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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES }
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS f
W O M E N

IN

I N D U S T R Y

{ W HOLE

’ ’ *

} NUMBER

S E R I E S :

No .

1 /? A
10U
4

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND CONDITIONS OF LABOR
OF W OM EN IN INDIANA MERCANTILE ESTAB­
LISHMENTS AND GARMENT FACTORIES




OCTOBER 16, 1914

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1914




CONTENTS.
Page.

Hours, earnings, and conditions o f labor o f women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories................................................................ 1-198
Introduction........................................................................................................
5-7
Scope and method of investigation..................................................................
7,8
Women employed in department and other retail stores............................... 8-58
Age, manner of living, and conjugal condition........................................ 9-11
Working hours as reported by employers................................................. 11-22
Normal season...................................................................................... 13,14
Dull season............................... ........................................................... 14,15
Busy season.............................................................................. ...........16-18
Overtime periods................................................................................. 18-20
Pay for overtime.............. .................................................................. 20,21
Summary............................................................................................. 21,22
Working hours as reported by individuals............................................... 22-31
Season of normal hours........................................................................
23
Season of shortened hours...................................................................
24
Overtime before Christmas................................................................. 24,25
Overtime other than before Christmas......................................... .. 25,26
Pay for overtime.................................................................................. 26-31
Bates of pay and earnings.............................. ........................................... 31-47
All occupations.................................................................................... 31-37
Earnings of saleswomen—commissions and premiums.................... 37-43
Kates of pay compared with earnings........................................ 39-43
Earnings, by departments and occupation groups........................... 43-47
Saleswomen................................................................................... 43,44
Workrooms........................ ............................................................ 44,45
Cash girls, bundle wrappers, etc................................................. 45,46
Office and other employees......................................................... 46,47
Earnings related to age and experience................................... ............... 47-49
Duration of employment, and unemployment........................................ 49-56
Other employment..............................................................................
51
Unemployment........................................ ........................................... 52-56
Unemployment due to illness..................................................... 54-56
Sick benefit and medical aid.....................................................................
57
Toilet accommodations, employment in basements, and seats for sales­
women...................................................................................................... 57,58
Women employed in Indiana garment factories............................................. 58-91
Age, manner of living, and conjugal condition........................................ 60-62
Seasonal aspect of Indiana garment industry.......................................... 62,63
Duration of seasons and working hours, as reported by employers___ 63-68
Normal season...................................................................................... 63,64
Dull season........................................................................................... 64,65
Busy season.......................... ................................................................65,66
Overtime periods.................................................................................
67
Summary.............................. ; .......... ..................................................
68
3



4

CONTEXTS.

Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories—Concluded.
Women employed in Indiana garment factories—Concluded.
Page.
Duration of seasons and working hours as reported by individuals___ 68-73
Normal season.......................................................................................
69
Dull season................................... ....................................................... 69, 70
Busy season.......................................................................................... 70, 71
Overtime season............................................ ...................................... 71, 72
Pay for overtime.................................................................................. 72, 73
Earnings............................................................................... ...................... 73-82
Value of average weekly earnings as reported by employers........ 75-78
Group earnings.....................................................................................
78
Comparative earnings of piece and time workers............................. 78-82
Earnings related to age and experience................................................... 82-84
Duration of employment, and unemployment........................................ 84-90
Other employment.............................................................................. 85,86
Unemployment.................................................................................... 86-90
Unemployment due to illness..................................................... 89,90
Liability insurance and direct medical aid..............................................
90
Sanitary provisions.....................................................................................
91
Detailed tables.—Department and other retail stores and garment fac­
tories.............................................................................................................. 91-187
Appendix.—Hours and earnings of women in 38 Indiana industries, as re­
ported by employers to the Indiana Commission on Working Women........188-198




BULLETIN OF THE

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 160.

WASHINGTON.

OCTOBER 16, 1914.

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND CONDITIONS OF LABOR OF
W OM EN IN INDIANA MERCANTILE ESTABLISH­
MENTS AND GARMENT FACTORIES.
B Y MARIE L. OBENAUER AND FRANCES W . VALENTINE.1

INTRODUCTION.
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Commission
on Industrial Relations undertook this investigation into the condi­
tions of labor surrounding women in Indiana garment factories and
department and other retail stores at the invitation of the Indiana
Commission on Working Women. The Indiana commission, created
by the legislature of 1913, was directed by the law to investigate'“ the
hours and conditions of labor of women in this State and to determine
what limitation, if any, should be placed on the hours of labor of
women in any or all employments, or what improvement should be
made in the conditions under which women labor in any or all employ­
ments.”
The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics is engaged in making
a cumulative record 2 of the conditions under which women are at
work in industry, and the United States Commission on Industrial
1In llie construction of this, report valuable assistance was rendered by Miss Bertha von der Nienburg.
2 This Bulletin is in continuation of the series of studies on women in industry, including
sinec 1910 the various volumes of the Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage Earners in
the United States, S. Doc. No. 645, 61st Cong., 2d sess., and especially Wage-Earning Women in
Stores and Factories in Boston, Chicago, Minneapolis and St. Paul, New York City, Philadelphia,
and St. Louis (printed as Vol. V of the Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage Earners in
the United States, S. Doc. No. 645,61st Cong., 2d sess.); Bulletin No. 91, Working Hours of Wage-Earning
Women in Selected Industries in Chicago; Bulletin No. 96, Working Hours, Earnings, and Duration of
Employment of Women Workers in Selected Industries of Maryland and of California; Bulletin No. 116,
Hours, Earnings, and Duration of Employment of Wage-Earning Women in Selected Industries in the
District of Columbia; Bulletin No. 119, Working Hours of Women in Wisconsin Pea Canneries; Bulletin
No. 122, Employment of Women in Power Laundries in Milwaukee.




5

6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LAB0K STATISTICS.

Relations, being charged by Congress with the duty of making con­
structive recommendations bearing upon industrial problems, was in
need of some further current information concerning the existing
basis of fixing wages for women, as well as concerning other factors
entering into the problem of women in industry. After a survey of
the field it developed that the purposes of both the Commission and
the Bureau of Labor Statistics could be served as well by choosing
the garment factories and the mercantile establishments in Indiana
for study as by making investigations in any other State. The invi­
tation from the Indiana Commission on Working Women was there­
fore accepted. It is the purpose of the Federal agencies not only to
avoid duplication, but to cooperate and supplement the work of other
official agencies wherever such cooperation and supplemental work
are practicable and desirable.
The principal advantage of cooperation lies in the greater uniform­
ity effected in methods of collecting and classifying data. When a
number of kindred investigations in different sections of the country
are conducted by several State and Federal agencies, the resulting
individual reports may be extremely valuable, but the cumulative
effect is lost unless there is sufficient cooperation or similarity of
method to insure a comparability of results.
According to the United States census of manufactures of 19101the
average number of women employed in Indiana manufacturing estab­
lishments was approximately 23,000. This number did not include
the women employed in department stores and in other mercantile
houses, nor did it include women in domestic service and in clerical
and semiprofessional pursuits. According to the figures of the Indiana
State factory reports for 1912 there are in the neighborhood of 7,000
women employed in department stores and in other mercantile
houses, making altogether about 30,000 women in Indiana industries,
exclusive of domestic service and clerical and semiprofessional pursuits.
As approximately 6,500 women were reported2 employed in the gar­
ment trades, it is obvious that about 45 per cent of the 30,000 women
in the State’s industries are to be found in the two lines of employ­
ment chosen for the present investigation.
The cooperative arrangement permitted the Indiana commission to
devote its funds to a correspondence investigation of the other 30
industries, which altogether employed approximately 58 per cent of
the 30,000 wage-earning women, and likewise to hold public hear­
ings, as the law directed, “ in at least 10 cities in the State.” All the
material collected, both by the Federal agencies and by the Indiana
Commission on Working Women, was analyzed and tabulated in
Washington as a basis for the public hearings of the Indiana com­
mission.




i Vol. I X , p. 307.

2Vol. I X , p. 328.

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

7

Aside from avoiding confusing duplication and needless and irri­
tating demands upon the time of employers and employees, the coop­
erative arrangement was a saving of money, inasmuch as the two
Federal agencies and the State agency each secured the material nec­
essary for its purposes at about one-third the cost an independent in­
vestigation would have entailed.
SCOPE AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION.
The studies of the two Indiana industries are presented separately
in the following pages, but since wherever possible, corresponding
tables are used in both industries, comparison of any specific points
may easily be made. Before taking up the discussion of either
industry, certain features common to the two investigations should be
noted.
In each city studied all large establishments were covered and also
a considerable number of the smaller concerns. The retail stores
include not'only the large department stores, but “ ready-to-wear”
stores, dry-goods stores, specialty stores, general stores, 5 and 10
cent stores, and confectionery stores. As the law creating the
Indiana commission called for hearings to be held in at least 10 cities
in the State, it seemed wisest to cover in the investigation the 10
cities where the hearings were to be held. The five largest cities in
the State were selected, and in addition five of the secondary cities.
These latter were chosen partly according to location, so that all
parts of the State should be included, and partly with regard to the
number of establishments of the selected industries located in these
cities. The cities finally selected were Indianapolis, Muncie, Rich­
mond, South Bend, Hammond, La Fayette, Terre Haute, Evansville,
Fort Wayne, and New Albany.
The information sought was gathered from two sources, the
employers and the individual employees. There was certain infor­
mation dealing with the industry or establishments as a whole, which
could be supplied only by the employers, and certain personal infor­
mation concerning individual employees, which could be supplied only
by the individuals themselves or their immediate family. The greater
part of the desired information, namely, the data as to seasons, hours,
overtime, occupations, and earnings, could be and was obtained from
both employers and employees. This information was obtained from
the employers by personal interviews with the head of the establishment
or some one delegated by him; the data as to rate of pay were taken
from the pay roll for a specified week in the year, and use was made of any
other records of the establishment bearing on the information desired.
The information sought from the individual employee was obtained




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

by personal interview witli the employee or some member of her
family at her home. This information, in addition to that mentioned
above, covered such questions as nationality, age, conjugal condition,
experience, and employment and earnings, including earnings in
industries other than the specified industry.
The following summary gives the number of establishments .and
individuals scheduled in each industry:
T able 1 .— NUM BER OF ESTABLISH M ENTS COVERED IN T H E IN V ESTIG A TIO N AND
N UM BER OF W OM EN EM PLO YEES F URN ISH ING IN D IV ID U A L IN FO R M ATIO N .
Number of
establish­
Number
ments cov­ of women
ered in the
usually
investiga­ employed.
tion.

Industrios.

Number
of women
furnishing
individual
informa­
tion.

Department and other retail stores
Garment factories..............................

140
07

5,421
6,561

711
517

Total...............................................

207

11,985

1,228

WOMEN EMPLOYED IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL
STORES.
Complete schedules were taken in 10 cities from 140 mercantile
establishments, employing normally in the selling and alteration
departments 5,424 women and girls. Individual information was
secured in 6 cities from 711 women at work in 92 of these establish­
ments which, altogether, employed nearly 4,600 women.
The following table shows the number of male and female employees
and the distribution, by cities, of establishments covered in the
investigation and the number of individuals from whom information
was secured:
T able 2 .—NUM BER OF D E P A R T M E N T AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES SCHEDULED
EM PLOYEES IN SELLING AND A L T E R A T IO N D EPAR TM EN TS, AND N U M BER OF
W O M EN SCHEDULED.
I
Employees in selling
department.

i

Cities.

Indianapolis.
Terre Haute.
Evansville...
Fort Wayne..
South Bend..
Muncie...........
Ilam m ond...
La Fayette...
R ichm ond...
New Albany.
T otal.

EstabFemale.
lishments
sched­
uled. Male.1 Un­
16
der yrs.
and
16
yrs. over.

Employees in altera­
tion department.

Female.
To­
tal.

665
181
139
138
90
63
103
62
23
27

100 1,720

102

140 11,491

160 4,554

Male
16
yrs.
and
over.

2,485
853
589
3 515
492
3 327
4 333
302
3 180
129
6,205

28
13

22

14
15
13
4

8
14
9

32

6

5

11

640
444
372
391
261
227
240
157

1 Including 67 boys under 16 years of age.
* Seven firms employ extra women on Saturday.




Employees in
selling and al­
teration depart­
ments.

Un­
der
16
yrs.

16
yrs.
and
over.
356

Female.
To­
tal.

Per
Num­ cent
ber. of to­
tal.

2 S5 2,179
,7

51
56
60
19
9
35
23
9

941
641
572
556
346
344
337
203
138

706

748 6,953 5,424

88

38

760
501
434
462
283
239
275
180

78.2
75.9
83.1
81.8

Women
scheduled.

Per
cent
•of wo­
Num-i men
bcr.
j em; ployi ed.
331
104
129
58
63

i.5
1
.7

26

8.0

711

15.2
13.7
25.7
13.4
13.6

81.6

111 80.4

13.1

3 Four firms employ extra women on Saturday.
* Two firms employ extra women on Saturday.

9

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

AGE, MANNER OF LIVING, AND CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The average age of the women furnishing individual information
in the stores was 24.8 years. The women in the workrooms had the
highest average age— 31.5 years. The saleswomen averaged 25.6
years and the cash girls, wrappers, etc., 15.4 years. One-fifth of the
women in the stores were girls under 18 years of age, and 42 per cent
were under 22 years of age. The most common ages reported were
18, 19, and 20, almost equal numbers being reported for these ages.
The two tables following show, first, the average age of the women
in the different occupations, by cities, and, second, the number and
per cent of women at specified ages.
Table

3 .—A V E R A G E AGE OF W O M EN FURN ISHIN G IN D IV ID U A L IN FO RM ATIO N IN
SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS IN DEPAR TM EN T AN D O THER R E T A IL STORES.
Cash girls,
bundle
wrappers,
inspectors,
and stock
girls.

Cities.

Num­
ber.

Indianapolis.. .
Terre H aute....
Evansville........
Fort Wayne
South Bend—
La Fayette.......
Total

Aver­
age
age.

.->
1
4
6

15.3
15.1
16.8

4

15.2

05

Saleswomen.

Alteration and
millinery
hands.

Other
employees.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber.
age.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber.
age.

Num­ Aver­
age
ber.
age.

1205
<79
2 93
52
2 39
22

26.7
25.7
25.3
27.9
25.1
23. 0

2 21
12
16
3
8

28.8
36.1
29.2
30.3
31.4
38.0

15.4 ! ^490
i

25.6

2 62

31.5

2

26.4
22.5

1

18.0

10

24.8

Office
employees.

Total.

Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­
age
age
ber.
ber,
age.
age.
43
6
13
3
9
2

21.9
26.3
22.9
29.3
25.9
21.5

3 327
n o3
2 128
58“
262
26

23.6
26.425.1
28.1
25.3
24.0

76

23.2

6 704

24.8

1 Not including 2 who did not report as to age and 1 who did not report exact age.
2 Not including 1 who did not report exact age.
s Not including 2 who did not report as to age and 2 who did not report exact age.
1 Not including 1 who did not report as to age.
* Not including 3 who did not report as to age and 3 who did not report exact age.
« Not including 3 who did not report as to age and 4 who did not report exact age.,
Table

4 .—CLASSIFIED AGES OF W OM EN FURNISHING IN D IV ID U A L IN FO R M ATIO N
EM PLO YED IN D EPAR TM EN T A N D O THER R E T A IL STORES.
Women in each age
group.
Age groups.
Number. Per cent.
14 and under 16 years........................................................................
16 and under 18 years........................................................................
18 and under 22 years........................................................................
22 and under 25 years........................................................................
25 and under 30 years................................ ........................................
30 and under 40 years.......................................................................
40 and under 50 years........................................................................
50 and under 60 years........................................................................
60 years and over................................................................................
Age not reported.................................................................................

50
94
155
97
120
130
52
7
3
3

7.0
13.2
21.8
13.7
16.9
18.3
7.3
1.0
.4
.4

Total..............................................................................................

711

100.0

Of the 711 women visited, 575, or SI per cent, were living at home;
that is, with their parents. In the majority of cases these women



10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

had only a share in the maintenance of the family, but in some
instances the greater part of the burden rested on them. As this
investigation did not go into the expenditure of earnings or income,
no definite figures can be given on these points. Forty, or 5.6 per
cent, of the women were living with relatives. Fifty-nine, or 8.3 per
cent, were living on their own resources entirely; they are included
in the following table in the group “ Boarding and lodging/7 The
remainder, 5.1 per cent, were keeping house in their own homes.
Many of these were the sole providers for the family, some had the
help of children, some the intermittent help of husbands, and some
worked only when the family found itself in need of additional income
to tide over some emergency. Only a few had husbands working
regularly. The manner of living of the women who were interviewed
in each of the six cities is shown in the following table:
T able 5*—LIVING CONDITIONS OF W O M EN FURNISHING IN D IV ID U A L IN FO R M ATIO N
EM PLOYED IN D EPAR TM EN T AN D O TH E R R E T A IL STORES.
Number of women living as follows—
Cities.
At home.

With
rela­
tives.

Boarding
Keeping
and
house.
lodging.

Total.

Indianapolis..........................................................................
Terre Haute.........................................................................
Evansville.............................................................................
Fort Wayne
.............................................................
South Bend..........................................................................
La Fayette...........................................................................

256
89
115
46
45
24

22
5
4
1
7
1

32
6
8
17
5
1

21
4
2
4
5

331
104
129
58
2 62
26

Total:
Number...............................................................
Per cent...............................................................

575
81.0

40
5.6

59
8.3

36
5.1

1710
100.0

i Including 5 getting own meals in lodgings.

2 Not including 1 not reporting.

It has been shown that 20.2 per cent of the total number of women
furnishing personal data were 14 to and under 18 years of age. These
girls under 18 years were all unmarried. Of the women 18 years of
age and over, 99, or over one-sixth, were or had been married, but of
these 99 women nearly three-fifths were widowed, separated, or
divorced. At the time of the investigation the married woman whose
husband was regularly employed had practically no place as a steady
worker in the stores. Whether or not this showing would be borne
out by returns from the whole number of women employees can not,
of course, be stated. The facts as to conjugal condition for the 711
women interviewed are shown by cities in the following table:




11

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.
T a b l e 6 . — CONJUGAL

CONDITION OF W O M EN FURNISHING IN D IV ID U A L INFORM ATION
IN D EPAR TM ENT AN D O TH ER R E T A IL STORES.

Single.

Married.

Widowed.

Divorced or
separated.

Total.

Cities.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Indianapolis..............
Terre Haute...............
Evansville.................
Fort Wayne..............
South Bend...............
La Fayette.................

277
91
117
46
55
26

83.7
87.5
90.7
79.3
87.3
100.0

25
4
4
4
4

7.6
3.9
3.1
6.9
6.3

14
5
6
7
3

4.2
4.8
4.7
12.1
4.8

15
4
2
1
1

4.5
3.8
1.5
1.7
1.6

331
104
129
58
63
26

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. <
;
100.0

Total................

612

86.1

41

5.8

35

4.9

23

3.2

711

100.0

WORKING HOURS AS REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS.

To determine which part of a working schedule is properly desig­
nated as “ overtime” and which “ regular working hours ” presents
more of a problem than at first appears. For example, a firm oper­
ates during its normal season for 9 hours a day. During a slack sea­
son its working schedule is 8 hours a day, and during the busy season
it is 10 hours a day. The first conclusion concerning such schedule
would seem to be that the hours during the moderate run of business
should be regarded as standard or “ normal,” the 10-hour day being
reported as an overtime schedule and the 8-hour day a slack schedule.
But such a conclusion proves to be faulty upon a more careful study.
Leaving aside the fact that under such a policy the working schedule
adopted as “ standard” would in many cases be in force for only a
few weeks in the year, a question of fairness is raised by this principle
of classification. In the case just cited the firm would be reported
as working its force “ overtime” for a certain per cent of the year.
Another firm whose schedule was 10 or more hours a day throughout
the year would be reported as having no overtime, though the force
was really working longer hours.
Of course the working hours are neither extended nor shortened
by naming them “ overtime” or “ regular,” but the importance of
devising a consistent and intelligible method of reporting “ overtime”
lies primarily in the question of whether employees were paid for
overtime or extra hours and secondarily in the more or less critical
attitude of the public toward overtime work.
The policy pursued in this investigation, both in the mercantile
establishments and garment factories, has been to record the “ regular
working hours ” for each season of the year, reporting separately as
“ overtime” for each season the hours worked in addition to such
regular hours. Using the case cited as an illustration, the regular
hours of the normal season would be reported as 9; 8 hours would
be reported as the regular hours of the slack season, and 10 hours




12

BULLETIN

OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

would bo recorded as the regular working schedule for the busy
season. From the duration of each season are excluded the weeks
in which hours in addition to the regular schedule were worked, such
weeks being reported separately as overtime weeks. This policy
gives full recognition to the regularly recurring seasonal changes,
reveals the demand regularly made upon the workers in the various
seasons, and reserves for the designation of “ overtime” such working
hours as are in excess of these regular hours. While this principle of
classification is fairer, it does not entirely eliminate objectionable
features. It does recognize the regularly recurring fluctuations of
working hours with fairness to all establishments, but the firm work­
ing short hours is still recorded as working overtime if working in
excess of these regular hours, even though such hours are less than
the regular hours of another firm.
The method presented fewer difficulties in securing schedules from
employers than when the same information was sought from indi­
viduals. The employer reported the prevailing hours for the whole
establishment. The individual reported only the hours actually
worked by herself. Consequently her reports as to seasons, espe­
cially in the stores where conditions vary with departments, would
not necessarily be comparable with those of the employer. Obvi­
ously, also, it was difficult for a woman, particularly if she had been
at work in an establishment a comparatively short time, to say what
was a “ regular schedule” and what were exceptional working hours.
The discrepancies between the proportion of overtime reported by
employers and individuals in the accompanying table are easily expli­
cable and are no indication of misrepresentation on either side. It
should be said also that the discrepancy is rather a matter of terminol­
ogy than of actual working hours.
Employers were asked to include under “ busy season” any period
during which the normal hours were lengthened, the force increased,
or the tension of work heightened; and to include under normal and
dull seasons periods marked by corresponding changes. They were
asked to report, in addition to these normal, dull, and busy seasons,
all overtime periods. A separate table has been made of the over­
time occurring before Christmas and the overtime occurring at other
periods throughout the year. The following tables give^the em­
ployers’ reports for the various seasons. It should be kept in mind
that the normal, dull, and busy seasons as shown in these tables
are exclusive of all overtime and that the overtime periods are
reported separately.
Although the number of women in these tables include those em­
ployed in the selling department only, the hours, except as noted,
apply also to the office force. The hours for the workroom force are
practical^ the same, but the seasons and overtime vary somewhat



WAGE-EABNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

13

from those of the selling department, and a separate table has there­
fore been made. In the matter of numbers of women affected, the
hours for the selling departments are by far the most important, as
over 70 per cent of the women are there employed, either as sales­
women, cash girls, inspectors, or bundle wrappers.
The following tables take up the subject of seasons, working hours,
and overtime as reported by the employers, and will be followed by
the information from individuals on the same subject.
NORMAL SEASON.

The following table shows—
1. That 138, or 98.6 per cent, of the 140 stores 1 reported a normal
season which averaged 29f weeks in duration and affected 4,702, or
99.7 per cent, of the prevailing number of women employed in the
selling departments.
2. That the average weekly hours during this period were 55-f,
daily hours Sf, with a long day of I l f hours. There were two cities
reporting average weekly hours of 57 and a fraction, and one reporting
58f.
3. That the longest weekly hours reported by any establishment
during this season were 63 and the shortest 48.
4. That slightly over one-fourth of the establishments, employing
48.5 per cent of the women, reported average weekly hours of under
55; that 70.3 per cent of the establishments, employing 50.7 per cent
of the women affected by the normal season, reported average weekly
hours of 55 and under 60. Only 1| per cent of the establishments,
employing 0.5 per cent of the women, reported a 48-hour week; and
only 3.6 per cent, employing 0.8 per cent of the women, reported
weekly hours of 60 or over.
The most striking feature of the hours in the Indiana stores, aside
from the holiday-season work, was the long Saturday. Indianapolis
was a marked exception to the other cities in this particular. In the
spring of 1913 some of the largest department stores gave up the
Saturday night work and almost all the stores, including the 5 and 10
cent stores, followed the example. Some of the establishments,
however, deferred making this change until 1914. La Fayette fol­
lowed close in the wake of Indianapolis in the matter of early Satur­
day closing. In New Albany there are still long working hours on
Monday and on Saturday. In South Bend the long Thursday was
eliminated in May of 1913.
* Two small establishments, selling ladies’ coats and suits, reported the entire year as either busy or dull.




14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

7 .— W ORK ING HOURS IN THE NORM AL SEASON IN TH E SELLING D E P A R T M E N T
OF DEPAR TM EN T AN D OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS R EPO R TE D B Y
E M PLO YER S.

T able

[The laws of Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 per week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is secured. In that part of the table which gives the per cent reporting average weekly hours
37 girls who were working in establishments reporting prevailing hours of more than 48 have been ex­
cluded. Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.)

Cities.

Establish­
ments report­
Women
Prevail­ ing normal
affected.
Estab­ ing
season.
lish­ number
of
ments
sched­ women
em­
uled.
Num­ Per Num­ Per
ployed. ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.

Average hours.1
Aver­
age
dura­
tion in
Pre­
weeks. Hours vailing
Long Short
per
daily day.
day.
week.
hours.

Indianapolis...............
Terre Haute.................
Evansville...................
Fort Wavne.................
South Bend.................
Muncie..........................
Hammond...................
La Fayette..................
Richmond....................
New Albanv................

28
13
22
14
15
13
4
8
14
9

1,820
672
450
377
402
264
230
240
157
102

28
12
22
14
15
13
4
7
14
9

100.0
92.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
87.5
100.0
100.0

1,820
666
450
377
402
264
230
234
157
102

100.0
99.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
100.0
100.0

27
32*
35
27*
27|
27*
31f
27|
28£
37

53|
55$
57*
55*
55
56*
58f
56$
56*
57*

8|
8*
9
8*
8§
9
9
9
8f
8|

11*
6*
11|
12 ........5
11*
111
Ilf
111
11*
11|
111

Total...................

140

4,714

138

98.6

4,702

99.7

29*

551

8*

Hi

6

Per cent reporting average weekly hours of—
Over 48 and imder
55.

48.

Cities.

55 and under 60.

60 to 63.

Establish­ Women Establish­ Women Establish­ Women Establish­ Women
ments.
ments.
ments.
affected.
affected.
ments. affected.
affected.
3.6

Total...................

1.5

6.7

1.1

.3

.5

67.8
33.3
4.5
7.1
20.0
7.7

83.3
67.9
.2
2.7
31.8
42.7

28.6
11.1

Indianapolis.................
Terre Haute.................
Evansville....................
Fort Wayne..................
South Bend..................
Muncie...........................
Hammond....................
La Favette....................
Richmond.....................
N ew Albany.................

24.6

23.5
2.0

28.6
58.4
86.4
92.9
73.3
92.3
100.0
100.0
57.1
88.9

15.6
31.6
95.1
97.3
67.9
57.3
100.0
100.0
66.9
98.0

48.0

70.3

50.7

8.3
9.1

0.5
4.7

14.3

9.6

3.6

.8

i The hours of the office force are practically the same as those of the selling department.

DULL SEASON,

The table below shows—
1. That 124, or 88.6 per cent, of the establishments reported a dull
season averaging 15^ weeks and affecting 86.7 per cent of the pre­
vailing number of women employed.
2. That the weekly hours averaged 54|-, daily hours 8f, with a long
day of I l f hours. The greatest reduction from the hours of the
normal season, amounting only to about 2\ per week, occurred in
Indianapolis.
3. That the longest weekly hours reported were 63 and the short­
est 44.




15

WAGE-EARXING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

4. That 4 per cent of the establishments reporting dull season,
affecting 8.2 per cent of the women, report weekly hours of 48 or
under; that 42.8 per cent of employers, representing 60.8 per cent of
the women, report hours of over 48 and under 55 a week. Fifty per
cent of the establishments, employing 30.3 per cent of all the women
at work during this season, still report weekly hours of 55 and under
60. The per cent reporting 60 hours or more still remains approxi­
mately 3. In Indianapolis the custom of giving one short day and
a shortened schedule for the week during the summer months was
found in a number of stores, but this custom was rare in the other
cities.
8 .—W O R K IN G HOURS IN TH E D U L L SEASON IN TH E SELLIN G D E P A R T M E N T
OF D E P A R T M E N T A N D OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS R E P O R TE D B Y
EM PLO YER S.

T able

[The laws of Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 j>er week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is secured. In that part of the table which gives the per cent reporting average weekly hours,
26 girls who were working in establishments reporting prevailing hours of mpre than 48 have been
excluded. Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.
Establishments
reporting dull
season.

Women af­
fected.

Average hours.

Cities.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.1

Aver­
age
dura­
tion in
weeks.

j
Pre­
Hours
vailing
per
daily
week.
hours.

Indianapolis..............................
Terre Haute..............................
Evansville.................................
Fort Wayne..............................
South Bend..............................
Muncie
..............................
Hammond................................
La Fayette................................
Richmond.................................
New Albany ........................

26
11
17
14
14
11
3
8
13
7

92.9
84.6
77.3
100.0
93.3
84.6
75.0
100.0
92.9
77.8

1,715
545
343
369
342
239
53
230
154
97

94.2
81.1
76.2
97.9
85.1
90.5
23.0
95.8
98.1
95.1

IS!
14*
13
16*
15*
13*
12*
20
15£
13*

8t
54*
56*
59*
55
56*
57*

Total................................

124

88.6

4,087

86.7

15*

54*

51}
55*

Long i Short
day. | day.
|

8
.V
8f
9
8*
8|
9
9
8f

11
11*
12
11* !
11* ;
Ilf
12*
ll|
ul
11|

6*

8}

u. 1

6

5
4#
*

Per cent reporting average weekly hours of—
Over 48 and un­
der 55.

44 to 48.
Cities.
Estab­
lish­
ments.
Indianapolis..............................
Terre Haute..............................
Evansville.................................
Fort Wayne..............................
South Bend..............................
Muncie.......................................
Hammond.................................
La Fayette................................
Richmond.................................
New Albany.............................

15.4

Total................................

4.0




Women Estab­
lish­
affected. ments.

.3

8.2

73.1
45.5
29.4
64.3
42.9
9.1

63.5
81.5
37.1
81.8
88.9
43.1

37.5
30.8
14.3

7.1

19.5

Women
affected.

42.8

55 and under 60.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Women Estab­
lish­
affected.
ments.

33.5
24.0
1.0

11.5
45.5
64.7
35.7
50.0
90.9
100.0
62.5
53.8
85.7

17.0
18.0
59.0
18.2
10.8
56.9
100.0
66.5
66.9
99.0

60.8

50.0

30.3

1 Based on prevailing number employed.

60 to 63.

Women
affected.

9.0
5.9

0.5
3.9

15.4

9.1

3.2

.7

16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
BUSY SEASON.

There were some establishments which reported no busy season
except a week or 10 days before Christmas, during which period over­
time was Continuous. Such periods have been tabulated as periods
of “ overtime before Christmas” rather than as “ busy season,” and
are therefore excluded from Table 9. Establishments which reported
a busy season, for example, for six weeks before Christmas, including
overtime for one week before Christmas, would be tabulated as having
five weeks of busy season and one week of overtime.
The busy season as reported in Table 9 represents for almost all
establishments the weeks preceding Christmas, exclusive of overtime,
and for many establishments a period in the spring or fall. Over 75 per
cent of the establishments reported a busy season and reported addi­
tional women employed, so that the number employed in the busy season
in 107 establishments and affected by the working hours of the busy
season represented an increase of 14.6 per cent over the usual number
employed in the 140 establishments, while if only the 107 establish­
ments were considered the increase in per cent would be 28.9. It
should be added here that of the 33 establishments not reporting a
busy season, 29, employing usually 483 women, reported overtime
before Christmas, during which period 650 women were employed, and
1, employing usually 13 women, reported overtime occurring in the nor­
mal season and affecting 10 women. Only 3 establishments, employ­
ing usually 31 women, reported no busy season and no overtime.
The following table shows—
1. That 76.4 per cent of the establishments, affecting 5,396 women,
reported a busy season averaging 8 J weeks, which it must be remem­
bered is exclusive of any overtime periods. This average is con­
siderably shorter than either the normal or the dull season.
2. That the average weekly hours were 55f during the busy
period—practically the same as during the normal period. The sig­
nificance of this lies in the fact that the demands of the season were
not met on the whole by a lengthening of the hours, but by an
increase of force to the extent of nearly 15 per cent in excess of the
number usually employed. There probably was also a higher tension
in the activity. The fact that the average hours of the busy season
are 10 minutes a week under those in the normal season does not
mean that firms reporting normal and busy seasons shortened the
hours during the busy period, but only that among the firms report­
ing such seasons were those whose working-hour schedules through­
out the year were shorter than those of a number of firms who
reported no busy season but worked longer hours in their normal
seasons. Table 10, which shows the hours for each season by estab­
lishments reporting specified seasons, will perhaps serve to make this
situation plain.



17

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN IN DIANA.

That the maximum weekly hours were 64J and the minimum
weekly hours 48.
4.
That of the establishments reporting busy season 29.9 per cent,
employing 54.5 per cent of the women, reported weekly hours of more
than 48 and under 55. Sixty-five and four-tenths per cent of the
establishments, employing 45 per cent of the women, reported weekly
hours of 55 to 59 and a fraction, and 3.8 per cent of the establishments,
employing 0.5 per cent of the women, reported weekly hours of 60
or over.
9 _ W O R K IN G H OURS IN TH E B U SY SEASON IN T H E SELLING D EPAR TM EN TS
_
OF D EPAR T M EN T AN D OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS R E PO R TED B Y
E M PLO YER S.

T able

[The laws of Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 per week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is secured. In that part of the table which gives the percent reporting average weekly hours,
33 girls who were working in establishments reporting hours of more than 48 hours have been excluded.
Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.]
Est ablishments report­
ing busy season.

Women affected.

Average
duration
; in weeks.

Cities.
Number.
Indianapolis................................
Terre Haute................................
Evansville...................................
Fort Wayne.................................
South Bend.................................
Muncie..........................................
Hammond...................................
La Fayette.................................
Richmond...................................
Now Alb anv ...............................

Per cent.

Number.

Per cent.1

26
12
8
11
12
11
3
7
12
5

92.9
92.3
36.4
78.6
80.0
84.6
75.0
87.5
85.7
55.6

2,474
784
279
413
292
320
237
282
225
90

135.9
116.7
62.0
109.6
72.6
121.2
103.0
117.5
143.3
88.2

107 i
l

Total..................................

Average
hours per
week.

76.4

5,396

114.6

91

71
10
112
n
7*
8£
3*

54
56$
56*
55$
54$
56$
58|
56f
56$
57§

Si

55|

4
in

Per cent reporting average weekly hours of—

48

Cities.
Estab­
lish­
ments.

! Over 48 and unI
der 55.
1

Women Estab­
lish­
affected. ments.

Indianapolis................................
Terre Haute................................
Evansville...................................
Fort Wavne.................................
South Bend.................................
0.3
8.3
Muncie..........................................
Hammond...................................
i
I,a Favet.te__________________
Richmond................................... i.................................
New Albanv. _ ________
________ _________
!
!
Total..................................
9-o
m

Estab­
Women
lish­
affected. ments.

73.1
41.7
12.5
9.1
25.0
9.1

84.1
69.4
.4
2.9
55.1
39.7

16.7

6.2

29.9 j

55 and under 60.

54.5

66172°—Bull. 160—14------2




Women Estab­ Women
af­
affected. lish­
ments. fected.

26.9
41.7
87.5
90.9
66.7
90.9
100.0
100.0
66.6
100.0

15.9
29.7
99.6
97.1
44.6
60.3
100.0
100.0
85.3
100.0

65.4

45.0

1 Based on prevailing number employed.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

G to 64$.
O

16.6

0.9

16.7

8.5

3.8

.5

18
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
1 0 __ AV ER AG E W E E K L Y HOURS, B Y SEASONS, IN DEPAR TM EN T AN D OTHER
R ET AIL STORES R EPO R TIN G SPECIFIED SEASONS.
Average weekly hours in establishments reporting—
Seasons.

Dull
Normal ; Normal Normal Normal,
season Sand dull and busy dull, and and busy
| season
season and busy season
only.
i only.
only.
season.
only.

Busy season.........................................................................
Normal season.....................................................................
Dull season...........................................................................

|
56.4 i
i

56.8
56.1

55.9 I
55.9 I
1

55.7
55.2
55.6
54.5 ..........54.2

OVERTIME PERIODS.

As has been previously explained, the number of weeks as given in
the preceding tables do not include any periods of overtime. Such
periods are taken up in the following tables. Since the most con­
spicuous overtime in retail stores is that oeeuring before Christmas, a
separate table has been made for overtime oeeuring before Christmas
and overtime occurring at other times during the year. The method
used in determining what should be called overtime has already been
explained.1
O v e r t im e B e f o r e C h r is t m a s . —Overtime before Christmas was
reported by 83.5 per cent of the establishments, affecting 69.6 per cent
of all women employed in the Christmas season. Indianapolis was
the only city where less than 9 per cent of the establishments reported
*2
overtime. In Indianapolis only 35.7 per cent reported overtime and
it affected but 26.9 per cent of the women employed in all Indianapolis
establishments before Christmas. The average duration of the over­
time was one week, the range for each city extending from one-half
to one and three-fifths weeks.
As would be expected, the weekly hours show a decided increase,
the average for the week before Christmas being 66^ hours, with a
prevailing day of 11^ hours and a long day averaging I l f hours. A
short day averaging 9| hours was also reported, but did not affect all
of the establishments. The shortest hours reported were 57 and the
longest 82^. The largest per cent of establishments, 38.8 per cent,
reported hours of from 65 to 69 and a fraction, affecting 36.3 per cent
of the women. Over 23 per cent of the establishments, affecting 16.5
per cent of the women, reported working hours of from 70 to 82-J-. It
is these long hours which make the days before Christmas a period
of unusual strain on the women who work in the stores, It should be
remembered that the strain involved in the overtime period before
Christmas comes as a climax to weeks of "high tension work, for
November and December are generally periods of brisk activity in
retail mercantile business. Indianapolis was the only city where any
real progress had been made toward a more moderate schedule of




1See p. II.

19

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

hours. Many employers in other cities expressed their willingness to
give up night work “ provided the other stores did.”
The facts as to working hours during the period immediately pre­
ceding Christmas are shown for each city in the following table:
1 1 .—OVERTIM E W O R K IN G HOUR S DU R IN G CHRISTMAS SEASON IN T H E SELL­
ING D EPAR T M EN T OF DEPAR TM EN T AND O T H E R R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES,
AS R EPO R TED B Y EM PLOYEES.

T able

Cities.

Indianapolis.........
'
Terre Haute................
Evansville...................
Fort W ayne................
South Bend.................
Muncie,........................
Hammond...................
La Fayette..................
Richmond...................
New Albany...............
T o t a l ...............

Estab­
lish­
ments
oper­
ating
during
Christ­
mas
season.

Establish­
Women
ments report­
affected.
Women ing overtime.
em­
ployed
during
Christ­
mas
Num­ Per Num­ Per
season. ber.
cent.
ber. cent.1

28
13
22
2 13
15
13
4
8
14
9

2,488
796
592
474
493
371
327
312
254
153

10
13
21
12
14
12
4
8
13
9

35.7
100.0
95.5
92.3
93.3
92.3
100.0
100.0
92.9
100.0

669
796
559
439
492
358
327
312
253
150

6,260

116

83.5

4,355

Aver­
age
dura­
Pre­
tion, Hours vail­
weeks. per
ing
week. daily
hours.

26.9
100.0
93.9
92.6
99.8
96.5
100.0
100.0
99.6
98.0

139

Average hours week before
Christmas.

69.6

2

*
§

n
i
H
it

i*
li
#

*
1

65}
64*
71f
66*
63
65|
66f
65|
68|
631

m

11
1H

12
11
10*

m
11
101
HI

Long Short
day. day.

12

m
12
H !
HI

9
85

10*
9!
8|

12
12*

9

H i

10*
9

12*

10!

HI

8}

1H

11 *

n

Per cent reporting weekly hours of—
57 and under 60. 60 and under 65. 65 and under 70. 70 and under 75.

75 to 82*.

Cities.
Wo­
Estab­ Women Estab­ Women Estab­ Women Estab­ Women Estab­ men
affect­
lish­
lish­
affect­
lish­
affect­
lish­
lish­
affect­
affect­
ments.
ed.
ments.
ed.
ments.
ed.
ments.
ed.
ments. ed.
Indianapolis.................
Terre Haute.................
Evansville....................
Fort Wayne.................
South Bend.........: ____
Muncie..........................
Hammond................
La Fayette...................
Richmond.....................
New Albany................
T rtal..................

10.0
15.4

1.3
29.5

8.3
14.3

1.1
35.2

12.5

15.4

6.0

10.8

50.0
30.8
4.8
25.0
42.8
41.6

82.4
43.5
0.2
4.8
42.3
58.1

25.0
15.4
100.0

27.6
5.5
100.0

31.9

36.4

30.0
53.8
14.3
41.7
42.9
41.7
100.0
62.5
53.8

14.5
27.0
26.8
77.2
22.5
20.7
100.0
57.0
36.0

38.8

36.3

10.0
61.9
25.0

65.7
16.9

16.7

15.3

4.4

1.2

58.5

18.9

7.3

21.2

30.8

1.8

19.0

1 Based on number employed during Christmas season.
2 One establishment went out of business, Nov. 30,1913.

O v e r t i m e O t h e r t h a n B e f o r e C h r is t m a s .—The table below
shows—
1. That 32.9 per cent of the establishments, affecting 18 per cent
of the women, reported overtime averaging 2§ weeks. This over­
time was required principally for stock taking and for preparation for
special sales.
2. That the average weekly hours during this overtime period were
58,|, the prevailing daily hours 9^, the long day I l f hours, and the
short day 8£ hours.




20

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3. That the maximum weekly hours for any establishment were
69 and the minimum 45J.
4. That 47.8 per cent of the stores reporting overtimo, affecting
65.3 per cent of the women, reported weekly hours from 55 to 59 and
a fraction. Thirty and four-tenths per cent of the establishments
reporting overtime, affecting 20.5 per cent of the women, reported
hours of 60 a under 65 per w^eek.
’nd
1 2 .—OVERTIM E HOURS, OTH ER T H AN BEFO R E CHRISTMAS IN THE SELLING
D EPAR TM EN T OF D EPAR TM EN T AND O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS
REPOR TED B Y EM PLOYEES.

T able

Cities.

Establish­
ments re­
porting
overtime
in normal
and dull
seasons.

Women
affected.

Average hours.
Aver­
age
dura­
tion
in
weeks.

Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent.1

Pre­
Hours vail­ Long
per
ing
week. daily day.
r
hours.

1*
3
1

57
58|
m
59*
55f
58|

9|
9
9f
10*
81
9

1
1
3*

60*
581
60

9
8-f
8*

Hi
12
12*

18.0

21-

5S*

9*

Short
day.

U*
Ilf
12
11
HI
12

6.3
37.6
21.6

Maxi­ Mini­
mum
mum
weekly weekly
hours. hours.

HI

Indianapolis.....................
Terre Haute....................
Evansville........................
Fort Wayne.....................
South Bend.....................
Muncie..............................
Hammond.......................
La Fayette......................
Richmond............... ^____
New Albany....................

15
8
8
1
1
4

53.6
61.5
36.4
7.1
6.7
30.8

425
174
83
3
17
49

23.4
25.9
18.4
.8
4.2
18.6

2
5
2

25.0
35.7
22.2

15
59
22

Total......................

46

32.9

847

61

69
69
65
59*
57*
59

60*
57£
59

69

8*

45*
55
57*
59*
541
58*

60*
60
61

7*
8*
9i
8*

45*

Per cent reporting average weekly hours of—
49 and under 55.

55 and under 60.

60 and under 65.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

65 to 66.

Cities.

33.3
Indianapolis.....................
Terre Haute......................
Evansville.........................
Fort W ayne
..........
Smith ■ p rl
R .n
Muncie
.................^
.................
Hammond........................ ^
.................
La Favette
............... 1
...................
Rip.hrnnnd _______________i _____________
New A lb a n y ...................
Total.......................

10.9

Women
affected.

11.3

Women
affected.

77.9
54.0
39.7
100.0
100.0
44.9

60.0
50.0
5.7 j

46.7
62.5
25.0
100.0
100.0
50.0

72.9
45.5

47.8

65.3 |

13.3
37.5
62.5

Women
affected.

7.3
46.0
41.0

Estab­ Women
lish­
af­
ments. fected.
6.7

3.5

i

........... 1...........
100.0
20.0
50.0
30.4

20.5

i
!
1

100.0
3.4
54.5
2.2

1.8

1 Based on prevailing number employed.

PAY FOR OVERTIME.

Closely connected with the discussion of overtime in mercantile
establishments, where the prevailing method of payment is a weekly
rate, is the question of overtime pay.



21

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

Of the 124 establishments reporting some overtime, only 19, or
13.6 per cent, paid their saleswomen for the additional hours of work.
Eight others paid regular rate, rate and a half, or double rate for
extra work in the alteration departments. Twenty-two establish­
ments gave the girls Christmas presents of money or merchandise;
some of these firms also paid for the overtime work.
The number of stores working overtime and the practice as to
payment for overtime hours as reported by the employer are shown
for each city in the following table: •
T able 1 3 .—NU M BER AN D PER CENT OF D EPAR TM EN T AN D OTH ER R E T A IL STORES
W O R K IN G OVERTIM E AND PAY IN G FOR OVERTIM E IN 10 CITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y
EM PLO YER S.
Establishments Establishments
Overtime be­
reporting
paying for
fore Christmas.
overtime.
overtime.
Cities.

Estab­
lish­
ments
sched­
uled.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Overtime for
stock taking or
Estab­
sales.
lish­
ments
giving
Estab­ Num­ Christ­ Estab­ Num­
ber
ber
lish^
lish­
mas
ments paving presments paying
for
for
report­ over­
sents. report­ over­
ing.
ing
time.
time.

Indianapolis..............
Terre Haute..............
E van sville..........
Fort Wayne..............
South Bend...............
Muncie........................
Hammond.................
La Fayette.................
Richmond.................
New Albany.............

28
13
22
14
15
13
4
8
14
9

18
13
21
12
14
12
4
8
13
9

64.3
100.0
95.5
85.7
93.3
92.3
100.0
100.0
92.9
100.0

13
32
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
12

30.0
15.4
14.3
7.1
6.7
25.0
25.0
12.5
15.4
22.2

10
13
21
12
14
12
4
8
13
9

3
2
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
2

3
1
3
3
5
2

15
8
8
1
1
4

4
1

2
5
2

Total................

140

124

88.6

»19

13.6

116

«19

22

5 46

22
*1
2
(4)
(4)
2
7

1 Two other establishments pay regular rate for overtime in alteration departments only.
2 Six establishments give supper or supper money.
Two other establishments pay rate and a half, 3 others regular rate, and 1 other double rate for over­
time in alteration department only.
4 One establishment furnishes supper or supper money.
&See notes to details.
6 Sixteen establishments pay a fixed sum or per cent, 1 establishment pays rate and a half, and 2 do not
report the rate paid.

SUMMARY.

The table which follows presents in compact form the working
hours for all seasons of the year in the selling departments and in
the alteration departments, according to reports from employers.
But 86 of the 140 stores from which data were obtained have
alteration departments. The regular hours in these workrooms aver­
age somewhat less than those in the selling departments of all stores,
the hours in the normal season being 54 $ per week, as compared
with 55f hours. The overtime work occurring in the spring and fall
seasons not only lasts for 7 J weeks, as compared with 2§ weeks in the
selling departments, but the weekly hours average 61J, with a 10Jhour day, as against a 58|-hour week with a 9^-hour day. Although
57.6 per cent of the stores report overtime work in the alteration
department before Christmas, this is not considered a busy time in



22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the workrooms and in a number of cases the girls work in the selling
departments.
14=.—SUM MARY OF W O R K IN G HOURS IN TH E SELLING A N D IN THE A L T E R A ­
TION DEPARTM ENTS OF D EPAR TM EN T AND O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES,
AS R EPORTED B Y EM PLO YER S.

T able

,

Selling departments 140 stores.
Establish­
ments
reporting.

Women
affected.

Average hours.

Aver­
age
dura­
tion in Hours
Num­ Per Num­ Per weeks. per
ber. cent. ber. cent.
week.

Seasons.

Pre­
vail-

A -

Maxi­ Mini­
mum mum
week- weekLong
day.

!y . ly
Short hours. hours.
day.

.

hours.
Regular hours:
Normal season...............
Dull season.........
Busy season...................
Overtime hours:
Normal and dull sea­
sons..............................
Before Christmas..........

138
124
107

98.6 4,702 199.7
88.6 4,087 186.7
76.4 5,396 1114.6

46 32.9
847 118.0
116 »83.5 4,355 469.6

29$
15£
8$

8$

U$

&

nt
ll|

n
n$

55$
54$
2 55|
58 V
66$

2§
1

6
5£-

63
63
66

45
44
48

HI
11$

8$
9i

69
82$

45$
57

,

Alteration departments 86 stores.
Regular hours:
Normal season..............
Dull season....................
Busy season.................
Overtime hours:
Normal, dull, and bus?'
seasons........................
Before Christmas.........

. 73 84.9
79 91.9
71 82.6
28
49

32.6
57.6

643 92.0
561 80.3
724 103.6
361
257

51.6
37.1

23$
16$
16$

53$
55$

mh

8|
8§
8$

11£
11$
11$

7$
5$

59
60
61$

33$
33$
49

7$
1

61$
64*$

10$
11

11$
ni

m
m

68
74

50f
37$

1 Based on prevailing number employed.
2 For explanation of these busy-season hours, see text, p. 16.
* Based on 139 stores in business during Christmas season.
4 Based on number employed during Christmas season.

WORKING HOURS AS REPORTED BY INDIVIDUALS.

The preceding tables have presented the data as to seasons, work­
ing hours, and overtime, as reported by the employers. The follow­
ing tables give the data on these topics as reported by individual
employees in 6 of the cities.
The change of working hours has been made the basis of the sea­
sonal classification for individuals, since it was found to be almost
impossible to get any other distinction from the persons interviewed
with a degree of accuracy which would warrant tabulation. Accord­
ingly, the period during which the regular hours were maintained has
been considered the normal season, the period during which the reg­
ular hours were shortened the dull season, and any periods during
which the regular hours were lengthened were considered overtime
periods. This does not bring out the periods during which the hours
remained normal, while the tension of the work was increased, but,
as has been stated, accurate information on that point could not be
obtained;



23

.WAGE-'m&MXG W Q M E ^ I f INDIANA.
f.

In order that no misunderstanding of the seasons as reported by
individuals may occur, it has been thought best to specify in the
headings of the tables “ Season of normal hours,” “ Season of short­
ened hours,” etc. Since the seasons, as reported by individuals, are
grouped for reasons explained above solely according to the changes
in hours, no close comparison with the employers’ seasons can be
made. All women are included in these tables, i. e., cash girls and
wrappers, saleswomen, alteration and millinery hands, office force,
and other miscellaneous employees. Since the groupings of seasons
were simply according to the change of hours, it seemed best to
include workroom employees, as their hours when checked up sepa­
rately, were found to be practically the same as those of the selling
department.
SEASON OF NORMAL HOURS.

A season of normal hours was reported by 99.7 per cent of the 711
women furnishing individual information, the season averaging 34f
weeks in duration. The average weekly hours were 55^, prevailing
daily hours 8 f| , with a long day of 1I f hours. Eight women reported
one short day a week, but one of them worked also on Sunday.
These hours are practically the same as those reported by the
employers for the normal season. Nearly 55 per cent of the women
reported hours of 55 and under 60 per week. This also agrees with the
employers’ report. Only 2.2 per cent reported hours of 60 or over
per week. Six-tenths of 1 per cent of the women reported a 48hour week or under.
The working hours during the season of normal hours as reported by
the 711 women interviewed in 6 of the cities are shown for each city
in the following table:
1 5 .—W O R K IN G HOURS DURING SEASON OF NORM AL HOURS R EPO R TE D B Y
W OM EN FU RNISHING IN D IV ID U A L INFORM ATION EM PLO YED IN D E P A R T M E N T
AND O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

T able

Season of normal hours.

Cities.

Aver­
Per cent reporting average
age
Average hours.
weekly hours of—
dura­
W o­
tion
men of em­ W o­ Aver­
age
sched­
ploy­ men dura­
Over
uled. ment
55
Pre­
60
re­
48
tion Hours vail­
and and
port­
in
Long Short 36 to and
in
un­
un­ 65 to
ing
weeks. ing. weeks. per
un­
day. day.i
48.
der
der 68f.
week. daily
der
65.
60.
hours.
55.

Indianapolis.
Terre Haute.
Evansville...
Fort Wayne.
South Bend.
La Fayette..

331
104
129
58
63
26

37£
40|
41£
38|
431
41

329
104
129
58
63
26

lit
39§
31§

54§
56£
57
55f
55J
- 56*

Total..

711

39|

709

34£

55£

301
36£

9

1
m

m
12
1%
US
m
Hi

8»

Ilf

7|
H

0.9
1.7

(2)
l 7h

.6

66.0
39.4
9.3
13.8
28.6
15.4

31.6
58.6
84.5
82.8
71.4
84.6

1.2
1.0
5.5
1.7

0.3
1.0
.7

42.3

54.9

1.8

.4

1Only 8 women reported short days.
...
2 One person worked a short day which was slightly in excess of the prevailing day worked by all women.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
SEASON OF SHORTENED HOURS.

The per cent of women who reported a season of shortened hours
was but 46.7. As the employers’ dull season often included time
during which the hours were not shortened, no comparison can be
made here. The average duration of the period of shortened hours
reported by the women was 7.5 weeks. The shortened hours gener­
ally occurred during the months of July and August, but as most of
the women took their vacations during that period, the number of
weeks reported generally fall one or two weeks short of the full two
months according to length of time they took for vacations.
The average weekly hours during this period were 49^, the daily
hours 8J, and the long day 9f hours. A short day, averaging 4%
hours in length, was reported by 99 women.
In this season 24.7 per cent of the women reported average weekly
hours of 48 or under, and only 1.5 per cent reported hours of 55 or
over. The large majority, 73.8 per cent, reported hours over 48 and
under 55.
The working hours during the season of shortened hours as reported
by the 711 women furnishing individual information are shown for
each city in the following table:
1 6 .—W O R K IN G HOURS DU RING SEASON OF SH O R TEN ED HOURS R E P O R T E D
B Y W O M EN FURN ISHING IN D IV ID U A L INFO R M ATION EM PLO YED IN D E P A R T M E N T
AN D OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

T able

Cities.

Women Aver­
report­
age
dura­
ing
short­
tion
in
ened
hours. weeks.

Indianapolis..............................
Terre Haute..............................
Evansville.................................
Fort Wayne..............................
South Bend..............................
La Fayette................................

198
33
22
41
16
22

Total...............................

332

Hours
per
week.

Pre­
vailing
daily
hours.

Short
day.

32$ to
48.

4§
74

36.4
3.0
22.7
2.4
6.3
9.0

63.1
0.5
97.0
68,2 ........9.1
97.6
87.5 ........6*2
86.5
4.5

24.7

73.8

8 f
-jT
8*
m

74
6*
9t%

3
8r?

9
lira
12
1 10*
114
11*

74

49|

8J

n

i Only 1 woman reported a long day.

Over 48
and
under
55.

Long
day.

48
51
514
524
50f
51£

n
7*

Per cent reporting aver­
age weekly hours of—

Average hours.

11
: 44
*4*

55 to
57.

1.5

2 Ninety-nine women reported short days.

OVERTIME BEFORE CHRISTMAS.

Over 65 per cent of the women interviewed reported overtime in
the period immediately preceding Christmas. This per cent varied
considerably in the different cities. In Indianapolis it was but 34,
while in all but one of the others it was over 90 per cent.
The duration of this Christmas overtime averaged one and onequarter weeks, slightly more than was reported by the employers. It
should be noted that the hours reported in the table here given are
for the week immediately preceding Christmas, which represent the



25

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

extreme of the overtime. The overtime did not often exceed this
period, however, and the average of all overtime days would show
a weekly average only very slightly different from these figures.1
The average weekly hours reported were 66 J, the daily hours 1 1 and
the long day I l f hours. In Indianapolis eight women reported over­
time work on Sunday. This did not appear on the employers’ reports,
and was not reported in any city except Indianapolis. It represents,
however, one of the worst features of overtime, since it takes away
from the worker the only opportunity she has to recuperate from the
strain of the heavy work of the holiday season.
The working hours in the overtime period immediately preceding
Christmas as reported by the women interviewed are shown for each
city in the following table:
1 7 .—W O R K IN G HOURS, IN O VERTIM E PERIOD BEFO R E CHRISTMAS, R EPO R TED
B Y W OM EN FURNISHING IN D IV ID U A L INFORM ATION EM PLO YED IN D E PAR TM EN T
AN D O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

T able

Cities.

Average hours week bePer cent reporting average weekly
W omen
before Christmas.
hours of—
report­ Aver­
ing
age
dura­
over­
time
tion
Pre­
Hours vailing Longest 39 and 60 and 65 and 70 and
in
75 to
before
per
under under under under
day.
daily
Christ­ weeks. week.
79*.
75.
60.
65.
70.
hours.
mas,

Indianapolis..............
Terre Haute..........
Evansville.................
Fort Wayne..............
South Bend...............
La Fayette.................

113
99
118
55
60
20

%
1J
l*
2
n

Total................

465

n

i63|
64
7m
68*
64
66^

Hi
12
12*

I f
Ilf
10£
iii
Hi

25.7
8.1
1.7
1.8

37.2
47.5
2.5
16.4
13.3
30.0

23.9
42.4
17.0
45.5
51.7
50.0

10.6
1.0
73.7
32.7
25.0
20.0

2.6
1.0
5.1
3.6
10.0

8.6

24.7

33.3

29.5

3.9

111
11*
i

HI

i Including Sunday work of 8 women averaging 2J hours each.

OVERTIME OTHER THAN BEFORE CHRISTMAS.

Overtime aside from the Christmas season was reported by em­
ployees, as by the employers, chiefly at the time of stocktaking, before
or during special sales, and before spring or fall openings, and occurred
sometimes in the season of normal hours and sometimes in the season
of shortened hours. One hundred and seventy-three, or 24.3 per cent
of the women, reported such overtime, and the average number of
weeks reported was three and two-thirds— a considerably longer time
than that during which Christmas overtime was reported. The hours
here reported represent the average for all these overtime periods.
During this period of three and two-thirds weeks of overtime the
largest per cent of women reported weekly hours of 55 and under 60,
46.8 per cent reporting in this group. The maximum hours reported
were 76 and the minimum 39 hours. This minimum, however, was
reported by a part-time worker. A considerable per cent worked
i The average weekly and daily hours of all overtime days would be slightly lower than the averages
here given.




26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

exceedingly long hours during these periods, 46.3 per cent reporting
weekly hours of 60 or more. The Sunday work was even more sig­
nificant in these overtime'periods than in the overtime before Christ­
mas, and as at that season it was chiefly reported by the women in
Indianapolis. A large number of the women there who reported
overtime other than at Christmas reported Sunday work which
averaged four and one-quarter hours per Sunday. In one other city
Sunday work was reported, but only by four women. The hours
were even longer, however, averaging seven hours per Sunday.
The working hours in overtime periods other than before Christmas
as reported by the women interviewed are shown for each city in the
following table:
T

1 8 .—W O R K IN G HOURS IN OVERTIM E PERIODS O THER T H A N BEFORE CHRIST­
MAS R EPO R TED B Y W O M EN FURN ISHING IN D IV ID U A L IN FORM ATION EM P LO YE D
IN DEPAR TM EN T AND O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

able

Cities.

W omen
report­
ing
over­
time
other
than
before
Christ­
mas.

Per cent reporting average weekly
hours of—

Average hours.
Aver­
age
dura­
tion in
weeks.

Pre­
Hours vailing Longest 39 and
under
per
day.
daily
55.
week.1 hours.

Indianapolis..............
Terre Haute..............
Evansville.................
Fort Wayne..............
South Bend...............
La Fayette................

85
32
29
13
8
6

3!
4
4
3h
3
5i

58#
614
62#
57|
59*
61

919f
9#
9*
9l,
10"

u!
11V
12'

Tbtal................

173

3§

59-H

9i

IB

%

55 and 60 and
under under
60. I 65.

7.0
3.1
7. 7
25! 0
6.9 1
!

65 and
under 70 to 76,
70.

60.0
40.0
20. 7
53.8
50.0
33.3

24.7
31.3
55. 2
38.5
12.5
66.7

5.9
21.9
17.2

46.8 i
!

32. <
i

10.5

2.4
3.1
6.9

12.5
2.9

1 Including Sunday work of 31 women averaging 41 hours each.

PAY FOR OVERTIME.

The information received from individual women on this subject
has been summarized so as to bring out the amount of overtime, the
per cent which is paid for, the per cent which is not paid for, and the
kind and amount of compensation received. It should be noted in
this connection that while the extra pay received at Christmas may
be called overtime pay, it frequently is supposed to be compensation
not only for the actual hours of overtime, but for all the additional
strain and rush of the busy weeks before Christmas. In this table
a separate grouping has been made for the 5 and 10 cent stores and
for the other retail stores for two reasons: First, the 5 and 10 cent
stores pay for the overtime before Christmas much more generally
than do any other stores; second, the 5 and 10 cent store earnings
average so much less than other stores that the influence of overtime
pay upon earnings is much more marked. The following table shows




WAGE-EA&NING W O M E N IN IN DIANA,

27

the number reporting overtime and the amount of compensation
reported.
Approximately 75 per cent of the women reported overtime—71
per cent of those in the stores other than 5 and 10 cent stores and 91
per cent of the women in the 5 and 10 cent stores. Sixty-six and
seven-tenths per cent of the women reporting overtime in the stores
other than 5 and 10 cent stores reported no pay for overtime, while
only 8.2 per cent of those in the 5 and 10 cent stores were not paid.
Taking all women reporting overtime, 55.9 per cent reported no pay
for their overtime work, which amounted to 16.7 hours per person.




