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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S /
M I S C E L L A N E O U S

. . .
S E R I E S

HEALTH AND RECREATION ACTIVITIES
IN INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 1926




FEBRUARY 1928

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1928

Acknowledgment
This bulletin was prepared by Anice L. Whitney, of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics,
ii




Contents
Page
Introduction_______________________________________________________________
1
2-13
C hapter I.— Medical and hospital service for employees_________________
Plant hospitals and medical service___________________________________
3, 4
Special medical services_______________________________________________
5, 6
First-aid equipment and training_____________________________________
6, 7
7 -9
Scope of the work of the medical departments_______________________
Dental and other special treatment__________________________ ________ 9, 10
Visiting-nurse service______________________________________ __________
10
Treatment of tuberculosis_______________________ _____________________ 10, 11
Entrance and periodic physical examinations________________________ 11, 12
Follow-up work as a result of physical examinations_________________ 12, 13
C hapter II.— Sick leave with pay________________________________________ 14, 15
C hapter III.— Vacations with pay_______________________________________ 16-20
Length of service required____________________________________________ 16-18
Season of vacation____________________________________________________
18
Eligibility for vacations_______________________________________________
18
Rate of pay and cost of vacations____________________________________
18
Vacation information_________________________________________________
19
Results of giving paid vacations---------------------------------------------------------- 19, 20
C hapter IV.— Lunch rooms______________________________________________ 21-30
Establishments having general restaurant service__________________ _ 22-24
Kinds of service______________________________________________________ 24-26
Character of management____________________________________________
26
Prices charged for meals______________________________________________
26
Menus________________________________________________________________
27
Methods of payment_________________________________________________
27
Establishments serving free meals____________________________________
28
Financial results of operating restaurants____________________________ 28, 29
Restaurant equipment________________________________________________ 29, 30
C hapter V.— Indoor recreation------------------------------------------------------------------ 31-43
Rest and recreation rooms____________________________________________ 31-33
Clubhouses___________________________________________________________ 33-36
Management, dues, and membership-------------------------------------------------- 36, 37
Bowling alleys or game rooms________________________________________
37
Swimming pools__________________________________ _________________ 37,38
Gymnasiums__________________________________ _______________________ 38, 39
Social gatherings---------------- ----------------------------- ------------------------------------39, 40
Lectures, moving pictures, etc------------------------------------------------------------41
Musical organizations_________________________________________________41, 42
Miscellaneous clubs___________________________________________________42, 43
Financing clubs and social affairs_____________________________________
43
C hapter VI.— Outdoor recreation________________________________________ 44-58
Extent of outdoor recreation activities_______________________________
45
Baseball______________________________________________________________ 46, 47
Football and soccer___________________________________________________
47
Outdoor basket ball__________________________________________________
47
Rifle teams____________________________________________________________
48
Quoits or horseshoes__________________________________________________
48
Tennis and golf_______________________________________________________ 48, 49
Other sports__________________________________________________________ 49, 50
Employees’ athletic clubs or associations and athletic fields__________50, 51
Annual picnics and other outings_____________________________________51, 52
Country clubs or summer camps_____________________________________ 52-55
Community recreation________________________________________________55-58
C hapter VII.— Disability funds__________________________________________ 59-65
Membership and management of associations________________________ 61, 62
Length of membership required before becoming eligible for benefits.
63
Time between beginning of disability and payment of benefits______ 63, 64
Forfeiture of membership_____________________________________________
64
Number and amount of benefits paid------------------------------------- ---------- 64, 65




hi

IV

CONTENTS
Page

C hapter V III.— Group insurance_________________________________________ 66-75
State regulation of group insurance__________________________________
67
Reasons for inaugurating group insurance____________________________
68
General provisions governing group insurance________________________68-70
Types of insurance plans_____________________________________________ 70-75
Sickness and accident provisions_________________________________72, 73
Insurance plan of a large hardware-manufacturing company____ 73, 74
Life, sickness, and accident indemnity plan of a public utility
company. ______________________________________ ._______________
74
Plan for endowment savings and life insurance combined_______ 74, 75
C hapter I X .— Education_________________________________________________ 76-79
Company libraries________________________________________________ ___ 76,77
Classes for employees_________________________________________________ 77, 78
Technical and vocational education__________________________________ 78, 79
C hapter X .— Encouragement of thrift___________________________________ 80-84
Types of savings and loan funds_____________________________________ 80-82
Building and loan associations________________________________________
82
Legal aid and advice as to investments and expenditures____________
83
Cooperative buying and discounts____________________________________ 83, 84
Other plans for encouraging thrift------------------------------------------------------84
C hapter X I.— Administration of personnel work_________________________ 85-87
Cost of personnel work to employers_________________________________ 85, 86
Effect of personnel work______________________________________________86, 87
Chapter X II.— Welfare work in company towns______________ __________ 88-94
Medical and other health services____________________________________ 90, 91
Education and clubs__________________________________________________91, 92
Community centers___________________________________________________93, 94
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Facing page

Fig.
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Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.

1.— Dressing and treatment room-------- ----------------------------------------------2.— Operating and dressing room_____________________________________
3.— Emergency hospital treatment room_____________________________
4.— X-ray room______________________________________________________
5.— Floor plan of hospital-------------------------------------------------------------------6.— Company cafeteria, seating about 500-----------------------------------------7.— Kitchen, showing labor-saving equipment-----------------------------------8.— Recreation rooms in a plant manufacturing paper products_____
9.— Girls' rest room in a sugar refinery----------------------------------------------10.— Reading and writing room in a clubhouse for workers in a copper
mill___________________________________________________________
11.— Smoking and recreation room for men in a mail-order house___
12.— Clubhouse for electric storage battery workers--------------------------13.— Bowling alleys at a textile mill__________________________________
14.— Pool tables in men’s recreation room___________________________
15.— Auditorium for employees of a machine manufacturing com­
pany----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16.— Girls’ summer camp____________________________________________
17.— House tents at girls’ summer camp_____________________________
18.— Clubhouse and swimming pool of a textile company____________
19.— Baseball field of a southern cotton mill_________________________
20.— Country club for woman employees of an electric power com­
pany__________________________________________________________
21.— Girls’ club field day_____________________________________________
22.— Roof garden for employees of a large department store------------23.— Headquarters of employees’ boat club__________________________
24.— One of the hotels at a summer resort maintained for the employ­
ees of three public utilities____________________________________
25.— Community house and tennis courts maintained by a sugarrefining company and its employees__________________________
26.— Playgrounds and tennis courts in a mining community_________
27.— Mining community playground-________________________________




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5
6
7
8
24
25
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
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45
46
47
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49
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57

BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
no.

458

WASHINGTON

HEALTH AND RECREATION ACTIVITIES
ESTABLISHMENTS, 1926

Fe b r u a r y , m s

IN

INDUSTRIAL

INTRODUCTION
STUDY dealing with the welfare activities in industrial estab­
lishments was made by the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics in 1916-17 (Bui. No. 250). The field work of a
similar survey, which forms the subject of this bulletin, was finished
in 1926, and an opportunity is thus afforded to observe the lines
along which this work has developed during the past 10 years. The
present study was undertaken at the request of the National Con­
ference on Outdoor Recreation, which desired data on the extent of
the opportunities offered employees for outdoor recreation by the
industries, and was extended to cover personnel work dealing with
health, educational and other cultural activities, and insurance
against disability and death. It is evident that a study of this nature
must be more or less superficial, since if the various subjects were
treated exhaustively it would be extended beyond reasonable limits.
It has been possible, therefore, to present only a running account of
the kind of work carried on by the different firms visited, together
with some indication of those features which have been most popular
and successful.
In the earlier study 431 establishments were found to be doing
enough along personnel lines to warrant taking a schedule. In the
present study information was secured from 430 establishments with
approximately 1,977,000 employees, these establishments represent­
ing many types of manufacturing industries, and transportation and
commercial enterprises in different parts of the country. Many of
the firms visited in the first study were also included in the second
one, and it is therefore possible to make some comparison of present
and earlier conditions. The companies furnishing the information
were in the main large ones, only a very small number having fewer
than 300 employees, while many of them employed thousands of
workers. In some cases a large number of plants of a company or
corporation have been counted as one, since the information in these
cases has been given by the company for the plants as a whole without
regard to their location or their distance from each other, or the
varying conditions they have to meet. In comparing the two studies
it seems that the greatest advancement is shown in the kind and
quality of the medical care provided, in the extension of the vacation
movement, and in the phenomenal growth of group insurance.

A




1

CHAPTER I.—MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE FOR
EMPLOYEES
HE present study indicates that there has been a definite
development in industrial medical work, the provision of
adequate hospital facilities being much more general now
than 10 years ago when the previous study was made. Work­
men’s compensation laws have undoubtedly been an important factor
in the development of industrial hospital service, since in a hazardous
industry it is necessary to provide immediate and efficient care if the
results of accidents are to be minimized. On the other hand, the
benefits of this care have been so obvious that in many instances it
has been carried far beyond the immediate needs of the industry,
and the work has been extended*to the supervision of the general
health of the workmen. In nonhazardous industries this has been
especially true. Undernourished employees are given special atten­
tion; dangers of approaching old age are guarded against; the periodic
examination is either required or employees are urged to report for it;
and chronic conditions are treated or employees are referred to the
proper specialists or hospitals for the needed care.
The results of special research have also benefited those employed
in industry, although sometimes not until a new process or substance
has taken its toll of the lives or health of the workmen. The use of
poisonous substances in industry is widespread. The dangers of
many of these are known and guarded against but the introduction of
new substances very often involves serious consequences to the work­
men which are not foreseen by the industry or which have not been
sufficiently investigated before the new process is installed or the
new product developed. Recent examples of such processes, the
introduction of which has been attended by loss of life and great
suffering on the part of the injured employees, are the manufacture
of tetraethyl lead gasoline, the use of radioactive paints in the paint­
ing of watch and clock dials, and the use of phosphorus in the manu­
facture of fireworks. Numerous cases of benzol poisoning occurred
following the greatly increased use of benzol after the war before its
effects were thoroughly investigated, and although the dangers of
lead poisoning are well known and its early recognition is now possible,
many cases of lead poisoning which might be prevented still occur.
Nor do these things occur only in the small plants which are unable to
afford an adequate medical service; even organizations with ample
resources have failed to take the necessary measures to prevent such
occurrences.
The World War taught much in regard to the care of wounds, the
knowledge then gained being now utilized in industry, while the last
decade has seen developments in the field of public health which have
been reflected in the care which is being taken of the health of the
workers. Health has been and is being popularized in this country.
The tuberculosis and cancer campaigns have had an educational
effect and there has been something of a movement on the part of

T

2



PLANT HOSPITALS AND MEDICAL SERVICE

3

medical organizations to teach the public the value of prevention— a
movement in which the industrial physician has had a share. The
trade-union organizations, too, are beginning to realize that they can
do something to improve the physical condition of their members, as
witnessed by the accomplishments of the Union Health Center and
of the more recently organized Workers’ Health Bureau in New
York. Altogether, as has been said, the past 10 years have seen a
decided extension in the medical service maintained for industrial
workers.
There can be no question that industrial medical service offers an
opportunity for really constructive work. If the service rendered is
that of mere “ finger-wrapping” its usefulness is strictly limited, but
if the opportunity is utilized to study conditions which develop among
large groups of people closely associated in their daily work or to
learn what are the effects of potentially harmful substances, many of
which have not yet been fully investigated, the service not only will
result in a distinct contribution to the well-being of a particular
group but also may add to the sum total of scientific knowledge.
Whether the possibilities of the service are realized, however, depends
both upon the qualifications of the physicians in charge and upon the
degree of encouragement given by the employer.

Plant Hospitals and Medical Service
TpIRST-AID or emergency hospitals are found in all types of indus1
tries, as it is quite generally recognized that wherever any con­
siderable number of persons are employed the hospitals are necessary
to the satisfactory operation of the business. While the necessity for
caring for the health of employees is just as urgent in smaller establish­
ments, there is frequently either complete lack of first-aid provisions or
the care given is of a very superficial character. This is necessarily so,
as far as the individual plant is concerned, because the costs of really
satisfactory medical service are prohibitive for small concerns. The
provision of adequate medical service in such establishments presents,
therefore, a real problem, about the only solution of which seems to be
the organization of a medical service by a group of industries whose
plants are near enough together to make feasible the sharing of the
services of an industrial physician or the provision of a central
hospital.
More than 1,900,000 workers were employed by the 407 companies
listed as providing medical service, and the progress which has been
made during the past 10 years in the quality of the service rendered
is shown by the fact that of the 375 plants which were reported in
the 1916 study as having some sort of provision for treatment of
their employees, 110 had first-aid equipment only, consisting of firstaid cabinets and sometimes cots, stretchers, and pulmotors, while in
the present study 373 had one or more treatment rooms and only
34 the limited first-aid equipment.
Table 1 shows the number of establishments reporting the various
medical facilities and the number and class of medical attendants, by
industries.
Table 2 shows by industries the number of accidents and medical
cases reported by the 98 companies which had records on this point.




4
T

CHAPTER I.— MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE
able

1.— Number of establishments having emergency hospitals or first-aid
equipment and number and class of medical attendants, by industries
Employees

Industry

N um ­
ber of
estabments

M ale

N um ber of establishments
reporting—

Female

H os­
A t­
Firsttend­
pital
aid
or
Doc­
ants
equip­
emer­
tor Nurse trained
ment
in first
gency
only
rooms
aid

Total

19
5
7
16
18

239,006
14,959
9,245
8,367
61,578

8,933
10,081
4,660
19,100
18,259

247,939
25,040
13,905
27,467
79,837

13
12
49
11
7
16
18
6
10
5

38,774
11,826
112,116
i 277,905
i 26,183
23,219
16,513
8,593
8,605
4,854

14,418
8,711
13,091
1 15,479
i 102
60
23,350
152
3,264
3,781

53,192
20,537
125,207
302,384
126,285
23,279
39,863
8,745
11,869
8,635

17
13

88,423
i 113,387

33,658
16,360

122,081
352,145

U
51
43
60

51,733
46,602
39,214
1 100,028

13,685
84,685
34,921
129,309

65,418
136,850
74,135
143,075

31,301,130 *346,059

11,907,888

Automobiles..................................
Boots and shoes..........................
Chemicals and allied products
Clothing and furnishings.........
Electrical supplies.......................
Fine machines and instru­
ments
______
Food products..............................
Foundries and machine shops
Iron and steel
____________
M ining, coal..................................
M ining, other................................
Offices..............................................
Ore reduction and smeltingPaper and paper goods..............
Printing and publishing...........
Public utilities (gas, electric
light and power, and tele­
phones and telegraph)...........
Railroads, steam and electric—
Rubber
and
composition
goods________________________
Stores..............................................
Textiles............................................
Other industries...........................
T o ta l....................................

407

2

2

19
5
5
8
17

16
4
5
7
15

18
5
5
7
16

13
11
49
11
5
15
16
6
8
5

12
8
44
11
7
14
15
4
8
1

13
8
40
9
2
14
16
4
8
4

2
13
4
9
4
2
1
2

14
13

15
12

11
10

3
2

1
3
8

11
50
40
52

8
39
33
33

11
49
38
44

2
6
10

34

373

311

332

75

2
8
1
1
2
1
2
2

3

7
2
6
3

1 N ot including employees of 1 establishment not reported.
2 Not including employees of 3 establishments not reported.
8 N ot including employees of 7 establishments not reported.

T

able

2.— Number of companies reporting cases treated and average number of
accident and medical cases and retreatments per month, by industries
Average number of cases treated per month

Industry

Automobiles...........................................
Clothing and furnishings...................
Electrical supplies...............................
Fine machines and instrum ents...
Food products.......................................
Foundries and machine shops____
Gold and silver ware..........................
Iron and steel.........................................
Oil refining...........................................
Offices.......................................................
Ore reduction and sm elting............
Paper and paper goods.......................
Prmting and publishing....................
Public utilities (gas, electric light
and power, telephones and tele­
graph)...................................................
Railroads, electric_________________
Rubber and composition goods—
Slaughtering and meat packing___
Stores........................................................
Textiles....................................................
Other industries....................................
Total.................................................

N um ­
Num ­
ber of
ber of
estab­
em­
lish­
ployees
ments

Accident

N ew

Total,
includ­
ing retreat­
ments

N ew

Total,
includ­
ing retreat­
ments

Total accident
and medical

New

Total,
includ­
ing retreat­
ments

12
2
7
5
3
117
2
23
1
2
1
5
2

190,989
4,860
39,516
15,826
10,554
38,638
3,605
18,200
13,738
10,593
2,600
5,412
5,511

70,999
480
6,498
2,721
2,836
6,995
503
1,926
1,139
1,004
702
579
425

162,884
607
18,890
8,288
3,903
16,465
1,239
10,648
4,671
2,596
1,979
1,365
1,211

43,814
1,027
8,593
3,129
3,091
8,157
514
204
1,637
2,162
185
1,508
2,404

44,823
1,244
9,332
3,759
3,210
16,437
514
711
3,814
4,152
185
2,058
3,404

114,813
1,507
15,091
5,850
5,927
15,152
1,017
2,130
2,776
3,166
887
2,087
2,829

207,707
1,851
28,222
12,047
7,113
32,902
1,753
11,359
8,485
6,748
2,164
3,423
4,615

3
1
6
1
4
12
9

51,918
12,000
33,489
7,700
14,850
32,255
16,254

7,440
300
7,879
500
943
3,062
3,635

15,868
1,035
16,037
2,000
1,240
10,884
8,634

12,966
260
8,443
400
3,370
6,343
4,936

14,312
495
13,421
1,000
4,854
7,958
8,431

20,406
560
16,322
900
4,313
9,405
8,571

30,180
1,530
29,458
3,000
6,094
18,842
17,065

290,444 113,143

144,114

233,709

434,558

3

98

528,508 120,566

* Including 1 establishment in which no medical cases are treated.
2 Including 2 establishments in which no medical cases are treated.
3 Including 3 establishments in which no medical cases are treated,




Medical




FIG. 1.—DRESSING AND T R E A T M E N T ROOM




FIG . 2 —OPERATING AND DRESSING ROOM

MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE

5

Special Medical Services
TN THE mining operations in different sections of the country the
A medical work is in the main carried on through company hospitals,
because of the hazardous nature of mine work and because the mines
are usually isolated and general hospital facilities are not available.
For the latter reason, the families of the mine employees are also
usually cared for, though in most cases a fee is charged for major and
sometimes for minor operations. In all the mining companies visited
where such services are maintained, a medical fee, varying from $1
to $2.50 per month in the different mines, is deducted from the pay
of the men. The fee may be from 25 to 75 cents less in the case of
single men but in no case was it less than $1. A few other instances
were found of fixed deductions from the pay of employees for medical
service— by iron and steel companies in the South, in many of the
textile mills, by two steamship companies, and by one streetrailway company. In some cases the medical work is in the charge
of the mutual benefit association and the members’ dues cover this
work.
In nearly all cases where a fee is deducted from the pay, the service
rendered the employees includes care, both at the hospital and in the
homes, not only of industrial accidents but also of sickness and non­
industrial accidents. In many cases, ordinary medical service and
medicine are provided for members of the employee's family and
in some instances no charge other than the monthly deductions is
made, even for major operations. If fees for operations are charged
they are usually much below the usual rates. In some cases the
medical fee is not deducted from the pay unless the employee author­
izes the company to do so; but more frequently the employee has
no choice in the matter, the amount being taken out of his pay enve­
lope from the time of his employment.
One mining company employs visiting nurses in its various prop­
erties who care for the sick under the instruction of the physicians
and instruct the members of the family in the care of their sick and
in matters of hygiene and of sanitary living. The company considers
this service, which has been maintained since 1909, to be of great
importance. These nurses also give prenatal care and are of great
assistance in helping young mothers in the care of their babies and
young children. A rest cottage is maintained by the company for
two or three months each summer for employees’ wives who are con­
valescing from sickness or who are in need of rest from overwork.
The cottage is in charge of a housekeeper and an assistant and is
under the supervision of the visiting nurses. The women remain
from one to three weeks, or more if their condition requires longer
rest; and the physicians report greatly improved conditions of health
in many cases as a result of the rest and care the women receive.
The medical division of a large company in the South with many
properties operates a base hospital which is one of the best equipped
in the country. This hospital has a capacity of 310 patients and a
staff of 19 physicians. No distinction as to the quality of the service
rendered is made between colored and white employees and the
hospital care is furnished at an extremely low rate. A force of 46
doctors employed in the 17 dispensaries at the various works and
villages has supervision of the sanitation of these towns and looks




6

CHAPTER I.— MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE

after the general health of the employees and their families. For
this service a monthly charge of $1.25 per employee is made.
The scope of the health work carried on by a number of companies
is very extensive. One large manufacturing concern whose plants
are located in two adjoining towns provides complete medical service
for all workers and the dependent members of their families without
charge. As the number of employees is approximately 17,000, it is
estimated this service is available to at least 50,000 people. There
are three main medical centers and one dispensary, besides an isola­
tion hospital and a rest home for convalescent women. Ambulance
service is available day and night. On the staff are 29 doctors, 60
nurses, and about 60 other attendants, clerical workers, ambulance
drivers, and others. The medical staff includes, in addition to the
general physicians, 3 surgeons, 4 dentists, 1 oculist, 2 ear, nose, and
throat specialists, and 1 pediatrist. There is one central X-ray out­
fit and each center has its own laboratory. A trained masseur gives
treatments for stiff joints and fractures and in cases of paralysis.
The medical centers are equipped for minor surgical work only, major
surgical cases being taken care of in the local hospital by the com­
pany surgeons and at the company’s expense. Each medical cen­
ter is equipped, however, to take care of maternity cases, all supplies
for the mother and baby being furnished by the company. The con­
valescent home in the country, under the supervision of a trained
nurse, accommodates 18 female patients, who are allowed to stay
there as long as necessary when convalescing from illness or in need
of a rest. Cases which require special treatment not available there
are taken to the large cities in the care of trained nurses and all
expenses are paid by the company. During 1925 there were more
than 122,000 office calls and 73,000 house calls in addition to a large
amount of special work. The total cost of the medical service for
the year was nearly $708,000.
An example of outstanding health work which is confined to the
employees of the company is that of an organization having a large
force of clerical employees. The medical service provided includes,
in addition to medical and surgical treatment, an eye clinic, dental
treatment, and the services of a psychiatrist. The dental work is
confined to examination, prophylaxis, and the taking of X rays, but
all employees are required to report twice a year for examination.
In addition to entrance examinations for all employees, including
mental tests for applicants who are not college graduates, all employ­
ees are given a physical examination each year, these examinations
being called for by the medical division as the employees’ anniver­
saries are reached. The company also maintains an excellent sana­
torium in which tubercular and other cases are treated.

First-Aid Equipment and Training
Q W IN G to the hazardous nature of the work, first-aid stations and
^
rescue rooms are maintained in most mines and first-aid kits are
usually placed throughout the mine workings.
A coal company employing about 16,000 men has mine hospitals
so placed that one can be reached in 10 or 15 minutes from any point
in the workings in the different mines. These underground hospitals
are of either cement or brick construction and are painted gray.







FIG. 3.—EM ERGENCY H O S P ITA L T R E A T M E N T ROOM




FIG. 4.—X-RAY ROOM

SCOPE OF WORK OF MEDICAL DEPARTMENTS

7

Each hospital is equipped with bandages of different widths, first-aid
packets, cotton, gauze, tourniquets, a limited number of drugs, rubber
and woolen blankets kept in a cabinet or chest, towels kept in a box
to be free from dust, and splints for different kinds of fractures. In
each hospital room two stretchers folded and hung on the wall are
kept and there is a table, two chairs, and miscellaneous articles such
as a drinking glass, spoons, washbasins, etc. These rooms are
inspected regularly to see that full supplies are on hand and that
they are in good condition.
Systematic training in first aid is carried on in practically all of the
mining operations scheduled. The first-aid teams are usually made
up of four men each. It is the policy of most companies to add new
men to the team each year or at regular intervals, so that a large
proportion of the employees have this training. A few companies,
however, train as nearly as possible the same men each year, as they
believe they get more efficient work from the old men and also that
it is not fair to a man who has done good work to replace him with a
new man. The first-aid course usually consists of 12 lessons and the
men are paid for the time spent in classes. A smaller number of
men are trained in the use of the mine-rescue apparatus. One com­
pany reports that in case of accident the patient is cared for in the
majority of cases before the doctor arrives and that the chief surgeon
says that in almost every case the work has been done as well as he
could do it himself.
First-aid contests are usually held in the summer and are made the
occasion for a general picnic and good time for the employees and
their families. In the competitive meet held by the mines of one
company not only the workmen but the women and children as well
take part, as, through the efforts of the employees, first aid is taught
in the schools adjacent to the camps. The prizes given by one com­
pany to the teams winning the different contests amount to about
$1,000 annually.

Scope of the Work of the Medical Departments
'T 'H E emergency hospital equipment is often very elaborate, inA eluding the latest appliances of all kinds, operating rooms
equipped for both major and minor operations, various special treat­
ment rooms, physical examination rooms with cubicles to be used
as dressing rooms, X-ray rooms, etc. Ninety-four of the establish­
ments employ surgeons or physicians who are qualified to do all the
necessary surgical work, so that accidents, however serious, may be
cared for without loss of time, this being an important factor in
surgical cases. Most of the physicians lay great stress upon the
prompt reporting of even slight injuries, in order that the risk of
infection may be kept at a minimum. Most companies with ade­
quate medical departments have no people trained in first aid in the
plants, and frequently severe penalties are imposed for any attempt
to remove foreign particles from the eyes of fellow workmen or to
bind up cuts or scratches. This policy of prompt and efficient care
has resulted, in many instances, in a very marked reduction in the
number of serious infections.
Although with many companies the care of accidents is the primary
cause for the maintenance of emergency hospitals, many give med­



8

CHAPTER I.— MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE

ical attention also, while in the nonhazardous industries a good deal
of constructive work along medical lines has been done. About
300 of the companies visited give free medical service to the employ­
ees, ranging from care of acute cases to general health supervision.
Of the 373 establishments which have emergency hospital equipment
of varying degrees of completeness, 311 employ either full-time or
part-time doctors, 30 have doctors on call, and the remainder do
not employ any physician but employ trained nurses to give first-aid
treatments. Fifty-five establishments employ 1 full-time doctor,
while 118 have the services of a physician for part of each day or for
certain days in the week; 63 employ 2 doctors for all or part of the
time; 21 employ 3; 49 employ from 4 to 12; and 5 employ more than
12. In most cases where more than 7 or 8 physicians are employed
either a number of plants of the same company are included in the
work of the physicians or the plant is located in a company town and
the medical work includes the families of the employees. Trained
nurses are employed by 332 of the companies, and of this number
149 have 1 trained nurse each, 82 have 2 nurses, 29 have 3 nurses,
57 have from 4 to 7, while 15 have 8 or more. These figures include
those companies which have a company hospital which takes care
of the general medical work for the employees and their families as
well as the accidents.
The number both of physicians and of nurses employed may be
contrasted with the extent of this service in 1916-17 when, of the
375 establishments which reported having some sort of medical ser­
vice, only 171 employed doctors and 181 had trained nurses.
In a few instances the emergency hospital work is carried on in
connection with the mutual benefit association, the employer giving
the space and the equipment and usually making a contribution to
the association funds. In the majority of cases, however, the employer
pays for and controls the hospital work, and the medical work for the
benefit association is incidental to the regular work of the hospital.
Following is a list of the equipment and supplies for an emergency
hospital serving about 2,100 employees. It is probably about what
would be needed in an average sized dispensary in a nonhazardous
industry.
1 transformer.
1 set ear specula.
1 laryngoscope.
1 sinus light.
1 nasal speculum.
1 alveolar light.
1 conjunctival light.
Examining table.
Head mirror.
Tongue depressors (wood).
Stethescope.
12 clinical thermometers.
Air tank.
5 Devilbiss atomizers.
1 special container.
1 drainage funnel.
3 (kidney) dressing basins.
3 square trays.
1 ict collar .
1 ice bag.
1 test tube rack.




6 test tubes.
Nitric acid C. P., 8 ounces.
1 Whitney’s reagent set.
1 urinometer.
1 conical glass.
1 tube blue litmus paper.
1 alcohol lamp.
3 nipple pipettes.
1 box glass slides.
3 beakers (Pyrex), 2, 4, and 8 ounce.
Magnifying glass, 3-inch.
2 pairs bandage scissors.
2 pairs 5-inch straight scissors.
2 pairs manicure scissors (straight).
6 probes, German silver, ball, pointed.
1 box (100) wooden applicators.
1 metal applicator.
2 pounds absorbent cotton.
1 roll (5 yards) gauze.
1 Meyerhoffer curette.
2 Rard-Parker handles.

76340°— 28




FIG. 5.—FLOOR PLAN OF H O S PITA L




DENTAL AND OTHER SPECIAL TREATMENT
2 dozen blades (four sizes).
2 Graafe knives.
Forceps:
2 fixation (without catch).
2 dental (foil carrying).
2 pointed.
1 angular.
2 Halsted.
1 steel tape.
2 white enameled stools.
1 scales (with height measure).
2 basins, round.
1 pitcher, 1-quart.
1 Luer syringe, 1 cubic centimeter.
1 Gottheil syringe, 2 cubic centimeters.
100 skin clips.
1 applicator and extractor combined.
1 needle forceps.

9

12 needles, assorted.
2 envelopes, each of—
Catgut 00 and 0.
Horsehair.
Silk-worm gut.
Glass jars:
2 round.
1 oblong, for 5-yard roll gauze.
1 sterilizer.
1 stomach tube.
2 hot-water bags.
1 dozen strips basswood.
1 roll adhesive strap, 5-inch.
Gauze bandages:
12, 1-inch.
6, 23^-inch.
4 nail brushes.

Dental and Other Special Treatment
recognition, within recent years, of the importance of care of
cue teeth in the maintenance of good health has been reflected
in the extension of dental service among industrial firms. At the
time of the previous study only 19 of the firms scheduled employed
full-time or part-time dentists, while at the present time 83 of the
companies visited furnish such service to the employees. A similar
improvement has taken place as regards provisions for the examina­
tion and treatment of the eyes, 32 companies reporting that a full­
time or part-time oculist is employed, as compared with 5 companies
furnishing such service 10 years ago.
Full dental service, including all kinds of fillings, extractions, bridge
work, X rays, etc., is furnished in some instances, while in others the
work covers only examination and prophylactic treatment, the em­
ployee being referred to his own dentist for further care. The work
is done in all cases on company time but in many instances a moderate
charge is made, usually covering only the cost of the materials. In
the dental dispensary of one very large company, in which all classes
of dental work for both employees and their families is done, an aver­
age of 3,260 patients a month is treated. Another company, which
provides for examination and cleaning of the teeth and emergency
fillings for the employees, treats about 1,300 patients a month,
including those who require X rays.
A company operating various mines, blast furnaces, and steel mills
operates eight dental clinics, in different locations, at which all classes
of work are taken. The dental service is extremely popular and the
force of 14 dentists finds it impossible to do more than half of the
work which comes to it. The work is done at a rate which covers
only the actual operating cost of the clinics. One dentist is employed
exclusively on school work. He has a traveling outfit which is set
up in the different schools in rotation and he remains at a school until
each child has been examined and had the necessary treatment. No
charge is made for this service.
In all but a few cases the oculists employed are on a part-time
basis and where this service is provided for employees it is usual for
the company to arrange for purchase of glasses at a reduced rate.




