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L a. 3

Families at Work:
The Jobs and the Pay

•

Families at Work:
The Jobs and the Pay
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1984
Bulletin 2209

F o r sale by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts . U.S. G o v e rn m e n t P r in t in g Office W a s h in g to n . D C. 20402

Preface

This bulletin is part of the Special Labor Force
Reports series. It discusses historical trends and changes
in labor force and earnings patterns among workers in
families. These articles were first published in the M o n ­
thly Labor Review, December 1983, and are reprinted
with additional tabular material and an explanatory
note.
Most of the data for the first four articles were com­
piled from inform ation in the March 1983 Current
Population Survey, conducted by the Bureau of the

Census for the Bureau o f Labor Statistics. These articles
examine the labor force experience of workers by their
family status. The fifth article reviews available child
care services for working m others, and the sixth pro­
vides some insights into the economic health o f the
family when the prim ary wage earner retires from the
labor force.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.

Contents

Page
Labor force statistics from a family p ersp ectiv e................. ............................................................................
Trends in employment and unemployment in fam ilies...................................................................................
M arried couples: work and income p a tte r n s ....................................................................................................
Most women who maintain families receive poor job m arket returns .......................................................
Child-care services: a national picture..............................................................................................................
How do families fare when the breadwinner r e tire s ? .....................................................................................

1
6
11
15
20
25

Appendixes:
A. Explanatory n o t e ...................................................................................................................................... 30
B.

Supplementary tables:
B -l.
B-2.
B-3.
B-4.
B-5.
B-6.
B-7.
B-8.

Employment status of the population by marital status, sex, race, and Hispanic
origin, March 1983 ...........................................................................................................................
Employed civilians by occupation, race, Hispanic origin, sex, and m arital status,
March 1983 ........................................................................................................................................
M arital status of the population and labor force by age, race, Hispanic origin, and
sex, March 1983 ...............................................................................................................................
M arital status o f women in the population and labor force by age and presence and
age o f children, March 1983 ............................................................................................................
M arital status of women in the population and labor force by race, Hispanic origin,
age, and presence and age of children, March 1983 ..................................................................
Number of earners in families, relationship of earners, and family income in 1982 by
type of family and race,March 1983 .............................................................................................
Number of children in families in March 1983 and median family income in 1982 by
type of family, employment status of parents, race, and Hispanic o r ig in ............................
Number of families with children in March 1983 and median family income in 1982
by type of family, employment status of m other, race, Hispanic origin, and age of
c h ild re n ..................................................................................................................

IV

35
37
41
44
46
48
54

58

Labor force statistics
from a family perspective
Over time, the fam ily unit has become a major focus
fo r policy planning, program evaluation, and research;
two data series, which are now part o f the regular CPS,
more quickly capture the effects o f the business cycle
on the employment and earnings o f fam ily members
E l iz a b e t h W

aldm an

arrangements has increased. For example, today’s schoolage and preschool children are more likely to be living with
one parent or a stepparent and are far more likely to have
a working mother. Factors contributing to such changes
include unusually low fertility rates, exceptionally high di­
vorce rates, later marriage, the aging of the population, and
greater labor force participation by married women.
Some other results of these developments are shown in
table 1. Since 1940, the number of married couples has
nearly doubled, but the number of families maintained by
women has nearly tripled, and half a million more men now
do not live with their spouses but maintain their own fam­
ilies.
The 43-year span which saw broken families become
more numerous and their employment and unemployment
problems more prominent also witnessed the gradual trans­
formation of more than half of all married couples to multieamer families, and the labor force from one that was
predominately male to one that is currently 45 percent fe­
male. Married women have accounted for the majority of
additional workers demanded by the economy, except dur­
ing 1941-44, when men and single women dominated the
wartime influx to the labor force.
Despite the grave national emergency of World War II,
married women continued to be utilized in the civilian labor
force along traditional prewar lines. If a wife had no chil­
dren, she was generally free to take a paid job, but if she
had even one young child, society expected her to stay at
home. The largest single source of additional wartime work-

“ As are families so is society . . . If well ordered, well in­
structed, and well governed, they are springs from which go
forth the streams of national greatness and prosperity— of civil
order and public happiness.’’1

Families are the basic unit of American society that provide
the country with its current labor supply and mold the char­
acter of its future workers. But, in contrast to the “ well
ordered,” ideal state described above, family life is more
often depicted as in flux or crisis. This has been especially
true of the years following World War II, during which
families changed from an extended to a nuclear structure,
moved from a rural to an urban setting, and adjusted from
wartime pressures, to periods of peacetime prosperity or
recession.
In 1940, a monthly sample survey was initiated to mea­
sure changes in the characteristics of the Nation’s labor
force.2 This article draws on the results of that survey to
present a historical perspective on the labor market activities
of family members. Subsequent sections review recent de­
velopments in survey procedures that permit the tracking of
broad secular trends and of business-cycle effects on family
employment and income, and suggest future directions for
family-oriented economic analyses.

Trends: 1940’s to early 1980’s
Since 1940, but especially over the last decade, families
have become substantially smaller, and the variety of living
Elizabeth Waldman is a senior economist in the Office of Employment and
Unemployment Analysis, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

1

45 percent of all wives with infant children are now in the
labor force reflects many interrelated factors, such as infla­
tion and recession. It also attests to the turnaround in so­
ciety’s attitude about mothers working outside the home and
to women’s persistence in the labor market despite higherthan-average unemployment rates.
As in the past, mothers with young children have a more
difficult time in the labor market than other mothers.4 In
March 1983, the unemployment rate for married women
with toddlers under 3 was 12.8 percent, about twice that of
mothers whose youngest child was at least 6 years old. In
part, unemployment rates of mothers of young children may
be higher because child-care responsibilities may restrict the
types of jobs these women can accept. When employed,
however, more than 60 percent of toddlers’ mothers work
at full-time jobs. This proportion rises to more than 70
percent when the children are school age. Of all 46 million
children under age 18 in married-couple families, half had
both parents in the labor force. (The issue of child care for
working mothers is discussed by Sheila Kamerman else­
where in this issue.)

ers were male and female youths of high-school or college
age. Women over the age of 35 were the second largest
labor pool.3 These “ extra” workers were recruited mainly
from the ranks of married women who either had no children
or whose children were old enough not to require their
mothers’ full-time care. Married women’s wartime labor
force participation rates were:
P articipation rate
(in percen t)

1940
Age 18 to
Age 35
With
With

64 .................................................
to 44 .............................................
no children under 10years . . . .
children under 10 y e a r s............

1944

14
15
20
8

23
26
35
13

The labor force recruitment of women ages 20 to 34 was
limited because of the wartime rise in marriages and child­
birth within this age group.
Labor force participation rates for married women did
not decline in the postwar period. In 1950, participation
rates of wives were much the same as they had been in 1944
(table 2). Over the ensuing decades, wives’ rates moved up,
pausing only occasionally, mostly during some recessions.
For wives with young children, labor force participation
rates have quadrupled since 1950.

Husbands
In March 1983, when 52 percent of all wives were in the
work force, 79 percent of the husbands were, too. But, over
time, husbands’ labor force participation rates have drifted
down considerably:

Age of youngest child
One of the effects of the general increase in married moth­
ers’ labor force activity is that many differences in their
participation rates that previously were correlated with the
age of the youngest child in the home have become blurred
or have disappeared entirely in recent years (table 3). In
1970, married mothers’ participation rates ranged from 24
percent for those whose youngest child was less than a year
old to 57 percent where the youngest was 14. Moreover,
participation rates exhibited a step-wise progression closely
related to the age of the youngest child. On balance, the
participation rates for mothers of children 0 to 2 years old
were about 30 percent or lower; for mothers with 3- to 5year-olds, they were in the mid- to upper-30-percent range;
and for those with 6- to 11-year-olds, rates were in the 40to 50-percent range. Participation rates exceeded 50 percent
only among those women with junior-high or high-school
age children.
By March 1983, these four distinct “ steps” or ranges of
participation rates had been reduced to three. The rate for
mothers of infants was 45 percent, with rates for those with
children 2 to 5 years old falling in a narrow band between
50 and 57 percent, and rates for mothers with school-age
children concentrated in an almost equally small range be­
tween 60 and 67 percent. In addition, by 1983, the entire
range of participation rates had contracted. In 1970. the
highest rate (57 percent) was more than twice the lowest
(24 percent), but by 1983, the highest (67 percent) was only
about half again as great as the lowest (45 percent). That

Participation rate
(in percent)

Year
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1983

..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................
..................................................................

93
92
89
87
81
79

Much of the decline is attributable to a reduction in the
number of husbands 55 or older in the labor force. This is
due in large part to the growth of a great variety of private
Table 1.

Families by type, selected years, 1940-83

[Numbers in thousands]

Other families
Year1

All
families

Maintained by women

Marriedcouple
families

Maintained
by men

Total

As percent
of ail
families

1940 ......................
1947 ......................

32,166
35,794

26,971
31,211

1,579
1,186

3,616
3,397

11.2

1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

39,303
41,951
45,062
47,836
51,227
56,257
59,910

34,440
36,378
39,293
41,649
44,415
47,528
49,132

1,184
1,339
1,275
1,181
1,239
1,412
1,769

3,679
4,234
4,494
5,006
5,580
7,316
9,009

10.1
10.0
10.5
10.9
13.0
15.0

1983 ......................

61,834

49,947

2,059

9,828

15.9

9.5
9.4

1Data were collected in April of 1940, 1947. and 1955, and in March of all other
years.
Note: Data for 1975 have been revised since initial publication.

2

sively in the 1970’s, the Bureau of Labor Statistics ( b l s )
began developing two new series of monthly and quarterly
data that would more quickly capture the effects of businesscycle changes on the employment situation of families and
their members.7
b l s now publishes a series of person-family data every
month in Employment and Earnings. Introduced in July
1977 on a quarterly basis, this series confirms long-term
trends. For example, families in which the husband is em­
ployed are more likely to have other employed members
than families where the husband is either unemployed or
not in the labor force. Of the 36.8 million families where
the husband was employed in the second quarter of 1983,
64 percent had at least one other employed person, while
of the 2.6 million families where the husband was unem­
ployed, 58 percent had some other person employed. Only
18 percent of the unemployed women maintaining families
lived with another relative who was employed. The monthly
statistics thus enable analysts to track the extent of unem­
ployment within families as a recession develops or abates,
and report on the cushioning effect when other family mem-

retirement plans and better social security benefits, including
a broadening of the eligibility requirements for disability
benefits. In 1982, the labor force participation rate for hus­
bands age 65 or over was 19 percent, compared with 48
percent in 1952. Corresponding rates for husbands 55 to 64
years of age were 71 and 89 percent. But participation rates
for younger husbands have also drifted downward, a de­
velopment probably related, to some degree, to the increas­
ing participation of their wives. (More details about the
current labor force activity and income of husbands and
wives by race and Hispanic origin are provided in Howard
Hayghe’s article on page 26 of this issue. Information on
men’s reasons for early retirement and the effects on the
family is presented in Kezia Sproat’s article on page 40.)

Divorce
Divorce is . . . . “ a symptom of general family illness due to
vast social changes confusing to individuals. But will these
confusions be resolved as long as women insist upon feministic
movements and men in baffled protest cry out that women are
usurping their place in the world.” 5

These thoughts from a 1939 treatise, “ The American Family
in A Changing Society,” could easily have been written
during the turbulent 1970’s, when the divorce rate hit the
highest level ever recorded,6 and a million women were
added to the labor force in every year but one. The Depres­
sion of the 1930’s had placed enormous strains on family
life as the economic foundations of a great many families
crumbled. Although neither divorce nor the employment of
wives was as common as in recent years, both were viewed
as destroyers of family life. The 1970’s— like the 1930’s—
were also years of great stress for many families, but for
different reasons, including inflation and changing lifestyles.
In 1940, there was 1 divorce for every 6 marriages, while
in 1980, there was 1 for every 2 marriages. During both
periods, an extensive amount of remarriage occurred, so
that married-couple families predominated— 84 percent in
1940 and 80 percent in 1980. However, divorces have also
swelled the number of families maintained by women in
recent years, a factor that raises the labor force participation
rate of women maintaining families because divorcees have
historically registered the highest participation rates of any
marital group of women. In 1983, 60 percent of women
maintaining families were in the labor force, compared with
44 percent in 1946 when widows dominated the group.
(More details on families maintained by women are provided
in Beverly Johnson’s article on page 30 of this issue.)

Table 2. Labor force participation rates of married
women, husband present, by presence and age of own
children, 1950-83
Participation rate
Year1

Total

With no
children
under 18
years

With children under 18 years
Total

6 to 17 years,
none younger

Under
6 years

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

30.3
31.0
30.9
31.2
31.6
32.7
35.3
35.6
35.4
35.2

18.4
20.5
20.7
22.4
22.7
24.0
24.5
25.3
26.5
27.9

28.3
30.3
31.1
32.2
33.2
34.7
36.4
36.6
37.6
39.8

11.9
14.0
13.9
15.5
14 9
16.2
15.9
17.0
18.2
18.7

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

30.5
32.7
32.7
33.7
34.4
34.7
35.4
36.8
38.3
39.6

34.7
37.3
36.1
37.4
37.8
38.3
38.4
38.9
40.1
41.0

27.6
29.6
30.3
31.2
32.0
32.2
33.2
35.3
36 9
38.6

39.0
41.7
41.8
41.5
43.0
42.7
43.7
45.0
46.9
48.6

18.6
20.0
21.3
22.5
22.7
23.3
24.2
26.5
27.6
28.5

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

40.8
40.8
41.5
42.2
43.1
44.4
45.1
46.6
47.5
49.3

42.2
42.1
42.7
42.8
43.0
43.8
43.7
44.8
44.6
46.6

39.7
39.7
40.5
41.7
43.1
44.9
46.1
48.2
50.2
51.9

49.2
49.4
50.2
50.1
51.2
52 2
53.6
55.5
57.1
59.0

30.3
29.6
30.1
32.7
34.4
36.7
37.5
39.4
41.7
43.3

1980
1981
1982
1983

All of the family labor force statistics discussed so far
are derived from detailed data collected only once each year.
Since 1940, these statistics have typically been collected in
the March supplement to the Current Population Survey, to
provide a “ snapshot” of the employment status of family
members. When the structure of families changed exten­

23.8
25.2
25.3
26.3
26.6
27.7
29.0
29.6
30.2
30.9

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

Current data

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

.................
.................
.................
.................

50.1
51.0
51.2
51.8

46.0
46.3
46.2
46.6

54.1
55.7
56.3
57.2

61.7
62.5
63.2
63.8

45.1
47.8
48.7
49.9

1Data were collected in April of 1951-55 and March of all other years.
Children are defined as "ow n" children of the women and include nevermarried sons and daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Excluded are other
related children such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and cousins, and unrelated
children.
N ote:

3

bers are employed. (The article by Deborah Klein on page
21 of this issue provides more details on this subject.)
A second new statistical series concerns the weekly earn­
ings of families. Between 1967 and 1978, b l s reported once
a year on the usual weekly wage and salary earnings of
individuals by age, sex, race, and occupation. The infor­
mation was obtained from supplemental CPS questions asked
each May. As part of the shift in emphasis to current, familybased statistics during the late 1970’s, steps were taken to
relate the earnings of individual workers to the families in
which they lived and to collect the data more frequently.
The new quarterly series of weekly family earnings began
with data for 1979 and was first published early in 1980.8
Since that time, quarterly news releases have illustrated the
different earnings patterns among families and the general
effects of inflation on their purchasing power. For instance,
during the second quarter of 1983, median weekly earnings
for married-couple families were $517 per week— $354 if
there was one earner and $646 if there was more than one.
Multieamer families continued to account for slightly more
than half of all married-couple families. These families were
a little better off than others over the year, because their
median earnings had increased somewhat more (4.4 percent)
than the increase in the Consumer Price Index (3.5 percent).
For families maintained by women, median weekly earnings
($271) were well below those of married couples, but had
at least kept pace with inflation.

Table 3. Labor force participation rates of wives by age
of youngest child, selected years, 1970-83____________
1970

1975

1980

1983

All w iv e s .............................

40.8

44.5

50.1

51.8

With no children under 18 ............

42.2

43 8

46.0

46.6

With children under 18 .................
Age of youngest child:
0 to 1 year .............................
2 years ..................................
3 years ..................................
4 years ..................................
5 years ..................................

39.7

44.9

54.1

57.2

24.0
30.5
34.5
39.4
36.9

31.0
37.1
41.1
41.2
44.0

39.0
48.1
51.7
51.5
52 4

44.6
50.4
56.1
57 2
56.6

6 years ..................................
7 years ..................................
8 years ..................................
9 years ..................................
10 years..................................
11 years ..................................

42.0
44.7
44.6
48 5
48.7
47.6

46.4
51.3
52 1
52 4
56.2
52 8

58.5
61.7
62 3
60.8
63.3
63.4

59 4
61.1
65.0
60.4
62.4
66.4

12
13
14
15
16
17

51.8
51.8
56.9
52.8
54.3
55.1

49.7
54.0
52.5
55.3
54.7
52 6

65.7
64.6
62.6
60.8
62.3
55.6

66.6
65.3
66.4
64.1
66.8
62.2

Presence and age of children

years..................................
years..................................
years..................................
years..................................
years...............................
years ..................................

beyond. We can apply current age-, sex-, and race-specific
labor force participation rates to the extrapolated population
to obtain estimates of the future size and configuration of
the labor force.9
But how far off are such estimates likely to be? What are
the long-term trends in the nondemographic factors affecting
the proportions of women who will be in the labor force at
some future date? What will be the effect of today’s tech­
nological changes and worker dislocations; of more flexible
work schedules; of later retirement? Is the nuclear family
in its classical form (father, mother, children, but no grand­
parents or other relatives) truly “ rapidly breaking down
today, not because of ‘loose morals’ or ‘permissiveness,’
but because it no longer serves the needs of the popula­
tion?” 10 Some of these nondemographic factors may have
as much to do with shaping the future labor force as similar
factors— such as the birth control pill, the transistor, the
computer, and the laws governing employment— have had
in molding today’s work force. As the articles on family
statistics in this issue suggest, it is appropriate to monitor
both the current status of workers in families and emerging
demographic and nondemographic trends in constructing
statistics for the future.
□

The present and future
Increasingly, the family unit itself has become the focus
for policy planning, program evaluation, and research. The
data series currently published by b l s permit policymakers
and planners to address the social and economic issues that
affect the daily lives of people in families on a more timely
basis than ever before. We can now examine the ways in
which children and youth, their parents or stepparents, el­
derly couples, and those living in minority families are
affected by the dynamics of the labor market.
Most importantly, the analysis of family statistics aids in
shaping our thinking about family life in the future. Clearly,
we know a great deal about the demographic characteristics
of the population and can estimate the age and race distri­
butions of the population for 1990, the year 2000, and

FOOTNOTES

1William Makepeace Thayer, American author, 1820-1898. as quoted
in Ralph Emerson Browns, ed .. The New American Dictionary of Thoughts
(New York, Standard Book Co, 1957), p. 204.

Unless otherwise indicated, labor force data in this report were obtained
from the CPS.

2The survey referred to is the Current Population Survey ( c p s ). Detailed
information about the survey’s background, concepts, and reliability is
published in “ Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment from the
Current Population Survey,” Handbook of Methods, Volume I, Bulletin
2134-1 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1982).

Labor Review, August 1944, pp. 2 6 4 -7 8 .

1See “ Source o f Wartime Labor Supply in the United States.” Monthly
4 See reprints o f special labor force reports on the marital and family
status o f workers, beginning with Marital Status of Workers. March 1959.
Special Labor Force Report 2 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1960). Also see
Elizabeth Waldman and others, "Working mothers in the 1970's: a look

4

at the statistics." Monthly Labor Review. October 1979, pp. 3 9 -4 9 , and
other articles in that issue.

8 See U .S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Statistics “ New Data
Relate Workers’ Earnings to the Families in Which They L ive,” usdl 8 0 188, Mar. 27, 1980.

5 Harriet Ahlers Houdlette. The American Family in a Changing World
(Washington. American Association of University Women, 1939), p. 25.

9 Articles in the November 1983 issue o f the Review present the results
o f the Bureau’s most recent projections of economic growth, distribution
o f demand, and employment through 1995. See also Richard W. Riche,
Daniel E. Hecker, and John U. Burgan, “ High technology today and
tomorrow: a small slice o f the employment p ie,” in the same issue for a
discussion o f the employment implications o f the growth o f high technology
industries.

*See Waldman and others. "Working mothers in the 1970’s .” Also see
U S. Department o f Health and Human Services, National Center for
Health Statistics. "Births. Marriages. Divorces, and Deaths for 1982,”
Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Mar. 14, 1983, p. 3.
"See Howard Hayghe, "New data series on families shows most jobless
have working relatives." Monthly Labor Review. December 1976, pp. 4 6 48; and Janet Norwood. "New approaches to statistics on the fam ily,”
Monthly Labor Review. July 1977, pp. 3 1 -3 4 .

10Alvin Toffler, The Eco-Spasm Report (New York, Bantam Books,
1975), p. 89.

5

Trends in employment and
unemployment in families
Multiearner families have extra protection against
financial reversals, but economic recession tends to
erode this cushion; during the most recent downturn,
the employment o f married women declined less
than that o f married men who are more likely
to work in cyclically sensitive industries
Deborah Pisetzner K lein
women themselves, their older children (age 16 and over),
and other relatives. Families maintained by unmarried men
constituted the remainder of the labor force.
With the increase in the number of families maintained
by women, and growing labor force participation by wives,
husbands are no longer the mainstay of the market economy.
Married men accounted for only 36 percent of the labor
force in 1982, down from 41 percent just 5 years earlier
and 52 percent in 1955.

The monthly employment and unemployment statistics re­
ceive a great deal of national attention because they are a
useful yardstick of the state of the economy. In addition to
the overall measures, the Bureau of Labor Statistics issues
a wide range of data series focusing on specific worker
groups. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the
data series that enable us to examine the situation of indi­
vidual workers in a family context. These data provide ad­
ditional insights into the personal impact of employment
and unemployment, because family members often pool
their earnings and support each other both financially and
emotionally when out of work. This article explores recent
trends in employment and unemployment in families.1
In 1982, 85 percent of the labor force lived in family
units. (Of the remainder, 10 million lived alone and 7 mil­
lion lived with nonrelatives, such as roommates or house­
mates.) As table 1 shows, more than a third of the labor
force consisted of husbands and nearly a quarter were wives.
Including other related persons (mostly teenagers and young
adults), more than 70 percent of the labor force lived in
married-couple families. In recent years, however, there has
been a very marked increase in the number of families
maintained by women on their own. In 1982, nearly onetenth of the labor force lived in such families, including the

Employment
Over the long run, the number of employed persons changes
in line with population movements, variations in the desire
for work among persons in different demographic groups,
and the availability of jobs. During the 1970's, the number
of employed persons increased by a whopping 20 million,
as the crest of the baby boom reached working age, the
proportion of married women working outside the home
increased dramatically, and the rapidly expanding serviceproducing sector provided many new jobs. These devel­
opments translated into significant growth in the number of
multiworker families. Today more than 60 percent of all
husband-wife families have at least two persons employed,
compared with fewer than 40 percent in 1955.
More recently, cyclical movements in employment have
dominated secular ones. Between April 1981 and February
1983, the number of married men with jobs dropped by 1.8

Deborah Pisetzner Klein is a senior economist in the Division of Employ­
ment and Unemployment Analysis, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

6

million, but by June 1983, the recovery had returned 500,000
to employment.
The impact of the 1981-82 recession was much less se­
vere among married women. The number employed de­
clined for several months during 1981— for a total reduction
of about 500,000— but began rising again shortly. By June
1983, the number of employed wives was 24.3 million,
more than 700,000 above the 1981 low. Thus, in mid-1983,
the number of employed married women stood at an alltime high while the number of employed married men was
2 million below its peak of 39.9 million recorded before
the 1980 recession.
Employment among women maintaining families on their
own has increased over time along with their expanded
population. More recently, their employment level has held
at about 5 million, but the proportion with jobs declined
from 54 to 52 percent over the course of the 1981-82 reces­
sion and showed no appreciable improvement in the first
half of 1983. (See chart 1.)

In 1979, for example, when the overall rate was 5.8 percent,
the rate for husbands was below 3 percent. However, un­
employment for this group is highly cyclical because many
married men work in the goods-producing sector of the
economy. Thus, their jobless rate rises sharply in every
recession and tends to show the most improvement during
recoveries. Over the past recession, for instance, the rate
for husbands was 3.8 percent in April 1981, peaked in
December 1982 at 7.8 percent, and came down about a
percentage point in the first half of 1983. While the recovery
was still in progress in mid-1983 and further reductions
could therefore be expected, it should be noted that, in the
business cycles shown in chart 2, married men began each
recession with a higher unemployment rate than the previous
one.
The unemployment rate for all adult men surpassed the
rate for all adult women in 1982, but this was not true among
married persons. The jobless rate for married women has
consistently been higher than that for married men, although
the gap did narrow considerably during the 1981-82 reces­
sion. With recovery underway in 1983, the rate for married
men dropped more sharply than that for married women,
and by midyear, the gap was back to more than a full
percentage point. (See chart 2.)
Unemployment among women who maintain families tends
to be very high. These women, on average, have completed
fewer years of school than wives and are concentrated in
lower skilled, lower paying jobs, where there is considerable
turnover.3 During the late 1960’s, the unemployment rates
for married women and for women who maintained families
on their own were very similar. Since the early 1970’s,
however, the rates have diverged. As can be seen in chart
2, women who maintain families have shown little or no
improvement in their jobless situation during expansionary
periods.

