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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS GLOSSARY OF CURRENT INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS A N D W A G E TERMS Bulletin No. 1438 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner GLOSSARY OF CURRENT IN D U S TR IA L R E L A T IO N S A N D W A G E TE R M S Bulletin No. 1438 May 1965 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 4 5 cents Preface The terms listed in this glossary are those likely to be encountered most frequently in reading about contemporary labor-management relations, wage practices, and Government labor policy in the United States, and by workers and super visors in their employments. Definitions are brief, designed primarily to identify terms according to common usage rather than to provide a technical discussion of meanings and appli cations. Some terms which may appear obvious to readers in the United States have been added for the benefit of possible users in other countries. This glossary is not intended as a manual of correct usage. On occasion, a distinction between a popular and a technical definition is pointed out. Some terms, moreover, have a specific legal meaning, either through legislative enactment or judicial interpretation, which may differ in important re spects from ordinary usage. Thus, this glossary should not be considered as reflecting the official views, opinions, or defi nitions of any agency of the U. S. Government. This glossary is based in part on two earlier ones prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, both long out of print— the Glossary of Current Industrial Relations Terms, comprising Chapter 4:01 of the Guide to Labor-Management Relations in the United States (BLS Bulletin 1225, 1958), and the Glossary of Currently Used Wage Terms (BLS Bulletin 983, 1950). A shorter version of this glossary was circulated for com ment among research technicians in business, unions, and Government. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics be lieves that a broad consensus is not beyond achievement, it alone bears the responsibility for this publication, which was prepared by Joseph W. Bloch, chief of the Division of In dustrial and Labor Relations, under the general direction of L. R. Linsenmayer, assistant commissioner for Wages and In dustrial Relations. iii Glossary of Current INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND WAGE TERMS ABSENTEEISM Term is most commonly applied to unjustified failure of workers to report to work when scheduled. In determining rate of absenteeism, however, it may apply to all absences, whether for justified (e. g . , sickness) or unjustified reasons. ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS BENEFITS (SICK BENEFITS) Regular payments to workers who lose time from work due to off-the-job disabilities through accident or sickness, e.g., $50 a week for up to 26 weeks of disability. Usually in sured and part of a private group health and insurance plan financed in whole or in part by the employer. (See Health and Insurance Plan; Temporary Disability Insurance; Work men's Compensation; Sick Leave.) ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT BENEFITS An extra lump-sum payment made under many group life insurance plans for loss of life, limb, or sight as a direct result of an accident. Coverage is usually for both occu pational and nonoccupational accidents, but may be limited to the latter. (See Life Insurance Plan; Workmen's Com pensation. ) ACROSS-THE-BOARD INCREASE A general wage increase simultaneously affecting all or most employees in a plant, company, or industry, by way of a uniform cents-per-hour or percentage increase. 1 2 ACTIVE EMPLOYEES Employees at work, as distinguished from retired or laid-off employees. ADVANCE NOTICE In general, an announcement of an intention to carry out a certain action, given to an affected or interested party in sufficient time to prepare for it, as in informing a union of planned changes in production methods or plant shut down, notifying a worker that he will be laid-off on a certain date, and notifying management of the union’ s in tention to terminate or modify a collective bargaining agreement on its expiration date. (See Pay-in-Lieu-ofNotice.) ADVISORY ARBITRATION: ARBITRATION AFL-CIO (AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR AND CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS) Federation of approximately 130 autonomous national and international unions created by the merger of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in December 1955. More than 80 per cent of union members in the United States come within the orbit of the AFL-CIO through their membership in affil iated unions. The initials AFL-CIO after the name of a union indicates that the union is an affiliate. (See Inde pendent Union; Departments, AFL-CIO.) AGENCY SHOP Provision in a collective bargaining agreement which re quires that all employees in the bargaining unit who do not join the union pay a fixed amount monthly, usually the equivalent of union dues, as a condition of employment to help defray the union’ s expenses in acting as bargaining agent. Under some arrangements, the payments are allocated to the union’ s welfare fund or to a recognized charity. May operate in conjunction with a modified union shop. (See Union Shop.) 3 AGREEMENT (COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT; UNION CONTRACT) Written contract between an employer (or an association of employers) and a union (or unions), usually for a definite term, defining conditions of employment (wages, hours, vacations, holidays, overtime payments, working condi tions, e tc .), rights of workers and union, and procedures to be followed in settling disputes or handling issues that arise during the life of the contract. ALLOWED TIME Term is used to express the total time allowed for com pletion of a task or an element thereof, including time for personal needs, rest, and unavoidable delays. AMERICAN ARBITRATION ASSOCIATION Private nonprofit organization established to aid professional arbitrators in their work through legal and technical serv ices, and to promote arbitration as a method of settling commercial and labor disputes. Provides lists of qualified arbitrators to unions and employers on request. AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL) National federation of autonomous trade unions formally organized in 1886, although tracing its origin to 1881. Merged with Congress of Industrial Organizations in De cember 1955, and ceased to exist at that time as a sepa rate organization. (Thus, term has no current application.) AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR AND CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS: AFL-CIO ANNUAL EARNINGS: EARNINGS 4 ANNUAL IMPROVEMENT FACTOR As introduced in the 1948 agreement between General Mo tors Corp. and the United Automobile Workers, and since retained, this was the term for wage increases granted automatically each contract year, in addition to cost-ofliving adjustments. The provision was prefaced with the • following words which set it apart from ordinary deferred wage increases: "The annual improvement factor provided herein recognizes that a continuing improvement in the standard of living of employees depends upon technological progress, better tools, methods, processes and equipment, and a cooperative attitude on the part of all parties in such progress. It further recognizes the principle that to produce more with the same amount of human effort is a sound economic and social objective." (See Deferred Wage Increase.) ANNUAL WAGE OR EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE: GUARANTEED ANNUAL WAGE PLAN ANNUITY: PENSION PLAN ANTI-INJUNCTION LAW, 1932 (NORRIS-LaGUARDIA ACT) Federal act regulating the issuance of injunctions by Federal courts in Labor disputes. The act also made yellow-dog contracts unenforcible. The Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 restored some injunctive powers to the courts. (See Yellow-Dog Contract.) ANTI-RACKETEERING LAW, 1934 (HOBBS ACT) Federal law making it a felony to obstruct, delay, or affect interstate commerce by robbery or extortion. 5 ANTI-STRIKEBREAKER LAW, 1936 (BYRNES ACT) Federal law prohibiting the interstate transportation of strikebreakers, APPRENTICE A person, usually a young man, who enters into agreement to learn a skilled trade and to achieve a journeyman status through supervised training and experience, usually for a specified period of time. Practical training is supplemented by related technical off-the-job instruction. APPRENTICE RATES Schedule of rates applicable to workers being given formal apprenticeship training. Usually set so as to permit a grad ual rise to the journeyman rate. ARBITRATION (VOLUNTARY, COMPULSORY, ADVISORY) Method of settling labor-management disputes through re course to an impartial third party, whose decision is usually final and binding. Arbitration is voluntary when both parties agree to submit disputed issues to arbitration, and compul sory if required by law. (A court order to carry through a voluntary arbitration agreement is not generally consid ered as compulsory arbitration.) Advisory arbitration: As provided in Federal Government agreements, arbitration without a final and binding award. ARBITRATOR An impartial third party to whom disputing parties submit their differences for decision (award). An ad hoc arbitrator is one selected to act in a specific case or a limited group of cases. A permanent arbitrator is one selected to serve for the life of the contract or a stipulated term, hearing all disputes that arise during this period. (See Impartial Chairman.) 6 AREA REDEVELOPMENT ACT, 1961 Federal act to stimulate the economic growth of distressed areas through loans for private and public projects, through technical assistance, and through occupational training and retraining (with subsistence allowances for trainees). ASSESSMENT Special charge levied by a union on its members to meet financial needs not covered by regular dues. ASSOCIATION AGREEMENT An agreement negotiated and signed by an employers1 asso ciation, on behalf of its members, with a union or unions. (See Multiemployer Bargaining.) ATOMIC ENERGY LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS PANEL Board of impartial experts established in 1953 to assist the operating contractors of the Atomic Energy Commission and their unions in arriving at peaceful settlements of disputes over agreement terms. Parties are free to reject panel jurisdiction. ATTENDANCE BONUS Payment or another type of reward (e. g ., a day off) for employees whose record of daily reporting for work, with out absences, meets certain standards of excellence. ATTRITION ARRANGEMENT A process of relying upon voluntary quits, deaths, and re tirements to reduce a company*s labor force overtime in stead of resorting to dismissal of workers. 7 AUTHORIZATION CARD A statement signed by the worker authorizing a union to act as his representative in dealings with management, or authorizing the company to deduct union dues from his pay (checkoff). (See Card Check. ) AUTOMATIC PROGRESSION Policy by which rates of pay of workers in jobs with es tablished rate ranges are increased automatically at fixed time intervals. Also used to refer to automatic movement from trainee rate to job classification rate or to the min imum of a rate range. AUTOMATIC RETIREMENT: COMPULSORY RETIREMENT AUTOMATION As used by engineers, applied to several types of technical developments, including (a) a continuous-flow production process which integrates various mechanisms to produce a finished item with relatively few or no worker operations, usually through electronic control; (b) self-regulating ma chines that can perform highly precise operations in se quence; and (c) electronic computing machines. In com mon usage, however, the term is often used in reference to any type of advanced mechanization or as a synonym for technological change. AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS: EARNINGS BACK PAY Payment of part or all of the wages for a particular prior period of time, arising from arbitration, court, or board awards, grievance settlements, errors in computation of pay, misinterpretation of wage legislation, etc. 8 RACK-TO-WORK MOVEMENT Return of some or all striking workers to their jobs before the strike is ended. BARGAINING AGENT Union designated by an appropriate government agency, such as the National Labor Relations Board, or recognized voluntarily by the employer, as the exclusive representative of all employees in the bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining. BARGAINING RIGHTS Legally recognized right of unions to represent workers in dealings with employers. BARGAINING UNIT Group of employees in a craft, department, plant, firm, or industry recognized by the employer or group of employers, or designated by an authorized agency such as the National Labor Relations Board, as appropriate for representation by a union for purposes of collective bargaining. BASE RATE Amount of pay for work performed during a unit of time, e. g . , hour, day, week, month, or year, exclusive of over time or incentive earnings. Under incentive systems, term may refer to amount paid for an established task or job standard, usually at a work level equivalent to a nonin centive pace. BEGINNER RATE: LEARNER RATE BENCHMARKS: PEG POINTS 9 BEREAVEMENT PAY: FUNERAL LEAVE PAY BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS Term for manual workers, usually those employed in pro duction, maintenance, and related occupations, and paid by the hour or on an incentive basis, (See White-Collar Workers.) BLUE CROSS Independent nonprofit membership corporation providing protection against the costs of hospital care through an insurance plan. (See Hospitalization Benefits.) BLUE SHIELD Independent nonprofit membership corporation providing payments for the costs of surgery and related medical care through an insurance plan. (See Surgical Benefits.) BOARD OF INOUIRY A board appointed by the President of the United States, under the Labor Management Relations Act, to examine and report on the facts and positions of the parties in a M national emergency” dispute. The term is often used for any board set up by a public agency to investigate a labor dispute. (See Factfinding Board.) BOGUS Term used in the printing industry to designate typesetting work which is not needed for printing but which is required by the collective bargaining agreement. Other terms for unused work are "reproduction” , "reset”, and "dead horse”. 10 BONUS PLAN A wage system that includes payment in addition to regu lar or base wage for production in excess of the standard for the job, department, or plant. Sometimes used to in dicate a piecework or wage incentive system. The term '’bonus1 may also refer to any payment in addition to the 1 regular wage (e. g ., Christmas bonus). BOOK MEMBER: UNION MEMBER BOYCOTT Efforts by a union, usually in collaboration with other unions, to discourage the purchase, handling, or use of products of an employer with whom the union is in dis pute. When such action is extended to another company doing business with the employer involved in the dispute, it is termed a secondary boycott. (See Hot-Cargo Clause. ) BREAK TIME: REST PERIOD BRIDGE BENEFITS: SURVIVORS' BENEFITS BUG: UNION LABEL BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION TRADES DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENTS, AFL-CIO BUMPING (ROLLING) Practice that allows a senior employee (in seniority ranking or length of service) to displace a junior employee in another job or department during a layoff or reduction in force. (See Seniority.) 