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The First Year ===*=== A Study of Women's Participation in Federal Defense. Activities BY LUCILLE FOSTER McMILLIN United States Civil Service Commissioner UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1941 Digitized by Goog Ie '/: ' / /, :,- UNITED STATES CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION Form 3788--September 1941 Digitized by Goog Ie Contents Page Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Resume of the Work of Women in the Federal Service Prior to 1940. . . . . . . . 9 Picturesque Jobs of Women in Defense. . . 15 Where Many Women are Found in Defense Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Some Women Occupying Important Defense Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Training Opportunities for Women in De35 fense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ABC of Federal defense jobs which women are occupying Forward Together . . . . . Digitized by 38 39 Goog Ie ILLUSTRATIONS women's nimble fingers are used on the assembly line ... " Page 16 ". . . deft hands Page 18 turn out the missiles of defense." "In the sail loft they make . . . flags . . . for the ships at sea." Page 21 •'They design work outfits for women employed in farm, home, and factory occupations . . . " Page 22 "Let us here pay tribute to the women in those less sensational . . . jobs of defense ... " Page 24 ••. . . they joined the signal march to total preparedness . . . '' Page 30 Digitized by Goog Ie PREFACE T HE WOMEN of the United States are taking an increasingly important part in the national-defense program. Their duties have spread on the home front. As the manpower of the country continues to be drawn into the heavy industries of defense-as men are inducted into the land and sea forces of the Nation-there will be a growing need for their participation in those activities on the governmental and industrial fronts which are paramount in the national effort totally to arm and to defend our country, morally and physically. The Federal Government has recognized the situation. In order to meet the task of securing additional qualified workers because of the withdrawal of men, the heads of its departments and independent establishm~nts have been urged by the United States Civil Service Commission to explore the possibility of employing women for use in those occupations in which, heretofore, women have not been widely engaged. The Civil Service Commission has recommended that provision be made for training courses which will prepare women to qualify for and fill many of the positions essential to the prosecution of the national-defense program. Great events have always carried women forward in their quest to find a secure place in the fields of labor. Nevertheless, their primary instinct has been, and still is, to cherish their greater interest in the protection of the home, the family, and the community. Pioneer women found it necessary to join men in the protection of the home, the family, and the community against the dangers of new frontiers. They found it necessary to wield the axe which was to push back the wilderness; to assist in tilling [ 5] Digitized by Goog Ie the cleared soil; to plant and to reap the harvest in order that the family might eat and the community prosper. During the early years of the Republic, and through their age-old fight for the right to franchise, women have stood in the front ranks of those who have fostered great movements of community effort in extending education, culture, and better living conditions. They have always endorsed those modern attainments that make for a happier and more healthful life. It has been their duty to maintain the health and vigor of the family; to see that its members are properly fed, clothed, and kept warm; and to fashion and maintain the home, which is the strength of the Nation. Wars have always brought new responsibilities to women, and in meeting them they have never failed. They served in the Civil War as nurses at the front and on hospital staffs; they prepared bandages for the wounded; they moulded bullets; they wept secretly and tilled the soil openly. They extended their activities in the World War. Women became ambulance drivers, munition factory workers, ammunition inspectors, doctors, and members of home-defense committees, welfare associations, and recreational associations. Wide avenues into employment fields at that time provided a way to many new jobs for women in the Federal service. When the United States entered the World War the demand for workers was unprecedented. It was necessary to fill more than a hundred thousand Federal positions almost immediately. Skilled workers were needed in Government establishments and in private industry to turn out arms and munitions. There were labor shortages in many fields. Prior to 1917, the majority of Government officials had insisted that only men be appointed to Government jobs. But the pressing need for labor broke down the bars of prejudice, and the story of the woman worker in the Federal Government began to be written. Many surveys have been conducted into the part played by women in the World W,ar. Many studies have been made of their employment in the industries and occupations of the country since that time. In those surveys and studies it has [ 6] Digitized by Goog Ie been discovered that women can satisfactorily perform almost any type of work. Again, a state of emergency has brought the ability of women to the forefront-and the opportunity for them to extend their activities further. Their participation in the national-defense program is following closely the pattern of their work in the World War. In addition, they will profit by the experience gained from their employment in the industries and professions of the country since the World War; and by the policy of the Government to encourage the employment of women in those jobs which cannot be satisfactorily filled by men because of the transfer of men into the military and naval forces of the country, and into the heavier duties of defense. [ 7] Digitized by Goog Ie Digitized by Goog Ie , , RESUME OF THE WORK OF WOMEN IN THE FEDERAL SER VICE PRIOR TO 1940 I SOLATED cases of the employment of women in the Federal service occurred before the adoption of the Constitution. It is believed that the first two women employees in the Federal Government were Mrs. Elizabeth Cresswell, postmaster at Charlestown, Md., under the Continental Congress in 1786-87, and Miss Mary K. Goddard, postmaster at Baltimore, Md., who had been holding that office for 14 years when the Constitution was signed. The story of women's rise in governmental positions is one of slow but gradual progress. Factory-type positions in the Philadelphia Mint were opened to them at an early date. Later, positions became available to them in the arsenals of the country, in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and in the Government Printing Office. They