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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

fitlE il ....... No. 506

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED
B U RE A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S

M I S C E L L A N E O U S

S E R I E S

HANDBOOK OF
AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS
1929 EDITION

NOVEMBER, 1929

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1929

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




-

Price 30 cents

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This bulletin was compiled by Estelle M. Stewart, of the United
States Department of Labor,
n




CONTENTS
Page

Introduction___________________________________________________________
American Federation of Labor_________________________________________
Local unions------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------Local trade-unions____________________________________________
Federal labor unions__________________________________________
State federations and central labor unions__________________________
Departments______________________________________________________
Building trades department___________________________________
Metal trades department______________________________________
Railway employees department-----------------------------------------------Union label trades department________________________________
Building trades------------------------------------ -----------------------------------------------Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat and Frost In­
sulators and__________________________________________________
Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union of America.
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, International Asso­
ciation o f_______________________ _____ __________________________
Carpenters and Joiners of America. United Brotherhood of_________
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of___________________
Telephone operators’ department______________________________
Elevator Constructors, International Union o f_____________________
Engineers, International Union of Operating_______________________
Granite Cutters' International Association of America, The_________
Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers' Union of America,
International___________________________________________________
Lathers’ International Union, Wood, Wire, and Metal______________
Marble, Stone, and Slate Polishers, Rubbers, and Sawyers, Tile and
Marble Setters’ Helpers, and Terrazzo Workers’ Helpers, Interna­
tional Association of____________________________________________
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood o f.
Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Association of the
United States and Canada, Operative____________________________
Plumbers and Steam Fitters of the United States and Canada, United
Association of Journeymen______________________________________
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers’ Association, United Slate,
Tile, and Composition__________________________________________
Stone Cutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen__________
Metals and machinery_________________________________________________
Automobile, Aircraft, and Vehicle Workers of America, United_____
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and Helpers, International Brotherhood
of________ _____ ______________________________________ __________
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America, Interna­
tional Brotherhood o f______ ____________________________________
Draftsmen’s Unions, International Federation of Technical Engi­
neers, Architects, and___________________________________________
Engravers’ Union, International Metal_____________________________
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood o f__________________
Foundry Employees, International Brotherhood o f_________________
Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers of North America, Amalgamated Asso­
ciation o f_______________________________________________________
Machinists, International Association o f___________________________
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet___________________
Molders’ Union of North America, International___________________
Pattern Makers’ League of America_______________________________
Polishers’ International Union, Metal______________________________
Stove Mounters’ International Union of North America____________




in

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IV

CONTENTS
Page

Transportation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Agents, American Railway________________________________________
Carmen of America, Brotherhood of Railway_______________________
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees, Brother­
hood of Railway and Steamship_________________________________
Conductors, Brotherhood of Dining Car___________________________
Conductors, Order of Sleeping Car_________________________________
Conductors of America, Order of Railway__________________________
Engineers, Grand International Brotherhood of Locomotive________
Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive______________
Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood o f___________________
Porters, Brakemen, and Switchmen, Association of Train___________
Railroad Workers, American Federation o f_________________________
Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad____________________
Station Employees, Brotherhood of Railroad_______________________
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, Amalgamated
Association o f---------------------------------------------------------------------------Switchmen’s Union of North America______________________________
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers of America, Inter­
national Brotherhood o f_________________________________________
Telegraphers, Order of Railroad___________________________________
Train Dispatchers’ Association, American__________________________
Trainmen, Brotherhood of Railroad________________________________
Trainmen, Association of Colored Railway_________________________
Yardmasters of America, Railroad_________________________________
Yardmasters of North America, Railroad__________________________
Engineers' Beneficial Association of the United States of America,
National Marine-----------------------------------------------------------------------Engineers, Ocean Association of Marine____________________________
Longshoremen’s Association, International_________________________
Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America, National Organization______
Neptune Association______________________________________________
Seamen's Union of America, International_________________________
Mining, oil, and lumber-----------------------------------------------------------------------Loggers and Lumbermen, Loyal Legion of_________________________
Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, International Union of___________
Mine Workers of America, United_________________________________
Oil Field, Gas Well, and Refinery Workers of America, International
Association o f____________________________ ______________________
Paper, printing and bookbinding----------------------------------------------------------Paper Makers, International Brotherhood o f_______________________
Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill Workers, International Brotherhood
of______________________________________________________________
Wall Paper Crafts of North America, United_______________________
Printing Trades Association, International Allied------- --------------------Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of-------------------------------------Engravers’ Union of North America, International Photo___________
Lithographers of America, Amalgamated___________________________
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of North America, International
Printing------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Printers, Die Stampers, and Engravers’ Union of North America,
International Plate--------------------------------------------------------------------Siderographers, International Association of________________________
Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union of North America, Inter­
national________________________________________________________
Typographical Union of North America, International______________
Clothing---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union------------------------------------------------------Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated_______________________
Fur Workers’ Union of the United States and Canada, InternationalGarment Workers of America, United______________________________
Garment Workers’ Union, International Ladies’ ____________________
Glove Workers’ Union of America, International----------------------------Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers’ International Union, Cloth_____
Hatters of North America, United_________________________________
Shoe Workers’ Protective Union___________________________________
Tailors’ Union of America, Journeymen____________________________



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CONTENTS

V
Page

Textiles----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------Lace Operatives of America, Amalgamated_________________________
Mule Spinners, International______________________________________
Silk Workers, Associated__________________________________________
Textile Operatives, American Federation o f________________________
Textile Workers of America, United_______________________________
Hosiery Workers, American Federation of Full-Fashioned______
Food, liquor, and tobacco_____________________________________________
Bakery ai*d Confectionery Workers’ International Union of America.
Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers of America, Inter­
national Union of United________________________________________
Food Workers of America, Amalgamated__________________________
Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and Bar­
tenders’ International League of America________________________
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalga­
mated__________________________________________________________
Cigar Makers’ International Union________________________________
Tobacco Workers’ International Union____________________________
Glass, clay, and stone_________________________________________________
Brick and Clay Workers of America, United_______________________
Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association of the United States and C anada..
Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Association of America (Inc.), Window.
Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Protective Association of America,
Window________________________________________________________
Glass Cutters’ League of America, Window________________________
Glass Workers’ Union of North America, American Flint___________
Paving Cutters’ Union of the United States of America and Canada,
International___________________________________________________
Potters, National Brotherhood of Operative________________________
Quarry Workers’ International Union of North America____________
Woodworking_________________________________________________________
Carvers’ Association of North America, International W ood_______
Coopers’ International Union of North America____________________
Piano, Organ, and Musical Instrument Workers, International Union
o f______________________________________________________________
Upholsterers, Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics’ International Union
of North America----------------------------------------------------------------------Public service__________________________________________________________
Federal Employees, National Federation of________________________
Fire Fighters, International Association o f_______________________ _
Pavers, Rammermen, Flaggers, Bridge and Stone Curb Setters,
International Union o f__________________________________________
Policewomen, International Association o f_________________________
Teachers, American Federation o f_________________________________
United States post office___________________________________________
Postmasters of the United States, National Association of_____
Postmasters of the United States, National League of District—
Postmasters’ Association of the United States, Service_________
Mail Service, National Council of Officials of the Railway______
Mail Association, Railway____________________________________
Postal Supervisors, National Association o f___________________
Post Office Clerks, National Federation of_____________________
Post Office Clerks of the United Staes, The United National
Association o f___'----------------------------------------------------------------Letters Carriers, National Association of______________________
Rural Letter Carriers’ Association, National___________________
Rural Letter Carriers, National Federation o f_________________
Postal Employees, National Alliance o f-----------------------------------Post Office Laborers of the United States, National Association
of__________________________________________________________
Amusements__________________________________________________________
Actors and Artistes of America, Associated_________________________
Musicians, American Federation o f________________________________
Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the
United States and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical..




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VI

CONTENTS
Page

Miscellaneous manufactures-----------------------------------------------------------------Broom and Whisk Makers’ Union, International___________________
Diamond Workers’ Protective Union of America___________________
Jeweiry Workers’ Union, International_____________________________
Leather Workers’ International Union, United_____________________
Pocketbook Workers’ Union___________________________________
Leather Workers’ International Union of America, United__________
Powder and High Explosive Workers of America, United___________
Wire Weavers’ Protective Association, American___________________
Miscellaneous trades----------------------------------------------------------------------------Barbers’ International Union of America, Journeyman_____________
Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Alliance of_______
Building Service Employees’ International Union__________________
Clerks’ International Protective Association, Retail________________
Horseshoers of the United States and Canada, International Union
of Journeymen__________________________________________________
Laundry Workers’ International Union____________________________
Pharmacists, American Registered_________________________________
Telegraphers’ Union of America, Commercial______________________
Telephone Workers, International Brotherhood of__________________
Industrial Workers of the World_______________ ___________________




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209
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212
212
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216
217

INDEX OF UNIONS
Page

Actors and Artistes of America, Associated_____________________________
Agents, American Railway_____________________________________________
Aircraft workers. See Automobile, aircraft, and vehicle workers.
Architects. See Draftsmen.
Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators
and_________________________________________________________________
Automobile, Aircraft and Vehicle Workers of America, United__________

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Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union________________
Barbers’ International Union of America, Journeymen__________________
Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Alliance o f____________
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers, International Brotherhood of___
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America, International
Brotherhood o f______________________________________________________
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of_____________________________
Bookkeepers (American Federation of Labor local unions)______________
Boot and Shoe Workers’ U nion.____ ___________________________________
Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers of America, International
Union of United_____________________________________________________
Brick and Clay Workers of America, United____________________________
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ International Union of America____
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, International Associa­
tion o f______________________________________________________________
Broom and Whisk Makers’ Union, International________________________
Building Service Employees’ International Union_______________________

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210
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Carmen of America, Brotherhood of Railway___________________________
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of______________
Carvers’ Association of North America, International W ood_____________
Cigar Makers’ International Union_____________________________________
Cleaners, dyers, and pressers (American Federation of Labor local unions).
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees, Brotherhood
of Railway and Steamship___________________________________________
Clerks’ International Protective Association, Retail_____________________
Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated____________________________
Conductors, Brotherhood of Dining Car____ ___________________________
Conductors, Order of Sleeping Car_____________________________________
Conductors of America, Order of Railway______________________________
Coopers’ International Union of North America________________________

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211

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Diamond Workers’ Protective Union of America____ ____________________
Draftsmen’s Unions, International Federation of Technical Engineers,
Architects and______________________________________________________

203

Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of_______________________
Elevator Constructors, International Union o f__________________________
Engineers’ Beneficial Association of the United States of America, National
Marine_____ ________________________________________________________
Engineers, Grand International Brotherhood of Locomotive_____________
Engineers, International Union of Operating_________________________ _
Engineers, Ocean Association of Marine________________________________
Engineers, Technical. See Draftsmen.
Engravers’ Union, International Metal_________________________________
Engravers’ Union of North America, International Photo_______________
Expressmen, Order of Railway_________________________________________
Express Workers, American Federation of_ ___________________________
_

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v in

INDEX OF UNIONS
Page.

Federal Employees, National Federation o f_____________________________
Fire Fighters, International Association o f_____________________________
Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive___________________
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of_______________________
Fishermen. See Seamen.
Food Workers of America, Amalgamated_______________________________
Foundry Employees, International Brotherhood o f______________________
Fur Workers’ Union of the United States and Canada, International____

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Garment Workers of America, United__________________________________
Garment Workers’ Union, International Ladies’ ________________________
Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association of the United States and Canada_____
Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Association of America (Inc.), Window____
Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Protective Association of America, Window.
Glass Cutters’ League of America, Window____ ________________________
Glass Workers, National Window______________________________________
Glass Workers’ Union of North America, American Flint_______________
Glove Workers’ Union of America, International________________________
Granite Cutters’ International Association of America, The_____________

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167
167
168
169
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141
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Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers’ International Union, Cloth____________
Hatters of North America, United______________________________________
Heat and frost insulators. See Asbestos workers.
Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers’ Union of North America,
International________________________________________________________
Horseshoers of United States and Canada, International Union of Journey­
men_________________________________________________________________
Hosiery Workers, American Federation of Full-fashioned________________
Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and Bartenders'
International League of America_____________________________________

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143

160
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137

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161

Industrial Workers of the World_______________________________________
Iron, Steel and Tin Workers of North America, Amalgamated Association
of_________________________________________________ _____ ____________

217

Jewelry Workers’ Union, International_________________________________

204

Knights of Labor_______________________________________________________

2, 5

la ce Operatives of America, Amalgamated_____________________________
Lathers’ International Union, Wood, Wire and Metal___________________
Laundry Workers’ International Union_________________________________
Leather Workers’ International Union, United__________________________
Leather Workers’ International Union of America, United---------------------Letter Carriers, National Association of------------------------------------------------Lithographers of America, Amalgamated_______________________________
Loggers and Lumbermen, Loyal Legion of____ _________________________
Longshoremen’s Association, International______________________________

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122
108
102

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Machinists, International Association of------- ----------------------------------------61
\ Mail Association, Railway-------- -----------------------------------------------------------189
Mail Service, National Council of Officials of the Railway---------------------188
88
Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood of----------------------------------Marble, Stone and Slate Polishers, Rubbers, and Sawyers, Tile and Marble
Setters’ Helpers, and Terrazzo Workers’ Helpers, International Asso­
ciation of____________________________________________________________
41
Masons. See Bricklayers.
Masters, Mates and Pilots, National Organization---------------------------------104
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalgamated™
162
Metal Polishers. See Polishers.
Metal Workers of America, Amalgamated______________________________
2
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet-----------------------------------67
109
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of________________
Mine Workers of America, United____ _________________________________
vl l l
Miners’ Union, National_______________________________________________ 3,107
Molders’ Union of North America, International............... ............................
70



INDEX OF UNIONS

IX
Page

Moving-picture-machine operators. See Stage Employees, etc.
Mule Spinners, International— ________________________________________
Musicians, American Federation of_____________________________________

151
198

Needle Trades Workers’ Industrial Union______________________________ 3,134
Neptune Association___________________________________________________
104
Office workers (American Federation of Labor local unions)_____________ 7, 209
Oil Field, Gas Well and Refinery Workers of America, International Asso­
ciation of____________________________________________________________
112
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood o f______
Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of____________________________
Pattern Makers’ League of America____________________________________
Pavers, Rammermen, Flaggers, Bridge and Stone Curb Setters, Inter­
national Union of___________________________________________________
Paving Cutters’ Union of the United States and Canada, InternationalPharmacists, American Registered_____________________________________
Piano, Organ and Musical Instrument Workers, International Union of__
Photo-engravers. See Engravers.
Plasterers. See Bricklayers, masons, and plasterers.
Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Association of the United
States and Canada, Operative.,______________________________________
Plumbers and Steamfitters of the United States and Canada, United
Association of Journeymen__________________________________________
Pocketbook workers___________________________________________________
Policewomen, International Association of____ _________________________
Polishers’ International Union, M etal._________________________________
Porters, Brakemen and Switchmen, Association of Train________________
Porters, Sleeping car (American Federation of Labor locals)........................
Postal Employees, National Alliance of______ __________________________
Postal Supervisors, National Association of_____________________________
Postmasters of the United States, National Association of_______________
Postmasters of the United States, National League of District__________
Postmasters’ Association of the united States, Service__________________
Post Office Clerks of the United States, United National Association o f____
Post Office Clerks, National Federation of______________________________
Post Office Laborers of the United States, National Association of_______
Potters, National Brotherhood of Operative____________________________
Powder and High Explosive Workers of America, United_______________
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of North America, International PrintingPrinters, Die Stampers, and Engravers’ Union of North America, Inter­
national Plate_______________________________________________________
Printing Trades’ Association, International Allied_______________________
Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers, International Brotherhood o f____

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Quarry Workers’ International Union of North America_______________ -

172

Railroad Supervisors of Mechanics, International Association of________ _
Railroad Workers, American Federation of_____________________________
Railway Mail Association. See Mail Association.
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers’ Association, United Slate, Tile
and Composition____________________________________________________
Rural Letter Carriers’ Association, National____________________________
Rural Letter Carriers, National Federation of___________________________

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Sawsmiths’ Union of North America___________________________________
Seamen’s Union of America, International______________________________
Sheet metal workers. See Metal workers.
Shipbuilders, iron. See Boiler makers, iron shipbuilders, etc.
Shoe Workers’ Protective Union________________________________________
Shoe Workers’ Union, American_______________________________________
Siderographers, International Association of____________________________
Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad________________________
Silk Workers, Associated_____________________________ -*-------------------------




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X

INDEX OF UNIONS
Page

Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United
States and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical_____________
199
State, county, and municipal employees (American Federation of Labor
locals)______________________________________________________________ 7, 179
Station Employees, Brotherhood of Railroad___________________________
92
Steam Shovel and Dredge Men, International Brotherhood of___________
2, 36
Stenographers and typists (American Federation of Labor locals)________7, 209
Stereotvpers and Electrotypers’ Union of North America, International_
127
Stone Cutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen______________
49
Stove M ou n ted International Union of North America_________________
74
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, Amalgamated Asso­
ciation of_________________________________ __________________________
92
94
Switchmen’s Union of North America__________________________________
Tailors* Union of America, Journeymen________________________________
145
Teachers, American Federation of______________________________________
184
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and Helpers of America, International
Brotherhood of______________________________________________________
94
Telegraphers, Order of Railroad________________________________________
96
215
Telegraphers’ Union of North America, Commercial____________________
Telephone Operators’ Department, International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers____________________________________________________________
34
Telephone Workers, International Brotherhood of______________________
216
Textile Operatives, American Federation of_____________________________
152
Textile Workers of America, United____________________________________
153
Textile Workers’ Union, National______________________________________ 2, 150
Tobacco Workers, Amalgamated_______________________________________
2
Tobacco Workers’ International Union_________________________________
163
Track Foremen and Allied Brotherhood of Railway Track Laborers,
American Brotherhood of Railway___________________________________
2
Train Dispatchers’ Association, American______________________________
96
Trainmen, Association of Colored Railway_____________________________
98
Trainmen, Brotherhood of Railroad____________________________________
97
Tunnel and Subway Constructors' International Union_________________
2, 17
Typographical Union of North America, International__________________
128
Upholsterers, Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics' International Union of
North America______________________________________________________
Vehicle workers.

177

See Automobile, aircraft, and vehicle workers.

Wall Paper Crafts of North America, United__________________________
Wire Weavers’ Protective Association, American________________________
Wood carvers. See Carvers.

117
208

Yard masters of America, Railroad______________________________________
Yardmasters of North America, Railroad_______________________________

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BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

NO. 506

NOVEMBER, 1929

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UN10NS
Introduction
first Handbook o f American Trade-Unions (Bulletin No.
•*20 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics) was the result of an
effort to list all o f the existing labor organizations of the United
States haying national entity and significance. It presented for each
o f the organizations listed information dealing with its relation to
the American Federation of Labor; a brief account of its origin and
history; jurisdiction, both trade and territorial; form of govern­
ment ; qualifications for membership; apprentice system; methods of
negotiating agreements with employers; benefits paid; official organ;
location o f headquarters; extent of organization; and total member­
ship.
This bulletin has proved very useful as a reference work and
encyclopedia o f labor organizations. In view of important changes
which have taken place since it was published, in October, 1926, and
the value o f keeping the information up to date as nearly as practi­
cable, a revision o f the original handbook is presented herewith.
The revised work follows the same plan and policies as those out­
lined in Bulletin No. 420. It deals only with bona fide labor organi­
zations functioning nationally in June, 1929, and disregards entirely
unions which are purely local in character, works councils, and those
organizations which are or may be fairly regarded as company
unions.
The revision was made with the helpful cooperation o f the or­
ganizations themselves. The responsible executive of each union
was asked to amend or correct the data covering his organization,
and to bring them to date. In this way the bureau obtained the
latest authoritative information.
As was to be expected, some organizations in the earlier issue have
passed out of existence and do not appear in the present work, while
others have sprung up since and are listed, at least tentatively, as
national bodies.
The organizations which have ceased to function since 1926 are:
The Order o f Bailway Expressmen and the American Federation of
Express Workers, which have returned to the Brotherhood of Rail­
way and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station




1

2

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-TJNIONS

Employees, from which both had seceded; the National Window
Glass Workers, a union of skilled handicraftsmen which disbanded
in 1928 because of the universal use of machinery in window-glass
manufacture; the International Brotherhood o f Steam Shovel and
Dredge Men, which returned to the ranks o f American Federation
o f Labor unions by amalgamating in 1927 with the International
Union of Operating Engineers; the International Pocketbook W ork­
ers’ Union, which has become part of the United Leather Workers’
International Union; the Tunnel and Subway Constructors’ Interna­
tional Union, which merged with the International Hodcarriers,
Building and Common Laborers’ Union in 1929; two railroad unions,
the International Association of Railroad Supervisors of Mechanics
and the American Brotherhood of Railway Track Foremen and
Allied Brotherhood of Railway Track Laborers, the disposition of
which has not been definitely determined, but which probably have
been absorbed by the American Federation of Labor unions covering
those jurisdictions; and three small independent groups which have
died out—the Amalgamated Tobacco Workers, the Amalgamated
Metal Workers, and the Sawsmiths’ Union. The last mentioned
has retained one small local organization in Indianapolis.
The Order of the Knights of Labor has been eliminated in this
revision, because it is no longer regarded as a national economic
organization within the meaning used in the handbook.
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, mentioned in Bulletin
No. 420 (p. 78) as in process of formation, while not ceasing to func­
tion, has changed its form o f organization. The local unions formed
under the brotherhood have recently become directly affiliated with
the American Federation of Labor and are treated in this bulletin
as American Federation of Labor local unions (p. 6) and not as a
national entity.
Three new organizations made up of the radical “ left-w ing9
9
element in their several fields have come into existence within the
past year. Two of these are secessionist groups, and because their
inception is so recent their stability is problematic. Moreover, in
all three cases the organizations were unable, and to some extent
unwilling, to furnish all the information necessary to a complete out­
line of their structure and activities. Hence, no attempt is here made
to treat them in detail. The three organizations in question are
the National Textile Workers’ Union, the National Miners5 Union,
and the Needle Trades Workers’ Industrial Union.
The National Textile Workers’ Union is an expansion and later
development of the United Front, referred to in Bulletin No. 420
(p. 133) as “ a sporadic organization with Industrial Workers of the
World affiliations which is active only during strikes. Its member­
ship is shifting and uncertain and it has no definite officers or head­
quarters.” Since then, however, it has adopted a constitution and
elected general officers and has expanded into a national organization
known as the National Textile Workers’ Union, with headquarters
at 104 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Membership has been in­
creased both by organizing work in unorganized fields, particularly
in the new textile centers of the South, and by drawing upon disaf­
fected groups in the older textile unions, especially among the silk
workers. A journal, the National Textile Worker, has been started.



INTRODUCTION'

3

The National Miners’ Union was founded in September, 1928, as
the result o f a secession movement away from the United Mine W ork­
ers of America following the strike of 1927-28. Headquarters are
at 119 Federal Street NS., Pittsburgh, Pa.
The Needle Trades Workers’ Industrial Union was organized in
January, 1929, by “ left-w ing” secessionist groups of fur workers
and o f garment workers in the International Ladies’ Garment W ork­
ers’ Union. Headquarters are at 16 West Twenty-first Street, New
York City. This organization made no response to requests for data,
and the information here presented is based largely on press reports.
Whether or not this union has any existence outside New York City
is not known.
The Associated Silk Workers, treated in Bulletin No. 420 (p. 133)
as a local body, is here, listed as a national organization.
It has been found in using the handbook that the seriatim arrange­
ment did not bring out interrelationships in the case of dual organi­
zations in a manner to make them clear to persons not entirely famil­
iar with the labor movement. The bureau has attempted in the pres­
ent work to remedy that defect by prefacing each industrial division
with a new section, which is a resume o f the organizations within
that division and their connections with each other, particularly
where trade jurisdictions are confused. Where organizations seem
to be merely duplications of each other an effort has been made to
distinguish between them with sufficient definiteness to make them
easy to identify.
Often this confusion arises out of the similarity of names of the
dual organizations. Cases in point are the Eailroad Yardmasters
o f America and the Eailroad Yardmasters of North America, the
National Federation of Post Office Clerks and the United National
Association o f Post Office Clerks, the United Leather Workers’ In­
ternational Union and the United Leather Workers’ Internationa]
Union of America.
Dual unionism is not always created by organizations within and
without the American Federation of Labor. It sometimes exists
when neither organization is affiliated. The railroad yardmasters’
organizations are instances of this situation.
One hundred and forty-six organizations are included in this hand­
book. O f these, 106 are affiliated to the American Federation of
Labor. The membership figure used in the bulletin is that reported
to the bureau by the organization, except in cases of certain unions
which do not divulge their membership. The membership o f unions
following the latter policy can, however, be determined in the case
of affiliated unions, since their voting strength in the American
Federation of Labor is based upon the number of members in good
standing as recognized by the ‘federation. Some unaffiliated unions
have reported their membership to the bureau in confidence, and
while these figures may not be published separately, they are included
in the aggregate number of trade-union members m all organizations.
The total membership of the international unions in the American
Federation of Labor, as shown from the following data, is 3,485,141.
This, together with 25,286 additional in directly affiliated local
unions, gives the American Federation of Labor a total membership
pf 3,510,427. The membership of unions outside the federation,



4

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

including the Industrial Workers of the World, is 820,824, giving
an aggregate of 4,331,251. This is exclusive o f the three new or­
ganizations, the membership of which is not known.
These figures, however, include the Canadian membership of the
international unions. The Department of Labor of* Canada gives
the following figures of Canadian membership in American unions
for the calendar year 1928: 148,609 in American Federation o f
Labor unions and 42,708 in independent organizations, a total of
191,317. Eliminating this figure from the aggregate membership
leaves 4,139,934 union members in the United States and its pos­
sessions.




AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR
'T 'H E American Federation of Labor was the outgrowth o f the
* movement of skilled craftsmen away from the form of organi­
zation practiced by the Knights of Labor. Promoted chiefly by the
molders, cigar makers, printers, iron and steel workers, and lake
seamen, organized as assemblies of their respective trades under the
Knights o f Labor, a convention was held in Pittsburgh, Pa., at which
the Federation of Trades and Labor Unions was organized on No­
vember 15, 1881. The name under which the second convention was
held, in 1882, was Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions
of the United States of America and Canada.
This organization was loosely formed and operated under a plat­
form rather than a constitution. A legislative committee served in
the capacity o f executive and steering committee, and the chairman
o f the legislative committee presided at the annual sessions.
The sixth annual convention of the Federation of Organized Trades
and Labor Unions, held at Columbus, Ohio, in December, 1886, ad­
journed as such after the second day and resolved itself immediately
into the first convention of the American Federation o f Labor.
Twenty-five national labor organizations were represented. Samuel
Gompers became the first president of the reorganized federation.
By the time the second convention was held a formal constitution
had been drawn up, which was adopted at the convention of 1887,
held at Baltimore, Md.
During the first two decades after its establishment, the American
Federation o f Labor took into membership and chartered as affiliated
bodies all the organizations that appplied for affiliation. In conse­
quence, more than one union in the same industry or even in the same
craft held membership at the same time. For example, both the
Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners and the United
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners held membership in the fed­
eration for years.
However, with the development in 1907 of departments to include
all the unions in the largest industries, the policy of u one craft, one
union,” was adopted and carried out. This involved the merging of
those unions which exercised jurisdiction in the same or similar
trades, and reduced the number of affiliated international organiza­
tions.
The carrying out of this policy resulted as well in a number of
expulsions from the federation of unions which refused to merge
their identity and which, by becoming independent, created what,
from the viewpoint o f the American Federation of Labor, are known
as dual, or “ outlaw ” organizations.
There are at present 106 national and international unions affili­
ated to the American Federation of Labor. These are treated in
detail in the following sections.




5

6

HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

LOCAL UNIONS

In addition to the autonomous national and international trade
organizations comprising it, the American Federation of Labor con­
tains 383 organized bodies known as local trade and Federal labor
unions which are chartered and governed directly by the federation
itself.
LOCAL TRADE-UNIONS

A directly affiliated local trade-union is composed of workers in a
trade which is not organized nationally, or the national organization
o f which is not affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
When these directly affiliated local organizations within a given
trade become sufficiently numerous and represent a substantial num­
ber o f workers, they form the nucleus o f a national union of that
trade. Many of the existing international unions were organized
from directly affiliated local craft unions.
Recently a policy has been adopted by the American Federation
o f Labor which is a variation o f the former custom of creating
national organizations out of local craft unions. The Pullman
porters’ organization is a case in point, and will serve to illustrate
the policy referred to. The porters began organizing nationally in
1925, under the title “ Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.” It
was an independent organization, with headquarters in New York
City. In 1929 it requested membership in the American Federation
o f Labor, but in the opinion o f the federation it was not strong
enough to function nationally. Therefore, instead of issuing to the
brotherhood a charter of affiliation to the American Federation o f
Labor, the federation has chartered under its own immediate juris­
diction, as directly affiliated local unions, the locals of porters which
had formerly composed the brotherhood. As this movement is under
way at the present time, and charters are still being issued to the
local unions of porters, no definite figures on the number of locals
or total membership can be given.
An instance of workers organized into directly affiliated local
unions in a jurisdiction covered by an unaffiliated national organiza­
tion is that of the post-office laborers, who have 14 local unions
chartered directly by the American Federation of Labor, while other
workers o f the same class are organized into two independent
unions, the National Association of Post Office Laborers o f the
United States and the National Alliance of Postal Employees
(see pp. 194, 195).
Unions of negro workers in a jurisdiction covered by an interna­
tional union which does not admit negroes are also chartered by the
American Federation of Labor as directly affiliated trade-unions.
The outstanding instance of direct affiliation of this character is the
negro baggage men, freight handlers, and station employees in rail­
road service. This jurisdiction is held by the Brotherhood of Rail­
way and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station
Employees (p. 80), but it does not admit negroes to membership.
Hence, there are 21 directly affiliated local unions covering colored
workers of that kind.
Other important occupations in which such organization as exists
is found in directly affiliated American Federation of Labor local



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

7

trade-unions are: Public service employees, embracing State, city,
and county employees, police, library attendants, sanitary inspectors,
etc., o f whom there are 29 unions; stenographers, bookkeepers and
office clerks, organized into 21 local unions; theater attendants, in­
cluding ushers, ticket sellers and takers, wardrobe mistresses and
dressers, in which callings there are 29 locals; and hospital nurses
and attendants.
There are also unions in direct affiliation to the American* Federa­
tion of Labor in jurisdictions which are definitely covered by
international unions belonging to the federation. This is notably
true o f cleaning and dyeing, work which comes under the jurisdiction
of the Journeymen Tailors’ Union, but shared in certain instances
with the Laundry Workers’ International Union, by agreement be­
tween the two internationals. Badge and lodge paraphernalia
workers, chartered by the American Federation of Labor, are in­
cluded in the jurisdiction of the International Jewelry Workers’
Unioin. Paper bag and envelope makers are also chartered as di­
rectly affiliated locals^ although the International Brotherhood of
Paper Makers claims jurisdiction.
The reasons given by the American Federation of Labor for this
apparently chaotic situation are various, having to do generally with
unsettled jurisdictional disputes or instability in the international
union itself.
Three other crafts now organized as American Federation of
Labor locals, the sawmill workers and woodsmen, the slate workers,
and the goldbeaters, have been represented in the past by national
organizations. They have, however, collapsed as national unions,
the charter o f the sawmill workers and woodsmen (International
Union o f Timber Workers) having been surrendered in 1922; that
of the slate workers (American Brotherhood of Slate Workers), in
1913; and that o f the goldbeaters (National Goldbeaters’ Protective
Union), in 1908.
Miscellaneous crafts and occupations chartered directly by the
American Federation o f Labor are egg candling, sail and tent mak­
ing, bathtub enameling, hair spinning, tire repairing, button making,
canning, gardening, embalming, and automobile and aircraft
manufacture.
FEDERAL LABOR UNIONS

A Federal labor union is composed of workers in localities where
no national or local trade-union exists. It may include any number
o f different crafts and callings, and is somewhat analogous to the
“ mixed assemblies ” of the old Knights of Labor. “A local union
composed of one trade or calling exclusively is not a Federal labor
union.” (American Federation of Labor law.)
The members of a Federal labor union are chiefly unskilled workers
in unclassified occupations.
STATE FEDERATIONS AND CENTRAL LABOR UNIONS

State federations of labor are delegate bodies composed of repre­
sentatives from all the affiliated national and international unions,
American Federation of Labor local unions, and city central bodies
67004°—29----- 2



8

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

within the State. There is one in each State in the United States
and one in Porto Rico.
The function of a State federation is chiefly legislative and propa­
gandist.
Central labor unions, or “ city centrals,” are also delegate bodies
made up of representatives of all the affiliated local unions in a city
or town. Some international unions require their local unions to
affiliate, with the central body if one exists, and it is the general
policy of international unions even when it is not a constitutional
requirement. American Federation of Labor locals must be repre­
sented in central bodies.
The central labor unions meet weekly, as a rule, and serve as clear­
ing houses for the varied labor activities of their localities. They
may serve in negotiating agreements and as a medium of arbitra­
tion and conciliation in disputes. Like the State federations, they
are also legislative and propagandist organizations. Frequently
they take an active part in strikes, and one o f the most important
phases of their work is promoting the union label.
City centrals are chartered by the American Federation of Labor,
and under American Federation of Labor law only delegates repre­
senting unions affiliated to the Federation are eligible. (“ Central
bodies can not seat delegates from suspended, seceded, dual, or
unaffiliated unions.”—American Federation of Labor law.)
There are 795 of these central bodies in the United States and
Canada, covering all the States, Panama, and Porto Rico.
DEPARTMENTS

There are four departments in the American Federation of Labor:
Building trades, metal trades, railway employees, and union-label
trades.
These departments, under American Federation of Labor law, are
“ the official method of the American Federation of Labor for trans­
acting the portion o f its business indicated by the name of the
department.”
Each department, however, manages and finances its own affairs,
holds a convention distinct from that of the American Federation
o f Labor, and functions independently within the limits set by the
constitution of the federation.
The two largest departments—building trades and metal trades—•
function through local councils of the industries. It was the inten­
tion of the American Federation of Labor that all the organizations
concerned should be represented in their respective department* and
local councils. To that end it was hoped that the international
unions would adopt a policy of requiring their locals to become
affiliated with the industrial councils in their territorial jurisdiction.
However, not all the internationals have adopted a policy of com­
pulsion in this regard. In consequence, not all local councils in the
two industrial groups represent all the local unions in those indus­
tries. But as a rule the councils do represent most, if not all, of
the craft organizations eligible to membership.




AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

9

BUILDING TRADES DEPARTMENT

The Building Trades Department was established in February,
1908, as the first result of action taken at the 1907 convention of the
American Federation of Labor declaring that “ for the greater devel­
opment of the labor movement departments subordinate to the Amer­
ican Federation of Labor are to be established.”
The nucleus o f the Building Trades Department already existed
in the Structural Building Trades Alliance o f America, a combina­
tion o f building-trades unions founded in Indianapolis in 1903. This
alliance was independent of the federation, although composed chiefly
o f American Federation of Labor international unions.
Following its adoption of a policy of group or industrial divisions,
the federation met the alliance in conference and reorganized it as
the Building Trades Department of the American Federation of
Labor.
The declared objects of the department are “ the encouragement
and formation of local organizations o f building-trades men and the
conferring of such power and authority upon the several locals of
this department as may advance the interests and welfare of the
building industry; to adjust trade disputes along practical lines as
they arise from time to time; and to create a more harmonious feel­
ing between employer and employee.”
Membership in the Building Trades Department is u confined to
national and international building-trades organizations that are
affiliated to the American Federation of Labor and which are uni­
versally employed in the building industry either in erection, repair,
or alteration.”
The department recognizes “ the justice of trade jurisdiction ” and
aims “ to guarantee to the various branches of the building industry
control of such work as rightfully belongs to them and to which they
are justly entitled.”
To that end the constitution o f the department provider for a board
o f arbitration to act on “ all cases of trade disputes between affiliated
organizations on questions o f jurisdiction.” The board is composed
o f one representative from each of the contesting parties and a
building-trades man selected by the president of the Building Trades
Department. Decisions of the board are “ binding on all parties con­
cerned ” but are subject to appeal to the executive council or to the
convention of the Building Trades Department.
The Building Trades Department is governed by an executive
council composed of president and six vice presidents, no two mem­
bers of which may belong to or represent the same international
union. The president is the chief administrative officer.
Building Trades Councils

The department operates through local building trades councils
organized in cities and towns, membership in which is made up of the
locals in each city and town of the international unions comprising
the Building Trades Department. The councils are delegate bodies,
representation being based upon the total membership o f each
affiliated local. The constitution and by-laws governing local
councils are imposed by the department*



10

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Trade movements and strikes must first receive sanction of the
national or international union of the craft involved and then of the
local building trades council. When a strike is called the local
council “ shall have full jurisdiction,” and the business agent of the
council “ shall have full power to order all strikes when instructed
to do so by the council or its executive board.”
State building trades councils may be organized at the option of
the local councils, and when organized are chartered by the depart­
ment with “ power to make their own laws in conformity with the
laws of the department.”
Organization

The 17 international unions comprising the Building Trades
Department are:
Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators
and.
Bridge and Structural Iron Workers, International Association of.
Carpenters and Joiners, United Brotherhood of.
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of.
Elevator Constructors, International Union of.
Engineers, International Union of Operating.
Granite Cutters’ International Union.
Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers’ Union, International.
Lathers, International Union of Wood, Wire and Metal.
Marble, Stone, and Slate Polishers, Rubbers and Sawyers, Tile and Marble
Setters’ Helpers, International Association of.
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet.
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers, Brotherhood of.
Plasterers and Cement Finishers, International Association of Operative.
Plumbers and Steamfitters, United Association of Journeymen.
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers’ Association, United Slate, Tile, and
Composition.
Stonecutters’ Association o f America, Journeymen.
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers, International Brother­
hood of.
State councils: States having State building-tradgs councils and the number
of local councils therein a re : California, 27; Connecticut, 13; Indiana, 20;
Massachusetts, 22; Michigan, 8; New Jersey, 21; New York, 31; Ohio, 24;
Oklahoma, 11. Total, 9 States, 177 local councils.
Local councils: United States—Alabama, 2 ; Arizona, 1 ; Arkansas, 2 ; Colo­
rado, 5; Delaware, 1 ; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 6 ; Georgia, 2 ; Idaho,
3 ; Illinois, 31; Iowa, 9 ; Kansas, 2; Kentucky, 4 ; Louisiana, 5; Maine, 3 ;
Maryland, 3 ; Minnesota, 4 ; Mississippi, 3 ; Missouri, 4 ; Montana, 3 ; Nebraska,
3 ; Nevada, 1; New Hampshire, 2; North Carolina, 3; North Dakota, 1 ; Oregon,
4 ; Pennsylvania, 33; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 2 ; South Dakota, 2;
Tennessee, 4 ; Texas, 11; Utah, 1; Virginia, 4 ; Washington, 11; West Virginia,
5 ; Wisconsin, 9 ; Wyoming, 2. Canada—Alberta, 2; British Columbia, 1; Mani­
toba, 1; New Brunswick, 1; Nova Scotia, 1; Ontario, 10; Quebec, 1. Total, 211.

The Building Trades Department holds an annual convention,
preceding the convention of the American Federation of Labor. Vice
presidents are elected annually in convention, while the salaried offi­
cers (president and secretary-treasurer) are elected every third year.
The headquarters of the department are in the American Federation
o f Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
METAL TRADES DEPARTMENT

The Metal Trades Department of the American Federation of
Labor was established as a department in June, 1908. A federation
o f some o f the metal trade-unions had been functioning since 1900,



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

11

when the Federated Metal Trades was organized. While not all of
the metal trades were included, the federation organized local metal
trades councils in various cities. It was an independent organiza­
tion, but when .the departmental program was undertaken by the
American Federation of Labor, the Federated Metal Trades, with its
nucleus of industrial federation in the metal industry, was taken over
and chartered as the Metal Trades Department of the American
Federation o f Labor. Thereafter the affiliated metal trades-unions
in the American Federation of Labor which had not been identified
with the Federated Metal Trades became members of the Metal
Trades Department.
The purpose of the department, as declared in its constitution, is
“ the encouragement and formation of local metal trades councils and
the conferring of such power and authority upon the various local
organizations of this department as may advance the interest and
welfare o f the metal industry 5 ; to “ adjust trade disputes ” ; and u to
5
use its good offices in assisting affiliated national and international
unions m the adjustment of any dispute arising over a question of
jurisdiction.”
It is governed by an executive council consisting of the president,
secretary-treasurer, and six vice presidents, no two of whom shall
be representatives of the same organization. The president “ exer­
cises supervision over the Metal Trades Department throughout its
jurisdiction.”
Membership in the department is “ confined to national and inter­
national metal trades-unions which are chartered by and affiliated
to the American Federation of Labor, and metal trades councils
chartered by and affiliated to the department, and which are em­
ployed in the metal industries.”
Local metal trades councils are formed wherever “ there exists three
or more local unions of trades ” affiliated to the Metal Trades Depart­
ment. These councils are governed by the laws and constitution of
the department, and any by-laws adopted for local government must
be approved by the executive council of the department. The terri­
torial jurisdiction of a local council is determined by the executive
council.
Trade movements and strikes undertaken by a local council must
be sanctioned by the international officers of all local organizations
involved and by the department before being carried out.
Organization

The 15 national and international unions comprising the Metal
Trades Department are:
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers, International Brotherhood of.
Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders of America, International Brotherhood of.
Draftsmen’s Unions, International Federation of Technical Engineers, Archi­
tects and
Electrical Workers o f America, International Brotherhood of.
Engineers, International Union of Steam and Operating.
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of Stationary.
Foundry Employees, International Brotherhood of.
Iron Workers, International Association of Bridge, Structural and Ornamental.
Machinists, International Association of.
Metal Polishers’ International Union.



12

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNI0NS

Molders’ Union of North America, International.
Pattern Makers’ League o f North America.
Plumbers, Gas Fitters, Steam Fitters and Helpers, United Association of.
Sheet Metal Workers, International Association.
Stove Mounters’ International Union.
Metal trades districts: There are three districts known as “ metal trades
districts,” over which a district council has jurisdiction. These a re: Canadian
(Montreal), Delaware River (Philadelphia), New England (Portsmouth, N. H .).
State councils: There are two State metal trades councils, the Virginia State
Metal Trades Council and the New York State Metal Trades Council. Head­
quarters for the Virginia State council are located in Richmond. The New York
State Headquarters are in the city of New York.
Local metal trades councils: United States—Arizona, 3 ; California 3 ; Colo­
rado, 1; Connecticut, 3 ; Delaware, 1 ; District of Columbia, 1 ; Florida, 1 ; Illi­
nois, 1 ; Indiana, 2 ; Kentucky, 1 ; Louisiana, 1 ; Massachusetts, 3 ; Maryland, 1 ;
Maine, 2 ; Minnesota, 1; Montana, 3 ; Missouri, 1; New Hampshire, 1 ; Nebraska,
1; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 6; Ohio 4 ; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 6 ; Rhode
Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 1 ; Texas, i ; Washington, 3 ; Wisconsin, 3 ; Virginia,
2 ; Canal Zone, 1. Canada—Nova Scotia, 1; Ontario, 2 ; Quebec, 2. Total, 68.

The Metal Trades Department holds a convention annually at a
time and place designated by the executive council. The custom is for
the Metal Trades Department to meet in convention three days prior
to the convening o f the convention of the American Federation of
Labor. The officers are elected annually in convention.
The headquarters of the Metal Trades Department are in the Amer­
ican Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
RAILWAY EMPLOYEES DEPARTMENT

The Railway Employees Department was organized in November,
1908. It grew out o f a movement, begun several years earlier, toward
amalgamation into system federations o f the various organizations
in the railroad-shop crafts. The department at first functioned prin­
cipally as a legislative and organizing medium in which the affiliated
organizations had very little part. After the strike on the Harriman
lines, in 1912, a conference of the shopcraft unions on 40 railroad
systems was held in Kansas City, looking toward unity and a more
militant program. The outcome of this conference was the forma­
tion o f a Federation of System Federations. At the convention o f
the Railway Employees Department held at Rochester, N. Y., later in
1912, the constitution, policies, and officers of the Federation of
System Federations were indorsed and accepted by the Railway
Employees Department.
The platform of the department “ aims to bring within the organi­
zation all railway employees; to shorten the hours of labor to 44 per
week—5 days o f 8 hours and 4 hours on Saturday; to establish a
minimum wage scale for all employees in all branches of railway
service; to bring about a uniform agreement; * * * to prevent
strikes and lockouts wherever possible.”
The department is composed o f “ national and international and
brotherhood organizations of railway employees recognized as such,
duly and regularly chartered by the American Federation of Labor.”
It is divided into three autonomous sections: Section 1, switchmen;
section 2, the various member organizations covering railroad shops;
and section 3, the stationary firemen and oilers and the maintenanceof-way employees.



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

13

The Railway Employees Department is governed by the president,
vice president, and secretary-treasurer, elected at the biennial con­
vention, and an executive council composed of the international
presidents o f the component organizations. The president is “ the
supreme executive officer, subject to the directions of the executive
council in all matters wherein authority is not specifically conferred
upon the president alone, or upon other officers of the department.”
The unit of organization is the system federation, composed o f not
less than three local craft unions, members of organizations holding
membership in the department, on any railroad system. A railroad
system is defined in the constitution as “ a railway under one general
manager.”
System federations are chartered by the department, hold their own
conventions, adopt by-laws for local government subject to the
approval o f the president, and elect their own officers.
Agreements presented by system federations for negotiation with
railroad managements must be approved by the president and the
executive council of the department before negotiations are begun.
Machinery for the adjudication of jurisdictional disputes provides:
First, that “ there shall be no withdrawal of workmen from any
system by a component or subordinate organization ” pending adjust­
ment ; second, “ that a committee of one from each craft employed at
the local point ” where the dispute arises “ shall by a majority vote
decide such dispute,” such decision to be “ accepted by all craftsmen
represented at the local point.” Thereafter, the general chairman
of each craft on the system shall formulate a policy covering the
point at issue, based on the findings of the local committee. I f
agreement is not reached through these two avenues, appeal is taken
to the president of the department, whose decision is “ to be finul
and binding on all crafts represented until reversed by an action of
the executive council or a convention o f the Railway Employees
Department.”
Organization

The nine organizations comprising the Railway
Department are:

Employees

Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and Helpers, International Brotherhood of.
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, and Helpers, International Brotherhood of.
Carmen, Brotherhood of Railway.
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of.
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of Stationary.
Machinists, International Association of.
Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood of.
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet.
Switchmen’s Union of North America.
There are active system federations, working under federation agreements
with the management, on 62 railroads in the United States and all the roads in
Canada.
Headquarters of the Railway Employees Department are in the America
Fore Building, 844 Rush Street, Chicago, 111.
UNION LABEL TRADES DEPARTMENT

The Union Label Trades Department was organized in April,
1909. It is composed of “ national and international unions regu­
larly chartered by and affiliated to the American Federation of



14

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Labor using labels, cards, or buttons on the products of their mem­
bers to designate membership therein.”
It was organized “ to promote a greater demand for products bear­
ing the union label and of labor performed by union workers; to
investigate into, devise, recommend, and within the limits of its au­
thority carry into effect methods for the advertisement of union-label
products.”
Control over the laws and trade regulations governing the use of
union labels remains with the affiliated organizations, and the de­
partment has no authority over their issuance or use. It is merely an
educational and publicity medium in promoting a demand for union
labels.
The department holds a convention each year just preceding the
convention o f the American Federation of Labor, at which its officers
are elected. The executive board consists o f a president, five vice
presidents, and secretary-treasurer. The secretary-treasurer is the
full-time salaried official, charged with the duty of 4 carrying out the
4
purposes for which the department was created.” The department is­
sues an official directory of manufacturers using union labels.
Local label leagues are established with the indorsement of the
central labor union of the city or town. There are 234 of these local
label leagues under charter from the department.
The organizations represented in the department are:
Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union of America.
Barbers’ International Union of America, Journeymen.
Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Alliance of.
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of.
Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union.

Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers, International Union of
United.
Brick and Clay Workers of America, United.
Broom and Whisk Makers’ Union, International.
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of.
Cigar Makers’ International Union of America.
Clerks’ International Protective Association, Retail.
Coopers’ International Union of North America.
Electrical Workers of America, International Brotherhood of.
Engravers’ Union, International Metal.
Engravers’ Union of North America, International Photo.
Garment Workers of America, United.
Glove Workers’ Union of America, International.
Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers’ International Union, Cloth.
Hatters of America, United.
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders’ International League, In­
ternational Alliance of.
Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, Amalgamated Association of.
Jewelry Workers’ Union, International.
Machinists, International Association of.
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalgamated.
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet.
Molders’ Union of North America, International.
Musicians, American Federation of.
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of.
Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of.
Plasterers’ International Association of United States and Canada, Operative.
Polishers’ International Union, Metal.
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, International Printing.
Printers, Die Stampers, and Engravers’ Union, International Plate.




AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR

15

Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators, International Alli­
ance of Theatrical.
Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union of North America, International.
Stove Mounters’ International Union.
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, Amalgamated Associa­
tion of.
Tailors’ Union of America, Journeymen.
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers, International Brotherhood of.
Textile Workers of America, United.
Tobacco Workers’ International Union.
Typographical Union, International.
Upholsterers’ International Union of North America.
Wall Paper Crafts of North America, United.
Wire Weavers’ Protective Association, American.




BUILDING TRADES

point. The oldest organizations of building craftsmen are the Oper­
ative Plasters’ International Association, established in 1864, and the
Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ Union, organized in 1865. The
Operative Plasterers became part of the American Federation of
Labor early in the history of that organization, while the Brick­
layers and Masons remained outside for many years, affiliating as
recently as 1916. The entrance of the Bricklayers, Masons, and
Plasterers’ International Union into the federation necessitated re­
adjustments which affected the jurisdiction of several other American
Federation of Labor unions. Marble setters who had been organized
in the International Association of Marble Workers were transferred
to the Bricklayers and Masons, and the International Association
o f Marble Workers became an organization of marble, stone, and
slate polishers and sawyers. Later this organization resumed some
o f its former jurisdiction in building operation by admitting to mem­
bership, at the request of the Bricklayers and Masons, the marble
and tile setters’ unskilled helpers.
A t about the same time the American Brotherhood of Cement
Workers was dissolved, the skilled men going to the Operative
Plasterers’ Union, which then became the Operative Plasterers’ and
Cement Finishers’ International Union, and the cement mixers and
unskilled workers being absorbed by the Hod Carriers, Building
and Common Laborers’ International Union.
During the many years in which the Bricklayers, Masons, and
Plasterers’ International Union had remained an independent organ­
ization, the American Federation of Labor made no serious efforts to
organize bricklayers and masons. Hence when the international
union did affiliate, that field became an added, not a conflicting,
jurisdiction. That was not true of plastering, however, in which
trade an affiliated union, the Operative Plasterers’ International
Union, disputed the field with the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers
International Union. While adjustments have been made through
agreements between the two organizations, these agreements divide
jurisdictions by territory and not by craft, so that in contrast to the
usual policy o f “ one craft, one union,” two affiliated unions are
officially conceded jurisdiction over the plastering trade.
The history of the carpenters’ union has been one of absorption
rather than o f division. The organization which grew into the
present United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners became a
national one in 1881 by consolidation of scattered groups of organ­
ized house carpenters throughout the country. Shop carpenters had
an older organization, the International Furniture Workers’ Union
founded in 1873. In 1895 that organization joined with the Machine
16




BUILDING TBADES

17

Wood Workers’ International Union to form the Amalgamated
Wood Workers? International Union, which affiliated with the Amer­
ican Federation of Labor. As the United Brotherhood of Carpen­
ters and Joiners grew in numbers it extended its field to shop and
mill work, a move which involved it in a jurisdictional conflict with
the Amalgamated W ood Workers which lasted for nearly 20 years,
and ended in 1912 by the absorption of the shopmen by the TJnited
Brotherhood and the dissolution of the Amalgamated Wood Workers.
A branch of the Amalgamated Society o f Carpenters and Joiners
o f Great Britain was in existence in the United States when the
United Brotherhood was founded, and for many years both organiza­
tions held membership in the American Federation o f Labor. The
United Brotherhood, however, was militant for the policy of “ one
trade, one union,” and secured the suspension of the Amalgamated
Society from the federation in 1912. While never arriving at any
agreement with the Amalgamated Society looking toward a merger,
the United Brotherhood has gradually absorbed its membership.
To provide for the unskilled building-trades workers who were
not eligible to membership in the craft unions, the American Federa­
tion of Labor organized the Hod Carriers and Building Laborers’
International Union in 1903. A t first it was composed only of
building-trades men, but later expanded its jurisdiction and its
name to include common labor in any field. The hod carriers’ union
has absorbed two other affiliated international unions—the Com­
pressed A ir and Foundation Workers’ Union, which merged with it
in 1918, and the Tunnel and Subway Constructors’ International
Union, which amalgamated in 1929 under an agreement by which the
former international union becomes a local of the hod carriers with
complete jurisdiction over its own line o f work.
The Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of
America originated in 1887 as an organization of house painters and
decorators, later adding paper hanging to its jurisdiction. Its scope
has been extended to all kinds of painting and decorative art work,
absorbing in the process a number of craft unions, among them the
National Paperhangers’ Association, the National Union Sign Paint­
ers, and the Stained Glass Workers’ Union.
The plumbers’ organization, United Association of Journeyman
Plumbers and Steamfitters, has held control of its craft since its ab­
sorption, in 1912, of a union of steam and hot-water fitters. Juris­
dictional changes have only been such as were occasioned by develop­
ments and improvements in the pipe trades.
The present organization holding jurisdiction over roofing, the
UniteS Slate, Tile, and Composition Roofers, Damp and Waterproof
Workers’ Association, is an amalgamation, effected in 1919, of two
international unions—the International Slate and Tile Roofers’
Union and the International Union of Composition Roofers, Damp
and Waterproof Workers. Another small craft union in building
construction is the International Association of Heat and Frost Insu­
lators and Asbestos Workers.
Since the efforts put forth by the building trades department o f
the American Federation of Laoor, between 1908 and 1912, to amal­
gamate organizations functioning within the same craft, dual union­



18

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-TJNIONS

ism has not been an important factor in the building trades. Only
one organisation successfully maintained an independent existence
for any appreciable time. This was the International Brotherhood
of Steam Shovel and Dredge Men, which was expelled from the fed­
eration in 1918 for refusing to merge with the International Union of
Steam and Operating Engineers. It remained outside for nearly 10
years, the only independent union in the building trades, but in 1927
the membership voted to amalgamate with the engineers.
Organizations in the building trades are as follow s:
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Building Trades Department, A. F. of L___________________________
Asbestos Workers, International Association o f Heat and Frost
Insulators and___________________________________________________
Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union of Amer­
ica---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bridge Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, International
Association o f----------------------------------------------------------------------------Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of________
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of__________________
Elevator Constructors, International Union of_____________________
Engineers, International Union of Operating_____________________
Granite Cutters’ International Association of America' The________
Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers’ Union of America,
International____________________________________________________
Lathers’ International Union, Wood, Wire, and Metal____________
Marble, Stone, and Slate Polishers, Rubbers, and Sawyers, Tile and
Marble Setters’ Helpers, and Terrazzo Workers’ Helpers, Interna­
tional Association o f____________________________________________
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet (classified under
Metal Trades)----------------------------------------------------------------------------Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood o fPlasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Association of the
United States and Canada, Operative___________________________
Plumbers and Steam Fitters of United States and Canada, United
Association of Journeymen______________________________________
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers’ Association, United Slate,
Tile, and Composition__________________________________________
Stone Cutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen__________

9
18
19
23
25
30
34
35
37
38
40
41
67
42
45
46
48
49

Asbestos Workers, International Association of Heat and Frost
Insulators and
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1904 from directly affiliated American Federation
o f Labor local unions.
Objects.— “ The object of the International Association o f Heat and Frost
Insulators and Asbestos Workers shall be to assist its membership in securing
employment, to defend their rights and advance their interests as workingmen;
and by education and cooperation raise them to that position in society to
which they are justly entitled.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—All workers engaged in “ the practical mechanical appli­
cation, installation, or erection of heat and frost insulation such as magnesia,
asbestos, hairfelt, woolfelt, cork, mineral wool, infusorial earth, mercerized
silk, flax fiber, firefelt, asbestos paper, asbestos curtain, asbestos millboard, or
any substitute for these materials, or engaged in any labor connected with the
handling or distributing of insulating materials on job premises.”




BUILDING TRADES

19

Government.—1. General executive board, composed o f president, secretarytreasurer and three vice presidents of equal rank, “ shall supervise the affairs
of the international union.”
2. Local unions. “ Local unions are subordinate branches of the interna­
tional association and can only exercise local autonomy in matters upon which
the international constitution and by-laws are silent.” They “ shall have power
to regulate the hours of labor to less than eight per day and to fix wages
within their chartered jurisdiction or trade agreement radius.”
3. Convention. Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.— Applicants for mechanical (journeyman)
membership must pass an examination. Applicants for improver membership
must be not less than 18 nor more than 25 years of age, and must read, write,
and understand the English language. Applicants for apprentice membership
must be not less than 16 nor more than 20 years of age, and must read, write,
and understand English.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ Local unions shall have power to regulate the
working conditions * * * apprentices in any manner they deem proper.”
Agreements.—Negotiated locally, by committees from local unions and local
employers, but must contain “ the several principles as declared, enacted, and
adopted by the international association,” including the prohibition of “ con­
tracting, subcontracting, lump work, or piecework.”
Benefits.— Strike (by special assessment only; no strike fund).
Official organ.—The Asbestos Worker.
Headquarters.—918 Holland Building, St. Louis, Mo.
Organization.—Local unions: United States—Arkansas, 1; California, 3;
Colorado, 1 ; Connecticut, 1; District of Columbia 1; Illinois, 1 ; Indiana, 2 ;
Iowa, 1; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1 ; Maine, 1; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 2 ;
Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 2 ; Missouri, 2 ; Nebraska, 1; New Jersey, 1; New
York, 6 ; Ohio, 7 ; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 3 ; Rhode Island, 1;
Texas, 3 ; Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 4 ; Wisconsin, 1. Canada, 2. Total, 55.
Memb ership.—3,000.

Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union of
America
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized October 17,1865. The first steps toward national unity
among the scattered local organizations of bricklayers were taken
by seven men belonging to the Philadelphia and Baltimore associa­
tions. Meeting in Philadelphia on October 17, 1865, they drafted
a constitution, elected officers, and instructed the secretary to “ corre­
spond with all bricklayers’ unions known to exist in the United
States, requesting them to send delegates to the next convention, to
meet in Baltimore on January 8, 1866.”
This convention was held as planned, with delegates from eight
cities in attendance, and the International Bricklayers’ Union of
North America was established. Two years later the name was
changed to National Bricklayers’ Union. During the panic of
1871-1873 and the years of depression which followed, the organiza­
tion was demoralized, losing 95 per cent of its membership. The
1879 convention met in Covington, Ky., with only three unions repre­
sented— Covington, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The entire mem­
bership at that time was 229. The organization did not disband,
however. It met again in 1881, reorganized, and survived. Stone
masons were admitted to membership and in 1883 the name was
changed to Bricklayers and Masons’ International Union, with
jurisdiction over Canada, where organization had already begun
with the chartering of a Montreal local in 1880. The journal of the
organization was established in 1898.



20

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Absorption of an independent organization, the Stone Masons’
International Union, in 1903 brought about an increased membership
and a wider field, and in 1910 jurisdiction was extended to plasterers.
To include them definitely in the organization, the name became and
remains Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasters’ International Union of
America.
The union maintained an independent position in the labor move­
ment from its inception until 1916, when it changed its policy and
joined the America Federation of Labor as an affiliated body.
Objects.— “ The object shall be to unite into one parent body, for mutual
protection and benefit, all members of the mason craft that work at the same,
who are citizens of the country within its jurisdiction, without condition as
to servitude or race.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions, and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Brick masonry.—Bricklaying masonry shall consist of
the laying of bricks made from any material in, under, or upon any structure or
form of work where bricks are used, whether in the ground, or over its surface,
or beneath water; in commercial buildings, rolling mills, iron works, blast <»r
smelter furnaces, lime or brick kilns; in mines or fortifications, and in all
underground work, such as sewers, telegraph, electric and telephone conduits.
All pointing, cleaning, and cutting of brick walls, fireproofing, block-arching,
terra-cotta cutting and setting, the laying and cutting of all tile, plaster, mineral
wool, and cork blocks, or any substitute for above material, the cutting, rub­
bing, and grinding of all kinds of brick and the setting of all cut stone trim­
mings on brick buildings, is bricklayers’ work.
“ Stone masonry shall consist of laying all rubble work, with or without
mortar, setting all cut stone, marble, slate, or stone work (meaning as to stone,
any work manufactured from such foreign or domestic products as are specified
and used in the interior or on the exterior of buildings by architects, and cus­
tomarily called ‘ stone’ in the trade).
Cutting aU shoddies, broken ashlar or random ashlar that is roughly dressed
upon the beds and joints, and range ashlar not over 10 inches in height; the
dressing of all jambs, corners, and ringstones that are roughly dressed upon
the beds, joints, or reveals, and the cutting of a draft upon same for plumbing
purposes only; and the cleaning and pointing of stone work.
“ This to apply to all work on buildings, sewers, bridges, railroads, or other
public works, and to all kinds of stone, particularly to the product of the locality
where the work is being done, and the same shall be considered stone masonry.
“ Stonemasons shall have the right to use all tools which they consider neces­
sary in the performance of their work.
“Artificial masonry.—The cutting, setting, and pointing of cement blocks and
all artificial stone or marble, either interior or exterior, when set by the usual
custom of the stonemason and marble setter. All cement that is used for back­
ing up external walls, the building of party walls, columns, girders, beams,
floors, stairs, and arches, and all materials substituted for the clay or natural
stone products, shall be controlled by members of the Bricklayers, Masons, and
Plasterers’ International Union, for which the highest rate of wages shall be
demanded.
“ Cement masonry.—Laying out, screeding, and finishing of all cement, con­
crete, brown-stone composition, mastic and gypsum materials, also for fireproofing, waterproofing, cement and composition base, and vault lights. The
cutting of all cement and concrete for patching and finishing. The bush ham­
mering of all concrete when cast in place. The operation of the cement gun,
the nozzle and the finishing of all material applied by the guns, also the opera­
tion of the cement floor finishing machines. The cement mason shall have the
right to use all tools necessary to complete his work.
“ Marble masonry.— Marble masons’ jurisdiction claims shall consist o f the
carving, cutting, and setting of' all marble, slate, stone, albereen, carrara, sanionyx, vitrolite, and similar opaque glass, scagliola, marbleithic, and all artificial
imitation or cast of whatever thickness or dimension. This shall apply to all
interior work such as sanitary, decorative, and other purposes inside of
buildings of every description wherever required, including all polish, honed, or
sand finish; also the cutting and fitting of above materials after same leave
mills or shops, and the laying of all marble tile, slate tile, and terrazzo tile.



BUILDING TRADES

21

Foremen over any marble masonry shall be marble setters, and at no time
shall anyone other than a bona fide marble setter act as a foreman on all marble
masonry.
“ Plastering.—All exterior or interior plastering, plain and ornamental, when
done with stucco, cement, and lime mortars or patent materials, artificial marble
work, when applied in plastic form, composition work in all its branches, the
covering of all walls, ceilings, soffits, piers, columns, or any part of a con­
struction of any sort when covered with any plastic material in the usual
methods of plastering, is the work of the plasterer. The casting and sticking
of all ornaments of plaster or plastic compositions, the cutting and filling of
cracks. All cornices, molding, coves, and bull noses shall be run in place on
rods and white mortar screeds and with a regular mold, and all substitutes
of any kind, when applied in plastic form with a trowel, or substitute for same,
is the work o f the plasterer. Foremen over plasterers within the jurisdiction
of this international union shall be members of the Bricklayers, Masons, and
Plasterers’ International Union of America.
“ MarUe mosaic and terrazzo work.—Marble mosaic, Venetian enamel, and
terrazzo, the cutting and assembling of art ceramic, glass mosaic, and the
casting of all terrazzo in shops and mills.
“ All scratch coat on walls and ceilings where mosaic and terrazzo is to be
applied shall be done by plasterers, with an allowance of not less than one-half
inch bed to be conceded to mosaic and terrazzo workers.
“ All bedding above concrete floors or walls, that preparation, laying, or
setting of the metal or wooden strips and grounds, where mosaic and terrazzo
is to be applied, shall be the work o f the mosaic and terrazzo workers.
“All terrazzo finished (rustic), or rough washed for interior or exterior of
building, or any substitute that is applied under the same method as mosaic or
terrazzo, shall be set by mosaic and terrazzo workers.
“ Cutting and assembling of art ceramic and glass mosaic comes under the
jurisdiction of the mosaic workers, and the setting o f same shall be done by
tile layers.
“■
Tile layers9 work.—The laying or setting o f all tile where used for floors,
walls, ceilings, walks, promenade roofs, stair treads, stair risers, facings,
hearths, fire places, and decorative inserts, together with any marble plinths,
thresholds, or window stools used in connection with any tile w ork; also to
prepare and set all concrete, cement, brickwork, or other foundation or mate­
rials that may be required to properly set and complete such w ork ; the setting
or bedding of all tiling, stone, marble, composition, glass, mosaic, or other
materials forming the facing, hearth, or fire place of a mantel, or the mantel
complete, together with the setting of all cement, brickwork, or other material
required in connection with the above w ork; also the slabbing and fabrication
of tile mantels, counters, and tile panels of every description and the erection
and installation of same. The building, shaping, forming, construction, or
repairing of all fireplace work, whether in connection with a mantel hearth
facing or not, and the setting and preparing of all material, such as cement,
plaster, mortar, brickwork, ironwork, or other materials necessary for the
proper and safe construction and completion of such work, except that a mantel
made exclusively o f brick, marble, or stone, shall be conceded to be bricklayers,
marble setters, or stonemasons’ work, respectively.
“ It will be understood that the word ‘ tile* refers to all burned clay prod­
ucts as used in the tile industry, either glazed or unglazed, and to all com­
position materials made in single units up to 15 by 20 by 2 inches, except
quarry tiles larger than 9 by 9 by 1% inches, also to mixtures in tile form
of cement, that are made for and intended for use as a finished floor surface,
whether upon interior or exterior floors, stair treads, promenade roofs, garden
walks, interior walls, ceilings, swimming pools, and all places where tile may
be used to form a finished surface for practical use, sanitary finish or decorative
purposes, or setting all accessories when built in walls, or for decorative in­
serts in other materials. The foreman over any tile work shall be a tile layer
and at no time shall anyone other than a bona fide tile setter act as foreman
on tile work.
“ Where a member is qualified and competent to work at branches of the
trade other than his card of membership may designate, he shall be required
to have two vouchers who are qualified workmen as their card o f membership
shows them to be, o f the branch of trade desired to be added to such mem­
ber’s card of membership, to vouch for him, and he shall apply to headquarters



22

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

through the union where he holds membership for a change of title, with the
signatures and register numbers of the vouchers attached thereto, and if ap­
proved, he shall not be interfered with while working at either branch, pro­
viding he obeys all working rules required, but he must demand and receive
nothing less than the standard wages demanded by the branch of the trade
at which he is working, and must be a fully qualified journeyman of said
branch of trade.”
Government.—The powers of this international union are executive, legis­
lative and judicial. The government and superintendence of subordinate unions
shall be vested in this international union as the supreme head of all unions in
its jurisdiction. It shall be the ultimate tribunal to which all matters of general
importance to the welfare of the several unions or any members thereof shall
be referred for adjustment and its decisions thereon shall be final and con­
clusive. To it shall belong the power to determine the customs and usages
in regard to all matters in relation to the fellowship o f the craft.”
All legislative powers are reserved to this international union duly convened
in session, and shall extend to every case of legislation not delegated to or
reserved for subordinate unions.
All the executive and judiciary powers of this union, when not in session,
shall be vested in the executive officers, the president, first vice president,
secretary and treasurer.
The president “ shall have a general supervision of the interests of this union
as the supreme executive officer.”
The executive board, composed of the president, first vice president, secre­
tary and treasurer, “ shall have entire control of all executive business and the
official journal of this union when not in session; viz, all grievances relating
to and all strikes and lockouts, the settlement of all disputes between em­
ployers or exchanges and members of this union or subordinate unions,” and
shall have “ entire control over all judicial business of the international union
wT
hen not in session.”
2. State and provincial conferences: Chartered by the international union
when two-thirds o f the locals of a State or Province affiliated, so vote.
“ Each State or provincial conference shall regulate all details and construe
the proper definition of practical masonry in its several branches.” “ Confer­
ences shall also regulate their own apprentice laws, subject to the general
laws,” and shall have power “ to establish and maintain beneficial or mortuary
funds for the benefit of their members.”
3. Local executive committees: “ Where there are two or more unions exist­
ing in any city or town, each union shall be required to elect or appoint three
delegates whose duties shall be to meet and establish a uniform rate of wages,
initiation fee, and hours of labor, together with rules and regulations under
which all can work in harmony. The body thus convened shall be known as the
executive committee, to which shall be referred the construction of all general
working laws for all branches of the trade for such city or town.”
4. Local unions: Subordinate; “ Powers reserved to subordinate unions: To
regulate its rate of wages; its rates for legitimate overtime w ork; to establish
beneficial or mortuary funds; to establish measures and regulate the details as
to joint arbitration; to designate what constitutes an ‘ emergency ’ as to working
overtime; to regulate by details questions that may arise as to what consti­
tutes masonry; as to affiliating with other trades or building-trades councils;
to define the distinction between contractors and journeymen; to define its local
jurisdiction and operate its area of territory; to establish and maintain a
strike fu n d; to establish and maintain State and Provincial conferences,” subject
to the provisions of the constitution of the international union.
5. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Applicant must be “ a practical bricklayer,
stonemason, cement mason, plasterer, marble mason, tile setter, or mosaic and
terrazzo worker, and competent to command existing scale of wages for work,”
and must be a citizen or have declared his intention to become a citizen of the
country in which he works.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ It being impossible for the international
union to formulate and maintain a general apprentice law within its jurisdic­
tion, it hereby grants to each subordinate union the power to regulate its own
apprentice laws,” subject to certain restrictions:




BUILDING TRADES

23

“ Every apprentice shall be registered with the international union at the time
of his indenture, * * * a register number * * * to be assigned to the
apprentice until the day of his initiation.
“ No subordinate union shall be allowed to indenture apprentices to journey­
men, but only to recognized union contractors of their jurisdiction.
“ Each and every apprentice binding himself to serve a stated term shall be
required to fill his contract with his employer or leave the business entirely.
“All regularly-assigned apprentices shall be required to serve not less than
three years/’
Agreements.—Negotiated by committees of local unions and local employers.
International officers are called upon to assist in negotiations if agreement can
not be reached locally.
A supplementary agreement is made between international officers and con­
tractors operating in more than one city.
Benefits.— Strike; relief; old age; mortuary.
Official organ.—The Bricklayer, Mason and Plasterer.
Headquarters.—1417 K Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State conferences: Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecti­
cut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
Montana, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsyl­
vania, Rhode Island, Texas, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
Provincial conferences: Ontario.
Local unions: Divided into craft groups in cities and large centers where
there are a sufficient number to maintain separate organizations (i. e., brick­
layers, tile layers, plasterers, marble masons, stonemasons, etc.) : United
States—Alabama, 7; Arizona, 3 ; Arkansas, 9; California, 23; Colorado, 9 ; Con­
necticut, 22; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia, 3; Florida, 21; Georgia, 10;
Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 70; Indiana, 48; Iowa, 23; Kansas, 22; Kentucky, 15;
Louisiana, 7; Maine, 12; Maryland, 7; Massachusetts, 37; Michigan, 38; Minne­
sota, 22; Mississippi, 10; Missouri, 23; Montana, 8; Nebraska, 10; Nevada, 2;
New Hampshire, 8; New Jersey, 43; New Mexico, 1; New York, 74; North
Carolina, 11; North Dakota, 4 ; Ohio, 60; Oklahoma, 20; Oregon, 7; Pennsyl­
vania, 70; Rhode Island, 7; South Carolina, 7; South Dakota, 5; Tennessee, 13;
Texas, 34; Utah, 4 ; Vermont, 4 ; Virginia, 10; Washington, 9; West Virginia,
13; Wisconsin, 30; Wyoming, 5. Canal Zone, 1. Canada—Alberta, 4 ; British
Columbia, 3 ; Manitoba, 2; New Brunswick, 3 ; Ontario, 29; Quebec, 6 ; Sas­
katchewan, 3. Total, 956.
Membership.—125,000.

Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, International
Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Pittsburgh, Pa., on February 4,1896, by local unions
of six large cities, which merged to form the International Associa­
tion o f Bridge and Structural Iron Workers.
The 1914 convention extended the jurisdiction of the union and
changed its name to International Association of Bridge, Structural,
and Ornamental Iron Workers and Pile Drivers. This move brought
about a dispute with the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and
•Joiners over the locals o f pile drivers concerned, and resulted in the
suspension of the bridge workers’ union from the American Federa­
tion of Labor. It then relinquished the locals of pile drivers to the
United Brotherhood and dropped “ pile drivers ” from the new title,
retaining, however, the claim to the ornamental-iron workers. The
association was reinstated, but the American Federation of Labor has
never recognized the extension of jurisdiction or the title used by
the international association. So far as its American Federation of
Labor charter is concerned it is still the International Association of
Bridge and Structural Iron Workers.
67004°—29----- 3



24

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-TJNIONS

Objects.— “ The objects of the international association shall be to encourage
and develop a higher standard of skill; to cultivate feelings of friendship
among the cra ft; to equitably distribute opportunities of employment; to secure
by legal and proper means pay commensurate with the hazard, physical and
mental taxation and exhaustion and average life endured by its members in
performing the services of the trade; to discourage piecework and promote
safe and reasonable methods of work; to cultivate the moral, intellectual, and
social conditions for the well-being of its members, their families and depend­
ents, and in the interest of a higher standard of citizenship.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions, and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “The fabrication, erection, and construction o f all iron
and steel, ornamental lead, bronze, brass, copper, and aluminum; reinforced
structures or parts thereof; bridges, viaducts, inclines, dams, docks, dredges,
vessels, locks, gates, aqueducts, reservoirs, spillways, flumes, caissons, coffer­
dams, subways, tunnels, cable ways, tramways, monorails, blast furnaces, ovens,
cupolas, smoke conveyors, penstocks, flagpoles, drums, shaftings, shoring, fur
and storage rooms, fans and hot rooms, stacks, bunkers, conveyors, dumpers,
elevators, vats, enamel tanks and vats, tanks, towers, pans, hoppers, plates,
anchors, caps, corbells, lintels, Howe and combination trusses, grillage and
foundation work; all grating, bucks, partitions, hanging ceilings, hangers,
clips, brackets, flooring, floor construction and domes, rolling shutters, curtains,
frames, kalameined and iron doors, cast tiling, duct and trench frames and
plates; all wire work, railings, including pipe, guards, fencing, grill work, side­
walk and vault light, skylights, roofs, canopies, marquise, awnings, elevator
and dumb-waiter inclosures, elevator cars, tracks, faces, aprons, operating de­
vices, sash, frames, fronts, lockers, racks, bookstacks, tables and shelving; metal
furniture, seats, chutes, escalators, stairways, ventilators, boxes, fire escapes,
signs; jail and cell work, safes, vaults, safe-deposit boxes; corrugated steel
when attached to steel frames, frames in support of boilers; material altered
in the field, such as framing, cutting, bending, drilling, burning, and welding,
including by acetylene gas and electric machines; metal forms and false work
pertaining to concrete construction; sectional water tube and tubular boilers
and stokers; traveling sheaves, vertical hydraulic elevators; bulkheads, skip
hoists; the making and installation of all articles made of wire and fibrous
rope; all rigging in shipyards, vessels, and Government departments; false
work, travelers, scaffolding, pile drivers, sheet piling, derricks, cranes, the
erection, installation, handling, and operating of same on all forms of construe*
tion work; all railroad bridge work, including their maintenance; the moving,
hoisting, and lowering of machinery, and placing of same on foundations, in­
cluding in bridges, cranes, derricks, buildings, piers, and vessels; the loading,
necessary maintenance, erection, installation, removal, wrecking, and dis­
mantling of all of the above housesmith work, and submarine diving in con­
nection with or about same.
“ The above claims are subject to trade agreements and final decisions of
the American Federation o f Labor.”
Government.—Executive council, consists of president, secretary-treasurer,
and nine vice presidents. The general executive board consists of president,
secretary-treasurer, and a third member selected by them from among the
nine vice presidents.
The president “ shall exercise a general supervision over the affairs of the
international association * * * shall appoint all officers and committees
* * * shall decide all points of law and have power to suspend any sub­
ordinate body for violation of constitution and laws * * * and with the
approval of the general executive board shall have full power to effect a
settlement of any strike.”
The executive council is the court of appeal from decisions of the general
executive board.
2. District councils: Where two or more locals exist in any one city or lo­
cality it shall be mandatory for them to form a district council or joint execu­
tive board for the control of all local unions in the jurisdiction.
3. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution and regulations imposed by in­
ternational office.
4. Convention: Held biennially unless otherwise ordered by referendum.
Elects general officers; enacts legislation. Constitutional amendments adopted
by convention must be submitted to referendum. Legislation and amendments
also by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “ To be admitted to membership in any local
union of the international association one must be a practical workman versed
in the duties of some branch of the trade, of good moral character and compe­



BUILDING TRADES

25

tent to command standard wages. Any person or member known to hold mem­
bership in the Industrial Workers of the World, the One Big Union, or the
Ku Klux Klan, or who by act or deed does or says anything in furtherance
of the objects or welfare of these organizations, or in any organization whose
purpose, aims, or objects are contrary to the purposes, aims, and objects of
the international association, shall not be eligible to membership in the
association.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ There shall be admitted to membership in
the international association men who can read and write, of not less than
17 nor more than 30 years o f age, for the purpose of acquiring a practical
knowledge of the various branches of the trade, who shall, to qualify as jour­
neymen, serve an apprenticeship of two years.
“ The number of apprentices in a local union shall be limited to the yearly
average membership of the local union.
“Apprentices on construction work may be employed at the ratio of not more
than one apprentice to every seven journeymen employed by any employer.
“Apprentices on ornamental and finishing work may be employed at the ratio
of not more than one apprentice to every four journeymen.”
Apprentices must pass a satisfactory examination before being admitted to
journeyman membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, with the advice and subject to the
approval o f the general executive board; generally deal with employers’
associations.
Benefits.— Old-age and disability pension; death.
Official organ.—The Bridgemen’s Magazine.
Headquarters.— Syndicate Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo.
Organization.—District councils: Chicago and vicinity; Cincinnati and vicin­
ity; New York City and vicinity; western New York (headquarters at Syra­
cuse) ; St. Louis and vicinity; St. Paul-Minneapolis and vicinity; Texas (head­
quarters, Galveston).
Local unions—mixed unions mostly; separate organizations of branches only
in large centers (navy-yard riggers, etc.) : United States—Alabama, 3 ; Arizona.
2; Arkansas, 1 ; California, 10; Colorado, 1 ; Connecticut, 2 ; District of
Columbia, 2 ; Florida, 4 ; Georgia, 1 ; Illinois, 15; Indiana, 6 ; Iowa, 4 ; Kansas,
1; Kentucky, 1 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Maine, 1; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 5 ; Michi­
gan, 3 ; Minnesota, 3 ; Missouri, 4 ; Montana, 3 ; Nebraska, 2 ; New Jersey, 7;
New York, 13; North Carolina, 3 ; Ohio, 8 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsyl­
vania, 12; Rhode Island, 1; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 10; Utah, 1 ; Virginia, 4 ;
Washington, 4 ; West Virginia, 2 ; Wisconsin, 2. Canada—Alberta, 1 ; British
Columbia, 1; Manitoba, 1 ; Ontario, 4 ; Quebec, 3. Total, 159.
Railroad system locals: “ There shall be issued to the bridgemen working
directly for railroad companies a separate charter which shall be designated
railway system charter. ♦ * * Railway locals shall have the right to move
their charters with them throughout and over their respective systems and
hold their meetings likewise. The jurisdiction of systems locals shall extend
to all of the work being done directly by their respective railroad companies.”
Santa Fe system local (headquarters Topeka, Kans.) ; Chicago, Rock Island
& Pacific system local (headquarters, Chicago, 111.).
Membership.—21,000.

Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., on August 12, 1881. Efforts toward
national organization of carpenters were made in 1854 and again in
1867. Although both of these movements failed, local organizations
of carpenters were maintained in cities and in some cases were fairly
powerful. The third movement toward consolidation of the various
scattered groups of organized carpenters came through a four-page
journal called “ The Carpenter,” which commenced publication in
St. Louis, Mo., in May, 1881. After three months ox agitation on
the part of the journal a conference was held in Chicago on August
8, 1881, attended by 36 delegates representing 12 local unions, with



26

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-TJNIONS

a combined membership o f a little more than 2,000. A t this meet­
ing was founded the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
America, the word “America ” specifically including Canada and
other British dominions as well as the United States.
The United Order of American Carpenters and Joiners, a local
body of New York City and vicinity, which had been in existence for
years and had grown powerful in its own field, remained outside the
newly formed brotherhood until 1888. Amalgamation was then ac­
complished through compromises and concessions which involved the
retention by the New York group of a degree of its own identity and
a merging o f the two names. Thus the organization became the
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners o f America.
Woodworkers not in the building trades were organized into two
groups—the International Furniture Workers’ Union, founded in
1873, and the Machine Wood Workers’ International Union, organ­
ized in 1890. In 1895 these two organizations united, becoming the
Amalgamated W ood Workers’ International Union, and affiliated
with the American Federation of Labor.
Jurisdictional disputes over carpentry shop and mill work began
between the two organizations, and continued with increasing inten­
sity, coming to a head in 1903, when A. F. of L. officials tried to
bring about an amicable adjustment. This effort did not succeed
and the United Brotherhood continued its organization work among
cabinetmakers and shop craftsmen, making serious inroads on the
membership of the rival union. From 1909 to 1911 repeated efforts
were made to amalgamate the two organizations. Finally the 1911
convention of the A. F. of L. ordered the Amalgamated W ood W ork­
ers to come to terms with the United Brotherhood as drawn up by
representatives of the two unions. Revocation of their charter was
threatened as the penalty for noncompliance. By that time the mem­
bership of the A. W. W. was less than it had been at any previous
time in its history. In April, 1912, the organization merged with
the United Brotherhood under an agreement which was in effect
absorption.
Prior to the founding of the original brotherhood in 1881 the
Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners of Great Britain
established an American branch. While it was a fairly large and
successful organization, it never had the following which the brother­
hood gained, chiefly, perhaps, because it was primarily a beneficiary
society rather than an aggressive trade-union. In 1890 it was char­
tered by the American Federation of Labor as an affiliated organi­
zation, although clearly dual to the previously chartered United
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners. The story of the relations
between these two organizations is essentially the same as in the case
o f the woodworkers. The United Brotherhood, with the help of the
American Federation of Labor, and later of the Building Trades
Department of the A. F. of L., fought persistently for amalgamation,
using the slogan “ One trade, one organization.” Efforts to bring
the two groups together under an agreement which would preserve
the identity and autonomy of both failed repeatedly. In 1912 the
Amalgamated Society refused to participate in further conferences,
and its charter was revoked by the American Federation of Labor in
August, 1912. In 1913 something in the nature of a truce between



BUILDING TRADES

27

the two organizations was arrived at, by the terms of which the
United Brotherhood asserted jurisdiction over members o f the Amal­
gamated Society in trade matters, leaving to the rival organization
its nominal membership and its beneficiary features. This arrange­
ment has resulted in practical absorption o f the Amalgamted Society
by the brotherhood.
When a jurisdictional award granted to the sheet-metal workers
the right to install metal trim, sash, and doors in buildings, the
United Brotherhood refused to accept the decision. As a disciplin­
ary measure the Building Trades Department suspended the carpen­
ters in 1910. Both the Building Trades Department and the Ameri­
can Federation o f Labor conventions in 1911 ordered the reinstate­
ment o f the brotherhood. By a referendum vote the organization
accepted reinstatement in 1912. As an affiliated organization it
appealed from the decision on the matter of hollow trim. The orig­
inal decision was affirmed, however, and in 1914 the United Brother­
hood o f Carpenters and Joiners withdrew from the Building Trades
Department and remained outside it until 1927, when it reaffiliated.
Objects.—“ The objects of the United Brotherhood a re: To discourage piece­
work, to encourage an apprentice system and a higher standard of skill, to
cultivate feelings of frienship among the craft, to assist each other to secure
employment, to reduce the hours of daily labor, to secure adequate pay for
our work, to establish a weekly pay day, to furnish aid in cases of death or
permanent disability, and by legal and proper means to elevate the moral,
intellectual, and social conditions o f all our members, and to improve the
trade.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions, Canada, and New­
foundland.
Trade jurisdiction.—All branches of the carpenter and joiner trade, specifi­
cally, “ all milling, fashioning, joining, assembling, erecting, fastening, or dis­
mantling of all material o f wood, hollow metal, or fiber, or o f products com­
posed in part of wood, hollow metal, or fiber, the laying of all cork and compo,
all asphalt shingles, the erecting and dismantling o f machinery and the manu­
facture of all wood materials where the skill, knowledge, and training of a
carpenter are required, either through the operation of machine or hand tools.
“ Our claim of jurisdiction, therefore, extends over the following divisions
and subdivisions of the trade: Carpenters and joiners, railroad carpenters,
bench hands, stair builders, millwrights, furniture workers, shipwrights and
boat builders, reed and rattan workers, ship carpenters, joiners and calkers,
cabinetmakers, floor laying, box makers, bridge, dock, and wharf carpenters,
car building, and all those engaged in the running of woodworking machinery.”
Government.—General executive board, composed o f general president, first
general vice president, secretary, treasurer, and one member from each of the
seven territorial districts, decides “ all points of law, all grievances and appeals
submitted to them in legal form, and their decisions shall be binding until
reversed by a convention” ; has “ power to authorize strikes * * * enter
into agreement with sister organizations with reference to jurisdiction over
work; or a general offensive and defensive alliance * * * make agreements
with employees covering our jurisdiction.” It also constitutes a board of
trustees for the management and control of brotherhood property and funds,
2. State and provincial councils, which are federations of local unions within
the State or Province, “ have power to make laws to govern the local unions,
district councils, and the membership of the brotherhood.” Where such councils
are “ composed of as many as five local unions of the State or Province, repre­
senting 55 per cent o f the membership, it shall be obligatory on all local unions
within the State or Province to affiliate.”
3. District councils: “ Where there are two or more local unions located in
one city they must be represented in a carpenters’ district council composed
exclusively o f delegates from local unions of the United Brotherhood, and they
shall be governed by such laws and trade rules as shall be adopted by the
district council and approved by the local unions and the first general vice



28

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

president. District councils may be formed in localities other than cities where
two or more local unions in adjoining territory request it, or when in the
opinion of the general president the good of the United Brotherhood requires it.”
They shall “ have power to make by-laws, working and trade agreements for
the government o f their local unions and the membership of the United
Brotherhood working in their districts * * * have power to enforce work­
ing and trade rules in their respective localities. * * * They shall adopt by­
laws and rules governing local, strike, and other donations, except sick dona­
tions, and shall provide for and hold trials of all violations of trade rules.
Local unions other than those working on building material shall not have a
voice, vote, or delegate in any district council of the building tradesmen, but
may establish their own district councils under by-laws approved by the first
general vice president.
4. Local unions: “ Local unions where no district council exists shall have
the power to make by-laws and trade rules for their government and the mem­
bers of the United Brotherhood working under their jurisdiction,” and “ shall
have power to regulate and make payment of sick donations.”
5. Convention: Held quadrennially; nominates general officers. Election o f
officers by referendum. Constitution and laws amendable only by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Citizenship or declaration of citizenship inten­
tions. Applicants for beneficiary membership must be under 60 years of age.
“ A member can enter into the business of contracting providing he pays the
union scale of wages, obeys trade rules, and hires none but members of the
United Brotherhood, and that he is not and does not become a member of any
contractors’ or employers’ association.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “An apprentice of good moral character between
the ages of 17 and 22 years may be admitted to membership as a semibeneficial
member, and after having served four years as such and qualifying * * *
he shall be classed as a full beneficial member.
“An employer who employs two or more journeymen may have one apprentice,
but the number may be increased at such rate as the district council or local
union having jurisdiction may decide.”
Agreements.— In large centers agreements are made between the executive
officers of the district council and the employers’ association in building w ork;
in mill and shop work, and in localities having no district council, agreements
are generally negotiated by the local union with the individual employer.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; total disability; home for superannuated mem­
bers and wives; funeral (member and wife) ; sick (by locals only).
Official organ.—The Carpenter.
Headquarters.—Carpenters’ Building, Indianapolis, Ind.
Organization.—Territorial districts.
District No. 1. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, Connecticut, New York, Provinces o f New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
District No. 2. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, District of Columbia,
Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia.
District No. 3. Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
District No. 4. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama,
Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana.
District No. 5. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa,
Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma.
District No. 6. Washington, Montana, Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, California,
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Alaska.
District No. 7. Dominion of Canada.
State councils:
Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana,
Massachusetts. Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming.
Provincial councils: Ontario and Quebec.
District councils :
Alabama—Birmingham, Mobile, Montgomery, and Muscle Shoals.
Arkansas—Little Rock.
California—Bay Counties (San Francisco and vicinity) ; Fresno County;
Los Angeles; Monterey and vicinity; Sacramento; San Diego; San
Joaquin; San Luis Obispo and vicinity; Santa Clara Valley.
Colorado—Denver and vicinity.



BUILDING TRADES

29

Connecticut—Bridgeport and vicinity; New Haven; New York, New
Haven & Hartford.
District o f Columbia—Washington (includes Alexandria, Va.).
Florida—Brevard County; East Coast (Miami and vicinity) ; Jackson­
ville and vicinity; Pensacola; Volusia County; West Coast (T am pa);
West Palm Beach County.
Illinois—Chicago and vicinity; Du Page County; Fox River Valley (Au­
rora, Batavia, and St. Charles) ; Peoria; Tri-City (Rock Island, Moline,
and Davenport, Iowa) ; Will County (Joliet)
Indiana—Fall Cities (New Albany and vicinity); Indianapolis; Lake
County (Gary, Hammond, etc.) ; St. Joseph (South Bend and Elkhart).
Iowa—Cedar Rapids.
Kansas—Pittsburg and vicinity.
Kentucky— Fall Cities (Louisville) ; Kenton and Campbell Counties (Cov­
ington).
Louisiana— New Orleans.
Maine—Portland.
Maryland—Baltimore.
Massachusetts—Berkshire County (Pittsfield and vicinity) ; Boston; Cape
Cod; Central Massachusetts (Hudson, Framingham, and M arlboro);
Fall River; Holyoke; Lawrence; Lowell; Middlesex (Arlington, Wake­
field, Woburn, Winchester, Reading, and Stoneham) ; New Bedford,
Newton; New York, New Haven & Hartford; Norfolk County; North
Bristol; Northern Massachusetts (Fitchburg, Leominster) ; North Shore
(Salem, Gloucester, etc.) ; South Shore (Quincy, Braintree, etc.) ; Spring­
field ; Taunton; and Worcester.
Michigan—Detroit; Grand Rapids; Tri-County (Bay City, Saginaw, and
Flint).
Minnesota—Twin City.
Missouri— Kansas City (includes Kansas City, Kans.) ; Jasper County
(Joplin) ; St. Louis (includes East St. Louis and other river towns in
Illinois).
New Hampshire—Manchester; Portsmouth and vicinity (includes York,
Me.).
New Jersey—Atlantic County (Atlantic City and vicinity) ; Bergen County
(Hackensack) ; Burlington County; Elizabeth and vicinity; Essex
County (Newark, Orange, Montclair, etc.) ; Hudson County (Jersey City
and Hoboken) ; Middlesex County (Perth Amboy, New Brunswick, etc.) ;
Monmouth County (Asbury Park, Long Branch, Belmar, Keansburg, etc.) ;
Morris and Union Counties; Passaic; and Paterson.
New York—Adirondack (Glens Falls, Hudson Falls, Fort Edward, and
Lake G eorge); Albany; Batavia; Buffalo; Elmira; Fulton County
(Gloversville, Johnstown, etc.) ; Mohawk Valley (Utica, Herkimer,
Oneida, Ilion, etc.) ; Mountain Top (Saranac Lake and vicinity) ; New
York City and vicinity; New York City Furniture Workers; North
Hempstead (Great Neck and Mineola, Long Island) ; Rochester, Rockland
County; South Shore (Long Island) ; Syracuse; T roy; and Westchester
County (Yonkers, etc.).
North Carolina—Charlotte.
Ohio—Cleveland; Dayton; Hamilton County (Cincinnati, includes Ken­
ton and Campbell Counties, Ky.) ; Summit County (Akron and vicinity).
Oklahoma—Oklahoma County and vicinity.
Oregon—Portland.
Pennsylvania— Central Pennsylvania (Berwick, Sunbury, Danville, e tc .);
Delaware County (Chester, Media; and v icin ity); Lehigh Valley (Allen­
town, Bethlehem, etc., includes Phillipsburg, N. J.) ; Lower Anthracite
Region (Shamokin, Mahanoy City, and vicinity); McKeesport; Middle
Anthracite (Hazleton and vicinity) ; Monongahela Valley (Charleroi,
Monessen, and vicinity) ; Montgomery County (Norristown, Pottstown,
and vicin ity); Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Shenango, and Beaver Valley
(New Castle, Sharon, and vicinity) ; Wyoming Valley (Wilkes-Barre
and vicinity).
Porto Rico— San Juan Territorial Council.
Rhode Island—Providence; Pawtucket and Central Falls.
South Carolina— Charleston; Columbia.
Tennessee—Davidson County (Nashville and vicinity).



30

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Texas—Jefferson Couuty (Beaumont, Port Arthur, e tc .); Kleberg and
Nueces (Kingsville, Corpus Christi, and vicinity).
Utah— Salt Lake City.
Virginia—Tidewater (Portsmouth and Norfolk).
Washington— Seattle, King County, and vicinity; Skagit Valley (Belling­
ham, Sedro-Woolley, and vicinity) ; Tacoma.
West Virginia—Ohio Valley (Wheeling; includes Bellaire, Ohio, and
vicinity).
Wisconsin— Fox River Valley (Oshkosh, Neenah and Menasha, Fond du
Lac, Green Bay, etc.) ; Milwaukee; Wisconsin River Valley (Wausau,
Stevens Point, and vicinity).
Canada—
British Columbia—Vancouver.
Manitoba—Winnipeg.
Ontario— Frontier (Niagara Falls, St. Catherines, Thorold, etc.) ;
Hamilton; London; Toronto.
Quebec— Montreal; Quebec and vicinity.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 18; Arizona, 9 ; Arkansas, 18; Cali­
fornia, 128; Colorado, 23; Connecticut, 44; Delaware, 2; District of Colum­
bia, 3; Florida, 60; Georgia, 14; Idaho, 13; Illinois, 189; Indiana, 67; Iowa,
37; Kansas, 34; Kentucky, 34; Louisiana, 15; Maine, 21; Maryland, 9 ;
Massachusetts, 129; Michigan, 46; Minnesota, 28; Mississippi, 12; Missouri,
51; Montana, 21; Nebraska, 13; Nevada, 4 ; New Hampshire, 15; New Jersey,
112; New Mexico, 9; New York, 185; Ohio, 113; Oklahoma, 45; Oregon, 30;
Pennsylvania, 175; Rhode Island, 19; South Carolina, 11; South Dakota, 3 ;
Tennessee, 22; Texas, 95; Utah, 8; Vermont, 7 ; Virginia, 12; Washington, 48;
West Virginia, 31; Wisconsin, 48; Wyoming, 14; Canal Zone, 1; Hawaiian
Islands, 1; Porto Rico, 14; Virgin Islands, 1. Canada— Alberta, 3 ; British
Columbia, 8; Manitoba 3; New Brunswick, 1; Ontario, 48; Quebec, 25; Sas­
katchewan, 3; Nova Scotia, 3. Total, 2,155.
Membership.—376,400.

Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in St. Louis, Mo., in November, 1891. Five cities—St.
Louis, Evansville, and Indianapolis, Ind.; Toledo, Ohio, and Chicago
111.—were represented by delegates of existing organizations of line­
men and wiremen chartered under the American Federation of Labor.
Milwaukee, Duluth, and Philadelphia designated members of the St.
Louis union to act as proxy for their organizations. Thus was
formed the National Brotherhood of Electrical Workers of America.
By 1899 the organization was spreading to Canada, and at the
convention o f 1899 the jurisdiction was expanded and the name
changed to International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
A secession movement in 1905-6 disrupted the organization, but in
1914 the factions reunited.
Objects.— “ The objects of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Work­
ers are, namely, to organize all electrical workers into local unions, to establish
an apprenticeship system, to maintain a higher standard of skill, to encourage
the formation of schools of instruction in local unions for teaching the prac­
tical application of electricity and for trade education generally, to cultivate
feelings of friendship among the men of our craft, to settle all disputes be­
tween employers and employees (if possible), to assist each other in sickness
and distress, to secure employment, to reduce the hours of daily labor, to
secure adequate pay for our work, and by legal and proper means elevate the
moral, intellectual, and social condition of our members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Territories, Dominion o f Canada,
Cuba, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Electrical workers in the jurisdiction of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Electrical Workers shall be divided into and char­




BUILDING TEADES

31

tered under four general branches, namely: Outside electrical workers, inside
electrical workers, shop electrical workers, and railroad electrical workers.
“ Outside electrical workers.— Outside electrical workers shall include line­
men, outside electrical inspectors, outside cable splicers, trimmers, maintenance
men, aerial and underground cable men, and combination trouble men work­
ing for distributing companies, load dispatchers, meter men, station attendants,
and switchboard operators in central lighting and power stations, telephone
switchboard operators and trouble men working for distributing companies, fire
and police operators, maintenance and battery men, signal men, electrical lay­
out and operating engineers and electrical rail engineers and electrical rail
grinders, foremen, groundmen, helpers, and others employed on line-construction work. They have jurisdiction over the following w ork:
“ Installing and erecting all poles, steel and concrete towers and supports
of all kinds for the carrying or support of aerial wires or cables or wireless
systems, aerial wires and cables on poles and from poles to buildings over or
outside of buildings when any fixture attached to buildings is used in place
of poles; installing and laying of all fiber, clay, and concrete ducts, pump logs,
laterals, pneumatic tubes for transmission of messages by air pressure or
air suction, underground conduits or raceways used for electrical wires or
cables, installing transformers and connecting secondary wires to houses, wires,
installing, pulling in, or placing and racking of cables and wires in underground
conduits, ducts, or raceways up to first point of distribution within first bulk­
head or partition in buildings, hanging streamers across street between build­
ings or between buildings and arches in street, where messenger or guy wires
are required for support when fed and controlled from street, series arc
wiring where fed and controlled from street, and when same remains property
of distributing company, fire alarm, burglar alarm, district and police work
signal systems, trimming, cleaning, patroling and repairing lamps, maintenance
on thoroughfare and public park illuminations, cable splicing, cable testing,
racking, bonding, connecting, clamping, and insulating of all cables, installing
and connecting of all transformers in manholes, setting and testing of meters,
load dispatchers when employed on work covered in this jurisdiction, main­
taining and operating motors on concrete mixers when used, preparing material
for outside electrical work, operating dynamos, switchboards and all other
apparatus in central lighting and power stations when done by distributing
companies; painting of poles, towers, fire and police boxes, pedestals, and all
other apparatus attached thereto, and all cutting and channeling made neces­
sary by the introduction of electrical devices and materials herein specified,
installing and maintaining of all lines of work in public, private, or amusement
parks, installing and maintaining of all trolley work or catenary work, either
overhead, underground, or tunnels, running all feed wires for same and feed
wires for third rail and monorail, and primary work for electric lighting, ex­
cept when installed in conduits or in or on buildings, inspection of electric
equipment herein specified.
“ Inside electric work.— Inside electrical workers shall include wiremen,
cranemen, and crane repair men, signalmen, load dispatchers, trouble men,
switchboard operators and erectors, operating engineers, inside cable splicers,
telephone instrument, switchboard, and telephone exchange installers, motionpicture-machine operators, inspectors, fixture hangers and shopmen, bridge
operators, crane and elevator operators, meter testers and installers, battery
men, fire and burglar alarm installers and repair men, marine, radio, telegraph
electrical workers. They shall have jurisdiction over the following w ork:
“ Wiring in and wiring and installing all conduits, raceways, and supports,
moldings and metal trimming when it becomes part of the electrical system of
the building, and cables and wires in all buildings and structures, subways,
tunnels, mines, ships, bridges, arches and cars, installing, repairing, wiring,
and maintaining electric charging plants, vehicles, batteries, and electric start­
ing and ignition systems, automobiles and electrical locomotives, installing,
operating, repairing, and maintaining isolated block plants, electric equip­
ment on private property, pump logs, underground conduits and wires for same,
except line work; switchboard operators and load dispatchers not covered in
other jurisdictions, installing electrical switch and signal apparatus and all
wiring pertaining thereto; manufacturing, repairing, installing, maintaining,
and operating of all electrical machines and devices and drills not in other
jurisdiction in this constitution, electric bells, flashlight systems, and all ap­
paratus and fixtures used in connection therewith, hanging drop cords and



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

wiling show cases, installing annunciators and thermostat and electrical heat­
ing systems, automatic controlling devices, installing wireless systems, install­
ing and operating all lamps for moving-picture or projection machines, erect­
ing, assembling, wiring, and handling of all electric decorations and signals and
connecting same to service wires, hanging streamers across streets between
buildings or between buildings and arches in street, except line work, main­
taining, erecting, operating, and installing electric motors used on conveyors,
bridges, concrete mixers, air compressors, motor generators, pumps, hoists and
elevators for carrying passengers or material of any kind, the work of operat­
ing elevators, temporary or otherwise, shall be performed by elevator operators,
members of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; installing
and operating motors used for floor surfacing machines, installing, maintain­
ing of all dictaphones, ducts, and raceways in buildings, fire or burglar alarm
work, except line work, installing and maintaining telephone exchanges and
all telephone work, beginning at first point of distribution or first terminal
inside of building or property lines, installing all speaking and voice tubes, in­
stalling, maintaining, and operating all radio and electric equipment in all
ships, lighters, and floating cranes, installing, maintaining, and operating elec­
trical devices in theaters and amusement parks, and all electrical stage devices
necessary for the operation of shows, installing transformers not covered in
other jurisdiction, wiring, assembling, hanging, and connecting all electric, gas,
and combination fixtures, all cutting and channeling made necessary by the
introduction of all electrical devices and material herein specified.
“ Telephone electrical workers.—This jurisdiction covers the male telephone
workers employed by telephone companies and actually engaged in the inside
construction, installation, maintenance, and repair work associated with tele­
phones and telephone switchboards.
“ Railroad and Pullman electrical work.—Railroad and Pullman electrical
workers are those employed by railroad and Pullman companies, and shall
have jurisdiction over all electric wiring and repairing, rebuilding, installing,
inspecting, maintaining, assembling, and dismantling of all electrical apparatus,
including all electric generators, switchboards, motors and controls, rheostats
and control, static and rotary transformers, motor generators, electric meters,
electric headlights, and headlight generators, electric welding machines, stor­
age battery and axle lighting equipment, winding armatures, fields, magnet
coils, motors; starters; transformers and starting compensators, the slotting
of all commutators, all telegraph, telephone, signal, and power limiting and
indicating equipment, pole lines and supports for signal, telephone, and tele­
graph wires and cables, catenary, monorail, third rail, trolley conductors and
feed wires, overhead and underground; outside and inside wiring, including
all conduit, in and on buildings, yards, structures and on steam and electric
locomotives, passenger trains and motor cars, all rail bonding and testing,
and testing and calibrating of electrical instruments used on railroads, include
wiremen, fixture hangers, armature winders, metermen, electrical inspectors,
switchboard operators, generator attendants, motor attendants, substation at­
tendants, electric crane operators, cable splicers, linemen, groundmen, signal
men and signal maintainers, telegraph and telephone linemen and repairmen,
electric coal pier operators, electric bridge operators, and all other electrical
work on railroads.
“ It being provided, however, that under no circumstances shall railroad
electrical workers do any construction or reconstruction work where building
trades mechanics are doing work in connection with same.
“ 8 hop electrical work.— Shop electrical workers are those who make, assem­
ble, test, inspect, rebuild, and repair all electrical machines, switchboards, panel
boards, control boards, electrical devices and all electrical apparatus in manu­
facturing shops and shall have jurisdiction over the follow ing:
“ The making, assembling, repairing, testing, and inspecting of armatures,
fields, generators, motors, coils, transformers, rheostats, dimmers, motor gen­
erators, convertors, reacting boxes and all generating devices, auto trans­
formers, compensators, welding and drilling machines, also operating cranes in
metal-trade shops.
“ The making and assembling, repairing, testing, inspecting, insulating, slot­
ting, trimming, cutting, and grinding commutators, and collector rings, also
making, forming, taping, insulating, setting and soldering o f all armature,
stator or rotor coils, brazing, soldering, sweating and riveting or rotor short
circuiting rings.
“ The making, assembling, repairing, testing, and inspecting of all types of
controllers, starting boxes, and regulators, both manual and automatic, in­



BUILDING TBADES

33

eluding coils, segments, and contacts of all kinds. Cutting, grinding, making and
cabling of carbon, brass or copper brushes.
“ The making, assembling, repairing, testing and inspecting of all telegraph,
radio-telegraph, telephone, radio-telephone apparatus, both manual and auto­
matic, annunciators, musolophone, dictaphone, dictagraph, and all other calling
or communicating devices.
“ The making, assembling, repairing, testing, inspecting, laying out, wiring
and drilling of switchboards, panel boards, distributing centers, charging and
control boards, both manual and automatic, switches, fuses, fuse-blocks, cut­
outs, circuit breakers, and other safety devices of all descriptions.
“ The wiring, assembling, testing, repairing, and inspecting o f all electrical
thermostats, stoves, ovens, irons, heaters, urns, and other heating and cooking
apparatus, either open coil, sheath wire or casting, vacuum cleaners, washing
and burnishing machines, lamp sockets, head lights, and spot lights.
“ The wiring, inspecting, repairing and testing of automobiles, street, elevated
and subway cars.
“ The casting, pasting, trimming and burning of plates, compounding, as­
sembling, charging and making of accumulators and storage batteries, both
primary and secondary, and all electrical work in connection with ignition
systems.
“ The making, assembling, repairing, testing, inspecting and calibrating of
all electrical instruments, vibrators, vibrating machines, medical batteries and
violet-ray apparatus.
“ The making, assembling, repairing, testing, and inspecting of car switches,
limit switches, floor stops, door locks and other electrical devices for elevators
and hoisting machinery, and in case of units where impractical to move they
shall repair same on job, it being definitely understood that men who are em­
ployed in shops and doing what is known as combination electrical installation,
repair and maintenance work come under the jurisdiction of the inside elec­
trical workers.”
Government.—1. General officers a re : President, secretary, treasurer, eight
vice presidents and nine elective members o f the executive council. The presi­
dent is the chief administrative officer, with comprehensive powers. The vice
presidents are organizers. The executive council is a trial and audit board.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; laws and regulations imposed by the inter­
national brotherhood.
3. Convention: Biennial; enacts legislation and elects general officers for
4-year term. Constitutional amendments by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any electrical worker of good moral char­
acter not over 55 years of age nor less than 18 and of good sound health and
not afflicted with any disease or subject to any complaints liable to endanger
life, who has worked for four years as an electrical worker, and who is com­
petent to command the general average wage, is eligible to membership in
this brotherhood as a journeyman member, provided he passes a satisfactory
examination * * * and is found to be qualified in all respects.
“ Any electrical worker who is not able to qualify as a journeyman mem­
ber but who is otherwise eligible may be admitted as an apprentice, provided
he has worked three months at the trade.”
Applicants not meeting physical and age qualifications become nonbene­
ficiary members.
Female members: “ Any female engaged in the manufacture or operation
of any electrical apparatus or device may become a member o f a local union.
Local unions composed o f male and female electrical workers shall be classified
and chartered as local union, class B.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ Each local union shall provide ways and
means for governing their apprentices and helpers, either by admitting them
as members or registering them so that they will be under the jurisdiction and
control of the local union and not subservient to any other organization. All
apprentices one year or more with electrical experience in the local union shall
upon application through his local union be initiated in the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
“ Each local union shall adopt its own apprenticeship system as the peculiar
conditions o f each district may require.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions to cover separate branches o f the
trade, except where several branch locals are employed by one concern, when
Joint agreements may be made to include all employees.



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HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

The National Council on Industrial Relations is a conciliation medium com­
posed of five representatives each o f the brotherhood and of the National Asso­
ciation of Electrical Employers. Its services are used when local agreements
can not be reached or carried out.
Benefits.—Funeral; insurance; pension. Female members are entitled to a
small funeral benefit.
Official organ.—The Journal of Electrical Workers and Operators.
Headquarters.—1200 Fifteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Local organizations only, classified as linemen, inside men,
trimmers, cranemen, cable splicers, fixture hangers, maintenance, shopmen,
power-house men, telephone operators, railroad, bridge operators, studio men.
United States—Alabama, 8; Arkansas, 2 ; Arizona, 3 ; California, 57; Colorado,
5 ; Connecticut, 14; Delaware, 1 ; District of Columbia, 2 ; Florida, 12; Georgia,
3 ; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 41; Indiana, 28; Iowa, 19; Kansas, 10; Kentucky, 6 ;
Louisiana, 9 ; Maine, 6 ; Maryland, 6 ; Massachusetts, 26; Michigan, 18; Minne­
sota, 10; Mississippi, 3 ; Missouri, 11; Montana, 13; Nebraska, 3 ; Nevada, 3 ;
New Hampshire, 4; New Jersey, 19; New Mexico, 1 ; New York, 53; North Caro­
lina, 6 ; North Dakota, 1 ; Ohio, 40; Oklahoma, 12; Oregon, 7 ; Pennsylvania,
39; Rhode Island, 6; South Carolina, 2; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 10;
Texas, 32; Utah, 3; Virginia, 11; Washington, 14; West Virginia, 9 ; Wiscon­
sin, 18; Wyoming, 4 ; Canal Zone, 2. Canada—Alberta, 3 ; British Columbia, 4 ;
Manitoba, 2 ; New Brunswick, 1 ; Nova Scotia, 2 ; Ontario, 18; Quebec, 6 ; Sas­
katchewan, 3. Total, 656.
Uember ship.—141,640.
Telephone Operators’ Department

The Telephone Operators’ Department o f the International
Brotherhood o f Electrical Workers is an autonomous department
within the brotherhood, having jurisdiction and complete control
over telephone operators. It was organized as a department in
November, 1918. Previous to the establishment of the department
organization o f telephone operators existed only as sublocals o f local
unions of electrical workers. The first of these to be chartered by
the international brotherhood was that organized in Boston in April,
1912.
The officers of the department are president, vice president,
secretary, and treasurer. “ The department officers shall have the
same jurisdiction over affairs relating exclusively to the department
which international officers have over affairs relating to the brother­
hood.”
Any telephone operator actually engaged in the trade is eligible
to membership. Chief operators are organized separately with the
consent of the local union.
The department pays a funeral benefit. Conventions are held
every other year, at which the general officers are elected. Amend­
ments to constitution, by-laws, and local rules, by referendum.
There are at present 24 local unions of telephone operators, with a
total membership of 6,000, as follows: California, 2; Illinois, 10;
Indiana, 1; Massachusetts, 3; Montana, 2; Ohio, 2; Oregon, 1;
Pennsylvania, 3.
The headquarters of the Telephone Operators’ Department is
Tremont Building, Boston, Mass.
Elevator Constructors, International Union of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized July 18, 1901, in New York City as the International
Union o f Elevator Constructors of the United States. Jurisdiction



BUILDING TRADES

35

was later extended to Canada, and in 1903 the name of the organiza­
tion was changed to International Union of Elevator Constructors.
A jurisdictional dispute with the International Union of Building
Service Employees over elevator operators and starters ended in
1922 with a decision by the American Federation of Labor granting
the jurisdiction over these workers to the elevator workers.
Objects.—“ The object of the international union shall be to bind together
and unite the locals of which it is composed for mutual interest and pro­
tection.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The construction, installation, and operation of ele­
vators and elevator machinery. Specifically: Hydraulic, steam, electric, belt,
hand power, or compressed air; also assembling and building escalators or
traveling stairways; the assembling of all cars complete; putting up of all
guides, either of wood or iron ; the setting of all tanks, whether pressure, open,
or pit tanks; the setting of all pumps (where pumps arrive on job in parts
they are to be assembled by members of this union) ; all electric work con­
nected with car, machinery, and hoisting; all overhead work, either of wood
or iron, and supports for same where required; the setting of all templets; all
automatic gates; all indicators; all foundations, either of wood or iron, that
would take the place of masonry; the assembling o f all hydraulic parts in con­
nection with elevators; all locking devices in connection with elevators; the
boring, drilling, and sinking of all plunger elevators; all link-belt carriers; all
air cushions, with the exception of those built of brick or those put together
with hot rivets; the operating of all temporary cars, and all work in general
pertaining to the erection and equipment of an elevator complete.”
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president (who is
also chief organizer), secretary-treasurer, and eight vice presidents. The gen­
eral executive board shaU decide all points of law, all grievances and appeals
submitted to it in legal form, and their decisions shall be binding as law until
reversed by a convention. The executive board shall meet annually, and may
submit new legislation and rules to referendum vote.
2. Local unions: Autonomy not defined by constitution.
3. Convention: Time indeterminate. Elects general officers. Constitution
may be amended only by convention.
Qualifications for membership.—All persons employed within the jurisdiction
are elegible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Three-year term. One apprentice to each shop
and one additional for each eight mechanics employed in the shop.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally on terms embraced in a mutual agreement
drawn up by a joint committee representing the manufacturers and the inter­
national union. Local agreements signed by the general executive board.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—The Elevator Constructor.
Headquarters.—191 Joralemon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions on ly; operators and starters have separate locals:
United States—Alabama, 1; Arkansas, 1; California, 4 ; Colorado, 1; Con­
necticut, 1 ; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 3 ; Georgia, 1; Illinois, 4 ; Indiana,
3 ; Iowa, 2 ; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1; Maryland, 1 ; Massachusetts, 3 ; Michi­
gan, 4 ; Minnesota, 2; Missouri, 2 ; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1 ; New Jersey, 1;
New York, 6 ; North Carolina, 1 ; Ohio, 6; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsyl­
vania, 7; Rhode Island, 1; Tennessee, 3 ; Texas, 4; Virginia, 2; Washington, 1 ;
West Virginia, 3 ; Wisconsin, 1. Canada— British Columbia, 1 ; Ontario, 2;
Quebec, 1. Total, 81.
Membership.—18,000.

Engineers, International Union of Operating
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized December 7, 1896, in St. Louis, Mo. At the American
Federation of Labor convention of 1896 there were in attendance
four engineers representing other trades. They conceived the idea



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

o f a separate union for engineers and called a meeting of engineers
in St. Louis in December of the same year. The National Steam
Engineers’ Union was thus established. In 1905 the name o f the
organization was changed to International Union o f Steam Engi­
neers, and in 1915, on account of widened jurisdiction, it was again
changed to International Union o f Steam and Operating Engineers.
A union of steam shovel and dredge men was formed the same year
the engineers organized, which affiliated to the American Federation
o f Labor in 1915. The engineers protested against what they con­
sidered a dual organization within the federation and by 1918 had
secured a convention decision ordering the steam-shovel men to
amalgamate. This the Brotherhood of Steam Shovel and Dredge
Men refused to do. They were expelled from the American Federa­
tion of Labor in 1918, and for 10 years maintained an independent
existence, the only unaffiliated union in the building industry. By a
referendum vote of the two organizations an amalgamation took
lace in April, 1927, which was virtually absorption of the Brotherood o f Steam Shovel and Dredge Men by the engineers. The new
title, “ International Union of Operating Engineers,” was adopted
in April, 1928.

E

Objects.—“ The objects of the organization are: The elevation of our craft
to its proper position in the ranks of the workers; to encourage a higher
standard of skill among our members; to cultivate feelings of friendship
among the men o f our craft; to assist each other in securing employment;
to reduce the hours of labor; to secure a higher standard of wages for work
performed; and by legal and proper means to elevate the moral, intellectual,
and social conditions of our members.’’
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All those engaged in the operation of steam boilers,
stationary, marine, Diesel, portable, hoisting, and electrical engines, gas engines,
internal-combustion engines, or any machine that develops power.
“ All hoisting and portable engines and boilers on building and construction
work, when operated by steam, electricity, or compressed air, including pumps,
siphons, pulsometers, concrete mixers, stone crushers, air compressors, and
elevators when used for hoisting building materials, street rollers, steam
shovels, cableways, clamshell buckets, orange-peel buckets, pile drivers, dinky
locomotives, or any other machine that develops power.”
Government.—1. General executive board, consisting o f the general president,
the five vice presidents, and the general secretary-treasurer. “ All the powers
of the International Union of Operating Engineers when not in session shall
be vested in the general executive board. * * * The general president
shall act as chairman. He shall have full control o f all matters of interest
to the organization.”
2. Joint executive board: “ Where there are two or more local unions in one
city or town, there shall be formed a joint executive board to be composed
of three members from each local union. * * * joint executive boards may
adopt such by-laws as they may deem necessary to govern their local condi­
tions, providing they do not conflict with the constitution of the general
organization.”
3. Local unions: u Local unions reserve power at their own option by vote of
their members to approve or reject all or any part of any legislative act, meas­
ure, resolution, by-law, rule or constitutional amendment enacted by the con­
vention or promulgated by any general officer or officers. These reserved powers
are expressly declared to include all measures relating to elections and finances
of the organization.”
4. Convention: Held quadrennially; enacts legislation and nominates general
officers. Election of general officers by referendum. Constitutional amendments
by convention and referendum, or by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “A candidate for membership must be a
competent engineer or apprentice engineer. He shall possess a license in locali­



BUILDING TRADES

37

ties where such is required. * * * No person who Is a member of any
organization opposed to organized labor may be admitted to membership.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—Determined by legislation In States which re­
quire that an engineer be licensed. No apprenticeship required in work for
which no license is demanded.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with local employers upon terms
approved by the general executive board prior to negotiation.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—The International Engineer.
Headquarters.—1003 K Street NW., Washington, D. 0.
Organization.—Local unions: United States—Alabama, 2 ; Arizona, 2 ; Cali­
fornia, 18; Colorado, 5; Connecticut, 2 ; District of Columbia, 4 ; Florida, 4 ;
Georgia, 4 ; Illinois, 35; Indiana, 8; Iowa, 5; Kansas, 1; Kentucky, 3 ; Louisiana,
3 ; Maine, 2 ; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 13; Michigan, 4; Minnesota, 8 ; Mis­
souri, 6; Montana, 3 ; Nebraska, 4 ; New Jersey, 9 ; New Mexico, 1; New York,
27; North Carolina, 1 ; North Dakota, 1; Ohio, 39; Oklahoma, 4 ; Oregon, 4;
Pennsylvania, 12; Rhode Island, 2 ; Tennessee, 4 ; Texas, 12; Utah, 1 ; Virginia,
1; Washington, 8; West Virginia, 3 ; Wisconsin, 5. Canal Zone, 1. Canada—
Alberta, 4 ; British Columbia, 5; Manitoba, 2; Ontario, 18; Quebec, 1. Total, 303.
Membership.—36,000.

Granite Cutters’ International Association of America, The
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Rockland, Me., on March 10, 1877. Organization of
granite cutters began as early as 1820, but continued purely local in
character until 1877, when the local unions then in existence met in
Rockland, Me., and established the Granite Cutters’ National Union.
Jurisdiction was subsequently extended to Canada, and since 1905
the organization has been known as The Granite Cutters’ Interna­
tional Association of America.
Objects.— “ The objects of this association are: To encourage a regular ap­
prentice system and a higher standard of skill; to cultivate feelings of friend­
ship among the craft; to assist each other to secure employment; to reduce
the hours of daily labor; to discourage piecework as tending to degrade the
trade; to secure adequate pay for our work; to furnish aid in case o f death
and to assist, to the best of our ability, disabled members; to endeavor by
legal and proper means to elevate the moral, intellectual and social conditions
of our members, and to improve the trade.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ It is hereby declared and set forth that the Granite
Cutters’ International Association of America claims the right of jurisdiction
over cutting, carving, dressing, lettering and all metal lettering, sand-blasting,
sawing and setting all granite (natural and artificial) and hard stone on
which granite cutters’ tools are used.
This includes from the roughest of
street work and rock-faced ashlar to the finest of molded work, carving stat­
uary, machine cutting, turning, rubbing, polishing or dressing, sandblasting,
including work of preparing and placing of composition necessary, sawing and
setting of any kind of granite (natural and artificial) and other hard stone
on which granite cutting tools or machines are used, and making up, sharpening
or dressing such tools either by hand or machine.”
Government.—1. General executive council, composed o f five granite cutters
(one from each zone), one polisher, one tool sharpener, and the international
president, is the executive and administrative power.
2. Branch associations: Subordinate; dues, officers, officers’ salaries, etc.,
determined by international constitution.
3. Referendum: All general officers elected by referendum; international
association business submitted to branches for action monthly.
4. Convention: On referendum call only; constitutional amendments by con­
vention, except that in “ extreme emergency” amendments may be made by
referendum.




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HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Qualifications for membership.— “ Eligibility of persons presenting them­
selves for membership shall be determined by branches where application is
made.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ The number of apprentices shall be left with
the different branches to regulate, but in no case shall there be more than three
apprentices employed to each full tool sharpener’s gang of journeymen, nor
more than two when the number of journeymen engaged is less than a full
gang; when six or less are employed there shall be but one apprentice. No
apprentice tool sharpener to be employed unless there are at least three jour­
neyman tool sharpeners employed.
No apprentice polisher to be employed
unless there are at least three journeymen polishers employed.
“ The term of apprenticeship at granite cutting shall be three years; at
tool sharpening two years, and at polishing two years, and no apprentice shall
be admitted to membership in this association unless he has completed his full
term of apprenticeship.
It shall be the duty of the branches to see that
apprentices are given a fair opportunity to make themselves proficient at our
trade.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local branches on terms approved by the execu­
tive council.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death; loss of sight.
Official organ.—The Granite Cutters’ Journal.
Headquarters.—25 School Street, Quincy, Mass.
Organization.— Five territorial divisions: Zone 1, eastern Canada and Ver­
mont; zone 2, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and
Maine; zone 3, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland,
District of Columbia, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia; zone 4, Wisconsin,
Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Louisiana; zone 5, western
Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Ari­
zona, New Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska,
Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, and Arkansas.
Local unions on ly: United States— California, 4 ; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 7;
District of Columbia, 1; Georgia, 3 ; Illinois, 1; Iowa, 1; Kentucky, 1; Louis­
iana, 1; Maine, 10; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 17; Michigan, 1; Minnesota,
4 ; Missouri, 1; New Hampshire, 3; New Jersey, 1; New York, 5 ; North Caro­
lina, 2 ; Ohio, 3 ; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 2; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Caro­
lina, 1 ; Texas, 2 ; Utah, 1; Vermont, 13; Virginia, 2; Washington, 3 ; Wisconsin,
1. Canada—British Columbia, 1; Ontario, 1 ; Quebec, 1. Total, 101.
Membership.—8,500.

Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers’ Union of America,
International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Washington, D. C., on April 13, 1903. The organiz­
ing convention was called by officials of the American Federation
o f Labor for the purpose of forming a trade-union from the various
directly affiliated local unions of hod carriers and building laborers.
The first convention was attended by delegates from 26 American
Federation of Labor local unions. A t the second convention, held
the next jear, delegates from 130 locals of the new international
organization were in attendance. The name of the union as at first
established was International Hod Carriers and Building Laborers’
Union o f America, and it was solely a building-trades union. Later
it widened its scope to include unskilled labor in other fields, and
the name was changed to include “ common labor.”
Upon the dissolution of the American Brotherhood of Cement
Workers in 1916, the cement laborers who had been members of
that organization were taken over by the hod carriers’ union. In
1918 the Compressed Air and Foundation Workers’ International
Union merged with the Hod Carriers, Building and Common Labor­



BUILDING TEADES

39

ers’ Union, and in 1929 the Tunnel and Subwaj Constructors’ Inter­
national Union joined the hod carriers’ union by an agreement
between the two organizations. The tunnel and subway workers
continue as a unit, in a local union of the hod carriers, and retain
complete jurisdiction over that class of work.
Objects.—“ The object of this union shall be the protection of its members,
to assist each other by aU legal means to obtain fair and just treatment for aU
laborers, and to elevate their social position.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions, Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Wrecking of buildings, excavation of buildings, digging
of trenches, piers and foundations, holes, digging, lagging and sheeting of said
foundations, holes and caisson w ork; concrete for walls, foundations, floors, or
any other construction, whether done by hand or any other process; tending to
masons, mixing and handling all materials used by masons, building o f scaf­
folds for masons and plasterers; building of centers for flreproofing purposes;
tending to carpenters; tending to and mixing all material for plastering,
whether done by hand or by any other process; clearing of debris from build­
ings; shoring, underpinning and raising of old buildings; drying of plastering
when done by salamander heat; handling of dimension stones; and common
laboring in the construction of streets, sewers, and tunnels. Working in air
pressure (compressed air) whether in caisson cylinders, subway tunnels, or
compartments; sinking of all open caissons for whatever purpose they may be
used; common laboring in factories, mills and shipyards.”
Government.—1. General officers, president, six vice presidents, secretarytreasurer. “ The international union shall have supreme ruling power over aU
local unions.” Its powers “ shall be executive, legislative, and judicial, * * ♦
its jurisdiction shall be the ultimate tribunal and * * * its decision shall
be final and conclusive.”
2. District councils: Composed of delegates from local unions, have jurisdic­
tion, supervision, and control over all matters relative to agreements with
employers covering wages, hours and working conditions in their localities;
and have jurisdiction over “ all things necessary to guard the interests” of
component locals. Affiliation of locals mandatory.
3. Local unions: “ The government and superintendence of subordinate
unions shall be vested in the international union as the supreme head of all
local unions. * * * The jurisdiction of local unions shall be that assigned
to them by the international union.”
4. Convention: Held every five years, unless otherwise ordered by referen­
dum. Enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—“ No person shall be accepted to membership
in any local union under the jurisdiction of the international union unless he is
actually working at the calling and is a man of good moral character and
known by at least two members in good standing.” Applicants must be citizens
or have made legal citizenship declaration.
Apprenticeship regulations.— No apprentice system.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally between local unions or district councils,
and individual employers. Subject to approval of international office. General
officers assist in conferences if needed.
Benefits.—Death.
Official organ.—None,
Headquarters.—25 School Street, Quincy, Mass.
Organization.—District councils: California—Fresno, Glendale, Long Beach,
Los Angeles, Pasadena, and San Jose; Connecticut—Bridgeport, Danbury,
Greenwich, New Canaan, Ridgefield, South Norwalk, and Stamford; Illinois—
Chicago, Oak Park, Evanston, Joilet, Wheaton, Aurora, Batavia, East St. Louis,
Belleville, Granite City, Gillespie, and Staunton; Indiana—Gary, Hammond,
and Lafayette; Iowa—Des Moines; Kansas—Kansas City; Kentucky—Louis­
ville; Maine—Portland; Massachusetts—Boston; Missouri—Kansas City, Sugar
Creek, and St. L ouis; New Jersey—Hudson County, Monmouth County, Hacken­
sack and vicinity, Essex County; New York—Albany, Rochester, Schenectady,
Syracuse, Troy, Utica, and Westchester County; Ohio—Cleveland, Berea, Cin­
cinnati, and Lockland; Oregon—Portland; Pennsylvania— South Brownsville,
Uniontown, Pittsburgh and vicinity, and Philadelphia and vicinity.
67004°—29------ 4



40

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TBADE-UNIONS

Local unions: United States—Alabama, 1; Arizona, 2 ; Arkansas, 1 ; Cali­
fornia, 41; Colorado, 5; Connecticut, 14; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia, 3 ;
Florida, 1 ; Idaho, 1; Illinois, 87; Indiana, 15; Iowa, 8; Kansas, 6; Kentucky,
3; Louisiana, 2 ; Maine, 4 ; Maryland, 3; Massachusetts, 27; Michigan, 3 ;
Minnesota, 6 ; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 16; Montana, 5; Nebraska, 1; Nevada,
1 ; New Hampshire, 1 ; New Jersey, 57; New Mexico, 1 ; New York, 54; North
Carolina, 4 ; North Dakota, 1; Ohio, 24; Oklahoma, 13; Oregon, 6 ; Pennsyl­
vania, 26; Rhode Island, 3; Tennessee, 2; Texas, 8; Utah, 1 ; Virginia, 2 ;
Washington, 11; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 7; Wyoming, 1. Canada—Al­
berta, 3; British Columbia, 2 ; Nova Scotia, 1; Ontario, 4. Total,, 491.
Membership.—95,000.

Lathers’ International Union, Wood, Wire, and Metal
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized December 15, 1899, in Detroit, Mich.
Object.—“ Our object shall be to encourage and formulate local unions o f the
craft, the closer amalgamation of locals under one head to establish the eighthour day, to effect an equitable adjustment of all differences arising from
time to time between our members and their employers, to the end that trade
quarrels, strikes, and lockouts may be reduced to a minimum, to more
thoroughly inculcate the principles of unionism and secure an improvement of
the conditions under which we labor.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Erecting and installing of all light iron construction;
furring, making and erecting of brackets, clips, and hangers; wood, wire, and
metal lath, plaster board, or other material which takes the place of same, to
which plaster material is adhered; corner heads, all floor construction,
arches erected for the purpose of holding plaster, cement, concrete, or any other
plastic material.
“ The foregoing classification of work, as defined in numerous decisions
and rulings since this jurisdiction was granted our organization, covers such
work as—
“ Light iron partitions, constructed of channels, flat iron, Knapp Berger,
and other patent pronged studs, iron wall furring, all light ironwork for
suspended and other metallic lath ceilings, making and erecting light iron
brackets, which are used in connection with ornamental plastering for cornices,
paneled ceilings, groin, elliptical, Gothic, proscenium, and all other arches of
this description ; the erection o f metal corner beads, metal picture mold, metal
base screed; and other metal specialties which are covered with plastic
material, the wrapping o f beams and columns, the placing of steel tile and
other forms of floor reinforcement, the placing, nailing, and tying of all wire
and metallic lath no matter for what purpose used—which includes wire cloth,
expanded metal, all Hy-Rib, Self-Sentering, Shure-Bond, Trussit, Ferro-Inclave,
Ferro-Lithic, Plate Lath, Chanelath, Rib-Centering, Kno-Fur, Corr-Mesh,
Trusses-V-Rib, Truss-Metal, Key-Ridge, and all other similar forms of selfsupporting lath; the fabrication and installation of all light iron erected for
the purpose of receiving metallic lath, or plastic material, and all other forms
of lath, including wood, plaster board, Bestal board, button lath, woven-wood
lath, metallite lath, mastic board, Bishopric board, E-Cod-Fabric, weldedsheathed-lath, composite or brick lath, basket lath and lath of any other make
or description erected to receive or hold plastic material.”
Government.—The president “ shall supervise the affairs of the international
union,” with extensive executive powers. General executive board, composed
of the seven vice presidents, is a trial and appeal board.
2. District councils: Composed o f delegates from local unions in districts
having two or more locals. Affiliation compulsory on part of locals. “ A
district council shall have such authority within the limitations of the laws
of the international union as may be delegated to it by the local unions of
which it is composed.”
3. Local unions: Autonomous within limits of national constitution. Con­
stitution and by-laws subject to approval of general office.
4. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.



BUILDING TRADES

41

Qualifications for membership.—Discretionary with local unions, but applicant
must have two years’ experience in the trade, be a citizen of the United States
or of Canada, or have declared citizenship intentions. “ No one shall be dis­
criminated against for race or color.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “All apprentices shall work not less than six
months on wood lath before being placed on metal.” Apprenticeship term “ shall
in no case be less than two years.”
“ Apprentices shall in no case be admitted to any local union in excess of one
apprentice to each local and one additional to each five members, said appren­
tice not to be under the age of 16 years nor over the age of 21 years. * * ♦
The matter of shop distribution o f apprentices shall be left entirely to the will
of the local.”
Agreements.—Wage scales and working conditions established locally either
by district councils or local unions. Wage scales uniform throughout a district
where a district council exists; such scales and working conditions approved
by component local unions.
Benefits.—Funeral.
Official organ.—The Lather.
Headquarters.—Lathers* Building, Cleveland, Ohio.
Organization.— District councils: California, 3 (Golden Gate District Council,
Southern California District Council, California State Council) ; Florida (Florida
East Coast District Council) ; Illinois, 2 (Illinois State Council and Mississippi
Valley District Council, includes St. L o u is); Massachusetts State Council; Min­
nesota (Interstate District Council, Duluth and Superior) ; New Jersey State
Council ; New York, 2 (Western New York District Council, Buffalo and
vicinity and Westchester, Greater New York and Long Island District
Council) ; Ohio, (Buckeye State Council) ; Oregon State Council ; Pennsyl­
vania (West Penn District Council, Pittsburgh and vicinity) ; Texas (Lone
Star State Council) ; Washington (Pacific Northwest District Council).
Local Unions: United States—Alabama, 2 ; Arkansas, 1; Arizona, 2 ;
California, 28; Colorado, 4 ; Connecticut, 8; Delaware, 1 ; District of Columbia,
1; Florida, 6 ; Georgia, 2; Idaho, 1; Illinois, 20; Indiana, 10; Iowa, 5 ; Kansas,
3 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 14; Michigan, 11;
Minnesota, 2 ; Mississippi, 1 ; Missouri, 6 ; Montana, 3 ; Nebraska, 2 ; Nevada,
1; New Jersey, 14; New York, 17; North Carolina, 2 ; Ohio, 17; Oklahoma, 8;
Oregon, 6 ; Pennsylvania, 19; Rhode Island, 1; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 10; Utah, 2;
Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 10; West Virginia, 4 ; Wisconsin, 8 ; Wyoming, l.
Canada—Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 2 ; Ontario, 4 ; Quebec, 1 ; Manitoba, 1.
Total, 271.
Membership.—16,500.

Marble, Stone, and Slate Polishers, Rubbers, and Sawyers, Tile
and Marble Setters’ Helpers and Terrazzo Workers’ Helpers,
International Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Detroit in 1901 as the International Union of Marble
Workers. After the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union joined the American Federation of Labor the organized
marble setters who were then members of the International Associ­
ation of Marble Workers transferred their membership to the brick­
layers international and the marble workers changed the name of
their organization to the International Association o f Marble, Stone
and Slate Polishers, Rubbers and Sawyers. In 1918 the Bricklayers,
Masons and Plasterers5 International Union requested the marble
workers to make provision for the admission into their union o f tile
setters’ helpers. Application for this extended jurisdiction was op­
posed by the International Hod Carriers, Building and Common
Laborers’ Union. By decision of the American Federation of Labor,
however, jurisdiction was granted to the marble workers’ union, and
in 1921 tile and marble setters’ helpers were taken into the organiza­



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

tion and the name changed in accordance therewith. Still later
jurisdiction was extended over the terrazzo workers’ helpers, and now
all o f these branches o f the craft are recognized in the title of the
organization.
Objects.—“ The objects and aims of this international association are to
discourage piecework, to encourage an apprentice and improver system, to
cultivate feelings of friendship among the men of the different industries
named, to assist each other to procure employment, to reduce the hours o f
daily labor, and secure adequate pay for our work, and by legal and proper
means elevate the moral, intellectual, and social conditions of our members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The sawing, rubbing, and polishing of marble, stone,
and slate used for structural, sanitary, decorative, commemorative, and other
purposes inside and about buildings of every description, in subways and
cemeteries or wherever required for floors, wall linings, wainscoting, ceilings,
stairways, steps, platforms, tile, door and window trims, counters, store fronts,
vaults, operating rooms, bath and toilet rooms, and switchboards.
“ Our polishers and rubbers shall polish, rub, and clean all marble, stone,
slate, and glass, and all compositions and imitations that require the same proc­
ess of finishing required in polishing, rubbing, and cleaning marble, stone, or
slate; this work applies to shop and building, hand and machine.
“ Sawyers shall run all gang, cable, and diamond saws, set all blocks in
gangs, and hammer and set all saws.
“ Marble setters’ helpers shall do all utility work, such as loading and un­
loading trucks at shop or building, rigging for heavy work, and such other
work as is required in helping a marble setter.
“ Tile layers’ helpers shall do all the cleaning of tile set by the tile layer,
handle all sand, cement, lime, tile, and all other materials that may be used
by tile layers after being delivered at the building.
“ Terrazzo workers’ helpers shall do all the handling of sand, cement, lime,
terrazzo, and all other materials that may be used by the marble, mosaic, and
terrazzo workers after being delivered at the building, or at the shop; rubbing
and cleaning all marble, mosaic, and terrazzo floors, bare wainscoting when ran
on the building by hand or machine.”
Government.—1. General executive council, composed o f president, secretarytreasurer, and nine vice presidents, is the governing body, with the president
as the chief executive officer, with comprehensive powers.
2. Local unions: Autonomous, but constitution and by-laws must be approved
by general president.
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—Applicants for membership must be or become
citizens of the United States. Four years’ apprenticeship is required for marble
polishers before admission to the union.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Apply to marble polishers only, in which branch
there is a four-year term. One apprentice to each five journeymen, but not
more than five apprentices per year are allowed in any one shop.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions. Constitutional requirement: “ Local
unions must embody in their constitutions and by-laws a general law providing
for a form of agreement with employers and the establishment of a joint com­
mittee of arbitration.”
Benefits.—Death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—406 East One hundred and forty-ninth Street, New York City.
Organization.—Local unions only: California, 2 ; Canada, 2; Connecticut, 2 ;
District of Columbia, 1; Illinois, 6; Indiana, 3; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 2;
Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1 ; Missouri, 4 ; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 8; Ohio, 4 ;
Oklahoma, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 8 ; Rhode Island, 1; Washington, 1 ; Wisconsin, 2 ;
Total, 52.
Membership.—6,500.

Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Baltimore, Md., on March 15, 1887. Incorporated
December 7, 1894. Painters took active and prominent part in the



BUILDING TRADES

43

Knights o f Labor movement from the beginning and were exten­
sively organized thereunder. They were, however, among the first
to break away from that movement and join the ranks of the craft
unionists. A t the instigation of the organization of painters in
Baltimore, Md., a conference was called in that city on March 15.
1887. This meeting was attended by representatives of Knights or
Labor assemblies and independent craft unions to the number of 13.
From this conference emerged the Brotherhood of Painters and
Decorators. A journal was started the first year. In 1890, the
name was changed to include the paper hangers, and the title then
adopted remains the official name of the organization.
A division of interests between the locals of the East and of the
Middle West crystallized into a conflict over the location of perma­
nent headquarters, which up to 1894 had been in Baltimore. The re­
sult was a schism and the organization of the western faction into a
new body. Both organizations functioned independently, the insur­
gent western group soon outstripping the parent union in member­
ship and aggressiveness. In 1900 the executives of both groups
met with representatives of the American Federation of Labor m
Washington, and secured an adjustment which again brought them
together as one organization. Headquarters were retained by the
western group at LaFayette, Ind.
Originally composed exclusively of house painters and decorators,
the brotherhood has extended its scope to the entire field of painting
as well as paper hanging and the decorative arts, and by so doing
has absorbed into its own membership the United Scenic Artists, the
National Paperhangers’ Association, the National Union of Sign
Painters, and the Amalgamated Glass Workers’ International
Union (stained and decorative glass workers).
Objects.—The objects of this association are: The aiding o f members to
become more skillful and efficient workers; the promotion o f their general
intelligence; the elevation of their character; the regulation of wages, hours,
and conditions of labor; the cultivation of friendship among the members of
the association and the rendering of assistance in securing employment; the
promotion of their individual rights in the prosecution of their trade or trades;
the raising of funds for the benefit of sick, disabled, or unemployed members;
and the families of deceased members who continuously complied with our law s;
and such other objects for which working people may lawfuUy combine, having
in view their mutual protection and benefit.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America shall have jurisdiction of all house, sign, pictorial, coach,
car, automobile, carriage, aircraft, machinery, ship and railroad equipment
painters; over all decorators, paper hangers, hardwood finishers; grainers,
glaziers, varnishers, enamelers, gilders, and scenic artists; over all men en­
gaged in applying or removing paints, oils, varnishes, water colors, wall paper
or other materials used in the various branches of the trade, and over aU
glass workers, to w it: Setters of art glass, prism glass, leaded glass and pro­
tection glass, bevelers, cutters, glaziers in lead or other metals, shade workers,
silverers, scratch polishers, embossers, engravers, designers, painters on glass,
chippers, mosaic workers, benders, cementers, flat glass or wheel cutters and
other workers in glass used in the construction o f buildings or for architectural
or decorative purposes; and shall be comprised of an unlimited number of local
unions, district councils, and other subordinate bodies, subject to its laws and
usages.”
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, six vice
presidents, exercises “ general supervision over the affairs of the brotherhood.”
2.
district councils, composed of delegates from all local unions within a
given jurisdiction, “ shall have legislative and executive power on aU matters



44

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TBADE-tTNIONS

relating to the common interest and welfare of the local unions in the district
subject to a referendum vote of all affiliated locals. * * * They shall estab­
lish a uniform rate of wages, dues, and initiation fees. * * * and shall
have power to frame all working or trade rules and to enforce the same.”
Affiliation of local unions to district councils compulsory.
3. Local unions: Local by-laws subject to approval of the general executive
board. Locals, where no district council exists, control wage scales and work­
ing conditions.
4. Convention: Held quadrennially. General officers elected by general as­
sembly. Amendments to constitution and revision of laws by convention *and
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any person to be admitted to membership
in this brotherhood must have followed for three years one of the branches
of our trade as enumerated in the constitution and be competent to command
the minimum wages established by the local union or district council in which
he applies for membership.
“ The admission of contractors to membership or the refusal thereof shall be
determined by the by-laws of the local union or the district council * * *
but they must comply with the trade rules and working conditions o f the
locality in which the work is done, must pay the union scale, and hire only union
men and not belong to any employers* or contractors’ association.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—“Any boy engaging to learn the trade o f paint­
ing, paper hanging, decorating or other allied trades enumerated in this con­
stitution, must be under the age of 21 at the time of his registration (unless by
dispensation), shall be required to serve a regular apprenticeship of three con­
secutive years and shall register with the local union or district council in
the locality where he is employed. * ♦ * An apprentice leaving (his em­
ployer) except for good reasons shall not be permitted to work under the
jurisdiction of any local union in our brotherhood, but shall be required to
return to his employer and serve out his apprentiship.
“ Apprentices in the last year of their service shall be initiated as apprentices
and entitled to a seat in the union, but shall have no vote.
“ Each local union and district council shall make regulations limiting the
number of apprentices employed in each shop to one for such number of journey­
men as may seem just.”
Agreements.—Negotiated locally, by district councils where such exist, other­
wise by local unions, generally with individual employers, and are subject to
approval by the general executive board.
“ There is no stated policy regarding agreements, further than that they
must specify that only members of the brotherhood be employed, and that the
contractors pay the prevailing wages and observe the working conditions.”
Benefits.— Strike; death (member and member’s wife) ; total disability; injury
(by some locals).
Official organ.—The Painter and Decorator.
Headquarters.—Painters and Decorators* Building, La Fayette, Ind.
Organization.— Conferences: California (S ta te ); Colorado (State) ; Connecti­
cut (S ta te ); Connecticut Valley conference (headquarters, Westfield, M ass.);
Eastern Conference of Sign, Scene, and Pictorial Painters (headquarters, New
York C ity ); eastern Pennsylvania district conference; Florida (S ta te ); Illinois
(S ta te ); Indiana (State) ; Iowa (S ta te ); Kentucky (S ta te ); Massachusetts
(S tate); Merrimac Valley Midwest conference of glass workers; Minnesota
(S ta te ); National conference of Sign, Scene, and Pictorial Painters (head­
quarters, Chicago, 111.); New Jersey (S ta te); New York (S ta te ); Ohio
(S ta te ); Oklahoma (S ta te ); Pacific Coast Conference of Glass Workers; Pacific
Coast Conference o f Sign, Scene, and Pictorial Painters; Texas (S ta te );
Washington (State) ; western Pennsylvania tri-State conference (headquarters,
New Castle, Pa.) ; Wisconsin (State) ; Worcester County (Mass.) conference.
District councils: Alabama, Birmingham; California, Los Angeles, Santa
Clara County, and San Francisco; Florida, Miami; Georgia, Atlanta; Illinois,
Chicago, DuPage County, Mississippi Valley (Rock Island) ; Indiana, Indian­
apolis; Maryland, Baltimore; Massachusetts, North Shore (Gloucester, Beverly,
etc.), Berkshire County; Boston and Natick and vicinity; Michigan, Detroit;
Minnesota, Twin City; Missouri, St. Louis and Kansas City; New Jersey,
Bergen, and Passaic Counties, and Essex County; New York, Buffalo, Man­
hattan and Bronx, Rochester, Rockland County, Westchester County, Nassau




BUILDING TKADES

45

County and Queens, Kings County, and Hudson River Counties; Oh’o, Cleve­
land, Cincinnati, and Columbus; Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh;
Texas, Dallas and Houston; Quebec, Montreal.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 11; Arizona, 5; Arkansas, 12; Cali­
fornia, 76; Colorado, 13; Connecticut, 27; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia, 6 ;
Florida, 34; Georgia, 10; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 117; Indiana, 52; Iowa, 24;
Kansas, 18; Kentucky, 16; Louisiana, 12; Maine, 9 ; Maryland, 7 ; Massachu­
setts, 70 ; Michigan, 24; Minnesota, 16; Mississippi, 6 ; Missouri, 33; Montana,
12; Nebraska, 6; Nevada, 4 ; New Hampshire, 6 ; New Jersey, 49; New Mexico,
4 ; New York, 110; North Carolina, 5; North Dakota, 4 ; Ohio, 67; Oklahoma, 33;
Oregon, 14; Pennsylvania, 78; Rhode Island, 6 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South
Dakota, 2 ; Tennessee, 11; Texas, 63; Utah, 4 ; Vermont, 6 ; Virginia, 10;
Washington, 25; West Virginia, 10; Wisconsin, 2 7 Wyoming, 8 ; Canal Zone,
1; Porto Rico, 1. Canada— Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 2 ; Manitoba, 1 ;
Nova Scotia, 2 ; Ontario, 15; Quebec, 7; Saskatchewan,. 2. Total, 1,201.
Membership.—125,000.

Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Association of the
United States and Canada, Operative
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1864 as the National Plasterers’ Organization o f the
United States. The name was changed in 1889 to Operative Plas­
terers’ International Association of the United States and Canada.
In 1916 the American Brotherhood of Cement Workers was dissolved
and the cement finishers belonging to that organization were trans­
ferred to the plasterers’ union. The name was again changed to
signify amalgamation with the cement finishers, and the present title
was adopted in 1916.
Object.—The object of this association shall be to facilitate the organization
of the trade it represents, for mutual benefit, protection and education.
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Plasterers.— “All interior or exterior plastering of cement,
stucco, stone imitation or any patent material when cast, the casting and
setting of same, also corner beads when stuck must be done by practical
plasterers o f the Operative Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International
Association. This includes the plastering and finishing with hot composition
material in vats, compartments, or wherever applied; also the setting in place
o f plaster boards, ground blocks, patent dots, cork plates. Also the sticking,
nailing, and screwing o f all composition caps and ornaments. The prepar­
ing, scratching, and browning of all ceilings and walls when finished with
terrazzo or tile shall be done by plasterers of this association, allowing suffi­
cient thickness to allow the applying of the terrazzo or tile and the application
of any plastic material to the same must be done by members of the Operative
Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Association who are practical
plasterers. All casting must be done by members of 4shop-hand locals.* The
applying of any plastic materials to soffits, ceilings or perpendicular work is
recognized as the work of the plasterer, except a base 6 inches or less when
the same is of the same material as the floor. * * * No member o f this
association shall be allowed to work to any corner beads that are put on
beams, arches, or groin ceilings.
“ All casting and finishing o f all imitation stone shall be the work o f the
membership of the Operative Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International
Association.”
Cement finishers.— “All concrete construction, including the foremanship of
same, such as buildings, bridges, elevators, smokestacks, curbs, and gutters,
sidewalks, street paving, alleys and roofs, of mass or reinforced concrete,
slabs and all flat surfaces of cement, rock asphalt, mastic in block or any other
form, composition, terrazzo, granitoid, mosaic and nail coat, whether done by
brush, broom, trowel, float, or any other process. The rodding, spreading and
tamping of all concrete, and the spreading and finishing of all top materials,
siUs, coping, steps, stairs, and risers and running all base 6 inches or less




46

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-TJNIONS

in height when floors of the above-mentioned materials are used, patching,
brushing, rubbing, chipping, and bush-hammering of all concrete constructions,
setting of all strips and stakes and grades. All glass set in cement. The
pointing and patching around all steel or metal window frames that touch con­
crete. That above does not include any work done in and by the usual method
of plastering.”
Government.—1. General officers: General president, first vice president and
12 additional vice presidents, secretary-treasurer, editor, executive board, and
organizer. The executive board consists of three members: General president,
first vice president, and secretary-treasurer.
“ The executive board shall have control of all executive business and shall
fill all vacancies. They shall have power to settle all disputes, grievances,
lockouts between employers or exchanges,” and their “ decisions shall be
binding, subject to an appeal to the convention. * * * They shall have full
and complete control over all strikes.”
2. Local unions: Autonomy not defined in constitution.
3. Conventions: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ No applicant for membership shall be ini­
tiated into any local of this association until he has completed his full term of
apprenticeship to the trade.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ Subordinate associations shall have jurisdic­
tion over the apprentice system. * * * In any local where there are not
more than 25 members there shall be not more than 2 apprentices allowed.”
Ratio of apprentices to journeymen governed by agreement, not by con­
stitutional provision.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with local employers, either indi­
vidually or in association. Agreements subject to approval of the executive
board.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.—The Plasterer.
Headquarters.—Castell Building, Middletown, Ohio.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 7 ; Arizona, 2 ;
Arkansas, 7; California, 29; Colorado, 8; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia,
1; Florida, 16; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 3 ; Illinois, 37; Indiana, 31; Iowa, 15;
Kansas, 13; Kentucky, 6 ; Louisiana, 5; Maine, 1; Maryland, 3 ; Massachu­
setts, 6 ; Michigan, 13; Minnesota, 6; Mississippi, 4 ; Missouri, 16; Montana,
4 ; Nebraska, 3; Nevada, 2 ; New Jersey, 5; New Mexico, 2 ; New York, 14;
North Carolina, 5; Ohio, 32; Oklahoma, 16; Oregon, 8 ; Pennsylvania, 43;
Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina, 4 ; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 6 ; Texas, 23;
Utah, 4 ; Virginia, 7 ; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 7; Wisconsin, 11; W yo­
ming, 4 ; Hawaii, 1. Canada— Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 1; Manitoba, 2 ;
Nova Scotia, 1; Ontario, 7 ; Quebec, 2 ; Saskatchewan, 2. Total, 466.
Membership.—43,000.

Plumbers and Steam Fitters of the United States and Canada*
United Association of Journeymen
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized October 11, 1889, in Washington, D. C. Prior to the
founding o f the present United Association an organization known
as the International Association of Plumbers, Steam Fitters and Gas
Fitters was formed at Cincinnati, Ohio, composed of Knights of
Labor locals and a few independent craft unions. This organization
and representatives of local organizations which had not identified
themselves with the national body met in Washington on October
11, 1889, and established the United Association o f Journeymen
Plumbers and Steam Fitters.
A dual organization, the International Union of Steam and Hot
Water Fitters, was chartered by the American Federation of Labor
in 1899 and both unions functioned separately until 1912, when
amalgamation was ordered by the American Federation of Labor



BUILDING TRADES

47

and the Building Trades Department. The International Union
of Steam and Hot Water Fitters refused to comply with the order
and was expelled from the federation. Subsequently, while actual
amalgamation did not occur, local organizations o f the outlawed
union withdrew from the parent body and were chartered as local
unions of the United Association, and the International Union of
Steam and Hot Water Fitters passed out of existence.
Objects.— “ The aspirations of this association are to construct an organiza­
tion which shall subserve the interest of all its members and be a fitting monu­
ment to the unions attached thereto. The objects of this association are to
protect its members from unjust and injurious competition, and secure through
unity of action among all workers of the trade throughout the United States
and Canada, claiming as we do that labor is capital, and is the only capital
that possesses power to reproduce itself, or, in other words, to create capital.
Labor is the interest underlying all other interests; therefore, it is entitled to
and should receive from society and government protection and encourage­
ment.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—All branches of the pipe-fitting industry (plumbers, gas
flitters, steam fitters, sprinkler fitters, railroad fitters, marine plumbers, marine
fitters, general pipe fitters, steam, sprinkling, and marine fitters’ helpers and
apprentices).
Government.—1. General officers, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
assistant secretary, 13 general organizers, and 14 vice presidents (7 plumbers
and 7 steam fitters) “ shall have full discretionary powers over all things
connected with the association between conventions (except decisions made at
conventions).
2. State associations: Delegate bodies chartered by the association. “ Where
such State associations exists it shall be mandatory upon all locals in that
State to affiliate.” * * * state associations “ shall have power to create
* * * such funds as in their judgment seem wise, such funds to be used
for the protection and promotion o f the trade in their respective jurisdiction.”
3. Local unions: Subordinate.
4. Convention: Held quadrennially; enacts legislation and elects general offi­
cers. Amendments to constitution and revision of laws by convention or by
initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any competent journeyman plumber or steam
fitter is eligible to membership. Competency determined by examination.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ Whenever necessary, local unions may allow
each shop 1 apprentice, where they employ 1 or more journeymen steadily,
and 1 additional apprentice for every 5 men steadily employed up to 20; but
in no case shall any shop be entitled to more than 4 apprentices.
Each
apprentice shall be registered by a joint committee o f employers and journey­
men and must serve an apprenticeship o f five years.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, generally with employers* associa­
tions.
A national agreement covering sprinkler fitters in Local No. 660 (branches
in Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles,
Newark, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Providence) is made between the general
officers o f the United Association and representatives of several concerns
manufacturing and installing automatic fire-extinguishing apparatus. (Kansas
City, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee, and San Francisco sprinkler
fitters make local agreements with sprinkler companies.)
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; sick; death.
Official organ.—Plumbers, Gas and Steam Fitters’ Journal.
Headquarters.—Machinists Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State associations: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida,
Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minne­
sota, Missouri, New England, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
North Carolina, Potomac (District of Columbia), Texas, Washington, West­
chester County (New York), Wisconsin; Ontario and Saskatchewan.
District Councils: Central New York, Greater New York; Hudson Valley
(N. Y .), Los Angeles, Northern California, Great Lakes, Hudson County (N. J.),
Milwaukee Pipe Trades, Boston and vicinity, New England, Buffalo and vicinity.



48

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Local unions: United States—Alabama, 4 ; Arizona, 3 ; Arkansas, 4 ; Cali­
fornia, 41; Colorado, 8; Connecticut, 22; Delaware, 1 ; District o f Columbia,
3 ; Florida, 16; Georgia, 6; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 45; Indiana, 26; Iowa, 20;
Kansas, 11; Kentucky, 6 ; Louisiana, 5 ; Maine, 7 ; Maryland, 3 ; Massachusetts,
45; Michigan, 17; Minnesota, 12; Mississippi, 3 ; Missouri, 13; Montana, 9 ;
Nebraska, 5; Nevada, 2 ; New Hampshire, 6; New Jersey, 34; New Mexico,
1 ; New York, 68; North Carolina, 8 ; North Dakota, 3; Ohio, 40; Oklahoma,
11; Oregon, 7 ; Pennsylvania, 39; Rhode Island, 6 ; South Carolina, 4 ; Ten­
nessee, 8 ; Texas, 21; Utah, 3 ; Virginia, 8 ; Washington, 13; West Virginia,
6 ; Wisconsin, 22; Wyoming, 4; Hawaii, 1; Canal Zone, 2. Canada—Alberta,
3 ; British Columbia, 4 ; Manitoba, 2; New Brunswick, 3 ; Nova Scotia, 1 ; Ontario,
13; Quebec, 3 ; Saskatchewan, 3. Total, 688.
Membership.—65,000.

Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers’ Association, United
Slate, Tile, and Composition
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Pittsburgh, Pa., on September 8, 1919. It is an
amalgamation of two international unions engaged in roofing work,
the International Slate and Tile Roofers5 Union of America, organ­
ized in 1903, and the International Brotherhood of Composition
Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers, organized in 1907.
Objects.—“ To create and maintain a more harmonious and amicable relation
one with another for the mutual benefit of all concerned; to increase, nourish,
and sustain the prestige and dignity of all affiliated locals, at the same time
guaranteeing to and retaining by each its own local and individual autonomy;
to broaden the scope o f usefulness and extend the field o f employment o f each
and every individual member; to confederate as far as possible our somewhat
spasmodic individual efforts into one continuous collective undertaking for the
upbuilding and improvement of this association.,,
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— Slate, tile, and composition roofing; specifically, “ all
slate where used for roofing of any size, shape, or color, including flat or
promenade slate, with necessary metal flashing to make water-tight. All tile
where used for roofing of any size, shape, or color, and in any manner laid,
including flat or promenade tile, with necessary metal flashing to make water­
tight. All cementing in, on, or around the said tile and slate roof. All laying
of felt or paper beneath the above-mentioned work. All dressing, punching,
cutting of all roof slate or tile. All operation of slate-cutting or punching
machinery. All substitute material taking the place of slate or tile, as asbestos
slate or tile, cement or composition tile, excepting shingles of wood and metal
tile. All removal of slate or tile roofing as defined above where the same
is to be relaid. All forms of plastic slate, slag, and gravel roofing. All kinds
of asphalt or composition roofing. All rock asphalt mastic when used for
damp and water proofing. All prepared paper roofing. All compressed paper,
chemically prepared paper, and burlap when used for roofing or damp and
water proofing purposes, with or without coating. All damp-resisting prepa­
rations when applied with a mop, 3-knot brush, or swab in or outside of
buildings. All damp courses, sheeting, or coating on all foundation work. All
tarred floors. All laying of tile or brick when laid in pitch tar, asphalt mastic,
marmolite, or any form of bitumen.”
Government.—General executive board, composed o f president and six vice
presidents. General secretary-treasurer is an international officer but not a
member of the general executive board.
General executive board has general supervision over the association; deci­
sions binding unless reversed by convention.
2. Local unions: Largely self-governing. Autonomy not definitely fixed.
3. Convention: Held every two years, or subject to referendum call. Enacts
general legislation, acts on G. E. B. decisions, and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—Any skilled or apprentice roofer is eligible to
membership; but members must be or become American citizens.
Apprentice regulations.—Under control of local unions.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with individual employers.



BUILDING TRADES

49

Benefits.—Funeral.
Official organ.—The Journeyman Roofers’ Magazine (quarterly).
Headquarters.—3091 Coleridge Road, Cleveland, Ohio (variable).
Organization.—Local unions only: California, 10; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 2;
District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 3; Illinois, 11; Indiana, 4 ; Louisiana, 3;
Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 6 ; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1; Missouri, 5; Ne­
braska, 1 ; New Jersey, 7; New York, 9; Ohio, 10; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 7;
Texas, 4 ; Washington, 2 ; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 2. Total, 94.
Four other local unions, Locals Nos. 100, 101, 102, and 103, are maintained
by the United Association for workers in the trade located “ in any locality
where the requisite five men for the formation o f a local can not be found.”
They are general membership organizations, membership graduated from
Local No. 100 to Local No. 101 after one year’s membership, then to Local No.
102, etc. Membership in Local No. 103 entitles member to all rights and privi­
leges of membership in a regularly organized local.
Membership.— 4,500.

Stone Cutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized December 5, 1887. Craft unions of stonecutters were
among the earliest established in the United States, but the organiza­
tion as it exists to-day was launched on December 5, 1887, at a con­
vention held in Chicago, 111., attended by representatives from 20
widely scattered cities. The stonecutters were the first craft to
obtain a universal 8-hour day, which was accomplished by 1904.
Up to 1907 the Journeymen Stone Cutters5 Association had been
an independent organization, but it affiliated with the American Fed­
eration o f Labor in that year.
Two rival organizations of stonecutters existed in New York City—
the New York Stone Cutters’ Society and the Architectural Sculptors
and Carvers’ Association of New York. In 1915 both these organi­
zations merged with the Journeymen Stone Cutters, which thus be­
came the only organization in the trade, with jurisdiction over
carvers as well as cutters.
The official organ of the association has been in continuous publi­
cation since 1888.
Objects.—“ The objects o f this association a re: To protect the trade from the
dangers surrounding it and by cooperative effort to place ourselves on a founda­
tion sufficiently strong to prevent further encroachment. We propose to main­
tain an apprentice system, to encourage a higher standard of skill, and to culti­
vate a feeling o f friendship among the men of our craft.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The cutting, dressing, setting, carving, fitting, picking
out of all stone for position on the wall, drilling and patching o f all stone,
marble, Caen stone and artificial stone, exterior and interior, in or about a
building, irrespective o f any finish that may be specified; the trimming and
rubbing down of all stone and artificial stone where stonecutters’ tools, car­
borundum, emery or coarse sandstone is used; the molding of all artificial stone
and the cutting of terra cotta in shops; all reinforced concrete, concrete cement
blocks or artificial stone dressed or cut with stonecutters’ tools, bush hammer
and patent hammer; this classification to cover all stonecutting done in quar­
ries, shops or buildings, and in the construction o f bridges, culverts, manholes,
archways, etc., and the cutting of street curbings and all rock-faced stonecutting.”
Government.—General officers are president, vice president, general secretarytreasurer, and an executive board o f five elected members, one from each dis­
trict. They are the executive and administrative heads of the organization.
“ All local, State, and provincial conferences shall be subordinate to and abide
by the rulings of officers o f the association.”




