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BICENTENNIAL EDITION

HISTORICAL
STATISTICS
of the United States
COLONIAL TIMES TO 1970
PART 1

U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e
R o g e r s C. B. M o r t o n , Secretary
James L. Pate, Assistant Secretary
for Economic Affairs
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Vincent P. Barabba, Director

U.S. Department of Commerce
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Historical Statistics of the United States,
Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition
Correction Sheet
February 1977

Page

Year

399

| 1970
1 1969

Now reads
(Incorrect)

Series
H 872

/ 6,200

Shoud read
(Correct)
10,642
8,422

1 5,422

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

33.1
32.1
29.0
27.3
28.1

33.1
32.1
29.0
27.3
28.1

68.5
63.2
61.1
57.5
54.7

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

490

68.5
63.2
61.1
57.5
54.7
52.1
51.2
48.9
46.9
45.1

25.5
23.4
22.6
22.4
22.0

25.5
23.4
22.6
22.4
22.0

52.1
51.2
48.9
46.9
45.1

44.2
42.2
39.5
37.9
36.3
34.4

21.7
20.9
21.5
20.4
19.2
18.7

21.7
20.9
21.5
20.4
19.2
18.7

44.2
42.2
39.5
37.9
36.3
34.4

32.3
31.5
30.5
28.7
26.0

18.8
19.5
20.4
20.5
18.0

18.8
19.5
20.4
20.5
18.0

32.3
31.5
30.5
28.7
26.0

26.0
24.9
V 22.6

17.4
19.9
19.3

17.4
19.9
19.3

26.0
24.9
22.6

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955

K 3 5 9 ; K 360

1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
V. 1947 2

J Year: 1961
^ Year: 1921

U 274-U 2 8 0
f

11771178




1861
1821

Column Headings
Z 227 2 2 3 3 Z
Z 229 Z 235 Z
Z 231 Z 2 3 7 Z

for: '
239
241
243

Exports

Imports

Column Headings
Z 228 Z 234 Z
Z 230 Z 236 Z
Z 232 Z 238 Z

for:
240
242
244

I mports

Exports

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Vincent P. Barabba, Director
Robert L. Hagan, Deputy Director
James W. Turbitt, Associate Director for Field
Operations and User Services
DATA USER SERVICES DIVISION
Michael G. Garland, Chief

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Preparation of this edition was
under the direction of
William Lerner
Chief, Statistical Compendia Staff

The bicentennial edition of Historical Statistics of the United
States is the third in the series of volumes inaugurated in 1949.
In both form and content, the bicentennial edition has drawn
heavily from, and built upon, the two prior editions. Both the
first volume, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789 to
1945, issued in 1949, and the second volume. Historical
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, issued
in 1960, were prepared by the Bureau of the Census with the
cooperation of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC).
Although the SSRC did not participate in the preparation of
the bicentennial edition, its cooperation in the first two
volumes was invaluable in establishing those volumes as the
basis for continuing work in the field of historical statistics.
Similarly, the many individuals and agencies who made
important and distinctive contributions to the first two
volumes were instrumental in the preparation of the present
one. Immediately following the table of contents, therefore,
are reprinted the "official roster and credits" pages from the
first two volumes. Also, incorporated within the "Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions," under the title of each
edition, are the credits to contributors as they appeared in the
first two volumes.

of manuscript for the printer. The Census Library, Dorothy
W. Kaufman, Chief, also lent valuable assistance.
The cooperation of the many contributors to this volume and
to the prior editions is gratefully acknowledged. Following the
practice established by the prior editions, every data series
shown in this volume is, to the extent possible, specifically
identified by source as to issuing agency and/or individual
author, publication title, publisher, and date of issue.
Frequently all five items are shown; frequently additional
information is given.
Except for material specified in source citations as
"copyright," the tables and text in this volume may be
reproduced at will. Appropriate reference to this volume (see
citation below) for material reproduced would be appreciated
since it may be helpful to users of such material. Permission to
reproduce copyrighted material should be obtained directly
from the copyright owner.
September 1975
For Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data, see p. A-32.

Analytical review and editing of text tables was primarily
the responsibility of Helen E. Teir, Assistant Chief, Statistical
Compendia Staff, Data User Services Division. During the
period January 1972 to June 1973, Elma D. Beynon was primarily responsible for obtaining the cooperation and assistance
of the many subject consultants and for immediate supervision
of compilation operations. Suzanne L. Worth assisted Mrs.
Beynon and, from July 1973 to November 1974, was responsible for working with consultants and for supervision
of the technical and clerical staff. Alma L. Butler, assisted by
Kay Swenson, was responsible for final editing and preparation



Suggested Citation
U.S. Bureau of the Census
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970,
Bicentennial Edition, Part 2
Washington, D.C., 1975
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 2 0 4 0 2
Price $ 2 6 per 2 part set (Sold only in sets)
Stock Number

003-024-00120-9




Contents of Parts t and 2
Part

1
Page

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions.
Introduction

viii
xi

CHAPTER
A. Population
B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care--C. Migration
I). Labor
E. Prices and Price Indexes
..
F. National Income and Wealth „
G. Consumer Income and Expenditures
H. Social Statistics
J. Land, Water, and Climate
K. Agriculture
L. Forestry and Fisheries
M. Minerals

1
44
8?
121
183
215
284
332
423
449
526
564

Appendix: Contributors to This Edition.^
Time Period Index
Subject Index

A-l
A-4
A-10

Part 2
Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions--Introduction

viii
xi

CHAPTER
N. Construction and Housing
610
P. Manufactures
652
Q. Transportation
703
E. Communications
775
S, Energy
811
T. Distribution and Services
834
0, International Transactions and Foreign
Commerce
858
V, Business Enterprise
908
W. Productivity and Technological Development- - _ 943
X. Financial Markets and Institutions
968
Y. Government
1067
Z. Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics
1152
Appendix: Contributors to This Edition
Time Period Index
Subject Index

A-l
A-4
A-10

Part 1 — Detailed Contents
[Numbers in parentheses following subjects are series numbers]

Chapter

Page

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions
Introduction
A.

B.

Population
Area and population (A 1-22)—Sex, race, and age
(A 23-42 and A 91-104)—Urban and rural places
and population (A 43-90)—Nativity (A 105-142)—
Median age (A 143-159)—Marital status (A 160171)—Regions (A 172-194)—States (A 195-209)—
Land area of States and territories (A 210-263)—
Standard metropolitan statistical areas (A 264287)—Households and families (A 288-358)—Inmates of institutions (A 359-371).

viii
xi
1

Chapter
E. Prices and Price Indexes
Price deflators for gross national product (E 1-22)—
Wholesale price indexes (E 23-122)—Wholesale
prices of selected commodities (E 123-134)—Consumer price indexes (E 135-182)—Cost-of-living indexes (E 183-186)—Retail prices of selected foods
(E 187-202)—Rfetail price indexes of electricity,
gas, and fuel (E 203-213)—Rent indexes (E 214).
F.

44

65

Health care expenditures and price indexes (B 221274)—Physicians, dentists, nurses, and medical,
dental, and nursing schools (B 275-290)—Reportable disease rates (B 291-304)—Hospitals and
beds (B 305-358)—Hospital admissions and use
(B 359-388)—Hospital expense, insurance, finances, and personnel (B 389-422)—Mental hospitals
(B 423-443)—Food consumption indexes (B 444452)—Fluoridation of water systems (B 453-459).
C.

NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING

87

Native population (C 1-24)—Intercensal migration (C 25-75)—Farm population (C 76-80)—
Mobility status and type (C 81-88).
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OP THE U.S. ECONOMY

D.

G.

121

Components (D 1-10)—Status of population
(D 11-25)—Gainful workers, by sex, by State (D
26-28)—Labor force, by age and sex (D 29-41)—
Percent of noninstitutional population (D 42-48)—
Female labor force (D 49-74)—Gainful workers, by
age, sex, and occupation (D 75-84)—Unemployment (D 85-115)—Employment, by hours and
major industry (D 116-151 and D 167-181)—Industrial distribution of workers (D 152-166)—
Major occupation groups, by sex and detailed
occupation (D 182-682).
EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

Output, man-hours, compensation, and labor cost
indexes (D 683-704)—Average earnings of selected
workers (D 705-793)—Earnings and hours in selected industries (D 794-892)—Wage supplements
(D 893-912)—Earnings in selected occupations
(D 913-926)—Labor union membership (D 927969)—Work
stoppages
(D 970-1021)—Labor
turnover (D 1022-1028)—Work-injury frequency
rates (D 1029-1036).

IV




Consumer Income and Expenditures
FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME

Labor
LABOR FORCE

146

268

Value of input-output transactions, by industry (F
668-696)—Direct requirements per dollar of gross
output (F 697-719)—Industrial composition per
dollar of purchases, by final demand categories (F
720-723).

97

Immigrants by country, occupation, and age (C 89142)—Annual quota, and aliens admitted, deported,
and naturalized (C 143-180)—Citizenship status
(C 181-194)—Population, by country of origin
(C 195-295)—Passenger arrivals and departures
(C 296-331).

246

National assets (F 349-376)—National balance
sheet (F 377-421)—National wealth (F 422-469)—
Private capital stocks (F 470-479)—Nonresidential
business capital (F 480-527)—Residential capital
(F 528-534)—Value of structures and equipment
(F 535-539)—National saving (F 540-551)—
Sources and uses of gross saving (F 552-565)—Individual and personal saving (F 566-667).

Migration
INTERNAL MIGRATION

215

Gross and net national product and personal income (F 1-9)—Growth rates of gross national product and output per employee (F 10-16 and F 31)—
Per capita income and product for selected items
(F 17-30)—Gross and net national product in
current and constant prices (F 32-143)—Relation
of national product, income, and saving (F 144162)—National income, by type (F 163-191)—
National income, by sector and legal form of organization (F 192-209)—Distribution of aggregate
payments (F 210-225)—National income, by industrial origin (F 226-237)—Value added by selected
industries, and value of output of fixed capital (F
238-249)—National income and persons engaged
in production (F 250-261)—Personal income and
outlay (F 262-296)—Personal income, by States
(F 297-348).

Live births, deaths, marriages, and divorces (B 1-4)
—Birth and reproduction rates (B 5-41)—Fertility trends (B 42-106)—Life expectancy (B 107135)—Death rates (B 136-213)—Marriage and
divorce rates (B 214-220).
HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

National Income and Wealth
NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME

Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care
VITAL STATISTICS

Page
183

284

Distribution of families and unrelated individuals,
by income levels (G 1-30)—Distribution of income
of families and unrelated individuals ranked by
fifths according to income received (G 31-138)—
Distribution of families ranked by fifths according
to income received (G 139-178)—Number and median money income of families and unrelated individuals (G 179-256)—Distribution of individuals,
families, and income, by income levels (G 257-305)
—Number and size of families, number of unattached individuals, and family income before and
after Federal income tax (G 306-318)—Family
income received by each fifth and top 5 percent of
families and individuals (G 319-336)—Shares of
selected incomes received by top 1 percent and 5
percent of population (G 337-352)—Median money
wage or salary income for specified recipients (G
353-415).
CONSUMER EXPENDITURE PATTERNS

Personal consumption expenditures, by type of
product (G 416-494)—Expenditures of city wage
and clerical families of 2 or more persons (G 495601)—Expenditures of all families of 2 or more
persons in cities of 2,500 and over (G 602-696)—
Expenditures of farm families (G 697-797)—

306

DETAILED CONTENTS
Chapter

Page
Expenditures of families and single consumers combined (G 798-848)—Food marketings and consumption indexes, and nutrients available (G 849856)—Nutritive value of city diets (G 857-865)—
Food used at home, and per capita consumption
(G 866-915).

H.

Chapter
K. Agriculture
FARMS

332

Welfare expenditures under public programs (H
1-47)—Workers and payrolls, benefits and beneficiaries, under social insurance and related programs (H 48-171)—Old-age, survivors, disability,
and health insurance, and insurance trust fund (H
172-259)—Civil service and railroad retirement (H
260-286)—Private pension and deferred profitsharing plans (H 287-304)—Unemployment insurance and workmen's compensation (H 305-345)
—Public and old-age assistance (H 346-381)—
Child health and welfare services (H 382-391)—
Vocational rehabilitation (H 392-397)—Private
philanthropy (H 398-411).
EDUCATION

AGRICULTURAL INCOME AND FINANCES

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

FARM PRODUCTIVITY

CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

L.

FISHERIES

423

CLIMATE

Temperature, precipitation, and description of year
for climatological stations (J 110-247)—Temperature and precipitation for long-record city stations
(J 248-267)—Tornadoes, floods, and tropical
cyclones (J 268-278).




435

549

Yield and value (L 224-235)—Quantity and value
of landed catches (L 236-253)—Employment,
fishing craft, and establishments (L 254-261)—
Landed catches of principal species <L 262-293)—
Consumption of products (L 294-304)—Disposition of catch, production and imports, and sponge
sales (L 305-320)—Prices received by fishermen
(L 321-337)—Production and value of processed
fishery products (L 338-368)—Sealskins obtained
and whale production (L 369-370).

407

Territorial expansion and public domain (J 1-7)—
Vacant lands and disposal of public lands (J 8-15)—
Indian lands (J 16-19)—Public land sales and
grants (J 20-25)—Revenues from public land (J 2632)—Grazing on national forest and public-domain
lands (J 33-40)—Oil and gas leases of publicdomain lands (J 41-49)—Land utilization and
ownership (J 50-80)—Land drainage and irrigation
(J 81-91)—Water use and water wells (J 92-109).

526

Forest land and timber (L 1-9)—National forest
system areas, timber cut, receipts, and payments
(L 10-31)—Tree distribution and management
programs (L 32-43)—Fire control expenditures,
forest fires, and burned areas (L 44-55)—Raw
materials and timber production, trade, and consumption (L 56-97)—Lumber production and consumption, and trade in lumber and logs (L 98-150)—
Plywood, pulpwood, woodpulp, paper and board,
turpentine, and rosin (L 151-191)—Newsprint,
summary (L 192-197)—Forest product prices and
price indexes (L 198-211)—Earnings in timberbased industries (L 212-223).

393

Land, Water, and Climate
LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION

Forestry and Fisheries
FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

389

Crimes and crime rates (H 952-970)—Homicides
and suicides (H 971-986)—Police officers killed (H
987-998)—Persons arrested (H 999-1011)—Criminal justice system, expenditures (H 1012-1027)—
Lawyers (H 1028-1062)—U.S. courts (H 10631124)—Training schools, detention homes, and
Federal and State institutions (H 1125-1154)—
Executions and lynchings (H 1155-1170).
J.

503

Acreages of harvested crops, and cropland indexes
(K 496-501)—Acreage, production, price, and
stocks for specified crops (K 502-563)—Livestock,
meat production, dairying, and poultry (K 564623).

National parks, monuments, and allied areas (H
806-828)—Recreational use of national forest lands
(H 829-835)—State and local park and recreation
areas (H 836-861)—Recreational activities and
expenditures
(H 862-893)—Expenditures
and
travel to foreign countries, and passports (H 894940)—Foreign visitors to the United States (H
941-951).
CRIME AND CORRECTION

493

Supply and utilization of farm commodities (K 384391)—Value of agricultural raw materials (K 392406)—Productivity measures (K 407-495).

Church denominations, members, and edifices (H
788-792)—Membership of religious bodies (H 793805).
RECREATION

471

Balance sheet of the farming sector (K 204-219)—
Gross farm product (K 220-250)—Exports and
imports (K 251-255)—Income, expenses, marketings, and Government payments (K 256-329)—
Commodity Credit Corporation (K 330-343)—
Price indexes, parity ratios, and farm-to-retail price
spreads (K 344-357)—Expenditures, farm value,
and marketing bill for farm food products purchased by civilians (K 358-360)—Mortgage debt,
loans, interest, and property taxes (K 361-375)—
Non-real-estate loans and deposit indexes (K 376383).

360

Kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school
enrollment, and children in special programs (H
412-485)—Finances of public elementary and
secondary schools and private schools (H 486-519)
—Public elementary and secondary school attendance and staff (H 520-530)—Pupil transportation
(H 531-534)—Catholic elementary and secondary
schools (H 535-544)—Public secondary school enrollment in specified subjects (H 545-571)—
Federally aided vocational programs (H 572-586)—
School retention rates and high school graduates
(H 587-601)—Years of school completed, by race,
sex, and age (H 602-647)—Income of males 25
years and over, by years of school completed (H
648-663)—Illiteracy (H 664-688)—Institutions of
higher education (H 689-765)—Doctorates (H
766-787).

449

Population, farms, acreage, and value (K 1-16)—
Population, farms, acreage, value, and products
sold, by State (K 17-81)—Farm operator characteristics (K 82-108)—Farms, acreage, and value,
by tenure of operator (K 109-153)—Mortgaged
farms (K 154-161)—Farms and land, by size of
farms (K162-173)—Employment, wages, and manhour indexes (K 174-183)—Machinery and equipment, fertilizer and lime (K 184-194)—Farmers'
cooperatives (K 195-203).

Social Statistics
SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE

Page

M.

Minerals
Summary of operations (M 1-12)—Value of
products, imports, exports, and consumption (M
13-53)—Production indexes (M 54-75)—Energy
production and consumption (M 76-92)—Bituminous coal (M 93-122)—Pennsylvania anthracite (M 123-137)—Petroleum, natural gas, and
petroleum products (M 138-187)—Nonmetals (M
188-204)—Metals (M 205-270)—Injuries and
fatalities (M 271-286)—Men working and manhours worked (M 287-306).

564

Appendix: Contributors to This Edition

A-l

Time Period Index

A-4

Subject Index

A-10

Replica of
"Official Roster and
Credits Page" from
Historical Statistics
of the United States,
Colonial Times to 1957

Bureau of the Census
ROBERT W. BURGESS, Director
A. Ross Eckler, Deputy Director
Howard C. Grieves, Assistant Director
Conrad Taeuber, Assistant Director
Morris H. Hansen, Assistant Director for Statistical Standards
Lowell T. Gait, Assistant Director for Operations
Walter L. Kehres, Assistant Director for Administration
Calvert L. Dedrick, Chief, International Statistical Programs Office
A. W. von Struve, Acting Public Information Officer
HERMAN

p. MILLER, Historical Statistics Project Director

This volume stems from a joint interest b y the Bureau of the
Census and the Social Science Research Council. I t was planned,
assembled, edited, and published by the Bureau, with the advice
and assistance of the Committee on Historical Statistics appointed
by the Council. M a n y other individuals and agencies cooperated
and made significant contributions to this project. General acknowledgments for each chapter are presented on p. V I I ; other acknowledgments frequently appear in the text discussions of the various chapters.
The volume was prepared in the Bureau of the Census under the
general direction of Edwin D. Goldfield, Chief, Statistical Reports
Division. Herman P. Miller served as the Project Director and was
primarily responsible for the planning, organizing, and supervising
of all aspects of the compilation of the data. Dr. Miller also served

as executive secretary of the Committee on Historical Statistics,
handled liaison matters for the Committee, and participated in its
selection of experts to serve as consultants. 0 . Halbert Goolsby
acted as staff assistant.
Morris B. Ullman, who supervised the preparation of the previous
volume, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-19J,\5, was
responsible for planning during the early stages of the project.
William Lerner, Assistant Chief, Statistical Reports Division, was
primarily responsible for the planning and supervising of the publication aspects of the volume and for the review and editing of the text
and tables. Dorothy M . Belzer was responsible for the tabular
presentation of the data and preparation of the material for the
printer. The Census Library Branch, Louise H . Clickner, Chief, also
lent valuable assistance.

Social Science Research Council
The Committee on Historical Statistics appointed b y the Social
Science Research Council participated actively in the preparation of
this volume, in the extension ofithe subjects to be added, and in planning the general procedures for securing expert assistance on each
subject. As the project was developed the Committee, especially
the Chairman, was primarily responsible for consideration of prob-

lems of data selection and format, for general appraisal of the quality
of the series suggested for inclusion, and for the selection of consultantspecialists for the various subjects. The Committee as a whole, or
through specially qualified members, reviewed the plans for inclusion
of specific series and discussed areas of study which presented unusual
problems.

Committee on Historical Statistics of the Social Science Research Council
(Advisory to the Bureau of the Census)
G. Heberton Evans, Jr., Chairman
Chairman of Department of Political Economy
The Johns Hopkins University

Herman P. Miller, Executive Secretary
Bureau of the Census

Otis Dudley Duncan
Associate Director of Population
Research and Training Center
The University of Chicago

Maurice I. Gershenson
Department of Industrial Relations
State of California

Willard L. Thorp
Director of Merrill Center for
Economics
Amherst College

Solomon Fabricant
Director of Research
National Bureau of Economic
Research, Inc.

Richard M . Scammon
Director of Elections Research
Governmental Affairs Institute

Harold P . Williamson
Professor of Economics
Northwestern University

Paul Webbink, Vice President, Social Science Research Council, attended Committee meetings and acted as the Council's
representative. Stanley Lebergott, Office of Statistical Standards, Bureau of the Budget, also participated in the meetings.

VI




Replica of
"Official Roster and
Credits Page" from
Historical Statistics
of the United States,
1789-1945.

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
J. C . CAPT, Director
PHILIP M . HAUSER, Deputy Director
A. Ross ECKLER, Assistant Director
HOWARD C . GRIEVES, Assistant Director
MORRIS H . HANSEN, Statistical Assistant to the Director
ROBERT Y . PHILLIPS, Executive Assistant to the Director
CALVERT L . DEDRICK, Coordinator, International Statistics
FRANK R . WILSON, Information Assistant to the Director

While this volume has been planned, assembled, and edited in
the Bureau of the Census, with the advice and assistance of the
Social Science Research Council, many other individuals and
agencies contributed to its preparation, directly and indirectly. In
some instances, individuals devoted themselves full-time for the
period necessary to complete their phase of the project. In other
instances, contributions were prepared by individuals while they
maintained heavy responsibilities in their own offices. A number
of private publishers, authors, and research organizations generously granted permission to use their materials. In some cases,
they also made additional contributions in time and energy.
General acknowledgments for each chapter are given on p. IV;
other specific acknowledgments appear within the text in the
various sections of the volume.
This volume was prepared in the office of Morris H. Hansen,
Statistical Assistant to the Director of the Bureau of the Census,

under the supervision of Morris B. Ullman, Chief, Statistical Reports Section, by Bruce L. Jenkinson, A. Benjamin Handler, and
William Lerner. Mr. Jenkinson, Chief, Statistical Abstract Unit,
was primarily responsible for the planning and preparation of the
report; Mr. Handler, Executive Secretary of the Social Science
Research Council Committee on the Source Book of Historical
Statistics, was primarily responsible for procurement of data and
relationships with the agencies and individuals who contributed
to the publication; and Mr. Lerner, Statistician, Statistical Abstract Unit, was primarily responsible for the review and editing
of the materials as to content, adequacy, and coverage.
Dorothy M. Belzer acted as staff assistant, particularly with
respect to tabular presentation, and was responsible for preparation of the materials for the printer. Claire F. Cahill checked all
citations b y reference to the original published sources and offered
many constructive suggestions as to the content of the book.

Social Science Research Council
The Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source
Book of Historical Statistics, Advisory to the Bureau of the Census, played an important role in the preparation of this volume.
The Chairman of the Committee and its members gave considerable time and thought to the review of plans, to advising on proper
courses of action, and contributed in other ways. In particular, J.
Frederic Dewhurst, Chairman, was in a large measure responsible
for the initiation of the project. The completed volume owes much

to his original outline of purpose, coverage, and arrangement. For
a detailed statement of the origins of this historical volume, see
introductory text.
Through a grant b y the Committee on Research in Economic
History (Arthur H. Cole, Chairman) of the Social Science Research
Council, the full-time services of the Executive Secretary of the
Advisory Committee were made available to the Bureau of the
Census.

The Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source Book of Historical Statistics
(Advisory to the Bureau of the Census)
J. Frederic Dewhurst
Shepard Clough
Columbia University
Arthur H. Cole
Harvard University
Morris A. Copeland
National Bureau of Economic Research
Ernest S. Griffith
The Library of Congress
Edward P. Hutchinson
University of Pennsylvania

i, The Twentieth Century Fund
Stacy M a y
International Basic Economy Corp.
Walter Mitchell, Jr.
Controllers Institute of America
Amos E. Taylor
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Harold Williamson
Northwestern University
A. Benjamin Handler (Executive Secretary)
Social Science Research Council

R . H. Coats, University of Toronto, attended meetings of the Committee as a representative of the Social Science
Research Council of Canada




VII

Acknowledgments for Chapter Contributions *
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

Chapter A. Population

INTERNAL MIGRATION

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Philip M. Hauser, University of Chicago
Major contributor—Campbell J. Gibson, Population Division, Bureau of the Census

Principal consultants—Everett S. Lee and Dorothy S. Thomas,
University of Pennsylvania
Review consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
Other contributor—Anne S. Lee, University of Pennsylvania

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
Principal consultant—Population Division, Bureau of the Census
Review consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
Other contributor—Donald S. Akers, Bureau of the Census

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-19^5
Material on population prepared by Bureau of the Census staff.

Chapter B. Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care

Principal consultant—Edward P. Hutchinson, University of Pennsylvania
Review consultant—Niles Carpenter, The University of Buffalo
Other contributors—Helen F. Eckerson and Gertrude D. Krichefsky,
Immigration and Naturalization Service
Historical Statistics . . . 1789-19^5
Material on internal migration, citizenship, and country of birth
prepared by Bureau of the Census staff.
Basic text and series for immigration, emigration* and naturalization
supplied by Mrs. Helen F. Eckerson, Supervisor of the Statistics Section, Division of Research and Education, Immigration
and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice.

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
VITAL STATISTICS

Consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
Major contributors—Wilson H. Grabill, Bureau of the Census;
Michael J. Zugzda, National Center for Health Statistics
HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Chapter D.

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Stanley Lebergott, Wesleyan University

Consultant—Herbert E. Klarman, New York University
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
VITAL STATISTICS

Principal consultant—Robert D. Grove, National Office of Vital
Statistics
Review consultant—Irene B. Taeuber, Princeton University
Other contributors—Joseph Schachter and Mildred L. McKinnon,
National Office of Vital Statistics; Wilson H. Grabill, Bureau
of the Census
HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Principal consultant—Maryland Y. Pennell, Public Health Service
Review consultant—Antonio Ciocco, University of Pittsburgh
Historical Statistics . . . 1789-19^5
Basic text and series on vital statistics supplied by National Office
of Vital Statistics, Public Health Service, Federal Security
Agency.
Basic text and series on health supplied by Division of Public Health
Methods, Office of the Surgeon General, Public Health Service,
Federal Security Agency.
Basic text and series on nutrition supplied by Bureau of Human
Nutrition and Home Economics and Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, Department of Agriculture.

Chapter C. Migration
Historical Statistics
Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Henry S. Shryock, Jr., Georgetown University
* See also Appendix, p. A - l .

VIII



Labor

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
LABOR FORCE

Principal consultant—Seymour L. Wolfbein, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Review consultant—Clarence D. Long, The Johns Hopkins University
HOURS, WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS

Principal consultants—H. Gregg Lewis and Albert Rees, The University of Chicago
Review consultant—Harry M. Douty, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Historical Statistics
1789-19^5
Material on labor force prepared by Bureau of the Census staff.
Basic text and series on wages and working conditions largely supplied by Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor,
Margaret H. Schoenfeld, Economic Editor, coordinating.

Chapter E.

Prices and Price Indexes

Historical Statistics
Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Irving B. Kravis, University of Pennsylvania
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
Principal consultant—Ethel D. Hoover, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Review consultants—Arthur H. Cole, Harvard University; Geoffrey
H. Moore, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Historical Statistics . . . 1789-19^5
Basic text and series supplied by Prices and Cost of Living Branch,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR CHAPTER CONTRIBUTIONS
Chapter F.

National Income and Wealth
Historical Statistics . .. Colonial Times to 1970

NATIONAL PRODUCT AND INCOME; NATIONAL WEALTH AND SAVING

Consultant—Edward F. Denison, The Brookings Institution
Major contributors—Nora E. Dollymore, Robert E. Graham, and
Allan H. Young, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Raymond W.
Goldsmith, Yale University; Stephen P. Taylor, Board of
Governors of the Federal Reserve System
INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. ECONOMY

Consultant—Albert J. Walderhaug, Bureau of Economic Analysis
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
Principal consultant—Richard A. Easterlin, University of Pennsylvania
Review consultant—Simon Kuznets, The Johns Hopkins University
Other contributor—Raymond W. Goldsmith, National Bureau of
Economic Research, Inc.
Historical Statistics . . . 1789-191*5
Chapter prepared by Harlow D. Osborne, Economic Analyst, National Income Division, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce, Department of Commerce.

CRIME AND CORRECTION

Consultants—Thorsten Sellin and Marvin E. Wolfgang, University
of Pennsylvania
Major contributors—James A. McCafferty, Administrative Office of
the United States Courts; Paul White, Law Enforcement
Assistance Administration
Historical Statistics . .. Colonial Times to 1957
SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE

Principal consultant—Ida C. Merriam, Social Security Administration
Review consultant—Eveline M. Burns, Columbia University
Other contributor—George Rohrlich, Bureau of Employment Security
EDUCATION

Principal consultant—Emery M. Foster, Office of Education
Review consultants—Helen M. Walker, Columbia University; John
Walton, The Johns Hopkins University
Other contributors—Henry G. Badger, W. Vance Grant, and Rose
Marie Smith, Office of Education; Charles B. Nam, Bureau
of the Census
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

Principal consultant—Benson Y. Landis, National Council of the
Churches of Christ in the United States of America
Review consultant—Edmund deS. Brunner, Columbia University
RECREATION

Chapter G.

Consumer Income and Expenditure

Historical Statistics .. . Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Herman P. Miller, Temple University
Major contributors—Henry Aaron, The Brookings Institution; Roger
A. Herriot, Bureau of the Census
Historical Statistics ... Colonial Times to 1957
FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL INCOME

Principal consultant—Selma F. Goldsmith, Office of Business Economics

Principal consultant—Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.
Review consultant—Thomas C. Fichandler, The Twentieth Century
Fund
Other contributor—George D. Butler, National Recreation Association
CRIME AND CORRECTION

Principal consultant—Ronald H. Beattie, California Department of
Justice, State of California
Review consultant—Thorsten Sellin, University of Pennsylvania
Other contributors—Benjamin Frank, Henry C. Lanpher, James A.
McCafferty, Bureau of Prisons

Review consultant—Dorothy S. Brady, University of Pennsylvania
CONSUMER EXPENDITURE PATTERNS

Chapter J. Land, Water, and Climate

Principal consultant—Faith M. Williams, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Review consultant—Rose D. Friedman, Chicago, Illinois
Other contributors—Joseph A. Clorety, Anna-Stina L. Ericson,
Helen H. Lamale, Bureau of Labor Statistics; Marguerite C.
Burk, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Jean L. Pennock,
Agricultural Research Service

LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.
CLIMATE

Chapter H.

Social Statistics

Consultant—George S. Benton, The Johns Hopkins University
Major contributor—Harry Torbitt, National Climatic Center
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE

Consultant—Ida C. Merriam, Social Security Administration
Major contributor—Alfred M. Skolnik, Social Security Administration

LAND AND WATER UTILIZATION

Principal consultants—Ernst H. Wiecking and Hugh H. Wooten,
Agricultural Research Service; Walter L. Picton, Business and
Defense Services Administration
Review consultant—Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.
CLIMATE

EDUCATION

Consultant—Abbott L. Ferriss, Emory University
Major contributors—J. Fred Beamer and C. George Lind, Office of
Education
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

Consultant—Constant H. Jacquet, Jr., National Council of the
Churches of Christ
RECREATION

Consultant—Marion Clawson, Resources for the Future, Inc.




Principal consultants—Helmut E. Landsberg and J. Murray Mitchell,
Jr., Weather Bureau
Review consultant—George S. Benton, The Johns Hopkins University
Other contributor—Milton L. Blanc, Weather Bureau
Historical Statistics . . . 1789-191*5
Basic text and series on public lands supplied largely by Branch of
Research, Bureau of Land Management, Department of the
Interior.
Basic text and series on land utilization supplied by Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agriculture.

IX

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR CHAPTER CONTRIBUTIONS
Chapter K.

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957

Agriculture

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Earl E. Houseman, Department of Agriculture
Major contributors—J. Richard Grant, Department of Agriculture;
Arnold L. Bollenbacher and Orvin L. Wilhite, Bureau of the
Census

FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
Principal consultant—Department of Agriculture (Earl E. Houseman,
Coordinator)
Review consultant—Theodore W. Schultz, The University of Chicago

Principal consultant—Harvey L. Moore, Fish and Wildlife Service
Review consultant—F. Heward Bell, International Pacific Halibut
Commission
Other contributor—Edward A. Power, Fish and Wildlife Service

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-19k5
Basic text and series supplied by Bureau of Agricultural Economics
and Farm Credit Administration, Department of Agriculture,
Robert M. Walsh, Special Assistant to the Chief of the Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, coordinating.

Historical Statistics . . . 1789-19^5
Series on forestry supplied by Division of Forest Economics, Forest
Service, Department of Agriculture.
Series of fisheries supplied by Statistical Section, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of
the Interior.

Principal consultant—Dwight Hair, Forest Service
Review consultant—William A. Duerr, Syracuse University
FISHERIES

Chapter M.
Chapter L. Forestry and Fisheries
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

Consultant—Robert S. Manthy, Michigan State University
Major contributor—Dwight Hair, Forest Service
FISHERIES

Consultant—Howard Horton, Oregon State University
Major contributor—William Robinson, National Marine Fisheries
Service

X



Minerals

Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1970
Consultant—Vivian E. Spencer, University of Connecticut
Historical Statistics . . . Colonial Times to 1957
Principal consultants—Sam H. Schurr and Elizabeth K. Vogely,
Resources for the Future, Inc.
Review consultant—Vivian E. Spencer, Bureau of the Census
Other contributor—Robert E. Herman, Bureau of Mines
Historical Statistics .. . 1789-19^.5
Basic text and series on minerals supplied by Economics and Statistics
Branch, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Hubert
D. Keiser and Allan F. Matthews, former and present editors
of the Minerals Yearbook, coordinating.

Introduction
This volume is the third in the Historical Statistics series issued
by the Bureau of the Census as a supplement to the annual Statistical
Abstract of the United States.
Statistics are a valuable adjunct to historical analysis. They
often clarify and enrich qualitative history and on occasion become
important parts of a historical record on their own. However, users
of historical data are faced with the paradox of over-abundance and
scarcity. A burdensome multiplicity of sources has frequently to be
consulted in order to reconstruct one quantitative aspect of a particular subject. Just as often, users are confronted by a discouraging
barrenness of data, discoverable only after much costly work and
delay.
The objective of the Historical Statistics volumes is to provide a
convenient reference source which has two functions, collecting and
referring. The collecting function consists of assembling, selecting,
and arranging data from hundreds of sources and making them available within a single source. The referring function consists of text
annotations to the data which act as a guide to sources of greater
detail. The annotations also define terms used in the tables and
include essential qualifying statements.
The first volume in this series, Historical Statistics of the United
States, 1789-19U5, was published in 1949. It provided a wide range
of series quantifying various aspects of the development of the Nation.
An interim Continuation to 1952 was issued in 1954 to provide data
for 1946 to 1952 for the still-active series shown in the first volume.
Limited resources confined the scope of the first volume to data most
readily available, usually from governmental agency sources. Nevertheless, some 3,000 statistical time series were presented.
Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957,
issued in 1960, represented a substantial expansion of the data shown
in the original volume. I t presented more than 8,000 time series,
mostly annual, on a greater variety of subjects and for longer time
periods. The statistics were also more fully annotated and more
precise references to original sources were provided. For a greater
number of series, in addition, there were more detailed descriptions of
the development and reliability of the data. A Continuation to 1962
and Revisions was issued in 1965, presenting revisions of data in the
basic volume and extensions to 1962 of the more than 6,000 series still
current at that time.
Each of the first two volumes was prepared with the cooperation of
the Social Science Research Council, the guidance of a distinguished
Advisory Committee, and the assistance of numerous scholars, research analysts, and particular subject specialists. A description
tracing the development of the first two editions appears below under
"Origin of Historical Statistics of the United States."
During the latter 1960's, the supply of copies of Historical Statistics .. .to 1957 available for sale from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents was exhausted. The edition had already been through a cycle
of five printings and a question was raised concerning the advisability
of further printings in the light of a possible new edition. The question was timely. Experience with the first two editions and their
Continuation supplements had shown that a new edition was desirable
at 10 to 12 year intervals. The Continuation supplements were at
best handy stopgaps for researchers, a serviceable minimum seriously
lacking in documentation. As each year lengthened the interval
between editions, the "convenience" value of both the Continuation
to 1962 and its parent Historical Statistics...
to 1957 diminished.
More and more time series were revised in part or entirely replaced.
Further, the task for the user of updating the still active, unrevised,
series became more burdensome despite the special efforts of the an-




nual Statistical Abstract to maintain a direct linkage to as many historical series as possible in its current tables. As a result, a decision
was made in 1969 to begin preparation of a new edition.
The plans for the new edition immediately encountered the problem of funding and resources. I t was clearly impractical at that
time, given the available resources, to consider undertaking a fullfledged new edition of Historical Statistics. The determination to
make a start, however, was very strong and more modest objectives
were adopted. In effect, the early plans for the present edition
proposed that it comprise little more than: (1) An extension to 1970
of those series for which current data were available; (2) revisions
of data which had occurred since issuance of the Continuation to 1962;
and (3) a reprinting of those series in Historical Statistics . . . to 1957
which had not been affected by either updating or revisions. No
time span was specifically set down to complete the work because
there was a clear understanding that it was a part-time staff project.
Two other aspects of this plan differed considerably from the
procedures followed for the last edition. For that edition, a large
number of consultants were enlisted for their expertise in assembling
and developing new time series, reviewing and adjusting old time
series, and providing explanatory and bibliographic notes for both.
Although most of these consultants, especially those in Federal
agencies, contributed their own and their agencies services without
compensation, many were compensated from funds provided by the
Ford Foundation (by arrangement through the Social Science Research Council). For the new edition, given the limited resources,
consultants' contributions were recruited on a public service basis
entirely. Partly for the same reason, it was decided not to revive
the collaboration of the Census Bureau with the Social Science Research Council which had proved so highly effective for the first two
Historical Statistics editions. Even more convincing for the Bureau
decision to undertake the project alone was the solidity of the base
which those editions now provided for the next edition. Seeking
such collaboration again seemed unwarranted in the light of the
modest objectives outlined above.
As the work slowly progressed and as the many consultants and
contributors gave generously of their knowledge and talent, it became
clear that our objectives were too restrictive; that our contemplated
mere updating would, if adhered to, have to ignore a large accumulation of new time series which were either ineligible for the last edition
(at that time they covered a period of less than 20 years) or had not
been discovered or properly developed prior to that edition. The
gradual accretion of new material plus the additions to old material
substantially changed the planned scope of the present edition. What
follows are some measures of the changes in content introduced in the
present edition.
All of the broad subject fields shown as separate chapters in the
last edition are included in this edition and follow the same sequence.
Within some of the chapters, however, chapter segments have been
regrouped into new subchapters (as in chapters K and X) and in
others, the sequence of the subchapters has been changed (as in
chapters H, Q, and U) to achieve minor improvements in the juxtaposition of subjects.
In two chapters, two entirely new subchapters have been added:
"Input-Output Structure of the U.S. Economy" to chapter F and
"Flow of Funds" to chapter X.
The present edition presents more than 12,500 time series, a 50percent increase over the last edition. Every chapter has undergone
some expansion with respect to new time series. Chapter F, national
income and wealth, and chapter H, social statistics, doubled in num-

XI

INTRODUCTION
ber of series; the former from 345 to 723 and the latter from 543 to
1,170. The increase in chapter F was largely due to newly-added
data for economic growth rates, greater detail than was previously
shown for national and personal income, and data showing valuation
of capital stocks. Unsurprisingly, the largest increase in series
occurred in chapter H where the data for social insurance and welfare,
education, and crime and correction reflect the great public attention
given to these subjects in recent decades. Almost equally large
increases took place for chapter K, agriculture, and chapter X, financial markets and institutions (formerly banking and finance); chapter
K from 328 series to 623; chapter X from 480 to 962. Partly to
accommodate the increase in series, chapter K has been subdivided
into 4 parts. Most of the new series in chapter K relate to farm
population and farm-operator characteristics, farm marketings,
government payments and price supports, and a number of new
measures of farm productivity. For chapter X, the bulk of the
increase in series is in the new flow-of-funds subchapter.
Several chapters now include for the first time a number of data
series below the national level. In all, there are 13 new tables (comprising 484 series) in this category, 9 of which present data for the
individual States and 4 for either regions (e.g. the South or the West)
or the smaller geographic divisions (e.g. New England, South Atlantic). Perhaps of special interest among these tables are the series on
population characteristics and land area for each State (A 195-263),
those on selected items for farms and farm population by State (K
17-81), those on voter participation in presidential elections by State
(Y 27-78), and those on population censuses taken in the colonies
and States during the colonial and pre-Federal period (Z 24-132).
In addition, each of 4 chapters (D, G, Q, and Z) includes at least
200 or more new series and each of 10 chapters (A, B, L, N, P, S,
T, U, V, and Y) includes 100 or more. A summary of selected new
series included in each chapter is shown on p. XV.
One other important change is the reinstatement of a time period
index (see p. A-4) which first appeared in Historical Statistics . . . ,
1789 to 191+5. The index enables users to identify quickly which time
series (or statistics for particular subjects) begin in the specified
10- or 20-year time segment (e.g. 1800-1819, 1820-1839).
As a result of the complete review and updating of the contents of
the last edition of Historical Statistics, many changes, apart from
the entirely new series, have occurred in both the tables, the descriptive text, and the bibliographic notes. Most of the changes are due
to revisions and corrections made during the interval between the
last and present editions by the sources of the data affected. Where
users of both editions become aware of discrepancies in what purport
to be identical sets of data, it is safe to assume that the figures, descriptive text, and notes in the present edition supersede those in the
last edition.
With rare exception, all of the series shown in the last edition are
also included here. 76 series were omitted. They were primarily
discontinued series replaced on recommendations of consultants by
other series of a similar kind or were considered of marginal importance
or relatively weak in other respects. In one or two instances, space
was also a factor.

Bureau of the Census plans to prepare an historical supplement to the
Statistical Abstract of the United States. The formal decision in 1945
by the Bureau of the Census to compile and publish such a volume
led to the reconstitution of the joint committee, which then became
the Social Science Research Council Committee on the Source Book
of Historical Statistics, Advisory to the Bureau of the Census.
After the first edition was issued in June 1949, the Economic History Association, in response to a request from the Bureau of the
Census, appointed an advisory committee in September 1950 to
evaluate the volume and to make specific recommendations affecting
the question of its revision. This committee, formally designated
as the Committee of the Economic History Association on the Revision of Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-191+5, was under
the chairmanship of G. Heberton Evans, Jr., The Johns Hopkins
University, and included the following as members: Arthur H. Cole,
Harvard University; Shepard Clough, Columbia University; T. C.
Cochran, University of Pennsylvania, and Solomon Fabricant, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. In April 1952 the committee submitted a report to the Bureau of the Census entitled "On
the Revision of Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-191+5."
The conclusions and comments presented in this report were subsequently influential in getting underway the project for a revised
volume.
For the second edition, Historical Statistics of the United States,
Colonial Times to 1957, the Bureau designated a project director who
also acted as secretary of the Committee on Historical Statistics
appointed by the Social Science Research Council to serve as an
advisory group similar to the committee which participated in the
preparation of the first edition. The Census Bureau again assumed
the responsibility for publishing the volume as a part of its Statistical
Abstract program. The Social Science Research Council, in turn,
obtained a grant from the Ford Foundation which provided funds
for the procurement of services of experts in each field. More than
125 such specialists were engaged to serve as consultants. The
Council also made arrangements with some of the consultants for the
preparation of bibliographic essays on statistics in selected fields, five
of which were subsequently published in the Journal of the American
Statistical Association.

The Problem of Historical Statistics

The scattered sources of historical statistics of the United States
include the annual reports of the executive heads of the agencies of
the Federal Government, reports of special Federal commissions, the
U.S. census volumes, printed debates of the Congress, published
reports of committees of the Congress and transcripts of hearings on
important legislative measures, published reports and documents of
the State governments, statistical publications of private research
organizations and of the universities and colleges of the Nation,
together with the great mass of statistical volumes printed by other
private organizations and individuals.
I t has been noted that on occasion compilers, desiring to save the
time and effort required to obtain data directly from the original
sources, make use of successive issues of the annual Statistical Abstract
Origin of Historical Statistics of the United States
of the United States to construct long-term time series. The results
of such a procedure are not always sound, since the space available
The first edition, Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789- in the Statistical Abstract for describing major revisions in time series
191+5, was formally initiated by a recommendation in 1945 by the may not permit adequate clarification. Of the many revised figures
Social Science Research Council that the Secretary of Commerce appearing in each issue, most revisions apply to the immediate precedconsider compilation and publication by the Bureau of the Census ing years, but revisions of much earlier years are not uncommon.
Moreover, the revisions shown have followed no systematic pattern
of a source book of economic statistics.
Earlier the same year, J. Frederic Dewhurst urged the development and may be scattered irregularly over many issues.
Impediments to the use of historical statistics, then, include the
of an historical source book in a proposal to the American Statistical
Association and the American Economic Association. A joint com- initial difficulty of determining whether the data in fact exist, of
mittee was named by these associations, joined by the Economic identifying the document in which the data may be found, of conHistory Association, to explore the practical problems of preparing structing time series where the data may not be arranged in suitable
such a volume. Dr. Dewhurst's proposal coincided closely with form, and of identifying and interpreting changes in concept and
XII




INTRODUCTION
coverage. Definitions employed in published historical tables, moreover, may have to be sought in separate publications if, indeed, they
have been published at all.

Technical Notes and Explanations
Arrangement of the data. Data are arranged for broad subjects in
lettered chapters and for more specific and detailed subjects in numbered series within each chapter. To facilitate reference, subject
groups are organized in summary form under chapter and subchapter
titles in the table of contents (p. IV). In addition, there is a detailed
alphabetical subject index (p. A-10). The data are presented in
conventional tabular form, each table comprising a group of subjectrelated series. Each series or tabular column is assigned a unique
letter and number. The letter prefix identifies the chapter and the
number represents the order of the series in the chapter. Thus the
44th series in the chapter on agriculture is designated K 44 to distinguish it from the 44th series in the chapter on transportation, Q 44.
Because of possible confusion with numerals, the capital letters I and
0 have been omitted in identifying chapters. Source citations and
descriptive text material (see below) are linked to the data series by
use of the assigned series numbers.
All series begin with the most recent year for which data have been
obtained and run backward in time. This arrangement was selected
because it lent itself to more compact, less space-consuming presentation than the alternative of beginning with the earliest year. Insofar
as possible, there are uniformly placed spaces above every year ending
in 0 or 5. No data are shown for years subsequent to 1970. Figures
for later years for most of the current series are presented in the
Statistical Abstract of the United States beginning with the 1973
edition.
Basic guidelines. The guidelines adopted for this edition to aid
Census Bureau staff members, subject matter consultants, and other
participants with respect to selection and presentation of the data
are quite similar to those of the last edition. As was the case then,
however, the guidelines were not followed with complete rigidity. At
times, the scope, variety, and complexity of the data involved made
it necessary to modify the rules for the sake of clarity or internal consistency. The guidelines applied and the elements subject to application are discussed below.
Area coverage. Except as otherwise specified, data generally represent conterminous United States or the 48 States (including the
District of Columbia) prior to the admission of Alaska and Hawaii
to statehood and the 50 States thereafter. Asterisks on individual
tables or series indicate the first year for which the figures include
Alaska and Hawaii to the extent that their inclusion could be ascertained. For some series, especially in chapter K, the notes specifying
inclusion or exclusion of Alaska and Hawaii appear in the text. In
some instances, the sources used for data failed to specify the area
covered. Where practicable, the data were examined and the appropriate qualifications were added.
Because of limitations of space, data are not generally shown for
regions, States, or localities. Some exceptions were permitted, however, as noted above with respect to data for regions and States.
Other exceptions were of a more specialized nature as in the following
instances: Where regional statistics are helpful for correct interpretation of data, such as presentation of merchant marine statistics
separately for each coast and for inland waters; where data in the
subject field cannot (by definition) be summarized effectively for the
United States, such as internal migration data; where summary data
for a given subarea or market are indicative of general trend or level,
such as prices on the New York Stock Exchange or in specified cities;
where data for a given area effectively represent the national picture
because of concentration of production, etc., as Pennsylvania anthracite; where data are available for only a given area as in the case of
many series concerned with early American history and limited to the
Atlantic seaboard.



Time coverage. In general, only annual or census-period data
which cover at least 20 years are presented. A major exception was
made for series covering the colonial or pre-Federal period. Other
exceptions were permitted where newly developed series of recent
origin were the only data available to represent an important subject
field or where a short series was an important extension of other longer
series.
The general requirements as to time coverage were specifically
designed to permit inclusion of "lapsed" series, particularly those
falling within the nineteenth century or extending into the early
twentieth century. The lapsed series, which begin and terminate
in the past, represent major fields of interest during various phases
of American historical development; frequently they must be sought
in out-of-print documents which are available in few libraries.
The identification of time-periods was complicated by failure of
some sources to state whether the data were prepared on a calendaryear or on a fiscal-year basis; by shifts in time coverage from calendar
to fiscal year during the period of the series, and, in some instances, by
the lack of identification of the beginning or ending date of the fiscal
year. In all such cases, particularly where time shifts seemed likely
to have occurred, an effort was made to identify the correct basis.
Frequency of data. Annual data are given preference but certain
series are presented only for years in which a national census was
conducted, and, in some instances (for example, telephone and telegraph rates), only for the scattered dates for which the data are
available. Where both annual figures and decennial or quinquennial
benchmark or census data exist, both series are frequently shown.
Series linkage. No formal attempt was made to extend a single
series back through time by linking it to another series which terminated at or near the date on which the first began. In a number
of instances, however, such series are presented in adjoining columns,
with an overlap for a period of years, when available.
Selection of data. The criteria of selection varied broadly, depending on a number of factors applicable to the subject matter involved.
Generally, summary measures or one-dimensional aggregates at gross
levels and immediately below were given highest priority for inclusion. Below such levels, selection was governed by the interplay of:
The amount of space already devoted to a particular subject; the
attempt to achieve a relatively balanced presentation among subject
fields; the "uniqueness" (in the sense that other data did or did not
fairly cover a particular subject) of the data; the quantity of data
available; the quality of the data available; and the extent to which
data might be related to and enhance the value of other data.
Among less discretionary factors, both area detail (see above under
area coverage) and subject detail, such as cross-classifications or
data for specific commodities, were held to a minimum because of
space limitations. Inevitably, there were exceptions where synthesis
or summarization did serious damage to the value of a series or where
it was clearly more meaningful to show series for specific commodities
than a group aggregate.
Presentation of absolute rather than derived data. Primary emphasis was placed on the presentation of absolute figures rather than
on derived data since the absolute figures offer somewhat greater
flexibility to the user. The major exception was the presentation
of index numbers. In general, percentage distributions of absolute
data already shown are not presented. Other percentage data, and
averages, medians, ratios, and rates were used only where they resulted in a significant economy in space or where they significantly
facilitated interpretation. No attempt was made to convert various
series of index numbers to a base year or period other than that shown
in the source. Large numbers (8 digits or more, for example) shown
in the source documents have been rounded to thousands, millions, or
billions for ease of use and reference only as staff resources allowed.
Omissions of data, "blank" cells. The significance of dashes in
tabular cells varies from series to series. In general, the presence of
cell "leaders" or "dashes" indicates merely that no information was
provided. Dash entries may mean that no information exists for
the given year; the entry, if shown, would be zero; the information
XIII

INTRODUCTION
was not available; or the information is believed to exist in published
form but it was not practicable to do the research necessary to locate
the appropriate source. The user will have to judge from the context
which meaning is appropriate in each particular instance.
The practices of the various sources of information differ as to the
meaning of dashes in cells, the extent to which they label data as
"not available," the meaning of the term "not available," the use of
the zero entry, etc. In general, the policy adopted in preparing this
volume was to retain "not available" notations where they appeared
for intermediate years in the series; to change them to dashes where
they appeared at the beginning or end of the series. Where cells
were left blank in the sources, they were filled with dashes unless
there was evidence that "not available" was a more appropriate entry.
Since series of varying length taken from different sources are
frequently found in adjoining columns in a table, the stub listings for
years necessarily encompass the earliest and latest date for which any
of the series in the table are shown. In itself, this tends to create
many additional blank cells since missing entries have been replaced
by dashes in order to make it easier for the user's eye to trace the
entries for a given year across the entire table.
Source citations and text. For every series shown, the text notes
present the source or sources of the data. In most cases, precise
publication dates and page or table numbers are given. However,
where numerous issues of a certain publication were used, the source
citations are usually limited to "annual issues," "various monthly
issues," or similar notations. The term "unpublished data" means
that the data were not in published form at the time they were obtained for use in this edition. In many cases, such data were scheduled for inclusion in forthcoming publications.

Where possible the descriptive text includes definitions of concepts
and terms used, and sufficient methodological and historical information to permit intelligent use of the data. For many series the text
also includes reference to where more detail can be found. Unusual
values in a series are explained and major changes which affect comparability are noted. Methods used for adjusted or derived figures
are described, often with reference to a more complete description.
Copyright material. Copyright restrictions, where applicable, are
noted in source citations. Permission to quote or reprint copyright
material should be obtained directly from the copyright owner.

Statistical Reliability and Responsibility
The contents of this volume were obtained from a large number of
sources. All data from either censuses and surveys or based on
estimates or administrative records are subject to error arising from
a number of sources: Sampling variability (for statistics based on
samples), reporting errors in the data for individual units, incomplete
coverage, nonresponse, imputation, and processing error. The
Bureau of the Census cannot accept responsibility for the accuracy
or the limitations of data presented here, other than for those which
it collects. Every attempt has been made, within the limits of time
and available personnel, to verify and correctly identify the material.
Final responsibility for selection of the material, and for its accurate
and proper presentation, rests with the Bureau of the Census, even
though carried out with the cooperation of many individuals and
agencies who devoted much time and energy in providing data and
descriptions of series for this publication.

The information presented in this volume supersedes all similar information presented in Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, and in Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times
to 1957: Continuation to 1962 and Revisions.
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON DATA PRESENTED
please consult the source publications available in local libraries or write to the agency indicated in the source
note in the descriptive text for the given statistical series. Write to the Bureau of the Census only if it is indicated as the source.
SUGGESTIONS AND COMMENTS
should be sent to:
The Director
Bureau of the Census
Washington, D.C. 20233

XIV



Summary of Selected New Series i n This Edition

Chapter and title

Number
of new

Summary of selected new series

Chapter and title

Number
of new
series

Summary of selected new series

198

Urban population characteristics (A
82-90); foreign born, by sex and
race (A 105-118); population characteristics and land area, by States
(A 195-263); households, by number
of persons (A 335-349); inmates of
institutions (A 359-371)

B. Vital Statistics
and Health and
Medical Care

180

Fertility and birth rates, by age
of mother (B 11-19); illegitimate
births and rates (B 28-35); health
expenditures (B 221-261); hospital
use rates, expenses, personnel, and
insurance coverage (B 381-422)

36

227

Working women (D 49-74); unemployment rates (D 87-115); employee output (D 683-704); employee earnings (D 705-786); union
membership and work stoppages
(D 927-939, D 986-1021)

E. Prices

22
362

292

Distribution of families and persons,
by money income levels (G 1-268);
nutritive value of city diets (G 857865); food used at home (G 866-880)

H. Social Statistics

675

Employment and man-hours in mineral industries (M 287-306)

N. Construction
and Housing

120

Wholesale price indexes for construction materials (N 140-155); new
publicly-owned housing starts (N
171-179); value and mean age of
stocks of residential structures (N
200-231); housing vacancy rates
(N 246-258)

P. Manufactures

132

General statistics (P 58-67); horsepower of power equipment (P 68-73);
shipments, inventories, and orders
(P 74-92); corporation sales, profits,
and equity (P 93-106); shares of largest companies (P 177-204); consumption of selected commodities (P 216230)

240

Intercity passenger traffic (Q 1-11);
revenues and employment, by type of
transport (Q 23-46); intercity motor
carriers (Q 69-81); long-term public
highway debt (Q 136-147); motor
vehicle insurance, ownership, and
financing (Q 163-186); motor vehicle
speed, miles of travel, and accidents
(Q 187-232); merchant vessels built,
repaired, launched, and active (Q
438-480, Q 487-502)

53

Cable TV (R 98-101); radio and TV
finances (R 113-120, R 130-137);
new books published (R 195-217);
newsprint consumption (R 218-223)

124

Consumption of raw materials and
fuel resources (S 15-31); privatelyowned electric utility generating
plants and balance sheet and income
items (S 58-73, S 133-146); REA
summary of operations (S 147-159);
waterpower (S 160-175); natural gas
consumption and gas utility industry
(S 178-218)

T. Distribution
and Services

100

Annual earnings of full-time employees (T 29-42); legal form of
organization of industries (T 43-57);
merchant wholesalers sales and stocks
(T 375-383); index of national advertising expenditures (T 472-484)

U. International
Transactions
and Foreign
Commerce

155

Value of direct foreign investment in
U.S. (U 47-74); U.S. Government
foreign grants and credits (U 75-186);
exports and imports, by broad enduse class (U 249-263)

V. Business Enterprise

115

Number of firms, by type of ownership (V 1-12); income of unincorporated firms (V 66-77); manufacturing
and trade sales and inventories
(V 78-107); gross product and unit
costs of nonfinancial corporations

G N P growth rates and per capita
(F 10-31); G N P summary and by
type of industry (F 32-46), F 130162); national and personal income
(F 163-209, F 250-348); national
tangible assets (F 349-376); value
and age of capital stocks (F 470534)

G. Consumer Income and Expenditures

26

M. Minerals

GNP implicit price deflators (E 1-22)

F. National Income
and Wealth

Forest products production, imports,
exports, and consumption (L 56-71,
L 87-97, L 138-165, L 178-198);
fishery imports and exports (L 224235); value of landed fish catches
(L 244-253); prices received by
fishermen (L 321-337)

L. Forestry and
Fisheries

Aliens naturalized (C 162-167); passenger arrivals and departures (C
296-331)

D. Labor

153

Q. Transportation

A. Population

C. Migration

J.

Land, Water,
and Climate

K. Agriculture




Employee benefit plans (H 70-114)
OASDHI (social security) coverage
benefits, and trust fund (H 186-259)
Civil Service retirement (H 260-270)
private philanthropy (H 398-411)
schools and school enrollment (H
418-432, H 442-522); school retention rates (H 587-597); income, by
years of school completed (H 648663); illiteracy (H 669-688); doctorates, by field (H 766-787); foreign travel, passports issued, and
foreign visitors to U.S. (H 894-951)
crimes and crime rates (H 952-961)
homicides and suicides (H 971-986)
criminal justice expenditures (H
1012-1027); lawyers (H 1028-1062);
courts (H 1063-1124)

15

Indian lands (J 16-19); tornadoes,
floods, and cyclones (J 268-278)

315

Farm population, land in farms, farm
property, farm products sold (K 1 81); farm operator characteristics
(K 82-108); balance sheet of farming
and value of gross farm product (K
204-239); farm income and farm
marketings (K 256-343); farm productivity (K 407-495)

R. Communications

S.

Energy

XV

INTRODUCTION

Summary of Selected New Series i n This Edition—Con.

Chapter and title

Number
of new
series

Summary of selected new series

(V 141-166); business expenditures
for new plant and equipment (V 306332)
W. Productivity and
Technological
Development

X. Financial Markets and Institutions

XVI



60

Flow of funds (X 1-392); sales of
stocks and bonds on registered exchanges (X 517-530); savings and
other time deposits, by institution
(X 687-697); assets and liabilities
of mutual savings banks and savings
and loan associations (X 821-844);
selected items of property-liability
insurance (X 918-932); stock and
mutual insurance companies (X 933956)

Number
of new
series

Summary of selected new series

Y. Government

158

Voter participation in presidential
elections (Y 28-78); costs of presidential elections (Y 187-188); congressional bills vetoed (Y 199-203);
Federal Government full-time civilian
employment (Y 318-331); Federal
grants to State and local governments (Y 638-651); selective service
registrants (Y 917-926); defendants
charged with violation of selective
service acts (Y 927-942)

Z. Colonial and
Pre-Federal
Statistics

200

Population censuses taken in the
colonies and States (Z 24-132); components of private wealth for the
thirteen colonies (Z 169-191); exports to and imports from Scotland,
by colonies and States (Z 227-244);
commodity imports and exports,
shipping earnings, and value of
slaves imported (Z 286-290); vessels
built in colonies and West Florida
(Z 510-529)

Indexes of output per man-hour and
per employed person (W 22-29);
funds for research and development
(W 109-125, W 161-167); employment of natural scientists and engineers (W 168-180)

517

Chapter and title

Chapter A

Population
A 1-371.

General note.

The principal source of population data is the Decennial Census of
Population, a house-by-house enumeration made by the Bureau of the
Census. In accordance with a Constitutional provision for a decennial canvass of the population, the first census enumeration was
made in 1790. The primary reason for the Census of Population,
as set forth in the Constitution, is to provide a basis for the apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives among the several
States. Until 1902, the census organization was temporary. It was
assembled before each decennial census and disbanded after the work
was finished. In 1902, the Bureau of the Census was established as
a permanent agency of the Government, charged with responsibility
for the decennial census and for compiling statistics on other subjects
as needed. Currently (1973), this Bureau provides population data
based on surveys and estimates in addition to making the comprehensive decennial census enumeration.
In accordance with census practice dating back to 1790, each
person is counted as an inhabitant of his usual place of residence or
usual place of abode, that is, the place where he lives and sleeps most
of the time. This place is not necessarily the same as his legal residence, voting residence, or domicile, although, in the vast majority
of cases, the use of these different bases of classification would produce
identical results. Indians living in Indian Territory or on reservations
were not included in the population count until 1890, and in earlier
censuses large tracts of unorganized and sparsely settled territory
were not covered by enumerators. Alaska and Hawaii were territories through 1950 and were first included in the United States in the
1960 census. Many tables in this chapter show two sets of 1960
data, one for the conterminous United States and one for the United
States including Alaska and Hawaii.
Through 1930, the data presented are based on complete counts.
Many of the data shown from subsequent censuses are based on
sample tabulations (ranging from 3)4 percent to 25 percent), as
indicated in footnotes to the tables.
Several tables present data from the Current Population Survey,
conducted monthly by the Bureau of the Census since 1947.
Originally, the Survey covered a representative sample of approximately 21,000 interviewed households in areas throughout the United
States. This sample was increased to approximately 35,000 in May
1956, and to approximately 50,000 in January 1967.
Exact agreement is not to be expected among the various samples,
nor between them and the complete census count, but the sample
data may be used with confidence where large numbers are involved,
and may be assumed to indicate patterns and relationships where
small numbers are involved. Detailed statements regarding the
sampling errors are given in the original sources.
Many errors appear in the census publications of 1790-1840. The
data for these censuses were adjusted by county and race, and the
revised figures were published in the 1870 census. Revised figures
by sex for the United States population by race for 1790-1840 were
published in the 1910 census. Official revisions by age have not been
made, and thus the 1790-1840 age data in this chapter for most raeesex groups add to totals which differ slightly from the revised figures
for race-sex groups.
The Bureau of the Census has always been concerned about the
degree of completeness of enumeration in the decennial censuses,
although public interest in census coverage and statistical techniques
for estimating coverage were quite limited prior to 1950. Discussions
of coverage in earlier censuses were limited mostly to qualitative
statements.



The quantitative evaluation of census coverage can be done at
the individual and aggregate levels. At the individual level, the
approaches include reinterview (e.g., postenumeration surveys) and
record checks (e.g., matching of census records and birth records).
At the aggregate level, the approaches include demographic analysis
(i.e., the use of data on births, deaths, and migration, and of life
tables, expected sex ratios, etc.) and the use of aggregated data from
administrative records (e.g., comparing the enrollment in "Medicare"
with the census count of the aged population).
In 1950, the postenumeration survey was thought to be a satisfactory method of determining net census underenumeration. The
number missed in the 1950 census was estimated at about 2.1 million,
or 1,4 percent with corresponding estimates of 1.6 percent for 1940
and 0.7 percent for 1930. However, demographers now generally
believe that postenumeration surveys tend to understate census
omissions because persons missed in a census have an above-average
probability of being missed in a postenumeration survey. Evaluations of census coverage now rely heavily on demographic analysis.
An analysis of coverage conducted in conjunction with the 1970
census shows the following estimates and revisions of net census
underenumeration: for 1970, 5.3 million, or 2.5 percent; for 1960, 5.1
million, or 2.7 percent; for 1950,5.1 million, or 3.3 percent. Analyses
of census coverage are subject to revision on the basis of additional
information and research.
While the earlier censuses no doubt were characterized by underenumeration, the amounts generally are difficult to determine. One
technique is the comparison of rates of change with respect to consistency and reasonableness. On this basis, it is believed that figures
for the South show unreasonably low rates of increase for the decade
1860-1870 and abnormally high rates of increase for 1870-1880. The
differences are so great that it appears evident that the enumeration
of 1870 in this area was seriously incomplete, undoubtedly as a result
of the unsettled conditions of the Reconstruction period. For the
portion of the United States outside the South, the rate of increase
for 1860-1870 was about the same as for 1870-1880. Therefore, the
number initially enumerated in 1870 for the South was revised upward. For a detailed discussion of the adjustment, see U.S. Census of
Population: 1890, vol. I, pp. xi-xii.
For analyses of the completeness of census enumerations from
1880 to 1970, see the following sources. Ansley J. Coale and Melvin
Zelnik, New Estimates of Fertility and Population in the United States
(Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey), 1963. Jacob
S. Siegel, "Estimates of Coverage of the Population by Sex, Race,
and Age in the 1970 Census," Demography, vol. 11, No. 1 (February
1974), pp. 1-23. Ansley J. Coale and Norfleet W. Rives, Jr., "A
Statistical Reconstruction of the Black Population of the United
States, 1880-1970: Estimates of True Numbers by Age and Sex, Birth
Rates, and Total Fertility," Population Index, vol. 39, No. 1 (January
1973), pp. 3-36.
A 1-5. Area and population of the United States, 1790-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1950, land area, U.S.
Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part A, p. 1-4; gross area, Historical
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, p. 8. 1960,
land area and gross area, Area Measurement Reports, GE-20, No. 1,
1970, p. 5. 1970, land area and gross area, U.S. Census of Population:
1970, vol. I, part A, section 1, pp. 1-41, 1-42. 1790-1960, population, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part A, p. 1-4. 1970,
population, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part A, section 1,
pp. 1-37, 1-42.
1

A 6-72

POPULATION

A 43-72. Number of places and population in urban and rural territory, by size of place, 1790-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1960, U.S. Census of
Population: 1960, vol. I, part A, pp. 1-13 to 1-15; 1970, U.S. Census
of Population: 1970, vol. I, part A, section 1, p. 1-46.
The Bureau of the Census has employed several definitions of
urban population. According to the definition adopted for use in
the 1970 census, the urban population comprises all persons living
in urbanized areas (see text for series A 82-90) and in places of 2,500
inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas. More specifically, the
urban population consists of all persons living in (a) places of 2,500
inhabitants or more incorporated as cities, villages, boroughs (except
Alaska), and towns (except in the New England States, New York,
A 6-8. Annual population estimates for the United States, 1790-1970.
and Wisconsin), but excluding those persons living in the rural
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1899, Historical Sta- portions of extended cities; (b) unincorporated places of 2,500 intistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957, p. 7; 1900-1970, habitants or more; and (c) other territory, incorporated or unincorporated, included in urbanized areas.
Current Population Reports, series P-25, No. 499, pp. 11-12.
In censuses prior to 1950, the urban population comprised all
The estimates are as of July 1, and thus figures for the resident persons living in incorporated places of 2,500 or more and areas
population for census years differ from decennial census populations. (usually minor civil divisions) classified as urban under special rules
Estimates prior to 1900 are based on linear interpolation between relating to population size and density. The most important comdecennial censuses. Estimates for the 1900-1919 period are based ponent of the urban territory in any definition is the group of inon interpolation techniques applied to census age data. Estimates corporated places having 2,500 inhabitants or more. A definition
for subsequent years are based on census data and information on of urban territory restricted to such places, however, would exclude
births, deaths, and international migration. For a discussion of the a number of large and densely settled areas merely because they are
methodology, see Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, not considered "incorporated places." Prior to 1950, an effort was
series P-25, No. 311, pp. 1-3.
made to avoid some of the more obvious omissions by inclusion of
Estimates subsequent to the 1960 census are preliminary and are selected areas which were classified as urban under special rules.
subject to revision on the basis of final estimates of births, deaths, Even with these rules, however, many large and closely built-up
and international migration for the 1960-1970 decade. These popu- areas were excluded from the urban territory.
lation estimates are controlled to 1970 census results, which are final,
To improve its measure of the urban population, the Bureau of the
and thus subsequent revisions in the preliminary estimates will Census adopted, in 1950, the concept of the urbanized area and debe small.
lineated, in advance of enumeration, boundaries for unincorporated
places. With the adoption of the urbanized area and unincorporated
A 9-22. Population of the United States and outlying areas, 1880- place concepts for the 1950 census, the urban population was defined
as all persons residing in urbanized areas and, outside these areas,
1970.
in all places incorporated or unincorporated, which had 2,500 inSource: U.S. Bureau of the Census. For the United States, see habitants or more. With the following two exceptions, the 1950
source for series A 1-5. For population abroad and other: U.S. definition of urban was continued substantially unchanged to 1960
Census of Population: 1910, vol. I, p. 23; 1920, vol. I, p. 13; 1950, and 1970. In 1960 (but not in 1970), certain towns in the New
vol. I, part A, p. 1-3; 1960, vol. I, part A, p. 1-3; 1970, vol. I, part A, England States, townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and
section 1, p. 1-41. For the Philippines, Historical Statistics of the counties elsewhere were designated as urban. However, most of the
United States, 1789-191+5, p. 25. For Puerto Rico and outlying areas, population of these "special rule" areas would have been classified as
U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part A, sections 1 and 2, urban in any event because they were residents of an urbanized area
or an unincorporated place of 2,500 or more.
pp. 3-7, 13-7, 53-9, 54-5, 56-5, 57-5, 55-5, and 58-9.
In all urban and rural definitions, the population not classified
as urban constitutes the rural population.
. A 23-28. Annual estimates of the population, by sex and race, 1900The first official publication of figures formally presenting the
1970.
urban population was made following the Census of 1870 in the
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1900-1949, Current Popula- Statistical Atlas of the United States. The population of cities and
tion Reports, series P-25, No. 311, pp. 24-123; 1950-1959, Current towns of 8,000 inhabitants or more was presented as the "urban
Population Reports, series P-25, No. 310, pp. 14-15, 30-31. 1960- population." In the reports of the 1880, 1890, and 1900 censuses,
1970, Current Population Reports, series P-25, No. 519, pp. 15-25. the urban population was variously defined as the population living
in places of 4,000 inhabitants or more, or 8,000 inhabitants or more.
Estimates by race for the 1960-1970 period are consistent with the The first publication in which the population of places having 2,500
20-percent sample data on race in the 1970 census. For a discussion inhabitants or more was officially designated as urban was the Suppleof the 1970 data and the definition of race, see text for series A 91-104. mentary Analysis of the Twelfth Census (1900), published in 1906.
For a discussion of methodology, see text for series A 6-8.
This definition, with minor modifications, was used in later censuses
up to and including 1940. For purposes of comparison, the data for
1950 were also tabulated in accordance with this urban definition.
A 29-42. Annual estimates of the population, by age, 1900-1970.
A time series on the urban population since 1790 according to the
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1900-1949, Current Popula- 1940 definition of urban was published in the 1940 census. These
tion Reports, series P-25, No. 311, pp. 24-123; 1950-1959, Current data are shown in series A 43-56 and A 57-72. Data on the urban
Population Reports, series P-25, No. 310, pp. 11, 14, 27, 30, and population by selected characteristics are not always available on
unpublished estimates; 1960-1970, Current Population Reports, series this basis, and thus the total urban populations shown in other tables
may differ slightly.
P-25, No. 519, pp. 15-25.
For detailed discussions of the urban definitions used up to 1940
For a discussion of methodology, see text for series A 6-8.
and of the major changes implemented in 1950, see Bureau of the
Area figures for each census year represent the conterminous area
under the jurisdiction of the United States, with the addition in 1960
and 1970 of Alaska and Hawaii. In some cases, large areas are included that were not yet settled or covered by the census. Area
figures prior to 1940 have been adjusted to bring them into agreement
with remeasurements made in 1940. For area measurements prior
to 1940, see text for series A 210-266. For a further discussion of
areas covered by the censuses, see U.S. Census of Population: 191+0,
Areas of the United States: 191+0, and U.S. Census of Population: 1950,
vol. I, p. XI. For a discussion of the revision of the 1870 census of
population, see U.S. Census of Population: 1890, vol. I, pp. xi-xii.

2




RESIDENCE, SEX, AND RACE
Census, Current Population Reports, series P-23, No. 1, "The Development of the Urban-Rural Classification in the United States:
1874 to 1949," and U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp.
XV-XVIII.
A 73-81.

Population, by type of residence, sex, and race, 1880-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1880-1900, Supplementary
Analysis of the Twelfth Census (1900), pp. 597-607, 632-642. 19101940, U.S. Census of Population: 19b0, vol. II, part 1, pp. 19-20.
1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 88, 91.
1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. 144, 359;
part 3, pp. 17,117-118; part 13, pp. 17, 113-114. 1970, U.S. Census
of Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, pp. 262, 380-381.
The rural population is subdivided into rural farm and rural nonfarm components. In 1960 and 1970, the farm population was defined
as persons living on places of 10 or more acres from which sales of
farm products amounted to $50 or more in the preceding calendar
year or on places of fewer than 10 acres from which sales of farm
products amounted to $250 or more in the preceding year. In 1950,
the farm population was defined as all persons living on farms and
depended on the respondent's conception of farm (or ranch) with the
exception that persons living on what might have been considered
farmland were classified as nonfarm if they paid cash rent for their
homes and yards only. In 1930 and 1940, the farm population comprised all persons living on farms and depended primarily upon the
interviewer's conception of what was meant by the word farm. In
1920, the farm population comprised all persons living on farms and
those farm laborers (and their families) who, while not living on a
farm, lived in rural, unincorporated territory. Farms were defined
in 1920 (as in the census of agriculture) to include all tracts of 3 acres
or more used for agricultural purposes and smaller tracts which produced as much as $250 worth of farm products in 1919 or required
for their agricultural operations the continuous services of at least
one person.
For further discussion, see U.S. Census of Population: 19S0, vol. II,
p. 8; U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 33-35;
U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. X X X V I I XXXVIII. See text for series A 43-56 for the definition of urban
and rural. See text for series A 91-104 for the definition of race.
A 82-90. Urban population, by type of residence, sex, and race, 19501970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1950, all races and white,
U.S. Census of the Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, p. 143; 1950, Negro
and other races, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, part 5,
chapter A, pp. 16-18. 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I,
part 1, p. 144; parts 3 and 13, p. 17. 1970, U.S. Census of Population:
1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, p. 262.
The first systematic attempt to define the metropolitan population
of the United States was presented in the 1910 census in which Metropolitan Districts were defined for cities of 200,000 or more. Each
Metropolitan District included contiguous minor civil divisions which
met certain rules of proximity and population density. The Metropolitan District concept was used with changes in definition up
through the 1940 census, when Metropolitan Districts were defined
for cities of 50,000 or more. Metropolitan Districts were seldom
cross-tabulated with census data on social and economic characteristics and thus were of limited usefulness.
In 1950, Metropolitan Districts were replaced in census reports by
Standard Metropolitan Areas (see text for series A 267-278) and
Urbanized Areas. Urbanized Areas, with minor changes in definition,
were delineated in the 1950, 1960, dnd 1970 censuses. In general,
an Urbanized Area is defined as a city of 50,000 or more (or twin
cities meeting this criterion) and surrounding closely settled areas,
including incorporated places and unincorporated territory. The
urban population can be divided into the Urbanized Area population



A 73-104

and the Other Urban population. The Urbanized Area population
can be further divided into Central City and Urban Fringe
components.
For a further discussion, see the following sources: U.S. Census of
Population: 1910, vol. I, pp. 73-77; U.S. Census of Population: 19S0,
Metropolitan Districts; U.S. Census of Population: 19^0, The Growth
of Metropolitan Districts in the United States: 1900-1910; U.S. Census
of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp. XXVII-XXVIII; U.S. Census of
Population: 1970, vol. I, part A, section 1, p. XIII.
See text for series A 43-56 for definition of urban and rural. See
text for series A 91-104 for definition of race.
A 91-104.

Population, by sex and race, 1790-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1920, U.S. Census of
Population: 1920, vol. II, p. 107; slave population, U.S. Census of
Population: 1870, vol. I, p. 7. 1930-1960, U.S. Census of Population:
1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. 144-145. 1970, U.S. Census of Population:
1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, p. 262.
The classification of the population by race reflects common usage
rather than an attempt to define biological stock. As a result, the
white and Negro populations usually have not been divided into
racial subgroups (although the white population has been classified
by ethnic origin), but American Indians and some Asian groups (e.g.,
Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, etc.) have typically been identified with country of origin.
Through 1950, the classification of the population by race was
usually obtained by the enumerator's observation. Persons of
mixed white and other parentage were usually classified with the
other race. A person of mixed parentage other than white was
usually classified by the race of his father, except that mixtures of
Negro and Indian were classified as Negro unless the Indian stock
was clearly predominant or unless the individual was accepted in
the community in which he resided as an Indian.
The category Indian included unmixed American Indians together with persons who were of mixed white and Indian Ancestry
if they were enrolled on an Indian reservation or agency roll. Persons
who were part Indian were included as Indian if they were onefourth or more Indian, or if they were regarded as Indians in the
community in which they resided.
In the 1960 census, data on race were collected by a combination
of self-classification, direct interview, and observation by the
enumerator; the classification rules were essentially the same as in
1950.
In the 1970 census, data on race were obtained primarily through
self-classification. In a change from earlier censuses, a person of
mixed white and other parentage who was in doubt as to his classification was classified according to the race of his father. It is believed
that self-identification of race may lead to a somewhat higher proportion of the population being classed in the "Other races" category
than does observation by the enumerator.
In the 1930 census, persons of Mexican origin were included with
"Other races"; however, the tables in this volume have been revised
to include Mexicans in the white population.
In the 1970 census, the edit and review of questionnaires were
not completed when the complete-count data were processed. As
a result, some information which pertained to nationality or ethnicity
was accepted as identifying race. For example, some persons who
classified themselves in the race item as Mexican or Spanish American
were thus included in the "Other races" population, but should have
been included in the white population. In the tabulation of sample
data, this error was corrected. The result in the case of 20-percent
sample data was that the population of "Other races" was reduced
from 2,882,662 to 2,555,872 (1,270,625 males and 1,285,247 females),
or by 326,790, which is roughly the amount added to the white
population in the sample tabulations.
The Census of 1860 was the first in which Indians were distinguished
from other classes in the population. Prior to 1890, enumeration of
3

A 105-159

POPULATION

Indians was limited to Indians living in the general population of the
various States; Indians in Indian Territory and on Indian reservations were excluded. In 1910, a special effort was made to secure a
complete enumeration of persons with any perceptible amount of
Indian ancestry. This probably resulted in the enumeration as
Indian of a considerable number of persons who would have been
reported as white in earlier censuses. There were no special efforts
in 1920, and the returns showed a much smaller number of Indians
than in 1910. Again in 1930, emphasis was placed on securing a complete count of Indians, with the result that the returns probably
overstated the decennial increase in the number of Indians.
For further discussion of race in census statistics, see U.S. Census
of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 35-36; 1960, vol. I, part 1,
pp. X L I - X L I I I ; 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 2, pp. App. 15-16.
A 105-118.

Foreign born population, by sex and race, 1850-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1850 and 1870, U.S. Census
of Population: 1870, vol. I, pp. 606-609, 614-615. 1860, white,
U.S. Census of Population: 1930, vol. II, p. 97. 1860, all races and
Negro, U.S. Census of Population: 1870, vol. I, pp. 610-613. 1880,
U.S. Census of Population: 1880, vol. I, pp. 542-545. 1890, all
races and white, U.S. Census of Population: 1890, vol. I, part 1,
pp. 486-487. 1890, other races, U.S. Census of Population: 1900,
vol. II, part II, p. xvii. 1900-1940, U.S. Census of Population: 19W,
vol. II, p. 19. 1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1,
p. 171. 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, p. 354;
part 3, p. 118; part 13, p. 115. 1970, U.S. Census of Population:
1970, vol. I, part 1, section 2, pp. 593-596.
The native born population is comprised of persons born in the
United States, or in outlying areas of the United States (see series
A 9-22) and persons born elsewhere to United States citizens. The
remainder of the population is foreign born. Through 1950, persons
for whom place of birth was not reported were included in the native
population. In 1960 and 1970, such persons were classified as native
unless their census report contained contradictory information, such
as an entry of a language spoken prior to coming to the United
States.
The outlying areas are as defined at each census. Thus, persons
born in the Philippines (which was granted independence in 1946)
were classified as native born in 1940 and foreign born in 1950.
A 119-134.

Population, by age, sex, race, and nativity, 1790-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1) For all races, white, Negro,
other races, free Negro, and slave: 1790-1840, U.S. Census of Popuation: 18^0, Compendium (Blair and Rives edition), pp. 96-98,
366-371. 1850-1870, U.S. Census of Population: 1870, vol. II, pp.
552-558. 1880-1950, all races and white, U.S. Census of Population:
1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 93-94. 1890-1930, Negro, U.S. Census of
Population: 1930, vol. II, p. 580. 1890-1930, other races—by subtraction of Negro (as cited) from Negro and other races (U.S. Census
of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 93-94). 1940, Negro and
other races, U.S. Census of Population: 19i0, vol. II, part 1, p. 22.
1950, Negro and other races, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol.
II, part 1, p. 172. 1960, all races and white, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. 153-154; parts 3 and 13, pp. 23-24.
1960, Negro and other races, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I,
part 1, p. 359; part 3, p. 117; part 13, p. 113. 1970, U.S. Census of
Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, pp. 269-296. (2) For
foreign-born white: 1870, U.S. Census of Population: 1870, vol. II,
p. 553. 1880, U.S. Census of Population: 1880, vol. I, pp. 549, 551.
1890-1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, part 3, chapter
A, p. 16. 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1,
pp. 354, 359. 1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1,
section 2, p. 591.
The censuses of 1790-1840 contain numerous inconsistencies and
other errors. Total population by race (including a division of the
4



Negro population into free and slave) for each State and county were
corrected in U.S. Census of Population: 1870, vol. I, pp. xliv-xlix,
3-8. Adjusted totals by sex appear in U.S. Census of Population:
1920, vol. II, p. 107; however, the age data were not adjusted, and
thus the totals in series A 119-134, which are consistent with the
age data shown, differ slightly in some cases from the totals in series
A 91-104.
See text for series A 91-104 and A 105-118 for definitions of race
and nativity.
A 135-142. Native born white population, by sex and parentage,
1850-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1850-1880, U.S. Census of
Population: 1930, vol. II, pp. 33, 97. 1890-1930, U.S. Census of
Population: 1950, vol. IV, part 3, chapter A, p. 11. 1940, parentage,
U.S. Census of Population: 19i0, Nativity and Parentage of the White
Population, p. 7; total native population, U.S. Census of Population:
191f0, vol. II, part 1, p. 19. 1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950,
vol. IV, part 3, chapter A, p. 11. 1960, parentage, U.S. Census of
Population: 1960, PC(2)-1A, p. 2; total native population, U.S.
Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. 354, 359. 1970, U.S.
Census of Population: 1970, Final Report PC(2)-1A, National Origin
and Language, p. 1.
The procedures for determining the nativity of parents are generally
the same as those for determining the nativity of the individual himself. The native-born population can be subdivided into native born
of native (American) parents, native born of mixed parentage (one
American parent and one foreign-born parent), and native born of
foreign parentage (both parents foreign born).
The figures for total native-born population in series A 135-142
and the figures for foreign-born population in series A 105-118 for each
year are from the same census count or sample. For 1850-1940,
these are complete-count data which add to the totals in series A
91-104. For 1950-1970, these are sample data which do not agree
with the totals in A 91-104.
Similarly, the figures by parentage in A 135-142 for each year are
from the same census count or sample. For 1870-1930, these are
complete-count data which add to the totals in A 135-142. For
1940-1970, these are sample data which add to the totals in A 135-142
only when all figures are from the same tabulation of the same sample.
A 143-157. Median age of the population, by race, sex, and nativity,
1790-1970.
Source: Derived from series A 119-134.
The median age is that age which divides the population into
two equal groups, one half being older and one half being younger.
Medians have been computed on the basis of the population for
which age is available and on the assumption that population is
evenly distributed within the age groups shown in series A 119-134.
In most cases, the median falls in a 5-year age group, and the assumption of linearity introduces little error. In cases where the median
falls near the center of a large age span (e.g., Negro in 1830 and 1840),
this assumption may introduce considerable error. The fluctuations
in median ages for the "Other races" population are due in part to
changing race composition (e.g., the majority of the Indian population
was not included in tabulations by age until 1900).
A 158-159.

Median age at first marriage, by sex, 1890-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
series P-20, No. 242, "Marital Status and Living Arrangements:
March 1972," p. 2.
The median age at first marriage, as shown here, is an approximation derived indirectly from tabulations of marital status and age.
(See source for detailed explanation of computation procedures.)
These estimates differ from those based on annual marriage records
or census questions on age at first marriage. The median age at

AGE, SEX, AND RESIDENCE
first marriage shown here can be interpreted as applying to the cohort
born " n " years earlier, where " n " is the median age at first marriage.
Estimates from 1947 to 1970 are subject to sampling variability.
A 160-171.
1970.

A 160-263

For definition of residence, see text for series A 43-56; for definition of race, see text for series A 91-104; for definition of nativity, see
text for series A 105-118. See also general note for series A 1-371
and text for -series A 195-209.

Marital status of the population, by age and sex, 1890-

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1890-1950, U.S. Census of
Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 179-181; 1960, U.S. Census of
Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. 424-425; 1970, U.S. Census of
Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 2, pp. 640-641.
Marital status (single, married, widowed, and divorced) represents
the status of persons at the time of the enumeration. Persons classified as "married" include those who have been married only once,
remarried after having been widowed or divorced, separated, and
living in common-law marriages. Persons reported as never married
or with annulled marriages are classified as single. Since it is probable that some divorced persons are reported as single, married, or
widowed, the census figures may understate somewhat the actual
number of divorced persons who have not remarried.
A 172-194. Population of regions, by sex, race, residence, age, and
nativity, 1790-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Series A 172 and A 178-179,
U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part A, tables 8 and 18.
Series A 173-177 and A 184-189, 1790-1830, Fifth Census of the
United States: 1830; 1840, Sixth Census of the United States: 181+0;
1850, Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, table 1; 1860, Eighth
Census of the United States: 1860, table 1; 1870-1890, Sixteenth Census
of the United States: 191+0, Population, vol. II, parts 1-7, table 4;
1900-1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, parts 1-52. Series
A 180-183, 1900-1920, Fourteenth Census of the United States: 1920,
vol. I l l , table 1; 1930, Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930,
vol. I l l , part 1, table 40; 1940, Sixteenth Census of the United States:
191+0, vol. II, part 2; 1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II,
part 1, table 60; 1960-1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I,
part 1, section 1, table 55. Series A190-194,1850-1870, Ninth Census
of the United States: 1870, vol. I, table VI; 1880, Tenth Census of the
United States: 1880, tables X I I and X I X ; 1960, U.S. Census of
Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, table 108; 1970, U.S. Census of
Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, table 141. Series A 190192, 1890-1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special
Reports, part 3, table 2. Series A 193-194, 1890, Twelfth Census of the
United States: 1900, vol. I, part 1, tables 11 and 15; 1900-1940, Sixteenth Census of the United States: 191+0, vol. II, parts 1-7, table 4;
1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, table 54.
The divisional and State composition of census regions is as follows:
Northeast Region:
New England Division:
Maine
New Hampshire
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
Middle Atlantic Division:
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
North Central Region:
E a s t North Central Division:
Ohio
Indiana
Illinois
Michigan
Wisconsin
West North Central Division:
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
South Region:
South Atlantic Division:
Delaware
Maryland
District of Columbia
Virginia




South Region—Con.
South Atlantic Division—Con.
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Florida
East South Central Division:
Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama
Mississippi
West South Central Division:
Arkansas
Louisiana
Oklahoma
Texas
West Region:
Mountain Division:
Montana
Idaho
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
Arizona
Utah
Nevada
Pacific Division:
Washington
Oregon
California
Alaska
Hawaii

A 195-209. Population of States by sex, race, urban-rural residence,
and age, 1790-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Series A 195 and A 202-203,
U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, tables 8 and
18. Series A 196, 1790-1890, Fourteenth Census of the United States:
1920, Population, table 18; 1900-1910, Census of Population: 1950, vol.
II, part 1, table 9; 1920-1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I,
part 1, section 1, table 11. Series A 197-201 and A 204-209, 17901830, Fifth Census of the United States: 1830; 1840, Sixth Census of the
United States: 181+0; 1850, Seventh Census of the United States: 1850,
table 1; 1860, Eighth Census of the United States: 1860, table 1; 18701890, Sixteenth Census of the United States: 191+0, Population, vol. II,
parts 1-7, table 4; 1900-1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I,
parts 1-52.
For a discussion of changes in State boundaries, see U.S. Census of
Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, pp. XVI-XVIII.
For definition of residence, see text for series A 43-56; for definition
of race, see text for series A 91-104. See also general note for series
A 1-371.
A 210-263. Land area of the United States, by States and territories,
1790-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1920, Fourteenth Census
of the United States: 1920, vol. I, Population, table 14; 1930, Fifteenth
Census of the United States, 1930, vol. I, Population, table 7; 1940,
Sixteenth Census of the United States: 191+0, Areas of the United States,
191+0, table 1; 1950, Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, Characteristics
of the Population, part 1, U.S. Summary, table 9; 1960, Area Measurement Reports, 1960, series GE-20; 1970, U.S. Census of Population:
1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, table 11.
Area measurements of the States and former territories rest on three
periods of measurement. The first period is for the 1880 Census of
Population when, under Henry Gannett, Census Geographer, "the
foundation for accurate and detailed area measurement in the United
States" was laid (Proudfoot, Measurement of Geographic Area, 1946,
p. 27). The second period is for the 1940 census when, under
Batschelet and Proudfoot, a basic remeasurement of all the areas was
accomplished, which still remains the basis for subsequent remeasurements. The third period was during the 1960's when remeasurements
of land and water areas based on the 1940 total or gross areas were
undertaken with the use of recent maps and greatly improved measurement techniques.
Remeasurements of land and water areas between and since those
three periods occurred but they were largely in terms of adjusting
the earlier figures because of relatively minor boundary changes or
because of land and water changes resulting mainly from the construction of known dams and reservoirs.
According to the 1940 definitions of land and water areas (used also
in the 1960's), ponds, lakes, or similar areas were counted as inland
water if their areas were 40 acres or more; streams and canals had
to be 3^-mile or more in width to be counted. All other areas were
tabulated as land with the exception of "water other than inland
water" such as the Great Lakes, coastal waters, bays, etc. The
definitions were based on maps, not on inspection of the surface of the
earth. Accordingly, features such as new reservoirs which were not
shown in the maps used in the measurement work were reported as
land rather than water.
The land areas shown for the United States, which are consistent
with data available for States and territories, differ slightly from the
figures shown in series A 1-5. The latter figures reflect adjustments
made only at the national level in conjunction with remeasurements
made in 1940.
5

A 264-319

POPULATION

A 264-275. Number and population of standard metropolitan statistical areas, as defined in 1950, 1960, and 1970, by region and size,
1950-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1950 delineations, U.S.
Census of Population: 1950, vol. I, pp. 1-66 to 1-73; 1960 delineations,
U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part A, pp. 1-100 to 1-111;
1970 delineations, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part A,
section 1, pp. 1-171 to 1-186.
Standard Metropolitan Areas (SMA's) were first defined in conjunction with the 1950 census. The concept was continued with
some changes in definition in the 1960 and 1970 censuses, although
the title was changed to Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(SMSA's). (For a discussion of other definitions of the metropolitan
population, see text for series A 82-90).
Except in the New England States, a standard metropolitan
statistical area is a county or group of contiguous counties which
contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or "twin
cities" with a combined population of at least 50,000. In addition to
the county, or counties, containing such a city or cities, contiguous
counties are included in an SMSA if, according to certain criteria,
they are socially and economically integrated with the central county.
In the New England States, SMSA's consist of towns and cities instead
of counties. Each SMSA must include at least one central city,
and the complete title of an SMSA identifies the central city or cities.
The population of SMSA's can be divided into the portions living
Inside Central Cities and Outside Central Cities. For a detailed
description of the official criteria for defining SMSA's in the 1970
census, see Bureau of the Budget (now U.S. Office of Management
and Budget), Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1967.
Urbanized Areas, as discussed in the text for series A 82-90,
and SMSA's differ considerably. An Urbanized Area represents the
physical or continuously built-up urban area without regard for
political boundaries. SMSA's conform to political boundaries. It
is thus possible to assemble historical series for SMSA's as defined
at a specified time; however, SMSA's include substantial rural population, especially when the current definition is used to present information for an earlier date. In 1970, 12 percent of the SMSA
population was rural, and 30 percent of the rural population of the
United States was included in SMSA's. See U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, section 1, pp. 1-206 to 1-212. For a discussion of the criteria for defining SMSA's and the inconsistencies in
the application of these criteria, see Ira Rosenwaike, "A Critical
Examination of the Designation of Standard Metropolitan Statistical
Areas," Social Forces, vol. 48, No. 3 (March 1970), pp. 322-333.
A 276-287. Population of standard metropolitan statistical areas, by
region, size, and race, 1950-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, parts 2-50 (State reports), table 34; 1960, U.S.
Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, parts 2-52 (State reports), table 21;
1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, parts 2-50 (State
reports), table 23.
A 288-319. Households, families, subfamilies, married couples, and
unrelated individuals, 1790-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1880, Twelfth Census
Special Reports, A Century of Population Growth, 1790-1900; 18901930, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports,
General Characteristics of Families; 1940-1970, Current Population
Reports, series P-20, Nos. 176 and 251.
According to the 1970 Census Bureau definition, a household
consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A house,
an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room is regarded
as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as
separate living quarters; that is, when the occupants do not live and
eat with any other persons in the structure and there is either (1)
6



direct access from the outside or through a common hall or (2) a
kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants.
A household includes the related family members and all the unrelated
persons, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees
who share the housing unit. A person living alone in a housing unit,
or a group of unrelated persons sharing a housing unit as partners,
is also counted as a household.
Households classified as having a male head include those where
the head of the household is a married man whose wife lives with him
and all other households with a male designated as head. Female
household heads include women who are not married or not living
with their husbands and who are designated as household heads.
The count of households excludes group quarters (referred to as
"quasi-households" in the previous edition of Historical Statistics),
which are living arrangements for institutional inmates, regardless
of the number of inmates, or for other groups containing 5 or more
persons unrelated to the person in charge.
The figures for number of households are not strictly comparable
from year to year. In general, the definitions of household for 1790,
1900, 1930, 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970 are similar. Very minor
differences result from the fact that in 1950, 1960, and 1970, housing
units with 5 or more lodgers were excluded from the count of households, whereas in 1930 and 1940, housing units with 11 lodgers or
more were excluded, and in 1790 and in 1900, no precise definition
of the maximum allowable number of lodgers was made. The definition of household for 1850-1890, 1910, and 1920 differs slightly from
that given above. For these years, no distinction was made between
households and group quarters (quasi-households), and thus the
numbers include both households and group quarters.
In 1950-1970, the number of households was equal, by definition,
to the number of occupied housing units enumerated for housing
statistics. In 1940, the definition of household was not completely
the same as that of occupied housing units. In that year there were
95,000 more households than occupied housing units.
Average size figures were computed by dividing the total population
(the total free population for 1790, 1850, and 1860) by the number of
household heads. The number of household heads for 1850-1890,
1910, and 1920 also includes the heads of group quarters (quasihouseholds). Since these are such a small fraction of the total number
of household heads, the population per household is only slightly
affected by a change in definition for these years.
Data for families are shown only for 1940 and later years. Prior
to 1940 the concept of "family" was basically synonymous with the
present concept of "household" wherein a family comprised the
head of a household and all other members of the household related
to the head. Under this definition, a head of a household living
alone was counted as a family but a mutually related group of lodgers
or resident employees was not counted as a family.
The term "family," as shown here, refers to a group of two or more
persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and residing together
in a household. A primary family consists of the head of a household
and all other persons in the household related to the head. A
secondary family comprises two or more persons such as guests,
lodgers, or resident employees and their relatives, living in a household and related to each other.
A subfamily is a married couple with or without children, or one
parent with one or more unmarried children under 18 years old, living
in a household and related to, but not including, the head of the
household or his wife. Members of a subfamily are also members of
the primary family with whom they live. The number of subfamilies,
therefore, is not included in the number of families.
A married couple is defined as a husband and his wife living together in the same household, with or without children and other
relatives.
Unrelated individuals refers to persons (other than inmates of
institutions) who are not living with any relatives. A primary individual is a household head living alone or with nonrelatives only. A
secondary individual in a household is a person such as a guest, lodger,

A 320-371

HOUSEHOLDS, FAMILIES, AND INSTITUTIONS
or resident employee who is not related to any other person in the
household. Persons in group quarters, except inmates of institutions,
are classified as secondary individuals.
Selected data for 1940-1970, which are from the Current Population
Reports, have been revised on the basis of new population controls
from the 1960 and 1970 censuses. The revisions have been made
only for series A 288-319 and A 353-358 and, therefore, the data,
especially for 1961-1970, are not comparable with those in series
A 320-334, A 335-349, and A 350-352.
A 320-334.

Households, by race, sex, and age of head, 1890-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1890, Eleventh Census Reports, Farms and Homes: Proprietorship and Indebtedness; 1900,
Twelfth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, part 2; 1910-1940,
Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. VI, and Sixteenth Census
Reports, Population, Families—Size of Family and Age of Head and
Population—Characteristics of the Nonwhite Population by Race; 1950,
U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, General
Characteristics of Families; 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960,
vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, part 1, U.S. Summary; 19651970, Current Population Reports, series P-20.
See text for series A 91-104 and A 288-319.
A 335-349.

Households, by number of persons, 1790-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1790-1940, unpublished,
computed from household data compiled from the decennial censuses;
1950-1970, Current Population Reports, series P-20.
See text for series A 288-319.
A 350-352.

Households, by residence, 1900-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports.
1900-1946, series P-20, No. 92; 1947-1949, series P-20, No. 59; 19501970, series P-20, Nos. 176, 200, and 218.
See text for series A 288-319 for definition of household, and
A 43-56 for definition of residence.
Data for 1900-1946 represent estimates of the number of married
women with their spouses in their own households, and the number
of household heads in the remaining population. These estimates
were based on available census and survey data and on additional
information on construction activity, vacancy rates, marriage rates,
divorce rates, economic indexes, etc. Although the figures are shown
as of a given date, they should be regarded as an approximation of
the annual average number of households.
The estimates by residence were made by subdividing the total
into farm and nonfarm components, using estimates of the average
size of farm households in conjunction with annual estimates of the
farm population (see joint report of Bureau of the Census and Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, Estimates of the Farm Population: 1910 to

• • • • • • • • • •
•
•
*
*

1950, series Census-BAE, No. 16A). Since the annual changes in
the number of households which are implied in these series may be
subject to substantial sampling variability, caution should be used
in the interpretation of small changes.
The farm household series for 1910-1946 relates to the total farm
population, whereas that for 1947-1970 relates to the rural-farm
population. There were 88,000 urban-farm households in 1940 and
96,000 in 1950.
A 353-358. Families and percent distribution of own children under
18 years old, 1950-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
series P-20.
See text for series A 288-319.
Data for 1955-1970 have been revised on the basis of new population controls from the 1960 and 1970 censuses.
A 359-371. Inmates of institutions, by sex, race, age, and type of
institution, 1940-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1940, U.S. Census of Population: 19i0, Institutional Population, p. 10; 1950, U.S. Census of
Population: 1950, vol. IV, part 2, chapter C, Institutional Population,
pp. 15-17; 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, Final Report
PC(2)-8A, Inmates of Institutions, pp. 3-5, 7, and 12; 1970, U.S.
Census of Population: 1970, Final Report PC(2)-4E, Persons in Institutions and Other Group Quarters, pp. 2-3, 5, 7, 11, and 21.
In the 1970 census, "inmates of institutions" were defined as
persons under care or custody in institutions at the time of enumeration, regardless of their length of stay in that place and regardless of
the number of people in that place. Statistics shown in this table
for 1960 are based on similar criteria with the exception of "length of
stay" as a criterion for defining inmates in 1960. Differences in the
classification and definition of inmates between the 1950 and 1960
censuses are minimal and, thus, the estimates for both dates are
comparable. However, several major differences exist between the
estimates of inmates for 1940 and those for later years: In 1940 the
coverage of inmates was for the population 14 years old and over
rather than for all ages; inmates in tuberculosis hospitals were excluded from the 1940 inmate count; and a more detailed classification
of inmates in homes for the aged and dependent was designed following
the 1940 census which enabled enumerators in subsequent censuses
to increase the field coverage in this area, particularly with respect
to such places as commercial boarding homes for the aged, and rest,
convalescent, and nursing homes.
Although data on types of institutions are generally comparable
for each year shown, it should be noted that the use of progressively
refined techniques to identify types of institutions in each census
since 1940 has resulted in more inclusive and definitive classification
of these types.

More R e c e n t D a t a f o r Historical

Statistics

Series

• • • • • • • • • •
•

Statistics for more recent years in continuation of many of the still-active series shown here appear
in annual issues of the Statitticai Abttract of the United States, beginning with the 1975 edition. For
direct linkage of the historical series to the tables in the Abttract, see Appendix I in the Abttract.

•




*
*
*

*

7

POPULATION

A 1-8

Series A 1-5. Area and Population of the United States: 1790 to 1970
Population
Land
area 1
(square
miles)

Year

Population

Increase from preceding
census
Number
Number

1970
1960
1960
1950
1940

(Apr.
(Apr.
(Apr.
(Apr.
(Apr.

1)
1) * —
1)
1)
1)

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

(Apr. 1)
(Jan. 1)
(Apr. 15)
(June 1)
(June 1)

3

2

1

Percent!
4

Per square
mile of
land area

Land
area 1
(square
miles)

Year

Number
5

1

23,912,123
28,625,814
27,766,875
19,028,086
8,894,229

13.3
19.0
18.4
14.5
7.2

57.6
50.6
60.1
50.7
44.2

1880
1870
1860
1850
1840

(June
(June
(June
(June
(June

1)...
1)...
1)___
1)._.
1).„

2,969,640
2,969,640
2,969,640
2,940,042
1,749,462

2,977,128 122,775,046
2,969,451 105,710,620
2,969,565 91,972,266
2,969,834
75,994,575
2,969,640 62,947,714

17,064,426
13,738,364
16,977,691
13,046,861
12,791,931

16.1
14.9
21.0
20.7
25.5

41.2
35.6
31.0
25.6
21.2

1830
1820
1810
1800
1790

(June
(Aug.
(Aug.
(Aug.
(Aug.

1)___
7)
6)__.
4)...
2)...

1,749,462
1,749,462
1,681,828
864,746
864,746

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
X Not applicable.
1
Gross area (including inland water) in square miles: 1790-1800—888,811; 1810—
1,716,003; 1820-1840—1,788,006; 1850—2,992,747; 1860-1950—3,022,387; 1960
conterminous—3,022,261; 1960 including Alaska and Hawaii—3,615,123; 1970—
3,615,122.

Total
resident
population

4

Per square
land area

5

50,155,783
39,818,449
31,443,321
23,191,876
17,069,463

10,337,334
8,375,128
8,251,445
6,122,423
4,203,433

26.0
26.6
35.6
35.9
32.7

16.9
13.4
10.6
7.9
9.8

12,866,020
9,638,453
7,239,881
5,308,483
3,929,214

3,227,567
2,398,572
1,931,398
1,379,269
(X)

33.6
33.1
36.4
35.1
(X)

7.4
5.5
4.3
6.1
4.5

2

Based on interval since preceding census which is not always exactly 10 years,
a Official resident population. 1970 census tables show a population of 203,211,926.
The net difference of 23,372 reflects errors found after the tabulations were completed.
4
Conterminous United States (excludes Alaska and Hawaii).
5
Revised to include adjustment of 1,260,078 for underenumeration in the Southern
States. Unrevised census count is 38,558,371. See text.

Annual Population Estimates for the United States: 1790 to 1970

[In thousands.
Total,
including
Armed
Forces

6

Percents

3

2

3,536,855 3 203,235,298
3,540,911 179,323,175
2,968,054 178,464,236
2,974,726 150,697,361
2,977,128 131,669,275

Series A 6-8.

Increase from preceding
census

Number

As of July 1.

Civilian
resident
population

204,879
202,677
200,706
198,712
196,560
194,303

203,810
201,385
199,399
197,457
195,576
193,526

201,722
199,145
197,113
195,264
193,420
191,606

191,889
189,242
186,538
183,691
180,671
177,830

191,141
188,483
185,771
182,992
179,979
177,135

189,141
186,493
183.677
181,143
178,140
175,277

177,073
174,141
171.274
168,221
165.275

176,289
173,320
170,371
167,306
164,308

174,521
171,486
168,400
165,373
162,311

162,391
159,565
156,964
154,287
151,684

161,164
158,242
165,687
153,310
151,235

159,059
155,975
153,292
151,009
150,203

149,188
146,631
144,126
141,389
139,928

148,665
146,093
143,446
140,054
132,481

147.678
146,168
142,566
138,385
127,673

138,397
136,739
134,860
133,402
132,122

132,885
134,245
133,920
133,121
131,954

126,708
127,499
130,942
131,595
131,658

131,028
129,969
128,961
128,181
127,362

130,880
129,825
128,825
128,053
127,250

130,683
129,635
128,639
127,879
127,099

126,485
125,690
124,949
124,149
123,188

126,374
125,579
124,840
124,040
123,077

Year

1960-1970, preliminary; for description of estimates, see text]

Total
resident
population

Year

Total
resident
population

Year

Total
resident
population

Year

1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.

121,767
120,509
119,035
117,397
116,829

1894.
1893.
1892.
1891.
1890.

68,276
66,970
65,666
64,361
63,056

1869.
1858.
1857.
1856.
1855.

30,687
29,862
29,037
28,212
27,386

1824.
1823.
1822.
1821.
1820.

1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.

114,109
111,947
110,049
108,538
106,461

1889.
1888.
1887.
1886.
1885.

61,775
60,496
59,217
57,938
56,658

1854.
1853.
1852.
1851.
1850.

26,561
25,736
24,911
24,086
23,261

1819.
1818.
1817.
1816.
1815.

104,514
103,208
103,268
101,961
100,646

1884.
1883.
1882.
1881.
1880.

55,379
54,100
52,821
51,542
50,262

1849.
1848
1847
1846
1846

22,631
22,018
21,406
20,794
20,182

1814.
1813.
1812.
1811.
1810.

1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.

99,111
97,225
95,335
93,863
92,407

1879
1878
1877
1876
1875

49,208
48,174
47,141
46,107
45,073

1844
1843
1842
1841
1840

19,569
18,957
18,345
17,733
17,120

1809.
1808.
1807.
1806
1805.

1909
1908
1907.
1906.
1905.

90,490
88,710
87,008
86,450
83,822

1874
1873
1872
1871
1870

44,040
43,006
41,972
40,938
39,905

1839
1838
1837
1836.
1835.

16,684
16,264
15,843
15,423
15,003

1804.
1803
1802.
1801.
1800.

1904
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.

82,166
80,632
79,163
77,584
76,094

1869.
1868
1867.
1866
1865.

39,051
38,213
37,376
36,538
35,701

1834
1833
1832
1831
1830

14,582
14,162
13,742
13,321
12,901

1799
1798.
1797.
1796
1795

1899.
1898.
1897.
1896.
1895.

74,799
73,494
72,189
70,885
69,580

1864
1863.
1862.
1861.
1860.

34,863
34,026
33,188
32,351
31,513

1829
1828
1827
1826.
1825

12,565
12,237
11,909
11,580
11,252

1794
1793
1792
1791
1790

126,228
125,436
124,694
123,886
122,923

1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.
1915.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

8



1
1
1

1
Total population, including Armed Forces overseas (in thousands); 1917—103,414;
1918—104,550; 1919—105,063. Civilian population (in thousands): 1917—102,796;
1918—101,488; 1919—104,158.

OUTLYING AREAS—SEX AND RACE

Series A 9-22.

A 9-28

Population of the United States and Outlying Areas: 1880 to 1970
Outlying areas

United
States 1

Total

Population
abroad 2
Total

Alaska

1

Hawaii1

Philippines 3

Puerto
Rico

Guam

American
Samoa

203,235,298
179,323,175
150,697,361
131,669,275
122,775,046

1,737,836 3,026,690
1,374,421 2,587,413
»481,545 3 , 0 5 4 , 3 2 8
118,933 18,834,546
8 9 , 4 5 3 15,574,570

128,643
» 72,524
" 59,278

118,107,855
102,370,018
84,371,985
62,979,766
50,189,209

105,710,620
91,972,266
75,994,575
62,947,714
50,155,783

117,238 1 2 , 2 7 9 , 9 9 7
55,608 1 0 , 3 4 2 , 1 4 4
91,219 8 , 2 8 6 , 1 9 1
32,052
33,426

55,036
64,356
63,592
32,052
33,426

2,712,033
2,349,544
2,210,703
1,869,255
1,543,913

84,996
67,044
59,498
22,290
18,509

255,881 1 0 , 5 9 9 , 0 0 0 1 , 2 9 9 , 8 0 9
191,874 8,886,000 1,118,012
154,001 7 , 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 " 953,243

13,275
11,806
" 9,676

499,794
422,770 1 6 , 3 5 6 , 0 0 0
368,300 1 3 , 5 1 3 , 0 0 0

1
Alaska a n d Hawaii included with outlying areas through 1950 a n d with United
S t a t e s t h e r e a f t e r . Alaska's population n o t e n u m e r a t e d in 1870 census.
2
Excludes U.S. citizens temporarily abroad on private business, travel, etc.
3
E s t i m a t e s derived b y extrapolation a n d interpolation of censuses of 1903, 1918,
a n d 1939. T h e Philippines became independent in 1946.
1
Official 1970 resident population. See series A 1 - 5 , footnote 3.
6
Includes M i d w a y (2,220), W a k e (1,647), J o h n s t o n (1,007), a n d Swan (22) Islands.
6
P o p u l a t i o n a s of 1958 census.
' I n c l u d e s M i d w a y (2,356), Corn (1,872), W a k e (1,097), C a n t o n (320), J o h n s t o n
(156), a n d Swan (28) Islands.
8
E s t i m a t e based on 20-percent sample of reports received.

Series A 23-28.
[In t h o u s a n d s .

As of J u l y 1.

20

27,159
20,051
18,937
12,908
10,055

44,198
42,122
52,822
51,827
39,467

8,056
7,251
5,679

"62,810

15

Trust
Territory
of t h e
Pacific
Islands

22,858

62,468
32,099
26,665
24,889
22,012
14

90,940
• 70,724
9
54,843

26,051

9
E s t i m a t e d civilian population as of J u n e 30, 1950.
10
Includes Corn (1,304), M i d w a y (416), W a k e (349), C a n t o n (272), J o h n s t o n (46),
and Swan (36) Islands.
11
Census t a k e n as of October 1 of preceding year.
12
Includes Corn (1,523), M i d w a y (437), J o h n s t o n (69), C a n t o n and E n d e r b u r y
(44), and Baker, H o w l a n d , a n d Jarvis (10) Islands.
13
P o p u l a t i o n for M i d w a y Islands.
14
P o p u l a t i o n a s of 1917 census.
16
P o p u l a t i o n a s of 1912 census.
16
Population as of 1899 census.
17
Population as of 1901 census.

Annual Estimates of the Population, by Sex and Race: 1900 to 1970

1900-1939, resident population; 1940-1970, total population, including Armed Forces overseas.
of estimates, see text for series A 6-8]
Sex

1960-1970, preliminary; for description

Sex

Race

Race

Total

Total

Male

Female

White

Negro

Female

White

Negro
a n d other

24

Year
Male

25

26

27-28

Other
23

100,266
99,287
98,426
97,564
96.620
95,609

104,613
103,390
102,280
101,148
99,941
98,694

179,491
177,782
176,246
174,695
172,998
171,205

22,787
22,431
22,117
21,780
21,434
21,064

2,600
2,464
2,343
2,237
2,129
2,034

191,889
189,242
186,538
183,691
180,671
177,830

94,518
93,303
92,066
90,740
89,320
87,995

97,371
95,939
94,472
92,952
91,352
89,834

169,257
167,104
164,885
162,533
160,023
157,655

20,672
20,255
19,852
19,437
19,006
20,175

1,960
1,882
1,801
1,721
1,642

177,073
174,141
171.274
168,221
165.275

87.621
86,236
84,892
83,434
82,030

89,453
87,905
86,382
84,786
83,246

157,368
154.922
152,512
149.923
147,428

19,706
19,220
18,762
18,298
17,847

162,391
159,565
156,954
154,287
151,684

80,647
79,295
78,061
76,792
75,539

81,744
80,270
78,893
77,496
76,146

144,981
142,573
140,344
138,049
135,814

17,409
16,991
16,609'
16,238
15,870

149,188
146,631
144,126
141,389
139,928

74,335
73,130
71,946
70,631
70,035

74,853
73,502
72,180
70,757
69,893

133,598
131.308
129,059
126,565
125,266

15,590
15,323
15,067
14,824
14,662

138,397
136,739
134,860
133,402
132,122

69,378
68,546
67,597
66,920
66,352

69,020
68,194
67,263
66,482
65,770

124,009
122,605
120,992
119,731
118,629

14,388
14,134
13,868
13,671
13,494

130.880
129,825
128,825
128,053
127,250

65,713
65,235
64,790
64,460
64,110

65,166
64,590
64,035
63,594
63,140

117,524
116,592
115,706
115,022
114.309

13,355
13,233
13,118
13,031
12,941

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.
1
E s t i m a t e s including Armed Forces overseas, in t h o u s a n d s : 1917- -103,414; 1918—
104,550; 1919—105,063.

1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.

126,374
125,579
124,840
124,040
123,077

63,726
63,384
63,070
62,726
62,297

62,648
62,195
61,770
61,314
60,780

113,527
112,815
112,154
111,433
110,559

12,847
12,764
12,686
12,606
12,518

1929
1928.
1927.
1926.
1925

121,767
120,509
119,035
117,397
115,829

61,680
61,101
60,397
59,588
58,813

60,087
59,408
58,638
57,809
57,016

109,383
108,244
106,941
105,468
104,061

12,384
12,265
12,094
11,929
11,768

1924
1923.
1922
1921
1920.

204.879
202,677
200,706
198,712
196,560
194,303




Virgin
Islands

19
207,999,824
183,285,009
154,233,234
150,622,754
138,439,069

Canal
Zone

114,109
111,947
110,049
108,538
106,461

57,985
56,861
55,886
55,292
54,291

56,124
55,086
54,163
53,246
52,170

102,512
100,510
98,768
97,416
95,510

11,597
11,437
11,281
11,122
10,951

53,103
51,974
52,788
52,234
51,573

51,411
51,234
50,480
49,727
48,973

93,684
92,352
92,435
91,196
89,848

10,830
10,856
10,833
10,765
10,698

1919
1918
1917
1916
1915

1

104,514
i 103,208
» 103,268
101,961
100,546

2
2
2

1914
1913
1912
1911
1910

99,111
97,225
95,335
93,863
92,407

50,883
49,957
49,025
48,290
47,554

48,228
47,268
46,310
45,573
44,853

88,480
86,705
84,928
83,524
82,137

10,631
10,520
10,407
10,339
10,270

1909
1908
1907
1906
1905

90,490
88,710
87,008
85,450
83,822

46,545
45,594
44,682
43,841
42,965

43,945
43,116
42,326
41,609
40,857

80,339
78,658
77,055
75,683
74,059

10,151
10,052
9,953
9,867
9,763

1904
1903
1902
1901
1900

82,166
80,632
79,163
77,584
76,094

42,089
41,262
40,483
39,649
38,867

40,077
39,370
38,680
37,935
37,227

72,520
71,084
69,722
68,267
66,900

9,646
9,548
9,441
9,317
9,194

2
E s t i m a t e s including A r m e d Forces overseas, in t h o u s a n d s : 1917—52,934; 1918—
53,316; 1919—53,658.

9

A 29-42

POPULATION

Series A 29-42.
[In thousands.

As of July 1.

Annual Estimates of the Population, by Age: 1900 to 1970

1900-1939, resident population; 1940-1970, total population, including Armed Forces overseas.
of estimates, see text for series A 6-8]

Selected cumulative age groups (in years)

Age group (in years)
Total
Year

29

1960-1970, preliminary; for description

Under
5

5-14

15-24

26-34

35-44

46-54

55-64

65 and
over

14 and
over

16 and
over

18 and
over

21 and
over

62 and
over

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

1970
1969
1968
1967—
1966
1965

204,879
202,677
200,706
198,712
196,560
194,303

17,156
17,376
17,913
18,563
19,208
19,824

40,733
40,884
40,772
40,496
40,051
39,426

36,496
35,236
34,090
33,196
32,012
30,773

25,293
24,681
23,990
23,156
22,725
22,465

23,142
23,383
23,731
24,038
24,276
24,447

23,310
23,047
22,758
22,440
22,125
21,839

18,664
18,390
18,088
17,752
17,408
17,077

20,085
19,680
19,365
19,071
18,755
18,451

151,087
148,465
145,988
143,520
141,069
138,726

142,949
140,462
138,171
135,905
133,651
131,542

135,177
132,905
130,815
128,785
126,665
124,572

124,024
122,019
120,098
117,823
116,623
115,198

25,050
24,552
24,073
23,625
23,184
22,800

1964..
1963
1962..
1961
1960
1959*

191,889
189,242
186,538
183,691
180,671
177,830

20,165
20,342
20,469
20,522
20,341
20,175

38,783
38,124
37,435
37,031
35,735
34,564

29,519
28,223
26,909
26,242
24,576
23,988

22,396
22,410
22,494
22,692
22,919
23,169

24,562
24,584
24,519
24,392
24,221
24,023

21,580
21,346
21,124
20,875
20,578
20,262

16,758
16,436
16,131
15,847
15,625
15,401

18,127
17,778
17,457
17,089
16,675
16,248

136,480
134,322
132,172
129,952
127,365
125,888

129,427
127,275
124,864
123,404
121,835
120,287

122,206
120,822
119,412
117,900
116,146
114,780

113,844
112,274
111,063
109,926
108,856
107,824

22,426
22,039
21,682
21,277
20,836
20,402

177,073
174,141
171,274
168,221
165,275

20,055
19,768
19,379
18,895
18,467

34,390
33,322
32,515
31,423
30,248

23,890
23,162
22,311
21,869
21,667

23,062
23,430
23,737
24,015
24,175

23,917
23,693
23,496
23,160
22,818

20,189
19,857
19,513
19,143
18,824

15,357
15,139
14,973
14,815
14,586

16,213
15,771
15,353
14,902
14,489

125,411
123,875
122,365
120,531
119,011

119,837
118,108
116,790
115,489
114,276

114,356
113,139'
112,108
110,956
109,803

107,426
106,394
106,517
104,500
103,436

20,356
19,895
19,459
18,962
18,455

1954
1953
1952
1951
1950

162,391
159,565
156,954
154,287
151,684

17,962
17,548
17,228
17,252
16,331

29,092
27,880
26,666
25,065
24,477

21,641
21,658
21,796
22,018
22,260

24,233
24,233
24,197
24,085
23,932

22,571
22,369
22,109
21,833
21,657

18,501
18,171
17,881
17,623
17,400

14,350
14,135
13,918
13,654
13,364

14,040
13,682
13,169
12,768
12,362

117,662
116,430
115,333
114,141
113,031

113,088
111,922
110,957
109,878
108,753

108,739
107,673
106,683
105,678
104,624

102,459
101,445
100,446
99,250
97,998

17,899
17,354
16,874
16,384
15,886

1949
1948..
1947
1946
1945

149,188
146,631
144,126
141,389
139,928

15,607
14,919
14,406
13,244
12,979

23,770
23,089
22,257
21,844
21,599

22,570
22,866
23,122
23,382
23,705

23,729
23,494
23,236
22,954
22,734

21,187
20,794
20,42.1
20,073
19,787

17,260
17,107
16,970
16,820
16,642

13,145
12,824
12,528
12,244
11,988

11,921
11,538
11,185
10,828
10,494

111,947
110,722
109,602
108,520
107,623

107,729
106,503
105,252
104,042
103,042

103,445
102,066
100,724
99,501
98,372

96,684
95,265
93,871
92,595
91,326

15,386
14,925
14,498
14,068
13,662

1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

- 138,397
136,739
134,860
— 133,402
132,122

12,524
12,016
11,301
10,850
10,579

21,573
21,699
21,823
22,089
22,363

23,999
24,065
24,093
24,074
24,033

22,511
22,194
21,911
21,691
21,446

19,505
19,226
18,950
18,692
18,422

16,419
16,199
15,976
15,769
15,555

11,719
11,472
11,220
10,959
10,694

10,147
9,867
9,584
9,288
9,031

106,627
105,404
104,132
102,878
101,607

101,924
100,630
99,328
98,036
96,732

97,153
95,836
94,489
93,136
91,763

89,976
88,592
87,151
85,766
84,429

13,233
12,871
12,499
12,115
11,781

1939
1938
1937
1936
1935

130,880
129,825
128,825
128,053
127,250

10,418
10,176
10,009
10,044
10,170

22,701
23,146
23,564
23,942
24,213

23,819
23,656
23,487
23,309
23,130

21,176
20,953
20,723
20,505
20,275

18,178
18,001
17,866
17,783
17,712

15,336
15,077
14,785
14,495
14,208

10,487
10,310
10,132
9,949
9,739

8,764
8,508
8,258
8,027
7,804

100,209
98,981
97,734
96,575
95,350

95,283
94,018
92,754
91,594
90,435

90,311
89,073
87,876
86,791
85,698

83,104
81,978
80,867
79,825
78,751

11,467
11,163
10,854
10,653
10,256

1934
1933
1932
1931
1930—

126,374
126,579
124,840
124,040
123,077

10,331
10,612
10,903
11,179
11,372

24,402
24,531
24,614
24,629
24,631

22,963
22,820
22,716
22,617
22,487

20,022
19,750
19,484
19,242
19,039

17,640
17,569
17,504
17,412
17,270

13,933
13,684
13,481
13,296
13,096

9,502
9,249
8,992
8,735
8,477

7,582
7,363
7,147
6,928
6,705

94,079
92,838
91,699
90,598
89,439

89,247
88,070
86,968
85,877
84,722

84,553
83,393
82,295
81,209
80,069

77,619
76,482
75,411
74,358
73,256

9,961
9,680
9,411
9,144
8,867

1929.
1928
1927
1926.
1925...

121,767
120,509
119,035
117,397
115,829

11,734
11,978
12,111
12,189
12,316

24,470
24,320
24,152
23,906
23,614

22,161
21,811
21,430
21,037
20,691

18,941
18,953
18,948
18,867
18,720

16,921
16,540
16,172
15,847
15,576

12,761
12,430
12,092
11,786
11,521

8,315
8,178
8,003
7,805
7,605

6,474
6,299
6,127
5,960
5,786

87,902
86,536
85,071
83,575
82,149

83,233
81,898
80,489
79,060
77,677

78,619
77,326
75,978
74,619
73,324

71,897
70,701
69,472
68,244
67,068

8,576
8,328
8,076
7,840
7,615

1924
1923.
1922
1921
1920

114,109
111,947
110,049
108,538
106,461

12,269
12,119
12,031
11,879
11,631

23,368
23,089
22,788
22,616
22,158

20,314
19,798
19,402
19,140
18,821

18,557
18,231
17,924
17,747
17,416

16,337
15,066
14,823
14,665
14,382

11,278
11,068
10,899
10,721
10,505

7,387
7,165
6,951
6,791
6,619

5,609
5,411
6,231
5,080
4,929

80,704
78,915
77,362
76,233
74,708

76,297
74,606
73,144
72,102
70,683

72,035
70,461
69,102
68,154
66,839

65,914
64,518
63,297
62,446
61,236

7,399
7,184
6,998
6,847
6,663

1919
1918
1917
1916
1915

104,514
103,208
103,268
101,961
100,546

11,536
11,606
11,527
11,442
11,347

21,849
21,732
21,369
21,008
20,660

18,465
18,071
18,836
18,872
18,844

16,912
16,445
16,913
16,776
16,580

14,008
13,879
13,647
13,388
13,130

10,402
10,293
10,068
9,846
9,618

6,456
6,356
6,194
6,026
5,866

4,886
4,826
4,714
4,603
4,501

73,144
71,886
72,361
71,476
70,482

69,170
67,899
68,425
67,579
66,623

65,407
64,092
64,646
63,811
62,863

59,911
68,670
59,030
68,176
57,224

6,577
6,490
6,332
6,176
6,029

99,111
97,225
95,335
93,863
92,407

11,244
11,082
10,915
10,796
10,671

20,316
19,904
19,603
19,214
18,950

18,796
18,649
18,477
18,365
18,212

16,370
16,070
16,772
15,530
15,274

12,875
12,562
12,252
12,003
11,759

9,398
9,135
8,875
8,657
8,454

5,711
5,542
5,372
5,234
5,101

4,401
4,281
4,169
4,074
3,986

69,470
68,127
66,775
65,688
64,598

65,652
64,364
63,068
62,022
60,974

61,907
60,650
59,387
58,369
57 ,346

66,272
55,048
53,828
52,839
51,852

5,887
5,719
5,662
5,407
5,301

1909
1908.
1907
1906
1905

90,490
88,710
87,008
85,450
83,822

10,509
10,364
10,220
10;092
9,944

18,670
18,440
18,240
18,067
17,888

17,871
17,526
17,184
16,864
16,526

14,923
14,585
14,257
13,952
13,631

11,471
11,202
10,945
10,705
10,461

8,204
7,974
7,755
7,554
7,360

4,964
4,840
4,724
4,621
4,617

3,878
3,779
3,684
3,595
3,505

63,093
61,659
60,275
58,993
57,668

59,531
58,157
66,828
55,595
54,322

55,970
54,660
.53,397
52,224
51,014

50,579
49,375
48,216
47,142
46,036

5,155
5,021
4,894
4,778
4,658

1904
1903
1902
1901
1900

82,166
80,632
79,163
77,584
76,094

9,791
9,645
9,602
9,336
9,181

17,697
17,524
17,360
17,158
16,966

16,178
15,858
15,555
15,242
14,951

13,315
13,019
12,737
12,442
12,161

10,211
9,974
9,745
9,504
9,273

7,150
6,964
6,788
6,606
6,437

4,410
4,313
4,220
4,122
4,026

3,414
3,335
3,256
3,174
3,099

56,331
65,094
53,911
52,676
51,511

53,035
51,848
50,710
49,523
48,403

49,792
48,661
47,578
46,448
45,379

44,919
43,886
42,896
41,862
40,879

4,541
4,436
4,333
4,229
4,130

1959
1958
1957
1956
1955

1914.
1913
1912
1911
1910

—

-

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

10



URBAN AND RURAL

Series A 43-56.

A 43-72

Number of Placets in Urban and Rural Territory, by Size of Place: 1790 to 1970
[For definition of urban, see text]
1960

Series
No.

43

Class and population
size

1970 i

Urban territory
Places
Places
Places
Places
Places

of
of
of
of
of

49
50
51
52
53

Places
Places
Places
Places
Places

of 25,000-49,999
of 10,000-24,999
of 5,000-9,999
of 2,500-4,999 _
under 2,500

55
56
Series
No.
43

Conterminous
United
States

1950
urban
definition

1940
urban
definition

Bural territory. _ _

1910

1900

1890

4,741

4,023

3,464

3,165

2,722

2,262

1,737

1,348

5
16
29
81
201

5
13
23
65
126

5
13
23
66
128

5
9
23
55
107

5
8
24
56
98

3
9
13
43
76

3
5
11
31
59

3
3
9
23
40

3
1
7
17
30

432
1,134
1,394
2,152
596

429
1,130
1,388
2,140
596

252
778
1,176
1,846
457

271
814
1,133
1,570

213
665
965
1,422

185
606
851
1,332

143
465
715
1,255

119
369
605
1,060

82
280
465
832

66
230
340
654

13,749

13,693

13,807

13,235

13,288

13,433

12,855

11,830

8,931

6,490

4,191
9,515

Places of 1,000-2,499
Places under 1,000

6,015

5
16
30
81
201

13,706

_

6,041

520
1,385
1,839
2,295
627

-

4,151
9,598

4,113
9,580

4,158
9,649

3,408
9,827

3,205
10,083

3,087
10,346

3,030
9,825

2,717
9,113

2,128
6,803

1,603
4,887

1880

Class and population
size
Urban territory

1870

1850 3

1860

1840 »

939

Places
Places
Places
Places
Places

of
of
of
of
of

49
50
51
52

Places
Places
Places
Places

of
of
of
of

392

236

2
5
7
11

2
1
6
7

1

42
146
249
467

25,000-49,999 _ _ _
10,000-24,999
5,000-9,999
2,500-4,999

663

1
3
4
12
15

27
116
186
309

19
58
136
163

1,000,000 or more_ _
500,000-999,999
250,000-499,999 __
100,000-249,999
50,000-99,999 _

Series A 57-72.

1800

1790

131

90

61

1
2
2

i
3

1
2

2

1

16
36
85
89

7
25
48
46

3
16
33
34

2
8
22
26

2
7
17
18

2
3
15
12

46

33

24

2
3
7
12

Harrison, Ohio, and West Harrison, Ind.; Junction City, Ark., and Junction City, La.;
Texarkana, Ark., and Texarkana, Tex.; Texhoma, Okla., and Texhoma, Tex.; and
Union City, Ind., and Union City, Ohio. In all other years they were counted as
separate incorporated places.
8
Erroneously excludes Williamsburgh Village, New York, from the count of urban
places. See series A 57-72, footnote 3.

For U.S. total population, see series A 2.
1960
1970 i

Including
Alaska
and
Hawaii

For definition of urban, see text for series A 43-56]
1950

Conterminous
United
States

1950
urban
definition

1940
urban
definition

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

149,325

125,269

124,699

96,468

88,927

74,424

68,955

54,158

41,999

30,160

58
59
60
61
62

Places
Places
Places
Places
Places

of
of
of
of
of

1,000,000 or more___
500,000-999,999
250,000- 499,999100,000-249,999
50,000-99,999

18,769
12,967
10,442
14,286
16,724

17,484
11,111
10,766
11,652
13,836

17,484
11,111
10,472
11,652
13,836

17,404
9,187
8,242
9,479
8,931

17,404
9,187
8,242
9,614
9,073

15,911
6,457
7,828
7,793
7,344

15,065
5,764
7,956
7,541
6,491

10,146
6,224
4,541
6,519
5,265

8,501
3,011
3,950
4,840
4,179

6,429
1,645
2,861
3,272
2,709

63
64
65
66
67
68

Places
Places
Places
Places
Places

of 25,000-49,999
of 10,000-24,999 _ _
of 5,000-9,999 _ __ _
of 2,500-4,999
under 2,500
_ _ __

17,848
21,415
12,924
8,038
727
15,186

14,951
17,568
9,780
7,580
690
9,851

14,855
17,513
9,739
7,542
690
9,806

8,808
11,867
8,139
6,490
578
7,344

9,496
12,467
7,879
5,565

7,417
9,967
6,682
5,026

6,426
9,097
5,897
4,718

5,075
7,035
4,968
4,386

4,023
5,549
4,217
3,728

2,801
4,338
3,204
2,899

53,887

54,054

53,765

54,230

61,770

57,246

53,820

51,553

49,973

45,835

6,656
3,852
43,379

6,497
3,894
43,664

6,440
3,888
43,437

6,473
4,031
43,725

5,383
4,129
52,258

5,027
4,316
47,903

4,821
4,363
44,637

4,712
4,255
42,586

4,234
3,930
41,809

3,298
3,003
39,533

69
70
71
72

Urban territory-

1810

Population in Urban and Rural Territory, by Size of Place: 1790 to 1970

[In thousands.

Class and population size

1820

1830

5
4

-1 Represents zero.
In 1970, relatively sparsely settled portions of certain incorporated places were
classified as rural. The size class to which these places were assigned, however, was
based on the population of the places within their legal boundaries.
2
In 1930 each pair of the following was counted as a single place: Bluefield, Va., and
Bluefield, W. Va.; Bristol, Tenn., and Bristol, Va.; Delmar, Del., and Delmar, Md.;

57

1920

6
20
30
100
240

1,000,000 or more___
500,000-999,999
250,000-499,999
100,000-249,999
50,000-99,999

44
45
46
47
48

Series
No.

1930 «

1940

7,062

44
45
46
47
48

54

Including
Alaska
and
Hawaii

1950

Rural territory
F l u e s of 1,000-2,499 .
Places under 1,000
Other rural territory

See footnotes at end of table.




11

A 57-81

POPULATION

Series A 57-72.

Population in Urban and Rural Territory, by Size of Place: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands]

Series
No.

1890

Class and population size

1880

1870 2

1850 3

1860

1840 3

22,106

14,130

9,902

6,217

3,544

58
59
60
61
62

Places
Places
Places
Places
Places

of
of
of
of
of

1,000,000 or more--500,000-999,999
250,000-499,999
100,000-249,999
50,000-99,999

3,662
806
2,448
2,782
2,028

1,206
1,917
1,301
1,787
948

1,616
1,524
990
768

1,379
267
993
452

63
64
65
66

Places
Places
Places
Places

of
of
of
of

25,000-49,999
10,000-24,999
5,000-9,999
2,500-4,999

2,269
3,451
2,384
2,277

1,446
2,189
1,717
1,618

930
1,710
1,278
1,086

40,841

36,026

28,656

57

69
70
71
72

Urban territory

Rural territory

.

Places of 1,000-2,499
Places under 1,000

1830

1820

1810

1800

1790

1,845

1,127

693

525

322

659
284

313
205
187

203
222

124
127

150

61

670
884
976
595

611
561
596
316

235
405
329
172

105
240
231
126

70
122
155
96

80
109
116
70

68
54
94
45

62
48
48
44

25,227

19,648

15,224

11,739

8,945

6,714

4,986

3,728

202

516

2,509
2,249
36,083

___

-1

Represents zero.
In 1970, relatively sparsely settled portions of certain incorporated places were
classified as rural. The population of these portions was excluded from the items under
" U r b a n " and included in "Other rural." The size class to which these places were assigned however, was based on the population of the places within their legal boundaries.
Excludes 23,377 persons for whom urban-rural residence is not available. See series
A 1-5, footnote 3.

Series A 73-81.

2
Excludes 1,260,078 persons for whom urban-rural residence is not available. See
series A 1-5, footnote 5, and text for series A 1-5.
3
Erroneously excludes population (30,780 in 1860 and 5,094 in 1840) of Williamsburgh
Village, New York.

Population, by Type of Residence, Sex, and Race: 1880 to 1970

[For definition of urban, see text for series A 43-56; for definition of rural farm, see text for series A 73-81]
All races
Year

Total

Male

Negro

White
Female

Male

Female

Other races

Male

Female

Male

Female

,442,889
850,937
605,768
405,325
344,006

1,439,773
768,675
543,395
307,722
244,881

78

73
TOTAL

86,720,987
78,367,149
78,153,040
67,129,192
59,448,548

1970 2i
1960 2 *
1960
1950
1940

203,211,926
179,323,175
178,464,236
150,697,361
131,669,275

98,912,192
88,331,494
87,864,510
74,833,239
66,061,592

1930
1920
1910 3
1900 3
1890
1880 3

122,775,046
105,710,620
91,972,266
75,994,575
62,947,714
50,155,783

62,137,080
60,637,966
53,900,431
51,810,189
47,332,277
44,639,989
38,816,448
37,178,127
32,237,101
30,710,613
50,155,783

55,922,528
54,364,212
48,430,655
46,390,260
42,178,245
39,553,712
34,201,735
32,607,461
28,270,379
26,830,879
43,402,970

149,324,930
125,268,750
124,699,022
96,467,686
88,927,464

71,958,564
60,733,005
60,436,481
46,891,782
43,117,270

77,366,366
64,535,745
64,262,541
49,575,904
45,810,194

62,210,243
53,631,145
53,510,814
42,249,894
38,697,282

66,562,997
56,797,187
56,691,185
44,506,541
40,970,582

8,657,231
6,557,123
6,553,529
4,449,766
(NA)

9,710,087
7,250,517
7,247,735
4,942,842
(NA)

1,091,090
544,737
372,138
192,122
(NA)

1,093,282
488,041
323,621
126,521
(NA)

38,059,996
34,800,063
27,101,291
21,127,202
15,392,685

33,304,701
31,538,288
25,373,627
20,129,679
14,187,311

34,668,122
32,021,745
25,246,457
19,702,234
14,318,835

2,929,423
2,479,158
1,737,820
1,279,484
936,731

3,324,165
2,714,755
1,821,653
1,409,745
1,067,390

129,582
137,314
91,865
87,018
66,684

67,709
63,563
33,181
15,223
6,460

104,299,734
90,991,681
90,599,726
75,864,122
65,607,683

91,027,988
80,464,583
80,301,916
67,812,836
58,766,322

10,748,316
9,113,408
9,105,702
7,298,722
6,269,038

11,831,973
9,758,423
9,754,415
7,743,564
6,596,480

5,855,669
6,035,474
5,209,436
5,253,695
4,885,881
4,941,882
4,386,547
4,447,447
7,488,676
6,580,793

358,883
260,340
268,151
228,166
357,780
172,020

238,280
166,234
144,395
123,219

URBAN

1970
1960
1960
1950
1950

(1970
(1960
(1960
(1950
(1940

urban
urban
urban
urban
urban

def.) 2K
def.) 2 *
def.)
def.)...
def.)

1940
1930
1920
1910
1900

(1940
(1930
(1920
(1910
(1906

urban
urban
urban
urban
urban

def.)
def.)
def.)
def.)
def.)

74,423,702
68,954,823
54,304,603
42,623,383
30,583,411

36,363,706
34,154,760
27,203,312
21,496,181
15,190,726

1900
1890
1890
1880

(1906
(1906
(1906
(1906

urban
urban
urban
urban

def.) 3
def.)_
def.) 3
def.) 3

28,372,392
22,559,367
20,693,924
13,184,902

14,083,330
14,289,062
11,276,219
11,283,148
10,343,961
10,349,963
13,184,902

13,317,892
13,176,238
10,525,811
10,485,556
9,676,685
9,640,865
12,297,612

1970
1960
1960
1950
1950

(1970
(1960
(I960
(1950
(1940

urban
urban
urban
urban
urban

def.)i2
def.) *
def.) 2
def.)
def.)