were particularly recruited as printer's assistants, and even as late as 1910 such jobs formed the bulk of those to which they were appointed. Clerical positions in the lower grades of the Federal service were available to women about 1850, and many years elapsed before they were admitted to the higher grades. Some lower-grade positions in professional and scientific fields were being held by women in 1897. It was the general rule, however, not to bestow position titles, responsibilities, or salaries on women comparable to those received by men; rather, according to a survey made in 1868 by Representative Thomas A. Jenckes, of Rhode Island, it was the questionable practice of those who stressed the employment of women in the Federal Government to plac;e them in jobs because they 414053°-41-2 [ 9] Digitized by Goog Ie could be paid lower salaries, thus effecting retrenchment in Government pay rolls. No one challenged the fairness of the procedure, but it is interesting to discover that 2 years later there was written into the statute books the provision that "Women may, in the discretion of the head of any department, be appointed to any of the clerkships therein authorized by law, upon the same requisites and conditions, and with the same compensation, as are prescribed for men." While the letter of the law was not alw~ys carried out, the establishment of low-salaried clerkships for women gradually ceased, although it was not entirely discontinued until the passage of the Classification Act in 1923, which provided that "In determining the rate of compensation which an employee shall receive the principle of equal compensation for equal work irrespective of sex shall be followed.'' This removed the bar to their right to equal pay at "the discretion of the head of any department,'' and was, of course, a positive step forward for women in the Federal service. In 1854 there were three women clerk-copyists in the Patent Office. These positions were forerunners of the stenographic and typing jobs which now form the largest occupation for women in the Government. One of these jobs was filled by Clara Barton, who later founded the American Red Cross. She held this position during the stormy times of the rise of women in the Government, and throughout the Civil War, paying for a substitute while she served as nurse at the battle front. A provision in the deficiency act passed by the Congress on March 14, 1864, marked the first statutory authority for the employment of women. The provision vested the heads of the various departments with authority to "employ females instead of any of the clerks hereinbefore designated, at an annual compensation not exceeding six hundred dollars per year, whenever, in their opinion, the same can be done consistently with the interests of the public service.'' In June of the same year their worth rose to $720, and, again in 1866, to $900. This latter rate of pay remained the legal maximum for women employees for many years. [ 10] Digitized by Goog Ie The number of women employees in the Government gradually increased. The year 1893 found the various departments of the Federal Government in Washington, D. C., using 3,770 women in Government jobs, as against 8,377 men. But the next year there was a temporary outbreak of antifeminist feeling, and the decrease in women's employment began. The depression periods of 1897, 1903, 1922, and 1928, and recurrent waves of antifeminist feeling caused similar decreases in the number of women employees, but, notwithstanding these reverses, women always won back their gains, not only in the number of positions, but in the responsibility and importance of the positions. While it is true that from its earliest days the Civil Service Commission gave tests for both men and women, for reasons of economy and convenience it was the common policy to limit many examinations and their resulting registers to one sexparticularly men. This policy prevailed until 1919 when the Commission ruled that all examination announcements should contain the following statement: ''Both men and women, if qualified, may enter this examination, but appointing officers have the legal right to specify the sex desired in requesting certification of eligibles.'' But the final bar to sex discrimination in certification was removed when it was later ruled that "certification shall be made without regard to sex, unless sex is specified in the request. " The typewriter was in fairly common use in the departments of the Government when the Civil Service Commission was established in 1883. The Commission gave examinations for both men and women. Women seemed particularly proficient in the use of the machine. They received about 14 percent of the typist appointments in 1894; 21 percent in 1904; and about 25 percent in 1914. They received 77 percent of all appointments to the four grades of stenographer and typist positions in 1936. In 1940, however, the ratio dropped to 56 percent, [ 11 ] Digitized by Goog Ie when they received 79 percent of the stenographic positions and 44 percent of the typist positions. The employment of married women has been a bone of contention in the business world for decades. There was early administrative discrimination against their employment in Government jobs, but it was not until the passage of the Economy Act of 1932 that married status b~ame a factor which, with legal sanction, constituted a positive barrier to Government employment. Section 213 of the Economy Act provided that in a reduction of force those individuals (in the class to be reduced) whose husbands or wives were also receiving Federal pay as employees, pensioners, enlisted men, or officers, should be dismissed first. The Section further provided that, in making appointments to the classified civil service, preference should be granted to those persons "other than married persons living with husband or wife, such husband or wife being in the service of the United States or the District of Columbia." While Section 213 did not state that persons dismissed should be women, it resulted in the dismissal of three times as many women as men. After a great deal of aggressive activity on the part of women's groups interested in the extension of the merit system, and upon the recommendation of the Civil Service Commission, the Congress repealed Section 213 in the final days of its 1937 session, thus removing the last discriminatory phase of the employment of women in the Federal Government. In a reflect1ive study of the employment of women in the Federal service one will find that their increase in number has been continuous and large. Generally, it has followed the upward trends of their use in the industries of the country, although it is certainly true that the heads of Government agencies have been much more reluctant to accept their employment, and to foster legislation beneficial to them, than have employers in industry and business. Prior to the inception of the national-defense