50

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

2. State, provincial, and district conferences: Formed from two-thirds or more
o f the locals in their respective territories, and “ shall have power to make
laws to govern themselves * * * so long as such laws do not conflict with
the constitution and by-laws of the association.”
3. Local unions: “All local unions shall have the right to establish their own
local laws, provided they do not conflict with the constitution.”
4. Convention: Held triennially, enacts general legislation. Election o f
general officers by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Journeymen stone cutters and carvers, bluestone cutters and carvers, marble cutters and carvers, bridge and curb cutters,
tool sharpeners and grinders, and all who operate stone, bluestone, marble, and
artificial stonecutting and sawing machinery and all molders in artificial stone
plants and all who are engaged in the fabrication o f stone, bluestone, or
artificial stone, who are citizens of the United States or Canada, or who have
declared citizenship intentions, are eligible to membership, after demonstrating
ability by actual work performed. “ Planermen and all machine men, includ­
ing all men operating lathes or carborundum machinery used in the fabrica­
tion of all materials over which we claim jurisdiction, may become members.”
“ Molders of cast or artificial stone will be taken in under a separate charter.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ No applicant under the age of 16 years or over
20 shall be allowed to apprentice himself to the trade. All apprentices to
the stonecutting industry shall serve a term of four years and shall comply
with all the rules and regulations governing journeymen.
“ One apprentice will be allowed to every 5 men in a shop; 2 apprentices to
15 men; but in no case shall there be more than 3 apprentices in any one shop.
“ Locals shall stipulate the rate of wages apprentices under their juris­
diction shall receive each year.
“ The employer shall provide all tools for apprentices until said apprentices
become journeymen. Apprentices are not to use pneumatic machines.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with local employers, generally indi­
vidually, but occasionally in association.
Constitutional prohibitions: “ This association strictly prohibits piecework
and subcontracting of stone cutting or carving * * *. Any member taking a
contract shall be compelled to take out an employer’s card. Employers shall
not work at cutting or carving unless they have two or more members of the
association employed. * * * This association does not permit its members
to do any carving unless they receive carver’s wages. Carvers shall receive at
least $2 per day more than journeymen cutters. * * * No member of this
association shall be allowed to work on any material that is fabricated in a
prison. * * * No member of this association shall be permitted to make time
contracts with employers. No member of this association is to cut stone where
lines are drawn on by apprentices or nonmembers.”
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.—The Stone Cutters’ Journal.
Headquarters.—American Central Life Building, Indianapolis, Ind.
Organization.—Districts:
District No. 1 : California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming,
Washington, Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, Minne­
sota, Iowa, Kansas, Wisconsin, Oregon, Missouri, Kentucky, New Mexico.
District No. 2 : Illinois, Indiana, Michigan.
District No. 3 : Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida,
Oklahoma, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, District of Columbia, Pennsyl­
vania, Ohio, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Vermont,
New Hampshire, Maine.
District No. 4 : New Jersey, New York.
District No. 5 : Dominion of Canada.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arkansas, 1 ; California, 2 ;
Colorado, 3 ; Connecticut, 4 ; District of Columbia, 1 ; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 1;
Idaho, 1 ; Illinois, 9; Indiana, 11; Iowa, 4 ; Kansas, 6 ; Kentucky, 3 ; Louisiana,
1; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 3 ; Michigan, 3 ; Minnesota, 4 ; Missouri, 4;
Nebraska, 2 ; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 11; Ohio, 14; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 1;
Pennsylvania, 10; Rhode Island, 1 ; Tennessee 3; Texas, 4 ; Utah, 1 ; Virginia, 1;
Washington, 1; West Virginia, 3 ; Wisconsin, 4 ; Wyoming, 1. Canadai
—
Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 2 ; Manitoba, 1 ; Ontario, 9 ; Quebec, 3 ; Sas­
katchewan, 1. Total, 144.
Membership.—5,800.



METALS AND MACHINERY
lWJOST of the organizations in the metal trades date from the inception o f the labor movement in the United States, one o f them,
the International Molders’ Union, having been a pioneer in the move­
ment. That organization has been in continuous existence since
1859, and was the first international union, extending its jurisdiction
to Canada in 1861.
Structural changes within the metal-trades unions have been
chiefly in line with developments in the industry, and have not been
important, while jurisdictional lines are fairly sharp. The tendency
is toward absorption of the smaller craft bodies by the larger unions.
The International Molders’ Union absorbed the Core Makers’ Inter­
national Union and the brass molders holding membership in the
old Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers, and Brass Workers’ Union.
Various jurisdictional readjustments limited the field o f the latter
organization to metal polishing and electroplating, and it became in
1917 the Metal Polishers’ International Union. Metal engravers are
organized separately. Since 1917 the Metal Polishers’ International
Union has taken up most of the membership of the disbanded Pocketknife Blade Grinders and Finishers’ National Union. Similarly the
Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association has absorbed the
Coppersmiths’ International Union and, more recently, the Chande­
lier, Brass and Metal Workers’ Union.
One small craft union still operates in the limited field of stove
mounting, and unskilled and common labor in foundries is controlled
by the International Brotherhood of Foundry Employees.
At present there is only one independent union in this group, the
United Automobile, Aircraft and Vehicle Workers of America,
which was originally the International Union o f Carriage and
Wagon Workers, affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
It was an industrial union from the first, its chartered jurisdiction
extending to all kinds of work involved in the making of carriages
and wagons. When the industry changed from carriage making to
automobile manufacture the union undertook to expand with it.
However, the many craft organizations involved protested against
encroachments on their various jurisdictions and the American Fed­
eration of Labor repeatedly upheld the principle of craft organiza­
tion as applied to automobile manufacture. The International
Union of Carriage, Wagon and Automobile Workers was ordered to
release its craftsmen to their respective organizations and to drop
the word “ automobile ” from its title. It refused to do so and was
expelled from the federation in 1918. It then reorganized under its
present title on a platform o f industrial unionism, and automobile
workers, so far as they were organized at all, held membership in the
United Automobile, Aircraft and Vehicle Workers. In 1929 two
locals o f the organization in New York, embracing workers in air-




51

52

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

craft plants, withdrew and were chartered by the American Feder­
ation o f Labor as directly affiliated local unions, thus dividing juris­
diction over this class of workers between affiliated and independent
organizations.
Organizations in the metal and machinery industry are:
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Metal Trades Department, American Federation of Labor______
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers and Helpers, International Brother­
hood of_______________________________________________________
Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America, Inter­
national Brotherhood o f_______________________________________
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Workers, International
Association of (classified under Building Trades)_____________
Draftsmen’s Union, International Federation of Technical Engi­
neers, Architects and_________________________________________
Electrical Workers of America, International Brotherhood of
(classified under Building Trades)____________________________
Engineers, International Union of Operating (classified under
Building Trades)_____________________________________________
Engravers’ Union, International Metal___________________________
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of________________
Foundry Employees, International Brotherhood of_______________
Iron, Steel and Tin Workers of North America, Amalgamated
Association o f__________________________________________________
Machinists, International Association o f__________________________
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet_________________
Molders’ Union of North America, International_________________
Pattern Makers’ League of America______________ ______________
Polishers’ International Union, Metal____________________________
Stove Mounters’ International Union of North America___________
Independent organizations:
Automobile, Aircraft, and Vehicle Workers of America, United__

Page
10
53
56
23
58
30
35
58
59
60
61
61
67
70
72
73
74
52

Automobile, Aircraft, and Vehicle Workers of America, United
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1918. This organization was originally the Inter­
national Union of Carriage and Wagon Workers, which organized
in 1891 and affiliated to the American Federation of Labor in 1893.
When the industry in which the union functioned changed from
carriage and wagon making to automobile manufacture, the union
endeavored to change with it. By a resolution introduced into the
American Federation of Labor convention of 1910 the carriage and
wagon workers sought an extension of jurisdiction to cover the
automobile industry, carrying with it the addition of the word “ auto­
mobile ” to the name of the organization.
A t a conference o f the heads of the American Federation of Labor
and the craft unions interested, held in April, 1911, an agreement
was reached by which the International Union of Carriage and
Wagon Workers, already an industrial union, could proceed with the
organization of the automobile factories without interference from
the craft unions. The carriage and wagon workers5 union was to
accept the cards o f the craft men who desired to transfer their mem­
bership and was to concede the right of the craft unionists to remain
in their respective organizations if they so preferred.
In the 1912 convention of the American Federation o f Labor the
Brotherhood o f Blacksmiths charged the carriage and wagon work­



METALS AND MACHINERY

53

ers’ union with bad faith and violation o f the agreement. The
whole subject was thrown open again and the convention of 1913
passed a group resolution presented by the blacksmiths, the sheetmetal workers, the metal polishers, the painters, the pattern makers,
the machinists, the carpenters, the electrical workers, and the up­
holsterers demanding that the carriage and wagon workers’ union
release its members to the respective craft unions holding jurisdiction
and that the word “ automobile ” be dropped from the title of that
organization.
Succeeding conventions reaffirmed the craft principle as applied to
the situation in the automobile industry, and in April, 1918, the
International Union of Carriage and Wagon Workers was expelled
from the American Federation o f Labor for failure to comply with
convention decisions.
Following the separation from the American Federation o f Labor
the union adopted a new constitution and launched an independent
industrial organization under the name of United Automobile, A ir­
craft, and Vehicle Workers of America.
Object.— “ The object of this organization shall be to establish and uphold a
fair and equitable rate of wages, lessen the hours of labor, and regulate all
labor matters pertaining to members.
“ To educate the workers in all economic and political questions necessary
to better the condition of wage earners; to endeavor to replace strikes by
arbitration and conciliation in settlement of all disputes concerning wages and
conditions of employment; to elevate, protect, and maintain the position o f th«j
workers in our industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The automobile, aircraft, and vehicle industry.
Government.— “ The government of this organization shall be vested in a
general executive board, consisting o f the general officers and five members
to be elected by the local in the /i t y in which the general headquarters is
located. * * * It is the duty o f the general executive board to repre­
sent the general organization in every respect The general executive board
shall decide all questions o f jurisdiction and law and shall have full power to
authorize strikes, so far as they are not prohibited by this constitution.”
2.
Local unions: “ The shop shall be the basic unit o f structure, local unions
to be composed o f an unlimited number of shop units.”
8. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—Any worker o f good moral character engaged
in the industry is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None by general organization. So far as appren­
ticeship system exists it is regulated in agreements.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, with the approval o f the general
executive board, but “ it shall be obligatory upon all unions to insert the arbi­
tration clause in all contracts,” and “ it shaU be mandatory to provide for the
lay-off system in every contract”
Benefits.— Strike and lockout.
Official organ.—The Auto Worker.
Headquarters.—3782 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, Mich.
Organization.—The unit of organization is the shop.
Local unions: California, 1 ; Michigan, 4 ; Ohio, 3. Total, 8.
Membership.—1,500.

Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and Helpers, International Brother­
hood of
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Atlanta, Ga., in 1889. An organization called the
Grand Union of Machinists and Blacksmiths was formed at Phila­
delphia, Pa., on March 3, 1859, by delegates from five cities in three



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

States. It did not survive the Civil War and was succeeded by local
assemblies of machinists and blacksmiths, organized under the
Knights o f Labor, the first of which was in Philadelphia, in 1873.
The present organization began as an association of railroad
blacksmiths under the title of International Brotherhood of Black­
smiths. It was practically wiped out by the American Railway
Union strike, but revived sufficiently to secure a charter from the
American Federation of Labor in 1897. Jurisdiction was extended
to include blacksmith helpers, and in 1903 the name of the organi­
zation was changed to International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths
and Helpers.
Drop forgers formed an organization at Boston, Mass., in 1900, and
in 1905 merged with the International Association of Machinists.
They withdrew later and formed an independent organization
known as the Brotherhood of Drop Forgers, Die Sinkers, and Trim­
ming Die Makers. Affiliation to the American Federation of Labor
was refused because of conflicting jurisdiction, since blacksmiths
included drop forging in their claims. In 1919 the Brotherhood of
Drop Forgers amalgamated with the Brotherhood of Blacksmiths,
which then became the International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths,
Drop Forgers, and Helpers.
Objects.—“ Believing it to be the natural right of those who toil to enjoy to
the fullest extent the wealth created by their labor; and realizing that under
the changing industrial conditions of our time and the enormous growth of
syndicates and other aggressions o f capital it is impossible for us to obtain
the full reward o f our labor except by united action; and believing that
organization founded on sound principles as to the wisest use of our citizen­
ship, based upon the class struggle along cooperative, economic, and political
lines, with a view of restoring the common wealth of our govenments to
the people, and by using the natural resources and means of production and
distribution for the benefit of all the people, * * * we pledge ourselves to
labor unitedly in behalf of the principles herein set forth, to perpetuate our
association on the basis of friendship and justice, to expound its objects and
work for their general adoption.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ It is hereby established and imperatively ordered that
the following shall be blacksmith work, which includes all blacksmith work
in the railroad shops, shipyards, navy yards, arsenals and naval stations,
automobile shops, carriage and wagon shops, motor-cycle shops, and contract
shops, frog and crossing shops, drop-forge shops, forge shops, spring shops,
chain shops, nut, bolt, and rivet shops, and acetylene, electric, or thermit
welding shops, and all other shops where blacksmith work is done.
“ (a ) All forging, all welding, whether by acetylene, electric, or thermit or
any other process, also flue and tube welding, straightening of iron and steel,
both hot and cold ; all blacksmiths’ work on structural-shaped steel, all forging,
tempering, and dressing of tools, including sharp-edge tools and instruments;
bending and straightening of angle iron, channel iron, T iron, and I beams,
whether done hot or cold, from furnaces or fires, operating forging and upset­
ting machines, drop forging and trimmers, both hot and cold ; axle forgers, bolt
machines, bulldozer machine work, or any machine doing blacksmith work,
and all work performed on Bradley hammer, punch, and shear machines
when connected with the blacksmith department, hot or cold hand press
machines, all frames on engines, cars, tanks, and trucks, all welding o f rails,
building up switch points and frogs, and all track work, all dredge-dipper
and steam-shovel work, hardeners, case hardeners, annealers, and heat treaters,
and the reclaiming of scrap.
“ (6) Automobile and wagon and carriage shops, putting on, taking off, and
fitting auto fenders, putting on running-board brackets, building and rebuild­
ing fire trucks, making and repairing all springs, putting on and taking off
all springs, making aU springs and spring fittings, setting and riveting when



METALS AND MACHINERY

55

done in conjunction with blacksmith work, grinding pertaining to blacksmith
work, benders, resetters, bath men, forgers, and finishers.
“ (c) Putting on and taking off rubber tires, putting flanges on wheels,
putting on and repairing bumpers, putting on and taking off wheels, putting
on and riveting fiber of brake bands, putting on and taking off radius rods,
putting on pyrene brackets, repairing and setting all axles, straightening and
repairing of auto frames, putting on brackets for radiator, fitting up wind­
shields, putting handles on doors, fitting handrails on back of auto, fitting
up gongs. All drilling, filing, lining up wheels, adjusting brake rods, tip
welding and tire setting, making and putting on license brackets, headlight
brackets, making and putting on body iron.
“ (d ) All the foregoing, and in addition thereto any other work which does
now or in the future may, as industries develop, fall naturally within the
scope of the jurisdiction of blacksmiths, drop forgers, and helpers.”
Government.—1. General president “ shall have the direction and supervision
of all subordinate and district lodges * * * and have full control of the
work of the organization throughout the jurisdiction of the brotherhood.”
General executive board consists o f president, secretary-treasurer, and seven
elected members, one of whom shall be a member of a local in Canada.
2. District council: Composed of delegates from all affiliated locals within a
given district; affiliation compulsory. “ Action by a district council in regu­
lating the affairs of said district shall be final.” Constitution dictated by
international brotherhood.
Railroad councils: Composed of delegates from affiliated shops or locals.
Affiliation compulsory. Constitution dictated by international brotherhood.
3. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution and by-laws dictated by inter­
national brotherhood.
4. Convention: Held quadrennially.
Initiative, referendum, and recall. Nomination and election o f general offi­
cers by referendum; constitutional amendments by initiative and referendum.
Recall of officers provided for.
Qualifications for membership.—Any man who is a competent worker at any
of the occupations embraced in the jurisdiction, “ capable of earning the mini­
mum wage established by the organization in his locality,” is eligible to mem­
bership. Persons who are members “ o f the Industrial Workers o f the World,
State militia, miners’ police, sheriff’s office, police force, detective force, or
secret-service fo r c e ” are ineligible. Any blacksmith “ conducting a black­
smith shop and employing not to exceed three blacksmiths ” may be admitted
to membership.
Colored: ‘ ‘Where there are a sufficient number of colored helpers they may
be organized as an auxiliary local and shall be under the jurisdiction of the
white local having jurisdiction over that territory. * * * Colored helpers
shall not transfer except to another auxiliary local composed o f colored mem­
bers, and colored members shall not be promoted to blacksmiths or helper
apprentices and will not be admitted to shops where white helpers are now
employed.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “Any boy engaging himself to learn the trade
of blacksmithing must serve four years. He shall in no case leave his em­
ployer without just cause. Any difficulty arising between the apprentice and
his employer must be submitted to the shop committee.
“ The following ratio of apprentices will be allowed: One to every five
blacksmiths regularly employed.
“ No boy shall begin to learn the trade until he is 16 years old nor after the
age of 21 years.
“ Apprentices who have served six months shall be eligible to membership.
“ Local unions shall do all in their power to encourage the apprentice
system.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by district councils or local unions, approved by the
general executive board. District councils and railroad system councils must
establish a minimum wage rate, by constitutional requirement. Contracts
covering railroad workers are negotiated in conjunction with other railroad
crafts.
Benefits.—Death.
Official organ.—International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and
Helpers’ Bi-Monthly Journal.
Headquarters.—2922 Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111.
07004°— 29------ 5




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OF

AMERICAN TRADE-UNI0NS

Organization.—District councils: Chicago, 111.; Greater New Y ork ; San Fran­
cisco and vicinity; St. Louis; New Orleans; Boston; Pittsburgh and vicinity;
Philadelphia and vicinity; Norfolk, Va., and vicinity; Anthracite district.
Railroad systems councils: Missouri Pacific; Canadian Pacific; Baltimore &
Ohio; Frisco; New York, New Haven & Hartford; Illinois Central and allied
lines; Milwaukee System; Louisville & Nashville; Brie; Chicago & North
Western; Rock Island; Chesapeake & Ohio; Southern and allied lines; Big
Four; Norfolk & Western; Boston & Maine; Central of Georgia; Missouri,
Kansas & Texas; Delaware & Hudson; Denver & Rio Grande; northwest
district (Wisconsin) ; Mobile & Ohio; Wabash; Atlantic Coast Line; Santa F e;
Burlington; Chicago & Alton; Seaboard Air Line; Pennsylvania; Union Pa­
cific; Southern Pacific; New York Central and allied lines; Delaware, Lacka­
wanna & Western; Lehigh; Chicago Great Western; Central o f New Jersey;
Grand Trunk; switching and terminal lines.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 5; Arizona, 1; Arkansas, 1 ; Cali­
fornia, 5; Colorado, 1; Connecticut, 1; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 5
(one colored auxiliary); Georgia, 5 (one colored auxiliary); Illinois, 19;
Indiana, 10; Iowa, 6 ; Kentucky, 3; Louisiana, 3 ; Maryland, 5 ; Massachusetts,
5 ; Michigan, 6 ; Minnesota, 4 ; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 4 ; Montana, 5; Nevada,
1; New Jersey, 5; New York, 14; North Carolina, 3 (one colored auxiliary) ;
Ohio, 16; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 12; South Carolina, 5 (two colored auxil­
iaries) ; Tennessee, 7 (three colored auxiliaries); Utah, 1; Virginia, 7 (two
colored auxiliaries); Washington, 5; West Virginia, 8; Wisconsin, 5 ; Canal
Zone, 1. Canada—Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 2 ; Manitoba, 2; New Bruns­
wick, 2 ; Ontario, 6; Quebec, 5. Total, 206.
Membership.—15,000.

Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America, Interna­
tional Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., October 1, 1880, at a conference held
by representatives of nine independent unions. A few years later
boilermakers in the South organized the National Brotherhood of
Boilermakers, at Atlanta, Ga. At a special conference held at
Chicago, September 1, 1893, the two national organizations consoli­
dated under the name of the International Brotherhood of Boiler­
makers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America.
Objects.—“ Organization being necessary to protect the wage earners and to
institute better conditions with the assistance of progressive, intelligent com­
binations, therefore, in order to emancipate our fellow craftsmen from the
oppressive burdens they are now suffering under, we have organized this
brotherhood.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The construction, erection, assembling, and repairing of
all boilers, drums, tanks, parts and work in connection therewith, including
boiler fronts, heat units, water walls, tube supports and casings (except the
unloading, hoisting or lowering and placing of complete boilers, steam drums
and assembled sections of water tube boilers to their approximate position) ;
all connections between the boiler and stack (commonly known as breeching),
build of sheet steel or iron, supports for the same (which are not part o f the
building structure), uptakes, smoke boxes, air and water heaters, smoke con­
sumers, hot or co.ld air ducts (except when used for ventilating purposes),
pontoons, brewery vats (except glass enameled tanks), water towers (except
structural frames and balconies) ; all iron and steel pipe line, pen stocks and
flume work, steam, air, gas, oil, water, or other liquid tanks or containers re­
quiring tight joints, including tanks of riveted, calked, or welded construction
in connection with swimming pools; gasometers, including al,l frame work
in connection with same. All steel stacks in connection with power plants,
furnaces, rolling mills, manufacturing plants, and all other power plants (ex­
cept smal,l power plants in connection with hotels or office buildings, and sec­
tional or other steel stacks erected in office buildings or hotels), all extensions
or repairs to such stacks shall be done by the boilermakers.



METALS AND MACHINERY

57

“ The following work in and around blast furnaces and rolling mli,ls: Hot
stoves, blast furnaces, cupolas and dump cars, and all steam, air, water, gas,
oil, or other liquid tight w ork; ore, water, and toilet cars.
“ All iron and steel shipbuildings, all work in connection with mold loft, all
fabricated parts of ship, all metal plates and shapes, the hoisting and placing
of same in connection with construction and repair of iron and steel ships;
barges, tankers and boats, masts, derricks, booms, air ports, metal doors, venti­
lators, foundations, pillars and stanchions, inboard and outboard fittings, such
as house pipes, bitts, chocks, plugs, pads, ringbolts, railings, meta,l ladders,
gratings, doublers and stiffening rings, fire and engine room and other portable
floors and platforms; all drilling, tapping, and reaming in connection with con­
struction, installation and repair of ships and their equipment, all plate straight­
ening on tank and ship work.
“ The building and applying of steel cabs, running boards, including front ends,
fire doors, fire door frames, ash pans, netting and diaphram work, engine tender
tanks, steel underframes and pressed steel tender truck frames, the applying and
removing of all staybolts, grates, radials, flexible caps, sleeves, crown bolts,
stay rods and braces in boilers, tanks, and drums, removing and renewing all
tubes (including arch tubes), metal headlight boards, wind shields, metal pilots;
the building and repairing of gasoline and electric propelled motor cars, the
laying out and fitting up of any sheet iron or steel work made of 16-gauge and
heavier, except where steel or iron is galvanized, pickled, or black tarnished;
water wheel and turbine work, including turbine castings, the operating of
punches, shears, roljs, pneumatic hammer, air rams, bull, jam and yoke riveters,
building and repairing of steam shovels and snow plows, I-beams, angle iron,
T-iron and brake beams; drilling and tapping in connection with the above
classification of work; also all acetylene and electric welding or any other
welding process used on work coming under our classification/’
Government.—1. “ The international lodge has full jurisdiction over all sub­
ordinate lodges and is the highest tribunal of the brotherhood.
“ The executive and judicial powers only of the international lodge when not
in session shall be vested in an international executive council o f the brother­
hood, which shall consist of the international president, assistant president,
and all of the international vice presidents (10).”
Legislative powers reserved to convention and initiative and referendum.
2. Local unions: “ Subordinate lodges shall be competent to make, alter, or
amend their by-laws, rules, and regulations, subject to approval o f the interna­
tional.” Constitution dictated by international.
3. Convention: Meets every third year, legislates and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.— “An applicant for membership must be a freeborn male citizen of some civilized country, 16 years of age, working at some
branch of the trade at the time o f making application.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ There shall be only one apprentice to every five
boilermakers or shipbuilders, * * * and all firms employing such appren­
tices shall draw up an agreement satisfactory to this organization.
“Any person engaging himself as an apprentice must be between the ages o f
16 and 40 and must be given an opportunity to learn all branches of the com­
bined trade of this brotherhood.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions through wage-scale committees. In­
ternational officers act with other organizations in agreements covering railroad
workers and shipbuilders.
Benefits.— Strike, death, and disability.
Official organ.— Official Journal of the Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders.
Headquarters.—Brotherhood Block, Kansas City, Kans.
Organization.—Local unions in railroad work are organized into district
lodges, one district for each railroad system so organized. Systems represented
in district lodges a re: E rie; New York Central; Southern; Chicago & North­
western; Big Four; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; Canadian Pacific and
Canadian National; Baltimore and Ohio; Seaboard Air Line; Chesapeake &
Ohio; Western Pacific. Other district lodges: Navy Yards; Pacific Coast;
Port of New York.
Local lodges: United States—Alabama, 5; Arizona, 3 ; Arkansas. 2 ; Cali­
fornia, 13; Colorado, 3; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 4 ; Illinois,
22; Indiana, 12; Iowa, 17; Kansas, 2 ; Kentucky, 5; Louisiana, 5 ; Maine, 2 ;
Maryland, 6; Massachusetts, 4 ; Michigan, 9 ; Minnesota, 6 ; Mississippi, 1; Mis­
souri, 7 ; Montana, 6; Nebraska, 4 ; Nevada, 2 ; New Hampshire, 1 ; New Jersey,
6 ; New Mexico, 1 ; New York, 23; North Carolina, 3 ; Oklahoma, 2 ; Ohio, 22;



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TEADE-UljtlONS

Oregon, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 21; South Carolina, 2 ; South Dakota, 3 ; Tennessee, 7;
Texas, 8 ; Utah, 2 ; Vermont, 1 ; Virginia, 8; Washington, 5; West Virginia, 9 ;
Wisconsin 11; Wyoming, 1; Hawaiian Islands, 1; Canal Zone, 2. Canada—Al­
berta, 2 ; British Columbia, 2 ; Manitoba, 2 ; New Brunswick, 2 ; Nova Scotia, 3 ;
Ontario, 16; Quebec, 5 ; Saskatchewan, 4. Total, 320.
Membership.—20,000.

Draftsmen’s Unions, International Federation of Technical
Engineers, Architects and
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized 1918, in Washington, D. C.
Objects.—The object of this federation shall be the encouragement of friendly
relations between the employer and the employee, and for the establishing of
methods for the amicable adjustment of any difficulties that may arise be­
tween them, and for the advancement and improvement of the economic, moral,
and social conditions of the individual members of the respective crafts that
may enlist under the banner of organized labor; and to the attainment of these
objects the encouragement of the formation of local unions.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Technical engineers, architects, and draftsmen.
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of the president and five vice
presidents, who shall represent the following divisions: State and municipal,
industrial, architectural, Federal, and marine. “ The duties of the executive
council shall be to pass upon all matters of policy of the federation affecting
the rights and developments of the federation and its affiliated locals,” subject
to review and action of convention or referendum.
2. Local unions: Subordinate to and governed by rules o f the international.
3. Convention: Meets annually, elects officers and enacts legislation. Initia­
tive, referendum, and recall.
Qualifications for membership.—“All technical engineering and architectural
employees who have not the final power to hire and to fire other such employees
shall be eligible to membership,” with full rights and privileges. “ All techni­
cal engineering and architectural employees who have the final power to hire
and fire shall be entitled to all rights and privileges of membership except the
right to vote or hold office.”
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—American Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Local unions only: California, 4 ; District of Columbia, 1; Illi­
nois, 1; Massachusetts, 2 ; New Hampshire, 1; New Jersey, 1 ; New York, 2;
Pennsylvania, 1 ; Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina, 1 ; Virginia, 1; Washington,
1. Total, 17.
Membership.—1,800.

Engravers’ Union, International Metal
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Buffalo, N. Y., September 7, 1920.
Objects.—“ To encourage a closer relationship among the various crafts within
the industry to the end that the principle of mutual helpfulness shall be
extended so as to embrace the workers of the entire industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— Metal engraving (except stationery and jewelry) ; steel
and brass stamps and rolls; steel and brass embossing dies and rolls; book­
binders’ stamps and rolls; picture-frame dies and rolls; lace and wall-paper
dies and rolls; steel and brass type; brass signs and all other branches of
steel and brass engraving; routers o f all steel and brass stamps, dies, hubs,
and brass signs; metal stencil cutters.
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, vice president, and
one representative from each local union “ shall have general supervision o f
the business of the international union and of local unions.”



METALS AND MACHINERY

59

2. Local unions: Subordinate; “ to local unions is conceded the right to
make all necessary laws for local self-government which do not conflict with
the laws of the international.”
3. Convention: To meet annually; elects general officers; enacts legislation.
Constitutional amendments by convention.
Qualifications for membership.— Steel and brass engravers, hub cutters, and
routers other than employers are eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ We favor the adoption of a legal apprenticeship.
No employer shall have more than one apprentice for every five men in his
employ and not more than two apprentices will be allowed in any shop.”
Agreements.—Negotiated independently by local unions through committees.
No signed contracts.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—Bulletin.
Headquarters.—Rochester, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions: Illinois, 1; Massachusetts, 1 ; Michigan, 1 ; New
York, 2; Wisconsin, 1. Total, 6.
Membership.—140.

Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Kansas City, Mo., in December, 1898, from a number
of American Federation of Labor locals and some independent unions
of firemen. As at first organized it was called the International
Brotherhood of Stationary Firemen and included only men engaged
in that work. Later it became necessary to extend jurisdiction and
control to the oilers and helpers in the boiler rooms, and in 1902 the
name was changed to International Brotherhood of Stationary Fire­
men and Oilers. Some years later the word “ stationary ” was
dropped from the title of the organization.
By a ruling of the Eailroad Labor Board the Brotherhood of Fire­
men and Oilers was granted the right to represent the roundhouse and
railroad shop laborers in hearings before that body. Prior to the war,
WQrkers of that class, when organized at all, were in American Feder­
ation of Labor local unions. These locals were transferred to the
Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers as a result of the Labor Board
decision. Railroad-shop laborers are also, however, organized under
and included in the jurisdiction o f the Brotherhood of Maintenance
of Way Employees.
Objects.— “ The objects of this brotherhood shall be to organize local unions;
to place our occupation upon a higher plane of intelligence, efficiency, and
skill; to encourage the settlement of disputes between employers and em­
ployees by arbitration; to secure employment and a fair wage for the same;
provide for a respectable burial for our dead; to establish schools o f instruction
for imparting practical knowledge of modern operation of steam plants; to re­
duce the hours o f day labor; and by all legal, proper means to elevate our
moral, social, and intellectual condition.
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Boiler firemen, retort firemen, water tenders, boiler
washers, boiler-washers’ helpers, oilers, ash handlers, coal passers, stoker fire­
men, stoker helpers, roundhouse and railroad shop helpers, and laborers.
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
and seven vice presidents. “All powers of the international * * * when
not in session in convention, shall be vested in the international president,
with the approval of the international executive board.”
2.
State districts: When organized by three or more locals all locals must
affiliate. “ State districts shall have the right to make their own constitutions
and by-laws and make such rules and law s” as may be necessary, in con­
formity with international constitution.



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

3. Local union: “ All local unions shall have the right to compile constitu­
tions and by-laws for their government, subject to the approval of the inter­
national president.”
4. Convention: Held triennially; elects general officers and enacts legisla­
tion. Amendments to constitution by convention vote only. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any “ trustworthy” person employed witfein
the jurisdiction is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements,—Negotiated by local unions with individual employers on terms
approved by the executive board before negotiations are begun. Railroad
agreements negotiated in conjunction with Federated Shop Crafts.
Benefits.—Death; strike donations.
Official organ.—Firemen and Oilers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—3611 North Twenty-fourth Street, Omaha, Nebr.
Organization.— State district unions: Massachusetts, Illinois, Iowa, and Ne­
braska.
Local unions: United States— Alabama, 7; Arizona, 2 ; Arkansas, 17; Cali­
fornia, 13; Colorado, 9 ; Connecticut, 3 ; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia, 2 ;
Florida, 6; Georgia, 8 ; Idaho, 6 ; Illinois, 43; Indiana, 26; Iowa, 42; Kansas,
42; Kentucky, 26; Louisiana, 14; Maine, 10; Maryland, 6 ; Massachusetts, 24;
Michigan, 18; Minnesota, 24; Mississippi, 14; Missouri, 31; Montana, 16;
Nebraska, 16; Nevada, 1; New Hampshire, 6; New Jersey, 11; New Mexico, 8 ;
New York, 42; North Carolina, 8; North Dakota, 14; Ohio, 33; Oklahoma, 17;
Oregon, 7 ; Pennsylvania, 30; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 12; South
Dakota, 10; Tennessee, 15; Texas, 38; Utah, 6 ; Virginia, 28; Vermont, 2 ;
Washington, 13; Wisconsin, 18; West Virginia, 31; Wyoming, 7. Canada—
Manitoba, 1; New Brunswick, 2 ; Nova Scotia, 1 ; Ontario, 23; Prince Edward
Island, 2 ; Quebec, 6. Total, 820.
Membership.—17,000.

Foundry Employees, International Brotherhood of

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in St. Louis, Mo., on March 26, 1904, from a number o f
local unions directly affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Objects.—Not declared.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and posessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All molders’ helpers, cupola tenders, melters, furnace
men, chippers, steel workers, casting cleaners, gangway men, yardmen, crane­
men, flask makers, blackeners, craters, sand cutters, shaker-outs, flask sorters,
pattern carriers, shippers and shipper helpers, cast-iron and steel-enamel work­
ers, and all others employed in or around foundries and not covered by other
legitimate jurisdiction.”
Government.—International executive board, composed of president, five vice
presidents, and secretary-treasurer.
2. Local unions: “ Each local union may have local autonomy in the making
of necessary laws for the governing of their local union, which must not conflict
with the laws of the international brotherhood.”
3. Convention: Meets triennially; legislates for body and elects general offi­
cers. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person employed within the jurisdiction
as defined above is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally by agreement committees of local unions, but
subject to approval by the international brotherhood.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—218% North Tremont Street, Kewanee, 111.
Organization.—Local unions only: IUinois, 4 ; Iowa, 1; Louisiana, 1 ; Mis­
souri, 4 ; Montana, 1; New Jersey, 1 ; New York, 3 ; Pennsylvania, 3 ; Tennessee,
1 ; Hawaii, 1. Total, 20.
Membership.—
-8,500.




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61

Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers of North America, Amalgamated
Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized August 4, 1876, in Pittsburgh, Pa. It was an amalga­
mation o f various independent unions in the industry, the most im­
portant of which at the time were the United Sons of Yulcan, the
Associated Brotherhood of Iron and Steel Heaters, Rollers and
Roughers, the Iron and Steel Roll Hands’ Union, and the Nailers’
Union.
Objects.—“ The object of this association shall be the elevation o f the posi­
tion of its members; maintenance of the best interests of the aissociation, and
to obtain by conciliation or by other means just and legal a fair remuneration
to members for their labor; and to afford mutual protection to members against
broken contracts, obnoxious rules, unlawful discharge, or other system of injus­
tice or oppression.,,
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Rolling mills, tin mills, steel works, chain works, nail,
tack, spike, bolt, and nut factories; pipe mills, and all works run in connection
therewith.
Government.—1. International executive board, composed of president, secre­
tary-treasurer, assistant secretary, managing editor, two divisional vice presi­
dents, and resident trustee, “ shall have jurisdiction over all matters and sub­
jects not clearly defined by law.” The president “ shall superintend the work of
the association throughout the jurisdiction.”
2.
Subordinate lodges “ shall have jx>wer to make such by-laws for their gov­
ernment as they deem necessary, providing they do not conflict with any of the
laws, rules, or regulations ” of the international organization.
3 Convention: Held annually; enacts legislation. Initiative, referendum, and
recall. International officers elected by referendum. Constitutional amend­
ments by convention and referendum or initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “ Any person employed at any jo b ” in and
around the works covered by jurisdiction is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Wage scales are drawn up by the wage-scale committees o f the
separate craft divisions of the industry at the annual convention. These scales
are then submitted to a conference between local employers and committees
representing local unions, assisted by representatives of the international office.
All agreements terminate annually on the same date.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death (member and w ife).
Official organ.—Amalgamated Journal.
Headquarters.—500 South Main Street, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Organization.—Districts: First, Pittsburgh and vicinity; second, West Vir­
ginia and part of Ohio; third, Kentucky, part of Ohio, and Indiana; fourth,
Illinois and Indiana adjacent to Chicago; fifth, Indiana; sixth, Ohio, Detroit,
Mich, and Hamburg, N. Y .; seventh, Alabama; eighth, Erie, Pa.; ninth, Mis­
souri and western Illinois; tenth, Pennsylvania (Scranton, Steel ton, Reading,
etc.) ; Canadian district
Local unions: Alabama, 1 ; California, 3 ; Illinois, 12; Indiana, 11; Iowa, 1 ;
Kentucky, 5 ; Maryland, 2 ; Michigan, 2 ; Missouri, 11; New York, 7 ; Ohio, 30;
Pennsylvania, 20; Rhode Island, 1 ; Texas, 1 ; Utah, 1 ; Washington, 2 ; West
Virginia, 8. Total, 118.
Membership.—11,500.

Machinists, International Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
The International Association of Machinists grew out of an organi­
zation o f 19 machinists of Atlanta, Ga., formed on May 5, 1888,
which called itself the United Machinists and Mechanical Engineers
of America. A year later, May 6, 1889, a convention was held in




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Atlanta, which was attended by 22 delegates, representing 34 locals
in 14 States. This convention elected national officers and changed
the name o f the organization to National Association of Machinists.
Headquarters were established in Atlanta, and a journal was pub­
lished. In 1890 the general office was moved to Richmond, Va., and
in 1891 the name was changed to International Association o f Ma­
chinists, because of the expansion of the organization into Canada.
In 1899 headquarters were moved to Washington, where they have
remained.
The first general movement for improved working conditions began
on May 20, 1901, in a strike for a 9-hour day. By 1903 many agree­
ments were in force covering increased wages and shorter hours.
The International Union of Bicycle Workers amalgamated with
the International Association of Machinists in 1904. More recently
the International Association of Machinists absorbed the American
branch of the English organization, the Amalgamated Engineering
Union.
Objects.—“ The Grand Lodge of the International Association of Machinists
aims to bring within the organization all employees, male and female, who are
actively engaged in, or connected with, the machinist’s trade; to adopt and put
into active operation an effective plan to stabilize employment for all the mem­
bers of our association; to secure the establishment of a legal apprenticeship
system of four years; to impress upon all employers the necessity of paying
the full current wages weekly, giving preference in employment to members of
organized labor and abolishing personal record, physical examination, and oldage limits imposed by employers; to settle all disputes not defined in the consti­
tution of this organization, and arising between employees and employers, by
arbitration; to shorten the hours of labor to 40 hours per week, namely, five
days of eight hours per d a y ; Saturday to be a holiday, thus allowing our mem­
bers more time for self-improvement and social activities; to adopt and advocate
a plan of cooperation with other kindred crafts, with the ultimate object of
amalgamating all closely related metal trades, thereby eliminating strikes of
one organization at a time and by concerted action making it possible for all
to reap the full benefit o f their labor. This shall not be construed to favor the
theory of industrial unionism; to stimulate the political education of the mem­
bers to understand their political rights and use the ballot intelligently, to the
end that the Government may be a government for, of, and by the people and
not to be used as a tool to further the ends of combinations of capital for its
own aggrandizement; to urge the membership to vote only for and support
candidates who are in favor of this platform and the following political de­
mands: Initiative, referendum and recall, national income tax law, national
inheritance tax law, national and State employers’ liability law ; all judges,
without exception, to be elected by vote of the people; national law granting
pensions for old age or total disability and accident benefits; public ownership
o f all public utilities; woman suffrage; change of the Constitution of the United
States or any country under our jurisdiction which now declares these subjects
or questions to be unconstitutional; self-government of cities; abolition of con­
tract system on all public work—city, county, State, or national—such work
to be done on the day-labor plan at union wages; that no inferior Federal judge
shall set aside a law of Congress on the ground that it is unconstitutional. That
if the Supreme Court assumes to decide any law of Congress unconstitutional
or by interpretation undertakes to assert a public policy at variance with the
statutory declaration o f Congress, which alone under our system is authorized
to determine the public policies of government, the Congress may by repassing
the law nullify the action of the court. Thereafter the law to remain in full
force and effect precisely the same as though the court had never held it to be
unconstitutional; the labor of a human being not being property, we demand
the abolition of the use of injunctions in labor disputes on the grounds that
it is a judicial usurpation of the constitutional rights of our citizens.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions, Canada, and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The jurisdiction of the International Association of
Machinists includes any person who has served an apprenticeship of four years



METALS AND MACHINERY

63

at the machinist trade, or who has acquired a fundamental knowledge of
shaping, sizing, turning, boring, fitting, riveting, the operating of electric,
thermit, and oxyacetylene welding apparatus and the adjusting of metal parts
of machinery of any character, whether such metal be steel, iron, brass, lead,
copper, aluminum, duralumin, bronze, or any other substitute used therefor;
as well as any person who may have worked at the trade four years either
as a vise hand, lathe hand, planer hand, slotting machine hand, milling machine
hand, horizontal or vertical boring mill hand, screw machine hand, operators
of Gisholt, Jones & Lamson, and all other turret lathes, and gear cutters.
Floor hands, machine adjusters, millwrights or general erectors of machinery,
jig workers, die, tool, and mold makers, metal pattern makers, Diesel oil and
electric machinists. The operating of electric, gas, and pther mechanical cranes
and conveyors used in connection with machinists* work. Mechanical chauffeurs
who are required to make repairs to their equipmet. Sewing and knitting
machine adjusters and adjusters of all kinds of automatic, semi-automatic, and
self-contained machinery. Fitting together and installing valves o f all kinds
and flange work on high-pressure piping. Automobile, aircraft, and movingpicture machinery builders, and repairmen.
“ Classification of work included.—The making, erecting, assembling, install­
ing, maintaining, repairing, or dismantling of all or any parts thereof of all
machinery, engines, motors, pumps, and all other metal power devices, either
transmission, excavating, elevating, shooting, or conveying, whether driven by
hand, foot, steam, electricity, gas, gasoline, naphtha, benzol, oil, air, water, or
other power, including all metal appurtenances thereto, composed of steel or
iron whether structural, angle, T, boiler, galvanized, ornamental, cast malleable,
bar, tube, pipe, rod, shafting, sheet, or plate; or of nickel, bronze, tin, lead,
copper, brass, aluminum, babbitt, or other metal substitute therefor.
“ The manufacture and installation of all machine tools. The operation of
all machines used in the manufacture of machine-finished metal parts and de­
vices and all bench and vise work pertaining thereto, and all machinists’ work
on steam, gas, gasoline, naphtha, benzol, oil, air, and water-tight work.
“ All riveting, calking, cutting, chipping, patching, grinding, turning, sizing,
boring, fitting, laying out, shaping and drilling pertaining to machinists’ work.
All drilling, cutting, and tapping in boilers, tanks, drums, frames, or other
structures required for engine and machinery attachments, mountings, or other
metal construction and installation.
“ All oxyacetylene, electric, oil, or thermit welding when used to substitute
the former method of performing new or repair work, including dismantling.
All lubricating devices, injectors, and inspirators and parts thereof, and attach­
ments thereto. All devices used in the transmission of power, except electric
wiring, this to include all line and counter shafting, shaft hangers, shelves, and
pulleys.
“ All instrument, gauge tool and die making, metal mold, novelty, model and
pattern making and die sinking; the making of jigs, templets, spiral and coil
springs, and all molds for the shaping of glassware.
“ The manufacture and installation of all printing, paper and pulp-making
machinery. The manufacture and installation o f all brewery machinery,
including all soakers, pasteurizers, bottle washers, crowning machines, bottlefilling devices and conveyors. The manufacture and installation of all factory,
mill and laundry machinery.
“ The manufacture and repair o f all counting, recording, and correspondence
devices, such as cash registers, typewriters, adding machines and other office
machinery, such as sealing and addressing devices.
“ The manufacture, repairing, and maintaining o f all automobiles, firearms,
fire engines, locomotives, hydroplanes and airplanes, agricultural machinery
and mining machinery, rock drills and pneumatic devices used as hand tools or
for the transmission of power. The manufacture and installation of all ice
making and refrigerating machinery. The manufacture and installation o f all
abbatoir, bakery and confectionery machinery, textile, carding and gin ma­
chinery, refining machinery, and machinery used in reducing plants, rock-crush­
ing and quarry machinery, concrete mixers and cement mill machinery, rolling
mill and steel converting machinery, loading and unloading machinery and
traveling roadways.
“ The manufacture, installation and repairing and maintaining o f all machines
used in making malt, cans, nails, pottery, horseshoes, brick, shoes, hats, cloth­
ing, pianos, organs, musical and surgical instruments, tobacco, cigarettes, and



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

cigars, flour, cereals and all other products where mechanical devices are
necessary for the making.
“ The manufacture and installation of all automatic stokers, all mechanical
devices used in amusement parks, all dredging machinery, ana all hoists,
elevators, loweratoms, escalators, derricks and other lifting or hoisting devices.
“ The inspection of all machinery, ordnance, and engines, including loco­
motives, and the operating of all power machinery during the period o f control
or until accepted by the purchaser.
“ The operation and repairing of towing and coaling machinery in the
Panama Canal Zone.
“ Marine work.—All marine work as follow s: The installing, assembling, dis­
mantling and repairing p f all engines, pumps, dynamos, refrigerating machinery,
steering gear, winches, windlasses, capstans or other devices used in handling
the ship.
“ The removing and replacing o f the rudder, propeller shaft and propeller
wheel and the placing of all deck fittings and mast fittings, including mast
headlights.
“ The installing and repairing of all condensers, evaporators, feed-water
heaters, overhauling and repairing of all valves, either steam, water, air, gas,
oil, or other liquids and strainers attached to hull.
“ The installation of all pipes, pipe hangers, valves, and fittings for engines,
boilers, ice machines, evaporator plants, telemotors, air compressors, and power
pumps.
“ The installation of deck operating gear for all valves.
“ The boring, facing, chasing or tapping and drilling holes for bolts of all
pipe flanges.
“ The bending, threading, and installing, of tubes in boilers in which threaded
tubes are used.
“ The bending, welding, and installation o f heater coils used for fuel-oil tanks,
or heating purposes.
“ The installation of all condenser and feed-water heater tubes, whether rolled,
screwed, or ferruled.
“ The installation of all tubes in oil heaters and coolers, except those under
jurisdiction of the coppersmiths.
“ The installation of all gratings, ladders, and hand rails, port lights, venti­
lator operating gear, and watertight doors.
“ Electric and internal combustion engines and cars.—The building, installa­
tion, inspection, adjusting, maintaining, removal, and overhauling of pantographs
and trolley poles shall be machinists’ work, including the building of panto­
graph shoes and replacement of same whether the pantograph is on or off
locomotive and the changing of insulated support brackets, lathe, and other
machine work.
“ The assembling, installing, inspecting, maintaining, removing, and over­
hauling of all parts of the main and braking controllers with the exception of
insulating materials, leads, and wires.
“ The removing, dismantling, overhauling, assembling, installing, inspecting,
and maintaining of all air cylinders, magnet valves, cam shafts, bearing, rollers,
castings, adjustment springs, and metal housings used in the construction and
operation of reverser switches, series, parallel switches, transfer switches, group
switches, and contactors.
“ The assembling, installing, inspecting, and maintaining of all mechanical
parts of main and auxiliary switches and ground switches.
“ The assembling, installing, maintaining, inspecting, and overhauling of clutch
and gear assembly on motor operated rheostats.
“ The assembling, installing, inspecting, maintaining, dismantling, and over­
hauling of traction motors, blower motors, heater motors, rheostat motors, air
compressor motors, motor generator sets, axle generators, control generators, and
slip rings (excluding field coils, insulators, and electrical connections) ; the as­
sembling, finishing, either by hand or bench work, drilling, tapping, and bolting of
pole pieces; the dismantling, repairing, and assembling of brush holders; the drill­
ing, tapping, and repairing of brush-holder studs; the fitting of all metal parts
of commutators, including segments; the turning and machine slotting of all com­
mutators whether done in lathe or in armature housing; the pressing in and out
o f armature shafts; the machining, repairing, and fitting of armature cores; the
repairing and fitting of all covers for motors, housing, and compartments.
“ The installing, inspecting, adjusting, removing, and repairing of air com­
pressor governors.



METALS AND MACHINERY

65

“ The grinding, filing, and repairing of grids and the installing and removal
of grid banks, with the exception of making and breaking electrical connections.
“ The removing and installing of electric cab heaters and the removal and
application of covers to same where they are retained by cap screws or tap
bolts; the removing and installing of headlight cages; the removing, repairing,
installing, and maintaining of electropneumatic pantograph valves, sander
valves, regenerative interlock valves, and automatic control switches, with the
exception of electric contacts and wiring, shall be machinists’ work.
“ Removing and applying headlight, lamp and flagstaff brackets and supports,
eave guards, and hand rails.
“ Side rods, main rod, knuckle and driving-pin work. Driving brake and
spying rigging work. Fitting up and repairs to driving and truck boxes,
including replacing of brasses.
“ Examination, repairing, and aligning jack shafts. Refitting jack shaft col­
lars and jack shaft casings. Repairing and maintaining air brake equipment
and air compressors.
“ Drilling driving and truck wheels by use of ratchets or portable motors
for hub liners. Applying driving and truck wheel hub liners. Driving and
truck wheel tire work. Drilling, reaming, and topping holes in cabs and frames
for bolts and parts.
“ Turning and dressing journals, and all frame and truck work, including
stripping and rebuilding.
“ Removing and replacing main motors, including gears and bearings, and
shifting gears.
“ Machinists’ work in connection with raising cab, running out and replacing
trucks, and lowering cab.
“ Mallet coupler device between units.
“ Removing and replacing circulating pump and motor, except pipe-fitters'
and electrical work.
“ Removing, repairing, and replacing work in connection with water rheostats,
hand pumps, and lubricators.
“ Examining, removing, repairing, and replacing bearings.
“ Installing and relocating braces, stay rods, oil guards, hand brakes, air ducts,
sand boxes, and bellows under cab.
“ Whistle and bell work.
“ Installing and maintaining machinists’ work in connection with turbine
engines, motors, pumps, and auxiliaries in powerhouse.
“ Repairs to air hammers, air motors, vise, floor, and drop-pit work, as well
as the handling of work generally recognized as machinists’ work.
“ Removing and replacing phase converters.
“ Machinists’ work in connection with dismantling of phase converters, such
as removal of bolts, parts, Gearing caps, bearings, and clamps.
“ Machinists’ work in connection with assembling phase converters, including
detail parts.
“ Lathe and other machinists’ work in connection with construction of
pantographs.
“ And all other work on these engines, cars, and machines now covered in the
general classification in our constitution.
“ All of the foregoing, and in addition thereto any other work which does
now, or in the future may, as industries develop, fall naturally within the
scope of the jurisdiction of The International Association of Machinists, shall
continue work coming under its jurisdiction, and shall be performed by mem­
bers of the aforesaid organization.”
Government.—“ The government and superintendence of all district and local
lodges shall be vested in this grand lodge as the supreme head of all such
lodges under its jurisdiction. To it shall belong the authority to determine
the customs and usages in regard to all matters relating to the craft.
“ Between conventions all executive and judicial powers of the grand lodge
shall be vested in the executive council, which shall be composed of the inter­
national president, the general secretary-treasurer, and seven general vicepresidents.”
2.
District lodges. “ District lodges shall be established upon railroads, in
industries where mutual shop interests require it, and in localities where two
or more local lodges exist. * * * District lodges shall have authority over
and control of all local lodges within their jurisdiction, subject to the approval
of the grand lodge.”



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66

3. Local lodges. “ The grand lodge shall provide a constitution for the gov­
ernment and control of local lodges, and all local lodges organized and affiliated
in the grand lodge shall be governed and controlled thereby.” Locals may
adopt their own by-laws, subject to the approval of the executive council.
4. Initiative, referendum, and recall. Conventions quadrennially if called
by referendum vote. All general officers nominated and elected by referendum.
Constitutional amendments by referendum or by convention and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any machinist, automobile or aircraft ma­
chinist or mechanic, specialist, machinist helper, helper apprentice, woman
worker or any apprentice working in the machine or metal industry may be
admitted to membership in a local lodge of the International Association of
Machinists upon assuming the obligation and paying the required fee.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “Any person engaging himself to learn the ma­
chinist trade shall serve an apprenticeship of four years. Any person engaging
himself to learn the automobile or aircraft machinists’ or mechanics’ trade
shall also serve an apprenticeship of four years. An apprentice shall not
leave the employer to whom he has engaged himself without just cause and
then only after securing the consent of the lodge of which he is a member.
Any apprentice failing to comply with this provision shall stand suspended
from any and all benefits of the grand lodge and local lodge until he returns
to his employer. Failure to return to his employer within three months shall
be sufficient cause for his expulsion.
“ The ratio of apprentices shall be not more than one apprentice for every
10 journeymen machinists employed. No person shall engage himself as an
apprentice until he has reached the age of 16 years, and no person shall engage
himself as an apprentice after he has reached the age of 21 years; except
that any person who has been a member of one year’s continuous good stand­
ing in a local lodge and has worked as a machinist helper for one year in
the shop where he desires to become an apprentice, may if he is not at that
time past the age of 35 years, engage himself to his employer as an apprentice.
Such a person shall be known as a ‘ helper-apprentice ’ and shall serve four
years in learning the machinist trade, during which time he shall be governed
by the rules and laws applicable to apprentices. The number of helper-apprentices shall at no time exceed the number of regular indentured apprentices in
any shop.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by district or local lodges, subject to approval of
the executive council.
Benefits.— Strike, lockout, and victimization; death; sick (local only).
Official organ.— Machinists’ Monthly Journal.
Headquarters.—Machinists’ Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—District lodges (37) : Composed of railroad districts (13), and
territorial districts (24) :
Railroad districts

No.
Baltimore & O hio----------------------- 29
Big F ou r------------------------------------ 23
2
Canadian railroads--------------------Chesapeake & Ohio--------------------- 66
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul—
73
Chicago & North Western-----------7
Erie_____________________________ 85
Grand Trunk----------------------------- 108
New York Central----------------------- 84
Northern
Pacific
and
Great
Northern______________________ 32
Seaboard Air Line--------------------- 16
Southern and affiliated lines------4
Western Pacific-------------------------- 91
Hocking Valley; Chicago, Indian­
apolis & Louisville; and Chi­
cago & Alton----------------------------109
Territorial districts
Baltimore, M d ---------------------------Boston, Mass------------------------------Chicago, 111., and vicinity-----------


No.
12
38
8

Territorial districts—Con.
Cleveland, O hio_________________
Connecticut_____________ ________
Detroit, M ich___________________
Fall River, Mass________________
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada______
Illinois, Southern_______________
Indiana__________________________
Milwaukee, Wis., and vicinity____
Montreal, Canada, and vicinity_
_
New Jersey_____________________
New York (central portion)_____
New York City and vicinity______
Philadelphia, P a ________________
Pittsburgh, Pa., and vicinity_____
St. Louis, Mo., and vicinity_______
St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn__
Toledo, Ohio, and vicinity-----------Toronto, Ontario, Canada________
Vancouver,
British
Columbia,
Canada________________________
Washington and Oregon-------------Navy yards and arsenals________

54
22
60
64
24
27
72
10
82
47
33
15
1
6
9
77
57
46
78
26
44

METALS AND MACHINERY

67

Local unions, classified as contract, railroad, automobile, and mixed. United
Spates-—
Alabama, 9; Arizona, 5; Arkansas, 4; California, 25; Colorado, 4;
Connecticut, 6; Delaware, 3 ; District of Columbia, 5; Florida, 7; Georgia, 10;
Illinois, 63; Idaho, 1; Indiana, 27; Iowa, 26; Kansas, 6; Kentucky, 11; Louis­
iana, 10; Maine, 9 ; Maryland, 10; Massachusetts, 20; Michigan, 18; Minne­
sota, 17; Mississippi, 3; Missouri, 14; Montana, 9; Nevada, 4; Nebraska, 4 ; New
Hampshire, 3'; New Jersey, 17; New York, 59; North Carolina, 10; North
Dakota, 1; OhioT54; Oklahoma, 3; Oregon, 3 ; Pennsylvania, 44; Rhode Island,
2 ; South Carolina, 3; South Dakota, 4; Tennessee, 11; Texas, 14; Utah, 2 ;
Vermont, 3 ; Virginia, 16; Washington, 11; West Virginia, 17; Wisconsin, 29;
Wyoming, 2 ; Hawaii, 1; Porto Rico, 1; Canal Zone, 2. Canada—Alberta, 7;
British Columbia, 8; Manitoba, 5; New Brunswick, 4 ; Nova Scotia, 2 ; Ontario,
44; Quebec, 10; Saskatchewan, 5. Total, 727.
Membership.—137,000.

Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized January 25, 1888, in Toledo, Ohio, as the Tin, Sheet
Iron, and Cornice Workers’ International Association. In 1896 the
name “ Amalgamated Sheet Metal Workers’ International Associa­
tion ” was adopted. This was changed in 1903 to Amalgamated
Sheet Metal Workers’ International Alliance. In 1907 the Copper­
smiths’ International Union amalgamated with the sheet-metal or­
ganization, and the Chandelier, Brass, and Metal Workers joined in
1924. The convention of 1924 changed the name of the union to the
Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association.
In 1922 a secession movement among western locals resulted in the
formation o f “ The Pacific Coast Conference of Sheet Metal
Workers.” This organization reaffiliated with the parent body in
1925.
Object.— “ The objects of our association are, namely, to elevate our trade to
the highest standard to which it belongs, and by mutual effort to place our
organization upon a foundation sufficiently strong to prevent encroachment; to
establish an apprenticeship system to encourage a higher standard of skill by
the formation of schools of instruction in the local unions, for teaching pattern
cutting, and for trade education generally; to cultivate feelings of friendship
among the men of our craft; to settle all disputes between employers and
employees by arbitration; to assist each other in distress and to secure employ­
ment ; to reduce the hours of labor and secure adequate pay for our w ork;
and by legal and proper means to elevate the moral, intellectual, and social
conditions of all our members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—“ The Sheet Metal Workers* International Association
claims jurisdiction over the manufacture, erection, and installation of all sheetmetal work of No. 10 gage or lighter; this jurisdiction covering all metal roof­
ing, the manufacture, erection, and finishing of all sheet-metal cornice, metal
skylights, all hollow sheet-metal doors and trim, all metal baseboards, all
metal picture molding, all metal chair rail, all wire molding, in connection
with interior and exterior finish; the manufacture, installation, and erection of
all metal frames and sash and the adjusting o f same; all metal furniture, metal
lockers, metal shelving, and library stacks; all metal ceilings and sidings, both
interior and exterior; all corrugated iron on roofs and sidings; all metal
shingles; all metal tile, plain or covered with a foreign substance; the covering
with sheet metal o f all doors, shutters, and partitions; all marquis of all
descriptions; the manufacture and erection of all spouting, gutters, flashing,
roof outlets made of copper, tin, iron, zinc, or lead; all metal ridge roll and
coping; the manufacture and installation of all sheet metal in connection with
store fronts and windows.
“ The manufacture and installation of all sheet-metal work in connection
with heating and ventilation, such as air ducts, air washers, fans, housing, and
air brushes, and all connections made of sheet metal both to and from same;



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-TJNIONS

all furnace work, all wall stacks, local vent pipes, and sheet-metal air chambers;
the installation of all registers, register faces, doors, and louvers in connection
with same.
“ All sheet-metal elevator legs, chutes, carriers, pipes, cyclones, and dust col­
lectors in connection with mills or grain elevators; all blowpipe work in m ills;
all sheet-metal connections to machines in planing mills, sawmills, and other
factories, whether it be used for ventilation, heating, or other purposes; the
manufacture and erection of all sheet-metal work in sugar refineries, breweries,
malt houses, and distilleries.
“ The manufacture and installation of all breeching, and smoke pipes for
boilers, hot-water heaters, and furnaces; all sheet-metal lagging and jackets on
boilers and engines, all drip pans, all exhaust pipes and heads, all safety
flues, and all safety appliances around engines and machinery. All sheetmetal fire escapes, package chutes, and conveyors; and sheet-metal switch and
cut-out boxes; all sheet-metal speaking tubes.
“ All sheet-metal columns and casings, all floor domes, and all sheet-metal
work used in connection with concrete construction.
“ The manufacture and erection of all sheet-metal work in the building of
sheet-metal houses, consisting of floor beams, uprights, partitions, sidings, etc.,
and all sheet-metal garages.
“ All sheet-metal work in connection with the outfitting of kitchens, such as
ranges, canopies, steam tables, dish washers, coffee urns, kitchen utensils,
laundry dryers and washers, sinks, the covering of drain boards, lining of coil
boxes, ice boxes, and other sheet-metal work in connection with bar and sodafountain fixtures.
“ All sheet-metal ice cans and sheet-metal work in connection with refrigerat­
ing plants.
“ All sheet-metal decorations, metal spinning; the manufacture and erection
o f sheet-metal signs and billboards, whether attached to structural or wood
frames; the manufacture and erection of all moving-picture booths, the lining
with sheet metal o f all foot and side lights, and all sheet metal in connection
with the indirect lighting system in theaters, moving-picture houses, or other
places where this class of work is used.
“ Manufacture and installation of all sheet-metal work in connection with
the building of railroads and street cars. All sheet aluminum work. All
sheet-metal work in connection with the manufacture of automobiles and air­
planes. All sheet-metal assortment work, such as manufacturing household
ware, can-making and miscellaneous articles made in factories. The soldering,
either hard or soft, done by flame or other methods, in connection with the
manufacture of badges, buttons, and metal novelties. The preparation and
tinning of castings of all descriptions and the sweating on of same by any
process.
“All copper work in connection with coppersmithing of any and all gauges.
The erection and dismantling o f all work manufactured by coppersmiths, such
as pipe work, etc., or any work to be repaired, manufactured, or tested in any
way in connection with the coppersmithing industry.
“ The manufacture and erection of all sheet-metal work of 10 gauge and
lighter on all boats, such as smokestacks, sheet-metal lifeboats, life rafts, life
buoys, crow’s nests, sheet-metal bulkheads and ceilings, the lining or covering
o f boats with sheet metal, either interior or exterior. The fabrication and
assembling on boats of all metal lockers, furniture, the manufacture and in­
stallation of metal doors and trim, the installation of all telegraph and speaking
tubes, the manufacture of switch and cut-out boxes; the installation of lagging
on all boilers and engines; the lining o f all partitions, paint and lamp lockers
and galleys with sheet metal; the manufacture and installation of all ventilat­
ing work, kitchen equipment, etc.
“ The cutting, fabricating, fastening, assembling, and making air or water­
tight all sheet-metal work of 10 gauge or lighter, whether seamed, brazed,
locked, soldered, riveted, bolted, welded, or by any other processes necessary
for the completion of the work.
“All sheet-metal work appertaining to the manufacture of chandeliers, lamps,
and lighting fixtures of every description.
“ Railroad shopmen shall include tinners, coppersmiths, and pipe fitters em­
ployed in shop, yards, and buildings and on passenger coaches and engines of
all kinds, skilled in the building, erecting, assembling, installing, dismantling,
and maintaining parts made of sheet copper, brass, tin, zinc, white metal and



METALS AND MACHINERY

69

lead, black planished and pickled iron o f 10 gauge or less, including brazing,
soldering, tinning, beading, and babbitting; the bending, fitting, cutting, thread­
ing, brazing, clamping, and testing, connecting, and disconnecting of air, water,
sand, gas, oil, and steam pipes, and the operation of babbitt fires and pipethreading machines, oxyacetylene thermit and electric welding on work gen­
erally recognized as belonging to railroad shopmen.” [Constitution.]
Government.—1. General executive board, composed o f president and 10 vice
presidents, “ shall decide all disputes between employers and employees when
appealed to by local unions ” and “ shall exercise general supervision over the
officers and affairs of the international associations.”
2. “ State or Provincial councils may be formed * * * but must be com­
posed of a majority of the local unions chartered in that particular State or
Province.” Such councils “ shall formulate such rules and regulations as may
be necessary,” subject to approval by the general executive board.
District councils with similar powers may be formed under the same condi­
tions in States or Provinces in which no State or Provincial council exists.
3. Local unions: Each local union shall have power to frame its own local
by-laws, which shall in no way conflict with the constitution of the international
association.”
Local unions must affiliate with “ State federations, central bodies, district
councils, and building trades departments o f the American Federation o f Labor
where such exist.”
4. Convention: Held triennially; elects general officers, enacts all legislation
except that “ at any time the general executive board deems a new law neces­
sary to govern the international association ” between conventions, it may be
enacted by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Any person employed in the manufacture,
erection, or installation o f sheet-metal work covered by the jurisdiction of our
international association who is a citizen of the countries covered by the juris­
diction * * * or who signifies his intention o f becoming a citizen ” is
eligible to membership, “ provided he is competent to command the minimum
scale of wages ” and is vouched for by two members in good standing.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ The Sheet Metal Workers* International Asso­
ciation favors the adoption o f a sound system of apprenticeship which will
give the fullest opportunity to apprentices to learn the trade of sheet-metal
worker in the various branches of the industry in a thorough manner. We
favor and urge upon all local unions to adopt a uniform system governing
apprentices of a five-year period, to be served between the ages of 16 and 21
years.”
Recommended provision for local agreements: “ Provide for an apprentice­
ship system upon basis of one apprentice to every four journeymen, and one to
a fraction thereof.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by committees of the local union and the local em­
ployers, subject to the approval of the general executive board, which recom­
mends the use of a general form.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; funeral.
Official organ.— Sheet Metal Workers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—642 Transportation Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Local unions organized by branches of the trade, classified into
jobbers, assortment workers, coppersmiths, stove and range workers, automobile
workers, railroad shopmen, stockyards, shipyards, and mixed.
District councils: California, New York, Chicago, Ontario, Massachusetts,
Iowa, Northwest (Pacific States), Rock Island, Moline and Davenport, Illinois,
New Jersey, Wisconsin, Texas, tri-State (Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia).
Railroad district councils: Baltimore & Ohio, Chesapeake & Ohio, Chicago,
Milwaukee & St. Paul, Chicago & North Western, Erie, Missouri Pacific, New
York Central, North Western District of Railway Employees, Rock Island,
Seaboard Air Line, Southern, Western Pacific, Big Four, Buffalo, Rochester &
Pittsburgh, Hocking Valley, Monon, St. Louis Terminal, Tennessee Central.
Local Unions: United States—Alabama, 5; Arkansas, 2; California, 21; Colo­
rado, 3 ; Connecticut, 2 ; Delaware, 2 ; District of Columbia, 2 ; Florida, 9 ;
Georgia, 6 ; Illinois, 37; Indiana, 22; Iowa, 20; Kansas, 4 ; Kentucky, 10;
Louisiana, 4; Maine, 1; Maryland, 6; Massachusetts, 17; Michigan, 9 ; Min­
nesota, 7; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 6; Montana, 5; Nebraska, 1; New Hampshire,
1; New Jersey, 15; New York, 34; North Carolina, 3 ; Ohio, 34; Oklahoma, 7;
Oregon, 5 ; Pennsylvania, 33; Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina, 4 ; South Dakota,



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

2 ; Tennessee, 7; Texas, 13; Utah, 2 ; Virginia, 8 ; Washington, 12; West Vir­
ginia, 11; Wisconsin, 14; Wyoming, 1 ; Canal Zone, 1. Canada—20 (distribu­
tion not reported). Total, 430.
Membership.—25,000.

Molders’ Union of North America, International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Philadelphia, Pa., July, 1859. In its earliest stages
organization among molders took the form of cooperative foundries.
A beneficial society of molders was formed in 1849 in New York City,
which in 1854 incorporated under the name “ The Journeymen Iron
Molders’ Society.” Many local organizations of molders which
placed the emphasis on association for economic rather than beneficial
purposes sprang up and died out during the fifties. Many of these
were in communication and contact with each other, and formed
the nucleus o f the National Union of Iron Molders, a trade organi­
zation launched from Philadelphia in July, 1859, by 32 delegates
representing 12 local unions.
Canadian unions were represented at the third convention o f this
organization in 1861, and in 1863 the name of the body was changed
to Iron Molders5 International Union, and jurisdiction was specifi­
cally extended to Canada. This is the first instance of the extension
of the territorial jurisdiction of a labor organization from one
country to another. A movement among Canadian molders in 1884
toward secession and national organization failed for lack of popular
approval. The present name of the anion was adopted in 1907.
In 1883 the machinery molders seceded and organized the Brother­
hood of Machinery Molders. This union was maintained separately
until 1892, when it returned to the parent body.
Brass molders, by secession from a Knights o f Labor Assembly,
formed the International Brotherhood of Brass Molders in 1890,
and in 1896 amalgamated with the metal polishers to form the Metal
Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Brass Workers’ Union of North
America. Both this latter organization and the International
Molders’ Union were affiliated to the American Federation of Labor,
and the molders protested against the encroachment of the new
organization on their jurisdiction over brass. Disagreements and
difficulties lasted until 1911 when they terminated in the transfer of
the brass workers to the molders’ organization.
As at first organized, coremakers were not eligible to membership
in the International Molders’ Union. They organized independently
in 1896 as the Core Makers’ International Union, and were chartered
by the American Federation of Labor. Two autonomous organiza­
tions in the same craft proved incompatible, however, because of the
interchangeability of the two occupations and chaotic conditions pro­
duced by independent action in the matter of strikes. By agreement
between the two organizations in 1903 the core makers became part
of the International Molders’ Union.
Objects.—“ Believing that under the present social system there is a general
tendency to deny the producer the full reward for his industry and skill; and
that the welfare of the community depends upon the purchasing power of its
members; and that the only means of successfully resisting the power that the
centralization of capital has placed in the hands of the few is by organized
effort; therefore we, the molders of North America, in order to promote our



METALS AND MACHINERY

71

craft interests and enable us to maintain our rightful position as citizens, have
organized this International Molders’ Union of North America.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.—Molding in all its branches and subdivisions.
Government.—1. The government and superintendence of subordinate unions
shall be vested in this union, as the supreme head of all unions under its
jurisdiction. It shall be the ultimate tribunal to which all matters of general
importance to the welfare of the several unions and any member thereof shall
be referred for adjustment, and its decisions thereon shall be final and con­
clusive. To it shall belong the power to determine the customs and usages
affecting all matters pertaining to the craft.
“ All executive powers of the union when not in session shall be vested in
its executive board, which shall consist of the president and seven trustees.
* * * The judicial powers when not in session shall be vested in the
president and the executive board.
“All legislative powers shall be reserved to this union duly convened in
session (except by referendum) and shall extend to every case of legislation
not delegated or reserved to subordinate unions.”
2. Conference boards: Delegate bodies composed of local unions within a
given jurisdiction assigned by the executive board. Affiliation with conference
boards where formed compulsory on part of locals.
District councils: Delegate bodies composed of five or more locals in sections
where conference boards can not be maintained.
3. Local unions: Subordinate; may adopt their own by-laws and local rules,
subject to the approval of the executive board.
4. Convention: Held every third year, if ordered by referendum vote. Enacts
legislation, nominates and elects general officers. Constitutional amendments
by convention or referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any molder who has served an apprentice­
ship of four years at the trade in any of its branches or subdivisions * * *
may be admitted to membership. * * * Any person competent to operate
any machine, squeezer, or other mechanical device used for the purpose of
molding castings in sand may be admitted to membership.” Woman coremakers
specifically excluded from membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “Any boy engaging himself to learn the trade
of molding shall be required to serve four years. He shall in no case leave
his employer without just cause, and any apprentice so leaving shall not be
permitted to work under the jurisdiction of any subordinate union, but shall be
required to return to his employer.
“ The following ratio of apprentices shall be allowed: One to each shop,
irrespective of the number of journeymen employed, and one to every five
members thereafter. No boy shall begin to learn the trade previous to arriving
at the age of 16.”
Agreements.—The stove, heater, and hot-water casting molders have an annual
agreement negotiated by representatives of the international union and the Stove
Founders’ National Defense Association. In other branches agreements are
negotiated by local unions.
Benefits.— Strike, lockout, and vicitimization; sick, disability, and death (life
insurance established by 1923 convention)
Official organ*.— International Molders’ Journal.
Headquarters.—530 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Conference boards (19) : New York City and vicinity; Buffalo
and vicinity; central New Y ork ; eastern Pennsylvania; eastern New England;
Connecticut Valley; Chicago and vicinity; central Ohio; St. Louis and vicinity;
Indiana; Michigan and vicinity; Pittsburg and vicinity; Ontario; Miami Valley:
Cleveland and vicinity; Boston and vicinity; Detroit and vicinity; northern Cal­
ifornia ; Illinois and Iowa district council.
Local unions classified into machinery and jobbing, stove plate; bench, heater
work, brass molding, agriculture, hollow ware, radiator molding, machine
operator, and core-maker branches: United States—Alabama, 4 ; Arizona, 1 ;
California, 4 ; Colorado, 3 ; Connecticut, 10; District of Columbia, 1 ; Florida,
2; Georgia, 5; Illinois, 29; Indiana, 22; Iowa, 9 ; Kansas, 6 ; Kentucky, 2 ;
Louisiana, 1 ; Maine, 4 ; Maryland, 4 ; Massachusetts, 28; Michigan, 15; Minne­
sota, 4 ; Missouri, 8; Montana, 3 ; Nebraska, 2 ; New Hampshire, 6 ; New Jersey,
12; New York, 39; North Carolina, 6 ; Ohio, 48; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 1 ;
Pennsylvania, 48; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 2 ; Tennessee, 6 ; Texas, 3 ;
67004°—2 9 - — 6



72

HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Utah, 1 ; Vermont, 2; Virginia, 5 ; Washington, 6; West Virginia, 4 ; Wisconsin,
12; Hawaii, 1; Canal Zone, 1. Canada—Alberta, 1; British Columbia, 2; Mani­
toba, 1; New Brunswick, 3 ; Nova Scotia, 4 ; Ontario, 25; Quebec, 2. Total, 412.
Membership.—30,000.

Pattern Makers’ League of America
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized May 18, 1887, in Philadelphia, Pa.
Objects.—“ The objects of this league shall be to elevate the condition and
maintain and protect the interests of the craft in general; to establish and
uphold a fair, equitable rate of wages, regulate the hours 6f labor, and all
trade matters appertaining to the welfare of its members; to create and
maintain a more uniform condition as to hours and wages throughout the
jurisdiction of the league, thereby protecting the employer and the employee
from unjust competition; to influence the apprenticeship system in a direction
of intelligence, competency, and skill in the interest of employer and em­
ployed; to endeavor to avoid all conflicts and their attendant bitterness and
pecuniary loss by means of arbitration and conciliation in the settlement o f
all disputes concerning wages and conditions of employment; to provide sick,
total disability, and death benefits; also tool benefits for loss of tools by fire
or flood.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Pattern making in wood, metal, plaster, and wax.
Government.—1. The general executive board, composed of president and five
other elected members, “ shall have general supervision of the league.”
2.
Local unions— “Associations” : Subordinate; constitution and rules dic­
tated by league.
Convention: Held every fourth year; legislates for body and elects general
officers. Constitutional amendments by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any competent pattern maker of good char­
acter is eligible to membership. All apprentices who have been such for one
year shall, after examination by the executive committee, be eligible to
membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ This league recognizes five years as the length
of time an apprentice should serve at the trade, and we shall use our influence
to establish this as a universal rule.
“ The following ratio of apprentices shall be allowed: One to each shop,
irrespective of the number of journeymen employed, and one to every eight
journeymen employed thereafter, such regulation to be governed by the average
number of journeymen employed in the shop.
“ No boy shall begin to learn the trade previous to arriving at the age of 16
years.
“ Each association must insist on all apprentices serving the recognized time
of apprenticeship and on a strict compliance with the terms of any indentures
existing between apprentices and employers.”
Agreements.—Wage rates established by local unions. Hourly rates, with
prohibition of bonus, premiums, or piecework rates.
Benefits.— Strike, lockout, and victimization; sick, death, and disability; tool
insurance.
Official organ.—Pattern Makers’ Monthly Journal.
Headquarters.— Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Local associations may have branches within their territorial
jurisdiction. Frequently this jurisdiction includes neighboring towns and cities
in different States.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 1 (1 branch) ; California, 2 (2
branches) ; Colorado, 1 (1 branch) ; Connecticut, 3 (4 branches) ; District o f
Columbia, 1; Georgia, 2 ; Illinois, 1 (4 branches) ; Indiana, 2 (1 branch) ; Ken­
tucky (1 branch of Indianapolis) ; Maine (1 branch of Boston) ; Maryland, 1 ;
Massachusetts, 3 (6 branches) ; Michigan, 2 (11 branches) ; Minnesota, 1 ; Mis­
souri, 1 (1 branch) ; Montana, 1; New Hampshire, 1; New Jersey (5 branches
o f New York City) ; New York, 6 (5 branches) ; Ohio, 5 (8 branches) ; Oregon,
1 ; Pennsylvania, 8 (5 branches) ; Rhode Island, 1 ; South Carolina, 1 ; Ten­




METALS AND MACHINERY

73

nessee, 2 ; Texas, 2 ; Virginia, 3 ; Washington, 1 (4 branches) ; West Virginia
(1 branch of Pittsburgh) ; Wisconsin, 1 (5 branches) ; Hawaii, 1 ; Canal Zone
(1 branch of New York City). Canada, 6 (7 branches). Total, 61 locals, 74
branches.
Membership.—8,995.

Polishers’ International Union, Metal
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Syracuse, N. Y., on July 2, 1896. Metal polishers
and brass workers were fairly well organized under the Knights
o f Labor, and in October, 1888, they formed National Trades Assem­
b ly No. 252, Knights of Labor, with jurisdiction over all branches of
the brass industry. At the convention of the National Trades As­
sembly held in New Haven, Conn., in 1890, 80 local organizations
were represented. A movement toward trade autonomy and identifi­
cation with the American Federation of Labor movement split the
convention. A ll the representatives from cities from Pennsylvania
westward withdrew ana organized the International Brotherhood of
Brass Workers. This or
J’
* * 1X1 A erican Federation
of Labor. The unions
Canadian locals
remained with the Knights of Labor. Both organizations functioned
successfully for several years.
In the meantime the metal polishers, buffers, and electroplaters in
several western cities, members of the International Brotherhood of
Brass Workers, determined to subdivide into closer craft unions, and
meeting in Toledo, Ohio, in 1892, they organized the Metal Polishers,
Buffers and Platers’ International Union of North America, thus
forming a third international union in the industry.
In 1895 the Knights of Labor Trades Assembly No. 252 amalga­
mated with the International Brotherhood of Brass Workers, and the
combined organization was chartered by the American Federation
o f Labor as the United Brotherhood of Brass and Composition Metal
Workers, Polishers, and Buffers.
The following year this organization and the Metal Polishers,
Buffers, and Platers’ International Union, meeting in Syracuse, N.
Y., on July 2, merged and became the Metal Polishers, Buffers,
Platers, and Brass Workers International Union of North America,
and were chaptered as such by the American Federation of Labor.
With the inclusion of brass molders in the jurisdiction, those work­
ers demanded and received recognition in the title of the organi­
zation. Their example was followed by the silver workers, so that,
by 1902, the name of the organization was Metal Polishers, Buffers,
Platers, Brass Molders, Brass and Silver Workers’ Union o f North
America.
Through jurisdictional readjustments, however, brass molders were
transferred to the International Molders’ Union in 1911, and brass
workers operating lathes went into the International Association
of Machinists not long afterward. In 1917 the organization decided
to limit its field to metal polishing, buffing, and electroplating.
Silver workers were turned over to the Jewelry Workers’ Union and
by a new American Federation of Labor charter issued in 1917 the
organization became the Metal Polishers’ International Union.



74

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

It has since absorbed a considerable portion of the membership of
the Pocket Knife Blade Grinders and Finishers’ National Union
which disbanded in 1917.
Objects.— “ Believing it to be the natural right of those who toil to enjoy to
the fullest possible extent the wealth created by their labor, our membership
is requested to study the economic questions of the day, particularly those
relating to the class struggle now going on. Therefore we, the Metal Polishers*
Union, pledge ourselves to labor unitedly in behalf of the following principles:
1. Reduction in hours of the workday. 2. Increase of wages. 3. Municipal
ownership of all public utilities. 4. Government ownership of all national
monopolies. 5. Abolition of government by injunction in controversies between
capital and labor.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Metal polishing, buffing, and plating.
Government.—1. “ The government of all local unions and members shall be
vested in this general union as the supreme head to which all matters of general
importance shall be referred.”
Executive board, composed of president, secretary-treasurer, three inter­
national vice presidents, and assistant secretary-treasurer, “ shall have general
supervision of the business of the international union, its officers and local
unions.”
2. Local unions: Wholly subordinate; constitutions fixed by international.
3. Initiative and referendum: General officers nominated and elected by refer­
endum. Convention on call only. Officers subject to recall.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person not a foreman (with power to
hire and discharge), superintendent or manager, working at “ any of the
crafts,” is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“All persons desiring to become apprentices to
any branch or branches of our trade shall serve an apprenticeship of three years
before being granted a journeyman’s card.
“ Wages shall be adjusted by the local union in which jurisdiction the ap­
prentice is employed.
“ No apprentice shall be allowed to work in any shop under our jurisdiction
unless at least one journeyman is permanently employed.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with individual employers, upon
terms suggested by the general organization. Duration of contract, one year,
long-term contracts being contrary to the policy of the general office.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—Our Journal of the Metal Polishers’ International Union.
Headquarters.— Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States— California, 2 ; Connecticut,
9 ; District of Columbia, 1; Illinois, 9; Indiana, 11; Iowa, 1; Kentucky, 1; Mas­
sachusetts, 8; Michigan, 6 ; Maryland, 1; Minnesota, 1; Missouri, 4; Nebraska,
1 ; New Jersey, 3 ; New York, 12; Ohio, 10; Pennsylvania, 6; Tennessee, 2 ;
Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 3. Canada— Ontario, 3. Total, 95.
Membership.—9,500.

Stove Mounters* International Union of North America
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Quincy, 111., on December 29, 1892, as the Interna­
tional Stove Mounters’ Union. Various changes in the name of the
organization were made from time to time to include the steel range
workers, but these titles were dropped and the union is now known
and chartered as the Stove Mounters’ International Union of North
America.
Objects.—“ Believing that the welfare of a community depends upon the
purchasing power of its members, and in order to promote our craft interests
and to enable us to have a voice in determining the hours, wages, and conditions
under which we work and live, and that we may maintain our rightful position
as citizens, we have organized this union.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.