53,886,996
54,054,425
53,765,214
54,229,675
61,769,897

26,953,628
27,598,489
27,428,029
27,941,457
31,715,969

26,933,368
26,455,936
26,337,185
26,288,218
30,053,928

24,510,744
24,736,004
24,642,226
24,879,298
28,431,910

24,464,991
23,667,396
23,610,731
23,306,295
26,842,254

2,091,085
2,556,285
2,552,173
2,848,956
(NA)

2,121,886
2,507,906
2,506,680
2,800,722
(NA)

351,799
306,200
233,630
213,203
(NA)

346,491
280,634
219,774
181,201
(NA)

1940
1930
1920
1910
1900

(1940
(1930
(1920
(1910
(1906

urban
urban
urban
urban
urban

def.)
def.)
def.)
def.)
def.)

57,245,573
53,820,223
51,406,017
49,348,883
45,411,164

29,697,886
27,982,320
26,697,119
25,836,096
23,625,722

27,547,687
25,837,903
24,708,898
23,512,787
21,785,442

26,143,847
24,384,240
23,057,028
22,048,566
20,014,424

24,098,200
22,342,467
21,143,803
19,851,478
18,288,626

3.339.615
3,376,511
3.471.616
3,606,397
3,449,816

3,272,315
3,320,719
3,432,042
3,532,137
3,380,057

214,424
221,569
168,475
181,133
161,482

177,172
174,717
133,053
129,172
116,759

1900
1890
1890
1880

(1906
(1906
(1906
(1906

urban
urban
urban
urban

def.) « . . .
def.) 3
def.) 3
def.)

47,622,183
40,388,347
42,253,790
36,970,881

24,733,118
22,889,065
20,953,953
19,434,394
21,887,138
20,366,652
36,970,881

165,871
292,431
298,468
134,451

117,502

844,797
1,482,651
1,317,062
849,721

965,453

62,295
65,349
59,312
37,569

5,717

RURAL

See footnotes at end of table.

12



19,289,569
21,025,497
16,345,323
17,744,568
17,190,014
18,593,694
31,105,358

3,541,750
3,481,994
6,006,025
6,171,614
5,731,072

RESIDENCE, SEX, AND RACE

Series A 73-81.

Population, by Type of Residence, Sex, and Race: 1880 to 1970—Con.
All races

Year

A 73-90

Total

White

Male

Female

Negro

Male

Female

Male

Other races
Female

74
SURAL

Male
80

NONFARM

1970
1960
1960
1950

(1970
(1960
(1960
(1950

urban
urban
urban
urban

def.) »
def.) 2 *_..
def.) 2
def.)

45,586,707
40,567,121
40,291,215
31,181,325

22,683,834
20,598,091
20,435,131
15,862,847

22,902,873
19,969,030
19,856,084
15,318,478

20,537,870
18,547,804
18,455,737
14,489,275

20,722,994
17,970,872
17,915,558
13,981,064

1,865,126
1,804,715
1,800,610
1,256,115

1,899,159
1,769,962
1,768,704
1,235,262

280,838
245,572
178,784
117,457

1950
1940
1930
1920

(1940
(1940
(1930
(1920

urban
urban
urban
urban

def.)
def.)
def.)
def.)

38,693,358
27,029,385
23,662,710
20,047,377

19,622,272
13,757,516
12,117,945
10,337,060

19,071,086
13,271,869
11,544,765
9,710,317

18,028,680
12,627,240
11,012,799
9,352,304

17,505,535
12,151,345
10,487,663
8,775,727

(NA)
1,053,699

1,022,066
918,382

(NA)
1,055,931
994,641
885,313

(NA)
76,577
83,080
66,374

R U R A L FARM

1970
1960
1960
1950

(1970
(1960
(1960
(1950

urban
urban
urban
urban

def.) 1
def.) 2 * . _
2
def.)
def.)

8,292,150
13,474,771
13,461,466
23,048,350

4,260,965
6,986,175
6,978,998
12,078,610

4,031,185
6,488,596
6,482,468
10,969,740

4,002,398
6,177,614
6,175,864
10,390,023

3,774,179
5,698,719
5,697,223
9,325,231

223,241
747,075
747,070
1,592,841

223,868
734,910
734,901
1,565,460

35,326
61,486
56,064
95,746

1950
1940
1930
1920

(1940
(1940
(1930
(1920

urban
urban
urban
urban

def.)
def.)
def.)
def.)

23,076,539
30,216,188
30,157,513
31,358,640

12,093,697
15,940,370
15,864,375
16,360,059

10,982,842
14,275,818
14,293,138
14,998,581

10,403,230
13,516,607
13,371,441
13,704,724

9,336,719
11,946,855
11,854,804
12,368,076

(NA)
2,285,916
2,354,445
2,553,234

(NA)
2,216,384
2,326,078
2,546,729

(NA)
137,847
138,489
102,101

2
Complete-count data for total, urban, and rural; 25-percent sample data for rural
nonfarm and rural farm.
3
Definition modified to exclude population in incorporated places and New England
towns in the 2,500-3,999 size range.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
1
Complete-count data for total, urban, and rural; 20-percent sample data for rural
nonfarm and rural farm. See text for series A 91-104 for discussion of 1970 data by
race. Complete-count figures exclude 23,372 persons for whom data are not available.
See series A 1-5, footnote 3.

Series A 82-90.

Urban Population, by Type of Residence, Sex, and Race: 1950 to 1970
[For definition of urbanized areas, see text]
All races

Year

White

Negro

Other races

83

118,446,566
95,848,487
95,497,151
69,249,148

57,035,148
46,494,210
46,310,655
33,670,714

61,411,418
49,354,277
49,186,496
35,578,434

48,751,475
40,706,094
40,646,972
30,160,082

52,200,027
43,063,841
43,014,130
31,764,954

7,384,180
5,352,291
5,350,802
3,338,340

8,308,505
5,905,276
5,904,446
3,715,560

899,493
435,825
312,881
154,320

63,921,684
57,975,132
57,680,938
48,377,240

30,409,942
27,927,624
27,777,916
23,432,038

33,511,742
30,047,508
29,903,022
24,945,202

23,642,104
22,976,282
22,935,746
20,402,408

25,904,467
24,650,950
24,611,212
21,639,560

6,151,899
4,606,147
4,605,401
2,886,420

6,992,899
5,095,965
5,095,392
3,221,310

615,939
345,195
236,769
129,690

54,524,882
37,873,355
37,816,213
20,871,908

26,625,206
18,566,586
18,532,739
10,238,676

27,899,676
19,306,769
19,283,474
10,633,232

25,109,371
17,729,812
17,711,226
9,757,674

26,295,560
18,412,891
18,402,918
10,125,394

1,232,281
746,144
745,401
451,920

1,315,606
809,311
809,054
494,250

283,554
90,630
76,112
24,630

30,878,364
29,420,263
29,201,871
27,218,538

14,923,416
14,238,795
14,125,826
13,221,068

15,954,948
15,181,468
15,076,045
13,997,470

13,458,768
12,925,051
12,863,842
12,089,812

14,362,970
13,733,346
13,677,055
12,741,587

1,273,051
1,204,832
1,202,727
1,090,110

1,401,582
1,345,241
1,343,289

191,597
108,912
59,257
34,950

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male
89

TOTAL

1970 1
1960 *
1960 2
1950
URBANIZED AREAS—CENTRAL

CITIES

1970 1.
1960 *
1960 2
1950
URBANIZED A R E A S — U R B A N

1970
1960 *
1960 2
1950
OTHER

Male

82
U R B A N I Z E D AREAS

Total

FRINGE

URBAN

1970 i
1960 *
1960 2
1950

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii,
i See text for series A 91-104 for discussion of 1970 data by race. Excludes 23,372
persons for whom data are not available. See series A 1-5, footnote 3.




1,226,880

2
Complete-count data for all races and for white; 3V^-percent sample for Negro
and for other races.

13

A 91-118

POPULATION

Series A 91-104.

Population, by Sex and Race: 1790 to 1970

Male

Year

White

All
races

Negro

Female
Other races

1

All
races
Total'

92

91

Indian

94

95

93

White

Negro

Other races

1

Japanese Chinese

Total *

97

96

98

99

Indian

101

102

100

Japanese Chinese
103

104

1970 •
1960 *
1960
1950
1940

98,912,192
88,331,494
87,864,510
74,833,239
66,061,592

86,720,987 10,748,316 1,442,889 388,691 271,300 228,565 104,299,734 91,027,988 11,831,973 1,439,773 404,039 319,990 206,497
78,367,149 9,113,408
860,937 263,369 224,828 136,549 90,991,681 80,464,583 9,758,423
768,675 260,222 239,504 101,743
78,153,040 9,105,702
605,768 255,677 124,323 115,849 90,599,726 80,301,916
9,754,416
543,395 252,998 135,736
83,109
77,008 76,864,122 67,812,836
67,129,192 7,298,722
405,325 178,824
76,649
7,743,564
307,722 164,586 66,119 40,621
6,269,038
57,389
65,607,683 58,766,322
59,448,548
344,006 171,427 71,967
6,596,480
244,881 162,542 64,980 20,116

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

62,137,080
53,900,431
47,332,277
38,816,448
32,237,101

55,922,528
48,430,655
42,178,245
34,201,735
28,270,379

5,855,669
5,209,436
4,885,881
4,386,547
3,735,603

358,883
260,340
268,151
228,166
231,119

170,350
125,068
135,133
119,484
125,719

81,771 59,802
72,707 53,891
63,070 66,856
23,341 85,341
1,780 103,620

1880
1870 4
1860
1850
1840

25,518,820 22,130,900
19,493,565 17,029,088
16,085,204 13,811,387
11,837,660 10,026,402
7,255,544
8,688,532

3,253,115
2,393,263
2,216,744
1,811,258
1,432,988

134,805
71,214
67,073

33,986
12,534
23,924

134 100,686
47 58,633
33,149

5,366,213
3,995,809
2,988,130
2,195,305
1,615,434

1,166,276
900,796
(»)
(')
(>)

1830
1820__
1810
1800
1790

6,532,489
4,896,605
5

«

()
«

60,637,966
51,810,189
44,639,989
37,178,127
30,710,613

54,364,212
46,390,260
39,653,712
32,607,461
26,830,879

6,035,474
5,253,695
4,941,882
4,447,447
3,763,073

238,280
166,234
144,395
123,219
126,661

162,047
119,369
130,550
117,712
122,534

57,063
38,303
9,087
985
259

15,162
7,748
4,675
4,522
3,868

24,636,963 21,272,070
19,064,806 16,560,289
15,358,117 13,111,150
11,354,216
9,526,666
8 , 3 8 0 , 9 2 1 6,940,261

3,327,678
2,486,746
2,225,086
1,827,550
1,440,660

37,215
17,771
21,881

32,422
13,197
20,097

14
8

4,779
4,666
1,784

6,333,531
4,741,848
s
s
s

()
()
()

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1 Sex not reported before 1820. Total for both sexes: 1790—757,208; 1800—
1,002,037; 1810—1.377,808. Total slave population: 1790—697,681; 1800—893,602;
1810—1,191,362; 1820—1,538,022; 1830—2,009,043; 1840—2,487,355; 1850—3,204,313;
1860—3,953,760. For slave population by sex, 1820-1860, see series A 119-134.
2
Includes races not shown separately, of which Filipinos are most numerous.
Filipino males: 1910—144; 1920—5,232; 1930—42,268; 1940—39,723; 1950—46,101;
1960 (conterminous U.S.)—67,351; 1960 (including Alaska and Hawaii)—112,286;
970—189,498. Filipino females: 1910—16; 1920—371; 1930—2,940; 1940—5,840;

Series A 105-118.

5,171,165
3,870,988
2,873,943
2,111,141
1,556,672

1,162,366
870,860
(')
(')
(»)

1950—15,535; 1960 (conterminous U.S.)—39,075; 1960 (including Alaska and Hawaii)—
64,024; 1970—153,562.
3
The population of other races (i.e., neither white nor Negro) was overstated by
about 327,000 in the 1970 census. See text for series A 91-104. Excludes 23,372
persons for whom sex and race are not available. See series A 1-5, footnote 3.
4
Revisions to include adjustments for underenumeration in the Southern States
show a total (both sexes) of 34,337,292 for white and 5,392,172 for Negro.
6
D a t a by sex not available. See series A 1 - 5 for total population.

Foreign Born Population, by Sex and Race: 1850 to 1970

Male

Year

All
races

White

Other races

Negro
Total

105

106

Female

107

1

108

All
races

Indian

Japanese
110

111

Other races

Negro

Chinese

109

White

Total i
112

113

Indian

115

116

114

Japanese Chinese
117

118

!

1970
1960 »*

4,403,687 3,982,797
4,760,432 4,507,602

1960 4'
1950

4,714,545 s 4,500,434
6,258,255 5,098,370

1940

6,121,647 6,011,015

44,488

66,144

2,463

29,651

31,687 5,473,249 6,408,123

39,453

25,673

2,028

17,654

5,555

1930—
1920
1910
1900
1890 »

7,647,090
7,675,435
7,667,748
5,630,190
5,067,130

7,502,491
7,628,322
7,523,788
5,515,285
4,951,858

54,081
42,641
23,888
11,829
8

90,518
104,472
120,072
103,076
8

1,888
3,539
1,464
1,207

45,897
57,213
60,730
23,185

39,109
40,573
54,936
78,684
!

6,480,914
6,184,432
5,821,757
4,698,532
4,170,009

44,539
31,162
16,451
8,507
0)

31,606
29,663
9,930
4,047
C)

1,664
2,760
1,289
1,006
8

24,580
24,125
6,925
8 872

4,977
2,534
1,661
2,169
(»)

1880
1870 •
1860
1850

3,630,566 3 , 5 2 1 , 6 3 5
3,006,943 2,942,579
2,192,230
1,239,434

7,768
5,346
3,612
2,015

101,173
59,018
33,149

1,002
647

133
46

100,038 3,049,377 3,038,044
58,325 2,560,286 2 , 5 5 1 , 1 3 3
1,904,523
1,001,101

6,259
4,299
10
3,499
"2,052

5,074
4,854
1,784

818
489

12
8

4,244
4,357

115,406
65,952

305,484
186,978

214 111
• 159,885

()

10
10

7,153
(NA)
(NA)
(«)

()

m

39,375
40,709
(NA)
(•)

(NA)
s

()

m

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
N A N o t available.
1
Includes races not shown separately, of which Filipinos are most numerous.
Filipino males: 1960 (including Alaska and Hawaii,)—66,226; 1970—101,051; Filipino
females: 1960 (including Alaska and Hawaii)—22,579; 1970—77,919.
2
15-percent sample data. These d a t a vary in degree of comparability with d a t a
on8 total population by race. See text for series A 91-104.
25-percent sample data.
4
20-percent sample data. Complete-count data available only for the white population.
' Complete-count d a t a : Males—5,176,390; females—4,984,778.
8
D a t a for specific races in the Negro and Other races grouping are based on various

14




105,907 6,216,615 4 , 7 5 0 , 9 7 3
59,083 4,977,659 4,786,490

()

4,946,422 4 , 7 7 8 , 8 3 5
5,089,140 ' 4 , 9 9 7 , 0 4 5

6,557,059
6,245,257
5,848,138
4,711,086
4,182,417

138,052
59,370

326,590
131,799

83,125
60,947

98,326
34,205

(NA)

167 687
• 9 2 095

7,335
(NA)

(NA)
(«)

(NA)
(')

C)

()

()

samples and are extremely unreliable. See Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, p a r t
3, 7
chapter B.
Excludes population enumerated in t h e Indian Territory and on Indian reservations (totaling 325,464) which was not classified by nativity. Totals by race and
sex: Males—169,221; females—156,243; white males—64,047; white females—53,321;
Negro males—10,042; Negro females—8,594; Indian males—95,119; Indian females—
94,328; Chinese males—13.
8
D a t a by sex not available. Totals for both sexes: Negro—19,979; Indian—
1,235; Japanese—1,921; Chinese—104,545.
9
Excludes 1,260,078 persons for whom d a t a on nativity are not available. See
series A 1-5, footnote 3.
10
Free Negroes only. D a t a on nativity were not collected for slaves.

Series A 119-134. Population, by Age, Sex, Race, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970
[Age a t last b i r t h d a y , except for 1890, which is age a t n e a r e s t b i r t h d a y .
Under
5 years

5-9
years

10-14
years

15-19
years

F o r 1940-1970, a g e n o t r e p o r t e d w a s a l l o c a t e d o n t h e basis of o t h e r characteristics]
30-34
years

40-44
years

45-49
years

50-54
yeara

56-59
years

11,104,018
9,605,954
9,571,984
8,272,188
7,256,846

9,973,028
8,429,865
8,402,182
7,285,120
5,843,865

8,616,784
7.142,452
7,123.256
6,059,475
4,728,340

20,065,502
16,559,580
16,525,032
12,269,537
9,019,314

7,042,279
5,763,620
4,469,197
3,454,612
2,731,640

5,975,804 4,645,677
4,734,878 3.549,124
3,900.791 2,786,951
2,942.829 2,211,172
2,326,262 1 , 6 7 2 , " "

3,751,221
2,982,548
2,267,150
1,791,:
1.458.034

6,633,805
4,983,215
3,949,524
3,080,
2,417,

94,022
148,699
169,055
200,584
162,165

5,087,772 4,080,621 3,368,943 3,000,419 2,468,811 2,089,445
3,748,299 3,075,118 2,562,829 2,314,976 1,939,712 1,578,
5,726,400
4,021,248
2,614,330
4,277,318
2,825,819
1,846,660

19.883 1 . 2 7 1 . 4 3 4
17,969
876,552
1,586,879
1,109,540

1,104,219 1,723,459
778,971 1,153,649
1,347,982
958,792

5,161
51,511
14,285

20-24
years

years

60-64
years

65 y e a r s
a n d over

Age n o t
stated

125
TOTAL

1970 '
1960 •
1960
1960
1940

203,211,926
179,328,176
178,464,236
160,697,861
131,669,275

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890 >

122,776,046 11,444,390 12,607,609 12,004,877 11,552,115 10,870,378
106,710,620 11,673,280 11,398,075 10,641,187 9,480.556 9,277,021
91,972,266 10,631,364 9,760,632 9,107,140 9,063.603 9,056,984
75,994,676 9.170,628 8.874,128
7,335,016
7,556,
62,622,250 7,684,693 7,573,
6,557,563 6,196,676

1880
1870 •
1860
1860

50,155,783
38,658,371
31,443,321
23,191,876

17,154,337
20,320,901
20,206,746
16,168,571
10,541,524

19.956,247
18,691,780
18,592,413
18,199,685
10,684,

6,914,516 6,479,660
6,514,713 4,814,713
4 , 8 4 2 , 4 9 6 4 , 1 7 1 ,f "
3,497,773 3,241,:

20,789,468
16,778,492
16,689,958
11,119,268
11,745,935

19,070,348
13.219,248
13,147,"
10,616,
12,333,523

5,715,186 5,011,415
4,786,189 4.040,588
3,720,780 3,361,495
2,890,629 2,529,792

16,371,021
10,800,761
10,726,682
11,481,828
11,587,835

13,476,993
10,869,124
10,803,977
12,242,260
11,096,638

11,430,436
11,949,186
11,881,172
11,517,007
10,242,388

11,106,851
12,481,109
12,414.091
11,246,::
9,545,877

9,120,421
9,086,491 8,071,193
8,180,003 6,972.185
6.529,441 5,556,089
5,227,777 4,578.630

9,208,645
7,775,281
6,396,100
4,964,781
3,866,161

11,980,954 12.115,
11,600,243 10,879,485
11,645,677 10,834,998
10,208,978 9,070,466
8,787,843 8,255,225
7,990,195
6,345,657
5,261,587
4,247,166
3,185,618

MALE

1970 '
1960 »
1960
1960
1940

98,912,192 8,745,499 10,168,496 10,590,737 9,633,847
88,331,494 10,329,729 9,504,368 8,524,289 6,633,661
87,864,610 10,270,966 9,453,586 8,481,598 6,592,215
74,838,239 8,236,164 6,714,555 5,660,
5.311,842
66,061,"" 6 , 3 5 4 , 8 0 8 5 , 4 1 8 . - — 5 , 9 5 2 ,
6,180.153

1980
1920
1910
1900
1890 •

62,137,080
58,900,431
47,332,277
38,816,448

6,806,174 6,381,108
5,857,461 6,758,001
5,880,596 4,924,128
4,633,612 4,479,396
3,884,869 3,830,352

6,068,777
5,369,806
4,601,758
4,088,041
3,574,787

1880
1870 <
1860
1860

25,518,820
19,498,566
16,085,204
ll,837,i

3,607,709 3,275,131
2,797,257 2,437,442
2,449,547 2,109,546
1,769,460 1,640,407

2,907,481 2,476,088 2,554,684 2,109,741 1,744,308 1,627,159 1,243,778 1,078,
2,435,585 1,989,695 1,835,946 1,515,671 1,273,633 1 , 1 7 9 , —
990,021
889,578
1,900,868 1,650,012
2,911,558
2,129,017
1,392,223
1,473,116 1,237,680
2,194,469
1,490,135
967,573

7,917,
5,272,340
5,225,940
5,606,
5,692,

6,621,567
5,833,075
5,298,813
6,972,078
6,450,'—

5,595,790
5,846,224
5,811,157
5,624,723
5,070,312

5,412,423
6,079,512
6,044,485
5,517,544
4.746,—

5,818,813
5,675,881
5,646,279
5,070,269
4,419,135

5,851,334
5,357,925
5.831.—

5,347,916
4,734.829
4,714,262
4,128.648
3,752,750

4,765,821
4,127,245
4,110,628
3,630,046
3,011,364

4,026,972
8,409,319
3,398,572
3,037,838
2,397,816

8.415,708
7,503,097
7,484.040
5,796,974
4,406,120

5,757,825 5,836,815
4,673,792 4,527,046
4,527,282 4,580,290
3,750,451 3,624,580
3,248,711 3,104,898

4,860,180
4,588,238
4,244,348
3,323,543
2,698,311

4,561,786
4,130,783
3,656,768
2,901,321
2,425,664

4,679,860
4,074,361
3,367,016
2,616,865
2,051,044

4,136,459
8,285,543
2,786,350
2,255,916
1,664,604

3,671,924
3,117,550
2,378,916
1,837,836
1,418.102

3,131,645
2,535,545
2,110,013
1,564,622
1,208,922

2,425,992
1,880,065
1,488,437
1,145,257
871,663

1.941,508
1,581,800
1,185,966
917,167
758,710

3,825.211
2,483,071
1,985,976
1,555,418
1,233,719

51,816
92,876
114,443
127,423
103,529

867,564
584,858
407,491
578,230
679,194
479,962

3,795
27,890
9,178

966,702
674,927
740,360
469,495
835,350
575,686

FEMALE

1970 '
1960 »
1960
1960
1940

104,299,734
90,991,681
90,599,726
75,864,122
66,607,-

8,408,838
9,991,172
9,934,780
7,927,407
5,186,716

9,787,761 10,198,781
9,187,412 8,249,203
9,188,827 8,208,355
6,485,130 5,458,869
5,265,799 5,798,606

1980
1920
1910
1900
1890 a

60,687,
51,810,189
44,639,989
37,178,127
30,554,370

5,688,216
5,715,769
5,250,768
4,537,016
3,749,824

6,226,601

1880
1870 •
1860
1850—

24,636,963
19,064,806
16,368,117
11,354,216

3,406,807 3,204,529 2,807,705 2,535,327
2,717,456 2,377,271 2,350,604 2 , 0 5 0 , : —
2,392,949 2,061,655 1,819,912 1,711,.
1,728,813 1,600,861 1,417,518 1,292,112

-

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




5,645,074
4,836.509
4,394.727
3,743,646

9,436,501
6,585,582
6,655,-"
5,805,:
6,153,870

8,453,752
5,528,421
5,500,692
5,875,535
5,895,448

6,855,426
5,536,049
6,505,164
6,270,182
5,645,976

5,834,646
6,102,
6,070,015
5,892,284
5,172,076

5,694,428
6,401,597
6,369,606
5,728,842
4,799,718

6,162,141
5,924,362
5,899,898
5,183,704
4,368,708

6,264,605
6,521,660
6.508,
4,544,
4,045,956

5,766,102
4.871,125
4,857,672
4,143.540
3,504,096

5,207,207 4,689,812 11,649,794
4,302,620 3,733,133 9,056,483
4,291,504 3,724,684 9,040,992
3,605,074 3,021,637 6,472,563
2,832,501 2,330,524 4,613,194

5,986,100 5,794,290
5,271,831 4,756,764
4,505,887 4.536.321
3,997,193 3,805,638
3,458,722 3,308,852

5,533,563
4,749,976
4,476,694
8,710,436
3,091,783

4,973,428
4,548,258
8,935,655
3,205,898
2,529,466

4,558,635
3,940,410
8,315,417
2,664.718
2,152,966

4,528,785
3,700,920
3,029,084
2,347,916
1,815,117

3,853,736
3,060,014
2,475,237
1,991,250
1,630,914

3,370,355
2,646,070
2,090,281
1,616,776
1,313,538

2,844.159
2,199,828
1,790,778
1,878,207
1,117,840

2,219,685
1,669,059
1,298,514
1,065,915
800,673

2,533,088 1,970,880 1,624,635 1,473,260 1,225,038 1,010.750
1,912,353 1,659,447 1,289,196 1,135,610
949,691
739,354
2,814,842
1,892,231
1,222,107
2,082,849
1,335,684
879,087

596,507
873,181
627,609
407,057
750,529
533,855

8,308,594
2,450,144
1,968,548
1,525,
1,183,569

42,206
55,824
54,612
73,161
58,636

519,361
855,895
871,480
675,419
668,788
478,830

1,366
23,621
5,112

1,809,713
1,400,748
1,081,184
874,196
699,324

>
f

Series A 119-134. Population, by Age, Sex, Race, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970—Con.
Under
5 years

6-9
years

10-14
years

15-19

20-24

yearB

years

86,720,987
78,367,149
78,153,040
67,129,192
59,448,548

7,374,333
8,849,181
8,823,480
7,244,211
4,701,470

8,633,
8,202,157
8,182,144
5,915,130
4,744,537

9,033,726
7,456,573
7,440,898
4,944.535
5,259,007

8,291,270
6.837,
5,817.
4.685.
5,515.920

6,940,820
4,646,822
4,614,204
5,002,782
5,113,642

5,849,792
4,721,788
4,702,477
5,349,707
4,892,013

4,925,069
5,218,188
5,200,541
5,080,610
4,573,316

55,922,528
48,430,655
42,178,245
34,201,735
28,206,332

5,662,102
5,158,
6.260,714 5,099,205
4,728,650 4,285,366
4,011,455 3,862,349
3,351,104 3,276,983

5,415,256
4,786.150
4,006,104
3,519,303
3,044,058

5.132.461
4.141.831
3,999,143
3,258,""
2,818,914

4,746,792
4,018,576
4,070,956
3,145,481
2,740,864

4,324,314
4,094,301
3,792,224
2,942,882
2,407,153

4,116,726
3,776,"""
3,297,
2,619,446
2,200,973

1880
1870 •
1860
1850
1840 *

22,130,900
17,029,088
13,811,387
10,026,402
7,255,534

2,949,449
2,398,615
2,091,460
1,472,053
1,270,743

2,756,201 2,482,572
2,103,986 2,103,425
1,788,711 1,590,472
1,372,438 1,225,575
1,024,050
879,530

2,150,068
1,731,015
1,400,536
1,041,116
766,106

2,219,317 1,838,054
1,591,909 1,328,232
2,497,210
1,869,092
1,322,453

1830 <
1820 <
1810 <
1800 *
1790 <

5,360,451
3,995,133
2,987,671
2,204,421
1,615,625

26-29
years

30-34
years

45-49
years

35-39
years

50-54
years

55-59
years

60-64
years

Age n o t
stated

W H I T E , MALE

1970 '
1960 *
1960
1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890'

-

972,980
782,075
1,346,220
1,035,058
764,118
•802,327

669,734
'612,536
>468,083
>353,071

578,196
•776,030
•547,597
•393,156

956,487

5,429,784
4,956,941
4,254,368

5,194,497
5,117,-"
5,102,661
4,573,529
3,995,190

5,257,619
4,828,179
4,817,693
4,080,174
3,842,613

4,278,441
3,756,125
8,451,717

4,310,921
3,728,599
3,722,948
3,350,888
2,790,046

3,647,243
3,121,664
3,117,954
2,829,399
2,232,453

3,665.341
3,024,002
2,360,348
1,831,443

3,772,619
2,987,412
2,537,219
2,065,176
1,495,923

3,327,142
2,779,176
2,161,848
1,661,972
1,271,113

2,835,808
2,293.604
1,915,860
1,396,
1,083,091

2,239,604
1,740,661
1,363.821
1.040,235
793,301

1,799,730 3,122,827
1,461,619 2,298,475
1,076,763 1,825,019
825,213 1,415,924
686,462 1,124,304

43,376
78,325
94,112
97,826
80,646

856,178
610,080
654,500
424,558
740,429
498,660
314,528

516,416
777,477
358,940
518,"597,032
411,411
278,966

2,199
14,073
7,153
6,100

211,002

5,318

4,784,375

5,446,83a

1,548,077 1,353,221
1,181,799 1,048,443
1,867,378
1,288,682
866,452

,111,763
962,027
881,637
751,745
1,224,086
840,222
536,606

592,535

367,840

' 571,997
'431,589

229,284
496,065
364,836
262,487

7,645,675
6,908,016
6,902,217
5,360,r"4,082,256

•813,298

W H I T E , FEMALE

1970 >
1960 »
1960
1950..
1940

91,027,988 7,048,807
80,464,583 8,509,371 7,885,385
80,301,916 8,484,716 7.866.039
67,812,836 6,940,293 5,681,442
58,766,322 4 , 6 2 8 , — 4,584,414

8,647,392 8,079,090 7,341,007 5,962,122
7,182,319 5,771,136 4,824,957 4,833,802
7,167,491 5,761,253 4,811,363 4,819,304
4,749,994 4,644,695 5,176,405 5.576.097
5,093,688 5,448,127 5,226,607 5,012,257

5,042,368 4,936,494
6,370,642 5,694,008
5,366,568 5,679,699
5,276,721 5,102,532
4,633,162 4,262,292

5,412,335
5,305,982
5,295,312
4,616,761
3 , 9 4 0 893

5,587,023
4,956,983
4,948,901
4,089,180
3,690,143

4,407,505
4,401,423
3,779,314
3,228,590

4,695,581
3,897,612
3,893,296
3,344,844
2,636,799

4,157,467 10,684,667
3,429,009 8,395,872
3,426,023 8,390,528
2,823,207 6,013,351
2,184,240 4,297,175

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890 *

54,364,212
46,390,260
39,563,712
32,607,461
26,777,558

5,279,168 5,116,318 4,865,877
4,634,172 4,172,324 4,166,765
3,912,304 3,969,248 3,915,456
3,439,935 3,285,099 3,189,563
2,947,914 2,856,433 2,707,603

4,094,186
3,562,524
2,970,107
2,384,998
1,943,859

3,494,273
2,768,135
2,243,053
1,796,967
1,369,726

3,054,428
2,408,865
1,899,214
1,453,706
1,178,107

2,609,935
2,023,662
1,639,453
1,237,946
1,007,858

2,079,697
1,565,010
1,200,385
980,982
738,358

1,697,047 8,117,146
1,309,814 2,284,551
992,570 1,814,984
795,445 1,390,795
636,648 1,077,808

1880
1870 •
1860
1850
1840 «

21,272,070 2,850,702 2,686,218 2,397,959
16,560,:
2,321,177 2,047,729 2,033,036
13,111,150 2,025,985 1,739,387 1,523,281
9,626,666 1,424,406 1,331,690 1,176,664
986,940
6,940,161 1,203,319

771,714
544,885
549,743
370,218
659,246
459,511
304,852

460,892
766,081
327,739
512,692
585,523
408,460
281,404

1830 <
1820 <
1810 '
1800 <
1790 •

5,171,116
3,866,804
2,874,
"
2,100,<

4,983,730
5,113,207
4,594,264
3,908,497
3,228,544

5,499,661
4.988.040
4,189,807
3,775,977
3,196,186

921,934
750,741
1,280,570
981,421
715,197

u 1,556,

• 605 376
<448,322
•323,648

4,384,684
4,047,1
3,464,912
2.820.098
2,239,534

4,052,936
3,300,464
2,707,843
2,100,227
1,608,487

2,201,582 2,183,155 1,703,647 1,431,177 1,295,271 1,078,972
899,865
1,780,021 1,643,119 1,363,
1,133,266
998,877
833,618
654,870
1,452,045
1,636,213
1,058,246
2,420,139
1,087,600
1,128,257
748,566
1,758,469
792,223
779,120
502,183
1,253,490
596,254
• 781,371
•561,956
• 401,499

918,411

555,631
' 736,600
'544,256
'411,694

356,046

T
J
0
45,338
40,112
47,226
40,495

3,154

223,504
462,888
338,478
248,080

FOREIGN-BOBN
W H I T E , MALE

3,982,797
4,507,502
4,500,434
5,098,370
6,011,015

41, i

46,307
46,120
31,735
4,219

31,430
10,937

122,194
112,140
111,895
32,930
27,114

149.214
92,606
92,399
47,640
82,391

184,966
121,207
120,582
86,140
98,917

212,082
149,510
149,090
154,555
193,647

236,906
184,949
184,663
147,275
342,991

1930
1920
1910
1900
18901

7,502,491
7,528,322
7,523,788
5,615,285
4,951,r"

17,232
22,857
51,940
26,567
44,040

71,872
85,774
150,652
73,727
126,070

90,104
167,152
181,303
157,632
201,159

183.215
259,270
351,754
271,381
257,658

368,631
456,988
823,920
456,186
476,224

571,039
792,088
990.576
589,521
602,545

1880..
18701

3,521,636
2,942,679

31,256
42,322

61,3 2 2
88,

120,740
104,726

184,320
157,050

274,0:

365,094
379.577

1970
1960
1960
1950
1940

ii
i" *
i"
i>

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




232,179
243,569
244,470
530,164

247,359
204,179
203,839
383,225
656,782

272,021
293,870
293,465
534,395
816,955

219,606
396,801
396,254
627,215
883,342

282,728
514,193
513,546
703,470
735,848

351,105
521,796
521,186
715,185
573,300

1,336,661
1,549,415
1,547,589
1,368,705
1,054,408

693,851
946,818
888,668
660,702
549,099

1,008,677
812,007
672,804
493,471

992,135
803,195
751,519
557,300
476,106

907,537
744,423
656,455
468,466
433,466

737,822
651,546
526,266
440,079
382,987

565,334
503,789
380,110
345,241
278,485

491,843
392,629
331,914
285,783
254,101

871,210
679,384
607,008
493,760
360,817

419,769
368,420

432,957
859,484

384,931
328,020

340,863
260,805

318,045
215,717

206,820
115,553

170,841
98,703

210,158
115,857

6,667
13,732
19,706
16,136
16,630

1
i-3
O
Si
i t
—

Series A 119-134. Population, by Age, Sex, Race, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970—Con.
Under
5 years

5-9
years

10-14
years

15-19
years

20-24
years

26-29
years

80-34
years

35-39
years

50-54
years

40-44
years

55-59
years

60-64
years

65 years
and over

FOREIGN-BORN
W H I T E , FEMALE

1970
1960
1960
1960
1940

»
" *
«
«

4,750,973
4,786,490
4,778,835
4,997,045
5,408,123

1880
1870»

89,854
75,273
74,965
30,605
10,647

120,721
110,061
109,863
30,330
26,637

149,534
98,620
98,413
44,605
82,394

155,965
155,336
121,415
110,

277,961
189,889
189,107
198,090
230,629

299,307
248,375
247,287
174.980
366,100

282,098
293,022
292,123
282,565
518,231

226,353
403,795
606,288

333,321
318,702
318,373
523,085
686,950

250,963
413,841
413,346
598,190

323,164
507,576
507,045
621,545
582,902

398,068
538,949
538,581
599,620
495,576

1,564,363
1,563,217
1,336,405
1,004,850

6.480.914
6,184,432
5,821,757
4,698,532
4,170,009

1930
1920
1910
1900 1
1890

40,097
45,022
44,826
31,815
4,102
16,777
22,127
60,567
25,802
42,589

70,501
84,110
147,857
73,465
122,281

88,430
164,210
177,027
153,933
195,220

268,672
322,007
290,365
263,637

378,557
469,856
606,461
463,296
441,150

543,893
662,276
672,120
507,708
469,694

626,959
704,657
617,047
512.981
393,221

768,432
729,128
596,086
504,762
377,121

753,765
624,904
551,956
408,812
384,848

702,515
555,252
489,905
371,754
354,349

515,831
398,799
363,313

483,142
404,933
313,410
297,762
246,646

434,050
323,102
295,669
259,248
223,546

808,645
648,843
576,341
456,587
321,487

60,894
85,911

117,699
100,812

194,492
168,376

254,217

306,022
328,949

342,862
321,176

308,508

327,959
272,729

290,078
192,021

259,042
154,061

166,294
87,963

139,622
82,228

191,440
104,172

.,406,715 1,201,605
989,360
740,971
989,150
740,196
674,480
591,550
661,351
630,079

839,848
569,398
567,483
568,730
550,193

657,544
547,941
546,779
579,880
529,613

568,086
563,502
562,859
510,970
467,887

540,639
569,133
568,530
530,210
462,559

543,737
508,082
507,715
468,595
400,249

620,095
479,629
479,437
418,690
348,251

458,526
406,991
406,796
350,255
283,120

404,704
365,302
365,205
264,085
207,220

334,425
258,918
258,875
195,155
154,245

675,570
540,523
540,477
412,400
308,801

595,646
513,416
507,945
473,760
422,258

553,622
487,169
482,167
458,921
350,392

500,520
424,352
421,805
360,597
272,044

416,869
331,579
332,163
262,130
203,361

430,472
383,587
275,926
320,450
229,680
1,371
179,090
343,858

323,162
320,506
199,928
168,495

277,532
227,995
179,387
155,188

174,367
129,153
115,090

133,349
112,137
101,149
85,961

189,530
173,881
152,482
133,025
107,311

3,038,044
2,551,133
NEGRO, MALE

1970 >_..
1960 " *
1960
1950
1940....

10,748,316 1,219,567 1,377,355
9,097,704 1,362,831 1,195,123
9,090,095 1,362,000 1,194,593
7,269,170
947,740
761,430
6,269,038
643,781
5,855,669
5,209,436
4.885.881
4,386,547
3,725,561
"3,263,116

1920...
1910...
1900...
1890'.1880...

1870 >_.

2,393,263
2,216,744
1,811,258
1,432,998
1,166,276
900,762

1860...

1850...
1840 >..

isao...

604,487

679,748
631,341
619,176
600,410
"549,405

616,251
678,074
548,642
"526,450

396,812
331,795
354,999
317,999
297,407
267,969
478,868
402,173
"391,611

307,374
247,541

175,068
1.517
123,129
251,822
23! ,490
245,104
394,185
247,378
196,564
"444,011
"270,707
>•355,646
»213,235
>•227,100

1,941
44,237
93,106
77,025

101,580
162
127
"173.
" 141

47,811
80
68

59,701

65,878
54,071

NEGRO, FEMALE

1970 I
1960 " *
1960 »
1960 •«
1940..

-

-

11,831,973 1,213,071 1,370,073 1,403,154 1,221,440
9.750.915 1,359,569 1,195,515
983,572
756,020
9,746,972 1,358,732 1,195,018
983,302
756,837
7,757,505
942,880
768,400
677,966
634,585
6,596,480
627,391
650,765
669,309
674,527
6,035,474
5,263,696
4.941.882
4,447,447
3,744,479
"3,327,678

1910
1900
1890 «
1880
1870"
1860
1860
1840 •
1880
1820 <

-

2,486,746
1

618,975
575,066
633,968
611,168
"517,589

688,633
634,866
627,378
602,348
"544,089 «

628,314
620,663
577,192
543,348
507,261

654,882
569,799
552,471
508,272
448,860

974,372
642,315
641,897
667,815
645,034

630,322
669,295
615,671

649,569
567,678
548,638
510,251
381,156

571,267
485,387
459,422
376,882
287,507

[,849
1,092
1,699
1,570

262,477
206,616

655,188
652,195
651,926
608,650
523,274

654,128
578,429
578,212
503,960
414,847

602,684
533,714
533,621
444,215
344,556

460,428
390,344
312,999
241,316

348,094
283,775
225,733
188,126

231,083
185,981
157,889

227,058
171,116
146,683
135,799

203,9:
154,232
261 ,364
268,728
389,418
256,489
324,880
204,512
>446,709
"281,507
•356,908
"218,327
"231,186
'179,874

2,22s,

1,827,550
1,440,760
1,162,366
870,800

394,609
364,086
319|807
303,908
269,171
476 527
394,994
••370,242

315,972
294,273
240,959

1,442,
857,707
612,962
401,525
344,006

151,599
118,812
86,651
48,045
31,649

158,048
102,276
71.504
36,146
30.505

150,297
84,592
57,800
86,690
31,971

140,972
63,920
42,478
30,440
34,154

136,601
56,364
43.656
35,930
28.657

114,231
69,861
46,016
34,690
29,036

102,635
60,361
43,721
25,985
29,109

1930
1920..
19101900
1890 >

858,888
260,340
268,151
228,166
135,987

36,504
28,114
22,626
17,670
" 3,780

39,258
22,455
19,582
16,687
"8,964

30,293
17,905
17,575
15,096
"4,279

29,718
18,545
20,194
18,611

36,401
21,300
27,178
20,178
13,637

35,346
19,580
30,319
20,064
19,114

28,191
22,988
27,436
19,745
21,330

1880.

"184,805
71,214
57,073

2,821

6,858
4,372

399,352
290,249
290,201
189,685
141,659

115,240
83,958
162,299
130,521
"169,575
"136,214

468,824
393,439

77,421
36,6
90,587
74,344

883,184
627,357
627,324
454,225
307,141

108,820
87,981
85,363
75,726

444
444
351
267

183,189
158,832
141,642
128,338
104,373

43,503
62,357
82,414
70,370
66,442
65,923

89,498

OTHER, HALE

1970 '
1960 » *
1960 «
1960 «
1940

See footnotes at end of table.




1,

3,088

11,547
12,371
20,168

11,317
14,261

87,509
59,119
41,866
26,985
28,732

80,579
46,508
31,642
27,470
23,696

73,620
44,820
30,061
25,300
18,405

56,835
42,769
30,064
20,370
17,913

50,196
44,732
33,617
14,655
14,098

45,304
25,633
18,628
14,310
11,118

94,463
48,040
35,258
24,510
15,063

24,056
25,433
22,564
23,146
34,424

24,511
22,205
19,451
21,660

21,620
17,869
17,140
17,369
15,519

18,305
13,946
14,766
13,399

12,021
10,251

8,429
8,044
8,064
5,993

12,854
10,715
8,475
6,469
2,104

6,804
5,917

5,849
1,919
1,815

740
1,547

439

Series A 119-134. Population, by Age, Sex, Race, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970—Con.
Under
5 years

6-9
years

10-14
years

25-29
years

30-34
years

40-44
years

45-49
years

50-54
years

55-59
years

60-64
years

65 years
and over

Age not
stated

OTHER. FEMALE

1970 '
1960 " »
1960
1960 >>--1940-19301920
1910
1900
1890

-

1,439,773
781,670
656,008
309,545
244,881

146,960
115,094
84,393
47,196
31,290

153,345
98,834
70,204
35,875

148,185
81,118
55,792
31,480

135,971
60,161
39,552
28,725
30,716

138,373
55,245
41,500
81,950

238,280
166,234
144,445
123,219
82,333

—

35,511
27,496
22,536
17,851
"3,691

38,307
22,168
19,374
16,402
"3,372

28,618
16,996
15,891
13,910
"8,557

14,641
14,602
12,267
3,559

18,117
15,533
12,600
10,622
3,024

1,670
2,879

1,506
2,461

ls

1880
1870
1860

37,215
17,771
21,881

2,144
2,949

2,870
5,285

66,264
50,547
29,140
18,048

107,429
68,690
50,124
21,820
13,922

102,746
57,439
40,072
17,480
14,152

95,678
41,103
27,262
13,665
12,968

74,898
31,736
21,234
12,615
11,257

55,859
25,027
17,278
11,460
8,191

42,802
31,021
23,851
8,855
6,703

32,993
17,568
12,031
6,460
4,625

81,943
32,370
22,178
12,825
8.878

17,477
15,482
11,321
8,918
52,425

16,804
11,600
9,384
7,243
2,491

15,421
10,112
8,242
6,373

11,369
8,104
6,451
6,157

9,024
6,122
5 1
5,181

7,166
4,551
4,642
4,462

4,
3,:
3,597
3,080

3,846
2,953
3,261
3,025

6,761
6,922
5,947

1,698

1,024

2,147

4

1,

1,1

219

313
493
!,281
763
485
42

F R E E NEGRO, MALE

700
32,843
30,319
56,284
48,675
19
47,659

30,446
26,061

33,075
31,157
30,502
29,246
55,062
47,829
"45,898

29,953
26,247

1,982,625
1,602,534
1,246,517
1,012,823
788,028

-

284,119
208,724
186,481
153,453
112,734

253,951
226,771
199,822
166,146
120,790

1860
1860
1840 <
1880—
1820 '

322,156
287,299
267,088
239,163
422,584
353,498
"343,852

276,928
221,480

1,971,135
1,601,779
1,240,988
996,220
750,010

331,010
273,406
421,465
347,665
>•324,344

264,320
214,712

21,429
18,199
>"28,274
"22,271

13,330
11,771

»35,321
"27,650

24,789
20.395
>•52,805
"43,079
»24,012

12,348
11,088
13,797
11,778

85
150

> 41,682
>
"32,541

23,297
19,741
>•30,371
"24,327

14,661
12,582

14,618
13,081
16,115
13,811

87
136

140,791
109,152
>•145,260

79,776
65,254

139,002
110,780
"139,204
>•111,887

75,926
61,762

29,032
26,153

F R E E N'KC.RO, FEMALE

1860
1860
1840—
1880
1820'

>•56,592
>•48,138
"28,850

46,395
41,765

SLAVE, MALE

1860
1850
1840'
1830
1820

176,169
> 391,206
1812,567

355,018
289,595

218,346
175,300

>•118,880

>' 185,585

57,463
52,081
42,293

SLAVE, FEMALE

1860
1850
1840
1880__

228,481
181,113
>•390,117
>•308,770

• Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
- Represents zero.
> Excludes 23,372 persons for whom age is not available. See series A 1-5, footnote 3.
• Exclusive of 325,464 persons enumerated in the Indian Territory and on Indian
reservations. See series A 105-118, footnote 7, for composition by race and sex.
• Excludes 1,260,078 persons (747,915 white and 612,163 Negro) for whom age is
not available. See series A 1-5, footnote 5, and series A 91-104, footnote 4.
• Totals differ slightly from corrected totals shown in series A 91-104. Corrections
by age are not available. See U.3. Census of Population: 1870, vol. I, pp. xliv-xlix,
and 3 - 8 .
• 10-15 years old.
• 16-25 years old.
' 26-44 years old.
• Under 16 years old.




343,023
282,615

220,520
178,355
'152,693

' 16 years old and over
>• Age for 1790 available only for white males.
> 15-percent sample data.
>
" 25-percent sample d a t a .
13
20-percent sample data.
M
Estimates based on population under 15 a n d age distribution of Negro a n d other
races.
u
Age for 1880 available only for all races, white, and for Negro a n d other races
combined.
> 10-23 years old.
<
» 24-35 years old.
>• 36-54 years old.
>* Under 14 years old.
10
14-25 years old.

67,796
57,289

12,407
1,822

A 135-159

RACE, SEX, NATIVITY, AGE

Series A 135-142.

Native Born White Population, by Sex and Parentage: 1850 to 1970
Male

Female
Foreign or mixed parentage

Foreign or mixed parentage
Year

Total

Total

Native
parentage
Foreign

135
1970 21
1960 2 *
I960
1950 3
1940i

138

Foreign
141

140

139

Mixed
142

82,910,031
73,840,267
73,633,549
61,431,020
53,437,533

.

1880
1870 «
1860
1850

71,823,652
62,271,351
62,090,878
50,004,910
42,126,520

11,OS 6,379
4,894,053
6,674,831
6,662,816
4,879,826
7,195,325
4,230,785
7,613,220
3,945,060

86,475,420
75,703,420
75,547,881
62,951,930
53,358,199

74,407,634
63,487,912
63,353,734
50.799.665
41,998,320

12,06 7,786
7,115,615
5,099,872
7,106,238
6,087,888
7,620,435
4,531,830
7,570,520
4,028,780

48,420,037
40,902,333
34,654,457
28,686,450
23,318,521

.

1930..
1920...
1910
1900
1890 »

Mixed

137

136

Native
parentage

35,595,286
29,636,781
25,229,218
20,849,847
17,536,950

4,178,800
8,645,951
3,455,021
7,810,531
2,968,446
6,456,793
2,495,253
5,341,350
6 5,781,571

47,883,298
40,205,828
33,731,955
27,908,929
22,660,870

34.805.666
28,785,176
24,259,357
20,099,515
16,938,766

8,761,576
4,316,056
7,884,008
3,536,644
6,459,518
3,013,080
5,290,930
2,518,484
• 5,72 2,104

(')
(»>

18,609,265
14,086,509
11,619,157
8,786,968

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
15-percent sample data. These data are not entirely comparable with d a t a on total
white population, by sex. See text for series A 91-104.
2
25-percent sample data. Total native, and data by parentage, are from different
tabulations.
* 20-percent sample data.
4
Complete-count d a t a for totals by sex; 5-percent sample d a t a for parentage.
6
Excludes population enumerated in the Indian Territory and on Indian reservations
(including 64,047 white males and 53,321 white females) not classified by nativity.

Series A 143-157.

18,234,026
14,009,156
11,206,627
8,525,565

(')
(>)

(')

(')
(">

(')
(')

(')
(»)

s Totals for both sexes: Foreign parentage—8,085,019; mixed parentage—3,418,656.
7
D a t a not available by sex. Totals for both sexes: Native parentage—28,568,424;
foreign parentage—6,363,769; mixed parentage—1,911,098.
8
Excludes 747,915 white persons for whom d a t a on nativity are not available. See
series A 1-5, footnote 5, and series A 91-104, footnote 4.
9
D a t a not available by sex. Totals for both sexes: Native parentage—22,771,397;
foreign parentage—4,167,098; mixed parentage—1,157,170.

Median Age of the Population, by Race, Sex, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970

All races

White

Negro

Other races

Foreign-born white

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

143

Year

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

1970
1960 *
1960
1950
1940

28.1
29.5
29.6
30.2
29.0

26.8
28.7
28.7
29.9
29.1

29.3
30.3
30.4
30.5
29.0

28.9
30.3
30.3
30.8
29.5

27.6
29.4
29.5
30.4
29.5

30.2
31.1
31.2
31.1
29.5

22.4
23.5
23.5
26.1
25.3

21.0
22.3
22.3
25.8
25.3

23.6
24.5
24.5
26.4
25.3

24.7
24.3
24.5
24.5
24.1

24.4
25.2
25.5
26.9
27.6

24.9
23.2
23.4
21.8
19.9

54.6
57.7
57.7
56.1
51.0

54.5
58.4
58.2
59.0
51.4

54.7
57.1
57.2
55.5
50.5

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

26.5
26.3
24.1
22.9
22.0

26.7
25.8
24.6
23.3
22.3

26.2
24.7
23.5
22.4
21.6

26.9
25.6
24.5
23.4
22.5

27.1
26.1
24.9
23.8
22.9

26.6
25.1
23.9
22.9
22.1

23.5
22.3
20.8
19.5
18.1

23.7
22.8
21.0
19.5
17.9

23.3
22.0
20.7
19.5
18.3

23.3
26.1
26.5
27.3
28.9

25.9
30.4
29.2
30.9
33.2

18.6
20.5
19.8
20.3
27.2

43.9
40.0
37.2
38.5
37.1

44.1
40.1
36.9
38.8
37.1

43.7
39.9
37.6
38.1
37.0

1880
1870
I860.
1850
1840

20.9
20.2
19.4
18.9
17.8

21.2
20.2
19.8
19.2
17.9

20.7
20.1
19.1
18.6
17.8

21.4
20.4
19.7
19.2
17.9

21.6
20.6
20.1
19.5
18.0

21.1
20.3
19.3
18.8
17.8

(NA)
18.3
17.5
17.4
17.6

(NA)
17.8
17.5
17.3
17.5

(NA)
18.8
17.5
17.4
17.6

(NA)
28.1
26.1

(NA)
29.1
27.5

(NA)
23.0
20.5

38.3
34.6

38.5
35.3

38.0
33.9

1830
1820_
1810
1800
1790-

17.2
16.7

17.2
16.6

17.3
16.8

17.3
16.6
16.0
16.0

17.2
16.5
15.9
15.7
(')

17.3
16.6
16.1
16.3

17.2
17.2

17.1
17.1

17.3
17.4

1
Median falls in the open-ended age group, 16 years and over, which includes
50.3 percent of the white male population.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA N o t available.

Series A 158-159.
[In years.
Male
158
23.2
23.2
23.1
23.1
22.8
22.8
23.1
22.8




Median Age at First Marriage, by Sex: 1890 to 1970

1947 to 1970 based on sample data from Current Population Survey.

Female

Male

Male

Year

159
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.6
20.5
20.6
20.5
20.5

Female

Female

Male

Year
158

1962
1961
1960
1959,
1958
1957.
1956.
1955

See text for method of computation]

22.7
22.8
22.8
22.5
22.6
22.6
22.5
22.6

Year
158

20.3
20.3
20.3
20.2
20.2
20.3
20.1
20.2

159

158

1954
1953
1952
1951.

23.0
22.8
23.0
22.9

20.3
20.2
20.2
20.4

1947
1940
1930
1920

23.7
24.3
24.3
24.6

20.5
21.5
21.3
21.2

1960
1949
1948.

22.8
22.7
23.3

20.3
20.3
20.4

1910
1900
1890

25.1
25.9
26.1

21.6
21.9
22.0

19

A 160-171

POPULATION

Series A 160-171.

Marital Status of the Population, by Age and Sex: 1890 to 1970

[For 1940-1970, marital status not reported was allocated on the basis of other characteristics]
Males, 14 years old and over

Females, 14 years old and over

Total

1970 >
Total, 14 years and over

Divorced

Status
not
reported

Total

Single

Married

Widowed

Divorced

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

20,768
381,500
74,740
306,760

2,451
8,529
5,057
3,472

7,761,209 4,307,592 3,329,772
6,569,934 1,288,594 5,066,314
601,868 4,803,203
. . . 5,607,593
884,372 9,895,931
11,261,731

years
years
years
years

12,878
19,196
19,574
75,546

711,099 9,813,513
186,144
574,425 7,587,085
364,665
631,768 6,103.326 1,441,949

11,138,181
8,858,893
8,433,330

2,111,778
9,315,441
5,986,895
3,328,546

2,019,680
22,010
8,358,248 1,073,147
5,553,582
250,529
2,804,666
822,618

5,421
23,038
12,382
10,656

1,945
30,796
8,640
22,156

110,967
195,830
182,948
405,882

8,354,509 3,030,876 5,064,321
827,906 5,616,300
6,810,076
435,897 5,055,678
5,868,858
672,265 10,187,753
11,860,315

56,508
71,530
86,494
353,760

212,804
294,340
290,789
646,547

427.425
332,718
256,287

11,996,408
9,827,148
11,658,495

942,796
662,506 9,728,095
669,051 6,677,855 1,988,096
947,686 4,251,272 6,087,637

663,011
492,146
371,900

2,049,056
9,485,229
5,825,133
3,660,096

61,315,358 15,313,822 42,630,422 2,071,910 1,299,204
7,756
254,377
48,850
205,527

163
1,784
897
887

5,283,228 2,807,784 2,417,552
5,333,282 1,111,768 4,117,072
694,924 5,000,763
. . . 5,840,287
948,784 10,410,091
11,739,191

4,780
9,548
17,246
76,436

749,390 8,896,768
182,260
606,187 6,351,408
380,508
564,373 5,174,635 1,399,185

10,139,671
7,569,153
7,308,985

45-54 years
55-64 years
65 years and over
1950 3
Total, 14 years and over

1,394,426
6,437,186
4,290,310
2,146,876

64,961,189 12,320,199 42,905,285 7,880,607 1,855,098

379
5,490
1,578
3,912

1,402,724
6,698,837
4,341,635
2,357,202

years
years.
years...
years

77,910,094 17,624,105 47,666,431 9,615,280 3,004,278

1,821
12,719
4,793
7,926

14 years15-19 years
15-17 years
18 and 19 years

1,345,136
6,588,597
4,171,262
2,417,335

1,330,089
14,250
5,528,745 1,033,804
3,886,610
277,151
1,642,135
756,653

391
4,751
1,874
2,877

406
21,297
5,627
15,670

53,112
94,894
127,354
303,880

5,519,937 1,567,622 3,833,956
5,537,104
582,114 4,772,006
6,111,422
422,915 5,423,228
12,336,341
748,766 10,741,606

17,252
37,047
74,109
374,216

101,107
145,937
191,170
471,753

311,253
232,050
170,792

10,485,709
8,138,691
8,898,252

738,266 8,379,825
921,258
648,264 5,375,362 1,819,043
753,418 3,331,248 4,632,540

446,360
296,022
181,046

54,601,105 14,399,840 36,866,055 2,263,850 1,071,360
6,660
166,955
30,410
136,545

1,670
4,995
3,460
1,535

5,559,265 3,281,540 2,217,810
5,904,975 1,404,860 4,381,375
734,195 4,690,995
5,562,315
996,570 9,046,675
10,402,195

9,060
15,485
20,945
94,866

50,855
103,255
116,180
264,085

725,355 7,267,615
240,755
551,185 6,320,670
495,140
479,155 3,767,300 1,380,935

250,790
173,105
106,860

50,553,748 17,593,379 30,192,334 2,143,612

years
years
years
years

624,423

8,484,515
6,540,100
5,734,250

45-54 years
55-64 years
65 years and over
1940
Total, 14 years and over

1,080,370
5,146,610
3,151,360
1,995,250

57,102,295 11,418,335 37,576,800 6,734,275 1,372,885

1,320
4,910
2,280
2,630

1,090,020
5,323,470
3,187,510
2,135,960

14 years.
15-19 years.
15-17 years..
18 and 19 years.
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

Widowed

2,136,818
9,718,189
6,071,485
3,646,704

45-54 years.__
55-64 years
65 years and over
1960 ' *
Total, 14 years and over

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

Married

71,485,878 20,426,937 47,001,412 2,130,932 1,926,597

14 years
15-19 years
15-17 years
18 and 19 years
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

Single

160

Year and age

14 years
15-19 years
15-17 years
18 and 19 years

1,218,116
6,180,153
3,684,780
2,495,373

1,216,784
6,073,165
3,670,287
2,402,878

1,247
104,935
14,002
90,933

60
1,031
311
720

years
years..
years
years

5,692,392
5,450,662
5,070,312
9,164,794

4,109,304
1,964,118
1,050,199
1,283,994

1,557,104
3,417,046
3,912,820
7,551,974

8,394
20,973
36,714
155,406

45-54 years
55-64 years
65 years and over
1930
Total, 14 years and over

7,962,019
5,409,180
4,406,120

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

years.
years
years..
years

565
5,260
2,055
3,205

215
16,315
3,500
12,815

25,280
57,490
91,945
409,250

97,090
158,990
176,175
387,865

680,150 6,737,675
967,595
525,405 4,310,160 1,636,660
581,930 2,327,335 3,540,230

302,185
160,945
73,105

50,549,176 13,935,866 30,090,488 5,700,202

822,620

8,687,605
6,633,170
6,522,600

1,187,614
6,153,370
3,629,909
2,523,461

1,039,610
4,412,565
2,893,350
1,519,215

3,353
713,940
165,131
548,809

110
6,423
1,729
4,694

57
8,984
1,803
7,181

17,590
48,525
70,679
173,421

5,895,443 2,781,001 3,025,923
5,645,976 1,288,092 4,185,325
5,172,076
761,698 4,155,872
9,168,426
950,876 7,430,791'

32,751
71,878
128,256
537,584

55,768
100,681
126,250
249,175

885,004 6,590,954
328,130
577,170 4,245,427
488,620
433,641 2,810,827 1,104,285

157,931
97,963
57,367

7,550,052
5,163,025
4,613,194

654,312 5,736,614
991,448
462,407 3,254,768 1,365,044
429,363 1,583,902 2,566,708

167,678
80,806
33,221

45,035,691 16,143,512 26,311,682 2,022,588

488,688

69,221 43,970,842 12,465,795 26,159,771 4,728,565

572,574

761
100,362
10,553
89,809

42
1,513
281
1,232

21
1,348
178
1,170

5,336,815 3,779,443 1,500,493
4,860,180 1,785,413 2,977,004
4,561,786
965,945 3,468,176
8,816,319 1,261,705 7,189,452

17,657
39,013
59,493
218,881

21,900
50,229
62,669
137,180

776,863 5,551,146
442,505 3,407,751
280,617 2,116,537

357,047
445,262
883,680

111,471
66,499
37,371

1,206,486
5,757,825
— 3,493,718
2,264,107

14 years
15-19 years
15-17 years
18 and 19 years

6,980
887,615
217,325
670,290

6,878,040 1,898,910 3,856,760
6,277,480
833,040 5,227,960
5,896,625
546,245 5,082,260
10,837,650
900,480 9,140,055

25
1,022
180
842

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

1,047,370
6,321,755
3,116,230
2,205,525

-

45-54 years
55-64 years
65 years and over

6,803,569
4,367,500
3,325,211

See footnotes at end of table.

20



1,205,662
6,645,359
3,482,706
2,162,653

4,241
731,967
179,404
552,563

167
12,337
3,284
9,053

98
12,371
2,870
9,501

5,533,563 2,547,057 2,857,665
4,973,428 1,079,923 3,697,645
4,558,635
603,048 3,715,648
8,382,521
839,130 6,832,581

56,375
102,041
148,571
547,562

62,464
89,124
88,219
157,650

872,676
564,466 4,673,539
360,188 2,499,285 1,119,802
268,416 1,147,200 1,869,034

98,874
45,881
17,893

1,175,899
9,243 5,794,290
3,465,118
9,243 2,329,172
17,322
8,521
5,503
9,101

1,184,094
5,424,023
3,461,246
1,962,777

7,042 6,214,514
5,483 4,029,398
7,006 3,308,594

1,171,393
5,032,174
3,279,560
1,752,614

MARITAL STATUS, AGE, AND SEX

Series A 160-171.

A 160-171

Marital Status of the Population, by Age and Sex: 1890 to 1970—Con.
Males, 14 years old and over

Females, 14 years old and over

Total

1920
Total, 14 years and over
14 years ._
15-19 years
15-17 years .
18 and 19 years
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

years.
years
years
years

years
years
years
years

.

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

Total

Single

Married

Widowed

Divorced

Status
not
reported

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

234,519

118
1,830
384
1,446

35
759
108
651

20,511
51,470
74,454
220,700

10,280
22,856
28,080
63,592

5,653,095
3,461,865
2,483,071

677,420 4,580,056
337,592 2,697,429
182,211 1,607,187

329,976
386,587
668,656

56,162
34,249
18,506

9,481 4,845,398
6,008 3,069,807
6,511 2,450,144
103,015 30,904,861

1,466,839

155,604

898
51,877
4,990
46,887

82
1,110
252
858

14
347
70
277

4,580,290 3,432,161 1,100,093
4,244,348 1,816,137 2,353,525
951,820 2,611,244
3,656,768
6,153,366 1,026,502 4,873,153

18,815
45,092
65,339
198,701

6,732
15,503
19,068
42,688

499,751 3,658,931
222,950 2,112,699
123,322 1,303,768

286,222
312,420
539,058

36,502
21,675
13,075

26,286,316 11,053,813 13,920,057

_..___
_
__
. . .

4,488,929
2,674,403
1,985,976

1,173,509

83,828

667
37,781

33
871

7
194

782,907
3,624,580 2,812,113
3,323,543 1,520,782 1,746,620
800,664 2,025,729
2,901,321
826,201 3,840,575
4,872,781

14,332
38,781
58,312
174,535

3,322
8,218
10,307
22,630

3,402,458
2,062,424
1,555,418

349,429 2,797,354
156,823 1,644,373
89,152 1,044,051

230,656
245,424
410,565

19,498
12,297
7,355

21,397,501

9,331,617 11,176,124

793,340
792,267
3,750,451 3,706,382
.
. . .

.

years
years .
years
years .

42,789

269
12,239
3,091
9,148

57
6,017
1,468
4,549

4,316

15,313
12,062
9,023
13,718

4,749,976 2,164,051 2,483,697
4,548,258 1,048,285 3,336,501
588,119 3,155,854
3,940,410
767,882 5,426,434
6,760,934

65,414
117,387
152,893
485,493

28,582
41,243
40,188
75,027

8,232
4,842
3,356
6,098

739,058
906,362
1,430,621

48,562
23,451
9,609

5,146
4,487
6,312

9,826,911 17,667,119 3,167,432

184,621

58,778

198
10,261
2,697
7,564

33
3,650
867
2,783

23,407
15,175
8,232

4,476,694 2,163,683 2,225,362
981,556 2,823,935
3,935,655
535,170 2,619,959
3,315,417
628,516 4,410,310
5,504,321

55,354
95,385
128,942
411,896

20,370
29,153
28,109
49,269

11,925
5,626
3,237
4,330

7,523 3,881,059
4,659 2,379,698
6,753 1,963,548

331,573 2,904,043
610,386
167,991 1,479,454
714,452
124,223
687,335 1,140,558

31,934
15,200
6,903

3,123
2,601
4,529

55,109 24,951,254

8,319,285 13,784,538 2,706,332

22,489
14,091
9,297
12,322

114,176

26,923

3,783
415,682

126
9,336

30
2,418

543
3,388

1,726,296
2,209,357
2,071,698
3,451,375

52,545
91,847
121,944
372,677

13,124
18,461
17,384
29,953

4,919
3,358
2,283
3,493

234,413 2,212,223
128,954 1,172,904
90,858
521,220

526,456
626,271
905,130

19,111
9,566
4,129

2,780
2,416
3,743

29 ,942 20,239,343 6,906,714 11,101,645 2,144,496

366
770,742
775,224
5,223 3,805,638 3,374,814
11,906
9,142
6,309
8,840

3,710,436
3,205,898
2,654,718
4,339,166

5,521 2,994,983
3,507 1,940,111
4,295 1,525,080

137

1
28

3,104,893 2,505,460
585,748
2,698,311 1,240,797 1,421,407
2,425,664
642,827 1,728,930
. . 3,705,648
568,511 2,997,030

7,610
26,601
43,777
120,796

1,468
4,340
5,832
12,837

4,607
5,166
4,298
6,474

157,920
166,686
287,583

11,393
7,835
4,974

3,882 2,430,878
2,294 1,499,997
2,137 1,183,569

2,627,024
1,630,373
1,233,719

239,928 2,213,901
111,144 1,342,414
69,100
869,925

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska
- Represents zero.
1
5-percent sample.




Hawaii.

4,316

3,482
513,239
121,803
391,436

48,708

45-54 years
55-64 years
65 years and over

464,838 3,587,794
257,029 1,878,478
173,442
830,160

908,435
912,148
25,881 4,536,321 3,985,764
15,184 2,683,806 2,543,264
10,697 1,852,515 1,442,500

811,110

_

_

272,736

5,554
596,542
145,390
451,152

1,012,968 1,007,088
7,059 4,756,764 4,137,650
2,861,030 2,711,081
7,059 1,895,734 1,426,569

23
16,746

. . .
723,158
723,015
_ . 3,248,711 3,230,835

.

79,175 36,134,659 10,608,384 21,301,014 3,909,736

1,754,302

3,173
96,374
12,521
83,853

935,974
934,980
4,527,282 4,448,067
2,688,370 2,667,874
1,838,912 1,780,193

45-54 years
55-64 years —
65 years and over
1890
Total, 14 years and over
14 years
15-19 years

Status
not
reported

33,247,336 13,455,690 18,066,188

_ .
. _

14 years. _
15-19 years .
years
years
years
years

Divorced

4,527,045 3,200,623 1,280,318
4,538,233 1,789,721 2,662,124
4,130,783
995,869 3,023,357
7,359,904 1,188,586 5,873,308

. _

45-54 years .
55-64 years.
. .
65 years and over. _
1900
Total, 14 years and over

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

Widowed

1,033,297 1,029,971
4,673,792 4,567,770
2,828,546 2,815,533
1,845,246 1,752,237

14 years .
15-19 years
15-17 years
18 and 19 years
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-44

Married

37,861,085 13,969,763 21,823,326

.

45-54 years
55-64 years _
.
65 years and o v e r .
1910
Total, 14 years and over

Single

160

Year and age

1,913,552
882,875
441,409
481,668

71,584

14,904

1,411
313,983

17
4,845

12
1,101

80
974

1,601,266 1,444,712
641,988 1,805,064
326,306 1,717,204
330,139 2,698,266

36,456
69,965
96,797
296,302

6,931
10,588
11,161
18,899

2,418
1,861
1,498
2,425

447,370
499,420
693,324

13,080
6,721
3,091

1,995
1,656
1,997

119
694,281
695,801
965 3,308,852 2,987,949
3,091,783
2,529,466
2,152,966
3,346,031

171,454
86,573
66,758

1,796,979
905,627
418,399

* 25-percent sample.
3
20-percent sample.

21

A 172-183

POPULATION

Series A 172-194. Population of Regions, by Sex, Race, Residence, Age, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970
(In thousands.

For definition of residence, see text for series A 43-72; for definition of race, see text for series A 91-104; for definition of nativity, see text for
series A 105-118]
Sex i

Region and year

Total
population

Residence 1

Race

Rural

Urban
Male

Female

White

Urban

Other
races

Negro

Rural
White

178

Negro
and
other

White

172

173

174

175

176

181

1970.
1960.
1950.
1940.
1930.

49,041
44,678
39,478
35,977
34,427

21,726
19,347
17,865
17,213

25,478
22,952
20,131
18,111
17,214

44,311
41,522
37,399
34,567
33,237

4,344
3,028
2,018
1,370
1,147

386
127
61
40
43

39,450
35,840
31,373
27,568
26,707

9,591
8,838
8,105
8,409
7,720

34,883
32,836
29,427
26,303
25,652

4,567
3,004
1,946
1,265
1,055

9,427
8,686
7,972
8,264
7,585

1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.

29,662
25,869
21,047
17,407
14,507

14,879
13,078
10,525
8,681
7,161

14,783
12,790
10,522
8,726
7,347

28,958
25,361
20,638
17,122
14,274

679
484
385
270
229

25
23
24
15
4

22,404
18,563
13,911
10,266
7,370

7,258
7,305
7.136
7,141
7.137

21,931
18,311
13,817

607
410
312

7,027
7,050
6,821

1870..
1860...
1850. _.
1840..
1830

12,299
10,594
8,627
6,761
5,542

6,080
5,266
4,339
3,397
2,784

6,219
5,329
4,287
3,364
2,751

12,117
10,438
8,477
6,619
5,417

180
156
150
142
125

5,448
3,787
2,289
1,253
785

6,851
6,807
6,338
5,508
4,758

1820...
1810..
1800..

4,360
3,487
2,636
1,968

2,187
1,714
1,303
961

2,169
1,670
1,248
940

4,246
3,384
2,553
1,901

114
102
83
67

480
380
245
160

3,880
3,107
2,391
1,809

1970.
1960.
1950.
1940.
1930.

56,572
51,619
44,461
40,143
38,594

27,563
25,472
22,179
20,268
19,690

29,009
26,147
22,282
19,876
18,904

51,641
48,003
42,119
38,640
37,151

4,572
3,446
2,228
1,420
1,262

359
170
114
83
181

40,481
35,481
28,491
23,437
22,351

16,091
16,138
15,970
16,706
16.243

35,773
32,085
26,354
22,159
21,149

4,708
3,396
2,137
1,278
1,203

15,868
15,917
15,765
16,481
16,003

1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.

34,020
29,889
26,333
22,410
17,364

17,494
15,486
13,589
11,619
9,016

16,526
14,403
12,744
10,792
8,348

33,164
29,279
25,776
21,914
16,961

793
543
496
431
386

62
66
61
65
17

17,776
13,487
10,165
7,418
4,198

16.244
16,401

17,103
13,088
9,843

674
403
324

16,061
16,191
15,933

1870
1850...
1840...
1830..

12,981
9,097
5,404
3,352
1,610

6,705
4,743
2,814
1,758
838

6,262
4,354
2,589
1,594
772

12,699
8,900
5,268
3,262
1,569

273
184
136
89
42

10
13

2,702
1,263
499
129
42

10,279
7,833
4,904
3,222
1,569

1820..
1810..
1800..

859
292
51

453
161
27

406
135

841
286
50

18
7

10
3

850
290
51

1970.
1960.
1950.
1940.
1930.

62,795
54,973
47,197
41,666
37,858

30,588
27,065
23,424
20,795
19,015

32,208
27,908
23,774
20,871
18,843

50,420
43,477
36,850
31,659
27,674

11,970
11,312
10,225
9,905
9,362

405
185
122
103
822

40,540
32,160
22,956
15,290
12,904

22,255
22,813
24,241
26,375
24,953

32,212
25,472
18,034
11,659
9,594

8,328
6,688
4,922
3,631
3,310

18,208
18,004
18,816
19,999
18,080

1920.
1910.
1900.
1890 •
1880.

33,126
29,389
24,524
20,028
16,517

16,773
14,924
12,405
10,118
8,272

16,352
14,465
12,119
9,910
8,244

24,132
20,547
16,522
13,193
10,555

8,912
8,749
7,923
6,761
5,954

81
92
79
74
7

9,300
6,623
4,421
3,261
2,017

23,826
22,767
20,103
16,767
14,500

7,043
4,761
3,052

2,261
1,862
1,369

17,089
15,786
13,470

1870.
1860.
1850.
1840.
1830.

12,288
11,133
8,983
6,951
5,708

6,091
5,655
4,552
3,528
2,900

6,197
5,478
4,430
3,423
2,808

7,863
7,034
5,630
4,309
3,546

4,421
4,097
3,352
2,642
2,162

4
2

1,497
1,067
744
463
301

10,791
10,067
8,239
6,488
5,407

1820.
1810.
1800.
1790.

4,419
3,461
2,622
1,961

2,255
1,123
874
655

2,163
1,069
830
616

2,776
2,191
1,704
1,271

1,644
1,268
918
690

204
143
78
42

4,216
3,318
2,544
1,919

1970..
I960..
1950..
1940.
1930.

34,804
28,053
20,190
14,379
12,324

17,199
14,067
9,884
7,134
6,218

17,606
13,986
9.677
6,750
5.678

31,377
25,830
18,574
13,350
10,802

1,695
1,086
571
171
120

1,732
1,137
416
363
974

28,854
21,787
14,027
8,409
7,199

5,950
6,266
6,163
5,969
5,125

25,905
20,035
12,941
7,851
6,442

2,949
1,752
707
276
551

5,472
5,795
5,633
5,498
4,360

1920..
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.

9,214
7,082
4,309
3,134
1,801

4,754
3,844
2,298
1,820
1,070

4,149
2,982
1,794
1,283

8,567
6,544
3,873
2,872
1,612

79
51
30
27
12

258
231
188
203
144

4,773
3,391
1,718
1,161
544

4,440
3,691
2,591
1,974
1,257

4,543
3,219
1,594

143
111
70

4,023
3,325
2,279

1870.
1860.
1850-

991
619
179

609
422
132

381
197
47

910
551
178

74
64

256
99
11

735
520
167

NORTHEAST

1790-

(Z)

NORTH CENTRAL

1860...

See footnotes a t end of table.

22




1

16;168
14,992
13,166

AGE AND NATIVITY

Series A 172-194.

A 184-194

Population of Regions, by Sex, Race, Residence, Age, and Nativity: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands]
Age

:

Nativity

8

White
Region and
year

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

45-64
years

25-44
years

65 years
and over

Native born

Foreign
born

Native
stock
184

185

186

191

31,051
26,822
21,468
18,131
14,617
12,434
11,076
9,918
8,891
11,465

9,573
10,274
10,611
10,560
11,518
9,741
7,644
5,981
4,366

Native
bom

192

193

Foreign
stock

190

189

Negro and other
races

187

188

11,570
12,029
12,269
11,280
10,679
9,284
8,183
6,584
5,126
4,035

10,905
9,895
8,912
7,784
6,416
5,200
4,101
3,227
2,662
2,187

6,199
4,498
3,446
2,694
1,949
1,463
1,235

1,741
561
411
293
234

512
52
48
33
25

9,600
8,419
7,143

NORTHEAST

1970
1960
1950
1940..
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880

3,991
4,656
3,766
2,391
2,905
3,107
2,691
2,244
1,781
1,646

9,359
8,093
5,603
5,546
6,448
5,638
4,686
4,018
3,399
3,080

8,015
6,506
5,481
6,381
6,031
4,950
4,940
3,913
3,513
2,861

1870

1,506
1,448
1,136
1,017
866
1,335
1,121
846

2,736
2,387
2,037
1,626
1,410
655
528
402

2,409
3,042
2,596
1,965
1,598
847
641
461

1880..

4,837
6,009
4,677
3,087
3,414
3,561
3,219
3,039
2,744
2,370

11,662
10,212
6,940
6,457
7,363
6,652
5,881
5,818
5,168
4,273

9,786
6,682
6,280
7,043
6,771
5,889
5,877
5,092
4,551
3,616

13,067
13,222
13,083
11,974
11,696
10,309
8,740
7,607
6,072
4,448

11,493
10,415
9,508
8,501
7,035
5,781
4,654
3,680
2,928
2,133

5,727
5,078
3,973
3,081
2,415
1,787
1,462
1,143
855
525

43,620
38,532
31,458
27,155
23,051
19,266
16,276
14,149
12,252
14,049

1870 4
1860
1850
1840
1830
1820
1810
1800

1,958
1,523
883
631
331
318
113
20

3,381
2,345
1,451
911
453
130
44

2,687
2,620
1,558
945
435
163
51
9

3,285
2,297
1,277
690
308
152
53
9

1,444
289
154
80
38

313
18
11
6
3

10,368
7,370
4,699

1970
1960
1950
1940
1930
1920
1910.
1900
1890«
1880

5,389
6,416
5,573
4,007
4,152
4,034
4,053
3,464
2,791
2,690

12,736
11,527
8,739
8,336
8,682
8,111
7,132
6,306
5,455
4,486

11,346
8,020
7,623
8,131
7,615
6,442
6,015
5,152
4,105
3,283

14,783
14,038
13,763
12,113
10,150
8,770
7,560
5,870
4,633
3,937

12,498
10,389
8,246
6,778
5,628
4,447
3,591
2,889
2,004
1,748

6,043
4,582
3,253
2,300
1,630
1,271
983
765
603
467

46,564
40,298
34,209
29,647
25,888
21,832
18,561
14,862
11,843
10,113

1870
I860.
1850.._
1840
1830
1820

1,920
1,793
1,464
826
695
973
783
613

3,275
3,066
2,546
1,191
979
433
344
267

2,621
3,206
2,578
1,215
1,011
548
418
324

2,844
2,605
2,055
929
740
508
408
322

317
38
35
13
11

7,468
6,644
5,383

1860
1850
1840
1830i
1820
1810
1800
1790

466

3,393
3,103
2,396
1,685
1,277
843
655
513
495

1,018

881
700

3,778
4,432
5,184
6.021
7,109
6,783
6,641
4,739
3,875
2,808

4,300
3,011
1,976
1,328
1,090
641
472
385
272
227

2,517
2,019
1,324

178
151
146

1,780
2,237
2,683
3,349
4,347
4,595
4,680
4,161
4,053
2,912

4,773
3,678
2,309
1,493
1,332
843
600
550
490
398

2,331
1,543
650

2f0
69
48

1,220
913
739
626
801
847
726
563
521
442

12,195
11,445
10,316
9,993
9,468
8,972
8,828
7,990
6,825
5,955

396
392
240

4,421
268
234

4,664
4,015
3,366
2,830
2,850
2,190
1,671

1,955
1,711
1,489
1,424
1,727
1,487
1,298

2,937
2,010
886
464
378
225
171

1,092
710

761
673
397
250
179
27

132
230
52
17
4

567
439
329

NORTH CENTRAL

1970
1960
1950
1940.
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

6,299
7,237
7,807
8,284
9,852
9,303
8,323
7,476
5,608

78
26
4

SOUTH

1810..

1800
1790_

1,315
377
299
135
110
314
238
178

2,718
2,258
1,794
1,484
1,683
1,453
1,260
1,097
830

319

336

WEST •

1970
1960-_
1950
1940
1930
1920
1910

2,937
3,239
2,148
1,057
973
870
668

6,989
5,634
3,036
2,091
2,119
1,638
1,168

6,295
3,812
2,715
2,365
2,006
1,427
1,289

8,574
7,609
6,095
4,305
3,728
2,916
2,327

6,914
5,357
3,970
3,022
2,336
1,602
1,078

3,096
2,401
1,598
1,043
715
422
269

424
318
208
128
79
15

812
586
357
208
95
26

734
586
340
168
217
80

1,337
1,028
593
370
216
52

604
414
237
101
10
3

154
78
32
12

1900
1890
1880
1870
1860
1850

-1 Represents zero.
Z Less than 500. 2
For 1790-1810, white persons only.
Series A 178 and A 179, 1950-1970,
based on current definition of urban and rural; 1790-1940, based on 1940 definition.
Series A 180-183, 1950-1970, based on current definition; 1930-1940, based on 1940
definition and 1900-1920 based on 1920 definition. See text for series A 43-56.
3
Includes 5,602 persons for whom sex, race, and age detail are not available.
4
Sex and age detail for the Dakota Territory not available.
5
Age detail excludes all persons residing in Indian Territory or on Indian reserva6
tions.
Total population, series A 172, and urban and rural population, series
A 178 and A 179, include Alaska beginning 1890, and Hawaii beginning 1900. Sex,




1

(Z)

24,997
20,108
13,670
9,191
6,844
4,890
3,675
2,021
1,490
1,215
661
436
150

1

race, age, and nativity detail, series A 173-177 and A 180-194, include Alaska and
Hawaii beginning 1960.
> Ages not reported and ages unknown are not included. Prior to 1850 age detail
for white only. Age detail columns have changed for early censuses as follows: 1790:
Under 16 years and over 16 years, for males only; 1800-1820: Under 10 years, 10-15
years, 16-25 years, 26-44 years, and 45 and over; 1830-1860: Under 5 years, 5-14
years, 15-29 vears, 30-59 years, 60-79 years, 80 and over. See also footnote 5.
« Nativity data for 1850-1930 are based on complete-count data; data for 1940-1970
are sample data. For the 1850 and 1860 censuses, nativity detail for slaves was not
compiled; nativity unknown or not reported is not included.

23

A 195-209

POPULATION

Series A 195-209.

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970

[In thousands, except series A 196. F o r definition of residence, see text for series A 43-72; for definition of race, see t e x t for series A 91-104]
Resident
population

Sex

Per
square
mile of

S t a t e a n d year
Total

1

Age2

Residence

Race

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

6-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

65 y e a r s
a n d over

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

area
195

196

ALABAMA
1970
1960
1950 »
19504
1940

3,444
3,267
3,062

67.9
64.2
59.9

1,662
1,592
1,503

1,782
1,675
1,559

2,634
2,284
2,080

903
980
980

7
3
3

2,012
1,792
1,341
1,228
856

1,432
1,476
1,721
1,834
1,977

301
390
380

719
718
620

1,849

983

1

297

619

562

744
509
370
217
152

1,902
1,839
1,768
1,612
1,361

314
300
312
267
219

635
618
538
485
433

554
456
441
394
315

69
63
49
35
13

1,194
934
915
736
578

214
156
159
131
71

351
273
276
224
100

254
218
284
224
91

3

306
128
9
1

44
33

54
13

55
45
36
33
31

146
86
34
17
8

156
140
94
55
51

32
34
16
8
6

27
28
33
28
33

3
6
16

52
58
48
32
33

113
89
69

2,833

56.6

1,400

1,433

2,646
2,348
2,138
1,829
1,513

51.8
45.8
41.7
35.7
29.5

1,315
1,173
1,074
917
758

1,331
1,175
1,064
912
756

1,701
1,447
1,229
1,001
834

945
901
908
827
678

1,263
997
964
772
591

24.6
19.4
18.8
15.0
11.5

623
489
489
392
305

640
508
475
379
286

662
521
526
427
335

600
476
438
345
256

310
128
9
1

6.0
2.5

161
68

149
60

190
85

119
42

1970-.1960
1960
1940 •
1930 >

300
226
129
73
59

.5
.4
.2
.1
.1

163
129
79
43
36

137
97
49
30
24

237
175
93
39
29

9
7

19201910- 1900-18901880

55
64
64
32
33

.1
.1
.1

35
46
46
19

20
18
18
13

28
36
30
4

1,771
1,302
750

15.6
11.6
6.6

871
656
379

499

4.4

436
334
204
123
88

3.8
2.9
1.8
1.1
.8

40
10

1970..
1960
1960".
I9604
1940

1,923
1,786
1,910
1,949

37.0

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

1,854
1,752
1,574
1,312
1,128

35.2
33.4
30.0
25.€
21.5

803
484
435
21C
98

16.3
9.2
8.3
4.C
1.9

30
14
1

.6
.1

1930
1920--1910
1900
1890
1880-.1870-.1860
1850
1840

—

-

1830
1820-_
1810 »
1800 s

1
(Z)
1
(Z)
1
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

616
487
508

791
803
857

691
607
497

326
261
199

793

426

136

669
587
524
406
336

374
302
254
214
164

99
83
65
54
42

276
223
214
169
66

134
103
29
21
7

34
23
3
2
1

51
17

37
16

4

71
46
19
13
11

62
41
28
12
9

87
72
45
22
17

41
28
17
14
13

7
5
5
4
3

6
5
4

10
7
7

7
10
8

19
30
21

11
11
7

2
1
1

362
332
334
476
325

159
167
93

379
286
146

318
187
114

412
343
222

342
229
130

161
90
44

(Z)

ALASKA

_

:Zi
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

ARIZONA
1970-1960
1950 »-_
I9604
1940
1930
1920
1910_
1900.
1890

—
—

1880
1870--_

900
647
371

1,605
1,170
655

258

241

427

15

57

1 ,-109
971
416
274
174

53

101

92

146

83

24

231
184
119
72
51

204
161
86
51
38

379
291
171
93
66

11
8
2
2
1

46
36
31
28
31

160
121
63
19
8

286
213
141
103
80

50
41
25
15
7

93
71
40
26
12

80
60
38
22
11

131
107
69
39
21

64
44
26
16
8

16
10
6
3
1

.4
.1

28
7

12
3

35
10

5

7
3

33
6

4
1

6
1

8
2

18
5

4
1

37.0
34.2
36.3

932
879
952

991
907
958

1,666
1,396
1,482

5
2
1

383
375
382

325
251
295

412
398
606

407
373
349

238
194
150

966

1,466

483

1

962
1,021
1,279
1,292
1,517

158
194
228

983

961
765
631
617
432

198

407

377

537

324

107

940
895
810
675
586

915
857
764
636
542

1,375
1,280
1,131
945
819

478
472
449
367
309

1
(Z)
(Z)

383
290
203
112
73

1,472
1,462
1,372
1.20C
1,065

209
221
231
190
173

437
450
39C
354
322

378
336
326
279
236

475
450
395
302
257

279
231
186
151
115

76
62
45
31
23

416
248
228
11C
63

386
236
208
10C
45

592
362
324
162
77

211
122
111
48
20

(Z)
(Z)
Z)

32
12
4

771
472
432
21C
98

142
82
75
38
17

226
129
129
63
22

156
114
131
62
22

191
112
91
43
15

74
41
8
4
1

13
7
1

17
8

14
6

26
13

5
2

30
14
1

6
5

7
2

7
3

5
5
2

53
43
26

(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

(Z)
(Z)

ARKANSAS

1880
1870
I860...
1860
1840
1830
1820.
1810._
See footnotes a t end of table.

24




362
389
427

(Z)

1

„

_

(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
1

(Z)

SEX, RACE, RESIDENCE, AGE

Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In t h o u s a n d s , except s e r i e s A 196]
Resident
population

Sex i

Race

Age2

Residence

Total

Per
square
mile of
land
area

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25—44
years

45-64
years

195

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

19,953
15,717
10,586

127.6
100.4
67.5

9,817
7,837
5,296

10,136
7,880
5,291

17,761
14,455
9,915

1,400
884
462

State and year

65 years
a n d over

CALIFORNIA
1970..
1960,_
1950
1950
1940--

792
378
209

1,817
2,144
2,047
3,377
2,005

1,643
1,746
1,099

3,882
3,018
1,500

3,558
2,080
1,403

5,036
4,408

4,034
3,089
2,250

6,907

44.1

3,516

3,392

6,597

124

186

18,136
13,573
8,539
7,209
4,902

453

914

1,120

2,271

1,696

19301920191019001890-

5,677
3,427
2,378
1,485
1,213

36.2
22.0
15.3
9.5
7.8

2,943
1,814
1,323
821
703

2,735
613
,055
665
511

5,408
3,266
2,260
1,403
1,112

81
39
22
11
11

188
123
96
71
90

4,161
2,327
1,468
777
589

,517
,100
909
708
624

405
276
194
126
107

890
540
360
264
223

904
518
430
265
235

,911
,186
847
491
398

1,188
697

1880-

865
560
380
93

5.5
3.6
2.4

518
349
273
86

347
211
107
7

767
499
323
92

91
67
53

371
208
79
7

494
352
301
86

93
68
43
2

171
113
45
4

165
90
137
62

285
221
149

133
61
5
1

2,207
1,754
1,325

21.3
16.9
12.8

1,089
870
665

,118
883
660

2,112
1,701
1,297

458
360
216

422
243
199

547
464
389

406
320
267

10.8

569

555

1,107

474
461
494
565
633

186
209
148

1,123

1,733
1,293
831
760
591

940
799
540
413

10.0
9.1
7.7
5.2
4.0

531
493
431
295
246

505
447
368
244
167

1,019
924
783
529
405

620
463
402
261
186

516
486
397
279
227

194
40
34

1.9
.4

129
25
33

65
15
2

191
39
34

1970-I960-1950«_
1950«_
1940..

3,032
2,535
2,007

623.6
520.6
409.7

1,470
1,244
988

1,561
1,291
1,019

2,835
2,424
1,952

1,709

348.9

850

859

1930.
19201910.
1900.
1890.

1,607
1,381
1,115
908
746

328.0
286.4
231.3
188.5
154.8

801
695
564
454
370

806
685
561
454
377

1880.

623
537
460
371
310

129.2
111.5
96.5
76.9
64.3

306
266
226
184
152

317
272
234
187
158

611
528
452
363
302

298
275
262
251
238

61.8
57.1
54.3
52.1
49.4

147
135
126
121
115

151
141
129
124
118

548
446
318

276.5
225.2
160.8

267
221
157

267

134.7

202
185
168

120.5
113.5
103.0
94.0
85.7

147
125
112
92
78

74.6
63.6
57.1
46.6
39.7

77
73
73
64
59

39.1
37.0
37.0
32.7
30.1

18701860-

1850-

1970.I960-.
1950
1950 «_
1940-.
1930.
1920.
19101900.
1890.
1880.
18701860-

(Z)
(Z)

133
35
30

(Z)

198

191

324

227

182
157
150
95
80

288
265
187
158

194
164
127
77
47

30
7
1

(Z)

197

204
184
145
106
73

41
8
19

83
16
13

494
306
266

731
706
642

665
536
445

(Z)

CONNECTICUT

18701860-

18501840_
1830,
1820-

1810.
1800-

1790-

687
550
449
617
551

253
278
195

600
469
282

1,675

2,345
1,986
1,559
1,391
1,158

109

254

315

526

377

1,577
1,359
1,099
892
733

1,132
936
732
544
380

475
444
383
365
366

133
154
112
92
69

313
261
197
163
133

280
223
209
165
150

486
435
353
290
222

301
238
182
147
124

261
177
122
59
39

362
360
338
311
271

63
59
55
40
37

122
108
91
78
68

120
102
133
111
86

176
154
145
113
87

105
85
33
25
21

290
267
255
245

28
21
16
13
7

270
254
246
238
231

37
72
74
74

69
41

85
63
49
45

76
55
60
48

281
225
161

466
384
274

134

132

231

(Z)

396
293
199
148
139

153
154
119
170
127

121
114
103
94
86

117
109
99
91
83

206
193
171
154
140

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

123
121
97
86
71

115
102
105
99
97

41
39
39
35
34

74
63
57
46
39

73
62
56
46
39

120
102
91
71
59

(Z)

49
31
21
14

98
94
91
78
70

31
26
33
26
18

39
37
28
25
24

38
36
27
25
22

58
65
55
50
46

77
73
73
64
59

18
11
11
11

181
107
53

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

19
47
43
40

DELAWARE
1970-1960-_
1950 »_
1950 i 1940-.
1930.
1920.
1910_
1900.
18901880-

1870.
1860-

1860.
1840.
1830.
1820.
1810_
1800-

1790-

117
88
49

108
83
65

136
127
100
48

12

12

See footnotes a t end of table.




25

A 195-209

Series A 195-209.

POPULATION

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

Sex i

Race

Total

Per
square
mile of
land
area

Male

Female

White

195

State and year

196

197

198

Age 2

Residence

199

Other

Negro

201

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

202

203

204

205

206

25-44
years

45-64
years

65 years
and over

208

DIST. OF COLUMBIA
19701960196019401930-

757
764
802
663
487

12.401.8
12.623.9
13,150.6
10,870.3
7,981.5

351
358
378
318
232

405
406
424
346
255

209
345
618
474
354

638
412
281
187
132

19201910.
19001890.
1880-

438
331
279
230
178

7,292.9
5,517.8
4,645.3
3,972.3
3,062.5

204
158
132
110
84

173
147
121
94

327
236
192
165
118

110
94
87
76
60

1870.

132 2,270.7
75 1,294.5
52
891.2
34
485.7
30
442.6

62
35
24
16
15

70
40
28
18
15

88
61
38
24
21

43
14
14
10
9

23
16
8

367.1
266.9
156.6

11
5
3

12
5
3

16
10
6

1970-.
I960..
1950
1950
1940..

6,789
4,952
2,771

125.5
91,5
51.1

3,276
2,437
1,367

3.614
2.615
1,404

5,719
4,064
2,166

1,897

36.0

943

954

1,382

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

1,468
968
753
529
391

27.1
17.7
13.7
9.6
7.1

738
495
394
275
202

731
473
368
253
189

1,035
638
444
297
225

1880.
1870.
1860.
1850.
1840.
1830.

269
188
140
87
54
35

4.9
3.4
2.6
1.6
1.0
.6

136
95
73
46
30
19

133
93
67
42
26
16

143
96
78
47
28
18

127
92
63
40
27
16

1970..
1960..
1950 »_
1950
1940..

4,590
3,943
3,445

79.0
67.8
58.9

2,231
1,926
1,689

2,359
2,017
1,756

3,391
2,817
2,381

1,187
1,123
1,063

3,124

53.4

1,535

1,589

2,038

1,085

1930_
1920.
1910.
19001890-

2,909
2,896
2,609
2,216
1,837

49.7
49.3
44.4
37.7
31.3

1,435
1.445
1,805
1,103
920

1,474
1,451
1,304

917

1,837
1,689
1,432
1,181
978

1,071
1,206
1,177
1,036
859

1880-

1840.

1,542
1,184
1,057
906
691

26.3
20.2
18.0
15.4
11.8

763
579
632
456
351

779
606
526
460
340

817
639
692
522
408

726
646
466
385
284

18301820.
1810.
1800.
1790.

617
341
252
163
83

8.8
5.8
4.3
1.5
.6

263
175
76
54
27

166
70
48

297
190
145
102
53

220
161
107
60
30

1970.
1960.
1950.
1940.
1930.

769
633
500
423
368

119.6
98.5
78.0
66.0
67.5

399
338
274
246

1920.
1910.
1900.

256
192
154

39.9
30.0
24.0

151
123
106

1860-.

1850-.
1840-.
1830-.
1820-.
1810-.
1800..

18701860-

1860.

See footnotes a t end of table.

26




1,118

296
226
178
146

116
104
80

106
69
48

66
44
29

757
764
802
663
487

129
116
90
78
68

145
109
117
114
84

197
216
294
252
173

156
176
174
137
100

438
331
279
230
160

60
50
46
44

85
63
56
50
34

161
119
94
69
64

79
54
46
37
25

121
70
48
31
27

40
22
14
6
5

16
3
2
1
1

7
5

21
13
6

4
2
1

,042
880
603

1,321
1,290
957
1,205
852

601
641
291

514

6,468
3,661
1,814
1,667
1,046

432
329
309
231
166

760
354
219
107
77

708
615
534
422
314

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

1,249
926
435

,073
634
395

1,609
1,279
853

1,468
1,019
560

602

349

142
105
97
73
64

295
218
171
131
104

276
178
155
111
81

441
277
215
136
98

242
147
90
60
43

243
172
135
87
54
35

44
30
23
16
5
4

74
52
39
24
7
5

54
41
40
25
9
6

65
44
32
21
7
4

27
18
4
2

2,768
2,180
1,559
1,426
1,074

1,822
1,763
1,885
2,018
2,050

422
472
422

961
862
667

860
603
568

1,122
1,013
1,006

313

644

633

897

477

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

895
728
539
846
257

2,013
2,168
2,070
1,870
1,580

316
363
377
325
267

693
748
663
591
523

623
580
541
471
381

744
737
645
610
424

417
362
299
246
186

(Z)

145
100
76
39
26

1,397
1,084
982
867
667

262
189
177
155
84

427
325
303
269
119

307
258
307
261
110

352
266
232
189

150
116
35
29
11

14
8
5
6

503
333
247
158
83

64
69
64
38

83
30
23
16

82

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

426
382
319
287

639
484
345
264
198

130
149
155
169
170

201
147
126

92
59
39

164
133
115

151

14

160
137

(Z)
(Z)

868
713
562

8
20
14

19

13

153
105
94
99
76

203
183
159
127
106

45
34
32

79
76
70

138
97
70
53
46

SEX, RACE, RESIDENCE, AGE

Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

Sex'

Race

Age 2

Residence

Total

1970-.
1960-1950
1950 *.
1940--

713
667
589

19301920191019001890-

445
432

Per
square
mile of
land
area

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

196

State and year

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

385
317
253
234
177

248

237
234
186
93
53

208
198
140
68
35

426
319
154
82

(Z)
(Z)

.4
.2

22
12

11
3

29
11

199.4
180.4
155.8

5,392
4,953
4,319

5,722
5,128
4,393

9,600
9,010
8,046

1,426
1,037
646

127
94
86

158
161
167

98

100

100
98
68
37
19

82
74
62
29
15

1880-

119
126
101
49
27

6
1

5
2

65 years
and over

146

316
313
256
152
89

12

(Z)
(Z)

525

162

152
149
114

33
15

277
5.4
5.2
3.9
1.9
1.1

327
350
336
354
348

130
119
70
10

699
657
581

303

1870-

1970-_
1960-.
1950 3 .
1950
1940-_

357
329
285

8.6
8.1
7.1

45-64
years

143
123
105

7,897

141.2

3,957

3,940

7,504

387

9,230
8,140
6,759
6,487
5,810

547

1,161

1,361

2,519

1,741

19301920.
191019001890-

7,631
6,485
5,639
4,822
3,826

136.4
115.7
100.6
86.1
68.3

3,873
3,305
2,912
2,473
1,972

3,757
3,180
2,727
2,349
1,854

7,295
6,299
5,527
4,735
3,768

182
109
85
57

5,636
4,404
3,480
2,616
1,719

1,995
2,082
2,159
2,205
2,107

616
655
598
550
471

1,365
1,241
1,068
1,039
848

1,351
1,102
1,122
915
793

2,472
2,078
1,749
475
,076

1,399
1,103
843
641
494

1880-

3,078
2,540
1,712
851
476

55.0
45.4
30.6
15.2
8.5

1,587
1,317
903
448
257

1,491
1,223
809
403
219

3,031
2,511
1,704
846
472

46
29
8
5
4

941
596
246
64
10

2,137
1,944
1,466
787
467

416
391
293
142
93

755
662
432
244
132

650
503
507
244
140

792
663
431
200
98

378
269
46
19
9

157
55
12

2.8
1.0
.1

83
30
6

74
25
5

155
54
12

2
1
1

157
55
12

36
20
4

44
8
2

43
11
2

29
10

1970__
1 9 6 0s. .
1950 4_
1950 1940--

5,194
4,662
3,934

143.9
128.8
108.7

2,531
2,299
1,959

2,662
2,364
1,976

4,820
4,389
3,759

357
269
174

1,075
939
631

917
629
569

1,222
1,204
1,148

1,030
903
803

94.7

1,725

1,703

3,305

122

1,822
1,752
1,577
1,717
1,540

456
543
422

3,428

3,372
2,910
2,357
2,217
1,888

269

554

601

995

721

19301920.
1910.
19001890-

3,239
2,930
2,701
2,516
2,192

89.4
81.3
74.9
70.1
61.1

1,640
1,489
1,383
1,285
1,118

1,598
1,441
1,318
1,231
1,074

3,126
2,849
2,640
2,459
2,147

112
81
60
58
45

1,796
1,483
1,144
863
590

1,443
1,448
1,557
1,654
1,602

285
289
276
275
254

612
559
521
538
507

551
497
510
489
452

927
854
782
712
584

629
543
459
379
299

1880-

1,978
1,681
1,350
988
686

55.1
46.8
87.6
27.5
19.1

1,010
858
699
512
357

968
823
651
477
329

1,939
1,656
1,339
977
679

39
25
11
11
7

248
116
45
11

1,592
1,433
1,235
944
675

258
253
227
168
137

495
453
365
292
200

429
347
393
281
189

497
402
320
219
136

239
184
43
26
15

343
147
25
6

9.6
4.1
.6

178
77
13

163
70
11
2

146
24
5

343
147
25
6

77
57
9
2

100
22
4
1

90
28
5
1

63
26
4
1

1,208
1,295
1,370
1,392
1,454

233
307
280

574
551
426

477
358
374

612
652
710

1870186018501840183018201810-

1870,
1860-

18501840183018201810.
1800.

11,114
10,081
8,712

8

()

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

4
1
1
(Z)

1,884
1,941
1,953
2,226
2,088

937
1,130
843

2,233
1,871
1,250

1,855
1,268
1,182

2,653
2,674
2,705

2,343
2,163
1,979

8
12
2
(Z)

1970-_
I960..
1950 K
1950 <_
1940_ _

2,824
2,758
2,621

50.5
49.2
46.8

1,373
l.f"
1,310

1,452
1,398
1,311

2,783
2,729
2,600

2,538

45.3

1,280

1,258

2,521

1,616
1,463
1,251
1,229
1,084

207

417

443

706

537

1930_1920..
1910..
1900__
1890_-

2,471
2,404
2,225
2,232
1,912

44.1
43.2
40.0
40.2
34.4

1,255
1,229
1,148
1,157
995

1,216
1,175
1,077
1,075
918

2,453
2,384
2,209
2,219
1,901

979
875
680
572
406

1,492
1,529
1,545
1,659
1,507

220
251
236
263
234

479
468
451
496
455

425
426
436
439
397

691
694
620
614
490

471
418
352
308
257

1880.
1870.

1,625
1,194
675
192
43

29.2
21.5
12
3.5
.2

848
626
354
101
24

776
568
320
91
19

1,615
1,188
674
192
43

247
156
60
10

1,377
1,038
615
182
43

230
191
125

409
320
177
56
11

341
234
186
53
14

396
296
168
45
9

202
128
17
4
1

1860.

1850.
1840.

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

579
562
558

See footnotes a t end of table.




27

A 195-209

POPULATION

Series A 195-209.

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

State and year
Total

Per
square
mile of

Sex i

Race

Age 2

Residence

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25—44
years

45-64
years

65 years
and over

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

762
850
912
1,002
1,047

175
246
200

440
426
299

406
290
278

501
545
535

459
432
399

266
240
194

area
195

196

KANSAS

1970-.
1960 1950 3 1950 4 1940-.

2,247
2,179
1,905

27.6
26.6
23.2

1,102
1,081
954

1,146
1,097
952

2,122
2,079
1,829

107
91
73

18
9
3

1,801

21.9

906

895

1,734

65

1

1,485
1,329
993
903
754

138

301

314

509

382

167

1930-.
1920-1910-1900-1890--

1,881
1,769
1,691
1,470
1,428

22.9
21.6
20.7
18.0
17.5

961
909
886
769
763

920
860
805
702
675

1,812
1,709
1,634
1,416
1,377

66
68
54
62
60

3
2
3
2
2

730
616
492
330
270

1,151
1,153
1,199
1,141
1,169

171
187
192
172
186

371
365
346
341
357

337
316
338
298
289

525
502
468
383
365

346
292
255
214
189

129
105
88
60
40

1880-1870-1860--

996
364
107

12.2
4.5
1.3

537
202
59

459
162
48

952
346
106

43
17
1

1
1

105
52
10

891
313
97

162
59
18

261
89
27

195
75
35

265
106
26

107
31
1

3,219
3,038
2,945

81.2
76.2
73.9

1,579
1,508
1,475

1,640
1,530
1,470

2,982
2,820
2,742

231
216
202

1,535
1,685
1,861
1,959
1,996

271
342
346

651
637
562

584
447
474

731
737
798

644
582
529

337
292
235

(Z)

17
4
(Z)

KENTUCKY

1970-1960-1950 3 1950 4 1940-.

2,846

70.9

1,436

1,410

2,631

214

(Z)

1,684
1,363
1,084
986
849

285

579

541

769

483

189

1930-1920-1910 1900-1890..

2,615
2,417
2,290
2,147
1,859

65.2
60.2
57.0
53.4
46.3

1,323
1,227
1,162
1,090
943

1,292
1,189
1,128
1,067
916

2,388
2,181
2,028
1,862
1,590

226
236
262
285
268

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

799
634
555
468
357

1,816
1,783
1,734
1,680
1,502

293
292
295
284
249

596
659
526
525
481

480
446
457
439
391

677
637
603
650
452

425
368
313
265
215

142
114
94
77
64

1880-1870 1860-1850
1840-..

1,649
1,321
1,156
982
780

41.0
32.9
28.8
24.4
19.4

833
666
592
503
400

816
655
563
480
380

1,377
1,099
919
761
590

271
222
236
221
190

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

250
196
121
74
31

1,399
1,125
1,035
909
749

248
207
193
164
115

444
363
322
285
167

344
277
330
283
167

386
303
267
215
122

178
137
40
32
18

47
34
4
4
2

688
564
407
221
74

17.1
14.0
10.1
5.5
1.8

353
289
169
94
32

336
275
155
86
29

519
435
324
180
61

170
129
82
41
13

16
9
4

_

672
555
402
221
74

105
161
126
72

148
71
53
27

146
83
59
31

102
74
55
33

1970.
1960,.
I 9 6 0 '4
1950 .
1940--

3,641
3,267
2,684

81.0
72.2
59.4

1,771
1,692
1,319

1,870
1,665
1,364

2,541
2,212
1,797

1,087
1,039
882

808
725
510

676
467
423

826
808
773

677
592
466

307
242
177

52.3

1,172

1,191

1,512

849

3

1,235
1,196
1,212
1,304
1,383

348
423
334

2,364

2,406
2,061
1,472
1,380
980

231

472

457

712

374

119

1930.
1920_.
1910 .
1900-_
1890..

2,102
1,799
1,656
1,382
1,119

46.5
39.6
36.6
30.4
24.6

1,048
903
835
695
659

1,064
895
821
687
569

1,323
1,097
941
730
658

776
700
714
651
559

3
2
1
1
1

834
628
497
366
284

1,268
1,170
1,160
1,015
835

231
209
224
199
163

476
442
413
361
306

424
360
340
285
231

593
493
440
340
260

302
230
185
152
124

76
59
50
40
32

1880._
1870.I860-1850
1840-

940
727
708
518
352

20.7
16.0
15.6
11.4
7.8

469
362
370
275
188

471
365
338
243
165

456
362
357
255
158

484
364
350
262
194

1

239
203
185
134
105

701
524
523
383
247

151
111
102
73
28

252
181
168
123
37

177
145
207
156
50

228
187
199
151
42

108
87
19
13
3

25
17
2
1

216
153
77

4.8
3.4
2.2

116
82
19

101
71
15

89
74
34

126
80
42

46
27
17

170
126
59

16
23
11

23
10
5

26
15
6

22
17
8

2

1970..
I960..
1950 4».
1950 _
1940..

992
969
914

32.1
31.3
29.4

483
479
454

509
490
460

985
963
911

3
3
1

4
3
2

201
192
154

168
133
137

219
235
246

204
194
184

115
107
94

27.3

426

421

845

1

1

488
472
442
539
504

85
109
100

847

504
497
472
375
343

70

151

145

227

173

80

1930.
1920..
1910..
1900.
1890

797
768
742
694
661

26.7
25.7
24.8
23.2
22.1

401
389
377
351
333

396
379
365
343
328

795
766
740
692
659

1
1
1

322
300
262
233
186

476
468
480
462
475

75
75
72
66
58

154
142
131
124
124

129
125
127
124
126

207
210
209
195
179

163
154
141
129
120

69
62
61
55
52

1830
1820
1810
18001790

__. .
_

6
2
1

17

16
46
31
16

2

15

LOUISIANA

...

1830...
1820.
1810-.

13
6
4

1

(Z)

(Z)
(Z)

i

MAINE

See footnotes a t end of table.

28



1
1

SEX, RACE, R E S I D E N C E , AGE
Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

P o p u l a t i o n of States, b y Sex, R a c e , U r b a n - R u r a l R e s i d e n c e , a n d A g e :

1790 to

1970—Con.

[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

Sex i

Race

Age 8

Residence

Total

Per
square
mile of
land
area

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

195

State and year

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

5-14
years

15-24

25-44
years

45-64
years

206

207

65 years
and over

208

MAINE—Con.
1880 .
1870.
1860.
1850.
1840-

649
627
628
583
502

21.7
21.0
21.0
19.5
16.8

324
313
317
297
254

325
314
311
286
248

647
625
627
582
500

1880.
1820.

399
298
229
152
97

13.4
10.0
7.7
5.1
3.2

201
150
116
77
49

198
149
112
74
47

297
228
151
96

1970-I960-.
1950 3.
1950
1940..

3,922
3,101
2,343

396.6
313.5
237.1

1,916
1,533
1,167

2,006
1,667
1,176

3,195
2,674
1,955

1,821

184.2

915

906

1,518

1930.
1920191019001890.

1,632
1,450
1,296,
1,188
1,042

165.0
145.8
130.3
119.5
104.9

821
729
644
589
616

811
720
651
599
527

1,354
1,205
1,063
952
826

1880.
1870.
1860.
1850.
1840-

935
781
687
583
470

94.0
78.6
69.1
58.6
47.3

462
385
341
292
234

473
396
346
291
236

' 725
605
516
418
318

210
175
171
165
152

18301820.
1810.
1800.
1790.

447
407
381
342
320

45.0
41.0
38.3
34.4
32.0

226
207
120
111
107

221
200
115
106
101

291
260
235
216
209

1970-_
I960-1950
1950 »_
1940 _ _

5,689
6,149
4,691

727.0
657.3
596.2

2,719
2,486
2,270

2,970
2,662
2,420

5,478
5,023
4,612

4,317

545.9

2,102

2,214

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

4,250
3,862
3,366
2,805
2,239

537.4
479.2
418.8
349.0
278.5

2,072
1,890
1,655
1,367

1,088

2,178
1,962
1,711
1,438
1,151

1880.
1870.
1860.
1850.
1840-

1,783
1,457
1,231
995
738

221.8
181.3
163.1
123.7
91.7

858
704
597
489
365

925
754
634
506
372

1,764
1,443
1,221
985
729

610
523
472
423
379

75.9
65.1
58.7
52.6
47.1

298
255
230
205
183

312
268
236
211
191

603
516
465
417
373

1970..
I960..
1950 4s.
1950 _
1940-.

8,875
7,823
6,372

156.2
137.7
111.7

4,349
3,883
3,212

4,526
3,940
3,160

7,833
7,086
5,918

991
718
442

2,695

2,561

5,040

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

4,842
3,668
2,810
2,421
2,094

84.9
63.8
48.9
42.1
36.4

2,519
1,928
1,465
1,249
1,092

2,323
1,740
1,356
1,172
1,002

1880.
1870.
1860.
1860.
1840.

1,637
1,184
749
398
212

28.5
20.6
13.0

862
618
395
210
114

1830.
1820.
1810.

32
9
5

18
5
3

18101800-

1790.

147
132
104
79

602
495
524
504
462

130
135
144
146
132

126
125
181
167
140

171
160
178
158
124

13

(Z)

387
290
222
148
97,

106
49
36
24

115
59
42
26

91
56
44
30

682
414
343

25

109
100
42
31
17
38
26
16
24

MARYLAND
699
518
386

786
587
450

918
847
727
917
741

344
367
258

814
626
368

302

3,004
2,254
1,616
1,426
1,080

137

297

333

573

358

276
244
232
235
216

975
869
658
591
496

657
580
637
597
547

145
147
138
135
121

315
284
263
259
239

292
264
251
235
212

488
431
376
334
278

295
250
205
171
145

376
295
233
188
114

559
486
454
395
356

123
108
101
86
53

223
193
172
151
76

190
167
196
168
96

241
197
186
153
80

123
101
29
23
12

156
147
145
126
111

91
66
47
27
14

356
341
334
315
306

46
81
75
70

73
39
36
34

90
54
47.
44

70
54
48
44

176
112
73

879
846
731
625
457

470
548
449

1,098
932
660

979
656
660

1,296
1,330
1,392

1,212
1,110
1,061

4,258

4,810
4,303
3,959
4,066
3,859

282

659

755

1,286

966

4,193
3,804
3,326
2,770
2,215

3,831
3,469
2,996
2,412
1,835

418
383
371
393
404

350
386
329
282
204

778
693
580
485
388

712
630
622
617
469

1,277
1,211
1,094
922
698

856
723
563
446
362

1,332
972
733
504
279

452
485
498
491
458

179
157
151
114
93

333
288
243
201
155

352
287
365
317
228

534
433
391
300
207

289
223
73
55
41

190
119
101
65
51

421
404
371
358
328

80
140
136
125

139
77
68
63

186
102
91
79

167
112
95
84

36

2,321
2,084
1,869
2,206
1,801

804
969
704

1,903
1,623
1,041

1,575
1,011

2,085
2,077
1,941

1,755
1,505

208

6,554
5,739
4,503
4,166
3,455

883

935

1,612

1,063

4,664
3,602
2,785
2,399
2,073

169
60
17
16
15

3,302
2,242
1,327
952
730

1,540
1,427
1,483
1,469
1,364

405
299
261
237

942
695
534
512
458

835
612
532
456
408

1,538
1,158
812
689
592

805
604
474
379
302

775
566
354
188
98

1,615
1,167
736
395
212

16
12
7
3
1

405
238
100

946
649
369
203

208
164
113
60
38

371
287
181
109
56

333
235
222
112

461
321
205
104
60

217
145
26
11
4

13
3
2

31
9

6

8
1
1

6
2
1

1

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

996
880
761

56

51

10
33
29
25

MASSACHUSETTS

1880.
1820.
1810.
1800.

1790.

5,266

(8)

(Z)
(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

95

1,8

1
(Z)

(Z)

See footnotes a t end of table.




29

A 195-209

Series A 195-209.

POPULATION

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

State and year
Total

Sex i

Per
square
mile of

Race

Residence

Aee<>

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

a n d over

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

1,864
1,693
1,501

1,941
1,721
1,481

3,736
3,372
2,954

35
22
14

area
195

196

MINNESOTA
1970-_
1960-.
1950 s
1950
1940-.

3,805
3,414
2,982

48.0
43.1
37.3

2,792

34.9

1,428

1,365

2,769

10

1930
1920-_
1910-19001890-.

2,564
2,387
2,076
1,751
1,310

32.0
29.5
25.7
21.7
16.2

1,317
1,246
1,109
932
699

1,247
1,142
967
819
611

2,543
2,369
2,069
1,737
1,296

9
9
7
5
4

1880-1870-_
1860-1850-

781
440
172
6

9.7
5.4
2.1

419
235
93
4

362
204
79
2

777
438
169
6

2
1

46.9
46.0
46.1

1,074
1,068
1,077

1,143
1,110
1,102

1,393
1,258
1,189

816
916
986

(8)

34
20
15

818
705
491

230

12
9
9
9
10

1,258
1,052
850
598
443

1,306
1,336
1,225
1,153
867

231
261
227
228
177

2
1
2

149
71
16

632
369
156
6

8
5
4

(Z)
(Z)

1,278
1,291
1,358
1,375
1,402

332
416
332

13

2,527
2,123
1,625
1,607
1,390

665
446
421

852
816
829

459

503

511
483
435
410
301

454
438
432
331
258

117
71
34
1

191
118
39
1

1,230
1,357
1,572
1,577
1,751

210
278
283

490
502
467

729
676
640

409
354
269

809

579

213

749
707
594
602
366

454
385
298
210
154

163
111
86
67
42

161
77
47
2

197
118
48
2

95
47
4

406
331
363

466
476
668

422
401
355

222
190
163

19
8
(Z)

MISSISSIPPI
1970-.
I960._
1950 3 .
1950
1940.-

2,217
2,178
2,179
2,184

46.1

1,084

1,099

1,106

1,075

3

987
821
607
602
433

235

477

428

607

321

115

1930.
1920-.
1910-.
1900.1890 -

2,010
1,791
1,797
1,551
1,290

42.4
38.6
38.8
33.5
27.8

1,005
897
906
781
650

1,005
893
891
770
640

998
854
786
641
545

1,010
935
1,009
908
743

2
1
2
2
2

339
240
207
120
70

1,671
1,550
1,590
1,431
1,220

234
216
260
229
192

478
472
464
421
378

422
355
373
337
272

514
452
449
353
285

283
226
193
163
124

77
67
64
46
35

1880._
1870-1860-1850
1840-.-

1,132
828
791
607
376

24.4
17.9
17.1
13.1
8.1

567
413
406
312
196

564
415
385
295
180

479
383
354
296
179

660
444
437
311
197

2
1

35
33
21
11
4

1,097
795
771
596
372

196
137
126
105
38

324
222
216
176
50

223
182
233
177
52

255
188
171
132
36

106
81
20
15
3

28
18
2

137
75
31
8

2.9
1.6
.4
.3

72
40
13
3

65
35
10
2

70
42
23
5

66
33
17
4

3

134
75
31
8

15
15
8
2

20
6
3
1

20
8
5
1

14
8
5
1

1

1970._
1960.1950
1950 »_
1940-

4,677
4,320
3,955

67.8
62.6
57.1

2,256
2,108
1,941

2,421
2,212
2,014

4,177
3,923
3,656

480
891
297

19
6
2

919
799
602

784
561
553

1,060
1,055
1,132

981
936
876

54.6

1,881

1,903

3,539

244

1

1,399
1,443
1,522
1,665
1,824

371
466
384

3,785

3,278
2,877
2,433
2,290
1,961

279

606

639

1,127

807

326

1930._
19201910..
1900-.
1890--

3,629
3,404
3,293
3,107
2,679

52.4
49.5
47.9
45.2
39.0

1,823
1,723
1,688
1,596
1,385

1,807
1,681
1,606
1,511
1,294

3,404
3,225
3,135
2,945
2,528

224
178
167
161
150

2
1
1
1
1

1,859
1,587
1,394
1,128
867

1,770
1,817
1,900
1,979
1,822

306
328
361
364
343

664
673
662
718
656

640
599
654
624
568

1,068
1,011
960
867
698

704
603
498
413
326

245
186
150
113
81

1880..
1870..
I860-_
1850
1840

2,168
1,721
1,182
682
384

31.6
25.0
17.2
9.9
5.6

1,127
896
622
358
203

1,041
825
560
324
181

2,028
1,603
1,063
592
324

145
118
119
90
60

546
430
203
81
16

1,622
1,292
979
601
367

311
276
204
116
67

569
467
318
198
91

458
348
351
201
94

547
437
279
152
65

235
164
28
14
6

49
28
2

140
67
20

2.1
1.0
(NA)

74
37
9

66
30
8

115
56
17

26
11
4

5

135
67
20

26
20
7

33
8
3

31
12
3

22
11
3

2

1970..
I960-.
1950
1950 i .
1940..

694
675
591

4.8
4.6
4.1

347
344
309

347
331
282

663
651
572

2
1
1

29
23
18

151
144
102

122
90
82

155
167
170

141
125
118

3.8

299

260

540

1

18

324
336
333
338
348

57
83
68

559

371
338
258
253
212

49

93

102

157

122

36

1930..
1920..
1910._
1900.1890..

538
549
376
243
143

3.7
3.8
2.6
1.7
1.0

293
300
227
150
93

244
249
149
93
50

520
534
361
226
128

1
2
2
2
1

16
13
14
16
14

181
172
133
85
39

357
377
243
169
104

49
67
38
27
13

110
111
64
44
19

94
83
73
41
25

156
186
137
96
57

101
84
52
30
15

27
17
9
5
2

1880..
1870

39
21

.3
.1

28
17

11
4

36
18

3
2

7
3

32
17

4
1

6
2

7
3

17
11

5
2

1830 . .
1820 . 1810'--.
1800» _ _

(Z)

_
_

(Z)
(Z)
2

I7.\

MISSOURI

1830--.
1820
1810

'

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

561
503
407

(Z)
(Z)
j

MONTANA

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .

30




(Z)
(Z)

69
65
61

(Z)
(Z)

SEX, RACE, RESIDENCE, AGE

Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

State and year

Total

Sex i

Per
square
mile of

Race

Age 1

Residence

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

65 years
and over

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

area
196

195
NEBRASKA

1970_
I960..
1960 3 .
1950«_
1940.

1,483
1,411
1,326

19.4
18.4
17.3

724
700
667

769
711
658

1,433
1,375
1,301

40
29
19

11
7

1,316

17.2

666

650

1,298

14

1980..
1920
1910-.
1900..
1890..

1,378
1,296
1,192
1,066
1,063

18.0
16.9
15.5
13.9
13.8

706
673
628
566
575

672
624
564
502
488

1,360
1,279
1,180
1,057
1,047

14
13
8
6
9

1880..
1870.
1860.

462
123
29

5.9
1.6
.2

249
70
17

203
53
12

460
122
29

1970.
1960..
1950 ».
1950 «.
1940..

489
285
160

4.4
2.6
1.5

248
148
85

241
138
75

448
263
150

110

1.0

61

49

1930..
19201910..
19001890-

91
77
82
42
47

.8
.7
.7
.4
.4

53
46
53
26
30

38
31
29
17
17

1880..
1870 _
1860

62
42
7

.6
.4
.1

42
32
6

2
1
(Z)

571
645
704
719
802

120
160
140

300
276
209

258
183
196

326
340
365

296
288
286

184
164
130

4

913
766
622
607
514

105

227

232

370

276

106

4
4
4
4
7

486
405
311
253
292

892
891
881
814
771

130
143
140
134
148

278
273
250
255
256

253
236
248
213
214

394
377
330
291
303

236
200
172
138
113

86
64
61
36
23

61
22

391
101
29

72
20
5

112
28
6

88
25
10

129
38
8

93
85
68
76
67

44
33
17

100
54
24

79
38
20

134
84
54

100
58
34

31
18
11

9

16

18

36

24

7

7
7
6
4
4

15
12
11
7
8

14
11
18
8
8

30
29
34
18
16

20
16
14
8
9

5
3
3
2
1

9
4

10
6
4

28
25

149
116
81

126
79
76

171
151
148

149
121
116

78
68
58

5

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

-

44
10

7
1
(Z)

(Z)

NEVADA

28
13
4

13
8
6

104

1

6

395
201
92
84
43

85
71
74
35
39

1
(Z)
(Z)

6
6
7
7
8

34
15
13
7
16

57
62
69
36
31

20
10
1

54
39
7

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

8
3

19
7

43
35
7

(Z)

1

-

6
3
(Z)

(Z)

a

8
4
(Z)

1
(Z)

N E W HAMPSHIRE

3
2
1

1970 _
I960-.
1950 a.
1950 4.
1940.

738
607
533

81.7
67.2
59.1

361
298
262

377
309
271

733
604
532

492

54.5

245

247

491

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

465
443
431
412
377

51.6
49.1
47.7
45.6
41.7

232
222
216
205
187

234
221
214
206
190

464
442
430
411
376

1880.
1870.
1860
1860
1840

347
318
326
318
285

38.4
35.2
36.1
35.2
31.5

171
156
160
166
139

176
163
166
162
145

346
318
326
317
284

269
244
214
184
142

29.8
27.0
23.7
20.4
15.7

131
120
106
91
71

138
124
108
92
70

269
243
214
184
142

1
1
1
1
1

19701960-3
1950
1950 *
1940.

7,168
6,067
4,835

953.1
806.5
642.8

3,467
2,972
2,383

3,701
3,096
2,453

6,350
5,539
4,512

770
516
319

48
1!
5

4,160

553.1

2,069

2,091

3,931

227

1930_
1920191019001890.

4,041
3,156
2,537
1,884
1,445

537.3
420.0
337.7
250.7
192.3

2,031
1,690
1,286
942
721

2,011
1,666
1,251
942
724

3,830
3,037
2,446
1,812
1,397

209
ll 1 !
9C
7C
48

188018701860
1860
1840-..

1,131
906
672
490
373

150.5
120.6
89.4
65.2
49.7

560
45C
335
245
188

571
456
331
244
185

1,092
876
64;
466
362

39
31
25
24
22

321
278
246
211
184

42.7
36.9
32.7
28.1
24.5

163
140
115
99
87

158
137
112
96
83

300
258
227
194
170

21
20
19
17
14

...

._

_ ...

1880.
1820.
18101800
1790

(Z)

416
354
307
312
283

36

79

83

138

107

49

1
1
1
1
1

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

273
25G
223
192
148

192
193
207
219
229

39
41
4C
38
30

86
79
78
68
63

74
71
75
73
74

125
125
126
123
107

99
91
83
76
70

42
35
34
32
32

1
1

(Z)
(Z)

104
88
72
54
29

243
235
254
264
256

31
3C
35
33
36

61
6C
65
69
61

67
61
92
93
78

95
85
102
96
81

64
51
29
24
2C

29
25
3
3
3

13
7
7
5

38
7C
67
61

67
39
35
29

75
48
40
34

70
49
42
36

5

256
231
208
17S
13"!

795
692
649
911
765

589
642
45S

1,403
l,10"i
662

1,121
711
646

1,746
1,716
1,571

1,612
1,324
1,103

697
660
394

2

6,373
6,374
4,186
3,918
3,395

256

618

752

1,341

914

279

3
2
2
2
1

3,339
2,522
1,93S
1,329
905

702
63S
59S
555
540

330
339
261
206
153

766
614
471
371
291

715
526
481
346
292

1,294
1,009
816
597
426

734
532
381
281
217

201
133
107
80
62

616
396
22(
86
40

516
51(
452
403
334

135
12C
98
68
56

251
21C
154
122
89

220
178
192
142
102

316
254
198
132
87

164
12C
32
23
16

46
30
3
3
2

18
7
6

302
270
240
211
184

49
82
74
67

80
39
37
31

87
50
42
3J

70
49
43
39

13

1

(Z)

(Z)

2
1
(Z)

1
1

322
258
226
221
208

65
66
55

35

36

17
38
30
!4

2

NEW JERSEY

1830
1820.
1810
1800
1790.-

- - ..

1

(Z)
(Z)

41

17
31
24

45

See footnotes at end of table.




31

A 195-209

POPULATION

Series A 195-209.

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Sex i

Resident
population

Race

Residence

Age*

Total

Per
square
mile of
land
area

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

195

State and year

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

206

207

208

65 y e a r s
a n d over

NEW MEXICO

532

9
10

272

260

492

5

35

120

101

147

77

23

423
360
327
195
160

3.5
2.9
2.7
1.6
1.3

219
190
175
104
86

204
170
152
91
74

391
336
305
180
143

3
6
2
2
2

29
20
21
13
15

107
65
47
27
10

317
295
281
168
160

101
87
75
49
34

81
67
63
34
30

112
97
90
54
44

58
49
43
25
19

17
12
10
6
4

120
92
94
62

1.0
.7
.4
.3

64
47
49
32

55
45
44
30

109
90
83
62

1

10
1
11

7
5
5
5

113
87
89
57

29
24
24
16

24
19
28
20

34
25
23
15

14
9
3
2

3
2
1

18.237
16,782
14,830

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870
1860
1850

4.4

709
626
342
315
176

381.3
350.6
309.3

8,715
8,123
7,240

9,522
8,659
7,590

15,834
15,287
13,872

2,634
2,450
2,148
2,923
2,313

1,487
1,691
1,365

3,391
2,936
1,987

2,946
2,028
1,989

4,417
4,548
4,702

4,036
3,892
3,529

1,961
1,688
1,258

1,016
961
681

1970.
I960...
1950'
1950 4 .
1940

._
NEW YORK

8.4
7.8
5.6

501
480
348

515
471
334

916
876
630

20
17
8

81
58
43

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

234
78
40

242
225
142

97
136
95

188
144
115

241
251
194

178
144
102

71
51
33

(Z)

13,479

281.2

6,690

6,789

12,880

571

28

16,602
14,332
12,682
11,907
11,166

1,942

2,271

4,510

2,999

922

12,588
10,385
9,114
7,269
6,003

262.6
217.9
191.2
152.5
126.0

6,313
5,187
4,585
3,615
2,980

6,276
5,198
4,629
3,654
3,023

12,153
10,172
8,967
7,157
5,924

413
198
134
99
70

22
16
13
13
9

10,522
8,589
7,188
5,298
3,910

2,066
1,797
1,925
1,971
2,093

989
1,010
899
753
601

2,163
1,875
1,590
1,358
1,130

2,210
1,743
1,781
1,343
1,204

4,201
3,402
2,960
2,336

i,r--

2,346
1,85C
1,454
1.12C
931

667
493
418
348
298

5,083
4,383
3,881
3,097
2,429

106.7
92.0
81.4
65.0
61.0

2,605
2,163
1,934
1,668
1,231

2,578
2,220
1,947
1,529
1,198

5,016
4,330
3,832
3,048
2,379

65
52
49
49
50

2

2,869
2,189
1,524
873
471

2,214
2,193
2,356
2,224
1,958

559
521
530
403
368

1,053
967
861
720
587

1,004
849
960
726

1,449
1,257
1,163
867
598

785
619
18£
131
90

233
167
16
13
9

1,919
1,373
959
589
340

40.3
28.8
20.1
12.4
7.1

974
698
474
297
162

940
674
444
259
152

1,868
1,333
919
556
314

45
39
40
31
26

287
161
121
75
39

1,632
1,212
838
614
301

310
439
324
186

504
206
143
94

552
265
171
97

430
269
181
118

1970.
1960.
1950
1950 <
1940.

5,082
4,566
4,062

104.1
93.2
82.7

2,488
2,247
2,017

2,594
2,309
2,045

3,902
3,399
2,983

1,126
1,116
1,047

64
41
31

984
726
722

1,192
1,178

72.7

1,773

1,799

2,568

981

23

2,797
2,754
2,694
2,824
2,697

437
526

3,572

2,285
1,802
1,368
1,238
974

376

785

761

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

3,170
2,659
2,206
1,894
1,618

64.5
62.5
45.3
38.9
33.2

1,675
1,279
1,098
939
799

1,595
1,280
1,108
955
819

2,235
1,784
1,501
1,264
1,055

919
763
698
624
561

17
12
8
6
2

810
490
318
187
116

2,360
2,069
1,888
1,707
1,502

391
359
333
284
233

809
674
561
499
459

665
500
452
400
326

1880
1870.
I860..
18501840

1,400
1,071
993
869
753

28.7
22.0
20.4
17.8
16.5

688
619
496
431
375

712
553
497
438
379

867
678
630
563
485

631
392
362
316
269

1
1
1

56
36
25
21
13

1,345
1,035
968
848
740

233
163
158
142
90

375
285
280
249
133

738
639
556
478
394

15.1
13.1
11.4
9.8
8.1

371
322
189
172
147

367
317
188
166
141

473
419
376
338
288

265
220
179
140
106

10
13

728
626
556
478
394

89
146
133
122

130
66
60

1970
I960-..
1950
1940...
1930

618
632
620
642
681

8.9
9.1
8.8
9.2
9.7

312
323
323
335
360

306
309
297
307
321

699
620
608
631
672

1920
1910-1900
18901880 u

647
577
319
191
37

9.2
8.2
4.5
2.7
.9

342
318
177
106
82

305
260
142
85
63

640
570
312
182
133

1870 »
1860 "

2
5

.1

1970
1960
1950 s - 1950 1
1940.
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

—

1880
1870--.
1860
1850
1840.- . .

-

1830
1820
1810.
1800.
1790

2,169
1,418
918

307
325
339
367
355

(Z)
(Z)

1,:

66
154
101
61

6

84

78

NORTH CAROLINA

1830.
1820.
1810.
18001790-

- .
.
.

_
_
_

1,016
995
810

1,5

999
806
625

414
312
225

993

501

157

779
613
610
412
357

408
311
269
229
182

116
99
78
66
57

280
233
•278
244
134

310

155
123
40
34
19

47
34
5
6
2

134
82
73
65

101
74
68
62

194
107

17
51
42
36

2

70

78

NORTH DAKOTA

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .

32



(NA)

(NA)
3

2

13
3

2
1
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
1
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

16
12
11
10
9

273
223
165
132
113

344
410
455
510
568

51
80
75
62
76

135
138
117
129
158

114
90
99
124
137

6
7
7
8
1

88
63
23
11
3

569
514
296
180
34

91
82
48
30
20

161
129
78
41
27

116
118
60
33
27

1
2

—

-

2
5

(NA)
)

(NA)
1

66
59
48
39
30

83
65
33
17
13

19
13
7
4
2

(NA)

(NA)
1

122
120
113
117
104

176
167
93
58
46

.

130
146
167
172
175

1

1

(Z)

(NA)
(Z)

SEX, RACE, RESIDENCE, AGE

Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

State and year
Total

Sex i

Per
square
mile of

Race

Age8

Residence

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

65 years
a n d over

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

area
195

196

197

198

1970_ _
1960 _
1960 «_
1950 i
1940 _

10,652
9,706
7,947

260.0
236.6
193.8

5,163
4,764
3,929

5,489
4,942
4,018

6,908

168.0

3,461

3,447

6,567

339

2

1930 .
1920-.
1910 _
1900..
1890..

6,647
5,759
4,767
4,158
3,672

161.6
141.4
117.0
102.1
90.1

3,361
2,956
2,435
2,103
1,856

3,286
2,803
2,332
2,055
1,817

6,335
5,572
4,655
4,060
3,585

309
186
111
97
87

2
1
1

1880 1870-I860..
1850
1840

3,198
2,665
2,340
1,980
1,519

78.5
65.4
57.4
48.6
37.3

1,614
1,338
1,190
1,017
784

1,584
1,328
1,149
964
735

3,118
2,602
2,303
1,955
1,502

80
63
37
25
17

938
581
231
45

23.3
14.5
5.7
1.1

485
303
120
24

453
278
109
21

928
577
229
45

10
5
2

1970 .
I960..
1950«.
1950 4
1940.-

2,559
2,328
2,233

37.2
33.8
32.4

1,246
1,148
1,116

1,313
1,180
1,118

2,280
2,108
2,033

2,336

33.7

1,182

1,155

1930..
1920._
1910..
1900.
1890 u

2,396
2,028
1,657
790
259

34.6
29.2
23.9
11.4
3.7

1,233
1,068
882
423
140

1,163
970
776
367
119

1970._
I960..
1950 s_
1960 '
1940..

2,091
1,769
1,521

21.7
18.4
15.8

1,024
880
773

1,090

11.3

1930._
1920..
1910..
1900.
1890.

954
783
673
414
318

9.9
8.2
7.0
4.3
3.3

1880
18701860-_
1860 «

175
91
52
12

1.8
1.0

OHIO

1830
18201810 . _ .
1800..

..
_ .

9,647
8,910
7,428

970
786
513

8,026
7,123
5,578
5,346
4,613

2,626
2,583
2,368
2,600
2,295

921
1,139
847

4,507
3,677
2,665
1,998
1,510

2,139
2,082
2,102
2,159
2,162

1,031
683
400
242
83

35
11
5

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

1,846
1,247
1,101

2,515
2,588
2,403

507

1,072

1,225

2,068

1,496

540

573
586
479
432
400

1,252
1,057
865
851
811

1,142
965
900
801
751

2,011
1,809
1,455
1,216
1,006

1,250
1,018
799
641
521

415
319
262
210
177

2,167
1,982
1,939
1,738
1,436

406
375
364
310
282

761
671
600
546
415

660
544
673
573
433

823
657
596
473
324

419
328
98
72
45

129
90
8
6
3

37
10
3

(Z)
(Z)

2,187
1,939
1,207

901
572
228
45

186
218
91
18

268
90
35
7

260
110
40
8

186
103
42
8

26

2

819
863
1,094
1,126
1,457

197
243
240

491
455
399

449
329
345

586
567
624

536
485
431

300
249
194

(Z)

2,186
1,896
1,680

998
897
709

5
21
3

OKLAHOMA
172
153
146

107
67
55

2,104

169

63

1,740
1,465
1,139
1,107
880

219

464

440

669

399

145

2,131
1,821
1,446
670
173

172
149
138
56
22

93
58
75
65
64

822
538
319
58
9

1,574
1,490
1,338
732
249

265
253
242
119
9

544
509
404
208
15

484
392
333
157
11

660
543
441
201
18

346
263
193
87
7

97
65
41
15
1

1,067
889
749

2,032
1,732
1,497

26
18
12

33
19
13

406
360
240

366
227
202

480
439
457

449
374
325

227
184
133

527

1,076

3

11

689
669
702
789
558

164
185
164

563

1,403
1,100
819
732
532

76

155

183

328

254

93

500
416
384
233
184

454
367
289
181
134

939
769
656
395
302

2
2
1
1
1

13
12
16
18
15

490
390
307
133
88

464
393
366
280
229

69
71
60
41
34

164
142
113
85
68

161
126
131
78
62

290
252
226
129
98

201
149
112
63
41

67
43
28
16
9

.5

103
63
32
8

71
38
21
5

163
87
52

11
4

26
8

149
83
50
12

23
14
1C
2

40
24
13

35
16
15

4

51
27
14
3

22
9
1

11,794
11,319
10,498

262.3
251.4
233.1

5,665
5,510
5,170

6,128
5.81C
5,328

10,738
10,454
9,854

1,017
858
638

2,251
2,107
1,603

1,928
1,415
1,531

219.8

4,951

4,949

9,427

470

3

3,363
3,211
3,095
3,518
3,313

926
1,18!
1,026

9,900

8,430
8,102
7,408
6.985
6,587

726

1,670

4,786
4,291
3,728
3,09!
2,592

9,196
8,439
7,46!
6,142
5,148

431
285
194

4
9
8
4
2

6,534
5,672
4,631
3,44!
2,557

3,098
3,04!
3,034
2,854
2,701

896
1,005
884
73 (
604

1,989
1,791
1,485
1,811
1,143

1,783
1,313
895
545
308

2,500
2,20!
2,012
1,767
1,416

552
492
442
345
291

206
136
10'
68
44

1,142
91!
706
534
390

229
342
270
203

OREGON

W

ia

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

3

_

4
1

(Z)

(Z)
(Z)

2,683
3,029
3,225

2,733
2,452
2,227

1,272
1,129
887

1,867

2,941

2,019

677

1,732
1,473
1,473
1,203
1,075

2,793
2,612
2,35C
1,888
1,479

1,708
1,431
1,136
896
722

508
394
326
262
224

1,008
854
724
596
432

855
706
82(
678
499

1,126
901
78C
594
393

571
448
129
93
60

170
119
11
9
6

351
155
124
90

387
204
150
108

291
191
145
113

3

PENNSYLVANIA
19701960_
1950 3 1940
1930
1920..
1910.
1900
1890.