Unemployment

The unemployment cushion in families

With lower-than-average unemployment rates, husbands
and wives account for a much smaller share of unemploy­
ment (two-fifths in 1982) than they do of the labor force
(three-fifths). Women who maintain families on their own
account for a slightly larger share of unemployment (6 per­
cent) than of the labor force (5 percent). Relatives, regard­
less of their family type, are typically young people with
high unemployment rates; they account for less than onefifth of the labor force but nearly two-fifths of the unem­
ployed.
These relationships change over the business cycle, with
married men comprising a greater share of unemployment
when economic conditions are at their worst. For example,
husbands’ share of the jobless total rose from
percent in
July 1981 to 24 percent in December 1982, before receding
slightly to 23 percent by June 1983.2 (See table 2.)
Married men generally have strong attachment to the labor
force and typically have relatively low unemployment rates.

With the rising incidence of multiworker families comes
the greater likelihood that there will still be a worker in the
family when someone becomes unemployed. However,
recession not only increases unemployment but also serves

Table 1. Labor force, unemployment, and employment by
family status, 1982 annual averages
[In percent]

Family statin

Labor force

Unemployment Employment

All persons.............................

100.0

100.0

100.0

In married-couple families:
Husbands....................................
Wives . . .....................................
Relatives....................................

36.0
23.2
12.6

23.3
17.1
23.3

37.4
23.8
11.4

In families maintained by women:
Women who maintain families . .
Relatives....................................

5.2
4.4

6.3
11.4

5.1
3.7

In families maintained by men:
Men who maintain families . . .
Relatives....................................

1.7
1.4

1.7
2.6

1.7
1.2

Persons living alone........................

9.5

7.0

9.7

All o th e rs ......................................

6.1

7.2

5.9

Table 2. Unemployment by family status, selected
months, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

Family status

July 1981
December 1982
June 1983
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Total, all persons...........

7,854

100.0

12,036

100.0

11,146

100.0

Husbands ...................
W iv e s ........................
Relatives in marriedcouple families. . . .

1,508
1,398

19.2
17.8

2,907
2,036

24.2
16.9

2,586
1,970

23.2
17.7

1,916

24.4

2,735

22.7

2,558

22.9

613

7.9

763

6.3

730

6.5

932

11.9

1,389

11.5

1,303

11.7

1.483

18.9

2,206

18.3

1,999

17.9

Women who maintain
families...................
Relatives in such
families...................
Other persons............

7

Chart 1. Employment-population ratios1 for husbands, wives, and women who
maintain families, quarterly averages, 1968— second quarter 1983, seasonally adjusted
P e rc e n t

1 00
90
80
70
60
50
40
30

Chart 2. Unemployment rates for husbands, wives, and women who maintain families,
by month, 1968-83, seasonally adjusted
P e rc e n t
14
13

12
11
10
9

8
7

6
5
4
3

2
1
0

Chart 3. Number of unemployed persons in families and the percentage with
someone in family employed, quarterly averages, 1976— second quarter 1983,
seasonally adjusted
P e rc e n t
74
73
72
71
70
69

68
67

66
65
64
1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

'T h e e m p lo y m e n t-p o p u la tio n ra tio is th e p ro p o rtio n o f a ll e m p lo y e d c iv ilia n s in th e c iv ilia n n o n in s titu tio n a l p o p u la tio n
a ge 16 a n d over.
N o t e : S h a d e d a re a s in d ic a te re c e s s io n a ry p e rio d s as d e s ig n a te d by th e N a tio n a l B u re a u o f E c o n o m ic R es e a rc h .

8

point most dramatically. Thus, in 1982, the unemployment
rate for wives with unemployed husbands was 20.7 percent,
compared with 6.3 percent for wives with employed hus­
bands. While the number of married couples who are both
unemployed is relatively small— it peaked at 400,000 in
December 1982 and was down to 300,000 by mid-1983 (not
seasonally adjusted)— the impact of multiple unemployment
on their financial well-being is considerable.
Unemployment is a particularly severe problem for fam­
ilies maintained by women. Because there are smaller num­
bers of persons of working age, on average, in these families,
the likelihood of there being an employed member to cush­
ion the effects of unemployment is also smaller. Since quart­
erly data of this type first became available in 1976, the
proportion of unemployed women who maintain families
that include an employed person has never been as high as
22 percent. Moreover, unemployed relatives in such fam­
ilies are substantially less likely to have an employed person
in their family than relatives in married-couple families.
However, in both cases, the problems are principally struc­
tural in nature, and the business cycle does not bring about
substantial change.

to reduce the cushion provided by other family members.
From the middle of 1981 to the end of 1982, for example,
the number of unemployed family members rose from 7 to
10 million; at the same time, the proportion of the unem­
ployed living in a family with an employed member dropped
from 70 to 66 percent. (See chart 3.) The major reason for
this decline was the general contraction of employment caused
by the recession as well as the increasing share of unem­
ployment accounted for by persons with a relatively lower
likelihood of having employed family members.
Relatives in husband-wife families— most typically teen­
age and young adult children of the couple— are the most
likely group to live in a family with workers; in 9 out of
10 cases, at least one of their parents has a job. In 1979,
these relatives constituted more than 28 percent of the un­
employed; in 1982, with the sharp increases in joblessness
for groups with traditionally lower unemployment rates,
their share was down to 23 percent. Even among this group,
there was a recessionary decline in the family employment
cushion. The number of unemployed relatives in marriedcouple families rose from 1.9 to 2.7 million during the
1981-82 recession, and the proportion with an employed
person in their family edged down from 93 to 86 percent.
Unemployed wives are also very likely to have an em­
ployed person in their family. In 1978, the proportion peaked
at nearly 90 percent. Because the person most likely to be
working is the husband and because the employment levels
of married men were reduced during the recession, the pro­
portion of unemployed wives with working husbands de­
clined sharply, from 87 percent in mid-1981 to 75 percent
in mid-1982. With the pickup in employment in 1983, the
proportion edged up to 77 percent by midyear.
As married women have entered the labor force, the pro­
portion of unemployed husbands with a working family
member has increased markedly. Between 1977 and 1981,
the proportion of unemployed husbands with a working wife
increased from 48 to 55 percent. As mentioned earlier, the
1981-82 recession drove up unemployment among married
men, but the proportion with an employed person in the
family did not drop as sharply as among other groups. This
was primarily because employment levels for wives did not
decline nearly as much as for husbands. With the onset of
the recovery, the proportion of unemployed husbands with
a worker in the family began to rise, and by June 1983, had
reached 56 percent.
Difficulties in coping with economic downturns are ex­
acerbated by the fact that, to a certain extent, unemployment
tends to run in families. Persons with high levels of edu­
cational attainment and good preparation for careers often
marry each other, as do persons with more limited labor
market skills. Even more important, when higfvlinemployment hits a specific geographic area, it can affect more than
one family member. The fact that the unemployment rate
for persons with unemployed spouses runs about three times
the rate for persons with employed spouses illustrates this

Blacks and Hispanics
Because the cushioning effect of working family members
is so different by family type, an understanding of the family
composition of different groups in the population is impor­
tant.
In particular, the family composition of blacks and His­
panics is quite different from that of whites. (See table 3.)
Whites are most likely to live in married-couple families
where unemployment rates are relatively low and multiple
workers most frequent. Blacks, on the other hand, are more
likely than whites or Hispanics to live in families maintained
by women, which, as we have just seen, are relatively
disadvantaged in the labor market. In 1982, 28 percent of
the black working-age population lived in a family main­
tained by a woman, compared with only 8 percent of the

Table 3. Family status of the civilian noninstitutional
population by race and Hispanic origin, 1982 annual
averages
[In percent]

Family atatua

Black

Hispanic

100.0

100.0

100.0

In married-couple families:
Husbands ................................................
W iv e s .....................................................
Relatives...................................................

30.0
30.0
12.8

19.1
18.6
11.9

26.3
27.1
15.7

In families maintained by women:
Women who maintain families.................
Relatives...................................................

4.4
3.8

14.5
13.6

7.6
6.9

In families maintained by men:
Men who maintain families......................
Relatives...................................................

1.3
1.3

2.0
2.3

1.8
2.3

Persons living alone....................................

11.2

12.3

6.3

All others.....................................................

9

White

All persons.......................................

5.2

5.6

5.8

w hite population and 15 percent o f the H ispanic population.
Primarily because o f these differences in fam ily co m p o si­
tion, the likelihood that unem ployed black workers lived in
a fam ily with som eon e em p loyed is low er than for other

groups. In 1982, about half o f all unem ployed blacks lived
in a fam ily that included an em p loyed person, com pared
with about 60 percent o f unem ployed w hites and 56 percent
o f unem ployed H isp a n ics.4

Q

FOOTNOTES
Monthly Labor Review. August 1983. pp. 8 -1 4 . A discussion o f the 1981-

A c k n o w l e d g m e n t : The author thanks Stella Cromartie, Kenneth Buckley,
and George Methee of the Office of Employment and Unemployment
Statistics for their technical assistance in the preparation of this article.

82 downturn may be found in Michael A. Urquhart and Marillyn A.
H ewson, "Unemployment continued to rise in 1982 as recession deep­
ened." Monthly Labor Review. February 1983. pp. 3 -1 2 .

1The source o f data is the Current Population Survey, a monthly sample
survey o f households conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics. Data relate to the civilian noninstitutional population
16 years o f age and over. A description of the survey appears in the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics publication. Employment and Earnings. Some of the
series were seasonally adjusted for the first time for this article.

} A discussion of the labor market situation of women maintaining fam­
ilies may be found in Beverly Johnson and Elizabeth Waldman. "Most
women who maintain families receive poor labor market returns." in this
issue.
4Other articles in this issue focus on specific family types and compare
the labor market experience of whites, blacks, and Hispanics in each family
type.

2 For a discussion of the economic recovery during the first half of 1983,
see Norman Bowers, "Employment on the rise in the first half of 1983."

10

Married couples:
work and income patterns
Differences in fam ily income
among whites , blacks, and
Hispanics are rooted in the
work patterns o f husbands and wives
How ard Hayghe

lower incomes and a higher incidence of unemployment than
white families.
About 87 percent of the Hispanic husbands were in the
labor force in March 1983 compared with 79 percent of
whites and 76 percent of blacks (table 1). On average,
Hispanic husbands are substantially younger than their black
or white counterparts. But, their relative youth (which im­
plies inexperience for many) works against them by con­
tributing to a higher unemployment rate than for whites (but
about the same as for black husbands). The majority of
black and white husbands have completed high school,
whereas more than half of Hispanics left prior to completion.
Wives present a somewhat different labor force pattern
and the underlying reasons for it are complex. Black wives
historically have been more likely to be in the labor force
than white wives, as shown by labor force participation rates
for selected years:

Today’s married-couple families— whether white, black, or
Hispanic— supply the U.S. labor force with most of its
workers. By the turn of the century— a little less than two
decades from now— most of these men, women, and chil­
dren will still be alive. A clearer understanding of the current
status of work patterns in white and minority families per­
mits valuable insights into the nature of work and the family
and needs of the family in the closing years of this century.
This article deals with white, black, and Hispanic mar­
ried-couple families, highlighting their current work-income
profiles and exploring briefly,some of the major differences.
More than 8 of 10 white families are married couples, as
are 5 of 10 black families and 7 of 10 Hispanic families.
Together these families supply about 71 percent of the Na­
tion’s workers. The data used were obtained primarily from
supplemental questions to the March 1983 Current Popu­
lation Survey.1

Year

Spouses at work
March
March
March
March

Husbands and wives in white, black, and Hispanic fam­
ilies2 display considerable differences in age and education,
which, in turn, influence their respective labor force par­
ticipation patterns and income levels. In general, black fam­
ilies today are more likely to be multieamer families than
white or Hispanic married couples. Nonetheless, black mar­
ried-couple families (like their Hispanic counterparts) have

1950
1960
1970
1980

..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................

White
........
........
........
........

Black

22.8
29.6
39.7
49.3

37.0
40.8
52.5
59.0

This gap continued in March 1983, when the participation
rates for white and black wives were 51.0 and 60.8 percent,
respectively.
The historically higher labor force participation rate of
black wives reflects several interrelated elements, including
the impact of economic problems stemming from many
black husbands’ longstanding labor market difficulties and

Howard Hayghe is an economist in the Division of Employment and Un­
employment Analysis, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

11

status appears to be related to their husbands’ status (table
2). While black wives’ labor force participation is relatively
high regardless of their husbands’ employment status, all
wives whose husbands were employed were more likely
themselves to be employed than wives with unemployed
husbands or husbands not in the labor force.
At first glance, this relationship may appear contrary to
logical expectations. Shouldn’t the wife try to replace earn­
ings lost when the husband is jobless or out of the labor
force? Indeed, this is the idea behind the additional-worker
hypothesis of labor market activity during cyclical down­
turns.9 The reality, however, is that wives of unemployed
husbands have lower participation rates and experience greater
difficulty finding work than wives whose husbands are at
work. For instance, among whites, 3 percent of the wives
of employed husbands were jobless compared with 11 per­
cent of those whose husbands were unemployed. For those
not in the labor force, age is an obvious explanatory factor;
close to 80 percent of the husbands who were not in the
work force were 65 years old or over and retired, as were
their wives.

Table 1. Selected characteristics of married-couple
families by race and Hispanic origin, March 1983
Selected characteristics

White

Black

Hispanic

Married-couple families, total (In
thousands) .........................................
As percent of all families...................

45,273
84.2

3,504
52.9

2,456
71.9

Median age:
Husband ...........................................
W ife ..................................................

45.4
42.5

43.8
41.2

38.9
35.9

Median years of school completed:
Husband ...........................................
W ife ..................................................

12.7
12.7

12.2
12.2

11.5
11.6

Labor force participation rate:1
Husband ...........................................
W ife ..................................................

79.4
51.0

76.3
60.8

86.9
46.9

Unemployment rate:1
Husband ...........................................
W ife ..................................................

7.8
68

12 3
11.3

13.2
16 5

21,702

1,911

1,691

47.9

54.5

68.9

53.1
46.9

52.1
47 9

43.1
56.9

Husbands and wives

Presence of own children2 under 18
Married couples with children under 18,
total (in thousands) ..........................
As percent of all married-couple
families .........................................
Percent with:
Children 6 to 17, none younger
Children under 6 ........................

Children. Conventional wisdom decrees that wives with
preschool children are less likely to be in the labor force,
than wives whose youngest child is school age. While this
is true for whites and Hispanics, it has never been true for
black wives. Not only do black married mothers continue
to have higher labor force participation rates than white or
Hispanic mothers, there is also no appreciable difference in
the black rates by age of youngest child, as shown below
for March 1983:

’ Not seasonally adjusted.
20wn children Include only never-married sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted
children. All other children In the household are excluded.

the greater frequency of marital breakups among black fam­
ilies.3 Undoubtedly, the long history of black men’s above
average unemployment rates4 has influenced their wives’
decisions to work outside the home. The following infor­
mation from different periods illustrates this point.
During the sharp labor force buildup prior to World War
II, Howard Meyers wrote, “ The demand (for labor) . . . is
restricted largely to young white males. . . . Negroes are
apparently almost entirely barred from many lines of defense
production.” 5 From the early I960’s: “ Negro women in
cities have always been able to get steadier jobs, usually as
domestics, than men. This often meant that a black man
was capable of being a biological father but not an economic
father.” 6 Finally, Richard Freeman found that in the I960’s
(especially after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964)
black women were much more able to improve their eco­
nomic position than were black men, in part be­
cause of the relatively greater ease with which the women
were hired into higher-paying occupations.7
While economic factors are among the principal reasons
for black wives’ high labor force participation, the cultural
heritage of Hispanic women appears to lead, in part, to their
relatively low participation rates. As stated by Morris J.
Newman, Hispanics are “ an amalgam of several historically
and culturally distinct ethnic groups linked together by the
shared background of Spanish colonialism in the New
World.” 8 Part of this background is an emphasis on the
homemaking and childbearing and rearing role of women.
Whether white, black, or Hispanic, wives’ employment

White
Wives with children
under 18 ....................
6 to 17, none younger
Under 6 ..........................

Black

Hispanic

56.2
63.4
48.2

68.5
69.1
67.8

46.8
53.5
41.9

Table 2. Employment status of wives by employment
status of husbands, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1983
Husband's employment status
Employment status of wives

Employed

Unemployed

Notin
labor force

55.3
3.4
41.3

50.1
11.1
38.8

19.1
1.1
79.7

63.1
7.0
29.9

48.9
16.9
34.2

30.8
1.2
67.9

43 8
6.4
498

30.7
20 4
48.9

19 6
1.6
788

White
Percent of wives who were:
Employed ...............................
Unemployed ...........................
Not in labor fo rc e ...................

Black
Percent of wives who were:
Employed ...............................
Unemployed ..........................
Not in labor fo rc e ...................

Hispanic origin
Percent of wives who were:
Employed ...............................
Unemployed ...........................
Not in labor fo rc e ...................

12

bands) and by the number of weeks husbands and wives
worked during the year. As shown in the following text
tabulation, usual weekly earnings (full-time wage and sal­
ary) were more than $100 above the medians for blacks and
Hispanics in 1982, while the differences among wives’ earn­
ings were considerably less:

Table 3. Children1 in married-couple families by
employment status of parents, race, and Hispanic origin,
March 1983
Item

White

Black

Hispanic

Children under 18 years, total2 (in
thousands) .........................................

40,814

3,769

3,722

Percent with:
No employed parent ......................
One employed parent or more . .
One employed parent only
.
Father ....................................
Mother .................................
Two employed parents..............

66
93.4
48.8
44.2
4.6
44.3

10.9
89.1
42.2
31.8
10.4
46.9

14.0
86.0
54.2
49.2
5.0
31.8

White

’ Children are defined as own" children and include only never-married sons, daugh­
ters. stepchildren, and adopted children. All other children in household are excluded.

H ispanic

$412
$246

Husbands ..................
W iv e s ..........................

Black

$303
$231

$297
$213

The effect of these differences in weekly earnings on
differences in yearly family income is strengthened by the
fact that 74 percent of white husbands who were employed
at any time in 1982 worked full time all year compared with
68 percent of their black or Hispanic counterparts.
The size of the gap in husbands’ average weekly earnings
reflects the marked difference in their occupations. By com­
parison, wives, whose earnings are far more similar, tend
to work in much the same occupations (table 5). White
husbands are more often employed in managerial, profes­
sional specialty, and precision production occupations (which
are usually relatively high-paying) than their black and His­
panic counterparts. In contrast, a higher proportion of the
blacks and Hispanics work in lower paying jobs, such as
operators and fabricators, service workers, and equipment
handlers, cleaners, and helpers. Wives, whether white, black,
or Hispanic, tend to be concentrated in the same occupa­
tional groupings, namely, technical, sales, and administra­
tive support.

includes children whose fathers are in the Armed Forces and living with the family
on or off base in the United States. These fathers are treated as employed.

Because most fathers and just over half of mothers are
in the labor force (94 and 54 percent, respectively, for
whites, blacks, and Hispanics combined), the overwhelming
majority of children have at least one employed parent (table
3). White children are somewhat more likely to have an
employed parent than black or Hispanic children, reflecting
the higher unemployment rates among black and Hispanic
husbands and wives.

Income and poverty
Whatever the number of earners, the 1982 average annual
income of married-couple families continued to be higher
for whites than for blacks or Hispanics. Median income for
black ($14,200) and Hispanic ($13,800) families was roughly
60 percent of median income for white families ($23,500).
For two-earner families where both spouses worked, the
difference between whites and blacks was about 12 per­
centage points, and 21 points between whites and Hispanics
(table 4). In addition, white married couples averaged more
income from sources other than wages and salaries than
either the black or Hispanic couples.1
0
These income differences are partly explained both by
differences in weekly earnings of spouses (especially hus­

Poverty. In 1982, about 7 percent of the white couples
had incomes below the poverty level1 compared with 16
1
percent for blacks and 19 percent for Hispanics. These rates
reflect the earnings and employment differences discussed
above as well as the fact that black and Hispanic families
have more children, on average, than white families.
The incidence of poverty was relatively low by race or
Hispanic origin when both the husband and wife were eam-

Table 4. Number of earners, median family income, and poverty status in 1982 of married-couple families, by race and His­
panic origin, March 1983
Black

White
Number and relationship
of earners

Total

Median
income

Percent
in
poverty

Total

Hispanic

Median
income

Percent
in
poverty

Total
2.456
100 0

Median
income

Percent
in
poverty

$19,390
-

19.3
-

Total (m thousands).............................
In percent.........................................

45.273
100 0

$26,710
-

6.9
-

3.504
100.0

$20,680
-

15.6
-

No earners.......................................................

13.0

12,710

16.8

12.4

7.470

43.9

77

7.220

48.9

One earner.......................................................
Husband .......................................................
Wile ............................................................
Other ............................................................

28.7
23.6
3.9
1.2

22,310
23.460
16.220
21.090

10.3
9.0
16.4
15.7

25.7
17.7
6.8
1.2

13,650
14,240
12.450
(’ )

24.4
24.4
23.5
(1)

33.6
30.5
2.0
1.1

13.760
13.820
(1)
(’ )

29.2
28.7
(’ )
(1)

Two earners or more ......................................
Husband and wile only ...............................
Husband, wife, and other(s)........................
Husband and other(s) ..................................
Other combinations......................................

58.3
38.9
11.6
6.5
1.4

32,220
29.650
41.980
35.730
25,180

3.0
2.9
1.6
4.4
10.5

61.9
42.9
11.6
4.7
2.8

26.520
26.110
32,900
21.500
18.930

62
4.2
3.2
25.8
17.3

58.6
36.9
5.5
9.2
2.0

24.760
23.290 •
33.190
24.130
(1)

9.6
9.4
62
12.9
(1>

’ Median and percent not shown where base is less than 75.000.

13

Table 5.

Occupation of employed husbands and wives, by race and Hispanic origin, March 1983
Husbands

Occupations

Wives

White

Blaefc

Hispanic

White

Blaefc

Hispanic

Total (in thousands) ..................................................................................
In percent ..............................................................................................

33,152
100.0

2,348
100.0

1,908
100.0

21,766
1000

1,881
100.0

1,041
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty...................................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial..........................................................
Professional specialty.........................................................................................

29.6
16.2
13.4

14.2
8.2
6.0

12.9
8.3
4.6

25.1
9.0
16.0

17.6
4.9
12.7

14.0
6.1
8.0

Technical, sales, and administrative support.........................................................
Technicians and related su p p o rt........................................................................
Sales .................................................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical ..........................................................

19.4
2.5
12.1
4.9

14.3
2.1
3.8
8.3

13.5
1.9
6.3
5.2

47.4
3.2
12.5
31.7

34.6
3.6
6.4
24.6

39 3
1.9
10.2
27.2

Service occupations ..............................................................................................
Private household ..............................................................................................
Protective service ..............................................................................................
All other ............................................................................................................

6.3
(1)
2.7
3.6

14.8
—
4.1
10.7

12.2
2.6
9.6

14.6
1.0
0.3
13.3

28.0
4.9
0.4
22.7

20.8
2.4
0.5
18.0

Precision production, craft, and repair .................................................................
Mechanics and repairers....................................................................................
Construction trades ...........................................................................................
Other precision production ...............................................................................

22.1
8.1
7.5
6.4

16.1
6.1
5.5
4.6

23.3
8.2
7.7
7.4

1.9
0.3
0.1
1.5

2.9
0.2
0.2
2.5

3.7
0.5
0.4

Operators, fabricators, and laborers......................................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors................................................
Transportation and material m oving...................................................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, and helpers.......................................................
Farming, forestry, and fis h in g ...............................................................................

17.6
7.5
6.7
3.5
5.0

35.9
12.3
13.7
9.9
4.8

31.4
14.3
9.1
8.0
6.8

9.6
7.4
0.9
1.3
1.4

16.3
13.8
1.1
1.3
0.6

20.4
16.5
0.9
2.9
1.7

—

2.9

'Less than 0.05 percent.

Although the incidence of poverty is reduced when there
are earners in the family, many families have earners and
still remain in poverty.1 In fact, the majority of married
2
couples with incomes below the poverty line in 1982 con­
tained at least one earner at some time during the year.
About 68 percent of white, 65 percent of black, and 80
percent of Hispanic married-couple families in poverty had
income from the earnings of at least one member during the
year. Moreover, about 1 of 4 families in poverty had two
earners or more.
Q

ers. However the poverty rate of white multieamer families
was half that of similar black and one-third that of similar
Hispanic families— 3 percent for whites, 6 percent for blacks,
and 10 percent for Hispanics in 1982. In contrast, among
one-earner families the poverty rate for white families— at
10.3 percent— was 14 percentage points below that of sim­
ilar black couples and 19 points below the Hispanic rate.
Among families with no earners, the differences were 27
percent for whites and 32 percent each for blacks and His­
panics.

FOOTNOTES
1The Current Population Survey ( c ps ), conducted for the Bureau of
Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census, is a monthly sample survey
o f some 60 ,(XX) households in the United States. The information obtained
from this survey relates to the employment status of persons 16 years old
and over in the civilian noninstitutional population. In the March survey,
taken each year, supplemental information is obtained annually regarding
eamings and income as well as the work experience of individuals in the
prior year. Data on persons from the March surveys are tabulated by marital
and family status.
Because it is a sample survey, estimates derived from the Current Pop­
ulation Survey may differ from the actual counts that could be obtained
from a complete census. Therefore, small estimates or small differences
between estimates should be interpreted with caution. For a more detailed
explanation, see the Explanatory Note in Marital and Family Patterns of
Workers.An Update, Bulletin 2163 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983).