28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

1 9 .— NUM BER

OF

W O M EN

FURNISHING

IN D IV ID U AL INFORMATION W H O
K IND AND AM OUNT OF

—

Department and other retail stores
Women re­
porting
overtime.

Cities.

Wom­
en
sched­
uled.

Women re c e iv in g
some compensa­
tion for overtime.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Women receiv in g
no compensation
for overtime.

Overtime at
Christmas season.

Aver­
age
Aver­
Aver­ week­
age
age Num­
ly
num­ ber re- num­ earn­
ber of port- ber of ings,
over­
ing.
over­ includ­
ing
time
time
hours.
hours. over­
time
pay.1

Aver­
age
num­
ber of Num­
ber.
over­
time
hours.

Per
cent.

65.1
73.9
74.2
62.2
45.3
76.5

12*
12$
25H
17*
20*
H*

19
19
18
17
28
3

16
8$
195
17§
14$
m

2$7.95
7.77
7.37
10.02
8.49
11.94

66.7

16|

104

15

2 8.43

Indianapolis...
Terre Haute...
Evansville.......
Fort W ayn e...
South B e n d ...
La Fayette___

279
94
105
47
55
23

126
92
97
45
53
17

45.2
97.9
92.4
95.7
96.4
73.9

44
24
25
17
29
4

34.9
26.1
25.8
37.8
54.7
23.5

15*
15*
18$
14*
51*

82
68
72
28
24
13

T o ta l....

603

430

71.3

143

33.3

1*!

287

Five and ten
Indianapolis...
Terre Haute...
Evansville.......
Fort W ayn e...
South B en d.. .
La Fayette___

52
10
24
11
8
3

45
10
21
11
8
3

86.5
100.0
87.5
100.0
100.0
100.0

42
10
20
7
8
3

93.3
100.0
95.2
63.6
100.0
100.0

8$
9*
20*
18?
2oH
14$

3

6.7

lOf

1
4

4.8
36.4

15
13*

T o ta l....

108

98

90.7

90

91.8

13§

8

G ran d
total...




711

528

74.3

233

44.1

16*

........ 1 .........
295

i Average earnings of year 1913.

8.2 I 12*
55.9

|

j

16§

41
10
20
7
8
3

7
\
m
25H
14$

$5.08
4.50
4.07
5.01
6.21
5.13

89

131

4.88

193

14*

2 6.78

9*
20

29

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

R EPO R TED OVER TIM E, NUM BER RECEIVING COMPENSATION FOR O V ER TIM E, AND
COMPENSATION RECEIVED .

.

excluding five and ten cent stores

Overtime at Christmas season.

Overtime other than at Christmas season.

Compensation received.
Aver­
Gifts of
Sup­
age
Num­
money.
per or
num­
Other
ber ber of
supper
gifts, report­
mon­
over­
num­
ing.
Aver­
ey,
time
Num­
ber
Num­
Aver­
Aver­ num­
age
hours.
ber
report­
ber hours
age
ber report­ age
ing.
report­ over­
amt.
amt. report­ ing.
ing.
ing.
time.
Additional pay.

11
1
1
1

12*
6
6
4

$1.82
2.25
1.50
1.19

2

17

5.15

16

Hi

2.20

9

5
3
1

Compensation received.
Aver­
age
week­
Sup­
Additional pay.
ly
per or
earn­
supper
ings,
mon­
includ­
Aver­
ey,
ing
Num­
age
Aver­ num­
over­
ber
age
ber
time report­ hours
over­
amt. report­
pay.1 ing.
time.
ing.

12*
24*
A 1
A
14
6
40f

$9.61
8.91
7.46
10.00
10.97
11.21

4
7
8
1
1
1

81
27§
44*
14
12
120

$1.72
9.53
7.96
3.00
6.00
32.16

27
2

7
5
1

30
9
8
1
2
4

54 j 3.92

23

54

20f

9.33

22

33

8.11

32

14 $10.00
4 12.50
9
4.56
4
7.25
3 16.67
3 10.00

4

4

10|

$4.58

3

12*

2
5
17
9
21

$5.00
4.20
3.62
2.44
4.62

10

1
2

cent stores.
33
10
12
3
8
1

$2.03
3.50
2.40
1.30
5.78
1.00

5

20*2
20
25|
13|

67

12§

2.71

5

37

8.49

11

4

10|

4.58

3

12*

1.42

2

83

12*

2.62

14

91

5.77

34

58

20*

9.02

25

30J

7.31

34




$1.42

2

7

* Two women did not report average earnings.

30

BULLETIN O f TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Of the paid' overtime reported by individuals employed in stores
other than 5 and 10 cent stores, 58 per cent was reported during the
Christmas season. The women employed in the 5 and 10 cent stores
reported 96 per cent of this paid overtime as occurring in the Christmas
season. For this overtime there were several methods of pay. In
the 5 and 10 cent stores additional straight pay was most commonly
given. In the other stores an arbitrary gift of money was the mostfrequent method of reward. The 5 and 10 cent stores also used
money gifts to some extent, and the gifts reported by 37 individuals
amounted to $8.49 per person, while in the other stores the money
gifts of the 54 women reporting averaged but $3.92. The average
amount of overtime per person did not vary greatly, 13.3 hours
being reported by the 5 and 10 cent stores and 15 horn's by the other
stores. On the whole, the 5 and 10 cent stores reported less over­
time, more frequent pay, and higher pay, but the average earnings
of the girls who reported in the 5 and 10 cent stores were $3.55 lower
than those of the girls reporting in other stores.
Outside of the Christmas season the women employed in the 5 and
10 cent stores reported practically no overtime, but the employees
of other stores reported 42 per cent of the total overtime for which
compensation was received as being in seasons other than Christmas.
The average amount of overtime per person was considerably higher
than the amount at the Christmas season, being 21 hours as com­
pared with 15 hours. Much of this overtime came in the workrooms,
where overtime was often worked for several consecutive weeks.
It may be added also that a few individuals reported that they
were occasionally given an hour or two off, without deduction, for
shopping or other purposes. Such privileges, however, were not
usual.
The table below summarizes the range of overtime hours worked
by individuals in all stores through the year.
The greater part of the women working overtime received no pay
for it, and, furthermore, the women who received no pay worked
rather more hours of overtime than those who received pay, 27 per
cent of the latter working 20 hours or more, while 33. 9 per cent of
those receiving no pay worked 20 hours or more.
The largest individual group of both paid and unpaid overtime
workers was that working 5 and less than 10 horn’s overtime, and
comparatively few worked over 39 hours. The major part of the
overtime was from 5 to 25 hours. While this amount is not large,
whether or not it involved undue strain on the individuals, depends
on the nature of the work and number of days over which the over­
time was distributed. The Christmas overtime was generally
crowded into a very short space of time, and the other overtime gen-




31

WAGE-EAKNING W O M E N IN INDIANA*

eraily came on a few days at times of stock taking, openings, or sales
so that while the actual hours of overtime worked do not show long
periods, they do mean considerable strain on the workers.
T

2 0 .—O VERTIM E HOURS, W IT H COM PENSATION AND W IT H O U T COM PENSATION,
R E P O R TE D B Y IN D IV ID U ALS IN D EPAR T M EN T AN D O THER R E T A IL STORES OF
6 CITIES, COMBINED.

able

Women reporting hours of overtime.

With compensation.

Hours of overtime.

Without compen­
sation.

Total.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Under 5...............................................................
5 and under 1 0 . . ............................................
i0 and under 15......................................... .
15 and under 20.............................. t .............
20 and under 25................................................
25 and under 30................................................
30 and under 40................................................
40 and under 50....................................- ..........
50 and under 60................................................
60 and under 80................................................
100 to 136
......................................................
N ot reported...................... .............................

19
75
38
37
27
14
9
4
3
4
2
1

8.2
32.2
16.3
15.9
11.6
6.0
3.9
1.7
1.3
1.7
.8
.4

30
80
39
44
50
19
19
4
3
5
2

Total........................................................

233

100.0

295

10.2
27.1
13.2
14.9
17.0
6.4
6.4
1.4
1.0
1.7
.7

49
155
77
81
77
33
28
8
6
9
2
3

9.3
29.4
14.6
15.3
14.6
6.2
5.3
1.5
1.1
1.7
.4
.6

100.0

528

100.0

RATES OF PAY AND EARNINGS.
ALL OCCUPATIONS.

Information concerning wages consists of the weekly rates of pay
for 5,857 women as taken from the payrolls of 140 stores in 10
cities for a representative week, together with data as to commissions,
premiums, etc., and the average full-time weekly earnings as reported
by 711 individuals during the year covered by this investigation.
These 711 individuals represented 92 stores in 6 of the 10 cities.
The employer was asked for his pay roll for a specified week, this
week having been selected as one which should represent a normal
condition of business. The week was specified so as to make the
reports from the various establishments cover as nearly as possible
the same period. If, however, the employer felt that the week so
chosen did not fairly represent his business, another week (giving
the date) which he felt was more representative was taken. The
rate of pay for everyone on the pay roll was taken, together with
the number receiving regular commissions, but the actual amount
paid to each person in commissions, premiums, or bonuses of any
sort was not included. The total amount paid during the year to
women in commissions, premiums, etc., was taken as a separate
item, and the influence of these supplemental earnings upon the flat
rates of pay is measured in the course of this report with as much
accuracy as the information at hand will permit.




32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The weekly earnings reported by the 711 individuals represent the
average full-time weekly earnings for the weeks actually worked.
The number of weeks during which the women worked are stated as
full-time weeks, except that scattered days or half days’ absence
amounting to less than one week in all during the year were not
deducted from the time but were allowed for in computing the earn­
ings.1 Any absences of three consecutive days or more or a week or
more in scattered days were deducted from the time worked. The
individual was questioned as to her rate of pay and, if on commission,
as to the average amount earned in commissions, due consideration
being given to the different seasons of the year, when the amount
earned in commissions might vary widely, and as to the number of
days or fractional days she lost. The earnings recorded represent
the closest estimate the individual could give of her full-time weekly
earnings, including commissions, with deductions for occasional
absence as noted above, or for any other reasons. If the individual
had worked at more than one rate of pay during the year, the time
worked at each rate was noted and the average computed accordingly.
The tables following summarize first, the reports of employers and
employees as to the number of women receiving specified rates of
pay; and, second, the individual reports as to average full-time weekly
earnings, including commissions and premiums.
The reports from individuals while limited to 6 of the 10 cities, nev­
ertheless represent the geographical and industrial sections of the
State. The table below, summarizing the emploj^ers’ reports as to
weekly rates of pay, furnishes evidence of this fact, for not only are
the average rates of pay for the 10 cities within 12 cents of the aver­
age for the 6 cities chosen for individual schedule gathering, but the
difference in the proportion of women getting less than specified rates
in the entire 10 cities and in the 6 is so small as to be negligible.
If the reader will notice the marked difference in the rates prevail­
ing in the northern and southern cities of the State, for example, he
will readily understand that the close correspondence above referred
to can mean nothing else than that the 6 cities chosen for individual
schedule gathering fairly represent the same sections of the State
as were covered by the entire 10 cities included in the investigation.
i For example, if a girl worked 40 weeks during the year at $6 per week, but was out 4 scattered days
during that time, her number of weeks worked would be given as 40 and her average earnings would be 40
times $6 ($240), minus $4 (representing the 4 days lost), $230 divided by 40, or $5.90.




33

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

PER CENT OF W OM EN RECEIVING LESS TH AN SPECIFIED W E E K L Y R ATES
OF P A Y (NOT INCLUD IN G COMMISSIONS AND PREMIUMS), IN 140 D EPA R T M EN T AND
OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS SHOW N B Y ESTABLISHMENT P A Y ROLLS
FOR A R E PR ESEN TA TIVE W E E K .

T able 2 1 .—

Aver­
W o­
age
men weekly
report­ rate of
ed.
pay.

Cities.

Indianapolis..................
Terre Haute....................
Evansville.......................

Per cent receiving weekly rate of—
Un­
der
$3.

Un­
der
$4.

Un­
der
$5.

Un­
der
$6.

Un­
der
$7.

Un­
der
$8.

Un­
der
$9.

Un­
der
$10.

Un­
der
$12.

$12
or
over.

0.2
6.4
.6

8.8
15.5
18.5
.6
8.5
4.3

22.3
27.2
38.3
5.8
17.7
14.3

30.7
36.0
48.4
20.0
26.3
33.9

45.2
49.9
60.7
34.8
38.7
53.7

55.1
61.7
69.3
49.3
48.8
64.9

67.5
69.7
76.7
62.3
57.8
72.4

74.5
75.3
79.8
69.5
67.0
76.4

83.7
85.4
89.1
82.9
76.6
88.2

16.3
14.6
10.9
17.1
23.4
11.8

South Bend.....................
La Fayette......................

2,609
677
486
485
457
322

$8.01
7.62
6.80
8.67
8.77
7.50

Total......................

5,036

7.94

1.0

9.6

22.0

31.9

46.3

56.9

67.6

74.1

84.0

16.0

Muncie.............................
Hammond......................
Richmond.......................
New Albany..................

288
207
198
120

7.22
7.05
7.48
6.23

6.9
1.7

15.3
7.2
6.6
18.3

28.1
18.4
25.8
40.8

41.0
37.7
34.3
52.5

59.4
63.3
46.5
63.3

66.0
76.3
58.1
71.7

71.9
82.6
67.7
79.2

78.1
84.5
74.7
83.3

87.8
90.3
87.4
94.2

12.2
9.7
12.6
5.8

Grand total.......... 15,849

7.82

1.3

9.8

22.7

33.0

47.9

58.4

68.6

74.9

84.7

15.3

1 Not including 8, whose weekly rates of pay were not reported.
T a b l e 2 2 . — NUM BER

AND PER CENT OF W OM EN RECEIVING LESS T H A N SPECIFIED
W E E K L Y RATES OF P A Y (NOT INCLUDING COMMISSIONS AN D PREM IUM S), AS
R EPOR TED B Y 620 W O M EN EM PLOYED IN D EPAR TM EN T AND OTHER R E T A IL
STORES IN 6 IN D IA NA CITIES.

Cities.

Indianapolis:
Number....................
Per cent....................
South Bend:
Number....................
Per cent....................
Fort Wayne:
Number....................
Per cent....................
Terre Haute:
Number....................
Per cent....................
Evansville:
Number....................
Per cent...................
La Fayette:
Number...................
Total:
N u m b er......
Per cent.........

Aver­
age
Total weekly
women. rate of
pay.

Women receiving weekly rate of—
Un­
der
$3.

Un­
der
$4.

Un­
der
$0.

Un­
der
$6.

Un­ Un­
der
der
$7. . $8.

Un­
der
$10.

Un­
der
$12.

$12
or
over.

270
100.0

$7.42

8
45
85
201
142
165
189
103
229
2; 96 16.67 31.48 38.15 52.59 61.11 70.00 74.44 84.81

41
15.19

52
100.0

8.25

2
9
13
22
28
32
35
41
3.85 17.31 25.00 42.31 33.85 61.54 67.31 78.85

11
21.15

53
100.0

8.48

11
7
19
26
33
34
42
13.21 20.75 35.85 49.06 62.26 64.15 79.25

11
20.75

99
100.0

7.54

4
12
*22
37
45
55
67.
75
81
4.04 12.12 22.22 37.37 45.45 55.56 67.68 75.76 81.82

18
18.18

124
100.0

6.33

24
42
6
59
91
78
98
103
114
4.84 19.35 33.87 47.58 62.90 73.39 79.03 83.06 91.94

10
8.06

22
100.0

7.38

1620
100.0

7.38

5
12
14
13
17
21
22.73 54.55 59.09 63.64 77.27 95.45

1
4.55

86
168
433
465
228
318
18
528
378
2.90 13.87 27.10 36.77 51.29 60.97 69.84 75.00 85.16

92
14.84

3
13.64

i Of the 711 women, 91 did not report rate of pay.

66172°—Bull. 160—14------3




Un­
der
$9.

34
T

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2 3 .—PER CENT OF W O M EN W H O SE AVE R A G E FULL-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS
(INCLUDING COMMISSIONS A N D PREM IUM S), AS R EP O R TE D B Y 711 IN D IV ID U ALS
EM PLO YED IN D EPAR TM EN T AN D OTH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES, W E R E LESS
T H A N SPECIFIED AMOUNTS.

able

Cities.

Indianapolis...................
Terre Haute...................
Evansville......................
Fort Wavne...... ............
South Bend...................
La Fayette......................
Total.....................

Aver­
age
Women
report­ weekly
earn­
ing.
ings.

314 1 $8.03
104
7.71
120
2 0.38
S. 00
58
03
8.72
7.22
20
3 711

7.70

Per cent earning weekly—
Un­
der
53.

Un­
der
$4.

Un­
der
$5.

Un­
der
$0.

Un­
der
$7.

Un­
der
$8.

Un­
der
$9.

Un­
der
$1.0.

Un­
der
$12.

$12
and
over.

3.5
3.8
2.4

16.2
12.5
22.2
1.7
0.3
11.5

30.3
20.9
37.3
12.1
19.0
11.5

30.0
37.5
50.0
24.1
30.2
20.9

40.5
40.2
00.7
30.2
38.1
57.7

50.4
57.7
74.6
46.0
52.4
05. 4

65.6
07.3
81.0
58.6
58.7
65.4

71.3
70.9
84.1
00.3
06.7
80.8

81.8
81.7
92.1
77.0
77.8
90.2

18.2
18.3
7.9
22.4
22.2
3.8

14.5

27.8

37.2

48.9

59.0

07.4

73.5 ! 83.5
i

10.5

1.0
2.7

I

i

1 Including average weekly earnings of 17 whose specified rates of pay were not reported.
2 Including average weekly earnings of 3 whose specified rates of pay were not reported.
* Including 20 whose specified rates of pay were not reported.

It should be remembered, in studying the table showing rates re­
ported by the employers, that these are flat rates and do not include
commissions or premiums received by a number of saleswomen. Just
how far the commission system has spread and just what effect it has
on the earnings of saleswomen is discussed in detail on pages 37 to 39.
For the proper understanding of Table 21, however, it should be said
that there were 665 saleswomen who were receiving commissions,
according to the pay rolls submitted for a representative week, and
that while the earnings of these were materially affected by the com­
mission system, as is shown later, they constitute but 11 per cent
of the total number of women employed in the stores included in
the investigation, and the amount earned in commissions, if distrib­
uted among the total number of women employed, would be but
27 cents per person. In other words, Table 21 showing classified
weekly rates of pay, i. e., uninfluenced by commissions, bonuses,
premiums, etc., represents practically the maximum which could be
earned in a representative week by nearly 90 per cent of all the
w^men.1
Table 22 summarizes the reports from 620 of the 711 individuals
reporting as to flat weekly rates of pay. Table 26 shows that 95 of
the saleswomen (who alone are affected by the system) received com­
missions during a part or the whole of the year covered by the in­
vestigation. This constitutes about 15 per cent of the 620 women
individually scheduled. This discrepancy between the reports of
employers and employees (11 per cent and 15 per cent) is only ap­
parently substantial. In reality it is so inconsiderable as to render
i The influence of the P. M .’s (i. e., premiums on high-grade or unsalable stock) upon the rates of pay
when all the women on the pay roll are considered is insignificant. These earnings are not only sporadic,
uncertain, and arbitrary, but averaged only about 3V cents a week when distributed over the total number
of women employed.




WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

35

the figures from employers and employees mutually corroborative,
for, as heretofore stated, the schedule gathering was limited to 6 of
the 10 cities included in the entire investigation, and only in these 6
cities (excepting Hammond) had the commission system gained any
foothold at all. It should be kept clearly in mind, however, that
these 6 cities are, with one exception, the largest of the 10 cities in­
cluded in the investigation and the largest in the State; that from
the evidence at hand 1 the commission system has not as yet been
introduced in the retail stores of the smaller cities of the State; that
the small cities, while severally employing fewer women, nevertheless
far outnumber the cities of the size included in the investigation and
that therefore the reports on the proportion of women receiving com­
missions as submitted by employers in the entire 10 cities are un­
questionably more representative of the wage basis prevailing in the
mercantile establishments of the State than the corresponding reports
of either employers or employees from the 6 cities where alone, with
one exception, the commission system had gained a foothold. Fur­
thermore, there is material evidence at hand that the commission
system, while gaining, has not as yet very materially influenced the
total earnings of all women in the department and other retail stores
in the 10 cities included in this investigation, nor even in the 6 cities
where it alone has made headway. Such evidence is disclosed by
comparing Tables 21 and 22, summarizing the weekly rates of pay as
reported by employers and by employees, with Table 23, showing the
average weekly earnings as reported by the 711 women individually
scheduled. It should be borne in mind that the earnings data secured
from individual women (Table 23) included rates of pay and all sup­
plemental earnings from commissions and “ P. M.’s.” A comparative
study of these tables will reveal the following significant facts:
1.
Approximately half of the women receive weekly rates of pay
of less than $7, according to the figures for the entire 10 cities as well
as those for the 6 in which the commission system had made some
headway and in which individual schedules were taken, the variation
from an exact 50 per cent being less than 4 points in the pay roll
reports and less than 2 points in the individual reports. Although the
reports of employers and employees as to the proportion receiving rates
of pay of less than $7 deviate from the median line in opposite direc­
tions, the employers in the 6 cities reporting 46.3 per cent and the
employees 51.3, the difference between the two is but 5 points—
approximately 10 per cent. The discrepancy is'not very material,
especially in view of the fact that the per cents for individuals is
based upon 620 reports while that for the employers is based upon
more than 5,000.
1 Aside from the fact that in the smaller cities included in the investigation the commission system was
not in use, there were a considerable number of individuals scheduled who had worked a part of the year
in small cities not included in the 10, and in all such cases the wage basis was a flat rate.




36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

2. Table 23, which includes both rates of pay and all supplemental
earnings from commissions and premiums as reported by 711 indi­
viduals, shows that 48.9 per cent were earning less than $7 a week.
This is 2.6 points more than the per cent receiving weekly rates of
pay of less than $7 as reported by the employers in the 6 cities to
which individual schedule gathering was confined, and but 2.4 points,
or 4.7 per cent, less than the per cent getting rates of less than $7 a
week as reported by the individuals.
3. The average weekly rate of pay as shown by the pay rolls for
the 5,036 women in the 6 cities differs by 18 cents from the average
earnings as reported by the 711 individuals interviewed in the same
cities, and by but 12 cents from the average rate of pay for the 5,849
women in the 10 cities.1 In both cases the average rate is higher
than the average earnings.
4. The average rates of pay and the average earnings as reported
by the individuals differed by 38 cents a week. The average rates
of pay without supplemental earnings from commissions, etc., and the
average rates of pay plus such supplemental earnings, according to
the reports of employers in the 6 cities to which individual schedule
gathering was confined, differed by slightly more than 29 cents.
These facts furnish conclusive evidence of the truth of the state­
ment made heretofore, viz, that the commission system, while
growing, has not as yet materially affected the earnings of the women
in department and other retail stores of Indiana when the whole
number are under consideration.
Three factors immediately present themselves as bearing on earn­
ings: First, the occupations; second, the age; aud, third, the expe­
rience of the individuals. As the employers did not report on either
the age or experience of their employees, the employers’ information
as to rates of pay can be classified only according to the occupations.
Of the 5,857 women for whom wage data were reported by employers
in the 10 cities, approximately 61 per cent were saleswomen, 17 per
cent were in the alteration or millinery workrooms, 10 per cent were
cash girls, wrappers, etc., 9 per cent were in the office, and 2 per
cent were in miscellaneous occupations. The table below will show
that there were no material differences in the per cents of women in
each occupation as reported by employers in the 6 cities in which
individual schedules were secured. Of the 711 individuals reporting
69.6 per cent were saleswomen, 9 per cent were in the workrooms,
9.1 per cent were cash girls, wrappers, etc., 10.7 per cent were in the
offices, and 1.6 per cent were in other miscellaneous occupations.
i That the average rate of pay for all women uninfluenced by commissions is higher than the average
earnings including commissions, etc., reported by individuals, is explained by the fact that the employers’
report includes under “ Other employees ’’ a number of buyers whose rates cf pay are naturally high, while
among the individuals reporting there was but 1 holding a position properly described as “ buyer.”




37

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

The discrepancies between the proportion of saleswomen included
among individuals scheduled and the proportions shown on the pay
rolls for a representative week are offset to some extent by the
differences in the proportions of alteration women shown in each set
of figures.
2 4 .—N U M BER AN D PER CENT OF W O M EN IN EACH OCCUPATION GROUP IN
D EPAR T M EN T AN D OTHER R E T A IL STORES, AS R E P O R TE D B Y IN D IV ID U ALS AN D
AS SHO W N B Y P A Y ROLLS.

T able

Yv omen reported on—

Occupation groups.

Individual
schedules.
Per
Num­
ber. cent.

Pay rolls
for 6 cities.

Pay rolls
for 10 cities.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Cash girls, messengers, bundle wrappers, inspectors, and
stock girls.........................................................................................
Saleswomen........................................................................................
Alteration and millinery workers.................................................
Office help (clerical).........................................................................
Other employees, including department heads and buyers. . .

65
495
64
76
11

9.1
69.6
9.0
10.7
1.6

528
3,034
908
470
104

10.4
60.2
18.0
9.3
2.1

611
3,589
994
543
120

10.4
61.3
17.0
9.3
2.0

Total.........................................................................................

711

100.0

5,044

100.0

5,857

100.0

EARNINGS OF SALESWOMEN—COMMISSIONS AND PREMIUMS.

Until recently the system of pay for saleswomen has been almost
universally a flat weekly rate. Within the last few years, however,
the commission system has made some headway and promises to be
the prevailing system of the future, though, as heretofore indicated,
it has not as yet developed to such proportions as to affect materially
the earnings of department-store women as a whole. Five years ago
this system was very exceptional. The present study covering 10
cities in Indiana, several of which were small cities where such changes
might be expected to come slowly, revealed the fact that practically
18 per cent of the establishments paid regular commissions to a num­
ber of their saleswomen. In Indianapolis 25 per cent of the stores
reported commissions, but in the smaller cities the system appears to
have gained little or no foothold as yet.
The most common method of paying commissions is best described
by illustration: A woman may be receiving $8 per week in a depart­
ment where the average selling cost is fixed at 4 per cent of the gross
sales, which would mean that her sales average $200 a week. Very
possibly she drops below this average during some weeks and may
exceed it considerably at times. If she is put on a commission basis
and given, for example, $6 and 1 per cent on all her sales, her sales
must equal $200 to earn $8. If her sales fall below, so do her earn­
ings, but if her sales amount to $250 she gets 1 per cent on the extra
$50, or 50 cents, while she has at the same time brought her selling
cost to the firm below 4 per cent. The other system of fixing flat
rates and commissions consists in allowing a saleswoman a commission



38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

on all sales in excess of those required to bring the cost of her flat
rate within the allotted per cent. For example, if a woman's flat
"wage is $10 per week and the selling cost in her department is fixed at 3
per cent, she is expected to maintain an average gross sales of $333.33
per week. Usually if she falls below this figure either her position
or her rate of pay is in danger. If she exceeds $333.33 per week, she
may be allowed a commission of 1 or 2 per cent, and sometimes more,
on all such excess sales. The same principle is involved in the method
adopted by a large establishment in Indiana, but is given much more
adequate and logical expression because the flat rates and commissions
are based upon the records of average salaries and average sales for
the entire year. Thus, in a department where the selling cost has
averaged 3 per cent, the woman whose sales average $250 per week
would receive $7.50 as her flat rate. A record was kept of all her
sales. She was given at the end of each commission period 3 per cent
on all sales which were in excess of the average of $250 per week. By
this method she might fall short one week and exceed in the next by
just enough to maintain her average, the arrangement allowing a
certain flexibility for the ebb and flow of trade. If she persistently
fell below $250 a week, her flat rate would be lowered if her position
was not jeopardized.
The following tables show the rates of pay for saleswomen only as
reported by employers in the entire 10 cities, and as reported by both
employers and employees in the 6 cities where individual schedules
were taken. They also show the rates of pay as affected by commis­
sions and P. M.’s, and finally they reveal the average weekly earnings
as reported by 495 individual saleswomen scheduled.
A glance at Table 25 will reveal the fact that practically the same
proportion of saleswomen are getting specified rates of pay in the 6
cities to which individual schedule gathering was confined as the em­
ployers report for the entire 10 included in the investigation, The
average rate of pay for the saleswomen is ] 2 cents higher in the 6
cities than the average in the entire 10. On the whole, the differences
are so slight, therefore, that they will not figure as an important
factor in this discussion.
To judge of the value of Table 25 it must be clearly understood to
what extent flat rates are influenced by the commission system. As
has been stated, 665 saleswomen, or less than a fifth of the total num­
ber of saleswomen reported for the 10 cities by the employers, re­
ceived commissions. (In the 6 cities in which individual schedules
were taken the proportion is still less than a fifth.) While 40 per cent
of the 665 women receiving commissions were in one establishment,
the others were distributed among 19 stores that employed normally
nearly 1,100 saleswomen, or approximately one-third of the total num­
ber of saleswomen in the 140 establishments included in the investiga­
tion. This measures, according to the reports of the employers, the



WAGE-EARNING W O M E N I X INDIANA.

39

headway which the commission system had made as well as the proba­
bilities for the immediate future. For, while the pay rolls showed
that 665 actually received commissions as part of their compensations,
the wage basis for the entire 1,116 saleswomen in these stores is in all
probability undergoing a gradual transformation by the extension of
the commission system. However, it should be kept clearly in mind
that at the time of the collection of this material less than one-fifth
of the saleswomen in the 140 stores covered were reported by the
employers as having received commission money during the period
covered by the investigation.
Table 27 shows that of the 495 saleswomen personally interviewed
19.2 per cent were receiving commissions. Table 26 shows that,
according to the employers’ reports, the commissions paid would
increase the amount paid in rates of pay—in case there were no
offsetting losses -for all the saleswomen in the 20 stores using the
system by an average of $1.48 1 a week. The corresponding data
(Table 27) from saleswomen individually scheduled show that the
average earnings, which include not only commissions but all other
earnings, exceed the average rate of pay by 76 cents. This dis­
crepancy of 72 cents, while material, is doubtless accounted for by
the fact that some of the employers included bonuses in their reports
on commissions. Though not paid to many women, these bonuses
run sometimes into such large amounts that they materially affect
the average for a comparatively small number even when they are
not so numeroas as to exert any appreciable influence on the groups
earning specified amounts.
RATES OF PAY COMPARED W ITH EARNINGS.

The following tables show that, while according to reports of
employers and employees, a little more than half of the women were
receiving rates of pay of less than $7 a week, 48 per cent of the sales­
women, according to the individual reports, were earning less than
this amount. This difference is not great, but it shows the influence
of commissions, because the commissions are very frequently intro­
duced at these rates.
The per cent getting rates of pay of $10 and over, according to
both employers7 and employees’ reports, is practically the same as
the proportion earning $10 and over a week.
The average flat weekly rate of pay for all saleswomen in the six
cities in which individual schedules were secured, was $7.56 accord­
ing to employers and $7.38 according to reports of employees.
The actual earnings, including all increments from commissions,
etc., as reported by individual saleswomen, was $8.14 a week. The
1 These figures should not be confused with those showing the influence cf the commission system upon
the total number of saleswomen. The saleswomen under consideration here are the 1,100 in the 20 com­
mission stories.




40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tables below show that the commissions, according to employers'
reports, would raise the rate of pay for all saleswomen in the six
cities, if there were no compensating losses, to $8.05, or within 9
cents of the amount reported by employees. The P. M/s (premiums
for selling certain grades of stock) would affect the discrepancy a
little, as Table 28 shows. It should be said, however, that while
it was in a large number of cases impossible to separate the amounts
paid in commissions and the amounts paid in P. M/s, the P. M /s are
arbitrary and uncertain payments and not to be counted as a source
of measureable income throughout the year. Furthermore, in the
reports from individuals in the cases where P. M /s and commissions
could be separated, the P. M /s were inconsiderable. Just what
effect these sporadic earnings would have on the rates of pay for all
saleswomen, however, is shown in Table 28, which summarizes such
information as the employers could furnish on the subject.
2 5 .—CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y RATES OF P A Y OF SALESW OM EN EM PLO YED IN
140 D EPAR TM ENT AND OTH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS SHOW N B Y E S T A B ­
LISHM ENT PAY ROLLS FOR A R E PR ESEN TA TIVE W E E K .

table

[The rates here given do not include commi t.ions on sales whica were receive! by nearly a fifth of the
saleswomen.]

Estab­
lish­
ments Un­
repre­
sented. der
$4.

Cities.

Indianapolis:
28
Number................
Per cent................ 100.0
Terre Haute:
13
Number................
Per cent................ 100.0
Evansville:
22
N umber................
Per cent................ 100.0
Fort Wayne:
14
N umber...............
Per cent................ 100.0
South Bend:
15
Number................
Per cent................ 100.0
La Fayette:
8
Number................
Per cent................ 100.0

Women receiving weekly rate of-

Aver­
age
Total
weekly
sales­
$4
$6
$5
$7
$8
$9
$12
$10
women. rate
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
and
of
$4.99. 15.99. $6.99. $7.99. &S.99. •10.99. $11.99. over.
pay.

13
0.9

251
17.7

155
10.9

281
19.7

151
10.6

177
12.5

73
5.1

114
8.0

208
14.6

1,423
$7.66
100.0 ............. i

29
7.1

56
13.7

45
11.0

68
16.6

52
12.7

41
10.0

19
4.7

47
11.5

52
12.7

409
100.0

7.51

G
7
18.9

81
22.8

40
11.3

40
11.3

25
7.0

26
7.3

7
2.0

31
8.7

30
8.5

1 355
100.0

6.32

23
6.7

61
17.7

66
19.1

42
12.2

44
12.8

26
7.5

44
12.7

39
11.3

345
100.0

7.74

20
7.4

27
10.0

45
16.7

33
12.3

29
10.7

27
10.0

26
9.6

63
23.3

270
100.0

8.85

11
4.7

28
12.1

53
22.8

42
18.1

24
10.4

16
6.9

7
3.0

24
10.4

27
11.6

232
100.0

7.19

100
71.4

120
4.0

459
15.1

381
12.6

542
17.9

327
10.8

333
11.0

159
5.2

286
9.4

419
13.8

3,034
100.0

7.56

13
100.0

20
12.3

30
18.5

27
16.7

26
16.0

9
5.6

10
6.2

7
4.3

18
11.1

15
9.3

162
100.0

6.82

4
100.0

4
2.8

8
5.4

34
23.1

45
30.6

23
15.6

12
8.2

2
1.4

10
6.8

9
6.1

147
100.0

6.75

14
100.0

13
8.4

36
23.4

15
9.7

17
11.0

15
9.8

15
9.8

8
5.2

23
14.9

12
7.8

154
100.0

6.C8

9
100.0

15
16.4

24
26.1

10
10.8

9
9.8

6
6.5

9
9.8

3
3.3

11
11.9

5
5.4

92
100.0

6.20

Grand total:
140
Number___
Per cent___ 100.0

172
4.8

557
15.5

467
13.0

639
17.8

380
10.6

379
10.6

179
5.0

348
9.7

460 i 3,589
12.8
100.0

7.44

Total, 6 cities:
Kumber___
Per cent___
Muncie:
Number................
Per cent...............
Hammond:
Number................
Per cent................
Richmond:
Number................
Per cent................
New Albany:
Number................
Per cent................

1 One establishment employing 8 women did not report individual earnings.




41

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

23.— W E E K L Y RATES OF P A Y FOR SALESW OM EN IN 135 ESTABLISH M EN TS
AS AFFEC TED B Y TH E COMMISSION SYSTEM , ACCORDING TO E M P LO YE R S’ R E ­
PORTS.

T ap. l e

i
All establishments.

Cities.

Establishments paying commissions and
reporting amounts paid.

Number Average Average
Number Average Average
weekly
weekly
weekly
weekly
of
of
rate of
rate of
rate of
rate of
sales­
sales­
pay
Number. women
Number. women
pay
pay
without
with
without
with
repre­
repre­
com­
com­
com­
com­
sented. missions. missions.
sented. missions.
missions.

Indianapolis................
Terre Haute................
Evansville...................
Fort Wayne................
South Bend.................
La Fayette..................

26
13
22
13
13
8

1,366
409
355
336
239
232

$7.66
7.51
6.32
7.69
9.05
7.19

$8.53
7.62
6.37
7.70
9.74
7.26

5
3
2
1
6
2

557
118
83
6
180
98

$7.63
6.92
5.90
8.67
9.86
7.04

$9.77
7.30
6.13
9,33
10.76
7.21

Total, 6 cities..
Muncie.........................
Richmond...................
New Albanv...............
Hammond...................

95
13
14
9
4

2,937
162
154
92
147

7.56
6.82
6.98
6.20
6.75

8.05
6.82
6.98
6.20
7.50

19

1,042

7.75

9.13

1

74

7.16

8.66

Grand total___

i 135

3,492

7.43

7.86

i 20

2 1,116

7.62

9.10

1 Not including 5 establishments which employed 97 saleswomen and paid 52 of them on commission plan,
but which did not report amount paid in commissions. Two of these establishments were in Indianapolis,
2 in South Bend, and 1 in Fort Wayne.
2 Of these only 665 received commissions.
NUM BER AND PER CENT OF SALESW O M EN IN D EP A R T M E N T AND OTHER
R E T A IL STORES OF 6 CITIES W H O R EPO R TED EACH CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y R A T E
OF P A Y , NUM BER AND PER CENT RECEIVING COMMISSIONS, AND A V E R A G E
W E E K L Y R A T E OF P A Y AND EARNINGS.

T a ble 2 7 .—

Number and per cent of women receiving

Cities.

Indianapolis:
Number...............
Per cent...............
Terre Haute:
Number...............
Per cent...............
Evansville:
Number...............
Per cent...............
Fort Wayne:
Number...............
Per cent...............
South Bend:
Number...............
Per cent...............
La Fayette:
Number...............
Per cent...............
Total:
Number.. .
Percent...




Un­
der
$4.

Aver­
Re­
age
Total week- ceiv­
ing
re­
1y
$12
$4 to $o to $6 to $7 to $8 to $9 to $10 to and port­ rate com­
mis­
ing.
of
$4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99 over.
pay. sions.

4
2.4

34
20.1

13
7.7

30
17.8

18
10.7

14
8.3

8
4.7

19
11.2

9
11.5

8
10.3

14
17.9

8
10.3

9
11.5

8
10.3

7
9.0

5
6.4

10 2 78
12.8 100.0

17
18.7

15
16.5

14
15.4

16
17.6

9
9.9

5
5.5

3
3.3

6
6.6

7
14,6

4
8.3

8
16.7

7
14.6

7
14.6

1
2.1

6
17.6

3
8.8

20.6

5
14.7

4
11.8

1
5.6

7
38.9

1
5.6

49
11.2

76
17.4

49
11.2

3
16.7
33
7.5

70
16.0

29 1 169 $7.99
17.2 100.0

Aver­
age
week
ly
earn­
ings.

66
39.1

$8.95

7.23

5
6.4

7.30

6
3 91
6.6 100.0

6.25

3
3.3

6.29

6
12.5

8
^48
16.7 100.0

7.98

4
8.3

8.10

1
2.9

3
8.8

5
5 34
14.7 100.0

7.48

17
50.0

8.47

1
5.6

2
11.1

3
16.7

6 18
100.0

6.79

39
8.9

22
5.0

42
9.6

58 7 438
13.2 100.0

7.38

1 Not including 39 who did not report rate of pay.
2 Not including 1 who did not report rate of pay.
3 Not including 3 who did not report rate of pay.
* Not including 4 who did not report rate of pay.
* Not including 6 who did not report rate of pay.
6 Not including 4 who did not report rate of pay.
7 Not including 57 who did not report rate of pay.
8 Based on total number of saleswomen reporting, namely, 495.

6.71

95
819.2

8.14

42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Table 27 shows the influence of supplemental commission earnings
upon the average rates of pay of all saleswomen. As less than onefifth of the saleswomen received commissions, the average rates of pay
represent the maximum that four out of five saleswomen could earn.
Although it was not possible to separate amounts paid in commissions
from that paid in P. M.\s when both were reported by individuals,
whenever P. M.’s alone were reported— and there were less than a
dozen of such cases— the amounts were negligible. Of the 95 sales­
women who received commissions, 84 reported both rates of pay and
average weekly earnings. For these 84 the average rate of pay was
$7.64; the average earnings $9.76, or an increase of $2.12.
This is remarkably in accord with the showing on Table 26, which
summarizes the reports from employers on the same subject.
Although there were 1,116 saleswomen in the 20 stores adopting the
commission system, affecting the average rates of pay by $1.48 a
week, as is there shown, if the amount paid in commissions each week
during the year was distributed only among the 665 women whom the
pay rolls for a representative week showed to be actually receiving
commissions, the amount per saleswoman would have been $2.48 a
week, or 36 cents more than the individual reports show. The dis­
crepancy would be increased somewhat by the P. M.’s, but, as here­
tofore explained, the results would not be materially changed.
T able

2 8 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS PAYIN G P. M.’S AND TIIE
A VER AG E W E E K L Y AM OUNT PAID IN P. MAS PER SALESW OM AN.
[“ P. M.’s ’’ are premiums 011 sales of old stock or of high-priced stock.]
! Establishments reporting P. M.’s . : Establishments!

!
!

Cities.

Total
estab­ Total |
sales- |
lish­
ments. women, j Num­
ber.
j

Indianapolis..............................
Terre Haute..............................
Evansville.................................
Fort Wavne............................. 1
South Bend.............................. 1
La Fayette............................... i

reporting
i
- ; amount paid in i .\ver-

""

Per
cent o f ;
Numtotal.
; ber.

i, rate from eom- ; weekly
; missionL ) (Uli- 1
S
amount
ing 1913.
j paid in
i I*. M .’s
per
Per
Sales­ : salescent of
Num­ women : woman.
total.
ber.
repre­
sented.

28
1,423 !
409 !
13 !
22
3.35 j,
14
345 !
270
!•
')
232 :
8

16
5
5
6
3
4

57.1 ! 1,064
244
38. 5
22. 7 i
126
42.9
as
61 1
200
50.0 :
j

3,034
162
147 i
lot
92 j

39,
2
2

39.0
15.4
50.0

3,580 j

5-1
* 4

Total, 6 cities................. | 1 100
13
Muncie....................................... 1
Hammond................................ 1
4
Richmond................................. i
11
New Albany............................
!
j
140

9

1

74.8
59.7
35.5
•
19.7 !
22.6 i
60.8
!
1,704 i 56.2 1
67 S 41.4 i
11$ j 80.3 ;

14
1

5
5
3
°

245 !
214
57 ;
7

4

141 !

127

10
1
1

694 f
21
44 i

.31
.04
. ID

52 |

56.5 !

1

52 i

.02

1,941 |

11.1 i
31.4

54.1 1

3 22

811 :

0“
7

i
1 Total for 6 cities in which individual schedules were taken.
2 Fourteen of these establishments pay commissions also and are included l.i 7.ml? 20.
3 Five of these establishments pay commissions also and are included in Table -«».




$0.48
.17
.23
.57

43

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

Table 2 9 .—CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF 405 SALESW OM EN EM PLO YED IN
D EP A R T M E N T AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

Saleswomen whose weekly earnings were—
i
$6 to $7 to $8 to
$6.99. $7.99. $8.99.

mm
p«
' o"
3

U to
$4.99.

O©
0
5

Un­
der
$4.

!

:

Cities.

Aver­
Total
age
sales­ weekly
$12
$10 to and women. earn­
ings.
$11.99. over. i

!

Indianapolis:
Number..............................
5
Per cent.............................. 2.5
Terre Haute:
Number..............................
9
Per cent..............................• 11.4
Evansville:
Number..............................
20
Per cent.............................. 21.7
Fort Wayne:
1
Number___ : ......................
Per cent..............................
1.9
South Bend:
Number.. ___ _________
Per rent_____ ___________:•
_____
La Fayette:
i
Number..............................'
3
Per cent........ ...................‘ 13.6
Total:
!
Number...................• 38
'
Per cent...................i 7.9
i

32
16.2

14
7.1

25
12.7

24
12.2

16
8.1

16
8.1

24
12.2

41
20.8

197
100.0

$8.95

13
16.4

9
11.4

8
10.1

10
12.7

8
10.1

10
12.7

3
3.8

9
11.4

79
100.0

7.30

17
18.5

12
13.0

16
17.4

7
7.6

6
6.5

2
2.2

4
4.3

6.29

6
11.5

7
13.5

7
13.5

6
11.5

13.5

1
1.9

13.5

8 i
92
8.7 i 100.0
i
52
10
19.2
100.0

7
17.5

6
15.0

3
7.5

7
17.5

4
10.0

2
5.0

3
7.5

3
13.6

8
36.4

3
13.6

2
9.1

3
13.7

51
10.6

67
13.9

57
11.8

33
6.8

44
9.1

75
15.6

41
8.5

8.10

76
15.7

-10
100.0

8.47

22
100.0

20.0

6.71

482
100.0

8.14

EARNINGS BY DEPARTMENTS AND OCCUPATION GROUPS.
Saleswomen.

That different departments have at present different requirements
as to experience and ability and that they pay very different wages
is recognized by both employers and employees. In the departments
where the margin of profit and the gross sales are small and the ex­
perience required more or less limited, the wages are correspondingly
low. Where the sales run high and the margin of profit is larger,
and the requirements as to skill more exacting, the department
pays higher wages and “ can afford ” to do so and still keep its selling
cost low. But the wear and tear on the saleswomen is often as much
in the low-paid as in the high-paid departments, and the cost of
living probably does not vary to any extent except, perhaps, in the
suit department, where the saleswoman must usually dress better
than the girl behind the counter. The following table, comfnled
from information given by individuals as to their weekly earnings
and average gross sales, shows the relative earnings of individual
women in the various departments. It shows the highest paid
department paying more than twice the wages of the lowest paid
departments. These high-paying departments are, to be sure, getting
the older women with the most experience, while the departments
that pay low wages take the younger women who have had less
experience.
The obvious conclusion that operating expenses would be reduced
by employing more experienced women in all departments is not in



44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOK STATISTICS.

accord with the facts, however. There are departments wherein
the effect of skill and experience is limited by the nature of the goods.
Experience or skill in persuasion are not large factors in swelling the
daily sales in such things as thread, needles, buttons, or hooks and
eyes, and experience and skill in salesmanship would therefore be a
“ waste of power” in these departments. This situation brings into
sharp relief a vital question, viz, where efficiency is not a considerable
factor, what should determine the wage level ?
T a b l e 3 0 . — AVER AG E

EARNING S, AGE, AND E X P E R IE N C E OF 483 SA L ESW O M EN , B Y
SPECIFIED DEPAR TM EN TS.

Number Average Average
of
weekly
years
women. earnings. of age.

Departments.

Average
years of
experi­
ence.

Coats, suits, and skirts..........................................................................
69
$12.84
32.8
7.7
Gloves.......................................................................................................
13
11.18
30.7
9.9
Millinery..................................................................................................
1 15
2 11.00
30.0
6.4
Silks..........................................................................................................
9
10. 81
32. 2
9. 8
Corsets......................................................................................................
ill
3 9. 72
30.2
12.8
Lace, embroideries, and trimmings...................................................
30
9. 31
28.6
7.3
5
Books and stationery............................................................................
10.16
26.8
4.5
11
Toilet and hair goods............................................................................
23.4
3.2
9.00
6
Dress goods.............................................................................................
31. 2
8.90
8.2
Muslin underwear..................................................................................
14
8. 54
27.2
6.2
15
8. 33
22.4
Leather goods..........................................................................................
7.0
Waists and wash dresses. ................................................................
21
4 7.73
25. 5
4.2
14
Jewelry.....................................................................................................
7.56
22.9
4.8
Neckwear and veilings.........................................................................
15
7.52
27. 5
6.4
10
Art goods.................................................................................................
7.40
28.9
4.4
5.4
Domestic and wash goods....................................................................
15
7.39
25. 7
21
Hosiery and knit underweeir...............................................................
4 7. 26
29. 7
8.3
Bargain tables and special sales.........................................................
12
5 7.15
25.1
3.0
5
Candy.......................................................................................................
7.10
26. 0
5.1
8
6 6.83
24.3
Grocery
..................................................................................
7 5.1
5
6. 48
30.4
Men’s furnishings and umbrellas.......................................................
3.7
23
6. 27
25.0
General saleswomen..............................................................................4.4
6
5. 67
22.2
3.7
Ribbons . .
............. ........................................................................
i 27
5. 66
23.0
5.0
4.68
99
8 19.9
2.1
5 and 10 cent stores................................................................................
11
3 5. 53
22.8
Z. 8
Not reported...........................................................................................
1 Includes 1 who also buys.
2 Reported for 14 only.
3 Reported for 10 only.

4 Reported for 20 only.
6 Reported for 11 only.
6 Reported for 6 only.

i Reported for 7 only.
8 Reported for 98 only.

Workrooms.

As the commission and premium systems affect the saleswomen
only, and as the prevailing and average rate of pay for the stores in
the 10 cities do not differ materially from those in the 6 from which
individual schedules were secured, the general rates of pay of women
in all other occupations as reported by employers may be compared
directly with the actual full-time earnings reported by individuals.
The women in the alteration or millinery workrooms, according to the
employers’ reports, were 17 per cent of the total number of women
employed in the 140 establishments. Of the women personally inter­
viewed, only 64, or 9 per cent, were in this group, but the average
rates as reported by employers and earnings reported by individuals
were very close, the former being $9.72 (Table 28) and the latter
$9.79 (Table 29). According to both reports the largest group is that
receiving $12 and over, a marked contrast to the other occupations.



45

W AGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

The women here are also decidedly older than in any other occupa­
tion, the average being 31^ years.
T a b l e 3 1 . — CLASSIFIED

W E E K L Y R ATES OF P A Y OF W O M EN EM P LO Y E D IN A L T E R A ­
TION AN D M IL L IN E R Y W ORKROOM S OF D EPAR TM EN T AN D O TH E R R E T A IL
STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS SHO W N B Y P A Y ROLLS FOR A R E P R E SE N T A T IV E W E E K .

Cities.

Indianapolis:
Number...........
Per cent...........
Terre Haute:
Number...........
Per cent...........
Evansville:
Number...........
Per cent...___
Fort Wayne:
Number...........
Per cent...........
South Bend:
Number...........
Per cent...........
Muncie:
Number...........
Per cent...........
Hammond:
Number...........
Per cent...........
La Fayette:
Number...........
Per cent...........
Richmond:
Number...........
Per cent...........
New Albany:
Number...........
Per cent...........
Total:
Number.
Per cent.

Table

Estab­
lish­
ments
having
work­
rooms.

Women receiving weekly rates o fUn- $4 to $5 to $6 to $7 to ! $8 to
$9 to $10 to
der
$4. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. ,$8.99. $9.99. $11.99.

10

19
67.9

2

4
5.6

87
16.0

130
23.9

545
100.0

$9.99

12
13.2

21

4
4.4

15
16.5

16
17.6

19
20.8

91

23.1

9.64

100.0

21.1

4
5.6

12.7

14
19.7

100.0

12
17.1

• 70
100.0

9
13.0

21
30.4

100.0

7
13.5

10

52

19.2

100.0

15

102

i-“ I

lo. o

3
4.3

17 i 13
24.3 18.6

1.5

3
4.3

7.3

11.6

3
5.8

.7
13.5

6
11.5

15.4

1

11

1

1.9

11.4

12

10

8

17.4

14.5

2

3
30.0

2
50.0
7
87.5

15.0

1

73.3

10

18.7

1.4

10
71.4

76.9

13.8

5
7.1

1
.8

32
5.9

2

2

19
3.5

2.2

9
40.9

2

3
4.8

6
9.7

3.2

11

15
24.2

8.82

7
11.3

62
100.0

8.05

16

100.0

10.16

10

3.2

12.9

6
37.5

1
6.25

1
6.25

6.25

37.5

2

1

25.0

1
12.5

12.5

133
13.4

155
15.6

224
22.5

100.0

12.00

100.0

25 .0

1
12.5

47
4 .7

91
9.1

158
15.9

20

10.86

100.0

12.9

12.5
16

9.66

4
40.0

1

1

1 2
.6 .1

8.55

10.0

17.8

6.25

3
33.3
86

71

20.0

57.1

61.4

and
over.

Aver­
Total
age
women. rate of
pay.

2.2

1.4

7
53.8

$12

2

150
15.1

1

1

8.38

994

9.72

3 2 .—CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF W O M EN E M P LO Y E D IN A L T E R A T IO N
D E P A R T M E N T IN 6 CITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y E M PLO Y E ES.
Women whose weekly earnings were—
Cities.

Un­
der

Truliananolfo____________
TWrp. H a n _____________I
.
Evansvilb.......................... 1
2
1
T n Wavrift____
T rt.
South Bend........................ 1
..........
La 'Pn.vfttto'______________;_____
Total:
Number............
.
Per cent............ ! 3.1
i

s

$5
$6
$4
to
to
to
$4.99 $5.99 $6.99

1

2
1
3

1

2
3.1

3

Aver­
Total age
Not wom­ weekly
$7
$8 j $9
$12
$10
re­
en.
earn­
to
to
and
to
to
ings.
$7.99 $8.99 $9.99 $11.99 over. port­
ed.
2
2
2

5
2

2

6
9.4

5
7.8

2
1
6
9.4

7
10.9

3
4.7

4
1
3
1
2

7
8
1
2
2
1

11
17.2

21
32.8

1

22
12
16
3
9
2

$9.77
12.28
7.16
13.60
9.33
12.50

1
64
1.6 100.0

9.79

Cash girls, bundle Wrappers, etc.

As would be expected, the earnings of this group are the lowest.
From the report of the employers, 611, or 10.4 per cent, of the female
employees are in this group. The ages of these girls range from 14



46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to 17 years, the average being 15. Their average rate of pay is
$3.81, almost half of them receiving from $3 to $3.99.
Of the employees interviewed, 65, or 9.1 per cent, were in this
group of employees. The average weekly earnings reported by them
was $3.15 (see Table 30)—somewhat lower than the pay roll
average. It may be stated here that in a number of instances girls
in this group were interviewed who reported a lower wage than any
reported by the store in which they were working. For example,
in one store the lowest wage shown by the pay roll was $3, while a
number of bundle wrappers from that same store reported a weekly
rate of $2.40.
T a b l e 3 3 . — CLASSIFIED

W E E K L Y R ATES OF P A Y OF SPECIFIED FEMALE EM P LO YE ES
IN 140 D EPAR T M EN T AND O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS SH O W N B Y ES­
TABLISH M EN T P A Y ROLLS.
!
Cash girls, messengers, bundle wrappers. 1 Office em- j
packers, inspectors, and stock girls.
ployees.

Cities.

Buyers and other em­
ployees.

Weekly rate of pay
Total Aver­ jNum- Aver­ Num­
age
num­ age
Un­ j $3 1 $4
rate of | ber. rate of ber.
So ; so
der
to
to j and ber. pay.
pay.
to
S3. |S3.09 j $4.99 $5.99 ■over.,

Indianapolis........
Terre Haute......... !
Evansville............ j
Fort W ayne........
South Bend.........
Muncie..................
Hammond...........
Ty Fa.vfitt.fi. .. __
R

82
14
6
2
17
1
14
2

16 1
11
1
1 !
6 ;
!
I
•
1 !
1 i

i
26 1 328
i 102
24
7
i i
3
<5
3
41
ls
33
2
1
S

74 I 301 j 13s

3s |

60 ! 611 | 3. si i 543

0 : 198
43 ; 29
14
3
i
3
' 39
20 i
2
! 11

■R.ifihTTJond________ J_______ ________

New Albany........
Total...........

2 :

5 |

1 5

S3. So
3.33
3.31
4.14
, 3. m
* 4. 66
! 4. 44
! 4.25
j 5.00
j 3.67

! 285
; 52
I 29
i
38
44
25
12
i 22
21
12

1
i
$8.33 1
I
8.07
7. 45
9.34
10.90
8.24
7.67
9.05
8. 71
6.96
8. 53

Range of
rates of
pay.

28 $6.00-176.92
23 S6.00-S50.00
15 $4.00-S30.00
25 10.00-40. 00
9
7.00-26.00
8
4.00-25.00
5 15.00-30.00
4
6 .0 0 -1 3 .0 0
3
120

4.00-76.92

Aver­
age
rate of
pay-

$25. 87
19. 54
14.50
18. 47
17. O
S
15.00
21. C
O
10. 00
9] S3
19. 20

Office and other employees.

Nine per cent of the women reported by employers and 11 per cent
of the individuals interviewed were employed in the office force. The
average rate of pay, as shown by pay-roll data, was $8.53. (Table
30.) The individuals reported average earnings somewhat higher—
$9.23. (Table 31.) The average age of this group was 23 years.
In the small group shown in the table as “ Other employees ” (2 per
cent for the employers and 1.5 percent for the individuals) are gath­
ered all the miscellaneous employees not heretofore considered, such
as telephone operators, floor supervisors, store matrons, etc. In the
pay-roll reports buyers are included in this group, but among the
individuals no buyers were interviewed who were not also saleswomen
and who would not therefore be classed in that group. This will
account for the wide divergence in earnings, which, in view of this
small number involved and the difference in classifications, is of no
significance.



47

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

34:.—CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF SPECIFIED FEM ALES E M PLO YEES IN
D EPAR TM EN T AN D O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y EM­
PLOYEES.

T able

Cash girls, messengers, bundle wrappers, inspec­
tors, and stock girls.
Weekly earnings.

Cities.

Under $3 to
$3,99,
$3.

$4 to
$4.99.

11
4
3

35

1

1

3

19
29.2

40
61.6

Indianapolis...................
Terre Haute...................
Evansville..................
Fort Wayne...................
South Bend...................
La Fayette.....................
Total:
Number........
Percent........

$6 to
$6.99

51
4
6

$3.24
2.11
2.85

4

3.41

65
100.0

6
9.2

Other
employees.

Aver­
Aver­
AverTotal weekly Num­ age
age
weekly Num­ weekly
num­ earn­
ber.
ber.
ber.
earn­
earn­
ings.
ings.
ings.

5

2

$5 to
$5.99.

Office
employees.

3.15

43 l$8.95
6
8.72
13 27.78
3 12.18
9 11.95
2
7.94
76

3 9.23

7
3

$6.86
2 4.75

1

5.00

11

*6.25

1 Not including earnings of 5, not reported.
2 Not including earnings of 1, not reported,
s Not including earnings of 6, not reported.

EARNINGS RELATED TO AGE AND EXPERIENCE.

Just what bearing age and experience have on the earnings of the
women studied in Indiana is shown by the table following, in which
the average earnings are given for 10 different age groups, by years
of experience.
T

3 5 .—A V ER AG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS, B Y SPECIFIED AGES AND Y E A R S OF E X ­
PERIENCE, AS R EPO R TED B Y 684 W OM EN EM PLOYEES OF T H E D E PAR T M EN T
AND OTH ER R E T A IL STORES IN S IX CITIES.

able

Age groups.

Years of experience.

14 and
under 16.

16 and
under 18.

18 and
under 22.

22 and
under 25.

25 and
under 30.

30 and
under 35.

jAverAver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ 1 age Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age
ber. earn­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­
ber. iearn- ber. earn­
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
! ings.
Under 1 year..........................
2 years.....................................
3 years.....................................
4 years.....................................
5 years.....................................
6 years.....................................
7 years.....................................
8 years.....................................
9 years .................................
10 years ................................
11 years...................................
12 years
..........................
13 years...................................
14 years...................................
15 years ___ - .......................
16 years...................................
17 years...................................
18 years ..............................
19 years...................................
20 vears...................................
21 to 29 years..........................
30 years and over..................
Total.........................

1 4n !S3_ 12
1 29 $5.74
11 $5.28
45 $4.25
15 5.55
4 2.98 1 vear....................................... 9 7.94
29 4.42
22 5.20
1 5 8.66
14 4.09
3 3.27
28 6.77
12 7.39
2 6.17
25 6.63
7 7.47
1 5.00
15 7. 71
11 9.15
11 7.88
11 ii 6.58
!
7 1 6.43
6 7.86
1 !! 6.35
18 8.57
1
3 8.31
1
3 1 9.00
1 6.30

7
6
6
7
3
15
1 14
4
18
27
21
13
15
6
1

149

3.11

94

4.30

1 154

6.26

4 94

7.83

&113

9.59

1 Not including 1 earnings not reported.
2 Not including 1 buyer, salary $o0 per week.
3 Not including 2 earnings not reported.
4 Not including 3 earnings not reported.
&Not including 4 earnings not reported, 2 experience not reported, and 1 buyer.
• Not including 5 earnings not reported and 1 experience not reported.




6
5
5
3
12
7
16
3
5
1
37
2
2
1
3
17
1
2

$7.25
6.55
7.57
7.45
7.50
9.55
10.61
15.20
9.17
15.00
10.17
9. 74
15.00
11.88
12.50
10.55
14.00
11.93

2

$6.19
6,12
9.51
7.85
7.32
7.84
10.17
9.13
13.25
7.84
11.25
11.28
12.43
11. 43
11.00

11.37

6 70

9.90

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3 5 .—A V E R A G E W E E K L Y EAR N IN GS, B Y SPECIFIED AGES A N D Y E A R S OF E X ­
PERIEN CE, AS R E P O R TE D B Y 684 W O M EN EM P LO Y E E S OF TH E D EP A R T M E N T
AND O TH ER R E T A IL STORES IN S IX CITIES—Concluded.

T able

Age groups.
35 and
under 40.

40 and
under 50.

50 and
under 60.

60 and
over.

Total.

Years of experience.
Num­
ber.