9,631
8,72C
7,665
6,302
5,258

213.8
194.5
171.(
140.6
117.3

4,846
4,42S
3,942
3,205
2,666

18801870
1860
1850
1840

4,283
3,522
2,906
2,312
1,724

95.5
78.6
64.!
51.6
38.5

2,137
1,75!
1,464
l,16t
868

2,146
l,76i
1,452
1,14<
856

4,197
3,45'i
2,84!
2,25!
1,676

86
65

1,348
1,049
810
602
434

30.1
23.4
18.1
13.4
9.7

684
532
402
301
218

664
516
385
28 £
206

1,310
1,017
787
686
424

38
30

- -

1830
1820
1810
1800
1790

..

-

40
13
6

1K

108

5',

54
48

2i
16
10

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

111

46
124
98
72
107

4

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




33

A 195-209

POPULATION

Series A 195-209.

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

S t a t e a n d year
Total

Per
square
mile of

Sex i

Age2

Residence

Race

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

46-64
years

65 y e a r s
a n d over

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

area
196

195
RHODE ISLAND

902.5
819.3
748.5

464
422
391

482
438
401

713

674.2

349

364

702

687
604
543
429
346

649.8
566.4
508.5
401.6
323.8

336
298
270
211
168

352
307
272
218
177

677
594
632
419
338

277
217
175
148
109

259.2
203.7
163.7
138.3
102.0

133
105
84
72
63

144
113
90
75
66

270
212
171
144
106

6
5
4
4
3

97
83
77
69
69

91.1
77.8
72.1
64.8
64.5

47
40
36
32
32

60
43
37
34
33

94
79
73
66
65

4
4
4
4
4

2,591
2,383
2,117

86.7
78.7
69.9

1,272
1,176
1,041

1,318
1,207
1,076

1,794
1,551
1,293

789
829
822

1,900

62.1

935

965

1,084

814

1

1,739
1,684
1,615
1,340
1,151

56.8
55.2
49.7
44.0
37.7

853
838
762
665
572

886
845
764
675
579

944
819
679
558
462

794
866
836
782
689

1

996
706
704
669
594

32.6
23.1
23.1
21.9
19.5

490
344
347
330
293

505
362
356
339
301

391
290
291
275
259

604
416
412
394
335

581
503
415
346
249

19.1
16.5
13.6
11.3
8.2

290
256
110
101
73

292
248
105
96
67

258
237
214
196
140

323
265
201
149
109

1970
1960
3
1950 4
I960
1940

666
681
653

8.8
9.0
8.5

330
344
337

335
336
315

630
653
629

2
1
1

643

8.4

333

310

619

1930
1920
1910.
1900
1890

693
637
584
402
349

9.1
8.3
7.6
5.2
4.5

364
337
317
216
190

329
299
267
185
159

670
619
664
381
328

1970
I960-1950 3
1950 4
1940

947
859
792

1930
1920
1910
1900
18901880
1870
1860
I860-1840-

-.

1880
1820-18101800
1790- -

915
839
777

25
18
14

174
154
10S

11

826
743
667
689
653

122
117
125
103
60

47

111

10
10
10
9
7

635
555
494
378
295

52
49
49
50
51

60
62
54
43
32

132
112
95
77
64

227
162
111
82
48

50
55
64
65
61

29
23
21
18
14

54
43
35
31
23

30
19
18
14
13

67
64
59
55
56

13
22
21
19

22
12
11
10

1,232
981
778
663
466

1,358
1,401
1,339
1,464
1,434

236
295
280

371
294
225
171
116

1,368
1,390
1,291
1,169
1,035

75
61
49
49
34

921
645
655
619
561

34
25
25
19
16

104
90
70

210
225
243

209
184
172

132

216

154

54

119
104
106
82
72

202
185
173
137
105

135
111
88
68
55

40
30
25
20
17

54
44
52
46
32

82
63
55
44
30

44
34
11
8
6

14
10
1
1
1

29
16
15
12

24
16
14
13

552
555
456

519
396
371

606
597
589

487
389
306

191
161
115

211

430

418

500

260

81

205
229
228
204
170

464
459
401
369
345

378
343
324
296
236

411
409
355
288
250

224
189
160
142
114

67
53
44
40
34

174
109
111
107
48

277
187
195
185
71

192
149
198
187
73

221
161
169
157
57

101
78
28
26
9

32
21
3
3
1

548
478
390
327
233

49
83
77
72

71
37
34
32

73
48
42
36

55
43
39
37

8

1

369
413
436
437
485

54
83
77

143
145
114

119
91
101

136
159
175

133
131
131

80
72
55

23

297
267
217
216
158

58

121

120

173

127

44

22
17
19
20
20

131
102
76
41
29

562
535
507
361
320

71
80
73
56
49

153
141
127
99
78

129
116
122
76
60

191
183
164
106
96

110
89
77
51
37

37
26
19
13
8

1

7

91
12

8
2
1

1,618
1,702
1,839
2,028
1,889

325
394
380

772
734
610

699
526
636

938
908
958

806
696
674

384
309
235

278

578

562

844

482

172

1,720
1,727
1,744
1,694
1,529

282
281
295
275
245

587
563
512
609
479

525
445
449
431
376

689
611
658
483
405

411
334
284
248
201

119
101
83
66
66

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

76
90
77

16

174
117
121

6
13
12
11

1

16

SOOTH CAROLINA
1970
I960-.
1950 3
195041940

-

1930
1920
1910
19001890--.
1880
18701860
18501840-

7
2
2

----

1830
1820
1810
1800
1790

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

38

7
22
20
36

SOUTH DAKOTA

1880
1870
1860

12
12
12

98
12

97
11

34
26
24

(Z)
1
1
1
(Z)

1

(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

TENNESSEE
1970-1960 1950 3
1950 4
1940

3,924
3,567
3,292

94.9
86.2
78.8

1,898
1,741
1,623

2,026
1,826
1,669

3,294
2,978
2,760

2,916

69.6

1,446

1,470

2,407

509

(Z)

2,305
1,865
1,453
1,264
1,027

1930
1920
1910
1900
1890

2,617
2,338
2,185
2,021
1,768

62.4
56.1
52.4
48.6
42.4

1,305
1,174
1,103
1,021
892

1,312
1,164
1,081
999
876

2,139
1,886
1,711
1,640
1,337

478
452
473
480
431

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

897
611
441
327
238

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .

34




621
587
531

SEX, RACE, RESIDENCE, AGE

Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

State and year
Total

Sex i

Per
square
mile of

Race

Residence

Age*

Male

Female

White

Negro

Other
races

Urban

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

65 years
a n d over

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

area
196

195
TENNESSEE

Con.
1,542
1,259
1,110
1,003
829

769
623
563
504
420

773
635
547
499
410

1,139
936
827
757
641

403
322
283
246
189

16.4
10.1
6.3
2.5
.8

348
215
112
47
17

334
208
104
45
15

536
340
216
92
32

146
83
46
14
4

11,197
9,580
7,711

1830
1820...
1810
1800
1790

37.0
30.2
26.6
24.1
19.9

682
423
262
106
36

1880
1870._
1860
1850
1840

42.7
36.4
29.3

5,481
4,745
3,863

5,716
4,835
3,848

9,717
8,375
6,727

1,399
1,187
977

116
94
47
22
7

1,426
1,164
1,063
981
822

250
201
184
170
ISO

425
341
316
300
192

313
274
324
291
173

349
287
245
207
125

6

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

676
423
262
106
36

115
131
86
38

158
56
33
14

148
63
39
17

99
55
38
15

2,276
2,392
2,873
3,099
3,503

1,001
1,162
901

2,328
2,010
1,346

_
_

162
126
36
31
19

43
31
4
4
2
1

14
34
19
8
6

10

TEXAS

6,415

24.3

3,221

3,194

5,488

924

3

8,921
7,187
4,838
4,613
2,911

576

1,221

1,205

1,987

1,080

347

1930
1920
1910_
1900.
1890

5,825
4,663
3,897
3,049
2,236

22.1
17,8
14.8
11.6
8.5

2,966
2,409
2,018
1,579
1,173

2,859
2,254
1,879
1,470
1,063

4,967
3,918
3,205
2,427
1,746

855
742
690
621
488

3
3
2
1
1

2,389
1,513
938
521
350

3,435
3,151
2,958
2,528
1,886

611
534
539
452
336

1,265
1,118
965
816
634

1,187
945
813
639
452

1,684
1,300
1,008
722
535

841
593
452
333
221

232
163
111
74
47

1880
1870
1860
1850._

1,592
819
604
213

6.1
3.1
2.3
.8

838
424
320
114

754
395
284
99

1,197
565
421
154

393
253
183
59

1

147
55
27
8

1,445
764
578
205

280
135
106
37

438
229
168
61

311
177
177
63

388
190
133
48

147
76
12
4

28
12
1

1,059
891
689

12.9
10.8
8.4

523
445
348

536
446
341

1,032
874
677

7
4
3

21
13
9

208
223
239
256
245

112
126
93

241
208
138

214
137
113

238
217
191

177
142
112

1970...
1960
1950s
1950 4 .
1940.

81
18
7

(Z)
(Z)

2,051
1,372
1,235

2,685
2,499
2,318

2,140
1,791
1,398

992
745
513

(Z)

UTAH
1970
1960
1950 »
1950 4 __
1940_._

550

6.7

279

272

543

1

6

851
667
450
433
305

59

114

109

148

90

30

1930
19201910
1900
1890

508
449
373
277
211

6.2
5.5
4.5
3.4
2.6

260
232
197
142
112

248
217
176
135
99

500
442
367
272
206

1
1
1
1
1

7
6
6
4
4

266
216
173
105
75

242
234
200
171
136

59
61
53
42
31

122
108
86
71
54

99
82
74
54
41

132
122
103
68
52

73
59
44
30
22

23
16
12
10
7

1880
1870
1860
1850,

144
87
40
11

1.8
1.1
.3

75
44
20
6

69
43
20
5

142
86
40
11

1
1

34
16
8

110
71
32
11

26
17
10
2

39
25
10
3

28
15
10
3

31
19
10
3

16
9
1

(8)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

_

(Z)

78
60
42

4
2
(Z)

(Z)

VERMONT

1970
1960
1950
1940
1930_

444
390
378
359
360

47,9
42.0
40.7
38.7
38.8

217
192
188
182
183

227
198
190
177
176

443
389
377
359
359

1920. 1910--_
1900
1890__
1880-

352
356
344
332
332

38.6
39.0
37.7
36.4
36.4

179
183
175
169
167

174
178
169
168
165

352
354
343
331
331

1870
1860_-_
1850 - 1840-.
1830.

331
315
314
292
281

36.2
34.5
34.4
32.0
30.8

166
159
160
147
140

165
156
154
145
140

236
218
154
85

25.9
23.9
16.9
9.4

118
110
79
45

118
107
75
40

..

1820
1810.
1800.
1790

1

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

143
150
138
123
119

301
240
240
236
241

40
44
42
30
33

92
79
64
63
68

80
54
56
62
59

99
91
101
97
94

86
78
76
74
74

47
44
40
34
31

1
2
1
1
1

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

110
99
76
51
33

242
257
268
282
299

35
34
33
30
34

66
64
62
63
68

56
60
60
62
62

95
101
96
89
86

71
67
64
60
56

30
29
28
28
26

330
314
313
291
280

1
1
1
1
1

(Z)
(Z)

23
6
6

308
309
308
292
281

37
37
38
42
43

69
69
74
72
73

63
86
88
80
81

84
95
91
78
68

54
25
20
17
14

22
3
3
2
1

235
217
154
85

1
1
1

236
218
154
85

71
75
58

38
36
23

49
41
26

46
41
32

1
1
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

1

_
_

22

1
25
15
22

See f o o t n o t e s a t end of table.




35

POPULATION

A 195-209

Series A 195-209.

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In t h o u s a n d s , except series A 196]
Resident
population

Sex

Total

Per
square
mile of
land

195

4,648
3,967
3,319

State and year

1

Age*

Residence

Race

Female

White

Negro

196

197

198

199

2,297
1,979
1,675

2,351
1,988
1,643

3,762
3,142
2,582

Urban

Rural

200

116.9
99.6
83.2

Other
races

661

244

523

650
690
671
661
635

(Z)

786
674
477
340
283

1,636
1,635
1,585
1,514
1,373

257
277
269
249
215

562
549
494
461
450

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

189
146
116

1,323
1,080
1,104
1,030
954

235
183
252
220
136

406
314
436
399
197

994
903
846
786
679

129
204
190
181

1,698

2,476
1,943
1,503
1,274
922

933
910
876
,105
814

1,522
1,320
1,109
496
341

885
743
606
211
127

679
614
536
307
230
68
24
12
1

1,065
1,149
1,311
1,365
1,368

67.1

1,349

1,329

2,016

2,422
2,309
2,062
1,854
1,656

60.7
57.4
51.2
46.1
41.1

1,216
1,168
1,035
926
824

1,206
1,141
1,026
928
832

1,770
1,618
1,390
1,193
1,020

1880...
1870...
1860 »..

1,513
1,225
1,220
1,119
1,025

37.6
30.4
24.8
22.1
19.3

746
597
806
718
628

767
628
790
704
621

881
712
1,047
895
748

632
513
549
527
502

1830 »_.
1820

1,044
938
878
808
692

18.9
16.6
15.2
13.7
11.6

614
545
283
264
227

607
529
274
254
215

701
610
557
518
442

520
465
426
367
306

1970..
I960..
1950S.
1950<.
1940..

3,409
2,853
2,379

51.2
42.8
35.6

1,694
1,435
1,224

1,715
1,418
1,155

3,251
2,752
2,316

1,736

25.9

906

830

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

1,563
1,357
1,142
518
357

23.3
20.3
17.1
7.8
5.3

826
735
659
304
222

737
622
483
214
136

75
24
12
1

1.1
.4
.1

46
15

29
9
3

67
22
11

1,744
1,860
2,006

72.5
77.2
83.3

845
915
1,006

900
945

1,673
1,770
1,890

67
89
115

(Z)

1,902

79.0

969

933

1,784

118

(Z)

679
711
694
641
534

1,238
1,095

564
406
357
291
217

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

207

392
458
381

2,678

1790 is.

205

1,714
1,762
1,759
1,944
1,733

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

1810 i»_
1800 is.

5-14
years

2,935
2,205
1,560
1,375
945

861
816
734

1970..
I960..
1950 s .
1950
1940..

1850 is.
1840 »_.

Under
5 years

204

Male

65 y e a r s
a n d over

208

1,165
1,083
1,020

913
717
560

535

770

450

473
447
413
386
341

628
606
526
444
383

384
327
272
238
198

293
252
444
395
212

348
283
387
339
171

175
149
70
60
29

189
92
86
80
111

202
123
107
100

153
115
105
99

25

280
316
263

677
577
363

626
382
333

122

245

115
126
109
53
38

274
246
192
105
65

10
4
2

931
810
584

881
609
558

68
58
116

WASHINGTON

1880--.
1870._.
1860 »_
1850

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

806
734
724

698
566
484

296

525

405

268
217
222
91
67

477
453
400
177
132

325
249
175
71

17
5
2

14
4
4

24
9
4

138
196
240

402
396

301
262
326

383
455
561

197

398

379

525

302

(Z)

W E S T VIRGINIA

1970..
I960..
1950 s .
1950 <_
1940..

1,729
1,464
1,221
959
763

71.8
60.9
50.8
39.9
31.8

890
763
644
499
390

839
701
577
460
373

1880-..
1870...
1860 is.

618
442
377
302
225

25.7
18.4

314
223

304
219

1830 is.

177
137
105
79
56

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

1850 is.
1840 15.

1820 «_.
1810 is.
1800 is..
1790 15.

See footnotes a t e n d of t a b l e .

36



1,614
1,377
1,157
915
730

115
86
64
43
33

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

492
369
228
125
81

424

26
18

(Z)
(Z)

54
36
20
11
8

681

177
137
105
79
56

392
372
344

207
196
169
135
106

414
349
279
232
205

329
271
247
201
161

454
396
335
243
178

251
194
147
112
84

99
73

170
121

124
91

140
97

65
47

SEX, RACE, RESIDENCE, AGE

Series A 195-209.

A 195-209

Population of States, by Sex, Race, Urban-Rural Residence, and Age: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands, except series A 196]
Resident
population

State and year
Total

Sex

Per
square
mile of
land
area

1

Race

Other
races

Female

White

Negro

Urban

1970..
I960..
1950 a.
1950 <_
1940..

4,418
3,952
3,435

81.1
72.6
62.8

2,167
1,965
1,727

3,138

57.5

1,600

1,537

1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

2,939
2,632
2,334
2,069
1,693

53.7
47.
42.2
37.4
30.6

,511
,357
,209
,068
878

1,428
1,275
1,125
1,001
815

1880.
1870.
1860.
1850.
1840.

1,315
1,055
776
305
31

23.8
19.1
14.0
5.5
.4

680
545
407
165
19

1970.
1960.
1950.
1940.
1930.

332
330
291
251
226

3.4
3.4
3.0
2.6
2.3

1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.
1870.

194
146
93
63
21
9

2.0
1.5
.9
.6

2,250
1,987
1,708

4,259
3,859
3,393

Rural

Under
5 years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-44
years

45-64
years

203

Male

196

204

205

206

207

208

1,507
1,430
1,447
1,485
1,458

382
470
372

935
800
555

770
507
484

977
968
974

254

528

547

912

654

2,916
2,617
2,321
2,058
1,681

1,554
1,245
1,004
790
562

1,385
1,387
1,330
1,279
1,131

271
285
256
257
216

578
537
494
483
400

516
467
465
391
327

855
759
638
558
438

525
441
360
274
220

635
510
368
141
12

1,310
1,051
774
305
31

317
207
112
29

848
664
277
31

181
157
138
51
5

322
286
198
76
6

273
198
197
87
12

305
247
217
83
7

184
137

167
169
155
135
125

166
161
136
116
101

323
323
284
247
221

201
188
145
94
70

131
143
146
157
155

110
92
58
40
14
7

84
54
34
22
7
2

190
140
89
59
19
9

57
43
27
21
6

137
103
66
41
15
9

65 years
and over

880
806
740

3,113

2,910
2,522
1,988
1,949
1,679

128
75
28

(Z)

(Z)
(Z)

- Represents zero.
NA N o t available.
Z Less t h a n 500.
1
F o r 1790-1810, white persons only.
2
Ages n o t reported and ages unknown are not included. Prior to 1850, age detail
for white only. Age detail columns have changed for early censuses as follows: 1790:
Under 16 years and over 16 years, for males only; 1800-1820: Under 10 years, 10-15
years, 16-25 years, 26-44 years, and 45 and over; 1830-1860: Under 5 years, 5-14
years, 15-29 years, 30-59 years, 60-79 years, 80 and over. See also footnote 13.
3
U r b a n definition comparable with later data.
4
U r b a n definition comparable with earlier data.
6
Population of those parts of Mississippi Territory now in present State. Population per square mile, sex, race, and age detail for Alabama included with Mississippi.
• Census taken October 1, 1939.
7
Census taken October 1, 1929.




Age 2

Residence

(Z)

(Z)

(Z)

8
Less than 1 /10 of a
9
Includes population
10

person.
of area taken to form part of Arizona Territory in 1863.
Data for Territory of New Mexico which included parts of present States of
Arizona and New Mexico, and smaller parts of Colorado and Nevada.
11
Includes 5,602 persons for whom sex, race, and age detail are not available.
" N o r t h and South Dakota comprised D a k o t a Territory. Population per square
mile, sex, and age detail for South Dakota included with North Dakota.
13
Age detail excludes all persons residing in Indian Territory or on Indian reservations.
14
Population total of those parts of Oregon Territory taken to form p a r t of Washington Territory in 1853 and 1859 excluded from Oregon included under Washington.
Population per square mile, sex, race, and age detail for Washington included with
Oregon.
16
Sex, race, and age detail for West Virginia, 1790-1860, included with Virginia.
16
Includes population of Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming.

37

A 210-262

POPULATION

Series A 210-263.

Land Area of the United States, by States and Territories: 1790 to 1970
[In square miles]

State or
territory

Year of admission to
statehood

1970

1960

1950

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

(X)

2,974,159

3,536,855

3,540,911

2,974,726

2,977,128

2,973,776

2,973,774

2,973,890

1819
1959
1912
1836
1850

50,708
566,432
113,417
51,945
156,361

50,851
566,432
113,563
52,175
156,537

51,078

51,078

51,279

51,279

51,279

51,279

113,575
52,675
156,740

113,580
52,725
156,803

113,810
52,525
155,652

113,810
52,525
155,652

113,810
52,525
155,652

113,840
52,525
156,092

1876
1788
' 1787
(X)
1845

103,766
4,862
1,982
61
54,090

103,794
4,870
1,982
61
54,136

103,922
4,899
1,978
61

103,967
4,899
1,978
61

103,658
4,820
1,965
62

103,658
4,820
1,965
60

103,658
4,820
1,965
60

103,658
4,820
1,965
60

54,262

54,262

54,861

54,861

54,861

54,861

11788
1959
1890
1818
1816

58,073
6,425
82,677
55,748
36,097

58,197
6,425
82,677
55,875
36,189

58,483
82,769
55,935
36,205

58,518

82,808
55,947
36,205

58,725
83,354
56,043
36,045

58,725
83,354
56,043
36,045

58,725
83,354
56,043
36,045

58,725
83,354
56,002
35,885

1846
1861
1792
1812
1820

55,941
81,787
39,650
44,930
30,920

56,043
82,056
39,851
45,131
30,933

56,045
82,108
39,864
45,162
31,040

55,986
82,113
40,109
45,177
31,040

55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

11788
1
1788
1837
1858
1817

9,891
7,826
56,817
79,289
47,296

9,891
7,833
56,817
79,289
47,358

9,881
7,867
57,022
80,009
47,248

9,887
7,907
57,022
80,009
47,420

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

1821
1889
1867
1864
« 1788

68,995
145,587
76,483
109,889
9,027

69,046
145,603
76,522
109,889
9,033

69,226
145,878
76,663
109,789
9,017

69,270
146,316
76,653
109,802
9,024

68,727
146,131
76,808
109,821
9,031

68,727
146,131
76,808
109,821
9,031

68,727
146,201
76,808
109,821
9,031

68,727
146,201
76,808
109,821
9,031

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
N o r t h Carolina
N o r t h Dakota

1

1787
1912
11788
»1789
1889

7,521
121,412
47,831
48,798
69,273

7,532
121,445
47,869
48,880
69,280

7,522
121,511
47,944
49,097
70,057

7,522
121,511
47,929
49,142
70,054

7,514
122,503
47,654
48,740
70.183

7,514
122,503
47,654
48,740
70.183

7,514
122,503
47,654
48,740
70.183

7,514
122,503
47,654
48,740
70.183

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

1803
1907
1859
11787
i 1790

40,975
68,782
96,184
44,966
1,049

41,018
68,983
96,209
45,025
1,049

41,000
69,031
96,315
45,045
1,058

41,122
69,283
96,350
45,045
1,058

40,740
69,414
95,607
44,832
1,067

40,740
69,414
95,607
44,832
1,067

40,740
69.414
95,607
44,832
1,067

40,740
38,624
95,607
44,832
1,067

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

i 1788
1889
1796
1845
1896

30,225
75,955
41,328
262,134
82,096

30.280
75,956
41,366
262,970
82,381

30,305
76,536
41,797
263,513
82,346

30,594
76,536
41,961
263,644
82,346

30,495
76,868
41,687
262,398
82.184

30,495
76,868
41,687
262,898
82.184

30,495
76,868
41,687
262,398
82.184

30,495
76,868
41,687
262,398
82.184

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

1791
' 1788
1889
1863
1848
1890

9,267
39,780
66,570
24,070
54.464
97,203

9,274
39,841
66,663
24,084
54,466
97.281

9,278
39,893
66,786
24,080
54,705
97,506

9,278
39,899
66,977
24,090
54,715
97,506

9,124
40,262
66,836
24,022
55,256
97,548

9,124
40,262
66,836
24,022
55,256
97,548

9,124
40,262
66,836
24,022
55,256
97,594

9,124
40,262
66,836
24,022
55,256
97,594

United States
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida.
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

1

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

Indian Territory and unorganized territory
X
1

38

(X)

N o t applicable.
Year of ratification of Constitution; one of the original 13 States.




30,790

LAND AREA AND SMSA's

Series A 210-263.

A 210-275

Land Area of the United States, by States and Territories: 1790 to 1970—Con.
[In square miles]

Series
No.
210
211
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220

1880

1870

1860

1860

1840

1830

1820

1810

2,973,965

2,973,965

2,973,965

2,944,337

1,753,588

1,753,588

1,753,588

51,279
113,840
52,525
155,900
103,658
4,820
1,965
58
54,861

51,279
113,840
52,525
155,900
103,658
4,820
1,965
58
54,861

51,279

51,279

51,279

51,279

51,279

52,525
155,900
103,658
4,820
1,965
58
54,861

52,525
155,900

52,525

52,525

105,275

4,820
1,965
58

4,820
1,965
90
54,861

4,820
1,965
90
54,861

4,820
1,965
90
54,861

58,725
83,354
56,002
35,885
55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

58,725
83,360
56,002
35,885
55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

—

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362
68,727
146,201
76,172
109,821
9,031

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362
68,727
146,195
76,172
109,821
9,031

. . .

7,514
122,503
47,654
48,740
40,740
95,607
44,832
1,067

S t a t e or territory
United S t a t e s

Connecticut
Delaware

-

Florida

221
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230

Georgia.

231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240

Maryland
Massachusetts—

241
242
243
244
246
248
249
250

N e w Jersey

251
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261

South Carolina
Tennessee

262

1790

1,685,865

867,980

867,980

4,820
1,965
90

4,820
1,965
90

4,820
1,965

145,196

I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y a n d unorganized

263

54,861

1800

Other Territory:
Territory N o r t h w e s t of Ohio

-

__
—

New Hampshire

New York
N o r t h Carolina
Ohio

-

Pennsylvania
I l h o d e Island

Utah
Vermont
Virginia. —

--

—

. . .

_

58,725

58,725

58,725

111,877

56,002
35,885
191,656

56,002
35,885

56,002
35,885

192,381
42,933

252,084

40,181
45,409
29,895

40,181
45,409
29,895

40,181
45,409
29,895

40,181
45,409
29,895

40,181
34,065
29,895

40,181

40,181

29,895

29,895

9,941
8,039
57,480
80,858
46,362
68,727

9,941
8,041
57,480
163,457
46,362
68,727

9,941
8,041
57,480

9,941
8,041
186,052

9,941
8,041
186,052

9,941
8,041
42,625

9,941
8,041

9,999
8,041

46,362
68,727

46,362
65,618

46,362
65,618

97,641

33,319

118,915
61,260
9,031

9,031

9,031

9,031

9,031

9,031

9,031

7,514
122,503
47,654
48,740
40,740
95,607
44,832
1,067

7,514
247,782
47,654
48,740
40,740
95,607
44,832
1,067

7,514
236,548
47,652
48,740
40,740
282,257
44,832
1,067

7,514

7,514

7,514

7,514

7,514

7,514

47,652
48,740
40,740

47,652
48,740
40,228

47,652
48,740
40,228

47,652
48,740
40,228

47,652
48,740
40,228

47,652
48,740

44,832
1,067

44,832
1,067

44,832
1,067

44,832
1,067

44,832
1,067

44,832
1,067

30,495
41,687
262,398
82,184
9,124
40,262
66,836
24,022
55,256
97,594

30,495
41,687
262,398
122,887
9,124
64,284
183,254

30,495
41,687
262,398
230,610
9,124
64,284

30,495
41,687

30,495
41,687

30,495
41,687

30,495
41,687

30,495
41,687

30,495
46,977

9,124
64,252

9,124
64,252

9,124
64,252

9,124
64,252

9,124
64,252

9,124
64,284

55,256

55,256

82,643

69,414

69,414

535,003

511,967

25,855
5,290

_

Maine

58,725

69,414

Kentucky

58,725
56,002
35,885
55,586

30,495
41,687
262,398
82,184
9,124
40,262
66,836
24,022
55,256
97,594

-- -

318,167

608,565

777,940

58,725
56,002
35,885
55,586
81,774
40,181
45,409
29,895

52,750

T e r r i t o r y South of Tennessee
608,565
147,687

147,687

9,031

312,094
1

Series A 264-275.

Number and Population of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as Defined in 1950,
1960, and 1970, by Region and Size: 1950 to 1970
[For definition of S t a n d a r d Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's), see text]
SMSA population as defined in t e r m s of—•

Central city population as defined
a t each census

N u m b e r of S M S A ' s
Series
No.

Region and size
1970

264

United S t a t e s
REGION

265
266
267
268

1960 area

1970 area
1

1960*

1950

1970

1

1960

168 1 3 9 , 4 1 8 , 8 1 1 119,594,754

1950*

1960

1950*

94,579,008 112,885,178 89,316,903

243

212

51
67
88
37

47
59
77
29

39
52
59
18

39,188,328
37,658,273
35,199,352
27,372,858

36,043,708
33,350,785
28,872,540
21,327,721

31,825,560
26,944,997
21,417,235
14,391,216

3
3
6
21
32
60
118

3
2
5
14
29
48
111

2
3
3
6
19
44
91

25,582,921
12,127,364
14,513,949
28,432,512
21,936,284
19,760,861
17,064,920

22,954,317
10,754,019
12,895,423
22,466,699
18,588,623
16,991,831
14,943,842

18,885,498 23,658,242
8,823,179
8,105,257
10,880,541 11,840,095
15,934,977 17,978,476
14,424,019 19,214,817
13,363,939 15,829,067
12,266,855 16,259,224

1950 area
1950

1970

1960*

84,500,680 63,796,943 58,004,334

1950
49,412,792

2

NortheastNorth Central
South
West--

_ .

35,346,505
30,959,961
26,447,395
20,131,317

31,267,169 31,053.322
25,074,674 24,170,135
19,417,751 17,360,208
13,557,309 11,917,015

17,256,146
17,068,167
17,917,474
11,555,156

17,321,731 17,249,033
16,510,746 15,230,330
15,061,777 10,941,370
5,992,059
9,110,080

POPULATION S I Z E

269
270
271
272
273
274
275

5,000,000 a n d over
3,000,000-4,999,999—
2,000,000-2,999,999. _ _
1,000,000-1,999,999- _.
500,000-999,999
250,000-499,999
U n d e r 250,000

* D e n o t e s first year for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.
1
Excludes 23,372 persons for whom t y p e of residence is n o t available.
A 1 - 5 , footnote 3.




See series

19,101,722 18,407,358 14,436,513 14,155,571 12,250,712
5,891,531
3,672,656
4,537,326
6 , 6 8 7 , 2 4 5 11,055,156
2,638,182
3,923,375
6,823,989
4,196,596
10,047,952
4,936,689
8,784,128
8 , 1 5 3 , 9 9 3 11,653,630
13,810,161
7,744,565
14,125,628 12,398,635 10,758,973 10,126,684
7,805,511
7,750,597
8,745,284
12,603,137 14,594,878
8,145,602
9,591,323
12,941,058 13,066,671 9,468,621

2
I n t h e d a t a on n u m b e r of S M S A ' s those located in t w o regions are included m t h e
region containing m o s t of t h e S M S A ' s population; in t h e d a t a on population, t h e y a r e
divided into their c o m p o n e n t regions.

39

POPULATION

A 276-287

Series A 276-287.

Population of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, by Region, Size, and Race:
1950 to 1970
[For definition of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's), see text for series A 267-278]
1970 i

Region, size, and race
Total

Inside
central
city

United States.
White
Negro
Other races.

139,418,811
120,578,729
16,770,610
2,069,472

63,796,943
49,430,443
13,140,331
1,226,169

Northeast
White
Negro
Other races.

39,188,328
34,696,275
4,146,869
346,184

North Central.
White
Negro
Other races.

1960*
Outside
central
city

1960

Inside
central
city

Outside
central
city

Total

Inside
central
city

75,621,868 112,885,178
71,148,286 99,687,658
3,630,279
12,207,231
990,289

58,004,334
47,653,833
9,703,584
646,917

54,880,844
52,033,825
2,503,647
343,372

84,500,680
76,250,470
7,931,469
318,741

49,412,792
43,001,634
6,194,948
216,210

17,256,146
13,632,546
3,369,526
254,074

21,932,182
21,062,729
777,343
92,110

35,346,505
32,382,629
2,855,137
108,739

17,321,731
14,922,738
2,320,019
78,974

18,024,774
17,459,891
535,118
29,765

31,053,322
29,090,116
1,912,303
50,903

17,249,033
15,687,312
1.522.382
39,339

37,658,273
33,136,332
4,292,753
229,188

17,068,167
13,211,120
3,708,004
149,043

20,590,106
19,925,212
584,749
80,145

30,959,961
27,714,230
3,163,076
82,655

16,510,746
13,666,826
2,781,924
61,996

14,449,215
14,047,404
381,152
20,669

24,170,135
22,156,571
1,974,223
39,341

15,230,330
13,548,014
1,649,926
32,390

South..
White
Negro
Other races.

35,199,352
28,266,870
6,714,199
228,283

17,917,474
12,848,348
4,945,456
123,670

17,281,878
15,408,522
1,768,743
104,613

26,447,395
21,191,838
5,186,706
68,851

15,061,777
11,142,949
3,876,934
41,894

11,385,618
10,048,889
1,309,772
26,957

17,360,208
13,784,680
3,555,654
19,874

10,941,370
8.251.383
2,675,386
14,601

West
White
Negro
Other races.

27,372,858
24,490,252
1,616,789
1,265,817

11,555,156
9,738,429
1,117,345
699,382

15,817,702
14,751,823
499,444
566,435

20,131,317
18,398,961
1,002,312
730,044

9,110,080
7,921,320
724,707
464,053

11,021,237
10,477,641
277,605
265,991

11,917,015
11,219,103
489,289
208,623

5,992,059
5,514,925
347,254
129,880

5,000,000 and over..
White
Negro
Other races

25,582,921
21,168,440
3,879,066
535,415

14,436,513
10,759,292
3,293,332
383,889

11,146,408
10,409,148
585,734
151,526

23,658,242
20,855,887
2,582,496
219,859

14,155,571
11,744,617
2,245,015
165,939

9,502,671
9,111,270
337,481
53,920

18,407,358
16,756,075

1,600,022
51,261

12,250,712
10,869,166
1,335,596
45,950

3,000,000-4,999,999.
White
Negro
Other races

12,127,364
9,939,406
1,931,490
256,468

4,537,326
2,842,292
1,535,007
160,027

7,590,038
7,097,114
396,483
96,441

8,105,257
6,856,969
1,230,174
18,124

3,672,656
2,650,449
1,011,463
10,744

4,432,601
4,206,510
218,711
7,380

11,055,156
9,932,972
1,056,645
65,539

5,891,531
4,997,257
847,756
46,518

2,000,000-2,999,999.
White
Negro
Other races

14,513,949
12,218,729

2,202,106
93,114

4,196,596
2,449,174
1,709,565
37,857

10,317,353
9,769,555
492,541
55,257

11,840,095
10,445,438
1,260,090
134,567

3,923,375
2,885,490
947,972
89,913

7,916,720
7,559,948
312,118
44,654

6,823,989
6,420,456
335,076
68,457

2,638,182
2,375,210
213,574
49,398

1,000,000-1,999,999.
White
Negro
Other races

28,432,512
25,170,467
2,930,563
331,482

11,653,630
9,211,308
2,269,554
172,768

16,778,882
15,959,159
661,009
158,714

17,978,476
15,882,015
2,015,484
80,977

8,784,128
7,052,090
1,677,733
54,305

9,194,348
8,829,925
337,751
26,672

8,153,993
7,111,522
1,027,784
14,687

4,936,689
4,069,944
856,632
10,113

500,000-999,999.
White
Negro
Other races

21,936,284
19,011,773
2,396,877
527,634

10,758,973
8,469,582
1,979,136
310,255

11,177,311
10,542,191
417,741
217,379

19,214,817
16,783,125
2,015,290
416,402

10,126,684
8,237,981
1,623,526
265,177

9,088,133
8,545,144
391,764
151,225

12,398,635
11,019,272
1,341,107
38,256

7,744,565
6,655,905
1,060,425
28,235

250,000-499,999.
White
Negro
Other races

19,760,861
17,634,982
1,919,299
206,580

8,745,284
7,359,641
1,289,357
96,286

11,015,577
10,275,341
629,942
110,294

15,829,067
14,380,530
1,382,055
66,482

7,750,597
6,709,971
1,010,675
29,951

8,078,470
7,670,559
371,380
36,531

14,594,878
13,414,218
1,127,126
53,534

7,805,511
6,911,778
870,996
22,737

Under 250,000.
White
Negro
Other r a c e s . .

17,064,920
15,434,932
1,611,209
118,779

9,468,621
8,339,164
1,064,380
65,087

7,596,299
7,095,778
446,829
53,692

16,259,224
14,483,704
1,721,642
53,878

9,591,323
8,373,235
1,187,200
30,888

6,667,901
6,110,469
534,442
22,990

13,066,671
11,595,955
1,443,709
27,007

8,145,602
7,122,374
1,009,969
13,259

Total

POPULATION S I Z E

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

40



1
Excludes 23,372 persons for whom type of residence is not available. See series
A 1-5, footnote 3. See text for series A 91-104 for discussion of 1970 d a t a by race.

HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES

Series A 288-319.

A 288-319

Households, Families, Subfamilies, Married Couples, and Unrelated Individuals: 1790 to 1970
[In t h o u s a n d s , except a v e r a g e size.

As of M a r c h , except as noted]

Households

Families
P r i m a r y families

Total

Primary
indiAverage
viduals
size

Primary
families

Total

Husbandwife

Other
male
head

Female
head

Husbandwife

Secondary families

Other
male
head

Female
head

Total

Husbandwife

300

Total

Other
male
head

301

Female
head

288

289

63,401
62,214
60,813
59,286
58,406

51,456
50,729
50,012
49,086
48,399

11,945
11,485
10,801
10,150
10,007

3.14
3.16
3.20
3.26
3.27

51,586
50,823
50,111
49,214
48,509

44,755
44,110
43,530
42,805
42,312

1,239
1,232
1,211
1,203
1,178

5,591
5,481
5,370
5,206
5,019

51,456
50,729
50,012
49,086
48,399

44,728
44,086
43,507
42,743
42,263

1,228
1,221
1,195
1,190
1,163

5,500
5,422
5,310
5,153
4,973

130
94
99
128
110

27
24
23
62
49

11
11
16
13
15

91
59
60
53
46

57,436
56,149
55,270
54,764
53,557

47,838
47,381
46,872
46,262
45,383

9,598
8,768
8,398
8,502
8,174

3.29
3.33
3.33
3.31
3.34

47,956
47,540
47,059
46,418
45,539

41,749
41,395
40,975
40,470
39,678

1,181
1,245
1,333
1,296
1,222

5,026
4,900
4,751
4,652
4,639

47,838
47,381
46,872
46,262
45,383

41,689
41,341
40,888
40,404
39,620

1,167
1,204
1,295
1,268
1,199

4,982
4,836
4,689
4,590
4,564

118
159
187
156
156

60
54
87
66
58

14
41
38
28
23

44
64
62
62
75

52,799
51,435
50,474
49,673
48,902

44,905
43,971
43,426
43,262
42,593

7,895
7,464
7,047
6,411
6,309

3.33
3.34
3.34
3.33
3.32

45,111
44,232
43,696
43,497
42,889

39,329
38,574
38,056
37,856
37,204

1,275
1,319
1,324
1,263
1,440

4,507
4,339
4,315
4,378
4,245

44,905
43,971
43,426
43,262
42,593

39,254
38,410
37,911
37,718
37,047

1,228
1,285
1,278
1,241
1,408

4,422
4,276
4,237
4,304
4,138

207
261
269
235
296

75
164
145
138
157

47
33
46
22
32

85
63
78
75
107

47,874
43,554
39,107
34,949

41,732
38,838
34,964
31,491

6.142
4,716
4.143
3,458

3.33
3.37
(NA)
3.67

41,951
39,303
35,794
32,166

36,378
34,440
31,211
26,971

1,339
1,184
1,186
1,579

4,234
3,679
3,397
3,616

41,732
38,838
34,964
31,491

36,251
34,075
30,612
26,571

1,328
1,169
1,129
1,510

4,153
3,594
3,223
3,410

219
465
830
675

127
365
599
400

11
15
57

81
85
174
206

291

292

Households
Year

Households

288
1930 i
1920 2

Average
size
291

29,905
24,352

4.11
4.34

Year

1910 2
1900

Total

Average
size

288

Total

291

20,256
15,964

Subfamilies

Year

Total

Husbandwife

Households

4.54
4.76

Year

2

—

Average
size

288
1890
1880

Total

306

4.93
5.04

Year

Other
male
head

Female
head

Total

With
own
household

308

307

309

310

Total

288
1870
1860

, Average
size

Households

5.09
5.28

1850 >___
1790 i . . .

Total

Average
size

288

Year

291

7,579
5,211

M a r r i e d couples

291

3,598
558

5.55
5.79

Unrelated individuals

W i t h o u t own
household

P r i m a r y individuals

Secondary individuals

Total
Total

305

Households

291

12,690
9,946

303

Percent

311

312

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

313

314

315

316

317

318

319

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

1,150
1,168
1,225
1.292
1,383

617
603
661
679
721

48
66
80
91
92

484
499
484
522
570

45,373
44,713
44,191
43,484
43,033

44,728
44,086
43,507
42,743
42,263

645
627
684
741
770

1.4
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.8

14,988
14,154
13,425
12,725
12,558

11,945
11,485
10,801
10,150
10,007

4,063
3,890
3,658
3,419
3,299

7,882
7,595
7,143
6,731
6,708

3,043
2,669
2,624
2,575
2,551

1,631
1,415
1,294
1,286
1,350

1,412
1,254
1,330
1,289
1,201

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

1.293
1,343
1,375
1,407
1,532

729
742
786
815
903

72
83
87
82
78

492
518
502
510
551

42,478
42,137
41,761
41,285
40,581

41,689
41,341
40,888
40,404
39,620

789
796
873
881
961

1.9
1.9
2.1
2.1
2.4

12,333
11,433
11,330
11,563
11,231

9,598
8,768
8,398
8,502
8,174

3,277
2,965
2,838
2,932
2,779

6,321
5,803
5,560
5,570
5,395

2,735
2,665
2,932
3,061
3,057

1,432
1,428
1,561
1,654
1,548

1,303
1,237
1,371
1,407
1,509

1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956

1,514
1,630
1,730
1,804
1,825

871
943
1,068
1,091
1,106

115
103
75
97
120

528
584
587
615
600

40,200
39,518
39,124
38,947
38,310

39,254
38,410
37,911
37,718
37,047

946
1,108
1,213
1,229
1,263

2.4
2.8
3.1
3.2
3.3

11,092
11,062
10,568
9,901
10,019

7,895
7,464
7,047
6,411
6,309

2,716
2,449
2,329
2,038
2.058

5,179
5,015
4,718
4,374
4,250

3,198
3,598
3,520
3,489
3,710

1,746
2,077
1,987
2,057
2,187

1,451
1,520
1,534
1,432
1,523

1955 i
1950
1947 i
1946 2

1,973
2,402
3.123
(rfA)

1,178
1,651
2,332
(NA)

69
113
83
(NA)

726
638
708
(NA)

37,556
36,091
33,543
31,550

36,251
34,075
30,612
28,850

1,305
2,016
2,931
2,700

3.5
5.6
8.7
8.6

9,891
9,136
8,491
(NA)

6.142
4,716
4.143
(NA)

2.059
1,668
1,388
(NA)

4,083
3,048
2.755
(NA)

3,749
4,420
4.348
(NA)

2,128
2,541
2,464
(NA)

1,621
1,879
1.884
(NA)

1945 »
1940 i
1930
1910 2

(NA)
2,062

(NA)
1,546

(NA)
52

(NA)
464

28,200
28,517
25.174
17.175

26,835
26,571
23,649
16,250

1,365
1,946
1,525
925

4.8
6.8
6.1
5.4

(NA)
9,277

(NA)
3,458

(NA)
1,599

(NA)
1,859

(NA)
5,819

(NA)
3,343

(NA)
2,476

* D e n o t e s first y e a r for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.
N A N o t available.
1
As of April.




2
As of J u n e .
3 As of S e p t e m b e r .

41

A 320-349

POPULATION

Series A 320-334.

Households, by Race, Sex, and Age of Head: 1890 to 1970

[In thousands.

1965-1970 based on sample figures from Current Population Survey]
Male head

Race of head
White

Negro

Other

320

321

Total

Under 25
years
324

322

56,248
55,394
54,188
52,826
52,135
51,441

6,053
5,870
5,728
6,018
5,954
5,808

47,868
38,429
31,680
!26,983

5,153
3,822
3,142
2,804

21.826
(NA)
14,064
11,255

2,431
2,173
1,834
1,411

25-34
years

Female head

325

45-54
years

55 years
and over

Total

Under 25
years

25-34
years

35-44
years

327

35-44
years

328

329

330

331

332

45-54
years

49,588
48,927
48,121
47,082
46,517
46,027

3,485
3,360
3,150
3,023
3,046
2,918

10,328
9,990
9,457
9,234
8,952
8,912

10,286
10,250
10,452
10,486
10,467
10,449

10,278
10,177
10,096
9,969
9,904
9,726

15,211
15,149
14,968
14,372
14,146
14,022

13,287
12,877
12,323
11,763
11,575
11,224

820
706
679
540
506
484

1,324
1,291
1,141
1,084
1,071
984

1,401
1,489
1,480
1,433
1,413
1,521

1,959
1,973
1,869
1,845
1,839
1,760

127
118

43,873
35,863
29,680
>26,112

2,369
1,850
1,260
1,266

8,964
8,139
6,539
5,879

10,480
8,676
7,286
7,082

9,194
7,274
6,716
5,743

12,866
9,925
7,879
6,123

9,151
6,389
5,269
'3,793

330
164
113
'120

803
541
470
4
371

1,227
935
879
4
685

1,607
1,264
1,144
4
862

95
(NA)
66
24

(NA)
(NA)
14,023
10,857

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
572

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
2,962

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
2,883

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
2,184

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
2,256

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
1,833

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
59

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
230

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
387

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
466

573
541
530

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
1
Based on 20-percent sample of census returns.
3
Figures for race of head revised to include Mexicans as white.
classified as other races in the 1930 reports.

Series A 335-349.

Mexicans were

3
Total for males includes 18,345 persons of unknown age and total for females,
6,567 of unknown age.
4
Number of female heads in each age group estimated from data on white and Negro
heads with marital status and age reported.

Households, by Number of Persons: 1790 to 1970

[Number in thousands.

As of March, except as noted]
Percent distribution of number of households

Size of household
Number
of
households

1
person

2
persons

3
persons

4
persons

5
persons

6
persons

7 or more
persons

1
person

2
persons

3
persons

4
persons

5
persons

6
persons

7 or more
persons

335

336

337

338

339

340

341

342

343

344

345

346

347

348

349

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

62,874
61,806
60,446
58,845
58,092

10,692
10,333
9,743
9,139
9,044

18,129
17,916
17,272
16,669
16,589

10,903
10,698
10,513
10,334
9,939

9,935
9,714
9,565
9,496
9,414

6,532
6,345
6,281
6,235
6,223

3,505
3,534
3,605
3,468
3,446

3,178
3,266
3,467
3,527
3,446

17.0
16.7
16.1
15.5
15.6

28.8
29.0
28.6
28.3
28.6

17.3
17.3
17.4
17.6
17.1

15.8
15.7
15.8
16.1
16.2

10.4
10.3
10.4
10.6
10.7

5.6
5.7
6.0
5.9
5.9

5.1
5.3
5.7
6.0
5.9

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

57,251
55,996
55,189
54,652
53,291

8,603
7,800
7,490
7,458
7.077

16,067
15,579
15,257
15,429
15,110

10,230
10,007
9,974
10,056
9,731

9,239
9,539
9,431
9,328
9,343

6,293
6,311
6,231
6,004
6,022

3,316
3,364
3,468
3,361
3,070

3,503
3,396
3,337
3,016
2,938

15.0
13.9
13.6
13.6
13.3

28.1
27.8
27.6
28.2
28.4

17.9
17.9
18.1
18.4
18.3

16.1
17.0
17.1
17.1
17.5

11.3
11.3

11.0
11.3

5.8
6.0
6.3
6.1
5.8

6.1
6.1
6.0
5.5
5.5

1960*
1959
1958
1957..
1956

52,610
51,302
50,402
49,543
48,785

6,871
6,317
6.078
5,451
5,396

14,616
14,538
14,303
14,274
13,827

9,941
9,788
9,715
9,743
9,936

9,277
9,123
8,933
9,096
9,152

6,064
5,793
5,609
5,487
5,287

2,976
2,948
3,002
2,848
2,624

2,865
2,795
2,762
2,644
2,563

13.1
12.3
12.1
11.1

27.8
28.4
28.4
28.8
28.3

18.9
19.1
19.3
19.7
20.4

17.6
17.8
17.7
18.4
18.8

11.5
11.3
11.1
11.1
10.8

5.7
5.7
6.0
5.7
5.4

5.4
5.4
5.5
5.3
5.3

1955
1954
1953 '
1952 2
1951»

47,788
46,893
46,828
45,464
44,564

5,212
5,032
6,148
5.388
(NA)

13,612
13,249
13,530
13.460
(tfA)

9,725
9,776
9,868
9,908
(IS?A)

9,052
8,820
8,300
8,106
(NA)

5,291
5,170
4,658
4.378
(tfA)

2,568
2,521
2,332
2,142
(NA)

2,328
2,325
1,992
2.082
(N"A)

10.9
10.7
13.1
11.9
(NA)

28.5
28.3
28.9
29.6
(NA)

20.4
20.8
21.1
21.8
(NA)

18.9
18.8
17.7
17.8
(NA)

11.1
9.9
9.6
(NA)

5.4
5.4
5.0
4.7
(NA)

4.9
5.0
4.3
4.6
(NA)

1950 i
1940 2
1930 »
1900 3
1890
1790

43,468
34,949
29,905
15,964
12,690
558

4,737
2,481
2,357
814
457
21

12,529
8,667
6,983
2,395
1,675
44

9,808
7,829
6,227
2,810
2,119
65

7,729
6,326
5,235
2,698
2,132
77

4,357
4,019
3,574
2,267
1,916
78

2,196
2,377
2,273
1,740
1,472
74

2,113
3,250
3,255
3,257
2,919
200

10.9
7.1
7.9
5.1
3.6
3.7

28.8
24.8
23.4
15.0
13.2
7.8

22.6
22.4
20.8
17.6
16.7
11.7

17.8
18.1
17.5
16.9
16.8
13.8

10.0
11.5
12.0
14.2
15.1
13.9

5.1
6.8
7.6
10.9
11.6
13.2

4.9
9.3
10.9
20.4
23.0
35.8

Year

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
1
Covers related persons only; therefore, not strictly comparable with other years.

42



2
3

11.0

11.0

11.0

As of April.
As of June; includes a small number of quasi-households.

HOUSEHOLDS, FAMILIES, AND INSTITUTIONS

Series A 350-352.
[111 thousands.
Total

Households, by Residence: 1900 to 1970

1900-1946 as ol J u l y ; 1947-1949 a n d 1951-1955 as of April; a n d 1950 a n d 1956-1970 as of M a r c h ]

Farm

Nonfarm

A 350-371

Total

Nonfarm

Farm

Total

Nonfarm

Farm

Total

Year

Year

Nonfarm

Year
350

350

351

62,874
61,805
60,444
58,845
58,092
57,251

60,150
58,935
57,501
55,910
54,875
53,899

2,724
2,870
2,944
2,934
3,214
3,350

1952.
1951.
1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.

45,538
44,673
43,554
42,182
40,532
39,107

39,584
38,602
37,279
35,687
34,116
32,673

5,954
6,071
6,275
6,495
6,416
6,434

1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.

31,306
30,802
30,439
30,272
29,997
29,582

24,118
23,653
23,541
23,476
23,268
22,851

7,188
7,149
6,898
6,796
6,729
6,731

1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.

22,926
22,501
22,110
21,606
21,075
20,620

16,291
15,949
15,630
15,187
14,727
14,358

6,635
6,552
6,480
6,419
6,348
6,262

55,996
55,189
54,652
53,464
52,799
51,435

52,651
51,725
50,890
49,715
48,708
46,028

3,345
3,464
3,762
3,749
4,091
5,407

1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.

38,370
37,503
37,115
36,833
36,445
35,929

31,944
31,158
30,722
30,206
29,433
28,786

6,426
6,345
6,393
6,627
7,012
7,143

1928.
1927.
1926.
1925.
1924.
1923.

29,124
28,632
28,101
27,540
26,941
26,298

22,416
21,941
21,325
20,745
20,182
19,492

6,708
6,691
6,776
6,795
6,759
6,806

1910.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1905.

20,183
19,734
19,294
18,863
18,394
17,939

13,989

6,194

50,474
49,673
48,902
47,874
46,962
46,385

45,289
44,441
43,239
42,319
41,460
40,548

5,185
5,232
5,663
5,555
5,502
5,837

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935

35,153
34,409
33,683
33,088
32,454
31,892

28,001
27,249
26,518
25,917
25,253
24,665

7,152
7,160
7,165
7,171
7,201
7,227

1922
1921
1920
1919
1918
1917

25,687
25,119
24,467
23,873
23,519
23,323

18,780
18,255
17,668
17,307
16,846
16,643

6,907
6,864
6,799
6,566
6,673
6,680

1904.
1903.
1902
1901.
1900

17,521
17,108
16,716
16,345
15,992

* D e n o t e s first y e a r for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.

Series A 353-358.

Families and Percent Distribution of Own Children Under 18 Years Old: 1950 to 1970
[As of M a r c h , except as noted]
P e r c e n t distribution of own children

P e r c e n t distribution of own children
Families
(1,000)
Year

1

2
children

child

3
children

4 or
more
children

Year

354

No
children

child

1

2
children

children

4 or
more
children

354

No
children

353

Families
(1,000)

355

356

357

358

1970..
1969..
1968..
1967..
1966..

51,586
50,823
50,111
49,214
48,509

44.1
44.2
44.2
44.0
44.3

18.2
18.1
17.5
17.8
17.2

17.4
16.9
17.0
16.8
16.8

10.6
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.7

9.8
10.3
10.7
10.8

1959..
1958..
1957..
1956 i
1955 '

44,232
43,696
43,497
42,889
41,951

43.3
43.8
44.2
44.6
44.7

18.4
18.6
18.5
18.8
19.1

18.3
18.0
18.2
18.5
18.7

10.5
10.4
10.4
9.8
9.9

9.5
9.1
8.7
8.3
7.6

1965..
1964..
1963..
1962..
1961..
1960 *

47,956
47,540
47,059
46,418
45,539
45,111

43.4
43.1
42.8
43.4
43.1
43.0

17.7
17.3
17.6
18.0
18.4
18.5

16.8
17.4
17.4
17.3
17.7
18.0

11.0

11.1

11.0

10.5
9.8
9.4

1954 i
1953 i
1952 i
1951 i
1950..

41,202
40,832
40,578
39,929
39,303

45.4
46.9
47.4
46.7
48.3

19.9
20.2
20.2
21.5
21.1

17.9
17.0
17.0
17.0
16.5

9.4
9.1
8.5
8.3
7.8

7.4
6.8
6.9
6.5
6.3

11.3
11.2
10.9
11.1

11.0

11.0
11.0

1

* D e n o t e s first year for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.

Series A 359-371.

As of April.

Inmates of Institutions by Sex, Race, Age, and Type of Institution: 1940 to 1970
[For definition of institutions, see text]
Sex

Race

T y p e of institution

Age

Total
Male

Female

White

Negro

Other

Under 18

18-64

65 a n d
over

Correctional

Mental

H o m e s for
aged a n d
dependent

Other

359

360

361

362

363

364

365

366

367

368

369

370

371

2,126,719
1,886,967
1,566,846

1,126,327
1,116,825
949,628

1,000,392
770,142
617,218

1,785,085
1,581,611
1,351,152

318,991
22,643
305 356
215 694

238,090
237,588
204,644

921,014
1,034,323
976,783

967,615
615,056
385,419

328,020
346,015
264,557

433,890
630,046
613,628

927,514
469,717
296,783

437,295
441,189
391,878

950,263 1,678,055
710,525 1 , 4 5 5 , 2 0 4
556,979 1 , 2 2 1 , 0 6 0
401,008
989,839

292,191
20,398
281 626
203 374
166 459

102,015
921,014
87,451 1,034,323
62,232
976,783
69,788
864,545

967,615
615,056
385,419
221,965

326,720
345,280
263,896
312,423

419,768
622,559
609,805
587,328

925,847
468,410
294,085
234,054

318,309
300,581
256,648
22,493

Year

ALL INMATES
1970 1__
1960 * *
1950.
INMATES, 15 YEARS
AND OVER
1970 1.
1960 2 *
1950
1940

1,990,644 1,040,381
1,736,830 1,026,305
1,424,434
867,455
1,156,298
755,290

* D e n o t e s first y e a r for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
20-percent sample.




2

25-percent sample.

43

Chapter B

Vital Statistics and Health and Medical Care
Vital Statistics (Series B 1-220)
B 1-220.

General note.

Vital statistics, including statistics of births, deaths, marriages,
and divorces, are compiled for the country as a whole by the National
Center for Health Statistics, successor in recent years to the former
National Office of Vital Statistics. Beginning 1900, the collection of
these data was the responsibility of the Bureau of the Census. In
July 1946, this function was transferred to the Federal Security
Agency, which, in 1953, was reconstituted as the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare. The National Center for Health
Statistics is a part of the Public Health Service in that Department.
The live-birth, death, and fetal-death statistics prepared by the
National Center for Health Statistics are based on copies of vital
records received from registration offices of all States, of certain cities,
and of the District of Columbia. Marriage and divorce statistics
are based on information from two sources: (1) Complete counts of
events obtained from all States and the District of Columbia and (2)
samples of marriage and divorce certificates obtained from States
meeting certain reporting criteria. In the statistical tabulations,
United States refers only to the aggregate of the 50 States and the
District of Columbia. Alaska has been included in the United States
totals since 1959 and Hawaii sinee 1960.
The annual report, Vital Statistics of the Untied States, presents
final figures and an annual life table. A series of national summaries
Vital Statistics—Special Reports containing data on particular subjects
was issued each year from 1934 to. 1959. This series was superseded
by Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20,21, and 22.
Although every State has adopted a law requiring the registration
of births, deaths, and fetal deaths, these laws are not uniformly observed. One condition for admission to the national registration
areas was a demonstration of registration completeness of at least 90
percent. On the basis of this criterion, all of the States were admitted to both the birth- and death-registration areas by 1933. I t is
recognized, however, that the methods then used in testing completeness were subject to considerable error.
The annual collection of mortality statistics for the national deathregistration area began in 1900 with 10 registration States and the
District of Columbia; the collection of birth statistics for the national
birth-registration area began in 1915, also with 10 States and the
District of Columbia. The changing composition of the two registration areas makes it impossible to obtain geographically comparable
birth and death data for the entire United States before 1933. Although the national birth-registration area was not started until
1915, annual estimates of births have been prepared for the period
1909-34. These estimates include adjustments for underregistration
and for States not in the birth-registration area before 1933. Beginning 1933, the birth- and death-registration areas have comprised the
entire United States, including Alaska beginning 1959 and Hawaii
beginning 1960. National statistics on fetal deaths were compiled
for 1918 and annually since 1922.
Prior to 1951, birth statistics were the result of a complete count
of the records received in the Public Health Service. Since 1951,
they have been based on a 50-percent sample of all registered births
(except for 1955 when they reverted to a complete count and for 1967
when they were based on a 20-50 percent sample).
Mortality statistics are compiled in accordance with World Health
Organization regulations, which specify that member nations classify
causes of death according t o the International Statistical Classification
44




Growth of Birth- and Death-Registration Area: 1900 to 1933

Year

Conterminous
United
States,
midyear
population

Birth-registration
area 1
M i d y e a r population
Number

1,000

Death-registration

Percent
of t o t a l

M i d y e a r population
Number
of
States

Number

1,000

Percent
of t o t a l

Number
of
States

1,000

933932..
931-

125,579
124.840
124,040

125,679
118,904
117,465

100.0
96.2
94.7

48
47
46

125,579
118,904
118,149

100.0
95.2
95.3

48
47
47

930.
929928927926.

123,077
121,770
120,501
119,038
117,399

116,545
115,817
113,636
104,321
90,401

94.7
94.7
94.3
87.6
77.0

46
46
44
40
35

117,238
115,317
113,686
107,085
103,823

95.3
94.7
94.3
90.0
88.4

47
46
44
42
41

925924923922.
921-

115,832
114,113
111,950
110,055
108,541

88,295
87,000
81,072
79,561
70,807

76.2
76.2
72.4
72.3
65.2

33
30
30
27

102,032
99,318
96,788
92,703
87,814

88.1
87.0
86.6
84.2
80.9

40
39
88
87
84

920919918.
917916-

106,466
104,512
103,203
103,266
101,966

63,597
61,212
55,154
55,198
32,944

59.7
58.6
53.4
53.5
32.3

86,079
83,158
79,008
70,235
66,971

80.9
79.6
76.6

34
33
SO
27
26

916914.
913912911-

100,549
99,118
97,227
96,331
93,868

31,097

30.9

61,895
60,968
58,157
54,848
53,980

61.6

910.
909.
908907.
906-

92,407.
90,492
88,709
87,000
85,437

47,470
44,224
38,635
34,553
33,782

51.4
48.9
43.6
39.7
39.5

20
18
17

905904.
908.
902901.
900-

83,820

21,768
21,332
20,943
20,583
20,237
19,965

26.0
26.0
26.0
26.0

10
10
10
10
10
10

82,166

80,632
79,160
77,585
76,094

22

20
20
11
10

68.0
65.7
61.5
59.8
57.5
67.5

26.1
26.2

24
24
23
22
22

IB

15

i D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a excluded f r o m c o u n t of n u m b e r of S t a t e s b u t included in t h e
p o p u l a t i o n figures.

of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, The current (1973) classification, "Eighth Revision International Classification of Diseases,
Adapted for Use in the United States," has been used since 1968.
Accurate measures of birth-registration completeness on a nationwide basis were obtained for the first time in 1940, when studies were
made in connection with the population census of that year. They
showed that, for the United States as a whole, birth registration was
92.5 percent complete. A corresponding study 10 years later indicated that registration had improved considerably, with 97.9 percent
of the births in 1950 being recorded. Only in a few S t a t e was underregistration shown to be still a problem. The results of this study
have been published in considerable detail (Bureau of the Census,
Infant Enumeration Study, 1950) and provide a basis for adjusting
registered birth data for underreporting and for making estimates
of registration completeness in post-censal years. Birth registration
has continued to improve since 1930 and, in 1968, 99.1 percent of
the live births were registered. (See National Office of Vital Statistics,
"Birth-Registration Completeness in the United States and
Geographic Areas, 1950," parts I, II, and I I I , Vital Statistics—
Special Reports, vol. 39, Nos. 2 and 4, and vol. 45, No. 9.)

VITAL STATISTICS
Death registration is believed to be at least as complete as birth
registration. However, quantitative information on the completeness
with which deaths are reported is limited to that obtained years ago
in applying the "90-percent" standard for entry into the death-registration area and to information obtained from occasional local area
studies. While underregistration for the country as a whole is
negligible, local studies furnish evidence that in certain isolated places
underreporting of deaths may still be a problem. Registration of
fetal deaths is probably significantly incomplete in all areas.
National collections of statistics on marriages and divorces in the
United States were made for various years from 1867 to 1940 and for
each year since 1944. Estimates have been made for intervening
years and for years in which collections were not complete. A
marriage-registration area was established by the Public Health
Service in 1957, and a divorce-registration area in 1958. At the
beginning of 1971, the marriage-registration area covered 40 States
and 3 independent registration areas; the divorce-registration area,
29 States and 1 independent area.
Population statistics published or made available by the Bureau
of the Census have been used in computing the vital rates shown here.
Rates for 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970 are based on the population
enumerated in the censuses of those years which were taken as of
April 1. Rates for all other years are based on midyear (July 1)
estimates of population made by the Bureau of the Census.
Except for 1941-1946, vital rates are based on the population
residing in conterminous United States. In those years, the transfer
overseas of several million men precluded the computation of birth
and divorce rates strictly comparable with such rates for prewar years.
For 1941-1946, the birth and divorce rates are based on the population
including the Armed Forces overseas. (For a discussion of the interpretation of rates during wartime, see "Summary of Natality and
Mortality Statistics, United States, 1943," Vital Statistics—Special
Reports, vol. 21, No. 1, and "Marriage and Divorce in the United
States, 1937 to 1945," Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 23, No. 9.)
Vital statistics showing color and race are compiled from entries
which appear on certificates filed with vital registration offices. The
classification "white" includes persons reported as Mexican, Cuban,
and Puerto Rican. The Negro group includes persons of mixed
Negro and other ancestry. For births, the newborn child is ordinarily
assigned to the race of the parents. If parents are of different races,
the following applies: (1) When only one parent is white, the child
is assigned the other parent's race; (2) when neither is white, the
child is assigned the father's race. For additional details, see source.

B 1. Live births, 1909-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1909-1968, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1968, vol. I, p. 1-4; 1969-1970, same report, annual
issues.
See general note for series B 1-220.

B 2. Deaths, 1933-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1933-1967, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1967, vol. II, part A, p. 1-2; 1968-1970, same report,
annual issues.
See general note for series B 1-220.

B 3-4.

Marriages and divorces, 1920-1970.

Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1920-1965, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1965, vol. I l l , pp. 1-5 and 2-5; 1966-1970, same
report, annual issues.
See general note for series B 1-220.



B 1-35

B 5-10. Birth rate—total and for women 15-44 years old, by race,
1800-1970.
Source: Series B 5, 1820-1900, Henry D. Sheldon, The Older
Population of the United States, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1958,
p. 145 (copyright). Series B 6 and B 9, 1800-1900, Warren S.
Thompson and P. K. Whelpton, Population Trends in the United
States, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1933, p. 263 (copyright). Series
B 5-10, 1909-1968, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the
United States, 1968, vol. I. p. 1-4; 1969-1970, same report, annual
issues.
Estimates for 1909-1934 were prepared by Pascal K. Whelpton.
For 1915-1932, the figures include adjustments for States not in the
registration area; for years prior to 1915, figures are estimates based
on the number of registered births in the 10 original registration
States for the same period.
See also general note for series B 1-220.
B 11-19. Fertility rate and birth rate, by age of mother, by race,
1940-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1940-1968, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1968, vol. I, p. 1-7; 1969, Monthly Vital Statistics
Report, 1969, vol. 22, No. 7, p. 5; 1970, Vital Statistics of the United
States, 1970, vol. I.
Series B 11-19 is an age-adjusted rate because it is based on the
assumption that there are the same number of women in each age
group. The rate of 2,480 in 1970, for example, means that if a hypothetical group of 1,000 women were to have the same birth rate in
each age group observed in the actual childbearing population in
1970, the women would have a total of 2,480 children by the time they
reached the end of the reproductive period (taken here as age 50),
assuming that all of the women survive to that age.
See also general note for series B 1-220.
B 20-27.

Birth rate, by race, by live-birth order, 1940-1970.

Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1940-1968, see source note for
series B 11-19, p. 1-9; 1969, see same source note, p. 6-7; 1970, see
same source note.
B 28-35. Illegitimate live births and birth rates, by age and race of
mother, 1940-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the United
States, 1970, vol. I.
These are estimated data based on certificates of live birth filed
for each child born in the United States. During the 1930's almost
all States had a query concerning legitimacy or illegitimacy on their
certificates. During the 1940's, concern for confidentiality prompted
a number of States to remove it. These data are based on reports of
34 States and the District of Columbia for 1940-1965 and on reports
of 40 States and the District of Columbia for 1966-1970.
In making estimates of the number of illegitimate births occurring
in the country as a whole, the States were grouped into nine geographic divisions. The combined ratio of illegitimate births per 1,000
total live births for all reporting States in a single geographic division
was then applied to all live births to residents of that division. This
estimating procedure was separately applied for white persons and
for Negro and other persons. The sum of these estimates for the
nine geographic divisions represents the estimate for the United
States. No adjustments were made for misstatements of legitimacy
status on the birth record or for failure to register illegitimate births
because the extent of such reporting problems is unknown. A birth
with legitimacy status not recorded was considered to be legitimate.
The rates shown for the years 1951-65 differ from those published
in earlier issues of Vital Statistics of the United States. The rates
shown here are based on a smoothed series of population estimates
for unmarried women by race and age which were not available when
45

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 167-220

the rates previously published were computed. For details concerning these estimates and other data for illegitimate births, see U.S.
Public Health Service, National Center for Health Statistics, "Trends
in Illegitimacy, United States, 1940-1965," Vital and Health Statistics, PHS Pub. No. 1000-Series 21-No. 15, February 1968.
B 36-41.

Gross and net reproduction rates, by race, 1905-10 to 1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1905-10 to 1935-40, Sixteenth
Census Reports, Differential Fertility, 1940 and 1910—Standardized
Fertility Rates and Reproduction Rates; U.S. Public Health Service,
1935, Vital Statistics of the United Stales, 1950, vol. I, p. 87; 19401956, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxix; 1957-70,
same report, annual issues.
The gross reproduction rate represents the number of daughters a
hypothetical cohort of 1,000 women entering the child-bearing period
would have during their lives, if they were subject to the age-specific
birth rates observed in a given time period, and if none of the cohort
were to die before the child-bearing period was completed. Agespecific birth rate is the ratio of births by age of mother to women in
each age interval for a specified year. The gross reproduction rate
is the sum of the age-specific birth rates of female infants per 1,000
women. It shows the maximum possible replacement of women that
might be expected from the given set of age-specific birth rates. If
no migration took place and if the gross rate remained below 1,000,
no improvement in mortality alone could prevent the population
from declining when a stable age distribution had been reached.
The net reproduction rate is based on the specific fertility and
mortality conditions existing in a given time period. If the agespecific birth and death rates of a certain year (or years) were to
continue until the population became stable, a net reproduction rate
of 1,000 would mean that a cohort of 1,000 newly born girls would
bear just enough daughters to replace themselves.
Reproduction rates are useful in the analyses of fertility and mortality conditions of a given period, but they are not indicators of
future population growth. They do not take into account such
factors as nuptiality, marital duration, and size of family, and they
assume the continuation of the age-specific rates in a given year
throughout the lifetime of a cohort of women. Since the United
States has experienced major changes in marriage and fertility rates
over short periods of time, variations in reproduction rates should not
be taken as indications of long-run movements in family formation
and rates of fertility and mortality.
B 42-48. Percent distribution of ever-married women (survivors of
birth cohorts of 1835-39 to 1920-24), by race and by number of
children ever born, as reported in censuses of 1910, 1940, 1950,
1960, and 1970.
Source: 1910-1950, all races, Conrad and Irene Taeuber, The
Changing Population of the United States, 1790-1955, John Wiley and
Sons, New York, 1957, pp. 255-256 (copyright). By race, U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1910 and 1940, Sixteenth Census Reports,
Population, Differential Fertility, 194.0 and 1910, part 2; 1950, U.S.
Census of Population: 1950, Special Reports, P-E, No. 5C, Fertility.
1960 and 1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1960 and 1970, PC(2)3A,
Women by Number of Children Ever Born.
These data are based on an analysis of the decennial censuses. In
each of these censuses women who had ever married were asked about
the number of children they had ever borne. When these women
are classified according to age, it is possible to suggest the trend in
fertility among women who had completed their childbearing at
each census.
Caution should be used in comparing the data from the 1910 census
with those from later censuses. The 1910 census may have inadvertently obtained some stillbirths in the counts of children ever
born, resulting in overstatements of fertility. Comparisons of the
46



average number of children ever born to women age 40-44 in 1910
with the average for those surviving to age 70-74 in 1940 show about
ten percent more children at the earlier date. In contrast, there is
little difference when the average numbers of children ever born are
compared for women of recently completed fertility in 1940 with the
average for survivors at much older ages in the censuses of 1950 to
1970, suggesting that the memory factor does not cause much undercount of children by women long past the childbearing ages.
Illegitimate births are represented in the data insofar as the women
ever married included births before marriage (as they were supposed
to do) in their reported total number of children ever born. Comparisons of cumulations of birth data from annual vital statistics (that
include all illegitimate births) with recent census data on children
ever born suggest that the census data may be short by about 5
percent for all races and about 3 percent for whites.
B 49-66. Children ever born to women ever married, by race and age
of women, 1910-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1910 and 1940, Sixteenth
Census of Population, Special Reports, Differential Fertility, 1940
and 1910—Fertility for States and Large Cities, tables 3 and 4; Differential Fertility, 194.0 and 1910—Women by Number of Children Ever
Born, tables 9 and 12; and unpublished data. 1950, U.S. Census of
Population: 1950, Special Report P-E No. 5C, Fertility, tables 1, 2,
and 12; and unpublished data. 1960, U.S. Census of Population:
1960, vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, part 1, U.S. Summary,
table 190, and Final Report PC(2)-3A, Women by Number of Children
Ever Born, tables 2 and 8. 1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970,
part 1, U.S. Summary, table 213.
These data are based on an 8.9 percent sample for 1910, 3.3 percent
for 1940, 2.4 percent for 1950, 25 percent for 1960 (except that the
separate data for Negroes are from a 5 percent sample), and 20 percent
for 1970. The data shown for 1940 in series B 42-48 and series
B 49-66 include special adjustments to allow for the fertility of
women with no original report on number of children ever born and
therefore differ slightly from the data published in the reports on
Differential Fertility, 1940 and 1910.
See the text for series B 42-48 for cautions regarding the comparability of data from the 1910 census with data from later censuses, and
possible minor shortages in counts of children ever born due to underreporting of illegitimate births.
B 67-98. Number of children under 5 years old per 1,000 women
20 to 44 years old, by race and residence, by geographic divisions,
1800-1970.
Source: Series B 67-68,1800-1940, and series B 69-98,1800-1840
and 1910-1950, Wilson H. Grabill, Clyde V. Kiser, and Pascal K.
Whelpton, The Fertility of American Women, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1958 (copyright). Series B 67-68, 1950-1970 and series
B 69-98, 1850-1900 and 1960-1970, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
special computations from decennial census reports.
Figures for series B 67-68 were adjusted for underreporting of
children in 1800-1940 on the basis of factors obtained for 1925-1930
and for underreporting of both women and children in 1950-1970 on
the basis of estimates derived by analytical methods. The ratios
have been standardized for age of women (except for white women for
1800-1820) using the 1930 age distribution of women to offset the
effect of changes in the age distribution of the female population.
Therefore, the figures represent the fertility ratios of women having
the same age distribution as those in 1930. Rates for 1800-1860
are partly estimated.
For composition of geographic divisions, see text for series A 172194. The urban-rural classification shown for 1800-1950 is based
on the rules used in 1940. That shown for 1960-1970 is based on the
rules used for those censuses. For definition of residence by old and
new rules of classification, see text for series A 43-56. The change

VITAL STATISTICS
in rules is known to have relatively little effect on the fertility ratios
for 1950 and probably has little effect on the comparability of the
fertility ratios for 1960-1970 with those of earlier years.
B 99-106. Median interval between births, by race, 1930-1969.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
series P-20, Nos. 180 and 186, and unpublished data.
The median interval between two sets of events is an estimate of
the length of time after the first set of events in which half of the
second set takes place. If the first set of events is births of a first
child and the second set is births of a second child and the estimate
of the median interval is 32.2 months, the interpretation is that half
of the second births occur within 32.2 months of the first births.
Data on median intervals between births and first marriage and
between births of successive orders are useful for comparing childspacing and family building patterns between subgroups within a
population at a given point in time and between different cohorts
either of women or (as in series B 67-98) of their children.
B 107-115. Expectation of life at birth, by race and sex, 1900-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1900-1967, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1967, vol. II, part A, p. 5-8; 1968-1970, same report,
annual issues.
Derivation of estimates is described in "Estimated Average Length
of Life in the Death-Registration States," Vital Statistics—Special
Reports, vol. 33, No. 9.
The expectation of life at birth is the average number of years that
members of a hypothetical cohort would live if they were subject
throughout their lives to the age-specific mortality rates observed
at the time of their birth. This is the most usual measure of the comparative longevity of different populations. There is some objection
to the use of the average duration of life as a standard of comparison
because the method of calculating it gives great weight to the relatively large number of deaths occurring in the first year of life. This
influence may be entirely eliminated by considering instead the average lifetime remaining to those members of the cohort surviving to
age 1, or, in other words, the expectation of life at age 1. However,
this objection is growing less valid as infant mortality decreases.
B 116-125. Expectation of life at specified ages, by sex and race,
1900-1970.
Source: 1901-1910, white population, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
United States Life Tables, 1900-1931, pp. 40-47. 1900-1902 and
1909-11 to 1956, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the
United States, 1956, vol. I, p. xciii; 1957-1970, same report, annual
issues, vol. I, 1957-1959, and vol. II, thereafter.

B 136-148

B 136-138. Fetal death ratio, by race, 1922-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1922-1944, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. lxxxviii; 1945-1967, same report,
1967, vol. II, part A, p. 3-4; 1968-1970, same report, annual issues.
Lack of uniformity in requirements for registration and variation
in completeness of registration influence the comparability of the data
over the years, especially in the series based on all reported fetal
deaths. Considering the probable total effect of these factors, as
well as that of incompleteness of the registration area until 1933, it
appears likely that the ratios understate any decline in fetal mortality.
Changes in the regulations have more often been in the direction of
broadening the base of fetal death reporting, than in the other direction. With respect to completeness of reporting, the situation has
probably improved because of the increases in the number of women
receiving hospital and medical care at childbirth and also because
of the general strengthening of the vital registration system.
B 139-141. Neonatal mortality rate, by race, 1915-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1915-1929, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1950, vol. I, pp. 258-259; 1930-1939, Vital Statistics
—Special Reports, vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 8-10; 1940-1967, Vital Statistics
of the United States, 1967, vol. II, part A, p. 2-3; 1968-1970, same
report, annual issues.
The neonatal mortality rate represents the number of deaths of
infants under 28 days (exclusive of fetal deaths) per 1,000 live births.
B 142-144. Infant mortality rate, by race, 1915-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1915-1939, Vital
StatisticsSpecial Reports, vol. 45, No. 1, p. 7; 1940-1970, see source for series
B 139-141.
The infant mortality rate represents the number of deaths under
1 year (exclusive of fetal deaths) per 1,000 live births. The rates
have been computed by the conventional method in which the infant
deaths occurring in a specified period are related to the number of
live births occurring during the same period. Rates computed in
this way are influenced by changes in the number of births and will
not be comparable if the birth rate is fluctuating widely. Deaths
under 1 year of age occurring during any calendar year are deaths not
only of infants born during that year but also of infants born during
parts of the previous year. An approximate correction of this error
can be made by relating infant deaths during a specified year to the
year in which those infants were born. See Bureau of the Census,
"Effect of Changing Birth Rates Upon Infant Mortality Rates,"
Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 19, No. 21.
B 145-147. Maternal mortality rate, by race, 1915-1970.

The expectation of life at a specified age is the average number of
years that members of a hypothetical cohort would continue to live
if they were subject throughout the remainder of their lives to the
mortality rates for specified age groups observed in a given time
period.

Source: U.S. Public Health Service, 1915-1939, Vital
StatisticsSpecial Reports, vol. 46, No. 17, p. 438; 1940-1967, Vital Statistics of
the United States, 1967, vol. II, part A, p. 1-41; 1968-1970, same
report, annual issues.
The maternal mortality rate represents the number of deaths from
deliveries and complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium per 10,000 live births.

B 126-135. Expectation of life at specified ages, by sex, for Massachusetts, 1850 to 1949-51.

B 148. Infant mortality rate, for Massachusetts, 1851-1970.

Source: 1850, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Statistical
Bulletin, vol. 9, No. 3, March 1928, pp. 7-8; 1855, Edgar Sydenstricker, Health and Environment, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1933,
p. 164 (copyright); 1878-82 to 1939-41, Louis I. Dublin, Alfred J.
Lotka, and Mortimer Spiegelman, Length of Life, Ronald Press, New
York, 1949 pp. 326 and 334 (copyright); 1949-51, U.S. Bureau of the
Census and U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics—Special
Reports, vol. 41, Supplement 20, March 21, 1956, pp. 193 and 195.
See text for series B 116-125.



Source: 1851-1899, 77th Annual Report of Vital Statistics of Massachusetts, p. 132; 1900-1956, U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S.
Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the United States, vol. I,
annual issues; 1957-1970, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics
of the United States, vol. II, part A, annual issues.
B 149-166. Death rate, for selected causes, 1900-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service. Series B 149-150, B 152163, and B 166, 1900-1970, Vital Statistics of the United States (vol. I
47

B 167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

to 1954 and vol. II, part A, thereafter), various annual issues. Series
B 151, 1900-1920, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1950, vol. I,
p. 218; 1921-1940, Vital Statistics Rates in the United States, 1900191+0, p. 266; 1941-1970, unpublished data. Series B 164-165, U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1900-1933, Mortality Statistics, various annual
issues; 1934-1938, Vital Statistics of the United States, Special Reports,
Deaths From Each Cause, United States: 1981+-19S8; 1939-1949, Vital
Statistics of the United States, part I; 1950-1970, Vital Statistics of the
United States, vol. II, part A, various annual issues.
Mortality data are classified according to the numbers and titles
of the detailed International List of Causes of Death. A large proportion of the death certificates filed annually in the United States
report two or more diseases or conditions as joint causes of death.
General statistical practice requires that cases involving more than
one cause of death be changed to a single cause.
In the French edition of the International List (1900), certain
principles for determining the single cause to be selected from the
joint causes given were incorporated as a part of the general classification scheme. As an outgrowth of practices in this country after
1902, definite relationships among the various conditions represented
by items in the International List were put in concrete form in the
Manual of Joint Causes of Death, first published in 1914, and revised
to conform with successive revisions of the International List. This
manual, which was developed for use in the United States, was followed until 1949, when an international procedure for joint-cause
selection was adopted. The new international rules place the responsibility on the medical practitioner to indicate the underlying
cause of death. This change, in conjunction with the Sixth Revision
of the International List in 1949, the Seventh Revision in 1958, and
the Eighth Revision in 1968, has introduced rather serious breaks in
statistical continuity.
Time-trend studies of causes of death would be facilitated if the
International List were maintained without change over a long period
of years. However, if the list were rigidly fixed it would be inconsistent with current medical knowledge and terminology. To obtain
the advantages of frequent revision, and yet to retain a fixed list for
a number of years, revisions are made at an international conference
every 10 years. In the process of revision, discontinuities are introduced into the time trends of death rates for certain specific causes
of death (see National Office of Vital Statistics, "The Effect of the
Sixth Revision of the International List of Diseases and Causes of
Death Upon Comparability of Mortality Trends," Vital Statistics—
Special Reports, vol. 36, No. 10).
Improvement in diagnostic procedures and development of medical
knowledge and facilities are other important factors in the study of
changes in death rates for certain causes.
B 167-173. Death rate, by race and sex, 1900-1970.
Source: 1900-1968, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of
the United Slates, 1968, vol. II, part A; 1969-1970, unpublished data.
B 174-180. Age-adjusted death rate, by race and sex, 1900-1970.
Source: See source for series B 167-173.
The age-adjusted death rate is a convenient summary index that
"corrects" for differences in age composition. These rates were
computed by taking the age-distribution of the population in 1940
as the "standard" without regard to sex, color, or other characteristics.
The age-specific death rates actually observed in a given year were
applied to the age distribution of this standard population and a
total death rate was computed. The age-specific death rate is the

48



rate of deaths per 1,000 population in each age interval for a specified
year. For a detailed description of the direct method by which these
rates were computed, see Vital Statistics Rates in the United States,
1900-191+0, pp. 66-69.
B 181-192. Death rate, by age and sex, 1900-1970.
Source: 1900-1939, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital
StatisticsSpecial Reports, vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 10-12; 1940-1954, U.S. Bureau of
the Census, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1951+, vol. I, p. xlix;
1955-1957, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1956, vol. I, p. xcviii;
1958-1970, Vital Statistics of the United States, 1968, vol. II, part A;
and unpublished data.
B 193-200. Death rate, by sex and by selected cause, for Massachusetts, 1860-1970.
Source: 1860-1899, computed from l+8th Annual Registration Report
for Massachusetts and 77th Annual Report on the Vital Statistics of
Massachusetts; 1900-1956, U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Public
Health Service, Vital Statistics of the United States, vol. I, annual
issues; 1957-1970, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Statistics of the
United States, vol. II, part A, annual issues.
B 201-213. Death rate, by age, for Massachusetts, 1865-1900.
Source: l+8th Annual Registration Report for Massachusetts, p. 321,
and 77th Annual Report on the VUal Statistics of Massachusetts, p. 126.
B 214-220.

Marriage rate and divorce, 1920-1970.

Source: Series B 214-218, U.S. Public Health Service, Vital Star
tistics of the United States, vol. I l l , annual issues; series B 219-220,
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, series P-20.
See also: U.S. Commissioner of Labor, A Report on Marriage and
Divorce in the United States, 1867 to 1886; U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Marriage and Divorce, 1867-1906; Vital Statistics—Special Reports,
vol. 9, No. 60, "A Review of Marriage and Divorce Statistics: United
States: 1887-1937"; Marriage and Divorce, 1916 and annual issues
for 1922-1932; S. A. Stauffer and L. M. Spencer, "Recent Increases
in Marriage and Divorce," American Journal of Sociology, vol. 44,
No. 4 (for 1933-1936); U.S. Bureau of the Census, Vital
StatisticsSpecial Reports, vol. 15, Nos. 13 and 18, "Estimated Number of
Marriages by State: United States, 1937-1940" and "Estimated
Number of Divorces by State: United States, 1937-1940," respectively. For exact population base figures, see Vital Statistics—
Special Reports, vol. 46, No. 12, p. 330.
Marriage and divorce records are filed only at the county level in
some States, but gradually the various States are requiring by law
that such events be recorded at the State level. The completeness
of reporting to the State offices varies, but there has been no nationwide test. A marriage-registration area covering 30 States and 5
independent areas was established by the National Office of Vital
Statistics in 1957. A major criterion for admission of a State to the
registration areas was agreement with the National Office of Vital
Statistics to conduct a test of marriage registration completeness.
By 1971, the marriage-registration area covered 40 States and 3
independent areas. A divorce-registration area with 14 States and
3 independent areas was inaugurated in 1958. By 1971, it covered
29 States and 1 independent area.
The marriage and divorce rates shown in series B 215 and B 217
are based on those segments of the female population that may be
considered as subject to possible marriage and divorce.

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 1-4.
[In thousands.
Live
births i 2

B 1 61 8
3-4

Live Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces: 1909 to 1970

Birth, marriage, and divorce figures represent estimates of ail such events; death figures, the number of registered events]

Deaths 3

Marriages

Divorces 4

Live
births '

Deaths

3

Marriages

Divorces 4

Live
births i

Year

Year

Marriages

Divorces 4

Year

1970..
1969..
1968..
1967..
1966..

3,731
3,600
3,502
«3,521
3,606

1.921
1.922
1,930
1,851
1,863

2,163
2,145
2,069
1,927
1,857

708
639
584
523
499

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

3,632
3,649
3,637
3,817
3,411

1,452
1,444
1.444
1.445
1.396

1,667
1,580
1,811
1,992
2,291

385
397
408
483
610

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926.

2,618
2,582
2,674
2,802
2.839

1,127
1,233
1,182
1,201
1,203

206
200

1965..
1964..
1963..
1962..
1961..

3,760
4,027
4,098
4,167
4,268

1,828
1,798
1,814
1,757
1,702

1,800
1,725
1,654
1,577
1,548

479
450
428
413
414

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

2,858
2,939
3,104
2,989
2,703

1,402
1,411
1,460
1,385
1,398

1,613
1,452
1,577
1,772
1,696

485
400
359
321
293

1925.
1924
1923.
1922
1921

2.909
2,979
2.910

1,188
1,185
1,230
1,134
1,164

175
171
165
149
160

1960 *
1959 ».
1958..
1957..
1956..

4,258
4,245
4,255
4,308
4,218

1,712
1,657
1,648
1,633
1,564

1,523
1,494
1,451
1,518
1,585

393
395
368
381
382

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

2,559
2,466
2,496
2,413
2,355

1,417
1,388
1,381
1,450
1,479

1,596
1,404
1,331
1,451
1,369

264
251
244
249
236

1920
1919
1918.
1917
1916.

2,950
2,740
2,948
2,944
2.964

1,274

171

1955..
1954..
1953..
1962..
1951..

4,104
4,078
3,965
3,913
3,823

1,529
1.481
1,518
1,497
1.482

1,531
1,490
1,546
1,539
1,595

377
379
390
392
381

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

2,377
2,396
2,307
2,440
2,506

1,393
1.397
1,342

1,327
1,302
1,098
982

218
204
165
164
188

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911
1910
1909

2.965
2.966
2,869
2.840
2,809
2,777
2,718

3,055

196
185

4
Includes reported annulments.
• Based on 20- to 50-percent sample.
>
'6
Includes Alaska.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
> 1959-1970, registered live births; 1909-1958, adjusted for underregistration.
Based on 50-percent sample for 1951-1954, 1956-1966, and 1968-1970.
Excludes fetal deaths.

2
3

Series B 5-10.

1,061

2,882

196

Birth Rate—Total and for Women 15-44 Years Old, by Race: 1800 to 1970

IBased on estimated total live births per 1,000 population for specified group. Based on a 50-percent sample of births for 1951-1954, 1956-1966, and 1968-1970; on 20- to 50percent sample for 1967. Prior to 1959, births adjusted for underregistration; thereafter, registered live births]
Rate, total population

Rate, women 15-44 years

1

Total

White

Negro
and other

Total

White

Negro
and other

5

6

7

8

9

17.4
16.9
16.6
16.8
17.4

25.1
24.4
24.2
25.0
26.1

87.9
86.5
85.7
87.6
91.3

84.1
82.4
81.5
83.1
86.4

113.0
114.8
114.9
119.8
125.9

1965
1964 3
1963
1962 3_
1961

19.4
21.0
21.7
22.4
23.3

18.3
20.0
20.7
21.4
22.2

27.6
29.1
29.7
30.5
31.6

96.6
105.0
108.5
112.2
117.2

91.4
99.9
103.7
107.5
112.2

133.9
141.7
144.9
148.8
153.5

I 9 6 04 .
*
1959 _
1958
1957
1956

23.7
24.0
24.5
25.3
25.2

22.7
22.9
23.3
24.0
24.0

32.1
32.9
34.3
35.3
35.4

118.0
118.8
120.2
122.9
121.2

113.2
113.9
114.9
117.7
116.0

153.6
156.0
160.5
163.0
160.9

25.0
25.3
25.0
25.1
24.9

23.8
24.2
24.0
24.1
23.9

34.7
34.9
34.1
33.6
33.8

118.5
118.1
115.2
113.9
111.5

113.8
113.6
111.0
110.1
107.7

155.3
153.2
147.3
143.3
142.1

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

24.1
24.5
24.9
26.6
24.1

23.0
23.6
24.0
26.1
23.6

33.3
33.0
32.4
31.2
38.4

106.2
107.1
107.3
113.3
101.9

102.3
103.6
104.3
111.8
100.4

137.3
135.1
131.6
125.9
113.9

1945.
1944
1943
1942
1941.

20.4
21.2
22.7
22.2
20.3

19.7
20.5
22.1
21.5
19.5

26.5
27.4
28.3
27.7
27.3

85.9
88.8
94.3
91.5
83.4

83.4
86.3
92.3
89.5
80.7

106.0
108.5
111.0
107.6
105.4

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

19.4
18.8
19.2
18.7
18.4

18.6
18.0
18.4
17.9
17.6

26.7
26.1
26.3
26.0
25.1

79.9
77.6
79.1
77.1
75.8

77.1
74.8
76.5
74.4
73.3

102.4
100.1
100.5
99.4
95.9

1935
1934
1933

18.7
19.0
18.4

17.9
18.1
17.6

25.8
26.3
25.5

77.2
78.5
76.3

74.5
75.8
73.7

Negro
and other

98.4
100.4
97.3

Year

1970
1969
1968 2
1967
1966

1955... .
1954
1953.
1952
1951

...

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
1
Computed by relating total births, regardless of age of mother, to women aged 15-44
years.




Year

1

10

18.4
17.8
17.5
17.8
18.4

Rate, women 15-44 years

Rate, total population
Total

White

Negro
and other

Total

White

1932.
1931.

19.5
20.2

18.7
19.5

26.9
26.6

81.7
84.6

79.0
82.4

103.0
102.1

1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.

21.3
21.2

20.6

20.5
21.5
22.7
23.1

27.5
27.3
28.5
31.1
33.4

89.2
89.3
93.8
99.8
102.6

87.1
87.3
91.7
97.1
99.2

105.9
106.1
121.7
130.3

1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.

25.1

24.1
25.1
25.2
25.4
27.3

34.2
34.6
33.2
33.2
35.8

106.6

110.9
110.5
111.2
119.8

103.3
107.8
108.0
108.8
117.2

134.0
135.6
130.5
130.8
140.8

26.9
25.3
27.6
27.9
28.5

35.0
32.4
33.0
32.9

117.9
111.2
119.8

115.4
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

137.5

22.2

23.5
24.2
26.1
26.0
26.2

28.1

1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.

27.7

1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911-

29.5
29.9
29.5
29.8
29.9

29.0
29.1

1910.
1909.
1900.
1890.
1880.

30.1
30.0
32.3
(NA)
39.8

29.2
29.2
30.1
31.5
35.2

1870.
1860.
1850..
1840..

(NA)
44.3
(NA)
51.8

38.3
41.4
43.3
48.3

167
184
194
222

1830.

(NA)
55.2

51.4
52.8
54.3
55.0

111.0

240

1820..

1810..
1800..

2
3
4

26.1
28.2

28.5
29.1

28.9
29.3
28.8

121.0

123.4
125.0
126.6

124.7
125.8
126.3
126.8
126.8

121.8

123.2
124.6
122.4
123.3
123.6
123.8
123.6
130
137
155

260

274
278

Based on 20- to 50-percent sample of births.
Figures by race exclude New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.
Includes Alaska.

49

B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 11-19.

Fertility Rate and Birth Rate, by Age of Mother, by Race: 1940 to 1970

[Total fertility rates are the sums of birth rates, by age of mother, multiplied by 5. Birth rates are live births per 1,000 women in specified group. Prior to 1959, births adjusted
for underregistration; thereafter, registered live births. Based on 50-percent sample of births for 1951-1954, 1956-1966, and 1968-1970; on 20- to 50-percent sample for 1967]
Birth rate, by age of mother
10-14

years

years

11

Year and race

Total
fertility
rate

12

13

15-19

20-24

years
14

25-29

years
15

30-34

35-39

years

years

16

17

40-44

years
18

45-49

years
19

TOTAL
1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

2,480
2,465
2,477
2,573
2,736

1.2
1.0
1.0
.9
.9

68.3
66.1
66.1
67.9
70.6

167.8
166.0
167.4
174.0
185.9

145.1
143.0
140.3
142.6
149.4

73.3
74.1
74.9
79.3
85.9

31.7
33.4
35.6
38.6
42.2

8.1
8.8
9.6
10.6
11.7

0.5
.5
.6
.7
.7

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

2,928
3,208
3,333
3,474
3,629

.8
.9
.9
.8
.9

70.4
72.8
76.4
81.2
88.0

196.8
219.9
231.2
243.7
253.7

162.5
179.4
185.8
191.7
197.9

95.0
103.9
106.2
108.9
113.3

46.4
50.0
51.3
52.7
55.6

12.8
13.8
14.2
14.8
15.6

.8
.8
.9
.9
.9

1960
1959
1958
1957
1966

3,654
3,670
3,701
3,767
3,689

.8
.9
.9
1.0
1.0

89.1
89.1
91.4
96.3
94.6

258.1
257.5
268.2
260.6
253.7

197.4
198.6
198.3
199.4
194.7

112.7
114.4
116.2
118.9
117.3

56.2
57.3
68.3
59.9
59.3

15.5
15.3
15.7
16.3
16.3

.9
.9
.9
1.1
1.0

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

3,580
3,543
3,424
3,358
3,269

.9
.9
1.0
.9
.9

90.5
90.6
88.2
86.1
87.6

242.0
236.2
224.6
217.6
211.6

190.6
188.4
184.1
182.0
175.3

116.2
116.9
113.4
112.6
107.9

58.7
57.9
56.6
65.8
54.1

16.1
16.2
15.8
15.5
15.4

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.1

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

3,091
3,110
3,109
3,274
2,943

1.0
1.0
1.0
.9
.7

81.6
83.4
81.8
79.3
69.3

196.6
200.1
200.3
209.7
181.8

166.1
165.4
163.4
176.0
161.2

103.7
102.1
103.7
111.9
108.9

52.9
53.5
54.5
58.9
58.7

15.1
15.3
15.7
16.6
16.5

1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.6

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940-

2,491
2,668
2,718
2,628
2,399
2,301

.8
.8
.8
.7
.7
.7

51.1
54.3
61.7
61.1
66.9
54.1

138.9
151.8
164.0
165.1
145.4
135.6

132.2
136.5
147.8
142.7
128.7
122.8

100.2
98.1
99.5
91.8
85.3
83.4

56.9
54.6
52.8
47.9
46.1
46.3

16.6
16.1
15.7
14.7
15.0
15.6

1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.9

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

2,385
2,360
2,368
2,453
2,609

.5
.4
.4
.3
.3

57.4
55.2
55.3
57.3
60.8

163.4
161.4
162.6
168.8
179.9

145.9
142.8
139.7
140.7
146.6

71.9
72.0
72.6
76.5
82.7

30.0
31.6
33.8
36.6
40.0

7.5
8.1
8.9
9.8
10.8

.4
.5
.5
.6
.7

1965
1964
1963 i
1962
1961

2,790
3,074
3,201
3,348
3,502

.3
.3
.3
.4
.4

60.7
63.2
68.1
73.1
78.8

189.8
213.1
224.7
238.0
247.9

158.8
176.2
181.5
187.7
194.4

91.7
100.5
106.2
110.1

44.1
47.7
48.9
50.2
53.2

12.0
13.0
13.4
14.1
14.8

.7
.7
.8
.8
.9

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956

3,533
3,544
3,560
3,625
3,546

.4
.4
.6
.5
.3

79.4
79.2
81.0
85.2
83.2

252.8
251.7
251.4
253.8
247.1

194.9
195.5
194.8
195.8
190.6

109.6
111.3
113.0
115.9
114.4

64.0
55.1
55.8
57.4
57.0

14.7
14.7
14.8
16.4
15.4

.8
.9
.8
.8
.8

1955
1954
1953
1952—-1951

3,446
3,415
3,306
3,250
3,157

.3
.4
.4
.4
.4

79.2
79.0
77.2
75.0
75.9

236.0
230.7
219.6
212.5
206.0

186.8
185.0
181.6
180.5
174.2

114.1
115.1
111.9
111.4
106.5

56.7
56.2
55.1
64.4
52.6

15.4
15.4
15.0
14.8
14.6

.9
.9
.9
.9
1.0

2,977
3,009
3,022
3,230
2,901

.4
.4
.4
.4
.3

70.0
72.1
71.1
69.8
50.6

190.4
194.6
195.5
207.9
179.8

165.1
166.2
163.9
179.1
164.0

102.6
101.5
103.6
113.0
110.0

51.4
52.2
53.5
58.4
58.4

14.5
14.6
16.2
16.1
15.9

1.0
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3

2,421
2,501
2,664
2,577
2,328
2,229

.3
.3

.3
.2
.2

42.1
46.3
52.1
61.8
47.6
45.3

134.7
147.9
161.1
162.9
141.6
131.4

133.1
137.7
150.7
145.6
130.1
123.6

100.5
98.2
100.2
92.3
85.2
83.4

56.3
54.1
52.2
47.2
46.1
45.3

16.0
15.5
15.0
14.1
14.3
15.0

1.4
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.6

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

3,067
3,148
3,197
3,385
3,615

4.8
4.6
4.4
4.1
4.0

133.4
133.3
133.3
135.2
135.6

196.8
197.8
200.8
212.1
228.9

140.1
144.2
144.8
155.9
169.3

82.5
88.9
91.2
99.1
107.9

42.2
45.9
48.6
52.4
57.7

12.6
13.9
15.0
16.8
18.4

.9
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.4

1965
1964
1963 >_—
1962 i
1961

3,891
4,153
4,269
4,396
4,533

4.0
4.0
4.0
3.9
4.0

136.1
138.7
139.9
144.6
152.8

247.3
268.6
277.3
285.7
292.9

188.1
202.0

211.8

118.3
127.5
129.3
132.4
136.2

63.8
67.5
68.9
72.0
74.9

19.2
20.9
21.0
21.7
22.3

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

WHITE

-

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

•

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

.3

102.6

NEGRO AND OTHER

1

50

Excludes New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.




217.4
221.9

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 11-19.

B 11-27

Fertility Rate and Birth Rate, by Age of Mother, by Race: 1940 to 1970—Con.
Birth rate, by age of mother

Total
fertility
rate

Year and race

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-29

years

years

30-34

years

years

years

35-39
years

40-44

years

45-49
years

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

11
NEGRO AND OTHER—Con.
I960—
1959—
1958—
1957—
1956—

4,522
4,595
4,727
4,798
4,730

4.0
4.2
4.3
5.6
4.7

158.2
160.5
167.3
172.8
172.5

294.2
297.9
305.2
307.0
299.1

214.6
220.2
224.2
228.1
225.9

135.6
138.1
142.3
143.5
139.4

74.2
75.0
78.4
78.7
78.8

22.0
21.2
21.8
23.5
23.6

1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0

1955—
1954—
1953—
1952—
1951.

4,550
4,474
4,283
4,147
4,091

4.8
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.4

168.3
170.3
165.4
162.9
166.7

283.4
274.7
261.4
254.0
252.5

219.6
215.7
206.4
194.2
184.2

133.5
131.3
125.7
122.0
117.9

75.4
72.9
70.0
66.6
66.5

22.1
22.5
23.0
21.9
22.6

2.1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2

1950—
1949—
1948...
1947—
1946

3,928
3,855
3,742
3,575
3,238

5.1
5.1
4.9
4.6
3.7

163.5
162.8
157.3
146.6
121.9

242.6
241.3
237.0
223.7
197.3

173.8
167.0
159.6
150.6
139.2

112.6
107.3
104.1
102.4
99.3

64.3
63.9
62.5
62.7
61.0

21.2
21.1
20.4
21.4
21.8

2.6
2.5
2.8
8.1
3.5

1945—
1944—
1943...
1942—
1941 —
1940

3,017
3,075
3,128
3,022
2,956
2,870

3.9
3.9
4.0
3.9
4.0
3.7

117.5
121.5
133.4
131.8
128.3
121.7

172.1
182.4
187.2
182.3
175.0
168.5

125.4
126.8
125.1
119.6
118.1
116.3

97.1
97.3
93.9
88.1
86.2
83.5

61.3
58.4
56.9
54.0
54.1
53.7

22.3
21.5
21.5
20.8
21.5
21.5

3.7
3.2
3.7
4.0
4.1
5.2

Series B 20-27.

Birth Rate, by Race, by Live-Birth Order: 1940 to 1970

[Bates are live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in specified race group. Live-birth order refers to number of children born alive to mother. Prior to 1959, births adjusted for underregistration; thereafter, registered live births. Figures for not stated birth order have been distributed. Based on 50-percent sample of births for 1951-1954,
1956-1966, and 1968-1970; on 20- to 50-percent sample for 1967]
Birth rate, by live-birth order
Year
and
race

Total

Birth rate, by live-birth order

1st

2d

3d

4th

5th

6th and
7th

8th and
over

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

87.9
86.5
85.7
87.6
91.3

34.1
32.8
32.1
30.8
31.0

24.2
23.4
22.5
22.6
22.5

13.7
13.4
13.2
13.9
14.8

7.2
7.4
7.5
8.3
9.2

3.8
4.0
4.2
4.8
5.4

3.2
3.5
3.9
4.5
5.2

1.8
2.0
2.3
2.7
3.2

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

96.6
105.0
108.5
112.2
117.2

29.8
30.4
29.9
30.1
31.1

23.4
25.1
26.1
27.0
28.4

16.6
18.8
19.9
21.1
22.4

10.7
12.3
13.1
13.8
14.6

6.4
7.3
7.8
8.2
8.5

6.0
6.9
7.3
7.5
7.8

1960 *
1959
1958
1957
1956

118.0
118.8
120.2
122.9
121.2

31.1
31.5
32.2
33.7
33.5

29.2
29.9
30.6
31.7
31.9

22.8
23.0
23.3
23.9
23.6

14.6
14.5
14.4
14.4
13.9

8.3
8.2
8.1
7.9
7.6

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

118.5
118.1
115.2
113.9
111.5

32.9
33.6
33.4
34.0
34.9

31.9
32.4
32.5
32.7
32.6

23.1
22.7
21.9
21.3
20.0

13.3
12.8
12.0
11.3
10.2

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

106.2
107.1
107.3
113.3
101.9

33.3
36.2
39.6
46.7
38.5

32.1
32.1
30.9
30.3
27.9

18.4
17.1
16.1
15.6
14.5

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

85.9
88.8
94.3
91.5
83.4
79.9

28.9
30.2
34.7
37.5
32.2
29.3

22.9
23.8
25.5
22.9
20.7
20.0

13.4
13.8
13.5
11.9
11.2
10.9

Year
and
race

Total

1st

2d

3d

4th

5th

20

21

22

23

24

25

1970.__
1969...
1968...
1967...
1966 —

84.1
82.4
81.5
83.1
86.4

32.8
31.5
30.9
29.7
30.1

23.7
22.9
22.1
22.1
22.0

13.3
13.1
12.8
13.5
14.4

6.8
7.0
7.1
7.9
8.7

3.4
3.6
3.8
4.3
4.9

2.7
2.9
3.2
8.7
4.3

1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.1

3.7
4.1
4.3
4.4
4.5

1965—
1964...
19631..
1962 i . .
1961—

91.4
99.9
103.7
107.5
112.2

28.9
29.8
29.4
29.8
30.7

23.0
24.8
25.9
26.9
28.3

16.2
18.5
19.6
20.9
22.2

10.2
11.7
12.6
13.3
14.0

5.8
6.7
7.1
7.5
7.7

5.0
5.7
6.1
6.2
6.4

2.4
2.7
2.9
2.9
2.9

7.6
7.4
7.3
7.1
6.8

4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.0

1960*..
1959...
1958—
1957—
1956—

113.2
113.9
114.9
117.7
116.0

30.8
31.2
31.9
33.4
33.2

29.2
29.9
30.6
31.7
31.9

22.7
22.9
23.1
23.7
23.4

14.1
13.9
13.8
13.7
13.1

7.5
7.8
7.2
7.0
6.6

6.1
5.9
5.7
5.6
5.2

2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6

7.2
6.8
6.3
5.8
5.3

6.4
6.0
5.5
5.2
5.0

3.8
3.8
3.6
3.6
3.6

1955.1954...
1953...
1952...
1951...

113.8
113.6
111.0
110.0
107.7

32.6
33.3
33.3
34.1
35.0

32.0
32.8
32.9
33.1
32.9

22.9
22.6
21.6
21.0
19.5

12.6
12.0
11.1
10.4
9.4

6.2
5.9
5.4
5.0
4.5

4.9
4.6
4.3
4.0
3.9

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

9.2
8.6
8.0
7.9
7.8

4.8
4.7
4.5
4.5
4.5

4.7
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.7

3.6
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.8

1950...
1949...
1948...
1947...
1946...

102.3
103.6
104.3
111.8
100.4

33.3
36.3
39.9
47.8
39.5

32.3
32.2
31.1
30.8
28.5

17.9
16.6
15.7
15.3
14.4

8.4
7.9
7.4
7.4
7.3

4.1
4.0
3.9
4.0
4.0

3.7
3.8
3.7
3.8
3.9

2.5
2.7
2.6
2.7
2.8

7.5
7.6
7.4
6.6
6.4
6.4

4.5
4.5
4.4
4.1
4.1
4.1

4.8
4.9
4.8
4.6
4.7
4.8

4.0
4.0
4.0
3.9
4.1
4.3

1945—
1944...
1943
1942
1941
1940...

83.4
86.3
92.3
89.5
80.7
77.1

29.0
30.4
35.2
38.3
32.5
29.4

23.3
24.2
25.9
23.1
20.7
20.0

13.2
13.6
13.2
11.5
10.7
10.5

7.0
7.1
6.9
6.1
5.9
6.9

3.9
4.0
3.9
3.6
3.6
3.6

4.0
4.1
4.0
3.8
3.9
4.1

3.0
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.5

TOTAL

6th and 8th and
7th
over
26

27

WHITE

See footnotes a t end of table.




51

B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 20-27.

Birth Rate, by Race, by Live-Birth Order: 1940 to 1970—Con.

Birth rate, by live-birth order
Total

Year
and
race

Birth rate, by live-birth order

1st

3d

4th

5th

6th and
7th

8th and
over

21

20

2d

22

23

24

25

26

Year
and
race

Total

27

1st

NEGRO
AND
OTHER

3d

4th

5th

6th and
7th

8th and
over

21

20

2d

22

23

24

25

26

27

NEGRO
AND
OTHER—

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

113.0
114.8
114.9
119.8
125.9

42.4
42.2
40.6
38.4
37.4

26.9
26.4
25.3
25.9
26.0

15.9
15.9
15.7
16.8
18.0

9.7
10.1
10.4
11.5
12.8

6.2
6.6
7.0
8.1
9.4

6.7
7.4
8.5
10.1
11.6

5.3
6.3
7.4
9.0
10.7

1965
1964
1963 >
1962 i
1961

133.9
141.7
144.9
148.8
153.5

35.8
34.8
33.8
33.1
33.6

26.6
27.4
27.6
28.0
28.8

19.6
21.1
21.8
22.8
23.7

14.6
16.0
16.9
17.8
18.8

10.8
12.1
13.1
13.7
14.1

13.8
15.8
16.6
17.6
18.4

12.6
14.4
15.1
15.7
16.0

1960 *
1959
1958
1957
1956

153.6
156.0
160.5
163.0
160.9

33.6
33.9
34.7
36.1
35.9

29.3
29.8
31.0
31.6
31.7

24.0
24.4
25.4
25.7
25.2

18.6
19.1
19.5
19.8
19.7

14.1
14.5
14.9
15.3
15.0

18.4
18.7
19.1
19.0
18.7

15.6
15.6
15.9
15.6
15.0

155.3
153.2
147.2
143.3
142.1

35.0
35.6
34.1
33.1
34.1

30.7
29.7
29.5
29.2
29.9

24.4
24.4
23.8
24.0
23.9

19.1
19.1
18.4
18.1
16.9

14.6
14.2
13.3
12.4
11.2

17.4
16.5
15.4
14.2
13.5

14.1
13.5
12.8
12.4
12.2

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

137.3
135.1
131.6
125.9
113.9

33.8
35.4
37.3
38.4
31.1

30.3
30.8
29.5
26.2
23.4

22.9
21.2
19.4
17.3
16.0

15.3
14.0
12.9
12.1
11.8

10.4
9.8
9.2
8.8
8.7

12.6
12.2
11.7
11.4
11.3

12.0
11.8
11.6
11.6
11.7

1945...
1944.__
1943
1942
1941
1940.._

106.0
108.5
111.0
107.6
105.4
102.4

27.9
28.7
31.0
31.0
29.8
28.6

20.1
21.1
22.2
21.1
20.6
19.6

14.7
15.6
15.5
14.9
14.5
14.1

11.3
11.7
11.4
10.8
10.6
10.5

8.7
8.6
8.4
8.1
8.0
7.8

11.3
11.3
11.0
10.5
10.6
10.4

11.9
11.6
11.6
11.1
11.3
11.3

1

* Denotes first year for which figures includes Alaska and Hawaii.

Series B 28-35.

Con.
1955
1954
1953
1952.__
1951

Excludes New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.

Illegitimate Live Births and Birth Rates, by Age and Race of Mother: 1940 to 1970

[Refers only to illegitimate births occurring within the United States. Rates are illegitimate live births per 1,000 unmarried females in specified group. Figures for age of mother
not stated are distributed. Based on 50-percent sample of births for 1951-1954, 1956-1966, and 1968-1970; on 20- to 50-percent sample for 1967]

Year
and race

Births
(1,000)

28

Rate,
all
ages 1

Rate, by age of mother

2

15-19
years

20-24
years

25-29
years

30-34
years

35-39
years

40-44
years

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

26.4
25.0
24.4
23.9
23.4

22.4
20.6
19.8
18.6
17.5

38.4
37.4
37.3
38.3
39.1

37.1
38.1
38.6
41.4
45.6

27.0
27.4
28.2
29.2
33.0

13.3
13.6
14.9
15.4
16.4

Year
and race

28

399
361
339
318
302

3.6
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.1

291
276
259
245
240

23.5
23.0
22.5
21.9
22.7

16.7
15.8
15.2
14.8
15.9

39.9
39.9
40.3
40.9
41.7

49.3
50.2
49.0
46.7
46.5

37.5
37.2
33.2
29.7
28.3

17.4
16.3
16.1
15.6
15.4

4.5
4.4
4.3
4.0
3.9

224
221
209
202
194

21.6
21.9
21.2
21.0
20.4

15.3
15.5
15.3
15.8
15.6

39.7
40.2
38.2
37.3
36.4

45.1
44.1
40.5
36.8
35.6

27.8
28.1
27.5
26.8
24.6

14.1
14.1
13.3
12.1
11.1

3.6
3.3
3.2
3.1
2.8

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

183
177
161
150
147

19.3
18.7
16.9
15.8
15.1

15.1
14.9
13.9
13.5
13.2

33.5
31.4
28.0
25.4
23.2

33.5
31.0
27.6
24.8
22.8

22.0
20.4
17.3
15.7
14.6

10.5
10.3
9.0
8.2
7.6

2.7
2.5
2.4
1.9
2 2

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

142
133
130
132
125

14.1
13.3
12.5
12.1
10.9

12.6
12.0
11.4

21.3
21.0
19.8
18.9
17.3

19.9
18.0
16.4
15.7
15.6

13.3
11.4
10.0
9.2
7.3

7.2
6.8
5.8
5.6
4.4

2.0
1.9
1.6
1.8
1.8

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

117
105
98
97
96
90

101.1
9.0
8.3
8.0
7.8
7.1

9.5
8.8
8.4
8.2
8.0
7.4

15.3
13.1
11.4
10.5
9.5

12.1
10.1
8.8
8.4
7.8
7.2

7.1
7.0
6.7
6.3
6.0
5.1

4.1
4.0
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.4

1.6
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.4
1.2

175
164
155

13.8
13.5
13.2

10.9
10.0
9.8

22.5
23.0
23.1

21.1
22.4
22.1

14.2
15.1
15.1

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

-

11.0

9.5

11.0

WHITE

197 0
196 9
196 8

Rate,
all
ages 1

29

Rate, by age of mother 2
15-19
years

20-24
years

25-29
years

30-34
years

35-44
years

30

31

32

33

34-35

WHITE—Con.

TOTAL

1970
196 9
196 8
196 7
1966

1960 *
1959 »
1958
1957
1956

Births
(1,000)

4.4
4.4
4 7

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Rates computed by relating total illegitimate births regardless of age of mother to
women aged 15-44 years.
2
Rates for total computed by relating illegitimate births to mothers aged 40 and over
to unmarried women aged 40-44 years. Rates for race detail computed by relating
births to mothers aged 35 and over to women aged 35-44 years.
52




1967
1966

142
133

12.5
12.0

9.0
8.5

23.1
22.5

22.7
23.5

14.0
15.7

4.7
4.9

1965
1964
1963<
1962 4
1961

124
114
102
93
91

11.6
10.5
9.8
10.0

7.9
7.3
7.0
6.5
7.0

22.1
21.2
20.8
20.0
19.7

24.3
24.1
22.0
19.8
19.4

16.6
15.9
14.2
12.6
11.3

4.9
4.8
4.6
4.3
4.2

1960 *
1959 »
1958
1957
1956

83
80
75
71
68

9.2
9.2
8.8
8.6
8.3

6.6
6.5
6.3
6.4
6.2

18.2
18.3
17.3
16.6
16.3

18.2
17.6
15.8
14.6
14.0

10.8
10.7
10.8
10.5
9.2

3.9
3.6
3.4
3.0
3.0

1955
1950
1940

64
54
40

7.9
6.1
3.6

6.0
5.1
3.3

15.0
10.0
5.7

13.3
8.7
4.0

8.6
5.9
2.5

2.8
2.0
1.2

224
197
184
176
170

89.9
86.6
86.6
89.5
92.8

90.8
85.6
82.8
80.2
76.9

120.9
116.6
118.3
128.2
139.4

93.7
98.0
104.4
118.4
143.8

69.9
73.5
80.6
97.2
119.4

21.6
22.3
25.2
28.9
33.8

168
161
151
147
149

97.6
97.2
97.1
97.5
100.8

75.8
74.0
73.8
74.1
77.6

152.6
164.2
161.8
163.6
169.6

164.7
168.7
171.5
172.7
172.7

137.8
132.3
124.3
115.2
112.0

39.0
34.5
34.4
35.5
37.4

1960 *
1959 »
1958
1957..
1956

142
141
134
131
126

98.3
100.8
97.8
95.3
92.1

76.5
80.8
80.4
81.4
79.6

166.5
167.8
153.2
147.7
143.5

171.8
168.0
161.2
142.6
132.7

104.0
106.5
110.5
115.1
113.7

35.6
34.9
32.5
30.3
27.0

1955.
1950.
1940

119
88
49

87.2
71.2
35.6

77.6
68.5
42.5

133.0
105.4
46.1

125.2
94.2
32.5

100.9
63.5
23.4

25.3
20.0
9.3

11.0

N E G R O AND

OTHER

1970
1969.
1968.
1967
1966.
1965
1964
1963 4
1962 4
1961

3
4

-

Includes Alaska.
Excludes New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 36-41.

B 136-148

Gross and Net Reproduction Rates, by Race: 1905-10 to 1970

[Based on 50-percent sample of estimated total live births for 1951-1954, 1956-1966, and 1968-1970; on 20- to 50-percent sample for 1967]
Net reproduction rate

Gross reproduction rate
White

Negro
and
other

Total

White

Negro
and
other

38

Total

Year

39

40

Gross reproduction rate

41

1970-.
1969_.
1968_.
1967
1966_.

1,207
1,201
1,206
1,255
1,336

1,158
1,147
1,151
1,193
1,271

1,509
1,554
1,577
1,676
1,785

1,168
1,161
1,166
1,213
1,288

1,125
1,113
1,116
1,158
1,231

1,433
1,473
1,495
1,582
1,678

1965..
1964..
1963 i.
1962 i.
1961..

1,428
1,564
1,623
1,695
1,770

1,357
1,495
1,556
1,630
1,704

1,919
2,051
2,102
2,170
2.240

1,376
1,507
1,564
1,633
1,704

1,314
1,447
1,506
1,577
1,648

1,802
1,923
1,973
2,033
2,100

1960 *.
1959 2.
1958..
1957..
1956..

1,783
1,791
1,807
1,837
1,798

1,720
1,725
1,735
1,764
1,724

2.241
2,271
2,339
2,371
2,339

1,715
1,722
1,736
1,765
1,729

1,662
1,667
1,675
1,701
1,665

2,093

1955..
1954._
1953..

1,745
1,727
1,668

1,675
1,660
1,607

2,255
2,216
2,118

1,676
1,657
1,597

1,617
1,601
1,546

2,101

2,118

2,178
2,206

2,184
2,062

1,959

White

Total

Negro
and
other

Total

White

Negro
and
other

37

Year or period

38

39

40

41

1952....
1951...

1,637
1,593

1,579
1,534

2,062

2,027

1,563
1,521

1,516
1,472

1,897
1,865

1950...
1949....
1948_...
1947--..
1946.-.

1,505
1,515
1,514
1,593
1,430

1,446
1,462
1,469
1,568
1,406

1,940
1,906
1,845
1,766
1,600

1,435
1,439
1,430
1,505
1,344

1,387
1,397
1,400
1,492
1,331

1,780
1,743
1,679
1,594
1,435

1945-..
1944_...
1943_...
1942
1941

1,212
1,249
1,323
1,277
1,168

1,175
1,214
1,294
1,250
1,131

1,493
1,520
1,543
1,487
1,458

1,132
1,163
1,228
1,185
1,075

1,106

1,323
1,334
1,348
1,293
1,242

1940
1935--.
1935-40.
1930-35
1905-10

1,121
1,091
1,101
1,108
1,793

1,082
1,059
1,063
1,080
1,740

1,422
1,350
1,413
1,336
2,240

1,027
975
978
984
1,336

1,002

2

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Excludes New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.

Net reproduction rate

1,139
1,211
1,171
1,052
958
957
972
1,339

1,209
1,108
1,137
1,074
1,329

Includes Alaska.

Series B 42-48. Percent Distribution of Ever-Married Women (Survivors of Birth Cohorts of 1835-39 to 1920-24)
by Race and by Number of Children Ever Born, as Reported in Censuses of 1910, 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970

Year of birth
of women

ChilPercent of women, by
dren
number of births
per
Age of
1,000
Census women
year report- None 1 and 2 3 and 4 5 and 6 7 to 9 10 or women
more
ing
(years)
42

43

44

45

46

47

Year of birth
of women

ChilPercent of women, by
dren
number of births
per
Age of
1,000
Census women
year report- None l a n d 2 3 and 4 5 and 6 7 to 9 10 or women
more
ing
(years)

48

TOTAL

WHITE—Con.

1920-24
1915-19
1910-14
1905-09
1900-04

1970
1970
1960*
1960*
1950

45-49
50-54
45-49
50-54
45-49

10 6
13 8
18 1
20 8
20.4

39.9
43.1
44.2
43.2
41.5

32.8
28.9
24.7
22.3
22.4

10.7
8.8
7.8
7.8
8.4

4.5
3.9
3.8
4.2
5.0

1.5
1.4
1.5
1.7
2.2

2,701
2,854
2,402
2,355
2,492

1870-74
1865-69
1860-64
1856-59
1850-54

1940
1940
1910
1910
1910

65-69
70-74
45-49
50-54
55-59

15.7
14.3
9.6
9.0
8.4

28.3
26.6
22.9
20.9
19.1

25.0
25.7
22.7
22.0
21.3

14.6
15.7
17.7
18.3
18.2

11.2
11.8
17.4
19.0
20.5

1895-99
1890-94
1885-89
1880-84
1875-79

1950
1940
1940
1940
1940

50-54
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64

18
16
16
16
15

fi

23.9
25.0
25.1
24.7
25.2

10.0
12.2
13.1
14.1
14.4

5.8
7.7
8.6
9.6
10.3

2.6
3.1
3.6
4.2
4.7

2,706
2,998
3,146
3,301
3,462

1845-49
1840-44
1835-39

1910
1910
1910

60-64
65-69
70-74

8.3
8.0
7.9

18.8

8
6
7
0

39.0
35.3
33.1
30.7
30.5

20.8
20.6

18.7
18.5
19.1

20.9
21.7
21.8

1870-74
1865-69
1860-64.__
1855-59-1850-54

1940
1940
1910
1910
1910

65-69
70-74
45-49
50-54
55-59

13
12
9
8
8

9 28.4
H 26.6
6 22.4
9 20.6
3 18.8

25.1
26.1
22.0
21.3
20.8

15.2
16.0
17.3
17.9
17.8

11.6
12.5
17.6
19.0
20.4

5.8
6.4
11.2
12.3
13.9

3,700
3,901
4,744
4,972
5,218

1920-24
1916-19
1910-14
1905-09
1900-04

1970 45-49
1970 50-54
1960" 45-49
I960" 50-54
1950 45-49

17.9
23.0
27.9
28.5
28.4

31.3
33.0
33.2
34.0
31.9

21.4
18.9
16.9

13.1
10.9
8.9
8.9
9.2

7.8
7.6

1910
. . . 1910
1910

60-64
65-69
70-74

20.3
20.1
20.0

18.3
18.1
18.7

20.8
21.6
21.6

14.0
14.3
14.7

5,266
5,364
5,395

1895-99
1890-94
1885-89
1880-84
1875-79

1950
1940
1940
1940
1940

50-54
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64

25.5
23.8

30.9

17.4
19.5

10.9
12.6
14.2
14.1
16.5

1845-49
1840-44
1835-39..

8 2
7 9
7 7

18.5
17.9
17.3

WHITE

1920-24
1915-19
1910-14
1905-09
1900-04
1895-99
1890-94-..
1885-89
1880-84
1875-79

_.

18.2
17.5

20.3

5.2
5.8
9.8
10.8

12.5

3,558
3,741
4,594
4,817
5,082

13.0
13.4

5,123
5,237
5,278

5.8
5.4
5.2
5.0
4.9

3,394
3,030
2,761
2,696
2,767

8.8
9.9
10.7
10.9
13.0

6.5
6.1
7.3

3,085
3,255
3,594
3,751
4,046

14.1
17.6
18.7
19.5
18.7

11.0

13.8
25.5
28.7
30.8

4,347
4,892
6,162
6,580
6,910

21.3
18.4
21.4

30.9
30.3
35.4

6,883
7,035
6,947

12.6

NEGRO

20.1

19.3
17.0

1970
1970
1960*
1960*
1950

45-49
50-54
45-49
50-54
45-49

9.9
12 9
17 1
20 0
19 5

40.9
44.3
45.4
44.3
42.7

33.9
29.9
25.6
23.0
23.0

10.5
8.6
7.6
7.6
8.3

3.8
3.3
3.3
3.8
4.6

1.0
1.0
1.1
1.4
1.9

2,791
2,553
2,354
2,313
2,456

1870-74
1865-69
1860-64
1855-59.. -1850-54

1940
1940
1910
1910
1910

65-69
70-74
45-49
50-54
55-59

14.5

1950
1940
1940
1940
1940

50-54
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64

18 0
16 3
16 4
16 7
16.6

39.9
36.0
33.6
31.4
30.3

24.5
25.5
25.3
24.7
24.9

10.0
12.1
13.0
13.7
13.9

5.4
7.4
8.4
9.2
9.9

2.3
2.7
3.2
4.2
4.3

2,665
2,968
3,106
3,270
3,349

1845-49
1840-44
1835-39

1910
1910
1910

60-64
65-69
70-74

5.9
6.9
5.4

12.8
8.6

7.8
7.2

28.1

16.0

17.6

25.6
25.5
23.0

22.1

22.1
18.1

20.9

17.9
16.4
16.1

15.5
14.0
14.5

17.5
15.1
13.8
13.6
12.7

13.9
16.3
12.4

13.8
14.1
14.1

14.2
14.0
11.3

21.4
21.3
22.6

8.0

8.8

9.2

' Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.




53

B 49-98

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 49-66.

Children Ever Born to Women Ever Married, by Race and Age of Women: 1910 to 1970

P e r c e n t childless a m o n g w o m e n e v e r marriec , b y a g e of w o m e n

C h i l d r e n ever b o r n p e r 1,000 w o m e n ever m a r r i e d , b y age of w o m e n

15-44
years

15-19
years

20-24
years

25-29
years

30-34
years

35-39
years

40-44
years

45-49
years

50-59
years

15-44
years

15-19
years

20-24
years

25-29
years

30-34
years

35-39
years

40-44
years

45-49
years

50-59
years

49

Year and race

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

16.4
15.0
22.8
26.5
16.2

50.9
43.6
52.8
54.6
42.7

35.7
24.2
33.3
39.9
24.2

15.8
12.6
21.1
30.1
17.2

8.3
10.4
17.3
23.3
13.7

7.3
11.1
19.1
19.9
11.6

8.6
14.1
20.0
17.4
10.4

10.6
18.1
20.4
16.8
9.5

15.6
20.7
18.1
16.6
8.7

2,360
2,314
1,859
1,904
2,866

636
792
604
572
725

1,071
1,441
1,082
987
1,407

1,984
2,241
1,654
1,463
2,180

2,806
2,627
2,059
1,964
2,956

3,170
2.686
2,247
2,414
3,781

3,097
2,564
2,364
2,754
4,383

2,854
2,402
2,492
2,998
4,744

2,520
2,420
2,822
3,215
5,076

16.7
14.6
21.8
25.9
15.9

53.7
46.0
65.4
56.4
43.5

37.5
25.0
34.0
40.3
24.2

16.1
12.3
20.1
29.7
16.8

8.1
9.7
15.8
22.3
13.4

6.9
10.2
17.5
18.9
11.5

8.1
13.0
18.9
16.7
10.4

9.9
17.1
19.5
16.3
9.6

14.7
20.0
17.5
16.5
8.8

2,285
2,253
1,828
1,870
2,806

579
729
548
539
699

1,006
1,370
1,028
941
1,344

1,922
2,171
1,620
1,413
2,099

2,734
2,559
2,034
1,922
2,880

3,086
2,629
2,218
2,369
3,683

3,012
2,516
2,329
2,717
4,263

2,791
2,354
2,466
2,968
4,594

2,470
2,378
2,786
3,180
4,929

13.8
18.7
30.8
32.8
18.7

32.2
25.3
38.0
46.6
39.7

20.7
17.0
28.9
38.7
24.2

12.6
14.2
30.0
35.1
19.6

9.4
15.8
30.8
31.0
16.5

9.8
20.0
32.3
28.8
13.3

13.0
24.7
30.1
25.8
10.5

17.9
27.9
28.4
23.8
8.6

24.4
28.1
25.1
19.8
7.4

2,976
2,808
2,089
2,096
3,237

1,026
1,258
921
723
834

1,631
2,030
1,474
1,234
1,696

2,541
2,835
1,931
1,761
2,645

3,395
3,190
2,250
2,243
3,532

3,839
3,139
2,450
2,666
4,516

3,795
2,949
2,619
3,012
5,484

3,394
2,761
2,767
3,255
6,162

2,938
2,756
3,175
3,660
6,709

TOTAL
1970_
1960
1950
1940
1910

. -

WHITE
1970
I960...
1950
1940.-1910

_ .

NEGRO
1970_
1960
I960.1940
1910—

- . _

Series B 67-98.

Number of Children Under 5 Years Old Per 1,000 Women 20 to 44 Years Old, by Race and Residence,
by Geographic Divisions: 1800 to 1970

[ A d j u s t e d d a t a s t a n d a r d i z e d for age of w o m e n , a n d allowance m a d e f o r u n d e r c o u n t in censuses; see t e x t .
Area

A d j u s t e d n u m b e r of children p e r
1,000 w o m e n :
White.Negro

1970

1960*

1950

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

F o r c o m p o s i t i o n of g e o p r a p h i c divisions, see t e x t for series A 172-194]

1890

1880

1870

507

717
895

580
663

419
513

506
554

604
608

631
736

666
845

685
930

780
1,090

814
997

United States
Urban
Rural

503
483
558

667
636
747

561
479
673

400
311
551

485
388
658

581
471
744

609
469
782

644

667

754

521
504
574

664
636
755

516
486
612

347
321
443

441
417
541

518
500
602

482
468
566

478

440

498

544

Middle Atlantic
Urban
Rural

486
466
568

602
574
720

471
432
596

457

424
386
590

539
501
680

533
495
650

East N o r t h Central
Urban
Rural

530
510
585

704
674
783

552
491
679

388
326
533

458
400
605

548
485
668

555
470
672

West North Central
Urban
Rural

530
497
597

743
699
816

600
514
702

431
324
538

495
365
614

584
416
711

630
426
760

South Atlantic
Urban
Rural

469
443
514

625
588
681

572
450
677

464
305
596

593
401
744

694
458
851

760
485
894

779

East South Central
Urban
Rural

490
453
537

656
609
707

631
494
720

539
333
648

655
414
781

734
441
846

817
469
922

834

West South Central
Urban
Rural

512
500
547

695
680
736

607
642
703

474
342
591

584
410
723

686
445
823

845
504
977

925

Mountain
Urban
Rural

542
525
596

775
742
859

663
584
754

526
404
643

582
428
712

664
470
807

661
466
810

720

Pacific
Urban
Rural

482
474
537

653
633
761

539
478
652

339
283
466

360
306
507

425
344
603

460
360
640

512

1850

1840

1830

1820

905
1,072

892
1,087

1,085

1,145

1,295

877

1,070
701
1,134

1,134
708
1,189

1,236
831
1,276

621

752
592
800

812
614
851

930
764
952

763

940
711
1,006

1,036
722
1,100

1,183
842
1,235

1,022

1,270
841
1,291

1,467
910
1,484

1,608
1,059
1,616

1,445
705
1,481

1,678
1,181
1,703

1,685

792

New England
Urban
Rural

1860

U n a d j u s t e d n u m b e r of children
p e r 1,000 w h i t e w o m e n :

* D e n o t e s first y e a r for w h i c h figures include A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i .

54



622

679

599

653

757

869

999

781

905

990

1,105

811

918

937

1,140
770
1,185

1,174
767
1,209

1,280
881
1,310

926

903

1,039

1,099

1,408
859
1,424

1,519
863
1,529

1,631
1,089
1,635

1,043

935

1,084

1,046

1,297
846
1,495

1,359
877
1,463

1,418
866
1,522

757

872

967

1,051

886

587

775

888

1,026

901

850

1,685

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 99-106.
[In months.

B 136-148

Median Interval Between Births, by Race: 1930 to 1969

Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Excludes institutional population.

Based on sample]

Year of birth of child
Series
No.

Race and interval
1965-1969

1960-1964

1955-1959

1950-1954

1945-1949

1940-1944

1935-1939

1930-1934

WHITE

99
100
101
102

Median interval in months from—
First marriage of mother to birth of first child
Birth of first child to birth of second child
Birth of second child to birth of third child.
Birth of third child to birth of fourth c h i l d . .

14.5
25.9
31.6
31.2

16.2
28.2
33.0
30.4

17.7
30.7
31.3
30.0

18.4
32.9
33.1
32.5

20.2
32.8
34.0
34.4

20.1
32.0
34.2
32.8

9.0
23.3
23.8
22.1

15.5
29.3
33.1
35.0

11.9
23.4
23.3
22.9

12.7
23.3
23.4
22.4

11.1
24.9
24.6
23.8

10.7
27.3
24.1
24.0

12.9
22.8
22.6

20.3
32.2
31.8
33.1

N E G R O AND OTHER

Median interval in months from—
103
104
105
106

11.9
27.6

(B)
(B)

(B)

B Not shown; base for estimate is too small (number of children reported by women
surviving to 1969 is less than 150,000).

Series B 107-115.

Expectation of Life (in Years) at Birth, by Race and Sex: 1900 to 1970

[Prior to 1929, for death-registration area only.
Total
Year

See general note for series B 1-220]

Negro and other

White

Both
sexes

Male

Female

Both
sexes

Male

Female

Both
sexes

Male

Female

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

70.9
70.5
70.2
70.5
70.1

67.1
66.8
66.6
67.0
66.7

74.8
74.3
74.0
74.2
73.8

71.7
71.3
71.1
71.3
71.0

68.0
67.8
67.5
67.8
67.6

75.6
75.1
74.9
75.1
74.7

65.3
64.3
63.7
64.6
64.0

61.3
60.5
60.1
61.1
60.7

69.4
68.4
67.5
68.2
67.4

1965
1964
1963
1962 '
1961

70.2
70.2
69.9
70.0
70.2

66.8
66.9
66.6
66.8
67.0

73.7
73.7
73.4
73.4
73.6

71.0
71.0
70.8
70.9
71.0

67.6
67.7
67.5
67.6
67.8

74.7
74.6
74.4
74.4
74.5

64.1
64.1
63.6
64.1
64.4

61.1
61.1
60.9
61.5
61.9

1960 *
1959 2
1958.
1957
1956

69.7
69.9
69.6
69.5
69.7

66.6
66.8
66.6
66.4
66.7

73.1
73.2
72.9
72.7
72.9

70.6
70.7
70.5
70.3
70.5

67.4
67.5
67.4
67.7
67.5

74.1
74.2
73.9
73.7
73.9

63.6
63.9
63.4
63.0
63.6

1955
1954
1953..
1952
1951

69.6
69.6
68.8
68.6
68.4

66.7
66.7
66.0
65.8
65.6

72.8
72.8
72.0
71.6
71.4

70.5
70.5
69.7
69.5
69.3

67.4
67.5
66.8
66.6
66.5

73.7
73.7
73.0
72.6
72.4

68.2
68.0
67.2
66.8
66.7

65.6
65.2
64.6
64.4
64.4

71.1
70.7
69.9
69.7
69.4

69.1
68.8
68.0
67.6
67.5

66.5
66.2
65.5
65.2
65.1

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

65.9
65.2
63.3
66.2
64.8

63.6
63.6
62.4
64.7
63.1

67.9
66.8
64.4
67.9
66.8

66.8
66.2
64.2
67.3
66.2

1940
1939
1938
1937..
1936

62.9
63.7
63.5
60.0
58.5

60.8
62.1
61.9
58.0
56.6

65.2
65.4
65.3
62.4
60.6

64.2
64.9
65.0
61.4
59.8

Total

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

_._

Both
sexes

Male

Female

Both
sexes

Male

Female

Both
sexes

Male

Female

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

61.7
61.1
63.3
62.1
61.1

59.9
59.3
61.7
61.0
59.4

63.9
63.3
65.1
63.5
63.1

62.9
62.4
64.3
63.2
62.6

61.0
50.6
62.7
62.0
60.8

65.0
64 6
66.3
64.5
64.7

53.1
51.8
54.7
53.7
50.4

51.3
50.2
53.5
52.8
49.5

55.2
53.7
56.0
54.6
51.5

67.4
67.2
66.5
66.8
67.0

1930
1929
1928
1927..
1926

59.7
57.1
56.8
60.4
56.7

58.1
55.8
55.6
59.0
55.5

61.6
58.7
58.3
62.1
58.0

61.4
58.6
58.4
62.0
58.2

59.7
57.2
57.0
60.5
57.0

63.5
60.3
60.0
63.9
59.6

48.1
46.7
46.3
48.2
44.6

47.3
45.7
45.6
47.6
43.7

49.2
47.8
47.0
48.9
45.6

61.1
61.3
61.0
60.7
61.3

66.3
66.5
65.8
65.5
66.1

1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

59.0
59.7
57.2
59.6
60.8

57.6
58.1
56.1
58.4
60.0

60.6
61.5
58.5
61.0
61.8

60.7
61.4
58.3
60.4
61.8

59.3
59.8
57.1
59.1
60.8

62.4
63.4
59.6
61.9
62.9

45.7
46.6
48.3
52.4
51.5

44.9
45.5
47.7
51.8
51.6

46.7
47.8
48.9
53.0
51.3

63.7
63.4
62.0
61.4
61.2

61.4
61.1
59.7
59.1
59.2

66.1
65.9
64.5
63.8
63.4

1920
1919
1918
1917.
1916

54.1
54.7
39.1
50.9
51.7

53.6
53.5
36.6
48.4
49.6

54.6
56.0
42.2
54.0
54.3

54.9
55.8
39.8
52.0
52.5

54.4
54.5
37.1
49.3
50.2

55.6
57.4
43.2
55.3
55.2

45.3
44.5
31.1
38.8
41.3

45.5
44.5
29.9
37.0
39.6

45.2
44.4
32.5
40.8
43.1

72.2
71.9
71.0
70.5
70.3

60.8
60.6
60.0
59.7
59.1

59.1
58.9
58.1
57.9
57.5

62.9
62.7
62.5
61.9
61.0

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

54.5
54.2
52.5
53.5
52.6

52.5
52.0
50.3
51.5
50.9

56.8
56.8
55.0
55.9
54.4

55.1
54.9
53.0
53.9
53.0

53.1
52.7
50.8
51.9
51.3

57.5
57.5
55.7
56.2
54.9

38.9
38.9
38.4
37.9
36.4

37.5
37.1
36.7
35.9
34.6

40.5
40.8
40.3
40.0
38.2

64.4
64.5
63.2
65.9
64.4

69.5
68.4
65.7
69.4
68.5

57.7
56.6
55.6
56.6
53.8

56.1
55.8
55.4
55.4
52.5

59.6
57.7
56.1
58.2
55.3

1910
1909..1908
1907—
1906-

50.0
52.1
51.1
47.6
48.7

48.4
50.5
49.5
45.6
46.9

51.8
53.8
52.8
49.9
50.8

50.3
52.5
51.5
48.1
49.3

48.6
50.9
49.9
46.0
47.3

52.0
54.2
53.3
50.4
51.4

35.6
35.7
34.9
32.5
32.9

33.8
34.2
33.8
31.1
31.8

37.5
37.3
36.0
34.0
33.9

62.1
63.3
63.2
59.3
58.0

66.6
66.6
66.8
63.8
61.9

53.1
54.5
52.9
50.3
49.0

51.5
53.2
51.7
48.3
47.0

54.9
56.0
54.3
52.5
51.4

1905.
1904
1903
1902
1901.
1900...

