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Women's Bureau
HANDBOOK OF FACTS ON

Women
Workers
BULLETIN

UNITED

STATES D E P A R T M E N T




NO.

OF

2 2 5

LABOR

HANDBOOK OF FACTS
ON WOMEN WORKERS

Bulletin of the Women's Bureau




No. 225

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
L. B. Schwcllcnbach, Secretary
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Frieda S. Miller, Director

U N I T E D STATES GOVERNMENT P R I N T I N G OFFICE. W A S H I N G T O N : 1948

For tale by the Superintendent of Docuntentt, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

U N I T E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R ,
WOMEN'S

BUREAU,

Washington^ June J, lOJ^S,
SIR : I have the honor of transmitting a handbook of facts relating
to and of concern to women workers on which the Women's Bureau
is frequently asked to give information. I t has been prepared in order
to be able to respond promptly, and without the need for individual
handling, to these requests. I f i t proves as useful a sourcebook and as
effective i n expediting the handling of inquiries as is hoped, regular
issues w i l l be provided and i t may also be possible to extend the subject
matter included. Sections I , I I , I V , and X were prepared by Mary
Elizabeth Pidgeon, Section I I I by Isadore Spring, Sections V through
V I I by Alice Angus and Mary L . Sullivan, and Section V I I I by Sara
L . Buchanan.
Respectfully submitted.
FRIEDA S. MILLER,

Director.
Hon. L. B.

SCHWELLENBACH,




Secretary of

Labor.




Foreword
Inquiries for a great variety of current facts relating to and of
concern to women workers reach the Women's Bureau daily. To meet
these needs promptly and without the necessity of treating each request
individually, this handbook of summary data has been prepared. I t
is the first i n a series the Women's Bureau hopes to issue periodically.
As the first, i t is experimental and tentative. I n accordance w i t h the
response to this first issue, future issues w i l l be revised and expanded.







Table of Contents
I.

EMPLOYMENT

OF

WOMEN
Page

Increases i n Number of Women Workers, 1870 to 1947__
Chief Occupation Groups of Women Workers
I m p o r t a n t Individual Occupations
Chief Industry Groups of Women
I m p o r t a n t Individual Industries
Employinent of Women i n Factory Production
Ages of Women Workers
M a r i t a l Status of Women Workers
Working Wives and Family Finances
Women as Heads of Families
Selected References to Basic Data on Employment of Women

1
2
3
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
13

Tables:
1. Women workers, 1870—1947
2. Changes i n numbers of women i n each occupation group, 1940, 1947__
3. Occupational stutus of women workers before, during, and after
World War I I
4. Occupations employing 100,000 or more women 14 years of age and
over, 1940
5. Selected occupations w i t h women as large proportions of the workers..
6. Women i n each industry group, 1940
7. Individual industries employing 100,000 or more women, 1940
8. Employment of women production workers i n chief manufacturing
industries, prewar and postwar
9. Changes i n numbers of women workers in each age group, 1940, 1947_
10. Age^ groupings of women workers before, during, and after W o r l d War
11. Distribution of women in population and i n labor force, by marital
status, 1940 and 1947
12. M a r i t a l status of women workers before, during, and after World
War I I
Charts:
1. Number of women workers and of all workers, 1870-1940
2. Proportion of all workers who are women, 1870-1948
3. Occupations of women workers, 1940___
II.

W A G E S OR S A L A R I E S OF

3
4
5
6
6
8
9

10
11
14
15
16

WOMEN

Introduction
Influences affecting women's wages and salaries
Skill requirements and economic conditions
Pay rate, time worked, and earnings
Pay by piecework and bonus
Take-home pay
Averages and distributions i n wage and salary reports
Census Reports on Women's Earnings
Year's earnings of women in 1946
Earnings of women i n chief occupation groups in 1946
Earnings of women wage and salary workers in chief industry groups
i n 1946_




1
2

VII

17
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
19
19
20

VIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS
II.

W A G E S OR S A L A R I E S OF

WOMEN—Continued

Census Reports on Women's Earnings—Continued
Earnings of women of different ages i n 1946
Earnings of white and nonwhite women i n 1946
Year's earnings of women i n 1944, 1945, and 1946
Reports on Women's Earnings as Factory Production Workers
1. M o n t h l y reports
Earnings of women i n manufacturing, 1938-47
Earnings of women factory production workers, December 1947_
Earnings of women production workers i n Illinois, November
1947
Earnings of women factory production workers i n New Y o r k
State, December 1947
2. Reports i n special studies
Reports on Earnings of Women White-Collar Workers
Earnings of clerical workers
Earnings of women clerical workers in New Y o r k State factories,
1940-47
Earnings of women clerical workers i n factories, 1946
Earnings of women i n office occupations i n six large cities, winter
1947-48
Earnings of clerical workers i n factories—men and women combined, 1 9 4 3 ^ 7 Tables:
1. Year's earnings of women and men, all workers and full-time workers,
194 6
2. Median year's earnings of women and men, b y chief occupation groups,
1946._
3. Median year's earnings of women and men wage and salary workers, b y
chief industry groups, 1946
4. Median year's earnings of women and men, all workers and full-time
workers, by age, 1946
5. Year's earnings of w h i t e and nonwhite women and men, 1946
6. Year's earnings of women and men, 1944, 1945, 1946
7. Average weekly earnings of men and women i n manufacturing industries as reported b y the National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board,
Illinois, and New Y o r k State, 1938-47-__8. Average weekly earnings, a f erage hourly earnings, and average weekly
hours worked, women and men production workers i n selected industries, December 1947, as reported b y N a t i o n a l Industrial Conference
Board__
9. Average weekly earnings, average hourly earnings, and average weekly
hours worked, women and men production workers i n selected industries or industry groups i n Illinois, November 1947
10. Average weekly earnings of women and men production workers i n
selected industries or industry groups in N e w Y o r k State, December
194 7
11. Average hourly earnings of women and men p l a n t workers i n selected
industries, for specified pay-roll periods i n 1946 and 1947
12. Average weekly earnings of women and men i n factory offices i n N e w
Y o r k , 1940-47, October of each year
13. Average hourly earnings of women and men i n characteristic office
occupations i n selected industries, for specified pay-roll periods i n
1946
14. Average weekly salaries of women i n selected office occupations i n six
large cities, winter 1947-48
16. Median weekly salary rates i n selected clerical occupations i n factories
i n 21 cities, October of each year, 1943Ht7
III.

ECONOMIC

RESPONSIBILITIES

M a r r i e d Women
Single Women
Widowed and Divorced Women




OF W O M E N

I'aee
21
21
22
23
23
23
24
24
26
26
27
27
28
28
30
31

19
20
20
21
22
22
24

25
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

WORKERS

33
34
34

TABLE
IV.

OF

CONTENTS

I N D U S T R I A L I N J U R I E S TO

IX
WOMEN

Page
36

Industrial Injuries to Women
Tables:
1. Distribution of employment and injuries by sex i n 9,164 manufacturing
establishments, classified by industry, for one quarter of 1945
2. Distribution of employment and injuries by sex i n 10,665 nonmanufacturing establishments, classified by industry, 1945
V.

S T A N D A R D S FOE T H E E M P L O Y M E N T

OF

S T A T E L A B O R L A W S FOR

42
42
43
44
44
44
45
45
WOMEN

Daily and Weekly Hours
Day of Rest.
Meal Periods
Rest Periods
N i g h t Work
Seating
Occupational L i m i t a t i o n
Weight L i f t i n g
Equal Pay
M i n i m u m Wage
Industrial Home Work
Employment Before and After Childbirth
VII.

LEGISLATION AFFECTING HOUSEHOLD

I.

46
47
47
48
48
48
48
60
50
60
61
51

EMPLOYEES

Coverage of Domestic Workers by State Labor Laws for Women.
Maximum-hour laws
Minimum-wage laws
Coverage of Domestic Workers by State Workmen's Compensation L a w s . .
States i n which coverage is compulsory
States i n which coverage is elective
States i n which coverage is voluntary
States which exclude domestic workers
Coverage of Domestic Workers by Wage Payment Law«
State having laws t h a t specifically cover domestic workers
States and territory having laws of broad general coverage applicable
to domestic workers
Coverage of Domestic Workers by Social Security Legislation N o w i n
. Efifect
Unemployment compensation
Old-age insurance
VIII.

40

WOMEN

Need for Standards for Women Workers
Development of Standards
Standards on Working Time
Standards on Wages
Standards on Other Conditions
For health
For safety
Industrial Home W o r k .
VI.

38

62
52
62
53
53
54
54
54
54
54
54
55
55
55

T H E P O L I T I C A L A N D C I V I L S T A T U S OF W O M E N

PoHtical Status
—
Nationality
Voting and public office
Federal
State
C i v i l service positions
Courts—^jury service
Domicile
Private domicile
Public domicile
702030*--48




2

-

-

56
66
56
56
56
67
57
57
57
57

X

TABLE OF CONTENTS
VIII.

T H E P O L I T I C A L A K D C I V I L S T A T U S OF

WOMEN—Continued
Page

C i v i l Status—Family Relations
Marriage
Divorce
Parent and child
Unmarried parents
Inheritance by parents f r o m children
Family support
Unmarried parents
C i v i l Status—Contract and Property L a w
Power to make contracts
Ownership, control, and use of property
Separate property
C o m m u n i t y or communal property
Wiils.__
Inheritance between spouses
Allowance during estate settlement
IX.

58
68
58
58
58
59
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
61
61
61

1

WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL T R A I N I N G

Student Enrollments i n and Graduates of Educational Institutions
Women Enrolled i n Vocational Training Programs
Women Served b y Rehabilitation Programs
X.

AMERICAN W O M E N — A

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

OP B A S I C

62
63
64
SOURCES

General
Women as Citizens
Women as Workers
Employment and occupations
Wages
H e a l t h and physical welfare
Organization into unions
Women as Homemakers
XI,

WOMEN'S

NATIONAL

65
66
67
67
68
68
69
69
ORGANIZATIONS—LIST

Organizations H a v i n g Social, Civic, or Religious Purposes
Professional and Business Organizations
Accountancy
Art
Banking
H o m e economics
Law__
^
Medical services
Music
Radio
Real estate
Teaching
Writing
General service organizations of business and professional women
Educational Organizations
Political and Legislative Organizations
Patriotic Organizations
Organizations W o r k i n g for W o r l d Peace
F a r m and R u r a l Organizations
Labor Organizations




71
72
72
72
72
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
73
74
74
74
76
75
75
76

I

Employment of Women'

INCREASES IN NUMBER OF WOMEN WORKERS,
1870 TO 1947
{See Talle 1)
The first f u l l census of women workers in this country was taken
i n 1870. A t that time less than 2 million women were i n gainful employment. I n every decade the census showed their numbers continuing to rise, and i n 1947 the labor force contained about 16V^
million women. (This was more than a fourth above the entire
number of all workers, men and women, i n 1870.)
TAULB

1,—Women workers, 1870-1947
Women workers

Year
Number

Aged 10 years and over:
1870.,.1880
1890
1900
Aged 14 years and over:
1900.
1910
1920.
1930.
19301
1940 11940»
1945
1947

Percent of all Percent of all
women of
workers
worlclng age

1,917,446
2,547,157
4,005.632
5,319,397

14.8
15.2
17.2
18.3

13.3
14.7
17.4
18.8

5,114,461
7,788,826
8,429,707
10,679,048
10,396,000
13,015,000
13,840,000
19,570,000
16,323,000

18.1
20.9
20.4
22.0
21.9
24.4
25.4
36.1
27.6

20.4
25.2
23.3
24.3
23.6

fifi.7

27.4
36.8
29.8

> I ^ b o r force for 1930 estimated and for 1940 adjusted, to make them comparable.
» Civilian labor force for 1940 adjusted to make figures comparable w i t h those for later years.
SOUBCE: Based on census data. Figures 1870 through 1940 shown in Women's Bureau Bull. 818, Women's
Occupations Through Heven Decades.
1 Notes on figures used: Figures used here arc based chiefly on census data, I n a few oases
i n c l u d i n g unpublished m a t e r i a l . Pi&ures adjusted f o r c o m p a r a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t periods
are used where necessary and available. Figures used refer t o women 14 years of age a n d
over ( i n Table 1 i n early census years, 10 years of age and o v e r ) . F o r the most p a r t data
used are f o r s p r i n g of the year (except i n Table 1, where decennial census dates are used,
a n d i n Table 8, w h i c h uses October, date of Census of M a n u f a c t u r e s ) . Figures on f a c t o r y
employment are l a r g e l y f r o m B u r e a u o f Labor Statistics reports. F o r a more detailed
discussion of occupations, see Women's B u r e a u 3 a l l . 218, Women's Occupations T h r o u g h
S«Ten Decades, P a r t I I .




2

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS ON W O M E N W 0 R I : E R S

The proportion women constituted of all workers increased from
decade to decade. I n 1870 women were less than 15 percent of this
country's workers, in 1947 women were more than 27 percent of all the
workers.
Increasing proportions of all the women of working age have
entered the labor force. I n 1870 less than 14 percent of them were
gainful workers; i n 1947 almost 30 percent of the women of working
age were members of the labor force.

CHIEF OCCUPATION GROUPS OF WOMEN WORKERS
{See Tables 2 and 3)
NumeriGal iTwreases and declineSj 19Jfi^ 19i3,—^In most occupation
groups the number of women increased f r o m 1940 to 1947. The greatest increases were of more than 1% million among clerical and
kindred workers, and of nearly
million among operatives and
kindred workers. The number of sales workers and of service workers
(except domestic) increased by something less than % million. A
relatively small occupation group i n which the number of women
employees increased by a very large proportion (73 percent) is that
of proprietors, managers, and officials (except f a r m ) . Numerically
small increases also occurred among farm workers and in the craftsmen and foremen group.
The number of women decreased from 1940 to 1947 i n three occupation groups. The greatest decline approached i/^ million, and was
among the domestic service workers. The professional and semiprofessional group also showed a small decline, having 30,000 fewer
women i n 1947 than i n 1940, and the small group of laborers declined.
TABLE 2.—Changes in nuiiibers

of women in each occupation

Occupation group

Number of women employed l a -

mo I
A l l employed women..
Clerical and kindred workers....
Operatives and kindred workers
Domestic service workers
Professional and semlprofessional workers
Service workers (except domestic)
Sales workers
Fanners and farm workers,
Proprietors, managers, officials (except farm).
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
Laborers (except farm)

1947

£froup, J9//0, 1947
Change, 1940,1947
Number

Percent

11,920,000

15,800,000

+3,880,000

+32.6

2,630,000
2,190,000
2,100,000
1,570,000
1,350,000
830,000
690,000
450.000
110,000
100,000

4,130,000
3,420,000
1,690,000
1,540,000
1,770,000
1,320,000
010,000
780,000
160,000
80,000

+1,600,000
+1,230,000
-410,000
-30,000
+420,000
+490,000
+220,000
+330,000
+50,000

+63.2

-20,000

+66.2
-19.5
-1.9
+S1.1
+59.0
+31.9
--73.3

- '45.5
-20.0

1 Employed women whose occupations were not reported were apportioned according to the distribution
of those whose occupations were reported. These were only a small proportion of all the women.
SOURCE: Based on census data. See U . S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly
Labor Review, August 1947, p. 140.

Distribution of women in occupation groups,—^In 1947 nearly half
the women workers were i n the clerical and operative groups, over a
fifth were i n service groups, and a tenth were professional or semiprofessional T7Prkera, A l l other groups were smaller.



EMPLOYMENT

3

The proportions of all women workers who were i n clerical and
operative groups increased f r o m 39 percent i n 1940 to 48 percent i n
1947. The proportions i n the combined service groups dechned from
29 percent of the total i n 1940 to 22 percent i n 1947. I n 1947 as compared to 1940, smaller proportions were i n professional and craftsman
groups, somewhat larger proportions in the groups of saleswomen and
of proprietors and managers; f a r m workers were i n the same proportion i n both years.
Proportion of workers in each occupation group who were women,—
Women constituted over 90 percent of the domestic service workers i n
1947, nearly 60 percent of the clerical workers, about 40 percent of
the professional, sales, and service (other than domestic) workers, and
nearly 30 percent of the operatives. I n other groups, smaller proportions of the workers were women.
D u r i n g W o r l d W a r I I the proportions of workers who were women
increased in most occupation groups, i n some of them quite markedly.
A f t e r the war, the proportions of women declined i n all occupation
groups but i n most groups still were larger than i n the prewar period.
The exceptions were the domestic service and the professional groups,
and the small group of craftsmen, foremen, and laborers. A l l these
had smaller proportions of women among their workers after the war
than before, though i n the professional and craftsmen groups the wartime proportion had been larger than the prewar.
TABLE

Occupational status of women workers before, during, and after
War II
Percent of all workers In each
occupation group who were
women

Occupation group

1940

1045

1947

A l l employed women
Clerical and kindred workers.
Operatives and kindred workers
Domestic service workers
Professional and semiprofessional workers.
Service workers (except dome^ic)
Sales workers
Farmers and farm workers
Proprietors, managers, oflScials (except
farm)
—
Craftsmen, foremen laborers, (except

World

Percent distribution b y occupation of employed women

1940

1945

1947

100

100

18
18

25
24
9

21
13

11
7

8
10
8
10

100

26
22
11
10
11

fioUBCE: Based on census data.

IMPORTANT INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONS
{See Tables 4 and 6)
O f course the 451 individual occupations reported in the census of
1940 could be considered i n an almost endless variety of ways. Types
of groupings or rearrangements of these occupations continually are
being made for one use or another, or special kinds of occupations are
selected f o r some particular purpose. The present discussion is




15 HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W 0 R I : E R S

limited to pointing out those that employ the largest numbers of
women, and those i n which women constitute the largest proportions of
all workers i n the occupation i n 1940, the latest date for which a
detailed occupation list is available.
TABLE 4.—Occupations employing

100,000 or more women 14 pears of age and

over, 1940

Women employed

Bank

Occupation
Number

Servants, private family
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries
Teachers (not elsewhere classified)
Clerical and kindred workers (not elsewhere classified)..
Salesmen and saleswomen (not elsewhere classified)
Bookkeepers, accountants, and cashiers
Operatives, apparel and accessories
Housekeepers, private family
Waiters and waitresses, except private f a m i l y . . ^
Trained nurses and student nurses
F a r m laborers (unpaid family workers)
Barbers, beauticians, and manicurists
"Clerks*' i n stores.
Telephone operators.
Launderers and laundresses, private family
Servants, except private family i
L a u n d r y operatives and laundresses, except private family..
Operatives, cotton manufactures.
Farmers (owners and tenants)
Dressmakers and seamstresses (not i n factory)
:
Cooks, except private family
Operatives, k n i t goods
Boarding house and lodginghouse keepers

420,469
988,081
772,044
630,471
515,539
446,206
426,634
362,431
356,036
348,277
223,279
206,592
201.281
189,002
186,183
174,724
167,967
167,155
151,087
133,627
n6,310
115,106
100,355

Percent of all
persons i n the
occupation
91.3
93.5
75.7
35.7
40.8
52.1
77.5
99.2
67.6
97.9
19.2
49.7
42.6
94.6
98.2
55.3
77.7
47.0
3.0
98.3
42.0
66.9
90.5

1 Census c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s necessarily a r e used here. T h e W o m e n ' s B u r e a u has been
w o r k i n g w i t h t h e Census t o develop c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e r m s t o s u p p l a n t " s e r v a n t s . * '
S o u r c e : Census o f 1940, P o p u l a t i o n , V o l . I l l , T h e L a b o r F o r c e , P a r t 1, U n i t e d S t a t e s
S u m m a r y , t a b l e 58.

I n each of 23 occupations reported i n 1940, more than 100,000 women
were employed. Taken together, these 23 occupations included threefourths of all the employed women (exclusive of women workers i n
the labor force who were not employed at the time the census was
taken).
Among the five largest of these occupations that of "servants, private
f a m i l y " stands at the top, employing almost
million women.
Nearly 1 million women were stenographers, typists, or secretaries, and
almost % million were i n other clerical work. Over % million were
teachers and % million were saleswomen.
Among these occupations that employed 100,000 or more women,
women constituted over nine-tenths of all the workers i n eight occupations, about three-fourths i n three more, and about half i n five others,
as Table 5 shows.
There also were a number of occupations i n which considerably fewer
than 100,000 women worked but i n which women were practically half
or over half of the employees. I n two of these women were nine-tenths
or more of the workex's, i n six others they were three-fourths but less
than nine-tenths of the workers.




EMPLOYMENT
TABLE 5.—Selected occupations

with women as large proportions

5
of the loorloers

I . SEUCCTED OCCUPATIONS W I T H 100,000 OE MORE W O M E N , .1040

Women are more than nine-tenths of these workers:
Housekeepers, private f a m i l y
Dressmakers, seamstresses (not i n factory)
!
Launderers and launderesses, private f a m i l y
Nurses, trained and student
Telephone operators
'
^
Stenographers, typists, secretaries
Servants, private f a m i l y
Boarding and lodginghouse keepers
Women are ahout three-fourths of these
workers:
Operatives i n laundries, and laundresses, except p r i v a t e f a m i l y
Operatives i n apparel and accessories factories
Teachers (not elsewhere classified)
Women are atout tico-thirds of these workers:
Waiters and waitresses, except private f a m i l y
Operatives i n k n i t goods factories
Women are ahout half of these workers:
Servants, except private f a m i l y
Bookkeepers, accountants, cashiers
Beauticians, manicurists, barbers
Operatives i n cotton mills
Women are a^oiit two-fifths of these tcorkers:
"Clerks" i n stores
Cooks, except private f a m i l y
Salesmen and saleswomen (not elsewhere classified)
Clerical and kindred workers (not elsewhere classified)

Percent
99
I I , 98
98
98
95
94
91
91
78
78
76
68
67
55
52
50
47
43
42
41
S6

I I . SELECTED OCCUPATIONS W I T H LESS T H A N 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 W O M E N . 1 9 4 0

Practical nurse (87,200)
L i b r a r i a n (32,500)
Office machine operator (51,500)
Demonstrator (7,400)
Dancer, dancing teacher, chorus g i r l (9,000)
Housekeeper, steward, hostess (except private f a m i l y ) (62,400)
L i b r a r y assistant, attendant (7,000)
» Religious worker (25,900)
Social and w e l f a r e worker (44,S00)
Musician, music teacher (59,500)
SouECB: Census o f 1940.
S u m m a r y , T a b l e 58.

96
90
86
83
81
79
78
75
64
46

P o p u l a t i o n , V o l . I l l , T h e L a b o r F o r c e , P a r t 1, U n i t e d S t a t e s

CfflEF INDUSTRY GROUPS OF WOMEN
{See Table 6)
Among the 10 chief industry groups, the one that employed the
largest number of women was domestic and personal service, w i t h
nearly 3 m i l l i o n women (194:0, the latest date f o r which data on chief
industry groups are available}. Each of two other groups employed
over 2 million—^manufacturing and trade (wholesale and retail together) , and the professional group employed not f a r f r o m 2 million.
Each of these four groups employed about four to six times as many
women as any other. The domestic and personal services, manufact u r i n g and trade taken together accounted f o r almost two-thirds of
a l l employed women.
Next i n size were two industry groups each of which employed about
% m i l l i o n women—agriculture, and finance, insurance, and real estate. T w o other groups employed over
million—transportation,
communication, and other public utilities, and govermnent. A l l other



6

HANDBOOK OF FACTS O N W O M E N WORKERS

groups taken together employed only a very small proportion of the
women workers.
Of course the workers i n each of the various industiy groups are
engaged i n a wide range of occupations, as for example those of salespersons, laborers of various types, clerical office forces, manufacturing
operatives, and so forth. (For occupational data see Tables 2, 3, 4,
and 5.)
TABLE 0.—Women in each industry

group, 19J^0
N u m b e r of
women

I n d u s t r y group

Allgroups-

Percent of all
Percent
workers who d i s t r i b u t i o n
were women of women
26

11,138,178

Domestic and personal services.,
Manufacturing
Trade (wholesale and retail)
Professional and related services. „
Agriculture.
Finance, Insurance, real estate
Transportation, communication, other public utilities,-..
Government
Other services:
Amusement, recreation
Business, repair
A U other 1.
I n d u s t r y not reported..
»Includes construction, m i n i n g , forestry and
» Less t h a n J i of 1 percent.

