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Adopted by the

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

at the start of war . . .

C H I L D R E N ’S C H A R T E R



Guard children from injury in danger zones.


Protect children from neglect, exploitation, and
undue strain in defense areas.


Strengthen the home life of children whose parents
are mobilized for war or war production.


Conserve, equip, and free children of every race
and creed to take their part in democracy.


adopted by the Children’s Bureau

Washington, D. C.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


March 18 , 1942

in the midst of war . , .

In the spirit of the Children’s
Charter in Wartime, adopted two
years ago, the Commission on Chil­
dren in Wartime renews its call to
the American people to take needed
steps to assure to all children of
every race and creed full protec­
tion amid the devastation of war,
and to plan now for their welfare
in the transition from war to peace.


adopted by the Children’s Bureau

Washington, D. C.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis



March 18 1944

for our children , . .

For many families incomes have risen as a result of war
Through National, State, and local effort and private enterprise,
homes have been provided for millions of war workers.
Food-distribution policies, including school-lunch programs,
have made possible for many children a higher level of nutrition
than they have known before.
Hospitals, schools, and recreation centers have been provided
in many war communities.
The maternal mortality rate in 1942 again showed substantial
Infant mortality in general has decreased, although recent
figures from some areas show increases.
Medical, nursing, and hospital care has been made available
during maternity and infancy for the families of men in the four
lowest pay grades of our fighting forces without cost to the
Youth themselves have given a great amount of volunteer war
service, have brought their needs to public attention in a con­
structive way, and have worked out, with adult participation,
sound leisure-time programs for the teen-age group.
State and local governments have provided means for coordi­
nated planning and action to mee/: youth needs through public
and private effort.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

As fathers enter military service many families are now required
to adjust to a much lower income level.
Shortages of doctors, nurses, and health and hospital facilities are
affecting the quantity and quality of health protection and
medical care, especially in military and war production areas
and in many rural areas in which shortages existed even before
the war.
At least a million children are being taught by unqualified
teachers replacing those with better preparation. Qualified
teachers are being dismissed in areas in which school enrollment
is declining.
Children are working long hours, at night, at tasks beyond their
strength, and often under conditions morally unsafe.
Many thousands of children whose mothers are employed lack
care or supervision during day or night hours.
Millions of youth, feeling the restlessness, excitement, and
anxiety that war brings, lack both effective means of sharing in
adult concerns and opportunities for wholesome fun and com­
Rising juvenile delinquency, causing general concern, is a symp­
tom of widespread failure to meet youth needs.
Girls too young for such responsibility are experiencing mater­
nity, frequently without the protection of an established home,
often in a war community where they are strangers.
Children are being born under conditions fraught with insecurity.
Children in minority groups often are denied essential oppor­
tunities generally available to other children in the communities
in which they live.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

