33.1
35.0
34.7
36.4
35.6
32.9

44.0
43.5
43.7
42.7
43.7
44.5

15.24
16. 22
15. 65
15.78
15. 55
14.81

30.7
34.0
35.5
35.9
35.3
34.1

40.6
39.3
38.8
39.0
39.0
39.4

11.94
13.47
13.97
14.16
14.01
13. 57

14. 39
15. 15
16.04
15.68
15. 87
16. 27

34.4
34.6
32.2
36.5
33.4
33.1

43.6
44.7
45.1
44.5
45.5
45.6

15.08
15.49
15.38
16. 91
15. 70
15. 67

31.1
31.3
31.6
32.3
32.7
32.9

41.0
41.0
41.0
40.7
40.3
41.1

12. 75
12.74
12. 79
13. 27
13. 24
13. 52

14.65
15. 26
16. 33
15. 26
15.06
15. 22

APPENDIX A

177

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
193 J,.—Continued
Textiles and their products—Continued
Silk and rayon goods

Woolen and worsted goods

Year and month

"Wearing apparel" (subgroup)

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
hourly weekly
weekly
weekly
worked hourly earnings worked earnings earnings worked hourly
per week
per week earnings
per week earnings earnings

Cents

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November-.
December-.

$15. 55
14.82
13. 34
13.11
12.31
12.13

42.8
44.9
42.1
37.1
36.9
37.2

Cents
43.5
42.9
42.4
41.9
39.9
38.7

$18.65
18.88
17.65
15. 33
14.98
14. 56

12.40
13.60
13. 31
13. 66
12.92
12. 76

January.-.
February..
March
April
May
June

40.9
44.6
46.0
46.1
43.6
45.2

35.3
35.1
35.3
34.9
34.6
35.2

14.98
15.88
16. 40
16. 34
15.45
16.01

12.28
14. 30
15.46
15. 21
13. 66
12. 57

Cents

$16.37
16. 78
17.08
14.88
13. 39
12.54

1933
Tanuary--.
February.
March
April
May
June

40.3
36.9
37.1
39.6
42.0

29.4
29.5
30.1
30.5
30.3
30.3

11.89
12.17
11.32
11.20
12. 20
12. 75

45.2
46.7
37.3
41.2
46.0
48.1

34.2
34.7
34.0
33.6
33.3
35.0

15. 53
16.14
13.08
13.90
15.14
16.85

12.98
14.15
12.68
13. 20
12.48
12.90

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December-.

41.8
36.7
33.9
35.1
33.8
31.7

31.1
41.5
42.7
42.7
42. 5
42.9

13. 36
15. 26
14.40
15.01
14.29
13.86

49.0
41.2
37.1
34.9
32.8
34.3

35.2
43.3
48.7
49.5
49.4
48.4

16. 99
17. 52
17.54
17.03
16.12
16. 61

13.72
15.48
17. 65
17.19
15.13
14.37

January - _
FebruaryMarch
April
May
June

31.0
35.8
34.6
33.9
32.6
32.9

44.2
42.4
42.9
44.1
44.4
44.2

13.93
15. 20
15.06
15.12
14. 55
14.60

33.8
35.6
34.6
34.5
33.2
32.1

49.1
48.6
49.1
49.1
49.1
50.0

16. 59
17.23
17.05
17. 06
16.35
16. 26

15. 77
17. 21
17. 92
16. 71
15.72
15. 30

July
August
SeptemberOctober
November-.
December-.

32.2
33.9
28.7
33.8
34.4
34.5

44.6
44. 5
46.2
45.7
44.5
45.2

14. 34
15.13
13.16
15.47
15. 25
15. 55

32.2
31.9
30.8
31.5
33.3
36.8

49.7
49.9
50.0
49.6
48.9
48.3

16. 02
15. 93
15. 39
15. 59
16. 25
17.74

15.43
17.12
16. 25
17.00
15.58
15.47

1934




178

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
Clothing, women's

Clothing, men's

Corsets and allied garments

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average
Average
Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
weekly
hourly
worked
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932

Cents

$15. 73
16. 32
16.14
13.23
12.16
11.42

Cents

$20.12
20. 36
21.70
19.15
16.87
15. 31

Cents

$15.64
16. 66
16. 51
15. 56
14.90
13. 67

11.27
13. 71
15. 07
14. 87
13. 04
11.41

15. 83
18.48
18. 99
18.78
16. 71
15.97

13.23
12. 53
14.07
16.13
14. 65
14.73

12. 58
13. 96
12. 69
11. 71
11. 65
12. 72

15.81
17. 58
14.91
17. 68
14. 86
14. 26

13.50
14.99
12.43
13. 52
14.18
14. 37

14. 57
16.10
17.11
17. 21
15. 39
13.96

July
August
September
October
November
December

14.83
15. 68
22. 39
20.12
16. 92
17.06

13.78
15.46
15.46
15. 43
12. 36
13. 84

1933
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

-

-

-

1934
January
February
March
_
April
May
June

27.3
30.4
32.2
30.5
29.2
29.3

55.5
54.3
52.7
52.3
52.0
53.5

15. 50
17. 01
17.61
16. 38
15. 51
15. 73

18.64
20. 81
21. 35
18. 99
17. 65
16. 24

15.13
16. 29
16. 71
16.74
15. 49
14. 75

July
August
September
October
November
December

28.3
28.7
26.7
27.4
24.8
25.1

56.2
61.2
61.7
60.7
60.8
61.7

15. 76
17. 51
16. 51
16. 90
15.19
15.46

17.48
19.46
17. 26
19. 52
17.70
17.06

13.94
14. 79
15. 79
15.43
14.84
15.44




APPENDIX A

179

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Textiles and their products—Continued
M e n ' s furnishings

Millinery

Shirts and collars

Year and month
Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
1982
January _ _ _
February
March
April
May
_
June
_

Cents

$13. 39
12. 86
14.13
11.77
11.10
11.39

Cents

$19.83
20. 57
19. 98
18.99
16. 09
15.13

Cents

$11.04
11. 28
11.14
10.65
10.00
10.26

10. 80
10. 00
11.61
12. 41
12. 29
11.05

July
August
September _ _
October
November
December

14.
17.
19.
16.
14.
14.

96
25
52
03
58
72

9.95
10. 39
10. 02
10. 85
11.05
10. 67

9. 76
10. 06
9. 89
8. 88
10. 42
11.21

15. 43
14. 96
13. 36
17.47
15. 75
15.18

9.27
9. 72
9. 58
9.06
9. 50
10. 39

10. 65
13. 45
12. 96
14.19
13.15
12.12

14. 09
17.46
20.43
17.12
16. 02
16.01

9.81
12. 34
12. 26
13.40
12.48
11.79

11.46
13.63
13.95
13.81
13.16
13.65

18.39
19. 27
21.83
20. 84
19.10
17. 76

11.74
12. 58
13. 44
13. 28
12. 83
12. 76

12. 27
13. 38
13.24
15. 67
15. 75
15. 72

17.37
20. 94
23.13
19.17
17. 74
17. 94

12.41
12.83
12. 41
13.24
13.20
12. 02

1983
January
February
March
April
May
June

__ _

July
A u g u s t - . ___
September _ _ _
October
__ _
November
December
_
1934
January
February
March__
April
May
June

__

July
August
September
OctoberNovember
December




1 8 0

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Leather and its manufactures
"Leather" group

Boots and shoes

Leather

Year and montb
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours Average Average
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly worked hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week
1932

$15.56
17.18
17.19
15.67
13.63
13. 93

41.2
43.1
43.7
42.2
39.0
40.0

•Cents
44.3
44.7
44.9
45.1
44.9
44.0

$19.96
20.47
20. 34
19. 48
18.43
18. 37

14. 99
15. 77
16. 36
16. 05
13. 85
13.91

14. 36
15.16
15.82
15. 35
12. 70
12. 76

41.3
41.5
41.9
43.2
42.7
43.1

41.9
42.1
41.7
41.9
41.0
39.8

17. 79
18.69
18.67
19. 32
18. 44
18. 31

January
February
March
April
May
June

13. 85
15. 06
14. 26
14.14
15. 63
16. 51

12.97
14. 33
13. 55
13. 57
14.99
15.69

41.8
43.3
42.3
40.7
44.9
46.5

39.3
39.3
39.9
38.4
39.6
40.7

17. 51
18.24
17. 52
16. 78
18.54
19. 92

July
August..
September
October
November
December

17. 24
17. 90
18.21
17. 29
16. 00
16. 52

16. 56
17.42
17.87
16.61
14. 95
15. 33

46.3
41.7
37.9
37.8
37.5
38.2

41.7
45.2
48.6
50.7
50.5
51.5

20.07
19. 73
19. 50
19.86
19. 50
20. 08

17.18
19.13
19.16
18.67
18. 08
17. 53

16.42
18. 78
18.83
18. 27
17.43
16.80

37.1
37.9
37.4
37.2
37.7
37.6

52.3
52.5
52.2
52. 1
52.4
52.4

19. 73
20.43
20. 33
20. 21
20.41
20.16

18.
18.
17.
16.
15.
17.