Unemployment and N eed” (address presented at the National Conference
on Social Work, Atlantic City. N .J.). Release dated June 5. 1941. p. 7.
6
Michael Harrington, “ The Economics of Protest,” in Arthur M. Ross
and Herbert Hill, ed s.. Employment, Race and Poverty (New York. Harcourt, Brace and World, 1967), p. 250.
’ Richard B. Freeman, “ Changes in the Labor Market for Black Amer­
icans, 1948-72,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1: 1973. pp. 6 7 131.
"See Morris J. Newman, “ A profile o f Hispanics in the U .S ..w ork
force,” Monthly Labor Review, December 1978. pp. 3 and 5.
9See, for example, W. G. Bowen and T. A. Finegan, The Economics
of Labor Force Participation (Princeton, N .J.. Princeton University Press,
1969), pp. 147-51.
10See Money Income o f Households, Families and Persons in the United
States: 1981, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 137 (Bureau

2 A family consists o f two persons or more who are related by blood or
marriage and living together in the same household. Relationship o f family
members is determined by their relationship to the reference person or
householder, that is, the person in whose name the housing unit is owned
or rented.

o f the Census, 1982), table 23.
" In accordance with the poverty index adopted by a 1969 Federal
interagency committee, families are classified as being above or below the
low income level. The poverty threshold for a family o f four in 1982 was
$9,862. For further details, see Money Income and Poverty Status of

3 See Gordon Green and Edward Welniak, “ Changing families, shifting
incom es,’’ American Demographics, February 1983, pp. 4 0 -4 3 .

Families and Persons in the United States: 1982, Current Population
Reports, Series P-60, No. 140 (Bureau o f the Census. 1983). p. 295.

4 See Perspectives on Working Women: A Databook, Bulletin 2080 (Bu­
reau o f Labor Statistics, 1980), table 65.

12 For information relating employment problems and economic status
see Linking Employment Problems to Economic Status, Bulletin 2169 (Bu­
reau o f Labor Statistics, 1983).

5 See Howard B. Meyers, “ Effects o f the National Defense Program on

14

Most women who maintain families
receive poor labor market returns
The majority o f these women
have a strong commitment to the labor force,
but have lower average educational attainment
and earnings, bringing them closer to poverty
with each additional child
B

everly

L.

Jo

hnso n

an d

E

l iz a b e t h

W

a ld m a n

changes of the period, perhaps the most crucial being the
movement of the baby-boom generation of the 1950’s and
early 1960’s into the working-age population. This move­
ment was accompanied by record numbers of marriages and,

Women who maintain their own families' are considerably
more likely to work or look for work today than in the past.
But their historical pattern of marginal earnings and high
unemployment persists, keeping the economic status of their
families well below that of the majority of American fam­
ilies.
The results of a March 1983 nationwide survey2 reveal
a continuation of the multiple problems that hinder many
women who support families from being more competitive
in the marketplace. Prominent among these problems are
lower average educational attainment and relatively higher
proportions with children to raise.

Table 1. Selected characteristics of women maintaining
families, March 1970, 1975,1980, and 1983
(Numbers in thousands]

Characteristic

Civilian nonlnstitutional
population

Labor force
participation rate

1970

1983

5,580

7,316

9,009

9,828

52.9

54 4

59 7

59 6

Never married . . . .
Separated ............
W idow ed..............
Divorced ..............

610
1,324
2,389
1,258

932
1,707
2,539
2,139

1,453
1.805
2,588
3,164

1.823
1,831
2,559
3,615

57.4
53 8
38.4
77.3

53.6
55 0
37.8
73.9

55.6
60.4
38.3
78.6

55.8
62.3
34.3
78 2

Median age ..........

In March 1983, 9.8 million families had as their principal
support women who were divorced, separated, widowed,
or never married. These families accounted for 16 percent
of all families in the United States, up 5 percentage points
from 1970. Sixty percent of women maintaining families
were labor force participants, compared with 53 percent in
1970, and their numbers in the labor force doubled over the
13-year period (table 1).
The reasons for this increased labor market activity have
a great deal to do with the dramatic demographic and social

1980

Total women
maintaining
fa m ilie s .................

Overall picture

1975

48.2

43.5

41.4

41.1

-

—

-

—

2,652

2,861

3,291

3.788

45.8

45.7

46.9

47 9

2,928
1,815
1,112

4,456
2,661
1,795

5,718
3.638
2,080

6,040
3,746
2,294

59.4
67 0
46.9

60.0
66 3
50.6

67.0
74.0
54.9

67.0
74.2
55.2

4,185
1,349
(2)

5,254
1,967
471

6,302
2,537
637

6,783
2,808
800

53.4
50.9
(2)

55.7
51.2
43 5

62.1
54 0
50.7

60.5
57.1
49.0

With no children1
under age 18 . . .
With children under
age 18 ..............
6 to 17, only . . .
Under age 6 . . .
White ...................
Black ...................
Hispanic ..............

1970

1975

1980

1983

Children are defined as "own" children of the family. Included are never-married
daughters, sons, stepchildren, and adopted children. Excluded are other related chil­
dren such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, cousins, and unrelated children.
2Data not available.

Beverly L. Johnson is a social science research analyst and Elizabeth
Waldman is a senior economist in the Division of Employment and Un­
employment Analysis. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals. Data for
1975 have been revised since mitial publication.

N ote:

15

in turn, a soaring divorce rate.3 Thus, by the time the 1980’s
began, divorcees— who have the highest labor force par­
ticipation rate of any marital category of women— had re­
placed widows (who have the lowest) as the largest group
of women maintaining families. In addition, a sharp rise in
childbearing among single women helped increase the num­
ber of one-parent families.
In March 1983, more than three-fifths of the women main­
taining families were parents with children under age 18 in
the home. Labor force participation rates show these single
parents had a strong commitment to the labor force. Seventyfive percent were in the work force when their youngest
child was school age (6 to 17 years), as were 55 percent of
those with preschoolers (under age 6).
Once in the labor market, however, the female single
parent often had a difficult time finding a job, especially if
she had at least one preschool child. In March 1983, the
unemployment rate for mothers with preschoolers was 23
percent, compared with 15 percent for mothers whose
youngest child was of school age (table 2). The unemploy­
ment rate for mothers in married-couple families was less
than half that of mothers maintaining families.
When unemployed, women maintaining families were far
less likely than other householders to be living with another
relative who was employed full time. In the first quarter of
1983, for example, only 9 percent of all unemployed women
maintaining families had someone in their family who had
a full-time job. This compared with 16 percent of all jobless
men maintaining families without a spouse and about 41
percent of all unemployed husbands.

Table 2. Labor force status of women maintaining
families, by presence and age of youngest child, and
marital status, March 1983
[Numbers in thousands]

With children1 under age 18

Total

With
no own
children1
under age 18

9,828
5,861
59.6
831

3,788
1,815
47.9
131

6.040
4,047
67.0
700

3,746
2,780
74.2
406

2,294
1,266
55.2
294

14.2
3,966

7.2
1,973

17.3
1,993

14.6
966

23.2
1,028

Never-married............
In labor force . . . .
Participation rate . .
Unemployed . . . .
Unemployment
ra te .................
Not in labor force

1,823
1,018
55.8
213

574
372
64.8
33

1,248
646
51.8
180

446
292
65.5
66

802
353
44.0
115

20.9
805

8.9
202

27.9
603

22.6
154

32.6
449

Separated...................
In labor force . . . .
Participation rate . .
Unemployed . . . .
Unemployment
ra te .................
Not in labor force

1,831
1,141
62.3
217

365
228
62.5
37

1,466
913
62.3
180

828
573
69.2
100

637
339
53.2
80

19.0
690

16.2
137

19.7
553

17.5
255

23.6
298

Widowed ...................
In labor force . . . .
Participation rate . .
Unemployed . . . .
Unemployment
ra te .................
Not in labor force

2,559
877
34.3
77

2,025
587
29.0
32

534
290
54.3
44

463
253
54.6
32

71
37
(2)
12

8.8
1,682

5.5
1,438

15.2
244

12.6
210

(2)
34

Divorced ...................
In labor force . . . .
Participation rate . .
Unemployed . . . .
Unemployment
ra te .................
Not in labor force

3,615
2,826
78.2
324

824
628
76.2
29

2,792
2,198
78.7
295

2,008
1,661
82.7
208

784
537
68.5
87

11.5
790

4.6
196

13.4
594

12.5
347

16.2
246

Labor force status

Women maintaining
families .................
In labor force . . . .
Participation rate . .
Unemployed . . . .
Unemployment
ra te .................
Not in labor force

Total

Children
Children
age 6 to 17
under age 6
only

’ Children are defined as “ own" children of the family. Included are never-married
daughters, sons, stepchildren, and adopted children. Excluded are other related children
such as grandchildren, nieces, nephews, cousins, and unrelated children.

The workplace
Most employed women maintaining families worked at
full-time jobs— 83 percent in March 1983. Those age 25 to
54 were more likely to be working full time (86 percent)
than either younger (72 percent) or older women (73 per­
cent). Obviously, these high full-time proportions represent
a serious commitment on their part to market work.
Like most employed women, the largest proportion of
those maintaining families were in administrative support
jobs (table 3). This was the case for all marital groups.
Divorced women (because they were younger and had more
years of schooling, on average) were more likely than other
women maintaining families to be in managerial and profes­
sional jobs and less likely to.be in service occupations.
Most of today’s better paying jobs require at least a high
school diploma, and many professional fields require a col­
lege degree. Although working women maintaining families
have been completing more formal schooling in recent years,
a high proportion had not completed high school— 23 per­
cent, compared with 15 percent of working wives.
Despite some movement into professional and managerial
jobs between 1970 and 1983, particularly by divorcees, most
employed women maintaining families have tended to re­
main in the generally lower paying or lesser skilled jobs

2Rate not shown where base is less than 75,000.
Note :

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

within a broad occupation group. Their relatively poor oc­
cupational standing was reflected by their lower full-time
wage and salary earnings when compared with husbands or
men maintaining families. In the first quarter of 1983, the
median weekly earnings for female householders were $256,
compared with $400 for husbands or male family house­
holders.4
Only 30 percent of the wage-earning families maintained
by women were multiple-earner families, and their median
weekly earnings were $440. In contrast, 56 percent of all
married-couple families with earners were in the multipleearner category, and their median weekly earnings were
$629.
Although weekly aggregate earnings of families main­
tained by women were relatively low, annual income for
families in which the woman herself worked was roughly
twice as high as for families in which the householder did
not work. For example, in 1982, median family income was
$14,580 when the woman was an earner at some time during
the year and $7,050 when she was not.

16

Table 3. Educational attainment and occupational distribution of women maintaining families by marital status, race, and
Hispanic origin, March 1983
Race and Hispanic origin

Marital status
Item

Total

Nevermarried

Separated

Widowed

Divorced

White

Black

5.861
100 0
22.9
46
6
18.3
12.2

1,018
100.0
23.8
44.2
20.0
12.0

1,141
100.0
28.0
47.1
15.3
9.5

877
100 0
33 8
42.0
14.7
97

2,826
100 0
17.1
48.7
20.1
14 2

4,104
100.0
19.7
47.9
18.4
14.0

1,603
100.0
31.2
43 5
18.6
6.7

39 2
100 0
48 5
33 7
11.5
6.4

5,031
100.0
19.8
8.4
11.5
41.0
3.1
9.4
28.5
10.1
4.3
14 1
22 2
26
68
5.3
3.9
3.0
0.6
2.5
13.9
11.2
0.9
1.8
0.6

84
0
100.0
19.3
7.0
12.3
39.1
2.7
7.8
28.5
88
4.9
14.8
25.0
3.2
5.1
6.5
5.7
3.7
0.8
1.9
14.3
12 6
0
1.7

9
24
100.0
15.0
6.2
8.9
39.4
2.4
8.9
28 0
9.2
4.3
14.5
28.6
4.2
8.1
9.1
4.0
2.5
0.7
2.4
14.1
10.8
14
1.9
0.5

801
100 0
18.6
9.5
9.2
37.2
1.7
11.4
24 0
8.4
2.7
12.9
28.8
4.7
8.9
4.6
7.4
2.6
0.6
1.7
12.4
10 1
09
1.4
1.1

2,502
100 0
22.2
9.3
12.9
43.4
3.8
95
30 1
11.3
4.6
14.2
16.9
1.0
6.1
3.8
22
3.1
0.7
2.9
14 1
11.2
1.0
1.9
0.4

3,656
100 0
21.7
9.4
12.3
44.8
3.1
11.1
30.6
11.5
4.9
14.2
17.8
1.8
6.4
3.1
2.6
32
0.7
2.8
12.3
10.1
0.6
1.6
0.7

1,255
100 0
14.4
56
8.8

340
100 0
12.4
71
53

29.8
2.7
4.5
22.6
64
2.5
13.7
35.9
5.0
74
12.2
7.7
28
0.8
1.5
18.1
14.1
1.6
24
0.2

36 5
24
71
27 1
7.9
2.4
16.8
25 0
5.0
6.5
29
65
38
0.3
35
21 2
17 6
2.1
1.5
1.2

Hispanic

Educational attainment

T ta inlab r fo
ol
o rce:
Nmer (th u d .............................................................
u b o san s)
Percent............................................................................
Less th n4years h h sch o ................................................
a
ig o l
4years h hsch o o ly ......................................................
ig o l n
1 to 3 years co
llege ............................................................
4years co o m
llege r ore........................................................
Occupation

T ta emlo :
o l p yed
Nmer (th u d .............................................................
u b o san s)
P t ............................................................................
ercen
M ag a d p fessio al sp
an erial n ro n ecialty ...........................................
E tive, ad in
xecu
m istrative, a d m ag
n an erial ....................................
P fessio al sp
ro n ecialty ..........................................................
T n sales, a d ad in
ech ical,
n m istrative su p rt ....................................
po
T n s a d re te su p rt ..............................................
ech ician n la d p o
Sales o p n .............................................................
ccu atio s
A m istrative su p rt, in d g clerical ....................................
d in
p o clu in
Secretaries, sten grap ers, a d typists....................................
o h n
F a cia reco s p
in n l rd rocessin ................................................
g
O e .........................................................................
thr
Service occupations...............................................................
P
rivate household...............................................................
F o ............................................................................
od
Ha ...........................................................................
e lth
Cleaning.........................................................................
Personal.........................................................................
O e service ....................................................................
thr
P
recisio p d ctio , craft, a d repair...........................................
n ro u n
n
Oerato fab rs, a d lab rers .............................................
p rs, ricato n o
M in o erato assem lers, a d in ecto ..............................
ach e p rs,
b
n sp rs
T sp rtatio a d mte m
ran o n n a rial oving...........................................
O e ............................................................................
thr
F in , fo
arm g restry, a d fish g ...................................................
n in

Situation for minorities

0.5

rate for white female householders was 60 percent, com­
pared with 57 percent for blacks and 49 percent for Hispanics. Another factor is that 1 of 8 black and Hispanic
householders was under age 25, compared with 1 of 13
whites. Younger women, in the early stages of labor force
entry, often have not acquired the skill and experience nec­
essary to hold many of today’s better paying jobs. In ad­
dition, about half of the Hispanic women householders and
one-third of the black had not completed high school, com­
pared with only one-fifth of the whites. Moreover, the oc­
cupational distributions for these three groups of women
mirror their educational attainment; about 22 percent of
employed white householders were professional and man­
agerial workers, compared with 14 percent for black, and
13 percent for Hispanic women. Blacks and Hispanics were
heavily clustered in service and operative jobs which require
less formal education and training and pay less money.
Finally, the higher participation rate of white women may
also reflect the smaller average size of their families, as
well as the lower proportion with children under 6 years of
age.
Unemployment rates were much higher among black
women maintaining families (21.7 percent) than white (10.9

As of March 1983, about 70 percent (6.8 million) of all
women maintaining families were white; 29 percent (2.8
million) were black, and fewer than 10 percent (800,000)
were of Hispanic origin (virtually all of whom were also
included in the white racial category). Examining each raceethnic category separately and making labor force partici­
pation and income comparisons brings the situation for mi­
nority families into sharper focus.
On average, the black women had more children under
age 18 and less education than the white women. Black
women maintaining families (as well as those of Hispanic
origin) have lower median earnings, lower labor force par­
ticipation rates, and higher unemployment rates than the
white women. Also, black and Hispanic families maintained
by women were even less likely than similar white families
to have more than one earner, probably because they were
less apt to have another member of working age in the home.
Furthermore, a larger share of white than black or His­
panic women were divorced, and a smaller proportion had
never married. And, as shown earlier, divorced household­
ers have much higher participation rates than the nevermarried. Thus, in March 1983, the labor force participation
17

Table 4. Labor force status of white, black, and Hispanic origin women maintaining families, by presence of children and
marital status, March 1983
[Numbers in thousands]

With children1 under age 18

Total
Race, Hispanic origin,
and marital status

Population

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment
rate

Labor force
participation
rate

Population

With no children1 under age 18

Unemploy­
ment
rate

Population

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment
rate

13.4
2,824
3.959
4 8
6
70.3
5.6
10.9
60.5
6,783
Witew m , total......
h o en
22.4
64
0
42
4
399
3.7
12.4
47.5
53.6
8
42
N m
ever arried..........
918
16.3
20
0
60
2
62.5
19.2
16.9
1,117
62.1
Sep
arated .............
59.0
12.6
1,588
7.4
376
28 8
4.8
34.6
1,963
W ed...............
idow
637
2.224
80
0
115
78.3
40
79.7
99
2,861
D rced ...............
ivo
25.7
21.7
885
1 923
60.3
50 2
57.1
11.3
2,808
B w m , total......
lack o en
30.4
54.0
785
155
72 3
28.2
19.6
57.0
90
4
N m
ever arried..........
50
4
62.7
25.3
153
14.1
60.1
657
62.1
22.8
Sep
arated .............
39 4
44
0
13.8
132
30 2
32.5
8.2
536
W ed...............
idow
(2
)
72 9
20 2
50
2
173
16.5
68.2
4.2
675
71.9
D rced ...............
ivo
214
585
42
8
16.0
51.4
6.4
13.5
49
.0
80
0
H an w m , to l . . .
isp ic o en ta
136
33 8
57
14.3
47.2
N m
ever arried..........
193
(2
)
0
0
20
9
38 8
21.0
4
6
20.0
255
39.2
Sep
arated .............
0
0
72
51
123
35.0
W ed...............
idow
(2
)
(2)
0
0
0
189
9.5
68.3
9.3
4
0
69
.0
229
D rced ...............
ivo
0
0
’C ild n are d fin d as "ow ch re o th fa ily In d d a n
h re
e e
n" ild n f e m . clu e re ever-m
arried d gh son step ild , a d ad p ch ren E d are o er re te ch ren su as
au ters, s, ch ren n o ted ild . xclu ed
th la d ild
ch
gran ch ren n
d ild , ieces, n h s, co sin a d u re te ch re .
ep ew u s, n n la d ild n
2R n t sh w w ere b is less thn 75,000.
ate o o n h ase
a
maintained by women were poor, compared with 1 of 13
other families. Although the percentages of black and His­
panic families maintained by women in poverty were much
greater than for white families of the same type, they all
greatly exceeded the proportions for other family groups:

percent) and Hispanic women (13.4 percent) (table 4). This
reflects, in part, the higher concentration of never-married
mothers among black female householders. Typically, nevermarried mothers have higher jobless rates than mothers of
other marital status.
Annual median income of white families maintained by
women ($13,145 in 1982), while much lower than that of
other types of white families, was far above the levels of
the black ($7,489) and Hispanic ($7,611) families. This
pattern persisted regardless of the presence of children. Part
of the difference stems from the fact that eamings of black
women represented a larger share of their family income
than those of the white women— 77 versus 70 percent. Also
contributing to this situation was the larger share of divorced
white women who received child support or alimony pay­
ments.5 Moreover, as mentioned earlier, white families
maintained by women were more likely to have at least two
earners than either the black or Hispanic families.

Families
maintained
by women
Total ........
White ..........
Black ............
Hispanic . . . .

Marriedcouple
families

Families
maintained
by men

36.9
28.9
56.1
55.5

7.6
6.9
15.6
19.3

14.7
12.6
25.0
18.4

For families in which the female householder had earnings
at some time during 1982, about 1 of 4 were in poverty,
compared with more than 1 of 2 of the families in which
the householder had no eamings. These differences were
even wider for families with children under age 18. When
the mother had earnings, 29 percent of their families had
incomes below the poverty level; when she did not, 88
percent were poor. Moreover, regardless of the mother’s
earner status, the incidence of poverty increased with each
additional child in the home— from 37 percent when one
child was in the home to 85 percent when four or more
children were present.
"

Poverty and children
Because average income among families maintained by
women is low— whether they are in or out of the paid work
force— proportionately more live below the poverty line6
than other families. In 1982, more than 1 of 3 families

FOOTNOTES
'The terminology “ women maintaining families” or “ female family
householder’ is defined as a never-married, divorced, widowed, or sep­
arated woman with no husband present and who is responsible for her
family. These terms have replaced the phrase “ female-headed families”
used in earlier reports in this series.

“ Marital and family patterns of the labor force,” Monthly Labor Review.
October 1981, pp. 3 6 -3 8 .
Sampling variability may be relatively large in cases where numbers are
small, and small differences between estimates or percentages should be
interpreted with caution. For further information on reliability o f data, see
the Explanatory Note in Marital and Family Patterns of Workers: An
Update, bls Bulletin 2163 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983), pp. A -5 A-7.

2 Unless otherwise indicated, data in this report relate to the civilian
noninstitutional population 16 years and over and are based primarily on
information from supplementary questions in the March 1983 Current
Population Survey. For the most recent report on this subject, containing
data for March 1981, see Beverly L. Johnson and Elizabeth Waldman,

’ The divorce rate has been rising since the mid I960’s. Between 1966
and 1981, the rate increased from 2.5 per 1,000 population to 5.3 per

18

Support, Current Population Report Series, 84 (Washington, U .S. Bureau

!,000. For more details, see "Advance Report of Final Divorce Statistics,
1980.” Monthly Vital Statistics Report (Washington. U S. Department of
Health and Human Services. June 27. 1983). table I. p. 4.

o f the Census, 1981), p. 4.
6 Families are classified as being above or below the low income level
according to the poverty index adopted by a 1969 Federal Interagency
Committee. The poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect changes
in the Consumer Price Index.-The poverty threshold for a family o f four
was $9,862 in 1982. For further details, see Money Income and Poverty
Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1982, Current Pop­
ulation Report Series P -6 0 , No. 140 (Washington, U.S. Bureau of the
Census, 1983), pp. 3, 4, and 29.

4See. “ Earnings of workers and their families: First quarter 1983.”
u s d l News Release. 8 3 -2 0 1 . May 2. 1983 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics).
“
'See Allyson Sherman Grossman and Howard Hayghe, "Labor force
activity o f women receiving child support,” Monthly Labor Review. No­
vember 1982. pp. 3 9 -4 1 . Also see Divorce. Child Custody, and Child

19

Child-care services:
a national picture
As more mothers hold jobs, the demand
fo r child-care services continues to grow —
especially fo r infant and toddler care —
and is exacerbated by brief maternity leaves
S h e il a

B.

Kam erm an

In 1983, for the first time, half of all mothers with children
under age 6 were in the labor force.1 Out of a cohort of
19.0 million children under age 6, 47 percent had working
mothers. In the near future, the majority of preschoolers
will very likely have working mothers, as most school-age
children already do. How preschool children are cared for
while their mothers work is something that relatively little
is known about, although what is known suggests a quite
complicated picture.
What is the picture today of child-care services for pre­
school aged children? To help the reader visualize the pic­
ture, four questions are addressed:
• Where are the children of working parents being cared
for?
• What is known about the kinds of child-care services and
arrangements that now exist?
• What is known about the quality of care now provided
and what is happening to it?
• What are the current trends, developments, and emerging
issues in the child-care services field?

all-day care, part-day care, and after-school care. (Nonmonetized care by relatives and brief, occasional babysitting
are not included.) The discussion is about relatively regular
care or attendance: a specific number of hours per day and
regular days per week of provision— in families and group
arrangements— under both educational and social welfare
auspices.

Types and amount of available child care
Unfortunately, in addition to the child-care picture not
being very clear, it is not very complete. National data are
not collected in any systematic fashion on: children in outof-home care during the day; child-care arrangements used
while parents work; or child-care service programs. To study
what exists and who uses which type of care, one must piece
together different, sometimes not fully comparable data,
collected by different sources at different times.
In providing an overview of child-care services for pre­
school aged children, the types of services can be distin­
guished by the following:
• The age of the child:
— infant and toddler care (0 to 2-year-olds)
— preschooler care (3 -to 5-year-olds)

For the purposes of this article, child-care services will
include: family day care and center care, public and private
nursery school and prekindergartens, Head Start centers,

• The locus of care:
— in own home
— in a relative’s home
— in a nonrelative’s home
— in a group facility (center or school)

Sheila B. Kamerman is a professor o f Social Policy and Planning and co­
director o f Cross-National Studies Research Program, Columbia University
and currently is a fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavorial Sciences, Stanford, California.