Under 1 year..........................
1 year.......................................
2 years.....................................
3 years.....................................
4 years..................................... '
5 years.....................................
6 years.....................................
7 years.....................................
8 years.....................................
9 years.....................................
10 years...................................
11 years...................................
12 years...................................
13 years...................................
14 years.................................
15 years...................................
16 years...................................
17 years...................................
18 years...................................
19 years...................................
20 years...................................
21 to 29 years..........................
30 vears and over..................
Total............................

Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

6 ! $11.39
1 i
7.92
3
8.89
1
14.00
24
12.91
3
9.22
4
10.03
4
12.89
3
12.00
5
9.22
1
16.00
3
13.14
5
11.34
2
11.53
2
7.96
2
11.55
1
15.00
1
1
2 52

Num­
ber.

Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

6
2
2
1
2
5

$8.22
7.50
9.28
7.50
13.70
19.12

1
4

15.00
7.98

Num­
ber.

Aver­
age Num­
earn­
ber.
ings.

Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

$7.40

2
1

1 .0
10

1 155
71
2 58
55
3 45
57
3 46
26
2 39
4 18
5 35
2 11
2 15
2 11
68
2 11
3
2
4

$4.90
5.44
6.23
7.03
7.70
9.28
8.81
10.03
9.75
9.05
11.25
11.00
13.33
11.54
10.68
10.57
13.67
11.93
13.56

63

1

1

4
2
3
22
2
2
1

11. 75
11.00
17.06
11.75
10.50
9.63
12.00

16.00

3

7.00

10.00
11.03
10.00

21

7 49

11.62

26

$20.00

9.50
8.21

2

17.00

4

10.91
10.23
13.05

10.23

3

18.00

8 684

7.74

12.74

1
25
1

11.20

Num­
ber.

1

14.29

37

1 Not including 2 earnings not reported and 1 age not reported.
2 Not including 1 earnings not reported.
3 Not including 2 earnings not reported.
4 Not including 1 buyer and 1 age not reported.
5 Not including 4 earnings not reported.
6 Not including 1 age not reported.
7 Not including 2 earnings not reported and 1 experience not reported.
8 Not including 18 earnings not reported, 4 age not reported, 4 experience not reported, and 1 buyer
whose salary was $50 per week.

The influence of age is immediately apparent. The average earn­
ings of the girls 14 to 16 years were only $3.11, but with every suc­
ceeding age group the earnings steadily increased up to the group
40 to 49 years of age, whose earnings averaged $11.62. Here they
dropped, the average earnings of the group 50 and under 60 being
$10.23. As only 9 women are reported in this and in the remaining
age group and as most of them were women of exceptional ability,
in responsible positions, the averages can be of no real significance.
The showing indicates, however, that between 40 and 49 years of
age, if not before,1the majority of women in the department or retail
stores have reached the height of their earning power. It is true
that the majority of women do not stay in the stores until they reach
that age, and also that there are exceptional women over 45 years
i Although not brought out by this table, a study of the schedules of the women in the group 40 and
under 50 years of age show’s that the average earnings of those 40 and under 45 were $12.31, while the
earnings of these 45 and under 50 dropped to $9.74.




WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

49

who continue to maintain their earnings or even increase them up to
55 or 60 years of age.
Looking at the younger age groups, it will be seen that not until
the group 22 and under 25 years of age is reached do the earnings
reach the average which is given for all women considered, and not
until the age group 25 and under 30 is reached do the average earn­
ings reach $9.
When the earnings are considered in relation to experience, a gen­
eral increase is shown with increasing years of experience, but with
some irregularities. These irregularities are probably due in part to
the small numbers. The fact that the increase of earnings with years
of experience appears less regular in this table than the increase of
earnings according to age groups may be due largely, or even entirely,
to the fact that the earnings according to experience are presented by
single years, while earnings according to age are presented by age
groups of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 years, which would, of course, tend to
smooth out irregularities.
The relation between the earnings and years of experience by age
groups is not evident. The numbers that go to make up the table are
too small, however, to be used as evidence that no direct relation exists
between the earnings and the experience in any given age group. The
total does show more significant figures, as here the earnings increase
for each year of experience up to five years. It may be said of all age
groups, including the total, that the second five years of experience
show uniformly higher earnings than the first, and the third five years
higher earnings than the second.
DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

The average number of weeks worked in department and other
retail stores reported by store employees was 39|. The different
cities did not vary much from this average, the entire range being
only from 37J weeks to 43J weeks. Wherever vacation with pay was
reported, the number of weeks for which pay was received have
been included in the number of weeks worked. Of the 711 women
reported, 22 per cent were women who had had less than one year’s
experience in stores. This is 4 per cent higher than the per cent of
women of less than a year’s experience in the garment factories.
These women reporting less than a year’s experience in the stores
were not exclusively the younger ones, the ages ranging from 14 to
49 years, and nearly 25 per cent being women over 21 years of age.
Of the women reporting one or more years of experience, approxi­
mately 78 per cent worked 44 or more weeks. It seems that the
stores had a larger proportion of inexperienced workers than the
garment factories, but offered more steady employment to those
who remained in the employment.
66172°— Bull. 160— 14------ 4




50

BULLETIN" OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

The following table shows the number of women of more than one
year’s experience working specified number of weeks:
3 6 .-W E E K S OF EM PLO YM ENT DURING THE Y E A R , AS REPO R TED B Y 551
W OM EN H AVIN G ONE OR MORE Y E A R S OF E X P E R IE N C E IN D EPAR TM EN T AND
OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

T able

Cities.

Number reporting specified weeks of employment during the year.
With
Num­ 1 or
ber
32
36
more
26
40
44
48
re­
Weeks
and
and
and
and
and
and
port­ years’ Under
26
under under under under under under 50 to 52 not
ex­
ing.
weeks.
re­
peri­ weeks.
32
36
40
44
48
50
ported.
weeks. weeks. weeks. weeks. weeks. weeks.
ence.
331
104
129
58
03
26

236
82
111
46
56
23

24
3
9
4
3
2

4
3
3
4

5
1
1
1

1

Total:
Number.
711
Per cent. 100.0

554
77.9

45
8.1

15
2.7

Indianapolis...
Terre H aute...
Evansville.......
Fort W ayne...
South Bend__
La Fayette—

22
3
5
1
3

1

8
3
1
1
1
2

16
10
12
1
13
1

90
33
47
22
23
6

66
26
32
12
11
10

9
1.6

16
2.9

34
6.1

53
9.6

221
39.9

157
28.4

1
1
2

4
0.7

Of the 711 women reporting in the stores, a considerable number
had begun to work for the first time during the year covered by this
investigation. In figuring the number of possible weeks of work, as
shown on the table below, all the weeks in the year prior to any
individual’s first employment have been omitted, and such indi­
viduals, if they had no other unemployment, have not been considered
unemployed. This leaves for the 711 women a total of 33,929£
weeks to be accounted for by employment in stores, by other em­
r
ployment, or by unemployment. Eighty-two and nine-tenths per
cent of this time w spent in employment in stores, 3.2 per cent in
ras
other employment, and 13.9 per cent in actual unemployment.
T a b l e 3 7 . — NUM BER

OF W E E K S OF EM PLOYM ENT IN STORES, IN O THER IN D U STR IE S,
AN D NUM BER OF W E E K S OF U NEM PLOYM ENT FOR THE Y E A R 1913, R EPO R TED B Y
711 W OM EN EM PLO YED IN DEPARTM EN T AND OTHER R ETAIL STORES IN 6 CITIES.

Cities.

Num­
ber of
Women
possible
report­
weeks
ing.
of
work.1

Weeks
worked in
department
and other
retail stores.

Work in other employ­
ment.

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Unemployment.

W omen
reporting.

Per
Number. c e p .;
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num-I Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. |cent.

Indianapolis........
Terre Haute.........
Evansville...........
Fort Wavne.........
South Bend..........
La Fayette...........

331 15,319^ 12,400^
104 4,977f 4,247|
129 6,346$ 5,430?.
58 2,825" 2 ,252A
63 3 ,10SA 2,727^
26 1,352' 1,067^

80.9
85.3
85.6
79.7
87.7
78.9

Total

711 33,929* 28,125|

82.9 j
i

i
1
!
!
!

51
9
9
8
4
1

15.4
8.7
7.0
13.8
6.3
3.8

82

11.5 1,080

561A
141.V
139”
129
82
27

Weeks.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

3.7
2.9
2.2
4.6
2.7
2.0

206
70
97
47
50
23

62.2 2 ,357|
588|67.3
75.2
777
443A
81.0
79.4
299^
257|
88.5

15.4
11. K
12.2
15.7
9.6
19.1

3.2

493

69.3 4.723ft

13.9

1 As a number of women did not begin working until after the first of the year, the possible weeks of work
are less than 52 times the number reporting.




51

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.
OTHER EMPLOYMENT.

“ Other employment” was reported by 82, or 11.5 per cent, of the
women in stores and was of a varied character. The principal occu­
pations taken up were office work, millinery, telephone operating,
housework, and storekeeping for themselves. It will be seen, how­
ever, that the general tendency of the women was to keep to an
occupation or industry of the same general character as the one in
which they had previously been. Only about one-third of the 82
store workers who reported other employment during the period cov­
ered by the investigation reported “ factory work” as such other
employment. The average duration of other employment was 13.2
weeks. This was less by nearly 3 weeks than the average amount
reported among the garment-factory workers, but is, nevertheless,
an amount which represents more than casual work. The women
who reported other employment were not the women who were most
successful in store work, as is shown by the fact that their average
earnings in the stores were but $5.15—$2.59 lower than the average
earnings of all women in the stores. Their earnings in other employ­
ment were higher than in the stores, being $5.64, but even these earn­
ings are still below the average for either store or factory workers.
The women who report other employment average 20.5 years of
age—nearly four years younger than the average. This might account
for their lower earnings, but the probability still seems to be that
the women seeking other employment are women who are not the
most efficient in their work.
T

3 8 .—NUM BER OF W O M EN IN D IV ID U A L L Y SCHEDULED IN D E PAR TM EN T AND
OTHER R E T A IL STORES R EPO R TING “ OTHER E M P L O Y M E N T /’ A V E R A G E D URATION OF SUCH EM PLOYM ENT, AN D AVER AG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS T H E R E IN .

able

Women reporting other employment.

Cities.
Number.

Indianapolis................................
Terre Haute................................
Evansville...................................
Fort W ayn e...............................
South Bend.................................
La Fayette...................................

151
9
»9
8
4
1

Total..................................

82

Total
weeks
worked
in other
employ­
ment.
561*
141J
139
129
82
27
1,080

Average
number
of weeks
per
person.

Average
weekly
earnings
in other
employ­
ment.

Average
weekly
earnings
in stores.

Average
age (years).

11.0
15.7
15.4
16.1
20.5
27.0

2 $5.46
5.87
4.05
4 8.19
7.15
2.26

$4.91
6.50
4.18
6.61
4.95
3.58

18.7
22.4
24.9
26.6
17.3
16.0

13.2

5 5.04

5.15

20.5

1 Not including 1 woman earning $11€ during 12 weeks of evening work while regularly employed in the
daytime, 1 woman earning $40 by irregular home dressmaking while laid off, and 1 earning $10 by home
millinery while laid off.
2 Not including 3 women not reporting earnings, 1 girl earning nothing as an apprentice, and 1 woman
reporting earnings for other employment but not for regular employment.
3 Not including 1 woman earning $18.50 doing home dressmaking while laid off.
4 Not including 1 woman who was hired by the month but left after 1 week’s work and received no pay.
6See notes to details.




52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
UNEMPLOYMENT.

Unemployment was reported by 69.3 per cent of the women, and
represented 13.9 per cent of the weeks of possible work, or a total of
4;723t5 weeks. As far as has been possible with the information
-2
available, these weeks have been grouped according to the various
causes given for unemployment. This investigation, not having
in its original plan any intensive study of the causes of unemploy­
ment, did not secure information on that subject with enough detail
to make final conclusions warrantable from the material here pre­
sented, but the tendencies at least are plainly indicated.
3 9 .—AM O UNT, CAUSES, AN D DISTRIBUTION OF U N EM PLO YM EN T R EP O R TED
B Y 93 W OM EN FOR TH E Y E A R 1913 IN D EPAR TM EN T AND OTHER R E T A IL STORES
IN C CITIES.

T able

Unemployment directly connected with the industry.
U nemployment.
Lay off.
Cities.

Women
reporting.

Women
report­ Weeks.
ing.

Indianapolis
Terre Haute
Evansville..
. Fort Wayne
South Bend.
La Fayette..
Total.

206

27
0

Num­
ber.

?493

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Weeks.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

5.3
1.4
3.1
4.3

2,357J
2
777

58
8^
443
4|
299rk
5|
^ 3 527
2
97
•47
i
50

Other reasons.

107£

11
3
1

0.5
1.4

1
8
32
0

16

4.6
1.3
5.4
7.3
5.3

8.7
206

4.4

65
8
8
6

6.0
2
0

4,723A

4.1

8
3£
2
42

.8

Per
cent.
0.3
3.4

22.5

1.8

Unemployment due to personal reasons.
Voluntary vacation.
Cities.

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Illness.
Women
reporting.

Other personal reasons.

Weeks.

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Indianapolis...........................
Terre Haute...........................
Evansville..............................
Fort Wayne...........................
South Bend............................
La Fayette.............................

135
57
75
29
38
16

65.5
81.4
77.3
61.7
76.0
69.6

318^
106$
164
51
85^
hlh

13.5
18.1
21.1
11.5
28.6
22.3

64
14
28
17
17
4

31.1 368§
20.0 118$
28.9 94J
36.2 165
34.0 m
17.4 52

15.6
20.1
12.2
37.2
16.3
20.2

115
39
39
21
26
13

55.8 1,554§
312J
55.7
40.2
476J
44.7
188
52.0
149$
56.5
88$

66.0
53.1
61.3
42.4
49.8
34.2

Total.............................

350

71.0

782f

16. a

144

29.2 847x2

17.9

253

51.3 2,769

58.6

1 Voluntary vacation to avoid being laid oil.
2 Including 1 woman reporting 23Vweeks of unemployment but not reporting cause.
3 Blacklisted.
1 Including 1 woman reporting 7 weeks of unemployment but not reporting cause.
&Including 1 woman reporting 2 weeks of unemployment but not reporting cause.
* Strike.
i Including 3 women reporting 32Vweeks of unempl oyment but not reporting cause.




WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

53

The first group of causes of unemployment are those directly
connected with the industry. Of these causes, lay offs are the most
important. .Two hundred and six weeks, or 4.4 per cent, of the unem­
ployment was due to this cause. This per cent is much less than in
the garment factories, where the per cent of unemployment due to
lay offs was 16.6. Most of the lay off in stores was among the work­
room women, for whom the dull season frequently meant periods of
idleness. There was a small group of miscellaneous causes connected
with the industry, representing 1.8 per cent of the unemployment and
0.8 per cent of the women reporting unemployment. These causes
embraced strikes, vacation taken in order to avoid the stigma of being
laid off, and the “ blacklisting” of a girl so that she was unable to get
work.
The largest part of the unemployment reported by the store
employees was due to personal reasons and to illness of the individual.
The personal reasons have been classed under two heads, 1 Voluntary
1
vacation” and “ Other personal causes,” comprising such reasons as
illness in the worker’s family, conditions or responsibilities which
demanded her presence at home, idleness through choice, etc. The
voluntary vacation has been made to include only such time as was
voluntarily taken by the worker for rest and recreation. The line of
demarkation has necessarily been rather difficult to draw, but the
classification has been followed as closely as possible.
Of voluntary vacation, there were 782-jj- weeks, or 16.6 per cent of
all the unemployment. Three hundred and fifty women, or 71 per
cent, reported voluntary vacation. Only 40.2 per cent of the women
in the factories reported voluntary vacations, but 39.7 per cent reported
lay offs. Those periods may have been taken in place of vacations
for many. The average length of the voluntary vacations for the
women in the stores was about two and one-fourth weeks.
In this connection it should be stated that in addition to the periods
of vacation here reported there were 198-J weeks of vacation with pay
reported. This time has been included under weeks worked in the
stores, as the women remained on the pay rolls and received their
regular pay. The following summaries show the amount and distri­
bution of vacation or other absence with pay, as reported by the
women individually scheduled, and the number of firms giving vaca­
tions with pay, as reported by employers.
The largest per cent of unemployment from any cause was that
due to miscellaneous personal reasons, 2,769 weeks, or 58.6 per cent
of all the unemployment being attributed to that cause. Two hun­
dred and fifty-three women, or 51.3 per cent, reported on average of
11 weeks in this group.




54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The number of year's of employment required to obtain vacations
with pay and the duration of such vacations, as reported by the 68
department and other retail stores granting vacations with pay, are
as follows:
Establishments giving vacations with pay:
Number...............................................................................................................
Per cent...................................................- ......................................................
Establishments giving vacation with pay to:
All female employees.........................................................................................
Females employed one-half year or o v e r .................................................... \ .
Females employed 1 year or over....................................................................
Females employed over 2 years........................................................................
Females with duration of employment not reported......................................
Establishments giving vacations with pay:
One week............................................................................................................
Two weeks................................................................................................ ........
Three weeks or o v er..........................................................................................
Time not reported..............................................................................................

68
48. 2
(>
8
23
3
30
58
8
1
1

In the above statement wherever the length of the vacation varies
with the length of employment the vacation received for one year’s
service is given.
T

4=0.— NUM BER OF W O M EN IN D IV ID U A L L Y SCHEDULED R EPORTING VACATIONS
OR ABSENCE W IT H P A Y AND DU R ATIO N OF SUCH VACATIONS OR ABSENCES.

able

Individuals re- j Aver- i
porting vaca- j aye 1 Number receiving vacations with pay.1
tion with pay. |
number:

...... ! of

Cities.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

19.3
41.4
12.4
22.4

Indianapolis..
Terre Haute.
Evansville.. .
Fort Wayne..
South B en d ..
La Fayette..
Total..

Total.
number
weeks’ j
report­
vaca­
1 and
3 and
4 and
tion
Under under 2 2 and under 4 under 8 ing.
with 1 week. weeks. under 3
weeks. weeks. weeks.
pay.

331
104

m
58
m

22
2
46.2

162 j

26

Hi

1
1

119

26

i Includes women receiving pay for occasional absence amounting to a week or more.
Unemployment Due to Illness.

Eight hundred and forty-seven and one-twelfth weeks, or 17.9 per
cent, of the unemployment reported was due to the illness of the
worker, 144, or 29.2 per cent, of the women giving this as the cause
of all or part of their unemployment. It should be said that the
illness here recorded is not a matter of medical record/ and that a
physician’s word was not required to substantiate the reports of the
individuals as to days lost through sickness. These methods were
not adopted, first, because, while the original plans of the investiga-




WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA,

55

tion contemplated a careful measurement of the amount of unem­
ployment, they did not contemplate (because resources would not
permit) more than a general survey of the causes of unemployment.
Second, had time and resources permitted a search for cases of illness
certified to by physicians, it is certain that some consideration would
have to be given to unemployment due to illness in cases where no
physician was called. That there are a considerable number of such
cases there is little question, and the time lost thereby means lost
earnings. The investigating agents therefore discussed carefully with
each individual the amount of time lost during the year 1913, taking
down the causes for each period of unemployment. There may be
some overestimates of time lost through illness, but it is probable
that such overestimates are more than offset by the fact that the*
occasional days of absence (through illness or for other reasons)
scattered over the period of employment, were not counted in the
period of unemployment.1
What the relation is between the industries studied and the rate
of illness, what the normal expectation of illness is for women in a
given industry, and what is the average duration of illness for the
industry as a whole are questions which can not be answered from
figures submitted in this report; neither are there any statistics
available in this country by which to judge of the significance of
such figures as are here presented.
There are, however, figures taken from the “ Leipzig Local Sick
Fund,” 2 covering 34,262 women employed as office help and sales­
women, which would seem to afford a fair comparison with the figures
for the Indiana store employees. The figures for Indiana and Leip­
zig are therefore printed together in the following table. Inasmuch
as this table should include all illness reported, in order to make it
more comparable with the German figures, a few weeks of illness
which were not included in the table of unemployment, as they were
paid for, and therefore classed under weeks of employment in stores
have been added to this table to make it as complete a record as pos­
sible of the illness reported by the women in the Indiana stores.
1 See method of computing time worked, pp. 11 and 12.
2 Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, p. 1336.




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

R A T E OF SICKNESS AMONG 711 W O M EN E M P L O Y F D IN D E P A R T M E N T
AN D O T H E R R E T A IL STORES IN 6 IN D IA N A CITIES COMPARED W IT H T H A T
SH O W N B Y T H E “ LEIPZIG LOCAL SICK F U N D .”

T a b le 4 1 .—

Women in Indiana stores.

Office employees, saleswomen, etc.,
reported by the Leipzig Local Sick
Fund (compulsory members).

Rate per
Aver­
Aver­ Rate per
age
age
dura­
dura­
Num­
Total Cases tion
tion
ber
Cases
of
num­
of
of
under
of
ber
each
sick­ each Cases Days obser­ sick­
case
sched­ ness.
case
vation ness.
of
of
uled.
of
cf
sick­
sick­ sick­ sick­ 1 year.
sick­
ness. ness.
ness.
ness
ness
(days).
(days).

1 0.
.0 0

Age groups.

Under 15 years.............
15 and under 25 years1
25 and under 35 years.
35 and under 45 years.
45 and under 55 years.
55 and under 65 years.
65 and under 75 years.
75 years and over........
Age not reported..........
Total.

34.3
38.1
15.8
21.4
54.0

1

711

153

242
371.0 12.727 24,943
206,7 7.876 7,299
236.0 3.719 1,356
304.3 6.522
291
81
333.3 18.000
49

129.0

396
196
89
23
3

8 .0 0
60

33.5

234.3

1

34,262

1,000.

Days
sick­
ness.

57
7,066
1,936
290
53
17
17

20.4
23.4
26.4
33.0
29.5
49.1
40.5
50.0

235.5
283.3
265.2
213.9
182.1
209.9
346.9

1 0 .0
,0 0

4.806
6.625
7.015
7.049
5.364
10. 296
14. 041
50.000

9,437

24.4

275.4

6.722

1

i The Indiana figures include in this group girls 14 and under 25 years of age.
N o t e .-—In

general the value of this table, so far as Indiana figures are concerned, may be said to be more
in the suggestions that it offers than in any conclusive evidence that it gives. The German figures, based
on thousands of women in many different industries, show a different rate of illness in every industry
and show a widely different rate of illness for men and women in the same industry. These are questions
on which much further information than that presented in this report is needed before any conclusions
can be drawn.

The Leipzig figures are based on women who had all been in the
industry a full year. In order to make the Indiana figures compara­
ble, the number of women used to obtain the rates per 1,000 has
been reduced so as not to include the number of weeks prior to any
individual’s first employment; that is, the number of weeks in
industry for the 711 women scheduled would amount to a full year
in industry for 653 women.
The actual number of women reporting illness in Indiana is so
small, since the total number studied was only 711, that except for
the first two or three age groups the figures are liable to be unduly
influenced by any extreme case. In general, however, the rate of
cases of illness seems to be lowT in Indiana, but the rate of days of
er
illness seems to be higher than in the German employment most
nearly corresponding to the Indiana group. In other words, a
smaller per cent of the Indiana women were ill, but they were ill
r
for longer periods of time than the German women. In this connec­
tion it should be noted that the German rates include cases of illness
which ended in death, while the Indiana figures do not, but as these
amounted to only about 1 per cent, it would not greatly affect the
comparison.




57

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

SICK BENEFIT AND MEDICAL AID.

The table below shows in a general way the extent to which pro­
vision is made for employees in times of illness. It is apparent from
this table that while 48, or over a third, of the 140 establishments,
employing 57 per cent of the women, report some provision for illness,
yet only 15 of the 48 establishments report women actually receiving
aid during the year covered by the investigation, and only 288, or
slightly more than 15 per cent, of the women employed in such estab­
lishments received the sick benefits. Of these 15 establishments,
12, employing 180 women, report the exact number of days during
which aid was given, the average for all sorts of benefit being 14J
days. It should be said in this connection that in practically all
cases the employees contributed to the maintenance of the benefit
associations.
4 2 .—SICK B E N E F IT OR M EDICAL AID IN 140 D EPA R T M EN T A N D O THER
R E T A IL STORES EM PLO YING 5,920» W O M EN IN A R E P R E S E N T A T IV E W E E K .

T able

Establish­
ments report­
ing.

Women em­
ployed.

Provisions.

Women receiving aid.

Establishments re­
porting extent of aid.

EstabWo­ Aver­
age
lish- Num­
Per Num­ men
dura­
ments ber. cent.2 ber.
af­
tion
re­
fected
of aid
port­
(days).
ing.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Benefit association.....................
Liability companies...................
Direct aid given by firm..........

13
2
33

9.3
1.4
23.6

1,941
143
1,294

32.8
2.4
21.9

6
1
8

244
2
42

17.7
2.1
10.6

5
1
6

144
2
34

Total...................................

48

34.3

3,378

57.1

15

288

15.4

12

180

16|
3
6£

1 Including 62 cafd employees not appearing in hours and earnings tables.
2 The base is the number of women in the establishments reporting number of women receiving aid.

TOILET

ACCOMMODATIONS, EMPLOYMENT IN
SEATS FOR SALESWOMEN.

BASEMENTS,

AND

For reasons explained on page 91 no detailed study was made of
sanitary conditions prevailing in Indiana mercantile establishments.
The tables following summarize such data as were collected.
Table 43 shows that the employment of women in basements, where
the ventilation is frequently poor and the light too often inadequate,
is not a rare exception in Indiana. Thirty-one, or over a fifth, of
the 140 stores had 12 per cent of their women employees at work in
basements. In all of these basements artificial light was used.
The table indicates that, with the possible exceptions mentioned
in footnotes, the toilet accommodations, so far as numbers are con­
cerned, are not inadequate.




58
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
4 3 .—TOILET FACILITIES AND BASEM ENT EM PLO YM EN T IN 140 D EPA R TM E N T
A N D OTHER R E T A IL STORES IN 10 CITIES, AS R E PO R TED B Y EM PLO YER S.

able

Toilets.

Cities.

Estab­
Women Num­
lish­
ber of
ments
em­
sched­ ployees.1 seats
exclu­
uled.
sively
for
women.

Establishments employing women in basement,

Aver­
age
num­
ber of
women
per
seat.

Establishments
requiring artifi­
cial light in
basement.

Women
affected.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.
Num­
ber.
32.1
23.1
22.7
21.4
20.0
15.4
50.0
25.0

Per
cent.

Indianapolis..........
Terre Haute..........
Evansville.............
Fort Wayne..........
South Bend...........
Muncie....................
Hammond.............
La Favette.............
Richmond..............
New Albany..........

28
13
22
14
15
13
4
8
14
9

2,633
711
494
485
462
288
207
322
198
120

120
38
33
33
24
27
20
23
21
7

2 20
19
15
15
3 19
11
10
14
9
17

9
3
5
3
3
2
2
2
2

22.2

4

140

15,920

352

17

31

22.1

458

12.0

En­
tirely.

4.3

Total............

Par­
tially.

278
20
33
24
16
7
62
14

13.9
4.4
13.9
9.6
23.5
5.0
34.8
9.8

4
1
3

5
2
2

1

3
1
2
2

9

22

2

1 Figures taken from pay roll of a representative week and include 63 caf£ employees not appearing in
tables of hours or earnings.
2 Not including 9 women in 1 establishment who may use toilets on seventh floor in office building and
2 establishments employing 76 women, numl>er of seats not reported.
3 In 1 establishment 33 use toilets provided for customers’ use.

Information was collected concerning the number of seats provided
for salewomen, but no table has been made because, without excep­
tion, the employers reported such provision. It should be said, how­
ever, that there was frequent complaint among the women that these
seats could not be used even in “ slack minutes” without incurring
the displeasure of the management.
WOMEN EMYLOYED IN INDIANA GARMENT FACTORIES.
The garment industry employed more women than any other
industry in the State, except one, the report of the State factory
inspector showing approximately 6,200 women so listed. This
industry in Indiana is not, however, comparable with the cloth­
ing industry as a whole, as the Indiana establishments were
engaged principally in the manufacture of workingmen’s cotton
clothing (overalls and shirts) and cotton gloves, work that required
no tailoring, and therefore employed a larger proportion of women
than would be found in establishments where woolen outer clothing
was made.
The work which the greater part of the women do is operating
power sewing machines. Many different operations are involved in
the manufacture of even the simplest garments and several kinds of
machines are used, i. e., one, two, or three needle machines, buttonhole
machines, or other machines for special purposes, but all machines
make the same general demands upon the operator. They require a
sitting position, with a slight but constant bending over the machine,




59

WAGE-EARNING W O M E X I X IX D IA X A .

close concentration of attention on the work, and quick deft move­
ments in handling and changing the work. The machine opera­
tion is usually all piecework. A variety of occupations not suited to
piece rates are included under time-work, such as marking, sorting,
inspecting, checking, timekeeping, etc., according to the needs of
each individual factory.
The following summarization brings into relief the proportion of
women engaged in occupations requiring a continuous position, either
standing or sitting, and those which permit of an alternating position.
It also shows the number of women engaged in occupations requiring
the use of foot-power machines and the number operating entirely
power-driven machines:
T able

4 4 .—OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS UPON W OM EN E M PLO YED IN GARM ENT FAC­
TORIES, AS R E P O R TE D B Y EM PLO YER S.
Occupations re­
quiring use of
foot-power ma­
chines.

Position required by
occupation.

Occupations re­
quiring use of
pow er m a­
chines.

Women
affected.
ber.
Num­ Per
ber. cent.

Women
affected.

j Women
! affected.
Num­
ber.

Num ­

Other
occupations.

Num­
ber.
jNum-j Per
ber. cent.

Constant standing...............
Constant sitting...................
Alternating positions.........

2
4
4

10
85
33

7.8
66.4
25.8

2
9 ! 0.3
15 3,436 | 99.6 !
1
3
.1 j
!

8
8
10

Total...........................

10

128

2.9

8 |3,448 j 77.4 ;

26

Total.

Occu-

Women
affected.

Num-i1 Per tfons. Num­ Per
ber. cent.
ber. cent.
172 ! 19.6
295 ! 33.5
412 1 46.9
i
879 19.7

12

191
3,816
448

4.3
85.7
10.0

44 2 4 ,455

100.0

17
15

1 The machine used in 1 occupation is foot controlled.
2 Data for 2,100 women were not reported.

The discussion of occupational demands is limited in this report
to a brief description of the general character of the equipment and
nature of the work done by women because a health and sanitation
survey, covering the principal women-employing industries in the
State, was made by the National Health Service at the invitation
of the Indiana Commission on Working Women.
In the 67 establishments from which schedules were obtained
there were 6,561 women employees, approximately the total number
reported as employed in the garment factories of Indiana by the
census of manufactures of 1910.1 Individual schedules were secured
from 517 of these women. As with the stores, the effort was made
to cover all establishments of importance in or near 10 cities and to
interview individual women in 5 of the largest cities. The distribu­
tion, by cities, of establishments and individuals scheduled is shown
in the subjoined table.




* Vol. I X , p. 328.

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

4 5 .—NUM BER OF GARM ENT FACTORIES SCHEDULED IN 10 LOCALITIES, NUM ­
BER OF E M PLO YEES, AN D NU M BER OF W OM EN IN D IV ID U A L L Y SCH ED U LED .

T able

Total
women.

Employees.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Cities.

Men.

Women.

Under
16
Under
16
16
years
16
years
years. and years. and
over.
over.

Total
em­
ploy­
ees.
Num­
ber.

Indianapolis................................
South Bend.................................
Fort Wayne................................
Terre Haute................................
Richmond and Muncie.............
New Albany, La Fayette, and
• Hammond...............................
Evansville...................................

25
9
11
6
5

4
3
9
2
13

585
114
63
44
44

57
159
39
3
38

2,380
1,736
823
499
276

4
7

1

23
24

11
12

285
243

319
280

296
255

Total..................................

67

32

897

319

6,242

7,490

6,561

3,026 2,437
2,012 1,895
934
862
548 * 502
371
314

Women
scheduled.

Per
cent
of
Num­
total
ber
em­
ploy­
ees. .
80.5
94.2
92.3
91.6
84.6

Per
cent
of
total
wo­
men.

259
85
87
41

10.6
4.5
10.1
8.2

92.8
91.1

45

17.6

87.6

517

7.9

The information obtained from factories and individual women
employed in the garment industry has been summarized in the
same manner as the corresponding information from department and
other retail stores in order to facilitate comparisons between the two
industries.
AGE, MANNER OF LIVING, AND CONJUGAL CONDITION.

In the garment factories the proportion of young girls was some­
what less than in the stores, 17.6 per cent being from 14 to 18 years
of age, while 20.2 per cent of the women in the stores were 18 years
or under. The average age of the women in factories is practically
26, one year higher than the average for the women in the stores.
The following summaries give the average age for each city and
the total number of women at specified ages:
T able

4 6 .—A V ER AG E

AGE

OF 513 W O M EN

E M PLO YE D

IN

Cities.

G ARM ENT FACTORIES.
Number Average
reporting.
age.

Indianapolis.........................................................................................
Terre Haute.........................................................................................
Evansville............................................................................................
Fort Wayne.........................................................................................
South Bend..........................................................................................

1256
41
45
2 86
85

26-6
28.6
25.3
26.0
22.9

Total...........................................................................................

3513

25.9




1 Not including 3 women who did not report exact age.
2 Not inc luding 1 woman who did not report exact age.
3 Not including 4 women who did not report exact age.

61

WAGE-EAENING W O M EN IN INDIANA.
T

able

47

— AGE OF 517 W O M EN E M PLO YED IN G ARM ENT FACTORIES.
Women at speci­
fied ages.
Age groups.
Number. j Percent.

14 and under 16 years........................................................................
16 and under 18 years........................................................................
18 and under 22 years........................................................................
22 and under 25 years.......................................................................
25 and under 30 years........................................................................
30 and under 40 years........................................................................
40 and under 50 years........................................................................
50 and under 60 years........................................................................
60 years and over................................................................................

41
50
111
75
91
98
37
11
3

7.9
9.7
21.4
14.5
17.6
19.0
7.2
2.1
.6

Total...........................................................................................

517

100.0

For the women in the garment factories the manner of living is
about the same as for those in the stores. Seventy-eight and fivetenths per cent were living at home, 6.6 per cent were living with
relatives. These women had practically the same home conditions
as the women in the stores.1 A considerably larger proportion of
factory women were keeping house (9.7 per cent, as compared with
5.1 per cent in the stores) and a smaller per cent boarding (5.2 per
cent, compared with 8.3 per cent). None were keeping house in their
own rooms.
The distribution is indicated by the following table:
T able

4 8 —M ANNER OF LIVING OF 517 W OM EN EM PLOYED IN GARM ENT FACTORIES.
Boarding Keeping
With
At home. relatives.
and
lodging.1 house.

Cities.

Indianapolis................................................... .....................
South Bend..........................................................................
Fort Wayne..........................................................................
Terre Haute..........................................................................
Evansville............................................................................

195
68
69
34
40

20
5
4
2
3

16
2
8

Total:
Number..............................................................
Percent...............................................................

406
78.5

34
6.6

Total.

1

28
10
6
5
1

259
85
87
41
45

27
5.2

50
9.7

517
100.0

1Includes light housekeeping.

Of the 91 women under 18 years, none were married, but of the
426 women over 18 years, 85, or 20 per cent, were or had been mar­
ried. More than half of this number were widowed or separated from
their husbands. The average age of the women in the garment fac­
tories, being a year higher than that of'the women in the stores,
is probably related to the larger proportion of married women
employed.




i See pp. 9 and 10.

62
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

able

4 9 .—CONJUGAL CONDITION' OF 517 W OM EN EM PLO YED IN GARM ENT FACTORIES
Single.
Num­
ber.

21
0

Indianapolis
South Bend.
Fort Wayne.
Terre Haute,
Evansville..

76
80
31
44

Per
Num- j Per
cent. : ber. J cent.
77.6
89.4
92.0
75.6
97.9

j
!
]
j

28
4

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

1 .8
0

Num­
ber.

Total.

Per | Numcent. | ber.

6.6
4.7
1
.1
9.8
2
.1

9.8

5.0

5.2

4.7

83.6 :

Total.

Separated or
divorced.

Widowed.

Married.

Cities.

3.3 !

259
85
87
41
45

1
.2
1
.1
4.8

517

Per
cent.

10
0 .0
10
0 .0
10
0 .0
10
0 .0
10
0 .0
10
0 .0

SEASONAL ASPECT OF GARMENT INDUSTRY.

Before taking up the duration of seasons and the working hours
some explanation of the goods manufactured by the Indiana garment
factories is necessary.
As has been stated, the factories manufacture principally working­
men^ cotton clothing and cotton gloves, nearly 60 per cent of the
establishments, affecting almost the same proportion of all the
women employed, reporting this grade of goods as their chief product.
The manufacture of these goods not only calls for a larger proportion
of women workers 1 than other branches of the clothing industry, but
also affords work which is much less seasonal than in the clothing
industry as a whole, since the demand for overalls, work shirts, and
gloves is fairly steady throughout the year. The 67 manufacturers7
reports on garments made and variations in seasons to some, extent
reflect these conditions, as the only firms reporting only dull and
busy seasons, i. e., no period of normal business, are those engaged
in the manufacture of men’s custom-made suits and women’s custommade ’and ready-to-wear clothing, and they affected but 22 per cent
of the total number of women employed in the Indiana garment
trades, as the table below shows.
T able 5 0 .—NORM AL, D U L L, AND BU SY SEASONS AS R EPO R TED FOR 67 G ARM ENT
FACTORIES, GROUPED ACCORDING TO THE GARMENTS M ADE.
Establish­
ments.

Garments manufactured.

Women em- Per cent of establishments re­
ployed. !
porting.

!
Nor­ V r,r ! Nori Normal mal I mal’
Num­ Per Num-i Per \ mal and S S dull,
ber. cent. ber. cent. sea­ dull busv! and
son
only. sea­
sons. sons’ j sons.

j
Bus5'
and
dull
sea­
sons.

"^.busy sea
-

Workingmen's clothes (including overalls,
coats, and work shirts)2.....................................
Cotton gloves............................................................
Men’s custom-made suits and overcoats............
Men’s fine shirts and furnishings........................
W omen’s ready-made clothing.............................
Women’s custom-made clothing..........................
Total..

32.8
26.9
9.0
13.4
13.4
4.5

12,371
;1,473
I 556
!1,261
! 787
.
I 113

36.1
22.5
8.5
19.2

36.4
55.6
55.6

1 .0 2
2 2.2
1.7

50.0

2 .2
2
16.7
22
.2
33.3

33.3

2 .2
2
1
1 .1 2
1 2.2 1 .1
33.3

66.7

100.0 j0,561 1
100.0 j 40.3

13.6
16.6
50.0

31.3

3.0

19.4

6.0

1The establishments manufacturing workingmen’s clothing and cotton gloves employed 58.6 per cent of
the women fn all the clothing establishments studied.
2 One establishment also makes women’s ready-made clothing.




WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

63

Taking all cities together, 40.3 per cent of the factories, employing
52 per cent of the women, report a normal season only, which means
that for more than half of the women the work is nearly steady the
year around. For the rest, besides the normal season there are
periods of rush work alternating with periods of slack work, which
may or may not offset each other.
DURATION OF SEASONS AND WORKING HOURS AS REPORTED BY
EMPLOYERS.

The working hours for each season and for the overtime periods, as
reported by the employers, are given in the following tables. It
should be noted here again that the duration and haul’s of the normal,
dull, and busy seasons are given exclusive of all overtime, and that
the overtime is considered separately.
NORMAL SEASON.

Taking first the normal season, the summarizing table shows—
1. That 63, or 94 per cent, of the 67 establishments reported a
normal season which averaged practically 37 weeks in length and
affected 6,474, or 98.7 per cent, of the women.
2. That the average working hours during this period were 53J
per week, 9J per day, and 5J hours on the short day, the short day,
however, being reported in 51 establishments only.
3. That the longest average weekly hours reported by any estab­
lishment in this season were 60 and the shortest 42f.
4. That two-thirds of the establishments, employing practically
three-fourths of the women, reported average weekly hours under
55; that by far the largest single group was that reporting weekly
hours over 48 and under 55, 56j per cent of the establishments and
60 per cent of the employees being in this group; that 9.7 per cent of
the establishments, employing 13.8 per cent of the women, reported
a 48-hour week or under, and only 3.2 per cent of the employer’s
reported weekly hours of 60 or more during the normal season.




64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able

5 1 .—W O RK ING HOURS IN NO RM AL SEASON IN G ARM ENT
LOCALITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y E M PLO YER S.

FACTORIES IN 10

[Tfielawsof Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 per week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is sacured. In that part of the table which gives the per cent reporting average weekly hours
117 girls who were working in establishments reporting prevailing hours of more than 48 have been ex­
cluded. Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.]

Cities.

Estab­
lish­
ments
sched­
uled.

Indianapolis1..............
South Bend.................
Fort Wayne.................
Terre Haute.................
Richmond and Mun­
cie ...............................
New Albany, La Fay­
ette, and Hammond
Evansville...................

25
9
11
6

Total..................

Establish­
Pre­ ments report­
Women
vailing
ing normal
affected.
num­
season.
ber of
women
em­
Num­ Per Num­ Per
ployed. ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.

67

2,437
1,895
862
502

23
8
11
5

5

314

4
7

296
255
6,561

Average hours.
Aver­
age
dura­
Pre­
tion Hours vailing
Long Short
in
per
daily day.
day.
weeks week.
hours.

92.0
88.8
100.0
83.3

2,423
1,825
862
499

99.4
96.3
100.0
99.4

33i
45$
37£37$

5

100.0

314

100.0

36§

4
7

100.0
100.0

296
255

100.0
100.0

32
381

63

93.9

6,474

98.7

361-

53|

2 9J

91
9*
2 919*.

5k
5
0*

51*

91

4#

50}
54&

n
H

J*

55
52£
51 *
53|

Per cent reporting weekly hours of—
Over 48 and under
55.

42£ to 48.
Cities.
Estab­
lish­
ments.
13.6
Indianapolis1...............
South Bend..................
18.2
Fort W ayne.................. !
20.0
Terre Haute................. i
Richmond and Mun1
r»io
New Albany, La Fay- 1
.................
ette, and Hammond.1
■Rvansvillft _________ i_________
Total...................

9.7

Women
affected.

30.0

55 and under 60.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Women
affected.

60.7
68.6
62.4
30.0

56.5

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Women
affected.

100.0

25.0
57.1
13.8

54.6
75.0
54.5
20.0
100.0

8.4
20.0

Women
affected.

60.

31.8
12.5
27.3
60.0

9.3
9.9
29.2
50.0

12.5

21.5

8.0
55.7

50.0
42.9

46.5
44.3

25.0

45.5

60.1 j

30.6

18.0

3.2

8.0

1 One establishment, employing 55 women, did not report daily or weekly hours.
2 One establishment did not report daily hours.

DULL SEASON.

The summarization show’s—
1. That 38, or 56.6 per cent, of the 67 establishments reported a
dull season averaging 13J weeks in duration and affecting 2,874, or
43.8 per cent of the women.
2. That the average working hours during this season were prac­
T
tically 49 per week, 8f hours per day, and 5 hours on the short day,
which occurred in 31 establishments.
3. That the longest regular hours reported by any one establish­
ment during the dull season were 59 hours a week and the shortest
30 hours per week.
4. That of the 38 establishments reporting dull seasons, approxi­
mately 38 per cent reported weekly hours of 48 or under; and that



65

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

the-largest single group, 35.2 per cent, reported weekly hours over
48 but under 55.
Table

5 2 .—W O R K IN G HOURS IN D U L L SEASON IN GAR M EN T FACTORIES IN
LOCALITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y EM PLO YER S.

10

[The laws of Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 per week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is secured. In that part of the table which gives the per cent reporting average weekly hours,
92 girls who were working m establishments reporting prevailing hours of more than 48 have been
excluded. Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.]
Establishments
reporting dull
season.

Women
affected.

Cities.
Num­
ber.

Tnd ianapnl is 1, , r , . ,
South Bend..............................
Fort Wayne..............................
Terre Haute..............................
Richmond and Muncie..........
New Albany, La Fayette,
and Hammond.....................
Evansvillo__________________

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Per
cent.

Short
day.

!
17
4
7
4
1

68.0
44.4
63 6
66.6
20.0

979
629
569
395
75

40.2
33 2
66.0
78.7
23.9

2
3

50.0
42.9

155
72

38

T o ta l___________

Average hours.
Aver­
age du­
ration
in
Prevail­
weeks. Hours
Long
ing
per
daily
day.
week.
hours.

56.6

2,874

16|
12
8#
12
16J

47
52*
47|
52*
48|

8$ ,
9|
2 8J
9|
H

52.4
28.2

9|
10|

49£
52#

9
91

43.8

13§

48|

2 8f

4?
4|
4|
4J
6*
5

Per cent reporting weekly hours of30 and under
35.

Cities.

35 and under
42.

Over 48 and
under 55.

42 to 48.

55 to 59.

Estab­ Women Estab­ Women Estab­ Women Estab­ Women Estab­ Women
lish­
af­
lish­
af­
lish­
af­
lish­
lish­
af­
af­
ments. fected. ments. fected. ments. fected. ments. fected. ments. fected.
6.2
Indianapolis1............1
S ou th ft Mid________ !
Fort Wayne.............. 1
..............
Terre Haute.............. '..............
R ic h m o n d and 1
Muncie.................. •
................
N ew
A lb a n y , i
La Fayette, and |
Hammond.. ........1
..............
Evansville. _______ !..............
Total................|

2.7

18.8

3.4

71.4

63.6

53.1

50.0
.1

10.8

17.8

24.3

22.1
7.8
9.8
100.0
100.0

66.7

25.0

18.8
50.0
14.3
100.0
100.0

0.3

31.2
50.0
14.3

21.1
92.2
26.6

44.4

50.0
33.3

89.7
55.6

35.2

29.4

27.0

38.1

10.3
14.6

1 One establishment employing 55 women did not report daily or weekly hours.
2 One establishment did not report daily hours.

BUSY SEASON.

It is indicative of the difference in the nature of the Indiana gar­
ment factories from that of most clothing factories to find that only
a small per cent reported a busy season.
The table for the busy season shows—
1. That only 28.3 per cent of the establishments reported a busy
season, and these establishments employed-but 19.2 per cent of the
women, showing that they were the smaller establishments. The
season averaged 18\ weeks in duration.
2. That the average weekly hours in the busy season (exclusive of
overtime) were but slightly longer than in the normal season, 55 being
 66172°—Bull. 160—14------5


66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the average, with average daily hours of 9|, and a short day of 6£
hours reported for 15 establishments.
3. That the maximum weekly hours reported were 62| and the
minimum weekly hours 45J.
4. That of the establishments reporting busy season, 39.1 per cent
reported hours of under 55; but these establishments employed but
32.3 per cent of the women. Fifty per cent reported weekly hours
of 55 and under 60. These employed only 21 per cent of the women.
Only 11.1 per cent of the establishments reported hours of 60 or over,
but as these included 1 of the 10 largest firms scheduled, the employees
working these hours were by far the largest single group, being nearly
47 per cent. The establishments reporting 48 hours or under per
week during the busy season were but 5.6 per cent of the total and
employed but 1 per cent of the women.
T

able

5 3 .—W O R K IN G HOURS IN B U SY SEASON IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 10 LOCALI­
TIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y EM PLO YER S.

[The laws of Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 per week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is secured. In that part of the table which gives the per cent reporting average weekly hours,
13 girls who were working in establishments reporting prevailing hours of more than 48 have been ex­
cluded. Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.].
1
Establishments i
'reporting busy
season.

Women
affected.

Average hours.
Aver­
age
dura­
tion in
weeks.

Cities.
Num­
ber.

Indianapolis1................. .........
South Bend..............................
Fort Wayne.............................
Terre Haute.............................
Richmond and Muncie..........
New Albany, La Fayette,
and Hammond....................
Evansville................................
Total...............................

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Hours
per
week.

Prevail­
ing
daily
hours.

9
1
3
2
1

36.0
11.1
27.3
33.3
20.0

930
70
107
9
50

38.6
3.7
12.4
1.8
1.6

17f
39
211
14|
23£

55§
52.V
50“
581571

9
9t?
10£
9?

1
2 |

25.0
28.6

43
49

14.5
19.2

20
5i

59
55

28.3

1,258

19.2

184-

55

Short
day.

10

19 |

Long
day.

9§

2 111

4i
4&
5'
8i
9
5

H

2 111

i

Per cent reporting weekly hours o fOver 48 and
under 55.

451 to 48.
Cities.
Estab­
lish­
ments.
Indianapolis 2..........................
South Bend..............................
Fort W ayne............ ...............
Terre Haute............................
Richmond and Muncie.........
New Albany, La Fayette,
and Hammond....................
Evansville...............................

Estab­
lish­
ments.
37.5

10
0 .0

33.3

5.6

Total.

Women
affected.

33.3
50.0

1
.0

33.3

55 and under 60.

Women Estab­
lish­
affected.
ments.
31.9

10
0 .0
2 .6
0
33.3

31.3

60 to 62 ’ .

Women Estab­
lish­
affected.
ments.

50.0

5.3

” 33.* 4

67.0

'ioo.'o' ’ioo.'o
0 .0
10
0 .0 1 0
0 .0
10
0 .0 1 0
50.0
2 .0
1

62.!
50.0

1 One establishment employing 55 women did not report daily or weekly hours.
2 Only one establishment reported a long day.




Women
affected.

46.'

67

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.
OVERTIME PERIODS.

The summary here shows—
1. That overtime was reported by 46.2 per cent of the establish­
ments. Only 38.8 per cent of the establishments, affecting 12.7 per
cent of the employees, reported definite information, however. The
average duration of the overtime period varied from 2^ weeks to 10
weeks in the different cities, but averaged 6| weeks in all cities.
2. That the average weekly hours for this period were 58, the
average daily hours 10|; that the long day, reported by 16 establish­
ments, averaged 12 hours and the short day, reported by 19 estab­
lishments, averaged 6^ hours.
3. That the maximum weekly hours reported for any establishment
were 69 and the minimum weekly hours 49^.
4. That during the overtime periods the largest per cent of estab­
lishments in any one group (38.4 per cent) reported hours of
55 and under 60, but the largest number of employees in any one
group (65^ per cent) were in the group reporting weekly hours of 60
and under 65, though only 30.8 per cent of the employers were in
this group.
T able

5 4 .—O VER TIM E HOURS IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 10 LOCALITIES, AS RE­
PORTED B Y EM PLO YER S.
Establishments
reporting
overtime.

Average hours.

Women
affected.

Aver­
age du­
ration Hours
in
per
weeks. week.

Cities.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

56f
61{
56|

40.0

Indianapolis...........................
South Bend............................
Fort Wayne............................
Terre Haute............................
Richmond and Muncie........
New Albany, La Fayette,
and Hammond................. '
Evansville...............................

2 .2
2
36.* 4
33.3
40.0

4.4
.8
5.1

25.0

13.9
28.2

7 .4
1

5£
9

1
0

56*
69
59*

776

Total.............................

Pre­
vailing Long
daily , day.
hours. 1

if
9*
n
iii
1*
2
1*
0
1h
0

m
1£
0
1*
1
n*
m
1
2

Short
day.

6
§
4
6
4
8
4
*
9

6
*
6
*

Per cent reporting av erage weekly b.ours ct-

Cities.

Indianapolis............ .............
South Bend............................
Fort Wayne...........................
Terre Haute...........................
Richmond and Muncie.......
New Albany, La Fayette,
and Hammond..................
Evansville..............................
Total.............................

Maxi­
Mini­ 49Jand under 55 and under 60 and under
65 to 69.
55.
mum
mum
60.
!
65.
weekly weekly
hours. hours.
Estah-I Wom- Estab­ Wom­ Estab- Wom­ Estab­ Wom­
lish- en af- lish­ en af­ lish- en af­ lish­
en af­
1
iments. jfected. ments. fected. |
ments. fected. ments. fected.
.
!
1
65* :
61f
64
61 f
57

49*
61
52*
58
56

69
66*

521

69

49*

j

30.0

6.1

50.0

25. 5

17.1

25. 0
50.0
100.0

11.5
25. 0
100.0

20.0

30.6

20.0

5.6

23.1

8.2

38.4

2 2 .6

50.0

j

68. 4
-iO 0
.
100.0 ! 100.0
25. 0 i 71. 4
50.0
75,0

40.0

55.5

100.0
20.0

100.0
8.3

30.8

65. 5

7 7

3.7

1

1 Five establishments reporting overtime have not been included because no figures relative to the amount
of overtime or the number of women affected were reported.




68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
SUMMARY.

Summing up the information on seasons and hours as reported by
the employers, it may be said that for the Indiana garment industry
as a whole the normal season is by far the most important period,
averaging nearly three-fourths of the year for 94 per cent of the
establishments.
The working hours generally found in the garment factories are 54
or under per week, and in no season except overtime periods are
regular hours exceeding 59 found to any considerable extent. The
48-hour week prevails only in a small per cent of establishments.
During overtime periods the hours ran up as high as 69 per week
and averaged 58 per week, but less than one-half of the. establish­
ments reported overtime and it affected only one-eighth of the women
employed.
T able

5 5 .—SUMMARY OF W O R K IN G HOURS IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 10 LOCALITIES
COMBINED, AS R EPO R TED B Y EM PLOYERS.
Establish­
ments
reporting.

Women
affected.

Seasons.

Average hours.
Aver­
age
dura­
tion
Pre­
in
Hours vailing Long
Short
weeks. per
daily day.
day.
week.
hours.

Num­
ber.

Regular hours:
Normal season1. . .
Dull season1..........
Busy season...........
Overtime hours:
Normal, dull, and
busy seasons3. . .

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

63
38
19

93.9
56.6
28.3

6,474
2,874
1,258

98.7
43.8
19.2

36f
13h
m

31

46.2

776

12.7

61

53£
48f
54-H
58

n
8!
9!
10*

U l-i
H tt

Maxi­
mum
week. !y
hours.

Mini­
mum
week. !y
hours.

5
6*

60
59
m

42|
30
45J

H

69

50

1 One establishment did not report hours, another did not report daily hours.
2 Only 1 establishment reported a long day.
* Five establishments reported some overtime, but did not specify the amount or the number of women
affected.

DURATION OF SEASONS AND WORKING HOURS AS REPORTED BY
INDIVIDUALS.

Unlike the situation in tbe department stores, where the seasons
vary for different departments and each girl can speak only for the
demands on herself, the run of business in a factory engaged in the
manufacture of a single grade of goods affects all employees at the
same time except for the varying amount of unemployment among
workers during the dull season.
The information given by the individual women corresponds so
nearly with that given by the employers that it confirms rather than
supplements the employers ’ information. The following tables show
the duration of seasons and working hours as reported by 517 women.
It should be noted here as in the employers’ tables that the hours for
the normal, dull, and busy seasons are exclusive of all overtime, and
that all overtime periods are grouped in one table.



69

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.
NORMAL SEASON.

The summary for the normal season shows that 99 per cent of the
women reported a normal season averaging 32J weeks in duration,
with weekly hours averaging 51^, rather less than the employers
reported. This may be accounted for in part by the fact that through
incorrect addresses a slightly undue proportion of individuals report­
ing were from establishments running shorter hours.
The average day was 9% hours, as compared with 9J reported by
employers, the short day 5} hours, as compared with 5^. The
longest regular weekly hours in the normal season reported by any
individual were 61, and by employers 60; and the shortest, 39 re­
ported by individuals, while the employers reported 42f.
Eighteen and eight-tenths per cent of the individuals reported
weekly hours of 48 or under, a rather larger per cent than was re­
ported by the employers, which may have been influenced by the
circumstance mentioned above. The per cent reporting regular
hours of 60 or over per week was very small, being only 0.6 per cent.
T able

5 6 .—W O R K IN G HOURS IN NO R M AL SEASON, R E PO R TED B Y 517 W O M EN EM­
P L O YE D IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 5 CITIES.
[Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.]
Season of normal hours.

Cities.

Dura­
tion
Average hours.
of
Women em­
Aver­
sched­
age
uled. ploy­ Women dura­
ment report­
Pre­
tion
in
Hours vail- Long
ing.
in
Short
weeks.
per
weeks. week.
day.
day.
&
hours.

Indianapolis r___
South Bend..........
Fort Wayne.........
Terre Haute.........
Evansville............
Total...........

259
85 .
87
41
45

41
42$
39$
32f
39$

255
85
87
41
45

30§
38$
33$
26f
31$

53^
55$

517

40

513

32$

51$

50$
50*

9
9
9J
9$
9$

5
5
7*
5$
H

Per cent reporting aver­
age weekly hours of—
Over
48
and
un­
der
55.

55
and
un­
der
60.

30.6
3.5
10.4
17.1

62.7
96.5
65.5
43.9
26.7

6.3

0.4

24.1
36.6
71.1

2.4
2.2

18.8

64.1

16.5

.6

39
to
48.

60
to
61.

1 Four did not report duration of season, 3 did not report weekly hours, and 2 did not report daily hours.
2 Only 1 woman reported a long day.

DULL SEASON.

Forty-three and seven-tenths per cent of the individuals reported
dull season— almost exactly the proportion reported by employers—
and the duration of the season was 11J weeks as reported by indi­
viduals, while the employers reported 13J weeks. This difference in
duration may be accounted for by the fact that the individuals would
lose some time in the dull season through lay offs, and would also take
their vacations (if they took any) in that season. The average weekly
hours are 44£, daily 8J, with the short day of 4J hours.



70

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The maximum weekly hours reported were 57 as compared with
59 reported by the employers, whose minimum (30 hours per week)
wias 10 hours in excess of the minimum of 20 hours reported by one
woman.
Ninety-six and one-half per cent of the women reporting dull season
reported weekly hours under 55, while the employers reported only
62 per cent of the women working under 55 hours during the dull
season. Sixty-five and one-half per cent of the women reported 48
hours or under, but the employers reported only 32J per cent of the
women affected by those hours.
From women employed in such establishments as reported sharp
seasonal variations the complaint came repeatedly that they did not
have enough work to keep them busy all day during the dull season,
and some said they did not have enough work to pay them for going
to the factory. It should be remembered that this would not apply
to the garment industry throughout Indiana, but only to a small
proportion of the factories.
T

able

5 7 .—W O R K IN G HOURS, IN D U L L SEASON, R E P O R TE D B Y 517 W O M E N EM P LO YE D
IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 5 CITIES.
[Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.]
Per cent reporting average weekly
hours of—

Average hours.
Cities.

Women Aver­
age
report­
ing
dura­
tion in
dull
season. weeks.

Hours Prevail­
ing
Short
per
daily
day.
week.
hours.

20 and
under
35.

35 and
under
42.

44
5
4{
4i

22.0

31.7
6.7
5.3
4.4
8.3

21.1
26.6
76.3
47.8
16.7

25.2
66.7
15.8
43.5
25.0

2.6
4.4
50.0

19.9

33.6

31.0

3.5

Indianapolis..............
South Bend...............
Fort Wayne
. ..
Terre Haute..............
Evansville.................

123
30
38
23
12

121
11
10\
10jf

41«
481
44|
48
51|-

H
8:r
9i

Total................

226

Hi

m

8A

12.0

42 to
48.

Over
48 and
under
55.

55 to
57£.

1 193 women reported a short day.

BUSY SEASON.

A busy season was reported by 132, or 25.5 per cent, of the indi­
viduals, while the employers who reported a busy season employed
19.2 per cent of the women. The average hours for the individuals
were 5 5 ^ weekly, 9f daily, 6 ^ on the short day, and a long day of
11J hours reported by 16 women. These hours are almost exactly
the same as those reported by the employers. In the matter of
maximum and minimum, however, the individuals report a slightly
higher maximum week, 63J hours, and a slightly higher minimum,
47 hours. This maximum does not represent the hours for any estab­
lishment as a whole, simply the hours worked by one woman, and
the same is true of the minimum.



71

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA,

Of the individuals, 47.7 per cent reported weekly hours of 55 or
more. There were approximately 18 per cent who reported hours
o\er 60. In this season only 6.8 per cent reported a week of 48 hours
or under. These per cents differ considerably from the per cents
reported by the employers for specified weekly hours, but. as only
19 employers reported a busy season, one or two large establishments
might, and do, affect the per cents of women employed, so that they
lose their value for comparison with the individuals.
T

able

5 8 .—W O R K IN G HOURS IN B U SY SEASON R EPO R TED B Y 517 W O M EN E M P LO YE D
IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 5 CITIES.
[Hours shown in this table do not include overtime.)

Cities.

Indianapolis..............
South Bend...............
Fort Wavne..............
Terre Haute..............
Evansville.................

91
2
17

9*
4

22

8*

Total................

132

Pre­
vailing
daily
hours.

55f
50
55£

f
m

Long
day.

m

:

9|

12J

55& |

Of

111J

57§

i Only 16 report a long day.

Per

Average hours.

Wom­ Aver­
en re­ age du­
port­
ration
ing
in
busy weeks. Hours
per
season.
week.

Short
day.

6J
5
5h

8.8
*‘ ” 5*9*

6.8

Over
48 and
under
55.

55 and
under
60.

53.8
100.0
35.3

41.2

17.0

13.7

47 to
48.

n
26 *

cent reporting average
weekly hours of—

54.5

31.8

45.5

29.5

18.2

22.0

60 to
63 b

15.4

2 112 women reported a short day.

OVERTIME SEASON.

Ninety-one, or 17.6 per cent, of the individuals report overtime
while the employers report but 12.7 per cent of the women working
overtime. The average duration of the overtime season reported by
individuals is 3-1 weeks; by employers, 6J weeks. It is probable
that many individuals worked a little overtime, and these occasional
short periods of overtime may have sometimes not been reported for
the establishment as a whole. The figures given in this season for the
individuals represent the average weekly hours for overtime periods,
with the prevailing daily hours in those weeks. The average weekly
hours for these weeks are 58J, daily hours 10£, long day lOf, and
short day 6 hours. These correspond almost exactly with the hours
reported by employers for the overtime periods, except that the long
day reported by employers averages 12 hours.
The maximum w
reekly hours reported by any individual were 75,
eight hours longer than the employers’ maximum, and the minimum
hours reported by any individual were 51, as compared with 49
reported by employers. As in other seasons, these differences might
quite possibly occur, since the maximum and minimum represent in
each case the hours of one person only.