48.7
47.6
50.5
51.5
49.1
47.3

47.3
46.2
49.1
49.8
47.6
46.3

50.2
49.1
52.0
53.4
50.6
48.3

49.1
48.0
50.9
51.9
49.4
47.6

47.6
46.6
49.5
50.2
48.0
46.6

50.6
49.5
52.5
53.8
51.0
48.7

31.3
30.8
33.1
34.6
33.7
33.0

29.6
29.1
31.7
32.9
32.2
32.5

33.1
32.7
34.6
36.4
35.3
33.5

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Excludes New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.




Year

Negro and other

White

2

Includes Alaska.

55

B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 116-125.

Expectation of Life at Specified Ages, by Sex and Race: 1900 to 1970
[In years]

At birth
1

Year or period

Age 20

Age 40

Age 60

Age 70

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

WHITE

68.0
67.8
67.5
67.8
67.6

75.6
75.1
74.9
75.1
74.7

50.3
50.1
49.9
50.2
50.1

57.4
56.9
56.7
56.9
56.7

31.9
31.8
31.6
31.8
31.6

38.3
37.8
37.6
37.8
37.5

16.2
16.0
15.8
16.1
15.9

21.0
20.5
20.2
20.4
20.2

10.5
10.4
10.2
10.4
10.3

13.6
13.0
12.9
13.0
12.8

67.6
67.7
67.5
67.6
67.8

74.7
74.6
74.4
74.4
74.5

50.2
50.2
50.1
50.2
50.4

56.6
66.6
56.4
66.4
56.6

31.7
31.8
31.6
31.7
31.9

37.5
37.5
37.3
37.3
37.4

16.0
16.0
15.8
16.0
16.1

20.1
20.1
19.9
19.9
20.0

10.3
10.4
10.2
10.3
10.4

12.8
12.8
12.5
12.5
12.6

1960 3
*
1959
1958
1957
1956

67.4
67.6
67.2
67.1
67.3

74.1
74.2
73.7
73.5
73.7

50.1
50.3
50.0
49.9
50.1

56.2
56.3
55.9
55.7
55.9

31.6
31.8
31.5
31.4
31.6

37.1
37.2
36.7
36.6
36.7

15.9
16.1
15.7
15.7
15.9

19.7
19.7
19.2
19.2
19.3

10.2
10.4
10.1
10.1
10.3

12.4
12.5
12.0
12.1
12.2

1955
1949-51.1939-41
1929-31
1919-21

67.3
66.3
62.8
69.1
56.3

73.6
72.0
67.3
62.7
58.6

50.1
49.5
47.8
46.0
45.6

55.8
54.6
51.4
48.5
46.5

31.7
31.2
30.0
29.2
29.9

36.7
35.6
33.3
31.5
30.9

16.0
15.8
15.1
14.7
15.3

19.3
18.6
17.0
16.1
15.9

10.3
10.1
9.4
9.2
9.5

12.2
11.7
10.5
10.0
9.9

1909-11
1901-10
1900-02

50.2
49.3
48.2

53.6
62.5
51.1

42.7
42.4
42.2

44.9
44.4
43.8

27.4
27.6
27.7

29.3
29.3
29.2

14.0
14.2
14.4

14.9
15.1
15.2

8.8
(NA)
9.0

9.4
(NA)
9.6

1970..
1969
1968
1967
1966..

61.3
60.5
60.1
61.1
60.7

69.4
68.4
67.5
68.2
67.4

44.7
43.9
43.6
44.8
44.6

52.2
51.2
50.5
51.3
50.7

28.6
27.8
27.4
28.3
28.0

34.2
33.3
32.7
33.4
32.8

15.7
14.9
14.5
16.3
14.9

19.4
18.5
17.9
18.7
18.1

11.2
10.9
10.5
11.2
11.0

13.7
13.7
13.2
13.9
13.4

1965
1964..
1963 2
1962
1961

61.1
61.1
60.9
61.6
61.9

67.4
67.2
66.5
66.8
67.0

45.1
45.3
45.1
45.6
46.0

50.8
50.6
50.0
50.2
50.5

28.3
28.5
28.1
28.6
29.0

32.8
32.7
32.1
32.4
32.6

15.1
15.2
14.6
15.0
15.3

18.2
18.1
17.5
17.7
18.0

11.2
11.4
10.7
10.9
11.2

13.5
13.4
12.8
12.9
13.0

1960 3
1959
1958..
1957
1956

61.1
61.4
60.6
60.3
61.1

66.3
66.5
65.5
65.2
65.9

45.5
45.8
45.0
44.7
45.4

49.9
50.2
49.3
48.9
49.4

28.4
28.8
28.0
27.8
28.5

32.1
32.4
31.5
31.3
31.8

14.9
15.5
14.5
14.5
15.2

17.7
18.2
17.4
17.4
17.9

10.7
11.2
10.9
11.1
11.5

12.7
13.0
13.1
13.2
13.6

1955
1949-51
1939-41«...
1929-314
1919-21«

61.2
58.9
52.3
47.6
47.1

65.9
62.7
55.5
49.5
46.9

45.5
43.7
39.7
36.0
38.4

49.6
46.8
42.1
37.2
37.2

28.6
27.3
25.2
23.4
26.5

32.0
29.8
27.3
24.3
25.6

15.4
14.9
14.4
13.2
14.7

18.1
17.0
16.1
14.2
14.7

11.7
10.7
10.1
8.8
9.6

13.8
12.3
11.8
10.4
10.3

1909-11
1900-02«

34.1
32.5

37.7
35.0

33.5
35.1

36.1
36.9

21.6
23.1

23.3
24.4

11.7
12.6

12.8
13.6

8.0
8.3

9.2
9.6

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

...

1965
1964
1963 «
1962 2
1961

-

N E G R O A N D OTHER

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
i D a t a for 1929-31 to 1958 are for conterminous United States; those for 1919-21, for
death-registration States of 1920 (34 States and the District of Columbia); those for
earlier years, for death-registration States of 1900 (20 States and the District of
Columbia).

Series B 126-135.

2
Excludes New Jersey;
3
Includes Alaska,
4

State did not require reporting of race.

Negroes only,

Expectation of Life at Specified Ages, by Sex, for Massachusetts: 1850 to 1949-51
[In years]

At birth
Year or
period

Age 20

Age 40

Age 60

Age 70

NA

56

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

126
1949-51
1939-41i...
1929-31 i . . .
1919-20
1909-11
1900-02

Male

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

66.7
63.3
59.3
54.1
49.3
46.1

72.1
67.6
62.6
56.6
53.1
49.4

49.3
47.4
46.1
44.6
42.5
41.8

54.2
61.0
48.5
45.5
44.9
43.7

30.7
29.3
29.0
28.8
27.0
27.2

35.2
32.6
31.2
30.0
29.0
28.8

15.4
14.5
14.3
14.4
13.4
13.9

18.3
16.4
15.8
15.4
14.8
15.1

9.9
9.1
8.9
8.9
8.6
8.9

11.6
10.2
9.9
9.6
9.5
9.6

At birth

N o t available.




Age 20

Age 40

Age 60

Age 70

1893-97..1890
1878-82...
1855.
1850
1

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

126

Year or
period

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

44.1
42.5
41.7
38.7
38.3

46.6
44.5
43.5
40.9
40.5

41.2
40.7
42.2
39.8
40.1

42.8
42.0
42.8
39.9
40.2

27.4
27.4
28.9
27.0
27.9

29.0
28.8
30.3
28.8
29.8

14.4
14.7
15.6
14.4
15.6

15.7
15.7
16.9
15.6
17.0

9.3
9.4
10.3
(NA)
10.2

10.4
10.2
11.3
(NA)
11.3

For white population only.

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 136-147.

Fetal Death Ratio; Neonatal, Infant, and Maternal Mortality Rates, by Race: 1915 to 1970
[Prior to 1933, for registration area only.
Fetal death ratio
per 1,000 live births 1

Year

B 136-148

See general note for series B 1-220]

Neonatal mortality rate
per 1,000 live births

Infant mortality rate
per 1,000 live births

Maternal mortality rate
per 10,000 live births

Total

White

Negro and
other

Total

White

Negro and
other

Total

White

Negro and
other

Total

White

Negro and
other

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

14.2
14.1
15.8
15.6
15.7
16.2
16.4
15.8
15.9
16.1

12.4
12.4
13.8
13.5
13.6
13.9
14.1
13.7
13.9
14.1

22.6
22.5
25.6
25.8
26.1
27.2
28.2
26.7
26.7
27.0

15.1
15.6
16.1
16.5
17.2
17.7
17.9
18.2
18.3
18.4

13.8
14.2
14.7
15.0
15.6
16.1
16.2
16.7
16.9
16.9

21.4
22.5
23.0
23.8
24.8
25.4
26.5
26.1
26.1
26.2

20.0
20.9
21.8
22.4
23.7
24.7
24.8
25.2
25.3
25.3

17.8
18.4
19.2
19.7
20.6
21.5
21.6
22.2
22.3
22.4

30.9
32.9
34.5
35.9
38.8
40.3
41.1
41.5
41.4
40.7

2.2
2.2
2.5
2.8
2.9
3.2
3.3
3.6
3.5
3.7

1.4
1.5
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.5

5.6
5.6
6.4
7.0
7.2
8.4
9.0
9.7
9.6
10.1

I 9 6 03 . .
*
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

16.1
16.2
16.5
16.3
16.5
17.1
17.5
17.8
18.3
18.8

14.1
14.2
14.5
14.5
14.6
15.2
15.5
15.9
16.1
16.7

26.8
27.3
27.5
26.8
27.2
28.4
28.9
29.6
32.2
32.1

18.7
19.0
19.5
19.1
18.9
19.1
19.1
19.6
19.8
20.0

17.2
17.5
17.8
17.5
17.5
17.7
17.8
18.3
18.5
18.9

26.9
27.7
29.0
27.8
27.0
27.2
27.0
27.4
28.0
27.3

26.0
26.4
27.1
26.3
26.0
26.4
26.6
27.8
28.4
28.4

22.9
23.2
23.8
23.3
23.2
23.6
23.9
25.0
25.5
25.8

43.2
44.0
45.7
43.7
42.1
42.8
42.9
44.7
47.0
44.8

3.7
3.7
3.8
4.1
4.1
4.7
5.2
6.1
6.8
7.5

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.8
2.9
3.3
3.7
4.4
4.9
5.5

9.8
10.2
10.2
11.8
11.1
13.0
14.4
16.6
18.8
20.1

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

19.2
19.8
20.6
21.1
22.8
23.9
27.0
26.7
28.2
29.9

17.1
17.5
18.3
18.7
20.4
21.4
24.5
24.2
25.5
26.5

32.5
34.6
36.5
39.6
40.9
42.0
45.4
46.2
49.3
54.0

20.5
21.4
22.2
22.8
24.0
24.3
24.7
24.7
25.7
27.7

19.4
20.3
21.2
21.7
23.1
23.3
23.6
23.7
24.5
26.1

27.5
28.6
29.1
31.0
31.5
32.0
32.5
32.9
34.6
39.0

29.2
31.3
32.0
32.2
33.8
38.3
39.8
40.4
40.4
45.3

26.8
28.9
29.9
30.1
31.8
35.6
36.9
37.5
37.3
41.2

44.5
47.3
46.5
48.5
49.5
57.0
60.3
62.5
64.6
74.8

8.3
9.0
11.7
13.5
15.7
20.7
22.8
24.5
25.9
31.7

6.1
6.8
8.9
10.9
13.1
17.2
18.9
21.1
22.2
26.6

22.2
23.5
30.1
33.5
35.9
45.5
50.6
51.0
54.4
67.8

1940
1939
1938
1937.
1936
1935
1934
1933.
1932.-1931..

31.3
32.0
32.1
33.4
34.4
35.8
36.2
37.0
37.8
38.2

27.7
28.2
28.1
29.2
29.8
31.1
31.4
32.2
32.7
33.4

56.7
59.0
61.1
63.2
66.9
68.7
70.1
71.1
74.4
74.1

28.8
29.3
29.6
31.3
32.6
32.4
34.1
34.0
33.5
34.6

27.2
27.8
28.3
29.7
31.0
31.0
4
32.3
4
32.1
4
32.0
33.2

39.7
39.6
39.1
42.1
43.9
42.7
4
45.3
4
45.8
4
43.7
45.2

47.0
48.0
51.0
54.4
57.1
55.7
60.1
58.1
57.6
61.6

43.2
44.3
47.1
50.3
52.9
51.9
4
54.5
4
52.8
4
53.3
57.4

73.8
74.2
79.1
83.2
87.6
83.2
4
94.4
4
91.3
4
86.2
93.1

37.6
40.4
43.5
48.9
56.8
58.2
59.3
61.9
63.3
66.1

32.0
35.3
37.7
43.6
51.2
53.1
4
54.4
<56.4
4
58.1
60.1

77.4
76.2
84.9
85.8
97.2
94.6
4
89.7
4
96.7
4
97.6
111.4

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

39.2
39.5
40.2
38.8
38.1
38.1
39.3
38.9
39.4

34.0
34.4
35.0
34.8
35.1
35.1
35.8
35.9
36.4

79.9
79.7
81.5
74.8
73.0
73.1
76.2
71.8
73.4

35.7
36.9
37.2
36.1
37.9
37.8
38.6
39.5
39.7
39.7

34.2
35.6
35.7
35.0
37.1
36.8
37.4
38.6
38.8
38.7

47.4
47.3
48.8
46.1
48.0
49.5
51.2
49.9
49.9
50.3

64.6
67.6
68.7
64.6
73.3
71.7
70.8
77.1
76.2
75.6

60.1
63.2
64.0
60.6
70.0
68.3
66.8
73.5
73.2
72.5

99.9
102.2
106.2
100.1
111.8
110.8
112.9
117.4
110.0
108.5

67.3
69.5
69.2
64.7
65.6
64.7
65.6
66.5
66.4
68.2

60.9
63.1
62.7
59.4
61.9
60.3
60.7
62.6
62.8
64.4

117.4
119.9
121.0
113.3
107.1
116.2
117.9
109.5
106.8
107.7

41.5
41.5
44.2
43.4
44.1
44.4

40.4
40.3
43.3
42.6
43.5

55.0
55.2
60.5
58.0
68.9

85.8
86.6
100.9
93.8
101.0
99.9

82.1
83.0
97.4
90.5
99.0
98.6

131.7
130.5
161.2
150.7
184.9
181.2

79.9
73.7
91.6
66.2
62.2
60.8

76.0
69.6
88.9
63.2
60.8
60.1

128.1
124.4
139.3
117.7
117.9
105.6

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964 2
1963 2
1962
1961

..

1920
1919
1918
1917
1916
1915

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
For 1945-1970, includes only deaths for which the period of gestation was given as 20
weeks or more or not stated. For earlier years, includes all fetal deaths, regardless of
gestation. In 1945 ratios based on all fetal deaths, regardless of gestation, were: Total,
26.6; white, 24.1; Negro and other, 44.6.

Series B 148.
[Deaths under 1 year per 1,000 live births.

Year

Rate

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966.
1965
1964 1
1963
1962

.

16.8
18.3
19.9
20.0
21.2
22.2
19.8
20.6
21.8

New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.

Mexicans included with Negro and other,

Infant Mortality Rate, for Massachusetts: 1851 to 1970
Excludes fetal deaths.

Year or period

148

2
Figures by race exclude
3
Includes Alaska,
4

Data for 1940 to 196S are by place of residence; for other years, by place of occurrence]
Rate

Rate

Period

148
1961
1960
1959
1958 1957
1956 . . .
1955
1950-54
1945-49

21.6
21.6
22.3
22.8
22.7
22.4
21.9
22.8
28.4

Rate

Period

148

148
1940-44
1935-39
1930-34 1925-29
1920-24
..
1915-19
1910-14
1905-09.
1900-04

- .

34.3
43.2
53.9
67.6
78.7
100.2
116.7
134.3
141.4

1895-99
1890-94
1885-89
1880-84
1875-79-.
1870-74.-.
1865-69..
1860-64
1855-59
1851-54

-

—

153.2
163.2
158.5
161.3
156.3
170.3
146.3
142.5
122.9
131.1

'Excludes approximately 6,000 deaths registered in Massachusetts, primarily to
residents of the State, covering all ages.




57

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 167-220

Series B 149-166.

Death Rate, for Selected Causes: 1900 to 1970

[Number of deaths, excluding fetal deaths, per 100,000 population.
Scarlet
fever
TySyphilis phoid
and
Tuberculosis, and its and
strep- Hepaall
seque- para- tococcal titis
forma
lae 1 typhoid sore
fever throat

149

150

151

152

Prior to 1933, for death-registration area only; see general note for series B 1-220]

Whooping
DiphMeatheria cough
sles

154

155

156

0.5
.5
.4
.4
.4

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

153

GasMajor
Intritis,
Malig- Diabe- cardio- fluenza duo- Cirrho- Motor Accinant tes mel- vasand denitis, sis of vehicle dental
neolitus
cular- pneu- 3 enteri- liver
accifalls
plasms 2
renal monia
tis,
dents 5
diseases
and
colitis *
157

158

159

160

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
.1

162.8
160.0
159.4
157.2
155.1

18.9
19.1
19.2
17.7
17.7

496.0
501.7
512.1
511.5
521.4

30.9
33.9
36.8
28.8
32.5

.1
.2
.2
.2
.2

153.5
151.8
151.3
149.9
149.4

17.1
16.9
17.2
16.8
16.4

516.4
514.3
627.3
521.2
511.4

All
other Suicide
acci-6
dents

162

163

164

165

166

0.6
.9
.3
3.8
3.9

15.5
14.8
14.6
14.1
13.6

26.9
27.-6
27.5
26.7
27.1

8.3
8.8
9.3
10.2
10.2

21.2
21.2
20.7
20.2
20.7

11.6
11.1
10.7
10.8
10.9

31.9
31.1
37.5
32.3
30.1

4.1
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.3

12.8
12.1
11.9
11.7
11.3

25.4
24.5
23.1
22.0
20.8

10.3
9.9
10.2
10.5
10.2

20.1
19.8
20.1
19.8
19.4

11.1
10.8
11.0
10.9
10.4

161

2.6
2.8
3.1
3.5
3.9

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
.1

.4
.4
.5
.5
.5

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

6.1
6.5
7.1
7.8
8.4

1.6
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.3

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

.5
.5
.5
.5
.5

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
.1

.1
.2
.1
.1
.2

.2
.2
.3
.2
.3

149.2
147.3
146.8
148.6
147.8

16.7
16.9
16.9
16.0
15.7

521.8
515.9
523.5
523.4
510.5

37.3
31.2
33.1
35.8
28.2

4.4
4.4
4.6
4.7
4.5

11.3
10.9
10.8
11.3
10.7

21.3
21.5
21.3
22.7
23.7

10.6
10.6
10.5
12.1
12.1

20.4
20.1
20.4
21.1
20.9

10.6
10.6
10.7
9.8
10.0

9.1
10.2
12.3
15.8
20.1

2.3
3.0
3.3
3.7
4.1

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
.1
.1

.1
.1
.1
.2
.2

.5
.5
.5
.5
.4

.1
.1
.1
.1
.2

.3
.2
.2
.3
.6

.2
.3
.3
.4
.4

146.5
145.6
144.7
143.3
140.5

15.5
15.6
16.3
16.4
16.3

506.0
496.1
514.8
511.9
513.2

27.1
25.4
33.0
29.7
31.4

4.7
4.9
5.4
5.6
5.2

10.2
10.1
10.4
10.2
9.8

23.4
22.1
24.0
24.3
24.1

12.3
12.3
13.0
13.5
13.9

21.2
21.5
23.1
24.0
24.5

10.2
10.1
10.1
10.0
10.4

22.5
26.3
30.0
33.5
36.4

5.0
5.8
8.0
8.8
9.3

.1
.1
.2
.2
.3

.2
.3
(Z)
.1
.1

.4
.4

.3
.4
.4
.6
.9

.7
.5
.8
1.4
.9

.3
.6
.6
.3
.9

139.8
138.8
134.9
132.3
130.0

16.2
16.9
26.4
26.2
24.8

510.8
502.1
488.0
491.0
476.8

31.3
30.0
38.7
43.1
44.5

5.1
6.7
6.0
5.6
5.8

9.2
9.2
11.3
10.4
9.6

23.1
21.3
22.1
22.8
23.9

13.8
15.0
16.6
16.7
16.1

23.7
24.3
28.2
29.7
29.8

11.4
11.4
11.2
11.5
11.5

39.9
41.2
42.5
43.1
44.5

10.6
11.2
12.1
12.2
13.3

.4
.4
.5
.6
.8

.2
.3
.3
.3
.3

1.2
.9
.9
1.0
1.0

1.3
1.4
2.5
1.9
2.8

.2
1.4
1.0
1.0
1.7

134.0
128.8
124.3
122.0
120.1

26.5
26.3
27.1
25.4
25.4

508.2
500.5
510.8
479.5
475.3

51.6
61.6
67.1
55.7
63.8

8.7
9.9
9.6
8.8
10.5

9.5
8.6
9.3
9.4
8.9

21.2
18.3
17.7
21.1
30.0

17.7
17.0
18.0
16.6
16.7

33.2
36.0
37.7
33.5
29.2

11.2
10.0
10.2
12.0
12.8

45.9
47.1
49.1
53.8
55.9

14.4
15.0
15.9
16.1
16.2

1.1
1.5
1.9
2.1
2.5

.5
.7
.9
1.4
1.9

1.1
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.4

2.2
2.3
3.7
3.9
2.1

.5
.9
2.5
1.2
1.0

120.3
117.5
114.9
112.4
111.4

26.6
25.5
23.9
23.7
23.7

485.7
466.3
456.8
454.6
461.1

70.3
75.7
80.4
114.9
119.6

10.3
11.6
14.3
14.7
16.4

8.6
8.3
8.3
8.5
8.3

26.2
24.7
25.1
30.8
29.7

17.2
17.5
19.5
20.4
20.8

29.8
28.1
27.2
30.0
34.9

14.4
14.1
15.3
15.0
14.3

55.1
56.7
59.6
62.5
67.8

15.4
15.9
15.1
15.4
15.4

2.8
3.4
3.6
3.7
4.5

2.1
2.0
2.0
2.2
2.2

3.1
3.3
3.9
4.4
4.8

3.7
5.9
3.6
4.5
3.9

3.1
5.5
2.2
1.6
3.0

108.2
106.4
102.3
102.3
99.0

22.3
22.2
21.4
22.0
20.4

431.2
430.0
413.6
418.2
407.1

104.2
96.9
96.7
107.3
107.5

14.1
18.4
17.3
16.1
20.5

7.9
7.7
7.4
7.2
7.4

28.6
28.6
25.0
23.6
27.1

19.2
18.8
15.1
14.8
14.6

30.1
32.0
31.8
32.4
36.1

14.3
14.9
15.9
17.4
16.8

71.1
75.3
78.3
79.6
85.5

15.7
15.6
16.4
16.4
17.1

4.8
4.2
4.9
5.3
6.4

1.9
2.1
1.9
2.3
2.5

4.9
6.5
7.2
7.7
7.4

4.8
6.2
5.4
6.8
8.8

3.2
2.5
5.2
4.1
8.3

97.4
95.8
95.7
95.2
94.6

19.1
18.8
19.0
17.4
17.9

414.4
418.9
419.1
398.3
410.6

102.5
146.5
142.6
102.2
141.7

26.0
23.3
26.4
27.1
32.9

7.2
7.2
7.6
7.4
7.2

26.7
25.5
23.2
21.6
19.9

14.7
14.5
14.1
14.0
14.0

38.4
39.7
40.8
41.5
43.3

15.6
13.9
13.5
13.2
12.6

84.8
87.9
91.7
95.3
97.6

17.3
17.8
17.9
18.0
17.5

7.8
6.6
6.7
7.4
8.8

2.7
3.1
3.5
3.5
5.3

7.8
9.3
12.0
14.6
17.7

6.7
8.1
9.6
5.5
9.1

2.3
8.2
10.7
4.3
4.2

92.0
90.4
88.4
86.2
85.5

16.8
16.4
17.7
18.3
16.7

391.5
883.4
880.8
366.6
351.2

121.7
115.2
151.7
132.3
98.7

38.6
33.7
39.1
38.9
50.7

7.2
7.3
7.1
7.4
7.3

16.8
15.3
14.6
12.4
11.3

13.4
13.1
12.8
12.1
11.4

46.3
45.4
46.9
43.8
44.1

12.0
11.9
11.6
11.7
12.4

113.1
125.6
149.8
143.5
138.4

16.5
16.2
18.7
19.1
18.6

7.6
9.2
12.3
13.3
13.2

4.6
2.8
3.1
8.5
3.1

15.3
14.9
14.0
15.6
13.9

12.5
5.6
17.0
10.5
10.5

8.8
3.9
10.8
14.1
11.4

83.4
81.0
80.8
80.8
81.0

16.1
15.0
16.1
16.9
16.9

364.9
348.6
387.0
396.4
389.4

207.3
223.0
588.5
164.6
168.3

53.7
55.2
72.2
76.2
75.5

7.1
7.9
9.6
10.9
11.8

10.3
9.3
9.3
8.6
7.1

11.8
11.3
12.7
14.8
15.1

47.9
60.5
59.5
62.6
59.4

10.2
11.5
12.3
13.0
13.7

140.1
141.7
148.5
145.4
155.1

17.7
16.7
16.2
15.1
15.3

11.8
14.7
17.5
16.1
20.1

3.6
6.6
7.7
6.0
8.6

15.2
17.2
18.1
17.6
18.4

8.2
10.2
10.1
9.2
11.0

5.2
6.8
12.8
7.2
9.9

80.7
78.7
78.5
77.0
74.2

17.6
16.2
15.4
15.1
15.1

383.5
374.5
370.6
376.7
366.5

145.9
132.4
140.8
138.4
145.4

67.5
76.1
86.7
79.6
86.8

12.1
12.5
12.9
18.1
13.6

5.8
4.2
3.8
2.8
2.1

14.8
15.0
16.4
15.4
15.0

52.9
57.6
64.6
62.6
66.5

16.2
16.1
15.4
15.6
16.0

153.8
156.3
162.1
174.2
175.8

13.5
12.9
12.4
12.4
14.1

22.5
20.2
23.4
28.2
30.9

11.4
11.1
12.4
9.3
7.8

21.1
19.9
21.9
24.2
26.3

11.6
10.0
10.7
11.3
16.1

12.4
10.0
10.6
9.6
12.9

76.2
74.0
71.6
71.4
69.3

15.3
14.1
13.8
14.2
13.4

371.9
362.0
356.7
389.8
864.3

156.9
148.1
150.9
180.0
156.3

115.4
101.8
112.5
115.0
123.6

13.3
13.4
13.5
14.8
14.1

1.8
1.2
.8
.7
.4

15.4

67.0
77.5
82.1
94.1
94.0

15.3
16.0
16.8
14.5
12.8

179.9
188.1
177.2
174.2
189.9
194.4

—

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

4.1
4.3
4.9
5.1
5.4

1910
1909
1908
1907
1906

0.2
.3
.3
1.2
1.1

13.8
13.9
13.2
12.9
12.5
12.0

22.4
23.9
24.6
26.4
27.6
31.3

6.8
11.6
12.3
11.9
13.6
9.6

23.5
29.3
31.1
29.8
33.5
40.3

8.9
5.8
14.3
12.4
8.7
12.2

7.4
11.8
8.8
9.3
7.4
13.3

73.4
71.5
70.0
66.3
66.4
64.0

14.1
14.2
12.7
11.7
11.6

384.0
388.8
364.4
349.8
347.7
345.2

169.3
192.1
169.3
161.3
197.2
202.2

118.4
111.5
100.3
104.9
118.5
142.7

14.0
13.9
13.5
13.0
13.1
12.5

81.3
85.4
81.4
72.5
83.8
72.3

13.5
12.2
11.3
10.3
10.4
10.2

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
Z Less than 0.05.
1
1900-1920, excludes aneurysm of the aorta.
2
Includes neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues.
> All years, excludes pneumonia of newborn; 1900-1920, excludes capillary bronchitis.
* All years, excludes diarrhea of newborn; 1900-1920, includes ulcer of duodenum.

58




6

11.0

1906-1925, excludes automobile collisions with trains and streetcars, and motor-

cycle jccidcntfl

«1900-1921, includes legal executions; 1900-1908, food poisoning; and 1900-1905,
motor vehicle accidents.
' Includes Alaska.

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 167-180.

B 136-148

Death Rate, by Race and Sex: 1900 to 1970

[Number of deaths, excluding fetal deaths, per 1,000 population.

Prior to 1933 for death-registration area only; see general note for series B 1-220]

Death rate
White
Year

Total

167

Age-adjusted death rate
Negro and other

|

White

Both
sexes

Male

Female

Both
sexes

Male

Female

168

169

170

171

172

Total

173

Negro and other

Male

Female

Both
sexes

Male

Female

175

174

Both
sexes

176

177

178

179

180

1970 —
1969
1968—
1967—
1966—

9.5
9.5
9.7
9.4
9.5

9.5
9.5
9.6
9.4
9.5

10.9
10.9
11.1
10.8
10.9

8.1
8.2
8.2
8.0
8.1

9.4
9.6
9.9
9.4
9.7

11.2
11.3
11.6
10.9
11.3

7.8
8.0
8.3
7.9
8.3

7.1
7.3
7.5
7.3
7.5

6.8
6.9
7.1
6.9
7.1

8.9
9.0
9.2
9.0
9.2

5.0
5.2
5.3
5.2
5.3

9.8
10.5
10.8
10.2
10.5

12.3
13.0
13.3
12.4
12.7

7.7
8.3
8.6
8.2
8.6

1965—
1964—
1963 i 1962
1961 —

9.4
9.4
9.6
9.5
9.3

9.4
9.4
9.5
9.4
9.3

10.8
10.8
11.0
10.8
10.7

8.0
8.0
8.1
8.0
7.8

9.6
9.7
10.1
9.8
9.6

11.1
11.1
11.5
11.2
10.9

8.2
8.3
8.7
8.5
8.4

7.4
7.4
7.6
7.5
7.4

7.1
7.1
7.2
7.1
7.0

9.1
9.0
9.2
9.0
8.9

5.3
5.3
5.5
5.4
5.4

10.3
10.3
10.6
10.3
10.0

12.4
12.2
12.5
12.0
11.6

8.5
8.6
8.9
8.7
8.6

1960 *_
1959 «__
1958—
1957—
1956—

9.5
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.4

9.5
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.3

11.0
10.8
10.9
11.0
10.8

8.0
7.9
8.0
8.0
7.8

10.1
9.9
10.3
10.5
10.1

11.5
11.3
11.6
11.9
11.4

8.7
8.6
9.0
9.1
8.8

7.6
7.5
7.7
7.8
7.6

7.3
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.3

9.2
9.0
9.1
9.2
9.1

5.6
5.5
5.7
5.8
5.7

10.5
10.3
10.6
10.8
10.5

12.1
11.9
12.2
12.4
11.9

8.9
8.8
9.2
9.4
9.1

1955—
1954—
1953
1952—
1951

9.3
9.2
9.6
9.6
9.7

9.2
9.1
9.4
9.4
9.5

10.7
10.6
11.0
11.0
11.0

7.8
7.6
8.0
8.0
8.0

10.0
10.1
10.8
11.0
11.1

11.3
11.4
12.3
12.5
12.5

8.8
8.8
9.4
9.6
9.8

7.7
7.6
8.0
8.1
8.3

7.4
7.3
7.7
7.8
7.9

9.1
9.0
9.4
9.5
9.6

5.7
5.8
6.1
6.2
6.3

10.4
10.6
11.4
11.7
11.9

11.9
12.0
13.0
13.2
13.3

9.1
9.2
9.9
10.2
10.5

1950—
1949—
1948—
1947—
1946—

9.6
9.7
9.9
10.1
10.0

9.5
9.5
9.7
9.9
9.8

10.9
11.0
11.2
11.4
11.2

8.0
8.1
8.3
8.5
8.5

11.2
11.2
11.4
11.4
11.1

12.5
12.5
12.7
12.5
12.2

9.9
10.0
10.1
10.3
10.0

8.4
8.5
8.8
9.0
9.1

8.0
8.1
8.3
8.6
8.8

9.6
9.7
10.0
10.1
10.2

6.5
6.6
6.8
7.1
7.3

12.3
12.3
12.5
12.5
12.4

13.6
13.5
13.8
13.6
13.5

10.9
11.1
11.2
11.4
11.3

1945—
1944
1943—
1942-__
1941 —

10.6
10.6
10.9
10.3
10.5

10.4
10.4
10.7
10.1
10.2

12.5
12.2
12.2
11.4
11.4

8.6
8.8
9.2
8.7
8.9

11.9
12.4
12.8
12.7
13.5

13.5
13.8
14.0
14.0
14.8

10.5
11.1
11.6
11.4
12.2

9.5
9.7
10.2
9.9
10.3

9.1
9.3
9.7
9.4
9.7

10.7
10.8
11.2
10.9
11.2

7.5
7.8
8.2
8.0
8.3

13.1
13.8
14.5
14.5
15.6

14.5
14.9
16.7
15.8
16.9

11.9
12.6
13.4
13.3
14.3

1940
1939 —
1938—
1937—
1936—

10.8
10.6
10.6
11.8
11.6

10.4
10.3
10.3
10.8
11.1

11.6
11.3
11.3
12.0
12.3

9.2
9.2
9.2
9.6
9.9

13.8
13.5
14.0
14.9
15.4

15.1
14.7
15.2
16.4
16.9

12.6
12.4
12.9
13.4
13.9

10.8
10.7
10.9
11.7
12.2

10.2
10.2
10.3
11.1
11.5

11.6
11.4
11.5
12.4
12.8

8.8
8.9
9.1
9.7
10.1

16.3
16.0
16.6
17.8
18.5

17.6
17.1
17.7
19.2
20.1

15.0
14.9
15.5
16.3
17.0

1935—
1934—
1933—
1932—
1931—

10.9
11.1
10.7
10.9
11.1

10.6
10.6
10.3
10.5
10.6

11.6
11.7
11.2
11.3
11.5

9.5
9.6
9.3
9.6
9.6

14.3
14.8
14.1
14.5
15.5

15.6
16.0
15.1
15.4
16.5

13.0
13.5
13.1
13.5
14.5

11.6
11.9
11.6
11.9
12.1

11.1
11.3
11.0
11.3
11.4

12.3
12.5
12.2
12.3
12.5

9.8
10.0
9.9
10.2
10.3

17.3
17.9
17.2
17.8
19.0

18.5
19.0
18.1
18.6
19.9

16.1
16.7
16.4
17.0
18.1

1930—
1929—
1928
1927—
1926—

11.3
11.9
12.0
11.3
12.1

10.8
11.3
11.4
10.8
11.6

11.7
12.2
12.3
11.6
12.3

9.8
10.4
10.5
10.0
10.8

16.3
16.9
17.1
16.4
17.8

17.4
18.0
18.0
17.2
18.7

15.3
15.8
16.2
15.6
16.9

12.5
13.2
13.4
12.6
13.5

11.7
12.4
12.6
11.9
12.7

12.8
13.5
13.6
12.8
13.6

10.6
11.4
11.5
10.9
11.8

20.1
21.0
20.9
19.8
21.4

21.0
21.9
21.7
20.4
22.1

19.2
20.0
20.2
19.3
20.8

1925
1924—
1923—
1922—
1921 —

11.7
11.6
12.1
11.7
11.5

11.1
11.0
11.7
11.3
11.1

11.8
11.8
12.3
11.9
11.6

10.4
10.3

11.0
10.7
10.6

17.4
17.1
16.5
15.2
15.5

18.2
17.9
17.0
15.7
15.7

16.6
16.3
16.0
14.8
15.4

13.0
12.9
13.5
13.0
12.7

12.3
12.2
12.9
12.6
12.2

13.2
13.1
13.7
13.3
12.7

11.4
11.3
12.1
11.8
11.6

20.9
20.5
19.8
18.3
18.2

21.4
21.1
20.0
18.4
18.0

20.4
20.0
19.7
18.4
18.6

1920
1919—
1918
1917—
1916—

13.0
12.9
18.1
14.0
13.8

12.6
12.4
17.5
13.5
13.4

13.0
13.0
19.3
14.6
14.4

12.1
11.8
15.8
12.4
12.4

17.7
17.9
25.6
20.4
19.1

17.8
18.1
26.7
21.4
19.9

17.5
17.8
24.4
19.4
18.4

14.2
14.0
19.0
15.3
15.1

13.7
13.4
18.4
14.7
14.7

14.2
14.1
20.2
16.0
15.8

13.1
12.8
16.6
13.4
13.4

20.6
20.5
28.0
23.4
22.2

20.4
20.3
28.9
24.1
22.6

21.0
20.8
27.1
22.7
21.6

1915 —
1914—
1913—
1912—
1911—

13.2
13.3
13.8
13.6
13.9

12.9
13.0
13.5
13.4
13.7

13.7
13.9
14.5
14.3
14.5

12.0
12.1
12.5
12.4
12.8

20.2
20.2
20.3
20.6
21.3

20.8
20.9
21.0
21.3
21.9

19.5
19.4
19.6
19.7
20.6

14.4
14.5
15.0
14.8
15.2

14.1
14.1
14.6
14.6
14.9

15.1
15.2
15.8
15.7
15.9

13.0
13.0
13.4
13.4
13.8

23.1
22.6
22.7
23.1
23.7

23.5
23.3
23.3
24.0
24.4

22.6
21.9
22.0
22.2
22.9

1910—
1909—
1908—
1907—
1906—

14.7
14.2
14.7
15.9
15.7

14.5
14.0
14.5
15.7
15.5

15.4
14.9
15.3
16.8
16.5

13.6
13.2
13.6
14.5
14.4

21.7
21.8
22.4
24.3
24.2

22.3
22.3
22.8
25.0
24.7

21.0
21.2
22.0
23.5
23.6

15.8
15.3
15.8
17.1
16.7

15.6
15.0
15.5
16.8
16.4

16.7
16.1
16.6
18.2
17.6

14.4
14.0
14.4
15.4
16.1

24.1
24.1
24.7
26.6
26.2

24.8
24.8
25.3
27.5
27.0

23.2
23.3
24.1
25.7
25.5

1905—
1904—
1903—
1902—
1901 —
1900—

15.9
16.4
15.6
15.5
16.4
17.2

15.7
16.2
15.4
15.3
16.2
17.0

16.5
17.1
16.2
16.2
17.1
17.7

14.8
15.3
14.6
14.4
15.4
16.3

25.5
26.1
24.5
23.6
24.3
25.0

26.8
27.6
25.5
24.8
25.6
25.7

24.3
24.7
23.4
22.3
23.1
24.4

16.7
17.3
16.5
16.2
17.2
17.8

16.5
17.1
16.2
16.0
17.0
17.6

17.6
18.1
17.2
17.0
18.0
18.4

15.4
16.0
15.3
14.9
16.0
16.8

28.3
29.1
27.2
25.9
26.9
27.8

29.7
30.7
28.5
27.5
28.4
28.7

26.9
27.4
25.9
24.6
26.5
27.1

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Excludes New Jersey; State did not require reporting of race.




2

Includes Alaska.

59

B 167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 181-192.

Death Rate, by Age and Sex: 1900 to 1970

[Number of deaths, excluding fetal deaths, per 1,000 population for specified group.

Prior to 1933, for death-registration area only; see general note for series B 1-220]

tal1

Under
1 year

1-4
years

5-14
years

15-24
years

25-34
years

35-44
years

45-54
years

55-64
years

65-74
years

75-84
years

85 years
and over

81

182

183

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

Year

BOTH S E X E S

1970.
1969,
1968.
19671966.

9.5
9.5
9.7
9.4
9.5

21.4
21.5
22.3
22.3
23.3

0.8
.9
.9
.9
.9

0.4
.4
.4
.4
.4

1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5

3.1
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.1

7.3
7.3
7.5
7.3
7.4

16.6
16.8
17.2
16.7
17.0

35.8
37.4
38.5
37.5
38.4

80.0
79.0
80.8
79.0
81.7

163.4
190.8
196.1
194.2
200.5

1966.
1964.
1963.
1962.
1961.

9.4
9.4
9.6
9.5
9.3

24.1
24.6
25.3
25.3
25.4

.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

.4
.4
.4
.4
.4

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0

1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.4

3.1
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9

7.4
7.4
7.5
7.4
7.3

16.9
17.0
17.3
16.9
16.7

37.9
37.8
38.9
38.0
37.2

81.9
81.8
85.2
84.3
83.6

202.0
200.2
210.1
204.7
195.9

1960 *.
1959.-.
1958-..
1957...
1956...

9.5
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.4

27.0
27.5
28.1
28.0
28.3

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

.5
.5
.5
.5
.5

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.1

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.5

3.0
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.0

7.6
7.4
7.5
7.7
7.5

17.4
17.1
17.4
17.8
17.5

38.2
37.6
38.4
38.9
37.8

87.5
85.8
87.9
88.4
88.5

198.6
194.2
198.0
188.4
181.8

1955..
1954..
1953..
1952..
1951-.

9.3
9.2
9.6
9.6
9.7

28.5
29.2
30.7
32.1
32.3

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4

.5
.5
.5
.6
.6

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3

1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

3.1
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.5

7.5
7.7
8.1
8.3
8.4

17.3
17.4
18.4
18.6
18.8

37.9
37.6
39.1
39.2
40.0

89.0
87.6
92.5
91.9
93.3

179.3
172.6
183.4
183.0
192.3

1950..
1949..
194819471946-

9.6
9.7
9.9
10.1
10.0

33.0
35.2
35.7
34.5
46.3

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.8

.6
.7
.7
.7
.8

1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7

1.8
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.3

3.6
3.7
3.9
4.1
4.2

8.5
8.7
9.0
9.2
9.2

41.0
40.8
41.4
42.1
41.2

93.3
93.0
95.1
97.0
95.1

202.0
203.2
213.2
216.9
210.6

19451944..
1943..
19421941—

10.6
10.6
10.9
10.3
10.5

42.5
44.2
44.0
48.8
52.6

2.0
2.3
2.6
2.4
2.8

.9
.9
1.0
.9
1.0

1.9
2.0
2.1
1.9
2.0

2.7
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.9

4.6
4.6
4.8
4.8
5.0

9.6
9.7
10.2
10.1
10.3

42.6
43.9
46.2
44.9
46.2

98.4
101.7
107.5
101.6
105.8

209.6
215.3
230.3
211.1
218.7

19401939-.
1938-.
1937_.
1936..

10.8
10.6
10.6
11.3
11.6

54.9
53.7
58.0
61.3
62.9

2.9
3.2
3.8
4.2
4.4

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5

2.0
2.1
2.3
2.6
2.8

3.1
3.2
3.4
3.9
4.1

5.2
5.3
5.6
6.2
6.5

10.3
10.7
10.9
11.8
12.1

48.4
47.2
47.1
49.0
50.8

112.0
112.5
110.9
117.0
121.7

235.7
223.3
212.6
227.2
242.7

1935..
1934..
1933..
1932..
1931..

10.9
11.1
10.7
10.9
11.1

60.9
66.8
61.3
61.3
64.4

4.4
5.1
4.7
4.6
5.3

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.7

2.7
2.8
2.7
2.9
3.2

4.0
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.5

6.2
6.2
6.2
6.3
6.7

11.6
11.8
11.4
11.6
12.0

23.2
23.5
23.2
23.4
23.6

48.7
49.4
49.0
50.0
49.9

113.1
114.1
111.3
114.3
110.5

224.6
224.8
222.3
233.3
222.8

1930..
1929..
1928..
1927..
1926..

11.3
11.9
12.0
11.3
12.1

69.0
71.6
73.1
68.8
77.9

5.6
6.3
6.5
5.9
7.2

1.7
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9

3.3
3.6
3.7
3.5
3.7

4.7
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.9

6.8
7.3
7.5
7.1
7.4

12.2
12.7
12.8
12.0
12.7

24.0
24.5
24.2
22.9
24.1

51.4
54.0
54.3
51.2
53.8

112.7
122.2
125.2
115.9
125.4

228.0
254.3
268.3
260.1
279.7

1925..
1924..
1923..
1922..
1921.

11.7
11.6
12.1
11.7
'11.5

75.4
76.8
81.1
77.6
80.6

6.4
6.8
8.1
7.4
8.0

2.0
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.5

3.8
3.8
3.9
3.8
3.9

4.8
4.8
5.0
5.0
4.9

7.2
7.1
7.3
7.1
6.8

12.2
12.1
12.2
11.8
11.2

23.3
23.0
23.9
23.2
22.1

51.7
61.0
53.3
52.2
49.0

119.3
117.2
123.5
117.5
111.2

272.3
261.8
279.7
268.1
239.1

1920.
1919..
1918.
1917.
1916.

13.0
12.9
18.1
14.0
13.8

92.3
91.0
111.7
104.6
105.7

9.9
9.3
15.7
10.7
11.1

2.6
2.7
4.1
2.6
2.5

4.9
5.3
10.7
4.7
4.4

6.8
7.5
16.4
6.5
6.2

8.1
8.6
13.4
9.0
8.8

12.2
12.3
15.2
13.9
13.6

23.6
23.1
26.5
26.8
26.5

52.5
50.0
55.1
57.3
57.2

118.9
107.8
113.0
123.9
123.9

248.3
222.2
222.1
245.9
250.4

19151914.
1913.
1912.
1911.

13.2
13.3
13.8
13.6
13.9

102.4
107.2
114.8
114.0

9.2
10.2
11.9
10.9
11.8

2.3
2.5
2.7
2.5
2.7

4.1
4.2
4.4
4.3
4.5

5.8
6.0
6.2
6.1
6.4

8.3
8.5
8.7
8.6
8.9

13.1
13.1
13.5
13.4
13.5

25.5
25.1
25.5
25.8
25.8

55.6
54.1
54.1
54.5
55.0

120.1
115.6
117.9
120.2
120.1

240.3
231.5
235.9
242.2
246.4

1910.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.

14.7
14.2
14.7
15.9
15.7

131.8
126.7
133.2
138.6
144.8

14.0
13.5
14.0
14.7
15.8

2.9
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.3

4.5
4.4
4.8
5.3
5.3

6.5
6.3
6.7
7.6
7.5

9.0
8.7
9.0
10.2
9.8

13.7
13.3
13.8
15.1
14.5

26.2
25.6
26.2
28.6
27.1

55.6
53.9
53.8
58.8
56.0

122.2
118.4
119.5
128.7
120.4

250.3
244.9
248.6
269.1
255.1

1905.
1904.
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.

15.9
16.4
15.6
15.5
16.4
17.2

141.2
139.2
132.6
138.9
141.4
162.4

15.0
15.9
15.4
16.6
17.0
19.8

3.4
3.7
3.4
3.3
3.5
3.9

5.2
5.5
6.2
5.1
5.5
5.9

7.4
7.8
7.5
7.5
8.0
8.2

9.8
10.2
9.8
9.6
10.3
10.2

14.7
15.1
14.3
14.0
15.0
15.0

27.7
28.5
27.2
25.9
27.8
27.2

56.2
58.2
55.0
62.9
56.2
56.4

122.4
126.1
120.8
114.1
124.6
123.3

261.5
270.0
253.7
235.6
260.8
260.9

See footnotes at end of table.

60



111.1

2

19.0
19.3
19.7
20.1
19.8

2

20.5
20.8
21.5
21.0
21.3
2

22.2
22.1
22.1
23.5
24.1

2

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 181-192.

B 181-192

Death Rate, by Age and Sex: 1900 to 1970—Con.

Total1

Under
1 year

1-4
years

5-14
years

15-24
years

181

182

183

184

185

25-34
years

35-44
years

45-54
years

55-64
years

65-74
years

187

188

189

190

75-84
years

85 y e a r s
and over

Year
192

MALE

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

10.9
11.0
11.1
10.8
11.0

24.1
24.2
25.2
25.2
26.3

0.9
.9
.9
1.0
1.0

0.5
.5
.5
.5
.5

1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.7

2.2
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.0

4.0
4.1
4.1
3.9
3.9

9.6
9.6
9.8
9.6
9.8

22.8
23.1
23.7
23.0
23.3

48.7
50.3
51.9
50.2
51.2

100.1
97.6
98.8
96.2
98.5

178.2
195.5
203.9
203.8
209.3

1965
1964
1963...
1962
1961

10.9
10.8
11.1
10.9
10.7

27.1
27.7
28.6
28.7
28.6

1.0
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.1

.5
.5
.5
.5
.5

1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8

3.9
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.7

9.7
9.7
9.8
9.7
9.6

23.1
23.0
23.2
22.6
22.4

50.5
49.9
51.1
49.4
48.1

98.2
97.1
100.7
98.7
97.8

212.8
210.4
224.6
219.0
209.1

1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956

11.0
10.8
11.0
11.1
10.8

30.6
31.1
31.6
31.6
32.1

1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

.6
.6
.6
.6
.6

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7

1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9

3.7
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.7

9.9
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.6

23.1
22.8
23.0
23.5
23.0

49.1
47.9
48.5
48.8
47.2

101.8
99.1
101.4
100.7
100.6

211.9
205.4
208.3
201.9
195.1

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

10.8
10.7
11.1
11.1
11.1

32.1
33.0
34.7
36.2
36.6

1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5

.6
.6
.7
.7
.7

1.6
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.7

1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2

3.8
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.3

9.7
9.9
10.4
10.5
10.6

22.7
22.7
23.9
24.0
23.9

46.9
46.3
47.6
47.5
48.6

101.5
98.5
103.4
102.6
103.9

191.7
185.0
197.8
194.6
207.4

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

11.1
11.1
11.3
11.5
11.3

37.3
39.6
40.2
38.8
52.1

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.0

.7
.8
.8
.8
1.0

1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1

2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.6

4.3
4.4
4.7
4.8
4.9

10.7
10.8
11.2
11.3
11.2

49.3
48.4
48.8
49.2
47.5

104.3
103.8
105.1
106.6
104.1

216.4
215.0
226.4
229.3
221.1

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

12.6
12.4
12.4
11.7
11.8

47.6
49.1
49.3
54.4
58.6

2.2
2.5
2.8
2.6
3.0

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

2.7
2.8
2.6
2.3
2.3

3.5
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.3

5.5
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

11.6
11.7
12.2
12.1
12.2

49.1
50.2
52.6
51.3
52.6

107.7
110.7
117.2
111.0
115.2

220.7
225.5
242.6
222.1
231.9

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

12.0
11.7
11.7
12.5
12.7

61.9
60.3
65.2
68.7
70.7

3.1
3.4
4.1
4.5
4.7

1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.9
3.0

3.4
3.4
3.6
4.2
4.4

5.9
6.0
6.2
7.0
7.4

12.5
12.5
12.6
13.8
14.1

54.6
52.7
52.5
54.5
56.1

121.3
120.7
118.8
126.4
130.6

246.4
232.6
222.2
238.0
252.7

12.0
12.1
11.6
11.7
12.0

68.9
74.8
68.3
68.5
72.2

4.7
5.4
5.0
4.9
5.6

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.8

2.9
3.0
2.9
3.0
3.4

4.3
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.7

7.0
7.0
6.8
6.9
7.4

13.3
13.5
12.9
12.9
13.4

26.3
26.6
26.0
26.1
26.2

53.7
54.3
53.6
54.1
54.4

121.7
122.2
118.3
121.1
117.5

234.7
235.1
232.7
242.3
234.1

12.3
12.8
12.8
12.1
12.9

77.0
80.0
82.3
77.5
87.1

6.0
6.6
6.8
6.2
7.6

1.9
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1

3.5
3.7
3.8
3.5
3.7

4.9
5.2
5.1
4.8
5.0

7.5
8.0
8.0
7.6
7.9

13.6
14.1
14.1
13.2
13.9

26.6
26.9
26.5
25.0
26.0

55.8
58.4
58.5
55.2
57.6

119.1
128.9
132.3
122.6
131.8

236.7
259.8
271.5
254.2
281.3

12.4
12.3
12.7
12.3
11.9

84.6
86.2
90.2
87.0
90.1

6.7
7.2
8.5
7.9
8.4

2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.7

3.8
3.8
3.9
3.8
3.8

4.9
4.8
5.1
5.0
4.8

7.6
7.6
7.7
7.4
6.9

13.3
13.1
13.1
12.5
11.6

25.1
24.9
25.6
24.7
23.3

55.4
54.7
56.2
55.1
51.1

125.3
122.8
127.4
121.8
114.4

273.5
263.8
279.4
257.8
241.2

13.4
13.5
19.8
15.0
14.8

103.6
101.9
124.5
117.4
118.2

10.3
9.7
16.0
11.2
11.7

2.8
2.8
4.2
2.7
2.6

4.8
5.3
12.2
5.0
4.5

6.4
7.4
19.0
7.1
6.6

8.2
9.1
15.3
10.1
9.7

12.6
12.9
16.7
15.5
15.1

24.6
24.4
28.7
29.3
29.0

54.5
51.9
58.5
61.1
60.6

122.1
111.0
118.1
129.0
128.7

253.0
229.6
227.6
251.1
255.5

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

14.0
14.2
14.8
14.5
14.7

114.5
118.9
127.6
123.3
125.9

9.7
10.7
12.5
11.5
12.2

2.4
2.6
2.8
2.6
2.8

4.2
4.4
4.7
4.5
4.7

6.2
6.4
6.7
6.5
6.7

9.1
9.4
9.7
9.5
9.8

14.4
14.5
15.0
14.9
14.9

27.7
27.4
27.9
28.2
28.0

58.8
57.8
57.7
57.9
58.1

124.6
120.5
122.8
125.2
125.1

246.7
236.9
241.4
248.6
249.3

1910
1909
1908
1907
1906

15.6
15.1
15.5
17.0
16.7

145.5
139.9
147.0
152.9
160.2

14.6
14.1
14.6
15.3
16.4

3.0
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.4

4.8
4.6
5.0
5.8
5.7

6.9
6.6
7.0
8.1
7.9

10.0
9.5
9.8
11.4
10.9

15.2
14.8
15.2
16.8
16.0

28.7
27.7
28.4
31.1
29.4

58.7
57.0
56.4
62.7
58.2

127.4
123.9
125.9
134.0
126.5

255.8
251.4
251.5
275.0
261.6

1905
1904
1903
1902
1901...
1900.

16.7
17.3
16.4
16.4
17.3
17.9

156.6
153.9
146.6
153.4
156.4
179.1

15.8
16.6
15.9
17.1
17.7
20.5

3.4
3.7
3.5
3.4
3.7
3.8

5.3
5.5
5.3
5.2
5.7
5.9

7.6
8.0
7.7
7.7
8.3
8.2

10.6
11.1
10.4
10.3
11.0
10.7

16.0
16.4
15.5
15.1
16.1
15.7

29.8
31.1
29.0
28.0
29.5
28.7

59.0
61.7
58.5
56.5
59.2
59.3

128.8
132.6
126.8
120.5
129.7
128.3

270.5
280.7
262.7
248.6
268.1
268.8

1935
1934.._
1933
1932
1931

...

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923_
1922
1921
1920_
1919.1918
1917
1916

—

...

2

24.0
24.2
24.6
25.0
24.3

2

25.0
25.0
25.7
25.1
25.3
2

26.1
25.5
25.3
27.2
27.7

2

See f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




61

B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 181-192.

Death Rate, by Age and Sex: 1900 to 1970—Con.

Total1

Under
1 year

1-4
years

5-14
years

16-24
years

26-34
years

36-44
years

45-64
years

55-64
years

66-74
years

75-84
yean

85 years
and over

181

182

183

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

Year

FEMALE

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

8.1
8.1
8.2
8.0
8.1

18.6
18.6
19.2
19.4
20.3

0.8
.8
.8
.8
.8

0.3
.3
.3
.3
.3

0.7
.7
.7
.6
.6

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1

2.3
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3

5.2
5.1
5.3
5.1
5.2

11.0
11.1
11.4
11.2
11.2

26.8
27.1
27.8
27.3
28.1

66.8
66.3
68.3
66.9
69.6

155.2
188.0
191.7
188.6
195.1

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

8.0
8.0
8.2
8.1
7.9

20.9
21.4
21.8
21.9
22.0

.8
.9
.9
.9
.9

.3
.3
.4
.4
.3

.6
.6
.6
.6
.6

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.2

5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.1

11.3
11.4
11.8
11.6
11.5

27.7
27.8
28.6
28.3
27.9

70.0
70.4
73.5
73.3
72.8

195.3
193.8
201.4
196.0
187.8

I960*—
1959
1958
1957
1956

8.1
8.0
8.1
8.1
7.9

23.2
23.8
24.5
24.3
24.3

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

.4
.4
.4
.4

.6
.6
.6
.7
.7

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

2.3
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.3

5.3
5.2
5.4
5.5
5.4

12.0
11.8
12.1
12.4
12.3

28.7
28.6
29.4
30.0
29.4

76.3
75.5
77.4
78.5
78.7

190.1
186.8
191.0
179.6
173.0

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

7.9
7.8
8.1
8.1
8.2

24.7
25.3
26.5
27.9
27.8

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3

.4
.4
.4

.5
.5

.7
.7
.7
.8
.9

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

2.4
2.4
2.6
2.7
2.8

5.4
6.7
6.0
6.1
6.3

12.2
12.3
13.1
13.4
13.8

29.7
29.6
31.2
31.5
32.2

79.5
78.4
83.1
82.8
84.1

171.1
164.3
173.7
175.1
182.0

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

8.2
8.3
8.5
8.7
8.6

28.5
30.6
31.0
30.0
40.1

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.7

.5
.5
.6
.6
.7

.9
.9
1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
1.9

2.9
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.5

6.4
6.6
6.8
7.1
7.1

33.3
33.6
34.3
35.3
35.1

84.0
83.8
86.4
88.5
87.3

191.9
194.4
203.1
207.2
203.0

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

8.8
9.0
9.4
9.0
9.2

37.2
39.0
38.5
42.9
46.3

1.9
2.2
2.4
2.3
2.6

.7
.8
.8
.7
.8

1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

2.1
2.2
2.4
2.4
2.6

3.8
3.9
4.1
4.1
4.3

7.5
7.6
8.1
8.0
8.3

36.3
37.8
39.9
38.7
39.8

90.2
93.7
99.0
93.4
97.3

201.3
207.8
221.2
202.9
208.8

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

9.5
9.5
9.6
10.0
10.4

47.7
46.8
50.7
53.6
54.9

2.7
2.9
3.6
3.9
4.1

.9
.9
1.1
1.2
1.3

1.8
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5

2.7
2.9
3.1
3.5
3.8

4.6
4.6
4.9
5.4
5.6

8.6
8.9
9.1
9.7
10.0

42.2
41.7
41.8
43.4
45.4

103.7
105.1
103.7
108.4
113.5

227.6
216.3
205.4
219.0
235.3

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

9.9
10.0
9.7
10.0
10.1

52.8
58.5
54.0
63.9
56.5

4.1
4.7
4.4
4.4
4.9

1.4
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.5

2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.0

3.8
3.8
3.9
4.0
4.3

5.4
5.5
5.5
5.7
6.0

9.8
9.9
9.8
10.1
10.4

19.8
20.2
20.1
20.6
20.7

43.7
44.4
44.3
45.8
45.4

105.1
106.5
104.7
108.0
104.0

217.0
217.1
214.4
226.6
214.3

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926

10.4
11.0
11.1
10.5
11.3

60.7
62.9
63.6
60.0
68.4

5.2
5.9
6.1
5.6
6.8

1.5
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

3.2
3.5
3.6
3.4
3.7

4.4
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.8

6.1
6.6
6.9
6.5
6.8

10.6
11.1
11.3
10.8
11.4

21.2
21.8
21.8
20.6
22.0

46.8
49.4
49.9
47.0
49.9

106.6
116.0
118.6
109.6
119.5

221.4
250.2
265.9
247.0
278.4

1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

10.9
10.9
11.5
11.1
11.0

66.0
67.0
71.6
67.9
70.8

6.1
6.4
7.7
7.0
7.6

1.8
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.3

3.8
3.8
3.9
3.8
3.9

4.8
4.7
5.0
5.1
5.0

6.7
6.6
6.9
6.8
6.6

11.0
11.1
11.2
11.0
10.7

21.2
21.0
22.0
21.5
20.8

47.9
47.1
50.4
49.2
46.8

113.8
112.0
119.8
113.7
108.3

271.3
260.3
279.9
258.4
237.6

1920
1919
1918
1917
1916

12.6
12.3
16.4
12.9
12.8

80.7
79.7
98.5
91.5
92.8

9.5
8.8
15.5
10.1
10.5

2.5
2.6
4.1
2.4
2.3

5.0
5.3
9.4
4.4
4.2

7.1
7.6
14.0
5.9
5.7

8.0
8.1
11.3
7.9
7.7

11.7
11.5
13.6
12.0
11.9

22.4
21.6
24.0
24.0
23.9

50.5
48.0
51.5
53.4
53.6

115.9
105.0
108.3
119.2
119.5

244.7
216.8
218.1
242.1
246.6

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

12.3
12.4
12.8
12.7
13.0

90.0
95.1
101.7
98.5
101.8

8.8
9.7
11.4
10.4
11.3

2.2
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.6

3.9
4.0
4.1
4.0
4.3

5.4
5.6
5.7
5.7
6.0

7.4
7.5
7.7
7.6
7.9

11.6
11.6
11.8
11.6
11.9

23.2
22.7
22.9
23.3
23.4

52.5
50.4
50.5
51.1
51.9

116.0
111.0
113.4
115.5
115.5

235.3
227.3
231.7
237.1
244.2

1910
1909
1908
1907
1906

13.7
13.4
13.8
14 8
14.7

117.6
113.2
119.1
123.9
129.2

13.4
12.9
13.4
14.1
15.2

2.9
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.2

4.2
4.2
4.6
4.8
4.9

6.1
6.0
6.3
6.9
7.0

7.9
7.8
8.0
8.8
8.5

12.1
11.7
12.2
13.1
12.9

23.7
23.4
23.9
25.9
24.6

52.4
50.8
51.1
54.9
51.8

117.4
113.3
113.7
124.0
114.8

246.0
239.9
246.4
264.7
250.3

1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
1900

15.0
15.5
14.8
14.6
16.6
16.5

125.5
124.2
118.3
124.1
126.1
145.4

14.2
15.2
14.9
16.0
16.2
19.1

3.3
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.4
3.9

6.1
6.5
5.0
5.1
5.4
5.8

7.2
7.6
7.3
7.3
7.8
8.2

8.9
9.2
9.0
8.8
9.6
9.8

13.3
13.7
13.0
12.8
13.9
14.2

25.6
26.0
25.4
23.9
26.0
25.8

53.5
54.9
51.8
49.5
53.4
53.6

116.7
120.3
115.4
108.3
120.0
118.8

254.9
262.1
247.1
226.1
255.6
255.2

.4

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Age not reported included in "Total," but not distributed among specified age
groups.

62




2

14.0
14.3
14.8
15.2
15.3

2

15.9
16.4
17.2
16.7
17.1
2

18.0
18.6
18.6
19.6
20.3

2

2
Based on enumerated population adjusted for age bias in the population for Negro
and other races, 55 to 69 years old.

VITAL STATISTICS

Series B 193-200.

B 136-148

Death Rate, by Sex and by Selected Cause, for Massachusetts: 1860 to 1970

[Includes only deaths, excluding fetal deaths, occurring within Massachusetts, except for 1940-1970; for these years, data are for deaths occurring to residents of Massachusetts]
By sex per 1,000 population

Total

Male

193

cause per 100,000 population
Tuberculosis of
respiratory
system

Diphtheria

194

Female

197

10.1
10.6
10.9
10.7
10.7

11.0

4.0
3.3
4.4
4.8
5.7

2

9.6

10.6

10.8
10.8

11.0

—
—
—
—

_
(Z)
-

6.0
6.6
6.5
8.2

10.7
11.3
11.1
10.9

198

_

2.4
2.4
2.9
3.5
3.3

Typhoid
and
para- Measles
typhoid
fever 1

—
-

8.6

(Z)
0.1

199

(Z)
-

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

195

196

197

198

199

200

35.3
35.9

3.8
10.3

1890...
1889...
1888...
1887...
1886...

19.4
19.2
19.9
19.8
18.6

20.0
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

18.9
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

258.6
256.6
270.8
285.6
295.1

72.6
101.7
86.6
79.2
78.0

37.3
40.9
44.6
44.8
40.0

5.1
7.9
10.4
22.1
6.5

1885...
1884...
1883...
1882...
1881...

19.6
19.0
20.1
19.9
20.1

20.2
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

19.0
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

306.6
303.6
316.0
317.9
824.5

78.4
86.2
86.4
96.0
131.4

39.5
45.8
45.8
58.5
59.1

16.1
3.9
17.1
3.7
12.7

1.0
.2
.3
2.4
2.6

1880...
1879...
1878...
1877...
1876...

19.8
18.1
18.1
18.4
19.8

20.3
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

19.3
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

308.1
297.4
308.4
320.4
317.6

134.3
130.6
145.5
186.6
196.4

49.5
36.3
39.3
47.8
52.5

13.2
1.1
17.6
7.9
2.8

2.1
.4
.1
1.4
1.8

1875...
1874.__
1873...
1872. _.
1871...

21.8
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

20.5
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

347.4
328.0
353.6
362.6
339.3

113.8
56.7
47.4
49.1
50.0

64.1
71.2
89.5

.1
.3

21.7
18.6
21.6
22.9
18.7

74.7

14.1
10.0
11.6
27.9
8.8

2.1
1.6
42.6
67.2
19.7

1870...

.1
.1
.5

1867...
1866...

18.8
18.4
18.6
17.0
18.2

19.5
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

18.6
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

343.3
328.8
322.0
325.5
353.0

46.4
54.3
56.7
45.3
63.7

91.5
85.0
65.0
72.0
83.7

18.6
16.7
20.8
14.5
8.4

9.0
4.2
1.5
14.6
10.8

1865...
1864...
1863...
1862...
1861...
1860...

20.6
22.8
22.2
18.5
19.5
18.7

21.7
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
19.3

19.6
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
18.4

367.9
375.7
372.6
342.8
365.2

92.8
158.7
182.4
92.1
89.2
68.0

133.7
106.7
115.1
91.1
79.9
76.1

10.7
25.4
11.3
29.6
16.9
18.2

17.4
19.2
3.4
3.2
2.7
27.1

(Z)

9.3
20.2
36.9
34.6
42.9

(Z)
.2
.3
.2
.7

(Z)
(Z)

11.6
12.5
13.8
14.3
16.1

12.2
13.0
13.9
15.0
17.0

11.1
11.9
13.6
13.7
15.3

57.2
70.1
96.8
116.8
138.3

4.3
8.0
15.1
19.8
21.0

.9
1.8
2.4
6.7
12.5

3.3
8.4
9.1
7.3
11.6

16.7
18.4
17.4
17.5
18.1

17.6
19.2
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

15.8
17.6
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

163.5
190.3
190.4
197.4
207.4

22.1
52.8
38.2
26.4
54.5

17.9
22.1
22.3
24.7
23.2

8.4
11.7
8.8
3.1
6.0

19.3
19.0
19.1
20.5

(NA)
19.9
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
18.2
(NA)
(NA)

216.4
223.4
223.4
231.0

65.5
71.4
73.6
58.3

28.3
27.2
30.6
31.4

5.4
4.7
4.0
11.5

.4
.2
.3
.8

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)

mOmS...

.2

(Z)
(Z)
1.3
.4

111.1

0.1
.1
(Z)

.3
.4
.1

(Z)

2
Excludes approximately 6,000 deaths registered in Massachusetts, primarily to
residents of the State.

Represents zero.
NA Not available.
Z Less than 0.05.
Beginning 1958, includes "other salmonella infections."

Series B 201-213.

194

Smallpox

62.2
53.2

.1
.1
(Z)

11.9
11.5

-1

Typhoid
and
para- Measles
typhoid
fever

244.8
239.6

(Z)

(Z)

Diphtheria

(NA)
(NA)

.1

.1
.2
.3

Tuberculosis of
respiratory
system

(NA)
(NA)

.1

9.5
(NA)
11.1
10.8

12.2

Female

20.9
19.7

0.1
(Z)

(Z)~

Male

1892...
1891...

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

Total

Year

—

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
0.1

By cause per 100,000 population

193

Smallpox

200

11.6
(NA)
12.6
12.2

10.9
10.6

By sex per 1,000 population

Death Rate, by Age, for Massachusetts: 1865 to 1900

[Includes only deaths, excluding fetal deaths, occurring within Massachusetts.

Rate per 1,000 population for specified group]

Total

Under
1 year

1-4
years

5-9
years

10-14
years

15-19
years

20-29
years

30-39
years

40-49
years

50-59
years

60-69
years

70-79
years

80 years
and over

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

208

209

210

211

212

213

Year

1900...
1896
1890
1885

18.2
19.0
19.4
19.6

190.1
215.9
228.6
212.6

57.8
64.5
68.1
67.0

5.3
6.2
6.6
7.5

2.9
3.2
3.6
3.8

4.8
5.3
6.3
6.4

7.0
7.1
8.4
9.1

8.8
9.7
10.4
10.6

12.0
12.7
13.4
13.0

21.3
20.5
20.4
19.7

41.0
39.4
37.5
36.2

85.8
82.4
76.0
76.2

197.8
184.7
174.2
182.8

1880
1875
1870
1866

19.8
21.2
18.8
20.6

191.3
226.6
188.1
205.3

68.1
74.0
62.9
68.6

8.5
9.8
5.9
9.6

3.8
4.7
3.7
5.1

6.6
7.7
7.2
9.6

9.6
10.6
10.6
12.6

10.3
11.3
10.6
11.7

11.7
13.0
12.0
11.9

17.9
18.3
17.0
17.5

33.9
34.8
30.1
32.9

73.1
71.1
68.9
70.6

184.0
176.4
170.0
168.2




63

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 214-220

Series B 214-215.
Per 1,000
population

214

Year

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1

Per 1,000
population

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1

215

1970..
1969..
1968..
1967..
1966..

10.6
10.6
10.4
9.7
9.5

1965..
1964_.
1963..
1962..
19611960 *
1959 2.
1958..

Year

Marriage Rate: 1920 to 1970
Per 1,000
population

Year

215

76.7

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1

8.9
9.5
9.3
9.2
9.8

78.0
82.4
80.9
79.8
83.7

1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

10.9
11.7
13.2
12.7
12.1

76.5
83.0
93.0
88.5
82.8

9.3
9.0
8.8
8.5
8.5

75.0
74.6
73.4
71.2
72.2

1952.
1951
1950
1949.
1948

9.9
10.4
11.1
10.6
12.4

83.2
86.6
90.2
86.7
98.5

1939
1938
1937
1936
1935

10.7
10.3
11.3
10.7
10.4

73.0
69.9
78.0
74.0
72.5

8.5
8.5
8.4

73.5
73.6
72.0

1947
1946
1945

106.2
118.1
83.6

1934
1933
1932

10.3
8.7
7.9

71.8
61.3
56.0

12.2

Per 1,000
unmarried
females 1
215

1957
1956.
1955
1954
1953.

13.9
16.4

Per 1,000
population

214

79.1
76.4
75.6

80.0

Year

1931.
1930

8.6
9.2

61.9
67.6

1929.
1928
1927
1926
1925

10.1
9.8
10.1
10.2
10.3

75.5
74.1
77.0
78.7
79.2

1924
1923
1922
1921
1920

10.4

80.3
85.2
79.7
83.0
92.0

11.0
10.3
10.7
12.0

- Includes Alaska.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
1 5 years old and over.

Series B 216-220.

Divorce: 1920 to 1970

[Includes reported annulments]
Divorce rate

216
1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

Per 1,000
married
females 1
217

3.5
3.2
2.9
2.6
2.5

14.9
13.4
12.4
11.2
10.9

Percent of
spouses
separated

219

220

6.7
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.1

1.8
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.9

47
46
45
43
43

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.3

10.6
10.0
9.6
9.4
9.6

7.2
7.4
7.5
7.3
7.1

2.0
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.9

41
41
39
37
37

1960 *
1959 »
1958
1957
1956

2.2
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.3

9.2
9.3
8.9
9.2
9.4

7.2
7.0
6.4
6.7
6.5

1.8
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.8

35
33
32
31
32

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5

9.3
9.5
9.9
10.1
9.9

6.4
6.4
6.1
6.1
6.0

1.8
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.5

31
33
31
29
29

1950
1949..
1948
1947
1946
1945

2.6
2.7
2.8
3.4
4.3
3.5

10.3
10.6
11.2
13.6
17.9
14.4

5.8

1.8

29
29
33

.

.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
15 years old and over. Population enumerated as of April 1 for 1940, 1950, and
1960, and estimated as of July 1 for all other years; includes Armed Forces abroad for
1941-1946.

64




Divorce rate

Divorced
persons per
1,000 married,
spouse
present 2

218

Per 1,000
population

Year

Median
duration
of
marriage
(years)

2
3

Year

Per 1,000
population

Per 1,000
married
females 1

1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.

2.9

1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.

2.0

1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931

1.7
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.5

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926

1.6

7.5

1.6

7.8
7.8
7.5

1925
1924
1923.
1922
1921
1920

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.5

Persons 14 years old and over.
Includes Alaska.

2.6

2.4
2.2

1.9
1.9
1.9

12.0

11.0
10.1

9.4
8.5
8.4
8.7

1.8

1.7
1.7
1.6

1.6

7.8
7.5
6.1

6.1
7.1
8.0

7.2
7.2
7.1
6.6

7.2
8.0

Chapter B

Health and Medical Care (Series B 221-459)
B 221-235. Total and per capita national health expenditures, by
type of service, 1929-1970.
Source: U.S. Social Security Administration. 1929-1968, Compendium of National Health Expenditures Data, D H E W Pub.
No.(SSA)73-11903, table 6; 1969-1970, National Health Expenditures,
Calendar Years 1929-71, Research and Statistics Note, No. 3, 1973,
D H E W Pub. No. (SSA)73-11701, tables 2 and 8.
The general method of estimating national health expenditures is
to estimate the total outlays for each type of medical service or expenditure and to deduct the amounts paid to public and private
hospitals, physicians in private practice, etc., under each public
program. The figures for each public program are allocated by type
of expenditure on the basis of published and unpublished reports
for each program.
B 223, hospital care. The estimates of expenditures for hospital
care are based on the data on hospital finances published by the
American Hospital Association, and increased slightly t.o allow for
nonreporting and for osteopathic hospitals. Salaries of physicians
and dentists on the staffs of hospitals and hospital outpatient facilities are considered a component of hospital care and are, therefore,
included. Expenditures for the education and training of physicians
and other health personnel are included only where they are not
separable from the cost of hospital operations.
B 224-226, physicians' services, dentists' services, and other professional services. The estimates of expenditures for the services
of physicians, dentists, and other health professions in private practice
are based on the gross incomes from self-employment practice reported to the Internal Revenue Service on Schedule C of the incometax return (as shown in Statistics of Income, published by the Internal
Revenue Service). Data are totaled for practitioners in sole proprietorships and partnerships. The total also includes the estimated
gross income of offices that are organized as corporations, the gross
receipts of medical and dental laboratories estimated to represent
patient payments to medical laboratories, and the estimated expenses
of group-practice prepayment plans in providing physicians' services
(to the extent that these are not included in physicians' income from
self-employment). Estimated receipts of physicians for making life
insurance examinations are deducted.
Salaries of physicians and dentists on the staffs of hospitals and
hospital outpatient facilities are considered a component of hospital
care (series B 223).
Salaries of visiting nurse associations, estimated from surveys conducted by the National League for Nursing, are added to the private
income of other health professionals. Deductions and exclusions
are made in the same manner as for expenditures for physicians' and
dentists' services.
B 227-228, drugs and drug sundries, and eyeglasses and appliances.
The basic source of the estimates for these items is the report of
personal consumption expenditures in the Department of Commerce
national income accounts in the monthly Survey of Current Business.
Total expenditures for drugs and appliances are the sum of the Department of Commerce estimates and the expenditures under all
public programs for these products.
B 229, nursing-home care. Expenditures for nursing-home care
are derived by applying an estimated cost per patient day to the
total days of care. Total days of care are estimated by applying an
average occupancy rate, as reported by the Federal Housing Administration, to the number of nursing-home beds, as reported by
the Division of Hospital and Medical Facilities of the Public Health
Service in their annual report, Hill-Burton State Plan Data.



The cost per patient day was based on unpublished data from a
survey of nursing homes financed by the Social Security Administration.
B 230, expenses for prepayment and administration. Prepayment
expenses represent the difference between the earned premiums or
subscription charges of health insurance organizations and their
claim or benefit expenditures (expenditures in providing such services
in the case of organizations that directly provide services). In other
words, it is the amount retained by health insurance organizations
for operating expenses, additions to reserves, and profits, and is considered a consumer expenditure. The data on the financial experience of health insurance organizations are reported annually in a
Social Security Bulletin article on private health insurance.
The administration component represents the administrative expenses (where they are reported) of federally financed health
programs.
B 231, government public health activities. The Federal portion
consists of outlays for the organization and delivery of health services
and prevention and control of health problems by the Health Services
and Mental Health Administration, the National Institutes of Health,
and the Environmental Health Service of the Public Health Service.
Also included are outlays by other Federal agencies for similar health
activities. The data for these programs are taken from Office of
Management and Budget, Special Analyses, Budget of the United
States.
The State and local portion represents expenditures of all State and
local health departments and intergovernmental payments to the
States and localities for public health activities. I t excludes expenditures by other State and local government departments for airpollution and water-pollution control, sanitation, water supplies, and
sewage treatment. The source of these data is Government Finances,
published annually by the Bureau of the Census.
B 232, other health services. This series covers items of expenditures not elsewhere classified. It includes, for each public program,
the residual amount of expenditures not classified as a specific type of
medical service. In addition, it includes the following programs:
(1) Industrial in-plant services and activities of private voluntary
health agencies in the private sector and (2) school health services and
nonhospital Federal medical activities in the public sector.
B 233-235, research and medical-facilities construction. Expenditures for medical research, series B 234, include all such spending by
agencies whose primary object is the advancement of human health.
Also included are those research expenditures directly related to
health that are made by other agencies, such as those of the Department of Defense or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Research expenditures of drug and medical supply companies
are excluded since they are included in the cost of the product. The
Federal amounts represent those reported as medical research in the
Office of Management and Budget, Special Analyses, Budget of the
United States. The amounts shown for State and local governments
and private expenditures are based on published estimates that have
been prepared by the Resources Analysis Branch of the National
Institutes of Health, primarily in the periodic publication, Basic Data
Relating to the National Institutes of Health.
Expenditures for construction, series B 235, represent "value
put in place" for hospitals, nursing homes, medical clinics, and medical-reseiarch facilities but not for private office buildings providing
office space for private practitioners. Excluded are amounts spent
for construction of water-treatment or sewage-treatment plants and
Federal grants for these purposes.
65

B 167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

The data for value put in place for construction of publicly and
privately owned medical facilities in each year are taken from the
Department of Commerce monthly report, Construction Review.
B 236-247. National and personal health care expenditures, by source
of funds, 1929-1970.
Source: See sources for series B 221-235 (tables 3, 4, and 6 in first
source; tables 2 and 5 in second).
For the general method of estimating national health expenditures,
see text for series B 221-235. For the dollar amounts of gross national product used as the bases for series B 237, see series F 1.
For the most part, private expenditures represent direct payments
made by private consumers and insurance benefits paid in their behalf
by private insurers. In addition, they include private philanthropy;
amounts spent by industry for maintenance of in-plant health services;
expenditures made from capital funds for expansion, renovation, or
new construction of medical facilities; and outlays for research by
private foundations.
Public funds come from Federal, State, and local governments.
Personal health care expenditures include all such expenditures
except research, construction, expenses for prepayment and administration, government public health activities, and expenses of private
voluntary agencies for fund-raising and general-health activities.
B 248-261. National health expenditures, by type of expenditure,
1929-1970.
Source: See sources for series B 221-235 (tables 6 and 10 in first
source; tables 2 and 3 in second).
For the general method of estimating national health expenditures,
see text for series B 221-235. For the dollar amounts of gross national
product used as the bases for series B 249, see series F 1.
See also text for series B 236-247.
B 253, veterans' hospital and medical care. All veterans with
service-connected disabilities are eligible for a wide range of hospital
and medical services, as are veterans with nonservice-connected disabilities who are unable to pay for care. The medical care program
includes inpatient and outpatient hospital and clinic care, nursing bed
care (and a community nursing-home program where nursing bed
facilities are not available), day-care centers for psychiatric patients,
outpatient dental care, and the provision of prosthetic appliances.
There were 165 Veterans Administration hospitals which collectively in 1970 had a capacity of about 100,000 beds. Medical care
is also given to veterans in other Federal hospitals, in hospitals
attached to VA domiciliaries, and in State and local government and
private hospitals at the expense of the Veterans Administration.
All veterans' health and medical benefit data are provided by the
Veterans Administration together with administrative costs. See also
series Y 993-994 and Y 1010-1027.
B 254, general hospital and medical care. The Federal Government has directly provided hospital and medical care for specified
groups of beneficiaries since 1798 when President John Adams signed
into law "An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen." Since
that time, federally sponsored and financed medical care for specified
beneficiaries has been expanded to include Indians, Alaskan natives,
lepers, narcotic addicts, commissioned officers of the Public Health
Service and their dependents, personnel of the Coast Guard and the
former Coast and Geodetic Survey (now part of the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration) and their dependents, and owners
of commercial fishing boats. The Federal Government also provides
medical care in Federal prisons, in-plant health services for Federal
employees, medical care for certain Foreign Service employees overseas, medical care in the Ryukyu Islands (returned to Japan in 1972),
the Trust Territories, American Samoa, and the Canal Zone, and
support for certain medical institutions in the District of Columbia.
Federal outlays include operation of hospitals and medical care
66




units other than military and veterans' facilities and reimbursements to public and private hospitals for the care of Federal civilian
beneficiaries. Excluded where separately identifiable are training
grants and fellowships and expenditures for research and the construction of medical facilities.
The main source of these Federal civilian expenditures data is the
Office of Management and Budget, The Budget of the United States
Government and its Appendix and Special Analyses.
State, local, and county governments also provide hospital and
medical care for their residents. They own and operate long- and
short-term general, psychiatric, and tuberculosis hospitals and also
pay to or for the support of a few nongovernment facilities. Expenditures for psychiatric and tuberculosis care, traditionally considered a
government responsibility, represent the largest portion of all State
and local expenditures for hospital and medical care.
Data shown for series B 254 represent net expenditures for services.
State and local vendor payments for specific programs covered in
other series, as well as capital outlays and patient revenues, have
been excluded. State and local gross totals, as well as figures on
capital outlays and patient revenues are shown annually in Bureau
of the Census, Governmental Finances.
B 255, public assistance. Public assistance programs existed prior
to most of the social insurance programs. They comprise oldage assistance, medical assistance for the aged, aid to the blind, aid
to families with dependent children, aid to the permanently and
totally disabled, medical assistance, and State and locally financed
general assistance programs. See also text for series H 346-367.
Health expenditures for public assistance include money payments to needy recipients, assistance in kind, and vendor payments
on behalf of recipients for medical care and for other goods and services
(payments directly to the suppliers of service) made from Federal,
State, and local funds for the categorical assistance programs and
from State and local funds for the general assistance programs.
Administrative expenditures under the public assistance programs
are included, along with grants for demonstration projects under
section 1115 of the Social Security Act.
Beginning in 1966 the Medicaid program, enacted as Title X I X
of the Social Security Act in 1965, enabled the States to provide a
single health program for the indigent and medically indigent, with
Federal financial participation. Benefit standards required that a
participating State must provide a minimum of five basic services
to all Medicaid recipients (inpatient hospital care, out-patient
•hospital services, other laboratory and X-ray services, skilled nursinghome services for individuals aged 21 or older, and physicians'
services). In addition, States may offer other services—such as
drugs and dental care—for which they receive Federal matching
funds. Wide variation exists among the individual State programs
in terms of eligibility, and scope and duration of benefits.
Many States, with and without Medicaid programs, contribute
additional vendor medical payments out of State and local funds
under the category of general assistance.
Vendor payments for medical care under public assistance programs
are published annually by the National Center for Social Statistics
in Source of Funds Expended for Public Assistance Payments (report
F-l).
B 256, workmen's compensation. Workmen's compensation
legislation, designed to provide cash benefits and medical care when
a worker is injured on the job and an income to his survivors if he
is killed, was the first form of social insurance to develop widely in
the United States. The Federal Government led the way covering
its civilian employees with an act in 1908, reenacted in 1916. Similar
laws were enacted by 10 States in 1911; by the beginning of 1929,
all but five States had such laws and, by 1948, all States had them.
See also text for series H 332-345.
Each of the States operates its own workmen's compensation
program, independent of any Federal legislative or administrative
responsibility. As a result, there are wide differences among States

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE
in the scope of employments covered, the amount and duration of
benefits paid, and the methods used to insure that compensation will
be paid when due.
Workmen's compensation expenditures include: (1) Periodic cash
payments to the worker during periods of disability and (in some
States) to his dependents; (2) death and funeral benefits to the
worker's survivors; (3) lump-sum settlements; (4) medical and rehabilitative services; and (5) the administrative costs incurred by
government bodies in operating or supervising the programs.
Workmen's compensation medical benefits include those for medical
and rehabilitative services. Specific medical benefits are included in
the law of each State; they are provided without limit as to time
and amount in about four-fifths of the States.
Medical benefit payments include the estimated amounts paid
out by private insurance carriers, by State insurance funds, and
by employers as self-insurers. Also included are the amounts paid
under the Federal workmen's compensation programs such as
the Federal Employees' Compensation Act, Longshoremen's and
Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, War Hazards Compensation
Act, and the Defense Bases Compensation Act. Data for periods
prior to 1959 exclude expenditures under the laws in Alaska and
Hawaii.
Workmen's compensation medical benefit data are estimated
annually by the Social Security Administration, using data primarily
compiled by the National Council on Compensation Insurance.
The data are published regularly in the Social Security Bulletin (for
recent years, in January issues).
See also text for series H 332-345.
B 257, Defense Department hospital and medical care. Hospital
and medical care for military personnel have been a Federal responsibility since the 18th century. Active-duty personnel have been
provided with complete medical care incident to other necessities
of life—food, shelter, and clothing. The armed services provide
preventive treatment, curative and rehabilitative services in military
hospitals, outpatient clinics, dispensaries, and field and shipboard
stations. In 1965 there were 187 hospitals owned and operated by
the armed services—51 Army hospitals, 37 Navy hospitals and 99
Air Force hospitals—with a total complement of 36,066 beds.
Figures for series B 257 include the expenses of operating military
hospitals, clinics and other medical facilities, the salaries of military
medical personnel, payments for medical care in nonmilitary facilities
and expenditures for the dependents' medical care program.
B 258, school, maternal, and child health services. School health
programs of educational agencies are programs financed and administered by State and local departments of education. These
programs include medical and dental screening, first aid, the salaries
of school nurses and/or doctors employed by local school districts
and the expenses of health supplies. Data are from the Office of
Education.
Programs for maternal and child health at the Federal level were
established under Title V of the Social Security Act. They are
designed to encourage, extend, and improve health services for
mothers and children, especially in rural and low-income areas.
Under the maternal and child health program, Federal grants
are matched and used by State health agencies to provide maternity
clinics, well-child and pediatric clinics, inpatient hospital services,
health services for school children, dental care, and immunization.
Under the crippled children's program, Federal grants are used
by State health and crippled children's agencies to locate crippled
children; to provide medical, surgical, corrective and other services
and care for crippled children; and to provide facilities for diagnosis,
hospitalization, and after-care for these children.
B 259, other. The category "other" includes the following:
(1) temporary disability insurance, (2) other public health activities,
(3) medical vocational rehabilitation, (4) special Office of Economic
Opportunity (OEO) programs, and (5) beginning 1966, health
insurance for the aged (Medicare).



B 428-447

The temporary disability programs, as enacted by four States
(Rhode Island, California, New Jersey, and New York) in the 1940's,
are designed to replace one-half or more of the weekly wage loss
attributable to illness or off-the-job injury.
For a description of other public health activities, see text above
for series B 231.
Medical vocational rehabilitation refers to assistance given the
physically and mentally handicapped so that they may be prepared
for and placed in gainful occupations. Included among vocational
rehabilitation basic services are such medical services as study and
diagnosis to assess the extent of disability and the individual's work
capacities; medical, surgical, and hospital treatment and related
therapy to remove or reduce the disability; and provision of prosthetic
devices. Data on Federal, State, and local expenditures for this
program are provided by the Rehabilitation Services Administration.
The OEO programs are aimed at developing and demonstrating
more effective ways of delivering quality health care to poor
families. OEO health funds include grants and contracts to aid
local health services and resources and are reported in the Special
Analysis of the Budget (see above for series B 254).
Federal health insurance for the aged (Medicare) became effective
July 1, 1966, providing hospital and medical protection to an enrolled population aged 65 and over. Benefits under the hospital
program (Part A) cover specified inpatient hospital services, posthospital services in a "participating" extended-care facility, and
home health visits. Under the supplementary medical program
(Part B), payment is provided for physicians' services (including
home and office visits), home health visits, outpatient hospital
services, outpatient physical therapy services, diagnostic X-ray and
laboratory tests, radiation therapy, prosthetic devices, ambulance
services, and certain other medical supplies. Payments for
deductibles, coinsurance, and noncovered services are not included
here.
Financing of the hospital insurance program is on a self-supporting basis through a Federal tax applied to a portion of current earnings and paid by employees, employers, and self-employed persons.
The tax proceeds are placed in the hospital insurance trust fund,
from which benefits and administrative expenses are paid. The
supplementary medical insurance program is financed through
monthly premium payments paid by enrollees and matched by the
Federal Government. These amounts are paid into the supplementary medical insurance trust fund from which benefits and
administrative expenses are paid. Premium payments are thus included in the expenditures of the Medicare program.
For additional detail for public program expenditures, see U.S.
Social Security Administration, Personal Health Care Expenditures,
by State, vol. I, Public Funds, 1966 and 1969.
B 262-274. Indexes of medical care prices, 1935-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index,
various monthly issues.
For description and historical development of the consumer price
index, see text for series E 135-166.
See the source for more detail for various component indexes of
medical care prices.
B 275-276.

Physicians, 1850-1970.

Source: Superintendent of the U.S. Census, 1850, Statistical View
of the United States . . . a Compendium of the Seventh Census; 1860,
Population of the United States in 1860. U.S. Bureau of the Census,
1870-1930 (decennial years), Sixteenth Census Reports, Comparative
Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870 to 191*0, p. I l l ; 1940
and 1950, U.S. Census of Population, 1950, vol. II, part 1, pp. 1-266
to 1-269. American Medical Association, 1870-1934, R. G. Leland,
Distribution of Physicians in the United Staies, Chicago, 1936, pp. 7
and 79 (copyright); 1936-1957, the American Medical Directory,
67

B 167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

vols. 14-20 (copyright). 1958 edition includes summary for 19061957. U.S. Public Health Service, 1958-1970, Health Resources
Statistics, 1971, p. 147, and unpublished data; compiled from data
provided by American Medical Association and American Osteopathic
Association.
The census data for 1940 and 1950 are for employed civilian physicians; figures for prior census years are largely for gainful workers
and may include physicians not in active medical practice. See
text for series D 75-84 for explanation of difference between employed
persons and gainful workers. The 1910 census figure includes osteopaths; earlier census figures include osteopaths, chiropractors, and
healers (not elsewhere classified).
The American Medical Directory figures pertain to the total number
of physicians, including those retired or not in practice for other
reasons and those in the Federal service. They exclude graduates
of the years concerned.
Population figures used to compute physician-population rate for
census years, 1850-1930, include Armed Forces overseas; only the
civilian population is used for 1940 and 1950. Rates for years prior
to 1963, excluding 1960, are based on the Census Bureau population
estimates as of July 1, including Armed Forces overseas. Rates for
years 1960 and 1963-1970 are based on Census Bureau estimates of
civilian population in the 50 States, District of Columbia, outlying
areas, U.S. citizens in foreign countries, and the Armed Forces in the
United States and abroad as of December 31.
B 277. Physicians admitted to U.S. as immigrants, 1901-1970.
Source: U.S. Public Health Service, Foreign Trained Physicians
and American Medicine, DHEW Publication No.(NIH)73-325,
table Al. Compiled from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service data.
B 278-280. Medical schools, students, and graduates, 1810-1970.
Source: 1810-1840, American Medical Association, 1956 American
Medical Directory (copyright); later years, annual reports of the
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the American Medical
Association as follows: 1850-1919, Journal of the American Medical
Association, vol. 79, No. 8, pp. 629-633, Aug. 1922; 1920-1930,
Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 105, No. 9, p. 686,
Aug. 1935; 1931-1957, Edward L. Turner, et al., Journal of the
American Medical Association, vol. 165, No. 11, p. 1420, November
1957. (Copyright.) 1958-1970, U.S. Public Health Service, Health
Resources Statistics, 1971, p. 88, and unpublished data.
Data on the number of medical schools, students, and graduates
prior to 1900 are fragmentary and of dubious accuracy. The first
medical school in the United States was founded in 1765. In 1800
three schools graduated students, with the number of schools increasing steadily from 52 in 1850 to a maximum of 162 in 1906. From
1906 to 1929, the number of schools declined sharply, largely because
of the inspection and classification system begun in 1904 by the
American Medical Association Council on Medical Education. By
1929, only one unapproved school remained.
B 281-282. Dentists, 1810-1970.
Source: 1810 and 1840, John T. O'Rourke and Leroy M. S. Miner,
Dental Education in the United States, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1941, p. 298 (copyright). 1820 and 1830, Harris' Principles
and Practice of Dental Surgery, Lindsay and Blakiston, Philadelphia,
1848, pp. 36-37. 1850-1950 (decennial years), same sources as
series B 275-276. 1893-1928, Polk's Dental Register and Directory
of the United States and Dominion of Canada, R. L. Polk and Co.,
Chicago, 1928, and prior editions (copyright). 1947-1957, Distribution of Dentists in the United States by State, Region, District, and
County, American Dental Association, Chicago, 1958, and prior
editions. (Copyright by the American Dental Association. Reprinted
by permission.) 1958-1970, U.S. Public Health Service, Health
Resources Statistics, annual issues, and unpublished data; compiled
from American Dental Association data.
68




The census data for 1940 and 1950 are for employed civilian dentists; figures for prior census years are largely for gainful workers
and may include dental students and dentists not in active dental
practice. See text for series D 75-84 for explanation of difference
between employed persons and gainful workers.
The 14 editions of Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United
States and Dominion of Canada list by State all dentists for 1893-1928.
The American Dental Directory, first published in 1947, lists by State
all dentists, including those retired or not in practice for other reasons
and those in the Federal dental service. The figures for all dates
include graduates of the years concerned.
Prior to 1963, the population figures used to compute the dentistpopulation rate are the same as those used for the physician-population rate. See text for series B 275-276. Population figures used
to compute the dentist-population rate for 1963-1970 include all
persons in the United States and in the Armed Forces overseas as
of July 1.
B 283. Dental schools, 1840-1970.
Source: 1840-1945, Harlan Hoyt Horner, Dental Education Today,
p. 30 (copyright 1947 by University of Chicago); 1946-1957, American
Dental Association Council on Dental Education, Dental Students'
Register, Chicago, annual publications (copyright). 1958-1970, U.S.
Public Health Service, Health Resources Statistics, 1971, p. 77, and
unpublished data.
Horner's data are compiled from Dorothy Fahs Beck, The Development of the Dental Profession in the United States, dissertation of the
University of Chicago, 1932, and from records of the Council on
Dental Education of the American Dental Association. Additional
data may be obtained from the following sources cited by Beck:
W. J. Gies, Dental Education in the United States and Canada, Carnegie
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin No. 19,
1926, p. 42; Polk's Dental Register and Directory of the United States
and Canada, R. L. Polk and Co., Chicago, 1925, p. 35; W. J. Gies,
"Additional Remarks on a Reference to the Carnegie Foundation's
Study of Dental Education," Journal of Dental Research, vol. 10,
p. 32, February 1930; W. J. Greenleaf, Dentistry, Career Series,
Leaflet No. 7, Office of Education, pp. 7-10. The Beck tabulation
also appears in Frederick B. Noyes, "Dental Education, 1911-36,"
Oral Hygiene, vol. 26, p. 24, January 1936.
The first dental school in the United States was organized in 1840.
Before that, all physicians practiced some dentistry, a few limiting
their practice to this specialty. The dental practitioners who were
not physicians learned their trade as apprentices or were self-taught.
From 1840 to 1880 apprentice training was the chief source of supply,
but by 1880 most States had enacted laws requiring graduation from
a dental school.
B 284. Dental students, 1921-1970.
Source: 1921-1934, Frederick B. Noyes, "Dental Education, 191136," Oral Hygiene, vol. 26, January 1936, p. 28 (copyright); 19351957, American Dental Association Council on Dental Education,
Dental Students' Register, annual publications (copyright); 1958-1970,
see source for series B 283.
Sources cited by Noyes are: W. J. Gies, Journal of the American
Dental Association, vol. 18, p. 593, April 1931, and Dental Educational
Council of America, statistical reports.
B 285. Dental graduates, 1850-1970.
Source: See source for series B 283.
Annual figures for graduates for 1841-1924, are also presented in
Polk's Dental Register, 1925, p. 34; but the figures for the early years
far exceed those shown elsewhere in histories of dentistry as well as
those shown here.
B 286-287. Graduate nurses, 1910-1970.
Source: 1910-1950, U.S. Public Health Service, Health Manpower
Source Book 2, Nursing Personnel, pp. 14-15. 1953 and 1955, Ameri-

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE
can Nurses Association, Facts About Nursing, New York, 1956-57
edition, p. 8 (copyright). 1956-1970, U.S. Public Health Service,
Health Resources Statistics, 1971, p. 177, and unpublished data;
compiled from data provided by American Nurses Association.
The estimates for 1910-1950 were obtained by subtracting student
nurses from the number of nurses reported in the decennial censuses.
Census data for 1910-1930 are for gainful workers; for 1940 they
include employed nurses and those seeking work; and for 1950 they
include employed civilian nurses. See text for series D 75-84 for
explanation of difference between employed persons and gainful
workers.
The estimates for 1953 and 1955 were prepared jointly by the
American Nurses Association, the National League for Nursing, and
the Public Health Service. They are based partly on information
supplied by hospitals, schools of nursing, public health agencies,
boards of education, and nursing homes. Estimates of nurses in
private duty, doctors' offices, industry, and other nursing fields were
based on the American Nurses Association Inventory of 1951 adjusted
according to trends observed in more recent State surveys of nursing
needs and resources.
Population figures used to compute nurse-population rates for
1910-1940 include Armed Forces overseas. The 1950 rate is based on
the civilian population. Rates for 1953-1955 and 1958-1962 are
based on the Census Bureau population estimates, including Armed
Forces overseas, as of January 1 of the following year. Rates for
1964-1970 are based on Census Bureau population estimates for
civilians and the Armed Forces in the United States as of December 31.
B 288-290.

Nursing schools, students, and graduates, 1880-1970.

Source: 1880-1927 and 1931, U.S. Office of Education, Biennial
Survey of Education in the United States: 193^-36, vol. II, chap. IV,
p. 294. 1929 and 1932, The Committee on the Grading of Nursing
Schools, The Second Grading of Nursing Schools, New York, 1932, p. 9.
1935-1939, American Nurses Association, Facts About Nursing, 19i6,
New York, 1946, pp. 32 and 34; 1940-1955, Facts About Nursing,
1957, pp. 67 and 71 (copyright). 1956-1970, U.S. Public Health
Service, Health Resources Statistics, 1971, p. 181; compiled from data
provided by American Nurses Association.
Nursing education began in this country in 1873 with the opening of three schools.
These schools offered students an opportunity to learn by doing, under the tutorship for 1 year of a superintendent who had been trained in one of the European
schools. . . . By 1893 about 70 schools were in o p e r a t i o n . . . . As State licensing
bodies came into existence, counts of State approved schools and of their students
began to be available. Since only graduates of State approved schools could stand
for licensure examinations, nonapproved schools tended to close as the effect of
licensure became felt. Not until 1923 was machinery for approving schools in
operation in every State. (U.S. Public Health Service, Health Manpower Source
Book 2, Nursing Personnel, p. 33.)

B 291-304. Rates per 100,000 population for specified reportable
diseases, 1912-1970.
Source: 1912-1919, U.S. Public Health Service, Public Health
Reports, various issues; 1920-1950, U.S. National Office of Vital
Statistics, Vital Statistics—Special Reports, vol. 37, No. 9; 1951-1970,
U.S. Center for Disease Control, Morbidity and Mortality, Weekly
Report, Annual Supplement, Summary, 1960 and 1970.
The rates refer to the number of notifiable diseases occurring within
the United States per 100,000 population. For 1920-1970, rates are
based on the total resident population. Each State makes its own
laws and regulations prescribing the diseases to be reported, the
agencies and persons required to report, and penalities for failure to
report. All States have entered voluntarily into a cooperative agreement to report to the Federal Government.
The notification of disease in the United States began in the colonial
period on a local basis, particularly in port cities. It was usually
limited to periods when epidemics of pestilential disease threatened
or were in progress. Statewide notification was not required until
1883, when Michigan passed a law requiring physicians and householders to report certain diseases to health officers or boards of health.
During the next three decades all States made similar requirements.



B 428-447

In response to the need for nationwide statistical information on
epidemic diseases, a law was passed in 1878 providing for the collection of such statistics. By 1912, data were supplied regularly by 19
States and the District of Columbia on diphtheria, measles, poliomyelitis, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and smallpox.
State health authorities now report weekly on 25 diseases and annually
on about 40. Most States require the reporting of additional diseases.
The Public Health Service has changed its form of reporting several
times and some of the rates shown here do not appear in the published
reports. Since the data were originally shown only for the individual
States, a rate for the country was obtained for each disease by combining the information only for those States reporting it, the denominators being the population of the reporting States.
For trends of sickness and accident among groups of male and
female industrial workers (1917-1950, for cases disabling for 1 day or
longer, and 1921-1952, for cases disabling for 8 days or longer), see
W. M. Gafafer, "Industrial Sickness Absenteeism Among Males and
Females During 1950," Public Health Reports, vol. 66, No. 47, pp.
1550-1552, November 1951. See also "Rates for Specific Causes in
1952 for the Year and Last Two Quarters—Industrial Sickness Absenteeism," Public Health Report, vol. 68, No. 11, pp. 1052-1055,
November 1953; and S. D. Collins, "Long-Time Trends in Illness and
Medical Care," Public Health Monograph, No. 48, p. 32.
Civilian illness rates for the United States are not available for a
long period. However, records of illness (admission to sick report)
among the active-duty personnel of the Army are available back to
1819, and those for the Navy back to 1865. See U.S. Army, Annual
Reports of the Surgeon General on Medical Statistics, and U.S. Navy,
Annual Reports of the Surgeon General on Medical Statistics. For
annual days sick per person, computed from Army and Navy data,
see S. D. Collings, "Long-Time Trends in Illness and Medical Care,"
Public Health Monograph, No. 48, p. 37.
B 305-400 and B 413-422.

General note.

Until 1953, when it discontinued registration of hospitals, the
American Medical Association (AMA) collected data annually from
all hospitals registered by it, and published them in the Hospital
Number of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Registration was a basic recognition extended to hospitals and related
institutions in accordance with requirements officially adopted by its
House of Delegates.
Figures from the AMA presented in series B 319-330, B 345-358,
and B 371-380 are not entirely comparable with similar data provided by the American Hospital Association (AHA) because the
standards required for "listing" or "recognition" of hospitals by the
AHA differ from those required by the AMA. Statistics of hospitals
obtained from the AHA's annual survey of hospitals are published
annually in Hospitals, Guide Issue, and cover all hospitals accepted
for registration by the AHA. To be accepted for registration, a
hospital must meet certain requirements, as follows: It must have at
least 6 beds for the care of nonrelated patients for an average stay of
over 24 hours per admission; be constructed and equipped to insure
safety of patients and to provide sanitary facilities for their treatment; have an organized medical staff, registered nurse supervision,
and nursing care for round-the-clock patient care; maintain clinical
records on all patients and submit evidence of patient care by doctors;
provide minimal surgical and obstetrical facilities or relatively complete diagnostic and treatment facilities; have diagnostic X-ray and
clinical laboratory services readily available; and offer services more
intensive than those required merely for room, board, personal services, and general nursing care.
Short-term hospitals are those in which over 50 percent of all
patients admitted have a stay of less than 30 days; long-term, those
in which over 50 percent of all patients admitted have a stay of 30
days or more. General hospitals accept patients for a variety of acute
medical and surgical conditions, and, for the most part, do not admit
cases of contagious disease, tuberculosis, and nervous and mental
69

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 167-220

disease. Special hospitals are those devoted to the treatment of
some particular disease or group of diseases or some particular group
in the population. Among the former are orthopedic, contagious
disease, chronic and convalescent, and eye, ear, nose, and throat
hospitals; the latter include maternity, children's, and industrial
hospitals. Psychiatric hospitals include those providing temporary
or prolonged care for the mentally ill, the mentally retarded, epileptic,
and persons with alcoholic or other addictive diseases. Tuberculosis
hospitals include sanatoria or hospitals specifically for the care of
tubercular patients.
Governmental hospitals include those operated by Federal, State,
and local governments, the latter including county, city, city-county,
and hospital district. Nonprofit hospitals are those operated not
for profit by churches and by associations of citizens or fraternal
organizations. Proprietary hospitals are operated for profit by
individuals, partnerships, or corporations.
Number of beds includes beds, cribs, and pediatric bassinets normally available for inpatients. It excludes newborn infant bassinets.
Data from the AHA relate generally to the year ending September
30 or to the fiscal year closest to that date.

Admissions refer to the number of patients accepted for inpatient
service during the 12-month period, either as first admissions or
readmissions. Births are excluded.
See also general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.

B 305-318. Hospitals and beds, by type of service and ownership
(AHA), 1946-1970.

See text for series B 359-370 and general note for series B 305-400
and B 413-422.

Source: American Hospital Association, Chicago, Hospitals, Guide
Issue, part II, annual issues (copyright; reprinted with permission).
See general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.

B 389-400.

B 319-330.

Hospitals and beds, by type of service (AMA), 1909-1953.

Source: American Medical Association, Chicago, 1909, 1914, 1918,
and 1921, American Medical Directory, 1921 and prior editions; 1920
and 1923-1953, Journal of the American Medical Association, Hospital
Number: 1920, April 1921 issue, pp. 1083-1103; 1923 and 1927-1933,
March 1934 issue, pp. 1008-1009; 1924, March 1925 issue, pp. 961970; 1925, April 1926 issue, pp. 1009-1055; 1926, March 1927 issue,
pp. 789-839; 1934-1953, May 1954 issue, pp. 9-10. (Copyright.)
Although the AMA's annual census was begun in 1920, complete
data on the number of hospital beds classified by type of service are
available only from 1925. In addition to information on number of
hospitals and beds, the Hospital Number of the AMA Journal presented statistics on admissions, average daily census, and births.
See also general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.
B 331-344. Hospitals and beds, by ownership or control (AHA),
1946-1970.
Source: See source for series B 305-318.
See general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.
B 345-358. Hospitals and beds, by ownership or control (AMA),
1909-1953.
Source: American Medical Association, Chicago, Journal of the
American Medical Association, Hospital Number: 1909, 1914, 1918,
and 1934-1953, May 1954 issue, pp. 4, 7-8; 1923 and 1927-1933,
March 1934 issue, pp. 1006-1007; 1924, March 1925 issue, pp. 961970; 1925, April 1926 issue, pp. 1009-1055; 1926, March 1927 issue,
pp. 789-839. (Copyright.)
See general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.
B 359-370. Average daily census and admissions to hospitals, by
type of service and ownership (AHA), 1946-1970.
Source: See source for series B 305-318.
Average daily census is defined as the average number of inpatients
receiving care each day during the 12-month period, excluding the
newborn.

70


B 371-380. Average daily census and admissions to hospitals, by
type of service (AMA), 1923-1953.
Source: American Medical Association, Chicago, Journal of the
American Medical Association, Hospital Number: 1925, April 1926
issue, p. 1009; 1923, 1927, and 1929-1933, March 1934 issue, pp.
1008-1009; 1934-1953, May 1954 issue, pp. 9-10. (Copyright.)
See text for series B 359-370 and general note for series B 305-400
and B 413-422.
B 381-388.

Hospital use rates, 1931-1970.

Source: 1931-1966, U.S. Public Health Service, Health, Education,
and Welfare Trends, part 1, various annual issues (based on data
prepared by American Medical Association and American Hospital
Association); 1967-1970, American Hospital Association, Chicago,
unpublished data.

Hospital expense per patient day, 1946-1970.

Source: American Hospital Association, Chicago, 1946-1964,
Hospitals, Guide Issue, part 2, Aug. 1, 1965, pp. 448-449; 1965-1970,
Hospitals, Guide Issue, part 2, Aug. 1, 1972, pp. 460-462. (Copyright.)
Payroll expenses include all salaries and wages except, beginning
1951, those paid to interns, residents, student nurses, and other
trainees. All professional fees and the salary expenditures excluded
from payroll are defined as nonpayroll expenses and are included in
total expenses.
See also general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.
B 401-412. Persons covered by private health insurance for hospital
and surgical benefits, 1939-1970.
Source: U.S. Social Security Administration, Social Security
Bulletin, February 1973 and earlier issues.
The data for insurance companies are from the Health Insurance
Institute, Source Book of Health Insurance Data, and were developed
from surveys and reports of insurance companies and other health
insurance plans, government agencies, and hospital and medical
associations. The data for Blue Cross-Blue Shield are from annual
reports of the Blue Cross-Blue Shield Associations. The data for
independent plans—plans other than Blue Cross-Blue Shield and
insurance companies—are from annual surveys of these plans by
the Social Security Administration.
In 1970, there were many different health insurance organizations
in the United States—75 Blue Cross plans, 72 Blue Shield plans, about
1,000 commercial insurance companies, and more than 500 independent plans. They insured in varying degree against the costs of
hospital and surgical care, other physicians' services, nursing care,
dental and vision care, and prescribed drugs.
Health insurance policies, both group and individual, are written
by health insurance companies, as well as by life and health, casualty,
and multiple line companies.
Because one plan may provide only one type of benefit and because
the benefits may be limited, families frequently carry several forms of
health insurance; for example, Blue Cross for hospital insurance,
Blue Shield for surgical insurance, in-hospital medical expense insurance, and an insurance policy applicable to all three types of expense. Multiple coverage may also occur when husband and wife
are both employed and both cover self, spouse, and dependents under
the insurance plan at the work place.

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 428-447

Hospitalization insurance provides benefits for hospital charges
incurred by an insured person because of an illness or injury. Surgical
insurance pays benefits toward physicians' surgical fees. The
Social Security Administration publishes its own estimates of the
net number (of different persons) and the percentage of the civilian
population covered by hospital and surgical insurance. These
estimates, which usually run 5-10 percentage points lower than
those published by the Health Insurance Institute, are based on
household interviews conducted by the National Center for Health
Statistics (NCHS) during 1967 and 1968, and on findings of various
household surveys by the Health Information Foundation and the
Public Health Service in 1953-1963.

other 7 percent are in general hospitals and residential treatment
centers for emotionally disturbed children.) The number of resident
patients in these hospitals peaked in 1955 (the year during which the
use of tranquilizers became widespread in these hospitals) and has
decreased since. Coupled with this decrease in residents is an increase in admissions offset by the practice of returning many hospitalized patients to the community for treatment.
There are also programs for preventing hospitalization in the many
outpatient psychiatric clinics and community mental health centers.
These, along with the general hospital psychiatric services, provide
about three-fourths of the care to the mentally ill in the existing
psychiatric facilities.

B 413-422. Hospitals—assets, expenses, and personnel, by type of
control and service, 1946-1970.

B 428-443. Public institutions for the mentally retarded, 1936-1970.

Source: See source for series B 389-400.
Assets comprise plant assets (land, buildings, equipment, and
reserves for construction, improvement, and replacement—less deductions for depreciation) plus all other assets, including endowment
fund principal and general and temporary fund balances.
Expenses include all expenses covering the 12-month period, both
total and payroll. Payroll expenses include all salaries and wages
except those paid to interns, residents, student nurses, and other
trainees. All professional fees and those salary expenditures excluded
from payroll are defined as nonpayroll expenses and are included in
total expenses.
Data on personnel refer to the number of persons on the payroll
at the close of the 12-month reporting period. Except as noted, they
include full-time equivalents of part-time personnel but exclude
trainees (student nurses, interns, residents, and other trainees),
private duty nurses, and volunteers. Full-time equivalents are
calculated on the basis that two part-time persons are equal to one
full-time person.
See also general note for series B 305-400 and B 413-422.

Source: 1936-1945, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Patients in Mental
Institutions, 191*5, pp. 31 and 35-37; 1946-1970, U.S. Social and
Rehabilitation Service, Residents in Public Institutions for the Mentally Retarded, annual issues.

From 1946 to 1968 the National Institute of Mental Health was
responsible for collecting and publishing data on the institutionalized
mentally retarded in the United States. Since 1969, the annual
census of the public institutions of the mentally retarded has been the
responsibility of the Social and Rehabilitation Service.
B 432-433, admissions. Includes first and readmissions. First
admissions are all patients admitted to a public institution for the
mentally retarded without a record of previous care, i.e., a record of
an admission and a formal discharge, in either a public or private
institution anywhere. Thus, a patient coming into a public institution for the mentally retarded from a hospital for mental disease
would be considered a first admission. Readmissions are all patients
admitted with a record of previous care in a public or private institution. Admissions per 100,000 civilian population, series B 433,
measures the proportion of people coming under care during the year.
B 435, deaths in institutions. This category includes only deaths
B 423-427. Patients in mental hospitals, by type of hospital, 1904- occurring to patients resident in the institution and does not include
deaths among patients on leave, even though these patients are still
1970.
on the institution books.
Source: U.S. Census Office, 1904, Insane and Feeble-Minded in
B 436, net live releases. This concept takes into account moveHospitals and Institutions, 1901* (special report). U.S. Bureau of the ment of patients into and out of the institution since this quantity
Census, 1910, Insane and Feeble-Minded in Institutions, 1910; 1923- is the number of placements on extramural care plus direct discharge
1946, Patients in Mental Institutions (annual reports, varying titles). from the institution less the number of returns from extramural care,
U.S. National Institute of Mental Health, 1947-1966, Patients in all occurring during any one year. National data on placements and
Mental Institutions, annual issues; 1967-1970, Mental Health Statistics, returns from extramural care are not available but net releases may
Series A, Reference Tables, and unpublished data.
be computed from less detailed movement data as:
For 1923-1932, the annual enumerations of patients in mental
Net
Resident
All admissions
Deaths
Resident
institutions, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, were confined live
= patients
+ excluding
— in insti— patients
releases
beginning
transfers
tution
end of year
to State hospitals for mental disease and State institutions for mental
of year
defectives and epileptics. Since 1933, the annual censuses conducted
by the Bureau of the Census until 1946 and subsequently by the
Interpretation of net live releases should be made with caution.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have covered all types This quantity is the net number of releases alive from the public
of hospitals and institutions caring for the mentally ill, mental defec- institutions in the State system and includes not only direct distives, and epileptics. For a discussion of these developments, see the charges to the community and placement on leave but also direct
1947 issue of NIMH, Patients in Mental Institutions, pp. 1-4. Addi- discharges to other inpatient facilities outside the State system such
tional information on admissions, patients, personnel, and expendi- as public mental hospitals, boarding care homes, and public institutures of institutions for mental defectives and epileptics, as well as tions in other States. The number of net releases is used as a measure
for hospitals for mental diseases, appear in various issues of that of movement out of the institution rather than the total number of
report.
discharges because many discharges occur while patients are already
The figures represent patients who are resident in hospitals which outside the institution on extramural care. The number of net
provide care solely for the mentally ill, as distinguished from the releases may be considered an estimate of the number of effective
physically ill and from the mentally deficient and epileptic. These releases from the institution under the assumption that subtracting
hospitals may provide care over an unlimited period of time or tem- returns from leave during the year removes only the short term visits,
porary care, as in psychopathic hospitals. Hospitals included are leaves, and escapes, and retains the effective releases; i.e., those from
those under control of State and local governments, nonprofit and which the patients did not return to the institution within the time
proprietary organizations, the Veterans Administration, and the period covered.
Federal Government in the District of Columbia (included here
B 442-443, expenditures per average daily resident patient. The
under State hospitals).
most commonly used ratio for comparing institution expenditures.
These facilities contain 93 percent of the psychiatric beds. (The Its major limitation is that it does not adequately take into account



71

B 167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

the number of admissions for which a large share of the expenditure
is required. If the patient base were enlarged to include admissions
during the year, the resulting sum would be the best available estimate
of patients under treatment during the year.
B 444-447. Four indexes of per capita food consumption, 1909-1970.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research
Service, Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, Agricultural
Economics Report No. 138 and its Supplement for 1971, tables 1, 5,
6, and 38.
Three methods are commonly used to measure the total amount of
food consumed, or otherwise "disappearing" through the marketing
system. Total food consumed is measured in terms of its monetary
value, physical weight, or nutritive value.
Civilian disappearance, the residual from all other known uses,
normally is the estimate of annual U.S. civilian food consumption.
This estimate is usually derived from supply and utilization "balance
sheets," which summarize production, imports, and beginning stocks;
and deduct exports, all known nonfood uses, military procurement,
and end-of-year inventories of each commodity. The residual, after
adjustment for marketing losses up to the retail level, is assumed to
have been consumed for food.
B 444, food consumption. This index measures per capita consumption (civilian, beginning 1941) of quantities of individual foods
measured in pounds equivalent to the form sold at retail food stores.
The quantities used for this series have been combined into indexes
on the basis of average 1947-49 retail prices through 1954 and 1957-59
prices thereafter; the indexes are linked at 1955. Component indexes
for individual groups of animal and crop products are presented
in the source (table 1). For comparison with the food use index,
see below.
B 445, food use. In concept, this index parallels the food consumption index, except that it combines farm products ultimately
used for food (farm weight or an equivalent) weighted by constant
prices received by farmers, or an equivalent. It is a component of
the system of index numbers that integrates the entire supply and
utilization of farm commodities at the farm level (see tables 91-93
in the source). It is not available in as much detail as the food consumption index, but serves as a check on it.
The food consumption and food use indexes are based on roughly
the same kind of data. But development of the food consumption
index at the retail rather than the farm level introduces variations
among products in farm-retail marketing margins into its weighting
scheme. Consequently, crop products are more heavily weighted
in the food consumption index than in the food use index (see tables
4 and 93 in source).
Shifts in consumption are reflected in these indexes. A 1-pound
increase in consumption of a relatively high-priced food (meat, for
example) and a simultaneous 1-pound decrease in consumption of a
relatively low-priced food (potatoes, for example) would result in
an increase in both indexes. Major differences in the forms in which
food is sold affect the food consumption index. For example, fruits
and vegetables sold fresh and those sold in processed form are weighted
separately. Accordingly, the index reflects, to a limited extent,
the trend toward consumption of more highly processed foods.
The food use index tends to reflect changes in the form of agricultural commodities sold by farmers. Instead of weighting individual food items on the basis of price, as is done in the food consumption index, the food use index weights food groups, such as dairy
products, fruits, and vegetables. This difference makes the food
consumption index more sensitive to smaller shifts in food consumption patterns than the food use index.
B 446, food consumed, pounds. This index was based on data

72



presented in pounds in the source (table 6). Pounds of the various
foods consumed are totaled on the basis of retail weight, or an equivalent, to achieve consistency in aggregating grossly different foods.
Nevertheless, the different forms in which food is marketed and the
problems of summing pounds of liquids, solids, and concentrated
products make it difficult to interpret changes in these data. Quantities of food consumed are roughly equivalent to the weight of food
sold (or at least saleable) by retail food stores. No aggregation of
pounds at the farm level has been made, partly because of the problem
of allocating joint raw farm products among various ultimate food
and nonfood uses.
B 447, calories per day. This index was computed from data presented in calories of food energy available for consumption per capita
per day in the source (table 38). These data were in turn based on
estimates of per capita food consumption (retail weight), including
estimates of produce of home gardens. No deduction was made for
loss or waste of food in the home nor use for pet food.
B 448-452. Index of per capita consumption of selected nutrients,
1909-1970.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research
Service, Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, Agricultural
Economics Report No. 138 and its Supplement for 1971, table 38; and
National Food Situation, NFS-142, table 10.
These indexes were computed from data presented in the source
in terms of grams and milligrams. The nutritive value of food is
measured by the amount of food energy (see calories per day, series
B 447), protein, fat, carbohydrate, and several vitamins and minerals
it contains.
The data on nutrients are derived by applying composition values
to food consumption data reported in terms of retail weight equivalents. Allowances are made for bones, rinds, and peelings, but not
for bruises and rot. No deduction is made for nutrient losses that
occur in household storage and meal preparation. Quantities of food
discarded as plate waste or fed to pets are not deducted. As a result,
these data overstate nutrients actually ingested.
For additional data on other nutrients, see source.
B 453-459.

Controlled fluoridation of water systems, 1945-1970.

Source: Series B 453-455 and B 457-459, 1945-1969, U.S. Public
Health Service, Fluoridation Census 1969, table 3; 1970, unpublished
data. Series B 456, computed on basis of U.S. resident population
in series A 7.
Controlled fluoridation is defined as the conscious maintenance
of the optimal fluoride concentration in the water supply. This
may be accomplished by adding fluoride chemicals to fluoridedeficient water; by blending two or more sources of water naturally
containing fluoride to the optimal concentration; or by defluoridation,
that is, removing fluorides in excess of the recommended level. Water
supply systems are considered to have natural fluoridation if they
contain 0.7 parts per million or more naturally occurring fluoride.
(See Natural Fluoride Content of Community Water Supplies, 1969,
Division of Dental Health, U.S. National Institutes of Health.)
The current population on controlled fluoridation was estimated
by applying the Bureau of the Census population projection factors
to the population on fluoridated water expressed in terms of the 1960
census population.
The data on operative and discontinued systems are based upon
the year in which institution, discontinuation, or reinstitution of
fluoridation (shown separately in the source) were reported to the
U.S. Public Health Service and not necessarily the year in which the
event occurred.

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 221-235.

B 428-447

Total and Per Capita National Health Expenditures, by Type of Service: 1929 to 1970
[Calendar year data]
Health services and supplies

Total
Total

Year

Hospital
care

Physicians'
services

Dentists'
services

222

223

224

225

221

Expenses Governfor prement
payment
public
and
health
admin- activities
istration 4

227

Eyeglasses
and
appliances 3

Nursing
home
care

228

Other Drugs and
profesdrug
sional 1 sundries 2
services

226

Research and medical-facilities
construction

229

230

Other
health
services

Total

231

232

233

234

235

Research 2 Construction

TOTAL ( m i l . d o l . )

71,573
64,142
56,587
50,696
44,974

66,365
59,351
52,532
46,987
41,440

27,597
24,093
20,926
18,145
15,583

14,294
12,654
11,099
10,287
9,156

4,419
4,047
3,623
3,360
2,964

1,466
1,313
1,271
1,158
1,123

7,297
6,812
6,165
5,652
5,309

1,866
1,765
1,731
1,609
1,413

3,070
2,650
2,280
1,858
1,526

2,098
2,109
2,007
1,877
1,681

1,568
1,316
1,098
942
885

2,690
2,592
2,332
2,099
1,800

5,208
4,791
4,055
3,709
3,534

1,842
1,818
1,795
1,703
1,574

3,366
2,973
2,260
2,006
1,960

40,468
37,461
33,530
31,295
28,783

37,087
34,375
30,890
28,857
26,766

13,605
12,697
11,709
10,658
9,921

8,745
8,065
6,891
6,498
5,895

2,808
2,648
2,277
2,234
2,067

1,038
940
921
902
882

4,850
4,446
4,235
4,095
3,824

1,230
1,072
952
908
804

1,328
1,214
891
695
606

1,293
1,172
1,094
1,085
995

698
610
540
505
452

1,492
1,511
1,380
1,277
1,320

3,381
3,086
2,640
2,438
2,018

1,469
1,324
1,184
1,032
844

1,912
1,762
1,456
1,406
1,174

26,895
24,878
22,848
21,108
19,246

25,185
23,354
21,442
19,885
18,348

9,092
8,177
7,548
6,892
6,347

5,684
5,481
4,910
4,419
4,067

1,977
1,894
1,850
1,737
1,625

862
801
729
673
610

3,657
3,525
3,242
3,010
2,686

776
722
678
678
668

526
434
383
368
358

861
754
633
682
620

414
428
424
415
402

1,336
1,138
1,045
1,011
965

1,710
1,524
1,406
1,223
898

662
526
416
344
270

1,048
998
990
879
628

17,745
16,799
15,745
14,988
13,992

16,884
15,946
14,895
13,949
12,912

5,900
5,502
5,085
4,685
4,254

3,689
3,574
3,278
3,042
2,868

1,508
1,406
1,234
1,098
997

562
541
499
459
426

2,384
2,181
2,152
2,071
1,989

604
606
612
586
551

312
270
248
228
207

624
587
498
401
321

377
374
378
427
416

924
904
911
952
883

861
853
850
1,039
1,080

210
183
164
150
134

651
670
686
889
946

12,662
11,576
10,612

11,702
10,811
10,184

3,851
3,557
3,203

2,747
2,633
2,611

961
920
900

396
371
354

1,726
1,557
1,466

491
458
436

187
168
150

316
271
287

361
338
306

666
539
470

960
765
428

117
105
89

843
660
339

3,987
2,936
3,649

3,868
2,875
3,436

1,011
763
663

973
773
1,004

419
302
482

174
153
252

637
475
606

189
133
133

33

167
95
110

153
117
96

112
64
91

119
61
213

3

116
61
213

PER CAPITA

(dollars) 6

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

343.44
311.06
277.14
250.77
224.89

318.45
287.83
257.28
232.42
207.22

132.42
116.84
102.49
89.76
77.92

68.59
61.37
54.36
50.89
45.78

21.20
19.63
17.74
16.62
14.82

7.03
6.37
6.22
5.73
5.62

35.01
33.04
30.19
27.96
26.55

8.95
8.56
8.48
7.96
7.07

14.73
12.85
11.17
9.19
7.63

10.07
10.23
9.83
9.28
8.41

7.52
6.38
5.38
4.66
4.43

12.91
12.57
11.42
10.38
9.00

24.99
23.23
19.86
18.35
17.67

8.83
8.81
8.79
8.42
7.87

16.15
14.41
11.07
9.92
9.80

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

204.68
191.88
174.15
164.89
154.02

187.58
176.07
160.44
152.05
143.23

68.81
65.04
60.81
56.16
53.09

44.23
41.31
35.79
34.24
31.55

14.20
13.56
11.83
11.77
11.06

5.25
4.81
4.78
4.75
4.72

24.53
22.77
22.00
21.58
20.46

6.22
5.49
4.94
4.78
4.30

6.72
6.22
4.63
3.66
3.24

6.54
6.00
5.68
5.72
5.32

3.53
3.12
2.80
2.66
2.42

7.55
7.74
7.17
6.73
7.06

17.10
15.81
13.71
12.85
10.80

7.43
6.78
6.15
5.44
4.52

9.67
9.03
7.56
7.41
6.28

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956

146.30
137.94
128.81
121.00
112.32

137.00
129.49
120.88
113.99
107.07

49.46
45.34
42.55
39.51
37.04

30.92
30.39
27.68
25.33
23.73

10.75
10.50
10.43
9.96
9.48

4.69
4.44
4.11
3.86
3.56

19.89
19.54
18.28
17.25
15.67

4.22
4.00
3.82
3.89
3.90

2.86
2.41
2.16
2.11
2.09

4.68
4.18
3.57
3.91
3.62

2.25
2.37
2.39
2.38
2.35

7.27
6.31
5.89
5.80
5.63

9.30
8.45
7.93
7.01
5.24

3.60
2.92
2.36
1.97
1.58

5.70
5.53
5.58
5.04
3.66

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

105.38
101.54
96.84
93.69
88.95

100.27
96.37
91.61
87.19
82.08

35.04
33.26
31.27
29.29
27.04

21.91
21.60
20.16
19.02
18.23

8.96
8.50
7.59
6.86
6.34

3.34
3.27
3.07
2.87
2.71

14.16
13.18
13.24
12.95
12.64

3.59
3.66
3.76
3.66
3.50

1.85
1.63
1.53
1.43
1.32

3.71
3.55
3.06
2.51
2.04

2.24
2.26
2.32
2.67
2.64

5.49
5.46
5.60
5.95
5.61

5.11
5.16
5.23
6.49
6.87

1.25
1.11
1.01
.94
.85

3.87
4.05
4.22
5.56
6.01

1950
1949
1948

81.86
76.11
70.97

75.66
71.08
68.11

24.90
23.39
21.42

17.76
17.31
17.46

6.21
6.05
6.02

2.56
2.44
2.37

11.16
10.24
9.80

3.17
3.01
2.92

1.21
1.10
1.00

2.04
1.78
1.92

2.33
2.22
2.05

4.31
3.54
3.14

6.21
5.03
2.86

.76
.69
.60

5.45
4.34
2.27

1940
1935
1929_ .

29.62
22.65
29.49

28.74
22.18
27.77

7.51
5.89
5.36

7.23
5.96
8.11

3.11
2.33
3.90

1.29
1.18
2.04

4.73
3.67
4.90

1.40
1.03
1.07

.25

1.24
.73
.89

1.14
.90
.78

.83
.49
.74

.88
.47
1.72

.02

.86
.47
1.72

,

1
Services of registered and practical nurses in private duty, visits of nurses, podiatrists, physical therapists, clinical psychologists, chiropractors, naturopaths, and
Christian Science practitioners.
2
Research expenditures of drug companies included in expenditures for drugs and
drug sundries and excluded from research expenditures.
3
Includes fees of optometrists and expenditures for hearing aids, orthopedic appliances, artificial limbs, crutches, wheelchairs, etc.




4
Includes the net cost of insurance and administrative expenses of federally financed
health programs.
6
Based on July 1 data from the Bureau of the Census for total U.S. population, including Armed Forces and Federal civilian employees overseas and the civilian population of outlying areas.

73

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 167-220

Series B 236-247.

National and Personal Health Care Expenditures, by Source of Funds: 1929 to 1970
[In millions of dollars, except p e r c e n t .

Calendar year data]

Personal health care expenditures

National health expenditures
Private

Total

Private

Amount

Percent
of gross
national
product

Total

Consumers

Philanthropy
and other

Public

236

Year

237

238

239

240

241

Total

Total

Direct
payments

Insurance
benefits

243

244

245

Public

Other

246

242

247

1968.
1967.
1966.

71,573
64,142
56,587
50,696
44.974

7.3
6.9
6.5
6.4
6.0

44,685
40,047
34,999
32,555
32,153

40,943
36,615
32,282
30,070
29,729

3,742
3,432
2,717
2,485
2,422

26,887
24,095
21,588
18,141
12,821

62,282
55,541
49,060
43,853
38,594

40,430
35,881
31,522
29,275
29,051

23,768
21,958
19,383
18,965
19,166

15,744
13,068
11,344
9,545
9,142

928
855
795
765
744

21,851
19,660
17,537
14,578
9,543

1965.
1964.
1963.
1962.
1961.

40,468
37,461
33,530
31,295
28,783

5.9
5.9
5.7
5.6
5.5

30,398
28,193
24,970
23,373
21,507

28,050
26,898
23,001
21,515
19,905

2,348
2,295
1,969
1,858
1,602

10,066
9,266
8,558
7,924
7,278

34,821
32,322
28,990
27,023
25,082

27,476
25,415
22,568
21,056
19,504

18,049
16,915
14,947
14,104
13,232

8,729
7,832
6,980
6,344
5,695

697
668
641
608
577

7,346
6,905
6,420
5,968
5,579

26,895
24,878
22,848
21,108
19,246

5.3
5.1
5.1
4.8
4.6

20.259
18,596
16,932
15,648
14,278

18,831
17,329
15,763
14,547
13,874

1,428
1,267
1,169
1,101
904

6,637
6,280
5,918
5,461
4,968

23,680
21,953
20,177
18,591
17,140

18,523
17,141
15,645
14,357
13,221

12,990
12,190
11,266
10,403
9,750

4,996
4,399
3,877
8,474
3,015

537
552
502
480
456

5,157
4,810
4,534
4,235
3,919

1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951.

17,745
16,799
15,745
14,988
13,992

4.4
4.6
4.3
4.3
4.3

13,190
12,421
11,388
10,558
9,846

12,282
11,572
10,629
9,690
8,962

908
849
759
868
884

4,556
4,378
4,357
4,431
4,148

15,708
14,818
18,860
12,968
12,031

12,100
11,408
10,525
9,662
8,997

9,132
8,816
8,224
7,697
7,302

2,536
2,179
1,919
1,604
1,353

432
413
382
361
342

3,608
8,410
3,335
3,307
3,035

1950.
1949.
1948.

12,662
11,576
10,612

4.5
4.5
4.1

9,222
8,716
8,208

8,426
8,042
7,691

797
674
517

3,440
2,860
2,404

10,885
10,073
9,473

8,445
8,078
7,694

7,133
7,026
6,829

992
767
606

320
285
259

2,440
1,995
1,779

1940.
1935.
1929.

3,987
2,936
3,649

4.0
4.0
3.5

3,178
2,372
3,154

3,051
2,288
2,937

127
84
217

811
563
495

3,548
2,663
3,202

2,980
2,269
2,913

94
74
84

570
392
289

1960.
1959.
1958.
1957.
1956.

.

- _. _

Series B 248-261.

National Health Expenditures, by Type of Expenditure: 1929 to 1970
[In millions of dollars, except p e r c e n t .

Total

2,1
186
2,195
2,829

Calendar year data]

Public expenditures

Private expenditures

Health and medical services

Amount

248

Percent of
gross
national
product

Health
and
medical
services

Medical
research

249

250

251

Medicalfacilities Veterans'
construc- hospital
tion
and
medical
care

General
Workhospital
Public
men's
and
assistance compenmedical
sation
care

Defense
DepartSchool,
ment
maternal,
hospital and child
and
health
medical services
care 1

252

253

254

255

256

257

Other

258

259
2
9,432
2

Medical
research

Medicalfacilities
construction

260

261

71,673
64,142
56,587
50,696
44,974

194
192
188
181
172

2,203
2,000
1,367
1,224
1,228

1,763
1,641
1,387
1,297
1,206

3,560
3,196
2,969
2,868
2,772

5,745
4,871
4,254
2,944
2,040

1,043
930
833
752
678

1,858
1,755
1,699
1,640
1,269

676
657
589
514
451

8,547
* 7,358
5,921
2 2,272

1,608
* 1,522
* 1,402

1,163
973
893
782
732

5.9
5.9
5.7
5.6
5.5

29,023
26,837
23,908
22,367
20,719

166
158
151
141
132

1,210
1,198
911
865
656

1,138
1,092
1,038
988
955

2,618
2,481
2,360
2,204
2,179

1,479
1,258
1,068
919
686

610
562
527
492
463

1,022
1,104
1,042
1,003
961

377
346
327
310
284

818
693
618
575
520

1,303
1,166
1,033
892
712

703
564
545
541
518

26,895
24,878
22,848
21,108
19,246

5.3
5.1
5.1
4.8
4.6

19,598
18,100
16,473
15,224
14,016

125
106
86
78
70

536
390
373
346
192

913
862
822
769
732

2,100
1,909
1,803
1,718
1,573

514
451
365
304
270

435
405
380
362
345

896
907
911
851
788

254
234
216
200
184

474
484
478
458
439

638
420
330
266
200

512
608
617
533
436

17,745
16,799
15,745
14,988
13,992

4.4
4.6
4.3
4.3
4.3

12,889
12,152
11,170
10,204
9,449

60
54
61
45
40

241
215
167
309
857

723
701
661
643
613

1,384
1,263
1,206
1,137
1,034

232
194
165
137
110

325
305
282
257
230

754
777
890
1,046
976

168
153
117
76
66

408
402
403
450
435

150
129
113
105
94

410
455
519
580
589

12,662
11,576
10,612

4.6
4.5
4.1

8,885
8,456
8,068

38
36
32

299
224
108

582
679
554

933
834
739

76
26

204
186
174

584
325
280

63
60
57

876
345
312

79
69
57

544
436
231

3,987
2,936
3,649

74

42,288
37,865
33,444
31,150
30,753

40,468
37,461
33,530
31,295
28,783

1
!

7.3
6.9
6.5
6.4
6.0

4.0
4.0
3.5

3,145
2,362
3,049

33
10
105

63
50
49

306
231
125

94
69
76

75
29
29

32
16
13

153
117
96

3

83
61
108

Includes military dependents.
Beginning 1966 includes the following amounts for 'Medicare," health insurance




!

'1,648

8
1,626
2

payments for the aged (in millions): 1966, $1,199; 1967, $4,736; 1968, $5,979; 1969,
$6,918; and 1970, $7,494.

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 262-274.
[1967 = 100.