17.99
18.14
16.69
15. 48
14. 51
16.43

36.2
35.9
35.1
35.9
36.6
37.3

52.9
53.8
54.4
55.2
55.9
55.8

19.84
19.84
19. 57
20.18
20.45
20.88

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

-

$16. 38
17. 79
17. 77
16. 39
14. 55
14.76

Cents

1933

1934
January
February
March
April
May
June

_

July
August
September
October
November
December




38
48
32
57
93
46

APPENDIX A

181

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1984—Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products
Baking

" F o o d " group

Beverages

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
1932

Cents

March
April
May

Cents

$22. 59
22. 18
22. 09
21.62
21.90
20.88

Cents

$24. 62
24. 39
24. 35
23. 57
23. 38
23.13

$26. 53
26.71
26.94
26. 90
27. 98
28.17

19. 78
18. 93
18. 36
18. 83
18.84
19.15

22. 63
22. 30
22. 78
22. 48
22. 11
21.88

19. 36
19. 03
18. 49
19.12
19. 59
19.44

22.03
21.56
12. 12
21.35
21. 51
21.57

39.7
39.9
37.0
44.7
47.9
46.7

60.7
60.5
60.8
63.5
61.7
61.0

24.13
24.04
23. 70
30. 27
30. 35
29. 04

18. 75
17.85
17. 75
18. 09
18. 58
20.01

July
August
September
October
November
December

21. 81
21.52
22. 01
21.78
21. 70
21.89

44.7
43.0
41.1
38.6
37.5
38.1

61.1
64.9
67.8
69.3
73.1
76.4

28. 96
27.89
27.67
26.89
26.95
28. 31

27.18
26. 58
25. 07
23. 78
23. 63
24.81

1933
January
February
March
April
May
June

__

July
...
August
September
October
November
December
1934
January
February
March
April
May.
June

39.1
39.1
38.7
38.7
39.2
39.1

51.2
51.3
50.9
51.1
52.0
51.2

20.12
20. 25
19.94
19.97
20.64
20.46

40.8
40.5
40.9
41.5
41.4
41.7

50.8
52.4
51.3
51.4
52.9
52.0

21.91
22.12
21. 77
21.46
22. 06
21.89

37.3
38.1
38.9
38.8
39.4
40.2

74.4
73.0
73.7
74.8
76.1
75.1

27.
27.
28.
28.
29.
30.

July
August
September
October
November.
December

37.9
38.6
38.6
38.2
38.3
38.9

51.5
49.7
48.6
50.5
51.6
52.4

20. 31
19. 94
19.68
19. 75
20. 23
20.60

40.9
39.9
40.3
39.4
39.6
39.7

53.9
54.7
53.9
53.9
53.6
54.0

22.11
21.88
22. 07
21.37
21.43
21.43

39.8
39.9
38.1
37.6
36.9
35.8

76.7
75.6
74.8
74.1
76.0
75.7

31. 05
30. 05
28.71
28. 00
28. 05
27. 33




76
92
32
89
77
00

1 8 2

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued
Canning and preserving

Butter

Confectionery

Year and month
Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours Average Average
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
worked
worked hourly
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
per week
1932

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June

$24. 36
24. 35
23. 96
23. 59
24.20
22. 96

Cents

Cents

$15.90
15. 38
15. 33
14.03
15. 27
12. 75

$16.80
16.19
15. 75
15. 56
15.19
14. 82

22. 42
22. 33
22. 20
22. 03
21.70
20. 85

11. 34
11.68
10. 67
11.43
11.80
12. 53

13. 88
14. 05
14. 91
14. 48
13. 47
14.12

January
February
March
April
May
June

21.74
20. 98
21. 12
20. 72
20. 65
20.51

12.06
12.18
12. 06
11.21
11. 69
11.45

13. 55
13.29
11.90
12. 45
12. 96
12.46

July
August
September
October
November
December

20.
20.
20.
20.
20.
19.

20
35
23
33
65
49

10.12
10. 23
12.00
10. 80
11.55
12. 63

12. 63
13. 94
15.08
14. 77
14.19
15. 29

19. 78
21.08
20. 39
20. 88
21.09
20. 95

12. 75
13. 53
12.91
12. 52
13.12
11.90

37.2
37.6
36.9
36.0
36.6
36.3

40.7
40.9
41.2
41.3
41.3
41.0

15. 63
15. 46
15. 40
15.06
15. 23
14. 95

21.42
20. 47
20. 35
20. 24
20. 07
19. 40

11.19
13. 52
12. 65
12. 23
12. 53
13.20

34.2
34.3
36.8
36.3
35.4
37.9

43.1
43.1
42.0
42.2
41.9
42.9

14. 98
15.10
15. 90
15. 67
15.06
16.29

July
August _
September
October
November
December
1933

1934
January
February
March
April
May
June

_

.

July
August
September
October
November
December




APPENDIX

A

1 8 3

7.-—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued
Flour

Slaughtering and meat
packing

Ice cream

Year and month

Average
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly worked hourly
worked
worked
earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
per week
1932
January..
February.
March
April.
May
June__

47.9
47.2
48.0
48.1
48.4
47.2

Cents
47.1
47.1
46.8
46.5
46.2
45.2

$22. 68
22. 60
22. 09
22. 59
22. 64
21.61

50.1
52.0
51.6
51.3
53.7
53.0

Cents
60.5
58.0
58.7
58.1
54.4
52.5

$30.
30.
30.
29.
28.
27.

67
46
44
89
98
71

47.4
46.3
45.5
46.4
47.2
46.7

Cents
48.7
48.5
48.5
48.5
47.3
46.7

$23. 34
22. 76
22.47
22. 64
22. 61
22.04

July
August,
September
October
November
December

46.9
49.1
49.0
49.3
47.2
46.6

45.6
44.3
43.7
43.9
43.5
43.8

21.79
21.69
21.41
22. 43
21.45
21.18

53.7
53.7
52.2
52.0
49.8
47.6

50.7
50.1
50.5
51.5
50.9
52.2

27.
27.
26.
26.
25.
25.

43
08
70
61
93
40

46.5
45.4
46.2
46.7
44.6
45.9

45.0
44.7
44.8
44.1
44.5
44.7

21.26
20. 56
20. 93
20. 63
19.89
20.20

January
February
March
April
May
June

47.6
46.3
46.9
49.5
49.1
47.0

43.6
42.8
43.0
41.4
41.7
42.1

21.39
20.12
19. 95
21.08
20. 72
19. 88

48.8
48.7
48.7
50.1
52.0
53.1

51.0
50.1
48.9
50.7
48.3
46.3

25.74
25.12
24. 71
24. 94
25. 48
25. 35

46.4
45.2
42.3
45.6
47.8
48.2

44.2
44.2
44.4
43.2
42.6
41.6

20. 65
20.19
18. 65
19.94
20.00
20.17

July
AugustSeptember
October
November..
December

47.6
39.5
38.0
38.4
38.0
38.0

42.3
48.2
52.6
52.4
50.6
52.1

21.10
19.14
19. 87
20.51
19. 93
20. 36

51.1
46.6
44.1
43.5
41.1
42.1

48.4
54.0
54.4
57.6
63.2
61.1

25.06
25.13
24. 35
25. 05
24. 90
25.16

49.3
40.3
40.0
39.7
39.9
40.2

40.9
49.0
49.8
49.9
49.8
52.6

20.15
19.78
19. 65
19. 72
19. 86
21.22

38.6
39. 5
38.6
38.0
38.1
38.8

51.5
51. 2
52. 1
52.8
53.2
52.9

20. 57
20. 52
20.17
20. 45
20. 66
21.05

40.9
40.7
41.7
43.4
45.0
46.0

62.9
61.5
58.5
57.1
59.1
55.3

25.
24.
24.
24.
25.
25.

09
66
56
86
32
04

40.9
39.3
38.6
39.0
39.6
40.3

51.9
51.8
52.5
52.0
52.7
52.2

21.36
20. 69
20. 61
20. 73
21.08
21. 64

38.6
38.0
39.4
39.6
37.6
38.0

54.0
54.4
55.4
54.7
54. 5
54.3

21.09
20. 98
21.77
21.35
20. 39
20. 59

46.9
45.4
44.8
43.2
41.9
42.8

52.9
52.9
53.6
57.1
58.3
58.3

24.81
24.17
24. 31
25.16
24. 95
25. 34

42.2
41.7
43.0
41.0
41.1
42.0

52.3
52.4
51.6
54.7
54.6
54.6

22. 32
22.12
22.68
22. 80
22. 94
23. 29

1933

1934
January
February
March
April
May
June

_ __
...
*

July
August
September
October.
November
December




184

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Food and kindred products—Continued

Tobacco manufactures

Sugar refining, cane

Sugar, beet

" T o b a c c o " group

Year and month
Average
Average Average A
Average Average Average Average
S f
Average
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
worked
per week earnings earnings per week earning? earnings per week earnings earnings
1932
January _ _
February.
March
April
May
June.
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