10

CHAPTER I.— MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE

Among other specialists employed are physicians specializing in
diseases of the ear, nose, and throat and in two cases psychiatrists
are employed for the adjustment of cases in which the basic trouble is
mental. A large rubber company employs a dermatologist for parttime work, because of the occupational hazards present in the
industry; and a considerable number of firms have X-ray technicians
on their medical staff. Several companies employ a masseur and a
number of stores provide the services of a chiropodist owing to the
jrevalence of foot troubles in this industry caused by the strain of
ong standing. One company has for more than four years employed
a nutrition specialist, who works in cooperation with the medical
department. This work was introduced primarily to reduce absen­
teeism, as there w ere many cases of short absences lasting from one
T
to three days which were the result of digestive disturbances and
it was thought the number could be reduced by correcting the diet.
In a period of about four years, more than 800 employees have
received advice and help in regard to their dietary habits after being
referred to the nutrition expert by the medical department.

{

Visiting-Nurse Service
TN ABOUT 70 cases the companies employ one or more nurses to
A do home visiting or one of the emergency hospital nurses puts in
part of the time visiting employees who are ill. Such visits are made
usually within three days, but in some instances the nurse visits the
home on the day of the report of illness. Usually the call by the
nurse is made for the purpose of seeing that the employee has proper
care, and only such bedside care is given by her as she finds neces­
sary. A number of companies, however, provide free home nursing
service, several giving such care after an employee has been with the
firm one year. In several of the manufacturing companies and com­
mercial enterprises, the services of the physician are also available to
sick employees. In one case the doctor calls once only to see if the
patient is getting proper care, while in another he will call when
requested to do so and with the consent of the attending physician.
Frequently the company provides the visiting nurse with an automo­
bile. In one case the firm pays the hospital expenses if an employee
has to have an operation, while a large taxicab company provides
treatment, including nursing and medical care, for both employees
and their families.

Treatment of Tuberculosis
/^ N L Y one company visited in the present survey maintains a sana^
torium. This was established for the care of employees suf­
fering from tuberculosis, but its facilities have been extended to
admit those suffering from other diseases or needing convalescent
care. The treatment at the sanatorium is given only to employees
and is free. About 80 per cent of the employees admitted because of
tuberculosis have been discharged, with the disease arrested or
quiescent, and have been able to return immediately to their work.
The medical department of another company with a total of nearly
60,000 employees keeps in touch constantly with tuberculosis and
other sanatoriums so that the placing of employees requiring special




PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS

11

treatment is facilitated. A special visiting nurse visits regularly
employees who are receiving sanatorium treatment. In addition to
this care the company maintains a home in the country where girls
who are recuperating from illness or who are in need of rest are sent.
Admissions are under the charge of the medical department. The
property consists of 450 acres, on which are two buildings with
accommodations for 57 girls.
Seven companies report that they will pay all expenses of em­
ployees with a reasonable length of service who contract tubercu­
losis; 2 report that there is no limit to the amount of help extended,
including payment of full salary and other financial assistance; 10
give full salary in many cases; 11 pay part or all expenses, according
to the necessities of the case; 6 give financial help and also look after
the family when necessary; and 1 company contributes to the upkeep
of a sanatorium, so that no fees are charged its employees. In
several cases employees and employers contribute jointly to a
tuberculosis fund which is used to finance such cases.
Entrance and Periodic Physical Examinations
rr W O hundred and twelve of the firms scheduled give more or less
A complete physical examinations to applicants for employment,
17 examine all male employees, and 18 examine part of the employees,
in such cases usually because those examined have to do heavy lift­
ing or extrahazardous work of various kinds.
The examination varies greatly in completeness with the different
companies, ranging from a few general questions to a thorough
physical test. Although physical examinations were much opposed
by the workers when they were first introduced, much of this opposi­
tion seems to have disappeared with the realization that the exami­
nations are not used as a basis for discrimination and that frequently
much benefit is derived from them. Not much information was
secured as to the length of time given to the entrance examination.
One company which examines all new employees and also provides
for an annual reexamination stated that the examination has been
so systematized that a very complete one, including a urinalysis, can
be made in from 5 to 7 minutes. The usual time given to each em­
ployee ranges from 5 to 15 minutes, although in special cases more
time may be taken.
The defects which most frequently cause the rejection of an appli­
cant are hernia, active tuberculosis, various infectious diseases, and
heart disease, although of course the qualifications particularly needed
in the industry determine the question of acceptance or rejection to
a large extent. Many companies divide the applicants into different
classes, as for example, those who are physically fit for any job, those
who, while having some physical defect, are able to perform certain
kinds of work, and those who are totally unfit for employment.
One company having such a classification reexamines all men in the
second class at least twice a year to determine if the jobs on which
they are working are within the limits of their physical ability, and if
the requirements of any particular job are found to be too severe the
employment is changed.
The percentage of rejections.as the result of the entrance examina­
tion is reported by 55 companies to be less than 1 per cent, while 29




12

CHAPTER I .— MEDICAL AND HOSPITAL SERVICE

report that it is “ very small.” Fifty-six report that the rejections
average from 2 to 5 per cent of those examined, 14, from 6 to 10 per
cent, and 31 that it is over 10 per cent. In part of these cases
the nature of the industry is such that certain physical conditions
entirely disqualify for employment. On the other hand, some com­
panies make a special effort to employ handicapped persons when
the particular defect does not make them a menace to themselves or
to their fellow employees.
Among the companies giving periodic examinations, 26 reexamine
all employees each year. Two companies reported that all the
employees are examined every six months, while 14 reexamine at
periods varying from 18 months to 3 years, 42 at various intervals
because of occupational hazards, 4 in case of transfer, and 3 before
returning to work in all cases of sickness; 1 examines all men over
40 years every six months, and another all over 48 to 50 years annually
while 20 do not require reexamination but urge employees to be
examined at regular intervals. One company allows all employees
who have been with the firm two years or more an examination at
the Life Extension Institute. During the six-month period that this
service had been available, about 1,000 employees had taken advan­
tage of the opportunity. The results of the examination are confi­
dential and no report is made to the company. The average cost
of these examinations to the company is $6 for each employee ex­
amined.

Follow-up Work as a Result of Physical Examinations
TF TH E physical examination on entrance reveals some remediable
physical defect or condition, a number of companies follow a con­
sistent policy of providing treatment for such cases, and patients are
called back to the hospital regularly for a check-up on their physical
condition. This usually includes observation for a certain length of
time of employees who have been absent because of sickness. In
cases of slight cardiac disease, hernia, infected tonsils, or teeth, and
other potentially disabling conditions, employees may be examined at
intervals and frequently the job is carefully selected so that the condi­
tion will not be aggravated by the work. One company reports that
all new employees are watched the first month to see that they are
properly placed from the standpoint of their physical condition and
with several companies the nurse goes through the factory regularly
and employees who give evidence of needing attention are sent to the
hospital for examination, for extra nourishment, or for other treatment.
Constructive health work carried on by one company involves
a daily check-up of health conditions in the plant by means of a spot
map showing the cases of sickness in the different departments.
Tacks of different colors are used for the different contagious diseases
and in cases of tonsillitis, grippe, and other acute diseases preventive
treatment is given workers closely associated with such cases. The
grouping of the tacks in the chart sometimes reveals some specially
bad condition; for example, a large number of cases of headache
from one department has shown a lack of attention to ventilation. In
the dispensary of this company special treatment is given in case of
goiter, hay-fever patients are treated daily, and a special milk formula
has been worked out for the undernourished.




FOLLOW-UP WORK— PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS

13

The method of this medical department in keeping a daily check on
plant conditions has proved its worth, since as it visualizes the health
situation it is of value in checking the spread of infectious diseases,
and, as the accidents are also recorded, it furnishes valuable accident
information to the safety committee.
In two establishments employees who desire it are inoculated
against colds and in quite a large number employees and sometimes
members of the family as well are vaccinated.
It is the practice in quite a number of industries to give under­
nourished employees milk twice a day. This is usually done under
the supervision of a nurse and changes in the physical condition of
such employees are noted. The milk is sometimes furnished free but
quite often a small charge is made. One company has a milk room
where about 350 employees who are suffering from malnutrition or
the effects of illness are given special raw milk daily, and also has a
basal metabolism clinic for research work oh thyroid and endocrine
cases and overweight cases. Particular attention is paid to the exam­
ination and treatment of employees who are overweight and the clinic
has special equipment for the study of disorders of the gastrointestinal
tract.




CHAPTER II.—SICK LEAVE WITH PAY
HILE sick leave with pay is quite generally granted to office
workers and often very generous provision is made in cases
of protracted illness, it is not usual to pay other workers
during incapacity because of sickness. In a large number of establish­
ments provision is made through the benefit association, or in connec­
tion with the group insurance plan, for payment for sickness and non­
industrial accidents, and the details of the various industrial insurance
features which are either paid entirely or are materially assisted by
the employer are set forth in Chapter VIII. In a number of cases,
however, firms were found to have a definite plan covering allowances
for sickness which was independent of the insurance or benefit plans.
Quite a number of employers report that cases are treated on their
merits and that liberal compensation is paid in certain cases, but
there were 14 companies which reported that a definite policy was
followed in providing payment in case of sickness. These included
7 manufacturing companies, 5 public utilities, 1 building management
company, and a marble quarry. The latter company grants sick leave
with pay to employees after three years’ service, the proportion of the
wages paid varying from 35 to 50 per cent according to length of serv­
ice, with a maximum of $15 per week. The length of time for which
payments are made was not reported.
A building management company on the west coast allows six weeks’
wages during the year to all employees, to begin after the third day
of sickness. An establishment manufacturing pharmaceutical supplies
pays average earnings for 200 hours after five years’ service. A
company manufacturing electrical supplies grants sick leave to piece
or hourly workers in meritorious cases, but the payments may not
exceed $100 in any 12-month period, and a large meat-packing plant
gives employees with from 2 to 15 years’ service one-fourth of their
wages for four weeks, during which period they are carried on the plant
pay roll; for the next 12 weeks the payments are made by the social
service division, and after that if the case is meritorious it is referred
to members of the company. After 15 years’ service sick employees
of this company are kept on half pay and in the case of employees
who have been with the company 20 years or over full pay is given for
an indefinite period.
A company manufacturing straw hats gives one-half pay for four
weeks after the first week’s sickness and one-third pay for four
weeks longer after 5 years’ employment; 10 weeks’ pay at the same
rate after 10 years’ service; and one-half pay for 10 months after
30 years ’ service.
A canning company in the Middle West which has a very progres­
sive policy of industrial relations, and in which all regular employees
are on a salary basis, pays the salaries of all sick and injured employees
in full until the employees’ sickness committee or the nurse reports
them able to return to work. In the case of chronic illness, full salary
is paid for 8 weeks, half pay for 4 weeks, and quarter pay for another
4 weeks.

W

14



SICK LEAVE WITH PAY

15

One company with many properties in different sections of the
country has a general plan of annuities and benefits which is main­
tained entirely by the company. The company pays for sickness and
accidents not incurred in the line of duty one-half wages, varying
from six weeks after one year’s service to 52 weeks for employees
whose term of service has been 10 years and over.
A machine shop in the South with a large number of colored em­
ployees pays for cases of sickness and injury of its employees which
are not covered by the workmen’s compensation law. Payments,
amounting to half the wages with a maximum of $1.35 per day, are
made upon recommendation of the plant physician or of a physician
approved by the company. The payments begin after six days and
may not exceed 90 days for one illness or 180 days in any calendar
year. It is required that employees receiving these payments
obtain proper medical and surgical attention.
A number of the companies providing electric light and power in
different sections of the country pay their employees on an hourly
rate during absence from work because of siclmess, the usual rate
being half pay and the period varying according to the length of
service. One of these companies pays 10 per cent of annual earnings
to employees in the service of the company one year and less than two
years, the amount paid increasing to 65 per cent of yearly earnings
after 12 years’ employment with the company. If an employee has
received from the company during any 12 months’ period 65 per cent
of his annual salary while absent from work on account of illness, his
case may be referred to the pension committee for investigation and
recommendation to the president of the company.
A general plan of sickness disability benefits covers the operations
of another public utility company in its different branches throughout
the country. According to the provisions of the plan payments are
made after two years’ employment. The payments are based on the
employee’s rate of pay, exclusive of overtime, at the time the dis­
ability began and amount to full pay for 4 weeks and half pay for 9
weeks if the term of employment has been 2 to 5 years; full pay for
13 weeks and half pay for 13 weeks for employment of 5 to 10 years;
and full pay for 13 weeks and half pay for 39 weeks if the term of
employment has been 10 years and over.




CHAPTER III.—VACATIONS WITH PAY
U RIN G recent years there has been a marked change in the
attitude of industrial employers toward the granting of annual
vacations with pay to factory and shop employees. Ten
years ago, when the Bureau of Labor Statistics made its first study
the idea that it was possible to give a vacation with pay to workers
paid on an hourly or daily basis had made very little progress. Of
389 establishments which reported on the subject at that time, only
16 gave vacations to the larger part of the shop or unsalaried force.
In this number only those establishments were included which did
not require a longer period of service by their employees than two
years in order to be entitled to a vacation, since, although quite a
number of companies gave vacations after periods of employment
varying from 5 to 25 years, it was considered that the possibility of
receiving a vacation under these conditions was so remote as to have
little interest for the majority of the workers or little effect upon
them.
It is apparent that a growing number of employers realize that the
cost of giving vacations to the rank and file of the employees can be
met successfully, since this study shows that the practice of giving
vacations to shop employees has grown appreciably in the past few
years. Of the firms which reported on the subject, 133 give vacations
to all employees who have a record of service with the firm varying
in the different establishments from a few months to two years.
These companies include 60 manufacturing establishments and public
utilities with about 195,600 employees; 50 stores with about 127,320
employees; 19 employers of large office forces, such as banks and
insurance companies, with approximately 40,250 employees; 2 hotels
with a total of 3,700 employees, and one mining company and one
quarry with a total of 2,760 employees.

D

Length of Service Required
TTHE method of determining the length of vacation with reference
to the length of service is of considerable importance, and
several schemes for the solution of the problem have been reported.
In addition to the plan of specifying a definite length of service of six
months, one year, or two years before a vacation is granted, some
establishments take into consideration the date of employment with
reference to the summer vacation period. This method is reported
especially by stores which allow summer vacations to all clerks
on the rolls previous to such dates as the 1st day of September,
January, or March. Other establishments determine the length of
time to be granted on a cumulative basis, at a certain rate per month
for the time employed, usually with the requirement that the max­
imum vacation shall not exceed one week or in some cases two weeks.
In a few instances it was reported that pay was given for a certain
number of legal holidays in addition to the regular vacation with pay.
16



LENGTH OF SERVICE REQUIRED

17

Seventeen of the manufacturing establishments, 1 public utility, 29
stores, and all of the offices (19) require less than 1 year’s service for
vacation; 26 factories, 7 public utilities, 20 stores, and 2 hotels require
one year’s service; and 7 factories, 2 public utilities, and 1 store
require 2 years’ service before a vacation is granted while the mining
company gives 3 days if no time is lost during the year, and the quarry
divides the employees into five groups, the length of the vacation
varying in the different groups from }% day to 2 weeks.
/
For factory employees on an hourly rate of pay the usual vacation
is one week, although when less than one year of service is required
it may be for varying lengths of time from three days to a week. One
factory requiring two years’ service gives two weeks’ vacation, while
another plant which allows one day a month during the first year
increases this to two weeks after the first year’s employment.
A public utility with more than 7,500 employees allows all weekly
employees, except those employed during the month of April, one
day for each full month of service during the 12-month period prior
to May 1 of any given year, with a maximum vacation of two weeks.
In addition to this, employees who are entitled to two full weeks’
vacation are allowed to leave the Friday night preceding their vaca­
tion. Weekly employees whose service entitles them to less than
one full week’s vacation may take, without pay, additional time to
make up one full week, while those entitled to more than one week’s
but less than two weeks’ vacation may take additional time at their
own expense to make up two weeks. During 1925, approximately 43
per cent of 3,977 weekly employees received two weeks’ vacation,
while the balance, or 57 per cent, received either no vacation or less
than two weeks, the average for this group being approximately one
week’s vacation with pay. All hourly employees who have been in
the service of the company for one year prior to May 1 of any given
year receive 12 days’ vacation with pay, but those who have been in
the service of the company less than a year do not receive any vaca­
tion. During 1925 approximately 59 per cent of 3,344 hourly
employees received two weeks’ vacation with pay.
One of the hotels gives 1 week to house men and 10 days to maids,
and the other hotel allows all the unsalaried workers a week with pay
after one year of service in the establishment.
In addition to the 95 establishments granting vacations for em­
ployees with service of not more than 2 years, 18 plants require a
period of service ranging from 3 to 25 years. One company which
allows 1 week after 3 years’ employment increases this to 9 days after
4 years and 2 weeks after 5 years.
A rather unusual plan is that of a company which gives employees
who have been with the firm 1 year 1 week’s vacation with pay;
those who have worked from 2 to 5 years the choice of 1 week’s vaca­
tion with 1 ^ weeks’ pay or 2 weeks’ vacation with 1 week’s pay;
32
while those who have worked more than 5 years have the choice of 1
week’s vacation with
weeks’ pay or 2 weeks’ vacation with lj^
weeks’ pay. In other words employees get a bonus if they choose to
take only 1 week’s vacation. Quite a number of the companies allow
employees to take additional time, usually limited to 1 week, without
pay.
It seems to be a quite general practice to recognize continued serv­
ice by increasing the length of the vacation, in most instances the



18

CHAPTER

m.— VACATIONS

WITH PAY

vacation being increased to 2 weeks after the employee has been 10
years with the company. One firm with about 225 employees is
reported as giving one month with pay to both office and shop
employees after 10 years' service, and in addition to full pay for this
period the company also gives each employee a medal and a check
for $100. Store and office employees in almost all instances are given
two weeks after their second year of employment.

Season of Vacation
TT IS important, of course, to arrange vacations so that there will
A be as little interference with the work as possible. In cases where
a plant shuts down for inventory or repairs this naturally becomes
the vacation period for the employees, and in these cases employees
who are eligible for a vacation receive pay for the time to which
they are entitled. Comparatively few establishments reported a
shutdown, however, and it seems to be the practice to arrange vaca­
tions for sometime between the middle of June and Labor Day. In
one machine shop the shop employees are given a week at the Christ­
mas holidays, while one establishment manufacturing food products
gives the vacation to the office workers in the summer and to the
factory workers in the winter. In some cases the vacation may be
taken at any time during the year.

Eligibility for Vacations
TT IS customary to require continuous service for a certain specified
A time in order to be eligible for vacation. This is always the case
when the vacation is called or is regarded as a bonus. In some
instances perfect attendance and punctuality are required for a threemonth period and in other cases the vacation is given to all who have
lost not more than a stated number of hours during the year.

Rate of Pay and Cost of Vacations
’V\7'HEN the workers are on a piece rate the average rate of pay for
* * the year is usually paid them for the vacation period.
It was not found possible to secure much information as to the cost
to employers of paid vacations. Ten companies reported the actual
cost of vacations but as no pay-roll figures were secured it was impos­
sible to estimate the percentage of the pay roll which might be
regarded as an average expenditure for this item. One company with
250 employees paid out $13,000 in 1925 for vacations for both factory
and office employees. In this plant everyone in the employ of the
company on June 1 who works continuously up to the summer
vacation period gets 1 week with pay; for 2 years and less than 3
years, 1% weeks; and for 3 years and over, 2 weeks. This brought
the average cost per employee in the plant to $52. An automobile
factory with 14,000 employees paid out $299,064 for vacations in
1925. Of the factory force 9,217 were given vacations in that year.
All factory workers receive 1 week after 2 years’ service and they are
paid their vacation money before going on leave. A department
store with 400 employees, which gives 1 day’s vacation for each
month of service, reported that $20,000, or an average of $50 per
employee, was spent for the vacations.



RESULTS OF GIVING PAID VACATIONS

19

Vacation Information
TT IS often a problem to workers who have been granted a vacation,
1 perhaps for the first time in their lives, to know where to go or
what to do with the time given them. In this connection the person­
nel department can be, and often is, of great assistance in furnishing
employees with information in regard to resorts and trips.
Where companies maintain a summer camp in the country, the
mountains, or at the seashore or some other body of water, as is
quite frequently the case, the employees and often members of their
families have the privilege of spending their vacations there. The
rates at these camps are usually less than at resorts where the facili­
ties for entertainment are similar and such camps are naturally
within a reasonable distance of the city in which the firm is located.
These camps are usually equipped to take care of a considerable
number at one time. Provision is made for the various forms of
outdoor recreation and a number of firms have reported an outdoor
swimming pool where no other place suitable for swimming was
available.
A very interesting nonprofit-making service has been developed
in New York City, called the Vacation Bureau Service, which is
designed to serve industrial and commercial establishments and their
employees. The bureau was started in 1924 and was financed for a
two-year period by a special contribution, after which time it was
expected that the industries would contribute sufficient to pay the
expense of maintaining this service.
The purpose of the bureau is to obtain and make available reliable
information regarding good vacation places in the territory most
frequented by residents of New York City for their vacations.
Representatives visit shore, mountain, and country resorts in an
ever-widening radius about the city and the data secured cover the
nature of the accommodations, cost of board and of transportation,
kind of recreation and amusements available, and in fact all the
information which a person would naturally wish to secure in looking
up a place to spend his or her vacation. While this information is
secured as far as possible, at first hand, in other cases recommenda­
tions of responsible townspeople are secured, and persons visiting the
resorts as a result of the information furnished by the bureau are
requested to report as to whether or not the accommodations and
service were satisfactory, with a view to eliminating objectionable
places. The scheduled time of trains or boats and connections are
also furnished.
After the 1925 summer season it was reported that about 150 firms
in New York City had subscribed to the bureau and it was felt that
it had passed beyond the limits of an experiment and had shown
that it filled a real industrial need.

Results of Giving Paid Vacations
T T IS, of course, extremely difficult if not impossible to estimate the
A results of paid vacations. The fact that so many employers are
taking up the practice, however, would seem to indicate that although
the results may not be very tangible, still there is a favorable effect
on the morale and perhaps also on the stability of the labor force.



20

CHAPTER III.---- VACATIONS WITH PAY

The large number of employees reported by some firms as having a
considerable length of service to their credit is quite remarkable,
although it must be remembered there are many more important
factors than a policy of paid vacations which contribute to the
stability of the labor force. One firm with approximately 16,500
employees reports 4,500 employees with a service record of at least
5 years, while another with 5,600 employees had 1,400 employees
with a record of 10 years’ service and 544 with 20 years’ service, all
of whom received a vacation of one week or two weeks during the
year.




C H A P T E R IV .— LU NCH ROOM S
UNCH rooms, like emergency hospitals, are among the more
. important features of personnel work, since they contribute so
directly to the health and general well-being of the employees.
In certain industries lunch rooms may be taken for granted, since
the nature of the business is such that the provision of a place for the
employees to eat is a necessity. This is true in department stores and
large offices where manifestly employees could not be allowed to eat
at the counters or desks, and in certain industries or processes where
the materials used are of such a nature that eating in the work places
constitutes a serious health hazard or where it might result in spoilage
of work. Aside from such special considerations as this, however,
the determining factors seem to be the lack of proper eating places in
the immediate vicinity, the desire to keep the employees in the estab­
lishment during the lunch hour, and frequently the wish to give
employees better and more nourishing food than they would be likely
to get outside, since there is a tendency on the part of many workers
to economize on food to the detriment of their health and efficiency.
The provision of appetizing and nourishing food is regarded by most
firms as an important factor in maintaining the health and efficiency
of the working force, particularly as it is the best meal of the day for
many of the workers. A number of the firms stated that an increase
in production had followed the installation of lunch-room service.
Of the 430 firms visited, 303, with 1,175,507 employees, provided
some form of lunch-room service for their employees; and in the
262 establishments which reported the number using the lunch
rooms it was found that an average of about 30 per cent patronized
them daily, although, of course, individual establishments showed
much larger percentages.
There is a decided increase in the number of plant lunch rooms as
compared with the number in operation 10 years ago. About the
same number of firms were scheduled in the previous study, but at
that time only a little more than half of the companies visited main­
tained lunch rooms, while about 70 per cent of the firms scheduled
operate them at the present time. In spite of the fact that there
was an increase in the total number of lunch rooms, 16 of the firms
visited had discontinued serving lunch to employees, the reason given
in 13 cases being that the majority of the employees lived near the
plant and patronage was not sufficient to warrant continuing the
service; one was closed for financial reasons; another, serving a free
lunch, gave the employees an opportunity to vote on the matter
with the result that they chose an increase in their pay instead of the
free lunch; and in the remaining case no reason was given for dis­
continuing the service.
The following table shows the number of establishments and of
employees covered in the study, the number of establishments having
employees’ lunch rooms, and the number of employees using lunch
rooms, by industries;

I




22
T

CHAPTER IV.— LUNCH ROOMS

able

3 . — Number

of establishments having lunch rooms and number of employees
using lunch rooms

Establish­
ments covered
in study

Establish­
ments having
lunch rooms

Establishments report­
ing number of em­
ployees using lunch
rooms

Industry
N um ­
ber

Manufacturing:
Automobiles and airplanes...............................
Boots and shoes............. .......................................
Chemicals, soaps, and allied products_____
Cigars and tobacco......... ............................. .......
Clothing and furnishings........... ........... ......... .
Electrical supplies___________ _______________
Fine machines and instruments....................
Food products...................................... ............... ..
Furniture__________ _______ - ..................... .......
Gold and silver ware....................................... .
Iron and steel..................................- .....................
Leather................ .....................................................
Machine shops.....................................................
Oil refining......................................................... ..
Paper........... ................................................. ...........
Rubber goods..................................................... .
Slaughtering and meat packing.......................
Textiles................... .................................................
Miscellaneous.........................................................
Total......................................................................

Em ­
ployees

N um ­
ber

Em ­
ployees

N um ­
Em­
ber of Total ployees
em­
estab­
using
lish­ ployees lunch
rooms
ments

247,939
25,040
13,905
15,854
27,467
80, 595
53,192
21,415
3,870
6,605
323,384
3,390
125, 907
22,078
12, 739
65, 418
23,400
86,853
45,553

19
5
6
3
14
17
11
12
3
2
3
1
36
3
8
10
4
19
21

247,939
25,040
11,355
15,854
22,467
75,247
44,279
21,415
2,760
3,605
14,312
2,260
88,259
22,078
9,721
64,118
23,400
39,415
38,007

15 140,787
5 25,040
6 11,355
3 15,854
13 16,348
16 74, 214
11 44,279
10 18, 347
3
2,760
2
3,605
2 10,200
1
2,260
30 76,988
2
8,340
7
6,946
9 47,411
3 15,100
18 38, 760
18 33,130

28,831
5,110
5,055
4,262
7,420
13,424
14,575
9,840
650
575
1,100
450
18,423
1,600
2,780
9,810
3,975
10,375
11,591

278 1,204,604

197

771,531

174 591,724

149,846

4
15

4,535
33,237

19
5
7
3
16
19
12
12
4
3
12
3
49
3
11
11
4
56
29

1
13

1,250
30,278

313
22,993

24
19

56,265
40,246

15

371,645

7

90,651

1

4,000

400

19
2

127,786
8,945

14
1

110,115
7,700

12
1

38,022
7,700

6,600
5,775

Total......................................................................

36

508,376

22

208,466

14

49, 722

12,775

Stores........... .....................................................................
Other industries.............................................................

52
21

137,250
30,983

52
13

137,250
20,488

50 132,308
10 15,644

53,804
7,168

303 1,175,507

262 820,926

246,899

Mining (coal and other).............................................
Offices................................................................................
Public utilities:
Steam and electric railroads.............................
Gas, electric light and power, telephones
and telegraph.....................................................
Taxicabs...................................................................

Grand total.........................................................

430 1,977,724

Establishments Having General Restaurant Service
TV/TANY companies go to great expense in providing lunch-room
service, since frequently many hundreds of workers must be
seated at one time, and in addition to the very considerable amount
of space required for the lunch room there must be added the space
needed for the kitchen, the refrigerating system, and the storage of
supplies. In old plants usually such space as is available is adapted
for these purposes or the plan, later described, of serving from booths
or counters in the plant is utilized, while in newer plants if circum­
stances warrant maintaining a restaurant this is included in the
construction plans. In some cases a separate building houses the
lunch room and recreation rooms, and sometimes a limited number
of employees are served in the clubhouse if it is near enough to the
plant. Mining districts have their mess halls, and occasionally
boarding houses and hotels are run by the companies for the benefit
of the workers.




GENERAL RESTAURANT SERVICE

23

It is obvious that the amount of space devoted to the plant lunch
rooms represents an outlay from which little or no tangible return is
received, and this seems especially true in industries in which but
one meal a day is served, although these rooms are frequently used
for social affairs outside of plant hours. In many instances also, in
addition to up-to-date furniture and serving equipment, much atten­
tion is paid to making the lunch room an attractive place in which
to spend the lunch period, and the rooms are almost uniformly clean
and well kept. The cafeterias all have equipment for keeping the
food hot or cold, as the case may be, and in many cases the kitchens
are models with their many types of labor-saving equipment.
In industries where large numbers of men and women are employed
it is usual to provide a separate lunch room for the women.
Provision is made in the majority of cases for those employees who
wish to bring all or part of their lunch from home. In 206 establish­
ments employees are free to take their home lunches to the cafeterias
and eat them there whether or not they purchase anything, but they
sometimes hesitate to do this, and in some respects a separate room
is more desirable. A few companies stated that lack of room in the
cafeteria made it unwise to share the space with those bringing
lunches from home even though there was otherwise no objection.
Thirty-nine of the companies visited furnish separate rooms for
those bringing lunches from home, and in most of these rooms there
is some provision for cooking. There are always separate rooms for
men and girls and quite frequently separate rooms for office and
factory girls. Occasionally there is complete kitchenette equipment,
including an ice box, but more often only a gas plate or an electric
plate and tables and chairs. One company having two such rooms,
one for men and one for women, reports that about 300 people take
advantage of them daily. In some instances the matron in charge
of the rest room makes coffee in the rest room or lunch room and
has it ready for the girls.
One steam-railway company furnishes a room where the men can
cook and eat their lunches, the men either bringing them from home
or purchasing something outside to cook. Cooking utensils, a gas
stove, and dishes are provided and the men wash their own dishes
and help keep the place in order. This room is used by about 30
men a day.
One concern utilized a small building across the street, fitting it
up as a kitchenette and lunch room for the girls. This is used by
about 75 girls a day. Another firm, employing 1,000 girls, has a
room, furnished with tables and chairs and a player piano, where
the girls eat lunches brought from home. The arrangement used
by this company for disposing of the lunches in the morning has
proven very satisfactory. A large rack with numbered compart­
ments like post-office boxes is placed at the entrance in the morning.
The numbers on the compartments correspond to the numbers on
the chairs and tables in the lunch room. In the morning on entering
each girl places her lunch in her compartment, after which the rack
is taken to the lunch room. Before noon the lunches are distributed
according to number. This is done by the maids, who also serve
coffee, tea, or milk, a charge of 2 cents each being made. Once a
year the girls are given an opportunity to vote on continuing the
plan or having a 25-cent lunch served, as is done for the men. A
70340°—28----- 3



24

CHAPTER IV.— LUNCH ROOMS

large majority always vote in favor of continuing the present plan,
as many of them live at home and their lunches cost them less under
this arrangement. This room is used by about 850 girls daily.