11 BUREAU O f LABOR STATISTICS (BLS): U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF NATIONAL AFFAIRS, INC. (BNA) A commercial nongovernmental organization engaged in providing various types of reports and services dealing with industrial relations and labor affairs. BUSINESS AGENT (UNION REPRESENTATIVE) Generally a full-time paid employee or official of a local union whose duties include day-to-day dealing with em ployers and workers, adjustment of grievances, enforcement of agreements, and similar activities. (See International Representative.) BUSINESS UNIONISM ("BREAD-AND-BUTTER" UNIONISM) Union policy that places primary emphasis on securing higher wages and better working conditions for its members through collective bargaining rather than through political action or radical reform of society. The term has been widely used to characterize the objectives of the trade union movement in the United States. BYLAWS Generally, provisions supplementing charters or constitutions of unions or other organizations, setting forth the rules for the organization. BYRNES ACT: ANTI-STRIKEBREAKER LAW, 1936 CALL-IN PAY (CALLBACK PAY) Amount of pay guaranteed to a worker recalled to work after completing his regular work shift. Call-in pay is often used as a synonym for reporting pay. (See Report ing Pay.) 12 CARD CHECK Procedure whereby signed union authorization cards are checked against a list of workers in a prospective bar gaining unit to determine if the union has majority status* The employer may recognize the union on the basis of this check without the necessity of a formal election* Often conducted by an outside party, e. g ., a respected member of the community. (See Authorization Card.) CASUAL WORKERS Workers who have no steady employer, but who shift from employer to employer. Also used in longshoring to refer to workers not regularly attached to a particular work group. Sometimes applied to temporary employees. CATASTROPHE INSURANCE: MAJOR MEDICAL EXPENSE BENEFIT CENTRAL LABOR COUNCIL (CITY CENTRAL BODY) An AFL— CIO organization formed by association of local unions in a community or other geographical area, to fur ther union interests and activities. CERTIFICATION Formal designation by a government agency, such as the National Labor Relations Board, of the union selected by the majority of the employees in a supervised election to act as exclusive bargaining agent for all employees in the bargaining unit. CHANGEOVER TIME Working time lost while a company changes from one model to another, as in the automobile industry. 13 CHAPTER: LOCAL UNION CHARTER Written authorization to establish a subordinate or affiliated body of a union. CHECKOFF Practice whereby the employer, by agreement with the union (and upon written authorization from each employee where required by law or agreement), regularly withholds union dues from employees* wages and transmits these funds to the union. Checkoff is a common practice in organ ized establishments and is not dependent upon the existence of a formal union security clause. The arrangement may also provide for deductions of initiation fees and assess ments. (See Union Security.) CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Under title VII of this Federal act, employers, unions, and employment agencies are required to treat all persons equally, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, or na tional origin, in all phases of employment, including hiring, promotion, compensation, firing, apprenticeship, job as signments, and training. An Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was created to assist in carrying out this sec tion of the act. CLASSIFICATION ACT EMPLOYEES Federal Government employees, typically professional, ad ministrative, technical, and clerical employees, whose salary rates and certain other conditions of employment are determined by the Congress. (See Wage Board Em ployees. ) 14 CLEANUP TIME (WASHUP TIME) Paid time allowed to workers to clean their workplaces or tools or to wash up before leaving the plant at the close of the workday or for lunch. (See Clothes Changing T im e.) CLOSED SHOP Form of union security provided in an agreement which binds the employer to hire and retain only union members in good standing. The key distinction between a closed shop and a union shop lies in the hiring restriction, a re striction prohibited by the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947. Legal closed shops may be found outside the scope of this act (which applies to employers and em ployees in industries affecting interstate commerce) and outside of States with "right-to-work" laws. CLOSED UNION A union which bars new members or makes membership acquisition difficult (e. g . , by very high initiation fees) in order to protect job opportunities for its present members, or for other reasons. Some unions accept only sons of present members. (See Open Union.) CLOTHES CHANGING TIME Time allotted within the paid workday for changing from street wear to working clothes or from working clothes to street wear, or both. (See Cleanup T im e .) CLOTHING ALLOWANCE Monetary allowance for clothing and/or its upkeep, granted by an employer to employees who are required to wear special clothing, such as uniforms or safety garments, in the performance of their work. 15 CODES OF ETHICAL PRACTICES Rules adopted by the AFL-CIO in 1956~57, setting standards of behavior for unions and their officers. COFFEE BREAK: REST PERIOD COLLECTIVE BARGAINING Method whereby representatives of the employees (the union) and employer determine the conditions of employ ment through direct negotiation, normally resulting in a written contract setting forth the wages, hours, and other conditions to be observed for a stipulated period ( e .g ., 2 years). The term is also applied to union-management dealings during the term of the agreement. (See agree ment. ) COMMISSION EARNINGS Compensation to salespeople based on a predetermined per centage of the value of sales. May be an addition to a guaranteed salary rate or may constitute total pay. COMMON LABOR General term used to designate unskilled workers, usually men performing heavy labor. In specific plants, may refer to unskilled workers not assigned to a particular job. The latter use is probably now the more frequent one. COMPANY UNION Term used to designate a labor organization that is organ ized, financed, or dominated by the employer and is thus suspected of being an agent of the company rather than the workers. This practice is prohibited under the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947. The term also survives as a derogatory charge leveled against a union suspected of being ineffectual. (See Single-Company Union.) 16 COMPANYWIDE BARGAINING: MULTIPLANT BARGAINING COMPENSABLE INJURY A work injury for which compensation indemnity benefits are payable to the injured worker or his beneficiary under workmen* s compensation laws. COMPENSATION: EARNINGS COMPULSORY ARBITRATION: ARBITRATION COMPULSORY RETIREMENT (AUTOMATIC RETIREMENT) Involuntary separation from employment in a company upon reaching a specified age (e. g . , 65 or 68), In precise pension terms, a distinction is usually made between com pulsory and automatic retirement. The age of compulsory retirement is that point at which worker loses the right to decide whether he should retire or continue on his job. The age of automatic retirement is the age beyond which no employee may continue to work under the terms of the pension plan. In other words, an employee may work be yond the compulsory retirement age if the employer con sents, but automatic retirement rules out the option on both sides. CONCILIATION: MEDIATION CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS (CIO) Federation of national and international unions formally established in 1938 by industrial unions, many of which had been affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. Merged with the AFL in December 1955, to form the AFL— CIO, and is thus extinct as a separate organization. (See AFL-CIO.) 17 CONSULTATION An obligation on the part of management to consult the union on particular issues (e. g . , contracting-out) in ad vance of taking action is frequently provided by agree ments. What consultation actually means in each situation is what the parties want it to mean. In general, the process of consultation lies between notification to the union, which may amount simply to providing information, and nego tiation^ which implies agreement on the part of the union before the action can be taken. CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI) A Government index, issued monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which measures the average change in prices of goods and services purchased by urban wage-earner and clerical-worker families. The "new series" beginning in January 1964 covers all urban wage-earner and clericalworker consumers, including single workers living alone, as well as families of 2 or more persons. The CPI measures price change only, describing shifts in the purchasing power of the consumer^ dollar. It is often incorrectly referred to as a "cost-of-living index. " (See Cost-of-Living Ad justment; Escalator Clause.) CONTINUOUS BARGAINING COMMITTEES (INTERIM COMMITTEES) Committees established by management and union in a collective bargaining relationship to keep the agreement under constant review, and to discuss possible contract changes, long in advance of the contract expiration date. May provide for third-party participation. (See Human Relations Committees; Crisis Bargaining.) CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS (ROUND-THE-CLOCK OPERATIONS) Necessary plant operations (powerhouse, maintenance, pro tection, e tc .) that must continue to function on a 24-hour, 7-day basis. (See Continuous Process.) 18 CONTINUOUS PROCESS A process which, once begun, must continue without inter ruption for a long period, making the use of multiple shifts necessary. Often applied to a service (e. g., electric utility) needed continuously. CONTRACT: AGREEMENT CONTRACT BAR A denial of the request for a representation election, based on the existence of an agreement. Such an election will not be conducted by the National Labor Relations Board if there is in effect a written agreement which is binding upon the parties, has not been in effect for more than a "reason able" time, and its terms are consistent with the National Labor Relations Act. CONTRACTING-OUT (SUBCONTRACTING; FARMING OUT) Practice of having certain steps in a manufacturing process, plant maintenance, or other work functions performed by outside contractors, using their own work forces. CONVENTION: UNION CONVENTION COOLING-OFF PERIOD A period of time which must elapse before a strike or lock out can begin or be resumed, by agreement or by law. The term derives from the hope that the tensions of unsuccessful negotiation will subside in time and that a work stoppage will be averted. (See National Emergency Dispute.) CORRIDOR: DEDUCTIBLE 19 COST-OF-LIVING ADJUSTMENT Raising or lowering wages or salaries in accordance with changes in the cost of living as measured by a designated index; in collective bargaining agreements, usually the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index. (See Escalator Clause.) COST-OF-LIVING ALLOWANCE (FLOAT) Regular cents-per-hour or percentage payments made to workers through the operation of escalator clauses or other types of cost-of-living adjustments. Float— cost -of-living allowance not incorporated into base rates. COST-OF-LIVING INDEX This term is often used, incorrectly, to designate the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index. (See Consumer Price Index.) COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS This small Federal Government agency, established under the terms of the Employment Act of 1946, advises the President on economic developments, appraises Government economic policies, recommends to the President policies for economic growth and stability, and assists in the prep aration of the Presidents annual economic report to the Congress. (See Guideposts.) CRAFT Usually, a skilled occupation requiring a thorough know ledge of processes involved in the work, the exercise of considerable independent judgment, usually a high degree of manual dexterity, and, in some instances, extensive responsibility for valuable product or equipment. 20 CRAFT UNION Term applied to a labor organization which limits member ship to workers having a particular craft or skill or working at closely related trades. In practice, many so-called craft unions also enroll members outside the craft field; some come to resemble industrial unions in all major re spects. The traditional distinction between craft and in dustrial unions has been substantially blurred. The Inter national Typographical Union is an example of a craft union. (See Industrial Union. ) CRAFT UNIT A bargaining unit composed solely of workers having a recognized skill; for example, electricians, machinists, or plumbers. CREDITED SERVICE Years of employment counted for retirement, severance pay, seniority, etc. The definition of a credited year of service varies among companies and plans. CRISIS BARGAINING Term used to characterize collective bargaining taking place under the shadow of an imminent strike deadline, as distinguished from extended negotiations in which both parties enjoy ample time to present and discuss their posi tions. (See Continuous Bargaining Committees; Strike Deadline.) DAVIS-BACON ACT: PREVAILING WAGE LAW 21 DAYWORK Usually refers to work for which pay is computed on an hourly rate or on a per day basis, in contrast to piece or incentive work. DEADHEADING PAY Special payment to a transportation worker who is required to report for work at a point far removed from his home terminal or to return without passengers or freight after completing a run. DEAD TIME: DOWNTIME DEADWORK Term used in mining referring to nonproductive work, such as the removal of debris or waste matter. DEATH BENEFIT Payment, usually a lump sum, provided to a worker*s ben eficiary, in the event of his death. May be provided by a pension plan or another type of employer-sponsored wel fare plan, or by a union to its members. When insured, the more common term is life insurance. (See Life In surance Plan.) DECASUAUZATION Process of eliminating or barring casual workers in order to regularize employment. (See Casual Workers.) DECERTIFICATION Withdrawal by a government agency, such as the National Labor Relations Board, of a union1 official recognition as s exclusive bargaining representative. 22 DEDUCTIBLE (CORRIDOR) In major medical insurance plans, term is applied to that portion of covered hospital and medical charges which the insured worker must pay before the plan*s benefits begin. If the worker also has basic health insurance protection, the worker*s liability is often referred to as the corridor because it lies between two insured areas. (See Major Medical Expense Benefit.) DEFERRED WAGE INCREASE General term for negotiated wage changes which are not to become effective until some specified date in the fu ture, e. g., a year later. (See Annual Improvement Factor. ) DELAY TIME: DOWNTIME DEMOTION: DOWNGRADING DEPARTMENTS, AFL-CIO Associations of national and international unions within the Federation, working together to further mutual interests in their general fields of operation. The seven trade and in dustrial departments include the Building and Construction Trades, Food and Beverage Trades, Industrial Union, Mari time Trades, Metal Trades, Railway Employes, and Union Label and Service Trades. DEPOSIT ADMINISTRATION: PENSION PLAN DIFFERENTIAL PIECE RATES Plan under which piece rates vary at different levels of output. 23 DIRECT LABOR Term usually applied to workers engaged in productive occupations, e. g . , an essential step in a manufacturing process. Indirect labor usually includes employees whose jobs cannot be associated directly with a specific product or process. The precise meaning of these terms varies from company to company. DIRECTLY AFFILIATED UNIONS: FEDERAL LABOR UNIONS DISABILITY Any injury or illness, temporary or permanent, which pre vents a worker from carrying on his usual occupation. (See Permanent and Total Disability.) DISABILITY RETIREMENT Retirement because of physical inability to perform the job. (See Permanent and Total Disability.) DISAFFILIATION Withdrawal of a local union from membership in a national or international union, or of a national or international union from a federation. DISCHARGE Dismissal of a worker from his employment. Term im plies discipline for unsatisfactory performance and is thus usually limited to dismissals for cause relating to the indi vidual, e. g . , insubordination, absenteeism, inefficiency. 