Cents

$20.91
27.91
30.26
28. 84
29. 62
25. 43
23.12
22. 74
21. 91
16. 63

$25. 42
26.19
26. 41
26. 27
26. 24
25.99

Cents

$13.56
13.06
12.91
12. 62
12. 67
13. 27

15. 67

26. 65
26.26
25. 76
24.19
23.80
23.86

13.16
12. 74
12.93
12.92
12. 75
12.92

18. 21

1938
January. _
February.
March
April
May
June

45.9
46.1
47.1
44.2
44.8
46.5

45.8
55.4
57.5
56.1
52.5
49.5

16. 45
19.15
23. 63
22. 81
21.34
20. 53

22. 55
21.99
24. 61
24. 49
24. 72
25.15

11.19
11.33
11.12
11.44
12. 73
12. 79

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

43.6
48.0
48.0
51.6
50.4
49.1

52.3
40.9
43.9
38.1
39.8
41.1

21.08
20.06
20.19

25.16
22. 63
21.17
20. 54
21.18
20.91

12.81
12. 87
13.83
13. 97
13. 34
13.15

January - _
February.
March
April
May
June

35.3
40.9
39.4
39.5
37.8
39.0

49.7
65.2
65.3
67.3
62.1
58.5

15. 55
25. 38
24. 44
24.20
22.07
21.66

34.1
36.9
36.2
38.5
37.7
39.2

57.3
55.8
54.0
55.0
55.4
56.1

20.10
21.10
20. 37
21.79
21.66
22. 67

12.84
12. 93
12. 57
12.67
13.23
13. 36

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

34.6
44.0
42.5
39.2
49.2
33.3

58.2
47.6
48.7
41.9
41.1
45.7

19. 88
20.61
20.28
16.08
19. 66
15. 27

34.9
39.7
37.7
37.2
37.3
40.0

56.9
55.2
55.6
55.8
52.8
51.7

20. 71
22.24
21. 72
21.65
20.02
21.24

13.58
13. 36
13.68
13.13
13.37
14.14




18.16

19. 51
18.62

APPENDIX A

185

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Tobacco manufactures—Continued

Year and month

Chewing and smoking
tobacco and snuff

Paper and printing

Cigars and cigarettes

'Paper and printing" group

Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

Cents

Cents

$13.23
12. 76
12.82
12. 33
12. 41
13.16

$27. 69
27.50
27. 64
27. 08
26. 39
25. 56

13.28
13. 62
14.20
13. 72
13. 51
13.42

13.14
12. 54
12. 66
12. 75
12. 58
12.81

24.83
24. 57
25.12
25.50
24.83
24. 63

January.
February.
March
April
May
June.

13. 58
12. 74
11.90
12. 89
13. 84
13.68

10. 51
11.00
10.92
11.08
12. 47
12. 58

24. 23
23. 57
22. 63
22. 77
23. 34
23.82

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

13. 59
14. 44
14.28
13. 79
13.09
13.70

12. 64
12.48
13. 73
14.01
13.40
13.03

23.69
23. 49
23.40
23. 28
22. 34
22. 52

January..
February.
March
April
May
June

13.91
14. 41
13. 84
13.03
12. 98
13.70

12.
12.
12.
12.
13.
13.

55
58
27
57
28
30

36.0
36.7
36.9
37.0
36.8
36.3

65.4
65.3
65.4
65.9
66.2
66.3

22. 66
22.91
23.08
23. 42
23. 49
23. ^

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

13.84
14.10
14. 21
13. 26
12. 84
14. 36

13. 53
13. 22
13. 57
13.10
13. 48
14.10

36.0
36.2
36.2
36.7
36.4
37.5

66.7
66.8
66.5
67.1
67.8
68.5

23.15
23. 43
23. 51
23. 77
23. g
24.22

January __
February.
March
April
May.
June.
July.
August
September..
October
November..
December..

$15.07
14. 55
13. 38
13.94
13.80
13. 78

19SS




186

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934— Continued

TABLE

Paper and printing—Continued
Boxes, paper

Printing and publishing,
book and j o b

Paper and pulp

Year and month

Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932

Cents

$19.31
19,45
19.64
19. 00
18.43
18.20

41.6
45.5
43.5
42.4
42.5
39.9

Cents
47.7
46.1
47.9
46.7
45.8
45.4

$19.92
21.07
20.95
19.84
19.36
18.06

16.91
16.89
18.08
18. 56
17.83
17.22

37.1
39.0
39.9
42.4
41.0
39.4

44.5
44.1
44.0
43.4
43.4
43.2

16.96
17.41
17.93
18. 65
18.02
17.18

26.60
26.59
27.07
27.12
26.20
27.01

January.. .
February .
March
April
May
June

16.58
16.89
15.71
16. 05
17.08
17. 59

38.6
40.2
39.8
40.6
43.4
46.8

42.8
42.4
42.0
41.0
41.3
39.9

16.60
17.22
16.78
16.67
17.97
18.64

26.46
25.68
24.65
24.16
25.07
25.00

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

17.76
17.56
17.81
17.50
17.07
17.39

46.1
44.4
39.9
38.7
36.5
35.3

41.1
44.2
47.2
48.3
48.1
49.7

18.94
19. 55
18.83
18.63
17.5Q
17.59

25.21
24.50
25.17
25.16
24.95
25.49

January ___
February.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

Cents

$30.33
29.20
29.18
28.76
28.36
27.39

1933

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June

34.4
36.7
37.2
37.1
36.8
36.2

49.6
48.7
49.6
49.8
49.8

17.06
17.95
18.59
18.44
18.37
18.08

35.3
36.8
36.9
37.1
35.9
35.9

49.8
50.2
50.3
50.8
51.2
51.1

17.66
18.48
18.60
18.84
18.43
18.38

36.3
36.2
36.4
36.1
36.5
35.6

71.0
70.6
71.3
72.2
72.2
72.5

25.31
25.23
25.85
25.87
26.31
26.06

July
August
September..
October . . . .
November..
December..

35.7
35.8
36.0
37.0
36.4
38.2

50.0
50.5
48.7
48.9
49.9
50.2

17.70
18.23
17.64
18.16
18.17
19.10

35.7
36.1
36.1
37.2
36.5
37.1

51.4
51.9
52.1
52.5
53.0
52.7

18.27
18.76
18.88
19.61
19.33
19.56

35.6
35.8
35.7
35.7
35.8
37.3

73.2
72.8
72.0
72.8
73.5
73.5

26.11
26.29
25.94
26.29
26.27
27.41




APPENDIX

A

187

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products

Paper and printing—Con.
Printing and publishing,
newspapers and periodicals

Year and month

"Chemicals" group

"Other than petroleum
refining" group

A verage Average Average Average Average Average Average Average A verage
hours
hours
hours
hourly weekly
hourly weekly
worked hourly weekly worked
worked
per w eek earnings earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings earnings
i
1932

Cents

January
February
March
April
May
June

Cents

$37.61
36.33
36.57
36.45
35.57
35.15

Cents

$23.83
23.98
23.72
22.97
23.41
23.87

$20.60
20.98
20.97
20. 25
20. 55
20.89

34.63
33.74
34.01
34.00
33.77
33.88

22.88
22. 96
22. 23
22.12
21.98
21.64

19.61
19.71
19.44
19.75
19.32
19.09

33.15
31.69
30.63
30.50
30. 53
31.00

21.57
21.05
20. 72
20.14
21.35
21.90

18.62
18.55
17.80
17.18
18.67
19.55

30. 58
31.00
31.44
30.97
31.10
31.53

July
August .
September
October _
November
December

21.69
21.40
21.08
21.31
21.20
21.34

19.30
19.19
18.77
19.16
18.83
19.22

1983
Januarv . .
February.
MarchApril
May
June
July
August
September
October
NovemberDecember.

_

-

-

1934
31.46
31.38
31.56
31.98
32.45
32.49

July...
August
September..
October
November
December..

-

402007°—42




13

37.1
37.2
37.0
37.3
36.8
36.9

55.5
55.5
55.6
56.3
58.9
60.1

21.30
21.20
21.19
21.61
21.94
22.40

37.7
38.2
37.7
37.8
37.3
37.8

50.0
49.3
49.4
50.4
53.2
54.2

18.96
19.02
18.88
19.23
19.94
20.47

31.97
31.92
32. 72
32.97
32.98
34.30

January
February..
March
April
May
June.

36.9
36.7
36.5
37.5
37.0
37.3

60.5
60.4
59.6
58.6
59.4
59.5

22.37
22.39
22.10
21.99
21.95
22.15

37.6
37.5
37.6
38.5
38.0
38.3

54.3
53.9
52.8
51.7
52.4
52.5

20.10
19.95
19.5$
19.72?
19.72
19.82

1 8 8

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Cottonseed—oil, cake, and
meal

Chemicals
Year and month

Druggists' preparations

Average
Average Average Average Average
Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings
earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932

Cents

January
February

Cents

$26.05
26. 27
26. 17
25. 61
25. 08
24. 35

$13. 01
12. 55
11.86
12.02
11.86
12.59

Cents

$21.10
21.30
20.60
20. 66
20.58
20. 65

23. 55
23. 85
23. 48
24. 04
23. 86
23.31

10.87
11.78
9. 78
10. 01
9.93
9.80

20.00
19.83
20.17
20. 27
20. 40
20. 40

23.10
23. 37
22. 60
22.64
23. 77
24.14

9.83
9. 32
9. 02
8. 48
8.98
9. 61

20.18
20. 27
19.28
18. 76
19. 43
20. 35

24.16
23. 70
22. 79
23. 89
23. 21
23. 46

July
August
September
October
November
December

9.83
9. 80
9. 92
10. 51
9.91
9.61

19. 65
20.30
19.97
20.29
20.18
19. 97

1983
January
February
March
April
May
_
June
I

. _ .