72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The individual reports, as well as those of employers, practically all
show more than 55 hours per week during the overtime period, while
the employers report larger per cents at the longer hours than the
individuals.
Summing up the relation between the reports of seasons and hours
as given by employers and by individuals, the two reports show in
general close agreement in the averages of daily and weekly hours for
the different seasons. The duration of seasons varies in the two
reports, as it must, since one is the report of individuals, a few of
whom worked the entire 52 weeks in the year, and the other is the
report of establishments covering the whole year. The per cents of
women working specified weekly hours in the several seasons as
reported by employers differs from those reported by individuals.
T able

5 9 .—OVERTIME HOURS R EPO R TED B Y 517 W OM EN E M PLO YED IN G AR M EN T
FACTORIES IN 5 CITIES.

Wo­
men
re­
port­
ing
over­
time.

Cities.

Per cent reporting average weekly
Average hours.
hours of—
Aver­
age
dura­
Pre­
51
55
tion
60
65
Hours vail­ Long Short and
and
and
and
in
70 to
ing
per
day. under under under under
75.
weeks
week. daily day.
55.
60.
65.
70.
hours.

Indianapolis.................
South Bend .................
Fort W a y n e .................
Terre Haute...................
Evansville ...................

55
3
8
7
18

4
3
2
3

57*
56$
59
61|
CO
f

10
10
11
lli
10

Total....................

91

3.5

58.V

10*

i 42 reported a long day.

Hi
12V
10J

si
6h
of

1 104 1 2 6
1

23.6
56.4
66.7
12.5 ” 56*6'
14.3
14.3
50.0
18.7

49.4

12.7
33.3
25.0
57.1
33.3

12.5
14.3
11.1

7.3

5.6

22.0

8.8

1.1

2 71 reported a short day.

PAY FOR OYERTIME.

Of the 67 garment factories scheduled, 31, or 46.2 per cent, reported
overtime to some extent; all reported extra payment for overtime,
23, or 74 per cent, at regular rate and 8, of 26 per cent, at rate and onehalf. Of the individual women reporting overtime, 86.8 per cent
reported pay for overtime.
In contrast to the employers’ statements, 13.2 per cent of the
women individually scheduled reported overtime which was not paid
for at all. Since it is obviously impossible not to pay pieceworkers
for overtime, the inference would be, as is the fact, that the women
reporting overtime without pay are for the most part time workers.
The actual amounts earned by time workers through overtime were
not large and did not affect the earnings to any extent.




73

WAGE-EARNIN'G W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

6 0 .—N UM BER AN D PER CENT OF W O M EN R EPORTING OVERTIM E W IT H P A Y
A N D W IT H O U T P A Y AN D R ATE PAID FOR OVERTIM E IN GARM ENT FACTORIES OF
5 CITIES.

T able

Women re­
porting over­
time.
Cities.

Wo­
men
sched­
uled.

Total.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Women re­
porting over­
time with­
out pay.

Women reporting overtime with pay.

Num­ Per
ber.
cent.

At
regu­
lar
rate.

At
rate
and a
half.

At
time
rate.

Not
re­
port­
ing
rate.
2

Indianapolis...................
South Bend...................
Fort Wayne...................
Terre Haute...................
Evansville......................

259
85
87
41
45

55
3
8
7
18

21.2
3.5
9.2
17.1
40.0

55 ! 100.0
2
66.7
7
87.5
7 100.0
44.4
8

43
7
2 i ________
3
7
4
i

3

Total....................

517

91

17.6

79

59 i

86.8

8

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

1
1

33.3
12.5

2

1 ! ' io

55.6

9

3

12

13.2

4

EARNINGS.

The method employed in getting the earnings of the women em­
ployed in the garment factories was, in general, the same as that
employed in getting the earnings of those in the stores.1 The earnings
as reported by the individuals were taken in exactly the same way;
that is, average weekly earnings for full-time weeks worked, with the
exception that occasional days’ absences were not deducted from the
time worked. A “ full-time week,” however, should be understood
to mean the full time that the factory was running. In other words,
if a factory cut its hours from 54 to 44 on account of slack work, the
44 hours would be considered a week’s work, though the time was
less and the earnings probably less than in the normal season.
The employers were asked to submit their pay rolls for the selected
week, and since the greater part of the women were pieceworkers,
who would therefore have no weekly rate of pay, the actual earnings
for the selected week of each woman or girl on the pay roll were taken.
The prevailing method of pay in the garment industries of Indiana,
the method reported by employers for 82 per cent of the women in
their establishments and by 74 per cent of the individual women inter­
viewed, was the piece-rate system. Practically all work which can be
put on that basis is paid for ‘ ‘ by the piece.” The time-work is generally
of such a nature that it can not be adapted to piece rates. Time
rates are also paid to beginners for the first few weeks, during which
their piece-rate earnings would be so low as to discourage them from
persevering until they had gained at least a partial mastery of their
occupations.
With this system the basis of payment, the seasons and varying
tension of business have a greater influence on the earnings in the
garment factories than on the earnings in the stores, except where
the commission system is in effect in the stores. When the orders



74

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

come fast to the firm, the work comes fast to to pieceworkers and
they can work to the greatest advantage, even though they work no
longer hours than when business is slow and work comes with waits
of varying length in between. Whenever there is an actual length­
ening of hours, the earnings are, of course, increased, and conversely
with the shortening of hours in dull seasons, the earnings are de­
creased.
The cumulative per cents of all women, both piece and time work­
ers, at specified earnings, as reported both by the employers and by
the individuals, are shown in the two tables following. Table 61
shows again what was shown in the discussion of the wage data
from stores, viz, that the 5 cities in which individual schedules were
taken represent the same industrial sections of the State as are
represented by the entire 10 cities.
T a b l e 6 1 . — CUM ULATIVE

PER CENTS OF W O M EN RECEIVING SPECIFIED W E E K L Y
EAR NING S IN 67 GAR M ENT FACTORIES, AS SH O W N B Y ESTABLISH M EN T P A Y ROLLS
FOR A R E P R E SE N TA TIV E W E E K .

Aver­
age
earn­
Women ings
re­
for
ported. repre­ Un­
senta­ der
$3.
tive
week.

Cities.

Per cent with weekly earnings—

Un­
der
$4.

Un­
der
$5.

Un­
der
$6.

Un­
der
$7.

Un­
der
$8.

Un­
der
$9.

Un­
der
$10.

Un­
der
$12.

$12
or
over.

13.1
1.7
4.5
7.3
5.4

2,268 S7. 78
1 5S5 6.36
891 6.62
385 16. 28
223 6.16

7.5
8.9
8.8
13.5
14. 8

13.6
19.1
15.8
26.0
22.4

20.6
31.1
28.2
38.7
32.3

32.8
44.8
42.5
48.3
49.8

43.1
58.3
56.8
61.6
65.5

54.6
72.7
71.9
70.6
77.1

64.8
83.7
80.9
77.9
85.7

73.2
91.5
88.7
83.9
91.1

86.9
98.3
95.5
92.7
94.6

Total....................... 2 5,352 16.86
331 6.73
Richmond and Muncie...
Hammond, La Fayette,
160 5. 28
and New Albany...........

8. 9
8.8

16.9
13.9

26.8
26.9

39. 8
39.0

52.1
55.3

64.9
67.4

74.9
77.6

82. 7
88.2

92. 5 ;
1
96.1 I
|

20.6

35. 6

51.9

59.4

70.6

80.0

88.8

94.4 100.0

Grand total............. 3 5,843 16.92

9.2

17.2

27.5

40.3

52.8

65.5

75. 4

83.3

Indianapolis.......................
South Bend........................
Fort W a y n e ...................
Terre Haute.......................
Evansville..........................

92.9

7.5
3.9

7 .1

1 Including the average earnings of 100 women whose specified earnings were not reported.
2 Total for five cities in which individual schedules were taken.
3 As this total is taken from a pay roll for a representative week, it will not agree with totals on other
tables showing the usual number of women employed in normal season.
T a b l e 6 2 . — CUM ULATIVE

EAR NING S, AS
FACTORIES.

PER CENTS OF W O M EN RECEIVING SPECIFIED W E E K L Y
R EPO R TED B Y 513 IN D IV ID U ALS EM PLO YED IN GARM ENT

Cities.

Indianapolis.....................
South Bend......................
Fort Wayne......................
Terre Haute......................
Evansville........................
Total................ ; . . .




Aver­
Women age
report­ weekly Un­
earn­
ing.
der
ings.
$3.

Per cent with weekly earnings—
Un­
der
$4.

Un­
der
$5.

Un­ Un­
der i der
$6. j $7.

Un­
der
$8.

Un­
der
$9.

Un­
der
$10.

Un­
der
$12.

15.1
24.7
16. 7
26. 8
20.0

24.4 i 36.8
36.5 54.1
23.8 36.9
41.5 56.1
31.1 40.0

48.4
68.2
53.6
73. 2
66.7

64.3
78. 8
79.8
87.8
77.8

77.1
88.2
86.9
88.1
82.2

90.7
97.6
97.6
95.1
91.1

9.3
2.4
2.4
4.9
8.9

IS. 3

28.3 j 41.3
;

56.1

72.3

81.9

93.4

6.6

258 i $7.96
So
6.83
84 27.36
41
6.56
45
7.29

1.6
3.5
3.6
4.4

5.4
12.9
8.3
7.3
11.1

513

2,3

7.8

3 7.50

1 Including 1 whose rate of pay was not reported.
2 Including 3 whose rate of pay was not reported,
s Including 4 whose rate of pay was not reported.

$12
or
over.

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA,

75

VALUE OF AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS AS REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS.

The significance of average weekly earnings in this investigation,
as in every other, must be judged in the light of the conditions under
which such earnings were taken. Employers were requested to
submit for a “ representative week” a complete pay roll, including the
hours worked. Only 28, or a little more than 42 per cent, of the 66
establishments furnishing data were able to furnish the actual hours
worked by both time and piece workers during this representative
week, though an additional 18 establishments, or 27 per cent of the
firms, were able to furnish the actual working hours of time workers.
Inasmuch, however, as the pieceworkers outnumber the time workers,
at the rate of about 5 to 1 in the garment factories of Indiana,
the question arises as to the value of the average weekly earnings
furnished by the employers.
The 46 establishments, 28 of which furnished a record of the actual
hours worked by time and piece workers, employed more than 3,300
women and girls, or over 55 per cent of the total number of women
and girls on the pay rolls in the 66 garment factories furnishing pay­
roll data. It is possible, therefore, to get a fair idea of the significance
of average weekly earnings from these establishments without making
any deductions from the context of industrial conditions in which
they were taken.
The table below shows that the time lost from the full working
schedule by time workers in the 46 establishments ranged in the
several cities from 0.8 per cent to 12.8 per cent, averaging for all
cities 6.3 per cent. The pieceworkers show a loss ranging from
nothing to 15.3 per cent, averaging for all cities 11.3 per cent. It is
more than probable that this 11.3 per cent is in excess of the actual
time lost, due to the fact,that quite a number of large concerns pay
every two weeks, and their records therefore cover a two-week period.
In computing averages for one week both time and earnings were
divided by 2, even though the hours worked by certain individuals
appeared to be but a full-week schedule. Unless such cases were
definitely marked as working hours for one weekt and such notations
r
were rarely made, no assumptions were made and the policy of
dividing the twro-w^eek pay roll w consistently followed throughout.
^as
Had such exceptions been made, the percentage of loss in time w
rould
have dropped considerably below 11 per cent for the pieceworkers, as
in the 9 establishments paying every two weeks there were 200, or
approximately 11 per cent, of such cases where what may easily have
been a full week was cut in two.
Furthermore, whenever a firm attempts to maintain a 60-hour
schedule, the percentage of lost time is higher than when a firm main­
tains, for example, a 54-hour schedule. In other words, the working



76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

hours in Indiana seem to be gravitating toward a shorter actual
schedule, irrespective of the nominal schedule. Consequently the
employees of one firm may be reported as losing 10 per cent of the
nominal schedule, though their actual working hours were the same
as those of the employees of another firm whose loss of time from the
nominal schedule was very much less than in the case of the first firm.
It appears, however, from the following table that the maximum
amount of time lost during the representative week, as shown by
records available for one-half of the women employed in Indiana
garment trades, did not exceed an average of 10.3 per cent, taking
time and piece workers together:
T a b l e 6 3 . — ACTUAL

HOURS W O R K E D IN A R E PR ESEN TA TIV E W E E K COMPARED W IT H
T H E FULL-TIM E W O R K IN G HOURS IN 46 GARM ENT FACTORIES R EPORTING BO TH
EARNINGS AND HOURS.

Women
on estab­
lishment
pay
rolls.1

Cities.

Women in estab­
lishments report­
ing actual hours
worked in a repre­
sentative week.

Number. Per cent.

Indianapolis:
Pieceworkers..............................................
Time workers............................................
South Bend:
Pieceworkers.............................................
Time workers............................................
Fort Wayne:
Pieceworkers.............................................
Time workers............................................
Terre Haute:
Pieceworkers.............................................
Time workers............................................
Richmond and Muncie:
Pieceworkers..............................................
Time workers............................................
Evansville:
Pieceworkers..............................................
Time workers............................................
Hammond, La Fayette, and New Albany:
Pieceworkers.............................................
Time workers............................................

Average weekly
hours.

Full­
time
hours.

Actual
hours
worked
in a
represent­
ative
week.

Per cent
of time
lost.

1,823
445

791
183

43.4
41.1

54.4
53.4

47.4
50.2

12.9
6.0

1,390
195

1,195
176

86.0
90.3

52.9
51.5

47.0
47.2

11.0
8.3

747
144

302
32

40.4
22.2

50.6
51.2

42.8
48.4

15.3
5.5

428
57

97
40

22.7
70.2

48.2
55.1

48.2
54.6

.8

293
38

152
38

51.9
100.0

50.0
51.2

48.7
48.7

2.6
5.5

112
111

87
105

77.7
94.6

52.8
55.3

47.4
54.7

10.1
1.0

72
88

49
76

68.1
86.4

61.0
61.0

52.8
53.2

13.5
12.8

Total:
Pieceworkers...................................
Time workers.................................

4,865
1,078

2,673
650

54.9
60.3

52.9
53.9

46.9
50.6

11.3
6.3

Piece and time workers..................................

5,943

3,323

55.9

53.1

47.6

10.3

i Including 66 establishments.

The average weekly earnings reported by employers, therefore,
should, other factors being equal, reflect within 10 per cent the aver­
age weekly earnings of a full-time week. That this conclusion is in
accord with the facts develops upon comparing the average weekly
earnings as reported by the women individually scheduled,1 which
1 See Table 62; also method of computing earnings of individuals, p. 32.




WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

77

are the average earnings for substantially a full-time week during the
period of employment, and the average weekly earnings as reported
by the employers 1 for a representative week. The average earnings
reported by the individuals for a full-time week are approximately
8.4 per cent higher than the average weekly earnings reported by the
employers for a representative week, wherein the time lost is approxi­
mately 10 per cent in the cases where records are available. This
does not mean that the groups earning specified amounts necessarily
come within 10 per cent of each other, for the time losses shown on
an employer’s pay roll may be due to a few individuals working only
a small fraction of a week or to many individuals losing a small frac­
tion of time. In each case the average amount of time lost and the
average earnings for the whole pay roll might be the same, but the
groups losing time and earnings would be materially affected. Tables
61 and 62 show that the groups earning specified amounts, as reported
by employers and by individuals, are in fact materially different
except for the last four groups.
That the amount of time lost during the week fairly representing
the level of business should not exceed an average of approximately
10 per cent, is not surprising if the subject is discussed in close relation
to the conditions under which the average earnings were secured
and with constant and intelligent reference to the exigencies of suc­
cessful business. It must not be overlooked that the employers were
asked to submit a pay roll fairly representing normal conditions of
business. There would be no motive for failing to comply with this
request to the extent of submitting a pay roll which represented less
than normal business activity, and consequently subnormal weekly
earnings. There might be a tendency to submit pay rolls that rep­
resented more than normal activity, and consequently less than the
normal amount of lost time. If, therefore, the pay roll which repre­
sents normal, if not more than normal business activity, showed an
excessive loss of time, either there is a lack of scientific management
because of inadequate productivity, unprofitable investment in idle
equipment, waste of power and frequently of heat, as well as a need­
less expenditure for general operation—all of which is inconsistent
with the successful conduct of business over any long period of time;
or the excessive loss of time reflects an oversupply of labor under
normal conditions, which in this case was not in accord with the facts.
On the contrary, it was apparent that the supply of labor was not
more than was adequate, and in some instances the employers main­
tained that if they could get more help they would increase their
equipment.




1 See Table-62.

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

It may be said in passing that even the 10 per cent loss from a pay
roll representing normal conditions of business raises the question as
to efficiency of administration. In none of the garment factories
scheduled were two shifts operating. A number of employers re­
marked to the investigators that while some of the time workers
came promptly and left promptly the pieceworkers were much
inclined to come late or to go early. The question arises as to whether
such a laxity of working schedule is in the interest of good business,
either for the establishment or for the employee. If the workinghour schedule is well within the sustained working capacity of the
average operator, 100 machine pieceworkers coming late or going
early a half hour a day means 50 hours of lost productivity a day, or
300 hours in the week, to say nothing of any waste of power or of the
fact that the overhead charges are practically the same with those
300 hours of productivity saved or lost, yet this loss of time amounts
to less than 6 per cent on the basis of a 9-hour day. On the other
hand, the pieceworking employee is losing between 5 and 6 per cent
of the possible earnings a day, even if the schedule is but a 9-hour
schedule. If the schedule is excessive for the amount of strain in­
volved in the work, causing the women to work less than the regular
factory hours, ordinarily there will still be a tendency frequently to
work the full factory hours in order to make up for lost time, thus
cutting off needed rest and leisure and paying for it afterwards in
reactions and further losses of time.
GROUP EARNINGS.

The actual earnings reported by individuals for full-time weeks
show that only 41.3 per cent of the women in the garment industries
were in the group earning less than $7, the group in which 48.9 per
cent of the department-store women were found. This does not
mean that the factory workers earned on the whole more than the
store workers. As a matter of fact, their average earnings were a
trifle lower, but it does mean that there were fewer garment workers
at the lowest earnings and that their earnings advance more rapidly
up to a certain point than the earnings of women in stores, as is
shown in Tables 23 and 62. Nearly three-fourths of the women in
the garment factories and two-thirds in the stores average less than
$9 a week for the weeks actually worked. The proportion of women
earning over $10 is 18 per cent in the garment factories and about 27
per cent in the stores.
COMPARATIVE EARNINGS OF PIECE AND TIME WORKERS.

Closely related to earnings is the question of occupation. The
principal difference in occupations in the Indiana garment factories,
owing to the fact that the chief article of manufacture is coarse



79

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA,

clothing, is in the work done by pieceworkers and by time workers.
For the pieceworkers the occupations were practically all some
variation of machine operating. Though the different machine
processes in the manufacture of a garment were generally classed as
different occupations, the distinctions were largely arbitrary and not
uniform, as they varied with the product of each establishment. As
this was not essentially a study of occupations, no attempt has been
made to subdivide into specific occupations the number of women in
the two main groups of piece and time workers. In general, it may
be said that the factories manufacturing coarse clothing have less
sharply defined occupations, while the establishments manufacturing
high-grade men’s or women’s clothing have a greater variety of
occupations as well as a wider range of pay.
Earnings of piece and time workers are shown in the foregoing and
the following tables, summarizing reports of employers and of
women employees.
T a b l e 6 4 . — CLASSIFIED

W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF W O M EN EM P LO Y E D IN 66 G AR M E N T
FACTORIES IN 10 LOCALITIES, AS SH O W N B Y T H E ESTABLISH M EN T P A Y ROLLS
FOR A R E P R E SE N T A T IV E W E E K .
Pieceworkers earning—
Cities.

Indianapolis:
Number................
Percent................
South Bend:
Number................
Per cent................
Fort Wayne:
Number................
Percent................
Terre Haute:
Number................
Per cent................
Richmond and Mun­
cie:
Num ber...............
Per cent................
Evansville:
Number................
Per cent................
Hammond, La Fay­
ette, and New Al­
bany:
Number................
Percent..............
Total:
Number.. .
P e rc e n t...

$12
Under S3 to $4 to $5 to $6 to $7 to $8 to $9 to $10 to
$3. S3.99. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. and
over.

Aver­
age
Total earn­
pieceings of
work­
pieceers.
work­
ers.

151
8.3

119
6.6

128
7.0

204
11.2

172
9.4

212
11.6

173
9.5

161
8.8

268
14.7

235
12.9

1,823
80.4

$7.78

113
8.1

112
8.1

174
12.5

192
13.8

190
13.7

213
15.3

166
11.9

119
8.6

96
6.9

15
1.1

1,390
87.7

6.47

70
55
9.4 i 7.4

95
12.7

100
13.4

100
13.4

113
15.1

67
9.0

63
8.4

55
7.4

29
3.8

747
83.8

6.53

52
12.2

44
10.3

46
10.7

32
7.5

44
10.3

33
7.7

21
4.9

18
4.2

25
5.8

19
4.4

i 428
88.2

6.00

24
8.2

12
4.1

30
10.2

34
11.6

53
18,1

39
13.3

31
10.6

35
11.9

24
8.2

11
3.8

293
88.5

6.93

14
12.5

14
12.5

15
13.4

23
20.6

24
21.4

8
7.1

8
7.1

2
1.8

2
1.S

2
1.8

112
50.2

5.46

1
1.4

3
4.2

6
8.3

7
9.7

13
18.1

13
18.1

12
16.6

9
12.5

8
11.1

72
45.0

7.34

425
8.7

359
7.4

494
10.1

592
12.2

596
12.3

631
13.0

478
9.8

407
8.4

478
9.8

311 1 4,865
6.4
81.9

6.95

1 Including 94 pieceworkers in one establishment which reported average earnings only.




80

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b l e 6 4 . — CLASSIFIED

W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF W O M E N EM P LO Y E D IN 66 G AR M EN T
FACTORIES IN 10 LO CALITIES, AS SH O W N B Y TH E ES T A B L IS H M E N T P A Y ROLLS
FOR A R E P R E SE N T A T IV E W E E K —Concluded.
Time workers earning

Cities.

Indianapolis:
Number................
Percent................
South Bend:
Number................
Percent................
Fort Wayne:
Number................
Per cent................
Terre Haute:
Number................
Per cent................
Richmond and Mnncie:
Number................
Per cent................
Evansville:
Number................
Per cent................
Hammond, La Fay­
ette, and New Al­
bany:
Number................
Per cent................

Aver­
Aver­
age
age Total earnTotal earn- piece inf
time inf
and
Un­ $3 to
$12 work­
time piece
$5 to
der 13.99. $4 to $5.99. $6 to $7 to $8 to i $9 to $10 to and
$6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. over. ers.1 time work­ and
$4.99.
$3.
work­ ers. time
ers.
work­
ers.

19
4.3

74
48
31
61
58
7.0 16.6 13.7 10.8 13.0

31
7.0

42
9.4

62
13.9

16
8.2

8
4.1

4
2.1

12
6.2

12
6.2

8
22
27
28
15
5.6 10.4 19.4 18.7 15.3

13
9.0

6
4.2

6
4.2

2
7
3.5 12.3

5
8.8

19
4.3

28
50
14.3 25.6
8

4
7.0

25
24
16
8.2 12.8 12.3

3
5.3

7
8.8 12.3

1
2.6

19
16.5

3
2.6

11
18
9.6 15.7

11
9.6

2
2.3

105 159 136 109
9.7 14.8 12.6 10.1

102
9.5

195
12.3

5; 54 1,585

6.36

11
7.6

144
16.2

6.79

891

6.62

9
15.8

9
15.8

2 57
11.8

8.36

485

6.28

2
5.3

2
5.3

38
11.5

5.18

331

6.73

6
5.2

10
8.7

111
49.8

6.87

223

6.16

1
1.1

88
55.0

3.58

160

5.28

78
7.2

106 * 1,078
9.8
18.1

6.74 5,943

6.92

2
2.3

7
16
6.1 13.9

32
21
20
36.3 23.9 22.7

Total:
Number.. . 111 110
Per cent.. . 10.3 10.2

$7.78

3
7.9

5
5
6
13
13.2 13.2 34.2 15.7

5
5. 7

1
2.6

445 $7.76 2,268
19.6

5
5.7

10
8.7

56
5.2

1 Per cent based on total number of piece and time workers.
2 Including 6 time workers in one establishment which reported average earnings only.
T a b l e . 6 5 . — CLASSIFIED

W E E K L Y EAR N IN GS OF W O M EN EM PLO YED IN TH E GAR­
M ENT FACTORIES IN 5 CITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y IN D IV ID U ALS.
Pieceworkers earning

Cities.

Indianapolis:
Number.................
Per cent.................
South Bend:
Number.............
Per cent.................
Fort Wayne:
Number.................
Per cent.................
Terre Haute:
Number.................
Per cent...............
Evansville:
N um ber.............
Per cent
Total:
Number___
P ercen t..;.

Un­
der
$3.

Av­
er­
To­
age
earn­
tal
Not piece­ ings
$5
$6
$8
$9
$10
$12
$3
$4
$7
re­ work­ of
to
to
to
to
to
and
to
to
to
port­ ers. piece$3.99 $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99 over.
ed.
work­
ers.

4
2.0

i6
2.9

16
7.8

18
8.8

27
13.2

24
11.7

33
16.1

2 26
12.7

31
15.1

1
1.7

3
5.1

2
3.4

38

13.6

13
22.0

11
18.6

9
15.3

6
10.2

6
10.2

3
4.1

4
5.5

6
8.2

4
5.5

9
12.3

10
13.7

20
27.4

6
8.2

7
9.6

2
5.6

*8
22.2

5
13.8

34
11.1

i8
22.2

6
16.7

1
2.8

1
8.3

4
33.3

1
8.3

1
3
8.3 I 25.0

1
8.3

9 1 16
2.3 4.2

< 36
9.4

*36
9.4

3 54 ! 1 50
14.0 ! 14.5

69
17.9

1
8.3

45
11.7

$8.06

59
100.0

7.23

1
1.4

3
73
4.1 100.0

7.30

2
5.6

36
100.0

6.53

12
100.0
238
9.9

1
205
0.4 100.0

5.44

4
385
1.0 1
100.0

7.56

19
9.3

22
5.7

1 Including 1 who worked only 5 days a week.
*
2 Including 7 reporting regular rate and 10 cents for supper, and 1 reporting “ a little over regular rate.”
3 Including 1 who worked only 4J days a week.
< Including 1 reporting both piece and time work in equal amounts.




W AGE-EABNIXU W OM EN IN IN D IAXA.

81

T a b l e 6 5 . —CLASSIFIED

W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF W O M EN E M PLO YED IN T H E GAR­
M ENT FACTORIES IN 5 CITIES, AS R EPO R TED B Y IN D IV ID U A L S—Concluded.
Time workers earning-

Cities.

Av­
er­
To­
To­
age
tal
tal earn- time
time i n f and
$12
Un­ 13
$4
$5
$7
$8
$9
$10
So
pieceto
der. to
to
to
to
and work­
to
to
to
$3. S3.99 $4.99 15.99 $0.99 $7.99 $8.99 $9.99 Sll. 99 over. ers. time work­
work­ ers
!
ers.
f
j
i

Indianapolis:
!
5
4
9
0
0
8
7
Number.................. ........i
1*6 cent..................
1’
7.4 10.0 11.1 9.3 11.1 14.8 13.0
South Bend:
1
1
2
2
2 i 5
2
s
Number..................
7.7
Per cent.................. 7.7 j19.2 30..S 7.7 7.7 3.8
Fort Wayne:
1
Nnmhpr_________
2
2
2
4
P rent__________I____ i____ 7.1 14.3 14.3 28.0 14.3
<»r
Terre Haute:
i 1
1
1
Number................. i
20.0 20.0 ____ i........
20.0
Per cent..................
Evansville:
1 1 2
4
2
4
*
3
Number..................
»l
12.1 9.1 7.3 112.1 0.1
Per cent.................. 3.0 j 0.1
1
Total:
15
Number____
18
3 ! 12
Per cent------ 2.3 | 9.1 13.0 11.4

13
20 ! 14
15.2 |
9.8 1
10.0
i

11
8.3

4
7.4

54 $7.58
5
9.3 100.0

2
7.7

2
20
7.7 ;100.0

1
14
7.1 .100.0
i
a
2 ......... i
40.0 .........100.0

Av-.
erage
earninf
piece
and
time
work­
ers.

259

$7.96

5.93

85

G.83

7.05

87

7.36

0.80

41

0.56

4 ! 33
12.1 100.0

7.90

45

7.29

12 ! 132
u !
10.0 I 9.1 100.0

7.33

1 517

7.50

2
14.3

4
12.1

i Including 4 whose average earnings were not reported.

The average earnings of pieceworkers as reported by individuals
($7.56) is but 23 cents higher than the average earnings reported by
time workers ($7.33) and the data from employers show a differ­
ence of but 24 cents in the earnings of piece and time workers, piece­
workers’ average being $6.95 and time workers’ $6.74. The average
earnings for both piece and time workers is $7.50 as reported by indi­
viduals and $6.92 as reported by employers. The explanation of
the lower earnings reported by the employers has been discussed
on page 34.
It has been shown that the earnings of piece and time workers
do not differ materially. There is nevertheless a difference in the
opportunity presented in piece and time work. Few time workers,
aside from forewomen, will ever receive more than the weekly rate,
while piece rates, being based on the productivity of the average
worker, will permit the exceptionally skilled pieceworker to earn
much more than the average. But the pieceworker, to earn high
pay, must not only be an exceptionally skilled worker, but must
work with unceasing speed and concentration. Many girls reported
occasional high earnings, but said they could not maintain the rate.
Furthermore, the pay roll and cost records of one highly seasonal
establishment,1studied for a number of w^eeks during the rush season,
1

66172°—Bull. 160—14



Manufacturing men's coats.

6

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

showed that after a week in which overtime had been worked and
the workers had been speeded up, so that the output was above the
normal for the time worked and the labor cost per garment therefore
reduced, the following week, when the hours were reduced to normal,
showed not only a decreased output but a decreased rate of output
and an increased labor cost per garment. This was but one estab­
lishment, so no general deductions can be made, but the indica­
tions are significant.
EARNINGS RELATED TO AGE AND EXPERIENCE.

In the following table the relation between earnings, age, and expe­
rience is shown:
66. —AVE R A G E W E E K L Y EAR N INGS, B Y SPECIFIED AGES AND Y E A R S OF E X PER IENCE, AS R EPO R TED B Y 508 W OM EN EM PLO YED IN GARM ENT F AC T O R IES.

T a b le

1.4 and un­ 16 and un­ 18 and un­ 22 and un­ 25 and un­ 30 and un­
der 16 years. der 18 years. der 22 years. der 25 years. der 30 years. der 35 years.
Years of experience.

Under 1 year.........................
1 year.......................................
2 years.....................................
3 years.....................................
4 years.....................................
5 years.....................................
6 years.....................................
7 years.....................................
8 years.....................................
9 years.....................................
10 years...................................
11 years...................................
12 years...................................
13 years. . ..........................
14 years...................................
15 years...................................
16 years...................................
17 years...................................
18 years
..........................
19 years...................................
20 years...................................
21 to 29 years.........................
30 years and over.................
Total............................

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age Num­ age
ber. earn­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
32 13.49
9 4.88

16 $5.63
14 6.76
18 7.13
23 7.62
12 7.29
21 7.47
3 7.48
3 7.94
1 5.39

18 $5.03
9 5.15
18 6.36
3 6.78
1 4.50

5
2
6
2
11
6
7
7
6
14
2 18
6
4
1
2
1

i
!
......... '______I______1
_____

i

!

.1
......... !.. .
......... !

i

i
!

i

1.
i
i..........

$5.47
4.65
7.95
7.75
8.62
9.02
10.15
8.93
8.89
9.03
8.54
9.96
9.94
12.00
10.45
7.50

!..
i
j

$5.82
12.01
7.12
8.12
8.50
10.14
9.08
10.00
19.91
7.50
10.17
8.37
9.34
8.38
13.25
9.00
8.26
9.78
8.67
14.00

3 50

19.19

......... i..........
41

3.80

4 49

5.63

111

7.07

<74

7.78

5 88

8.75

1 Includes wage of 1 working only 4J days a week.
2 Not including 2 not reporting earnings.
3 Not including 1 not reporting earnings.
4 Not including 1 not reporting experience.
&Not including 2 not reporting earnings and 1 not reporting experience.




4
1
1
2
2
3
3
1
3
1
4
1
7
2
2
6
2
32
2
1

!

. ..

8 $6.08
1 8.50
5 6.46
5 7.12
8 8.76
8 6.52
11 7.10
7 10.10
11 8.78
5 8.73
3 7.29
1 10.00
1 7.50

83

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.
T a b le 6 6 _ A V E R A G E
_

W E E K L Y EAR NINGS, B Y SPECIFIED AGES AN D Y E A R S OF
E X P E R IE N C E , AS R E P O R TE D B Y 508 W O M EN E M P LO Y E D IN GAR M EN T FACTO­
RIES—Concluded.
35 and under
40 years.
Years of experience.
Num­
ber.

Under 1 year.........................
1 year .....................................
2 years.....................................
3 years.....................................
4 years.....................................
5 years.....................................
6 years.....................................
7 years.....................................
8 years....................................
9 years.....................................
10 years...................................
11 years
..............................
12 years...................................
13 years...................................
14 years...................................
15 years...................................
16 years...................................
17 years...................................
18 years...................................
19 years...................................
20 years...................................
21 to 29 years.............. ..........
30 years and over..................
Total............................

40 and under 50 and under
50 years.
60 years.

60 years and
over.

Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
age Num­ age Num­ age Num­
age
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
ber.
ber.
ber.
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.

5
1
3
1
3
1
1
3

8.40
10.00
13.40
13.00
7.57
9.25
6.53
8.52

36
2
2
1
1
4
1

9.58
8.45
6.50
11.00
13.00
7.94
9.86

1
1
2
344

2
1
2
2
3
3
1

$6.26
8.00
8.00
9.05
7.75
8.00
9.00

3

7.46
8*64
7.21
12.57

11.00

2
1
2
1
2
6

8.82

37

1

$4.53

7.00

1

7.34

7.67
11.50
8.79
10.00

11.04
8.10

1

$4.56

. . . . . . . .
1
5.00

8.20

1
2
2
1

2

1

6.83

2

8.75

8.50
9.48

1
1
1

7.00
6.91
8.14

8.53

11

6.80

1

4.75

1

4.91

3

4.73

Total.

Num­
ber.

Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

93
i 42
51
41
38
i 45
26
20
27
20
* 23
12
18
5
5
13
4
34
5

$4.79
6.30
6.98
7.96
8.16
7.72
8.35
9.05
2 8.71
8.88
8.81
9.36
8.75
10.46
12.08
8.35
7.47
9.28
8.62

6
9
1

8.99
8.88
8.14

&508
---------- » _

7.51

1 Not including 1 not reporting age.
2 Includes wage of 1 working only 4£ days a week.
3 Not including 1 not reporting earnings.
4 Not including 3 not reporting earnings.
5 Not including 4 not reporting earnings, 3 not reporting experience, and 2 not reporting age.

The most significant fact shown by this table is that neither age
nor experience can raise the earnings above the level reached at a
comparatively early age and limited number of years of experience.
Looking first at the effect of age on the earnings, the table shows that
the young girls under 16 years of age reported average earnings of
$3.80, which is 69 cents higher than the earnings of girls the same age
in the retail stores. The earnings of each successive age group
steadily increase through the group 30 and under 35 years of age.
From that point the earnings steadily decrease until for the group
60 years and over the earnings have dropped back to $4.73 per week.
The numbers at these ages are not large enough, however, to be
significant. The highest earnings reported for any one group were
those of the women 30 to 34 years old, whose average earnings were
$9.19. In this group were 50, or approximately 10 per cent of the
women. The largest group was that 18 and under 22 years of age,
whose average earnings were $7.07. From 25 to 50 years of age the
average earnings range between $8.53 and $9.19. It must be remem­
bered that these earnings are for practically full-time weeks, only
absences amounting to less than six days scattered throughout the
period of employment being deducted from the earnings. All other
lost time was deducted from the number of weeks employed. Assum


84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

m that the earnings after 25 were sufficient for the support of the
g*
average woman, it is difficult to see how, in the case of many of the
women, provision can be made for years preceding 25 or succeeding
50 without financial assistance of some sort, or without sinking to a
standard of living too low for “ health or reasonable comfort.”
The influence of experience on earnings was very similar to that of
age. At first every year of experience brings increased earnings, but
after a very few years of experience its effect on earnings ceases and
so far as experience goes the earnings remain at the same level, raised
or lowered principally by the factors of individual efficiency. The
earnings of 93 women with less than one year’s experience averaged
$4.79. They were not exclusively the younger women by any means,
as nearly one-third were over 21 years of age. The number of women
reporting more than 10 years’ experience was so few that no definite
deduction concerning the relation between their earnings and expe­
rience can be made. The majority of the women reported from 1
to 10 years of experience.
DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

The average period of employment during the year in the garment
industry was, for the 517 women, 40 weeks. When it is taken into
consideration that 18 per cent of these women had had less than a
year’s experience, i. e., entered the industry for the first time some,
time during the year covered by this investigation, and therefore
may have worked considerably less than a full year, and that others
may have left the garment industry for some other during the year, the
industry in Indiana seems to afford comparatively steady work. The
number of weeks varied considerably in the different cities, but in the
Terre Haute group, where the average was the lowest, strikes were a
large factor in the unemployment. The table following shows that
of those who had had one or more years of experience 151, or 38.6 per
cent, worked from 48 to 50 weeks, and nearly 74 per cent worked 44
weeks or more.
T a b le 6 7 . — W E E K S OF EM PLOYM ENT IN GARM ENT FACTORIES D U R IN G T H E Y E A R ,

AS R EPO R TED B Y 42-1 W OM EN H AV IN G ONE OR MORE Y E A R S OF E X P E R IE N C E IN
T n iS IN D U ST R Y.

Cities.

Indianapolis..................
South Bend...................
Fort Wayne
Terre Haute...................
Evansville......................
Total:
Number........
Per cent.......




Num­ Number reporting specified weeks of employment during the year.
ber
Num­ withl
or
36
44
ber re26 ! 32
40
48
Un­
and
and
and j and
and
and
51 to Weeks
port- more
52
ing. year’s der 26 under under under under under under.
not re­
44
32
36
40
48
51
weeks. ported.
expe­ weeks.
weeks. weeks. weeks. weeks. weeks. weeks.
rience.
239
85
87
41
45
517
100

214
67
70
31
42
424
82.0 1
1

10
4
4
7
2
27
6.4

3
i
2
2 j
|
i
8 !
1.9 i

5
1
1
1
8
1.9

10
2
2
2
9
|
- !
25 i
5.9 i
1
I

13
2
5
5
15

37
11
25
7
7

96
25
21
3
6

40
9.4

87
20.5

151
35.0

37
22
11
5

... ..j.
75
17.7

3

f •j
3
0.7

85

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

The question arises as to how the remainder of the time— that is,
the time not actually employed in the garment industry—was spent.
An analysis has been made showing the proportion of the time spent
in the garment industry, in other employment, and in actual unem­
ployment. For this table the number of weeks in 1913 prior to any
individual's first employment have been eliminated, so the per cents
are based 011 the 25,581 possible weeks of work for the 517 individuals.
Women having no other unemployment in this year except time prior
to their first employment have not been considered unemployed.
T a b le 6 8 .—W E E K S OF EM PLOYM ENT IN GAR M ENT FACTORIES, A N D IN O TH ER EM­

PLOYM ENTS, AND NUM BER OF W E E K S OF U N EM PLO YM EN T IN 1913, R EPO R TED
B Y 517 W OM EN EM PLOYED IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN SPECIFIED LOCALITIES.
I

Cities.

i PossiWo­
men | ble
sched­ weeks
of
uled. work.1

Weeks worked
in garment
Work in'other employments.
factories.
Women re­
porting.

Weeks.

Total___

Women re­
porting.

Weeks.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Nuniber.
Indianapolis. . .
South Bend___
Fort W ayn e....
Terre Haute. . .
Evansville.___

Unemployment.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

259 12,693£ 10,599|
85 4,251
3 ,613|
87 4,185* 3 ,415f
1,348$
41 2,132
45 2,319
1,768

83.5
85.0
81.6
63.2
76.2

28
11
12
5
6

10.8
12.9
13.8
12.2
13.3

466J
. 146|
152*
83
128

3.7
3.4
3.6
3.9
5.5

517 25,581

81.1

62

12.0

976*

3.8

20,745J

Num­
ber.
223
70
78
38
44 ;
!
453
i

Per
cent.

Num­ Per
ber. cent.

86.1 1,627§
82.4
491*
89.7
617*
92.7
700|
97.8
423

12.8
11.6
14.8
32.9
18.3

87.6 3 ,859|

15.1

* As a number of the women did not begin working until after the first of the year, the possible weeks
o work are less than 52 times the number reporting.

For the 517 women there were 25,5811 possible weeks of work in
the year 1913; 20,745^ of these weeks, or 81.1 per cent, were spent
in the garment industry. Looking at the proportion of time spent
in the garment industry for each city, it will be seen that the per
cent is much lower in Terre Haute and considerably lower in Evans­
ville, thus bringing down the average for the State. The Terre Haute
situation was affected materially, as has been noted, by strikes. In
Evansville the lower per cent of employment in the garment factories
was due to the fact.tliat two large establishments closed down entirely
for several weeks in the summer, and as a large part of the Evansville
women scheduled were in those establishments the per cent was
materially reduced.
OTHER EMPLOYMENT.

Turning to the “ other employment,” the table shows that 62, or
12 per cent, of the women report other employment, covering 976-Jweeks, or 3.8 per cent of the possible weeks of work. Terre Haute,
which had the lowest per cent of employment in the garment industry,
1 This does not include the weeks in 1913 prior to any woman’s first employment, but includes all other
time.




86

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

did not report the highest per cent in other employment; on the
contrary, it had almost exactly the average but it had over twice the
average per cent of unemployment. Of these 62 women reporting
other employment, two-thirds went into other factories, one-sixth,
went into hotel and laundry work, and the remaining one-sixth
reported work in various miscellaneous occupations, including store
work, telephone, and office work.
T a b le 6 9 .— WOMEN IN D IV ID U A L L Y SCHEDULED IN G ARM ENT FACTORIES R E P O R T ­

ING “ O TH ER E M P LO Y M E N T,” A V ER AG E D U R ATIO N OF SUCH E M P LO Y M EN T, AN D
A VE R A G E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S T H E R E IN .
Women reporting other employment.

Number.

Total
weeks
worked
in other
employ­
ment.

Average
number
of weeks
per
person.

Indianapolis......................................................
Terre Haute......................................................
Evansville.........................................................
Fort Wayne......................................................
South Bend. *....................................................

127
5
6
12
11

406
83
128
152J
14G§

17.3
16.6
21.3
12.7
13.3

$6.90
6.81
6.28
4.51
M .80

$6.04
5.55
6.02
5.21
2 5.34

23.4
26.6
22.0
19.3
17.9

Total........................................................

iGl

976*

16.0 j

25.91

2 5.62

21.9

Cities.

Average Average
weekly
weekly
earnings earnings
in other
in
employ­ garment
ment.
factories.

Average
age.

1 Not including 1 woman doing home dressmaking during 1$ weeks of lay off; earnings not reported.
2 Not including earnings of 2 women not reported.

As has been stated, the “ other employment7 was, for two-thirds
7
of the women, employment in some other manufacturing industry,
generally the one in which work was most easily obtained. The
average amount of other employment was 16 weeks per person, a
considerable amount, which would seemingly represent definite work
carried on for some time. That women who reported this other em­
ployment were not up to the average of the workers in the garment
industry is shown by their average earnings, which were $5.62, almost
$2 lower than the general average in the garment factories. Their
average earnings in other industries ($5.91) were a trifle higher than
in the garment industries. That they were not the younger girls is
shown by their average age, which was 22 for all cities and ranged
from 18 to 26J in the different cities. Whether this other employ­
ment meant an effort on the part of these women, who had not done
even as well as the average in the garment industry, to better them­
selves by trying some other work can not be more than brought up
as a question from the material available at the present time.
UNEMPLOYMENT.

Turning to the actual unemployment of the women studied, there
is a period of 3,859f weeks, representing 15 per cent of the possible
number of weeks of work and affecting 87.6 per cent of the women
to be considered.



W AGE-EAENING W O M E X IN INDIANA.

87

Inasmuch as it was not the purpose of this investigation to make
a sharply analytical study of the causes of unemployment, it is not
possible to discuss the subject with as much detail and accuracy as
will be necessary before final conclusions will be warranted. The
material here is principally valuable as pointing out the factors to
be clearly developed in some future study. The full extent-of unem­
ployment or of its various causes can not be shown, but at least
the tendencies are plainly indicated and show where further investi­
gation should be made.
To facilitate discussion of the data here presented unemployment
has been separated into three groups—unemployment from causes
directly traceable to the industry, from causes in no way connected
with the industry, and unemployment due to illness.
Under the first group falls the unemployment due to lay off. Six
hundred and forty-four and one-sixth weeks or 16.6 per cent of the
time unemployed, are attributed to this cause, which was reported by
39.7 per cent of the women. In other words, although the garment
trades of Indiana are not sharply seasonal, a worker may expect,
according to the figures presented by these 517 women, an average
of about 7\ days lay off. In the year 1913 the floods caused addi­
tional periods of lay off, since some factories were forced to close,
amounting to 50f weeks, or 1.3 per cent of the total amount of un­
employment. While this would not be normal, and has not there­
fore been included under lay offs proper, it was something beyond
the power of the worker to prevent. Strikes were responsible for
266-J- weeks of idleness, or 6.9 per cent of the total number of weeks
of unemployment. Leaving out of the question the last two groups
as not normally to be expected, the average worker, then, must
expect to provide out of her earnings for 1| weeks of enforced idle­
ness. The question arises as to whether the worker can not fill in
this time to advantage in some other industry. From the informa­
tion gathered from individuals it would seem that she can not as a
rule. Only three women, or 1.7 per cent of those reporting lay off,
reported any other employment during that time. For two of them
the other work was casual sewing at home for neighbors, for the other
it was temporary work during the preholiday rush in a department
store. Temporary work is difficult to find at a moment’s notice, and
temporary workers are not desired in any industry except at periods
of temporary activity, nor can they fit themselves to do the work
of a new industry in a few days. The probability of having the time
of lay off occur simultaneously with the time of temporary activity
in some industry where no previous training or special fitness is
^required is remote.
Turning to the causes which are in no way related to the industry,
it appears from the table that Voluntary vacation” and the group



88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

“ Other personal reasons” are dominant factors. By far the greater
part of the unemployment not due to the industry was charged to the
latter group of causes, i. e., illness in the worker's family, family
cares or responsibilities which demanded presence at home, lack of
necessity for steady work, etc. One thousand seven hundred and
thirty-eight and five-twelfths weeks, or 45.1 per cent, of the unem­
ployment were chargeable to this group of causes, and affected 52.8
per cent of the women.
T a b l e 7 0 _ AM OUNT,
_

CAUSES, A N D D ISTR IBU TION OF U N EM P LO YM EN T R E P O R TE D
B Y 466 W OM EN FOR TH E Y E A R 1913 IN GARM ENT FACTORIES IN 5 LO CALITIES.

Unemploy­
ment. *

Causes and distribution of unemployment.

Other causes connected
with the industry.

Lay off.
Cities.

Wom­
en
re­ Weeks
port­
ing.

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Lay off because of floods.

Women
reporting.

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Weeks.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
Indianapolis. 1223 1,627|
South Bend.. 2 70
491*
Fort Wayne.
78
«174
38
Terre Haute.
700|
44
Evansville.. .
423

37.2
22.9
52.6
18.4
75.0

83
16
41
7
33

T otal... &453 3,8591 | 180
1

164*
26*
118|
m
305a
-

10.1
5.4
19.2
4.2
72.2

3 12
44

31.6
9.1

266*
20

39.7 | 644*

16.6

16

3.5

2861

25

7.4 1

201

1.3

37.2

28

4.5

1

38.0
4.7

11.2

29

2.3

2

.5

55

12.1

50$

1.3

Causes and distribution of unemployment.
Voluntary vacation.
Cities.

Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Other personal reasons.
Women
reporting.

Weeks.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

98
31
39
13
1

43.9
44.3
50.0
34.2
2.3

229*
67§
89*
32
2

14.1
13.8
14.5
4.6
.5

115
54
39
23
8

51.6
77.1
50.0
60.5
18.2

I
' S59f
1 281^
i 258
321£ |
! m j

52.8
57.3
41.8
45.9
4.2

182

40.2

420

| 10.9

239

52.8 jl,738>*; 45.1
1

Indianapolis.. .
South Bend—
Fort W ayn e.. .
Terre H a u te ...
Evansville........
Total.

...

Illness.
Women
reporting.

Per j Num­
cent.
ber.

Weeks.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

66
21
25
10
13

29.6
30.0
32.1
26.3
29.5

347|
54J
123£
51J
75f

21.4
11.1
20.0
7.3
17.9

135

29.8

6531*2

16.9

Per
cent.

1 One woman, out of employment for 6 weeks, did not report cause.
2 Two women, with total unemployment of 61 weeks, did not report causes.
3 Caused by strike.
4 Caused by firm going out of business.
&Three women, with total unemployment of 67 weeks, did not report causes.

Voluntary vacation covered 420 weeks, or 10.9 per cent of the
time, and was reported by 40.2 per cent of the women. The line
between voluntary vacation and some of the other personal reasons
is very difficult to draw, but so far as was possible only the time that
was voluntarily taken off for the purpose of rest and recreation was



WAGE-EAKNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

89

included in this group. It is a question whether these periods of
rest should be called “ unemployment.” Vacations are recognized
as needful for the average worker, and in the mercantile establish­
ments the custom of providing vacations with pay is growing. Only
one or two cases of vacation with pay were reported in the garment
factories.
Unemployment due to illness.

The remaining cause of unemployment was illness. One hundred
and thirty-five, or 29.8 per cent, of the women report a total of 653T
^
weeks, or 16.9 per cent, of all the unemployment as being due to
illness. This, for the whole number of women, would average over
7J days apiece. If these figures indicate truly the normal conditions,
it means that the woman in the garment industry must expect to
lose time from illness as well as from lay offs, and something over a
week would be the normal expectation. This question of unem­
ployment due to illness has seemed of such importance that an effort
has been made to get further light on its relation to the industry and
to the individuals, although the material available is not sufficient
to do more than indicate probabilities.
The following table gives the amount of illness per individual
reporting illness and the rates per thousand for the women in the
Indiana garment factories. The only available figures to compare
with these, as has previously been stated in the discussion of the
department stores, are the figures from the Leipzig Local Sick Fund.
The table, therefore, gives both the Indiana and the German figures.
Except in the first three age groups the Indiana figures are too small
to be materially valuable in making comparisons. Where the
numbers are larger, the tendencies seem to be in general agreement
with the showing in Indiana.
The rates of illness in the Indiana garment factories are lower than
the Leipzig rates for “ Clothing and cleaning” trades. The rate of
cases of illness for the total, all ages, being 273.6, as compared with
352.5, and the rate of days of illness being 7,933, as compared with
9,112. In this connection it should be taken into consideration that
in the Leipzig statistics all women who died are included, which is
not the case with the Indiana statistics. The amount of illness per
person reporting illness, on the other hand, seems to be higher in the
Indiana factories than in the Leipzig industry, the average being 29
days compared with 25.9 days. The effect of this is shown on the*
rates per thousand, for while the rate of cases of illness in Leipzig is
28.8 per cent higher than in Indiana, the rate of days of illness per
thousand is but 14.9 per cent higher.




90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a b le 7 1 . — R ATE OF SICKNESS AMONG 517 W O M EN EM PLO YED IN GARM ENT FACTORIES

IN 5 IN D IA N A CITIES, COM PARED W IT H T H A T SH O W N B Y TH E “ LEIPZIG LOCAL
SICK FU N D .”
Women in the clothing and cleaning
industries, as reported by the
Leipzig Local Sick Fund (com­
pulsory members).

Women in Indiana garment
factories.

Age groups.
Total
num­
ber
sched­
uled.

Num­
ber
of
cases
of
sick­
ness.

Under 15 years
....... ....
15 and under 25 years1.............
25 and under 35 years................
35 and under 45 years................
45 and under 55 years................
55 and under 65 years................
65 and under 75 years................
75 years and over.......................

277
144
78
10
7
1

71
42
18
2
1
1

Total..................................

517

Aver­
age
dura­
tion
of
each
case
of
sick­
ness
(days).

135

Rate per 1,000.

Cases
of
sick­
ness.

24.6 279.4
30.6 291.7
34.4 232.6
92.0 200.0
78.0 143.0
3.0 1,000.0
29.0

273.6

Num­
ber
of
wom­
Days
en
of
under
sick­ obser­
ness. vation
1 year.

Num­
ber
of
cases
of
sick­
ness.

Aver­
age
dura­
tion
of
each
case
of
sick­
ness
(days).

Rate per 1,000.

Cases
of
sick­
ness.

Days
of
sick­
ness.

544
160
6,874 35,251 11,619
8,927 11,402 4,511
8,000 3,540 1,450
18,400 1,561
658
11,143
685
271
3,000
170
66
2

23.4
23.7
28.0
30.2
34.1
35.5
55.1

294.1
329.6
395.6
409.6
421.5
395.6
388.2

6,875
7,796
11,070
12,390
14.388
14,047
21.388

7,933 53,155 18,735

25.9

352.5

9,112

i The Indiana figures include in this group girls 14 and under 25 years of age.

LIABILITY INSURANCE AND DIRECT MEDICAL AID.

Twenty-three, or 34.3 per cent, of the establishments employing
30.2 per cent of the women reported the maintenance of liability
insurance. Six of these firms reported the benefits available for a
limited period only, three others “ during disability.” This pro­
vision is made only for disability due to injury and not for that due
to illness.
The table below summarizes available information also concerning
the amount of direct aid reported by firms in case of disability result­
ing from any cause.
T a b le 7 2 . — PROVISION FOR M EDICAL A ID IN 67 GARM ENT FACTORIES AS R E P O R TE D

B Y E M PLO YER S.

Establish­ Women
ments
reporting. employed.

Establish­
Medical aid given
ments
reporting
during year.
aid for—

Provisions.
Dur­
Lim­ ing
Num­ Per Num­ Per ited
dis­
ber. cent. ber. cent.
abil­
nod.
ity.

Establishments paying wages
during disability caused by
accidents.

Number
Aver­
Num­
paying—
Esage
ber
tab- Wom­ num­
not
lish- en re- ber Num­ Per
re­
ments ceivof
Half or port­
ing days ber. cent.
re­
Full three- ing
port­ aid.
aid
wages. fourths rate
ing.
was
wages. paid.
given.

Direct..................
Through liabil­
ity companies.

26 38.7 3,557 54.2

15

7

11

37

13.5

17 25.4

13

23 34.3 1,983 30.2

6

3

4

11

(2)

12 18.0

Total.........

49 73.1 5,540 84.4

21

10

15

48

13.5

29 43.3

20

2

7
2

1 Average for 13 women only; time of others not reported.
2 Four of the 11 received first aid only; 1 woman received aid for 1 day; tho others did not report.




2
5
7

91

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

SANITARY PROVISIONS.

The table below, which summarizes the sanitary provisions in the
garment factories, shows that in the matter of numbers the toilet
accommodations are not deficient. It also shows that almost a
fifth of the establishments required some artificial light during the
day, the question as to the need of artificial light being limited in
the schedules to the “ daylight hours” and “ clear days.” Nearly
39 per cent of the women employed in establishments requiring arti­
ficial light in some of their workrooms required such light for their
work.
Nearly 42 per cent of the establishments had installed some venti­
lating devices other than doors and windows. As the range of
efficiency in ventilating devices is so great and so dependent upon
their proper manipulation, no attempt has been made to. state the
number of women affected. Neither has any attempt been made
to report upon the state of ventilation in the factories, as that was
among the special subjects included in the survey made by the
National Health Service. The purpose here is only to indicate the
standards which the proprietors of Indiana garment factories are
trying to maintain by showing the amount of provision made for
health and sanitation.
T a b le 7 3 .—TO ILET FACILITIES, V E N T IL A T IN G DEVICES, AN D AR T IFIC IA L LIG HTIN G

IN 07 GARM ENT FACTORIES.
Toilets.

Cities.

Artificial light required.
Establish­
ments re­
porting
Estab­
Aver­ ventilating
Establish­
lish Women Seats
devices other
Women
age
ments re­
ments employ­ exclu­ num­
than doors
affected.
porting.
report­
ees.
sively ber of and windows.
ing.
wom­
for
wom­
en
en.
per
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
seat.
ber.
ber.
ber. cent.1
cent.
cent.

Indianapolis..............................
South .Bend................................
Fort Wayne..............................
Terre Haute..............................
Richmond and Muncie...........
New Albany, La Fayette,
and Hammond......................
Evansville..................................

25
9
11
6
5

2,437
895
862
457
314

2 141
84
59
«28
18

17
23
15
16
17

7
5
7
4
1

28.0
55.6
63.6
66.7
20.0

4
7

296
255

17
6 22

17
9

3
1

75.0
14.3

Total................................

67

7 6,516

369

17

28

41.8

8
3
1

32.0
33.3
10.0

1

20.0

(5)
13

304
3 50
3

46.8
26.3
13.0
9.3

j

1
19.4

364

38. S

1 Based on number of women in establishments requiring artificial light.
2 Not including 1 establishment, employing 3 women, which reports “ several,” and 2 establishments,
employing 16 each, which report 3 seats each, “ shared by other offices and factories.”
s Two establishments did not report number of women affected.
4 One establishment employing 3 women did not report.
* One establishment did not report.
« One establishment employing 55 women did not report.
7 Not including 45 women for which sanitary conditions were not reported.

DETAILED TABLES—DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES AND
GARMENT FACTORIES.

Following are the detailed tables of all the information furnished
by employers and employees concerning hours, wages, and conditions
of labor.



92

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
AS REPORTED
[Bracketed hours indicate eit her a permanent change of hours during the year or that the individual had
worked in more than 1 establishment or worked in shifts. Establishments in which different hours
apply to workrooms have been noted.]

INDIANAPOLIS.
Working
hours
during overtime
season.

Regular working hours.
Establishment
num­
ber.

1
2
63

6
4

Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Hours,
Hours,
Fe­
Wo­ Chil­
WoHours Dura­ men Hours
Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
Dura­ men dren Hours, ex­
per
tion:
per
usual cep­
tion:
usual cep­
af­
tion:
af­
af­
af­
per
Wks. fect­ fect­ (lav. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
day.
ed.
ed.
ed.
day.
ed.

j no

\ Hi
H
i
{ n*

50*
30*

u

5

0
6

514

50§

Hi

56*
56
54

Mo

1
2

H
i
9
Hi

56*
56*
54

57

263
9
7
5*

8
*
1*
0

1

Hi

1
1
9
1
2
8
i-

74

6
8

56*
49
56*
54
56*

}

5* }
1
56
49
57

3
3
16
23}

s|
m } 3

5*
6
396

2
12
0
85

56*
54
56*
56
49

1 Wherever the maximum working hours occurred on the days immediately preceding Christmas the
6 working days before Christmas were considered the week, although a Sunday intervened.
2 7-day week shift system; 5 short days of 5§ hours and 2 long days, either 1 of 11$ and 1 of 10 hours or
both of 11$ hours.
a Sunday working hours.
4Also worked 3* hours Christmas day, which immediately followed the maximum week.
&Children do not work more than 9 hours a day or 54 hours a week throughout the year.
• Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows:

Hours worked in alteration department when differing from those of selling department.

Differences in regular hours.

None.
\No overtime hours before
{ Christmas.
Do.
None.
No overtime hours before
Christmas,
fNever work more than 54
j\ hours.
None.

o Do not work overtime hours given for selling departments.
* Overtime also occurs at irregular intervals throughout the year; do not work the overtime hours given
>
for selling departments.
f Not reported.




93

WAGE-EAKNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES IN SPECIFIED CITIES
BY EMPLOYERS.
[Bracketed hours indicate either a permanent change of hours during the year or 1hat the individual had
worked in more than 1 establishment or worked in shifts. Establishments in which different hours
apply to workrooms have been noted.]

INDIANAPOLIS.

Working hours during overtime season.

Normal season and dull season.

| Season.

Fe­
Hours, Aver­
Dura­ males Hours, excep­
age
tion:
usual tional weekly
af­
day.
Wks. fect­
day.
hours.
ed.

1
| D u ll ....

8

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

Fe­
MaxiDura­ males Hours, Hours, num
tion:
af­
usual excep­ hours
tional
Wks. fect­
day.
per
day. week.1
ed.

»j..d o -----

{
{

1
1

}
}

25
25 I

9
10§
H

{

.?
nl
11

56
63-J
62
59^

57
64J
69
66§ J

1

2

15

I




12£

{

12

}

66

(7)

12*
11*

13*

482*
69

“

num­
ber.

1
2
63
64

3

m

h

114

11

9

60

5

i

3

12

9

66

66

n
! ; ■ " ..........
jVNormal.

12
91

li
1

Es­
tab­
lish-

Before Christmas.

69

94

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOK STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS. OF W EN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
OM
INDIANAPOLIS— Continued.
Working
hours
during overtime
season.

Regular working hours.

E
s-

tablishment
num­
ber.

Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

W o­ Chil­
Hours,
Fe­
Hours,
W o­
Dura­ men dren Hours, ex­
Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
Hours Dura­ men Hours
per tion:
tion: af­
af­
usual cep­
af­
usual cep­
per tion:
per
af­
Wks. fect­ fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
day.
ed.
ed.
ed.
day.
ed.

{ 1?
3 {2
9

}

51
54

2
0

226

{ 304

lii

75

233
251

54
44*

1
0

9
8*

1
1
31
2

n
8§

11*
9
11
9

8t | 11*
V

15

9

3 13

56*
51*
564
52*
56
53*

411

56*

161

55

47
100
100
125

56*
51*
54

m
F
9
S

ni
....

C
5

11* / 56*
\ 54

125

H 54
I
9
49
1
1 56f
9
52
l
H 56
&

45

59

54

54
51
45

10
1

276

56*
49

} 7
5

54
45

145
119

54

} *

sh

54
49 I

{a

76
4*

53*

561

54

1 Hours worked on holiday which occurred in this week.
2 Not reported.
3 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows:

Hours worked in alteration department when differing from those of selling department.
Period of additional overtime hours.
Es- Numtab- berof
lish- alter­ Dura­ Num­ Hours, Hours, Aver­ Maxi­
mum
ment ation tion ber of usual excep­ age
weekly weekly
in
wo­
num- work­
day. tional
day. 1hours. hours'.
ers. weeks. men.

39

1
1
m
11
1
1
1
1*
1
1
1
1
2
8
*
1*
0
1
0
1*
0

6 26

6
130

O1
'

5
48

3

30

6

9

Hi
1
2
9
1
1
8
*
8
*

60*
• 61*
60
60*
58*
61
59
52*
50i
55

61*

9* |
I0i }

Differences in regular hours.

66
60
52
55*

61*
59
62
59*
53*
50|
55*

None.
No overtime hours before
Christmas.
Do.

None.
No overtime hours before
Christmas,
61* fNever work more than 54
\ hours.
66
None.
C
O
None.
52
None.
00* None.

a Do not work overtime hours given for selling departments.
6 Overtime also occurs at irregular intervals throughout the year; do not work the overtime hours given
for selling departments.
* Children do not work more than 10 hours on Saturday and 55 hours a week throughout the year.




95

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS— Continued.

Working hours during overtime season.

Normal season and dull season.

Season.

Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, Aver­
age
tion:
af­
usual excep­ weekly
tional
Wks. fect­
day.
day.
hours.
ed.
16
64
4

m
1*
0

1
3

6

1J
2

108
90

11

104

U

D u ll.....

1
2
1

1

Normal.

109

9

D u ll ....

}

m
|

1 }
2
5
1 }
1

Normal.

64|

58§
57$
64

58|

54|

|

7

57*
(*)

125

45*

} d u 1 1 ....

35

9*

.. .do-----

3

m

{

Normal.
D u ll....

{ I




25
300

9
9

8

48
63

54

54

3
9
10
0

1
1
1 }
2
m }
n*
ii*
13
1
1

1*
1

57

63

9

1
2
1
1

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

64£
13

Establishment
num­
Maxi- ber.
Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, num
excep­ hours
tion:
af­
usual tional
Wks. fect­
day.
per
day.
ed.
week.
Before Christmas.

59§

59§

57J

57*

60*
58
60*

60*
58
60*

125
87

1*
1
H
m
m

63

0
io| 0 £
11
u } 60|
n*

1
0
1
1
31
2
3 13

96

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.
Working
hours
during overt ime
season.

Regular working hours.

EsDull season.
Busy season.
Normal season.
tablishment
Hours.
Hours,
W o­
Fe- ,
W o­ Chil­
num­
ex­
Hours Dura­ men Hours
Hours Dura­ males; Hours
ber. Dura­ men dren Hours, ex­
usual cep­
tion: af­
per
tion: af­
usual cep­
per
per
tion: af­
af­
Wks. fect­ fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
ed.
day.
ed.
ed.
ed.
day.

6

9$

54*

30§

2

1
2
1
2

54$
48$

56

10$

5*
4

15
1

1}
0

16

}

{ ?

5

| 55
17 { 1
f
18 \ 2 81 | 38
4$
19

26

i

9
f 29

} •*
8
1$
0
1
2

54
51
561

11
1
11
1

\ 8
*

7

12f
9

54

20

32

6

9

21$
42
51$

35
12
5

9

54

8
$

51

1 24
1 25
26
27

17*
17
17$
21$

22
6
8
25

8
1
8
$
8
$
8
$

28$

20

Hi

53

f
\

9
4
9
9

5$
2

8$
9

.54$
55
57

56
19$
52

5$
1

i

30 |

4$

8

9

1$
0

51
51

18
9
16$

48

56$
9
54
13
54
49
54
•48
2
54
47 }1 7 $
48

I 4
*
}

51

28

8

54

121
22
23

2

4

4
4

531

53

3$
4

14 j 18*

4$

51
49
49
51
51
47
48

125
44
49
74

6
45

$
} 1$
7

54

i

54
52$

3}

51
51$
51
51

5

51

26
24
}

54
56*
531
54

* Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows:

Hours worked in alteration department when differing from ihose of selling department.
Establishment
num­
ber.

3
4

Period of additional overtime hours.
\
Num­
ber of
alter­ Dura­ Num­
Hours, Aver­ Maxi- j
Differences in regular hours.
ation tion ber of Hours, excep­ age
mum
in
work­
wo­ usual tional weekly weekly
day.
ers. weeks. men.
day. hours. hours. |

16
2

r 3
H1 0 }
0.f s
t 8 }
7
2
a
1
1 I
b 26

6

3

9
12

39
6

13

130

ol

16
21

5

3

48
30
6

4
5

24
25

9

i
j
19
jl
1
3

11
:
9

11 }
U1

00$

}

Hi

60

/

11

60$
58161'
59
m
50$

H i*
3
14

I
9

{

%
10'-

{

&

}

55

90
{
10

A
12

25 /
\
30 !
13

9
60
U } .........
52
9$
8$
8$ /
9 | 55$
i\ 101
.

} .........
9

61$
66

J 61$

None.

61$ \No overtime hours before
59 I Christmas.
62
59$
Do.
53$
50-|
' 55$

None.

No overtime hours before
Christmas.
(Never work more than 54
61$
\ hours.
66
None.
60
52
55$

None.
None.
None.

« Do not work overtime hours given for selling departments.
&Overtime also occurs at irregular intervals throughout the year; do not work the overtime hours given
for selling departments.
2 Since Sept. 1,1913, hours have been shortened to 8$ hours on w days, with a 111-hour clay on Sat­
eek

urdays, as before, m
aking a 53f-hour w
eek.




97

WAGE-EARNING W OM EN IN INDIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.— Concluded.
INDIANAPOLIS— Concluded.
Working hours during overtime season.
Normal season and dull season.

Season.

(Normal.
[D u ll....

Maxi­
Fe­
Hours, Aver­
mum
Dura­ males Hours, excep­
age
tion:
usual tional weekly hours
af­
day.
per
Wks. fect­
day.
hours. week.
ed.

6

5

{ i

6{

}.

9
I

91
it

Establishment
Maxi- num­
Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, num
ber.
excep­
tion:
af­
usual tional hours
Wks. fect­
day.
per
day.
ed.
week.
Before Christmas.

55
55
49

55
55
49

1
I
/

9

lOf

{

Si }

58i

1

"
15
* 16

Normal.

1

10

9

101

551

57

17
18

1
/

19
D u ll ....

1

6

8

9

49

49

20

Normal.

1

10

8£

lOJ

53

53

2 21
22
23

D u ll ....

1

18

8J

91

52

52

2 24
225
26
27

8

8

50

50

28

.......

1

/Normal.
■\Dull-----

1 1
1 i'

10

66172°—Bull. 160—14------7




98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
TERRE HAUTE.
Working
hours
during overtime
season.

Regular working hours.
Establishment
num­
ber.

23

2

m

1
8

8
4

114

54

57

9

10
12

57

<52i
57
57
57
57

1
0

124

624

12

57
57
57

8
4

114

54

9

12

274

10

m

314
494

9
9
9
9

12
12
12
12

175

25

2

24
4
34
5

314

200

9
9

12

i2
n

/ 8
1
\ fi­

52J

68

484

166
17

114

5k
S

63

66

J ( 64
2
67
57
57

514
51

150

104

6
2

lls
1§
0

14
1

22

41
9

50*

68

54

40

i 10

11
1
12
1

225

13

H
I

45

13

Busy season.

Fe­
Hours,
W o­
Hours.
W o­ Chil­
Hours Dura­ men Hours
Dura­ men dren Hours, ex­ Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
tion: af­ usual cep­
per
tion: af­
per
per
usual cep­
af­
tion: af­
Wks. fect­ fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
ed.
ed.
day.
day.
ed.
ed.

11
3
4
5
6
7

Dull season.

Normal season.

104

50

55

33J
3

6
78

3
3

218
17

54

52*
53£
504

EVANSVILLE.
1

414

13

10

2

42

4

1

93

32|

9

94

50

5
96

26
264

8
52

94
/
04
\ 124
5
9
9

7

494
31

45

384
51
51 1
33 1

10
5
5
8

8
9
10
11
12

55

5

9

03 I
7 634

13

121
5
10
12
12

9

3 58

f 13
I 134

2

{

59
}

00*
> 57
»
57

16
214

13
}

5

10

13

63

8
( 1 85
3
9
11
4 53
I 3
2
9 1 » 59
}
82
1
12

9
9

12
12

57

12
12
12
12

57
57
57
57

10

84

12

9

O
)
57
57

9
9
9

57

18

55

12

1 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows: Establishment 1.—104 weeks, 58 hours; 124 weeks, 63 hours, and did not work any extended hours
of selling force. Establishment 8 . - 4 weeks, 66 Jiours; 114 hours usual day. Did not work selling force
extended hours. Establishment 9 —34 weeks, 68 hours; I l f hours usual day. Did not work selling force
extended hours. Establishment 10.—24 weeks, 6I4 hours; 11 hours usual day. Establishment 11.—\ week,
61J hours; 114 hours usual day. Establishment 12.—5 weeks, 63§ hours; 114 hours usual day. Normal
season, 32 weeks, 53 hours, 4 women; 564 hours, 20 women. Dull season, 64 weeks, 53 hours; 8h weeks,
53 hours, 4 women; 564 hours, 20 women.
2 Affected only women over 16 years.
3 Sunday working hours.
4 Not reported.
5 Only 20 women worked overtime one of these weeks.
6 Children work 50 hours per week throughout year, except th« week before Christmas, when they worked
564 hours.




99

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

OF

DEPARTMENT

AND

OTHER

RETAIL

STORES,

ETC.—Continued.

TERRE HATITE.

Working hours during overtime season.

Normal season and d u ll season.

Season.

Fe­
ver­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, Aage
tion:
af­
usual excep­ w eekly
tional
W ks. fect­
day.
day.
hours.
ed.

n*
8
*

210
0

N orm al.

56
7

D ull..
/Normal.
\Dull..
Normal

11*

2

10*

9

9

17

9

24

9

1
J *

66
66
65

1
8

H
§

64

Hi

12

i f
8J

2
3
4
5
6
7

lii
io|
n*

63
60*

110

11

Hi
10*

59*
58

112

6
6
6
6

9
§

6 {
10

68*

12*
12
12
12

11

81

il

68*

10

12

H

H
*

63

9

*

63

12

1

8
*

12

63

12

|

Hi
12

225

111

5

N orm al.

63 |
56
69
58*

10

8§

5 35

N orm al.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

12

12
12
12J

10

56

63
56
69
58*

10*

Establishm ent
num ­
Maxi- ber.
Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, num
tion:
usual excep­ hours
af­
tional
day.
per
W ks. fect­
day. week.
ed.
Before Christmas.

,
78

{ at

218
17

ill
13

EVANSVILLE.
|

1*

|

14 I
I

13
13£ } ............

/N ormal.
\Dull
Normal.
Normal.

5

i

l
l
l

101 {

>ii

}

13

62

62

1*

15

12f

12*

7 /
I
52

9*
12*

8

1*

}

l

17
2 f
I
4

9
11

{

&

10

}

12

9

I

11

\

12

6 1f

(4)

2

63

}

( 4)

1i

1
}

61

61

79J

i£
l
1
1

81

12
12

57
5
10
5
5
8

12
12
12
12
12
12

12

1

76

12

2

j
Normal.

5

1

2

75*
}

3

75*
72
72

4
5
6

72
72
72
72
72
72

7
8

9
10
11
12

7 Only 2 women at a tim e work 63* hours a week.
8 Children work 4 hours per week less in normal and dull seasons. On Saturday work from 12 m. to
10 p. m.
• W orking hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling departm ent, except as
follows: Establishment S.—1* hours less throughout year and do not w ork overtim e in norm al and dull
seasons. Establishment 4 .—1 hour less in norm al and busy seasons; 2 hours less ia dull season; no over­
tim e in busy season, but 2 weeks overtim e averaging 62* hours; m axim um , 66 hours in norm al season.
Establishment 6 .- 5 4 hours throughout year. Establishment IS.—Ono hour less throughout periods of
regular hours and worked no extended hours. Establishment 19.—Extended hours in busy season were
61 and occurred 10 weeks. Establishment 21.—Probably 3 girls worked 15 m inutes overtim e, tw o or three
evenings during the year.
i° Children do not work more than 8* hours for 5 days, and 1U hours on Saturday.




100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
EVANSVILLE—Concluded.
I Working
hours
j during overtime
s season.

Regular working hours.

K
s-

tabNormal season.
Dull season.
Busy season.
lishment
Hours.
Wo­ Chil­
Fe- |
Hours,
W o­
num­
ber. Dura­ men dren Hours,1 ex­ Hours Dura­ males; Hours, ex­ Hours iDura- men Hours
usual j cepper
af­
tion:
per j tion: af­
af­
usual cep­
tion: af­
per
Wks. fect­ fect­ dav. ; tional week. Wks. fect­ dav. tional week. |Wks. fect­ week.
1 day.
ed.
ed.
day.
ed.
ed.
13

9
9

35.\

< 8 1|
1 7
410 25J

12
12
12

si

10
2 i
0

57
55*
57
57

Ilf

S
I

10 21
5
17

12
12

9
9
9

39$
51
45

11

15

12
12
12

23 |

G

15
H

13

jm

H
I

\11

}

^

10

f.......... !

}

I

12

j

r i< |
4
I 12

27

17
127

/ 4< ,s 5:
\
l\ Ilf /

fi

}

23J

[ H
I

75

}

9
4
9
9
4

12
10
*
12

2 27.}
0
<
21 21?
42 1J
2 7

35

Ilf

53
5!

• }» «

1

M

I2

27

FORT WAYNE.
9

27$

12

57

9

1

12

57

H
4
{ 37
3
U

11

31

60

8*

121

82

9

35

9

o

/
i
i "iii-

11

12

36

S2 (

Hi

2 55

63

8-2

Hi

3 55

123

8
-2

Ilf

i

|

7

5o|
56*
54“
55*

HI
| 11*

38

31-5

9

5
' 8*

11?

!}

{
h

}

111
.

52?

2i
2-

}

57
55f

53

}

35
9

2

53
56* 1
54
5o.\

55*

63

55

163

55

2-‘

1 Hours worked on a legal holiday which fell in this week.
2 in business only 25* weeks during year.
3 25 additional women were employed for 6 hours a day 8 days before Christmas.
4 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows: Establishment S.— 1* hours less throughout year and do not work overtime in normal and dull
seasons. Establishment 4 —1 hour less in normal and busy seasons; 2 hours less in dull season; no over­
time in busy season, but 2 weeks overtime averaging 62* hours; maximum, 66 hours in normal season.
Establishment £.—54 hours throughout year. Establishment 18.—One hour less throughout periods of
regular hours and worked no extended hours. Establishment 15.—Extended hours in busy season were
61 and occurred 10 weeks. Establishment 21.—Probably 3 girls worked 15 minutes overtime, two or three
evenings during the year.
5 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department except as
follows:

Hours worked in alteration department, when differing from those of selling department,
in Fort Wayne.
Estab­
lish­
ment
num­
ber.

Num­
ber
of
altera­
tion
work­
ers.

3

10

7

22
12

Dura­
tion
in
weeks.

Num­
ber
fe­
males.

- 5

6

Period of additional extended hours.

8
9
10

1

2
0
12
4

3

t
i

4

1




9

11
15

Hours, * £ *
day'
aaj *

14
1
11
10
*
Ilf
10-2

,io™ '
dav.

Differences in regular hours.

G5|
s*

li

S’-

ll*
m

li*

Aver­ Maxi­
mum
age
weekly weekly
hours. hours.

n
•i
s

6
6

61*
64

6
6
01*

[Normal, 14 weeks, 53* hours.
tw.ii /*> weeks, 53J hours.
lLmjI\ll weeks, 51 hours.
None.
None.

631

64
63i

57*

57*

66*

66J ; None.
-

j None.

101

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.—Continued.
EVANSVILLE—Concluded.
Working hours during overtime season.
Normal season and dull season.

Season.

Fe­
Hours, Aver­
Dura­ males Hours,
age
tion:
usual excep­ weekly
af­
tional
day.
Wks. fect­
day.
hours.
ed.

Dull

1
1

Dull

1

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

9

20
13

in

461

46£

H
9 /

16

Normal.

! Establishment
Maxi- num­
Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, num
ber.
tion:
af­
usual excepi- hours
tional
Wks. fect­
day.
per
day.
week.
ed.
Before Christmas.

Ilf
9i }

5SA

58i
57\

I

{

j
i

i

I ' •

|
1

*§
io|

{

M Normal.
39
Ilf
65

59
65

|

i
!
i

!

35
13

12
12
12
12
12
11

11
11
12

70
70
68

13
14
15
16
17
18

1*

127

HI

10§

68

19

4

57J

35
5
37
3 32

10

12

9

66

20

1*

1

10*

63

21

1
1*
1*
l\

I-

72
72
72

!

1

1

FORT WAYNE.
!

!

!

i

1*

10 |f
\

i

i

i

i

1*

55

iii
12
11

!
!

i

!

!
|

1

9

Hi

}
/

71*
12

70
70

11

15

|

■m

i

1

68

li-l

!

I

1

63

m

66 §
7

i

!
i

1

163

Hi

7 67|

i

i

10*

6 Children work 52£ hours per week except during week before Christmas, when they work 65 hours.
7 Children work 52£ hours per week throughout the year.




102

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
FORT WAYNE—Concluded.
Working
hours
during overtime
season.

Regular working hours.
Establishment
num­
ber.

Busy season. .

W o­ Chil­
Hours,
Fe­
Hours,
Wo­
Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
Dura­ men dren Hours, ex­
Hours Dura­ men Hours
per tion:
usual cep­
tion: af­
af­
usual cep­
af­
per tion:
af­
per
Wks. fect­ fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
ed.
ed.
day.
ed.
day.
ed.

2
5

1 221
8

M
l
*
O
O

55*

9

12

8
f
8
f

29

H
I
HI
11*

57
551
55

2
0

55*

8
f

1
6

HI

5

S } 2
t
«
i t9 1 11
3
5
9
{

5 * } 21
5
51
2
5*
3
5 } 2
1

8 / m
|
0
0

8 { 11
1

{ 1 } 10
1 10 2
0
7
11 1
8
3
12 1
5
6
39*
30

2
5* { 1 } 2
5
51
3
5 lf } 10
1

in

8
f

19

1
3
314

Dull season.

Normal season.

8
*
82
9
8-2

8
f

I 11
H
I
/ H
I

55*
55*
54*
57
54
551
521

1 10
1
12
115

2
5

5*
5
51
3

12

11

7

V11
5
} 22

3

55*

8

57
551

2 55*

3
5

31

SOUTH BEND.

2 {1 2

H
I

4 3}
3 5
4
45

u16

11
10
1
11
11
11
11

9
9

10
9
10

23*

10

H
I
H
I

8
*

22
1

8
1
8
f

10
50

21
0

82
-

10
1
11
10
1
11
10
1
11
I lf
10
1
111

56

71

82
8
|

6*

{

9

11

H
I

i
n

571
55*
55*

7
m } 5*
5
5
0
11

11
10
1
11
11
II
9
III

56
56*

561
54|
56
591

6
9
8
10
102

581

4i

9

10

541
512
531
551

81

8
1

541
11
10
1 512
11
531
10 } 5 1
1
5
11

8
|
9

10

O
O

2
1

571
55*
55*
571

C
O

11
111
114
111
11

{ 45

71
81

30

8
1

54|
56
591

hi

6 I
171 I
1

7
14
25

7 / 571
' 1 55*
89

55*

\
f

8 / 561
8 I 54|
3
56

I \
/

0 / 591
2 I 581

101

1

83

541

2

43

Ooj

551

8
|

221

57

} 5
7

8§

1

57

1 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department except as
follows:

Hours worked in alteration department, token differingfrom those of selling department in
Fort Wayne.
Estab­
lish­
ment
num­
ber.

Num­
ber
of
altera­
tion
work­
ers.

Period of additional extended hours.
Dura­
tion
in
weeks.

5

10

2

10
2
2
12

1

Num­
ber
fe­
males.

3
4




Hours, Hours, Aver­ Maxi­
age
mum
usual excep­
tional weekly weekly
day.
day.
hours. hours*.

2
0
12

11

H
I
11
10
*

15

Ilf

4

5

101

6

2

1

4

8
1
H
I

Differences in regular hours.

65$

65f

8
1

6
6

6
6

631

63*

10
1
11

57-1

57*

None.

6*
6

6*
6

None.

11

82

611
64

611
64

{

Normal, 14 weeks, 531 hours.
"niiii/6 weeks, 53* hours.
uuii\ ll weeks, 51 hours.
None.
None.

10-3

WAGE-EAKNTNG WOMEN' IK IN DIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.-Continued.
FORT WAYNE— Concluded.
Working hours during overtime season.

Normal season and dull season.

Season.

Establishment
num­
Fe­
Maxi- ber.
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, num
tion:
af­
usual excep­ hours
tional
W ks. fect­
day.
per
day.
ed.
week.
Before Christmas.

Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, Averexcep­
tion:
af­
usual
tional weekly
day.
W ks. fect­
day.
hours.
ed.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

10 { if } 5 *
*
9

59*

D u l l ....

10
*
11
11*
8|
10
*
7
12

11*

65

9*

64*

8
| 4
10 } 6 *
*
11
11* 61
57

10
11
12
13
14

SOUTH BEND.

11*

1
1

10
*

Hi

st­
ill

u

6
6
6
6

u

\
/

u

n

y

D u ll ....

I }
1

12
27

0
0
( ->
M

{

0
0

Normal.

9
11
J
\
J
\

10*
ill
io*
li }

57
54*
09

57*
54-*-

{ lli
} nj

10
|

572

1*

65
62*
64*

10 { i f } 6 *
*
1

n

lii

10 { >
*
3

60*

10

2 Four salesgirls worked 11 hours overtime in alteration department for one week in this period.
8 In business only 39 weeks in 1913.
^ Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department except as
follows:
Establishment S.—6 additional extended weeks of 66* hours, 3 weeks of 57* hours, Christmas overtime
hours worked in selling department by part of force.
Establishment
Saturday hours are 11* throughout year.
Establishment 10.—Hours irregular—less than those of selling force.
£
Not reported.




104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
SOUTH BEND— Concluded.
Working
hours
during overtime
season.

Regular working hours.
Establishment
num­
ber.

11

Normal season.
Wo­
Dura­ men
tion:
af­
Wks. fect­
ed.

{

Z

55|

52
*
5*
5

15

7
0

57*

82

I 1

14

Busy season.

Chil­
Hours,
Hours,
Fe­
Wo­
dren Hours, ex­
Hours Dura­ men Hours
Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
tion:
per
af­
usual ' cep­
af­
usual cep­
per
tion:
af­
per
fect­ dav. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
ed.
day.
ed.
day.
ed.

9
212 [ 13 12
2 13

Dull season.

!f

12

|

81

ii

57*

a.

57*
55*

4*
Hi
10*
11

50£
49f
52*
54*
48

1 ii*

4*
2

Si /

128
49f
52*

{ 19J

2
0

33

\

{

57*
55*

3

3

1-

55*

52*

1

8

18
17
11

9
82
9

12
112

22

9
9

12
12

“
° {

*« }

12

26

9

12

13 !
14
|
13
I 10
10 i 103
26 !
l
i

9

12

57

9*

9

11

56

f

102
12

9 544
57"

24*
8*
25*

48

12

48

MUNCIE.
9
8J
9

22
44§
39*

22
17
9

4

28*
35*

9
9
9
9
9

12
12
12

78

H
44
40

22
12
6
1
26

12
12

57
57
57
57
57

79

28

17

9

12

57

7 10
7 11
7 12
7 13

14
88
16
26

9
9
8J
9

11
11
102
12

56
56
9 54?.
57

5
?6
7

1 10
1
7
i 111
|
1

2

1

12

57
55*
5 57

1
2
3

112
12

17
4*
8*
15*
13
/ 8* 'l
\ io * !
!/
......... ii

57
55*
&57

12

11

26
43

57
55*

34
14
12
1
29

57
57
57
57
57

17

57

10
127

57
56
9 54*

1

41

59*

1*
2

24
170

59

1*

57
7*
57
3
r 57
I 54* } 271
74
57
3

HAMMOND.
1 i
0

13*

16

9

2

32*

30

9

3
4

32

11
170

48*

o;{

1 k 59
n K 59}
8* | 59
12 {/
58

1 |

10

17*

20

18

11

11
12 1
12
^
ui

1
}
{Sft

59

59

58

1 Maximum week; worked by 4 women; other 3 women worked 582 hours.
r
2 Working hours m the alteration department were the same as in the selling department except as
follows:
Establishment 12.—Saturday hours 11* throughout year. Week before Christmas 04 hours.
Establishment 13.—Saturday hours in dull season were 82-.
3 Maximum week worked by 13 women; other 14 women worked 58 hours.
* Also 30 extra girls for irregular hours just before Christmas.
* Children did not work more than 54 hours per week during year.
6 Hours worked on legal holiday which fell in this week.
7 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department except as follows:
Establishment 6'.—59 hours throughout year with 14 hours Saturday. Overtime one-half week, making
total for week 74 hours. Usual day 14 hours. Exceptional day 9 hours.




105

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.—Continued.
SOUTH BEND—Concluded.
Working hours during overtime season.

|
j

Normal season and dull season.

Season.

Maxi­
Fe­
Dura­ males Hours. Hours, Aver­
mum
age
tion:
af­
usual excep­ weekly hours
tional
day.
Wks. fect­
per
day.
hours. week.
ed.

Before Christmas.
Fe­
Maxi­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, mum
tion:
af­
usual excep­ hours
tional
W ks. fect­
day.
per
day.
ed.
week.

Establishment
num­
ber.

1
i
i

/
I

1

/ ' * ' * ........

10$

82
l l i } 1 60J

1

l l i 1 3 00.
10i

2 12

10*
Hi }
J? }
11

2 13

1

j

-8* /
\

133

2

j
I
1

27

1

i
!

40

8f I
I
si {
I

|

59
571

14
15

|

MUNCIE.
Dull
D u ll ....

1

18

9 {
9 (
\

12

1

64
12

|

3SJ
52

m

1

^ 33

li

}

43

52

12

18
£
jt

None.

Ilf
10*

35
14
6
1

{
J
I

72
70|
| s69i

12
9 } 66*
12*
9
' 66
9
66
9
66
9 } 63
12
9 j- 63
12
9 | 63
12
9
62
9 60i
Si-

1
2
3
4
5

59

i
i

29

12
12
12
12
11

52

h

21

11

i

10

11

141

11
10f

li

19

11

12

1 68
1

l

54

11

12*

1 67*
1

2

§

24

11

12

1 66
1

3

n

230

11

1 66
1

4

i

i
D u ll ....

1-

Normal.

1 j

9

4
15

9

i

{
r
I

ii
64
12

}
}

59
“

1
j

i
1

£
..............j...............

{
\
/
\

{
I

*6
7
78
79

no
7 11
7 12
7 13

________ i
________

HAMMOND.
|
1
1
........... i..............
1

101

Establishment 5 .-5 4 hours for 30 weeks, these weeks occuring in each season.
Establishment 9.—Did not work overtime before Christmas.
Establishment 10 — 55 hours for 27 weeks, occuring in normal and dull seasons.
Establishment 11.—Did not work overtime before Christmas.
J Establishment 12.—54 hours throughout year for dressmaking department. Alteration department hours
same as selling department.
Establishment 13—55% hours (average) throughout year.
« Open only 17 weeks during year.
s Children did not work more than 52J hours per week during year,
w Store in operation only 1 J weeks in 1913.
<
1 Girls under 18 <jp not work over 00 hours per week.
1




106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
LA FAYETTE.
Working
hours
during overtime
season.

Regular working hours.
Es­
tab­
lishinent
num­
ber.

il

Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Fe­
Hours,
Hours,
W o­
Wo­ Chil­
Hours Dura­ men Hours
Dura­ men dren Hours, ex­ Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
tion:
af­
usual cep­
per
per
tion:
usual cep­
af­
per
tion: af­
af­
Wks. fect­ fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
ed.
day.
day.
ed.
ed.
ed.

lit
ill
a*
ii!
ii!
ii!

30

i
2 2-S
1
3

30!

i4

30!

1 1|
5 9
30|

ii!

23

58

53

56!

56!

56!

56!

56!

56!

56!

2

56!

56!

j*2 !
9
il!

56!

56!
56!

9!
9

12!
12

60
57

18
13

12!
12

60
57

42

8§

H i

55

16!

8!
9
9

ii!
12

54
57
56!

16
9

Hi
ii!

55

13
3
2
18
3
2
11
20

8*
8!
9!
8!
9

Hi­
ll!
12!
ii!

55!
54
60
54
56

17
10!
18
18
14

C
O
c>

RICHMOND.

2

9

30!
35

10
1

59
54
56!

{ 211

32!
34!

13 1
17

33

31

34

35
6

22
4 29
49!

7
8
9
10
11

24
15!
32!
13
13

12
13
14

1
2

ii!

ll

J ll }
I 12
114
8!
9
Hi

17

12

54
57

H2

55!

11*

12
12
11!

il!

54
60
54
56
59
57
54
56!

!
2!

17
33

60
57

2!

62

55

20
3
2
18
40
3
2
11
28
4

55
57
56!

12
4!
!
4!
4!
25
1
20
24
1

}

55!
54
60
54
56
59

i Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows:
Establishment 1.— ! hour less per week in normal season of 43 weeks and in dull season of 9 weeks.
Establishment 5 .-5 4 hours per week for 22 weeks of busy season and 30 weeks of dull season.
Establishments 4 and 8.—! hour less per week throughout regular period, and do not work overtime
before Christmas.
Establishment 5.—Regular hours in busy season and dull season ! hour less than regular hours of normal
season and dull season of selling department, and work but 1 overtime week of 60 hours.
Establishment 0.—Regular hours throughout the year are one hour less; overtime hours are one week of
58.V hours,! week of 63 hours, and 3 weeks ol 57 hours.




107

W A G E -E A R N IN G 'W O M E N - IN IN DIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.—Continued:
LA FAYETTE.

Working hours during overtime season.

Normal season and dull season.

Season.

Establishmp.nt
num­
Fe­
Maxi- ber.
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, num
excep­
tion:
af­
usual tional hours
Wks. fect­
per
day.
day.
week.
ed.
Before Christmas.

Fe­
Hours, Aver­
Dura­ males Hours, excep­
age
tion:
af­
usual
tional weekly
Wks. fect­
day.
hours.
day.
ed.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

u

60

U

i*

66

HI
Hi

Hi

11* /
1
/
\
H*

11 \ 69
11*
11*
} 67*
12
64
9

D u ll ....

1

6

9 1
\

11 }
Hi

601

m

i*

22

i

23

D u ll ....

1

9

9 I
\

11
ill }

m

m

ii

7

ii

80

i

9

48

9

17
49

69

it

69

11

6
i

12

12
12

13

\ 60*

{
{

2

69

13

}

58*

14
15
i6
7
18

R IC H M O N D .

1

14

...d o .......

1

D u ll ....

1

NoYmal.

9 /
I

23
!2

i
i

73
72

1

in

70

3

ii§
Hi
H*

70
69*
69

4
s

69
69
69
69
67
63
63

7
8
9
10
11

\

51

51

12

}

58

58

i

62

13

8* 1

ii! }
12

57*

57*

9
{
81- /
\

\
li t /
m |
112-

60

60

i
i
i

20
3
2

5S

58

i
i

40 J
3 1
2
13
28
4
10

11* \
l
in
12*
11*
11
11

Normal.

1

2

D u ll ....

1

18

i~
i
*

Hi

12*

12

91
12
9
81

6

12
13
14

2 Hours worked on legal holiday which fell in this week.
3 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows:
Establishments 3 and ^.—Regular weekly hours, 54. Christmas week of 69 hours. No other extended
weeks.
Establishment 5.—Did not work overtime before Christmas.
* In business only 43* weeks in 1913.




1Q8

BULLETIN OF XH E BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN SELLING DEPARTMENTS
NEW ALBANY.
j Working
hours
j during overtime
I season.

Regular working hours.
Establisfo
­
ment
num­
ber.

Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

i
Wo­
Dura­ men
af­
tion:
Wks. fect­
ed.

Fe- |
iHours,
Hours,
W o­
Chil­
Hours Dura­ males Hours, ex­
Hours jDura- men Hours
dren Hours j ex­
tion:
per
af­
usual cep­
per I tion:
usual cep­
af­
per
af­
fect­ day. tional week. "Wks. fect­ day. tional week. Wks. fect­ week.
ed.
day.
day.
ed.
ed.

21
3

56}

42}

59

f
8} L
l
9 >

24

59

9

| 59

4}

3

59

32}

57

8X ;•
\ 12

\

—

3

80

57

41
8

59

3

2

59

* 4}
6 2

59

9 ;{

}

59

1
12
3
i4
5

7

3 30}

9

57

38

S

50

11}

} 5}
4
} 52
6

m }
ii-J
}

{i i
{i i
/ 11

:

56}

56}
59

' ii ! 57
l
10
\
10? } ^
,

9

■
56| j

WEEKLY RATES OF PAY OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN DEPARTMENT
BY EM
INDIANAPOLIS.

Establishment
1
1
Aver­
num­
age 1Un- $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00
ber. Un­ $4.00 $5.00 $6.001
to
to
to and jTotal. week-! der ; to i to
to
to
der
$4.00. $4.99. ■$5.99. over.
iy $4.00. $4.99.. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99.
rate. !
!
•
14 $3.17
53 3.22

1
1

13
45

7

13

1

34

14

2

1
6

14
1
56

3.50
6.001
3.91

12

26

5

3

45

1
22

4.22

3

6
77
25
39

13
63

7
21

1
4

1
11

23
99

3.77
4.01

10

74

5
20

io

3.60

7

1
8
25

3
12

5
1
33

10

9

9

8

33
6
31
5
1
16
83

27
1
21
2
1
4
34

13
8

6
6

3

21
3

11

i
33
2

4
12

3
10
3

|
Aver­
sio.oo; $12.00!
age
to 1 and Total. weekSI 1.99. j over.
A l.
!

1
(j
15

13
1
3
6
16
2
73

6
10

1
10
48

<8° g

Cash girls, messengers, bundle I
wrappers, packers, inspectors, | Saleswomen who received an amount within each classified
and stock girls who received
weekly rate.
an amount within each classi­
fied weekly rate.

io!
l!
2
26
2
10

21
1
i
1

5
3

2

4
7
13
7
1
43
2
24

36
3
2
1
6
1’

45
168
1
49
2
185
89
121
41
57
27
376
6
2
5
53
30

$10.29
8.27
6.99
10.25
7.39
10.75
8 .91
4.61
8.73
4.93
4.44
6.78
6.89
11.25
12.00
11.25
8.28
7.40

1 Working hours in the alteration department were the same as in the selling department, except as
follows:
Establishment 2.— Two additional extended weeks of 68 hours.
Establishment 4 — Five additional extended weeks
jjg jJours } ^ suaI day being 10} hours.
Establishments.— One additional extended week of 63 hours.




109

WAGE-EARNING W OMEN IN INDIANA.

OF DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES, ETC.—Continued.
NEW ALBANY.

Working hours during overtime season.

Normal season and dull season. •

Season.

Fe­
Hours, AverDura­ males Hours, excep­
tion:
af­
usual tional w S y
Wks. fect­
day.
hours.
day.
ed.

Es-.
tablishment
num­
Fe­
Hours, Maxi- ber.
num
Dura­ males Hours,
excep­
tion:
af­
usual
tional hours
Wks. fect­
day.
per
day.
ed.
week.
Before Christmas.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
week.

1
1

(Normal.

1 2 12 }
}
1
1
8

Si /
\

m
12

59
58f |
582

59

18

1
\
{
I

2

4

{

1

2

{

{

3

*!
A

X?
11

/
/
I

*1 /
t

11
121 }

61

{

61

li

34
4

u }
#
101

?
j

1

3

102-

{

{

64*

1

64

2

64

1
J

11

Normal.

12

11
}
HI

ll

12

80

§

|Dull-----

{

3

81 J 64
11
111 } 631
12

12

3

}

63

6

63

7

63

12

I

4

8

61

9

AND OTHER RETAIL STORES IN SPECIFIED CITIES, AS REPORTED
PLOYERS.
INDIANAPOLIS.

Women in alteration or millinery workrooms who re­
ceived an amount within each classified weekly rate.

Buyers
and
other
employees.

Office
employees.

Total.

Establishment
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ num­
age
age Num­ age
age
.0
.0
.0 .0
ber.
Un- $5.00 6 0 $7.00 8 0 $9.00 10 0 12 0
Num­
and Total. week­ Num­ week­
to
to
to
der to
to
to
ber.
ber. week­ ber. week­
$5.00. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. over.
ly
ly
ly
ly
rate.
rate.
rate.
rate.

$




$

$

$

6 $8.83

42

9.04
9.00
7 10.43
3 9.83
160 10.71

2

16

31

85 11.18
4
130

8.75

88
.8
9.13
10 0
.0

$14.33
21.75

60
.0
35.68
5.00
15.00
31.63

7.30

2 Number affected varied from 5 to 12 per weeks.
9 In business only 41 weeks.

7 $10.29
74 7. “
311 6
7 10.64
84 7.01
9 9.89
434 9.08
89 4.61
289 9.49
42 5.00
61 4.70
64 6.59
706 7.37
23 9.82
6 9.83
11 9.34
57 8.58
6.91

.

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18

110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WEEKLY RATES OF PAY OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN DEPARTMENT
BY EM
INDIANAPOLIS— Concluded.
Cash girls, messengers, bundle
wrappers, packers, inspectors,
and stock girls who received
an amount within, each classi­
fied weekly rate.

Saleswomen who received an amount within each classified
weekly rate.
Establishment
Aver­
nnmAver­
.0
.0
.0
age Un­ $4.00 $5.00 6 0 $7.00 8 0 $9.00 10 0 12 0
.0 .0
age
ber. Un­ $4.00 $5.00 6 0
to
to
to
to
to
to
and Total. week­
der to
to and Total. week- der to
$4.00. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. over.
$4.00. $4.99. $5.99. over.
ly
rate.

$

$

$

$

$

X

10

8.15
13.02
9.28
12.40
14.19
12.75

17
$3.50
5.21
4.75
4.67

12.00
8
.66
11.76

TERRE HAUTE.

2
0

34! $3.00

11

3.00
3.00
5.00
4.50
4.08

$7.00
6.50
5.67
7.00
6.30
3.99
8.72
5.93
13.77

11

12.21

11

10

3.66
3.03

8.34
8.74
6.71

EVANSVILLE.

4

i
!
..........i_
6 $2.92

2

0)

......... 1
..........
1...
1 3.00

1

1

1

2

1
5

6
2
1
8

5
10

6
4

1

18

12
10
1

1
4
7

7
2

1
11 3.36
2 3.50

4

3




1

4

16
6
3
1
15

6
6
8
.19
4

1
I

1
1
1
2
1

1
1

3

8

1
1

1
5

2
2

1
4

1
2

4

1

12

3.75

2
5
1
1

$6.96
5.63
7.14
6.94
7.50
4.59
7.10
11.30

1

5
3
4
1

10.20
7.67
5.20
5.00
4.10
8.55
3.74
4.12

1
1

3

'

1

3

3
4
2

4
2

4

12

i

1

1

1
2

4

3
4
1
1
4

3

1
2
5

8.44
5.40
11.31

7

11.13

10 0
.0

FORT WAYNE.

!
lj

1
1

2i S i
fi.fto
. . J.
. !
i

2
5

3
6
1
26

2

U 10
1
2
4

i This establishment did not report rate of pay.

2j
1
2;

5
4
1

2
1

6
37
9
9
41',

$5.83
6.82
9.67
8.45
5.51

WAGE-EAKNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

I ll

AND OTHER RETAIL STORES IN SPECIFIED CITIES, AS REPORTED
.PjLOYERS—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.
Buyers
and
other
employees.

Women in alteration or millinery workrooms who re­
ceived an amount within each classified weekly rate.

Aver­
Aver­
age
age
Un­ $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $12.00
and Total. week­ Num­ week­
der to
to
to
to
to
to
ber.
$11.99. over.
$5.00.
$6.99.
$8.99.
ly
ly
rate.
rate.

1

1

2

2
2

1
4
4

1
4

i
l

8
2
2

8

14
1

7
1

1

4

1

7
2
5

22 10.11
7 8.93
12 12.21

Total.

Es­
tab­
lish*
ment
Aver­
Aver­ num­
age
age
Num­ week­ Num­ week­ ber.
ber.
ber.
ly
ly
rate.
rate.
6 $10.00
1 12.00
4 10.50
2 8.00
1 12.00
4 9.00
1 12.00

2 $7.50
41 9.91
6 8.33

3

Office
employees.

2 8.00
3 13.67

53
8
68
18
6
51
14
25
24
20

$9.49
8.47
11.00
8.33
12.33
10.79
9.64
11.22
8.60
12.05

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

176 $7.03
2 6.50
3 5.67
3 7.00
13 5.54
49 3.95
64 8.36
40 6.04
56 10.61
11 11.18
86 8.44
156 8.18
18 6.78

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

TERRE HAUTE.
7

2

2

1

5

1

3
3

3
6

1

5
3
1
3

2

3
2

2

3

2

8
1
3
1

9

1

1

2
5

18 $9.44

5

7 $19.14

19 $7.63

7.80
2 11.00
5 8.10

33 11.05
4 9.38
12 9.21
19 8.79

7 16.86
9 21.94

6 10.50
19 7.42
1 8.00

EVANSVILLE.

1

2
1

1
1

2

2

3

1
1

1

1

2

5

2

3

4
2




1

4
2
4

4

1 $25.00

7.50
9.00
8.38

4

6.75

3.25

1 10.00
2 7.00
1 6.50
1 11.00
1
1

7.00
8.00

2
4
1

4 11.50
12 10.04
7 9.43

8 12.81

8 6.13
1 10.00

2

2

13

6 15.00

3 10.33

1 $15.00

1 $o. 00
2 9.50

i

2

4

1 $10.10
1 3.50
1 7.00
3 12.00

1

1

2
1

i $10.00
20 7.45

1

______________________________________ H
*

3

4
1

4

i
2

2
1

8.23

14
5
9
57
8
55
44
10
11
5
5
9
16
9
26
27
7
17
95
18
1
46

$7.18
5.20
7.44
7.28
7.50
4.70
7.18
9.30
10.18
7.40
5.20
5.17
4.53
7.75
3.87
4.26
3.86
9.16
6.44
9.64
10.00
10.12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

7 $5.71
46 7.42
14 9.36
12 8.13
43 5.71

1
2
3
4
5

FORT WAYNE.
i

|

......... !.......... j..........
..........!........

$10.75
8.80
j

3
2

7.17
9.75

112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WEEKLY RATES OF PAY OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN

DEPARTMENT
BY EM

FORT WAYNE—Concluded.

Establishment
num­
ber.

Cash girls, messengers, bundle
wrappers, packers, inspectors,
and stock girls who received
an amount within each classi­
fied weekly rate.

Saleswomen who received an amount within each classified
weekly rate.

Aver­
AverUn- i$4.00 $5.00 6 0 $7.00 $s.00'$9.00 10 0 12 0
.0
.0 .0
age
to
der to
to and Total. week- der to
to
to
to
to
to
and Total. week­
$4.00. $4.99. $5.99. over.
ly :$4.00. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. over.
ly
rate,
rate.

U ­ t$4.00 $5.00 $6.00
n

$

$

$

$3.00.
4.00!.

53 $10.15
107 8.28
23 8.15
.0
7 8 0
5 9.80

.0
2 10 0
6 8.67

17
23

4.44
6.17

SOUTH BEND.

$
12.21

$3.00.
4.50.

9.86

6.0
0

3.46 .
4.03 .

is

24

3i
6
4:........

3 .3 3 :....

11.50
9.92
7.25
8.25
9.29
5.23
9.00
16.50
6.96
9.36
7.00
9.00

3 12

2,
2

3
14

MUNCIE.

!
6 10
4

$4.43
4.
3.39
7.00
9.93
9.20

4;

$3.50 .

2
2

12.00

4
i....
I....5'
l .... L

.36

5

2.50

5.36
8.96
8.50
11.29
7.21

1
41

!
HAMMOND.
1
2
3
4

1
9
2

1
14




!

8

v!
s!
sj

4 .82!.......
I
•••••!

u!

1

11 $3.6Sj

6

22

4

?!
42G
j

2
5
16

1

i

3j. ..

!

«!

2
|

3

..... j

6
|
......... 1
7
3!

17 $5.80
44 6.73
12 5.69
74 7.16

113

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

AND OTHER RETAIL STORES IN SPECIFIED CITIES, AS REPORTED
PLOYERS—Continued.
FOBT WAYNE—Concluded.

Women in alteration or millinery workrooms who re­
ceived an amount within each classified weekly rate.

Buyers
and
other
employees.

Office
employees.

Total.

Establishment
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ num­
age
Un­ $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $12.00
age
age Num­ age
ber.
and Total. week­ Num­ week­ Num­ week­
der to
to
to
to
to
to
ber.
ber.
ber. week­
$5.00. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99, $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. over.
ly
ly
ly
ly
rate.
rate.
rate.
rate.

1

3

1
11
2

1
4
4
1

1

1
2

5
7

1

1

1

4
5

1
1

1

12 $10.71
1 $28.85
33 9.80
13 20.30
6 7.66
9 15.78
2 9.50
2 10.00 ........i ‘ ii'oo
2 9.50
1 10.00
3

2

7.67

2 $12.50
20 8.90
2 16.00
•1 10.00
1 10.00
1 12.00
1
2

7.00
8.00

71 $10.27
175 9.48
40 10.19
10 8.50
9 10.11
5 10.20
7 8.86
18 4.58
28 6.46

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
U

13 $10.96
87 10.20
1 6.00
8 10.88
6 8.88
2 7.25
79 8.30
46 7.52
25 5.59
3 7.00
11 14.68
14 7.32
128 8.81
33 7.77
1 9.00

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

SOUTH BEND.
$9.75

11.00

$15.00
12.09

$0 0
2 .0

10.25
7.
9.60
14.60

18.18

8.67

80
.0

9.75
7.00
18.00

5.00
11.13

11.00
11.58
10 6
.'

80
.0

12.75

10.74
14.25

MUNCIE.

$ .00
8
9.00
5.50
6.75

80
.0
10 0
.0

$0 0
2 .0

9.00
7.50
9.00
7.00

12.00

14.29

8.27

24 $4.58
18 5.14
10 3.60
26 7.00
9 9.61
14 9.57
4 9.75
28 7.01
14 8.96
13 8.62
12 10.71
115 7.21
1 9.00

1
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

HAMMOND.

1
3

1

2
1

66172°—Bull. 160—14------8




3 $15.33

4 $22.50

5 $7.00

2

7 10.57

1 iaoo

7

8.14

17 $5.80
67 7.58
12 5.69
111 7.07

1
2
3
4

114

B ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WEEKLY RATES OF PAY OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN DEPARTMENT
BY EM
LA FAYETTE.
Cash girls, messengers, bundle
wrappers, packers, inspectors,
and stock girls who received
an amount within each classi­
fied weekly rate.

Saleswomen who received an amount within each classified
weekly rate.
Establishment
Aver­
num­
Aver­
age Un­ $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $12.00
age
ber. Un­ $4.00 $5.00 $6.00
to
to
to
to
to
to
and Total. weekder to
to and Total. week- der to
$4.00. $4.99. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99. over.
$4.00. $4.99. $5.99. over.
rate.
X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 $4.25

2

6

5
11

5

5
7
3
6
4
10

5
3
2
4

4

....i

20
10
2
1
1
15

5

3

7

5

4

3
1
3
1

3

5
4
3

1

2

6

2

3
3

6
1

3

10
5
4

3

3
6
2

3
1

8

53 $6.54
28 4.86
22 8.84
21 7.50
7 6.14
51 7.57
12.40
45 7.63

RICHMOND.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

3
1

9

1
4
4
1

1
10

2

1
2

*
1

3
6
12
1

1 $5.00

4
3

1
2
1
1

1

9
2

1

1

2

1
1
3

3
4

2
2
5

1

4

1
1
2
2
4

2

1

2

9

3

2

1
1

12 $7.33
19 5.21
40 6.79
12 7.29
1 9.00
2 7.25
21 3.88
3 10.33
2 8.00
10 8.90
19 7.58
2 9.00
10 11.75
1 8.00

NEW ALBANY.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

7




1

8 $3.25

2
1
9

1
2
1
1
2
9

3

1
2
6

4
4
1

2
4

1
7

1
1

1

3

1

2 $4.50
15 6.40
3 5.17
52 6.88
2 5.00
3 6.00
9 4.00
4 4.06
2 6.00

115

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

AND OTHER RETAIL STORES IN SPECIFIED CITIES, AS REPORTED
PLO YERS—Continued.
LA FAYETTE.

Women in alteration or millinery workrooms who re­
ceived an amount within each classified weekly rate.

Buyers
and
other
employees.

Office
employees.

Total.

Es­
tab­
lish.
ment
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ num­
age
age
age
Un­ $5 00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $12.00
ber.
Num­ week­ Num­ week­ Num­ age
and Total. week­ ber.
der to
to
to
to
to
to
ber.
ber. week­
15.00. $5.99. $6.99. $7.99. $8.99. $9.99. $11.99, over.
ly
ly
ly
ly
rate..
rate.
rate.
rate.
1

1

1
4
2
1

3
1
2

1

6
1
5

1
1
4

1

2

2

8 $7.57

1
1
1
2
2
1

1

1
1
1
3

2
3
1
1

4 7.50
1 $15.00
6 10.33
2 9.00
18 8.08 ........3 “ 8*33
8 7.25
16 a 28

5
2
2
2
1
3
1
6

$7.40
7.50
14.00
11.00
9.00
11.67
9.00
7.33

68 $6.64
30 5.03
28 9.02
30 8.55
10 7.00
75 7.89
14 9.21
67 7.76

2 $7.00
1 12.10
5 8.60
3 7.33
1 9.00

15 $7.30
20 5.56
50 7.18
16 7.59
3 9.67
2 7.25
22 4.11
5 9.80
3 7.33
13 9.27
24 8.13
3 8.83
20 10.88
2 7.50

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

RICHMOND.

*

1
2
1

1

1

$7.50

2 7.50
1 12.00

1 11.00

3 $9.83

1
1

1

1




1

1

2

1
1

1
1

2 9.75
2 10.50

2

5 11.70

9.00

NEW ALBANY.

9.00

1 6.00
1 12.00
3 10.00
1 8.50
4 9.13
1 7.00

1
2
3
4

5

6
7

§
9
10

U
12
13
14

116

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EM
[Bracketed hours indicate either a permanent change of hours during the year, or

INDIANAPOLIS.
Other employ­
ment

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
al
Age. sondition.
num­
ber.

Single..
. . d o . ..
..d o ..........
Divorced..
Single.

Occupation.

Saleswoman, lace..............
Saleswoman, candy..........
Saleswoman, general........
Saleswoman, domestics..
Store matron......................
Saleswoman........................

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­
year.
ings. Weeks.
try.

7

2
15*

50
152
24
48
350
52

$11.50
7.00
7.25
5.00

3
10

50

14

43

11.00

3

50

7.00

49

2

11.24

Single___

12.00

Department head, lace...
/Saleswoman, jewelry andl
\ neckware.
/
..d o .......... Department head, stationery

...d o ..........

Department head, gloves___

•do.7___
.d o ........
.d o..........
.d o ...

Saleswoman, general........
Saleswoman, confectionery-.
Department head, leather
l goods.
Cashier.....................................

12

(2
)

2

43
51
8 51

3

50

9.00
8.33

Saleswoman, suits..

9

8 51

15.00

Separated.
Single..
..d o ...
..d o ...

Saleswoman, general. .
Saleswoman, lace.........
Saleswoman, suits.......
Millinery maker...........

6

8 51
3 37
50
51

(2)

..d o ..........

Saleswoman, pictures..

..d o ...

/Department head, muslin
\ underwear.

/Saleswoman, waists, under. . . d o . . . . . . \ wear, lace.

(2)

<)
*

2

7f
9

12

} 10

Saleswoman, corsets___
Saleswoman, groceries..
Saleswoman, notions...

siio

...d .o ..........

Department head, corsets.. .

15

...d o ...

Saleswoman, ribbons..

..d o .
..d o .
..d o .
26

28
4

(2)

Widowed

22

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

Married... Saleswoman, patterns and
books.

5
*
8

8.30

(2)

5.11
7.83

5*
0

5.94

48

25
19

$36.00

8.12

15.00

}

7 81
-

50
51

10.00

90
5

4.52

(2)

35

15.00

8 52

5.94

11

5.00

9

58.50

32

1 Includes 2 weeks' vacation with pay and occasional days’ absence with pay.
2 Not reported.
3 Includes J week’s vacation with pay.
4 35 to 40.
.5 Reported as none, but store reports shorter hours in summer and a majority of its employees also
report shortened hours.




117

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

PLOYED IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES,
that the individual had worked in more than one establishment, or worked in shifts.]

INDIANAPOLIS.
Working hours during overtime seasons.

Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- nrs. em­ usu­
per
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy- al
ploy­
ed. day.
ed. day. al
ed.
day. al
day.
day.

12*

13

I 27
f 33
I 9
f 24*

9*

t 13

4*
2

56*

9
9
9

9i 12*

41

9*

57

»50
25
40

9|

12*

5$
4

Hi

11
3
12

47§

f 13
\ 34*

56*
56*
54
56*

38

hi

56*

H*
H*

/ <)
2
\ H

56*

49

42
42
( 28

56*
56*
56*
54

12*
12*

Hi

\ Hi
26

13*
9

52
51*

56*

n
54

51*
51*

7

8
99

S
h

49

5

}8
9

S
I

49|

13*

71

11
12
13
14

!

70

12*

9*
9
H*

12*
H*

11*

61*

11*

10

15
16
17
18
19

20

11*
65 } 61i
9
64

11 *
66
9
66

53
62*

22

55
23
24
25

i:

11*
65

I9
\64

12§

12|
12

c Hours on Sunday.
i Single first part of year, married and keeping house last 4 months of year.
8 Includes 1 week’s vacation with pay.
» Includes 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.




67*
65

11*
Hi

9

6*
0
} 61
6

12|

11*

U

60*

581

11*

1
1

51*

7

H*
64

Hi
(*>
1

72

11*
64 }

H*

5
4

12

9 121
J

12*

49

8*

12

8

71
701
70

60

*

3*

71*

49
54

5*

3
4
5
6

72

45

»8

1

71
2
72
72

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

2

71i

i3

Hrs.
maxi­ Hrs.
mum per
wk.
day.

79*
78
75
73

13

9 * 12
9
n*
9
n*
9
9
ii*
9

!9
[ 40

13
13

12 12
12 12
12 12
12* 12f

(5)

54
581
561
54
58f

f 26
[ 14
42*

13*
13

12*
12

23
38*
421

f 1
2
[ 21
5*
0

Maxi­
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
maxi­ mum em­ usu­
mum hours ploy­ al
per
day.
ed. day.
wk.

13
13

48*

19
4*

Other than before
Christmas.

} 61
1

26

}5 3
27
28

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OP WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS— Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­

al

num­
ber.

Conjugal
Age. condition.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
em­
peri­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
year.
ings. Weeks.
indus­
try.

Occupation.

152

29

19

Single..

Saleswoman, music........

2*

3
0

18 .. . d o . . .

Saleswoman, ribbons___

1

49*

4.17

31
32

Saleswoman......................

2

13

4.28

33

21 .. . d o . . .
23 . . . d o . . .
17 ...d o ..........

39
51

2 5.38
4.61

34

29

Separated. Department head, jewelry..

7

52

9.00

35

35

Single..

18

52

16.00

36
37

22

(*)

-.d o ..........
..d o ...

Saleswoman, notions, etc___
Saleswoman, silverware____

4
14

25
141

6.12
12.58

38

21

..d o ..........

Saleswoman, candy............. .

3

5 51

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

5.50

Saleswoman, linens........
Saleswoman, hair goods.

/Department head, w a s h
\ goods.

*

$7.50

2h
13 3$87.75

27

11

39

18 ...d o .........

Saleswoman, toys...........

2*

0 52

3.91

40

24 ...d o ........

Saleswoman, general

7

46

8.00

41

24 ...d o ........

Saleswoman, hardware..

4

643

6.87

42

28

Separated

Saleswoman, ribbons.. . .

3

17

6.77

10

66.00

25

43

17

23*

4.52

15

149.25

13*

Single____

Saleswoman, hardware..

45
46
47
48
49

17 . . . d o ........
19 ...d o .........
28 . . . d o .........
(4 ...d o
)
17 ...d o ........
18 ...d o ........

Stenographer....................
Saleswoman, candy........
Saleswoman, linings.......
Saleswoman, toys...........
Saleswoman, hardware..
Saleswoman, toys...........

29
TI
151
3|
48
6i
9
8 16
i • 13
151
2*

50
51

18 ...d o ........
15 ...d o ........

Saleswoman, general___

3

Wrapper............................

52

16 ...d o .........

53
54

23 ...d o ........
23 ...d o ........

....... do................................
Saleswoman, notions___

55
56
57

28 ...d o ........
50 Widowed
14 Single—

Tailoress...............................
Saleswoman, chinaware. . .

58

20 ...d o .........

........d o ..................................

59

17 . . .d o .

44




Floorwalker....................
Saleswoman, shirt waists.

/Saleswoman,
\ ment.

art

depart-

i

6
9

8.28

23

7.01
8.25

4

9 14.50
4.28
4 .82

41
37

£
1

38

13

8.00

3.78
3.69

6

3*
151*
37

10.50

12
14
48*

i

10.00

n

1 50
0
19

h
i

11

6.57

10.50
8.21
4.38

24

4.03

49

4.28

3*
30

36
26

1

6.00

I

1

1 Includes 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
2 Not including P. M. commissions, amount not reported.
8 Approximately.
4 Not reported.
6 Includes 1 week’s vacation with pay.
• Includes 1* weeks’ vacation with pay.

15

2
22

170.50

(“)

11

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Working hours during overtime seasons.

Regular working hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­
em­ usu­ cepper
ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day.
ed. day. al
day.
26

1*
4

25
13

a
$

11*

2*
9
29*
13

10

u*

14

ii*

19*

2
2
13
34*

57
54* } > 9
58
55 } *
54
56* }•
56*
9
58
55 } 8
56*
54
56*
54 }

ii

52*

54
52*
49

2*
0
19*
9
41*
13
34

{ I?
39
29

8

21*

2*
30

12
6
2
2

54

10

2*

U
*

47

13
13

<!!

41

12
12
11*
12

65
64J
64f

42

57

66

43

65*
65£

44
45
46
47
48
49

’io’

64*
64*

50

51*

lOf

51*

11*
11*
11*

64
64

53
54

11*
11*

64

55
56

64

57

U
*

64

58

} 7
51*

8*

3*

8

9

49

H
I

64

64

7 Hours on Sunday.
* Includes * week's absence with pay.
• Does not take into consideration $67.50 received at end of year as her portion of profit-shar
1 Includes 1 week of sick leave with pay.
0
1 Not over $150.
1




38

40

66

12
8*

35

39

12
12

Ilf

34

36
37

12§

}

r.

31
32
33

67

12*
12

n

u
l
m
-

29

67
67

57f

li-

30

13

1* 12
12
*
1*

49

10
*

18

67*

21

a*

*

49

55f
56*
54 } 8
54
56*
54 } » 9
56*
54

56*
56*
63
54
56*

57§
58*
67*

11 *
11 *

* 12

57
56*
54
57*

7 46

17*

1
2
1*

44*

56*
51i

Wks. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ Hrs.
ploy­ al mum per
ed. day. day. wk.

13

44*

60
57
54
56

14*

ill

12*

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

49

9

56

44*

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

12*
12*
12*
12*
12f

56

42*

21*
12

il*

49*

54
51

31*

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

51
52

59

>n
.

120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
Age. condition.
al
num­
ber.

Occupation.

60
61

..d o ..........

12*

Single----- Saleswoman.
Married... ------do.............

62
63
64
65

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­ year.
ings. Weeks.
try.

Bookkeeper..............................

1 51

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn- ment.

m

$4.29
6.10

46

6
6

Separated. Saleswoman, boys’ clothing.
Single.___ Cashier....................... ..............
...d o .......... Saleswoman, ready-to-wear..
...d o .......... Wrapper..............................

18

6.01
9.34
7.50
10.00
3.51

67

...d o ___

Saleswoman, jewelry___

50

7.00

6
8
69
70

Separated. Saleswoman, stationery.
Single..
Saleswoman, music........
.. .d o . ..
Saleswoman.....................

27

4.91
4.58
3.58

71

Married. . .

Saleswoman, suits.

15

10.00

37

72

Single.,

Saleswoman, general.