METALS AND MACHINERY

75

Trade jurisdiction.— “ The following crafts and their branches: Stove mount­
ers, steel and malleable range mounters, furnace mounters, gas-range mounters,
drillers, steel, gas, and electric range riveters, machine and bench hands, whitemetal workers and repair men, cutters, punchers, and breakers, pattern fitters,
pattern filers, manifold fitters and testers, gaters and welders.”
Government.—1. “ The government and superintendence of subordinate unions
shall be vested in the hands of the executive board of the international union.
It shall be the tribunal to which all matters of general importance to the wel­
fare of the several unions or any member thereof shall be referred for
adjustment.
“ The executive and judicial powers of the union when not in session shall
be vested in the executive board,” which is composed of president, four vice
presidents, and secretary-treasurer.
“All legislative powers shall be vested in the entire membership, by initiative
and referendum or in convention duly assembled.”
2. Local unions: Autonomy limited.
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any competent workman who has served an
apprenticeship of three years is eligible to journeyman membership. Appren­
tice membership after three months at the trade.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ No local, where apprentices are employed, shall
allow more than one apprentice to every 8 journeymen or majority fraction
thereof.
“Apprentices shall be confined to regular apprentice work only after the
first six months o f their apprenticeship; they shall serve three years at the
trade before being eligible to membership in this organization.”
Agreements.— Negotiated by membership o f local union and individual em­
ployer, on terms proposed by the international executive board. If agreement
is not reached, disputed matters are taken up by officers of the international,
with the employer or with the officials of manufacturers’ association to which
the employer may belong.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.— Stove Mounters and Range Workers’ Journal.
Headquarters.— 6466 Jefferson Avenue East, Detroit, Mich.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—California, 2 ; Georgia, 2 ;
Illinois, 6 ; Indiana, 3 ; Kentucky, 1; Massachusetts, 1; Michigan, 2 ; Missouri,
5; New Jersey, 3 ; New York, 5 ; Ohio, 10; Pennsylvania, 7; Tennessee, 2.
Canada— Ontario, 1. Total, 50.
Membership.—Not reported. American Federation of Labor voting strength,
1,600.




TRANSPORTATION
(~)F T H E many organizations of transportation workers, broadly
^ speaking, those covering operation and administration are in­
dependent, while the American Federation of Labor unions cover
maintenance and shopwork. In the last-mentioned field and in train
dispatching, however, there are independent unions dual to the
American Federation of Labor unions.
The American Federation of Railroad Workers is a secession
union, formerly the International Association of Car Workers.
While it is avowedly an industrial union, its membership is chiefly
among car-shop workers.
Jurisdiction of train dispatching is claimed by an affiliated union,
the Order o f Railroad Telegraphers, and by the independent Ameri­
can Train Dispatchers’ Association.
Several of the independent railroad unions are small groups dupli­
cating each other in the same field, a field which, in most instances,
is also claimed by affiliated unions. Station employees have two
organizations, the Aonerican Railway Agents and the Brotherhood
of Railroad Station Employees, in addition to the affiliated brother­
hood to which they are also eligible, the Brotherhood of Railway
and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Em­
ployees. Yardmasters, who are included in the jurisdictional claims
o f the affiliated switchmen’s union, have two independent organiza­
tions, one o f which split off the other. Negro railroad workers have
two independent general organizations, the Association of Colored
Railway Trainmen, and the Association of Train Porters, Brakemen
and Switchmen, as well as the various directly affiliated American
Federation of Labor local unions (see p. 6).
The railway brotherhoods are among the oldest organizations of
labor in the country, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
dating from 1863 and the Order of Railroad Conductors from 1868.
Originally both of these organizations and the Brotherhood of
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, founded in 1873, were benevo­
lent and temperance societies rather than labor unions. They fell
into line with the general trend of the labor movement, however, and
the youngest of the brotherhoods, the Brotherhood of Railroad Train­
men, organized in 1883, has been an economic organization from the
first.
These organizations have always maintained their position inde­
pendent of the American Federation of Labor, and have so thor­
oughly controlled their field that no question of jurisdiction or dual
unionism has arisen.
There are two comparatively new organizations in railroad opera­
tion, both formed in 1918—the Order of Sleeping Car Conductors,
which is affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, and the
Brotherhood of Dining Car Conductors, which is independent.

Operators of motor buses come under two affiliated unions, through
an agreement between the organizations which divided jurisdiction.
Where motor-bus lines are operated by a street-railway company as
part of its service and equipment, the Amalgamated Association of
70




TRANSPORTATION

77

Street and Electric Kailway Employees exercises jurisdiction over
the drivers. Operators on independently controlled bus lines, when
organized, hold membership in the International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers.
In water transportation there are three affiliated and three inde­
pendent unions. The International Longshoremen’s Association and
the International Seamen’s Union, both affiliated to the American
Federation of Labor, are the only unions in their jurisdictions. The
third affiliated union, the National Organization of Masters, Mates,
and Pilots, has a rival organization among the independents in the
Neptune Association.
The other two independent unions, the National Marine Engineers’
Beneficial Association and the Ocean Association of Marine En­
gineers, are dual organizations, the latter having seceded from the
former. The National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association was
at one time in the American Federation of Labor, but withdrew be­
cause o f lack o f sympathy with the federation’s opposition to ship
subsidy. Thereafter the jurisdiction of the International Union
of Operating Engineers was extended to cover marine and Diesel
engines.
Listed according to their relation to the American Federation of
Labor, the transportation unions are:
Land:
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor—
Railway Employees’ Department, A. F. of L __________________
Carmen of America, Brotherhood of Railway__________________
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees,
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship______________________
Conductors, Order o f Sleeping Car------------------------------------------Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood of________________
Porters, Sleeping Car (American Federation of Labor locals)—
Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad______________
Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, Amalgamated
Association of----- ------------------------------------------------------------------Switchmen's Union of North America_________________________
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and Helpers, International
Brotherhood of______________________________________________
Telegraphers, Order of Railroad________________________________
Railroad Shop Crafts (classified under Building trades and
Metals and machinery) —
Blacksmith, Drop Forgers and Helpers-------------------------------Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders_______________________
Electrical W orkers_______________________ _________________
Firemen and Oilers________________________________________
Machinists______________ __________________________________
Metal Workers, Sheet--------------------------------------------------------Independent organizations—
Agents, American Railway____________________________________
Conductors, Brotherhood of Dining Car________________________
Conductors of America, Order of Railway______________________
Engineers, Grand International Brotherhood o f Locomotive______
Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive__________
Porters, Brakemen and Switchmen, Association of Train_______
Railroad workers, American Federation o f-------------------------------Station Employees, Brotherhood of Railroad__________________
Train Dispatchers’ Association, American______________________
Trainmen, Association of Colored Railway_____________________
Trainmen, Brotherhood of Railroad____________________________
Yardmasters of America, Railroad--------------------------------------------Yardmasters of North America, Railroad_____________________



Page
12
78
80
81
88
6
91
92
94
94
96
53
56
30
59

61
67
78
81
82
85
86
89
90
92
96
98
97
99
100

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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN XBADE-UNIONS

W ater:
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor—
Longshoremen’s Association, International_____________________
Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America, National Organization____
Seamen’s Union of America, International______________________
Independent organizations—
Engineers’ Beneficial Association of the United States of America,
National Marine____________________________________________
Engineers, Ocean Association of Marine________________________
Neptune Association___________________________________________

Page
102
104
105
100
102
104

Agents, American Railway
Not affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Minneapolis, Minn., in May, 1920. Originally this
association was the Order of Railroad Station Agents, organized in
1908. Internal dissension split the organization in 1920, and the
Order of Railroad Station Agents has since passed out of existence.
The American Railway Agents is a small organization, numbering
about 200 members, scattered throughout the United States ana
Canada.
It publishes the Railway Agent as its official organ, and its head­
quarters are Room 404, Bankers’ Trust Building, Indianapolis, Ind.
Carmen of America, Brotherhood of Railway

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Pueblo, Colo., in August, 1891, as the result of a con­
solidation of various other organizations in the same field, among
them the Brotherhood of Railway Car Repairers, which had been in
existence since 1888, the Carmen s Mutual Aid Association, and the
Brotherhood of Railway Carmen, organized in Toronto, Canada, in
1890. The organization functioned independently until 1909, when
it affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
Following its affiliation with the federation, it became involved in
many jurisdictional difficulties with the craft unions, which claimed
many of the occupations in car building, such as the carpenters,

ainters, sheet-metal workers,
Adjustment has in most
E reached by agreement withetc. various craft organizations, cases
een
the
how­
ever, and the brotherhood continues to function essentially as an
industrial union.

Objects.—“ We declare the intent and purpose of this brotherhood is to advance
the moral, material, and industrial well-being of its members. First, to bring
within the fold of our brotherhood every carman eligible to join our ranks.
Second, to secure for our members a just remuneration in exchange for their
labor. Third, to shorten the hours of labor as economic development and
progress will warrant. Eight hours per day is the workday desired, and 44
hours per week, in order that our members may have more opportunities for
intellectual development, social enjoyment, and industrial education. Fourth,
to combat wherever it exists piecework, the bonus system, and all other degrad­
ing systems of labor, and to endeavor to establish through joint conferences
of employers and employees such rates and working conditions as befit the
ideal of honorable labor. Fifth, to federate with all other railway labor organi­
zations for the common good and protection o f all. Sixth, to cooperate with
all trade, labor, and farmer organizations to secure the passage of such laws as
are beneficial to the working class. Seventh, to encourage and stimulate our
members to take a lively interest in the civU affairs o f their country in order



TRANSPORTATION

79

that they can, as a class, vote intelligently and effectively for the interests o f
the working class. Eighth, to encourage the establishment o f sick, accident,
death benefits, and old-age pensions in all lodges where it is possible.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.—Car building, covering specifically: “ Railroad, electric,
or motor car builders or repairers on any class o f cars, wood or steel; car
inspectors, car oilers, coach, gas, and steam pipe work, steel cabs, steel pilots,
pilot beams and steel running boards, millwrights, drill-press men, air-brake
and triple valve w ork; cabinet work, upholsterers, pattern makers in car depart­
ment; planing-mill work, bench, coach, locomotive and all other carpenters in
car departments; tender and tank work; locomotive, coach, and car painting
and all finishing work pertaining thereto; tinners; all axle lathes, wheel borers,
wheel press, bolt cutters and threaders, nut tappers, pipe fitters employed in car
department; material handlers; boiler lagger and axle light work on wood or
steel cars; foremen and assistants; wrecking engineers and crew s; punch and
shear operators in car department, and employees assigned to handle acetylene,
thermite, or electric process on work that was generally recognized as carmen’s
work prior to the introduction of such process; coach cleaners and all helpers
employed in any of these classifications.”
Government.—1. General officers: President, assistant president, 12 vice presi­
dents, secretary-treasurer, editor, and general executive board of 5 elected
members.
The general president “ shall perform the executive duties of the brotherhood,
with power to settle all differences and grievances.” His powers are compre­
hensive. The general executive board is a trial and audit board.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution fixed by grand lodge, but with
u power of making rules and regulations for their own welfare, provided
always that such rules and regulations are in accordance with the constitution.”
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by initiative or convention and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any white person between the ages of 16 and
65 years,” employed in any capacity covered by the jurisdiction, “ who believes
in the existence of a Supreme Being, who is free from hereditary or contracted
diseases, of good moral character and habits,” is eligible to membership; “ pro­
vided, that any person making application for membership who is not a citizen
of the United States or Canada must present first naturalization papers or
make affidavit” that such papers have been applied for. Male and female
membership.
Carmen over 65 years of age may become honorary (nonbeneficiary) members.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “An apprentice is a person who while between
the ages of 16 and 21 years is engaged to an employer to serve an apprentice­
ship learning the carmen’s trade. Any person engaging himself to learn the
carmen’s trade shall serve an apprenticeship of 4 years of 290 days each.
“ The ratio of apprentices shall be one apprentice for every five journeymen
carmen employed * * * Apprentices upon completion of their apprentice­
ship shall receive not less than the minimum rate of pay for carmen.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by railroad systems federations, composed o f joint
protective boards representing the various locals on a system. Indefinite dura­
tion, with 30-day notice clause.
Benefits.— Strike; death and total disability; injury and sick (by locals).
Official organ.—Railway Carmen’s Journal.
Headquarters.— Carmen’s Building, Kansas City, Mo.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 6 ; Arkansas, 6 ;
California, 6; Colorado, 5; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia, 1 ; Florida, 2;
Georgia, 10; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 59; Indiana, 32 ; Iowa, 27; Kansas, 7; Kentucky,
10; Louisiana, 9 ; Maine, 1; Maryland, 6; Massachusetts, 3; Michigan, 20; Min­
nesota, 16; Mississippi, 4 ; Missouri, 19; Montana, 6 ; Nebraska, 7 ; Nevada, 1 ;
New Hampshire, 2; New Jersey, 7 ; New York, 30; North Carolina, 6 ; North
Dakota, 1; Ohio, 49; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 32; South Caro­
lina, 8; South Dakota, 5; Tennessee, 11; Texas, 8; Utah, 1 ; Vermont, 1;
Virginia, 16; Washington, 6 ; West Virginia, 20; Wisconsin, 30; Wyoming, 2 ;
Canal Zone, 1. Canada— Alberta, 13; British Columbia, 12; Manitoba, 7 ; New
Brunswick, 5 ; Nova Scotia, 5 ; Ontario, 44; Quebec, 17; Saskatchewan, 11.
Total, 621.
Membership.—56,000,




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Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees,
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Sedalia, Mo., in 1898, as the Order of Railway Clerks
o f America. The order affiliated with the American Federation of
Labor, but dropped out within a few years. After a reorganization
the name was changed to Brotherhood of Railway Clerks. This or­
ganization functioned independently until 1909, when it was chartered
by the American Federation of Labor. Following a substantial and
steady gi'owth as an organization of clerks, the scope was widened to
include various other branches of railroad work, the extent of juris­
diction being reflected in the name adopted in 1919, Brotherhood o f
Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Sta­
tion Employees.
This extended jurisdiction was contested by the International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, who claimed jurisdiction over the expresswagon drivers. The American Federation o f Labor sustained the
claim of the teamsters and ordered the release o f all members of the
clerks’ brotherhood who were employed as drivers in the railwayexpress service. The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks refused to ac­
cept the decision, and in January, 1926, their charter was revoked by
the American Federation o f Labor. By January, 1929, the dispute
had been satisfactorily adjusted and the Brotherhood of Railway
Clerks restored to its former status in the American Federation of
Labor.
Objects.—“ For the purpose of promoting unity o f action, for our mutual
protection and to promote the general welfare of our crafts.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.—Clerks and other employees in railway offices; freight
handlers, ticket sellers, baggagemen or other station employees; train and
engine crew dispatchers and callers; storehouse or storeroom employees; and
express employees in the service of railroad, steamship, express, or other trans­
portation companies (except employees at ocean and Great Lakes ports handling
freight between marine warehouses and deep-water vessels and between railroad
cars and deep-water vessels; i. e. longshore works).
Government.—1. “ The grand lodge * * * is the legislative and judicial
head of the brotherhood and is vested with full power and authority to enforce
upon its membership a strict adherence to its laws and regulations.”
Grand lodge officers are: President, secretary-treasurer, seven vice presi­
dents, editor, and a board o f trustees consisting of five members.
Grand executive council: Authority between conventions is vested in a grand
executive council, composed of the president, secretary-treasurer, and seven
vice presidents. The council meets in regular sessions semiannually and its
decisions stand unless and until reversed by the grand lodge convention. The
grand president exercises general supervision over all the affairs of the
brotherhood.
2. Local Unions: “ There shall be one form of constitution for the government
of all local lodges (emanating from grand lodge), which shall be considered the
law by which each lodge shall be governed, provided that lodges may, with
the approval of the grand president, adopt such by-laws for their local govern­
ment as may be necessary.”
3. Convention: Held triennially: legislates for organization and elects grand
lodge officers.
4. Initiative, referendum, and recall: Constitutional amendments either by
convention or by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“All white persons, male or female, of good
moral character who have had actual exeprience ‘within the field covered by the
jurisidction/ and who at the time of making application are in the employ” of



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81

railroad, steamship, express, or other transportation companies, are eligible to
membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by general wage committee composed of representa­
tives of locals of each road. Contracts are of indefinite duration with 30-day
renewal clause.
Benefits.— Strike and death.
Official organ.—The Railway Clerk.
Headquarters.—Brotherhood of Railway Clerks Building, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Local lodges only. Total, 1,297. Distribution not reported.
Membership.—135,000.

Conductors, Brotherhood of Dining Car
Not affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized and incorporated in New York City in December, 1918.
Objects.— “ It shall be the object of this brotherhood to promote the general
welfare of its members; advance their interests—social, moral and intellectual;
to protect their families and themselves by the exercise of such benevolences
as are established by the grand division. It shall be the aim of the brother­
hood to maintain harmonious relations with those whose interests they serve
and to act as a representative body to adjust such differences as may from
time to time arise between employer and employee to the end that mutual
confidence would function to raise the standard of dining-car service.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Dining-car conductors, assistant dining-car conductors,
dining-car stewards, assistant dining-car stewards, railroad restaurant stewards
or managers, railroad ferry steamer stewards or managers.
Government.—1. General officers are: President, 2 natitonal vice presidents,
and 4 regional vice presidents, general secretary-treasurer, and an executive
board of 12 elected members in addition to the president and secretarytreasurer.
“ The executive power of the brotherhood shall be vested in the president.”
“ The judicial power of the brotherhood shall be vested in the executive
board.”
Regional vice presidents are an adjustment board.
2. Local divisions: Organized and allocated by grand division, subordinate
to and governed by its constitution and rules.
3. Convention: Held triennially; elects general officers. “ All legislative
powers are vested in the grand division” in regular session assembled. Con­
stitutional amendment by convention only.
•
Qualifications for membership.—“ An applicant for membership must be of the
Caucasian race and have had at least three consecutive months* experience in
the capacity ” covered by jurisdiction.
Agreements.—Negotiated by committees on individual roads with railroad
management, subject to approval by the brotherhood.
Benefits.—Life insurance (through an insurance company).
Official organ.—The Dining-Car Steward.
Headquarters.—101 West Forty-second Street, New York City, N. Y.
Organization.—Local divisions only: California, 1; Colorado, 1; District of
Columbia, 1 ; Illinois, 1 ; Massachusetts, 1 ; Minnesota, 1; Nebraska, 1 ; New
York, 1. Total, 8.
Membership.—1,000.

Conductors, Order of Sleeping Car
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Kansas City, Mo., February 20, 1918, as the Order
of Sleeping Car Employees. At the first triennial convention, held
in 1919, the name was changed to Order of Sleeping Car Conductors.
Objects.—“ The work of this order is dedicated to the best interests o f the
employer and employee, through collective bargaining to maintain wages and
working conditions in consonance with American standards of living.



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“ That they may serve one another in peaceful and harmonious relations
through the constant efforts of this organization; to advance the interests,
social, moral, and intellectual, of its members, and to establish mutual confi­
dence through a policy o f general understanding—such is the aim and purpose
of this order.,,
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Mexico ( “ wherever
the Pullman Company operates ” ).
Trade jurisdiction.— Sleeping and parlor car conductors.
Government.—1. General officers: President, six vice presidents comprising
the executive board; and secretary-treasurer.
“ The president is the official head of the order,” with comprehensive execu­
tive and administrative powers.
The executive board acts “ as advisory counsel to the president” and as a
trial and audit board.
2. Local divisions: Subordinate; constitution and by-laws dictated by gen­
eral division. Dues paid to headquarters office and rebated to local by general
secretary-treasurer (75 per cent to headquarters office, 25 per cent to local
treasury).
3. Convention: held triennially; elects general officers. Constitutional
amendments by convention vote only.
Qualifications for membership.— “Applicant for membership must be a white
male, sober and industrious, and must join of his own free will. He must be
sound in body and mind. He must be actually employed as a sleeping or par­
lor car conductor and have served at least 10 days as such prior to and at the
time he makes application.”
Agreements.—The executive officers of the order confer with representatives
of the Pullman Co. to establish wage rates and rules governing working
conditions, based on demands formulated by the membership. Indefinite dura­
tion, with a 30-day notice clause.
Benefits.—Insurance (compulsory contributory membership).
Official organ.—The Sleeping Car Conductor.
Headquarters.— Carmen’s Building, 107 West Linwood Boulevard, Kansas
City, Mo.
Organization.—Local divisions only: United States—Alabama, 1; California,
2 ; Colorado, 1; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 1 ; Georgia, 1; Illinois. 1;
Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1 ; Maryland, 1 ; Massachusetts, 1 ; Michigan, 1 ; Min­
nesota, 2 ; Missouri, 2 ; Nebraska. 1 ; New York, 3; North Carolina, 2 ; Ohio,
3 ; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 2 : Texas, 4 ; Tennessee, 2 ; Utah, 1; Virginia, 2 ;
Washington, 1. Canada, 1. Mexico, 1. Total, 41.
membership.—2,300.

Conductors of America, Order of Railway
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Mendota, 111., on July 6, 1868. Organization of
railroad conductors began early in 1868 when a group of conductors
on the Illinois Central formed the Conductors’ Union at Amboy, 111.
Shortly thereafter a group of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy men
met at Galesburg and organized Galesburg Division No. 2 of the
Conductors’ Union. In July of the same year these two groups
met jointly at Mendota, 111., and established an organization “ to
be known as the Conductors’ Union,” which should proceed with
the organization of railroad conductors over the entire country.
This group held another meeting at Columbus, Ohio, on December
15, 1868, reorganized, elected a “ grand division” and adopted a
constitution and by-laws.
At the first annual convention, held in 1869, the name “ Conductors’
Brotherhood ” was adopted. This was changed to Order of Rail­
way Conductors of America in 1878.
Originally this organization was not a labor union. It was a
fraternal benefit and temperance society which definitely opposed



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economic action. From 1877 to 1890 participation in strikes was
punished by expulsion from the order. Out of that attitude on
the part o f the conductors grew the charge of the other railroad
organizations that the conductors were strike breakers, active op­
position on the part of the labor unions to the conductors and ef­
forts to disrupt their organization, and the establishment, in 1885,
o f the Brotherhood of Railway Conductors, based on a labor-union
philosophy and program.
Pressure from without and disaffection within produced a radi­
cal change in policy by 1890, when the old leaders were displaced
and a more aggressive program of trade regulation was adopted.
The cooperation o f the other railroad unions was secured, insurgency
was checked, and the dual organization was absorbed.
Fraternal and beneficial features are still strong but the para­
mount doctrine and activity of the Order of Railway Conductors
at present is the regulation of working conditions and the adjust­
ment of difficulties through trade agreements.
The order was incorporated under the laws of Iowa in 1887, and
Cedar Rapids became its permanent headquarters. Publication of
the official organ of the order, The Railway Conductor, began in
1884.
Objects.—“ The particular business and objects for which this association is
formed are as follows: To unite its members; to combine their interests as
railway conductors; to elevate their standing as such and their character as
men, for their mutual improvement and advantage, socially and otherwise; to
secure to members the proper support, cooperation and assistance of each
other; * * * and to organize subordinate divisions, bodies or associations
under the jurisdiction and control of, and in subordination to this asso­
ciation; * * * to furnish material aid and benefit, from a fund obtained
upon the assessment plan, to disabled members * * * and their widows,
children, and heirs.” (From the articles of incorporation, 1887.)
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Railway conductors. “ The term *conductor * applies to
a person who is in charge of a complete train of any kind whatsoever and
who supervises the movements of a complete train without regard to the terri­
tory in which it operates. Also to those who act as assistants in the perform­
ance of conductors’ duties of honoring or lifting transportation or acceptance
and execution of train orders.”
Government.— “ The grand division shall have exclusive jurisdiction over
all divisions, * * * and to its constitution, statutes, edicts, and resolu­
tions all divisions and members of the order shall render true obedience.”
“ The powers of the grand division are legislative, judicial, and executive.”
“ The president is the official head of the order,” with comprehensive powers.
The board of trustees, composed of three elected members, is a trial and audit
board.
The board of directors, composed of the president, nine vice presidents,
secretary and treasurer, trustees, and members of the insurance committee,
is an appeal board.
Committee on jurisdiction, composed of the president, the senior vice presi­
dent, assistant to the president, association chairmen and a member who shaU
be a citizen of Canada appointed by the president, is a wage committee.
General legislative committee. In the United States, composed o f the board
of directors. In Canada, composed of the Canadian vice president, the
Canadian legislative representative and another member appointed by the
president.
2.
Divisions: Subordinate; governed by constitution, laws, and regulations of
grand division, except that they ‘ shall have power to enact such by-laws for
their government as they may deem necessary,” subject to the approval of the
president




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Divisions must maintain legislative committees, which combine into a legis­
lative committee for the State or Province.
Divisions must maintain adjustment committees, which combine into general
adjustment committees for wage negotiations.
3.
Conventions: Held triennially; enact legislation and elect general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention, but under certain conditions must be
ratified by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any white man shall be eligible to member­
ship under the following conditions:
“A. Who has qualified as a road train conductor on a surface railway,
where steam and electricity are intermingled, or where steam or electricity
is the motive power, and the operation of which is governed by time-tables,
rules or other requirements which necessarily constitute a requisite qualifica­
tion of a bona fide railway conductor, and who at the time of making applica­
tion has his name on road train conductors’ rosters and holds road rights, and
has had at least one year’s experience in road or yard service and is in
road or yard service at the time of making application.
“ B. Who acts as assistant in the performance o f conductor’s duties in
honoring or lifting transportation or acceptance and execution of train orders.
“ C. Who at any time has been actually employed as road train conductor,
and has had his name on road train conductors’ roster, and who is at the time
of making application employed in road or yard service.
“ D. Who is actually assigned as conductor of a regularly established trans­
fer service, doing only transfer work.
“ The use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage shall be sufficient cause for
rejecting any petition for membership.”
Agreements.— “ On each system of railway where there are divisions of the
order there shall be a general committee of adjustment. * * * On systems
of railway under management of more than one general manager where sep­
arate general committees are formed, the several chairmen will constitute a
system advisory board.”
General committees in turn form associations, one association for each of
the following districts:
“ District No. 1 shall be composed of all territory lying west of, and including,
the southern lines of the Illinois Central Railway, and lying on the west side
of Lake Michigan and south of Lake Superior, and west of a line laid through
Duluth and Fort William, and shall be bounded on the south by the Mexican
border.
“ District No. 2 shall be composed of the territory east o f the aforementioned
line and north of the lines of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway.
“ District No. 3 shall comprise the territory south of and including the
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway and as far west as the Illinois Central line men­
tioned as the boundary of district No. 1.”
These associations are established “ for the purpose of carrying on conceited
movements relating to wages, hours of service, and other important general
working conditions of conductors.”
Benefits.— Strike ( “ striking members and other striking conductors” ) ; life
insurance and total disability insurance (compulsory membership) ; accident
insurance (voluntary membership) ; home for aged and disabled members,
wives, and widows.
Official organ.—The Railway Conductor.
Headquarters.—Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Organization.—Local divisions only: United States—Alabama, 7; Arizona, 4;
Arkansas, 8 ; California, 22; Colorado, 10; Connecticut, 4; Delaware, 2 ; Dis­
trict of Columbia, 1; Florida, 9; Georgia, 10; Idaho, 2; Illinois, 39; Indiana,
24; Iowa, 26; Kansas, 19; Kentucky, 13; Louisiana, 9 ; Maine, 3 ; Maryland, 5;
Massachusetts, 8; Michigan, 14; Minnesota, 15; Mississippi, 8; Missouri, 27:
Montana, 12; Nebraska, 13; Nevada, 3 ; New Hampshire, 2; New Jersey, 9 ;
New Mexico, 7 ; New York, 30; North Carolina, 8; North Dakota, 7; Ohio, 33:
Oklahoma, 10; Oregon, 5; Pennsylvania, 54; Rhode Island, 1 ; South Carolina, 5 ;
South Dakota, 4 ; Tennessee, 10; Texas, 36; Utah, 4; Vermont, 3; Virginia, 11;
Washington, 11; West Virginia, 18; Wisconsin, 14; Wyoming, 5. Canada— Al­
berta, 7 ; British Columbia, 7 ; Manitoba, 6; New Brunswick, 2 ; Nova Scotia, 3;
Ontario, 31; Quebec, 9; Saskatchewan, 8. Totalt 677.
Membership.—53,055.




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Engineers, Grand International Brotherhood of Locomotive
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized March 17, 1863. The earliest organization of railroad
engineers was formed at a convention in Baltimore, Md., on
November 6, 1855, attended by 70 delegates representing 14 States
and 55 railroads. This association, known as the National Protec­
tive Association of the United States, lasted only a year. Sub­
ordinate branches which it had organized at the height of its activity
lived somewhat longer, but were never active.
Working conditions resulting from the rapid development of rail­
roads and their consolidation into trunk lines produced discontent
on the part of the engineers, which led to a concerted movement of
those on the roads running through Michigan. At a meeting held
in Detroit in March, 1863, 12 engineers established division No. 1,
Brotherhood o f the Footboard, and adopted a constitution and
by-laws.
Local organization followed so rapidly that there were 54 divisions
at the time o f the second annual meeting, in August, 1864. A t this
convention, held in Indianapolis, the name was changed to Grand
International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers.
During 1864-65 the brotherhood gained a firm hold in the East
as well as what was then the West. The official journal was
established in 1866 and the Mutual Life Insurance Association, a sub­
sidiary, in 1867. In 1870 Cleveland was made the permanent head­
quarters of the brotherhood.
Never a militant organization, it has developed gradually from a
fraternal benefit society to a powerful economic body in practical
control of the field it covers.
Objects.—" The purpose of this organization shall be to combine the interests
of locomotive engineers, elevate their social, moral, and intellectual standing,
to guard their financial interests, and promote their general welfare; its
cardinal principles, sobriety, truth, justice, and morality.
“ The interests of the employer and the employee being coordinate, the aim
of the organization will be cooperation and the cultivation of amicable rela­
tions with the employer, and to guarantee the fulfillment of every contract
made in its name by the use of every power vested in it.’*
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Locomotive engineers. (Men operating power on ele­
vated roads or subways, wholly or in part within incorporated limits of the
city, or men upon roads of not less than 25 miles in length, 20 miles of which
shall be outside of the incorporated limits of the city, or upon roads that are
or have been operated by steam power, shall be known as engineers.)
Government.—1. “ The grand international division shall have exclusive juris­
diction over all subjects pertaining to the brotherhood, and its enactments and
decisions upon all questions are the supreme law o f the brotherhood, and all
divisions and members o f the order shall render true obedience thereto.”
Grand division officers are: Grand chief engineer, nine assistant grand chief
engineers, secretary-treasurer, and secretary-treasurer of insurance.
“ The grand chief engineer shall be the official head of the order, and shall
have the general direction of the assistant grand chiefs in their work, and
shall exercise full control over the grand office and the order in general.”
2. Divisions: Subordinate; constitution, rules, and regulations dictated by
grand division. ’
3. Convention: Held triennially at Cleveland, Ohio. Legislates for order
and elects general officers. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “ No person shall become a member o f the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers unless he is a white man, 21 years of
age, nor shall he, except as provided in section 31, statutes, be initiated if more



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

than 50 years o f age, can read and write the language used in operating the
road where he is employed, is a man of good moral character, temperate habits,
and an engineer in active service, or who has qualified as an engineer and is
subject to call, operating motive power on railroads when proposed.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by general committees of adjustment. “ On any sys­
tem of railroad where two are more divisions are organized, there shall be
a standing general committee of adjustment. * * * Each division on a
road or system shall be entitled to one representative and one vote in said
committee.” On a road or system where there is only one division, the local
committee of that division will be the general committee of adjustment. Com­
mittee members are elected triennially.
Benefits.— Strike and victimization (from general fu n d s); home for aged and
disabled.
Locomotive Engineers’ Mutual Life and Accident Insurance Association, a
subsidiary established on December 3, 1867, and incorporated on March 3, 1894,
carries life and accident insurance, which is compulsory for all members; and
provides old-age and disability pension, accident indemnity, and sick benefit
through funds raised by assessments on voluntary membership.
Official organ.—Locomotive Engineers* Journal.
Headquarters.—Brotherhood of Locomotve Engineers’ Building, Cleveland,
Ohio.
Organization.—Local divisions only: United States—Alabama, 13; Arizona, 5;
Arkansas, 10; California, 22; Colorado, 14; Connecticut, 4 ; Delaware, 3 ; District
of Columbia, 1; Florida, 8; Georgia, 19; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 56; Indiana, 30;
Iowa, 34; Kansas, 25; Kentucky, 17; Louisiana, 14; Maine, 6; Maryland, 6 ;
Massachusetts, 10; Michigan, 21; Minnesota, 27; Mississippi, 9; Missouri, 31;
Montana, 11; Nebraska, 11; Nevada, 3; New Hampshire, 3; New Jersey, 17;
New Mexico, 6; New York, 49; North Carolina, 8; North Dakota, 5; Ohio, 57;
Oklahoma, 11; Oregon, 7; Pennsylvania, 75; Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina,
5 ; South Dakota, 3; Tennessee, 17; Texas, 46; Utah, 7 ; Vermont, 5; Virginia,
19; Washington, 15; West Virginia, 12; Wisconsin, 24; Wyoming, 6. Canada—
Alberta, 10; British Columbia, 10; Manitoba, 7; New Brunswick, 10; Nova
Scotia, 7; Ontario, 39; Quebec, 14; Saskatchewan, 10. Total, 919.
Membership.—83,000.

Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive
Not affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized at Port Jervis, N. Y., December 1, 1873. The Brother­
hood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen grew out of a meeting
of 11 firemen in an old shed in Port Jervis, N. Y., at which Deer
Park Lodge, No. 1, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, was or­
ganized. Organization of other local lodges followed rapidly, and
two years after the first gathering a convention held at Indianapolis
represented 31 lodges. The convention established the official organ
of the brotherhood. In 1906 the name was changed to Brotherhood
o f Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen.
The development of the firemen’s organization parallels closely
that o f the conductors and the engineers, starting out as a fraternal
benefit society and growing into a craft union with virtual control
over the working conditions and trade relations o f its members.
Objects.—“ For the purpose of uniting locomotive enginemen and hostlers,
elevating their social, moral, and intellectual standing, for the protection of
their interests and the promotion of their general welfare, the Brotherhood o f
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen has been instituted as an international
organization, having as one of its aims the desire to cultivate a spirit of
harmony between employer and employee. Realizing that our vocation involves
ceaseless peril, the necessity of making suitable provisions for ourselves, our
families, and those we feel obliged to aid, against those disasters which almost
daily overtake us, and of extending to each other the hand of charity, becomes
self-evident, and hence the brotherhood has adopted as its motto: Protection,
charity, sobriety, and industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, Newfoundland, and Mexico.



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Trade jurisdiction.—Locomotive enginemen, engine hostlers, hostler helpers,
engine dispatchers employed handling engines in or about roundhouse or ash
pit, in shop yards, locomotive works, industrial plants, motor men or helpers on
electric engines, motor or gas cars on roads where electric energy is used of
has been substituted for steam. Engine hostlers or engine dispatchers are
persons who actually handle and are responsible for the care of locomotives.
Hostler helpers are persons who are assigned and required to assist outside
or main-line hostlers.
Government.—1. General officers o f the grand lodge are: President, assistant
president, 10 vice presidents, national legislative representative for the United
States, general secretary-treasurer, editor, general medical examiner, and a
board of directors consisting of seven members.
The president is the administrative and executive head of the organization,
with comprehensive powers.
The board of directors is advisory to the president. It is also a trial board
and an audit board. The vice presidents are field representatives dealing
directly with railroad managers in the interest o f the membership.
The national legislative representative is a full-time salaried officer who is
head of the organized legislative and political activities of the grand lodge
and subordinate lodges, with headquarters in Washington.
2. Subordinate lodges: Autonomy almost wholly restricted by constitution;
rules and regulations imposed by grand lodge.
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Amendments to either grand lodge or subordinate lodge constitution by con­
vention vote oaly. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any worker within the jurisdiction who has
served for at least 30 days, white, of good moral character, sober and in­
dustrious, not less than 18 years of age, and able to read and write the English
language, is eligible to membership. Mexicans, or those of Spanish-Mexican
extraction, are ineligible.
Failure to pass the required physical examination makes applicant eligible
only to nonbeneficiary membership, carrying with it only a funeral benefit.
Agreements.— “ Protective department,” organized into the local grievance
committees, general grievance committees, associations of general committees.
General committees are composed of the chairman of the local grievance com­
mittees on each railway. (On railway systems having but one lodge the local
grievance committee shall be the general grievance committee.)
“ General grievance committees shall have authority to make and interpret
agreements with representatives of railway companies coreerning rates of
wages, rules respecting seniority rights, adjustment of grievances, and other
matters necessary in the interest o f the members they represent. When the
general committee is not in session the general chairman has authority to
interpret the schedule.”
Associations of general committees are composed of the general committees
in each of the following districts:
District No. 1. All territory lying west of and including the southern lines
of the Illinois Central Railroad and lying on the west side of Lake Michigan
and south of Lake Superior, and west of the line drawn through Duluth, and
shall be bounded on the south by the Mexican border and on the north by the
Canadian border.
District No. 2. The territory east of the aforementioned line o f district No. 1
north of the lines of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway and south of the
Canadian border.
District No. 3. Territory south of and including the Chesapeake & Ohio Rail­
way as far west as the Illinois Central lines mentioned as boundary o f district
No. 1.
District No. 4. All territory within the Dominion of Canada, provided the
firemen on the western lines of the Grand Trunk Railway, which are located
entirely within the United States, with no overlapping seniority be allowed to
withdraw from the Canadian lines of the Grand Trunk and join the district
having jurisdiction over the territory through which they operate.
The associations o f general committees are “ for the purpose of carrying on
concerted movements relating to wages and other important general working
conditions.”
Benefits.— Strike; legal aid in manslaughter trials growing out o f accidents;
tuberculosis treatment; insurance department; life and disability insurance
67004°— 29------ 7




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

(compulsory membership) ; accident insurance (voluntary); pension and wid­
ow’s pension (voluntary and contributory); home for aged and disabled;
funeral benefit for nonbeneficiary members; sick benefits (local only).
Official organ.—Brotherhood of Locomotitve Firemen and Enginemen’s Maga­
zine.
Headquarters.— Keith Building, Cleveland, Ohio.
Organization.—Locals only.
United States—Alabama, 10; Arizona, 6;
Arkansas, 11; California, 19; Colorado, 19; Connecticut, 4 ; Delaware, 3; Dis­
trict of Columbia, 1; Florida, 6; Georgia, 10; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 62; Indiana, 30;
Iowa, 33; Kansas, 26; Kentucky, 19; Louisiana, 12; Maine, 5; Maryland, 6 ;
Massachusetts, 10; Michigan, 26; Minnesota, 26; Mississippi, 8 ; Missouri, 33;
Montana, 14; Nebraska, 14; Nevada, 4 ; New Hampshire, 3 ; New Jersey, 14;
New Mexico, 6 ; New York, 55; North Carolina, 6 ; North Dakota, 5 ; Ohio,
56; Oklahoma, 11; Oregon, 4; Pennsylvania, 85; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Caro­
lina, 4 ; South Dakota, 6; Tennessee, 13; Texas, 53; Utah, 7 ; Vermont, 7; Vir­
ginia, 15; Washington, 16; West Virginia, 11; Wisconsin, 22; Wyoming, 6;
Alaska, 1. Canada— Alberta, 11; British Columbia, 10; Manitoba, 8 ; New Bruns­
wick, 6 ; Nova Scotia, 8; Ontario, 37; Prince Edward Island, 1; Quebec, 13;
Saskatchewan, 11. Newfoundland, 2. Total, 936.
Membership.—104,602.

Maintenance of Way Employees, Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized at La Porte City, Iowa, in 1886. A southern organiza­
tion in the same field was organized at Demopolis, Ala., in 1887. In
1891 both came together at St. Louis, Mo., and formed the Interna­
tional Brotherhood o f Railway Track Foremen of America. This
organization was purely social and benevolent in character until 1896,
when it extended jurisdiction to track laborers, changed its name to
Brotherhood o f Railway Trackmen, aAd became a labor union. In
1902 the Canadian organization o f trackmen merged with the Ameri­
can body, forming the International Brotherhood o f Maintenance of
W ay Employees. A secession movement in 1914 resulted in the
formation o f a rival organization in the Southeastern States which
continued to function until 1918, when it reaffiliated with the parent
body under the combined name of United Brotherhood of Main­
tenance of Way Employees and Railroad Shop Laborers, carrying
with it an extension of jurisdiction over roundhouse and shop labor­
ers. The convention of 1925 shortened the name o f the union to
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees.
Objects.—“ The objects of this organization a re : To exalt the character and
increase the ability of its members; to insure greater safety to the traveling
public and effect economy in the department in which our members are em­
ployed by interchanging ideas and adopting the best methods of performing
our duties; to benefit the general public by raising the standards of efficiency of
our membership; to alleviate distress and suffering caused by sickness or dis­
ability among our members; to assist the widows and orphans of deceased
members; to allow no person to remain a member of the brotherhood unless he
lives a sober, moral, and honest life; to require all members to faithfully and
honestly perform their duties to the best of their ability for the brotherhood
and for their employers; to use all honorable means to secure the passage of
laws beneficial to our membership, and to improve labor conditions generally;
to stimulate the civic education of the members in their political rights and to
use the ballot intelligently to the end that the Government may not be perverted
to the interest of the favored few, but that it may be a government o f the
people, by the people, for the people in the fullest sense.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.—Maintenance-of-way employees, including, specifically, all
maintenance men below the rank of supervisor, pumpers, crossing and bridge
flagmen, bridge operators and helpers, and shop laborers.



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Government.—1. General officers: President; five vice presidents, one of whom
shall reside in and be a citizen of Canada; secretary-treasurer and five elected
members of the executive board, one of whom shall reside in and be a citizen
of Canada.
“ The president shall exercise general supervision over all the affairs o f the
brotherhood.” The executive board is advisory to the president.
For the purpose of carrying on concerted negotiations relative to wages,
terms of agreement, strikes, and other important general conditions, there are
regional associations composed of the general chairmen, vice chairmen, assistant
chairmen, and secretary-treasurers o f the railroad system divisions and federa­
tions in each region and the following grand lodge officers: President, secre­
tary-treasurer, statistician, and the vice president in charge of the region.
There are five such regional associations covering respectively, the north­
eastern, the northwestern, the southeastern and the southwestern sections of
the United States and the Dominion of Canada.
An inemational association, composed of the grand lodge officers and all
members of the regional associations meets annually in an advisory capacity
on matters of general policy, field work, general movements on wages and
working conditions, etc.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution and by-laws determined by grand
lodge.
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments either by convention or by initiative and referen­
dum. Elected officers subject to recall.
Qualifications for membership.—Any worker within the jurisdiction “ who is
sober, moral, and otherwise of good character,” is eligible to membership.
Negro workers “ shall be entitled to all the benefits and protection guaranteed
by the constitution to members and shall be represented in the grand lodge by
delegates of their own choosing selected from any white lodge on the system
division where they are employed. Nothing in this section operates to prevent
colored employees from maintaining a separate lodge for social purposes.”
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by railroad system divisions or federations, on terms
approved by the Regional Association. System joint protective boards are
composed of elected representatives from each subordinate lodge on roads or
systems which are 51 per cent or more organized.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.—The Railway Maintenance of Way Employees’ Journal.
Headquarters.—61 Putnam Avenue, Detroit, Mich.
Organization.— Subordinate lodges only: United States—Alabama, 20; Ari­
zona, 3; Arkansas, 32; California, 10; Colorado, 12; Connecticut, 2 ; Delaware,
2; Florida, 13; Georgia, 25; Idaho, 1 ; Illinois, 84; Indiana, 40; Iowa, 60;
Kansas, 26; Kentucky, 41; Louisiana, 12; Maine, 12; Maryland, 5; Massa­
chusetts, 11; Michigan, 40; Minnesota, 30; Mississippi, 20; Missouri, 50; Mon­
tana, 16; Nebraska, 11; Nevada, 4 ; New Hampshire, 5; New Jersey, 6 ; New
Mexico, 3 ; New York, 39; North Carolina, 19; North Dakota, 16; Ohio, 40;
Oklahoma, 6 ; Oregon, 4 ; Pennsylvania, 34; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina,
10; South Dakota, 12; Tennessee, 22; Texas, 45; Utah, 3; Vermont, 6; Virginia,
19; Washington, 18; West Virginia, 22; Wisconsin, 41; Wyoming, 3. Panama,
1. Canada— Alberta, 23; British Columbia, 19; Manitoba, 13; New Brunswick,
12; Nova Scotia, 7; Ontario, 62; Prince Edward Island, 2 ; Quebec, 29;
Saskatchewan, 21. Total, 1,166.
Membership.—Withheld; American Federation of Labor voting strength,
85,000.

Porters, Brakemen and Switchmen, Association of Train
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Florence, S. C., in July, 1918, by 18 porters. It was
then called the Colored Organization of Railway Trainmen. On
December 2,1919, it incorporated under the laws of Virginia as “ The
Association o f Train Porters, Brakemen, and Switchmen,” with
“ rights to organize and establish locals or branches generally
throughout the United States.”



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Objects.—“ To organize., develop, and improve the condition of the colored
trainmen of America, to secure fair and just compensation for services ren­
dered, and maintenance of proper wages, together with fair working conditions
for its members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Colored railroad workers employed as train porters, brakemen, switchmen, and switch tenders.
Government.—1. President is chief executive officer, to whom other grand
lodge officers are subordinate. General officers are: President, two or more
vice presidents, general secretary, general treasurer, counselor, general chair­
men (one or more) ; general grievance committee of not less than three
members.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; dues, general laws, etc., fixed by grand lodge.
3. Convention: Annual; legislates for body and elects general officers. Con­
stitutional amendments by convention.
Qualifications for membership.—Train porters, brakemen, switchmen, and
switch tenders (colored) only are eligible to membership.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—622 North Thirtieth Street, Richmond, Va.
Organization.—Local lodges only: Alabama, 2 ; District o f Columbia, 1;
Florida, 1; Georgia, 2 ; Louisiana, 1; Mississippi, 1; North Carolina, 2 ; South
Carolina, 2 ; Tennessee, 2 ; Virginia, 1. Total, 15.
Membership.—1,700.

Railroad Workers, American Federation of
Not affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Buffalo, N. Y., May 22,1901, from a group o f directly
affiliated American Federation of Labor local unions, as the Inter­
national Association of Car Workers. It remained in affiliation to
the American Federation of Labor until 1911, but its chartered
jurisdiction conflicted with that o f several other American Federa­
tion o f Labor unions, involving it in a number of conflicts. In 1911
it withdrew from the federation and reorganized as an industrial
union, under the slogan “ One railroad, one organization.”
Objects.—“ The object o f this organization is to advance the material, finan­
cial, social, and moral conditions of the railroad workers of America.
“ Believing a concentration of effort is the best medium through which the men
engaged in the railroad industry can promote their general welfare and elevate
their moral, social, and material standards, we therefore decided to unite and
solidify men engaged in all branches of this industry under the constitution of
the American Federation of Railroad Workers, an industrial organization, based
upon the principle of democratic cooperation.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The railroad industry.
Government.—1. General officers: President, one vice president, secretarytreasurer, a board of managers of three members, and a judiciary board of
three members.
The president is the executive and administrative head of the organization.
The board of managers is the financial agency and “ shall act as a law depart­
ment.” The judiciary board is a trial board.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution, by-laws, dues, regulation, etc.,
fixed by general organization.
Systems councils formed on railroads have two or more local lodges.
3. Initiative, referendum, and recall. General officers elected by referendum.
Convention on call only.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any white person of good moral character
under 65 years of age who is not afflicted with any chronic disease and who is
not of otherwise unsound health, and who is employed as a wage worker on a
railroad, except higher officials who have general supervision over railroad
workers, shall be eligible to membership.” Applicants over 65 years o f age or
disqualified physically may become non-beneficiary members.
Apprenticeship.—None.



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Agreements.—Negotiated by general advisory boards composed o f the chairmen of the local advisory boards on each system.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—The Railroad Worker.
Headquarters.—315 South Ashland Boulevard, Chicago, 111.
Organization.— System councils: Philadelphia & Reading; Pittsburgh & Lake
E rie; New York Central Lines W est; Toledo & Ohio Central. District councils:
Toledo, Ohio, New York, and New Jersey.
Local lodges: Indiana, 2 ; Iowa, 1 ; Massachusetts, 4 ; Minnesota, 1 ; New
Jersey, 5 ; New York, 4 ; Ohio, 17; Pennsylvania, 17. Total, 51.
Membership.—Approximately 25,000.

Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Altoona, Pa., in 1901. Incorporated in 1908. This
organization began as a local union of signalmen on the Pennsyl­
vania Kailroad. It functioned independently from its inception in
1901 until 1914, when it affiliated with the American Federation of
Labor, as the Brotherhood of Railway Signalmen of America. In
1918 the title was changed to Brotherhood of Bailroad Signalmen
o f America.
Objects.—“ The Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen of America is an organi­
zation incorporated for the purpose of uniting all persons of good moral char­
acter who are actively engaged in construction or maintenance of signals,
locking and interlocking plants, mechanical, electric, pneumatic, or otherwise,
to establish a fund for the relief of sick and distressed members, to guard
their financial interests, and promote their general welfare.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.—Railroad signal departments or signal construction, main­
tenance of electric, electropneumatic, electro-mechanical, or mechanical inter­
locking sysjems, color or position light signals, electric, electric-pneumatic,
mechanically operated signals, or automatic train controlling or stopping de­
vice, highway-crossing protection, high-tension and other lines overhead or
underground, poles, and fixtures, wood fiber, iron, or clay conduit systems,
transformers, arrestors, and distributing blocks, wires or cables, pertaining
to railroad signaling and interlocking systems, or signal poles and other
lighting, as required for the operation of railroad signaling and interlock­
ing systems, or storage-battery plants with charging outfits, with switch­
board equipments, substations and current-generating plants, compressed-air
plants, as used for the operation of signaling and interlocking systems, or
compressed-air pipe mains and distributing systems, as used for the operation
of signaling and interlocking systems, pipe-line connections for mechanically
operated switch and signal apparatus, with cranks, compensators, foundations,
and supporters, or carpenter, concrete, and form work of all classes in con­
nection with installing any signaling or interlocking system.
Government.—1. General officers: President, assistant to president, four vice
presidents, secretary-treasurer, and board of trustees composed of three mem­
bers. The grand executive council is composed o f the grand president, assist­
ant to president, four vice presidents, secretary-treasurer.
The president is the executive head of the organization and “ shall exer­
cise a general supervision over the affairs of the brotherhood.”
The grand executive council is advisory to the president, and a trial board.
Yice presidents are organizers
2. Subordinate lodges: Limited autonomy; constitution dictated by grand
lodge. Local by-laws subject to approval of general president.
3. Convention: Held biennially. “ The convention shall adopt all laws and
regulations of general application for the government of the brotherhood,
and alter, amend, or repeal the same.” Constitutional amendments by con­
vention or initiative and referendum. Election o f general officers by con­
vention.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any person of good moral character and
sound bodily health who is 18 years o f age or over ” and is actually employed



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In the construction or maintenance o f railroad signal service (except opera­
tion) is eligible to membership.
Agreements.— System committees, composed o f representatives from each
local on a given road, negotiate agreements with that road.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The Signalman’s Journal.
Headquarters.— 4750-4754 North Kimball Avenue, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Local lodges only: United States—Alabama, 1; Arizona, 1 ;
California, 4; Colorado, 3 ; Connecticut, 2 ; Delaware, 2 ; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 1;
Idaho, 1; Illinois, 15; Indiana, 10; Iowa, 7; Kansas, 2 ; Kentucky, 3; Maine, 1;
Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 5 ; Michigan, 5; Minnesota, 2 ; Mississippi, 1 ;
Missouri, 5; Nebraska, 1; New Jersey, 7; New York, 17; North Carolina, 1;
Ohio, 15; Oiegon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 19; Tennessee, 5 ; Texas, 4 ; Virginia, 3 ;
Washington, 2; Utah, 1; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 2 ; Canal Zone, 1;
Canada—Manitoba, 1; New Brunswick, 1; Ontario, 5; Quebec, 1 ; Total, 163.
Membership.—10,000.

Station Employees, Brotherhood of Railroad

Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Boston, Mass., in 1908.
Objects.—“ The objects of this organization are: First, to exalt the character,
protect the interest, and promote the social, moral, and intellectual conditions
of its members, thereby insuring greater safety to the traveling public; second,
to benefit our employers by raising the standard o f efficiency of all railroad
station employees; third, to use all honorable means to secure the passage o f
laws beneficial to railroad employees; fourth, to allow or admit no member to
the brotherhood unless he lives a moral, sober life ; fifth, to require all mem­
bers to faithfully and honestly perform their duties to the best of their ability
for the companies employing them.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Railroad passenger and freight stations.
Government.—1. The president is the chief executive officer, assisted by the
grand division board of directors, composed of the first vice Resident and
four other elected members.
2. Local unions: “All local divisions shall have the power to enact such local
by-laws as they may deem necessary,” subject to the approval of the general
president.
3. Convention: Held biennially, elects general officers, enacts legislation.
Constitutional amendment by initiative and convention. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any railroad-station employee who is sober,
moral, and otherwise of good character, and over the age of 18, is eligible to
membership,” except persons on the pay roll o f the poliGe departments of the
railroads.
(Includes “ freight and passenger station employees, foremen,
checkers, receiving and delivery clerks, clerks, freight handlers, baggage-room
employees, station force, janitors, callers, crossing tenders, fuel-station fore­
men, engineers, shovelers, and round-house employees.” ) Male and female mem­
bership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—No apprenticeship.
Agreements.—Negotiated by general boards of adjustment, composed of the
chairmen of the local adjustment boards of all locals on a railroad system.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—The Station Employee.
Headquarters.—Olympia Building, Boston, Mass.
Organization.—Local divisions in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
York, and Vermont. Number not reported.
Membership.—Not reported.

Street and Electric Railway Employees of America, Amalga­
mated Association of

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Indianapolis, Ind., September 15,1892, as the Amal­
gamated Association of Street Railway Employees. With the spread



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o f electric power for street railways, the name was changed in 1903
to Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Kailway Em­
ployees o f America.
Objects.—“ The objects o f this association shall be * * ♦ to place our
occupation upon a higher plane of intelligence, efficiency, and skill; to encourage
the formation in division associations of sick and death benefit funds in order
that we may properly care for our sick and bury our dead; to establish schools
o f instruction for imparting practical knowledge of modern and improved
methods and systems of transportation and trade matters generally; to encour­
age the settlement o f all disputes between employers and employees by arbi­
tration; to secure employment and adequate pay for our work; to reduce the
hours of labor, and by all legal means to elevate our moral, intellectual, and
social condition.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— Street and electric railway service, “ comprising motormen, conductors, guards, brakemen, trolleymen, street-railway transportation
bus operators employed in connection with the operation of street railways,
and all men operating cars and trains, all gatemen, watchmen, and wardens,
all employees of the car houses and pit department, all employees of the track
department, all collectors, janitors, watchmen, yard crews, elevator men,
porters, clerks, and laborers.”
Government.—1. General officers a re: President, 14 vice presidents, treasurer,
and a general executive board of 9 elected members.
The president “ shall have supervision over the association as its chief execu­
tive officer and organizer.”
The general executive board “ shall review all audits of books by expert
accountants * * * decide all points of law, grievances, and appeals * * *
and shall have power to authorize strikes * * * an(j ieVy assessments.”
2. Local divisions: Autonomous within limits of International Constitution.
3. Conventions: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by conventions. Referendum under certain stipu­
lated conditions.
Qualification for membership.—“ A candidate to be admitted must be o f good
moral character, in good and sound health, and a competent workman in his
line of work. He must be working at the occupation in some capacity * * *
at the time he applies.” Male and female membership.
“ No manager, superintendent, foreman, or other officer of a street and electric
railway having the rules and regulations of the company to enforce over the
employees can become a member.” Members promoted to minor supervisory
positions (starters, inspectors, etc.) may be retained or not at discretion of
local divisions.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local divisions through the executive board or
a specially appointed wage committee, with individual street-car companies.
I f more than one division is employed by one company a joint agreement is
negotiated by joint committees of all divisions concerned. Agreements are sub­
mitted to international president for approval.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death, total disability, and old age (all lump
sums; disability and old-age benefit payable only to those in actual service);
sick (by some locals).
Official organs.—The Motorman, Conductor, and Motor Coach Operator
(m onthly); the Union Leader (weekly).
Headquarters.—260 Vemor Highway East, Detroit, Mich.
Organization.—Locals only: United States—Alabama, 4 ; Arkansas, 8 ; Cali­
fornia, 7; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 13; Delaware, 1 ; District of Columbia, 1 ;
Georgia, 4 ; Idaho, 1; Illinois, 23; Indiana, 6; Iowa, 12; Kansas, 4 ; Kentucky, 2 ;
Louisiana, 3 ; Maine, 3 ; Maryland, 1 ; Massachusetts 21; Michigan 10; Missis­
sippi, 1; Missouri, 5 ; Montana, 3 ; New Hampshire, 4 ; New Jersey, 11; New
York, 27; North Carolina, 2 ; North Dakota, 1; Ohio, 24; Oklahoma, 3 ; Oregon,
2 ; Pennsylvania, 25; Rhode Island, 2; South Carolina, 1 ; South Dakota, 1 ;
Tennessee, 2 ; Texas, 2 ; Utah, 2 ; Vermont, 1 ; Washington, 5 ; West Virginia, 5 ;
Wisconsin, 4. Canada—Alberta, 3 ; British Columbia, 3 ; Manitoba, 1; New
Brunswick, 1; Nova Scotia, 1 ; Ontario, 12; Quebec, 3 ; Saskatchewan. 3.
Total, 280.
Membership.—100,000,



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Switchmen’s Union of North America
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Kansas City, Mo., October 23, 1894; incorporated at
Buffalo, N. Y., January 9, 1902. An “ outlaw strike ” in 1920 re­
sulted in a dual organization of switchmen which functioned for two
or three years. The membership of the dual organization, however,
has been gradually reabsorbed by the parent body.
Objects.—“ The objects of the Switchmen’s Union are: First, benevolence; to
unite and promote the general welfare and advance the interests—social,
moral, and intellectual— of its members; benevolence, very needful in a calling
as hazardous as ours, has led to the organization of this union. Second, hope,
believing that it is for the best interests both of our members and their em­
ployers that a good understanding should exist at all times between them, it
will be the constant endeavor of this union to establish mutual confidence and
create and maintain harmonious relations between employer and employee.
Third, protection, by kindly bearing with each other’s weaknesses, aiding with
our counsel distressed or erring brothers, and to exercise at all times its
beneficial influence in the interests o f right and justice, such are the aims and
purposes of the Switchmen’s Union of North America.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.—Railroad yards; yardmasters, switchmen, switch tenders,
towermen, and interlocking men.
Government.—1. Grand lodge officers are president, six vice presidents,
secretary-treasurer, editor, and a board of directors composed of five elected
members.
“ The international president shall have general supervision ” and the board
of directors “ shall have authority to define the policy of the union during the
interim between conventions.” The vice presidents are organizers.
2. Subordinate lodges: Limited autonomy; constitution dictated by grand
lodge. By-laws for local government must be approved by general president.
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any white male person of good moral char­
acter who is actually engaged in railroad yards as covered by the jurisdiction
is eligible to membership.
Agreements.— General adjustment committees composed of the chairmen o f
the several local adjustment committees on a system “ shall negotiate with
the officers of the company represented for the purpose of creating a closer
relationship * * * to establish a uniform wage scale and mutual working
rules for the benefit of the switchmen employed thereon.”
General wage committee composed of the president and the chairman of the
general adjustment committees controls general wage movements.
Benefits.—Life and disability insurance (membership compulsory for the
physically qualified) ; funeral (for noninsured members).
Official organ.—Journal of the Switchmen’s Union.
Headquarters.—3 Lin wood Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 2 ; Arizona, 3;
Arkansas, 4 ; California, 7; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 1; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 1 ;
Idaho, 2 ; Illinois, 24; Indiana, 9; Iowa, 16; Kansas, 12; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisi­
ana, 7; Massachusetts, 2; Michigan, 19; Minnesota, 11; Mississippi, 3 ; Mis­
souri, 10; Montana, 11; Nebraska, 3 ; Nevada, 1 ; New Hampshire, 1 ; New
Jersey, 4 ; New York, 16; North Dakota, 5; Ohio, 16; Oklahoma, 8; Oregon, 3 ;
Pennsylvania, 15; South Dakota, 2 ; Tennessee, 4 ; Texas, 20; Utah, 3 ; Wash­
ington, 10; Wisconsin, 5 ; Wyoming, 1. Canada— British Columbia, 1 ; Mani­
toba, 1; Ontario, 5; Saskatchewan, 2. Total, 276.
Membership.—9,600.

Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers of America,
International Brotherhood of

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1899 as the Team Drivers’ International Union. A
secession movement in 1901 resulted in the formation in Chicago of



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the Teamsters National Union. These organizations functioned sepa­
rately until 1903, when they came together in a convention at Niagara
Falls, N. Y., and formed the International Brotherhood of Teamsters.
With the displacing of horses by automobiles, jurisdiction was ex­
tended to include chauffeurs and truck drivers and in 1909 the name
o f the organization was changed to International Brotherhood of
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers.
Objects.— “ To organize under one banner all workmen engaged in the craft
and to educate them to cooperate in every movement which tends to benefit
the organization; to impress upon the teamsters and the public that a profit­
able teamster, chauffeur, or stableman must be honest, sober, intelligent, and
naturally adapted to the business; to teach them to take advantage of their
industrial position and to build up and perfect an impregnable labor organ­
ization ; to improve the industry by increasing the efficiency of the service and
creating a feeling of confidence and good wiU between employer and employee
which will prevent a recurrence of the unnecessary conflicts which have arisen
in the past and to cooperate and deal fairly and honestly with all employers
who are willing to investigate and adjust difficulties which may arise, and to
secure for the teamsters, chauffeurs, stablemen, and helpers reasonable hours,
fair wages, and proper working conditions.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ This organization has jurisdiction over all teamsters
and helpers, chauffeurs and helpers, stablemen and all who are employed on
horses, harness, carriages or automobiles, in and around stables or garages.”
Government.—1. General executive board composed of president, general
secretary-treasurer, and seven vice presidents, is the controlling body. The
president is the executive and administrative officer, with wide powers. The
vice presidents comprise a trial board.
2. Joint councils: Joint councils are delegate bodies formed in cities having
three or more locals, or in territories with three or more locals in small cities
and towns. The local officers are the delegate members of the joint councils.
‘ ■All local unions within the jurisdiction must affiliate, comply with its laws,
and obey its orders.”
3. Local unions: “ Only one local o f any craft chartered in any city.”
Each local union “ shall have the right to make such by-laws as it may deem
advisable, provided they do not conflict with the laws of the international
unions.”
4. Convention: Held every five years; enacts legislation, elects general
officers, revises constitution. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All team drivers, chauffeurs, stablemen, and
helpers who load and unload wagons and automobiles are eligible to member­
ship.
“ No person shall be entitled to membership in this organization who
owns or operates more than one team or vehicle.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with the approval of the general
president. In large centers agreements are generally made with organized
employers.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.— Official Journal of the International Brotherhood o f Team­
sters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen, and Helpers.
Headquarters.—222 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind.
Organization.—Local unions only; in large centers locals are divided accord­
ing to the kind of service, as laundry drivers, bakery wagon drivers, taxicab
drivers, etc.: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arizona, 1 ; California, 32; Colorado,
4 ; District of Columbia, 5; Georgia, 1 ; Illinois, 99; Indiana, 12; Iowa, 6 ; Kansas,
1; Louisiana, 3; Maine, 1; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 20; Michigan, 6 ; Minne­
sota, 10; Missouri, 19; Montana, 6; New Jersey, 13; New York, 30; Nevada, 1;
North Carolina, 2 ; North Dakota, 1 ; Ohio, 32; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 6 ; Pennsyl­
vania, 16; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 1; Texas, 2 ; Utah, 1; Vermont, 1;
Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 15; Wisconsin, 9 ; Wyoming, 3 ; Canal Zone, 1. Can­
ada—Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 3; Manitoba, 1 ; Nova Scotia, 1 ; Ontario, 1 ;
Saskatchewan, 1. Total, 376.
Membership.—100,000.




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Telegraphers, Order of Railroad
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on June 9, 1886, as the Order
of Railway Telegraphers of North America. The present title was
adopted several years later. The order was a benevolent and fra­
ternal society until 1891 when it dropped its “ no strike ” law and
became a labor union.
Objects.—“ For the protection of their [telegraphers’ ] interests, to elevate
their social, moral, and intellectual condition; to promote the general welfare
of its membership; to establish a protective fund; and to promote and en­
courage a mutual-benefit department for the aid and comfort of the bene­
ficiaries of deceased members/'
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions, Canada, Mexico, “ and
other countries of the world.”
Trade jurisdiction.—Railroad telegraphers, train dispatchers, agents located
at railroad stations, line repairers, towermen, lever men, interlockers, tower
and train directors, telephone operators, block operators, and staffmen.
Government.—1. General officers are president, secretary-treasurer, six vice
presidents, and a board of directors of five elected members.
The board of directors exercises administrative and appellate jurisdiction
over the order. The president is the chief executive officer, subject to the
board of directors.
2. Local divisions: Subordinate; constitution and by-laws fixed by general
division.
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention only. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any white person of good moral character
who is actually employed on a railroad in a capacity covered by the jurisdiction
is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by general committee, composed of chairmen of
boards of adjustment of local divisions on each system, with individual rail­
roads. Contracts subject to approval of general president. Adjustment com­
mittees on the various roads act independently in negotiations, but policies
are frequently determined by the national organization.
Benefits.—Life insurance.
Official organ.—The Railroad Telegrapher.
Headquarters.—8673 West Pine Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo.
Organization.—The unit of organization is a railroad system. Telegraphers
on any given road hold membership in the division controlling that road, no
matter where located. Members not regularly attached to any road or any
given locality hold membership at large in grand division.
There are 122 systems divisions, of which 10 cover Canadian railroads, 1
covers the Panama Railroad, and 1 (Division No. 89) the Boston Elevated.
Membership.—65,000.

Train Dispatchers’ Association, American
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized Nevember 1, 1917, at Spokane, Wash. Incorporated.
The Association began as a local organization of train dispatchers
at Spokane, Wash., and developed into the Western Train Dis­
patchers’ Association. A t a convention held in 1918, the name was
changed to American Train Dispatchers’ Association. Two years
later headquarters were moved from Spokane to Chicago, where the
organization now occupies its own building.
Objects.— “ The purpose of this association shall be to unite train dispatchers
in one fraternal organization to the end that there may be coordination in the
protection of their mutual interests; to promote their social, moral, and intel­
lectual standing and general welfare; to secure just compensation for their



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services and promote the establishment of just and reasonable working con­
ditions.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Train dispatching on steam and electric railroads.
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
three vice presidents, and a board of trustees o f three elected members, “ shall
in a general way perform the executive and administrative functions of the
association.” The president is the administrative head, with supervisory
powers over its “ work and policies.”
2. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention vote. Convention (called general
assembly) open to entire membership, but only delegates may vote.
3. Local assembly: “ Local assemblies for the purpose of promoting the wel­
fare of the association and its members may be formed with the consent of
the president, provided that such local assemblies shall exercise no authority
or powers which by this constitution are delegated to other agencies.”
Qualifications for membership.—Any train dispatcher, white, o f good moral
character and over 21 years o f age, is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated by the systems committee, which is composed o f the
chairman of the committees selected by the unit of organization; i. e., all
members working under one general manager or “ similar officer in charge of
operation.”
Benefits.—Fund for widows and orphans (beneficiaries of members).
Official organ.—The Train Dispatcher.
Headquarters.—10 East Huron Street, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—General membership organization. Local assemblies main­
tained at Birmingham, Chicago, Cleveland, Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Minne­
apolis, New York, Pittsburgh, Omaha, Seattle, Spokane, and St. Paul.
Membership.— 4,357.

Trainmen, Brotherhood of Railroad
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Oneonta, N. Y., September 23, 1883, as Brotherhood
of Railroad Brakemen of the Western Hemisphere. This name was
changed in 1886 to Brotherhood of Railroad Brakemen, which in
turn became, in 1899, the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen.
Objects.— “ To unite the railroad trainmen; to promote their general welfare
and advance their interests, social, moral, and intellectual; to protect their
families by the exercise of a systematic benevolence, very needful in a calling
so hazardous as ours, this fraternity has been organized.
“ Persuaded that it is for the interests both of our members and their em­
ployers that a good understanding should at all times exist between the two,
it will be the constant endeavor of this organization to establish mutual con­
fidence, and create and maintain harmonious relations.”— (Preamble to the
constitution.)
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Newfoundland.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The term ‘ railroad trainmen * shall be held to cover the
following occupations:
“ In road service: Conductor, assistant conductor, ticket collector, train bag­
gageman, or persons performing the duties of train baggageman on the train if
such service is classified under any other name, brakeman and train flagman.
“ In yard service: Yardmaster, assistant yardmaster, yard conductor, fore­
man, flagman, brakeman, switchman, ground switchman (switch tender) or per­
sons performing the duties of such positions and paid the compensation therefor,
if occupation is given under any other name.
“ Train or yard men working on surface electrical railways who come in con­
tact and work with the men employed on steam railways and are subject to
and governed by the rules and regulations of the operating department which
govern the steam railway employees.”
Government.—1. Grand lodge: President, assistant to the president, 10 vice
presidents, general secretary-treasurer, board o f directors, board of trustees,
beneficiary board, insurance board, executive board, and board of appeals.




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“ The president shall * * * perform its (grand lodge) executive duties
when the same is not in session and shall exercise a general supervision over
the affairs of the brotherhood.,, The board o f directors is the advisory and
coordinate administrative body. The executive board is a trial board.
2.
Subordinate lodges: Autonomy closely limited; constitution dictated by
grand lodge. May make own by-laws subject to approval of the president
8. Convention: Meets triennially; elects general officers, legislates for brother­
hood. Referendum only in specified instances. Constitutional amendments by
convention only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any white male between the ages of 18 and
45, who is “ sober and industrious” and who has been employed for at least
one month as a railroad trainman within the expressed meaning of the term,
and who passes the required physical examination, is eligible to membership.
Agreements.— General grievance committees composed of the chairman of the
local grievance committees, where three or more such locals exist on any line
or system. Boards of adjustment composed of the chairmen of the general
grievance committees where there are three or more on any line or system of
railroad having two or more general managers. General committees, which are
associations of the committees within given districts, established “ for the
purpose of carrying on concerted movements as to wages and other important
general working conditions of the brotherhood.” Districts a re: No. 1, composed
of all territory lying west of and including the southern lines of the Illinois
Central Railroad, and lying on the west side of Lake Michigan, and south of
Lake Superior, and northwest of a line laid through Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.,
and shall be bounded on the south side by the Mexican border; No. 2, composed
of the territory east of the aforementioned line, and north of the lines of the
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway; No. 3, the territory south of and including the
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway and as far west as the Illinois Central line men­
tioned as the boundary of District No. 1 ; No. 4, the yards of all roads in the
Chicago Switching District and the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad.
Benefits.—Life insurance (contributory) ; total disability (contributory) ;
funeral (for nonbeneficiary members) ; hospital and home treatment for tubercu­
lar members (contributory) ; pension, and widow’s pension (optional) ; strike;
sick (local), home for aged and disabled.
Official organ.—
rThe Railroad Trainman.
Headquarters.—Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen Building, Cleveland, Ohio.
Organization.—Local lodges: United States—Alabama, 7; Arizona, 5 ; Arkan­
sas, 10; California, 25; Colorado, 14; Connecticut, 9 ; Delaware, 3 ; District of
Columbia, 3 ; Florida, 8; Georgia, 13; Idaho, 3; Illinois, 58; Indiana, 27; Iowa,
32; Kansas, 25; Kentucky, 14; Louisiana, 9; Maine, 7; Maryland, 9 ; Massa­
chusetts, 26; Michigan, 26; Minnesota, 24; Mississippi, 9 ; Missouri, 32; Mon­
tana, 15; Nebraska, 14; Nevada, 3 ; New Hampshire, 4 ; New Jersey, 28; New
Mexico, 8; New York, 57; North Carolina, 10; North Dakota, 7; Ohio, 61; Okla­
homa, 14; Oregon, 4 ; Pennsylvania, 104; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 5 ;
South Dakota, 6 ; Tennessee, 14; Texas, 42; Utah, 5 ; Vermont, 7; Virginia, 16;
Washington, 13; West Virginia, 20; Wisconsin, 20; Wyoming, 5. Canada—
Alberta, 8 ; British Columbia, 8 ; Manitoba, 8; New Brunswick, 7 ; Nova Scotia,
7 ; Ontario, 36; Quebec, 14; Saskatchewan, 8. Newfoundland, 1. Total, 979.
Membership.—183,906.

Trainmen, Association of Colored Railway

Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized February 17, 1912, at Knoxville, Tenn. Reorganized
and incorporated under the laws of Tennessee on February 27, 1918.
Objects.—“ To unite the colored railway employees, to extend their interests
and promote their general welfare, to provide aid and assistance to their fami­
lies, to use legitimate and lawful means o f harmonizing and rectifying differ­
ences between members of the association and employers.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Railway brakemen, switchmen, and train porters.
Government.—1. Grand lodge officers: President, two vice presidents, secre­
tary-treasurer, organizer, board o f trustees of three members, and an executive
board of three members. The president is the executive head o f the organiza­



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tion, under the general direction of the board of trustees. The executive board
is a trial board.
2. Subordinate lodges: Controlled by grand lodge; constitution and by-laws
uniform and imposed by general organization.
3. Convention: Held annually, enacts legislation, elects general officers.
Amendments to general constitution and subordinate constitution by convention
vote only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any colored railway employee serving as
switchman, brakeman, or train porter, who is “ a sober industrious male,” is
eligible to membership.
“ This organization will accept for membership men minus one arm or one
leg as long as they are railway employees in such capacity as switch tender,
baggage-room porter, crossing flagman, or call boy, and they must be ex-railway
brakemen, switchmen, or train porters.”
Benefits.—Funeral.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—827 Reddy Street, Baton Rouge, La. (variable).
Organization.—Locals only: Alabama, 6 ; Arkansas, 2 ; Colorado, 2 ; Florida,
2 ; Georgia, 3 ; Illinois, 1 ; Kentucky, 3; Louisiana, 6; Mississippi, 6 ; Missouri,
1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; North Carolina, 4 ; South Carolina, 4 ; Tennessee, 7 ; Texas,
6 ; Virginia, 4 ; West Virginia, 2. Total, 60.
Membership.—3,000.

Yardmasters of America, Railroad
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Cincinnati, Ohio, December 2, 1918. It is a consoli­
dation of several organizations of yardmasters which were formed
during 1918, some of which were national and others local in char­
acter. The national organizations were the National Association
o f Yardmasters, with headquarters in Milwaukee, The Railway
Yardmasters of America, in New York City, and the United Yard
Masters’ Association, located at Duluth, Minn. These separate
unions, together with local organizations in Rock Island, 111., Detroit,
Mich., St. Louis, Mo., and Columbus, Ohio, amalgamated to form the
Railroad Yardmasters of America.
A secession movement in 1924 removed the membership o f the
New York Central lines and resulted in the formation o f a dual
organization known as the Railroad Yardmasters of North America.
Objects.—“ To improve and maintain at the highest possible level the working
conditions and remuneration of yardmasters and station masters. This will
consist in the universal establishment of the eight-hour day; a rest period of
one day in seven; and a vacation period of at least two weeks each year, to­
gether with a wage that will be a just measure of the importance of their
position in the transportation world.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—General yardmasters, assistant general yardmasters,
yardmasters, assistant yardmasters, station masters.
Government.—1. General officers: President, secretary-treasurer, five vice
presidents, and an executive board of five members.
2. System divisions: “ System divisions may set up such by-laws for their
government as may to them seem proper, provided such by-laws do not conflict ”
with the general constitution.
3. Convention: Held annually, enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—Any male white person of good moral char­
acter actually employed within the defined jurisdiction is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated by committees on various systems.
Benefits.—The Mutual Aid Department of the organization wires $200 to the
beneficiary of members immediately at time of death.
Official organ.—The Railroad Yardmaster.
Headquarters.—First National Bank Building, Columbus, Ohio.



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Organization.— System divisions only: Southern Pacific; Louisville & Nash­
ville; Baltimore & Ohio; Erie; Chesapeake & Ohio; Gulf Coast; International
Great Northern; Texas & Pacific; Fort Worth & Denver C ity; Missouri Pacific;
Southern Railway; Spokane, Portland & Seattle; Northern Pacific; W abash;
Kansas City Terminal; Missouri Central; Western Maryland; Richmond, Fred­
ericksburg & Potomac; Central Vermont; New York, New Haven & Hartford;
Boston & Maine; F risco; Minnesota Transfer; Florida East Coast; Jacksonville
Terminal; Atlantic Coast Line; Seaboard Air Line; Chicago, St. Paul, Minne­
apolis & Omaha; Minneapolis & St. Louis; Pere Marquette and Grand Trunk
Western.
Membership.— 4,000

Yardmasters of North America, Railroad
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized and incorporated in Buffalo, N. Y., January 10, 1925,
by secession from the Railroad Yardmasters of America.
Objects.—“ To unite the yardmasters and station masters employed on the
various railroads of the United States and Canada for the purpose of pro­
tecting their interests and promoting their general welfare, to maintain and
improve the living and working conditions of said yardmasters and station
masters, to encourage a spirit of cooperation between said yardmasters and
station masters, to encourage thrift and the safe investment of the earnings of
its members, and disseminate information regarding the same among its mem­
bers; to provide through duly organized insurance companies, or by other legal
method, protection for its members and their families; to organize subordinate
branches in accordance with the constitution and by-laws of this corporation;
to acquire, hold, lease, mortgage, and sell real property, to carry out the pur­
poses o f this corporation; to do all and everything necessary and not incon­
sistent with any law to promote the welfare and best interests of its members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—North America.
Trade jurisdiction.—Railroad yards.
Government.—1. Board of directors of 15 members has general supervisory
control. “ It shall be the duty of the board of directors to provide suitable by­
laws, rules, and regulations for the organization and for conducting the affairs
in subordinate branches in such localities as the board of directors may
determine.”
General officers: President, vice president, secretary, and treasurer, elected
by the board of directors.
2. Branches: Subordinate; constitution and by-laws imposed by general
organization.
3. Convention: Held annually on call of board of directors. Elects members
of the board of directors. Constitutional amendments by convention only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any male white person “ of good moral char­
acter” actually employed as general yardmaster, assistant general yardmaster,
yardmaster, or station master, is eligible to membership.
Apprentice regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by systems committees with the advice o f the board
o f directors
Benefits.—Group insurance covering death and total disability.
Official organ.—Railroad Yardmasters’ Magazine.
Headquarters.— Liberty Bank Building, Buffalo, N. Y.
Organization.—Branches only: California, 1; Illinois, 5; Indiana, 4 ; Michi­
gan, 1; New Jersey, 3 ; New York, 5; Ohio, 5; Pennsylvania, 3 Total, 27.
Membership.—Not reported.

Engineers’ Beneficial Association of the United States of America,
National Marine
Not affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
In 1864 marine engineers from Buffalo, Cleveland, and Detroit
met in Cleveland and organized the International Association of
Engineers. Representatives of this organization met again in Cleve­



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land in 1875 with representatives of the engineers of Baltimore,
Chicago, and St. Louis. On February 23, 1875, they formed the
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association of the United
States o f America.
In 1886 the engineers on the Great Lakes withdrew and formed the
Brotherhood of Lake Engineers, but four years later they reaffiliated
with the parent body.
The organization affiliated to the American Federation of Labor
in 1918, but withdrew in 1923b because of the stand of the American
Federation o f Labor on ship subsidy. At the 1924 convention of the
American Federation of Labor jurisdiction over marine engineers
was granted to the Steam and Operating Engineers, an affiliated
organization.
Secession movements within the National Marine Engineers’ or­
ganization have resulted in the creation of two other bodies—the
American Society of Marine Engineers (California) and the Ocean
Association of Marine Engineers (New Y ork).
Objects.— “ The objects and purposes of this association shall be to elevate
and maintain the rights of the craft, advance and safeguard the economic
and working conditions of marine engineers under its jurisdiction, and other­
wise labor for their better protection and advancement.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States; territory divided into jurisdictional
districts as follows: “ Gulf coast district, all associations on the Gulf o f
M exico; Atlantic coast district, all associations on the Atlantic coast and rivers,
bays, and sounds of the same; Great Lakes district, all associations on the
Great Lakes and bays, rivers, and harbors of same; Capital Rivers district,
all associations on the western and southern rivers; Pacific coast district, all
associations located in the United States territory on the Pacific coast, rivers,
sounds, and bays thereof, and west of same.”
Trade jurisdiction.—United States licensed or commissioned marine engineers
on vessels, boats, barges, scows, or any other craft flying the American flag,
propelled by steam, gas, oil, electricity, or machinery of any kind.
Government.—1. General officers are president, three vice presidents, secretary-treasurer, and an executive board of five elected members, one from
each territorial district.
Executive board is the administrative body with the president as the chief
executive officer and organizer. Executive board is also a trial board.
Each district under the control of a deputy appointed by the president.
2. Local associations: Subordinate; constitution dictated by national asso­
ciation, but “ each subordinate association has the inherent right to make
by-laws and regulations for its own government and concerns not inconsistent
with or prohibited by the constitution, laws, and regulations of the national
association.”
3. Convention: Held annually; elects general officers. Constitutional amend­
ments and general legislation by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Membership is limited to those licensed as
engineers of vessels of over 10 tons by the United States Steamboat Inspec­
tion Service, those commissioned by the United States in the Navy or United
States Coast Guard Service for engineering duty, and those holding United
States engineers’ license of motor boats of 100 tons or over.” Members must
be or become American citizens.
Agreements.—Agreement covering United States Fleet negotiated by the
national executive board and the United States Shipping Board. Great Lakes
agreement by the lakes executive committee and operating lines with approval
of the general executive board.
Benefits.—At option of local associations.
Official organ.—The American Marine Engineer.
Headquarters.—Machinists* Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Districts: Gulf coast; Atlantic coast; Great Lakes; Capital
Rivers; Pacific coast.
Local associations: Alabama, 1 ; California, 2 ; Connecticut, 2 ; District of
Columbia, 1 ; Florida, 3 ; Georgia, 1 ; Illinois,'2 ; Indiana, 2 ; Kentucky, 1 ;



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Louisiana, 1 ; Maine, 2 ; Maryland, 1 ; Massachusetts, 1; Michigan, 8 ; Min­
nesota, 1; Mississippi, 2 ; Missouri, 1; New York, 7; North Carolina, 1; Ohio, 4 ;
Oregon, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 3 ; South Carolina, 1 ; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 1 ; Vir­
ginia, 1 ; Washington, 1 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wisconsin, 4 ; Canal Zone, 1 ;
Hawaiian Territory, 1. Total, 61.
Membership.—10,000.