20

percent). Moreover, these data do not report multiple modes
of care: the “ packages” of child-care arrangements which
are most frequently used by working mothers.6 Such “ pack­
ages” include some combination of a preschool program,
family day care, and relative care; they may involve four
or more different care givers during an average week. More
extensive child-care data were collected in the 1982 Census
Bureau’s national fertility survey, but these data had not yet
been published when this article was prepared.
Using 1979 school enrollment data7 and data from the
1977 Abt supply study of day-care enrollment, it is found
that almost two-thirds of all 3- to 5-year-olds and more than
70 percent of those with working mothers are in some form
of group child-care program. These numbers are made up
of the following: ninety-three percent of all 5-year-olds were
in nursery school, kindergarten, or first grade in 1979. Thirtyfive percent of all 3- to 4-year-olds were in nursery school
or prekindergarten. A growing number of these preschool
programs are full day; the proportion of 3- to 5-year-olds
in a full-day program doubled during the 1970’s, from 17
percent in 1970, to 34 percent in 1980. By 1980, 37 percent
of 3- to 4-year-olds were in preprimary programs. Although
kindergarten enrollment for 5-year-olds is about the same
whether or not mothers work (almost all 5-year-olds are in
preschool or primary school), enrollment rates for 3- to 4year-olds are significantly higher when mothers are in the
labor force (44 percent, compared with 31 percent in 1980).
All-day enrollment is, of course, far higher for children with
full-time working mothers. Although these programs may
be valued for their educational content, they are often used
because they fulfill a needed child-care function.
Kindergarten enrollment increased by almost one-third
between 1967 and 1980 (from 65 to 85 percent). However,
the increase in nursery school enrollment has been even
more dramatic, doubling in numbers during the 1970's and
more than doubling as a proportion of 3- to-4-year-olds en­
rolled (from 16 percent in 1969 to 37 percent in 1980).
Moreover, not only are children of working mothers more
likely to be enrolled in preschool programs, but the enroll­
ment rates are even higher when mothers have larger in­
comes and more education. Fifty-three percent of 3- to 4year-old children in families with median or higher incomes
attended a preschool program in 1982, as contrasted with
only 29 percent of those in lower income families. As noted,
enrollment rates increase as mothers’ education levels rise,
and increase still more when those mothers are employed.
Only for children whose mothers are college graduates is
there no difference between those with working and those
with nonworking mothers. For example, about half of such
3-year-olds and 72 percent of such 4-year-olds were in a
preschool program in 1982.8
Given these data, one could argue that not only is there
growing use of preschool as a child-care service for the
3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds with working mothers, but there is
especially high use by affluent, educated, working families.

• The auspice of care:
— education (nursery school, prekindergarten, kinder­
garten)
— social welfare (day-care center)
• The source of funds:
— direct and indirect public subsidy (for example, public
grants of monies to a provider or a tax benefit such as
the child-care tax credit)
— private subsidy
— employer subsidy; parent fees
Preschoolers. Although there are no precise figures con­
cerning the numbers of children in out-of-home care, by
age of child and type of care, the most complete data to
date are those on preschool children aged 3 to 5. However,
even here estimates must be used.
The most recent national survey of day-care centers was
completed by Abt Associates in 1977;2 the numbers are
known to have grown substantially since then. Moreover,
these data do not include programs under educational aus­
pices: nursery schools, prekindergartens, and kindergartens.
These are the largest single type of child-care services for
children of this age and the most rapidly growing component
among child-care services for this age group.
The most currently published consumer data on 3- and
4-year-old children of working mothers are from a 1977
Current Population Survey ( c p s ) conducted by the Bureau
of the Census.3 Only data on children under age 5 and on
the youngest child in the family were included. However,
because the survey was carried out in June, when many
schools are closed, children in group care programs are
significantly underreported. For example, fewer than 21
percent of children of this age with mothers who worked
full time in 1977 were reported as enrolled in group care,
as contrasted with 31 percent of all children this age in
1976, according to Census Bureau school enrollment data,4
and 37 percent in 1980, as cited by the National Center for
Educational Statistics.5 (See tables 1 and 2.) Furthermore,
the proportion of youngsters enrolled in preschool programs
was significantly higher when their mothers worked (44
Table 1. Population of preschoolers, preprimary school
enrollment, and labor force Status of mother by child’s
age, 1980______________
Child*
**•

3 to 5 ............
5 ...................
3 to 4 ............
4 ...................
3 ...................

9.3
3.1
6.2
3.1
3.1

(in years)

Number*
(in millions)

Percent
ol
total

Percent
with
mothers
In labor
force

4.91
2.6
2.3
1.4
.9

531
842
37
46
29

57
85
43
52
34

Enrollment
Total
(In million*)

’ Preprimary programs only. An additional number are enrolled in primary school (about
3 percent ol cohort).
2An additional 9 percent are enrolled in primary school.
N ote: Data are tor 50 States and District of Columbia.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics. P re p rim a ry
ington, D C., U S. Department of Education, 1982).

E n ro llm e n t 1 9 8 0

(Wash­

21

T ab le 2.

Preprim ary school enrollm ent by child’s age and labor force status of m other, 1980

[Numbers in thousands)

3-year-olds

Total
Labor force status of mother

4-year-olds

S-year-olds

Enrolled

Enrolled
all day

Enrolled

Enrolled
all day

Enrolled

Enrolled
all day

Enrolled

Enrolled
all day

All children, 3 to 5 years..............................................................
With mother in labor fo rc e .......................................................
Employed full time ..............................................................
Employed part t im e ..............................................................
Unemployed...........................................................................
With mother not in labor force ................................................
Keeping house ......................................................................
Other ....................................................................................
No mother present ..............................................................

4,878
2.480
1,445
811
225
2,266
2,105
85
131

1,551
1,002
713
196
94
491
439
15
57

857
497
292
163
41
339
309
15
21

321
260
198
42
20
50
37
3
13

1,423
755
457
245
53
628
582
23
39

467
332
260
44
28
117
102
3
19

2,598
1,229
696
402
131
1,299
1,214
47
70

763
413
255
111
46
325
300
9
26

All children, 3 to 5 years..............................................................
With mother in labor fo rc e .......................................................
Employed full time ..............................................................
Employed part t im e ..............................................................
Unemployed...........................................................................
With mother not in labor force ................................................
Keeping house ......................................................................
In school...............................................................................
Other ....................................................................................
No mother present ..............................................................

52.5
57.1
57.4
59.6
48.5
48.9
48.5
63.0
51.1
42.2

16.7
23.1
23.3
14.4
20.3
10.6
10.1
29.5
9.0
12.5

27.3
34.4
35.4
37.2
22.8
21.5
20.9
37.2
26.4
17.8

15.2
22.8
29.9
9.6
21.7
7.7
7.2

84.7
85.2
84.6
86.5
85.1
84.5
83.9
95.1
95.9
77.8

24.9
28.6
31.0
23.9
29.9
21.1
20.7

Enrolled as percent of age group
10.2
18.0
24.0
9.6
11.1
3.2
2.5
(])
<
1)
10.8

46.3
51.9
52.5
53.7
41.1
41.5
40.2
56.1
38.3
38.6

0

(1)
18.8

0)

(1)
28.9

1Base too small for presentation of percentage.
N ote :
S ource:

Data are for 50 States and District of Columbia. Details may not add to totals because of rounding.
National Center for Education Statistics,

P re p rim a ry E n ro llm e n t, 1 9 8 0

(Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Education, 1982.

Because most of these programs are private and relatively
expensive, such high use by the more affluent raises serious
questions about the consequences for those children in lower
income families (below median income) without access to
such programs, whether or not their mothers work.
According to the Abt survey, in addition to those children
in preschool programs, about 10 percent of the cohort
(900,000) were in day-care centers (most were 3- or 4-yearolds). Thus, there seems to be a t^tal of 54 percent of the
3- and 4-year-olds with working mothers in some kind of
group care for some part of the day. This figure is likely to
be higher because nearly a half million children are esti­
mated to have been enrolled in Title XX funded centers in
1981, a significant increase over the 1977 figures.9 (And
10 States were not included in the 1981 figure because they
did not provide data.) Sixty-five percent of these children
were 3- to 5-year-olds (and more than half were age 3 or
4); and almost all had working parents (these figures may
have decreased in the past year). Also, Head Start serves
nearly 400,000 children, largely 3- and 4-year-olds.
Federally funded (Title XX) centers have increased in
numbers, too: there were an estimated 11,342 in 1981, a
significant jump from the 8,100 identified in the Abt sur­
vey.10 Some of these centers may have closed in the past
year as a consequence of cutbacks in funding, but no specific
data on closings are available as of this writing. Head Start
programs have also expanded since 1977 and about onefifth are full-day programs. More than 40 percent of the
day-care centers in the Abt survey were proprietary or forprofit establishments. Both the numbers and the proportion
of proprietary child-care services have grown significantly
since then. Because most of the large (multicenter) for-profit

child-care service companies did not receive Title XX money
in 1981, these numbers are additive rather than overlapping.
In addition, about 42 percent of 3- to 4-year-olds whose
mothers worked full time in 1977 (and 25 percent of those
whose mothers worked part time) were cared for in someone
else’s home, usually in a nonrelative’s home (family day
care).1 There is a significant, if unknown, overlap between
1
the children in preschool programs and those cared for in a
home, be it by a relative or nonrelative, part of the child­
care “ packaging” mentioned above, and particularly im­
portant for children whose mothers work longer than the
preschool or school hours. About 100,000 children were in
federally funded family day-care homes in 1981.12 By far,
most children in family day care (about 90 percent of the
more than 6 million children estimated to be in family day
care for 10 hours or more per week in 1975) were in in­
formal, unregulated care.1 About 6 percent were in licensed
3
care, including 2 percent in care provided in a home but
under the sponsorship of an umbrella agency. However,
most of these children were under age 3.
Infants and toddlers. As difficult as it is to estimate cov­
erage and type of care provided for preschoolers, the data
on infant and toddler care are far less adequate. A planned
national survey of infant care, to be carried out by Abt, was
cancelled. The much-cited National Consumer Day Care
Study was poorly designed and inadequately analyzed. Ac­
cording to the 1977 Current Population Survey, the primary
care arrangement for children under age 3 was family day
care, usually in the home of a nonrelative.
Estimating from the cps data, more than one-third of the
children with working mothers were in either family day

22

Department of Health and Human Services to “ assist each
State in conducting a systematic assessment of current prac­
tices in Title XX funded day-care programs and provide a
summary report of the assessment to Congress by June 1,
1 9 8 1 1 According to the report, provider practices were
7
in compliance with or surpassed the proposed Federal stand­
ards. More specifically:

care or group care in 1977. More specifically, about onethird of those under age 3 with full-time working mothers
and 17 percent of those with part-time working mothers
were in family day care; and more than 9 percent of those
with full-time working mothers and 5.5 percent of those
whose mothers worked part time were in group care. Infant
and toddler care has been growing rapidly since the mid1970’s; thus, the coverage data are undoubtedly higher to­
day.
The following rounds out this picture of how children are
cared for while parents (especially mothers) are in the labor
force:
•

•

•

•

•

A small proportion of babies with working mothers are
cared for, albeit briefly, by mothers on maternity leave.
Fewer than 40 percent of working mothers are entitled
to some paid leave at the time of childbirth, usually for
about 6 to 8 weeks, and a somewhat larger group may
remain home on an unpaid but job-protected leave for
3 or 4 months.1
4
Some parents, especially those with preschool aged chil­
dren, work different shifts in order to manage child care.
Although this method of care has received very little
attention thus far, researchers using three different data
sets (the Current Population Survey, the Panel Study of
Income Dynamics, and the Quality of Employment Sur­
vey) have found that this may be a more significant
pattern of work by parents with young children than
suspected.1
5
A very few employers, largely hospitals, provide onsite
child-care services (about 230 hospitals; about 50 em­
ployers), and a few others subsidize payment of care.1
6

•

•

•

Despite the fact that 24 of the 47 States reporting have
no group size requirements, all stated their centers had
groups smaller than those set in the proposed regulations
for all but the under-2-year-olds.
Staff-to-child ratios were significantly higher than pro­
posed for children aged 3 and older; however, they were
significantly lower for those under 3.
Although only half the States required the centers to
provide training, nearly all provided such training and
three-quarters of centers’ care givers and one-half of
family day-care mothers had gone through such a train­
ing program within the past year.
Seventy-five percent of the centers (and half of the homes)
provided the Department of Agriculture’s recommended
child-care food program.
Seventy percent of the States assured children in care
funded by Title XX the needed health services and 75
percent assured them needed social services.

Federal funding under Title XX has been significantly cut
since 1981. Day care was one of the three highest funded
Title XX services, representing 18 percent of all Title XX
expenditures nationwide. Funding for the child nutrition
program, a component of public support of day care, has
also been reduced. Few programs have actually closed thus
far, but this may occur in the future. Given the large cut­
backs in Federal grants to States, most States are under
growing financial pressure in this area. These States will
view themselves as fortunate if they can maintain the quan­
tity of care; they are unlikely to enforce standards, even if
standards exist.
A question emerges regarding whether the extent of com­
pliance that existed in 1981 was not related to the expec­
tations of Federal standards and enforcement. From now
on, the States will have primary responsibility for setting
and enforcing standards concerning the health, safety, and
developmental needs of children in care. Whether providers
will continue to maintain these standards and whether States
will monitor what providers do remains to be seen. Thus,
day-care regulation joins preprimary school generally as an
arena in which the protection of children will depend com­
pletely on the State.

Child-care quality: programming and standards
More than half of all nursery schools are private, 66
percent. Eighty-eight percent of the kindergartens are pub­
lic. There are limited national data available on these pro­
grams. On the other hand, a much more extensive picture
exists regarding the more than 11,000 federally funded day­
care centers that existed in the fall of 1981. This type of
center is discussed here.
In early 1980, the Department of Health and Human
Services issued proposed day-care regulations concerning
group size, staff-to-child ratios, training qualifications for
care givers, nutrition, health care, parent participation, and
social services, to become effective in October. In the mean­
time, the Congress, in its Omnibus Budget Reconciliation
Act of 1980, delayed the effective date of these proposed
regulations. Before the proposals could become effective,
the Social Services Block Grant Act was enacted. Among
other things, this Act amended Federal requirements and
standards regarding Title XX day-care centers. This meant
that State and local standards, where they existed, were in
effect. (Such standards are likely to be below those set by
the Federal Government.)
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act mandated the

Towards the future
The only significant Federal development is the expansion
of the child-care tax credit in 1982 and, subsequently, mak­
ing it available even to those who do not itemize deductions.
However, unless the credit is increased, and made refund­

23

vices for low- and middle-income children. Many of these
children who were in publicly subsidized preschool pro­
grams are being transferred into informal and unregulated
family day care as subsidies are cut back and programs close
or parents lose ;! eir eligibility for a subsidy; the children
must adapt to a new care giver, and often to the loss of
friends.
The biggest current demand for child-care services is for
infants and toddlers, because it is among their mothers that
the increase in labor force participation has been greatest,
and the scarcity of services most severe. Paid maternity
(disability) leaves are available only to a minority of working
women and are usually brief. There is an urgent need to
expand and improve maternity-related benefits provided at
the workplace.1 Data concerning how babies and toddlers
9
are being cared for and what types of care exist are largely
inadequate. Most of these children are in informal family
day-care arrangements but, here again, little is known about
these services.
Although the current child-care picture is hardly com­
plete, all that is known suggests the likelihood of continuing
demand. Accessibility, affordability, and quantity will re­
main central issues but questions regarding quality will in­
creasingly come to the forefront.
□

able, it will have no— or very little— value to low- and
moderate-income families.
The Dependent Care Assistance plan and the salary re­
duction plan for certain private insurance benefits may open
the way for some expansion in employer-sponsored child­
care services.1 However, little has occurred as yet.
8
The major development in the field in recent years has
been child-care information and referral services. These have
burgeoned, especially in California, where they are publicly
funded; this is an area in which more employers are con­
sidering involvement as well. Finally, concern with the qual­
ity of education is leading some States and localities to
reexamine their preprimary programs. Some are now ini­
tiating full-day kindergartens; others are establishing pre­
kindergarten programs; and still others are considering both.
The demand for child-care services continues to grow,
and most parents of preschoolers want an educational pro­
gram. Most such programs are private, particularly those
below kindergarten level. Unfortunately, good programs are
very often expensive. Moreover, there is still a scarcity of
fiill-day programs, so many parents are “ packaging” a group
program with one or more other types of care, with con­
sequences not yet known. The cutbacks in funding group
programs are especially significant in their impact on ser­

FOOTNOTES
A cknowledgment : This article is based on work done as a part of a
national study o f child-care services sponsored by the Carnegie Corpora­
tion.
'Elizabeth Waldman, “ Labor force statistics from a family perspec­
tiv e,” Monthly Labor Review, December 1983, pp. 14-18.

of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children, Youth, and
Families, 1982).
10 Ibid.
" Trends in Child Care Arrangements.

12Report to Congress.
13UNCO, Inc., National Child Care Consumer Study: 1975 (U.S. De­

2U .S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for
Children, Youth, and Families, in collaboration with Abt Associates, Inc.
(Cambridge, Mass.), National Day Care Study (Washington, U.S. Gov­
ernment Printing Office, 1979), and National Day Care Home Study
(Washington, U .S. Government Printing Office, 1980).

partment of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977).
l4Sheila B. Kamerman, Alfred F. Kahn, and Paul W. Kingston, Ma­
ternity Policies and Working Women (New York. Columbia University
Press, 1983).

3 Trends in Child Care Arrangements of Working Mothers, Current Pop­
ulation Reports, Series P -2 3 , No. 117 (Bureau o f the Census, 1982).
*Nursery School and Kindergarten Enrollment of Children and Labor
Force Status of Their^Mothers, October 1967 to October 1976, Current
Population Reports, Series P -2 0 , No. 318 (Bureau of the Census, 1978).
5Preprimary Enrollment 1980 (U.S. Department of Education, National

l5Steven L. Nock and Paul W. Kingston, “ The Family Workday,”

Journal of Marriage and the Family, forthcoming; Harriet B. Presser,
“ Working Women and Child Care,” in P.W. Berman and E.R. Ramey,
eds., Women: A Developmental Perspective (Washington. U .S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, 1982); and Graham L. Staines and Joseph H. Pleck,
“ Work Schedules' Impact on the Family.” Research Monograph, 1982,
processed.

Center for Educational Statistics, 1982).
6Mary Jo Bane, Laura Lein, Lydia O ’Donnell, C. Ann Stueve, and
Barbara W ells, “ Child care arrangements of working parents,” Monthly
Labor Review, October 1979, pp. 50-56; and Sheila B. Kamerman, Par­
enting In An Unresponsive Society: Managing Work and Family Life (New
York, The Free Press, 1980).

l6Sandra L. Burud, Raymond C. Collins, Patricia Divine-Hawkins.
“ Employer-Supported Child Care: Everybody Benefits.” Children Todav,
M ay-June 1983, pp. 2 -7 .
17See Report to Congress. The data provided in this report are baseline
data for future assessments of the quality of Title XX funded day care
once these programs are no longer subject to Federal regulations.

1School Enrollment—Social and Economic Characteristics of Students:
October 1979, Current Population Reports, Series P -2 0 , No. 360 (Bureau
o f the Census, 1981); and National Day Care Study.

18 For a description of these benefits, see Sheila B. Kamerman, Meeting
Family Needs: the Corporate Response (White Plains, N .Y .. Work in

8 National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished data.

America, forthcoming).

9Report to Congress, Summary Report of the Assessment of Current
State Practices in Title XX Funded Day Care Programs (U.S. Department

19 Kamerman, Kahn, and Kingston, Maternity Policies.

24

How do families fare
when the breadwinner retires?
Using national longitudinal survey data on the
retirement experience o f men, researchers
provide some insights on the economic situation
o f fam ilies in which the major wage earner is retired
K e z ia S p r o a t

Routes to retirement

For 17 years, the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor
Market Experience ( n l s ) have gathered data that illuminate
family life when the breadwinner has^etired. The n l s were
developed in 1965 to answer the question, “ Why are in­
creasing numbers of men leaving the work force before
retirement age?” Because the male traditionally provides
the bulk of family income, most retirement studies focus
on his experience, but the surveys also include a female
cohort who will soon be in retirement.
Older men in the n l s , now ages 62 to 76, have been
interviewed 11 times in 17 years, and the mature women,
now ages 46 to 60, 11 times in 16 years.1 Researchers have
used the data to look at predictors and measures of retirement
and its relationship to health, family income, family struc­
ture, and general life satisfaction. Retirement planning and
the effects of unexpected retirement have also been studied.
(See box, page 42.) This article summarizes some recent
NLS-based retirement studies which carry the strongest im­
plications for the family— why and how the major bread­
winner enters retirement, sources of family income after
retirement, and overall satisfaction with life after retirement.
Because family well-being depends largely on why and how
the major breadwinner enters retirement, voluntary and in­
voluntary retirees will be discussed separately.

Involuntary retirement—A . Poor health. Involuntary re­
tirees fare much less well than others, especially in the many
cases where early withdrawal from the labor force is linked
to the male breadwinner’s poor health. In an analysis of
1966-76 data, Herbert Pames and Gilbert Nestel found that
poor health had forced 43 percent of white retirees and 52
percent of black retirees ages 55 to 69 out of the labor force.2
Of retirees under age 62, 60 percent of whites and 67 percent
of blacks retired for health reasons. In contrast, only 30
percent of white retirees and 29 percent of blacks in this
age group retired voluntarily. More recent data confirm that
blacks are more likely than whites to retire for health rea­
sons.3 Men who retired because of poor health were more
likely to have been in a low level occupation and to receive
lower retirement income. They were also less likely to have
any pension coverage other than social security, which is
not available until age 62.4 Thomas Chirikos and Gilbert
Nestel reported that even if workers are only moderately
impaired, they suffer a 2.5- to 12-percent loss of annual
earnings before retirement.5
Several studies confirm that poor health often forces re­
tirement before the age of pension eligibility. Eric Kingson
looked at 10 years of n l s data for a subsample of 240 black
men and 405 white men who withdrew permanently from
the labor force before age 62. Of these, 85 percent of the
whites and 91 percent of the blacks had either reported health

Kezia Sproat is the editor at the Center for Human Resource Research,
The Ohio State University.

25

problems before withdrawing or were certifiably disabled.6
Of these disabled men, 51 percent of the whites and 55
percent of the blacks received social security disability ben­
efits. The remaining 34 percent of the whites and 36 percent
of the blacks did not, so they and their families faced the
multiple hardships that accompany poor health and severely
reduced income.7
The deleterious effects of early retirement because of poor
health are illustrated by Frank Mott and Jean Haurin in a
study of widows from the women’s cohort as well as widows
of the older men’s cohort.8 Mott and Haurin estimated that
1 of 5 men ages 45 to 59 in 1966 would die before reaching
age 65. The families of men who suffer health problems
before dying are concentrated in the lower socio-economic
strata, and their economic disadvantages are intensified by
medical costs and declining income. From an economic
point of view, families of men who die unexpectedly fare
better than those whose major breadwinner suffers a long
illness. Wives do not enter the labor force in large numbers
during their husbands’ last illness. Many do find jobs after
their husbands’ death, although their general lack of edu­
cation and work experience make them liable to earn very
low wages. Mott and Haurin found that 29 percent of the
white widows live below the poverty line, compared with
19 percent before the death of the husband; among blacks,
the corresponding figures are 47 percent before and 67 per­
cent after.9

plans. Herbert Pames and Lawrence Less found that in 1980,
fewer than 5 percent of the retirees in the n l s sample, then
ages 59 to 73, had been forced to retire. Larger proportions
of blacks were forced out than whites, and among these,
more nonfarm laborers (13 percent) than any other occu­
pational group.1
4
Voluntary retirement. Voluntary early retirement is largely
driven by pension availability. The answer to the question
that gave rise to the n l s — why the trend to early retire­
ment?— seems now clearly to be that increasingly attractive
pensions make early retirement more feasible financially.
More blacks than whites choose to retire early because av­
erage earnings are lower for blacks and there is less differ­
ence between their wages and social security and other
pensions.1
5

Postretirement labor market activity
Being “ retired” does not preclude labor market activity.
Such activity has been analyzed using data from the n l s .
Herbert Pames and others find that conclusions about re­
tirement will differ depending on whether retirement is mea­
sured by pension coverage, subjective self-report, or labor
market withdrawal. Pames and Less believe the choice of
retirement measures should be governed by the specific
questions one aims to illuminate. The number of men ages
57 to 71 who were retired in 1980 ranges from 5.4 to 8.9
million, depending on which measure of retirement is used.1
6
In this discussion, the subjective self-report definition is
used— that is, “ retirees” are those who said at some time
during the interviews that they had stopped working at a
regular job.
About 1 of 6 retirees were in the labor force in 1980.
Men forced to retire because of mandatory plans were more
likely to be in the labor market; their participation rate was
24 percent, compared with 16 percent for all retirees. Only
10 percent of those who left the labor force for health reasons
were still working or looking for a jo b .1
7
Pames and Less found that age, health, type of prere­
tirement job, attitude toward retirement, and family income
(exclusive of the retiree’s earnings) all influence post-re­
tirement labor market activity. Professional and managerial
workers are more likely than other occupational groups to
continue working after retirement. Marital status and whether
the retiree’s wife worked were important: retirees were more
likely to work if their wives did. In the 1980 survey, em­
ployed retirees were asked their main reasons for working
during retirement. The two most frequent answers were
“ inflation” (30 percent) and “ boredom with retirement”
(26 percent).1
8
Retirees who did not participate in the labor market in
1976 showed little desire to do so: only 2 percent of whites
and 5 percent of blacks said they would accept a job if one
were offered.19 Data for 1980 and 1981 continued to show