Kinds of Service
yARIOUS factors have to be taken into consideration in the
*
adoption of a plan of service for lunch rooms in industrial
plants, such as the length of the lunch period, the number to be
served in a given length of time, and the amount of space available
for the purpose. In the very large plants the distance from work
to the lunch rooms is also a matter to be considered.
The cafeteria is by far the most popular form of service, since, of
the 303 companies maintaining lunch rooms, 259 have cafeterias,
26 have restaurants, and 18 have both. As a rule the restaurant is
maintained for the benefit of the office employees and the cafeteria
for other workers, this form of service being preferable for factory
workers because of the larger numbers to be served. A number of
firms have in connection with the cafeteria a smaller room where
service can be had for a small extra charge or where a regular meal
is served with the charge for service included. These rooms are
not largely used as a rule, the majority preferring the quicker service
and greater variety of food in the cafeteria. It is interesting to note
the great increase in cafeterias during the past 10 years. At the
time of the previous survey in 1916 there were 112 cafeterias and
128 restaurants in 223 plants, as compared with 277 cafeterias and
44 restaurants in 303 establishments at the present time.
In some of the larger plants the distance is too great to use one
central dining room, and lunch rooms have been installed at con­
venient places throughout the plant. These lunch rooms are
equipped with steam tables and facilities for serving, the food as a rule
being prepared in a central kitchen and brought to the steam tables
in wagons. In this way large numbers can be served in a short
time. One company using this plan has 9 such stations in one plant,
in which 1,000 people can be served in 10 minutes. In addition to
conserving time in going to and from lunch, this plan makes it possible
to provide separate lunch rooms for those whose work is of such a
nature that they hesitate to wear their work clothes to the general
lunch room. It would seem that the system of scattered lunch
rooms is preferable to any of the various methods for serving in the
workrooms— a practice which is generally conceded to be undesirable,
particularly from the standpoint of health.
An example of the extension of the lunch-room service, so that all
the employees can be reached, by installing booths or stations
throughout the plant is that of a company employing about 7,600
people. The plan was adopted about nine years ago and at the
present time from 80 to 90 per cent of the employees are being served
daily. In addition to one lunch room with service, used mainly by
the office force, there are about 20 booths at convenient locations
throughout the plant, each booth equipped with a gas stove and with
dishes for serving. The food for all the booths is prepared in one
kitchen and is taken to the booths just before lunch time, the hot
dishes being taken in large cans on wagons and placed on the fire
in the booth. Sandwiches are wrapped in oiled paper of different







FIG. 6.—COMPANY CAFETERIA, SEATIN G ABOUT 500




FIG. 7 —K ITC H E N , SH O W ING LAB O R -S AV IN G E Q U IP M E N T

KINDS OF SERVICE

25

colors to indicate the variety, so that they can be quickly selected.
There is a variety of food— soup, vegetables, meat, pie, cake, coffee,
and cold milk in summer, each article costing 5 cents. Paper plates
and spoons are used and a special nonresinous pulp cup, which does
not soften with the heat, is supplied for the soup and coffee. A t
lunch time the line passes by the booth and the workers take their
lunches to wherever they choose to eat them. Shopmen are chosen
by the foremen to take the food to the stations and wait on the
booths during the lunch hour, the company paying them for this
service. About 200 men are served daily at each booth and this
number can be served in from 4 to 6 minutes.
The company believes the popularity of the plan is due to the
quality of the food, reasonable prices, and the fact that the men
prefer not to go to a dining room in their work clothes. Selling
tickets for lunch in advance of the lunch hour was tried, but the
plan involved a great deal of clerical work, so it was discontinued
and a cash register was installed at each booth. There is a restaurant
for the office force in a separate building but there is also a booth
convenient to the offices, and of the 500 office people an average of
300 patronize the booth and 200 eat in the restaurant. Meals are
served from the booths at noon and at 6 p. m. and coffee is taken
through the plant at 2 a. m. for the night workers.
Similar plans with variations are used in many other plants.
Carts or wagons are sent through the plant and various devices are
used for keeping the food hot. One firm serves the different articles
in individual pasteboard containers, sending them through the
plant on wagons. Another has counters which are brought on the
wagons with the food and set up at lunch time, while others have
stationary counters throughout the plant. In some plants the
machines are not stopped at lunch time and the operators have lunch
brought to them from the cafeteria, having given their orders in the
morning.
One company, employing about 6,000 people, finds it necessary to
vary the service to suit the needs of the different plants. In one
plant the employees are forbidden to eat at their work places and a
lunch room is provided which gives both cafeteria and restaurant
service. Those not wishing to wait on themselves may have a regular
dinner costing 30 cents served to them. Although the average
check in the cafeteria is about the same as the price of the dinner
the majority prefer the cafeteria. In another plant of the same com­
pany there is a small cafeteria serving less than 100, while four lunch
carts sent to different parts of the works serve an average of 1,000
persons daily. From 80 to 100 gallons of coffee, 25 gallons of soup,
and 900 cuts of pie, in addition to large quantities of sandwiches, etc.,
are dispensed from these carts.
A number of firms have stations throughout the plant where coffee
and milk are served.
One small plant, having no available space for a cafeteria, adopted
the plan of preparing the food in the kitchen and taking it to the
different floors on carts. Order blanks are given out and each
employee wishing to do so orders lunch for the following day. There
is one room with tables and chairs which accommodates about 20,
but the majority eat in the workrooms or wherever they wish. About
93 per cent of the employees take advantage of this plan, and since




26

CHAPTER IV.— LUNCH ROOMS

luncnes are ordered in advance there are no left-overs and the food
is fresh each day. This plan is followed in another plant having
limited space, the orders being given in the morning and the food
being taken to the different floors on individual trays.
Character of Management
TN the majority of cases the lunch rooms are managed by the company and if an outsider has charge, as in a few cases, the company
still has supervision as to prices and the quality of the food. A
number of firms manage the office restaurant themselves while the
cafeteria for factory workers is run by an outsider, but in almost
every case the company furnishes heat, light, space, and equipment.
There are 265 lunch rooms managed by the company, 33 are run
by an outsider, and in 23 the management is turned over to the em­
ployees, either the employees ’ association, the benefit association, or
a committee appointed by the management. With all overhead
expenses paid by the company, these organizations are usually able to
show a small surplus. Occasionally they are run on the cooperative
basis but more often the profit is turned over to the organization
having charge.
One lunch room, where 600 people are served daily, is run entirely
by the thrift club composed of employees. The club started by
furnishing coffee and milk to overtime workers; it then added sand­
wiches to the menu and then other articles, until now a regular meal
is served. Last year the club, after replacing some equipment, had a
surplus of $286. The company furnishes space, light, heat, and gas.
Prices Charged for Meals
T^HE prices charged in the industrial lunch rooms vary according to
A
the efficiency in management, the quality of the service ren­
dered, and the loss which the employer expects to meet. In general
the prices are reasonable, as there is no disposition to make money
on the lunch room except in the few cases where it is turned over to
an outside manager or where an association of employees operates it
and expects to make a small surplus for the organization.
The usual prices charged in cafeterias for meats range from 10 to
20 cents; salads, 10 to 15 cents; sandwiches, soups, and vegetables,
5 to 10 cents; bread and butter, 2 to 5 cents; desserts, 5 to 10 cents;
and coffee, tea, and milk, 3 to 5 cents; although in some cases the
prices may be lower or higher. The average check was reported
to be from 25 to 35 cents in 150 cases, while in 36 cases it varied
between 35 and 50 cents, and in about 80 cases it ranged from
15 to 25 cents. The prices charged for table d ’hote meals ranged
from 20 to 50 cents. In a number of places it was found that
in the cafeteria for factory workers a special lunch consisting of stew
or one of the cheaper meats, a vegetable, bread and butter, tea,
coffee, or milk, and a dessert could be purchased for 20 cents. These
lunches are served either at the regular cafeteria counter or at a
special counter. The average prices of lunches quoted do not, of
course, include the purchases of the large number of employees who
buy only one or two articles to supplement the lunches brought from
home.




METHODS OF PAYMENT

27

Menus
A S the cafeteria has come to be the accepted method of serving
^
employees, there is usually a sufficiently wide range of choice
offered in the menus. There is an opportunity, also, to educate the
employees in the elements of a well-balanced meal and a number of
companies have a dietitian who has general supervision of the food
and the lunch room. In other cases the nurses or doctors interest
themselves in the quality of the food served and advise employees
as to the kinds of food Uiey should eat. In several of the places
visited, the nurse sees that a special diet is prepared for individuals
needing it. One company states that its woman employees usually
have a very light breakfast and try to save on food in order to buy
clothes. The welfare director, who has direct charge of the cafe­
teria, and the nurse cooperate closely and they have made a per­
sistent and steady effort to get the girls to select nourishing food,
special attention being paid to those who are underweight. A de­
mand for foods which were considered especially good has often been
created by giving samples of specially prepared puddings, custards,
salads, etc., with the result that these have become the most popular
items on the menu. In another plant, in which the girls receive a
free lunch, they are watched carefully by the nurse and if they are
underweight they are given a special diet; while a nutrition specialist
in the medical department of a company, employing large numbers
of both men and women, cooperates with the manager of the cafe­
teria in providing not only the special articles of diet needed by
those under her care but also the most wholesome food possible
for all the employees. In still another instance, in which more than
8,000 employees receive a free meal each day, a trained dietitian
is in charge and the food value of every item is listed on the menu.
In this cafeteria there is a special diet for those who are overweight.
M ethods o f Payment
TN general, methods of paying in industrial lunch rooms do not
differ greatly from those in outside cafeterias, as the cash register
is used in the majority of cases. In one lunch room, where a special
25-cent lunch is served, a card and seat number are given to each one
patronizing the lunch room. Cards are punched and each one pays
at the end of two weeks, an allowance being made on the bill if he
has missed more than one meal a week.
Another company has worked out a method of ordering and pay­
ing for meals in advance. Printed menu cards with table and seat
numbers are given to all who wish to have lunch served to them in
the cafeteria. The employees check the menu cards indicating the
articles wanted, and paste coupons on the back covering the amount
of the meals. These cards are sent to the manager, who has the
lunches ordered on the table at lunch time. There is no extra charge
for service, but orders must be given in advance, since the girls who
serve these lunches also serve the cafeteria counters.




28

CHAPTER IV.— LUNCH ROOMS

Establishments Serving Free Meals
TN comparatively few instances are meals served free to employees,
although a number of companies provide tea and coffee either in
connection with the regular cafeteria service or in those instances
where some provision is made for those bringing lunch from home.
Seven firms, however, serve a free lunch to everyone in their employ,
the number of employees ranging from 200 to 8,500. This is not
regarded by these companies as a gift but as a supplement to the
salary, and it is felt that it adds greatly to the efficiency of the workers,
since many would not have a substantial lunch if it were not provided
in this way. The lunch furnished by these establishments usually
consists of soup, meat, two vegetables, bread and butter, coffee, tea,
or milk, and dessert. One company serving a free lunch to its 900
employees has, in addition to the cafeteria, four other lunch rooms
with service for executives and heads of departments. The average
cost to the company per meal, including meals served in these rooms,
is 34 cents; in the cafeteria alone the average cost per meal is 28 cents.
Another firm has served a free luncheon to its employees over a
period of nearly 20 years. The luncheon, which is of good quality
and adequate variety, is served every day except Saturday, when the
office closes at 12 o ’clock. The cafeteria form of service is used, and
more than 8,000 are served daily. A street-railway company employ­
ing 4,000 people serves a free lunch to 400 who work in the shop. In
several instances a free lunch is served just to the office force. One of
these companies, which serves 110 people a day, estimates the cost
per meal at 60 cents.
A large food manufacturing establishment serves an a la carte
lunch to the 450 men for 10 cents, while the 300 girls are served the
same meal free. It is estimated that this meal costs the company 41
cents.
One firm serves free coffee to 300 shop people daily and another to
the night force and early morning cleaning girls. It is quite a com­
mon custom to serve free supper to those staying to attend classes,
club meetings, or rehearsals. A number of companies give free supper
to the band members on rehearsal nights, and one company gives free
lunch to the members of the orchestra on the days when they give a
noon concert in the lunch room.
Employees receiving less than $18 a week are given meals at half
price by one concern.

Financial Results of Operating Restaurants
r\ F the 217 lunch rooms managed entirely by the company, 134
^
have reported a deficit, 79 are self-supporting, and 4 reported a
surplus. Of the 4 companies having a surplus, 2 have, in addition to
their cafeterias, lunch counters and lunch carts, which help to make
them self-supporting. Another one of the four concerns reporting a
surplus serves more than 5,000 people a day, buys through the
workers’ cooperative store in very large quantities, and does all the
baking for the workers’ store. In order further to reduce costs each
one returns his tray when the meal is finished. One company reported
that if the number served drops below 1,100 a day, it loses money on

the limch room.



RESTAURANT EQUIPMENT

29

Many stated that the aim is to make the lunch room self-supporting,
or at least to make returns cover cost of food and labor, but they seem
to be unable to do this and serve a wholesome meal at a moderate
price. Another concern has a large attractive lunch room which is
rented to other organizations for banquets, and by renting the room
and serving the banquets the deficit is somewhat reduced. The
factory girls do the serving and are paid for their time.
One firm, serving an average of 1,000 people a day, had in 1924 a
deficit of $34,233, which included $5,500 for depreciation. This com­
pany has two small service rooms for executives, one large service
room for office people, and two cafeterias— one for office and one
for factory workers. Factory workers are free to use the office
restaurant, paying extra for service. The lunch in the restaurant
averages 45 to 55 cents a day, with 5 cents extra for service. The
average in each of the cafeterias is 35 cents.
Another concern reports that the lunch room costs it about
$25,000 a year, including overhead expenses, and that the charge for
meals covers the cost of food and about one-half the cost of labor.
This company has one large main dining room, with six counters for
cafeteria service, seating about 1,500, this number being served in
10 minutes. At five of the counters a plate lunch is served for 20
cents, and at the other special articles can be obtained. About
650 order the plate luncheon, the average per meal at the other
counter being 22 cents. Besides the cafeteria this company main­
tains a dining room seating 75, with service for managers and sub­
managers. The entire staff for both dining rooms an<I the kitchen
consists of 16 full-time and 31 part-time workers, the part-time
workers being employed only at the noon hour.
One company having booths through the plant reports that the
average cost per month of running all the booths from January, 1925,
through October, 1925, including food, labor, cups, plates, and mis­
cellaneous expense, was $7,611.81 and the average receipts $7,348.57,
making an average loss of $263.24. The average loss per month in
the restaurant during the same period was $312.08.

Restaurant Equipment
T^HE following lists of equipment are given as being suggestive of
A the amount and type of furnishings— dishes, cooking utensils,
labor-saving devices, furniture, etc.— which are required for efficient
service for a given number of persons.
In a new and well-arranged cafeteria which had a seating capacity
of more than 300 and in which about 800 people were served in 4
shifts each noon the woodwork, tables, and chairs were of dark wood
and varnished so that it could be easily cleaned. The tops of the
tables were of vitrolite glass, with all edges ground and polished.
The floor was of red cement barred off to give the appearance of tile;
while the kitchen floor was of more resilient material, which was
considered to be easier on the feet of the workers. The cafeteria
counter was planned for two lines and about 200 could be served in
from 8 to 10 minutes. Water coolers or stations were built around
the columns on each side of the room. Following is a list of the
kitchen, bake-shop and butcher-shop equipment in this cafeteria.




30

CHAPTER IV.— LUNCH BOOMS
Kitchen

1
1
2
1
1
1

3-section hotel gas range.
gas broiler and roaster.
jacketed kettles.
3-compartment vegetable steamer.
vegetable parer.
range and kettle hood (copper,
tinned on both sides).
1 steel cook’s table.
1 cast-iron sink or pan.
1 pot rack (folding).

1 wooden kitchen table.
1 kitchen machine (3-speed unit elec­
tric motor).
1 vegetable sink (2 compartment).
2 plate warmers.
1 silver and glass sink with drain
boards.
1 dish-washing machine.
1 set of soiled and clean dish tables.
1 pot sink with drain boards.

Bake shop
1
1
1
1
1

worktable on casters.
cake machine.
baker’s refrigerator.
pastry kettle (10-gallon).
baker’s stove

1
1
1
1
1

bake oven.
baker’s sink.
baker’s table.
steel dough trough.
dough mixer.

Butcher shop
1 heavy sectional cutting bench.
1 meat block.
1 meat chopper.

| 1 butcher’s sink.
1 butcher’s refrigerator.
*

In a cafeteria serving about 1,400 people during the noon period it
was estimated that 700 could be served in from 12 to 15 minutes.
Following is a list of the staff required in the kitchen and lunch room
to keep up this service and a list of the dining room equipment:
Staff for lunch room
1 chef.
1 second cook.
1 pastry cook.
3 general kitchen men.
3 boys, porters, half-time (3 hours).
3 part-time girls at steam tables (3 hours).
1 ice-cream girl.
1 coffee-urn girl.
10 part-time waitresses (3 hours a day) in service room.
1 girl at canteen counter (fills the sugar bowls and helps in lunch room).
1 cashier and bookkeeper.
1 full-time salad and service girl.
Dining-room equipment
150 36-inch square-top tables.
3 60-inch round-top tables.
650 chairs.
Silver bins, tray stands, salad racks, bread and butter racks, steam table (12
insets), pastry rack, cold-dessert rack, 3-hole ice-cream cabinet.
1 cream dispenser.
2 coffee urns.
6-hole ice-cream cabinet (electrical).
Backboard for displaying.
File cabinet, manager’s desk, assistant’s desk, and chairs.
Cash register and checker’s stand.




C H A P T E R V .— IN D O O R R E C R E A T IO N
M PLO YM EN T in industry frequently carries with it much
more than the routine existence comprehended in the particular
job the worker fills. Many companies endeavor to supply,
where this is desired or needed, the means for entertainment of various
kinds, to develop the capacity for social leadership, and to promote
social contacts among their employees. The accessibility of plants
to the homes of the workers, the existence of a community of inter­
ests among the employees, and a desire or willingness to carry over
the association of working hours into their leisure time are the factors
which determine to a large extent how much the employer may
offer in the line of sport and entertainment or of cultural activities.
Some executives feel that the provision of such facilities lessens the
employee’s feeling of independence, but many have found that
opportunities for various types of recreation; or for musical or dra­
matic expression can be successfully provided if the employees are
given a free hand in organizing and developing the different activities.
Considerable talent is frequently revealed among musical and dra­
matic groups which might not be discovered without the encourage­
ment provided in these company organizations, and in a number of
cases musical organizations, including choruses, orchestras, and bands,
under the direction of competent leaders secured by the company,
have become important factors in the musical life of the city or
community.
Of the companies visited, 235 provide clubhouses, club or recrea­
tion rooms, rooms for different games, such as billiards or pool, bowl­
ing alleys, and gymnasiums, while 316 companies provide lectures,
moving pictures, and concerts, or assist in the maintenance of bands,
orchestras, or glee clubs.
These features of industrial life are not uniformly successful, how­
ever, as about 100 companies reported that one or more of these
activities had been given up. Lack of interest on the part of the
employees was the reason for the discontinuance of 23 musical
organizations, 6 gymnasiums, 3 bowling alleys, 2 clubhouses, and 1
dramatic club, while other companies reported that the cost was too
great, or that the results did not justify the expenditure. A number
of plants gave up much of their personnel work during the World
War and it has never been revived. Musical organizations seem to
be the most difficult to manage, partly on account of changing per­
sonnel and partly because of the difficulty of securing competent
leaders.
Rest and Recreation Room s

E

TN A large number of plants, rooms of varying degrees of attractiveA ness are furnished for the use of employees for purposes of recrea­
tion or relaxation. These rooms are used by employees for rest, if
the work processes are sufficiently fatiguing to warrant giving rest
periods to all or part of the employees, for rest and recreation at the
lunch period, and frequently for social affairs after working hours.
Sometimes the lunch room or rooms serve for noontime gatherings of
various kinds, for dances, and for other social affairs. About onethird of the firms visited provide special recreation or club rooms,
while in many other cases these rooms are found in the clubhouse.




31

32

CHAPTER V .— INDOOR RECREATION

There is great variety in the size and equipment of rest and recrea­
tion rooms, as they range from small and plainly furnished rooms or
a comer of the plant set aside for this purpose to rooms with elaborate
furnishings and equipment. Even though the rooms may be quite
unattractive, if they have comfortable chairs, tables to use at lunch
time, or, as frequently happens, facilities for preparing lunches,
they add immeasurably to the comfort of the workers. The more
elaborate rooms for girls have easy chairs, davenports, reading tables
and reading lamps, writing desks with stationery furnished, current
magazines, often a Victrola or piano or both, and in some cases very
good pictures, ferns, well-chosen hangings, and other features which
add to their attractiveness. For men there is often a well-furnished
smoking room, with tables for cards, checkers, or similar games, or
with newspapers and other reading matter.
Table 4 shows, by industries, the number of establishments haying
clubhouses, rest and recreation rooms, gymnasiums, and various
special game rooms:
T able

4.— Number of establishments providing specified types of facilities for
indoor recreation
Establish­
ments
covered in
study

Establish­
ments having
recreational
facilities

Industry
N um ­
ber

Manufacturing:
Automobiles and airplanes.
Boots and shoes____________
Chemicals, soap and allied
products_____________
Clothing and furnishings.._
Electrical supplies. ...............
Fine machines and instru­
ments_________ _____ ______
Food products....................... .
*
Machine shops............_ ..........
Furniture___________________
Gold and silver..... ........... ..
H ats............................................
Iron and s t e e l ___________
Ore reduction______________
Paper________________ ______
Printing and publishing___
Rubber goods.........................
Slaughtering
and meat
packing___________________
Textiles......................................
T in and enamel w a r e ___
Miscellaneous...........................
T otal____ ______ __________
Logging and sawmills__________
Mining and quarrying_________
Public utilities.
Steam railroads ___ *_____
Electric railroads___________
Gas, electric light and
power, telephones and
telegraph........ ............... .......

Em­
ployees

N um ­
ber

Em­
ployees

Establishments reporting—

Rec­
rea­
Club­ tion
houses or
clubrooms

Bil­
liard Bowl­ G ym ­
Game
or
ing
na­
rooms
pool alleys siums
rooms

19
5

247,939
25,040

4
5

32,007
25,040

1
2

2
3

3

3

1

2
2

7
16
18

13,905
27,467
80, 595

7
6
18

13,905
9,843
80,595

3
3

4
4
14

1
1
6

1
1
7

1
1
3

1
3
13

12
13
49
4
3
2
12
6
11
5
11

53,192
21,415
125,907
8,870
6,605
4,276
323,384
8,745
12,739
8,635
65,418

8
9
23
2
3
1
5
5
7
4
7

38,375
9,649
67,066
1,960
6,605
3,975
23,518
6,145
8,179
4,135
34,924

2
5
13
1
1
1

1
3
15
1
3
1
5
5
2

4
13
1
3
1
5
5
1

1
3
11
1
1
1
5
4
1

5
3
10
1
2
1
5
5
4

4
56
1
24

23,400
86,853
3,100
62,119

1
37
1
13

3,900
61,764
3,100
30,684

278 1,204,604

166

465,369

1
1
5
2
4
5
3
1
3

3
2
3

2

2

3

2

6

2
15
1
5

1
9
1
5

9
1
3

7
1
3

1
8
1
5

61

81

65

60

48

74
1
9
3
5

21

4
24

5,176
56,265

1
16

1,112
35,087

1
10

3

9

8

1
2

3
12

276,620
95,025

3
8

276,620
52,259

1

3
10

3
4

3
1

3
2

19

127,786

13

105,879

5

7

3

6

4

6

T o t a l ....................................

34

499,431

24

434,758

6

20

10

10

9

14

Offices.................................................
Stores..________ _________ _______
Other industries..............................

19
52
19

40,246
137,250
34,752

11
16
1

19,922
51,461
450

2
2

10
27
1

2
3

1
1

2
5

3
9
1

235 1,008,159

82

142

89

80

67

111

Grand total..........................




430 1,977,724




FIG. 9.— GIRLS’ REST ROOM IN A SUGAR REFINERY




FIG. 8.— RECREATION ROOMS IN A PLANT M AN U FA C TU R IN G PAPER PRODUCTS

CLUBHOUSES

33

In general, the recreation rooms are provided for the factory as
well as the office force, and, although in a few instances there are
separate rooms, in the majority of cases the same rooms are used by
both classes of employees. Separate rooms for men and women are
the rule, although a few establishments have one room used by both,
and where the lunch rooms are used for recreational purposes it is
customary for them to be used by the men and women alike.
The extent to which these rooms are used by employees is shown
in the case of a mail-order house which employs about 5,000 people.
.A' well-equipped smoking room is provided for the men, and an
attractively furnished rest and recreation room for the women which
is used by the majority of the 2,000 girls at some time during the day.
This room has a grand piano and a Victrola and the girls are allowed
to dance once a week during the lunch period. The room easily
accommodates 500 at one time and it is not uncommon for it to be
used to capacity during the noon hour.

Clubhouses
A SEPARATE clubhouse had been provided for part or all of their
employees by 82 of the companies visited. This figure includes
some companies— notably the railroads and the southern cotton
mills— which carried on this work through the Y. M. C. A. or Y. W.
C. A. In most of these cases the company had built or purchased
the buildings used and sometimes they served one or more industries,
but in the mode of operation and in the service rendered to employees
they take the place of the regular clubhouse and fulfill the same
purpose.
Although many of the clubhouses offer a wide range of activities
and give their members surroundings and opportunities similar to
those offered by any well-ordered club, they need not be elaborate in
order to serve a very useful purpose. In a number of cases quite
simple buildings and furnishings are much used and appreciated by
employees. Such a clubhouse may consist of one large room with
tables and chairs, books and magazines, and pool or billiard tables,
and may be used, therefore, largely for reading and for playing games.
On the other hand, the clubhouse may be practically a community
center, and in such cases is under the direction of persons capable of
organizing and directing the athletics and the social affairs of the
members.
Due to the nature of the industry, the large railroad companies
handle these activities somewhat differently from other companies.
Some of them have clubhouses for small groups and there are many
clubs throughout the organizations, but much of the social and recre­
ational work is turned over to the branches of the Y. M. C. A., and
these organizations provide the facilities and supervise this work at
the different division points. They provide game rooms, clubrooms,
libraries, gymnasiums, dormitories, and lunch rooms, as well as classes,
concerts, lectures, and social affairs; and they often organize orchestras
and glee clubs.
At one of these Y. M. C. A. centers in a large city there is a lunch
room where meals are served at reasonable rates, and a room with
facilities for cooking which is used by at least 25 men a day. There
is also a dormitory, patronized by about 1,500 men a month, where a



34

CHAPTER V .— INDOOR RECREATION

bed can be had for 25 cents a night or for 20 cents by buying a dollar’s
worth of coupons. All rooms have hot and cold showers, and soap
and towels can be had for 5 cents. Dues here are $2 a year, and from
four to five hundred men a day take advantage of the privileges in
one way or another. On New Year’s Day there is open house for
the men and their families; a turkey dinner at a reasonable rate is
provided, and there is a program, an orchestra for dancing, and gifts
for the children.
Many of the textile mills have provided clubhouse facilities for
their employees. One clubhouse built by a northern mill has rooms
for both men and women and an auditorium seating 1,000 persons,
in which the seats are removable so that it can be used for dancing.
The clubhouse was turned over to the employees to run, but is main­
tained by the company. There are no membership dues, but a small
fee is charged for dances and other social affairs with the exception
of the band concerts. The house is used a great deal during the noon
hour, after work, and in the evening.
Another textile company, located in an industrial center, bought a
fine old house just outside the city, converted it into a clubhouse,
and turned it over to the employees to manage. Practically all of
the employees are club members and the house is the center of all
the employee activities, both indoor and outdoor, since it serves in the
summer as a country club. The clubhouse is in constant use for
dances and entertainments of various kinds, many of the entertain­
ments being for the benefit of the band or the club. For the purely
social affairs, a collection is taken among the group giving the party
and the service department gives an amount equal to that collected.
Sunday afternoon concerts are given, for which outside talent is
secured, and these are well attended. The club is operated on a
budget basis, and through the membership fees, proceeds of enter­
tainments, and an annual bazaar, is practically self-supporting.
In the majority of the southern cotton mills the club work is part
of a general community program which is centralized in a community
house, frequently with a staff of paid workers. In other cases it is
carried on by the Y . M . C. A. or Y. W. C. A. or directly by the
employer. Whatever the medium through which the work is organ­
ized, however, it usually includes the provision of kindergartens and
nurseries, clinics, home visiting, and nursing, clubs for wives and chil­
dren of employees, classes in sewing and cooking, playgrounds, and
gymnasiums, and in fact all phases of the home life are touched.
Since the families of the employees participate to so great an extent,
an account of this type of activity is given in a separate chapter
(Ch. X I).
A western mining community of about 300 families has a clubhouse,
provided by the employing company, which in 1925 had an average
monthly attendance of 5,060. A membership fee of 25 cents a
month entitles a member and his family to the use of the clubhouse,
a small additional charge being made for the use of the bowling
alleys and swimming pool. This club is the center of all social
activities for the community; it has moving pictures several times a
week, billiards, pool, bowling alleys, showers, lockers, reading and
lounging rooms with current magazines, newspapers, and books, a
recreation room for all kinds of entertainments with a kitchen adjoin­
ing for serving refreshments, and special rooms for the women.