July
August
September
October
November
December
193',
January
February
March
April
May
_
June - -

-

July
August
September
October
November
December




39.2
39.2
38.7
39.1
37.3
38.6

60.0
59.5
60.4
60.3
63.6
62.3

23.
23.
22.
24.
23.
24.

27
40
97
05
75
18

43.0
45.0
41.8
41.1
39.5
41.0

23.2
23.0
23.8
23.1
24.1
25.1

9. 75
10.17
9. 91
9. 49
9. 48
10.14

19. 54
19. 89
19.86
20. 31
20. 01
20. 56

39.0
38.8
37.8
39.1
38.5
38.7

61.4
61.8
63.0
62.0
62.2
62.5

23. 88
24. 02
23. 83
24. 03
24.15
24.15

42.4
40.2
43.2
46.9
45.1
45.9

25. 5
25.0
23.0
20.8
21.4
22.1

10. 73
10.14
10.12
9. 96
9. 75
10.20

20. 45
20. 30
20.01
20.43
20.15
19.21

APPENDIX

189

A

TABLE 7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries,&?/months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued
Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Fertilizers

Explosives

Paints and varnishes

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings weekly
worked hourly
earnings
per week
per week
per week earnings

Cents

Cents

July.
August
September..
October
November..
December..

$13.21
11.70
10.71
10. 35
11.52
12.35

40.7
41.6
41.7
42.0
44.9
43.6

Cents
59.7
58.8
58.4
56.5
55.3
53.7

$23.93
24.17
24. 45
23.96
24.50
23.81

19.24
18. 65
18. 73
20. 55
21.23
20. 51

January...
February..
March
April
May.
June

13. 41
12.36
11.30
11.28
11. 40
12. 01

37.9
37.4
38.0
40.8
40.3
39.7

54.1
53.5
55.7
53.2
52.8
52.6

21.04
20.50
21.47
22.29
21.43
20.89

$19.62
21. 07
21. 30
20. 32
21.85
19. 75

January...
February .
March
April
May
June

35.5
36.1
33.4
31.3
35.0
36.5

54.8
54.5
54.9
58.5
55.0
54.3

18.87
19. 06
18.99
18. 38
19. 52
21.03

10.89
9. 34
9.03
8. 47
9.07
10.74

38.3
40.2
37.1
42.1
46.9
47.6

52.6
51.1
51.1
49.2
47.0
46.9

20.42
20.83
19.13
20.73
22.43
22.59

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

38.3
38.9
35.1
35.4
33.4
33.7

54.5
58.1
59.8
60.1
62.2
60.6

21.79
23.22
20. 86
21.83
20.97
20. 45

11.16
11.34
11. 49
11.56
10.61
10. 98

44.6
39.1
37.8
38.2
37.9
38.2

47.8
52.4
53.9
54.4
53.6
53.9

21.64
20.74
20. 37
21.00
20.42
20.66

January...
February.
March
April
May
June.

34.1
34.7
35.5
36.1
35.2
34.3

61.0
61.2
61.3
60.8
60.5
61.4

21. 25
21.18
21.59
22. 96
21.86
22. 29

10. 73
9.98
9.68
10.19
10.84
11. 55

37.8
38.1
39.0
39.5
39.7
39.4

53.8
53.5
53.7
54.8
54.5
54.7

20.59
20.74
21.31
21.98
22.18
22.13

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

34.4
35.1
33.4
34.7
34.1
34.2

'64.6
63.5
62.8
62.6
65.2
65.9

22.11
23.22
21. 58
22. 63
22. 23
22. 52

12.59
11.81
11.66
11.25
10. 59
10.72

35.7
37.7
37.2
37.9
37.9
37.9

57.7
56.2
55.5
56.9
56.6
57.6

20.73
21.18
20.67
21. 55
21.47
21.87

1934




190

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products—Continued
Petroleum refining

R a y o n and allied products

Soap

Year and month
Average
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings
earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

Cents

January.
February.
March
April
May
June

Cents
$29.
29.
29.
28.

71
59
14
48

45.0

18.
18.
18.
17.
17.

28.82
28.14
28.44
27. 57

26.86
26. 88
26. 23

05
76
33
23
07

4
4
4
4
4

5
6
5
4
4

.1
.4
.8
.8
.8

4
4
4
4
4
4

15.
16.
17.
17.
17.
16.

28.96

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

Cents
$16. 88

4
6
6
7
8
7

.4
.9
.8
.4
.2
.2

62
36
25
29
13
96

4
4
4
4
4
4

4
6
5
5
1
0

.
.
.
.
.
.

0
6
7
8
8
2

46.2
45.2
44.8
45.1
45.3
47.0

40.3
42.4

44. 5

$19. 9 8
21.15
21.72
21.71
21.59
21.15
20. 33

21.06
20. 4 7

20.66

18.94
18. 8 9

1933
January...
February.
March
April
May
June
July...
August
September..
October
November..
December..

39
38
39
39
39
39

.9
.3
.7
.1
.4
.6

40.0
39.8
35.
3D.
35.
35.

5
7
3
8

62.4

62.8
62.1
63.0

27.
26.
26.
26.

03
44
71
35

16. 8 3
16. 5 0
16. 3 8

41.8
41.9
42.9

63.1
63.2

26. 62
26.69

15. 7 4
16. 2 7
17. 0 5

62.3
62.7
70.6
71.6

26.87

16. 4 2

43.9

26. 61
26. 49
26. 45

26.11

17.
17.
17.
17.

68.7

25. 43

18.28

38.8
38.2
37.9
37.4
36.8

69.8

21
38
75
55

43.7

44.6
45.1
44.7
44.9
44.3-

17. 9 3
18.91
18.85
18. 73
19.26
19. 3 6

44.9
46.7
49.3
49.9
51.3
52.8

19. 7 1

5
5
5
5
5
5

5
7
8
9
2
9

20. 01

4
6
9
5
1

55.0
55.4
54.0

20. 57
20. 83

55.3
56.3

21.29
20.89

57.5

21.68

18.12

18.83
18.91
19.19
19. 4 3

1984
January...
FebruaryMarch
April
May
June

35.5
34.6
34.9
35.8
35.5
34.7

69.3
72.5
73.4
73.4
73.3
74.0

25.
25.
26.
26.
26.
26.

July
August
September..
October
November..
December. .

35.2
34.7
34.0
34.9
34.5
34.6

76.2
76.3
77.2
75.8
77.5

27.17
27.14
26. 97
27.28
26. 56
27. 05




78.1

68
93
67
90
65
47

3
3
3
3
3
3

6
7
6
7
7
7

.0
.2
.9
.1
.3
.4

48.3
48.6
49.2
49.3
50.6
51.5

17. 3 5
17. 8 6
17. 9 0
18. 3 0
18.84
19. 2 6

37.4
38.6
38.9

36.4
35.7
36.4
36.4
37.7
38.1

51.0
51.3
51.6
51.6
50.9
50.8

18. 5 6
18. 3 2
18. 7 9
19.16

37
37
38
38
37

19. 3 5

37.7

18.81

38.5
37.5
37.4
.
.
.
.
.

3
2
2
2
4
4

.
.
.
.
.
.

20.
20.
20.
20.
20.

34
54
37
33
53

21.01

APPENDIX A

191

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Rubber products
Rubber boots and shoes

" R u b b e r " group

Rubber tires and inner tubes

Year and month
Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

Cents

Cents

$16.92
15.84
17.29
16. 37
16.99
16.04

35.1
37.2
35.1
33.3
33.0
36.4

Cents
64.8
64.9
64.4
63.3
63.6
63.4

$22.86
23.70
22.19
21.41
21.63
25.05

19. 36
18. 38
17. 30
17.64
17. 53
17.97

14.24
16.14
17.59
18. 54
19. 49
19.70

32.2
29.3
29.0
30.2
29.0
29.3

63.1
62.7
60.0
58.4
59.0
59.6

21.45
19. 63
16.93
17.84
16.92
17.65

January...
February.
March
April
May
June

16. 84
16. 86
15. 32
16. 66
20.17
22. 09

16.78
16. 56
14. 35
14.01
16.23
17. 57

28.4
28.4
24.1
29.7
37.4
41.8

58.9
58.7
59.1
59.0
58.9
58.5

17.00
17.05
15. 68
17.39
22.12
20. 34

July
August
September..
October
November..
December..

22. 40
20. 39
19.60
20.07
18. 70
19.47

18. 71
18.96
17. 61
19.15
19. 00
18.24

38.2
32.0
29.8
30.6
28.0
29.2

62.6
65.9
68.5
69.2
70.3
72.6

24.48
21.95
21.15
21.32
19.54
20. 84

January. . .
February.
March
April
May
June
July.
August
September..
October
November..
December. .