24 DISCRIMINATION Term applied to prejudice against or unequal treatment of workers in hiring, employment, pay, or conditions of work, because of race, national origin, creed, color, sex, age, union membership or activity, or any other characteristic not related to ability or job performance. DISMISSAL PAY OR ALLOWANCE: SEVERANCE PAY DISPOSABLE INCOME: SPENDABLE EARNINGS DISPUTE (LABOR DISPUTE) Any disagreement between union and management which requires resolution in one way or another; e. g . , inability to agree on contract terms, an unsettled grievance, etc. DIVISION OF WORK: WORK SHARING DOUBLE TIME Penalty or premium rate (e. g ., for overtime work, for work on Sundays and holidays) amounting to twice the employee's regular rate of pay for each hour worked. DOWNGRADING (DEMOTION) Reassignment of workers to tasks or jobs requiring lower skills and with lower rates of pay. DOWNTIME (DEAD TIME; DELAY TIME; WAITING TIME) Brief period during which workers are unable to perform their tasks while waiting for materials, repair, setup, or adjustment of machinery. Under incentive wage systems, term may refer to payment made to employees for such lost time. 25 DRAWING ACCOUNT Usually, an allowance given to salespeople working on a straight commission as an advance against commission payments. DUAL PAY SYSTEM As used in transportation industries, a system under which road employees are paid on a combined mileage and hours basis. DUAL UNIONISM A charge (usually a punishable offense) leveled at a union member or officer who seeks or accepts membership or position in a rival union, or otherwise attempts to under mine a union by helping its rival. DUES: UNION DUES EARLY RETIREMENT: RETIREMENT EARNINGS (HOURLY, DAILY, WEEKLY, ANNUAL, AVERAGE, GROSS, STRAIGHT-TIME; COMPENSATION) In general, the remuneration (pay, wages) of a worker or group of workers for services performed during a specific period of time. The term invariably carries a defining word or a combination, e. g . , straight-time average hourly earnings. Since a statistical concept is usually involved in the term and its variations, the producers and users of earn ings figures have an obligation to define them. In the absence of such definition, the following may serve as rough guides: Hourly, daily, weekly, annual— Period of time to which earnings figures, as stated or computed, re late. The context in which annual earnings (sometimes 26 weekly earnings) are used may indicate whether the refer ence includes earnings from one employer only or from all employment plus other sources of income; average— usually the arithmetic mean; that is, total earnings (as defined) of a group of workers (as identified) divided by number of workers in the group; gross—usually total earn ings, including, where applicable, overtime payments, shift differentials, production bonuses, cost-of-living allowances, commissions, etc.; straight-time—^usually gross earnings ex cluding overtime payments and (with variations at this point) shift differentials and other monetary payments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, in its wage surveys, defines straight-time earnings so as to exclude premium pay (for overtime and for work on weekends and holidays) and shift differentials. Compensation— a concept sometimes used to encompass the entire range of wages and benefits, both current and deferred, which workers receive out of their employment. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 1964 An act "to mobilize the human and financial resources of the Nation to combat poverty in the United States. ” An important part of this act, the work-training program (ad ministered by the U. S. Department of Labor), is directed to encouraging young unemployed persons (age 16— 21, in clusive) to stay in school or obtain job experience that would prepare them for meaningful work careers. ECONOMIC STRIKES Union-authorized strikes to bring about changes in wages, hours, or working conditions, usually associated with con tract negotiations. ELECTION: REPRESENTATION ELECTION 27 EMERGENCY BOARDS Under the Railway Labor Act, the President, upon notifi cation by the National Mediation Board that a contract negotiation dispute threatens seriously to interrupt interstate commerce, may appoint an emergency board to investigate and report within 30 days. During this period, and for 30 days after the board reports, no change may be made in the conditions underlying the dispute, except by agree ment of the parties. This is the last formal step in the act's procedures regarding contract disputes. EMPLOYEE General term for an employed wage earner or salaried worker. Used interchangeably with "worker” in the con text of a work situation, but a "worker" is not an "e m ployee" when he is no longer on the payroll. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLAN: WELFARE PLAN EMPLOYER General term for any individual, corporation, or other operating group, which hires workers (employees). The terms "employer" and "management" are often used inter changeably when there is no intent to draw a distinction between owners and managers. EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATION Voluntary membership organization of employers established to deal with problems common to the group. It may be formed specifically to handle industrial relations and to negotaite with a union or unions. (See Association Agree ment. ) 28 EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 (FULL EMPLOYMENT ACT) This act set forth a broad policy for the Federal Govern ment " . . . to coordinate and utilize all its plans, functions, and resources for the purpose of creating and maintaining, in a manner calculated to foster and promote free com petitive enterprise and the general welfare, conditions under which there will be afforded useful employment opportu nities, . . . and to promote maximum employment, pro duction, and purchasing power. M (See Council of Economic Advisers.) ENTRANCE RATE Hourly rate at which new employees are hired, at times referred to as a probationary or hiring rate. It may apply to the establishment as a whole or to a particular occupation. EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963 An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act prohibiting wage discrimination solely because of sex. (See Fair Labor Standards A c t.) EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK A policy denoting, or a demand for, payment of equal compensation to all employees in an establishment per forming the same kind or amount of work, regardless of race, sex, or other characteristics of the individual workers not related to ability or performance. ESCALATOR CLAUSE (WAGE ESCALATION) Provision in an agreement stipulating that wages are to be automatically increased or reduced periodically according to a schedule related to changes in the cost of living, as measured by a (designated index, or, occasionally, to an other standard e. g . , an average earnings figure). Term may also apply to any tie between an employee benefit and the cost of living, as in a pension plan. (See Con sumer Price Index.) 29 ESCAPE CLAUSE General term signifying release from an obligation. One example is found in maintenance-of-membership arrange ments which give union members an "escape period" during which they may resign from membership in the union with out forfeiting their jobs. EXCLUSIVE BARGAINING RIGHTS The right and obligation of a union designated as majority representative to bargain collectively for all employees, including nonmembers, in the bargaining unit. EXECUTIVE BOARD Constitutional union administrative body c o m p o s e d of elected officials and other elected or appointed members, generally responsible for overseeing union operations and carrying out union policies. EXECUTIVE ORDER 10988 Titled "Employee-Management Cooperation in the Federal Service," this Federal order, issued by the President in 1962, guarantees the right of employees of the executive branch of the Government to join unions. The order also defines the scope of participation by unions in the determination of personnel policies and working conditions not established by statute. EXPERIENCE RATING Process of basing tax rates or insurance premiums on the employees own record— as in workmens compensation, un employment insurance, and commercially insured health and insurance programs— so that he may benefit from a good record. 30 EXPIRATION DATE Formal termination date established in a collective bar gaining agreement, or the earliest date at which the con tract may be terminated. EXTENDED LEAVE PLAN In general, a plan allowing a worker to take extended, unpaid leave without loss of job or seniority, such leave being usually granted for a limited number of specific reasons. EXTENDED VACATION PLAN A plan providing extra-long paid vacations (e. g ., 10— 13 weeks) to qualified (long-service) workers at regular inter vals (e. g . , every 5 years), supplementing an annual paid vacation plan. FACTFINDING BOARD A group of individuals appointed under government au thority to investigate, assemble, and report the facts in a labor dispute, sometimes with authority to make recom mendations for settlement. (See Board of Inquiry.) FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICE LAWS These laws forbid discrimination in hiring, promotion, dis charge, or conditions of employment on the basis of race, creed, color, national origin, and in some cases, sex and age. Such laws exist at Federal, State, and local levels. (See Civil Rights Act of 1964.) 31 FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 (FLSA; WAGE-HOUR LAW) Federal law which prohibited oppressive child labor and established a minimum hourly wage and premium over time pay for hours in excess of a specific level (now time and one-half after 40 hours per week) for all workers en gaged in, or producing goods for, interstate commerce* The minimum wage and the coverage of the act have been modified several times since enactment. FARMING-OUT: CONTRACTING-OUT "FAVORED NATIONS" CLAUSE An agreement provision indicating that one party to the agreement (employer or union) shall have the opportunity to share in more favorable terms negotiated by the other party with another employer or union. FEATHERBEDDING (MAKE WORK) A derogatory term applied to a practice, working rule, or agreement provision which limits output or requires em ployment of excess workers and thereby creates or preserves soft or unnecessary jobs; or to a charge or fee levied by a union upon a company for services which are not performed or not to be performed. FEDERAL LABOR UNIONS (DIRECTLY AFFILIATED UNIONS) Local unions affiliated directly with the AFL— CIO rather than with an affiliated national or international union. 32 FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE (FMCS) An independent U. S. Government agency which provides mediators to assist the parties involved in negotiations, or in a labor dispute, in reaching a settlement; provides lists of suitable arbitrators on request; and engages in various types of "preventive mediation. M Mediation services are also provided by several State agencies. FEDERATION Association of unions formed to promote common interests. The major federation is theAFLKDIO (formed by the merger of two federations.) FINK: STRIKEBREAKER FLAGGED RATE: RED CIRCLE RATE FLOAT: COST-OF-LIVING ALLOWANCE FORM AGREEMENT: STANDARD AGREEMENT FREE RIDERS A derogatory term applied by unions to nonmembers who, because of being in the bargaining unit, share in benefits resulting from union activities without paying dues. FRINGE BENEFITS Generally, supplements to wages received by workers at a cost to employers. Term encompasses a host of practices (paid vacations, pensions, health and insurance plans, e tc .) that usually add to something more than a ’’fringe, ” and is sometimes applied to a practice that may constitute a dubious ’’benefit" to workers. No agreement prevails as to the list of practices that merit inclusion in this term, with the chief areas of disagreement arising at the juncture of 33 "wages" and "fringes" and, at the other end, of "fringes" and company personnel practices. Differences of opinion also arise with regard to the inclusion of legally required benefits. Other terms often substituted for fringe benefits include "wage extras, " "hidden payroll, " "nonwage labor costs," and "supplementary wage practices." The Bureau of Labor Statistics avoids the pitfalls of "fringe benefits" by use of the phrase "selected supplementary compensation (or remuneration) practices, " which is then defined for survey purposes. FULL CREW LAW OR RULE Generally used to refer to laws or regulations of several States which require a minimum number of workers having specified skills for each railway train, e. g . , engineer, firemen, conductors, brakemen, and flagmen. FULL EMPLOYMENT ACT: EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 FUND (TRUST FUND) In general, money and investments set aside in a separate account, usually administered by trustees, to take care of the payment of pensions, supplemental unemployment ben efits, strike benefits, etc. Also used as verb, i. e . , to set up a fund; to set aside adequate reserves. FUNERAL LEAVE PAY (BEREAVEMENT PAY) Pay to a worker, usually for a limited period (e. g., 3 days), for time lost because of the death and funeral of a member of his immediate family. GARNISHMENT Legal attachment of an employee^ wages to pay a debt owed by the employee to someone other than the employer. 34 GENERAL STRIKE: STRIKE GENERAL WAGE CHANGES Wage adjustments which affect large numbers of workers in a similar manner at the same time. GOING RATE: PREVAILING RATE GOON Slang term for a person hired by either management or union during a labor dispute to make trouble and intimidate the opposition by violence or the threat of violence. GRAVEYARD SHIFT: SHIFT GRIEVANCE Any complaint or expressed dissatisfaction by an employee in connection with his job, pay, or other aspects of his employment. Whether it is formally recognized and handled as a "grievance" depends on the scope of the grievance procedure. GRIEVANCE COMMITTEE: SHOP COMMITTEE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Typically a formal plan, specified in the agreement, which provides a channel for the adjustment of grievances through discussions at progressively higher levels of authority in company and union, usually culminating in arbitration if necessary. Formal plans may also be found in nonunion companies, with the important difference that there is no union to represent workers. 35 GRIEVANCE STEPS The regular steps in a grievance procedure by which a grievance dispute moves from one level of authority in the company and union to the next higher level. The steps are usually specified in the agreement. GROUP ANNUITY PLAN: PENSION PLAN GROUP INCENTIVE PLAN Payment of incentive earnings based on the output of a group of workers (team, gang, department, e tc .) rather than the output of the individual worker. GUARANTEED ANNUAL WAGE PLAN (ANNUAL W AGE OR EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE) Plan whereby employees meeting certain qualifications are assured wage income or employment for a full year or the greater part of a year. Such plans are not common. (See Supplemental Unemployment Benefit Plans.) GUARANTEED TIME Rate of hourly or weekly pay guaranteed to a worker under an incentive system. May differ from base rate. GUARANTEED TIME Tern: is sometimes used for weekly wage or employment guarantees (e. g . , a guarantee of 36 hours* work for em ployees called to work on the first day of the workweek.) 36 GUIDEPOSTS (WAGE-PRICE GUIDELINES) Standards by which unions and business leaders, and the general public, can appraise particular wage and price de cisions. First formally set forth in the President's Economic Report of January 1962, and restated in subsequent reports. In the January 1964, report, the general guidepost for wages was set forth as follows: M . . . in a particular firm or industry, the appropriate noninflationary standard for annual percentage increases in total employee compensation per man-hour (not just in straight-time hourly rates) is the annual increase in national trend output per man-hour. " Adherence to this guidepost is not compulsory. HANDICAPPED WORKERS Workers whose capacities or earning abilities are impaired by physical or mental disability. HAZARD PAY Extra payments to workers in dangerous occupations or while engaged in work where the chances of injury are greater than normal. (See High T im e.) HEALTH AND INSURANCE PLAN (WELFARE PLAN) A program of providing financial protection to the worker and his family against death, illness, accidents, and other risks, in which the costs are borne in whole or in part by the employer. One or more of the following major ben efits may be provided for the worker and, frequently, his dependents: Life insurance, accidental death and dis memberment benefits, accident and sickness benefits, hos pitalization benefits, surgical and medical benefits, and major medical expense benefits. (See entries for each item .) Although sometimes self-insured in whole or in part, these programs usually consist of insurance purchased from Blue Cross, Blue Shield, and commercial insurance com panies. Some plans provide for health centers or clinics. 37 HEALTH CENTER Usually a clinic administered by a union, or by trustees representing employers and unions, where members and their families may receive medical examinations and treat ment free or at a nominal charge. HIGH TIME Extra pay for workers engaged in a job high above ground, and, thus, dangerous or uncomfortable, as in construction. Sometimes also applied to work below ground level with extra dangers or discomforts for the worker. (See Hazard Pay.) HIRING HALL An office maintained by a union, or jointly by employers and union, for referring workers to jobs or for the actual hiring operation. Common in maritime industry. HIRING R ATE : ENTRANCE RATE HIT-THE-BRICKS Slang foi^—to go on strike. HOBBS ACT: ANTI-RACKETEERING LAW, 1934 HOLIDAY PREMIUM PAY Pay to workers at premium rates (e. g ., double time) for work on holidays. (See Paid Holidays.) HOMEWORK Production of industrial goods by workers in their homes from materials supplied by the employer. 