76340°—28



FIG. 10.— READING AND W R IT IN G ROOM IN A CLUBHOUSE FOR W OR KE R S IN A COPPER M I L L




FIG. 11.— S M O K IN G AND RECREATION ROOM FOR MEN IN A M A IL -O R D E R HOUSE

CLUBHOUSES

35

Another concern employing about 1,500 people maintains a
theater, having a fine pipe organ and a seating capacity of 1,700,
which is used for moving pictures and other entertainments. Next
door to the theater is a modern clubhouse, on the first floor of which
is a large room which can be used as gymnasium, dance hall, or audi­
torium. It has a seating capacity of 1,200 and a well-equipped stage.
There is a beautiful spoon-bottomed swimming pool 25 by 75 feet,
well-equipped showers, and dressing rooms for both men and women.
On the second floor are the clubrooms, consisting of a lounge, a
library, and a service room where soft drinks and sandwiches can
be purchased. The lounge is a very spacious and beautifully fur­
nished room with easy chairs, davenports, and special tables for cards,
checkers, and chess, and has a large fireplace. The library is a
smaller room furnished in much the same style as the lounge.
The clubhouse is open to members and their guests and is available
for other groups by making arrangements with the industrial rela­
tions department. In addition to the regular clubrooms, there is a
room with a good floor for dancing which is used by employees who
are not members of the club or by any group when the clubhouse
is in use. The company also maintains a very attractive home for
the personnel staff, the first floor of which is used for club meetings,
parties, and dinners for small groups, and occasionally for community
affairs.
A clubhouse, much less elaborate and of a very different type, is
maintained by a company in a small town where practically all of
the residents are connected in some way with the industry. This
clubhouse is used by the entire village, even the local teachers and
the resident doctor being club members. In addition to the regular
members, there are family, associate, and junior members, the dues
ranging from 25 cents a year for junior membership to $10 a year
for full membership. These dues entitle the members to full use of
the clubhouse, and in addition sick benefits and other privileges.
The company contributes an amount equal to that paid in by mem­
bers. The clubhouse has an auditorium which is used for enter­
tainments, dancing, volley ball, basket ball and indoor sports of all
kinds; a game room with billiard and card tables; and clubrooms on
the second floor reserved for the use of the women's division, which
have a piano, Victrola, radio, two sewing machines for the use of the
girls, and a kitchenette with conveniences for self-service, and which
are used a great deal by the women and children. Every year there
is a Hallowe'en party for all the children in the village.
A company employing 17,000 people maintains a large clubhouse,
or community house and library combined, in each of its two adjoin­
ing towns, and in addition a smaller clubhouse for the exclusive use
of the foreign workers, though these employees are also free to use
either of the larger clubhouses. These clubhouses are provided and
maintained entirely by the company and are used by the entire
community. They are very nicely furnished and well kept, an
attractive feature being the well-chosen pictures, and each has a
completely equipped kitchen. Any organization in the community
may have the use of the clubhouses without charge, by making
arrangements with the service department. They are used by the
different church societies, women's clubs, various civic organizations,
scout groups, and literary and musical societies, besides many groups



36

CHAPTER V .— INDOOR RECREATION

of employees. There are special playrooms for the children and
hours for supervised play, story telling, cooking and sewing lessons,
and parties. During 1925, 18,000 children attended the story telling
at the two community houses, and 1,000 groups used the clubrooms.
A public utility company with about 3,200 employees has an
employees’ club which has been in existence for more than 25 years,
and at the present time 75 per cent of the employees are members.
The club is governed by employees elected from the different depart­
ments. Dues are $1 a year and the company contributes to the sup­
port of the club an amount equal to the yearly dues. The company
built a group of very fine substantial buildings a number of years ago,
consisting of a recreation building, a library, and a restaurant. The
grounds which cover about 30 acres, are beautifully laid out and well
kept, and there are tennis courts and a baseball diamond.
The building used as a restaurant and auditorium is also used for
dances and other social affairs. There are a well-equipped stage,
dressing rooms, a small balcony, and a moving-picture machine.
The recreation building contains a lounge with a large open fire­
place, a pool and billiard room, bowling alleys, showers, and wash
and locker rooms with 200 steel lockers. The library building, the
third of the group, contains a lobby, a clubroom with a large fire­
place, a smoking room, and a library with 2,000 books and many
current magazines and papers. By means of sliding walls the smok­
ing room can be made into smaller rooms and used for committee
meetings and games. On the second floor are furnished rooms
which are rented to male employees. The broad verandas extending
entirely around the building and a portico are attractive features.
Members may bring their friends to the buildings provided they do
not bring the same person more than twice in one month.
A steel company employing 3,000 people has a men’s club of 1,000
members which has been in existence for about 20 years. It occu­
pies a clubhouse which has clubrooms, game rooms, library, and pool
rooms. Dues for members are 25 cents a month. There is also a
club for the colored employees, in connection with the Y. M. C. A.,
where the company provides a clubroom for their use. The company
also maintains a community house for the foreign-born employees
and their families, in which are given classes in English and in citi­
zenship for the men and in English and in sewing for the women,
as well as classes and entertainments for the children, and a wellequipped playground.

Management, Dues, and Membership
TVD SPECIAL inquiry into the subject of club management was
11
made in the course of the bureau’s study, but this information
was furnished in 56 cases. In general, the companies maintain a
certain amount of supervision over the clubhouse, which varies from
entire control by the company to direct charge of the club affairs by
an employees’ committee but with some degree of oversight by the
company. The extent of the activities centered in the clubhouse
determines the number of persons required for its successful man­
agement. Thirty-nine clubhouses are managed by a staff of paid
workers under the supervision of the company, this number in­
cluding most of those in which the clubhouse is the center of the






FIG. 12— CLUBHOUSE FOR ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY W ORKERS




FIG. 13.— BOW LING ALLEYS AT A T E X T IL E M IL L

SWIMMING POOLS

37

social and recreational life of the workers and of the community.
The affairs of most of the other clubhouses are in the hands of an em­
ployees’ committee or are managed by a board of directors which in
several cases acts under the direction of the industrial relations
department.
Many of the companies did not report whether there were any
restrictions as to club membership, but of those reporting on this
point, in about 100 cases membership was open to all and frequently
to members of employees’ families as well. In a few cases clubs
were formed and sometimes a clubhouse was provided for special
groups, such as foremen and engineers or technical men, and in cer­
tain other cases dues were so high as to be in themselves prohibitive
for many employees. Fifteen companies reported there were no
dues or fees in connection with their club activities, with the excep­
tion of small charges for the games or social affairs.
The membership dues in the clubhouses range from 25 cents to
$50 a year. One club has an initiation fee of from $5 to $10 and
yearly dues of from $5 to $20, according to the grade of membership.
In another club of 500 members the dues are $33.50 yearly, but these
high fees are exceptional and the majority range from $1 to $6 a year.

Bowling Alleys or Game Rooms
“D O W L IN G seems to be*the most popular form of indoor sport and
large numbers of employees are interested in the game. Bowling
alleys were provided by the company in 80 cases, but this is not a
true index of the popularity of the game, as many companies have
organized teams which play on rented alleys or use the community
facilities when such are available. If a bowling alley is provided in
connection with the clubhouse or the plant, a moderate charge, suf­
ficient to cover the cost of operation, is usually made, or if the teams
use public alleys the company may pay part of the fees for games,
buy shirts for the men, or give a banquet to the winning teams at
the end of the season. Tables for billiards or pool are provided both
in clubhouses and in clubrooms in the plants by 89 companies, while
111 companies reported that rooms were available for their em­
ployees in which a variety of games, such as cards, checkers, and
chess, could be played.
Very incomplete reports were secured as to the number using these
facilities, but one company having eight bowling alleys reported that
these alleys are used by an average of 3,200 a week, and another that
about 16,000 men had bowled during the year.
A large rubber company which provides 12 alleys has 24 organized
teams of 5 men each, the fee charged being 15 cents a game. One
team is chosen each year from those having the highest averages
and is sent to the State tournament.

Swimming Pools
TNDOOR or outdoor swimming pools were reported by 48 companies and several of these firms have both. Fifteen other com­
panies rent either Y. M. C. A. or Y. W. C. A. or high-school pools
for the use of their employees and in a number of cases pay a swim­
ming instructor. In addition to this, several companies have built



38

CHAPTER V .— INDOOR RECREATION

bathhouses and dressing rooms at nearby lakes or at the beaches
for the use of employees.
N ot many firms keep records of the number using the swimming
pools, but the following examples show that in some places the pools
are much appreciated. A textile company having two pools, one for
men and the other for women, reports that 27,000 people used them
during the year, and another firm employing 4,000 workers reports
that 3,000 persons used the two pools each month. Another com­
pany employing 800 people reports that its pool, which is available
to the whole community, was used by 16,750 persons during the year.
One concern has an indoor pool, which is used by about 2,200 club
members and other employees each month and an outdoor pool which
is used by the entire community.
In a few cases a small charge is made for the use of the pool and
showers and frequently there is a charge of from 2 to 5 cents for soap
and towels.

Gymnasiums
C IX T Y -S E V E N firms visited provide gymnasiums, which in 60
^ cases are open to all employees, while in the other 7 they are
for the use of club members only. Eighteen additional firms engaged
the use of outside gymnasiums, paying part or all of the fees.
One company employing 16,000 people has a fine gymnasium in
the building which houses all the recreational and educational activi­
ties. The gymnasium is so large that several games can be in prog­
ress at one time, and has a seating capacity for spectators of 3,800.
In a representative week this gymnasium was used by 12,000 people
for indoor baseball, basket ball, tennis, and gymnasium classes.
A textile firm, having a paid instructor, reports that 5,053 people
enrolled for gymnasium classes and that there were 26,000 spectators
at the various games during the year. Another company, with 2,900
employees, reports that from September to July an average of 1,165
a month used the bowling alleys, 950 the pool room, 1,550 the gymna­
sium, and 416 the boys7 game room. Another cotton mill with 800
employees reports that during the year 12,631 men and boys took
regular gymnasium work, 15,782 used the bowling alleys, and 21,873
used the game room.
Basket-ball teams are maintained by 129 firms, and 66 of these
firms have gymnasiums or recreation rooms where games are played.
Twenty firms report that Y. M. C. A. or high-school gymnasiums are
rented for games, in 2 cases the employees' lunch room is used, and
41 did not report where games are played. In most cases it was
found that the company supported the team in some way, either
furnishing the members' suits, the prizes, or paying the transportation
when games are played out of town.
Much of the athletic work of the railroads is handled through the
Y. M. C. A., and these organizations provide game rooms and gymna­
siums in towns where a sufficient number of employees are located
to warrant their establishment. The different divisions compete
in various athletic sports, and finals are held at points where a con­
siderable number of employees are located.
One company reports that in 1925 about 22,000 people participated
in athletics throughout the system.







FIG. 14.— POOL TABLES IN M E N ’ S RECREATION ROOM




FIG. 15.— A U D IT O R IU M FOR EMPLOYEES OF A M A C H IN E M AN U FA C TU R IN G CO M PAN Y

39

SOCIAL GATHERINGS

Among the employees of one railway company, boxing is a very
popular form of amusement and boxing arenas are maintained at
several points. Matches are held at these points in the evening and
free transportation is furnished for those who wish to attend. There
is a great deal of rivalry between divisions and these matches are
attended by from 900 to 1,000 people.

Social Gatherings
HTHERE were 316 companies, with about 1,350,000 employees, that
reported social affairs among their employees, such as dances or
card parties, banquets, or parties on special occasions such as Hal­
lowe’en or Christmas, while a considerable number reported lectures,
moving pictures, or concerts given for their employees, or organized
bands, orchestras, or glee clubs. The following table shows the num­
ber of establishments having each of these activities, by industries:
T

able

5 .—

Number of establishments reporting each type of social gathering, by
industry
Establishments reporting—

Industry

Dances
and
other
social
affairs

Lec­
tures

M ov­
ing
Bands
pictures

Orches­
tras

Glee
clubs

Manufacturing:
Automobiles and airplanes........ ................... .
Boots and shoes................... ............................. .
Chemicals, soap, and allied products_____
Clothing and furnishings................................
Electrical supplies..............................................
Fine machines and instruments...................
Food products____________________________
Foundries and machine shops. ....................
F u rn itu re.-.......................................... . ........... .
Gold and s ilv e r ...________ ________________
H ats........................................................................
Iron and steel____________ _________________
Oil refining..........................................................
Ore reduction...................... .................. ............
Paper. ........................................... .....................
Printing and publishing............... ....... ......... .
Rubber goods. _______ ______ ______________
Slaughtering and meat packing__________ _
Textiles. .................................................... ..........
T in and enamel ware........................ ............. .
M iscellaneous.................................................. .
Total.................................................................. .

Con­
certs

6
2
4
4

10
3

8

12
1
1

1

4
3

2
1

1
1
1
22
1
220

46

45

79

45

27

97

12

15

13

21

Logging and sawmills..............................................
M ining and quarrying............................................ .
Public utilities:
Steam railroads..............................................
Electric railroads..................... ........................ .
Gas, electric light and power, telephones
and telegraph...................................................

18

Total.................................................................. .

30

12

Offices............................................................................ .
Stores..............................................................................
Grand total......................................................

23
316

65

103

"154

The social affairs are usually conducted by the employees’ club,
the athletic association, or the mutual benefit association, and are
financed in various ways. A few firms reported that they have only
one social gathering a year, this usually being a banquet given by



40

CHAPTER V .— INDOOR RECREATION

the company to the whole force, but a large number reported that
there are social gatherings throughout the year. Social affairs are
often conducted on the group plan because of the diversity of interests
and the large numbers of people to be entertained, which make their
handling often something of a problem. Dancing, being the most
popular form of amusement, of course predominates. Occasionally
social affairs are conducted by the club and are for club members
only, but this is not generally true, and if the club confines its affairs
to members only, there is often provision made for the entertainment
of the other employees.
One company with a club of 800 members and a very fine club­
house has also an attractive recreation room where parties are given
by girls who do not belong to the club. These parties are carefully
chaperoned and tend to have a very wholesome influence over the
younger employees. Even where no clubhouse is provided, there
are often numerous social affairs. Usually there are large rooms in
the plant which, with the expenditure of a little labor, can be tempor­
arily converted into recreation rooms and used for social gatherings.
Twenty-eight firms report that the lunch room is used for this purpose.
Occasionally the broad corridors of the office buildings are used for
parties and bazaars and in a few cases an outside hall is hired for the
evening.
The several organizations of one concern in a large city have a
mutual agreement that all surplus from concerts and entertainments
shall go into a fund for the assistance of families of employees in
times of emergency. This fund was established by the chorus and
each year the proceeds of two concerts and one or two plays and a
bazaar are given to this work. The greatest source of revenue is
the bazaar which is held in the evening in the corridors of the down­
town office building. The employees’ band or orchestra plays and
the bazaar, which is open to the public, is attended by large numbers.
Some firms, whose employees for various reasons do not care to
return in the evening or remain after work for entertainments, pro­
vide noon-hour programs. These programs, which consist of talks,
moving pictures, music, dancing, one-act plays, etc., being varied
from day to day, often attract large numbers. There is less tend­
ency on the part of employees to leave the grounds if there is
entertainment of some kind during the noon hour.
There is often dancing at noon, sometimes for girls only, but in a
number of places an orchestra is provided, usually once a week, and
both men and girls dance.
One company makes good use of a plainly furnished recreation
room and auditorium combined, having noon programs consisting of
moving pictures, band concerts, dancing (one day a week), talks,
and one-act plays or skits put on by different groups. The fife and
drum corps is on the program at least once a week. Some of these
programs are quite elaborate and the auditorium is often filled to
capacity. One of the orchestras, composed of employees, furnishes
the music for the dancing, the members being paid for their services.
Another company has a large rest and recreation room which can
readily be converted into a gymnasium or auditorium and which is
used by several hundred every day during the noon hour. The
programs are quite informal as a rule, consisting of moving pictures,
group singing, Victrola music, and occasional lectures.




MtTSICAL ORGANISATIONS

41

Lectures, Moving Pictures, etc.
O IX T Y -F IV E companies report that lectures or talks are given for
^ employees. These talks cover a variety of subjects, such as
health, hygiene, travel, and other topics of general interest, and are
often illustrated with moving pictures.
Moving pictures are shown for employees by 61 companies, in the
clubhouse, at the Y. M. C. A., or in the theater or auditorium.
When pictures are shown at the clubhouse they are usually for mem­
bers only and are free; but when the theater or auditorium is used
they are open to all employees and usually to the whole community
and a small fee is charged, the chief advantage being that better
pictures are seen for moderate prices.
Sixty-seven companies provide an auditorium to be used for various
performances and entertainments, the seating capacity ranging from
a few hundred to several thousand. These rooms usually have an
adequate stage, occasionally special lighting apparatus, and often
removable seats so that the room can be used for dancing or as a
gymnasium.
In many cases the employeesr dining room is used not only for
social affairs but as an assembly hall as well, and there is often a
stage in one end of the lunch room, and a piano or Victrola, or both.

Musical Organizations
*D ANDS, orchestras, and glee clubs which are organized on a company
basis and which receive substantial assistance from the company
are numerous. Organizations of this kind require much time if they
accomplish anything worth while and a considerable amount of money
is spent on them by the different firms. Many of the companies fur­
nish the larger instruments, uniforms for members of the bands, and
the music, and frequently they hire leaders and pay the players for
the time spent in rehearsals and sometimes for their services when
furnishing the music for company affairs.
One hundred and three of the firms visited reported bands, 86 have
orchestras, 66 have glee clubs, and a number have a fife and drum
corps, while often an impromptu orchestra is made up from the band
members who play orchestral instruments.
One large manufacturing establishment has a symphony orchestra,
six smaller orchestras, a band, and a fife and drum corps, all of which
receive from the company any help needed. They play for various
civic and company affairs, and the symphony orchestra gives outside
concerts. One of the smaller orchestras plays for dancing during
the noon hour, the members being paid for their services. A village
made up largely of employees and their families has an orchestra and
a band including employees and other townspeople. Many concerts
and entertainments are given, the majority being benefits for the
library, the band, the American Legion, or some other organization,
and concerts are given in the park each week during the summer.
A large department store has a girls' band of 35 pieces, a boys' band
of 45, a colored boys' band of 35, and a chorus including all the juniors,
and when needed an orchestra is improvised from among the band
members.
Some of these organizations which received help in the beginning
have become entirely self-supporting through concerts given outside.
^




42

CHAPTER V .— INDOOR RECREATION

One particularly fine drum corps, composed of 45 girls, plays for
various outside organizations, the proceeds being divided among the
members. They are well paid for their services and no longer need
financial help from the company.
It is not uncommon to find that the leader is associated with the
company in some other capacity. In one case the general manager
of a large store conducts the chorus of 125 voices, and in another the
safety engineer in a manufacturing plant has charge of a band of 35
pieces, an employees ’ orchestra of 12 pieces, and a symphony or­
chestra whose personnel includes both employees and outsiders.
This band is much in demand for public concerts and is more than
self-supporting, occasionally using the proceeds of a concert for
charitable purposes.
Some of these musical organizations play for company affairs only,
such as dances, banquets, exhibitions, games, and noon-hour concerts.
Twelve bands give regular noon-hour concerts each week through the
year and play for many special occasions besides, and 25 bands give
outdoor concerts through the summer. Orchestras often play during
the noon hour for dancing.
One large department store has an organization for the benefit of
employees, known as the Association of Music. Any employee after
30 days’ employment may become a member by signifying in writing
his intention to bocome proficient in the playing of a given instru­
ment and his willingness to attend rehearsals regularly. There are
no dues or fees of any kind and the company furnishes all equip­
ment, instruments, uniforms, music, competent instructors, and time
for individual instruction. The company maintains a band of 48
pieces, an orchestra, and a quartet. These various organizations
furnish the music for all employees ’ festivities, for dancing at noon,
and for municipal affairs. In consideration of the advantages offered
by the association, members are not allowed to accept fees for their
outside services without the approval of the director of the association.
Members may become owners of their instruments by purchase from
the company at cost, or through the awarding of credits as recom­
mended by the board of directors. Credits are awarded for punctu­
ality and attendance and for appearing in public or private concerts.
The number of credits required for the securing of the different
instruments ranges from 400 to 1,500.

Miscellaneous Clubs
'D E SID E S organizations among employees having a social aim,
there are clubs formed for study or for philanthropic purposes.
Among these groups there are, besides musical and dramatic organi­
zations, those interested in sewing, millinery, cooking, basketry,
gymnasium work, and study of various sorts. There are also many
clubs doing welfare and relief work.
The company often helps to finance this work even though it is not
confined to families connected with the industry. One such girls’ club
with 25 members, including both factory and office employees, keeps
open house every other week for the little girls of the neighborhood.
Only 100 can be accommodated and there are always more than
this number wanting to attend. There are classes in kindergarten
work, basketry, sewing, embroidery, group singing, story telling,




FINANCING CLUBS AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS

43

mas party and a dressed
exhibition for a week before the party and employees pay five cents
admission to see them, the money being used for the children’s
party. Luncheons are given by the girls’ club and a free dinner is
furnished by the company to the whole organization, at which time
liberal donations are made for the children’s party and other Christ­
mas work.
One of the large railroad companies has a women’s organization
which is active throughout the whole system, the aim being relief
work among the families of employees. The club has one sewing
day a week when garments are made to be given out. It loans
money, buys coal and food and clothing, pays doctors’ bills, gives
regular monthly aid to widows, sends out Christmas baskets, and
cooperates with the city charities in looking after families. Dues are
25 cents a year and money is also raised by giving luncheons, card
parties, and dances. A railroad Y. M. C. A. has a club for the
younger men with a carefully planned program of concerts, lectures,
dances, and parties to which they may bring their friends.

Financing Clubs and Social Affairs
TVfO SPECIAL information was secured in regard to financing clubs
^ and social affairs, but it was found that in the majority of
cases the clubhouse, auditorium, or other facilities for indoor recrea­
tion are provided by the company, the company usually paying over­
head expenses and for the upkeep of these places. In a few cases the
entire expense is borne by the company, and it*, one case there are
no dues or fees of any kind for use of the facilities, but this policy is
not a general one and in many cases the running expenses are bome
jointly by the company and the employees, the company often paying
into the treasury an amount equal to the dues of members. Occa­
sionally clubs and social affairs are financed entirely by dues and
by admission fees for entertainments. A number of firms stated
that clubs were supposed to be self-supporting, but that it was
understood that any deficit would be made up by the company.




CHAPTER VI.—OUTDOOR RECREATION
HE general movement for shortening the hours of labor which
gained momentum following the war, both in European coun­
tries and in the United States, has brought with it the question
of the use to be made by the workers of the leisure time secured
through the shorter workday. Investigations have been made in
many of these countries of the way in which the workers' spare hours
are or may be occupied, with a view to providing the educational
and recreational facilities needed to secure the most benefit from
the added leisure.
In this country many organizations and individuals are concerned
with the provision of suitable occupation for leisure hours, and the
importance of outdoor recreation to the well-being of the people
was particularly emphasized by the President of the United States
in the call for a general conference on outdoor recreation, issued in
the spring of 1924, in which the need for bringing the chance for outof-door pleasure within the reach of all was pointed out. At this
conference the many agencies concerned with this question, such as
the Federal Government through the administration of national
parks and forests, wild-life preserves, and unreserved, domain; the
governments of the different States; municipalities; and many civilian
organizations were represented. Such topics were dealt with by the
conference as the encouragement of outdoor recreation as a Federal
function; the bearing of outdoor recreation on mental, physical,
social, and moral development; outdoor recreation as an influence
on child welfare; and major possibilities of national cooperation in
promotion of recreation. Under this last topic was included a pro­
posal for a general survey and classification of recreational resources,
and a special committee on the value of outdoor recreation to indus­
trial workers therefore included in its plan for the furtherance of an
industrial-recreation program a survey of the present activities in
industrial establishments as a guide in the development of this phase
of the subject. The Bureau of Labor Statistics was accordingly
designated to carry on a study showing as far as possible what is be­
ing done to provide recreation for industrial workers, the response
made by employees to attempts to furnish them with facilities for
recreation, and the particular lines along which such work may be
developed.
Various factors enter into the problem of providing outdoor recrea­
tion for the employees of an establishment, some of which were not
operative 10 years ago when the first study was made. The most
important of these are the increase in the extent of automobile owner­
ship among industrial employees and the rather definite movement
toward home ownership in the suburbs of many of the important
industrial centers. Both of these factors militate against the devel­
opment of outdoor sports in the vicinity of the plants. In addition,
space for outdoor sports is often at a premium, since many industrial
establishments are in highly congested areas. In a growing number
of cities, too, the development of municipal recreation under trained
leadership has become a feature of civic life, and this may often prove
to be a solution of the problem of the employer who wishes to pro­
vide such facilities but is unable to do so because of lack of space,
44

T




FIG. 1 6 — G IR LS ’ SUMMER
CAM P







FIG. 17.— HOUSE TENTS AT G IR LS ’ S U M M E R C AM P

45

EXTENT OF OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES

or who has found a tendency toward professionalism growing up
in the plant. In cases where the city provides a trained recreation
director, frequently groups of industries contribute a stated amount
annually toward the cost of this service, and the different teams are
usually organized according to their industrial affiliations.
In developing plant-recreation programs there seems to be a quite
definite tendency on the part of the management to let the demand
for any particular activity come from the workers, the company
offering any encouragement or assistance which the employees may
need or are willing to accept.

Extent of Outdoor Recreation Activities
nPHREE hundred and nineteen of the companies, with approxiA mately 1,300,000 employees, were reported as providing facil­
ities for various forms of athletics or other kinds of outdoor recreation.
The following table shows the number of companies maintaining
country clubs or summer camps, having annual picnics or other
outings, or providing facilities for the different sports:
T able

6.— Number of establishments having athletic clubs, outdoor recreation
facilities, and outings for employees, by industries
Establishments
reporting

Industry
N um ­
ber

Manufacturing:
Automobiles_________________
Boots and shoes_____________
Chemicals, soap, and allied
products _ __________________
Clothing and furnishings___
Electrical supplies....................
Fine machines and instru­
ments______________________
Food products_______________
Foundries
and machine
shops______________________
Furniture___________________
Gold and silver ware________
Iron and steel_______________
Oil refining_____________ _____
Ore reduction________ J______
Paper________________________
Printing and publishing____
Rubber______________________
Textiles.........................................
Miscellaneous.............................

Num ber of establishments having—

An­
Base­
Foot­ nual
ball
Base­ ball picnic Sum­
N um ber A th ­
dia­
Tennis Golf
or
or
of em­
ball
letic monds
mer
courts courses teams soccer other
ployees clubs or ath­
camps
teams out­
letic
ings
fields

14
3

126,031
22,000

3
1

6
3

2

1

11
2

6
10
16

10,610
17,693
81,503

2
4

3
4
9

6

1
1

4
6
9

11
8

42,790
8,805

3
1

11
5

4
1

1

10
6

3

6
5

40
3
3
8
3
3
10
4
8
36
27

101,784
3,170
6,605
38,728
22,078
5,395
11,954
3,225
50,359
63,927
61,860

5

4

2
1

1
4
2

i

29
3
2
7
3
3
9
3
6
32
15

9

1

1
2
3
1
3
7
6

15
1
1
7
1
2
6
3
5
31
13

7
4

28
3
2
4
3
2
4
3
3
10
18

1
2
3

T o ta l.........................................

213

678,517

42

126

29

9

160

36

118

10

Logging and sawmills_________
M ining and quarrying__________
Offices____________________________

3
15
13

3,376
34,996
32,942

3
1

2
10
2

7
3

2

3
7
7

1
1
1

19

337,416

3

7

2

10

2

Public utilities:
Steam and electric railroad—
Gas,
electric light and
power, telephones and
telegraph.................................

1
3
1

2
11
6
2

1

2
5

•
3
1
1

12

7
2
4
8
6

1
3

18

122,286

4

8

4

1

13

1

10

9

Total.........................................

37

459,702

7

15

6

3

25

1

20

11

Stores.....................................................
Other industries_________________

34
4

96,860
3,409

6

2

5

1

18
1

2

18
4

9

319 1,309,802

59

157

50

13

223

41

177

33

Grand total........................




46

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

Baseball
A MONG the different outdoor sports baseball may still be said to
be the most popular game, as 223 companies reported that there
were one or more organized baseball teams in their plants. The
tendency, however, for sport of this type to become professional has
been in evidence in numerous cases among the plant teams, and a
number of companies reported that they had withdrawn their support
from the teams because of the fact that men were being hired solely
for their ability to play baseball. Such employees frequently make
unsatisfactory workers and also often prove to be a disturbing element
in the plant. Thirty-eight companies reported that baseball had
been given up, and of these about one-third stated that it was on
account of professionalism. In one of these cases, in which there was
a baseball league among different companies of the same industry, it
was said that in addition to the tendency toward professionalism an
undesirable rivalry was created between the different companies
associated in the league. About a third of the firms reported that
the game had been given up on account of lack of interest, while
various reasons, such as lack of space or the cost, were given by the
others.
Among the companies which foster baseball, however, many of
those having more than one plant have a series of games between the
teams of the different plants during the season, while in large plants
there are usually many interdepartmental games. In cases where
there are a number of teams in one plant, one or more of the teams
often belong to a minor or semiprofessional league or to an industrial
league.
The firms contribute in various ways toward the maintenance of
the ball teams. In a large number of cases the company provides
uniforms and equipment, and it may also pay the umpire and other
costs connected with the games. A large machine shop which fur­
nishes all the equipment also gives prizes and pays the men for the
time spent in practice. Another company, which has nine teams one
of which belongs to the league, has a parade with the company band
and floats, on the first day of the semiprofessional ball season. At
the end of the season another firm gives its team a banquet or some­
times a trip, and in another instance the company buys uniforms and
other equipment and deposits a sum of money in the bank to be drawn
on by the ball team as needed.
Nearly 100 companies have more than one baseball team, and it is
somewhat surprising to find that a large number of these companies
have as many as 8 or 10 teams or even more. One very large company
has 26 teams in the league and a large number of other teams. This
company built, in 1925, a steel and concrete stadium seating 4,000
people. The athletic field covers 10 acres and there are two baseball
diamonds, which conform to the latest forms and specifications of
major league clubs.
A large automobile company has 27 uniformed teams, part of
which belong to an intercity league and the others to a twilight
league. Another company in this industry has three teams in the
industrial league and 11 interdepartmental teams, and it costs the
company about $500 during the season for traveling expenses in
connection with the games with teams in other cities. A company
^







FIG. 18.— CLUBHOUSE AND S W I M M I N G POOL OF A TE X TIL E C OMPAN Y




FIG. 19.— BASEBALL FIELD OF A SO UTHERN COTTON M IL L

OUTDOOR BASKET BALL

47

which has 17 teams in two plants is not called upon to support them
as the teams are able to make expenses, but the sports are in charge
of an industrial service director paid by the company and are arranged
for on company time.
Regularly organized teams among the woman employees, while not
common, were found in a number of instances.
In a good many cases where there are no organized teams in a
plant quite a large number of the employees play at noon and after
working hours.
The interest in the games varies with the degree of skill of the
players, but frequently the number of spectators averages several
hundred, and in cases where there is a grand stand or stadium there
may be several thousand present for the more important games.
Although baseball is the most popular game, diamond ball, hand
ball, speed ball, kitten ball, and volley ball also enjoy considerable
popularity. Several girls' diamond ball teams were reported, in one
case the company furnishing uniforms and equipment and paying
the entrance fee in the municipal league. Volley ball seems to have an
increasing degree of popularity, as 28 of the companies visited pro­
vide volley-ball courts, the number of courts in the different plants
ranging from 1 to 12. A company in the South which provides
two courts, one for white and one for colored employees, has three
white and five colored teams. In order to stimulate interest in the
game the company gives a dinner to the white team winning the larg­
est number in a series of 21 games, while a case of soda water is
given each week to the winning colored team. Where volley-ball
courts are provided a relatively large number of employees, both
men and women, seem to be interested in playing.

Football and Soccer
TpORTY-ONE companies maintain one or more soccer or football
teams. While soccer has not been so well known as other forms
of athletic sport in this country, it is the national game in many of
the European countries and is rapidly gaining in popularity here.
It would seem from the reports to be a much more popular game now
than football among plant employees, and industrial soccer leagues
have been formed in many localities.
A textile manufacturing company has one professional team play­
ing in the American Soccer League. A large machine shop has a
team in this league and another machine shop has eight interdepart­
mental teams and one organized company team. An electric light
company in one of the large cities has a team in the city league, and
an automobile company has a soccer team which has a national
reputation, while a large iron and steel company has a team which
goes to Switzerland and other parts of Europe for games each year,
all the expenses being paid by the company.