program early in 1940, women's employment status in the Federal service was [ 12] Digitized by Goog Ie on a somewhat even keel with that of men. Except for a few positions, such as guard and policeman, there was nothing to prevent them from proceeding to occupy any job in the Government provided they had the necessary training and qualifications. Slowly they had raised the level of their participation in the activities of Government until they were occupying numerous positiQns of trust and responsibility. Their ranks included a member of the Cabinet, a Director of the Mint, Federal judges, special assistants to the Attorney General, members of boards and commissions, collectors of customs, ministers to foreign lands, an Assistant Treasurer of the United States, and wardens in State institutions. Because of their educational background and experience women were called to the Federal service to fill many positions in professional and scientific fields, such as those of dietitian, social worker, dental hygienist, and nurse. They were occupied in research work in the Bureau of Home Economics of the Department of Agriculture, and in the Children's Bureau and the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. They were found in positions involving work in law, medicine, public administration, illustrating, editing and writing. In almost every department and independent establishment of the Government, women were holding good jobs and were rendering outstanding service. By far the greatest number of women were in the clerical, stenographic and typist positions-a particular source from which the most women proceed to bigger jobs, better pay, and a successful career in the Federal ranks. Since the inception of the national-defense program the number of women employees in the Federal service has continuously increased and their labor has steadily advanced into the defense activities of the governmental front. It is those jobs occupied by women on this particular front which are of first interest to this discussion. [ 13] Digitized by Goog Ie ... Digitized by Google PICTURESQUE JOBS OF WOMEN IN DEFENSE VIEW of women's participation in Federal defense activities covering the first year of the nationaldefense program quickens the imagination and forecasts those spheres of preparedness wherein their greatest labor will occur. From those spheres we now hear the ominous hum of arsenals, and the drone of motors in flight. In the review we already see the results of women's effort in the laboratories of science, in the workshops of the designer, in the defense industries of the Government, in the offices of administrators, and in the armed camps of the Nation. In it may be found a story which bristles with colorful action and keen endeavora story whose plot extends far over the embattled fronts of democracy. While the number of women presently engaged in work in defense activities is small in comparison with the estimated number which ultimately will find employment therein, they are found in jobs which are picturesque and unique in character, and which include tasks not usually performed by women. From many sources reports are received of their continuous placement on the "production line" in establishments of the War Department-the arsenals, the ordnance depots, the proving grounds, the munition factories, the Quartermaster depots, the air fields, the Engineer Department at large, and the Medical Corps; in the navy yards and air stations of the Navy Department; in the armament industries vital to defense, and in the multitudinous activities of those other departments and independent establishments of the Government which have been designated as defense agencies. .K [ 15] Digitized by Goog Ie ... NEW YORK DAILY NEWS PHOTO ". . . women's nimble fingers are used on the assembly line [ 16 ] Digitized by Goos Ie In the Picatinny Arsenal at Dover, N. J., more than 1,000 women are working as classified laborers, and more than 400 are employed there as explosives operators in the operation of machines and presses incident to the loading of munitions. At the Edgewood, Md., Arsenal women's nimble fingers are used on the assembly line in the manufacture of gas masks. Every 24 hours more than 2,000 women work in 3 shifts 6 days a week, handling highly confidential processes, operating heavY:,-duty, high-speed electric sewing machines, using pliers, soldering irons, and presses, and performing skilled handwork in the assembly of incomplete parts of gas masks. Final in..: spection of the finished product is made by women. Patience and care are indispensable as a single leak or defective piece might be disastrous in some future battle! Women from this arsenal are sent to private companies engaged in the manufacture and assembly of gas-mask parts to act as instructors of the employees of the private firms. At the arsenal, women toxicologists and pharmacologists perform research work in testing the efficacy of chemical warfare materials. They test the value of defensive gases developed to counteract the known chemical warfare gases of other countries. Before the national emergency, Edgewood Arsenal had 181 women employees, as compared with 2,513 on April 1, 1941. At the Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, women hold the majority of positions in the fuze shop. Girls with a high-school education, but having little or no experience in the work, are accepted for training in this important job in one of the country's largest arsenals. Here, on the production line, women assist in the manufacture,' in the inspection, in the testing, and in the intricate subassembly of parts for mechanical time fuzes used in artillery shells. Here, women are machine tool operators and precision optical workers, performing duties which correspond with those required in the finest type of watch making. Tiny, delicate parts, cumbersome to the heavy hands of men, are handled easily and efficiently by the quick fingers of women. Here, women are munition inspectors. Here, their quality of patience, their temperament, their dexterity, 414953°-41--8 [ 17] Digitized by Goog Ie ,--, ~ 00 L.....J 0 co· N. "" (D a. CT '< 0 0 ~........ (v O E M DEFENSE PHOTO " . . deft hands turn out the missiles of defense." their devotion to duty, are vitally essential as their deft hands turn out the missiles of defense. At the Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot the majority of positions in the clothing factory are filled by women. The factory manufactures uniforms·and clothing equipment for the soldiers. It is the only factory operated by the War Department for this purpose. Many women occupy supervisory positions there. In the Marine Corps Supply Depot at Philadelphia-the only clothing fact':)ry depot operated by the Marine Corpswomen manufacture marine uniforms. At the Middletown Air Depot, Middletown, Pa., women are engaged in various positions in aircraft work. At the Holabird Quartermaster Depot in Baltimore a woman does mechanical and free-hand illustrating for Army texts and manuals; another woman handles work in connection with the purchase of automotive spare parts. · At Savannah, Ga., a draftswoman is employed in the Office of the District Engineer; the Quartermaster at Elgin Field, Fla., employs a woman storekeeper. In the Chemical Warfare Service at Cincinnati, Ohio, 250 women have been appointed to jobs as "arsenal learners," gas-mask inspectors, process inspectors, and laboratory aides in connection with the manufacture of gas masks. In the Engineer Department at large women occupy the position of engineering aide. One woman is a junior architect. In the Ordnance Department at large women are serving as under inspectors of ordnance. At the Fairfield Air Depot, Patterson Field, Fairfield, Ohio, women apply radio-active luminous material to various dials used on aircraft instruments. In the St. Louis, Mo., Ordnance District Office women work as inspectors of ammunition parts and small-arms ammunition, and in the recording of intricate drawings and specifications of ordnance material items. At the San Antonio, Tex., Arsenal women are used in cleaning and grinding lenses in the optical section. [ 19] Digitized by Goog Ie At the Quartermaster Depot in New Orleans women are employed as examiners of woven and knitted articles. At the San Antonio Air Depot women employees make heavy fleece-lined suits for pilots. The laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Moffett Field, Calif., employ women with majors in mathematics, physics or chemistry to make computations on wind tunnel tests. In the Brooklyn Navy Yard more than 500 women are employed in the Naval Clothing Depot as operators of power sewing machines used in the making of uniforms for sailors. In the sail loft they make and mend flags and pennants for the ships at sea. In Boston a woman is serving as an immigration inspector. At the Philadelphia Navy Yard women operators are employed in the Naval Aircraft Factory in the manufacture of parachutes and related equipment used by the Navy. The Inspector of Naval Aircraft at San Diego, Calif., employs women as inspectors of engineering material. At the Mare Island Navy Yard, San Francisco, women are employed in drafting, as matrons in the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and as interpreters. Here, too, they make flags and pennants for naval vessels of all kinds. At the Sacramento Air Depot women are employed as leather and canvas workers in the unique duty of drop-testing, inspecting, mending, and repairing parachutes. In the military camps of the country, in the hospitals, in defense agencies, in the field activities of the Government, women are employed as nurses, hospital attendants, hostesses, librarians, receptionists, mess attendants, laundry operatives, surgeon's assistants, dental hygienists, dietitians, inspectors of textiles, elevator operators, cooks, welfare workers, and technicians of all kinds. Women cryptanalysts are rendering outstanding service to the Government in coding and decoding secret messages. In other Government agencies women are studying ways of improving bread for the military forces. They are developing [ 20] Digitized by Goog Ie O E M DEFENSE PHOTO "In the sail loft they make . . . flags . . . for the ships at sea." [ 21 ] Digitized by Goog [e u. S . BUREAU OF HOME ECONOMICS PHOTO "They design work 011tjits for women employed in farm, home, and factory occ11pations . . . " [ 22] Digitized by Goos [e new recipes with the aim of making bread more nutritious. They are conducting experiments in the preservation of foodstuffs, such as potatoes, eggs, milk, and other staples. They are engaged in nutrition studies which are a part of a national nutrition program. They serve as inspectors of supplies sent to England. They are employed in the testing of textiles to determine resistance to mildew and other deteriorating elements, for the betterment of military clothing and equipment. They design work outfits for women employed in farm, home, and factory occupations-outfits stripped of hazardous ties and frills, and provided with comfort and safety. In aviation there is a woman air-marking specialist and a private flying specialist; and there are many women who are ground-crew instructors and pilots. Women are occupying positions such as director of personnel, liaison officer, food consultant, director of nutrition, associate administrator, executive assistant, nurse consultant, chief of public information, and chief of press relations. Let us here pay tribute to the women in those less sensational but nevertheless necessary and important jobs of defensethose thousands of stenographers, typists, and clerks, who are displaying a devotion to duty equal to that of women engaged in work on the more dramatic side of preparedness. Thus, at the end of the first year of the emergency, we are able to see something of women's participation in the nationaldefense program on the governmental front. However long the narrative may continue, it is certain that he who writes the final chapter will find in the complete story a record of courage, fortitude, and heroism displayed by women workers in defense who engaged themselves in uncommon duties which they performed faithfully and well. [ 23] . Digitized by Goog Ie u. S. C IVIL SE R V ICE C OMMI SS ION PHOTO S "Let 11s here pay tribute to the women of defense. tn those less sensational . , , jobs [ 24] Digitized by Goog Ie WHERE MANY WOMEN ARE FOUND IN DEFENSE WORK N MAY 1940 the President of the United States declared a limited national emergency because of the chaotic state of world affairs. The military, civilian, and industrial power of the country was summoned to implement a program of preparedness intended to strengthen our armaments, coordinate our internal system of Government, and translate our ability to defend ourselves and our democratic institutions into a never-failing reality. On June 30, 1940, the Federal rolls revealed that civil employment in the executive branch of the United States Government had reached a total of 1,002,820 individuals. Of this number, 816,610 were men and 186,210 were women. The United States Civil Service Commission was confronted with the task of recruiting a capable emergency personnel, and then referring that personnel to those defense agencies which were fast gearing themselves to carry out the major projects of the national-defense program. The Civil Service Commission quickly adjusted its recruiting procedures and regulations to the emergency, and, as a result, during the next 6 months, 116,821 placements increased the Federal roll to a total of 1,119,641 individuals. Of this new total, 892,264 were men and 227,377 were women. Recruiting gained momentum. By June 30, 1941, 238,509 additional placements brought Federal civil employment to a grand total of 1,358,150 employees-1,091,743 men and 266,407 women. The greatest employment activity occurred in the War and Navy Departments, where women increased in number by 51,320 and 8,652, respectively, during the 12-month period, making a total of more than 84,000 women employees in I [ 25] Digitized by Goog Ie these two major defense agencies alone, of which over 67,000 were occupying jobs in the field service (outside the District of Columbia). On June 30, 1940, there were 2,844 women civil employees in the Ordnance Department at large outside the District of Columbia. By the end of June 1941 their number had increased to a total of nearly 10,000 women civil employees, of whom more than 6,000, or approximately two-thirds, were employed in Government-operated arsenals of the nation, as follows: Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, N. J..................... 2,349 Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, N. Y.... . . . . . . . . . . . · 185 Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, Mass... . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,223 Springfield Armory, Springfield, Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Ill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Total women employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,798 On June 30, 1941, 10,792 women were employed in the Selective Service System; 2,670 women were on the rolls of The Panama Canal, the majority of them being employed in the Canal Zone; 1,942 women were employed in the Office for Emergency Management-more than one-half the total number of employees in the entire Office. In the Federal Security Agency, 12,904 women were employed, many of them on tasks concerned with the defense program. In the Civil Service Commission, 4,361 women were employed. Statistics on women employees in the Federal service have been shown for those agencies primarily concerned with defense activities. Other agencies of the Government which employ large numbers of women workers are the Treasury Department (23,034 women employees), the Post Office Department (24,962), the Department of Agriculture (25,087), the Federal Loan Agency (8,181), the Federal Works Agency (16,263), the Maritime Commission (570), and the Veterans' Administration (14,622). Some of these agencies, too, are [ 26] Digitized by Goog Ie concerned with certain phases of the defense program. The extent to which women are employed in other departments and independent establishments of the Government is shown in the accompanying table (pp. 28 and 29). For the enlightenment of those who may question the authenticity of the positive advancement of women into the Federal service in times of emergency, let us see what was happening to female employment in the Government during those stirring days of 1917 and 1918 which have not yet receded from memory. On November 11, 1918, approximately 917,760 civilians were employed in the executive branch of the Federal Government. While it is not known just how many of these individuals were women, it has been -established that in the 2 years of the war period ·women received nearly 75 percent of the appointments at Washington. In the field branches of the Federal service, the proportion was about one woman to two men. The startling effect of the great influx of women into the Federal service compelled the Chief Examiner of the United States Civil Service Commission to state in the Commission's 1918 annual report: The most notable change in Government personnel brought about by the war is in the employment of women. They arc everywhere, and offices which formerly insisted on men employees arc now acceding to the Commission's recommendation that their examinations be open to women applicants. Many women remained in the Federal service after the close of the World War, and, today, some of these same women are occupying positions of responsibility. However, with the return of peace, the ranks of Government workers were gradually reduced, the number of women occupying positions decreased accordingly (82,180 women employees on June 30, 1925), and their effect, in force at least, was not to be felt again until the years of the depression (88,856 on June 30, 1930), the period of the ascendancy of the New Deal (120,777 on June 30, 1935), and, finally, at the beginning of the national-defense [ 27] Digitized by Goog Ie CIVIL EMPLOYMENT IN THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BY SEX June 1941 In the District of C.Olombia Entire service . Outside the District of C.Olumbia Department or independent establishment Total r-, N 00 Office of the President: Executive staff ................................ Maintenance force ........................ . .... Executive departments: State ......................................... Treasury .................................. . . .. War .......................................... Justice ........................................ Post Office 1 .••.•••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••.. 0 N. "" (D a. CT '< 0 0 ~........ (v Women Total Men Women Total Meo Women 1,173 98 671 75 502 23 899 98 491 75 7, 009 65,573 320,291 21,401 301,215 4,685 42,539 250,954 16,481 276,253 2,324 23,034 69,337 4,920 24,962 l, 784 20,690 23,176 6,095 4,723 712 8,950 11,836 3,681 3,782 1,072 11,740 11,340 2,414 941 5,225 44,883 297,115 15,306 296,492 3,973 33,589 239,118 12,800 272,471 1,252 11,294 57,997 2,506 24,021 Navy .................................... . .... Interior ................................... . . .. Agriculture 2 . • • • •••••••••• • •••••••••••••••••.. C.Ommerce .................................... Labor ........................................ Ind~pendent establishments: Alley Dwelling Authority ................. . . ... American Battle Monuments C.Ommission ........ Bituminous C.Oal C.Ommission ................... Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System ...... Board of Tax Appeals ......................... 222,862 47,980 91,146 23,896 4,579 207,971 39,670 66,059 16,186 2,335 14,891 8,310 25,087 7,710 2,244 25,527 4,501 13,209 13,616 2,416 20. 484 2,804 6,667 6,775 930 5,043 1,697 6,542 6,841 1,486 197,335 43,479 77,937 10,280 2,163 187,487 36,866 59,392 9,411 1,405 9,848 6,613 18,545 869 758 156 95 51 470 135 102 89 30 267 62 54 6 21 203 73 156 20 51 448 135 102 17 30 245 62 Civil Service C.Ommission ....................... Eteloyees' C.Omeensation C.Ommission ..... . .... Fe eral C.Ommumcations C.Ommission ............ Federal Deposit Insurance C.Orporation ........... Federal Loan Agency ..................... .. ... 6,709 526 1,414 2,357 18,653 2,348 242 966 l, 386 10,472 4,361 284 448 971 8,181 4,292 458 n6 514 5,056 1,485 215 400 253 2,669 L..-J co· Men 408 274 180 94 23 .......... .......... .......... 54 . . . . . . . . . . ·········· .......... 72 75 3 3 21 ·········. . . . . . . . . . . .......... 203 22 22 .......... 73 ·········· .......... .......... 2,807 2,417 863 1,554 68 41 243 27 376 638 72 566 261 1,843 1,133 710 2,387 13,597 7,803 5,794 Federal Power Commission ........•..•......... Federal Security Agency ........................ Federal Trade Commission ...................... Federal Works Agency ......................... General Accounting Office ...................... 814 31,872 685 39,020 5,461 598 18,968 436 22,757 3,439 216 12,904 249 16,263 2,022 561 9,774 593 13,011 5,461 390 4,978 371 8,906 3,439 171 208 253 45 22,098 4,796 8,108 13,990 222 92 65 27 26,009 4,105 13,851 12,158 2,022 .......... ·········· .......... Government Printing Office ..................... Interstate Commerce Commission ................ Maritime Commission .......................... Maritime Labor Board ......................... Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission. 7,119 2,799 2,157 28 33 5,712 1,955 1,587 13 32 1,407 844 570 15 1 7,119 2,003 1,261 25 2 5,712 1,350 774 10 1 1,407 .......... ·········· ·········· 653 796 191 605 487 896 813 83 15 3 3 ·········· 1 31 31 . . . . . . . . . . National National National National National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics .... Archives ............................. Cal:al Park and Planning Commission .. La r Relations Board ................ Mediation Board ...................... 1,245 422 30 882 73 1,072 263 25 493 38 48 173 90 159 410 255 25 5 30 420 389 243 35 ... ······· .......... 42 1,024 1,155 131 12 8 155 4 5 ....... • · • .......... . . . . . . . . . 462 212 177 250 .......... 38 73 35 New York World's Fair Commission ... . ........ Office for Emergency Management ............... Panama Canal ................................. Railroad Retirement Board ..................... Securities and Exchange Commission ............ 3 3,691 36,425 2,213 1,678 2 1,749 33,755 1,242 1,106 1 .......... ·········· ·········· 1,608 1,942 1,849 3,457 2,670 184 20 164 · 789 1,594 971 805 1,304 841 572 463 Selective Service System ................. . ...... Smithsonian Institution ........................ ~ial Counsel for the United States ............ ff Commission ............................. Tennessee Valley Authority ..................... Veterans' Administration ....................... 16,593 869 3 292 23,006 42,948 5,801 671 1 177 21,682 28,326 10,792 102 287 389 198 198 869 671 2 .......... •·-········ .......... 169 115 283 114 1,324 6 10 4 14,622 2,602 6,417 3,815 r-, N \0 L......J 0 co· N. "" . 3 234 36,241 619 374 2 141 33,591 437 265 1 93 2,650 182 109 (D a. CT '< 0 0 ~........ (v Total ................................... l, 358, lsb 1. 091. 743 1 Exclusive 1 I 266,407 183,907 106,\133 16,204 . ········· 5,699 .......... 10,505 .......... 3 9 22,996 36,531 1 8 21,678 25,724 2 I 1,318 10,807 77,774 1,174,243 985,610 188,633 of 611 temporary employees in substitute grades in the District of Columbia and 13,355 outside the District of Columbia. Includes employees hired under special letters of authorization. program when they joined the signal march to total preparedness (186,210 on June 30, 1940). Thus, in retrospect, do we catch a glimpse of the infiltration of women into the Government in times of national stress. WOMEN CIVIL EMPLOYEES AND TOTAL CIVIL EMPLOYEES IN THE FEOERAL EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS AND INDEPENDENT ESTABLISHMENTS TOTAL 1,250,000 JUNE 1940 1,000,000 JUNE 1935 750,000 JUNE 1930 500,000 250,000 JUNE 1925 u. JUNE 1930 JUNE 1935 JUNE 1940 5. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION CHART • " . . . they joined the signal march to total preparedness [ 30] Digitized by Goog Ie " SOME WOMEN OCCUPYING IMPORTANT DEFENSE JOBS INCE the first days of the national-defense program wo. men have been occupied in important defense activities. A review of the educational background and wide experience of these women would present an interesting and colorful story in itself. Hundreds of examples might be cited. The few cases which follow illustrate the nature of the duties being performed by some of the daughters of Uncle Sam who occupy key positions in the Nation's effort to prepare: S MARY ANDERSON, Chief of the Women"s Bureau, Department of Labor. Charged with formulating standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage-earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their efficiency, and advance their opportunities for profitable employment. This mandate applies equally to the defense industries. MARY I. BARBER, Food Consultant to the Secretary of War. Assigned to the Subsistence Branch of the Quartermaster Corps. Advises Army on how to serve four million meals a day. Lent to the Government by the Kellogg Company of Battle Creek, Mich., where she is director of home economics. Also serves on the Advisory Board, Press Relations Department, Quartermaster Corps. MARY McLEOD BETHUNE, Director, Office of Negro Affairs, National Youth Administration. Responsible for projects created for the purpose of training Negro youths for integration into defense activities. KATHERINE C. BLACKBURN, Assistant Director, Office of Government Reports, Executive Office of the President. Assists in the direction of the Division of Press Intelligence, which provides Government officials with a clipping service and concise reports on current comment concerning defense and public affairs; the Division of Field Operations, which acts as a clearing house for information on Federal agencies; and the U. S. Information Service, which answers thousands of queries annually from the general public. [ 31 ] Digitized by Goog Ie PAULINE BAKER CHAMBERS, Nurse Consultant, Office of Production Management. Charged with the responsibility of placement of women workers coming to Washington in proper living quarters; advises on health, recreation, and money matters. Makes it possible for incoming women employees to arrange quarters in advance. HARRIETT ELLIOTT, Associate Administrator, Office of Price Administration, Office for Emergency Management. Responsible for the protection of the consumer and consumer needs. MAY THOMPSON EV ANS, Special Assistant to the Director, Division of State and Local Cooperation, Office for Emergency Management. Advises with Governors, defense council officials, civic and professional organizations, and heads of established volunteer service bureaus on integrating the activities of women into State and local defense councils. Establishes procedures through which civilian volunteers may contribute their services to the defense program. 1 KATHERINE A. FREDERIC, Acting Chief, Reports and Studies, Division of State and Local Cooperation, Office for Emergency Management. Responsible for the preparation of reports, publications, special studies, articles, and other material issued by the Division in official bulletins. Gathers, and makes available, information on the operation of State and local defense councils; also information on defense developments which concern State and local government. 