B. Unemployment. Unemployment forces many workers
into early retirement, according to Sally Bould.10 She found
that duration of previous unemployment is a significant in­
fluence on early retirement. “ Retirement is, perhaps, a
mechanism for dealing with long-term chronic unemploy­
ment . . . a way of managing the spoiled identity that long­
term unemployment can produce.” Bould’s conclusion is
supported by Herbert Pames, Mary Gagen, and Randall
King, whose study focused on men who lost jobs they had
held for at least 5 years. Long-term effects on income,
psychological health, and occupational status were observed
even for those who later found jobs.1 According to Eric
1
Kingson, events early in life, some of which are uncon­
trollable (“ choice” of parents, for example), significantly
influence retirement prospects. Kingson concluded that a
life cycle perspective is required to understand the favorable
and unfavorable “ opportunity tracks” which lead some very
early retirees and their families to comfort and others to
severe poverty.1 Nan Maxwell also found that retirement
2
income and overall well-being are closely linked to prior
labor market experiences.1
3
C. Mandatory plans. Another cause of involuntary early
retirement is agreements which specify mandatory retire­
ment at a certain age, although very few workers are forced
out by such plans. Between 1966 and 1976, only 3 percent
of retirees in the nils sample were forced out by mandatory

26

NLS-based studies on retirement
Beck, R. W. and S. H. Beck, “ Taking Elderly Parents In: In­
cidence in Middle and Later L ife,” paper presented at the
35th Annual Meeting o f the Gerontological Society of
America, Boston, Mass., November 1982.
Beck, Scott H., “ Adjustment to and Satisfaction with Retire­
ment,” Journal o f G erontology, Vol. 37, No. 5, 1982,
pp. 616-24.
------ , “ Differences in Expected and Actual Retirement A ge”
(Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, 1981).
------ , “ The Role of Other Family Members in Intergenerational
Occupational M obility,” S ociological Q uarterly, Spring
1983, pp. 273-85.
Bould, Sally, “ Unemployment as a Factor in Early Retirement
D ecisions,” A m erican Journal o f Econom ics and S ociol­
ogy, April 1980, pp. 123-36.
Carliner, Geoffrey, Social Security and the L abor Supply o f
O lder Men, Report No. dlma- 2 1 -9 1 -7 8 -5 6 (U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 1980).
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel, “ Impairment and Labor
Market Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal
Analysis,” in Herbert S. Pames, ed., Work and Retirem ent
(Cambridge, Mass., mit Press, 1981), pp. 93 -1 3 1 .
George, Linda K ., Erdman B. Palmore, and Gerda Fillenbaum,
“ Predictors of Retirement,” Journal o f G eron tology , Vol.
37, No. 6, 1982, pp. 73 3 -4 2 .
Hardy, Melissa A ., “ Social Policy and Determinants o f Retire­
ment: A Longitudinal Analysis of Older White Males, 1969—
1975,” Social F orces, June 1982, pp. 1103-22.
Kingson, Eric R ., “ Critique o f Early Retirement Study Dis­
puted,” A ging a n d Work, Spring 1982, pp. 93 -1 1 0 .
------ , “ Disadvantaged Very Early Labor Force Withdrawal,”
P o licy Issues f o r the E lderly P oor (Community Services
Administration, c s a pamphlet 6172-8), pp. 2 3 -3 0 .
------ , “ The Health o f Very Early Retirees,” A ging and Work,
Winter 1981, pp. 11-22.
------ , “ Involuntary Early Retirement,” The Journal o f the In­
stitute f o r Socioeconom ic Studies, Autumn 1981, pp. 2 7 39.
------ , “ Retirement Circumstances of Very Early Retirees: A
L ife C y c le P e r sp e c tiv e ,” A ging and Work, S u m m er 1981,
pp. 1 6 1 - 7 4

------ and Richard M. Sheffler, “ Aging: Issues and Economic
Trends for the 1980s,” Inquiry, Fall 1981, pp. 197-213.

that most retirees are not interested in working. In 1980,
93 percent of the retirees who were not working responded
negatively to a hypothetical job offer; and in 1981, when a
question about part-time work was included, this negative
response rate was reduced by only 5 percentage points.20

Family income
In 1975, voluntary retirees and their families were making
do with a family income one-third less (adjusted for infla­

Leigh, Duane E., “ The National Longitudinal Surveys: A Se­
lective Survey of Recent Evidence,” R eview o f P ublic D ata
Use, 1982, pp. 185-201.
Maxwell, Nan L., “ The Determinants of Postretirement Income:
A Segmented Labor Market Approach,” paper presented
at the annual meeting of the Population Association of
America, Pittsburgh, Penn., March 1983.
------ , “ The Retirement Experience: Psychological and Financial
Linkages to the Labor Market,” Social Sciences Q uarterly,
forthcoming.
Mott, Frank L. and R. Jean Haurin, “ The Impact of Health
Problems and Mortality on Family W ell-Being,” in Herbert
S. Pames, ed., Work and R etirem ent (Cambridge, Mass.,
mit Press, 1981), pp. 198-253.
Palmore, Erdman B ., Linda K. George, and Gerda G. Fillen­
baum, “ Predictors of Retirement,” Journal o f G eron tol­
ogy, 1982, pp. 7 3 3 -4 2 .
Pames, Herbert S ., “ Inflation and Early Retirement,” M onthly
L abor R eview , July 1981, pp. 2 7 -3 0 .
------ , Mary G. Gagen, and Randall H. King, “ Job Loss Among
Long-Servi6e Workers,” in Herbert S. Pames, ed., Work
and Retirement (Cambridge, Mass., mit Press, 1981), pp. 6 5 92.
------ and Lawrence Less, From Work to R etirem ent: The Ex­
perien ce o f a N ational Sam ple o f M en (Columbus, The Ohio
State University, Center for Human Resource Research,
1983).
------ , Lawrence Less, and Gilbert Nestel, Work and Retirem ent
D ata: N ational Longitudinal Surveys o f M iddle-A ged and
O lder M en, 1 9 6 6 -1 9 7 6 (Columbus, The Ohio State Uni­

versity, Center for Human Resource Research, 1980).
------ and Gilbert Nestel, “ The Retirement Experience,” in Her­
bert S. Pames, ed ., Work and Retirement (Cambridge, Mass.,
mit Press, 1981), pp. 155-97.
Parsons, Donald O ., “ Black-White Differences in Labor Force
Participation o f Older M ales,” in Herbert S. Pames, ed.,
Work and R etirem ent (Cambridge, Mass., mit Press, 1981),
pp. 132-54.
Reimers, Cordelia W ., “ The Timing of Retirement of American
Men” (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1977).
Shaw, Lois B ., Retirement Plans o f M iddle-Aged M arried Women
(Columbus, The Ohio State University, Center for Human
Resource Research, 1983). Revised version forthcoming in
The G eron tologist.

tion) than in the year prior to retirement. The major sources
of family income in 1975 were social security (received by
90 percent of those who retired at the normal age, but only
52 percent of those forced out early because of poor health);
and disability benefits (received by only 44 percent of those
who retired for health reasons). About 21 percent had in­
come from earnings of their wives, in amounts often as high
as the retiree’s own earnings; 12 percent of white retirees
and 17 percent of blacks had earnings of their own. Other

retired for health reasons, more than 30 percent found re­
tirement worse than they expected. Health, occupational
level, and family income positively influenced the extent of
purposeful leisure time activities, which, in turn, increased
life satisfaction. Participating in the paid labor market and
being married to a healthy spouse also significantly in­
creased life satisfaction for retirees.25

family members’ earnings contributed to the income of about
10 percent of all retirees, and 8 percent had income from
self employment.2
1
In 1980, the wife’s earnings continued to be a source of
family income for about one-fourth of the white married
retirees and 18 percent of the blacks. Almost all retirees (90
percent) received social security benefits, and nearly threefifths had other pensions, mostly from private employers;
17 percent had earnings of their own (10 percent from selfemployment); 12 percent had income from other family
members; and 7 percent received public assistance, a source
of income for 1 of 4 black retirees, but only 1 of 16 whites.
Other income, primarily from property, was received by
two-thirds of the whites, but only one-sixth of the blacks.
Married male retirees were more likely to have property
income. Average family income in 1980 for male retirees
ages 57 to 71 was $15,300; however, the range was wide—
from $16,900 for married whites to $6,900 for unmarried
blacks.22
As for amounts from each source, Pames and Less es­
timated that in 1980, social security and other pensions
accounted for less than three-fifths of total family income
for whites, and two-thirds for blacks, whose social security
benefits reflect weighting in favor of lower wage workers.
Married men, on average, showed 10 percent of family
income from wives’ earnings, 8 percent from current earn­
ings, and 2 percent from wives’ pensions. Among unmarried
men, income from other family members accounted for
about 11 percent of the average income of whites and 25
percent of that of blacks.23
Pames and Less found that median family income (ad­
justed for inflation) of married retirees in 1980 was about
half the income they received in the year before retirement.
They also saw a downward trend in real family income since
1976 that they attributed to reduced labor market activity
of family members. Nonetheless, in 1980, 59 percent of
married retirees and 48 percent of the unmarried said their
income was adequate or better than adequate, and an ad­
ditional one-third said they had “just enough to get by.’’
Only 9 percent of married retirees and 15 percent of the
unmarried said they “ cannot make ends meet.’’ However,
Pames and Less observed “ very profound” differences by
race in the responses, particularly among married retirees;
25 percent of the blacks but only 8 percent of whites said
they could not make ends meet, while 21 percent of whites
but only 3 percent of blacks said they saved regularly.24

Women’s retirement plans
Thus far, the whole family’s well-being in retirement can
only be suggested by nils research because of the focus on
the male breadwinner. However, some data about retirement
planning have recently become available from the women’s
cohort. In 1979, women then ages 42 to 56 who were in
the labor force or who said they intended to seek jobs were
asked their plans for retirement and those of their husbands.
Lois B. Shaw analyzed the responses of more than 800
married women who had retirement plans.26 Women who
had a planned retirement age were slightly better educated
and were more likely to be employed, to be covered by a
pension plan, to expect social security from their own em­
ployment, and to have a husband who had retirement plans
as well. Of these women, 36 percent planned to retire before
age 62; 22 percent at ages 62 to 64; 19 percent at age 65;
3 percent after age 65; and 20 percent planned never to
retire. Most did not plan to retire when their husbands did,
except for those with husbands of the same age as them­
selves. As with the men, women’s retirement plans appeared
to have been influenced first by pension eligibility and sec­
ond by the desire to share the leisure of retirement with a
spouse. Women with husbands in poor health were less
likely to plan to retire before age 65, but a woman’s own
health did not strongly affect her plans.27

Other family members
Some recent work by Scott and R ubye Beck suggests
additional questions about family life that the n l s can be
used to answer. They compared cross-sectional and longi­
tudinal data and found that estimates of the number of fam­
ilies who had formed extended households are doubled when
longitudinal data are used. Between 1966 and 1976, 20
percent of white and 50 percent of black middle-aged cou­
ples had taken parents or grandchildren to live in their homes.28
Scott Beck found in another study that paternal grandfather’s
and grandmother’s occupations have positive effects on the
occupations of men, even when the influence of father’s
occupation is taken into account.29
Future researchers will have the benefit of greatly ex­
panded n l s data. The five n l s cohorts include significant
numbers of father-son, mother-daughter, husband-wife,
brother-sister, and other sibling pairs. Their experiences
promise to be of great value in illuminating many questions
about family life.
□

Psychological well-being
The 1980 survey asked questions about retirees’ use of
leisure time, their retirement decisions, and their general
satisfaction with life. Most retirees said life in retirement
was about what they expected, and about 1 of 4 said it was
better, but the strong effect of reason for retirement on well­
being is illustrated by the fact that among those who had

28

FOOTNOTES
Among Long Service Workers,” in Herbert S. Pames, ed.. Work and
Retirement: A Longitudinal Study o f Men (Cambridge, M ass., The mit

'In 1966. the older men's cohort included 5,034 respondents; in the
most recent survey in 1981.2.832 were interviewed. Of these, 2,286 were
married, spouse present; 13 were married, spouse absent; 246 were wid­
owed; 114 were^ivorced. 66 were separated; and 107 were never married.
As for numbers o f dependents excluding the wife, 2.316 had none and
505 had one or more. The mature women’s cohort began in 1976 with
5,083 respondents, and in 1981, 3,677 were interviewed. In 1981, 2,577
o f the women's cohort were married, spouse present; 7 were married,
spouse absent; 387 were widowed; 362 were divorced, 178 were separated;
and 166 were previously married. As to the number of dependents ex­
cluding the husband: 1,817 had none and 1,846 had one or more. Note
that the women’s cohort is generally 15 years younger than the men’s.
Attrition has not significantly changed the representativeness of the sam­
ples. For a detailed description o f the nls , see The National Longitudinal
Surveys Handbook (Columbus, The Ohio State University, Center for
Human Resource Research, 1982).

Press, 1981), pp. 6 5 -9 2 .
12 Eric Kingson, “ Retirement Circumstances of Very Early Retirees: A
Life Cycle Perspective,” Aging and Work, Summer 1981, pp. 161-74.
’’ Nan L. M axwell, “ The Supply and Demand Determinants of Postre­
tirement Income: A Segmented Labor Market Approach,” paper presented
at the annual meetings o f the Population Association o f America, Pitts­
burgh, Penn., March 1983; and “ The Retirement Experience: Psycholog­
ical and Financial Linkages to the Labor Market,” Social Science Quarterly.
forthcoming.
l4Pames and Nestel, “ The Retirement Experience,” p. 164; Pames and
Less, From Work to Retirement, p. 32.
15This effect in regard to disabled workers is demonstrated in Donald
O. Parsons, “ Black-White Differences in Labor Market Participation of
Older M ales,” in Herbert S. Pames, ed .. Work and Retirement: A Lon­
gitudinal S tu d so f Men (Cambridge, M ass., The mit Press, 1981), pp. 132—
54.

2Herbert S. Pames and Gilbert Nestel, “ The Retirement Experience.”
in Herbert S. Pames, ed., Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of
Men (Cambridge, Mass., The mit Press, 1981), pp. 155-97.

16 Pames and Less, From Work to Retirement, p. 9.

’ Herbert S. Pames and Lawrence Less, From Work to Retirement: The
Experience of a National Sample of Men (Columbus, The Ohio State

1 Ibid.,
7

p. 25. See also Linda K. George, Erdman B. Palmore, and
Gerda Fillenbaum, “ Predictors of Retirement," Journal o f Gerontology,
Vol. 37, No. 6, 1982, pp. 7 3 3 -4 2 .
'"Pames and Less, From Work to Retirement, pp. 3 7 -4 5 .

University, Center for Human Resource Research, 1983).
4Pames and Nestel, “ The Retirement Experience,” p. 166.
’ Thomas N. Chirikos and Gilbert Nestel, “ Impairment and Labor Mar­
ket Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis,” in Herbert
S. Pames, ed., Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men (Cam­
bridge M ass., The mit Press, 1981), pp. 9 3 -1 3 1 .

19 Pames and Nestel, “ The Retirement Experience." pp. 167-72.
20Pames and Less, From Work to Retirement, p. 52.
21 Pames and Nestel. “ The Retirement Experience," pp. 179-82.

6 Eric Kingson, “ The Health of Very Early Retirees,” Aging and Work,
Winter 1981, pp. 11-22. See also Eric Kingson, “ Disadvantaged Very
Early Labor Force Withdrawal,” Policy Issues for the Elderly Poor (Com­
munity Services Administration, csa pamphlet 6172-8), pp. 23-30; and
“ Critique o f Early-Retirement Study Disputed,” Aging and Work, Spring
1982, pp. 9 3 -1 0 0 .

22 Pames and Less, From Work to Retirement, pp. 56 ff.
23/tod.. p. 73.

2 Ibid.,
4

pp. 7 2 -7 5 .

25/tod., pp. 100-10.
26Lois B. Shaw, Retirement Plans o f Middle-Aged Married Women
(Columbus. The Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Re­
search, 1983). Revised version forthcoming in The Gerontologist.

7Eric Kingson, “ Involuntary Early Retirement,” The Journal of the
Institute for Socioeconomic Studies, Autumn 1981, pp. 2 7 -3 9 .
"Frank L. Mott and R. Jean Haurin, “ The Impact of Health Problems
and Mortality on Family W ell-Being,” in Herbert S. Pames, ed., Work
and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study o f Men (Cambridge, Mass., The
mit Press, 1981), pp. 198-253.

2 /Because Shaw includes only employed women in the sample, those
with severe health impairments do not appear.
2"Scott and Rubye Beck, "Taking Elderly Parents In: Incidence in
Middle and Later L ife,” paper presented at the 35th Annual Meeting o f
the Gerontological Society of America, Boston. M ass., November 1982.

Vbid., p. 228.
“’Sally Bould, “ Unemployment as a Factor in Early Retirement De­
cision s,” American Journal of Economics and Sociologv, April 1980,
pp. 123-26.

29Scott H. Beck, “ The Role o f Other Family Members in Intergenerational Occupational Mobility, ’ Sociological Quarterly. Spring 1983. pp.
2 7 3 -8 5 .

1 Herbert S. Pames, Mary G. Gagen, and Randall H. King, “ Job Loss
1

29

Appendix A. Explanatory Note

members o f one family including members o f a related
subfamily, that is, a married-couple or parent-child
group related by birth, marriage, or adoption to the
householder and sharing the living quarters. The count
o f families in this publication also includes unrelated
subfamilies such as lodgers, guests, or resident
employees living in a household but not related to the
householder. Families are classified either as marriedcouple families or as families maintained by women or
men without spouses (i.e., where the householder is
single, widowed, divorced, or married, spouse absent).
Also included in the count o f families are those in which
the male householder is in the Armed Forces and living
in the United States.
Children refer to “ own” children o f the husband,
wife, or person maintaining the family and include sons
and daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Ex­
cluded are other related children, such as grandchildren,
nieces, nephews, and cousins, and unrelated children.
The civilian labor force comprises all civilians
classified as employed or unemployed in accordance
with the criteria described below.
Employed persons are (a) all civilians who, during the
survey week, did any work at all as paid employees, in
their own business, profession, or on their own farm, or
who worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an
enterprise operated by a member o f the family; and (b)
all those who were not working but who had jobs or
businesses from which they were temporarily absent
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labormanagement disputes, or personal reasons, whether
they were paid for the time off or were seeking other
jobs. Each employed person is counted only once.
Those who held more than one job are counted in the
job at which they worked the greatest number o f hours
during the survey week.
Unemployed persons are all civilians who had no
employment during the survey week, were available for
work, except for temporary illness, and (a) had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
prior 4 weeks, or (b) were waiting to be recalled to a job
from which they had been laid off, or (c) were waiting to
report to a new job within 30 days.

Statistics on the labor force, employment, unemploy­
ment, and persons not in the labor force, classified by a
variety o f demographic, social, and economic char­
acteristics are derived from the Current Population
Survey (CPS), which is conducted by the Bureau of the
Census for the Bureau o f Labor Statistics. The informa­
tion is collected by trained interviewers from a sample
o f about 60,000 households, representing 629 areas in
1,148 counties and independent cities, with coverage in
50 States and the District o f Columbia.
The estimates in this bulletin are based on supplemen­
tary questions in the March 1983 c p s . These estimates
relate to persons 16 years and over in the civilian
noninstitutional population in the calendar week ended
March 12, 1983. Male members of the Armed Forces
living o ff post or with their families on post (881,000 in
March 1983) were also included, but all other members
o f the Armed Forces were excluded.
The concepts, definitions, and estimating methods us­
ed in the survey, as well as indicators o f the reliability of
the data, are briefly described below. A more detailed
description o f the survey appears in Concepts and

Methods Used in Labor Force Statistics Derived From
the Current Population Survey, b l s Report 463, and in
the Explanatory Notes of the

bls

monthly publication,

Employment and Earnings.

Concepts and Definitions
Single, never married; married, spouse present; and
other marital status are terms used to define the marital
status o f individuals at the time of interview. Married,
spouse present, applies to husband and wife if both were
reported as members o f the same household even
though one may be temporarily absent on business,
vacation, on a visit, in a hospital, etc. Other marital
status applies to persons who are married, spouse ab­
sent; widowed; or divorced. Married, spouse absent, in­
cludes persons who are separated because o f marital
discord, as well as persons who are living apart because
either the husband or the wife was employed and living
away from home, serving in the Armed Forces, or had a
different place o f residence for any reason.
A family is a group o f two or more persons {elated by
birth, marriage, or adoption to the householder (the
person in whose name the home is owned or rented) and
residing together. All such persons are considered as

The unemployment rate fo r all civilian workers
represents the number unemployed as a percent o f the
civilian labor force. This measure can also be computed
for groups within the labor force classified by sex, age,
race, Hispanic origin, marital status, etc.
30

Not in the labor force includes all persons who are
not classified as employed or unemployed. These per­
sons are further classified as engaged in own home
housework, in school, unable to work because o f long­
term physical or mental illness, retired, and other. The
“ other” group includes individuals reported as too old
or temporarily unable to work, the voluntarily idle,
seasonal workers for whom the survey week fell in an
o ff season and who were not reported as looking for
work, and persons who did not look for work because
they believed that no jobs were available in the area or
that no jobs were available for which they could
qualify—discouraged workers. Persons doing only in­
cidental, unpaid family work (less than 15 hours in the
specified week) are also classified as not in labor force.
Occupation, industry, and class o f worker for the
employed apply to the job held in the survey week. Per­
sons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at
which they worked the greatest number o f hours during
the survey week. The unemployed are classified accor­
ding to their last full-time job lasting 2 weeks or more.
The classifications o f occupations and industries used in
data derived from the c p s through 1982 are defined as
in the 1970 census. Beginning with 1983 data, they are
defined as in the 1980 census. Information on the detail­
ed categories included in these groups is available upon
request.
Full-time workers are persons who usually work 35
hours or more during the survey week. Part-time
workers are those who voluntarily work 1 to 34 hours
during the survey week and those who usually work full
time but worked 1 to 34 hours because of economic
reasons. Persons with a job but not at work during the
survey week are classified according to whether they
usually work full or part time.
Age is based on the age o f the respondent at his or her
last birthday.
Earnings are all money income o f $1 or more from
wages and salaries and net money income of $1 or more
from farm and nonfarm self-employment.
Income represents the total amount of money receiv­
ed in the preceding calendar year from (1) money wages
and salaries; (2) net income from self-employment; (3)
social security; (4) dividends, interest (on savings and
bonds), net rental income, and income from estates and
trusts; (5) public assistance; (6) unemployment and
workers’ compensation, government employees pen­
sions, and veterans’ payments; and (7) private pensions,
annuities, alimony, regular contributions from persons
not living in the same household, net royalties, and
other periodic income. The amount received represents
income before deductions o f personal taxes, social
security, savings bonds, union dues, health insurance,
and the like. The total income o f a family is the sum of
the amounts received by all persons in the family.

31

Median income indicates the value which divides the
income distribution into two equal parts, one part hav­
ing values above the median and the other having values
below the median. The medians shown in this report are
calculated from the corresponding distributions by
linear interpolation within the interval in which the me­
dian falls. Therefore, because o f this interpolation, the
median value depends not only on the distribution o f in­
come but also on the income intervals used in
calculating the median.
White, black, and other are terms used to describe the
race o f workers. Included in the “ other” group are
American Indians, Alaskan Natives, Asians, Pacific
Islanders, and any other race except white and black.
All tables in this bulletin which contain racial data pre­
sent data for the black population group. Because o f
their relatively small sample size, data for “ other” races
are not published. In the enumeration process, race is
determined by the household respondent.
Hispanic origin refers to persons who identified
themselves in the enumeration process as Mexican,
Puerto Rican living on the mainland, Cuban, Central or
South American, or o f other Hispanic origin or descent.
Persons o f Hispanic origin may be o f any race; thus,
they are included in both the white and black population
groups.

Estimating Methods
The estimating procedure used in this survey inflates
weighted sample results to independent estimates o f the
civilian noninstitutional population by age, sex, race,
and residence. These independent estimates are based
on data from the 1980 census and other statistics on
births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and the
Armed Forces.

Rounding of the estimates
The sums o f individual items may not always equal
the totals shown in the same tables because o f indepen­
dent rounding o f the totals and components to the
nearest thousand. Similarly, sums o f percent distribu­
tions may not always equal 100 percent because o f
rounding. Differences, however, are insignificant.

Reliability of the estimates
Since the estimates are based on a sample, they may
differ somewhat from the figures that would have been
obtained if a complete census had been taken using the
same schedules and procedures. As in any survey, the
results are also subject to errors o f response and repor­
ting. These may be relatively large in the case o f persons
with irregular attachment to the labor force. Particular
care should be exercised in the interpretation o f figures

Table A-2. Standard errors for estimated percentages

based on relatively small estimates as well as small dif­
ferences between estimates.
The standard error is primarily a measure o f sampling
variability, that is, o f the variations that might occur by
chance because a sample rather than the entire popu­
lation is surveyed. The standard error also partially
me^ures the effect o f response and enumeration errors
but does not measure any systematic biases in the data.
The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate
differs from a complete census by less than the standard
error. The chances are about 95 out of 100 that the dif­
ference would be less than twice the standard error.
Tables A -l and A-2 provide approximations o f the
standard errors o f estimated numbers and percentages
at the 68-percent confidence level. Standard errors for
intermediate values may be found by interpolation.
Estimated standard errors for specific characteristics
cannot be obtained from tables A-l and A-2 without the
use o f factors in table A-3. These factors must be ap­
plied to the standard errors in order to adjust for the
combined effect o f sample design and estimating pro­
cedure on the value of the characteristic. The determina­
tion o f the proper factor for a percentage depends upon
the subject matter of the numerator of the percentage,
not the denominator. The following examples illustrate
the use o f the standard error tables.
Table B-l o f the supplementary tables show that an
estimated 26,227,000 married women, husband present,
were in the civilian labor force in March 1983. Two
steps, using both tables A -l and A-3, are required to
derive an estimate o f the standard error for this figure.
First, from table A -l, an approximation o f the error
(281,000) is found by interpolation. Next, this estimate
is multiplied by the factor 1.0 from table A-3. Thus, the
chances are about 68 out o f 100 that the difference bet­
ween the sample estimate and a complete census count
would be less than 281,000. The chances are about 95
out o f 100 that the difference would be less than
562,000.
Married women represented 51.8 percent o f all mar­
ried women in the population. The standard error for
this percent is found by multiplying the standard error
(0.4) from table A-2 by the appropriate factor from

Estimated percentage
Base of percentage
(in thousands)

1
or
99

2
or
98

5
or
95

10
or
90

25
or
75

50

7 5 ....................................
1 0 0 .....................................
2 5 0 .....................................
5 0 0 ....................................
1 ,0 00....................................
2 ,5 0 0 ....................................
5 ,0 0 0 .....................................
10,000 ..................................
15,000....................................
25 ,000.....................................
50 ,000.....................................
100,000....................................