38 HORIZONTAL UNION A union which includes only workers in a single craft or skill, or closely related skills, such as carpenters, elec tricians, e tc ., usually cutting across industry lines. Use of term is declining. (See Craft Union.) HOSPITALIZATION BENEFITS Plan that provides workers, and in many cases their de pendents, with hospital room and board (e. g . , semiprivate room) or cash allowances toward the cost of such care (e. g ., $15-$20 per day) for a specified number of days (21 to 365), plus the full cost of specified services. Usually part of a more inclusive health and insurance program. (See Health and Insurance Plan; Blue Cross. ) HOT-CARGO CLAUSE An agreement provision stipulating that employees covered by the agreement cannot be required to handle or use goods shipped from, or bound to, an employer who is involved in a strike with a union. (See Struck Work.) HOURLY RATE Usually, the rate of pay, expressed in dollars and cents per hour, for manual and other workers paid on a time basis. Term is also used at times to designate the earned rate per hour under incentive methods of wage payment. HUMAN RELATIONS Term applied to a broad area of managerial effort and re search dealing with the social and psychological relations among people at work. Bringing into play the insights and techniques of several of the social sciences, it concen trates upon workers and supervisors as individuals, all with personal problems and personality differences, and all with both psychic and material satisfactions to be fulfilled. Its practical application at the work level includes improving personal relationships, reducing friction, improving organ ization, and thereby enhancing efficiency. 39 HUMAN RELATIONS COMMITTEES Continuing committees of union and management set up by agreement to study problems, and to make joint recom mendations to negotiators for contract improvements. Term originated in the steel industry. (See Continuous Bargaining Committees.) IMPARTIAL CHAIRMAN (UMPIRE) An arbitrator employed jointly by a union and employer, usually on a long-term basis, to serve as the impartial party on a tripartite arbitration board and to decide all disputes or specific kinds of disputes arising during the life of the contract. The functions of an impartial chairman often expand with experience and the growing confidence of the parties, and he alone may constitute the arbitration board in practice. INCENTIVE WAGE SYSTEM General term for methods of wage payment which relate earnings of workers to their actual production, individually or as a group. (See Group Incentive Plan; Piecework.) INDEPENDENT UNION (UNAFFILIATED UNION) Term applied to local, national, and international unions not affiliated with the AFL-CIO (e. g . , Mine Workers, Teamsters). Unaffiliated union is perhaps the better term, but it is used less frequently. INDIVIDUAL RATES Rates paid to workers in establishments without a stand ardized wage-rate system. May also be used to indicate the rate paid to an individual worker, as distinguished from the standard job rate. 40 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES Outside of specialized literature, a general term covering application of systematic procedures, such as time-andmotion studies, to production or work processes in order to increase production or decrease costs, to set incentive rates of pay, etc. Industrial engineering is a recognized pro fession, with professional standards, e tc ., but union repre sentatives often must become involved in such procedures without benefit of professional training. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS General term covering matters of mutual concern to em ployers and employees; the relationships, formal and in formal, between employer and employees or their repre sentatives; government actions and law bearing upon these relationships; an area of specialization in a company; a field of study whose scope is suggested by this glossary. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS RESEARCH ASSOCIATION One of the professional associations in the social sciences, attracting academicians and practitioners of similar in terests. Researchers and users of industrial relations re search findings in universities, business, unions, and govern ment participate in this association. INDUSTRIAL UNION (VERTICAL UNION) A union that represents all or most of the production, maintenance, and related workers, both skilled and un skilled, in an industry or company. May also include office, sales, and technical employees of the same com panies. The United Automobile Workers and United Steel workers of America are examples of industrial unions. (See Craft Union.) 41 INDUSTRIAL UNION DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENTS, AFL-CIO INDUSTRYWIDE BARGAINING Negotiations between an employers1 group and a union re sulting in an agreement covering an entire "industry" or a substantial part thereof, e. g ., all class I railroads. Ordi narily, the term "industry" in this connection is not consis tent with standard statistical definitions, nor does "industry wide" necessarily imply nationwide coverage. It is usually safe to assume that in whatever way "industry" is used, it does not include every establishment. INEQUITY Term for a disadvantageous condition, real or alleged, generally applied to wage rates or benefits, usually the former, that are substantially lower than those prevailing elsewhere in the plant, company, locality, or industry for the same or comparable work. INITIATION FEE Payment to the union required of a worker when he joins, usually as set forth in the union* s constitution. The Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 prohibits excessive or discriminatory fees where workers are required to join the union to remain employed, as in a union shop. INJUNCTION (LABOR INJUNCTION) Court order restraining one or more persons, corporations, or unions from performing some act which the court be lieves would result in irreparable injury to property or other rights. 42 INSURANCE PLAN: HEALTH AND INSURANCE PLAN INTERIM COMMITTEES: CONTINUOUS BARGAINING COMMITTEES INTERMEDIATE BODY Term sometimes used to classify an office or department of a union performing certain functions between the local union level and the national union level, e. g . , regional or district offices. INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF FREE TRADE UNIONS (ICFTU) An international organization of labor movements or fed erations of non-Communist nations, to which the AFL— CIO is affiliated. Founded in 1949 after the predecessor organi zation, the World Federation of Trade Unions, became Communist-dominated. INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO) A United Nations specialized agency with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, which works to improve labor condi tions, living standards, and economic and social stability by international action, through the participation of repre sentatives of workers, employers, and governments. INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE (NATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE) Generally, a full-time employee of a national or inter national union whose duties include assisting in the for mation of local unions, dealing with affiliated local unions on union business, assisting in negotiations and grievance settlements, settling disputes within and between locals, etc. (See Business Agent.) 43 INTERNATIONAL TRADE SECRETARIATS Organizations comprising unions from the same industries in different countries, meeting regularly to discuss common problems. The International Metalworkers* Federation is 1 of 18 such organizations. INTERNATIONAL UNION A union claiming jurisdiction both within and outside the United States (usually in Canada). Sometimes the term is loosely applied to all national unions; that is, "inter national1 and "national" are used interchangeably. 1 INTERSTATE COMMERCE Legal concept describing trade, traffic, commerce, trans portation, or communication among the several States, upon which Federal labor legislation often rests. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, for example, applies to employees who are engaged in interstate commerce and to those en gaged in the production of goods for such commerce. Au thority to regulate interstate commerce is reserved to the Federal Government by the Constitution of the United States. JOB ANALYSIS Systematic study of a job to discover its specifications, its mental, physical, and skill requirements, its relation to other jobs in the plant, e tc ., usually for wage setting or job simplification purposes. (See Job Description.) JOB CLASSIFICATION Arrangement of tasks in an establishment or industry into a limited series of jobs or occupations, rated in terms of skill, responsibility, experience, training, and similar con siderations, usually for wage setting purposes. This term, or job class, may also be used in reference to a single cluster of jobs of approximately equal "worth. " 44 JOB DESCRIPTION A written statement listing the elements of a particular job or occupation, e. g . , purpose, duties, equipment used, qualifications, training, physical and mental demands, working conditions, etc. JOB EVALUATION (JOB GRADING; JOB RATING) Determination of the relative importance or ranking of jobs in an establishment, for wage setting purposes, by system atically rating them on the basis of selected factors, such as skill, responsibility, experience, etc. Ordinarily used as a means of determining relative levels, not the actual rate structure as a whole. JOB POSTING Listing of available jobs, usually on a bulletin board, so that employees may bid for promotion or transfer. JOINT AND SURVIVOR OPTION (SURVIVOR1 OPTION) S A pension plan provision under which the pensioner may elect to receive a reduced benefit with a guarantee that, if he dies while his beneficiary is living, payments of a predetermined proportion of the reduced benefit will be continued to his beneficiary for life. JOINT BARGAINING Usually used to indicate two or more unions joining forces in negotiating an agreement with a single employer. 45 JOINT BOARD (OR COUNCIL) Delegate body composed of representatives of locals of a single national or international union in a particular area, working together to further the interests of the union* When more than one union is involved, the term "trade council" may be used. JOINT LOCKOUT: LOCKOUT JOURNEYMAN A fully qualified craftsman, generally having mastered his trade by serving an apprenticeship. JOURNEYMAN RATE Rate of pay for a fully qualified worker in a skilled trade or craft, usually as distinguished from apprentice rate, helpers* rate, probationary rate, etc. JURISDICTION Among unions, the right or claim to represent workers within specified occupations, industries, or geographical boundaries. JURISDICTIONAL DISPUTE Conflict between two or more unions over the organization of a particular establishment or whether a certain type of work should be performed by members of one union or another. Jurisdictional strike— a work stoppage resulting from a jurisdictional dispute. JURY-DUTY PAY Pay or allowance granted to an employee for working time spent on jury duty, usually in addition to fees paid by the court. 46 JUST CAUSE Good or fair reasons for discipline. This term is commonly used in agreement provisions safeguarding workers from un justified discharge or a lesser punishment. When defined in agreements, it usually includes such offenses as insub ordination, fighting, inefficiency, etc. KAISER STEEL LONG-RANGE SHARING PLAN Negotiated by the Kaiser Steel Corp. and the Steelworkers union in 1963, this highly publicized plan guarantees em ployees against loss of jobs or income caused by techno logical change and provides for sharing savings in materials or labor costs. KICKBACK Term for a coercive, illegal, or secret return of wages, fees, e tc ., as in the return of a portion of his pay by a worker to an employer or supervisor as a bribe for ob taining or retaining his job. LABOR Dictionaries and economics textbooks provide full scope to the varied meanings and uses of this term, but the chances are that readers will most often see it used as a synonym for organized labor, the AFL-CIO, a particular union, or any union. LABOR AREA: LABOR MARKET AREA LA BO R D IS P U TE : D IS P U TE 47 LABOR FORCE (WORK FORCE) In census terms, all persons age 14 or over, employed or unemployed (but looking for work). Total labor force in cludes members of the Armed Forces; civilian labor force excludes them. Term is often used to designate total em ployment of a particular company or industry. LABOR GRADES One of a series of rate steps (single rate or a range of rates) in the wage structure of an establishment. Labor grades are typically the outcome of some form of job evaluation, or of wage-rate negotiations, by which different occupations are grouped, so that occupations of approxi mately equal "value" or "worth" fall into the same grade and, thus, command the same rate of pay. (See Job Classification; Job Evaluation.) LABOR INJUNCTION: INJUNCTION LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS ACT, 1947 (TAFT-HARTLEY ACT) Federal law, amending the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), 1935, which, among other changes, defined and made illegal a number of unfair labor practices by unions. It preserved the guarantee of the right of workers to organize and bargain collectively with their employers, or to refrain from such activities, and retained the defini tion of unfair labor practices as applied to employers. The act does not apply to employees in a business or industry where a labor dispute would not affect interstate commerce. Other major exclusions are: Employees subject to Railway Labor Act, agricultural workers, government employees, nonprofit hospitals, domestic servants, and supervisors. Amended by Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959. (See National Labor Relations Act; National Labor Relations Board; Unfair Labor Practices; Section 14 (b), Labor Management Relations Act, 1947.) 48 LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 (LANDRUM-GRIFFIN ACT) This Federal law was designed "to eliminate or prevent improper practices on the part of labor organizations, em ployers, " etc. Its seven titles include a bill of rights to protect members in their relations with unions; regulations of trusteeships; standards for elections; and fiduciary re sponsibility of union officers. The Labor Management Re lations Act, 1947 was amended in certain respects by this act. Among other changes, hot-cargo clauses in contracts were forbidden, except for apparel and construction in dustries. Restrictions were placed on secondary boycotts and picketing. LABOR MARKET AREA (LABOR AREA) General term often used to mean a geographical area from which workers may be recruited, surrounding a concen tration of establishments. Usually a metropolitan area, consisting of a central city and its suburbs. At the time of this writing, the U. S. Department of Labor had aban doned the use of "labor market area" in favor of "labor area." LABOR MOBILITY General term to describe the extent to which workers can, are willing to, or do move from job to job, employer to employer, or place to place to find employment or work of their choice. LABOR MOVEMENT General term usually applied to organized labor—its growth, structure, and activities— but may sometimes encompass all concerted economic, political, and social activities of workers. LABOR ORGANIZATION: UNION 49 LABOR TURNOVER (TURNOVER) Movement of workers into and out of employment in a company or industry through hiring, layoffs, recall, quits, etc. Labor turnover rates are usually expressed *as the number of accessions and separations during a given period per 100 employees. LANDRUM-GRIFFIN ACT: LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 LAYOFF (REDUCTION IN FORCE) Involuntary separation from employment for a temporary or indefinite period, without prejudice, that is, resulting from no fault of the workers. Although "layoff" usually implies eventual recall, or at least an intent to recall workers to their jobs, the term is occasionally used for separations plainly signifying permanent loss of jobs, as in plant shutdowns. Reduction in force usually signifies per manent layoff. LAYOFF ALLOWANCE: SEVERANCE PAY LEARNER Generally, a beginner learning a job for which extensive technical training or experience is not required. (See Apprentice.) LEARNER RATE (BEGINNER RATE) Rate or, more frequently, schedule of rates applicable to workers inexperienced in the job for which they are em ployed, until they attain the necessary competence. (See Entrance R ate.) 50 LEARNER* S CERTIFICATE Certificates issued by the U. S. Department of Labor, under provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which permit employers to pay rates below the statutory minimum to learners, messengers, apprentices, and handicapped work ers so as not to curtail opportunities for their employment. LEAVE OF ABSENCE Generally, excused time (unpaid) away from work, usually for a week or more, without loss of job or seniority. LEGALLY REQUIRED BENEFITS Term applied to employee-benefit programs to which em ployers must contribute or insurance that they must purchase for employees according to law. Includes social security, unemployment compensation, workmen*s compensation, and, to a lesser extent, State temporary disability insurance, and the special programs for railroad workers. LEVEL INCOME OPTION: SOCIAL SECURITY ADJUSTMENT OPTION LIFE INSURANCE PLAN Group term insurance coverage for employees, paid for in whole or in part by the employer, providing a lump-sum payment to a worker*s beneficiary in the event of his death. (See Health and Insurance Plan; Death Benefit. ) LIVING DOCUMENT This term, as used by unions, expresses the belief that the terms of an agreement, particularly a long-term agreement, should be subject to review and renegotiation by the parties if conditions change or unforeseen events come about, despite the absence of a reopening clause. 