1 BESS GOODYKOON'IZ, Assistant Commissioner of Education, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency. In charge of a series of 27 publications on education and defense which show what the schools of the country can do and are doing in relation to the national-defense program. ALICE HAGER, Chief of Public Information, Civil Aeronautics Board. Responsible for dissemination of public information on air activities, including information for the press. Issues safety bulletins. Interprets, for the public, analyses on air accidents with the object of showing what flyers should or should not do in order to avoid accidents. OVETA CULP HOBBY, Expert Consultant to the Secretary of War. The Army's first woman editor. Directs the section of the Bureau of Public Relations of the War Department which translates life in the army in terms of interest to mothers, wives, sisters, and sweethearts. 1 The functions of the Division of State and Local Cooperation have been transferred co the Office of Civilian Defense. [ 32] Digitized by Goog Ie LYTLE HULL (the former Mrs. Vincent Astor), Vice Chairman, Defense Savings Committee, Treasury Department, State of New York. In charge of all women's activities to promote the sale of Defense Bonds and Stamps throughout the State. FLORENCE S. KERR, Assistant Commissioner, Work Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency. Directs community-service projects pertaining to the defense program. Conducts occupational training projects through which thousands of workers are prepared for employment in defense industries. HENRIETTA S. KLOTZ, Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury. As private secretary to the Secretary of the Treasury, handles a large number of confidential matters relating to phases of the defense program. THELMA McKELVEY, Special Assistant, Labor Supply Branch, Labor Division, Office of Production Management. Develops programs for the training and increased employment of women in defense industries, particularly in those occupations where there are labor shortages, and in those industries which have not traditionally employed women. HELEN MITCHELL, Director of Nutrition, Office of the Coordinator of Health, Welfare and Related Defense Activities. In charge of Nationwide educational program to encourage better use of food on hand, and to raise the morale of the country by increasing physical fitness of citizens. BLANCHE NOYES, Air Marking Specialist, Civil Aeronautics Administration, _Department of Commerce. Pilot. In charge of air-marking program which aids air navigation through the proper marking of localities, particularly in those parts of the country where Air Corps flying schools are engaged in the training of pilots. RUTH O'BRIEN, Chief, Division of Textiles and Clothing, Bureau of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture. With governmental ban on silk imports, cotton stockings designed under her direction assume new importance in the national-defense program. Provides War and Navy Departments with methods of mildew-proofing cotton fabrics used in tents, tarpaulins and sandbags. PATRICIA O'MALLEY, Chief, Press Relations, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of Commerce. In charge of preparation and distribution of information to the press and radio, and the dissemination of material for feature articles, on aviation. PHOEBE A. OMLIE, Senior Private Flying Specialist, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of Commerce. Has completed 11,000- [ 33] Digitized by Goog Ie mile journey over country arranging for immediate expansion of classes for airport "ground servicement" to forestall possible shortage of efficient ground men to meet increased demand which will be brought about by expanded aviation programs. GRACE A. PARKHURST, Assistant to the Chief, Purchase Division, Procurement Division, Treasury Department. Engaged in buying defense materials in connection with the activities under the LeaseLend Act. CLARICE SCOTT, Clothing Specialist, Bureau of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture. Designs work outfits for women employed in farm, home, and factory occupations-outfits stripped of hazardous ties and frills, and provided with comfort and safety. RUTH H. SHIPLEY, Chief, Passport Division, Department of State. Considers and approves passports for persons going to areas where new defense bases are being constructed. Facilitates the travel of all persons concerned with Lease-Lend Act aid to the British Isles and China. LOUISE STANLEY, Chief, Bureau of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture. Directs Nation-wide studies on what farm, city, and village families are eating in order to cooperate with other defense agencies in the national drive toward better nutrition. Member committee established to advise British in the selection of food under the Lease-Lend Act. HAZEL STIEBELING, Food Economist, Bureau of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture. Answers the question "Are we well fed?" by analyzing diets of typical families; plans how to spend food money in order to get the best returns in nutrition. RUTH VAN DEMAN, Chief, Information Division, Bureau of Home Economics, Department of Agriculture. Interprets the Bureau's research by means of bulletin, radio, picture, and graph as an aid in applying the findings of science to the maintenance or improvement of morale and ways of living. MARY N. WINSLOW, Advisor for Civic Projects, Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Office for Emergency Management. Works with women's organizations in connection with Latin-American activities. United States representative on the Inter-American Commission of Women. [ 34] Digitized by Goog Ie TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN DEFENSE ERTAIN industries were designated by the Government as "defense industries" at the time of the declaration of the limited national emergency in 1940. These industries included: Aircraft (manufacturing, maintenance, repair); machine tools; shipbuilding (manufacturing, maintenance, repair); automotive (manufacturing, maintenance, repair); electrical; forging; boiler and heavy steel plate; foundry; light manufacturing; sheet-metal; woodworking; chemicals; ammunition; ordnance (light and heavy). For the present emergency the Government has found it necessary to make every effort to draw from the reservoirs of peace-time labor, eligible workers with specific skills to enter those industries designated as vital to defense. In many cases there has been a woeful shortage of such eligibles. The policy has prevailed, therefore, of forecasting the need for skilled labor, and training in advance the workers necessary to fill the gaps when they occur in the ranks of (1) the defense industries, and (2) the defense establishments of the Federal Government. · Women who are especially interested in securing Federal defense employment should appraise their individual abilities and should then acquire the necessary training and prepare to make their services available to the Government in the event that positions for which they are qualified are vacated by men, or are created as the preparedness program grows . .