Indexes of Medical Care Prices: 1935 to 1970

U.S. city average, consumer price index for urban wage earners and clerical workers]

Drugs and prescriptions
Total
medical
care

Year

Medical
care
services

B 262-290

Total

Prescriptions

Professional services
Physicians' fees

Hospital services

Office
visits

House
visits

Tonsillectomy
and
adenoidectomy

Dentists'
fees

Opto metric
examination and
eyeglasses

Daily
service
charges

Private
rooms

269

Total

Obstetrical
cases

270

271

272

273

274

262

263

264

265

266

267

268

120.6
113,4
106.1
100.0
93.4

124.2
116.0
107.3
100.0
92.0

103.6
101.3
100.2
100.0
100.5

101.2
99.6
98.3
100.0
101.8

121.4
112.9
105.6
100.0
93.4

122.6
113.3
105.8
100.0
92.7

122.4
114.5
106.5
100.0
93.6

121.8
113.5
105.2
100.0
93.0

117.1
110.3
104.9
100.0
94.9

119.4
112.9
105.5
100.0
95.2

113.5
107.6
103.2
100.0
95.3

143.9
127.9
113.2
100.0
84.0

141.7
126.7
112.7
100.0
84.7

1965
1964
1963.
1962
1961

89.5
87.3
85.6
83.5
81.4

87.3
84.6
82.6
80.2
77.7

100.2
100.5
100.8
101.7
103.3

102.0
103.1
104.5
107.1
111.5

88.3
85.2
83.1
81.3
79.0

87.3
84.1
82.1
80.0
77.7

87.6
84.1
81.6
79.7
77.2

89.0
87.1
85.0
83.7
81.1

91.0
88.4
85.9
83.8
81.9

92.2
89.4
87.1
84.7
82.5

92.8
90.9
89.7
89.2
87.8

76.6
72.4
69.0
64.9
60.6

77.7
73.4
70.1
66.6
62.4

I960..
1959
1958
1957
1956

79.1
76.4
73.2
69.9
67.2

74.9
72.0
68.7
65.5
62.8

104.5
104.4
102.8
99.3
96.7

115.3
115.7
113.1
108.2
104.7

77.0
75.1
72.7
70.3
67.4

75.9
74.5
72.1
69.5
67.2

75.0
72.8
70.1
67.5
63.5

79.4
77.7
75.5
73.5
70.9

80.3
77.1
74.3
71.9
69.5

82.1
80.5
78.6
76.2
74.4

85.1
83.0
82.1
81.3
78.2

56.3
52.7
49.9
47.2
43.7

57.8
53.8
51.0
48.7
46.0

1955
1954
1953.
1952
1951

64.8
63.4
61.4
59.3
56.3

60.4
58.7
57.0
55.0
51.7

94.7
93.7
92.6
91.8
91.0

101.6
100.2
98.3
98.3
97.1

65.4
63.2
61.4
59.8
57.3

65.4
63.7
61.2
59.2
56.8

61.2
58.8
57.6
56.3
64.6

68.6
64.4
61.5
60.2
54.4

69.0
67.4
66.0
64.3
62.0

73.0
72.3
70.0
67.8
66.4

77.0
75.9
76.9
77.8
76.8

41.5
39.6
37.4
35.2
32.0

44.1
42.2
39.7
37.6
34.2

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

53.7
52.7
51.1
48.1
44.4

49.2
48.1
46.4
43.5
40.1

88.5
87.4
86.1
81.8
76.2

92.6
90.2
88.1
81.3
74.0

55.2
54.4
53.4
51.4
48.3

54.9
54.2
53.3
51.2
48.1

52.9
51.9
50.8
49.5
46.6

51.2
50.6
49.9
46.7
43.5

60.7
60.2
58.5
65.1
51.5

63.9
62.4
60.0
56.9
52.5

73.5
72.8
70.5
67.7
65.1

28.9
27.8
25.7
22.0
18.5

31.3
30.6
28.6
24.9
21.3

1945
1944.
1943..
1942
1941

42.1
41.1
39.9
38.0
37.0

37.9
36.9
35.4
33.7
32.7

74.8
74.3
73.5
73.0
71.4

71.5
70.6
69.4
68.8
67.0

46.0
44.9
43.2
40.6
39.8

45.7
44.3
42.2
39.9
39.1

44.7
44.0
42.5
40.4
39.6

41.0
40.2
38.5
35.1
33.6

48.8
47.5
45.4
43.0
41.8

49.6
47.6
45.1
43.1
42.0

63.9
63.1
61.6
59.0
58.3

16.2
15.7
15.1
14.0
12.9

18.9
18.3
17.6
16.4
15.4

1940..
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935..

36.8
36.7
36.7
36.6
36.3
36.1

32.5
32.5
32.4
32.3
31.9
31.8

70.8
71.1
71.3
70.9
70.5
70.7

66.2
66.2
66.2
65.7
65.4
65.4

39.6
39.6
39.5
39.6
39.4
39.2

39.1
39.0
38.9
39.0
38.9
38.8

39.6
39.6
39.6
39.7
39.6
39.1

33.0
33.0
32.8
32.5
32.3
32.1

41.5
42.6
42.4
42.1
41.9
41.8

42.0
42.0
41.9
41.8
40.9
40.8

58.1
57.6
57.2
57.1
56.8
56.7

12.7
12.6
12.6
12.3
12.0
11.9

15.1
15.1
15.0
14.7
14.3
14.2

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

__

Series B 275-290.

Physicians, Dentists, and Nurses; and Medical, Dental, and Nursing Schools: 1810 to 1970
[Census figures in italics.

Physicians 1

Year

Number

276

Dentists 4

Medical schools a

PhysiRate per cians
100,000 admitted Numpopula- to U.S.
ber 3
as immition
grants

275

Figures for schools and students are for academic session ending in the specified year]

277

Active professional
graduate nurses

Dental schools

Professional nursing
schools 6

Graduates

Number

Rate per
100,000
population

Number B

Students

Graduates

Number

Rate per
100,000
population

Number

Students

Graduates

279

278

Students

280

281

282

283

284

285

286

287

288

289

290

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

348,328
338,942
330,732
322,045
813,559

166
163
161
158
156

3,158
2,756
3,128
3,326
2,552

107
104
100
95
93

39,666
37,712
36,368
35,212
34,516

8,799
8,486
8,400
8,148
7,934

118,175
115,610
113,636
112,152
111,130

58
57
57
56
56

53
52
50
49
49

16,008
15,408
14,955
14,421
14,020

3,700
3,433
3,457
3,360
3,198

700,000
680,000
659,000
640,000
621,000

345
338
331
325
319

1,328
1,287
2,262
1,219
1,191

150,795
145,588
141,948
139,070
135,702

43,639
42,196
41,555
38,237
35,125

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

305,115
297,089
289,188
270,136

153
159
149
145

2,012
2,249
2,093
1,797
1,683

93
92
92
92
92

34,089
33,595
33,072
32,633
32,232

7,803
7,691
7,631
7,530
7,500

109,301
107,820
106,230
105,252
103,596

56
56
56
56
56

49
48
48
47
47

13,876
13,691
13,576
13,513
13,580

3,181 613,188
3,213 582,000
3,233
3,207 ~550~666
3,290

319
306

1,153
1,142
1,128
1,118
1,123

129,629
124,744
123,861
123,012
118,849

34,686
35,259
32,398
31,186
30,267

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956

274,833
*236,818

148
* 133

226,625

132

1,574
1,630
1,934
1,990
1,388

* 7,508 101,947
6,860 *100,615
6,861 98,540
6,796 100,534
6,845 99,227

56
* 57
57
59
59

218,061
214,200
210,900
207,900
205,500

132
132
132
132
133

1955
1954
1953....
1952
1951

1,046
1,040
845
1,210
1,388

* 91 * 31,999
85 29,614
85 29,473
85 29,130
82 28,639
81
80
79
79
79

28,583
28,227
27,688
27,076
26,186

6,977
6,861
6,668
6,080
6,135

97,529
95,883
93,726
91,638

59
59
59
58

* 47 * 13,581 * 3,253 *504,000
47 13,509
3,156
47 13,279
3.083 460^666
45 13,004
3,050
43 12,730
3,038 "436^660
43
43
42
42
42

12,601
12,516
12,370
12,169
11,891

3,081 '430,000
3.084 '389,600
2,945
2,975
2,830

297
* 282
268
262
259
244

* 1,119 *115,057 * 30,113
1,126 113,518 30,312
1,118 112,989 30,410
1,115 114,674 29,933
1,125 114,423 30,236
1,139
1,141
1,148
1,167
1,183

107,572
103,019
102,019
102,550
103,433

28,729
28,539
29,308
29,016
28,794

See footnotes at end of table.




75

B 275-290

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 275-290.

Physicians, Dentists, and Nurses; and Medical, Dental, and Nursing Schools: 1810 to 1970—Con.
Physicians 1

Year

Number

275

PhysiKate per cians
100,000 admitted Numpopula- to U.S.
ber 3
tion as immigrants
276

203,400

134

191,91,7

135

277

180,496

134

175,163

133

165,989

1,141

202
156
218
290
706

169,628

131
129

161,359

128

156,406

126

IBS,SOS

125

125

149,521

126

147,010

127

145,966

130

145,404

134

1U,977

1S7

Number

Rate per
100,000
population

Number 5

Students

Graduates

Number

Rate per
100,000
population

Number

Students

Graduates

280

281

282

283

284

285

286

287

288

289

290

79

41

11,460

2,565 7 375,000

78
77
77
77

98,712

25,790

41
40
40
39

10,132
8,996
8,287
7,274

1,574
1,755
2,225
2,666

1,215 88,817
1,245 91,643
1,253 106,900
1,271 128,828

21,379
34,268
40,744
36,195

39
39
39
39
39

«8,590
»9,014
" 8,847
«8,355
7,720

3,212
2,470
1,926
1,784
1,568

1,295 126,576
1,307 112,249
1,297 100,486
1,299 91,457
1,303 87,588

31,721
28,276
26,816
25,613
24,899

39

7,407

1 ,757 '284,200

25,103
23,670
22,739
23,900
23,216

5,553

89,441

59
50

5,094
5,543
6,389 ~~82~990
5,826

147,812

141
142

142,332

144

137,199

144

135,000

146

151

21,271

5,097

134,688

149
158

128,950

157

123,196

156

119,749

157

132,002

1,311

85,156

23,600

21,302
21,587
22,095
22,564

5,089
5,194
5,377
5,183

39
39
39
39

7,331
7,184
7,397
7,306

1,794
1,704
1,739
1,736

1,328
1,349
1,389
1,417

82,095
74,305
73,286
69,589

22,485
20,655
20,400
18,600

304
353
187
259
329

77
77
77
76
76

22,888
22,799
22,466
22,135
21,982

5,101
5,035
4,895
4,936
4,735

39
39
39
38
38

7,175
7,160
7,508
8,031
8,129

1,840
1,864
1,986
1,840
1,842

1,472

67,533

19,600

1,781 84,290
1,844 100,419

25,312
25,971

38

7,813

69,921

76

21,597

76
80
80
79

20,878
20,545
19,662
18,840

4,446
4,262
4,035
3,962

540
1,391
704
458
597

80
79
80
81
83

18,200
17,728
16,960
15,635
14,466

3,974
3,562
3,120
2,520
3,186

71,055

58

67,334

56

64,481

56

St,1S»

53

13,798

3,047

85
90
96
95

13,052
13,630
13,764
14,012

2,656
2,670
3,379 " 45~988
3,518

476
504
508
459
429

96
102
107
118
122

14,891
16,502
17,015
18,412
19,786

3,536
3,594
3,981
4,483
4,273

365

131

21,526

4,440

332
504
480
725

140
151
159
162

22,i45
22,602
24,276
25,204

4,515
4,741 ~~36~670
4,980
5,364 35,238

1,043
907
343
116
100

158
160
160
160
160

26,147
28,142
27,615
27,501
26,417

5,600
5,747
5,698
5,009
5,444

160

25,171

5,214

103,090
100,180

154
159

42~606

43

38,866

41

37,684

41

39,997

is

41
41

32,204

39

28,109

36

25,189

33

29,665

15,404

33
28

906 '103,900

163
171

150

75

61,,W,
55,055

162
175

65

1,0,755

176

100

11,826

3,241

18,623

1,755

54,953

14,980

46,141

11,118

1,129

32,636

8,140

3,587
3,345
3,010
2,835

49
48
51
52
54

2,388
2,254
2,022
1,940
1,742

54

1,646 '50,500

56
55
55
55

1,761
2,005
1,724
1,519

55
56
55
56
57

2,621
2,168
2,198
2,294
2,304

862

19,824

5,795

57

2,091

432

11,164

3,456

54
48

1,894
1,432
35

1,552

471

15

323

157

55

960
473

14
20
18

2,923

IS

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
1
Beginning 1960, includes osteopaths.
2
Beginning 1954, includes Puerto Rico; beginning 1960, includes osteopaths and their
schools.
3
Approved medical and basic science schools.
4
Beginning 1958, excludes graduates of year stated.

147

3

64

2
1

17

25

7,988
5,606

1,000
300
100
50

315

10

12,SH

52
35
20
10
5

23,810

1,509

98

78,771
77,768

28

151

60,000

1,885
1,797

46
46
46
49

37
31

4,454
17,1,98

85,671

76

2,590
3,422
3,271
1,765
1,795

23

133

82,000




43 11,863
43
45 ~ 13~099
45
45 11,745

174

2,442
2,563
2,642
2,610

39

23,911
20,063

166

87,521

44

1,561 '214,300

40
8,200
40
40 ~ 10~333
44

46

85

236
182
326
326

157
147

101,805

53

4,565

398
454
486
487

216

1,203

77
77
77
77

77

17S

115,524
104,554

249

1,384
738
533
462

1,095

16i

,132

134,402

58

5,136
77 24,028
77 "48,195 "10,303
5,223
76 22,631
5,163
77 22,031
5,275
77 21,379

459

145,241

Professional nursing
schools 6

Graduates

390
152,503

Active professional
graduate nurses

Students

7k,855

1,878

126

165,163

Dental schools

279

278

128

201,277

Dentists 4

Medical schools2

6
2
1
1

6
For 1840 and 1926-1931, schools offering courses in dentistry; for 1850-1925,
schools conferring degrees; for other years, schools in operation. Includes Puerto
Rico.
6
Includes Hawaii and Puerto Rico beginning 1950 for number and students and
1952 for graduates.
7
Census estimate adjusted to exclude student nurses enumerated as graduates.
8
Reflects enrollment of more than 1 class in some schools under accelerated program
in operation during World War II.

B 428-447

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 291-304.

Rates Per 100,000 Population for Specified Reportable Diseases: 1912 to 1970

[Rate per 100,000 population enumerated as of April 1 for 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970, and estimated as of July 1 for all other years]

Syphillis
and its
sequelae

Gonorrhea

Malaria

Typhoid
and paratyphoid
fever 2

291

Year

Tuberculosis,
all forms 1

292

293

294

295

Scarlet
fever and
Hepatitis 4 Brucellosis Diphtheria Whooping
streptococcal
cough
sore
throat 3
296

297

298

299

300

Measles

Meningococcal
infections

Acute
poliomyelitis

Smallpox

301

302

303

304

1970.__
1969...
1968...
1967
1966

18.3
19.4
21.3
23.1
24.4

43.8
48.1
49.9
53.2
57.1

285.2
245.9
219.2
193.0
173.6

1.5
1.5
1.2
1.0
.3

0.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

239.2
238.2
226.3
238.1
226.8

32.0
27.3
25.7
21.2
17.8

0.1

0.2
.1
.1
.1
.1

2.1
1.6
2.4
4.9
3.9

23.2
12.8
11.1
31.7
104.2

1.2
1.5
1.3
1.1
1.7

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

1965
1964...
1963.._
1962...
1961...

25.3
26.6
28.7
28.7
29.4

69.7
62.9
69.3
68.1
69.7

163.8
154.5
145.7
142.8
147.8

.1

.2
.3
.3
.3
.4

204.3
210.6
181.6
170.0
185.0

17.7
20.0
28.1
28.9
40.1

.1
.2
.2
.2
.3

.1
.2
.2
.2
.3

3.5
6.8
9.1
9.6
6.3

135.1
239.4
204.2
259.0
231.6

1.6
1.5
1.3
1.2
1.2

(Z)

I960*..
1959»__
1958 —
1957—
1966 —

30.8
32.5
36.5
39.2
41.6

68.0
69.3
68.5
78.3
77.1

139.6
137.1
129.3
129.8
142.4

.1
.1

.5
.5
.6
.7
1.0

175.8
189.6
152.4
1'3.3
105.5

23.4
13.4
9.4
8.8
11.5

.4
.5
.5
.6
.8

.5
.5
.5
.7
.9

8.3
22.7
18.6
16.6
19.0

245.4
230.1
440.5
285.9
365.9

1.3
1.2
1.5
1.6
1.6

1.8
4.8
3.3
3.2
9.1

1955...
1964...
1953...
1962...
1951 —

46.9
49.3
53.0
70.5
77.3

76.0
87.5
100.8
110.8
131.8

149.2
152.0
157.4
161.3
179.5

.3
.4
.8
4.5
3.7

1.0
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.4

89.8
91.7
84.0
73.0
54.9

19.5
31.1
21.7
11.8
5.5

.9
1.1
1.3
1.6
2.0

1.2
1.3
1.5
1.9
2.6

38.2
37.8
23.5
28.9
44.8

337.9
423.5
283.7
438.5
345.6

2.1
2.8
3.2
3.1
2.7

17.6
23.9
22.5
37.2
18.5

1950...
1949...
1948 —
1947
1946

80.4
90.7
93.8
94.1
85.2

154.2
197.3
234.7
264.6
271.7

204.0
226.7
252.0
284.2
275.0

1.4
2.8
6.6
10.5
34.7

1.6
2.7
2.5
2.8
2.8

42.8
58.7
62.5
65.2
89.6

2.5

2.3
2.8
3.4
4.4
4.2

3.8
5.4
6.5
8.5
11.7

80.1
46.7
51.1
109.1
78.4

210.1
420.6
421.0
155.0
496.8

2.5
2.4
2.3
2.4
4.1

22.1
28.3
19.0
7.5
18.3

1945...
1944...
1943...
1942.._
1941.__

86.8
95.0
89.6
87.5
79.3

282.3
367.9
447.0
363.4
368.2

225.8
236.5
213.6
160.9
146.7

47.4
43.4
40.6
44.9
51.1

3.7
4.0
4.1
4.6
6.5

140.1
150.9
112.0
101.4
104.7

3.8
3.3
2.8
2.4
2.6

14.1
10.6
11.0
12.1
13.5

101.0
82.7
142.9
142.9
166.9

110.2
474.3
472.0
408.8
671.7

6.2
12.3
13.6
2.9
1.5

10.3
14.3
9.3
3.1
6.8

.3
.3
.6
.6
1.0

1940...
1939.._
1938.._
1937...
1936...

78.0
79.4
82.4
87.2
83.6

359.7
367.1
372.0
264.3
212.6

133.8
139.8
153.8
143.4
129.8

59.2
63.2
64.9
84.2
104.6

7.4
10.0
11.5
12.4
12.4

125.9
132.3
152.8
183.5
195.6

2.5
2.7
3.4
2.1
1.6

11.8
18.4
23.5
22.2
23.4

139.6
140.0
175.1
166.6
115.0

220.7
308.2
633.8
249.6
234.0

1.3
1.5
2.2
4.3
5.7

7.4
5.6
1.3
7.4
3.5

2.1
.7.5
11.5
9.1
6.1

1935...
1934...
1933.__
1932.
1931...

87.9
89.4
91.1
97.7
100.7

205.6
186.7
193.4
208.2
197.4

130.8
124.1
121.4
132.5
137.0

108.1
105.4
100.0
55.0
56.7

14.4
17.6
18.6
21.4
21.4

211.0
180.0
174.4
172.7
166.3

1.6
1.6
1.4

30.8
34.1
40.2
48.0
57.1

141.9
209.9
142.6
172.5
139.1

584.6
632.6
319.2
323.2
382.8

4.6
2.0
2.3
2.5
4.4

8.5
5.9
4.0
3.1
12.8

6.3
4.3
5.2
9.0
24.4

1930.._
1929...
1928...
1927.._
1926.

101.5

185.4
169.2
174.2
171.9
196.1

135.5
135.4
138.3
140.7
157.2

80.0
134.7
138.2
118.2
98.9

22.1
19.1
22.6
29.2
35.5

144.5
152.9
148.9
179.8
166.7

54.1
70.1
75.9
89.8
80.7

135.6
162.1
134.3
152.4
172.2

340.8
300.6
466.3
387.6
587.1

6.8
8.7
4.8
2.6
1.8

7.5
2.4
4.3
8.8
2.3

39.7
34.7
32.7
31.6
28 7

1925...
1924.__
1923...
1922...
1921

181.2
174.2
156.2
157.7
172.3

149.3
144.5
142.2
140.4
177.7

86.8
98.4
124.2
142.9
174.7

40.0
31.0
31.0
33.0
43.5

161.9
164.2
158.8
148.1
178.7

82.1
105.6
131.4
156.9
190.7

131.2
145.0
146.7
97.7

194.3
463.7
680.0
241.8
274.5

1.5
1.4
1.9
1.9
2.2

5.3
4.6
3.1
2.0
5.8

34.2
49 6
27 6
30.3
94 7

1920.__
1919...
1918...
1917...
1916...

145.3
113.2

175.4
147.8

173.0

33.8
42.9
50.0
63.0
82.3

151.6
118.3
94.5
139.2
114.5

139.0
144.7
101.5
133.0
129.2

480.5
203.2
474.9
611.6
621.8

2.6
3.1
7.2
6.2
2.7

2.2
2.3
2.8
4.9
41.1

95 9
63 8
83.1
52 7
23 4

74.0
82.4
84.2
81.8

108.6
133.0
143.1
138.2

132.7
152.5
142.1
139.0

254 1
295.8
368.5
310.0

2.9
3.4
3.4

3 1
2.4
4.0
5.5

50 2
66 4
55 7
30.8

1915...
1914.
1913.__
1912.__

(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)
(Z)

.1
.1

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
Z Less than 0.05.
1
Includes Alaska and Hawaii for all years. Prior to 1953, active and inactive cases;
thereafter, new active cases only.




2
Beginning 1950, excludes paratyphoid fever.
8
1912-1919, excludes streptococcal sore throat.
4
1950-1952, infectious only; thereafter, infectious
5

Includes Alaska.

and serum.

.1
.1
.2
.5
.7

(Z)
(Z)

.1
.2

Reporting incomplete.

77

B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 305-318.

Hospitals and Beds, by Type of Service and Ownership (AHA): 1946 to 1970
Non-Federal

Total

Short-term general
and special

Long-term general
and special

Psychiatric

Beds per 1,000
population

Federal, all types

Tuberculosis

Year
Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Total

Shortterm 1

305

306

307

308

309

310

311

312

313

314

315

316

317

318

1970—
1969—
1968—
1967—
1966—
1965—
1964—
1963—
1962—
1961-..

7,123
7,144
7.137
7.172
7,160
7,123
7.127
7.138
7,028
6,923

1,615,771
1,649,662
1,663,208
1,671,125
1,678,658
1,703,522
1,696,039
1,701,839
1,689,414
1,669,789

5,859
5,853
5,820
5,850
5,812
5,736
5,712
5,684
5,564
5,460

848,232
825,795
805,912
788,446
768,479
741,292
720,810
698,191
676,795
658,521

236
260
280
331
291
283
300
323
323
321

59,961
63,075
66,517
80,311
67,337
65,897
68,783
73,525
73,474
70,536

519
509
505
470
476
483
487
499
491
483

526,889
570,550
593,916
609,075
639,041
685.175
691,367
714,661
716,781
714,622

101
107
116
105
156
178
187
186
203
222

19,720
20,562
22,213
18,228
30,796
37,196
39,589
39,144
44,687
48,556

408
415
416
416
425
443
441
446
447
437

160,969
169,681
174,645
175,065
173,005
173,962
175,490
176,318
177,677
177,554

8.0
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.7
8.9
9.0
9.1
9.2
9.2

4.2
4.1
4.1
4.0
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.6

I960—
1959*-1958—
1957
1956—
1955-.
1954—
1953—
1952—
1951 —

6,876
6,845
6,786
6,818
6,966
6,956
6,970
6,978
6,903
6,832

1,657,970
1,612,822
1,572,036
1.588.691
1.607.692
1,604,408
1,577,961
1,580,654
1,561,809
1,521,959

5,407
5,364
5,290
5,309
5,299
5,237
5,212
5,212
5,122
5,066

639,057
619,877
609,732
594,529
586,498
567,612
553,068
545,903
530,669
516,020

308
330
321
340
395
402
406
406
405
394

67,214
68,323
78,383
77,608
75,646
76,278
70,926
68.039
69,731
62,768

488
459
475
452
525
542
554
541
546
551

722,493
688,410
646,270
641,455
695,331
707,162
691.176
691,855
675,749
655,932

238
254
261
280
315
347
368
384
391
399

52,101
57,392
57,077
62,097
66,096
70,194
73,558
72,253
72,642
72,642

435
438
439
437
432
428
430
435
439
422

177,105
178,820
180,574
183,002
184,121
183,162
189,233
202,604
213,018
214,597

9.3
9.2
9.1
9.2
9.6
9.8
9.8
10.0
10.0
9.9

3.6
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.5
3.4
3.4

1950
1949—
1948-.
1947—
1946 . . .

6,788
6,277
6,160
6.173
6,125

1,455,825
1,435,288
1,411,450
1,400,318
1,435,778

5,031
4,585
4.499
4,475
4,444

504,504
476,584
471,555
465,209
473,059

412
395
362
385
389

70,136
79,145
77.040
84,758
83,415

533
507
504
499
476

619,530
614,465
601,103
580,273
568,473

398
414
409
411
412

72,178
78,330
75,906
70,307
74,867

414
376
386
403
404

189,477
186,764
185,846
199,771
235,964

9.6
9.7
9.7
9.8
10.3

3.3
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.4

1

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

Series B 319-330.
Total
Year

Non-Federal short-term general and special hospitals.

Hospitals and Beds, by Type of Service (AMA): 1909 to 1953
General

Mental

All other

Tuberculosis

Beds per 1,000 population

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Total

General

319

320

321

322

323

324

325

326

327

328

329

330

1953
1952
1951

6,840
6,665
6,637

1,573,014
1,541,616
1,529,988

5,087
4,924
4,890

653,752
640,923
640,207

593
585
596

749,393
732,929
728,187

420
428
430

88,406
89,571
88,379

740
728
721

81,463
78,192
73,215

9.9
9.9
10.0

4.1
4.1
4.2

1950
1949
1948..
1947
1946
1945
1944.
1943
1942
1941—

6,430
6,572
6,335
6,276
6,280
6,511
6,611
6,655
6,345
6,358

1,466,912
1,439,030
1,423,520
1,425,222
1,468,714
1,738,944
1,729,945
1,649,254
1,383,827
1,324,381

4,713
4,761
4,589
4,539
4,523
4,744
4,833
4,885
4,557
4,518

587,917
574,683
576,459
592,453
641,331
922,549
925,818
850,576
594,260
533,498

579
606
586
585
575
563
566
575
586
596

711,921
705,423
691,499
680,913
674,930
657,393
648,745
650,993
646,118
638,144

431
444
438
441
450
449
453
455
468
477

85,746
83,470
81,993
81,328
83,187
78,774
79,848
79,860
82,372
82,365

707
761
722
711
732
755
759
740
734
767

71,328
75,454
73,569
70,528
69,266
80,228
75,534
67,825
61,077
70,374

9.6
9.7
9.7
9.9
10.5
13.1
13.0
12.3
10.3
9.9

3.9
3.9
3.9
4.1
4.6
7.0
7.0
6.3
4.4
4.0

1940..
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933
1932
1931...

6,291
6,226
6,166
6,128
6,189
6,246
6,334
6,437
6,562
6,613

1,226,245
1,195,026
1,161,380
1,124,548
1,096,721
1,075,139
1,048,101
1,027,046
1,014,354
974,115

4,432
4,356
4,286
4,245
4,207
4,257
4,198
4,237
4,305
4,309

462,360
444,947
425,324
412.091
402,605
406,174
393,425
386,713
395,543
384,333

602
600
592
579
584
592
614
621
624
587

621,284
606,284
591,822
570,616
548,952
529,311
513,845
498,955
479,548
451,245

479
480
493
508
506
496
495
497
512
509

78,246
75,972
76,022
76,751
73,692
70,373
70,063
70.682
69,676
65,923

778
790
795
796
892
901
1,027
1,082
1,121
1,208

64,355
67,823
68,212
65,090
71,472
69,281
70,768
70,696
69,587
72,614

9.3
9.1
8.9
8.7
8.6
8.4
8.3
8.2
8.1
7.9

3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.1

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926..
1925.
1924
1923
1921

6,719
6,665
6,852
6,807
6,946
6,896
7,370
6,830
>6,236

955,869
907,133
892,934
853,318
859,445
802,065
813,926
755,722

4,302
4,268
4,361
4,322

371,609
357,034
363,337
345,364

561
572
553
563

437,919
414,386
394,268
373,364

515
502
508
508

65,940
61,310
62,113
63,170

1,341
1,323
1,430
1,414

80,401
74,403
73,216
71,420

3.0
2.9
3.0
2.9

4,041

293,301

589

341,480

466

49,131

1,800

118,153

7.8
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.3
6.9
7.1
6.8

6,152
5,323
5,047
4,359

817,020
612,251
532,481
421,065

4,013

7.7
5.9
5.4
4.7

2.9

1920
1918
1914
1909
1

78

. .

Excludes hospitals with less than 10 beds.




3,793

593
311,159

521

476
295,382

52

1,968
10,150

1,566

200,329

2.5

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 331-344.

B 428-447

Hospitals and Beds, by Ownership or Control (AHA): 1946 to 1970
Governmental

Nonprofit

Total

Proprietary
Federal

Local

State

Church

Other

Year
Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

331

332

333

334

335

336

337

338

339

340

341

342

343

344

(')
(')
(')
(')
0)

(')
0)
(1)
(')
(')

1970—
1969—
1968...
1967...
1966—

7,123
7,144
7,137
7,172
7,160

1,615,771
1,649,663
1,663,203
1,671,125
1,678,658

408
415
416
416
425

160,969
169,681
174,645
175,065
173,005

577
565
559
552
550

557,571
598,064
620,455
646,929
669,118

1,680
1,665
1,631
1,589
1,554

219,353
220,447
218,623
216,338
218,630

1965-.
1964...
1963...
1962-.
1961 —

7,123
7,127
7,138
7,028
6,923

1,703,522
1,696,039
1,701,839
1,689,414
1,669,789

443
441
446
447
437

173,962
175,490
176,318
177,677
177,554

546
555
561
558
551

707,974
719,343
738,839
746,490
745,392

1,495
1,500
1,446
1,410
1,374

215,554
215,891
210,527
208,200
205,732

1,266
1,227
1,271
1.259
1.260

I960—
1959*..
1958—
1957...
1956—

6,876
6,845
6,786
6,818
6,966

1,657,970
1,612,822
1,572,036
1.558.691
1.607.692

435
438
439
437
432

177,105
178.820
180,574
183,002
184,121

556
555
548
543
553

752,148
725,455
691,226
686,255
728,151

1,324
1,280
1,257
1,238
1,263

201,322
195,328
195,778
194,740
202,368

1955...
1954—
1953—
1952—
1951 —

6,956
6,970
6,978
6,903
6,832

1,604,408
1,577,961
1,580,654
1,561,809
1,521,959

428
430
435
439
422

183,162
189,233
202,604
213,018
214,597

552
552
556
09
(2)

739,153
717,558
710,802
(2)
09

1,253
1,248
1,239
2
1,747
2
1,701

203,179
202,312
203,836
2 896,596
2
870,517

1950—
1949—
1948—
1947 —
1946—

6,788
6,277
6,160
6,173
6,125

1,455,826
1,435,288
1,411,450
1,400,318
1,435,778

414
376
386
403
404

189,477
186,764
185,846
199,771
235,964

09
09
09
(2)
09

2
1,654
2
1,511
2

2
843,672
2
842,089
2

09
09
09
(2)
P)

1,474
2 1,490
21,504

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Church-operated and affiliated hospitals included with "Other."

Series B 345-358.

826,377
2 807,602
2
811,702

13,600
'3,643
13,660
13,692
13,675

1618,548
1606,186
•594,845
1 578,560
1563,320

858
856
871
923
956

59,330
55,285
54,635
54,233
54,585

215,723
210,837
205,774
201,919
199,284

2,404
2,424
2,392
2,364
2,328

336,201
320,798
317,261
305,189
294,840

969
980
1,022
990
973

54,108
53,680
53,120
49,939
46,987

1,241
1,232
1,220
1,220
1,206

192,743
186,912
183,437
180,291
176,972

2,338
2,328
2,288
2,291
2,304

288,843
281,424
275,365
267,555
265,633

982
1,012
1,034
1,089
1,208

45,809
44,883
45,656
46,848
50,447

1,101
1,196
1,110
(')
(')

162,283
169,685
157,597
(')
<•)

2,339
2,225
2,259
•3,348
>3,297

264,761
247,658
251,712
•398,530
1383,102

1,283
1,319
1,379
1,369
1,412

51,870
51,515
54,103
53,665
53,743

13,250
13,044
13,022
12,981
12,921

1368,137
1355,331
1349,310
1 342,120
1334,867

1,470
1,346
1,278
1,299
1,296

54,539
51,104
49,917
50,825
53,245

(»)
(')
<>)
0)
0)

(»)
0)
(»)
(')
0)

2 state hospitals included with "Local."

Hospitals and Beds, by Ownership or Control (AMA): 1909 to 1953
Nonprofit

Governmental

Total
Federal

State

Local

Proprietary

Church

Other

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

Hospitals

Beds

345

Year

346

347

348

349

350

351

352

353

354

355

356

357

358

1953...
1952—
1951—

6,840 1,573,014
6,665 1,541,615
6,637 1,529,988

392
386
388

200,535
211,510
216,939

550
549
554

711,824
691,408
683,376

1,194
1,143
1,090

200,645
196,705
197,405

1,169
1,136
1,116

164,053
158,389
154,053

2,206
2,146
2,121

243,653
232,598
225,903

1,329
1,305
1,368

52,304
51,005
52,312

1950
1949
1948—
1947—
1946—

6,430
6,572
6,335
6,276
6,280

1,456,912
1,439,030
1,423,520
1,425,222
1,468,714

355
361
372
401
464

186,793
182,254
185,098
213,204
264,486

552
573
567
563
557

665,019
656,611
648,386
626,648
628,363

1,005
1,003
961
953
941

185,229
186,290
186,283
190,353
189,885

1,097
1,090
1,068
1,051
1,050

150,078
146,315
144,036
141,920
138,096

2,072
2,067
2,016
1,965
1,942

218,788
213,576
208,936
202,661
198,885

1,349
1,478
1,351
1,343
1,326

51,005
53,984
50,781
50,436
48,999

1945—
1944—
1943—
1942—
1941 - _

6,511
6,611
6,655
6,345
6,358

1,738,944
1,729,946
1,649,254
1,383,827
1,324,381

705
798
827
474
428

546,384
551,135
476,673
220,938
179,202

549
539
531
530
530

619,642
609,025
610,115
606,437
600,320

929
925
926
920
906

190,692
192,118
189,351
188,406
185,989

1,036
1,020
1,004
977
993

135,481
133,090
130,488
126,141
123,331

1,954
1,961
1,952
1,949
1,917

195,805
195,624
192,219
190,150
182,140

1,338
1,368
1,415
1,495
1,584

50,940
48,953
50,408
51,755
53,399

1940- _
1939—
1938...
1937—
1936—

6,291
6,226
6,166
6,128
6,189

1,226,245
1,195,026
1,161,380
1,124,548
1,096,721

336
329
330
329
323

108,928
96,338
92,248
97,951
84,234

521
523
523
522
524

572,079
560,575
541,279
508,913
503,306

910
888
875
871
877

192,682
188,233
181,609
181,885
176,300

998
1,001
981
975
969

120,809
120,740
119,521
115,283
113,288

1,903
1,839
1,776
1,718
1,742

177,681
172,765
169,980
162,474
162,586

1,623
1,646
1,681
1,713
1,754

54,066
56,375
56,743
58,042
57,007

1935—
1934—
1933—
1932...
1931 —

6,246
6,334
6,437
6,562
6,613

1,075,139
1,048,101
1,027,046
1,014,354
974,115

316
313
295
301
291

83,353
77,865
75,635
74,151
69,170

526
544
557
568
576

483,994
473,035
459,646
442,601
419,282

882
892
924
935
949

174,365
166,988
159,192
162,615
153,072

970
970
984
1,001
1,011

113,268
113,263
115,840
117,555
116,935

1,670
1,676
13,677
13,757
1 3,786

155,300
154,449
1216,733
•217,432
1215,656

1,882
1,939
(')
(i)
(')

64,859
62,501
C)
(i)
(i)

1930—
1929—
1928—
1927
1926—

6,719
6,665
6,852
6,807
6,946

955,869
907,133
892,934
853,318
859,445

288
292
294
301
(NA)

63,581
59,901
61,765
60,444
63,553

581
578
595
592
(NA)

405,309
385,706
369,759
354,786
334,984

943
925
924
916
(NA)

150,836
136,930
135,910
129,939
(NA)

1,017
1,024
1,056
1,060
(NA)

116,846
113,555
114,613
108,582
(NA)

13,890
13,846
13,983
1 3,938
(NA)

1219,297
1211,041
•210,887
1199,567
(NA)

1925
1924—
1923—

6,896
7,370
6,830

802,065
813,926
755,722

299
310
220

57,091
62,352
53,869

351
632
601

317,264
321,399
302,208

(NA)
1,050
915

(NA)
125,302
115,871

(NA)
1,233
893

(NA)
110,760
77,941

(NA)
1,748
2,439

(NA)
131,439
160,114

1918
1914
1909—

5,323
5,047
4,359

612,251
532,481
421,056

110
93
71

18,815
12,602
8,827

303
294
232

262,254
232,834
189,049

NA

Not available.




1

C)
(i)
(0
(')
(NA)

(')
(')
(0
(i)
(NA)

(NA)
2,397
1,762

(NA)
62,674
45,719

Proprietary hospitals and beds included with "Other nonprofit."

79

B

167-220

Series B 359-370.

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Average Daily Census and Admissions to Hospitals, by Type of Service and Ownership (AHA) :
1946 to 1970
[In thousands]
Non-Federal
Total

Year

Federal, all types

Psychiatric

Long-term general
and special

Short-term general
and special

Tuberculosis

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

359

360

361

362

363

364

365

366

367

368

369

370

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966..

1,298
1,346
1,378
1,380
1,398

31,759
30,729
29,766
29,361
29,151

662
651
630
612
588

29,252
28,254
27,276
26,988
26,897

49
52
56
68
57

132
105
149
155
144

447
490
532
540
582

598
565
538
492
451

12
13
14
12
21

36
36
36
26
45

128
140
146
149
151

1,741
1,769
1,766
1,700
1,615

1965
1964
1963
1962.
1961

1,403
1,421
1,430
1,407
1,393

28,812
28,266
27,502
26,531
25,474

563
550
530
509
489

26,463
25,987
25,267
24,307
23,375

56
59
62
62
60

166
157
148
159
155

607
632
657
649
654

491
442
435
413
376

26
28
29
33
36

52
62
55
60
65

150
152
152
154
158

1,640
1,619
1,598
1,592
1,503

1960
1959*
1958
1957
1956

1,402
1,363
1,323
1,320
1,356

25,027
23,605
23,697
22,993
22,090

477
462
451
438
425

22,970
21,605
21,684
21,002
20,107

58
59
67
67
63

151
149
160
198
175

672
642
604
609
659

362
349
359
303
343

39
45
44
49
53

68
79
69
71
76

154
156
157
157
156

1,476
1,424
1,425
1,419
1,388

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

1,363
1,343
1,342
1,336
1,298

21,073
20,345
20,184
19,624
18,783

407
398
394
385
378

19,100
18,392
18,098
17,413
16,677

65
61
56
58
51

158
155
160
156
163

677
668
663
651
636

312
289
291
392
275

56
61
62
62
62

87
89
77
76
83

157
160
168
180
171

1,415
1,421
1,558
1,586
1,586

1950
1949
1948
1947.
1946

1,253
1,240
1,241
1,190
1,142

18,483
17,224
16,821
17,689
15,675

372
352
361
>354
341

16,663
15,428
15,072
15,908
13,655

60
68
70
73
63

164
132
128
149
139

607
597
595
558
517

293
269
267
266
202

62
66
66
55
55

79
128
112
94
85

152
157
149
150
166

1,284
1,268
1,241
1,271
1,593

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

Series B 371-380.

Average Daily Census and Admissions to Hospitals, by Type of Service (AMA): 1923 to 1953
[In thousands]
Total

General

Mental

All other

Tuberculosis

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

Average
daily
census

Admissions
during
year

371

Year

372

373

374

375

376

377

378

379

380

1953
1952
1951

1,333
1,309
1,294

19,869
18,915
18,237

477
475
471

18,693
17,760
17,066

719
704
698

328
312
307

75
75
74

108
110
107

61
55
52

739
733
757

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

1,243
1.225
1,217
1,217
1,239

17,024
16,660
16,423
15,830
15,153

433
429
438
457
496

15,830
15,450
15,160
14,665
14,052

688
675
664
652
636

307
308
305
292
271

72
69
66
63
62

113
113
106
99
100

49
51
49
46
45

773
789
852
773
731

1945
1944.
1943
1942
1941

1,405
1,299
1,257
1,126
1,087

16,257
16,037
15,375
12,546
11,596

665
570
529
405
364

15,228
15,060
14,455
11,634
10,647

624
619
619
610
603

249
226
209
214
209

60
63
65
70
71

86
88
92
102
101

56
47
43
41
50

694
662
620
596
639

19401939
1938
1937
1936

1,026
996
966
944
909

10,088
9,879
9,421
9,222
8,647

325
308
293
288
272

9,219
9,018
8,546
8,350
7,756

591
577
562
547
525

190
190
199
196
185

67
65
66
65
63

91
91
101
102
99

43
46
44
44
49

587
580
576
574
607

876
830
810
808
775

7,717
7,147
7,038
7,228
7,156

261
237
232
250
248

6,875
6,292
6,072
6,304
6,322

507
488
475
455
427

173
172
171
170

61
60
60
60
56

86
82
84
93
81

46
45
43
43
45

583
601
711
662

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1927
1925
1923

.

80



763
727
672
629
553

240
234
228
194

415
395
350
322

56
51
51
40

52
47
43
74

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 381-388.

B 428-447

Hospital Use Rates: 1931 to 1970

[Data are annual rates per 1,000 population, except as noted, based on Bureau of the Census estimated resident population as of July 1]
General and special hospitals Mental hospitals

Year

Admissions

381

Admissions

Total
days in
hospital

Admissions

384

Total Average
days in length
hospital of stay
(days)
382

Tuberculosis hospitals

385

386

383

Total Average
days in length
hospital of stay
(days)
387

General and special hospitals Mental hospitals

Year

388

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

152
149
146
146
146

1,440
1,452
1,438
1,440
1,387

9.5
9.8
9.9
9.9
9.5

3.3
3.1
3.0
2.7
2.6

862
958
1,060
1,084
1,179

0.2
.2
.2
.1
.2

22
24
27
23
40

122
136
145
167
168

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

146
145
143
140
136

1,329
1,327
1,314
1,295
1,269

9,1
9.2
9.2
9.3
9.3

2.9
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.4

1,261
1,326
1,393
1,399
1,431

.3
.3
.3
.4
.4

52
57
60
70
78

183
168
172
186
190

1960 *___
1959
1958
1957
1956

136
131
134
132
129

1,265
1,252
1,274
1,265
1,248

9.3
9.6
9.5
9.6
9.7

2.3
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.3

1,491
1,453
1,406
1,443
1,576

.4
.6
.5
.6
.6

86
104
108
123
135

200
188
211
223
231

1955
1954

125
124

1,238
1,232

9.9
10.0

2.2
2.1

1,645
1,650

.7
.7

146
157

219
232

Admissions

Total Average
days in length
hospital of stay
(days)

381

382

Tuberculosis hospitals

Total
days in
hospital

Admissions

384

383

Admissions

385

386

Total Average
days in length
hospital of stay
(days)
387

388

1953—.
1952
1951

123
119
116

1,241
1,242
1,244

10.1
10.5
10.7

2.1
2.0
2.0

1,659
1,650
1,660

0.7
.7
.7

173
176
175

252
250
251

1950
1949—
1948—
1947—
1946

110
109
110
108
106

1,165
1,179
1,215
1,280
1,412

10.6
10.8
11.1
11.9
13.4

2.0
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9

1,659
1,658
1,660
1,658
1,657

.7
.8
.7
.7
.7

175
171
166
159
161

233
224
230
231
227

1945
1944
1943
1942

120
118
112
91

1,987
1,696
1,556
1,216

16.5
14,3
13.9
13.3

1.9
1.7
1.6
1.6

1,720
1,700
1,684
1,662

.7
.7
.7
.8

165
173
178
191

253
261
260
252

74
59
56

1,019
882
860

13.7
15.0
15.3

1.4
1.4
0.8

1,634
1,455
1,257

.7
.7
.6

185
174
165

269
257
254

1940—
1935
1931

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

Series B 389-400.
[In dollars.

Hospital Expense Per Patient Day: 1946 to 1970

Covers hospitals accepted for registration by the American Hospital Association]
Payroll expenses 1

Total expenses
Non-Federal
Year

Amount

Federal

389

390

Non-Federal

391

392

393

394

Federal

395

Short-term, Long-term, Psychiatric
general and general and (including Tuberculosis
special
short-term)
special

Total

396

Short-term, Long-term, Psychiatric
general and general and (including Tuberculosis
special
special
short-term)
397

398

399

400

1970
1969
1968
1967.
1966

53.95
45.01
37.78
32.54
27.94

53.10
45.89
37.97
33.04
29.69

81.01
70.03
61.38
54.08
48.15

36.17
29.77
27.00
21.45
20.59

16.63
13.61
11.25
9.62
8.11

34.20
29.47
25.13
21.36
19.16

33.16
28.11
23.78
20.76
18.27

37.44
33.41
27.48
25.35
23.96

47.30
41.36
36.61
32.44
29.41

24.00
20.60
18.58
15.10
14.39

12.24
10.00
8.29
7.10
6.11

23.94
20.40
17.38
14.66
13.36

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

25.29
23.20
21.00
19.73
18.46

28.67
27.17
26.28
24.97
23.34

44.48
41.58
38.91
36.83
34.98

19.79
18.91
16.57
15.10
14.49

7.50
6.97
5.98
5.72
5.53

17.39
15.72
15.13
15.22
14.72

16.70
15.38
13.93
13.12
12.25

23.12
22.38
21.58
20.42
19.15

27.44
25.26
24.01
22.79
21.54

13.96
13.21
11.61
10.62
10.12

5.60
5.16
4.40
4.16
4.00

12.20
10.78
10.31
10.38
9.89

1960
1959*..
1958
1957
1956

16.46
15.65
14.74
13.48
12.16

20.11
19.62
18.38
17.68
16.97

32.23
30.19
28.27
26.02
24.15

12.82
12.50
10.32
10.33
10.20

4.91
4.71
4.40
3.91
3.63

13.37
12.80
12.08
11.16
10.19

10.92
10.37
9.63
8.76
7.98

16.34
15.98
14.80
14.27
13.74

20.08
18.76
17.19
15.74
14.85

9.01
8.39
6.91
6.79
6.84

3.45
3.26
3.08
2.66
2.41

8.92
8.54
7.91
7.14
6.51

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

11.24
10.67
9.73
9.14
8.26

14.60
15.92
13.93
14.10
11.91

23.12
21.76
19.95
18.35
16.77

8.06
8.53
8.26
6.63
6.30

3.73
3.22
2.83
2.68
2.46

10.13
9.32
8.54
7.85
7.37

7.20
6.83
6.10
5.63
5.01

11.63
12.06
10.44
10.35
8.68

14.26
13.21
11.86
10.66
9.65

5.36
5.63
5.28
4.05
3.89

2.17
2.03
1.74
1.58
1.43

6.48
5.77
5.11
4.61
4.25

7.98
7.70
6.35
5.42
5.21

12.77
13.30
8.81
7.39
6.14

15.62
14.33
13.09
11.09
9.39

5.39
4.07
3.81
3.03
2.97

2.43
2.84
1.95
1.60
1.39

7.22
6.68
6.25
5.44
4.57

4.79
4.53
3.60
3.07
2.93

9.35
9.53
6.19
5.23
4.06

8.86
7.96
7.17
5.99
4.98

3.32
2.35
1.99
1.64
1.64

1.38
1.53
1.03
.84
.80

4.06
3.70
3.17
2.82
2.38

1950.
1949
1948
1947
1946

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Includes full-time equivalents of part-time personnel; beginning 1951, excludes
residents, interns, and students.




2

Includes Alaska.

ftl

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

B 401-422

Series B 401-412.

Persons Covered by Private Health Insurance for Hospital and Surgical Benefits: 1939 to 1970
[In thousands.

As of end of year]
Surgical insurance

Hospitalization insurance
Persons covered

1

Insurance companies
Blue CrossBlue Shield

Group
policies

Individual
policies

403

404

405

Percent of
population :

Number

402

Persons covered

1

Insurance companies

Independent
plans 3

Blue CrossBlue Shield

407

406

Group
policies

Percent of
population

Number

409

Individual
policies

410

175,382
170,855
167,209
160,649
155,864
151,483
148,338
144,575
139,176
134,417

86.4
85.0
84.1
81.6
80.1
78.5
77.8
76.8
75.1
73.7

75,464
73,211
70,510
67,513
65,638
63,662
62,429
60,698
59.618
57.960

82,712
80,093
76,059
73,351
69,570
67,104
64,506
62,817
59,153
57,013

43,480
41,469
39,709
37,908
38,641
37,372
35,857
34,462
32,921
30,951

8,131
7,702
7,277
7,050
6,633
6,984
6,840
7,165
6,937
7,102

162,655
158,584
153,977
148,729
143,284
139,437
135,433
131,954
126,900
122,951

80.1
78.9
77.5
75.6
73,6
72.3
71.0
70.1
68.4
67.4

69,110
66,595
63,279
60,433
57,916
56.330
54,473
52,371
50,876
49,374

84,133
81,363
77,415
74,318
70,268
67,557
64,939
63,288
59,787
57,373

30,128
29,097
28,201
28,719
29,301
29,239
27,506
26,973
25,491
24,862

130,007
125,763
121,018
119,493
114,342
105,452
101,493
97,303
90,965
85.348

72.3
71.1
69.6
69.9

55,218
51,255
49,508
48,439
45,211
39,029
35,090
33,575
29,455
26,663

30,187
28,971
26,784
26,337
25,570
24,131
22,172
21,860
21,412

5,994
6,380
6,389
6,411
6,430
6,545

117,304
112,842
107,527
105,229
98,015
88,856
85,890
80,982
72,459
64,892

65.2
63.8
61.9
61,6
58.4
54.0
53.3
51.2
46.6
42.5

48,266
46,386
44.331
43,305
40,542
37,395
33,081
29,527
25,775
22,052

55,504
51,756
49,917
48,955
45,906
39,725
35,723
34,039
29,621
29,376

23,012
22,198

64.1
62.9
61.5
68.5
55.9

57,464
55,054
53,623
53,282
51,455
48,924
45,355
43,684
41,353
39,412

76,639
66,044
60,995
52,584
42,112
—32,068
29,232
24,160
19,695
16.349

50.7
44.2
41.5
36.4
29.9
24.0
22,9
18.9
15.2
12.4

37.645
33,576
30.619
27.646
24,342
18.961
15,828
12,696
10.295
8,469

22,305
17,697
16,741
14,190
11,315
7,804
8,400
6,800
5,080
3,850

17,296
14,729
11,286
7,584
3,000
2,700
2,400
2,100
1,800
1,500

2,670
2,495
2,319
2,290
2,270

54,156
41,143
34,060
26,247
18,609
12,890
11,713
10,069
8,140
6,775

35.8
27.5
23.2
18.2
13.2
9.7
9.2
7.9
6.3
5.1

17,253
12,842
10,516
6,187
4,236
2,335
1,583
1,065
815
645

21,219
15,590
14,199
11,103
8,661
5,537
5,625
4.700
3,275
2,300

13,718
9,315
6,944
4,875
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000

12,312
7,976

9.3

6,072

2,500

1,200

2,250

5,350
3,103

4.0
2.4

260

1,430

850

68.2

6,680

6,973
6,120
5,290

20,802

4,445
3,623
3,280
3,040
2,820

6.1

1
N e t number of different persons covered as estimated by Health Insurance Association of America (HIAA), an association of insurance companies. Estimate of net
number enrolled exceeds summary of individual categories for early years because
HIAA data include estimated enrollment of college and university health services.

Series B 413-422.

20,808

20,349
18,831
18,769
16,825
17,039
18,354
15,623

2
For 1939, based on total population; all other years based on Bureau of the Census
estimates of the civilian population as of end of year.
3
Plans—community group and individual practice plans, employer-employee-union
group and individual practice plans, private group clinics, and dental service corporations— not affiliated with Blue Cross-Blue Shield or insurance companies.

Hospitals—Assets, Expenses, and Personnel, by Type of Control and Service: 1946 to 1970
[Covers hospitals accepted for registration by the American Hospital Association]
Non-Federal

Total

Short-term

Federal

Year

Total

413

Tuberculosis

415

414

Psychiatric

416

417

Long-term

1

1

Voluntary
nonprofit

For
profit

State and local
government

419

418

Total

420

421

422

ASSETS (mil. d o l . )
1970
1969.
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961...

36,159
33,547
31,019
27,922
26,336
24,502

1960
1959 *
1958*
1957
1956
1955
1954

17,714
16,682
15,470
14,538

1953.
1952
1951

23,275
21,309
19,980
19,079

13,035
11,986
10,820
10,159
9,418
8,206

3,183
3,036
3,180
2,817
3,057

2,552
2,505
2,450
2,342
2,285
2,124
2,115
2,018
1,940
1,903
1,664
1,805

1,176
1,128
1,085
1,179
1,057
998
1,143
1,073
1,008
992

26,674
24,153
21,778
19,512
17,783
16,364
14,888
13,651
12,602
11,783

20,502
18,567
16,954
15,075
13,734
12,476
11,423
10,507
9,656
8,949

871
647
539
484
412
414
413
343
288
266

15,590
14,566
13,451
12,598

3,437
3,107

508
528

2,773

517
553

787
777
742
818
766

10,858
10,154
9,419
8,805

8,422
7,807
7,221
6,505
5,741

575

6,985
6,177

243
226
219
300
173
148
145
145
147

11,133
10,322

1,131

6,660

6,072

1,529
1,532

6,946

874

1948

6,490
5,881

905
812

Digitized for 8 2
FRASER


311
307
317
225
356
421
442
420
470
505

1,439

7,791

See footnotes at end of table.

4,816
4,922
4,659
4,189
4,084
4,167
4,297
3,716
3,558
3,515

9,016
8,630
7,886
6,766

1950
1949
1947

32,976
30,511
27,839
25,105
23,280
21,950
20,770
18,859
17,638
16,795

5,586

5,070

2,422
2,318

2,232
1,931
1,842
1,802
1,476

1,441
1,261
1,143
966

514
530
484
486
437

422
562
509

421

351

421

449
435
349

442

395
322

343

7,535

5,223

5,739

4,709
4,348

5,138
4,518

3,460

141

4,349

3,350

138

3,934
3,699
3,439

3,901

3,101

2,889
2,697

131
136
129

5,301
4,938
4,286
3,953
3,637
3,474
3,052
2,801
2,658
2,568
2,193

2,121
1,980
1,999

1,621
1,614

1,323
1,246
1,090
918
861

702
675
612

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 413-422.

B 413-422

Hospitals—Assets, Expenses, and Personnel, by Type of Control and Service: 1946 to 1970—Con.
Non-Federal
Total

Short-term 1

Federal

Year

Psychiatric

Total

Tuberculosis

Long-term

1

Total

413

414

415

416

417

EXPENSES

For
profit

State and local
government

419

418

Voluntary
nonprofit
420

421

422

(mil. dol.)

1970
1969
1968_
19671966.

25,556
22,103
19,061
16,395
14,198

2,483
2,350
2,032
1,795
1,633

23,073
19,753
17,030
14,600
12,565

2,712
2,433
2,192
1,896
1,716

152
143
133
94
147

649
565
543
529
427

19,560
16,613
14,162
12,081
10,276

14,168
12,137
10,317
8,806
7,435

1,068
852
720
653
553

4,828
3,624
3,125
2,622
2,288

1965.
1964..
1963
1962
1961

12,948
12,081
10,956
10,129
9,387

1,568
1,503
1,458
1,408
1,308

11,380
10,528
9,498
8,721
8,080

1,662
1,608
1,433
1,355
1,822

165
163
158
182
192

406
407
376
343
316

9,147
8,349
7,532
6,841
6,250

6,643
6,039
5,491
4,999
4,584

510
493
417
346
304

1,994
1,817
1,624
1,496
1,362

1960
1959*.
1958 2
1957
1956

8,421
7,789
7,133
6,496
6,017

1,134
1,119
1,051
1,013
968

7,287
6,670
6,084
5,483
5,049

1,205
1,102
972
870
873

192
208
195
200
197

273
269
262
252
236

5,617
5,091
4,655
4,161
8,743

4,139
3,760
3,427
8,050
2,739

275
242
225
200
188

1,203
1,089
1,003
911
816

1955
1954
1953.
1952
1951..

5,594
5,229
4,765
4,456
3,913

837
927
853
925
743

4,757
4,303
3,912
3,531
3,169

923
786
685
636
571

208
206
192
177
167

192
190
167
141
117

3,434
3,121
2,868
2,577
2,314

2,508
2,276
2,080
1,879
1,688

174
162
169
151
139

752
683
619
547
486

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

3,651
3,486
2,875
2,354
1,963

712
764
480
405
873

2,938
2,722
2,396
1,949
1,590

589
619
424
325
262

162
160
150
109
91

117
101
98
81
68

2,120
1,842
1,724
1,434
1,169

1,523
1,333
1,264
1,048
848

148
125
119
109
94

454
383
341
276
227

PERSONNEL

4

(1,000)

1970.
1969
1968
1967
1966

2,537
2,426
2,309
2,203
2,106

216
213
210
214
206

2,321
2,213
2,100
1,988
1,900

305
303
292
277
274

18
18
19
15
24

69
68
72
78
69

1,929
1,824
1,717
1,619
1,532

1,387
1,330
1,251
1,175
1,104

97
88
84
81
77

444
407
382
863
352

1965
1964
1963
1962.
1961

1,952
1,887
1,840
1,763
1,696

199
193
206
207
202

1,754
1,693
1,634
1,556
1,494

274
264
261
251
248

29
30
29
34
87

65
67
67
64
60

1,386
1,333
1,277
1,207
1,149

1,011
962
921
875
835

70
67
64
57
51

306
304
291
276
263

1960
1959 *
1958 2
1957
1956

1,598
1,520
1,465
1,401
1,375

186
179
181
186
198

1,412
1,341
1,284
1,215
1,177

238
215
203
191
201

39
41
41
43
45

55
54
56
55
53

1,080
1,081
984
926
878

792
758
720
680
639

48
46
45
43
41

241
227
219
203
198

1955..
1954..
1953
1952
1951

1,301
1,246
1,169
1,119
1,075

192
195
198
206
197

1,109
1,051
971
913
878

188
178
165
155
151

48
49
47
47
47

47
46
40
37
32

826
777
719
674
648

597
568
520
486
464

41
40
40
39
38

188
169
159
149
146

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

1,058
963
939
883
830

169
161
154
161
162

888
803
785
722
668

147
132
126
117
99

45
45
43
36
36

34
30
30
30
28

662
596
586
539
505

473
435
427
392
362

41
35
34
35
35

148
126
124
111
108

_

See footnotes at end of table.




B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 413-422. Hospitals—Assets, Expenses, and Personnel, by Type of Control and Service: 1946 to 1970—Con.
Non-Federal
Short-term

Federal

Total

Total

Psychiatric

Tuberculosis

415

Year

416

417

414

413

Long-term

1

1

Total

For
profit

State and local
government

419

418

Voluntary
nonprofit
420

421

422

PERSONNEL PEE 100 PATIENTS 4
1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

196
180
168
160
151

169
152
144
144
137

198
183
171
161
152

68
62
55
51
47

146
138
128
122
117

140
131
131
115
120

292
280
272
265
261

292
284
276
268
264

256
244
237
233
234

298
279
270
262
257

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

139
133
129
125
122

133
128
135
134
132

140
133
128
124
121

45
42
40
39
38

111
105
102
104
103

115
113
108
102
100

246
242
241
237
235

252
247
244
241
240

218
212
214
208
205

234
236
237
232
227

1960
1959*
1958 2
1957
1956

114
112
111
107
101

120
114
116
118
127

113
111
110
104
98

.35
34
34
32
31

99
93
93
88
85

95
91
84
82
83

226
223
218
211
207

232
229
224
218
213

196
195
189
185
179

215
210
206
197
195

1955
1954
1953
1952. _
1951

95
93
87
84
83

122
122
118
115
116

92
89
83

28
27
25
24
24

85
81
76
76
75

71
76
72
63
63

203
198
183
175
171

210
207
193
184
181

182
178
161
162
155

188
175
161
153
151

84
78
76
79
73

111
102
103
97
97

81

24
22
21
21
19

74
68
65
65
66

57
43
43
41
45

178
169
162
151
148

191
180
173
161
156

161
152
145
139
137

149
144
136
126
129

1950
1949
1948.
1947
1946

... _

._ _
...

_ __
...

3 Excludes cost of new construction.
4
Beginning 1951, excludes residents, interns, and students; beginning 1954, includes
full-time equivalents of part-time personnel.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
Composed of both general and other special.
Includes Alaska.

1
2

Series B 423-427.

Patients in Mental Hospitals, by Type of Hospital: 1904 to 1970

[In thousands, except rate.
Total
Year

Number
423

Federal

Rate

2

1

424

425

State
and
Private
county 3 hospitals
426

As of end of year.
Total

Year

Federal

Number

Rate i

423

427

Completeness of reporting varies from year to year]

424

425

2

State
and
Private
county 3 hospitals

426

Total
Year

Federal

Rate

423

427

Number

1

2

State
and
Private
county ! hospitals

424

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

391
424
457
493
523

194
212
231
252
270

43
43
48
53
57

338
370
399
426
452

11
11
10
14
14

1955...
1954.__
1953.__
1952.__
1951...

634
625
612
599
587

390
393
392
390
389

60
57
53
53
53

559
554
545
532
520

15
14
14
13
14

1940 ._
1939...
1938.._
1937.._
1936...

479
476
462
448
435

364
364
356
348
• 340

34
32
30
27
24

434
433
421
409
400

11
11
11

1965.. _.
1964
1963
1962
1961*

550
566
579
591
603

287
299
311
322
333

62
62
62
62
63

475
490
505
516
527

13
13
13
14
13

1950.__
1949. _
1948..
1947.
1946..

580
567
558
544
531

386
384
384
381
384

54
54
55
54
49

513
499
490
477
470

14
14
13
12
12

1935.__
1934...
1933.__
1931...

422
407
395
353

331
322
315
284

23
21
19
12

389
376
366
332

11
10
10
8

I960' . . .
1959
1958
1957
1956

611
618
621
622
628

343
354
363
369
380

s 62
« 63
62
61
62

536
542
545
549
551

14
14
14
14
14

1945...
1944.__
1943.__
1942._.
1941.

522
510
503
502
496

409
402
394
383
377

45
41
38
36
35

463
456
453
454
450

13
12
12
12
11

1923._.
1910...
1904..

268
188
150

239
203
183

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Patients per 100,000 population estimated as of July 1. Total population used
prior to 1936; civilian, thereafter.
2
Includes veterans with mental disorders resident in VA hospitals and, through
1965, all patients in public health service hospitals at Fort Worth, Tex., and Lexington,
Ky.

84



12
11

' 230

3
Includes patients in State-operated psychopathic hospitals and, through 1950, in
city hospitals.
4
Includes Alaska.
5
Beginning 1959, includes Alaska; 1960, Hawaii.
6
Includes county hospitals.
7
State mental hospitals only.

HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 428-443.

B 428-447

Public Institutions for the Mentally Retarded: 1936 to 1970
Admissions, excluding transfers

Resident Patients Patients
in public
per
Number patients,
begin- 100,000 instituof
ning
facilities
popula- tions 2
1
of year
(1,000) Number
tion

Year

428

429

431

430

432

Rate
per
100,000
civilian
population 3

433

Personnel,
full-time 6
Net
Deaths
live
in
institu- releases
tions

Patients
under
treatment

434

435

4

436

Average
Resident daily
patients, resident
end of patient
populayear
tion

437

438

Maintenance
expenditures««

Rate per
100
average
daily
resident
patient
population
440

Total

Total
(mil.
dol.)

441

439

Per aver age daily
resident patient
Per
year
(dol.)

Per
day
(dol.)

442

443

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

190
180
170
165
154
143
134
129
124
113

189,956
192,848
193,121
192,774
189,858
181,549
177,207
174,187
170,575
163,913

98
99
102
101
99
99
99
96

187
189
193
193
192
187
180
177
174
167

14,985
14,868
14,688
15,714
14,998
17,300
15,018
15,151
14,132
14,515

7.5
7.4
7.4
8.1
7.8
9.1
7.9
8.1
7.7
8.0

204,941
207,716
207,809
208,488
204,856
198,849
190,636
187,536
184,707
178,428

3,496
3,621
3,614
3,635
3,601
3,583
3,384
3.498
3,244
3,158

14,702
14,701
11,675
11,665
9,268
7,993
9,292
8,156
7,764
7,979

186,743
189,394
192,520
193,188
191,987
187,273
179,599
176,516
173,699
167,291

187,897 117,327
191,363 107,737
193,690 100,804
194,650 94,900
192,384 88,974
189,172 79,056
181,779 74,128
179,022 69,494
175,445 63,810
166,169 57,666

62.4
56.3
52.0
48.8
46.3
41.8
40.8
38.8
36.4
34.7

871
765
673
577
505
442
397
354
326
288

4,635
3,996
3,472
2,965
2,615
2,335
2,189
1,984
1,859
1,727

12.70
10.95
9.51
8.12
7.16
6.40
6.00
5.44
5.09
4.73

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

108
106
102
99
100
99
97
98
96
95

158,682
156,633
152,876
147,857
145,997
141,053
136,926
133,431
130,743
130,294

96
95
94
94
93
93
93
91
91
91

164
158
154
151
146
144
140
135
132
130

14,701
13,949
13,463
13,970
12,972
13,096
13,511
12,627
12,262
11,957

8.3
8.0
7.9
8.3
7.8
8.1
8.5
8.1
8.0
7.9

173,383
170,582
166,339
161,827
158,969
154,149
150,437
146,058
143,005
142,251

3,202
3,122
3.499
2,818
2,730
2,698
2,703
2,780
2,721
2,552

6,451
6,262
6,050
5,616
9,998
5,581
5,517
6,148
6,902
8,216

163,730
161.198
156,790
153,393
146,241
145,870
142,217
137,130
133,382
131,483

163,282
158,119
153,453
149,705
145,700
142,265
138,595
134,053
130,076
127,415

54,277
49,892
46,218
41,235
39,470
36,333
34,336
31,025
29,416
26,902

33.2
31.6
30.1
27.5
27.1
25.5
24.8
23.1
22.6
21.1

266
235
215
190
169
153
141
130
120
103

1,650
1,503
1,409
1,280
1,166
1,008
1,017
970
923
808

4.52
4.12
3.86
3.51
3.19
2.76
2.79
2.66
2.53
2.21

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

96 125,375
99 123,557
95 119,214
113,475
114,199
112,758
112,792
107,285
109,385
99,720

90
90
88
88
86
94
94
89
88
80

128
126
122
119
113
113
112
107
109
102

12,233
12,384
12,294
11,770
11,216
11,128
10,822
10,726
11,543
11,980

6.9
8.4
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.7
8.5
8.4
8.8
9.1

137,608
135,941
131,508
125,245
125,415
123,886
123,614
118,011
120,928
111,700

2,678
2,833
2,742
2,873
3,063
2,720
2,999
2,673
2,531
2,310

5,531
6,133
6,315
3,669
8,877
6,967
7,489
7,675
7,831
7,263

129,399
126,975
122,451
118,703
113,475
114.199
113.126
107,663
110,566
102.127

125,704
123,717
119,653
113,633
111,648
113,482
112,641
107,948

25,744
24,162
21,554
18,810
17,490
15,926
15,467

20.1
19.5
18.0
16.6
15.7
14.0
13.7

92
87
75
61
49
43
40
36

732
703
627
537
439
379
355
333

2.01
1.93
1.72
1.47
1.20
1.04
.97
.91

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

99,222
96,757
97,516
95,112
92,572

80
79
82
79
78

101
99
101
98
95

10,714
10,447
11,226
12,230
10,710

8.1
8.0
8.7
9.5
8.4

109,936
107,204
108,742
107,342
103,282

2,262
2,382
2,555
2,907
2,686

6,091 101,583
5,241 99,581
4,170 102,017
5,726 98,709
5,792 94,804

- -

1
Population estimated as of July 1. Total population used prior to 1936; civilian,
thereafter.
2
Includes city institutions through 1945.
8
Based on Bureau of the Census estimated resident population as of July 1.

Series B 444-447.

4
5
6

Excess of patients released alive from hospital over those returning to hospital.
Reporting facilities only.
Includes salaries and wages, purchased provisions, fuel, light, water, etc.

Four Indexes of Per Capita Food Consumption: 1909 to 1970
[1967 —100. Beginning 1941r civilian consumption only]

Food
consumption

Food
use
445

Food
Calories
consumed,
per
pounds
day
446

Food

Food
Calories
consumed,
per
pounds
day

Year

447

Food
consumption

Food
use

444

Food
consumption

Food
consumed,
pounds

445

101

100
98
97
98
97
96
96
96
97
95
96
98
97
96
96
95
94

99
99
99
99
99
100

103
102
102
100
99
98
99
98
97
97

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

95
94
94
97
99
97
96
93
92

96
95
96
100
103

101
101
101
102
103
103
103
104
104
105

98
99
97
97
99
99
98
99
99
98

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
1933
1932
1981

91
89
86
86
86
83
85
84
84

93
91
88
89
88
85
89
88
87
89

102

101

102

101

102

101

100

100

98
97
98
98
96
97
96
98
96
98
100

99
97
97
96
95

101

100
97
94
95

105
106
107
112
115
115
114
111

110
110
108
108
106
106
106
105
104
104
105
108

102
100
100
102
103
103
104
105
103
106

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926
1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

86

104
104
102
102
102
100

1920
1919.
1918
1917
1916
1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

83
84
83
81
81
82
83
83
85
84

108
107
109
106
105
110
109
110
113
109

1910
1909

103
102

83
85

111
113

102

102
103
106

87
87
87
88
86
87
87
85
80

89
90
89
90
92
91

108
110

109
108
110
109
110
109
109
105

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.




85

B

167-220

VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE

Series B 448-452.

Index of Per Capita Consumption of Selected Nutrients: 1909 to 1970
[1967 = 100. Beginning 1941, civilian only]

Protein

Fat

Year

Carbohydrate

Iron

450

451

449

448

Protein

Ascorbic
acid

Fat

Carbohydrate

Iron

450

451

Ascorbic
acid

Year

452

449

448

Protein

Fat

Carbohydrate

Iron

Ascorbic
acid

448

449

450

451

452

Year

452

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

102
102
101
100
99

105
103
103
100
98

102
102
101
100
99

103
100
99
100
96

105
100
98
100
94

1950—
1949
1948 __
1947...
1946...

96
96
96
99
104

97
93
93
95
95

108
107
106
110
110

96
95
95
100
106

97
101
104
110
114

1930—
1929...
1928
1927
1926—

95
96
96
97
96

89
91
90
89
89

127
126
129
128
128

83
83
84
84
84

95
103
97
97
96

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

98
99
98
96
97

97
99
97
95
95

99
100
99
100
100

95
97
96
95
95

94
93
94
99
99

1945—
1944...
1943...
1942...
1941 —

104
101
102
99
96

92
95
95
93
96

112
114
115
114
119

104
102
94
90
84

116
116
106
108
106

1925...
1924...
1923...
1922...
1921 —

97
98
98
96
93

89
90
90
86
81

127
127
125
129
118

83
85
86
84
82

98
100
101
96
96

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956

97
97
96
97
98

95
98
95
94
97

101
101
101
100
101

95
94
94
94
95

100
98
94
99
97

1940
1939
1938—
1937...
1936...

95
94
92
92
93

95
93
89
89
89

115
118
116
116
117

83
81
80
79
81

106
107
106
102
101

1920—
1919—
1918—
1917...
1916—

95
99
99
98
98

82
87
86
81
84

123
128
124
126
126

85
88
89
85
83

96
93
94
91
89

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

97
96
97
96
95

97
95
95
95
93

101
102
103
104
105

94
93
95
94
94

98
97
98
97
99

1935...
1934—
1933...
1932—
1931—

90
93
92
93
94

85
89
89
89
90

117
115
117
120
123

78
81
79
80
82

104
100
97
99
101

1916—
1914—
1913...
1912—
1911...
1910...
1909...

99
100
102
104
103
104
106

84
85
83
83
84
83
85

129
129
131
131
131
133
133

85
84
86
88
88
89
90

97
93
95
96
92
99
97

Series B 453-459.

Controlled Fluoridation of Water Systems: 1945 to 1970
[As of December 31]

Operative systems

Population
served

Percent
of total
U.S.
population

455

456

Number
Water
ComBupply munities
systems
453

454

2,653
2,372
2,091
1,785

4,834
4,229
3,827
3,145

Discontinued systems

83,725,771
80,096,860
74,579,666
71,916,682
62,427,290

41.1
39.8
37.4
36.4
31.9

Number

Number

Water
Comsupply munities
systems
457

109
98
97
87

458

146
122
122
112

Population
served

4.296,868
4,628,507
3,983,707
4,018,710

59,855,024
48,363,066
46,678,380
44,045,392
42,201,115

30.9
25.3
24.8
23.7
23.1

89
85
83
79

111
111
111
108
104

4,018,195
2,815,953
2,324,486
2,243,764
2,217,635

1,172
1,081
995

ec

3.030
2,758
2.612
2,321
2,197

2,111 41,179,694
1,990 39,628,377
1,890 38,461,589

22.9
22.4

79
72
65

110
103
96

2,211,230
2,173,363
2,001,877

86

Year

Water
Comsupply munities
systems
453

459

1,692
1,573
1,482
1,350
1,249




Operative systems

454

Discontinued systems

Population
served

Percent
of total
TJ.S.
population

455

456

Number
Water
Comsupply munities
systems
457

458

1957
1956

879
772

1,717 36,215,208
1,583 33,905,474

21.3
20.3

59
56

84
73

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

672
572
482
353
171

1,347
1,194
1,007
751

26,278,820
22,336,884
17,666,339
13,875,005
5,079,321

16.0
13.9

47

60
32
12
7
2

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945

62
29
13
11
8

100
49
26
16
12
6

1,578,578
1,062,779
581,683
458,748
332,467
231,920

1.0
.7
.4
.3
.2

11.2

8.9
3.3

Chapter C

Migration
Internal Migration (Series C 1-88)
C 1-75.

General note.

Data in these series are based on comparison of State of birth and
State of residence of the native population enumerated at successive
decennial censuses of population. The migration measured is the net
movement from the time of birth to the census date. Migrants defined in this way include only those persons who have moved from
one State to another and are, on the census date, living in States other
than those in which they were born.
These statistics for migrants do not represent the total number of
persons who have moved from the State or geographic division in
which they were bora to other States or divisions during any given
period of time. Some of those who moved from one State to another
died before the following census date. Some moved from and returned, between censuses, to their State of birth. Others moved to
places outside the conterminous United States.
A native is defined as a person born in the United States, Puerto
Rico, or an outlying area of the United States or persons born in a
foreign country who have at least one parent born in the United
States. Persons for whom place of birth was not reported are included under native. See also text for series A 105-118, A 119-134,
and A 135-142 and general note, A 1-371.
Through 1950, the figures showing classification by race were
not ordinarily based on replies to census questions asked by enumerators, but were rather obtained by observation. The figures do not,
therefore, reflect a clear-cut definition of biological stock. The
population of Negro and other races consists of Negroes, American
Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, and some other groups.
Persons of mixed white and other parentage were placed in the
classification of the parent who was not white. Persons of Mexican
birth or ancestry who are not definitely Indian or of stock other than
white have been classified as white in all censuses except that of 1930.
The lack of comparability introduced by this factor is substantial in
the West South Central, Mountain, and Pacific Divisions. For
revised 1930 figures for regions showing Mexicans classified as white,
see series B 215-230 in Historical Statistics of the United States, 178919^5.
For a discussion of 1960 and 1970 data on race and a more complete
statement concerning earlier years, see text for series A 91-104.
C 1-14. Native population, by residence within or outside State,
division, and region of birth, by race, 1850-1970.
Source: Special compilations made by the University of Pennsylvania Studies of Population Redistribution and Economic Growth
from the following U.S. Bureau of the Census reports: 1850, The
Seventh Census of ike United States: 1850, pp. xxxvi-xxxviii; 1860,
Eighth Census of the United States: 1880, table 5 for each State, pp.
10-589 (various pages) and pp. 616-619; 1870, Ninth Census Reports,
vol. I, pp. 327-335; 1880, Tenth Census Reports, Population-, pp.
484-491; 1890, Eleventh Census Reports, Population, part 1, pp.
564-567 and 576-579; 1900, Twelfth Census Reports, Population,
vol. I, part 1, pp. 686-693 and 702-705; 1910, Thirteenth Census
Reports, Population, vol. I, pp. 730-744; 1920, Fourteenth Census
Reports, Population, vol. II, pp. 626-640; 1930, Fifteenth Census



Reports, Population, vol. II, pp. 153-167; 1940, Sixteenth Census
Reports, State of Birth of ike Native Population, pp. 20-39; 1950,
U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, State of
Birth; pp. 4A-24 to 4A-43; 1960, U.S. Census of Population: I960,
vol. II, Subject Reports, State of Birth; 1970, U.S. Census of Population; 1970, vol. II, Subject Reports, State of Birth.
In 1860, persons who were born in territories and who were then
residing in territories were assumed to be residing in the territory of
their birth.
See general note for series C 1-75 for definition of race and nativity;
see also text for series A 172-194 for definition of division and region.
C 15-24. Native population born in each division, by division of
residence, by race, 1850-1970.
Source: See source for series C 1-14.
See also general note for series C 1-75 for definition of race and
nativity.
C 25-75. Estimated net intercensal migration of total, native white,
foreign-born white, and Negro population, by States, 1870-1970.
Source: Components of change method, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, Population Estimates and Projections,
series p. 25, No. 72, p. 5; No. 304, p. 12; and No. 406, pp. 10 and 14.
Survival rate method, 1870-1950, Everett S. Lee, Ann Ratner Miller,
Carol P. Brainerd, and Richard A. Easterlin, Population Redistrilmtion and Economic Growth: United States, 1870-1950, vol. I, the
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1957, pp. 107-231
(copyright). 1950-1960, Hope T. Eldridge, Net Intercensal Migration for States and Geographic Divisions of the United States, 1950-19S0
(Analytical and Technical Reports, No. 5) Population Studies Center,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, table A-l (copyright).
The estimate of the net migration data shown for the component
of change method was obtained by subtracting the national increase
for the intercensal period (births minus deaths) from the difference
between the census counts at the beginning and the end of the period.
The estimates of net migration by the survival rate method were
obtained by a residual method, using survival ratios derived from
census data. The loss through mortality during an intercensal
period was estimated on the basis of the ratios of appropriate age
groups as enumerated in successive decennial censuses. The difference between the enumerated population at the end of the decennial
period and the estimated survivors from the beginning to the end of
the period was assumed to be net migration. Computations were by
age groups for each sex, the figures presented in series C 25-75
being summations for ages 10 years and over at the end of each intercensal period. For the native population, the figures show the
estimated amount of net internal migration. For the foreign bom,
the figures represent the estimated net change attributable to direct
movement into the State from abroad and the net gain or loss in
the exchange of foreign-born residents with other States.
See general note for series C 1-75 for definition of race and nativity.
87

MIGRATION

C 76-88

C 76-80. Estimated annual movement of the farm population, 19201970.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research
Service, 1920-1962, Farm Population Estimates for 1910-1962, ERS130, 1963; 1963-1970, Farm Population Estimates, annual issues.
Estimates of the total farm population and of the annual changes
in its components have utilized data from the censuses of population
and agriculture and the Current Population Survey, conducted by
the Bureau of the Census, and surveys of the Department of Agriculture. For a history of the procedures used and the successive
revisions of the series, see Department of Agriculture, Major Statistical
Series of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, vol. 7, Agricultural
Handbook No. 365, 1969.
Farm population figures relate to the rural civilian population
living on farms, regardless of occupation or source of income. From
1850 to 1960 the definition of a farm has varied. See general note
for series K 1-203 and text for series K 1-3 for discussion of the
changes in definition. Since 1960 a farm is defined as a place of 10
acres or more from which at least $50 worth of farm products were
sold in the preceding year, or a place of less than 10 acres from which
at least $250 worth of products were sold. Persons living on or what

might be considered farmland are classed as nonfarm if they rent for
cash a house and yard only. Likewise, persons in institutions, summer camps, motels, and tourist camps located in the open country
are also classed as nonfarm.
C 81-88. Mobility status and type of mobility of the population one
year old and over, 1947-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
series P-20, No. 235.
The population was classified by mobility status on the basis of a
comparison between the place of residence of each individual on the
survey date and the place of residence one year earlier. Persons
classified as movers include all those whose place of residence in the
United States was different at the end of the period and at the beginning of the period.
For similar information for earlier years, see Donald J. Bogue,
Henry S. Shryock, Jr., and Siegfried A. Hoermann, "Subregional
Migration in the United States, 1935-40," vol. 1, Streams of Migration
Between Subregions, Scripps Foundation Studies in Population
Distribution, No. 5, Miami, Ohio, 1957.

•
•

More Recent Data for Historical Statistics Series

•k
*
*
*

Statistics for more recent years in continuation of many of the still-active series shown here appear
in annual issues of the Statistical Abstract of the United States, beginning with the 1975 edition. For
direct linkage of the historical series to the tables in the Abstract, see Appendix I in the Abstract.

88




• • • • • • • • • •
•
-k
if
*
•

INTERNAL MIGRATION

C 25-75

Series C 1-14. Native Population, by Residence Within or Outside State, Division, and Region of Birth, by Race:
1850 to 1970

Native
population

Race
and
year

Born in other States 1

Born in State
of residence 1

Contiguous to State
of residence

Born
in
outlying
areas 1

Noncontiguous to
State of residence

Born
abroad
or at
sea

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1970 2
1960 «__
1950 «...
1940
1930
1920....

193,454,051
169,587,580
139,868,715
120,074,379
108,570,897
91,789,928

131,296,419
119,293,462
102,788,395
92,609,754
82,677,619
71,071,013

67.9
70.3
73.5
77.1
76.2
77.4

18,081,446
16,640,284
14,589,035
12,583,482
12,200,290
9,741,781

9.3
9.8
10.4
10.5
11.2
10.6

33,577,139
28,050,769
20,696,175
14,322,504
13,187,810
10,532,669

17.4
16.5
14.8
11.9
12.1
11.5

873,241
660,425
329,970
156,956
136,032
38,020

744,155
401,510
96,355
122,169
130,677
92,863

1910
1900
1890 K 1880
1870.._.

78,456,380
65,653,299
53,372,703
43,475,840
32,991,142

61,185,305
51,901,722
41,872,656
33,882,734
25.321,340

78.0
79.0
78.5
77.9
76.8

7,959,860
6,308,975
4,628,768
4,083,004
3,182,563

10.1
9.6
8.7
9.4
9.6

8,950,254
7,192,070
6,464,295
5,509,760
4,474,757

11.4
11.0
12.1
12.7
13.6

7,365
2,923
322
51
51

67,911
67,151
10,010
291
169

169,273,531
1970
1960 3... 149,543,683
1950 <__. 124,382,950
106,795,732
1940
1930 «... 95,497,800
81,108,161
1920
68,386,412
1910

115,156,268
105,655,834
91,984,045
82,533,805
72,821,481
62,524,789
52,806,091

68.0
70.7
74.0
77.3
76.2
77.1
77.2

16,633,079
15,174,128
13,195,215
11,298,723
10,824,966
8,675,416
7,018,331

9.8
10.1
10.6
10.6
11.3
10.7
10.3

29,039,976
24,070,953
17,629,435
12,492,817
11,452,788
9,521,420
8,245,872

17.2
16.1
14.2
11.7
12.0
11.7
12.0

790,751
621,762
289,435
99,170
71,582
26,476
6,413

680,042
377,398
88,065
117,933
125,060
88,838
64,356

1900
1890 5...
1880
1870 7
1860 7
1850 __.

56,595,379
45,862,023
36,843,291
28,095,665
23,353,385
17,772,270

44,278,021
35,524,287
28,310,081
21,355,242
17,527,069
13,624,902

78.2
77.5
76.8
76.0
75.1
76.7

5,534,957
4,064,121
3,576,340
2,779,526
2,529,494
2,105,724

9.8
8.9
9.7
9.9
10.8
11.9

6,562,833
5,926,722
4,956,596
3,951,487
3,242,190
2.006,033

11.6
12.9
13.5
14.1
13.9
11.3

2,563
279
50
38

63,366
9,543
224
160
2,618

1970 «.
1970 ®
1960«.
1950
1940.._
1930 «...

24,180,520
22,260,196
20,043,897
15,485,765
13,278,647
13,073,097

16,140,151
14,775,004
13,637,628
10,804,350
10,075,949
9,856,138

66.7
66.4

1,448,367
1,353,981
1,466,156
1,393,820
1,284,759
1,375,324

6.0

4,537,163
4,259,605
3,979,816
3,065,740
1,829,687
1,735,022

Born in division
of residence

State
of birth
not
reported

Born in region
of residence

Number
8

9

Number

Percent

11

10

Percent
12

13

14

TOTAL

8,881,651
4,541,130
1,369,785
279,514
238,469
313,582

145,349,492
131,889,464
113,477,925
101,694,396
91,382,402
77,906,515

75.1
77.8
81.1
84.7
84.2
84.9

153,603,453
139,065,350
119,490,525
106,734,907
96,447,180
82,308,490

79.4
82.0
85.4
88.9
88.8
89.7

285,685 66,746,379
180,458 56,248,496
396,652 45,022,600
36,582,390
12,262 27,363,803

85.1
85.7
84.4
84.1
82.9

70,864,304
60,025,002
48,398,175
39,530,266
29,634,393

90.3
91.4
90.7
90.9
89.8

127,824,055
116,915,448
101,491,060
90,586,586
80,492,581
68,601,740
57,703,559

75.5
78.2
81.6
84.8
84.3
84.6
84.4

135,541,644
123,605,716
107,061,715
95,225,370
85,075,201
72,563,235
61,361,087

80.1
82.7
86.1
89.2
89.1
89.5
89.7

153,639 48,102,508
337,071 38,315,138
30,681,197
9,212 23,130,521
52,014 18,969,880
35,611 14.707,719

85.0
83.5
83.3
82.3
81.2
82.8

51,407,811
41,227,682
33,126,949
24,914,093
20,481,089
15,765,010

90.8
89.9
89.9
88.7
87.7
88.7

72.5
72.0
74.7
77.4
83.7
83.3

18.061.809
16,498,493
15,459,634
12.428.810
11,509,537
11,371,979

74.7
74.1
77.1
80.3
86.7
87.0

WHITE
2

6,973,415
3,643,608
1,196,755
253,284
201,923
271,222
245,349

NEGRO AND OTHER RACES

68.0

69.8
75.9
75.4

6.1

7.3
9.0
9.7
10.5

18.8

19.1
19.9
19.8
13.8
13.3

82,490
53,968
38,663
40,535
57,786
64,450

64,113
37,106
24,112
8,290
4,236
5,617

1,908,236
1,780,532
897,522
173,030
26,230
36,546

17,525,437
16,020,511
14,974,016
11,986,865
11,107,810
10,889,821

91.2
1920..
10,681,767 8,546,224
80.0
1,066,365
10.0 1,011,249
9.5
11,544
4,025
42,360 9,304,775
87.1 9,745,255
1910
10,069,968 8,379,214
83.2
941,529
9.3
704,382
952
3,555
40,336 9,042,820
7.0
94.4
89.8 9,503,217
1900
9,057,920 7,623,701
84.2
774,018
8.5
629,237
360
3,785
26,819 8,145,988
95.1
6.9
89.9 8,617,191
1890
7,510,680 6,348,369
84.5
564,647
537,573
43
467
59,581 6,707,462
7.5
95.5
7.2
89.3 7,170,493
1880
6,632,549 5,572,653
84.0
506,664
553,164
1
67
5,901,193
7.6
96.5
8.3
89.0 6,403,317
1870..
4,895,477 3,966,098
81.0
403,037
523,270
13
9
4,233,282
8.2
4,720,300
96.4
10.7
86.5
3,050
1
- Represents zero.
Prior to 1960, Alaska and Hawaii included in outlying
specially enumerated in 1890, with a native population of 117,368 white, and 208,083
2
3
1
areas.
Based on 5-percent sample of 4persons enumerated.
Based on 25Negro and other races, not distributed by State of birth.
Excludes Mexicans;
7
percent sample of persons enumerated.
Based on 20-percent sample of persons
434,495 free Negroes included with white in 1850,
classified under "other races."
8
enumerated.
Excludes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations,
487,970 in 1860.
» Negro only.
Includes Mexicans.

Series C 15-24.

Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Race: 1850 to 1970
[Excludes persons born outside United States and persons for whom State of birth was not reported]
Division of residence
Total

Division of birth, race,
and census year

New
England

Middle
Atlantic

East North
Central

West North
Central

South
Atlantic

East South
Central

West South
Central

Mountain

Pacific

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

160,829,323

10,491,117

31,485,397

34,048,261

18,187 380

19,609,673

11,892,067

15,776,495

6,235,092

13,103,841

9,988,571
28,254,639
33,326,277
14,654,554
22,102,985
9,719,571
14,938,789
7,158,450
20,685,487

8,639,976
518,674
198,334
57,232
474,328
34,980
77,014
79,605
410,974

727,930
25,946,240
1,097,309
166,661
1,813,354
118,221
237,659
256,491
1,121,532

196,779
587,629
28,014,272
783,411
1,256,454
360,325
437,381
560,130
1,851,880

71,586
182,941
1,055,465
12,598,459
399,709
107,802
602,993
897,031
2,271,394

163,267
594,163
889,657
136,850
16,389,562
454,197
306,955
152,724
522,298

37,328
109,618
1,297,743
135,052
1,025,285
8,305,511
517,380
111,518
352,632

49,641
116,093
397,803
409,795
367,518
243,510
12,291,853
492,089
1,408,193

27,654
60,032
143,989
180,791
119,593
30,607
215,004
4,174,510
1,282,912

74,410
139,249
231,705
186,303
257,182
64,418
252,550
434,352
11,463,672

144,900,915

8,860,751

26,514,136

30,582,096

14,065,699

18,980,114

9,132,225

13,395,232

6,126,688

17,243,974

9,379,371
28,792,297
30,831,621
. 17,598,319
17,490,468
11,416,161
14,333,384
5,241,623
_ 9,817,671

7,867,550
563,705
130,905
56,135
114,501
30,940
35,774
19,514
41,727

501,445
24,484,595
503,605
163,403
526,613
104,069
95,707
46,859
87,840

161,376
996,389
25,809,611
1,017,835
736,366
1,288,476
330,036
104,479
137,528

41,355
131,702
771,484
12,224,504
100,832
138,456
393,228
138,863
125,275

339,937
1,292,957
876,755
286,651
14,879,459
859,016
245,390
68,215
131,734

27,450
90,898
269,049
87,599
377,346
8,028,843
197,496
20,095
33,449

54,718
172,495
356,533
555,159
242,667
533,910
11,188,447
145,481
145,822

53,109
180,074
451,384
849,164
112,871
104,099
483,802
3,605,164
287,021

332,431
879,482
1,662,295
2,357,869
399,813
328,352
1,363,504
1,092,953
8,827,275

WHITE

1970 '
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
_. . . ._
East South Central
West South Central...
Mountain
. _. . _
Pacific
_
1960 2 *. _
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
See footnotes at end of table.




89

c 15-24

MIGRATION

Series C 15-24.

Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Race: 1850 to 1970—Con.
Division of residence
Total

Division of birth, race,
and census year

New
England

Middle
Atlantic

South
Atlantic

East South
Central

20

West North
Central

18

16

15

East North
Central

21

West South
Central

Mountain

Pacific

23

24

WHITE—Con.

1950 3

122,808,695

-

1920.
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central-South Atlantic
E a s t South Central
West South C e n t r a l Mountain
Pacific

15,490,860

8,652,720

11,564,885

600

185,885
800,840
498,185
180,270
12,976,725
613,630
141,435
36,690
57,200

16,246
61,425
208,910
66,485
326,765
7,795,585
160,350
10,845

21,135

675
070
255
355
915
550
265
82 0 9 5

31,000
119,430
801,785
11,186,855
70,370
132,160
314,375
109,840
82,845

16,120

35,245
124,225
292,995
532,565
174,420
623,035
9,699,470
98,400
84,530

6,788,754

21,562,277

22,892 971

12,296,354

12,766,703

7,936,741

10,255,758

6,292,313
340,901
62,294
25,609
35,011
9,258
7,189
6,431
9,748

410,907
20,113,804
393,318
120,901
360,021
59,151
43,268
26,562
34,345

101 6 3 7
765 363
2 0 , 0 3 1 073
818 9 2 9
314 513
616 3 8 1
142 119
59 659
4 3 297

25,600
123,075
896,605
10,705,594
64,368
133,904
237,853
85,530
33,825

91,015
440,461
301,011
102,722
11,290,451
432,330
69,671
18,445
20,597

6,952
30,373
155,711
45,398
246,371
7,336,524
105,050
5,519
4,843

12,776
64,963
238,290
516,685
135,018
531,150
8,669,708
61,359
25,809

242
633
39
59
270
2,271
98

95,099,235

6,204,011

19,780,421

20,990 4 6 2

11,778,688

11,025,521

7,158,480

8,906,478

2 , 9 9 9 731

6,535,693
20,610,693
21,523,034
13,113,754
11,319,720
8,531,783
8,039,544
2,317,079
3,107,935

5,752,888
321,693
53,302
21,386
29,326
7,315
5,401
5,090
7,610

392,102
18,427,461
362,359
106,542
353,731
52,209
34,716
22,734
28,567

114
834
18,167
760
322
596

311
310
867
889
548
959
101 4 3 1
53 880
3 8 267

36,849
179,234
1,102,154
9,918,618
72,008
153,991
202,164

65,025
314,394
229,646
68,103
9,955,907
326,357
44,638
10,884
10,568

6,084
27,532
151,942
39,461
271,607
6,563,867
90,120
4,219
3,648

12,825
69,246
278,633
558,788
166,797
635,683
7,117,591
47,331
19,584

829
751
415
360
096
61 8 9 5
179 510
1 , 6 9 9 814

5,420,554

16,651,261

1 7 , 6 4 1 695

10,798,750

9,311,926

6,286,445

7,615,242

2,730 8 3 0

387

5,003,487
305,384
48,079
17,259
24,111
5,815
4,562
4,997

251,361
15,714,467
273,633
72,434
246,672
36,076
21,272
15,165

103
746
15,606
462
232
377
53
32
27

025
504

53,349
252,364
1,292,533
8,699,489
90,706
179,126
141,216
27,321

49,436
264,186
179,169
50,549
8,487,281
234,259
30,900
7,714
8,432

5,803
27,434
136,431
32,428
222,844
5,791,383
64,080
3,300
2,742

13,680
74,672
306,576
534,721
180,365
663,654
5,791,839
34,621
15,114

25
99
319
529
45
63
133
1,442
72

5,613
17,754
18,836
11,077
9,605
7,445
6,358
1,785
2,244

221
;603
,968
593
580

,200
,103
,970

11,210

6,860

20,181

106
835
580
338
305
948
054

82,608
31,062

62,666

4,543,490
30
113
314
697
63
75
357
2,721
169

575

220
300
650
965
205
420
865
290

3,698 071
16 8 0 3
66 2 2 9
314
440
439
299
484
873
190

19
78
275
562
42

80 061

804

028
171
090
179

268
956
878
456

68,070,294

1910
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
1900

12,848,660

130
883
22,344
925
461
908
223
79

80,721,625

1930 <
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

26,038,680

445,570
21,967,895
434,780
142,146
434,560
82,350
69,435
34,890
55,580

7,091,608
22,321,593
23,255,752
14,401,132
12,601,815
9,333,222
10,085,283
3,089,040
4,145,900

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

23,667,205

7,040,420
456,510
90,555
40,080
66,925
19,555
18,830

106,325,345

1940.

7,765,220

8,123,805
25,133,805
26,253,590
15,804,720
14,808,625
10,389,290
12,022,265
3,945,625
6,326,970

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

-

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North C e n t r a l . South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
1890'
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
1880

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North C e n t r a l . .
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
See footnotes a t end of table.


90


4,641,157

14,003,037

1 4 , 7 9 1 593

9,682,750

7,765,765

5,657,676

6,344,580

2 , 0 6 3 208

4,867,376
15,123,715
16,287,667
9,210,184
8,273,219
6,631,841
4,909,800
1,206,525
1,559,967

4,305,759
247,999
37,814
13,453
19,347
4,461
3,879
3,876
4,569

215,838
13,264,960

97
652
13,239
323
167
250
27
17
14

28,394
191,251
111,408
22,494
7,244,553
145,352
15,183
3,417
3,713

5,221

638
237

73,131
337,132
1,411,304
7,410,156
109,371
196,661
91,459
36,206
17,330

129,227
26,257
220,304
5,198,232
48,275
2,055
1,503

11,024
60,485
309,955
484,944
204,527
686,321
4,563,489
15,963
7,872

291
378
42
52
84
1,024
47

56,375,811

4,063,335

11,764,269

13,037 8 8 3

8,501,171

6,487,097

4,947,654

4,494,019

1,281 152

4,304,088
12,994,778
13,990,407
7,211,362
7,028,299
5,696,181
3,330,565
765,078
1,055,053

3,782,347
213,818
31,065
11,316
14,206
3,111

117
725
11,539
267
154
195

1,716
3,868

175,529
11,203,366
162,945
33,376
152,680
16,105
7,950
4,543
7,775

723
152
986
18 7 4 5
9 280
9 604

95,473
410,130
1,424,563
6,142,945
125,802
209,595
58,754
21,396
12,513

21,464
152,668
83,300
15,230
6,105,309
95,892
9,877
1,446
1,911

4,972
24,477
119,432
22,391
221,912
4,515,686
36,961
823

1,000

7,981
39,005
192,025
305,129
197,884
597,479
3,143,786
6,401
4,329

190 4 0 2
2 4 638
26 407
28 2 0 8
6 8 5 356
29 548

45,515,130

3,498,667

9,620,523

10,679 859

7,053,073

5,376,140

4,186,475

2,937,889

8 5 6 949

3,869,022
11,026,901
11,459,737
5,083,535
5,988,960
4,794,666
2,138,369
452,657
701,283

3,308,754
149,620
18,588
5,555
9,927

141
769
9,280
137
159
171

909
746
356
664
824
757
11 1 2 5
3 155
4 323

126,561
507,162
1,464,505
4,511,678
151,969
238,208
36,260
10,025
6,705

21,469
115,883
57,949
8,284
6,101,959
62,460
6,446
523
1,167

5,802
24,664
94,521
14,461
232,107
3,790,050
23,931
341
598

7,058
29,588
112,084
121,395
177,366
466,533
2,019,570
2,074

2,166

167,962
9,222,526
95,477
16,549
107,554
9,597
5,167
1,664
4,027

2,221

28 966
84 419
138 062
1 1 3 722
20 0 9 5
20 572
15 988
4 1 7 647
17 4 7 8

36,843,017

3,177,460

8,287,904

9,098 9 1 5

4,950,250

4,483,127

3,563,017

2,067,174

468 6 7 8

3,614,346
9,693,744
9,062,808
3,117,714
5,169,015
4,077,215
1,410,432
265,689
432,054

3,031,308
116,499

176,366
,921,093
73,777
11,055
90,530
7,269
4,219
1,096
2,499

178
899
7,521
101
192
192
9

123,105
479,473
1,126,361
2,801,794
149,700
232,785
28,023
4,925
4,084

17,545
103,764
42,533
4,361
,256,663
52,704
4,633
339
585

4,886
21,758
67,865
11,515
272,498
3,164,256
19,693
177
369

6,645
23,520
69,347
78,285
168,103
390,416
1,328,521
1,083
1,254

21 169

1,888

2,026
1,275
756

12,806
3,176

8,618
1,725

1,016
711

1,601

211,088
48,916

201,618
24,205
13,329
11,416
11,667

016
982
961
844
764
933

218

475
710

208

124
051

118

161
311
398
494
1 941
3 317

26,602

30 999

110 309
913
359
174
956
119
876
503

27 658

88 6 2 3
180 312

51 8 4 8

62 709
4 3 790
12 170
12 557
5 920
2 4 8 307

10 208

INTERNAL MIGRATION

Series C 15-24.

C 15-24

Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Race: 1850 to 1970—Con.
Division of residence
Total
New
England

Middle
Atlantic

East North
Central

West North
Central

South
Atlantic

East South
Central

West South
Central

Mountain

Pacific

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

28,086,255

2,807,945

6,788,821

7,325,414

3,038,215

3,469,244

2,835,457

1,161,542

224,834

434,783

3,270,626
8,065,869
6,550,805
1,684,544
4,206,178
3,165,831
765,053
153,772
223,577

2,704,882
83,537
8,463
1,621
6,497
1,206
730
66
943

180,779
6,479,733
48,589
5,031
65,515
4,920
2,651
138
1,465

212,928
967,899
5,625,542
62,386
230,689
214,814
7,885
432
2,839

97,087
339,388
704,106
1,524,350
138,450
210,645
20,005
2,169
2,015

14,708
84,225
19,407
2,051
3,308,462
37,442
2,591
52
306

5,552
23,259
48,469
8,851
313,905
2,420,279
14,865
65
212

4,418
13,223
24,893
33,449
123,369
253,883
707,821
159
327

9,181
20,533
20,631
11,644
5,032
4,766
1,487
147,771
3,789

41,091
54,072
50,705
35,161
14,259
17,876
7,018
2,920
211,681

-

23,298,753

2,663,062

5,898,979

5,715,955

1,702,245

3,358,465

2,538,909

984,856

150,116

286,166

2,584,262
64,518
5,057
652
6,777
797
522

212,218
5,582,854
29,662
1,965
66,971
3,061
1,648

224,230
946,080
4,044,329
27,496
265,569
202,798
4,322

12,213
68,452
10,445
915
3,236,171
28,932
1,230

7,269
24,020
32,248
5,842
411,919
2,048,662
8,887

5,930
15,661
24,038
23,459
133,672
263,132
518,799

(NA)

(NA)

165

6,006
10,348
17,053
7,188
3,046
4,306
950
100,739
480

35,146
47,137
41,354
25,157
14,642
18,754
5,926

(NA)

57,324
184,972
358,725
756,018
125,982
210,990
7,759

-

3,144,598
6,944,042
4,562,911
848,692
4,264,749
2,781,432
550,043
100,739
101,547

81,278
12,299
16,712
13,293
8,889
8,274
10,398
1,611

Division of birth, race,
and census year

WHITE—Con.
1870

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

- -

1860 •

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

—

1850

New England __ Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central _
Mountain
Pacific

-

17,736,659

477
2,423,178

600
4,884,300

(NA)

1,131
3,965,269

2,821,823
5,483,951
2,757,356
373,500
3,764,808
2,179,505
286,016
59,802
9,898

2,367,932
46,635
2,410
181
5,100
507
378

237,367
4,566,495
16,349
568
60,734
1,840
934

171,172
725,066
2,582,600
12,794
286,195
184,634
2,812

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

35

13

6

22,152,681

258,577

2,454,261

341,142
3,410,327
3,633,676
714,238
6,000,302
2,440,828
2,928,778
396,456
2,286,934

193,028
14,410
31,759
920
8,522
1,283
1,333
583
6,739

18,139
2,257,280
37,755
4,592
86,691
6,727
7,468
3,670
31,939

19,083,600

224,801

144,829
1,515,818
1,442,437
485,700
6,896,680
3,911,070
3,405,655
267,216
1,014,195

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

476

107

695,231

2,907,947

2,207,677

503,295

68,484

9,404
39,123
96,708
334,662
80,838
131,053
3,435

11,074
55,210
7,048
495
2,811,305
21,951
858

5,922
19,778
21,821
2,951
446,391
1,705,017
5,796

5,622
12,656
14,616
11,619
65,489
123,282
270,104

62

(NA)

98,050

8

6

1

7

2,346,566

629,565

7,133,334

3,808,822

3,653,069

349,703

1,518,784

5,437
32,370
2,150,800
19,068
29,594
22,995
13,898
7,439
64,965

2,298
7,982
56,701
476,071
7,748
4,905
12,633
11,698
49,629

91,102
901,078
282,870
15,460
5,670,277
43,959
26,021
12,944
89,623

20,359
143,726
824,905
92,914
140,497
2,327,288
93,127
13,709
152,297

6,025
38,188
222,589
92,607
35,030
27,718
2,752,576
51,926
426,410

1,079
2,785
5,869
4,748
3,745
1,480
6,496
278,143
45,358

3,675
12,508
20,428
7,858
18,198
4,473
15,326
16,344
1,419,974

2,527,559

2,715,123

595,583

5,692,481

2,660,976

2,763,662

318,112

1,585,303

119,877
11,258
3,132
1,236
70,680
11,970
4,623
308
1,717

11,807
1,388,304
24,857
7,076
930,590
123,760
30,858
1,741
8,567

2,731
26,523
1,317,877
50,981
301,498
789,358
208,938
3,166
14,051

508
2,665
14,858
367,449
12,028
96,597
93,669
3,131
4,678

5,096
69,936
18,671
4,989
5,448,369
125,386
21,587
1,386
7,061

564
4,516
16,622
3,453
53,412
2,547,807
32,197
483
1,922

675
4,496
9,088
8,567
21,303
106,306
2,600,442
3,650
9,136

334
2,012
3,735
8,989
6,289
10,550
50,239
226,396
9,568

3,237
16,109
33,597
32,961
52,511
99,336
363,102
26,955
957,495

136,825

1,771,205

1,799,890

469,245

5,068,460

2,687,045

2,473,610

214,980

642,650

95,105
884,085
754,760
362,865
6,125,045
3,634,040
2,954,750
183,685
269,575

74,260
6,990
1,605
790
43,895
5,730
2,575
145
835

11,345
798,465
19,745
6,165
810,946
91,980
25,165
1,425
5,970

2,245
20,225
675 230
45,560
269,290
604,445
169,690
2,520
10,685

350
1,675
11,170
268,130
8,740
89,670
85,170
2,150
2,190

3,780
41,660
13,040
3,660
4,882,210
104,760
15,965
1,015
2,370

410
3,180
11,310
3,420
60,780
2,569,950
36,775
355
865

515
3,280
5,920
7,830
18,125
108,770
2,323,380
1,800
3,990

270
1,175
1,915
5,980
2,960
6,020
32,520
158,355
5,785

13,190,395

95,035

1,208,567

1,084,123

401,916

4,706,493

2,779,679

2,489,075

163,606

72,448
571,445
469,788
304,282
5,484,716
3,359,873
2,615,711
144,576
167,556

58,883
4,352
762
275
27,275
2,016
735
69
668

9,094
526,569

142
945
9,676
240,766
8,733
74,444
64,924
1,610
676

2,143
22,910
8,114
1,918
4,579,081

228

3,971
585,734
50,942
13,731
793
4,312

1,190
12,397
420,714
31,247
188,711
340,816
85,882
1,357
1,809

8,126
596
1,093

2,664,877
40,421
240
302

150
779
3,391
8,471
19,370
125,376
2,329,478
1,151
909

58
324
1,111
4,933
1,753
4,036
17,136
131,955
2,300

10,066
11,611
14,854
55,278
6,805
155,487

12,966,484

_

1,131
2,286
2,511
1,341
482
823
88
59,802
20

15,263,910

-

85,473

980,056

957,610

394,534

4,421,188

2,655,398

2,797,906

298,651

375,668

60,784
405,404
355,312
295,827
5,215,766

47,909
4,380
617
243

8,543
365,212
11,840

1,308

191

83
405
1,366

531,014

152
1,109
7,522
2,675
85,900

166
917
4,144
11,592

29,024

1,964
17,792
6,950
1,531
4,316,289

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)
9,802

NEGRO AND OTHER RACES
1970 I

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic.
East South Central. _
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
19602 * —

- -—

-

New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central.
South Atlantic.
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain .
Pacific
1950 « . . .

New EnglandMiddle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic - _ East South Central
West South Central

-

Pacific
1940
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain __ __
Pacific

-

1930 i
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

-

See footnotes a t end of table.




3,197,521
2,855,954
303,676

276,240

1,779
574
73
874

13,421

3,229
45,220
11,050
783

3,165

12,886
307,789
33,085
197,586

321,450
79,125
2,162
2,219

1,046
10,799
229,087
11,337

74,933
62,438
3,782
921

82,512

1,084
7,444
2,635

62,448

68,994
6,528
368

2,515,818
41,697
219

772

306

31,498
153,257

2,588,627
5,937
1,768

5,841
2,444
4,486
20,299
258,301
5,426

1,930
7,435

14,825
21,330
28,100
52,716

263,510
15,920
236,885

261,901
560

2,085
5,155

468
1,657

4,285
8,544
10,674
11,584
45,616
32,051
260,789

C 15-24

MIGRATION

Series C 15-24.

Native Population Born in Each Division, by Division of Residence, by Race: 1850 to 1970—Con.
Division of residence
Total

Division of birth, race,
and census year

New
England

Middle
Atlantic

East North
Central

West North
Central

South
Atlantic

East South
Central

West South
Central

15

Mountain

23

N E G R O A N D OTHER

RACES—Con.

522,270

311,204

4,315,975

2,516,980

2,110,266

105,563

109,913

5,356
235,108
6,458
2,089
280,607
25,506
5,096
593
2,150

1,023
8,594
190,121
20,419
86,850
190,571
22,118
840
1,734

292
1,178
10,630
194,448
12,137
58,241
31,599
2,020
659

2,051
13,020
4,709
2,093
4,231,573
56,648
4,588
472
821

343
733
5,336
2,721
76,086
2,399,065
32,076
331
289

453
705
3,390
10,710
47,528
178,676
1,867,040
951
813

152
689
1,686
5,407
5,097
6,134
6,868
77,728
1,802

300
965
2,706
4,650
7,373
6,998
11,629
2,356
72,936

60,931

407,348

311,737

278,717

4,103,893

2,646,426

2,048,401

95,408

72,264

32,693
4,018
405
211
21,394
967
285
64
894

3,944
196,486
4,471
1,294
191,612
5,787
1,448
581
1,725

598
5,117
162,724
13,386
35,299
88,363
5,011
281
958

265
1,178
9,180
198,839
12,656
40,006
14,034
2,145
414

1,414
9,186
3,160
1,138
4,048,161
37,547
2,203
462
622

185
966
5,131
3,076
108,763
2,494,110
33,650
320
225

344
989
3,718
12,660
71,118
173,531
1,783,963
1.415
663

133
415
1,397
5,225
2,700
4,361
3,363
76,130
1,684

263
782
1,902
3,167
5,902
4,510
4,651
1,373
49,714

9,026 956

56,174

325,698

267,124

276,104

3,723,920

2,496,880

1,750,800

80,317

49,939

34
183
170
237
4,133
2,628
1,524
70
44

186
339
049
297
276
985
820
780
224

28,948
3,999
346
122
21,417
633
241
27
441

2,803
166,691
3,494
752
145,557
4,066
1,052
335
948

625
4,070
148,199
10,828
30,787
68,777
3,405
152
281

206
947
7,232
203,858
14,038
38,282
8,624
2,741
176

1,002
5,640
2,002
507
3,684,080
28,514
1,790
77
308

136
520
4,267
3,032
134,831
2,327,272
26,633
70
119

186
676
2,805
12,603
96,632
156,214
1,480,511
868
305

120
332
978
4,182
2,772
3,327
1,317
66,036
1,253

160
464
726
1,413
3,162
1,900
1,247
474
40,393

7,450 589

42,248

219,834

210,343

225,426

3,249,541

2,105,538

1,342,049

26,286

29,324

28
150
136
178
3,627
2,183
1,103
17
22

981
505
704
589
912
937
866
177
918

24,677
3,438
142
56
13,252
322
274
11
76

2,201
136,516
1,483
569
76,277
1,639
663
284
202

468
3,565
121,167
6,448
27,938
48,570
2,059
47
91

216
1,051
6,422
157,506
15,723
37,128
7,086
225
69

736
3,738
1,292
372
3,223,865
18,188
1,100
29
221

142
605
2,752
2,765
148,595
1,932,764
17,493
364
58

242
665
2,027
7,100
116,874
141,602
1,073,379
85
75

102
389
915
2,741
2,700
2,365
790
15,873
411

197
548
504
1,032
2,688
1,359
1,022
259
21,715

6,632 481

1910__
New England
Middle Atlantic
_
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic.
East South Central.. . . .
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
-

._
—

1900
-

-

_
.
— __
_ .

1890 »
New England
—
Middle Atlantic
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

562,963

36,756
4,315
501
220
24,251
1,423
371
85
782

10,025 125

New England
—
Middle Atlantic.. -_ — - _ East North Central
West North Central. ___ - -_
South Atlantic
— - East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
_-

New England
Middle Atlantic.
East North Central
West North Central
South Atlantic
East South Central
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific

68,704

726
307
537
757
502
262
385
376
986

39,430

188,000

191,082

206,963

2,939,779

1,926,935

1,087,916

23,548

28,828

29
149
116
159
3,340
1,942
847
19
27

078
988
353
284
699
781
230
932
136

25,077
3,309
150
29
10,369
288
167
24
17

1,843
136,808
739
147
46,950
963
419
80
51

466
3,445
105,676
6,194
30,110
43,205
1,902
52
32

210
900
3,728
141,665
16,439
35,325
8,583
78
35

648
3,061
1,236
180
2,917,316
16,183
1,073
37
45

235
995
2,753
2,981
197,100
1,708,900
13,918
19
34

399
895
1,641
6,742
120,570
136,846
820,685
100
38

41
155
233
1,005
729
657
220
19,345
1,163

159
420
197
341
1,116
414
263
197
25,721

4,892 405

30,847

146,581

134,896

145,086

2,216,892

1,463,794

738,385

3,456

12,468

22
120
67
117
2,622
1,426
504
1
9

19,514
2,904
100
31
7,873
244
167
2
12

1,426
110,845
430
78
32,620
828
328
3
23

405
2,941
62,667
4,817
27,869
34,648
1,512
9
28

135
664
2,220
101,335
15,027
21,324
4,306
59
16

345
1,786
375
159
2,201,827
11,437
940
4
19

155
444
857
3,096
210,996
1,238,885
9,345
3
13

236
611
718
7,011
124,766
118,026
486,997
9
11

43
113
69
296
384
295
352
1,813
91

218
502
87
345
1,253
422
192
50
9,399

10,623 838

1920

. . . .
.
. —
__

_
-

..

1880.
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central.
West North Central
South Atlantic __
East South Central..
West South Central
Mountain
Pacific
—

—

_

1870...
New England
Middle Atlantic
East North Central.
—
West North Central. _
South Atlantic
.
East South Central
...
West South Central
Mountain
_
Pacific

46
265
225
242
4,771
2,923
1,981
85
81

39
219
192
238
4,497
2,849
1,848
82
56

839
137
088
996
605
182
608
771
899

477
810
523
168
615
109
139
952
612

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.
1
Based on 5-percent sample.
2
Based on 25-percent sample.
3
Based on 20-percent sample.
4
Excludes Mexicans; classified under "other races."

92



6
Excludes population of Indian Territory and Indian reservations, specially enumerated in 1890, with a native population of 117,368 white and 208,083 Negro and
other races, not distributed by State of birth.
6
Includes free Negroes.
7
Includes Mexicans.

INTERNAL MIGRATION

Series C 25-75.

C 25-75

Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population, by States: 1870 to 1970
[In thousands]

Series
No.

Components of change method
(Bureau of the Census)

State

19601970
TOTAL WHITE
AND NEGRO POPULATION

25
26
27
28
29
30

New England:
Maine
_
New Hampshire
Vermont
Massachusetts _ Rhode Island
Connecticut_

31
32
33

Middle Atlantic:
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania

34
35
36
37
38

East North Central:
Ohio
Indiana _ _
. Illinois
_
Michigan.
Wisconsin
__ _ _

19501960

19401950

Survival-rate method (see text for sources)

19501960

19401950

19301940

19201930

19101920

19001910

18901900

18801890

18701880

1

..

-69
69
15
74
13
214

-67
12
— 38
-96
-26
234

-27
(2)
-19
23
11
113

-70
-2
-38
-154
-36
-172

-101
488
-378

210
578
-475

270
294
-355

1 2
409 »
-594 0

-126
-16
-43
27
4

407
61
124
155
-53

245
97
75
336
-84

265
21
-10
88
85

39
40
41
42
43
44
45

West North Central:
Minnesota
__ . . .
Iowa.
__
Missouri
_ _ .
North Dakota
__
South Dakota
__ __
Nebraska
_ _
Kansas
_

-25
-183
2
-94
-94
-73
-130

-98
-234
-134
-105
-95
-117
-44

-173
-196
-190
-121
-79
-135
-91

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

South Atlantic:
Delaware _ _
Maryland
_
District of Columbia
Virginia _
_ __
West Virginia- North Carolina _
South Carolina.
__
Georgia
_
_ —
Florida _
...

38
385
-100
141
-265
-94
-149
51
1,326

63
321
-160
15
-446
-328
-222
-212
1,616

55
56
57
58

East South Central:
Kentucky
Tennessee
_ _
Alabama
._
—
Mississippi- . _ _ -

-153
-45
-233
-267

59
60
61
62

West South Central:
Arkansas
_ _ _
Louisiana
___
_____
Oklahoma
_ _
_ _ __
Texas. _
_ _
—

63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

Mountain:
Montana . .
Idaho . _
__ _
__
Wyoming _
__ _
__
Colorado
_
New Mexico .
_
Arizona
____
Utah
Nevada_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
__

_ .

. __

5
1
4
0
5
7

-35
-9
-23
-29
2
89

X
1
X
5
7
5

-1
9
-18
-69
-2
39

2
1
7
5
3
2

-39
-10
-20
22
11
64

3
2

1
4
1

-8.3
-3.6
-17.6
192.2
12.8
122.1

10 6
3 2
-3 7
307.3
66 1
112 7

4 1
20 4
-2 4
334.9
45 9
90 8

-15.9
20.7
-13.3
295.7
42.5
72.9

-33.3
10.1
-26.2
140.2
27.9
22.4

604 X
218 3
262 0

395.4
151.3
285.1

61.7
48.4
19.1

«

83 8
200 7
-447 2

396 3
-28 2
-301 0

1,062 1
442 3
-252 9

467.4
278.2
51.9

1,061 0
376 1
444 6

9
0
1
0
2

151
56
-22
251
-95

6
7
1
4
1

-56.6
10 6
-60 8
17 1
-10 9

214 7
— 9
414 0
549 6
-17 9

499.4
16.0
255.6
465.2
37.6

207
-54
223
117
9

7
4
0
2
2

77
33
340
62
84

7
4
0
0
3

41.9
-86.7
170.3
172.3
100.8

-12.9
-70.2
-59.0
161.4
9.0

-109
-220
-150
-91
-76
-102
-29

2
7
0
0
1
4
6

-160
-178
-168
-109
-71
-123
-86

9
8
6
4
2
0
8

36
-73
-20
-105
-101
-139
-163

148
21
-17
63

4
7
2
X

264.1
-5.6
56.4

156.2
85.1
-30.4

-153 9
-149 X

362.5
159.7

204.4
366.8

21
270
49
169
-235
-258
-230
-290
578

51
231
-115
-2
-401
-277
-179
-169
1,385

1
1
1
0
6
6
1
7
6

14
213
78
152
-210
-202
-172
-224
510

-390
-274
-369
-433

-366
-143
-342
-433

-350
-252
-332
-369

2
6
3
6

-71
-130
13
146

-433
-49
-219
121

-415
-147
-434
73

-353
-39
-196
174

-58
-42
-39
215
-130
228
-11
144

-25
-40
-20
164
52
329
9
86

-40
-27
-1
41
16
137
9
34

.
. . .

249
159
2,113
16
11

87
16
3,142
41
3

25
26
27
28
29
30

New England:
Maine . . .
_
. . —
. .
New Hampshire. _ _
. . .
Vermont
_
__
Massachusetts _ _
_.
Rhode Island—
Connecticut
.
—

-69
68
14
23
4
166

31
32
33

Middle Atlantic:
New York
New Jersey _
Pennsylvania-

34
35
36
37
38

East North Central:
Ohio. ___ __ _
Indiana _ _ _
._
...
Illinois . . .
Michigan
__
Wisconsin _ _
...

71
72
73
74
75

Pacfic:
Washington _ _
Oregon. _
California

_

_

.-

_.
. . .

_ _

- _
-

______
..

NATIVE W1IITE POPULATION

_

—

8

-106
-167
-98
-76
-45
-78
-83

2
2
7
3
0
1
1

59.1
-18.3
-134.7
-46.0
-31.2
-34.5
-74.5

72
-207
-163
137
86
-28
20

6
5
X
3
9
X
0

5
3
5
0
8
8
4
3
9

16 0
87 0
157 8
2
-73 6
-85 4
-102 5
-134 1
280 3

-3
10
27
-231
-53
-7
-256
-414
297

5
2
a
6
X
9
9
9
6

5.1
43.1
97.0
-27.7
-1.7
-74.3
-80.9
-98.1
101.6

2
-8
41
-73
46
-80
-80
-41
103

7
3
0
7
1
4
6
7
5

-1
8
34
-91
17
-88
-75
-56
36

2
2
3
5
2
8
5
1
9

4.3
-10.7
36.1
-80.9
-4.8
-57.7
-35.9
-19.5
51.1

-2.3
-11.2
18.1
-51.1
24.0
-14.4
25.7
-40.0
12.1

-319
-102
-271
-349

2
8
0
9

-93
-14
-165
-90

5
9
3
3

-206
-113
-149
-101

1
X
2
6

-167.1
-131.2
-113.9
-199.3

-177
-156
-47
-46

X
9
X
4

-65
-95
-40
-44

1
4
4
5

-96.8
-77.7
-11.5
-60.6

-47.2
-91.8
-60.7
-5.6

0
0
0
5

-320
-112
-356
132

4
1
1
9

-128
5
-269
-72

8
7
4
8

-191
-23
-51
243

3
2
X
5

-74.7
-64.7
62.4
114.3

-27
10
491
131

2
6
5
1

-82
1
501
147

X
4
3
7

75.1
-3.0
44.5
151.2

84.0
-12.0
(NA)
308.5

-25
-39
-18
132
51
289
4
74

3
3
7
4
7
3
9
9

-42
-29
-4
32
9
117
6
28

fi
6
4
X
4
4
8

-19 3
-20 5
— 1
1 0
18 6
-3 5
-30 5
12 5

-72
-50
-1
-16
-22
23
-30
6

9
6
2
6
9
5
X
9

90.1
37.3
20.7
39.8
-20.2
75.4
- .2
-6.4

86
104
33
159
63
50
24
32

5
1
3
8
1
7
9
9

63
39
15
51
1
21
8
-5

5
8
6
9

4
9
1

70.6
34.2
28.7
146.8
6.4
10.9
17.9
-15.6

12.1
11.7
7.2
119.1
-3.3
19.8
16.7
6.6

392
286
2,658

49
1
2,573
48
47

5
2
1
0
9

351 3
244 0
2,339 1

109 2
94 1
974 6

81 6
96 5
1,695 2

97.5
56.0
804.1

80 4
43 0
172 7

205.4
85.9
214.2

28.7
39.0
129.6

-69
11
-38
-122
-28
195

-27
-1
-20
8
9
98

-71
-2
-38
-185
-34
106

4
7
1
0
2
6

-41 «
-12 6
-25 8
-73 8
— 2
49 0

S
5
9
9
3
4

-40.8
-7.1
-21.9
31.9
2.4
2.8

-46.5
-7.1
-24.7
13.5
4.1
-6.5

-638
336
-423

-72
466
-552

-6
231
-467

-392 6
214 5
-657 9

-270 8
88 6
-531 3

-191
-58
-215
-124
-29

274
17
-64
28
-82

110
57
-142
146
-96

116 8
-24 6
-229 6

28
15
-202
51
-110

2

0
4
8
8
4

fi

464 7
189 9
694 1

H

?.

3

—
_

-57 7

-120 8

5
0
9
7
3

-2
8
-14
-45

2
3
K
6
8
30 2

140 3
-18 8
-260 9
-58 6
7 1

-58 7

18 1
-10 0

-46
-14
-25
-101
-8
6

H
4
2
7
7
4

-22.7
-12.8
-19.7
-6.0
-10.5
18.7

-18
-15
-17
-23
5
-10

138 1
179 3
-380 2

-76.5
72.0
-199.4

-74 9
71 4
-178 1

-18 6
46 3
-60 2

-146.4
9.4
-70.0

-167.4
-8.9
-105.2

-40
-111
-198
-35
-103

-29
-7
44
-26
-25

6
6
0
8
7

-96.7
-120.4
-170.7
-19.7
-75.6

-92.8
-101.2
-192.6
25.8
-78.8

58
-43
80
239
-53

2
3
3
9
2

233.4
-33.1
-36.2
181.5
-37.3

4
7
2
3
1
9

4
9
9
9
3

-20
-2
-10
46
3
5

See footnotes at end of table.




93

C 25-75

MIGRATION

Series C 25-75.

Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population, by States: 1870 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands]
Components of change method
(Bureau of the Census)

State

Series
No.

19601970

19501960

19401950

Survival-rate method (see text for sources)

19501960

19401950

19301940

19201930

19101920

19001910

18901900

18801890

18701880

NATIVE WHITE POPULATION »-—Con.
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

West North Central:
Minnesota
Iowa, __
Missouri
North D a k o t a .
South D a k o t a . _
Nebraska. _ „ .
Kansas

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

South Atlantic:
Delaware
Maryland
District of Columbia
Virginia
West Virginia. _
North Carolina
South Carolina.
Georgia
Florida

55
56
57
58

East South Central:
Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama
Mississippi

59
60
61
62

West South Central:
Arkansas
Louisiana
Oklahoma
Texas

63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

Mountain:
Montana
Idaho
Wyoming
. .
Colorado
_ _
New Mexico
Arizona
Utah
Navada

71
72
73
74
75

. _

. . .
_ .

..

_ _ .

. .

_

-

102
236
161
103
-90
-121
-49

-

175
198
222
119
-74
-139
-96

-111.1
-218.3
-173.7
-87.5
-74.0
-106.0
-33.6

-163.1
-180.9
-197.4
-103.6
-71.3
-125.9
-90.1

27.1
-70.5
-36.8
-99.1
-96.8
-135.5
-156.2

-113.6
-164.0
-141.4
-72.8
-46.1
-81.1
-84.6

-1.2
-45.9
-173.7
-46.3
-33.7
-53.2
-86.9

-61.4
-249.1
-228.1
81.8
59.6
-62.4
-18.2

25.9
-29.9
-50.0
20.4
-26.5
-159.2
-156.6

37.2
-108.2
2.4
1 , „„

38.2
2.7
-43.2

244.3
106.3

139.2
290.1

32
290
-137
206
-247
81
44
198
1,340

57
284
-213
85
-406
-121
- 4
- 8
1,516

17
231
-14
194
-219
-95
-24
-49
564

43.6
187.6
-165.4
58.4
-361.3
-109.9
- .7
-10.8
1,152.8

11.2
167.6
6.7
169.1
-193.0
-81.6
-15.7
-38.2
438.7

12.8
72.2
101.2
33.7
-66.7
-27.1
-8.7
-44.2
208.4

-3.8
-4.5
5.5
-111.7
-62.7
5.2
-52.4
-155.1
221.1

.3
16.8
69.3
-9.5
-29.3
-47.7
-8.0
-27.4
84.5

-3.0
-26.9
22.2
-35.6
-6.2
-54.4
-10.5
-30.8
46.6

-3.7
-5.8
20.1
-25.8
3.5
-41.7
-10.8
-31.4
10.1

-11.
-29.4
18.1
-33.6
-12.3
-19.8
-17.5
-35.1
24.8

-2.6
-16.1
8.6
-16.5
18.1
-7.6
9.1
-20.8
7.3

-158
1
- 5
10

-

375
217
145
110

-349
-97
-140
-108

-334.8
-201.6
-142.5
-104.8

-299.1
-68.6
-108.6
-94.3

-83.8
-24.4
-101.0
-32.0

-188.4
-100.6
-69.7
-33.8

-153.1
-103.2
-45.3
-70.3

-159.9
-127.3
-32.8
-19.0

-58.9
-76.7
-41.1
-35.8

-85
-64
-12
-47

-

38
26
- 4
92

-283
43
-193
147

-259
- 2
-361
173

-243.8
23.0
-179.5
155.3

-207.1
-4.7
-319.5
134.4

-95.5
15.3
-253.4
-1.7

-144.4
2.9
-51.2
197.5

-74.4
-17.8
54.5
-28.4

-55.2
15.8
414.2
60.5

-77.6
9.2
404.3
95.5

25.3
-12.2
39.6
90.9

-57
-44
-39
187
-120
248
-16
136

-23
-41
-19
149
53
339
8
80

-36
-28
- 2
32
17
135
6
31

-23.5
-39.5
-17.0
110.1
43.3
255.5
-2.0
66.0

-41.9
-30.7
-5.6
21.1
3.8
97.6
1.0
24.2

-14.8
20.8
2.2
7.4
22.5
12.4
-27.5
13.8

-66.9
-49.5
-1.8
-17.6
-17.2
31.8
-31.5
5.1

75.4
31.5
19.9
29.2
-32.0
39.9
-7.6
-6.1

51.0
81.9
19.8
108.8
52.7
25.7
2.8
21.5

37.1
31.0
11.7
33.1
-2.8
15.1
-2.5
-3.9

39.8
24.6
19.1
101.1
2.7
7.2
2.7
-10.0

8.2
8.5
5.5
86.7
-5.9
11.7
.6
.8

220
145
1,528
22
58

69
10
2,788
42
55

375
278
2,373

27.8
-4.5
1,964.6
41.1
44.5

303.9
222.9
1,874.7

100.3
90.4
899.5

49.2
74.3
1,244.5

51.9
38.2
537.7

311.4
132.0
425.2

54.0
29.2
96.3

133.2
57.4
109.6

20.8
25.7
56.0

5.9
3.3
2.0
33.6
1.7
27.5

.8
1.0
-4.0
-26.6
-3.6
6.8

7.5
4.0
4.7
120.9
21.0
52.5

14.3
9.2
3.0
191.3
22.7
98.1

28.9
18.9
12.7
324.8
60.3
123.2

24.4
22.7
8.6
278.0
41.1
82.9

25.0
27.9
8.6
259.3
38.9
69.0

13.4
17.1
— 1.4
123.7
22 9
28.1

150.0
103.2
3.4

. . .
_

-39
-189
-25
-94
-92
-76
-139

- .3
14.2
-2.6
37.6

Pacific:
Washington
Oregon _
California

_

111.0
58.5
-5.5

120.1
-18.9
-60.4

751.3
196.0
25.6

480.9
181.6
168.7

1,100.2
286.2
589.8

589.7
154.2
282.9

532.0
133.5
334.3

221.5
54.4
115.6

41.7
10.3
60.2
35.7
12.1

16.5
9.5
1.0
36.4
3.4

-18.8
-5.0
-51.5
-29.0
-1.9

65.8
19.3
214.4
223.6
30.9

196.5
28.8
222.0
245.1
72.7

' 232.5
53.4
398.3
151.1
112.0

102.1
32.9
273.4
88.3
107.0

133.4
29.9
332.6
193.2
176.3

77.3
24.3
124.8
134.0
86.5

7.8
2.6
3.3
6.6
4.4
4.6
7.5

6.9
-1.3
6.7
-3.4
1.2
3.0
-4.4

58.1
23.7
11.8
.3
2.5
13.4
7.0

131.7
39.4
63.3
55.2
27.0
32.0
35.6

116.5
50.1
32.8
38.6
12.7
7.7
7.4

225.4
102.1
58.1

116.5
80.2
17.2

110.9
50.7

64.1
62.0

.3
9.7
5.8
-2.7
-3.9
2.7
- .2
.2
22.4

5.3
19.4
9.3
9.0
12.1
2.2
1.6
4.0
13.9

6.0
30.0
9.1
11.3
37.0
2.3
2.0
5.4
16.2

3.1
20.6
5.5
5.1
8.0
1.5
.7
2.5
3.4

5.1
26.2
4.7
6.2
4.0
.6
.3
3.3
10.5

1.7
12.4
3.3
2.9
3.8
1.1
.9
1.1
3.4

-1.0
.7
1.1
1.1

2.7
1.3
2.2
.7

4.4
4.7
7.0
3.4

6.0
.4
2.4
1.7

11.2
5.9
6.3
.3

-

.
.
.
.

6
9
1
7

3
6
2
2

9
7
5
2

.
.
.
.

6
0
9
7

53.0
-11.8

(NA)
233.9

FOREIGN-BORN WHITE POPULATION *

New England:
-

25
26
27
28
29
30

.4

(Z)

Middle Atlantic:
31
32

33
East North Central:
36
37
38

West North Central:
-1.7
-3.4
4.5
-3.9
-2.2
1.6

39

40
41
42

43
44
45

South Atlantic:
47
48
49
52
54

East South Central:
56
57
58
See footnotes a t end of table.

94

.5
1.1
3.0
-5.8
- .2
- .2
1.1

-

2.9
18.6
- . 9
10.7
-3.5
3.6
2.5
6.2
152.9

.8
15.7
10.7
13.4
-1.1
6.1
2.3
5.1
65.0

.8
4.1
9.1
3.4
-2.8
1.6
.6
.5
22.0

1.2
1.0
1.8
- .6

2.7
4.0
3.0
2.5

(Z)




-

-

.7
1.0
.5
.2

-

43.0

5.5
.2
1.3
- .6

INTERNAL MIGRATION

Series C 25-75.

C 25-75

Estimated Net Intercensal Migration of Total, Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negro
Population, by States: 1870 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands]
Components of change method
(Bureau of the Census)

State

19601970
FOREIGN-BORN

19501960

19401950

Survival-rate method (see text for sources)

19501960

19401950

19301940

19201930

19101920

19001910

18901900

18801890

18701880

WHITE

POPULATION 3 — C o n .

West South Central:
Arkansas
Louisiana
Oklahoma
Texas

-0.6
4.3
2.2
38.7

2.8
6.4
2.3
65.8

(Z)
-1.1
-2.9
-76.1

-.6
-.6
-2.4
36.4

0.8
4.3
7.1
137.5

5.5
10.9
22.6
80.8

2.6
13.8
17.8
45.0

5.1
5.8
2.7
47.6

5.6
1.2
(NA)
53.6

Mountain:
Montana
Idaho
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico.
Arizona
Utah
Nevada

-1.8
(Z)
-.8
11.3
4.3
26.8
6.4
3.6

- .5
.7
- .3
5.1
3.7
13.0
4.2
1.7

-4.4
- .3
-2.1
-7.3
-5.4
-19.4
-3.2
-1.5

-5.9
- .9
.6
.3
-2.7
-10.2
1.0
1.6

14.8
5.6
1.4
9.9
7.8
29.8
7.1
- .2

35.2
21.9
12.3
47.9
10.4
24.8
21.6
11.1

26.4
8.9
4.0
18.7
3.5
6.4
11.4
-1.1

30.9
9.5
9.6
45.6
3.6
3.8
15.2
-5.7

4.0
3.3
1.7
32.4
2.6
8.2
16.1
5.8

Pacific:
Washington.
Oregon
California
Alaska
Hawaii

15.0
3.3
388.2
1.7
2.2

29.6
14.3
265.4

7.7
3.3
33.8

32.3
22.1
414.2

44.4
17.2
250.3

149.8
57.5
259.1

26.4
13.8
76.4

72.2
28.5
104.7

8.0
13.4
73.6

1.4
.7
(Z)
16.8
.3
28.5

- .1
.2
.1
10.6
1.2
12.9

.2
-.3
- .2
2.7
.6
2.2

- .2
.2
(Z)
2.9
- .7
5.2

.1
(Z)
-.9
6.9
.6
5.3

.2
.8
5.9
.6
.5

.3
.1
- .1
9.9
1.5
2.5

- .1
(Z)
(Z)
4.4
1.2
1.1

- .2
.1
(Z)
3.0
.8
.8

NEGRO

POPULATION

New England:
Maine
New Hampshire.
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut

«
(4)
«

(4)

(Z)

Middle Atlantic:
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania..

396
120
25

255
107
75

266
107

243.8
92.2
60.4

243.6
53.6
89.6

135.9
9.5
20.3

172.8
67.0
101.7

63.1
24.5
82.5

35.8
18.5
32.9

33.8
17.7
39.2

9.9
8.4
20.8

7.6
2.9
8.7

East North Central:
Ohio
Indiana
Illinois
Michigan
Wisconsin

45
32
127
124
27

129
42

131
39
203
186
14

107.4
35.3
159.2
109.9
23.5

106.7
32.1
179.8
163.3
11.9

20.7
8.6
49.4
28.0
1.0

90.7
23.2
119.3
86.1
4.4

69.4
20.3
69.8
38.7
2.2

15.6
4.1
23.5
1.9
.5

5.2
8.1
22.7
.4
3.0

5.2
3.9
8.4
-1.2
.1

2.6
6.6
8.7
1.6
1.3

3.6
.9
19.2
.3
.2
3.6
2.4

2.7
1.0
25.7
.1
.2
3.0
2.3

1.0
- .4
19.2
- .1
- .1
.6
- .1

.6
-1.9
35.9
- .1
- .2
(Z)
6.0

2.1
3.9
27.2
-.1
(Z)
5.2
5.4

2.3
2.1
1.0
.3
.3
1.6
2.6

5.9
1.6
(Z)
4.9
14.0
-2.3
- .6

1.5
.4
-4.0

1.5
2.3
-4.3

7.3
2.7

1.2
14.7

2.4
29.9
61.2
-30.6
-16.7
-127.3
-159.0
-191.2
7.2

2.4
10.7
47.5
-36.9
-4.1
-60.0
-94.4
-90.3
49.9

.5
5.0
16.0
-117.2
12.8
-15.7
-204.3
-260.0
54.2

-.6
7.0
18.3
-27.2
15.5
-28.9
-74.5
-74.7
3.2

- .4
-11.4
9.8
-49.3
15.3
-28.4
-72.0
-16.2
40.7

- .7
-6.5
8.7
-70.8
5.8
-48.7
-65.5
-27.3
23.4

.3
-7.5
13.4
-53.4
3.6
-38.4
-18.6
12.3
15.8

-1.4
-7.5
6.2
-37.6
2.1
-7.9
15.7
-20.3
1.4

West North Central:
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas

4
79
36
-79
-20
-175
-197
-154
-32

East South Central:
Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama
Mississippi

1
-51
-231
-279

Mountain:
Montana
Idaho
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico.
Arizona
Utah
Nevada
Pacific:
WashingtonOregon
California
Alaska
Hawaii

29

m
o

(4)

W

South Atlantic:
Delaware
Maryland
District of Columbia.
Virginia
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Florida

West South Central:
Arkansas
Louisiana
Oklahoma
Texas

182
122

-112

-163
-3
-4
(4)
(4)

31
51
-74
-41
-204

4
37
61
-29
-17
-164

-218

-208

-205

-243
12

4.6
24.9
51.3
-71.1
-36.8
-171.3
-180.8
-165.1
79.8

- 1 6

-18
-48
-204
-326

-16.6
-52.2
-191.6
-264.2

-22.8
-38.2
-165.4
-258.2

-9.1
8.6
-63.8
-58.2

-16.6
-14.0
-80.7
-68.8

-16.6
-29.3
-70.8
-129.6

-22.3
-34.3
-22.1
-30.9

-12.2
-19.0
-1.7
-10.4

-22.4
-18.7
-5.8
-13.2

-13.1
-24.6
-36.1
17.6

-158
-147
-47
-107

-108.6
-66.2
-18.8
-19.6

-116.1
-113.8
-38.9
-67.2

-33.3
-8.4
-13.0
4.9

-46.3
-25.5
1.9
9.7

-1.0
-51.2
.8
5.2

22.5
-16.1
54.8
-10.2

-7.9
-21.6
79.3
7.1

44.7
3.3
2.3
12.6

25.4
-1.3
(NA)
21.0

.1
.3
1.3
6.1
2.3
6.7
1.1
2.8

(Z)
(Z)
- .2
.9
1.5
3.5
.2
.2

- .2
- .1
-.1
.8
-2.9
1.9
- .3
.2

- .1
.3
- .6
.7
4.1
5.8
.4
- .1

.3
.3
1.2
3.1
(NA)
.2
.5
.4

17.8
6.9
258.9

1.2
.5
41.2

2
36.4

1.1
.7
16.1

3.4
.5
9.8

6

-59
-224
-323
-150
-93
-21

-33
(4)
(4)

(Z)

16
-4
-4
1

.1
- .8
11.0
4.1
7.0
.5
5.3

-1
13
4
4
1

6

(')

61

6

10

4
272

(4)

3
255
(4)
(4)

21
8

289

6.7
2.4
220.4
5.2
1.2

NA Not available.
Z Less than 50.
1
For 1870-1890, only white population in Mountain and Pacific States; no estimates
2
made for Negroes.
Less than 1,000.