2.1
1.9
1.2
.8
.6
.4
.3
.2
.15
.12
.08
.06

3.0
2.6
1.7
1.2
.8
.5
.4
.3
.2
.2
.12
.08

4.7
4.1
2.6
1.8
1.3
.8
.6
.4
.3
.3
.2
.13

6.5
5.6
3.5
2.5
1.8
1.1
.8
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2

9.4
8.1
5.1
3.6
2.6
1.6
1.1
.8
.7
.5
.4
.3

10.8
9.4
5.9
4.2
3.0
1.9
1.3
.9
.8
.6
.4
.3

N ote : For a particular characteristic, see table A-3 for the appropriate fac­
tor to apply to the above standard errors.

table A-3 (1.0): 0.4 x 1.0 = 0.4. Thus, the chances are
68 out of 100 that a complete census count would have
resulted in a figure between 52.2 and 51.4 percent, and
95 out o f 100 that the figure would have been between
52.6 and 51.0.
Two parameters presented in table A-4 (denoted “ a”
and “ b ” ) are used to calculate standard errors for each
type o f characteristic. These parameters were used to
calculate the standard errors in tables A -l and A-2, and
to calculate the factors in table A-3. They also may be
used to directly calculate the standard errors for
estimated numbers and percentages. Methods for direct
computation are given in the following sections.

Standard errors o f estimated numbers. The approx­
imate standard error o f an estimated number can be ob­
tained in two ways. It may be obtained by use o f the for-

where f is the appropriate factor from table A-3, and o
is the standard error on the estimate obtained by inter­
polation from table A -l. Alternatively, standard errors
may be approximated by using formula (2), from which
the standard errors were calculated in table A -l. Use of
this formula will provide more accurate results than the
use o f formula (1) above.

Table A-1. Standard errors for estimated numbers

(2) ox = Vax 2 + bx

(In thousands)
Size of estimate

Standard
error

Size of
estimate

2 5 ......................................................
5 0 ......................................................
1 0 0 ......................................................
250 ......................................................
500 ......................................................
1,000 ......................................................
2,500 ......................................................

9
13
19
30
42
59
93

5,000
10,000
15,000
25,000
50,000
100,000

Here x is the size o f the estimate and a and b are the
parameters in table A-4 associated with the particular
type o f characteristic. When calculating standard errors
for numbers from cross-tabulations involving different
characteristics, use the factor or set o f parameters for
the characteristic which will give the largest standard er­
ror.
Illustration. Table B-6 o f this report shows that in
1983 there were 61,834,000 families. Using formula (2)
with a = - 0.000010 and b = 1,389 from table A-4, the
approximate standard error is:

Standard
error
131
182
221
277
364
424

NOTE: For a particular characteristic, see table A-3 for the appropriate fac­
tor to apply to the above standard errors.

32

V(-0.000010) (61,834,000 )*+

data for both numerator and denominator, depends
upon both the size o f the percentage and the size o f the
total upon which the percentage is based. Estimated
percentages are relatively more reliable than the cor­
responding estimates o f the numerators o f the percen­
tages, particularly if the percentages are 50 percent or
more. When the numerator and denominator o f the
percentage are in different categories, use the factor or
parameters from table A-3 or A-4 indicated by the
numerator. The approximate standard error, <r(x,p), o f
an estimated percentage can be obtained by use o f the
formula:
(3) <r(x, p) = fa-

( 1,389) (61*,834-,000)

= 218,000

The 68-percent confidence interval for the number o f
families is from 61,616,000 to 62,052,000. The
95-percent confidence interval is from 61,398,000 to
62,270,000 (using twice the standard error). Therefore,
a conclusion that the average estimate derived from all
possible samples lies within a range computed in this
way would be correct for roughly 95 percent o f all possi­
ble samples.
Standard errors o f estimated percentages. The reliability
of an estimated percentage, computed using sample

Table A-3. Factors to be applied to generalized standard errors in tables A-1 and A-2
CPS data collected from January 1967 to the present
Persons

Characteristic

Some household members and
secondary individuals

All household members

Families and unrelated
individuals, households,
or householders

Total or
white

Black

Hispanic
origin

Total or
white

Black

Hispanic
origin

Total or
white

Black

Hispanic
origin

Total, regional, or metropolitan....................................
Nonmetropolitan............................................................
Education, te n u re ..........................................................
Employment status and occupation............................

1.00
1.22
1.0
1.0

1.20
1.47
1.0
1.0

1.13
1.38
1.0
1.0

1.10
1.35
1.0
1.0

1.45
1.78
1.0
1.0

1.60
1.95
1.0
1.0

0.63
.77
.63
1.0

0.60
.73
.60
1.0

0.64
.78
.64
1.0

F a rm ....................................................................................

1.38

1.66

1.56

1.52

2.01

2.21

.85

.81

.86

Total or nonfarm:

Table A-4. “a” and “b” parameters for estimated numbers and percentages of persons, families, unrelated individuals,
households, or householders
Families and unrelated
individuals, households,
or householders

Persons
Characteristic
a

b

a

b

Total, regional, or metropolitan:
Total or w h ite ................... . ’...................................................................................
Some household members .............................................................................
All household m em bers...................................................................................
Black and o th e r .....................................................................................................
Some household members .............................................................................
All household m em bers...................................................................................
Hispanic origin
Some household members .............................................................................
All household m em bers....................................................................................

(’)
-0.000017
- 0.000020
(')
-0.000210
-0 .003 08
(’)
- 0.000026
- 0.000044

(’)
3,500
4,253
(’)
5,020
7,402
(’)
4,432
8,917

-0 .000010
(1
)
0
- 0.000087
(’)
0
- 0.000020
0
(’)

1,389
(’)
(’)
1,255
(')
(')
1,422
(')
(')

Education, tenure:
Total or w h ite .........................................................................................................
Black and o th e r .....................................................................................................
Hispanic origin.......................................................................................................

0)
(')
(’)

0)
0)
(’)

-0 .000010
- 0.000087
- 0.000020

1,389
1,255
1,422

Employment status and occupation:
Total or w hite............................................................................... .........................
Black and other ....................................................................... ........................
Hispanic origin.......................................................................................................

0)
(')
(1
)

0)
0)
(’)

- 0.000025
-0.000221
C)
3 - 0.000481

1,798
1,798
2 1,863
3 1,096

1 Not applicable.
2 Use this parameter to calculate standard errors for estimated

percentages only.
3 Use these parameters to calculate errors for estimated levels only.

33

In this formula, f is the appropriate factor from table
A-3, and a is the standard error on the estimate from
table A-2. Alternatively, standard errors may be ap­
proximated by using formula (4), from which standard
errors in table A-2 were calculated; direct computation
will give more accurate results than use o f formula (3).

Standard error o f a difference. For a difference between
two sample estimates, the standard error is approx­
imately equal to:
_
o' (x-y) = V f f i + Ojp

where
and °y are the standard errors o f the estimates
x and y; the estimates can be o f numbers, percents,
ratios, etc.

(4) C
T(X, P) = V 4 * P 0 ° ° ’ P)

This will represent the actual standard error quite ac­
curately for the difference between two estimates o f the
same characteristic in two different areas, or for the dif­
feren ce b etw een sep a ra te and u n c o rre la ted
characteristics in the same area. If, however, there is a
high positive (negative) correlation between the two
characteristics, the form ula w ill overestim ate
(underestimate) the true standard error.
As a general rule, summary measures such as me­
dians, means, and percent distributions are not publish­
ed when the monthly base o f the measure is less than
75,000. Because o f the large standard errors involved,
there is little chance that summary measures would
reveal useful information when computed on a smaller
base. Estimated numbers are shown, however, even
though the relative standard errors o f these numbers are
larger than those for corresponding percentages. These
smaller estimates are provided primarily to permit such
combinations of the categories as serve each user’s
needs.

Here, x is the the size o f the subclass of persons,
families, and unrelated individuals, households, or
householders which is the base of the percentage; p is
the percentage (O x p x 100); and b is the parameter in
table A-4 associated with the particular type o f
characteristics in the numerator of the percentage.

Illustration. Table B-6 shows that of the 61,834,000
families in 1983, 53.0 percent had two or more earners.
From table A-4, the appropriate b-parameter is 1,389.
Using formula (4), the approximate standard error on
53.0 percent is
v ^ g i_ ( 5 3 .0 )( 4 7 .0 M

0.2 percent

Thus, the 68-percent confidence interval on the
estimated percentage is from 52.8 to 53.2 and the
95-percent confidence interval is from 52.6 to 53.4.

34

Appendix B. Supplementary Tables

Table B-1. Employment status of the population by marital status, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, March 1983
(Numbers in thousands)
Civilian labor force

Marital status, sex, race,
and Hispanic origin

Civilian
noninstitutional
popula­
tion

Employed
Total

Participa­
tion rate

Unemployed

Total

Full
time

Part
time

Number

Percent
of
labor
force

Not in
labor
force

Armed
Forces’

TOTAL

T o tal...................................................................... 174,537

109,814

63.2

97,804

78,847

18,957

12,011

10.9

63,841

881

Men2 .............................................................................

83,142

62,035

75.4

54,638

48,251

6,387

7,397

11.9

20,225

881

Never married..........................................................
Married, wife present..............................................
Other marital status................................................
Married, wife absent............................................
W idowed................................................................
Divorced.................................................................

23,672
50,665
8,804
2,243
1,938
4,624

16,468
39,589
5,978
1,718
514
3,745

69.9
79.2
68.6
78.6
26.6
81.5

13,203
36,371
5,064
1,405
467
3,192

9,415
34,257
4,578
1,279
394
2,906

3,788
2,114
485
126
73
286

3,265
3,218
914
314
47
553

19.8
8.1
15.3
18.3
9.2
14.8

7,09410,390
2,742
469
1,423
851

110
687
85
56
1
28

W om en........................................................................

91,395

47,779

52.3

43,165

30,596

12,569

4,614

9.7

43,616

-

Never m arried..........................................................
Married, husband present.....................................
Other marital statu s................................................
Married, husband absent.....................................
Married, husband in Armed Forces................
W idowed...............................................................
Divorced.................................................................

19,617
50,659
21,119
3,258
69
10,895
6,966

12,282
26,227
9,270
1,913
38
2,161
5,196

62.6
51.8
43.9
58.7

6,875
17,116
6,605
1,238
28
1,322
4,046

3,745
7,219
1,605
311
6
673
621

1,661
1,893
1,060
365
4
166
529

13.5
7.2
11.4
19.1
7.7
10.2

7,336
24,432
11,848
1,344
31
8,734
1,770

_

19.8
74.6

10,620
24,335
8,210
1,549
34
1,995
4,667

T o tal...................................................................... 151,164

95,657

63.6

86,382

69,404

16,979

9,274

9.7

54,770

738

72,546

54,813

76.3

48,933

43,302

5,632

5,880

10.7

16,995

738

Never married..........................................................
Married, wife present.............................................
Other marital statu s...............................................
Married, wife absent............................................
W idowed................................................................
Divorced.................................................................

19,524
45,858
7,164
1,591
1,601
3,972

13,927
35,944
4,942
1,266
427
3,249

71.7
79.4
69.6
81.8
26.7
82.2

11,521
33,152
4,261
1,081
391
2,789

8,193
31,240
3,868
990
331
2,547

3,327
1,912
393
91
60
241

2,407
2,792
682
185
36
460

17.3
7.8
13.8
14.6
8.4
14.2

5,503
9,334
2,158
282
1,173
703

94
581
63
43
1
20

W om en........................................................................

78,618

40,843

52.0

37,449

26,102

11,347

3,394

8.3

37,775

f)

0

_
-

-

-

W h ite

Men2 .........................................................................

Never m arried..........................................................
Married, husband present.....................................
Other marital status................................................
Married, husband absent....................................
Married, husband in Armed Forces................
W idowed................................................................
Divorced.................................................................

15,471
45,822
17,326
2,114
42
9,435
5,777

10,099
23,355
7,390
1,237
22
1,809
4,343

65.3
51.0
42.7
58.5
O
19.2
75.2

See footnotes at end of table.

35

9,000
21,766
6,684
1,036
21
1,687
3,961

5,742
15,030
5,330
809
18
1,099
3,423

3,258
6,735
1,354
227
4
588
539

1,099
1,589
706
201
1
123
382

10.9
6.8
9.6
16.3
f)
6.8
8.8

5,372
22,467
9,936
877
20
7,625
1,434

-

_
_
_
-

-

T a b le B -1. Em ploym ent statu s o f th e pop u latio n by m arital status, sex, race, and H ispanic o rig in , M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Civilian labor force

Marital status, sex, race,
and Hispanic origin

Civilian
noninstitutional
popula­
tion

Employed
Total

Participa­
tion rate

Total

Full
time

Unemployed

Part
time

Number

Percent
of
labor
force

Not in
labor
force

Armed
Forces'

B la c k

T o tal.....................................................................

18,922

11,352

60.3

8,969

7,403

1,565

2,384

21.0

7,470

99

Men2 ............................................................................

8,497

5,722

68.1

4,408

3,818

590

1,314

23.0

2,676

99

Never married.........................................................
Married, wife present.............................................
Other marital status...............................................
Married, wife absent............................................
W idowed...............................................................
Divorced................................................................

3,450
3,577
1,470
572
309
588

2,124
2,676
921
392
81
449

61.8
76.3
63.5
69.9
26.1
77.1

1,357
2,348
703
267
70
367

1,006
2,188
623
241
60
322

351
160
80
26
10
44

767
328
218
125
11
82

36.1
12.3
23.7
31.9
14.0
18.2

1,313
833
530
168
229
133

13
67
19
12
7

W om en.......................................................................

10,425

5,631

54.0

4,561

3,586

975

1,070

19.0

4,794

-

Never married.........................................................
Married, husband present.....................................
Other marital status...............................................
Married, husband absent....................................
Married, husband in Armed Forces................
W idowed...............................................................
Divorced................................................................

3,587
3,489
3,348
1,030
19
1,283
1,036

1,864
2,120
1,647
606
11
305
736

52.0
60.8
49.2
58.9

952
1,529
1,105
377
6
189
539

396
352
227
75
2
76
76

515
240
315
155
3
40
121

27.7
11.3
19.1
25.5
0
13.0
16.5

1,723
1,369
1,702
423
8
978
300

-

23.8
71.0

1,348
1,881
1,332
452
9
265
615

T o tal.....................................................................

9,426

5,893

62.8

4,933

4,126

807

960

16.3

3,491

42

Men2 ............................................................................

4,448

3,521

79.9

2,947

2,598

349

573

16.3

885

42

Never married.........................................................
Married, wife present.............................................
Other marital status...............................................
Married, wife absent............................................
W idowed...............................................................
Divorced................................................................

1,450
2,565
433
183
51
199

994
2,198
329
145
15
169

68.7
86.9
76.3
80.2
0
85.1

768
1,908
272
125
14
133

558
1,789
252
118
12
122

210
119
19
7
2
11

226
290
57
20
1
36

22.7
13.2
17.4
14.1
0
21.3

453
330
102
36
36
30

3
37
2
2

W om en.......................................................................

4,978

2,372

47.7

1,986

1,528

458

386

16.3

2,606

Never married.........................................................
Married, husband present.....................................
Other marital statu s...............................................
Married, husband absent....................................
Married, husband in Armed Forces................
W idowed...............................................................
Divorced................................................................

1,213
2,657
1,108
381
4
332
395

639
1,247
487
144
2
82
261

52.7
46.9
43.9
37.7

528
1,041
416
115
1
74
228

376
819
332
89
59
184

152
221
85
26
1
15
43

110
206
70
29
1
8
33

17.3
16.5
14.4
20.1
0
9.5
12.8

574
1,411
621
237
2
250
133

0

_
-

-

_
-

H is p a n ic o rig in

0
24.6
66.2

1 Includes only male members of the Armed Forces living off-post or
with their tamfips on post.
2 Male members of the Armed Forces living off post or with their
families on post are included in the population figures.

-

-

_
_
-

3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not
sum to totals because data for the "other races” group are not presented
and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.

36

T ab le B -2. Em ployed civilian s by o ccu p ation , race, H ispanic o rigin , sex, and m arital sta tu s , M arch 1983
(Percent distribution)______________________________________________ _________________________________________________
Men
Other marital status
Occupation, race, and Hispanic origin
Total

Never
married

Married,
wife
present

Married,
wife
absent

Widowed

Divorced

TOTAL

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

54,638
100.0

13,203
100.0

36,371
100.0

1,405
100.0

467
100.0

3,192
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty............................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial .................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

25.5
13.2
12.3

17.5
7.0
10.5

28.8
15.7
13.1

20.9
11.3
9.6

25.9
9.7
16.2

23.4
12.4
11.0

Technical, sales, and administrative support................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical....................................................

19.7
2.7
11.1
5.8

21.8
3.3
10.5
8.0

19.1
2.5
11.5
5.1

16.3
2.0
9.9
4.4

17.0
1.5
8.6
6.8

19.3
3.4
10.5
5.4

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective.....................................

9.7
.1
2.6
7.1

17.1
.2
2.0
14.9

7.0
(’)
2.8
4.2

11.5
.1
3.4
8.0

11.0
.7
2.1
8.3

9.9
.1
3.0
6.8

Precision production, craft, and repair............................................................
Mechanics and repairers ...............................................................................
Construction trades ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair.............................................

19.7
7.2.
6.9
5.6

14.1
5.1
5.5
3.4

21.6
8.0
7.3
6.3

21.2
6.0
9.1
6.0

17.6
5.8
6.3
5.6

21.8
7.9
7.3
6.6

Operators, fabricators, and laborers...............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.......................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.....................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

20.4
7.8
6.7
5.9

24.5
7.7
5.4
11.5

18.7
7.8
7.0
3.9

24.5
9.0
8.0
7.5

18.0
4.8
5.0
8.1

22.4
8.5
8.5
5.4

Farming, forestry, and fishing ..........................................................................
Farm operators and m anagers.....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations.......................................................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

4.9
2.2
2.3
.4

5.0
1.0
3.6
.3

4.9
2.8
1.8
.4

5.7
1.3
4.2
.2

10.5
5.0
5.3
.2

3.2
.9
1.9
.4

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

48,933
100.0

11,521
100.0

33,152
100.0

1,081
100.0

391
100.0

2,789
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty...........................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial .................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

26.5
13.8
12.7

18.3
7.3
11.0

29.6
16.2
13.4

22.9
12.4
10.5

27.4
10.5
16.9

24.5
12.9
11.6

Technical, sales, and administrative support................................................
Technicians and related support.................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical.....................................................

20.0
2.7
11.7
5.6

22.0
3.4
11.0
7.6

19.4
2.5
12.1
4.9

17.0
2.1
11.0
3.9

19.7
1.7
10.2
7.8

20.5
3.8
11.4
5.3

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service ...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective....................................

8.8
O
2.5
6.2

15.8
.2
1.8
13.9

6.3
(’)
2.7
3.6

10.4
0
3.7
6.7

10.4
O
2.5
7.9

8.8
(’)
3.0
5.7

Precision production, craft, and repair............................................................
Mechanics and repairers ...............................................................................
Construction trades ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair.............................................

20.3
7.4
7.2
5.7

14.6
5.3
5.9
3.4

22.1
8.1
7.5
6.4

22.2
6.7
9.6
5.9

18.0
5.4
6.2
6.4

22.1
8.1
7.7
6.3

Operators, fabricators, and laborers..............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.......................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.....................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

19.4
7.5
6.5
5.4

24.2
7.6
5.5
11.1

17.6
7.5
6.7
3.5

22.7
8.4
7.8
6.5

13.8
4.1
5.6
4.0

20.9
8.3
7.9
4.7

Farming, forestry, and fishing ..........................................................................
Farm operators and m anagers....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations............................. .........................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

4.9
2.4
2.2
.3

5.1
1.1
3.6
.3

5.0
3.0
1.6
.3

4.8
1.7
2.9
.2

10.7
5.8
4.9

3.2
1.0
1.8
.5

W h ite

See footnotes at end of table.

37

(’)

Table b -2 . Employed civilians by occupation, race, Hispanic origin , sex, and marital status, March 1983—Continued
(Percent distribution)

_____________________________________________________________
Men
Other marital status

Occupation, race, and Hispanic origin
Total

Never
married

Married,
wife
present

Married,
wife
absent

Widowed

Divorced

B la c k

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

4,408
100.0

1,357
100.0

2,348
100.0

267
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty............................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial ..................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

12.8
6.7
6.1

10.3
3.7
6.5

14.2
8.2
6.0

10.0
5.9
4.2

Technical, sales, and administrative support.................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical.....................................................

15.1
2.0
4.7
8.5

18.7
2.4
6.1
10.3

14.3
2.1
3.8
8.4

13.6
1.2
6.4
6.0

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service ...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective.....................................

18.7
.3
4.0
14.4

26.2
.2
4.6
21.4

14.8
0

4.1
10.7

16.0
.5
3.1
12.3

Precision production, craft, and repair............................................................
Mechanics and repairers ...............................................................................
Construction tra d e s ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair..............................................

14.8
5.4
4.8
4.6

10.7
4.5
3.1
3.2

16.1
6.1
5.5
4.5

18.4
2.7
8.4
7.3

(*)

ft

(*
)
0

18.8
6.2
3.5
9.1

Operators, fabricators, and laborers...............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors........................................
Transportation and material moving occupations......................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers...............................

33.6
10.7
10.6
12.3

29.5
8.1
5.2
16.2

35.9
12.3
13.6
9.9

31.6
10.1
9.6
11.9

0
O
O
O

34.5
11.1
13.2
10.2

Farming, forestry, and fishing..........................................................................
Farm operators and m anagers.....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations.......................................................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

5.0
.3
4.2
.4

4.6
.2
4.2
.2

4.8
.5
3.6
.6

10.4

0

10.4
0

O
0
(*
>
(*
>

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

2,947
100.0

768
100.0

1,908
100.0

125
100.0

14
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty............................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial ..................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

11.9
7.2
4.7

8.5
4.2
4.3

12.9
8.3
4.6

9.6
4.8
4.8

0
0
O

Technical, sales, and administrative support................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical.....................................................

14.4
1.9
6.5
6.0

17.5
2.1
6.9
8.5

13.5
1.9
6.3
5.2

8.8
.8
4.8
3.2

O
0
<
*>
0

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service ...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective.....................................

15.2
(’)
2.5
12.6

21.0
(’)
2.0
19.0

12.2
(’)
2.6
9.6

25.6
(’)
4.0
21.6

0
0
0

14.3
O
3.8
10.5

Precision production, craft, and repair............................................................
Mechanics and repairers...............................................................................
Construction tra d e s ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair..............................................

20.0
6.7
6.5
6.9

12.9
3.5
4.2
5.1

23.3
8.2
7.7
7.4

16.0
5.6
1.6
8.8

0
0
0
0

18.8
6.0
7.5
5.3

Operators, fabricators, and laborers..............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors........................................
Transportation and material moving occupations......................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

31.3
13.4
7.9
10.0

32.1
11.9
5.7
14.5

31.4
14.3
9.1
8.0

28.0
12.0
5.6
10.4

<
*>
0
0

32.3
11.3
6.0
15.0

Farming, forestry, and fishing..........................................................................
Farm operators and m anagers.....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations.......................................................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

7.2
.4
6.8

8.1
.3
7.8
(’)

6.8
.5
6.2
(’)

12.0
.8
11.2
0

(’)

70
100.0

O
0
(*)

O
0

ft
O

0
0
0

367
100.0
14.6
8.4
6.2
10.9
.6
4.6
5.6
18.2
1.1
2.7
14.5

3.0
3.0

0

H is p a n ic o rig in

0

See footnotes at end of table.

38

O

0
0

133
100.0
18.0
8.3
9.8
15.0
0
9.0
6.8

1.5

e
>

O

0
(*>

0

1.5

T a b le B -2. Em ployed civilian s by o ccu p ation , race, H ispanic o rigin , sex, and m arital statu s, M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Percent distribution)
Women
Other marital status
Occupation, race, and Hispanic origin
Total

Never
married

Married.
husband
present

Married,
husband
absent

Widowed

Divorced

TOTAL

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

43,165
100.0

10,620
100.0

24,335
100.0

1,549
100.0

1,995
100.0

4,667
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty............................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial ..................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

22.4
8.1
14.3

19.2
6.2
13.1

24.4
8.7
15.7

15.9
6.1
9.8

16.8
8.0
8.8

23.4
9.8
13.6

Technical, sales, and administrative support.................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical.....................................................

45.9
3.4
12.7
29.9

47.9
3.5
15.5
28.9

46.2
3.4
12.0
30.9

40.6
3.5
9.5
27.6

40.2
1.3
13.5
25.4

43.6
3.8
10.4
29.3

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service ..........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective........................... .........

18.8
2.2
.4
16.1

23.5
3.5
.5
19.5

15.7
1.3
.3
14.1

27.2
4.7
.8
21.7

27.0
5.8
.3
20.9

17.7
1.8
.8
15.1

Precision production, craft, and repair............................................................
Mechanics and repairers ........................................................,.....................
Construction trades ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair.............................................