100

2,876,762
2,822,252
2,029,540
1,845,128
485,373
454,300
346,086
339,418

26
21
18

79,279
76,877
46,897
238,266

1
1

17
4
4
3
3

fishing.

SOTJECE: Census of1940, Population, V o l . I H , T h e Labor Force, Part 1, U n i t e d States Summary, Table 74.

IMPORTANT INDIVIDUAL INDUSTRIES
{See Table 7)
Among 23 individual industries each of which employed over 100,000
women i n 1940, i n only 3 did the proportion of women approach twoTABLE

Individual

industries

employing 100,000 or more women, 1940
W o m e n employed

Industry
Number

Domestic service
Educational services
M e d i c a l and other health services
Apparel and accessories manufacturing.
E a t i n g and d r i n k i n g places
General merchandise stores
Miscellaneous personal services
Hotels and lodging places
—
Food stores, except d a i r y products...
l a u n d e r i n g , cleaning, a n d dyeing services...
Stores, apparel and accessories, eicept shoes..
State and local government (n. e. c.J ^
Telephone (wire a n d radio)
Insurance
C o t t o n manufactures
Wholesale t r a d e .
B a n k i n g a n d other finance
Charitable, religious, and other membership organizations,.
Printing, publishing and aDied industries
K n i t goods
Real estate
Footwear Industries, except rubber
Electrical machinery and equipment

2,059,936
1,020,891
593,244
488,807
"
478,640
422,213
313,056
285,900
266,217
216,870
208,582
199,625
189,919
186,137
183,671
181,847
145,996
135,241
129,094
127,263
122,167
107,436

101,201

Percent of
all workers
i n the
industry

66
68
67
43
69
46
52

20
49
50
24

60
36
58

16
31
35

21
59

26
43
27

1 N o t elsewhere classified.
SOUBCK: Census of 1940, Population, V o l . H I , T h e Labor Force, P a r t 1, U n i t e d States Summary, Table
74.




E M P L O Y M E N T 18

thirds of the work force: i n domestic service nearly 90 percent of
the workers were women, and i n educational services and i n the
manufacture of apparel and clothing accessories about two-thirds of
the workers were women. I n 8 other individual industries f r o m about
half to 60 percent of the workers were women.

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN FACTORY PRODUCTION'
{See TaUe 8)
Figures later than those of the 1940 census have been compiled
periodically for one major industry group, manufacturing, and for
various industries that compose this group. These have been adjusted
t o the latest regular decennial Census of Manufactures, 1939, so that
comparable prewar and postwar figures are available for manufact u r i n g industries (which employ over a fifth of all women workers
and f o r m a group exceeded i n size only by domestic and personal service). (See Table 6.)
Before the war factory production work employed over 2% million
women. D u r i n g the war this number increased, and after the war i t
declined- However, i n 1946 the number of women i n such work exceeded that i n 1939 by almost 1 million, or more than 40 percent, and
the total was more than
million. Both in 1939 and i n 1946 women
were slightly over a fourth of all factory production workers.
I n each of the 18 manufacturing groups listed except tobacco (Table
8), the number of women i n the work force was appreciably greater
i n 1946 than i n 1939. Apparel led the way w i t h 193,000 additional
women i n 1946. Of the 10 manufacturing groups w i t h the greatest
increases i n numbers of women from 1939 to 1946 (each had added
some 40,000 or more women workers), 6 may be classed as durable
goods. The 10 were as follows:
Increased
number of
women

Apparel
193,000 Stone, clay, glass
Electrical machinery
126,100 Printing, publishing
Machinery (except electrical)- 81,300 Textile m i l l products
I r o n and steel
72,200 Nonferrous metals
Chemicals
64,500 Automobiles

Increased
number of
women

44,000
40,700
39, 700
39, 700
39,400

The increased number of women in manufacturing production work
i n 1946 as compared to 1939 was divided very nearly half and half
between the durable and the nondurable industries, each of which
added roughly I/2 million women. The nondurable goods group includes many industries that traditionally have been large employers of
women. Before the war nondurable goods employed 85 percent of all
women factory production workers. The striking development that
occurred during the war was the entry of women into durable goods
industries to a much greater extent than formerly. Women i n durable goods, who were only 15 percent of all women factory workers i n
1939, were more than 25 percent of such workers i n 1946.
The five particular manufacturing-industry groups that employ the
largest numbers of women are those making apparel and textile m i l l
products, processing food, and producing electrical machinery and
leather goods. This was true i n 1946 as i t was before the war, and
»Excludes f a c t o r y office forces.
792030*—48




3

8

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS O N W O M E N W 0 R I : E R S

these industries employed over 400,000 more women production workers i n 1946 than i n 1939. Next i n size of 1946 woman labor force were
iron and steel, chemicals, machinery (except electrical), p r i n t i n g and
publishing, and paper.
Women were from one-fifth to over three-fourths of the factory
workers i n the following 10 manufacturing groups in 1946:

Apparel
Tobacco
Textile m m products
Leather
Electrical machinery

Percent
women were
of all workers
77
63
47
46
39

Percent
women were
of all workers

Food
Paper
P r i n t i n g and publishing
Rubber
Chemicals

TABLE 8.—Employment of women production tvorkers in chief
industiHes, prewar and postwar
October 1939
Industry

Number
of women
(in
thousands)

October 1946

Percent Number
women of women
were of
(in
thouaU
sands)
workers

Percent
women
were of
aU
workers

27
25
24
24

21

manufacturing

Increase October
1939 to October
1946
Number

(in

thousands)

Percent

2,268
•1,928
626.0
527.7
263.8
139.6
69.4
64.9
59.3
46.0
33.0

A l l manufacturing
Nondurable goods
Apparel
Textile m i l l products.
Food
Leather.
Paper
Pai
Tobacco
Printing and publishing.
Chemicals
Rubber.
Durable goods
Electrical machinery..
Iron and steel
Furniture..
Stone, clay, glass
—
Nonferrous metals and products
Automobiles
Machinery (except electrical)
Lumber
—
Transportation equipment (except auto).

3,262
I 2,433
819.0
667.4
291.3
161.5
95.1
55.6
100.0
110.6
56.4

994
505
193.0
39.7
27.6
21.9
26.7
»9.3
40.7
64.6
23.4

44
26
31
8
10
16
37
»14
69
140
71

340
100.3
68.8
36.9
35.3
34.9
29.5
28.4
4.1
1.8

829
226.4
141.0
63.3
79.3
74.6
68.9
109.7
36.0
29.7

126.1
72.2
39.7
44.0
39.7
39.4
81.3
31.9
27.9

144
126
105
114
125
114
134
286
778
1,660

»Total exceeds details, as details not shown for smaller individual industries.
» I n this industry, a decline,
Boxmcn: U . S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Women i n Factories, October 1939Mayl947.

AGES OF WOMEN WORKERS
{See Tables 9 and 10)
The 1947 labor force, compared to that of 1940, included 1% million
more women 36 to 54 years old than i n 1940, over % million more girls
under 20, and about
million fewer women 20 to 34 years old.
Women aged 35 to 54 were almost three-fourths of all the additional
women workers i n 1947.
B o t h i n 1940 and i n 1947 over one-tenth of the women workers were
under 20, and by 1947 a slightly larger proportion than this were 55
or older. Women 20 to 34 years old were nearly half the female labor




9

EMPLOYMENT

force i n 1940 but were only 39 percent of i t i n 1947. On the other
liand, the proportion who were 36 to 54 years old increased f r o m 32
percent i n 1940 to 38 percent i n 1947.
TABLE 9.—Changes in numbers of women workers

in each age groups IQJiO, IQIfl

N u m b e r of women workers

Change, 1940, 1947

Ago group
1940

1947

Number

Percent

13,840,000

16,320,000

+2,480,000

+17.9

1,460,000

A l l ages
14-19
20-24_

1,820,000

+360,000
-130,000

+24.7
-4.6
-6.2
+34.6
- -47.0
•-58.7
+41.9

2,820,000

25^4
35^4

2,690,000
3,640,000
3,580,000
2,690,000
1,460,000
440,000

13,840,000

1 2,660.000
1,830,000
920,000
310,000

45-54
65-64
65 a n d o v e r . . .

-200,000

+920,000
+860,000
+540,000
+130,000

1 Estimated for adjusted figures on basis of distribution of unadjusted census figures for 1940.
SotJUCE: Based on census data. See Current Population Reports, P-50, N o . 2, and Supplement to
M o n t h l y Report on the Labor Force, N o . 59-S, June 3, 1947.

Durinff the war the proportion of all women who were workers
increased quite considerably i n every age group up to 64 years, and
there even was a small increase i n the proportion of women who went
to work among those aged 64 years or more. The greatest increases
i n proportions of women workers were among those under 20 and
those 45 to 54; women 45 to 64 were less likely than those 20 to 34
years old to be workers already or to have household and family cares
requiring their f u l l attention and consequently were i n a position to
enter the labor force to a larger extent than were the 20- to 34-year
olds.
B y 1947 the proportions of the women i n every age group who were
at work had declined f r o m the war peak, but they still remained well
above the proportions at work before the war, except i n the age groups
20 to 34. Many of the women of 20 to 34 had delayed marriage or had
remained at work i m t i l husbands returned from the services, and in
the postwar period they desired to give their f u l l time to household and
family affairs rather than to paid employment. Women of all ages
except those 20 to 34 were participating i n the labor force to a greater
extent i n 1947 than i n 1940; the greatest increase i n labor force participation was among those 35 to 54, and among girls under 20.
TABLE K^.—Age groupings

of women workers
War IJ

lefore,

during,

Percent of a l l women In each
age group who were workers

and after

World

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n of women
workers, b y age

Age group
1940
A l l ages.
14-19
20-24

25-34
35-44

45^

55-64

65and o v e r . - .
SouBCx: Based on oensos data.




1945

1947

1940
100
11
20
28
19
13
7
2

1945
100
14
17
23
20
15
8
3

mr
ICQ
11
17

22
33
16
0
3

Onncnt Population Reports P-60, N o . 2* and tmpabllshed oeosos data.

10

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS O N W O M E N

W0RI:ERS

MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN WORKERS
{See Tables 11 and 12)
Extent to which woinen in "various marital groups are in labor
force,—In 1947 over half the single women i n this country were i n the
labor force, as were more than a t h i r d of the widowed and divorced
women, and over a fifth of the married women.
Distribution of women
marital status in population and in labor
force,—Single women constituted 22 percent of the woman population
i n 1947 but were 38 percent of the women i n the labor force. Married
women were 65 percent of the adult female population and 46 percent
of the women i n the labor force. Widows and divorced women were
13 percent of the woman population, 16 percent of the female labor
force.
TABLE 11.—Distribution of women in population and in labor force, by
status, 1940 and 1947
N u m b e r of women

Percent
cbange

1947

1940^7'

marital

Percent distribation

M a r i t a l status
1940

POPULATLOLF

Total
Single
Married
Widowed and divorced

54,278,000
11,864,000
35,112,000
7,302,000

-14
+17
+13

13,840,000
6,710,000
5,040,000
2,090,000

16,323,000

+18

LABOB FORCE

Total
Single
Married.
Widowed and divorced

+8

50,140,000
13,733,000
29,973,000
6,434,000

6,181,000
7,545,000
2,697,000

- 8

+50
+24

1947

1940

100
27

100

100
49

100

36
15

46
16

22
65
13

SOURCE: B a s e d o n census d a t a .

Wartime and postwar employment of women^ by marital status (see
Tables 11 and 12).—^During the war there was great pressure for additional numbers of women to enter the labor force. T o respond to this
need, very many more married than single women were available.
This and other factors contributed to the entry of many more married
than single women into the wartime labor force. Married women
are much more numerous than single women i n the population.
(In
1940 the number of married women was more than double that of single
women. See Table 11.)^ Then, during the war the number of married
women i n the population increased markedly, while the number of
single women declined. Furthermore, single women already had been
employed i n large proportions before the war. (Nearly half of them
were workers i n 1940. See Table 11.) Many married women were
beyond the ages when family care absorbed most of their time and
energy, others were the more recently married wives of husbands i n
the service, and there was i n general a desire to be of service i n the
country's emergency.
D u r i n g the war the proportion of the single women who were i n the
labor force increased f r o m 49 percent i n 1940 to 55 percent, and the
proportion of the married women who were workers increased to an
even greater extent—from a prewar 17 percent to a wartime 23 percent.
(See Table 12.)



11

EMPLOYMENT
TABLE 12.—Marital status of tvomen workers
War I I

Marital status

and after

World

Percent of all women of each
marital status who were Percent distribution of women
workers, by marital status
workers
1940

A l l groups
Single...
Married
Widowed and divorced

before^ during,

28
49
17
33

1944
32
55
23
32

1947
30
52
22
36

1940
100
49
3f>
15

1944
100
43
44
13

1947
100
38
46
16

SOUSCE: Based on census data.

A f t e r the war smaller proportions of both single and married women
and larger proportions of the widowed and divorced women were i n
the labor force than during the war. The last mentioned group, of
course, would include those widowed during the war.
Among each of the marital groups of women, participation i n the
labor force was greater after than before the war. The increase i n
the number of married women was 17 percent i n the population, but
i t was much greater i n the labor force—50 percent. The number of
single women declined 14 percent i n the population but only 8 percent
i n the labor force.

WORKING WIVES AND FAMILY FINANCES
The growing importance of married women workers continues a
long-time trend i n our industrial economy, i n which money income
has increasingly determined the family's standard of living. I n addition there are available for the production of goods and services
more married women and fewer single women in the population than
i n the prewar period. I n fact, there are nearly three times as many
married as single women i n the adult population. (See Table 11.)
The proportion of wives who work is materially higher when their
husbands are i n low-income groups, as is strikingly illustrated by
the following 1940 census data on work status of wives i n large cities,
according to husband's wage or salary income.
La'bor force status of married women with husband present, ly wage or
income of liushand, 1940

salary

[ L i m i t e d t o m a r r i e d women whose husbands had no other source of Income, i n cities of
100,000 or more i)opulatioD]

Wage or salary income
of husband
A l l Income groupsNone and not reported$1^$199
$20a-$399
$40M599

$600-$999
$1,000-$1,499
$1,500-$1,999
$2,000-$2,999 —
$3,000 and over.

Percent of married
icomen
(husbatid
present)
in labor farce

16.7
24.3
27.6
24.2
22.7
21.7

18.8
14.0
9.2
5.6

SOURCE: Census of 1940, Population, T h e Labor Force (Sample S t a t i s t i c s ) , E m p l o y ment a n d F a m i l y Characteristics of Women, Table 23.




12

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

'Working mothers,—The Bureau of the Census reported i n 1946 on
the work status of wives w i t h and without children. The report included wives in "normal" families (those w i t h husband and wife
present) and women heads of families. I t d i d not include working
mothers living i n a family group whose head was someone other than
such a mother or her husband (as for example a married daughter
l i v i n g w i t h her parents or her husband's parents).
The report shows that when their children are small, women tend
to stay out of the labor force. Much smaller proportions of those
w i t h small children than of those w i t h no young children go to work.
Higher proportions of women heads of families worked than of
wives in normal families, but among women heads also there was a
tendency for those w i t h small children to stay out of the labor force.
The following summary shows the proportions of women w i t h and
without young children who were in the labor force i n 1946.
Proportion of wives at work In famflies
with—
Family status
N o children
under 18
Wives in "normal'* families (husband and wife present)
Women heads of families
..

ChUdren
aged 6-7
only

24
44

23
50

Children
under 6
years old
9
35

These working wives (living w i t h husbands) and women family
heads who had children under 6 years old constituted only 8 percent
of the total woman labor force i n 1946. They numbered
million.

WOMEN AS HEADS OF FAMILIES
I n sharp contrast to the popularly envisioned picture of the "average" family, consisting of father, mother, and children, stands the
fact that i n 1946 over 6% million families had a woman head.
The number of families w i t h a woman head has been increasing.
They constituted 12.7 percent of all families i n the country in 1930,
and 15.3 percent i n 1940. I t is not surprising that during the war
they increased sharply. I n the postwar period there was a decline in
the extent to which women headed the family, but in 1946 women were
17.4 percent of all f a m i l y heads, which was above the 1940 proportion just shown. Evidence on prewar years shows that among the
underprivileged and among those l i v i n g i n industrial localities, the
percent of women family heads is appreciably higher than the national
average. I n 1946, of the total number of women family heads, over 4
million (more than 60 percent) headed families of two or more persons.
Among women family heads, i n 1940 as well as i n 1946, about 70
percent were widowed and divorced women (the great majority of
these were widows). Both i n 1940 and i n 1946, practically half the
women f a m i l y heads were 55 years old or more; in 1946, there was a
considerable increase over 1940 i n the proportion of them who were
under 35 years of age, chiefly at the expense of ^ e decreased gr6up
who were 35 to 54 years old.



EMPLOYMENT

13

Not all family heads, be they men or women, are i n the labor force.
I n . 1946, among the more than 31 million families in which the head
was i n the labor force, almost 2.9 million had a woman head, many
of whom undoubtedly were working not only f o r their own support
but also toward the family's maintenance. I n other words, 18 percent
(not far from one-fifth) of the Nation's working women were heads
of families, but labor force data do not indicate what proportions of
these headed families of two or more persons.

SELECTED REFERENCES TO BASIC DATA ON
EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
1 . U . S . B U R E A U OF T H E C E N S U S :

a. 16th Census, 1940. Population. Vol. I l l , Labor Force. P a r t 1, United
States Summary, Tables 58 and 74.
b. Current Population Reports. Labor Force Bulletin, Series P-^0, No. 2.
(Revised statistics 1940 to 1945.)
2. W O M E N ' S BUREAU BULLETINS :

a. Special Bull. No. 20. Changes in Women's Employment During the
War. 1944.
b. Bull. No. 211. Employment of Women i n the E a r l y Postwar Period.
1946.
c. Bull. No. 218. Women's Occupations Through Seven Decades. 1948.
8 . B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T I S T I C S :

a. Monthly Labor Review, August 1947. Recent Occupational Trends.
b. Monthly Labor Review, December 1947. Labor Force Changes and
Employment Outlook—Women Workers and Recent Economic Change.
c. Women i n Factories, October 1939-May 1947. (Mimeograph.)







Number of Women Workers and of All Workers, 1870-1940
MILLIONS

MILLIONS

60

60

50

50

40

40

TOTAL

30

30

W
§

i
§

20

20

WOMEN^

10

10

1870

1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

Sourcc: U. S. Bureau oF the Census. 16th Census: 1940. PopulaHon. Vol. Ill, Part 1, Table 7; and ComporaHve Occupation Statistic^ for the United States, 1870 to 1940. By A l b a M . Edwards, pp. 12. 91.

I
g

26
EMPLOYMENT

PROPORTION OF ALL WORKERS WHO ARE WOMEN
1870-1948
!$

20

93

2,5

1948
1945

CCMLIAN LABOR
FORCE FOR MARCH)

1940
1930
1920
1910
1900
1890
1880
1870
SOURCE: U S BUREAU OF THE CEHSUS

Chart 2

792030®—48




I

16

HANDBOOK

OF TACTS O N W O M E N

Occupations of W o m e n W o r k e r s ,

W0RI:ERS

1940

Women wlio w«t« «mploy«d («xc«pl on pwblk «M«rgcACV woftt) or wlio wcrt txperitnctd worlcin ttttdnf weA

a E R I C A U SALES, A N D
KINDRED WORKERS

^

^

^

^

^

x B r H * w l S

^

^

^

x B i f l i B r B

OPERATIVES A N D
KINDRED WORKERS

DOMESTIC SERVICE
WORKERS

PROFESSIONAL A N D

^^^^
^^^^ ^^

SEMIPROFESSIONAL
WORKERS

SERVICE WORKERS,
EXCEPT DOMESTIC
A N D PROTECTIVE

OTHER OCCUPATIONS

E « I i jymbol ifprtttAtt 550,000 womtn w e A t r t

S«t«(C*: U. S. Buica» of ihc Ctntrt.

16(1^ Ctnwv 1940




PopuFattoo.

V e t . Ill, Paft I. TabU 61.

Chart 3

^

^

^

i B i B M l S

^
TBII

VIII

The Wages or Salaries of Women

INTRODUCTION
Influences Aflfecting Women's Wages and Salaries
Skill Requirements and Economic Conditions.—^AVomen are employed i n many different industries and occupations i n which the
types of skills required vary widely. This i n itself causes women's
wages or salaries to vary widely and explains why no average figure
that could be cited w i l l give a very representative idea of the current
earnings or the wage or salary rates of all employed women.
O f course general economic conditions have the most powerful effect on the wage and salary levels of all workers, including women.
Additional factors that affect the levels of women's wages and salaries
include differences in season of the year or locality i n which the work
is done.
The figures that most accurately show earnings or standards of
wages and salaries are those that apply to particular occupations or
industries and that take f u l l account of various other features i n
wage situations. Reports available on women's wages are few. Those
that are made often show an average wage, which hides the many
variations that exist and their causes, and which fails to throw l i g h t
on numerous other points necessary to a f u l l understanding of the
true wage situation.
Pay Rate, Time Worked, and Earnings.—Many wage and salary
reports show the rates of pay for a given period, say a week, based
on a specified number of hours of work. B u t i f the f u l l hours that
are scheduled by the plant as the basis for the weekly rate have not
been worked, the earnings the employee actually receives are less
than the f u l l weekly rate. Because of differences i n the time she
works, her pay may vary even f r o m week to week. This is true for
the factory or the service worker, i n particular, but also for any
other employee whose pay varies w i t h time worked.
Moreover, she may be a regular part-time worker, employed only
for certain days i n the week or for certain hours i n the day. I n
this case also she receives only the hourly rate multiplied by the
number of hours she has worked, which of course is less than the
rate for the f u l l weekly schedule.



17

18

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

Pay by Piecework and Bonus.—Many factory and some white-collar workers are paid, not by the time worked but by piece rates, that
is, according to the number of items processed or tasks completed.
I n such cases the same employee's earnings may differ f r o m day to
day and even from hour to hour, since they are affected to a large
extent by differences i n the way i n which the employer or the worker
organizes the work, as well as by variations i n speed of the worker.
I n some instances a special bonus is paid to individuals as an incentive to accomplish a high rate of production (as on a factory process),
or large volume of sales (as i n a store or other sales job). The wage
figure reported then differs according to whether i t includes or omits
the amounts of such bonuses.

Take-Home Pay
Wages or salaries shown i n reports usually are either the basic rates
of pay, or they are the earnings on the job, but the amount the worker
actually receives i n her pay envelope or check often is considerably
less than this, because of deductions for various purposes that are
made before the payment goes to her, such as those for taxes, social
security, or union dues, or funds going toward building up a pension or
f o r health insurance. Most of these deductions are to the eventual advantage of the worker, though they reduce the amount she actually has
f o r current needs (including any added savings she may be able to
make). W h a t the worker receives after these deductions are made has
been referred to as her "take-home" pay. This is what she has for l i v - '
i n g expenses and savings.

Averages and Distributions in Wage and Salary Reports
Reports on wages and salaries ordinarily show the average rates or
earnings (whether hourly, weekly, or monthly) for a group of workers
i n a given industry or occupation.^ A more complete knowledge of the
wage situation of such a group is given when the single figure showing
the average wage or salary is supplemented by a distribution showing
what proportions of the workers receive various amounts (^higher,
lower, or i n middle ranges). However, such information ordinarily
cannot be given i n current reports made at frequent intervals because
of the size of such a job and the expense involved; hence i t usually is
available only when a special survey is made to collect data that can
be tabulated more completely.
The discussion here w i l l be followed by several tables showing the
earnings of women i n some of the more important industries and occupations that employ them. The figures are taken f r o m the most
recent sources of such data known to be available at the time of
preparation.
*

CENSUS REPORTS ON WOMEN'S EARNINGS
{See Tables 1 through

6)

I n the last years of the war and early i n the postwar period the
Bureau of the Census reported on earnings of civilians f r o m wages and
i This refers to the arithmetic average, which is well understood by most people. Other
reports show another type of average known as the median, which seems to tell more for
ind iTlduals in the group; one-half the workers receive more and one-half le38 than t^**"
amount.