.2

3
For component of change method, 1950-1970, total white population; no estimates
separately for native white and foreign-born white.
4
Less than 500.

85

MIGRATION

C 76-88

Series C 76-80.

Estimated Annual Movement of the Farm Population: 1920 to 1970
[In t h o u s a n d s ]

Change since preceding April

Change since preceding April
Farm
population,
April 1

Year

Net
change:
Births
and
deaths

Change through migration and
reclassification of residence 1
Net

To
farms

Year

From
farms
80

76
1970--.
1969...
1968-_.
1967__.
1966--.

9,712
10,307
10,454
10,875
11,595

47
51

1965--.
1964--.
1963--.
1962__.
1961__.

12,363
12,954
13,367
14,313
14,803

112
121

1960*.
1959
1958-..
1957-_.
1956_

-642
-198
-481
-793
-858

60

73
90

76

Net
change:
Births
and
deaths

Net

77

78

Change through migration and
reclassification of residence 1

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

24,420
24,815
26,186
28,914
30,118

353
370
418
383
359

-1,438
-933
-1,309

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

30.547
30,840
30,980
31,266
31,737

410
405
375
363
375

To
farms

From
farms

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

-748
-1,740
-3,145
-1,587
-788

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

-703
-545

284
268
299
250

-703
-533

Farm
population,
April 1

-481
-749
-1,092
-1,108
-978

140
156
168

-1,086
-1,000

275
283
352
287
309

15,635
16,592
17,128
17,656
18,712

184
203

356
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

-1,498
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

32,161
32,305
32,393
31,388
30,845

383
375
398
387
377

-527
-463
607
156

261

-1,142
-740
-748
-1,295
-627

1955-_.
1954--.
1953--.
1952--.
1951--.

19,078
19,019
19,874
21,748
21,890

268

-210

296
328
341
373

-1,151
-483
-1,531

(NA;
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1930
1929
1928
1927.
1926.

30.529
30,580
30.548
30.530
30,979

426
454
475
458
491

1950.-.
1949--.
1948-..
1947-_.
1946 ....

23,048
24,194
24,383
25,829
25,403

392
397
443
470
312

-1,537
-586
-1,889
-44
671

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1925.
1924
1923.
1922.
1921.
1920.

31,190
31,177
31,490
32,109
32,123
31,974

500
494
518
550
485

-646

220

239

-2,201

-816

(NA)
-1,368
-1,533
-1,553
-1,624

-61

783
970
1,826
1,918
1,985

-1,310
-1,433
-1,219
-1,762
-2,046

-477
-422
-457
-907
-702

1,604
1,698
1,705
1,427
1,336

-2,081

-487
-807
-1,137
-564

1,581
1,355
1,115
759
560

-834
-799

-2,120
-2,162

-2,334
-2,038
-2,068
-2,162

-2,252
-1,323
-896

1
Includes persons who did not move but who were in or out of the farm population
because agricultural operations on the places where they were living either ceased or
were begun.
2
Includes Alaska.

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
NA Not available.

Series C 81-88.

819
823
872
719
825

-661

Mobility Status and Type of Mobility of the Population One Year Old and Over: 1947 to 1970

]In thousands.

Includes members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their families on post but excludes all other members of the Armed Forces]
E ifferent house in the United States (moven3)
Total i

Same
house
(nonmovers)

Period

Total

81

82

Same
county

Abroad
at beginning
of period

Different county (mi grants)
Total

Within
a State

Between
States

86

87

83

84

85

88

198,955
196,642
194,621
192,233
190,242

160,860
159,310
156,735
155,710
152,656

36,541
35,933
36,603
35,200
36,703

23,225
22,993
22,960
22,339
24,165

13,316
12,940
13,643
12,861
12,538

6,250
6,316
6,607
6,308
6,275

7,066
6,625
7,035
6,553
6,263

1,554
1,399
1,283
1,323
883

187,974
185,312
182,541
179,663
177,354

149,128
148,125
146,109
144,445
140,821

37,866
36,327
35,411
34,364
35,535

25,122
24,089
23,059
23,341
24,289

12,744
12,238
12,352
11,023
11,246

6,597
6,191
5,712
5,461
5,493

6,147
6,047
6,640
5,562
5,753

978
859
1,021
854
998

March 1959 to March 1960 *
April 1958 t o April 1959
March 1957 to March 1958
April 1956 to April 1957
March 1955 to March 1956

174,451
170,658
167,604
164,371
161,497

139,766
137,018
133,501
131,648
127,457

33,811
32,804
33,263
31,834
33,098

22,564
22,315
22,023
21,566
22,186

11,247
10,489
11,240
10,268
10,912

5,724
5,419
5,656
5,192
5,859

5,523
5,070
5,584
5,076
5,053

874
836
840
889
942

April
April
April
April
April

158,609
155,679
153,038
150,494
148,400

126,190
125,654
121,512
120,016
116,936

31,492
29,027
30,786
29,840
31,158

21,086
19,046
20,638
19,874
20,694

10,406
9,981
10,148
9,966
10,464

5,511
4,947
4,626
4,854
5,276

4,895
5,034
5,522
5,112
5,188

927
998
740
638
306

146,864
144,101
141,698

118,849
116,498
113,026

27,526
27,127
28,210

19,276
18,792
19,202

8,250
8,335
9,008

4,360
3,992
4,638

3,889
4,344
4,370

491
476
462

March
March
March
March
March

1969 to
1968 to
1967 to
1966 to
1965 to

March
March
March
March
March

1970
1969
1968
1967.
1966--.

March 1964 to March 1 9 6 5 . .
March 1963 to March 1964
March 1962 to March 1963.
April 1961 to April 1962,_
March 1960 to March 1961.

1954
1953
1952
1951
1950

to
to
to
to
to

April
April
April
April
April

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

March 1949 to March 1950
April 1948 to April 1949
April 1947 to April 1948

---

-

- - ---

—

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

96



1

Population 1 year old and over at end of survey interval.

Chapter C

International Migration and Naturalization (Series C 89-331)
C 89-157.

General note.

The continuous record of immigration to the United States began
in 1819, under the Act of 1819, which required the captain or master
of a vessel arriving from abroad to deliver to the local collector of
customs a list or manifest of all passengers taken on board. This
list was to designate the age, sex, and occupation of each passenger,
"the country to which they severally belonged," and the number that
had died on the voyage. Copies of these manifests were to be transmitted to the Secretary of State, who reported the information periodically to Congress. Subsequently, the Act of 1855 prescribed quarterly
reports to the Secretary of State and annual reports to Congress.
Later acts have continued to require the collection of such information.
Although the reporting of alien arrivals was required by the Act
of 1798, which expired two years later, the number arriving before 1819
is not known. William J. Bromwell, in his History of Immigration to
the United States, 1856 (pp. 18-19), estimated the number of passengers of foreign birth arriving here from the close of the Revolutionary
War to 1819, at 250,000. This estimate was used by the Bureau of
Statistics which later compiled the official statistics of immigration.
Immigration statistics were compiled by the Department of State
for 1820-1870; by the Treasury Department, Bureau of Statistics, for
1867-1895; and since 1892, by a separate Office or Bureau of Immigration, now a part of the Immigation and Naturalization Service.
For 1892-1932, the Bureau of Immigration issued annual reports.
For 1933-1940, the data were summarized in the Annual Report of the
Secretary of Labor; for 1941, they were issued in the Annual Report
of the Attorney General; for 1942, no report was published; and for
subsequent years, the statistics appeared in the Annual Report of the
Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Since 1820 the official immigration data have undergone many
changes in the reporting area covered. During the first decades
only arrivals by vessel at Atlantic and Gulf ports were reported.
Arrivals at Pacific ports were first included in 1850. During the
Civil War the only Southern ports that reported were those controlled
by the Federal Government. Later the reporting area was expanded
to include arrivals at outlying possessions. Arrivals in Alaska were
first reported in 1871, but only irregularly thereafter until 1904, after
which Alaska was regularly included among the places of entry.
Arrivals in Hawaii were first included in 1901, Puerto Rico in 1902, and
the Virgin Islands in 1942.
Counting arrivals at the land borders was not required by the
early immigration acts, and the counting of such arrivals did not
approach completeness until after 1904. For 1820-1823, a few
arrivals by land borders were included. Complete reporting was
attempted in 1855 with only partial success, was interrupted for
several years by the Civil War, and was discontinued in 1885. Beginning in 1894, European immigrants who arrived a t Canadian
ports with the declared intention of proceeding to the United States
were included in the immigration statistics. Some immigration was
reported at land border stations established in 1904. More stations
were opened in the following years, but reporting of land border
arrivals was not fully established until 1908.
The statistical treatment of Canadian and Mexican immigrants
at times has differed from that of other immigrants. When reporting
of arrivals by land borders was discontinued in 1885, regular reporting
of Canadian and Mexican arrivals b y vessel was also discontinued;
however, a few Canadian and Mexican immigrants were reported
in most of the following years. Arrivals of Canadians and Mexicans
by land borders began to be reported in 1906, and reporting was fully




established in 1908 under authority of the Act of 1907, which provided
for the inspection of Canadians and Mexicans at the land borders.
Not all aliens entering via the Canadian and Mexican borders are
counted for inclusion in the immigration statistics. Before 1930, no
count was made of residents of a year or longer of Canada, Newfoundland, or Mexico who planned to remain in the United States less
than 6 months. For 1930-1945 the following classes of aliens entering
via the land borders were counted and included in the statistics of
immigration:
(1) Those who have not been in the United States within 6
months, who come to stay more than 6 months; (2) those for whom
straight head tax is a prerequisite to admission, or for whom head
tax is specially deposited and subsequently converted to straight
head tax account; (3) those required by law or regulation to present
an immigration visa or re-entry permit, and those who surrender
either, regardless of whether they are required by law or regulation
to do so; (4) those announcing an intention to depart via a seaport
of the United States for Hawaii or insular possessions of the United
States, or for foreign countries, except arrivals from Canada intending to return thereto by water; and (5) those announcing an
intention to depart across the other land boundary.
These classes were revised in 1945 so that the statistics of arriving
aliens at land border ports of entry for 1945-1952 included (1) arriving
aliens who came into the United States for 30 days or more; and (2)
returning alien residents who had been out of the United States more
than 6 months. Arriving aliens who came into the United States for
29 days or less were not counted except those certified by public
health officials, aliens held for a board of special inquiry, aliens excluded and deported, and aliens in transit who announced an intention
to depart across another land boundary, or by sea.
Since 1953, all arriving aliens a t land border ports of entry are
counted and included except Canadian citizens and British subjects
resident in Canada who were admitted for 6 months or less, and
Mexican citizens who were admitted for 72 hours or less in the United
States.
Persons who cross the land borders for brief periods (border crossers)
are not included in the immigration and emigration statistics. The
Immigration and Naturalization Service publishes statistics on alien
and citizen border crossers in the Annual Report, however.
Arrivals in and departures from the Philippines were recorded in
the port tables for 1910-1924, but were not included in the total
immigration data. For 1925-1931, such arrivals and departures
were obtained annually from the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War
Department, and published in separate tables. The Immigration
Service has no records since 1932 of arrivals in, or departures from, the
Philippines to foreign countries.
Data on aliens admitted to conterminous United States from
insular possessions were compiled from 1908 through 1964. Aliens
admitted from the Virgin Islands were first recorded in 1917. The
departure of aliens from the mainland to Puerto Rieo was first recorded in 1918. Data on aliens from Guam began in 1929; Samoa,
in 1932.
Definition of terms. For 1820-1867, immigration totals (compiled
by the Department of State) were shown as alien passenger arrivals,
but may have included alien passengers who died before arrival, and
did include, for 1856-1867, temporary visitors among arriving alien
passengers. For the 12-year period, the temporary visitors constituted about 1 Yz percent of the alien passenger arrivals.

97

C 89-119

MIGRATION

For 1868-1891, the Bureau of Statistics immigrant arrival figures
(excluding temporary visitors), were reported. Since 1892, official
immigration data have been compiled by the Office of Immigration
(and its successors) and for 1892-1895 its totals were 7 to 8 percent
lower than those for the Bureau of Statistics for that period. The
difference is largely attributable to the limitation of the Office of
Immigration figures to alien steerage passengers; cabin class passengers
were not again included as immigrants until 1904. A further difference was that the Bureau of Statistics figures were for arrivals and
those of the Office of Immigration were for admissions.
For 1895-1897, the Office of Immigration readopted arrivals and
the figures include the 2,419 aliens debarred in 1895, the 2,799 in
1896, and 1,880 in 1897. In later years, the immigration data were
further refined to exclude aliens in transit through the United States
(1904), and resident aliens returning from a visit abroad (1906).
In 1906 arriving aliens were divided into two classes: Immigrants,
or those who intended to settle in the United States, and nonimmigrants, or admitted aliens who declared an intention not to settle in
the United States, and all aliens returning to resume domiciles
formerly acquired in the United States.
The official record of emigration began in 1907 and ended in 1957.
I t was made possible by the Immigration Act of 1907, which required
all steamship companies carrying departing aliens to furnish manifests
similar to those required for arriving aliens.
For 1908-1932, aliens arriving in or departing from the United
States were classified as follows: Arriving aliens with permanent
domicile outside the United States who intended to reside permanently
in the United States were classed as immigrants; departing aliens with
permanent residence in the United States who intended to reside
permanently abroad were classed as emigrants; all alien residents
making a temporary trip abroad and all aliens residing abroad making
a temporary trip to the United States were classed as nonimmigrants
on the inward journey and nonemigrants on the outward. Permanent
residence was defined as residence of 1 year or longer. (Annual Report
of the Commissioner General of Immigration, 1908, p. 6.)
Since 1933, aliens arriving in the United States have been classified
as immigrants or nonimmigrants. Immigrants are nonresident aliens
admitted to the United States for permanent residence. Until July 1,
1968, they were further classified as quota and nonquota immigrants.
Quota immigrants were those subject to the established quotas of
Eastern Hemisphere countries and their dependencies. Nonquota
immigrants included natives of the Western Hemisphere and their
spouses and children, immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, and
certain groups of special immigrants. Beginning July 1, 1968, immigrants have been classified as those subject to the numerical limitations of the Eastern Hemisphere, those subject to the numerical
limitations of the Western Hemisphere, and those exempt from
numerical limitations. Those that are exempt include immediate
relatives (parents, spouses, and children) of U.S. citizens and various
classes of special immigrants.
Nonimmigrants are nonresident aliens admitted to the United
States for a temporary period. Included in this group are visitors
for business and pleasure, students and their spouses and children,
temporary workers and trainees and their spouses and children,
foreign government officials, exchange visitors and their spouses and
children, international representatives, treaty traders and investors,
representatives of foreign information media, fiances(ees) of U.S.
citizens and their children, intracompany transferees and their spouses
and children, NATO officials, aliens in transit, and, for statistical
purposes, permanent resident aliens returning after short trips abroad.
Excluded are border crossers, crewmen, and insular travelers.
Data on emigrants have not been kept since 1957. Emigrants
were aliens who resided in the United States for a year or longer and
who left for a permanent residence abroad. Nonemigrants were
resident aliens of the United States who left the United States for a
temporary period abroad, or nonresident aliens of the United States
who were in the United States for less than a year who were returning
to their permanent residence abroad. Since 1957 data have been
98




kept only on aliens departing. They include all aliens departing by
sea or air except for direct departures to Canada.
The old definitions of immigrant, emigrant, nonimmigrant, and
nonemigrant somewhat impaired the reliability of net immigration
figures. While immigrants were admitted for permanent residence,
they could depart prior to residence of 1 year, in which case they
were counted as immigrants on arrival and nonemigrants on departure.
Persons coming in temporarily, however, as nonimmigrants who failed
to leave within a year would have been counted as emigrants on
departure.
C 89-119.

Immigrants, by country, 1820-1970.

Source: 1820-1932, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service,
unpublished data, and U.S. Bureau of Immigration, Annual Report of
the Commissioner General of Immigration, as follows: 1820-1926 Report
for 1926, pp. 170-178; 1927-1931, Report for 1931, pp. 222-223; 1932,
Report for 1982, pp. 120-125; 1933-1957, U.S. Immigration and
Naturalization Service, unpublished data; 1958-1970, Annual Report
of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, annual issues.
Prior to 1906, data cover countries from which the aliens came;
thereafter, countries of last permanent residence. Owing to changes
in the list of countries separately reported and to changes in boundaries, data for certain countries are not comparable throughout.
Under the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act, subquotas of 100 each were established for colonies or dependencies, to
be charged against the quota of the mother country. Because of these
provisions, statistics were compiled, between January 1953 and July
1968, for each colony or dependency having a subquota. Under the
Act of October 3, 1965, colonies and dependencies of foreign states
are alloted 200 visa numbers each, chargeable to the mother country.
The principal changes in reporting immigrants by country since
1820 are shown in the detailed listing below.
See also general note for series C 89-157.
C 90-101.

Immigration from Europe, 1820-1970.

Source: See source for series C 89-119.
Since 1820, territorial transfers in Europe have, to a certain extent,
impaired the comparability of immigration statistics from that continent. Data for Austria-Hungary were not reported until 1861.
Austria and Hungary have been reported separately since 1905. For
1938-1945, Austria is included with Germany. Bulgaria, Serbia,
and Montenegro were first reported in 1899. In 1920, Bulgaria was
reported separately, as was the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes (identified as Yugoslavia since 1922). Prior to 1925,
Northern Ireland was included with Ireland (Eire). The figures for
Norway and Sweden were combined from 1820-1868; since 1869,
each country has been reported separately. Poland was recorded
as a separate country for 1820-1898 and since 1920. During 18991919, Poland was included with Austria-Hungary, Germany, and
Russia. There is no record of immigration from Romania prior
to 1880.
International transfers in territory following World War I resulted
in the establishment of several countries. In 1920, Czechoslovakia,
Finland, Poland, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
(designated as Yugoslavia in 1922) were added to the immigration
lists; in 1924, Albania, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were added;
in 1925, the Free City of Danzig and Luxembourg were added.
The Immigration Act of 1924, which established quotas for all
independent countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, effected
a further change in the immigration lists of countries. This change,
however, was not fully felt until 1931. In that year, Andorra, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino were added to the
European countries, and the Russian Empire was classified into
European Russia (designated as U.S.S.R. in Europe from 1947 through
1963) and Siberia, or Asiatic Russia. Since 1964, all the U.S.S.R.
has been included in Europe. The principal effect of the 1924 Act,

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AN]) NATURALIZATION
however, was in the extension of the lists of Asian, African, and
Western Hemisphere countries.
In 1950, Bessarabia and the northern portion of Bukovina were
included in the U.S.S.R. instead of in Romania. The Dodecanese
Islands were included in Greece instead of Italy. The Free Territory
of Trieste, formerly a part of Italy and Yugoslavia, was established
as an independent country until 1959, when it again became part of
Italy and Yugoslavia in immigration statistics.
C 102-109. Immigration from Asia, 1820-1970.
Source: See source for series C 89-119.
China and India are the only countries in Asia for which the records
of immigration to the United States date back to 1820. A few immigrants from Japan were recorded in 1861, 1866, and 1867, but complete records for Japan begin with 1869. Figures for Turkey in
Asia are available since 1869. Data on some immigration from
Arabia are recorded for 1876-1895; from Armenia for 1874-1895;
and from Persia for 1871-1895. For 1896-1923, immigration from
Asia included only China, India, Japan, Turkey in Asia, and "other
Asia." In 1924, Syria was added, and in 1925, Armenia, Palestine,
and Persia (Iran) were added to the lists of Asian countries. Since
1934, Armenia has been included in Russia. In 1931, Siberia, or
Asiatic Russia, was separated from European Russia, and Iraq and
Siam (Thailand) were added to the lists. Since 1964, all the U.S.S.R.
has been included in Europe.
In 1945, the classification of country in the country-of-birth statistics (on which the Quota Law was based) was adopted for the
immigration statistics. This change resulted in the addition to the
immigration lists of Afghanistan, Arabian Peninsula, Bhutan, Muscat,
Nepal, Saudi Arabia, and Asiatic colonies, dependencies, and protectorates of European countries. Since 1948, the following countries
have been added to the immigration lists: (1948) Burma, Ceylon,
Jordan, Korea, and Pakistan; (1949) Israel (formerly included with
Palestine), Lebanon (formerly included with Syria), and Yemen;
(1950) Indonesia; (1952) Bonin Volcano Islands, Ryukyu Islands,
Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; (1957) Formosa; (1961) Cyprus;
(1963) Kuwait; (1964) Malaysia; (1967) Singapore.
C 110-114. Immigration from America, 1820-1970.
Source: See source for series C 89-119.
Prior to 1920, Canada and Newfoundland were recorded under
country of last permanent residence as British North America. For
1920-1924, combined figures are available for Canada and Newfoundland; for 1925-1948, each was reported separately. Since 1950,
Newfoundland has been included in Canada. Inspection of
Canadians and Mexicans was first authorized by the Act of 1907.
The first complete year for which all immigration via the land borders
was recorded is, therefore, 1908.
Immigration from Mexico has been recorded for 1820-1885 and
for 1894 to the present. Immigration statistics for the West Indies
have been available since 1820. For 1820-1860, there was no classification of the West Indies, by country. For 1861-1898, some immigration was recorded from Antigua (1873-1895), Bahamas (18711895), Barbados (1869-1895), Bermuda (1861-1895), Cuba (18691898), Curacao (1873-1895), Haiti (1869-1895), Jamaica (1869-1895),
Puerto Rico (1869-1895), Saint Croix (1871-1895), Saint Thomas
(1872-1895), and Trinidad (1874-1895). For 1899-1924, there again
was no classification by country of immigration from the West Indies.
Immigration from Cuba has been separately recorded since 1925;
from the British West Indies, Dominican Republic, Dutch West
Indies, French West Indies, and Haiti since 1931; and from Bermuda
since 1945. For detailed data, see Annual Report of Commissioner
General of Immigration for each year, 1892-1932. Since January
1953, all countries in the West Indies have been reported.
Immigration from Central America has been recorded since 1820,
but not by country during most of that period. Separate statistics
are available for 1895-1898 for Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and



c ioa-118

El Salvador; and for 1895-1897 for Costa Rica. British Honduras
was also enumerated separately for 1874-1910. With the above
exceptions, only figures for total immigration were available for
Central America until 1925. Immigration has been reported
separately from British Honduras since 1925, and from the Canal
Zone, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and
El Savador since 1931.
Immigration from South America has also been reported in total
since 1820 but, with the following exceptions, not by country until
1925. For 1869-1895, separate enumerations were made for Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guiana, Peru, and Venezuela; and for
1871-1895 for the Argentine Republic. Separate figures for Brazil
have been again available since 1925; and since 1931 for Argentina,
Bolivia, British Guiana (since 1967, Guyana), Dutch Guiana
(Surinam), French Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay,
Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
C 115. Immigration from Africa, 1820-1970.
Source: See source for series C 89-119.
Immigration from Africa has been recorded since 1820, but, with
few exceptions, was not classified by country until 1931. There is
record of some immigration from Liberia in 1829, 1839, 1844, and
1857-1893; Algeria, 1872-1894; Egypt, 1869-1895; and South Africa,
1869-1895. For 1890-1924, only immigration for continental Africa
was reported. Immigration from Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Liberia,
Morocco, and Union of South Africa has been recorded since 1931.
In 1945, "other Africa" was classified into Cameroons (British
Mandate), Cameroons (French Mandate), Ruanda and Urundi (trust
territory, Belgium), South-West Africa (Mandate of the Union of
South Africa), Tanganyika (trust territory, United Kingdom),
Togoland (British Mandate), Togoland (trust territory, France),
and colonies, dependencies, or protectorates of Belgium, France,
Great Britain, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Many of these countries
have since gained their independence.
Since 1945, the following countries have been added: 1953: Libya
and Somaliland (Italian administration), and Southern Rhodesia.
Eritrea, which was federated with Ethiopia, was included with
Ethiopia. 1957: Ghana (composed of British territories, Gold Coast
and British Togoland), Sudan, and Tunisia. 1961: Congo, Republic
of the Congo, Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Malagasy Republic,
Republic of Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Senegal, Somali Republic, and Upper Volta. 1963: Burundi and Rwanda, formerly
Ruanda-Urundi. 1967: Botswana and Lesotho.
C 116-118. Immigration from Australasia, 1870-1970.
Source: See source for series C 89-119.
Immigration from Australia was recorded separately in 1822,
1839-1840, and for most of the years 1854-1898. For 1899-1924,
a combined total was recorded for Australia, Tasmania, and New
Zealand, and, since 1925, Australia has again been reported separately.
Separate figures for New Zealand are available for 1870-1890. For
1891-1893, New Zealand was included in "all other countries"; for
1894-1898, in "Pacific Islands, not specified," and for 1899-1924,
with Australia and Tasmania. Separate figures for New Zealand have
again been available since 1925.
The following countries were added to the immigration lists of the
Pacific in 1945: Nauru (British Mandate); Territory of New Guinea
including appertaining islands (Australian Mandate); Western Samoa
(New Zealand Mandate); Yap and other Pacific Islands under
Japanese Mandate; and colonies, dependencies, or protectorates of
France, Great Britain, Japan, Netherlands, and Portugal. In 1952,
the Pacific Islands (trust territory, U.S. administration) were added.
In 1962, Western Samoa gained its independence and, since 1968,
Nauru has also been an independent nation. Yap and several of
the other islands once under the mandate of Japan are now included
in Japan.
99

MIGRATION

C 120-157
C 120-137.

Immigrants, by major occupation group, 1820-1970.

Source: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Statistics,
1820-1890, Arrivals of Alien Passengers and Immigrants in the United
States, 1820-1890, pp. 42-49; 1891, Immigration into the United
States Showing Number, Nationality, Sex, Age, Occupation, Destination, . . . from 1820-1903. U.S. Bureau of Immigration 1892-1898,
Annual Report of Commissioner General of Immigration, annual
issues. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1899-1944,
unpublished data; 1945-1970, Annual Report of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service, annual issues, and unpublished data.
The major occupation groups for 1820-1898 include the following
categories: Professional—occupations which involve a liberal
education or its equivalent and mental rather than manual skills;
commercial—agents, bankers, hotelkeepers, manufacturers, and
merchants and dealers; skilled—occupations requiring special training
of a manual rather than mental nature. A "farmer" is one who operates
a farm, either for himself or for others; a "farm laborer" is one who
works on a farm for the man who operates it. The "no occupation"
group includes dependent women and children, other aliens without
occupation, and aliens whose occupations were not stated.
Although the data are shown in broad occupation groups, the
instructions for compiling statistics specified that the occupation
should be described as precisely as possible. For example, civil
engineer, stationary engineer, mining engineer, brass polisher, steel
polisher, iron molder, wood turner, etc., should be so described, and
not entered simply as engineer, polisher, molder, turner, or other
indefinite designation.
From 1945 to 1951, the Immigration and Naturalization Service
applied the major occupation groups as shown in the Sixteenth Census
of the United States, Alphabetical Index of Occupations and Industries.
It also grouped occupations of immigrants for 1899-1944 (compiled
in unpublished records) as closely as possible into the new groups.
From 1952 to 1961, occupations were coded and grouped in accordance
with the definitions in U.S. Census of Population: 1950, Alphabetical
Index of Occupations and Industries; beginning with 1962, occupations
have been grouped according to the 1960 index.
The occupation figures include all immigrants, those with and
without work experience. The "no occupation" group includes housewives, unemployed, retired persons, students, children under 14
years of age, aliens with no occupation, and occupation unknown or
not reported.
See also general note for series C 89-157.
C 138, 140-142.

Immigrants, by age, 1820-1970.

Source: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Statistics,
1820-1897, Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the U.S.,
No. 12, series 1902-1903, pp. 4358 and 4362; U.S. Bureau of Immigration, 1898-1932, Annual Report of the Commissioner General of
Immigration, annual issues; U.S. Immigration and Naturalization
Service, 1933-1957, unpublished data; 1958-1970, Annual Report of
the Immigration and Naturalization Service, annual issues, and unpublished data.
Some of the published estimates have been revised because of
apparent printing errors in the source.
The age groups used to classify immigrants have changed a number
of times since 1820, thereby impairing to a certain extent their comparability. For 1820-1898, the classification was: Under 15 years,
15 to 40, and over 40. In addition, the age of nearly 250,000 immigrants, or 4 percent of the total, for 1820-1866 was not reported.
For 1899-1917, the age classification was: Under 14 years, 14 to 44,
and 45 years and over; for 1918-1924: Under 16 years, 16 to 44, and
45 years and over.
Although only three age groups were generally used before 1925, a
more detailed classification was used for 1910-1924 for single females:
15 to 19 years, 20 to 24, 25 to 29, and 30 to 34 in 1910; 14 to 21
years, 22 to 29, 30 to 37, and 38 to 44 for 1911-1917; 16 to 21 years,
22 to 29, 30 to 37, and 38 to 44 for 1918-1924.
100



In 1925 the age classification was enlarged from 3 to 6 groups:
Under 16 years, 16 to 21, 22 to 29, 30 to 37, 38 to 44, and 45 years
and over. In 1940, it was enlarged to 12 groups, with a lower limit
of under 11 years, 5-year age groups until 60, and an upper limit of
over 60 years. In 1945, it was further enlarged into 5-year groups,
with a lower age limit of under 5 years and an upper open-end limit
of 100 years and over. The upper limit has since been changed to
95 and over.
See also general note for series C 89-157.
C 139. Male immigrants, 1820-1970.
Source: Senate Doc. No. 756, 61st Congress, 1820-1910, Reports of
the Immigration Commission, vol. 3. U.S. Bureau of Immigration,
1911-1931, Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration,
1931; 1932, Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration, 1932. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1933-1939,
unpublished data; 1940-1970, Annual Report of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service, annual issues.
Although the Act of 1819 required that arriving immigrants be
recorded by sex, these data were not satisfactorily compiled before
1869. (See Senate Doc. No. 756 cited above.) The earlier reports
of the Secretary of State to Congress contain partial data on this
subject, and in 1911 the Immigration Commission compiled percentage data to show the approximate sex distribution for 1820-1867.
The data are not complete, as in most years sex was not reported for
a considerable number of immigrants, but on the whole the percentages may be accepted as fairly representative of the sex distribution in the years considered. For continuity of data throughout the
1820-1970 period, the above mentioned percentages have been applied
to the total immigration figures for the years 1820 through 1867
to arrive at an estimate of the number of male immigrants. Data
for 1869 through 1970 reflect actual data of immigration by sex.
C 143-157.

Annual quota and aliens admitted, by classes, 1925-1970.

Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual
Report of Immigration and Naturalization Service, annual issues,
Presidential Proclamations on quotas, and unpublished data.
For 1925-1929, the annual quota (series C 143) of 164,667 was
based on 2 percent of the foreign-born residents in the United States
as determined by the 1890 census. The "national origin" formula
which determined quotas from 1929 until the Act of October 3, 1965,
went into effect, provided that the annual quota equal one-sixth of
one percent of the number of white inhabitants in the continental
United States in 1920, less Western Hemisphere immigrants and their
descendants. The annual quota for each nationality was then determined by the same ratio to 150,000 as the number of inhabitants
of each nationality living in the continental United States in 1920
to the total inhabitants, although a minimum quota for any nationality was 100. As territorial boundaries changed and new countries
were established, slight changes in quotas occurred.
The Act of October 3, 1965, abolished the quota system and in its
place set up an annual numerical limitation of 170,000 immigrants
from the Eastern Hemisphere, with no more than 20,000 immigrants
to come from any one country. From December 1, 1965, through
June 30, 1968, countries retained their old quotas, but unused visa
numbers from each year went into a general pool of numbers available
on a first-come, first-served basis during the next year. On July 1,
1968, the new law and the system of numerical limitations went fully
into effect. Also at that time a numerical limitation of 120,000 per
year was imposed on Western Hemisphere immigration, which had
previously been unrestricted. The Act of October 3, 1965, thereby
abolished the "national origins" system and gave persons from every
country within each hemisphere an equal chance to immigrate to the
United States.
The classes presented in these series are legal classes of admission
defined in the Act of 1924 and the Immigration and Nationality Act
of 1952 as amended by the Act of October 3, 1965. Returning

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AN]) NATURALIZATION
resident aliens, who have been counted before as immigrants, are
included with nonimmigrants.
In general, statistics on aliens admitted have been derived from
manifests or entry documents. Changes in regulations extending
documentary waivers for nonimmigrants entering via the Canadian
or Mexican border, or from adjacent islands, have impaired comparability of the nonimmigrant statistics.
See also general note for series C 89-157.
C 158-161.
1970.

Aliens deported, required to depart, and excluded, 1892-

c ioa-118

ment for a woman who married a U.S. citizen. On May 24, 1934,
another act provided similar benefits but extended them to the spouse
of a U.S. citizen, woman or man, and set a 3-year residence requirement which has continued into the current statute.
Children of U.S. citizens. Statutes prior to the Act of October 14,
1940, made no provisions for the naturalization of a minor child
except under special circumstances. Beginning with the 1940 Act,
a child born outside the United States, one or both of whose parents
is a U.S. citizen at the time of petitioning, may be naturalized if under
the age of 18, if not otherwise disqualified, and if residing permanently
in the United States with the citizen parent. No particular period of
residence is required and if the child is of "tender years" he may be
presumed to be of good moral character and attached to the principles
of the Constitution. Children adopted by U.S. citizens before attaining 16 years of age were also first provided for in the 1940 Act and
similar legislation was reenacted in the Act of October 3, 1965. The
current law requires a specified period of residence, generally 2 years,
but adoption does not have to be in the United States as specified in
the earlier law.
Military. Prior to 1918, special provisions were not made for
persons who had served in the U.S. Armed Forces. The Act of May
9, 1918, and subsequent amendments expiring December 8, 1943,
provided for the simplified naturalization of veterans of World War I
and prior conflicts. The Act of March 27, 1942, for which the
termination date for filing petitions was set on December 31, 1946,
gave special benefits to World War II servicemen. The Act of June
1,1948, made permanent the provisions for the expeditious naturalization of persons serving honorably in the U.S. Armed Forces during
World Wars I and II. On September 26, 1961, another act amended
the above to include those serving in the Korean Conflict occurring
between June 25, 1950, and July 1, 1955. The Act of October 24,
1968, added the Vietnam Conflict for a period beginning February
28, 1961, and ending on a date to be fixed by the President.

Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual
Report of Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1957, pp. 46, 50,
and 1970, p. 85.
C 159, aliens deported. Undesirable aliens who have violated
certain immigration laws may be expelled or deported under formal
deportation proceedings. Deportation of alien contract laborers
within one year after entry was authorized by the Act of 1888. Deportation statistics, however, have been compiled only since 1892,
shortly after enactment of the Act of 1891, which provided for the
deportation of all aliens who entered unlawfully. The classes of deportable aliens were extended by subsequent acts and are now defined
in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 as amended by the
Act of October 3,1965. The principal deportable classes are criminals
(including violators of narcotic laws), immoral classes, mental or
physical defectives, public charges, subversives, and those who entered illegally or failed to maintain or comply with the conditions
of admission.
C 160, aliens required to depart. Aliens who would be deportable
under certain sections of the law may forego formal deportation hearings and depart voluntarily either at their own expense, or if deemed
desirable, at the expense of the Government. Statistics on aliens
required to depart have been recorded since 1927.
C 161, aliens excluded. Prior to 1882, various State laws were
enacted excluding from admission to the United States undesirable
aliens such as paupers, felons, and diseased aliens. The first Chinese
exclusion law was passed in 1882. Lunatics, idiots, and persons
likely to become public charges were first excluded by the Act of 1882.
Statistics on aliens excluded were first compiled in 1892, shortly
after passage of the Act of 1891, which extended the classes of excludable aliens. Subsequent acts, principally the Immigration Act
of 1917, and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, extended
these classes further. At present, the principal classes excluded are
attempted illegal entries, criminals (including violators of narcotic
laws), immoral persons, subversive or anarchistic persons, attempted
entry without proper documents, mental or physical defectives, stowaways, and those likely to become a public charge.

Prior to 1906, individual courts kept records of naturalizations,
but no national data were compiled. The Act of 1906 required all
courts conducting naturalization proceedings to file with a central
Federal agency a copy of each declaration of intention and petition
of naturalization filed and of each certificate of naturalization issued.
For 1907-1912, naturalization statistics were compiled by the
Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. For 1913-1932, they
were compiled by the Bureau of Naturalization. For 1933-1940, they
were given in the Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor and, for
1941, in the Annual Report of the Attorney General. No report was
published in 1942. For subsequent years, the statistics appeared in
the Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

C 162-167.

C 168. Declarations filed, 1907-1970.

Aliens naturalized, by type of provision, 1907-1970.

Source: 1907-1930, U.S. Bureau of Naturalization, Annual Report
of the Commissioner of Naturalization; 1931-1970, U.S. Immigration
and Naturalization Service, Annual Report of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service, annual issues.
See also general note for series C 168-180.
General naturalization provisions. Since the first naturalization
statute of 1790, residence in the United States, good moral character,
and an oath to support the Constitution have been required of persons
seeking U.S. citizenship. The Act of April 14, 1802, incorporated
the requisites of 5 years' residence in the United States, favorable
disposition to the happiness of the nation, good moral character, and
attachment to the principles of the Constitution. These prerequisites
for naturalization are still in basically the same form today.
Married to U.S. citizens. Prior to 1922, married women were
ineligible for judicial naturalization during coverture. The Act of
September 22, 1922, however, eliminated sex and marital status as
factors for eligibility and established a one year residence require


C 168-180.

General note.

Source: 1907-1910, U.S. Department of Labor, Annual Report of
the Secretary of Labor, 1940, p. 115; 1911-1970, U.S. Immigration
and Naturalization Service, Annual Report of Immigration and
Naturalization Service, annual issues.
See also general note for series C 168-180.
Section 331 of the Nationality Act of 1940 provided that an applicant for naturalization after reaching the age of 18 years must make,
under oath, not less than 2 nor more than 7 years prior to his petition
for naturalization, a signed declaration of intention to become a
citizen. This section contained substantially the requirements of
the Basic Naturalization Act of 1906 concerning the declaration of
intention. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which
repealed the Nationality Act of 1940, provides that a declaration of
intention may be filed, but it is not a prerequisite to naturalization.
In a number of States, in order to obtain employment, a license, etc.,
an alien applicant must prove that he intends to become a citizen.
The law permits the filing of a declaration to show such intent.
101

C 169-179

MIGRATION

Prior to 1930, the number of declarations of intention was far in
excess of the number of aliens naturalized. This was due mainly to
the failure of many aliens to file a petition for naturalization within
the prescribed time limit, as well as the denial of a number of petitions
for naturalization. In most of the years since 1930 the number of
aliens naturalized has exceeded the declarations filed, because of the
increasing number of persons who were exempted from the general
requirements for a declaration of intention.
Since 1907, a number of laws were passed exempting special classes
of persons from the general requirement of a declaration of intention.
Most of these laws were codified into the Nationality Act of 1940.
Included among such exempted classes were noncitizen spouses of
United States citizens; certain former citizens; noncitizens who, because of misinformation, erroneously exercised the rights of citizenship; noncitizens who, at the time of entering the United States, were
under 16 years of age; certain noncitizens who served honorably in
the United States Armed Forces or on certain vessels; and certain
noncitizen children.
C 169. Aliens naturalized, 1907-1970.
Source: See source for series C 168.
"Aliens naturalized" are aliens upon whom naturalization was
conferred in the United States by a naturalization court or outside
of the United States by a representative of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service. The total number of aliens naturalized
includes both civilian and military naturalizations. Statistics on
naturalizations do not include repatriations.
Separate statistics on repatriations are compiled by the Immigration
and Naturalization Service which also compiles statistics on certificates of derivative citizenship granted and denied, expatriations and
certificates of naturalization revoked, and petitions for naturalization denied.
C 170-171. Aliens naturalized, by sex, 1923-1970.
Source: 1923-1932, U.S. Bureau of Naturalization, Annual Report
of the Commissioner of Naturalization, annual issues; 1933-1940, U.S.
Department of Labor, Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor, annual
issues; 1941-1970, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service,
Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, annual
issues.
See also general note for series C 168-180 and text for series C 169.

C 173, Central Europe. Includes Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia. For 1938-1947, Austria
was included with Germany.
C 174, Eastern Europe. Includes the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland, Romania, Bulgaria,
and Turkey. For 1923-1927, Lithuania comprised portions of
Russia and Germany. European and Asiatic Turkey are included
in Eastern Europe.
C 175, Southern Europe. Includes Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal,
and for 1929-1970, "Other Europe," which comprises Albania, the
Free City of Danzig, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra,
and for the years 1950-1959, Trieste. For 1923-1928, "Other Europe"
was recorded under the "miscellaneous" group of countries and is
included with "All other" (C 179).
C 176, Asia. The Asian countries reported separately and the
beginning dates are shown below:
Afghanistan (1929); Arabian Peninsula (1943); Bhutan (1945);
Burma (1949); Cambodia (1959); Ceylon (1948); China (1932);
Cyprus (1961); India (1948, British Empire formerly); Indonesia
(1950); Iran (1929); Iraq (1929); Israel (1950, Palestine formerly);
Japan (1932); Jordan (1948, formerly called Trans-Jordan and
included with Palestine prior to 1948); Korea (1948, Japan formerly); Kuwait (1962); Laos (1960); Lebanon (1950, included in
Syria formerly); Malaysia (1963); Maldive Republic (1970); Muscat
and Oman (1945); Nepal (1945); Pakistan (1948, included in
British Empire formerly); Palestine (reported separately 1929-1944
and since 1948; included in British Empire 1945-1947); Philippines
(1929); Saudi Arabia (1945); Singapore (1967); Southern Yemen
(1969); Syria (reported separately 1928-1944, 1948-1958, and
1962-1970; included in France, 1944-1947 and in United Arab
Republic, 1959-1961; Thailand (Siam, 1944); Vietnam (1952);
Yemen (1950); and Tiawan (Formosa, 1957).
Until 1953, racial restrictions upon naturalization limited the
naturalization of aliens who were citizens or subjects of countries
located in Asia. (See text for series C 180.)

C 172-179. Aliens naturalized, by area of former allegiance, 19231970.

C 178, other America. Includes Mexico, the West Indies, Central
and South America. Figures for Mexico date from 1924; for the
West Indies (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Haiti separately) from
1929. For 1924-1928, the figures for Central and South America
were combined. Separate figures have been compiled for independent
countries in Central and South America beginning with 1929, except
in 1933.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Naturalization, 1923-1932, Annual Report
of the Commissioner of Naturalization, annual issues; U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1933-1935, unpublished data; 19361970, Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service,
annual issues.

C 179, all other. Includes "miscellaneous" countries 1923-1928;
repatriated Americans, 1924-1934; "stateless" nationals from 1945;
Ethiopia from 1929; Liberia from 1929; and countries which were
former territories. Former territories and the beginning dates of
separate report are shown below:

See also general note for series C 168-180.
"Country of former allegiance or nationality" is the country of
which the alien at the time was a citizen or subject. Data on the
number of aliens naturalized, by country or region of former allegiance,
have been compiled only from 1922. Owing to changes in the list
of countries separately reported and to changes in boundaries, data
for certain countries are not comparable throughout. The principal
changes in reporting since 1923 are shown for individual series below.

Formerly French territories: Libya (1953); Tunisia (1957);
Sudan (1957); Morocco (1958); Guinea (1960); Central African
Republic, Chad, Congo, Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Malagasy
Republic, Republic of Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Republic of Senegal,
Togo, and Upper Volta (1961); Algeria and Cameroon (1963).
Formerly British Territories: Egypt, included in British Empire,
1945-1947, reported separately 1929-1944 and since 1948; South
West Africa (1952); Southern Rhodesia (1953); Union of South
Africa (1948); Australia (1951); Nauru (1952); New Guinea (1952);
New Zealand (1952); and Western Samoa (1952). Ghana (1959),
Nigeria and Sierra Leone (1961); Tanganyika (1962); Kenya (1964),
Malawi, Uganda, and Zanzibar (1965); Zambia (1966); Gambia
(1967); Tanzania (1968), Botswana and Lesotho (1969), Mauritius
and Swaziland (1970). Formerly Belgian territories: Republic
of the Congo (1961), Burundi and Rwanda (1964). Formerly
Italian Administration: Somaliland (1953; Somali Republic as of

C 172, Northwestern Europe. Includes the British Empire,
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg,
Switzerland, France, and, beginning 1948, Iceland. Beginning 1948,
Ireland has been reported separately. Australia has been reported
separately from 1951, and included in "All other" (series C 179).
For earlier years, Ireland and Australia are included under the
British Empire. See text for series C 176, C 177, and C 179 for
former British territories.
102




INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AN]) NATURALIZATION
1961). Formerly international administration: Tangier (1953).
Separate figures are available for the following United States
possessions: American Samoa, Canal Zone, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, and Wake and Midway Islands (1945-1951 and since
1955); Hawaii (1955-1959); Guam (1944-1951, and since 1955);
Bonin Islands (1962-1968); Christmas Islands (since 1964); the
Ryukyu Islands (since 1960); and Swains Island (since 1962).
C 180. Petitions denied, 1907-1970.
Source: 1907-1921, U.S. Bureau of Naturalization, Report of Commissioner of Naturalization, as follows: 1907-1917, Report for 1917,
p. 5; 1918-1919, Report for 1919, p. 4; 1920, Report for 1920, pp. 5-6;
1921-1957, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Annual
Report of Immigration and Naturalization Service, annual issues.
See also general note for series C 168-180.
Statistics on petitions denied have been compiled since 1907. The
Basic Naturalization Act of 1906 and subsequent naturalization
laws specified the eligibility requirements for naturalization. Petitions for naturalization of aliens who fail to meet the prerequisites
for naturalization may be denied by the courts at the final naturalization hearing. Included among the reasons for denial are lack of
knowledge and understanding of history, principles, and form of
government of the United States, failure to establish good moral
character, lack of attachment to the Constitution of the United
States, inability to speak (read, write) the English language, failure
to establish lawful admission to the United States or to meet residence
requirements, etc.
In the early laws the right to become naturalized was limited to
white persons, and petitions of persons of ineligible races were denied.
Gradually such restrictions were removed with respect to Negroes,
Filipinos, races indigenous to North and South America and adjacent
islands, Chinese, and Guamanians. In 1952, the Immigration and
Nationality Act removed all racial restrictions to naturalization.
C 181-194.

Citizenship status of the population, 1890-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1890-1940, total, native, and
total foreign-born population, and 1930-1940, citizenship status of
foreign born and persons 21 years old and over, Sixteenth Census
Reports, Population, vol. II, part 1; 1890-1920, data on persons 21
years old and over, and 1920, citizenship status of foreign born,
Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II; 1950, U.S. Census of
Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1; 1960, U.S. Census of Population:
1960, vol. I, part 1; 1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. II,
Subject Reports.
Citizenship. Information on citizenship was used to classify the
population into two major categories, citizens and aliens. Citizens
are further classified as native or naturalized. "Native" includes
all persons born in the United States, Puerto Rico, the Canal Zone,
Guam, American Samoa, or the Virgin Islands and persons born
abroad of American parents or at sea. It was assumed that all
natives were citizens. See also text for series A 105-118.
In 1970, when information on citizenship was missing, it was assigned on the basis of related information.
These statistics relate to the citizenship status of the population
at the date of the specified decennial census.
C 195-227. Native population of foreign or mixed parentage, by
country of origin of parents, 1900-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1900-1940, Sixteenth Census
Reports, Population, Country of Origin of Foreign Stock; 1950, U.S.
Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, Nativity and
Parentage; 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1; 1970,
U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. II, Subject Reports.
The category "native" comprises persons born in the United States,
in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, in an outlying area of the



c ioa-118

United States, or at sea. Also included in this category is the small
number of persons who, although they were born in a foreign country,
have at least one native American parent. When information on
place of birth was missing, nativity was assigned on the basis of
related information. In previous censuses, persons for whom nativity
was not reported were generally classified as native. The rules for
determining the nativity of parents are generally the same as those
for determining the nativity of the person himself.
Parentage. Information on birthplace of parents is used to classify
the native population into two categories: native of native parentage
and native of foreign or mixed parentage. The category "native of
native parentage" comprises native persons with both parents born
in the United States. The category "native of foreign or mixed
parentage" includes native persons with one or both parents foreign
born.
The definition of country of birth of parents is similar to that used
in series C 228-295, below, with one important exception. The
classification by country of birth of parents for 1930 and later years
is made on the basis of boundaries existing at the date of the specified
decennial census. This is the same procedure used for all of the
years in series C 228-295. However, the 1920 data on country of
birth of parents shown in this series are based on pre-World War I
boundaries because of the difficulty of obtaining correct replies on the
basis of postwar boundaries for parents of persons enumerated.
See also text for series A 91-104, A 105-118, A 119-134, and A
135-142.
C 228-295. Foreign-born population, by country of birth, 1850-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1850-1930, total foreign
born, Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II, p. 233; 19101940, foreign-born white, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population,
vol. II, part 1, p. 43; 1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV,
Special Reports, Nativity and Parentage, p. 3A-71 and vol. IV, Special
Reports, Nonwhite Population by Race, p. 3B-82, and unpublished
data; 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1; 1970,
U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. II, Subject Reports.
The foreign born population comprises all persons born outside
the United States, Puerto Rico, or an outlying area of the United
States, except those persons with at least one American parent.
Persons born in any of the outlying areas, and American citizens born
abroad or at sea, are regarded as native.
The statistics on country of birth are generally based on the political
boundaries of foreign nations existing at the date of the specified
decennial census. Because of boundary changes following World War
I and World War II, accurate comparisons over the entire period,
1850-1950, can be made for relatively few countries. These countries include England, Scotland, Wales, Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Canada (total of Canada-French,
Canada-other, and Newfoundland), and Mexico. For several other
countries, as for example, Italy, France, and Belgium, the figures are
slightly affected by boundary changes; but these changes have not
been so great as to destroy entirely the value of comparative figures.
The boundaries of other countries, as for example, U.S.S.R., Austria,
Hungary, Romania, and Greece, have been so changed that comparisons over time are subject to a large margin of error.
Statistics on country of birth of the foreign born have generally
been restricted to those countries which had at the time of the census
a separate political entity. For 1860-1900, however, an exception
was made in the case of Poland. Although Poland was not restored
to its original status as an independent country until the end of
World War I, its historical position was such that Polish immigrants
generally regarded Poland as their country of birth regardless of the
political sovereignty over their birthplace. For 1860-1890, persons
reported as born in Poland were so tabulated without qualification.
In the census of 1900, an attempt was made to distinguish Austrian,
German, and Russian Poland, and separate statistics for each were
presented. In the census of 1910, persons reported as born in Poland
103

MIGRATION

C 296-331

similar manifests of departing passengers were first required under
the Act of 1907.
Prior to 1908, statistical information on passenger travel is incomplete. From 1820 through 1856, reports showed the total number of
alien passengers arrived. During the years 1857 through 1867, data
reflected the arrivals of immigrants as well as all alien passenger
arrivals. Beginning in 1868, the data related to immigrant arrivals
only, a practice that continued until 1906, when alien arrivals were
classified into two groups: immigrants and nonimmigrants. No
record of the movement of U.S. citizen passengers was made
before 1908.
Data relating to the inward and outward movement of passengers
became complete in 1908, when, as the result of the Act of 1907, departure records were first compiled. U.S. citizen passengers were
also reported for the first time during that year.

were assigned either to Russia, Germany, or Austria. The figures
for 1910, however, have been adjusted on the basis of mother tongue
data, to conform as nearly as possible to the conditions in 1930.
Since World War I, the greatest difficulties encountered in the
country-of-birth statistics have been the classification of persons born
in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Many persons born within
the prewar boundaries of this Empire could not or did not give the
census enumerator the information needed for the determination of
their country of birth on the basis of postwar geography. It is
therefore quite possible that some persons were assigned to Austria
who were really born within the present areas of either Czechoslovakia
or Yugoslavia, and that persons were assigned to Hungary who were
born within the present areas of Romania or Yugoslavia. Similarly,
it is possible that some persons born in Latvia, Estonia, or Lithuania
were assigned to Russia. Persons for whom Austria-Hungary was
reported in the 1950 census were allocated on the basis of surname to
the various countries created out of the territory of the old empire
after World War I. Even with this procedure, however, there appears
to be some indication that Austria and Hungary are overreported
at the expense of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. In 1950 the
situation was further complicated by the fact that, although there
were extensive de facto boundary changes as a result of World War II,
only a small number of these changes were officially recognized by
the United States at that time.
Since 1950, persons have been allocated to a specific country based
on mother tongue data.
See also text for series A 91-104 and A 105-118.

C 302-331. Passengers arriving and departing by area of embarkation
or debarkation, flag of carrier, and mode of travel, 1931-1970.
Source: U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1931-1949,
Report of Passenger Travel Between the United States and Foreign
Countries, annual issues; 1950-1970, Annual Report of the Immigration
and Naturalization Service, annual issues.
Detailed statistics relating to the inward and outward movement
of passengers were first reported in 1931. These data have, since
their inception, been derived from passenger manifests or lists required by law of international carriers arriving in and departing from
the United States.
Country of embarkation is the foreign country where the passenger
boards the vessel or aircraft which brings him to the United States;
country of debarkation is the foreign country where the passenger disembarks from the vessel or aircraft which he boarded in a U.S. port.
The origin or final destination of the passenger is not reported. For
example, a passenger proceeding from Frankfurt to Paris, where he
boards a plane for New York, is counted as arrived in New York
from France. Flag of carrier means the nationality of the carrier;
cruise travel denotes movement of passengers who embark on a
carrier at a U.S. port for a round trip cruise to foreign territory and
return on the same carrier. Cruise travel is counted for both inbound and outbound passengers.

C 296-301. Passenger arrivals and departures, 1908-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Immigration, 1908-1930, Annual Report of
the Commissioner General of Immigration. U.S. Immigration and
Naturalization Service, 1931-1949, Report of Passenger Travel Between the United States and Foreign Countries, annual issues; 19501970, Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service,
annual issues.
Statistics on passenger travel are obtained from passenger manifests or lists required by law to be prepared by carriers for vessels
and aircraft traveling between the United States and foreign countries.
Arrival manifests were first required under the Act of 1819, while

• • • • • • • • • •
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More Recent Data for Historical Statistics Series

• • • • • • • • • •
•

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•k
*

Statistics for more recent years in continuation of many of the still-active series shown here appear
in annual issues of the Statistical Abstract of the United State*, beginning with the 1975 edition. For
direct linkage of the historical series to the tables in the Abstract, see Appendix I in the Abstract.

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•

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•

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•

•

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•

•

•

•

•

•

•

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A

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*
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*

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 89-119.

C 89-101

Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1970

[For years ending June 30, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1849, years ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1851-1867, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1850, 15 months ending Dec. 31; 1868, 6 months ending June 30]
Europe
All
countries 1
Year

Northwestern Europe
Total

Central Europe

Great
Britain

Ireland 2

Scandinavia 3

Other
Northwestern 4

91

Germany 6

95

Poland

Eastern Europe

Southern Europe

U.S.S.R.
and Baltic
States 7

Other
Eastern 9

97

96

Other
Central •

98

99

89

90

92

93

94

1970...
1969
1968
1967
1966

373,326
358,579
454,448
361,972
323,040

110,653
114,052
129,022
128,775
115,898

14,089
15,072
26,025
23,004
18,777

1,583
1,981
2,995
2,765
3,267

2,110
2,149
4,203
4,230
4,549

6,961
5,944
9,873
9,881
9,049

10,632
10,380
16,590
16,595
17,654

2,013
2,115
3,676
4,356
8,490

10,411
8,889
5,659
5,116
3,972

836
574
974
876
768

1965
1964
1963..
1962
1961

296,697
292,248
306,260
283,763
271,344

101,468
108,215
109,066
103,989
108,532

24,135
25,758
22,708
18,066
18,719

5,187
6,055
5,746
5,118
5,738

5,853
5,497
5,208
4,716
4,943

11,526
11,120
11,938
13,117
14,635

22,432
24,494
24,727
21,477
25,815

7,093
7,097
6,785
5,660
6,254

3,693
3,248
3,244
2,533
2,911

632
763
591
753
996

1960.._
1959
1958
1957
1956

265,398
260,686
253,265
326,867
321,625

120,178
138,191
115,198
169,625
156,866

19,967
18,325
24,147
24,020
19,008

6,918
6,595
9,134
8,227
5,607

6,185
6,100
5,873
6,189
5,681

17,234
14,217
11,364
25,109
15,254

29,452
32,039
29,498
60,353
44,409

4,216
2,800
1,470
571
263

9,073
30,738
3,508
15,498
10,284

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717

110,591
92,121
82,352
193,626
149,545

15,761
16,672
16,639
22,177
14,898

5,222
4,655
4,304
3,526
3,144

5,159
5,459
5,537
5,416
5,502

10,707
11,853
11,145
12,476
10,973

29,596
33,098
27,329
104,236
87,755

129
67
136
235
98

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721

199,115
129,592
10a,544
83,535
52,852

12,755
21,149
26,403
23,788
33,552

5,842
8,678
7,534
2,574
1,816

5,661
6,665
6,127
4,918
1,278

10,857
12,288
13,721
14,562
8,651

128,592
55,284
19,368
13,900
2,598

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

38,119
28,551
23,725
28,781
51,776

5,943
4,509
4,920
11,153
26,541

3,029
1,321
974
907
7,714

427
112
165
83
272

224
281
239
371
1,137

365
619
1,531
5,622
9,009

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

70,756
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329

50,454
63,138
44,495
31,863
23,480

6,158
3,058
2,262
1,726
1,310

839
1,189
1,085
531
444

1,260
1,178
1,393
971
646

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139

22,778
17,210
12,383
20,579
61,909

1,413
1,305
979
2,057
9,110

454
443
338
539
7,305

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926

241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488

147,438
158,598
158,513
168,368
155,562

31,015
21,327
19,958
23,669
25,528

1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

294,314
706,896
522,919
309,556
805,228

148,366
364,339
307,920
216,385
652,364

1920
1919
1918
1917
1916

430,001
141,132
110,618
295,403
298,826

Italy

Other
Southern 8

100

101

357
158
883
899
878

27,369
27,033
25,882
28,487
26,447

33,292
38,757
32,262
32,566
22,047

859
054
996
753
620

10,874
12,769
16,175
20,119
18,956

9,184
10,360
10,948
11,677
8,945

856
775
641
663
643

761
726
673
558
394

13,369
16,804
23,115
19,624
40,430

12,147
9,072
5,775
8,813
14,893

4,133
2,873
2,885
23,529
10,365

523
475
609
548
555

134
104
86
137
223

30,272
13,145
8,432
11,342
8,958

8,955
3,720
5,250
10,004
7,074

696
1,673
2,447
745
335

17,792
7,411
6,006
4,622
511

526
694
897
761
153

277
246
485
249
98

12,454
11,695
16,075
13,866
2,636

3,663
3,809
4,481
3,550
1,224

172
238
248
2,150
4,028

195
292
394
343
451

206
316
206
396
786

98
157
159
197
665

97
109
54
117
299

213
120
49
103
450

917
944
901
864
1,730

7,743
5,214
3,352
2,512
1,745

21,520
33,515
17,199
10,895
6,346

702
3,072
2,403
1,212
869

3,628
5,334
5,195
3,763
2,723

898
1,021
960
629
378

491
620
542
533
424

5,302
6,570
7,712
7,192
6,774

1,913
2,367
2,392
1,899
1,821

688
557
511
938
3,144

1,808
1,270
1,045
1,558
4,420

5,201
4,392
1,919
2,670
10,401

1,504
1,032
1,332
1,296
3,604

2,357
1,422
981
1,749
4,500

418
607
458
636
1,396

453
347
352
592
1 ,192

6,566
4,374
3,477
6,662
13,399

1,916
1,461
991
1,882
3,438

23,445
19,921
25,268
28,545
24,897

6,919
17,379
16,184
16,860
16,818

9,170
9,091
9,079
9,134
8,773

26,569
46,751
45,778
48,513
50,421

9,231
9,002
8,755
9,211
7,126

9,184
8,081
7,091
6,559
6,020

2,772
2,450
2,652
2,933
3,323

2 ,159
2 ,153
1 ,776
1 ,708
1 ,596

22,327
18,008
17,728
17,297
8,253

4,647
4,435
4,244
3,939
2,807

27,172
59,490
45,759
25,153
51,142

26,650
17,111
15,740
10,579
28,435

16,810
35,577
34,184
14,625
22,854

8,548
16,077
12,469
11,149
29,317

46,068
75,091
48,277
17,931
6,803

5,341
28,806
26,538
28,635
95,089

4,701
32,700
34,038
29,363
77,069

3,121
20,918
21,151
19,910
10,193

1 ,566
13 ,173
16 ,082
12 ,244
32 ,793

6,203
56,246
46,674
40,319
222,260

2,186
9,150
7,008
6,477
76,409

246,295
24,627
31,063
133,083
145,699

38,471
6,797
2,516
10,735
16,063

9,591
474
331
5,406
8,639

13,444
5,590
6,506
13,771
14,761

24,491
5,126
3,146
6,731
8,715

1,001
52
447
1,857
2,877

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

4,813

5,666
53
61
1,258
5,191

1,751
1,403
4,242
12,716
7,842

3 ,913
51
93
369
1 ,167

95,145
1,884
5,250
34,596
33,665

48,009
3,197
8,471
45,644
46,779

1915.
1914.
1913
1912
1911

197,919
326,700
1,218,480 1,058,391
1,197,892 1,055,855
718,875
838,172
764,757
878,587

27,237
48,729
60,328
57,148
73,384

14,185
24,688
27,876
25,879
29,112

17,883
29,391
32,267
27,554
42,285

12,096
25,591
28,086
22,921
25,549

7,799
35,734
34,329
27,788
32,061

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

18,511
278,152
254,825
178,882
159,057

26,187
255,660
291,040
162,395
158,721

2 ,892
21 ,420
18 ,036
20 ,925
21 ,655

49,688
283,738
265,542
157,134
182,882

21,441
55,288
43,526
38,249
40,051

1910..
1909
1908
1907
1906

926,291
1,041,570
654,875
751,786
691,901
782,870
1,285,349 1,199,566
1,100,735 1,018,365

68,941
46,793
62,824
79,037
67,198

29,855
25,033
30,556
34,530
34,995

48,267
32,496
30,175
49,965
52,781

23,852
17,756
22,177
26,512
23,277

31,283
25,540
32,309
37,807
37,564

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

258,737
170,191
168,509
338,452
265,138

186,792
120,460
156,711
258,943
215,665

25 ,287
11 ,659
27 ,345
36 ,510
18 ,652

215,537
183,218
128,503
285,731
273,120

37,740
21,729
32,792
52,079
29,975

1,026,499
812,870
- 857,046
648,743
487,918

974,273
767,933
814,507
619,068
469,237

84,189
51,448
33,637
16,898
14,985

52,945
36,142
35,310
29,138
30,561

60,625
60,096
77,647
54,038
39,234

24,693
23,321
17,009
10,322
9,279

40,574
46,380
40,086
28,304
21,651

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

275,693
177,156
206,011
171,989
113,390

184,897
145,141
136,093
107,347
85,257

11 ,022
12 ,756
12 ,600
8 ,234
8 ,199

221,479
193,296
230,622
178,375
135,996

18,156
22,197
25,492
14,423
10,685

448,572
311,715
229,299
230,832
343,267

424,700
297,349
217,786
216,397
329,067

12,509
13,456
12,894
12,752
24,565

35,730
31,673
25,128
28,421
40,262

31,151
22,192
19,282
21,089
33,199

5,822
5,150
4,698
5,323
7,611

18,507
17,476
17,111
22,533
31,885

(10)
(10)

4,726
4,165
691

114,847
62,491
39,797
33,031
65,103

90,787
60,982
29,828
25,816
51,445

6 ,852
1 ,738
1 ,076
943
954

100,135
77,419
58,613
59,431
68,060

8,360
4,772
4,633
2,893
5,292

258,536
285,631
439,730
579,663
560,319

250,342
277,052
429,324
570,876
546,085

28,833
22,520
35,189
42,215
66,605

46,304
30,231
43,578
51,383
55,706

26,852
32,400
58,945
66,295
60,107

7,313
9,514
17,888
21,731
21,824

32,173
53,989
78,756
119,168
113,554

790
1,941
16,374
40,536
27,497

33,401
38,638
57,420
76,937
71,042

35,907
39,278
42,310
81,511
47,426

768
,027
625
1 ,331
1 ,222

35,427
42,977
72,145
61,631
76,055

2,574
4,537
6,094
8,138
5,047

1905
1904
1903...
1902
1901..
1900
1899
1898
1897
1896
1895
1894
1893 . .
1892
1891.

-

1,
1,

1,

1

See footnotes a t end of p. 106.




105

MIGRATION

C 8

Series C 89-119.
[For

Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1970—Con.

>t: 1820-1831 and 1844-1849, years ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1851-1867, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1850, 15 months ending Dec. 31; 1868, 6 months ending June 30]
Europe
Northwestern Europe

Central Europe

Eastern Europe

Southern Europe

Ireland 2

Scandinavia 3

Other
Northwestern 4

91

92

93

94

Germany

Poland

Other
Central 6

U.S.S.R.
and
Baltic
States 7

Other
Eastern 1

Italy

96

Great
Britain

97

98

99

100

723
1,145
1,393
2,251
670

52,003
25,307
51,568
47,622
21,315

1890
1889
1888
1887
1886

69,730
87,992
108,692
93,378
62,929

53,024
65,557
73,513
68,370
49,619

50,368
57,504
81,924
67,629
46,735

20,575
22,010
23,251
17,307
11,737

92,427
99,538
109,717
106,865
84,403

11,073
4,922
5,826
6,128
3,939

56,199
34,174
45,811
40,265
28,680

35,598
33,916
33,487
30,766
17,800

1885
1884
1883
1882

57,713
65,950
76,6Q6
102,991
81,376

51,795
63,344
81,486
76,432
72,342

40,704
52,728
71,994
105,326
81,582

13,732
18,768
24,271
27,796
26,883

124,443
179,676
194,786
250,630
210,485

3,085
4,536
2,011
4,672
5,614

27,309
36,571
27,625
29,150
27,935

17,158
12,689
9,909
16,918
5,041

941
388
163
134
102

13,642
16,610
31,792
32,159
15,401

1879
1878
1877.
1876.

73,273
29.955
22,150
23,581
29,291

71,603
20,013
15,932
14,569
19,575

65,657
12,264
11,274
12,323

15,042
9,081
6,929
8,621
10,923

84,638
34,602
29,313
29,298
31,937

2,177
489
547
533
925

17,267
5,963
6,150
5,396
6,276

5,014
4,463
3,048
6,599
4,775

29
29
32
38

12,354
5,791
4,344
3,195
3,015

1875.
1874
1873.
1872.
1871.

47,905
62,021
89,500
84,912
85,455

37,957
53,707
77,344
68,732
57,439

14,322
19,178
35,481
28,575
22,132

11,987
15,998
22,892
15,614
7,174

47,769
87,291
149,671
141,109
82,554

984
1,795
3,338
1,647
535

7,658
8,850
7,112
4,410
4,887

7,997
4,073
1,634
1,018
673

27

23

3,631
7,666
8,757
4,190
2,816

1870.
1869.

103,677
84,438
24,127
52,641
94,924

56,996
40,786
32,068
72,879
36,690

30,742
43,941
11,985
8,491
14,495

9,162
10,585
4,293
12,417
13,648

118,225
131,042
55,831
133,426
115,892

223
184

4,425
1,499
192
692

907
343
141
205
287

6
18
4
26
18

2,891
1,489
891
1,624
1,382

1865.
1864.
1863.

82,465
53,428

7,992
5,621
3,245
4,386
3,769

83,424
57,276
33,162
27,629
31,661

528
165
94
63
48

422
230
85
111
51

183
256
77
79
34

924

11

600

16

24,639
19,675

7,258
2,961
3,119
2,550
850

14

1862.
1861.

29,772
63,523
55,916
23,351
23,797

547
566
811

1860.

1859.
1858.
1857.
1856.

29,737
26,163
28.956
58,479
44,658

48,637
35,216
26,873
54,361
54,349

840
1,590
2,662
2,747
1,330

5,278
3,727
4,580
6,879
12,403

54,491
41,784
45,310
91,781
71,028

82
106
9
124

4
10
17

20

65
91
246
25
9

5

1,019
932
1,240
1,007
1,365

1855.
1854.
1853.
1852.
1851.

47,572
58,647
37,576
40,699
51,487

49,627
101,606
162,649
159,548
221,253

1,349
4,222
3,396
4,106
2,438

14,571
23,070
14,205
11,278
20,905

71,918
215,009
141,946
145,918
72,482

462

13

1

9
7
15
3
2

1,052
1,263
555
351
447

1850.
1849.
1848.
1847.
1846.

51,085
55,132
35,159
23,302
22,180

164,004
159,398
112,934
105,536
51,752

1,589
3,481
1,113
1,320
2,030

11,470
7,634
9,877
24,336
12,303

78,896
60,235
58,465
74,281
57,561

5
4

31
44
1
5
248

15
9
3
2
4

431
209
241
164
151

1845.
1844.
1843.
1842.
1841.

19,210
14,353
8,430
22,005
16,188

44,821
33,490
19,670
51,342
37,772

982
1,336
1,777
588
226

9,466
4,343
4,364
5,361
6,077

34,355
20,731
14,441
20,370
15,291

6

36
17
10
15

1
13

3
10
5

137
141
117
100
179

1840.
1839.
1838.
1837.
1836.

2,613
10,271
5,420
12,218
13,106

39,430
23,963
12,645
28,508
30,578

207
380

7,978
7,891
3,839
5,769
5,189

29,704
21,028
11,683
23,740
20,707

5
46
41
81
53

7
13
19
2

36
115

1835.
1834.
1833.
1832.
1831.

8,970
10,490
4,916
5,331
2,475

20,927
24,474
8,648
12,436
5,772

189
334
36

4,468
5,355
5,695
2,277

8,311
17,686
6,988
10,194
2,413

64
54
1
34

9
15
159
52
1

105
1,699
3
28

1830.
1829.
1828.
1827.
1826.

1,153
3,179
5,352
4,186
2,319

2,721
7,415
12,488
9,766
5,408

19
30
60
28
26

1,305
1,065
4,700
1,829

1,976
597
1,851
432
511

1
7
19
4

9
23
34
35
57

1825.
1824.
1823.

2,095
1,264
1,100
1,221
3,210
2,410

4,888
2,345
1,908
2,267
1,518
3,614

18

719
671
528
522
521
452

450
230
183
148
383

10
7
7
10
7
14

75
45
33
35
63

1881
1880.

1868.

1867.
1866.

1822.

1821.
1820.

iF
agree
2
C
»C

•c
>c

106



66,882

21,820

112

399
473
68
66

20

7
28

24
23

trning citizens; therefore, for those years, does not
S.
l Ireland.
Denmark, and Iceland.
ium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and France.
5.
Lnce 1920), Yugoslavia (since 1920), Hungary (since

310
412

208

33
110
10

2

3
2

6
28

174

62

53
20

11

5

11

2

37
84
86

60

1861), and Austria (since 1861, except for the years 1938-1945, when Austria was
included with Germany).
7
Comprises U.S.S.R. (excluding Asian U.S.S.R. between 1931 and 1963, Latvia,
Estonia, Lithuania, and Finland).
8
Comprises Romania, Bulgaria, and Turkey in Europe.
9
Comprises Spain, Portugal, Greece, and other Europe, not elsewhere classified.
10
Between 1899 and 1919, included with Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 89-119.

C 102-114

Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1970—Con.

For years ending June 30, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1849, years ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1851-1867, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1850, 15 months ending Dec. 31; 1868, 6 months ending June 30]
Asia

Total

Turkey
in Asia 11

India

105

Korea »

Philippines

Other
Asia

Total

Canada
and Newfoundland *s

Mexico

106

China »

104

102

America

107

108

109

110

111

112

Japan

13

West
Indies

90,215
72,959
56,298
57,574
40,113

495
556
325
491
365

6,427
5,264
4,851
7,118
2,948

8,795
5,205
4,165
4,129
2,293

4,731
4,095
3,810
4,125
3,468

8,888
5,854
3,592
3,845
2,414

30,507
20,263
16,086
10,336
5,894

30,372
31,722
23,469
27,530
22,731

161,727
164,045
262,736
170,235
162,551

26,850
29,303
41,716
34,768
37,273

44,821
45,748
44,716
43,034
47,217

56,614
53,190
140,827
61,987
37,999

20,040
21,279
23,242
20,249
19,495

365
331
307
304
296

1,611
2,684
1,605
1,356
900

467
488
965
390
292

3,294
3,774
4,147
4,054
4,490

2,139
2,329
2,560
1,463
1,442

2,963
2,862
3,483
3,354
2,628

9,201
8,811
10,175
9,328
9,447

171,019
158,644
169,966
155.871
139,580

50,035
51,114
50.509
44,272
47,470

40,686
34,448
55,986
55,805
41,476

31,141
24,067
22,951
20,917
20,520

21,604
25,259
20,870
20,008
17,327

200
229
197
77
48

1,380
1,702
1,143
2,098
1,386

244
351
323
196
185

5,699
6,248
6,847
6,829
5,967

1,410
1,614
1,470
577
579

2.791
2,503
2,034
1,874
1.792

9.880
12,612
8,856
8,357
7,370

119,525
93,061
113,132
134,160
144,713

46,668
34,599
45,143
46,354
42,363

32,708
22,909
26,791
49,321
61,320

13,636
12,109
16,983
18,362
19,512

10,935
9.970
8,231
9,328
7,149

54
33
13
12
3

568
254
528
263
335

194
144
104
123
109

4,150
3,846
2,579
3,814
271

263
175
75
47
21

1,598
1,234
1,074
1,179
3,228

4.108
4,284
3,858
3,890
3,182

110,436
95,587
77,650
61,049
47,631

32,435
34,873
36,283
33,354
25,880

43.702
30,645
17,183
9,079
6,153

12,876
8,411
8,628
6,672
5,902

4,508
7,595
11,907
6,733
2,108

13
40
16
22
16

1,280
3,415
7,203
3,191
252

121
175
263
432
425

100
529
423
131
14

24
39
44

729
1,157
1,168
910
475

2,241
2,240
2,790
2,047
926

44,191
49,334
52,746
52,753
46,066

21,885
25,156
25,485
24,342
21,344

6,744
8,083
8,384
7,558
7,146

6,206
6,733
6,932
6,728
5.878

461
231
342
615
1.971

13
15
36
31
16

71
50
65
179
1,003

103
41
71
36
94

1
4
20
44
289

19
4
8
51
170

254
117
142
274
399

29,646
23,084
18,162
16,377
22,445

11,530
10,143
9,761
10,599
11,473

6,702
6,598
4,172
2,378
2,824

5,452
3,198
2,312
1,599
4,687

2,050
2,281
2,492
1,149
793

7
15
11
13
20

643
642
613
293
273

52
36
34
47
13

102
102
93
132
91

137
119
116
84
72

1.109
1.367
1,625
580
324

17,822
17,139
20,486
16,903
11,786

11,078
10,813
14,404
12,011
8,121

2,313
2,640
2,502
2,347
1,716

2,675
2,231
2,110
1,322
985

682
597
552
1,931
3,345

31
22
27
43
139

229
187
148
750
1,150

32
28
44
87
123

75
526
653

302
274
258
525
1,280

11,174
11,409
9,925
12,577
30,816

7,782
7,945
6,187
8,003
22,183

1,560
1,801
1,936
2,171
3,333

931
861
862
1,029
2,496

4,535
3,758
3,380
3,669
3,413

118
70
80
73
37

1,589
1,446
1,320
1,471
1,751

110

103
102
102

837
771
550
723
654

1.881
1.368
1,328
1,300
878

88,104
116,177
144,281
161.872
144,393

65,254
66.451
75,281
84,580
93,368

12.703
40,154
59,016
67,721
43,316

5,225
4,306
4,058
4,019
3,222

3,578
22,065
13,705
14,263
25,034

51
2,820
2,183
1,998
11,735

1,937
6,992
4,986
4,406
4,009

65
183
257
360
511

723
8,801
5,809
6,716
7,878

802
3,269
470
783
901

141,496
318,855
199,972
77,448
124,118

102,753
200,690
117,011
46,810
72,317

32,964
89,336
63,768
19,551
30,758

2,106
17,559
13,181
7,449
13,774

17,505
12,674
12,701
12,756
13,204

5,033
19
43
393
1,670

2,330
1,964
1,795
2,237
2,460

300
171
130
109
112

9,432
10,064
10,213
8,991
8,680

410
456
520
1,026
282

162,666
102,286
65,418
147,779
137,424

90,025
57,782
32.452
105,399
101,551

52,361
29,818
18,524
17,869
18,425

13,808
8,826
8.879
15,507
12,027

15,211
34,273
35,358
21,449
17,428

3,543
21,716
23,955
12,788
10,229

2,660
2,502
2,105
1,765
1,460

161

221
179
175
524

8,613
8,929
8,281
6,114
4,520

234
905
838
607
695

111,206
122,695
103,907
95,926
94,364

82,215
86,139
73,802
55,990
56,830

12,340
14,614
11,926
23,238
19,889

11,598
14,451
12,458
12,467
13,403

23,533
12,904
28,365
40,524
22,300

15,212
7,506
9,753
8,053
6,354

1,968
1,943
1,397
961
1,544

1,696
203
1,040
898
216

2,720
3,111
15,803
30,226
13,835

1,937
141
372
386
351

89,534
82,208
59,997
41,762
24,613

56,555
51,941
38.510
19,918
5,063

18,691
16,251
6,067
1,406
1,997

11,244
11,180
11,888
16,689
13,656

23,925
26,186
29,966
22,271
13,593

6,157
5,235
7,118
6,223
5,782

2,166
4,309
2,209
1,649
2,459

190
261
94
93

10,331
14,264
19,968
14,270
5,269

5,081
2,117
577
36
61

25,217
16,420
11,023
6,698
4,416

2,168
2,837
1,058
636
540

,637
,009
528
709
347

16,641
10,193
8,170
4,711
3,176

17,946
8.972
8,637
9,662
6,764

3,962
4,436
4,275
4,732
4,139

1,247

9
17

12,635
2,844
2,230
1,526
1,110

93
15
61
41
74

5,455
4,316
2,627
4,537
7,303

396
1,322
352
291
278

237
161
107
91
150

4,656
2,585
2,124
4,101

4,495
4,690
2,392
(")
7,678

2,767

539
1,170
472

1,150
1,931
1,380

39
1,589
540

1,136

244
194
(")
(")
234

116
109

2,836

3,508
3,551
2,593
(")
5,082

3,096
3,177
2,593
00
3,906

2,488

1,660

2,071
3,363
1,441

22

(IS)

(18)
(IS)
(18)

See footnotes at end of p. 109.




107

MIGRATION

C 102-114

Series C 89-119.

Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1970—Con.

[For years ending June SO, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1849, years ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1851-1867, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1850, 15 months ending Dec. 31; 1868, 6 months ending June 30]
Asia
Turkey
in Asia 11

Total

America

4,448
1,725
843
615
317

1,126
593
273
208
15

India

104

102

China «

Japan

Other
Asia

1

105

Canada
and Newfoundland

Total

Mexico

110

West
Indies

113

1,716
118
26
10
40

43
59
20
32
17

691
640
404
229
194

872
315
120
136
51

5,459
5,402
5,270
3,026

183
28
15
9
17

22
279
8,031
39,579
11,890

34
12
9
10
33

49
20
27
5
11

199
46
35
43

41.203
63,339
71,729
100,129
127,577

38,336
60,626
70,274
98,366
125,450

323
430
469
366
325

2,477
2,208
903
1,291
1,680

5,802
9,604
8,992
10,594
22,781

21
15
8
17
25

4
4
2
7
4

8
6
5
19
125

101,692
33,043
27.204
24,065
24,686

99,744
31,286
25,592
22,137
22,505

492
556
465
445
631

1,351
1,123
1,019
1,390
1,882

16,499
13,838
20,325
7,825
7,240

16,487
13,776
20,292
7,788
7,135

19
17
15
12
14

3
21
9
17
78

39
18
6
5

26,640
35,339
40,335
42.205
48,835

24,097
33,020
87,891
40,204
47,164

610
386
606
569
402

1,790
1,777
1,634
1,322
1,169

15,825
12,949
5,171
3,961
2,411

15,740
12,874
5,157
3,863
2,385

24
3

48

42,658
23.767
3,415
24,715
33,582

40,414
21,120
2,785
23,379
32,150

463
320
129
292

1,679
2,233
419
817
895

2,947
2,982
7,216
3,640
7,528

2,942
2,975
7,214
3,633
7,518

5
6
1
5

22,778
4,607
4,147
4,175
2,763

21,586
3,636
3,464
8,276
2,069

193
99
96
142
218

851
718
491
585
358

5,476
3,461
5,133
5,945
4,747

5,467
3,457
5,128
5,944
4,733

5
2
5

6,343
5,466
5,821
6,811
9,058

4,614
4,163
4,603
5,670
6,493

229
265
429
133
741

1,384
879
647
923
1.337

3,540
13,100
47
4
2

3,526
13,100
42

9,260
8,533
6,030
7,695
9,703

7,761
6,891
5,424
6,352
7,438

420
446
162
72
181

887
1,036
406
1,232
1,929

7
11
8
12
11

15.768
8,904
7.989
5,231
5,525

9,376
6,890
6,473
3,827
3,855

597
518
24
62

3,171
1,073
1.338
1,251
1,351

6
6
11
7
3

5,035
3,740
2,854
3,994
3,429

8,196
2,711
1,502
2,078
1,816

498
197
898
403
352

1,241
771
880
1,410
1,042

3,815
8,617
2.990
3,628
4,936

1,938
1,926
1,476
1,279
2,814

395
353
211
627
798

1,446
1,289
1,231
1,627
1,178

3,312
2,779
3,282
2,871
2,194

1.193
1,020
1.194
608
176

1,032
885
779
827
692

938
791
1,264
1,256
1,281

2,296
3,299
2,090
580
831

189
409
267
165
223

983
2,290
1,089
127
106

937
517
652
227
427

846
559
382
878
303

314
155
167
204
184

68
110
35
5
4

389
259
160
159
107

387

209

198
510
8,118
39,629
11,982
5,839
9,660
9,014
10,640
22,943

See footnotes a t end of p. 109.

108




4
31
7

2
17

6

1

13

3,070
4,923
4,880
4,876
2,734

164

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 89-119.

C 115-119

Immigrants, by Country: 1820 to 1970—Con.

[For years ending June 30, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1849, years ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1851-1867, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1850, 15 months ending Dec. 31; 1868, 6 months ending June 30]
Australasia
Africa,
total
Total

115

Other
Pacific
Islands

116

Year

Australia
and New
Zealand
117

118

Australasia

All
other
countries
Year

119

Africa,
total

Australia
and New
Zealand
117

Total

115

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

7,099
4,460
3,220
2,577
1,967

3,632
3,061
3,172
2,811
2,500

2,693
2,278
2,374
2,128
1,894

939
783
798
683
606

11

1965.
1964.
1963.
1962.
1961.

1,949
2,015
1,982
1,834
1,851

2,199
2,070
1,977
1,819
1,881

1,803
1,767
1,642
1,427
1,556

396
303
335
392
325

22
25
27
1
5

1890.
1889.
1888.
1887.

1960.
1959.
1958.
1957.
1956.

1,925
1,992
2,008
1,600
1,351

2,140
2,162
2,045
1,458
1,346

1,892
1,878
1,783
1,228
1,171

248
284
262
230
175

26
21
12
16
22

1885.
1884.
1883.
1882.

1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951.

1,203
1,248
989
931
845

1,028
910
782
578
527

932
845
742
545
490

96
65
40
33
37

3,597
8,341
430
8
20

1880.

1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.

849
995
1,027
1,284
1,516

517
776
1,336
2,960
6,106

460
661
1,218
2,821
6,009

57
115
118
139
97

7
25
10
27
73

1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.

406
112
141
473
564

1,663
615
160
163
255

1,625
577
120
120
194

38
38
40
43
61

1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.

202
218
174
155
105

228
222
248
174
165

207
213
228
145
147

21
9
20
29
18

1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.

118
104
71
186
417

141
147
137
303
652

132
130
122
291
616

9
17
15
12
36

1930.
1929.
19281927.
1926.

572
509
475
520
529

1,051
636
606
746
591

1,026
619
578
712
556

25
17
28
34
35

1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.

412
900
548
520
1,301

462
679
759
915
2,281

416
635
711
855
2,191

46
44
48
60
90

1920.
1919.
1918.
1917.
1916.

648
189
299
566
894

2,185
1,310
1,090
1,142
1,574

2,066
1,234
925
1,014
1,484

1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.

934
1,539
1,409
1,009
956

1,399
1,446
1,340
898
1,043

1910.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.

1,072
858
1,411
1,486
712

1905.
1904.
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.
1899.
1898.
1897.
1896.

1895.
1894.
1893.
1892.
1891.

All
other
countries

Other
Pacific
Islands
118

119

103

155
244
248
267
1,301

155
244
248
267
777

524

70
5,173
8,520
70

112
187
65
40
122

1,167
2,196
2,387
1,282
1,136

699
1,000
697
528
522

468
1,196
1,690
754
614

62
70
61
73
73

112
59
67
60
33

679
900
747
889
1,191

449
502
554
878
1,188

230
398
193
11
3

71
98
79
99
103

1879.
1878.
1877.
1876.

18
12
18
16
89

954
816
606
914
1,312

953
813
606
912
1,205

1

2
107

63
36
15
27
36

1875.
1874.
1873.
1872.
1871.

54
58
28
41
24

1,268
1,193
1,414
2,416
21

1,104
960
1,135
2,180
18

164
233
279
236
3

76
128
160
164
85

1870.
1869.

2

31
72
3
25
33

36

36

1886.

1881.

1868.

1867.
1866.

1865.
1864.
1863.
1862.
1861.

63
3

I860.

1859.
1858.
1857.
1856.

(")
(")

3

27
17
161
3,270
3,626

49
37
3
12
47

8,298
559
1,183
448
380

126
11
17
25
6

486
1,395
801
22,301
542

1855.
1854.
1853.
1852.
1851.

334
658
984
1,420
248

58
15
25
130

1850.
1849.
1848.
1847.
1846.

45,882
1,605
495
608
2,564

119
76
165
128
90

702
46
47
77
31

1845.
1844.
1843.
1842.
1841.

25
110
612
616
627

1,282
1,336
1,229
794
984

117
110
111
104
59

31
136
23
15
39

1840.
1839.
1838.
1837.
1836.

118
294
1,843
4,660
831

1,097
892
1,179
1,989
1,733

998
839
1,098
1,947
1,682

99
53
81
42
51

43
49
17
22
»33,012

1835.
1834_
1833.
1832.
1831..

44
5,069
26,243
23,412
7,397

757
686
176
37
173

2,166
1,555
1,349
566
498

2,091
1,461
1,150
384
325

75
94
199
182
173

161
90
25
103
1

1830.
1829.
1828.
1827.
1826 _

13,807
6,695
554
1,571
254

30
51
48
37
21

428
810
201
199
112

214
456
153
139
87

214
354
48
60
25

13
217

1825.
1824.
1823.
18221821-

808
2,387
1,956
2,114
2,886

1820.

301

- Represents zero.
11
No record of immigration from Turkey in Asia until 1869.
12
Beginning 1957, includes Taiwan.
13
No record of immigration from J a p a n until 1861.
11
No record of immigration from Korea prior to 1948.




15
16
17
18
19

Prior to 1920, Canada and Newfoundland were recorded as British North America.
Philippines included in "All other countries" prior to 1936.
Included in "All other countries."
No record of immigration from Mexico for 1886 to 1893.
Includes 32,897 persons returning to their homes in the United States.

109

C 120-130

MIGRATION

Series C 120-137.

Immigrants, by Major Occupation Group: 1820 to 1970

[For years ending J u n e 30, except: 1820-1831 and 1844-1850, years ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1850-1865, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 months ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 months ending Sept. 30; 1851, 15 months ending Dec. 311

Total

Professional,
technical,
and
kindred
workers

Farmers
and
farm
managers

Managers,
officials,
and
proprietors,
exc. farm

Clerical,
sales,
and
kindred
workers

Craftsmen,
foremen,
operatives,
and kindred
workers

Private
household
workers

Service
workers,
exc.
private
household

Farm
laborers
and
foremen

Laborers,
exc.
farm
and
mine

No
occupation

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

373,326
358,679
454,448
361,972
323,040

46,151
40,427
48,753
41,662
30,039

3,839
3,687
2,727
3,276
2,964

5,829
5,356
9,436
7,974
6,773

16,517
17,448
29,090
19,783
22,676

46,622
43,266
56,819
34,596
30,725

10,479
16,822
25,419
17,406
10,558

9,272
10,461
16,411
12,832
10,541

4,332
5,224
6,002
5,277
4,227

14,148
13,062
14,374
10,129
9,830

216,137
202,826
245,417
209,047
194,707

1965
1964
1963
1962...
1961.

296,697
292,248
306,260
283,763
271,344

28,790
28,756
27,930
23,710
21,455

1,833
1,732
1,776
1,589
3,002

7,090
6,822
5,986
5,554
5,363

29,779
30,015
28,094
26,304
25,198

31,676
31,811
32,444
30,148
30,967

9,706
8,451
9,522
9,690
8,811

10,743
10,396
9,392
9,414
8,399

2,638
3,988
9,463
10,801
4,799

8,556
9,127
16,062
17,614
16,694

165,886
161,150
165,591
148,939
147,656

1960.
1969
1958
1957
1956

265,398
260,686
253,265
326,867
321,625

21,940
23,287
22,482
24,489
18,995

3,050
2,187
2,221
3,506
6,727

5,309
4,688
4,646
6,127
5,814

24,386
21,475
22,140
25,897
23,413

34,135
36,552
31,518
46,338
44,950

8,173
7,465
7,521
11,457
15,347

8,812
9,641
7,362
8,761
7,922

3,914
2,729
2,511
4,585
9,050

12,838
11,937
11,100
21,826
27,807

142,841
140,725
141,764
173,881
162,600

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951...

237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717

14,109
13,817
12,783
16,496
16,269

4,446
3,846
3,393
10,566
10,214

6,114
5,296
5,025
5,968
5,493

18,060
16,018
15,171
16,724
14,098

34,218
32,151
26,975
42,315
34,041

11,824
8,096
6,862
9,653
7,243

6,512
5,203
4,390
6,418
5,292

5,486
1,622
1,538
6,289
4,972

17,518
10,061
6,369
8,969
5,481

120,503
112,067
88,938
142,122
103,614

1950
1949...
1948
1947
1946

249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721

20,502
13,884
12,619
10,891
6,198

17,642
8,937
4,884
3,462
947

6,396
6,014
6,207
5,886
3,616

16,796
14,797
15,298
13,961
8,378

41,450
27,964
23,816
19,306
8,826

8,900
6,990
6,389
4,922
2,464

4,970
3,937
4,350
3,882
2,153

3,976
933
946
442
189

5,693
6,192
4,826
2,831
1,473

122,862
98,669
91,235
81,709
74,477

1945
1944
1943...
1942...
1941

38,119
28,561
23,725
28,781
51,776

2,852
2,616
2,695
3,518
6,232

497
349
235
254
356

1,457
894
988
2,305
5,640

3,716
2,368
1,840
1,638
2,837

4,611
3,533
2,587
2,061
3,613

1,495
1,126
770
872
1,503

1,047
811
707
740
829

225
203
164
92
129

886
1,030
681
493
732

21,434
15,622
13,058
16,808
30,005

1940...
1939
1938
1937
1936

70,766
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329

6,802
7,199
5,418
4,130
2,564

847
1,186
1,608
852
535

7,415
8,929
5,408
3,422
1,782

4,361
4,794
3,119
2,126
1,449

5,710
6,532
5,697
3,996
2,490

2,891
5,420
5,919
3,213
1,944

949
1,979
1,794
1,426
1,056

252
415
609
378
324

2,120
2,070
2,411
1,904
1,195

39,409
44,474
36,012
28,797
22,990

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139

2,244
2,101
1,615
2,100
4,120

593
425
292
403
2,743

1,347
1,207
690
1,331
2,384

1,024
933
600
919
4,229

2,689
2,267
1,821
2,063
9,555

1,418
805
550
1,232
9,740

1,390
1,216
933
1,063
3,128

408
233
134
254
3,422

1,356
1,164
887
1,157
4,806

22,488
19,129
15,546
25,064
53,012

1930
1929
1928
1927
1926

241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488

8,585
8,792
9,332
9,883
9,203

8,375
8,309
8,773
10,324
9,720

4,620
4,709
5,287
5,772
5,374

14,414
15,354
16,344
20,140
19,086

32,474
36,437
42,766
42,394
38,682

29,073
31,841
28,751
31,344
30,587

6,749
6,820
8,846
10,070
14,340

13,736
19,849
24,161
23,698
17,390

18,080
27,873
37,904
55,989
45,199

105,594
119,694
125,092
125,561
114,907

1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

294,314
706,896
522,919
309,556
805,228

8,942
20,926
13,926
9,696
12,852

13,875
20,320
12,503
7,676
22,282

5,508
15,668
12,086
9,573
18,286

15,363
27,373
17,931
10,055
18,922

36,927
123,923
87,899
40,309
109,710

26,924
51,680
52,223
44,531
102,478

15,399
29,621
22,244
12,340
24,298

16,022
27,492
25,905
10,629
32,400

36,610
112,344
86,617
33,797
162,859

118,744
277,909
191,585
131,050
301,141

1920
1919
1918
1917...
1916

430,001
141,132
110,618
295,403
298,826

10,540
5,261
3,529
7,499
9,024

12,192
3,933
2,583
7,764
6,840

9,654
4,247
3,940
8,329
8,725

14,054
6,524
4,239
10,554
9,907

55,991
21,671
17,501
38,660
36,086

37,197
6,277
7,816
31,885
29,258

18,487
11,571
6,367
11,784
10,989

15,257
4,412
4,538
22,328
26,250

83,496
18,922
15,142
52,182
56,981

173,133
58,314
44,963
104,418
104,766

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

326,700
1,218,480
1,197,892
838,172
878,587

11,453
13,454
12,552
10,913
11,275

6,518
14,442
13,180
7,664
9,709

10,728
21,903
19,094
14,715
15,416

9,377
17,933
15,173
13,782
14,723

45,591
149,515
139,091
107,893
128,717

39,774
144,409
140,218
116,529
107,153

11,976
19,621
17,609
13,580
11,051

24,723
288,053
320,105
184,154
176,003

49,620
228,935
223,682
137,872
158,518

116,940
320,215
297,188
231,070
246,022

1910..
1909
1908...
1907..
1906

1,041,570
751,786
782,870
1,285,349
1,100,735

9,689
7,603
10,504
12,016
13,015

11,793
8,914
7,720
13,476
15,288

14,731
11,562
16,410
20,132
23,515

12,219
8,467
11,523
12,735
12,226

121,847
75,730
106,943
169,394
156,902

96,658
64,568
89,942
121,587
115,984

8,977
5,849
10,367
13,578
10,439

288,745
171,310
138,844
323,854
239,125

216,909
176,490
147,940
293,868
228,781

260,002
221,293
242,677
304,709
285,460

1905.
1904
1903...
1902
1901

1,026,499
812,870
857,046
648,743
487,918

12,682
12,195
6,999
2,937
2,665

18,474
4,507
13,363
8,168
3,035

27,706
26,914
15,603
9,340
8,294

12,759
11,065
7,226
3,836
3,197

159,442
133,748
110,644
71,131
57,346

125,473
104,937
92,686
69,913
42,027

5,849
6,400
11,482
6,298
5,352

142,187
86,850
77,518
80,562
64,753

290,009
212,572
321,824
243,399
162,563

232,018
214,692
199,701
153,169
148,686

448,572
311,715

2,392
1,972

5,433
3,973

7,216
6,815

2,870
2,473

54,793
38,608

40,311
34,120

4,406
4,580

31,949
17,343

164,261
92,452

134,941
109,879

Year

1970.
1969..
1968
1967
1966.

1900
1899.

110

—




INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 120-137.

C 120-137

Immigrants, by Major Occupation Group: 1820 to 1970—Con.

[For y e a r s ending J u n e 30, except: 1820-1831 a n d 1844-1850, y e a r s ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842 and 1850-1865, years ending Dec. 31; 1832 covers 15 m o n t h s ending Dec. 31;
1843, 9 m o n t h s ending Sept. 30; 1851, 15 m o n t h s ending Dec. 31]
Total»

No
occupation

Professional

Commercial

130

131

132

Skilled

Farmers

Servants

134

135

Laborers

Year

18981897.
1896-

229,299
230,832
343,267

90,569
91,624
123,196

1,347
1,732
2,324

5.959
7,159
6,174

33,145
33,161
46,807

16,243
22,560
29,251

23,656
23,739
38,926

52,531
46,198
91,262

1895.
1894.
18931892.
1891-

258,536
285,631
439,730
579,663
560,319

92,193
113,247
209,767
255,832
248,635

2,029
1,791
2,362
2,932
3,431

5,314
6,033
837
2,683
11,340

43,844
49,736
51,145
63,128
54,951

13,055
21,762
34,070
51,630
36,398

35,960
22 , 6 5 3
9
32,596

61,430
56,732
114,295
171,483
167,290

1890.
18891888.
18871886.

455,302
444,427
546,889
490,109
334,203

195,770
208,761
243,900
224,073
157,952

3,236
2,815
3,360
2,882
2,078

7,802
7,359
7,597
8,032
6,237

44,540
50,457
59.985
52,403
36,522

29,296
28,962
29,335
30,932
20,600

28,625
30,220
27,310
27,510
20,198

139,365
111,809
170,273
140,938
86,853

1885.
18841883..
1881.

395,346
518,592
603,322
788,992
669,431

211,730
277,052
322,318
402,835
355,670

2,097
2,284
2,450
2,992
2,812

6,707
7.691
8,280
10,102
9,371

39,817
55.061
62,505
72,664
66,457

27,585
42,050
39,048
61,888
58,028

20,213
24,249
27,988
23,010
19,342

83,068
106,478
136,071
209,605
147,816

1880.
1879.
1878.
1877..
1876.

457,257
177,826
138,469
141,857
169,986

217,446
81,772
62,622
63,316
71,111

1,773
1,639
1,510
1,885
2,400

7,916
5,202
4,475
4,667
4,963

49,929
21,362
16,531
21,006
24,200

47,204
19,907
14,843
13,188
14,536

18,580
6,804
6.157
5.158
6,493

105,012
36,897
26,656
25,482
38,847

1875.
1874.
1873.
1872.
1871.

227,498
313,339
459,803
404,806
321,350

106,723
155,122
239,307
213,959
172.215

2,426
2,476
2,980
1,905
2,247

5,029
5,641
7,593
7,156
5,553

33,803
38,700
48,792
44,967
33,577

16,447
28,775
36,983
38,159
27,042

10,579
12,427
16,259
11,108
13,814

46,877
65,895
104,423
85,934
65,936

1870.
1869.
1868.
1867..

387,203
352,768
282,189
342,162
359,967

207,174
181,453
150,983
182,794
202,456

1,831
1,700
1,398
2,288
2,242

7,139
8,837
8,556
14,706
15,827

35,698
33,345
32,197
44,097
41,091

35,656
28,102
23,046
32,626
30,302

14,261
10,265
6,561
7,715

84,577
88,649
59,151
57,419
58,629

287,399
221,535
199,811
114,463
112,702

161,580
106.656
99,039
62,860
60,760

1,743
1,120
1,173
788
668

12,700
9,473
7,590
7,774
7,683

36,522
26,542
24,155
11.986
11,601

20,012
13,837
12.348
9,265
11,668

9,231
15,623
9,103
3,683
739

45,247
48,041
46,198
17,752
19,413

179,691
155,509
144,906
271,982
224,496

93,925
78,228
71,320
153,963
130,647

792
858
662
570
462

11,207
12,495
10,217
12,114
11,101

19,342
24,628
18,742
26.062
18,797

21,742
16,323
20,506
34,702
24,722

1,415
1,281
1,142
1,322
1,748

31,268
21,696
22,317
43,249
37,019

1851.

230,476
460,474
400,982
397,343
474,398

117,603
235.216
223,390
223,861
257,376

780
699
722
572
938

14,759
15,173
12,782
11,502
14,983

17,463
36,468
20,806
27,176
36,297

34,693
87,188
56,322
58,023
59,095

2,598
3,357
3,938
942
3,733

42,580
82,373
83,022
75,267
101,976

1850.
1849.
1848.
1847.
1846.

315,334
299,683
229,483
239,482
158,649

188,931
157.657
118,528
126,005
91,132

918
972
517
703
592

6,400
3,508
3,407
4,218
4,189

26,369
32,021
24,705
25,895
13,250

42,873
39,675
31,670
43,594
27,944

3,203
3,671
4,433
3,198
3,349

46,640
62,179
46,223
35,869
18,193

1845.
1844.
1843.
1842.
1841.

119,896
84,764
56,529
110,980
87,805

65,055
49,843
32,842
60,526
46,197

542
755
578
744
541

5,049
3.960
3,226
4,976
5,267

10,857
9,476
6,093
14,553
11,111

19.349
9,831
8,031
12,966
12,343

2,492
1,174
413
1,264
923

16,552
9,725
5,346
15,951
11,423

1840.
1839.
1838.
18371836.

92,207
74,666
45,159
84,959
80,972

47,305
37,985
24,627
52,011
50,684

481
584
459
522
472

5,311
5.692
4,005
3,893
3,379

10,811
10,026
5,675
8,483
8,879

18,476
12,410
6,667
10,835
8,770

183
99
42
120
39

9,640
7,870
3,684
9,095
8,749

1835.
1834.
1833.
1832.
1831-

48,716
67,948
69,925
61,654
23,880

28,736
45,906
30,944
33,840
15,218

487
561
459
176
183

3,875
3,021
4,913
5,424
2,368

6,005
7,190
12,800
10,333
2,383

6,117
7,160
6,618
8,502
2,685

599
56
115

2,897
2,874
4,109
3,323
928

1830_
1829.

24,837
24,513
30,184
21,777
13,908

19,363
15,535
18,066
12,415
7,478

136
252
331
262
190

1,427
2,661
2,328
2,076
1,943

1,745
2,579
3,868
3,056
2,129

1,424
1,264
2,542
2,071
1,382

22
337
421
136
70

720
1,885
2,628
1,761
716

1821..

12,858
9,627
8,265
8,549
11,644

7,031
4,965
4,247
4,302
6,670

204
187
179
151
204

1,841
1,926
1,427
1,431
1,441

1,416
1,237
1,268
1,397
1,533

1,647
918
800
834
1,249

13
6
20
94

650
381
338
414
453

1820..

10,311

6,836

105

933

1,090

874

139

1882-

1866..

1865..
18641863..
1862..

1861..

1860-

185918581867..
1866-

1865.
1864.
1853.

1862.

1828-

1827.
1826.
1825.
1824.
1823.
1822.

1

F o r 1820-1867, includes returning citizens.




2

(
«)

S e r v a n t s included with "Miscellaneous" (series C 137).

Ill

MIGRATION

C 138-142

Series C 138-142.

Immigrants, by Age: 1820 to 1970

[For years ending as follows (except as noted): 1820-1832, ending Sept. 30; 1833-1842, ending Dec. 31; 1843-1850, ending Sept. 30; 1851-1865, ending Dec. 31; 1866-1970,
ending J u n e 30. N o t e variability for series C 140-142 in composition of age groups for different periods; see text]
Total

Age group
Both

U n d e r 16
years

138

16-44
years

140

45 years
and over

176,990
165,472
199,732
158,324
141,456

104,880
98,167
111,794
97,598
89,715

221,534
262,598
207,434
189.526

46,912
49,731
80,056
56,940
43,799

296,697
292,248
306,260
283,763
271,344

127,171
126,214
139,297
131,575
121,380

72,431
70,444
72,510
64,531
64,544

188,652
186,821
197,506
182,464
170,881

35,614
34,983
36,244
36,768
35,919

265,398
253,265
326,867
321,625

116,687
114,367
109,121
155,201
156,410

59,895
58,826
60,124
80,140
74,429

170,084
165,366
162,240
207,664
206,770

35,419
36,494
30,901
39,063
40,426

237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717

112,032
95,594
73,073
123,609
99,327

51,829
45,105
37,016
64,513
44,023

156,001
135,731
159,788
121,823

29,960
27,341
22.558
41,219
39,871

249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721

119,130
80,340
67,322
53,769
27,275

50,468
32,728
24,095
18,831
11,092

152,358
123,340
112,453
101,459
85,797

46,361
32,249
34,022
27,002
11,832

38,119
28,551
23,725
28,781
51,776

13,389
11,410
9,825
12,008
23,519

5,645
4,092
3,179
3,710
7,982

25,482
218,511
2
15,282
2
17,529
2
30,747

6,992
5,948
5,264
7,542
2
13,047

70,756
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329

33,460
39,423
29,959
21,664
14,776

9,602
12,204
10,181
8,326
6,925

2

2

34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139

14,010
9,219
13,917
40,621

6,893
5,389
4,131
6,781
17,320

22,557
18,987
15,033
22,905
67,100

5,506
5,094
3,904
5,890
12,719

241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488

117,026
142,132
165,977
194,163
170,567

40,777
47,935
49,680
51,689
47,347

177,059
207,990
230,832
254,574
228.527

23,864
23,753
26,743
28,912
28,614

294,314
706,896
522,919
309,556
805,228

163,252
423,186
307,522
149,741
449,422

50,722
132,264
91,816
63,710
146,613

213,980
513,788
383,960
210,164
587,965

29,612
60,844
47,143
35,682
70,650

430,001
141,132
110,618

247,625
83,272
61,880

81,890
26,373
21,349

307,589
97,341
76,098

40,522
17,418
13,171

12,101

U n d e r 14
years

210,681

110,860

45,026
54,235
47,068
33,907
23,391

2
2
2

16,128
16.559
10,646
8,011
6,013

14-44
years

295,403
298,826

174,479
182,229

47,467
47,070

214,616
220,821

33,320
30,935

326,700
1,218,480
1,197,892

187,021
798,747
808,144

52.982
158,621
147,158

244,472
981,692
986,355

29,246
78,167
64,379

838,172
878,587
1,041,570
751,786
782,870

529,931
570,057
736,038
519,969
506,912

113,700
117,837
120,509
88,393
112,148

678,480
714,709
868,310
624,876
630,671

45,992
46,041
52,751
38,517
40,051

1,285,349
1,100,735
1,026,499
812,870
857,046

929,976
764,463
724,914
549,100
613,146

138,344
136,273
114,668
109,150
102,431

1,100,771
913,955
855,419
657,155
714,053

46,234
50,507
56,412
46.565
40,562

648,743
487,918
448,572
311,715

466,369
331,055
304,148
195,277

74,063
62,562
54,624
43.983

539,254
396,516
370,382
248,187

85,426
28,840
23.566
19,545

1
F o r 1820-1867, figures include returning citizens; for 1820-1866, figures include
i m m i g r a n t s n o t shown separately, whose age was n o t reported.
2
For 1940-1944, figures in series C 141 include, a n d those in series C 142 exclude,
3
immigrants 45 years old.
F o r 1820-1867, d a t a b y sex are available only b y per-

112



Both
sexes 1
138

373,326
358,579
454,448
861,972
323,040

260,686

Year

1898_
18971896_
1895 _
1894 _

229,299
230,832
343,267
279,948
314,467

1893 _
1892189118901889_

502,917
623,084
560,319
455,302
444,427

1888-

Age group
Males

3

139

U n d e r 15
years

15-40
years

40 years
and over

140

141

142

135,775
135,107
212,466
149,016
169,274
280,344
361,864
354,059
281,853
263.024

38,267
38,627
52,741
33,289
41,755

546,889
490,109
334,203
395,346
518,592
603,322
788,992
669,431
457,257
177,826

26,127
27,024
36,007
13,116
14,550

57,392
89,167
95,879
86,404
92,534

164,905
165,181
254,519
233,543
258,162
419,701
491,839
405,843
315,054
303,835

345,375
306,658
200,704
226,382
308,509

97,287
94,278
66,188
92,880
123,562

396,990
345,575
232,118
257,551
335,572

52,612
50,256
35,897
44,915
59,458

363,863
498,814
410,729
287,623
111,882

143,865
171,021
153,480
87,154
34,554

390,406
540,677
454,495
327,662
122,731

69,051
77,294
61,456
42,441
20,541

138,469
141,857
169,986
227,498
313,339
459,803
404,806
321,350
.387,203
352,768

86,259
92,033
111,786
139,950
189,225
275,792
240,170
190,428
235,612
214,865

24,285
23,754
27,875
44,254
63,578
104,672
90,510
71,148
89,129
79,803

95,938
100,366
121,734
154,621
199,840
288,272
263,213
210,366
250,965
232,397

18,246
17,737
20,377
28,623
49,921
66,859
51,083
39,836
47,109
40,568

282,189
342,162
185,892
287,399
221,535

(')
212,140
116,554
172,152
131,592

57,637
65,335
27,011
46,524
41,912

188,359
236,017
112,692
175,501
151,711

36,193
40,810
18,034
32,190
27,778

1859_-

199,811
114,463
112,702
179,691
155,509

120,086
66,846
64,353
105,299
90,506

37,433
20,641
18,878
28,620
24,670

142,009
80,725
81,515
133,919
114,110

20,108
12,888
11,221
16,795
16,115

1858-_
1857_1856-1855-_
1854__

144,906
271,982
224,496
230,476
460,474

83,756
146,598
129,759
135,520
265,233

25,914
50,548
42,732
53,045
100,013

102,921
177,093
141,986
151,440
312,301

15,545
22,808
19,905
25,155
47,377

1853_ _
1852_ _
1851-,
1850
1850-_

400,982
397,343
408,828
65,570
315,334

227,357
233,638
235,894
40,785
196,138

87,331
90,274
89,241
13,825
62,543

267,876
246,076
274,359
43,699
181,468

44,558
43,394
44,072
7,621
26,085

1849._
1848__
1847-_
1846__
1845__
1844-_
1843
1842__
1841__
1840-_

299,683
229,483
239,482
158,649
119,896
84,764
56,529
110,980
87,805
92,207

179,810
135,165
138,660
91,223
69,180

67,331
53,213
57,161
36,878
26,182

30,679
23,066
20,800
17,160
12,059

47,468
32,448
67,698
54,000
59,197

19,913
14,930
25,516
19,732
21,727

200,899
151,148
156,627
103,263
79,448
54,745
34,606
74,499
58,864
62,461

183918381837.
18361835.
183418331832 •
1832.
1831-

74,666
45,159
84,959
80,972
48,716

15,167
8,822
16,014
16,665
10,635
15,383
17,425
1,946
16,485
7,040

51,063
28,713
54,312
54,738
32,412

7,201
5,748
8,421
8,141
5,431

67,948
59,925
7,303
54,351
23,880

47,786
28,586
53,864
51,660
30,204
46,069
40,449
4,791
35,654
15,379

42,811
35,002
3,774
31,069
13,598

6,818
4.855
425
4,273
1,863

24,837
24,513
30,184
21,777
13,908

18,007
15,982
19,740
15,614
9,861

2,878
3,686
8,117
3,905
2,261

6,347
11,603
18,397
14,089
10,025

1,173
1,764
3,036
2,148
1,281

12,858
9,627
8,265
8,549
11,644
10,311

9,541
7,711
6,529
6,625
8,640
7,197

1,825
94
17
51
170
1,313

9,392
6,550
5,314
5,430
7,047
6,064

1,151
1,106
984
956
1,396
1,518

18871886-

18851884.
1883 _
1882-

18811880_
1879_

1878_
187718761875.
1874_
1873_
18721871_
1870_
1869_

1868-_

1867-_
1866 «_
1865_1864._
1863__
1862 _ _
1861

I860-_

18301829 _
1828-

18271826_
1825_
182418231822,
18211820-

25,824
42,078
58,597
53,844
48,058

8,655
5,197
9,709
8,590
7,556

centages. T h e s e percentages have been applied t o t h e total number of i m m i g r a n t s t o
estimate t h e n u m b e r of males during those years.
4
5
N o t reported.
6 m o n t h s ending J u n e 30.
6
7
3 m o n t h s ending December 31.
9 m o n t h s ending September 30.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 143-157.

C 143-157

Annual Quota and Aliens Admitted, by Classes: 1925 to 1970
[For years ending J u n e 30]

Immigrants

Nonimmigrants

Natives
ImNatives
of E a s t - mediate
of Western
relatives
ern
Hemisof U.S.
Hemisphere
citizens2
phere
1
countries
countries 3

Annual
quota

Other

148
s

()
m

Temporary
visitors

Transit
aliens

Students

150

Total

151

Foreign
govern- R e t u r n i n g
m e n t a n d resident E x c h a n g e
internaaliens4
visitors
tional
officials

152

156

158,261
158,261
158,561

373,326
358,579
454,448
361,972
323,040

172.546
157,306
156,212
153,079
126,310

79,337
60,016
43.677
46,903
39,231

114,737
133,689
245,449
151,034
147,906

6,706
7,568
9,110
10,956
9,593

4,431,880
3,645,328
3,200,336
2,608,193
2,341,923

2,300,466
1,848,999
1,674,188

231,891
210,543
232,731
204,936
177,827

98,179
90,486
73,303
63,370
55,716

74,241
64,896
65,146
61,302
55,696

493,522
441,082
373,252
284,330
238,013

50,817
47,175
45,320
38,630
35,253

85,688
62,952
68,969
70,010
75,848

158,561
158,161
156,987
156,687
156,487

296,697
292,248
306,260
283,763
271,344

99,381
102,844
103,036
90,319
96,104

32,714
33,669
30,606
30,316
32,551

153,199
139,284
147,744
133,505
112,836

11,403
16,451
24,874
29,623
29,853

2,075,967 1,498,979
1,744,808 1,249,948
1,507,091 1,067,444
1,331,383
928,021
1,220,315
858,472

142,686
119,360
105,815
110,276
106,888

50,435
44,952
38,991
41,202
35,072

52,570
47,519
45,961
43,120
40,087

203,235
165,429
135,701
112,261
103,931

33,768
33,371
30,002
26,977
24,346

67,869
60,470
63,477
57,608
44,263

154,887
154,857
154,957
154,857
154,657

265,398
260,686
253,265
326,867
321,625

101,373
97,657
102,153
97,178
89,310

34,215
36,402
35,320
32,359
31,742

91,701
68,196
88,575
113,488
124,032

38,109 1 , 1 4 0 , 7 3 6
58,431 1 , 0 2 4 , 9 4 5
27,217
847.764
83,842
758,858
76,541
686,259

779,205
689,416
596,004
537,760
471,969

118,291
116,814
99,190
107,399
65,214

35,415
35,583
34,848
30,760
28,013

39,967
38,308
36,046
34,904
32,299

97,895
85,915
32,747
10,617
52,136

25,233
24,293
20,349
17,849
17,204

38,479
29,339
24,402
16,856
17,077

154,657
154,657
154,657
154,277
154,277

237,790
208,177
170,434
265,520
205,717

82,232
94,098
84,175
194,247
156.547

30,882
30,689
22,543
19,315
11,462

94,274
80,526
61,099
48,408
35,274

30,402
2,864
2,617
3,550
2,434

620,946
566,613
485,714
516,082
465,106

401,090
353,754
306,715
356,351
314,205

71,301
78,526
67,684
77,899
72,027

27,192
25,425
13,533
8,613
7,355

32,291
28,696
30,614
27,404
26,407

61,442
55,887
50,397
44,980
44,212

16,077
15,260
12,584

9,750
7,479
3,021

154,206
153,929
153,929
153,929
153,879

249,187
188,317
170,570
147,292
108,721

197,460
113,046
92,526
70,701
29,095

16,275
35,854
36,830
38,739
49,267

33,238
36,394
37,968
35,640
29,502

2,214
3,023
3,246
2,212
857

426,837
447,272
476,006
366,305
203,469

287,794
299,083
284,983
214,558
134,826

68,640
81,615
124,780
96,825
31,124

9,744
10,481
11,914
11,003
5,855

18,985
18,445
20,881
20,320
17,689

40,903
36,984
32,464
22,818
13,306

153,879
153,774
153,774
153,774
153,774

38,119
28,551
23,725
28,781
51,776

11,623
9,394
9,045
14,597
36,220

3,078
1,302
875
1,262
2,122

22,828
17,614
13,522
12,596
12,586

590
241
283
326
848

164,247
113,641
81,117
82,457
100,008

107,729
48,689
27,700
25,135
34,660

28,174
34,856
31,906
28,305
18,749

2,866
1,643
1,021
1,368
1,766

18,054
23,630
16,328
12,038
9,269

6,896
4,745
4,102
15,462
35,246

153,774
153,774
153,774
153,774
153,774

70,756
82,998
67,895
50,244
36,329

51,997
62,402
42,494
27,762
18,675

5,474
7,043
10,262
9,536
8,824

11,985
12,223
14,379
12,152
8,066

1,300
1,330
760
794
764

138,032
185,333
184,802
181,640
154,570

65.325
88.309
79,840
89,455
73,313

36,304
44,115
45,146
31,822
26,571

2,044
2,182
2,451
1,828
1,515

7,448
7,777
6,221
6,493
5,312

26,105
42,196
50,266
51,223
47,166

153,774
153,774
153,831
153,831
153,714

34,956
29,470
23,068
35,576
97,139

17,207
12,483
8,220
12,983
54,118

9,228
7,891
6,658
9,490
17,264

7,747
8,237
7,549
9,461
21,287

774
859
641
3,642
4,470

144.765
134,434
127,660
139,295
183,540

61,633
49,833
36,899
40,465
55,636

24,931
23,687
22,693
28,678
32,169

1,377
1,048
877
147
272

5,194
4,363
4,053
2,966
3,951

50,885
54,928
62,460
66,879
91,201

153,714
164,667
164,667
16,4,667
164,667
164,667

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

241,700
279,678
307,255
335,175
304,488
294,314

141,497
146,918
153,231
158,070
157,432
145,971

32,105
30,245
25.678
18,361
11,061
7,159

63,147
97,548
123,534
147,399
134,305
139,389

4,951
s 4,967
s 4,812
s11,345
1,690
1,795

204,514
199,649
193,376
202,826
191,61?
164,121

70,823
64.310
64,581
60,508
56,614
35.326

27,991
27,776
27,257
28,312
25,574
22,697

552
561
517
524
1,878
1,397

5,326
5,273
5,340
4,769
5,638
1,930

99,056
100,879
94,368
95,502
83,744
64,617

1
Represents q u o t a i m m i g r a n t s t h r o u g h J u n e 30, 1968; see text for series C 143-157.
Effective J u l y 1,1968, natives of t h e E a s t e r n Hemisphere became subject to an annual
numerical limitation of 170,000.
2
Spouses a n d children of U.S. citizens; beginning 1966, d a t a also include p a r e n t s of
a d u l t U.S. citizens.
3
D a t a include C u b a n refugees a d j u s t i n g their s t a t u s and the spouses and children
of natives of Western Hemisphere countries. Beginning J u l y 1, 1968, natives of Western H e m i s p h e r e countries a n d their spouses a n d children became subject to an annual
numerical limitation of 120,000.




3,345,169

Temporary
workers
and industrial
trainees

2,682,008

4
Figures are n o t comparable because of changes in d o c u m e n t a r y requirements.
R e t u r n i n g resident aliens who have once been counted as immigrants are included w i t h
nonimmigrants.
° T h e Act of October 3, 1965, abolished t h e q u o t a system as of J u l y 1, 1968, a n d in
its place set u p an annual limitation of 170,000 on immigration from t h e E a s t e r n
Hemisphere and 120,000 f r o m t h e Western Hemisphere.
6
Does n o t agree with source; a d j u s t e d to conform to definitions used in later years.

113

MIGRATION

C 158-167

Series C 158-161.

Aliens Deported, Required to Depart, and Excluded: 1892 to 1970
[For years ending J u n e 30]
Aliens expelled

Aliens expelled

Aliens
excluded

Aliens
excluded
Deported

Year

Required
to d e p a r t

159

Total

160

Total

Deported

Required
to depart

Aliens
deported
Year

161

320,241
251,463
189,082
151,603
132,851

16,893
10,505
9,130
9,260
9,168

303,348
240,958
179,952
142,343
123,683

576
525
460
468
512

1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

39,449
16,154
10,613
10,938
15,548

7,179
4,207
3,709
4,407
6,954

32,270
11,947
6,904
6,531
8,594

1,642
1,495
1,833
2,929
6,300

1917
1916
1915
1914
1913

1,853
2,781
2,664
4,610
3,461

16,028
18,867
24,111
33,041
19,938

105,406
81,788
76,846
61,801
59,821

10,143
8,746
7,464
7,637
7,438

95,263
73,042
69,392
54,164
52,383

429
421
309
388
743

1939
1938
1937
1936
1935

17,792
18,553
17,617
17,446
16,297

8,202
9,275
8,829
9,195
8,319

9,590
9,278
8,788
8,251
7,978

6,498
8,066
8,076
7,000
5,558

1912
1911
1910
1909
1908

2,456
2,788
2,695
2,124
2,069

16,057
22,349
24,270
10,411
10,902

59,625
64,598
67,742
68,461
88,188

6,829
7,988
7,142
5,082
7,297

52,796
56,610
60,600
63,379
80,891

411
480
733
907
1,709

1934
1933
1932
1931
1930

16,889
30,212
30,201
29,861

28,018

8,879
19,865
19,426
18,142
16,631

8,010
10,347
10,775
11,719
11,387

5,384
5,527
7,064
9,744
8,233

1907
1906
1905
1904
1903

995
676
845
779
647

13,064
12,432
11,879
7,994
8,769

247,797

15,028
26,951
19,845
20,181
13,644

232,769
1,074,277
885,391
703,778
673,169

2,667
3,313
2,637
2,944
3,784

1929
1928
1927
1926.
1925

38,796
31,571
26,674
10,904
9,495

12,908
11,625
11,662
10,904
9,495

26,888

905,236
723,959
686,713

18,127
18,839
19,755
20,550
25,390

1902
1901
1900
1899
1898

465
363
356
263
199

4,974
3,516
4,246
3,798
3,030

579,105
296,337
217,555
214,543
116,320
80,760

6,628
20,040
20,371
18,663
14,375
11,270

572,477
276,297
197,184
195,880
101,945
69,490

3,571
3,834
4,905
4,771
2,942
2,341

1924
1923.
1922.
1921
1920

6,409
3,661
4,345
4,517
2,762

6,409
3,661
4,345
4,517
2,762

30,284
20,619
13,731
13,779
11,795

1897
1896
1895

263
238
177

1,617
2,799
2,419

1919.
1918.

3,068
1,569

3,068
1,569

8,626
7,297

1894
1893.
1892.

417
577
637

1,389
1,053
2,164

1,101,228

Series C 162-167.

19,946
15,012

Aliens Naturalized, by Type of Provision: 1907 to 1970
[For years ending J u n e 30]

Total
naturalized

162

Under
general
naturalization
provisions

Married
t o U.S.
citizens

Children
of U.S.
citizens 1

Military

163

164

165

166

Total
naturalized

Year

167

Military

162

Other

166

Other
Year

167

110,399
98,709
102,726
104,902
103,059

10,616
5,458
2,438
2,691
2,561

100
145
176
149
141

1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

441,979
318,933
270,364
277,294
235,260

49,213
37,474
1,602
1,547
2,760

392,766
281,459
268,762
275,747
232,500

1917.
1916.
1915.
19141913.

76,630
82,621
93,325
98,739
104,341

16,602
17,867
19,048
17,379
18,674

7,914
9,056
9,136
8,723
7,416

3,085
2,606
2,560
2,335
1,719

68
85
109
131
300

1939
1938
1937
1936
1935

188,813
162,078
164,976
141,265
118,945

3,638
3,936
2,053
481

185,175
158,142
162,923
140,784
118,945

1912.
1911_
19101909.
1908.
1907.

91,548
77,230
94,380
114,827
117,161

19,799
19,512
19,353
18,212
18,224

6,149
5,632
4,966
3,779
2,865

1,594
1,308
916
845
7,204

362
249
251
380
431

1934
1933
1932
1931
1930-_ _

113,669
113,363
136,600
143,495
169,377

2,802
995
2
3,224
1,740

110,867
112,368
136,598
140,271
167,637

209,526
117,831
92,051
88,655
54,716

173,954
86,166
46,793
26,920
14,864

20,460
15,977
42,088
58,027
36,433

2,600
1,208
698
760
487

11,958
13,745
1,575
1,585
975

554
735
897
1,363
1,957

1929
1928
1927
1926
1925

224,728
233,155
199,804
146,331
152,457

531
5,149
4,311
92
-

224,197
228,006
195,493
146,239
152,457

66,346
66,594
70,150
93,904
160,062
231,402

1

5,023
5,271
6,579
6,740
7,695

119,442
103,931
119,866
138,043
145,885

-

14,899
14,346
17,156
16,778
16,448

104,299
112,234
124,178
127,307
132,450

2

79,761
73,489
76,377
78,544
76,214

19,403
24,566
34,347
46,339
93,346
137,729

40.684
35,131
28,898
27,066
40,190
69,526

499
448
419
245
118
182

2,067
2,456
1,070
16,462
15,213
22,695

3,693
3,993
5,416
3,792
1,195
1,270

1924
1923
1922
1921

150,510
145,084
170,447
181,292

10,170
7,109
9,468
17,636

140,340
137,975
160,979
163,656

1920
1919
1918

177,683
217,358
151,449

51,972
128,335
63,993

125,711
89,023
87,456

R e p r e s e n t s zero.
Includes a d o p t e d children.

114



2

2

_. .

. .

.

-

Includes aliens in U.S. A r m e d Forces who were naturalized a b r o a d .

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 168-180.

C 143-157

Aliens Naturalized, by Sex and Area of Former Allegiance: 1907 to 1970
[For years ending June 30, except as noted]
Aliens naturalized

Year

Declarations
filed

Area of former allegiance 1

Sex

Total
naturalized
Male

169

Female

Northwestern
Europe

Central
Europe

Eastern
Europe

Southern
Europe

Asia

170

171

172

173

174

175

Petitions
denied

176

Other
America

All
other

178

Canada

179

18,799
14,102
13,594
12,465
12,957

110,399
98,709
102,726
104,902
103,059

52,679
45,177
45,102
46,014
46,536

57,720
53,532
57,624
58,888
56,523

14,976
16,065
17,734
18,487
18,391

18,002
18,822
22,054
23,059
23,837

2,678
2,725
3,258
2,832
2,736

13,122
14.235
15,221
17,156
17,446

16,466
15,362
14,980
14,259
14,369

6,340
6,387
6,984
8,120
8,579

36,032
22,202
19,264
17,542
14,858

2.783
2,911
3,231
3,447
2,843

13,082
14,374
14,478
15,120
15,921

104,299
112,234
124,178
127,307
132,450

48,495
51,408
58,303
60,988
58,795

55.804
60,826
65,875
66,319
73,655

19,205
20,807
23,861
21,586
22,168

26,734
29,180
37,789
34,841
34.858

3,461
3,878
4,952
6,155
8,908

16,620
17,771
18,338
25,720
27,188

14,680
15,724
15,253
14,573
12,308

8,489
9,479
9,944
9,272
10,033

12,273
12,442
11,602
12,533
14,178

2,837
2,953
2,439
2,627
2,809

16,255
16,115
16,196
15,911
12,870

119,442
103,931
119,866
138,043
2
145,885

50,896
43,719
51,350
60,289
64,962

68,546
60,212
68,516
77,754
80,923

22,978
21,842
23,992
25,878
28,183

33,796
32,594
42.358
47,656
47,186

8,094
7,975
11,520
18,062
21,017

20,248
12,202
13,725
15.762
14,200

11,071
8,313
7,496
7,548
10,412

10,215
10,324
10,211
10,891
11,539

10,606
8,804
8,463
8,977
10,795

2,434
1,877
2,101
3,269
2,553

2
2

209,526
117,831
92,051
88,655
54,716

95,850
54,477
34,657
28,597
18,711

113,676
63,354
57,394
60,058
36,005

46,253
31,085
23,238
23,688
17,069

62,557
28,341
26,676
25,933
11,864

22,795
7,848
5,440
5,392
3,485

23,955
16,024
13,507
13,360
8,503

16,000
12,170
4,966
3,749
2,886

18,151
13,062
10,303
10,004
5,872

15,321
7,210
5,181
4,548
3,827

4,494
2,091
2,740
1,981
1,210

93,527
64,866
60,187
37,771
28,787

66,346
66,594
70,150
2
93,904
2
150,062

25,745
27,865
33,147
52,998
76,296

40,601
38,729
37,003
40,906
73,766

20,260
20,782
18,834
27,017
41,772

13,946
14,471
17,495
24,220
46,802

4,300
5,244
6,150
7,281
14,481

12,200
11,716
13,059
15,661
30,336

4,802
4,993
7,201
11,741
3,450

5,882
5,347
3,860
!
<3)
()

4,133
3,607
3,183
4,676
7,144

823
434
368
3,308
6,077

31,195
42,368
115,664
221,796
224,123

2
231,402
2
441,979
2

318,933
270,364
277,294

'4 116,691
202,698
4
157,663
112,040
136,348

4
114,711
4
239,281
4

161,270
158,324
140,946

57,997
114,801
122,708
117,607
96,375

82,195
139,304
86,365
71,762
86,122

23,948
48,382
42,012
41,586
35,844

51,629
122,638
51,758
31,047
51,819

2,545
5,592
6,133
2,075
1,844

8,590
11,099
9,866
6,247
5,249

4,498
163
91
40
41

203,536
155,691
150,673
176,195
148,118

235,260
188,813
162,078
164,976
141,265

132,406
113,934
92,041
97,696
86,777

102,854
74,879
70,037
67,280
54,488

78,357
62,430
55,359
58,002
54,852

75,024
59,636
51.359
55,789
47,289

29,146
22,209
19,809
18,970
14,781

47.236
40,452
32,235
29,169
22,194

1,523
1,331
1,311
1,290
901

3,930
2.709
1,976
1.710
1,220

44
46
29
46
28

136,524
108,079
83,046
101,345
106,272

118,945
113,669
113,363
136,600
143,495

82,182
82,465
78,293
95,901
106,715

36,763
31,204
35,070
40,699
36,780

44,605
39,481
40,795
39,123
38,465

39,554
38.859
37,068
43,334
48,041

11,825
11,476
12,544
14,884
17,428

21,171
20,349
19,498
24,851
27,793

760
703
706
676
822

(3)
(3)
(s)
10,144
7,173

987
896
780
721
989

43
1,905
1,972
2,867
2.784

62,138
280,645
254,588
258,295
277.539

169,377
224,728
233,155
199,804
146,331

120,572
167,665
181,875
165,833
121,561

48.805
57,063
51,280
33,971
24.770

38,915
50,554
46,059
37,293
28,317

56,540
72,267
72.111
65,592
49,696

24,046
33,652
34,962
27,399
23 158

37,481
53,234
63,989
55,924
33,750

993
1,445
1,334
(ss
>

7,566
8,223
7,712
5,237
5,078

651
664
506
455
283

3,185
4,689
6,482
7,904
6,049

277,218
424.540
296,636
273,511
303,904

152,457
150,510
145,084
170,447
181,292

133,881
135,739
• 139,073

18,576
14.771
6,011

29,006
28,780
29,107

55,262
55,915
56.112

23,154
23,348
22,897

31,671
32,232
28,392

<5)

7,013
5,765
6,546

290
270

6,061
4,200
2,030

299,076
391,156
342,283
440,651
209,204

177,683
217,358
151,449
88,104
87,831

247,958
214,104
182,095
171,133
189,249

91,848
104,145
83,561
70,310
56,683

169,348
145,745
137,571
73,658

39,448
38,374
25,975
7,941

10,855
9,100
23,558
111,461
91,497

1
See text for list of countries.
2
D a t a for 1943-1947 and 1954-1956 include naturalizations in various theaters of war
or 3areas occupied by U.S. Forces.
Included in Northwestern Europe as part of British Empire.
4
D a t a are from unpublished data of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and
do not agree with source auoted. Source excludes Armed Forces overseas whereas the
data shown here include them.




()
«

(s)
0)
(?)
3

<3
)

<)
«
(3)
(3)
C)
(s)

6
Included in "All other."
6
Includes data for both male and female for the first quarter of the year when sexes
were not reported separately.
7
September 27, 1906, to June 30, 1907.

115

C 158-167

MIGRATION

Series C 181-194.

Citizenship Status of the Population: 1890 to 1970

[Prior t o 1920, t h e citizenship inquiry of t h e Population Census was restricted to males 21 years old a n d over. 1970 figures based on 5-percent sample, 1960 on 25-percent, a n d
1950 on 20-percent; therefore differ from series for 1890-1940 based on complete count]
2 1 y e a r s old a n d over

All ages

Foreign-born population

Foreign-born population
Year

Total
population

Native
population
Total

Naturalized

Having
first
papers

No
papers

184

185

Total
U n k n o w n population
citizenship

186

181

182

183

203,193,774
179,325,657
160,216,110
131,669,275
122,775,046
105,710,620

193,454,051
169,587,566
139,868,715
120,074,379
108,570,897
91,789,928

9,739,723
9,738,091
10,347,395
11,594,896
14,204,149
13,920,692

1970
1960 *_
1950
1940
1930

98,896,402
88,303,167
74,200,085
66,061,592
62,137,080

94,424,109
83,542,735
68,941,830
59,939,945
64,489,990

4,472,293
4,760,432
5,258,265
6,121,647
7,647,090

1920
1910
1900
1890

53,900,431 46,224,996
47,332,277 39,664,529
38,816,448 33,186,258
32,237,101

Native
population
Total

188

187

189

Naturalized

Having
first
papers

No
papers

Unknown
citizenship

190

191

192

193

194

BOTH
SEXES
1970
1960 *
1950
1940
1930
1920.

6,198,173
3,541 ,550
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
7,562,970
2,052 ,640
7,280,266
924,524 2 , 5 5 5 , 1 2 8
7,919,536 1,266,419 4,518,341
6,489,883 1,222,553 5,406,780

731^785
834,979
499,853
801,476

1 2 2 , 5 9 7 , 2 0 2 114,076,804 8 , 5 2 0 , 3 9 8
108,051,172 9 9 , 0 7 1 , 6 4 8 8 , 9 7 9 , 5 2 4
96,732,900 86,712,450 10,020,450
83,996,629 72,703,808 11,292,821
72,943,624 59,607,271 13,336,353
60,886,520 48,200,127 12,686,393

5,795,027
2,72E ,371
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
7,466,445
~~674~105
1,87S ,900
7.159.643
797,786
910,416 2 , 4 2 4 , 9 7 6
7,681,681 1,237,255 3,946,176
471,241
6,218,801 1,197,698 4,529,756
740,138

MALE

2,918,753
(NA)
4,033,070
4,137,027
4,365,403

57,992,895
1,553 ,540
52,147,983
(NA)
(NA)
"~349~465 4 7 , 1 3 7 , 4 6 0
875 ,720
42,004,816
394,836
581,713 1 , 0 0 8 , 0 7 1
244,035 37,056,757
956,942 2 , 0 8 1 , 7 1 0

7,675,435 3,449,547 1,137,021 2,695,042
7,667,748
5,630,190

54,128,061
47,765,139
42,045,230
36,035,228
29,837,780

3,864,834
4,382,844
5,092,230
5,969,588
7,218,977

393,825 31,403,370 24,339,776 7,063,594
26,999,151 20,218,937 6,780,214
21,134,299 16,124,013 5,010,286
16,940,311 12,591,852 4,348,459

2,719,383
(NA)
3,981,895
4,076,207
4,247,704

1,14E ,451
(NA)
(NA)
79C ,300
574,296
942,855
939,875 1 , 8 0 0 , 2 9 5

3,320,226 1,119,982
3,038,303
571,521
2,848,807
412,271
2,545,753
236,061

2,259,310
2,390,426
1,014,219
1,189,452

~320~035
376,230
231,103
364,076
779,964
734,989
377,193

FEMALE

1970
1960 *
1950
1940.
1930
1920

104,297,372
91,022,490
76,016,025
65,607,683
60,637,966
51,810,189

99,029,942 5,267,430
86,044,831 4,977,659
70,926,885 5,089,140
60,134,434 5,473,249
54,080,907 6,557,059
45,564,932 6,246,257

3,279,420
(NA)
3,529,900
3,143,238
3,554,133
3,040,336

1.98! 010
64,604,307 59,948,743
55,903,189 51,306,509
(NA)
| (NA)
~~382~320 4 9 , 5 9 5 , 4 4 0 4 4 , 6 6 7 , 2 2 0
1,176,920
440,143 41,991,813 36,668,580
342,81111,547,057
310,477 2,436,631 255,818 35,886,867 29,769,491
85,532 2,711,738 407,651 29,483,150 23,860,351

* D e n o t e s first y e a r for which figures include Alaska a n d H a w a i i .

Series C 195-227.

NA

4,655,564
4,596,680
4,928,220
5,323,233
6,117,376
5,622,799

3.075.644
(NA)
3,484,550
3,083,436
3,433,977
2,898,575

1,579 ,920
(NA)
(NA)
~~354~670
1,089 ,600
421,556
336,120 1 , 4 8 2 , 1 2 1
240,138
297,380 2 , 1 4 5 , 8 8 1
376,062
77,716 2 , 2 7 0 , 4 4 6

N o t available.

Native Population of Foreign or Mixed Parentage, by Country of Origin of Parents:
1900 to 1970

[1940 figures based on 5-percent sample; 1950 on 20-percent; 1960 on 25-percent; and 1970 on 15-percent]
Total
Series
No.