2.0
.3
.1
1.6

1.5
.3
.2
1.1

2.0
.3
.1
1.6

2.2
.1
.3
1.8

2.8
.1
.1
2.6

2.4
.3
.2
1.9

Operators, fabricators, and laborers ...............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.......................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.....................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

9.8
7.6
.8
1.5

7.0
4.7
.5
1.8

10.2
8.0
.9
1.3

13.7
10.9
1.0
1.8

12.0
9.6
.5
1.8

12.4
9.9
.8
1.7

Farming, forestry, and fishing ..........................................................................
Farm operators and m anagers.....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations......................................................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

1.1
.3
.8

.9

1.4
.5
.9

.4

1.2
.9
.3

.5
.1
.3

0

.8
(’)

0

0

.4
.1

0

0

0

W h ite

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

37,449
100.0

9,000
100.0

21,766
100.0

1,036
100.0

1,687
100.0

3,961
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty...........................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial.................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

23.2
8.5
14.7

20.0
6.6
13.3

25.1
9.0
16.0

16.8
6.8
10.0

18.3
8.7
9.6

24.0
10.3
13.7

Technical, sales, and administrative support................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales accwpations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical....................................................

47.3
3.3
13.4
30.6

48.4
3.5
16.2
28.6

47.4
3.2
12.5
31.7

46.2
3.4
12.1
30.7

44.6
1.2
15.2
28.2

45.5
4.0
11.1
30.4

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective....................................

17.4
1.9
.4
15.1

23.0
3.4
.4
19.3

14.6
1.0
.3
13.3

23.0
4.1
1.0
17.9

22.3
4.4
.3
17.7

16.0
1.6
.7
13.6

Precision production, craft, and repair...........................................................
Mechanics and repairers ..............................................................................
Construction trades .......................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair.............................................

1.9
.2
.1
1.5

1.5
.2
.2
1.1

1.9
.3
.1
1.5

2.0
.2
.4
1.4

2.6
(’)
.1
2.5

2.4
.3
.2
2.0

Operators, fabricators, and laborers..............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.......................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.....................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

9.1
6.9
.7
1.5

6.3
4.0
.5
1.8

9.6
7.4
.9
1.3

11.6
9.1
.6
1.9

10.6
8.7
.2
1.7

11.5
9.2
.7
1.6

Farming, forestry, and fishing.......................... - ............................................
Farm operators and m anagers....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations......................................................
Forestry and fishing.......................................................................................

1.2
.4
.8

.8

1.4
.5
.9

.4
(')

1.5
1.1
.4

.5
.2
.4

0

See footnotes at end of table.

39

0
.8
(’)

0

.3
.1

0

(’)

T ab le B -2. Em ployed civilian s by occu p ation , race, H ispanic o rigin , sex, and m arital statu s, M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Percent distribution)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Women
Other marital status
Occupation, race, and Hispanic origin
Total

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Married,
husband
absent

Widowed

Divorced

B la c k

Total .............................................................................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

4,561
100.0

1,348
100.0

1,881
100.0

452
100.0

265
100.0

615
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty............................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial .................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

15.7
4.7
10.9

13.6
3.5
10.1

17.6
4.9
12.7

11.1
4.6
6.5

8.2
3.6
4.6

20.9
7.6
13.2

Technical, sales, and administrative support................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical....................................................

35.5
3.2
7.2
25.1

44.6
2.8
10.4
31.4

34.6
3.6
6.4
24.6

28.7
3.3
4.6
20.9

16.0
1.9
4.1
10.1

31.9
3.5
5.7
22.7

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household..................................................................... .....................
Protective service ...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective....................................

30.8
5.2
24.8

28.0
4.0
1.7
22.4

28.0
4.9
.4
22.7

38.7
6.7
.4
31.6

58.2
16.0
.8
41.4

28.2
3.1
1.0
24.1

Precision production, craft, and repair...........................................................
Mechanics and repairers ...............................................................................
Construction tra d e s ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair..............................................

2.1
.3
.2
1.6

1.4
.3
.3
.8

2.9
.2
.2
2.5

2.6
(')
(’)
2.8

1.4
.7

.9
.7

Operators, fabricators, and laborers...............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors........................................
Transportation and material moving occupations .....................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

15.2
12.6
1.0
1.6

11.1
9.2
.4
1.5

16.3
13.8
1.1
1.3

18.0
14.4
1.9
1.7

Farming, forestry, and fishing ..........................................................................
Farm operators and m anagers....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations.......................................................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

.7

ft

1.3
(’)
1.3
O

.6
.1
.6

.9

.7
0

O

.7
0
.7
0

0

O
.7

.2

16.3
12.4
2.3
1.5

18.1
14.7
.9
2.5

(’)
O
(’)
0

ft
ft
ft

O

H is p a n ic o rig in

Total ...................................................... ......................................................
Percent.........................................................................................................

1,986
100.0

528
100.0

1,041
100.0

115
100.0

Managerial and professional specialty...........................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial .................................................
Professional specialty.....................................................................................

12.5
5.4
7.1

11.7
4.2
7.6

14.0
6.1
8.0

5.2
2.6
2.6

ft

ft

11.8
6.6
5.3

Technical, sales, and administrative support................................................
Technicians and related support..................................................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Administrative support, including clerical....................................................

42.0
2.1
10.6
29.3

49.7
1.9
13.4
34.4

39.3
1.9
10.2
27.2

28.7
1.7
7.8
19.1

ft
ft
ft
ft

47.4
3.1
9.6
34.6

Service occupations..........................................................................................
Private household...........................................................................................
Protective service ...........................................................................................
Service, except private household and protective....................................

22.8
3.8
.6
18.4

25.1
4.5
.6
20.0

20.8
2.4
.5
18.0

35.7
12.2
O
23.5

ft
ft
ft

18.4
2.6
.9
14.9

Precision production, craft, and repair...........................................................
Mechanics and repairers...............................................................................
Construction trades ........................................................................................
Other precision production, craft, and repair.............................................

3.3
.5
.2
2.6

2.5
.4

3.5
1.7

2.1

3.7
.5
.4
2.9

1.7

ft
ft
ft
ft

Operators, fabricators, and laborers..............................................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.......................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.....................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..............................

18.2
15.0
1.0
2.4

10.8
9.1
.4
1.3

20.4
16.5
.9
2.9

25.2
20.0
2.6
3.5

ft
ft
ft
ft

Farming, forestry, and fishing ..........................................................................
Farm operators and managers ....................................................................
Farm workers and related occupations......................................................
Forestry and fishing........................................................................................

.2

0

(’)

1.1
(’)

O

1.7
(’)
1.7
0

1.7
(')
.9
.9

ft
ft
ft
ft

ft

1.2

' Less than 0.05 percent.
* Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not

.2

0

74
100.0
(*)

ft

228
100.0

4.4
.4
0
3.9
17.5
13.6
1.8
2.2
.9

ft
.9
0

sum to totals because data for the “other races” group are not
presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black
population groups.

40

T ab le B-3. M arital sta tu e o f th e p opulation and lab o r fo rc e by ag e, race, H ispanic o rigin , and sex, M arch 1983
(Numbers in thousands)
Women

Men'
Age, race, and
Hispanic origin

Other marital status

Other marital status
Total

Never
married

Married,
wife
present

Total

Married,
wife
Widowed Divorced
absent

Total

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Total

Married,
husband Widowed Divorced
absent

Civilian noninstitutional population
TOTAL

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 years....
to 34 ye a rs ....
to 44 y e a rs ....
to 54 ye ars....
to 64 ye ars....
years and over

83,142
7,759
10,379
19,439
14,075
10,721
10,253
10,516

23,672
7,583
7,594
5,713
1,213
638
430
501

50,665
123
2,435
11,670
10,978
8,672
8,719
8,068

8,804
53
351
2,055
1,883
1,411
1,105
1,947

2,243
44
190
630
540
382
255
200

1,938
7
17
45
148
323
1,399

4,624
9
154
1,408
1,298
881
527
347

91,395
7,697
10,682
19,903
14,675
11,484
11,732
15,222

19,617
7,088
5,933
3,809
929
517
512
829

50,659
510
3,949
13,052
10,789
8,535
7,936
5,887

21,119
99
799
3,042
2,957
2,432
3,283
8,506

3,258
76
388
987
738
493
350
226

10,895
19
119
308
718
2,077
7,655

6,966
23
393
1,936
1,912
1,221
857
625

Median age
(years) ................

37.8

22.8

45.1

45.4

39.7

70.0

40.7

40.1

22.3

42.2

59.2

37.4

70.0

40.9

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye ars....
to 24 ye ars....
to 34 ye ars ....
to 44 ye ars....
to 54 ye ars ....
to 64 ye a rs ....
years and over

72,546
6,460
8,823
16,790
12,355
9,417
9,219
9,482

19,524
6,295
6,275
4,587
1,013
515
373
466

45,858
113
2,248
10,463
9,812
7,829
7,999
7,394

7,164
53
300
1,739
1,531
1,073
846
1,621

1,591
44
150
488
381
233
156
140

1,601
7
11
34
109
262
1,178

3,972
9
143
1,240
1,116
731
428
304

78,618
6,336
8,935
16,724
12,518
9,949
10,403
13,752

15,471
5,783
4,662
2,779
653
388
429
776

45,822
462
3,616
11,640
9,623
7,736
7,289
5,456

17,326
91
657
2,306
2,242
1,825
2,685
7,519

2,114
69
289
640
451
305
207
153

9,435
12
93
217
545
1,758
6,810

5,777
23
356
1,573
1,575
974
720
556

Median age
(years) ................

38.4

22.8

45.4

44.7

38.0

70.0

40.3

40.8

22.1

42.5

61.3

36.3

70.0

40.9

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 ye a rs ....
to 34 ye a rs ....
to 44 ye a rs ....
to 54 ye a rs ....
to 64 ye ars....
years and over

8,497
1,095
1,262
2,103
1,332
1,003
856
845

3,450
1,090
1,076
928
180
106
49
21

3,577
5
142
900
839
598
560
533

1,470

572

309

588

3
8
37
59
202

7
149
169
132
92
39

3,489
35
243
986
775
601
503
347

3,348
7
123
639
626
539
525
889

1,030
7
92
304
257
172
130
66

1,036

37
123
136
130
97
50

3,587
1,104
1,111
892
243
117
76
43

1,283

45
275
313
300
247
291

10,425
1,147
1,477
2,518
1,644
1,257
1,103
1,279

4
18
75
152
276
758

26
317
294
214
119
65

Median age
(years) ................

33.9

22.9

43.8

48.4

44.3

69.7

43.2

35.4

23.1

41.2

50.2

39.3

68.1

40.9

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye ars....
to 24 ye a rs ....
to 34 ye a rs ....
to 44 ye a rs ....
to 54 ye ars....
to 64 ye a rs ....
years and over

4,448
598
660
1,266
794
553
332
245

1,450
580
445
307
56
34
14
14

2,565
17
187
829
644
437
272
180

433
1
29
130
94
81
46
52

183
1
17
62
41
37
16
9

51
4
3
12
32

199
11
68
50
42
17
10

4,978
552
732
1,343
935
628
438
351

1,213
477
338
230
71
44
30
23

2,657
62
329
882
623
408
252
102

1,108
13
66
230
241
176
157
226

381
13
37
110
103
59
34
26

332
4
10
29
46
75
168

395
25
110
109
71
47
32

Median age
(years) ................

32.5

21.6

38.9

41.1

37.8

39.0

33.9

21.9

35.9

45.3

38.0

65.3

40.7

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

W h ite

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

B la c k

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

H is p a n ic o rig in

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

0

See footnotes at end of table.

41

T a b le B -3. M arital status o f th e popu latio n and lab o r fo rc e by ag e, race, H ispanic o rig in , and sex, M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Women

Men1
Age, race, and
Hispanic origin

Other marital status

Other marital status
Total

Never
married

Married,
wife
present

Total

Married,
wife
Widowed Divorced
absent

Total

Never
married

Mamed,
husband
present

Total

Married,
husband Widowed Divorced
absent

Civilian labor force
TOTAL

Total ...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 ye ars....
to 34 ye ars....
to 44 ye a rs ....
to 54 ye a rs ....
to 64 y e a rs ....
years and over

62,035
3,907
8,308
17,883
13,177
9,715
7,128
1,917

16,468
3,766
5,841
5,010
989
501
242
120

39,589
104
2,180
11,026
10,495
8,035
6,208
1,542

5,978
38
287
1,847
1,693
1,180
678
255

1,718
30
148
553
466
330
156
34

514
4
14
36
115
196
150

3,745
7
135
1,280
1,190
736
326
71

47,779
3,545
7,343
13,692
10,105
7,053
4,862
1,180

12,282
3,262
4,308
3,184
753
350
320
104

26,227
238
2,489
8,161
7,053
4,957
2,889
440

9,270
45
546
2,347
2,299
1,746
1,652
636

1,913
31
226
681
493
311
141
30

2,161
17
64
191
450
941
498

5,196
14
304
1,601
1,615
985
570
108

Median age
(years)................

35.7

23.8

41.2

39.8

37.7

59.4

38.8

34.5

23.3

38.2

42.4

35.4

58.8

39.2

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 y e a rs ....
to 34 ye ars....
to 44 y e a rs ....
to 54 ye a rs ....
to 64 ye ars....
years and over

54,813
3,468
7,148
15,630
11,680
8,628
6,493
1,766

13,927
3,334
4,869
4,121
858
418
219
109

35,944
96
2,030
9,926
9,421
7,292
5,737
1,442

4,942
38
249
1,583
1,402
918
537
215

1,266
30
116
438
341
212
104
25

427
4
11
30
90
163
128

3,249
7
130
1,134
1,031
615
270
62

40,843
3,191
6,282
11,403
8,546
6,095
4,276
1,051

10,099
2,928
3,536
2,434
558
267
279
98

23,355
223
2,282
7,158
6,207
4,461
2,624
399

7,390
40
463
1,811
1,781
1,367
1,373
554

1,237
26
175
443
294
194
84
20

1,809
10
48
135
374
800
443

4,343
14
279
1,320
1,351
799
489
91

Median age
(years) ................

36.0

23.7

41.3

39.3

36.4

59.7

38.4

34.6

23.0

38.2

42.8

34.4

59.3

39.1

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 ye a rs ....
to 34 y e a rs ....
to 44 ye a rs ....
to 54 ye a rs ....
to 64 ye ars....
years and over

5,722
377
968
1,784
1,158
812
509
113

2,124
372
815
733
113
68
18
4

2,676
5
119
823
784
514
360
71

921
35
228
261
229
131
38

392
30
96
107
100
50
8

81
4
24
32
21

449
4
131
150
104
50
8

5,631
293
903
1,839
1,209
788
495
106

1,864
275
670
632
170
76
35
6

2,120
13
164
744
592
379
205
23

1,647
4
68
464
447
332
254
77

606
4
48
206
172
109
56
10

305
4
10
46
65
128
51

736
16
248
228
157
70
16

Median age
(years)................

33.4

24.2

40.0

42.6

41.5

586

40.9

33.8

24.9

37.4

41.4

37.6

56.8

39.6

T o ta l...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 y e a rs ....
to 34 y e a rs ....
to 44 ydar»
to 54 ye ars ....
to 64 ye ars ....
years and over

3,521
287
555
1,170
727
494
241
47

994
274
368
271
43
28
6
3

2,198
14
162
780
604
396
207
35

329
25
118
79
70
27
9

145
14
56
29
33
9
4

15
2
2
7
4

169
11
62
48
36
11
1

2,372
197
408
749
503
340
154
21

639
175
219
146
48
25
22
3

1,247
16
156
464
325
211
72
3

487
5
33
139
131
103
61
15

144
5
14
55
36
24
9
2

82
2
4
14
27
30
5

261
17
81
81
52
22
8

Median age
(years) ................

32.8

23.0

37.4

37.7

35.7

37.5

32.7

23.3

34.8

40.1

34.8

52.7

39.0

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

W h ite

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Black
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Hispanic origin
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

0

See footnotes at end of table.

42

-

T ab le B -3. M arital sta tu s o f th e popu latio n and lab o r fo rc e by ag e, ra ce , H ispanic o rig in , and sex, M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)

_______________________________________________________
Women

Men'
Age, race, and
Hispanic origin

Other marital status

Other marital status
Total

Never
married

Married,
wife
present

Total

Married,
wife
Widowed Divorced
absent

Total

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Total

Married,
husband Widowed Divorced
absent

Civilian labor force participation rate
TOTAL

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Total
to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

...............
ye ars....
ye a rs ....
ye ars ....
ye ars....
ye ars ....
ye ars....
and over

75.4
50.5
81.9
94.0
94.9
90.9
69.5
18.2

69.9
49.8
77.4
88.3
81.7
78.4
56.2
23.9

79.2
91.2
95.4
97.2
97.1
92.9
71.2
19.1

68.6
88.9
91.7
90.5
83.7
61.4
13.1

78.6
ft
87.5
91.7
87.6
86.3
61.2
17.2

76.3
53.9
82.9
95.0
95.8
91.8
70.4
18.6

71.7
53.1
78.2
90.3
85.0
81.2
58.6
23.4

79.4
91.4
96.0
97.4
97.4
93.4
71.7
19.5

69.6
ft
88.3
92.7
92.4
85.6
63.5
13.3

81.8
ft
86.3
93.7
91.3
91.2
66.5
17.6

26.7

68.1
34.4
77.9
87.2
88.1
81.2
59.5
13.4

61.8
34.2
75.8
80.0
62.6
64.3
0
ft

76.3
0
90.3
95.1
95.5
86.6
64.3
13.4

63.5

69.9

ft
86.1
83.3
76.5
53.0
13.0

ft
82.9
78.9
77.4
51.4
ft

79.9
48.1
85.4
94.1
92.6
89.4
72.5
19.3

68.7
47.2
83.3
88.3
ft
ft
ft
0

76.3
0

80.2

o ,
89.7
96.8
95.0
90.5
76.2
19.5

ft

81.5
ft
91.5
91.8
92.1
83.7
61.9
20.3

52.3
46.1
68.7
68.8
68.9
61.4
41.4
7.7

62.6
46.0
72.6
83.6
81.1
67.7
62.6
12.6

51.8
46.6
63.0
62.5
65.4
58.1
36.4
7.5

43.9
45.3
68.4
77.1
77.7
71.8
50.3
7.5

58.7
40.7
58.4
69.1
66.8
63.0
40.2
13.5

19.8
ft
ft
54.1
62.1
62.7
45.3
6.5

74.6
ft
77.2
82.7
84.5
80.7
66.5
17.2

ft
82.9
62.3
10.9

82.2
ft
91.2
92.2
92.8
84.3
63.1
20.5

52.0
50.4
70.3
68.2
68.3
61.3
41.1
7.6

65.3
50.6
75.9
87.6
85.4
68.7
65.0
12.6

51.0
48.4
63.1
61.5
64.5
57.7
36.0
7.3

42.7
44.1
70.5
78.5
79.4
74.9
51.1
7.4

58.5
ft
60.4
69.2
65.3
63.5
40.8
13.4

19.2
ft
ft
51.6
62.5
68.6
45.5
6.5

75.2
ft
78.3
83.9
85.8
82.1
67.9
16.3

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
10.6

77.1
ft
ft
90.6
88.9
78.8
54.2
ft

54.0
25.5
61.1
73.1
73.5
62.6
44.8
8.3

52.0
24.9
60.3
70.8
70.0
65.1
45.6
ft

60.8
ft
67.7
75.4
76.4
63.1
40.9
6.6

49.2
ft
55.8
72.5
71.4
61.6
48.5
8.7

58.9
ft
51.8
67.9
67.0
63.2
43.3
ft

23.8

71.0

ft
ft
62.1
43.0
46.4
6.7

78.1
77.6
73.4
58.9
ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft

85.1

47.7
35.6
55.7
55.8
53.9
54.1
35.2
5.9

52.7
36.8
64.9
63.5
ft
ft
ft

43.9

37.7

24.6

66.2

26.6
ft
ft
ft
77.6
60.7
10.7

W h ite

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Total ...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 ye a rs ....
to 34 ye a rs ....
to 44 ye a rs ....
to 54 ye a rs ....
to 64 ye a rs ....
years and over

ft

ft

B la c k

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Total ...............
to 19 ye ars....
to 24 ye a rs ....
to 34 ye a rs ....
to 44 ye ars ....
to 54 ye a rs ....
to 64 ye ars....
years and over

ft

H is p a n ic o rig in

16
20
25
35
45
55
65

Total ...............
to 19 ye a rs ....
to 24 ye a rs ....
to 34 ye ars....
to 44 ye ars....
to 54 ye ars....
to 64 ye a rs ....
years and over

86.9

ft

91.1
85.4
86.1
0
ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft

ft

1 Male members of the Armed forces living off post or with their
families on post are included in the population figures.
2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.

ft

46.9

ft

47.4
52.6
52.1
51.8
28.5
3.1

ft

ft

ft

ft
60.6
54.3
58.7
38.8
6.5

ft
49.6
35.1
ft
ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
39.3
7.8

ft

ft
72.9
74.0
ft
ft

ft

NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not
sum to totals because data for the "other races” group are not presented
and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.

43

T a b le B -4. M arital status o f w om en in th e popu latio n and lab o r fo rc e by ag e and p resen ce and ag e o f ch ild ren,
M arch 1983
(Numbers in thousands)
Married, husband
present

Never married

Total
Civilian
Civilian
labor
noninstiforce
tutional
participation
population
rate

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

19,617

12,282

62.6

50,659

26,227

51.8

48.7
71.1
47.3
78.4
88.2
36.3
78.6
31.5
62.9
22.0

17,605
15,068
6,795
5,234
3,039
2,537
736
1,801
465
1,336

11,281
9,899
3,176
3,999
2,723
1,381
632
749
328
421

64.1
65.7
46.7
76.4
89.6
54.4
85.8
41.6
70.5
31.5

25,924
4,751
258
1,730
2,763
21,173
2,136
19,037
5,665
13,373

12,076
3,978
160
1,446
2,372
8,098
1,587
6,512
3,358
3,154

46.6
83.7
61.8
83.6
85.9
38.2
74.3
34.2
59.3
23.6

18,924
9,551
186
1,641
7,724
9,373
7,060
2,312
2,084
229

58.9
55.7
31.6
48.1
58.8
62.6
65.4
55.4
58.0
39.1

2,012
1,763
293
700
770
249
193
57
52
5

1,001
855
86
309
460
146
121
25
22
3

49.8
48.5
29.3
44.1
59.8
58.6
62.8
0
0
0

24,735
12,761
252
2,219
10,290
11,974
8,653
3,321
2,871
450

14,151
6,911
78
1,043
5,789
7,241
5,467
1,774
1,599
175

57.2
54.2
31.1
47.0
56.3
60.5
63.2
53.4
55.7
38.9

17,108
4,471
8
149
4,315
12,637
8,571
4,065
3,502
563

11,340
3,124
3
92
3,029
8,216
5,952
2,264
2,045
219

66.3
69.9
(’)
61.7
70.2
65.0
69.4
55.7
58.4
38.9

569
368
6
57
304
202
151
50
45
5

388
263
2
35
227
125
99
25
22
3

68.1
71.6
(1
)
O
74.4
61.8
65.6
O
O
0

12,992
2,985
1
69
2,915
10,006
6,768
3,238
2,802
436

8,292
2,001
1
46
1,955
6,291
4,558
1,733
1,565
168

63.8
67.0
O
0
67.1
62.9
67.3
53.5
55.8
38.5

With children under 6 years.................
16 to 34 y e a rs ....................................
16 to 19 years...................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

15,005
12,667
580
3,263
8,824
2,338
2,228
110
88
22

7,583
6,427
183
1,549
4,695
1,157
1,108
48
39
10

50.5
50.7
31.5
47.5
53.2
49.5
49.7
44.2
44.4
O

1,443
1,396
287
643
465
48
41
7
7

613
592
84
274
234
22
22

42.5
42.4
29.2
42.7
50.2
(’)
0
0
0
-

11,743
9,776
251
2,150
7,375
1,968
1,885
83
69
14

5,859
4,909
77
997
3,835
950
909
42
34
7

49.9
50.2
30.9
46.4
52.0
48.3
48.2
50.2
0
O

With children 3 to 5 years, o n ly..........
16 to 34 years ....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years...................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

5,810
4,411
17
767
3,627
1,399
1,321
78
63
15

3,350
2,609
5
419
2,185
741
707
34
27
8

57.7
59.1
0
54.7
60.2
53.0
53.5
43.8
0
(’)

460
426
15
212
199
34
29
5
5
-

4,384
3,231
1
377
2,853
1,153
1,090
63
51
12

2,474
1,877

56.4
58.1

-

52.3
53.0
0
45.0
63.1
(’)
0
0
(’)
-

212
1,665
597
566
31
25
5

56.3
58.4
51.8
52.0
0
0
0

With children under 3 years.................
16 to 34 years .....................................
16 to 19 years...................................
20 to 24 years...................................
25 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years...................................
45 years and o v e r ...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

9,195
8,256
563
2,497
5,196
939
907
32
25
7

4,233
3,818
178
1,130
2,510
416
402
14
12
2

46.0
46.2
31.6
45.2
48.3
44.3
44.3

983
969
272
431
266
14
12
2
2

373
366
79
179
108
6
6
-

37.9
37.8
29.1
41.5
40.6
O
O
0
0
-

7,359
6,545
250
1,773
4,522
815
795
19
18
2

3,385
3,032
77
785
2,170
353
342
11
9
2

46.0
46.3
31.0
44.3
48.0
43.4
43.1
0
(’)
(’)

Age of women and presence and age
of children

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
labor
force

T o ta l...............................................