$21.00
21.42
20. 71
19.87
19.99
21.77

198$

1934
JanuaryFebruary .
March
April
May
June

32.8
33.8
34.8
34.8
33.9
33.0

60.7
62.9
63.8
63.9
63.9
64.0

19.91
21.68
22. 72
22. 83
22.03
21.47

17.06
16. 37
17. 39
17.24
17. 53
18.04

30.0
32.5
33.4
33.7
32.0
30.1

72.4
76.5
77.1
76.8
77.0
76.9

21.65
24.60
25.59
25.65
24.41
23.30

July...
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

30.9
31.0
30.8
31.7
31.8
34.8

64.4
65.3
64.5
65.5
66.4
66.7

20. 46
20. 21
19. 80
20. 48
20.89
23.16

16. 45
18.31
17.44
17.79
18.04
19.01

28.7
27.5
28.7
28.7
29.2
33.5

78.1
79.7
77.8
79.6
80.4
80.5

22.37
21. 53
21.48
22. 75
23.26
26.69




192

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

7.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in manufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to December
1984— Continued

TABLE

Rubber products—Continued

Year and month

Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes,
tires, and inner tubes
Average
hours worked
per week

January
February...
March
April
May
June

1982

Average
hourly
earnings
Cents

Average
weekly
earnings

$19.69
19.96
19.49
18. 36
17.80
17.42
17.14
16.65
18.10
19.07
17.41
17. 20

July...
August
September..
October
November..
December..
January
February...
March
April
May
June

40.1
37.6
40.1
41.0
43.9

45.0
42.6
42.3
42.2
41.2
42.2

16.48
16.61
15. 07
16.66
17. 44
18.61

July
August
September..
October
November.
December-

43.9
36.6
34.7
35.4
33.8
35.3

42.9
47.3
49.3
48.8
49.4
48.9

18.80
17. 30
17.28
17.62
16. 53
17.09

33.9
36.4
36.9
37.2
36.4
36.5

51.5
50.3
51.1
51.2
51.0
50.5

17. 53
18. 52
19.28
19.28
18.83
18. 77

34.3
34.6
33.5
35.5
34.4
36.1

50.3
50.4
51.3
51.8
52.2
52.2

17.80
18.00
17. 26
18. 33
17. 78
18. 97

January
February. _.
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October
November..
December..




1934

APPENDIX

A

193

8.—Average hours worked per week, overage hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to
December 1934

TABLE

Mining
Bituminous coal

Anthracite

Metalliferous

Year and month
Average Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly
weekly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1932
January...
February.
March
April
May.
June.

28.4
28.5
29.9
36.1
31.0
24.7

Cents
83.1
82.5
80 9
81.8
83.1
82.8

$23. 44
23.40
24.13
29.85
25.19
20.54

$15.05
15.88
16. 40
13. 58
12. 95
11. 91

July.
August
SeptemberOctober
November..
December..

27.1
30.0
28.8
36.4
28.9
31.8

82.5
82.8
84.3
82.5
81.9
82.1

22. 57
24.46
24.47
30. 37
23. 67
26. 21

11.16
11.85
12. 76
15.02
14. 51
14. 25

17. 77
17. 97
18.38
19.06
19.14

January. _
February.
March
April
May
June

28.1
35.0
30.9
25.1
24.9
31.2

83.6
81.5
83.0
81.4
81.4
81.7

23.94
28.11
25. 98
21.03
20. 20
25.23

13. 59
14. 06
11.73
10. 82
11.41
12. 45

18. 21
18. 37
18.81
18.23
18.28
18. 85

July
August
September..
October
NovemberDecember..

31.5
34.1
38.1
38.7
28.1
29.8

81.4
83.8
82.1
81.3

25. 34
28.41
31. 09
31. 49
22.80
23. 68

13. 85
16. 37
15. 78
16.67
17. 39
17. 33

18.80
19.19
20.14
20.51
20. 33
20.83

January...
February.
March
April
May
June

39.5
37.6
43.7
33.3
34.6
32.1

85.0
81.2
81.8
81.1
83.2
82.3

33. 27
30. 39
35. 57
25. 85
29. 27
26.98

30.3
31.8
34.0
26.1
26.5
26.2

58.3
57. 5
68.3
70.4
71.4

17. 41
18. 38
19. 45
17. 74
18. 28
18.54

38.7
38.7
38.7
38.0
36.1
37.4

53.5
53.4
54.3
55. 2
55.5
55.5

20.75
20. 61
21.27
21.12
20. 33
20. 99

July
August
September ..
October
November ..
December..

27.5
27.7
29.2
29.1
29.4
30.5

83.4
83.0
83.2
82.5
82.8
81.5

22. 97
23. 35
24. 05
24. 04
24. 57
24. 78

23.2
23.4
23.5
26.2
26.7
26.2

71.9
71.7
71.8
71.7
71.4
71.1

16. 74
16. 89
17. 03
18.82
19. 32
18. 64

36.0
34.6
35.8
36.0
36.4

56.1
55.7
56.7
58.2
58.9
58.1

20. 43
20. 43
19. 73
21.23
21. 42
21. 53




Cents
$18.66
18. 78
18.50
18.14
19. 47
19.48

18. 21

1 9 4

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

8 . — Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to
December 1934—Continued

TABLE

M ining— C ontinued

Public utilities

Quarrying and nonmetallic Crude-petroleum production Telephone and telegraph 1
Year and month
Average
Average
Average Average
Average Average Average Average Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked
worked
earnings earnings
earnings earnings worked earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week
1982
January
February
March.
April _
May
June
July
August
.September __
October
._
November
December

Cents

-

-

$16. 64
16.80
16.75
16. 63
17. 21
16. 21

Cents

$32.59
29.98
31.68
30.51
32 62
31.28

15.71
15. 69
15.71
15.49
14. 84
14.18

. .

30.
28.
28.
28.
28.
28.

68
07
08
36
78
01

Cents

$28.99
29.47
29. 08
27. 63
27.62
27.65
27.10
27.10
26.32
26.66
26.38
26.27

1933
January
February
March
April
May...
June

34.6
34.5
35.0
36.4
38.9
40.9

40.4
39.9
39.2
38.4
37.2
37.6

14. 01
13.61
13.78
14.11
14. 47
15. 25

26. 97
28. 43
29. 23
27.41
28.18
27.05

25. 78
26.18
26. 26
25.13
26.48
26.06

JulyAugust.
September, .
October _ _
November
December

41.5
38.5
34.4
34.9
32.5
31.3

37.5
40.5
43.3
44.3
45.2
46.1

15.10
15. 05
14. 59
15. 36
14. 50
14.18

27. 85
27.08
26.31
27. 68
27. 28
26. 89

26.32
26.32
25.60
26.40
26. 61
26. 42

January
February
March
April
May
June

30.8
31.1
33.5
34.2
36.0
35.8

45.6
45.4
45.6
46.9
47.5
48.0

14.05
14. 10
15. 19
16. 00
17. 04
16. 96

27.70
26. 39
27.20
27. 13
27. 70
26.87

26.63
26.35
27. 28
26.15
27. 01
26. 80

July
August
September - .
October
November
_.
December

34.0
33.7
33.0
33.4
32.3
29.6

48.6
47.9
47.8
48.2
47.8
47.9

16. 32
16.05
15. 65
15. 90
15. 43
14. 30

28. 30
28. 43
27. 27
27.83
27. 72
26. 78

27. 01
27.60
26.96
28. 22
27.33
27.83

1934

See footnotes at end of table.




APPENDIX

195

A

TABLE 8.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, January 1932 to
December 1934—Continued
Public utilities—Continued
Electric light and power 1 Street railways and busses 1 2
Year and month

Trade
Wholesale 1

Average
hours
worked
per
week

U-2
48.8
44-7

41*

45.0

44.2
48.2

48.5
42.9
44-0
43.9
44.1

48.8
43.4

44-2
48.0
43.1
41.1
42. (
40. i

Average
hours
worked
per
week

Average
hourly
earnings

Average
weekly
earnings

$81.59
81.55
31.91
81.17
82.09
80.93

47.7
48.9
47.5

Cents
60.3
60.0
60.1
59.3
59.0
59.5

$80.24
80.13
30.28
29.44

69.5
68.3
67.9
67.0
66.7

80. 68
30.00
29.56
29.88
29.75
29.90

45.9
45.4
44-7
45.0
46.1

58.5
57.3
57.5
59.1
59.3
59.0

27.19
27.46

68.4
67.6
67.3
67.6
67.8
67.6

30.02
29. 56
29.99
28. 97
29.12
28.90

45.9
45.3
45.2
44-8
45.6
46.1

59.0
58.9
58.6
57.8
57.3
56.7

27.28
27. 05
26.80
26.27
26.51
26.32

67.6
71.2
73.3
72.5
72.2

28.89
28.85
28.60
29.74
28.95
29.06

45.7
45.7
45.4
45.2
44-8
45.1

56.8
56.7
57.0
58.6
56.3
58.7

25.96
26. 75
26.45
26.74

28.85
29.33

59.0
59.0
59.2
59.3
59.7
59.7

26.87
27.58
27.61
27.60
27.49

45.4
44.8

60.8

Average
hourlyearnings

Average
weekly
earnings

Cents
71.8
72.7
71.2
70.7
71.5
70.0

80.14

88.8

78.5
74.6
75.4
77.7
76.9
77.4

44-8
45.0
45.9
46.8
45.8
45.7

88.0
88.8
87.5
89.5
89.0
88.5

81.4
78.7
80.0
77.1
77.5
79.1

80.79
80.10
29.85
80.29
80.06
80.35

44-2

38.7
89.8

See footnotes at end of table.