Engineers, Ocean Association of Marine
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in June, 1916, as Local No. 66 of the National Marine
Engineers Beneficial Association, embracing the engineers on ocean­
going vessels. A year later the ocean-going engineers withdrew from
the parent body and organized the Ocean Association of Marine
Engineers. Incorporated in New York State February 19, 1918, it
continued in operation as an independent organization until 1919,
when it again joined the National Marine Engineers Beneficial Asso­
ciation. Withdrawing again in 1922 they re-formed the Ocean
Association o f Marine Engineers and have continued a separate
existence since that time.
Objects.— “ To increase the wages and improve the working conditions and
to render whatever assistance may be necessary to members in questions of
contracts and shipping articles between members and the shipping commis­
sioner or owner.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—Atlantic seaboard.
Trade jurisdiction.—Licensed United States marine and Diesel engineers.
Government.—Board of directors of five members, president, and three vice
presidents. One vice president for each branch of the craft; that is, Diesel,
shore, and steam. The board of directors appoints all paid officers of the
organization. Secretary is the executive head.
Qualifications for membership.—All licensed marine engineers on ocean steam­
ships, operators of Diesel engines are eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated by the board of directors.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—15 Whitehall Street, New York City, N. Y.
Organization.—General membership. No local unions.
Membership.—1,500.

Longshoremen’s Association, International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Detroit, Mich., August 27, 1892, as the Lumber
Handlers of the Great Lakes. With the object in view of organizing
all men engaged in longshore work, the name was changed in 1893 to
National Longshoremen’s Association of the United States. The
next year jurisdiction was extended to Canada and it became the
International Longshoremen’s Association. In 1902 the organization
attempted another extension of jurisdiction to include all marine
workers and added marine and transport workers to the name o f
the organization. This move, however, resulted in a long-fought
contest with the International Seamen’s Union. The extended juris­
diction was never recognized by the American Federation of Labor
and several years later the longshoremen relinquished jurisdictional
claims over the marine and transport workers and reverted to their
original recognized title.
Objects.— “ To associate ourselves together for an association o f effort and
more extended action in behalf of our own rights and interests.”



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Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions, Canada, Central and
Soutli America.
Trade jurisdiction.—Longshore work, which shall be construed to mean
work in the direct operation o f loading and unloading all floating structures
on the Great Lakes, rivers, and seacoasts in the United States, Canada, Central
and South America and the United States possessions, covering all com­
modities in transit; the loading and unloading of all railroad cars on docks,
piers, or in marine warehouses, whether direct to ship or car or whether for
assembling of cargoes; all work done in or about all grain elevators, boats,
stationary or floating; all work done in cotton compresses and cotton ware­
houses located in the several ports.”
Government.—1. “ The powers of this international association shall be exec­
utive, legislative and judicial, and shall have full and final jurisdiction over all
locals. * * * All executive and judicial powers of the association when
not in session shall be vested in the executive council or majority thereof;
which council shall consist of president, 15 vice presidents, and secretarytreasurer.” Of the 15 vice presidents, 5 shall represent the Atlantic coast
division (1 of whom must be located in the Canadian Maritime P rovinces);
4, the South and Gulf coast district; 4, the Great Lakes district; and 2, the
Pacific coast district (1 of whom must be from British Columbia).
“ All legislative powers shall be reserved in the international duly convened
in session, * * * and shall extend to every case of legislation not delegated
or reserved to locals.”
2. Local district council: “ Whenever there are two or more locals in any
port or vicinity thereto they shall form a district council in order properly
to discuss local conditions and adjust grievances that may arise from time to
time.” Locals must affiliate. Duly chartered district councils “ have full juris­
diction over affiliated locals, subject to final appeal to the international.”
3. Local unions: “A local union may make its own by-laws, provided they
in no way conflict with the constitution of the international.” The interna­
tional concedes to locals “ full power to regulate their own wages, whether by
the hour, by the thousand, by the ton, or otherwise.”
4. Convention: Meets quadrennially; elects officers, enacts legislation. Con­
stitutional amendments by convention only. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any competent worker within the jurisdiction
Is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.— International representatives negotiate separate agreements for
different jurisdictions. The New York agreement covers North Atlantic ports;
Galveston agreement covers Texas ports; New Orleans agreement covers other
Gulf ports; Great Lakes ports covered by a number of separate agreements.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—The Longshoremen’s Journal (semiannual).
Headquarters.— Room 1020 Gerrans Building, Buffalo, N. Y.
Organization.—Jursdiction divided into four geographical districts: Atlantic
Coast, Great Lakes, Pacific Coast, and South Atlantic and Gulf Coast.
Atlantic Coast district locals: Maine, 4; Maryland, 5 ; Massachusetts, 8 ; New
Brunswick, Canada, 4 ; New Jetsey, 10; Port of New York, 31; Nova Scotia, 2 ;
Port of Philadelphia, 2; and Virginia, 9.
Great Lakes district locals: Illinois, 6 ; Michigan, 19; Minnesota, 5 ; New
York, 17; Ohio, 19; Ontario, 4; Pennsylvania, 4 ; Wisconsin, 10.
Pacific Coast district locals: British Columbia, 2 ; California, 1 ; Oregon, 2 ;
Washington, 6.
South Atlantic and Gulf Coast district locals: Florida, 4 ; Louisiana, 9;
Mississippi, 2 ? Porto Rico, 1; South Carolina, 1; Texas, 24; and Virgin Islands, 1.
Total, 212 locals.
District councils: Baltimore, M d.; Boston, Mass.; Mobile, A la.; Newport
News, Norfolk, and Portsmouth, V a .; New York City; New Orleans, L a.;
Pascagoula and Gulfport, Miss.; Pensacola, Fla.; Porto R ico; Savannah, G a.;
Beaumont, Corpus Christi, Galveston, Houston and Texas City, Texas; and
St. John, New Brunswick.
Membership.— 40,000.
67004°— 29------ 8




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Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America, National Organization
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City in 1887, incorporated under the
laws o f the State o f New York as the American Brotherhood of
Steamboat Pilots. In 1891 the scope was widened to include cap­
tains, and the organization reincorporated on April 3, 1891, as the
American Association of Masters and Pilots of Steam Vessels. In
1905 it became the American Association of Masters, Mates, and
Pilots, with jurisdiction covering all three grades, and in 1916 the
present title, National Organization Masters, Mates, and Pilots of
America was adopted.
Objects.— “ The regulation of matters pertaining to our crafts, the elevation
of their standing as such, and their character as men.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.— Officially licensed masters, mates, and pilots of lake, bay,
river, and ocean steamers and sailing vessels, and operators of motor boats.
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, six vice presi­
dents, one of whom must be a member of the apprentice organization and known
as the apprentice vice president, secretary, treasurer, and three trustees,
“ shall, between the sessions of the national organization, have and be clothed
with all powers.” The president is the chief administrative officer.
2. Subordinate associations: Controlled by constitution and regulations of
national.
3. Conventions: Held annually; elects general officers, enacts legislation;
constitutional amendments by convention only. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any white person o f good moral character,
4 in sound health, and a firm believer in God, the Creator of the Universe,”
4
holding a United States license and with two years' experience 4 on water
4
craft ” is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Any male white person 16 years of age and over,
having had three years1 experience in the deck department on any inland
water vessel is eligible to membership in the apprentice organization.
Apprentices transferred to membership in parent body upon acquiring Govern­
ment licenses.
Agreements.—National agreement negotiated by national executive committee
with the United States Shipping Board covers deck officers on ocean and coast­
wise ships operated by the United States Shipping Board and its agents. No
other ocean or coastwise agreements.
Agreements covering Great Lakes shipping negotiated by lakes business
manager and a committee composed of two members from each of the locals on
the Lakes. Agreements covering harbors, bays, sounds, and rivers negotiated
locally by union having immediate jurisdiction.
Benefits.—None nationally; local sick and death; some locals maintain an
emergency fund for widows o f members.
Official organ.—None.
Organization.—Locals only: Alabama, 1 ; California, 1; Connecticut, 1;
Georgia, 1; Illinois, 1 ; Indiana, 1; Louisiana, 1; Maryland, 1 ; Michigan, 1 ;
New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 5 ; Ohio, 1; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 2 ; Rhode
Island, 1 ; South Carolina, 1 ; Texas, 1; Virginia, 1; West Virginia, 1 ; Wis­
consin, 1; Canal Zone, 2.
Apprentice locals, separate organizations chartered by the parent organi­
zation, which must be composed of men working on boats navigating inland
waters. New York, 1. Total, 29.
Membership.—10,000.

Neptune Association
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor,
Incorporated in New York City, March 21,1912.
Objects.—“ The object and purpose of this association is to unite into one
great body the licensed masters and mates of ocean and coastwise vessels and



TRANSPORTATION*

105

thus enable them to demand and obtain a voice in the making o f laws and
regulations under which they are governed; to improve the condition and status
of the profession generally; to furnish assistance in professional matters and at
the same time to promote cordial relations with employers.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Licensed deck officers on vessels.
Government.—1. Executive committee composed of president, two vice presi­
dents, secretary-treasurer, and a board of trustees o f five members is the
governing body. President is the chief executive officer.
2. Branches: Subordinate; under jurisdiction of general organization.
3. Convention: Annual. Elects general officers. Constitutional amendments
by referendum vote only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any white person of good moral character
who is licensed as a master or mate on ocean or coastwise vessels by the
United States Steamboat Inspection Service is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated by the executive committee. Wage scales deter­
mined by a special elected committee and approved by a 60 per cent vote of
the members.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The Neptune Log.
Headquarters.—82 Broad Street, New York City, N. Y.
Organization.—General membership organization, with branches in New
York, Mobile, Galveston, and New Orleans.
Membership.—8,000.

Seamen’s Union of America, International
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., April 22, 1892. Seamen on the Great
Lakes had a union in 1863; marine organization on the Pacific coast
began in 1883 and on the Atlantic coast in 1888. The unions thus
formed functioned as independent, unrelated locals until 1892, when
at the call of the Sailors’ Union of the Pacific, a convention was held
in Chicago. It was attended by seven seamen, representing the
Pacific coast, the Gulf coast, and the Great Lakes. The Atlantic
coast unions, while sympathetic to the movement, had not sufficient
funds to send delegates to the conference. This meeting resulted in
the establishment o f the National Seamen’s Union. In 1893 this
organization affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and ia
1895 changed its name to the International Seamen’s Union of
America.
Objects.—“ Recognizing that organization is the only means by which the
seamen may hope for the amelioration and final emancipation from the many
evils attending their calling, and for the purpose of furthering organization,
strengthening it where it already exists, and bringing into close fraternal rela­
tions the component parts of our calling, we have organized the International
Seamen’s Union o f America.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Bona fide seamen” of the three departments on ship­
board (deck, engine room and steward’s) and fishermen.
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, seven vice presi­
dents, secretary-treasurer and editor.
2. District and local unions, which may adopt constitutions and laws not
inconsistent with those of the International Union.
3. Convention. Held annually, legislates and elects general officers. Constitu­
tional amendments by convention or by convention and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “ Bona fide seamen other than licensed officers
working as such, and fishermen, all o f whom must be eligible to become citizens
of these United States.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by the international union, the territorial districts, or
the local unions.



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TBADE-TTNIONS

Benefits.— Strike and lockout. (Death and shipwreck benefits by district and
local unions.)
Official organ.— Seamen’s Journal.
Headquarters.—623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Districts: Pacific district consists of all locals on the Pacific
coast; Atlantic District consists of all locals on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts;
Great Lakes District consists of all locals on the Great Lakes.
Local branches: Sailors, 21; marine firemen, oilers, watertenders, etc, 18;
cooks and stewards, 17; fishermen, 15; ferry and harbor boatmen, etc., 2.
United States—Alabama, 2 ; California, 10; Illinois, 3 ; Louisiana, 4 ; Maryland,
3 ; Massachusetts, 5 ; Michigan, 3; New York, 8 ; Ohio, 3 ; Oregon, 5; Pennsyl­
vania, 2 ; Rhode Island, 3; Texas, 6 ; Virginia, 3 ; Washington, 7; Wisconsin, 3 ;
Alaska, 2. Canada, 1. Total, 73.
Membership.— 18,000.




MINING, OIL, AND LUMBER

U

N TIL 1928 coal mining was under the exclusive jurisdiction
of the United Mine Workers o f America, an industrial union
which is the largest labor organization in the United States. Seces­
sion followed the strike of 1927, however, and resulted in the forma­
tion o f the National Miners’ Union in September, 1928.
In the field of metal mining, such organization as is in opposition
to the affiliated union, the International Union o f Mine, Mill, and
Smelter Workers, comes from the mining branch of*the Industrial
Workers of the World. Like the United Mine Workers, the Inter­
national Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers is an industrial
union, covering all workers “ in and about the mines.” It was
formerly the Western Federation of Miners, a radical organization
which held various affiliations, having at one time withdrawn from
the American Federation of Labor and identified itself with the
Industrial Workers o f the World. After a reorganization along
conservative lines it returned to the American Federation of Labor
and dropped its old title. With the adoption of the new name, it
also extended its jurisdiction to smelters, refineries, and blast furn­
aces.
Tipaber workers are variously organized in branches o f the Indus­
trial Workers of the World, in local unions directly affiliated to the
American Federation o f Labor, and in the Loyal Legion of Loggers
and Lumbermen. The last mentioned is an independent organi­
zation composed of both workers and employers in logging and
lumber manufacture. It was organized in 1917 and confines its
activities to Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. There was at one time
an American Federation of Labor union in this jurisdiction, the In­
ternational Union of Timber Workers. It collapsed as an interna­
tional, however, and such of the field as is controlled by the American
Federation o f Labor is organized in local unions chartered by the
federation.
A small organization of oil-well workers was founded in 1917 and
affiliated to the American Federation of Labor as the International
Association o f Oil Field, Gas Well, and Refinery Workers o f
America.
Quarry workers are organized in the Quarry Workers’ Interna­
tional Union, an affiliated union.
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor:
Page
109
Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, International Union o f____________
Mine Workers of America, United-----------------------------------------------111
Oil Field, Gas Well, and Refinery Workers of America, International
Association of-----------------------------------------------------------------------------112
Quarry Workers* International Union (classified under Glass, Clay
and Stone)— -----------------------------------------------------------------------------172
Sawmill Workers and Woodsmen (American Federation o f Labor
locals)__________________________________________________________
7
Independent organizations:
Loggers and Lumbermen, Loyal Legion o f— - ___ ________________
108
Miners’ Union, National_____ ______________________________________ 3,107




107

108

HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Loggers and Lumbermen, Loyal Legion of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1917. The Loyal Legion o f Loggers and Lumber­
men (Four L ) is not strictly a labor union, as its membership includes
employers as well as workers in the lumber industry. It originated
in 1917 as a war measure. It was organized and fostered by Army
officers and employers primarily to expedite spruce production for air­
plane manufacture and secondarily to combat the influence o f the
Industrial Workers of the World in logging and lumber camps.
During the war it was quasi-military in character, and was under the
direction of high commissioned officers of the United States Army.
The degree of success attained in keeping up production and
acceptable working conditions during the war period and the firm
footing which the organization and, through it, the 8-hour day
had gained in the industry determined the issue raised after the
armistice—Shall the Four L continue? That question was affirma­
tively decided with practical unanimity at two conventions held in
December, 1918, and reorganization followed.
Objects.—“ (a) To establish an organization to which both employee and
employer may belong and in which they may meet on common ground; (&)
to maintain the basic 8-hour day: (c) to insure just wages to the employee
and efficient service to the employer; (d) to improve living and working con­
ditions in camps and mills; (e) to provide employment service; (f) to provide
means for the amicable adjustment, on the job, of all differences between
employer and employee and for the development of their mutual interests
and friendly personal relations; (ff) to furnish trade information to its mem­
bers by means of publications, circulars, and other forms o f communication;
(h) to promote matters of local public welfare in its various communities;
(i) to promote education and recreation in camps and mills; ( /) to encourage,
and to provide when feasible, cooperative hospital, medical, and insurance aid
to members and their families; (fc) to cooperate with legislative bodies for
the improvement of accident and insurance laws; (I) to develop loyalty to
the United States, its laws, institutions, and flag.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—The lumber districts o f Oregon, Washington, Idaho,
California, and Montana.
Trade jurisdiction.—Logging, lumber manufacturing, and allied industries
(shingle mills, tie and cedar products, sash and door mills, box and match
manufacture).
Government.—1. Local unit, composed of employees and employers at any
single logging or lumber manufacturing operation; officers—chairman, vice
chairman, secretary, and treasurer, elected semiannually by the membership.
2. District board: “ District boards for each district shall consist o f four
employees (two millmen and two loggers) to be elected at the annual conven­
tion by the employee members; and four operators (two millmen and two
loggers), elected by the employers of the district.” They “ shall hear all
matters on appeal from conference committees or employers, and initiate
matters of general import for the consideration of the board of directors.”
3. Board of directors, “ composed of the employees’ district board chairmen
and the employers* district board chairman * * * constitute the legislative
body of the organization.” It “ shall elect the executive officers and have gen­
eral supervision of the affairs of the organization.”
General officers: President, elected by the board of directors, “ shall have
general supervision of the administration of the organization as its chief
executive, subject to the approval of the board of directors ” ; executive secre­
tary, general treasurer, and editor, nominated by the president and elected by
the board of directors.

Qualifications for membership.—American citizens or eligible aliens who have
declared intention to become citizens, engaged directly or indirectly, either
as employer or employee, in logging or lumber manufacturing or allied in­
dustries, are eligible to membership. Male and female membership.



M INING, OIL, AND LTJMBEB

109

Agreements.—Adjustment machinery: Conference committee consisting of
three members of each local, elected by the employee members of the local.
This is “ strictly an employees’ committee, not to include any person having
the right to hire or discharge employees, and shall act as spokesman for
employee members.” Industrial relations between employer and employees
“ shall be conducted through the conference committee,” and shall cover “ the
working, living, and recreational conditions of each local; hours, wages, over­
time, unwarranted discharge o f members; tool charges and breakage; and all
local conditions surrounding employment.”
District board acts on cases referred from conference committee in the event
of failure of conference committee and management to effect an agreement.
Board of directors acts on cases referred from district boards in case of
failure to reach an agreement.
Arbitration committee provided for in case o f failure to reach an agreement
through board of directors.
Minimum wage scales established through board of directors by majority
vote. Wage scales actually paid established by local agreement between con­
ference committees and local management or by regional wage boards.
Benefits.—Free employment bureau; local sick and accident.
Official organ.—The Four L Lumber News.
Headquarters.—500 Concord Building, Portland, Oreg.
Organization.—Divisions: Coast division, embracing all territory in Wash­
ington and Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, subdivided into:
District No. 1. Lincoln, Coos, Douglas, Lane, Linn, and Benton Counties,
Oreg.
District No. 2. Tillamook, Yamhill, Polk, Marion, Clackamas, and Washing­
ton Counties, Oreg.
District No. 3. Clatsop, Columbia, Multnomah, and Hood River Counties,
Oreg., and Wahkiakum, Cowlitz, Clarke, and Skamania Counties, Wash.
District No. 4. Pacific and Lewis Counties, Wash.
District No. 5. Grays Harbor County, Wash.
District No. 6. Mason, Thurston, Pierce, and part of Lewis Counties, Wash.
District No. 7. Clallam, Jefferson, Kitsap, and King Counties, Wash.
District No. 8. Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, San Juan, and Island Coun­
ties, Wash.
Inland Empire division, embracing all territory in Washington and Oregon
east of the Cascades and the timber districts of Idaho, subdivided as follows:
District No. 9. Washington east of the Cascade Mountains.
District No. 10. Boundary, Bonner, Kootenai, Benewah, Shoshone, Latah,
Clearwater, Nez Perce, Lewis, and Idaho Counties, Idaho.
District No. 11. Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Grant, and Baker Counties, Oreg.,
and Adams, Washington, Canyon, Gem. Ada, Elmore, and Boise Counties,
Idaho.
District No. 12. Deschutes County, Oreg.
Locals: By its form o f organization the scope of the Four L’s activities is
limited to operations the owners and managers of which are themselves mem­
bers of the legion. The operation, which corresponds to the shop in manufac­
turing, is the unit of organization. The legion now covers 146 operations in
the 12 districts.
Membership.—10,000 employee members; 250 employer members.

Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, International Union of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized May 15, 1893, as the Western Federation o f Miners.
Organization of the metal miners grew out of the Idaho strike of
1892. The Western Federation o f Miners began as a craft union o f
the miners, but gradually it absorbed the mechanical craftsmen and
became, like the United Mine Workers, an industrial organization
o f all workers “ in and about the mines.”
The Western Federation of Miners maintained an independent
existence from 1893 to 1896, when it affiliated with the American




110

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Federation o f Labor. This affiliation ended in 1898, and the union,
radical from its inception, became the prime factor in the Western
Labor Union. For three years, 1905 to 1908, it was part of the
Industrial Workers of the World, which it was instrumental in
organizing, and was active in radical politics.
It reaffiliated with the American Federation of Labor in 1911 and
has remained in affiliation since then. Internal dissension growing
out o f that move resulted in a number of secession movements foster­
ed by the Industrial Workers o f the World.
In 1916 the union passed through what was practically a com­
plete reorganization along conservative lines, and changed its name
to the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers,
expanding its jurisdiction from the metal mines of the Rocky
Mountain district to the entire United States and Canada, and to
cover smelters, refineries, and blast furnaces as well as mines.
Objects.—“ The increasing of wages, shortening the hours of labor, and im­
proving the conditions of employment by removing or preventing as far .as may
be the dangers incident to our work; eliminating, as far as possible, the dust,
smoke, gases, and poisonous fumes from the mines, mills, and smelters; to
prevent the imposition o f excessive tasks; to aid all organizations of working
people to secure a greater measure of justice; to labor for the enactment o f
legislation that will protect the life and limb of the workers, conserve their
health, improve social conditions, and promote the general well-being of the
toilers; to endeavor to negotiate time agreements with our employers, and by
all lawful means establish the principles embraced in the body of this con­
stitution.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Alaska, and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The metal-mining industry, covering, specifically, miners,
smelter men, millmen, and refinery and blast-furnace workers.
Government.—1. International executive board, composed of the president, vice
president, secretary-treasurer, and four other elected members, “ shall * * *
between conventions have full power to direct the workings of the inter­
national.”
2. Local unions: Autonomy not defined in constitution.
3. Initiative and referendum: “ The initiative and referendum shall govern
all legislation.” Nomination and election of general officers by referendum.
All elected officers subject to recall.
4. Convention: Held annually. Constitutional amendments adopted by
convention subject to ratification by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person working within the jurisdiction
is eligible to membership.
“ No individual holding membership in the Industrial Workers o f the World
or in any union not recognized by the American Federation o f Labor shall
be admitted to membership until he surrenders such other membership; and
any member of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers
who becomes a member of the Industrial Workers o f the World or any
union not recognized by the American Federation of Labor shall forfeit his
membership in the International Union o f Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers.”
Apprentice regulations.—None.
Agreements.—“ Local unions or groups o f local unions may enter into wage
agreements for a specified time, providing such agreements have the approval
of the executive board. Negotiations for agreements must be made between
the representatives o f the local or locals affected, and the employers, with at
least one member of the executive board or representative of the general
organization present.”
Benefits.— Strike and lockout.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—Mercantile Building, Denver, Colo.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arizona, 8 ;
Arkansas, 3 ; California, 3 ; Colorado, 4 ; Florida, 3 ; Idaho, 2 ; Illinois, 7 ; Iowa,




M INING, OIL, AND LUMBER

H I

2 ; Kansas, 4 ; Minnesota, 1; Missouri, 3 ; Montana, 7 ; Nevada, 2 ; New Jersey,
2 ; Ohio, 4 ; Oklahoma, 11; Pennsylvania, 3; Tennessee, 2 ; Utah, 3 ; Washing­
ton, 1; Alaska, 1. Canada— Ontario, 1. Total, 73.
Membership.—20,000.

Mine Workers of America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Columbus, Ohio, January 25, 1890. The earliest
unions o f coal miners were assemblies of the Knights o f Labor. The
National Federation of Miners and Mine Laborers was formed in
1885, and this was followed in 1889 by the National Progressive
Union. In 1890 all the various organizations o f coal miners con­
solidated as the United Mine Workers of America and affiliated with
the American Federation o f Labor.
Early in its history it encountered difficulty with the craft unions,
particularly the engineers and machinists’ organizations, because of
its policy o f including all workers “ in and around the mines.” The
miners, however, were strong enough to force the craft men into line
and to establish the organization as an industrial union.
Objects.— “ To unite in one organization, regardless of creed, color, or nation­
ality, all workmen eligible for membership, employed in and around coal
mines, coal washers and coke ovens on the American Continent; to increase
the wages, and improve the conditions of employment of our members by
legislation, conciliation, joint agreements, or strikes; to demand that not more
than 6 hours from bank to bank in each 24 hours shall be worked by members
of our organization; to strive for a minimum wage scale for all members
of our union; to provide for the education of our children by lawfully prohibit­
ing their employment until they have at least reached 16 years of age; to
secure equitable statutory old-age pension and workmen's compensation laws;
to enforce existing just laws and to secure the repeal of those which are un­
just; to secure by legislative enactment laws protecting the limbs, lives, and
health of our members; establishing the right to organize; prohibiting the use
of deception to secure strike breakers, preventing the employment of privately
armed guards during labor disputes; and such other legislation as will be
beneficial to the members of our craft.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—North America.
Trade jurisdiction.—Workers in and around coal mines.
Government.—1. International executive board, composed of the president,
vice president, secretary-treasurer, and one member elected from each district,
" shall have full power to direct the working of the organization.”
2. Districts: “ Formed with such members and territory as may be desig­
nated by the international officers and may adopt such laws for their govern­
ment as do not conflict with laws or rulings of the international union or joint
agreements.”
3. Subdistricts: “ Formed and assigned such territory as may be designated
by the district of which they are a part, and may adopt such laws for their
government as do not conflict with the laws or rulings of the international
or district unions or joint agreements.”
4. Local unions: “ Local unions may adopt such laws for their government
as do not conflict with the laws and rulings of the international, district, sub­
district unions or joint agreements.”
5. Convention: Meets biennally; legislates for body. Constitutional amend­
ments by convention only. Election of general officers by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any wage earner employed in or around coal
mines is eligible to membership. “ Mine managers, top foremen, operators’
commissioners, persons engaged in the sale of intoxicating liquors, and mem­
bers of the National Civic Federation ” are ineligible.
“Any member accepting membership in the Industrial Workers o f the World,
the Working Class Union, the One Big Union, or any other dual organization
not affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, or membership in the
National Chamber of Commerce or the Ku Klux Klan shall be expelled from



112

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

the United Mine Workers o f America and is permanently debarred from hold*
ing office in the United Mine Workers of America; and no members of any such
organization shall be permitted to have membership in our union unless they
forfeit their membership immediately upon securing membership in the United
Mine Workers of America.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Agreements in the anthracite field are negotiated by the district
boards and the operators.
In the bituminous fields committees of miners and operators negotiate the
basic agreement on terms determined upon in convention. This interstate
joint agreement becomes the basis for district agreements, which are negotiated
locally.
Benefits.— Strike (sick, accident, and death benefits may be established locally
by a two-thirds vote of the members).
Official organ.— United Mine Workers* Journal.
Headquarters.—Merchants’ Bank Building, Indianapolis, Ind.
Organization.—The unit of organization is the geographic district District
No. 1, northern anthracite field, comprising Lackawanna and Sullivan and
part of Luzerne and Wayne Counties, in Pennsylvania, 157 locals; No. 2, Arm­
strong, Blair, Bradford, Cambria, Cameron, Center, Clinton, Clearfield, Elk,
Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Somerset, and Tioga Counties, Pa., 109 locals;
No. 4, Collinsville and Uniontown coal fields o f Pennsylvania, 5 locals; No. 5,
Pittsburgh district, 155 locals; No. 6, State o f Ohio and panhandle district o f
West Virginia, 410 locals; No. 7, anthracite, middle anthracite, lower Luzerne,
Carbon, and portions of Schuylkill and Columbia Counties, Pa., 52 locals;
No. 8, the block-coal district of Indiana, 19 locals; No. 9, anthracite fields in
Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pa., 91 locals; No. 10,
State of Washington, 11 locals; No. 11, Indiana, exclusive of block-coal section,
188 locals; No. 12, Illinois, 330 locals; No. 13, Iowa, 70 locals; No. 14, Kansas,
107 locals; No. 15, Colorado, 27 locals; No. 16, Maryland, 16 locals; No. 17,
part of West Virginia, 30 locals; No. 18, British Columbia, 12 locals; No. 19,
Tennessee, 62 locals; No. 20, Alabama, 3 locals; No. 21, Oklahoma, Arkansas,
and Texas, 116 locals; No. 22, Wyoming, 42 locals; No. 23, part of Kentucky, 70
locals; No. 24, Michigan, 12 locals; No. 25, Missouri, 46 locals; No. 26, Nova
Scotia, 21 locals; No. 27, Montana, 23 locals; No. 29, low-volatile regions o f
southern West Virginia, 1 local; No. 30, eastern Kentucky, 20 locals; No. 31,
northern West Virginia, 195 locals. Total9 2,400.
Membership.— 450,000.

Oil Field, Gas Well, and Refinery Workers of America, Inter­
national Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in California in 1917 from a group of independent
local unions which sprang up through California and the Gulf
States. An International Brotherhood of Oil and Gas Field W ork­
ers was chartered by the American Federation of Labor in 1900 and
remained in affiliation, but with a diminishing membership, until
1905. It disbanded in 1906. The present organization was char­
tered by the American Federation of Labor in 1918.
Objects.— 4 It shall be the object o f this association to work for the reduction
4
o f hours of daily toil, the establishment of tolerable conditions, and to adjust
and establish a high standard and fair rate of wages, thereby assuring to all
workers in the industry just compensation and time to share in the benefits
flowing from organization.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.—The oil, gas-well, and refinery industry.
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
and five vice presidents, 4 shall have general supervision of the business of the
4
international association and subordinate unions.”
2.
Local unions: 4 To locals is conceded the right to make all necessary laws
4
for local self-government which do not conflict with the laws o f the interna­
tional association.”



MINING, OIL, AND LUMBER

113

3.
Convention: Meets biennially; legislates for organization and elects gen­
eral officers, who are, however, subject to recall by popular vote. Constitu­
tional amendments either by convention or referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All persons engaged in the industries covered
by the jurisdiction are eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally by representatives of unions and operators,
with a representative of the Department of Labor when necessary.
Benefits.— Strike; group insurance.
Official organ.—The Oil Worker.
Headquarters.—815 Davis Avenue, Fort Worth, Tex.
Organization.—Local unions only; California, 10; Oklahoma, 3 ; Texas, 8.
Total, 21.
Membership.-—
Withheld. American Federation of Labor voting strength, 1,000.




PAPER, PRINTING, AND BOOKBINDING
PAPER

H ER E are three organizations in paper manufacture, one of
which, the United Wall Paper Crafts of North America, is con­
fined to wall-paper manufacture, the jurisdiction of the other two
specifically excluding that product. The International Brotherhood
o f Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill Workers originated by secession
from the International Brotherhood of Paper Makers. For three
years it was an independent, dual union, antagonistic to and drawing
membership from the parent body, but in 1909 a jurisdictional ad­
justment, basing jurisdiction partly on skill and partly on processes,
was arrived at which made it possible for both organizations to func­
tion amicably within the American Federation of Labor.

T

PRINTING

While in most industries the highly specialized craft unions are
passing, in the printing industry just the reverse has taken place.
Organization has proceeded from the original comprehensive indus­
trial union, established in 1852, to individual unions in the various
crafts and even for special processes. The printing pressmen started
the movement toward crait division by seceding from the Inter­
national Typographical Union in 1889 and establishing the Inter­
national Printing Pressmen’s Union, later extending jurisdiction to
the assistants and changing the name of the union accordingly.
Their example was followed by the bookbinders, who organized sepa­
rately in 1892, and thereafter b y the remaining crafts in rapid suc­
cession, which, by agreement with the International Typographical
Union, were chartered by the American Federation of Labor, with
clearly defined jurisdictional divisions.
There are now eight unions in the printing industry. Included
among them is the International Association of Siderographers, a
union covering one process in plate printing. ThQ process is used
almost exclusively in the printing of paper money, and all the oper­
ators engaged in the work are members of the union. Hence, while
it is probably the smallest “ international ” union in the world, it is
a 100 per cent organization.
The International Allied Printing Trades Association is a delegate
body composed of representatives of the International Typographical
Union, the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union,
the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, the International
Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union, and the International PhotoEngravers’ Union. It is a trade alliance solely, the chief function of
which is the issuance and control of the union label o f the allied
printing trades.
114




PAPER, PRINTING, AND BOOKBINDING

Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor:
Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of_______________________
Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers, International Brotherhood o fWall Paper Crafts of North America, United-------------------------------Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of________________________
Engravers* Union of North America, International Photo__________
Lithographers of America, Amalgamated__________________________
Pressmen and Assistants* Union of North America, International
Printing_________________________________________________________
Printers, Die Stampers and Engravers* Union o f North America,
International Plate______________________________________________
Siderographers, International Association of_______________________
Stereotypers and Electrotypers* Union of North America, Inter­
national -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Typographical Union of North America, International-------------------Independent organizations:
Printing Trades Association, International Allied (alliance of Amer­
ican Federation of Labor unions)________________________________

115
Pa« e
115
110
117
119
120
122
124
126
127
127
128
118

Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in May, 1893, at Holyoke, Mass. This organization had
its beginning in a social club of paper-machine tenders formed in
Holyoke, Mass., in 1884. It developed into a national union and in
1893 was chartered by the American Federation of Labor as the
United Brotherhood of Paper Makers of America, with jurisdiction
over the paper-making industry. A secession movement by the pulp
and sulphite workers m 1906 resulted in the organization of a sepa­
rate union which drew so strongly on the membership of the parent
body as practically to demoralize it. Because of the protest of the
United Brotherhood against the dual organization it was refused
affiliation with the American Federation of Labor for several years.
An agreement was arrived at, however, in 1909. The dual organiza­
tion was chartered and the United Brotherhood rechartered with a
limited jurisdiction, which in a general way covers only the skilled
workers in the machine and beater rooms and subsequent processes.
Later the name of the organization was changed to International
Brotherhood o f Paper Makers.
Objects.—“ The objects of this organization are to raise our trade from the
low level to which it has fallen and by mutual effort to place ourselves upon
a foundation strong enough to resist further encroachments * * * to assist
each other to secure employment; to reduce the hours of labor and to secure
adequate pay for our work and by every means to elevate the moral, mental,
and social conditions of our workers.**
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Newfoundland.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All machine-room help and beater engineers except
swipers and sweepers, in paper mills making news, bag, and hanging papers.
In all other paper mills except those making news, bag, and hanging paper,
its jurisdiction shall include all machine-room help (except swipers and sweep­
ers) and beater engineers, helpers on beaters, cutters and finishers, calendar
men and rotary men, and their helpers.”
Government.—1. Executive board, composed o f the president, secretary, six
vice presidents, and treasurer, shall have general supervision over the interna­
tional and subordinate locals.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution and general laws determined by
international.
3. Initiative and referendum: Election of general officers by referendum;
constitutional amendments and initiated legislation by referendum.
4. Convention: Held biennially.



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Qualifications for membership.—Any person actually employed within the
Jurisdiction of the union is eligible to membership. Male and female mem­
bership.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by international officers to cover the industry, but
are signed by individual employers.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—The Paper Maker’s Journal.
Headquarters.—25 South Hawk Street, Albany, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Illinois, 3 ; Maine, 11; Mas­
sachusetts, 1; Michigan, 5; Minnesota, 4; New Hampshire, 1; New York, 22;
Vermont, 1; Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 3. Canada— Manitoba, 1 ; Ontario, 12;
Quebec, 17. Newfoundland, 2. Total, 84.
Membership.—6,000.

Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill Workers, International Brother­
hood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Burlington, Vt., on January 6,1906, by secession from
the International Brotherhood of Paper Makers. It remained an
independent organization until 1909, when an agreement on jurisdic­
tion was reached with the Paper Makers, and the pulp and sulphite
men joined the American Federation o f Labor.
Objects.— “ The object of this union shall be to secure and maintain a living
wage and lessen the hours o f labor for its members; to assist each other in
obtaining employment in preference to persons not connected with the union;
and to use every honorable method to elevate its membership in the economic,
moral, and social scale of life.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Newfoundland.
Trade jurisdiction.—All branches o f the pulp and paper making trade except­
ing machine-room help and boss beater men in news, bag, and hanging mills.
In other miUs than the class mentioned this organization does not have juris­
diction over the beater-room or flnishing-room help.
“ By the term *pulp-making and paper-making trade ’ is meant all grinder
men, wood loaders, both inside and outside the m ill; all screen men, floor
sweepers, oilers, press tenders, decker men, wet-machine tenders, digester
cooks, and all the help employed on and around the same; acid makers and
all the help employed in and around acid-making plants; all shippers, finishers,
both roll and bundle, swipers; all men employed in and around any soda
mill, blow-pit men, and all men employed in and around any ground-wood,
sulphite, and soda mills doing repairs, except such as are recognized as
machinists, molders, and carpenters, who shall belong to their own union
if one exists in the city or town, otherwise they shall be admitted as members
of this union; beater m en; all female help employed in and around the m ills;
rope cutters and rotary men; clay mixers, wood-boat unloaders, and talc men,
and all men employed in the handling of wood, sulphur, clay, vitriol, or any
other article whieh is necessary in the making of any kind o f pulp or any
kind of paper; teamsters in and around the mills drawing supplies to and
from any o f the above-mentioned mills or working in any capacity directly
connected with the mills or the making of any kind o f paper and pulp; screenplate men and their helpers and pipers; steam firemen and engineers, subject
to agreements with their international unions.”
Government.—L " The international union reserves the right to fix, regulate,
and determine all matters pertaining to membership in all branches of the
pulp and paper making trade over which it has jurisdiction, while to sub­
ordinate unions is conceded the right to make all necessary laws for local
government, provided such laws do not conflict with the laws of the inter­
national union/*
The executive board, composed of the president-secretary, six vice presidents,
and treasurer, “ shall have the entire management of this organization and
shall be held responsible for the efficient management of the same. At least
one member of the executive board shall be a resident of Canada.”



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2. Local unions: “ Every local shall have the right to make by-laws to
govern the actions o f its own members, provided they do not conflict with
international constitution and by-laws, and they must be approved by the
international.”
3. Convention: No fixed time for convention. Elect officers and legislate
for organization. Constitution amendments by convention only.
Q ualifications for membership.— “Any man, woman, boy, or foreman employed
in or around any pulp, paper, or soda mill,” and “ all employees of paper-bag,
box, and envelope factories * * * as well as paper handlers wherever
employed,” are eligible to membership.
Agreements.—A wage-scale conference is held by international officers and
committees representing local unions. After wage scale is adopted, the inter­
national officers enter into negotiations with the employers, either individually
or in association. Agreements are, however, signed by individual companies.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill Workers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—Fort Edward, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Maine, 15; Michigan, 6 ;
Minnesota, 1; New Hampshire, 3 ; New York 22; Vermont, 5 ; Wisconsin, 0
Canada— Ontario, 9 ; Quebec, 8. Newfoundland, 2. Total 71.

.

Membership.—10,000.

Wall Paper Crafts of North America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1923 by the amalgamation of the National Associa­
tion o f Machine Printers and Color Mixers and the National Print
Cutters’ Association of America.
The first organization in the wall-paper trade was formed on July
23, 1883, in New York City, as the Wall Paper Machine Printers’
Union. It was chartered as a local assembly of the Knights of
Labor. This local is still in existence as Printers’ Local No. 1 o f the
United Wall Paper Crafts. Machine printers and color mixers pro­
ceeded to organize either separately or jointly in various localities in
which the industry was established, finally coming together in 1902
as the National Association of Machine Printers and Color Mixers,
and joining the American Federation of Labor as an affiliated
national body.
The print cutters had a separate organization which in 1903 affili­
ated with the American Federation of Labor as the National Print
Cutters’ Association.
The two organizations remained distinct until 1923, when, as a re­
sult o f a lockout through the entire wall-paper industry, they merg­
ed into one, and the resulting amalgamation was chartered by the
American Federation of Labor in June, 1923, as the United Wall
Paper Crafts of North America.
Objects.—“ The object o f this organization shall be to unite all the workers
under its jurisdiction, to cherish and protect their interests as workingmen, to
promote the general welfare of its members and their families, to become an
active and integral factor in the labor movement of America, to educate its
members in the history of the trade-union movement and its benefits to the
economic, moral, and social life of the people.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—North America.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All crafts engaged in the manufacture of wall paper
and of all kindred crafts and workers who do not come under the direct juris­
diction of any other international union affiliated to the American Federation
of Labor.”
Government.—1. “All executive and judicial powers of this organization shall
be vested in the general executive board” composed o f the president, three




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vice presidents, general secretary, financial secretary-treasurer, and three
trustees.
2. Local unions: Subordinate constitution and by-laws dictated by general
organization.
3. Convention: Held annually. “ The government of the subordinate local
unions shall be vested in the annual convention of this organization as the
supreme head of all local unions under its jurisdiction. It shall be the ulti­
mate tribunal to which all matters of general importance to the welfare o f the
several locals or any member thereof shall be referred for adjustment, and its
decision shall be final and conclusive. To it shall belong the power to deter­
mine the customs and wages affecting all matters relating to the welfare of the
trades.” Convention elects general officers. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any man who can prove that he has run a
wall-paper printing machine or has mixed colors for four years in one shop
within the jurisdiction of this organization, and who at time of making appli­
cation is running a wall-paper printing machine or mixing colors and receiving
the prevailing union scale of wages, is eligible to membership.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—“All apprentices shall be satisfactory to the
organization and to their employers previous to their apprenticeship, and
shall serve for four years in one shop. No one shall be taken on as an appren­
tice who is over the age of 20 years.
“ There shall be but one apprentice allowed for every six machine printers
employed in any one factory, and in all cases there must be a machine for
such an apprentice to go on. They shall serve their full time on the smallest
machines in their respective shops.
“ There shall be but one apprentice allowed for every four color mixers
employed in any one factory, but in no case must a journeyman be discharged
to make room for an apprentice, and no apprentice shall mix for more than
one printing machine or two grounding machines.”
Agreements.—Negotiated for the entire industry between the executive board
of the union and the labor committee of the manufacturers, but enforced and
signed locally.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—935 West King Street, York, Pa. (variable).
Organization.— Local unions on ly: Illinois, 1; New York, 5; Pennsylvania, 4.
Total, 10.
Membership.—660.

Printing Trades Association, International Allied
Organized March 7, 1911. This is a delegate body composed of
representatives of the International Typographical Union, the Inter­
national Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, the International
Brotherhood of Bookbinders, the International Stereotypers and
Electrotypers’ Union, and the International Photo-Engravers’
Union.1
Objects.—“ The objects o f this association are to designate the products o f the
labor of the members thereof by adopting and registering a label or trade-mark
designating such products.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Newfoundland.
Trade jurisdiction.—The printing industry.
Government.—“ The affairs o f this association shall be conducted and gov­
erned by a board to be known as the board of governors.” This board is com­
posed of eight members, four representing the International Typographical
Union and one representative from each of the other four component organiza­
tions. The officers are a president, a vice president, and a secretary-treasurer,
no two of whom can be members of the same organization.
2.
Local councils: Local allied printing trades councils are formed in locali­
ties where local unions o f two or more of the component international unions
exist. Each council is composed o f three representatives from each of the
crafts, and it “ may adopt such provisions and rules for its government as are
1 Two organizations in the printing industry, the Amalgamated Lithographers and the
International Plate Printers and the Die Stampers* Union, are not members.



PAPER, PRINTING, AND BOOKBINDING

119

not in conflict with the purposes and provisions of the general laws o f the
International Allied Printing Trades Association.”
Membership.—The membership o f the International Allied Printing Trades
Association consists of all members in good standing of the component inter­
national unions.
Agreements.—“ Universal label license” issued by the International Allied
Printing Trades Association to employers who agree to its terms; i. e., “ to em­
ploy in printing, binding, and production of all printed matter, photo-engrav­
ings, electrotypes, stereotypes, and all other illustrative matter entering into
printing and printed products, none but members in good standing o f unions ”
which are parties to the agreement, “ to pay their scales of wages, to observe
their apprentice laws and comply with their working rules.” Work done in out­
side shops and used by employers who are parties to the agreement must also be
done under conditions applying to their own shops.
Labels are owned and controlled by the International Allied Printing Trades
Association and are purchased by the local councils for the use of shops signing
the agreement and receiving a license for their use.
“ No other body than the local allied printing trades council shall be allowed
to grant the use of the allied printing trades label in any jurisdiction.” Grant­
ing and withdrawal of label are by unanimous consent of council.
Individual labels of component unions can not be used in a jurisdiction to
which the Allied Printing Trades label has been granted.
Organization.—Board of governors; headquarters, Indianapolis, Ind.
Local councils: United States—Alabama, 5; Arizona, 2 ; Arkansas, 1 ; Cali­
fornia, 13; Colorado, 4 ; Connecticut, 4 ; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 7 ;
Georgia, 5; Idaho, 1 ; Illinois, 16; Indiana, 10; Iowa, 7; Kansas, 5; Kentucky,
2 ; Louisiana, 3 ; Maine, 2 ; Maryland, 1 ; Massachusetts, 9 ; Michigan, 8 ; Minne­
sota, 3 ; Mississippi, 2 ; Missouri, 7; Montana, 5; Nebraska, 2 ; Nevada, 1 ;
New Hampshire, 1 ; New Mexico, 1 ; New Jersey, 8; New York, 12; North
Carolina, 3; North Dakota, 3 ; Ohio, 15; Oklahoma, 4 ; Oregon, 5; Pennsylvania,
8 ; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Carolina, 3 ; South Dakota, 1 ; Tennessee, 6 ; Texas,
11; Utah, 2 ; Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 7; West Virginia, 2 ; Wisconsin, 5;
Wyoming, 3. Canada—Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 2; Manitoba, 1 ; New
Brunswick, 1; Ontario, 3 ; Quebec, 2 ; Saskatchewan, 2. Newfoundland, 1.
Total, 244.

Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized May 5, 1892, at Philadelphia, Pa. Bookbinders were
organized in Knights of Labor assemblies early in the development
of the Knights of Labor movement. An independent union of book­
binders was formed in Washington, D. C., in 1850. When the Inter­
national Typographical Union was formed in 1852, however, some
bookbinders became a part of that organization, which at the be­
ginning embraced the entire printing industry. The bookbinders
were the second of the craft divisions within the International Typo­
graphical Union to secede and organize a separate craft union.
They followed the lead of the pressmen in this regard, and organized
the International Brotherhood of Bookbinders in 1892. Two years
later this brotherhood was formally recognized by the Typographi­
cal Union when it released its bookbinder members to the craft
brotherhood.
The International Brotherhood of Bookbinders joined the Ameri­
can Federation of Labor as an affiliated international union in 1898.
In 1919 it absorbed the International Brotherhood of Tip Printers,
a small organization which had been affiliated to the American
Federation o f Labor since 1902.
Objects.—“ To attain a uniform scale of wages, hours of labor, apprenticeship
laws for the government of the trade; the abolition of unjust, inhuman, and
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degrading contract systems, the insidious task, and bonus systems; to secure
to the men and women of our craft the full enjoyment and compensation o f
the wealth they create; to agree to arbitrate all differences existing between
employer and employee and * * * to promote such laws as will have a
tendency to create harmony between employer and employee and the advance­
ment of the bookbinding industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Bookbinding; specifically, “ bookbinders (printed or
blank), paper rulers, paper cutters, stockmen, sheet joggers, and sheet straighteners, edge gilders, marblers, folding-machine operators, Kast-machine opera­
tors, and all other automatic bindery feeding-machine operators, bindery
women, and all other branches of the bookbinding industry, hand or machine.”
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of president, five vice presidents,
and secretary-treasurer, “ shall have general supervision of the affairs of the
international between conventions, and shall have authority to enact such
regulations for the pursuance thereof and in consonance with existing consti­
tution and laws.” The third and fifth vice presidents shall be women. Offi­
cers are nominated by local unions and elected by referendum.
2. Local unions: Autonomous within limits of international constitution.
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts general legislation. Constitutional
amendments adopted by convention must be submitted to referendum. Legis­
lation also by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All persons working at the bookbinding trade
are eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
“ Indenture ” membership for first year; benefit membership thereafter. Em­
ployers may retain membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ The indenturing o f apprentices is considered
the best means calculated to give that efficiency which it is desired bookbinders
should possess, and also to give the necessary guaranty to employers that some
return will be made them for a proper effort to turn out competent workers.
Local unions must insist upon proper indenturing of apprentices and a uni­
form ratio of apportionment thereof, and that proper methods o f supervision
be observed. The terms o f service shall not be less than four continuous years
for men and not less than one year for women.
“ All apprentices shall be guaranteed thorough instruction and be subjected
to a rigid examination once every six months from the beginning of the inden­
ture.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, generally with employers’ associa­
tions. A standard form of contract is recommended by international office.
Union label in union shops
Benefits.— Strike; funeral.
Official organ.—The International Bookbinder.
Headquarters.—American Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Joint boards: Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, St. Louis, New
York City, Buffalo.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arizona, 1 ; California, 4 ; Colo­
rado, 4 ; Connecticut, 2 ; District of Columbia, 2 ; Florida, 5; Georgia, 1; Idaho,
1 ; Illinois, 14; Indiana, 6 ; Iowa, 4 ; Kansas, 2 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ;
Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 8; Michigan, 2 ; Minnesota, 2 ; Mississippi, 2 ;
Missouri, 6; Montana, 3 ; Nebraska, 2 ; New Hampshire, 1; New Jersey, 4 ; New
Mexico, 1; New York, 14; North Carolina, 1 ; North Dakota, 3 ; Ohio, 9 ; Okla­
homa, 2; Oregon, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 12; South Dakota, 2 ; Tennessee, 3 ; Texas, 8 ;
Washington, 5; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 2. Canada—Alberta, 1; British
Columbia, 2 ; Manitoba, 1 ; Ontario, 3 ; Quebec, 2 ; Saskatchewan, 2. Total, 159.
Membership.—14,000.

Engravers’ Union of North America, International Photo
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City, N. Y., October 22,1900. The photo­
engravers were the last of the printing-craft divisions to secede from
the International Typographical Union. Separate organization was
determined upon at a conference held in New York City in October,




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1900, which prepared for and called a convention of photo-engravers
in Philadelphia in November of the same year. This convention,
attended by 15 delegates, representing 7 local unions, founded the
International Photo Engravers’ Union. It was not until three years
later that the International Typographical Union recognized the new
organization and released to it its members engaged in that craft.
The American Federation o f Labor chartered the new union on May
20,1904, as the International Photo Engravers’ Union, with complete
jurisdiction over the photo-engraving branch of the printing
industry.
Objects.—Not declared.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—“ All methods and processes and parts thereof o f pro­
ducing likenesses of whatever character or descriptidto reproduced by means of
photography or otherwise and used for printing purposes. Included among the
branches of photo-engraving,^ lithography, photogravure, off-set, etc., shall be
artists, soft metal, label, and wood engravers, and all other branches that may
develop from time to time.”
Government.—1. Executive council, composed o f a president, three vice presi­
dents, and secretary-treasurer, “ shall have general supervision o f the business
of the international union.”
2. Local union: Subordinate; controlled chiefly by international laws, but
“ conceded the right to make all necessary laws for local government” which
do not conflict with international constitution, laws, and regulations.
3. Convention: Held annually; enacts legislation and elects genera,! officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention, except that in specified instances
amendments must be referred to general vote of membership for ratification.
Qualifications for membership.—“ To be eligible to membership an applicant
must have served at least five years at the photo-engraving trade and have at­
tained the age of 21 years. * * * No one having learned the photo-engraving
trade at a penal institution or having been an instructor at a school of photo­
engraving not approved by the International Photo Engravers’ Union shall be
admitted to membership except by approval o f the executive council.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—Applicants must pass a physical examination.
Term of apprenticeship, “ five years at a classified branch under the jurisdic­
tion of the International Photo Engravers’ Union.”
“ It is enjoined upon each subordinate union to make regulations limiting the
number of apprentices to be employed in each office to one for such number of
journeymen as to the union may seem ju st: Provided, That the ratio of 1 appren­
tice to 5 journeymen and 2 apprentices to 10 journeymen shall be the maximum
number and must not be exceeded. The number of apprentices allowed shall
be based on the total number o f journeymen employed in the shop at large,
and apportioned am^ng the various branches as follows: One apprentice in a
department, and additional apprentices to be added only upon the basis of five
additional journeymen in a department. There shall be a journeyman employed
in each department where an apprentice is allowed.
“ No apprentice shall be allowed to serve an apprenticeship on night shifts.”
Agreements.—Terms of proposed agreements are submitted by local unions to
the executive council of the international union before negotiations with em­
ployers are begun. Then a committee of the local union meets with the
employers (in most cases the employers’ association) in conference on terms
approved by the main office. International officers may be called into confer­
ence in case of difficulty or deadlock in the negotiations. Tendency is toward
long-term contracts.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; tuberculosis; funeral; insurance.
Official organ.—The American Photo-Engraver.
Headquarters.—Tower Grove Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo.
Organization.—Local unions on ly: United States—Alabama, 1 ; California, 3;
Colorado, 1; Connecticut, 3; District of Columbia, 1 ; Florida, 1 ; Georgia, 1 ;
Illinois, 4 ; Indiana, 3 ; Iowa, 2 ; Kansas, 2; Kentucky, 1 ; Louisiana, 1; Mary­
land, 1 ; Massachusetts, 4 ; Michigan, 2 ; Minnesota, 2 ; Missouri, 2 ; Nebraska, 1 ;




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HANDBOOK 01s AMERICAN TRADE-tTNlONS

New Jersey, 1; New York, 6 ; Ohio, 8; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania,
3 ; Rhode Island, 1; Tennessee, 3; Texas. 3: Utah, 1; Virgi 'a. 1; Washington, 3;
Wisconsin. 2. Canada— British Columbia, 1; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 2 ; Quebec, 2.
Total, 76.
Membership.—8,600.

Lithographers of America, Amalgamated
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City in 1882, as the Lithographers’ Pro­
tective and Insurance Association, largely benevolent and fraternal
in character. The name was changed in 1896 to the Lithographers’
International Protective and Beneficial Association, by which name
it is still recognized by the American Federation of Labor, under
charter granted in 1906.
Prior to 1896 it was the only organization in the lithographic field,
Several others organized within the next few years, among them
the Lithographic Workmen of America, the Stone and Plate Pre­
parers’ Union, the Lithographic Press Feeders and Apprentices’
Association, and the Poster Artists’ Association. The Lithographic
Press Feeders and Apprentices’ Association was chartered by the
American Federation of Labor as an affiliated international in 1909.
In 1915 the Lithographers’ Protective and Beneficial Association,
the Lithographic Workmen of America, and the Stone and Plate
Preparers’ Union amalgamated into one organization under the title
“ Amalgamated Lithographers of America.
The request of the new organization for an American Federation
o f Labor charter under the new name brought to a head a jurisdic­
tional dispute which had been growing since 1913, involving the
lithographers with the International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union and the Photo-Engravers’ International Union. The
controversy centered upon the offset press, a new development in the
lithographic industry. It was contended by the Internationa1
Printing Pressmen that as their jurisdiction covered all presswork,
pressmen in the lithographers’ union running offset presses should
be transferred to the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union. Similarly the Photo-Engravers’ International Union de­
clared that lithographers making offset plates were doing work con­
ceded to that organization.
Such a division would have meant the disbanding of the Amalga­
mated Lithographers’ Association and its absorption by the other
two international unions. The lithographers refused to consider that
policy, taking the position that they would be entirely willing to
become a part of an amalgamation uniting all printing unions in one
organization covering the industry, but that so long as organization
continued along craft lines, the lithographic craft must be recognized.
Finally, in 1918, a committee appointed by the executive council
o f the American Federation of Labor, after an investigation, brought
in a report giving the International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union full jurisdiction over the offset press and the lithographic
pressmen, and giving the Photo-Engravers’ International Union ju­
risdiction over other workers in lithographic processes. By action of
the 1918 convention of the American Federation of Labor the Amal­



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gamated Lithographers were given until September 1,1918, to comply
with that decision and merge with the other two organizations along
the lines laid down. Expulsion was to follow a refusal to disband.
However, at the request o f the International Printing Pressmen
and the Photo-Engravers, the expulsion order was held in abeyance
pending further efforts to come to an agreement, and it has never
been carried out. The lithographers are still an affiliated union,
although recognized only under their former title instead of the one
used by the organization itself.
In 1918 the Amalgamated Lithographers absorbed the Lithographic
Press Feeders and Apprentices’ Association, which had been sus­
pended from the American Federation o f Labor in 1913, but had
continued independently.
This organization is not a part of the Allied Printing Trades
Council.
Objects.—“ The objects of this association are to protect the individual and
collective trade interests of its members; to regulate and advance the interests
of lithography; to impart and confine to its members, or to such as signify
their intention to become members, the most advanced and improved methods
in all its branches, whereby the members in general may become the most
proficient workmen, to be a bureau for the practical distribution of situations
and help to its members; to establish a mortuary fu n d ; to establish and main­
tain a registered union label to distinguish the product of the labor of its
members; to conduct the systematic education of its members through the pub­
lication of a monthly trade journal; to establish and regulate a fair and just
system of apprenticeship to the end that a high standard of workmanship be
maintained, and so that the earnings of labor be not unduly injured nor the
vocation of lithography demoralized by evil internal competition, and en­
deavor by all fair and just means to induce nonmembers to join its ranks, and
to try at all times to limit the employment of workmen in the various branches
of lithography under this organization’s jurisdiction to those exclusively who are
members in good standing.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The lithographic industry * * * composed o f com­
mercial artists, poster artists, engravers, photo and process lithographers,
lithophotographers, designers, music engravers, pen and brush letterers, lithosign writers, transferrers, provers, hand-press printers, flat-bed rotary and offset
press pressmen on single or multicolor presses, printing from etched stones or
metal plates peculiarly adapted for lithographic presses and prepared by litho­
graphic stone and plate preparers and transferrers, upon paper, iron, tin, silk,
cloth, rubber, celluloid, or any other printable material; press feeders on flat­
bed, rotary, and offset presses, hand fed and automatic; stone and plate pre­
parers, all transferring and photo composing machines which are used for the
purpose of making lithographic plates and used on lithographic printing presses,
all engraving machines used for lithographic work and operated in the litho­
graphic department, and such other kindred branches as are properly linked
with lithography.”
Government.—1. International council, composed of president, four vice presi­
dents, secretary-treasurer, and one elected member for each branch of the
trade; i. e., one artist ( “ artists” includes poster artists), one engraver, one
prover, one transferrer, one pressman, one press feeder, and one stone and plate
preparer, “ shall exercise care of the interests and have entire supervision of
the welfare of the association.”
The president “ shall at all times exercise a general supervision over the
interests and welfare of the association,” and is the chief executive officer.
The council is the legislative and judicial power between conventions, and
controls all strike matters.
2.
Local unions: “ Local unions are self-governing in all their local affairs
except with regard to those laws which must necessarily be uniform throughout
the organization.” Constitution dictated by general organization; by-laws op­
tional with local, but must be approved by international council.



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3.
Convention: Held triennially; nominates general officers, who are then
elected by referendum. Constitutional amendments either by referendum or by
convention and referendum.
Initiative, referendum, and recall.
Qualifications for membership.—For journeymen membership, four years’ ap­
prenticeship in the branch for which application is made, “ under the rules o f
the association/’ and applicant must be 21 years old and earning the estab­
lished minimum rate of pay.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Term of apprenticeship, four years.
“ For the first 3, 4, or 5 journeymen in a department 1 apprentice shall be
allowed, and for 10 journeymen 2 apprentices, and for 15 journeymen 3 appren­
tices, and 1 additional apprentice for each 5 additional journeymen in the de­
partment One apprentice shall be allowed to each shop where process work
is being done.
“ The term ‘ number of journeymen employed’ shall in every instance be
computed by the average number of journeymen employed for the year pre­
ceding.
“ Locals are requested to use all means to secure the privilege of governing
apprentices.”
Agreements.—“ The international council have the authority to draw up
agreements with an employers’ association, but such agreements shall be sub­
ject to referendum. * * ♦ Locals may enter into local agreements or con­
tracts with individual firms by consent of the international council,” but “ all
agreements and contracts entered into must be uniform in character.”
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; life insurance (contributory, compulsory mem­
bership).
Official organ.—The Lithographers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—205 West Fourteenth Street, New York City, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions on ly: United States—California, 2; Colorado, 1 ;
Connecticut, 1; District of Columbia, 1 ; Illinois, 1; Indiana, 1; Iowa, 1 ; Ken­
tucky, 1; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 2 ; Michigan, 2 ; Minnesota, 1 ; Missouri,
2 ; Nebraska, 1; New York, 3 ; Ohio, 6 ; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 4 ; Tennessee,
1; Texas, 2; Virginia, 1; Washington, 1; West Virginia, 1 ; Wisconsin, 1.
Canada— British Columbia, 1; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 4 ; Quebec, 1. Total, 46.
Membership.—5,906.

Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of North America, International
Printing
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized October 8, 1889, in New York City. From the incep­
tion of the International Typographical Union in 1852 printing
pressmen were members of that organization without any distinc­
tion as to kind of work performed until 1873, when the Interna­
tional Typographical Union convention authorized the chartering
o f pressmen in craft groups. By 1888 there was a strong sentiment
among the craft groups favoring separation and the establishment
o f a printing pressmen’s union independent of the printers.
This sentiment crystallized into a call for a convention sent out
by the New York pressmen’s local of the International Typographi­
cal Union. The convention was held in New York City on October
8, 1889, with 13 local unions of pressmen represented, and the In­
ternational Printing Pressmen’s Union of North America was
formed. It grew chiefly by secession from the International Typo­
graphical Union, which by 1894 had become so serious that the
typographical union entered into an agreement with the young or­
ganization to surrender its jurisdiction over the pressroom and to
transfer its pressmen membership to the new union.
Jurisdiction was expanded to include press feeders, and in 1897
the name o f the organization was changed to International Printing
Pressmen and Assistants’ Union o f North America.



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The first journal appeared in November, 1890. Twenty years
later extensive property in Hawkins County, Tenn., was secured on
which the union now maintains a home for the superannuated, a
tuberculosis sanatorium, a trade school, and its international head­
quarters.
Objects.—To bring about and maintain the highest quality of workmanship,
to encourage and sustain good workmen, to assist members in securing em­
ployment and retaining same, to influence the apprentice system for the bene­
fit of both employer and employee, and to establish and uphold a fair and
equitable wage scale.
Territorial jurisdiction.— North America.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Printing pressmen, assistants, paper handlers, roller
makers, newsboys, and carriers.”
Government.— 1. Board o f directors, composed of president, four vice presi­
dents, and secretary-treasurer, “ during the interim between conventions
* * * shall have general supervision over all matters relating to the inter­
national union, and during such interim shall have power and authority to de­
cide all questions, disputes, and jurisdictional rights that may arise. Its deci­
sions shall be final unless set aside by the convention.”
2. Local unions: Autonomous within limits of international constitution and
laws. Exact autonomy not defined. Constitution and by-laws must be approved
by board of directors.
3. Convention, initiative, referendum, and recall: Convention meets quad­
rennially. Nomination and election of general officers by referendum. Legis­
lation and constitutional amendments either by convention or by initiative
and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person of “ good moral character ” work­
ing at the trades covered by the jurisdiction is eligible to membership. Male
and female membership.
Employers actually working at the trade may hold membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “No apprentice in a newspaper web pressroom
shall become a journeyman member of a newspaper web pressmen’s union
unless he has served an apprenticeship of at least five years in a newspaper
pressroom.”
Registered apprentices “ shall be required to take a correspondence course
through the trade school of the international union.”
“ Apprenticeship shall be calculated by the physical demands based upon the
requirements of the business through expansion, by death, by retirement, or
incapacitation, and all apprenticeship regulations shall be approved by the
board of directors.”
Agreements.—Proposed agreements must be submitted to the board o f direc­
tors for approval before negotiations are begun. Agreements are negotiated
by locals but they “ shall not become effective or operative for any purpose
whatsoever until underwritten ” by the board of directors.
An international arbitration agreement calling for arbitration o f all dif­
ficulties in shops covered by the agreement is in effect between the International
Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union and the American Newspaper Pub­
lishers Association. This agreement was negotiated by the board of directors
and ratified by referendum.
Benefits.—Strike and lockout; death; old-age pension; home for the superan­
nuated; tuberculosis sanatorium; trade school; home for widows and orphans
of members.
Oflicial organ.—The American Pressman.
Headquarters.—Pressmen’s Home, Hawkins County, Tenn.
Organization.—Local unions are organized and maintained on basis of occu­
pational classification; i. e., flatbed pressmen, newspaper web pressmen, feeders,
roller makers, paper handlers, carriers, ink workers, etc., unless there are not
enough of each classification to form a local union, in which case they are
chartered as mixed locals until such time as unified groups can be chartered;
(m—flatbed and mixed; w—newspaper web; f—feeders; ph—paper handlers;
i—ink workers); United States—Alabama, 4 m ; Arizona, 3 m ; Arkansas, 4
m ; California, 16 m, 2 w, 1 ph; Colorado, 4 m, 1 w, 1 f ; Connecticut, 6 m ;
District of Columbia, 1 m, 1 w, 1 f, 1 i ; Florida, 9 m ; Georgia, 6 m, 1 w ;
Idaho, 3 m ; Illinois, 19 m, 1 w, 1 f, 1 ph; Indiana, 12 m, 1 w, 1 f ; Iowa,
9 m, 1 w, 1 f ; Kansas, 5 m ; Kentucky, 3 m, 1 w, 1 f ; Louisiana, 3 m ; Maine,



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

2 m ; Maryland, 3 m, 1 w ; Massachusetts, 13 m, 3 w, 1 f ; Michigan, 9 m,
1 w, 1 f ; Minnesota, 4 m ; Mississippi, 4 m ; Missouri, 7 m, 1 w, 2 f ; Montana,
5 m ; Nebraska, 2 m ; Nevada, 1 m ; New Hampshire, 3 m ; New Jersey. 12
m, 2 w, 2 f ; New Mexico, 1 m ; New York, 15 m, 3 w, 2 f, 1 p h ; North Carolina,
5 m ; North Dakota, 3 in ; Ohio, 18 m, 3 w, 3 f, 1 i ; Oklahoma, 6 m ; Oregon,
4 m, 1 w ; Pennsylvania, 15 m, 2 w, 2 f ; Rhode Island, 2 m, 1 w ; South Caro­
lina, 3 m ; South Dakota, 3 m ; Tennessee, 7 m, 1 w ; Texas, 14 m, 1 w ; Utah,
2 m, 1 w ; Virginia, 6 m ; Washington, 9 m, 1 w ; West Virginia, 4 m ; W is­
consin, 8 m, 1 w, 1 f ; Wyoming, 3 m. Canada—Alberta, 2 m ; British Columbia,
2 m ; Manitoba, 1 m, 1 w ; New Brunswick, 1 m ; Ontario, 7 m, 1 w ; Quebec,
2 m ; Saskatchewan, 2 m. Newfoundland, 1 m. Total, 318 m, 34 w, 20 f,
3 ph, 2 i.
Membership.— £5,000.

Printers, Die Stampers, and Engravers* Union of North America,
International Plate
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Boston in 1892. Unions of plate printers existed in
Philadelphia and Washington at the time of the rise of the Knights
o f Labor. They became identified with the Knights of Labor move­
ment but later followed the craft movement into the American
Federation o f Labor. The Knights of Labor locals and independent
unions held a convention in Boston in 1892 and organized the
National Steel and Copper Plate Printers Union. In 1901 this
name was changed to “ International,” to include the Canadian
plate printers. In 1920 jurisdiction was extended to include die
stampers and the name was changed accordingly. In 1925 the en­
gravers organized in the International Steel and Copper Plate
Engravers’ League, an organization chartered by the American
Federation of Labor in 1918, amalgamated with the j)late printers.
Since the amalgamation the name of the organization has been
changed to International Plate Printers, Die Stampers, and En­
gravers5Union o f North America.
Objects.— “ T c
Tconcentrate our efforts for the attainment of the rights of labor
and the preservation thereof to those who work at the art of plate printing
and die stamping, believing that organization based on sound principles and
directed by conservative intelligence furnishes the best move by which we may
secure a more equitable share of the wealth which we create; to promote the
general welfare of our members by improving our trade and social conditions
and to assist each other in all matters relating to our industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—The United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— Plate printing, die stamping, and engraving.
Government.—1. Executive council, consisting of president, two vice presi­
dents, secretary-treasurer, and one representative from each local union “ shall
have general supervision of the business of the international union and of
local unions.”
2. Local unions: Subordinate, but “ conceded the right of making all neces­
sary laws for local government which do not conflict with the laws of the
international union.”
3. Convention: Held annually; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention only. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Four years’ apprenticeship.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Apprentices must be not less than 16 nor more
than 18 years of age and serve an apprenticeship of 4 years. Conditional mem­
bership during the fourth year is optional with local unions. Ratio of appren­
tices to journeymen regulated by local unions.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.— Strike and death.
Official organ.— The Plate Printer.
headquarters.—3974 Amundson Avenue, New York, N. Y. (variable).



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127

Organization.—Local unions only: United States— District of Columbia, 2 ;
Illinois, 2 ; Massachusetts, 1 ; New York, 6 ; Pennsylvania, 2. Canada— Ontario,
1. Total, 14.
Membership.—1,000.

Siderographers, International Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Washington, D. C., January 11, 1899, as the Steel
Plate Transferrers5 Association. In 1905 the name was changed to
International Steel Plate Transferrers’ Association, and in 1921 it
became the International Association of Siderographers.
Objects.— “ First, to unite more closely the siderographers, no matter where
they may apply their talent; second, to encourage and sustain its members in
the preservation of their rights; third, to assist any member seeking employ­
ment; fourth, to bring about and maintain the highest quality of workmanship;
and fifth, to advance the standard of the profession and industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— Siderography.
Government,—1. “ The supreme government of the International Association
of Siderographers is lodged in the international association, and the constitu­
tion and laws enacted thereunder shall be the supreme law of the organization.
“All legislative powers shall be vested in the international association. Dur­
ing the interim between sessions of the international association the executive
and judicial powers of the international shall be vested in the executive
board,” composed of president, two vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer,
which “ shall have full and discretionary power.”
2. Local unions: “Any local association can enact by-laws or rules of order
for their government not in conflict with international constitution, laws, or
rules.”
3. Convention: Held biennially; legislates and elects general officers. Con­
stitutional amendments by convention only. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any siderographer of good moral standing
who has worked at the trade five full years or more at actual siderography may
be admitted to recognized (journeyman) membership.” Apprentice members
become junior members after two years’ apprenticeship.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—Unemployment.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—513 Crittenden Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Organization.—The Washington, D. C., association has jurisdiction over all
siderographers in the city of Washington and in the cities of all other coun­
tries outside the United States, except Great Britain.
The New York association has jurisdiction over all siderographers in the
United States except Washington.
The Ottawa association has jurisdiction over all siderographers in Canada
and Great Britain.
Membership.—80 (100 per cent organization).

Stereotypers and Electrotypers* Union of North America,
International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Cincinnnati, Ohio, in August, 1902. Originally
stereotypers and electrotypers were part o f the International Typo­
graphical Union. With the development of their craft and increase
in numbers they became somewhat autonomous units within the In­
ternational Typographical Union. A movement toward independ­
ence began in 1898 and ended in 1902, when the Typographical Union
relinquished jurisdiction, and at a convention held in Cincinnati
the craft organization was established.



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIOttS

Objects.—Not declared.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—“All work necessary for the preparation of forms, cuts,
and other originals for molding; the molding in wax, clay, lead, celluloid,
paper matrix or flong or other paper, vegetable, mineral, or other composition
and the necessary preparation of such molding material and all work by any
process for the perfecting of such molds, wax ruling or engraving; the casting
of plates for printing or other purposes in lead, tin, aluminum, and other
metals and the composition of such metals or other material; the care and
preparation of such casting material, the finishing and every process for the
completing of such plates for printing and other purposes; all work done by
electrolytic or other process in the production of molds or plates to be used
for printing or other purposes, such as the deposition o f copper, cobalt, brass,
nickel, steel, or other base metals or other alloys, and the preparation and
completion of such work.”
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, vice president, sec­
retary-treasurer, and two elected members, one of whom shall be an electrotype
finisher and the other an electrotyper, “ shall have general supervision o f the
business of the international union and subordinate unions.”
2. Local unions: “ To subordinate unions is conceded the right to make all
necessary laws for local government which do not conflict with the laws of the
international union.”
3. Initiative, referendum, and recall, and convention: All general officers
elected by referendum and subject to recall. Convention meets annually. Con­
stitutional amendments and new legislation enacted by convention submitted
to referendum. Legislation may be initiated without reference to convention.
Qualifications for membership .—Citizenship or citizenship intention and five
years’ experience at the trade.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Five-year term. “ It is enjoined upon each sub­
ordinate union to make regulations limiting the number of apprentices to be
employed in each office to one for such number of journeymen as to the union
may seem just.
“ It shall be obligatory upon each subordinate union defining through its
regulations the ratio of apprentices to prevail within its jurisdiction, to also
devise and adopt some practical method or system best suited to meet existing
conditions, that will provide for the thorough instruction of the trade ap­
prentice in all the intricacies of the craft during his five-year apprentice term.
“ Subordinate unions shall so regulate the registration of apprentices and the
acceptance of such apprentices into journeyman membership that as nearly as
possible but one-fifth of the members that are registered shall be taken in as
journeymen in any one year.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, generally with employers’ associa­
tions, but must be approved and signed by the international president.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; funeral.
Official organ.— International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union Journal.
Headquarters.—2645 East Twenty-eighth Street, Kansas City, Mo.
Organization.—Local unions only; stereotypers and electrotypers are organ­
ized into separate locals in large centers or plants; in small cities one local
includes both crafts: United States—Alabama, 2 ; Arkansas, 1 ; California, 8 ;
Colorado, 2; Connecticut, 3; District of Columbia, 2; Florida, 3; Georgia, 1;
Illinois, 7; Indiana, 6; Iowa, 4; Kansas, 2: Kentucky, 1; Louisiana. 2; Maine,
1; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 7; Michigan, 7; Minnesota, 5 ; Missouri, 4 ;
Montana, 3; Nebraska, 2 ; New Jersey, 1; New York, 11; North Dakota, 1;
Ohio, 12; Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 12; Rhode Island, 1; South
Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 4 ; Texas, 10; Utah, 1; Virginia, 1; Washington, 3 ; Wis­
consin, 3. Canada— Alberta, 2 ; British Columbia, 1; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 4 ;
Quebec, 1; Saskatchewan, 1. Total, 149.
Membership.—7,600.

Typographical Union of North America, International
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized May 3, 1852. Organization in the printing industry
dates from the beginning of the nineteenth century. The first at­



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129

tempt at a national organization was in November, 1836, when
representatives of local societies met in Washington and formed the
National Typographical Society. At its convention in 1837 eight
American cities were represented, and a fraternal delegate from
Nova Scotia was seated. While this organization collapsed as a
national body in 1840, local societies continued to increase in num­
ber and strength. In 1850 these local societies again came together
in a national convention held in New York City. The establishment
o f trade standards, discipline of members, and apprentice regula­
tions were undertaken, and a national executive committee was
elected. When the same group met again in 1851 at Baltimore it
inaugurated the National Typographical Union and adopted a con­
stitution. This constitution was submitted to all the existing local
societies o f printers for acceptance and was followed by a call to
all who ratified it to meet in convention at Cincinnati in 1852. At
that meeting the organization which later became the International
Typographical Union was formally begun, with 14 locals of printers
and pressmen. With its spread into Canada, the national union
became an international and the name was changed to the present
one in 1869.
Originally the International Typographical Union covered the
entire industry, although compositors formed the bulk of the mem­
bership. But a movement toward independent craft organization
began in 1888 with the pressmen. An independent union of printing
pressmen was a going concern when the International Typographical
Union convention of 1891 refused to recognize it or to accept its
working card. The bookbinders followed the example of the press­
men, and in 1894 the Internati
1™
ment with the International
newly organized International
its pressmen and bookbinder members to the newer unions and re­
linquished jurisdiction over those two branches. Secession of the
stereotypers and electrotypers began in 1898 and ended in 1902 with
the recognition by the International Typographical Union of the
independent union and the surrender of its members engaged in that
craft. Similarly in 1903 the photo-engravers transferred from the
International Typographical Union to the International PhotoEngravers’ Union, and the Typographical Union became a purely
craft union.
Jurisdictional difficulties with the International Association o f
Machinists followed the introduction of typesetting machines in
printing offices, but the International Typographical Union success­
fully maintained its position that typesetting-machine operators must
belong to the printers’ union.
The German-American Typographia was inaugurated as a na­
tional organization at a convention held in Philadelphia in April,
1873, by delegates from local organization o f German printers em­
ployed by German-language papers in New York, Philadelphia, Cin­
cinnati, and St. Louis. Similar organizations in Buffalo, Cleveland,
and Detroit, while not represented at the meeting, joined the national
body. On July 1, 1873, it first issued its official journal, Journal
fur Buchdruckerkunst, which has remained in continuous publication
ever since.



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

The organization was formally recognized by the International
Typographical Union in 1884, and 10 years later it became a part
o f the larger organization, under an agreement by which it pre­
served its beneficiary features and practical autonomy, the benefit
features being administered by a secretary and advisory board of
live members elected by the German branch of the international
union.
The employment of women in the printing trade began about
1832. Their inclusion in the industry and in the organizations was
fought for a generation. In 1870 a “ union of women printers ” was
formed in New York City, which applied to the International Typo­
graphical Union for admission and was chartered as a local union.
Organization o f women into separate unions was not a success, how­
ever, and the convention of 1872 admitted them to membership on
equal terms with the men.
Indianapolis was made the official headquarters of the union at the
1888 convention, and the first official journal was published in that
city on July 15, 1889. Two generous bequests, one of $10,000 and
the other of an 80-acre tract of land in Colorado Springs, Colo.,
made possible the establishment of a home for aged and indigent
members. This institution, known as the Union Printers’ Home,
opened in May, 1892. Later it grew into a hospital and tuberculosis
sanitarium as well as a home.
Since 1900 the structure and machinery o f government o f the
International Typographical Union have been altered to make the
local unit subordinate to a powerful central organization.
Objects.—“ To establish and maintain an equitable scale o f wages, and protect
ourselves from sudden and unreasonable fluctuations in the rate of compensa­
tion for our labor, and protect, too, just and honorable employers from the
unfair competition of greedy, cheap-labor, huckstering rivals; defend our rights
and advance our interests as wage earners; to create an authority whose seal
shall constitute a certificate of character, intelligence, and skill; to build up an
organization where all worthy members of our craft can participate in the
discussion of those practical problems upon the solution of which depend their
welfare and prosperity as workers; to foster fellowship and brotherhood, and
shield from aggression the isolated, defenseless toiler; to aid the destitute
and unfortunate, and provide for the decent burial of deceased members; to
develop and stimulate by association and social converse those kindly instincts
of humanity that most highly adorn true manhood; to encourage the principle
and practice of conciliation and arbitration in the settlement of differences
between labor and capital; incite all honorable efforts for the attainment of
better conditions of labor— shorter hours, increased privileges, and greater
enjoyment of the ennobling amenities of life, the concomitants o f culture and
civilization; to defend the defenseless, befriend the friendless, and in all
charity inculcate lessons of justice and good will among men.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions, Canada, Newfound­
land, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ Printers, proof readers who are practical printers,
machine tenders, mailers, and kindred trades.” 2
Government.—1. Executive council, consisting of the president, first, second,
and third vice presidents, and secretary-treasurer, “ shall have general super­
vision of the business of the international union and of subordinate unions.”
2.
Trade district unions: A trade district union may “ charter, establish, and
form unions of its cra ft; charters to be procured from the International Typo­
2 Newspaper writers were for some time under the jurisdiction of the International
Typographical Union. Later this jurisdiction was relinquished, although several such
unions elected to remain with their original affiliation and two unions of newspaper
writers remain as locals of the I. T. U.