24

5.39

28

50
14
49
48

8.64

2

3

6
2
0

48
49
50

5
*

73
74
75
76

...d o .......... Saleswoman, art needlework.
...d o .......... Saleswoman, dress goods___
Married... ....... d o ..................................
Saleswoman, veilings____
Single..

2J
1
10

77

...d o ........... Saleswoman, art needlework.

n

78

...d o ..........

26 $108.00

212

46!
110.00

25

12

7.50
10.85
9.86
5.52

3i

37

7.16

79

Separated. Saleswoman, confectionery.

6

50

510.50

80

Single........ Saleswoman, lace..................

3

3|
0

9.20

Cashier....................................

4

47

8.00

5

6
11

50

9.00

83

(Department head, trim...d o .......... \ mings.
j Buyer and saleswoman, toi...d o .......... \ let articles, etc.

1 51

9.47

2
1

84

.. . d o . . .

Saleswoman, music...............

2

52

6.00

85

.. . d o . . .

Saleswoman.

5

6.12

47

8
6

...d o ...

........do.............

49

4.94

3

87

...d o ...

Saleswoman, candy.

6!

51

4.76

8
8

...d o ___

Saleswoman, kitchen w are..

i

25

4.28

52

6.65

81
82

89

...d o ..........

Saleswoman, notions.

Separated. Saleswoman, domestics..




1Includes 1 week’s vacation with pay.
2This work was in the evening in addition to regular employment.
3Hours on Sunday.

75.00

21!

121

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Regular working hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­
em­ usu­ cep- per
ploy­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- per ploy­ al
wk.
ed. day. al
ed.
ed. day.
day. al
day.
day.

10
*

5
27*
15

12*

4*
1
41*
13
35

2*
2*

}ll*

16
32*

10
9
9
9
9
9

54
54
56f
56*
54

11*
11*

2
*

49*
4
15
30

« ) 67{

12

11*

9
9

11*

ii*

{S*
ii'
ii‘

1*
8
15

8
2
*

14
42

54
51*

11*
9

11*
11*
11*

49
51*

8
*

m

28*

2*
2
/ 2
*
2
8

11*
11*
11*
11*
11*

49

9* 9*
**
Hf

7

9

11*

54
56*
54
56*
56
54
56
54
56
54
55*
58
56
54

64

12

I lf

9

69
70
64

12

57

63*
63*
}<S3ij

} 61
3
}(< )
} 59i
57
}
13

} •

49
44*

67

6
8

11*

9*

71
72
73
74
75
76
77

78
79

13

12

9

3
3

57

80

11
12
10
11*

47*
57
55
62*

81
82

3
3

} »

49

11

H
I

62*

83

11

62

84

11
11

49

62

49

n




11*
11*

Hi 3
9 / 37 } 6 *
i
11* 11* 64
11* 63*
9
37
9* 12* om\

54*
49
51f
49
54
49

56*
56*
54
52
« 59
56*
54
54

9

6

Hrs.
maxi­ Hrs.
per
mum wk.
day.

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

60
61
62
63
64
65

59*
56*
54

9
9

40

30
17
25
>28*
23

Maxi­
Hrs. mum Wks. Hrs.
maxi­
em­ usu­
mum hours ploy­ al
day. per
ed. day.
wk.

56*

13
7
7
26
13
4
42*
16
24

54
54
56*
54
56*
56*
56*
56*
54
56*
54
56*
54
54
56*

Other than before
Christmas.

62
87

62

11

62

45
* Not reported.
5 Receives in addition to this 2 meals a day.
•Every third week worked 7 hours Sunday.

11
1*

61*

89

122

BULLETIN- OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIAN APOUS— Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
Age. condition.
al
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try.

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

90
91
92

16 Single........ Saleswoman, toilet goods___
?A ...d o .......... Saleswoman, ready-to-wear..
9,9 ...d o .......... Saleswoman, bargain table..

i
3
2

9
49
48

$4.00
12.00
9.50

4

93

8

49
9

11.00
4.11

3

90
97

28 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, underwear___
21 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, hardware and
toys.
17 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, domestics........
18 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, china and glass
Bookkeeper..............................
19 __ do.........

4
44
51

7.50
4.00
6.88

98

28 . ..d o ___

Saleswoman, lace...................

2
u
10

50£

10.00

H

99

25 ...d o ........

Clerical......................................

10

2 49

15.00

3
6

91
95

4

15

$16.00

(<)

39
3

28
48
1

100

37

Married__

Alteration worker...................

5

46

12.02

101

24

Single___ _ Floorwalker............................

6

51

6.50

1

102

26 __ do...........

Saleswoman, silks...................

8

50

20.00

2

103

30

Married 5. . Saleswoman, embroidery___

3

11

6.00

41

104

24

Single........ Saleswoman, ready-to-wear..

2£-

105

26 ...d o ..........
15 ...d o ...........

107

110

19 __ do...........
27 Married. . .
25 Single........
20 __ do........... Saleswoman, toilet goods___

111

Saleswoman, embroidery___

26 ...d o ..........

15.00

4

14.00

2

34

4.01
4.09
6 6.00
10.13

5

51
50
250
41

11.40

2
2
11

8

48

13.50

4

50

9.35

2

2 51

20.00

1
17

*
6
1
12

108

108
109

48
2 50

Department head, embroi­
dery.
/Saleswoman, cake, and stock
I
\ girl.
Saleswoman, dry goods........
Saleswoman, draperies..........
Department head, hosiery.. .

6

2

9.00

16
1

116

/Saleswoman, muslin under19 ...d o .......... \ wear.
I
f
/Department head and buy29 ...d o .......... \ er, millinery.
}
30 Separated. Saleswoman, laces..................
19 Single........ Tailoress...................................
20 . . . d o . . ___ Bill clerk...................................

117

32

Married... Saleswoman, coats and suits.

5*

50

18.12

2

118

33

Single........ ........do........................................

6

49

18.12

3

119

23 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, leather goods..

24

8.04

28

112
113
114
115




4
10
i
4

35
42

8.00
5.11

5

50

9.00

10
2

1Not reported.
2 Includes 1 week’s vac ation with pay.
3Hours on Sunday.

123

WAGE-EAKNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Working hours during overtime seasons.

Regular working hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ploy­
ed. day.
ed. day. al
day. al
ed.
day.
day.
61
*43J
16
24

5&
3

&J
T

57
561
54
56
54
561

21

19-J

ii
2
41
40

10

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

S*

H
I
H
I

61
61

11

61

iil

6§
0

Wks. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ per
ploy­ al mum wk.
ed. day. day.

C
1)

14
16
26

8
21

14
25
40

15J
41
40

111

54
561
54
561
54
551
53
561
54
44
54

2
2
16
26
13
29
9

2J
2
38
33

99

601

100

H
I

111

57i
601

H
I

} 601

101

601
34

11

60

49
48
49
45
441
49

60
571
60

11
12
Hi
\3 3

60
58
591
591
57

107
108
109

} 591
57

111

11

(T

11

I9 J

5
t o |5 1 {

*
} 9 n3
[3

r 111
\ 3 3 } 591

H
I
I 9-1
\ *4

104
105
106

111

49

511

31
12

■
2

49

48

10
2
103

49

51
6

11

18
17

95
96
97

12i
12i
12i

45

54
511
561
54
54
54

11

90
91
92

HI

53
441

45

n
17

} 61

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

93
94

}

21
8

10
1
112
113

} 51
9

114

51
9

81

10

581
59

15
1
116

59

15
25

111

561
54

17
23

Hi

561
54

II

561
58
551

117

•II

561
58
551

118

57
}5 8 1

119

C
1)
13

Un
4

1

} 7
} 7

8
1

27
14
24

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

12*
12

25

531
511 } 57|
54
54
56
54
561
54
7
561
8
54
561
7
54
561
54
561
54

2

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

54




} SSi

|!

* W as millinery apprentice; no pay.
6 Deserted by husband.
6Not including P. M.’s, amount not reported.

124

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

120
121

Widowed

122

.. .d o ..........

123
124
125

Occupation.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
year.
indus­
ings. Weeks.
try.

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

1
1

Saleswoman, linens.. . . . .
Saleswoman, bargain tables.

1!
6

151
51

(2)

Head saleswoman, jewelry...

8

33

11.10

...d o ..........

Bookkeeper..............................

8

151

12.00

1

...d o ..........
...d o ..........

Clerical.....................................
Saleswoman, ribbons.............

23

4.09
4.51

29
44*

Single—

II
$

$5.50

126

Widowed. Saleswoman, coats and suits.

4!

127
128

Single........ Saleswoman.............................
...d o .......... Saleswoman, stationery........

!
4

'!
13
39 | 23.00
5!
4.00
49
6.00

129

...d o ..........

Saleswoman, neckwear.........

3

16J

19

7.50

r
\

46J
3
35J

Married... Cashier......................................

7!

49

6.53

131

Marker......................................
(Saleswoman and buyer, cor...d o .......... \ sets and underwear.
...d o .......... Millinery worker.....................

2

50

4.97

25

1 49]

9.50

2
2!

132
133
134
135
136
137
138

Single . . . .

Saleswoman, gloves...............
Saleswoman and buyer,
leather goods.
...d o .......... Typist and assistant cashier.
Widowed. Fitter.........................................
Married... Department head, dresses...
...d o ..........
..d o ..........

142

Single........ Department head, hair goods
...d o .......... Saleswoman, suits..................
Married... F itty .........................................
Separated. Saleswoman, prints...............

143

Single........ Saleswoman, coats and suits.

139
140
141

144
145
146
147

...d o ..........
...d o ..........

Alteration worker...................
Floorwalker.............................

...d o ..........
...d o ..........

Saleswoman.............................
Wrapper...................................

148
149
150
151

...d o .......... Saleswoman, underwear.......
Widowed. Saleswoman, linens................
Single........ Saleswoman, bargain tables.
...d o ..........

Department head, linens___

152

...d o ..........

Saleswoman, dresses..............

...d o ..........

Saleswoman, handkerchiefs.

153

1 Includes 1 week’ vacation with pay.
2Not reported.




26

5.00

26

5&
8!

M3
4 52

9.50
14.90

9

X
9S
5

545
17
28

88

130

8.14

7
35
24

52

15.00

!

H
30
20

136
50

10.00
7.54
9.25
. 42
r is
5
| 7 9.55
V 10!
2
: 149
4.51
8 50!
5.34
Iri
i
13
4.31
4
2
152
3.43
15
46
8.90
151
12
9.50
12!
6.56
l!
9
50
8.91

16

2
10

10

17!
3

l!
39

$72.00

6
1

31!

3!

50

7.00

2
2

H

43

5.64

9

3 nours on Sunday.
< Includes 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.

125

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOUS—Continued.
Regular working hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cepper em­ usu­
ploy­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day. al
ed. day.
ed.
day. al
day.
day.
42*
16
26
26
4

9
9

m
Hi
fio*

in*

13

n*

13
4
2*

9i

2
0

"n

51
56*
54 } *
58*
54
........

8
&

56*
54
54*
54
54f

H
*
24
25
26
24
11*
26
16

54
54

f 39
13
\
26
20

f 13
i 29

f
\ 18*
5
40%
43

I 10
2*
[

41
42
37

n

40

f 24
[ 17
38

57
57|
57£
54
57
54*
54
56*
57
54
57
54

9!

126
127
128

44*

9i

129
130

18

49

9

45

*7

45
44£

<
9

.....

8
*

}

ioI
11'

51*

10
11
11

132
133
134
135
136
137
138

H
*
12*

57*
57*

139
140
141
142

10*

44*

58

55*

143

55

°
1 / 9
110
i

3
19

} 58

10*

12*

4*

5J
4

44*

2
li

47*

3

44*

91
9

9i
9

3

9i
9i
9

4

9

5

} 1°
9|
9f
9i
9i
9i
{3 3

144

57
57

145
146
147

57
57
54i
57
57

7
* * '! } 5

9*

9*

57

}5 7

&
Includes 8 days’ vacation with pay.
• Has in addition dinner each day.

148
149
150
151
152

49*

54




125
58*

13

7

541

123
124

131

54|
54

562

58*
58*
9|

4
*

121
122

11

8

54
54
55*
54

51
58*
56

Hi
10*

9i

54

54

58*

10

9

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

120

H
*

} 16

58
55*
58
55*
56*
54
54

34
42

wk.

Wks. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ per
ploy­ al mum wk.
ed. day. day.

} 55*

55

f
I 13
1
5

58i

I

41

544
16

m

m

Maxi­
mum
hours
per

49

} .......
55*
54
56 }•
54

1
2
*

50*

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

Other than before
Christmas.

{ 3 22

} 56|

;{32 } 56!
5

7 Earnings for 16* weeks only.
8 Includes * week’s vacation with pay.

153

126

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

IndividuConjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

154
155
156

Occupation.

waists,
27 S in g le .... /Department head, hosiery.
\ and saleswoman,
30 ...d o ......... Saleswoman, muslin under­
wear.
/Saleswoman, draperies and
26 ...d o .......... \ ready-to-wear.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
em­
peri­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­ year.
ings. Weeks.
try.

12
10

H
li
3
$
1

51
46

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

/812.00
\ 9.00
6.21

44$

7.00

42

3.70

48
13
21

4.42

157

17 ...d o .........

Wrapper............. ...................

158

18

Bookkeeper.............................

159
160
161

17 ...d o .........
27 ...d o ........
34 Separated

Cashier.....................................
Saleswoman, groceries......... .

6
15

50

10.00
9.00

1G2

26

Cash girl........... ; .....................

5

26

8.00

23

1C3

25 ...d o ........

27$

4.75

24$

5

46

7.52

6

1G5

Saleswoman, laces..................
/Saleswoman, bargain count\ ers.
22 ...d o .......... Stenographer...........................

H

21 ...d o ........

U

50

15.00

2

166

19 ...d o ........ .

Cash girl...................................

3

48

6.00

4

167

36 ...d o ..........

Saleswoman, millinery.........

2

48

10.00

168

28

..d o ..........

Clerical.....................................

12

50

20.00

169

30

..d o ..........

Saleswoman, coats and suits.

10

48

0)

4

170

27

..d o ..........

Stock girl and cashier...........

3

51

5.08

171

22

..d o ..........

Saleswoman, hair goods.......

6

51

14.00

1
1

172

34

..d o ..........

Saleswoman, coats and suits.

20

50

12.00

2

173

19

..d o ..........

Floorwalker............................

4

50

6.74

2

174

0)

Married...

Saleswoman, millinery.........

i

21

7.19

31

175

39

Widowed.

Bookkeeper and cashier.

*

176

23

Siagle........ Millinery worker.............

177

20

..d o ..........

Clerical..............................

178

22

..d o ..........

Cashier.............................. .

179

0)

180

30

181

17

1G
4

..d o ........

Single___

Saleswoman............................

m

8
1

4.11

10.59

40.50
200.00

9

1J
7
2

•2

182.50

2*
8

4

18

0

48

8.00

4

3

48

Widowed. Saleswoman, millinery...

15

49

0)

Saleswoman, prints........ .

2

21$

6.00

Wrapper............................

n

52

3.12

182

19

..d o .........

Saleswoman, notions____

52

8.75

22$

.. d o ........

Clerical...............................

49

4.50

1 Not reported.

34

4

183




7
4

6
*

m

..d o .........

$4.50

3$
0

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

127

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Working hours during overtime seasons.

Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Before Christmas.

Other than before
Christmas.

Indi­
vidu­

al

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
usu- cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
> al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day. al
ed. day.
day. al
day.
day.

56*
561

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

54

Wks. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ per
ploy­ al mum wk.
ed. day. day.

num­
ber.

154
155

51
5

9
1
{ll*
Hi
ii*
*iii’
iii

n|
ii*
'ii*

iii
iii
'iii'
'iii'
iii
'iii'
iii*
iii'
iii'
iii*
iii*
(ij*

H
I
Hi
iii*
iii'
iii*
iii*
iii*
iii*

iii'

54
561
561
54
56*
54
56*
54
561
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54

156
157
158
49

159
160
161

49

162
163
164
165
49

166
167

51
6

168

54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54

169
170
171
172
10

54
6
54"
C
1
)

561
511
561
54
56*
54
56*
54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54
561
54




55

173
174
175
176
177

49

178
179
180
181
182
103

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi-

viduConjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­
year.
ings. Weeks.
try.

Weeks
of uri4
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

7

51

0)

u

48

$6.90

8

52

15.00

11

50

16.00

2

50

8.60

2

10

49

(2)

3

Saleswoman, suits..................

12

21.44

11

Cashier......................................
Department head, skirts-----

4
5

41
51

7.00

1
2

Saleswoman, dry goods.........
Saleswoman, suits..................

5.00
21.00

29

2*
-

50
23
3 52

20.00

..d o .........
..d o .........
Single____

1S4

Wrapper...................................

*

22

2.82

..d o .........

Saleswoman, notions.............

3|

50

4.00

..d o .........

..........do.....................................

1

391

4.04

10
2.i
7

50
49
43

10.00
7.00
9.56

&52

18.00

186

Single........ Clerical.....................................
/Saleswoman, millinery and
..d o ........... \ corsets.......................... ........
Divorced.. Forewoman, alterations------

187

Single..

Timekeeper............................

188

. .do___

Cashier and clerk..................

189

..d o ....

Cashier....................................

190
191
192

Widowed
Single____
Married..,

193
194

185

196
197

18

205

Saleswoman, waists...........
Saleswoman, art department
(Saleswoman, muslin under\ wear.......................................
..d o ........... Pay-roll clerk and cashier.. .
/Assistant buyer and salesWidowed \ woman, notions.................
Single____ Saleswoman, white goods.. .
Order clerk, grocery..........
...d o .........
.. .do......... Saleswoman and marker___

206

.. .d o . ..—

198
199
200
201
202
203
204

3
*

-2
-

..d o ....
—
..d o —

:..do

}

13
11

4 50

2
56.00

14.00
1.56

36
48

Skirt fitter..........................

52

207
208

Widowed
Single------

Saleswoman, art................
Saleswoman, candy..........

4 49
3

209

...d o .........
Married..
Single------

Saleswoman, baby carriages.
Saleswoman, waists,........
Wrapper..............................

213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221

...d o ......... Saleswoman, stationery..
.do........... Saleswoman, ready-to-wear..
Married. . . Bookkeeper and cashier........
Single........ Saleswoman, cloaks and suits
.do........... Stenographer......................
do........... Stock girl............................
.do.....................do................................... Widowed .1 Saleswoman, coats and suits.
Single........| Wrapper..................................
Married
^Saleswoman, gent’s furnish-




I
4
1
176
5
30

10

41

3
16
4

4.27
12.00
20.00
5.00

75
0

210
211
212

26

(6)

4 49

$16.00

29
4 51

8.50
13.85
14.00
9.00
3.42
3.38
20.00
3.50

23

12.00
4.00
6.46

37
4 51
41*
&52
25
26
49
9

3
49
2

m

21
6

1 Not reported.
2 Over $10.
3 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
4 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
6 Includes 10 days’ vacation with pay.

7.90

H
I
1

15

(9)

*T

101
27
26
3
43

251

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

129

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.

213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220

6 Not reported, but is at least $10.
7 Including several occasional days’ absence with pay
8 Hours on Sunday.
®Was caretaker of house; had lodging free.

66172°—Bull. 160-14


130

BU LLETIN

or

THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

W O R K IN G HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED

INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.

i

IndividuConjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

38
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261

264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
27;
274

Occupation.

/Saleswoman and buyer,
Married.. \ fountain pens.....................
Single------ Saleswoman, coats and suits.
..d o ......... Wrapper..............................
..d o .........
/Stenographer and assistant
...d o ........... 1 cashier................................. .
Saleswoman, groceries—
..d o .......
Saleswoman, shirtwaists.
Married.
Stenographer...........................
Single...
Alteration worker.............
..d o .......
Saleswoman, neckwear...
Married.
Wrapper..............................
..d o .......
..d o .......
..d o .......
..d o ____
. .do-----. .do____
. .d o___
..d o ____
..d o -----. .do----..d o ....
..d o ___
. .do___
. .do----..d o ----. .do----..d o ....
. .do___
..d o ----..d o ....
. .do___
..d o ....
Married.
Single...
..d o ..* ..
,..d o ___
...d o ----...d o ....

Saleswoman, candy..........
Wrapper and cashier........
Wrapper..............................
Clerical................................
Inspector and wrapper.. .
Alteration worker.............
Saleswoman, waists.........
Alteration worker.............
Forewoman, alteration...
Trimmer, millinery..........
Saleswoman, candy..........
Wrapper............... ..............
Alteration worker.............
Saleswoman, suits............
Errand girl.........................
Wrapper..............................
____ do..................................
....... do..................................
Millinery maker...............
Cash girl.
Errand girl and wrapper.
Saleswoman, general........

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
vear.
ings. Weeks.
indus­
try.

39
11
34
2 52

1
3|
20

3
9
U
4
13
i
t
V
H
2
A

12.25

84
4
52
15
4 51

6.12
»6.00
7.31
8.00
10.74

12]
3
49
3
50
5
43
50
46
50
34
50
40
43
37 V
13'

Cash girl..........................
Clerical.............................
Saleswoman, millinery.
Cashier.............................

.. .do___
.. .do___
...d o ___
.. .do___
...d o ----...d o ....
.. .do___
...d o ___
...d o ___
.. .do___
...d o ___

10

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

$14.00
19.00
3.75
4.00

Wrapper..............................

Saleswoman, candy.............
Saleswoman, gloves............. .
Saleswoman, hardware........
Alteration worker.................
Saleswoman, bargain tables.
Wrapper................................. .
Saleswoman, draperies.........
Saleswoman, beddings........
Saleswoman, bargain tables.
Saleswoman, general...........
Demonstrator and sales­
woman, gloves and mil­
linery.
Divorced.. Saleswoman and assistant
buyer, laces.
Draper..................................... .
Single...
. .do___
Errand girl and marker........

Other employment.

4 51
19
14

3.36
3.00
4.00
3.00
8.00
3.00
15.00
7.92
10.00
14.00
10.00
8.00
2.64
4.33
15.50
3.92
3.00
3.15
3.50
3.00
8.00
2.50
3.00
5.66
3.50
2.40
5.00
10.00
6.00
4.00
4. O
S
4.07
8.09
7.74
3.50
11.12
7.90
7.55
8.14
6.30

13
41
18

$28.00
148.00
5i

26.13
49.00

14.00
40.00

10.00
8
'io '
8
12

22.00
36.00

156.00
48.00
4.00
18.00
55.00
26

26

35
3
49
2
43
9
2
6
2
18
2
4J
39
37
29
1
16
2
21
36
33
8
16

156.00

173.00

12
2G
\
15
5
22
1
2*
6*
10

' *6.00

34

0 50.00

....

1
34

*26: 66’

10.00
12.00 I.
3.00 .

1 Including-2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
2 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay and 3 weeks’ absence in occasional days with pay.
8 Not including commissions, amount not reported.




m
40

33
38

131

WAGE-EAKNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overlime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exWks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­
per
ploy­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed.
ed. day.
ed. day. al
day. al
day,
day.

32
39
10
24

8*
9l2

51
54*
54
54

33

54
54
54
54
54
54
53*
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
53A
54'
54
54
54
54
45i
54'
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54

f

3
41
3
41
5
43
43
46
50
34
43
31
40
37J
13
7
4
43
16*
42
8
33
31
4
10
4
33
10
26
39
1
16*
28
42
17
43
4H
38"
16
17
17

9
8H

m
9
9
9
9
9
7*

54

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

48

8*

51

8*
4
43
15
43

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

51*

48*

44
47*

47*
*49*'

44i
5l|
49

49
49
144
44*

47|
49

49
49
48
4 7*
45

4*

44*

19
14




Wks. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ Hrs.
per
ploy­ al mum wk.
ed. day. day.

54*
54*

46

8*

Other than before
Christmas.

10

54*

8*

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

222
223
224
225

8*

H!

226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274

* Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
5 In addition received board and lodging.

132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
Age. condition.
al
num­
ber.

275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
2S1
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321

Single........ Wrapper and telephone op­
erator.
. . .d o .......... Saleswoman, underwear..
. . .do.......... Clerical................................
. . .do.......... Wrapper.............................
...d o ..........
. . .do.......... 11 ii ido i r i ii ii 111 ii 11ii i in
. . .do.......... Saleswoman, bargain tables
and house furnishings.
...d o .......... Saleswoman, infant depart­
ment.
.. .do.......... Corset buyer and sales­
woman.
.. .do.......... Wrapper...................................
..d o .......... Wrapper and timekeeper___
. . .do.......... Saleswoman, corsage bou­
quets.
. . .do.......... Accountant........................
. . .do.......... Saleswoman and fitter, cor­
sets.
.. d o ..........
, groceries................
. .d o ......... Saleswoman, coats and suits.
.. .d o ......... Saleswoman, s u i t s , and
ready-to-wear.
.. d o ......... Stenographer...........................
.. .d o ......... Department head, neckwcar.
.. d o ......... Cash girl.................
. . . d o .......... Errand girl.............
. . . d o ......... Cash girl.................
. . . d o ......... ........do......................
. .do........... ........do......................
Married...! Saleswoman, gloves
...d o ...........! Accountant..............................i
Single........| Saleswoman, bargain tables.!
...d o ...........!
--.d o ...........| Wrapper................................... j
...d o ...........I Alteration worker...................
.. .do........... Buyer, gloves, fans, and
bags.
...d o ........... Department head, costumes.
.. .do........... Wrapper...................................
. . .do........... Cash girl and wrapper...........
Married... Saleswoman, table linens,
umbrellas.
Wrapper.
Single...
.. .do.......
Waist draper..
. . .do.......
Saleswoman, underwear.......
Married.
Clerk..........................................
Single...
Cash girl and wrapper...........
.. .do.......
Wrapper..................
.. .do.......
Alteration worker.
...d o .......
Wrapper.
...d o .......
Saleswoman, coats and suits.
. . -do.......
Cash girl...................................
...d o .......
Saleswoman and buyer, fan­
.. .do.......
cy goods.

322

Widowed. Saleswoman, coats and suits.

323
324

Single____
Widowed




Weeks Aver­
em­
age
ployed weekly
during earn­
ings. Weeks.
year.

Occupation.

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

$3.41

30
39
36
28
39
2

$9.00

33
2
4
5
1

20.00
*84166'
96.00
'i3.*80

36.00

9
9
9
21
2
37
43
43
33
44
41
18
33§

12

14

16.00

17

51.00

2£
29}
31
1*
34
29
48
22
25

12.00

38

Wrapper.
Saleswoman, suits and furs..
1 Not reported.
2 Including 3 weeks’ vacation with pay.
3 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.

13.82

34
1
14
15

WAGE-EABNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

133

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Ilrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ploy­
ed. day. al
ed. day.
day. al
ed.
day.
day.

ITrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

Wks. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ per
ploy­ al mum wk.
ed. day. day.

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

13

54

9

8

4*

444

275

13
16
16
13
43
43

54
54
54.
54
54
54

8

H

9

514

7

8

4*

444

276
277
278
279
280
281

43

54

9

8

41

444

282

43

54

29

8

4J

444

283

16
43
39

54
54
54

7
39

8
8

44
H

444
441

284
285
286

44
3 42

54
54

33
9

8
8

4
5

44
45

287

26
3ft
29

54
54
54

9
4
7

8
8
8

9
S*

49
444
49

13
43

7

8

9

49

9
9
19
8
9
5 52
13
181
m
39
37

54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54

424
14
16
42§

54
54
54
54

17
4
42
43
4

54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
52*

12

21
18
41*
18
38
15
43

18
I 20
f

37




i..............

290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305

i
■
!
......... 1
..........
i
i
........!..........
I
I

9

8

5

45

5
3 14

8
8

9
44

49
444

!
i

7
84

8
8

44
9

4U
49“

i

8

8

44

444 ..............! . . .

1

8

44

444

2
9

8
8

9
44

1
;
!
i
..........
49 ......... !........ !.......... I.......... |
494 ......... ..........i.......... :..........

9
9

8
8

5
5

45
45

j

39
6

8
8

5
9

45
49

!

47

i

i

|

|

i

!

38

7

524
50 J
514
51
9 I 8

4

i
i

306
307
308

i

.

.

!

M

1

i

i

l

........J _____ i_____

!
1
........... i............ !............ i ..........
I
j
i

;
|

!
|
1

1

! 44

4 Not including commissions and P. Ms., amount not reported.
5 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
6 Including 4 week's vacation with pay.

310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324

134

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi-1
vidu-j
Conjugal
al IAge. condition.
num.-!
ber. |

325 j 19
326 j 25
327 |19
328 I 17
329
330
331

Single___
.. .do.........
...d o.........
..d o.........
. -do.........
. .do.........
. -do.........

Occupation.

Stenographer..........................
Saleswoman, shoes...............
Stenographer.........................
Saleswoman, hosiery, and
wrapper.
Cash girl..................................
Wrapper.................................
Saleswoman and buyer,
books.

Years
of ex-: Weeks Aver­
periem­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­ year.
ings. Weeks.
try.

129

11

W eeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment*.
ings.

$7.00

23
41

8.00

2 52

12.00
6.00

43

3i
10
151

2.50
2.50
18.00

41§
42
1

3|

2 47£

$6.00

6
14*
9“

251
350
52

9^.00
13.50
4 50.00

10|
7

44
48

15.00
18.60

Saleswoman, groceries...........

3;1

3 52

9.00

lfa
3
10V

3 52

7.00
2.97
15.00

2*

$21.50

TERRE HAUTE.
1

2i

2

19

3
4

30
28

5
6

39
32

.. .do........... Head fitter................................
...d o ........... Department head and milli­
nery buyer.
Widowed. Saleswoman, millinery..........
Single........ Head milliner..........................

Single........ Saleswoman, general.............

7

20

. . .do...........

8

18

9
10

23
46

11
12
13
14
15
16

21

17

29
18
20
23
20
24

. . .do........... ........do........................................
.. .d o .......... Saleswoman, glassware.......
. . . d o ......... Saleswoman, silk depart­
ment.
.. .do........... Telephone operator.................
...d o ........... Saleswoman, millinerv..........
...d o ........... Saleswoman, bakerv..............
...d o ........... Assistant floorwalker.............
...d o ........... Saleswoman, ribbons.............
.. .do........... Saleswoman, gloves...............
Saleswoman, notions.............
...d o ....... .

18

23

...d o ...........

19
20
21
22
23
24
25

19
29
20
17
21
31
(7)

. . .d o ........
-- .do..........
.. .d o ..........
__ do..........
...d o ..........
.. .do..........
. . .d o ..........

26

21

.. .d o ..........

27
28

48
21

...d o ....
.. .d o ..........

29

25

.. .do..........

30

19

.. .d o..........

31 i 20
32 | 18

.. .d o ..........
.. .d o ..........




Department head, notions..
Saleswoman, underwear—
Saleswoman, china...............
Clerical......................................
Saleswoman.............................
Saleswoman, gas fixtures—
Saleswoman, fancy art goods.
Saleswoman, paints and
brushes.
Saleswoman, hosiery and
underwear.
Saleswoman, neckwear.........
Saleswoman, hosiery and
underwear.
Saleswoman, underwear and
corsets.
Saleswoman, neckwear and
pocketbooks.
Saleswoman, ready-to-wear.
Saleswoman, ribbons, veil­
ings, etc.

6x5
5
2
H
4
9
2
2f
3*
2h
rV

171
•52
•
5
3 51

9
51

5.00
7.00
3.87
5.03
3.72
7.50

1
6
50
2 50

1
36

2
2
43
1

49

5.00

3

347

6.00

5

2 52

50 V
50V
7“
3 50
30 V
2|

4.08
4.57
6.97
3.64
4.55
4.89
4.60

IV

13

6 $3.00

H
32“

2

2U
49*

11

a 52

6.30

14
5

»52
3 51

7.00
5.00

1

m

3 51

15.09

1

2

50V

4. So

5
42

412
45

7.95
5.08

1 In 2 stores.
2 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
3 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
* Not including bonus, amount not reported. >

U
9 20.00

m

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

135

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES-Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.
j
I
Regular working hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
ploy­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day.
ed. day. al
day. al
ed.
day.
day.
20
11
51
9

38

51
51
46*
49

8*
8*
7f
8

6

36

9

8
8
6

!
Ilrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

Wks. ] Hrs.
em- iusu­
!
ploy-! al
ed. day.

Hrs.
maxi­ His.
per
mum wk.
day.

;

Indi­
vidu­
1 al
num­
ber.

46^

7-2

1
3*
10
8

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

" 4*'
2*

49
44*
32*

8*

8*

325
326
327
328

!

49^

1
3

(»*

6*

2

6*

6* |

329
330
331

39

: ii§
12

39

70
69

I

TERRE HAUTE.
jm

38
50
37*
49*

9*
8§
9

41*
15
23
49

9
8*
8§

49
16*
50*
50*
13*
49*
49
8*
50

} 66*

\ 12*

\ 62

131

} 641
52

HI

12

12

|66

11 *

m

| 60

58*

121

12| I 68

58*
57*

121

12

12f ! 68
67*
12*
66
12

12
Ilf

9*

12*

91

121
12*

12

121
m
12:1

1k
2
12*
12

54
55

58*
58*
58*
571
57*

51*

121
121
12

121

1

121

* 1 12*

121

* | 121

121

*

12

12r>
j 12

12

13
12*
12*

12*

i I 12
*

i 12

* j 12
* ! 12

*

12

h ! 12

121

12|
12*

12*
12*

66*
66*
661
661

*

12

12

{ i
{

1

10

634
61“

12

} 9i | m
!
9
11*
9
11*

! 59
? 12
j
: 12

I
!
i
j

66
644
66"
64V

12

22

23
24
25

66

66

12

12

j
I
i
!

3
14
15
16
17
19
20
21

12
12

9

12* j 67*

661
661
661

121
12

66

26
27
28

66

12

57

3 50*

12

57

49

12

12

66

41*
44*

12

12
12

66
66

5 Hours on Sunday.
6 Was millinery apprentice and worked 10 weeks with no pay.
7 Not reported.
8 Including 6.weeks’ lea ye with pay.
a Including * week’s leave with pay.




| 631

{

66J

12

12

69

68

J 12f } 631
I 5 4|

66*

*

12

13
12

67*
1
07*
\ 1
67*
67

66*

1 ; 12
571
571
571
571
571
571

12

121

121

1

12

121
121
121

10*

1

12

51*
50
50
6*
49*
30
2

13 ; 71*
ii§ | 61*
12 ; 66

81
12

12

11 *

14

12*

8*

29
12

59

30
31
32

136

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
TERRE HAUTE—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Conjugal
Age. condition.

Occupation.

Saleswoman, corsets..............
Buyer and saleswoman.
leather goods.
Saleswoman, lace and em­
.. .do___
broidery.
/Saleswoman, silks and dress
.. .do___
\ goods.
/Saleswoman, ribbons and
.. .do----\ millinery.
Saleswoman, jewelry.............
...d o ___
Separated Saleswoman, underwear.......
Saleswoman, ribbons.............
Single...
Saleswoman, general.............
.. .do___
Bookkeeper and saleswoman
.. .do___
Head fitter...............................
Married.
Saleswoman, suits..................
Widowed
Saleswoman, notions, leath­
Single.
er goods, etc.
Saleswoman, notions.............
.. .d o ..
Single ..
.. .do___

...d o ....

Saleswoman, suits and un­
derwear.
Alteration worker..................
Saleswoman, art department

10
17
6*
9*

51
152
48J
2 50
13
14*
20
*41*

...d o ___
Single...

Fitter.........................................
.. .do___
Separated. Saleswoman, suits..................
Widowed. Saleswoman, silks and dress
goods.
Single....... Saleswoman, notions and
bargains.
.. .d o .......... Saleswoman, draperies..........
...d o .......... Saleswoman, waists...............
.. .do.......... ____do........................................
.. .do.......... Saleswoman, muslin under­
wear.
Married... Saleswoman, suits..................
Single....... ....... do........................................
Widowed. Saleswoman, cloaks and
suits.
Single------ Fitter........................................
Saleswoman, general.............
.. .d o ..........
.. .d o .......... Department head, corsets...
.. .do.......... Saleswoman, inspector, and
wrapper.
Saleswoman, hair goods........
.. .do........
Cash girl...................................
.. .do........
Widowed Saleswoman, underwear.......
Single.... Saleswoman, suits..................
Wrapper...................................
.. .do........
.. .d o ........
Separated.
Single*___
. . .d o ........ .
...d o ........ .
.. .d o..........




Cashier......................................
Saleswoman, coats and suits.
Saleswoman, cloaks and suits
Saleswoman, silks...................
Saleswoman, neckwear and
handkerchiefs.
Department head, jewelry...

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

$9.84
10.00
9.00
9.00

10
If

17*
52
17
50
13*

4.30
3.50
7.G3
5.63
5.00
>12.50
14.29
8.01
4.00

2*

48*

4.18

A

43*

Saleswoman, neckwear.,

Married.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
em­
peri­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
year.
ings. Weeks.
indus­
try.

$15.00

7.78

3*

12.00
2.64

10.00

17*
3 51

1*

49
50
50

9*

12.00
8.42

31

3.04

51

ill
12

?
?

9
n

2
tW

m

3.57
1.97
8.50
15.00
2.00

46

50.00

77

19.75

4.05

2 51*
3 51
48*
50*
15

10

15.53
6.00
12.00
4.95

46*
16*3 50
25

207.00

19.63
10.00
14.00

3 49
35*
6 51
50

23

6.00
4.34
8.81

48*
3 50
M9*

232.50

7.95

35*
51
24

15*

12.06

8 50

15.00

8.00

9.00
4.91

1 Includes 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
2 Including * week’s vacation with pay.
3 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
4 Extra work done on Sunday.
Not including P. M.s and commissions, amount not reported.

137

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN IN DIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
TERRE HATJTE—Continued.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em- usu­ ccp- per em­ usu­
al tional
ploy­
al tion- wk.
wk. ploy­
ed. day.
ed.
day. al
el T day. al
day.
day.

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

12

47*

12
12

k

13
19*

10*

6*

21
17
51*
m
m
m

8f

12

12

12

12
12

12
Hf
H§
Hi

60|
65
59
57

43*

C
51-

HI

61

Hf

641

Hi
Hf

Hf
Hf

641
64*

12

64*

HI

11*

64
63

ii*

46*
14
m

12

Hf

55*
55*

12

54-H

29
33*
50*
23

n*
8 * 11*
8* ii*
ii*

47*
33
32*

8*

hi

12
12

8*

11

51

54*
54*
54

m
ii*
ii*
ii*

Hf
H*

631
63*
63*
63i-

54
54*
54*

51
51*

16*
16*

Hi
ii*
Hi

12
12

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

63**

n*

30*

12
12

11 *

Hf

481

60
462
58
57*

12 *

34

36

66
66
66
66

Hi

55*

1

66

ill

Si

f

66

12
12

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

35

66

HI

43

42

66

11|

55

64*

66

12

36

42*
3 43
41*
43

Wks. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ Hrs.
ploy­ al mum per
ed. day. day. wk.

66

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

2 42*

43
16
49*
25*
4*
43*

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

66

m
' 50*

3 48
34*
50
49*

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

11*
12

C
-5f

47
48

Ilf
Hf
12
12

11|
12*

49
50
62
59*
57*
64

55

8
3
8l

8*

51
52
53

55
56
57
58
59
C
O
61

12
12

46

62
63
64
65

54
57
54
54

hi

12
11*
11 *

12

HI

11*

111

SI

54
54
54
54
54

HI

n*

63*
63* i.
63* i.
63 !..
i
63 I
63 L
63 L
e3
63

11*

54

11 *

n*

63

111

11*
11*
111

54
54
54
54

HI
Hi

ii*
ill
ill

HI

hi

63
63
63
63

72
73
74
75

111

54

ill

n*

63

76

HI

12

Hi

8* H I

11*
HI
8*

Si

111

HI
111

111

8
71

8*

51

12*

11 *

in-

111

ill

9

8*

12*

11*

57*

67
68
69
70

56

6 Including 1 week’ s vacation with pay and 4 weeks after operation when she worked only a few hours
a day but was paid regular wages.
7 4 whole weeks, Saturday and Sunday of 9 weeks.
8 Including 1* weeks’ vacation with pay.




138

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
TERRE HAUTE—Concluded.
Other employ­
ment.

Indivictu­
Conjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try.

Weeks
of unemploy
Earn­ ment.
ings.

$12.10

Single........
.. .d o ..........
...d o ...........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........

Fitter.........................................
Saleswoman, general.............
Saleswoman, toilet goods___
Alteration worker...................
Saleswoman.............................

82

18 |...do...........

Saleswoman, notions.............

42

83

24 . . .do...........

Saleswoman, corsets..............

10.V

84

23 . . . d o . . . . . . .

Saleswoman, hosiery.............

8

150

6.00

2

85

18 . . .do...........

Saleswoman, leather goods..

i 36

3.72

16
3

77
78
79
SO
81

38
20
24
20
21

n
ih
3-i
3.1
,

38-J
7
40
50

13*
45

6.00
8.00
7.89
5.74

6

1 49 £

4.00

2§

Ml

9.00

11

147

2
5

86

28 . . .do........... Saleswoman, neckwear..........

5

i 49

o. 43

87

27 . . .do........... Saleswoman, draperies..........

13

i 51

10.00

88
89
90

20 ...d o ...........
27 . . .do...........
20 . . .do...........
50 Divorced..

13
50
4
i 48

8.00
11.80
8.00
7.40
5.00

3

(3)
7.40

4*
1

1

92
93
94

Saleswoman, jewelry.............
Bookkeeper..............................
Saleswoman, jewelry.............
/Millinery maker and general
\ saleswoman.
/Millinery maker, saleswoman
19 Single — \ ribbons.
37 .. .do........... Head fitter...............................
26 . . .do........... Saleswoman, laces..................

6*

149
47$
151

95

33 .. .do........... Saleswoman, suits................. .

6

151

9.87

1

96
97
98

23 . . .do........... Mail-order clerk......................
33 . . .do........... Bookkeeper.............................
22 .. .do........... Saleswoman, muslin under­
wear.
16 ...d o ........... Stock girl................................ .
27 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, gloves...............
20 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, notions and
patterns.
24 . . -do........... Assistant manager, cafe........
18 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, general.............
15 . . .do........... Cash girl...................................

8
10

151
151
149

8.99
8.00
9.00

1
1
3

9
150
39

2.50
9.56
7.37

43

13
4

i 40
32

4.49
6.00
1.98

91

99
100

101
102

103
104

i
5*

2

2
10*

2i\

26
*38'

$156.00

13

228.00'

10
4

2

2

13
20
26

EVANSVILLE.
1
2

27 Single........ Alteration worker...............
/Department head, infant’s
25 . . .do........... \ wear.

3
4

32 .. .do...........
17 . . .do...........
36 Widowed.
23 Single
32 ...d o ...........
40 . . .do...........
35 ...d o ...........

5
6
4

8
9




5
5a

Trimmer, millinery............
Saleswoman, jewelry.........

10

Trimmer, millinery............
Saleswoman, dry goods.. .
Bookkeeper and cashier...
Saleswoman, general..........
Saleswoman, millinery___

12
3
11
19
7

3

51

$6.02
4.84

152
50
152
151
39
i 52
45
152

8.13
3.27
10.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
I 7.00

i Including 1 week’ s vacation with pay.

1

j

2
1

13

$78.00
7
............. 1..............

139

W AGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
TERRE HAUTE—Concluded.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

!
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Ilrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Ilrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ploy­
ed. day. al
ed. day,
day. al
ed.
day
day.

26

54

4*

491
49*
49*

41*

521
52*
52*
55
521 }
55

7*

52

36

55

4*

52

43

55

6*

52

30

55

Maxi­
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
maxi­ mum em­ usu­
mum hours ploy­ al
per
day.
ed. day.
wk.

Hrs.
maxi­ Hrs.
per
mum
day. wk.

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

51

6
42
38
29
13

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

5*
6*
7*

ill
Hi
/ 81
U l§ }
I 8|
}
* 8|
}
.11*
8§
}
‘ 8*
}
111

52

43

ill

52

37

52

12*
34
3*
40

57
54
54

41
35*
43

54
52*
53*

43

53*

54
54

{M
/8 *

50
52
51
51

39
43
41

15*

8-1

Ill

52*

11*
.8*

491
50

8*

61

83

HI

61

84

HJ

61
61

85
/
I

60
57*

2
.3

61

90
91

60

}u i
10|

/ 8*
}n i'
111*
/ 8*
} Hi
i l l*
81
Hi
lij
8*
8*
Hi

58
57*

10

53*

12*

13

77*

12*

13*

76*

59|

59*

3*

591

46*
41*
48*
37*
50*
36*
50*

1*
2

\
J

10
91
9
9*

12f
1* 12*
1* \13 } 1 3
12*
1* 12*
12*
1* 12*
12f
4
47|
6
8|
1* 121
12J
121
1*
2 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
58*
57
60
60
55*
57*




9

9

12

57

I1
2

751
75
75
75
74*.
74

92
93
94
95

8§

Hi
h§

57£
55b

n*

59
59

55*

97
98
IC
O
101
102
103
104

EVANSVILLE.
9*
49*
/
9
\ 40 } 9 *

86
87

61
61
60*

m
ii*

50
54
54

lit

61

} HI

55*
53*
57
42
23*
22*

82

81

HI

{ill

51

611

78
79
80
81

si
61*

HI

ill* } HI
12
9
8*
ill

51

10*

12
HI
Hi
Hi

Hi

1
9*
f 2 }l3*
\ 1*

15

66

13*

76

1

11

12

67

1

Hi

H|

68

* Not reported.

140

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
EVANSVILLE—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
Age. condition.
al
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Bookkeeper and cashier.

Single..

10

21

11
12
13

26 ...d o ........... Cashier....................................
17 ...d o ........... Saleswoman, lace..................
19 . . .do........... Saleswoman, lace and em­
broidery.
36 Widowed. Department head, lace and
embroidery.
27 Single___ Saleswoman, cloaks and suits
Saleswoman, yardage goods.
17 ...d o .........
Saleswoman, general.............
29 ...d o .........
/Saleswoman, silver and
20 Separated. \ leather goods.
Saleswoman, general.............
30 Single.
Saleswoman, ribbons.............
18 .. .do.........
Department head, toilet ar23 ...d o .........
articles.
Cashier......................................
25 .. .do.......
Saleswoman, suit depart­
. . .do.......
(4)
ment.
Saleswoman, hosiery.............
(4) ...d o .........
Saleswoman, cloaks and suits
26 . . .do.........
41 ...d o ..........
31 . . .do......... ........do.....................................
Saleswoman, ready to wear
27 . .do.........
Saleswoman, general..........
30 ...d o .........
Saleswoman, millinery___
22 ...d o .........
22 Widowed. Saleswoman, fancy waists.
28 Single____ Saleswoman, dress goods and
and silks.
Saleswomen, corsets...............
28 ...d o .........
Saleswoman, coats, suits,
.do.........
29
and hats.
Saleswoman, dress goods___
42 ...d o .........
29 Widowed. Saleswoman, gloves...............
Saleswoman, art department
39 Single___
Stock girl..................................
27 . . .do.........
Saleswoman, art department
22 .. .do.........

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

Years
of ex­ W eeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try.

Saleswoman, lace and jewelry
Saleswoman, waists.............
Saleswoman,
suits
and
waists.
Saleswoman, silks and no­
20 ...d o .........
tions.
24 .. .do........... Saleswoman, neckwear and
jewelry.
Saleswoman, general............
23 . . .do.......
Saleswoman, waists............
32 Married.
Saleswoman, general............
30 Single...
Saleswoman, underwear___
17 .. .do.......
22 .. .do.......
Saleswoman, drugs...............
33 .. .do........... Saleswoman, patterns..........
Saleswoman, underwear___
20 . . .do.......
28 .. .do.......
Saleswoman, hosiery............
22 .. .do____
Saleswoman, men’s furnish­
ings. •

48
13
2
4

12.00
3.99
4.50

m
10
n

6.10

m
51
18*
2 43

8.00
4.00
6.00
4.00

9
3 52

2*
1
33*
9
43

50

4.05
7.70

11

47
50

(4)
(4)

25
12
16
7
13

5 50
46
42
47*
51
51
52

(4)
12.00
12.00
12.00
10.00
10.00

13*
17*

9.00
8.00

49
50

8.00
8.00

3
2

50
14
50

7.50
7.00
7.00
7.00

38
2

6.93
6.00
6.00
6.00

1
4
35

8J
8

141
0
4*
13
5

?

14|
6

51

23 .. .do.........
20 .. .do.........
25 .. .do.........




$9.72

47
*51
51

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

51
48
17
49

8
1
5
U

5.94
5.07
5.00
5.00
5.00
4.95
4.55
4.53
4.50

?

6.00

52
15
51
49
16
52

?
1
None.
38*
34*

6.00

49

2
6
10

50
50
51

1 Including 1 week’s vacation and 1 week’s illness with pay.
2 Including 1 week’ s vacation with pay.
8 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.

37
1
3
36

141

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN IN DIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
EVANSVILLE— Continued.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
ploy­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day.
ed. day. al
ed.
day. al
day.
day.
30*
11
4*
39*
48
49

9*

58*
57*
58
60
57
57

2
9*

55

Other than before
Christmas.

Maxi­
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
maxi­ mum em­ usu­
mum hours ploy­ al
per
day.
ed. day.
wk.

12*

12*

1*
2
2

12*
12*
12

12*
12*
12f

73|
73f

Hrs.
maxi­ Hrs.
mum per
day. wk.

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

73*

74

10
12*
12

62*
72

12
13

48

57

1*

12*

12*

47*
49
17
32

2
2
1*
2

12*
12
12*

1
1*
1*

12*
12
12
12*

12*
12*
12*
12*

m
44*

57*
57
57*
57*
57
57|
57J
58*

12$
12*
12*

45*
411

57
57

1*
1*

12
12

12
12

48*
35*
40*
46
49*
49*
47*
12
16

57

1*

57
57
57
57
57*
57
57
57

1*
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

47

57
57

2
1*

12
12

12
12

33
34

47
48
12*
48*
40*
48^
46*
15*

57
57
57
54
57
57
57
57

1*
2
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*
1*

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

45*

57

1*

12

12

47*

57

1*

12

12

44

50*
13*
50
47*
14*

57
57
57
57
57

1*
1*
1
1*
1*

12
12
12
12
12

12
12
12
12
12

45
46
47
48
49

41*
48*
46*

57
57
57
57

1*
1*
1*
1*

12
12
12
12

12
12
12
12

50
51
52
53




54

52

53

%
73i
73*
72$
72*
72*

15
16
17
18

9*

12*
12*

60*
61*

72

* Not reported.
5 Including 3 weeks’ vacation with pay.

19
20
21
22
23
24

12*
12*

{l2

57*
60*

12

63

HI

62*

12

63

60

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

43

142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
EVAN SVILLE—Continued.
i Other employ|
inent.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
4I
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

Single ..
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
...d o .......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
W idowed
Single.. .
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
...d o .......
.. .do.......
Married.
Single...
...d o .......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......
.. .do.......

Occupation.

j Saleswoman, jewelry-. . . ___
: Saleswoman, hardware........
I Saleswoman,embroidery...
! Saleswoman, candy..............
; Saleswoman, prints..............
: Saleswoman...........................
: Saleswoman, hardware........
; Saleswoman...........................
\ Saleswoman, candy..............
j Saleswoman, tinware...........
| Saleswoman, neckwear.. . . .
; Saleswoman, hardware........
i Saleswoman, notions...........
• Saleswoman...........................
I Saleswoman, hosiery...........
! Fitter...................... ‘ ...............
! Trimmer and maker, milli;
nery.
| Millinery maker....................
' Wrapper.................................
j Stenographer.........................
I........do......................................
' Assistant cashier...................

..d o ....... .j Assistant bookkeeper.
Cashier......................................
.. .do.......
.. .do....... J ........do........................................
...d o....... J Saleswoman, dress goods___
Cashier......................................
.. .do.......
Buyer and saleswoman, lace
.. .do.......
and embroidery,
rWrapper and saleswoman,
.. .do.......
, linens.
Salejwo man, general.............
...d o .......
Saleswoman.............................
.. .do.......
Saleswo man, general.............
.. .do.......
Saleswoman, skirts................
Married.

87

Single.

Saleswoman, general.............

88
89
90
91
92
93
94

...d o ...
...d o ...
...d o ...
.. .do...
...d o ...
...d o ...
...d o ...

95

...d o ...

96

. .do...
...d o ...
...d o ...

Saleswoman, cloaks...............
Head saleswoman, gloves___
Bookkeeper and cashier........
Cash girl....................................
Saleswoman, general..............
....... do............ ...........................
Saleswoman, ladies’ depart­
ment.
Saleswoman, woodenware...
Saleswoman, toilet articles..

97
98
99

Saleswoman, waists...............
Saleswoman, skirts.................

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
em­
peri­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present dining earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try.

4
1
5
5
4

i

1
3
xV
2

$4.33
4.25
4.24
4.00
4.00

50
13
50
150
4}
45

4.00
3.94
3.87
3.75
3.75

11
6

50
2 51}
49
51
26
50

6
2
5
4
9

50
49
49
49
504
50
50
16
474
50
48

5.26
4.00
12.00
3.00
16.08

23

73.75

3.41

49
3 52
51

19

5.00
5.02
6.50
6.54

264
8"
19
3
17
2
39
2
2
284

6.00

7

52.00

5.10
4.00
10.00
9.45
6.93

5

$42.00

3.70
3.68
3.57
3.50
3.29
10.00
5.19

H

2}

H
If

1}

12
2
18

23
iry
24
3"
84

i

38

10
104
12
10

50

44
354

3.61
3.94

5
5

494
47
50
184
354

136.00

2
2
44
2
4
29
3
1
1
13

10.00
13.89
10.00
1.92
6.00
6.00
2.66

Td4

3
14

7.92

48
47
42
13
50
50
51

61

5i

n

...d o ...

Saleswoman, general.............

7

100 101 •

..d o ...
..d o .......

T -f
tT

102

..d o .......

Cash girl....................................
Cash girl and millinery ap­
prentice.
Head saleswoman notion
department.




25}
44
17
49
22

W eeks
of un­
employ­
Earn- ment.

I
10

451

1 Including* 1 week's vacation w ith pay.
2 Including } week’s vacation with pay.

6.93
10.00
8.00
2.25
2.00
6.59

4
5
10
39
2
2
1
24.50
36.00

40}
3}
4
2
-S
2
3
2
1
324
164

143

W AGE-EAENING W O M E N IN INDIANA,

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
EVANS VILLE—Continued.
Working hours during overtime seasons.

Regular working hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ploy­
ed. day.
ed. day. al
day. al
ed.
day.
day.
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

9
9

12
12

57
57
57
57
57
57
57

57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57

j- 53

.
53

} 6

57
57
57
57

9
9
9

12
12
12*

57*

9

12

57

9
9
9
9
8*

12
12
12
12
11*

57
57
57
57

9
9
9
9
9

12
12
12
12
12

57
57
57
57
57

9

12*
12
H*
11*
11*
12
12
12

57*
57
55A
55*
54
57
57
57

9

12

9

12

53

9
8*
8*
8*
9
9
9

8J

Hi

9
8*

12*
Hf

57*
55*

12

9

12

8*

11*

8*

H*

49

55*

57
57
57
57
55*
54
54

9

} 52

'47*

«

52

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
11
1

I lf

Hi

I lf
1|
1
1*
1
H|

Hi

Z11

\2
1
47f

81

3*

48*

ni

HI
n1
f
11
114

1
1

H|

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
a*

47*

Hrs.
m axi­
mum
day.

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
13
1*
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
} 12*

1
2

HI
Hi
HI
1*
2

1
2
1*
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

Maxi­
mum
hours
per
wk.

Other than before
Christmas.

Wks. Hrs. Hrs.
em­ usu­ maxi­ Hrs.
ploy­ al mum per
ed. day. day. wk.

72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62|
63
65

66

67

68

69
12

72
72
72
72
72
71*

1*
1

H*
1*
1
1*
1

1*
0

1*
1

6*
8

3 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
4 Including 1 week’s vacation and 2 -weeks’ absence in scattered days with pay.




63
58*

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83

84
85
86

70*
70*
70*
70*
70*
70*
70
70

n*

69
70
71
72

62
59

71
70*
70*
70*
70*

69
69
69
69
69
69
69

H*

Indi­

vidu­
al
num­
ber,

87

88
89
90
9L
92
93
94
95
£6
60

97

60

99
100
101

102

144

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS.AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
EVANSVILLE—Concluded.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
al
Age. condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Widowed. Saleswoman gloves and
underskirts.
Single..
Alteration worker..................
Saleswoman, candy and ice
...d o ....
cream.
Saleswoman, general.............
...d o ..
Cashier......................................
...d o ..
Saleswoman, neckwear..........
...d o ..
Saleswoman, ice cream,
...d o ..
candy, etc.
Saleswoman, millinery..........
...d o ..
Saleswoman, patterns............
...d o ..
Saleswoman, general.............
...d o ..
Department head, alteration.
...d o ..
Saleswoman.............................
...d o ..
____do.........................................
...d o ..
Alteration worker...................
...d o ..

103
104
105
106
107
108
109

110
111

112

113
114
115
116

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
age
em­
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­ year.
ings. WT
eeks.
try.

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

50 ; $20.00

36

1
}
C
1)
8}
2}
H
8

2
2
1
1
}
it

15

46 ;
19 !

3.96
5.00

50 ,
252
:
3 52 i
13 ;

60
.0

5 1

50}
4 16
51}
26
30
52

C
1)

C
1)

33

2

7.02
3.88
5.00

;

6.67
! 3.48
' 5.00
| 12.06
: 3.83
; 4 . 07

$83.00
'20*66'

1
n
12
12}
26
18

7.14
41

121
122
123
124

...d o .......... Fitter......................
...d o .......... Tailoress.................
...d o .......... Alteration worker..
...d o ......... ____do..............................
...d o .........
Saleswoman, notions..
...d o ......... Alteration worker........
Separated ____do.............................
Single____ Apprentice, millinery.

125

...d o ........... Bundle wrapper...........

1
}

26

3.50

126
127
128

...d o .......
Married.
Single...

Saleswoman................
Saleswoman, lace, etc
Saleswoman, prints and
. linens.
— do......... Saleswoman, ladies’ depart­
ment.

3
3

26}

1
}

16
40

3.50
3.88
4.18

1

50

2.48

49

$11.00

45

6.36
15.01

7

49}
3
26

5.40
4.25

49
26

3
28

4.83
4.45

21

49

6

249
50
4

8.38
8.00
8.00
5.38

48

5.80

36}

117
118
119

120

129

14
18

15
8

14
5
25
'£

47}

51
43
52
50

:
;

11.88
7.14
8.00

1

j

6.35
; 8.91
44 • 5.00
48
6 04
.
2
2 2.50

18.50

4
30
2

2
22

25}
36

12

FOBT WAYNE.

35

9

10

11
12

Single........! Saleswoman, general.

...d o ........... Saleswoman, groceries.
..d o........... Saleswoman, cloaks and
dresses.
. . . do______: Saleswoman, notions..
and
...d o ...........! Saleswoman, candy
jewelry.
. . .do...........• Saleswoman, fancy work___
;
15 ...d o ...........| Saleswoman, notions and
; toys.
44 . . .do...........I Saleswoman, hosiery............ .
35 Widowed J ........do.......................................
31 Single........j Saleswoman, general.
17} ...d o ...........| Saleswoman, fancy work
! and handkerchiefs.
23 . . . do...........; Saleswoman, stationery




8}

8

1Not reported.
2 Including 1 week's vacation with pay.

2}

0

49

$ 10.00

22
3
3

2

145

WAGE-EARNING W O M EN IN INDIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
EVANSVILLE—Concluded.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. exWks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­
per
per
ploy­
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day. al
ed. day.
ed.
day. al
day.
day.
48*

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

12

18 !/ 61

51
51
13

8}
8}
10*

57

If}
{l2
lli
iii
13

12

62|

12i

54

12

54
54
67

Ilf
Hf

57
57*
57
56
57
57
57

12

35
44
41£

57
57
10§ 541
54
l l i j 54
lOi ! 55i
54
57

12*

12

11

12

12

|
!
1
!
22 |

m

|

57

20
10
40

|

12

104
105

68
08
67*

106
107
108
109

12J
'u "

59

110

111

112

12

1 | 11

12

03
C
O
59i

i i j lOi
1 { 9
46-2

H

in

113
114
115

64i

116

12
lli

G
3

60

12
53

59
63

117
118
119

} Hi
U
Hi

120
121
57i

2J

57
57
57

50

103

68*
68

12
12*
12
12
12
12

4o|
49
15i
35
24h
28i
44

m
m
44
44

Maxi­
Hrs.
mum Wks. Hrs. maxi­ Hrs.
em­ usu­
per
hours
ploy­ al mum wk.
per
ed. day. day.
wk.

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

C8i

12

441

Other than before
Christmas.

Before Christmas.

122
123
124
125

12

12

48

126
127
128

54

129

FORT WAYNE.
j

1 12*
I

8f
8f
lOf

lli
lli
lli

59i
57*
61*

24i

8f

Hi

55*

52i

li

13

13

78

!/ 37
\ «i
40

8f
9
9

Hi
12
12

55*
57
57

li
li

12i
12

12i
12i

75

2

54

72i

3

li
24i

9
9

12
12

57
57

li
li

12
12

12
12

72
72

4
5

li
17i

9
9

12
12

57
57

li
li

12
12

12
12

72
72

6
7

38|

9

12

39
41i
li

8i
8f
8f

Hi
I lf
Hi

57
54
55i
55*

li
li
li
li
li

12
12
9
I lf
Hi

12
12
12
12*
12

72
72
57
71
71

14

8f

12

54
54

8i

51
52i

\
I

1
1

lli
8!

55f
70f
12
l i 12
3 Including 1 week’s vacation and 17 scattered days’ absence with pay.
* Includes one-half week on account of sickness, with pay.