80.05

44-6
44-6
45.4

60.5
61.1
61.3
60.4

27.93
27.23
26. 87
26. 84

27.63
27.87
27.25
27.64
27.41
27.85

Average
hours
worked
per
week

hourly
earnings

196

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

8.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to
December 1984—Continued

TABLE

Trade—Continued
Retail, general
merchandising 1

Retail (total) 1

Retail, other than general
merchandising 1«

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average
hours
hours
hours
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly worked
worked
worked earnings
earnings per week earnings earnings per week earnings
per week

Cents

Cents

$22. 50
22.11
21.81
21.61
21.32
20. 87

$21.07
20.56
20.20
19.93
19.57
19.21

18.86

20.60
20.38
20.24
20.10
19.94

18. 88

18.53
18.50
18.34
18.12
17.11

20.14
19.74
19. 21
19. 01
19.05
19. 09

18.37
17.89
17.31
17.18
17.19
17.24

19.08
19.62
19. 82
19. 91
19.56
18.85

17.04
17. 91
18.11
18.07
17.62
17.00

19. 79
19. 42
19.80
19.74.
20.03




47.5

20.31
20.17
19.85
20.43
19.90
19.03
See footnotes at end of table.

38.8
37.0
37.1
38.2
38.0
37.0
37.5
37.5
37.8
38.1
38.0
40.5

48.3
48.7
47.6
48.1
46.7
41.1

48.4
48.0
48.3
48.5

18. 49
18.10
17.60
18.14
18.14
17.63
17.06
17. 25
16.92
17.21
16.50
15.59

APPENDIX A

197

8.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to
December 1934—Continued

TABLE

Service
Laundries

Hotels (year-round) 1

Year and month

Dyeing and cleaning

Average
Average
Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly worked hourly
weekly
hourly
weekly
worked hourly
worked
earnings earnings4 per week earnings earnings
earnings earnings
per week
per week
1982

Cents

January
February
March .
April
May
June.

Cents

$15.34
15.19
14-91
14-66
14-56
14• 28

$17.42
17.13
16.84
17.01
16.92
16. 55

Cents

$20.4219. 55
19.57
20.35
20. or
19.85

18.87
13.55
18.51
18.66
18.66
18.65

16.12
15. 77
15. 61
15. 37
15.19
15.15

18.60
18.03
18. 43
18.07
16. 93
16. 30

January,
February
March__
April
May
June

18.85
18.86
18.00
12.64
12.61
12.44

15. 24
14. 68
14.35
14. 53
14. 60
14. 70

16. 39
15. 35
15.00
17. 55
16.95
17.12

July
August
September
October
November
December

12.42
12.85
12.50
12. 81
12.86
18.10

14. 58
14. 70
15.13
15.11
14. 59
14. 73

16.
16.
17.
17.
17.
16.

July
August September
October
November
December
1933

52
35
68
57
38
79

193 h
12.85
12.93
18.21
18.19
13.23
18.25

January
February
March__
April
May
June
July
August.
September
October
November
December -

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




38.6
38.7
39.0
39.4
39.8
39.9

37.9
37.5
37.6
38.0
38.1
37.8

14.83
14.84
14.82
15.01
15.37
15. 30

17.32
17.07
17. 66
18. 38
18. 70
18. 39

18.22
18.01
18.18
18.48
18.40
18.50

40.0
39.7
39.4
39.1
39.2
39.2

37.8
37.5
37.6
37.6
37.1
37.4

15. 32
15. 08
15.06
14.89
14. 81
14.95

17.92
17.67
18.16
187.11
117.32
. 17

1 9 8

HOURS

AND

EARNINGS

IN

THE

UNITED

STATES

8.—Average hours worked per weeky average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings in nonmanufacturing industries, by months, January 1982 to
December
1934—Continued

TABLE

Insurance 1

Brokerage 1
Year and month

Private building construction

Average Average Average Average Average Average Average
Average Average
hours
hours
hours
weekly
hourly
hourly
weekly
hourly weekly
worked earnings earnings worked earnings earnings worked
earnings earnings
per week
per week
per week

1932
January
February March

Cents

$41.18
40.87
40.91
40.08
42.11
89.09

Cents

$89.08
88.58
88.18
38.33
38.89
88.68

Cents

84.81

37.89
36.92
85.58
84-68
34.79
34.74

January
February
March
_
April
May
June

88.18
83.68
31.61
88.41
88.07
82.77

34.18
34.54
34.75
34-19
84.87
84.87

July
August
September..
October
..
November
December

34.18
83.67

84-66
84.92
85.40

84.52
33.61
83.56
83.63
84-87
85.47

January
February
March
April
May
June

85.57
85.65
36.03
36.83
86.34
85.61

85.62
35.20
84.42
85.58
85.78
35.28

$22.09
21.09
21.95
22.66
23.15
23.15

July
August
September
October
November
December

85.26
85.18
84.44
84.04
84.20
84.82

85.21
84.61
84.14
84-87
34.72
85.58

23.57
23.19
23.38
23.90
23.71
23.23

July
August
September
October
November . .
December

87.62
82.99
83.78
84.77

84.99

1983

84.80

1934

1 Figures shown in italics are not strictly comparable with figures for later years as the latter exclude data
for corporation officers, executives, and other employees whose duties are mainly supervisory.
2 Covers street railways and trolley and motorbus operations of affiliated, subsidiary, and successor
companies.
3 T h e " R e t a i l , other than general merchandising" group was discontinued after 1938. Beginning with
January 1939, a new series showing hours-and-earnings data for 5 additional lines of retail trade, namely,
food, apparel, furniture, automotive, and lumber was computed. These data are available in mimeographed form.
* Cash payments only. The additional value of board, room, and tips cannot be computed.




Appendix B
Hours and Earnings, 1932 to 1941
Class I Steam Railroads
In order to include in this bulletin hours-and-earnings data for an
important group of employees not covered in the monthly reports
to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, data are presented in table 9
for workers of class I steam railroads. Average hours worked per
week and average hourly and weekly earnings from January 1932
to November 1941 have been computed from Wage Statistics of
Class I Steam Railroads in the United States, published monthly
by the Bureau of Statistics, Interstate Commerce Commission.
The trends of hours and earnings of class I steam railroad employees
have been compared with the trends of hours and earnings of factory
wage earners. (See chart 14.) It should be noted that the employees
covered and the methods of computation in the two series are not
identical. The data may serve, however, to indicate in a general
way comparative trends and levels.
Over the 1932-40 period, the average hourly and weekly earnings
of railroad employees remained substantially above the earnings of
factory workers. Average weekly earnings in 1940 were $31.32 for
railroad employees compared to $26.11 for factory wage earners.
A comparison of these figures with the 1932 average weekly earnings,
$23.13 for railroad employees and $17.86 for factory workers, shows
no significant change in the spread between the weekly earnings
levels of the two groups.
An examination of the average hourly earnings data of the two
groups of workers reveals that hourly earnings of factory workers
showed the greater percentage increase over the period. Hourly
earnings of factory workers rose from 45.8 cents in 1932 to 67.0 cents
in 1940, an increase of 46.3 percent. Hourly earnings of railroad
workers rose from 59.1 cents to 71.1 cents per hour in 1940, an increase
of 20.3 percent. In making the above comparison, however, it
should be remembered that earnings of railroad workers did not
show so large a decline in 1932-33 from the earlier high point as did
the earnings of factory workers. On February 1, 1932, a 10-percent
reduction in the pay of each railroad employee went into effect.
On April 26, 1934, the carriers and railroad employees reached an
agreement for the restoration of the 1932 deduction, 2}i percent to
be restored on July 1, 1934, 2% percent on January 1, 1935, and the
remaining 5 percent on April 1, 1935. The National Mediation Board
on August 5, 1937, and on October 3, 1937, succeeded in effecting