for children of other lands . . .
Looking beyond our own borders, we are appalled at the suffer­
ing and destruction of children of allied and enemy countries.
These shocking realities should strengthen our determination to
extend relief to children of war-stricken areas as rapidly as
They should strengthen our determination to cooperate to the
fullest extent in the relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction work
of the United Nations, and
They should strengthen our determination to lend full support
to the establishment of international organizations for the main­
tenance of a just and lasting peace and to do everything possible
to make sure that no other generation of children will have to
suffer from the destruction of war.
planning as we move frotn war to peace . . .
No date can be fixed as a dividing line between war and post-war
planning, even if it were possible to predict when hostilities will
Many families and some communities are already in the post-war
period, as men have returned from military service or war
workers have lost their jobs.
Many breadwinners now in military service will never return
to assume their responsibility toward the children dependent on
them. Many others will return as permanently disabled vet­
erans, with serious curtailment or complete loss of earning power.
The post-war planning now under way must provide for children
and youth if victory is to mean opportunity for them to share in
building a world based on freedom and justice. We dare not,
for them or for our future, risk another generation of transient,
idle, frustrated youth, like those of the early years of the
Post-war planning must also provide for maintaining the free­
dom, integrity, and security of the family.
All political parties have an obligation to pledge full support of
measures needed to assure to all the children and youth of the
Nation at least the minimum opportunities required to equip
them to take their part in democracy and in the establishment
of peace and justice among the peoples of the world.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Safeguarding of family life in wartime, during demobilization,
• and in the post-war period, including—
Strengthening and extension of special guidance, counsel­
ing, and rehabilitation services particularly needed in re­
establishing families disrupted by wartime separations, with
due recognition of the spiritual, emotional, and social bases
for wholesome family life.
Assistance and service to families of men in the armed
services facing radical readjustments of income and stand­
ards of living.
Economic policies designed to encourage production of an
abundant supply of goods to meet the needs of families and
children and to provide employment opportunity for all at
such wages and under such conditions as will assure an
adequate economic basis for family life, with protection
against discrimination in employment because of race,
creed, or national origin.
Extension of the coverage and benefits of social-security
programs without residence restrictions.
Housing policies and standards directed toward providing
every family with decent housing so planned that necessary
health, education, recreation, and welfare facilities and
services for children are available.
Extension of health service and medical care to assure access to
adequate care for all mothers and children, including—
Provision of health services for infants and young children
through the organization of well-child health centers in
every community lacking such facilities, and extension of
such service where it is inadequate.
Development of adequate health and medical-care pro­
grams, including health education for school children and
employed youth, with extension of school-lunch and nutri­
tion programs, and enlargement of the program for crippled
children to include particularly services for children with
rheumatic fever and heart disease in all States.
Provision of public medical care or health-insurance pro­
grams as needed to assure access to adequate care for all
mothers and children.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Planning for measures needed to assure adequate distribu­
tion of skilled medical and nursing care and adequate hos­
pital facilities for mothers and children in all parts of the
country, urban and rural, including plans for demobilization
of medical and nursing personnel now in the armed forces,
appropriate provision for further professional training,
placement in areas of need, and plans for hospital and
health-center construction with provision of funds necessary
for operation.
o Regulation of child labor and safeguarding of youth in wartime
•^’ employment; plans now for young workers demobilized from
industry and for youth leaving school in the demobilization
period; development of policies for the post-war period which
will assure protection and educational and employment oppor­
tunity to youth. Specifically, these goals include—
Continued emphasis upon and further implementation of
the declared policy of the War Manpower Commission that
in most cases youth under 18 can best contribute to the war
program by continuing in school.
Extension of community programs, developed with the
cooperation of management, labor, and the public, for safe­
guarding youth who are employed in agriculture and in
industry on a part-time or full-time basis.
Adequate appropriations for full enforcement of Federal
and State child-labor laws, with special emphasis upon
elimination of child labor under detrimental conditions, for
excessive hours, and at night.
Planning now for the guidance and counseling service of
youth when they are demobilized from industry; develop­
ment of educational programs suited to their needs, with
student aid as required; retraining and placement in private
industry or public employment; broadening opportunities
for training through apprenticeship; extension of mini­
mum-wage protection for minors; and other youth services
as needed.
More experiments with guided work-study programs con­
ducted cooperatively by schools, employers, public conser­
vation agencies, and camps, to permit youth to experience
work appropriate to their age as a planned part of their

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Increased financial support by local, State, and Federal
governments for the further improvement of education
without discrimination on account of race, creed, or national
Establishment of adequate post-war child-labor and schoolattendance standards developed in the light of wartime
experience and extending to areas not now fully covered,
through State child-labor and school-attendance laws and
Federal child-labor legislation.
Development of policies relating to health, schooling, em­
ployment opportunities, and recreation for the post-war
period which will assure to youth opportunity for full de­
velopment and to the Nation at all times generations of both
sexes physically and educationally equipped and morally
prepared for whatever service the Nation’s safety and wel­
fare may require, whether in peace or in war.
A Development of community recreation and leisure-time services
\* for young people, with participation in planning and manage­
ment by youths themselves, including—
Full use ol school buildings and playground for after-school,
vacation, and adult-education programs and extension of
school camps.
Mobilization of all community recreation resources with
special attention to joint planning by public and private