1970
195

White

C o u n t r y of origin of p a r e n t s

Total

1960*

1950

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

23,955,930

24,312,263

23,589,485

23,157,580

25,902,383

22,686,204

18,897,837

15,646,017

196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206

E n g l a n d a n d Wales
Scotland
Northern Ireland
Ireland (Eire)
Norway
Sweden
Denmark 1
Netherlands
Belgium
Switzerland
France

1,268,643
411,121
99,187
1,198,845
617,406
679,068
264,151
273,139
89,238
168,976
237,982

1,409,159
455,453
186,984
1,434,590
622,056
832,451
314,290
280,243
89,972
201,486
240,099

1,443,230
463,325
29,890
1,891,495
652,380
864,695
318,710
272,535
85,500
215,660
253,665

1,466,900
446,540
270,820
1,838,920
662,600
856,320
305,640
261,320
76,400
205,680
246,120

1,890,051
545,268
517,167
2,341,712
752,246
967,453
349,668
280,833
82,897
260,993
336,373

1,864,345
514,436
J 3,122,013
701,096
888,497
320,410
249,339
68,961
257,341
288,350

1,822,264
484,699
3,304,015
609,068
752,695
256,175
188,016
46,222
217,459
226,059

1,695,558
447,524
3,375,546
478,531
542,032
187,844

207
208
209
210

2,789,070
1,826,137
598,628
761,311
420,432
293,526
1,479,733
254,976
158,327
146,116

3,330,849
2,032,276
690,212
794,123
456,385
282,705
1,599,669
281,371
173,203
149,230

3,742,615
1,925,015
705,890
816,465
437,080
239,920
1,647,420
249,825
172,370
130,100

3,998,840
1,912,380
664,620
781,340
371,840
222,300
1,569,360
229,040
167,080
131,760

5,264,289
2,073,615
890,441
583,734
316,318
257,979
1,516,214
245,589
178,058
147,060

5,346,004
1.303,351
(')
'1,235,097
«538,518

6,670,611
725,924

5,340,147
3 236 , 7 6 4

212
213
214
215
216

Germany
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Austria
Hungary
Yugoslavia
U.S.S.R
Lithuania
Finland
Romania

217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227

Greece
Italy
Spain
Portugal
Other Europe
Asia
Canada-French
Canada-Other
Mexico
O t h e r America
All other a n d n o t reported

257,296
3,232,246
97,668
149,532
168,082
920,475
} 2,222,135
1,579,440
479,439
913,605

219,419
3,286,936
81,164
148,602
121,984
642,520
2,228,551
1,160,090
248,272
317,919

195,235
3,143,405
69,490
117,675
128,030
239,525
J
519,495
\ 1,468,325
891,980
101,240
167,300

163,420
2,971,200
61,700
114,060
75,660
183,260
636,020
1,231,020
699,220
91,980
245,220

129,225
2,756,453
52,305
97,917
101,652
152,347
735,307
1,323,617
583,422
75,220
96,960

211

* D e n o t e s first y e a r for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.
Includes Iceland prior t o 1930.
Included with "All other a n d n o t r e p o r t e d . "

1
2

116



8

Included with A u s t r i a a n d H u n g a r y .
' Areas as defined in 1910.

1,508,604
162,161
64,776
52,083
1,761,091

|

9,985
771,645

137,284

74,548

(2)
562,360
1,279,245
253,176
51,259
176,407

()

()

m

716,753
215,295
(')
775,654
85,672
26,934

09
|

M
2

178,691
214,592

(2)

662,709
1,088,112
162,959
30,169
74,196

391,636
81,897

1
|

W

288,098

P)
f

«
254,550
(2)
s
(2 )

()
«
456,030
933,440
2

()
(2)

453,137

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 228-295.

C 228-295

Foreign-Born Population, by Country of Birth: 1850 to 1970

[ D a t a are given for each c o u n t r y for all census years since 1850 for which figures are available]
T o t a l foreign born
C o u n t r y of b i r t h
1960 2
9,619,302

9,738,091

Northwestern EuropeEngland
Scotland
Wales
Northern I r e l a n d —
Ireland (Eire)
Norway
Sweden
Denmark.Iceland
Netherlands4
Belgium
Luxembourg
Switzerland
France

All countries

1,536,722
458,114
170,134
17,014
40,837
251,375
97,243
127,070
61,410
2,895
110,570
41,412
3,531
49,732
105,385

1,973,025
528,205
213,219
23,469

338,722
152,698
214,491
85,060
2,780
118,415
50,294
4,360
61,568
111,582

Central and Eastern EuropeGermany
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Austria
Hungary
Yugoslavia
U.S.S.R
Latvia
Estonia
Lithuania
Finland
Romania
Bulgaria.-.
T u r k e y in E u r o p e

2,811,094
832,965
548,107
160,899
214,014
183,236
153,745
«463,462
41,707
12,163
76,001
45,499
70,687
8,609
(')

Southern EuropeGreece
Albania
Italy
Spain
Portugal
Other Europe
Danzig
E u r o p e , n o t specified-

2

1930

1920

1910

1900

1890

1880

14,204,149

13,920,692

13,515,886

10,341,276

9,249,560

6,679,943

3,830,094
813,853
254,570
67,066

4,239,067
877,719
261,076
82,488

505,285
202,448
325,118
107,982
(NA)
102,224
(NA)
(NA)
71,636
108,547

3,728,050
809,563
354,323
60,205
178,832
744,810
347,852
595,250
179,474
2,764
133,133
64,194
9,048
113,010
135,592

1,037,234
363,863
625,585
189,154
131,766
62,687
12,585
118,659
153,072

1,352,251
403,877
665,207

4,202,683
840,513
233,524
93,586
1,615,459

4,380,752
909,092
242,231
100,079
1,871,509

3,494,484
664,160
170,136
83,302
1,854,571

181,649
120,063
49,400
3,071
124,848
117,418

336,388
582,014
153,690
94,931
29,757
3,031
115,593
104,197

322,665
478,041
132,543
81,828
22,639
2,882
104,069
113,174

181,729
194,337
64,196
58,090
15,535
12,836
88,621
106,971

3,717,907
989,815
747,750
227,618
304,507
245,252
165,798
'690,598
50,681
13,991
121,475
67,624
84,575
8,223
(')

(NA)
991,321
861,655
278,438
409,043
268,183
144,070
896,000
(NA)
(NA)
147,872
95,686
85,230
(NA)
(')

5,897,799
1,608,814
1,268,583
491,638
370,914
274,450
211,416
1,153,628
20,673
3,550
193,606
142,478
146,393
9,399
2,257

6,134,845

6,014,028
52,311,237
5
937,884

4,136,646
2,663,418
383,407

3,420,629
2,784,894
147,440

2,187,776
1,966,742
48,557

'845,555
495,609

432,798
145,714

241,377
62,435

124,024
11,526

1,400,495

si,184,412

423,726

182,644

35,722

135,06?
149,824
102,823
10,477
5,284

129,680
65,923
11,498
8 32,230

62,641
15,032
'9,910

1,343,510
177,275
9,180
1,008,533
57,488
91,034

1,528,473
159,167
9,618
1,256,999
44,999
57,690

(NA)
169,335
(NA)
1,427,952
(NA)
56,591

2,106,295
174,526
8,814
1,790,429
59,362
73,164

1,911,213
175,976
5,608
1,610,113
49,535
69,981

1,525,875
101,282

530,200
8,515

206,648
1,887

58,265
776

1,343,125
22,108
59,360

484,027
7,050
30,608

182,580
6,185
15,996

44,230
5,121
8,138

20,700

14,320

16,255
1,483
14,772

5,901
2,049
3,852

12,871

2,251

12,579

3,786

»12,871

2,251

12,579

3,786

275,665
32,166
6,137
57,227
46,654
46,129
70,993
5,850

237,950
36,628
3,203
51,901
11,019
43,560
81,502
4,901

191,484

120,248

113,396

107,630

(')
106,701
2,292
2,143

(')
104,468
401
1,707

Asia
Armenia
Palestine
Syria
T u r k e y in A s i a .
China
Japan
India
Korea
Philippines
O t h e r Asia

'824,887
(6)
(")
14,962
' 48,085
172,132
120,235
51,000
38,711
184,842
»194,920

America
Canada-French
Canada-Other
Newfoundland
Cuba
O t h e r W e s t Indies..
Mexico
C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . __
South America

2,616,391

All other
Africa
Australia
Azores
O t h e r Atlantic IslandsPacific Islands
C o u n t r y not specified. _
B o r n a t sea

1950

10,420,908
(NA)
846,570

68,162

'499,312
(8)
(»)
16,717
' 52,228
99,735
109,175
12,296
11,171
104,843
"93,147

9

185,685

'275,990
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1,860,809 »1,655,324

812,421

952,500

1,003,038

439,048
'5 3 4 , 5 1 3
759,711
315,460
255,238

79,150
"114,772
575,902
48,949
89,536

(NA)
(NA)
454,417
(NA)
(NA)

465,998
61,463
24,271
28,865
18,680
" 8,870
323,849

144,245
18,737
22,209
22,586
8,302
14
12,521
59,890

»202,723
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
89,691

1,686,108

1,139,979
362.438
575,627
397,283
169.439

(8)

'1,8

' 1,205

59,729
56,756
67,744
4,664

0)

81,534
24,788
2,031

10,509

5,236

2,591

11,895

2,260

1,054

2,102,209
370,852
915,537
23,980
18,493
87,748
641,462
10,514
33,623

1,727,017
307,786
817,139
13,249
14,872
64,090
486,418
4,912
18,551

,489,231
385,083
819,554
5,080
15,133
32,502
221,915
1,736
8,228

12, 3 1 7 , 3 8 0
'12 395,126
784,796

1,088,245
12
302,496
12
678,442
(1!)

807,230

11,081
14,354
103,393
3,897
4,733

23,256
77,853
1,192
5,006

6,917
9,484
68,399
707
4,566

77,876
8,859
12,816
35,611
9,467
4,527
1,588
5,008

73,672
5,781
10,914
33,995
10,345
3,712
3,589
5,336

43,330
3,992
9,035
18,274
2,415
2,687
6,927

31,868
2,538
6,807

27,311
2,207
5,984

9,768
2,013
2,546
8,196

9,739
3,369
479
5,533

20,772
2,204
4,906
7,641
1,953

(1!)

717,157

4,068

See footnotes a t end of table.




117

C 228-295

MIGRATION

Series C 228-295.

Foreign-Born Population, by Country of Birth: 1850 to 1970—Con.

[ D a t a a r e given for each country for all census years since 1850 for which figures are available]
T o t a l foreign b o r n —
Con.

Foreign-born, w h i t e

C o u n t r y of b i r t h
1860

1850

1970 '

I960®

1950S

1940 "

1930

1920

All countries

4,138,697

2,244,602

8,733,770

9,293,992

10,158,854

11,419,138

13,983,405

13,712,754

Northwestern Europe
England
Scotland
Wales
N o r t h e r n Ireland
I r e l a n d (Eire)
Norway
Sweden
Denmark
Iceland
Netherlands 4
Belgium
Luxembourg
Switzerland
France.

2,472,211
433,494
108,518
45,763
1,611,304
43,995
18,625
9,962

,437,475
278,675
70,550
29,868

9,848
1,318

63,827
109,870

13,358
54,069

1,968,797
526,157
213,026
23,407
68,083
338,350
152,644
214,313
84,989
2,769
118,160
50,210
4,335
61,490
110,864

2,326,887
554,625
244,200
30,060
15,398
504,961
202,294
324,944
107,897
2,455
102,133
52,891
5,590
71,615
107,924

2,825,671
621,975
279,321
35,360
106,416
572,031
262,088
445,070
138,175
2,104
111,064
53,958
6,886
88,298
102,930

3,726,844
808,684
354,323
60,205
178,832
744,810
347,852
595,250
179,474
2,764
133,133
64,194
9,048
113,010
135,265

3,828,876
812,828
254,567
67,066

28,281
9,072

1,528,092
453,867
169,636
16,904
40,733
250,492
96,938
126,843
61,307
2,868
109,709
41,259
3,498
49,547
104,491

Central a n d E a s t e r n E u r o p e Germany
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Austria
Hungary
Yugoslavia
U.S.S.R
Latvia
Estonia
Lithuania
Finland
Romania
Bulgaria
T u r k e y in E u r o p e

1,311,722
1,276,075
7,298

586,240
583,774

2,802,546
830,498
547,010
160,672
213,501
182,681
153,020
• 461,444
41,558
12,130
75,806
45,372
70,864
8,490
(')

3,711,725
986,564
747,250
227,467
304,192
244,945
165,658
•689,462
50,658
13,974
121,349
67,540
84,471
8,195
(')

4,218,903
984,331
861,184
278,268
408,785
268,022
143,956
894,844
31,590

4,958,368
1,237,772
993,479
319,971
479,906
290,228
161,093
1,040,884
18,636
4,178
165,771
117,210
115,940
8,888
4,412

5,897,795
1,608,814
1,268,583
491,638
370,914
274,450
211,416
1,153,624
20,673
3,550
193,606
142,478
146,393
9,399
2,257

6,134,825

1,337,283
176,025
8,895
1,005,687
56,866
89,810

1,525,251
158,894
9,572
1,255,812
44,815
56,158

1,706,640
169,083
10,510
1,427,1< 5
45.5(5
54,367

1,896,886
163,252

2,093,976
174,526
(8)
1,790,424
59,033
69,993

1,902,781
175,972

Southern E u r o p e _
Greece
Albania
Italy—
Spain
Portugal
Other E u r o p e Asia
Armenia
Palestine
Syria
T u r k e y in Asia..
China
Japan
India
Korea
Philippines
Other Asia
America
Canada-French
Canada-Other
Newfoundland
Cuba—
Other W e s t IndiesMexico
Central America
South America
AH other
Africa
Australia
Azores
Other A t l a n t i c I s l a n d s .
Pacific Islands
C o u n t r y n o t specified - _
B o r n a t sea

961,719
12,678
3,559

25,061

3,160

• 128
>

20,365
11,677
4,244
4,116

1,414

» 106
8,152
86
3,679
3,113
1,274

1,403
36,796

20,232
1,135

14,166

15,670

201,330
<•)
(")
16,566
»51,887
12,858
11,686
6,414
2,681
15,624
" 83,614

> 179,900

35,565

758

1,231

377

273,598
(•)
(»)
14,840
47,705
11,839
6,085
41,412
2,094
11,187
" 138,436

288,285

168,484

2,360,490

1,743,058

249,970

147,711

798,782

941,906

7,353
27,466
233
3,263

5,772
13,817
141
1,543

425,974
13
5,388
746,327
145,251
238,768

7,915
526
1,419

43,116
551

1,361
721
1,366
2,522

588
41,977

411,529
48,021
23,699
28,397
9,140
14
2,570
299,702

N A N o t available.
Based on 15-percent sample.
Based on 25-percent sample.
8
Foreign-born w h i t e based on 20-percent sample; total foreign born, on c o m p l e t e
count.
4
Listed a s Holland prior t o 1910.
8
Persons reported in 1910 a s of Polish m o t h e r tongue b o r n in Austria, G e r m a n y ,
a n d U.S.S.R. h a v e been deducted f r o m t h e i r respective countries a n d combined as
Poland.
6
W h i t e foreign b o r n for 1920-1950, Armenia included with " O t h e r A s i a " ; beginning
1960, total a n d white foreign b o r n with U.S.S.R.
1
1 8 5 0 - 1 9 0 0 , T u r k e y in Asia included with T u r k e y in E u r o p e ; beginning 1950,
T u r k e y in E u r o p e included with T u r k e y in Asia.
1
2

118




10,086

147,765
95,506
84,952
9,615
(')

M
(")

35,325
' 71,730
11,985
4,650
5,370
11

a

()
1,623,580
47,707
62,347
8

19,819

149,909

(6>

7,047
50,859
52,479

8

1,037,233
363,862
625,580
189,154
131,766
62,686
12,585
118,659
152,890

1,686,102
1,139,978
362.436
575,625
397,282
169.437

1,400,489
135,068
149,824
102,823
10,477
5,284

"I7eI67io9"
49,247
67,453

25,065

11,509

157,580
(«)
6,135
57,227
46,651
2,279
632
3,300

110,450
(•)
3,202
51,900
11,014
716
278
2,532

50,840

« 39,524

« 41,356

•40,808

74,921
« 30,876
572,564
38,773
84,018

1,564,139
» 238,409
" 756,163
(»)
29,295
» 22,735
450,562
23,475
43,510

.,509,855
273,366
770,753
21,361
15,277
15,257
377,433
7,638
28,770

2,011,224
870,852
907,660
23,971
16,089
15,511
639,017
7,791
30,333

1,656,801
307,786
810,092
13,242
12,843
13,526
478,383
4,074
16,855

129,665
16,545
22,060
22,467
4,949
» 7,665
55,979

146,715
13,260
19,900
26,025
4,595
14
5,760
77,175

58,630

70,921
7,868
12,720
35,432
4,053
4,867
1,518
4,963

67,512
5,222
10,801
38,788
5,196
3,643
3,560
5,302

•

~"io~998~
25,751
3,232
17,638
1,011

8
1 9 1 0 , Albania included w i t h T u r k e y in E u r o p e ; 1930 a n d 1940, with " O t h e r
Europe."
9
Includes countries for which figures are n o t shown s e p a r a t e l y .
10
Includes persons born in Serbia a n d Montenegro, which b e c a m e p a r t of Yugoslavia
in 1918.
11
Palestine included with " O t h e r Asia."
12
N e w f o u n d l a n d included with C a n a d a prior t o 1910.
13
Excludes U.S. outlying areas.
14
Includes N e w Zealand a n d T r u s t Territories of t h e Pacific Islands, b u t excludes
outlying areas of t h e U.S.
16
T h e r e were 11,656,641 t o t a l foreign b o r n persons in 1940; d a t a b y c o u n t r y of b i r t h
are n o t available.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

Series C 296-301.
[For years ending J u n e 30.

Passenger Arrivals and Departures: 1908 to 1970

Excludes travel over international l a n d borders, crewmen, military personnel, a n d travelers between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d its outlying areas]

Arrivals
Year

Total

C 296-316

Departures

U.S.
citizens

Total

Aliens

U.S.
citizens

Arrivals
Aliens

Year

Total

299

Departures

U.S.
citizens

Aliens

Total

299

296

U.S.
citizens
300

Aliens

6,208,226 3 , 8 3 1 , 2 0 0
5,457,266 3,342,881
4,645,045 2,904,447
4,073,538 2,553,472
3,613,855 2,253,146

9,353,738
8,029,192
7,061,131
6,177,410
5,462,702

6,107,257
5,221,574
4,587,389
4,033,283
3,542,751

3,246,481
2,807,618
2,473,742
2,144,127
1,919,951

1939
1938
1937
1936
1935

567,773
602,263
567,043
470,682
429,543

343,096
392,796
373,132
307,981
275.199

224,677
209,467
193,911
162,701
154,344

501.500
589,091
584,990
476,172
430,744

327,814
393,186
386.059
306.060
265,095

173,686
195,905
198,931
170,112
165.649

5,059,458
4,475,324
3,948,226
3,612,678
3,360,606

3,099,951
2,786,907
2,433,463
2,199,326
2,043,416

1,959,507
1,688,417
1,514,763
1,413,352
1,317,190

4,819,860
4,139,932
3,688,191
3,318,817
3,063,056

3,084,921
2,709,196
2,421,348
2,159,857
1,969,119

1,734,939
1,430,736
1,266,84?
1,158,960
1,093,937

1934
1933
1932
1931
1930

405,877
424,324
471,590
650,548
813,481

264,143
295,760
326,720
420.200
467,298

141,734
128,564
144,870
230,348
346,183

412,376
534,728
585,561
683,586
683,759

255,071
322,553
350,788
429,219
445,485

157,305
212,175
234,773
254,367
238,274

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956

3,111,530
2,865,567
2,427,540
2,338,768
2,071,130

1,920,582
1,804,435
1,469,262
1,365,075

1,190,948 2,939,330
1,061,132 2,624,959
958,278 2 , 1 9 4 , 3 4 3
973,693 1 , 9 7 6 , 7 1 5
790,020 1 , 8 1 3 , 4 9 8

1,934,953
1,739,046
1,483,915
1,402.107
1,272,516

1,004,377
885,913
710,428
574,608
540,982

1929
1928
1927
1926
1925

803,621
777,838
728,950
688,252
601,942

441,758
422,449
367,908
359,321
304,277

361.863
355,389
361,042
328,931
297,665

632,602
644,869
575,854
569,425
524,843

414,379
414,265
358,278
360,342
314,341

218,223
230,604
217,576
209,083
210,502

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

1,839,156
1,612,767
1,486,440
1,433,010
1,282,165

1,167,593
1,009,503
921,384
797,108
749,702

671,563
603,264
565,056
635,902
532,463

1,584,188
1,413,767
1,340,295
1,198,503
999,574

1,096,146
971,025
923,560
812,644
663,773

488,042
442,742
416,735
385,859
335,801

1924
1923
1922
1921
1920

849,845
758,792
571,442
1,041,470
575,533

285,516
287,321
228,082
203,715
135,520

564,329
471,471
343,360
837,755
440,013

457,607
439,415
617,494
645,041
556,956

267,056
260,765
293,317
247,503
167,602

190,551
178.650
324,177
397,538
389,354

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

1,182,152
1,104,473
1,023,742
829,540
485,007

651,943
606,992
533,531
428,009
263,322

530,209
497,481
490,211
401,531
221,685

981,124
863,951
786,319
695,441
389,584

651,595
548,352
474,048
446,320
226,308

329,529
315,599
312,271
249,121
163,276

1919
1918
1917
1916
1915

194,099
157,605
312,392
326,220
522,032

73,487
44,757
82,738
88,789
192,653

120,612
112,848
229,654
237,431
329,379

363.501
362,920
195,093
297,885
483,342

194,252
232,371
81,156
87,500
142,291

169,249
130,549
113,937
210,385
341,051

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

310,113
205,775
169,870
180,631
261,189
422,273

168,726
101,108
99,233
112,055
169,064
250,887

141,387
104,667
70,637
68,576
92,125
171,386

186,301
118,109
87,233
149,829
230,130
360,908

100,490
60,598
59,083
108,504
163,270
218,485

8 5 , 8 1 1 1914
5 7 , 5 1 1 1913
2 8 , 1 5 0 1912
4 1 , 3 2 5 1911
6 6 , 8 6 0 1910
142,423
1909
1908

1,532,533
1,557,307
1,164,233
1,173,241
1,327,958

240,867 1 , 2 9 1 , 6 6 6
230,623 1,326,684
240,369
923.864
236,660
936,581
220,254 1 , 1 0 7 , 7 0 4

836,689
736,388
799,226
694,876
589,185

299,470
256,367
274,101
258,452
271,331

537,219
480,021
525,125
436,424
317,854

1,074,388
1,114,668

217,173
200,447

586,452
874,686

215,768
159,858

370,684
714,828

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

10,039,426
8,800,147
7,549,492
6,627,010
5,867,001

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

1,281,110

Series C 302-316.
[In t h o u s a n d s .

857,215
914,221

Passengers Arriving, by Area of Embarkation, Flag of Carrier, and Mode of Travel:
1931 to 1970

F o r years ending J u n e 30.

Excludes travel over international land borders, crewmen, military personnel, and travelers between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d its outlying
areas]
Area of e m b a r k a t i o n

Europe

302

Year

Passengers
arriving

303

Asia

1

304

Africa

1

306

305

Canada
and
Greenland '

Mexico

307

Oceania

308

3

F l a g of carrier

M o d e of t r a v e l

West
Indies

Central
America

South
America

Cruise 4

United
States

Foreign

By
sea

By
air

309

310

311

312

313

314

315

316

1970.
1969.
1968.
1967
1966

10,039
8,800
7,549
6,627
5,867

4,087
3,466
3,044
2,758
2,497

893
686
565
482
406

30
21
15
19
18

225
186
161
133
115

79
84
77
77
64

880
827
710
621
538

2,481
2,333
1,931
1,618
1,373

264
243
219
199
175

531
495
429
358
324

569
460
397
362
356

5,106
4,581
3,883
3,208
2,744

4,933
4,219
3,666
3,419
3,123

867
764
713
754
816

9,172
8,036
6,836
5,873
5,051

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

5,059
4,475
3,948
3,613
3,361

2,212
1,952
1,704
1,514
1,444

351
326
284
248
223

15
16
17
15
14

96
81
85
78
63

54
43
45
41
29

441
388
332
296
268

1,118
927
827
819
801

148
130
118
120
99

277
252
218
209
207

347
360
319
272
214

2,246
1,981
1,753
1,620
1,469

2,813
2,494
2,195
1,992
1,891

840
877
834
796
751

4,220
3,598
3,114
2,816
2,609

1960
1959
1958
1957
1956

3,112
2,866
2,428
2,339
2,071

1,256
1,172
1,065
1,049
950

197
175
161
148
130

14
12
13
11
11

55
51
67
51
37

23
32
25
39
40

257
226
76
32
30

847
807
794
802
688

93
92
89
81
73

194
156
148
127
112

175
142

1,472
1,431
1,291
1,256
1,164

1,640
1,435
1,137
1,083
907

754
747
635
683
664

2,358
2,119
1,793
1,656
1,407

1955
1954
1953
1952.
1951.

1,839
1,613
1,486
1,433
1,282

811
722
648
653
582

135
108
89
83
66

11
7
10
8
4

34
22
9
9
26

72
74
63
50
36

29
16
21
25
15

577
611
491
460
430

65
58
58
53
45

104
94
97
91
77

1,047
907
837
842
763

792
706
649
591
519

662
607
576
623
548

1,178
1,006
910
810
734

1950.
1949
1948.
1947.
1946

1,182
1,104
1,024
830
485

588
480
441
325
159

50
49
51
33
18

5
7
8
8
15

19
16
20
23
24

35
97
78
51
34

4
4
4
3
7

363
337
313
323
196

51
47
46
36
23

67
67
63
28
9

750
697
648
586
377

432
407
375
244
108

602
503
491
356
200

581
602
532
473
285

See footnotes at end of table.




119

MIGRATION

C 302-331

Series C 302-316.

Passengers Arriving, by Area of Embarkation, Flag of Carrier, and Mode of Travel:
1931 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands]
Flag of carrier

Area of embarkation
Passengers
arriving

Europe

302

Year

303

Asia

1

Africa

304

Oceania

305

1

306

Canada
and
Greenland2

310
206
170
181
261

73
41
27
22
38

10
6
4
7
27

28
16
6
5
2

20
9
8
9
9

31
14
10
10
6

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

422
568
602
567
471

200
321
350
317
255

19
18
24
24
23

1
1
1
1
1

7
9
9
6
7

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

430
406
424
472
651

248
244
267
287
422

21
18
16
21
25

1
1
1
1
1

6
3
2
1
2

West
Indies

Central
America

South
America

United
States

Foreign

By
sea

By
air

309

310

311

313

314

315

316

2
6

121
89
75
85
129

19
16
17
23
24

5
13
23
17
21

252
139
133
145
202

58
67
37
36
59

107
84
76
118
211

203
121
94
62
51

10
13
13
16
15

6
5
9
10
7

141
166
164
159
132

20
19
20
21
19

18
16
13
14
11

211
179
184
173
155

211
389
418
394
316

379
536
577
544
454

43
32
25
23
17

16
14
11
14
16

8
10
10
11
11

102
91
96
111
143

19
18
15
17
19

9
8
7
8
12

136
119
122
135
176

293
287
303
337
475

414
394
414
463
641

16
11
11
8
9

1
Philippines included with Oceania prior to 1950, with Asia thereafter; prior to 1935,
the Philippines was a U.S. possession and, therefore, was not included in the total for
2
Oceania.
Includes Newfoundland; Greenland not included prior to 1943.

[In thousands.

Mexico 3

308

307

1945
1944
1943...
1942
1941

Series C 317-331.

3
2
(NA)

8
Mexico is not reported separately prior to 1942; figures prior to 1942 are for "Other
4
North America."
D a t a on cruise travel not available prior to 1959.

Passengers Departing, by Area of Debarkation, Flag of Carrier and Mode of Travel:
1931 to 1970

For years ending J u n e 30.

Excludes travel over international land borders, crewmen, military personnel, and travelers between the United States and its outlying
areas]
Area of debarkation

Flag of carrier

Passengers
departing

Europe

317

318

9,354
8,029
7,061
6,177
5,463

3,907
3,223
2,880
2,565
2,312

808
611
533
466
449

33
28
21
22
22

222
191
169
137
119

65
66
95
74
46

846
777
687
609
516

2,157
1,997
1,674
1,430
1,239

243
216
201
192
180

490
444
398
319
264

4,820
4,140
3,688
3,319
3,063

2,111
1,833
1,648
1,461
1,360

357
307
271
236
195

19
17
16
16
12

105
90
71
72
57

32
26
21
27
23

427
364
316
283
253

1,030
831
738
663
677

145
116
110
104
90

2,939
2,625
2,194
1,977
1,813

1,231
1,059
959
812
785

169
141
126
126
107

13
13
13
12
12

47
44
62
42
35

23
30
20
20
18

246
204
78
41
37

805
758
734
728
645

1,582
1,412
1,340
1,199
1,000

703
642
600
486
400

86
78
73
65
29

14
12
12
12
7

25
19
9
10
18

20
26
28
31
7

34
17
21
21
14

981
864
786
695
390

433
364
292
228
96

46
40
55
49
9

6
6
7
7
12

19
17
25
25
11

13
7
6
12
23

186
118
87
150
230

46
20
11
6
9

2
1
1
4
20

15
4
3
3
1

3
1
1
2
8

361
502
589
585
476

133
250
333
325
255

21
19
19
29
27

1
1
1
1
1

431
412
535
586
684

246
247
360
392
451

28
30
35
32
32

1
1
1
1
1

Asia

1

319

Africa

320

1

Canada
and
Greenland2

120

Mode of travel

Mexico 3

West
Indies

Central
America

South
America

Cruise 4

United
States

Foreign

By
sea

By
air

323

324

325

326

327

328

329

330

331

594
477
403
364
316

4,612
4,044
3,587
2,919
2,532

4,742
3,985
3,474
3,258
2,931

859
764
691
713
734

8,494
7,266
6,370
5,465
4,729

252
214
196
190
192

343
343
302
266
204

2,089
1,785
1,593
1,388
1,303

2,731
2,355
2,095
1,930
1,760

813
833
805
772
718

4,007
3,307
2,883
2,547
2,345

84
81
74
72
63

175
151
138
124
112

146
144

1,378
1,278
1,117
1,053
1,013

1,561
1,347
1,078
924
801

720
680
585
580
578

2,219
1,945
1,609
1,397
1,236

546
482
459
441
406

54
47
49
44
38

102
90
90
89
80

900
795
781
690
568

683
617
560
508
431

554
565
536
479
399

1,028
847
805
719
601

5
4
4
8
17

352
316
288
281
170

38
42
41
39
23

68
69
68
45
28

577
528
503
508
296

404
336
283
188
94

467
408
375
295
137

514
456
411
400
253

17
10
5
9
4

11
1
1
3
5

61
52
34
88
136

14
13
11
18
25

16
16
21
16
21

137
84
67
123
191

49
34
20
27
39

47
27
15
91
181

139
91
72
59
49

14
14
13
12
11

12
15
14
15
12

6
8
10
10
8

133
161
164
162
130

21
19
20
18
20

20
15
15
13
13

185
165
182
167
153

176
336
407
418
323

322
472
565
562
461

39
29
24
23
15

11
3
2
2
4

10
10
10
12
13

7
9
10
11
11

99
87
95
108
142

18
17
13
16
18

10
9
9
10
12

132
109
125
137
167

299
303
409
449
516

416
402
526
579
677

15
11
9
7
7

Oceania

321

322

1
Philippines included with Oceania prior to 1950, with Asia thereafter; prior to 1935,
the Philippines was a U.S. possession and, therefore, was not included in the total for
2
Oceania.
Includes Newfoundland; Greenland not included prior to 1943.




Mode of travel

8
Mexico is not reported separately prior to 1942; figures prior to 1942 are for "Other
4
N o r t h America."
Data on cruise travel not available prior to 1959.

Chapter D

Labor
Labor Force (Series D 1-682)
D 1-74. General note.
The conceptual structure and techniques for measurement of
current labor force data were developed during the late 1930's by
the Work Projects Administration (see John N . Webb, "Concepts
Used in Unemployment Surveys," Journal of the American Statistical
Association, March 1939). However, prior to 1940, especially during
the 1930's, the economically active sector was differentiated on the
basis of its ability and willingness to work. Thus, most surveys
during the 1930's counted as unemployed those persons not working
but "willing and able to work." Willingness and ability, however,
turned out to be extremely subjective in practice, and since these
concepts were dependent on the attitudes of the persons involved, it
was difficult to compile data on a comparable basis from place to
place and from time to time.
The estimates shown here, prior to 1940, were prepared on as
comparable a basis as possible with the concepts used since 1940. For
the techniques used in preparing these data, see their source. In
contrast, the decennial census data shown here are not directly comparable with annual data because of differences in collection techniques, time reference, and other factors.
For another set of labor force estimates, 1890-1950, see Clarence
D. Long, The Labor Force Under Changing Income and Employment,
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1958, appendix
tables A-4, A-6, and A-20.
The concepts and procedures used since 1940 are based principally
upon an individual's actual activity, that is, whether he was working,
looking for work, or doing something else during the time reference
of the survey. Instead of questions about a person's attitudes with
respect to his labor market status (e.g., "Are you able to work?" or
"Are you willing to work?" or "Do you want work?"), the present
concept makes labor market participation depend on the more overt
test of working or actively seeking work.
Current labor force data are collected for the week containing the
12th of each month for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Bureau
of the Census as a part of the latter's Current Population Survey.
The Survey is based on a scientifically designed sample of households
in 461 areas (1966-1970), with coverage in every State and the District of Columbia. From May 1956 through December 1966, the
sample covered 330 areas, all of which were continued in the new and
expanded sample. From January 1954 through April 1956, the sample covered 230 areas and, prior to 1954, the interviewed households
were concentrated in 68 sample areas. The number of households
interviewed totaled about 35,000 from May 1956 until January 1967,
when it was raised to about 47,000. Before May 1956, a total of
about 21,000 household interviews were conducted monthly.
The household interview method (population approach) involves
direct enumeration and interrogation of individuals to obtain information on employment activity from workers or members of
workers' households. This approach encompasses direct enumeration of all employed and unemployed persons including the selfemployed, unpaid family workers, domestic servants, and others who
do not ordinarily appear on the payrolls of any establishment. For
a more detailed description of the concepts, techniques, estimation
procedures, and adequacy and reliability of these data, see Bureau
of the Census, Current Population Reports, series P-23, No. 22.
Labor force data have also been collected in the decennial censuses



of population. The sample size for labor force data has varied from
census to census (e.g., 20-percent sample in 1970, 25-percent sample
in 1960). Also, the concepts have changed over time in a manner
corresponding to the Current Population Survey. (See the Decennial
Census reports cited for series D 11-25.)
In the surveys and censuses conducted by the Bureau of the Census,
persons are currently classified with regard to employment status
by the following criteria.
Employed persons comprise: (a) All those who, during the survey
week, worked at all as paid employees, in their own business or profession or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more as
unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a family member; and
(b) all those who were not working but who had jobs or businesses
from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management dispute, or personal reasons,
whether or not they were paid by their employers for the time off,
and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.
Each employed person is counted only once. Those who hold
more than one job are counted in the job at which they worked the
greatest number of hours during the survey week. Included are
employed citizens of foreign countries, temporarily in the United
States, but not living on the premises of an Embassy. Excluded are
persons whose only activity consisted of work around the house
(such as own home housework and painting or repairing own home)
or volunteer work for religious, charitable, and similar organizations.
Unemployed persons comprise all persons who did not work during
the survey week, who made specific efforts to find a job within the
past 4 weeks, and who were available for work during the survey
week except for temporary illness. Also included as unemployed are
those who did not work at all, were available for work, and (a) were
waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off;
(b) were waiting to report to a new wage or salary job within 30 days.
The civilian labor force (persons 14 years old and over through 1966
and to persons 16 years old and over thereafter) is the sum of the
employed and the unemployed. Data on the size of the Armed Forces
(except for decennial data) is obtained from the Defense Department
and added to the civilian labor force to provide the total labor force
figures.
Persons not in the labor force include all persons 14 years old and
over (or 16 years old and over) not classified as employed, unemployed, or in the Armed Forces.
The foregoing criteria or concepts of measuring employment and
unemployment include several revisions made in January 1967 by the
President's Committee to Appraise Employment and Unemployment
Statistics. The principal revisions are as follows:
a. A specific jobseeking activity within the past 4 weeks must
be reported in order to have a person counted as unemployed.
Previously, the household interview questionnaire was ambiguous as to the time period for jobseeking, and there was no specific
question concerning methods of seeking work.
b. A person must be currently available for work in order
to be counted as unemployed. This revision in concept primarily
affects the classification of students, who, for example, begin to
look for work in the spring when they may not be available until
June. They were previously counted as unemployed but are now
classified as not in the labor force.
121

D 11-25

LABOR

c. Persons with a job are classified as employed, even though
they were absent from their jobs in the survey week and were
looking for other jobs. Previously, persons absent from their
jobs because of strikes, bad weather, etc., who were looking for
other jobs were classified as unemployed.
d. The new definition of unemployment excludes those who
would have been looking for work except for the belief that no
work was available (theoretically counted in the past, but without explicit questions).
Historical data have not been revised to take account of these
changes because the differences between the old and the new series
are relatively small. For most analytical purposes, the data may
be regarded as reasonably comparable. The table below presents
comparisons for employment status in 1966, by sex and age. Additional tables comparing the published figures for 1966 on an annual
average basis with the estimates derived from the new definitions
and procedures appear in Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment and
Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor Force, Feb. 1967.

Item

New
definitions

Old
definitions

75,715
72,939
3,904
69,035
2,776
52,343

76,770
72,895
3,979
68,916
2,875
52,288

44,637
43,660
2,901
40,760
987
8,967

44,786
43,667
2,894
40,773
1,119
8,818

24,512
23,493
626
22,867
1,019
36,348

24,427
23,507
675
22,832
919
36,434

6,565
5,795
377
5,418
770
7,029

6,557
5,721
410
5,310
836
7,036

TOTAL, 16 YEARS AND OVER

Civilian labor force.
Employed
Agriculture
Nonagricultural industries
Unemployed
Not in labor force
MEN, 2 0 YEARS AND OVER

Civilian labor force
Employed...
Agriculture
Nonagricultural industries
Unemployed
Not in labor force
WOMEN, 20 YEARS AND OVER
Civilian labor force
Employed
Agriculture
Nonagricultural industries
Unemployed
Not in labor force..
BOTH SEXES, 16 TO 1 9 YEARS

Civilian labor force
Employed
Agriculture..
Nonagricultural industries
Unemployed
Not in labor force

D 1-10. Labor force and its components, 1900-1947.
Source: Stanley Lebergott, Manpower in Economic Growth: The
American Record Since 1800, table A-3. (Copyright 1964; used with
permission of McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.)
Lebergott's estimates are designed to be comparable with those
of the Current Population Survey. That survey, conducted by the
Census Bureau, with its labor-force data presented by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS) provides the continuing official source of
reliable data on these subjects. Hence, Lebergott seeks to link to
the levels it provides for the years since 1940, when it began. However, the Survey estimates are not wholly consistent with the decennial
census levels for 1940. Lebergott's estimates, in consequence, will
be at variance with studies tied to decennial census figures. Because
the Survey estimates are not consistent with the farm-employment
series of the Department of Agriculture, nor with the employees in
nonagricultural establishment series of the Department of Labor,
Lebergott's series will also not be consistent with them.
See source pp. 355-420. Lebergott's methods may be briefly described as follows: Preliminary annual labor force and employment
estimates were derived by interpolating between detailed worker
rates in the census years, and applying the resultant series to un122



published census estimates of population annually from 1900 to
1930. Special adjustments were made for labor force variation in
World War I, and for immigration effects between 1900 and 1914.
Tests of nonlinearity in the 1930's were made.
For 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930, Lebergott computed worker rates
separately for males and females in each of three nativity groups—
native white, foreign-born white, and Negro—and within each group
for the separate age intervals (10-13, 14-19, 20-24, 25-44, 45-64,
65 and over). For 1920 and 1930, he used the census data without
adjustment. For 1900, minor adjustment was required in the reported data to develop estimates for the 10-13, 14-19, and 20-24
groups. For 1910, he used a preliminary set of rates roughly consistent with the adjusted U.S. estimate. The worker rates used for
1900, 1920, and 1930 necessarily differ from Durand's estimates
(John Durand, The Labor Force in the United States, 1890-1960), as
the latter are all adjusted to be comparable with the 1940 census
totals, whereas the present series is comparable with the Current
Population Survey estimates beginning 1940.
The worker rates for each age-sex-nativity group were interpolated
to give annual estimates for 1900 to 1930, then applied to unpublished
census data on population. Two adjustments were made in the data
thus derived. Armed Forces overseas, excluded from the census
series, were added to the preliminary labor-force series for 1917 to
1919. Secondly, the census estimates were based largely on schoolattendance figures and other series not particularly sensitive to the
inmigration of adult workers. Lebergott, therefore, computed a
direct estimate for 1900 to 1914 of immigrant worker arrivals, and
used that series as a measure of 1900 to 1914 labor-force trends among
the foreign born.
The preliminary 1900 to 1930 employment trend series thus derived
for persons aged 14 and over was used to interpolate between gainfulworker figures for 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930. The decennial rates
of gain were used to adjust from reported census date figures to
annual averages. In addition, the reported 1910 figure was adjusted
to allow for the overcount of that year. Lebergott estimated the
adjustment for males 14 and over as for females, on the assumption
that the overcounted group included only home-farm workers having
the same age distribution as reported home-farm workers.
Interpolation between 1930 and 1940 benchmark totals was by
means of the BLS total labor force series. The BLS series was derived by applying annual worker rates for age-sex groups to census
population data for the corresponding groups. The worker rates
were interpolations between estimated 1930 labor-force rates and
those shown for 1940 by the Current Population Survey. The
resultant series reflects changing proportions among the various agesex groups, and these changes are reflected in the Lebergott series.
The unemployment series for 1900 to 1930 was derived by making
direct benchmark estimates of unemployment in 1900, 1910, and
1930, using the population census data on unemployment in those
years. Intercensal estimates were then obtained by estimating
civilian labor force and employment and deducting one series from
the other.
The estimate of unemployment in 1900 was based on data collected
in two enumerations. One was the 1900 Census of Population, which
secured information on unemployment during the year preceding the
taking of the census. The second was a Cost of Living Survey made
by the Commissioner of Labor of family income and expenditures
that secured detailed information for about 25,000 families on cause
and duration of unemployment during 1900-1901.
Although the census of 1910 secured data on unemployment of wage
earners in the previous year, these data were not tabulated until
1948. The 1910 data on unemployment are in the form of distributions for unemployed wage earners 16 years and over by duration of
unemployment. By applying the distribution to the total for wage
earners 16 years and over, and deducting estimates made similarly
for teachers and home-farm laborers (wage earners), Lebergott secured
a preliminary estimate for the number of unemployed wage earners by
duration group. The resultant distribution was reduced to exclude

LABOR FORCE
unemployment that would not be counted by current definitions. He
used the same proportions within each group as indicated in the 1901
Cost of Living Survey—multiplying by the same average duration
figures, within each group, as used for 1900, and computing man-years
of unemployment.
An annual average unemployment benchmark for 1930 was estimated as follows. Prior estimates (John Durand and Edwin Goldfield, Estimates of Labor Force, Employment and Unemployment in the
United States, 191+0 and 1930) indicated that 5.17 percent of the gainfully occupied total for April were unemployed. This ratio, applied
to the census gainful-worker total for April, gives an April unemployment figure and, by subtraction, an employment figure. The annual
average employment was estimated at 97.02 percent of the April
level, using ratios for its agricultural, manufacturing, and other
components. Adding Armed Forces overseas to this figure and
subtracting from the annual average gainful-worker total gives an
unemployment figure for 1930.
Following the procedure used for the original BLS estimates, but
adopting a variety of revisions in the labor force and the component
employment series, gives unemployment estimates for 1929-1939
that differ in trivial amount from those in the published BLS series
except for 1929, which is approximately 20 percent different. Because
of the widespread use of the BLS figures and because the differences
are well within the error involved in the computation of the duplicating item, Lebergott adopted the BLS figures beginning 1930 as his
unemployment totals, then subtracted these from the labor-force
totals to give the employment series.
Beginning 1940, Lebergott adopted the Census Bureau's Current
Population Survey reports, supplementing them for certain omissions.
These data appear in Current Population Reports, series P-50.
See general note for series D 1-74 and also table and text for
series D 11-25.
D 11-25.

Labor force status of the population, 1870-1970.

Source: Annual data: 1947-1970, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,
series D 11-19, Employment and Earnings, monthly issues, tables
A-l and A-2; series D 20-23, unpublished data. Decennial data:
U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1870-1930, Twelfth Census of the United
States: 1900, Special Reports, Occupations, table IV, and Fifteenth
Census of the United States: 1930, vol. IV, Occupations by States,
tables 1.2 and 11; 1940-1950, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol.
II, part 1, tables 52 and 118; 1960, U.S. Census of Population: 1960,
vol. I, part 1, table 82; 1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I,
part 1, table 90.
In 1953, population data from the 1950 census were introduced
into the estimating procedure, affecting the comparability of the
labor force figures with earlier years. Population levels were raised
by 600,000; labor force, total employment, and agricultural employment levels were raised by 350,000, primarily in the figures for all
persons and for males. Similarly, population data from the 1960
census were introduced in 1962, reducing the population totals by
50,000 and the labor force and employment totals by 200,000.
The inclusion of Alaska and Hawaii in 1960 resulted in an increase
of about 600,000 in population and 300,000 in the labor force, fourfifths of which was in nonagricultural employment.
See general note for series D 1-74.
D 26-28.

Gainful workers, by sex, by State, 1870-1950.

Source: Everett S. Lee, Ann Ratner Miller, Carol P. Brainerd,
and Richard A. Easterlin, Population Redistribution and Economic
Growth, United States, 1870-1950, vol. I, Methodological Considerations
and Reference Tables, The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1957, table L-4. (Copyright.)
These series cover persons engaged in agricultural and nonagricultural occupations, shown separately in the source. The basic
data are from the decennial censuses. To facilitate tabulation, the
agriculture series was compiled directly and nonagricultural totals
were obtained by subtraction from totals for all occupations.



D 127-141

Census tabulations of gainful workers during the period 1870-1930
included all persons 10 years of age and over. Beginning in 1940,
however, tabulations of the labor force included only persons 14 years
of age and over. The authors therefore constructed estimates of
10-13 year-old workers by sex for each State on the basis of the
occupational distributions of 14-15 year-olds.
For 1870 through 1930 all gainful workers are included in the
series. All experienced persons in the labor force are included for
1950, that is, all persons except those looking for their first jobs. The
1940 data refer to employed persons and to experienced workers
seeking work but exclude persons on public emergency work.
For definition of "gainful workers," see text for series D 75-84.
D 29-41.

Labor force, by age and sex, 1890-1970.

Source: Annual data, 1940-1946, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, series P-50 and P-25; 1947-1970, U.S.
Department of Labor, Manpower Report of the President, March 1972,
pp. 158-159. Decennial census data, 1890-1930, John D. Durand, The
Labor Force in the United States, 1890-1960, Social Science Research
Council, New York, 1948; 1940 and 1960, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I, part 1, tables 82-84; 1950,
U.S. Census of Population: 1950, vol. IV, Special Reports, Employment
and Personal Characteristics, p. 1A-62; and 1970, U.S. Census of
Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, table 215, and unpublished data.
The civilian labor force data are annual averages. However, the
data on the Armed Forces and on the total population (the base for
labor force participation rates) are estimates as of July 1 of the
specified year.
See general note for series D 1-74 and also text for series D 11-25.
D 42-48. Civilian labor force as percent of civilian noninstitutional
population, by race and sex, 1940-1970.
Source: See source for series D 29-41.
See general note for series D 1-74 and text for series D 11-25.
D 49-62. Marital status of women in the civilian labor force, 18901970.
Source: Annual data, 1940-1958, U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Reports, series P-50; 1959-1970, U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Special Labor Force Reports, various issues. Decennial data, U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1890-1930, U.S. Census of
Population: 1930, vol. IV, table 25; 1940-1970, U.S. Census of Population: 1970, vol. I, tables 2, 3, and 5.
In the annual series, data for 1940 are based on complete count
census data revised for comparability with the Current Population
Survey; data for 1944-1970 are based on the Current Population
Survey.
See general note for series D 1-74 and text for series D 11-25.
D 63-74. Married women (husband present) in the labor force, by
age and presence of children, 1948-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1972, table 14.
Children refer to "own" children of the family head and include
stepchildren and adopted children.
See general note for series D 1-74.
D 75-84. Gainful workers, by age, sex, and farm-nonfarm occupations, 1820-1930.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports,
Comparative Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1870-191+0,
pp. 93, 100, and 142.
123

LABOR

D 85-141

The gainful worker concept differs radically from current labor
force concepts as described in the general note for series D 1-74.
The primary purpose of the gainful worker statistics was a count of
occupations. The data were based on a question relating to occupational status and not to employment status as currently defined.
Census enumerators were instructed to find and enter the occupation
of each person 10 years of age and over who followed an occupation
in which he earned money or its equivalent, or in which he assisted
in the production of marketable goods. Thus, the term "gainful
workers" includes all persons who usually followed a gainful occupation although they may not have been employed when the census
was taken. It does not include women doing housework in their
own homes, without wages, and having no other employment, nor
children working at home, merely on general household work, or
chores, or at odd times on other work.
The question as posed by the enumerator made no reference to
time. The response thus varied substantially with the individual.
Many persons who were retired or permanently disabled and who
had not worked for some time reported their former line of work
and were counted as gainful workers. On the other hand, many
employed persons did not enter themselves as gainful workers, because
they considered themselves as students or housewives and their
current employment as only temporary.
These and other factors made for incomparabilities among different
age and occupational groups from one decennial census to the next.
The gainful worker statistics, however, are considered as a generally
reliable measure of long-term trends during the time period covered.
For a more detailed discussion of the gainful worker concept and
the data themselves, see John D. Durand, The Labor Force in the
United States, 1890-1960, Social Science Research Council, New
York, 1948, p. 191 et seg.; John D. Durand, "Development of the
Labor Force Concept, 1930-40," Labor Force Definition and Measurement, appendix A, Social Science Research Council, Bulletin 56,
1947; and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports,
Population, "Estimates of Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment in the U.S.: 1940 and 1930."

Beginning with 1940, figures were obtained from the U.S. Bureau
of the Census Current Population Survey. These data appear in
the Census Bureau's series P-50 reports and, beginning 1958, in
the Bureau of Labor Statistics monthly Employment and Earnings.

D 85-86.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1972, p. 151.

Unemployment, 1890-1970.

Source: 1890-1928, see source for series D 1-10, tables A-3 and
A-15; 1929-1970, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and
Earnings, May 1972.
For data prior to 1900, an 1890 benchmark was derived from the
unemployment data reported in the 1890 and 1900 censuses. Data
for the primary male groups in the labor force showed unemployment
in 1890 at 79.31 percent of that in 1900. Applying this ratio to the
1900 unemployment rate gives an 1890 rate of 3.96 percent. This
rate applied to an estimated 1890 total for the labor force aged 14
and over gives the 1890 unemployment figure.
Intercensal unemployment figures for 1891-1899 were derived by
deducting an employment series from a labor-force series. The
employment series is the adjusted sum of a number of detailed series,
whose derivation is described in Manpower in Economic Growth, pp.
421-478.
The figures for 1900-1939 represent estimates of unemployment
on as comparable a basis as possible to current labor force concepts.
There have been many estimates of unemployment for these years
prepared by such agencies as the National Industrial Conference
Board and by authors such as Paul Douglas in Real Wages in the
United States, 1890-1926 (these are discussed and compared in
Lebergott, cited above). In all of these, including the series presented
here, unemployment was calculated as a residual. That is, estimates
were first made of the civilian labor force, then of employment; the
difference between the two provides the estimates of unemployment.
The figures for decennial census years were used as benchmarks,
with interpolations made for intercensal years from a variety of
available sources.
124



See general note for series D 1-74 and text for series D 87-101.

D 87-101.

Unemployment rates for selected groups, 1947-1970.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1972, pp. 128-129, and 144.
The unemployment rate represents the percent of the civilian labor
force reported as unemployed by the Current Population Survey
during the survey week (the week containing the 12th of each month).
Annual figures shown here are averages of monthly figures.
Duration of unemployment represents the length of time (through
the end of the current survey week) during which persons classified
as unemployed had been continuously looking for work. For persons
on layoff, duration of unemployment represents the number of full
weeks since the termination of their most recent employment. A
period of two weeks or more during which a person was employed
or ceased looking for work breaks the continuity of the present period
of seeking work. Series D 99 represents the unemployment rate
calculated as a percent of the civilian labor force. Average duration,
series D 100, is an arithmetic mean computed from a distribution by
single weeks of unemployment.
State insured unemployment refers to persons seeking benefits
under State unemployment insurance programs. Series D 101 represents the unemployment rate for the survey week calculated as a
percent of average covered employment.
See general note for series D 1-74.

D 102-115.

Unemployment rates, by industry, 1948-1970.

See general note for series D 1-74 and text for series D 87-101.

D 116-126. Persons with a job but not at work and civilians employed,
by hoars worked, 1950-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings,
May issues.
Hours of work statistics relate to the actual number of hours worked
during the survey week. (See general note for series D 1-74.) For
example, a person who normally works 40 hours a week but who
was off on the Veterans Day holiday would be reported as working 32
hours even though he was paid for the holiday.
For persons working in more than one job, the figures relate to
the number of hours worked in all jobs during the week, and all the
hours are credited to the longest job.
Persons who worked 35 hours or more in the survey week are
designated as working "full time"; persons who worked between 1 and
34 hours are designated as working "part time."

D 127-141. Employees on nonagricultural payrolls, by major industry
divisions, 1900-1970.
Source: 1900-1928, see source for series D 1-10, table A-5; 19291970, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook of Labor Statistics,
1972, p. 89.

LABOR FORCE
Data from payroll records, submitted voluntarily by over 160,000
employers, provide (1) current information on wage and salary employment, hours, and earnings in nonagricultural establishments, and
(2) job vacancies and labor turnover in manufacturing, by industry
and geographic location. These statistical programs are conducted
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in cooperation with State
agencies.
The two types of data collection documents used are of the "shuttle"
type, with spaces for each month of the calendar year. The cooperating State agencies mail the reporting forms to the participating establishments each month, use the information to prepare State and area
estimates, and then send the basic data to BLS in Washington for
use in preparing national series.
Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who
receive pay for any part of the reference pay period, and include
workers on paid sick leave (when pay is received directly from the
firm), on paid holiday or paid vacation, and those who work during
a part of the pay period and are unemployed or on strike during the
rest of the period. Proprietors, the self-employed, unpaid family
workers, farmworkers, and domestic workers in households are excluded. Government employment covers civilian employees only.
Periodically, the industry employment series are adjusted to recent
benchmarks to improve their accuracy. These adjustments may also
affect the hours, earnings, and labor turnover series since employment
levels are used as weights. Industry data for these series have been
adjusted to March 1970 benchmarks.
Total employment in nonagricultural establishments from the
"payroll" survey is not directly comparable with the estimates of
nonagricultural employment obtained from the monthly "household"
survey (Current Population Survey). The household survey includes
the self-employed, unpaid family workers, and private household
workers and is basically a count of persons. The payroll series, in
contrast, excludes these workers and is basically a count of jobs.
Thus, the multiple jobholder, counted only once in the household
survey, would be counted once for each job by the payroll survey.
Employment estimates developed by quinquennial censuses may
differ from payroll estimates due, primarily, to the reporting practices
of multiproduct establishments, and administrative handling of
central offices and auxiliary units.
For a more detailed description of these programs see Chapter 2,
"Employment, Hours, and Earnings," of the Handbook of Methods for
Surveys and Studies, BLS Bulletin 1711.
The data summarized in these series are available in considerable
detail (estimates are provided for about 400 different industries each
month). For a discussion of available historical data, see Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, United States, 1909-1971,
Bulletin No. 1312-8; for an analysis of historical trends, see Seymour
L. Wolfbein, "Changing Patterns of Industrial Employment,"
Monthly Labor Review, March 1956.
D 142-151. Production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonagricultural payrolls, by industry division, 1909-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1972, p. 92.
See text for series D 127-141.
D 152-166.

Industrial distribution of gainful workers, 1820-1940.

Source: Solomon Fabricant, "The Changing Industrial Distribution of Gainful Workers: Some Comments on the American Decennial
Statistics for 1820-1940," Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 11,
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1949, p. 42.
(Copyright.)
For definition of "gainful workers," see text for series D 75-84.
The data are based almost entirely on estimates in the following
monographs which were prepared mainly from data collected in the



D 127-141

decennial censuses of population: P. K. Whelpton, "Occupational
Groups in the United States, 1820-1920," Journal of the American
Statistical Association, September 1926; U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Sixteenth Census Reports, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the
United States, 1870 to 19U0-, and Daniel Carson, "Industrial Composition of Manpower in the United States, 1870-1940," Studies in Income
and Wealth, vol. 11.
D 167-181.

Labor force and employment, by industry, 1800-1960.

Source: See source for series D 1-10, table A-l.
The individual series on labor force and employment for 1800 to
1960 were derived in extensive detail. A full description of the
procedures used appears in a Conference on Research in Income and
Wealth, Studies in Income and Wealth, vol. 30, pp. 132 ff. The data
represent revisions of some of the materials used for series D 152-166
and are intended to be comparable with current official series.
D 182-232. Major occupation group of the experienced civilian labor
force, by sex, 1900-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1900-1950 (1950 classification), David L. Kaplan and M. Claire Casey, Occupational Trends
in the United States, 1900-1950, Working Paper No. 5, 1958; 19501960 (1960 classification), U.S. Census of Population: 1960, vol. I,
part 1, table 201; 1960 (1970 classification)-1970, U.S. Census of
Population: 1970, vol. I, part 1, table 221.
The data for 1900-1950 (1950 classification) constitute primarily
an updating by Kaplan and Casey of the material in Sixteenth Census
Reports, Comparative Occupation Statistics in the United States, 1870191,0. Separate series developed by Alba M. Edwards in that report
were brought together and a number of new estimates were prepared
to fill gaps. The appropriate figures were then adjusted to conform
to the definitions used in the 1950 occupational classification system.
Except where there was firm evidence to support a change, Edwards'
basic assumptions and estimates were utilized throughout.
The source cautions that the data, particularly those for 1900,
are approximations only. The estimates for 1900 "were included
mainly for the purpose of rounding out a half-century of information,
despite some obvious deficiencies. Particularly prior to 1910, there
is little information available on the exact definitions used for the
several occupational categories. And, even for fairly recent years,
there is often only meager statistical intelligence on which to base
adjustments for comparability with the 1950 definitions."
The universe covered in the Kaplan and Casey series is described
as the "economically active population." Prior to 1940, this refers to
civilian gainful workers 10 years old and over; for 1940 and 1950,
it refers to persons 14 years old and over in the experienced civilian
labor force (all employed and unemployed workers with previous
work experience). Two incomparabilities should be noted. First,
there are important differences between the gainful worker and labor
force concepts (see general note for series D 1-74, and text for series
D 75-84). Second, there is the difference in age limitation. The
inclusion of the 10-to-13 group prior to 1940, and their exclusion in
1940 and 1950, follows the census practice in those years.
The occupation classification system used in the 1970 census is
similar to that used in each decennial census since 1940. However,
the changes made for each of the censuses affect the comparability of
data from one census to another. For example, many of the larger
1960 occupation categories were divided into several smaller categories
which increased the number of categories in the 1970 system to 441,
compared with 297 in 1960.
A new major group, "transport equipment operatives," added to
the occupation classification in 1970, includes occupations formerly
part of the "operatives" major group. The arrangement of some
125

LABOR

D 233-682 and D 1-10

major groups was changed to form more "families" of occupations.
This applies especially to the "professional" and "service" major
groups. Although there was an effort to limit changes between
major groups, there were many cases where such changes were necessary. One such change is the treatment of apprentices. They were
moved from "operatives" to "craftsmen" and are classified as a
subcategory of their craft.
Two other changes in the census have an important effect on comparability: (1) The allocation of "not reported" cases to the major
groups in 1970 increased the size of those totals relative to the totals
for 1950 and 1960 when there was no allocation of these characteristics; and (2) the age coverage for statistics on these subjects to
accord with past and current definitions of the labor force, as indicated in the table for series D 182-232.
The population census occupational classification system is generally
comparable with the system used in U.S. Bureau of Employment
Security, Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), 3d edition, with
the exception of the blue collar workers (i.e. manual and service
workers). The DOT structure for these occupations is quite differ-

Series D 1-10.

ent from that used by the Bureau of the Census. An important
reason for this is that the two systems are designed to meet different
needs and to be used under different circumstances. The DOT
system is designed primarily for employment service needs, such as
placement and counseling, and is ordinarily used to classify very
detailed occupational information obtained in an interview with the
worker himself. The census system, on the other hand, is designed
for statistical purposes and is ordinarily used in the classification of
limited occupational descriptions obtained in a self-enumeration
questionnaire or in an interview with a member of the worker's family.
D 233-682. Detailed occupation of the economically active population, 1900-1970.
Source: See source for series D 182-232.
Dashes (
) are used in the columns of this table to denote that
comparable data are not available because of changes in definitions
and occupations.
See also text for series D 182-232.

Labor Force and Its Components: 1900 to 1947

[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over. A n n u a l averages]
T o t a l labor force

Year

Number

1

y

P e r c e n t of
noninstitutional
population

Armed
Forces

2

3

Employed

Unemployed
Percer it o f —

Civilian
labor force
Total

Farm

Nonfarm

Total
Civilian
labor force

4

5

6

7

9

8

Nonfarm
employees
10

1947
1946

61,758
60,970

57.4
57.2

1,590
3,450

60,168
57,520

57,812
55,250

8,256
8,320

49,557
46,930

2,356
2,270

3.9
3.9

5.4
5.5

1945...
1944
1943
1942
1941

65,290
66,040
64,560
60,380
57,530

61.9
63.1
62.3
58.8
56.7

11,430
11,410
9,020
3,970
1,620

53,860
54,630
55,540
56,410
55,910

52,820
53,960
54,470
53,750
50,350

8,580
8,950
9,080
9,250
9,100

44,240
45,010
45,390
44,500
41,250

1,040
670
1,070
2,660
5,560

1.9
1.2
1.9
4.7
9.9

2.7
1.7
2.7
6.8
14.4

1940
1939
1938
1937
1936

56,180
55,588
54,872
54,088
53,319

56.0
56.0
56.0
55.9
55.7

540
370
340
320
300

55,640
55,218
54,532
53,768
53,019

47,520
45,738
44,142
46,068
43,989

9,540
9,710
9,840
10,000
10,090

37,980
36,028
34,302
36,068
33,899

8,120
9,480
10,390
7,700
9,030

14.6
17.2
19.1
14.3
17.0

21.3
25.2
27.9
21.3
25.4

1935
1934
1933
1932
1931

52,553
51,910
51,132
50,348
49,585

55.6
55.7
55.6
55.4
55.2

270
260
250
250
260

52,283
51,650
50,882
50,098
49,325

41,673
40,310
38,052
38,038
41,305

10,110
9,990
10,090
10,120
10,240

31,563
30,320
27,962
27,918
31,065

10,610
11,340
12,830
12,060
8,020

20.3
22.0
25.2
24.1
16.3

30.2
32.6
37.6
36.3
25.2

1930
1929
1928.
1927
1926

48,783
48,017
47,367
46,634
45,885

55.0
55.1
55.2
55.2
55.3

260
260
262
259
256

48,523
47,757
47,105
46,375
45,629

44,183
-46,207
45,123
44,856
44,828

10,340
10,541
10,497
10,529
10,690

33,843
35,666
34,626
34,327
34,138

4,340
1,550
1,982
1,519
801

8.9
3.2
4.2
3.3
1.8

14.2
5.3
6.9
5.4
2.9

1925
1924
1923
1922
1921

45,431
44,502
43,699
42,772
42,341

55.4
55.5
55.8
55.7
55.9

262
267
255
276
362

45,169
44,235
43,444
42,496
41,979

43,716
42,045
42,395
39,637
37,061

10,662
10,599
10,621
10,561
10,443

33,054
31,446
31,774
29,076
26,618

1,453
2,190
1,049
2,859
4,918

3.2
5.0
2.4
6.7
11.7

5.4
8.3
4.1
11.4
19.5

1920
1919...
1918
1917
1916

41,720
41,239
41,980
40,742
40,238

55.6
56.4
57.7
56.6
56.6

380
1,543
2,904
719
181

41,340
39,696
39,076
40,023
40,057

_ 39,208
39,150
38,540
38,175
38,014

10,440
10,498
10,674
10,788
10,802

28,768
28,652'
27,866
27,387
27,212

2,132
546
536
1,848
2,043

5.2
1.4
1.4
4.6
5.1

8.6
2.4
2.4
8.2
9.1

1915
1914
1913_
1912
1911

39,774
39,564
38,832
38,081
37,623

56.8
57.3
57.3
57.4
57.6

174
163
157
149
145

39,600
39,401
38,675
37,932
37,478

36,223
36,281
37,004
36,173
34,960

10,953
10,945
10,974
11,136
11,107

25,270
25,336
26,030
25,037
23,853

3,377
3,120
1,671
1,759
2,518

8.5
7.9
4.3
4.6
6.7

15.6
14.7
8.2
9.0
13.0

1910
1909.
1908
1907
1906

36,850
35,855
35,039
34,295
33,321

57.4
57.2
57.2
57.2
56.8

141
134
123
112
109

36,709
35,721
34,916
34,183
33,212

34,559
33,897
32,136
33,238
32,638

11,260
11,163
11,238
11,493
11,479

23,299
22,734
20,898
21,745
21,159

2,150
1,824
2,780
945
574

5.9
5.1
8.0
2.8
1.7

11.6
10.3
16.4
6.0
3.9

1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
1900

32,408
31,548
30,804
30,012
29,268
28,500

56.5
56.3
56.2
56.0
55.8
55.5

109
107
106
108
115
124

32,299
31,441
30,698
29,904
29,153
28,376

30,918
29,750
29,494
28,807
27,948
26,956

11,187
11,076
10,869
10,753
10,916
11,050

19,731
18,674
18,625
18,054
17,032
15,906

1,381
1,691
1,204
1,097
1,205
1,420

4.3
5.4
3.9
3.7
4.0
5.0

9.5
12.0
9.0
8.6
10.1
12.6

126

-




LABOR FORCE

Series D 11-25.

D 442-524

Labor Force Status of the Population: 1870 to 1970

[In thousands of persons 16 years old and over, except a s noted. Annual estimates are averages of m o n t h l y figures. T h e introduction of d a t a f r o m t h e decennial censuses i n t o
t h e estimation procedure in 1953 a n d 1962 a n d t h e inclusion of Alaska a n d Hawaii beginning 1960 h a v e resulted in 3 periods of noncomparability; see text]
Civilian labor force

T o t a l labor force
Total
noninstitutional
p o p u la tion 1

Year

N o t in labor force

Employed
P e r c e n t of
Number2 population

Unemployed

Total
Total

11

14

Agriculture

15

16

17

Total

Keeping
house

Nonagricultural

In
school

18

Unable
t o work

Other

22

TOTAL

1970
196 9
1968-...
196 7
196 6

140,182
137,841
135,562
133,319
131,180

85,903
84,240
82,272
80,793
78,893

61.3
61.1
60.7
60.6
60.1

82,715
80,734
78,737
77,347
75,770

78,627
77,902
75,920
74,372
72,895

3,462
3,606
3,817
3,844
3,979

75,165
74,296
72,103
70,527
68,915

4,088
2,832
2,817
2,975
2,875

54,280
53,602
53,291
52,527
52,288

35,118
34,888
35,204
34,993
35,230

7,033
7,013
6,900
6,657
6,423

2,409
2,328
2,264
2,341
1,909

9,719
9,373
8,923
8,536
8,728

196 5
196 4
196 3
1962
1961.

129,236
127,224
125,154
122,981
121,343

77,178
75,830
74,571
73,442
73,031

59.7
59.6
59.6
59.7
60.2

74,455
73,091
71,833
70,614
70,459

71,088
69,305
67,762
66,702
65,746

4,361
4,523
4,687
4,944
5,200

66,726
64,782
63,076
61.759
60,546

3,366
3,786
4,070
3,911
4,714

52,058
51,394
50,583
49,539
48,312

35.463
35,346
35,209
35,241
34,802

6,399
5,948
5,476
4,921
4,739

1,727
1,690
1,813
1,768
1,747

8,468
8,410
8,085
7,608
7,024

1960*
1959
195 8
195 7
195 6

119,759
117,881
116,363
115,065
113,811

72,142
70,921
70,275
69.729
69,409

60.2
60.4
60.6
61.0

69,628
68,369
67,639
66,929
66,552

65,778
64,630
63,036
64,071
63,802

5,458
5,565
5,586
5,947
6,283

60,318
59,065
57,450
58,123
57,517

3,852
3,740
4,602
2,859
2,750

47,617
46,960
46,088
45,336
44,402

34.464
34,374
34,135
33,780
33,291

4,489
4,239
3,929
3,627
3,468

1,772
1,765
1,777
1,827
1,932

6,893
6,583
6,246
6,103
5,711

195 5
195 4
195 3
195 2
195 1

112,732
111,671
110,601
108,823
107,721

68,072
66,993
66,560
65.730
65,117

60.4
60.0
60.2
60.4
60.4

65,023
63,643
63,015
62,138
62,017

62,171
60,110
61,181
60,254
59,962

6,449
6,206
6,261
6,501
6,726

55,724
53,903
54,922
53,753
53,239

2,852
3,532
1,834
1,883
2,055

44,660
44,678
44,041
43,093
42,604

33,613
33,752
(3)
33,197
32,960

3,518
3,378

2,173
2,288

3,177
3,120

2,272
2,321

5,357
5,260
(3)
4,446
4,204

195 0
194 9
194 8
194 7

106,645
105,611
104,527
103,418

63,858
62,903
62,080
60,941

59.9
59.6
59.4
58.9

62,208
61,286
60,621
59,350

58,920
57,649
58,344
57,039'

7,160
7,656
7,629
7,891

51.760
49,990
50,713
49,148

3,288
3,637
2,276
2,311

42,787
42,708
42,447
42,477

32,912
32,925
32,703

3,542
3,493
3,610

2,363
,289
6,135

139,130
124,517
110,267
®100,147
98,723
82,739

82,049
69,877
59,643
53,011
48,830
41,614

59.0
56.1
54.1
52.9
49.5
50.3

80,051
68,144
58,646
52,705

76,554
64,639
55,788
45,070

2,750
4,257
»6,876
8,449
10,472
10,666

73,804
60,383
5 48,912
36,621
38,358
30,948

3,497
3,505
2,858
7,635

57,082
54,639
50,624
6
47,136
49,893
41,125

(3)
32,338
28,932

71,580
57,950
47,414
36,762
28,229

38,167
29,073
23,318
17,392
12,506

53.3
50.2
49.2
47.3
44.3

12,388
10,382
9,148
7,714
5,949

25,779
18,691
14,170
9,678
6,557

197 0
1969
196 8
196 7
196 6

67,409
66,365
65,345
64,316
63.351

54,343
53,688
53,030
52,398
51,560

80.6
80.9
81.2
81.5
81.4

51,195
50,221
49,533
48,987
48,471

48,960
48,818
48,114
47,479
46,919

2,861
2,963
3,157
3,164
3,243

46,099
45,855
44,957
44,315
43,675

2,235
1,403
1.419
1,508
1,551

13,066
12,677
12,315
11,919
11,792

196 5
196 4
196 3
1962
1961

62,473
61,556
60,627
59,626
58,826

50,946
50,387
49,835
49,395
49,193

81.5
81.9
82.2
82.8
83.6

48,255
47,679
47,129
46,600
46,653

46,340
45,474
44,657
44,177
43,656

3,547
3,691
3,809
4,069
4,298

42,792
41,782
40,849
40,108
39,359

1,914
2,205
2,472
2,423
2,997

11,527
11,169
10,792
10,231
9,633

1960*
195 9
195 8
195 7
195 6

58,144
57,312
56,640
56,082
55,547

48,870
48,405
48,126
47,964
47,914

84.0
84.5
85.0
85.5
86.3

46,388
45,886
45,521
45,197
45,091

43,904
43,466
42,423
43,357
43,380

4,472
4.532
4,596
4,824
5,039

39,431
38,934
37,827
38,532
38,340

2,486
2.420
3,098
1,841
1,711

9,274
8,907
8,514
8,118
7.633

195 5
195 4
195 3
195 2
195 1

55,122
54,706
54,248
53,248
52,788

47,488
47,275
"47,131
46,416
46,063

86.2
86.4
86.9
87.2
87.3

44,475
43,965
43,633
42,869
43,001

42,621
41,620
42,431
41,684
41,780

5,265
5,200
5,253
5,389
5.533

37,357
36,418
37,178
36,294
36,248

1,854
2,344
1,202
1,185
1,221

7.634
7,431
7,117
6,832
6,725

195 0
194 9
194 8
1947

52.352
51,922
51,439
50,968

,45,446
45,097
44,729
44,258

86.8
86.9
87.0
86.8

43,819
43,498
43,286
42,686

41,580
40,926
41,726
40,994

6,001
6,342
6,358
6,643

35,578
34,584
35,368
34,351

2,239
2,572
1,559
1,692

6,906
6,825
6,710
6,710

49,549
45,763
42,126
39,818

47,624
43,467
40,037
33,892

2,521
3,846
6,406
7,887
9,562
9,583

45,103
39,621
33,631
26,005
28,516
23,482

1.925
2,296
2,089
5.926

14,716
12,807
10,637
10,647
11,872
9,225

10,582
9,404
8,379
7,119
5,552

19,510
14,350
10,934
7,626
5,118

60.2

(3)

(3)

3,970

Decennial census:
1970
1960
1950
1940
1930
1920

(April)
(April)*
(April)«...
(April) « . . .
(April) «...
(Jan.) « . . .

1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

(April)
(June)
(June)
(June)
(June)

«...
_..
•'_.
«...
«...

s

«

9,666
10,327
(')
9,013

(3)
(!)

4,620
5,269

47,415
44,312
13,666
3,922

33,413
28,877
24,095
19,370
15,723

MALE

Decennial census:
1970
1960
1950
1940
1930
1920

(April)....
(April* > . .
(April) «...
(April) «...
(April) •__
(Jan.) «. . .

66,218
60,274
53,728
50,770
49,950
42,290

51,502
47,468
43.091
40,123
38,078
33,065

77.8
78.8
80.2
79.0
76.2
78.2

1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

(April) « . .
(June) «...
(June) »
(June) «...
(June) «...

37,028
29,703
24,353
18,736
14,259

30.092
23,754
19,313
14,745
10,670

81.3
80.0
79.3
78.7
74.8

6,936
5,950
5,040
3,991
3,589

See footnotes at end of table.




127

LABOR

D 11-25

Series D 11-25.

Labor Force Status of the Population: 1870 to 1970—Con.

[In thousands of persons 16 years old and over, except as noted.

A n n u a l e s t i m a t e s are averages of m o n t h l y figures]
Civilian labor force

T o t a l labor force
Total
noninstitutional
population

Year

Employed
1

Number2

P e r c e n t of
population

Total

Unemployed
Total

11

Agriculture

Nonagricultural

14

12

FEMALE

1970
1969
1968—
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

72,774
71,476
70,217
69,003
67,829
66,763
65,668
64,527
63,355
62,517

31,560
30,551
29,242
28,395
27,333
26,232
25,443
24,736
24,047
23,838

43.4
42.7
41.6
41.2
40.3
39.3
38.7
38.3
38.0
38.1

31,520
30,513
29,204
28,360
27,299
26,200
25,412
24,704
24,014
23,806

29,667
29,084
27,807
26,893
25,976
24,748
23,831
23,105
22,525
22,090

601
643
660
680
736
814
832
878
875
902

29,066
28,441
27,147
26,212
25,240
23,934
23,000
22,227
21,651
21,187

1,853
1,429
1,397
1,468
1,324
1,452
1,581
1,598
1,488
1,717

1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

61,615
60,569
59,723
58,983
58,264
57,610
56,965
56,353
55,575
54,933

23,272
22,516
22,149
21,765
21,495
20,584
19,718
19,429
19,314
19,054

37.8
37.2
37.1
36.9
36.9
35.7
34.6
34.5
34.8
34.7

23,240
22,483
22,118
21,732
21.461
20,548
19,678
19,382
19,269
19,016

21,874
21,164
20,613
20,714
20,422
19,550
18,490
18,750
18,570
18,182

986
1,033
990
1,123
1,244
1,184
1,006
1,008
1,112
1,193

20,887
20,131
19,623
19,591
19,177
18,367
17,486
17,744
17,459
16,990

1,366
1,320
1,504
1,018
1,039
998
1,188
632
698
834

1950
1949
1948
1947

54,293
53,689
53,088
52,450

18,412
17,806
17,351
16,683

33.9
33.2
32.7
31.8

18,389
17,788
17,335
16,664

17,340
16,723
16,618
16,045

1,159
1,314
1,271
1,248

16,182
15,409
15,347
14,797

1,049
1,065
717
619

30,502
22,381
16,520
12,887

28,930
21,172
15,751
11,178

319
410
590
485
910
1,083

28,611
20,762
15,161
10,693
9,842
7,467

1,572
1,209
769
1,709

1,807
977
770
595
397

6,269
4,342
3,236
2,053
1,439

Decennial census:
1970
1960
1950
1940
1930
1920

(April)
(April)* 4 _ .
(April) <___
(April)
(April)
(Jan.) «

72,913
64,242
56,539
50,688
48,773
40,449

30,547
22,410
16,552
12,887
10,752
8,550

41.9
34.9
30.9
25.4
22.0
21.0

1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

(April) "
(June) « . . .
(June) •
(June) « . . .
(June) « . . .

34,553
28,246
23,061
18,026
13,970

8,076
5,319
4,006
2,647
1,836

23.4
18.8
17.4
14.7
13.1

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian labor force
Number

P e r c e n t of
population

Employed

Unemployed

14

25

15

N o t in
labor
force

Civilian
noninstitutional
population:

18

Civilian labor force
Number

P e r c e n t of
population

Employed

14

Unemployed

18
NEGRO AND OTHER RACES

122,112
119,913
117,948
116,099
114,564
113,284
111,534
109,705
107,715
106,603

73,518
71,779
69,977
68,699
67,274
66,136
64,921
63,830
62,750
62,654

60.2
59.9
59.3
59.2
58.7
58.4
58.2
58.2
58.3
58.8

70,182
69,518
67,751
66,361
65,019
63,445
61,922
60,622
59,698
58,912

3.337
2,261
2,226
2.338
2,253
2,691
2,999
3,208
3,052
3,742

48,594
48,133
47,971
47,401
47,292
47,148
46,613
45,875
44,965
43,950

14,883
14,422
14,080
13,775
13,492
13,230
12,951
12,710
12,439
12,168

9,197
8,954
8,760
8,648
8,496
8,319
8,169
8,004
7,863
7,802

61.8
62.1
62.2
62.8
63.0
62.9
63.1
63.0
63.2
64.1

8,445
8,384
8,169
8,011
7,875
7,643
7,383
7,140
7,004
6,832

752
570
590
638
621
676
786
864
859
970

105,282
103,802
102,391
101,117
99,976
98,881
97,705

61,913
60,953
60,293
59,741
59,427
58,082
56,817

58.8
58.7
58.9
59.1
59.4
58.7
58.2

58,850
58,005
56,614
57,452
57,265
55,834
53,957

3,063
2,947
3,679
2,289
2,162
2,248
2,860

43,369
42,850
42,099
41,378
40,549
40,798
40,888

11,965
11,527
11,334
11,144
10,978
10,806
10,615

7,714
7,418
7,347
7,188
7,127
6,942
6,824

64.5
64.4
64.8
64.5
64.9
64.2
64.3

6,927
6,624
6,422
6,619
6,535
6,341
6,150

787
794
925
569
592
601
674

68,283
58,010
50,804
40,369
39,776

2,895
2,875
2,374
6,683
2,808

52,413
50,645
47,553
44,355
45,396

15,500
13,013
11,044
9,772
10,742

8,874
7,259
6,125
5,680
6,245

57.3
55.8
55.5
58.1
58.1

8,271
6,629
5,645
4,728
5,866

603
630
480
952
379

37,744
31,160
26,338
22,389

8,380
7,646
6,699
5,482

4,998
5,393
4,160
3,193

59.6
70.5
62.1
58.2

Decennial census:
1970
1960
1950
1940
1930

(April)...
(April)* 4 .
(April)4_.
(April) 4 _.
(April)«_.

123,590
111,530
100,732
91,407
87,981

71.177
60,885
53.178
47,052
42,584

58.4
54.6
52.8
51.5
48.4

1920
1910
1900
1890

(Jan.) « . . .
(April)
(June)
.
(June) •

74,360
63,934
51,251
41,931

36,616
32,774
24,913
19,542

49.2
51.3
48.6
46.6

* D e n o t e s first year for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.
1 8 7 0 - 1 9 3 0 , t o t a l population includes institutional.
1940-1970, includes A r m e d Forces.
N o t available on basis consistent with " t o t a l n o t in labor force."

1

2
3

128




4

D a t a for persons 14 years old a n d over.
E s t i m a t e d f r o m d a t a based on different sample.
D a t a for persons 10 y e a r s old a n d over r e p o r t i n g a gainful occupation.
1
Revised figures for t o t a l a n d male a n d female; uncorrected figures for white a n d
Negro a n d other races.
5
6

LABOR FORCE

Series D 26-28.

D 127-141

Gainful Workers, by Sex, by State: 1870 to 1950
[In thousands of workers 10 years old and oyer]

Total

Male

Female

State and
year

Total

26

27

60,200.8
49,625-. 4
48,829.9
41,614.2
38,167.3
29,073.2
22,735.7
17,392.1
12,505.9

43,678.3
37,511.9
38,077.8
33,064.7
30,091.6
23,753.8
18,821.1
14,744.9
10,669.6

16,522.6
12,113.4
10,752.1
8,549.5
8,075.8
5,319.4
3,914.6
2,647.2
1,836.3

1,099.2
965.8
1,026.3
908.2
997.5
763.2
541.6
492.8
365.3

807.8
735.6
772.3
684.3
683.2
563.2
411.6
368.7
275.6

291.5
230.1
254.0
223.9
314.3
200.0
130.0
124.1
89.6

266.5
168.8
165.3
130.6
87.8
53.4
26.4
22.3
6.0

198.1
133.2
135.3
112.2
77.2
46.6
24.8
21.8
5.7

68.5
35.6
30.0
18.4
10.6
6.8
1.6
.5
.3

236.6
202.8
155.0
143.4
105.0
85.8
69.0
47.0
35.2

167.4
127.1
88.8
92.6
52.9
41.2
32.1
19.7
13.8

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

655.3
634.3
667.8
634.6
672.4
485.8
347.2
260.7
135.9

511.0
525.6
548.7
518.8
510.4
407.9
299.0
230.1
120.2

144.3
108.7
119.2
115.8
162.0
77.9
48.2
30.6
15.8

769.2
526.2
449.0
300.0
248.9
164.0
110.4
73.8
50.9

333.7
215.7
150.0
85.3
73.2
37.6
26.4
17.8
9.8

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

951.1
853.7
850.2
840.4
807.2
645.9
508.8
445.5
329.2

399.0
323.0
311.9
288.7
352.9
218.5
159.9
152.3
115.5

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

219.1
177.2
162.2
153.5
131.1
62.7
35.2
15.6
10.9

171.5
149.2
139.9
136.0
118.0
58.2
33.3
15.3
10.8

47.6
28.0
22.3
17.5
13.0
4.5
1.9
.3
.1

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

3,729.6
3,132.0
3,184.7
2,627.7
2,296.8
1,804.0
1,353.6
999.8
742.0

2,659.6
2,328.8
2,469.2
2,086.8
1,865.4
1,509.4
1,153.2
893.7
678.7

1,070.1
803.2
715.5
540.9
431.4
294.6
200.3
106.1
63.3

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

1,573.0
1,242.9
1,251.1
1,117.0
1,036.7
899.0
724.1
635.1
459.4

1,162.1
977.3
1,015.8
931.6
881.0
782.2
639.2
583.7
428.3

410.8
265.6
235.3
185.4
155.7
116.7
84.9
51.4
31.1

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

1,024.8
919.6
912.8
858.7
826.3
789.4
631.8
528.3
344.3

1950
1940
1980
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

4,417.5
2,815.3
2,500.6
1,512.8
1,107.7
644.3
544.2
376.5
238.6

3,163.5
2,119.3
1,943.3
1,226.1
932.8
556.3
483.6
348.3
224.9

1,253.9
695.9
557.4
286.6
174.9
87.9
60.5
28.2
13.8

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

514.7
386.5
402.9
366.5
338.7
218.3
191.9
101.3
17.6

377.8
301.7
321.9
303.9
285.1
190.3
172.8
96.5
17.1

136.9
84.8
81.0
62.6
53.6
28.0
19.1
4.8
.4

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

880.6
736.7
677.2
589.9
490.5
385.6
317.0
241.3
193.4

603.6
519.7
499.2
443.7
370.5
297.0
245.6
192.7
159.5

277.0
217.0
178.0
146.3
120.0
88.6
71.4
48.7
34.0

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

131.2
110.3
98.1
91.2
85.9
73.0
64.3
54.6
40.3

93.9
82.0
77.2
73.1
68.3
60.0
53.9
46.7
34.3

37.3
28.3
20.9
18.1
17.5
13.0
10.3
7.9
6.0

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

ARKANSAS

CALIFORNIA

...

COLORADO

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

345.1
314.7
308.6
309.9
305.5
276.8
257.1
232.0
208.2

250.3
233.4
240.1
245.0
242.2
224.8
212.0
198.5
179.8

94.8
81.4
68.5
64.8
63.3
51.9
45.1
33.5
28.4

972.0
738.6
672.9
603.5
541.2
458.7
393.3
324.4
258.5

698.1
545.4
515.2
466.3
410.9
359.8
308.5
265.6
213.7

274.0
193.2
157.7
137.2
130.3
99.0
84.8
58.8
44.9

1,959.9
1,703.1
1,814.3
1,728.3
1,531.1
1,208.4
982.4
720.8
579.8

1,329.6
1,174.5
1,285.3
1,225.2
1,086.8
879.4
719.2
546.6
451.5

630.3
528.6
529.0
503.2
444.3
329.0
263.3
174.2
128.3

2,542.6
1,989.8
1,927.3
1,474.0
1,113.0
906.0
759.6
569.2
404.2

1,900.7
1,561.4
1,567.5
1,228.6
926.8
772.3
663.6
514.2
346.7

641.9
428.4
359.8
245.4
186.2
133.7
95.9
55.0
57.4

775.0
740.6
749.3
717.4
694.8
682.5
551.4
483.5
321.2

249.9
179.0
163.5
141.3
131.5
106.9
80.4
44.8
23.1

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

1,191.0
1,028.3
992.8
907.0
835.5
645.9
469.1
255.1
132.7

876.5
802.2
791.8
742.9
689.8
548.9
403.5
230.0
121.8

314.4
226.0
201.0
164.1
145.6
96.9
65.6
25.1
10.9

740.8
626.8
694.3
624.4
621.3
507.7
452.3
322.3
123.9

562.8
502.0
575.1
531.9
540.6
452.2
406.8
302.9
117.3

178.0
124.8
119.2
92.5
80.7
55.6
45.5
19.4
6.5

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880.-1870

775.2
780.1
844.9
721.4
879.6
645.1
462.7
415.5
318.8

583.7
590.1
613.2
526.4
574.3
466.8
337.9
305.1
232.3

191.5
190.0
231.7
195.0
305.4
178.4
124.8
110.4
86.5

MICHIGAN

MINNESOTA

MISSISSIPPI

KANSAS




240.2
199.5
191.4
152.7
177.6
130.9
108.8
95.1
58.3

MASSACHUSETTS

IOWA

DELAWARE

694.1
640.1
624.2
528.5
501.6
405.2
314.3
268.2
198.2

MARYLAND

INDIANA

CONNECTICUT

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

214.8
164.4
146.7
131.5
147.6
105.6
83.4
54.4
50.3

MAINE

ILLINOIS .

.

804.0
768.9
760.4
719.6
719.4
646.9
506.9
465.4
364.3

LOUISIANA

IDAHO

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

28

KENTUCKY

GEORGIA

ARIZONA

27

934.3
839.7
815.6
681.2
679.2
536.1
423.1
363.2
256.5

404.0
300.0
243.9
236.0
158.0
126.9
101.1
66.6
49.0

FLORIDA

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Female

1,018.9
933.3
907.1
851.1
867.0
752.5
590.3
519.9
414.6

28

1,350.1
1,176.7
1,162.2
1,129.2
1,160.1
864.5
668.7
597.9
444.7

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

1950
1940
1930.
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Male

26

27

1,102.9
741.9
598.9
385.3
322.1
201.6
136.8
91.5
60.8

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

ALABAMA

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Total
State and
year

DISTRICT OP
COLUMBIA

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Female

26

28

UNITED STATER

1950
1940..
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Male

State and
year

129

LABOR

D 11-25

Series D 26-28.

Gainful Workers, by Sex, by State: 1870 to 1950—Con.
[In thousands of workers 10 years old and over]

Total

Male

Total

Female

Male

Female

State and
year

State and
year
26

27

NORTH CAROLINA
1,579.6
1,410.0
1,458.0
1,317.2
1,288.3
1,121.4
884.4
693.0
505.6

1,143.1
1,077.0
1,158.7
1,072.5
1,076.8
966.9
771.6
630.0
466.8

436.5
333.0
299.2
244.6
211.6
154.5
112.8
62.9
38.7

1950.
1940.
1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.
1870.

1950._._
1940..
1930
1920
1910
1900...
1890
1880
1870

232.9
207.2
216.5
214.2
178.7
114.8
72.2
22.3
14.0

181.8
172.2
184.2
185.9
159.9
105.0
67.6
21.7
13.9

51.1
35.0
32.3
28.3
18.9
9.8
4.6
.5
.2

1,122.3
945.3
868.0
693.2
674.8
556.6
422.2
393.2
292.4

442.6
334.1
273.0
202.7
273.0
160.2
115.2
87.0
58.9

1950.
1940.
1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.
1870.

233.7
216.5
240.3
207.1
217.4
117.6
67.8
i 57.8
15.9

186.4
180.3
204.1
178.8
188.4
103.5
60.0
' 55.0
' 5.7

47.3
36.2
36.2
28.3
29.0
14.1
7.8
12.9
i .2

-

253.0
218.8
247.7
216.6
219.1
137.2
114.1
(i)
(')

198.9
179.2
210.3
186.9
190.4
121.5
102.6
(')
(')

(1)

---

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910.
1900
1890
1880
1870.

2,352.5
1.967.8
2.076.2
1.891.5
1.572.3
1.299.9
1.088.6
881.8
757.4

863.7
592.8
639.6
410.0
346.7
246.1
184.2
112.6
83.5

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880.
1870

1950.
1940.
19801920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.
1870.

800.5
734.6
828.0
681.4
598.6
266.4
20.9

603.8
592.9
698.7
586.8
520.4
243.9
19.8

196.6
141.7
129.3
94.6
78.3
22.5
1.1

1950.
1940. —
1930
1920-..
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

67.8
55.8
50.0
49.3
48.3
41.8
36.9
30.1
24.1

1950.
1940.
1980.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

621.3
431.0
409.6
322.3
305.2
169.6
126.8
67.3
30.7

458.9
337.8
328.5
267.8
264.7
151.2
116.0
64.6
30.0

162.4
93.2
81.1
54.5
40.5
18.4
10.8
2.8
.7

1950
1940...
1930
1920
1910
1900—
1890.
1880
1870

1,483.4
1,252.1
1,295.6
1,014.7
834.8
603.2
459.5
330.1
251.6

616.7
493.1
416.5
296.0
239.6
154.5
111.3
66.8
44.4

1950.
1940.
1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

4.168.3
3,676.1
3,722.1
3.426.4
3,130.7
2,448.6
1,959.1
1,456.1
1.020.5

3,022.8
2.778.1
2.918.2
2.740.1
2.525.2
2,017.1
1,635.1
1,239.1
886.2

1,145.5
898.0
803.9
686.2
605.4
431.5
323.9
217.0
134.3

1,206.7
1,015.7
958.4
830.1
855.5
727.6
553.8
448.0
368.0

894.8
784.9
763.1
678.0
682.2
611.4
473.2
391.6
322.6

311.9
230.9
195.3
152.1
173.3
116.2
80.6
56.4
45.4

2,991.0
2,327.3
2,206.8
1,719.0
1,556.9
1,033.0
696.2
522.1
237.1

2,235.1
1,821.7
1,785.1
1,415.2
1,228.4
892.6
610.2
463.2
208.5

755.9
505.6
421.7
303.8
328.4
140.4
86.0
58.9
28.6

243.9
165.0
170.0
149.2
181.5
84.6
66.9
40.1
21.5

186.6
134.1
141.0
127.4
113.1
73.8
59.8
37 2
20.4

57.4
31.0
29.0
21.8
18.4
10.8
7.1
2 9
1.1

145.6
134.5
141.2
138.5
144.1
134.9
128.8
118.6
108.8

105.7
103.9
112.8
111.6
115.8
112.2
108.8
102.4
95.3

39.9
30.6
28.4
26.9
28.3
22.8
20.0
16.2
13.5

1,307.6
989.8
880.2
833.6
795.6
662.4
551.8
494.2
412.7

976.2
764.0
697.9
677.4
626.9
536.9
445.5
411.0
337.5

331.4
225.8
182.3
156.2
168.7
125.5
106.4
83.2
75.2

959.7
672.4
664.7
578.7
521.5
225.4
164.7
30.1
9.8

720.8
532.0
538.1
485.8
455.4
204.6
153.6
29.1
9.5

238.9
140.4
126.7
92.9
66.1
20.8
11.1
1.1
.2

659.5
574.4
570.5
491.1
448.5
325.7
223.8
176.2
115.2

521.7
472.4
488.3
433.7
394.4
294.5
202.1
164.7
107.1

137.8
101.9
82.2
57.4
54.1
31.2
21.7
11.5
8.2

1950
1940
1930
1920...
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

179.6
129.9
120.5
107.1
106.4
59.7
50.2
38.6
26.3

51.4
30.3
22.1
14.9
15.1
6.3
3.9
2.3
3.1

195019401930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.

343.9
296.8
297.2
275.0
251.9
191.9
155.9
117.0
88.6

233.9
201.8
209.3
194.4
181.0
139.8
113.2
87.1
66.9

110.0
94.9
87.8
80.6
70.9
52.1
42.7
29.9
21.7

1950...
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

808.7
693.8
687.7
674.3
728.6
571.0
440.9
392.1
263.3

560.5
489.2
481.0
468.6
460.8
389.6
311.4
272.0
182.4

248.2
204.6
206.8
205.7
267.8
181.4
129.4
120.1
80.9

1950
1940--1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

398.7
369.8
417.3
385.3
377.8
327.4
325.4
142.2
41.9

129.5
93.6
89.7
71.8
63.3
46.6
42.6
10.5
1.9

1950.
1940.
198019201910.
19001890.
1880.
1870.

71.1
45.6
42.9
37.5
44.9
19.8
23.4
32.2
26.9

53.3
38.3
37.0
33.2
40.5
17.8
21.6
30.7
26.5

17.8
7.3
5.9
4.3
4.4
2.0
1.8
1.5
.4

217.3
195.3
192.7
192.8
191.7
178.7
164.7
142.5
120.2

149.5
139.6
142.7
143.5
143.4
137.0
127.8
112.3
96.0

2,100.1
1,745.2
1,712.1
1,310.7
1,074.4
757.8
570.7
396.9
296.0

231.0
160.2
142.6
122.0
121.5
66.0
54.2
40.8
29.4

OKLAHOMA

NEVADA

54.0
39.5
37.3
29.7
28.7
15.6
11.5

_..

1880.

1870.
PENNSYLVANIA

1880.

1870.

1880.

1870.

WASHINGTON

SOUTH CAROLINA

NEW YORK
6,347.3
5,676.8
5,523.3
4,503.2
4,003.8
2,996.5
2,435.7
1,884.6
1,491.0

4,402.2
4,051.5
4,108.2
3,367.9
3,020.2
2,324.4
1,921.8
1,524.3
1,234.0

i S o u t h D a k o t a included with N o r t h D a k o t a .

130



1,945.1
1,625.3
1,415.1
1,135.3
983.7
672.0
513.9
360.4
257.0

19501940.
1930.
1920.
1910.
1900.
1890.
1880.
1870.

---

VIRGINIA

RHODE ISLAND

NEW MEXICO

—

---

VERMONT

NEW JERSEY
1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

—

UTAH

NEW HAMPSHIRE

—

28

1950—..'
1940.
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

3,216.2
2,560.6
2,615.8
2,301.5
1,919.1
1,546.0
1,272.8
994.5
840.9

528.2
463.4
507.0
457.1
441.1
374.0
368.1
152.6
43.8

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
18901880
1870

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
18901880
1870

27

TEXAS ,:

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
19001890
1880_
1870

1950
1940
1930
1920.
1910
1900—
1890_
1880
1870

26

TENNESSEE

NEBRASKA

1950
194019301920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Female

SOUTH DAKOTA
1,564.9
1,279.4
1,141.0
895.9
947.8
716.7
537.4
480.2
351.3

NORTH DAKOTA

MONTANA

•

Male

28

28

MISSOURI
1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

Total
State and
year

-

WEST VIRGINIA

LABOR FORCE

D 442-524

Series D 26-28. Gainful Workers, by Sex,-by State: 1870 to 1950—Con.
[In thousands of workers 10 years old and over]
Total

Female

Male

Total

State and
year

Male

State and
year
27

WISCONSIN

WYOMING

1,400.1
1,147.5
1,129.5
995.5
892.4
732.5
576.3
417.5
292.8

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890__
1880
1870

,030.7
902.2
914.2
813.2
729.8
616.4
495.2
371.1
267.3

369.4
245.3
215.2
182.4
162.6
116.1
81.1
46.4
25.5

Series D 29-41.

1950
1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870

120.4
94.9
92.4
81.5
73.6
44.3
30.6
8.9
6.6

94.6
80.0
79.7
72.1
67.6
41.3
28.7
8.4

Labor Force, by Age and Sex: 1890 to 1970

[Labor force in thousands of persons 16 years old and over except, prior to 1947, 14 years old and over. A n n u a l estimates are averages of m o n t h l y ligures. Includes A r m e d
Forces overseas, except for decennial d a t a . T h e introduction of d a t a f r o m t h e decennial censuses into t h e estimation procedure in 1953 a n d 1962 a n d t h e inclusion of Alaska
a n d Hawaii beginning 1960 h a v e resulted in 3 periods of n o n c o m p a r a b i l i t y ; see text for series D 11-25]
Male
Year

Total
labor
force

Total

Female

20 t o 24
years

25 t o 44
years

45 to 64
years

65 a n d
over

32

16 t o 19
years1

33

34

35

30

Total

16 t o 19
years1

20 to 24
years

25 t o 44
years

45 t o 64
years

37

38

39

40

LABOR FORCE

1970
196 9
196 8
196 7
196 6

85,903
84,239
82,272
80,793
78,893

54,343
53,688
53,030
52,398
51,560

4,395
4,282
4,195
4,214
4,123

7,378
7.088
6,788
6,546
6,139

22,792
22,652
22,498
22,283
22.156

17,614
17,494
17,394
17,239
17,054

2,164
2,170
2,154
2,118
2,089

31,560
30,551
29,242
28,395
27,333

3,250
3,109
2,948
2,897
2,880

4,893
4,615
4,251
3,981
3,601

11,675
11,306
10,973
10,700
10,277

10,686
10,465
10,070
9,841
9,612

196 5
196 4
196 3
196 2
1961-.

77,178
75,830
74,571
73,442
73,031

50,946
50,387
49,835
49,395
49,193

3,831
3,575
3,406
3,252
3,229

5,926
5,704
5,471
5,272
5,187

22.157
22,195
22,224
22,262
22,283

16,899
16,788
16,602
16,368
16,276

2,131
2,123
2,135
2,241
2,220

26,232
25,443
24,736
24,047
23,838

2,519
2,321
2,238
2,152
2,148

3,375
3,220
2,970
2,814
2,708

10,060
9,805
9,785
9,590
9,545

9,301
9,129
8,837
8,581
8,510

1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956

72,142
70,921
70,275
69.729
69,409

48,870
48,405
48,126
47,964
47,914

3,184
3,042
2,951
2,985
2,947

5.089
4,987
4.849
4,781
4,814

22,270
22,216
22,269
22,293
22,285

16,039
15,838
15,677
15,428
15,268

2,287
2,321
2,379
2,477
2,604

23,272
22,516
22,149
21,765
21,495

2,062
1,902
1,838
1,866
1,868

2,590
2,484
2,510
2,453
2,467

9,448
9,328
9,391
9,384
9,321

8,266
7,966
7,589
7,249
7,017

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

68,072
66,993
66,560
65.730
65,117

47,488
47,275
47,131
46,416
46,063

2,812
2,726
2,777
2,812
2,865

4,851
4,959
5,084
5.223
5,267

22,297
22,215
22,138
21,635
21,325

15,002
14,853
14,591
14,331
14,136

2,526
2,525
2,544
2,415
2,469

20,584
19,718
19,429
19,314
19,054

1,729
1,688
1.713
1,758
1,763

2,458
2,441
2,447
2,519
2,670

9,069
8,939
8,843
8,779
8,612

6,546
5,988
5,730
5,669
5,458

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

63,858
62,903
62,080
60,941
60,520

45,446
45,097
44,729
44,258
43,690

2,821
2,899
3,002
3,053
3,700

5.224
5,198
5,117
5,094
4,800

20,996
20,746
20,481
20,201
19,450

13,952
13,798
13,745
13,532
13,400

2.453
2.454
2,385
2,376
2,340

18,412
17,806
17,351
16,683
16,840

1.714
1,813
1,835
1,835
2,170

2,681
2,662
2,721
2,725
2,800

8,267
7,999
7,744
7,426
7,400

5,167
4,778
4,538
4,252
4,020

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

66,210
66,320
64,780
60,330
57,720
56,100

46,910
46,930
45,950
44,200
43,070
41,940

4,610
5,170
4,950
4,260
9,380
8,770

5.850
5,840
5,740
5,500

20,620
20,210
19,770
19,470
2

13,370
13,290
13,170
12,780
26 820
2
26 560

2,460
2,420
2,320
2,190
36,880
36,610

19,304
19,390
18,830
16,120
14,650
14,160

2,720
2,900
2,930
2,370
4,840
4,600

3,310
3,340
3,180
2,910

8,370
8,330
8,260
7,030
2
8,390
2 8,270

4,410
4,320
3,970
3,420

Decennial census:
1970 (April)
1960 ( A p r i l ) * —
1950 <April)
1940 (April)

82,049
69,234
59,223
52,966

51,502
47,013
42,779
39,959

3,593
2,634
2,204
2,565

6,271
4,554
4,537
4,993

22,111
21,829
20,389
18,705

17,434
15,765
13,275
11,859

2,092
2,231
2,373
1,838

30,547
22,222
16,443
13,007

2,609
1,703
1,331
1,396

4,683
2,475
2,521
2,698

11,652
9,382
7,666
6,081

10,432
7,742
4,416
2,554

47,404
40,282
27,640
21,833

37,008
32,053
22,641
18,129

2,795
2,947
2,834
1,997

4,747
4,080
3,302
2,836

17,498
15,353
10,560
8,513

10,173
8,290
4,958
3,937

1,795
1,383
987
846

10,396
8,229
4,999
3,704

1,591
1,640
1,230
984

2,316
1,785
1,179
938

4,404
3,314
1,791
1,216

1,842
1,310
672
476

197 0
196 9
196 8
196 7
196 6

61.3
61.1
60.7
60.6
60.1

80.6
80.9
81.2
81.5
81.4

58.4
58.3
58.3
59.2
58.1

86.6
86.6
86.5
87.5
87.9

96.8
97.0
97.2
97.4
97.4

89.7
90.3
90.6
90.7

26.8
27.2
27.3
27.7
27.0

43.4
42.7
41.6
41.1
40.3

44.0
43.3
42.0
41.7
41.5

57.8
56.8
54.6
53.4
51.5

47.9
46.8
45.8
45.1
43.5

49.3
49.0
48.0
47.7
47.4

196 5
196 4
1963
1962
1961

59.7
59.6
59.6
59.7
60.2

81.5
81.9
82.2
82.8
83.6

56.7
56.1
56.8
57.7
58.2

88.0
88.2
88.3
89.1
89.8

97.4
97.4
97.5
97.5
97.6

90.9
91.4
91.7
91.6
92.1

27.9
28.0
28.4
30.3
31.7

39.3
38.7
38.3
38.0
38.1

38.1
37.1
38.0
39.1
39.7

50.0
49.5
47.6
47.4
47.1

42.5
41.4
41.3
40.4
40.3

46.6
46.5
45.9
45.1
44.8

1930
1920
1900
1890

(April)
(Jan.)
(June)
(June)

LABOR FORCE
PARTICIPATION

RATE (Percent)

See footnotes at end of table.




131

D

11-25

LABOR

Series D 29-41.

Labor Force, by Age and Sex: 1890 to 1970—Con.

fin thousands of persons 16 years old and over except, prior to 1947, 14 years old and over.

A n n u a l e s t i m a t e s are averages of m o n t h l y figures.]

Male

Female

Total
labor
force

Total

16 t o 19
years

20 t o 24
years

25 t o 44
years

45 to 64
years

65 a n d
over

Total

16 t o 19
years

20 t o 24
years

25 t o 44
years

45 t o 64
years

65 a n d
over

29

Year

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

LABOR FORCE
PARTICIPATION

RATE (Percent)
—Con.
1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956

60.2
60.2
60.4
60.6
61.0

84.0
84.5
85.0
85.5
86.3

59.4
59.7
61.3
64.2
65.0

90.2
90.1
89.5
89.8
90.8

97.7
97.7
97.6
97.6
97.7

92.0
92.4
92.7
92.6
93.1

33.1
34.2
35.6
37.5
40.0

37.8
37.2
37.1
36.9
36.9

39.4
40.7
39.1
41.1
42.3

46.2
45.2
46.4
46.0
46.4

39.9
39.4
39.6
39.4
39.2

44.3
43.6
42.4
41.3
40.9

10.8
10.2
10.3
10.5
10.9

1955
1954
19531952
1951

60.4
60.0
60.2
60.4
60.4

86.2
86.4
86.9
87.2
87.3

63.0
62.2
64.9
66.2
67.9

90.8
91.5
92.2
92.1
91.1

97.9
97.8
97.9
98.1
97.6

92.8
93.1
92.8
92.5
92.2

39.6
40.5
41.6
42.6
44.9

35.7
34.6
34.5
34.8
34.7

39.8
39.5
40.8
42.2
42.5

46.0
45.3
44.5
44.8
46.6

38.2
37.8
37.5
37.9
37.5

38.9
36.3
35.5
35.1
34.4

10.6
9.3
10.0
9.1
8.9

59.9
59.6
59.4
58.9
55.8

86.8
86.9
87.0
86.8
81.1

66.3
66.7
67.3
67.0
54.8

89.1
87.8
85.7
84.9
79.9

97.1
97.2
97.2
97.1
91.4

92.0
92.1
93.1
93.0
91.5

45.8
46.9
46.8
47.8
45.0

33.9
33.2
32.7
31.8
30.8

41.0
42.3
42.0
41.1
31.8

46.1
45.0
45.3
44.9
46.6

36.4
35.6
35.0
34.0
34.0

33.2
31.3
30.4
29.1
27.9

9.7
9.6
9.1
8.1
8.0

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941..
1940

61.6
62.2
61.5
58.0
56.1
55.2

87.6
88.2
87.4
85.1
83.8
82.5

66.4
72.2
68.9
58.6
70 .8
66 .4

96.8
96.4
94.5
91.9

97.9
97.0
96.4
96.4
2
95,5
2
95 .6

92.4
93.2
93.8
92.3

48.7
49.4
48.6
47.1
3
68.0
3
66.9

35.8
36.3
35.7
30.9
28.5
27.9

39.2
41.1
41.0
32.8
36.6
34 .7

55.3
55.6
53.1
48.7

39.0
39.3
39.5
3 42 0
.
29 .9
2
29 .9

31.2
31.1
29.2
25.6

9.0
9.5
9.6
8.1
3
13.9
3 13.1

Decennial census:
1970 (April)
1960 (April)*
1950 (April)
1940 (April)

58.2
57.3
55.1
52.4

76.6
80.4
81.6
79.1

47.2
50.0
51.7
34.7

80.9
86.2
81.9
88.1

94.3
95.3
93.3
94.9

87.2
89.0
88.2
88.7

24.8
30.5
41.4
41.8

41.4
35.7
29.9
25.8

34.9
32.6
31.1
18.9

56.1
44.8
42.9
45.6

47.5
39.1
33.3
30.5

47.8
41.6
28.8
20.2

10.0
10.3
7.8
6.1

53.2
54.3
53.7
52.2

82.1
84.6
85.7
84.3

40.1
51.5
62.0
50.0

88.8
89.9
90.6
90.9

95.8
95.6
94.7
96.0

91.0
90.7
90.3
92.0

54.0
55.6
63.1
68.3

23.6
22.7
20.0
18.2

22.8
28.4
26.8
24.5

41.8
37.5
31.7
30.2

24.6
21.7
17.5
15.1

18.0
16.5
13.6
12.1

7.3
7.3
8.3
7.6

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

63.3
63.7
64.5
64.9
65.4

5.1
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2

8.6
8.4
8.3
8.1
7.8

26.5
26.9
27.3
27.6
28.1

20.5
20.8
21.1
21.3
21.6

2.5
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

36.7
36.3
35.5
35.1
34.6

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.7

5.7
5.5
5.2
4.9
4.6

13.6
13.4
13.3
13.2
13.0

12.4
12.4
12.2
12.2
12.2

1.2
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2

1965
1964
1963...
1962
1961.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

66.0
66.4
66.8
67.3
67.4

5.0
4.7
4.6
4.4
4.4

7.7
7.5
7.3
7.2
7.1

28.7
29.3
29.8
30.3
30.5

21.9
22.1
22.3
22.3
22.3

2.8
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.0

34.0
33.6
33.2
32.7
32.6

3.3
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.9

4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.7

13.0
12.9
13.1
13.1
13.1

12.1
12.0
11.9
11.7
11.7

1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

67.7
68.3
68.5
68.8
69.0

4.4
4.3
4.2
4.3
4.2

7.1
7.0
6.9
6.9
6.9

30.9
31.3
31.7
32.0
32.1

22.2
22.3
22.3
22.1
22.0

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.8

32.3
31.7
31.5
31.2
31.0

2.9
2.7
2.6
2.7
2.7

3.6
3.5
3.6
3.5
3.5

13.1
13.2
13.4
13.5
13.4

11.5
11.2
10.8
10.4
10.1

1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

69.8
70.6
70.8
70.6
70.7

4.1
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

7.1
7.4
7.6
7.9
8.1

32.8
33.2
33.3
32.9
32.7

22.0
22.2
21.9
21.8
21.7

3.7
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.8

30.2
29.4
29.2
29.4
29.3

2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.7

3.6
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.1

13.3
13.3
13.3
13.4
13.2

9.6
8.9
8.6
8.6
8.4

1.1
1.0
1.0
.9
.8

1950
1949
1948.
1947
1946

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

71.2
71.7
72.0
72.6
72.2

4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0
6.1

8.2
8.3
8.2
8.4
7.9

32.9
33.0
33.0
33.1
32.1

21.8
21.9
22.1
22.2
22.1

3.8
3.9
3.8
3.9
3.9

28.8
28.3
28.0
27.4
27.8

2.7
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.6

4.2
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.6

12.9
12.7
12.5
12.2
12.2

8.1
7.6
7.3
7.0
6.6

.9

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

70.8
70.8
70.9
73.3
74.6
74.8

7.0
7.8
7.6
7.1
16.2
15 .6

8.8
8.8
8.9
9.1

31.1
30.5
30.5
32.3
2
46.5
2
47 .3

20.2
20.0
20.3
21.2

3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3
11.9
3
11.8

29.2
29.2
29.1
26.7
25.4
25.2

4.1
4.4
4.5
3.9

5.0
5.0
4.9
4.8

12.6
12.6
12.7
1 12 6
.
14 . 5
2
14 .7

6.7
6.5
6.1
5.7

.7
.8
.8
.7
32.4
82.3

Decennial census:
1970 (April)
1960 (April)*
1950 (April)
1940 (April)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

62.8
67.9
72.2
75.4

4.4
3.8
3.7
4.8

7.6
6.6
7.7
9.4

26.9
31.5
34.4
35.3

21.2
22.8
22.4
22.4

2.5
3.2
4.0
3.5

37.2
32.1
27.8
24.6

3.2
2.5
2.2
2.6

5.7
3.6
4.3
5.1

14.2
13.6
12.9
11.5

12.7
11.2
7.5
4.8

1.4
1.3
.9
.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

78.1
79.6
81.9
83.0

5.9
7.3
10.3
9.1

10.0
10.1
11.9
13.0

36.9
38.1
38.2
39.0

21.5
20.6
17.9
18.0

3.8
3.4
3.6
3.9

21.9
20.4
18.1
17.0

3.4
4.1
4.5
4.5

4.9
4.4
4.3
4.3

9.3
8.2
6.5
5.6

3.9
3.3
2.4
2.2

.5
.4
.5
.4

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

1930
1920
1900
1890

--

(April)
(Jan.)
(June)
(June)

PERCENT
DISTRIBUTION

I960*..1959
1958... _
1957
1956

1930
1920
1900
1890

_

(April)
(Jan.)
(June)
(June)

* D e n o t e s first year for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.
1
1 4 t o 19 years for 1940 t h r o u g h 1946.

132




8
3

25 to 54 years.
55 a n d over.

8 .4
8 .2

.9

.8
.7
.7

LABOR FORCE

Series D 42-48.

D 127-141

Civilian Labor Force as Percent of Civilian Noninstitutional Population, by Race and Sex:
1940 to 1970

[Based on persons 16 years old and over except, prior to 1947, 14 years old and over.
Both sexes

See headnote for series D 11-25]

Male

Female

Total

White

Negro and
other races

White

Negro and
other races

White

Negro and
other races

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

42

60.4
60.1
59.6
59.6
59.2

60.2
59.9
59.3
59.2
58.7

61.8
62.1
62.2
62.8
63.0

80.0
80.2
80.4
80.7
80.6

76.5
76.9
77.6
78.5
79.0

42.6
41.8
40.7
40.1
39.2

49.5
49.8
49.3
49.5
49.3

58.9
58.7
58.7
58.8
59.3

58.4
58.2
58.2
58.3
58.8

62.9
63.1
63.0
63.2
64.1

80.8
81.1
81.5
82.1
83.0

79.6
80.0
80.2
80.8
82.2

38.1
37.5
37.2
36.7
36.9

48.6
48.5
48.1
48.0
48.3

59.4
59.3
59.5
59.6
61.6

58.8
58.7
58.9
59.1
59.4

64.5
64.3
64.8
64.4
64.9

83.4
83.8
84.3
84.8
85.6

83.0
83.4
84.0
84.3
85.1

36.5
36.0
35.8
35.7
35.7

48.2
47.7
48.0
47.2
47.3

59.3
58.8

58.7
58.2

64.2
64.3

85.4
85.6

85.0
85.2

34.5
33.3

46.1
46.1

Series D 49-62.

Percent distribution of female labor force

Female labor force (1,000)

Single
Total

49

50

58.9
59.0
59.3

1950
1949
1948
1947
1946

59.2
58.9
58.8
58.3
55.2

1945
1944
1943
1942
1941

56.5
57.9
58.0
56.5
55.3

1940

55.1

As of March, except as indicated]

Female labor force is percent of female population

Married

Married
Total

1953
1952
1951

Marital Status of Women in the Civilian Labor Force: 1890 to 1970

[Persons 15 years old and over, 1890-1930; 14 years old and over, 1940-1966; 16 years old and over, thereafter.

Year

Total,
both
sexes

Year

Husband
present

51

52

Widowed
or
divorced

Single

53

Married

Widowed
or
divorced

Total

Total

Husband
present

54

55

56

57

58

Single

Widowed
or
divorced

Total

Husband
present

59

60

61

62

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

31,233
29,898
28,778
27,545
26,820

6,965
6,501
6,357
5,915
6,106

19,799
19,100
18,234
17,486
16,676

18,377
17,595
16,821
15,908
15,178

4,469
4,297
4,187
4,144
4,038

22.3
21.7
22.1
21.5
22.7

63.4
63.9
63.4
63.5
62.2

58.8
58.9
58.5
57.8
56.6

14.3
14.4
14.6
15.0
15.1

42.6
41.6
40.7
39.7
37.3

53.0
51.2
51.3
50.7
40.8

41.4
40.4
39.1
37.8
36.5

40.8
39.6
38.3
36.8
35.4

36.2
35.8
35.8
35.9
36.4

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

25,952
25,399
24,675
23,978
24,199

5,912
5,781
5,614
5,481
5,663

16,154
15,790
15,362
14,770
14,612

14,708
14,461
14,061
13,485
13,266

3,886
3,828
3,699
3,727
3,924

22.8
22.8
22.8
22.9
23.4

62.2
62.2
62.3
61.6
60.4

56.7
56.9
57.0
56.2
54.8

15.0
15.1
15.0
15.5
16.2

36.7
36.5
36.1
35.7
36.8

40.5
40.9
41.0
41.7
44.4

35.7
35.3
34.6
33.7
34.0

34.7
34.4
33.7
32.7
32.7

35.7
36.1
35.8
36.6
39.0

1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956

22,516
22,376
22,000
21,524
20,842

5,401
5,162
5,365
5,378
5,167

13,485
13,586
13,032
12,696
12,278

12,253
12,205
11,826
11,529
11,126

3,629
3,628
3,604
3,450
3,397

24.0
23.1
24.4
25.0
24.8

59.9
60.7
59.2
59.0
58.9

54.4
54.5
53.8
53.6
53.4

16.1
16.2
16.4
16.0
16.3

34.8
35.2
35.0
34.8
34.2

44.1
43.4
45.4
46.8
46.4

31.7
32.3
31.4
30.8
30.2

30.5
30.9
30.2
29.6
29.0

37.1
38.0
37.9
37.6
36.9

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

20,154
19,726
19,304
18,812
18,602

5,087
5,412
5,223
5,532
5,430

11,839
11,209
10,908
10,350
10,182

10,423
9,923
9,763
9,222
9,086

3,227
3,105
3,174
2,930
2,990

25.2
27.4
27.1
29.4
29.2

58.7
56.8
56.5
55.0
54.7

51.7
50.3
50.6
49.0
48.8

16.0
15.7
16.4
15.6
16.1

33.5
33.1
32.8
32.4
32.4

46.4
49.0
48.5
50.0
49.6

29.4
28.1
27.7
26.8
26.7

27.7
26.6
26.3
25.3
25.2

36.0
36.0
36.3
35.3
36.1

17,795
17,167
17,155
16,323
18,449
13,840

5,621
5,682
5,943
6,181
7,542
6,710

9,273
8,739
8,281
7,545
8,433
5,040

8,550
7,959
7,553
6,676
6,226
> 4,200

2,901
2,746
2,931
2,597
2,474
2,090

31.6
33.1
34.6
37.9
40.9
48.5

52.1
50.9
48.3
46.2
45.7
36.4

48.0
46.4
44.0
40.9
33.7
130.3

16.3
16.0
17.1
15.9
13.4
15.1

31.4
30.7
31.0
29.8
35.0
27.4

50.5
50.9
51.1
51.2
58.6
48.1

24.8
23.6
23.1
21.4
25.6
16.7

23.8
22.5
22.0
20.0
21.7
1
14.7

36.0
35.1
36.8
34.6
35.7
32.0

30,756
22,410
16,553
13,007
10,632

6,936
5,282
5,274
6,377
5,735

19,178
13,610
8,635
4,675
3,071

17,583
12,365
7,697
3,918

4,642
3,518
2,644
1,955
1,826

22.5
23.6
31.9
49.0
53.9

62.3
60.7
52.2
35.9
28.9

57.1
55.2
46.5
30.1

15.0
15.7
16.0
15.0
17.2

41.6
34.5
29.0
25.8
24.8

50.9
42.9
46.3
45.5
50.5

40.2
31.7
23.0
15.6
11.7

39.6
30.6
21.6
13.8

36.8
36.1
32.7
30.2
34.4

8,347
7,640
4,997
3,712

2 6,427
4,602
3,307
2,531

1,920
1,891
769
515

= 77.0
60.2
66.2
68.2

23.0
24.7
15.4
13.9

(2)

23.7
25.4
20.6
18.9

2 46.4
51.1
43.5
40.5

9.0
10.7
5.6
4.6

i
i
i
i
>

1950
1949 i
1948 i
1947 1
i
1944
1940

_

Decennial census:
1970 (April)
1960 (April)*
1950 (April)
1940 (April)
1930 (April)
1920
1910
1900
1890

(Jan.)
(April) 3
(June)
(June) _ _

(!)

1,147
920
665

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
2
As of April.
Single includes widowed or divorced.
3
D a t a not comparable with earlier or later censuses due to difference in basis of
enumeration. The importance of returning " t h e occupation, if any, followed by a




15.0
18.4
17.9

(2)

34.1
32.5
29.9

child of any age or by a woman," was emphasized in the printed instructions to census
enumerators in 1910, b u t not in instructions in other censuses, and it is believed t h a t
enumerators in 1910 enumerated as gainful workers many women who would not
have been enumerated in other censuses—particularly as agricultural laborers.

133

D 63-84

LABOR

Series D 63-74.

Married Women (Husband Present) in the Labor Force, by Age and Presence of Children:
1948 to 1970
[As of March, except as noted]
Labor force participation r a t e

Number in labor force (1,000)

1

With children under 6 years

With children under 6 years
With no
children
under 18
years

With
children 6
to 17
years only

No
children
6 t o 17
years

Also
children
6 to 17
years

Total

Total

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

18,377
17,595
16,821
15,908
15,178

8,174
7,853
7,564
7,158
7,043

6,289
6,146
5,693
5,269
4,949

3,914
3,596
3,564
3,480
3,186

1,874
1,756
1,641
1,629
1,431

2,040
1,840
1,923
1,851
1,755

40.8
39.6
38.3
36.8
35.4

42.2
41.0
40.1
38.9
38.4

49.2
48.6
46.9
45.0
43.7

30.3
28.5
27.6
26.5
24.2

30.2
29.3
27.8
26.9
24.0

30.5
27.8
27.4
26.2
24.3

14,708
14,461
14,061
13,485
13,266

6,755
6,545
6,366
6,156
6,186

4,836
4,866
4,689
4,445
4,419

3,117
3,050
3,006
2,884
2,661

1,408
1,408
1,346
1,282
1,178

1,709
1,642
1,660
1,602
1,483

34.7
34.4
33.7
32.7
32.7

38.3
37.8
37.4
36.1
37.3

42.7
43.0
41.5
41.8
41.7

23.3
22.7
22.5
21.3
20.0

23.8
23.6
22.4
21.1
19.6

22.8
21.9
22.5
21.5
20.3

12,253
12,205
11,826
11,529
11,126

5,692
5,679
5,713
5,805
5,694

4,087
4,055
3,714
3,517
3,384

2,474
2,471
2,399
2,208
2,048

1,123
1,118
1,122
961
971

1,351
1,353
1,277
1,247
1,077

30.5
30.9
30.2
29.6
29.0

34.7
35.2
35.4
35.6
35.3

39.0
39.8
37.6
36.6
36.4

18.6
18.7
18.2
17.0
15.9

18.2
18.3
18.4
15.9
15.6

18.9
19.0
18.1
17.9
16.1

10,423
9,923
9,763
9,222
9,086

5,227
5,096
5,130
5,042
5,016

3,183
3,019
2,749
2,492
2,400

2,012
1,808
1,884
1,688
1,670

927
883
1,047
916
886

1,086
925
837
772
784

27.7
26.6
26.3
25.3
25.2

32.7
31.6
31.2
30.9
31.0

34.7
33.2
32.2
31.1
30.3

16.2
14.9
15.5
13.9
14.0

15.1
14.3
15.8
13.7
13.6

17.3
15.5
15.2
14.1
14.6

8,550
7,959
7,553

4,946
4,544
4,400

2,205
2,130
1,927

1,399
1,285
1,226

748
654
594

651
631
632

23.8
22.5
22.0

30.3
28.7
28.4

28.3
27.3
26.0

11.9
11.0
10.8

11.2
10.0
9.2

12.6
12.2
12.7

Total

2

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Married women in the labor force as percent of married women in the population.

Series D 75-84.

W i t h no
children
under 18
years

With
children
6 t o 17
years only

Total

No
children
6 to 17
years

Also
children
6 to 17
years

70

71

72

73

74

As of April.

Gainful Workers, by Age, Sex, and Farm-Nonfarm Occupations: 1820 to 1930
[In thousands of persons 10 years old and over]
Sex

Occupation
Total
workers

Age (in years)

Occupation
Total
workers

Farm

Nonfarm

Male

Female

10 t o 15

16 to 44

45 to 64

65 and
over

Unknown

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

1930
1920
1910
1900

48,830
42,434
37,371
29,073

10,472
11,449
11,592
10,912

38,358
30,985
25,779
18,161

38,078
33,797
29,926
23,754

10,752
8,637
7,445
5,319

667
1,417
1,622
1,750

33,492
29,339
26,620
20,223

12,422
9,914
7,606
5,804

18901880
1870—

23,318
17,392
12,925

9,938
8,585
6,850

13,380
8,807
6,075

19,313
14,745
11,008

4,006
2,647
1,917

1,504
1,118
765

16,162

Year

134



Farm

Year

75

2,205
1,691
1,440
1,202

44
73
83
94

4,547
1,009
16, 274
12, 160

97

1860__
1850.
1840
1830
1820_

__ _

10,533
7,697
5,420
3,932
2,881

Nonfarm

76

77

6,208
4,902
3,720
2,772
2,069

4,325
2,795
1,700
1,160
812

LABOR FORCE

Series D 85-86.

D 127-141

Unemployment: 1890 to 1970

[In thousands of persons 16 years old and over except, prior to 1947, 14 years old and'over.

Unemployed

P e r c e n t of
civilian
labor
force

85

Unemployed
Year

Percent of
civilian
labor
force

86

4,088
2,832
2,817
2,975
2,875

4.9
3.5
3.6
3.8
3.8

3,366
3,786
4,070
3,911
4,714

4.5
5.2
5.7
5.5
6.7

3,852
3,740
4,602
2,859
2,750

5.5
5.5
4.3
4.1

2,852

4.4

6.8

Percent of
civilian
labor
force

Unemployed
Year

Annual averages]

Unemployed
Year

P e r c e n t of
civilian
labor
force

Unemployed
Year

86
1954..
1953 i
1952..
1951..

3,532
1,834
1,883
2,055

5.5
2.9
3.0

1950..
1949..
1948._
1947..
1946-.

3,288
3,637
2,276
2,311
2,270

5.3
5.9
3.8
3.9
3.9

1945__
1944_.
1943-.
1942..
1941-.

1,040
670
1,070
2,660
5,560

1.9
1.2
1.9
4.7
9.9

8,120
9,480

1940-_
1939._

14.6
17.2

1938.
1937
1936

10,390
7,700
9,030

19.0
14.3
16.9

1935.
1934
1933.
1932.
1931.

10,610
11,340
12,830
12,060
8,020

20.1
21.7
24.9
23.6
15.9

1930.
1929.
1928
1927.
1926.

4,340
1,550
1,982
1,519
801
1,453
2,190
1,049
1

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska a n d Hawaii.

Series D 87-101.

6.7
11.7

2,132
546
536
1,848
2,043

5.2
1.4
1.4
4.6
5.1

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

3,377
3,120
1,671
1,759
2,518

8.5
7.9
4.3
4.6
6.7

1910
1909
1908
1907

3.2
5.0
2.4

2,859
4,918

1920
1919
1918
1917
1916

8.7
3.2
4.2
3.3
1.8

1925.
1924.
1923.

1922
1921

2,150
1,824
2,780
945

5.9
5.1
8.0
2.8

1906
1905
1904
1903.
1902
1901

574
1,381
1,691
1.204
1,097
1.205

1900
1899.
1898
1897.
1896.
1895.

1,420
1,819
3,351
3,890
3,782
3,510

1894
1893.
1892.
1891.
1890.

4,612
2,860
728
1,265
904

See headnote for series D 11-25.

Unemployment Rates for Selected Groups in the Labor Force: 1947 to 1970
[Percent of each group specified of persons 16 years old and over in the civilian labor force]

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Both
sexes,
16-19
years old

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

All civilian workers
Year

N e g r o a n d other races

White

Men,
20 years
a n d over

97

UnemAverage
State
Women,
ployed
duration
insured
20 years 15 weeks of u n e m - unemploya n d over a n d over, p l o y m e n t ,
ment
total
•weeks
98

99

100

101

1970
1969 . .
1968. . _ .
1967
1966

4.9
3.5
3.6
3.8
3.8

4.4
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.2

5.9
4.7
4.8
5.2
4.8

4.5
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.3

4.0
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

5.4
4.2
4.3
4.6
4.3

8.2
6.4
6.7
7.4
7.3

7.3
5.3
5.6
6.0
6.3

9.3
7.8
8.3
9.1
8.6

15.2
12.2
12.7
12.9
12.8

3.5
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.5

4.8
3.7
3.8
4.2
3.8

0.8
.5
.5
.6
.7

8.8
8.0
8.5
8.8
10.4

3.4
2.2
2.2
2.5
2.4

1965
1964
1963.
1962
1961

4.5
5.2
5.7
5.5
6.7

4.0
4.6
5.2
5.2
6.4

5.5
6.2
6.5
6.2
7.2

4.1
4.6
5.0
4.9
6.0

3.6
4.1
4.7
4.6
5.7

5.0
5.5
5.8
5.5
6.5

8.1
9.6
10.8
10.9
12.4

7.4
8.9
10.5
10.9
12.8

9.2
10.6
11.2

11.8

14.8
16.2
17.2
14.7
16.8

3.2
3.9
4.5
4.6
5.7

4.5
5.2
5.4
5.4
6.3

1.0
1.3
1.5
1.6
2.2

11.8
13.3
14.0
14.7
15.6

3.0
3.7
4.3
4.4
5.7

1960
1959._
1958
1957
1956

5.5
5.5
6.8
4.3
4.1

5.4
5.3
6.8
4.1
3.8

5.9
5.9
6.8
4.7
4.8

4.9
4.8
6.1
3.8
3.6

4.8
4.6
6.1
3.6
3.4

5.3
5.3
6.2
4.3
4.2

10.2
10.7
12.6
7.9
8.3

10.7
11.5
13.8
8.3
7.9

9.4
9.4
10.8
7.3
8.9

14.7
14.6
15.9
11.6
11.1

4.7
4.7
6.2
3.6
3.4

5.1
5.2
6.1
4.1
4.2

1.4
1.5
2.1
.8
.8

12.8
14.4
13.9
10.5
11.3

4.8
4.4
6.3
3.7
3.4

4.4
5.5
2.9
3.0
3.3

4.2
5.3
2.8
2.8
2.8

4.9
6.0
3.3
3.6
4.4

3.9
5.0
2.7
2.8
3.1

3.7
4.8
2.5
2.5
2.6

4.3
5.6
3.1
3.3
4.2

8.7
9.9
4.5
5.4
5.3

8.8
10.3
4.8
5.2
4.9

8.4
9.3
4.1
5.7
6.1

11.0

. .
. .
..-

12.6
7.6
8.5
8.2

3.8
4.9
2.5
2.4
2.5

4.4
5.5
2.9
3.2
4.0

1.1
1.3
.3
.4
.5

13.0
11.8
8.0
8.4
9.7

3.5
5.1
2.8
3.0
3.0

. ..
.. .

5.3
5.9
3.8
3.9

5.1
5.9
3.6
4.0

5.7
6.0
4.1
3.7

4.9
5.6
3.5

4.7
5.6
3.4

5.3
5.7
3.8

9.0
8.9
5.9

9.4
9.6
5.8

8.4
7.9
6.1

12.2
13.4
9.2

4.7
5.4
3.2

5.1
5.3
3.6

1.3
1.1
.5

12.1
10.0
8.6

4.8
6.0
3.1

1955
1954 . .
1953 .
1952 _
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947

_

_




11.0

135

LABOR

D 102-126

Series D 102-115.

Unemployment Rates, by Industry: 1948 to 1970

[Percent of each industry specified of persons 16 years old and over in the civilian labor force]
Experienced wage and salary workers
Wage and salary workers in private nonagricultural industries
Total
unemployed 1

Year

Total

Agriculture

Manufacturing
Total

Mining

Construction
Total

102

104

103

105

106

107

Durable

Nondurable

108

109

110

T r a n s p o r - Wholesale
tation
and
Finance,
Service
and
retail
insurance, industries
public
trade
real estate
utilities
111

112

114

113

Government

115

1970__
19691968—
1967—
1966

4.9
3.5
3.6
3.8
3.8

4.8
3.3
3.4
3.6
3.5

7.5
6.0
6.3
6.9
6.6

5.2
3.0
3.0
3.9
3.8

3.1
2.8
3.1
3.4
3.5

9.7
5.4
6.2
6.6
7.1

5.6
3.3
3.3
3.6
3.2

5.7
3.0
3.0
3.4
2.7

5.4
3.7
3.7
4.1
3.8

3.2
2.1
1.9
2.3
2.0

5.3
4.1
4.0
4.2
4.4

2.8
2.1
2.2
2.5
2.1

4.7
3.5
3.6
3.9
3.9

2.2
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8

1965—
19641963
1962__
1961-

4.5
5.2
5.7
5.5
6.7

4.3
5.0
5.6
5.6
6.8

7.5
9.7
9.2
7.5
9.6

4.6
5.4
6.1
6.1
7.5

5.3
6.7
7.3
7.7
11.1

10.1
11.2
13.3
13.5
15.7

4.0
5.0
5.7
5.8
7.8

3.5
4.7
5.5
5.7
8.5

4.7
5.4
6.0
6.0
6.8

2.9
3.5
4.2
4.1
5.3

5.0
5.7
6.2
6.3
7.3

2.3
2.6
2.7
3.0
3.3

4.6
5.3
5.7
5.5
6.2

1.9
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.5

19601959195819571956__

5.5
5.5
6.8
4.3
4.1

5.7
5.7
7.3
4.6
4.4

8.3
9.0
10.3
6.9
7.3

6.2
6.1
7.9
4.9
4.7

9.5
9.7
10.9
5.8
6.8

13.5
13.4
15.3
10.9
10.0

6.2
6.1
9.3
5.1
4.7

6.4
6.2
10.6
4.9
4.4

6.1
6.0
7.7
5.3
5.2

4.6
4.4
6.1
3.3
3.0

5.9
5.8
6.8
4.5
4.5

2.4
2.5
2.8
1.8
1.7

5.1
5.3
5.7
4.2
4.6

2.4
2.2
2.5
1.9
1.7

19551954195319521951-

4.4
5.5
2.9
3.0
3.3

4.8
7.0
3.2
3.3
3.7

7.2
8.9
5.6
4.8
4.3

5.1
6.7
3.4
3.6
3.9

9.0
14.4
4.6
3.8
4.0

10.9
12.9
7.2
6.7
7.2

4.7
7.1
3.1
3.5
3.8

4.4
7.3
2.6
3.0
3.1

5.2
6.9
3.8
4.1
4.7

4.0
5.6
2.2
2.3
2.3

4.7
5.7
3.4
3.5
3.9

2.3
2.3
1.7
1.7
1.5

5.2
5.5
3.4
3.6
4.2

2.0
2.2
1.5
1.6
1.8

195019491948

5.3
5.9
3.8

6.0
6.8
4.3

9.0
7.1
5.5

3.9
7.3
4.5

6.7
8.9
3.0

12.2
13.9
8.7

6.2
8.0
4.2

5.7
8.1
4.0

6.8
7.8
4.4

4.7
5.9
3.5

6.0
6.2
4.7

2.2
2.1
1.8

6.4
6.7
4.8

3.0
3.1
2.2

1
Also includes the self-employed, unpaid family workers, and those with no previous
work experience, not shown separately.

Series D 116-126.

Persons With a Job but Not at Work and Civilians Employed, by Hours Worked: 1950 to 1970

[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over through 1965; 16 years old and over, thereafter.

D a t a are for the survey week in M a y of each year]

Civilians employed
Persons with a job but not a t work
I n nonagricultural industries
Year

All
industries.
total

116

Reasons for not working

118

Worked
1-14 hours

Worked
15-34 hours

Total

Percent
of total

121

122

123

Illness

117

I n agriculture

Worked 35 or more hours
Total

Vacation

1

119

120

1

Worked 35 or more hours
Total
Total

124

Percent
of total

125

126

1970
1969
1968
1967
1966

3,140
2,801
2,694
2,485
2,415

974
933
917
758
808

1,321
1,120
1,021
1,033
947

74,632
73,370
71,935
69,812
69,472

4,354
3,845
3,984
3,827
4,363

11,383
10,775
10,198
9,646
8,407

55,827
56,019
55,176
53,950
54,392

74.8
76.4
76.7
77.3
78.2

3,725
3,894
3,996
3,824
4,293

2,533
2,661
2,663
2,578
2,806

68.0
68.3
66.6
67.4
65.4

1965
1964
1963
1962
1961

2,402
2,396
2,172
2,032
2,026

759
833
643
663
641

1,063
911
921
870
902

67,278
66,094
63,883
62,775
61,234

4,403
4,466
4,147
3,912
3,858

7,563
7,817
7,261
7,209
7,533

53,008
51,507
50,382
49,711
47,926

78.8
77.9
78.9
79.2
78.3

5,128
5,007
5,178
5,428
5,544

3,475
3,450
3,490
3,801
3,701

67.8
68.9
67.4
70.0
66.8

1960*
1959
1958
1957
1956

2,086
2,007
1,902
2,056
1,803

645
661
584
707
535

873
918
836
810
859

61,371
59,608
57,789
58,519
58,092

3,578
3,349
3,224
2,942
2,980

7,203
6,431
7,147
6,576
6,557

48,594
47,936
45,619
47,115
46,587

79.2
80.4
78.9
80.5
80.2

5,837
6,408
6,272
6,659
7,146

4,128
4,488
4,452
4,615
5,185

70.7
70.0
71.0
69.3
72.6

1,783
1,752
1,715
1,930
1,585
1,475

575
470
364
398
462
353

736
809
738
750
659
629

55,740
54,297
55,557
54,216
53,753
51,669

2,440
2,133
1,926
1,934
2,071
1,949

5,617
6,214
5,608
4,946
4,930
5,149

45,831
43,959
45,988
45,284
45,055
43,034

82.2
81.0
82.8
83.5
83.8
83.3

6,963
6,822
6,422
6,960
7,440
8,062

5,176
4,955
4,346
5,416
5,797
5,970

74.3
72.6
67.7
77.8
77.9
74.1

1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950

—

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.

136




1
Includes persons who had a job or business, b u t did not work a t all during entire
survey week because of illness, bad weather, vacation, industrial dispute, or various
personal reasons.

LABOR FORCE

127-141.

D 127-141

Employees on Nonagricultural Payrolls, by Major Industry Divisions: 1900 to 1970
[In thousands. Annual averages of m o n t h l y figures]
Service-producing

Goods-producing
Manufacturing
Contract
construction

1

Durable

131

129

Nondurable

Transportation
and
public
utilities

132

Wholesale and retail t r a d e

Total

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Government
Finance,
insurance,
a n d real
estate

134

Services
Total

138

Federal

140

1970.
1969.
1968.
1967.
1966.

622
619
606
613
627

3,345
3,435
3,285
3,208
3,275

19
20
19
19
19

369
167
781
447
214

11,198
11,895
11,626
11,439
11,284

8,171
8,272
8,155
8,008
7,930

4
4
4
4
4

504
429
310
261
151

14
14
14
13
13

922
639
084
606
245

3,824
3,733
3,611
3,525
3,437

11,098
10,906
10,473
10,081
9,808

3,690
3,564
3,382
3,225
3,100

11,630
11,229
10,623
10,099
9,551

12,535
12,202
11,845
11,398
10,792

2,705
2,758
2,737
2,719
2,564

9,830
9,444
9,109
8,679
8,227

1965.
1964.
1963.
1962.
1961.