PAPER, PRINTING, AND BOOKBINDING

131

gra p h ica l Union,” and has power “ to make all laws for the sole government of

its craft.”
3. Local unions: “ To subordinate unions is conceded the right to make all
necessary laws for local government which do not conflict with the laws of the
international.”
4. Convention: Meets annually. “ The convention o f the International Typo­
graphical Union shall have power to enact by-laws and general laws for the
government of the craft, but all laws involving an increased taxation shall be
submitted to a referendum vote.” Constitutional amendments passed by con­
vention must be submitted to referendum.
Nomination and eletcion of general officers by referendum.
5. “ Typog*aphia ” : German-American unions. Autonomous within limits of
amalgamation agreement.
Qualifications for membership.— “ No person shall be admitted to membership
in a subordinate union who has not served an apprenticeship of at least five
years except with the consent of the president of the international, or of the
president of the trade district union of his craft.” Male and female mem­
bership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Apprentices shall be not less than 16 years of
age when beginning their apprenticeship and shall serve an apprenticeship of
5 years.
“ Beginning with the third year apprentices shall be enrolled in and com­
plete the International Typographical Union course of lessons in printing be­
fore being admitted as journeymen members of the union.
“ No office shall be entitled to employ an apprentice unless it has the equip­
ment necessary to enable instruction to be given the apprentice in the several
classes of work agreed upon in the contract with the employer to be taught
yearly.
“ Local unions are required to fix the ratio of apprentices to the number
of journeymen regularly employed in any and all offices, but it must be pro­
vided that at least one member of the typographical, aside from the proprietor,
shall be regularly employed in the composing room before an office is entitled to
an apprentice.
“ Local unions shall arrange for scales of wages for apprentices in the third
fourth, and fifth years of their apprenticeship.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions and local employers through com­
mittees. I f agreement is not arrived at, international officers intercede. All
agreements must be submitted to international president for approval.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; funeral; old-agei pension; home for superannu­
ated and sanitarium; trade school.
Official organ.—The Typographical Journal.
Headquarters.—Typographical Terrace, Indianapolis, Ind.
Organization.—State and district: Arkansas Typographical Conference; Cali­
fornia Conference of Typographical Unions; Eastern Pennsylvania District
Typographical Unions; Empire Tyographical Conference (New York) ; Florida
Typographical Conference; Indiana State Conference; Intermountain Typo­
graphical Conference (Colorado) ; Iowa State Allied Printing Council; Michi­
gan Federation of Typographical Unions; Minnesota Federation of Typo­
graphical Unions; Missouri Valley Typographical Conference (Oklahoma) ; New
England Typographical Conference; Northwest Typographical Conference; Ohio
State Conference; Ontario and Quebec Conference; Southwestern Typographi­
cal Conference (headquarters, Phoenix, Ariz.) ; Tennessee-Kentucky Typographi­
cal Conference; Texas State Allied Printing Trades Council; Union Printers’
League of New Jersey; Virginia-Carolinas Typographical Association; West­
chester Typographical Conference (headquarters, Port Chester, N. Y.) ; Western
Pennsylvania Typographical Unic«i Conference; Willamette Valley Typographi­
cal Conference (Oregon) ; Wisconsin Typographical Conference.
Local unions, classified as printers (p) ; mailers (m ) ; German-American
(G -A ) ; newswriters (n) : United States—Alabama, 6; Arizona, 6 ; Arkansas,
6 p, 1 m ; California, 43 p, 5 m ; Colorado, 9 p, 1 m ; Connecticut, 12; Delaware,
1; District of Columbia, 1 p, 1 m ; Florida, 16; Georgia, 8 p, 1 m ; Idaho, 6 ;
Illinois, 53 p, 1 m, 1 G -A ; Indiana, 28 p, 2 m ; Iowa, 19 p, 1 m ; Kansas, 18 p,
1 m ; Kentucky, 9 p, 1 m, 1 G -A ; Louisiana, 5; Maine, 5; Maryland, 4 p,
1 G -A ; Massachusetts, 20 p, 2 m ; Michigan, 19 p, 1 m, 1 G -A ; Minnesota, 14
p, 1 m, 1 G -A ; Mississippi, 5 ; Missouri, 11 p, 2 m, 1 G -A ; Montana, 14 p, 2 m ;




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Nebraska, 2 p, 1 m ; Nevada, 5; New Hampshire, 4 ; New Jersey, 21 p, 1 m, 1
G -A ; New Mexico, 5; New York, 50 p, 2 m, 3 G -A ; North Carolina, 10 p, 2 m ;
North Dakota, 7; Ohio, 51 p, 4 m, 2 G -A ; Oklahoma, 23 p, 1 m : Oregon, 12
p, 1 m ; Pennsylvania, 44 p, 2 m, 2 G-A, 1 n ; Rhode Island, 5 ; South Carolina,
4 ; South Dakota, 3 ; Tennessee, 8 p, 1 m ; Texas, 31 p, 2 m ; Utah, 2 p, 1 m ;
Vermont, 3 ; Virginia, 7; Washington, 13 p, 2 m ; West Virginia, 9; Wisconsin,
16 p, 1 m, 1 G-A, 1 n ; Wyoming, 5; Hawaii, 1. Canada—Alberta, 4 ; British
Columbia, 7 p, 1 m ; Manitoba, 2 ; New Brunswick, 2 ; Nova Scotia, 2; Ontario,
20 p, 2 m ; Quebec, 4 ; Saskatchewan, 5. Panama, 1. Newfoundland, 1. Total,
727 p, 47 m, 15 G-A, 2 n.
Membership.—77,000.




CLOTHING
H E clothing industry,' including shoe manufacture, is the chief
stronghold of independent unionism, and even among the Ameri­
can Federation o f Labor unions in the industry jurisdictional lines
are confused, with the result that there are 10 separate national
organizations in clothing manufacture.
Shoemaking accounts for 2 o f the 10 national organizations, as
well as others which are economically important but which are not
included in this compilation because they function locally only.
Organization among shoe workers is almost as old as the country
itself, and shoe workers’ unions have had a marked influence upon
the labor movement, particularly in connection with women workers.
A national organization o f shoe workers known as the Knights of
St. Crispin antedates the Knights of Labor. Shoemakers went from
the former into the latter and became a strong factor there in form­
ing their own national trade assembly in 1884. They followed the
movement into the American Federation o f Labor, but kept their
entity as an industrial union.
Secession movements of craft groups began about 1900 and con­
tinued intermittently for 10 years. From time to time these seceding
craft unions have come together to form industrial federations, each
new one absorbing its predecessor in the field. In this wise the
United Shoe Workers and the Amalgamated Shoe Workers of
America have come and gone, both now being part of the Shoe
Workers’ Protective Union, which is the independent rival o f the
Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union.
A number o f local craft unions exist in New England independent
of both the national organizations, and an industrial union called the
American Shoe Workers’ Union operates in the shoe factories in New
York, owning its headquarters and claiming a membership of 6,000.

T

GARMENT TRADES

In their early history, the structure o f unions in the garment
trades was determined largely by developments within the industry.
Tailors had a substantial organization at the beginning o f the nine­
teenth century and the Knights of Labor movement was inaugurated
by garment cutters. The oldest of the present organizations is the
Journeymen Tailors’ Union, organized in 1883. It was a prime
mover in organizing the American Federation of Labor, and is one
o f the few remaining strictly craft unions of skilled workers. As a
matter o f fact, the many organizations which succeeded the Journey­
men Tailors’ Union in the industry came into being largely because o f
the attitude o f the tailors toward the factory system of production.
Determined to keep their organization one o f skilled workers in the
custom trade, they refused to admit to membership the skilled and
semiskilled factory operatives, even after factory production had
begun seriously to threaten the custom trade.




133

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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-tJHlOKS

The factory men organized separately into two unions, both o f
which held membership in the American Federation of Labor, as
did the Journeymen Tailors’ Union. O ut'of the various groups of
craft workers who organized from time to time according to the kind
o f work performed or the product made grew, in 1891, the United
Garment Workers o f America.
In 1900 an independent union in the women’s garment industry
called the United Brotherhood of Cloak Makers and a number of
local unions o f the United Garment Workers, the members of which
were making women’s clothes, organized a third union in the indus­
try, the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union.
Secession from the United Garment Workers in 1914 produced
the fourth union in the garment trades, the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers of America, which is an industrial union in the men’s gar­
ment trade, independent of the American Federation of Labor. It
is the largest and most powerful of the so-called dual unions.
OTHER CLOTHING TRADES

The hat-making trade has two organizations, the United Hatters
o f North America, and the Cloth Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers’
International Union, both affiliated to the American Federation of
Labor. The jurisdictional boundaries are vague, but are based
principally upon the kind of fabric used in manufacture.
Other affiliated unions in the clothing industry are the Inter­
national Fur Workers’ Union and the International Glove Workers’
Union. Neckwear workers, while having no central organization,
are chartered by the American Federation of Labor as directly
affiliated local unions.
The Needle Trades Workers’ Industrial Union (see p. 3) has
drawn from the Ladies’ Garment Workers and the Fur Workers, in
its efforts to establish a comprehensive organization for the clothing
industry.
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union_____________________________________
Fur Workers’ Union of the United States and Canada, International_
Garment Workers of America, United_____________________________
Garment Workers’ Union, International Ladies’__________________
Glove Workers’ Union o f America, International___________________
Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers International Union, Cloth________
Hatters of North America, United_________________________________
Neckwear Workers (American Federation of Labor, locals)________
Tailors’ Union o f America, Journeymen____________________________

Page
134
137
13S
140
141
142
143
134
145

Independent organizations:
Clothing Workers o f America, Amalgamated_____________________
136
Needle Trades Workers’ Industrial Union_________________________ 3,134
Shoe Workers’ Protective Union__________________________________
144

Boot and Shoe Workers* Union
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Boston, Mass., April 10, 1895. The first union of
shoe workers to achieve any degree of permanency was the Federal
Society of Journeymen Cordwainers, which originated in Philadel­
phia in 1794 and figured in the famous conspiracy trial of 1806. The



CLOKCIttG

135

initial step toward national organization occurred in October, 1885,
when a convention was held in New York City which founded toe
National Cooperative Association of Journeymen Cordwainers. This
organization, of course, was composed o f skilled hand workers.
The introduction of shoemaking machinery brought about the for­
mation of the Knights of St. Crispin, a national organization which
undertook to regulate the use of machinery. This organization flour­
ished remarkably for several years and instituted in 1868 the Daugh­
ters o f St. Crispin, the first national trade organization o f women in
the country. One of its organizing slogans was “ Equal pay for
equal help.” The decline of the Knights of St. Crispin and the rise
o f the Knights of Labor wese coincidental and the shoe workers be­
came a strong factor in the Knights of Labor. By taking women
into membership in their Knights of Labor assemblies they forced a
change in the constitution of the Order of the Knights of Labor to
include women workers on the same basis as men.
Local and district assemblies within the Knights of Labor multi­
plied so greatly that the shoe workers were granted the right to form
a national trade assembly. This was accomplished in 1884. Not all
the shoe workers5locals in the Knights of Labor joined the National
Trade Assembly of Shoe Workers, however. In the conflict with the
order which followed an attempt to force them to do so, the National
Trade Assembly withdrew from the Knights of Labor and formed
the Boot and Shoe Workers’ International Union under the banner
o f the American Federation o f Labor.
In the American Federation of Labor at the time there was another
union o f shoe workers, founded in Lynn in 1879, known as the
Lasters’ Protective Union. In 1895 the two old organizations, to­
gether with the local organization which had remained with the
Knights o f Labor and eight entirely independent local unions met in
Boston and amalgamated under the name o f the Boot and Shoe
Workers’ Union. The new organization was at once chartered by
the American Federation of Labor as an affiliated union.
Objects.— “ The purpose of this organization is to organize all shoe workers
in North America into one trade-union, affiliated with the legitimate and
recognized trade-union movement of the United States, Canada, and the world.
We declare against all divided or opposition organizations of wage earners
of the same craft as opposed to true interests of labor and destructive of
success to the labor cause. We invite all shoe workers to unite with us to
the end that we may more effectively regulate wages and conditions of em­
ployment; control apprentices; reduce the hours of labor; abolish convict
contract labor; prohibit the employment of children under the age of 16;
promote the use of our union stamp and all other union labels; assist and
support all other legitimate trade-unions to the full extent of our power;
and to take such further action in promoting the interests of shoe workers
or other wage earners as may seem desirable from time to time, keeping
pace with industrial development.,,
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Newfoundland.
Trade jurisdiction.—The boot and shoe industry.
Government.—1. “ The government of all local unions and members shall be
vested in the general union as the supreme head, to which all matters of
general importance shall be referred, and whose decisions shall be final.
“ The administrative power of the general union when not in session in
convention shall be vested in the general officers ” and the general executive
board. The general officers are president, vice president, and secretary-treas­
urer ; the general executive board is composed of the three officers named,
and eight members elected at large.
67004°— 29------ 10




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HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

2. Local unions: “ Each local union shall have power to adopt by-laws gov­
erning matters of local usage, provided such by-laws have been approved by
the general executive board.”
3. Convention: Elects general officers and legislates for organization.
Amendments to constitution may be made either by convention or by refer­
endum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any male or female boot or shoe worker over
16 years of age is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“Any member of the Boot and Shoe Workers’
Union wishing to learn a particular part of the trade outside the jurisdic­
tion of his own local union shall make application to his local executive
board to intercede in his behalf with the local executive board having juris­
diction over the part of the trade to be acquired * * *. In no case shall
an application be considered unless the member has been one year in good
standing.”
Agreements.—Union-label agreements negotiated by international officers, ap­
proved by local unions. Wage contracts made by locals with individual firms.
Benefits.— Sick, disability (insurance); death; out-of-work (lo c a l); strike;
victimization.
Official organ.— Shoe Workers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass.
Organization.—J on t councils: Chicago, 111.; Brockton and Whitman, Mass.;
St. Paul, Minn.; St. Louis, M o.; Rochester, N. Y .; Cincinnati, Oh.o; and Mon­
treal, Canada.
Locals: United States—California, 5; Connecticut, 1; Illinois, 11; Indiana,
1 ; Iowa, 2 ; Kentucky, 1; Massachusetts, 53; Minnesota, 2 ; Missouri, 3 ;
Nebraska, 1; New Hampshire, 6; New York, 8; Ohio, 8 ; Oregon, 1; Pennsyl­
vania, 4 ; Tennessee, 1 ; Texas, 1; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 6 ;
Arizona, 1, Porto Rico, 2. Canada— British Columbia, 1 ; Ontario, 11; Quebec,
3. Newfoundland, 1. Total, 136.
Membership.—Not reported; American Federation of Labor voting strength,
32,600.

Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in October, 1914, at Nashville, Tenn. The Amalga­
mated Clothing Workers of America grew out of a split in the
United Garment Workers of America, at the convention of that
organization held in 1914 at Nashville. When the convention met
a considerable number of delegates were disfranchised and denied
seats on the floor. They withdrew to another hall in the same city
and held a rump convention, electing officers and transacting busi­
ness in the name of the United Garment Workers.
Almost immediately after the close of the Nashville conventions
a lockout occurred in Baltimore, in one of the largest garment shops
in the country. Still acting as officers of the United Garment
Workers, the general executive board of the seceding faction carried
the Baltimore fight to a successful conclusion, which resulted in a
greatly increased membership under the secession banner.
Litigation on the part of the original organization against the use
o f the name “ United Garment Workers of America ” by the seceders
led to the adoption, at a special convention held in New York City
in December, 1914, of the name “ Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America,” and complete dissociation from the parent body. Since
then it has functioned as an independent industrial union.
Objects.—“ To improve and maintain conditions of labor among the men’s
clothing workers.”
Territorial jurisdiction— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— The manufacture o f men’s and boys’ ready-to-wear
clothing.



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137

Government.—1. “All legislative powers shall be reserved to the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America duly convened in session (except those allowed
under the initiative and referendum) ; its executive and judicial powers when
not in session shall be vested in the general executive board.”
General executive board consists of president, secretarv-treasurer, and 13
elected members.
2. Joint Board: Composed of the locals in a city or locality where two or
more local unions exist; “ shall transact all such business for the local unions
as may be provided in its by-laws.”
3. Local union: “ Each local union may make its own by-laws, provided they
do not conflict with the constitution or by-laws of the organization.”
4. Convention: Meets biennially; enacts legislation and nominates general
officers. Election of officers and amendments to constitution by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person over the age of 16 employed in
the clothing .industry, except foremen and forewomen, is eligible to member­
ship. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local joint boards or local unions with local
employers, either individually or in association.
Terms of agreements vary greatly, but all provide machinery for mediation
or arbitration o f disputes, through the “ impartial chairman” system.
Supplementary agreement entered into by the clothing manufacturers o f
Chicago, Rochester and New York, and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers
of America provides unemployment insurance in those cities.
Benefits.—Local only; sick and death.
Official organ.—Advance (English) ; Fortschritt (Y id d ish ); II Lavoro
(Italian) ; Prace (Bohemian) ; Industrial Democracy (Polish) ; Darbas
(Lithuanian) ; Rabochy Golos (Russian) ; French edition of Advance.
Headquarters.—15 Union Square, New York City, N. Y.
Organization.— Joint boards: Baltimore, M d.; Boston, Mass.; Chicago, 111.;
Cleveland, Ohio; Cincinnati, Ohio; Connecticut (headquarters, Bridgeport);
Montreal, Canada; Milwaukee, W is.; New York City, N. Y .; Philadelphia, P a .;
Rochester, N. Y .; Shirtmakers (New York) ; Toronto, Canada; Twin City,
Minn.
Local unions.— Shop is the unit of organization, under supervision o f shop
committee and shop chairman; local unions are formed on basis either of occu­
pation (cutters, tailors, pressers, etc.) or nationality and language, but in
small centers all members belong to same local union: United States-^Cali­
fornia, 2 ; Connecticut, 4 ; Illinois, 11; Indiana, 1 ; Kentucky. 1 ; Maryland, 12;
Massachusetts, 11; Minnesota, 4 ; Missouri, 1; New Jersey, 3 ; New York, 41;
Ohio, 8 ; Pennsylvania, 7 ; Wisconsin, 2. Canada— Ontario, 8 ; Quebec, 6.
Total, 122.
Membership.—125,000.

Fur Workers’ Union of the United States and Canada, Inter­
national
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City, June 16, 1913.
Objects.—“ For the purpose o f promoting unity of sentiment and action among
those employed at the fur craft in the United States and Canada, and joining:
them closely together for mutual protection, we shall endeavor to further our
interests and promote the following: To thoroughly organize and elevate
the fur craft; to establish a perfect apprenticeship system; to establish uni­
form wages for the same class of work regardless of sex; to reduce the hours
of labor; to substitute arbitration for strikes wherever it is possible to do
so; to seek the abolition of sweatshop and child labor; to promote the use
of the union label as the sole guaranty of union-made furs; to support the
union label o f all other bona fide trade-unions, and assist all trade-unions
to the full extent of our power.” (Preamble of the constitution.)
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The international union shall have jurisdiction over the
following branches of the fur trade: Fur cutters, fur squarers, fur operators,
fur nailers, fur finishers and. liners, fu j irqners antj e^amiQers, fur beaters



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

and cleaners, fur pointers, fur-glove makers, fur-cap makers, fur-band makers,
fur-persian makers, fur-skull makers, fur-rug makers, fur-muff bed makers,
fur head and tail makers, fur trimmings and fur pieces, fur garments of
all descriptions, fur-hand dressers, fur-hand shavers, fur-machine shavers, furmachine fleshers, fry'-floor workers, fur dyers, fur hand and machine pickers
and shearers, fur scrapers, fur combers, fur dyeing, of all descriptions; hatters’
fur workers, sheepskin workers, sheepskin tanners, sheepskin dyers, featherboa workers.”
Government.—1. “ Government of all local unions and members shall be vested
in this general union as the supreme head, to which all matters of general
importance shall be referred and whose decisions shall be final. The ad­
ministrative powers when not in session in convention shall be vested in the
general executive board.”
General executive board composed of general president, general secretarytreasurer, and 11 vice presidents.
3. Local unions: “ Each local union shall have power to frame its own local
by-laws, which must in no way conflict with the constitution of the inter­
national.”
4. Convention: Meets biennially; elects general officers and legislates for
organization.
Constitutional amendments by convention or by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Any person to be admitted to membership in
a local union must be a fur worker, competent to command the minimum
wage.” Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “Any local union may take into membership
apprentices upon temporary union cards issued for not less than six months.
* * * We favor the adoption o f a legal apprenticeship system, the parents
binding the boy to remain at least three years, and the employer binding himself
on his part to teach the fur-working trade, but such employer shall not have
more than 1 apprentice for every 10 journeymen in his employ. Not more
than three apprentices shall be allowed in any shop ”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions or local joint boards, generally with
manufacturers’ association where there is more than one employer. Gen­
eral policies embodied in agreements are determined by the international.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; funeral.
Official organ.—The Fur Worker.
Headquarters.—9 Jackson Avenue, Long Island City, N. Y.
Organization.—Joint boards or councils; New York joint council; joint board
of the fur-dressing industry, New York; Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St.
Paul) ; joint board o f Montreal; joint board of Toronto.
Local unions (separated in branches in New York City; otherwise mixed) :
United States—California, 1; District of Columbia, 1; Illinois, 1; Maryland,
1 ; Massachusetts, 1; Minnesota, 3 ; New Jersey, 4 ; New York, 11; Pennsyl­
vania, 1. Canada— Ontario, 3 ; Quebec, 2 ; Manitoba, 1. Total, 30.
Membership.—12,000.

Garment Workers of America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City on April 10, 1891. Prior to 1891
garment workers were variously organized, under the Knights o f
Labor, in directly affiliated American Federation o f Labor local
unions, and in independent groups not identified with either move­
ment. The American Federation of Labor locals and some of the
independents came together in convention in New York City on
April 10, 1891, and organized into the United Garment Workers of
America. The new union immediately became affiliated to the
American Federation of Labor.
Two years later an extensive lockout of the cutter members of the
union was undertaken by the clothing manufacturers o f New York
and vicinity. Cutters organized in Knights of Labor assemblies
were offered the jobs of the locked-out union men. Instead of



CLOTHING

139

accepting, however, the Knights of Labor men joined the new craft
union. Shortly afterwards the tailors in the Knights of Labor took
similar action.
With the rise o f special-order work in garment factories a new
organization sprang up, beginning in Chicago, known as the Special
Order Clothingmakers’ Union. After an independent existence of
two years it was chartered by the American Federation of Labor as
an affiliated national union in 1902. The United Garment Workers
protested the infringement of jurisdiction and the convention of the
American Federation of Labor, upholding the United Garment
Workers, ordered amalgamation o f the clothing unions. This was
accomplished in 1903 by agreement between the two unions.
Shirt and collar makers had been since 1900 organized under the
Shirt Waist and Laundry Workers’ International Union. In 1909
jurisdictional lines were readjusted and the clothing makers in that
union were transferred to the United Garment Workers.
Discord within the United Garment Workers’ ranks culminated in
a split during the convention of 1914. A considerable number o f
delegates withdrew, and, holding a rump convention, organized the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers.
Object.—Not stated.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of men’s, boys’, and children’s readyto-wear clothing, special-order made-to-measure clothing, men’s rainproof cloth­
ing, bath robes, men’s bathing suits, all kinds of aprons and white goods,
overalls, trousers, rompers, play suits, work shirts, dress shirts, nainsook
and linen underwear, collars, and cuffs.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president (who shall be
chief organizer), secretary, treasurer, auditor, three trustees, and four other
elected members, exercises “ all judicial and executive powers of the organiza­
tion when not in session” in convention. When the general executive board
is not in sesssion the president “ is the chief executive officer with full power
as such,” subject to the approval of the general executive board and general
convention.
2. District councils: Composed of three or more local unions in a city or
locality. “ District councils shall transact business pertaining to the welfare of
the various local unions, such as organizing, label propaganda, and adjust all
differences before same are referred to the general executive board.”
3. Local unions: Local unions have power to enact by-laws for local govern­
ment, subject to the approval of the general executive board.
4. Convention: Held every five years,3 enacts legislation and elects general
officers. Constitutional amendments by convention and referendum or by
initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “ Candidates, male or female, to be admitted
to membership in a local union * * * shall be not less than 16 years of
age,” shall be actually engaged in some branch of the garment-making industry
covered by United Workers’ jurisdiction, and shall not be “ a member of any
other organization of the trade.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— One apprentice allowed in each factory for the
first cutter and one additional apprentice for every additional three cutters.
Three years’ apprenticeship in the cutting branch.
Agreements.—An agreement, covering about 25 per cent o f the membership,
is made annually by a committee of the United Garment Workers’ general
office and a committee of the Union Made Garment Manufacturers’ Association.
This contract calls for the union label, sets prices, hours, and shop conditions,
and provides for adjustment of grievances.
8From 1891 to 1904, conventions were held annually with the exception of 1893 and
1896; from 1904 to 1914 biennially; and since 1914 quadrennially, but constitution was
amended in 1922 to provide for quinquepaial conventions.




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Other agreements are negotiated locally, generally with individual employers,
and provide for price committees, which set piece rates.
Benefits.— Strike and victimization; death; sick (by locals).
Official organ.—The Garment Worker.
Headquarters.—Bible House, New York City.
Organization.—District councils: Boston, Mass.; Buffalo, N. Y .; Chicago, 111.;
Cincinnati, O .; Newark, N. J .; New York City, N. Y .; Philadelphia, Pa.;
St. Louis, M o.; Syracuse, N. Y .; Toronto, Ontario; Utica, N. Y.
Local unions (cutters and tailors in separate unions in large centers) : United
States—Alabama, 2 ; California, 5; Colorado, 3; District of Columbia, 1;
Georgia, 1; Illinois, 18; Indiana, 7; Iowa, 2; Kansas, 2 ; Kentucky, 3; Louisiana,
1 ; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 4 ; Michigan, 4 ; Minnesota, 3 ; Missouri, 7 ;
Nebraska, 1; New Hampshire, 4 ; New Jersey, 4 ; New York, 39; Ohio, 11;
Oklahoma, 2; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 16; Tennessee, 1 ; Texas, 7; Utah, 1 ;
Vermont, 3 ; Washington, 2 ; Wisconsin, 3. Canada—Alberta, 1 ; Manitoba, 1 ;
Ontario, 7. Total, 169.
Membership.—85.000.

Garment Workers’ Union, International Ladies’
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City in 1900. The earliest organization
among workers in the women’s garment trades were shop unions
and a Knights of Labor assembly organized in 1882. Combinations
o f the various shop unions were local and sporadic throughout the
eighties, usually under the leadership of the Knights of Labor. In
May, 1892, delegates from the organized cloak makers of five cities
met in New York and formed the International Cloak Makers’
Union o f America. This organization, however, was short lived and
a period o f factional strife and dual unionism divided along national
and political lines followed. As a result of the chaotic conditions
thus produced, many of the organizations became locals of the United
Garment Workers. General strikes in 1894-95 demoralized or­
ganization among the workers in the women’s garment trades and
for the next five years the only union which retained any vitality
was a group of cloak makers who went by the name of the United
Brotherhood o f Cloak Makers of New York. Out o f this brother­
hood, after a convention held in New York on June 3,1900, attended
by delegates from unions of various branches of the industry,
grew the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. This new
organization was immediately chartered by the American Federation
o f Labor as an affiliated international union.
Recent activities of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’
Union outside the economic field include the development of an edu­
cational department, with active participation in Brookwood Labor
College, and the maintenance of a health center for medical exami­
nation and treatment and of two vacation homes.
Objects.— “ The object of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers* Union
shall be to obtain and preserve for all workers engaged in the ladies’ garment
industry just and reasonable conditions of work with respect to wages, work­
ing hours, and other terms of employment; to secure sanitary surroundings at
their places of work and humane treatment on the part of the employers; to
aid needy workers in the industry; to cultivate friendly relations between
them; and generally to improve their material and intellectual standards.
Such objects shall be accomplished through negotiations and collective agree­
ments with employers; the dissemination of knowledge by means of publica­
tions and lecture courses; through concerted efforts to organize the unorganized
workers in all branches of the industry; and through all means and methods



fcLOtHING

141

customarily employed by organized workers to maintain and better their
standards of living.’*
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Women’s and children’s garment-making trade.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, secretarytreasurer, and 15 vice presidents, 9 of whom shall be residents of New York
City, comprises the executive and judicial power of the organization and exer­
cises “ general supervision.”
2. Joint boards: When two or more locals of each branch of the trade exist
in any one city or locality, joint boards must be formed consisting of an equal
number of delegates from each local. “ The main object of the joint board
shall be to attend the complaints of members against employers; to supervise
or control union shop; to organize nonunion shops and to see to it that harmony
prevails among the local unions affiliated with it. Adjustments by the joint
boards of disputes with employers shall be binding upon the local unions.”
3. Local unions: Subordinate, but “ with power to enact and enforce such
local by-laws as may be considered necessary.” “ Members of local unions are
primarily members of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union and
subject to its orders, rulings, and decisions.”
4. Convention: Meets biennially; enacts legislation and elects general offi­
cers. Constitutional amendment by convention only. (No referendum.)
Qualifications for membership.—Any worker engaged in the ladies’ garment
industry is eligible to membership, except foremen, forewomen, and anyone
having the power to hire and discharge. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— None.
Agreements.—Generally negotiated by joint boards with manufacturers’ asso­
ciations.
Benefits.—Unemployment insurance.
Official organ.—Justice, Giustizia and Gerechtigkeit.
Headquarters.—3 West Sixteenth Street, New York City.
Organization.—Local unions organized on basis of the different subdivisions
of the trade, such as cloak makers, dressmakers, designers, embroidery work­
ers, etc.; in the largest cities these may in turn be divided into nationality
groups: United States—California, 2 ; Connecticut, 8 ; Illinois, 8 ; Maryland, 1;
Massachusetts, 8 ; Missouri, 2 ; New Jersey, 12; New York, 34; Ohio, 9 ; Penn­
sylvania, 7 ; Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 1. Canada—Manitoba, 1 ; Ontario, 4 ;
Quebec, 6 ; Total, 104.
Membership.—87,000.

Glove Workers* Union of America, International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Washington, D. C., on December 17, 1902, by dele­
gates from a few local trade-unions of kid and heavy leather glove
workers directly affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
When char^erea as an international organization it was granted
jurisdiction over wool gloves and mittens, and with the development
of the manufacture of canvas work gloves the field was extended to
the entire industry.
Objects.—“ To thoroughly organize our craft; to regulate wages and condi­
tions of employment; to establish uniform wages for the same class of work
regardless of sex; to control apprentices; to reduce the hours of labor; to
abolish contract and convict labor; to prohibit the employment of children
under 16; to promote the use of the union label as the sole and only guaranty
of union-made gloves.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of gloves and mittens o f cloth or leather.
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
and seven vi *e presidents, has general supervision and authority.
2. Local uo:ons “ shall have privilege of adopting by-laws governing matters
of local usase, provided they do not conflict with international' constitution.”
3. Convention: Biennial; enacts legislation and elects general officers. Con*
stitutional amendments by referendum.



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN tEADE-tTNIONS

Qualifications for membership.—Any person not an employer, superintendent,
foreman or fcrewoman, who is actually engaged in the occupation of making
gloves or mittens, is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Controlled by local unions, in so far as the ap­
prentice system obtains.
Agreements.— Shop and wage agreements are negotiated by officers of local
unions with local employers, subject to approval of the international union.
Union-label contract is negotiated and signed by the international. Both
agreements expire at the same time.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout (by special assessment).
Official organ.—Monthly bulletin.
Headquarters.—311 South Ashland Avenue, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Local unions only: California, 2 ; Illinois, 1 ; Minnesota, 1 ;
Missouri, 1; New York, 1; Washington, 2. Total, 8.
Membership.—Not reported. American Federation of Labor voting strength,
700.

Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers* International Union, Cloth
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in New York City in 1901 as the United Cloth Hat and
Cap Makers of North America. Nine independent local unions were
represented at the organizing convention. The following year the
union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
Jurisdiction was extended to the millinery trade in 1903. Extensive
organization o f millinery workers began in 1909 and lasted several
years, during which time agreements with the organized employers
were formed which materially improved conditions in the trade. In
1916 the United Hatters protested against the control of the millinery
trade by the United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers, and two years later
the dispute resulted in the expulsion of the Cloth Hat and Cap
Makers from the American Federation of Labor.
The union continued to function successfully in both the cap and
millinery trades, and in 1923 the United Hatters withdrew their
claim to jurisdiction over the millinery trade by agreement with the
United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers of North America, retaining two
small locals in that branch of the industry and granting complete
jurisdiction over all other millinery workers to the rival organization.
The cap makers reaffiliated with the American Federation o f
Labor at the 1924 convention, with its field o f operation clearly
recognized and defined in the new title, Cloth Hat, Cap, and Milli­
nery Workers’ International Union.
Objects.— “ To improve our conditions and secure by united action our due
share in the products of our labor; to establish a shorter workday; to elevate
our moral and intellectual standard and develop our class consciousness by
means of propaganda and the press; to cooperate with the national and uni­
versal labor movement for the final emancipation of the wage earner and
for the establishment of the cooperative commonwealth.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of men’s, women’s, and children’s cloth
hats and caps, and women’s headgear made of cloth fabric, straw, combinations,
varieties or novelties.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of general president, sec­
retary-treasurer, and 13 other members, “ not less than 4 of whom shall be
elected from locals outside New York City,” exercises “ executive and judicial
power ” between conventions.
2.
Local unions: “ To the subordinate unions is conceded the right to make
all necessary laws for local self-government which do not conflict with the
laws of the international organization.”



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143

3.
Convention: Meets biennially; enacts legislation and elects general offi­
cers. Constitutional amendments adopted by convention must be ratified by
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any cloth hat or cap maker or straw hat
and millinery worker, male or female, above 16 years of age, knowing the
trade, is eligible to membership. Foremen, forewomen, and other persons having
the power to hire and discharge are ineligible.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ When a local is short in workers of any o f the
branches of the trade, the general executive board shall have the right to
grant 10 per cent apprentices. * * * A father has the right to teach his
son or daughter the trade.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by committee o f local union or local joint board,
with manufacturers, either individually or associated.
Benefits.— Strike; sick; tuberculosis ($75 flat payment).
Official organ.—The Headgear Worker.
Headquarters.—621 Broadway, New York City.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—California, 2 ; Colorado, 1 ;
Connecticut, 1; Illinois, 5; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 2 ; Michigan, 1; Minne­
sota, 2 ; Missouri, 3 ; New Jersey, 1 ; New York, 11; Ohio, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 4 ;
Wisconsin, 1. Canada— Ontario, 2 ; Quebec, 2. Total, 41.
Membership.—11,000.

Hatters of North America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1896. The earliest organization of the hatters was
the Hatters’ Union of Danbury, Conn., organized in 1810. Various
unions were formed in the early half of the nineteenth century, which
by 1854 had amalgamated into two national unions—the National
Hat Makers and the International Hat Finishers. In 1896 these tw j
organizations consolidated and became the United Hatters of North
America.
Objects.—Not declared.
Territorial jurisdiction.—Nprth America.
Trade jurisdiction.—The making and finishing of hats, which shall “ include
all work of whatsoever nature except the transporting of hats from one depart­
ment to another and such work as is generally known as bugger-lugging.
“ Finishing will comprise the follow ing: Pouncing on lathe by hand or ma­
chine, winding, rounding, pressing, blocking, squaring, packing, wiring, leuring,
curling, top-ironing, planing, setting, and any work done by hand or machine
in curling or finishing departments and foremen of the same.
“ Making will comprise coning, slipping, hardening, sizing and second sizing,
scratching, brushing and clipping, shaving and pouncing, blocking, stiffening,
clearing, squaring, and galvanizing, pinning out of all kinds by hand or machine
in making department, and foremen of same.
“ Trimming shall comprise trimming, banding, binding, snapping, tacking,
stitching, welting, making and putting in linings, fitting, joining and sewing in
leathers, either by hand or machine; foremen, forewomen and assistants.
“ Wool-hat finishing will comprise the finishing o f children’s, boys’ and men’s
soft and stiff hats, also finishing of ladies’ soft and stiff hats.
“ Panama: Graders, weighers-out, bleachers, sizers, blockers, pressers by hand
or machine; fiangers, sandbaggers, curling, welting, wiring, stitching, setting,
fixing, schmearing, brushing, and packing, and the passers and foremen o f
same.
“ Straw (men’s hats) : Sizing, welting, blocking, pressing, by hand or machine;
washing, squaring, finishing, stamping, polishing, setting, packing, passers,
and the foremen of same.
Government.—1. Board of directors and general executive board. The board
of directors is composed of 14 members elected by the locals. Three members
of the board of directors, with the president and secretary-treasurer, constitute
the general executive board.
“ The president shall have general supervision over the affairs o f the associa­
tion * * * Any question passed by the general executive board shall be



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

subject to appeal to the board of directors. * * * At any time the wel­
fare of the trade may demand it the board of directors shall have power to
make such laws or amendments to existing laws as will meet the wants of the
occasion,” such laws to be ratified by referendum within 60 days.
2. Local associations: Subordinate, but autonomy not defined. A percentage
of earnings is collected by shop stewards from membership and remitted to
association headquarters.
3. Referendum: General officers elected by referendum, and subject to recall.
4. Convention: Held every four years.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person over the age of 21 working at the
hat-making trade is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Applicants for membership must be American citizens or have applied for citi­
zenship.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ To constitute a journeyman a boy shall be
required to serve a regular apprenticeship of at least 3 consecutive years in a
fair shop, and in all cases until he is 21 years of age. * * * Any boy in
order to be eligible to be registered as an apprentice to learn the hatting trade
must be able to speak the English language and also have a fair practical
knowledge of it.
“ Apprentices shall be distributed throughout the various departments o f a
factory in proportion to the number of men employed in each department.
“ All shops under our jurisdiction shall be allowed apprentices in the follow­
ing manner: Shops employing 10 men shall be entitled to 1 boy, and 1 boy
more for each additional 10 men. In cases of shops having less than 10 men
the local association shall have discretion in the matter and shall register
boys or not in such shops as they think fit.”
Agreements.— “ Each shop shall regulate its own prices with the consent o f
the local executive board.” Bills of prices shall be made for one year only.
Union label under control of general executive board and shop stewards.
Benefits.— Strike and death.
Official organ.—The Hatter.
Headquarters.—Bible House, New York City.
Organizations.— Local unions only: California, 2; Connecticut, 9; Illinois, 2 ;
Massachusetts, 2 ; New Jersey, 6; New York, 6; Pennsylvania, 2. Total, 29.
Membership.—11,500.

Shoe Workers’ Protective Union
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Haverhill, Mass., in 1899, by secession of the Haver­
hill turn workers from the Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union. It was a
craft union until 1917, when it extended to other branches o f the in­
dustry, chiefly by absorption of a number of small independent
unions of various crafts.
The United Shoe Workers, also a secession dual union, was com­
posed chiefly of lasters. It was founded in 1909 and by 1913 had
expanded greatly, due largely to the absorption of a number of small
independent locals among which were several unions o f cutters and
stitchers, still organized under the Knights of Labor.
At a convention held in Haverhill in 1924 the Shoe Workers’ Pro­
tective Union and the United Shoe Workers merged into one organ­
ization under the title of the former older union.
A third group called the Amalgamated Shoe Workers of America
was organized in 1922 by scattered locals of various crafts in Mas­
sachusetts and New York. This group has been gradually absorbed
by the Shoe Workers’ Protective Union.
Objects.—“ Workers must organize in a labor union democratic in form,
uncompromising in principle, and energetic in action. We recognize the neces­
sity which confronts the shoe workers of organizing into local, national, or
preferably one consolidated organization of the entire industry and we pledge




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145

our aid and assistance to any movement having such object in view which will
not prove injurious to ourselves.
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture o f shoes “ in whole or in part.”
Government.— General officers are president, secretary-treasurer, and a gen­
eral council of nine elected members. The president “ shall be the chief execu­
tive officer of the union.”
2. Local unions: Largely autonomous. Constitution and by-laws subject to
approval of general council.
3. Initiative, referendum, and recall. Nomination and election of general
officers by referendum. Legislation and amendments to constitution by initia­
tive and referendum.
4. Convention by referendum call only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person over the age of 16 engaged in the
manufacture of boots or shoes and component parts thereof, is eligible to mem­
bership. Male and female membership. Eligibility o f foremen, forewomen, and
supervisors, to membership is discretional with the local unions.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated, locally with- individual manufacturers or manufac­
turers’ associations.
Benefits.— Strike and death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—683 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass.
Organization.—Local unions on ly: Illinois, 2; Massachusetts, 28; Missouri, 7 ;
New Hampshire, 2; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 7 ; Pennsylvania, 2. Total, 50.
Membership.—16,000.

Tailors* Union of America, Journeymen
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1883. Historically the organi­
zation of tailors began before the nineteenth century. Three unions
existed in 1806, one of which, that in Boston, celebrated a cen­
tennial o f continuous existence in 1906. The first efforts at consolida­
tion and national organization were made in 1865, when the Journey­
men Tailors’ National Trades Union was formed in Philadelphia by
representatives from seven cities. This organization lived until 1876,
when it disintegrated.
The various local unions comprising it continued to function,
however, and at the instigation of the Philadelphia union they
were again brought together in convention in that city in 1883,
when the Journeymen Tailors’ National Union of the United States
was organized.
The introduction and development of the factory system in cloth­
ing manufacture, with its cheaper production and less-skilled work­
men, produced a second organization known as the Tailors’ Progres­
sive Union, composed of what was known as “ shop tailors.” This
organization belonged to the American Federation of Labor, as
did the Journeymen Tailors. It favored amalgamation with the
older union in order to control both kinds of work.
The custom tailors, however, feared the consequences of lowering
craft standards sufficiently to let in the shop tailors and refused to
amalgamate with or to take into membership the ready-made cloth­
ing workers. Thereafter, through devious steps, the United Gar­
ment Workers grew out of the Tailors’ Progressive Union.
By agreement these two organizations, both affiliated to the
American Federation of Labor, kept their jurisdiction fairly clear
by drawing the line between the standardized factory product and



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HANDBOOK Otf AM ERICA# TKADE-tJKlONS

the individual made-to-measure product. At one time this agree­
ment also involved the selling price of the garment.
But difficulties arose with the introduction o f “ special order”
tailoring in the garment factories. That system employed skilled
tailors and threatened the whole merchant tailoring trade. Never­
theless, on three different occasions—in 1899, in 1901, and in 1903—
the Journeymen Tailors rejected in referendum the proposal to admit
the special-order tailors to membership. The attitude remained one
o f craft caste. In 1900 the special-order clothing workers formed a
union of their own, which first affiliated to the American Federation
o f Labor as an entity and three years later amalgamated with the
United Garment Workers. This left the Journeymen Tailors with a
fast disappearing field of operation, especially in smaller cities and
towns.
In 1909 the Journeymen Tailors’ convention voted to extend its
jurisdiction to “ all workers engaged in the manufacture of legitimate
custom tailoring, no matter what system of work is used.” This
jurisdiction was never specifically granted by the American Federa­
tion of Labor, and for four years the matter was not pressed,
although amalgamation of all the unions in the garment industry
was proposed and discussed during those years in various conferences
o f the needle trades unions.
With a more radical element in control of the union, the 1913
convention declared for industrial unionism and control o f the
tailoring trade, and changed the name of the organization to Tailors’
Industrial Union.
This move resulted at once in a clash with the Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ International Union and the United Garment Workers
and the refusal of the American Federation of Labor to recognize
either the claim or the new title.
When the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America launched its
movement for industrial organization of the clothing industry in
1914, the executive board of the tailors’ union submitted to its mem­
bers a proposal to become part of the new organization under an
agreement drawn up by the executive officers of both unions. This
proposal was approved by referendum vote of the tailors’ union.
A t the convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in 1915
the executive board of the tailors’ union constituted part of the
steering committee, and the secretary of the tailors’ union was elected
to the secretaryship o f the amalgamated body.
Meanwhile a disaffected element which from the first had pro­
tested the hasty nature of the referendum on amalgamation was rally­
ing a following, under the leadership of the Chicago local, to demand
a reconsideration. It succeeded in forcing the issue on the grounds
that the membership did not realize that they were identifying them­
selves with an outlaw organization. The second referendum pro­
posal, worded so as to reaffirm the old craft jurisdiction, allegiance to
the American Federation of Labor, and repudiation of the alliance
with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, carried by a substantial
margin.
Consequently, by the end of 1915, the Journeymen Tailors’ Union
had returned to its former status as a craft union, in recognized



CLOtHItfG

14^

standing with the American Federation o f Labor, and resumed its
original title. It remains an organization o f skilled men in the
steadily diminishing field of merchant tailoring.
An extension^of jurisdiction to cover cleaning, dyeing, and pressing
was granted the Journeymen Tailors’ Union by the American Federa­
tion o f Labor in 1912. In 1916 this had occasioned a jurisdictional
controversy with the laundry workers, since laundries had added
cleaning processes to their line of work. This was adjusted in 1919
by an arbitration decision which gave to the Laundry Workers’
International Union those cleaners, dyers, and pressers who were
employed in laundries.
Later the Chicago local of cleaners and dyers withdrew from the
Journeymen Tailors’ Union and sought admission to the American
Federation o f Labor as a directly affiliated union. The decision of
the executive council of the Federation in that connection was that
because “ of the expansion of the cleaning and dyeing industry to
embrace work on products such as furs, gloves, ladies’ garments,
shoes, carpets, etc., coming under the jurisdiction of various national
and international unions,” it is “ for the best interests of all con­
cerned ” that unions of workers engaged in cleaning, dyeing, and
pressing should be directly affiliated American Federation of Labor
locals.
In consequence, while the Journeymen Tailors’ Union still claims
jurisdiction, and has some locals of cleaners, dyers, and pressers,
workers of this class are also organized in directly affiliated Amer­
ican Federation of Labor locals in some instances, and hold member­
ship in the Laundry Workers’ International Union in others.
Objects.—“ The objects o f the Journeymen Tailors’ Union of America are,
namely: To elevate the industry, to encourage a high standard of skill, to
cultivate friendship and fraternity between the workers in the industry, to
assist each other to secure employment, to secure the weekly system of em­
ployment, free shops, limit the hours of labor, and to use our influence with
the lawmakers of each State and Province to secure the passage of laws that
will prohibit sweating and home work, to secure adequate pay for our labor,
to assist each other in case of need and distress; and by all honorable and
just means to elevate the moral, social, and intellectual conditions of our
members and all wage workers.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, and Newfoundland.
Trade jurisdiction.— Custom tailoring.
Government.—1. General officers: General secretary-treasurer, assistant secre­
tary; general executive board of five members. Secretary-treasurer is the
executive head of the organization. General executive board, elected by unions
in and about headquarters, is a trial and appeal board.
2. Local unions: Largely self-governing; autonomy not defined in consti­
tution.
3. Convention: Held quadrennially, enacts general legislation. Secretarytreasurer elected by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All workers engaged in the custom tailoring
trade, in cleaning, dyeing and pressing, and bushelmen working in the cloth­
ing industry, are eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “An apprentice is one who has no previous ex­
perience at tailoring, and at the expiration of three months, they shall become
members of the union. The local union shall regulate the number of appren­
tices allowed in each shop and wages of the apprentices.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, subject to approval of the general
executive board, but must contain “ a provision * * * demanding day or
week work, free sanitary workshops adequately equipped as to tools, light, heat,
ventilation, etc., and a limitation of hours.”




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h a n d b o o k o p a M e r ic a n

TiuDE-trNioNS

Benefits.— Strike and lockout; victimization; sick and disability; funeral.
Official organ.—The Tailor.
Headquarters.—6753 Stony Island Avenue, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arizona, 1 ;
Arkansas, 1 ; California, 12; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 2 ; District o f Columbia,
1 ; Florida, 1; Georgia, 3; Illinois, 15; Indiana, 5; Iowa, 8 ; Kansas, 5 ; Kentucky,
2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Massachusetts, 6; Michigan, 6; Minnesota, 3 ; Missouri, 4;
Montana, 1; Nebraska, 2 ; New York, 5; North Carolina, 2 ; North Dakota, 1 ;
Ohio, 10; Oklahoma, 3; Oregon, 2; Pennsylvania, 13; Rhode Island, 2 ; South
Carolina, 2 ; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 4 ; Texas, 6 ; Utah, 2 ; Virginia, 4 ;
Washington, 8; West Virginia, 4 ; Wisconsin, 12. Canada— Alberta, 2 ; British
Columbia, 2 ; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 7; Quebec, 1. Newfoundland, 1. Total 178.
Membership.—7,086.




TEXTILES
N in the textile
is
both
dual unions and
the
organization followed,
is
ORG AN IZATIOof bygroupform of industrycraftcomplicated whichby
in most cases that
a
federation of
bodies which func­
tion practically autonomously. A ll of the textile organizations are
founded on the principle o f industrial unionism, but two of them
have limited their jurisdiction to certain divisions of the industry—
lace making in one case and silk manufacture in the other.
Two o f the unions in the industry existed before the United Textile
Workers was organized. These are the International Mule Spinners,
which dates back to 1858, and the Chartered Society of Amalgamated
Lace Operatives, founded in 1892. In 1919, the United Textile
Workers sought to enforce its jurisdictional claim to the industry by
absorbing these older unions. Both organizations refused to yield
their autonomy and were in consequence expelled from the American
Federation of Labor. They have continued since as independent
bodies.
Secession movements awaj' from the United Textile Workers re­
sulted in a multiplicity of small unions in the textile industry during
the years 1912 to 1922. Some o f these were craft movements and
some affected specific localities. Most of them have now been re­
absorbed into the United Textile Workers, or have identified them­
selves with one or another o f the independent bodies. Outstanding
among these craft bodies which withdrew from the United Textile
Workers is the American Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery
Workers. This group seceded in 1915, and functioned independently
until 1922, when it returned to the United Textile Workers, keeping
its autonomy and its control of the trade. It is now probably the
largest and the most successful of the craft units composing the
affiliated organization.
In 1916, a body o f silk workers, which for five years preceding had
been organized under the textile department of the Industrial
Workers o f the World, withdrew from that affiliation and joined the
United Textile Workers. Three years later they seceded from the
United Textile Workers and formed the Associated Silk Workers of
America. This has been, since 1919, an independent federation of
craft unions operating exclusively in the silk and artificial silk
branches o f the industry.
The organization in this group most definitely and clearly dual to
the United Textile Workers and almost identical to it in structure
and jurisdiction, is the American Federation of Textile Operatives.
This is a secessionist body formed originally as the outcome of the
Fall River and New Bedford strikes of 1916. A second secession
movement affecting the United Textile Workers followed the
Lawrence strike o f 1922. This resulted in the organization of the
Amalgamated Textile Workers’ Union. This movement was con-




149

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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE UNIONS

fined almost entirely to the Lowell and Lawrence mills, and died out
in 1925. After the Amalgamated Textile Workers’ Union disbanded,
its membership was largely taken over by the American Federation
o f Textile Operatives. One of the component craft divisions of that
organization is the National Loom Fixers’ Association which, until
1928, was in fair control of that craft in New England. In 1928,
however, the loom fixers of New Bedford, representing about half
the membership of the association, withdrew and joined the Unite:!
Textile Workers, thus splitting jurisdiction over loom fixing in the
New England territory between the two organizations. The 1929
convention of the American Federation o f Textile Operatives de­
feated decisively the proposal to return in a body to the United
Textile Workers.
The Amalgamated Lace Operatives, the International Mule Spin­
ners, the American Federation of Textile Operatives, and a small
local union of tapestry carpet weavers in Philadelphia have formed
a delegate body called the Federated Textile Union. It has no
special economic significance.
Still another industrial union, operating in the same fields and
drawing membership from nearly all the older organizations, has
come into national existence within the past year. This is the Na­
tional Textile Workers’ Union, started in 1928 (see p. 2).
Textile unions for which data appear in the following section are
as follow s:
Affiliated to the .American Federation of Labor:
Textile Workers of America, United________________________________
Hosiery Workers, American Federation of Full Fashioned______
Independent organizations:
Lace Operatives of America, Amalgamated_________________________
Mule Spinners, International_______________________________________
Silk Workers, Associated__________________________________________
Textile Operatives, American Federation of________________________

Page

153
154
150
151
151
152

Lace Operatives of America, Amalgamated
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1892. It was first known as
the Chartered Society of Amalgamated Lace Curtain Operatives of
America. With the extension of jurisdiction to the entire lace in­
dustry the word “ curtain ” was dropped from the title. The society
was affiliated to the American Federation of Labor from its estab­
lishment until 1919, when its charter was revoked on account o f its
refusal to merge with the United Textile Workers. Recently its
title has been simplified by the elimination of the words wChar­
tered Society.”
Objects.—“ The object of this organization shall be to maintain by its united
influence a fair remuneration for its labor; to regulate the relations between
employer and employee; to improve the moral, intellectual, social and eco­
nomic conditions of its members; and to endeavor to avoid all labor conflicts
and their attendant bitterness and pecuniary loss, by resort to conciliation in
the settlement of all disputes concerning wages and conditions of employment.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The entire lace-making trade.




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151

Government.—The organization is composed of three separate and autonomous
sections—the curtain section, the Lever section, and the auxiliary section—
each of which elects its own officers and controls its own affairs. The curtain
section is “ composed of twist hands, readers and correctors working in the
curtain and plain net branches of the trade.” The Lever section is “ composed
of twist hands, draughtsmen, and machine fitters working in the Lever and
Mechlin branches of the trade.” The auxiliary section is composed of all
others working at the trade, including “ all help necessary in the manufacture
and finishing of the products of the above-stated branches and their relative
trade.”
The amalgamation of the three sections is governed by three vice presidents,
one from each section, and a secretary-treasurer elected by referendum vote
of the entire membership.
2. Branches: Shop organizations governed by an advisory board composed
of one member from each of the sections represented in the shop.
3. Convention: Biennial; enacts legislation governing the amalgamation.
Constitutional amendments by convention and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Determined bv each section.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “Any person between the ages of 18 and 25 years,
operating a lace machine for less than three years, shall be known as an
apprentice.” Apprentice regulations made by each section separately.
Agreements.— Officials of each section negotiate with the manufacturers in the
establishment of piecework rates and hours of labor prevailing in their respec­
tive branch of the trade. Other conditions of employment are established
locally by the shop committees.
Benefits.—Death (member or wife) ; small lump-sum payment.
Official organ.—The American Lace Worker.
Headquarters.—545 West Lehigh Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.
Organization.—Branches: Connecticut, 2; New Jersey, 3 ; New York, 6 ;
Ohio, 1; Pennsylvania, 9. Total, 21.
Membership.—1,300.

Mule Spinners, International
This organization was founded in 1858 and has existed under
various names since that time. It was affiliated to the American
Federation of Labor until 1919, when it was suspended because of its
refusal to merge with the United Textile Workers. It is a craft
organization having jurisdiction over cotton mule spinners and I: as
a membership of about 8,000 in the New England mills. It pays a
strike benefit and a small lump-sum payment in case of accident or
death by accident on duty. Headquarters are 56 Howard Street,
Holyoke, Mass.
Silk Workers, Associated
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Paterson, N. J., August 5, 1919. From 1911 to 1916
the organization which later became the Associated Silk Workers
was identified with the Industrial Workers of the World as an indus­
trial department. In 1916 it affiliated with the United Textile Work­
ers, the American Federation of Labor union holding jurisdiction
over the textile industry, as the silk division of that body. Dissen­
sion with the policies of the United Textile Workers began in 1919
and resulted in the withdrawal first of the broad silk weavers, who
organized the Amalgated Silk Workers’ Union, and then of certain
of the ribbon workers, who formed a second independent body, the
Associated Silk Workers. Shortly afterward these two seceding
groups amalgamated under the name of the second union. The or­
07004°— 29------ 11




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

ganization thus formed soon drew the remaining organized silk
workers away from the United Textile Workers. It has since held
practical control of organization within the silk industry, although
the United Textile Workers still claims jurisdiction, and the Na­
tional Textile Workers’ Union also covers silk workers.
Objects.— “ The immediate aim of this organization shall be to better the
economic, moral and intellectual condition of the workers in the industry.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The silk industry.
Government.—1. General executive officers: Secretary-treasurer, general
organizers, and general executive board.
The general executive board is composed of representatives from each depart­
ment, chosen on a proportional basis for a term of six months.
2. General membership meeting, held quarterly, “ is the supreme legislative
body.” General officers elected annually at January meeting of the general
membership, and subject to recall by the same body.
3. Shop, governed by shop chairmen and shop committees.
Qualifications for membership.—Any man or woman employed in the silk
industry in any capacity is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated for each shop by a committee representing the
workers in the shop, the employer, and an officer of the general organization.
Definite duration forbidden by constitution.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—The Silk Worker.
Headquarters.—201 Market Street, Paterson, N. J.
Organization.— “ The structure of this organization shall conform to the
economic structure of the industry, with the shop as the basic unit.”
Departments: (a) ribbon and hatband; (6) broad silk; (c) hard silk throw­
ing; ( d) reed and harness and mill supplies; (e) silk dyeing and finishing.
Branches: New Jersey, 3 ; New York, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 3. Toted, 8.
Membership.—10,000.

Textile Operatives, American Federation of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Fall River, Mass., January 14, 1916, by the workers
in the textile mills of Fall River and New Bedford who withdrew
from the United Textile Workers. The first name of the organiza­
tion was National Amalgamation of Textile Workers. This was
changed in 1922 to the American Federation of Textile Operatives
to distinguish it from the Amalgamated Textile Workers’ Union
which sprang up in Lawrence during the strike o f 1922. This
latter organization disbanded in 1925 and its membership has been
largely absorbed by the American Federation of Textile Operatives.
Like the United Textile Workers, the American Federation of Textile
Operatives is a federation of autonomous craft bodies. The largest
and most important of these is the National Loom Fixers’ Associa­
tion. In 1928 the loom fixers of New Bedford, Mass., withdrew
from the National Loom Fixers’ Association and the American
Federation o f Textile Operatives, and affiliated with the United
Textile Workers, thus materially lessening the strength of the
National Loom Fixers’ Association.
Objects.— “ The objects of this federation are: (1) To establish and maintain
as far as possible a uniform rate of wages upon as high a standard as possible
consistent with the true interests of trade as affecting the textile operative.
(2) To protect wage earners from illegal or unjust reductions in their wages;
unjust treatment of whatever nature that the unfair employer will endeavor
to subject them to. (3) To secure to all workers the full enjoyment of the



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153

wealth they create, and sufficient leisure in which to develop their intellectual,
moral, and social faculties. (4) To secure all the benefits of recreation and
pleasure of organization— in a word, to enable workers to share in the gains
and honors of civilization.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—The New England States.
Trade jurisdiction.—All branches of the textile industry.
Government.—1. “ The government of this organization shall consist o f a
president, three vice presidents, secretary, treasurer, and 10 members who shall
constitute an executive council, who shall exercise a general control over its
affairs and property.”
2. Local unions: Subordinate.
3. Convention: Held annually, elects general officers and enacts general
legislation. Constitutional amendments by convention or by initiative and
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person engaged in the industry is eligible
to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Controlled by craft divisions.
Benefits.— Strike (by assessment).
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—142 Second Street, Fall River, Mass.
Organization.—Organized into autonomous branches o f the various crafts in
the industry—i. e., weavers, spinners, carders, etc.
Local unions: 16 in the New England States; distribution not reported.
Membership.—6,000.

Textile Workers of America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Washington, D. C., November 19, 1901. The Na­
tional Union o f Textile Workers was organized in 1896 from
directly affiliated American Federation of Labor locals. The or­
ganization was short lived, however, and soon dissolved into scatter­
ing locals affiliated to the federation. These were once more brought
together in 1901 in an organization chartered by the American
Federation o f Labor as the United Textile Workers of America.
Objects.—“ The objects of this organization are, first, to establish and main­
tain as far as possible a uniform rate of wages upon as high a standard as
possible, consistent with the true interest of trade as affecting textile workers;
to protect its members from illegal or unjust treatment of whatever nature
that any employer may endeavor to subject them to; to protect, educate and
elevate, by the use of all honorable means, all the textile operatives of America
in whatever branch employed; to secure for the workers the full enjoyment of
the wealth they create; sufficient leisure in which to develop their intellectual,
moral, and social faculties, all of the benefits, recreations, and pleasures of asso­
ciation, in a word, enable them to share in the gains and honors of ad­
vancing civilization; to persuade employers to agree to arbitrate differences
which may arise between them and their employees when all other means
have failed; to use all efforts to secure, by all fair and honorable means, all
reasonable labor legislation affecting the textile workers, particularly the women
and children, and furthermore, to use our utmost endeavors to organize all
textile workers to secure unity of action through our economic force, believing
that an injury to one is the concern of all.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— North America.
Trade jurisdiction.—The textile industry.
Government.—1. “ The government of this organization shall consist o f a
president, two vice presidents, a secretary-treasurer and nine members who
shall constitute an executive council. They shall exercise a general control
over its affairs and property.”
2.
Textile councils: Delegate bodies formed in vicinities where two or more
local unions exist. Affiliation compulsory. “ Textile councils may adopt such
trade rules as the members thereof may deem expedient or judicious, but they
shall not adopt any rule which conflicts with the constitution or by-laws of the
United Textile Workers.”



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAK TRADE-UNIONS

3. Local unions: “ All local unions shall be allowed such local autonomy as
does not conflict with international laws.” Dues fixed by constitution.
4. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person actually working in a textile mill
is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— Such apprenticeship systems as exist are regu­
lated locally by the various crafts within the industry.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally by crafts, each division controlling its own
wage scale and working conditions.
Benefits.— Strike donations and funeral.
Oflicial organ.—The Textile Worker.
Headquarters.—Bible House, New York City.
Organization.—Local unions only: Alabama, 4; California, 2 ; Connecticut, 24;
Georgia, 7; Illinois, 5; Indiana, 2; Iowa. 2: Maine, 14; Massachusetts, 51; New
Hampshire, 27; New Jersey, 29; New York, 31; North Carolina, 19; Ohio, 4;
Pennsylvania, 39; Rhode Island. 36; South Carolina, 11; Tennessee, 7; Texas,
2 ; Vermont, 5; Wisconsin, 8. Total. 329.
Membership.—American Federation of Labor voting strength, 30,000.

Hosiery Workers, American Federation of Full Fashioned

Organized August 30, 1918, as a craft federation, chartered as
local unions of the United Textile Workers of America. In 1915, the
entire federation with the exception of the largest local union, the
Philadelphia local, withdrew from the United Textile Workers of
America. The organization functioned independently until 1922,
when it reaffiliated with the parent body, keeping, however, its status
as an autonomous group. It has its own officers and holds conven­
tions independent of that of the United Textile Workers. It pub­
lishes The Hosiery Worker as its official organ. Branches of the
American Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers, which are
also chartered as local unions of the United Textile Workers, are:
U n ite d
S t a t e s — Connecticut,
1; Indiana, 3; Kentucky, 1; Massa­
chusetts, 5; New Jersey, 6; New York, 4; North Carolina, 1; Penn­
sylvania, 5; Rhode Island, 1; Wisconsin, 2. C a n a d a —Ontario, 2.
T o t a l , 31.
The local unions maintain voluntary sick benefit organizations,
paying $20 per week for 26 weeks in any one year. The national
organization maintains a voluntary insurance association and pays
strike benefits.
Headquarters of the group are at 2530 North Fourth Street, Phila­
delphia, and there are approximately 15,000 members.




POOD, LIQUOR, AND TOBACCO
IN TH IS group classification are six organizations affiliated to the
* American Federation of Labor and one independent industrial
union. One of the affiliated unions, the International Union of
United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers, is definitely
an industrial union, haying waged a long and victorious struggle within
the American Federation of Labor for control of the various crafts­
men employed in the brewing industry. Prohibition resulted in
structural changes within the organization, as well as in loss of
membership. Although so far it has not met with much success,
the union is trying to shift its field from brewing to certain branches
of the food industry. Extension of jurisdiction to soft drink and
yeast manufacture was followed by an effort to secure control of
flour and cereal mills and grain elevators.
The Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union is
one of the old organizations. Starting in 1886 with journeymen
bakers, it has extended its field to candy and ice-cream manufacture.
The German bakers of New York City withdrew from the Bakery
and Confectionery Workers’ Union, and after several years of inde­
pendent activity they joijaed with another independent group, the
Hotel, Restaurant, and Caterers’ Federation, in 1921, to form the
Amalgamated Food Workers of America. This is an industrial
union which aims at control, not only of the manufacture and dis­
tribution o f food, but of its service as well, a field which among the
American Federation of Labor unions is covered by the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance. As at present organ­
ized, the Amalgamated Food Workers encroaches to a limited degree
on the chartered jurisdictions of three American Federation of Labor
unions—the Bakery and Confectionery Workers, the Hotel and
Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and Bartenders’ Inter­
national League, and the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher
Workmen. The last mentioned is an organization of workers in
slaughter and packing houses, which also claims jurisdiction over
meat cutters and sausage makers in wholesale and retail shops.
The Cigar Makers’ International Union has been in continuous
existence since 1864 and was largely responsible for the establishment
of the American Federation of Labor. It began as a strictly craft
union of skilled hand workers, but the introduction of machinery
into the industry has materially changed the make-up of the union,
although it still limits its field to the manufacture of cigars and
tobacco cigarettes.
The Tobacco Workers’ International Union, a small affiliated organ­
ization, has jurisdiction over the manufacture of smoking and chew­
ing tobacco and paper cigarettes.




155

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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:-----------------------------------------Page
Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union of America.
156
Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers of America, Interna­
tional Union of United--------------------------------------------------------------158
Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and Bar­
tenders’ International League of America________________________
161
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America, Amalga­
162
mated___________________________________________________________
Cigar Makers’ International Union_________________________________
162
Tobacco Workers’ International Union_____________________________
163
Independent organizations:
Food Workers of America, Amalgamated___________________________
160

Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union of
America
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Pittsburgh, Pa., January 13, 1886. Organization of
bakers began as early as 1880, but it was sporadic, with unions spring­
ing up at various times in the cities and dying out again without get­
ting a foothold in the trade. In 1885 a weekly paper was established
by the former secretary and a handful of survivors of the New York
union which in 1880 had conducted a successful strike. The paper,
Deutsch-Amerikanische Backer-Zeitung, printed in German, was a
trade and propaganda organ which soon gained a wide circulation
and exerted a strong influence on the German bakers throughout the
country. As a result of the paper’s agitation and educational work
the moribund unions revived locally, and met in national conference
in Pittsburgh in 1886. Twenty delegates representing 17 cities
founded the Journeymen Bakers’ National Union o f North America.
Later jurisdiction was extended to candy and ice-cream makers, and
in 1903 the name Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International
Union was adopted. The original publication remains as a distinct
part of the official organ of the union.
Objects.—“ The international union aims at the promotion of the material and
intellectual welfare o f all workers in the baking and confectionery industries:
(1) by organization; (2) by education and enlightenment by word and pen;
(3) by the reduction of the hours of labor and maintaining adequate wage
standards; (4) by gradually abolishing such evils as may prevail in these
industries; (5) by establishing labor bureaus wherever possible; (6) by assist­
ing members in matters concerning the union; (7) by assisting local unions in
the abolition o f night work and establishing daywork in localities where local
conditions make is possible to do so; (8) by making propaganda for the 6-hour
workday and the union label.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Bread, cake, pie, cracker, pretzel, pastry, candy, and ice
cream manufacture.
Government.—General executive board, composed of 15 members, is the con­
trolling body and “ represents the international union in every respect.” It
shall “ make such provisions and rules as may become necessary for the best
interests of the organization,” shall be “ the governing body and guardian of
the international union label, * * * decide all questions of jurisdiction
and law, and shall have full power to authorize strikes.”
The general executive board is made up of “ the quorum,” consisting of 4
members selected by the local unions in the vicinity of the international head­
quarters (Chicago), and 11 other members elected by and representing the 11
territorial districts.




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157

The quorum must hold a meeting at least once every two weeks and act upon
all business coming before it. Its decisions are subject to approval by a twothirds vote of the 11 nonresident members of the general executive board.
The other international officers are the international executive secretaries—
corresponding secretary, financial secretary, and secretary-treasurer—and the
international general organizers.
2. Local joint executive boards: “ Wherever more than one local union exists
in any one city or vicinity, a local joint executive board must be formed, with
full power to adjust all differences between locals and members and their em­
ployers, subject to approval of the general executive board ” and “ make laws
and rules * * * to enforce the working conditions adopted by the locals. * * *
The local joint executive board shall be the controlling body in all strikes and
lockouts.”
3. Local unions: “ Every local union shall have the right to adopt by-laws,
which, however, must be in accord with the constitution of the international
union,” and may appeal all decisions of the general executive board to the
ensuing convention or to referendum.
Local unions may organize apprentices and helpers into auxiliary unions
under their jurisdiction.
4. Convention: “ The convention is empowered to amend the constitution;
to reform the organization of the international union; and to take all steps
which it judges to be in the interests of the union.” Conventions held triennially.
5. Referendum: General officers nominated and elected by referendum. All
laws passed in convention, and decisions and rules of the general executive
board, are subject to ratification by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “Any person of good character actually em­
ployed in any of the industries mentioned in this constitution may become a
member” of the union; but “ no candidate for membership shall be accepted
who is not a citizen of the United States or Canada, or has not declared his
or her intention to become such.” Male and female membership.
Male applicants must pass a physical examination by a “ duly licensed, reli­
able physician” selected by the local union, to be eligible to benefits. Those
failing to meet the physical requirements are admitted as nonbeneficiary
members.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Apprenticeship term, two years, during which
the apprentice “ must be thoroughly instructed in all branches of the trade.”
Ratio is generally one apprentice to four or to five journeymen. (Provided
for in agreements, not by constitutional requirement.)
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions on terms approved by general execu­
tive board prior to conference. Agreements are generally made with indi­
vidual employers. International officers assist in negotiations if called upon
by local to do so.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; sick; death (member and w ife). Female mem­
bers not eligible to benefits.
Official organ.—The Bakers* Journal and Deutsch-Amerikanische B&ckerZeitung.
Headquarters.—2719 Best Avenue, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Districts:
District No. 1. New York and New Jersey.
District No. 2. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, and Connecticut.
District No. S. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, District of Columbia,
Virginia, and West Virginia.
District No. 4. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee,
Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, and Porto Rico.
District No. 5. Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Michigan.
District No. 6. Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
District No. 7. Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
District No. 8. Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, and New Mexico.
District No. 9. California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah.
District No. 10. Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Alberta, British
Columbia, and Alaska.
District No. 11. Canada with the exception of British Columbia and Alberta.
District councils: District No. 1, Hebrew Joint Organization, New York City;
No. 0, headquarters in St. Louis; No. 10, headquarters in Oakland, Calif.



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Joint executive boards: New York City, N. Y .; Los Angeles, C alif.; Detroit,
Mich.; Springfield, Mass.; New Britain, Conn.; Chicago, 111.; Baltimore, M d.;
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Cleveland, Ohio.
Local unions: United States—Arizona, 2; Arkansas, 1 ; California, 13 (1
auxiliary) ; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 13; District of Columbia, 1 (2 auxil­
iaries) ; Illinois, 26 (1 auxiliary) ; Indiana, 6 ; Iowa, 4 ; Kansas, 1; Kentucky
1; Louisiana, 2; Maryland, 3; Massachusetts, 15; Michigan, 3; Minnesota, 3 ;
Missouri, 5; Montana, 4 ; Nebraska, 1; Nevada, 1; New Hampshire, 2 ; New
Jersey, 15; New York, 20; Ohio, 13; Oklahoma, 3 ; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania,
10; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Dakota, 1 ; Texas, 5; Washington, 8 (1 auxiliary) ;
Wisconsin, 7; Wyoming, 1. Canada— Alberta, 1: British Columbia, 1; Ontario,
2; Quebec, 2. Total, 201 journeyman, 5 auxiliary locals.
Membership.—27,030.

Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers of America,
International Union of United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Baltimore, Md., August 29, 1886. The earliest form
o f organization among the brewery workers was in mutual aid
societies which sprang up during the fifties. The first labor union
was organized in Cincinnati on December 26, 1879, New York fol­
lowing in 1881, with a strong local organization which, however, met
a serious defeat in a strike later in the year and broke up. For sev­
eral years thereafter organization of brewery workers in New York
was carried out in strict secrecy under the Knights of Labor. An
aggressive and successful boycott of the products of antiunion brew­
eries carried out in 1886 by labor organizations in other crafts
brought the brewery organization of New York into the open. A ll
the breweries in New York City were organized and covered by an
agreement which recognized the union.
Local organizations in various cities followed rapidly. In August,
1886, delegates from five cities met in Baltimore and organized the
National Union o f Brewers of the United States. An official journal
was established at once, the first number appearing on October 1,
1886. The new national union affiliated with the American Federa­
tion of Labor in March, 1887. Tlie next convention, held in Detroit
in 1887, expanded the organization to cover the entire industry and
changed its name to National Union of the United Brewery W ork­
men of the United States.
The policy o f industrial unionism proclaimed by the brewery
workers from the beginning resulted in a succession of long-drawnout jurisdictional disputes with the craft organizations in the Ameri­
can Federation of Labor—first the coopers, then the firemen and engi­
neers, and then the teamsters. At the insistence of these combined
organizations the charter of the brewery workmen was revoked by
the American Federation of Labor in 1907 on the grounds of en­
croaching on established jurisdictions and refusal to comply with
convention decisions. The federation, however, was forced to recon­
sider this action, and in 1908 the brewery workmen were rechartered
with a rccognized jurisdiction “ over all workers employed in the
brewery industry.”
Prohibition demanded readjustments within the brewery industry
and the extension of jurisdiction of the United Brewery Workmen to
soft-drink manufacture. This was followed in 1918 by an incursion
into flour and cereal milling, a jurisdiction previously held by the



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159

International Union o f Flour and Cereal Mill Employees, but which
was left unclaimed after the collapse of that organization in 1910.
This comprehensive jurisdiction was recognized in the expansion
o f the title o f the brewery workers to International Union of United
Brewery, Flour, Cereal, and Soft Drink Workers, under which title
it was rechartered by the American Federation of Labor in 1918.
Objects.— “ The organization seeks to promote the material and the intel­
lectual welfare of the workers [in the industry] by means of organization,
education, and enlightenment by word and pen; reduction of the hours of
toil and increase of wages; active participation in the political labor move­
ment in the country on independent labor class lines.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Brewery, flour, cereal, malt, grain elevator, yeast, vine­
gar, alcohol, wine, cider, cereal beverage, soft-drink and mineral-water workers.
Government.—1. General executive board of 16 members, including two general
secretaries, a general organizer, one representative from each of the nine
geographic districts, and four members chosen from locals of the city in which
international headquarters is located, is the controlling body. The quorum,
composed of the two general secretaries and the four resident members, is the
administrative medium.
2. Joint local executive boards: “ In places where there are more than one
union of the international organization it is imperative to form a joint local
executive board,” which “ shall be the controlling body in all strikes and
lockouts. * * * shall have control of the union label ” and “ shall deal with
all questions and transact such business as may be in the interest of the local
unions.”
3. Local unions: "All local unions shall reserve the right to adopt special
local constitutions and by-laws, providing such constitutions are in concert
and accordance with the laws of the international organization and are
indorsed by the general executive board.”
Branches: Branches of local unions may be formed of more than 5 and less
than 20 in places where there are not enough to form and maintain a local.
Such branches are under the control and regulation of the parent local.
4. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and nominates general
executive board members. Constitutional amendments either by convention or
referendum. Election of officers by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Actual employment in the industry and citi­
zenship or first naturalization papers are required. Foremen and office em­
ployees not eligible. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Established locally in agreements with employers.
Term of apprenticeship is generally two years. Ratio of apprentices to
journeymen varies.
Agreements.—“ Local unions are obliged to submit their contracts to the joint
local executive board and the general executive board for indorsement before
they are submitted to proprietors * * *. When making new contracts at
least those minimum wages and maximum hours as decided by the convention
shall be demanded and enforced,” and " i t shall be obligatory upon all unions
to insert the arbitration clause in all contracts.”
Benefits.— Strike and lockout.
Official organ.—The Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink Workers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—2347-2351 Vine Street, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Joint executive boards: San Francisco, Calif.; New Haven.
Conn.; Chicago, 111.; New Orleans, L a .; Baltimore, M d.; Boston and Worcester,
Mass.; Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn.; St. Louis, Mo.; Hudson County (Jersey
City) and Newark, N. J .: Albany and vicinity, Brooklyn, Buffalo, New York
City, and Syracuse, N. Y .; Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo, Ohio; Phila­
delphia, Pittsburgh, Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and vicinity, Pa.; San Antonio,
T ex.; and Seattle, Wash.
Local union organized by departments (brewers, soft-drink workers, bottlers,
drivers, etc.) in large centers: United States—California, 14; Colorado, 2;
Connecticut, 4 ; District of Columbia, 1; Illinois, 22; Indiana, 3 ; Iowa, 1; Ken­
tucky, 2; Louisiana, 2,* Maryland, 4 ; Massachusetts, 6; Michigan, 1; Minnesota,
6 ; Missouri, 9 ; Montana, 2; New Jersey, 8; New York, 27; North Dakota, 1;
Ohio, 20; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 26; Rhode Island, 2 ; Tennessee, 3 ; Texas, 5 ;




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HANDBOOK OP AMEBICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Utah, 2 ; Washington, 6; Wisconsin, 20; Wyoming, 2. Canada—Alberta, 3 ;
British Columbia, 3 ; Manitoba, 1 ; Ontario, 7. Total, 216.
Membership.—16,000.

Food Workers of America, Amalgamated
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City in 1921. This organization, founded
on strictly industrial lines, is an amalgamation of bakers and con­
fectioners who had seceded from the Bakery and Confectionery
Workers’ Union, affiliated to the American Federation of Labor,
and an independent organization established in 1916 known as the
Hotel, Eestaurant and Caterer Workers’ Federation. The first name
adopted by the amalgamated organization was International W ork­
ers in the Amalgamated Food Industry. In 1923 this name was
changed to the Amalgamated Food Workers.
Objects.— “ Being guided by past experience, we are convinced that it is im­
possible to accomplish anything worth while by following the old system of
craft or trade-unionism; to cope with the present situation successfully the
workers must organize and combine industrially on the economic field on the
principle of the class struggle. In advocating these principles we still recog­
nize the necessity for the workers to fight continually to shorten the workday,
increase the pay according to the standard of living and the development of
the industry and cooperate with all other workers who struggle for the aboli­
tion of the wage system and the complete emancipation of labor.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture, packing, preparing, distributing, and
serving of foodstuffs of all descriptions.
Government.—1. Shop unit: “All the workers employed in one establishment
shall constitute a shop unit which shall deal with matters arising in and per­
taining to that particular establishment.”
2. Branches or locals: “All the members in one city or locality shall con­
stitute a branch or local with full power to elect their own officials or appoint
them in emergencies for their territory; enact by-laws that shall not conflict
with this constitution; have their own treasury and control of matters pertain­
ing to the workers in the industry within their territorial jurisdiction.”
3. Central executive board, composed of representatives elected by the
branches or locals. The duties of the central executive board shall be: “ to
control all matters of general interest to the organization; supervise the work
of the officials; decide all questions of jurisdiction or dispute between branches
of locals * * * and pass upon such other matters as may properly come
before it.”
Central executive board elects from its members an executive committee of
three members, one representing each section of the industry; that is, hotel
workers, butcher workers, and bakery workers. This executive committee has
general executive supervision over the organization.
4. Convention: Held biennially. Constitutional amendments by convention
and referendum. General officers nominated and elected by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All wage earners employed in the industry
are eligible to membership except persons employed as representatives of the
employers. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally with the approval o f the central executive
board. Constitution requires that “ no agreement with any specified time limit
shall be signed between this organization and an employer.”
Benefits.— Sick, death (member and wife from contributory fund), strike
(by locals).
Official organ.—Free Voice of the Amalgamated Food Workers.
Headquarters.—799 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
Organization.—Locals only : Hotel workers section—Connecticut, 2 ; Illinois,
1 ; New Jersey, 1 ; New York, 3 ; Pennsylvania, 1. Butcher workmen section—




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161

New Jersey, 2; New York, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 1. Bakery workmen section—
Nebraska, 1; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 7 ; Pennsylvania, 4. Total, 26.
Membership.—12,000.

Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and
Bartenders’ International League of America
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Detroit, Mich., in December, 1890, as the Waiters
and Bartenders’ National Union of the United States. It was formed
from several organization of cooks and waiters chartered by the
American Federation of Labor as directly affiliated local unions.
In 1898 the name of the organization became Hotel and Restaurant
Employees’ International Alliance and Bartenders’ International
League o f America. An attempt in 1915 to separate the two branches
o f work into separate organizations proved unsuccessful.
Objects.—Not declared.
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The catering industry, and serving of beverages and food,
and personal service employees in hotels and clubs.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, secretarytreasurer, and eight vice presidents, one of whom shall be a woman. The
president is the executive head of the organization, with comprehensive powers.
2. Local joint executive board, which must be formed wherever more than
one local exists in any one city or vicinity, have “ full power to adjust all dif­
ferences between locals and members ” or between locals and employers. They
“ may make such laws and rules as do not conflict with the international con­
stitution to govern themselves and to enforce the scale of wages and hours
adopted by the locals,” but “ by-laws for the government of local joint execu­
tive boards shall be uniform, issued from the headquarters of the international.”
3. Local unions: “ The use of the international constitution is mandatory;
local unions have the power to enact their own by-laws, provided they do not
conflict with the international constitution.”
4. Convention: Meets biennially, elects general officers, enacts legislation.
Constitutional amendments by convention vote or by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Citizenship or citizenship intention. Appli­
cants “ are accepted on probation; if after six months no objection is filed
with the local, the applicant becomes a full-fledged member.” Male and female
membership.
Apprenticeship.—Controlled by local unions.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally, generally with individual employers.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—The Mixer and Server.
Headquarters.—528-530 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Joint executive boards: California—Los Angeles and San
Francisco; Colorado— Denver; Illinois—Chicago and South Chicago; Massachu­
setts—Boston; Michigan—Detroit; Minnesota—Minneapolis; Missouri—Kansas
City and St. Louis; New Jersey—Hoboken, Newark, and Atlantic City; New
York—Buffalo, New York City, and Rochester; Ohio—Cincinnati, Cleveland, and
Toledo; Oregon—Portland; Pennsylvania—Philadelphia and Pittsburgh; Rhode
Island—Providence; Utah— Salt Lake City; Washington— Seattle; Wisconsin—
Milwaukee.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arizona, 4 ; California, 36; Colo­
rado, 6 ; Connecticut, 3 ; Delaware, 1 ; District of Columbia, 1 ; Florida, 2 ;
Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 22; Indiana, 1 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana 2 ; Maine, 1;
Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 10; Michigan, 2 ; Minnesota, 3 ; Missouri, 8 ; Mon­
tana, 10; Nebraska, 1 ; Nevada, 1; New Hampshire, 1; New Jersey, 10; New
York, 21; Ohio, 12; Oklahoma, 6; Oregon, 13; Pennsylvania, 13; Rhode Island,
2 ; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 19; Utah, 2 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 17; Wisconsin,
4 ; Wyoming, 7. Canada, 9. Total, 260.
Membership.—37,969.