Outdoor Basket Ball
ASKET BALL appears to
game than when played
courts were provided by the
patronized by the employees.
one court was provided and a



be much less popular as an outdoor
indoors, but in several cases outdoor
company and these courts were well
In a number of instances more than
few teams were members of a league.

48

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

Rifle Teams
/CONSIDERABLE interest seems to be manifested in the gun
^
clubs, for which an outdoor rifle range is usually provided, as
there were 19 gun clubs or rifle teams reported. The membership in
these clubs ranges from 12 to 300. In a machine shop, which has a
very active club with a membership of 125, the firm gives a banquet
once a year to the members, and also any help needed. Another
machine shop has a club with 100 members and provides a small club­
house for them. The annual fee for members is $1. A company
manufacturing fine machines and instruments provides both indoor
and outdoor nfle ranges. About 200 men and 50 girls use the ranges
and there is a gun club of 50 for trap shooting. No fees are charged
in connection with this sport. An automobile company has a gun
club of 300 employees and four traps are provided on company prop­
erty. Another automobile company gives $150 toward the expenses
of the rifle team. The employees' association in a company manu­
facturing rubber articles pays for rifles, ammunition, and other ex­
penses of the men's and the girls' team, each of which has six members;
and one of the officials of a railroad company which has a club with
120 members gives a cup to the best marksman, while the company
gives other prizes. A street-railway company on the western coast
has a rifle club of 35 and an archery club of 25, for both of which the
company pays the fee in the city industrial athletic association.
The rod and gun division of a community athletic club in a com­
pany towi* is very active. The club has a small farm devoted to the
raising of pheasants, enough corn being raised by the members for
the winter food of the birds, and the club also stocks the lake and
some of the streams with fish. Another constructive activity of the
club is that of the committee on forestation, which has planted
about 11,000 trees in the past two years.

Quoits or Horseshoes
A GAME which provides good exercise and offers the opportunity
for active participation to a comparatively large number, and
which does not require much outlay beyond the necessary space, is
the game of quoits or horseshoes. Between 40 and 50 of the com­
panies visited provide courts for this game, the number of courts in
individual establishments running up as high as 15 in several cases.
One company which has this number of courts reported that the
game had become so popular that it would be necessary to put in
more courts. One hundred and fifty of the employees of this com­
pany play in a tournament. Another company has lighted courts so
that employees can play at night.

Tennis and Golf
HTENNIS and golf are games which formerly were played chiefly
by the office forces, but with the opening of municipal golf
links and tennis courts in many cities these sports have become some­
what popularized. About 50 companies reported the provision of
tennis courts, the number of courts, where reported, ranging from
one to eight, and in more than half of the cases they were used by
both factory and office employees. In a few instances the employers



FIG. 21.— GIRLS' CLUB FIELD DAY




FIG. 23.— HEADQUARTERS OF EM PLOYEES’ BOAT CLUB




OTHER SPORTS

49

rent outside courts for the employees and one company buys the
balls for the girls who play on public courts and gives them a banquet
at the end of the season.
Thirteen firms provide golf courses, generally a 9-hole course, and
several companies have a putting green only. Usually the golf
courses are used by both factory and office workers. An annual golf
tournament is quite often held and frequently there are a large num­
ber of entrants. Although the golf clubs are usually not very large,
one is reported with 1.200 members and two others have 400 and
500 members, respectively.
In order to promote friendly relations between the factory and
office employees, an automobile company hires a professional to give
them golf lessons, as the firm is very anxious to have contact between
these two branches of their factory. In one company town the
community club has a 9-hole course and the company contributes
toward its upkeep an amount equal to that paid in by the employees.
A member can play golf for $3 a year and everything necessary for
playing can be purchased for $5. Sets of clubs are lent to any
employee wishing to try the game before investing in clubs.

Other Sports
TCE hockey and field hockey are played in a number of instances.
A One company provides an ice skating rink which operates on a
regular schedule so that all will have a chance to use it. The esti­
mated attendance during the last season reported was more than
4,000. Other companies flood the tennis courts or other suitable
places in winter and keep them in condition. A paper manufacturing
company which has a pond used for skating furnishes the suits for
the hockey team, and an ice carnival is held each winter at which
prizes are given by the company for stunts and fancy skating.
There were two boat clubs reported, one with 75 and the other with
250 members. The smaller club is located on the ocean and the
larger one on one of the Great Lakes. In the first instance the com­
pany furnishes a small clubhouse for the members, a membership
fee of $1 per year being charged. The other club is practically selfsupporting, although the company furnishes a place for club meetings.
A fishing club with 200 members was reported by one of the large
rubber companies. The lake is stocked with fish by the company
and sometimes the club has as many as 60 boats out at a time.
Two companies report cricket teams. In one case 125 play and a
fee of $1 a year is charged, and in the other case 25 to 30 play.
Bowling on the green is reported by four companies; two camera
clubs are reported, one with 50 and the other with 250 members; and
an unusual club, in which there is a good deal of interest, is a beagle
club, which has 100 members, with sometimes 120 dogs taking part
in their meets.
In only two cases was the game of squash reported. A shoe
manufacturing company has two courts in a special building. The
courts have a small gallery between and the building contains a
reception hall, a nicely furnished lounge and reading room, and
shower baths and dressing rooms. There is a charge of 25 cents per
half-hour for players, which covers also the use of the showers and the
club building. About 100 employees play.




50

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

An automobile club of 1,000 members is a feature of the community
work in one well-organized company town. The dues are $3 a year
in addition to the $10 a year paid for membership in the community
club, which has charge of all the social and recreational work of the
company’s employees. The club is very active in securing improved
roads and signs and maintains an information bureau, and a supply
of tents and camping equipment is available for members for week­
end or vacation trips.

Employees’ Athletic Clubs or Associations and Athletic Fields
npHE various athletic features are managed in the plants of 59
1
companies through an athletic club or association, composed
usually of a large proportion of the employees, and in many other
companies an athletic committee has charge of the different sports.
In cases where there is an organized club moderate dues are usually
charged, while frequently the proceeds of various social affairs dur­
ing the year go to the athletic association. The dues of the athletic
association, where it is an entirely distinct organization, range
usually from $1 to $3 per year, but where the fee covers social and
other activities as well as athletics it may be considerably higher.
In the larger plants these associations often have thousands of
members and their work is thoroughly organized under competent
directors.
A mining company on the Pacific coast has a central council of
workmen, elected by popular vote of the employees, which has super­
vision over all the employee activities including the athletics, but
directors are appointed in each of the mining camps to assist in the
formation of baseball and football teams, to organize boxing contests,
etc. The company assists in financing these activities.
The athletic affairs of a company in the Middle West with approxi­
mately 17,000 employees are in charge of an athletic-recreation staff
and coach. The company says that, “ Given a square-deal manage­
ment, industrial amateur athletics organized on a businesslike basis
will promote plant morale quicker than any other single method.”
This company has an athletic field with grand stands seating approxi­
mately 10,000. Under the main grand stand are locker rooms con­
taining several hundred lockers, and showers are also available there.
There are six tennis courts, four baseball diamonds, horseshoe courts,
a fine cinder running track, and a fully equipped playground for
children of employees. Scheduled baseball games are played regu­
larly during the season and the girls’ teams play one evening each
week.
A New England company with about 1,800 employees, whose plant
is located on the coast, has all the social and athletic work centered in
a club, for which the company has provided a very beautiful club­
house, an athletic field with grand stands, a community house, and a
children’s playground. The club, which has 640 members, manages
all the athletics, and the dues, covering all the club activities, amount
to 10 cents per week per member. Observing that the employees
enjoyed a dip in the ocean at noon the company built two bathhouses
and hired a swimming teacher. Towels and bathing suits are
supplied at a small cost and the families of employees are free to use
these facilities. More than 10,000 make use of them in a season.




FIG. 24.— ONE OF T H E




HOTELS AT A S U M M ER

RESORT M A IN T A IN E D
U T IL IT IE S

FOR T H E

EM PLOYEES OF TH R E E PUBLIC

FIG. 25.— C O M M U N IT Y




HOUSE AND T E N N IS COURTS M A IN T A IN E D
EMPLOYEES

BY A SUGAR

R E FIN IN G C O M PAN Y AND

ITS

ANNUAL PICNICS AND OTHER OUTINGS

51

An electric light company with about 6,500 employees maintains
a fine clubhouse and recreation grounds of 67 acres for the use of its
employees. The club is located outside the city limits but is easily
accessible to all. There are facilities for baseball, golf, tennis,
picnics, and dancing, and there is a playground for the children of
employees. There are no dues, every employee is a member of the
athletic association, and the club and grounds are for the use of the
families as well as all of the employees. This part of the personnel
work has been a gradual growth, each phase of the work having been
developed to meet the needs.
Another public service corporation with about 7,500 employees has
a club which conducts the social and athletic activities of the com­
pany. The membership fee is $2 per year and the company con­
tributes an amount equal to the dues paid in by the employees.
About 50 per cent of the employees are members. While the club
is closely allied with the company, it conducts its own affairs through
a board of governors elected annually by the employees and through
the various committees appointed by the club president. The
athletic activities of the club include basket ball, baseball, swimming,
handball, and tennis, and there are several track teams among the
employees of both sexes.
The athletic committee of a company with about 2,000 employees
arranges a program of varied attractions for one week in August each
year. The features include a band concert, exhibitions of various
sports including water sports, horsemanship, etc., a circus, a field
meet, a baseball game, an exhibition of boxing, and fireworks on the
last evening. Some of the events draw a crowd of from 5,000 to
8,000, and it is estimated that 15,000 people participate in the week's
activities.
A company which manufactures a product requiring many skilled
workers has a pay roll of about 2,300, and of this number 2,000 belong
to the athletic association, the dues for which are 50 cents a year.
The factories are surrounded by several acres of well-kept grounds
and there is an athletic field with a grand stand seating 1,200, which
was built by the company at a cost of $25,000. Committees
appointed for each sport are under a director, who tries to get as
many of the employees as possible who are not on the organized
teams to take part in the noontime games. These include volley
ball, quoits, outdoor basket ball, baseball, hockey, and bowling on the
green.
A department store in the heart of one of our large cities has an
athletic field on the roof of the store, which is used both during the
lunch period and after hours. There is a circular running track
with 10 laps to the mile, a 60-yard straightaway track, 2 tennis
courts, and basket-ball, handball, and volley-ball courts.

Annual Picnics and Other Outings
TV/I ORE than 170 companies report that an annual picnic or field
day is held for all the employees, while in many of the plants of
these and other companies various outings are held either by depart­
ments or by special groups. The annual picnic is frequently a very
elaborate affair and is attended by practically the entire working
force and the families as well, the plant usually being shut down for




52

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

the entire day. The numbers attending many of these annual
outings are very large. A company in the Middle West with about
17,000 employees holds a Labor Day picnic for employees and their
families at which from 50,000 to 60,000 are present. There are
various athletic events and interdepartmental contests for which
prizes are given. The company pays the entire cost of the day’s
outing. A paper company with about 800 employees has given an
annual picnic for employees for the past 20 years. The picnic is
usually held at an amusement park near the city. The company
furnishes transportation, dinner, tickets for amusements, and other
entertainment, at a cost of about $5,000. This company also gives
a steak roast at the end of the annual safety contest between its two
plants to the employees of both plants and members of the com­
munity.
A publishing company with about a thousand employees takes all
its employees and their husbands or wives on a river excursion to a
mountain resort, the transportation and all other expenses of the
trip, including lunch and dinner, being paid by the company.
While many companies, like the ones cited, pay the entire costs of
the outing, others pay for certain features only or make a cash
donation toward the expenses.
Many companies call their annual outing a field day, which is
rather an elastic term, as it covers a variety of forms of entertain­
ment and sometimes safety contests as well as athletic events.
A field day held by a large machinery manufacturing company is
open to the public and the attendance runs up into the thousands.
There are races and all sorts of games; exhibits of poultry, vegetables,
and flowers; and other special attractions. Admission is free, but
there are charges for some of the events and the proceeds are used for
the upkeep of the clubhouse.

Country Clubs or Summer Camps
T^IRMS which provide country clubs or camps for their employees
^
do so for the purpose of furnishing a place where employees may
either spend their vacations or go for week ends, or holidays, or daily
to take part in the various sports. These country places are often
situated where there are many of the natural advantages for outdoor
recreation, but if not such facilities are provided.
In addition to the 33 companies which provide clubhouses for these
purposes, several maintain a home in the country where employees
or members of their families who are convalescing from illness or
who are in need of a rest can go to recuperate.
Woman employees of a company having several large plants in
different sections of the country may spend their vacations at a camp
maintained by the company on a beautiful lake in the mountains.
It is a country estate of 45 acres with fine woods, traversed with
mountain trails, rising up from the lake, and there are accommoda­
tions for 60 girls at a time in house tents built for two persons each.
The tents have heavy canvas walls and each tent is fitted out in white
enamel, is screened, and has electric lights. There is a central camp
dining room, and there is also a lodge which has a fine floor for
dancing. The camp is in charge of a house mother who has general
supervision of the girls and there is a supervisor of athletics and




COUNTRY CLUBS OR SUMMER CAMPS

53

one of play. All sorts of sports and games are provided, and there
is of course, swimming in the lake.
A textile company, which purchased and remodeled an estate on
the outskirts of the town for the use of its employees, includes among
its recreational facilities a dancing pavilion and an outdoor swimming
pool. The pool, the main part of which is 50 by 100 feet, has a
section with shallow water for the use of the children. Shower baths
and locker rooms are provided and a life guard is in attendance during
the summer.
A cotton mill has a summer camp in the mountains with cottages
for officials and for mill employees. The houses have electric lights
and running water and are fully furnished. There is a small lake
with rowboats and a gasoline launch, and there is a baseball ground,
tennis courts, and volley-ball courts. A central community building
has a large assembly room. There is no charge for the cottages,
which the employees use for week ends or for vacations. The com­
pany sometimes sends the employees up in company trucks if they
have no other means of getting to the camp.
A meat-packing company maintains a summer camp of more than
a hundred acres of land, located on a lake, at which nearly 300 men
and women can be taken care of at one time. The camp has three
large buildings with modern kitchens, dining halls, and spacious living
rooms, and is open three months each year. Office girls and women are
invited to visit the camp for a week end during the season, the expense
of the trip, including transportation, being assumed by the company.
Woman plant employees who have been with the company one year
or more are given a week’s vacation at the camp at the company’s
expense. For others who spend their vacation there a charge of $10
a week is made. The attractions of the camp include boating,
bathing, tennis, and other sports, and a social worker is engaged
during the season to supervise the recreation. The average attend­
ance during the season is 50 a week for vacations and 100 more for
each week end. It costs the company approximately $10,000 a year
to maintain the camp.
A public utility company in the Middle West provides a clubhouse
in the country for the 900 woman employees of the company. The
house, which is in charge of a hostess, is used throughout the year for
vacations and for week-end trips. The rates are very low— $3 per
week, $1.25 for week ends, and 50 cents for dinner. There is a small
lodge for convalescents near the clubhouse, at which 15 to 20 girls
are taken care of during the year.
Three public utility companies with approximately 20,000 em­
ployees cooperate in the maintenance of a summer resort for their
employees. The property has a 2-mile lake frontage and there are
two large hotels, a men’s club, and 68 housekeeping cottages, and tents
having floors and provided with bedding and other necessaries are
available for those wishing to camp. The cottages are completely
furnished and electrically lighted and are equipped with electric cook­
ing apparatus. There is a 9-hole golf course; an athletic field with
baseball diamond, tennis, croquet and horseshoe courts, and a bowling
green; a pier (inclosing a swimming pool) for boating and bathing,
and a dance pavilion. The rates charged employees for the various
types of accommodations are less than the prevailing rates in similar
resorts, as it is planned to run the place at cost. During 1925 more
76340°— 28------ 6



54

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

than 30,000, including employees, their families, and friends, were
entertained at the resort.
Ten stores and offices provide summer camps for their employees.
In most cases the prices charged range from $7 to $10 per week, but in
some cases the rate is reduced for those earning less than a certain
amount. In one case the farm is used as a summer vacation resort
and as a convalescent home in the winter. Another company main­
tains a summer camp for all its employees, and the junior employees,
who receive systematic physical instruction, are required as part of
their regular store duty to spend two weeks there each summer.
This company has a clubhouse for the athletic association of one of its
stores at an ocean beach within a short distance of the city. All
employees of the store are members of the association, no dues or
fees being charged. The clubhouse has dormitories with 18 to 20
cots each, a dining room where meals are served at nominal cost,
billiard rooms, etc. There are tennis courts and a training track on
the grounds and a 300-foot beach for bathing. The athletes of the
club are under the training of a physical director, and many of them
have gained national and international prominence in different track
events.
Another store purchased a summer camp 10 miles from the city,
which is now owned and governed by the employees. The company
contributes liberally to the upkeep of the property, which consists
of 90 acres, with accommodations for 150 people. The camp is only
a 10 minutes’ walk from the street car, and during the summer
busses are run between the city and the camp. There is a mess hall;
the sleeping quarters are modern tents accommodating from 4 to 6
each, and there is running water, shower baths, etc. The recreation
tent has a large floor for dancing, and there is a separate play tent
for children. Wives of employees, their children, and dependent
parents are allowed employees’ rates at the camp. A number of
the employees live there during the summer, making the trip to town
each day.
A company with about 120 employees in a small New England
town has a club within a short distance of the town which affords
opportunity for remarkably well-organized community life. There
are more than 80 acres of land, which were originally cleared to give
employment to some of the men during a period when work was
slack, and there has been a constant development since that time.
There is a large picnic grove with play equipment for the children;
tennis, volley-ball, and basket-ball courts; grounds for quoits and
croquet; and a dancing pavilion. The camp is well lighted with
electricity so that all these facilities can be used at night. There is
a swimming pool 300 by 100 feet, with diving boards and chutes,
and a wading pool for children. A swimming instructor is
employed, who supervises the pool and has separate classes for the
men, women, and children. Once a week a picnic is held, which is
very popular. A dinner is served at cost, or employees may bring
their lunches, although they all eat together. There are several
cottages, which are rented at a nominal rate. During the summer
bus service is maintained, a 3-cent fare being charged. There is
absolutely no class distinction at the camp, and it is used by every
employee and by the families; many guests are also entertained there.
The friendly spirit present is said to have been responsible for many




COMMUNITY RECREATION

55

cases of social development among individual employees who had
not had opportunity for such contacts before. The camp is run by
the employees’ club, although the company keeps it in condition and
adds features as needed. The camp is also a bird sanctuary. The
company hired the high-school boys to make bird houses, and those
birds that stay through the winter are fed regularly.

Community Recreation
f ) N E of the outstanding developments in the recreation movement
^
during the past decade has been the organization of adult recre­
ation along community lines. The movement is an outgrowth of
the children’s playground movement, which started nearly 40 years
ago, and a growing number of cities and industrial communities have
realized the advantages resulting from the provision of recreational
facilities under trained leadership which are shared by all members
of the community. In many cities and towns where this service has
been put into effect the industries of the locality have cooperated
with the community organization, while in some cases the industries
combined to provide the recreation and it was afterwards taken
over by the city. More than 20 industrial and community organiza­
tions were visited in connection with the present study, and in most
cases their activities included both outdoor and indoor sports. In
some cities the employees of the different industries are organized
in teams according to the particular plant in which they work, while
in others the emphasis is on the community and teams are organized
on this basis, with a frequent regrouping so that interest will not be
lost through knowledge of the relative capability of the teams and
the probable outcome of the games. In a number of instances the
provision for the recreation of the workers is through the industrial
Y. M. C. A. or Y. W. C. A., to which the individual employers
subscribe.
An example of the organization of a community largely made up
of foreigners in which the industries developed recreational and
health services which were later taken over by the city is that of the
Ironbound Community and Industrial Service of Newark, N. J.
This organization represents a section known as the Ironbound dis­
trict, covering an area of about 3 square miles in the heart of the
industrial section of the city. About 75 per cent of the 90,000
residents of this district are foreign born or of foreign parentage, and
all but about 10 per cent are employed in the industries of the sec­
tion. The work was inaugurated about 1920 and for the first four
years was financed by 40 of the largest industries. Since that time
it has been part of the “ community chest” plan of the city and
receives a percentage of the funds raised for the city organizations.
Two doctors and several nurses hold various clinics at the com­
munity house, and there are two visiting nurses who supervise the
health of the families in the homes. The recreational and other
health facilities provided in the clubhouse include a gymnasium and
various game rooms, a reading room, a rest room for women, and
shower baths for both men and women. The indoor athletics include
bowling and basket ball, there being a large number of such teams,
and noon mass recreation meetings have been organized by the asso­
ciation in a number of factories. For these noon meetings the com­




56

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

panies furnish the equipment and the space needed, and the associa­
tion trains leaders and directs the sports. Among the organized
outdoor sports are baseball and soccer. A field day with a track
meet and other sports is held each year and all the industries give
their employees a half holiday for this event. The organization has
been handicapped for lack of space for outdoor sports, but the
manufacturers’ association of the district has been active in having a
bill passed appropriating funds for the purchase of a 20-acre tract to
be used for this purpose so that this need will be met.
The officers of the organization and the board of trustees are
chosen from men employed in the different industries. For the use
of the recreation rooms and gymnasium an annual fee of $5 is charged.
Industrial workers need pay only half of this as the industry where
they are employed will pay the other half, but the majority prefer to
pay the entire fee themselves.
In Paterson, N. J., the industrial athletic association is an out­
growth of the movement for adult recreation fostered by the city
board of recreation, and the work of the two departments is so
closely allied that it is difficult to separate them. The association
promotes competition in many sports, using the city outdoor facili­
ties, while in the winter it has the use of several finely equipped
public-school gymnasiums for the men’s and women’s basket-ball
and volley-ball teams. There are about 125 plants— representing
approximately 25,000 workers—which are members of the associa­
tion. The fee is $5 per year for each plant, and sustaining or indi­
vidual membership, with fees amounting to $18 and $25 a year, may
be taken by individuals or by firms who are particularly interested in
the athletic program. Through these fees the association is in the
main self-supporting, although a small admittance fee is charged
for some of the games, dances, and other recreational features.
There is also a girls’ recreation club, made up principally of em­
ployed girls over 18 years of age, which is largely devoted to indoor
sports. Athletic meets, combining events for the militia, indus­
trials, and high schools, are arranged by the director each winter.
These meets attract large groups of spectators. Although the
athletics among the working people are fostered by the industries,
the tendency in the organization of the different sports has been away
from industrial affiliation and toward organization by church or
other groups. The industrial soccer league, for example, was dis­
continued and a church league with 20 teams was formed, and there
were two independent leagues with 6 teams in each league. There
were, however, in 1925 three industrial baseball leagues, each with
eight teams.
In Baltimore, Md., also, according to the director of the play­
ground, an effort was made in the league to tie the athlete to the
neighborhood or school, then to the church or lodge, and last of all
to the industry. There was, however, in this city a soccer league
made up of teams representing eight companies and girls’ and boys’
industrial basket-ball leagues made up of five or six teams each.
In Johnstown, Pa., where there is a very elaborate recreational
program for both children and adults, the athletics and recreation
are on a community basis, although a large proportion of the partici­
pants are workers. While the children’s work is particularly stressed,
there were six baseball leagues playing on municipal grounds, the







FIG. 26.— PLAYGROUNDS AND TE N N IS COURTS IN A M IN IN G C O M M U N IT Y




FIG. 27.— M IN IN G C O M M U N IT Y PLAYGROUND

COMMUNITY RECREATION

57

spectators numbering anywhere from 2,000 to 10,000 each evening
during the summer. A large swimming pool is used by thousands of
adults. In 1926 the city had under construction a stadium with a
seating capacity of more than 17,000 and a park of 140 acres con­
taining a 7-acre athletic field and swimming pools.
In Cleveland, Ohio, there are a large number of baseball and
basket-ball teams which are financed by the community fund but
are organized by industries. There are 16 firms which have baseball
teams and 122 companies which have indoor baseball played out­
doors or playground or diamond ball. Thirty-two firms have basket­
ball teams in the league, employment for 30 days and for 30 hours a
week being a requirement for membership on the team.
A playground and recreation association in the mining section of
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., covers in its activities about 160 square miles,
including besides the city, which is the center of the organization,
26 mining towns ranging in population from 5,000 to 20,000. The
association has a yearly program for both adults and children which
is thoroughly organized and covers athletics, music, drama, handi­
crafts, and a variety of social activities, and reaches about 280,000
people. The work is in charge of a director and two assistants,
and during the summer playground work a special staff of 90 persons
who have had special training and experience is employed. The
work for the children is planned so that each week represents some
particular activity.
There are a number of organizations within the association, one of
which, the Store Employees’ Association, has about 5,000 members.
Membership in the association is not confined to store employees,
but 51 different establishments and a number of industries are also
represented. The program of the association is both social and
athletic. In 1925 it included girls’ and men’s bowling teams, base­
ball, basket-ball, swimming, dancing, and week-end camp outings.
About three-fourths of the members of the association take an active
part in the various sports and social events.
The industrial recreation association of Portland, Oreg., had a
membership of 53 firms in 1925. There were four baseball leagues,
with six teams in each league. Each team plays 10 games during
the season and at the end of the season the winners in each league
play for the championship. The firms pay the umpires and for equip­
ment. There were two basket-ball leagues, which followed the same
plan of playing off the games, and the companies were each assessed
$40 at the beginning of the season to cover floor expenses. Em­
ployees of 20 firms were interested in playing horseshoes and 14
each in golf and tennis. For the latter two games the players made
their own arrangements for playing, but each firm paid a certain
amount toward a trophy. A t the end of the season the employees of
the company which had the highest number of winning teams in all
sports were presented with a silver cup. The attendance at the games
varied from 250 to 1,500 and it was estimated that approximately
120,000 persons attended the baseball and basket-ball games during
the 1925 season. The players are on an amateur basis and no ad­
mission is charged for the games.
The industrial athletic association of Oakland, Calif., works in close
cooperation with the city recreation department. The motto of this
organization is “ sport for sport’s sake,” and an effort is made to have



58

CHAPTER V I.— OUTDOOR RECREATION

the largest possible number become active participants in the games,
while the practice of a small number of star players repeatedly repre­
senting their firms is not tolerated. Close cooperation between
employers and employees is secured through the representation of
both on the recreation committees. The employers’ dues range from
$5 to $25, according to the number of employees in the plant, but
no dues or fees are charged employees, all of whom are considered
active members.
Championship tournaments are held at the end of the season for
the various sports, and varied entertainments are given throughout
the year, most of which are free. The big event of the year is the
sports carnival held annually in March at the municipal auditorium.
Usually about 3,000 people participate and there are about 10,000
spectators. The recreation program includes noon-hour activities at
the plants, such as volley ball, baseball, tennis, quoits, etc., an attempt
being made to get a large number of participants, and for rainy
days there are suitable indoor group games, music, and dancing.
Then there are late afternoon sports and also an evening program of
games, dancing, dramatics, and orchestral and choral practice, while
there are also classes in English, economics, etc. On Sundays and
holidays there are hikes, picnics, and week-end trips. There are about
10,000 active participants in the different activities. In developing
this industrial recreation program three fundamental purposes were
kept in mind: First, democracy; second, plant spirit and good fellow­
ship; and third, wholesome recreation; and the aim has been to
develop leaders from within the ranks who could carry on the work.
In introducing sports during the noon hour the recreation director
says that volley ball has proved to be an excellent opening wedge,
as it is exciting, snappy, can engage a large number of players, and can
be played almost anywhere. Letters sent to a selected number of
employees and employers who had actively participated in the sports
program or had assisted in developing it, asking for their personal
reactions to it, brought unanimous indorsements as to the physical
benefits, the promotion of a spirit of good fellowship, and the develop­
ment of improved plant morale.
The experience of these cities is cited as typical of the attempts
being made in many cities and towns to meet the need for organized
play among factory and office employees. With the increasing spe­
cialization in manufacturing processes and the consequent monotony
and dulling of interest on the part of the workers it is imperative
that a systematic effort be made to furnish an incentive to such work­
ers, and nothing, it seems, can better meet this need for self-expression than the friendly rivalry and interest furnished by competitive
sports and games.




CHAPTER V II—DISABILITY FUNDS
UTUAL benefit associations are frequently maintained by the
employees of an establishment without any assistance from
the firm or with only the promise of financial aid by the com­
pany if a deficit should occur. These associations have been excluded
from this report as being practically independent organizations. On
the other hand, the associations which have been included vary
greatly as to the extent of the assistance rendered by the firm. In
some cases this takes the form of clerical assistance only, while in
others the company pays a percentage of the expenses, gives the
association a stated sum, or in a few instances maintains the fund and
pays all the costs of operation as well. The details asked for in the
study of industrial benefit associations were the amount of the firm’s
contribution, the amount of dues brought to a monthly basis, the
amount of the weekly sick and accident benefits and of death benefits,
the number of sick, accident, and death benefits paid, and the amount
paid out in benefits in the latest fiscal year.
Benefit associations in which some material assistance was given
by the firm, either in the operation of the fund or in the payment
of benefits, were reported by 214 companies. One hundred and
seventy-seven of these establishments, with a total of 993,252 em­
ployees, reported on the association membership. In these 177
associations, the membership was 758,067, or 76 per cent of the
total number of employees. This may be considered quite a high
percentage, as in many cases there is a period varying from 2 weeks
to a year after employment before an employee is eligible for
membership.
The dues charged vary according to the proportion of the expenses
paid by the employer and the amount of the weekly benefits. In
nearly half of the associations, however, the dues range between 25
and 75 cents per month, while in 81 cases the dues vary according to
wages or amount of benefits, but, in general, keep within these limits.
Fifty-six associations report that an initiation fee is charged. These
fees vary from 25 cents to $2, the usual fee being $1, and in addition to
the entrance fee many of the associations charge a fee of $1 or $2 to
cover the cost of the physical examination.
Disability benefits in most cases cover both sickness and accident
but usually exclude cases of sickness or injury which entitle the
employee to payments under the workmen’s compensation laws of the
different States. Since most of these laws do not provide for pay­
ments for the first week or the first two weeks of disability, the plans
frequently provide for payments for the period intervening between
the date of injury and the date of the first payment of workmen’s
compensation benefits. In a few cases, however, employees are paid
for disability occurring as a result of employment. The mutual
benefit association of an electric power company, for example, allows
one-half pay for each secular day of disability for a period not to
exceed one year from the date of the accident.