66172°—Bull. 160—14------10



Hi
Hi

63
58

8
9
10
11

12

146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
FORT WAYNE—Concluded.
Other employ- !
ment. ‘ j

Indi­
vidu­
Conjugal
al
Age.
condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Single___
Married..
Single___
Widowed
Single___
Widowed
Single___

‘0
2
21
22

23

...d o .........
...d o .........
...d o .........
Married..

24
25
26

Single___
Widowed
Single___

27
28
29
30

31

...d o .........
...d o .........
...d o .........
...d o .........
...d o .........

Sales woman, notions........
Saleswoman, knit underwear
Saleswoman, laces..................
Saleswoman, cloaks and suits
Saleswoman, toys...................
Saleswoman, ready to wear.
Saleswoman, lace and trim­
mings.
Saleswoman, china...............
Saleswoman, music................
Saleswoman, embroidery___
Saleswoman and buyer,
ready to wear.
Saleswoman, china.................
Saleswoman, jewelry.............
Saleswoman, cloaks and
suits.
Saleswoman, dresses..............
Saleswoman, china.................
Saleswoman, jewelry.............
Saleswoman, art department
Saleswoman, furs and waists.

32

Married..

Saleswoman, ready to wear..

33
34

Widowed
Single

Saleswoman, hardware..........
Saleswoman, hair depart­
ment.
Saleswoman, suits..................
Saleswoman, house dresses..
Saleswoman, suits..................
Saleswoman, hoisery.............
Bookkeeper..............................

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

23
28
26
33
16*
27
19
22
25

...d o ....
...d o ___
...d o ....
...d o ....
...d o ___
...d o ...
. . . d o .. .
...d o ....
...d o ....
...d o ....
...d o ....
...d o ....

47
48

...d o ....
...d o ___

49
50
51

...d o ___

52

53
54
55
56
57
58

...d o ....

Saleswoman, general..............
Stenographer...........................
Saleswoman, shirtwaists.. . .
Saleswoman, knit underwear
Saleswoman, glove fitter.. . .
Saleswoman, dress goods. . . .
Head saleswoman, lace de­
partment.
Alteration worker...................
Saleswoman, men’s furnish­
ings.
Saleswoman, underwear.......
Saleswoman, corsets..............
Saleswoman, ready to wear..

...d o ....
Saleswoman, silks..................
...d o ....
Widowed. Saleswoman, cloaks, suits,
and china.
Married... Saleswoman, ready to wear..

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try.

12

U

3
10
12*

50
50*
34
50
27

152

21

51
151
50
151

7.00
7.13
5.57
12.00

52
50
50

1*

18
2
24

10.12
10.00

10.00
12.00

1«

3
4
5
6

11

3

49

*
14
1"
1

22

A

21

50
50
50

7.00

12.24
14.00
6.92

21 $294.00

6.00
7.00

12.14
4.00

31
21

8
1

147.00

12.00

10

148

3

50
152
40*

6^

9
16

2*
10
1*

7
6
13

50
50
30

152
22
2 52
8

11

22

51
41

15

3 50

126
21

21

Widowed
Single____
...d o ......... .

Trimmer, millinery...............
Saleswoman, general.............

10
1*

IB
r

48

i 50

6

13.29

151

5




6.62
6.15
12.93
3.98

50

2
8

i Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.

$8.00

4

Saleswoman, toys...................
Tailoress...................................

Divorced.

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

37
28*

2
2
22
75.00
12.00
10.00
6.00

5.00
9.00
5.25
8.84
10.15

{

i?

370.00
350.00
4.50

10.00
4.27
15.80
15.00
5.00

2 Including * week’s absence with pay.

2
26

31

1

14
234
45'

WAGE-EARNING W O M E N IN INDIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
FORT WAYNE—Concluded.

3 Including 1 week’s vacation w ith pay and 2 weeks’ absence because of illness w ith pay.




147

148

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
SOUTH BEND*
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Age. Conjugal
al
condition.
num­
ber.

25

2

Single..

21 ...d o ...........

3

21

4
5
G

17
16
21

Occupation.

Years
of ex­ 'Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
indus­
ings. Weeks.
try.

40

Cashier.............. ; ..............

Cashier and bookkeeper.

{

1 48*

8

21 ...d o ...........

9

30 ...d o .......... Saleswoman, knit underwear
and hosiery.

10

17 ...d o ...........

/Saleswoman, notions, drugs,
...d o ........... \ etc.
1}
...d o ...........

Saleswoman, ribbons..

Widowed. Alteration worker.......

Single.......

./Saleswoman, men’s furnish- \
\ ings.
J

G.44

2

7.92

li

51

5.20

45

Telephone operator.........
Cashier and bookkeeper.

1

i96.00

50

fSaleswoman, granite ware \
\
..do........... [ and stationery.

..do..

10.00

$237.50

2 501

Saleswoman, lace, ribbons,
etc.

..do..

4.98
3.97
7.50

2 51

Alteration worker.................

5.90

22
47
24

Saleswoman and trimmer,
Single.......
[ millinery.

38

$12.00

15.00

Saleswoman, dry goods,
hosiery, underwear, neck­
...d o ...........
wear. “
...d o ........... Saleswoman, candy...............
...d o ........... Wrapper.................................
Divorced.. Saleswoman, music..............

7

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

7

m
10

5.00

3 52

341

12.35
5.09

1J

61

41

481

G 33
.

31

4

48-1

9.00

31

21*

4.00

301

ra

...d o ........... Alteration worker.................

3

50

10.00

2

...d o .......

Saleswoman, dress goods...

15

2 51

12.00

1

...d o .......

Clerical....................................

8

M9

9.00

3

...d o .......

Saleswoman, furs..................

50

11.32

2

.. .do.......

Saleswoman, notions.

50

4.29

3

1 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
2 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
• Including 2 weeks’ vacation and 1 week’s absence for illness with pay.




149

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
SOUTH BEND.
Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Working hours during overtime seasons.

Season of shortened
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs. exWks. Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
Hrs. Wks. usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­
em­
em­ usu­
per
per
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ploy­
day. al
ed. day. al
ed. day.
ed.
day.
day,

Other than before
Christmas.

Maxi­
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
maxi­ mum em­ usu­
hours ploy­ al
mum
per
day.
ed. day.
wk.

Hrs.
maxi­ Hrs.
per
mum wk.
day.

Indi­
vidu­
al
num­
ber.

60
121

721

12*

72*

231
18
33
18

551

12*

72*

*48*

m
20
42
21*
26
21

12
12
12

72
71*

4
5
6
12
12
HI

70*
70
64*

7

18
291
19

111

8

111

9

14

121

68*

10

35
11
11

Hf
271
15
19
301
16
26
27*
181
37
10
4

13

Hf

67

111

67

11

HI

661

15

11

HI

661

16

Hi

12

66*

17

ll

11

66

18

lOf

111

651

19

} HI

65*

20

8|

8f {}

15
19
28J
291
19
271
19
301
18
19

12

111

8f

Ilf

14

Hf

Ilf

65

21

101

HI

65

22

10|

191




4 Including * week’s vacation with pay.
• Including 1* weeks’ vacation with pay.

150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
SOUTH BEND—Continued.
Other employ­
ment.

Individu-

Conjugal
condition.

Occupation

23

Single___

Department head, waists—

24

...d o ......... .

al

num­
ber.

Ago.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
age
em­
ence in ployed weekly
present during earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try.

11

Saleswoman, ready to wear..

1 51

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

$13.37

1

Z&
i

Widowed. ........do.......................................

13

Single____

Saleswoman, coats and suits.

15

27

/Saleswoman, toilet depart...d o ........... \ ment.

2 49£

15.00

2|

m

15.09

33|

46

25
26

10.00

8.02

28

Married..

Saleswoman, suits..

5

44

16.58

29

Single____

Saleswoman, lace..

5

350

8.00

10

13*

151

30

...d o .

Fitter.,

31

.. .d o ..........

Saleswoman, waists, skirts,
etc.

32

. . .d o ..........

Saleswoman, millinery and
gloves.

33

.. .do..........

Millinery maker and sales­
woman.

34

Married. . .

Saleswoman, gloves...............

35

Single........ Saleswoman, notions___

48

5.00

6

47|

11.66

2

41

4.08

11

m

9.54

34£

4

m

6.43

h

4J

36

. . .do..........

Saleswoman, lace............

12h

50

9.00

2

37

...d o .

Saleswoman, domestics.

If

48

4.56

4

38

. . .do.

Cashier...............................

4

40

7.23

12

Saleswoman, jewelry and
neckwear.

6

48

7.18

19

2.99

33

22

46

16.00

6

39

.do..........

40

...d o ...

Cash girl...................................

41

...d o ..........

Department head, lace and
embroidery.

i Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.




2Including U weeks’ vacation with pay.

151

AVAGE-EARSTIXG WOMEN IX INDIANA.
IX DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
SOUTH BEND— Continued.
Working hours during overtime seasons.

Regular working hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex­ Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­
em­ usu­ cep­ per
em­ usu­ cep- per
ploy­
al tion- wlc. ploy­ al tion-- wk. ploy­ al
ed. day.
ed. day. al
day. al
ed.
day.
day.

18
3U
5
. 15*
17*
29*
17

I ”
| 28
17
2U
19
28*
17*
29
5
14
10
m
'

19
22
4

13
254
1 2“
\ 14
19
28*

m
8|
8f l i i
8f
8| < 1 !
8| / U
\1U
8| 111
8| i 11
111*
/l l
8f \n*
not
in s* ii
8.1 / n *
In

1*

} 57-1
55*

• 6

8*

H*

54

1*

10*
10f

Hrs.
maxi­
mum
day.

12i
12

Maxi­
mum Wks, Hrs. Hrs. Hrs.
em­
maxi­
hours ploy­ usu­ mum per
al
per
wk.
ed. day. day.
wk.

64f

2* \11

number.

23

64f

57
601
58*

H*

8*
8|
8|

1 !

f 57*
551

Individu-

111

24

}ll*

64|

25

1*

10*

Hi

64*

26

1

10i

ii

64*

27

2*

11

ii*

64*

j- 57*
} 54*
521

28
|

2*

8|

n*

64*

2*

10*

n|

64

2*

10*

ii

63*

29
2

634

10! i 11$

30

8i « ? * } 54*
71
81 ?
7f ii
ru
8* \n*
8* ii*
8:1 ii
/iot
8*
8* { H i
8f n *
84- 10*
/n
8| \H*
8| ii*

18

8|

28*

8|

I 17
ll 21*

i
i . ..

} 57*
ill
551
8| / n l } 57*
\n
551
8! i n
ml
8| \n } 57*
551
8|

81

| 21*
1
15*

...

55*

8?

17
30

18
17*
18

\ 58

Other than before
Christinas.

Before Christmas.

81

8|
Sf
St81
8|
8|
8|

} 52*
521
49|
} 56*
54
521

2*

10*

ii

I
I

63*

j
’

32

i

} 56
53i55-1 }
511 1
} 57*
551

} 534
P
51f
10*
m
\ii| } 581
55*
ill
/i i i
\ii| } 58
55*
Hi
/ l l i } 571
ill
Hi
55
55*
ii!

31
1

2*

101

Hi

11

101

ii

1
j

62|
621

n
2

11

ii*

/ 91
1101 } 10*

34
!

62
61|

H

101

121

33

1

81

S
ii

56-1

61*

36
37

■ 3

81 l H

ii- 51V

n

11|

ill

61*

. 7

8| / . # il 50?
\L ± i'
L
8J ( 4 * '
\Hf j) 3li
j
8| / 4* } 511
\H|

H

H£

ill

6H

39

1* / 8| } HI
\ lli

61*

40

2

f 8|
H- W i } i i |

1
......... 1.........

011
{ u ! 1 58 1 •
i l l 1 55* 1
3Including 1 week’s vacation and 1 week of occasional absence with pay.




35

!

38

41

152

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
SOUTH BEND—Concluded.
Other employ­
ment.

Indi­
vidu­
Age. Conjugal
al
condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present durirg earn­
ings. Weeks.
indus­ year.
try

42

41

Single..

Saleswoman, suits..

50

$17.40

43

21

Married..

Saleswoman, domestics.

50

8.30

44

44

W idowed

Head fitter...............................

152

Weeks
of un­
employ­
Earn­ ment.
ings.

15.00

7

45

23

Single___

Saleswoman, coats and suits.

4*

51

7.50

46

17 . ..d o ........

2

15*

4.33

47
48

15 . ..d o ........
14 . . .do........

Saleswoman, notions and
stationery.
Cashier and wrapper.............
Cash girl................................. .

47
10

3.68
3.00

5
41

49

24 . ..d o ........

Saleswoman, white goods,
hosiery, and underwear.

6

40

8.74

12

50

30 . . .do........

Saleswoman, jewelry...........

4

51

6.00

1

51

33 . . .do........

Clerical....................................

2

46

7.00

6

52

21 . . .do........

Saleswoman, toilet goods...

5

48

7.85

4

53

25 . ..d o ........

Bookkeeper.............................

54
55

24 . . .do........
22 . ..d o ........ .

56

1 !*. .do........ .
7

___ do........................................
Saleswoman, suits..................
Saleswoman, hosiery and
underwear.

57

43 ...d o ........ .
.

Alteration hand......................

58

25 ....d o ..........

Saleswoman, lace.

9

59

19 ...d o ........ .
.

Saleswoman, patterns.

2

48

5.00

60

37 .

Saleswoman, coats and suits.

U

3 49*

7.92

2*

61

21 .

Saleswoman, fancy art goods.

5

451

5.99

1

62

40

Married.

Alteration hand..

2

45

6.50

7

Single...

Clerical.................

7

47

25.00

5

63

38

i Including 2 weeks vacation with pay.




52

(2
)
8
8
§
(2)

10.00

49
47

10.00
14.15

3
5

17*

4.50

34*

C
O
«
D

i

26 1300.00

9.99

12*

49

7.00

2 Not reported.

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN' IN INDIANA.
IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Continued.
SOUTH BEND—Concluded.

- s Including 1 week’s illness with pay.




4 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.

153

154

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LAB OB STATISTICS,

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED
LA FAYETTE.
| Other employi
ment.

i
Indi­
vidu­
Age, Conjugal
al
condition.
num­
ber

20 Single.,
23 .. d o .. .
28 . . .d o ...
23 .. .d o . ..
28
6
17
7
20
8
17
9
20
10
19
11
28
12
26
13
40
14
15 ^ 1 8
16

. . .d o ...
. . .d o . .,
. . .d o ...
.. .d o . ..
.. .d o . ..
...d o ...
...d o . .
...d o . .
. . .d o ..
...d o . .
.. .d o . .
.. .d o ..

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
.24

.. .d o . .
.. .d o ..
. .d o ..
. .d o ..
..d o ..
..d o ..
. .d o ..
. .d o ..

25

..d o ..

..20

..d o ..




Occupation.

Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver- !
age ;
em­
peri­
ence in ployed weekly;
earn- ;
present during
indus- year,
ings. Weeks.
try.

Saleswoman, ready to wear..1
Saleswoman, silks...................
Saleswoman, milluiery.........
Saleswoman, lace and em­
broidery.
/Saleswoman, draperies and
\ lace.
Saleswoman, hosiery............. ;
Saleswoman, ribbons............!
Assistant cashier.................... !
Saleswoman, underwear....... !
Saleswoman, domestics........ I
Saleswoman, notions.............
Cashier......................................
Head fitter...............................
Saleswoman, ready to wear..
Saleswoman, patterns...........
Saleswoman, cloaks and
suits.
Saleswoman, ribbons............
Saleswoman, infants’ wear..
Saleswoman, millinery.........
Saleswoman, notions.............
/Department head, altera\ tion.
Saleswoman, notions.............
........do........................................
Saleswoman, dolls, toys, and
millinery.
Saleswoman, knit under­
wear.
Department head, lace and
embroidery.

10
8
m
it
3
H
2\
4
25
10

1 49
51
13*
51

$10.11
9.00
10.00 i
6.00 !

2 47£.
150\
*5H
* 5U
49'
491
152“
i 52
1 51
50
9J
50

7.83
5.00
5.40
5.00
6.00
6.00
7.92
10.88
15.71
9.00
3..50
10.00

5 51 |
2 51 I
139h j
1 51

j
;
:

Weeks j
of un- j
emplov-i
m ent ;
Earn­
ings.

3
1
3*a
1
4^
1*
k
k
3'
2*

:
1
1
;
s

0.00 i
6.00

i

42*
2~
1
1
121
1

34i j
m \
13' I

33V
12'
13

30h !

21V |

1 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay.
2 Including 1 week’s vacation with pay and £ week’s illness with pay.
3 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.

41

S

155

W AGE-EARNING W O M EN I X INDIANA.

IN DEPARTMENT AND OTHER RETAIL STORES—Concluded.
LA FAYETTE.
Working hours during overtime seasons

Regular working hours.

Season of normal
hours.

Season of shortened
hours.

Before Christmas.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­
em­ usu­ eep- per
em­ usu­ cep- per
al tion- wk. ploy­ al tion- wk. ploy­ al
ploy­
ed. day. al
ed. day.
ed.
day. al
day.
day.
9
9

81
8

HI
111

54
oil

9

82

114

54

84
8|
8i
81
Si
8*
8*
84
84

114
11|
Hi
11
lli
Hi
Hi
11
1H

54
54
53
521
524
524
524
534
53£

9
9
9
9

12
12
12
11!

57
57
57
56|

r i 4j
\ 314
41'
41
41*
41*
414
414
41*
211
40
8
34

9*
9
9
9
8|
8!
8|
81
8f
9
9
8J
9

HI
111
12
12
114
1U
m

57|
56f \
J
57
8
57
39
55|
4 81
55*
6
55
55
9
55
9
56
15
564
7
554
9
57

io
42
164
411

03
8f
9

11
11

371
40
124
40-i

{ i ?
m
5
31
264
4

8|
91
9
9*
S*
9
8|

hi

a*
lUHf
12

Q
o
8

12
11
124
11
12
12*
HI

54|
57
I8
54|
18
60
56 1 9
f
58*
58
8
56|
8

11*

56|
534

4

14
1"
1
11

12
12
H!
Ilf

14
14
14
14
1"
14
14
14
1
14
1"

HI
11
HI
Hi­
ll
11
11
11
11
! 0f
11
111

j
1

1A1
J 2
.U11

Other than before
Christinas.

i
Maxi­
Hrs. mum Wks. Hrs. Hrs.
maxi­
em­ usu­ maxi­ Hrs.
per
mum hours ploy­ al mum
per
day. wk.
ed. day. day. wk.

12
12
12
12

72
79
70!
70l-

11|

1
1

11
11|

091
6*4
68*
68
664

12
12
11J
114
11*
11*
iii11
nf
m
12 i
;
!

Ml !
W I
654 |
!

20
2

11
9

631 |

6

12
12

9

11
114

62
574

8

11

51

KL
8*
6
5
8*
81

H
11
9
8
11
11

52l52*
6 39
6 33
52>
531

8§
84

hi

Hi

55
54

......... 1
..........

S|

11|

54*

i
!

6

30

1 1 ! H*
I
/
|
4 i 104
i
' 1
1

Ai I
!1 I 01} ;
12 1 61V
!
1
11 | »!0 !
i

i-

i 62

......... i ........
1

n

j 50§

......... 1

i
i

4 Including i week’s vacation with pay.
&Including 1 week’s vacation with pay and 1 week’s illness with pay.
6 Worked short hours because of illness.




63
644

j
1

.

IndividU'
al
num­
ber.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ii
i°
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
28

156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN GARMENT
[Bracketed hours indicate either a permament change of hours during the year, or

INDIANAPOLIS.
Regular working hours.
Establishment
num­
ber.

Dull season.

Normal season.

Dura­
tion
(wks).

Wo­
men
af­
fected.

Chil­
dren
af­
fected.

Hours,
usual
day.

2

1

»
17

9f

500

Hours
per
week.

5*
7|

8
9
3 10
• 11
’
7 12
8 13
9 14
15
16
17
18
19
u 20
21
22
23 1
24 ;
25

Hours
per
week.

152

92-

51

i 54

450

91

41

191
10

91

16

91

46

152

91

m
43" 1
48J
25§
25?
25§
20
30
34
52
34J
17
52
46
52
39
43
52

16
5
66
57
48
65
50
39
35
40
17
8
44
350
310
10
18
335

9-1
91
10
9*
9i
9
(10)

!.............
1

9
5
7
10
5
1

!
'

71
5

(10)

9A
9
9h
9

3

41
4J
41
7

S*
9

i
i

41

5
41

8!
9
9
8!
8§

15

:

4
41
4§

9

18

57

3

211

57

28
71

G

Hours,
excep­
tional
day.

Dura­
tion
(wks).

3
4

Hours,
usual
day.

9

54

Fe­
males
af­
fected.

20

i 54

91

175

2

Hours,
excep­
tional
day.

13

6

18
18
71

7
12
5

91
6
91

26
26
26
16

62
55
75
55
36

4il

5

30
4

39
38

52

57
55
4 55
6 55
6 55
54
(,0)
51*
49*
52
52 (
52 !
50
48
491
49
48
48

A

9 }
81 J
13 !
i
1
13 1
9 i

10
10
10
(!0)

71
71
5
5
5
(10)

9*

A

14
6 j

i
19 1
I
15

55
30
55

41

\
9# J

7
'

8
8|
-

4 55
4 55
55
(10)

4
41

51*
/
\

47
52
47

44
48
i

TERBE HAUTE.
j
i
1

20

1
10

6

5

2
3
4
5
6

39
39
39
52

S
O
160 :
|
;
150 1
100
!

I
!
3 I
i

|

1; 55
83

9#
9*
9
9

’

7#
8
8J
3

57
55^
534
48"

13
13 ;
13 !

2
80
163
150

9
9|

54
5
5
41

1

1 Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day 51 hours; 50} hours per week
2 50 of these women worked each of the maximum weeks,
s Factory located in Bluffton, Ind.
* Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day 3 hours: 4S hours per week.
5 Factory located in Frankfort, Ind.
6 Children worke.1 9 hours per d iy, 54 hours per week.
7 Factory located in Crawfordsville, Ind.




54*
521
494
i

157

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
FACTORIES AS REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS.
that the Individual had worked in more than one establishment, or worked in shifts.]

INDIANAPOLIS.
Working hours during overtime periods.

Regular working hours.
Busy season.

Season.

Chil­ Hours, Hours
Wo­
Dura­ men
dren usual excep­ Hours
per
tion
tional week.
-af­
af­
(wks). fected, fected. day.
day.

20

225

3

29}

10*

»i

154

2 100

7

400
3

9i

2i

9
16

55i
57

(10)

i

(!0)

0*

5*
Ilf

Hi

3

57

16J

22

10

..d o ....
...d o ....

8i

33

16

.

Busy...

{ uf } «

O
i

16

0J

5*

O
J

550

Hours, Aver­
Fe­
Hours, excep­ age
Dura­
tion males usual tional weekaf­
(wks). fected. day.
‘y
day.
hours.

10*

64
60£

62

0J

57i

60J

0i

11
12i

58i

60

58

58

56£

57£

10
10
6

16

0i

Busy...

1

9

9i

12i
7i

V

3 10
6 11
7 12
8 13
9 14

(1
0)
5 1 * Busy...
Normal

12

64i
G5§
64

10
Hi
10
13

Normal
Normal
and
bu sy...
Normal

(1 )
0

4i

}

EstabMaxi­ lishmum ment
hours num­
ber.
per
week.

5

Ilf
4§

54
52|

54*
52i

49|

0*
9

18

50

52
Normal:

15
16
17
18
19
20
22
23
24
25

TERRE HAUTE.
15
28

6 ;...........
I
3 ‘...........

* ! {

x2 }

9' !...........

62i

I

10

(
!
;

i

1
.............. :............... i............... •
............... i...............
i
i
i
i
1

58

:

I

•

l\ Hi

58

59

59

61i

I } .:,

54 .. .do—

|
!
1
i

Busy...

61i 1

i

!

!

8 Factory located in Lebanon, Ind.
9 Factory located at Shelbyville, Ind.
w Not reported.
1 Factory located in Rushville, Ind.
1
1 Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day 3 hours; 48 hours per week.
2
1 Forewoman worked 58 hours for 18 weeks; another woman worked 58 hours for 7 weeks.
3
r




;

I
1

158

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN GARMENT
LA FAYETTE, SEYMOUR, HAMMOND, AND NEW ALBANY.
Regular working hours.

Establishment
num­
ber.

0
(*)
(b

Normal season.

Dura­
tion
(wks).

Wo­
men
af­
fected.

Chil­
dren
af­
fected.

Hours,
usual
day.

17*
39
52
191

23
130
130
2

10

9
10
10
91

1

Dull season.
Hours,
excep­
tional
day.

8
6
8i

i
Hours
per
week.

Dura­
tion
(wks).

53 1
3 60
50
56

61
13

Fe­
males
af­
fected.

Hours,
usual
day.

Hours,
excep­
tional
day.

Hours
per
week.

8 I
15 i
4
|
5
140 1
10 ;
1
!
............. j................!................

44
4 55

EVANSVILLE.
10

26
3n
43
46§
39
31§
52

9|
10
9

5

9
9

55

11*

IS

9

5

50

51

40

10

9

59

14

9

4i

491

57

9.\

9

53f
59
54

4*

49£

7*

591.

5

15

FORT WAYNE.
81
2
3
4
5
6
1 7
3
8
9
1 10
5
11

46

49

3

10

8

8
34
441
41
501
461
26
43
52
22

48
147
118
170
23
32
16
150
58
12

8
11
12
1

10
10
9|
9i
V
(6)
9
9
8§
7i

5
5
5

1 55
0
1 55
0
1 54£
2
501
49 V
50"
491
1 40S
4
48“
42]

!
j
________ i________ 1________

9 5S

4

4*
41
(6) t
41
41
4|
4

1

54

12
13

1 163
1

9

159

4
41
9

32
16
139

11

6 j

9
10

5

8
8
73.

(6)

451

U
41

48
441
441

4

42*

1 Data are for La Fayette.
2 Data are for Seymour.
3 Children worked 54 hours.
4 Children worked 50 hours.
5 Data are for Hammond.
6 Not reported.
7 Data are for New Albany.
8 Factory located in Kendallville, Ind.
9 Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day 8 hours, 53 hours per week.




50
w 55

4£

si
(6)

j

5 1

159

WAGE-EABNING WOMEN IK INDIANA.
FACTORIES AS REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS—Continued.
LA FAYETTE, SEYMOUR, HAMMOND, AND NEW ALBANY.
Regular working hours.

Working hours during overtime periods.
Es­
tate
iishAver­ Maxi­
Fe­
Hours, Hours, age
mum ment
Dura­
Season. tion males usual excep­ week­ hours num­
af­
tional
ber.
per
(wks). fected. day.
ly
day. hours. week.

Busy season.
Chil­
W o­
Dura­ men
dren
tion
af­
af­
(wks). fected. fected.

20

wm

H
nnrc iHO r >Hours
US

1
43 !

1 10 * 9
i
i
: : ..... i........ i........ i........

per
week.

4 2 J

Busy... f

59

\

Normal

i

23

f 9
124 1 io

(6)

66-|
69
(6)

}
m

(!)
(2
(•
•>
)
(•)

i

EVANSVILLE.
10

121 /
I
/
9-i
\
12* /
\

55 | Busy...
____I Normal
____!. ..d o ___

66J

664

60

63

61*

614

12
( 12
\ 44

Normal
55 ...d o ___

25

10
9 }
104
}
12%
0
}
12*

57
524

524

( 12
I 8
12*
5 }
{

64
62 \ 64
/
574
ST
J

FORT WAYNE.
j
1
10 1
i
!

i

65

10

21|

20
1
12 j
!

Si

1 55
0

!
1

4

25

10

3

4

10

2
1

4
2

4

45*

4*
9* f 10| \ 534
I
9
74
52-4

■

49^

9

17

5

Busy...

Normal
do___

25

Normal

(iS)

|

!

i

j

1 Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day 5 hours, 50 hours per week.
0
115 additional children employed during autumn months.
1 Children worked usual day
2
luurs, exceptional day 5 hours, 494 hours per week.
1 Factory located in Columbia City, Ind.
3
u Children worked usual day 8 luurs. exceptional day 44 hours, 444 hours per week,
is Factory located in Warsaw, Ind.
is Some overtime, but figures not reported.




534
52J

31
2
3
4

137
8
9
BIO
11

160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN GARMENT
SOUTH BEND.
Regular working hours.

Establishment
num­
ber.

Normal season.

Dura­
tion
(wks).

11
2

Chil­
dren
af­
fected.

380
14
175

39

35
41

13
4

Wo­
men
af­
fected.

39

5
6
7
8
9

52
49§
50
50
50

925
42
28
27
85

15
55

40

Hours,
usual
day.

10
9
10
9
9
9
9
9

Dull season.
Hours,
excep­
tional
day.

4
8*
5
5
5
5
4*

Hours
per
week.

Dura­
tion
(wks).

Fe­
males
af­
fected.

2 60
49
<58*

13
9

419
12

13
13

165

Hours,
usual
day.

Hours,
excep­
tional
day.

Hours
per
week.

5
4

33

10
9
10
9

4*

3 55
49
355
49*

75

H

4§

9 48f

5

50
50
50
50
49*

RICHMOND AND MUNCIE.
«1
2

25*
33*

3
4
105

40
-33*
51

47
55
85
75 .
14

91

* 531
49*

9*

50
*52*
50

16*

1 Factory located in Michigan City, Ind.
2 Children worked 9 hours per day, 54 hours per week.
3 Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day 5 hours, 50 hours per week.
4 Children worked usual day 9 hours, exceptional day S* hours, 53* hours per week.
• Not reported.




161

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
FACTORIES AS REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS.—Concluded.
SOUTH BEND.
Regular working hours.

Working hours during overtime periods.

Busy season.
Chil­ Hours, Hours,
Wo­
Dura­ men
dren
excep­ Hours
tion
usual tional per
af­
af­
week.
(wks). fected. fected. day.
day.

Season.

Aver­
Fe­
Dura­ males Hours, Hours, age
excep­
tion
usual tional weekaf­
(wks). fected. day.
day. . *y
hours.

Normal
d o ....
f 25| |
\ 13l

60

10

9

/ 7 54
4£
\ m

jB u sy ...

Normal

4
2

30
7

lOf
10
12 (
\ J I
4

EstabMaxi­ lishmum ment
hours num­
ber.
per
week.

61J
61

61|
61

11
2
13

4
5

(5)

6
7
8
9

(*)

RICHMOND AND MUNCIE.
23§

47

3

9!

8J

8 57*
Normal

10

6

11*

d o ....

10

10

11

1
I
\

5
?

57

57

j

56

56

• Located in Kokomo, Ind.
7 Children worked usual day 8f hours, exceptional day 5 hours, 48| hours per week,
s Children worked usual day 8| hours, exceptional day 8J hours, 52* hours per week.
• Two women worked 55 hours for 50 weeks,
w Located in Elwood, Ind.

66172°—Bull. 160—14------11




61
2
3
4
105

162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
CLASSIFIED. W EEKLY EARNINGS OF WOMEN
INDIANAPOLIS.
Number of pieceworkers whose earnings fall within each classified amount.

Establishment
num­
ber.

Garments made.

2 10
3 11
4 12
5 13

Dresses and waists. . .
Men’s custom suits
and overcoats.
Custom coats.............
........do...........................
Custom coats and
pants.
Sunbonnets, aprons,
and
flannelette
1 gowns.
j Custom trousers........
! Custom pants and
j vests.
• Cloth caps...................
Cotton gloves.............
........do..........................
!........do..........................
i........do..........................
Gloves.........................
Overalls and jackets.
Waists and dresses...
Overalls and coats
Butchers’ and serv­
ants’ uniforms.
! Custom shirts............
\
I Cotton gloves.............
1
1 Overalls, s h i r t s ,
j
pants, and coats,
I Canvas gloves............
i
i Dresses and skirts. . .
i Men’s shirts, neck­
wear, bath robes.
Workingmen’s shirts

614

15
16
17
18
19
7 20
21
22
23
24
25

Aver­
Un­ $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 $7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $12.00 Total age Aver­
to
to
to
.to
to
and
der to
fe­ hours age
to
to
$3.00 $3.99 $4.99 $5.99 $6.99 $7.99 $8.99 $9.99 $11.99 over. males. per earn­
week. ings.
14
2

5
4

11
1

9
20

9
15

9
26

7
24

13
18

20
52

19
41

116
203

54.0 $8.30
9.68
(l)

j

•
!

!
13

4

9

I

9

5

12

12

15

26

115

6
1
4
5

7
4
9
1

9

1
1
5

4
3
5

2
2
1
9
1
2

61
69
61
101
47
36
26
37

61.8
52.4
50.6
40.0
52.1
52.0
C
1)
C
1)

7.95
5.65
6.85
4.27
6.14
8.88
6.70
7.67

2
2
35

3
3
38

31

8
44
283

50.4
47.8
(l)

9.02
5.90
7.98

280
4
8

41.0
49.0
( 1)

5.79
8.00
8.09

0)

9.84

8

4.81
5.66
7.12

! 10

; (1) !

8.53

i

4 i 4 i 2
!
10 1 10 ! 7
1
3
8 | 5
9
40
16
1
3
5
2
1
5
2
1
3
2
1

3
10

9
22

6
39

33

ii I
11
7 ; 8
11
7 ^ 6
7
13
5
1
5
6

2
14
6
11
12
5

43

5
10

45

31
...

3

i .. .

9

11

6

1 i 2
10 ii 1
30
38

1
1 j1
I

19

5 ■
8
7
4 :
5
3
2
4 !
1
5
30

33
37
1
2 :
1 .
1

24

8

3

2

15 ! 22

30

46

22 1
i

5
1

94 1

74

i
4 j
20 ;

2 1
1
43
14
153

1 •

323

TERRE HAUTE.
1 Women’s clothing...
2 ....... do..........................
*3 W o r k i n g m e n’s
clothing.
4 Overalls, j a c k e t s ,
pants, lined coats,
and mackinaws.
5 W o r k i n g m e n ’s
clothing.
96 Overalls......................

i !
12 I 7 S 4
!
12 ! 2 ! 8
i
12 j 12 ; 22
16 j 23

12

2

3 1
........=
3;
5 ' 4 i 2
2 0 : is * ii :
14

16 I

3

(l)

09 | (i)

(1 ) j
0

5.25

94 ! 48.0

5.51

LA FAYETTE, SEYMOUR, HAMMOND, AND NEW ALBANY.
(ll)
(12)
(13)

Shirts.......................... !.................
........do.......................... ..........; 2
1
Cotton gloves............. \ 1 j




2 !

1 Not reported.
2 Factory located in Bluffton, Ind.
3 Factory located in Frankfort, Ind.
4 Factory located in Crawfordsville, Ind.
5 Factory located in Lebanon, Ind.
* Factory located in Shelbyville, Ind.
7 Factory located in Rushville, Ind.

3 !5 j.

21
49
2

0) $7.72
52.8 7.37
3.00
0)

163

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES.
INDIANAPOLIS.
Number of timeworkers whose earnings fall within each classified amount.

Un­
der
$3.00

$3.00
to
$3.99

$4.00
to
$4.99

$5.00
to
$5.99

$6.00
to
$6.99

$7.00
to
$7.99

$8.00
to
$8.99

$9.00
to
$9.99

Aver­
$10.00 $12.00 Total
age
to
and
fe­
hours
$11.99 over. males.
per
week.

Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

Es­
tab­
lishment
num­
ber.

75
188

48.1
(l)

$6.50
8.07

3
8
11

56.0
57.0
0)

10.00
9.25
9.80

36

(l)

5.63

56.0
57.0

8.55

7
8

55.0
66. §
60.0
60.0
60.0
55.5
0)
0)
0)
49.5

8.60
11.92
13.00
17.33
16.25
7.75
10.76
7.06
15.00
5.21

9
U0
8 11
*12
5 13
6 14
15
16
17
18

52.0
48.6
C
1)

8.09
5.67
6.95

19
7 20
21

43.0
49.0
48.0

7.38
8.66
8.75

22
23
24

C
1)

11.99

25

5

2
2
8
5
19

55.0
54.0
54.8
59.0
55.5

$8.00
8.00
8.78
6.40 |
9.89

1

15

C
1)

12

TERRE HAUTE.
1

1
1
3

1
3
1
1

2
2

1

2

1
2

2

6

2

1
3

1

1

1

4

2

(10)

6

1
2
63
4

‘

7.47

5

48.0

7.03

96

$4.77
3.44
1.50

( u)
(12)
(U)

LA FAYETTE , SEYMOUR, HAMMOND, AND NEW ALBANY.

31
1

1
20

6
14




1
4

2
3

2

1
1

1

8 Lower figures for factory located in Brazil, Ind.
9 Factory located in Clinton, Ind.
1 Individual earnings not reported.
0
1 Data are for La Fayette.
1
12 Data are for Hammond.
13 Data are for New Albany.

11
76
1

(l)
53.2
(l)

164

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
CLASSIFIED W EEKLY EARNINGS OF WOMEN
EVANSVILLE.
Number of pieceworkers whose earnings faU within each classified amount.

Establishraent
num­
ber.

Garments made.

Shirts..........................
Women's clothing,
custom made.
W orking garments...
Breeches.....................
Women's clothing,
custom made.
Overalls......................
..d o .............................

Aver- AverUn­ $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6. 00l$7.00 $8.00 $9.00 $10.00 $12.00 Total age
der to
to
to
to
to
to
fe- hours earn­
to
to
and
$3.00 $3.99 $4.99 $5.99 $6. 99;$7.99 $8.99 $9.99 $11.99 over.
per ings.
week.
16

50.6 $5.41

25

49.4
0)

5.47
6.80

49.5
43.2

6.21
4.11

C)
1
C
1
)

$5.97

2 !
3 i

10

FORT WAYNE AND NEIGHBORING TOWNS.
21

Cotton flannel gloves
and mittens.
2 Canvas gloves............
3 Cotton flannel gloves.
4 ........d o .........................
5 Ladies' shirt waists..
6 Overalls......................
37 ........do..........................
............
9 Ladies' waists...........
4 10 Overalls......................
11 Muslin underwear —

8

8

7

5
18
18
9
1

6

4
11
13
9

4
22
10
32
1
4
1
1
2
Canvas gloves
1
7
6
4
2
5
4
5

4

4

9

5

4

8
29
13
21
1
4
1
14
5

5
16
16
30
4
6

8
24
11
22
3

3
9
11
15
1
1
1
18
3

6
3
10
12
3
1
4
14
6

i3
6

8

2
15
11

3
8
8
16
2

1

51

1
1

44
141
110
173
19
24
12
109
55
9

7
3

8

11
5

3

10

43.7
40.5

C)
1

47.8
41.9
45.0
0)

i1
)
(')

6.18
5.74
5.92
6.73
8.31
6.52
6.80
8.11
7.47
3.08

SOUTH BEND.
*1
2
53
4
5
6
7
8
9

Men’s ready - made
work shirts.
Overalls and work
coats.
Shirts and h o u s e
dresses.
Women's and chil­
dren's clothing.
Men's shirts a n d
underwear.
Shirts..........................
........do..........................
Coarse shirts...............
Cotton flannel gloves
and mittens.

31

39

50

63

10

14

23

21

8

47

38

14

16 '

2

55

1

2

1

2

22

7

9

4

14

7

5

3

4

1

31

73

77

98

112

93

8
6

6
8

3
3
19

4
7
3 .....
2
17
17

5
2
1
17

1
5
1
2

1
6
14

8.82

2

120

(*)

5.95

53

40.8

4.10

9

696

44.8

6.44

19
16
22
100

0)
C
1)
0)
46.7

7.96
7.18
5.41
6.18

5
3
3

56
49
103
85

45.7
50.0

0)

$5.89
6.87
7.97
6.39

2
1
1

4
10

51.2 $5.99

8 0)

1

17
49
1
2
3

356

2

RICHMOND AND NEIGHBORING TOWNS.
7 1 Cotton gloves.............
2 Gloves.........................
3 ........do..........................
8 4 W o r k i n g m e n ’s
clothing.




11
4
9

2
4
1
5

6
4
4
16

6
3
13
12

10
9
22
12

9
12
13
5

2
4
13
12

8
2
19
6

• 1 Not reported.
2 Factory located in Kendallville, Ind.
» Factory located in Columbia City, Ind.
* Factory located in Warsaw, Ind.

2
2
15
5

(*)

165

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Concluded.
EVANSVILLE.
Number of timeworkers whose earnings fall within each classified amount.

51.0
57.1

$4.00
to
$4.99

$5.00
to
$5.99

$6.00
to
$6.99

$7.00
to
$7.99

$8.00
to
$8.99

$9.00
to
$9.99

Establishment
num­
ber.

$6.25
6.08
9.00
6.00
7.85

49.5
53.0

$3.00
to

Aver­
age
earn-

53.8
0)
52.8

Un­
der
$3.00

Aver­
$10.00 $12.00 Total
age
to
and
fe­
hours
$11.99 over. males.
per

5.10
6.83

13

FORT WAYNE AND NEIGHBORING TOWNS.
1
1

1

7

1
11
1
1

1
25

6
2

2
22
3

1
1
1
10
1

1
1
9

1
1
2

1
2
1

1
1
4

1

1
6
1
1

1
1

1

2

2
2

1

58.0

$12.00

21

8
6
5
97
5
4
2
12
3
1

49.9
51.0
44.6
G)
49.5
45.0
45.0
0)
(l)
45.3

5.99
9.85
7.94
6.16
6.00
5.30
6.50
9.58
12.00
7.00

2
3
4
5
6
37
8
9
<10
11

29

1

55.7

$6.94

81

SOUTH BEND.

5

0)

6.90

2

7

0)

10.43

53

629

41.8

4.43

4

105

46.1

4.96

5

o:

6.29
5.87
5.45
6.92

8

RICHMOND AND NEIGHBORING TOWNS.

4
1

3
2

7
6




1
5

1
1

1
2

1
1

2

17
17
4

5 Factory located in Michigan City, Ind.
6 Includes 8 clippers working part of time at piece rate.
7 Factory located in Kokomo, Ind.
8 Factory located in Elwood, Ind.

45.1
51.1
53.5

$4.56
5.02
8.50

n
2
3
84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1*66

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
[Bracketed hours indicate either a permanent change of hours during the year or

INDIANAPOLIS.

Indi-'
vid- j
Conjugal
ual Age, condition.
num-1
ber. ;

Other employ­
ment.
Years
Weeks Aver- j
of ex­
J W eeks!
peri­
em­
of un- |
ence in ployed weekly
employ-;
present during earn­
' ment. j
indus­ year.
ings.
Earn­
try.
Weeks. ings.

Occupation.

Separated. Basting puller............
Single........ Operator......................
. .do.......... Forewoman, checker.

49
43
49

$6.00
7.77
9.76

3

7.00

3
11

. .do..........

Finisher.......................

Married. . .

Baster...........................

4

41

9.51

Single.. . . .

Operator......................

8

52

15.00

3

50

5.45

3*

52

8.25

47
4
47
49

5.28
4.00
14.30
6.22

. .do..........

Finisher.......................

.. .do..........

Sleeve maker..............

.. .do..........
...d o ..........
Separated.
Single........

Finisher.......................
Button sewer, hand.
Stitcher, gloves.........

. . .do..........

Finisher.....................

15

51

7.08

. . .d o ..........

Shoulder baster........

5

51

5.58

1 !

. . .do.......... ____do.........................

5

51

•. 58
5

1 !

Operator.....................

15

. . .do..........

Pocket sewer.............

tt
T­
a
ll
2*

5
44£ $311.50

3£ !
5
3
1

50

10. 48

. . .do.......... ____do.........................

9h

43

12. 50

. . .do..........

9

49

10.90

...d o .......... ------ do...........

5
-]-

50

11.16

Widowed. Checker out.

H

51

7.00

m

9.58
I 11.24
8.05

4
3

Collar baster..............

Single........ Operator—
. . .do.......... Finisher___
.. .do..........

Collar baster............

48

Married. . .

Buttonhole maker.

49

Single.

Operator........

10.83
I
41 | 11.49

18 | ...d o ...

Coat cleaner.

oO

26

.d o ..,

Operator.......

19 ...d o . .,

Edge baster..

38

i

Hand sewer.............
Buttonhole maker.

32 ! 20 '. . . d o . . .

10.61
9.29

48 ! 11.66

Ilemnier...................




46 j
47 i

0)

Widowed. Girdle maker.

17 : Single..
!
31 ! 4 0 j .. .d o . ..

4. o3

U
11

i Not reported.

52 |
m\
48 *

4.70
9.27
6.00

3|-

11

167

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EM PLOYED

IN

G A R M E N T F A C T O R IE S .

that the individual had worked in more than 1 establishment or worked in shifts.]

INDIANAPOLIS.
Regular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. exWks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cepper
al tionploy­
ploy­ al tion- week. ploy­ al tional
ed. day.
ed. day. al week. ed. day. al
day.
day.
day.
13
0)
14
22

54

7*
4*

35|

7|

n

n

53f
53*
48
54

C
1)
38*

(l)
7|

0)
67f

4*

49*

39*

4*

60

55*

39*

41

9

22

9*

7*

46
{

Indi­
vid­
ual
Hrs.
num­
Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. ber.
per em­ usu­ cep- per
week. ploy­ al tion- week.
ed. day.
al
day.

9*
} 9*

4*
/9 *
\8*

9*

71

57
56
54

7f

54

4*

68*

49*

f
18
16

9*

I6
7

7f
11* } 57*

65*

}6 4 *

52
}4 *
41

64

4*

26

37

64
58*

46

4*
9*

57

9*

55*

19

9*

55*

38

14

63

9*

15

9|

}9 i
}n
9*
9*
9*

56§

12§

62*

17

11*

62

18

11*

62

19

12*

54*
54
27
54
27
52
57
52*

10

30
36*

13

63

11

9§

63

11

37*
42
37*
42

54

{nf

42

19

10
11
12

9*

35|

22

63*
63*

61

20
21
22

}6 2 §

Hi

9*

11*

12

16

8
13

9*
29*

55*

6*

4*
9*

9*

56

15

34*
24
10
13

10*

15*

9*
8f

60
52
48

9i

50|

12

18
20
46

52*

9*

54
54

9*
n
9&

4*

51|




/ 47*
4* \ 52 } l 3

24

4-5

10* f 9* | 60
\ 8*

25
/ 4*
I 8|

52*

}7 )'

0)

(l)

25

12

24

42

23

8

40

59*

27

26

0)
{ »

9*
9*

17 6-8
20*
7

46*
52*
40
39*

9*
Hf

II
{?

9*
}9 *

5

9*

54
7f
5
59*
9*
5 }o7
I lf
71
9|
7|

54
56
54

}2
3
2

{

9*

58*

28

{

} l0 f

9* } 59*

29

/ 10*
\ 9|

59
59

9A
| 58A
4A

30
31
32

168

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.

Indi­
vid­
Conjugal
ual Age. condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
Weeks
age
peri­
em­
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
ings.
indus­ year.
try.
Weeks. Earn­
ings.

33

Single..

Glove maker.............

§

32

$6.00

20

34

. .d o .. .

Work distributor___

2*

43

8.14

9

35

Buttonhole maker...
Pocket sewer.............

6
3

50
51

6.72
3.94

2

36

.. d o .. .
.. d o .. .

37

.. d o .. .

Work distributor___

9

50

11.26

38

..d o ...

____do.........................

2

40*

7.81

39
40
41

Widowed. Operator.....................
Divorced. ____ do.........................
Single------ Basting puller...........

1h
3

8.00
6.14

1*

50
29
44

42

Married. .

Marker........... ...........

5

48

7.00

4

43

Single....

Operator....................

3

36

15.00

16

44

. .do.........

Bundle-room hand..

3

48

7.50

45

. .do.........

Operator....................

7

38

9.01

46

. .do.........

Waist trimmer___

49

9.00

47

..d o .........

Skirt maker...............

7i

47i

12.00

48

. .do.........

____d o .........................

7i

50

12.00

2

Coat maker................

11

47

9.16

5

1

11

$110.00
2
23
8

4.88

4
13

75.00

1
3

49

.. .do.........

50

..do.........

Pocket sewer.............

8

52

6.00

51

. .do.........

____do..........................

9

*1
9

12.00

52

.. .do.........

....... do..........................

4

49

12.00

3

53

.. .do.........

Coat baster.................

4

48

7.28

4

54

.. ,do.........

Collar baster.............

3

46

5.91

6

55

...d o .........

Collar liner...............

5

46J

4.34

56

Married..

Coat baster.................

6

45£

7.87

57

.. .do.........

Operator.....................

4

48

7.59

58

Single—

....... do..........................

39

3.72

59

.. .do.........

Buttonhole maker. .

14

45

8.89

60

.. .do.........

Collar maker.............

2

45

8.77

A

9

3

§
U

10.00

6*
4

8

44.00

5
7

61

...d o . ... ..

Buttonhole maker. .

5

m

7.00

62

. . .do.........

Joiner and trimmer.

5

491

8.05

63
64

...d o .........
...d o .........

Waist maker.............

39
22

6.10
5.82

65

. . .do.........

Buttonhole maker. .
Operator.....................

1
12
3

47

15.00

3
30
5

66

.. .do.........

Pocket sewer.............

26

5.00

26




I

H
2§
10

80.00

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.




INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Regular working hours.

169

170

BULLETIN' OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.

Indi­
vid­
Conjugal
ual Age. condition.
num­
ber.

67

35

Single..

Occupation.

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
W eeks
peri­
em­
age
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
ings.
indus­ year.
Earn­
try.
Weeks. ings.

Waist trimmer.

10*

68
69
70
71
72

...d o .........
...d o .........
Married..
Single___
...d o .........

Glove piecer..................
Inspector........................
Operator........................
Glove turner.................
Inspector........................

2*

73
74
75
76

.. .do.........
Married..
Single.
...d o .........
Separated
Divorced.
Single____
I.-.do.........
; Widowed
, Single___
...d o .........
...d o .........

Coat maker....................
Operator........................
General helper..............
Tag sewer......................
Operator........................
Repairer........................
Edge baster...................
Hand sewer...................
Forewoman...................
Assistant forewoman..
Assistant bookkeeper..
Skirt maker...................

4

78
79
80
81
82
83
84

59
15
19
37
33
.22
29
(i)
23
18
25

Finisher....................................

i
Tr
«
T
S

48* | $6.51
49
8
6
6
4

!

6.95

j
1

7.00
4.45
3.40
1.89

m
H
1
114
if
2*
10
18
2
2i6

45*
46
50
15
46
51
20
48
52
m
50
45

8.97
7.50
4.07
5.00
7.50
12.00
6.80
12. C
O
8.50
5.00
6.52

5

32

7.70

$374.00
144.00
27.00

13
22
40

26.50

43
6*

124.00
6
1
32
4
22

220.00

16

120.50

7.90

85

39 | Divorced..

86

54 | Separated.

Glove hemmer and tipper...

i

17

2.60

87

16 | Single...

Feller.........................................

i

8

6.00

18 I...d o.......
j
|...do.......
'...d o .......
i Married.
i— do.......
Single ..
Widowed"
Single..
42 Married
29 Widowed.

Glove operator........................

1

44

10.00

------ do........................................
Glove turner............................
Buttonhole maker..................
Operator...................................
Serger........................................
Repairer...................................
Operator...................................
Presser......................................
Labeler...............

i

12
35|
50*
52

4.66
3.45
8.67
7.66
9.40
7.00
(1
)
6.09

7

88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
ii5
116

16
16
43
25
36
37

(l) Married...
24 Single.......
23 .. .do..........
37 Separated.
| 43 Single.......
I
; 37 Widowed.
14 Single.......
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
. . .do..........
.. .do..........
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
Divorced..
! 25 j Married...
Separated
;
or d i ­
vorced ..
! 18 i Single.......
; 24 I Married...
. 17 I Single.......

(




f
17
6
11
H
10
3A
1

50
21
50
38
52

Glove inspector..
Shoulder baster.
Embroiderer___
Operator...................

1*
10
6

49
41
50

....d o ........................
Operator...................

20 !
;
24
*

5.00
5.55

Errand girl...............

i
io*
24
3'
10
i
i
4
4

20*
33§
11
17
50*
50*
50
51
45
9
13
43

10.00
9.50
12.00
12.00
4.93
4.00
10.00
9.21

6

52

9.25

5
7
3

48
15
51

8. 75
10.00
7.92

Hemmer, skirts___
Glove operator........
Feller........................
Operator..................
___ do........................
— do.......................
Inspector..................
Operator..................
— do.......................
Forewoman.
Operator____
........do...........
1Not reported.

4
35

277.20

40
10*
1*

63.50

3.20
5.05
4.75
8.00
4.02

2
31
2
3
3
11
2
31*

36.00

4.76

m
35
35

;

H i

?! i

187.00

43
22
9

:
i

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS— Continued.
Regular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.

Busy season.

Dull season.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Itrs.
ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex»
em- usu­ cepem­ usu­ cep- per
em­ usu­ cep- Hrs.
cep- per
per
ploy- al tiontional tionploy­ al tion- per
week.
week. ploy­
al week. ed. day.
day.
ed. day. al
al
al week.
day.
day.
day.
day.

71

81

} 6*

r 6|

21
91
5-7

41

46£
30

41

4|

(1
)

491

n

491

*36*

521

ol

491

?

551

C
1)

*531
C
1)
501

52f
551

541

41

n
12
41
12
\ 41

33J
53i

41

»*

4£
41

U

53

(l)
53

} 531

ldiidlal
1mer.

67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

r i2i
} 522
l 41

86

52*

41

88

521
521
521

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

87
40*

V
4*
5
5
5
4

71

I

4*

4*
41

3
4*
41
41

41
41
41

41
41
41
41

52}
521
521
521
491
521
49b
52§
m
52
48
52
52
491
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
52
47f
52

441
34§
48
521

41

491

521
391
21

{ 2?
y

i

524
52-j

491

291

4
12"

524

91

fO "«

52

113
91

52
52




52

41

49-1

41

52

114
115
116

172

B U L L E T IN

o f

t i-ie

bu reau

o f

la b o r

s ta tis tic s .

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.

Indi­
vid­
Conjugal
ual Age. condition.
num­
ber.

Occupation.

Single ..
. . .do.......
Widowed
Single...
. . .do.......

Pocket sewer..

1
23

$3.94
5.00
4.53
8.00
9.83

17*
1*
2

48*

Operator...............
------ do....................
Finisher................
Inspector, shirts..
Operator...............

.. .do.......

117
118
119
120
121

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
Weeks
age
peri­
em­
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
mdus
year.
ings.
Earn­
try.
Weeks. ings.

7.32

3*

51*
48
49
23*

12.26
9.00
20.00
12.00

51*
52
34*
50*
50

123
124
125

.. .do.......
...d o .......
Married.

126

.. .do.......

.do..
Bander, shirts,.
Forewoman___
Coat maker___

127

.. .do.......

Stock keeper.

Single...

Bundler.........

51*

7.63

.. .do.......

Scalloper........

46

10.71

18
48
45*

3.85
10.00
8.00

28
22*
47*
46$
49
48
27
47
5
13
50
2 51
48
35
24
50
38
38
52
11
13
7*
48*
45
6
50
10*
12
50*
46
40*
48
10
15*
8*
50
47
51
51
46

10.00
4.16
5.50
6.50
8.00
7.50
8.00
9.00
4.00
4.00
6.30
14.00
4.13
3.00
5.00
9.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
3.36
10.50
1.55
5.50
7.50
4.50
8.00
6.29
6.38
4.00
10.50
4.00
6.07
2.58
4.00
3.00
6.50
6.50
8.12
8.12
0)

129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172

23
14

9.55

Inspector..................................
.. .do.......
Operator, forewoman........... .
.. .do.......
Widowed. Buttonhole maker, fore­
woman.
Married.. Hemstitcher............................
Single____ Cuff maker, gloves.................
Glove piecer........................... .
.. .do.........
.. .do.........
Glove maker...........................
.. .do.........
— do...................................... .
...d o .........
....d o .......................................
...d o .........
Married.. ----- do...................................... .
.. . . d o .......................................
. . . . d o .......................................
.do..
Timekeeper.............................
.do..
Forewoman..............................
.do..
Glove inspector......................
.do..
. .do........... Glove turner............................
..d o........... Glove inspector......................
. .do........... Glove turner............................
. .do........... Glove operator.......................
. .do........... Glove inspector......................
. .do........... Operator...................................
. .do........... Glove repairer.........................
. .do........... Operator...................................
. .do........... Glove operator........................
..d o ........... Glove piecer.............................
..d o........... Glove operator........................
..d o...........
. .do........... i i ii d o ii ii iii ii ii iii ii in i ii;
..d o ........... Glove piecer.............................
! 24 . .do...........
..d o ........... Glove turner...........................
i 15
I 28 . .do........... Glove piecer.............................
14 ..d o ........... Glove turner...........................
; 19 ..d o ........... Operator...................................
.do..
Glove inspector......................
:
.do..
;
.do,.
Glove turner.
;
.do..
Sample maker, gloves
i
Cuff hemmer, gloves____
.do..
Collar-machine operator.
..do..
------do.................................
.do..
I
Operator............................
!
.do..




7
3
5
5
12

i Not reported.

$30.00
34
4

8
37

37.00
185.00

24
29*
4§
5*
3
4
25
5
39
2
2
1
4
17
28
2
14
14

104.00

7
46
2
41*
40
U
3
Hi
4
42
364
43*
2
5
1
1

173

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS— Continued.
Regular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.
Normal season.

Dull season.

Indi­
vid­
ual
Hrs.
num­
Wks. Hrs. exHrs. em­ usu­ cep- Hrs. ber.
per ploy­ al tion- per
week. ed. day.
al week.
day.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cepem­ usu­ cepper
ploy­ al tion- week. ploy­ al tioned. day. al
ed. day.
al
day.
day.

Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­
al
ploy­
ed. day.

4
4

9
9

11

62

50|
13
14
51f
51$
5l£ \
I

91
8

39|
40
30!
32!
41!
8!
25!

)
/

16
21
39
19|
4
40

Busy season.

7
7

52
52

8
8
4
18

9
9
9
8|

7
7
7
7|

117
118
119
120

52
52
52
52

121

........
40
10
f 46{
}2 2 J
4!
\50f
13
48
10

4!

4!

4

9*
8f
9x3
9

2

502-

74
•3
8
4x1

127

/ 11 } 51}
I 4!
8

8!

3

47

4!

19

?

23!
49
40!
41
4
7
15!
8!
50
47
30
30
38

9

10

9

81 / H f
8!

2

8

8!

9

50

5

• 1
_____
8!

9

4!

49!

4

9

4!

49!

49!

i

3
49|
3
13
49!
49!
1
49!
49! } 3 |
48
49!
j




49!

4!

9
9
9

n
4!

31!
3l|
49!

9

4h

1

......... 1
!
49!

49!

?

9

3

..........1
........
..........1
........
9 I 9
9
9
4 i 9

14

9

4*

49£

49!
12
49!
12
49 J 4

9
9
9

?

49!
m
49

4!

2 Includes 1 week’s vacation with pay.

122
123
124
125
126

16
48
45!
22!
m
46#
49
48
27
47
5
13
50
51
48
35
24
50
38
38
33!
11
13
7i
44*
45
6
50

/ 4! }5 1 |
\ 10i

54
51|
51§

43
35

9i

1
!
1
i
i
1
!
1

4

128
j :

4
}* 1
I 4!

129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172

TIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS
INDIANAPOLIS— Continued.

Age.

20
31
35
42

17
17
19
35
36
48
40
42
23
35
40
34
25
18
24
22
35
23
21
25
38
25
35
34
25
37
40
29
50
24
20
32
19
30
30
29
21
19
21
19
32
21
26
26
28
35
29
20
40
33

Occupation.

Inspector...........................
Operator............................
Collar-machine operator.
Operator............................
Finisher.............................
Inspector...........................
Operator............................
Finisher.............................
Operator............................
Forewoman......................
Assistant forewoman-----Operator............................
Buttonhole maker...........
Necktie maker.................
Inspector...........................
Finisher.............................
Buttonhole maker..
Operator................................... j
Finisher.................................... •
Operator................................... j
........do....................................... i
........do.........................................j
Feller.........................................:
Inspector...................................•
Operator...................................
........do.........................................
........do........................................
Inspector.................................. !
Button sewer, machine.........
Feller.........................................
Operator................................... ;
Sleeve feller..............................j
Operator................................... .
..d o ........................................|
Strap maker............................ '
Coat maker.............................. ;
Presser.......................................j
........do........................................ ;
Operator................................... j
Coat maker.............................. j
........do........................................ I
Folder....................................... j

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ W eeks Aver­
peri­
em­
age
ence in ployed weekly
present: during earn­
ings.
indus­ year.
try.
Weeks.

i
Iri
A
3
5
1
8
23
25
4
15
5
12

51
49
48*
20
50
9
51
32
17
51£
49|
50*
47*
50'
50
51

6

48*

3
5
10*

U
4
3
If 5
2
V*
3
7*
15"
8
1
9
m
16*
4|
20
H
5*
•
K
ti
JS
T
4
•B
H
A

Operator................................... i
........do........................................!
Body maker, coats.................j
Operator................................... |
Collar maker............................j
Operator................................... :
Coat maker.............................. j
Bander, overalls................
Bander, shirts....................
Inspector.............................

i
124
H
i
2*
4“
10
12
4
12
5

44

........do..................................

13

28

Feller.............
Bander...........
— .do............
Strap maker.
Operator.......

28
25
18
20




9
7*
4'
1
9
i Not reported.

i
i
j
!
i
I

49
49*
45“
50
22
47
46
49
51
50*
51"
52
49
36
47
52
50*
48

$7.05
9.00
10.00
5.25
5.00
4.28
11.02
8.00
7. 75
10.87
12.00
9.00
9.91
9.97
8.00
8.75
7.11
r 6.48
L 6.00
9.00
9.00
8.50
9.00
5.00
6.00
8. 75
10.00
8.00
11. 78
8.50
11.50
11.50
8.00
7.00
8.50
14.25

28
46
4
29
44
m
35§
13
13
44
50
12*
27“
33
50
44*
48
49
50
44

5.00
6.80
6.00
10.00
9.50
6.81
7.36
6.00
6.00
10.00
8.00
5.00
7.00
11.58
8.73
11.10
7.45
8.60
10.54

43
51
42
50
48

10.25
11.00
9.29
8.00

12.57

8.46

4
16

17®

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Continued.
Regular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.
Normal season.