Development of continuing provision for joint Federal and
State services for the stimulation and encouragement of
community recreation programs, especially needed in the
period of demobilization.
Extension of responsibility for planning and management of
programs for youth through youth councils and committees,
parent councils, and parent-youth community councils.

r C Development of State and local public child-welfare programs
and the work of private agencies to assure social services to every
child whose home conditions or individual difficulties require
special attention, including—
Extension of child-welfare services, with Federal assistance
as needed, to all counties and local areas in all States. Such
services should include adequate legal and social protection
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

and care for children whose parents are dead or whose
homes are broken, children of illegitimate birth, children
who are neglected or delinquent, and children suffering
from other social handicaps.
Enlargement and improvement of community programs of
child care with Federal assistance to State departments of
welfare and of education to provide adequate services to
children whose mothers are employed.
Development of closer relationships between social agen­
cies and schools, health agencies, recreational agencies,
courts, and police.
/Z Review and revision of legislative safeguards and standards relating to children in preparation for the 1945 sessions of State legis­
latures, in the light of these goals for children.
Sharing of the public responsibility for the health, education, and
7• welfare
of children by Federal, State, and local authorities, with
recognition of the primary responsibility of the State and local
units, and of the importance of providing Federal funds for local
services through grants-in-aid to appropriate State agencies, and
with removal of residence restrictions in the selection of personnel
for such programs.
O Provision for training professional personnel required for services
to children and youth and for preparing volunteers to assist in
rendering such services.
Increased opportunities for youth to share in the planning and
9* development
of programs— local, State, National, and interna­
tional— for the benefit of youth.
Education of parents, youth, and all citizens concerning the
0* importance
of providing full security and opportunity for chil­
dren for the sake of their own happiness and well-being and for
the future of the Nation.

T he realization of these goals w ill require the highest order of
leadership, substantial sacrifice, and a sustained and coordi­
nated effort on the part of a ll groups throughout the Nation.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Officers and Members
Chairman, Leonard W. Mayo, Cleveland, Ohio
First Vice Chairman, Mrs. Harriet A. Houdlette, Washington, D. C
Second Vice Chairman, Boris Shishkin, Washington, D. C
Secretary, Edith Kockwood, Washington, D. G

Edith Abbott, Chicago, 111.
Fred L. Adair, M. D., Chicago, 111.
Cyrü Ainsworth, New York, N. Y.
Frederick H. Allen, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa.
Mrs. Robert A. Angelo, York, Pa.
Reginald M. Atwater, M. D., New York,
N. Y.
Kenzie S. Bagshaw, Holidaysburg, Pa.
Leona Baumgartner, M. D., New York, N. Y.
Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune, Washington,
D. C.
Alice Drew Chenoweth, M. D., Louisville,



Nathan E. Cohen, New York, N. Y.
William L. Connolly, Providence, R. I.
Paul B. Comely, M. D., Washington, D. C.
Grace L. Coyle, Cleveland, Ohio.
A. W . Dent, New Orleans, La.
Loula Dunn, Montgomery, Ala.
Nicholson J. Eastman, M. D., Baltimore, Md.
John W . Edelman, Washington, D. C.
Mrs. Gladys Talbott Edwards, Denver, Colo.
Marshall Field, New York, N. Y.
Homer Folks, New York, N. Y.
Franklin P. Gengenbach, M. D., Denver,
Willard E. Givens, Washington, D. C.
Lester B. Granger, New York, N. Y.
Mrs. Sidonie M. Gruenberg, New York,
N. Y.
Mrs. William A. Hastings, Madison, Wis.
Marion Hathway, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Henry F. Helmholz, M. D., Rochester, Minn.
Mrs. Kate Bullock Helms, Columbia, S. C.
Harold W . Herman, Chicago, 111.
George Hjelte, Los Angeles, Calif.
Anne Sarachon Hooley, Washington, D. C.
Howard W . Hopkirk, New York, N. Y.
Ruth Houlton, R. N., New York, N. Y .
Mrs. Henry A. Ingraham, New York, N. Y.
Charles S. Johnson, Nashville, Tenn.
Mary Alice Jones, Chicago, 111.