199

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

200

A L L MANUFACTURING AND
CLASS I STEAM RAILROADS
AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS

DOLLARS

40

STE) XM RAILFtOADS^
L w v - v
1
" X ^ J I ^ J

\

1
A L L M /WUFACTl JRIN6

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

CENTS

90

r ^ r
•M R I R A S
A
A
L O O^

60 \ J ]

y

L

L

/

G

——^

/

50
IV I I I

UA T F N
manI F C UU G

AVERAGE HOURS WORKED PER WEEK

HOURS

60

HOURS

60

STEAM RAILROAI D S x ^
j
I

V r ^ f

"N

ALL MANUFACTURING

1932




1933

1934

[935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1941

APPENDIX A

201

agreements which resulted in over-all increases estimated as approximately 7% or 8 percent for all employees.1 The effect of these agreements on the average hourly earnings of all employees is shown
graphically in chart 14. It will be noted also that the wage increases
obtained by large groups of factory workers in the spring of 1937
were not obtained by railroad employees until after the August and
October 1937 agreements were effected. For a fuller discussion
concerning the trend of hourly earnings of factory workers, see
chapter I.
The average hours of railroad workers were 39.1 per week in 1932
and 44.1 in 1940, a rise of 12.8 percent. In contrast, the average
hours of factory workers were 0.3 percent lower in 1940 than in 1932,
when the average was 38.2 hours, somewhat below the average hours
of railroad workers. Some classes of railroad employees are paid
for time that is described in the reports of the Interstate Commerce
Commission as "time paid for but not worked/' but the inclusion of
this time does not materially affect the general average. The increase in hours of railroad workers was a result not of changes in
regular or normal hours of work but of a reduction in part time and
an increase in overtime accompanying the expansion of business
activity. Factory workers also had less part time and more overtime
as a result of the increase of production in manufacturing industries,
but their regular or normal hours, unlike those of railroad workers,
were reduced by the National Industrial Recovery Act and later by
the Fair Labor Standards Act.
9.—Average hours worked per week, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings, class I steam railroads, by years and by months, 1982-41 1

TABLE

Average
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
earnings

39.1
38.9
40.5
41.2
42.6

Cents
59.1
58.7
59.5
64.3
65.1

$23.13
22.84
24.11
26.49
27. 72

1937..
1938.
1939
1940

43.2
42.6
43.5
44.1

66.9
70.4
70.7
71.1

•28. 93
29.98
30. 71
31.32

1932—January
February
March.
April
May
June

38.6
40.1
40.8
40.2
38.8
39.9

65.3
59.7
58.5
58.3
58.0
57.7

25.19
23. 93
23.85
23.47
22. 50
23.02

Year and month

1932...
1933
1934
1935
1936.

-

Average
weekly
earnings

Average
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
earnings

1932—July...
August
September.
October
November
December _*_

37.6
39.1
38.7
38.8
38.6
38.1

Cents
58.3
57.7
58.7
58.7
59.2
59.2

1933—January.
February
March
April
May
June

37.4
37.7
37.9
37.9
38.7
39.8

59.2
60.3
58.5
58.8
58.1
58.1

38.8
40.9
40.1
40.3
39.5
37.7

58.6
57.8
58.4
58.2
59.0
59.3

Year and month

July.
August
September
October
November
December.

See footnote at end of table.
i See Report of the Emergency Board to the President (p. 6), submitted October 29, 1938. Board appointed September 27, 1938, pursuant to Railway Labor Act (U. S. Code, 1934, title 45, sec. 160).




202

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

9.—Average hours worked per iveek, average hourly earnings, and average
weekly earnings, class I steam railroads, by years and by months, 1932-411—
Continued

TABLE

Year and month

Average
weekly
earnings

Year and month

1938—January
February
March
April
May...
June

Average
weekly
hours

Average
hourly
earnings

41.0
42.6
43.2
42.4
41.2
43.2

Cents
71.1
72.0
70.1
70.3
70.3
69.6

$29.20'
30.67
30.29
29.81
28.97
30.09

41.5
43.4
42.9
43.4
43.2
42.7

70.1
69.1
70.2
70.2
71.1
71.2

29.06
29.99
30.09
30.47
30.68
30.43

42.4
43.3
44.2
42.3
42.8
44.3

71.5
72.1
70.4
70.7
69.6
69.5

30. 33
31.18
31.11
29.87"
29.81
30.82

42.2
44.2
43.7
44.9
44.4
42.6

70.0
69.2
70.7
70.8
71.6
72.0

29. 52
30.63
30.89
31.79
31.78
30.67

44.1
43.4
43.5
44.4
43.8
43.7

72.0
72.4
71.2
70.7
70.2
70.4

31.78
31.45
30.99
31.44
30. 77
30. 77

Average
weekly
earnings

1934—January-_.
February .
March
April
May
June

$23.55
24.49
24.36
23.74
23. 78
24.08

July
August
September
OctobersN o vember.
December.

23.86
24.40
24.04
24.80
24.44
23.74

1935—January-..
February..
March
April May
June,

25.26
26.43
25.76
27.19
26.46
26.19

July
August
September
October
November.
December -

25.95
26.23
26.44
27.74
27.27
26.89

1936—January - _.
February..
March
April
May
June

27.36
28.00
27.01
27.70
26.82
27. 50

July
August
September.
October._..
November.
December-

27.23
27.12
28.00
28.80
28. 35
28.80

July —
August
September.
October
November
December-.

44.1
44.8
43.6
45.9
44.0
43.3

70.1
69.8
71.2
70.5
71.8
72.4

30.87
31.30
31.05
32.36
31.60
31.37

1937—January.
February .
March
April
May
T une.

27.84
29.10
29.25
28. 71
27. 56
28. 36

1941—January
February...
March
April
May
June.

44.8
45.6
45.4
45.3
45.5
45.8

72.0
73.1
72.2
71.1
71.0
71.2

32.24
33.30
32.77
32. 21
32. 26
32.60

Jui/
August
September.
October....
November.
December _

27.62
28.87
29. 72
30. 52
30.20
29.69

July
August
September 2
October 2
November 2
December

45.6
45.7
45.8
47.2
45.0

70.7
70.7
71.2
70.9
72.3

32. 27
32. 34
32.66
33. 46
32. 50

July
August
September
October
November
December
1939—January
February . .
March
April:
May
June.
July
August
September
October
November
December
1940—January
February
March
April
May
June.

1 Computed from Wage Statistics of Class I Steam Railroads in the United States, published monthly
b y the Bureau of Statistics, Interstate Commerce Commission. T h e employees included are all employees;
who are paid on an hourly basis, and in addition, messengers and office boys and crossing and bridge flagmen
and gatemen, who are paid on a daily basis. The hours used are the hours paid for.
Before 1933, the Interstate Commerce Commission reported the number of employees on the pay rolls •
at the middle of the month and thereafter also the number who received pay during the month. T h e
computations in this table make use of the number who receive pay during the month, the number for 19324
being computed b y using the average of the 1933-37 ratios of the number receiving pay during the month
to the number at the middle of the month.
Switching and terminal companies are excluded. In 1932, the Interstate Commerce Commission published different sets of figures which both included and excluded employees of switching and terminal companies for all groups combined, but the figures for the separate groups of employees did not exclude employees
of switching and terminal companies. Data relating to these employees were excluded for 1932 from the
groups here covered b y using the ratios of all groups combined including switching and terminal companies *
to all groups combined excluding switching and terminal companies.
2 The figures of hourly and weekly earnings do not include retroactive payments under the Emergency;
Board mediation settlement of Dec. 1, 1941.




Appendix C
Farm Wage Rates
January 1932 to October 1941
Farm wage rates (table 10) differ significantly as a measure of
earnings from the figures of average earnings herein tabulated for
other nonmanufacturing employments or for manufacturing industries. They are included in this bulletin for the purpose of indicating
trends over the period surveyed and for permitting rough comparison
to be made with earnings data in the industries covered by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture, which collects and publishes farm wage data,
describes them as finding "their most significant and reliable use in
measuring changes in wage-rate levels over time.772
The Department of Agriculture's questionnaire on crop conditions,
sent to a considerable number of farmers over the country (on October
1,1939, 21,400 farmers reported on 1 or more of the 4 wage-rate items),
contains a request for ''average rates being paid to hired farm labor
at the present time7' in each reporting farmer's locality, by the month
with board, by the month without board, by the day with board, and
by the day without board. The schedule also requests that the day
rates include the average daily earnings of piece workers, but schedules
go mainly to operators of general crop and livestock farms, and such
schedules as are sent to fruit, truck, dairy, and similar special reporters
do not carry questions regarding wage rates. The wage reports
therefore emphasize time rates on general crop and livestock farms,
with comparatively slight representation of piece rates, especially in
the areas of highly specialized and large-scale employment of temporary and migratory workers.
The Department of Agriculture publishes rates for the several
States. These are computed directly from the sample data. The
figure for the United States for each of the four types of wage payments
is a weighted average of the rates for the States. The weights used
in computing the rate for each type of wage payment for the country
as a whole are the estimated numbers receiving that type of payment
in the various States. The proportions of workers in these four wage
« U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service: Reliability and Adequacy of Farm
Wage Rate Data (p. 6), b y R . F. Hale and R . L. Gastineau.
(Mimeographed.) Washington, 1940.
402097°—42




14

203

204

HOURS AND EARNINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

groups vary widely from State to State. The estimates for the country
-as a whole for October
1939, are as follows:
Number of
workers