M




60

CHAPTER V II.— DISABILITY FUNDS

Tables 7 and 8 show, by industries, the number of establishments
having benefit associations, the membership, the number of associa­
tions classified according to monthly dues and to benefits paid, and
the number of firms classified according to the percentage of ex­
penses contributed by them.
T able

7 . — Establishments

having benefit associations, membershipy and number of
associations classified according to monthly dues, by industry
Establishments reporting
membership in benefit
associations

Industry

Manufacturing:
Automobiles___________________
Boots and shoes_______________
Chemicals, soap, and allied
products_____________________
Clothing and furnishings_____
Electrical supplies_____________
Fine machines and instru­
ments________________________
Food products...............................
Foundries and machine shops.
Furniture______________________
Gold and silver ware__________
Iron and steel_________________
Oil refining____________________
Ore reduction__________________
Paper__________ _____ _________ _
Printing and publishing______
Rubber________________________
Slaughtering and meat pack­
ing_____________________ ______
Textiles______________ _________
Miscellaneous___________ ______

Estab­
lish­
ments
having
N um ­
benefit
ber of
associ­ N um ­ em­
ations
ber
ploy­
ees

Num ­
ber

25
50
75
and and
cents
Per
Vary­
$1
un­
un­
and
ing
cent
and
der
der
un­ over sums
of
50
75
total
cents cents der $1
em­
ploy­
ees

42,114
16,227

90
74

5
1

6
9
11

3
6,290
7 12,075
9 100,603

5,057
9,856
66,502

80
82
66

1
7
3

8
32
3
2
5
2
3
7
5
3

7 30,140
3,947
5
28 102,938
3
3,070
2
3,605
4 34,780
1
5,978
2
4,620
7,699
6
5
7,725
3 15,919

21,633
3,243
72,505
1,029
2,955
34,371
2,518
3,667
5,858
5,231
11,304

72
82
70
33
82
99
42
79
76
68
71

3
*3
17
2

1
7

2

1
1

2
14
10

2
13
7

39,956
19,480
8,558

82
73
80

2
4

3
2

119 493,862 372,064

75

42

24

6

10

44

9,872
1,704

85
67

3
1

2

1

1

3
2

3 276,620 233,214
6 44,929 31,972

84
71

1

1

1
5

2
1

1

6

12

6 1
_____
1 1

1
1

20

19

81

G

Total.............................................

140

M i n i n g ...___ _____ ________________
Offices........... ............... .............. ...........

10
6

Public utilities:
Steam railroads......... ....... ...........
Electric r a ilr o a d s .___________
Gas, electric light and power,
telephones and telegraph...

Association
members

46,569
22,040

8
4

3
8

8
4

N um ber of associations whose
dues per month were—

7
2

48,500
26,639
10,725

11,596
2,534

2
2

1
1
1
1

.

5
1
1

1

2
1

4
1

1

13

13

63,882

64

24

22 421,348 329,068

78

3

Stores______________________________
Other industries__________ ______

31
3

25
2

Grand total_________ ______

214

99,799

60,022
3,890

42,989
2,370

71
61

4
1

177 993,252 j758,067

76

2 51

1 Including 1 establishment in which the dues are under 25 cents.

* Including 2 establishments in which the dues are under 25 cents.




36

4
2
10
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
4
2

9

2

T otal...........................................

1
2

3
1
4

8

'

61

MEMBERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT OP ASSOCIATIONS

T able 8.— Weekly and death benefits of establishment funds, and proportion of
expense borne by firms, by industry

Associations report­
ing benefits per
week of—

Associations reporting
death benefits of—

Firms paying toward ex­
penses of associations—

Industry
$7
Un­ and $10 Vary­ U n­
der un­ and ing der
$7 der over sums $100
$10

Manufacturing:
Automobiles...........................
Boots and shoes................ _.
Chemicals, soap, and allied
products_________________
Clothing and furnishings. _
Electrical supplies________
Fine machines and instru­
m ents. ..................................
Food products......... ..............
Foundries and machine
shops.....................................
Furniture.................................
Gold and silver ware...........
Iron and steel.........................
Oil refining..............................
Ore reduction_____________
Paper__________ ______ _____
Printing and publishing...
R u b b e r .................................
Slaughtering and meat
packing__________________
Textiles__________ _________
Miscellaneous_____________

?
3

4
1

4
?

1
?

5

1

3
10
1
1
2

9

1

2
1
1
3
1

2
3
5

2

5
1
1

1

3
1

$100
and
un­
der
$200

12

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
2
1

1
1

1
1

4

1

4
3
1

1
1
1

2
4

1
7
4

2

1
1

34

11

28

32

47

18

1

2
1

1
2

1
1

1
3

2
1

1

2

Grand total_____________

18

1
1

1

2
2
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1
1

5
2
1

1
3

4

"I

4

3
4

10

1
1
1

5
4

2
2

—
—

1
2

19
2

3
3

1
2

3

4
3

3
1

2
1

2
2
5

9

23

15

25

11

16

73

2
2

1
3

2
1

1

9

6

12

3

3

1
3

26

5

11

2

36 | 45

88

25

45

17

3
2

4

4

1

4

1

10

5

21
1

26

109

3
1

2

1

6

3

7

2

8

3

2
14

3
1

3~

4

2

4
1

1

~2
~

2
5
1

1

1

Stores__________________________
Other industries_______________

3

0

a

1

3
2

16

T otal...................................

4
1
2
1

2

T otal....................... .............

4

1
2

2

M ining______
______ __
Offices_________________________
Public utilities:
Steam railroads___________
Electric railroads__________
Gas, electric light and
power, telephones and
telegraph________________

1
2

50
and
No
un­ 100 Flat
fixed
der % sums
sum
100
%

1

2

4

3
9
1
1
1
2

U n­
der
50
%

2

3
1
2

$200
and $300 Vary­
un­ and ing
der over sums
$300

39

5
2
45

11
7

17

3

Employees of the large railroad systems are not, in general, subject
to the workmen’s compensation laws, and these have well-organized
relief departments which receive substantial assistance from the
companies. Compensation for disability from accidents occurring in
the service varies for the different classes of membership and is paid
for a period of 52 weeks and at half these rates thereafter, during the
continuance of the disability.

Membership and Management of Associations
Q F THE companies reporting on the membership and management
^
of the associations, 31 stated that membership was compulsory
or that employees were expected to join the association. In the




62

CHAPTER VII.— DISABILITY FUNDS

latter case, even though there is no definite rule to this effect, strong
indirect pressure is brought to bear upon employees to become mem­
bers. In some plants membership in the association is automatic;
that is, employees become members as soon as employed; while in a
few cases employees are required to join, if eligible, after a waiting
period, usually of 2, 3, or 6 months. One company which does not
require employees to join nevertheless gives preference to association
members by retaining them when laying off men, while another com­
pany requires employees to join the association if they wish to ben­
efit by the provisions of the group-insurance plan.
Among the companies in which no pressure is exerted upon
employees to join the association there is very often a waiting period
before a new employee becomes eligible. Fifty companies reported
the length of time required before eligibility; of these 26 have a
waiting period of one month after employment, 20 from two to six
months, and 2 one year, while 2 companies require less than one
month. In several cases, however, in which membership in the
benefit association is optional the workers are allowed to join as soon
as they are employed. A number of the associations require appli­
cants for membership to be approved either by the membership as a
whole, by the officials of the organization, or by the board of direc­
tors before they are allowed to become members.
Membership in these societies, especially the larger ones, is fre­
quently conditioned on passing a physical examination, in which case
the examination may be given by a physician specially employed for
this purpose or the employee may choose one of several designated
physicians. In a number of cases the medical department of the
plant works in close cooperation with the benefit association and in
such cases the plant physicians examine applicants for membership;
in a few instances the medical department is turned over to the ben­
efit association to manage.
In associations not requiring a physical examination it is customary
for the prospective member to sign a statement to the effect that so far
as he knows he has no disease which would debar him from member­
ship. The penalty for making an untrue or fraudulent statement
of this character is forfeiture of membership in the association.
In the event the physical examination reveals some condition
which would ordinarily debar the applicant from membership, some
associations admit him if he receives a majority vote of the board
of directors or other officials on the condition that he exempts the
association from liability for ailments for which such conditions may
become responsible.
The management of the benefit associations is participated in
largely by employees except in those cases where the funds are
financed entirely by the companies. Many of the associations are
managed by the employees alone while some stipulate that one or
more of the offices shall be held by company officials. In large
plants with many departments it is usual to divide the representa­
tion among the different departments so that there is equality of
representation in the management of the association.




PAYMENT OF BENEFITS

63

Length of Membership Required Before Becoming Eligible for
Benefits
T^HE length of time which must elapse before the member is eligible
A for benefits was reported by 103 of the associations. In 27 of the
societies members are entitled to receive benefits as soon as their
application for membership is approved, while 40 have a waiting
period of four weeks, 5 of two months, 11 of three months, and 2 of
six months. In the remaining 18 cases the period varies from 3 to
15 days or is fixed for the first day of the month following admission
to membership. In a few cases, although there is a waiting period
for sick benefits, employees are eligible for accident relief at once,
and several associations require a longer period of membership before
death benefits are paid than for sick and accident benefits.
The length of service required by companies which pay the entire
costs of the disability funds varies for the companies reporting from
30 days to 2 years. A metal manufacturing company in the South,
which has a large proportion of negro employees pays benefits to
each employee absent on account of sickness who has been in the
service of the company 30 days. The payments, which are made
for each day lost from work over six working-days, amount to half
of the average daily wages for the 30 days preceding the sickness,
with a stated maximum, and in case of death, unless caused by vio­
lence or accident covered by the workmen’s compensation act, the
company pays $100.
Another company manufacturing metal products maintains a fund
which pays benefits after six months’ membership. The benefits
cover sickness of both employees and their dependents and include
both hospital and medical care. It is necessary for an employee to
pass a physical examination before being admitted to membership.
The affairs of the association are administered by the usual officers
and a board of trustees who are elected annually from the different
departments of the plant.
A large oil-refining company maintains a fund from which disability
and death benefits are paid after one year’s employment. The
length of time for which sickness benefits are paid in any one year
increases with length of service from a minimum of 6 weeks for 1
year’s service to 52 weeks for service of 10 years and over. A large
rubber company in the East pays sickness and nonindustrial acci­
dent benefits to factory employees who have been in the continuous
service of the company for three months or more. Disability bene­
fits vary according to length of service but may not exceed 70 per
cent of the average wage of the employee during the preceding three
months, the length of time for which benefits are paid varying from
7 to 52 weeks. The death benefit ranges from $200 for service of
three to six months to $1,000 for service of five years or more.

Time Between Beginning of Disability and Payment of Benefits
THHE necessity of guarding against the feigning of sickness or the
*• making of slight illness an excuse to be absent from work is
*
undoubtedly the reason that so large a proportion of the associations




64

CHAPTER V II.— DISABILITY FUNDS

do not pay from the beginning of sickness. Many of these associa­
tions which provide for a waiting period in cases of sickness pay
from the date of injury in accident cases, since the risk of malingering
in cases of injury is generally not so great. Of 143 associations
reporting on the number of days intervening between the beginning
of the disability and the payment of benefits, 92 pay after 6 to 8 days7
disability, 6 pay from the first, 18 pay after the third day, 6 pay after
4 or 5 days and only one waits as long as 10 days, while a number
pay from the first if the disability lasts a stated length of time.
The maximum time for which benefits are paid in any 12 months
varies greatly. Twenty associations pay for 10 weeks, 45 for three
months, 34 for six months, 9 for one year, and 29 for various frac­
tions of a year, while 7 pay for various periods according to length
of service. Eight associations report that benefits are paid for more
than one year, in five cases the length of time being unlimited.

Forfeiture of Membership
TN TH E majority of the associations membership is forfeited upon
A leaving the employ of the company, but in a number of cases it
may be retained under certain conditions. Only one company
reports that membership may be retained unconditionally, but a
number allow members to remain in the association for the death
benefit and in several they may remain several months during
furlough or suspension, while it is a quite general provision that
membership may not be terminated while a person is receiving bene­
fits. One association refunds 50 per cent of the dues to any person
leaving the association for any reason whatever if no sick benefits
have been paid to date, or, if the sick benefits paid amount to less
than 50 per cent of dues, the difference between the benefits paid and
that amount is refunded.

Number and Amount of Benefits Paid
Table 9 shows the sick and accident and death benefits paid during
the fiscal year preceding the date of the schedule covering the asso­
ciation. The benefits paid for sickness and accidents are shown
together, because few of the firms reported on these items separately.




NUMBER AND AMOUNT OP BENEFITS PAID
T able

65

9.— Number of benefit cases and amount of benefits paid by associations, by
industry
Sickness and accident benefits

Industry

Manufacturing:
Boots and shoes...................
Chemicals, soap, and
allied products......... .......
Clothing and furnishings.
Electrical supplies_______
Fine machines and in­
struments._____________
Foundries and machine
shops___________________
Gold and silver ware_____
Iron and steel____________
Ore reduction____________
Paper_____________________
Printing and publishing..
Rubber................. .................
Slaughtering and meat
packing_________ _______
Textiles. ............................ .
Miscellaneous.......................
T o ta l. ................................
M ining, ........................................
Public utilities:
Steam railroads......... .........
Electric railroads_________
Gas, electric light and
power, telephones and
telegraph. .........................
Total...................................
Stores...................... ..................... ..
Other industries.........................
Grand total____________

Death benefits

Associations
reporting

Associations
Aver­ reporting
N um ­
N um ­
Aver­
Total
age
Total
ber of
ber of
age
benefits bene­
benefits
cases
cases
benefits
N u m ­ M em ­
fit N um ­ M em ­
ber bership
ber bership

2 13,86C

2,982 $230,143 $77.18

2 2,657
2 1,300
9 66,502

900
137
9,430

12,730 14.14
2,064 15.07
612,276 64.93

5 14,525

2,617

16 52,365
2 2,955
3 22,795
2 3,667
4 5,125
531
3
2 7,200

7,595
650
2,018
1,275
889
120
883

415,908
21,489
118,343
25,990
35,958
6,223
36,988

56,455 21.57

2 39,956
5 10,859
4 3,810

6,700
3,896
633

227,479 33.95
94,536 24.26
25,207 39.82

54.76
33.06
58.64
20.38
40.45
51.89
41.89

63 248,107 40,725 1,921,792 47.19
3

3,926

1,734

50,907 29.36

3 242,464 81,047 3,019,994 37.26
2 5,110 2,455
43,728 17.81
10 31,430

6,857

472,351 68.89

1,000

8

$693

$86.63

1 1,935
2 1,397
9 66,502

1

9
1
383

1,200
200
65,716

133.33
200.00
171.58

6 21,321

104

22,475

216.08

20 60,541
1 2,000
2 19,998
2 3,667
3 3,239

208
12
142
30
18

42,750
960
17,200
10,810
9,300

205.53
80.00
121.13
360.33
516.67

2

4,704

26

3,900

150.00

3
1

6,667
1,400

29
4

2,100
600

72.41
150.00

53 194,371

974

177,904

182.65

22

19,386

881.14

2 242,464 2,203 1,681,162
21
2 5,993
6,050

763.12
288.10

2

3,237

8 25,317

148

164,293 1,110.09

15 279,004 90,359 3,536,073 39.13

12 273,774 2,372 1,851,505

10 14,420
3 1,400

11 19,424

2,911
881

73,262 25.17
9,700 11.01

94!546,857 136,610 5,591,734 40.93
1

79

780.57

6,950

87.85

78 490,806 3,447 2,055,745

596.39

In addition to the cash benefits which are the principal features of
the benefit funds, a number of the associations do constructive work
in promoting healthful conditions among employees and in furnishing
medical and hospital care for them. A power company on the eastern
coast provides the services of a health officer who cooperates with the
organization in furthering health measures for employees, advises
employees, makes inspections in case of sickness, and gives physical
examinations to employees. Treatment in case of sickness is obtained,
however, by the employees from their own physicians. Other
associations provide medical and surgical care, treatment by special­
ists including X rays and various necessary laboratory tests, and
nursing service.
It seems evident from the number of benefit associations and the
degree of interest shown by the firms in the operation of the funds
that these societies are regarded as of considerable importance to the
welfare of the employees, and several firms stated they considered the
employees' benefit association to be one of the most helpful factors in
their plan of industrial relations.




CHAPTER VIII.—GROUP INSURANCE
ROUP insurance, although a comparatively recent development

G

in the field of industrial relations, has each year become of
increasing importance. From 1911, when group insurance
was first written, up to 1916, the movement progressed fairly steadily,
the amount of insurance in force December 31,1912, being $13,172,198
and on the same date in 1916, $152,859,349. However, after 1916, the
amounts of group insurance being written increased so very rapidly
that at the end of 1926 more than 75 companies were writing this
form of insurance and it was estimated that the insurance in force
amounted to $5,600,000,000.
In the earlier study only 32 of the companies visited had inaugu­
rated a group insurance plan, while in the present study 186 com­
panies with 672,468 employees were found to have such a plan in
effect.
Tables 10 and 11 show the number of employees covered by group
insurance for those establishments reporting on insurance coverage,
and the number of plants which provide group insurance, by industry
and by size of establishment:
T able

10.— Number of establishments having group insurance and number of
employees covered by insurance in plants reporting

Industry

Manufacturing:
Automobiles and air­
planes....... .........................
Chemicals, soap, and al­
lied products....................
Clothing and furnishings.
Electrical supplies.............
Fine machines and in­
struments..........................
F o o d ..______ _____________
Foundries and machine
sh o p s.......... .......................
Furniture..............................
Iron and steel........... ...........
L e ath er.................... ...........
Ore reduction......................
Paper_____________________
Printing and publishing.
Rubber goods.....................
Slaughtering and meat
packing...............................

66




Coverage of
group insur­
Estabance
lishments
hav­ Com ­
ing
pa­
Em­
group nies
ployees
insur­ re­
ance port­ covered
ing

6

5

60,118

3
4
16

2
4
11

11,693
2,227
73,777

5
9

3
6

5,924
4,430

22
3
2
2
2
6
3
5

16
2
2
2
2
4
2
5

32,102
2,134
7,753
2,292
2,064
4,639
892
37,776

2

2

8,600

Industry

Establishments
hav­
ing
group
insur­
ance

Coverage of
group insur­
ance

Com­
pa­
Em ­
nies
ployees
re­
covered
port­
ing

Manufacturing— Continued.
Textiles____________ ______
Miscellaneous____________

19
20

17
12

16,020
17,089
289,530

Total...................................

129

97

M ining........................... ..............
Public utilities:
Steam railroads..................
Electric railroads................
Gas, electric light and
power, telephones and
telegraph............................

2

2

4,795

2
10

2
6

20,936
30,028

11

8

40,002

T o ta l...................................

23

16

90,966

Offices..........................................
Stores...................... ........... ............
Other industries............. ...........

12
15
5

5
8
4

9,651
4,514
4,345

Grand total____________

186

132

403,801

67

STATE REGULATION
T able

11.— Number of companies having group insurance, by size of establishments
and by industry
Num ber of establishments having classified number of
employees
Industry
200
201
or un­ to
300
der

Manufacturing:
Ant.nrrmhilfis q.nd Airplanes
nhftminals, snap, and allied products
Plotting and furnishings
Electrical supplies______________________
Fin a machinfts and instruments. ...
Food
_________
Foundries and machine shops_________
Furniture
Iron and steel
Leather
___________
Ore reductiom
Paper
Printing and publishing_______________
Rubber goods
_
_
Slaughtering and meat packing________
Textiles_______________________ _________
Miscellaneous................................................
T otal....... .......... ...........................................

301
to
500

501
to
700

701
to
1,000

1,001
to
2,500

5,001
or
over

6
1
2
3
1

1
1
5
1
1
2

1
1

2

2
3
1

1
6

1

2
1
1
1
22

129

5
2
r
3

1

1

1
1

1
2
1

1
2
1
2

1

2
4

1
2

9
5

5

21

9

14

35

18

1

5

5
3

1
1
1
4

1

1

T otal..............................................................

1

4

Total

6
3
4
16
5
9
22
3
2
2
2
6
3
5
2
19
20

1
1
3
2
2
5
2

2

M ining
Public utilities:
Steam railroads_________ ______________
Electric railroads_______________________
Gas, electric light and power, tele­
phones and telegraph..............................

2
2
5

2
10

1

1

Offices_______________________________________
Stores_______________________________________
Other industries
____________________ _
Grand total................. - - - .........................

2,501
to
5,000

5

6

2

3

5

11

1

2

7

12

23

1
1

2
3

4
6
4

2
4

2
1
1

12
15
5

22 1 11

20

52

32

38

186

State Regulation o f Group Insurance
A T FIRST no definite rules were laid down for the writing of
group insurance except those outlined by the individual in­
surance companies, but with the increase in group-insurance policies
and the consequent necessity for State regulation, a definition had
to be formulated. The following definition as given in section 101a
of the insurance law of New York State is the commonly accepted
interpretation of group life insurance. It has been adopted by the
National Convention of Insurance Commissioners and has been
incorporated into the laws of some other States.
Group life insurance is hereby declared to be that form of life insurance cover­
ing not less than 50 employees, with or without medical examination, written
under a policy issued to the employer, the premium on which is to be paid by
the employer or by the employer and employees jointly, and insuring only all
of his employees, or all of any class or classes thereof determined by conditions
pertaining to the employment, for amounts of insurance based upon some plan
which will preclude individual selection for the benefit of persons other than
the employer: Provided, however, That when the premium is to be paid by the
employer and employee jointly and the benefits of the policy are offered to all
eligible employees not less than 75 per centum of the employees may be so insured.
76340°— 28------- 7




68

CHAPTER V III.— GROUP INSURANCE

Reasons for Inaugurating Group Insurance
T^HE usual reason given by employers for taking out group insurance
is the desire.to show their appreciation for faithful and loyal
service. It is probable, however, that one of the primary reasons
with many employers, at least at first, was the idea that it would
contribute to the stability of the working force. Again, it was also
considered desirable to provide this protection for employees, since
many of them, either through carelessness, inability to pass the
physical examination, or because of the expense, did not carry any
insurance, and in such cases when an employee died the company
frequently had to assist his family or the “ hat was passed” among
the employees and the collection used to relieve the family's distress.
In spite of its increasing popularity it has been questioned whether
group insurance has affected the labor turnover to any considerable
degree, since it is in the main the older employees, who are unlikely
to change their place of employment anyway, who are most interested
in the plan. No data were secured on this point, but it seems to be
true that life insurance generally has little appeal for young persons,
and it may not be of great importance, therefore, as an inducement
to the younger employees to remain with a firm, although the exten­
sion of the insurance to include disability and endowment features
will undoubtedly make it much more attractive to them.
Of the firms visited in connection with the survey, only 10 had
discontinued group insurance after having tried the plan. Among
the reasons given in the different cases were that it was too expensive
for the results obtained, and that there was a lack of interest and ap­
preciation. One firm, after trying group insurance for six years,
gave it up because the average age of the employees made the pre­
miums too high, while another considered that the benefit associa­
tion “ did more good " and therefore discontinued the insurance
plan. On the other hand, a large railroad gave up its mutual benefit
association upon the adoption of group insurance, and one other
establishment substituted a contributory plan for the free insurance
because the employees wished to pay part of the cost.

General Provisions Governing Group Insurance
^ H E earlier group life-insurance policies provided for payment of
a lump sum in case of death, the amount of the insurance
usually ranging from $200 to $1,000 and frequently increasing with
each year of service from the minimum to a certain fixed maximum.
As the workers came to realize the value of group insurance, however,
many desired to obtain larger benefits, and additional insurance
was offered the employees at a very low rate. In order to secure
this additional insurance, 75 per cent of those eligible are required
to make application, and the group is also required to maintain at
least 75 per cent of all the eligible employees.
In many cases it was found that insurance which was paid for by
the employee, wholly or in part, was more appreciated than that
which was received as a gift, and the tendency, therefore, in the last
few years has been toward the contributory plan. About 1922 and
1923, when group accident and sickness policies were first written as
part of majiy group life-insurance policies? the contributory features




GENERAL PROVISIONS

69

became even more marked. In many establishments the employer
arranged for combination group life, sickness, and accident insurance,
part of the premium to be paid by the worker, while in other cases
the employer paid for the life insurance and the employee paid for
the sickness and accident insurance. With the combination of endow­
ment savings and life insurance, the contributory plan is almost
inevitable, since such types of insurance have for their primary pur­
pose the encouragement of thrift on the part of the worker, and for
this reason some employers prefer such a plan to a pension system
which has been thought to have some tendency to discourage thrift.
A few plants consider group insurance so important for the workers
that the contributory form is compulsory after a certain period of
service. In 1925 one insurance company, which wrote over a billion
dollars of group insurance in that year, found that 95 per cent of its
policies were written on the contributory basis.
In the majority of group-insurance policies written, no medical
examination is required if application is made within a stated period
after the employee becomes eligible, but in a few States such exam­
ination is a requirement of the State law.
The method of issuing group insurance is to give the employer a
master policy covering the lives of all employees, or all those coming
within a certain class under a predetermined schedule of insurance
benefits, and certificates stating the benefits, such as amount of insur­
ance, conversion privilege, and disability provisions, are given to each
employee.
One of the features of most group-insurance policies which appeals
strongly to the worker is the disability clause, which provides that
the worker, if totally and permanently disabled before he reaches
the age of 60, shall receive the amount of his insurance either in a
lump sum, or in installments, or in case of death before the total
amount has been paid the remainder is to be paid to his beneficiary.
In practically all plants an employee upon leaving the company has
the privilege of converting his life insurance to an individual policy
without medical examination, at the rate for the class of risk to which
he belongs and for his then attained age.
When group insurance started, many companies gave policies to
their employees at the date of their employment; but as it was found
that the labor turnover was greater among those who had been
employed for short periods, many firms, in order to reduce the clerical
work as far as possible, instituted a service requirement. Of the
companies reporting on this point, 8 require 1 month’s employment;
4, 2 months; 46, 3 months; 45, 6 months; and 43, 1 year before
giving the insurance. Thirteen companies make group insurance
conditional on membership in the mutual benefit association of the
plant, which often has a service requirement embodied in the con­
stitution; two plants make membership in the employees’ club a
requisite for eligibility. Six plants reported that there is no service
or membership requirement and that on employment a worker auto­
matically becomes eligible. One plant, which has no service require­
ment, limits the insurance to men.
The amount of life insurance varies greatly. In a few plants the
plans provide for a flat sum whether the premium is paid by the
employer alone or jointly by the employer and the employees, but
in the majority of the plans, the initial amount of insurance is $500




70

CHAPTER VIII.— GROUP INSURANCE

or $1,000, the policy increasing according to the years of service until
a stated maximum is reached. Of 17 companies which give a flat
sum, 9 place the amount of insurance at $1,000 and 5 at $500, while 3
have different amounts for men and women, 1 fixing insurance for men
at $2,000, and for women at $1,000, the other 2 at $1,000 for men and
$750 for women. According to the provisions of eight of these plans
the workers pay part of the premium; one plan is noncontributory,
the entire premium being paid by the employer; two plans are closely
allied with the benefit association; and six do not state whether or
not the worker contributes to the cost.
Some companies have a group-insurance plan under which a year’s
salary is given, with usually a stated maximum. A few plants arrange
for the worker’s salary to ^continue for a given number of weeks, the
number often depending on the years of service. Occasionally a
percentage of the worker’s annual salary is given after one year,
with a larger percentage after each year of service until 100 per cent
is reached.
The usual minimum is $500, although 22 plants had a minimum
under $300 and 23 between $300 and $500. Eighty-three had a
minimum between $500 and $600, 12 between $600 and $1,000, and
33 between $1,000 and $1,500.
The maximum amount of group life insurance starts at $500 and
goes up to $5,000 and even $10,000. Twelve companies report a
maximum between $500 and $1,000, 56 between $1,000 and $1,500,
36 between $1,500 and $2,000, 46 between $2,000 and $5,000, and
18 over $5,000. In the case of executives, the maximum may be as
high as $10,000.
Forty-one companies stated that the plan of group insurance is
contributory; that is, part of the cost is paid by the worker. Eight
of these plants connect the plan with the mutual benefit association.
Any differentiation according to age seems to be extremely rare.
One establishment, where the arrangements are made through the
savings and beneficial association, has a rate per month of 90 cents
per $1,000 up to and including age 39, and of $1.25 up to and including
age 48. Rates for higher ages are furnished when requested. A
worker may apply for $1,000 if he has had less than 5 years’ service,
for either $1,000 or $2,000 after 5 years’ service, and $1,000, $2,000, or
$3,000 after 10 years’ service or more. Occasionally the cost of addi­
tional insurance depends on the age of the worker.
Group sickness and accident policies in most cases exclude indus­
trial accidents; but in the few States where there are no workmen’s
compensation laws and in the case of railroad employees who do
not come under such laws, the policy is often written to include
industrial accidents and a slightly higher premium is paid.

Types of Insurance Plans
'T 'H E details of the plans put in effect by different companies vary
according to the particular conditions the employer wishes to
meet and the extent of his financial support of the plan. Some
examples of the different types of plans are as follows:
An insurance company having over 900 employees gives them an
insurance policy amounting to 35 per cent of their annual salary
after one year’s service, 60 per cent after two years, 80 per cent after




TYPES OF INSURANCE PLANS

71

three years, and 100 per cent after four years, with a maximum of
$2,500.
A large hotel, with over 1,300 employees, provides life insurance
for its workers who have been on the pay roll six months, giving a
minimum policy of $500 and increasing the policy $100 each year
until it reaches $3,000. Another hotel, with 2,300 employees, gives
a sum equivalent to the yearly wage after one year’s service, with a
minimum of $300 and a maximum of $3,000.
A taxicab company, with a pay roll of over 1,200, arranges, for
employees who have been in service three months, group life, acci­
dent, and sickness insurance, with minimum life insurance of $300
and maximum of $1,000 to $1,400 according to the service period,
and a weekly indemnity of $10 for 13 weeks in case of sickness or
accident disability.
One machine shop, having over 450 workers, gives an $800 lifeinsurance policy after six months’ service, $1,000 after one year,
$1,200 after two years, with a maximum of $2,400. Another machine
shop, with a force of 300, provides a $100 life-insurance policy after
one month’s employment and increases the amount by $100 each
year until a maximum of $1,500 is reached.
A paper-manufacturing concern, with 135 employees, after six
months’ employment insures its workers for $500, increasing the
amount $100 each year until the maximum of $2,000 has been reached.
A food-products company, with a force of 120, insures all those
who have had three months’ service for $300, increasing the amount
$300 each year until the maximum of $3,000 is attained.
An automobile plant, with about 8,000 employees, insures its
workers when they are employed for $1,250; after six months’
service, for $1,500; after one year, for $1,600; increasing $100 each
year until after 20 years’ service the maximum of $3,500 has been
reached. This insurance is available only to the members of the
employees’ aid association. The company contributes a little less
than one-third of the amount of the premium. The management
considers that group insurance has been a very important factor in
contributing to better attendance and a more stable force.
A furniture plant, having over 1,000 employees, gives $300 insur­
ance after three months’ service, increasing the amount to $500 after
one year’s service, and allowing $100 increase per year up to a maxi­
mum of $1,000 after six years’ employment, and states that group
insurance was not installed to reduce labor turnover but as an edu­
cational measure.
A manufacturing concern which has 1,700 employees arranges to
give $500 insurance after two months’ service, with an increase of
$100 per year up to $1,000. The company pays 60 per cent of this
insurance and the workers 40 per cent.
A department store, with 825 employees, has provided a compre­
hensive group-insurance plan since June, 1925, arranging for every
employee with 30 days’ service to take out $1,000 group life insur­
ance and disability benefits of $10 a week for 13 consecutive weeks
after the third day of disability caused by illness or nonoccupational
accident. The policy goes into effect 15 days after signing the card.
The cost of this insurance, including life, sickness, and accident, is 30
cents a week for women and 35 cents a week for men.