51 LOCAL UNION (LOCAL, CHAPTER, LODGE) Labor organization comprising the members of a union within a particular area or establishment, which has been chartered by, and is affiliated with, a national or inter national union. LOCKOUT (JOINT LOCKOUT) A temporary withholding of work or denial of employment to a group of workers by an employer during a labor dis pute in order to compel a settlement at or close to the employees terms. A joint lockout is such an action under taken at the same time by a group of employers. Tech nically, the distinction between a strike and lockout turns on which party actually initiates the stoppage. One, how ever, can develop into the other. (See Work Stoppage.) LONG-TERM CONTRACT Generally, a collective bargaining agreement with a du ration of 2 or 3 years or longer, as distinguished from a 1 -year agreement (the standard term up to a decade or so ago). LOOSE RATE: RUNAWAY RATE MADE WORK: FEATHERBEDDING MAINTENANCE-OF-MEMBERSHIP CLAUSE An arrangement provided for in a collective bargaining agreement whereby employees who are members of the union at the time the agreement is negotiated, or who voluntarily join the union subsequently, must maintain their membership for the duration of the agreement, or, possibly, a shorter period, as a condition of continued employment. (See Union Security.) 52 MAJOR MEDICAL EXPENSE BENEFIT (CATASTROPHE INSURANCE) Plan designed to insure workers against the heavy medical expenses resulting from catastrophic or prolonged illness or injury. If the benefit supplements the benefit payable by a basic health insurance plan (hospital, medical, or sur gical), it is called a "supplementary” plan; otherwise, it is called a "comprehensive" plan. (See Deductible; Health and Insurance Plan.) MAKEUP PAY The difference between actual piecework earnings and earnings at guaranteed rates or statutory minimum rates. The term is also associated with the ^practice of permitting employees to earn a full week*s wages by making up for lost time. MAKE-WORK: FEATHERBEDDING MANAGEMENT Term applied to the employer and his representatives, or to corporation executives who are responsible for the ad ministration and direction of an enterprise. (See Employer.) MANAGEMENT PREROGATIVES As used in union-management relationships, this term is applied to rights reserved to management, which may be expressly noted as such in a collective bargaining agree ment, usually including the right to schedule production, to determine the process of manufacture, to maintain order and efficiency, to hire, etc. 53 MAN-DAYS OF STRIKE IDLENESS A key measure of strike activity regularly compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, reflecting working time lost be cause of strikes and lockouts. The figures on strike idle ness do not include secondary idleness— that is, the effects of a work stoppage on other establishments or industries whose employees may be made idle as a result of material or service shortages. MANNING TABLE A listing of the positions, or number of workers, to be used in the operation of a particular machine or process. MANPOWER General term used to designate all persons (male and fe male) able and willing to work, that is, the available labor force. The term is sometimes used in reference to a more limited group, e. g . , company, industry, community, work ers with particular skills, etc. MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING ACT OF 1962 Federal act designed to provide an opportunity for unem ployed workers and workers otherwise unable to fulfill new job demands to learn new skills, by providing vocational, basic education, on-the-job, and other training programs, with allowances to trainees under certain circumstances. The act also calls for a broad program of research into manpower needs, causes of unemployment, impact of auto mation and technological change, and labor mobility. MANUAL WORKERS: BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS MARITIME TRADES DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENTS, AFL-CIO 54 MASTER AGREEMENT A single or uniform collective bargaining agreement cov ering a number of plants of a single employer or the members of an employers' association. (See Multiplant Bargaining; Multiemployer Bargaining.) MATERNITY BENEFITS Term applied to health and insurance plan benefits payable to women workers absent because of pregnancy and child birth, and for hospital, surgical, and medical benefits re lated thereto, and to workers' wives where such dependents' benefits are provided. MEALTIME: PAID LUNCH PERIOD MEDIATION (CONCILIATION) An attempt by a third party to help in negotiations or in the settlement of a dispute between employer and union through suggestion, advice, or other ways of stimulating agreement, short of dictating its provisions (a character istic of arbitration). Most of the mediation in the United States is undertaken through Federal and State mediation agencies. Mediator— term used to designate person who undertakes mediation of a dispute. Conciliation— in prac tice, synonomous with mediation; the term lives on mainly in the name of the chief mediation agency. (See Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service.) MEDICAL BENEFITS Plans which provide workers, and in many cases their de pendents, with specified medical care (other than that con nected with surgery) or a cash allowance toward the cost of doctors' visits. Generally part of a health and insurance program. (See Health and Insurance Plan; Health Center. ) 55 MEMBER IN GOOD STANDING: UNION MEMBER MERIT INCREASE An increase in the wage rate of a worker, usually given on the basis of certain criteria of worth, e. g . , efficiency and performance. MERIT PROGRESSION: WAGE PROGRESSION METAL TRADES DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENTS, AFL-CIO MIGRATORY WORKERS Persons whose principal income is earned from temporary employment (usually in farming) and who, in the course of a year, move one or more times, often through several States. MILITARY LEAVE Excused leave of absence for military service, reserve training, National Guard duty, etc. Time lost may be paid for by the employer in whole or in part. MINIMUM WAGE Rate of pay, established by law or through collective bar gaining, below which workers cannot be employed. Ex ceptions are frequently made for learners and handicapped workers. Usually expressed as an hourly rate. MISSILE SITES LABOR COMMISSION: THE PRESIDENTS MISSILE SITES LABOR COMMISSION MODIFIED UNION SHOP: UNION SHOP 56 MONEY-PURCHASE PLAN: PENSION PLAN MONITORSHIP Supervision or surveillance of a union by an outside party, usually for a limited time, imposed by order of a court or parent union organization. MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW A monthly magazine devoted to general economic and labor matters, issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. MOONLIGHTING Term applied to the simultaneous holding of more than one paid employment by a worker, e. g . , a full-time job and a second supplementary job with another employer, or selfemployment. MOVING ALLOWANCE: RELOCATION ALLOWANCE MULTIEMPLOYER BARGAINING Collective bargaining between a union or unions and a group of employers, usually represented by an employer association, resulting in a uniform or master agreement. MULTIPLANT BARGAINING (COMPANYWIDE BARGAINING) Collective bargaining between unions representing workers in usually resulting in a master plants are involved, the term ately used. a company and the union or more than one of its plants, agreement. If all or most "companywide" is appropri 57 NATIONAL COMMISSION ON TECHNOLOGY, AUTOMATION, AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS A temporary 14-member public body, established by Act of Congress in August 1964, to study the effects and pace of technological change in the United States and to make recommendations for public and private action to promote technological change and to facilitate adjustments thereto, NATIONAL EMERGENCY DISPUTE Term us ed in the Labor Management Relations (TaftHartley) Act to designate an actual or threatened strike or lockout which may imperil the national health or safety. If such a possibility exists in the opinion of the President, he may appoint a board of inquiry to investigate the issues in the dispute. Upon receiving a report from the board, the President may direct the Attorney-General to petition the appropriate district court for an 80-day injunction, during which time the board of inquiry and the National Labor Relations Board have certain functions to perform. If no settlement is reached during this cooling-off period, the parties are free to resume their dispute, and the President may recommend appropriate action to the Congress. NATIONAL FEDERATION OF INDEPENDENT UNIONS Formed by the merger of the Confederated Unions of Amer ica and the National Independent Union Council in 1963, this federation promotes independent unions and a loose form of affiliation among its member organizations. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, 1935 (WAGNER ACT) Basic Federal act guaranteeing workers the right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing. Also, defined " unfair labor practices" as regards employers. Amended by the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947 and the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959. 58 NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD (NLRB) Agency created by the National Labor Relations Act, 1935, and continued through subsequent amendments, whose func tions are to define appropriate bargaining units, to hold elections to determine whether a majority of workers want to be represented by a specific union or no union, to certify unions to represent employees, to interpret and apply the act*s provisions prohibiting certain employer and union un fair practices, and otherwise to administer the provisions of the act. (See Labor Management Relations Act, 1947.) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD Agency established by the Railway Labor Act, 1926, to provide aid in settling disputes between railway and air line companies and unions over union representation, nego tiation of changes in agreements, and interpretation of agreements reached through mediation. NATIONAL RAILROAD ADJUSTMENT BOARD Federal agency established in 1934 which functions as a board of arbitration, handing down final and binding de cisions on disputes arising out of grievances, or the appli cation and interpretation of agreements, in the railroad industry (airline industry not covered). Board is composed of 36 members, 18 of whom represent and are paid by the carriers and 18 by national railway labor organizations. NATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE: INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL UNION Ordinarily, a union composed of a number of affiliated local unions. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, in its union directory, defines a national union as one with agreements with different employers in more than one State, or an affiliate of the AFL-CIO, or a national organization of government employees. (See International Union. ) 59 NEGOTIATION: COLLECTIVE BARGAINING NIGHT SHIFT: SHIFT NONPRODUCTION BONUS An extra payment to employees which depends on factors other than the output of the individual worker, such as profit-sharing, safety, attendance, and Christmas bonuses. (See Bonus Plan; Production Bonus.) NO-RAIDING AGREEMENT: RAIDING NORMAL RETIREMENT: RETIREMENT NORMAL RETIREMENT AGE In technical terms, the earliest age at which a worker under a pension plan may retire of his own accord and receive the full amount of benefits to which he is entitled under the normal benefit formula of the plan. In most plans, and under social security, this age is 65 years. NORRIS-LaGUARDIA ACT: ANTI-INJUNCTION LAW, 1932 NO-STRIKE, NO-LOCKOUT CLAUSE Provision in a collective bargaining agreement through which the union agrees not to strike and the employer agrees not to lockout employees for the duration of the contract. These pledges may be hedged by certain quali fications, e. g . , the union may strike if the employer violates the agreement. 60 OCCUPATIONAL RATES Wage rates (single or rate ranges) for particular occupations in an establishment, industry, or area. OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE BENEFITS (OASDI) Retirement income and survivors1 and disability payments available to eligible workers covered by Federal social security legislation. OPEN-END AGREEMENT Collective bargaining agreement with no definite termi nation date, usually subject to reopening for negotiations or to termination at any time upon proper notice by either party. OPEN SHOP Term commonly applied to an establishment with a policy of not recognizing or dealing with a labor union. Term may sometimes be applied to an organized establishment where union membership is not a condition of employment. (See Union Security.) OPEN UNION A union which will admit any qualified person to member ship, usually upon payment of reasonable initiation fees. (See Closed Union.) ORGANIZER (UNION ORGANIZER) Employee of a u n i o n or federation (usually paid but sometimes a volunteer) whose duties include recruiting new members for the union, assisting in forming unions in nonunion companies, assisting in campaigns for rec ognition, etc. 61 OUTLAW STRIKE: STRIKE OUT-OF-LINE RATE: RED CIRCLE RATE OUT-OF-WORK BENEFITS Usually, p a y m e n t s members. made by a union to unemployed OUTPUT PER MAN-HOUR: PRODUCTIVITY OVERTIME Work performed in excess of basic workday or workweek, as defined by law, collective bargaining agreement, or company policy. Sometimes applied to work performed on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays at premium rates. OVERTIME PAY (PREMIUM OVERTIME PAY) Payment at premium rates (e. g., time and one-half, double time) for work defined as overtime. (See Overtime.) PACKAGE SETTLEMENT Term used to describe the total money value (usually quoted in cents per hour) of a change in wages and supple mentary benefits negotiated by a union in a contract re newal or reopening. PACT: AGREEMENT PAID ABSENCE ALLOWANCE Payment for lost working time available to workers for various types of leave not otherwise compensated for, e. g., excused personal leave. 62 PAID HOLIDAYS Holidays are days of special religious, cultural, social, or patriotic significance on which work or business ordinarily ceases. Paid holidays are those, established by agreement or by company policy, for which workers receive their full daily pay without working. Half-day holidays are also common. (See Holiday Premium Pay; Unpaid Holidays.) PAID LUNCH PERIOD (MEALTIME) Time allowed for eating lunch (or the mid-shift meal on late shifts), commonly 20— minutes, counted as part of 30 the paid workday. Usually practiced where employees can not leave their workplaces for meals (e. g . , coal mining). Agreements sometimes also require company to furnish meals when workers remain in the plant for overtime work. PAID VACATIONS Excused leave of absence of a week or more, with full pay, granted to workers annually for purposes of rest and recreation. Paid vacations are provided in private industry by collective bargaining agreements or company policy, not by law. Vacations are frequently graduated by length of service, e. g . , 1 week of vacation after 1 year*s service; 2 weeks after 5 years; 3 weeks after 15 years; and 4 weeks after 25 years. (See Extended Vacation Plan.) PAPER LOCALS Local unions which exist only "on paper" (charter) with no actual membership. PART-TIME EMPLOYEE Worker employed on a temporary or regular basis for a workweek substantially shorter than the scheduled week foT full-time employees. 