Mrs. Robert M. Jones, Seattle, Wash.
Paul U. Kellogg, New York, N. Y.
Rev. C. E. Krumbholz, New York, N. Y.
Mary E. Leeper, Washington, D. C.
N. S. Light, Hartford, Conn.
Mrs. Clara Savage Littledale, New York,
N. Y.
Oscar L. Miller, M. D., Charlotte, N. C.
Rhoda J. Milliken, Washington, D. C.
Broadus Mitchell, New York, N. Y.
Emory W . Morris, D. D. S., Battle Creek,
Mrs. Rose Norwood, Boston, Mass.
Monsignor John O’Grady, Washington, D. C.
E. W . Palmer, Kingsport, Tenn.
J. Milton Patterson, Baltimore, Md.
Ellen C. Potter, M. D., Trenton, N. J.
Emma C. Puschner, Indianapolis, Ind.
Grace A. Reeder, Albany, N. Y.
Floyd W . Reeves, Chicago, 111.
Mrs. Horace B. Ritchie, Athens, Ga.
Howard L. Russell, Chicago, 111.
J. Harold Ryan, Washington, D. C.
DeWitt Smith, Washington, D. C.
Roy Sorenson, Chicago, 111.
J. Edward Sproul, New York, N. Y.
William H. Stauffer, Richmond, Va.
Mrs. Mabel K. Staupers, R. N., New York,
N. Y.
Mrs. Faye Stephenson, Cleveland, Ohio.
George S. Stevenson, M. D., New York,
N. Y.
Mrs. Anna M. P. Strong, Marianna, Ark.
Linton B. Swift, New York, N. Y.
Felix J. Underwood, M. D., Jackson, Miss.
Joseph S. Wall, M. D., Washington, D. C.
J. Raymond Walsh, Washington, D. C.
Mrs. Roy C. F. Weagly, Hagerstown, Md.
Herbert D. Williams, Warwick, N. Y.
Mrs. Gertrude Folks Zimand, New York,
N. Y.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

related to programs of the Commission
Single copies may be obtained free of charge from the Children’s Bureau. Purchase orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents, Washington
25, D. C.
A Children’s Charter in W artim e. Children in Wartime No. 2. Pub. 283.
5 cents.
For O ur Children in W artim e—A P rogram of State A ction;
Child, October 1942.
Community A ction for Children in W artime.

Pub. 295.

Controlling Juvenile Delinquency. Pub. 301.

28 pp.

Reprint from The

10 pp.




5 cents.

10 cents.

To Mothers and Fathers of the Nation’s Wartime Children; a letter from the Chief
of the Children’s Bureau. 4 pp. 1943.
Legislation for the Protection of Children in Wartime.

36 pp.


Children in a Democracy; general report adopted by the White House Conference
on Children in a Democracy, January 19, 1940. 86 pp. 20 cents.
White House Conference on Children in a Democracy— Final Report.
392 pp. 1943. 65 cents.

Pub. 272

Standards of Child Health, Education, and Social Welfare, based on recommenda­
tions of the White House Conference on Children in a Democracy. Pub 287 21 dd
1942. 10 cents.
Our Concern— Every Child; State and community planning for wartime and post-war
security of children, by Emma O. Lundberg. Pub. 303. 84 pp. 1944. 15 cents.

Frances Perkins, Secretary
Children in Wartime N o. 5
U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E

F. Lenroot, C h ief


Bureau Publication 306
16— 4 0 2 0 8 -2

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Price 5 cents.