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America,
Amalgamated
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1897 from a group of directly affiliated American
Federation of Labor local unions.
Objects.—“ The object of this organization shall be the elevation of the posi­
tion of its members, the maintenance of the best interests of the organization
and to obtain, by conciliation or other means just and legal, a fair remuner­
ation to members for their labor, and to afford mutual protection to members
against obnoxious rules, unlawful discharge and other systems of injustice or
oppression.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—North America.
Trade jurisdiction.—The slaughtering and meat-packing industry, and “ sau­
sage makers and meat cutters no matter where employed.”
Government.—1. Executive board, consisting of a president, nine vice presi­
dents, and a secretary-treasurer, is “ the highest authority in the order.”
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution and regulations dictated by inter­
national.
3. Convention held quadrennially or biennially on referendum call. Enacts
legislat'on and elects general officers. Initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “All wage earners in any way connected with
slaughtering and packing establishments, sausage makers and meat cut­
ters no matter where employed, who are over 16 years of age, with the defined
exceptions of superintendents, bookkeepers, office clerks, timekeepers and
managers of wholesale houses ” are eligible to membership. “ Retail market
owners and partnerships not employing help and who are not members of any
employers’ association may join either as active or honorary members.” Male
and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, generally with individual employers,
but must be approved by the executive board.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout: death.
Official organ.—The Butcher Workman.
Headquarters.—ICO North La Salle Street, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arizona, 1 ;
Arkansas, 2; California, 26; Colorado. 3; Connecticut, 4 ; District of Columbia,
1; Florida, 2; Georgia, 1; Illinois, 34; Indiana, 5; Iowa, 3; Kansas, 1; Ken­
tucky, 3; Louisiana, 2 ; Massachusetts, 1; Michigan, 4 ; Minnesota, 5; Missouri,
4 ; Montana, 5; Nebraska, 2; Nevada, 1; New Jersey, 4 ; New York, 24; Ohio, 7 ;
Oklahoma, 3; Oregon, 8; Pennsylvania, 5; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 3 ;
Texas, 5; Utah, 2 ; Washington, 6; West Virginia, 2; Wisconsin, 8; Wyoming,
4 ; Porto Rico, 1; Canal Zone, 1; Canada— British Columbia, 1. Total, 196,
Membership.—Not reported. American Federation of Labor voting strength11,800.

Cigar Makers’ International Union
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in New York City, on June 21, 1864. The first organi­
zation of cigar makers was formed in Cincinatti, Ohio, in 1845; the
next, in Baltimore, Md., in 1851. Thereafter local organizations in­
creased in number, but remained independent of one another until
1863, when a conference was held in Philadelphia. This conference
led to a second one, held in New York City on June 21, 1864, at
which the National Cigar Makers’ Union was founded. Three years
later the name was changed to the Cigar Makers’ International
Union.
This organization was among the first to establish the 8-hour
day for its members. It adopted an 8-hour law at its 1885 con­
vention and had established it in successful operation by May 1,.
1886. It was also instrumental in launching the American Federa­
tion of Labor.



FOOD, LIQ U O R , A N D TOBACCO

163

Objects.—“ For the amelioration and final emancipation of labor.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions, Canada, and Cuba.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of cigars, including specifically work
done by cigar makers, stemmers, strippers, banders, branders, labelers, and
casers, and any other cigar factory employees.
Government.—1. Executive board composed of president and seven vice presi­
dents. The president is the executive head of the organization, with wide
powers.
The third vice president must be a member of and elected from a Canadian
union.
2. Local unions: Autonomy limited.
3. Initiative and referendum.
4. Convention: Previous convention may set date which may be changed by
referendum.
General officers elected and legislation enacted by convention.
Qualifications for membership.—All persons engaged in the cigar industry,
regardless of color or nationality, shall be eligible to membership; this shall
include foremen, and manufacturers who employ no journeyman cigar makers.
Male and female membership.
Class B membership: All persons other than cigar makers, engaged in the
cigar industry, such as strippers, banders, branders, casers, or any other cigarfactory employees, shall be eligible to membership, entitled to only $100 death
benefit and half regular strike benefits. They may also become regular mem­
bers if they so elect. Class B dues are 50 per cent of regular dues.
Apprenticeship regulations.—All persons learning cigar making, stogie making
or packing shall serve an apprenticeship, the time such an apprentice shall
serve to be determined by the style of work learned. Those learning strictly
hand w ork and packing shall serve not more than 3 years; mold work not
T
more than 2 years; bunchmaking or rolling not more than 1 year; machine
bunch breakers not more than 6 months; rolling machine bunches not more
than 1 year, and automatic machine work not more than 6 months.
Local unions shall have power to stipulate the number of apprentices for
each kind of work under their respective jurisdiction. Local unions shall sub­
mit their apprentice laws for approval by the international executive board.
Manufacturers who do not employ at least one journeyman for his full time
shall not be allowed an apprentice.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions with local manufacturers with ap­
proval of international executive board. Locals act independently of each other
and there is dissimilarity in bills of prices especially in different parts of the
country. Union label issued by International through local secretaries to union
shops conforming to laws laid down by the International. Closed shops: When
a local union shall decide to close any shop to the members of the International
Union, three officers of the local union shall furnish a full statement of the
facts to the international president.
Benefits.— Strike, lockout, and victimization; life insurance, which may be
drawn before death in case of total disability.
Official organ.—Cigar Makers’ Official Journal.
Headquarters.—604 Carpenters’ Building, Tenth and K Streets NW., Wash­
ington, D. C.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 2 ; Arkansas, 1;
California, 6; Colorado, 2; Connecticut, 15; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia,
1; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 1; Idaho, 1; Illinois, 23; Indiana, 12; Iowa, 10; Kansas
3; Kentucky, 3; Louisiana, 2; Maine, 3; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 12; Mich­
igan, 14; Minnesota, 5; Missouri, 7; Montana, 2; Nebraska, 2; New Hamp­
shire, 3; New Jersey, 6; New Mexico, 1; New York, 30; Ohio, 12; Oregon, 2;
Pennsylvania, 16; Rhode Island, 2 ; South Dakota, 3 ; Tennessee, 3 ; Texas, 3;
Utah, 1; Vermont, 1; Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 3; West Virginia, 3; Wiscon­
sin, 18; Porto Rico, 12. Canada— Ontario, 4 ; Quebec, 1. Total, 257.
Membership.—15,000.

Tobacco Workers* International Union
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in St. Louis, Mo., May 25, 1895. Independent organ­
izations of tobacco workers had been in existence since the early
sixties, and were brought together in convention in St. Louis, in
May, 1895, at which the National Tobacco Workers’ Union of



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H A N D B O O K OF A M E R IC A N T R A D E -U N IO N 8

America was founded. Three years later the name was changed to
Tobacco Workers’ International Union.
Objects.— “ The educational, social, economic, and fraternal betterment o f all
persons employed in the craft.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions, Canada and Mexico.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of smoking and chewing tobacco, snuff,
and paper-wrapped cigarettes.
Government.—General executive board, composed of president-secretarytreasurer, and six vice presidents. “ The international president shall be the
chief executive of the international union, * * *. The general executive
board shall render such assistance to the president as he may require, and
watch legislative measures directly affecting the tobacco workers generally.”
2. Local unions: Largely autonomous; exact status not fixed by constitution.
3. Initiative and referendum: General officers elected by referendum; con­
vention on referendum call only. Constitutional amendments by initiative and
referendum, or by convention when held.
Qualifications for membership.—Applicants for membership, under 60 yeara
of age, “ may be elected upon their own statement.” Male and female mem­
bership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated independently by local unions with individual em­
ployers. There is no uniformity as to terms or duration of contract Union
label controlled by locals.
Benefits.— Strike, lockout, and victimization; sick; death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.— Our Home Life Building, Louisville, Ky.
Organization.—Local unions: Illinois, 1; Kentucky, 3; Louisiana, 1 ; Michigan,
1 ; Missouri, 2 ; New York, 3 ; North Carolina, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 3 ; West Vir­
ginia, 1; Wisconsin, 1. Total, 18.
Membership.—3,000.




GLASS, CLAY, AND STONE
'"THERE are five national organizations in the glass industry, four
A affiliated to the American Federation of Labor and one inde­
pendent. One union covers bottle making, another flint glass manu­
facture, and the remaining three cover window-glass factories. The
window-glass organizations are dual so far as the craft is concerned,
but there is a division of processes and of establishments which
limits the activities o f each. Two of them, the Window Glass Cut­
ters and Flatteners’ Association of America, and the Window Glass
Cutters’ League o f America, are affiliated to the American Federa­
tion o f Labor. The jurisdictional distinction between them is a
technical one, based wholly on processes. The independent union,
the Window Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Protective Association or
America, covers machine glass manufacture, as do the affiliated
unions, but, although it is not a company union, it confines its activ­
ities to the plants of a single manufacturing concern.
The National Brotherhood of Operative Potters holds jurisdiction
over the pottery industry, and is the only union in that field.
The United Brick and Clay Workers of America, an affiliated
union, covers clay mining and the manufacture of brick, tile, and
terra cotta for whatever purpose used.
Quarrying o f all kinds is claimed by the Quarry Workers’ Inter­
national Union, affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Quarry products, after leaving the quarries, come under the juris­
diction o f several affiliated unions. The Granite Cutters’ Inter­
national Association and the Journeymen Stonecutters’ Association
control the same kind of work on different materials, the jurisdiction
o f each specifically excluding the materials claimed by the other.
The International Paving Cutters’ Union exercises jurisdiction over
the cutting of all stone used for paving purposes. The Marble,
Stone and Slate Polishers, Rubbers and Sawyers claim all work
mentioned in their title which is involved in building construction.
The various organizations in this classification are the following:
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor:
Brick and Clay Workers of America, United----------------------------------Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association of the United States and Canada—
Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Association of America (Inc.), Win­
dow _____________________________________________________________
Glass Cutters’ League of America, Window----------------------------------Glass Workers’ Union of America, American Flint-------------------------Granite Cutters’ International Association of America, The (classified
under Building Trades)-------------------------------------------------------------Marble, Stone, and Slate Polishers, Rubbers and Sawyers, Tile and
Marble Setters’ Helpers and Terrazzo Workers’ Helpers, Inter­
national Association of (classified under Building Trades)--------Paving Cutters’ Union of the United States of America and Canada,
International_ - ________________________________________________
_
Potters, National Brotherhood o f Operative------------------------------------Quarry Workers’ International Union of North America-----------------Slate Workers (American Federation of Labor locals)-----------------Stone Cutters’ Association of North America, Journeymen (classified
under Building Trades)-------------------------------- -----------------------------




165

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166
167
167
169
169
37
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170
171
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49

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HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Independent organization:
Glass Cutters and Flat tetters* Protective Association of America,
W indow _________________________________________________________

Pase
168

Brick and Clay Workers of America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., May 18, 1894. The National Brick
Makers’ Alliance was organized in 1896 from a group of directly
affiliated American Federation of Labor unions. It existed under
this name until 1909, when because of extension of jurisdiction to
the terra cotta industry, the name was changed to International
Alliance of Brick, Tile, and Terra Cotta Workers. In 1915, as a
result of dissension in the organization, a second organization was
formed under the name of the United Brick and Clay Workers.
The majority of the rank and file of the membership went with the
second organization and after a short period of dual unionism an
agreement was reached with the officers of the International Alliance
o f Brick, Tile, and Terra Cotta Workers through which that organi­
zation passed out of existence and the name of the new organization,
United Brick and Clay Workers of America, became the official
title of the brickmakers’ union.
Object.—“ The object of the union is to organize all the brick and clay workers
o f America, to raise the standard of wages, to reduce the hours of labor, to
assist in securing employment, and by all honorable means improve the moral,
intellectual, economic, and social status of its members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All building, sewer, paving, fire, and ornamental brick­
makers ; all building tile, drain tile, and sewer pipe workers; all plain, orna­
mental, and architectural terra cotta workers; stoneware and art pottery work­
ers; and clay miners.”
Government.—1. Executive council, composed o f president, nine vice presi­
dents, and secretary-treasurer.
2. District councils, “ formed at conventions only * * * shall have gen­
eral supervision and control of all matters relating to agreements with em­
ployers; shall arrange tlie wage scale, hours of labor, and all details necessary
to guard the interests of the unions within the district.” Affiliation to a district
council is mandatory on the part of local unions.
3. Local unions: “ Each local union shall have power to fix its own by-laws,
initiation fee, reinstatement fee, and dues, not in conflict with the constitution,”
except where a district council exists.
4. Convention: Meets biennially.
5. Initiative, referendum, and recall.
General officers and district council officers elected by referendum, yearly.
Legislation by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any man over 16 years of age working at
the brick and clay industry, except foreman, is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by locals except where district councils exist. Label
under control of executive council.
Benefits.—Death.
Official organ.—The Union Clay Worker.
Headquarters.—Room 440, Webster Building, 327 South La Salle Street, Chi­
cago, 111.
Organization.— Local unions only: Connecticut, 6; Illinois, 30; Indiana, 3;
Iowa, 2; Ohio, 9; Pennsylvania, 2 ; Texas, 1; Washington, 3. Total, 56.
Membership.—Not reported; American Federation of Labor voting strength,
5,000.




GLASS, CLAY, AND STOKE

167

Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association of the United States and Canada
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Baltimore, Md., in 1890. The Glass Blowers’ League
dates back to 1846, and was one of the leading factors in the Knights
o f Labor movement. The Independent Druggist Ware League was
organized in 1868, functioning chiefly in the Pittsburgh district and
farther west. The various craft organizations met in Baltimore in
1890 and formed the United Green Glass Workers’ Association. In
1891 the newly formed national organization withdrew from the
Knights of Labor and remained an independent body until 1899,
when it affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. The name
was changed in 1896 to Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association of the
United States and Canada. In 1901 the bottle blowers then in the
American Flint Glass Workers were transferred to the Glass Bottle
Blowers’ Association.
Objects.— “ The objects of this association are to thoroughly unite all glassbottle makers and others engaged in the industry for their mutual benefit and
protection; to regulate and maintain a uniform price list throughout the trade;
to enact and enforce such laws as may be deemed necessary for the purpose
of successfully carrying on the work of the association, and to take an active
interest in all things that promise to advance the interests of its members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of glass containers of all kinds.
Government.—1. Executive board, composed of president, vice president, and
eight members elected by the convention, “ shall exercise all the powers o f the
association between sessions. * * * The national president shall have gen­
eral superintendence over and enforce all laws of the association.”
2. Local unions: Subordinate; authority not fixed in constitution.
Glass factory employees* department: Subordinate to local branches.
3. Convention: Held annually, and decides “ all questions affecting the gen­
eral interests of the trade, such as making price lists, regulating wages, amend­
ing constitution and by-laws, confirming, modifying, or rejecting any act or
acts of any officer, executive board, committee, or member of the association.”
Election of general officers by convention. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any man or woman employed in and around
a glass plant is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements.—Agreement covering the skilled workers in the entire industry
negotiated by executive board members and manufacturers.
Supplementary agreement covering the unskilled workers in the glass factory
employees’ department sometimes handled locally.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; insurance (contributory).
Official organ.—None (The Bottle Maker discontinued).
Headquarters.—Colonial Building, Philadelphia, Pa.
Organization.—Local branches only: United States— California, 4 ; Illinois, 4 ;
Indiana, 9 ; Louisiana, 1; Maryland, 2; Missouri, 2 ; New Jersey, 11; New
York, 9 ; Ohio, 10; Oklahoma, 4 ; Pennsylvania, 26; South Carolina, 1; Ten­
nessee, 1 ; Texas, 1; Virginia, 4 ; Washington, 1; West Virginia, 4 ; Wisconsin, 1.
Canada, 4. Total, 99.
Membership.—6,000.

Glass Cutters and Flatteners Association of America (Inc.),
Window
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Pittsburgh, Pa., April 15, 1904, by the machine
workers in the window-glass industry, it was incorporated in the
67004°— 29------ 12




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HANDBOOK O t AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

State of Pennsylvania in October, 1916. It was an independent
organization until 1925, when it secured affiliation with the Ameri­
can Federation o f Labor.
Objects.—“ The objects of the association are to maintain a regular appren­
ticeship system and a higher standard of skill; to cultivate feelings of friend­
ship among the members; to assist each other to secure employment; to reduce
the hours of daily labor; to secure adequate pay for our work; to endeavor
by proper means to elevate the moral, intellectual, and social conditions of all
of our members; and to improve our trade.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Manufacture, of window glass by machine processes.
Government.—1. General officers are: President, secretary-treasurer, and
executive board of four cutters and four flatteners, and a wage committee of
three cutters and three flatteners. The president is the executive head under
the general supervision of the executive board.
2. Local unions, or preceptories: Subordinate; rules and regulations imposed
by general organization.
3. Initiative and referendum: General officers elected by referendum. Legis­
lation and constitutional amendments by initiative and referendum. No
convention.
Qualifications for membership.—Memebrship is confined to practical windowglass cutters and flatteners employed in plants operating under the scale of
the association.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Apprentices must be between the ages o f 16 and
30 and serve an apprenticeship of three years. The president and executive
board shall be empowered to determine the percentage of apprentices to be
granted each year.
Agreements.—Wage scales negotiated for the industry by a wage committee
elected by popular vote. Hours and working rules stipulated in constitution.
Benefits.—Death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—215-219 House Building, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Organization. — Local unions, or preceptories: Arkansas, 1; California, 1 ;
Ohio, 1; Oklahoma, 1; Pennsylvania, 2; Texas, 1; West Virginia, 1. Total, 8.
Membership.—Not reported. American Federation of Labor voting strength,
800.

Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Protective Association of America,
Window
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Pittsburgh, Pa., October 3, 1909, as the result of
a strike in the American Window Glass Co. plant.
Objects.—The objects of the association are: “ To maintain the established
custom of the trades; to establish a higher standard of skill; to cultivate a
feeling of friendship among the members; to assist each other to secure em­
ployment; to reduce the hours of daily labor; to secure the highest standard
of wages and best working rules possible for the trade of cutting and flatten­
ing ; to endeavor by proper means to elevate the moral, intellectual, and social
conditions of all our members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Machine window-glass factories.
Government.—1. General officers are president, secretary, treasurer, and an
executive board of six, three of whom shall be cutters, and three flatteners.
The president is the executive head under the general supervision of the
executive board.
2. Local unions, or preceptories: Subordinate; constitution, by-laws, and
regulations imposed by general organization.
3. Initiative and referendum: General officers elected by referendum. Con­
stitutional amendments by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Membership is confined to cutters and fiatteners employed in the machine window-glass factories operating under the
wage scale of the association. Inspectors, boss cutters, and boss flatteners, and



GLASS, CLAY, AND STONE

169

their assistants, are ineligible and membership is forfeited upon leaving the
employ of the designated factories.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Apprentices must be between the ages of 16 and
35 and serve three years. “ The president and executive board shall be em­
powered to determine the percentage of apprentices to be granted each and
every year.” Brothers and sons of members of the association are given pref­
erence in granting apprenticeships.
Agreements.—A wage committee composed o f three cutters and three flatteners elected by referendum vote has exclusive authority in the making of the
wage scale. Hours and working rules fixed by constitution.
Benefits.—Death.
Official organ.—-None.
Headquarters.—Bessemer Building, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Organization.—Locals on ly: Indiana, 1; Pennsylvania, 6 (membership is con­
fined to factories of the American Window Glass Co.)
Membership.—600.

Glass Cutters League of America, Window
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Charleston, W. Va., December 6, 1917, as the Cutters
League. The name was later changed to the present one.
Objects.—The objects and purposes of the Window Glass Cutters League of
America are to maintain a regular apprentice system and a higher standard of
skill; to cultivate a feeling of friendship among the membership; to assist
each other secure employment; to reduce the hours of daily labor; to secure
adequate pay for our work and to promote the interests and welfare of the
members and their dependents.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Window-glass manufacturing plants using sheet-drawing
machines.
Government.—1. National officers: President, secretary-treasurer, executive
board of four members, and wage committees of four members each, for the
various processes of manufacturing of which, at present, there are four. Tiie
president is the administrative head. The executive board has general super­
vision over all business. The wage committees have full power to negotiate
wages and working rules.
2. Local unions or preceptories: Subordinate; regulations dictated by tne
general organization.
3. Initiative, referendum, and recall; general officers elected by referendum
and subject to recall. Constitutional amendments by referendum and initiative.
No convention.
Qualifications for membership.—The members of the league shall be confined
to known practical window glass cutters.
Apprentice regulations.—Apprentices must be between the age o f 16 and 30
and serve a term o f three years. The president and executive board shall be
empowered to determine the percentage of apprentices and shall have full au­
thority over the apprentice system. Brothers and sons of members of the asso­
ciation are given preference in granting apprentices.
Agreements.—Working agreements and wage scales established by wage com­
mittee for each department in conference with committee representing manu­
facturers.
Benefits.— Death (member $500 and wife $200).
Official organ.—The Glass Cutter.
Headquarters.— £16 Clinton Building, Columbus, Ohio.
Organization.—Locals or preceptories only: Arkansas, 1 ; California, 1 ;
Indiana, 1; Louisiana, 1; Ohio, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 1; West Virginia, 5. Total, 12.
Membership.—900.

Glass Workers’ Union of North America, American Flint
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Pittsburgh, Pa., July 1, 1878. Flint-glass workers
were among the first to organize assemblies under the Knights of
Labor, but withdrew in 1878 and organized a craft union.



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Objects.—The object of this order shall be the elevation o f the position of
Its members for maintenance of the best interests of the order, and all things
pertaining to the business in which all the members under its jurisdiction may
be involved.
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of tableware, bar and hotel ware,
illuminating wares, automobile lenses, clinical thermometers, mold making,
cutting, and engraving.
Government.— 1. Administrative officers: President, vice president, secretarytreasurer, assistant secretary-treasurer. “ The position of the president shall
be that of an executive * * *
and he shall have general superintendence
of the order.”
Executive board, composed of 58 members, representing all branches o f the
trade and the various sections of the country, act as an advisory board to the
president.
2. Local unions: “A local union shall have full power to adopt such by­
laws or rules as may be deemed necessary, provided they are not in conflict
with this constitution.” Local by-laws and rules must be approved by the
national president.
3. Convention: Meets annually. “ The convention alone possesses power and
authority to amend or repeal the fundamental or general laws and regulations
of the union and fix the salaries of its officers.”
General officers elected by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any workman who is connected with the
trade represented by this union, whether he is a blower, presser, finisher,
foot finisher, mold blower, gatherer, mold maker, cutter, engraver, or lamp
worker, and not under the age of 18 years, may become a member of this
union, providing said workman be a person of sober and industrious habits.”
Apprentice regulations.— “ No apprentices shall be taken into the union until
the expiration of their term of apprenticeship, unless for good and sufficient
reasons.
“ If any apprentice quits or leaves his place he shall not be allowed to
work in any other shop. Should the firm discharge him they shall not put
on another apprentice until the expiration of his term of apprenticeship.
“ In case of any manufacturer retiring, suspending, or otherwise stopping
the operation of his business, the national president shall have power to
grant the apprentices a card, providing they have worked two years or more
at the trade.”
Agreements.—National agreements covering the industry are negotiated annu­
ally by representatives of the union and the organized manufacturers. There
are 15 departments in the industry and agreements covering each department
are made by representatives- of that department.
Benefits.—Strike, sick, and death.
Official organ.—The American Flint.
Headquarters.—200-210 American Bank Building, Toledo, Ohio.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Arkansas, 2; California, 2 ;
Connecticut, 2 ; Illinois, 3 ; Indiana, 10; Louisiana, 1: Maryland, 6; Massachu­
setts, 3 ; Minnesota, 1; New Jersey, 6: New York, 8; Ohio, 20; Oklahoma, 1 ;
Pennsylvania, 25; South Carolina, 1; West Virginia, 30. Canada—Alberta, 1;
Ontario, 1; Quebec, 1. Total, 124.
Membership.—6,900.

Paving Cutters’ Union of the United States of America and
Canada, International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Lithonia, Ga.. in 1901. The first national organiza­
tion o f paving cutters was formed at Baltimore, Md., in 1887, by
representatives from local unions in all the important centers of the
industry. By 1892 the trade was thoroughly organized. However,
an extensive lockout throughout New England in 1892 proved disas­
trous, and being followed by the panic of 1893, wrecked the union.
Reorganization was not attempted until eight years later. Meeting
in Lithonia, Ga., in 1901, the paving cutters’ unions then existing as



GLASS, OLAY, AND STONE

171

directly affiliated American Federation of Labor locals organized
the present International Paving Cutters5 Union.
Objects*—1 The objects of this union are to protect our trade from dangers
4
surrounding it, and by mutual effort to place ourselves on a foundation suf­
ficiently strong to prevent further encroachment on our calling. We propose
to encourage a higher standard, to cultivate a feeling of friendship among our
members, to assist each other to secure employment, to reduce the hours of
labor, and to secure adequate pay for our work; * * * to endeavor to
bring about the amalgamation of the trades engaged in the stone industry and
to secure legislation in the interest of the working masses.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ It is hereby declared and set forth that the Interna­
tional Paving Cutters’ Union has the right to cut all stone-paving blocks used
for all paving purposes, which includes flanged, beveled, and all stone blocks
used in courts, alleys, yards, or streets for paving, for which paving cutters’
tools are used.”
Government.—1. MThe government and management of this union shall be
vested in a board of seven directors,” one of whom is the international presi­
dent, the other six being representatives elected by each of the six districts.
The president is the administrative and executive head, elected by referendum
of the whole membership, and is the only full-time salaried official.
2. Local unions: “ Branches,” largely autonomous, but under the direction
of the board member of their respective districts.
3. Initiative and referendum: International business referred to branches for
action; constitutional amendments either by referendum of by a committee
elected for that purpose. No convention.
Qualifications for membership.— “ Each branch shall be the judge of the quali­
fications of all applicants for membership.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ No apprentice shall be less than 16 years o f
age.” Two-year term.
“ Any member in good standing may employ an apprentice, but must first
obtain the sanction of his branch.”
Agreements.—A regional agreement between the international union and the
Granite Paving Block Manufacturers’ Association covers practically all of the
industry in New England. Elsewhere agreements are negotiated locally.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.—Paving Cutters’ Journal.
Headquarters.— Rockport, Mass.

Organization.—Territorial districts:
District No. 1. Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont.
District No. 2. New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, and Michigan.
District No. 3. Canada east of British Columbia.
District No. 4. Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, District of Columbia, North
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Missisippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Ohio,
Indiana, and Louisiana.
District No. 5. Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa,
Nebraska, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
District No. 6. Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah,
Idaho, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, and California.
Local unions: United States— California, 1; Connecticut, 2 ; Delaware, 1;
Georgia, 2 ; Maine, 11; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 6; Minnesota, 4 ; Missouri,
3 ; New Hampshire, 6 ; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 4 ; North Carolina, 2, Ohio, 2;
Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 9 ; Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina, 1; Vermont, 1;
Wisconsin, 2. Canada— New Brunswick, 1; Ontario, 1; Quebec, 3. Total, 68.
Membership.—2,400.

Potters, National Brotherhood of Operative
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized at East Liverpool, Ohio, December 29, 1890.
Objects.— “ For the purpose of mutual protection, elevation, and relief o f
operative potters and their families, and for the further purpose of qopperation in any and all matters affecting the interests o f their crafts,”



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction—The pottery industry.
Government.— 1. Executive board, composed of president, seven vice presi­
dents, and secretary-treasurer.

Western general ware standing committee, consisting o f national secretarytreasurer and two members appointed by the president.
Eastern general ware standing committee, consisting of first vice president
and two members appointed by the president.
The president is the administrative head of the organization. Executive
board acts in an advisory capacity.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution and general working rules dic­
tated by national organization; but locals “ shall have full power to adopt
such by-laws and rules as may be deemed necessary, provided they are not in
conflict with the constitution of the national union.”
3. Convention: Held annually. “ The convention shall have power and
authority to make or repeal any laws deemed necessary.” General officers
elected by referendum. Legislation also by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“All persons, male and female, who are con­
nected with any o f the branches of the trade represented in the National
Brotherhood of Operative Potters and not under the age of 16 years may
become members of the order, providing such persons are of sober and indus­
trious habits.”
Apprenticeship regulations.—Vary with different branches of the trade. Five
years’ apprenticeship required for mold makers, dish makers, pressers, and
casters; three years for kilnmen, handlers, dippers, turners, sagger makers,
and packers; two years for jigger men.
In the dipping branch one apprentice is allowed for the first journeyman,
and one additional for every three journeymen additional.
In the turning branch one apprentice is allowed for the first journeyman,
a second apprentice to four journeymen, and one more for each additional three
journeymen.
Jiggers, 1 apprentice to 5 journeymen or less, 2 to every 10 journeymen, and
1 for every additional 5 journeymen.
Dish makers, one apprentice to each 3 journeymen or less, one apprentice
to every four journeymen; mold makers, one apprentice to every five journey­
men in the pressing and casting trades.
No journeyman may be discharged to make a place for an apprentice, but
additional apprentices may be put on if competent journeymen can not be
obtained.
Before any apprentice is started in the trade, even within the ratio established
by the agreement, the employer shall make application to the headquarters of
the organization for a competent journeyman. I f such journeyman is not
supplied within twenty-four hours the employer may put on an apprentice, if
within the established ratio for that trade.
Agreements.—Universal, negotiated by the officers of the national brotherhood
and the manufacturers’ association. Wage scales and price lists determined
by national convention.
Benefits.— Strike, death, tuberculosis treatment; legal aid in case of serious
accident.

Official organ.—The Potters’ Herald (weekly).
Headquarters.— East Liverpool, Ohio.
Organization.—Local unions only, organized by separate branches, or mixed.
California, 2 ; Illinois, 1; Indiana, 1; Maryland, 1; New Jersey, 10; New
York, 2; Ohio, 31; Pennsylvania, 7; Tennessee, 1; Virginia, 1; West Virginia, 7.
Total, 64.
Membership.—6,500.

Quarry Workers’ International Union of North America
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Washington, D. C., September 8, 1903.
Objects.—“ The objects of this union are to rescue the trade from dangers
surrounding it and by mutual effort to place ourselves on a foundation suffi­
ciently strong to prevent further encroachment on our craft. We propose to
encourage a higher standard, to cultivate a feeling of friendship among our



GLASS, CLAY, AND STOKE

173

members, to assist each other to secure employment, to reduce the hours of
daily labor, and to secure adequate pay for our work, and by legal and proper
means to elevate the moral, intellectual, and social conditions o f our members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—North America.
Trade jurisdiction.— Quarrymen, quarry and paving cutter blacksmiths, derrickmen, engineers and firemen, steam-drill and air-drill runners, laborers, softstone quarrymen and channelers, rubbers, .lumpers, and boxers, riggers of der­
ricks, cranes, or other devices used in handling stone, and stone derrick men
wherever employed.
Government.—1. “ For the government of this union there shall be elected an
executive board consisting of an international union president, international
secretary-treasurer, and an international union committee consisting of five
members.” The president and the committee are elected annually by the three
locals nearest the seat of government. The secretary-treasurer is elected bien­
nially by referendum. He is the administrative officer.
2. Local unions: “All branches shall have power to make their own local
laws, provided they are approved by the international union committee and do
not conflict with the constitution; and such local laws shall be as binding on the
members of the branch as this constitution.”
3. Referendum: General business referred monthly to branches for action.
Convention only on referendum call. Constitutional amendments by initiative
and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Each branch shall be the judge of the quali­
fications of its membership.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ The terms of apprenticeship shall be regulated
by branches.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, subject to approval of the executive
board, and must conform to State terms where such exist.
Benefits.— Strike; death; old age (flat-sum payment and exemption from dues
and assessments).
Official organ.—Quarry Workers* Journal.
Headquarters.—Barre, Y t.; subject to removal by referendum vote.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Arkansas, 1 ; California,
9; Connecticut, 3 ; Georgia, 1; Illinois, 2; Indiana, 6; Kentucky, 5; Maine, 22;
Massachusetts, 11; Minnesota, 5; Missouri, 4 ; New Hampshire, 7; New Jersey,
1; New York, JLO North Carolina, 1; Ohio, 10; Oklahoma, 3; Pennsylvania, 10;
;
Rhode Island, 3 ; South Dakota, 1; Texas, 1 ; Utah, 2 ; Vermont, 22; Virginia, 4 ;
Washington, 9 ; West Virginia, 3 ; Wisconsin, 7. Canada—Alberta, 2 ; British
Columbia, 6 ; Nova Scotia, 4 ; Ontario, 2 ; Quebec, 2. Total, 179.
Membership.— 1,000.




WOODWORKING
OODW ORKING and kindred trades are covered by four or­
ganizations besides the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and
Joiners, which controls cabinetmaking, and the Loyal Legion of L og­
gers and Lumbermen, which includes sash and door mill workers
m its membership. These four organizations are small, and are af­
filiated to the American Federation of Labor. Two of them are
distinctively craft unions, the International Wood Carvers’ Associa­
tion embracing only highly skilled artisans in the limited field of
wood carving, and the Coopers’ International Union being confined
to the manufacture of barrels.
The International Union of Piano, Organ, and Musical Instrument
Workers holds a charter for the entire industry, but the industry is
practically unorganized.
The fourth, and the largest union in the group, is the Upholsterers,
Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics’ International Union of North
America. It is neither a craft nor an industrial union, for its juris­
diction covers varied and unrelated fields, including the manufacture
and installation of window and wall hangings, and awnings; mattress
and box-spring manufacture; furniture and automobile upholstering,
and the laying of floor coverings.

W

Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of (classi­
fied under Building Trades)-----------------------------------------------------Carvers’ Association of North America, International Wood________
Coopers’ International Union of North America____________________
Piano, Organ, and Musical Instrument Workers, International Union
of_______________________________________________________________
Upholsterers’, Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics’ International Union
of North America_______________________________________________
Independent organizations:
Loggers and Lumbermen, Loyal Legion of (classified under Mining,
Oil, and Lumber)_______________________________________________

Page
25
174
175
176
177
108

Carvers’ Association of North America, International Wood
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1883, in Philadelphia, Pa. Wood carvers in New
York City organized as early as 1863. This organization was one
of five which sent representatives to a gathering in Philadelphia in
January, 1883, to make preparation for a general convention of the
craft to be held later in the year. This convention took place in
Cincinnati in October, and established the National W ood Carvers’
Association of North America. With the spread of the organization
into Canada the name was changed a few years later to the present
one, the International Wood Carvers’ Association of North America.
Objects.—“ The objects of this association are to advance the material inter­
ests of wood carvers by regulating the apprentice system, maintaining an effi­
cient system of insurance of the tools of all members of the several associations

174




WOODWORKING

175

affiliated with the international association, abolish contract and piece work,
and to establish a normal 8-hour day.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Wood carving by hand, machine, or spindle.
Government.—1. The central committee, consisting of chairman, secretary,
treasurer, and three trustees, “ shall be elected by the branch of the city, town,
or village elected by referendum vote to be the seat of the central committee,”
and “ shall conduct the business of the international association.”
A board of supervisors of five members “ shall be elected by the branch of
the city, town, or village elected by referendum vote as the seat of the board
of supervisors” and “ shall control the action of the central committee in its
administration.”
2. Local unions: “Affiliated” ; autonomy not definitely fixed, but they are
largely self-governing.
3. Referendum: International association business, constitutional amend­
ments, and selection of governing branches, by vote of general membership.
Convention on referendum call only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any hand, spindle, or machine wood carver
of good character who is or has declared his intent on of becoming a citizen of
the country in which he works, is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Four-year term. “ Firms employing on an aver­
age during the year 5 men shall be entitled to 1 apprentice; those employing
on an average 10 men, to 2 apprentices; those employing on an average 15 men,
to 3 apprentices, and for each additional 25 men there shall be allowed one
more apprentice.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions and local employers.
Benefits.— Strike; tool nsurance.
Official organ.—The International Wood Carver.
Headquarters.—8605 Eighty-fifth Street, Woodhaven, Long Island, N. Y.
(variable).
Organization.—Local branches only: United States—California, 2 ; Connecti­
cut, 1; Illinois, 2 ; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 1; Michigan, 2; Minnesota, 1;
New York, 4 ; Ohio, 3; Pennsylvania, 2; Wisconsin, 1. Canada—Quebec, 1.
Total, 21.
Membership.—1,100.

Coopers* International Union of North America
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Titusville, Pa., on November 10, 1890. A national
organization known as the Coopers of North America existed in
1870, but died out. It seems to have survived locally in a number
of localities. The present organization was founded by representa­
tives of some 10 or 12 local unions, which formed the national or­
ganization in 1890. This organization was chartered by the Ameri­
can Federation of Labor as an affiliated union in 1891.
A long-fought jurisdictional dispute with the United Brewerj
Workmen over cooperage work in breweries is the outstanding inci­
dent in the history of the Coopers’ International Union. The termi­
nation of the dispute left a very material part of the cooperage work
in the hands of workers belonging to the United Brewery Workmen.
With the decline of the industry with prohibition the union’s field
has become very limited.
Objects.— “ To make industrial worth, not wealth, the true standard of indi­
vidual and national greatness; to prohibit the employment of children under
16 years of age in shops and factories; to gain some of the benefits of laborsaving machinery by a gradual reduction of hours of labor; to use all lawful
and honorable means in our power to abolish the system of contract convict
labor in the different States where it exists; and to abolish convict cooper shops
in State penitentiaries; * * * to encourage the adoption of proper appren­
tice laws governing all branches of mechanical industry, as we believe that such
would tend to elevate the standard of mechanism of America; to demand better
sanitary conditions for coopers employed in breweries, packing and provision



176

H A K D B O O K OF A M E B IC A N

T E AD E-XJNIO NS

houses, oil houses, and in all places where a large number o f men are em­
ployed; to secure from employers agreements recognizing the Coopers’ Inter­
national Union of North America, regulating prices, and to settle by arbitration
all differences between employers and employees not specifically covered in
such agreements; to cooperate with employers to advance the price of making
and selling of barrels when practicable; to secure employment of our members
in preference to nonunion men * * * ; to use all honorable means at our
command to achieve the purposes herein declared”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture and repair of cooperage, staves, and
heading, either by hand or by machinery.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, secretarytreasurer, and five vice presidents, “ shall have general supervision over the
international union.”
2. Local unions: Each local union “ shall have autonomy over its own af­
fairs, and shall make its own contracts governing hours of labor, working con­
ditions, and scale of wages.”
3. Convention: Held quadrennially; enacts legislation and elects general
officers. Constitutional amendments either by convention or by initiative and
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—An applicant for membership “ must be an
American citizen or declare his or her intentions to become one as soon as
possible. * * * women over 18 years of age may be admitted to mem­
bership under the same laws as male members.”
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ No member of any local shall take an appren­
tice without the consent of his local, and in no case shall he be allowed to
take an apprentice under 16 years of age; and no more than one apprentice
for every 10 hand coopers shall be allowed, said apprentice to serve his time of
three years at the bench, the local to decide what wages he ♦shall receive while
serving his apprenticeship.”
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions independently, but must be approved
by general executive board. Union label under control of international.
Benefits.— Strike; death.
Official organ.—Coopers* Journal.
Headquarters.—Meriweather Building, Kansas City, Kans.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—California, 1; Illinois, 5;
Indiana, 1; Kansas, 1; Kentucky, 1; Massachusetts, 3; Minnesota, 1; Missouri,
3; New Jersey, 2; New York, 4; Ohio, 3; Pennsylvania, 4 ; Rhode Island, 1 ;
Tennessee, 1; Texas, 2; Washington, 1 ; Wisconsin, 3. Canada— Quebec, 1.
Total, 38.
Membership.— 750.

Piano, Organ, and Musical Instrument Workers, International
Union of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., August 8, 1898, as the International
Union of Piano and Organ Workers of America. Later, jurisdic­
tion was extended to include talking machines and the name of the
organization was changed to International Union o f Piano, Organ,
and Musical Instrument Workers.
Objects.—Not declared.
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The piano, organ, and musical-instrument industry.
Government.—1. Executive board, consisting of president and nine vice presi­
dents has executive control of the organization.
2. Local unions: Autonomy only as regards local trade conditions. Funds o f
local organizations subject to regulations of the general executive board.
3. Convention: Held quadrennially; enacts legislation and elects general
officers. Constitutional amendments by convention and referendum or by
initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“All persons engaged in the piano, organ, or
musical-instrument industry of good moral character and competent workmen




WOODWORKING

177

at their branch of the trade shall be eligible to membership, except superin­
tendents.” Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— Constitutional regulation: “ Local unions shall
have power to stipulate number of apprentices under their respective juris­
diction. Manufacturers who do not employ at least one journeyman for his
full time shall not be allowed an apprentice.” In practice, none.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; sick; death.
Official organ.—Piano, Organ, and Musical Instrument Workers’ Official
Journal.
Headquarters.—260 East One hundred and thirty-eighth Street, New York
City.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—California, 1 ; Connecticut,
1 ; Illinois, 2 ; New York, 3 ; Pennsylvania, 2. Canada— Ontario, 1. Total, 10.
Membership.—600.

Upholsterers, Carpet and Linoleum Mechanics’ International
Union of North America
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., August 8, 1892. The first upholster­
ers’ union o f record conducted a successful general strike in New
York City in 1850. Organization of the craft was sporadic and
localized until 1892, when eight unions combined in a conference
held in Chicago and founded the Upholsterers’ International Union
o f North America. It was chartered by the American Federation of
Labor as an affiliated international in 1900. The convention o f 1929
changed the name of the organization to Upholsterers, Carpet and
Linoleum Mechanics’ International Union to conform to expanded
jurisdiction.
Objects.— “ The objects o f the Upholsterers’ International Union are: To
secure adequate pay for our work; to reduce the hours of daily labor; to
discourage piecework; to encourage an apprentice system and a higher stand­
ard of skill; to assist each other to secure employment; to cultivate feelings
of friendship among the craft and by legal and proper means to elevate the
moral, intellectual, and social conditions of all our membership and to improve
the trade.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The hanging, cutting, measuring, estimating, and sewing
of draperies, curtains, wall hangings, window shades, and awnings; cutting
and sewing of furniture covering and slip covers; cutting, sewing, and making
of cushions; slatting walls for hanging of fabrics tacked on walls, bunting and
flag decorating; drilling holes in stone, metal, cement, wood, etc., for the
purpose of installing or attaching fixtures, which are a part j ) f the equipment
used with the work enumerated; upholstering of furniture, sleeping cars,
day coaches, machine and hand tufted pads, cushions, and casket trimmings;
automobile, carriage, and aircraft upholstery and trimming; automobile top
making; cutting and making of slip covers for automobiles and carriages and
sewing of materials used in connection with such work; linoleum cutting,
measuring, and laying, laying of everlastic linoleum, dreadnought linoleum;
cork and rubber tile; laying of matting and other floor coverings; laying
cutting, measuring, and sewing of carpets; mattress making and box-spring
making; sewing of material used by different branches of the craft.”
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, vice presi­
dent, treasurer, and one member representing, respectively, the upholstery
sewers, the carpet sewers, the carpet upholsterers, linoleum and rubber tile
layers, the mattress workers, wholesale upholsterers, and awning workers
“ shall have general supervision of the union between conventions.”
2.
Local unions: Subordinate; constitution, dues, and regulations dictated
by international. Local unions may adopt by-laws for local government,
subject t# the approval of the general executive board.




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HANDBOOK OF AMEBICAN TRADE-UNIONS

3.
Convention: Held biennally, unless otherwise ordered by referendum.
Enacts legislation and elects general officers. I f convention is not held, elec­
tion is by referendum. Constitutional amendments by convention, or by
initiative and referendum.
Q ualifications for membership.—Any person actually employed within the
jurisdiction is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ The number of apprentices allowed in each
shop shall be fixed by the local union having jurisdiction.,, Provided for in
agreements. Apprenticeship term, two to five years.
Agreements.— Negotiated by local unions, with approval of the general execu­
tive board. Generally involve only individual employers. Union label.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout.
Official organ.—Upholsterers’ Journal.
Headquarters.—230 East Fifty-eighth Street, New York City.
Organization.—Local unions only; “ mixed ” locals o f all branches prevail;
separate organizations for mattress makers, wholesale upholsterers, etc., exist
in some large centers. United States—Alabama, 1; California, 12; Colorado, 1;
Connecticut, 1; District of Columbia, 3 ; Georgia, 2 ; Illinois, 6 ; Indiana, 1 ;
Iowa, 1; Kentucky, 1 ; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 4 ; Michigan, 2 ; Minnesota,
2 ; Missouri, 4 ; New Jersey, 2 ; New York, 11; Ohio, 4; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon,
2 ; Pennsylvania, 6 ; Rhode Island, 1 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 3 ; Wisconsin,
1. Canada—British Columbia, 1; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 3 ; Quebec, 1. Total, 80.
Membership.—12,000.




PUBLIC SERVICE
HTHE public service, particularly the United States Government,
*
is the field of operation of many economic organizations, some
o f which are avowedly labor unions in affiliation with the American
Federation of Labor.
O f the five national organizations in public service, exclusive of
the postal service, only one is unaffiliated. That one is the Inter­
national Association of Policewomen, which embraces policewomen,
police and jail matrons, and social workers in public employ. It
is not wholly a professional organization, however, as membership is
open also to individuals interested in promoting the organization and
its aims. The four affiliated unions cover municipal fire depart­
ments, public schools, street paving and road building, and the de­
partmental service of the Federal and District of Columbia
Governments.
Employees in various branches of State, county, and municipal
work are organized into directly affiliated American Federation of
Labor local unions (see p. 7). There is also an independent organi­
zation called the Federation o f State, City, and Town Employees
embracing workers of that class in Massachusetts, but it does not
extend beyond that State.
The different divisions of the postal service are represented in
thirteen separate organizations, four of which are affiliated to the
American Federation of Labor. Two of the affiliated unions—the
National Federation of Post Office Clerks and the National Federa­
tion of Rural Letter Carriers—have rival organizations among the
independents. These independent bodies, the United National Asso­
ciation o f Post Office Clerks, and the National Rural Letter Carriers’
Association, are the older, those in the federation having in both
instances seceded from them.
There are three associations in the Railway Mail Service, one of
officials, one o f white workers below the supervisory grades, and
one o f negroes. Only the second referred to—the Railway Mail
Association—is in the American Federation of Labor. The National
Association o f Letter Carriers is the fourth affiliated union, and is
the only one in that branch of the service.
Three of the five remaining organizations, all independent, include
postmasters o f the different classes. The National Association o f
Postmasters of the United States embraces presidentially appointed
postmasters of first and second class post offices; the Service Post­
masters5 Association includes postmasters of the first, second, and
third class offices who have been promoted to postmasterships from
the classified civil service; the National League of District Post­
masters o f the United States covers third and fourth class post
offices. Postmasters of the class designated in the Service Post­
masters’ Association are also eligible to membership in the National




179

180

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Association of Postal Supervisors, an organization of supervisory
officials in the classified service. Post office watchmen, messengers,
and laborers comprise the remaining independent union—the Na­
tional Association of Post Office Laborers.
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Faff®
American Federation of Labor locals----------------------------------------------6
Federal Employees, National Federation of------------------------------------180
Fire Fighters, International Association of_________________________
181
Pavers, Rammermen, Flaggers, Bridge and Stone Curb Setters, Inter­
national Union o f-----------------------------------------------------------------------182
State, county, and municipal employees (American Federation of
Labor locals)------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7,179
Teachers, American Federation o f__________________________________
184
Independent organizations:
Policewomen, International Association of__________________________
183
United States Post Office:
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor—
Mail Association, Railway_____________________________________
189
Post Office Clerks, National Federation of_____________________
190
Letter Carriers, National Association of______________________
192
Rural Letter Carriers, National Federation of__________________
193
Independent organizations—
Postmasters of the United States, National Association of______
186
Postmasters of the United States, National League of District__
187
Postmasters’ Association of the United States, Service________
187
Mail Service, National Council of Officials o f the Railway______
188
Postal Supervisors, National Association of____________________
189
Post Office Clerks o f the United States, The United National As­
sociation of_________________________________________________
191
Rural Letter Carriers’ Association, National_________________
193
194
Postal Employees, National Alliance o f______________________
Post Office Laborers of the United States, National Association o f195
*

Federal Employees, National Federation of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized September 24, 1917. An organization o f departmental
civil-service employees was formed in Washington, D. C., in March,
1916, at a mass meeting held to protest against the “ Borland rider,”
an amendment to the general appropriation bill which provided for
an increase in hours in the departmental service. The organization
thus established was chartered by the American Federation of Labor
as a directly affiliated local union. The first of the local unions of
the federation was the Women’s Union of the Bureau of Engraving
and Printing, Local No. 105, which was chartered April, 1909.
Organization of Government clerks spread rapidly in the two
years following the inception o f the movement, and in 1917 a national
organization composed of about 50 American Federation o f Labor
locals was established under the name of National Federation of
Federal Employees.
Objects.— “ The objects of this federation shall be to advance the social and
economic welfare and education of the employees of the United States and to
aid in the perfection of systems that will make for greater efficiency in the
various services of the United States.
“ The methods for attaining these objects shall be by petition to Congress, by
creating and fostering public sentiment favorable to proposed reforms, by
cooperation with Government officials and employees, by legislation, and other
lawful means: Provided, That under no circumstances shall this federation
engage in or support strikes against the United States Government.”



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Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and insular possessions, and whereever employees of the Federal Government may be stationed.
Trade jurisdiction.— The United States Government service and the District of
Columbia Government service excluding workers in the trades coming under
the craft unions and the Postal Service.
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
and nine vice presidents. “ Subject to the convention, the executive council
shall be the governing body of, and direct the policies of, this federation.”
2. Local unions: “ Each local union may adopt a constitution and by-laws,
which shall become effective only upon approval of the executive council of
the federation.”
3. Convention: Meets biennially; elects general officers, enacts legislation
and determines policies. (Convened annually from 1917 to 1923, when change
was made to biennial.)
Initiative, referendum, and recall. Constitutional amendments by conven­
tion or initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Any person employed in the civil branch of
the United States Government, the District of Columbia, or the insular posses­
sions except those in the Postal Service (not including those in the Executive
department), and those exclusively eligible to membership in any other existing
national or international organizations affiliated to the American Federation
of Labor, is eligible to membership.” Male and female membership.
Agreements.—None. Salaries, hours, working conditions, etc., controlled by
legislation.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The Federal Employee.
Headquarters.—Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State associations (affiliation optional on part of locals),
Texas, Arizona, New England Conference; District Federation of Federal Em­
ployees (comprising all locals in District of Columbia).
Local unions: Alabama, 6 ; Alaska, 4 ; Arizona, 17; Arkansas, 2 ; California,
11; Canada, 2 ; Canal Zone, 1; Colorado, 8 ; Connecticut, 3; Cuba, 1; Delaware,
1 ; District of Columbia, 10; Florida, 5; France (Paris), 1; Georgia, 8 ;
Hawaii (Honolulu), 1; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 7; Indiana, 5; Iowa, 4 ; Kansas, 5;
Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Maine, 3 ; Maryland, 17; Massachusetts, 7; Michi­
gan, 6; Minnesota, 10; Mississippi, 3 ; Missouri, 5; Montana, 11; Nebraska, 5;
Nevada, 2 ; New Hampshire, 1; New Jersey, 9; New Mexico, 10; New York, 13;
North Carolina, 5; North Dakota, 6; Ohio, 10; Oklahoma, 11; Oregon, 5; Penn­
sylvania, 9; Philippine Islands, 3; Porto Rico, 1; Rhode Island, 2 ; South
Carolina, 1; South Dakota, 13; Tennessee, 5; Texas, 12; Utah, 4 ; Vermont, 2 ;
Virgin Islands, 1; Virginia, 18; Washington. 15; West Virginia, 4 ; Wisconsin, 6 ;
Wyoming, 3. Total, 348.
Membership.—47,000.

Fire Fighters, International Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized February 28, 1918.
The first organization o f lire
fighters was formed in Washington, D. C., in 1901, and chartered
as a directly affiliated union o f the American Federation of Labor.
Firemen of other cities organized from time to time in the same
manner, and in 1918 delegates from the various unrelated American
Federation o f Labor Unions met in Washington and established the
International Association of Fire Fighters.
Objects.—“ The objects of this association shall be to organize all fire fighters;
to place its members on a higher plane of skill and efficiency; to encourage the
formation of local unions; to encourage the formation o f sick and death benefit
funds in order that we may properly care for our sick and bury our dead* to
encourage the establishment o f schools of instruction for imparting knowledge
o f modern and improved methods of fire fighting and prevention, the cultiva­
tion of friendship and fellowship among its members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.—“ All persons engaged in fire fighting, prevention, operators
o f fire fighting auxiliary apparatus who are permanent and paid employees, in­



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eluding the following: Chief engineer, fire marshal (not including shipyards),
deputy chiefs, assistant chiefs, district chiefs, battalion chiefs, captains, lieu­
tenants, privates, hose men, plugmen, ladder men, water-tower men, engineeis
and assistant engineers, stokers of fire engines, steam, electric, or gas and oil
motive power; chauffeurs, drivers and assistants of fire engines, hose wagons,
hose carriages, chief’s automobile or carriage, fuel wagons, repair and supply
wagons, horse or motor driven; fire-alarm operators and assistants, and linemen
who operate fire-alarm apparatus, both telegraph and telephone; fire inspection
and prevention force; all repairmen of fire apparatus and auxiliaries who are
subject to fire duty; salvage corps, squadmen, pilots, marine engineers, and
marine firemen who are subject to fire fighting and prevention.’,
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, secretary-treasurer, and 13 vice presidents, “ shall, in the interval between conventions, have
full and complete charge of all business of the association not otherwise
provided for.”
2. Local unions: Subordinate unions “ shall have the right to make their own
constitution and by-laws> provided that such constitution and by-laws do not
conflict with those of the parent body.”
3. Convention: Biennial; elects general officers and enacts legislation.
Initiative, referendum, and recall.
Qualification for membership.—Any regular paid worker in the municipal fire
service is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Regulated by municipal law.
Benefits.—Death (local only).
Official organ.—The International Fire Fighter.
Headquarters.—American Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State associations: Ohio, Washington, British Columbia Pro­
vincial Association, Alberta and Saskatchewan Provincial Association.
Local unions: United States—Alabama, 1; Arkansas. 3; California, 4; Colo­
rado, 2; Georgia, 1; Illinois, 10; Indiana, 1; Iowa, 8 ; Kansas, 6 ; Kentucky, 3 ;
Massachusetts, 4 ; Minnesota, 4 ; Mississippi, 4 ; Missouri, 4 ; Montana, 2; New
Jersey, 3; New York 13; Ohio, 22; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania 0;
South Carolina, 1; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 3; Utah, 1; Washington, 4 ; West
Virginia, 3: Wisconsin, 8; Canal Zone, 1. Canada— Alberta, 4 ; British Colum­
bia, 3; New Brunswick, 1; Ontario, 5 ; Quebec, 2 ; Saskatchewan, 3. Total, 149.
Membership.—20,000.

Pavers, Rammermen, Flaggers, Bridge and Stone Curb Setters,
International Union of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized August 28, 1905.
Objects.—“ We declare to the world that our aims are: First, to establish an
international union of pavers, rammermen, asphalt workers, mastic asphalt
workers, asphalt block, brick, iron slag, and wood-block pavers, flaggers, bridge
and stone curb setters, by which we may more closely combine the street
building industry within our jurisdiction; second, to protect our industrial
interests by close mutual intercourse; third,*to abolish the 10-hour working
system, and also the subcontract system, and to establish a new schedule or
system in vogue by the General Government; fourth, to persuade employers to
agree to arbitrate all differences which may arise between them and their
employees, in order that the bonds of sympathy between them may be strength­
ened and that strikes may be avoided; to secure to its members the full enjoy­
ment of the profits of their labor, sufficient leisure in which to develop their
intellectual, moral, and social faculties by association; in a word, to enable
them to share in the gains and honors of advancing civilization.” (Preamble
to constitution.)
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All paving and ramming of streets, highways, roadways,
and alleys, and repairs of the same and other places where the laying of
granite, cobblestone, bluestone. asphalt block, sheet asphalt, wood block, brick,
bitulithic, curb, bridge, and flag and mastic asphalt, and other materials used
for surface finishing of streets, etc,”




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Government.—1. “ The government and management of the international
union shall be vested in the executive board,” composed of president, eight vice
presidents, general secretary, and treasurer.
The president is the chief organizer.
2. District council, composed of three or more locals in a locality, “ shall
be the tribunal on all trade matters in said locality, and all local unions
affiliated shall be required to conform to all laws and mandates of said body,
and all business transacted in any such district council shall be mandatory on
all local unions affiliated therewith.”
3. Local unions: Subordinate; chartered and grouped according to class of
work performed by members.
4. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person engaged in work covered by juris­
diction is eligible to membership. Men employed as foremen are admitted if
they are under civil service.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—819 Third Avenue, New York City.
Organization.—Local unions: United States—California, 3 ; Illinois, 6 ; Ken­
tucky, 3 ; Maine, 2 ; Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 2 ; Missouri, 6 ; New Jersey,
3; New York, 40; Ohio, 8 ; Pennsylvania, 3 ; Rhode Island, 1; Wisconsin, 3.
Total, 82.
Membership.—Not reported. American Federatibn o f Labor voting strength.

2,000.

Policewomen, International Association of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.

Organized in Baltimore, Md., in 1915.
Objects.—“ The object of this association shall be to fix standards for the
service of policewomen, to secure proper training, to inspire the appointment
of qualified policewomen, to encourage the establishment of women’s bureaus
in the police departments, to work for the general improvement of the service,
and to promote such service internationally.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— Policewomen, police matrons, jail matrons, and public
social service agents.
Government.—Executive board, consisting of president, vice president, secre­
tary-treasurer, and five board members is the administrative body. Regional
chairman (seven) are local executives.
2.
Convention: Held annually; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention only.
General membership organization. No local unions. All members in good
standing are entitled to a seat, voice, and vote in convention.
Qualifications for membership.— “ Membership shall be open to policewomen,
police matrons, and all others interested in the purposes of the organization.”
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—Policewomen’s International Bulletin.
Headquarters.—1418 I Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Organization.— General membership organization. Regional divisions are:
1. New England; 2. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, Delaware,
District of Columbia; 3. Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi,
Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina; 4. Illinois, Indiana,
Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, Wisconsin; 5. Iowa, Minnesota, Mon­
tana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming; 6. Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas,
Nebraska, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas; 7. California, Washington,
Oregon, Utah, Idaho, Nevada, and Arizona.
Membership.—600.
67004°—29------ 13




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Teachers, American Federation of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., on April 15,1916. The national organi­
zation when founded was composed of eight groups of teachers in
various cities who had been previously organized as directly affiliated
American Federation of Labor local unions. A t the instigation of
the Chicago locals a conference was held and federation effected.
Later the new organization was chartered by the American Federa­
tion of Labor as an affiliated national union.
Objects.—“ The objects of this organization shall be: To bring associations
o f teachers into relations of mutual assistance and cooperation; to obtain for
them aU the rights to which they are entitled; to raise the standard of the
teaching profession by securing the conditions necessary to the best profes­
sional services; to promote such a democratization of the schools as will enable
them better to equip their pupils to take their places in the industrial, social,
and political life of the community.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—The United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— The teaching staffs of public schools.
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of president, secretary-treasurer,
and 11 vice presidents, shall carry out the instructions of the national conven­
tions and “ shall have power to deal with all the affairs of the federation
between conventions.”
2. Local unions: Autonomy not defined.
3. Convention: Meets annually; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments either by convention or referendum vote.
Qualifications for membership.—Any public school teacher who has classroom
work and who has no disciplinary or rating power over other teachers, is eligible
to membership. Principals and supervisors may be admitted to membership
by vote of local organization. Male and female membership.
Agreements.—None.
Salaries, regulations, working conditions, etc., con­
trolled by municipal government through the boards of education.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The American Teacher.
Headquarters.—506 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Locals may include all members in a city, or may be divided
on basis of high-school and grade-school teachers, or male teachers and female
teachers. Arkansas, 1; California. 5; Colorado, 1; District of Columbia, 3 ;
Georgia, 4 ; Illinois, 5; Indiana, 1; Massachusetts, 1; Minnesota, 3; New Jersey,
3 ; New York, 6; North Dakota, 1; Ohio, 1; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 1; Rhode
Island, 1; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 1; Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 3.
Total, 44.
Membership.—5,000.

UNITED STATES POST OFFICE
HISTORY OF POST-OFFICE ORGANIZATIONS

The National Association of Letter Carriers was organized in Bos­
ton in 1890. The first three years were characterized largely by dis­
sension between groups inside and outside of the Knights of Labor.
Two publications were maintained: The Postal Record, of the inde­
pendents, and The Postman, of the Knights of Labor. Gradual ab­
sorption and the decline of the Knights of Labor resulted in a more
unified organization, and by 1900 its ranks included practically all
those eligible to membership.
A. clerk at the post office in Louisville, Ky., organized the clerks in
that office in 1883, and by correspondence brought representatives o f
several offices together in Washington in 1884. This group remained
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The New York post-office clerks organized in 1888, and called a
delegate conference in Washington in 1889. This meeting issued a
call to all first-class post offices to meet in 1890. This call was almost
generally responded to, and in February, 1890, the National Asso­
ciation o f Post Office Clerks was organized.
Dissension over the admission of supervisors and the activities of
New York Branch 187, composed of chiefs and supervisors, involving
the “ promotion syndicate ” scandal, led to a schism and the forma­
tion of the United Association of Post Office Clerks. After two years
of fighting, with the new organization encroaching on the rank and
file o f the old, a merger was effected in 1899 under the name of the
Uinted National Association of Post Office Clerks (the Unapoc).
Meanwhile Chicago had remained outside both groups. In 1900
the organized clerks at the Chicago post office were chartered as a
local union in direct affiliation with the American Federation of
Labor. As a result of a bolt from the Unapoc convention of 1905,
involving the conservative policies of the officials, and with the Chi­
cago union as a nucleus, the National Federation of Post Office Clerks
was formed in 1906 and chartered by the American Federation of
Labor. This was the first step toward identification of the postal
employees with the organized labor movement.
The National Rural Letter Carriers’ Association was organized in
Chicago in 1903. The national body was chiefly a federation of
State organizations, which in turn were composed of county units.
Its rallying and organizing medium was the R. F. D. News, a publi­
cation owned, edited, and controlled by an individual who had no
connection with the Rural Mail Service but this publication became,
nevertheless, the official organ of the National Rural Letter Carriers’
Association. At its peak of organization the association contained
60 per cent o f the rural mail carriers. Following the sale of the R.
F. D. News, disaffection set in and grew to the point of revolt in 1920,
when the National Federation of Rural Letter Carriers was formed
and affiliated to the American Federation of Labor. Both organiza­
tions continue to exist.
The organization of railway mail clerks began in 1897 as a mutual
insurance concern, prompted by the hazards of the work and the pro­
hibitive insurance rates charged by private insurance companies. In
1904 the scope was widened and the organization became the Rail­
way Mail Association. Division chiefs and the general superintend­
ent of railway mails were members of the organization.
An insurgent movement within the body under the leadership of
Carl Van Dyke, resulted in the organization of the Brotherhood of
Railway Mail Clerks. Central labor unions in 12 cities organized
the railway mail clerks into directly affiliated American Federation
o f Labor locals, which, brought together in 1914, were chartered by
the American Federation of Labor as a national under the name of
Van Dyke’s organization, the Brotherhood of Railway Mail Clerks.
It was, however, largely a dual membership organization, composed
o f the militants in the Railway Mail Association, who, nevertheless,
retained their Railway Mail Association membership because o f its
beneficial and insurance features.




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T R A D E -U N IO N S

In 1917 the Brotherhood of Railway Mail Clerks amalgamated
with the National Federation of Post Office Clerks under the name of
National Federation of Postal Employees.
This organization began organizing locals of letter carriers and
chartering them under its jurisdiction, with the declared intention of
bringing all postal employment under one union. The result of this
move was to bring the National Association of Letter Carriers into
affiliation with the American Federation of Labor in 1917 in order to
hold its jurisdiction, and the National Federation of Postal Employ­
ees surrendered its carrier members. City letter carriers are now
practically completely organized as an American Federation of
Labor affiliated union.
In December, 1917, the Railway Mail Association followed the
example of the National Association of Letter Carriers and affiliated.
The National Federation of Postal Employees then released its rail­
way clerks (former members of the Brotherhood of Railway Mail
Clerks) to the Railway Mail Association and reverted to its old title
o f National Federation of Post Office Clerks.
In 1917, also, the United National Association of Post Office Clerks
suggested affiliation with the American Federation of Labor, but this
could hot be granted because the National Federation of Post Office
Clerks held the charter for that jurisdiction. Conferences between
the two organizations looking toward a merger came to nothing, and
they remain distinct and antagonistic organizations in the same
field.
The Railway Mail Association does not admit negroes to member­
ship although the other postal organizations do so. In 1913 the
National Alliance of Postal Employees was organized by the colored
postal men. It is composed chiefly of men in the Railway Mail
Service, but its jurisdiction is not restricted to any one branch, its aim
being one organization for all colored workers in the Postal Service.
It is not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
The National Association of Post Office Laborers is another inde­
pendent organization, unaffiliated, but which works in cooperation
and harmony with the big postal unions.
Postmasters of the United States, National Association of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Object.—“ The object of this association is to aid in the improvement o f the
Postal Service of the United States, and for the mutual interchange of ideas
c f members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—First and second class post offices ( “ presidential” post­
masters).
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, 3 vice presi­
dents, secretary, treasurer, and 10 additional members appointed by the presi­
dent, “ shall have sole control of the affairs of the association and may make
its own rules for the proper conduct of the association.” The president is the
executive head, “ fully empowered to direct the affairs of the association.
2.
Convention: Held annually; elects general officers. Constitutional amend­
ments by convention.
Qualifications for membership.—“ All presidential postmasters shall be eligible
to membership.”
Agreements.—None; salaries and conditions determined by legislation.




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Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The Postmaster’s Gazette.
Headquarters.—Wilkes-Barre, Pa. ( variable) •
Organization.—Fifteen regional divisions: Atlanta (Ga.) division; Austin
(Tex.) division; Boston (Mass.) division; Chattanooga (Tenn.) division;
Chicago (111.) division; Cincinnati (Ohio) division; Denver (Colo.) division;
Kansas City (Mo.) division; New York (N. Y.) division; Philadelphia (Pa.)
division; St. Louis (Mo.) division; St. Paul (Minn.) division; San Francisco
(Calif.) division; Spokane (Wash.) division; Washington (D. C.) division.
General membership organization.
Membership.—2,404.

Postmasters of the United States, National League of District
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1894 as the National League of Postmasters of
Fourth Class Offices. This was expanded in 1912 to include the
third-class postmasters, and the name National League of Post­
masters of the United States was adopted. In 1921 that name was
changed to National League of District Postmasters of the United
States.
Objects.— “ The objects of the league shall be to promote fraternal relation­
ship among all postal workers; to improve the efficiency of the postmasters of
the third and four classes and their assistants; to cooperate with the Post
Office Department in maintaining the highest possible standards of postal serv­
ice; to create and maintain county service councils in conformity with the
plan indorsed by the Post Office Department and to better the conditions of its
individual members and improve the conditions under which they work.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and insular possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.—Third and fourth class post offices.
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, first vice presi­
dent, and three elected executive committeemen, “ shall have charge of and
transact business for the league during the time intervening between league
meetings.”
2. State leagues: “ Each State branch shall adopt a constitution and by-laws
in conformity to the constitution of the national league,” and shall be governed
by an executive committee elected by the membership.
3. Convention: Held annually, elects general officers, enacts legislation; con­
stitutional amendments by convention only.
Qualifications for membership.—Postmasters, ex-postmasters, assistant post­
masters, and acting postmasters o f third and fourth class post offices are eligible
to membership.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The Postmasters* Advocate.
Headquarters.—1110 F Street, Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State membership, subdivided into county units or congres­
sional district units in some States. There is a State branch in each of the
48 States, and in Hawaii and Porto Rico.
Membership.—17,000.

Postmasters’ Association of the United States, Service4
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized October 1,1923.
Objects.—“ The purpose of the association shall be to secure for service post­
masters the advantages of the retirement act, and such other legislation and
proposals as may be in the interest of service postmasters, to be determined
from time to time in national conventions.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.—First, second, and third class post offices.
4 Postmasters promoted from the classified civil service.




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Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, vice president
secretary, treasurer, and 10 members appointed by the president.
2.
Convention: Held annually; elects general officers, and formulates policy
and program of organization.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Any person appointed or promoted to the
office of postmaster who has previously held a position in the classified civil
service, shall be eligible to membership.”
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—Corry, Pa. (secretary).
Organization.— General membership organization; no local divisions.
Membership.—960.

Mail Service, National Council of Officials of the Railway
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City, January 18, 1922.
Objects.— “ The object of this association is to provide an authoritative body
for the crystallization of ideas on service problems; the interchange of opinions
and experiences among ourselves; to increase our fitness in administrative
acts; the furtherance of the welfare of the members of this association and
the selection of duly accredited representatives to present our views in our
contacts with the department, with the public, and with other postal organiza­
tions; and in the deliberations of the National Welfare Council.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— Supervisory grades of the Railway Mail Service.
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, vice president
secretary treasurer, and four additional elected members, “ shall * * *
promote the welfare and progress of the council; carry out the orders and
purposes of the council; authorize and supervise the expenditures of the coun­
cil.”
2. Local divisions: Government not provided for in national constitution.
3. Convention: “ Annual meeting.” Elects general officers. Constitutional
amendments by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Superintendents, assistant superintendents,
chief clerks, assistant chief clerks, and clerks in charge of sections in super­
intendents’ offices of the United States Railway Mail Service are eligible to
membership.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—None.
Ofilcial organ*—None.
Headquarters.—City pest office, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—One chapter for each of the 15 divisions of the Railway Mail
Service: First division, New England States; headquarters, Boston. Second
division, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, the Eastern Shore
of Maryland, Accomac and Northampton Counties, Va., and Porto R ico; head­
quarters, New York City. Third division, Maryland (except Eastern Shore),
Virginia (except Accomac and Northampton Counties), West Virginia, North
Carolina, and the District of Columbia; headquarters, Washington. Fourth
division, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Tennessee; head­
quarters, Atlanta. Fifth division, Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky; headquarters,
Cincinnati. Sixth division, Illinois and Iow a; headquarters, Chicago. Seventh
division, Kansas and Missouri; headquarters, St. Louis. Eight division, Cali­
fornia, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and Hawaii; headquarters, San Francisco,
Ninth division, the main line of the New York Central Railroad between New
York City and Chicago and the lower peninsula of Michigan; headquarters,
Cleveland. Tenth division, Wisconsin, northern peninsula of Michigan, Minne­
sota, North Dakota, and South Dakota; headquarters, St. Paul. Eleventh
division, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico; headquarters, Fort
Worth, Tex. Twelfth division, Louisiana and Mississippi; headquarters,
New Orleans. Thirteenth division, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and
Alaska; headquarters, Seattle. Fourteenth division, Nebraska, Colorado, and
Wyoming; headquarters, Omaha. Fifteenth division, the main lines of the
Pennsylvania Railroad System from New York, via Pittsburgh, to Chicago and
St. Louis, Mo., and collateral lines.
Membership.—330.



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189

Mail Association, Railway
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized and incorporated December 12, 1898.
Objects.— “ The object of this association is to conduct the business o f a fra­
ternal beneficiary association for the sole benefit of its members and bene­
ficiaries and not for profit; to provide closer social relations among railway
postal clerks, to enable them to perfect any movement that may be for their
benefit as a class or for the benefit of the Railway Mail Service, and make
provision for the payment o f benefits to its members and their beneficiaries
in case of death, temporary or permanent physical disability as a result of
accidental means.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.—The United States Railway Mail Service.
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of the president, vice presi­
dent, industrial secretary, secretary of the association, and the division presi­
dents, shall “ direct the policies of the association as determined by the conven­
tion,” and “ shall have exclusive control of all matters not otherwise provided
for in the interim of national conventions.”
2. Division associations: “ There may be a division association for each divi­
sion of the Railway Mail Service.5 Division associations shall adopt a consti­
tution, by-laws, rules, and regulations not inconsistent with the national consti­
tution,” subject to approval by the executive committee.
3. Branch associations: “ There shall be such branch associations in each
division as shall organize in accordance with the rules and regulations of the
national convention.” Constitution and by-laws subject to approval of execu­
tive committee.
4. Convention: Held biennially; “ shall be the supreme executive, legislative,
and judicial body o f the order.” Enacts legislation and determines policies.
Constitutional amendments by convention vote.
Initiative and referendum. General officers elected by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any regular male railway postal clerk or
certified male substitute railway postal clerk o f the United States Railway Mail
Service, who is of the Caucasian race, is eligible to membership.
Agreements.—None; salaries, hours, and working conditions determined by
legislation.
Benefits.—Fraternal organization within the union provides life and accident
insurance through assessment plan. Membership voluntary.
Official organ.—The Railway Post Office.
Headquarters.—American Federation o f Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Divided into 15 districts to correspond to the 15 divisions of
the Railway Mail service.
Local unions: Alabama, 1; Arkansas, 2 ; California, 3; Colorado, 4 ; Con­
necticut, 1; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 1; Georgia, 1; Idaho, 1; Illinois,
11; Iowa, 8; Indiana, 5; Kansas, 2 ; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1; Maine, 2;
Maryland, 2 ; Massachusetts, 2 ; Michigan, 7; Minnesota, 5; Mississippi, 2;
Missouri, 4; Montana, 2; Nebraska, 3; New Jersey, 1; New Hampshire, 1;
New Mexico, 1; New York, 8; North Carolina, 2; North Dakota, 3; Ohio, 7;
Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 2 ; Pennsylvania, 4; Rhode Island, 1; South Carolina, 1;
South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 3 ; Texas, 9; Utah, 2; Vermont, 1; Virginia, 3 ;
Washington, 2; West Virginia, 3 ; Wisconsin, 4 ; Wyoming, 2. Total, 134.
Membership.—20,000.

Postal Supervisors, National Association of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized September 8, 1908, in Louisville, Ky.
Objects.— “ The objects o f this association shall be to cooperate with the
department to improve the Postal Service and the welfare of its employees;
to raise the standard of efficiency; to establish uniform and equitable com­
pensation ; uniform, modern, economical business methods; and widen the field
* For these divisions, see National Council of Officials of the Railway Mail Service.




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of opportunity for worthy employees who make the business of the Postal Serv­
ice their life work.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.—The supervisory grades o f the United States Postal
Service.
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, vice president,
and five members appointed by the president “ shall carry out the orders of the
association and conduct all business during the interim of the conventions.”
2. State and local branches: “ May enact by-laws not in conflict with this
constitution, subject to the approval of the national president.”
3. Convention: Held annually; elects general officers and enacts legislation.
Constitutional amendments by convention. No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “All classified postal employees above the
clerk-carrier grade and postmasters promoted to that position from the classi­
fied service, shall be eligible for active membership.”
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—The Postal Supervisor.
Headquarters.—New' York, N. Y.
Organization.— Local associations organized on basis o f city or State unit—
Locals: Alabama, 3 ; California, 6 ; Colorado, 2 ; Connecticut, 5; District of
Columbia, 1; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 2 ; Illinois, 5; Indiana, 2; Iowa, 4 ; Kansas,
3; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 1; Maine, 1; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 5; Min­
nesota, 4 ; Missouri, 2 ; Nebraska, 2 ; New Jersey, 7; New York, 9; North
Dakota, 1; Ohio, 5 ; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 8; Rhode Island,
1; South Dakota, 1; Tennessee, 3 ; Texas, 5; Utah, 1; Virginia, 3 ; Washington,
3 ; West Virginia, 1; Wisconsin, 3. Total, 106.
Membership.—5,500.

Post Office Clerks, National Federation of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago, 111., on August 27, 1906. At the time of
organizing as a national union it was composed of seven unions
chartered by the American Federation of Labor as directly affiliated
locals. This group of postal clerks was the first of the postal
unions to organize on a trade-union basis, and was the first organiza­
tion of Government employees to become identified with the labor
movement.
Objects.—“ The objects of the National Federation of Post Office Clerks shall
be to unite the postal employees in one brotherhood for their social and eco­
nomic advancement, and to aid in the perfection of the Postal Service. * * *
It shall be the purpose of the National Federation of Post Office Clerks to
advance the interests of the postal employees and the Postal Service and to
aid all workers in distress. * * *
“ We recognize the fact that legislation and not strike is the last resort
in the adjustment of our grievances, and therefore we oppose strikes in the
Postal Service.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and insular possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.— Clerks and special clerks in first and second class post
offices.
Government.—1. Executive committee, consisting of president, secretarytreasurer, and nine vice presidents, “ shall supervise all of the federation’s
business not otherwise provided for.”
2. Local unions: “ Local unions organized under and subordinate to the
national federation shall * * * have the right to make their own consti­
tution and by-laws, provided that such constitution and by-laws do not conflict
with those of the parent body.”
3. Convention: Meets biennially; elects officers and enacts legislation; amend­
ments to constitution either by convention or by referendum vote. Initiative,
referendum, and recall.
Qualifications for membership.— “ Any person in the classified service who is
designated as -a post office clerk, and other postal employees not exercising
supervisorial authority or eligible to membership in any other organization



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191

affiliated with the American Federation o f Labor, shall be eligible to membership.” Male and female membership.
Agreements.—None. Salaries, hours, working conditions, etc., determined by
legislation.
Benefits.— Sick and death (contributory insurance organizations within the
union).
Official organ.—The Union Postal Clerk.
Headquarters.— American Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State associations: Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado,
Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri,
Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Caro­
lina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Porto Rico, Rhode
Island South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia,
Washington, and Wisconsin. (Affiliation of locals with State associations not
mandatory.)
Local unions: Alabama, 22; Alaska, 1 ; Arizona, 12; Arkansas, 11; Cali­
fornia, 181; Colorado, 30; Connecticut, 14; Delaware, 1; District o f Columbia,
2 ; Florida, 19; Georgia, 12; Hawaii, 2; Idaho, 21; Illinois, 47; Indiana, 32;
Iowa, 27; Kansas, 23; Kentucky, 14; Louisiana, 12; Maine, 5; Maryland, 7;
Massachusetts, 22; Michigan, 39; Minnesota, 26; Mississippi, 9 ; Missouri, 31;
Montana, 16; Nebraska, 19; Nevada, 1 ; New Hampshire, 10; New Jersey, 27;
New Mexico, 7; New York, 46; North Carolina, 16; North Dakota, 8 ; Ohio,
39; Oklahoma, 22; Oregon, 31; Pennsylvania, 54; Porto Rico, 8; Rhode Island,
6; South Carolina, 8 ; South Dakota, 16; Tennessee, 28; Texas, 34; Utah, 5 ;
Vermont, 4 ; Virginia, 24; Washington, 18; West Virginia, 2; Wisconsin, 29;
Wyoming, 9. Total, 1,059.
Membership.— 40,000.

Post Office Clerks of the United States, the United National
Association of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1899, in New York City; incorporated under the
laws of Maryland on January 25, 1900; reincorporated in the
District o f Columbia in 1909.
Objects.—“ To improve the efficiency o f the Postal Service, to unite fraternally
all post office clerks in the United States who are eligible to membership,
for the protection o f themselves and their dependents in the event of death
or disability; to secure through cooperation with the Post Office Department
the classification o f post office clerks, with a view to securing more equitable
salary rates, regulation of hours of labor, the upholding at all times of civilservice rules and regulations, and for the establishment of branch associa­
tions and a mutual benefit auxiliary, and such other objects as may from time
to time arise.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.—The classified clerical service o f the United States Post
Office (exclusive o f the executive departmental office).
Government.—1. Executive committee, composed of president, first vice presi­
dent, secretary, treasurer, and the chairman of the advisory board and the
finance committee (elected), ‘‘ shall have complete control of the affairs of
the national association not otherwise provided for.”
Advisory board (elected) is policy-forming body.
Civil-service committee, composed of president, secretary, and chairman
of the advisory board, acts on “ all matters pertaining” to civil service.
2. State branches: Composed of five or more locals in any State, and char­
tered by the national association. “ State branches shall be governed by such
rules and regulations as they may prescribe,” provided they do not conflict
with national constitution and by-laws.
3. Local branches: Autonomy not defined in constitution.
4. Convention: Held annually; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Laws enacted by convention may be submitted to referendum. Constitutional
amendments by convention, or by convention and referendum.




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Qualifications for membership.—Any employee in the classified civil service
who is designated by the Post Office Department as a post office clerk is eligible
to membership. Male and female membership.
Agreements.—None; working conditions and salary determined by legislation.
Benefits.— Group insurance.
Official organ.—The Post Office Clerk.
Headquarters.—Colorado Building, Washington, D. C.
Organization.— State branches: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Con­
necticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi Missouri, Nebraska, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsyl­
vania, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia,
Wisconsin.
Local branches: Alabama, 41; Alaska, 4 ; Arizona, 15; Arkansas, 45; Califor­
nia, 91; Colorado, 48; Connecticut, 55; Delaware, 14; District of Columbia, 1;
Florida, 40; Georgia, 52; Hawaii, 2; Idaho, 20; Illinois, 209; Indiana, 84; Iowa
68; Kansas, 70; Kentucky, 46; Louisiana, 25; Maine, 42; Maryland, 24;
Massachusetts, 90; Michigan, 82; Minnesota, 64; Mississippi, 28; Missouri, 58;
Montana, 20; Nebraska, 33; Nevada, 12; New Hampshire, 32; New Jersey, 84;
New Mexico, 15; New York, 315; North Carolina, 34; North Dakota, 16; Ohio,
170; Oklahoma, 76; Oregon, 30; Pennsylvania, 290; Porto Rico, 12; Rhode
Island, 14; South Carolina, 32; South Dakota, 12; Tennessee, 27; Texas, 188;
Utah, 6; Vermont, 25; Virginia, 38; Washington, 35; West Virginia, 42;
Wisconsin, 98; Wyoming, 14. Total, 2,988.
Membership.— 45,000.