63 PAST PRACTICE Existing practices in the plant or company, sanctioned by use and acceptance, that are not specifically included in the collective bargaining agreement, except, perhaps, by reference to their continuance. PAST SERVICE Under a pension plan, years of employment or credited service prior to the establishment of the plan or a change in the plan's benefits. PATTERN BARGAINING Term applied to follow-the-leader negotiating practices in an industry. (See Wage Pattern.) PAY-AS-YOU-GO: UNFUNDED PLAN PAY-IN-LIEU-OF-NOTICE Where employers are required to provide advance notice of layoff, agreements often require the employer to pay workers for the full notice period as a penalty for failure to give notice, or permit the employer the choice of giving notice or making payment. PAYMENT BY RESULTS: INCENTIVE WAGE SYSTEM PAYMENT CERTAIN GUARANTEE: PERIOD CERTAIN OPTION 64 PAYROLL DEDUCTIONS Amounts withheld from employees' earnings by the em ployer for social security, Federal income taxes, and other governmental levies; also may include union dues, group insurance premiums, and other authorized wage assignments. PAYROLL PERIOD Frequency with which workers' wages are calculated and paid, usually weekly, biweekly, or semimonthly. PEG POINTS (BENCHMARKS) Occupational rates for key unskilled, semiskilled, or skilled jobs, used to establish wage rates for other jobs by com parison. PENALTY RATE Extra rate paid for particularly hazardous or onerous work. The term is at times applied to any premium or overtime rate. (See Hazard Pay; Premium Pay.) PENSION PLAN (RETIREMENT PLAN; GROUP ANNUITY PLAN; ANNUITY) Any plan whose primary purpose is to provide regular pay ments for life to employees upon retirement. Additional benefits are often provided. The term private pension plans is often used to distinguish voluntary plans from the social security system. If the employee shares in the cost, the plan is contributory; if the cost is borne entirely by the em ployer, the plan is noncontributory. Group annuity plan— pension plan underwritten and administered by an insurance company. Trusteed plan— noninsured; contributions de posited with bank, trust company, or board of trustees, who administers the program. Deposit administration— insurance company assumes role of trustee, as above. Money-purchase plan— fixed contributions to the worker's account, His pension thus determined by the amount contributed. 65 PER CAPITA TAX Regular payments made on the basis of a paid-up member ship count by a local union to its national organization, or by a national union to a federation, to finance the activities of the parent organization. Amount usually set by union constitution. PERIOD CERTAIN OPTION Provision in a pension plan under which the pensioner may elect to receive a reduced benefit for life, on the condi tion that if he dies before receiving a specified number of payments the balance is continued to his beneficiary. A guarantee of a specified number of payments may be a standard plan provision, in which case it is called a payment certain guarantee. PERMANENT AND TOTAL DISABILITY Inability of a worker to perform his job, or any job, owing to physical or mental impairment which is expected to be of long-continued and indefinite duration. The existence of the impairment must be certified by a physician, under the Social Security Act and most private pension plans, in order to qualify for benefits. Mental disabilities may be excluded by some pension plans. PERMIT CARD (WORK PERMIT) Card issued by a union to a nonmember which permits him to accept or retain employment on a temporary basis in a union shop or on a union job. PERQUISITES Food, lodging, or other services and merchandise regularly given to workers by employer in addition to monetary compensation. 66 PERSONAL LEAVE Excused leave for reasons important to the individual work er, but not otherwise provided for, e. g . , getting married. PERSONALIZED RATE: RED CIRCLE RATE PICKETING Patrolling near employees place of business by union mem bers (pickets) to publicize the existence of a labor dispute, persuade workers to join the union or the strike, discourage customers from buying or using employees goods or service, etc. Organizational picketing— picketing carried on by the union for the purpose of persuading employees to join the union or authorize the union to represent them. Recognitional picketing— picketing to compel the employer to recognize the union as the exclusive bargaining agent for his employees. Informational picketing—picketing directed toward advising the public that an employer does not em ploy members of, or have a contract with, a union. PIECE RATE Predetermined amount paid per unit of output to worker under a piecework incentive plan. PIECEWORK Method of wage payment based on the number of units produced, or any work for which piece rates are paid. P. M. (PREMIUM MONEY; PUSH MONEY) An additional payment to sales people in retail trade, to push the sale of items on which the profit is large, to dis pose of slow-moving items, or to stimulate a sales pro motion campaign. 67 PLANS FOR PROGRESS: PRESIDENTS COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY PORTAL-TO-PORTAL PAY Payment for time spent in traveling to and from the plant or mine entrance to the working site, or, conceptually, for all time in the plant rather than time at the workplace. POSTING: JOB POSTING PREFERENTIAL HIRING Agreed-upon arrangement whereby the employer gives pref erence in hiring to union members, to applicants with previous training and experience in the industry, to workers displaced from another plant or from another part of a par ticular plant, or by order of the National Labor Relations Board to employees found to be discriminatorily discharged. PREMIUM PAY Compensation at greater than regular rate. May refer to overtime, shift differentials, or penalty rates. PREMIUM OVERTIME PAY: OVERTIME PAY PRESIDENTS ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON LABOR-MANAGEMENT POLICY Established by the President in 1961, this committee of outside experts (representing labor, management, and the public) studies and recommends policies to promote free and responsible collective bargaining, industrial peace, sound wage and price policies, higher standards of living, and increased productivity. The Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Commerce alternate as chairman. 68 PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EMPLOYMENT OF THE HANDICAPPED, THE A long-standing Federal Government committee whose pur pose is to encourage the development of maximum em ployment opportunities for the handicapped* PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (PLANS FOR PROGRESS) A committee set up by the President in March 1961 to study employment practices of the U. S. Government, and to recommend steps to be taken by executive departments and agencies to promote nondiscrimination in employment in the Federal Government, with government contractors, and on Federally assisted construction projects. Plans for progress— program under which participating companies actively engage in increasing opportunities for equal em ployment, going beyond the requirements of the Executive orders enforced by the Committee. PRESIDENT'S MISSILE SITES LABOR COMMISSION, THE Commission of public, union, and employer representatives established in 1961 to develop policies, procedures, and methods of adjustment for labor problems and disputes at missile and space sites. The program relies primarily on a no-strike pledge and on voluntary settlement of disputes. PREVAILING RATE (GOING RATE) Term has no precise statistical meaning in ordinary usage. May refer to average level of wages paid by employers for specific occupations in a community or area; or rate most commonly paid; or rate paid to most workers; or rate established by union contracts. 69 PREVAILING WAGE LAW, 1931 (DAVIS-BACON ACT) Federal act requiring the payment of prevailing wage rates in the locality on construction, alteration, or repair of public buildings, or public works performed under contract with the Federal Government, Amended in 1964 to include certain payments for fringe benefits as part of the pre vailing rate, PREVENTIVE MEDIATION A function of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Serv ice involving the development of procedures by union and management designed to anticipate and to study potential problems. This may take the form of early entry into labor disputes before a strike threatens. PRICE LIST Listing of piece prices or rates to be paid for piecework, usually established by company-union negotiation. PROBATIONARY PERIOD Usually a stipulated period of time (e. g ., 30 days) during which a newly hired employee is on trial prior to estab lishing seniority or otherwise becoming a regular employee. Sometimes used in relation to discipline, e. g ., a period during which a regular employee, guilty of misbehavior, is on trail. Probationary employee-—a worker in a pro bationary period. Where informal probation is the practice, a worker who has not yet attained the status of regular employee may be called a temporary employee. (See Regular Employee.) PROBATIONARY RATE Trial rate of pay for an experienced and otherwise qualified worker during the initial period of his employment on a new job or in a new plant. 70 PRODUCTION BONUS Extra payment directly related to the output of an indi vidual worker or a group of workers. (See Bonus Plan; Nonproduction Bonus.) PRODUCTION STANDARDS Usually, expected output of a worker or group of workers, consistent with the quality of workmanship, efficiency of operations, and the reasonable working capacities of normal operators. PRODUCTION WORKERS Usually, employees directly involved in manufacturing or operational processes, as distinguished from supervisory, sales, executive, and office employees. The term "pro duction and related workers" as used in Federal Govern ment statistics is usually specifically defined for survey purposes. PRODUCTIVITY (OUTPUT PER MAN-HOUR) Term referring to efficiency of production; in technical terms, as in measuring rate of change, usually stated as a ratio of units of output to a unit of input, e. g . , 10 units per man-hour. PRODUCTIVITY FACTOR: ANNUAL IMPROVEMENT FACTOR PROFIT-SHARING PLAN Any procedure under which an employer pays his employees, in addition to their regular pay, a share of the profits of the business as a whole. Deferred profit-sharing plan— share of profits set aside in a fund to be distributed at some later date, usually when the employee retires (a form of retirement plan). 71 PROGRESSION SYSTEM: WAGE PROGRESSION PUBLIC CONTRACTS ACT, 1936 (WALSH-HEALEY ACT) This act prescribes basic labor standards for work done on U. S. Government contracts exceeding $10,000 in value for materials, articles, supplies, equipment, and naval vessels. The Secretary of Labor is authorized to determine prevailing minimum wages in the industry. The act, among other matters, also provides for daily and weekly overtime and health and safety standards. PYRAMIDING Double payment of overtime rates for overtime work which may result from paying both daily and weekly overtime rates for same hours of work; sometimes applied to any premium added to another premium rate. QUICKIE STRIKE: STRIKE QUIT Voluntary termination of employment initiated by em ployee, as distinguished from dismissal or layoff which are involuntary. RAIDING (NO-RAIDING AGREEMENT) Term applied to a union's attempt to enroll members be longing to another union or already covered by a collective bargaining agreement negotiated by another union, with the intent to usurp the union's bargaining relationship. Noraiding agreement— written pledge signed by two unions or more to abstain from raiding, applicable only to signatory unions. 72 RAILWAY EMPLOYES' DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENTS, AFL-CIO RAILWAY LABOR ACT, 1926 Federal law which established a framework for labormanagement relations in the railroad industry and (later) the airline industry. Two agencies administer the act: National Mediation Board, and National Railroad Adjust ment Board. (See also Emergency Boards.) RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT OF 1935 Federal act establishing a nationwide program providing railroad employees with retirement benefits (old-age, dis ability, and survivors' benefits) based on the individual worker's earnings and length of service in the railroad in dustry. Railroad workers are not covered by the Social Security Act. RANK AND FILE Members of an organization, exclusive of officer and em ployees. RATE CUTTING Term applied to a reduction by management of established incentive or time wage rates in the absence of comparable changes in job content, or any actions by companies in reducing wages. RATE RANGE Two rates of pay or more for the same job, with the specific rates of individual workers at or between the bottom and the top rates determined by merit, length of service, or a combination of the two. 73 RATE SETTING Process of establishing wage or piece rates for a job or operation. RATIFICATION Formal approval of a newly negotiated agreement by vote of the union members affected. REAL WAGES Purchasing power of money wages, or the amount of goods and services that can be acquired with money wages. An index of real wages takes into account changes over time in earnings levels and in price levels as measured by an appropriate index, e. g ., the Consumer Price Index. RECALL Process of bringing laid-off employees back to work, usually based on the same principles that governed order of layoff in inverse order (e. g . , last worker laid off is first to be re called). In union affairs, recall is a procedure for removing (disciplining) an officer by means of a membership vote. RECOGNITION: UNION RECOGNITION RED CIRCLE RATE (OUT-OF-LINE RATE; PERSONALIZED RATE; FLAGGED RATE) Rate of pay higher than the contractual, or formally es tablished, rate for a job. The special rate is usually attached to the incumbent worker, not to the job as such. This procedure is commonly used to protect long-service workers from a decline in earnings through no fault of their own. 74 REDUCTION IN FORCE: LAYOFF REFERENDUM Process by which all members of a union vote, usually as individuals, for the election of officers, changes in union constitution, e tc ,, as distinguished from decisionmaking through delegates assembled in convention. REGULAR EMPLOYEE Usually, a full-time employee who has fulfilled formal or informal probationary requirements, as distinguished from seasonal, part-time, probationary, and temporary employ ees. (See Probationary Period.) REGULAR RATE Usually, basic rate of pay or the straight-time rate. The Fair Labor Standards Act defines "regular rate of pay" for overtime pay computations; collective bargaining agree ments also usually define the term for calculation purposes (vacation pay, overtime, e tc .). REHIRE As a verb— -to re employ a worker previously separated. As a noun— a former employee returned to his job as a new employee. RELIEF TIME (SPELLOUT) Time during which a worker is permitted to leave his workplace, usually for personal needs, with his place being taken by a substitute when necessary. (See Rest Period.) 75 RELOCATION ALLOWANCE (MOVING ALLOWANCE) Payment to workers of all or part of their expenses in moving to a new location, or a fixed allowance to be used for this purpose. REOPENING CLAUSE (WAGE REOPENER) Clause in a collective bargaining agreement stating the time or the circumstances under which negotiations can be requested, prior to the expiration of the contract. Re openings are usually restricted to wage issues and, per haps, other specified economic issues, not to the contract as a whole. REPORTING PAY Minimum pay guaranteed to a worker who is scheduled to work, reports for work, and finds no work available, or less work than can be done in the guaranteed period (usually 4 hours). Sometimes identified as "call-in pay. " (See Call-in Pay. ) REPRESENTATION ELECTION (ELECTION) Election conducted to determine by a majority vote of the employees in an appropriate unit (see Bargaining Unit) which, if any, union is desired as their exclusive repre sentative. These elections are usually conducted by the National Labor Relations Board or by State labor relations agencies. REST PERIOD (COFFEE BREAK; BREAK TIME) Brief interruption in the workday, usually of 5 to 15 min utes1 duration* during which the worker rests, smokes, or takes refreshments without loss of pay. (See Relief T im e .) 