72

CHAPTER VIII.— GROUP INSURANCE

Sickness and Accident Provisions
In some instances protection in cases of sickness and accident is
considered such a wise provision by the employer that members of
the mutual benefit association, participation in which is compulsory,
are required to take out insurance for this purpose.
In one plant the employer has completed arrangements by which
members are furnished with the services of competent physicians
and surgeons. Under the policy full hospital attention, laboratory
analysis, X rays, or services by eye, ear, nose, and throat specialists are
not provided for, but such work as removing tonsils, and dentistry,
care of the eyes, etc., can be done by specialists at greatly reduced
prices. During total disability caused by accident or sickness not
covered by the compensation act, 65 per cent of the wage loss, with
a maximum indemnity of $18.20 per week and a minimum indemnity
of $6.83 per week, is paid to the worker. Accident benefits are paid
for 52 weeks and sickness benefits for 26 weeks, but indemnity is
paid for the first 7 days of disability only when the worker is disabled
beyond 22 days. No death benefit is paid, except $100 for nonoccupational accident. The company pays one-half the cost of the
insurance; the cost to the worker does not exceed 25 cents and ranges
from 13 to 24 cents per week. Under certain conditions medical and
surgical attendance is furnished for the immediate dependents of the
insured employee. If the worker wishes this service for those depend­
ent upon him, their names and their relationship to him must be
stated; in such cases medical attention is not given until 30 days
have elapsed after such notice has been given. The company feels
that there has been a marked improvement in the matter of general
health since the inception of the plan and a decided reduction in lost
time. The tendency for general health and vigor to vary with seasons
or in periods of epidemic apparently has been controlled to an impor­
tant extent by the careful supervision of the members of the insured
group. In comparing the second active year of the plan with the first
a decrease of 17.1 per cent in the average number of claims per month
was observed, and the length of the average case was shortened 23 per
cent. The reduction of the average claim was from $61.77 to $46.17,
or 25.3 per cent, and the total lost time was reduced 34.7 per cent.
Employees of another plant can obtain insurance against sickness
or nonindustrial accident at a cost of 75 cents a month. The plan
provides for disability indemnity of one-half the weekly earnings,
but not less than $8 nor more than $18 a week for 26 weeks, with
the payments beginning on the eighth day.
The plans in force in a number of plants arrange for payments
ranging from $10 to $15 a week for periods of 13 weeks, 26 weeks, or
occasionally 52 weeks, and in other cases the employees are divided
into classes according to salary, and receive weekly benefits of $8,
$12, $16, $20 or $24, according to the class to which they belong.
Where this insurance is given free, the weekly benefit is often based
on the years of service and represents a fixed percentage of weekly
earnings for a given period— often 26 weeks.
Many insurance companies send out health literature, have
physicians give health talks, and sometimes include nursing service.
This work has been very effective in reducing lost time and in itself
is considered by some employers to justify the cost of the premium.




TYPES OF INSURANCE PLANS

73

Since many of the medical departments in the factories emphasize
accident rather than medical work, and are sometimes installed pri­
marily to keep down compensation costs, the emphasis on preven­
tive medical work through the group sickness and accident insurance
is a very valuable service.
Insurance Plan of a Large Hardware Manufacturing Company
One company, which bears the entire expense for both group life
and group accident and sickness insurance, put into effect the fol­
lowing plan in 1923 for all workers who had been in the service of the
company six months: The employees who have completed six
months’ service are insured for the minimum amount of $500,
which automatically increases $100 per year until the maximum of
$1,500 has been attained. In the event of the employee’s death
from any cause while his policy is in force, the insurance is paid to the
person named as beneficiary, either in a lump sum or in installments,
depending upon the conditions surrounding the individual case.
If an insured employee becomes permanently and totally disabled
by bodily injuries or disease before his sixtieth birthday, the amount
of his life insurance is paid to him in installments, and in case of
his death before receiving all such installments, the remaining
installments are paid to his beneficiary as they fall due. Under
the plan, permanent total disability is defined as including loss of
both eyes, or loss of use of both hands, both feet, or one hand and one
foot. The permanent total disability benefit is entirely independent
of and in addition to any benefits provided by the compensation
laws, or any weekly indemnity the employee may be entitled to under
the group accident and sickness policy.
In addition to the life insurance given by the company, an employee
of six months’ standing also receives a weekly indemnity in the event
of total temporary disability lasting more than seven days. Benefits
will be paid for sickness, for which the employee is attended by a
physician, or in case of accident occurring away from work, but
payments will not be made for any disability caused by war or riot or
by riding in or handling aircraft of any kind, nor if the disability
occurs outside of the United States or Canada or north of the sixtieth
degree of north latitude.
In case of disability covered by the insurance, the employee will
receive one-half his average weekly earnings (averaged over the 12
weeks immediately preceding disability), except that in no case shall
the weekly indemnity be less than $8 nor more than $18. No
benefit shall be paid for more than 26 consecutive weeks of disability
and no indemnity shall be paid for the first 7 days.
If an employee is away voluntarily for a period of 10 or more con­
secutive working-days without leave of absence while the insurance
is in force, the company reserves the right to consider such voluntary
interruption as termination of employment. In this case such an
employee on reentering the service is considered a new employee.
Each employee is given an individual certificate stating the amount
of life insurance to which he is entitled under the policy. If he
leaves the company for any reason whatsoever, he is entitled to have
issued to him by the insurance company without medical examination
a policy of life insurance in any of the forms customarily issued by
that company, except term insurance, in an amount equal to that



74

CHAPTER VIII.— GROUP INSURANCE

of his life insurance at termination of employment. Application for
this insurance must be made within 31 days. The premium will be
that applicable to the class of risks to which he belongs and to the
form and the amount of the life insurance policy at his then attained age.
The company also made arrangements for its insured employees
when ill to have the benefit of the visiting nurses' association of the
community, so that employees may be enabled to return to work in
the shortest possible time.
The company states that it adopted the plan at the suggestion of
the plant industrial council and thinks that it will be to the advan­
tage of the company “ through increased good will between it and
its employees through constancy, continuity of service, and through
loyalty to the company's interest on the part of the employees and
their families, who are the immediate beneficiaries under the plan."
In the booklet announcing the plan attention is called to the fact
that the action of the company in paying the entire cost of both
forms of insurance, requiring no medical examination, is voluntary
and constitutes no contract with any employee and confers no legal
rights upon him.
Life, Sickness, and Accident Indemnity Plan of a Public Utility Company
Some companies give $500 group life insurance to their employees
after they have been in the service a definite time, often six months,
and as the length of service of the employee increases the amount of
insurance grows also. An electric light company in the Middle West
increases this amount of insurance after 4 years to $750, after 10
years to $1,000, and for each additional year over 10 the insurance
is increased $100 up to a maximum of $2,500. This death benefit is
in addition to any payment under the workmen's compensation law.
Additional life insurance may be taken out at a very low cost, with­
out medical examination, if taken out within the second six months
of employment.
At the same time and through the same insurance company an
opportunity is given the employees to take out accident (nonoccupational) and sickness insurance for a very small sum, since the
company makes an appropriation to cover part of the cost of in­
surance. This is open to employees having six months' service.
The amount of weekly indemnity and quarterly premium is based
on the rate of pay and is as follows:
W eekly
benefit

W eekly wage

Under $15____ __ _______ __
$15 and under $20___ __
$20 and under $25____
$25 and under $30_ _
_
$30 and under $35_ _ _ _ _ _
$35 and under $40_____
$40 and under $45 _ _
$45 and over_________

__________
__________
__________
_ __________
__________
__________
__________
__________

$7.
10.
12.
15.
17.
20.
22.
25.

50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00

Employee’s
quarterly
payment

$1.70
2. 25
2. 95
3. 54
4. 13
4. 73
5.32
5.91

Plan for Endowment Savings and Life Insurance Combined
Another recent adaptation of the group-insurance idea is a com­
bined endowment savings and life-insurance protection plan. Some
employers feel that this form is preferable to pensions given by the
company, since it encourages thrift on the part of the employee.



TYPES OF INSURANCE PLANS

75

Under such a plan in force in one company there are several
options: Plan I provides life income combined with insurance;
Plan II, straight insurance protection; Plan III, 15-year endowment
or cash payment.
Though the principle object of Plan I is the accumulation, through
small deposits, of a fund to provide an income later, the life-insurance
feature plays an important part, for it provides in advance a fund
or estate which it would require many years’ savings to accumulate.
In case the employee becomes totally and permanently disabled by
sickness or accident, the insurance company will pay at the rate of
$34 for each $500 of insurance until $680 in cash has been paid.
The company contributes to the plan, giving a proportion of the
premium based on years of service, as follows: 1 to 5 years, 10 per
cent; 5 to 10 years, 15 per cent; 10 to 20 years, 20 per cent; 20 to 30
years, 25 per cent; over 30 years, 30 per cent.
Under Plan III life insurance of $500 is provided, and an endow­
ment or cash payment of $500 after 15 years. Participation in this
plan is restricted to employees from 16 to 35 years of age. In case
of disablement, $5 a month for each $500 insurance is paid; and in
case of death, the face value of the policy is paid to the beneficiary.
The company makes the same contribution as under Plan I.
Under Plan II group life insurance is provided for those who wish
straight life insurance without cash or loan values or investment
features. It is restricted to employees under 65 years of age. The
rates increase as the insured grows older, but the company cooperates
under this plan to the extent of paying the increase in the rate from
year to year, so that the insured continues to pay the initial rate of
premium as long as he remains in the employ of the company, up to
age 65. If the employee remains in the service until 65, has faithfully
continued his payments, and has made payments for 5 years or more,
the company promises to reimburse him for all payments which he
has made under the plan, or if the employee elects to continue his
insurance after age 65 and waive the refund the company will continue
to contribute yearly as long as he remains in service an amount equal
to the last contribution made before reaching 65 years.
If the insured leaves the service of the company, he may before
reaching age 65 convert his insurance without medical examination
to any life or endowment plan offered by the insurance company, or
if he desires he may change to Plan I and make his payments direct
to the insurance company, or he may continue to make payments
under Plan II direct to the insurance company at the rate required
according to his age. In case the employee later returns to the
employ of the company, the company contributes the increase in
the rate thereafter and if he remains until 65 refunds the total
payments made by him from the date of his last return.
Under this plan if the insured becomes totally and permanently
disabled by either accident or illness before he becomes 60 years of
age, no further payment is required, and the insurance becomes
payable immediately in 20 annual installments of $68 each per
$1,000 of insurance. In case of death before receiving the full
number of payments, the balance will be paid to his heirs.
In all three plans a brief medical inspection is required at the time
of insurance.




CHAPTER IX .— EDUCATION

A

N ATT E M P T is made by many firms to improve the general
intellectual condition of their employees and to offer an oppor­
tunity for advancement to the more capable and ambitious
among them. The educational and cultural opportunities offered
employees vary greatly. In a considerable number of instances the
firm plans to provide instruction in almost any subject for which
there is a demand, and a number of companies have a well-arranged
series of study courses designed to furnish ambitious employees the
opportunity to progress in the business or industry. A number of
firms, however, do not find it feasible or advisable to furnish the
instruction but cooperate with the public schools or pay the tuition
of employees who reach a certain standard in their studies or in their
attendance at classes in other schools or colleges. In addition to the
classes and lectures the plant library, particularly if it is a technical
one, forms a valuable adjunct to the educational work.
The vast majority of workers, either through inclination or neces­
sity, enter the ranks of industry before they have finished a high
school course, and every year many thousands of children go to work
who have not completed work beyond the fifth or sixth grade. Many
of these young people start work in “ blind alley” jobs, and unless
they are given the opportunity and encouragement to supplement
this minimum of education they face, in the majority of cases, a
future with little prospect of advancement. It seems evident, there­
fore, that in employing these young workers employers incur some
degree of responsibility and while, as the study shows, many employers
have taken an active interest in this work it is probable that only
a small percentage of the workers who stand in need of further
education are reached.

Company Libraries
HTHERE were 127 establishments reported which furnish the books
A for a library, the necessary space for them either in the plant or
a separate building, and attendants. Twenty-six companies maintain
a technical library and 101 companies provide space and an attendant
for a branch of the public library.
There is, of course, great variation in the size of the libraries. In
some cases they consisted of only a few shelves of books, too few really
to be dignified by the name of library, but generally there were several
hundred volumes at least, and many of the libraries ranged in size
from 1,000 to 10,000 volumes, while in a few cases they were much
larger. The very large libraries usually serve the entire community,
or if the privilege of taking out books is restricted to employees and
their families the reading rooms are open to the general public.
The libraries are housed either in some available space in the plant
or if sufficiently large in a separate library building or in the clubhouse
or community house.
It was not possible to secure a very accurate estimate of the number
using the books in most of the establishments, but in those libraries
for which the number of books withdrawn in an average month was
76



CLASSES FOR EMPLOYEES

77

reported the figures indicate that many of the employees take advan­
tage of the opportunity afforded them. Generally there is no charge
for the use of the books, but in a few cases a fee of 5 cents a week is
charged, with a charge of 1 or 2 cents for each day thereafter. These
fees are in most cases, used to buy new books. For the books from
the public libraries only the usual charge for overdue books is made.
In addition to the 101 companies which have branches of the public
library 16 of the companies which have their own libraries also secure
books from the public library for their employees. The size of these
branches varies from 50 to several hundred books, which are ex­
changed at regular intervals. Where a branch of the public library
alone is maintained the books are usually placed in the office, rec­
reation room, or lunch room.
Very complete technical libraries were found in numerous cases.
Such libraries are of course primarily for reference purposes, but
they may be highly useful to the employees as well as to the manage­
ment. In one such library, which contains practically all the ma­
terial needed in the transaction of the business, the current technical
periodicals are routed to lists of employees who need them. “ This,”
the firm says, “ provides a service much appreciated by an ambitious
force, anxious to read and study and to get ahead.” Often the plant
paper is used by the librarian in the effort to extend the usefulness
of the library, new books being listed therein and items printed
calling attention to the kind of service rendered by the library. In
some cases the librarian digests articles of particular interest which
appear in technical or other journals and sends them to the heads of
departments or to others who are interested.
Magazines and periodicals are usually supplied in connection with
the library service, and frequently firms who do not maintain a library
provide in some part of the plant a reading room with periodicals
and daily papers.

Classes for Employees
T^HE educational program for the benefit of workers may include
A both night and day classes and financial help or tutoring for
those taking outside courses, and in addition to this individual assist­
ance there is often very substantial help given in financing the local
schools in towns where the majority of the families are connected in
some way with the industry. One company offers four scholarships
as a memorial for employees killed in the World War. These scholar­
ships amount to $500 a year and are allotted by means of a competi­
tive examination which is open to employees of at least two years’
service or to sons of employees who have been with the company
five years or more. Another company gives six scholarships for a
four-year course at a technical school which are worth $220 a year.
One hundred and fifty firms reported that educational work was
carried on and 48 firms that financial help was given to those taking
work outside. The classes cover many different subjects and often
follow the general lines of the business itself. Thus, iron and steel
plants and foundries and machine shops may have courses in engineer­
ing, mathematics, physics, chemistry, metallurgy, mechanical draw­
ing, and designing. Companies with many office employees give
courses in stenography and typewriting, spelling, and accounting;
stores give instruction in salesmanship, textiles, and advertising;




78

CHAPTER IX .— EDUCATION

and firms having many foreign-born employees provide classes in
English and urge attendance on all non-English speaking workers.
Aside from the instruction furnished in subjects relating more par­
ticularly to the industry, a number of companies^ have classes in
modern languages, history, public speaking, etc., while many provide
domestic-science classes— cooking, sewing, millinery, and the various
handicrafts— for the women in their employ.
Dramatic clubs, orchestras, glee clubs, and bands, which have been
discussed in Chapter V, should be mentioned here, since their cultural
value is of importance both for those who take part and for those who
fill the r61e of listeners.

Technical and Vocational Education
TN SOME cases there is an elaborate educational organization and a
A large proportion of the employees avail themselves of the oppor­
tunity for study, but in many others, even though the opportunity
for improvement is given the employees, comparatively few take
advantage of it.
One company with nearly 20,000 employees has an “ industrial
university” with equipment and teaching force capable of giving
the employees an opportunity to study along any line, the courses
having been planned to accommodate grade-school men, high-school
graduates, and college graduates in their study of this particular
industry. A large building housing the educational, athletic, and
social activities of the company contains 45 classrooms and 3 labora­
tories. There is an apprentice school for machinists in which the
boys are taught all fundamental machine-shop operations. The
course is three years, and the boys alternate two weeks in the shop
with one week in school. Three one-hour periods per week in the
gymnasium are required when working in the shop and five when in
school. There is no charge for books or tuition, but school grades
have a distinct bearing on shop earnings. A continuation school is
rim for employees under 18 years of age who have not completed
high school. For men employed in a supervisory capacity in the
factory or offices there is a foremen's school covering economics,
mathematics, effective speaking, organization and management,
salesmanship, etc. A group of specially selected men who have
finished the eighth grade are given a three years' course covering
all the fundamental operations in the factory, and there is a course
for another specially selected group who desire special training in
engineering production. A training school for a limited number
of boys who have completed high school but wish to secure further
education while working is also conducted. This course requires
three years and during this time three days are spent in the factory
and three days in school alternately. In addition to the training
of these special groups, night classes are held covering elementary
and high-school subjects, and a variety of special courses such as
stenography, salesmanship, industrial management, drafting, account­
ing, etc., are given. For these courses a moderate tuition fee is
charged, part of which is refunded when the course is completed.
The total enrollment at the time the study was made was 650.
A street-railway company with about 10,000 employees had approx­
imately 3,400 employees enrolled in the various courses. These
included common-school and high-school subjects, industrial training,



TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

79

general college work, training in special branches of the railway
business, and a public utility course. A series of lectures on railway
operations, held one evening a week, had an average attendance of
over 500. Credit is given by the colleges in the city and the vicinity
for practically all the advanced and special training courses, as the
course content and number and length of lecture periods agree with
the college requirements.
The “ ow l” classes held by another large company cover, in addi­
tion to the subjects relating to the factory and office, work such as
blue-print reading, business English, free-hand and mechanical
drawing, shop mathematics and salesmanship, classes in health and
hygiene, home economics, embroidery, and millinery. The school
year lasts about six months and the classes are held between the
hours of 7.30 and 9 p. m.
A large machine manufacturing company which had a definite
educational program covering the different branches of the industry
had 570 graduates from the different courses in one year.
In many places students are encouraged to take correspondence
courses, especially if, on account of the nature of their work or the
location of their homes, they are unable to attend the regular classes.
A meat-packing company has, in addition to the other educational
work, several free correspondence courses of its own covering different
plant operations. In other places employees receive assistance in
paying for courses of the regular correspondence schools if success­
fully completed and also are often given needed help in getting their
lessons by men in the plant who are appointed to give this assistance.
In a smelting and refining plant one of the duties of the director of
educational work is to keep in touch with all men taking correspond­
ence courses and to see that each student has some definite person
(preferably some one in the student's department) to give him en­
couragement and assistance when needed. A metal manufacturing
company makes a special effort to provide tutoring for employees
who are taking either correspondence courses or instruction in the
night classes, and employees are allowed as much time from work as is
necessary to secure help on problems they are attempting to solve.
A combination of the apprentice system and the work of the high
schools is found in many establishments. The high-school work may
be supplied by the company itself, or an arrangement may be made
with the local high school so that the shop takes care of the practical
training of the student and the school teaches the theory. This plan
is of advantage to the school as well as to the factory, since it does away
with the need of equipping the high school with expensive machinery.
Continuation school work carried beyond the requirements of the
law is found occasionally. In such cases the compulsory age limit is
extended, making it possible for these workers to secure additional
training. The study is made attractive to the young people in many
cases by the awarding of a certificate or diploma upon completion of
the work and by the prospect of advancement if satisfactory standing
is maintained.
Where the educational work is a real feature of the company
welfare activities it is most often in charge of an educational director,
but it may also be in charge of an educational committee and in a
few cases it formed part of the activities of the employees' mutual
benefit association.




CHAPTER X .—ENCOURAGEMENT OF THRIFT

P

LANS for the encouragement of thrift among employees include
savings and loan funds, building funds, profit-sharing plans,
sale of company stock to employees, vacation and Christmas
savings funds, cooperative buying and discounts on company goods,
legal aid, and advice as to investments and expenditures. One
hundred and ninety-six of the companies included in the survey
reported that an effort was made to get their employees to put some­
thing in the bank each pay day. In the majority of instances this
assistance consisted of deducting from the pay envelope an amount
specified by the employee and depositing it to his credit in his bank or
sometimes arranging for a representative of a bank to be present on
pay day to receive the employees’ deposits. While this may not be
regarded as very definite assistance on the part of the employer, it
does make it easy for the individual employee to maintain a bank
account, and it has the added merit, where the employees themselves
make the deposits, of the example afforded by a large number follow­
ing a plan of systematic saving. In other establishments there is a
savings fund into which the members pay a stated amount each week
and often this fund is used as a loan fund for subscribers. Very often
these funds are in charge of the employees and they are allowed the
necessary time for the management of the fund and for collecting
deposits on pay day.

Types of Savings and Loan Funds
T^HERE are several types of savings funds— credit unions in which
A membership is conditioned on purchasing a stipulated number
of shares of stock; investment funds in which the depositor’s savings
will be invested for him if he wishes; funds in which members are
required to pay a certain percentage of their salary, a stated amount
being paid in to their credit by the company; the regular savings and
loan fund, in which a certain rate of interest is paid on deposits and
from which members in good standing may secure small loans; and
vacation and Christmas savings funds. The last two are planned for
saving for a definite purpose, but they have been found to have a
good effect in teaching the value of systematic saving.
Frequently a very large proportion of the employees of an estab­
lishment are members of the savings fund. A credit union made up
of nearly the entire personnel of a company manufacturing incan­
descent lamps is probably typical of this type of organization. A
small entrance fee is charged, and in order to become a member it is
necessary to subscribe for at least one share of stock, after which the
usual banking procedure in making deposits or withdrawing money is
followed, although the directors may at any time require depositors
to give 30 days ’ notice of intention to withdraw the whole or any
part of a deposit. Members in good standing in the credit union
may secure loans upon written application ana stating the purpose
80



TYPES OE SAYINGS AND LOAN FUNDS

81

for which the loan is desired, the maximum amount loaned to any
member at any one time being $50 unsecured and $200 secured.
This organization is run entirely by the employees, but the employer
pays for the bookkeeping.
A large mail-order house sells thrift certificates to those employees
who wish to purchase them. The certificates are issued in denomina­
tions of $50 and multiples thereof and may be paid for in regular
installments or by deposit at any time. Payments may be made per­
sonally to the cashier, or the paymaster may be authorized to deduct
them from the pay. These certificates which are nonnegotiable,
bear interest at the rate of 5 per cent. Any employee who is the
head of a family and who has saved at least $500 may secure a loan
from this company for the purpose of building or buying a home, and
emergency loans are made to employees on approval of the office
manager.
The savings plan of a gas and electric company was established
for the encouragement of thrift among the employees and to interest
them in the company’s affairs by helping them to become part owners
through acquisition of the company’s stock. The plan permits de­
posits in sums of not less than 25 cents. Five per cent interest,
compounded quarterly, has been paid since the organization of the
fund. Depositors may, from time to time, make arrangements to
have their savings invested in the bonds or capital stock of the com­
pany, but this is entirely optional with them. The fund is adminis­
tered without expense to the employees. A board of 14 trustees, 10
of whom are employee depositors and the remainder company
officials, directs the operation of the fund. More than half of the
4,200 employees at the time of the survey belonged to the fund and
had on deposit more than a quarter of a million dollars. Members
may borrow up to $200 from the fund, the loan to be repaid in
monthly installments within a year.
A corporation with many plants had in 1926 about 36,000 or 54
per cent of all eligible employees, participating in its savings and
investment plan. Under this plan all employees are eligible to par­
ticipate after three months’ service with the company, and em­
ployees who desire to do so may pay into the savings fund each year
an amount not to exceed 10 per cent of their wages or salary, with a
maximum of $300. The corporation pays into this fund on or before
the last day of December each year an amount equal to one-half the
net payments made by the employees which is credited to the account
of each employee over a period of five years. Employees may with­
draw their savings from the fund, plus interest, at any time, but if
they withdraw before the end of five years they forfeit the unma­
tured portion of the money paid in by the corporation. Interest at
the rate of 6 per cent per annum is paid. The funds in the different
plants are divided into yearly classes designated by the year in which
the class was formed. At the end of the period for the 1920 class—
the first five-year class— 8,300 employees received $11,200,000 in
cash and common stock. This was equivalent to a return of more
than nine dollars to one on each employee’s savings. Through the
resources of this fund employees are assisted in buying or building
homes, and in the first six years it was in operation more than 7,000
employees took advantage of this assistance.




82

CHAPTER X .— ENCOURAGEMENT OF THRIFT

A combined savings and profit-sharing plan is in force among all
the branches of a large mail-order house. In order to participate an
employee must deposit 5 per cent of his salary. The company con­
tributes a part of the net profits of the business after certain deduc­
tions have been made, and this contribution is credited to the de­
positors pro rata according to their deposits, with an increase in the
per cent for each five-year service period.
In some plants an “ auto teller,” or automatic saving machine, is
installed. From 25 cents to $25 can be deposited in the machine,
which stamps the amount on the deposit slip and returns the slip to
the depositor. When deposits are made in this way employers do
not know the amount of the individual employee’s savings, a feature
which appeals to many employees. It also has the advantage that
it affords a convenient way of depositing small amounts. A taxi
company reported that drivers find it particularly convenient, as
they deposit their tips at the end of each shift. Another company
stated that various savings schemes had been tried which had not
proved successful, but that the auto teller was used by large numbers.
There were 72 loan funds maintained either by the company or
as a part of the savings plan. Some firms have a considerable
amount of money available for emergency loans. Repayment is
nearly always made through pay-roll deductions.
A number of the savings plans are linked up with the profit-sharing
or the stock-ownership plan. An example is that of a company hav­
ing about 10,000 employees. The thrift program includes a wagedividend plan, purchase of company stock, a savings and loan fund,
and a building and loan and housing plan. The wage-dividend plan
is based on wages and length of service, the dividends upon common
stock over $1 a share, which are declared during the calendar year,
being used for these disbursements. About 85 per cent of the em­
ployees are eligible to participate in this plan; approximately 60 per
cent own company stock; the savings and loan association has 5,300
members; and nearly a thousand have been assisted in building or
purchasing homes by the employees’ realty corporation.

Building and Loan Associations
nnHIRTY-NINE companies reported building and loan associations
^ or some plan of giving financial aid in building or buying homes.
In addition to these there are a number of firms which have no special
plan which is followed in all cases but who give both advice and
financial help to employees who wish to own their homes.
There are certain features that are common to the majority of
building and loan plans. A year’s service with the firm is generally
required before financial aid is given, and the majority of the plans
require that the buyer have 10 per cent of the value of the property
for an initial payment in order to receive the help of the association
or the company.
Although company housing plans are usually limited to some one
district, several companies allow employees to choose lots wherever
they wish, feeling that it is better for the employee to choose the
locality in which he shall live rather than to be restricted to a district
chosen by the company.




COOPERATIVE BUYING AND DISCOUNTS

83

Legal Aid and Advice as to Investments and Expenditures
1V EA R LY two-thirds of the companies reported that their emT
' ployees have the privilege of coming to them for free legal
advice. In many of the larger establishments the firm has its own
legal staff, or it may be there is a single attorney or some member of
the firm who is qualified who gives part of his time to this work.
A company with many thousands of employees has a staff of
lawyers who give free advice in every kind of personal, domestic, or
business difficulty, the object being to keep employees out of trouble,
or, if already in it, to defend them so far as they are in the right. The
work of the legal staff includes everything done in any law office,
including counsel, advice, examination and preparation of legal
papers or documents, and representation of employees in court when
the merits of the case warrant this. The effect of this work is con­
sidered to be important in fostering the good will of the working
force.
On the other hand, a number of companies which reported that
legal advice was given if requested evidently did not make much of
a feature of this service, while a number stated that employees were
not encouraged to ask for it.
Advice as to investments and expenditures is given in many in­
stances. The legal department usually advises employees as to
investments. In a number of cities, bureaus or commissions con­
nected with the city chamber of commerce have been established for
the purpose of protecting the public from fraudulent schemes and
dishonest advertising and merchandising methods. Industrial estab­
lishments which support these bureaus often refer their employees
to them for advice. In some plants men are appointed in different
departments whose business it is to keep informed on these matters
and give advice to other employees when it is requested. They work
with the Better Business Bureau or the Industrial Protective Asso­
ciation and can get disinterested advice at any time as to the merit
of proposed investments.

Cooperative Buying and Discounts
/CO O PERATIVE stores were found in only 21 instances, but a
^
large proportion of the companies either promoted the cooper­
ative buying of certain commodities or allowed employees a discount
on their own products or on supplies bought by them. Rubber boots,
safety or work shoes, overalls, tools, and similar articles are often
bought in quantities and sold at cost; and many companies buy coal
and sell at reduced prices to their employees or make an arrangement
with coal dealers whereby employees can have coal charged to the
company and pay for it through pay-roll deductions, in this way
making it possible for employees to buy their winter’s supply when
it is cheapest. Two hundred and thirty-seven firms reported that a
special discount is allowed employees on company goods. Depart­
ment stores without exception allow a discount on merchandise rang­
ing from 10 to 25 per cent, with stated times at which employees may
make their purchases, and sometimes special sales are arranged for
them.
76340°— 28------- 8




84

CHAPTER X .— ENCOURAGEMENT OF THRIFT

A cooperative store maintained by the employees of an insurance
company has been in successful operation for a number of years.
This store saves employees about 25 per cent on purchases and the
business averages nearly $18,000 a month. Another large office force
runs a cooperative store where clothing and furniture and some gro­
ceries, auto supplies, etc., can be purchased at about 10 per cent
above the wholesale price, this margin covering the salary of the man
in charge and other expenses. The company gives the space for the
store and light and heat. The employees’ thrift club of 600 members
in a metal-manufacturing plant runs a cooperative store which started
on a small scale but is now very successful. The club also has charge
of the employees’ lunch room. The company pays the running
expenses on both projects and no attempt is made to make any
profit, prices being reduced if any surplus is shown.
Forty-one companies reported that cooperative buying had been
discontinued. In the majority of cases it was given up shortly after
the close of the World War, having served its purpose during that
time and being no longer needed. Some feel, however, that the estab­
lishment of chain stores has largely done away with the necessity for
cooperative buying, and many companies do not favor it, as, if it is
done on a large scale, the merchants of the community feel that it is
unfair.