632
634
635
650
672

3,186
3,050
2,963
2,902
2,816

18
17
16
16
16

062
274
995
853
326

10,406
9,816
9,616
9,480
9,070

7,656
7,458
7,380
7,373
7,256

4
3
3
3
3

036
951
903
906
903

12
12
11
11
11

716
160
778
566
337

3,312
3.189
3,104
3,056
2,993

9,404
8,971
8,675
8,511
8,344

3,023
2,957
2,877
2,800
2,731

9,087
8,709
8.325
8,028
7,664

10,074
9,596
9,225
8,890
8.594

2,378
2,348
2,358
2,340
2,279

7,696
7,248
6,868
6,550
6,315

1960.
1959.
1958.
1957.
1956.

712
732
751
828
822

2,885
2,960
2,778
2,923
2,999

16
16
15
17
17

796
675
945
174
243

9,459
9,373
8,830
9,856
9,834

7,336
7,303
7,116
7,319
7,409

4
4
3
4
4

004
011
976
241
244

11
11
10
10
10

391
127
750
886
858

3,004
2,946
2,848
2,893
2,884

8,388
8,182
7,902
7,992
7,974

2,669
2,594
2,519
2,477
2,429

7,423
7,130
6,806
6,749
6,536

8,353
8,083
7,839
7,616
7,277

2,270
2,233
2,191
2,217
2,209

6,083
5,850
5,648
5,399
5,069

1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951.

792
791
866
898
929

2,802
2,612
2,623
2,634
2,603

16
16
17
16
16

882
314
549
632
393

9,541
9,129
10,110
9,349
9,089

7,340
7,185
7,438
7,284
7,304

4
4
4
4
4

141
084
290
248
226

10
10
10
10
9

535
235
247
004
742

2,796
2,739
2,727
2,687
2,606

7,740
7,496
7,520
7,317
7,136

2,335
2,234
2,146
2,069
1,991

6,274
6,002
5,867
5,730
5,576

6,914
6,751
6,645
6,609
6,389

2.187
2.188
2,305
2,420
2,302

4,723
4,667
4,340
4,188
4,087

1950.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.

901
930
994
955
862

2,333
2,165
2,169
1,982
1,661

15
14
15
15
14

241
441
582
545
703

8,094
7,489
8,326
8,385
7,742

7,147
6,953
7,256
7,159
6,962

4
4
4
4
4

034
001
189
166
061

9
9
9
8
8

386
264
272
955
376

2,518
2,487
2,489
2,361
2.190

6,868
6,778
6,783
6,595
6,186

1,919
1,857
1,829
1,754
1,697

5,382
5,264
5,206
5,050
4,719

6,026
5,856
5,650
5,474
5.595

1,928
1,908
1,863
1,892
2,254

4,098
3,948
3,787
3,582
3,341

1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.

836
892
925
992
957

1,132
1,094
1,567
2,170
1,790

15
17
17
15
13

524
328
602
280
192

9,074
10,856
11,084
8,823
6,968

6,450
6,472
6,518
6,458
6,225

3
3
3
3
3

906
829
647
460
274

7
7
6
7
7

314
058
982
118
210

1,862
1,762
1,741
1,821
1,873

5,452
5.296
5,241
5.297
5,338

1,497
1,476
1,502
1,538
1,549

4,241
4.163
4,148
4.084
3,921

5.944
6,043
6,080
5,483
4,660

2,808
2,928
2,905
2,213
1,340

3,137
3,116
3,174
3,270
3,320

1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.

925
854
891
1,015
946

1,294
1,150
1,055
1,112
1,145

10
10
9
10
9

985
278
440
794
827

5,363
4,715

5,622
5,564

3
2
2
3
2

038
936
863
134
973

6
6
6
6
5

750
426
179
265
809

1,754
1,684

4,996
4,742

1,502
1,462
1,425
1,432
1,388

3,681
3.517
3,473
3.518
3.326

4,202
3,995
3,883
3.756
3,668

996
905
829
833
826

3,206
3,090
3,054
2,923
2,842

1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.

897
883
744
731
873

912
862
809
970
1,214

2 786
750
2 672
2 816
3 254

5
5
4
4
5

431
281
755
683
284

1,335
1,319
1,295
1,341
1,407

3,142
3,058
2,873
2,931
3,183

3,481
3,299
3,166
3,225
3,264

753
652
565
559
560

2,728
2,647
2,601
2,666
2,704

1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926

1,009
1,087
1,038
1,100
1,168

1,372
1,497
1,704
1,761
1,756

9
10
9
9
10

562
702
942
996
156

3
3
3
3
4

685
916
886
997
077

5
6
6
5
5

797
123
047
942
864

1,475
1,509
1,484
1,380
1,328

3,376
3,440
3,399
3,360
3,397

3,148
3,065
3,039
2.945
2,853

526
533

2,622
2,532

1925
1924
1923.
1922.
1921.

1,065
1,091
1,181
880
906

1,680
1,556
1,408
1,315
1,035

9
9
10
9
8

942
675
317
129
262

4
4
4
3
3

018
063
185
897
929

5
5
5
4
3

717
047
194
708
960

1,264
1,175
1,081
968

3,300
3,298
3,247
3,151
3.085

2,765
2,636
2,524
2,455
2,397

1920.
1919
1918
1917
1916

1,180
1,067
1,311
1,267
1,168

850
1,011
928
1,027
1,208

10
10
10
9
9

702
702
167
872
629

4
4
3
3
3

317
055
877
722
579

4
4
4
4
4

012
213
110
320
476

902
868
809
771
738

3,100
2,905
2,769
2,783
2,796

2,371
2,449
2,461
2,000
1,916

1915
1914
1913
1912
1911

1,022
1,027
1,182
1,083
1,052

1,195
1,267
1,412
1,337
1,249

8
8
8
8
7

210
210
751
322
870

3
3
3
3
3

439
445
570
552
426

4
4
4
4
3

091
128
232
073
813

694
657
613
568
520

2,637
2,647
2,626
2,539
2,491

1,861
1,809
1.757
1,717
1,672

1910
1909
1908
1907
1906

1,068
998
900
1,051
894

1,342
1,376
1,308
1,436
1,391

7
7
6
7
7

828
661
570
322
226

3
3
3
3
3

366
229
069
114
110

3
3
3
3
3

570
585
299
486
442

483
464
442
423
405

2,410
2,326
2.164
2,243
2,215

1,630
1,564
1,507
1,448
1,386

1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
1900

889
801
834
685
703
637

1,208
1,257
1,290
1,393
1,274
1,147

6
6
6
6
5
5

739
199
527
305
817
468

2
2
2
2
2
2

905
743
666
754
404
282

3
2
2
2
2
2

170
992
979
827
765
502

385
369
351
337
322
308

2,076
2,002
1,982
1,903
1,880
1,740

1,335
1,277
1,229
1,191
1,129
1,094




9 069
X 501
7 397
931
8 170

fi

?
.

1,211

137

LABOR

D 142-166

Series D 142-151.
[In thousands.

Production or Nonsupervisory Workers on Private Nonagricultural Payrolls, by Industry
Division: 1909 to 1970

Relates to production workers in mining and manufacturing, to construction workers in contract construction, and to nonsupervisory workers in other industries]

Total
private

Year

1

Mining

142

Contract
construction

Manufacturing

Wholesale and retail trade

Durable
goods

Nondurable
goods

Total

Wholesale

Retail
trade

145

144

Total

146

147

148

149

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate 2

150

Manufacturing,
total

Year

151

145

1970.
19691968.
1967.
1966-

47,950
48,105
46,475
45,169
44,281

472
472
461
469
487

2,790
2,896
2,768
2,708
2,784

14,033
14,767
14,514
14,308
14,297

8,043
8,651
8,457
8,364
8,370

5,990
6,116
6,056
5,944
5,926

13,269
13,034
12,528
12,121
11,820

3,212
3,139
3,036
2,971
2,911

10,057
9,895
9,492
9,151
8,909

2.919
2,835
2,687
2,566
2,476

19651964196319621961-

42,309
40,589
39,553
38,979
37,989

494
497
498
512
532

2,710
2,597
2,523
2,462
2,390

13,434
12,781
12,555
12,488
12,083

7,715
7,213
7.027
6,935
6,618

5,719
5.569
5,527
5,553
5,465

11,358
10,869
10,560
10,400
10,234

2,814
2,719
2,656
2,625
2,584

8,544
8,151
7,904
7,775
7,650

2,426
2,386
2,329
2,274
2,225

1960—
1959*.
195819571956.-

38,516
38,080
36,608
38,384
38,495

570
590
611
695
701

2,459
2,538
2,384
2,537
2,613

12,586
12,603
11,997
13,189
13,436

7.028
7,033
6,579
7,550
7,669

5,559
5.570
5,419
5,638
5,767

10,315
10,087
9,736
9,923
9,933

2,605
2,562
2,477
2,541
2,547

7,710
7,525
7,259
7,382
7,386

2,181
2,121
2,063
2,031
1,994

1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951.

37,500
36,276
37,694
36,643
36,225

680
686
765
801
840

2,440
2,281
2,305
2,324
2,308

13,288
12,817
14,055
13,359
13,368

7,548
7,194
8,154
7,550
7,480

5,740
5,623
5,901
5,810
5,888

9,675
9,456
9,510
9,333
9,091

2,479
2,442
2,459
2,439
2,365

7,196
7,014
7,051
6,894
6,726

1.920
1,837
1,771
1,711
1,649

1950.
1949.
19481947.
1946.

34,349
33,159
34,489
33,747

816
839
906
871

2,069
1,919
1,924
1,759

12,523
11,790
12,910
12,990
12,274

6,705
6,122
6,925
7,028
6,412

5,817
5,669
5,986
5,962
5,862

8,742
8,595
8,629
8,241

2,294
2,267
2,274
2,165

6,448
6,328
6,355
6,076

1,591
1,542
1,521
1,460

1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.

13,009
14,740
15,147
12,996
11,016

7,541
9,197
9,548
7,589
5,947

5,468
5,543
5,599
5,407
5,070

1940.
1939-

8,940
8,318

4,477
3,895

4,463
4,423

* Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii.
1
Beginning 1964, includes "transportation and public utilities" and "service
industries," not shown separately.

Series D 152-166.

2

1938.
1937.
1936.

7,478
8,791
8,014

1935.
1934
1933.
1932.
1931.

7,374
6,909
5,924
5,351
6,301

1930.
1929.
1928.
1927.
1926.

7,464
8,567
8,051
8,037
8,214

1925.
1924.
1923.
1922.
1921.

8,061
7,789
8,388
7,327
6,622

1920.
1919.
1914.
1909.

8,652
8,617
6,624
6,272

Excludes nonofiice salesmen.

Industrial Distribution of Gainful Workers: 1820 to 1940
[In thousands]

Year

Total

Agriculture

Forestry
and
fisheries

TransporManufacturing Construc- tation and
other
and hand
tion
public
trades
utilities

152

Trade

Finance
and real
estate

158

Mining

159

Educational
service

160

Other
professional

GovernNot
Domestic Personal ment not
service
service elsewhere allocated
classified

162

163

166

1940..
1930 i

53,300
47,400

9,000
10,180

140
120

1,110
1,160

11.940
10,770

3,510
3,030

4,150
4,810

7,180
6,190

1,550
1,470

1,680
1,630

2,320
1,720

2,610
2,550

3,100
2,500

1,690
1,130

3,330
2
145

1930 s.
1920-.
1910—
1900..

48,830
41,610
36,730
29,070

10,480
11,120
11,340
10,710

270
280
250
210

1,150
1,230
1,050
760

10,990
10,880
8,230
6,340

3,030
2,170
2,300
1,660

4,850
4,190
3,190
2,100

6,030
1,420
4,060
800
3,370
520
2,760

1,650
1,170
900
650

,760
,080
770
500

2,330
1,700
2,150
1,740

2,490
1,630
1,520
970

1,050
920
540
300

1,340
380
600
370

1890..
1870 «.

23,740
17,390
12,920

9,990
8,610
6,430

180
95
60

480
310
200

4,750
3,170
2,250

1,440
830
750

1,530
860
640

510
330
190

350
190
140

1,520
1,080
940

640
360
250

190
140
100

170
195
140

1870 3.
1860..
1850-.

12,920
10,530
7,700

6,850
6,210
4,900

60
50
25

180
170
90

2,750
1,930
1,260

1840-.
1830..

5,420
3,930
2,880

3,720
2,770
2,070

15

790

1880..

1820..
1
2

138

1,350
780
420

51,700
1,310
940

30
80
65
895
1,160
460

350

Comparable with 1940.
Difference between number of persons not reporting industrial affiliation (1,335,000)
and excess of the "gainful worker" total over the "labor force" total (1,190,000).
3
Comparable with data for earlier years.




1,990
1,220
830

4
8

Comparable with data for later years.
Figure corrected for apparent error in source; components now add to total, series
D 152.

LABOR FORCE

Series D 167-181.

D 442-524

Labor Force and Employment, by Industry: 1800 to 1960
[In thousands of persons 10 years old and over]
Employment

Labor force

Manufacturing
Total

Free

168

Slave

169

Agriculture

Fishing

Mining

170

Construction

Total
persons
engaged

172

Cotton
textile
wage
earners

Transport

Primary
iron and
steel
wage
earners

Trade

Ocean
vessels

Service

Railway

Teachers

178

174

74,060
65,470
56,290
48,830
41,610

5,970
7,870
9,575
10,560
10,790

45
77
60
73
53

709
901
925
1,009
1,180

3,640
3,029
1,876
1,988
1,233

17,145
15,648
11,309
9,884
11,190

300
350
400
372
450

530
550
485
375
460

14,051
12,152
9,328
8,122
5,845

135
130
150
160
205

883
1,373
1,160
1,659
2,236

1,850
1,270
1,086
1,044
752

37,480
29,070
23,320
17,390
12,930

11,770
11,680
9,960
8,920
6,790

68
69
60
41
28

1,068
637
440
280
180

1,949
1,665
1,510
900
780

8,332
5,895
4,390
3,290
2,470

370
303
222
175
135

306
222
149
130
78

5,320
3,970
2,960
1,930
1,310

150
105
120
125
135

1,855
1,040
750
416
160

595
436
350
230
170

520
410
290

1,530
1,200
500
(NA)
(NA)

122
92
72
55
12

43
35
24
20
5

890
530
350

145
135
95
70
50

20
7

115
80
45
30
20

75

10

11,110
8,250
5,660
4,200
3,135

2,340
1,970
1,480
1,180
950

5,880
4,520
3,570
2,965
2,470

31
30
24
15
14

176
102
32
22
13

2,330
1,900
NA

8,770
6,280
4,180
3,020
2,185
1,590
1,370

740
530

1,950
1,400

6
5

11
10

60
40

1

12
5

Not available.

Series D 182-232.

Major Occupation Group of the Experienced Civilian Labor Force, by Sex: 1900 to 1970

[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over, except as indicated.

Census data for 1900, June 1; 1910, April 15; 1920, Jan. 1; 1930-1970, April 1]

1970
Major occupation group and sex

1960

1950

16 years
old and
over

14 years
old and
over

1970
classification

1960
classification

1960
classification

•79,802

2

3

3

4

1950
classification

1940

1930

1920

1910

1900

BOTH SEXES

59,230

58,999

51,742

48,686

42,206

37,291

29,030

White-collar workers
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers
Managers, officials, and proprietors 5
Clerical and kindred worRers_
Salesworkers

37,857

36,131

27,028

27,244

21,253

21,601

16,082

14,320

10,529

7,962

5,115

11,561
6,463
14,208
5,625

11,018
6,224
13,457
5,433

7,090
5,708
9,431
4,799

7,836
5,489
9,617
4,801

5,000
5,096
7,132
4,025

5,081
5,155
7,232
4,133

3,879
3,770
4,982
3,450

3,311
3,614
4,336
3,059

2,283
2,803
3,385
2,058

1,758
2,462
1,987
1,755

1,234
1,697
877
1,307

Manual and service workers
Manual workers
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers
Operative and kindred workers
Laborers, except farm and mine

39,420
29,169

36,947
27,356

33,377
25,475

33,207
25,617

29,749
23,733

30,445
24,266

26,666
20,597

24,044
19,272

20,287
16,974

17,797
14,234

13,027
10,401

11,082
14,335
3,751

10,435
13,406
3,515

9,465
12,254
3,755

9,241
12,846
3,530

8,205
11,754
3,774

8,350
12,030
3,885

6,203
9,518
4,875

6,246
7,691
5,335

5,482
6,587
4,905

4,315
5,441
4,478

3,062
3,720
3,620

10,251
1,204
9,047

9,591
1,143
8,449

7,902
1,817
6,086

7,590
1,825
5,765

6,015
1,492
4,524

6,180
1,539
4,641

6,069
2,412
3,657

4,772
1,998
2,774

3,313
1,411
1,901

3,562
1,851
1,711

2,626
1,579
1,047

2,448
1,428
1,022

2,345
1,350
995

4,132
2,528
1,604

4,085
2,526
1,560

6,858
4,325
2,533

6,953
4,375
2,578

8,995
5,362
3,682

10,321
6,032
4,290

11,390
6,442
4,948

11,533
6,163
5,370

10,888
5,763
5,125

45,686

' 45,686

Total

Service workers
Private household workers
Service workers, exc. private householdFarmworkers
Farmers and farm managers
Farm laborers and foremen

80,603

67,990

67,990

MALE
2

3

4

42,722

42,554

39,168

37,933

33,569

29,847

23,711

White-collar workers
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers
Managers, officials, and proprietors 5
Clerical and kindred workers
Salesworkers

19,428

18,693

15,316

15,413

12,798

12,974

10,434

9,564

7,176

6,019

4,166

6,917
5,386
3,748
3,378

6,621
5,189
3,547
8,336

4,366
4,864
3,024
3,063

4,543
4,695
3,120
3,055

3,025
4,408
2,728
2,642

3,074
4,456
2,730
2,715

2,271
3,356
2,282
2,525

1,829
3,321
2,090
2,323

1,275
2,612
1,771
1,518

1,032
2,312
1,300
1,376

800
1,623
665
1,079

Manual and service workers
Manual workers
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers
Operative and kindred workers.
Laborers, except farm and mine
Service workers
Private household workers
Service workers, exc. private household-

27,807
23,760

26,154
22,315

24,477
21,465

24,422
21,612

22,746
20,159

23,228
20,581

20,247
17,877

18,956
17,138

16,172
14,923

13,469
12,320

9,664
8,924

10,530
9,789
3,440
4,048
38
4,010

9,911
9,183
3,221
3,839
40
3,800

9,170
8,783
3,562
3,012
65
2,947

8,973
9,234
3,405
2,810
65
2,745

7,959
8,566
3,634
2,587
78
2,509

8,098
8,743
3,740
2,647
80
2,568

6,069
7,067
4,742
2,370
135
2,235

6,140
5,822
5,177
1,818
89
1,729

5,377
4,839
4,707
1,250
51
1,199

4,209
3,789
4,372
1,149
67
1,082

2,985
2,456
3,482
740
53
687

2,205
1,357
848

2,123
1,288
835

3,737
2,408
1,329

3,696
2,406
1,290

6,271
4,207
2,064

6,352
4,255
2,097

8,487
5,205
3,282

9,414
5,769
3,645

10,221
6,165
4,056

10,359
5,884
4,475

9,880
5,451
4,429

Total

Farmworkers
Farmers and farm managers
Farm laborers and foremen

>49,455

50,002

See footnotes at end of table.




139

D 216-278

LABOR

Series D 182-232.

Major Occupation Group of the Experienced Civilian Labor Force, by Sex: 1900 to 1970—Con.
[lit t h o u s a n d s of persons 14 y e a r s old a n d over, except a s indicatedl
1970

1960

1950

M a j o r occupation group and sex

1940
16 y e a r s
old a n d
over

14 y e a r s
old a n d
over

1970
classification

1960
classification

1960
classification

1930

1920

1910

1950
classification

FEMALE

Total

>30,347

' 30,601

>22,304

>22,304

«16,507

16,445

12,574

10,752

8,637

7,445

White-collar workers
Professional, technical, a n d
kindred
workers
Managers, officials, a n d proprietors 5
Clerical a n d kindred workers
Salesworkers

18,430

17,438

11,711

11,831

8,456

8,627

5,648

4,756

3,353

1,943

4,644
1,077
10,461
2,247

4,398
1,034
9,910
2,097

2,724
844
6,407
1,736

2,793
794
6,497
1,746

1,976
688
4,408
1,383

2,007
700
4,502
1,418

1,608
414
2,700
925

1,482
292
2,246
736

1,008
191
1,614
541

726
150
688
379

M a n u a l a n d service workers
M a n u a l workers
C r a f t s m e n , foremen, a n d
kindred
workers
Operative a n d kindred workers
Laborers, except f a r m a n d m i n e
Service workers
P r i v a t e household workers
Service workers, exc. p r i v a t e household.

11,612
5,409

10,793
5,041

8,900
4,010

8,786
4,006

7,003
3,574

7,217
3,685

6,419
2,720

5,088
2,134

4,115
2,052

4,327
1,914

552
4,546
311
6,203
1,166
5,037

524
4,223
295
5,752
1,103
4,649

295
3,521
193
4,890
1,752
3,139

268
3,612
125
4,780
1,760
3,020

246
3,188
140
3,429
1,414
2,015

253
3,287
145
3,532
1,459
2,073

135
2,452
133
3,699
2,277
1,422

106
1,870
158
2,954
1,909
1,045

105
1,748
199
2,063
1,360
703

106
1,702
106
2,413
1,784
629

245
72
173

222
63
160

395
120
275

390
120
270

587
118
469

601
120
481

508
157
351

908
263
645

1,169
277
892

1,175
279
895

Farmworkers
Farmers and farm managers
F a r m laborers a n d foremen

1
Includes 74,911 u n e m p l o y e d persons whose occupations were n o t reported; 14,781
males a n d 60,130 females.
2
Includes 5,179,626 unemployed persons whose occupations were n o t reported;
3,032,524 males a n d 2,147,102 females.

Series D 233-682.

s
Includes 3,453,279 u n e m p l o y e d persons whose occupations were n o t reported;
2,155,586 males a n d 1,297,693 females.
4
Includes 1,369,621 u n e m p l o y e d persons whose occupations were n o t reported;
5
907, 615 males a n d 462,006 females.
Except farm.

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1970

[In t h o u s a n d s of p e r s o n s 14 y e a r s old a n d over, except a s indicated.

" N . e . c . " m e a n s n o t elsewhere classified.
1930-1970, April 1]
1970

Census d a t a for 1900 a s of J u n e 1; 1910, April 15; 1920, J a n . 1;

1950

Occupation
16 y e a r s 14 y e a r s
1970
old a n d old a n d classiover
over
fication
Total.
Professional, technical, a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s

2

2

1920

1910

37,291

58,999

51,742

48,686

42,206

5,000

5,081

3,879

3,311

2,283

477
13
5
22
12
78
28
31
105
29

385
18
12
17
16
46
15
24
81
16

390
20
13
18
17
47
14
25
83
17

238
21
9
14
12
25
5
22
66
14

192

118

76

48

6
23
57
12

1
17
35
7

84
202
57
38
98
179
83
68
219
103

76
169
42
17
77
126
76
29
136
73

77
171
42
95
127
76
41
127

57
141
42

45
149

28
127

71

46
33
56
67
39

871
158
42
9
7
188
115
53
162
137
14

872
158
41
19
12
185
98
53
160
145
14
37

535
126
33
12
14
108
41
18
115
67
12
40

543
128
34
23

297
97
13
12

62
71
98
61
217

110
42

65
13

207

97

13
41

274
124

218
76

842

630

17
110
67
282
14

17
110
67
282
14

16
96
53
233
14

182
56
162
406
77
15
89
65
193
5
13
25

184
57
166

841

213
85
198
592
58
16
93
53
230
4
14
37

26

26

29

53
221

110
219
36
64
221

96
202
61
29
95

91
112
294
151

91
112
295
151

1,230
175
53
16
5
286
188
69
181
259
13
41

1,231
175
53
16
5
286
188
69
181
259
13
41

273
124

140

1930

7,336

110
219




1940

496
12

11,018

Chemists
Clergymen
Religious workers
Recreation a n d group workers
Social a n d welfare workers, except group
College presidents, professors, a n d instructors (n.e.c.).
Dentists
Designers
Draftsmen
•
Editors a n d reporters

See footnotes at end of table.

1950
classification

7,090

11,561
712
15

Lawyers a n d judges
Librarians
Musicians a n d music t e a c h e r s . .
Nurses, professional
Nurses, s t u d e n t professional
Optometrists
Pharmacists
Photographers
Physicians a n d surgeons
Osteopaths
Chiropractors
T h e r a p i s t s a n d healers (n.e.c.).

1960
classification
> 59,230

>79,802 >80,603 >67,990
2

A c c o u n t a n t s a n d auditors
Actors a n d actresses
Athletes
D a n c e r s a n d dancing t e a c h e r s . .
E n t e r t a i n e r s (n.e.c.)
Sports instructors a n d officials.
Airplane pilots a n d n a v i g a t o r s .
Architects
Artists a n d a r t teachers
Authors

Engineers, technical
Engineers, civil
Engineers, chemical
Engineers, metallurgical, a n d metallurgists..
Engineers, mining
Engineers, electrical
Engineers, industrialEngineers, aeronautical
Engineers, mechanical
Engineers (n.e.c.)
F a r m a n d home m a n a g e m e n t advisors
F u n e r a l directors a n d embalmers

1960
classification

713
15

69
219
106

491
15
90
56
195
5
13
25

77
77
71
32
82
66

134
56

14
58

11
27

58

39

12
40

4
34

3
24

182
39
167
377

161
30
165
294

123
16
130
149

10
83
38
168
6
11
18

8
84
33
157
6
12
14

7
64
29
146
5
12

LABOR
Series

D

233-682.

D 279-357

FORCE

D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n of t h e E c o n o m i c a l l y A c t i v e P o p u l a t i o n : 1 9 0 0 t o

1970—Con.

[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over, except as indicated]
1960

1970
Occupation

1970
16 years 14 years
old and old and classification
over
over

Professional, technical, and kindred workers—
Con.
Radio operators
Surveyors
Teachers (n.e.c.)
Technicians, medical and dental
Technicians, testing
Technicians (n.e.c.)
Veterinarians
Dietitians and nutritionists
Foresters and conservationists
Natural scientists (n.e.c.)
Personnel and labor relations workers
Social scientists
Professional, technical, and kindred workers (n.e.c.)
Farmers and farm managers.

Managers and superintendents, building
Officers, pilots, pursers, and engineers, ship
Officials, lodge, society, union, etc
Postmasters
Purchasing agents and buyers (n.e.c.)
Managers, officials, and proprietors (n.e.c.)
Construction
Manufacturing
Transportation
Telecommunications, utilities, & sanitary services.
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Eating and drinking places
Food & dairy products stores, & milk retailing
General merchandise and five and ten cent stores
Apparel and accessories stores
Motor vehicles and accessories retailing
Gasoline service stations
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment stores...
Hardware, farm implement, & bldg. material, retail. . .
Other retail trade
Banking and other finance
Insurance and real estate
Automobile repair services and garagesMiscellaneous repair services
Personal services
Business services
All other industries (incl. not reported) .
Clerical and kindred workers
Agents (n.e.c.)
Collectors, bill and account
Attendants and assistants, library
Attendants, physician's and dentist's office. .
Baggagemen, transportation
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Express messengers and railway mail clerks..
Mail carriers
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries
Messengers and office boys
Telegraph messengers
Telegraph operators
Telephone operators
Ticket, station, and express agents
Office machine operators
Shipping and receiving clerks
Bank tellers
Dispatchers and starters, vehicle
Clerical and kindred workers (n.e.c.)

29
46
1,684
141
281
67
15
27
34
67
99
57
345

1960
classification

17
27
1,133
78
104
19
14
23
27
43
53
36
108

1950
classification

1940

1930

1920

17
27
1,149
158
28
14

17
1,086
73
11
11

15
1,044

302

1910

752

595

12

'.3

12

153

73

12

20

4,375

5,362

6,032

6,442

6,163

4,3

5,324
38

5,992
40

6,384
58

6,132
31

3,770

3,614

2,803

2,462

3 43
122

124

100

72

40

42

20

264
471
74
20
41
42
95
296
110

129
346
73
15
27
34
62
103
42

i1,428

1,350

2,528

2,526

4,325

1,286
61

1,289
61

2,503
25

2,501
25

4,290
35

6,463

2 6,224

25,708

5,489

5,096

5,155

387
20
40
60

387
20
40
60

210
31
45
48

238
18
45
48
11

145
29
56
33
11

147
29
57
34
11

2

Buyers and department heads, store.
Buyers and shippers, farm products..
Conductors, railroad
Credit men
Floormen and floor managers, store. _
Inspectors (n.e.c.), public administration
Officials (n.e.c.), public administration
Inspectors (n.e.c.), Federal public administration and
postal service
Officials and administrators (n.e.c.), Federal public
administration and postal service
Inspectors (n.e.c.), State public administration
Officials & admins, (n.e.c.), State public admin
Inspectors (n.e.c.), local public administration
Officials and admins, (n.e.c.), local public admin

1960
classification

264
471
74
20
41
42
95
296
110

Farmers (owners and tenants).
Farm managers
Managers, officials, and proprietors, exc. farm..

1950

4

3 81
248

4

3 82
248

4

195
43

51

4

a 77
201

4

3 58
156

4

3 58
158

41

29

28

20

51
10
24
20
83

40
11
21
12
61

120
20
49
10
79

120
20
49
10
79

79
10
37
9
79

14
37
22
96

51
10
23
20
82

85
26
51
35
164

85
26
51
36
164

46
31
43
38
111

54
37
34
37
105

67
42
27
39
64

43
28
39
65

3,753
399
760
164
117
312

3,756
397
752
164
115
310

4,268
378
801
167
108
340

4,586
378
826
159
108

4,368
293
669
150
86
338

1,122

1,119

1,341

255
128
82
130
169
71
81
206

255
128
82
130
170
71
81
202

327
136
108
143
197
81
122
228

1,628
287
327
135
108
143
197
81
122
229

214

212

s 196

5 195

2:
W
245

223

14,208

(')

270

13,457

>191
212

s

()
332
9,431

4

20

15

9

70

49

72
35
26
40
34

71
49
15
34
29

43
49
12
29
18

4,419
296
665
151
68
343

3,197
175
432
90
54
225

3,113
199
447
98
39
152

2,390
107
406
83
25
143

2,135
183
350
82
19
104

1,943
365
495
139
128
117
184
97,
129
288

1,977
370
512
128
130
119
186
98
131
305

1,620
270
469
111
99
65
183
57
95
271

1,592
165
540
184
96
62
89

1,220
106
444
162
97
29
15

1,119
129
395
167
85
5
2

456

368

336

227
191
60
28
211
103
330

142
116
85
34
213
59
241

143
117
86
35
216
63
259

126
65
66
14
129
33
169

174
66
93
9
105
140

122
38
56
8
76

9,617

7,132

7,232

4,982

4,336

126
24
13
42

128
24
13
43
994
19
171
1,661

73
45
24
35
6
721
23
124
1,223

102
43
2
28
9
738
26
121
1,097

60
8
36
375
61
150
304

64
17
42
214
47
66
233

80
16
68
249
38
38

110
9
75
190
37

103
9
66
98
35

3,178

2,026

1,681

1,323

654

53
126

129

,572
869

1,574
878

951
510

256
3,914

256
3,920

199
2,316

163
32
33
73
6
936
492
7
202
2,313

59
13
420
100
571
427
253
61
5,514

61
13
421
100
572
427
254
61
4,737

63
21
372
75
322
325
135
48
4,025

63
5
21
372
73
318
295
131
59
4,026

8

739
239
19
168
1,629
59
8
35
367
68

146
297
65
32
3,047

8

44

25

107
3,385
64
31
2
14
12
616
25
91
786

1,987

22
81
387

See footnotes at end of table.




141

D 358-441

LABOR

Series D 233-682.

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over, except as indicated]
1970

1960

1950

Occupation
16 years 14 years
1970
old and old a n d classiover
over
fication
Salesworkers.
Advertising agents and salesmenAuctioneers
Demonstrators
Hucksters and peddlers
Insurance agents and brokers
Newsboys
Real estate agents and b r o k e r s . - .
Stock and bond salesmen
Salesmen and sales clerks (n.e.c.):
Manufacturing
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Other industries (incl. not reported) _
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers.

1960
classification

>5,625

5,433

4,799

4,801

64
5
40
122
460
65
266

65
5
40
122
461

35
4
29
62
371
197
196

35
4
26
57
369
197
196

188

266

1960
classification

1950
classification

1940

1930

1920

1910

4,025

4,133

3,059

2,058

41
4
10
55
253
58
119

40
4
8
57
257
39
150

25

14
24
276
100
143

35
6
14
24
312
101
145

50
120
28
89

99

99

35

29

11

11

18

22

11

419
650
2,845
244

420
651
2,868
247

475
508
2,669
217

474
504
2,724
186

334
413
2,536
136

3,485

2,893

2,482

1,724

'11,082

!

3

9,465

9,241

8,205

8,350

6,203

6,246

5,482

Bakers
Boilermakers
Bookbinders
Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile settersCabinetmakers
^
Carpenters
Cement and concrete finishers
Electrotypers and stereotypers
Engravers, except photoengravers
Photoengravers and lithographers
Compositors and typesetters
Pressmen and plate printers, printing

112
31
36
213
70
922
75
7
9
33
163
160

113
31
36
213
70
923
75
7
9
33
163
160

117
28
30
222
71
936
48
9
12
28
193
85

113
27
28
208
69
924
48
9
12
25
183
75

125
39
32
177
77
993
33
12
10
29
179
50

128
40
33
181
78
1,016
34
12
10
29
182
51

139
33
19
141
60
776
32
8
9
23
181

141
50
19
171
63
917
15
8
28
184
31

98
74
19
135
50
885
8
5
23
140
19

Decorators and window dressers
Electricians
Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen
Excavating, grading, and road machinery operators..
Stationary engineers
Blacksmiths
Forgemen and hammermen

72
483
159
345
173
10
16

73
483
159
346
173
10
16

53
365

53
356
132
226
276
21
12

45
326
108
111
219
45
14

46
332
223
222
60

30
221
123
201
99

20
253

1,617
159
938

1,618
158
934

1,186
103

1,199
103
756
131
134
82
76
102
230

856
61
520
84
81
51
70
77
157

867
62
525

585
79
310

551
43
293

485
14
296

218

112

72

293

296

235

53
144

54
20
41
161

55
20
41
164

51
15
27
104

Foremen (n.e.c.)
Construction
Manufacturing
Metal industries
Machinery, including electrical
Transportation equipment
Textiles, textile products, and apparel
Other durable goods
Other nondurable goods (incl. not specified mfg.)_

10,435

133

284
293
20
13

9
192

294
258
136

209

369

218

36
28
58
218

359
26
21
18
121
23
25
72

3
361
26
21
18
121
23
25
73

5
384
18
22
22
101
15
30
56

4
416
16
20
21
102
15
30
15
42

18
433
11
18
20
98
8
37
13
40

14
447
11
19
18
99
8
37
13
40

16
451
8
11
17
82
9
30
14
30

12
446
6
7
78
7
39
14
17

265
3
7
77
3
43
10
21

38
397
50
14
21

38
397
50
14
21

38
273
60
39
24

38
278
58
39
24

48
217
73
56
31

49
219
74
57
32

36
116
67
50
25

39
106
104
67
19

40
51
113
91
16

390
146
936
56
40
140
1,135
207

390
146
938
57
40
141
1,165
207

521
116
684
62
30
105

25
535
74
682
48
31
79
875
157

571
75
693
49

535
28
448
46

1,387

1,168

188

41
516
119
703
41
30
106
1,302
187

160

100

Millers, grain, flour, feed, etc
Millwrights
Molders, metal
Motion picture projectionists
Opticians, and lens grinders and polishers

7
81
57
16

7
81
57
16
28

9
69
53
18
21

9
68
52
18
21

10
60
64
27
20

10
61
65
27
20

16
44
86
24
12

16
42
105
20
13

23
38
124
10
11

Paperhangers
P a t t e r n and model makers, except paper
Piano and organ t u n e r s and repairmen
Plasterers
Plumbers and pipefitters
Rollers and roll hands, metal
Roofers and slaters
Shoemakers and repairers, except factory
Stone cutters and stone carvers

11
40
7
31
398
20
65
32
7

11
40
7
31
398
20
65
32
7

27
42
6
54
340
20
57
43
7

11
40
6
53
331
31
55
37
7

37
8
64
298
31
49
59
9

23
38
8
66
304
32
50
60
9

31
30
5
53
211
33
33
68
15

28
30
7
70
238
31
24
76

19
28
7
38
207
25
12
79
23

Railroads and railway express service
Transportation, except railroad
Telecommunications, utilities, & sanitary services
Other industries (incl. not reported)
Furriers
Painters, construction and maintenance
Glaziers
J
Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers
Inspectors, scalers, and graders, log and lumber
Inspectors (n.e.c.)
Construction
Railroads and railway express service
Transp. exc. railroad, commun., & other pub. util_
Other industries (incl. not reported)
Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths. _.
Linemen & servicemen, telegraph, telephone, & powerLocomotive engineers
Locomotive firemen
Loom fixers
Job setters, metal
Machinists
Mechanics and repairmen, airplane
Mechanics and repairmen, automobile
Mechanics and repairmen, railroad and car shop-.
Mechanics and repairmen, office machine
Mechanics and repairmen, radio and television
Mechanics and repairmen (n.e.c.)
Toolmakers, and die makers and setters

See footnotes at end of table.

142




202

157

,18o

81
31
63
9

436

LABOR FORCE

Series D 233-682.

D 442-524

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1970—Con.
[In t h o u s a n d s of persons 14 y e a r s old a n d over, except a s indicated]
1970

1960

1950

Occupation
16 year- 14 y e a r s
1970
old a n d old a n d
classiover
fication
over

1960
classification

1960
classification

1950
classification

1940

1930

1910

1920

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers—Con.
Structural metalworkers
Tailors a n d tailoresses
T i n s m i t h s , coppersmiths, a n d sheet m e t a l w o r k e r s .
Upholsterers
C r a f t s m e n a n d kindred workers (n.e.c.)
M e m b e r s of t h e A r m e d F o r c e s 2
Operatives a n d kindred workers..

79
71
162
65
996
36
2

14,335

79
71

66
87
150
63
281
18

162

65
335
>13,406

2

12,254

Apprentice carpenters
A p p r e n t i c e electricians
Apprentice plumbers a n d pipefitters
Apprentices, printing t r a d e s
Apprentice machinists a n d toolmakers
Apprentice a u t o mechanics
Apprentice bricklayers a n d masons
Apprentice mechanics, except a u t o
Apprentices, building t r a d e (n.e.c.)
Apprentices, metalworking t r a d e s (n.e.c.).
Apprentices, other specified t r a d e s
Apprentices, t r a d e n o t specified
Asbestos a n d insulation workers
A t t e n d a n t s , a u t o service a n d p a r k i n g . .
Blasters a n d powdermen
B o a t m e n , canalmen, a n d lock keepers.
B r a k e m e n , railroad
Switchmen, railroad

66
43
145
62
112
18
2

12,846
10

10
26

26

20

20
378

49
53

49
53

65
60

65
60

C h a i n m e n , rodmen, and axmen, surveying
C o n d u c t o r s , b u s a n d s t r e e t railway
Deliverymen a n d r o u t e m e n
D r e s s m a k e r s a n d seamstresses, except f a c t o r y . .
Dyers

12
10
643
102
25

12
10
649
102
25

11
12
462
126
19

11
4
438
124
19

Filers, grinders, a n d polishers, m e t a l
F r u i t , n u t , & veget. graders & packers, exc. f a c t o r y .
F u r n a c e m e n , smeltermen, a n d pourers
Heaters, metal
L a u n d r y a n d dry cleaning operatives
M e a t c u t t e r s , except slaughter and packing house
Milliners

123

123

152

68

56

205
2

206

189

164

164

247

10

10

15

49

49

29
108

29
108

41
104

97
239
158
«1,453
52
566

97
239
158
i1,455
52
566

106
185
171
>1,550
69
388

55
86
130
64
74
30
!

57
88
133
65
76
38

47
120
91
43
47

33
169

11,754

12,030

9,518

7,691

11
9
12
16
16
4
6
7
4
7
13
15
15
248
12
8
81
62

31
192
75
24

18
205
60
20
73
5,441

8

6
10

42

12
17
253
12
9
82
63

245

144

18

77
50

173

208

160

37
187
198
18

64
170
259
15

57
230
467
14

60

11
249
147
25

12
253
147
26

11
18
294
172
28

159
28
57
8
412
186

156
34
58
10
451
177
13

160
37
59
10
462
180
13

117
25
33
10
314
160
15

79
10
20
15
265
120
25

24
16
142
61
50

50
5
26
10
132
41
100

140
102
89
15
8
57
148
44
27

381
108
116
24
27
62
123
29
22

620

845

892

995

907

25
27
63
126
30
22

20
39
40
104
15
22

17

29

12
63
25
61
3
21

3
56
14
49
2
12

41
95
52
93
185
171
1,663
66
387

52
99
85
128
158
214
1,397
103
277

55
100
88
130

47
50
113
128

65
36
81
127

55
34
83
144

47
43
74
111

1,808

1,515

972

285

46

105
283

109
137

225
37

219
54

202
3

4,993
4,305
104
38
107
55
35
21
21

4,752
4,079
144
39
112
56
28
21
32
24

6,627
5,847
151
46
132
76
30
23
35
28

4,654
4,225
63
36
82
54
13
16
25
18

3,634
3,189

3,284
3,076
92
52
45
8
10
17

2,451
2,318
105
44
42
9
13
16
9

M o t o r vehicles and m o t o r vehicle e q u i p m e n t
Ship a n d b o a t building and repairing
Blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills
Other p r i m a r y iron a n d steel industries
Fabricated steel products
Office a n d store machines a n d devices
Miscellaneous machinery
N o t specified m e t a l industries
Agricultural machinery a n d t r a c t o r s
Aircraft a n d p a r t s
Kailroad & miscellaneous t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t . .

174
20
100
65
288
26
231
2
24
78
18

216
15
120
65
216
28
165
4
36
31
17

371
15
133
324
40
273
4
52
67
19

208
19
105
209
24
123
12
21
27
11

170
11

125
53

21
6

397

370

286

P r i m a r y nonferrous industries
Fabricated nonferrous m e t a l p r o d u c t s
Electrical machinery, equipment, a n d supplies
Professional equipment a n d supplies
Photographic e q u i p m e n t a n d supplies
Watches, clocks, a n d clockwork-operated devices
Miscellaneous m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries

85

66

98

313
44
11
10
140

218
30
10
16
141

356
60

48
150
29

258

172

M i n e operatives a n d laborers (n.e.c.):
Coal mining
C r u d e petroleum a n d n a t u r a l gas extraction
M i n i n g a n d quarrying, except fuel
M o t o r m e n , mine, factory, logging camp, etc
M o t o r m e n , street, subway, a n d elevated r a i l w a y .
Oilers a n d greasers, except auto
P a i n t e r s , except construction a n d maintenance
Photographic process workers
Power station operators
Sailors a n d d e c k h a n d s
Sawyers
Spinners, textile
S t a t i o n a r y firemen
B u s drivers
Taxicab drivers a n d c h a u f f e u r s .
T r u c k a n d t r a c t o r drivers
Weavers, textile
Welders a n d flame-cutters
Operatives a n d kindred workers (n.e.c.)
Manufacturing
Sawmills, planing mills, a n d millwork
Miscellaneous wood products
F u r n i t u r e a n d fixtures
Glass and glass p r o d u c t s
Cement & concrete, gypsum, & plaster p r o d u c t s Structural clay products
P o t t e r y and related p r o d u c t s
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone p r o d - .

8

34
117
172

192

See footnotes at end of table.




143

LABOR

D 525-605

Series D 233-682.

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over, except a s indicated]
1960

1970

1950

Occupation
16 y e a r s 14 y e a r s
old a n d old a n d
over
over

1970
classification

1960
classification

1960
classification

1950
classification

1940

1930

1920

1910

Operatives and kindred workers—Con.
Operatives a n d kindred workers (n.e.c.)—Con.
Manufacturing—Con.
M e a t products
Canning & preserving fruits, veget., & seafood
D a i r y products
Grain-mill p r o d u c t s
Bakery products
Confectionery a n d related p r o d u c t s
Beverage industries
Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred p r o d u c t s .
N o t specified food industries

134
92
57
30
44
26
48
35
5

93
65
58
29
33
27
51
32
5

132
95
62
33
68
51
57
51

Tobacco m a n u f a c t u r e r s
K n i t t i n g mills
_
D y e i n g a n d finishing textiles, except k n i t g o o d s .
Carpets, rugs, a n d other floor covering
Y a r n , t h r e a d , a n d fabric mills
Miscellaneous textile mill p r o d u c t s

41
62
24
12
251
21

54
26
25
20
373
28

70
154
26
26
477
32

86
192
24
21
426
35

104
129
20
17
324
35

145
104
18
14
323
46

152
85
16
15
269
48

Apparel a n d accessories
Miscellaneous fabricated textile p r o d u c t s . .
P u l p , paper, a n d p a p e r b o a r d mills
Miscellaneous paper a n d pulp p r o d u c t s
P a p e r b o a r d containers a n d boxes
P r i n t i n g , publishing, a n d allied industries..
S y n t h e t i c fibers

395
42
110
48
69
97
23

384
37
99
50
58
71
26

824
58
106
61
64
80
27

734
53
87
28
41
59
31

422
15
64
17
14
51
21

365
21
55
14
20
48

336
18
36 1
10 j
18
42

P a i n t s , varnishes, a n d r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s
D r u g s a n d medicines
Miscellaneous chemicals and allied p r o d u c t s .
P e t r o l e u m refining
Miscellaneous petroleum a n d coal p r o d u c t s . .

17
17
136
44
6

16
13
113
43
7

18
149
48
7

12

6
51
14
2

4
33

30
5

8
53
27
2

Rubber products
L e a t h e r : t a n n e d , curried, a n d f i n i s h e d . .
F o o t w e a r , except r u b b e r
L e a t h e r products, except footwear
N o t specified m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .

162
18
148
31
10

136
30
169
39
19

127
32
226
50
43

85
35
228
44
74

81
29
210
26
139

86
32
206
33
207

32
34
181
29
93

688
102
56
36
50
220
72
46
15
90

673
72
94
31
52
224
50
51
20
80

780
71
96
37
52
311
54
54
105

429
40
73
24
24
145
38
11

445
15
98

132
8
61 |
19 |
27

75

57
74
30
6
165

208
4
111
30
40
8
4
12

'1,825

' 1,492

1,539

2,412

1,998

1,411

1
73
53
93
163
1,034

76

203

344

150

410

1,313

1,799

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries (incl. n o t reported) . .
Construction
Railroads a n d railway express service
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , except railroad
Telecommunications, utilities, a n d s a n i t a r y s e r v .
Wholesale a n d retail t r a d e
Business a n d repair services.
Public administration
Personal services
All other industries (incl. n o t reported)
Private household workers _
Laundresses, p r i v a t e household—living in
Laundresses, p r i v a t e household—living o u t
Housekeepers, p r i v a t e household—living in
Housekeepers, p r i v a t e household—living o u t
P r i v a t e household workers (n.e.c.)—living in
P r i v a t e household workers (n.e.c.)—living o u t

1,204

1,143

1,817

(Z)

12

13

41

105

105

156

1,087

1,025

1,619

41
56
96
104
1,178

26 1
12
4
9
31
20
16

72

9,047

8,449

6,086

5,765

4,524

4,641

3,657

A t t e n d a n t s , hospital a n d other institution
Midwives
Practical nurses
A t t e n d a n t s , professional & personal service (n.e.c.) _
A t t e n d a n t s , recreation a n d a m u s e m e n t
Ushers, recreation a n d a m u s e m e n t
Barbers, beauticians, a n d manicurists __-_
Bartenders
Boarding a n d lodging housekeepers
Bootblacks

746
1
242
64
76
15
650
199
7
4

749
1
242
65
83
16
651
199
8

420
1
175
84
74
16
489
184
30
10

409
1
217
75
63
16
487
184
30
10

212
2
145
43
65
25
391
209
29
15

216
151
52
66
26
396
214
30
15

102
115
42
64
22
449
131
74
16

Charwomen a n d cleaners
Cooks, except p r i v a t e household
Elevator operators
Firemen, fire protection
Guards, w a t c h m e n , a n d doorkeepers
Policemen a n d detectives, g o v e r n m e n t .
Policemen a n d detectives, p r i v a t e
M a r s h a l s a n d constables

461
873
37
178
329

470
886
37
178
329

378

378

402
603
77
139
259
262

192
597
77
139
258
238
17
6

124
466
94
112
250
175
21
7

128
478
97
112
255
176
21
7

110
475
174
19
93
717
9

Service workers, except private household

Housekeepers a n d stewards, except p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d .
J a n i t o r s a n d sextons
Porters
Sheriffs a n d bailiffs
C o u n t e r a n d f o u n t a i n workers
Waiters a n d waitresses
W a t c h m e n (crossing) a n d bridge t e n d e r s
Service workers, except p r i v a t e household (n.e.c.)
Farm laborers and foremen.
Farm
Farm
Farm
Farm

foremen
laborers, wageworkers
laborers, u n p a i d family workers..
service laborers, self-employed. . .

See footnotes at end of table.

144




1,274

1,301

785

35
161
1,100
42
2,168

35
168
1,127
42
1,472

24
168
899
29
950

152
621
155
24
167
896
26
709

>1,022

995

1,604

1,560

33
808
94
4

34
848
109

25
,288
286

25
1,244
284

544
2,533
18
1,584
921
10

1,654

4
2

1,851
513

1,036

1,711

2,774
198

144
19

3
13
214
26
133
15

2 .
9
193
101
165
14

72
349
87
82
216
135
21
9

52
292
68
73
148

31
200
41
51
116

29
174
25
36
78 1

145
9

94

68

112
482
179
19

90
377
182
16

52
179
102
11

45
113
96
7

836
12
561

636
10
360

61
310
151
15
415

242

13
259

13
203

200
10
203

2,578

3,632

4,290

4,948

5,370

17
1,617
934
10

17
2,405

2,597
1,660
5

35
2,271
2,633
10

19
2,832 1
2,514 ,
6

1,208
3

4
29
371

9J

LABOR FORCE

Series D 233-682.

D 127-141

Detailed Occupation of the Economically Active Population: 1900 to 1970—Con.
[In thousands of persons 14 years old and over, except as indicated]
1970

1960

1950

Occupation
16 years 14 years
1970
old and old and classiover
over
fication
Laborers, except farm and mine.
Fishermen and oystermen
Garage laborers, and car washers and greasers.
Gardeners, except farm, and groundskeepers..
Longshoremen and stevedores
Lumbermen, raftsmen, and woodchoppers
Teamsters
Laborers (n.e.c.)
Manufacturing
Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork
Miscellaneous wood products
Furniture and fixtures
Glass and glass products
. Cement & concrete, gypsum, & plaster products
Structural clay products
Pottery and related products
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products.

8

1960
classification

1950
classification

1940

1930

1920

1910

31

3,515

s 3,755

83,530

»3,774

3,885

4,875

5,335

4,905

4,478

31

41

41
93
216
61
136
22

78
70
156
73
189
22

75
72
159
73
196
23

64
63
163
74
169
31

73
77
168
74
147
120

53
33
71
180
412

68
4
65
63
139
441

2,763
961
97
13
18
14
28
26
5
10

2,997
1,154
147
18
20
14
24

4,312
1,598
230
27
35
21
26
39
7
14

4,675
1,960
292
40
28
39
60
11

4,070
2,169

3,696
1,487

7
9

3,288
1,209
152
18
21
16
24
29
7
9

280
35
29
30
49
12

289
24
25
36
78
9
7

36
14
119
42
62
2
37
(Z)

50
16
141
52
60
2
39

51
16
145
111
2
43

124
17

83

16
12

544

419

13
4
6

14
4

71
23
201
128
2
46,
6
11
4

25

s 3,751

27

47

61
132
22

7

347
26
7

1,165
662
4'
13

24,

24

53

675
349
26

13

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment
Ship and boat building and repairing
Blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills
Other primary iron and steel industries
Fabricated steel products
Off ce and store machines and devices
Miscellaneous machinery
N o t specified metal industries
Agricultural machinery and tractors
Aircraft and parts
Railroad & miscellaneous transportation e q u i p m e n t . .

20
109

Primary nonferrous industries
Fabricated nonferrous metal products
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies
Professional equipment and supplies
Photographic equipment and supplies
Watches, clocks, and clockwork-operated devices.
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
M e a t products
Canning & preserving fruits, veget., & seafood. _,
Dairy products
Grain-mill products
Bakery products
Confectionery and related products
Beverage industries
Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred prodN o t specified food industries

1960
classification

28

1

1

101

(Z)

44

44

86

90

Tobacco manufacturers
Knitting mills
Dyeing and finishing textiles, except knit goods _
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
Miscellaneous textile mill products
Apparel and accessories
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products

35
12
11
4
120
8
12

1

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
Miscellaneous paper and pulp products
Paperboard containers and boxes
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
Synthetic fibers
Paints, varnishes, and related products

52
3
3

Drugs and medicines
Miscellaneous chemical and allied products
Petroleum, refining
Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products
Rubber products

45
11
11
14

Leather: tanned, curried, and finished..
Footwear, except rubber
Leather products, except footware
N o t specified manufacturing industries.
Nonmanufacturing industries (incl. not reported).
Construction
Railroads and railway express service
Transportation, except railroad
Telecommunications, utilities, & sanitary serv__
Wholesale and retail trade
Business and repair services
Public administration
Personal services
All other industries (incl. not reported).
Z

Less t h a n 500.
Includes persons for whom occupations were not reported.
Includes occupations not shown separately.
»Includes data in series D 303, D 305, and D 307.
4
Includes data in series D 304, D 306, and D 308.

1
2




21
10
4
109

11

11

11
12
3
44

1,802
751
136
91
123
372

1,843
699
284
87
132
270

2,079
788
293
119
135
345

2,714
1,340
278
98
103
250

2,715
710
490
249
253

1,901
391
543
199
182

2,210
531
599
195
152

24
77
77
151

16
98
79
179

15
107
83
194

7
52
64
520

15
134
864

2
93
490

2
56
675

6

645

649

802

105

105

191
130
15
74

83

95

128

2

5
Business services included with automobile and miscellaneous repair services and
garages.
6
Excludes tractor drivers.
7
Includes babysitters, not shown separately.
8
Includes carpenters' helpers, truck drivers, helpers, and warehousemen, not shown
separately.

145

Chapter D

Earnings, Hours, and Working Conditions (Series D 683-1036)
D 683-688. Indexes of employee output (NBER), 1869-1969.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Long Term Economic
Growth, 1860-1970, pp. 210-211.
The productivity indexes in the source publication are from John
W. Kendrick, Productivity Trends in the United States, 1961, and
Postwar Productivity Trends in the United States, 191,8-1969, National
Bureau of Economic Research, New York (copyright).
D 683 and D 684-686, indexes of output per man-hour. Kendrick
derived these series by dividing the appropriate output series (gross
private domestic product, gross nonfarm product, manufacturing
output, and gross farm product) by the corresponding man-hours
series.
D 689-704. Indexes of output, man-hours, compensation per manhour, and unit labor cost (BLS), 1947-1970.
Source: U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, Economic Report of
the President, January 1972, p. 234. Data are from the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS).
These series are based primarily on BLS surveys of establishments.
The output measure, gross national product (GNP), represents the
market value, in 1958 dollars, of final goods and services produced in
the economy. I t includes the purchases of goods and services by
consumers, business establishments, foreign investors, and various
government agencies. The G N P data (see series F 3) were prepared
by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. In developing the manhour series, data from labor force reports and national income series
were used to supplement BLS payrolls series data.
The indexes of compensation per man-hour and unit labor cost
were developed from man-hour estimates based on data from establishments. Compensation includes wages and salaries, plus supplemented payments such as contributions of employers to social security
and private health and pension funds. The compensation data include an estimate for proprietors' salaries and contributions for
supplementary benefits. Real compensation per man-hour can be
derived by adjusting the compensation data by the consumer price
index to reflect changes in purchasing power. The indexes of unit
labor costs were developed by dividing compensation per man-hour
by output per man-hour (see series W 22-25).
See also general note for series D 1-74 and data and text for series
W 22-29.
D 705-714. Farm laborers—average monthly earnings with board, by
geographic divisions, 1818-1948.
Source: Stanley Lebergott, Manpower in Economic Growth: The
American Record Since 1800, tables A-23 and A-24, pp. 257fl. (Copyright 1964; used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York.)
For most of the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth,
the common method of wage payment in agriculture was monthly,
with board included. Reasonably satisfactory data for individual
S t a t e are available at something like decennial intervals for the
entire period beginning with 1818. These figures have been supplemented with partial information to provide national estimates for the
years for which this is not so. State data for 1818-1919 were

146




combined into division and U.S. averages using weights from the
population census. For 1909 and 1919, they therefore differ from U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) division totals.
For 1818, 1826, and 1830, estimates were made in 1832 by Senator
John Holmes of Maine, and reported by him in the Congressional
Register of Debates. For certain States there are, in addition, the
results of a survey in 1832-1834 on 1832 farm wages made b y Secretary of State Edward Livingstone, drawing on returns from many
individual towns in these Stat®—i.e., 59 of 134 towns in Connecticut,
101 of 444 in Maine, 109 of 230 in New Hampshire, etc. Given
the broader basis of the Secretary's survey, his figures were used to
represent the 1830 average (other data indicating virtually no 18301832 change) with the Holmes series used to extrapolate these values
to 1818 and 1826. For 1818, 1826, and 1830, the total number of
persons reported by the 1820 census as having agricultural occupations
was used for weighting.
For 1850 and 1860, special wage-rate inquiries made in connection
with census reports on social statistics gave monthly rates paid to
farmhands (with board) and were used here.
For 1850, the number of free white male fanners aged 15 and over
was used for weighting, and for 1860, the number of farm laborers.
Examination of the ratios of farmers to farm laborers in 1860 indicated
a marked degree of intrastate uniformity so t h a t the shift from one
type of weights to the other would not make a marked difference.
The source used for 1870 was a study made by Edward Young,
Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, in
which figures on wage rates in a host of occupations were collected.
Because of the timing, it is possible that these data were collected
in connection with the 1870 census. The data were more probably
developed as the other materials in the volume were, from information
secured by the assistant assessors of internal revenue in the various
States. Their issuance, however, under the sponsorship of a competent statistician, who was experienced in data evaluation and presentation and who had worked under David A. Wells, entitles them t o
serious consideration.
For 1880 and 1890, the crop-reporter surveys of the USDA were
used to provide State estimates.
For 1899, the USDA survey reported not rates for men hired "by
the year"—as do the reports used for earlier periods—but "by the
year or season." In examining the extent of noncomparability,
Lebergott was limited to a comparison between the two types of
rates for 1909, that being the only year for which the USDA reported
both types of rates.
Day rates (other than harvest) were charted against monthly rates
by the year and season for the years 1891 to 1909. The scatter
showed a close and simple correlation for ail years except 1909, Given
the scatter and the day rate for 1909, Lebergott deduced a 1909 rate
for the year and season t h a t is virtually the same as the enumerated
"year" rate for that date. On this basis he took the year-season
rate for 1899 as roughly identical with the desired year rate for that
date. He secured the same result by charting the year rates for
1866 to 1890 and 1909 against the daily rate (other than harvest)
and interpolating for 1899 b y the daily rate. I t was therefore concluded that the "year-season" State rates for 1899 as actually reported
could be used as satisfactory approximations of the year rates for
that date.
For 1870 and 1880, the population census counts of agricultural
laborers aged 16 to 59 were used as weights. For 1890 and 1899,
the census count of male agricultural laborers aged 16 and over in

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
1900 was used. For 1909 and 1919, the division estimates of the
USDA were not used because they were weighted by the number
of farms employing hired labor at any time during the year. Such
weights will distort the relative importance of States that characteristically hired above (or below) average proportions of migrant
labor, or short-term labor. Thus, while New Jersey reported roughly
as many farms with hired labor in the agricultural census as it did
hired laborers in the population census, North Dakota reported
almost twice as many. The population census count of farm laborers
(working off-farm) was therefore used to compute regional and U.S.
averages.
For 1929 and 1940, the USDA division figures were used, these
having been weighted by the count of hired farm workers derived
from the surveys themselves. For 1948, the 1950 Census of Agriculture count of hired farm workers was used.
D 715-717. Average daily wage rates of artisans, laborers, and agricultural workers, in the Philadelphia area, 1785-1830.
Source: Donald R. Adams, Jr., "Wage Rates in the Early National
Period: Philadelphia, 1785-1830," The Journal of Economic History,
Economic History Association, New York, September 1968.
(Copyright.)
The ranges of wage rates shown for certain years are the result
of multiple observations within those years. Single rates for a given
year indicate that all observations for that date were identical.
The principal manuscript sources utilized in constructing these
series are as follows: Pennsylvania Historical Society, Joshua
Humphreys Shipyard Accounts, and Moses Lancaster Account Book;
American Philosophical Society, Treasurer's Account Book; Records
of the Ship North Carolina, American State Papers, I, Class VI (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1834), p. 836; Stephen Girard Collection:
Ship Disbursements and Repair Records (Ship Good Friends, Ship
Liberty, Brig Polly, Brig Kitty, Ship Two Brothers, Ship North America,
Ship Helvetius, and Ship Superb); Bills and Receipts; Bills and Receipts
Alphabetically; Place Accounts; New Houses and Stores in Water
Street No. 2; and Real Estate Accounts. Wage rates were obtained
from the actual receipts, bills, day books, and account books.
Wage contracts in agriculture were often stated on a monthly or
annual basis. The problem of determining average monthly wage
rates was enhanced by the wide range of rates observable within any
given year. Since the manuscript sources do not indicate any discernible seasonal trend, the differences encountered most likely lie
in the differences in payment in kind or "found." In practice, the
averages are simple arithmetic means of the observations for a
given year.
A few examples of the variety in the content of such nonmonetary
payments from the Peale Day Book and the Peale-Sellers Belfield
Farm Book indicate the difficulty of making total wage estimates:
Date
June
Oct.
Apr.
July

1810
1810
1811
1818

Wage Rate {$)
100/yr.
120/yr.
10/mo.
11/mo.

Content of Found
Mending, washing, and lodging
Meat, drink, washing, and lodging
Board and washing
Finding his own wash

Special daily rates often applied at harvest time or for particular
tasks:
Date

Wage Rate (?)

Sex

Function

1812
1814
1814
1815

0.50/day
1.25/day
0.625/day
1.25/day

Female
Male
Male
Male

Mowing hay
Mower
Making hay
Reaper

Examples of piece rates can also be found. During harvest periods
in 1817 and 1818, according to the Girard Place Accounts, mowers
were paid at the rate of $2.00 per acre.
As indicated in the manuscripts, $8.00 to $12.00 per month was
perhaps the most common range for agricultural laborers—falling



D

1030-1036

below $8.00 in only three years and rising above $12.00 in only four
years—while the average monthly wage fell into the narrower range
of $9.00 to $11.00 per month.
D 718-721.

Daily wage rates on the Erie Canal, 1828-1881.

Source: Walter B. Smith, "Wage Rates on the Erie Canal, 18281881," The Journal of Economic History, Economic History Association, New York, September 1963, p. 298. (Copyright.)
The original sources of Smith's data are the check-rolls and workmen's receipts for payment for repair and maintenance work on the
canal, as given in the Erie Canal Papers on deposit in the New York
State Library in Albany. The tasks of the work gangs were such
enterprises as: Leveling the tow path, cleaning the canal each spring,
raising sunken boats, making emergency repairs of breaches caused
by floods, breaking the ice in late autumn and keeping the locks and
"feeders" in good working order. The data come largely from work
of repair rather than of enlargement and new construction. On the
check-rolls are the names of the workmen, their classification, the
number of days worked, the daily wage rates, and the total wages
paid. Most reports contain brief descriptions of the kinds of projects
undertaken by the gangs. The reports in 1828 and later years are
much clearer than those of earlier dates. The attempt accurately
to determine the wage rates before 1828 was frustrated by the earlier
practice of recording a man's name and the amount paid to him without specifying clearly the kind of work done. In 1819, it seems
probable that the common labor rate was $1.00 a day and in 1823
and 1826, 75 cents. But there is a certain amount of conjecture
in these statements, and not until 1828 were wage payments accompanied by a clear indication of occupational status.
For operation and maintenance purposes the 350-odd miles of the
Erie Canal (the main line) were administered in three main divisions:
The first extended from Albany to Utica (later to a point a little
farther west), the second from Utica to Montezuma, and the third
from Montezuma to Buffalo. The divisions were subdivided into
sections of about 25 miles each, for which a Superintendent of Repairs
was responsible. Under their control were the gang foremen, who
not merely hired the men and supervised the work but who usually
prepared the check-rolls. The gangs were by no means all alike;
some were specialized, for example, carpenters; others were general
purpose groups; some worked regularly month after month for full
months, others worked only occasionally and only for a few days;
and some included several hundred men (usually for emergency
employment), others consisted of only five or six. The check-rolls,
an integral part of the accounting and payments process on the canal,
were forwarded bimonthly by the superintendents of repairs to the
canal auditor as vouchers attached to his Abstract of Returns. From
these records were collected about 30,000 cases of wage rates, a number
sufficiently large to give a stable and dependable average rate, by
months, for each of the three main divisions of the canal. The
continuity of the record is, unfortunately, broken between 1867 and
1870 owing to the adoption of the "contracting-out system" for
repairs in those years.
The Erie Canal was important not only as a carrier, but also as an
institution of great interest to the politicians concerned with patronage. The outcome of numerous legislative inquiries was a statute
specifying that repair work be let to contractors; the statistical consequence was an almost complete absence of reports of wages for the
interesting years of post-Civil War price adjustment, January 1867
to April 1870. The contracting-out system did not work very well,
and the former system of making repairs was soon restored. Beginning with April 1870, wage statistics once more became abundant
and continuous, and continued to be so until 1879 when the responsibility for repairs was taken over by the New York State Superintendent of Public Works.
Eight hours became the legal workday in April 1870. In the midst
of the confusion attendant on a return to the older method of making
repairs, it became necessary to adjust the reporting system to this
147

D 722-734

LABOR

eight-hour day regulation. Actually, the effect of the law regarding
the length of the working day was nominal rather than substantive.
Men continued to work for ten hours a day on the canal as they had
for many years and the only immediately observable change was the
quotation of daily wage rates at four-fifths of the previous amount
and a recording of all workmen as working at time-and-a-quarter a
day. In series D 718-721, the check-roll quotations beginning with
May 1870 were multiplied by five-fourths in order that the rates shown
be for a ten-hour day.
About nine-tenths of the wage quotations in the vouchers were
for male common labor, and almost all of the remainder were for
carpenters, masons, foremen, and that combination of a team of
horses and their driver consistently recorded as "teamwork." The
large number of reported wage payments to common labor made it
easily possible to determine a modal wage rate by months for each
of the three divisions of the canal. The annual wage rate figures for
series D 718-721 were derived from the monthly rates. Carpenters
and teamworkers were sufficiently numerous to warrant confidence
in the annual wage rate series for the canal as a whole. The reports
about masons were less satisfactory: the number was small and there
are gaps in the reports extending for months at a time. The data
for masons suggest that masons' wages were about the same as those
of carpenters. The only wages for women on the rolls were for cooks.
They were invariably employed on the State scow and generally they
received wages half those of common labor.
The mode was used to represent the central tendency in the wage
returns. In over 60 percent of the months all common laborers received identical wages and in the remaining months the deviations
from the mode were small both in number and amount. Wage
records on the canal were specified in New York shillings (eight to
the dollar) and pence, and when deviations from the mode occurred
or when wages changed generally the amount of change was sometimes
a sixpence but more often a shilling. Owing to the size of the unit
in which wage changes took place, the mode seems to be unstable
in periods of transition. A computed mean would have been more
continuous but would not necessarily have been more representative
of the general wage rate than the mode.
The difference between the mode and the arithmetic mean was not
great. The average deviation of the means from the corresponding
modes for common labor in the eastern division for the month of
June (1828-81) was eight-tenths of a cent. In 31 out of 48 years
for which data existed, the means and the modes were identical. The
record for 1857, a good year for testing the differences between the
mean and the mode, disclosed that out of 778 cases of wage rates
for common labor in the eastern division, 759 men received $1.00 a
day and only 19 received $1,125. The mean exceeded the mode by
three-tenths of a cent.
The sampling procedure used in this study was dominated by the
condition of the surviving records and by the practical difficulty of
finding the reports of the superintendents of repairs among the thousands of bundles of manuscripts. The' surviving data are ample for
some times and places of employment and very scarce or non-existent
for others. The author made a complete tabulation of all the data
on rolls when only a few were found; when abundant, the data on
five or six rolls were transcribed in entirety. Rolls containing several
hundreds of cases were not used. Further search for data after the
total number of wage rates approached a thousand in a given year
hardly seemed worthwhile.
Lack of elegance in sampling technique was less significant for the
validity of the results than were the occasional gaps in the continuity
of the records. For example, no statistics could be found for the
period between October 1849 and 1851 for the eastern division of the
canal. This and other similar gaps in the records affected the geographical composition of the sample.
To test the reliability of the findings, the modal wage rates, by
months, were subjected to an internal check. The rates for the
eastern and western divisions were compared and found to be in
agreement in 45 percent of the cases. Where differences existed
148



they were small and temporary—rarely by more than a New York
shilling or for more than a month or two. Wages tended to be lower
in the western division than in the eastern part of the canal, but this
was far from being consistently the case. The agreement between
wages in the eastern and the middle divisions was close. This internal
agreement suggests that the quotation of an annual wage for the
canal as a whole is not seriously misleading.
D 722-727.

Average annual earnings of employees, 1900-1970.

Source: Series D 722, U.S. Office of Business Economics (OBE),
1929-1963, The National Income and Product Accounts of the United
States, 1929-65, Statistical Tables; 1964-1967, U.S. National Income
and Product Accounts, 196U-67; 1968-1970, U.S. Bureau of Economic
Analysis, Survey of Current Business, July 1971, table 6.5. Series D
723-727, see source for series D 705-714, table A-16.
See also text for series D 739-764.
Full-time earnings, series D 722, were computed as weighted
averages of the series for individual industries as described in text
for series D 739-764. The weights were the numbers employed by
industry. The income loss from unemployment was estimated by
applying to the full-time earnings figure the relevant unemployment
percentage—for civilian labor force or nonfarm employees. This
income loss, when subtracted from the full-time earnings (i.e., "when
employed"), gave the earnings after deduction for unemployment.
Both series D 723 and D 724 were deflated by the consumer price
index to yield real earnings when employed and after deduction for
unemployment, series D 725 and D 726. The price index was the
Bureau of Labor Statistics index 1913-1960 extrapolated by Albert
Rees to 1900. (Albert Rees, Real Wages in Manufacturing, 1890
to 191b, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1961.)
D 728-734. Daily wages of five skilled occupations and of laborers,
in manufacturing establishments, 1860-1880.
Source: Clarence D. Long, Wages and Earnings in the United
States, 1860-1890, National Bureau of Economic Research, New
York, 1960, p. 144 (copyright).
These series were compiled from Tenth Census Reports, Report on
the Statistics of Wages in the Manufacturing Industries With Supplementary Reports on the Average Retail Prices of Necessaries of Life
and on Trade Societies, and Strikes and Lockouts, vol. XX, 1886, by
Joseph D. Weeks.
Weeks gathered his data from payroll records to give a continuous
wage history of the same occupations in the same firms for some one
date each year over a considerable period. In each of the more
prominent manufacturing, mechanical, and mining industries in
various sections of the country, "typical" establishments were selected, based on their age, standing, productive capacity, and general
reputation. The mailing list of firms was said to be prepared after
much correspondence with experts in each industry and recourse to
trade directories and publications. No important branch of manufacturing was overlooked, but information on some was not returned
or was unsatisfactory. Of the more than 50 industries with satisfactory returns, less than 20 could be used in Weeks' investigation,
for only that many had wage data covering the entire period 18601880. The data do not usually cover overtime, holiday and Sunday
work, and other extra earnings, and any payments to helpers and
underhands have been deducted, so that the worker's wage covers
what he received only for his own work. Weeks attempted to convert
piece rates into daily wages wherever the firms could furnish information on time put in by piece workers.
For these series, Long used 85 establishments to compute the
average daily wage: 26 for blacksmiths' wage; 10 for carpenters';
25 for engineers'; 15 for machinists'; 9 for painters'; and 78 for
laborers'.

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
D 735-738. Average annual and daily earnings of nonfarm employees,
1860-1900.
Source: See source for series D 705-714, table A-19 and pp. 289ff.
See also text for series D 722-727, D 728-734, and D 739-764.
There are two sets of data collected in the 1880-1890 period relative
to the course of wage rates during and after the Civil War. One,
"Report on Wholesale Prices, on Wages and on Transportation"
(52d Cong., 2d Sess., 1893), termed the "Aldrich reports," was based
on reports collected by the Commissioner of Labor in the early nineties; the other, "Report on the Statistics of Wages in Manufacturing
Industries" (1886), collected as part of the 1880 census, is termed
the "Weeks reports."
Lebergott rejected the Aldrich reports with their geographic, industrial, and occupational biases and relied on the Weeks reports,
which have an enormously broader scope because they come from
many more establishments, in more States, without the occupational
biases in some of the key Aldrich reports. He used the Weeks reports
primarily for interpolating between benchmarks derived from the
population census and other reports and checked the movement of
the series thus derived against an extensive set of contemporary
investigations made by David A. Wells as Special Commissioner of
the Revenue.
The wider scope of the Weeks reports has made them attractive
to previous investigators. Their lack of use reflects the fact that,
although many wage series are reported, no occupational weights are
attached to them. To develop reasonable weights for the Weeks
materials from the population census data on gainful workers by
occupation, Lebergott utilized the occupational wage series to measure
the trend of wages within a given occupation. Thus, he used a report
for the trend of earnings by common labor in Pennsylvania and combined it with other Weeks reports on common-labor rate trends in
Pennsylvania machine shops, blast furnaces, rolling mills, hardware,
paper, tanneries, furniture, etc. He treated each of these as random
observations of the trend for wages of that group and combined these
series to interpolate between benchmark estimates for common labor
in Pennsylvania. Similar combinations and interpolations were made
for common labor in the other States. The State benchmarks for
1850 and 1860 are from the population census reports for those years;
for 1870 from the Treasury Report on Immigration; and for 1880 from
the census data on rates paid in iron and steel, coke, stone, and other
industries.
Employees in other nonfarm occupations were allocated to 1860
wage intervals and the trend in the Weeks data for these wage
intervals was used as the trend series for these groups. This amounts
to saying t h a t the trend of earnings for machinists, wheelwrights,
carpenters, painters, and others reported by Weeks, who were classifiable in the $1.50 to $1.99 wage interval in 1860, should be similar
to the trend for all other workmen in that interval.
The parallelism of wage movement for individual occupations
within a wage-rate interval can be verified by study of the trend for
individual occupations, such trends being apparent in the raw data.
The key figures involved are summarized below:
I860 Census
(In thousands)
Total nonfarm employees
Laborers
Miners, boatmen, and others earning $1.00 to $1.49
Carpenters, blacksmiths, and others earning $1.50 to $1.99
Domestic servants
All others

2,983
972
453
744
566
248

Given the above distribution of employees and their derived average
daily earnings in 1860, Lebergott utilized the Weeks data (as summarized in Wesley Mitchell, Gold Prices and Wages Under the Greenback Standard, 1908) as follows. Mitchell had combined the hundreds
of quotations into wage-interval groups and computed indices of



D 1030-1036

medians for each interval—e.g., 25-99 cents, $1-$1.49, etc.—for
1860 to 1880. Lebergott weighted these indices by the 1860 employment distribution shown above and computed an index for all nonfarm
employees. Then, for each year, he computed the ratio of the resultant median to that shown by Mitchell as the median for the
$1-$1.49 interval.
This ratio was then applied to the series for laborers previously
derived to give an overall average. Because the trend in medians
would not be satisfactory as a measure of the trend in averages, the
median data were used only to derive adjustment ratios with which
to step down the laborers trend to an all-employees trend.

D 739-764. Average annual earnings per full-time employee, by
industry, 1900-1970.
Source: 1900-1928, see source for series D 705-714, table A-18 and
pp. 480ff. 1929-1967, U.S. Office of Business Economics, 1929-1963,
The National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 19291965, Statistical Tables; 1964-1967, U.S. National Income and Product
Accounts, 1961+-67; 1968-1970, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis,
Survey of Current Business, July 1971, table 6.5.
These estimates are ratios of aggregate wage and salary payments,
by industry, to the aggregate number of full-time equivalent employees, by industry. Wages and salaries include executives' compensation, bonuses, tips, and payments in kind, and exclude those sources
of labor income appearing in series D 893-912 as "supplements to
wages and salaries."
Full-time equivalent employment measures man-years of full-time
employment of wage and salary earners and its equivalent in work
performed by part-time workers. For a discussion of the concept
of full-time equivalent employment and the methods of estimation
involved in converting part-time work to its full-time equivalent,
see the Survey of Current Business, June 1945, pp. 17-18.
Since 1939, private industry employment and payrolls have been
based principally upon records of the Social Security programs. For
1929-1938, the employment and payrolls figures are extrapolations
backward from 1939, based on sources and methods similar to those
used by Lebergott. The mainstay of the private industry estimates
has been data of the State Unemployment Insurance (UI) programs
as compiled by the U.S. Department of Labor. Additions were made
for employment covered by Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health
Insurance (OASDHI) but not by UI—e.g. employment in small
firms omitted from UI coverage under some State laws. Railroad
Retirement Act coverage came from the Interstate Commerce Commission's Transport Statistics except that certain employment covered
by the Railroad Retirement Act but not reported to the Interstate
Commerce Commission was estimated from Railroad Retirement
Board data.
This general method was followed except for categories for which
more reliable data were available from other sources or where the
proportion of firms not covered by Social Security programs was
large: Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries; hospitals; private higher
education; religious organizations; and private households. Data
for these were obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA), the American Hospital Association, the Office of Education,
and various governmental censuses and surveys.
Employment and payroll figures used as a basis for earnings in
government and in private households were: (1) For the Federal
Government, reports of the Civil Service Commission, records of the
Armed Services, and (for 1933-1943) records of the Federal work
relief projects; (2) for State and local governments, reports of the
Bureau of the Census, the Office of Education, etc.; and (3) for private
households, the Census of Population and the Current Population
Survey of the Bureau of the Census. For further details, see U.S.
Office of Business Economics, National Income: 1951+ Edition.
149

D 739-756

LABOR

The earnings figures for 1900-1928 were computed to link to those
of the U.S. Department of Commerce national income accounts beginning 1929. Substantial use was made of a wide variety of sources,
including special census reports, Simon Kuznets, National Income and
Its Composition, 1919 to 1938; and Paul Douglas, Real Wages in the
United States, 1890-1926.
The following summaries from Lebergott's book cover the derivation of estimates for individual industries for the 1900-1928 period:
D 739, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. For 1910 to 1928,
average earnings were computed from estimates of wages of hired
labor (including the value of perquisites) and the average employment
of such labor. For 1899, the total cost of hired labor as reported
in the agriculture census and total employment of hired labor as
reported in the population census were used for computing an earnings
figure. For 1902, 1906, and 1909, figures were interpolated between
1899 and 1910 averages by the average monthly farm wage rates as
derived from the surveys of the USDA.
Analysis by Louis Ducoff indicates the close relationship over the
1910-1943 period between farm wage-rate changes and prices received by farmers. Lebergott therefore used the U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics wholesale price index component for farm prices for
interpolating between the above estimates.
D 740, manufacturing. For manufacturing employees, Lebergott
relied on the census of manufactures series for census years, interpolating for the pre-1919 years by the State data as combined by
Paul Douglas, and for the post-1919 years by similar data as combined by Simon Kuznets.
D 741, mining, total. The estimates for all mining were computed
as the weighted sum of series for anthracite, bituminous, metal, and
oil mining for 1902, 1909, and the years 1914 to 1928. For the remaining years in the 1900-1913 period, total mining was estimated
from the trend in coal mining, the ratio of one average to the other
being much the same in 1902, 1909, and 1914. All mining earnings
were 108.5 percent of coal mining in 1914 and 107.8 percent in 1909.
For 1902 they were 11.3 percent, a difference explained by the anthracite strike of that year. The 1909 ratio was therefore used for 1900
to 1913.
D 742 and D 743, anthracite and bituminous coal. Separate
estimates were computed for each industry for the years 1900 to 1928.
For 1919 to 1928, the averages can be readily derived from Kuznets'
estimates. For earlier years, the census data were interpolated by
Paul Douglas on the basis of the relevant State series; his figures
were used for extrapolation after some adjustments. For both the
anthracite coal strike of 1902 and the bituminous coal strike of 1919,
Lebergott followed Douglas in showing a decline in earnings, relating
total payrolls to the average number customarily employed in the
nonstrike months. Since this decline is also reflected in employment
data, the two may not be multiplied together for these years to give
total payrolls.
D 744, metal mining. For metal mining, Lebergott interpolated
between census benchmark data by the weighted trend of earnings
in copper and iron mining. Because the precious metals, lead, and
zinc, were mined primarily in the West during this period, the employment weight for these industries was given to the series for copper,
which is primarily one for the Mountain States.
D 745, construction. The 1929 Department of Commerce average
was extrapolated to 1919 by the implicit full-time earnings figures
in the Kuznets' estimates. Lebergott then extrapolated to 1900 by
an adjusted index of weekly earnings, using Douglas' series for building
tradesmen and for unskilled laborers, and weighting these together
by population census weights. To adjust this series for the varying
volume of employment from year to year, Lebergott multiplied by
an adjustment ratio—computed as the ratio of an index of weekly
to one of annual earnings in manufacturing.
D 746-752, transport and utilities. The group average, as those
for utilities and for communications, is a weighted average of earnings
150



in individual industry sectors. The weights used were the employ
ment estimates derived above. The average earnings were in general
the Department of Commerce 1929 figure extrapolated to 1919 by
Kuznets' series, and to 1900 by Douglas' series. There were three
partial exceptions to this primary procedure: (1) For gas and electricity, alternative estimates of the 1900 to 1904 trend were made
because Douglas' figures, based on Wisconsin reports, show an unreasonable trend; (2) for telephone and telegraph, the 1902 estimate
was extrapolated to 1900 by the trend for street-railway earnings,
the two showing similar trends in immediately subsequent years;
and (3) for water transport, the 1900 to 1918 trend of average weekly
earnings of seamen was adjusted to the trend for annual earnings by
the ratios of weekly to annual series for earnings on steam railroads.
D 753, wholesale and retail trade. Direct estimates for trade
were made, using as basic sources a variety of direct studies of earnings
made in the period 1900 to 1919. Benchmark estimates were made
for 1900 using the 1901 Cost of Living Survey (of 24,000 families),
an 1895-1896 study by the Commissioner of Labor on earnings in the
various industries of 30 States, and the 1899 Census of Manufactures.
Benchmark estimates for 1909 and 1919 were developed from censuses
of manufactures, laundries, and the telephone industry, from a massive
1909 Bureau of Labor study of women's earnings, and from a 1921
study by the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Census
Bureau. Interpolations were then made between these benchmark
averages.
D 754, finance, insurance, and real estate. Earnings were computed as the weighted sum of earnings in the two major occupational
categories, agents and clerical personnel. Estimates of the number
of agents who were employees were made from population census
data. Average earnings of agents in 1900,1905,1910, and 1920 were
available for Metropolitan Life Insurance Company agents, the largest
company in the field. Interpolation for 1901 to 1904 and 1910 to
1920 was by the movement of earnings in trade. For 1906 to 1909,
a linear trend was used to reflect the readjustment of agents' earnings
after the Armstrong investigation, leading to a much greater 1905 to
1910 growth than appears in trade earnings.
Unpublished figures on earnings of salaried clerical employees in
one of the five largest insurance companies were used for the years
1909 and 1914 to 1919. These were extrapolated to 1900 and interpolated for 1910 to 1913 by the trend in earnings of salaried clerical
personnel in manufacturing. The two series thus estimated were
combined with employment weights derived from the 1910 census,
giving a trend series for 1900 to 1919. This series was used to extrapolate the 1919 to 1929 figures derived from Kuznets' estimates.
D 756, personal services. The first step in developing this series
was to make a benchmark earnings estimate for 1900, by estimating
averages for key occupations and industries, then weighting them
together by the number of employees in each. (Consistent weights
were available from the special class-of-worker tabulations from the
1910 census.)
For 1920 and 1921, the results of a Census-National Bureau of
Economic Research nationwide survey for the President's Conference
on Unemployment were used.
The personal-service earnings figures thus derived for 1900 and
1920, as well as that for 1929 shown in Department of Commerce
estimates, are virtually identical with the average earnings in laundries
for those years. Therefore, the census of manufactures data on
laundry earnings in 1909, 1914, 1919, 1925, and 1927 were used to
extrapolate the 1919 service earnings figure to these additional years.
Ratios of personal service earnings to those for trade, a segment
for which yearly estimates had already been made and which is
similar in certain key respects to that of service, were computed.
The ratios were as follows: 1900, 65; 1909, 69; 1914, 67; 1921, 73;
1925, 69; 1927, 70. The relationship appears to be quite reasonable
and steady, even to the extent of indicating a relatively greater rise
for the lower-paid industry than the higher during World War I and

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
after—a phenomenon apparent in other series based on very solid
annual or biennial reports. These ratios were, therefore, interpolated
and applied to the trade series to give the estimates of earnings in
personal service.
D 762, State and local government. An initial benchmark for
earnings in 1905 was established as follows:
(1) For policemen and firemen, the largest single group, averages
of earnings data available for cities of 30,000 and over in population
in 1905 were adjusted to apply to all cities on the basis of the ratio
of teachers' earnings in larger and smaller cities. (2) For the next
largest occupation group, city labor, the 1905 census data for employees of street-cleaning departments were used, after an adjustment
similar to that noted for policemen and firemen to make the figures
apply to the United States as a whole. (3) For city officials and other
city employees, the average for policemen and firemen was used. (4)
For State and county officials, the Office of Education data on average
earnings of teachers were used since the two were very similar in level
during stable periods in the 1920's. (5) In addition, an estimate of
the number employed in State mental hospitals and institutions for
the feebleminded was prepared as part of the employment estimates.
The average salary for this group was assumed the same as that for
all hospitals, computed as part of the estimates for service. These
five earnings averages were then weighted together by the occupation data for local government in 1910 as shown by the Census of
Population.
For 1919 to 1928, Kuznets' estimates based on a review of available
reports for individual cities and States were used. The 1905-19191928 data show a close similarity of trend to that for the earnings of
urban teachers, suggesting that the latter could be used for interpolation. In the critical overlap period of 1919 to 1921, however, the
rate of change in teachers' salaries was not proportionate to that for
other State employees, salaries of the former lagging behind increases
previously granted to other local employees and, in addition, reflecting the impact of heavy postwar enrollments. The procedure
used, therefore, was to extrapolate the 1919 estimate to 1916 by
the movement of earnings for policemen and firemen in selected
cities as estimated by W. I. King, The National Income and Its Purchasing Power (1930). The resultant estimate of local government
earnings in 1916 was 91 percent of the average salary of urban teachers, a ratio almost identical with the 88 percent implicit in the 1905
figures estimated earlier. By extrapolating and interpolating these
percentages and those for 1905 and 1919 and applying them to the
urban teachers' salary estimates, the final series for local government
was derived.
D 763, public education. For this series, the biennial surveys of
the Office of Education provide the basic raw materials. These
were developed into consistent estimates by Douglas and Kuznets;
their series were used to extrapolate the 1929 Department of Commerce benchmark.
D 764, Federal civilian government. Separate earnings series
were derived for postal and for nonpostal civilian employees of the
Federal government, the two series being weighted together and then
used to interpolate between benchmark estimates for 1899 and 1929.
The 1899 benchmark was derived by sampling the complete list of
Federal employees and their salaries as recorded in the U.S. Official
Register for 1899. For 1929, Department of Commerce data
were used.
A benchmark estimate for 1899 earnings in postal service was
computed by sampling from the Official Register for that year, with
interpolation between that figure and the implicit Department of
Commerce 1929 average by a series for all postal employees. Benchmark averages for all Federal employees outside the postal service
were computed for 1899 and 1919 by sampling from the complete list
of employees shown in the Official Register for those years. The
procedure was identical with that used for postal employees. Interpolation from 1899 to 1919 was by the trend of salaries of government
employees in the District of Columbia. For 1920 to 1928, Lebergott
interpolated between the 1919 figure and Kuznets' 1929 figure.



D 1030-1036

D 765-778. Average hours and average earnings in manufacturing,
in selected nonmanufacturing industries, and for "lower-skilled"
labor, 1890-1926.
Source: Paul H. Douglas, Real Wages in the United States, 18901926, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 1930 (copyright).
D765-766 are weighted averages of series D 767 and D 769, and
series D 768 and D 770, respectively. The union scales of wages are
substantially higher and less flexible than the wages of all workers
in the "union" industries. Since the weight of the "union" industries
in the all-manufacturing average is based on the total number of
skilled and semiskilled workers in the industries, the total manufacturing average is too high (see Leo Wolman, "American Wages,"
Quarterly Journal of Economics, XLVI, 1932, pp. 398-406).
D 767-768, beginning in 1907, are weighted averages of trade
union scales for occupations. The weights are union membership
by crafts. The series are extrapolated back to 1890 by use of payroll
data from the sources of series D 769 and D 770.
D 769-770, average hours and earnings for "payroll" manufacturing industries, are averages weighted by employment data from
employer payrolls (see text for series D 794-801), given in various
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) bulletins and in the Nineteenth
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor. Until 1913, the original
data are for selected occupations only, and exclude most laborers and
some other unskilled workers. Therefore, for 1890-1913, the series
are extrapolations backward from the 1914 level.
Differences between series D 767-768 and D 769-770 are not
necessarily reliable indicators of differences in wages and hours between workers in union and nonunion industries. Because the biases
in series D 767-768 are probably much greater than those in series
D 769-770, it may sometimes be desirable to use only the latter to
represent all manufacturing.
D 771, average hours (standard) in bituminous coal mining, is estimated from union contracts and their coverage for 1890-1903;
after 1903, it is based on data from the U.S. Geological Survey.
D 772, average hourly earnings, was obtained by dividing series
D 788, average annual earnings, by average days worked, as reported
by the U. S. Geological Survey; the resulting series was divided by
daily hours worked.
D 773, average full-time earnings on railroads, is based on average
daily wages by occupations, 1895-1914; for 1914-1926, it is based
on average hourly wages as reported by the U.S. Interstate Commerce
Commission and estimated daily hours.
D 774-775, average hours and earnings in the building trades,
were obtained in the same way as series D 767-768.
D 776, average hours for postal employees, is based on nominal
hours as set by law, adjusted (after 1920) for sick leave.
D 777, average hourly earnings, is estimated by dividing series
D 791 by 52 to obtain weekly earnings and then by dividing again
by series D 776 to obtain hourly earnings.
D 778, average full-time weekly earnings for "lower-skilled" labor,
is reproduced in the source from Whitney Coombs, The Wages of
Unskilled Labor in Manufacturing Industries in the United States,
1890-1921,, Columbia University Press, New York, 1926, p. 99. I t
is based on the wages of the least skilled or lowest paid occupations
reported for each industry in BLS bulletins and in the Nineteenth
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, except that the figure
for 1920 is based on the data of the National Industrial Conference
Board. Since these sources exclude most laborers before 1914, the
series is labeled here as "lower skilled," though it is called "unskilled"
by Coombs and by Douglas.
D 779-793. Average annual earnings in all and selected industries
and in occupations, 1890-1926.
Source: See source for series D 765-778.
D 779-780, all industries averages, are weighted averages of series
D 781-793 and an additional series beginning in 1902 for anthracite
coal. The weights change annually and are based on decennial
151

D

781-810

LABOR

census employment estimates. Interpolations of weights for intercensal years are based on State employment data when available;
elsewhere they are linear.
The weights for decennial census years and 1926 are shown in
the source, p. 390.
D 781, wage earners in manufacturing, is based on data from the
census of manufactures for census years (total wages paid and wage
earners). Figures for intercensal years are interpolated using similar
data from the labor bureaus of a number of States. Census data for
1890 are adjusted to eliminate the hand trades.
D 782, wage earners in steam railroads, is based on Interstate
Commerce Commission data since 1905, and extrapolated back to
1890 using data from several State railroad commissions.
D 783, street railways, is based on the Eleventh Census (1890)
and the censuses of electrical industries. Figures for intercensal
years are interpolations based on data from several State railroad
and public utility commissions and State labor bureaus.
D 784-785, telephone and telegraph industries, are based on
censuses of electrical industries. Figures for intercensal years are
interpolations based on data published by the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs.
D 786, gas and electricity, is based on the censuses of electrical
industries (electricity) and on the censuses of manufactures (gas).
Figures for intercensal years are interpolations based on data for
New York City, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Pennsylvania, from State
sources.
D 787, clerical workers in manufacturing and steam railroads,
is based on: Average earnings of salaried workers in manufacturing
computed from the censuses of manufactures for census years, with
data from three States used to interpolate for other years; and, beginning in 1895, earnings of salaried workers in railroads from the
Interstate Commerce Commission, with data from two State railway
commissions and one railroad used to extrapolate back to 1890.
D 788, bituminous coal mining, is based on aggregate wage payments from the censuses of mines and quarries of 1889, 1902, 1909,
and 1919 as revised in the Fourteenth Census (1920), divided by
employment figures reported by the U. S. Geological Survey. Figures
for intercensal years are interpolations based on data from the State
labor bureaus or departments of mines of five major coal-producing
States.
D 789, farm labor, is based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture
series of daily wages of farm labor without board and of monthly
wages of farm labor without board. Data for 1900-1909 are linear
interpolations covering from one to three years each.
D 790, Federal employees, covers employees of Federal executive
departments in Washington, D.C., only. The data are from the
Official Register, adjusted to include bonuses paid during 1917-1924.
D 791, postal employees, covers letter carriers and, beginning in
1906, postal clerks in first and second class post offices. The data
are from the Annual Reports of the Postmaster General, adjusted to
calendar years.
D 792, public school teachers, covers teachers, principals, and
supervisors in public elementary and secondary schools. The data
are from the Annual Reports of the U.S. Commissioner of Education,
adjusted to a calendar-year basis. Data for some years after 1915
are interpolations based on studies of the National Education
Association.
D 793, ministers, covers salaries of Methodist and Congregational
ministers as reported in the Methodist Year Book and the Annual
Congregational Gray Book.
D 794-801. Indexes of wages, hours, and earnings in manufacturing
and in the building trades, 1890-1907.
Source: Series D 794-796, U.S. Department of Commerce and
Labor, Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 77, 1908, p. 7. Series D
797, Leo Wolman, "Hours of Work in American Industry," Bulletin
71, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1938, p.
2 (copyright).
152




Beginning in 1900, the Bureau of Labor of the Department of
Commerce and Labor undertook, in somewhat modified form, a
continuation of the Aldrich reports (see text for series D 735-738).
The Nineteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1904,
contains the results of the studies for 1890-1903. Somewhat similar
surveys were made for 1904-1907 and the information for the entire
period was summarized in Bulletin No. 77, cited above. The Nineteenth Annual Report and the subsequent Bulletins (Nos. 59, 65, 71,
and 77) show the basic wage, hour, and employment averages for
each of the individual occupations and industries and for selected
occupations by States and for large cities.
The Bureau of Labor figures, series D 794-796, include the building
and other hand and neighborhood trades. Wolman's figures, series
D 797, exclude the building and hand trades.
The data in the Nineteenth Annual Report are based on information
obtained from 3,475 establishments in 67 industries, covering 519
occupations. Agents of the Bureau of Labor collected wages, hours,
and employment data separately by occupation and sex from the
records of each establishment. Such data were taken only for what
were judged principal occupations in each industry and only for the
period within each year that was judged "normal" for the establishment. By and large, the basic data for each occupation (separately
by sex) were for establishments whose records were complete enough
to supply the data for each year 1890-1903.
For 1890-1903, average hourly wages and average full-time weekly
hours, weighted by employment, were computed for each occupation,
separately by sex. Each of the occupational series was converted
to an index number with the average for 1890-1899 as the base.
Within each industry, simple arithmetic means of the individual
occupational indexes were then computed. Series D 798 and D 800
are unweighted means of the occupational indexes in the building
trades. The "all manufacturing" index numbers (series D 794 and
D 796), however, are weighted means of the indexes of the 67 separate
industries included, each industry weighted by the payroll of that
industry as estimated from the 1900 census. Series D 795 is the
product of series D 794 and D 796; series D 799 is the product of
series D 798 and D 800.
For 1904-1907, the procedures used by the Bureau of Labor were
similar to those used for 1890-1903, with the following exceptions:
(1) Some small industries covered in 1890-1903 were dropped although the number of establishments covered was increased; and (2)
the indexes were chain-linked to those for 1890-1903.
Series D 797 and D 801, for average full-time weekly hours, are
based on Wolman's reworking of the basic data for series D 796
and D 800. Series D 797 shows the index numbers computed from
the weighted average of the hours figures in the Nineteenth Annual
Report for 456 occupations in 48 manufacturing industries and excludes
the building trades and other hand and neighborhood trades covered
in the report. The weight for each occupation in each year is the
number of employees covered in the survey of that occupation in the
year. Series D 801 is the index number calculated from the similarly
weighted average computed by Wolman for the 19 building trades
occupations. For the building trades, Wolman expressed the opinion
that the hours data in the Nineteenth Annual Report were those established by unions.
Wolman's report is a basic source of information of hours of work
in American industry. It contains 15 summary tables of historical
data on hours of work in manufacturing, building construction, steam
railroads, and coal mining for various dates, 1890-1937.
D 802-810. Earnings and hours of production workers in manufacturing, 1909-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings,
United States, 1909-71, Bulletin No. 1312-8.
The figures for 1909-1931 represent estimates based largely on
periodic wage and hour surveys conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) during that period for a narrow list of manufacturing

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
industries. These figures are an extension of, and are adjusted for
comparability with, the figures for 1932-1957. For a discussion of
the methods and data used to derive the figures for 1909-1931, see
BLS, Monthly Labor Review, July 1955, pp. 801-806.
The estimates of average weekly earnings for 1909-1931, based
primarily on census data, tend to be more accurate than those for
average hourly earnings and average weekly hours. It is likely that
the hourly earnings figures are overstated and the weekly hours understated because the BLS surveys of wages tended to sample large
firms more heavily than small firms.
For 1932-1970, the underlying employment, payroll, and manhour figures were obtained by means of a mail questionnaire sent
monthly to cooperating establishments. Each establishment reported
the following information: (1) The number of production workers or
nonsupervisory employees who worked or received pay for any part
of the payroll period which includes the 12th of the month; (2) the
total gross payrolls for these employees before such deductions as
Social Security taxes, withholding taxes, union dues, etc. (the payroll
figures include pay for overtime, shift premiums, sick leave, holidays,
vacations, and production bonuses, but exclude payments in kind,
retroactive pay, nonproduction bonuses, employer contributions to
private welfare funds, insurance and pension plans, and similar fringe
payments); and (3) total man-hours paid for these employees including hours paid for vacations, holidays, sick leave, travel time,
lunch time, etc.
Within each detailed industry the payroll, employment, and manhours figures for reporting establishments are aggregated, and average
hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and average weekly earnings
are computed. The average hourly earnings and average weekly
hours for a group of industries are weighted arithmetic means of the
corresponding averages for the industries within the group. The
weights used for earnings are estimates of aggregate productionworker man-hours and those used for hours are estimates of aggregate
production-worker employment. Average weekly earnings for the
group is the product of the average hourly earnings and the average
weekly hours for the group.
Average weekly hours worked or paid for differ from average fulltime or standard hours (before payment at overtime premium rates)
and from average hours worked per week. During periods of substantial unemployment, average weekly hours paid for often may be
considerably below the full-time level of hours or the level at which
premium payments for overtime begin. On the other hand, during
periods of relatively full employment, overtime hours tend to raise
the average weekly hours above the full-time level.
Until the 1940's, the distinction in most industries between hours
paid for and hours actually worked was relatively unimportant. The
widespread adoption of paid vacations of increasing length and of an
increasing number of paid holidays (and in some industries paid travel
time, lunch time, etc.), however, has raised average weekly hours
(which are hours paid for) above average hours worked by increasing
amounts.
Average hourly earnings figures exclude such fringe payments as
employer contributions to private health, welfare, and insurance
funds and include premium payments for overtime and for night work.
D 811-813. Earnings and hours for bituminous coal-lignite mining
(BLS), 1909-1970.
Source: See source for series D 802-810.
For 1909-1931, estimates are based on a variety of sources including
special studies by the BLS and data collected by the Bureau of the
Census, the Bureau of Mines, and reports of State coal commissions.
For 1932-1970, figures are strictly comparable in concept and method
of estimation with those for manufacturing in series D 802-810.
See text for same series regarding hours paid for in contrast to hours
worked and the exclusion from average hourly earnings of fringe payments which are particularly applicable to coal mining.



D

1030-1036

Before 1945, lunch time was not paid for in the mines. Beginning
April 1945, mine operators paid for 15 minutes of lunch time per
day; in July 1947, the lunch time paid for was increased to one-half
hour. Similarly, before November 1943, working time was computed
on a "face-to-face" basis. From November 1943 to April 1945,
inside mine workers were paid for 45 minutes of travel time per day
at two-thirds of the regular rate. Since April 1945, inside workers
have been paid for all travel time at the applicable hourly rate.
Data published by the Bureau of Mines (Minerals Yearbook, 1946,
p. 81) show that in 1944 travel time amounted, on the average, to
10-15 percent of total time paid for. Therefore, average weekly
hours figures since 1945 may have a serious upward bias if used to
measure hours actually worked, and the average hourly earnings
figures may have a correspondingly serious downward bias if used to
measure average earnings per hour actually worked.
Average hourly earnings figures exclude contributions of coal mine
employers to the miners' welfare and retirement fund, established
in 1946. This fund was financed by mine operators through contributions of 5 cents for each ton of coal produced. In 1947, the
contribution was raised to 10 cents. The medical and hospital fund,
previously financed by miners, was combined with the welfare and
retirement fund, and the rate of contribution was raised several more
times until, in 1952, it reached the current (1970) rate of 40 cents
a ton. In 1969, wage supplements in bituminous coal mining, chiefly
employer contributions to the welfare and retirement fund, amounted
to 20 percent of total compensation.
D 814.

Earnings for bituminous coal mining (Lewis), 1890-1957.

Source: H. G. Lewis, Unionism and Relative Wages in the United
States, pp. 75-76 (© 1963, by The University of Chicago).
In constructing this series, Lewis used the following sources: 18901928, Rush V. Greenslade, "The Economic Effects of Collective
Bargaining in Bituminous Coal Mining," unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1952, table 8; 1929-1957, Ethel B. Jones,
"Hours of Work in the United States, 1900-1957," unpublished Ph. D.
dissertation, University of Chicago, 1961, table 2.
Average hourly compensation includes wage supplements.
D 815-817.

Earnings and hours for Class I railroads, 1939-1970.

Source: See source for series D 802-810.
Figures for Class I railroads are based on their monthly reports
to the Interstate Commerce Commission. Until 1951, the figures
covered all hourly rated employees of Class I railroads excluding
Class I switching and terminal companies. Since 1951, the figures
cover all employees (excluding switching and terminal companies)
except executives, officials, and staff assistants. Although the figures
since 1951 are not strictly comparable with those for earlier years, the
difference is not large.
Average hourly earnings are computed by dividing the total compensation of covered employees by total man-hours paid for. Average
weekly earnings are derived by multiplying average weekly hours by
average hourly earnings. Average weekly hours equal total manhours paid for (during a month) reduced to a weekly basis, divided
by the full-month count of employees on the payroll. The full-month
count generally tends to be somewhat larger than a count for the
payroll period which includes the 12th of the month and is used for
other industries. For this reason both the weekly earnings and the
weekly hours figures tend to be slightly lower than they would be if
computed on the latter basis.
D 818-829. Indexes of union hourly wage rates and weekly hours,
building and printing trades, 1907-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Union Wages and Hours:
Building Trades, 1970, BLS Bulletin No. 1709, pp. 3 and 6; and
153

D 830-876

LABOR

Union Wages and Hours: Printing Industry, 1970, BLS Bulletin No.
1707, pp. 3 and 6.
Studies by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of union wage rates and
hours prior to 1936 included at various times building and printing
trades, barbers, linemen, longshoremen, and workers employed in
breweries, laundries, metal trades, millwork, restaurants, soft drink
production, theaters, baking, trucking, and local transit. Since 1936,
the studies have been confined to the printing and building trades,
trucking, local transit, and baking. The baking study was discontinued in 1953.
For each trade, the local union is asked to submit data on the
minimum union wage rate, the weekly hours (before overtime becomes
effective), and the number of active union members working or
available for work on a single specified date (recently July 1) each year.
The earliest studies covered 13 journeymen and 7 helper and labor
classifications in building construction, and 7 book and job and 4
newspaper classifications in the printing trades in 39 cities. Since
1964, the studies have covered 24 journeymen and 9 helper and labor
classifications in the building trades in 68 cities of over 100,000 population; and 12 book and job and 8 newspaper classifications, and, since
1968, 6 lithographic crafts in the printing trades in 69 such cities.
Indexes for all years were computed by the chain-link relative
method, except 1921-1929, which were based on weighted arithmetic
means for each year. The figures reflect minimum union contract
rates and exclude premium pay for overtime. During periods of
unemployment, the contract rates may be higher than the actual
wage rates paid. Wage rates above contract rates may be paid
during periods of high employment or rapid inflation. Thus, the
union figures tend to have smaller cyclical fluctuations than actual
wage rates paid to union employees. Furthermore, since overtime
pay is excluded, union wage rates fluctuate less cyclically than average
hourly earnings.
The hours figures also reflect union contract straight-time hours.
They do not measure hours actually worked, which for the building
trades vary with climatic conditions and the amount of construction
work available.

D 830-844. Earnings and hours of production workers in 25 manufacturing industries, by sex and degree of skill, 1914-1948.
Source: The Conference Board, Inc., The Economic Almanac for
1950, New York, 1950, pp. 336-344 (copyright).
The underlying data were collected by the National Industrial
Conference Board (NICB) from a sample of companies representing
25 industries (durable and nondurable goods) by means of a monthly
mail questionnaire. The number of firms included in the sample, as
well as the distribution of these firms by size and geographical location,
varied somewhat from time to time. In 1936, the sample included
1,886 firms employing about one-third of all wage earners in the
25 industries covered and about one-fifth of all wage earners in all
manufacturing industries. The average firm in the sample (in most
of the 25 industries) was substantially larger (in terms of employment)
than the average firm in the population from which the sample was
taken. Although some tendency toward an upward bias in the
level of earnings of the sample firms may exist, it is not clear that this
bias also had a trend or varied with the business cycle.
Within each industry, average hourly earnings was obtained by
dividing the aggregate payroll for reporting companies by the aggregate man-hours. Average weekly hours and average weekly
earnings were obtained in a similar manner. The averages for all
industries taken together were weighted means of the separate industry averages with fixed employment weights estimated for each
industry with the help of the 1923 Census of Manufactures.
The distinction in classification between unskilled males and other
male workers was not precisely stated by NICB and the classification
was made by the reporting firms.
154



D 845-876. Average days in operation per year, average daily hours,
and annual and hourly earnings, in manufacturing, by industry,
1889-1914.
Source: Albert Rees, Real Wages in Manufacturing, 1890-191 b,
National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1961, Princeton
University Press, tables 10 and 13. (Copyright.)
Rees' estimates of hourly earnings of wage earners in all manufacturing begin with estimates of average annual earnings in census
years (1889, 1899, 1904, 1909, and 1914 are considered census years).
To obtain average annual earnings he divided total wage payments by
the average number of wage earners after adjusting the data to conform to the definition of manufacturing in effect for the 1958 census.
This meant deducting industries no longer considered manufacturing,
the most important of which are railroad repair shop products, with
366,000 workers in 1914, and illuminating gas, with 44,000 workers.
The effect of the adjustment was to reduce average annual earnings
by $6 in each census year, except in 1889, when it reduced annual
earnings by $4.
For 1889, Rees also had to adjust the original census figures to
eliminate the hand and custom trades. This adjustment was made
for each industry and was based on separate data on factory industries
for 1899 given in the Census of Manufactures of 1904. When the
1899 data showed that an industry was partly a factory industry and
partly a hand or custom trade, Rees applied the 1899 proportions to
the 1889 figures.
The nature of the census employment concepts have an important
effect on annual earnings figures for census years. The figures Rees
would have preferred were total payrolls divided by the number of
workers in average daily attendance when the plant was in operation
because, at a later step, he divided annual earnings by the number
of days in operation to get average daily earnings. The nature of
the appropriate average employment concept can be seen more easily
by reversing the order of the division: total payrolls divided by days
in operation would give average daily payrolls, which, divided by the
number of workers in average daily attendance, would give average
daily earnings.
The actual census employment figures differ from this ideal in two
opposite ways. In 1914 and 1909, employers were asked to report,
from time or payroll records, the number of workers employed on
the 15th day of each month or the nearest representative day. The
employment figures for the 12 months were then added, employment
in any month in which the plant was not in operation was counted
as zero, and the sum was divided by 12. The first source of error
was the inclusion of these zero figures, which resulted in too low an
average employment and too high a daily earnings figure. In effect,
time lost during whole months in which an establishment was not in
operation was counted twice: once in employment and once in the
number of days worked. In seasonal industries such as glass, where
the error on this account is large, Rees made special corrections to
allow for it.
The second source of error was that employers probably included
in their count some workers who were on the payroll on the 15th day
of the month but were not at work or receiving pay on that day. This
source of error resulted in too high an average employment and too
low an average daily wage. Checks of the hourly earnings figures
against data built up from hourly wage rates did not suggest any
consistent bias in the estimates and thus led Rees to conclude that
the two sources of error were, in general, roughly offsetting.
Prior to 1909, the census employment concepts were somewhat
different. In 1899 and 1904, employers reported average employment for each month without reference to a particular day. In 1889,
the average employment concept was essentially average employment
during the time the plant was in operation. Thus the first of the two
sources of error is absent in 1889, while the second is not. For this
reason, the earnings estimates for the early 1890's may be slightly
too low.
For the intercensal years, Rees used data for Massachusetts, New

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Jersey, and Pennsylvania as interpolators. The Massachusetts
series covers the full period, the Pennsylvania series begins in 1892,
and the New Jersey series in 1895. He linked the series at these
points to prevent the changes in coverage from affecting the movement of the series.
The average number of days per year that establishments were in
operation is a weighted average of data for the same States used in
interpolating annual earnings. Within each State, Rees computed
employment-weighted averages of days in operation by industries;
the all-manufacturing averages published by some of the States are
weighted by the number of establishments. The weights for combining States in census years were census employment in manufacturing; for other years, linear interpolations of the census weights.
The full-time work year during the period 1889-1914 was apparently
312 days—365 minus 52 Sundays and one holiday.
Rees used the series on average full-time hours per day in all manufacturing again in deriving some of his industry data on hourly earnings, referring to it as the "general hours series." Throughout the
study he converted weekly hours to daily hours by dividing by six.
The daily hours figures for 1914 and 1909 were computed from the
frequency distributions of full-time hours per week in the census of
manufactures.
From 1903 to 1914 the movement of the "general hours series"
was based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data for seven
industries, using Douglas' processing for six of them (Paul Douglas,
Real Wages in the United States, 1890-1926, Boston, 1930). The
industries are cotton, silk, hosiery and knit goods, woolen and worsted,
boots and shoes, lumber, and iron and steel. These were combined
by census employment weights, using linear interpolation of these
weights for intercensal years. The resulting series was then adjusted
to pass through the points computed from census data for 1909
and 1914.
This segment of the "general hours series" used the hours data
for all of Douglas' payroll industries except clothing (for which
Douglas interpolated the data for 1907-12) and slaughtering and
meat-packing (for which he assumed a constant 60-hour week on the
basis of information other than the BLS data). Rees added the silk
industry, for which he computed average hours from the BLS bulletins following Douglas' method.
For 1890-1902, the movement of the "general hours series" was
taken from Wolman's series for all manufacturing (Hours of Work
in American Industry, Bulletin 71, NBER, 1938). This was linked
to the segment of the general hours series for 1903-09 by means of an
overlap of one year at 1903. The resulting change in the level of
Wolman's series was an increase of 0.2 hour per week. Wolman's
series uses all the hours data for manufacturing in the Nineteenth
Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor; it thus has much broader
coverage (48 industries) than Douglas' series, which was derived from
the same source for this period, but is confined to 14 industries.
Rees' estimates of money earnings for individual industries were
derived in essentially the same way as the estimates for all manufacturing. However, he used data from several additional States
to estimate the number of days in operation per year and to interpolate annual earnings between census years. These States provided
usable data only for some industries or only for short periods of time.
See source for additional detail.
The choice of industries was dictated by the availability of State
data. None of the State sources provide definitions or descriptions
of the industries to which their industry series refer, and the industry
titles at times proved quite misleading. Large differences between
State and census data in the movement of annual earnings from one
census year to the next were often grounds for not using a series.
Because it was possible for Rees to combine series given separately
in his sources, but not to break them down, the industry coverage
of his series is always that of the broadest of their components.
The levels of average daily hours for individual industries for 1909
and 1914 were computed from census data. In two industries, Rees
made special assumptions about the means of the open-end classes



D 1030-1036

in the census distributions. For glass, short workweeks were common
for part of the work force, apparently because of the heat and physical
strain of some jobs. In this industry he assumed that the mean of the
weekly-hours class "48 hours and under" was 44 hours. For iron
and steel the means of the open-end class "over 72 hours" were computed from BLS data.
The movement of hours, except for the trend from 1909 to 1914,
was based ultimately on BLS data, combined in several different
ways. In five industries (cotton, woolens, hosiery and knit goods,
boots and shoes, and iron and steel) Rees used the Douglas payroll
series adjusted to the census levels of 1909 and 1914. For silk, he
computed an hours series using Douglas' methods; this was then
adjusted to census levels. The hours series for "all textiles" is the
weighted averages of the series for cotton, woolen, silk, and hosiery
and knit goods, with no new adjustment to census levels. In the
remaining industries, except dyeing and finishing textiles, he used the
general hours series to estimate the movement of hours from 1903
to 1914, adjusting it to the census levels of each industry. For
dyeing and finishing textiles he used the "all textiles" series.
In five industries (dyeing and finishing textiles, leather, paper,
glass, and foundries and machine shops) for the period before 1903,
Rees used the data for individual industries in the Nineteenth Annual
Report of the Commissioner of Labor. For the two remaining industries
(rubber and electrical machinery) the data in that report covered
four establishments or fewer, and were considered too unreliable to
use. Therefore, he used the "general hours series" in these industries
before 1903 as well as after.
D 877-892. Earnings and hours of construction and non-supervisory
workers in selected nonmanufacturing industries, 1932-1970.
Source: See source for series D 802-810.
See also text for series D 802-810.
D 893-904. Average annual supplements to wages and salaries per
full-time employee, by major industry, 1929-1970.
Source: Computed from the following: U.S. Office of Business
Economics, 1929-1963, The National Income and Product Accounts
of the United States, 1929-1965, Statistical Tables-, 1964-1967, U.S.
National Income and Product Accounts, 1961t~1967; 1968-1970, U.S.
Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, July 1971,
tables 6.4 and 6.7.
These figures were computed by dividing estimates of aggregate
supplements to wages and salaries, by industry, by the corresponding
estimates of the aggregate number of full-time equivalent employees.
For discussion of estimates of full-time equivalent employees, see
text for series D 739-764; for discussion of supplements to wages
and salaries, see text for series D 905-912.
D 905-912. Average annual supplements to wages and salaries per
full-time equivalent employee, by type of supplement, 1929-1970.
Source: See source for series D 893-904, tables 1.10, 3.8, and 6.4.
These figures were computed by dividing estimates of aggregate
supplements to wages and salaries, by type, by estimates of full-time
equivalent employees in all industries. For discussion of estimates
of full-time equivalent employees, see text for series D 739-764.
The source presents figures for a more detailed classification of
supplements.
The averages shown for the different types of supplements may
tend to be somewhat lower than they should be because the employment figures used to obtain the averages include employees for whom
no contributions or payments were made and who would not therefore
be recipients of supplemental compensation.
Data for "employer contributions for social insurance," series
D 906-909, have a high degree of reliability since they are obtained
155

D 913-919

LABOR

almost exclusively from the accounting records of the agencies administering the programs. Estimates for "other labor income," series
D 910-912, are less reliable.
Data on supplements to wages and salaries are obtained from a
variety of sources. Reports filed by employers with the administrative agencies or with the U.S. Treasury are the sources of figures
for employer contributions under old-age and survivors insurance,
State unemployment insurance and cash sickness compensation,
railroad retirement and unemployment insurance, and the Federal
unemployment tax. Payments made by the Federal Government
to its civilian employee retirement systems are obtained from U.S.
Department of the Treasury records and the records of the administrative agencies. Estimates of Federal Government contributions made
to Government life insurance programs are based on monthly reports
of the Veterans Administration.
Contributions to State and local retirement systems are based on
data supplied, since 1936, by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Estimates for 1929-1935 are extrapolations
from the 1936 figure based on a sample survey of State and local
government units.
Estimates of compensation for injuries are based on data in the
annual Insurance Yearbook (Spectator Company), on reports of State
insurance funds, and on information furnished by State accident
compensation commissions.
Employer contributions to private pension plans are estimated for
1945-1970 chiefly from tabulations prepared by the Internal Revenue
Service. Contributions to health and welfare funds are estimated
from data obtained from the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America, the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, the
United Mine Workers of America, and the American Telephone and
Telegraph Company. Employer contributions for group insurance,
series D 911, are based upon studies made by the U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare and upon reports from the Institute of Life Insurance.
Data on the pay of military reservists were obtained from the
Armed Services or from the annual Budget of the United Staies Government; data on Federal payments to enemy prisoners of war were
obtained from the U.S. Department of Defense. Other items in
"other labor income" have always been small in amount.
D 913.

Annual salary of college teachers, 1929-1970.

Source: 1929-1952, George J. Stigler, Trends in Employment in the
Service Industries, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1956, p. 134,
(copyright; reprinted by permission of Princeton University Press).
1956-1970, National Education Association (NEA), Research Report,
1960-R3, 1962-R2, and 1972-R5 (copyright © 1960, 1962, and
1972, respectively, by the National Education Association; all rights
reserved).
The figures for 1929-1952 represent the average annual salary of
college teachers in large public institutions. The average salary is
the weighted arithmetic mean of median salaries estimated separately
for the four ranks of instructional staff: Instructors, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors.
For 1929-1932, the median salaries by rank are based on Viva
Boothe's Salaries and the Cost of Living in Twenty-seven State
Universities and Colleges, 1913-1932, Ohio State University Press,
1932. For 1935-1942, 1950, and 1952, Stigler estimated median
salaries by rank from data in various reports of the Office of Education. The weights used in calculating the weighted mean of the
median salaries by rank were the relative numbers in each of the
ranks in public universities, colleges, and professional schools in New
York State as shown in annual reports of the University of the State
of New York. For 1943-1949, the figures were interpolated by
Stigler on the basis of expenditures on resident instruction per teacher.
Figures for 1908-1928 approximately comparable to those shown
here and for median salaries for each of the four college teaching ranks
for 1908-1942 appear in George J. Stigler, Employment and Compensa156



tion in Education, National Bureau of Economic Research, New
York, 1950.
The NEA figures for 1956-1970 represent median annual salaries
for all four ranks of instructional staff engaged in full-time teaching
in four-year colleges and institutions. They cover the academic
year of nine months—two semesters or three quarters—even when
the compensation is paid over a 12-month period. The data exclude
salaries paid to part-time employees and to administrative officers
regardless of the amount of time they may have spent in teaching.
D 914 and D 917.
1954.

Annual net income of nonsalaried lawyers, 1929-

Source: U.S. Office of Business Economics, Survey of Current Business; 1929-1946, August 1949 issue, p. 18; 1947-1954, December
1956 issue, p. 27.
Nonsalaried lawyers are those who engage in private practice as
entrepreneurs. The average shown, series D 914, is the arithmetic
mean. Estimates of median net income are presented in series
D 917. Net income is excess of gross receipts from legal practice
over the total of the payroll, rent, and other costs of legal practice.
Part-year incomes have been converted to full-year equivalents.
The estimates are based on a series of sample mail surveys of the
legal profession made by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The
results of the various surveys are reported in the Survey of Current
Business for April 1938, August 1943, May 1944, August 1949, July
1952, and December 1956. These reports, particularly those of
August 1949 and December 1956, contain the mean and median net
income figures shown here and also, for selected years, detailed frequency distributions by size of income for nonsalaried, salaried, and
part-salaried lawyers. Tabulations by various other characteristics
are also shown.
D 915 and D 918.
1929-1970.

Annual net income of nonsalaried physicians,

Source: 1929-1951, U.S. Office of Business Economics, Survey of
Current Business; 1929-1949, July 1951 issue, p. 16; 1950-1951,
July 1952 issue, p. 6. 1959-1970, Medical Economics Co., Oradell,
N. J., Medical Economics, various issues (copyright © 1959-1970;
reprinted by permission).
In the Survey, nonsalaried physician is defined as one whose sole
source of medical income is from independent practice. The average
shown, series D 915, is the arithmetic mean. The 1929-1951 Survey
estimates of median net income, series D 918, are presented for
linkage with the Medical Economics data for later years. Net income
is the gross receipts from medical practice less the total of payroll,
rent, supplies, equipment depreciation, and other expenses of medical
practice. Part-year incomes have not been converted to full-year
equivalents.
The 1929-1951 estimates of net income are based chiefly on a
series of sample mail surveys of the medical profession made by the
Department of Commerce. The results of the various surveys are
reported in the Survey of Current Business for April 1938, October
1943, July 1951, and July 1952. These reports, particularly July
1951, show the mean and median net income figures shown here and
also, for selected years, gross incomes and income distributions by size
of income for nonsalaried, salaried, and part-salaried physicians.
Tabulations by various other characteristics are also shown.
The 1959-1970 Medical Economics data in series D 918 relate to
self-employed medical doctors under age 65; they represent income
from practice after payment of tax-deductible professional expenses
but before payment of income taxes.
D 916 and D 919.
1970.

Annual net income of nonsalaried dentists, 1929-

Source: 1929-1951, U.S. Office of Business Economics, Survey of
Current Business; 1929-1948, January 1950 issue, p. 9; 1949-1951,

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
July 1952 issue, p. 6. 1952-1970, American Dental Association,
Chicago, 111., The . .. Survey of Dental Practice for the years 1953,
1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, 1968, and 1971 (copyright by the American
Dental Association; reprinted by permission).
In the Survey, nonsalaried dentists are defined as those who engage
in private practice as entrepreneurs. The average shown, series
D 916, is the arithmetic mean. The 1929-1951 Survey estimates of
median net income, series D 919, are presented for linkage with the
American Dental Association data for later years. Net income is
gross receipts from dental practice less the total of the payroll, rent,
and other costs of dental practice. Part-year incomes have not been
converted to full-year equivalent incomes.
The estimates of average annual net income are based on a series
of sample mail surveys made by the Department of Commerce.
The 1938 survey of dental incomes is reported in Herman Lasken,
Economic Conditions in the Dental Profession, 1929-37, U.S. Department of Commerce, September 1939; the 1942 and 1949 surveys in
the Survey of Current Business, April 1944 and January 1950, respectively. These reports contain, for selected years, mean and
median net and gross incomes and detailed income distributions by
size of income not only for nonsalaried dentists but also for salaried
and part-salaried dentists. Tabulations by various other characteristics are also shown in the sources.
The 1952-1970 American Dental Association data cover gross
income (total collected fees) minus professional expenses. Reports
received from dentists who worked only part of the year are included
in the survey results. In the source report, the term "independent
dentists" is used for 1970 and is defined to include self-employed
dentists and dentists who are shareowners of incorporated dental
practices. The source states that, for practical purposes, the term
"independent dentists" is equivalent to "nonsalaried dentists" used
in previous dental practice surveys.
D 920.

Median monthly salary rate, engineers, 1929-1970.

Source: 1929-1953, David M. Blank and George J. Stigler, The
Demand and Supply of Scientific Personnel, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1957, pp. 114 and 116 (copyright);
1956-1970, Engineering Manpower Commission of Engineers Joint
Council, Professional Income of Engineers, 1972, New York, 1972,
p. 13 (copyright).
Blank and Stigler's estimates for 1929, 1932, and 1934 were based
on data obtained by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics from a 1935
survey of all professional engineers in the United States who could
be located. The survey placed heavy reliance on membership lists
of engineering societies for its mailing list. Approximately 173,000
questionnaires were mailed and about one-third were returned with
usable data. The estimates for 1939, 1943, and 1946 are for all
engineers, both graduate and nongraduate, who were members of the
six engineering societies of the Engineers Joint Council in May 1946.
The Council obtained income data from a mail questionnaire sent to
87,000 member engineers. Approximately 47,000 questionnaires
were returned. The tabulations made by the Council were based
on returns from engineers who had maintained residence as civilians
in the United States continuously during 1939-1946. The estimate
for 1953 is for graduate engineers only and is the monthly equivalent
of the annual rate given in the source used by Blank and Stigler.
I t is based on data obtained by the Engineers Joint Council from
a sample survey of graduate engineers employed in industry and
government.
Blank and Stigler give not only median monthly salary rates, but
also first and third quartile monthly salary rates. In addition, other
tables, particularly in appendix A, provide average income data for
selected years (in some cases as far back as 1890) for engineers classified by years of experience and engineering specialization.
The data for 1956-1970 relate to salaries paid to graduate engineers
20 years after the baccalaureate degree. The 20-year medians were



D 1030-1036

selected arbitrarily as representative of engineers who had achieved
a high level of experience and who were approaching their peak periods
of professional activity and earning power. The annual medians
shown in the source report were divided by 12 (and rounded to the
nearest $10) to represent the monthly equivalent. These figures
comprise base salary before deductions plus regular allowances including cost-of-living differential, if any, but not unpredictable payments for overtime work, stock options, etc.
The samples used in the biennial surveys conducted by the Engineering Manpower Commission may not be exactly comparable
because of changes in the participating groups. However, according
to the source report, the size of the total sample (1,109 establishments
covering over 230,000 graduate engineers in 1970, or about 32 percent
of all degree-holding engineers) and the consistency with which many
companies and agencies have participated throughout the survey
series suggest that changes in the composition of the survey group
have not materially altered the reported medians.
Salary figures were reported by employers on two questionnaires
designed to obtain information on earnings of all employed engineering
graduates in both supervisory and nonsupervisory positions. All
salary information was reported in relation to the year of baccalureate
degree as a measure of experience. The source report gives the U.S.
annual medians at 2-year intervals up to 10 years after graduation
and at 5-year intervals thereafter, terminating at 30 years after
graduation.
D 921-926.

Military annual pay rates, 1865-1970.

Source: 1865-1955, The President's Commission on Veterans'
Pensions, Veterans' Benefits in the United States, vol. I, Staff Report
No. IV, p. 79, 1956 (House Committee Print No. 261, 84th Congress,
2d session). 1960, U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary (based on the President's 1960 budget estimate); 1964 to 1970,
U.S. Office of Management and Budget, unpublished data.
These rates are as of June 30 and are based on weighted averages.
For enlisted men, basic pay represents only that part of the total
compensation which is paid in cash. For officers, basic pay rates
are supplemented by cash allowances for quarters and subsistence.
Basic pay plus allowances, series D 924-926, includes the value
of quarters, food, and clothing, both in the form of cash allowances
to officers and "in kind" to enlisted men. However, it does not
include the value of medical care; income tax exemptions; recreational
facilities; flight, combat, and other hazardous-duty pays; transportation; Government insurance benefits; etc. The omission of these
latter items results in an understatement of the level of military
compensation; also, to the extent that these subsidiary items have
been introduced in recent years or improved in quality and extent,
the upward trend in military compensation is not fully reflected.
The data are not strictly comparable from year to year due to changes
in coverage of allowances.
D 927-939.

Labor union membership, by affiliation, 1935-1970.

Source: Series D 927-934, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1972, p. 332. Series D 935-939, Leo
Troy, Trade Union Membership, 1897-1962, National Bureau of
Economic Research, New York, 1965, p. 8 (copyright).
See also text for series D 940-951.
The following text is excerpted, with minor editorial changes, from
the Troy study.
The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was formed in
November 1935 by eight unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor (AFL). The new organization maintained its identity
until it merged with the AFL in December 1955 as the American
Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations
(AFL-CIO).
Although there are a variety of ways of defining union membership,
Troy adhered, whenever possible, to the definition that only those
paying dues to a union or for whom dues are paid to a federation
such as the AFL, the CIO, or the AFL-CIO are members. Conse157

D 940-945

LABOR

quently, to the fullest possible extent, he reported union membership
on a dues-paying basis.
This concept of membership has greater precision than some other
concepts, but it is not ideal for all purposes. For example, to a union,
total membership may include persons paying regular dues, whether
in arrears or up to date in their payments; the unemployed, whether
or not they pay any dues; those on strike, honorary members, persons
in the Armed Forces, and retired, sick, disabled, or inactive persons.
All or many of those categories may be regarded and reported by a
union as membership in good standing.
Persons holding withdrawal cards are not counted as members in
Troy's study. Withdrawal cards show that a member was in good
standing when he left the union; therefore he is permitted to apply
for reinstatement rather than required to apply as a new member.
For purposes of collective bargaining, a union may report on the
number it represents. Typically, representation is larger than membership since it includes persons whom the union represents, but who
are not members of the union. However, it also excludes members
not in a represented unit and whom the union does include in its
count of total membership.
Newly organized units may not be charged dues until a collective
bargaining agreement is signed. This may show up as a lag in membership, as Troy measures it, but his count will include the newly
organized once an agreement is signed and dues are collected.
For such vital purposes of determining voting rights at conventions,
unions allot representation on the basis of membership dues received
from locals. Thus, the International Ladies' Garment Workers,
while defining a member as in good standing even though no dues
are paid for 39 weeks, nevertheless changes its definition to a current
dues-paying basis to count members for convention purposes.
For enumeration purposes at conventions, unions rely primarily
on the average membership paying full per capita dues. The Steelworkers Union bases convention representation upon the average of
the paid and exonerated membership of the local union. The United
Automobile Workers allots representation at conventions by the
average number of monthly per capita taxes paid by the local union to
the international union.
For the concept of membership he adopted, Troy wanted to estimate
the number of active members regularly paying either full-time or
part-time dues, plus those who may temporarily not be required to
pay dues because of a strike, unemployment, or other reasons recognized by the union. The method actually used, where dues receipts
were available, was to divide the receipts by full-time dues per capita.
This method can lead to an underestimate of a union's membership
as defined above. Thus, should there be a prolonged strike during
which dues are not collected, the estimate will underreport the membership for the period. Furthermore, union reports of dues receipts
sometimes include amounts obtained at reduced rates from unemployed, retired, or honorary members, and also include dues paid for
only part of a year. But, since the annual total is divided by the
full-time rate, the estimate will be less than the total number of individuals who were members at some time during the year, though it
will exceed the number who paid a full year's dues.
Two general methods of estimating total union membership have
been used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Prior to 1951, the
BLS derived its series by aggregating reports of the AFL and the
CIO, to which were added estimates of independent membership
derived from a number of sources. Membership by individual union
in the BLS series is therefore not available before 1951. Since 1951,
the BLS has compiled an annual series on total membership based
primarily on replies of individual unions to biennial questionnaires.
BLS figures of membership by union became available in 1951 and
thereafter in alternate years beginning in 1954.
Basically, the BLS obtained its data from questionnaires which
requested the correspondent union to report the average annual
dues-paying membership, but it is likely that what was reported was
not dues-paying as defined by Troy. If a union failed to respond,
the BLS filled the gap with estimates taken from other sources. Troy
158




relied primarily on financial reports to obtain dues-paying membership
but, like the BLS, used other sources when the necessary information
was unavailable.
When the two methods of preparing membership figures are compared, the BLS figures are nearly always larger. I t appears that the
BLS often obtained membership figures that were rounded upward
or inflated for prestige or strategic reasons, or that included members
exempted from all or part of their dues because of unemployment,
retirement, strikes, or other reasons. Representation figures, which
include workers who are not members but are represented in collective
bargaining by the union, also appear to be reported to the BLS, and
these, too, usually exceed actual membership.
Differences in coverage account for only minor discrepancies between the BLS and NBBR series. With the exception of one organization added to the BLS list of national unions in 1960, the
Truck Drivers, Chauffeurs and Helpers Union of Chicago and Vicinity
(membership for 1960 reported by the BLS as 9,770), both series
include the same national and international unions. The new addition came too late for inclusion in the N B E R series. On the other
hand, Troy's totals include estimates for about fifty local and regional
independent unions with a membership of about 140,000, and about
half of these are not included in the BLS series.
Organizations excluded by the BLS are those which do not meet its
definition of a national union. From time to time, a union qualifies
or fails to qualify, and as a result is added to or dropped from the
BLS directory. For example, the Industrial Trades Union was
reported by the BLS as a national union in its directory covering the
year 1951 and then dropped from subsequent directories, although
the union continued to function. After 1951, it apparently lost contracts with employers outside the State of Rhode Island (where the
union is largely concentrated), and did not meet the BLS definition
of a national union.
In contrast, once Troy obtained information on a union and had
some indication that it continued to function, it was retained in his
series. Thus the Industrial Trades Union is included in the N B E R
series after 1951.
D 940-941.

Total union membership, 1897-1934.

Source: See source for series D 942-945.
Series D 940 is the sum of series D 943 and D 945; series D 941
is the sum of series D 944 and D 945.
D 942-945. Unions and membership of American Federation of Labor,
and membership in independent or unaffiliated unions, 1897-1934.
Source: Proceedings, 65th Convention of the American Federation
of Labor (AFL), 1946, p. 43; Lewis L. Lorwin, The American Federar
tion of Labor, Brookings Institution, Washington, 1933, p. 488 (copyright); Proceedings of the AFL. Conventions of 1897, 1898, and
1933-34; and Leo Wolman, Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1936 (copyright).
D 943 represents "total paid membership of the affiliated national
and international organizations and directly chartered trade and
federal labor unions" based on "the actual per capita t a x " remitted
by affiliated unions. Such per capita tax payments can and frequently do cover either fewer or more members than the affiliated
union reports in its own statements.
Total membership in series D 944 differs from that in series D 943
because series D 944 uses the direct reports of affiliated unions where
available in preference to the membership indicated by per capita
tax payments.
D 945, membership of independent and unaffiliated unions, covers
national and international unions not affiliated with the AFL. I t
excludes independent unions that are purely local in character or
whose jurisdiction is confined to the employees of a single employer.
In most years about half the workers covered by this series were
members of the four brotherhoods of workers in the railroad train and

EARNINGS, HOURS, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
engine service. This series is from Wolman, cited above, pp. 138-139,
adjusted in 1929-1934 to include the membership of the Trade Union
Unity League. For 1932 and 1934, the membership of the Trade
Union Unity League has been interpolated from figures for adjacent years.
For Wolman's estimates of union membership by industry, see
series D 952-969. Annual estimates of the membership of individual
national and international unions for 1897-1934 may be found in
Wolman's book cited above and in his The Growth of American Trade
Unions, 1880-1923, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1924.
D 946-951. Labor union membership and membership as percent
of total labor force and of nonagricultural employment, 1930-1970.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Handbook of Labor
Statistics, 1972, p. 333.
See also text for series D 940-945.
D 946, total union membership, is a continuation of series D 940.
For 1935-1947, the membership of A F L - C I O unions is based on per
capita taxes; the membership of independent unions was estimated
by BLS from fragmentary data. For 1948,1949, and 1950, the figure
shown is the midpoint of an estimated range of 14 million to 16 million.
For 1951 and 1952, the figure shown is the midpoint of an estimated
range of 16.5 million to 17 million. These ranges are based on membership data from surveys of national and international unions made
by BLS. The level of the series may be more accurate during 19481952 than during 1939-1947. Prior to 1947, the series seems to
include substantially inflated membership claims of some unions.
The year-to-year movement of this series from 1947-1953 and, in
particular, the drop in membership from 1947-1948 should not be
considered as reliable.
Beginning 1953, estimates are based on biennial surveys of national
and international unions. (See BLS Directory of National and
International Labor Unions in the United States, for odd-numbered
years from 1953 to 1971.) The figures also include the members of
directly chartered local labor unions affiliated with the A F L - C I O
and members of unaffiliated national unions. The Directory also
gives membership by sex, white-collar occupations, industry, and
State, and discusses aspects of union administration and activities.
The 1971 BLS Directory of National Unions and Employee Associations included, with its union membership count, members of professional and State employee associations engaging in collective bargaining. Combined union and association membership for 1970 yields
(for series D 946) 22,558,000, (D 947) 1,371,000, (D 948) 21,243,
000, (D 949) 24.7 percent, (D 950) 70,644,000, and (D 951) 30.1
percent.
D 947, Canadian membership of U.S. unions, is from the Department of Labour of Canada, except for even-numbered years beginning
in 1954 which are from the BLS directories as cited.
D 948-949, union membership, excluding Canada, is obtained by
subtracting series D 947 from D 946. The year-to-year movement
for 1947-1953 is unreliable for the reasons given above for series
D 946. A better estimate might be obtained for these years by
holding the percentage in series D 951 constant at 34.0 and by applying this figure to series D 950.
D 950, nonagricultural employment. See series D 127-141.
D 951, union membership (excluding Canada) as a percent of
employees in nonagricultural establishments is computed from series
D 948 and D 950. Wolman (see series D 940-945) has also estimated for three decennial census years the number of trade union
members, exclusive of Canada, as a percentage of the total number
of nonagricultural employees. These percentages are 9.9 in 1910,
19.4 in 1920, and 10.2 in 1930. The percentage shown for 1930 in
series D 951 is larger than the corresponding percentage given by
Wolman because his estimated union membership figure, exclusive
of Canada (3,190,000), is smaller than t h a t shown in series D 948, and
also because his nonagricultural employment estimate (30,247,000),
based on census data, is larger than the number of employees in nonagricultural establishments shown in series D 950. Wolman's figure




D 1030-1036

excludes many salaried professional and managerial workers included
in series D 950, and includes domestic servants, who are excluded
from series D 950.
D 952-969.

Labor union membership, by industry, 1897-1934.

Source: Leo Wolman, Ebb and Flow in Trade Unionism, National
Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1936, pp. 172-193 (copyright).
These figures were obtained by classifying national and international unions into industrial categories and totaling the membership
of the unions in each category in each year.
In the latter part of the period, series D 969, "Miscellaneous,"
consists largely of two unions, the Firemen and Oilers and the Operating Engineers. The Industrial Workers of the World is included
from 1905-1914, and is the largest union in the series for some years.
The Horseshoers are important in the early years, declining rapidly in
the 1920's. Unions affiliated with the Trade Union Unity League in
1929-1934 are excluded.
Some errors of classification arise when a union has membership
in more than one category. For example, the Meat Cutters and
Butcher Workmen, classified in food, liquor, and tobacco had many
members in retail me