76 RETIREMENT Withdrawal from working life or from a particular employ ment because of old age, disability, e tc ., with an income. Normal retirement is retirement for age, usually at age 65 or later. Early retirement is retirement prior to the normal retirement age. Disability retirement is retirement prior to the normal retirement age because of poor health or in jury disabling the worker. Special early retirement— extra early retirement benefits provided under specified circum stances, e. g . , involuntary separation. (See Pension Plan; Social Security A ct.) RETIREMENT PLAN: PENSION PLAN RETRAINING Development of new skills for workers through a definite program, so that they are able to qualify for new or dif ferent work. RETROACTIVE PAY Wages due for past services, frequently required when wage increases are made effective as of an earlier date; or when contract negotiations are extended beyond the expiration date. (See Back Pay.) RIGHT-TO-WORK LAW Term applied to State legislation which prohibits any con tractual requirement that a worker join a union in order to get or keep a job, thus banning provisions in agree ments requiring employees to become and remain union members (otherwise permissible under Labor Management Relations Act). (See Section 14 (b), Labor Management Relations A ct.) 77 ROLLING: BUMPING ROTATING SHIFT: SHIFT ROUND-THE-CLOCK OPERATIONS: CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS ROYALTY As used by some unions, term for employer payments to health, welfare, or retirement funds. For professional workers, royalties are payments for work based upon a per centage of the return on the sale of the final product (an invention, book, piece of music, e tc .). RUNAWAY RATE (LOOSE RATE) Piece rate or other incentive rate which, because of changed technology or faulty rate setting, yields earnings that are substantially higher than earnings on other jobs with similar work requirements. RUNAWAY SHOP Term used by unions to characterize a business establish ment which moves to evade a union or State labor laws, or to reap a competitive advantage from low wage standards in another area, dismissing all or most of its regular em ployees in the process. RUNOFF ELECTION A second election conducted after the first produces no winner according to the rules. If more than two con tenders were in the first contest, the runoff may be limited to the two highest. (See Representation Election. ) 78 SALARY RATE For workers hired on a weekly, monthly, or annual basis (e. g., clerical, technical, managerial employees), the rate of pay normally expressed in terms of dollars per week, month, or year. SAVINGS PLAN: THRIFT PLAN SCAB: STRIKEBREAKER SCALE: UNION RATE SCANLON PLAN A formal program which has as its general objective the reduction of labor costs through increased efficiency and the sharing of the resultant savings among workers. The scope and details of the few plans bearing this name vary considerably. SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT Employment during part of the year only, arising out of the seasonal character of an industry. Agricultural, cannery, construction, and lumber workers are examples of workers subject to seasonal employment. SECONDARY BOYCOTT: BOYCOTT SECTION 14 (b), LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS ACT, 1947 This section of the Taft-Hartley Act provides the opening through which States may enact "right-to-work" laws. It reads as follows: "Nothing in this act shall be construed as authorizing the execution or application of agreements requiring membership in a labor organization as a condition of employment in any State or Territory in which such ex ecution or application is prohibited by State or Territorial law. " (See Right-to-Work Law.) 79 SENIORITY Term used to designate an employee’ s status relative to other employees, as in determining order of promotion, layoff, vacations, etc. Straight seniority—seniority acquired solely through length of service. Qualified seniority— other factors such as ability considered with length of service. Departmental or unit seniority— seniority applicable in a particular section of a plant, rather than in the entire es tablishment. Plantwide or companywide seniority—seniority applicable throughout the plant or company. Seniority list— individual workers ranked in order of seniority. (See Superseniority.) SEPARATION PAY OF ALLOWANCE: SEVERANCE PAY SERVICE FEE Fee required by unions to be paid by nonmembers applying for employment in union hiring halls, as a condition of referral to employment. SEVERANCE PAY (DISMISSAL PAY OR ALLOWANCE; TERMINATION PAY; SEPARATION PAY; LAYOFF ALLOWANCE) Monetary allowance paid by employer to displaced em ployees, generally upon permanent termination of employ ment with no chance of recall, but often upon indefinite layoff with recall rights intact. Plans usually graduate pay ments by length of service. SHAPEUP System of hiring work gangs from groups of workers as sembled to seek employment. Used in longshore work in some ports and in the hiring of migratory farm workers. 80 SHARE-THE-WORK: WORK SHARING SHIFT (TOUR OF DUTY; STINT; TRICK; TURN) Term applied to the daily working schedule of a plant or its employees. Day shift— usually the daylight hours; eve ning shift - work schedule ending at or near midnight; night (graveyard) shift-—work schedule starting at or near midnight. Fixed shift— scheduled hours remain the same, week after week, for each group of workers. Rotating shift— practice whereby crews change their hours at periodic inter vals. Split shift— daily work schedule divided into two parts or more. Swing shift— the fourth or rotating shift used on continuous 7 -day or " round-the-clock” operations. SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL (SHFT PREMIUM) Additional compensation (cents per hour or percentage of day rate) paid to workers employed at other than regular daytime hours. SHOP COMMITTEE (GRIEVANCE COMMITTEE; NEGOTIATING COMMITTEE) Group of workers selected by fellow employees, usually union members, to represent them in their dealings with management. SHOP RULES (WORKING RULES) Either regulations established by an employer dealing with day-to-day conduct in the plant— operations, safety, hygiene, records, etc. — or working rules set forth in collective bar gaining agreements and in some union constitutions. 81 SHOP STEWARD (UNION STEWARD) A local unions representative in a plant or department elected by union members (or sometimes appointed by the union) to carry out union duties, adjust grievances, collect dues, and solicit new members. Usually a fellow employee. SHORT-WORKWEEK BENEFIT As part of a supplemental unemployment benefit plan, pay ment to worker for the difference between a specified level of weekly hours and the hours actually worked or paid for. SICK BENEFITS: ACCIDENT AND SICKNESS BENEFITS SICK LEAVE Period of time during which a worker may be absent with out loss of job or seniority if unable to work because of illness or accident. A paid sick leave plan provides for full or partial pay for such absence, usually up to a stipu lated maximum. Sick leave plans differ from accident and sickness benefits, principally in that the former cover shorter periods of absence, usually provide higher pay, and are uninsured. (See Accident and Sickness Benefits.) SINGLE-COMPANY UNION An independent or unaffiliated union of employees of one company, usually with no formal ties to any other labor organization. SINGLE RATE Rate of pay which is the same for all workers in the same job or job classification. 82 SITDOWN STRIKE: STRIKE SLOWDOWN: STRIKE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT, 1935 Federal law establishing a national social insurance pro gram. The law provides for: Old-age, survivors' and dis ability benefits (an all-Federal program); public assistance to the aged, the blind, and to needy families; and unem ployment insurance (both Federal-State programs). The coverage and other provisions have been modified several times since enactment. SOCIAL SECURITY ADJUSTMENT OPTION (LEVEL INCOME OPTION) Pension plan provision under which a worker eligible for an early retirement benefit may elect to get a larger plan benefit than is actually due up to the time his social secu rity benefit is payable, and a smaller benefit thereafter, so that a level income is maintained throughout retirement. SOCIAL SECURITY OFFSET Under some pension plans, the amount of social security benefits to which a retiring worker is entitled that is to be deducted from the private plan benefit, as computed, to obtain the actual benefit payable. The offset or deduction may be all or part of the social security benefit. SPEEDUP c Workers' term for conditions which force them to increase effort or production within a given time without a compen sating increase in earnings. (See Stretchout.) SPELLOUT: RELIEF TIME 83 SPENDABLE EARNINGS (DISPOSABLE INCOME) In general, earnings available for spending. As used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, gross average weekly earnings less the estimated amount of the workers* social security and income tax liability. (See Take-Home Pay.) SPLIT SHIFT: SHIFT SPREAD-THE-WORK: WORK SHARING STANDARD AGREEMENT (FORM AGREEMENT) Collective bargaining agreement prepared by a national or international union for use by, or guidance of, its local unions, designed to produce standardization of practices within the union* s bargaining relationships. Form Agreement— uniform agreement signed by individual members of an employers* association and often by employers in the same line of work but outside the association. STANDARD RATE Usually, a uniform rate of pay established for an occupation or craft in an area or industry through collective bargaining or by law. STEP RATES Fixed levels between the minimum and maximum rates for an occupation in a wage progression system. (See Wage Progression.) STINT: SHIFT 84 STOCK OPTION PLAN Plan allowing employees or officers the privilege of pur chasing company stock (shares) at a certain price at a time of their own choosing. STOCK PURCHASE PLAN Plan enabling employees to purchase stock (shares) in the company, with or without employer contributions, generally under more favorable terms than are available on the open market. STRAIGHT TIME Time worked at regular rate, as distinguished from over time. (See Earnings; Overtime.) STRETCHOUT Term used by workers when they are required to tend more machines or assume additional duties within a given time without a corresponding increase in earnings. (See Speedup.) STRIKE (WILDCAT, OUTLAW, QUICKIE, SLOWDOWN, SYMPATHY, SIT DOWN, GENERAL) Temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees (not necessarily members of a union) to express a grievance, enforce a demand for changes in the conditions of employ ment, obtain recognition, or resolve a dispute with manage ment. Wildcat or outlaw strike— a strike not sanctioned by union and one which violates agreement. Quickie strike—a spontaneous or unannounced strike. Slowdown—a deliberate reduction of output without an actual strike in order to force concession from employer. Sympathy strike— strike of workers not directly involved in a dispute, but who wish 85 to demonstrate worker solidarity or bring additional pressure upon company involved. Sitdown strike—strike during which workers stay inside the plant or workplace, but refuse to work or allow others to do so. General strike— strike in volving all organized workers in a community or country (rare in the United States). Walkout— same as strike. STRIKE BENEFITS Union payments made to members who are on strike. STRIKEBREAKER (SCAB* FINK) Worker or person on hire who accepts employment or con tinues to work in a plant where an authorized strike is in process, filling the job of a striker and knowingly assisting in defeating the strike. (See Anti-Strikebreaker Law.) STRIKE DEADLINE Time set by the union for beginning a strike if a satis factory settlement is not reached. Typically, this is at midnight of the last day of the contract term or the start of the next day's first shift. STRIKE FUND Money allocated by a union or set aside in a separate account to pay strike benefits and to defray other expenses of strikes. STRIKE INSURANCE Payment by companies in an association to a fund, or for the purchase of insurance, to reimburse a struck member company for lost business. 86 STRIKE NOTICE Formal notice of an intention to strike, presented by the union to the employer, or to the appropriate Federal Gov ernment agency, e. g . , the Federal Mediation and Concil iation Service. STRIKE VOTE Vote conducted among members of a union to determine whether or not a strike should be called. STRUCK WORK OR GOODS Goods produced or services performed by a firm while a strike of its employees is in progress. (See Hot-Cargo Clause.) SUBCONTRACTING: CONTRACTING-OUT SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE Payment to a worker for expenses of meals and lodging (and sometimes transportation) while traveling for his employer; or reimbursement of living expenses required by the nature of the job. SUBSTANDARD RATE Rate of pay below the established plant or occupational minimum, allowed for workers who are physically or other wise unable to meet the production quota. The term is also applied to rates below Federal or State minimum wages, "prevailing" levels, or union scales. 87 SUGGESTION SYSTEM Plan whereby employees* ideas that may increase efficiency or improve operations or safety are channeled to the atten tion of management; usually combined with a system of rewards for acceptable ideas. SUPERANNUATED WORKERS Term sometimes applied to employees who are unable to perform their jobs, or any job, at the normal level because of advanced age and its attendant infirmities. Superannuated rate— rate of pay below the regular level set for superannuated workers. SUPERSENIORITY A position on the seniority list ahead of what the employee would acquire solely on the basis of length of service or other general seniority factors. Usually such favored treat ment is reserved to union stewards, or other workers en titled to special consideration in connection with layoff and recall to work. SUPPLEMENTAL UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFIT PLANS (SUB) Introduced by agreement between Ford Motor Co. and the United Automobile Workers in m id-1955 and subsequently adopted by other companies in the automobile, steel, and related industries, these plans provide regular weekly pay ments to laid-off workers receiving State unemployment insurance, through funds financed by the employer. c Other benefits (e. g . , short-workweek benefits and severance pay were added to many plans. SUPPLEMENTARY BENEFITS: FRINGE BENEFITS 88 SURGICAL BENEFITS Plans which provide workers, and in many cases their de pendents, with specified surgical care or a cash allowance toward the cost of such care, usually in accordance with a schedule of surgeonfs fees. Generally part of a health and insurance program. (See Health and Insurance Plan; Blue Shield.) SURVIVORS* BENEFITS (TRANSITION BENEFITS; BRIDGE BENEFITS; WIDOW'S ALLOWANCE) Payments to dependents of employees who die prior to retirement, financed in whole or in part by the employer. May be in the form of payments for a fixed period (e. g . , 24 months) supplementing regular life insurance benefits, a benefit for life out of a pension program, a lump-sum payment, etc. SURVIVOR'S OPTION: JOINT AND SURVIVOR OPTION SUSPENSION Form of disciplinary action of a temporary nature, as in removing a worker from his job for a stipulated time with the consequent loss of pay as punishment, or in removing a union official from office until his affairs are checked or put into order. SWEATSHOP Term of contempt applied to an establishment employing workers for long hours at low wages under unfavorable working conditions. 89 SWEETHEART AGREEMENT A derogatory term for a union contract exceptionally favor able to a particular employer, in comparison with other contracts, implying less favorable conditions of employ ment than could be obtained under a legitimate collective bargaining relationship. SWING SHIFT: SHIFT SYMPATHY STRIKE: STRIKE TAFT-HARTLEY ACT: LABOR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS ACT, 1947 TAKE-HOME PAY Generally, earnings for a payroll period, less deductions (legal and authorized); the amount of cash the worker ’’takes home. ” TECHNOLOGICAL UNEMPLOYMENT Displacement of workers caused by, or attributed to, the installation of labor-saving methods or machinery. TEMPORARY DISABILITY INSURANCE Provision enacted into law in four States (California, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island) providing payments for a limited period of time to workers suffering loss of wages due to sickness or disability incurred off the job. In all except the Rhode Island plan, employers may substitute privately insured coverage meeting certain standards. (See Workmen's Compensation; Accident and Sickness Benefits.) 