Dull season.

Busy season.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. exWks. Hrs. exWks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­
al tion- per ploy­ al tion- per ploy­ al tion- per ploy­ al
ploy­
week
ed. day. al
al week. ed. day.
ed. jday. al week. ed. day.
day.
day.
day.
1
41
37
48*
10
10
40
2
30
32
17
m
34*
m
44J
50
42
51
25*
9
40
49|
45
50
22
39
C)
1
39
C
1)
50J
26
. 49J
49
36
47
28
50*
39
9
28
43
4
29
22
43f
28f
13
13
32
50
12*
27
26
39
29
39
42*
37
35

9
9
9
9
82
9
9
9
9
9
8f
8|
8|
8|
8f
8f
8f
8}

4
4
4
4
42
4
4
4
4
4
42
4*
42
4:I
42
4*
4*

49
10
49
12
49
49 )
48
49
10
49
7
49
8
49
49
48
482
15f
48
48
3
48
48
4
48
48
48
0) J
48
48
48
48
48
8
48
0)
48
10
48
«
48
48
25
48
2*
48
48
48
11
48
48

82
C)
1
8:
8
1
8:
8
8
8
8
8
8
8j
8;
8:
8
-;
8s
8*
8
2
8s
8?
8,
8
|
S
i
8i
8
|
8i
88j
8j
8s
S
\
8i
83
#
8!
8
1
S
i
S
i
8j

42
42
C)
1
44:
44i
4:
4i
4;
4i
44;
4;
4:
4;
4
J
4:
4;
4'
45 } 48
4
-j
48
48
42
4;
48
4;
48
4
-i
48
4
-;
48
48
4i
4j
48 .
4:
48
448
4i
48
4i
48
4i
48
4
48
4
1
48
4
1
48
4*
48
4l
48
4
5
48

8§

4!

48

8|
21*
34
8|
27 • 8|
50
8|
23*
8§

4§
4|
4*
4S
4§

48
48
48
48
48




I s

3
22
3
7

7*
8

4
4

4
4
4

44
44
44

82

4*

48*

4
8-2

42
42
42
4*

45*
48

\

82
82
82
82.

42
42
4*
4*

82

15
r 15
\ 91

42

48

8-2
82

42
4*

40
48

82

4*

48

12

190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226

48 :
48
48
48

82

13

82

42

48

82

42

48

4

8|

4§

48

4

8§

4f

48

35

8-2
42
82
8f " 4 * '

_____ !____

48
35
392

8f
8if
8|
8§
8§

!

........I..........
1
41
48
34§
34§
34§
34|
34f

{5?

I

}s §

H17

482

38

8*
82

4*

39*

62

82

12

7
7
15*
9
U
9“

173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188

41*
44

8
8
8

4§

}s §
8|
8§

4§ { ! ?
/
34§
34|

8|
S
?i

4§

34| \
48 I

Indi­
vid
ual
Hrs.
num­
excep- Hrs. ber.
tion- per
al week.
day.

........

227
228
229
230
231
232

176

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OP WOMEN
INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
Weeks
peri­
em­
age
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
indus­ year.
ings.
Earn­
try.
Weeks. ings.

IndiConjugal
ual Age. condition.
num­
ber.

233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259

20
25
21
30
40
29
21
24
0)
41
40
22
27
23
25
35
?3
38
15
24
23
31
44
23
17
35
C
1)

Separated.
Single........
...d o ...........
...d o ..........
Widowed.
Single........
. . .do...........
...d o ..........
...d o ...........
Married__
Single........
__ do...........
.. .do..........
...d o ...........
...d o . . . .
Married...
. . . d o . . ___
Single
. .do..........

.

...d o ...........
Married__
Widowed.
Single........
...d o ... .
Married__
Single........

Occupation.

Operator..................................
Coat maker.......................... .
Feller........................................
Operator...................................
........do........................................
........do........................................
Assistant fnrfiwnman
Operator...................................
Buttonhole maker
Pocket maker.
Operator.................................
TRiittnnholft maker
Operator...................................
........do........................................
Tnspentor.............................. .
. do .................................
Finisher....................................
Operator............................... .
Marker.....................................
Bookkeeper ..........................
Joiner and hemmer................
Operator...................................
Hemmer...................................
Buttonhole maker..................
Operator............ ............... ...
Shoulder baster......................
Vest maker..............................

4
4
3
8
4
7
n
8
27
P
8
8
5
10
20
4
1
7U
4
15
5
8
(s)
3|
8

39*
50*
50
49*
48£
49*
47*
404
49'
29
49
49
45
50
50
48*
23
48
11
2 52

$8.71
8.84
5.80
9.72
4.84
9.25
5.99
8.80
14.36
9.00
12.00
9.29
9.61
8.04
8.88
11.04
9.00
10.75
4.24
16.00

42
49
51
49*
52
39
48

12*
1*
2
2*
3*
28
3f

6.98
5.50
9.00

20
3
7
2
2
26 $208.00

?
4
41
10
3
1

11.76
6.00
19.00
6.00

13
4

15

21

TERRE HAUTE.
1

34

Single........ Buttonhole maker..................

15§

37

$12.00

2

34 . . .do.......... ........do........................................

171

46*

12.00

5*

3

30 __ do...........

Operator...................................

1

17*

6.32

34*

4

17 .. .do..........

Presser......................................

2

45*

3.00

5

29
57
18
21
31
60
40

Operator...................................

9

........do........................................
........do........................................
........do........................................
Strap maker............................
Hemmer...................................
Operator...................................

24
*
*
15
20

20
52
17*
15*
41
52

2*
5i
1*
31
12
6
9
*
10*
12*
T
J
§

11*
47
48*
46*
50
4
7
13
31
42*
8
34

8.00
6.91
8.00
5.00
8.00
4.91
7.00
4.50
7.51
5.00
7.00
5.00
3.00
3.75
6.50
7.00
6.00

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
17
52
35
22
27
18
25
30
38
15

...d o ..........
. . .do..........
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
...d o ...........
...d o ..........
Widowed.
Single
__ do...........
Widowed.
Single........
...d o ...........
...d o ..........
...d o ...........
Separated.
Single........
Married...
Single........

Baster.......................................
Feller........................................
Operator...................................
Finisher....................................
Pants maker............................
Operator...................................
........do........................................
Pocket maker..........................
Operator...................................
General worker........................
Operator...................................

i Not reported.




6*
6

$24.00

26
34*
36*
11

22

200.00

35

103.00

6

30.00

5.50

2 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.

18*
5
3*
?
13
45
33
21
9*
44
18

177

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
INDIANAPOLIS—Concluded.

TERRE HAUTE.
10
33*

10

58

16
19
25*

10
9
10
10

55
53*
55
55
61
52*
58
58
55*
55*
57
56
55*
52*
55*
55*
55*
55*
55*
54f
54

2

58

19
39
15*
15*
34
13

10*
9*
10
10

u»

9*

40
36*
36*
42
4
7
13
19*
33
8
34

s

8*
5
5

t
H
8*
8
5

9*
9*
9*
9
9*

7f

11

5

9

50

2

12i { 10
10

:{ 12}

L
} 65*
} 63

12i { 10

} 62*

1

12i { 10

} 62*

1

12i ; { io | 62*
i
iif |
.......... 59*

1*
)
J '
13

5

57*

7
39
\
I

10*
9
10

5
5

50
45

2

1
7
12
10
8

11*
9*

3
9i

4
5
5
5

46*
52*
52*
52*

3

5
5

45
46§

84

53*

!
!
I

i
i
............i ...........1
.............

1 2 ! 9i {
s Over one year and less than two.

66172°—Bull. 160—14------12



1%

} 53f

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

178

B U L L E T IN

OF

THE

BUREAU

OE

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S .

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
TEBBE HAUTE—Concluded.

Indi­
vid­
ual Age. Conjugal
condition.
num­
ber.

26
24
27
60
24
22
17
29
40
26
20
25
21
24
23
19
23
20
30

Single___
,..d o ..........
...d o ...........
Widowed.
...d o ..........
...d o .
...d o ..........
Married...
..d o ...........
Single........
Separated.
Single........
Married...
Single........
..d o ...........
..d o ..........
| ..d o ..........
j ..d o ..........

Occupation.

Forewoman......................
....... do.................................
Operator............................
Finisher.............................
Operator............................
....... do.............: ..................
Strap maker.....................
Operator............................
------ do.................................
------ do.................................
Belt-strap maker.............
Inspector...........................
Finisher.............................
Operator............................
....... do.................................
Buttou sewer, machine.
Operator............................
------ do.................................
------ do.................................

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
Weeks
peri­
em­
age
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
indus­ year.
ings.
try.
W eeks. Earn­
ings.

12
11
2
18
4f
5

1*
13

52
51
14
29
40
31
41
16
13
34
51
48
12*
14
m
44
45
40*
46

$10.00
10.00
8.00
4.75
7. C
O
5.44
4.50
4.75
7.26
4.50
8.00
6.53
5.50
4*00
10.00
4.50
7.00
7.55
8.00

40
39*

$10.05 ;
7.50 !

$182.00

1
38
23
12
21
11
36
39
18
1
4
36*
25*
14§
11*
6

EVANSVILLE.
1
2

23 __ do........... Waist maker............................
25 __ do........... ........do........................................

3

17 ...d o ..........

Strap maker.............................

4

30 ...d o ..........

Skirt draper.............................

10
15

15

3.25 !

12

44

4
7
10
If
12
5

50
35
40
43
37
50
41

4.50
6.06
7.75
2.53
10.00
7.00
5.08

40

5.39
7.06

Waist maker............................
Skirt maker..............................
Operator...................................
........do........................................

10
$
3*
1

19

__ do...........
1 d o .. . . . .
__
...d o ...........
...d o ..........
19 ...d o __ . . .
35 . . . d o .........

........do........................................
Coat maker..............................

20

18 ...d o ..........

Sleeve hand..............................

21 !
22 :
23 j
!
24* ;
25
26 !
27 ;
28 j
29 j
30 !
31 •
32 !
33 |
34
35 :

20
29
31
23
28
22
21
29
24
56
29
23
20
35

12*

9.00

Operator...................................
Sleeve maker...........................
Waist maker . ..........................
Learner.....................................
Lining maker..........................
Heinmer...................................
Embroiderer............................
...d o ........... Operator...................................
...d o ........... Stock checker..........................

12

5
6
•
j
8
9
10
11
12

s
I
!
i
|
!
!

13
14
15
16
17
18

17
21
25
15
27
40
21
21
18
30
22
21
16

...d o ..........
L -.d o...........
j . do ___
i__ do...........
...d o ..........
Widowed.
Single........

22 ...d o ..........
j...d o ..........
...d o ..........
__ do...........
...d o ...
.. .d o ..........
.. . d o ..........
_. .d o .........
. . . d o .........
:. . . d o ..........
__ d o ..........
. . . d o .........
. . . d o .........
.
1 . . d o . . ..
...d o ..........




General worker.......................
Designer....................................
Skirt hanger.............................
Stock girl and packer.............
Head coat maker....................
Skirt maker.............................
Dressmaker..............................
Bookkeeper..............................
Operator...................................
Finisher....................................
Forewoman........................ .....
Stenographer...........................
Operator................................. j
........do........................................ !

*

2*
5
1

*
<
!
i

35

$130.25

i
|
i

2

17
12
9
15
2
11
12

5

49
44
40
13
13
31

10.42
8.61
7.50 " * ’ 39'* 346.50*
3.32
38
190.00
7.50

1
21

4*
4

37
42

13.00
3.70

10

41*
49
43
36
39
46
36
44
41
41
36
39
41
50
37

6.00

10*

6
6
11
6
5
14
7
6
5
12
6
6
2*
15

1 Not reported.

8.00
12.00
7.50
5.50
12.00
7.18
7.00
............
10.00 ............. 1
1
7.50
I
7.34
1
19.62
7.00
4.00
5.03
13
78.00

3
8
12

15

3
9
16
13
6
16
8
11
11
16
13
11
2
2

179

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
TERRE HAUTE—Concluded.
Regular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cepem­ usu­ cep- per
ploy­
al tion- week, ploy­ al tion- week. ploy­ al tioned. day.
al
ed. day. al
ed; day. al
day.
day.
day.
39
38
14
17
36
31
35
16
13
21
38$
39
15*
12$
37
34
35
37$
36

53$
53$
53$
53$
53
52$
52$
52$
52$
51
51
50
48
48
47
46f
45$
44
43$

7$

Indi­
vid­
ual
Hrs.
num­
Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. ber.
usu­ cepper em­
per
week. ploy­ al tion- week.
ed. day.
al
day.
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

m
49$
49$
49$
13
12$
9

47$
47
46$

8$

44
46f
42$
44
41|

7$

EVANSVILLE.
39
38$
8

10$

34

57
57

n
9$

9$

17
32
23
40
34
17
18
38
45
28
34
13
13
18
13
20
21
40$
C)
1
43
36
32
18
32
44
21
28
22
32
19$
42
37

10

5

57$

6

10$

5

57$

57
5

9$
9$
9$
94 __
8|
7$
9$
9$
8
9
9$
9$
10
9
10
10
9
5
10
9$
9$
9$
9$
9§
9§
9*
9$
3
9
9i
9
9
n
10
10

1
1

5
5

55
57
57
57
57
50
57
57
53
57
57
60
59
59
55
57
57
57
57
58
58
57
57
57
57
54
55$
54
54
55$
55
55




1
6

9

5

9$

7
11

8$
9$

4

9$

5

35
57

7$

50
57

57

9
3
6
3
3
25
11

12f

4

24

9$

11$

57

} 631
63
12$
57
3
9$ “ ia i' 62$
12
62
50
7$
II
} 60*
9$
{ 10}
} 60$
57
60
i2$

{ 1

10
6

3

15

9$

57

9

}
/

5
75
12$
/12$ \
66
19$
13 / 5 } 65
\ 10$
64$
I 12
I 9$ J

9$

57

4

1
2
3
4
5

6

9$

12i

62$

62
1
io$
10$
1 - 9$ / n $ } 61$
I 12
2
61$
9$
Hf
2

iii

60$

n$
9$
J 9$
jlO
J 9$
\io } : :

58$
58$

9$

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

2
12
1

4
3
24

1
2
6$
8

55$
54

9i
9
9±
9

5

55$
42

9$
9$
9$

20
4
6
7
15

3
9
9
9*

10i

57|
57
57

9
9f

56
5o$
54
55 &
55$

58$

4
4
4

9$
9$
9$

10
10
10

57$
57$
57$

8
6

9*
9

9$
10$

55f
55$

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

180

WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
EVANSVILLE—Concluded.

Indi­
vid­
Conjugal
ual Age. condition.
num­
ber.

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

20
23
19
28
34
40
25
40
15
23

Single
...d o ..
...d o ..
Single.
...d o ..
...d o ..
...d o ..
...d o ..
...d o ..
...d o ..

Occupation.

Operator............................
Collar machine operator.
Seamer...............................
Dressmaker.......................
Waist maker.....................
Forewoman......................
Operator............................
------ do.................................
Errand girl.........................
Checker.............................

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
Weeks
peri­
em­
age
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
indus­
year.
ings.
Earn­
try.
Weeks.
ings.

5
5
2
6*
15
io
22

42
42
44
41*
40
50
45
26
30*
44

$o. 00
6.00
4.93
9.00
8.00
8.25
8.50
4.50
2.55
6.00

$5.85
5.85
8
10*
12
2
7
26
21*
8

FORT WAYNE.
Forewoman..............................
Operator, gloves.....................

10
30

1 52
49

$10.00
8.14

25 ...d o .......... ....... 'do........................................

10

46

7.85

6

44 ...d o ..........

Body maker, waists...............

8

49

7.73

3

27 ...d o ..........

Head sample maker, waists.

9

49

7.28

3

28 ...d o ..........

Body maker, waists...............

9

50

8.73

2

31 ...d o .......... ____do........................................
29 ...d o .......... Operator, gloves......................
r
39 ...d o .......... Body work, waists.................

12
4
15

50*
42
47*

7.41
11.50
8.00

If
9

37 ...d o ........... Head sample maker, waists.

21

49

8.82

Single____
50 ...d o ..........

5*

20

Married.. .

Operator, gloves......................

40

Single.......

Buttonhole maker..................

17

30

3

4*
3

47

5.00

5

49

8.90

3

..d o...........

Timekeeper..............................

15

2 52

10.00

29 ...d o ...........

Forewoman..............................

13

3 52

12.00

32 ...d o ..........

Buttonhole maker..................

17

45

7.55

7

...d o ...........

Operator...................................
Operator, gloves......................
____do.........................................
Glove turner...........................
Inspector, gloves.....................
Operator, gloves.....................

14*

51
48
45
43
47
45
25
50
48
48
43
48
47
47
52
22
22

6.50
9.50
9.00
8.25
8.50
0.82
6.25
8.75
7.75
8.00
6.50
8.57
8.50
9.50
7.02
8.64
(<)
4.19
10.85
10.00
6.87

1

31
24
22
20
30
29
16
30
17
21
19
38
25
27
22
25
28
18
33
26
17

...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
..d o...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
Separated.
Single.......
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ..........
I...d o .........




Bundler, gloves.......................
Operator, gloves.....................
Inspector, gloves.....................
Operator, gloves.....................
____do........................................
____do.........................................
Sample maker, gloves...........
Operator, gloves......................
____do........................................
Gloves, turner___
Operator, gloves.
____do....................
Checker out..........

f
5
3
11
13*
2
5
3
8
4
5
7
12
10
4
5
9
2*

49
36
44
47

1 Including 2 weeks’ vacation with pay.
2 Including 3* weeks with pay (* week, flood).

19

$95

4
7
9
5
7
8
2
4
4
9
4
5
5
30
30
3
16
8
5

181

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
EVANSVILLE—Concluded.
Kegular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exem­ usu­ cepem­ usu­ cepem­ usu­ cepper ploy­ al tion- per
al tionploy­
al tion- week.
week. ploy­ day.
ed.
al
ed. day. al
ed". day. al
day.
day.
day.
55
55
55
54
54
52
52
52
51
48
49!

42
42
36
37!
40
50
45
18J
44

Indi­
vid­
ual
Hrs.
num­
Wks. Hrs. exHrs. em­ usu­ cep- Hrs. ber.
per
al tion- per
week. ploy­ day.
ed.
al week.
day.

45
54

8!

9!

55

5

65

51

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

FORT WAYNE.
44
31

10
10

5
5

26

10

55
55

14

9

5

50

16

9
8
9*
8

5
4
4!
4!

50
44
52 •
44!

5

55

26

9!

41

52

23

91

4!

52

I
17
11

36

9f

4!

53$

43
41
26*

91
10

4!
5

52

9!

4!

9!

4!

{

4

12!

5

10
12f

3

81

4

45$

3

8

4

44

1

41
4
4

52
44
44

55

/ 4
\8
4!
9$

52
54
58
50J

12

8§

4

}m

h
8J

56

56
8!
/ 4$ } 60|
m
\ n
52
9!
4!
9!

47$

|10

}

5
4

6

/ 9!
H I \ 8 ! | 62
| 62
HI
{ II

4
5
6

2

12
10

J 9 ! } 59!
59

J 4h } 58
h
111 \ 9* | 58
Ill

7
8
9
10
11

n

4!

50|

8

7|

4

42f

4

42

n

4$

50!

7

7f

3f

42!

3

n 4$ 50! 10 8 3f
55 \
5
rio
51
49! )
I 9
4!
55
10
5
48
55
10
5
45
55
43
10
5
55
5
47
10
8
9
5
55
10
5
37
10
5
55
25
55
10
5
50
55
10
5
48
55
10
5
48
2
5
10
55
5
41
10
14
8
5
55
34! 10
5
55
10
5
47
55
10
5
47
9
9
5
55
10
5
43
8
9
5
55
10
5
14
55
22
10
5
50 I
39
9
5
10
5
55 /
10
54$
36
9* 5
541
44
5
9f
54$
5
47
9*
3 Including 2 weeks’ vacation and
4 Not reported.



1
2
3

1

2

40

34

12

2
9!
8
8

V ia

1

} 63J

9!

4!
oo ^
oo

31
32
15
35

55
52

7
4

I

43f

11$ I
\
J
Hi \

HI { %

} 57f

? ! \ 56f
4* /
*
9$ | 56$
4$

12
13
14

1

i0f

U

| 55

50

55
45
50
50

..... 1.....
1 week factory closed on account of floods, with pay.

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

182

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
FOIBT WAYNE—Concluded.

Indi­
vid­
Conjugal i
ual Age. condition, j
num­
ber.

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

66

67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

Single.......
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ..........
...d o ...........
Married. . .
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
...d o ...........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........
.. .do...........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........
Married...
Single........
Widowed.
Single........
.. .do...........
. . .do...........
.. .do...........
. . .do...........
. - .do...........
...d o ...........
. . .do...........
Married...
Single........
Married...
Single........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........
. . .do...........
...d o ...........

Other employ­
ment.
Years i
j
of ex- j Weeks Aver­
Weeks
periemage
of un­
ence in j ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
ings.
Indus- i year,
try.
Weeks. Earn­
ings.

Occupation.

Operator, gloves.......... .
....... do.............................
Inspector, gloves.........
Sample maker, waists.
Finisher, waists............
Operator........................
........do.............................
Forewoman.
Inspector...........................
Splitter, waists.................
Box plaiter, waists.........
Trimmer, waists.............
Sleeve maker, waists —
Hemmer, waists..............
Button sewer, machine..
Trimmer, waists.............
Sleeve setter, waists........
Trimmer, waists.............
____do.................................
Gloves, former.................
Glove turner....................
Operator, gloves..............
do.................................
____do.
------ do.......................................
Glove former and inspector.
Operator, gloves....................
Glove former and inspector.
Operator, gloves....................
Button sewer, machine.......
Operator.................................
Finisher and pocket maker.
Button sewer, machine.......
Operator.................................
Strap maker...........................
Operator, gloves....................
Tucker, waists.......................
Operator, gloves....................
------ do.......................................
Glove former and inspector.
Sleeve setter, waists.............
Operator.................................
Operator, gloves....................

11
6i
3
3
24

48
47
46
48
48

18
i
8
16
10

46
43
48
15
51
36
36
lOt
47“
46
46
44i
46“
31
6
46
ltj
23
8

10
11

13*

11

14
47

12

?

ij

?

44
48
11

6

$10.00
7.00
7.73
5.39
6.72

8.00
5.96
7.12
8.00
11.00
5.25
8.11
6.88
C)
1
8.55
8.37
11.00
2.83
8.00
4.50
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.63
2.50
2.50
6.00
6.50
7.73
5.00
8.00

10

6
18

6
H

8

12

17

51*
51*
48
52
13
3
14*
43
47
26
46
50
33
44
47
51
50

10.00

11

’ do!.....................................
Inspector......... ...........
Operator......................
Glove closer............... .
Sleeve setter, waists..
Presser, waists...........

2
2

$3.52

25b
52'
46
48
49

2.51
9.00
5.87
4.28
11.00

26

$208.00

12

102.00

*37j'

11
1
4
16
4
5

6
6

11

2

3

24.00
3.62
3.75

22.50
9.00

24

237.60

7*
* 6
1
46
6
25
27
41
41
38
5
40
38*
41
8
4
41

22

!

8.00
9.00
9.10
4.00
3.83
5.00
7.91
8.83
8.00
4.43
6.53
4.38
4.09
6.83
12.00
(l)

10.00

6.00

35
49
34*
9
5
26

6
2

19

8
5
1

2

SOUTH BEND.
Single____
.. .do......... .
Widowed.
Single.......
.. .do......... .
...d o ..........




Operator—
Folder..........
Operator___
Ironer...........
Operator___
Timekeeper.

U:
*1
lNot reported.

1

$3.15

40

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA,
EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
FORT WAYNE—Concluded.
Regular working hours.
; Working hours during
;
overtime periods.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

iiiil
m-

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs !Wks* Hrs. exHrs. exusu­ cep- ! Hrs. > em" usu­ cep- Hrs,
em- usu­ cep1 ner
al tionplov- al tion- S
al tion- per
j f - day.
ed. day. al
al jw w k J P ^ - day.
al week.
day.
day.
day.
i

Wks.
em­
ploy­
ed. day.

48
47
46
31

!

1

!
8

27i
34
32
30
18
15
31
30
36
10i
39
34
321
391
40
37
6
46
16
23
8

7*
8

Hi
12
11

7f
8

4!
41
4
4

43*
44*
42f
44

9
9

' n
{ ?

i
_____ '_____ I_____
71 i 53*
\
\
} » |{ *

1

;
|

i
.............. 1

f
.9

i

8
6

7|

8
12
13J
5
6'
14

7|
8*
8
7*
7*
7i

41
3f

43*
42J

4|
3|
3|
3f
31
3f

12

42*
47|
43|
m
42*
42|

r.

4* | 50f

n

j

7

i

' !

52

|

.............. i
i
.............. j

..........1
..........
i
..........i..........
i
I

1

[

;

1

i

. . . . . 1 _______ ________ 1
_______

11

i
i
!

14
46
1
12
41
9
34
36
11
6
51J
51J
44
38
13
3
141
36
33
26
46
17
31
29
39
51
41

i

i
i
1

i

._ ._ t

i
_j

_

i

i

i

4
14

9
8

4*
4

8
7f

2*

431
424 ;

33
2
15
8

7-1
7|
8*

4
4
4
4

411
422
42f
40

8

4i

41
4|

491
491

67

68

49£
44

7
8

9
9

361 i

1

j
. ' 1 .
!
..............i ...............
!
1

!
j

i
i

6

84

4

* j
!
...........j...............

47! ;
1

I
!

Ii

.

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

66

i..............i ...............

10
12

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

!

SOUTH BEND.
9

12*
52
44
31
43

9
9f
9
9
9

41

1

491
54
53£
50
531
50




13

9

41

9

4!

49*

{

8J

>
!
} 621

491

17

12

2

9

H
N
00

10

53$

6

9

8*

531

1
2
3
4
5
6

184

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
SOUTH BEND— Continued.

Indi­
vid­
ual Age. Conjugal
num­ mem condition.
ber.

19
8
9

10
11

12

13
14
15
10
17
18
19

35
19
24
32
30
23
18
10

28
32
20

20

23

21

20

19
15
24
20
20
29
23
55
20
17
19
19
20
24
18
25
16
16
16
16
14
14
16
15
15
17
18

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
08

Occupation.

Inspector...........................

20 ...do........... Operator............................

22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Single —

Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex- ; W eeks Aver­
W eeks
peri- ! emage
of un­
ence in j ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
indus­ year.
ings.
try.
Weeks. Earn­
ings.

21

16
16
19

20
19
33
53
24
35
25
44
37
23
43

22
20
20
25
18

..d o___
........do.................................
Seamer, union suits........
. .do___
Operator............................
. .do___
Yoke rufiler......................
..d o ....
Operator............................
..d o___
Sleeve operator................
..d o___
Operator............................
. .do___
Turner...............................
..do___
Neck band operator........
. .do___
Yoke rufiler......................
Married
Operator............................
Single..
........do.................................
...d o ___
Collar machine operator.
...d o ....
Buttonhole maker..........
...d o —
.do.......... Thread cutter...................
. .do.......... ! Collar-machine operator.
. .do.......... i Buttonhole maker...........
..d o .......... 1 Inspector............................
..d o .......... Operator............................
..d o .......... 1
.........do.................................
Married. . . ; Inspector..................
Single........: Operator....................
...d o .......... Inspector..................
.. . do.......... j Buttonhole maker.
...d o .......... j Operator....................
...d o .......... I Facer.........................
...d o .......... ! Bander......................
...d o .......... i Operator....................
...d o .......... j Collar maker............
.. .do.......... J Operator, gloves . . .
...d o .......... i........ do........................
.. . do.......... i Buttonhole maker.
...d o .......... • Operator, gloves...
...d o .......... ! ....... do......................
...d o .......... ....... do......................
...d o .......... i Inspector................
...d o .......... ! ....... do......................
...d o .......... ....... do......................
...d o .......... ....... do......................
...d o .......... Charger-out............
...d o .......... Operator.................
...d o .......... Work distributer..
...d o .......... Collar fixer.............
. . . d o . . * . . . ' Boxer, shirts.........
...d o .......... Work distributer..
...d o .......... Charger-out...........
Married. . . Bander, shirts.......
Widowed. Shirt sewer............
Single........! Repairer.................
...d o .......... ; Forewoman...........
...d o .......... ........do......................
Widowed. ........do......................
Single........ ........do......................
...d o .......... Front maker.........
Widowed. Hemmer.................
Single........: Body ironer...........
...d o .......... Button sewer........
...d o .......... i Operator................
...d o .......... ........do.....................
...d o .......... . Finisher.................




2J
If
101 i
2 j
8$
ioi
12*
4“
2
2§
7
10
2
9
2*
11
TSi
Tf
6 ;
5
5f =
io !
2
2*
2 i
r i
>
5 |
41 i
8 !
21 ;
9 !
2 !
TJ
2 :
n !
i
i

I '
i
2 •
1
i;
21
2
31
3
15
m
10
10
16
9
20
4
5
10
6
3
6
11
a9
‘*5
LNot reported.

37
51
51
49
50
48
491
49
49
52
48
22
471
52
49
52
5
481
511
511
48
461
33
46
51
46
50*
171
46
50
361
47
141
6i§
42
161
15|
24|
36
15}
50
36
33
511
52
46
491
51
431
35
52
52
51
48}
50
491
45
52
52
52
49
381

$3.92

15
1
1
3

6.00
8.75
8.79
9.36
10.64
11.25
9.15
6.89
6.05
10.25
10.50
7.30
8.00
8.87
8.50
1.50
6.00
6.93
6.83
6.77
6. 75
6.51
6.41
6.00
6.00
5.76
5.75
5. 71
5.68
5.50
5.00
4.75
3.98
4.74
3.82
2.88
3.72
3.24
3.00
4.75
4.50
4.27
4.16
4.00
4.00
5.89
6.92
9.63
6.83
7.08
9.86
11.00
12.00
13.00
6.50
7.46
7.25
7.00
7.43
7.50
7.25

2

4
21
3
3
4
30
4i

47
3*
»
1
4
0)

5J
13*

6

1
6
11
341

6
2

¥
371
1

10
351
36$
27%
16
36J
13
15

$78.00
52.50

2

3
4
1

0)
1

13

65.00

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.

185

EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Continued.
SOUTH BEND—Continued.
Regular working hours.
Normal season.

Dull season.

Busy season.

Working hours during
overtime periods.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
exWks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. exWks. Hrs. exHrs. Wks. Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cepem­ usu­ cep- Hrs. em­ usu­ cep- Hrs.
per
per
per
al tion- week. ploy­ al tion- week. ploy­ al tionploy­
ploy­ al tion- week.
ed. day. al
ed. day. al
al week. ed. day.
ed. day.
al
day.
day.
day.
day.
37

10
41
51
42
46
41
49*
37*
37
28
24

22

44
52
39*

20
32
5
48*
18
33*
51*
37
18
28*
33
41
51
46
38*
17*
33
44*
36*
47
14*
51§
20*
21*

16*
15|
12i
36
15§
38
36
17
51*
52
43
33
51
36*
35
52
52
51
48§
50
33
40
39
52
52
49
38*

/
\
/
\

52*
50
52*
52*
52*
52*
52*
52*
51g
51§
51§
51§
51*
51|
51*
51*
50
51i
50*
50
47
50
50
50
48
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50




Indi­
vid­
ual
num-

7
8

\
/
7
4
7

7
9
9

5
5
5

11*
12
24
24

9
9
9*
n

5
5
5
5

45
41
51!
512f

4

9

5

50

*

9*

5

9
10
11

40
50
47*

51i

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
I

J

21
22

1
i

23
24

I

1

J

i

11

9

5

25
26
27
28

1

50

j

\

J

|
5

9

5

50

12

9

5

50

13
5*

9
9

5
5

50
50

”

..

i
!
’1
I
1
1
1
!
i

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
.

1
........1..........
12

9

5

47

12

9

5

50

16

9

44

49*

3
16*

9
9

5
5

45
50

7

9

5

45

!
1
1
......... i.............
!
!
............i................

1
i
!
i... .
. ; . j ............

i
i

■
|
i

16*
5
13

9
9
9

5
5
5

50
50
50

i
i
!
!

i

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55.
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

66
67

186

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN
SOUTH BEND— C o n c lu d e d .

Indi­
vid­
ual Age
num­
ber.

19
25
24
21
24
18
19
21
23
24
16
17
8i : 16
82
18
16
83
84
44
85
33

70
71
72
73
74
75
76'
77
78
79
80

Conjugal
condition.

Occupation.

Inspector..................
Single —
..d o .......... Operator...................
..d o .......... .. ..d o ................... .
..d o ........ . Hemmer...................
..d o ........ . ____do........................
Button sewer..........
..d o ........
..d o ........ . Buttonhole maker.
Hemmer..................
..d o ........
..d o ......... Sleeve runner...............
...d o ......... Buttonhole maker----...d o ......... Operator, gloves..........
...d o ......... Presser, shirts...............
...d o ........ ....... do.............................
Button sewer................
..d o ........
Inspector, shirts...........
...d o ........
Divorced. Bander, shirts...............
Married.. Sleeve runner, shirts..




Other employ­
ment.
Years
of ex­ Weeks Aver­
Weeks
peri­
em­
age
of un­
ence in ployed weekly
employ­
present during earn­
ment.
indus­ year.
ings.
try.
Weeks. Earn­
ings.

3
9
9
4
9
$
2$
5
8
8
2
i
A
1
*
18
8

52
47$
mb
52“
48
16
50
52
47
49^
48$
10$
29
37
41$
47$
17$

1 Received in addition two meals a day.

$7.00
7.00
8.80
8.46
8.94
9.00
9.08
9.26
10.30
8.85
7.69
5.00
7.00
4.07
3.42
10.00
5.00

35

18
20
14
4

$255.00

1 112.50
80.00
70.00
12.00

1
2
5
2|
3$
23$
3
1
6$
4$

34$

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA.

187

EMPLOYED IN GARMENT FACTORIES—Concluded.
SOUTH BEND—Concluded.
Regular working hours.
Working hours during
overtime periods.
Dull season.

Normal season.

Busy season.

Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Hrs.
Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs. Wks. Hrs. ex- Hrs.
em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per em­ usu­ cep- per
al tion- week. ploy­ al tion- week, ploy­ al tion- week. ploy­ al tion- week.
ploy­
ed. day.
ed. day. al
al
ed. day.
al
ed. day. al
day.
day.
day.
day.
52
47*
40*
48
44
16
43

20
32
36
42
48*
10*
29
37
28*

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
48
50
50
50
50
49|
49*
49
47*
44




10

50
50
50
42*

11
7*

13

8*

47*

Indi­
vid­
ual
num­
ber.

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

APPENDIX.
HOURS AND EARNINGS OF WOMEN IN 38 INDIANA INDUSTRIES, AS
REPORTED BY EMPLOYERS TO THE INDIANA COMMISSION ON
WORKING WOMEN.

The data forming the basis of this report on the hours and earnings
of women employed in 38 Indiana industries were collected by the
Indiana Commission on Working Women through correspondence
with employers. Owing to the limitation of resources, the com­
mission could not employ agents to make personal visits upon
either employers or employees, nor would the resources even permit
of correspondence with a sufficiently large number of individuals to
secure a satisfactory body of information owing to the difficulty
and expense of obtaining correct addresses as well as to the cost of
clerical work and stenography involved in such correspondence.
Inasmuch as the investigation undertaken by the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics and the United States Commission on
Industrial Relations included personal visits by agents to both
employers and employees in the two industries, the Indiana Com­
mission on Working Women decided that its work would be most
effective if it concentrated such resources as it had upon the corres­
pondence with employers, depending upon the data furnished by
the Federal agencies and upon the public hearings,1 as the most
resultful method of securing adequate information from individual
wage-earning women.
Because the schedules were distributed and collected at the same
time that the investigations into the stores and garment factories
were being made by the Federal agencies named, and also because
the data requested on such schedules covered the same period of
time, the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics prints the sum­
maries of the correspondence schedules in this Bulletin at the request
of the Indiana commission in order that the material secured by the
commission independently might appear in close connection with the
results of the investigation into the stores and the garment trades.
Of the 257 schedules submitted by the employers to the Indiana
commission and turned over to this Bureau for tabulation and
summarization, 68 were not used— 54 because the data were insuffi­
cient or incapable of tabulation, and 14 because they were received
1 The Indiana Commission on Working Women is charged by the law with the duty of holding public
hearings in at least 10 cities of the State.

188



WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA----APPENDIX.

189

from employers too late to be included in the statistical computa­
tions. Of the remaining 189, all gave information as to working
hours, though some were deficient in minor particulars. One hun­
dred and twenty-nine of the 189 firms submitted available informa­
tion concerning earnings.
These 189 firms, covering 38 industries, employed 11,186 women
and girls. The last Census of Manufacturers 1 reports an average
of approximately 23,000 women engaged in manufacturing indus­
tries in Indiana. About 6,500 of these are employed in the garment
factories which were investigated by the Federal agencies named.
The 11,000 women employed by the 189 firms submitting available
schedules constitute therefore about 66.7 per cent of the 16,500
women employed in all other manufacturing industries according
to the Census of Manufactures.
Twenty-nine of the 38 industries, represented by from 2 to 29
establishments, have been separately listed in the following tables.
The other 9, represented by 12 establishments and employing but
449 women, are combined under the classification of “ miscella­
neous.” The footnote to the table indicates just what was included
under this head.
The industries employing the largest number of women are the
confectionery, bakery products, electrical supplies and apparatus,
woolen goods, paper boxes, cotton textiles, chains, nuts and bolts,
files and castings, pharmaceutical supplies, glass and glassware,
cigars and tobacco, and hosiery and knit goods. Each of these
industries employs over 400 women, cigars and tobacco and hosiery
and knit goods each employing over 1,900 women.
W ORKING HOURS.

Briefly summarized the following table shows that over half of
the 189 establishments report weekly working hours of under 55
for the major part of the year. These firms employ less than a
third of the women at work in the 38 industries. Nearly 27 per
cent of the firms, employing 12.3 per cent of the women, report an
overtime period. The prevailing hours during this period for 25
of the 50 establishments reporting overtime were from 55 to 64 and
a fraction per week. (Though this table shows the hours by groups,
it it of interest to know that the majority of the establishments
affected by these groups were working either a straight 55 or 60 hour
schedule.) The 25 establishments reporting these hours employed
more than half of the 1,333 women at work in the 50 establishments
reporting an overtime period.




i Volume I X , page 307.

190

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

No attempt has been made to state the exact duration of the
seasons (except for the overtime hours) as the reports, of the estab­
lishments in many cases were not exact in this particular, often
reporting seasons in such general terms as “ a greater part of the
year,” “ a few weeks,” “ during the summer,” etc.
Normal Season.

A more detailed study of the table below will show that all of the
189 firms report a normal season—i. e., a period when business
was neither sharply busy nor markedly dull; that the hours during
this period, for 54 per cent of the establishments, were under 55;
and that these establishments employed approximately 28 per cent
of all the women workers. It shows that over half of the women
were employed in nearly one-third of the establishments where the
hours during the normal season ranged from 55 to 59 and a fraction.
The maximum hours for this season were under 65; the minimum 42.
Dull Season.

Forty-nine or a little more than a fourth of the firms, employing
28 per cent of the women, reported a dull season during which, as
might be expected, the proportion of firms and individuals affected
by working hours under 55 was increased, two-thirds of the firms
which reported dull season and 40.6 per cent of the women employed
by such firms working under 55 hours per week.
Overtime Season. 1

Only about 27 per cent of the firms, employing 12.3 per cent of the
women workers, reported an “ overtime season.” The effect of the
increased business is evident in the complete disappearance from
the table of the 48 or less than 48 hour schedule during the overtime
season. Furthermore, only 8 per cent of the 50 firms reporting such
a season worked under 55 hours a week, and these firms employed
but 5.2 per cent of the 1,333 women affected by the overtime period.
The maximum working hours for this season were 75{ a week,
reported by one firm employing 40 women.
i It was not possible to separate overtime hours, as reported by employers, from the regular busy season
hours, the replies frequently treating overtime and busy season hours as the same.




191

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA— APPENDIX.

T able 74.—SUM M AR Y OF W O R K IN G HOURS OF W OM EN EM PLO YED IN 38 IN D U STR IES
IN IN D IA N A .
[The laws of Indiana limit the hours of children to 48 per week and 8 per day, unless the consent of the
parents is secured. Girls who were working in establishments reporting prevailing hours of more than
48 have been excluded from the number working specified hours in the normal season.]

Establish­
ments
reporting.

Average weekly hours.

[

Dull season.

Normal season.

Establish­
ments
reporting.

Women
affected.

Overtime season.

Women
affected.

| Establish­
ments
reporting.

Women
affected.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber: cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
42 to 48...................................
Over 48 and under 55.........
Over 55 and under 60.........
Over 60 and under 65.........
Over 65 and under 70.........
Over 70 and under 75.........
75*.........................................
Not reported........................
Total...........................

47
55
60
27

24.9
29.1
31.7
14.3

819
2,294
6,245
1,624

18
15
13
3

7.4
20.9
56.9
14.8

189 100.0 10,982 100.0

j

520
36.8
720
30.6
26.5 1,792
18
6.1

17.0
23.6
58.8
.6

49

26.3 3,050

28.1

4
8
117
7
2
1
11
50

69
285
449
195
58
40
237

5.2
21.4
33.7
14.6
4.3
3.0
17.8

26.9 1,333

12.3

8.0
16.0
34.0
14.0
4.0
2.0
22.0

i One establishment employing 150 women did not report the number working overtime hours.

Working Hours, by Industries.

The foregoing table shows the working hours for the 38 industries
collectively. It does not show what hours prevail in any given
industry. The hours, which on the preceding table are shown to
effect a minority of all the women employed in the 38 industries,
might nevertheless be the prevailing hours in a single industry which
employed more women than any other of the 38.
The table below shows the working hours which prevail in each
industry in the normal, dull, and overtime seasons. The hours here
set forth are (1) the regular hours which affected the greatest number
of women; (2) the shortest regular hours and the longest regular
hours reported in each industry, together with the number of estab­
lishments and women concerned; (3) the weekly hours affecting the
greatest number during the dull season; (4) the maximum duration
of the overtime season in each industry, the hours affecting the
greatest number, and the maximum weekly hours.
The significance of this table lies in the fact that the hours entered
thereon affect not less than half of all the women workers in any
industry separately listed, and more than three-fourths of the women
in all the 38 industries. With the exception of three of the industries
separately listed, more than half of all the establishments in each
industry are affected by the hours shown on the table, the total
number so affected being approximately three-fourths of all the 189
firms reporting. The three exceptions, aside from the nine industries
classed as miscellaneous 1 and employing but 449 women altogether,
1 Industries represented by one establishment only or employing fewer than 25 women, were not
separately listed.




192

B U L L E T IN

OF

THE

BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S .

were those manufacturing glassware, cigars and tobacco, and the
manufacturing establishments where women were reported as work­
ing in the office only.
In the manufacture of glass and glassware three of the seven firms
had their running hours shown on the table. A third of the 15 cigar
and tobacco firms (employing, however, an overwhelming majority
of the women workers) were affected by the hours shown, as were
also 5 of the 14 firms employing women in the office only. It should
be noted also that 5 of the 12 establishments representing the nine
industries classed as miscellaneous were running the hours shown on
the table.
This summary by industries, therefore, shows with no important
exceptions, what hours were worked by the majority of establish­
ments employing a majority of the women in each industry.
The striking features of the table are:
1. The regular weekly hours affecting the greatest number of women
during the normal season range from 42 in the telephone industry to
60 in the establishments manufacturing woolen or cotton textiles, in
those manufacturing furniture, and in the glass and glassware
factories.
2. That 4,700 women, constituting a majority of those listed in
this section of the table, were working from 55 to 59 and a fraction
hours a week; but over 3,200 of these were in 6 establishments,
representing but two industries, viz, cigars and tobacco, and hosiery
and knit goods.
3. That the weekly hours which affected the greatest number of
women during the normal season in 14 of the 29 industries separately
listed, and in at least one of those classed as miscellaneous, are under
55. Though constituting half of the industries, these industries
employed, all told, fewer than 3,000 women, and approximately
1,800 of the 3,000 worked these hours.
4. That the maximum regular hours shown on the table for the
normal season were 60, barring the night shift in the telephone
service, and are reported by 14 of the 29 industries separately listed
and by at least one of those classed as miscellaneous. Only 1,600
women, approximately, are affected by these hours.
5. That 122 of the firms, representing all but three of the industries
separately listed, and 9 of the 12 establishments classed together as
miscellaneous, reported one short day in the week. This is important
in interpreting correctly the distributing of the usual weekly hours.
For example: A 54-hour week would not mean a 9-hour day if there
was one short day in the week.
6. That overtime was reported in 20 of the industries separately
listed and in at least one of the industries classed as miscellaneous,
though only 50 of the 189 firms were involved in the overtime work.



193

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA— APPENDIX.

The longest hours worked during this overtime period were 73 a week
and 14 a day.
T a b l e 7 5 . — W O R K IN G HO URS OF W OM EN IN 38 IN D U STR IES IN IN D IA N A .

Regular hours.
Women em­
ployed.

Industries.

Estab­
lish­
ments
report­
ing.

Confectionery and
bakery products...
Electric apparatus
and supplies..........
Woolen goods...........
Printing and pub­
lishing....................
Musical instruments.
Telephone service
companies.............
Paper ooxes..............
Cotton textiles.........
Tin plate and can;. .
Chains, bolts, nuts,
files, castings, etc*
Pharmaceuticals— 1
Millinery....................
Miscellaneous indus­
tries 3......................
Bags, paper and bur­
lap............................
Vehicles......................
Paper..........................
Furniture...................
Undertakers' sup­
plies........................
Glass and glassware.
E n a m e le d an d
stamped ware........
Baskets.................... .
M a t t r e s s e s and
Cigars and tobacco..
Hosiery and knit
goods..................... .
Clerical work in
manufacturing es­
tablishments.........
Coffee, spices, and
miscellaneous gro­
ceries .......................
Insulated wire and
rubber.....................
Tile..............................
Pottery......................
Agricultural imple­
ments......................

10

Normal season.
Hours affecting greatest
number of women.

Minimum hours.

Estab­
Estab­
lish­
lish­
Maxi­
mum in Week­ ments Women
ments Women
affect­ Daily.1 Week­
affect­
run­
run­
one es­
Total.
ly.
ly*
ning on ed.
ning on ed.
tablish­
ment.
sched­
sched­
ule.
ule.

430

94

59

2

150

9

52*

1

16

703
632

347
463

55
60

3
3

626
550

10|

471
58|

1
1

15
69

224
39

28
20

48
48

15
1

147
20

8
8

42
48

1
1

4
20

173 i
438 j
597
268 ,
I

74
187
180
150

42
56
60
55

2
1
2
1

92
187
300
150

(2
)
9
9
9

42
50
53
50

1
1
1

92
56
94
58

451
494
179

120
350
76

55
52*
53

2
1
3

127
350
146

9*
•8
8

52*
48
44

1
1

120
96
19

449

175

54

2

182

9

50

1

35

282
144
152 !
25 |

200
60
60
17

54
50
54
60

1
5
2
2

200
96
62
25

n
8
9
10

54
45
54
60

1
1

200
5
62
25

38 j
424 i

18
180

56*
60

1
2

18
260

9*
81

54
51

1
1

4
9

226 !
152 ;

196
70

53
58*

1
1

196
70

9
9

53
50

1
1

196
22

50
58

1
2

23
1,487

8
8

44
44

1

3
97

55

4

1,731

10

55

4

1,731

114

46*

3

123

43

1

14

54

2

23

55*
55
53

1
1
1

52
102
57

45

1

112

23
58 |
1,377
1,1“ !
l
1,916 ; 1,313
248 j
49 !
77
202
61

52
102 i
57

134

122

7i
9
10
(4
)
7§
8

50

1

12

55
50
46

1
1
1

25
100
4

45

1

112

1 Daily hours here reported are those occurring in a the establishments reporting the specified minimum
and maximum weekly hours.
2 In 1 establishment, 6 hours per day for 7 days; in the other, 9 and 5 hours per day, alternating, for 6 days.
Includes mica, asbestos, watch movements, table silverware, polish, brooms hames wooden boxes.
baby carriages, and children’s vehicles.
’
’
*
*
*
< Not reported.

66172°—Bull. 160—14------13




194
table

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
7 5 .—‘W O R K ING HOURS OF W O M EN IN 38 INDU STR IES IN IN D IA N A —Concluded.
Regular hours.

Overtime season.

Normal season.

Dull season.
Maximum
hours.
Hours
affect­
ing
great­
est
num­
ber of
wo­ Dai­ Week­
ly.
men. ly.

Maximum hours.
Industries.

Hours Estab­ Maxi­
Estab­ Estab­ affect­ lish­ mum
Estab­
ing ments dura­
lish­
lish­
lish­ great­ report­ tion in
Wo- ments
ments men having ments
est
ing. weeks.
report­ num­
Dai­ Week­ run­
af­ short
ning
ly.
ing. ber of
ly.1
fect­ day.
Oil
wo­
ed.
sched­
men.
ule.

Confectionery and
bakery products... 10
Electric apparatus
10
(2
)
Printing and pub1ishing..................... 10
Musical instruments. 10
Telephone service
companies.............
9
P&oer boxes.............. 101
Cott on textiles.......... (6)
Tin plate and cans.. 10
Chiins, bolts, nuts,
files, castings, etc.. 10
Pharmaceuticals----- 10
9
Millinery....................
Miscellaneous indus­
tries 8....................... (9)
Bags, paper and bur­
ial)............................ 10
Vehicles......... ........... m
Paper.......................... 10
Furniture................... 10
Undertakers' sup­
plies ......................... 10
Glass and glassware. 10
E n a m e l e d and
stamped ware........ 10
Baskets...................... 10
M a t t r e s s e s and
springs.................... 10
Chars and tobacco.. 10
Hosiery and knit
goods....................... 10*
Clerical work in
manufacturing es­
tablishments.........
9*
ColTee, snices, and
miscellaneous gro­
ceries ....................... 9*
Insulated wire and
rubber..................... 10
Tile.............................. 10
Pottery....................... 9
Agricultural imple­
ments...................... ; 9

60

3

148

7

4

50

6

21

73

14

73

60
60

1
3

4
550

6
3

3

59

3
2

13

6?J
70“

m
13f

71*
70

60
60

1
1

5
6

18
1

48
60

10
1

37
6

6H
68*

12
17;

68?.
68*

3 63
60
C
O
60

1
4
2
1

46
117
300
C
O

4
4
2

3

55

1

45

2
4
1
2

4 52
10
2
‘>13

.5
)
64
60
if
66*
64 ji s

68
67*
66*
64

60
58
53

2
1
3

88
13
146

6
3
3

2
1
3

50
50*
44

1
2
3

H2|
11
Ilf

-63|
63
62*

60

2

28

9

5

55

2

55
60
C
O
C
O

2
1
2
2

79
5
30
25

3
8
1

1
4

55
45

1
3
1

60
60

1
2

3
260

3
4

1
1

53
55

59
59

1
1

30
18

2
4

1

45

59
58

1
15
2 1,487

5
15

2
4

50
»55

58

1

93

6

1

58

57

1

4

9 ;

1

46* !

56

1

14

1

55*
55
53

1
1
1

52
102
57

2
»1
1

50

1

12

2

48

1

1
j

!
!
i
j

i

4
12
17 !

m

13 ! 60
(10)
61
301 59
(ll)

2
1

26
8

60
(10)

10*

62

1Q
lo
10

01
60

10

5 60

12
j

52£

58

10*

58

12

1

9*

25

1

52*

52*

9*

b%
2

1
1
|
i

45

' i
!
1

..... j________

1 Daily hours here reported are those occurring in the establishments reporting the specified minimum
and maximum weekly hours.
2 Hours were 1 0,10&, and 10$, respectively, for the 3 establishments.
3 Hours for night shift.
4 Overtime occurs throughout year, but affects only a few at a time and does not fall continuously on
same girls.
6 One establishment did not report.
• Hours were 10J and 10f, respectively, for the 2 establishments.
.
7 One establishment worked 3 hours overtime for 12 nights, the number of nights per week not being
reported.
8 Includes mica, asbestos, watch movements, table silverware, polish, brooms, hames, wooden boxes,
baby carriages, and children’s vehicles.
9 Hours were 10 and 10$, respectively, for tha 2 establishments.
1 Not reported.
0
was not reported16 ^ 4° women during year was 1,483 hours, but the number of hours per night or per week




WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA----APPENDIX.

195

EARNINGS.

The 131 establishments reporting average weekly earnings in a form
permitting of statistical treatment employed 62 per cent of the total
number of women employed by the 189 firms. They represent 33 of
the 38 industries, the other five industries employing fewer than 500
women.
The average weekly earnings for the 6,891 women and girls during a
representative week in the 33 industries were $7.19. These earnings
include the wages of nearly 200 children, as the table shows. To
what extent the minors have depressed the general average earnings
can easily be computed from the table. Taking out the minors and
the amount they earned from the totals reveals the general average
weekly earnings of adult women to be $7.27— a difference of but 8
cents. As the earnings of the minors appear to be an insignificant
factor, they may be disregarded in this discussion of the general aver­
age for all female workers. The table shows that the average earnings
ranged from $4.87 in the manufacture of undertakers* supplies, where
38 females were involved, to $11.50 in the straw stitching branch of the
millinery trade, where 50 women and girls were affected.
There is in this table nothing to indicate what the effect of lost time
is on these earnings, and since the earnings include those of all women
on the payroll for the specified week, they include the earnings of a
number of women who did not work full time. This question was
carefully treated in the report on earnings in the garment industries,
and a study of the results found there (p. 76) will show that deductions
there due to lost time averaged about 10 per cent. Whether or not
there is more or less lost time in these industries than in the garment
industry, can not be stated, but it should be noted that these indus­
tries, like the garment industry, reported the earnings for a repre­
sentative week, when business was supposed to. be at its normal level.




196

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T able 7**.—AVERAGE W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF W O M EN IN 33 IN DUSTRIES IN IN D IANA .

Women paid at piece rate.

Industries.

Confectionery and bakery products___
Electric apparatus and supplies............
Woolen goods............................................
Musical instruments................................
Telephone service companies.................
Paper boxes...............................................
Cotton textiles...........................................
Tin plate and <wis______................... .
Chains, bolts, nuts, files, castings, etc..
Pharmaceuticals.......................................
Miilinerv, straw stitching.......................
Miscellaneous *..........................................
Bags, naner and burlap............................
Vehiefes;...................................................
PaDer..........................................................
Undertakers’ supplies.............................
Glass and glassware.................................
Enameled and stamped ware.................
Baskets................................................; . . .
Mattresses and springs............................
Cigars and tobacco...................................
Hosiery and knit goods...........................
Clerk al work in manufacturing estab­
lishments................................................
Coffee, spices, and miscellaneous gro­
ceries........................................................
Tile..............................................................
Pottery.......................................................
Total.................................................

Women paid at time rate.

1
| 16 years
Under 16
16 years
Under 16
EsEsand over.
years.
and over.
years.
tabtablish- !
lishmcnts
Av­
Av­ menfc,
Av­
re­ Num­ Av­
re­ ^um ­ erage Num­ erage
erage Num­ erage
port­
ber. earn­ ber. earn­ port­ ber. earn­ ber. earn­
ing.
ings.
ings. ing.
ings.
ings.
1
1
2
2
1

14 14.36
232 8.19
54 7. £6
6 5 8°
2 9.57

29 8.39
5
371 7.40
14
112 9.23 . . . . . .
219 6.88
98 8.52
34 12.05
73 10. 70
24 7.80
22 9.96

2
35
2
208
2
46
2
27
4 1,433
2
644

3
2
1

7.4*
7.21
5.37
8.01
7. 85
7.00

29
113
40

6 78
<
6.48
6.98

3,865

7.69

5.71
3.78
5.64

8
8

5. 73
3.73

84

4.58

1

4.00

125. 4.60

4
2
1
17
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
2
3
3
4
2
3
3
1
1
3
5
1

81 $5.36
50 9.04
3 $4.02
25 6.02
1
166 7.57
4.65
20 7.10
142 6.04
8
28 4.88
4.34
12
118 5.84
3.23
39 8.02
13 5.86
2
75 7.42
3.00
16 10.31
5
6.11
10 8.48
50 5.40
4.64
4
11 8.04
3
47 5.73
4.75
38 4.87
86 4.84 *’ io
3.70
6 4.97
*4 ’ 3*54
6 '7*67*
232 4.05
4
17 3.89
2.84

25

1
3
2
4
2
2
' 2
2
1

1 $6.00

313 10.24
9
57
4

7.83
5.90
6.00

99 1,659

6.78

2
2
1

56

3.96

i Includes insulated wire, watch movements, wooden boxes, asbestos, children's vehicles, silverware,
and polish.




197

WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN INDIANA— APPENDIX.

T a b l e 7 6 .—A V E R A G E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF W O M EN IN 33 IN D U STR IES IN IN D IA N A —

Concluded.
Women paid at piece Manner of payment
and time rate in­
not reported '
terchangeably.

Industries.

Total.

Women 16
16 years and
years and
Es­
EsEsover.
over.
tab­
tab- Num­ Aver­
tablishber
age
lishlishof
earn­
ments
ments
ments
Aver­
Aver­
re­
wom­ ings.
re­
re­
age
port­
en.
age
port­ Num­
port­ Num­
earn­ ing.x
ber.
ber.
earn­
ing.
ing.
ings.
ings.

Confectionery and bakery products.. .
Electric apparatus and supplies......... .
Woolen goods............................................
Printing and publishing........................
Musical instruments...............................
Telephone service companies...............
Paper boxes..............................................
Cotton textiles..........................................
Tin plate and cans...................................
Chains, bolts, nuts, files, castings, etc..
Pharmaceuticals......................................
Millinery, straw stitching......................
Miscellaneous2.........................................
Bags, paper and burlap..........................
Vehicles......................................... ...........
Paper..........................................................
Undertakers’ supplies.............................
Glass and glassware................................
Enameled and stamped ware................
Baskets......................................................
Mattresses and springs...........................
Cigars and tobacco..................................
Hosiery and knit goods..........................
Clerical work in manufacturing estab­
lishments...............................................
Coffee, spices, and miscellaneous gro­
ceries......................................................
Tile.............................................................
Pottery.......................................................
Total..............................................

13.50

1
2
1
2

35
48
62
17

$6.25
6.29
8.41
12.02

1
5
16
42
174

5.75
8.43
5.51
6.25
7.09

1
1

87
22

7.53
5.15

1
27

11.65
6.48

3

121

6.68

1

5

5.85

1

9

6.16

2
1

101
174

6.19
7.39

70
22

$5.16
6.89

1

1

1
1
1
1
1
1
2

1
1

108
13

3.98
4.50

1

25

5.50

15

505

5.88

16

681

7.08

200
352
145
191
22
142
71
520
167
365
371
50
210
105
38
50
38
140
222
58
33
1,874
936

$5.38
7.97
7.57
7.93
7.32
6.04
6.33
6.91
8.59
6.91
7.40
11.50
8.04
6.20
8.86
5.67
4.87
5.50
7.57
5.01
7.95
7.07
6.75

313

10.24

3
2
2

.

6
5
3
20
2
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
7
3
5
2
3
4
2
2
3
9
3
25

1
2

39
195
44

6.95
6.18
6.89

131

6,891

7.19

1 This total does not always agree with the sum of the preceding columns because some establishments
reported both piece and time workers.
2 Includes insulated wire, watch movements, wooden boxes, asbestos, children’s vehicles, silverware,
and polish.

The table below shows the number of industries and establishments
in which the average earnings of the women employed fell within the
specified wage groups:
table 7 7 .—CLASSIFIED AVE R A G E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S, AS SHOW N IN 33 IN DIANA
INDUSTRIES, W IT H THE NUM BER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AN D W OM EN R E P R E ­
SENTED.
Industries report­
ing.

Establishments
represented.

Women repre­
sented.

Average weekly earnings.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
$4.00 tp $4.99......................................................
$5.00 to $5.99......................................................
$6.00 to $6.99......................................^..............
$7.00 to $7.99......................................................
$8.00 to $8.99......................................................
$10.00 and over..................................................

1
4
9
8
3
2

3.7
14.8
33.3
29.7
11.1
7.4

3
14
26
47
14
27

2.3
10.7
19.8
35.9
10.7
20.6

38
.448
2,417
3,210
415
363

0.5
6.5
35.1
46.6
6.0
5.3

Total........................................................

l 27

100.0

131

100.0

6,891

100.0

i The miscellaneous group, containing seven separate industries, has been counted as one.




198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

The largest number of industries (9) fell within the group whose
average earnings were from $6 to $6.99. This group contains the
telephone, cotton textiles, hosiery and knit goods industries, and
the firms manufacturing paper boxes, bags, tile, pottery, chains,
bolts, castings, etc., and miscellaneous groceries. This group, how­
ever, does not represent the greatest number of establishments or
the greatest number of women. Both of these come in the next
group, the average earnings of which were from $7 to $7.99. Eight
industries, representing practically 36 per cent of the establishments
and 46.6 per cent of all the women, are in this group. These in­
cluded some of the largest employers of women, such as the cigar
and tobacco industry, woolen goods, establishments manufacturing
electrical apparatus and supplies, and pharmaceuticals.
Sixty-three per cent of the industries, 55.7 per cent of the estab­
lishments, and 81.7 per cent of the women, are found in the groups
earning from $6 to $7.99. Just where the industries which make
up the remaining per cents will come, may easily be found by a study
of the two tables.
It should be borne in mind that these are the average earnings, not
for the women considered as individuals, but the average earnings
for all women in each separate industry.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102