19

• WAGES OR SALARIES

salaries and from professional or other self-employment. The latest
census earnings survey of this type makes a report for 1946 and gives
separate data for women and men, i n urban and rural nonfarm areas,
and i n a combination of these two types of areas. Figures for the
combined areas are shown here.®
F r o m these data, the tables that follow show the 1946 earnings of
women and of men, both all civilian earners and those who worked
f u l l time (in urban and rural-nonfarm areas combined). They also
show e a r n i n g of these women and men by chief occupation group, age,
and color. Earnings of women and men wage and salary workers
(^excluding the professional and other self-employed earners) are also
shown by industry group.
One further table compiled from census reports gives data for a
three-year period—1944, 1945, and 1946—showing earnings of all
women and men civilian earners ( i n urban and rural-nonfarm areas
combined).

Year's Earnings of Women in 1946
{See Talle 1)
The median of the earnings of all women i n 1946 was $1,045; the
median for women full-time workers, $1,661. Four i n 10 of the women
full-time workers had received less than $1,500 f o r their year's w o r k ;
7 i n 10, less than $2,000; and a few, about 1 i n 10, as much as $2,500.
Men full-time workers had a median more than 55 percent higher
than women's, and more than % of the men, as compared to only
of the women, received $3,000 or over.
T a b i ^ 1 . — Y e a r ' s earnings

of women

and men,

all workers

and full-time

workerSy

me
[Civilian earners 14 years of age and over i n urban and rural-nonfarm areas in the United StatesJ
Women

Men

Earnings
All
workers
Median

Full-time
workers

All
workers

Full-time
workers

$1,045

$1,661

$2,134

$2,5S8

100

100

100

100

48
19
17
9
4
3

15
25
30
18
7

19
12
14
17
12
26

4
8
14
21
17
36

Percent earning:
All amounts
Under $1,000
$1,000, under $1,500
$1,500, under $2,000
$2,000, under $2,500
$2,600, under $3,000
$3,000 and over
SOUECi: U S. Bureau of the Census.

Earnings of Women in Chief Occupation Groups in 1946
{See Table %)
Median year's earnings of women were highest for the proprietor,
manager, official group—$1,671. Medians were as high as $1,500 a
« T h e census gave data on wage and salary income for 1939, but since the basis of postwar
differs from that of prewar reporting in a number of respects, long-time comparisons cannot
be made. The collection of 1946 data could not begin untU 1947, and the tabulations,
covering some 87 million persons in urban and rural-nonfarm areas were prepared and
issued in the spring of 1948.




20

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

TABLE 2.—Median yearns earnings of women and men, by chief occupation
me

groupsj

[Civilian earners 14 years of age and over i n urban and rural-nonfarm areas i n the U n i t e d States]
Median year'3 earnings of—
Occupation group

$3,087
2,433
2,256
3,345
2,246
2,067
1,413
2,142
1,655
465

Proprietors, managers, officials
Craftsmen, foremen and kindred...
Semiprofessional.
Professional
Clerical and k i n d r e d .
Operatives and k i n d r e d .
Laborers {except mine)
Salespersons
Service workers (except domestics)
Domestic service workers
SOURCE: U . S. Bureau of the Census.

year in only three other of the ten groups—craftsmen and foremen,
semiprofessional, and professional workers. Medians were below $800
i n the sales and service groups, which often include many part-time
workera; for domestic service workers, they were as low as $373.
Median earnings of men were considerably above women's i n every
occupation group. Among professional workers men's median earnings were more than double women's; men sales and services workers
(except domestic) had medians almost three times as great as women's;
and men i n the proprietor and operative groups had medians 85 percent
above women's. Least differences between women's and men^s earnings were i n the domestic service and laborer groups, i n which men's
medians were, respectively, 25 and 38 percent above women's.

Earnings of Women Wage and Salary Workers in Chief Industry Groups in 1946
{See Table S)
Median earnings of women wage and salary workers ran below
$1,500 i n 1946 i n 9 of the 10 industry groups and below $1,400 i n 8 of
TABLE S—Median

year's earnings of icomen and men tvage and salary
by chief industry groups, 1946

workers^

(Civilian wage and salary workers 14 years of a e ^ ^ d over i n urban and mral-nonfarm areas
In the Unite

I n d u s t r y group

Government
Transportation, communication, other public utilitiesManufacturing
Durable
Nondurable
Finance, insurance, real estate
Busbess and repair services
Professional and related services
Wholesale trade
Retail trade.
Amusement, recreation....
Personal and domestic services.
SouttcE: t r . S. Bureau of the Census.




• WAGES OR SALARIES

21

the 10. ( F i b r e s include earnings of women employed i n all occupations i n an industry.) I n the three lowest-paying industry groups
the medians were less than $800. These three were retail trade, amusement and recreation, and domestic and personal services, all of them
industry ^ o u p s that include many part-time workers.
I t is of interest to note that women's median was less than $1,300 i n
the manufacture of nondurable goods, industries which long have
employed many women, though i t was over $1,400 in the manufacture
of durable goods, a group i n which men predominate.
Median earnings of men were well above women's in every group.
They were between two and three times as high as women's i n trade
(both retail and wholesale), amusement and recreation, and domestic
and personal services. Though women's earnings were nearest to
the levels of men's i n government and i n business and repair services,
men's medians even i n these groups were, respectively, 37 and 49 percent above women's.

Earnings of Women of Different Ages in 1946
{See Table Jf)
Workers 35 but under 45 years of age had reached the highest earnings i n the total women's group and i n the groups of both men and
women full-time workers. Among all men a somewhat older group,
those 45 but under 55, had the highest earnings.
Among full-time workers, declines i n earnings began i n the groups
after age 45, but the decline was greater proportionately for women
than for men. Among all workers, women 65 and over and girls under
20 had the lowest earnings, as did boys tinder 20.
TABLE 4.—Median year's earnings of women and men, all workers

and

full-time

workers^ hy age, 191^6
[Civilian earners 14 years of age and over i n urban and rural-nontarm areas i n the U n i t e d States)
A l l workers

Full-time workers

Age group
Women
$461
1,135
1,102
1,288
1,209
066
427

Under 20 years
20, under 25 years..
25, under 35years.,
35, under 45 years..
45, under 65 years-.
55, under 65 years..
65 years and over..,

Men

Women

$406
1,247
2.098
2,535
2,675
2,285
1,625

$1,(
1.

1,719
1,643
1,188

Men

I,

f,4P3
2,&37
2,823
2,558
2,129

1 Numbers i n sample too small for median.
SOUECB: U , S. Bureau of the Census.

Earnings of White and Nonwhite Women in 1946
{See Table 6)
Women workers who were of the white race had median earnings
more than twice as high as those of nonwhite women, though among
full-time workers the difference was slightly less than this. Just
over a fourth of the white women and half the nonwhite women re-




H A N D B O O K OF TACTS O N W O M E N W 0 R I : E R S

22

TABLE 5.—Yearns earnings of iohite and nonwhite women and men, 1946
(Civilian earners 14 years of age and over in urban and rural nonfarm areas i n the United States]
Men

Women
Earnings

Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

White
$1,142

$497

$2,223

$1,367

100

100

100

100

27
18
19
19
10
4
3

50
27
12
7
2
1
1

9
9
11
14
17
13
27

16
18
22
20
14
6
4

$1,710

Median for all earners

$928

$2,678

$1,715

Percent earning:
A l l amounts
Under $500
4500 under $1,000
SI 000. under S1.600
$1 500, under $2,000
$2'000, under $2,600
$2*500, under $3,000
$3,000 and over

—
-

Median for full'tlme earners
SOURCE: TJ. S. Bureau of the Census.

ceived less than $500 i n the year; only 17 percent of the white and 4
percent of the nonwhite received as much as $2,000.
Earnings of white men were 95 percent above those of white women,
and the earnings of nonwhite men were even further above those of
nonwhite women—175 percent.

Year's Earnings of Women in 1944,1945, and 1946
{See Table 6)
Median earnings of women were much the same i n each of the 3
years 1944,1945, and 1946. The distribution of women workers at the
various earnings levels also were quite similar i n the 3 years.
Men's median earnings declined slightly i n each year, and the result
was that they were not'quite so far above women's earnings i n 1946 as
they had been i n 1944.
TABLE 6.—Tear's earnings of women and men, 1944, 1945, 1946
tCIvilian earners 14 years of age and over in urban and rural nonfarm households in the United States]
1944

1945

1946

Earnings
Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Median earnings.

$1,047

$2,339

$1,053

$2,296

$1,047

$2,145

Percent earning:
A l l amounts

100

100

100

100

100

100

26
22
22
17
8
3
2

g
8
g

26
22
21
18
8
3
2

11
8
g

29
19
19
17
g

10
10
11
14
17
12
26

Under $500
$500, under $1,000
$1,000, under $1,500
$1,500, under $2,000...
$2,000, under $2,600.
$2,500, under $3,000
$3,000 and over
SouBCs: T7. S. Bureau of the Census.




13
17
14
^

13
17
14
28

4
3

• WAGES OR SALARIES

23

REPORTS ON WOMEN'S EARNINGS AS FACTORY
PRODUCTION WORKERS
{See Tables 7 through 11)

!• Monthly Reports
There are three sources of information kept up to date by monthly
reports on the earnings of women as production workers i n factories.
I n each instance earnings are reported on the basis of a sample for each
industry included. Table 7 shows weekly earnings reported by these
sources; averages for each of the past 10 years are given.
1. The National Industrial Conference Boards an organization of
large manufacturers, reports average weekly and hourly earnings of
women and men and average weekly hours worked i n some 25 manufacturing industries. (Averages also are shown separately for unskilled men and for skilled and semiskilled men.) Table 8 shows
these averages i n December 1947 for industries employing large numbers of women. The combined figure for these 25 industries does not
represent earnings i n all manufacturing, since certain groups are
omitted that are important employers of women, notably cotton textiles i n the South, the clothing industry, and most food industries.
The reports of this organization come f r o m some 12,000 associates
scattered through the whole country but w i t h greatest concentration
i n the New England, North Atlantic, and Great Lakes States.
2. The Illinoh Department of Labor reports averages of both weekly
and hourly earnings, by sex, for all the principal manufacturing industries i n the State and for a few of the nonmanufacturing groups.
Illinois also reports average hours worked i n a week, by sex. Table 9
shows these averages for the latest available month of 1947, November,
for industries employing large numbers of women.
3. The New York State Department of Labor reports average weekly
earnings of women and men in the chief manufacturing industries and
of women i n laundries, and the proportions women constitute of all
workers i n the industry. Table 10 shows these figures for December
1947 f o r industries in which women constituted 20 percent or more of
the labor force.
Earnings of Women in Manufacturing, 1938—47 {see Table 7).—
The average weekly earnings of women manufacturing workers have
much more than doubled over the past decade, according to the few
available regular reporting sources. However i n considering this apparently large advance i t must be remembered that, as many studies
repeatedly show, women's earnings have tended all along to be at a
low level compared to their costs. Moreover, i f the significance to
women of this increase were to be adequately interpreted, i t would be
necessary to know the extent to which costs of goods and services have
increased over this period—a very difficult thing to estimate accurately.
Every year has shown some advance in average earnings of women.
As would be expected, the greatest dollar increases were made during
the war years; a peak dollar increase occurred i n 1943 and another i n
1947. I t should, of course, be remembered that these were periods
of great increases in l i v i n g costs.
792030"—48

6




24

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS ON W O M E N

W0RI:ERS

TABLE 7.—Average weekly earnings of men and women in manufacturing
industries as reported l>y the National Industrial Conference Board, Illinois, and New
York State, 1938-4^
[Averages for the year]
N. I. O . B .

New York 1

Illinois

Men

Year

Women

Women

Men

Women

Men

A l l men Unskilled
193 8
193 9
1940
1941
1942"""-IIII
1943-,1944
1945 1946 1947 -

$16.69
17.02
17.43
20.29
23.96
28.82
31.19
32.20
34.13
38.97

—
—:
-

$26.07
28.97
30.64
36.16
43.43
51.05
64.60
53.59
50.65
57.73

$20.67
22.81
23.88
28.17
33.48
38.89
41.06
41.14
40. 81
46.77

$27.48
29.45
30.33
34.58
41.25
49.34
54.39
53.51
62.45
58.98

$15.61
16.66
17.06
19.18
22.58
28.31
32. 79
33.20
34.48
39.18

$16.57
117.52

$29.71
' 30.49

23.53
30.33
33.46
34.14
36.56
39.60

44.72
52.86
66.16
56.79
65.61
60.34

1 f i g u r e s for 1939 are for 5 months only. Wages were not reported b y sex i n 1940 and 1941.
SOURCES: Figures issued m o n t h l y for the chief manufacturing industries b y the National Industrial
Conference Board i n its Management Record, b y the Illinois Department of Labor i n its Labor Bulletin,
and b y the N e w Y o r k State Department of Labor i n its Industrial B u l l e t i n . Averages for year computed
i n Women's Bureau for years i n which the reporting agency d i d not publish an average.

I n 1947 men's average weekly earnings were half again as high as
women's averages, but even this large difference was markedly less
than that of a decade ago, as the following shows:
Percent men's average weekly earnings
were above women's i n reports from—
Year
N . I . C. B.
1938
1947

-

. .

66
48

New York

niinois
76
51

79
52

Earnings of Women Factory Production Workers, December 1947
(see Table 8).—Average wreck's earnings of women factory production workers ranged from $48 to $36 i n 10 of the industries reported
by the National Industrial Conference Board and selected for their
importance i n employment of women. Average hourly earnings i n
these industries ranged from $1.11 to 92 cents.
Men's hourly earnings i n every instance averaged more than 10
cents above women's. I n 7 of the 10 industries men's averages were
30 cents or more above women's. The reported hourly averages of
even unskilled men were somewhat above those of all the women, except i n one industry. Men averaged about 3 or 4 hours longer work
i n the week than women, except i n the shoe, rubber, and hosiery and
k n i t goods industries.
Earnings of Women Production Workers in Illinois, November
1947 {see Table 9).—The average earnings of women factory production workers reported i n Illinois i n November 1947 was $1.08 hourly
and $41.31 weekly. Medians for a week's work were above $40 i n 5 of
the 13 manufacturing industries reported here and were below $35
i n 3 of these industries. They were below $30 for women i n the 2



25

• WAGES OR SALARIES

TABLE 8.—Average weekly earnings, average hourly earnings, and average loeekly
hours worked^ tvomen and men production ivorkers in selected industries^ December 1947, as reported 'by National Industrial Conference Board
Average weekly earnings of—

Average hourly earnings of—

Men

Men

Average
weekly hours
worked b y -

Industry
Women
All
men

Unskilled

M e a t p a c k i n g __
$48.07 $64.67 $56.12
Woolen and worsted
goods
46.89 56.83 53.02
Electrical manufacturing. 45.97 64.04 50.89
Rubber products (except
43.41 61.00 48.57
tires and tubes)
Printing, book and j o b . . . 41.22 75.70 52.27
Cotton—North...
40.66 61.94 46.99
Silk and rayon.
39.89 57.21
37.84 57.87 45.94
Paper products
Hosiery and k n i t goods,
37.16 64.07 47.00
35.97 49.05 27.41
Boot and shoe

Skilled Women
and
semiskilled

All
men

Un- Skilled
and
skilled semi- Women M e n
skUled

$68.27

$1.11

$1.32

$L17

$L39

43.5

48.9

59.01
65.92

1.15
L 17

, L29
L 51

1.19
1.23

L36
L55

40.6
39.3

43.9
42.4

L06
L06
LOS
1.02
.95
.93
.93

L46
1.77
1.21
1.32
1.32
L55
L22

LOS
L23
L12
0)
L 08
L05
.67

1.46
L96
L24
(')
L40
L60
L24

4L0
38.8
39.4
39.2
39.7
39.8
38.7

4L9
42.9
43.0
43.5
43.8
41.3
40.2

'

61.30
84.41
53.90
0)
62.15
65.69
49.87

» N o t available.
SOURCE: National Industrial Conference Board, Management Eecord, February 1948, Includes cash
payments only.

service groups reported—laundering, cleaning, and dyeing, and hotels.
Men's average hourly earnings given i n all manufacturing industries combined were more than one-third above women's. I n practically all these industries men averaged at least 30 cents an hour
more than women; in 3 of the 13 men's averages were 55 cents or more
above women's. B y the week, men's average earnings were far above
women's, since i n every industry men worked
hours or more longer
TABLE 9.—Average ioeekly earnings, average hourly earnings, and average weekly
hours worked, women and men production workers in selected industries
or
industry groups in Illinois,
November
Average weekly
earning

Average hourly
earning

Women

Women

Average weekly
hours worked b y -

I n d u s t r y or Industry group
Men

Men

A l l manufacturing i

$4L31

$61.95

$1.08

$L45

Electrical machinery, apparatus
Slaughtering, meat packing
Bookbinding, publishing
Confectionery..
Men's clothing..
Rubber products
Textiles
Chemicals, explosives, soaps
Paper bo.xes, bags, tubes
Leather and allied products.
Women's and children's clothing
Drugs, compounds, cosmetics
Men's furnishings, w o r k clothes

45.81
43.78
43.76
4L54
41.45
38.69
38.50
37.87
37.61
35.98
34.66
33.05
29.34

65.70
66.29
82.13
65.13
65.46
57.96
60.35
68.21
61.10
56.66
72.41
47.72
44.51

Lie
1.11
1.13
LU3
L09
.99
L02
.97
.97
.98
.95
.93
.88

1.51
1.40
1.87
L36
l.frl
L32
L33
L39
1.34
L38
L78
L25
L15

40.14
29.01
27.21

54.17
46.93
37.63

Nonmanufacturing
Laundering, cleaning, dyeing
Hotels

-

0)

' J Includes other reported industries that employ relatively few women,
s N o t reported b y sex.
SOUBCE: Illinois L a b o r B u l l e t i n , January 1048.




(')
(>)

Women

Men

38.5

42.6

39.4
39.5
38.6
40.4
37.7 '
39.1
38.2
39.0
38.7
36.6
36.2
35.6
33.5

43.6
47.4
43.9'
48.2
40.2
43.9
45.6
42.0
45.7
4L0
40.3
38.1
37.8

(«)
S

(')
(0

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

26

i n the week than women; men worked at least 7 hours a week longer
than women i n the meat packing, confectionery, textile, and paper
industries, and i n each of these men averaged froni 29 to 37 cents an
hour more than women.
. Earnings of Women Factory Production Workers in New York
State, December 1947 {see Table 10).—^The median of a week's earnings of the women factory production workers reported i n New Y o r k
State i n December 1947 was $41.36. Medians were above $40 a week
f o r the women i n 5 of the 13 industries included here (those i n which
women constituted a f i f t h or more of the labor force) ; i n 2 of these
industries the medians were below $32 a week (tobacco and laundries).
TABLE 10.—Average weekly earnings of icomen and men production
workers
in
selected industries or industry groups in New York State, December 1947
Average weekly earnings
of—
Industry or industry group
Women
All manufacturing»

Men

$41.36

$63.88

Automobiles, auto equipment..
Apparel and other finished fabric products...
Electrical machinery
Rubber products
Stone, clay, glass
Printing, publishing, and allied industries...
Chemicals and allied products
Food and kindred products.
Paper and allied products
Leather and leather products
Textile-mill products.
Tobacco manufactures

47.95
45.51
41.98
41.51
40.09
37.52
37.24
37.10
36.55
35.85
35,83
31.28

69.45
81.52
60.95
62.92
60.76
77.46
60.74
68.91
67.95
57.99
56; 79
37.59

Laundries

Women as
percent of all
workers

30.01

24

26
23

20

21
30
27
42
46
73

»Includes industries reported, other than those shown here, i n which women were less than 20 percent
of the labor force.
® Only nonmanufacturing industry in which women's wages were reported separately.
»Not reported.
SOURCE: New York State Department of Labor, Statistical Review, December 1947, pp.

Median earnings for men i n all manufacturing industries combined
were 54 percent above women's. I n 1 industry ( p r i n t i n g and publishing) men's median earnings were more than double women's. I n 9
of the 13 industries listed men's median ( f o r the week) was $20 or
more above women's.

2. Reports in Special Studies
A f r u i t f u l source of wage material for a given period is i n the special
studies of particular industries made by the U . S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics. These studies are based on reports f r o m
representative firms i n all parts of the country.® Table 11 gives the
average hourly earnings of women and men, as reported by this agency
i n 194:7 and i n mid 1946, i n industries selected for their importance as
employers of women.
»The Bureau of Labor Statistics also reports monthly on average hourly and average
weekly wages and average weekly hours, but these data are not given separately for
women.




27

• WAGES OR SALARIES

Women's hourly earnings averaged, above 70 cents i n all these industries, except two i n the cotton garment group, and averaged above
$1.00 i n two of the more skilled clothing industries.
Men's hourly averages were 10 cents or more above women's i n all
industries, and i n 6 of the 12 industries were 20 cents or more above
women's. The more marked differences between the two sexes i n average earnings undoubtedly were influenced to a major extent by the differences i n the occupations performed.
TABLE 11.—Average hourly earnings of women and men plant workers in selected
industries, for specified pay-roll periods in 1946 and 1947
Average hourly
earnings I of—

Industry

Pay-roll period
Women

Women's, misses' suit and coat *
Women's, misses' blouse and waist.
Knitted outerwear
Candy and chocolate..
Wholesale drug and allied products
Cotton garment industries
Washable service apparel
Men's, boys' shirt (except work shirt); nightwear
Overall and industrial garment
Work shirt
Work pants
Knitted underwear
Perfvmie and cosmetic
—

^

$1.42
1.18
.86
.75
.78
.77
.92
.81
.77
.69
.67
.75
.71

Men
$2.33
1.43
1.28
.98
.95
.96
1.25
.99
.93
.87
.86
.85
.96

July 1946.
January 1947.
July 1946.
January 1947.
January 1947.
Sept.-Oct. 1947.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
July 1946.
Do.

.» straight-time earnings. Including earnings under piecework and incentives, excluding premium pay for
overtime or night work..
2 Men predominate in some of the more highly skilled operations !n this industry, which partly accounts
for difference in levels of women's and men's earnings.
» Preliminary figures for these industries.
SOURCE: Wage Analysis Branch, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 0 . S. Department of Labor.

REPORTS ON EARNINGS OF WOMEN WHITE-COLLAR
WORKERS
{See Tables 12 through 15)
For the widely yarying ^ o u p s that often are referred to under the
term "white collar worker?' (including, f o r example, those i n professional, technical, clerical, and sales occupations), no monthly reports
on women's earnings exist. A few sources for clerical earnings report
annually, but not all give separate data f o r women. There also are
special studies showing office workers' earnings. Occasionally the
earnings of women i n some particular "white collar" occupation are
reported i n a special study made by some professional group for its
own membership, or by a research organization, a college alumnae
association, a women's organization, or the like. Some of these may
show earnings only i n a few localities; those f o r teachers or librarians
( f o r example) are likely to show current salaijy scales f o r various
cities, which may apply alike to women and men but may not show
how many persons receive the amounts cited.

Earnings of Clerical Workers
Three sources give information on the earnings of clerical workers;
two of them show earnings of workers i n the offices of factories.