90 TEMPORARY EMPLOYEE: PROBATIONARY PERIOD TEMPORARY RATES Wage or piece rates set tentatively on new work, sometimes called experimental or trail rates. TERMINATION PAY OR ALLOWANCES: SEVERANCE PAY THRIFT PLAN (SAVINGS PLAN) An arrangement under which payroll deductions are made, with the worker's consent, for investment and saving, to which the employer contributes. The accumulated amounts (contributions plus earnings on the contributions) become available to the worker, usually after certain conditions are met. TIME AND MOTION STUDY An industrial engineering function involving a study of the time required and the motions involved in the performance of a job. The purpose may be to establish standards of performance, the best way of doing a job, or to determine incentive wage rates. TIME AND ONE-HALF Premium rate consisting of one and one-half times the employee's regular rate* For example, if worker's regular rate is $3 an hour, an hour's work at time and one-half would yield $4. 50, of which $1. 50 is the premium. TIMEWORK: DAYWORK 91 TONNAGE RATE Pay on the basis of tons of material handled, common in basic iron and steel industry and coal mining. TOOL ALLOWANCE Allowance to an employee, paid by employer, as reim bursement for the cost of tools and their upkeep, where the employee furnishes his own tools or is responsible for their maintenance. TOUR OF DUTY: SHIFT TRADE COUNCIL: JOINT BOARD TRADE EXPANSION ACT, 1962 This Federal act, whose purposes include that of expanding foreign markets for U. S, goods, provides assistance to firms and workers to adjust to possible adverse effects of increased imports. Aid to workers includes special weekly unem ployment benefits, counseling and retraining, and, in some cases, relocation allowances. TRADE UNION: UNION TRAINEE Term applied to a worker receiving formal on-the-job training. TRANSFER CARD Card issued by a local union to a member in good standing, certifying his eligibility to join another local of the same union in a different location. 92 TRANSITION BENEFITS: SURVIVORS* BENEFITS TRAVEL TIME Time spent traveling to and from a designated point and the work site. Such time may be paid for as portal-toportal pay in mining, deadheading on railroads, and outof-town work in construction. TRICK: SHIFT TRUSTEE A person, bank, or trust company who administers and takes responsibility for a trust fund, or a person who is a member of a board of trustees. (See Fund.) TRUSTEESHIP In union affairs, the taking of direct control of a local union by the national or international union, generally to correct mismanagement or illegal practices on the part of local officers, to prevent secession, or to strengthen the local. Control of the local is returned to members or officers after the cause for trusteeship has been corrected. (See Monitorship.) TRUST FUND: FUND TUITION PAYMENT PLAN Plan providing for payment by the employer of part or all of the costs of job-related training courses undertaken by employee. 93 TURN: SHIFT TURNOVER: LABOR TURNOVER UMPIRE: IMPARTIAL CHAIRMAN UNAFFILIATED UNION: INDEPENDENT UNION UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE (UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION) Joint Federal-State program, established in 1935 under the Social Security Act and subject to the standards set forth in the Federal Unemployment Tax Act, under which Stateadministered funds obtained through payroll taxes provide payments to eligible unemployed persons for specified periods of time. Levels of benefits and tax rates are es tablished by each State. Generally excluded groups include, among others, railroad workers (covered by Railroad Un employment Insurance Act), agricultural workers, State and municipal employees, and workers in nonprofit institutions. The Federal part of the program is administered by the U. S. Department of Labor. UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE Action by either an employer or union which violates the provisions of National or State labor relations acts, such as refusal to bargain in good faith. Unfair labor practice strike- -a strike caused, at least in part, by an employees unfair labor practice. UNFAIR LIST Union list of employers designated as unfair to organized labor. 94 UNFUNDED PLAN (PAY-AS-YOU-GO) Plan (e. g . , pension plan) under which benefits are paid, like wages, directly from an employees general assets, often as a payroll item, as distinguished from a fund ir retrievably segregated from the general assets of the firm and separately administered. Some pension plans are funded in part and unfunded with regard to certain benefits. UNION (TRADE UNION, LABOR UNION, LABOR ORGANIZATION) Any organization in which workers participate as members, which exists for the purpose of dealing with employers concerning grievances, wages, hours, and conditions of employment. Unions are voluntary organizations and need no license from the government to operate. Unions may incorporate if they wish. UNION AGREEMENT: AGREEMENT UNION CONTRACT: AGREEMENT UNION CONVENTION An assembly of delegates meeting periodically (e. g ., every 2 years) to act on union problems, elect officers, and determine policies. The convention is typically the chief governing body of the union in constitutional terms. UNION DUES Fee paid periodically, usually monthly, by members of a union, typically as a condition of continued membership. Each union sets its own dues requirements. (See Checkoff.) UNION LABEL (BUG) Tag, imprint, or design attached to an article as evidence that it was produced by union labor. 95 UNION LEAVE Paid or unpaid, but excused, leave for union representatives, shop stewards, e tc ., to attend to union business, e. g., par ticipating in union conventions. UNION-MANAGEMENT COOPERATION Voluntary joint participation of union and management in solving problems such as production and safety, or in en gaging in certain outside activities, such as community or charitable work. The term is usually reserved to joint actions outside of the process of collective bargaining itself. UNION MEMBER A union member may be defined in broad terms as a worker who has met the union*s qualifications for membership, has joined the union, and has maintained his membership rights. Each union usually determines its own qualifications. In general, dues-paying members are those who pay dues to the union on a regular basis. Members in good standing include dues-paying members and members exempted for various reasons (unemployed, on strike, ill, etc.) but still carried on the union rolls as full-fledged members. Book members are those listed on the union rolls, dues-paying or not. UNION ORGANIZER: ORGANIZER UNION RATE (SCALE) Minimum rate (hourly or weekly) paid to qualified workers in a specific occupation or trade under the terms of a union agreement. (See Standard Rate.) UNION RECOGNITION Employer acceptance of a union as the representative of his employees, the first step in the establishement of a collec tive bargaining relationship. UNION REPRESENTATIVE: BUSINESS AGENT 96 UNION SECURITY Protection of a union*s status by a provision in the collec tive bargaining agreement establishing a closed shop, union shop, agency shop, or maintenance-of-membership arrange ment, In the absence of such provisions, employees in the bargaining unit are free to join or support the union at will, and, thus, in union reasoning, are susceptible to pressures to refrain or to the inducement of a "free ride." UNION SHOP Provision in a collective bargaining agreement that requires all employees to become members of the union within a specified time after hiring (typically 30 days), or after a new provision is negotiated, and to remain members of the union as a condition of continued employment. Modified union shop—variations on the union shop. Certain employ ees may be exempted, e. g ., those already employed at the time the provision was negotiated who had, up until then, not joined the union. UNION STEWARD: SHOP STEWARD U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR The Department was established by Act of Congress in 1913 to "foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners of the United States, to improve their working conditions, and to advance their opportunities for profit able employment. " The Department also has important functions in the field of international labor affairs. The major bureaus and offices of the Department include: Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, Bureau of Employ ment Security, Bureau of Labor Standards, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions, Women1 Bureau, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, s Office of Manpower, Automation and Training, Office of the Solicitor, Neighborhood Youth Corps, Labor-Management Services Administration, and Manpower Administration. The Secretary of Labor heads the Department. 97 UNLICENSED PERSONNEL Seamen not required to have an official license, such as deckhands, stewards, firemen, e tc., as distinguished from licensed masters, mates and engineers. UNPAID HOLIDAYS Holidays observed by an establishment only to the extent of providing premium pay for work on that day. Paid time off not provided. (See Paid Holidays.) UPGRADING Process of raising the pay level of a job relative to other jobs or of advancing workers to jobs with higher skills and rates of pay. VACATION PAY Wages received by an employee for his vacation period. (See Paid Vacations.) Pay-in-lieu-of-vacation-vacation pay to workers who do not take the actual time off, paid in addition to wages for time worked. VERTICAL UNION: INDUSTRIAL UNION VESTING (VESTED RIGHTS) As commonly used in connection with pension plans, a guarantee to a worker of his equity in the plan, based on contributions by the employer on his behalf, should his employment terminate before he becomes eligible for re tirement. The worker usually must meet specified mini mum age (e. g., 40 or 45) and service (e. g., 10 or 15 years) requirements for qualification. The vested worker receives the pension he has earned when he reaches retirement age, ^ th^n employed. 98 WAGE ASSIGNMENT Voluntary transfer by a worker of some of his earned wages to another party, e. g ., for the payment of purchases or debts, union dues or assessments, or charity contributions. WAGE BOARD EMPLOYEES Federal Government employees, typically manual workers, whose rates of pay are determined on the basis of prevailing rates for comparable work in the area, as distinguished from Classification Act Employees. WAGE DETERMINATION Process of establishing wage rates and wage structures through collective bargaining, employer determination, arbitration, or other methods. WAGE DIFFERENTIALS Differences in wages among occupations, plants, areas, in dustries, type of worker, etc. A more precise definition is usually attached to the term, e. g ., sex differentials, geographic differentials, etc. WAGE DRIFT Term generally used to describe the differential change in average earnings levels over time as measured against negotiated changes. The difference between the level of actual earnings, which is influenced by many factors, and the level at which earnings would be if formal general wage changes alone are taken into account is thus likened to an upward drift. WAGE ESCALATION: ESCALATOR CLAUSE WAGE-HOUR LAW: FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT 99 WAGE LEADERSHIP Influence exercised by the wage settlement reached by a large firm or group of firms on other negotiations in the same industry or area. WAGE PATTERN A wage change negotiated by a major company which is followed by similar increases in other companies in the same industry or area. WAGE-PRICE GUIDELINES: GUIDEPOSTS WAGE PROGRESSION Plan providing within-grade pay increases, generally at speci fied time intervals or on a merit basis, for workers in occu pations having established minimum and maximum wage rates. (See Automatic Progression; Step Rates. ) WAGE RATE Monetary compensation for given unit of time or output, exclusive of premium payments for overtime or other extras. WAGE REOPENER: REOPENING CLAUSE WAGE SCALE (WAGE SCHEDULE) A schedule specifying the pay structure for an establishment, industry, or locality. May also refer to a single rate. (See Union Rate.) 100 WAGE STRUCTURE Total of various elements and considerations that characterize the schedule of compensation in an establishment, industry, or area. Such elements are (1) relationship between rates for occupations of different skill requirements, (2) sex differ entials, if any, (3) provisions for shift differentials, over time, e tc., (4) interarea, interregional, and union-nonunion differentials, (5) methods of pay, (6) provisions for lunch and rest periods, and (7) supplementary benefits such as va cations, sick leave, insurance, health and welfare plans, etc. WAGNER ACT: NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, 1935 WAITING TIME: DOWNTIME WALKOUT: STRIKE WALSH-HEALEY ACT: PUBLIC CONTRACTS ACT WASHINGTON JOB PROTECTION AGREEMENT Negotiated in railroad industry in 1936, and still in effect, this plan provides displacement and severance allowances to employees required to accept a new position or separated from employment because of unification, consolidation, merger, or pooling of separate facilities, operations, or services. WATCH The shift or work period for a seaman aboard ship. 101 WELFARE AND PENSION PLANS DISCLOSURE ACT, 1958 Federal statute requiring administrators of all health, in surance, pension, and unemployment benefit plans over a minimum size (coverage) to file descriptions of their plans and financial reports of their operations with the Secretary of Labor and to make such information available to plan participants and beneficiaries* In 1962, the law was strengthened and penalties for violation added* WELFARE PLAN (EMPLOYEE-BENEFIT PLAN) General term usually covering health and insurance plans and other types of employee-benefit plans. The Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act specifically defines wel fare plans for purposes of compliance, but the term is often used loosely outside of law. WHIPSAWING Term applied to a union tactic of negotiating with one em ployer at a time, using each negotiated gain as a lever against the next employer. WHITE-COLLAR WORKERS Term used to describe office, clerical, administrative, sales, professional, and technical employees, as distin guished from production and maintenance employees who are usually referred to as blue-collar workers. WIDOWS ALLOWANCE: SURVIVORS' BENEFITS WILDCAT STRIKE: STRIKE WORKING RULES: SHOP RULES 102 WORK FORCE: LABOR FORCE WORKLOAD Amount of work to be performed by an employee, or output expected, in a given period of time. WORKMENS COMPENSATION A system of insurance required by State law and financed by employers which provides payment to workers or their families for occupational illness, injuries, or fatalities re sulting in loss of wage income. WORK PERMIT: PERMIT CARD WORK SHARING (DIVISION OF WORK; SHARE-THE-WORK; SPREAD-THE-WORK) An arrangement to avoid layoffs whereby available work during slack periods is spread as evenly or as equitably as possible among regular employees by reducing each worker1 s daily or weekly hours. Sometimes arranged on a week-on, week-off basis. WORK STOPPAGE A temporary halt to work, initiated by workers or employer, in the form of a strike or lockout. This term was adopted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to replace "strikes and lockouts. " In aggregate figures, "work stoppages" usually means "strikes and lockouts, if any"; as applied to a single stoppage, it usually means strike or lockout unless it is clear that it can only be one. The difficulties in ter minology arise largely from the inability of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (and, often, the parties) to distinguish be tween strikes and lockouts since the initiating party is not always evident. 103 WORKWEEK Usually, the expected or actual period of employment for the week, generally expressed in number of hours. Some uses of the term may relate to the outside dimensions of a week (e. g ., 7 consecutive days). WORLD FEDERATION OF TRADE UNIONS (WFTU) An international organization of organized labor move ments, formed in 1945, which quickly became Communist dominated. In 1949, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions was organized to represent the nonCommunist trade unions in the world. YELLOW-DOG CONTRACT An oral or written agreement whereby an employee pledges not to become nor to remain a union member, under penalty of discharge. Banned in 1932 by the NorrisLaGuardia Act. ZIPPER CLAUSE An agreement provision specifically barring any attempt to reopen negotiations during the term of the agreement. (See Reopening Clause; Living Document.)* * U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE . 1965 0 - 7 7 6 - 4 3 6