Number
Number
Number
Number

paid
paid
paid
paid

by
by
by
by

the
the
the
the

month with board
month without board
day with board
day without board

Total number of hired workers

1,084,000
914,000
400,000
624,000
3,022,000

Average annual earnings of farm workers roughly comparable to the
averages in nonagricultural employments have been computed from
estimates of the number of hired farm workers and of total farm
wages, including board and other perquisites. The average for 1933
was $212, for 1938, $300. The average annual wage of hired farm
workers when board and other perquisites are included was about
33 percent of the average wage of factory workers in 1929; 25 percent
in 1932; and 27 percent in 1938.3 In 1940, the farm wage rate per
month with board was $28.05, and without board, $36.68; and the
rate per day with board was $1.36, and without board, $1.59. The
greatest increase in the four types of farm wage rates between 1932
and 1940 was in the rate paid to workers by the day with board, the
increase in this rate being 44.7 percent. The next largest increase was
34.5 percent in the rate paid to workers by the month with board.
The rate per day without board rose 32.5 percent during the same
period and the rate per month without board rose 27.0 percent.
Farm wages up to 1940 lagged behind the earnings of industrial
workers. Between 1932 and 1940 both the weekly earnings and the
Ihourly earnings of workers in manufacturing industries increased 46
percent, more than the largest increase in any of the four farm wage
rates; and there is evidence that between 1929 and 1932 there was a
much larger reduction in farm wage rates than in the earnings of
industrial workers.
* Bureau of Labor Statistics. Three Decades of Farm Labor (p. 20), by Witt Bowden, Washington, 1939;
reprinted as Serial No. R. 976, separates from the Monthly Labor Review, June, July, and August, 1939. The
averages for farm workers were computed from revised estimates of total farm wages by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and of the average number of hired farm workers by the Department of Agriculture and
the National Research Project of the U. S. Work Projects Administration.




APPENDIX
TABLE

205

10.—Farm wage rates, by years and by quarters, 1932-41

Year and quarter

Per month
With
board

1

Farm wage rates

Farm wage rates
Per day

Year and quarter

WithWithWith
out
out
board
board
board

$20.85
18. 07
20.24
22.42
24.53

25.67
28.19
30.24
32.28

50.94
.85
.98
1.07
1.15

$1.20
1.11
1.26
1.33
1.42

28.00
27. 73
27. 39
28.05
34.85

36. 32
35.97
35.82
36.68
43.64

1.33
1.31
1.30
1.36
1.69

1.61
1.58
1.56
1.59
1.93

23.04
22. 34
21.19
19.93

33.13
30.40
28. 78
27.63

1.07
1.00
.95
.90

1.39
1.28
1.19
1.14

16.74
16.60
18. 34
19.65

24.95
23.64
25. 72
27.35

.78
.76
.86
.94

1.03
.99
1.10
1.23

17.37
19.97
20.81
21.23

26. 31
27. 71
28. 52
28.91

.88
.95
1.01
1.02

1.20
1.23
1.27
1.30

19.14
21.62
23. 33
23.61

28.17
29. 57
30.82
31.04

1.09
1.16

1.26
1.28
1.35
1.38

Per month
With
board

1936—January..
April
July
October. .

Per day

WithWithWith out
out
board board board

$20.89 $29.69 $1.02
23. 58 31.13 1.06
25. 61 32. 99 1.21
25.74 33.27 1.22

$1.32
1.33
1.44
1.49

1937—January..
April
July
October..

23.37
26. 90
29.31
29.84

32. 62
35.06
37.24
38.11

1.12
1.19
1.41
1.46

1.45
1.49
1.66
1.73

1938—January..
April
July
October..

25.18
27. 60
28. 95
28.25

34.70
33.82
37.28
36. 09

1.22
1.25
1.38
1.36

1.55
1.55
1.63
1.59»

1939—January..
April
July
October..

24.86
27.08
28.18
28.28

34.92
35.42
36.26
36.13

1.20
1.23
1.36
1.35

1.53:
1.53:
1. 59"
1.57

1940—JanuaryApril
July
October-.

25. 33
27.45
29. 01
28. 77

35.27
36.41
37.18
36.84

1.22
1.26
1.37
1.39

1.55
1.55
1.62
1.61

1941—January _.
April
July
October..

26.88
31. 56
36.45
37.45

36.61
40.44
44.95
45. 47

1.29
1. 41
1.80
1.88

1.59
1.70
1.98
2.08

i U. S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
1939, January 1941, and January. 1948.




A

Crops and Markets, January

General Index of Industries in Tables 5-10
MANUFACTURING
Total manufacturing
Durable-goods group
Nondurable-goods group

Page
48,137,156
48,137,156
48,137,156

Lumber and allied products
Furniture...
Lumber:
Millwork
Sawmills

Iron and steel and their products, not including machinery
50,137,157
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
Brick, tile, and terra cotta
mills
50,137,157
Cement
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
50,137,157
Glass
Cast-iron pipe
52,137,158
Marble, granite, slate, and other
Cutlery (not including silver and plated
products
cutlery) and edge tools
52,137,158
Pottery
Forgings, iron and steel
52,137,158
Hardware
54,138,159 Textiles and their products
Fabrics
Plumbers' supplies..
54,138,159
Carpets and rugs
Stamped and enameled ware
54,138,159
Cotton goods
Steam and hot-water heating apparaCotton smallwares
tus and steam
fittings
56,138,160
Dyeing and finishing textiles
Stoves
56,138,160
Hats, fur-felt
Structural
and
ornamental
metalHosiery
work
56,138,160
Knitted outerwear
Tin cans and other tinware
58,138,161
Knitted underwear
Tools (not including edge tools, machine
Knitted cloth
tools, files, and saws)
58,138,161
Silk and rayon goods
Wirework
•„ 58,138,161
Woolen and worsted goods
Wearing apparel..
Machinery, not including transportation
Clothing, men's
equipment
60,139,162
Clothing, women's
Agricultural implements (including tracCorsets and allied garments
tors)
60,139,162
Men's furnishings
Cash registers, adding machines, and calMillinery
culating machines
60,139,162
Shirts and collars
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
62,139,163
Leather and its manufactures
Engines, turbines, water wheels, and
Boots and shoes
windmills
62,139,163
Leather
Foundry and machine-shop products. 62,139,163
Machine tools
64,139,164 Food and kindred products
Baking
Radios and phonographs
64,139,164
Beverages
Textile machinery and parts
64,139,164
Butter
Typewriters and parts
66,140,165
Canning and preserving
Transportation equipment.
66,140,165
Confectionery
Flour
Aircraft
66,140,165
Ice cream
Automobiles
68,140,166
Slaughtering and meat packing
Cars, electric- and steam-railroad
68,140,166
Sugar, beet
Locomotives..
68,140,166
Sugar refining, cane
Shipbuilding.
70,140,167

Page
76,141,170
76,141,170
76,141,170
78,142,171
78,142,171
78,142,171
80,142,172
80,142,172
80,142,172
82,142,173
82,142,173
82,142,173
84,143,174
84,143,174
84,143,174
86,143,175
86,143,175
86,143,175
88,143,176
88,143,176
88,143,176
90,144,177
90,144,177
90,144,177
92,144,178
92, 144,178
92,144,178
94,144,179
94,144,179
94,144,179
96,145,180
96, 145, 180
96, 145,180
98,145.181
98,145.181
98,145,181
100. 145, 182
100,145, 182
100,145,182
102, 146,183
102, 146,183
102,146,183
104,146,184
104,146,184

Tobacco manufactures
: . 104,146,184
Nonferrous metals and their products
70,140,167
Chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff. 106,
Aluminum manufactures
70,140,167
146,185
Brass, bronze, and copper products.. 72,141,168
Cigars and cigarettes
106,146,185
Clocks and watches and time-recording
devices.
72,141,168 Paper and printing
106,146,185
Boxes, paper
....
108,147,186
Jewelry..
72,141,168
Paper and pulp
108,147,186
Lighting equipment
74,141,169
Printing and publishing:
Silverware and plated ware
74,141,169
Book and job
108,147,186
Smelting and refining—copper, lead, and
Newspapers and periodicals
110,147,187
zinc
74,141,169

206




207

INDEX

Chemical, petroleum, and coal products
Other than petroleum refining
Chemicals
Cottonseed-oil, cake, and meaLDruggists' preparations
Explosives
Fertilizers
Paints and varnishes
..
Petroleum refining
Rayon and allied products
Soap__

Page
110,147, 187
110, 147,187
112,147,188
112,147,188
112,147,188
114,148,189
114,148,189
114,148,189
116,148,190
116,148,190
116,148,190

Metalliferous mining
Quarrying and nonmetallic mining
Crude-petroleum production

Page
122,150,193
124,150,194
124,150,194

Public utilities:
Telephone and telegraph
Electric light and power...
Street railways and busses..

124,150,194
126,150,195
126,150,195

Trade:
Wholesale..
Retail (total)
Genera] merchandising
Rubber products
118,148,191
Other than gen'l merchandising.
Rubber boots and shoes
118,148,191
Hotels (year-round)
Rubber tires and inner tubes
118,148,191
Laundries
Rubber goods, other than boots, shoes,
Dyeing and cleaning
tires, and inner tubes
120,149,192
Brokerage
Insurance
NONMANUFACTURING
Private building construction
Coal mining:
Anthracite
122,150,193 Class I steam railroads
Bituminous
122,150,193 Farm wages




O

126,150,195
128,151,196
128,151,196
128,151,196
130,151,197
130,151,197
130,151,197
132,151,198
132,151,198
132,151,198
20
20


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102