H A N D B O O K OF TACTS O N W O M E N

28

W0RI:ERS

1. New York State tabulates i n October of each year the average
weekly earnings of the factory office forces i n the industries covered
i n monthly wage surveys. (See Table 12.)
2. The TJ. S, Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics reports
on particular manufacturing industries for certain periods show the
earnings of women (as well as men) i n characteristic clerical occupations i n the offices or plants of the industries covered. Selections f r o m
these reports for the industries surveyed i n 1946 are shown i n Table 13.
The same Bureau has reported average salaries of women i n selected
office occupations i n cities. Table 14 shows the averages reported i n
six large cities in the winter of 1947-1948.
3. The National Industrial Conference Board i n A p r i l and October
of each year makes a report on the weekly earnings of workers i n clerical occupations in factory offices. This report does not show women's
earnings separately, but since i t is probable that at least two-thirds
of these workers are women, a table from this source is included here.
Table 15 shows averages i n October of the peak war and the postwar years.
Earnings of Women Clerical Workers in New York State Factories, 1940-47 {see Table
The New Y o r k State Department of
Labor reports on the earnings of factorj^ office workers as of October
each V ear. I n October 1947, i t was estimated that there were some
122,000 such women office workers and that these were almost a fifth
of all the women employed i n New York State factories. These estimates of factory employment indicate that women constitute over 33
percent of the production workers and 63 percent of the nonsupervisory
office workers, such as clerks, stenographers, bookkeepers, and timekeepers.
I n October 1947, women's average weekly earnings were reported at
$40.76. Men's earnings were 45 percent above women's, but before
the war they had been very nearly twice as high as women's.
TABLE 12.—Average iceekly earnings of women and men in factory
York, 19JfO-47, October of each year

offices in New

Average weekly
earnings of—

Average weekly
earnings of—

Year

Year
Women

1940
1^41-,1942t
1943

$22.88
25.16
30.00

32.21

Men
$45.25
49.99
66.17
57.83

Women
1944 2, ^
1945®
1947'. . .

$33.83
33.23
40.76

Men
56.32
51.38
59.10

1 I n 1942 t h e list of sample firms and classifications scheme were revised. Supervlsorj- employees were
included i n 1942, though excluded i n other years, both earlier and later t h a n 1942.
3 Revised figures.
> Unpublished data. N o survey was made i n 1946.
SOTJRCE: New Y o r k State Department of Labor Industrial B u l l e t i n , November of each year, and recent
unpublished datfi furnished b y the Department. Firms ordinarily were requested to omit executives
and ^ l e s m e n and to include clerks, stenographers, bookkeepers, and other clerical employees i n both production and nonproduction departments, and also technical employccs-sueh as draftsmen, chemists, and
other laboratory assistants—doing routine w o r k .
loiucn,
mm

Earnings of Women Clerical Workers in Factories, 1946 {see
Table i ^ ) . — A m o n g five characteristic occupations of women i n factory offices i n a number of industries i n 1946, as reported by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, hand bookkeepers had highest average hourly



TABLE 18.—Average hourly

earnings

of women and men in characteristic
office occupations
periods in 19/f6
H a n d bookkeeper

Accounting clerk

Order clerk

in selected industries,

General clerk

for specified

pay-roll

Pay-roll clerk

Industry

Pay-roll period
Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

M e d i a n average hourly rate

$0.92

$1.18

$0.78

$1.06

$0.74

$1.09

$0.70

ffopper alloying, rolling, drawing
Pamt, varnish, lacquer
Textile dyeing, finishing
Drug, medicine
Woolen, worsted-—
Cotton textile
Rayon, silk
Tobacco

1.09
1.07
1.00
1.00
.94
.92
.83

1.25
1.32
L34
L32
L21
1.20
1.35

.99
.93
.90
.90
.80
.79
.83
.82

1.33
1.15
1.06
1.15
1.05
1.06
.94
1.26

.97
.87
.81
.82
.79
.89

1.38
l.OS
1.03
.94

.77

1.18

.83
.76
.76
.76
.74
.74
.70
.74

LOS

Men
$0.89 1.24
.87
.80
.95
.87
.81
.96

Women
$0.76
.92
.92
.83
.92
.83
.77
.77
.79

,

Men

m
Ui

$0.97
J.23
L09
.96
.94
.83
1.17

Spring, summer, 1946.
July 1946.
Do.
Do.
A p r i l 1946.
A p r i l , M a y 1946.
June, July 1946.
January 1946.

I Computed b y tbe Wage and H o u r and Public Contracts Divisions, TJ. S. Department of Labor; includes other industries for which detail is not shown here.
SOURCE: Statistical Materials Bearing on the Salary Requirement i n Regulations, part 541, Table 11, pp. 22, 23. Prepared b y U . S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour and
Public Contracts Divisions. Based on data from U . S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, I n d u s t r y Wage Studies 1945-46, series 2, Wage Structure.




o

w
HH

M

CB

to
CO

30

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS O N W O M E N

W0RI:ERS

earnings. Lowest averages were those of general clerks, who are likely
to exercise less specialized skill than some of the other clerical occupations.
Mills processing copper alloys usually paid their women office
workers more per hour than other industries. Tobacco, cotton textile,
and rayon and silk mills usually paid least.
I n each of the five occupations men averaged 19 cents or more per
hour above women's average. Greatest differences in pay to the two
sexes was among order clerks; men received 35 cents an hour more
than women.
Earnings of Women in Office Occupations in Six Large Cities,
Winter 1947-48 {see Table
Earnings of women office workers
have been tabulated by the Women's Bureau for six of the large cities
f o r which they are reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.* I n
live of the six cities, the largest group of workers were the general
stenographers. The clerk-typists and accounting clerks were next i n
numerical importance i n most of the cities.
Occupations in which the week's pay averaged highest were those of
hand bookkeeper, Class A bookkeeping-machine operator, and, i n most
of these cities, technical stenographer; in most cities these occupations
employed relatively few women. I n some places general clerks, or
general stenographers, and, less frequently, pay-roll clerks also had
average p u j toward the higher figure. Lowest average earnings (except for office girls i n some cities) were those paid Class B file clerks
and Class B typists. Clerk-typists also received relatively low pay.
Occupations which showed the widest percent differences in average
week's earnings between the highest- and lowest-paying cities were
those of general clerk, technical stenographer, clerk-typist, and Class
B bookkeeping-machine operator. Least variations among cities i n
TABLE 14,—Average weekly salaries of women in selected office occupations in six
large cities^ Winter 1947~48
Occupation

Billers, machine (billing machine)
Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine).
Bookkeepers, hand
Bookkeeping-machine operators Class A
Bookkeeping-machine operators, Class B
Calculatmg-machine operators (comptometer)..
Calculating-machine operators (other than
comptometer)
Clerks, accounting..
Clerks, file, Class A .
Clerks, file, Class B
Clerks, generalClerks, order
Clerks, pay-roll
Clerk-typists
Office girls.
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, technical
Switchboard operators.
Switchboard operator-receptionists
Transcribing-machino operators, general
Transcribing-machine operators, technical
T y p i s t s , Class A
T y p i s t s , Class B

Milwaukee

Atlanta

Boston

Buffalo

$36.78
37.68
44.41
43.54
36.65
38.26

$34.09
35.31
45.46
42.88
34.84
35.92

$33.74
34.46
43.98
41.87
33.52
36.67

$36.49
40.17
48.30
45.49
35.97
38. 51

$34.30
37.13
48.41
43.88
39.58
35.22

$41.20
41.42
52.06
44.20
41.13
41.43

35.73
37.83
36.34
30.03
42.29
35.77
39.96
33.14
30.16
39.42
40.95
34.94
35.66
36.36
39.71
36.66
32.04

33.71
36.24
37.87

35.80
37.74
38.12

36,42

28.81

28.81

40.52
35.90
37.73
31.79
28.41
37.31
41.24
36.09
35.56
34.65
35.00
37.44
29.99

34.94
35.32
40.69
34.50
28.50
38.01
45.68
36.72
35.42
36.47
37.26
30.24

38.10
30.95

36.19
39.21
40.10
29.39
37.02
34.63
38.30
33.07
28.40
37.99
42.02
36.41
35.89
34.79
41.91
38.46
32.40

39.95

40.13
29.27
43.62
34.89
39.41
33.91
27.51
40.72
44.14
37.36
35.52
36.14

Dallas

Seattle

42.80
42.52
33.55
43.95
42.10
44.96
39.37
33.19
45.62
50.92
40. 77
40.97
42.32

'"4i.'il
35.64

NOTE.—The length of the most common workweek is approximately 40 hours.
SOURCE: Compiled b y the Women's Bureau from Btireau of Labor Statistics Releases and Bulletins.




31

• WAGES OR SALARIES

the week's averages were found for Class A bookkeeping-machine
operators, Class A typists, and those switchboard operators who also
acted as receptionists.
A m o n ^ the six cities here tabulated, Seattle paid the highest week's
average i n 21 of the 22 occupations that were reported i n all these
cities, and either Boston or Buffalo paid the lowest average i n 16 of
the 22 occupations.
Earnings of Clerical Workers in Factories—Men and Women
Combined, 1943-47 {see Table 16).—The semiannual reports on
clerical salaries made by the National Industrial Conference Board,
though they are included here because women are a large proportion
of clerical workers, do not show women's earnings separately f r o m
men's. The reports are based on questionnaires returned by a varying
number of firms each year, from about 250 firms reporting on some
28,600 clerical workers to 500 firms reporting on some 45,000.
TABLE 15.—Median weekly salary rates in selected clerical occupations
in 21 cities, October of each year, 1943-Jt7 ^

in

factories

[Figures for men and women comhined]
Occupation
Billing machine operator.
Bookkeeping machine operator.
Calculatuig machine or comptometer operator
File clerk

Stenographer
Junior copy typist
Senior copy typist

1943
$27
26
28
23
27
20
2S
29
29
23
28

1944
$29
28
30
24
28
21
29
31
30
24
29

1945
$30
80
32
26
30
22
32
33
33
25
30

1946
$36
34
37
3]
35
27
37
38
37
30
36

1947
$39
38
41
33
37
30
40
42
42
33
39

1 Though these data are not reported by sex, they are inchided here because women are a very large
proportion of the workers in these occupations.
SOURCE: National Industrial Conference Board Management Record. Based on questionnaires returned
by a varying number of companies in each year, from about 2^0 companies reporting on some 28,500
employees in 1943 to 500 companies reporting on some 45,000 employoes in 1947. Because reports for different
years include different firms, comparisons of one period with another cannot be made. Only regularly
employed, full-time workers are included. Salary rates do not include overtime^ but do include incentive,
cost-of-living, and production bonuses earned during regular hours. They also reflect earned-experlence
rates and accruals due to length of service and may be affected by nonflnancial benefits given employees.

A m o n g 11 characteristic office occupations as reported by the National Industrial Conference Board, the median weekly salary rates
f o r men and women combined were highest for stenographers and
switchboard operatoi-s and lowest for office boys and girls and for file
clerks and junior copy typists.
I n October 1947 the weekly median f o r office workers i n each of these
11 occupations, even including the highest paid (stenographers and
switchboard operators), were $7 to $19 below the average for unskilled
men production workers i n the same month, as reported also by the
National Industrial Conference Board. I n 8 of the 11 office occupations, medians ranged f r o m 57 cents to $10.57 a week below the average
f o r women production workers i n October 1947,
Because of the differences i n the number of reporting firms, accurate
comparisons f r o m year to year cannot be made. Though the figures
indicate that clerical employees had increases f r o m the war to the
i t to the increase i n l i v i n g costs.
postwar period, they do not show the exact extent of increase, nor relate
792030*—48

6




Ill

Economic Responsibilities of
Women Workers'
As shown by a study of women war workers and their
postwar employment plans

A Women's Bureau study, based on home interviews in 1944 and i n
the early spring of 1945 with over 13,000 Avomen employed i n all types
of industry (except household employment) i n 10 war congested
areas, showed that 75 percent of these women planned to continue
working i n peacetime.
The reason given hy each woman for continuing to work:
O f every 100 women—
84 to support themselves and i n many cases others.
8 f o r some special economic reason, as to buy a home, pay
off debts, educate children.
8 only because they liked working or liked being independent.
The economic family responsibilities of the xoomen who planned to
keep on working:
O f every 100 women who planned to continue— "
81 lived w i t h their families.
19 lived apart.
Of every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
15 were the sole support of the family group.
47 were 1 of 2 wage earners contributing regularly to
household expenses.
31 were 1 of 3 or more wage earners contributing regularly
to household expenses.
7 made no regular contribution to the household.
1 Se also I — E m p l o y m e n t of Women, " W o r k i n g Wives a n d F a m i l y F i n a n c e s , " p. 11.

32




ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITIES

33

O f every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
33 regularly contributed all their take-home earnings to
the household.
20 regularly contributed one-half or more, but not all.
40 regularly contributed less than one-half.
7 made no regular contribution toward family support.
Of every 100 wovien who lived with their families and planned to
oontirme in the postwar labor inarket^ OS contributed regularly to
family expenses. Nearly two-thirds
percent) of the total money
in the pay envelopes of all these women %oho contributed was allocated
each pay day to household expenses.
Of every 100 women who lived apart from their families^ practically
all were dependent on their own resources for self support.

MARRIED WOMEN =
The study showed that married women formed 44 percent of the
employed women during the war period and that over one-half (57 percent) of these women planned to continue working i n peacetime.
The reason given by each married woman for continuing to work:
Of every 100 women—
57 to support themselves and i n many cases others.
21 for some special economic reason, as to buy a home, pay
off debts, educate children.
22 only because they like working or like being independent.
The economic family Tesponsiiilities of the married women who
planned to keep on working:
O f every 100 women who planned to continue—
91 lived w i t h their families.
9 lived apart.
O f every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
12 were the sole support of the family group.
58 were 1 of 2 wage earners contributing regularly to
household expenses.
21 were 1 of 3 or more wage earners contributing regularly
to household expenses.
9 only made no regular contribution to the household.
O f every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
56 regularly contributed all their take-home earnings to
the household.
17 regularly contributed one-half or more, but not alh
18 regularly contributed less than one-half.
9 made no regular contributions toward family support.
Of every 100 married women %cho lived with their families and
planned to continue in the postwar labor market^ 91 contributed regularly to family expenses. Seventy-nine percent of the total money in
3 W o m e n w h o were separated, because t h e h u s b a n d was i n service or f o r other reasons,
were c o u n t e d as m a r r i e d . W i d o w e d a n d d i v o r c e d w o m e n are n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p .




34

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

the "pay envelopes of all the^e married women who Gontributed was
allocated each pay day to household expenses.
Of e'very 100 mxirried women who lived apart from their families^
practically all were dependent on their own resources for self support,

SINGLE WOMEN
The study showed that single women formed 44 percent of the employed women d u r i n g the war period and t h a t 87 percent of these
women planned to continue working i n peacetime.
The reason given ty each single woman for continuing to work:
O f every 100 women—
96 to support themselves and i n many cases others.
2 f o r some special reason, as money f o r education.
2 only because they liked w o r k i n g or l i k e d being independent.
The economic responsibilities of the single women who planned to
keep on working:
O f every 100 women who planned to continue—
77 lived w i t h their families.
23 lived apart.
O f every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
12 were the sole support of the f a m i l y group.
43 were 1 of 2 wage earners contributing regularly to
household expenses.
38 were 1 of 3 or more wage earners contributing regularly
to household expenses.
7 made no regular contributions to the household.
O f every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
^ 13 regularly contributed a l l their take-home earnings to
the household.
20 regularly contributed one-half or more, but not all.
60 regularly contributed less than one-half.
7 made no regular contributions toward f a m i l y support.
Of every 100 single women who lived with their families and planned to continue in the postwar labor market^ 93 contributed
regularly
to family expenses. Nearly one-half {J^G percent) of the total Tnoney
in the pay envelopes of all these women who contributed was allocated
each pay day to household expenses,
^ Of every 100 single women who^ liwd apart from their families^ practically all were dependent on their own resources for self support*

WIDOWED AND DIVORCED WOMEN'
The study showed that widowed and divorced women formed 12
percent of the women employed d u r i n g wartime and t h a t 94 percent
of these women planned to continue w o r k i n g i n peacetime.
® W o m e n w l i o w e r e separated, because the h u s b a n d w a s i n service o r f o r o t h e r reasons,
w e r e counted as m a r r i e d .




ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITIES

35

The reason given iy each widowed or divorced woman for continuing to work:
O f every 100 women—
98 to support themselves and i n many cases others.
1 for some special economic reasons, as to pay off debts,
educate children.
1 only because she liked working, liked being independent.
The eoonomic family responsibilities of the widowed or divorced
women who planned to keep on working:
O f every 100 women who planned to continue—
70 lived w i t h their families.
30 lived apart.
O f every 100 women who lived w i t h their families—
35 were the sole support of the family group.
39 were 1 of 2 wage earners contributing regularly to
household expenses.
23 were 1 of 3 or more wage earners contributing regularly
to household expenses.
3 made no r e ^ l a r contributions to the household.
O f every 100 who lived w i t h their families—
45 regularly contributed all their take-home earnings to
the household.
21 regularly contributed one-half or more, but not all.
31 regularly contributed less than one-half.
3 made no regular contributions toward family support.
'Of every 100 widoioed or divorced loomen who lived with their
families and planned to continue in the po^stwar labor market,^ 97 contributed regularly to family expenses, Seventy-one percent of the
total money in the pay envelopes of all these widowed or divorced
women who contributed was allocated each pay day to household expemes.
Of evei^y 100 widowed or divorced women who lived apart from their
families^ practically all were dependent on their oion resources for self
support.




VIII

Industrial Injuries to Women

Many of the injuries that have occurred to workers in the course of
their occupations are preventable. State compensation authorities,
employers' and workers' safety organizations, and numerous independent agencies have made much progress both i n devising and installing methods of preventing accidents, and i n securing some money
payment to persons injured.
The development of adequate safety programs i n industry and the
control of accidents to workers require a firm basis of factual information. Extensive reports on the occurrence of industrial injuries have
provided much of this information on which to build such programs.
I n j u r y frequency rates i n various industries have been determined on
the basis of a large body of data concerning the numbers of injuries
and the extent to which workers are exposed to hazards. Systematic
reporting of injuries has permitted the study of trends and fluctuations
i n industrial injury experience. Eelatively little statistical information has been available, however, on injuries to women workers.
For many years a chief source of information on employment injuries has been in the records of claims for workmen's compensation
that are kept by State authorities. Of the figures published on these,
some include only closed claims, some shoAV all those compensable, some
all the claims filed. Some 25 States have afforded data l3y sex at some
time, some of them i n regular periodic reports.^ The Women's Bureau
has from time to time analyzed these in the light of preventive needs
f o r women, and has made a few special investigations on this subject.^
About half the States that have issued reports on injuries by sex have
shown the age or the extent of disability of the injured women, some
reported the industries i n which they were working, or the causes of
the injuries, and a few^ gave information on other points, such as the
weekly wages of the injured women, or the work time lost by them because of their injuries.
The U . S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, regularly collects and publishes i n j u r y information f r o m a representative
group of manufacturing firms, although such data are not secured for
men and women separately. A t the request of the Women's Bureau
i This section Is based in large part on Women's Bureau Bulletin 212, Industrial Injuries
to Women, prepared by Jennie Mohr.
= See Women's Bureau Bulletins 81, 102, 129, 160.
» See Women's Bureau Bulletins 60, 151, 212.

36




INDUSTRIAL I N J U R I E S

37

and the Industrial Division of the U. S. Department of Labor, Children's Bureau (now Child Labor Branch of the Wage and Hour and
Public Contracts Divisions), the Bureau of Labor Statistics asked the
group of manufacturing firms which periodically give information
on injuries to report this information by sex and age (minors and
adults) for one quarter of the year 1945. Soon afterward information on injuries by sex and age was also asked by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics from a group of nonmanufacturing firms for the year 1945
as a wholeThe i n j u r y experience of women i n industry i n 1945 has been reported as i t is shown in Table I and Table I I below for some 20,000
establishments employing about
million workers. Of these workers over a million, or about 30 percent, were women. These figures
represent a larger coverage of injuries by sex of the worker than has
hitherto been available.
The actual number of injuries sustained by women and the occurrence of serious injuries point to certain industries as having particular
need for safety programs. During 1 quarter of the year, for example,
the 11,000 women working i n slaughtering and meat packing received
165 injuries, or 1 for every 67 women. I n stamped and pressed metal
]3roducts the quarter's record was 1 i n j u r y for every 76 women; in
fabricated metal products, 1 i n 155; and i n textiles and cotton yarns,
1 i n 186. The annual record i n nonmanufacturing industries shows 1
i n j u r y for every 22 women i n chain groceries; 1 for every 26 i n dru<r
stores; 1 i n 42 i n variety and limited-price stores; 1 i n 44 i n hotels j 1
i n 82 i n laundries; and 1 i n 94 i n department and general merchandise
stores. These figures represent a serious accumulation of injuries, a
loss of working time and production, and particularly an amount of
human distress, that call for remedy.
About 4 percent of the injuries i n manufacturing resulted i n death
or permanent disability. I n nonmanufacturing, the proportion was
smaller, being less than 1 percent for women and about 2 percent for
j n e n . These small percentages, however, represent 91 lives lost and
over 1,000 people permanently disabled i n manufacturing industries
during 1 quarter of 1945; and in nonmanufacturing, 54 workers who
died and 160 who were permanently disabled through the year. Based
on records covering only a sample of the establishments throughout the
country, these figures give but a partial picture of the national loss in
lives and productivity.
I n general, the frequency of injuries i n various industries is considerably lower for women than for men. I t is also lower for women
working i n nonmanufacturing than for those i n manufacturing plants;
and in manufacturing, lower among nonproduction than among production workers. I n the absence of occupational classifications o f the
workers who were injured, we can only infer f r o m general laiowledge
of the work of men and women the comparative rjsks that men and
women face. I t is probable that i n the industries i n which rates are
found to be comparable for men and women—such as the manufacture
of stamped and pressed metal products, jewelry and silverware, and
boots and shoes i n manufacturing, chain food stores and brokerage and
banking firms i n nonmanufacturing—the actual jobs and working conditions, w i t h attendant exposure to hazards, are also similar.




TABLE l.—Distribtttion

of employment and injuries

by sex in

maniffaciuring
of

estaUisliments,

classified by industry,

for one quarter

\

Employment

Industry

Apparel:
Clothlnf? and accessories
T r i m m i n g s and fabricated textile products, n o t elsewhere classified
Chemicals:
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides
Paints, varnishes, and colors
Synthetic textile fibers
Other..
Electrical equipment: i
Electrical equipment for industrial use..
Radios and phonographs, communication and signaling equipment
Batteries
Insulated wire and cable
Other

Number
of
establishments
reporting

Total

ProNonducprotion
ducworktion
ers
workers

707

6S,&40

63,944

75

9,613

8,533

72
48
10
291

13,353
2,278
6,300
11,653

229
153
18
10
60
32
3G
377
89

5,603
6.342
3,976 . 3,401
8,894
10.931
8,435
10,475

Injuries

N u m b e r of men

Number of injuries
to-

Total

Production
workers

Women

4,996

17,833

14,758

3,075

223

148

75

4.7

4.0

7.7

79.4

1,U80

7.861

6,735

1,126

ISO

56

94

14.4

10.0

19.7

55,0

37.3

9,600
950
5,112
6,191

3,753
1,328
1,188
5.467

10,493
7.483
10, 798
48,044

7,304
5,790
8.986
38,981

3,189
1,693
1,812
9,063

228
119
131
55S

80
7
53
44

148
112
78
514

16.1
20.2
13.6
15.2

10.2
5.3
15.1
6.3

23.4
24.5
12.8
17.3

56.0
23.3
36.8
19.5

35.1
5.9
40.5
7.9

59,299

42,974

16,325

96,664

74,394

22,270

695

192

503

7.8

6.7

9.1

3S.0

27.6

35.718
3, 213
2.923
8,270

28,246
2,848
2,361
6,088

7.472
365
562
1,582

33,113
3,443
7,068
9,218

22,594
2,943
6.033
6,948

10. 519
500
1,035
2,270

227
74
93
87

81
24
11
27

146
50
82
60

6.0
17,9
15.5
8.7

4.1
11.9
6.3
5.7

8.1
23.7
18.3
11.5

51.9
48.3
29.3
47.3

35.7
32.4
11.8
31.0

7,762
739
3,952
575
2,037 .29,188
2,040 14,684

6,717
3,125
24, 598
12,692

1,045
827
4,590
1,992

148
130
842
240

40
29
165
53

108
101
677
187

17.1
26.7
35.5
15.5

10.4
11.9
25.9
8.3

22.5
41.5
39.0
20.5

45.0
50.2
27.2
41.6

27.0
22.3
19.6
22.1

6,980
12,932
8,985

932
981
915

174
315
153

35
36
19

139
279
134

28.4
31.1
20.9

22.8
19.9
13.7

30.3
33.5
22.6

25.9
18.2
19.3

20.1
11.4
12.4

N u m b e r of women

Nonproduction T o t a l
workers

I n j u r y frequency rates
for—

Men

Total

Women

Percent
Percent
injuries
women
to womare of all en are of
workers
all
Injuries

Men

66.4

R OOQ:

B a k i n g and confectioncry
Canning and preserving
Slaughtering and meat packin?
Other
F u r n i t u r e and lumber products:
F u r n i t u r e , wood
Wooden containers
Other
I r o n and steel:*
Fabricated structural steel and ornamental metal w o r k
Fabricated metal products
Forgings and foundries
Heating equipment and plumbers' supplies
I r o n and steel
M e t a l coating, engraving, and vitreous
enamel products
Plato fabrication and boiler-shop products
—
Stamped and pressed metal p r o d u c t s . . .