Other Plans for Encouraging Thrift
A MONG other methods which are designed to teach employees
the importance of saving and to allow them to have a share in
the prosperity of the enterprise are profit-sharing and stock-ownership
plans and bonuses for length of service or for regular attendance. As
a survey of profit-sharing and stock-ownership plans was beyond the
scope of the present study, little information was secured beyond the
fact that some such system was in effect. About 50 companies had
some plan by which the employees shared in the profits either through
a regular profit-sharing plan, through a bonus system, or by distribu­
tion of company stock, while 123 companies reported that they have
a special plan for the sale of stock to employees. The distribution
of thrift literature is another method of educating employees to the
desirability of planning in time for the inevitable rainy day. The
pay envelope and the plant paper furnish convenient means for
reminding employees of the advisability of saving, and various com­
panies use the services of visiting nurses or other personnel workers
to give practical demonstrations in economics as related to work­
men’s incomes.




CHAPTER XI.—ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL
WORK
HE question of the method of administering the various per­
sonnel activities is of great importance, as the success or fail­
ure of such work often depends upon the personality of those
in charge as well as upon the degree of participation in the manage­
ment of the various features by the employees.
Examples of the extreme paternalistic type of industrial management
are now comparatively rare as employers have learned that the
workers must have a share in their control if these features are to be
successful. Sixty-two of the companies which reported upon the
method of management stated that entire control of the various
activities was kept in their own hands, but in 343 cases it was reported
that the employees had a share in the management of part or all of
the activities. In a few cases the employees' mutual benefit associa­
tion initiates and controls everything of this nature which is carried
on within the industry.
The personnel work is under the supervision of one person specially
employed for this purpose in 164 cases, while in 94 cases one of the
company officials has charge of this work and in 97 establishments
the employment and personnel departments are merged and the
employment manager directs the work of both departments. In
still other instances the doctor or head nurse assumes these duties in
addition to the hospital work or such duties are in charge of an associa­
tion of employees. In an automobile plant a rather unique plan is in
effect. A committee of 12 is elected by the workers who decide how
the money of a special fund raised by contributions of the workmen
and the firm shall be spent. Five cents is deducted each pay day
from each employee's pay and the company gives an equal amount.
The treasurer of the fund is elected by the employees and the salary
of the secretary is paid by the company. This fund is used for pur­
poses not otherwise provided for in the regular personnel program.

T

Cost of Personnel Work to Employers
T ’HE amount paid by the firm for the personnel work was secured
in 190 cases, but it was found to be impossible to obtain what
percentage it was of the annual pay roll. The amount spent per em­
ployee, therefore, is the only way, with the available data, in which it is
possible to make a comparison or form an idea of how much this work
might be expected to cost the employer. There is, of course, con­
siderable difference in the extent of the personnel activities in the
different establishments, but no place was included unless there was a
fairly comprehensive program nor unless it appeared that the amount
reported covered all the phases of the work. The amount spent by
the employer is also affected by the extent to which the employees
share in the cost of the different features.




85

86

CHAPTER X I .— ADMINISTRATION OF PERSONNEL WORK

Table 12 shows, by industries, the average cost per employee of
the personnel work:
T able

12.— Number of establishments reporting annual cost of personnel activities
and average cost per employee, by industries
Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Num ber
of em­
ployees

Cost of
personnel
activities

Average
cost per
employee

45,419
19,000
7,648
8,790
25,181
17,952
7,681
67,810
2.370
14,988
1,130
5.370
5,447
2,574
55,696
51,878
30,749

$2,454,913
1,273,580
418,918
118,600
488,765
337,633
228,289
1,096,709
46,220
250,589
17,600
83,500
111, 250
56,754
1,385,480
1,109,380
1,026,617

$54
67

369,683

10, 504,797

28

Mining and quarrying........................................................................
Offices................. ............. ............................................................. ...........

20,153
3,599

571,701
87,311

28
24

Public utilities:
Electric railroads............ ................... ................... ............ .........
Gas, electric light and power, telephones and telegraph

55,846
36,088

708,421

13
41

91,934

2,197,990

24

30,000

790,441

26

515,369

14,152,240

~27

Industry

Manufacturing:
Automobiles....................................................................................
Boots and shoes..............................................................................
Chemicals, soap, and allied products...................................
Clothing and furnishings..........................................................
Electrical supplies..................................... ............. .....................
Fine machines and instruments....................... ............. .......
Food products_______________________ ________ ___________
Foundries and machine shops........................ .........................
Furniture.................................. ............ .......... .............................
Iron and steel........................ ....... ....................... . . ......... ...........
L e a th e r ........................................... ........... ............ .....................
Ore reduction.......................... ................... ...................................
Paper_____________ ______ _____________________ ___________
Printing and publishing............ ........... ......................... ...........
R u b b e r .................................................................... .......................
Textiles...................................... ........... ............. ..................... .......
Miscellaneous...................................................... ............. .............
Total............................. .................................................................

Total...............................................................................................

140

14

Stores—......................................................................................................
Grand total..................................................................................

190

4
9

.8
30

6
9

6
6
.6

20
22
25

21

33

As the table shows, the average annual cost per employee for all the
establishments combined was $27, while the range in the different
industries was from $13 to $67. In individual establishments, how­
ever, the expenditures were in some cases very much higher. Thus,
in an automobile plant the amount expended per year for this purpose,
exclusive of the cost of group insurance, was $102.60 per employee;
in a gas company the total cost was $120; while a shoe-manufacturing
company spent $70, and a department store an average of $74 for
each employee. It is evident from these figures that in the great
majority of cases the cost of such work is not great enough to be pro­
hibitive nor, on the other hand, does it cost enough to be important
as an addition to the wages, since, if it were added to the pay checks,
in the majority of cases it would not mean any material increase in
the rate of pay.

Effect of Personnel Work
Q P IN IO N S were secured in numerous instances as to the effect of
^
this work for employees on the stability of the force, the time lost,
and the output per employee. Among those employers who cared
to express an opinion on these points there was quite general agree­
ment that the work of the emergency hospital and the visiting nurses
was responsible for decided reductions in the time lost from work by




EFFECT OF PERSONNEL WORK

87

employees. The stability of the force was also believed to be favor­
ably affected in a majority of cases, as efforts to improve industrial
relations and to introduce modern employment methods were consid­
ered to have had a definite effect on the length of service of the force.
Various measures are employed to encourage employees to stay with
a firm, such as group insurance plans, pensions, length-of-service
bonus, and vacations with pay granted after a certain length of ser­
vice. The last two measures are growing in popularity and have
been found by employers to be worth the cost entailed by such a plan.
Although a number of firms stated that output was favorably
affected other factors enter more largely into increased production
than do the welfare features. One firm stated that the results ob­
tained through personnel work amply justify the expenditure of time
and money and this opinion was voiced by many of the companies.
On the other hand, some companies have not had this experience,
and several stated that they do not consider personnel work so im­
portant in securing steady attendance and a stable force as good
wages and friendly interest. In general, though, it may be said that
employers, even if they are not much in sympathy with extensive
personnel work, have found that many features are becoming neces­
sary in order to get and retain a desirable class of employees.




CHAPTER XII.—WELFARE WORK IN COMPANY TOWNS
HE more or less isolated community in which often a single
industry is the sole means of livelihood of the people residing
there is found in many localities in the United States. Mining
enterprises naturally are frequently located in remote and inac­
cessible sections, while the location in small towns of a single mill or
of a group of mills under the same management has been a peculiar
development of the textile industry in the South. In other sections,
industries are often situated at some distance from manufacturing
centers because of available water power, nearness to the source of
raw material, or for some other reason which offsets the disadvantages
connected with the distance from markets. Whatever the reason for
their isolation, such towns have been forced to become more or less
self-sufficing units; and in order to attract a desirable class of labor or
even to maintain an ordinarily self-respecting community the
employers in such towns have found it desirable to furnish many of
the advantages the provision of which properly comes within the
province of the State, the community as distinct from the company,
or other business or social agencies.
While hardly anyone will dispute the fact that the provision of
churches, schools, a proper milk supply, town sanitation, and other
features of communal life does not properly come within the scope
of the employer’s duties, or even that it is not desirable for the em­
ployer to provide them, the fact remains that many of these towns
have been so developed and that frequently an amazing number of
activities are assisted or controlled by the company.
While no survey of company towns as such was made by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, the material collected in connection with the
present study included information regarding the life in such towns
which, it is thought, may be of some value in contributing to an
understanding of the various problems which have been presented in
the development of these villages. Some of the community work
has already been touched upon in other sections of the report, as it
was not possible entirely to separate it from the phases of personnel
work which dealt more particularly with the employees in their
relation to the industry.
Among the most important activities in these towns are the meas­
ures taken to safeguard the health of employees and their families
through the provision of the services of physicians and visiting nurses
and the maintenance of various clinics and classes in home hygiene
and the care of the sick as well as by insuring a proper water supply
and supervising the other details of town sanitation. The educational
facilities in these towns would often be inadequate without the assist­
ance of the company, as in some of the States the school year is
short and school funds are not sufficient to provide a satisfactory
teaching force. As a result, the company frequently pays the salaries
of the teachers for that portion of the school year that the schools
would otherwise be closed. In many instances, also, the companies

T

88



W e lfa r e

w ork

in

com p an y to w n s

89

have built and equipped the school and turned it over to the authori­
ties to run. Part-time schools and night classes for cotton-mill
workers are also found, as well as domestic-science classes for girls
and women, and where there are many foreign workers instruction in
their native handicrafts.
Playground supervision for the children is customary, and in the
cotton mills where many women are employed it is not uncommon to
find a well-equipped nursery where babies and small children are
fed and cared for during the day. Houses are quite generally provided
at moderate and often cheap rentals and in the South the rent usually
includes electric light and water. The houses in many of the towns
have running water, bathtubs, and fireplaces. There is a quite
general tendency to encourage employees to make their homes attrac­
tive, and plants and seeds are often given to them and prizes awarded
for the most attractive yards. Nearly always there is space for
gardens and sometimes additional ground on the edge of town for
those who wish more room for vegetables. In a number of cases free
pasturage is provided for cows, and a few companies maintain a dairy
and good milk is sold to the employees at a moderate price. The
difficulty of obtaining milk in some sections of the South makes this an
important service. Boarding houses for single men are usually main­
tained in mining communities and several textile mills have attrac­
tive houses with such conveniences as laundry tubs, electric irons,
etc., for the girls. In the majority of these towns the community
affairs are centered in a community clubhouse or in an industrial
branch of the Y. M. C. A. or the Y. W. C. A.
The trained staff which supervises and administers the various
activities in the community is, in the cotton mills of the South, under
the direct control of the company in nearly every case. In other
sections, however, the employees participate more largely in their
management. A coal-mining company on the Pacific coast has a
thoroughly organized program covering industrial, health, and
recreational activities. This company has four mines within a radius
of about 50 miles, a town being located at each mine. The affairs of
each camp are administered by a mine council composed of workmen
elected by popular vote of all the employees. This council handles
such questions as wages, welfare, social, and general questions per­
taining to the camp, and a central council made up of four elected
members from each mine council deals with such problems as relate
to all the mines.

This central council has organized a safety association and carried
on safety campaigns, developed systematic first-aid and mine-rescue
work, and organized social clubs, a mutual benefit association,
thrift campaigns, and systematic savings plans, bands, orchestras,
Camp Fire Girls and Boy Scouts, Americanization and citizenship
schools, elementary school training of employees, traveling library,
and sports. These activities are directed by trained specialists paid
by the company. In addition to the mine council composed of em­
ployees, a mutual service director acts as conciliator in case of con­
troversy and in an advisory capacity when his services are required.
In other company towns, if the employees have a direct voice in the
control of community affairs it is usually through a community club
in which membership is open to all.




90

CHAPTER X II.— WELFARE WORK IN COMPANY TOWNS

Medical and Other Health Services
A MONG the companies providing the services of one or more
visiting nurses who either give employees nursing care or visit
the homes to see that sick employees are receiving proper attention,
a considerable number also extend this service to the families of
employees. These nurses are found almost without exception in the
mining towns and in many of the textile mill villages. Frequently
their entire time is spent in home visiting and, in addition to actual
care of the sick, advice and instruction in nursing is given to the
women of the village. The nurses give prenatal care and are often of
great assistance in helping young mothers to care properly for their
babies and young children.
In one town in which a baby clinic is held regularly, charts and
accurate records showing the babies' progress are kept and each year
a baby show is held and a prize is given to the baby showing the
highest score, whose mother has attended the clinic. In the baby
clinic held by the medical department of another company, children
from 6 weeks to 6 years of age are watched by the nurse, who weighs
them regularly and gives them the attention they need. The school
children are also weighed by the nurse every three months and those
who are 5 pounds or more underweight are sent to the nutrition
class which meets once a week at the dispensary. As soon as these
children reach the proper weight they are dropped from the class.
A course of 15 lectures on home hygiene and care of the sick is given
by the nurse, the mothers and school girls attending in the afternoon
and the mill girls in the evening.
Children of school age usually receive free dental treatment and
often such surgical attention as the removal of diseased tonsils,
adenoids, etc. In addition to these special services, the medical
departments in the company towns generally furnish the regular
medical and often a considerable part of the surgical care which is
needed by the employees and their families.
Although the nurseries conducted by the companies in a number of
these villages do not have a health motive as their primary object,
their effect from a health standpoint is good, as the children are given
expert care. Children are usually taken from 6 to 8 weeks old
up through the kindergarten stage and it is undoubtedly a great relief
for mothers who are obliged to work to have a place to leave them
where they will be properly fed and cared for. In one of the southern
mill towns a matron and three helpers are employed in the nursery
which the company maintains. The house has all necessary equip­
ment, including bedrooms where the children may take their naps,
and a sun parlor. The children are given three meals a day. There
is no charge for this service, although in some of the towns there is a
fee for taking care of the children which varies from 5 cents per day
per child to $1 a week.
A company in the Middle West has a free nursery, for children 5
years of age and under, which has a large sunny playroom equipped
for kindergarten work and for recreation. The sleeping room has
cots and basinettes and the children take a nap in the afternoon,
or, if their parents are on the evening shift, they are put to bed after
supper. They are given a light lunch of orange juice and crackers
and a regular luncheon of milk, fresh vegetables, cereals, and a simple



EDUCATION AND CLUBS

91

dessert. The factory physician examines the children, and medical
record cards are kept for each child with data as to weight, health,
vision, etc. A kindergarten teacher has direct supervision of the
children and a trained dietitian prepares the lunches.
In several towns all underweight school children are given milk at
recess and a regular balanced meal at noon prepared by the domestic
science class.

Education and Clubs
T^HE educational work in the company towns includes the provision of kindergartens, assistance to the public schools, classes
in cooking, sewing, millinery, fruit canning, etc., for the girls and
their mothers, manual training for the boys, and evening classes for
the employees in subjects for which there may be a demand.
A paper company in New England holds classes throughout the
winter for the girls in the factory and for the wives of employees. In­
struction is given in sewing, fine needlework, candy making, and
various handicrafts, such as dyeing, enameling, parchment shade
making, etc., the aim being to provide the same opportunities that
can be obtained in larger communities where clubs and needlework
guilds help in solving household and clothing problems, gift making,
and home decorating. A fee of $5 covers everything taught in these
classes. The personnel service director and his wife teach the classes,
and in order to keep up to date they go to New York each year to
take instruction, the expense of this instruction being borne by the
company.
A southern company pays part of the principal ’& salary and the
salaries of several special teachers in the public school. The special
teachers include a playground teacher who teaches folk dances and
gives the children physical exercises and drills, an art teacher, and a
voice teacher who drills the children in chorus singing. This com­
pany also has two evening schools giving grammar and high school
courses at which some of the men in the null are enrolled, and there
is also a class for illiterates.
In another town in which the company spends a great deal of
money in the schools there are two cooking and two sewing teachers
hired by the firm. All material is furnished for the cookmg classes
and there are 160 girls enrolled in this course. Both the cooking and
the sewing lessons are very practical and the children gain experience
in preparing meals by cooking aijd serving dinners for the different
clubs.
The welfare department maintained by a company which has been
very progressive in the matter of developing the capabilities of the
members of the community has six workers who give special attention
to constructive and educational work. In the two mill towns of this
company these workers have a house which is used as a demonstra­
tion home and domestic science school. The enrollment during the
year in the women’s classes is about 700, the subjects given the most
attention being cooking, sewing, and basketry. The cooking classes
teach menu planning, balanced meals, food values, economical buy­
ing, use of left overs, and proper feeding of children; and in the sewing
classes women are taught plain sewing, the use and alteration of
commercial patterns, making of house dresses and clothing for infants
and children, selection of materials, and determination of styles and



92

CHAPTER X II.— WELFARE WORK IN COMPANY TOWNS

colors for different types of garments. House furnishing, millinery,
and fancywork are also taught. There is a well-equipped cannery
in each village for the use of the housekeepers and the women bring
their fruits and vegetables and put them up under the supervision of
trained experts.
A company which has a separate kindergarten building with a
large enrollment of pupils has rooms in the basement for cooking and
carpentry classes. These courses are very popular and there is
always a waiting list of boys for the carpentry work.
The club work carried on by the companies includes many troops
of Boy Scouts, Campfire Girls, and similar organizations and a variety
of clubs among factory employees and the older members of their
families. The companies generally pay a great deal of attention to
the younger children who are enlisted in the different clubs. The
social service workers usually supervise these organizations or some­
times one of the mill employees acts as scoutmaster to the boy scouts'
troop. Summer outings are arranged for them and the members
of these groups are often given a week in a summer camp by the
company.
A textile mill located in a large city hires a worker each summer to
take the small children to the playgrounds and direct their play.
The children are frequently taken into the country for the day in
company trucks, a lunch including a pint of milk for each child,
being furnished by the plant cafeteria. Each week during the summer
a group of children is taken to a camp, some distance from the city,
which is leased each year by the company.
The community social affairs are of a varied nature, including
parties, dances, amateur theatricals, and usually a Christmas enter­
tainment.
Several of the mills promote interest in flower culture by holding
annual rose, dahlia, or chrysanthemum shows at which prizes are
given and in a number of cases bulbs and plants are furnished to the
residents of the town from the company greenhouses.
A great many of the companies maintain bands and orchestras
which furnish one of the favorite forms of entertainment, particularly
the outdoor concerts in the summer. Customarily the company
buys the uniforms and music and the more expensive instruments
for the members of the band and often there is a special room pro­
vided for rehearsals.
The musical organization in one of the textile mills includes two
bands, one made up of mill employees and the other composed of
school children. A large hall, comfortably furnished with wicker
furniture and containing cabinets for the band instruments and
music, a piano and a Victrola, is provided by the company. A full­
time director is employed by the firm, and instruments, music, and
winter and summer uniforms are furnished for the players. The
junior band numbers about 30 and credit is given the members on
their school work and they are given one-half hour a day from school
attendance for practice. They use the same instruments that are
used by the adults but with different mouthpieces. Outdoor con­
certs are given by these bands throughout the summer, and they
participate in all community affairs.




WELFARE WORK IN COMPANY TOWNS

93

Community Centers
TTHE social, educational, and recreational activities of the company
A towns are usually centered in a clubhouse or in a group of build­
ings in which the various club and game rooms, the gymnasium, and
sometimes the auditorium are located. In many cases, however, the
school auditorium is used for the community entertainments. Fre­
quently there is either an indoor or outdoor swimming pool which
is almost invariably largely used.
A northern textile manufacturing company provided outdoor
bathing for the employees and their families by converting the river
near their community house into a bathing beach. A section of the
shore was cleared and many truck loads of sand and gravel were
drawn in and spread, and a float with diving boards at different
heights, and chutes, etc., were added to the attractions of the beach.
Instruction in swimming is given to operatives and their families
by the personnel director. So much enthusiasm was aroused that a
water carnival on the Fourth of July has become an annual event.
There are various events, and swimmers and divers for miles around
compete for the prizes, although such competition in some of the
events is confined to operatives in the mill.
An example of well-organized community life is that of a village in
New England where the company for more than a quarter of a cen­
tury has taken an active interest in providing attractive living and
working conditions for its employees. This company has many
employees who are foreigners— mainly Portuguese and Italians—
and it is of interest to note that an unusually large percentage have
had a long term of service in the plant. About 10 per cent of the total
number of the employees have been with the company more than 25
years, while 30 employees have been with it more than 40 years.
The grounds around the plant and the community buildings are
laid out like a park and the different activities are centered in differ­
ent buildings. There is a separate restaurant building, the dining
room on the first floor being used largely by woman employees, by
members of employees' families, and by outsiders; the men use
mainly the one on the second floor where they can smoke and play
cards. The prices charged employees represent only the cost of the
food, but regular prices are charged the general public. The library,
which is also housed in a separate building, contains about 20,000
volumes. There are three reading rooms, one of which is specially
fitted up for children, with smaller tables and chairs, one is for men
and boys and has mainly books of travel, biography, and history, and
the other is a general reading room. Books may be taken out by
employees and their families, by the teachers, and by outside school
children for their work, while the reading rooms are open to anyone.
A kindergarten building has three classrooms, a large assembly
room, and a sand room. All the rooms have special decorations
suited to the small children. This is for the exclusive use of employ­
ees' children and there is no charge except a small enrollment fee.
The auditorium or community building is one of the newer buildings
and has reception rooms, cloakrooms, and a lounge, together with
parlors for the women and smoking rooms for the men. There
is an auditorium (with a fine lighting system) on the second floor,




94

CHAPTER X I I.— WELFARE WORK IN COMPANY TOWNS

and this has a seating capacity of 600. This building serves as the
social center of the town, and here frequent card parties are held
and a dance is given each month by the men’s club; various lodges
and clubs hold their dances and social affairs in this building.
The men’s club, membership in which is open to all male employees,
their grown sons, and stockholders of the company, has a club­
house given by the company, which was a fine old farmhouse altered
to suit the club’s needs but preserving as far as possible the colonial
finish. There are bowling alleys, billiard and card rooms, a reading
room, and a large lounging room. The company furnishes the house
rent free, but the running expenses are paid by the members and the
management is entirely in their hands.
Sewing, embroidery, dressmaking, etc., are taught at the “ art
craft” shop. The materials are sold at cost to families of employees
and there is an art department where the women may leave their
fancy work to be sold if they wish. The provisions for outdoor
recreation include baseball and football grounds, a children’s play­
ground which also has tennis courts for the use of the children, and
bathhouses on the beach, with a swimming instructor provided.
Houses have been provided since 1899, and all houses now have
modern pluml%Lg and hardwood floors. Reasonable rents are
charged, the maximum being about $20 a month, and employees
who wish to build their own homes are loaned money by the company
for this purpose.
While the community work varies in different places and localities
according to the different conditions present, its chief value would
seem, viewing it as a whole, to be the attention given to safeguard­
ing the health of the children and the opportunity given them to
secure a better education often than their parents have had, as well
as the chance to have any special capability recognized and fostered.




LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results o f periodic surveys of the
bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed.
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulletins
published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*) are
out of print.
Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
*N o. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater N ew York. [1913.]
♦No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial
agreements. [1913.]
N o. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
N o. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of N ew York C ity. [1914.]
N o. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of N ew York City.
[1914.]
N o. 191.
♦No. 198.
N o. 233.
N o. 255.
N o. 283.
N o. 287.
N o. 303.
N o. 341.
N o. 402.
N o. 448.

Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.]
Collective agreements in the m en’s clothing industry. [1916.]
Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.]
Joint industrial councils in Great Britian. [1919.]
History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
National W ar Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921.]
Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of N ew York City. [1923.]
Collective bargaining b y actors. [1926.]
Trade agreements, 1926.

Cooperation.
No. 313. Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
N o. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and in foreign countries. [1922.]'
N o. 437. Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricultural).

Employment and Unemployment.
♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the United States.
[1913.]
N o. 172. Unemployment in N ew York City, N . Y . [1915.]
♦No. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries. [1915.]
♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
N o. 196. Proceedings of the Em ploym ent Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis, M in n ., January
19 and 20,1916.
♦No. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Em ploym ent Managers’ Association of Boston, M ass., held
M a y 10,1916.
N o. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.]
♦No. 227. Proceedings of the Em ploym ent Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,
1917.
N o. 235. Employm ent system of the Lake Carriers' Association. [1918.]
♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
N o. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N . Y ., M a y 9-11,1918.
N o. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. [1922.]
N o. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925.

Foreign Labor Laws.
♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries.

[1914.]

Housing.
♦No. 158.
N o. 263.
N o. 295.
N o. 368.
N o. 424.
N o. 449.

Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries.
Housing b y employees in the United States. [1920.]
Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to] 1923.
Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1924 and] 1925.
Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1925 and] 1926.

[1914.]

Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary ware factories.
[1912.]
N o. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade. [1913.]
♦No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection.
♦No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.]




in

[1913.]

Industrial Accidents and Hygiene— Continued.
♦No.
♦No.
♦No.
N o.

157.
165.
179.
188.

•No. 201.
♦No.
♦No.
♦No.
N o.
N o.
♦No.
♦No.
N o.
N o.

207.
209.
219.
221.
230.
231.
234.
236.
249.

♦No.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

251.
256.
267.
276.
280.
291.
293.
298.
306.

N o. 339.
N o. 392.
N o. 405.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

425.
426.
427.
428.

Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting
of buildings. [1916.]
Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [1916.]
Causes of death by occupation. [1917.]
Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.]
Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. [1917.]
Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.]
Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts). [1918.]
Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.]
Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers*
Committee. [1919.]
Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.]
Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.]
Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.]
Carbon-monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919.
Occupational hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be looked for in
hazardous occupations. [1922.]
Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States. [1923.]
Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus.
[1926.]
Record of industrial accidents in the United States to 1925.
Deaths from lead poisoning. [1927.]
Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925.
Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Washington, D . C .,
July 14-16, 1926.

Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

237.
340.
349.
361.
380.
383.
384.
399.

Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
Industrial relations in the W est Coast lumber industry. [1923.]
Labor relations in the Fairmont (W . Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.]
Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924.
Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States.

[1925.]

Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

211.
229.
285.
321.
322.
343.
370.
408.
434.
444.

Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
Minimum-wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921.]
Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.]
Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. [1925.]
Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.]
Labor legislation of 1926.
Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1926.

Proceedings of Annual Conventions of the Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the United
States and Canada.
♦No.
N o.
N o.
N o.
♦No.
♦No.
N o.
N o.

266.
307.
323.
352.
389.
411.
429.
455.




Seventh, Seattle, W ash., July 12-15, 1920.
Eighth, N ew Orleans, La., M a y 2-6,1921.
Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., M a y 22-26,1922.
Tenth, Richmond, V a ., M a y 1-4,1923.
Eleventh, Chicago, HI., M a y 19-23,1924.
Twelfth, Salt Lake C ity, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926.
Fourteenth, Paterson, N . J., M a y 31 to June 3,1927.

[n]

[In press.]

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and
Commissions.
N o.
N o.
N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

210.
248.
264.
273.
281.
304.
333.
359.
385.
395.
406.
432.
456.

Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28,1916.
Fourth, Boston, M ass., August 21-25,1917.
Fifth, Madison, W is., September 24-27, 1918.
Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919.
Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24,1920.
Eighth, Chicago, HI., September 19-23, 1921.
Ninth, Baltimore, M d ., October 9-13,1922.
Tenth, St. Paul, M inn., September 24-26, 1923.
Eleventh, Halifax, N ova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
Twelfth, Salt Lake C ity, Utah, August 17-20,1925.
Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926.
Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29,1927. [In press.]

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of International Association of Public Employment Services.
N o. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20,1913; Second, Indianapolis, September 24 and 25,1914;
Third, Detroit, July 1 and 2,1915.
N o. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N . Y ., July 20 and 21,1916.
N o. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N . Y ., September 7-9,1921.
N o. 337. Tenth, Washington, D . C ., September 11-13,1922.
N o. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
N o. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, HI., M a y 19-23, 1924.
N o. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N . Y ., September 15-17, 1925.

Productivity of Labor.
N o. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924].
N o. 360. Tim e and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
N o. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry.
[1925.]
N o. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
N o. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.]

Retail prices and Cost of Living.
*N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

121.
130.
164.
170.
357.
369.
445.

Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.]
Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.]
Foreign food prices as affected b y the war. [1915.]
Cost of living in the United States. [1924.]
The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.]
Retail prices, 1890 to 1926.

Safety Codes.
N o. 331. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places.
N o. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
N o . 350. Specifications of laboratory tests for approval of electric headlighting devices for motor
vehicles.
N o . 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders.
N o. 364. Safety code for mechanical-power transmission apparatus.
N o. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operation.
N o. 378. Safety code for woodworking plants.
N o. 382. Code of lighting school buildings.
N o. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
N o. 430. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
N o. 433. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.
N o. 436. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
N o. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calenders.
N o. 451. Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping.

Vocational and Workers’ Education.
♦No.
*N o.
N o.
N o.

159.
162.
199.
271.

Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment. [1915.]
Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.]
Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, M inn. [1916.]
Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States. [1920.[

Wages and Hours of Labor.
♦No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and
waist industry of N ew York C ity. [1914.]
*N o. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. [1914.]
N o. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
N o. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.




[Ill]

Wages and Hours of Labor—Continued.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

190.
204.
225.
265.
297.
356.
358.
360.
365.
394.
407.

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

412.
413.
416.
421.
422.
435.
438.
442.
443.
446.
450.
452.
454.
457.

Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.]
Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915.
Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.
Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
Tim e and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry.
[1925.]
Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1925.
Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1923 and 1924.
Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1926.
Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1925.
Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1926.
Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1926.
Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1926.
Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1997 to 1926.
Hours and earnings in bituminous-coal mining, 1922,1924, and 1926*
Union scales of wages and hours of labor, M a y 15, 1927. (In press.)

Welfare Work.
*N o. 123. Employers' welfare work. [1913.]
N o. 222. Welfare work in British munitions factories. [1917.]
♦No. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States. [1919.]

Wholesale Prices.
N o. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries.
N o. 440. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1926.
N o. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July, 1927.

[1921.]

Women and Children in Industry.
N o. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries
in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
*N o. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.]
N o. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
N o. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
♦No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
N o. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and
garment factories. [1914.]
*N o. 167 Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. [1915.]
♦No. 175. Summary of the report on conditions of woman and child wage earners in the United States.
[1915.]
♦No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.]
♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. [1915.]
♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, M ass. [1916.]
N o. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.]
N o. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]
♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ­
ment of women and children. [1918.]
N o. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. [1917.]
N o. 253. W om en in the lead industries.

[1919.]

Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
N o.
♦No.
N o.
N o.
♦No.
N o.

101.
102.
103.
107.
155.
212.

Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
British national insurance act, 1911.
Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland. [1912.]
Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.]
Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.]
Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association
of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D . C ., December 5-9,1916.
N o. 243. W orkm en’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and
1918.




[IV]

Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (includinglaws relating thereto)— Continued.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

301.
312.
379.
423.

Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration. [1922.]
National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921.
Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925.
W orkm en’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of July 1, 1926.

Miscellaneous Series.
*N o. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to M a y 1,
1915.
N o. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.]
N o. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
N o. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. [1919.]
N o. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
N o. 282. M utual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D . C .
[1921.]
*N o. 299. Personnel research agencies: A guide to organized research in employment management,
industrial relations, training, and working conditions. [1921.]
N o. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. [1922.]
N o. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics. [1923.]
N o. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems. [1923.]
N o. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.]
N o. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
N o. 386. Cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
N o. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
N o. 401. Fam ily allowances in foreign countries. [1926.]
N o. 420. Handbook of American trade-unions. [1926.]
N o. 439. Handbook of labor statistics, 1924 to 1926.

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