Letter Carriers, National Association of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized 1889; incorporated February 26, 1892.
Objects.— “ The object of this association shall b e : First, to unite fraternally
all letter carriers in the United States for their mutual benefit; second, to
obtain and secure our rights as Government employees, and to strive at all
times to promote the welfare of every member; third, to create and establish
the United States Letter Carriers’ Mutual Benefit Association; fourth, in con
junction with the Post Office Department to strive for the constant improvement
of the Postal Service; fifth, to create and establish the United States Letter
Carriers’ National Sick Benefit Association.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions.
Trade jurisdiction.—The letter carrier service of the United States Post Office.
Government.—1. General officers: President, vice president, secretary, assist­
ant secretary, treasurer, executive board of five members, one State vice presi­
dent from each State. “ The executive board in conjunction with the president
shall have general supervision and control over the association during recess.”
2. State associations: “ The State association shall be composed of the sub­
ordinate branches in any one State.”
3. District associations: “ The district association shall be composed of the
subordinate branches in a given district.”
4. Subordinate branches: “ The subordinate branches shall be composed of
the members of the National Association of Letter Carriers working under the
supervision of one postmaster.”
Constitution and by-laws for State associations, district associations, and
subordinate branches, respectively, are uniform and dictated by the national
association. Autonomy limited chiefly to size of standing committees, initiation
fees, and dues (within specified limits).
5. Convention: Meets biennially; elects general officers and legislates for
organization, subject to referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Letter carriers and substitute letter carriers
in the United States Postal Service are eligible to membership.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—Life, accident, and health insurance through mutual benefit societies
within the organization.
Official organ.—The Postal Record.
Headquarters.—American Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. O.




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Organization.— State associations: Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado,
Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Ok­
lahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Ver­
mont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
Subordinate branches: Alabama, 21; Arizona, 9 ; Arkansas, 28; California.
128; Colorado, 28; Connecticut, 38; Delaware, 6 ; District of Columbia, 1 ;
Florida, 30; Georgia, 28; Hawaii, 1; Idaho, 19; Illinois, 170; Indiana, 95; Iowa,
87; Kansas, 64; Kentucky, 40; Louisiana, 14; Maine, 30; Maryland, 16; Massa­
chusetts, 91; Michigan, 84; Minnesota, 60; Mississippi, 24; Missouri, 65; Mon­
tana, 16; Nebraska, 35; Nevada, 4 ; New Hampshire, 24; New Jersey, 99; New
Mexico, 8 ; New York, 193; North Carolina, 40; North Dakota, 7; Ohio, 133;
Oklahoma, 45; Oregon, 30; Pennsylvania, 235; Porto Rico, 3 ; Rhode Island, 8;
South Carolina, 25; South Dakota, 17; Tennessee, 42; Texas, 60; Utah, 13:
Vermont, 15; Virginia, 24; Washington, 35; West Virginia, 29; Wisconsin, 76;
Wyoming, 8. Total, 2,401.
Membership.—56,483.

Rural Letter Carriers’ Association, National
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Chicago in 1903.
Objects.— “ The purpose of this association shall be fraternal and for the
study and adoption of the best method of performing the duties of the rural
letter service; to seek improvement in the condition of all its members, and
to cooperate at all times with the department for the advancement o f the
service, ”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— Rural mail service of the United States Post Office.
Government.—1. Executive committee o f three members in conjunction with
the president has “ general supervision and control of the association.”
2. State association, largely autonomous.
3. Convention: Held annually; elects general officers. Constitutional amend­
ments by convention only.
Qualifications for membership.—All regular, substitute, or retired rural letter
carriers are eligible to membership, but each State association determines
qualifications for membership in its own State. (Only white members are
eligible to serve as delegates to conventions or to hold office.)
Agreements.— None. Wages and working conditions determined by legisilation.
Benefits.— Group insurance.
Official organ.—National Rural Letter Carrier.
Headquarters.— Rosston, Okla. (secretary; variable).
Organization.— Unit of organization is, variously, the county, a group if
counties, a congressional district, or one general State association. All States
except Wyoming are represented in the organization.
Membership.—34,493.

Rural Letter Carriers, National Federation of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1920 after a secession movement from the National
Rural Letter Carriers’ Association.
Objects.—“ The objects of the National Federation of Rural Mail Carriers
shall be: First, to unite all rural letter carriers in the United States for their
fraternal, social, and economic advancement; second: In conjunction with the
Post Office Department to strive for the constant improvement of the Postal
Service.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The rural mail service of the United States post office.




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Government.—1. Executive board, composed o f president, vice president, sec­
retary-treasurer, and an executive committee of five elected members, has
executive management of the organization.
2. State branches: Autonomy not defined in constitution.
3. Convention: Held annually; elects general officers and enacts legislation.
Constitutional amendments by convention or by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any one employed as a regular or substitute
rural letter carrier is eligible to membership. (Only white members are eligi­
ble as delegates to conventions or to hold office.)
Agreements.— None. Wages and working conditions controlled by legislation
Benefits.—Death (by assessment).
Official organ.—The Message.
Headquarters.—La Fayette, Ind. (variable).
Organization.— State branches only: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colo­
rado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington,
Wisconsin.
Membership.— Not reported. American Federation of Labor voting strength,
800.

Postal Employees, National Alliance of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Chattanooga, Tenn., in 1913, by negro employees of
the Kailway Mail Service who, because of their race, were not
eligible to membership in the Railway Mail Association. As first
organized membership was confined to workers in the railway mail,
but in 1923 the scope was extended to include all colored workers
in the United States Postal Service.
Objects.—The object of this alliance is “ to provide close relationship among
postal employees to enable them to perfect any movement that will be for
their benefit as a class and for the benefit of the Postal Service; also, to conduct
business for a fraternal beneficiary organization for the sole benefit of its mem­
bers and not for profit; and to provide relief for its members and their bene­
ficiaries and make provision for the payment of benefits to them in case of
death, temporary and permanent disability as a result of accident.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—United States Post Office Department.
Government.—1. The executive committee is composed of the nine district
presidents and the general officers of the organization, namely, president, vice
president, secretary-treasurer, editor, and auditor. The president is the execu­
tive head.
2. District alliances formed in geographical districts outlined by the con­
stitution. Constitution, rules, and by-laws subject to approval of the executive
committee.
3. Branch alliances formed in cities where there are a sufficient number of
workers to maintain a local organization. Constitution and by-laws subject
to approval of the executive committee.
4. Convention: Biennial. Constitutional amendments by convention only.
General officers elected by referendum for two-year terms.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Any regular employee or certified substitute
in the Post Office Department under civil service rules ” is eligible to member­
ship.
Agreements.—None. Wages, hours, and working conditions determined by
legislation.
Benefits.—Death; disability and accident insurance (contributory).
Official organ.—The Postal Alliance.
Headquarters.—1216 U Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Organization.—Local branches: Alabama, 2 ; Arkansas, 2 ; California, 3 ; Dis­
trict of Columbia, 1; Florida, 2 : Georgia, 10, Illinois, 3 ; Indiana, 1; Kansas,
1 ; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2: Maryland. 2: Michigan, 1 : Mississippi. 4 ; Mis­
souri, 3 ; Nebraska, 1 ; New York, 1; North Carolina, 1 ; Ohio, 5 ; Pennsylvania,
2; South Carolina. 3; Tennessee, 5 ; Texas, 9 ; Virginia, 6. Total, 72.
Membership.—3,300.



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Post Office Laborers of the United States, National Association of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized August 7, 1912, incorporated in New Jersey, February
26, 1913.
Objects.—“ To unite fraternally all post-office watchmen, messengers, and
laborers in the United States who are eligible to membership; to secure
through cooperation of the Post Office Department the classification of postoffice watchmen, messengers, and laborers with a view to securing more ac­
ceptable salary rates, regulation of hours of labor, the upholding at all times
of civil-service rules and regulations, and for such other objects as may from
time to time arise.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The watchman, messenger, and laborer classification in
the United States Post Office Department.
Government.—1. General officers: President, two vice presidents, recording
secretary, financial secretary, and treasurer. The president is the adminis­
trative head.
2. Branch associations: “ Branches which reserve the right o f self-govern­
ment and to make their own constitution and by-laws so long as they do not
conflict with the constitution and by-laws of the national association.”
3. Convention: Held annually; elects general officers. Constitutional amend­
ments by vote only.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person who is in the employ o f the
Post Office Department as a watchman, messenger, or laborer, is eligible to
membership.
Agreements.—None. Wages and working conditions determined by legislation.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—1951 Fifty-third Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (secretary; variable).
Organization.—Local branches and membership at large: Arkansas, 1 ; Cali­
fornia, 1; Colorado, 1; Connecticut, 1; District of Columbia, 1; Georgia, 1 ;
Illinois, 2 ; Iowa, 1; Kentucky, 1; Maine, 1; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 2 ;
Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 2 ; Missouri, 2 ; Nebraska, 1; New Jersey, 1; New York,
6 ; Ohio, 3 ; Oklahoma, 1; Pennsylvania, 2 ; Texas, 2 ; Utah, 1 ; Washington, 1.
Total, 37.
Membership.—2,117.




AMUSEMENTS
•"THREE national organizations—two of them in the professional
*
field—and several American Federation of Labor local unions
are found in the entertainment business.
The largest in this group, and one of the largest and strongest
organizations in the labor movement as well, is the American Fed­
eration of Musicians, the jurisdiction of which embraces professional
players of musical instruments.
The second professional organization, the Associated Actors and
Artistes o f America, is a federation of various autonomous bodies
covering different branches of the theatrical profession. One of the
component organizations, Actors’ Equity Association, comprises
nearly three-fourths of the entire membership. It is composed of
actors and actresses on the legitimate stage. Other distinct craft
groups within the federation include vaudeville actors and musical
comedy and grand-opera choruses.
Theatrical stage employees and moving-picture machine operators
are represented in the third national organization.
Theatrical business managers and agents in New York City have
recently organized and have received a charter of affiliation from the
American Federation of Labor as a directly affiliated local union.
Ticket sellers and takers, wardrobe mistresses and attendants, the­
ater ushers, etc., are similarly organized.
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Actors and Artistes of America, Associated--------------------------------------Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Alliance of ( see
Miscellaneous Trades).
Musicians, American Federation of-------------------------------------------------Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the
United States and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical_
Theater Attendants (American Federation of Labor locals)______

Page

196
198
199
7

Actors and Artistes of America, Associated6
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City on July 18, 1919. The first group of
public entertainers to form a union were vaudeville performers and
the union was chartered by the American Federation of Labor as a
directly affiliated local known as Actors’ Protective Union No. 6453.
•There are two other organizations in the theatrical field, the Actors’ Fidelity League
and the National Vaudeville Artists. The Actors* Fidelity League was organized as a
protest against the affiliation of Actors’ Equity with the American Federation of Labor.
It was promoted and encouraged by theatrical producers and managers. The present
membership is 180.
The National Vaudeville Artists was organized by the Keith interests after the defeat of
the old vaudeville union, the White Rats. It is still fostered by the Keith management
and is essentially a “ company union.” It has a membership of about 10,000.
196




AMUSEMENTS

197

The organization grew into a national union chartered in 1896 as the
Actors’ National Protective Union, a name which in 1909 was changed
to the Actors5International Union. In 1900 the American Federation
of Labor chartered a second organization of vaudeville actors known
as the White Rats Union. In 1910 these two organizations amalga­
mated under the name of the larger and more powerful, and re­
ceived a charter as the White Rats Actors’ Union of America.
In the legitimate field the first efforts toward economic organiza­
tion were made by the Actors’ Society of America, but this organi­
zation was short-lived, and by 1916 had ceased to function.
On December 22, 1912, a gathering of 80 actors met in New York
City and took steps toward forming a union. Five months later the
Actors’ Equity Association was launched with 112 members.
With a view to strengthening its position in the effort to secure
advantageous contracts from producers, the association, in 1916, ap­
plied to the American Federation of Labor for a charter of affilia­
tion. Because the White Rats Actors’ Union of America held the
jurisdiction covering the theatrical field the application was refused,
but the suggestion was made that the legitimate actors form a branch
o f the union already chartered. No agreement to that end was
reached and the Actors’ Equity remained outside the American Fed­
eration o f Labor until 1919.
Meanwhile the White Rats Actors’ Union had been practically
annihilated as the result o f disastrous defeat in their strike o f 1917.
When the Actors’ Equity Association made a second application
to the American Federation of Labor for affiliation, in 1919, the
White Rats surrendered their charter and the federation chartered
both groups under the title “Associated Actors and Artistes of
America.”
This organization is a federation of autonomous groups divided by
crafts and nationalities. The component organizations are: In the
legitimate field—Actors’ Equity Association (which comprises more
than 70 per cent of the total membership), Hebrew Actors’ Union,
and Hungarian Actors and Artistes’ Association; in the vaudeville
field—American Artistes’ Federation (formerly White Rats Actors’
Union), and the German White Rats Actors’ Union; chorus—Chorus
Equity Association, Grand Opera Choral Alliance, and Hebrew
Chorus Union.
Objects.—“ The policy of this union shall be the ‘ union shop*; an equitable
contract and to prevent and abolish all abuses from which its members suffer
or may suffer.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States, Canada, Mexico, South America, and
Cuba.
Trade jurisdiction.— “All actors and actresses, whether legitimate, lyceum,
circus, cabaret, vaudeville, Chautauqua, burlesque, motion picture, stage man­
ager, director, assistant stage manager or director, or any other entertainers
of the public.”
Government.—Governed by an executive committee composed of president,
vice president, secretary-treasurer and five other elected members.
General meeting held annually in New York City.
Qualifications for membership.—Actors’ Equity Association: “ Persons who
have been actors for at least two years are eligible to election as regular
members. Persons who have been actors for less than two years and who
have played at least one speaking part are eligible to election as junior mem­
bers.”
Hebrew Actors’ Union: Applicants must qualify by acting a part acceptably
before the membership.



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HANDBOOK OF AMEBICAN TRADE-UNIONS

Other groups: All persons actually engaged within the jurisdiction covered
are eligible to membership.
Agreements.—Actors’ Equity Association negotiates as an organization with
producers, both associated and independent. “ Basic agreement ” covers stand­
ard minimum working conditions. Signed individually and supplemented by
a personal contract covering pay.
Chorus Equity Association negotiates an agreement with producers, both
associated and independent, covering working conditions and a minimum wage
scale.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None. (Actors* Equity Association publishes “ Equity” as
its official organ.)
Headquarters.—115 West Forty-seventh Street, New York City.
Organization.—General membership organization; no locals.
Branches: Actors’ Equity Association, Chorus Equity Association, American
Artistes’ Federation, Grand Opera Choral Alliance, which are craft divisions;
German White Rats Actors’ Union, Hebrew Chorus Union, Hebrew Actors’
Union, Hungarian Actors’ and Artistes’ Association, which are language and
craft divisions.
Membership.—14,000.

Musicians, American Federation of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Indianapolis, Ind., October 19, 1896. The present
organization o f musicians was founded at a convention held in
Indianapolis on October 19, 1896, at which 27 local organizations
were represented. A musician’s organization, the National League
o f Musicians o f America, existed at the time, but it was a professional
society wholly. Many branches of the league sent representatives
to take part in the organization o f the trade-union, and were expelled
from the league in consequence. In the resulting struggle between
the two organizations for the control of professional musicians, the
old league was gradually absorbed by the new federation.
Objects.—“ The object of the American Federation of Musicians shall be to
unite all local unions of musicians, the individual musicians who form such
local unions, and conditional members of the American Federation of Musicians
into one grand organization for the purpose of the general protection and
advancement of their interests, and for the purpose of enforcing good faith
and fair dealing, as well as consistency with union principles, in all cases
involving or of interest to members and local unions of the federation.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— Professional players of musical instruments.
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of president, vice president,
secretary, treasurer, and five elected members, one of whom shall be a Canadian,
“ shall have general supervision of all matters pertaining to the federation.”
2. Local unions: Subordinate; autonomy limited.
3. Convention: Held annually; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ Performers on musical instruments of any
kind who render musical services for pay are classed as professional musi­
cians and are eligible to membership.” Male and female membership.
Agreements.—All agreements and contracts, whether for individuals or for
organizations, must be made on official blanks of the American Federation of
Musicians. Detailed price scales, hours, working conditions, etc., are fixed
by the general laws of the organization.
Benefits.—Strike.
Official organ.—The International Musician.
Headquarters.—37-39 William Street, Newark, N. J.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 5; Arizona, 3 ;
Arkansas, 6 ; California, 37; Colorado, 11; Connecticut, 22; Delaware, 2 ;
District of Columbia, 2; Florida, 12; Georgia, 5; Idaho, 4 ; Illinois, 85; Indiana,
28; Iowa, 22; Kansas, 17; Kentucky, 4 ; Louisiana, 3 ; Maine, 7 ; Maryland, 5 ;
Massachusetts, 30; Michigan, 19; Minnesota, 13; Mississippi, 5 ; Missouri, 13;



AMUSEMENTS

199

Montana, 15; Nebraska, 6 ; Nevada, 3 ; New Hampshire, 4 ; New Jersey, 20; New
Mexico, 2 ; New York, 61; North Carolina, 3 ; North Dakota, 4; Ohio, 57; Okla­
homa, 16; Oregon, 6; Pennsylvania, 71; Rhode Island, 4 ; South Carolina, 3 ;
South Dakota, 4 ; Tennessee, 4 ; Texas, 17; Utah, 4 ; Vermont, 2 ; Virginia, 5 ;
Washington, 18; West Virginia, 15; Wisconsin, 27; Wyoming, 9; Hawaii, 1.
Canada—Alberta, 3 ; British Columbia, 3; Manitoba, 2 ; New Brunswick, 1;
Nova Scotia, 1; Ontario, 28; Quebec, 2 ; Saskatchewan, 5. Total, 786, of which
46 are negro organizations.
Membership.— 125,000.

Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the
United States and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical
Affiliated to the American Federation o f Labor.
Organized July 17, 1893. The first organization among stage
employees began in New York City in the early seventies, with the
formation o f fraternal and relief societies. Later, with the rise of
the Knights o f Labor, the stage hands in several o f the large cities
became identified with that movement.
The locals of stage hands, however^ followed the swing of the
craft unionists from the Knights of Labor to the American Fed­
eration o f Labor, and affiliated with the latter organization as local
trade-unions.
In 1893 the 11 local unions then existing met in conference in
New York City and formed the National Alliance of Theatrical
Stage Employees. Five years later, with the chartering of a local
in Montreal, Canada, the alliance became international in character
and changed its name to International Alliance of Theatrical Stage
Employees.
Changes in the theatrical business have determined the changes
in scope o f the organization. The alliance was founded at a time
when the field was largely limited to legitimate dramatic productions
in the very large cities. Stock-company production in smaller cen­
ters followed, then vaudeville and road shows. Still later, with the
extension o f jurisdiction to motion-picture-machine operators, the
field became practically universal.
Jurisdiction over the motion-picture-machine operators was claimed
by both the stage employees and the electrical workers, and both
these organizations took: projectionists into membership. The theat­
rical stage employees’ organization was the more active and more
successful in the new field, but for years the International Brother­
hood o f Electrical Workers contested their right to the motionicture men. A decision of the 1914 convention of the American
'ederation o f Labor granted the jurisdiction unequivocally to the
International Alliance o f Theatrical Stage Employees.
Following this decision the title of the alliance was expanded to
International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving
Picture Machine Operators o f the United States and Canada. The
new title is not, however, used by the American Federation of Labor,
in which organization it is still chartered as the International A l­
liance o f Theatrical Stage Employees o f America.

S

Objects.— “ To improve our condition, to insure the maintenance of a fair
rate of wages for services competently rendered, to assure the employment of
our members in these industries and that equity may be maintained.”

Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
67004°— 29------ 14




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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TBADE-TOIONS

Trade jurisdiction.—The mechanical department of the theatrical stage
(covering stage carpenters, property men, stage electricians, and all other stage
employees) and the projection of moving pictures.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, seven vice
presidents (one of whom shall be a resident and citizen of Canada), and gen­
eral secretary-treasurer, “ shall have entire supervision and authority over the
alliance except during such time as the alliance is in convention assembled.’'
2. Local unions: “ Home rule is granted to all affiliated locals of this alli­
ance, and this shall be construed as authority conferred upon each local to
exercise full control over its own affairs: Provided, however, That in the con­
duct of such business no action shall be taken that will conflict with any por­
tion of the constitution and by-laws o f the alliance.”
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention only. No referendum except as to
calling special or district conventions.
Qualifications for membership.— Eighteen months’ residence in the jurisdiction,
passing a satisfactory examination; application must be passed upon by general
secretary-treasurer. An applicant for membership “ must have been a member
in good standing of the union of whatever other craft he has followed previous
to the date of his application, provided there has been a local of his craft in
his city.”
Apprenticeship.— Controlled locally.
Agreements.— “All affiliated locals shall enter into written contracts with

local managers and other employers covering conditions of employment of
their members.” (Constitutional mandate.)
Agreements are negotiated by local unions, generally with individual theaters.
Terms vary widely with varying conditions in different localities.
Traveling members have individual contracts which are uniform throughout
the membership.
Benefits.— Strike; and prosecution of claims against employers for members
by claim department of the alliance.
Official organ.— General Bulletin (not a journal).
Headquarters.—1440 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
Organization.— District divisions:
No. 1. Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.

No. 2. California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado.
No. 3. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con­
necticut.
No. 4. New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,
West Virginia, and District of Columbia.
No. 5. Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska.
No. 6. Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Kansas, and Louisiana west of the
Mississippi.
No. 7. Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, North and South Carolina,
Mississippi, and Louisiana east of the Mississippi.
No. 8. Michigan, Indiana* Ohio, and Kentucky.
No. 9. Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri.
No. 10. Minnesota and North Dakota.
No. 11. Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward’s Island, Nova Scotia, and New
Brunswick.
No. 12. Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.
Local unions: Local unions of stage hands and moving-picture-machine op­
erators organized into separate locals except in small towns: Umted States—•
Alabama. 10; Arizona, 3; Arkansas, 4 ; California, 38; Colorado, 8; Connecti­
cut, 17; Delaware, 2; District of Columbia, 2; Florida, 13; Georgia, 6; Idaho,
5 ; Illinois, 32; Indiana, 27; Iowa, 20; Kansas, 16; Kentucky, 4 ; Louisiana,
8 ; Maine, 4 ; Maryland, 5; Massachusetts, 32; Michigan, 18; Minnesota, 10;
Mississippi, 6; Missouri, 15; Montana, 7; Nebraska, 5 ; Nevada, 1; New Hamp­
shire, 1; New Jersey, 22; New Mexico, 1; New York, 56; North Carolina, 8 ;
North Dakota, 3; Ohio, 46; Oklahoma, 15; Oregon, 5; Pennsylvania, 52; Rhode
Island, 4 ; South Carolina, 4 ; South Dakota, 4 ; Tennessee, 10; Texas, 31; Utah,
4 ; Virginia, 10; Washington, 16; West Virginia, 8; Wisconsin, 19; Wyoming, 2.
Canada—Alberta, 4 ; British Columbia, 3 ; Manitoba, 2 ; New Brunswick, 1;
Ontario, 20; Quebec, 4 ; Saskatchewan, 5. Total, 678.
Membership.—23,000.




MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES
A NUMBER of small craft unions exist in various manufacturing
* * lines which can be classified only as miscellaneous. In but one
case is there any jurisdictional relation between unions in this group.
The exception is in leather production and manufacture, in which
there are two unions with practically the same title, one of them
affiliated to the American Federation of Labor. The independent or­
ganization—the United Leather Workers’ International Union of
America— would be eliminated from the handbook, because it is local
in character in spite of its name, but for the fact that its field of
operation is in the tanning of leather and not in the manufacture of
leather goods, and hence it includes practically all of the organized
tannery workers, although it has no membership outside the tan­
neries of Massachusetts. The jurisdictional claims of the affiliated
union, the United Leather Workers’ International Union, cover tan­
neries, but its actual membership is among workers engaged in leather
manufactures other than gloves and shoes, such as travelers’ goods,
pocketbooks, and leather novelties. The International Pocketbook
Workers’ Union, formerly an independent industrial union, merged
with the affiliated organization in leather manufacture in 1928, in
which it comprises about 75 per cent of the present membership.
The American Wire Weavers’ Association, though small numeri­
cally, is really a closed union, embracing all journeymen in the
trade, which is the manufacture of the Fourdrinier wire screen used
in making paper. It has rigid regulations governing the admission
o f apprentices, and a very high initiation fee for foreign workers.
The organizations in this group are as follows:
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor :
Broom and Whisk Makers’ Union, International___________________
Diamond Workers’ Protective Union of America__________________
Jewelry Workers’ Union, International--------------------------------------------Leather Workers’ International Union, United-------------------------------Powder and High Explosive Workers of America, United_________
Wire Weavers’ Protective Association, American----------------------------Independent organizations:
Leather Workers’ International Union of America, United__________

Page
201
203
204
205
207
208
207

Broom and Whisk Makers9 Union, International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized 1893, as the International Broom Makers’ Union.
Objects.— “ The objects of the international union shall be the promotion of
the material and intellectual welfare of all the workers in the broom trade:
(1) by organization; (2) by education and enlightenment; (3) by reduction
of the hours of labor; (4) by gradually abolishing such evils as exist in the
trade; (5) by aiding the members to secure employment; (6) by agitation
to abolish the competition of convict labor; (7) by agitation to regulate the




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HANDBOOK OF AMEEICAK TBADE-UNIONS

competition of State, county, and city charitable institutions; (8) by making
propaganda for the union label; (9) to establish a uniform scale of wages
in various competitive districts.” (Constitution.)
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The international union shall have jurisdiction over all
broom or whisk tiers and sewers (hand or power), broom-corn sorters, sizers,
bunchers, scrapers, operators on patent broom machines, nailers on metal case
brooms, feather duster makers, all workers engaged in the preparation o f ma­
terial for brooms or whisks, all workers on articles made for sweeping, whether
made of broom corn or other material.”
Government.—1. General executive board, consisting of general president,
general vice president, general secretary-treasurer, and eight district repre­
sentatives. The general secretary is the active administration officer, and is
the only one employed full time on salary.
The genera] executive board represents “ the international organization in
every respect” ; makes and adopts “ such provisions and rules as may become
necessary for the best interests of the organization,” and has full power over
strikes. Decisions of the general executive board may be appealed to the
convention or to referendum.
General officers are selected for a 2-year term, alternately by referendum
and by the convention.
2. Local unions: “ Local unions shall have power to adopt their own scale
of wages,” and “ shall have jurisdiction over apprentices, who shall be sub­
ject to the trade rules of the local.”
3. Convention: Meets every four years; legislates for organization and elects
general officers.
Legislation and amendments to constitution and by-laws by convention and
initative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“ No workers shall be barred from member*
ship in any local union on account of creed, color, or nationality, except
Asiatic labor * * * A candidate for membership as a journeyman tier,
sewer, hand or power, or sorter, must have served two years at the branch
o f the trade for which he claims membership. A candidate for membership
as an auxiliary member must have been employed in a broom factory for
six months.”
Broom inairers and other workers at the trade who are blind and employed
in State, county, city, or privately controlled institutions or workshops for
the blind, will be admitted to membership as local unions.
Membership at large may be held by individuals working in localities where
no locals exist.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ Local unions shall have jurisdiction over ap­
prentices, who shall be subject to the trade rules of the local. In no case
shall there be more than the following apprentices employed: Less than 12
journeymen tiers or sewers, 1 apprentice; 12 or more journeymen tiers or
sewers, but less than 22, 2 apprentices; 22 or more journeymen tiers or sewers,
3 apprentices In no case shall there be more than 3 apprentices in any 1 fac­
tory, or more than 1 apprentice to be an apprentice sewer. No apprentices
shall be put on during a dull season or when journeymen broom makers are
being laid off.
“ The wages to be paid the apprentices shall be the same as received by
journeymen.”
Apprentice term is two years.
Agreements (union label shops) .^
—Negotiated by local unions, subject to
approval of the general executive board. Union label under the direction and
control of the general executive board, and its use is limited and defined by
the constitution and general trade laws.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ.—The Broom Maker.
Headquarters.—853 King Place, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 1 ; Arkansas, 1 ;
California, 2 ; Illinois, 3; Indiana, 1; Iowa, 1; Kansas, 2 ; Louisiana, 1; Mich­
igan, 1; Minnesota, 2; Missouri, 3; New Jersey, 1; New York, 1; Ohio, 1;
Oklahoma, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 2; Texas, 1; Washington, 2 ; Wisconsin, 1;
Canada— Ontario, 2. Total, 30. (One local union in Dublin, Ireland.)
Membership.—Not reported. American Federation o f Labor voting strength,
600.



MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES

203

Diamond Workers’ Protective Union of America
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized September 16, 1902, in New York City. The first
organization was known as the Diamond Polishers’ Protective Union
of America. Jurisdiction was later extended to cutters and setters,
and in 1903 the name was changed to the Diamond Workers’ Pro­
tective Union of America.
Objects.—“ The aim o f this organization is to promote the moral and financial
welfare of all workers in the diamond-cutting industry.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Diamond polishing, cutting, and sawing.
Government.—The executive board, composed o f president, secretary, and
treasurer, and delegates elected by and from the different shops and branches,
“ shall transact all business o f this organization.”
Executive committee, composed of president, secretary, and treasurer, 4 shall
4
represent the union in all instances” and “ shall execute decisions of the
executive board and general meetings.”
“ The delegates are recognized officers of this union. * * * They shall
control all matters in their respective shops, receive complaints, and try to
settle all controversies between the members and the employer except when
wage questions are involved.”
2. General meetings: “ Regular general meetings shall be held once every
three months. * * * General strikes can only be declared and assessments
can only be levied at a general meeting.”
3. Shop and branch meetings: Called by order of the president. “ Members
must attend all shop and branch meetings when called.” General president
presides at branch and shop meetings.
General officers elected by popular vote.
Qualifications for membership.—All bona fide diamond workers are eligible to
membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ The executive board shall have the right to
give consent for the admission of apprentices to the trade subject to the
following rules:
“ Every member can make application to the executive board in writing to
have his son admitted to apprenticeship, provided such son shall be 16 years
old at the time application is made.
“At no time shall the number of apprentices admitted exceed 10 per cent
of the total number of members of this union.
“ No apprentice shall be admitted before he has been subjected to a physical
examination and have had his eyesight tested by the physician and optician
assigned by the union. The reports received from these authorities must be
satisfactory to the board.
“As soon as apprentices shall receive a wage of $18 they shall not longer
be included in the number of apprentices in regard to the percentage admitted
to the trade.
“Apprentices admitted by request of employers shall be included in the 10
per cent allowed and shall be subject to the same supervision, rules, and
regulations laid down by this union for other apprentices.”
Agreements.—Made between officers of the union and of the Diamond Cutters
Manufacturers’ Association.
“ The week commencing on the last Monday of the month of July of every
year shall be set aside as a general vacation week. Dur.ng that week no mem­
ber of this union shall be permitted to work.” (Constitution.)
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death (by assessment) ; out-of-work insurance
(contributory) ; optical care once every two years.
Official organ.—The Diamond Worker.
Headquarters.—132 Joralemon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Organization.—General membership; no locals.
Membership.—325.




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H A N D B O O K OF A M E R IC A N

T R A D E -U N IO N S

Jewelry Workers’ Union, International
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in New York City in September, 1916. An Inter­
national Jewelry Workers’ Union composed of a number of directly
affiliated unions, was chartered by the American Federation of Labor
in 1900. This organization maintained a precarious existence with
a steadily decreasing membership until 1912, when it surrendered
its charter and disbanded. Such local organizations as remained
intact returned to the American Federation of Labor as directly
affiliated locals. In 1916 representatives of these unions met in New
York and established a new International Jewelry Workers’ Union
affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
This second organization was formed on industrial lines rather
than with the craft limitations of its predecessors, and it immedi­
ately became involved in jurisdictional disputes. The first of these
was a conflict with the Diamond Workers’ Protective Union over
the diamond setters who held membership in the Jewelry Workers’
Union. This was adjusted by the transfer in 1918 of the diamond
setters in jewelry shops to the Diamond Workers’ Protective Union.
Later the International Association of Machinists protested against
the inclusion of jewelry tool and die makers in the jurisdiction of the
jewelry workers’ union and the metal polishers and buffers’ union
claimed jurisdiction over all metal work in the jewelry trade. The
dispute with the machinists was settled out of court, but the American
Federation of Labor sustained the metal polishers and ordered the
jewelry workers’ union to release its metal workers to the craft
union. This the International Jewelry Workers’ Union refused to
do, and it was suspended from the American Federation of Labor
in 1920. After the suspension, the American Federation of Labor
again chartered a local of the jewelry workers’ in direct affiliation
to the federation. To check this move and to preserve the entity
o f the international, concessions were made to the metal polishers
and the International Jewelry Workers’ Union was reinstated in the
American Federation of Labor.
Objects.—“ The object of this international shall be the encouragement an6
formation of local unions throughout the American continent composed ot
male and female workers, or numbers at large; to establish a uniforcn wage
for the same class of work regardless of sex; to abolish the sweatshop sys­
tem, child labor, competitive piecework and home work; to protect the in­
terests of the workers by bringing about a perfect system of apprenticeship;
to reduce the hours of labor; to substitute arbitration for strikes wherever pos­
sible to do so; to promote the use of the union label as the sole guaranty of
union-made goods; to support the union label of all other bona fide labor
organizations and to assist all labor unions to the full extent of our power.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ This organization shall have jurisdiction over the fol­
lowing branches of the jewelry industry: Platinum, gold and silver workers;
chain, bracelet, and locket makers; setters of precious stones, pearls and imi­
tations thereof; lapidary workers on precious stones and imitations thereof,
designers, engravers, chasers, enamelers and engine-turners; emblematic but­
tons, badges, pins, banners; society emblems, medal and medallion workers
and assemblers of same; modelers, casters, polishers, lapper and colorers;
platinum, gold and silver plating workers; refiners and melters; drop and
press hands and all metal mountings used in optical goods; makers of plati­
num, gold and silver findings; watchcase workers and repairers thereof;
watch and clock workers and repairers thereof; cigarette, vanity, watchcase.
jnesh-bag and jewel-box workers of all metals; dental machanics; the making



MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES

205

of all tools and dies used In the jewelry industry; all metal and celluloid
buttons and jewelry vanity workers; all those employed in the making of
jewelry novelties out of precious and semiprecious metals of all descriptions.”
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, 10 vice
presidents and secretary-treasurer.
“ The administrative powers of this body when not in convention shall be
vested in the general executive board with full power of supervision of the
entire affairs of the general body and its subordinate locals.”
2. Local unions: “ Government of all local unions and members shall be
vested in the international as the supreme head to which all matters of im­
portance shall be referred and whose decisions shall be final. Bach local
union shall have the power to frame its own by-laws, which shall in no way
conflict with the constitution of the international.”
3. Convention: Meets biennially. Constitutional amendments either by con­
vention or by initiative and referendum. Nomination and election of general
officers by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any wage earner in any branch of the indus­
try under the jurisdiction of the International Jewelry Workers’ Union is
eligible for membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Constitutional provision: “ There shall be a legal
apprenticeship system established. The employer binding himself to teach
the jewelry trade, but such employer shall not have more than 1 apprentice
for every 10 journeymen in his employ. But not more than 3 apprentices will
be allowed in any one “ shop.” In practice apprenticeship is regulated by local
unions and no definite term is fixed.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions but approved by the general execu­
tive board. Union label in some union shops.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; death.
Official organ—None.
Headquarters.—Room 607, 112-118 West Forty-fourth Street, New York, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States— California, 2 ; Connecticut,
1; Georgia, 1; Illinois, 1; Maine, 1; New Jersey, 1; New York, 5; Pennsyl­
vania, 1; Washington, 1. Canada— British Columbia, 1; Ontario, 1. Total, 16.
Membership.—Not reported. American Federation o f Labor voting strength,
900.

Leather Workers’ International Union, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Indianapolis, Ind., in April, 1917. Harness and
saddlery workers had two organizations, the United Brotherhood of
Harness and Saddle Workers, and the National Association of
Saddle and Harness Makers. These two organizations merged in
1896, and became the United Brotherhood o f Leather Workers on
Horse Goods, and affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Trunk and bag makers organized the Trunk and Bag Workers’
International Union at Louisville, Ky., in 1895, and affiliated to the
American Federation of Labor in 1898. This organization increased
its jurisdiction extensively during the following years, and in 1903
become the Travelers’ Goods ana Leather Novelty Workers’ Inter­
national Union.
The Amalgamated Leather Workers of America, composed of tan­
nery workers, existed as a national union affiliated to the American
Federation of Labor from 1901 to 1912, when its charter was sur­
rendered. From that time such organization as existed among tan­
nery workers outside of Massachusetts was carried on through di­
rectly affiliated American Federation of Labor locals.
In 1917 all of these organizations amalgamated to form the United
Leather Workers’ International Union. Before this amalgamation
took place, however, the Travelers’ Goods and Leather Novelty
Workers’ International Union had suffered disruption because of a



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HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

secession movement on the part of the pocketbook workers. This
group, after a few years’ intensive organization, established itself
as an independent national union in 1923, and remained independent
until 1926, when it sought affiliation to the American Federation of
Labor. The United Leather Workers protested their affiliation as
a distinct craft, and the auestion was for a time compromised by
chartering the locals of the International Pocket Book Workers’
Union as directly affiliated American Federation of Labor locals.
In 1928 the pocketbook workers amalgamated with the United
Leather Workers under an agreement which allows the former inde­
pendent organization to retain its name and to continue complete
jurisdiction and autonomy over workers in the handbag, pocketbook,
and fancy leather goods trade.
Objects.—“ The object of this union is to establish and uphold a fair and
equitable rate of wages and decrease the hours of labor and regulate all trade
matters pertaining to the welfare of its members; to educate the wage earner
in all economic questions that are necessary to better the conditions of the
wageworkers and to elevate their position and to maintain and protect the
interest of the craft in general.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and possessions and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— “ The production of leather and by-products thereof,"
except gloves and shoes. Specifically, tanneries and the manufacture of harness
and saddlery, travelers* goods, pocketbooks and leather novelties, and machinery
belts.
Government.—1. General executive council, composed o f the general president,
two vice presidents, and six elected members, is the controlling body. President
and secretary-treasurer are the chief administrative officers.
2. Local unions: Autonomous within the limits defined by the national
constitution.
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general of­
ficers. Constitutional amendments by convention or referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person employed within the jurisdic­
tion is eligible to membership. In Pocketbook Workers* section foremen and
forewomen with power to hire and discharge are not eligible. Male and female
membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Three-year term; one apprentice to 10 journey­
men.
Agreements.—Negotiated locally with individual employers in the general
trade. Pocketbook makers have standard agreement covering all establish­
ments operated by members of the manufacturers’ association.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout; relief (by pocketbook workers).

Official organ.—None (pocketbook workers issue the International Pocketbook
Worker irregularly).
Headquarters.—Walsix Building, Kansas City, Mo. Pocketbook Workers*
headquarters, 53-55 West 21st Street, New York City, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions only in general trade; shop organization in juris­
diction of Pocketbook Workers’ Union: United States— California, 1; Colorado,
2 ; Delaware, 1 ; Illinois, 2 ; Indiana, 1; Iowa, 1; Kentucky, 2 ; Massachusetts,
2 ; Minnesota, 1; Missouri, 3; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1 ; New York, 3 ; Ohio,
2 ; Pennsylvania, 1 ; Tennessee, 1 ; Texas, 1; Wisconsin, 1. Canada, 1. Total, 28.
Membership.—8,000, o f which the Pocketbook Workers report 6,000.
Pocketbook Workers* Union

While the former International Pocketbook Workers’ Union is
now a part o f the United Leather Workers’ International Union, it
retains its industrial form of organization, with the shop as the basic
unit. It is divided into trade sections—cutters, operators, pocketbook makers, pursemakers, helpers, framers, handle, and mirror
workers— each section o f which is represented on the joint council,
which is the governing body. A convention is held biennially, which



m is c e l l a n e o u s

m anufactures

207

elects general officers. Control of agreements and trade and work­
ing conditions remains solely with the joint council of the pocketbook
workers’ selection.
Leather Workers’ International Union of America, United
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized at Peabody, Mass., September 2, 1915. Although
called an international union, it operates only in Massachusetts at
present.
Objects.—“ The object of this union is to establish and uphold a fair, equitable
rate of wages and decrease the hours of labor and regulate all trade matters
pertaining to the welfare of its members; to educate the wageworkers in all
economic questions that are necessary to better the conditions of wageworkers
and to elevate their position and to maintain and protect the interest of the
craft in general.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The production of leather and by-products thereof.
Government.—1. General officers consist of national organizer, natonal sec­
retary-treasurer, and an executive board of nine members.
2. Local unions; subordinate.
3. Convention: Held annually; elects general officers. Legislation and con­
stitutional amendments by convention or by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person “ working in the production or
transportation of leather and by-products thereof, and of good moral character,”
is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—Peabody, Mass.
Organization.—Local unions only: Massachusetts, 3.
Membership.—1,400.

Powder and High Explosive Workers of America, United
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized December 5, 1901. from local unions directly affiliated
to the American Federation of Labor.
Objects.— ‘‘ The objects o f this organization are to organize and unite under
one banner all branches of our craft; * * * to assist each other in secur­
ing employment, to reduce the hours of labor, to secure a higher standard of
wages for work performed, to oppose the use of machinery that is a source of
danger to life and linrb, and to minimize the risk by the use of the most safe
and improved machinery.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The manufacture of powder and high explosives.
Government.—1. Executive council, composed of president, vice president,
secretary-treasurer, and two additional elected members, has general supervi­
sory authority over the organization.
2. Local unions: Subordinate; constitution imposed by general office, but they
“ shall have power to frame and adopt by-laws,” subject to the approval of
the executive board.
3. Convention: Biennial; enacts legislation and elects general officers. No
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.— “ To be eligible to membership the applicant
must be of good character and be engaged in the industry as a worker at the
time of application.” Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship.—None.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, but must be uniform; contract form
issued by international. Union label used on products of union shops.




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Benefits.— Strike.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—Clinton, Ind.
Organization.—Local unions only: Arkansas, 1 ; Indiana, 2 ; Kansas, 2 ; Penn­
sylvania, 1. Total, 6.
Membership.—157.

Wire Weavers* Protective Association, American
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1882 as the American Wire Weavers’ Protective and
Benevolent Association. A former union of the craft ^ a.s organized
in 1876, but it died out. The present organization was founded by
the three divisions then in existence. The word “ benevolent” was
dropped from the title some years after the inauguration of the asso­
ciation. It is solely an economic, price-fixing body.
Objects.—“ To have supervision in all matters relating to Fourdrinier wire
weaving, and to bind the divisions closer together for the mutual advantage
and protection of all.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.— Fourdrinier wire weaving.
Government.— 1. National executive board, composed of president, vice presi­
dent, secretary-treasurer, and one delegate from each division, has supervision
and control of all matters pertaining to the association.
2. Local divisions: Subordinate; autonomy not defined.
3. National executive board meets once a year and transacts general busi­
ness. General officers elected by general membership.
Qualifications for membership.—Applicants for membership must be “ Chris­
tian, white, male of the full age of 21, and have served an apprenticeship of
four years on a hand or power loom at the Fourdrinier wire-weaving trade in
a union shop.”
Foreigners applying for admission must declare citizenship intentions and
pay an initiation fee of $1,000.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ AH apprentices shall be Christian white males,
and shall serve four years at the Fourdrinier wire-weaving trade.
“ No person shall be entitled to start his apprenticeship who has attained the
age of 21 years unless he has been employed in the shop and is waiting his
turn to start on a loom.
“ The ratio of apprentices to journeymen shall be 1 to 7 on power looms and
1 to 5 on hand looms.
“ No journeyman shall be included in the count of the ratio of apprentices
unless he has been employed at least six months.
“ All apprentices shall serve three of their four years on a loom if not con­
trary to the laws of the State.”
Agreements.—Negotiated annually by the national executive board, acting
under instructions from the divisions, in conference with the manufacturers.
Agreements cover entire industry, and cover price lists, which are uniform
throughout the industry. Union label.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—9122 Eighty-ninth Street, Woodhaven, Long Island, N. Y.
Organization.—Local divisions only: Massachusetts, 1 ; New Jersey, 1 ; New
York, 1; Ohio, 2; Wisconsin, 1. Totals 6.
Membership.—380.




MISCELLANEOUS TRADES
\ /A R IO U S trades and callings which do not come within any
*
industrial classification are represented in the following group
o f unions. A ll but two of them are affiliated to the American Fed­
eration of Labor. O f the two independent bodies, one is a semipro­
fessional organization of registered pharmacists which, while seek­
ing expansion nationally, is so far confined to California. The
other, the International Brotherhood of Telephone Workers, is to
some extent a dual union. It grew out of a secession movement
within the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, but
its activities are restricted to the New England States, in which ter­
ritory it has largely superseded the parent body.
In some case jurisdictional claims as stated by unions in this group
conflict with jurisdictions actually exercised by other affiliated
unions. For example, while elevator starters and operators are
claimed by the Building Service Employees’ International Union,
workers of that kind, when organized, are members of the Elevator
Constructors’ International Union, not of the building employees’
organization.
Stenographers, typists, and office workers, exclusive of those em­
ployed in offices of railroads and the Federal Government, are organ­
ized into local unions affiliated directly to the American Federation
o f Labor. Clerical workers in the fielas excluded above are included
in the jurisdictions of two affiliated national organizations—the
Brotherhood of Railway Clerks (p. 80) in the first instance, and
the National Federation of Federal Employees (p. 180) in the second.
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor:
Page
209
Barbers’ International Union of America, Journeymen______________
Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Alliance of______• 210
Building Service Employees’ International Union__________________
211
Clerks’ International Protective Association, Retail________________
212
Horseshoers of the United States and Canada, International Union
of Journeymen__________________________________________________
212
Laundry Workers’ International Union____________________________
213
Stenographers and Bookkeepers (A. F. of L. locals).
215
Telegraphers’ Union o f North America, Commercial________________
Independent:
Industrial Workers of the WorM__________________________________
217
Pharmacists, American Registered_________ _______________________
214
Telephone Workers, International Brotherhood of________________.__
216

Barbers* International Union of America, Journeymen
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized December 5,1887, in Buffalo, N. Y. A union of barbers
was formed in 1878, knowrn as the Barbers’ Protective Union, with
headquarters in Philadelphia. It was short-lived, but was succeeded




209

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OF A M E R IC A N

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by a number o f local unions, some of which were under the Knights
of Labor. These local unions came together in 1887 and formed the
present organization. In 1924 the international amended its con­
stitution so as to include woman barbers and hairdressers.
Objects.—To “ promote unity of sentiment and action among the journeymen
barbers of America, and join them closer together for mutual protection.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and possessions; Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The barber and hairdressing trade.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed o f president, secretarytreasurer, and nine vice presidents, “ shall have full power to transact the
business of the organization during their term of office.,,
2. Local unions: “ Each local union may make its own by-laws, which must,
however, be in accordance with this constitution and subject to the approval
of the general president.” They may “ regulate the hours of labor, prices, and
wages in their respective localities,” and “ shall have control over all local
affairs if not in conflict with the constitution.”
3. Convention: Held every five years. Enacts legislation and elects general
officers. Constitutional amendments by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any competent journeyman barber, hair­
dresser, waver, marceler, or cosmetician other than a member of the oriental
race, not over 55 years of age, having served an apprenticeship of three years
at the trade,” is eligible to membership. Applicants over 55 years of age may
become nonbeneficiary members. Male and female membership. Proprietors
who are not employers may be members.
Apprenticeship regulations.—“ All apprentices must be registered with the
local union. * * * No shop displaying the union shop card shall accept
as an apprentice any person under the age of 16 years. * * * No shop
displaying the union shop card shall be allowed more than one apprentice at
any one time.” Apprenticeship term, two years.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local union, upon terms approved by international
officers before being submitted to employers. Union shop card agreements
regulated by international office.
Benefits.— Sick and death.
Official organ.—The Journeyman Barber.
Headquarters.—222 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind.
Organization.— Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 13; Arizona, 7;
Arkansas, 10; California, 44; Colorado, 11; Connecticut, 20; District of Colum­
bia, 2 ; Florida, 12; Georgia, 8; Idaho, 6; Illinois, 70; Indiana, 42; Iowa, 27;
Kansas, 24; Kentucky, 17; Louisiana, 9; Maine, 7; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts,
35; Michigan, 21; Minnesota, 16; Mississippi, 13; Missouri, 20; Montana, 14;
Nebraska, 10; Nevada, 2 ; New Hampshire, 6; New Jersey, 22; New Mexico, 6;
New York, 58; North Carolina, 5; North Dakota, 6; Ohio, 59; Oklahoma, 38;
Oregon, 12; Pennsylvania, 60; Rhode Island, 5; South Dakota, 6 ; Tennessee,
11; Texas, 73; Utah, 2 ; Vermont, 4; Virginia, 8; Washington, 20; West
Virginia, 10; Wisconsin, 21; Wyoming, 7; Porto Rico, 2 ; Hawaii, 1. Canada—
Alberta, 4 ; British Columbia, 4 ; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 20; Quebec, 4 ; Sas­
katchewan, 3. Total, 939.
Membership.—51,840.

Bill Posters and Billers of America, International Alliance of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1903 from various directly affiliated American Fed­
eration "of Labor local unions, the first of which was formed in
Chicago, in 1902.
Objects.— “ We hereby pledge ourselves to assist each other in securing reason­
able compensation for services rendered, and to use our influence with other
organized bodies to assist us in accomplishing our objects; to endeavor, to ci»e
best of our ability, to disseminate useful information by means of lectures,
pamphlets, and industrial literature among our coworkers, and to develop the
intelligence which exists among our people. While we are opposed to entering
any political party as a body, we declare it to be our duty to use our influence
with the lawmaking power to secure the enactment of laws beneficial to our



M IS C E L L A N E O U S TRADES

211

interests and those of wage earners in general, and to secure and retain em­
ployment for our members, to protect them from oppression, and to place our­
selves on a foundation sufficiently strong to resist any further encroachments
on our rights.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.— Bill posting, billing, and advertising sign work.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, secretary,
and seven vice presidents, “ shall have the power to make laws not provided
for in the constitution,” and decide upon all grievances and appeals, subject
to review by the convention. The president “ shall exercise general supervion of the alliance’s jurisdiction.”
2. Local unions: “ It shall be the cardinal principle o f the alliance to pre­
serve home rule in every local where such rule does not conflict with the laws
of the international alliance,” but “ no local shall engage in a strike without
the consent of the executive board.”
3. Convention: Biennial; enacts legislation and elects general officers. No
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any man of the age of 18 years who has
been vouched for by two members in good standing of either the alliance or a
local, shall be entitled to membership.” Every applicant must take an exami­
nation in practical work before he is admitted to membership.
Membership at large provided for workers where there is no local.
Apprenticeship.— None.
Agreements.—“ Circus agreement ” negotiated and controlled by international
alliance. Other agreements negotiated locally with individual employers—are
substantially personal contracts.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—Longacre Building, Forty-second and Broadway, New York
City.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 1 ; California, 4 ;
Colorado, 1; Connecticut, 3; District of Columbia, 1; Florida, 2 ; Georgia, 1;
Illinois, 5; Indiana, 3 ; Iowa, 3 ; Kansas, 1; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1 ; Mary­
land, 1; Massachusetts, 6; Michigan, 3 ; Minnesota, 4 ; Missouri, 3 ; Nebraska,
2 ; New Hampshire, 1 ; New Jersey, 5 ; New York, 10; Ohio, 9 ; Oklahoma, 1 ;
Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 10; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 5 ; Utah, 1 ; Virginia, 1;
Washington, 1 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wisconsin, 2. Canada—Ontario, 3 ; Quebec,
1 ; Total, 99.
Membership.—6,000.

Building Service Employees* International Union
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in 1917 from directly affiliated American Federation o f
Labor local unions.
Objects.—“ The object of this international union shall be to develop a closer
union and more complete organization of all wage earners in the field under
its jurisdiction, and to assist its members in obtaining adequate compensation
for their labor and general improvement of the conditions under which they
work.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The maintenance and upkeep of all private and public
buildings, institutions, schools, and grounds, such as apartment houses, apart­
ment hotels, flat buildings, office buildings, theaters, schools, hospitals, public
auditoriums, amusement halls, parks, stores, factories, card and billiard rooms,
which include such workers as janitors and janitresses, elevator operators,
starters, window cleaners, scrub women, maids, housekeepers, watchmen in
buildings and industrial plants, including those used for fire prevention, door
tenders, ushers, cashiers, and any other employees not herein specified who are
engaged in the maintenance and upkeep of such places.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president, secretarytreasurer, five vice presidents, and one trustee, “ shall transact all business of
the international union between conventions.” President is the administrative
officer and has “ supervisory power over local unions and the membership
thereof.”



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2. Local unions: “ The constitution and by-laws of all local unions must be
submitted to the international union for approval.”
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitutional amendments by convention only— no referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any person engaged in work under the juris­
diction is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—130 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111.
Organization.— Information withheld.
Membership.—8,000.

Clerks’ International Protective Association, Retail
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Detroit, Mich., December, 1890, as a national union.
With extension of jurisdiction to Canada the name was changed in
1899 to the present one.
Objects.— “ For the purpose of promoting unity and sentiment of action among
the retail clerks and joining them closer together for mutual protection.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—The selling force of mercantile and mail-order establish­
ments (other than the liquor trade).
Government.—1. Executive board consists of president, seven vice presidents,
and a secretary-treasurer. President is the chief administrative officer with
wide powers.
2. District organizations composed of the local unions within an assigned
territory and “ subject to the jurisdiction, laws, rules, and usages of the inter­
national association.”
3. Local unions: “ All local unions shall be under the jurisdiction of the
international and district associations and may make such laws for their
government as they deem necessary, provided they do not conflict with the
international and district constitution or agreements entered into.”
4. Convention: Every fifth year. Nomination and election of officers by
referendum. Constitutional amendments by convention or by initiative or
referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All persons employed in mercantile or mail­
order establishments who are actively engaged in handling or selling mer­
chandise and who have reached the age of 16 years are eligible to member­
ship. Male and female membership.
All applicants between the ages of 16 and 50 who are not afflicted with a
chronic or incurable disease become beneficiary members. Applicants over 50
and those afflicted with a chronic or incurable disease are classed as non­
beneficiary.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None.
Agreements.—Union store card. Agreement drawn up by the international
officers, but negotiated locally. Agreements deal chiefly with working hours
and must be uniform throughout the jurisdiction of the district association.
Benefits.—Funeral.
Official organ.—The Retail Clerks’ International Advocate.
Headquarters.—La Fayette, Ind.
Organization.— Information withheld.
Membership.—Withheld; American Federation of Labor voting strength,
10,000.

Horseslioers of the United States and Canada, International Union
of Journeymen
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized April 27, 1874, as the Journeymen Horseshoers’ Na­
tional Union of the United States of America. With extension of
jurisdiction to Canada, this name was changed in 1893 to the



M IS C E L L A N E O U S TRADES

213

present title. The name was incorporated in the State of Ohio,
August 14, 1912.
Objects.—“ The object for which our international union is formed and main­
tained is for the purpose of organizing local unions and to facilitate a thor­
ough organization of the trade throughout the United States and Canada for
mutual benefit and protection.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.:—Horseshoeing.
Government.—1. General officers: President (who is also general organizer),
three vice presidents, and secretary-treasurer, who comprise the executive
council.
2.
Local unions: ‘‘ Each local union shall adopt a constitution and by-laws
not in conflict with the articles of incorporation and by-laws of the inter­
national union.”
8. Convention: Meets annually; elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership—Any competent horseshoer who is capable
of earning the minimum scale of wages established by the local union having
jurisdiction over the locality where he Is employed may make application for
membership in that local, and if he is temperate and of good character, and
complies with ail the requirements prescribed in these by-laws, he may be
elected to membership, provided there are no members of the local out of
employment.
Apprenticeship regulations.—The term of apprenticeship shall be four years,
or less, providing apprentice becomes a proficient mechanic.
“ Only one apprentice shall be allowed to work in any shop within the
jurisdiction of any local union, and any shop employing more than one ap­
prentice shall be declared ‘ unfair.’ ’*
Agreements.—Uniform agreement negotiated by local unions but sanctioned
by executive board. Union label; union shop card.
Benefits.— Strike and lockout (local and national).
Oflicial organ.—Journeymen Horseshoers’ Monthly Magazine.
Headquarters.— Second National Bank Building, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Organization.—Local unions only: United States—Alabama, 2; Arkansas, 1;
California, 10; Colorado, 2; Connecticut, 4; Delaware, 1; District of Columbia,
1; Florida, 1; Georgia, 1; Idaho, 1; Illinois, 18; Indiana, 9 ; Iowa, 5; Kansas,
2; Kentucky, 2 ; Louisiana, 2 ; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 9; Michigan, 6;
Minnesota, 5; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 5; Montana, 5; Nebraska, 2; New
Hampshire, 1; New Jersey, 7; New York, 19; Ohio, 12; Oklahoma, 3 ; Oregon,
1; Pennsylvania, 8; Rhode Island, 1; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 7; Utah, 2;
Virginia, 2; Washington, 3 ; West Virginia, 2; Wisconsin, 5; Wyoming, 1.
Canada—British Columbia, 2; Manitoba, 1; Ontario, 3 ; Quebec, 1. Total, 178.
Membership.—1,000.

Laundry Workers’ International Union
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Troy, N. Y., in November, 1900. This union started
in 1898 as a directly affiliated American Federation of Labor local
composed o f shirt and collar workers in the factories at Troy, N. Y.
It grew, in 1900, into the Shirt Waist and Laundry Workers’ Inter­
national Union. It continued to control both the making and the
laundering o f shirts and collars until 1909, when jurisdiction over
the manufacturing end was taken over by the United Garment
Workers, the original charter being surrendered and a new one
granted which gave jurisdiction over laundries only. With the
adoption o f cleaning and dyeing processes by laundries, the Laundry
Workers’ International Union assumed and now exercises control of
workers in that line who are employed in laundries, by agreement
with the Journeymen Tailors’ Union, whose charter covers cleaning,
dyeing, and pressing.
Objects.— “ First, to organize and cooperate with all laundry workers; second,
to aboUsh competition in each respective branch of the trade by securing a



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HANDBOOK OP AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS

universally equal and just rate of wages without resorting to strikes; third,
to discourage Asiatic, sweatshop, child, and convict labor by creating a demand
for the union label at all times/’
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—Customs laundries.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of president and four
vice presidents, has general power and supervision over the organization.
2. Local unions: “ To subordinate unions is granted the right of making
all necessary laws for self-government which do not conflict with the laws of
the international and which have been approved by the general president.”
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation. Constitutional amend­
ments adopted by convention must be ratified by referendum. Amendments
and other legislation by initiative and referendum as well as by convention.
Nomination and election of general officers by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—All persons actually employed in laundries
are eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Foremen and forewomen and supervisors with power to hire and discharge
are retained at option of local union.
Apprenticeship.—N one.
Agreements.—Formulated by local unions and submitted to international
officers for approval before beginning negotiations, which are carried on with
individual employers.
Benefits.— Strike, lockout, and victimization.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—817 Second Avenue, Troy, N. Y.
Organization.—Local unions only: California, 12; Colorado, 1; District of
Columbia, 1; Illinois, 7; Indiana, 2; Kansas, 1; Kentucky, 1; Massachusetts,
3 ; Montana, 5; Nevada, 1 ; New York, 1; Oklahoma, 1 ; Oregon, 3 ; Texas, 1 ;
Vermont. 1; Washington, 7; Wyoming, 4. Total, 52.
Membership.—6,000.

Pharmacists, American Registered
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in San Francisco, Calif., in 1901, beginning as a small
local organization of drug store clerks in San Francisco. Branches
were organized and brought together in one body called the Cali­
fornia Drug Clerks5 Association. Subsequently adopting the title
“ American Registered Pharmacists,” the organization has sought to
become national in character. So far, however, it has not extended
beyond California.
Objects.—“ The aims and objects shall be to promote a higher standard of
pharmacy, encourage sociability, maintain a satisfactory wage scale, shorten
the hours of labor, procure employment for and generaUy improve the condi­
tion of all its members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.— United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Registered pharmacists.
Government.—1. “ The board of directors shall have jurisdiction and author­
ity over all matters relating to the welfare of the organization, between ses­
sions.” General officers: President, 5 vice presidents, director of finance, board
of directors of 15 elected members. The president is the administrative officer,
subject to the control of the board of directors.
2. Local unions: “ Branches,” subordinate. Constitution and by-laws deter­
mined by general organization.
3. Convention. Held annually; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
No referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any reputable person 18 years o f age or over
who possesses a certificate o f registration from a State or Territorial board of
pharmacy as a registered licentiate pharmacist or registered assistant pharma­
cist is eligible to membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—Determined by State law.
Agreements.—None.
Benefits.—Employment bureau.
Official organ.—The American Registered Pharmacist Journal



M IS C E L L A N E O U S TRADES

215

Headquarters.—Loew-Warfield Building, 988 Market Street, San Francisco,
Calif.
„
_
Organization.—Local unions only (California) : Alameda County (Oakland,
Alameda and Berkeley); Fresno; Kern County; Los Angeles; Sacramento;
San Francisco; San Jose; Stockton.
Membership.—2,500.

Telegraphers’ Union of North America, Commercial
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Washington, D. C., in March, 1903, as the result of
an amalgamation of two organizations, the International Union of
Commercial Telegraphers, with headquarters at Chicago, and the
Order o f Commercial Telegraphers with headquarters at St. Louis.
The International Union of Commercial Telegraphers had its in­
ception at Chicago in June, 1902, and held its first convention in
Chicago in September of the same year.
The Order o f Commercial Telegraphers was the outgrowth of the
Brotherhood o f Commercial Telegraphers fostered by the Order of
Railroad Telegraphers from 1897 to 1902.
Both organizations applied for a charter from the American
Federation of Labor in 1902. The American Federation of Labor
convention ordered a joint conference of the two organizations,
which took place in Washington in March, 1903, and an amalgama­
tion resulted. The Commercial Telegraphers’ Union of America
was agreed upon as the title of the amalgamated organization, and
the first convention was held in New York in July, 1903. The
name of the organization was changed to the Commercial Telegra­
phers’ Union o f North America at the fourteenth regular and first
triennial convention held in Chicago, in September, 1928.
Objects.—“ To protect, maintain, and advance trade interests and to secure
better conditions of employment; to establish and uphold a fair and equitable
rate of wages; to give all moral and material aid in our power to members
and those dependent upon them; to distinguish the work performed by mem­
bers of the union and make it preferred; to discourage the indiscriminate
teaching of telegraphy.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States and Canada.
Trade jurisdiction.—All branches of the telegraph service except railroad.
Government.—1. General officers are: President, secretary-treasurer, and five
elected members comprising the general executive board.
The president is the chief executive officer, subject to instructions and
advice of the general executive board The general executive board has
appellate power.
2. Subordinate units: Territory defined and allocated by general assembly to
subordinate units “ known as systems divisions, brokers divisions, such other
private-w,ire divisions as may be found necessary to conform to this union’s
principle of complete autonomy for the various branches of the commercial
telegraph.”
“ District councils may be formed upon approval by the international presi­
dent, by seven or more members in good standing o f two or more subordi­
nate units. * * * The purpose of the district council shall be to carry on
social, fraternal, and legislative activities of the union * * * and for these
purposes the council may act concurrently with the subordinate units. Persons
employed in branches of the service over which no subordinate unit has jurisdic­
tion shall carry their membership in the district council.”
3. Convention: Held triennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Constitution amendments by convention or by referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—Any white person of good moral character
who is over 16 years o f age and is actually employed as a commercial teleg67004° — 29—



15

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H A N D B O O K OF A M E R IC A N TR A D E -TJN IO N S

rapher or as an operative connected with an automatic telegraph machine,
and maintenance of lines, bookkeeper or clerk in the commercial telegraph serv­
ice, or in the operation of a telephone, shall be eligible to membership. Any
-commercial telegrapher, although not actually so employed, is eligible to mem­
bership. Male and female membership.
Agreements.—Agreements covering press division negotiated by general offi­
cers. Other agreements negotiated by division committees. “ A district, divi­
sion, or general committee shall not be authorized to establish or regulate a
scale of wages affecting members other than those it represents,” and “ no
committee shall present a schedule, contract, or agreement to their employers
nor attempt to secure its adoption, until it has first been approved by the
international president.”
Benefits.—Funeral.
Official organ.—The Commercial Telegraphers* Journal.
Headquarters.—113 South Ashland Boulevard, Chicago, 111.
Organization.—Three separate and autonomous divisions:
Commercial, divided into 11 systems divisions: Canadian Pacific; Govern­
ment Telegraphers of British Columbia and the Yukon; Canadian Government
Telegraphers (central); Western Union; Postal Telegraph; American Tele­
phone and Telegraph; Pipe L,ine; Packers’ ; United States Government;
Buffalo; Canadian National.
Press, divided into 5 systems divisions: International News Service; United
Press; Canadian ; Associated Press; National Press.
These in turn are subdivided into circuits, under a general chairman.
Broker, divided into 15 systems divisions: Eastern (Maryland) ; New Eng­
land ; Western; Eastern Canada; Southwest; Michigan; Ohio; Middle W estern;
Atlantic (Pennsylvania); Philadelphia; Pacific Coast; Southern; Ontario;
Western Canada; Southeast.
District councils: United States—Baltimore; Buffalo; Chicago; Des Moines;
Fire Telegraphers’ Council (New Y o rk ); Memphis; Milwaukee; New York
C ity; Pittsburgh. Canada— Montreal; Toronto; Vancouver; Winnipeg.
General assembly (headquarters 113 South Ashland Boulevard, Chicago),
fo r members not permanently located.
Membership.— 5,000.

Telephone Workers, International Brotherhood of
Not affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Boston, Mass., May 15-16, 1920, by employees of the
New England Telephone Co. who withdrew from the International
Brotherhood o f Electrical Workers.
Objects.—“ The objects o f the International Brotherhood of Telephone Work­
ers are: To organize all telephone workers into local unions, to maintain a
higher standard of skill, to encourage the formation of schools of instruction in
local unions for teaching the practical application of electricity and for trade
education generally, to cultivate feelings of friendship among the men of our
craft, to settle all disputes between employers and employees by arbitration
(if possible) ; to assist each other in sickness and distress, to secure employ­
ment, to reduce the hours of labor, to secure adequate pay for our work, and
by legal and proper means elevate the moral, intellectual, and social conditions
of our members.”
Territorial jurisdiction.—The New England States.
Trade jurisdiction.—Telephone manufacture, installation, maintenance, assem­
bling, and operation.
Government.—1. General officers are president, three vice presidents, secre­
tary-treasurer, and an executive council of nine elected members. The execu­
tive council, “ shall have general direction, control, and management of all
property and business” of the organization, between conventions.
2. Local unions: Autonomy limited and defined by international constitu­
tion. Local unions have power to make their own by-laws and working rules
subject to approval o f international president.
3. Convention: Biennial; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—“Any telephone worker o f good moral charac­
ter not over 55 years of age nor less than 18, and of good sound health and not
afflicted with any disease or subject to any complaint liable to endanger life,



M IS C E L L A N E O U S T RADES

217

is eligible to membership in this brotherhood.” Members promoted to super­
visory positions “ above the grade of foreman, senior testman, etc.” become
members o f the general office instead of the local. Male and female member­
ship.
Apprenticeship regulations.— “ Each local union shall adopt its own appren­
ticeship system, as the peculiar conditions of each district may require.”
Agreements.—Negotiated locally, but must be approved by general officers.
“ All agreements between local unions and employers must contain a condi­
tion that the local union is a part o f the International Brotherhood and that a
violation or annulment of an agreement with any local union annuls all agree­
ments entered into by the same party with any other local union of the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Telephone Workers.” Grievances handled by con­
ference boards.
Benefits.— Death.
Official organ.—None.
Headquarters.—Kimball Building, 18 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass.
Organization.—Local unions only: Maine, 2 ; Massachusetts, 19; New Hamp­
shire, 1; Rhode Island, 1 ,* Vermont, 1. Total, 24.
Membership.—5,400.

Industrial Workers of the World
The Industrial Workers of the World was organized at Chicago,
111., July 7, 1905, at a conference instigated chiefly by the Western
Federation of Miners and the American Labor Union. Represented
in the conference were the two organizations mentioned, the Socialist
Trades and Labor Alliances, the United Brotherhood o f Railway
Employees, and numerous other organizations among which were
16 American Federation o f Labor unions who were in sympathy
with the movement to organize all wageworkers into one organi­
zation. Numerically, the Western Federation of Miners was the
strongest organization in the group, but the Socialist Trades and
Labor Alliances proved influential enough to inject partisan politics
into the first conference. Discord over the question of political action
resulted in 1906 in the withdrawal of the Western Federation of
Miners from the I. W. W., and in 1908 in a division of the organiza­
tion into two factions. Each side continued to function as the Indus­
trial Workers of the World, the seceding element, which was the
exponent o f socialistic party activities, establishing headquarters in
Detroit, Mich. This state of affairs continued until 1915, when the
Detroit faction gave up the title “ 1. W. W .” and became the Workers
International Industrial Union. This group, by formal resolution,
went out o f existence in 1924 and turned its records and properties
over to the Socialist Labor Party. The Chicago faction continues
as the Industrial Workers of the World.
Objects.—“ The working class and the employing class have nothing in com­
mon. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among
millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class,
have all the good things of life.
“ Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of
the world organize as a class, take possession o f the earth and the machinery
of production and abolish the wage system.
« * * * It is
historic mission of the working class to do away with
capitalism. The army of production must be organized not only for the every­
day struggle with capitalists, but also to carry on production when capitalism
shall have been overthrown. By organizing industrially we are forming the
structure of the new society within the shell of the old.”
Jurisdiction.—The Industrial Workers of the World shall be composed o f
actual wageworkers brought together in an organization embodying industrial




218

H A N D B O O K OF A M E R IC A N T R A D E -U N IO N S

departments, industrial unions, industrial unions with branches, industrial dis­
trict councils, and general district councils.
Departments.— “An industrial department shall be made of industrial unions
of closely kindred industries ” and “ shall have general supervision over the
affairs of the industrial unions ” of which it is composed.
“ The departments shall be designated as follows: Department of agricul­
ture, land, fisheries, and water products; department of mining; department
of transportation and communication; department of manufacturing and gen­
eral production; department of construction; department of public service.”
Industrial unions.— “ Industrial unions shall be composed of actual wage­
workers in a given industry welded together as the particular requirements
of 5*aid industry may render necessary.”
Councils.—General industrial union district councils, composed of delegates
of two or more industrial unions in a given district; industrial district coun­
cils, composed of delegates from shops and branches of each industry within a
given district.
Government.—1. General executive board, composed of the general secretarytreasurer and seven elected members, “ shall have general supervision of the
entire affiairs of the organization between conventions.” Its decisions “ on all
matters pertaining to the organization or any subordinate part thereof shall
be binding, subject to appeal to the next convention or to the membership.”
It “ shall be assisted by the officers and members of all organizations sub­
ordinate to the I. W. W .”
2. Industrial unions “ shall have power to enact such laws for their gov­
ernment as they may deem necessary,” consistent with the constitution and
by-laws of the general organization.
3. Convention: Held annually. “ The convention of the I. W. W. is the
legislative body of the organization.” All legislative enactments and con­
stitutional amendments passed by the convention are, however, subsequently
submitted to general referendum. Legislation and constitutional amendments
may also be initiated and referred.
General officers are nominated by convention and elected by referendum.
Subject to recall vote.
Qualifications for membership.— ‘‘ None but actual wageworkers shall be
members,” but “ no working man or woman shall be excluded from membership
because of creed or color. * * * Editors of papers not controlled by the
I. W. W. shall not be eligible to membership.”
Agreements.—“ Any agreement entered into between the members o f any
organization and their employers shall not be considered valid until approved
by the general executive board.” Agreements may not be made for a specified
time or contain a provision that the membership is bound to give notice before
making demands affecting hours, wages, and shop conditions.
Benefits.—None.
Official organ.— Industrial Solidarity (weekly). Other publications of the
I. W. W. are local and in foreign languages.
Headquarters.—555 West Lake Street, Chicago, 111.
Organization.— Industrial unions functioning at present are: Agricultural
Workers, Lumber Workers, Coal and Metal Miners, Oil Workers, General Con­
struction (railroad, road, bridge, etc.), House and Building Construction,
Metal and Machinery Workers, Food Stuff Workers, Marine Transport Workers,
Railroad Workers, and a group classed as small unions containing textile
workers.
Membership.—30,000.




LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the
bureau only the latest bulletins on any one subject is here listed.
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the
bulletins published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked
thus (*) are out of print.

Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
[1913.]
•No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry
into industrial agreements. [1913.]
No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
[1914.]
No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of
New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.]
♦No. 198. Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry. [1916.]
No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.]
No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.]
No. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
No. 287. National War Labor Board : History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921.]
No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
No. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. [1923.]
No. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.]
No. 468. Trade agreements, 1927.
No. 481. Joint industrial control in the book and job printing industry. [1928.]
Cooperation.
No. 313. Consumers* cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
No. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and in foreign countries. [1922.]
No. 437. Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricul­
tural).
Employment and Unemployment.
♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the
United States. [1913.]
No. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y. [1915.]
♦No. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
[1915.]
♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
No. 196. Proceedings of the Employment Managers* Conference held at Minneapolis,
Minn., January 19 and 20, 1916.
♦No. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers* Association of Bos­
ton, Mass., held May 10, 1916.
No. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.]
No. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa.,
April 2 and 3, 1917.
No. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. [1918.]
♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
No. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., May
9-11, 1918.
No. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes.
[1922.]
No. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1021 to 1925.




(I)

Foreign Labor Laws.

♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European
countries. [1914.]
No. 494. Labor legislation of Uruguay. [1929.]
Housing.

♦No. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign
countries. [1914.]
No. 263. Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.]
No. 295. Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
No. 500. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to]
1928. (In press.)
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.

♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary
ware factories. [1912.]
No. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade. [1913.]
♦No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection.
[1913.]
♦No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.]
♦No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
♦No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead
in the painting of buildings. [1916.]
♦No. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions.
[1916.]
♦No. 207. Causes of death, by occupation. [1917.]
♦No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
[1917.]
No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.]
No. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
♦No. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts).
[1918.]
♦No. 234. Safety movement in the iron and steel industry, lt)07 to 1917.
No. 236. Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.]
No. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition
Workers’ Committee. [1919.]
♦No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.]
No. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
No. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
No. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.]
No. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates.
[1921.]
No. 291. Carbon-monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
No. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
No. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919.
No. 306. Occupational hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be
looked for in hazardous occupations. [1922.]
No. 392. Survey of hygenic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation
of phosphorus. [1926.]
No. 427. Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925.
No. 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Wash­
ington, D. C., July 14-16, 1926.
No. 460. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.]
No. 466. Settlement for accidents to American seamen. [1928.]
No. 488. Deaths from lead poisoning, 1925-1927.
No. 490. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States to the end of 1927.
[In press.]
Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions.

No. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
No. 340. Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
No. 349. Industrial relations in the West Coast lumber industry. [1923.]




(H)

Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions— Continued.
No. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.]
No. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
No. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
No. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924.
No. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States.
[1925.]
No. 483. Conditions in the shoe industry in Haverhill, Mass., 1928.
Labor Laws of the United States (including: decisions of courts relating to labor).
No. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
No. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
No. 285. Minimum-wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation.
[1921.]
No. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
No. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.J
No. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
No. 370. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
[1925.]
No. 408. Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.]
No. 444. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1926.
No. 467. Minimum-wage legislation in various countries. [1928.]
No. 486. Labor legislation of 1928.
Proceedings of Annual Conventions of the Association of Governm
ental Labor Officials of the
United States and Canada. \ (Name changed in 1928 to Association of Governmental Officials
in Industry of the United States and Canada.)
♦No. 266. Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
No. 307. Eighth, New Orleans, La., May 2-6, 1921.
No. 323. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26, 1922.
No. 352. Tenth, Richmond, Va., May 1-4, 1923.
♦No. 389. Eleventh, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
♦No. 411. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
No. 429. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926.
No. 455. Fourteenth, Paterson, N. J., May 31 to June 3, 1927.
No. 480. Fifteenth, New Orleans, La., May 15-24, 1928.
Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards
and Commissions.
No. 210. Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28, 1916.
No. 238. Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25, 1917.
No. 264. Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24-2J, 1918.
♦No. 273. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919.
No. 281. Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24, 1920.
No. 304. Eighth, Chicago, 111 September 19-23, 1921
.,
No. 333. Ninth, Baltimore, Md., October 9-13, 1922.
No. 359. Tenth, St. Paul, Minn., September 24-26. 1923.
No. 385. Eleventh, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
No. 395. Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
No. 406. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20, 1925.
No. 432. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926.
No. 456. Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29, 1927.
No. 485. Fifteenth, Paterson, N. J., September 11-14, 1928.
Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association of Public Employment
Services.
No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20, 1913; second, Indianapolis, Septem­
ber 24 and 25, 1914; third, Detroit, July 1 and 2, 1915.
No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21, 1916.
No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N. Y., September 7-9, 1921.
No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D. C., September 11-13, 1922.
No. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N. Y., September 15-17, 1925.
No. 478. Fifteenth, Detroit, Mich., October 25-28, 1927.
No. 501. Sixteenth, Cleveland, Ohio, September 18-21, 1928. [In press.]




(HI)

Productivity of Labor.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. [1923.]
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper boxboard industry. [1926.]
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.]
No. 474. Productivity of labor in merchant blast furnace. [1928.]
No. 475. Productivity of labor in newspaper printing. [1929.]
Retail Prices and Cost of Living.

♦No. 121.
♦No. 130.
No. 164.
No. 170.
No. 357.
No. 369.
No. 495.

Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.]
Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.]
Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.]
Cost of living in the United States. [1924.]
The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.]
Retail prices, 1890 to 1928. [In press.]

Safety Codes.

♦No. 331. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places.
No. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
No. 350. Specifications of laboratory tests for approval of electric headlighting de­
vices for motor vehicles.
No. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders.
No. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operation.
No. 378. Safety code for woodworking plants.
No. 382. Code for lighting school buildings.
No. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
No. 430. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
No. 433. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.
No. 436. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
No. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calendars.
No. 451. Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping.
No. 463. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus— first revision.
Vocational and Workers* Education.

♦No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment.
[1915.]
•No. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.]
No. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. [1917.]
No. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States.
[1920.]
No. 459. Apprenticeship in building consruction. [1928.]
Wages and Honrs of Labor.

♦No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in
the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.]
•No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt Industry.
[1914.]
No. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad
cars, 1907 to 1913.
•No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to
1914.
No. 204. Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.]
No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries,
1915.
No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923.
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923.
No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
No. 394. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper boxboard industry. [1926.]




(IV)

Wages and Hoars of Labor—Continued.

No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 413. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1925.
No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and
1924.
No. 435. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and the men’s clothing industry,
1911 to 1926.
No. 442. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1926.
No. 454. Hours and earnings in bituminous-coal mining, 1922, 1924, and 1926.
No. 471. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1927.
No. 472. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry,
1927.
No. 476. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, 1927. [Supplement to Bui. No.
457.]
No. 482. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1928.
No. 484. Wages and hours of labor of common street laborers, 1928.
No. 487. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing 1910
to 1928.
No. 492. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1928.
[In press.]
No. 497. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1928.
[In press.]
No. 498. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1910 to 1928.
[In press.]
No. 499. History of wages in the United States from colonial times to 1928. [In
press.]
No. 502. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1928. [In press.]
No. 503. Wages and hours of labor in the men's clothing industry, 1911 to 1928.
[In press.]
No. 504. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1907 to
1928. [In press.]
Welfare Work.

♦No. 123. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.]
No. 222. Welfare work in British munitions factories. [1917.]
♦No. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United
States. [1919.]
No. 458. Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926.
W
holesale Prices.
No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign coun­
tries. [1921.]
No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, / 923 to July, 1927.
No. 493. Wholesale prices, 1913 to 1928.
Women and Children in Industry.

No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in
selected industries in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
♦No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.]
No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
No. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
♦No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
No. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories. [1914.]
♦No. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
[1915.]
♦No. 175. Summary of the report on conditions of women and child wage earners in
the United States. [1915.]
♦No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determination in Oregon. [1915.]
♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
[1915.]
♦No. 82. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Bos­
ton, Mass. [1916.]
No. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.]
No. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]




(V)

Women and Children in Industry—Continued.
♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of in­
dustrial employment of women and children. [1918.]
No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.
[1917.]
No. 253. Women in the lead industries. [1919.]
Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
♦No. 101. Care of tuberculosis wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
♦No. 102. British national insurance act, 1911.
No. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law in Switzerland. [1912.]
No. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.]
♦No. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.]
No. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International
Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissioners, Washing­
ton, D. C., December 5-9, 1916.
♦No. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign coun­
tries, 1917 and 1918.
No. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration.
[1922.]
No. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921.
No. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of
January 1, 1925.
No. 477. Public-service retirement systems, United States and Europe. [1928.]
No. 496. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of
January, 1929. With text of legislation enacted in 1927 and 1928.
Miscellaneous Series.
♦No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics up to May 1, 1915.
No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.]
No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
No. 254. International labor legislataion and the society of nations. [1919.]
No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington,
D. C. [1921.]
No. 299. Personnel research agencies: A guide to organize research in employment
management, industrial relations, training, and working conditions.
[1921.]
No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization.
[1922.]
No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. [1923.]
No. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and
problems. [1923.]
No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.]
No. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
No. 386. Cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries. [1926.]
No. 420. Handbook of American trade-unions. [1926.]
No. 461. Labor organizations in Chile. [1928.]
No. 462. Park recreation areas in the United States. [1928.]
No. 465. Beneficial activities of American trade-unions. [1928.]
No. 479. Activities and functions of a State department of labor. [1928.]
No. 489. Care of aged persons in United States. [1929.]
No. 491. Handbook of labor statistics: 1929 edition.
No. 505. Directory of homes for the aged in the United States. [1929.] (In press.)




(VI)