64
245
138

2,763
3,089
2,371

2,074
2,631
1,827

212
412
G4
G

3,196
31,105
13,603

1,838
23,835
8,042

1,358 25. 614 22,246
7,270 77,385 68,267
5,621 120, 716 109,486

3.368
9,118
11,230

462
1, 269
2,856

12
201
119

450
1.068
2,737

25.8
18.4
34.6

6.4
10.5
14.6

28.1
21.4
36.8

11.1
28.7
10.2

2.6
15.8
4.2

67
140

4,489
26,285

2,874
18,635

1,615 18,448 16,343
7.650 190,588 172,501

2,105
18,087

256
1,395

30
111

226
1, 284

17,7
10.3

10.9
6.9

19.3
10.8

19.6
12.1

11.7
8.0

70

2,436

2,102

334

3,628

3,290

338

84

18

66

23.2

12.7

29.9

40.2

21.4

136
198

4,261
15,443

2.497
13,005

1,764
2,438

23,377
25,890

20,119
22,652

3,258
3,238

541
564

30
203

511
361

30,8
21.9

11.5
21.5

34.1
22.1

15.4
37.4

5.5
36.0

689
458
544

7,912
13, 913
9,900

Wire and wire products
Other.
Leather:
Boots and shoes
Other
Lumber: Sawmills, planing mills, plywood
mills, and veneer mills
Machinery, exccpt electrical: i
Agricultural machines, tractors
Construction and mining machinery
Commercial and household machinery..
Engines and turbines
General industrial machinery
Spccial industrial machinery
Other
Nonferrous metals:
Watches, clocks, Jewelry, and silverware.
Other.
Ordnance:
Ammunition
Guns-.
Tanks and tank components (military)..
Other
Paper:
Paper and pulp
Paper boxes and other products
Printing: Printing, book and job
Rubber:
Tires and tubes
Rubber boots and shoes, and other rubber products
Stone, clay, and glass:
Glass
Pottery and related products
Other
Textiles:
Textiles and cotton yarns
Dyeing and finishing
K n i t goods
Other
T r a ^ ^ o r t a t l o n equipment:
Aircraft parts " r r r r m i l l l l l l l l - I I I I I " !
Motor vehicles
Motor vehicles parts
Railroad equipment.
Miscellaneous manufacturing:
Scientific instruments and supplies,
optical and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing, not elsewhere classified

126
94

8,472
6,836

6,759
5,475

1,713
1,361

22,180
22,271

19,400
20,277

2,780
1,994

396
389

76
47

320
342

20.7
21.4

14.7
11.0

22.9
24.6

27.6
23.5

19.2
12.1

240
39

2G,164
2,634

23,852
2,334

2,312
300

23,051
6,047

21,037
5, 644

2,014
403

270
139

135
22

135
117

9.7
26.1

9.1
14.5

10.3
30.8

53.2
30.3

50.0
15.8

425

3,977

3,016

961

30,949

28,243

2,706

708

60

648

34.4

26.0

35.5.

n.4

8.6

31,269
7,618
35,105
6,257
6,548
22,941
24,938
6,093
154, 919 28, 559
16,851
3,333
7,109
22,448

509
602
335
265
2,245
287
340

52
26
38
17
197
16
46

457
576
297
248
2,048
271
294

17.3
19.7
13.5
12.5
16.1
18.8
14.6

10.5
5.7
6.0
4.9
7.5
6.0
7.4

18.7
22.2
16.1
13.9
18.0
21.5
17.0

17.0
15.7
26.5
16.5
19.5
18.2
26.8

10.2
4.3
11.3
6.4
8.8
5.6
13.5

45
9S
47
42
853
91
184

7,969
4.844
7,678
3, 717
10, 647 6,447
6,132
2,680
44, 442 24,471
4,500
2,521
10,829
7,307

15
313

3,222
10,559

2,712
7,812

510
2,747

3, 510 3,022
34,697 30,514

488
4,183

' 34
539

15
66

19
473

8.7
20.2

8.1
10.5

9.3
23.2

47.9
23.3

44.1
12,2

76
17
14
29

10,463
2,175
993
1,857

7,953
1,335
398
795

2,510
840
595
1,062

26,451 22,632
12, 559 10, 935
4. 794
6,366
9, 545 7,459

3,819
1,624
1, 572
2,086

347
141
60
85

47
6
2
2

300
135
58
83

16.2
17.5
12.6
13.4

7.6
5.0
(0
2.0

19.6
19.7
14.0
15.6

28.3
14.8
13.5
16.3

13.5
4.3
3.3
2.4

316
336
25

19,558
15,444
1,821

14,998
13,100
1,387

4,560
2,344
434

81. 735 73,107
18,450 16,121
2,938
2,445

8,628
2,329
493

1,425
392
27

104
88
6

1,321
304
21

22.9
19.4
9.6

9.0
9.8
5.6

26.2
27.2
12.1

19.3
45.6
38.3

7.3
22.4
22.2

23

9,071

6,472

2,599

25,734

21, 794

3.940

255

22

233

11.8

3.9

14.5

26.1

8.6

79

19,313

16,024

3,289

29, 362 25,070

4,292

372

82

290

12.5

7.0

16.0

39.7

22.0

25
26
65

5,933
2,680
5,512

4,976
2, 526
4,240

325
43
65
25

88,543
4,534
15,732
3,021

18
133
75
55
35

31,920
26,973
11,487
10,560
4,709

957 12.505
154
3, 675
1, 272 12, 775

11,106
3,326
11,017

1,399
349
1, 758

167
73
226

26
16
19

141
57
207

15.6
20.8
20.3

7.6
11.0
5.7

19.4
27.7
26.5

32.2
42.2
30.1

15.6
21.9
8.4

83,368
3, 537
14.034
2,677

6,175
997
1,698
344

99,390
14,148
5,701
4,292

92,144
12,899
4,667
3,749

7,246
1,249
1,034
543

1,418
153
91
62

475
18
48
25

943
135
43
37

12.9
14.0
7.5
14.2

9.2
6.9
5.4
14.0

16.2
16.2
13.2
14.4

47.1
24.3
73.4
41.3

33.5
n.8
52.7
40.3

20.294
19,110
4,482
6,704
2,803

11,626
7,863
7,005
3,766
1,906

61,141
78,167
52,962
37,779
32,667

38.087 23,054
59, 722 18,445
37,728 15,234
5,940
31,839
4,753
27,914

315
643
509
522
324

89
125
24
90
33

226
518
485
432
291

5.5
10.2
13.2
17.5
14.2

4.5
7.8
3.6
13.8
11.7

6.1
11.1
15.3
18.6
14.5

34.3
25.7
17.8
21.8
12.6

28.3
19.4
4.7
17.2
10.2

84

11,964

8,354

201

16,039

13,254

' Some firms gave information for one quarter and some for another.
» Less than 1 million hours of exposure.




3,125 38,887
3,961 41, 362
4,200 29,489
3,452 31,036
19,971 183,478
1,979 20,184
3,522 29,557

3, GIO 17,382

13,262

4,120

109

23

86

6.3

3.3

8.5

40.8

2L1

2,785

16,377

3,061

275

65

210

13.0

6.9

17.9

45.2

23.6

19,438

For purposes of this study the records of the two quarters were combined.

00

CO

TABLE 2 . — D i s t r i b u t i o n of employment

and injttries

hij sew in 10,665 nonmanufacHiring

establishmentst
Injuries

Employment
Industry

Number
of establishments
reporting

Total

Number Number
of women of men

Number of uijuries t o Total

Retail trade:
Apparel
Automotive dealers
Building and household supplies and equipment.
Department and general merchandise stores
Drug stores
Dairy products
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores—Chain
Grocery, meat» and vegetable stores—Independent.
Fupl and ice dealers
Furnitiu-e stores
Lumber and building materials, not metal
Mail-order houses
...
Variety, limited-price stores
Other
Wholesale trade:
Automotive
Chemical, drugs and related products
D r y goods and apparel.
Farm products and supplies
Groceries and food specialties
Industrial and household building material,
equipment, and supplies
Paper and paper products..
Other.
Other nonmanufacturlng industries:
Laundries, power
Cleaning and dyeing
Hotels, year-round
Banks and brokerage
Electric light and power
Manufactured gas production and distribution..
Natural gas distribution




classified hy industry,

Women

Men

Injury frequency rate for—
Total

Women

Men

1945

Percent
Percent
injuries
women to women
are of all are of all
workers hiiuries

836
1,077
550
414
352
117
52

36,452
20,128
7,203
67,252
11,120
12,340
13,966

23,169
2,113
1,697
49,893
6,461
2,017
4,765

13,283
18,015
5,506
17,359
4,659
10,323
9,201

233
798
172
938
373
796
684

136
14
9
533
247
22
212

97
784
163
405
126
774
472

3.2
17.4
11.0
7.0
15.5
26.9
24.5

3.0
3.3
2.6
5.4
17.8
4.9
22.6

3.6
18.8
13.4
n.4
12.3
30.8
25.6

63.6
10.5
23.6
74.2
58.1
16.4
34.1

58.4
LS
5.2
56.8
66.3
2.8
31.0

445
391
5Z0
424
5
63
009

6,340
9,306
11,318
7,330
3,605
5,100
19,565

2,207
1,029
3,556
828
2,891
4,248
8,484

4,133
8,277
7,762
6,502
714
852
11,081

232
762
231
399
31
161
346

57
0
20
3
14
101
72

175
762
211
390
17
60
274

18.3
38.6
9.1
25.7
4.5
18.1
9.1

13.7
0
2.6
1.8
2.5
13.7
4.6

20 5
43.1
12.0
28.6
12.5
38.9
12.4

34.8
ILl
31.4
11.3
80.2
83.3
43.4

24.6
0
8.7
.7
45.1
62.7
20.8

191
143
362
363
623

5,578
5, 575
8,111
12,932
10,902

1,461
2,187
2,994
3,592
3,517

4,117
3,388
5,117
9,340
13,385

156
81
57
573
753

16
28
11
50
39

140
53
46
523
713

12.2
7.2
3.6
25.2
20.5

4.9
6.4
1.9
n.4
5.6

14.7
7.7
4.6
28.5 '
24.0

26.2
39.3
37.0
27.8
20.8

10.3
34.6
19,3
8.7
5.2

644
174
519

21.144
S,05S
12,866

6,150
l,f>48
3,620

14,994
3,410
9,246

545
114
600

. 46
7
51

499
107
549

12.1
10.8
21.7

3.6
2.1
6.8

15.5
14.8
27.1

29.1
32.6
28.1

8.4
6.1
8.5

244
178
G4S
319
39
42
31

20,912
6,166
56,817
7,988
18,95S
4,025
10,827

14,089
4,013
29,495
2,874
3,333
855
1,9SG

6,823
2,153
27,322
5,114
15,623
3,170
8,841

365
94
1,602
29
473
212
286

172
45
674
11
18
5
8

193
49
928
18
455
207
278

8.2
7.1
12.9
1.8
11.6
23.7
12.3

6.7
5.3
10.5
2.0
2.5
2.8
1.9

13.4
10.4
15.3
1.7
13.6
28.9
14.6

67.4
65.1
51.9
35.9
17.6
21.3
18.3

47.1
47.9
42.1
37.9
3.8
2.4
2.8

INDUSTRIAL I N J U R I E S

41

The stamped and pressed metal products industries show a high
rate for both men and women, indicating special need for a program
to improve the record. Other industries also call for special attention—slaughtering and meat packing, furniture and lumber products,
and lumber mills, where rates are less comparable but still very high
f o r both men and women; and those industries i n which, though
women's rates are low, men's rates are seriously high.
I n all these industries particular efforts are needed to develop a
program that w i l l reduce the material and personal losses incurred
through industrial injury.




Standards f o r Employment
of Women

NEED FOR STANDARDS FOR WOMEN WORKERS
The great changes i n women's work that were speeded up by the
war have been developing for a little more than a century as the
result of transferring industry f r o m the home to the factory. I n
gradually increasing numbers, women have become wage workers outside their homes, either manufacturing goods or performing services
for the public—working i n factories, offices, stores, hotels, restaurants,
and laundries. They are a large and important part of the labor force
in the country. Many thousands of women also are employed by the
Federal, State, and local governments, and other thousands work i n
private households.
W o r k i n g conditions v a ^ widely as to adequacy, even where legal
regulations exist. Collective bargaining in many instances has establislied high standards for working conditions, wages, and hours. I n
other instances, employers themselves have set up good working
conditions. But when standards depend wholly on voluntary action^
they often do not apply to a l l workers and vary i n their adequacy. For
this reason, minimum standards should be established by law. The
Nation's best interests demand good labor standards for women, many
of whom are mothers and homemakers as well as wage earners.

DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS
W h a t are adequate standards f o r women workers? How are these
developed?
Labor standards are not stationary but are influenced by continuously changing conditions. Minimum wage standards are adjusted
as prices rise and as new items come into the accepted minimum standard of living. Historically, hours of work have been reduced as
factory processes have been mechani:2ed and also as fatigue has come
to be recognized as a major factor i n the worker's health and efficiency.
The development of industrial hygiene has provided a basis for regulating the use of industrial materials or processes that endanger the
42




STANDARDS FOR E M P L O Y M E N T

43

liealth of workers. Thus standards change as a result of advancing
scientific knowledge and as a result of growing recognition by both
workers and employers of the need for good working conditions.
Good labor standards should be maintained for all workers without
discrimination. Certain standards, such as those relating to plant
equipment and plant environment, affect men and women equally and
obviously are not subject to discriminatory application. W i t h respect
to such matters as hours of work, rest periods and lunch periods, and
seating, labor legislation i n many States is responsible for the existence, i n many industries, of better standards for women than for men.
However, discrimination against women sometimes exists i n regard to
promotion, seniority, training, and particularly i n regard to wages.
IVomen frequently are hired for beginning jobs on an equal basis w i t h
men but do not get equal consideration for promotion. They are
often not given the same training opportunities and, even i f trained,
are not given a chance at the better jobs. Equality i n maintaining
the right to a job through seniority, and i n payment for work done, is
too often lacking.
Labor standards are developed through many channels—employers,
unions, governmental and private agencies. The following pages
present standards which refer mainly to industrial and ofi-ce workers.
(Somewhat different standards are essential to safeguard women
workers i n various other fields, such as household employment, agriculture, technical and scientific work, bnt these standards require special consideration.) Outlined here are the broad basic recommendations for any program concerned w i t h the health and efficiency of
women employees. These recommendations do not attempt to deal
w i t h details, but they indicate the direction i n which the development
o f good standards should move.

STANDARDS ON WORKING TIME
Schedules of 10 and 12 hours a day have given way to fewer daily
hours. The 6-day week of 40 hours or even less is now a schedule
widely used. Standards for working hours should include:
1. Not more than 8 hours of work a day, and not more than 48 a
week; work time over 40 hours to be paid for at time and one-half the
worker's regular rate.
2. A t least 1 day of rest i n 7.
3. Meal periods of at least 30 minutes. No work period of more
than 5 hours without a break for meal or rest.
4. A rest period of at least 10 minutes i n the middle of each halfday work period, to be given in addition to the lunch period and
without lengthening the workday.
5. Some vacation w i t h pay after 6 months on the job; a longer
vacation after longer service.
6. Sick leave and maternity leave without loss of job or seniority
rights. Maternity leave should cover a minimum of 6 weeks before
and 2 months after confinement; w i t h extension of either period on
advice of the worker's physician.
7. Time off w i t h pay on chief legal holidays.
D u r i n g the war the need for f u l l production (especially of war
materials) expanded the use of night work i n manufacturing and



44

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

elsewhere contrary to past practices generally regarded as basic f o r
health and social reasons. Now that the war demand is no longer
overriding, there should be a return to the sounder policy of the prewar years and night work kept to a minimum except i n continuousprocess industries and i n essential services.

STANDARDS ON WAGES
Workers' standards of l i v i n g are determined by their earnings. The
least they should be assured is a minimum rate of pay adequate to
meet the cost of living. B u t there must also be the assurance that
this wage w i l l continue throughout the year. The standard of l i v i n g
depends p r i m a r i l y on an adequate wage rate, plus the guarantee pf
an adequate annual wage. Such earnings are essential, not only because they maintain a secure and healthy level of l i v i n g for individual workers, but also because they sustain the Nation's economic stability. To aid i n accomplishing these objectives, Federal and State
Governments to some extent are providing by law for a floor to wages
as well as a ceiling to hours. Wage standards should include the
following:
1. The principle of "equal p a y " : Wage rates based on the job, and
not on the sex of the worker or other factors not related to ability to
perform the job.
2. M i n i m u m wage rates established through legislation; tips not
considered as wages.
3. A l l protective clothing and other safety equipment, and all uniforms required, furnished and cared for by the employer as part of
the cost of production; no worker required to contribute, directly or
indirectly, to the cost of supplying or maintaining such clothing or
equipment; i f the worker does contribute, she is to be reimbursed for
any sucli necessary expenditure by the employer.
4. Wages paid regularly and i n full, on a weekly or semimonthly
basis, and on a fixed day.

STANDARDS ON OTHER CONDITIONS
Standards adequate to protect the health and safety of workers are
essential i n all workplaces. These standards should include:

For Health
1. W o r k i n g environment: Adequate .ventilation, lighting, and heating, to preserve health and reduce strain and fatigue.
. 2. Plant facilities: Washroom, toilets, rest rooms and dressing
rooms, drinking facilitiesj and lunchrooms where nourishing food is
available at reasonable prices. These facilities should meet the needs
of the workers and conform to high standards of health and sanitation.
3. Medical services i n the plant commensurate w i t h needs of the
workers.
4. A program of industrial hygiene to discover and protect against
occupational hazards arising f r o m the use of dangerous substances or
processes.




STANDARDS FOR E M P L O Y M E N T

45

5. L i f t i n g heavy weights and other undue physical strain to be eliminated f r o m job requirements to the fullest extent possible,
6. Suitable seats, in adequate numbers, and freedom for workers to
use them while working—at all times i f the nature of the job permits,
and i n any event during periods when not actively engaged i n performance of duties that require a standing position.

For Safety
1. Equipment and machinery i n good working condition, with adequate guards against injury.
2. Safety equipment and clothing, such as goggles, safety shoes,
protective gloves, as needed, maintained i n good conStion.
3. Safe and uncrowded work space; stairways, floors^ halls, rooms,
and passageways kept in good condition and adequately lighted.
4. A continuing safety program and training i n safety on the job
for all workers.

INDUSTRIAL HOME WORK
Efforts should be made to abolish the industrial home-work system,
w i t h its long and irregular hours, low earnings, and child labor. I n
nonindustrial States, legislation should prohibit home work. I n indust r i a l States where i t is now extensive there should be strict regulation of hours of work and wages until prohibitory laws can be passed.
Employers who use the labor of home workers can produce i n direct
competition w i t h factory employers who have higher standards of
hours, wages, and working conditions. Home work tends to undermine such standards.




VI

State Labor Laws for Women
Basic standards as of June 1, 1948

DAILY AND WEEKLY HOURS
Forty-three States and the District of Columbia have laws l i m i t i n g
the daily and weekly hours of employment i n one or more industries.
Five States—Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa and West Virginia—
do not have such laws.
One-half of the States (24) and the District of Columbia have set
8 hours a day and/or 48 hours a week or less as the maximum time a
woman may be employed in 1 or more industries.^ I n 23 of the 24
States (Kansas is the exception) manufacturing establishments are
covered by such standards. South Carolina's statute, however, covers
only 1 branch of manufacturing—textile mills. I n Connecticut the
maximum workweek is 48 hours for several industries but daily hours
may not exceed 8 i n mercantile establishments nor 9 in manufacturing
plants. The 8-48 hours law i n Kansas applies to public-housekeeping
occupations and telephone exchanges; i n manufacturing establishments, the maximum is 9 hours a day, 49i/^ hours a week.
Arizona __
California
Colorado
Connecticut

New York
North Carolina
N o r t h Dakota
8
8-48 Ohio
8-48

8-48
9-48

8-48

81/3-48
8-48
9-45
8-44
10-48

9-48

D i s t r i c t of Columbia
lUinois
Kansas
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Montana
Nevada
New Hampshire .
New Mexico

8-48
8^8
8-48
8-48
9-48
8
__ 8-48
10-48
8-48

Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
women)
Utah
Virginia
Washington.
Wyoming

9-48
(men

and
8r40
8-48
9-48

8
8-48

Ten States have set a maximum 9-hour day f o r women, and the
weekly maximum i n all but one of these (Idaho) is 50 or 54 hours.
Arkansas has no weekly hours specified i n its statute but i t has a 6day-week provision, which i n effect makes a 54-hour maximum week.
i F o r States w i t h different legal maximum-hour standards for different industries, the
l a w establishing the lowest maximum hours was selected for this summary.
46




STATE LABOR LAWS
Arkansas.
Idaho
Maine
Michigan
Missouri

47

9-6 days Nebraska
9
Oklahoma
9-54
Texas
9-54
Vermont
9-54
Wisconsin-

9-54
9h54
9-54
9-50
9-50

E i g h t States have set a maximum day of 10 hours and a week of
f r o m 54 to 60 hours. I n 2 of these—Georgia and South Carolina—
the law applies to one type of manufacturing plants only—cotton and
woolen mills.
Delaware
Georgia (men and women)
Kentucky
Maryland
:
Mississippi (men and w o m e n ) - .

10-55 New Jersey
10-54
10-60 South Carolina (men and wom10-60
en)
10-55
10-60 South Dakota
10-54
10-60

I n one State—Tennessee— the maximum is 10% hours a day, 57
hours a week. This applies to manufacturing and other industries.
Minnesota has fixed no daily l i m i t i n its statute, having only a 54hour weekly limitation for manufacturing establishments and several
other industries.

DAY OF REST ^
About half the States (23) and the District of Columbia prohibit
employment of women for more than 6 days a week i n some or all
industries. I n 2 of these States—Colorado and Utah—the law does
not apply to manufacturing establishments.
Arizona
Arkansas
California (men and women)
Colorado
Connecticut (men and women)
Delaware
District of Columbia
Illinois (men and women)
Kansas
Louisiana
Massachusetts (men and women)
Nevada

New Hampshire (men and women)
New Jersey
New York (men and women)
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio .
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Utah
Washington
Wisconsin (men and women)

MEAL PERIODS
W e l l over half the States (27) and the District of Columbia have
provided that meal periods varying from % to 1 hour must be allowed
to women i n some or all industries. This provision applies to manufacturing establishments i n all but 4 of these States—Colorado, I l l i nois, North Carolina, and Washington. The States are as follows:
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Delaware
D i s t r i c t of Columbia
Illinois
Indiana (men and women)
Kentucky

Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Nebraska (men and women)
Nevada
New Jersey (men and women)
New Mexico
New York (men and women)

® Rhode Island in its 1945 reenactment of an earlier law covering employment on certain
holidays includes Sunday in the list of days when employment not absolutely necessary is
prohibited. The law, however, does not establish a 6-day week.




48

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS
Rhode Island
Utah
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin

N o r t h Carolina
N o r t h Dakota
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania

REST PERIODS
Rest periods of 10 minutes after a work period of 4 consecutive
hours or d u r i n g each half day are provided for i n the laws of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah.