-.,. Because of their temperament, their patience, their nimble fingers, and the adaptability of their hands to the finest work, women are best qualified to perform the duties of those jobs in defense which require the elements of dexterity, care and speed in their accomplishment. These jobs include: Aircraft workers; C [ 35] Digitized by Goog Ie machine operators; assemblers and bench workers; inspectors; welders; sheet-metal workers (fuselage and wing construction of airplanes); coil winders; optical grinders and polishers; power sewing machine operators; tool-room attendants. Adequate preliminary training in various skills has been provided by the Government for the mobilization, training, and placement. of workers in defense industries. The United States Employment Service, the United States Civil Service Commission, the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, the United States Office of Education, the National Youth Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps coordinate their training programs in this important activity. From many sections of the country vocational schools and institutions report the enrollment of women in training courses for automobile mechanics, airplane mechanics, airplane-parts inspectors, draftsmen, engineers, blueprint readers, industrialchemists, machine-shop workers, and radio operators. Schools, colleges, and universities are offering defense training courses in first aid, diet and canteen work, map making, emergency rationing, home economics, engineering, aerial photography, research, and social work. Organizations, such as the American Red Cross and the American Library Association, are conducting defense training courses in subjects pertinent to their activities. Industries engaged in the manufacture, maintenance, and repair of aircraft, automotive parts, light and heavy ordnance, machine tools, and many other industries, conduct within industry training courses in those techniques common to their operations. The insistent demand for skilled workers in Government arsenals, navy yards, and similar establishments caused the United States Civil Service Commission to adopt the policy of holding "continuously open" examinations for the skilled trades. Applicants who have the necessary experience and training are immediately assigned to duty; on-the-job training courses are offered which provide employees ample opportunity to learn higher-grade work. An open competitive examina- [ 36] Digitized by Goog Ie tion was recently announced in the vicinity of one of the navy yards for the purpose of securing women trainees to fill the position of minor inspector of naval ordnance material. Within the last 2 years many women have obtained appointment in the Federal civil service through the Junior Professional Assistant examination held by the Civil Service Commission each year. Among the optional subjects which have been included in the examination are economics, engineering, pharmacy, statistics, textile technology, bacteriology, meteorology, writing and editing, and chemistry. The most popular examinations in which women compete are those given for the purpose of securing nurses, clerks, stenographers, and typists. The best way to find out what defense jobs are available, and what the qualifications are, is to contact the United States Civil Service representative in the nearest first- or second-class post office, or visit the nearest office of the State Employment Service. Many women already have gone from these training courses to vital defense industries. Many others have competed in civil-service examinations and have qualified for jobs in Government-operated defense establishments. During the first year of the national-defense program the employment horizon widened, revealing a variety of new jobs occupied by women in the Federal service. From the valuable reserve of skilled labor created by the coordinated training agencies of the Government, the in-service training courses of industries, and the training activities of the schools and colleges of the country, thousands of skilled women workers will yet emerge and enter new jobs in Federal defense establishments. Thus, in the months to come, women will further expand the scope of their employment over the entire field of defense labor. A guide to the variety of Government positions which women are filling in defense activities at the present time may be found in the table on the following page. [ 37] Digitized by Goog Ie THE ABC OF FEDERAL DEFENSE JOBS WHICH WOMEN ARE OCCUPYING Administrator (associate). Air marking specialist. Aircraft fabric worker. Airplane painter. Architect. Arsenal learner. Astronomer. Buyer of material. Cartographic engineer. Clerk. Cryptanalyst. Cryptologist. Customs collector. Dental hygienist. Designer of military insignia. Dietitian. Draftswoman. Dress research specialist. Economist. Elevator operator. Engineer. Explosives operator. Field specialist on food. Flying specialist. Fuze worker. Gas mask inspector. Ground service training director. Home economist. Hospital attendant. Illustrator. Immigration inspector. Information specialist. Inspector ofEngineering material. Munitions. Ordnance. Textiles. In terpretcr. Laboratory technician. Laborer. · Laundry helper. Leather and canvas goods worker. Liaison officer. Librarian. Machine operator. Manufacturer of army clothing. Matron. Mess attendant. Messenger. Meteorologist (observer). Nurse. Nutrition specialist. Parachute worker. Personnel director. Pharmacologist. Pilot. Powder bag maker. Precision lens and plate maker. Press relations officer. Purchasing officer. Receptionist. Section chief. Sewing machine operator. Social worker. Stenographer. Storekeeper. Supervisor. Surgeon's assistant. Telephone operator. Toxicologist. Translator. Typist. Writer. [ 38] Digitized by Goog Ie FORWARD TOGETHER T HE WIDE participation of women in the national defense program necessitates no new philosophy in the field of labor. Rather, it exemplifies anew the wisdom of the old philosophy-equal compensation for equal work irrespective of sex-freshly clothed with strength and vitality. The extended activity of women in the present emergency will clearly prove the need to apply their labor at alt times in order that the products of their minds, their ingenuity and their talents may be readily utilized in those periods when the nation faces any emergency. The successful performance of women in those jobs which are rare to their sex will reveal that men and women have moved forward together on this occasion, and together they have proved that women's work in alt occupations is not a menace to the zeal of man, but, in fact, a means whereby he has gone on to greater accomplishments. The work of women in the great cooperative effort of the Nation to arm will win for them new laurels in the field of labor, and it will be said of them, "They contributed largely to the national security." [ 39] Digitized by Goog Ie Digitized by Google Digitized by oog [e