NIGHT WORK
Twenty-two States and the District of Columbia place some limitation on the hours of employment of women or persons between 18 and
21 at night.
The following 13 States prohibit night work for adult women i n
certain industries or occupations:
California
Connecticut
Delaware
Indiana
Kansas

Massachusetts
Nebraska
New Jersey
New York
North Dakota

South Carolina
Washington
Wisconsin

I n 3 additional States—Arizona, Kentucky, Rhode Island—a nightwork prohibition applies only to persons under 21 years of age i n
messenger service. I n 1 other—^Virginia—and the District of Columbia similar limitations apply only to g i r l messengers.
I n 5 additional States—^Maryland, New Hampshire, New Mexico,
Pennsylvania, and Utah—the laws do not prohibit the employment of
adult women at night but regulate such employment either by l i m i t i n g
the number of hours that may be worked at night or by setting specific
working-conditions standards which must be complied with.

SEATING
Forty-six States and the District of Columbia have seating laws.
A l l but 1 of them apply exclusively to women. Florida's law applies
to both males and females.
Illinois and Mississippi have no seating laws.

OCCUPATIONAL UMITATION
Twenty-nine States have occupational limitation laws for women
and minors; 17 of the States prohibit employment i n mines, 13 i n
manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. (Asterisk indicates that
law applies only to persons under 21 years of age.)
Alahama: Labor i n or about a coal mine.
Arizona: W o r k in or about a mine, quarry, or coal breaker.
Arkan&aB: Entrance into any mine to work therein.
California:
M i x i n g alcoholic beverages containing distilled spirits on premises
used f o r the sale of alcoholic beverages unless the licensee or wife of any
such licensee.
•Employment of person under 21 on portion of premises used for sale and
service of alcoholic beverages f o r consumption on premises.
Colorado: Employment i n or about a coal mine or coke oven except i n a clerical
capacity*
•SelUng or dispensing spirituous liquor by persons under 21,




STATE LABOR LAWS

49

Connectiout: Employment i n any tavern, unless employee is the wife or daughter
of proprietor.
Delatcare: ^Employment of person under 21 i n room where intoxicating liquors
are sold or dispensed, unless the establishment sells for medical or scientific
purposes.
Florida: *Employment of person under 21 i n poolroom, billiard room, or place
where intoxicating liquors are manufactured or sold. Exemptions: Professional entertainers; drug or grocery stores licensed to sell beer and
wine for consumption off premises; hotel workers i f work is apart f r o m
place where alcoholic beverages are sold.
Illinois: Manual labor, i n or about a mine.
Municipal authorities are empowered to prohibit by ordinance employment of women (other than a licensee or w i f e of licensee) as dispensers i n
retail liquor establishments.
Indiana: Employment w i t h i n a coal mine.
•Employment of person under 21 in any public pool or billiard room.
Kentucky: Employment by retail liquor licensee for duties other than as waitress, cashier, or usher.
Louisiana: Employment as dispenser or seller of spirituous liquors, wines, or
malt in any concert hall or saloon where such liquors are sold.
Maryland: Employment, other than office work, i n connection w i t h any mine.
•Employment of person under 21 i n or in connection w i t h any place
where intoxicating liquors are sold.
Massachusetts: ^Employment of person under 21 in, about, or i n connection wuth
a saloon or barroom where alcoholic liquors are sold.
Minnesota: ^Employment of g i r l under 21 as messenger for telegraph or messenger company.
Missouri: Employment w i t h i n any mine.
Montana: *Emp]oyment of person under 21 to serve liquor, beer, or wine.
jVeit? Jersey: Employment in the manufacture of nitro and amido compounds.
Exemptions: Office, works hospital, or welfare room or building.
Neiv Mexico: *Employment of g i r l under 21 as messenger for telegraph, telephone,
or messenger company.
Neiv York: Employment in or in connection w i t h a mine or quarry.
•Employment of females under 21 as conductors or guards on any type
of railroad.
•Employment of females under 21 as messenger for telegraph or messenger company.
Ohio: Employment as bellhop, crossing watchman, express driver, t a x i driver,®
jitney driver, meter reader (gas or electric), metal molder, or section hand,
or in the following occupations or places^:
Baggage handling.
Barrooms and saloons or public drinking places which cater to male customers only and i n which substitutes for intoxicating liquors are sold.
Blast furnaces; mines; quarries; or smelters; (except i n offices).
Bowling alleys, as pin setters.
Delivery service on wagons or automobiles.
Freight handling.
Operating freight or baggage elevators.
Poolrooms.
^ o e - s h i n i n g parlors.
•Employment of girls under 21 i n the personal delivery of messages,
Oklahoma: Employment underground i n the operation of a mine or in any quarry.
Exemption: Office work, i f on top of the ground.
Pennsylvania: Employment in or about a mine. (Except i n office or clerical
work.)
M i x i n g or serving alcoholic liquors behind the bar of any hqtel, tavern,
saloon, eating house, or other place where liquors are legally sold, unless
the w i f e of proprietor or agent. Waitresses regularly taking orders f o r
food may serve food and liquor at tables.
Employment i n any occupation dangerous to life or limb or injurious
to health or morals as determined by the Industrial Board.
^ The prohibition of taxicab driving was declared unconstitutional by a county court of
Ohio in 1928, but the proliibltlon has remained continuously on the statute books and was
repeated in the 1947 amendment to the law.




50

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

South Carolina: »Employinent of person under 21 i n a retail, wholesale, or manufacturing liquor business.
Utah: Employment in a mine or smelter.
Virginia: Employment i n or around a mine or quarry.
•Employment of person under 21 to sell, serve, or dispense alcoholie
beverages for on-premises consumption.
Washington: Employment i n or about a mine. (Except i n clerical or messenger
duty about the surface workings.)
Employment as a bellhop.
Wisconsin: Employment in or about a mine or quarry.
Employment i n place established by court order as a disorderly house
or employment to work f o r any person convicted as keeper of a disorderly
house.
•Employment of g i r l under. 21 as bellhop i n hotel.
•Employment of g i r l under 21 as caddy on golf course.
Wyoming: Employment i n or about a coal or iron mine or other dangerous under^
ground place. (Except i n office or clerical work.)

WEIGHT LIFTING
Nine States have some regulation regarding the l i f t i n g or carrying:
of heavy weights by women. These States are:
California
Massachusetts
Michigan

Minnesota
New York
Ohio

Oregon
Utah
Washington

EQUAL PAY
Nine States have enacted statutes which prohibit discrimination i n
rate of pay because of sex. Two of these laws—Illinois and Michigan—apply to manufacture only.
lUinois
Massachusetts
Michigan

Montana
New Hampshire
New York

Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Washington

MINIMUM WAGE
Twenty-six States and the District of Columbia have minimum-wage
laws on their statute books. These laws are broad i n their coverage
of industries, most of them being all-inclusive w i t h a few listed exemptions, usually domestic service and agriculture; The Maine law is
the only one of limited scope; i t applies to one industry only—fish
packing. Most of these laws apply to women and minors, the exceptions being noted in the following list of States:
Arizona
Arkansas (women and girls)
California
Colorado
Connecticut (aU persons)
District of Columbia
Illinois
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana (women and girls)
Maine
Massachusetts ( a l l persons)
Minnesota
Nevada (women and girls)




New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York ( a l l persons)
N o r t h Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma (women)
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island ( a l l persons)
South Dakota (women and girls)
Utah
Washington
Wisconsin

STATE LABOR LAWS

51

INDUSTRIAL HOME WORK
Twenty States and the District of Columbia have industrial homework laws or regulations. I n all but 3—Colorado, Oregon, and
Utah—and the District of Columbia the law applies to persons; i n
these 4 jurisdictions the law applies to women and minors only. The
States are:
CaUfornia
Colorado
Connecticut
D i s t r i c t of Columbia
lUinois
Indiana
Maryland

Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
New Jersey
New York
Ohio
Oregon

Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
West Virginia
Wisconsin

EMPLOYMENT BEFORE AND AFTER CHILDBIRTH
Six States have laws prohibiting the employment of women immediately before and after childbirth. These States and the periods duri n g which women may not be required to work are:
Connecticut: 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after
Massachusetts: 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after
Missouri: 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after
New Y o r k : 4 weeks after
Vermont: 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after
Washington: 4 months before and 6 weeks after




VIII

Legislation Affecting Household
Employees
(As of May 15, 1948)

COVERAGE OF DOMESTIC WORKERS BY STATE
LABOR LAWS FOR WOMEN
Maximum-Hour Laws:
State maximum-hour laws of general coverage in effect i n 43 States
do not cover domestic workers. However, the State of Washington
and Alaska have maximum-hour laws applicable to domestic woricers
only:
1. Washington has a special maximum-hour law for domestic
workers:
Covers both male and female employees.
Prohibits their employment over 60 hours a week, including a l l time the employee is on call and not free to follow own pursuits.
Provides t h a t i n cases of emergency such employees may be employed longer
than 60 hours.
Violation of the law is a misdemeanor.

2. The Alaska law establishes a 60-hour maximum workweek for
female household or domestic workers.

Minimum-Wage Laws:
1. State minimum-wage laws that do not expressly exclude domestic
workers are i n effect i n 8 States and 1 territory, as follows:
California
Colorado
Kansas

Oklahoma
Oregon
Utah

Washington
Wisconsin
Alaska

% Wisconsin is the only State that has minimum-wage rates now in
effect for domestic workers. Its minimum wage order, effective February 10, 1947, provides for adult women and minors employed i n domestic service i n private homes the follov/ing:
52




LAWS AFFECTING HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYEES

63

The minimum wage for 45 hours or more a week:
I n cities and villages w i t h a population of 3,500 or more:
I f board only is furnished, $12 a week.
I f board and lodging are furnished, $8 a week.
I n cities and villages w i t h a population between 1,000 and 3,500 :
I f board only is furnished, $10.75 a week.
I f board and lodging are furnished, $7.25 a week.
Elsewhere i n the State:
I f board only is furnished, $10.25 a week.
I f board and lodging are furnished, $7 a week.
The minimum wage for less than 45 hours a toceh:
I n cities and villages w i t h a population of 3,500 or more: 45 cents a hour.
I n cities and villages w i t h a population of between 1,000 and 3,500: 40 cents
an hour.
Elsewhere i n the State: 38 cents an hour.
Allowance for hoard and lodging:
Where board and lodging are furnished by the employer as part payment of
wages, an allowance may be made therefor as follows:
I n cities and villages w i t h a population of 3,500 or more:
Of not more than $8.25 a week for board.
Of not more than $4 a week for lodging.
I n cities and villages w i t h a population between 1,000 and 3,500:
Of not more than $7.25 a week for board.
Of not more than $3.50 a week for lodging.
Elsewhere i n the State:
Of not more than $6.75 a week for board.
Of not more than $3.25 a week for lodging.

COVERAGE OF DOMESTIC WORKERS BY STATE
WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAWS
States in Which Coverage Is Compulsory
California:
Compulsory for domestic workers employed over 62
hours a week by one employer; voluntary for others.
New York: A f t e r a 10-year campai^i, the Condon b i l l was approved March 30,1946, and became effective January 1,1947. The b i l l
amends the law by including among the hazardous occupations and
employments, for which workmen's compensation is mandatory, certain domestic workers. The household employees who come under
the amendment are all those who work for the same employer 48 or
more hours per week and are employed in cities or villages of at least
40,000 population. (Domestic workers on farms are excepted.) The
law extends to full-time regularly employed domestic workers the
same protection, medical care, and compensation i n the event of an
accidental i n j u r y while at work which the law gives to other industrial
workers. The penal provisions of the Workmen's Compensation law
were made inapplicable to household employers. However, should
the household employer who is required by law to carry workmen's
compensation insurance f a i l to provide such insurance, the employer
becomes personally responsible and liable to pay any award that may
be rendered i n favor of the employee. This award can be entered i n
the Supreme Court as a regular judgment. Furthermore, the employer can be subjected to a civil suit for negligence, i n which action
the defenses of "contributory negligence" or "risks of the job" cannot
be urged by the employer, thus rendering the domestic worker's chance
for recovery of damages extremely favorable:




54

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

OMo: Compulsory for employers of 3 or more employees; voluntary
f o r less than 3.

States in Which Coverage Is Elective ^
Connecticut: Employers are presumed to come under the act i f
they regularly employ 5 or more employees unless a written stipulation to the contrary is made; law is voluntary for those employing less
than 5.
New Jersey: I f the employer or employee does not accept the act
he must give written notice to that effect to the opposite party, w i t h
the result that common-law defenses are abrogated.

States in Which Coverage Is Voluntary
Arizona
Arkansas
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana

Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Mexico
North Carolina

N o r t h Dakota
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Utah
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin

States Which Exclude Domestic Workers
Alabama
Delaware
D i s t r i c t of Columbia
Iowa

Mississippi
Montana
Tennessee
Texas

Vermont
West Virginia
Wyoming

COVERAGE OF DOMESTIC WORKERS BY
WAGE PAYMENT LAWS
State Having Laws That Specifically Cover Domestic Workers
California ( i f boarded and lodged by employer).

States and Territory Having Laws of Broad General Coverage
Applicable to Domestic Workers
Georgia
Idaho*
Illinois*
Indiana
Louisiana*
Massachusetts

Minnesota*
Montana
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvauia

Rhode Island
West Virginia
Wyoming*
Alaska

•Provision of the law relates only to payment of wage i n case of employee's
discharge.
1 mective coverage means that the employer has the option of either accepting or rejecting the act, but
he rejects i t and the worker brings a suit for damages the employer
cannot claim the traditional common law defenses, 1. e., that the worker assumed the risk
of the employment, that the injury was due to negligence of a fellow servant, or that the
worker himself was guilty of contributory negligence.
a Voluntary
coverage means t h a t the employer may come under the act voluntarily but
failure to do so does not result i n a loss of tbe common-law defenses.




LAWS AFFECTING HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYEES

65

COVERAGE OF DOMESTIC WORKERS BY SOCIAL
SECURITY LEGISLATION NOW I N EFFECT
Unemployment Compensation
1. The Social Security Act exempts emploj^ers of domestic workers
f r o m payment of the tax but i t does not prohibit States f r o m covering
such workers under State legislation.
2. Domestic service i n a private home is specifically excluded i n all
State unemployment compensation laws except New York.
New Torh includes such service i f the employer employs 4 or more
domestic workers i n his home for 15 days i n a calendar year.

Old-Age Insurance
The Federal old-age and survivors' insurance law does not cover
domestic workers.




VIII

The Political and C i v i l Status
of W o m e n
Including principal sex distinctions as of January 1, 1948

POLITICAL STATUS
Nationality
Citizenship in the United States is acquired i n the same way by men
and women; that is, by birth w i t h i n the domain, by b i r t h abroad of a
parent who is a citizen, or by being naturalized. Mothers, as well as
fathers, confer citizenship on their minor children. A married
woman's citizenship does not automatically follow that of her husband.
A n alien wife may become a citizen whether or not her alien husband
desires or qualifies for that privilege. I f a woman citizen marries an
a lien J she retains her citizenship u n t i l she renounces i t by declaring
allegiance to another government.

Voting and Public Office
Federal.—Any woman who has the qualifications required for voti n g i n the State of her residence has f u l l right of suffrage i n the election
of National Government officials and on proposals for change i n the
Federal Constitution, that is, i n the basic law.
Likewise, any woman who meets the established qualifications f o r
official positions i n the National Government is eligible either for elect i o n or appointment to posts i n the executive and le^slative branches
or for appointment to the judiciary, including the Supreme Court of
the United States.
State.—Any woman who meets the general qualifications established
f o r voting i n the State in which she has legal residence has f u l l r i g h t
of suffrage i n the election of State and local officials and i n determination of public issues w i t h i n the State, such as amendment of the State
constitution, legislative proposals where the referendum procedure is
operative, and on local matters such as special tax assessments for public improvements, school administration, and the like.
56




POLITICAL AND C I V I L STATUS

57

Also, any woman who has the qualifications required for elected
officials of State and local governments is eligible for election to these
positions.
Civil Service Positions.—^Appointive positions i n both Federal and
State civil services are open generally to qualified women; that is, there
are few legal barriers to the appointment of women. Appointing
agencies for the Federal Government may d e s i ^ a t e whether male or
female employees are preferred, when requesting a list of eligibles
from the C i v i l Service Commission for selection of new personnel.
Some States by statute specify the sex of appointees for certain minor
positions, such as superintendents, wardens, matrons, or attendants i n
mstitutions operated by the State.
Courts—^Jury Service.—Women are entitled by law to serve on
juries i n 35 States and the District of Columbia; by this fact they are
eligible also for Federal duty in these jurisdictions.
Nineteen States ^ requii-e compulsory duty of qualified women; 16
States 2 and the District of Columbia permit optional service from
women.
Thirteen States ^ have not yet removed the ancient English commonlaw "defect of sex" which bars women from all jury duty i n these
jurisdictions. ( I t should be noted i n this connection that i n England
women now are eligible generally for j u r y duty, ^ virtue of the law
reforms of the present century, particularly the Sex Disqualification
Removal A c t of 1919.)

Domicile
Private Domicile of a married woman depends on that of her husband, normally. The general rule is that when the interests of husband
and wife become hostile so tliat dissolution of the marriage becomes
necessary, an aggrieved wife may establish a separate domicile. Separate existence, interests, and rights are recognized i n cases of this sort.
Public Domicile.—^IVIost of the States l i m i t husband and wife to the
same marital domicile during marriage for voting, serving on juries,
and holding public office.
However, at least 12 States under specified conditions allow a
married woman to establish a separate domicile for voting:
California
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan

Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina

Ohio
Pennsylvania
Virginia
Wisconsin

Five States permit separate domicile for eligibility to public office:
Maine
Michigan

Nevada
New Jersey

New York

A t least four States permit separate domicile for j u r y service qualification :
Maine
Michigan

Nevada
New Jersey

Three States (Nevada, New Jersey, V i r g i n i a ) recognize separate
domicile for the personal property tax obligation of a married woman.
1 Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., n i „ Ind., Iowa, Maine, Md., Mich., Mont., Nebr., N. J., N. C.,
Ky., La.. Minn., Mo.. Nev., N. H., N. Y., N. Dak., R. I., Utah.
Ga., Mass., Miss., N. Hex., Okla., S. C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W. Va.. Wyo.




69

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

CIVIL STATUS—FAMILY RELATIONS
Marriage
The marriage laws of the various States generally do not distinguish
between the sexes, except i n establishing minimum ages. Most States
set a lower age f o r females. The same minimum age applies to both
sexes i n 8 States ^ when parental consent is required, and i n 16 States °
when parental consent is not required. Other legal distinctions found
are of minor importance, both as to number and character: for example, 2 States (Louisiana, Texas) require pre-marital health tests of
male applicants only. One State (Louisiana) bars remarriage of a
woman f o r a 10-month period after dissolution of her marriage.

Divorce
Sixteen States ® may grant a divorce to the husband on grounds that
are exclusive to him. The principal ground i n this group is the wife's
undisclosed pregnancy by another at the time of marriage. Twentyone States ^ may grant a divorce to the wife on grounds that are exclusive to her, generally the husband's desertion or nonsupport.

Parent and Child
T h i r t y - f o u r States ® give both parents the same rights of natural
guardianship. Fourteen States ® and the District of Columbia prefer
the father as natural guardian during the marriage, giving h i m the
first r i g h t to custody of his minor child's person, services^ and earnings. I f the marriage is broken by divorce or legal separation, neither
parent has any legal advantage over the other as to custody of the
minor children. The best interests of the child guide the court's disposition of its custody.
Six States and the District of Columbia by statute prefer the
father when a guardian of property is to be appointed for his child.
JTine States ^^ authorize the father to appoint a guardian, by deed
or last w i l l , to have charge of the person of his minor child after the
father's death, subject, however, i n each of these States, to the mother's
r i g h t to succeed the father as natural guardian of their minor children
i f she is the survivor. No State permits a father to w i l l his child to
a stranger without the mother's valid consent.
Seven of the thirteen States that authorize the surviving parent
to appoint a testamentary guardian for a minor child's property provide that during the marriage the father may make the appointment
w i t h the mother's written consent.
Unmarried Parents.—^The mother is considered the natural guardian entitled to the custody of the child. The father becomes a natural
* Colo., Conn., Maine. Mo., N. J., N. C , Pa., Tena.
»Conn,, Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ky., La., Nebr., N. C., Ohio, Pa., R. L, S. C., Tenn., Va., W. Va.,
Wyo.
5 Ala., Ariz., Ga., Iowa, Kana., Ky., Miss., Mo., N. H., N. Mex., N. C., Okla., Tenn., Va..
Wis., Wyo.
»Ala., Ariz., Colo., Del., Ind., Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Mo., M o n t , Nebr., Nev., N. H.,
N. Mex., R. I., Tenn., Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo.
Mont., Nebr., Nev., N. H., N. J., NjVlex., N. Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R. 1., S. C., S. Dak.
Tenn., Tex., Utah, Wash., W. Va., Wis.
t
t
»
• Ala,, Ark., Colo., Ga., Iowa, Mass., Mich., Minn., N. T., N. C., Okla.. V t . Va Wyo.
Ala., Colo., La.. Mont., Oreg., T e i .
'
'
'
'
'
" Ariz., Idaho, Mont., N. Dak., Okla., Ore^?., S. Dak., Utah. V t
" A r i z . , Idaho, M o n t , N. Dak., Okla.. S. Dak., Utah.
" Ariz., Calif., Del., Idaho, La., Mont., Nev., N. Y., N. Dak,, Okla., Pa., S. Dak., Utah,




POLITICAL AND CIVIL STATUS

59

guardian according to the law of the State only i f he legally acknowledges his relationship to the child.
Inheritance by Parents From Children,—No distinction exists between the rights of the father and mother to inherit from legitimate
children. Most States allow the mimarried mother to inherit from
her child. Nine ^^ States permit the unmarried father to share the
inheritance when he has legally acknowledged or adopted the child.

Family Support
Generally, the States under community-property law (see Footnote
28) make the common estate of husband and wife liable for family
support, without relieving the husband as head of the family from
his liability f o r its proper care. The remaining States and the District of Columbia, under common-law rule i n this respect, hold the
husband and his property primarily liable for family support. I n
21 of these States^® the wife and her property are declared liable
also for family necessaries, but without changing the husband's primary obligation.
Ten States require the wife to support her husband out of her
separate property when he has no property and because of infirmity
is unable to support himself.
Unmarried Parents.—In general, the mother is primarily liable for
support of the child. Most States have legal procedure for establishing
paternity i f satisfactory proof is submitted. U n t i l the paternity is
established or voluntarily assumed, the father has no legal obligation
to support the child, or to contribute to the expenses of the mother
at childbirth. Four States " have no statutory provision of this type.

CIVIL STATUS—CONTRACT AND PROPERTY LAW
Power To Make Contracts
A l l States apparently recognize a married woman's legal capacity to
contract her personal services i n employment outside her home duties,
and to collect her earnings from such work without the formal consent
of her husband.
Four States have limitations on the power of a married woman
of legal age to make enforceable contracts w i t h t h i r d persons that do
not concern her separate property or the common property of herself
and husband.
E i g h t " of the community property States do not ordinarily empower a w i f e to contract alone concerning the common marital
property, though the husband has extensive powers of sole contract,
particularly over the personal property owned i n common.
Five States forbid a wife to obhgate herself as surety for her
husband.
" Idaho, Kans., La., Mont., Nev., N. Mex., N. Dak., Okla., S. Dak.
" Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, 111., Iowa, La., Mass., Minn., Mo., M o n t , N. Dak.,
0reg„ Pa., S. Dak., Utah, Wash., W. Va., Wyo.
_
" Calif., Idaho, M o n t , Nev., N. Mex., N. Dak., Ohio, Okla., S. Dak., Wis.
" Idaho, Mo., Tex.. Va.
" La., Nebr., N. C., Tex.
" A r i z . , Calif., Idaho, La., Nev., N. Mex., Tex., Wash.
* A l a , , Ga., Idaho. Ky., N. H .




60

HANDBOOK

OF TACTS O N W O M E N

W0RI:ERS

Five States ^^ l i m i t to some extent because o f sex the appointment
of a woman to positions of trust, such as executor or administrator.
Six States
may impose special restrictions on a woman who
marries while serving i n these offices of trust*

Ownership, Control, and Use of Property
Separate Property.—^In property management and control, inheritance, and freedom of enjoyment of earnings, unmarried women and
unmarried men stand equal under the law. M a r r i e d women i n most
States have the same degree of control over t h e i r separate property
that married men have over their separate property^ Personal
earnings of married women are made their separate property by
specific statute i n most of the States not under the community
property regime. I n the 15 States-® w i t h o u t such specific law,
general statutes are interpreted to have the same effect.
Five States ^^ still require the husband's signature, as a matter of
form, to give validity to the wife's deed conveying her own land;
only Texas still requires a special form of acknowledgment for the
married woman's deed or mortgage of her lands; only three States
deny a wife f u l l individual status i n the courts, requiring her husband to be made a party to certain actions which involve the wife.
Three States ^ and the District of Columbia retain the form of
property ownership called at common law "estate by the entirety,"
applicable only to husband and wife. Under i t , the wife has only
a contingent interest i n the property unless she survives her husband,
no matter what amount she has contributed to the estate. The husband controls the property and receives the income during the
marriage.
Five States ^^ still have the so-called Free-Trader statutes, under
which court sanction, and in some cases the husband's consent, is rec[uired f o r a wife's legal venture into an independent business, i f she
is to keep the profits for her own account.
Community or Communal Property,—^Twelve States ^^ have the
community system of ownership between husband and wife applied to
property acquired by their joint efforts d u r i n g the marriage.
Eight of these give the husband principal control of most of tlie
communal property while the spouses live together. Six of the community property States ^ give the wife control over her earnings,
even as part of the communal estate.
Four States (Michigan, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon) have
adopted the community system w i t h i n recent years, principally f o r
the purpose of dividing the burden of taxation between husband and
wife. These States permit the wife to control her personal earnings
and any other community property to which she holds the record
title. Other community property is under the husband's control,
»Idaho, Ney., Okla., Oreg., S. Dak.
" D e l . , Nev., N. H., N. C.T S. C., Utah.
V t vS"'
'
N. T., N. Dak., Ohio, OMa., Oreff*, S. Dak., Tenn.,
j j ^ t , I l a Ind., N. C., T e i .
2 Fla., N. C., Tex.
®
w Mass., Mich., N. C.
^ Calif,, Fla.. Nev., Pa„ Tex.
-fri'.^:;
" I d a h i . Mich., Nebr., NeV., Olda, O r ^ I




'

POLITICAL AND CIVIL STATUS

61

I n the 36 States and the District of Cohunbia where the commonlaw background exists as distinguished from the civil-law tradition,
the property accumulated during the marriage by the cooperative
efforts of both husband and wife belongs to the husband and is under
his control, except as the effect of this rule is overcome by private
settlement. This is accomplished through voluntary agreement or
other arrangement, such as joint ownership of lands, joint bank accounts, prenuptial a^eements, and the like. B u t in the absence
of a valid private adjustment of this sort, or a valid will, the law
governs. However, in most of these States by express provision of
. law, and i n others by interpretation, policy, and practice, the wife's
'earnings i n outside employment are her separate property. The husband's earnings are primarily liable for support of his family, as
those of the wife are not (nor any of her separate property) unless
she voluntarily malces them so by her personal contract.
Wills.—Married women dispose of their separate property by w i l l
as freely as married men dispose of their separate property. As to
the communal property, ordinarily 2 ^^ of the 12 community-system
States deny a wife f u l l testamentary rights.
Inheritance Between Spouses.—A widow or surviving husband inherits similar portions f r o m the deceased spouse in most of the States.
I n a few States, the advantage is sometimes w i t h the wife, sometimes
w i t h the husband, according to circumstances incident to the case,
such as the surviving number of children, election under the w i l l of
the deceased spouse, and the like.
Two States (Nevada and New Mexico) favor the husband over
the wife i n the division of community property after the death of
one spouse.
Allowance During Estate Settlement.—Practically all the States
require maintenance for the widow from the husband's estate during
the period of its settlement. A t least one-third of them provide support f r o m solvent estates under administration for either spouse who
survives.
" A l a . , A r k . , Colo., Conn., Del., F l a . , Ga., I l L , IncL. I o w a , Kans., K y . , M a i n e , Md., Mass.,
M i n n . , Miss., Mo., M o n t . , N. H . , N. J.. N. Y., N. C., N. Dak., Ohio, Pa., R, I . , S. C.» S. Dak.,
Tenn., U t a h , V t . , Va., W . Va., Wis., W y o .
"Nev., N.Mex.




VI

Women's Education and
Vocational T r a i n i n g

STUDENT ENROLLMENTS I N AND GRADUATES OF
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Enrollments
Type of school and school year

Number
Total

Elementary schools:
19,891,631
1943-44
l&47-487est touted numbVrs) I I I I 22,620,000
Secondary schools:
1943-44
6,030,617
1947-48 (estimated n u m b e r s ) - . - 6,330,000
1945-46 (estimated numbers)
Institutions of higher education:
1943-44
1,165,272
1947-48 (estimated numbers).... 2,338,226
1945-46 (estimated numbers).

Females

Graduates
Percent
females
are of
total

Number
Females

(')

Q)

1,019,233

695,262
613,107

66.8

69,999

»55.6

48.9
(»)

3,263,282
(»)

Total

n , 080,000

9,709,264
C)

54.1

»568,603
678,977

Percent
females
are of
total

49.2 .
29,0

125,875
131,000

{»)

»68.4

0)

I N o t reported because of differences In elementary school organization.
i Data not available.
i The last prewar percentages for the year 1940-41 were 63.1 percent for secondary schools and 42.5 percent
for institutions of higher education.
* The estimate of this total for 1946-47 Is 1,100,000.
< Full-time, regular session students only included In these statistics.
SouBCj;: U . S. Federal Security Agency, U . S. Office of Education.
figures are available Is 1943-44.

62




Latest year for which complete

EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL T R A I N I N G

63

WOMEN ENROLLED I N VOCATIONAL TRAINING
PROGRAMS
Federally aided alUday trade and industrial programs in which women were enrolled
for the school year ending June 30^ 1947 ^
Enrollment

of women

Total

30,297

Garment and textile trades

16, 639

Dressmaking
Power sewing-machine operation
Millinery
Men's t a i l o r i n g . .
Laundering, cleaning, dyeing, and pressing
Textiles
Upholstering..
Garment and textile trades, other
Domestic and personal service trades
Cosmetology
Nursing..
Household service and management
Interior decoration
Barbering
Domestic and personal service trades, other.
Printing and publishing trades.

10, 443
2, 456
1^028
269
151
44
11
1,137
8, 839
7,812
380
359
149
9
130
2, 443

Commercial art
Photography
Printing
Bookbinding
Printing, other
Food trades

1, 847
386
146
41
23
2,228

i

Food service
Cooking
Baking
Meat cutting
Food trades, other
Electrical t r a d e s . .

689
436
103
35
965
154

Telegraphy and telephony
Radio
Electric wiring
Metal trades.

131
21
2
113

Machine shop
Sheet m e t a l .
Welding
Metal trades, other
Mechanical service and hand trades

23
21
21
48
102

Dental mechanics..
Jewelry and watchmaking
A u t o mechanics
Patternmaking
Mechanical service and hand trades, other
Building and construction trades
Carpentry and woodworking
Painting and decorating
See footnotes at end of table, p. 64.




—

50
17
4
1
30
17
16
1

64

H A N D B O O K OF TACTS ON W O M E N

W0RI:ERS

WOMEN ENROLLED I N VOCATIONAL TRAINING PEOGRAMS—Continued

Federally

aided all^day trade and industrial
programs
enrolled for the school year ending June 30,

in ichich women
^—Continued
Enrollment

A i r c r a f t manufacturing and maintenance trades.
Aircraft^ mechanics
A i r c r a f t engine and propellor mechanics
A i r c r a f t sheet metal
Miscellaneous trades
Public service
Drafting..
Gardening and landscaping
Miscellaneous trades

were

of women

12
8
2
2
850
214
199
5
432

1 Provisional figures.
SOURCE : (U. S.) Federal Security Agency, U. S. Office of Education.

WOMEN SERVED BY REHABILITATION PROGRAMS
The number of women rehabilitated under Federal and State
rehabilitation agencies in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, was
11,867 or 27 percent of the total number of men and women rehabilitated under these agencies.
SOURCE : (U. S.) Federal Security Agency, Statistical Division of the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation.




VIII

American Women
A selected bibliography of basic sources of current and
historic interest

This brief bibliography lists, under the headings included, the more
outstanding basic sources, as well as data that have appeared most
recently i n print. This list does not include works devoted to educational theory; to community organization; to instruction on home
management, nutrition, etc.; to occupational or career guidance; to
study of a particular industry or occupation; or to the situation of
women i n countries other than the United States. A number of the
books listed (including both early and some later Women's Bureau
bulletins) are available only i n libraries.

GENERAL
American Academy of Political and Social Science—Annals. Philadelphia:
May
Women's Opportunities and ResponsibUities. Ed. by Louise M.
Young. Bee article by Taeuber, Irene B., and Eidridge, Hope T, Some
Demographic Aspects of the Changing Role of Women.
May 1929. Women i n the Modern World. Ed. by Viva B. Boothe.
American Association of University Women:
Beard, Mary R. A. Changing Political Economy as I t Affects Women. Washington. 1934. A study outline, w i t h questions for investigation and discussion, and an extensive bibliography.
Summaries of Studies on the Economic Status of Women. Women's Bureau
Bull. 134. 1935. Lists studies up to 1935 that deal w i t h college women,
business and professional women, women i n industry, women i n a l l occupations.
American Women. The standard biographical dictionary of notable women. Vol.
3, 1939-40. Ed. by D u r w a r d Howes. Los Angeles. American Publications,
Inc. 1939.
Benson, M a r y Sumner. Women i n 18th Century America; a study of opinion and
social usage. New York. Columbia University Press. 1935.
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. Women and Economics. Boston. Sman, Maynard.
1900. This work s t i l l raises chaUenging questions as to women's status.
Groves, Ernest R. The American Woman. The Feminine Side of a Masculine
Civilization. New York. Emerson Books, Inc. Revised ed. 1944. A n Important and basic work that considers many aspects of the changing status of
. woman, f r o m colonial times to our modern society, and gives an informed and
sympathetic discussion.
Mead, Margaret, and Stern, Bernhard J. Woman, Position i n Society. Jn Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 15. New York. Macmillan. 1935.




65

66

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

New York Public Library—Women i n the Making of America. 1941. A bibliography that lists books dealing w i t h women i n political life, i n the community,
i n letters, i n education, i n business and professions, including biographies of
pioneer women and other boolts about their work.
Women's Bureau
Bulletin:
Women^s Bureau Conference 1948—The American Woman, Her Changing
Role—Worker, Homemaker, Citizen. B u l l . 224. See especially:
K y r k , Hazel. Family Responsibilities of Earning Women.
Tead, Ordway. Social Patterns for Women, The Present and The
Prospects.
Thompson, C. Mildred. Women's Status, Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

WOMEN AS CITIZENS
Annals of the American Academy (cited under General) :
May
mtAllen, Florence E. Participation of Women i n Government
Beard, Mary R. Woman's Role i n Society.
Fisher, Marguerite J. Women i n Political Parties.
Stone, K a t h r y n H . Women as Citizens.
May 1929: Howes, Ethel Puffer. The Meaning of Progress i n the Woman
Movement.
November 1914: Women In Public Life.
May 1910: Significance of the Woman Suffrage Movement Supplement
Beard, Mary R . :
America Through Women's Eyes. New York. Macmillan. 1934. A collection of documents and quotations f r o m women themselves i n various
periods of American history.
Woman as Force i n History. A Study i n Traditions and Realities. New
York. Macmillan. 1946.
Woman's Work i n Municipalities. New York. Appleton. 1915.
Blackwell, Alice Stone. Lucy Stone, Pioneer of Women's Rights. New York.
Little, Brown and Co. 1930.
Breckinridge, Sophonisba P. Women in the Twentieth Century: A Study of Their
Political, Social, and Economic Activities. New York and London. McGrawH i l l Book Co. 1933. Part III,
Women and Oovernment,
Catt, Carrie Chapman, w i t h collaboration of S'huler, Nettie R. Woman Suffrage
and Politics. New York. Scribner's. 1923.
History of Woman Suffrage (Vols. I to V I ) : Vol I (1848-61) was published in
1881. This and Vols. II and III were w r i t t e n by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and
Susan B. Anthony, w i t h collaboration of Matilda Joslyn Gage, later joined by
Mrs. Stanton's daughter Harriot. Vol. IV was prepared by Mrs. I d a Husted
Harper working w i t h Susan B. Anthony. Vols, V and VI were w r i t t e n by Mrs.
Harper. F i r s t 4 vols, published by Fowler and Wells. New York.
I r w i n , Inez H. Angels and Amazons. A Hundred Years of American Women.
New York. Doubleday, Doran. 1933.
Lutz, Alma. Created Equal. A biography of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1815-1902.
New York. John Day Co. 1940. This deals w i t h the early history of the
woman suffrage movement, and is a fascinating human story of the pioneer
women leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century.
Paxton,, Annabel. Women i n Congress. Richmond. The Dietz Press, Inc. 1945.
Peck, M a r y Gray. Carrie Chapman C a t t New York. H. H . Wilson Co. 1944.
This is w r i t t e n i n several sections, which deal w i t h early l i f e and development
of leadership, work f o r women's international organizations (earlier and later
I>eriods), the Federal Amendment campaign, and later w o r k f o r peace and
disarmament
Shaw, Dr. Anna Howard, w i t h collaboration of Jordan, Elizabeth. The Story of
a Pioneer. New York. Harper and Bros. 1915. W r i t t e n i n the vigorous
and scintillatiDg style of D r , Shaw's speech, this is a fitting companion volume
to Elizabeth Cady Stanton's biography.
Thurston, Lucy M. Mistress B r e n t ; A Story of L o r d Baltimore's Colony i n 1638.
1901. The earliest colonial advocate of woman's r i g h t to vote. (This book
w i l l be found i n few libraries.)
Whitney, J a n e t Abigail Adams. Boston. L i t t l e , B r o w n and Co. 1947.




BIBLIOGRAPHY

67

Women*8 Bureau
Bulletin:
Buchanan, Sara Louise. The Legal Status of Women In the United States of
America, 1938. Bull. 157. 1941. Also cumulative supplement through
1945; separate bulletin for each State and chart for each State.

WOMEN AS WORKERS
Employment and Occupations
Abbott, Edith. Women In I n d u s t r y ; a Study of American Economic History.
New York and London. Appleton. 1910. A n important source study, embodying many Interesting stories of women's work and wages i n America i n the
Colonial period and the early years of the Republic to the mid-19th century.
Traces the beginning of the factory system and deals at length w i t h women's
w o r k In the textile, boot and shoe, cigar making, clothing, and printing industries.
Abbott, Edith. H a r r i e t Martineau and the Employment of Women, 1836. In
Journal of Political Economy, Vol. X I V , 1906. Pages 614 and f f . Discusses
the occupations of women i n this period, which was before the earliest U. S.
Census of Occupations.
Annals of the American Academy (cited under General):
Map 1947:
K y r k , Hazel. Who Works and Why.
ivniler, Frieda S. Women i n the Labor Force.
Zapoleon, Marguerite Wykoif. Education and Employment Opportunities
f o r Women.
Breckinridge, Sophonisba P. Women in the Twentieth Century. A Study of
Their Political, Social, and Economic Activities. New York and London.
McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1933. Part 11. Women and Gainful
Employment,
Clark, Alice. The Working L i f e of Women in the Seventeenth Century. New
York. Harcourt Brace. 1920.
Dexter, Elisabeth W. Colonial Women of Affairs, New York. Houghton Mifflin.
1924.
International Labor Office. The War and Women's Employment. Part I I .
United States. See esp. Ch. I , I I , I V . Montreal. 1946.
Larcom, Lucy (1824-1893). A New England Girlhood; outline from memory.
New York. Houghton Mlfllin. Reprint, 1924. A v i v i d picture of the young
woman cotton m i l l worker in New England.
Meyer, Annie Nathan ( E d i t o r ) . Woman's W o r k i n America. New York. Henry
Holt. 1891.
Monthly Labor Review:
Pidgeon, Mary Elizabeth. Women Workers and Recent Economic Change.
December 1947.
Robinson, Mary V. Woman Workers in Two Wars. October 1943.
Spruill, Julia Cherry. Women's Life and Work i n the Southern Colonies.
Chapel H i l l . University of North Carolina Press. 1938.
Tryon, Rolla. Household Manufactures in the United States, 1640-1860. A Study
In Industrial History. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. 1917.
Van Kleeck, Mary. Women i n Industry. In Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences.
Vol. 15. New York. Macmillan. 1935.
Women's Bureau
Bulletins:
Benham, Elisabeth D. The Woman Wage Earner. Bull. 172.1939. Part / / ,
Women*8 Place in Industry,
Dempsey, M a r y V. The Occupational Progress of Women, 1910-30. Bull.
104. 1933.
Hooks, Janet M. Women's Occupations Through Seven Decades (18701940). Bull. 218. ( I n press.)
Kingsbury, Susan M. The Economic Status of University Women In the
U. S. A. B u l l . 170. 1939. Report of Committee on Economic and Legal
Status, American Association of University Women, in cooperation w i t h
the Women's Bureau.
Pidgeon, M a r y Elizabeth:
Employment of Women in the Early Postwar Period. Bull. 211. 1946.
Changes i n Women's Employment During the War. Sp. Bull. 20. 1944.
Women In the Economy of the United States. BuU. 155. 1937. P a r i J.
OK 1. The Trend in the Occupations of Women,




68

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS
Zapoleon, Marguerite W y k o f f :
The Outlook for Women i n Occupations i n the Medical and Other Health
Services. Bull. 203, Nos. 1-12.
The Outlook for Women In Science, Bull. 223, Nos. 1-8.

Wag.
;es
Annals of the American Academy (cited under General). May
Brady,
Dorothy S. Equal Pay for Women Workers.
International Labor Office. The W a r and Women's Employment. Part I I .
United States. Wages in Wartime,
In Ch. I I , Women i n Industry. Montreal.
1946.
Monthly Labor Eeview:
Angus, Alice, and Sullivan, Loretta. Progress of State M i n i m u m Wage Legislation, 1946. June 1947.
Progress of State Minimum Wage Legislation, 1943-45. May 1946.
U. S. Senate. 79th Congress. Hearings on S. 1178. ( B i l l providing equal pay).
Before a Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Education and Labor.
October 29, 30, and 31,1945. Testimowy of Frieda S. Miller and exhibits A to F,
prepared i n the Women's Bureau; and of various representatives of labor unions
and women's organizations.
Webb, Beatrice (Mrs. Sidney). Minority Report. Of the B r i t i s h War Cabinet
Committee on Women i n Industry [ W o r l d W a r I ] . London. His Majesty's
Stationery Office. Cmd. 135. 1919. Includes the classic pioneer discussion
of the various problems surrounding the entire subject of equal pay for women.
Women*s Bureau
Bulletins:
Equal Pay for Women. Leaflet No. 2, 1947. (Rev. 1948.)
Pidgeon, Mary Elizabeth:
Earnings of Women i n Selected Manufacturing Industries, 1946. Bull.
219. 1948.
Equal Pay for Women i n W a r Industries. Bull. 196. 1942.
Women i n the Economy of the United States. Bull. 155. 1937. Part J,
CK 5. Compensation of Women.
Smith, Florence P. State Minimum Wage Laws and Orders, 1942. Bull. 191,
w i t h mimeojrraphed supplements through 1947.
Bulletins on Family Responsibility:
Peterson, Agnes L . W h a t the Woman Wage Earner Contributes to
Family Support. Bull. 75. 1929. A Summary of 22 studies.
Pidgeon, Mary Elizabeth and Mettert, Margaret Thompson. Employed
Women and Family Support, Bull. 168. 1939.
Smaltz, Rebecca. Women Workers i n Their Family Environment. B u l l .
183. 1941.
Weissbrodt, Sylvia R. Women Workers i n Ten W a r Production Areas.
Bull. 209. 1946.
Women i n the Economy of the United States (cited). Part L CK
ResponsiMitp of Employed Women for the Support of Others, Bull.
155. 1937.

Health and Physical Welfare
Baetjer, Dr. Anna M. Women i n Industry, Their Health and Efficiency. Philadelphia and London. W. B. Saunders Co. 1946.
Brandeis, Elizabeth. Labor Legislation. Vol. IV of History of Labor i n the
United States 1896-1932. New York. Macmillan. 1935.
Hamilton, D r . A l i c e :
Exploring the Dangerous Trades. Boston. Little, Brown and Co. 1943. Autobiography of the great H a r v a r d pioneer i n the field of industrial medicine
and hygiene.
Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. Washington. 1926.
Industrial Poisons i n the United States. New York. Macmillan. 1925.
International Labor Office. The W a r and Women's Employment Part I I .
United States. Conditions of Work, and Health and Welfare Problems
In
Ch. I I , Women i n Industry. M o n t r e a l 1946.
Webb, Beatrice (Mrs. Sidney). ( W o r k d t e d xinder Wages.)




BIBLIOGRAPHY

69

Woman and Child Wage Earners i n the United States. Report of the comprehensive pioneer national investigation of this subject ordered by Act of Congress i n 1907, to be conducted by the Secretary of Commerce and Labor. Published i n 19 volumes.
Women's Bureau Bulletins (see f u l l list of publications including studies of conditions i n particular industries and special problems such as lost time and labor
turn-over, irregular employment, piecework, etc.) :
Anderson, Margaret K . Women's Wartime Hours of W o r k ; The Effect on
Their Factory Performance and Home Life.
Bull. 208. 1947. A study
of 13 war-production plants.
Effective Industrial Use of Women. Sp. Bull. 1. 1940. A brief summary of
current knowledge as to the work women do best, effective hour and wage
standards, industrial poisons and other hazards. See also other bulletins
i n the wartime series, especially Nos. 2 to 7.
Industrial Injuries to Women:
(1) Series, presenting and interpreting State data. (1920-^4). Bulls.
81, 102, 129, 160.
(2) Special Studies. Bulls. 60 (1927) ; 151 (1938) ; 212 (1945).
Mohr, Jennie. The Industrial Nurse and the Woman Worker. Sp. BulL 19.
1944.
Occupational Diseases of Women. Series, presenting and interpreting State
data (1920 to 1938). Bulls. 114; 147; 181.
Proceedings of the Women's Industrial Conference. Bull. 33. 1923. Addresses by Florence Kelley, Mrs. Raymond Robins, Maud Swartz, Mary
McDowell, and others.
Standards for Employment of Women, Leaflet No. 1. 1946. (Rev. 1948.)
Latest revision of the Bureau's earliest advices on standards, first published i n 1918.
State Labor Laws for Women. Bull. 191 (cited under Wages), and Bull. 202,
and mimeographed supplements bringing data through 1947. Various
earlier bulletins deal w i t h historic developments.

Organization Into Unions
Abbott, Edith. Women i n Industry (cited under Employment and Occupations).
Gives interesting incidents of early activities of women i n unions.
Annals of the American Academy (cited under General) :
Ma/y 1947: Dickason, Gladys. Women in Labor Unions.
September 1904: Yudelson, S'ophie. Woman's Place i n Industry and Labor
Organizations.
Boone, Gladys. The Women's Trade Union League i n Great B r i t a i n and the
United States of America. New Xork. Columbia University Press. 1942.
Gluck, Elsie. Women i n I n d u s t r y : Problems of Organization. In Encyclopaedia
of Social Science. Vol. 15. New York. Macmillan. 1935.
Henry, A l i c e :
The Trade Union Woman. New York and London, Appleton. 1915.
Women and the Labor Movement. Workers' Bookshelf. Vol. I V . New
York. Macmillan. 1927.
Wolfson, Theresa. The Woman Worker and the Trade Unions. New York. International Publishers. 1926.
Womefi's Bureau
Bulletin:
Benham, Elisabeth D. The Woman Wage Earner. Bull. 172, 1939. Part
IV—'Women's Participation in Laior
Organizations,

WOMEN AS HOMEMAKERS
Annals of the American Academy (cited under General):
May 1947:
Daggett, H a r r i e t S. Reflections on the L a w of the Family.
Gruenberg, Sidonie Matsner. Changing Conceptions of the Family.
Reid, Margaret G. The Economic Contribution of Homemakers.
March 19S2: Boothe, Viva. Gainfully Employed Women i n the Family.
Sonde, R u t h L . Mattageinent i n Daily l i v i n g . 1944. New York. Macmillan,




70

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

Brown, H a r r i e t Connor. Grandmother Brown's Hundred Years (1827-1927).
New York. L i t t l e , Brown and Co. 1929.
Gross, I r m a Hannah, and Crandall, B. W, Home Management I n Theory and
Practice. New York. Crofts & Co. 1947.
Consult especially the Bureau of Human N u t r i t i o n and Home Economics, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, for Information on various phases of home economics such as nutrition, meal planning and food budgets, textiles and clothing,
housing and household equipment
Consult the Women's Bureau on subjects relating to household employment and
conditions of w o r k for household employees.
See also certain items already listed:
Groves ( w o r k cited under General).
Pidgeon, Women i n the Economy of the United States (cited under Wages).
Section on Women as Homemakers.
Women's Bureau Bulletins on responsibility of women f o r the support of
others (cited under Wages).
Women*s Bureau
Bulletin:
Pidgeon, M a r y Elizabeth. The Employed Woman Homemaker. B u l l 148.
1936.




VIII

Women's National Organizations
(List as of January 1947)

The following list is of national organizations that have active
State or local branches and regular meetings of the membership.
They are grouped according to fields of interest. Membership is
noted i f recent figures are available. Individual national and international miions^ collegiate and collegiate alumnae associations, and
women's organizations affiliated w i t h fraternal orders have been
omitted.

ORGANIZATIONS HAVING SOCIAL, CIVIC, OR
RELIGIOUS PURPOSES
Association of Junior Leagues of America, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, 305 Park Avenue, New York 22, N. Y. I t is concerned w i t h the support of philanthropic
and civic activities.
Congress of
18, N. Y.
tion. I t s
beneficial

American Wonien, 55 West Forty-second Street, Room 209, New York
I t is affiliated w i t h the Women's International Democratic Federapurpose is to work f o r equal rights f o r women, for protective and
legislation, f o r improved child care, and for peace and democracy.

General Federation of Women's Cluls, 1734 N Street NW., Washington 6, D. 0.
Established In 1890 i n New York. I t s object Is to unite women's clubs and
like organizations throughout the world f o r the purpose of mutual benefit
and f o r the promotion of their common interest i n education, phllanthrophy,
public welfare, moral values, civics, and fine arts. Membership consists of
some 17,500 clubs located i n all the States, the District of Columbia, Alaska,
and 81 foreign countries.
National Association of Colored Women, Inc., 1114 O Street NW., Washington
5, D. C. Established i n 1896 i n Washington, D. O. Founded f o r purpose of
raising to the highest plane the home life, moral standards, and civil l i f e of
the race.
National Consumers League for Fair Lalor Standards (not restricted to women,
but membership is primarily women), 348 Engineers Building, Cleveland 14,
Ohio. Established i n New York i n 1899. The League's purpose is " t o awaken
consumers' interest i n their responsibility for conditions under which goods are
made and distributed." Membership i n 1946: 10,000.
National Council of Catholio Women, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington 5, D. 0 . Established in 1920. I t s purpose-is to federate existing
organizations of Catholic women In order that they may speak and act as a
n n i t when the welfare of the church or of the country demands such ^ r e s s l o n .




71

72

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

National Council of Jewish Women, 1819 Broadway, New York 23, N. Y. Established i n 1893 i n Chicago, 111. I t s purpose is to organize Jewish women
interested i n a program of social betterment through activities i n the fields
of religion, social service, education, and social legislation, both local and
national.
National Council of Negro Women, 1318 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington 5,
D. O, Organized i n 1935. The Council seeks the cooperation and membership of a l l races and works for the integration of Negroes into the economic,
social, cultural, civic and political l i f e of every community. I t is made up
of 20 national organizations of Negro women and has 50 local councils i n 23
States.
National Jewish Welfare Board, 145 East Thirty-second Street, New York 16,
N. Y. The Board is the National organization f o r Young Women's Hebrew
Associations throughout the United States and Canada.
National Women^s Christian Temperance Union, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston,
111. Established i n 1874. I t s purpose is to unite the Christian women of the
United States for the education of public sentiment to the standard of total
abstinence from the use of all alcoholic liquors and the abolition of the liquor
traffic; to t r a i n the young i n habits of sobriety and total abstinence; and to
promote good citizenship, i>eace, and the general welfare.
United Council of Church Women {Protestant),^ 156 F i f t h Avenue, New York 10,
N. Y. Organized i n December 1941 i n Atlantic City, N. J. I t s purpose is " t o
unite church women i n their allegiance to their L o r d and Saviour, Jesus Christ,
through a program looking to their integration i n the total life and work of
the church and to the building of a world community." Membership i n 1946:
39 State councils and about 1,100 local groups.
Young Women's Christian Association, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 22,
N. Y. Established i n 1906 i n New York. I t works to advance the physical,
social, intellectual, moral, and spiritual interest of young women. I t is affiliated w i t h the World's YWCA. I t s national membership i n the United States
is about 3 million.

PROFESSIONAL AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
The purpose of the following professional organizations is to provide a medium for contact between women carrying on these professions ; to encourage girls to choose these careers; to promote professional advancement; to maintain high standards i n practice.
National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clu^s, Inc., 1819
Broadway, New York 23, N. Y. Established i n 1919 i n St. Louis, Mo. I t s purpose is to raise standards for women i n business and the professions; to promote the interests of business and professional women; to extend opportunities
f o r business and professional women; to bring about a spirit of cooperation
among business and professional women of the United States. I t is affiliated
w i t h the International Federation of Business and Professional Women.

Accountancy
American Woman's Society of Certified PuUic Accountants,
York 4, N. Y.

67 Broad Street, New

Art
National Association
19, N. Y.

of Women Artists,

42 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York

Banking
Association of Bank Women, 56 East Forty-second Street, New York 17, N. Y.
Established i n 1921 i n New York.
*Most of the separate Protestant denominations have established a women's section in
their national organization.




ORGANIZATIONS

73

Home Economics
American Home Economics Association, 620 MilJs Building, Washington 6, D. C.
Established i n 1908 in Washington, D. C. I t s purpose is to promote standards
of home l i v i n g beneficial to the individual and to society.

Law
National Association of Women Latoyers, c/o Charlotte E. Gauer, President, 1100
N o r t h Dearborn Street, Chicago 10, HI.

Medical Services
American Dental Eygienists' Association, c/o Mrs. Sophie G. Booth, R. D. H.,
President, 2420 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington 9, D. C. Established i n
1923 i n Cleveland, Ohio.
American Medical Women^s Association, Inc., 50 West F i f t i e t h Street, New York
20, N. T. Established In 1915 i n Chicago, 111. I t is affiliated w i t h the Medical
Women's International Association.
American Nurses Association, 1790 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y. Organized In
1896 near New York City and first known as the Nurses* Associated Alumnae
of the United States and Canada. Membership i n 1946: 176,393.
American Occupational Therapy Association (not restricted to women, but membership is primarily women), 33 West Forty-second Street, New York 18, N. Y.
Membership: 2,700.
American Physiotherapy Association (not restricted to women, but membership is
p r i m a r i l y women), 1790 Broadway, New York 19, N. Y.
Association of American Women Dentists, c/o Dr. Muriel K . G, Robinson, President, 4906 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 9, Pa. Established in 1921 in Los
Angeles, Calif.
National Association
York 21, N. Y.

for Practical

National Organization
York 19, N. Y.

for Puhlic

Nurse Education,
Health

Nursing,

654 Madison Avenue, New
Inc,, 1790 Broadway, New

Music
National Federation of Music Clubs (not restricted to women, but membership Is
primarily women), c/o Mrs. Guy Patterson Gannett, President, Press-Herald
Building, Portland, Maine.

Radio
Association of Women Broadcasters,
F i f t h Avenue, New York, N. Y.

National

Association

of Broadcasters,

535

Real Estate
Women's Council, National
Street, Chicago 3, 111.

Association

of Real Estate Boards, 22 West Monroe

Teaching
See Educational

Organizations,

Writing
Amerimn Newspaper Women's CluJ>, 1604 Twentieth Street NW., Washington 6,
D. C. Established i n 1932 i n Washington, D. C. Membership i n 1946 : 200.
National League of American Pen Women, Suite 409, W i l l a r d Hotel, Washington
4, D. O. Established i n 1897.
Women's National Press Cluh, National Press Building, Washington 4, D. 0.
Established In 1919 i n Washington, D. C.




74

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

General Service Organizations of Business and
Professional Women
Altru8a International,
540 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 11, 111. Established
i n 1917 i n Nashville, Tenn. The first service club f o r professional and executive women.
American Federation of Soroptimist Cluls, 1530 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Established i n 1921 i n Oakland, Calif. I t is affiliated w i t h the International
Federation of Soroptimist Clubs.
Pilot Glul) International,
1001 Persons Building, Macon, Ga. Organized i n 1921
i n Macon, Ga. Membership i n 1946: 6,000.
Quota Cluh International,
Ino., 1719 I Street NW., Washington 6, D. C. Established i n 1919 i n Buffalo, N. Y.
Zonta International,
59 East Van Buren Street, Chicago 5, 111. Established I n
1919 i n Buffalo, N. Y.

EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
American Association of University Women, 1635 I Street NW., Washington 6,
D. 0. Established i n 1882 i n Boston. I t s purpose is to enhance the role of
education i n American life, particularly to help college women to make v i t a l use
of their education. I t promotes International understanding through study
and action and through affiliation w i t h the International Federation of University Women. Membership i n October 1946: 86,537.
National Association of Deans of Women, 1201 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington
6, D. 0. Established In 1916 in New York. Its purpose is to strengthen the professional Spirit of deans of women, to formulate criteria f o r their professional
training, and to encourage the critical study of changing trends i n education,
especially as they relate to women.
National Congress of Pareiits and Teachers (not restricted to women, but membership is largely women), 600 South Michigan Boulevard, Chicago 5, 111.
Founded i n 1897. I t s objects are to promote the welfare of children and youth
i n home, school, church, and community, to raise the standards of home life,
to secure adequate laws f o r the care and protection of children and youth, to
bring into closer relation the home and the school, that parents and teachers
may cooperate intelligently i n the training of the child. Membership i n 1946:
3,910,106.
National Education Association (not restricted to women, but membership Is
p r i m a r i l y women), 1201 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington 6, D. C.

POLITICAL AND LEGISLATIVE ORGANIZATIONS
Democratic National Committee, Women*s Division, Mayflower Hotel, Washington 6, D . 0 .
League of Women Voters of the United States, 726 Jackson Place, Washington,
D. 0. Established i n 1920 i n Chicago, 111. The purpose of the League Is to
promote political responsibility through informed and active participation of
citizens i n government. I t is affiliated w i t h the International Alliance of
Women (Equal Rights, Equal Responsibilities).
National Federation of Women's Republican Oluhs, 1337 Connecticut Avenue NW.,
Washington 6, D. 0 .
National Woman's Party, 144 B Street NE., Washington 3, D. C. Established i n
1913 In Washington, D. C., f o r suffrage; reorganized i n 1921 f o r equal rights.
I t s particular purpose is to secure the adoption of the Equal Rights Amendment
to the National Constitution and the Equal Rights Treaty. I t is affiliated w i t h
the W o r l d Woman's Party.
Republican National Committee, Women's Division, 1337 Connecticut Avenue
NW., Washington 6, B . C.
Women's National Democratic Club, 1526 New Hampshire Avenue NW., Washington 6, D. 0 .




ORGANIZATIONS

75

PATRIOTIC ORGANIZATIONS
American Legion Auxiliarp, 777 North Meridian Street, Indianapolis, Ind. Established in 1921 i n Kansas City, Mo. (Composed of women from families of men
who belong to the American Legion. The Legion is made up of men veterans
of World Wars I and I L )
American Women's Voluntary Services, 345 Madison Avenue, New York 17, N, T .
The organization provides services to veterans, to the community, to youth and
teen-age groups, and to the blind. I t assists local and foreign relief agencies
and cooperates w i t h medical research groups.
Daughters of the American Revolutionr 17th and D Streets NW., Washington 6,
D. C. Established i n 1890 in Washington, D. C.
Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War 1861-65, 1326 Eighteenth Street
NW., Washington 6, D. 0. Organized i n Massilon, Ohio, i n 1885. (Membership restricted to women whose ancestors sided w i t h the North in the Civil
War.)
Ladies' Auxiliary
Mo.

to the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Porter Building, Kansas City,

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 5330 Pershing Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. Established i n 1894 i n Nashville, Tenn. (Membership restricted to women whose
ancestors sided w i t h the South i n the Civil War.)
Women's Overseas Service League, 1026 Fifteenth Street NW., Washington 6,
D. O. Established i n 1921 in Philadelphia, Pa. I t s purpose is to maintain the
ties of comradeship born of service overseas i n World War I and World War I I .

ORGANIZATIONS WORKING FOR WORLD PEACE
Women's Action Committee for Lasting Peace, 1 East Fifty-seventh Street, New
T o r k 22, N. Y. Incorporated A p r i l 1943 i n New York. Its purpose is to unite
American women to work for f u l l participation by the United States in the
United Nations. Membership i n 1946: 20,000 individual members; 14 national
women's organizations; 200 local women's groups.
Women's International
League for Peace and Freedom, Administrative headquarters of the United States Section, 2006 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa.,
Washington headquarters, 1734 F Street NW. Established i n 1915 in The
Hague. I t s purpose is to unite those i n all countries who are opposed to every
k i n d of war, exploitation, and oppression, and who want to work for the peacef u l solution of conflicts by establishment of justice f o r all, without distinction
as to sex, race, class, or creed.

FARM AND RURAL ORGANIZATIONS
Associated Country Women of the World. I n care of Mrs. Kaymond Sayre,
President, Ackworth, Iowa. I t s objectives are t o : Promote and maintain
friendly and helpful relations between country women's and homemakers'
organizations of all nations and help in their development i n the economic,
social, and cultural sphere; further their common interests; encourage the
, formation of similar new organizations, especially i n countries where the need
has not been m e t ; stimulate interest i n the international aspects of r u r a l life
and development; work together for the betterment of rural homes and communities through study and action i n the spheres of homemaking, housing,
health, education, and i)articularly all aspects of food and agriculture; further
International relations i n every way consistent w i t h these aims.
Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation, 58 East Washington
Street, Chicago 2, 111.
Women's National Farm and Garden Association, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York,
N. Y. Established i n 1913 in Philadelphia, Pa. I t s purpose is to stimulate an
Interest i n and a love of country l i f e ; to cooperate w i t h government agencies
f o r the improvement of r u r a l conditions; to help women, through scholarship
and expert advice, to the best training i n agriculture and horticulture; and to
study the subject of direct marketing.




76

HANDBOOK OF TACTS ON W O M E N W0RI:ERS

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS
American Federation of Women^s Auxiliaries
of Lalor^ A. F. L. Building, 901
Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington 6, D. O. Established i n Cincinnati,
Ohio, i n May 1938. Composed of women f r o m families of men who are i n a
trade union affiliated w i t h the A . F, L .
Congress of Women's Auxiliaries
{affiliated with Congress of Industrial
Organizations), 1308 Public Square Building, Cleveland 13, Ohio. Established i n
Detroit in November 1941. Composed of women f r o m families of men who are
i n a trade union affiliated w i t h the CIO. Membership i n 1946: 100,000.
National Women's Trade Union League, 307 Machinists Building, Washington,
D. C. Established in 1903 i n Boston, Mass. I t s purpose is to organize women
wage Workers into trade unions and to develop leadership among union women.




CURRENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN'S
BUREAU
PACTS O N W O M E N WORKERS—issued monthly. 4 pages. (Latest statistics
on employment of women; earnings; labor laws affecting women; news items of
interest to women workers; women i n the international scene.)
H A N D B O O K ON W O M E N WORKERS
Bull. 225. (Instant publication.)
E M P L O Y M E N T OUTLOOK A N D T R A I N I N G FOR W O M E N
The Outlook for women i n Occupations i n the Medical and Other Health Services,
Bull. 203:
1. Physical Therapists. 14 pp. 1945. 10^
2. Occupational Therapists. 15 pp. 1945. 10^.
3. Professional Nurses. 66 pp. 1946. 15(^.
4. Medical Laboratory Technicians. 10 pp. 1945. 10^.
5. Practical Nurses and Hospital Attendants. 20 pp. 1945. lO^i.
6. Medical Record Librarians. 9 pp. 1945. 10?^.
7. Women Physicians. 28 pp. 1945. 100.
8. X-Ray Technicians. 14 pp. 1945. l O t
9. Women Dentists. 21 pp. 1945. 100.
10. Dental Hygienists. 17 pp. 1945. 10(*.
11. Physicians' and Dentists' Assistants. 15 pp. 1945. 10(J.
12. Trends and Their Effect upon the Demand for Women Workers. 65 pp.
1946. 15«f.
The Outlook for Women i n Science. Bull. 223 :
1. Science. [General introduction to the series.] ( I n press.)
2. Chemistry. 65 pp. 1948. 200.
3. Biological Sciences. 87 pp. 1948. 250.
4. Mathematics and Statistics. 21 pp. 1948. 10«f.
5. Architecture and Engineering. ( I n press.)
6. Physics and Astronomy. 32 pp. 1948. 15^.
7. Geology, Geography, and Meteorology. ( I n press.)
8. Occupations Related to Science. 33 pp. 1948. 15^.
Your Job Future A f t e r College. Leaflet. 1947. (Rev. 1948.)
T r a i n i n g for Jobs—^for Women and Girls. [Under public funds available for
vocational training purposes.] Leaflet 1. 1947.
EARNINGS
Earnings of Women i n Selected Manufacturing Industries. 1946.
14 pp. 1948. 10^.

Bull. 219.

EMPLOYMENT
Employment of Women i n the Early Postwar Period, w i t h Background of Prew a r and W a r Data. Bull. 211. 14 pp. 1946. W .
Women's Occupations Through Seven Decades. Bull. 218. ( I n press.)
Women Workers After VJ-Day i n One Community—Bridgeport, Conn. Bull. 216.
37 pp. 1947. 15*^.
INDUSTRY
Women Workers i n Power Laundries. Bull. 215. 71 pp. 1947. 20<f.
The Woman Telephone Worker [1944]. Bull. 207. 28 pp. 1946. lOif.
Typical Women's Jobs i n the Telephone Industry [1944]. Bull. 207-A.
1947. 15«J.
Women i n Radio.

Bull. 222.

30 pp.

1948.

15^.

COST OF L I V I N G BUDGETS
W o r k i n g Women^s Budgets i n Twelve States. B u l l 226.




52 pp.

( I n press.)

^

78

HANDBOOK OP FACTS ON W O M E N WOBKEHS

LABOR LAWS
Summary of State Labor Laws for Women.

7 pp.

1947.

Mlmeo.

Mmimom Wage

State Minlmnm-Wage Laws and Orders, 1942: An Analysis. Bull. 191.
52 pp. 1942. 20(f. Supplements through 1947. Mlmeo.
State Minimum-Wage Laws. Leaflet 1. 1948.
Map showing States having minimum-wage laws. (Desk size; wall size.)
Equal Pay

Equal Pay for Women. Leaflet 2. 1947. (Rev. 1948.)
Chart analyzing State equal-pay laws and Model Bill. Mimeo. Also complete text of State laws (separates). Mimeo.
Selected References on Equal Pay for Women. 9 pp. 1947. Mlmeo.
Hours of Work and Other Labor Laws

State Labor Laws for Women, with Wartime Modifications, Dec. 15, 1944.
Bull. 202. (Supplements through 1947. Mimeo.)
I . Analysis of Hour Laws. 110 pp. 1945. 150.
I I . Analysis of Plant Facilities Laws. 43 pp. 1945. 100.
I I I . Analysis of Regulatory Laws, Prohibitory Laws, Maternity Laws.
12 pp. 1945. 50.
I V . Analysis of Industrial Home-Work Laws. 26 pp. 1945. 100.
V. Explanation and Appraisal. 66 pp. 1946. 150.
Map of United States showing State hour laws. (Desk size; w a l l size.)
L E G A L STATUS OF W O M E N
International Documents on the Status of Women. Bull. 217. 116 pp. 1947.
250.
Legal Status of Women in the United States of America.
United States Summary, January 1938. Bull. 157. 89 pp. 1941. 150.
Cumulative Supplement 1938-45. Bull. 157-A. 31 pp. 1946. 100.
Pamphlet for each State and District of Columbia (separates). 50 ea.
Women's Eligibility for Jury Duty. Leaflet 1947.
W O M E N I N L A T I N AMERICA
Women Workers in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Bull. 195. 15 pp. 1942. 50.
Women Workers in Brazil. Bull. 206. 42 pp. 1946. 100.
Women Workers i n Paraguay. Bull. 210. 16 pp. 1946. 100.
Women Workers in Peru. Bull. 213. 41 pp. 1947. 100.
Social and Labor Problems of Peru and Uruguay. 1944. Mimeo.
Women i n L a t i n America: Legal Rights and Restrictions. (Address before the
National Association of Women Lawyers.)
RECOMMENDED STANDARDS for women's working conditions, safety and
health:
Standards of Employment for Women. Leaflet 1. 1946. 50 ea. or $2 per 100.
When You Hire Women. Sp. Bull. 14. 16 pp. 1944. 100.
The Industrial Nurse and the Woman Worker. Sp. Bull. 19. 47 pp. 1944.

100.

Women*s Effective War Work Requires Good Posture. Sp. Bull. 10. 6 pp.
1943. 50.
Washing and Toilet Facilities for Women In Industry. Sp. Bull. 4. 11 pp.
1942. 50.
L i f t i n g and Carrying Weights by Women i n Industry. S^. Bull. 2. Rev.
1942. 12 pp. 50.
Safety Clothing for Women in Industry. Sp. Bull. 3. 11 pp. 1941. 100.
Supplements; Safety Caps; Safety Shoes. 4 pp. ea. 1944. 50 ea.
Night W o r k : Bibliography. 39 pp. 1946. Multilith.

WOMEN UNDER UNION CONTRACTS
Maternity-Benefits under Union-Contract Health Insurance Plans.
19 pp, 1947. 100.




BulL

214.

CTJTIKENT PUBLICATIONS

79

HOUSEHOLD EMPLOYMENT
Old-Age Insurance for Household Employees. Bull. 220. 20 pp.
Community Household Employment Programs. Bull. 221. 70 pp.

1947. lOfJ,
1948. 20(i.

REPORTS OF W O M E N I N W A R T I M E
16 reports on women's employment in wartime industries; part-time employment;
equal pay; community services; recreation and housing for women war workers;
and the following:
Changes i n Women's Employment D u r i n g the War. Sp. Bull. 20. 29 pp.
1944. 100.
Women's Wartime Hours of Work—^The Effect on Their Factory Performance
and Home Life. Bull. 208. 187 pp. 1947. 350.
Women Workers In Ten War Production Areas and Their Postwar Employment Plans. Bull. 209. 56 pp. 1946. 150.
Negro Women W a r Workers. Bull. 205. 23 pp. 1945. 100.
Employment Opportunities i n Characteristic Industrial Occupations of
Women. Bull, 201. 50 pp. 1944. 100.
Employment and Housing Problems of Migratory Workers in New York and
New Jersey Canning Industries, 1943. Bull. 198. 85 pp. 1944. 100.
Industrial Injuries to Women [1945]. Bull. 212. 25 pp. 1947. 100.
REPORTS O N W O M E N WORKERS I N PREWAR YEARS: Women at work (a
century of industrial change); women's economic status as compared to men's;
women workers i n their family environment (Cleveland, and Utah) ; women's
employment i n certain industries (clothing, canneries, laundries, offices, government service) ; State-wide survey of women's employment i n various States;
economic status of university women.
T H E W O M E N ' S B U R E A U — I t s Purpose and Functions.
Women's Bureau Conference.

1948.

Bull. 224.

210 pp.

Leaflet.

1946.

1948.

W r i t e the Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.,
f o r complete list of publications available for distribution.




U. S. COVERNMENT PRINTING OFFtCft t t 4 t