91,395

47,779

52.3

No children under 18 ye ars .................
16 to 34 y e a rs .....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years...................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

59,282
21,144
7,109
7,270
6,765
38,139
3,876
34,263
7,894
26,369

28,856
15,029
3,359
5,702
5,967
13,827
3,045
10,782
4,969
5,813

With children under 18 y e a rs ..............
16 to 34 y e a rs .....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years...................................
25 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years...................................
45 years and o v e r ............................
45 to 54 years................................
55 years and over..........................

32,113
17,138
588
3,412
13,138
14,974
10,799
4,175
3,590
585

With children 6 to 17 years, on ly ........
16 to 34 y e a rs .....................................
16 to 19 years...................................
20 to 24 years...................................
25 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

-

-

0
0
0

See footnotes at end of table.

44

241
226
5
95
126
15
15
-

-

-

T ab le B-4. M arital status o f w om en in th e population and labor fo rc e by age and presen ce and age o f children,
M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Married, husband
absent
Age of women and presence and age
of children

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
laoor
force

Divorced

Widowed

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

Civilian
noninstitutionai
population

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

T o ta l..............................................

3,258

1,913

58.7

10,895

2,161

19.8

6,966

5,196

74.6

No children under 18 years.................
16 to 34 years ....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

1,513
436
44
124
268
1,077
205
873
314
559

841
329
15
88
226
512
147
365
201
165

55.6
75.4
(’)
70.9
84.3
47.5
71.8
41.9
63.9
29.4

10,325
32
4
28
10,293
112
10,181
522
9,659

1,851
21
4
17
1,829
85
1,744
324
1,420

17.9
(')
0
(')
17.8
75.8
17.1
62.1
14.7

3.915
858
12
178
667
3,058
687
2,371
929
1,442

2,808
802
8
165
629
2,005
594
1,412
759
653

71.7
93.6
0
92.8
94.2
65.6
86.5
59.5
81.7
45.3

With children under 18 y e a rs ..............
16 to 34 years ....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

1,745
1,015
32
264
719
730
533
197
179
17

1,072
610
16
139
455
462
346
117
110
7

61.5
60.1
O
52.5
63.4
63.4
64.8
59.4
61.4

570
106
15
91
465
196
269
196
73

311
60
12
47
251
106
145
126
19

54.5
56.4
_

3,05!
1,494
11
215
1,269
1,557
1,225
332
292
40

2,388
1,116
6
138
972
1.272
1,021
251
226
25

78.3
74.7
0
64.3
76.6
81.7
83.4
75.7
77.4
0

With children 6 to 17 years, on ly........
16 to 34 y e a rs ....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years...................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

903
289
8
281
613
425
188
173
15

620
207
4
204
413
297
116
109
7

68.7
71.6

268
28
28
240
95
145
126
19

54.8
(’)
(’)
55.6
56.5
55.0
65.3

2,156
772

0
0
72.4
67.3
69.8
61.6
63.1
0

489
58
58
431
168
263
193
70

15
757
1,384
1,058
326
289
37

1,773
624
8
616
1,148
903
245
223
23

82.2
80.9
(’)
81.4
83.0
85.3
75.3
77.2
0

With children under 6 years.................
16 to 34 years .....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years...................................
25 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r ...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

842
726
32
256
437
117
108
9
6
2

453
403
16
135
252
50
49
1
1
-

53.8
55.5
O
52.7
57.6
42.8
45.3
0
0
0

82
48

43
31

52.4
0
-

12
19
12
11

0
(’)
0
0
(1
)
(’)
0

895
722
11
200
512
172
167
6
3
2

615
491
6
130
356
124
118
6
3
2

68.7
68.0
(’>
65.1
69.5
71.8
70.8
0
0
0

With children 3 to 5 years, on ly..........
16 td34t;.years ....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r ...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

373
304
1
75
228
69
65
3
3
-

204
176
43
133
28
28

54.7
57.7
0
56.4
58.5
(’)
0
0
0
-

24
19

(’)
0
(’)
(’)
0
0
0
(’)
-

546
422

406
311
62
249
95
92
3
1
2

74.4
73.7

With children under 3 years.................
16 to 34 years ....................................
16 to 19 years..................................
20 to 24 years..................................
25 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r..............................
35 to 44 years..................................
45 years and o v e r...........................
45 to 54 years...............................
55 years and over.........................

469
421
31
181
210
48
43
5
3
2

-

249
227
16
93
119
22
21
1
1
“

0

-

15
34
34
28
6
3
3

-

47
28
-

7
22
19
16
3
3

-

53.0
53.9
0
51.2
56.6
0

7
13
5
5
-

-

35
20
-

0

0
0

3
__________________

1 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.

45

6
6
6
6

-

96
326
124
121
3
1
2

0
0
0
0
(’ )

-

-

“

(’)

349
300
11
104
186
48
46

0
0

-

-

0

0

18
12
-

8
12
15
12
3

0
51.7
54.0
54.2
53.9
64.5
0

3

3
-

209
180
6
67
107
28
26
3
3

-

65.3
76.2
76.8
76.3
0
(’)
(’)

59.9
60.1
(’)

64.9
57.8
(’ )

0
0
0
“

T ab le B -5. M arital atatua o f w om en In th e population and lab o r fo rc e by race, H iapanic o rig in , ag e, and p reeen ce and
ag e o f ch ild ren , M arch 1983
(Numbers in thousands)
Total
Race, Hispanic origin, age of women,
and presence and age of own
children

Mamed, husband
present

Never married

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

T o ta l..............................................

78,618

40,843

52.0

15,471

10,099

65.3

No children under 18 ye ars .................
16 to 34 y e a rs .....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

52,025
18,157
33,868

25,347
13,321
12,026

48.7
73.4
35.5

14,778
12,621
2,158

9,775
8,622
1,153

With children under 18 years ..............
16 to 34 y e a rs ....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

26,593
13,839
12,754

15,496
7,555
7,942

58.3
54.6
62.3

693
604
89

With children 6 to 17 years, o n ly.....
16 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r...........................

14,379
3,546
10,833

9,494
2,447
7,046

66.0
69.0
65.0

With children under 6 years..............
16 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r...........................

12,214
10,293
1,921

6,003
5,107
896

T o tal.............................................

10,425

No children under 18 ye a rs .................
16 to 34 years ....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

Civilian
Civilian
labor
noninstiforce
tutional
participation
population
rate

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

45,822

23,355

51.0

66.1
68.3
53.4

23,844
4,384
19,460

11,008
3,690
7,319

46.2
84.2
37.6

324
276
48

46.8
45.7
54.1

21,978
11,333
10,645

12,347
5,974
6,373

56.2
52.7
59.9

172
107
65

123
81
42

71.6
75.3
O

11,596
2,654
8,942

7,346
1,755
5,592

63.4
66.1
62.5

49.1
49.6
46.6

521
497
24

201
195
6

38.6
39.3
O

10,382
8,679
1,702

5,000
4,219
781

48.2
48.6
45.9

5,631

54.0

3,587

1,864

52.0

3,489

2,120

60.8

5,944
2,351
3,593

2,831
1,327
1,504

47.6
56.5
41.9

2,297
1,973
324

1,204
1,013
190

52.4
51.3
58.8

1,583
248
1,335

815
208
607

51.5
84.1
45.5

With children under 18 years ..............
16 to 34 years ....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

4,481
2,791
1,691

2,800
1,707
1,093

62.5
61.2
64.6

1,290
1,134
155

660
564
96

51.2
49.7
62.1

1,906
1,017
890

1,305
713
592

68.5
70.1
66.6

With children 6 to 17 years, o n ly .....
16 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r ...........................

2,207
803
1,403

1,503
595
908

68.1
74.1
64.7

387
254
133

260
178
82

67.1
70.1
61.3

981
245
735

678
192
485

69.1
78.3
66.0

With children under 6 years..............
16 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r...........................

2,274
1,987
287

1,297
1,112
185

57.0
56.0
64.4

903
880
22

401
386
15

44.4
43.8
O

926
771
155

627
521
107

67.8
67.5
69.1

T o tal.............................................

4,978

2,372

47.7

1,213

639

52.7

2,657

1,247

46.9

No children under 18 ye ars.................
16 to 34 years ....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

2,473
1,180
1,293

1,191
698
493

48.1
59.2
38.1

1,028
893
134

574
491
83

55.8
55.0
61.5

852
218
633

402
156
246

47.2
71.6
38.8

With children under 18 y e a rs ..............
16 to 34 years ....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

2,505
1,447
1,058

1,181
656
525

47.2
45.4
49.6

186
151
34

65
50
15

35.0
32.7
O

1,806
1,054
751

845
479
365

46.8
45.5
48.6

With children 6 to 17 years, o n ly.....
16 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r...........................

1,123
318
805

629
201
427

56.0
63.2
53.1

50
28
22

31
18
13

O
0
0

764
209
555

409
126
282

53.5
60.5
50.8

With children under 6 years..............
16 to 34 years..................................
35 years and o v e r...........................

1,382
1,128
254

553
455
98

40.0
40.3
38.5

136
123
12

34
32
3

25.3
25.5
0

1,041
845
196

436
353
83

41.9
41.8
42.5

Civilian
labor
force

W H ITE

BLA C K

H IS P A N IC O R IG IN

See footnotes at end of table.

46

T ab le B -5. M arital statu s o f w om en in th e p op u latio n and lab o r fo rc e by ra ce , H ispanic o rig in , ag e, and p resen ce and
ag e o f ch ild ren , M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Married, husband
absent
Race, Hispanic origin, age of women,
and presence and age of own
children

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
labor
force

Widowed

Civilian
Civilian
labor
noninstiforce
tutional
participation
population
rate

Divorced

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian
labor
force

Civilian
labor
force
participation
rate

W H ITE

T o ta l..............................................

2,114

1,237

58.5

9,435

1,809

19.2

5,777

4,343

75.2

No children under 18 ye ars .................
16 to 34 y e a rs ....................................
35 years and o v e r...............................

1,016
352
664

574
266
307

56.4
75.7
46.2

9,035
28
9,007

1,576
18
1,558

17.4
17.3

3,352
773
2,579

2,415
726
1,690

72.1
93.9
65.5

With children under 18 years ..............
16 to 34 years .....................................
35 years and o v e r...............................

1,097
646
451

664
378
286

60.5
58.5
63.3

400
76
323

234
40
194

58.5
52.1
60.0

2,425
1,180
1,246

1,928
887
1,041

79.5
75.2
83.5

With children 6 to 17 years, o n ly .....
16 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r ...........................

544
160
384

370
112
258

68.0
70.0
67.1

347
43
304

208
19
189

60.0
(’)
62.1

1,720
583
1,137

1,446
481
965

84.1
82.5
84.9

With children under 6 years..............
16 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r ...........................

553
486
67

294
266
28

53.1
54.7
(’)

53
34
19

26
21
5

0
O

705
597
108

482
406
76

68.3
68.1
69.7

T o ta l..............................................

1,030

606

58.9

1,283

305

23.8

1,036

736

71.0

No children under 18 ye ars .................
16 to 34 years .....................................
35 years and o v e r...............................

431
60
370

228
42
186

52.9

249
2
247

21.8
(’)
21.6

488
67
421

335
61
273

68.6

50.2

1,145
3
1,142

64.9

With children under 18 y e a rs ..............
16 to 34 years ....................................
35 years and o v e r...............................

599
343
256

378
216
162

63.2
63.1
63.3

138
20
118

55
12
43

40.0

0

36.6

548
277
271

401
203
199

73.2
73.1
73.3

With children 6 to 17 years, o n ly.....
16 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r ............................

333
122
211

235
91
144

70.5
74.4
68.3

114
9
106

41
4
37

36.0
(’)
34.8

392
173
219

290
130
160

73.9
74.9
73.1

With children under 6 years..............
16 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r ...........................

266
221
45

144
125
18

54.0
56.9

24
11
13

14
8
7

0
0

(’)

156
104
52

111
73
39

71.5
70.1

T o ta l..............................................

381

144

37.7

332

82

24.6

395

261

66.2

No children under 18 ye a rs .................
16 to 34 years .....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

138
26
112

45
12
33

32.9
(’)
29.4

274
2
272

53

19.5
(')
19.6

182
40
143

116
38
79

63.8

With children under 18 y e a rs ..............
16 to 34 years .....................................
35 years and o v e r..............................

243
133
110

99
61
38

40.5
45.4
34.6

58
12
46

28
6
22

O
0

0

212
96
116

145
60
84

68.2
62.9
72.5

With children 6 to 17 years, o n ly .....
16 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r............................

116
33
83

54
19
35

46.8
(’)
42.3

43
3
40

23
2
21

0
<’)
0

150
45
105

112
35
77

74.9
73.7

With children under 6 years..............
16 to 34 years...................................
35 years and o v e r............................

127
100
27

44
41
3

34.7
41.2
0

15
9
7

6
4
1

(’)
<’)
0

62
51
12

32
25
7

O
O
O

0

(’)

BLA C K

0

0

O

O

H IS P A N IC O R IG IN

' Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not
sum to totals because data for the "other races” group are not

-

53

O

55.2

O

presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black
population groups,

47

T a b le B -6. N um ber o f ea rn ers in fam ilies, relatio n sh ip o f earn ers, and fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily , an d ra ce ,
M arch 1983
(Numbers in thousands)______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
Family income in 1982
Type of family, number of earners,
relationship, and race

Total

Under
$1,000

$1,000
to
$1,999

$2,000
to
$2,999

$3,000
to
$4,999

$5,000
to
$6,999

$7,000
to
$9,999

$10,000
to
$12,999

All families...........................................................................

61,834

806

400

597

2,047

2,494

4,118

4,763

Married-couple families.............................................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One ea rn er..............................................................................
Husband ................................................................................
Wife ......................................................................................
Other family member...........................................................
Two earners............................................................................
Husband and w ife ................................................................
Husband and other family m ember..................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................
Three or more earn ers..........................................................
Husband and w ife ................................................................
Husband an earner, not wife ............................................
Husband is not an earner...................................................

49,947
6,427
14,235
11,575
2,048
613
22,306
19,579
2,167
560
6,979
5,808
982
189

459
295
129
45
53
30
29
15
3
10
7
3

135
38
82
42
39
1
15
7
6
2
1

-

-

4

1

194
54
94
60
30
4
43
32
4
7
3
2
2
-

726
318
270
187
69
14
126
113
6
7
12
10
2
-

1,355
672
477
347
109
21
188
157
22
9
19
12
5
2

2,728
1,071
972
718
214
40
623
554
47
22
62
36
17
10

3,465
1,010
1,383
1,041
295
47
970
865
73
32
102
76
19
7

Families maintained by w om en..............................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One ea rn er..............................................................................
Householder.........................................................................
Other family member..........................................................
Two earners............................................................................
Householder and other family member(s).......................
Householder is not an ea rn er...........................................

9,828
2,625
4,568
3,546
1,022
2,634
2,319
315

286
225
57
45
11
4
2
2

242
156
86
77
8
1
1
-

390
236
148
131
16
8
6
2

1,234
776
387
292
95
71
67
4

1,035
481
485
395
90
69
58
11

1,212
336
689
550
140
187
146
40

1,138
178
745
605
140
215
200
14

Families maintained by m e n ...................................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One ea rn er..............................................................................
Householder.........................................................................
Other family member...........................................................
Two earners............................................................................
Householder and other family member(s).......................
Householder is not an earn er...........................................

2,059
273
915
746
169
871
824
46

61
42
19
13
7

23
5
13
8
5
6
6
“

13
1
8
7
2
3
3
“

86
46
33
28
6
7
7

103
37
55
50
5
11
8
2

178
46
99
75
24
33
31
2

160
33
82
65
17
45
42
3

TOTAL

-

“

See footnotes at end of table.

48

-

.

T ab le B -6. N um ber o f earn ers in fam ilies, relation sh ip o f earn ers, and fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily, and race,
M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Family income in 1982
Type of family, number of earners,
relationship, and race

$13,000
to
$14,999

$15,000
to
$19,999

$20,000
to
$24,999

All families..........................................................................................

2,983

7,505

7,596

Married-couple families............................................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Husband ...............................................................................................
W ife.......................................................................................................
Other family m ember..........................................................................
Two ea rn ers...........................................................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................................
Husband and other family m em ber.................................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................................
Three or more earners..........................................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................................
Husband an earner, not w ife............................................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................................

2,267
509
876
664
165
47
775
670
64
41
107
93
9
5

5,930
944
2,106
1,625
392
89
2,536
2,230
207
99
343
258
62
23

Families maintained by w o m en..............................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Householder ........................................................................................
Other family m ember..........................................................................
Two earn ers...........................................................................................
Householder and other family member(s)......................................
Householder is not an e a rn er...........................................................

600
59
371
298
72
170
154
15

Families maintained by m e n ...................................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Householder........................................................................................
Other family m ember..........................................................................
Two ea rn ers...........................................................................................
Householder and other family member(s)......................................
Householder is not an e a rn er..........................................................

116
6
70
62
8
39
39
“

$25,000
to
$34,999

Median
family
income

$35,000
to
$49,999

$50,000
and over

11,998

9,822

6,704

$23,425

6,411
598
2,124
1,776
248
99
3,160
2,812
261
87
529
442
64
24

10,731
525
2,333
2,417
274
142
6,000
5,335
546
119
1,372
1,160
175
37

9,124
236
1,654
1,475
128
51
4,964
4,358
515
92
2,270
1,898
331
41

6,420
157
1,236
1,177
31
28
2,877
2,432
414
31
2,151
1,817
298
35

26,213
12,141
21,716
22,976
15,628
20,692
29,481
29,377
32,165
22,841
41,152
41,415
41,247
29,989

1,285
89
712
557
155
484
440
44

927
41
443
344
99
443
412
31

883
23
304
185
119
557
487
70

429
13
105
49
56
311
258
52

168
14
38
17
21
116
86
30

11,345
4,787
11,773
11,421
13,318
21,238
21,020
24,120

291
24
136
111
25
130
124
7

259
14
134
107
27
111
103
8

384
14
150
128
22
219
203
16

270
5
85
65
20
180
172
8

115

19,968
7,331
17,811
17,975
17,089
27,276
27,428
0

TOTAL

See footnotes at end of table.

49

-

29
29
1
86
86

T a b le B -6. N um ber o f ea rn ers in fam ilies, re la tio n sh ip o f earn ers, and fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily , and race,
M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Family income in 1982
Type of family, number of earners,
relationship, and race

Total

Under
$1,000

$1,000
to
$1,999

$2,000
to
$2,999

$3,000
to
$4,999

$5,000
to
$6,999

$7,000
to
$9,999

$10,000
to
$12,999

All families...........................................................................

53,737

652

252

384

1,319

1,794

3,247

3,950

Married-couple families.............................................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One earn er..............................................................................
Husband ................................................................................
Wife .......................................................................................
Other family member...........................................................
Two earners............................................................................
Husband and w ife ................................................................
Husband and other family member..................................
Husband is not an earner...................................................
Three or more earn ers..........................................................
Husband and w ife ................................................................
Husband an earner, not wife .............................................
Husband is not an earner...................................................

45,273
5,879
13,015
10,684
1,770
562
20,084
17,591
2,013
479
6,295
5,231
916
148

415
259
121
39
51
30
29
15
3
10
7
3

111
30
70
37
32
1
11
7
2
2

-

-

169
44
84
53
27
4
37
26
4
7
3
2
2

603
262
225
154
60
11
108
96
4
7
8
6
2

1,102
534
402
297
85
20
156
136
15
5
10
9
2

2,350
944
813
618
164
31
538
484
38
16
54
32
17
5

3,021
944
1,177
902
235
40
815
736
57
22
84
67
11
6

Families maintained by w om en...............................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One earn er..............................................................................
Householder.........................................................................
Other family member...........................................................
Two earners............................................................................
Householder and other family member(s).......................
Householder is not an ea rn er...........................................

6,783
1,612
3,190
2,432
758
1,981
1,759
221

196
147
47
38
9
2
2

-

-

Families maintained by m e n ....................................................
No earn ers..............................................................................
One e a rn er..............................................................................
Householder.........................................................................
Other family member...........................................................
Two earners............................................................................
Householder and other family member(s).......................
Householder is not an earn er...........................................

1,681
216
726
589
137
740
704
35

41
28
13
6
7

15
2
7
5
2
6
6

White

4

-

*

See footnotes at end of table.

50

-

-

-

-

-

126
74
52
50
2
1
1

203
108
89
79
10
6
4
2

660
394
222
171
51
44
44

616
297
285
233
52
34
32
2

758
209
424
336
88
125
102
23

800
152
509
412
97
140
131
9

13
1
8
7
2
3
3

56
35
19
15
4
2
2

75
29
41
40
1
6
6

“

-

-

139
37
73
60
13
29
27
2

129
26
67
50
17
37
34
3

-

T ab le B -6. N um ber o f ea rn ers in fam ilies , relation sh ip o f earn ers, and fam ily incom e in 1982 by typ e o f fam ily , and race,
M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Family income in 1982
Type of family, number of earners,
relationship, and race

$13,000
to
$14,999

$15,000
to
$19,999

$20,000
to
$24,999

All families..........................................................................................

2,578

6,603

6,731

Married-couple families............................................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn er.............................................................................................
Husband ...............................................................................................
W ife .......................................................................................................
Other family member..........................................................................
Two earn ers...........................................................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................................
Husband and other family m ember.................................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................................
Three or more earners..........................................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................................
Husband an earner, not w ife .............................................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................................

2,046
481
789
597
146
47
683
596
57
31
92
81
9
2

5,356
905
1,918
1,499
341
78
2,235
1,968
181
86
297
222
55
21

Families maintained by w o m en..............................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Householder........................................................................................
Other family m ember..........................................................................
Two earn ers...........................................................................................
Householder and other family m ember(s)......................................
Householder is not sin e a rn e r...........................................................

444
57
269
216
52
119
110
9

Families maintained by m e n ...................................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Householder........................................................................................
Other family m ember..........................................................................
Two earners ...........................................................................................
Householder and other family member(s)......................................
Householder is not an e a rn e r...........................................................

88
6
51
44
7
30
30

$25,000
to
$34,999

Median
family
income

$35,000
to
$49,999

$50,000
and over

10,836

9,051

6,340

$24,524

5,783
576
1,965
1,656
223
85
2,802
2,506
228
69
440
369
54
16

9,810
509
2,674
2,288
250
137
5,414
4,786
522
106
1,212
1,020
162
31

8,433
234
1,585
1,412
123
49
4,538
3,952
498
88
2,075
1,731
309
35

6,074
157
1,190
1,131
30
28
2,716
2,282
404
30
2,012
1,690
293
29

26,713
12,710
22,306
23,457
16,225
21,094
29,852
29,648
33,007
23,843
41,793
41,983
41,986
31,693

1,020
85
556
429
127
379
347
32

739
40
356
268
88
343
324
19

691
23
242
138
104
426
372
54

374
13
103
47
56
258
214
44

155
14
37
16
21
104
77
27

13,145
5,490
12,820
12,278
15,711
22,053
21,659
27,639

227
21
111
94
17
95
91
4

209
12
100
75
25
97
91
6

335
14
133
111
21
188
174
14

244
5
72
53
20
167
160
7

110

21,379
8,007
18,709
18,560
19,519
28,515
28,638
0

W h ite

See footnotes at end of table.

51

-

29
29
1
81
81
“

T ab le B -6. N um ber o f earn ers in fam ilies, relation sh ip o f earn ers, and fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily , and race,
M arch 1983— C ontinued
(Numbers in thousands)______ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Family income in 1982
Type of family, number of earners,
relationship, and race

Total

Under
£1,000

$1,000
to
51,999

$2,000
to
$2,998

$3,000
to
$4,999

$5,000
to
$6,999

$7,000
to
$9,999

$10,000
to
$12,999

8!ac M
All families...........................................................................

6,628

138

136

197

679

622

755

703

Married-couple families............................................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One ea rn er..............................................................................
Husband ...............................................................................
Wife .......................................................................................
Other family member..........................................................
Two earners................................................... ........................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................
Husband and other family m ember..................................
Husband i< not an earner..................................................
Three or more earners .........................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................
Husband an earner, not wife ............................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................

3,504
435
899
620
238
42
1,683
1,502
114
67
487
407
49
31

33
28
5
4
2
-

18
4
11
5
6
2
2
1
1

20
5
9
7
2
6
6
-

98
50
33
23
7
3
15
13
2
-

204
115
62
41
21
22
13
7
2
6
1
3
2

312
101
137
86
43
8
69
54
8
6
5
3
2

360
49
171
115
51
5
123
100
13
10
17
9
7
1

Families maintained by w om en..............................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One earn er..............................................................................
Householder .........................................................................
Other family member..........................................................
Two earners ...........................................................................
Householder and other family member(s).......................
Householder is not an earn er.................. .........................

2,808
964
1,265
1,030
236
579

495

88
76
10
7
2
2
-

84

2

110
77
33
26
6
-■

177
123
£2
50
2
2
2
-

555
374
156
116
40
25
22
3

392
170
188
155
33
34
26
8

408
115
242
198
44
51
36
14

316
24
226
183
43
66
60
6

Families maintained by m e n ...................................................
No earners ..............................................................................
One ea rn er..............................................................................
Householder.........................................................................
Other family member..........................................................
Two earners...........................................................................
Householder and other family member(s).......................
Householder is not an earn er...........................................

316
48
166
138
28

17
11
6
6
"

26
9
14
12
2
3
3
*

25

35
8
23
13
10
3
3
“

27
5
15
15
6
6
-

102
93
8

See footnotes at end of table.

52

8
2
5
3

2
”

-

_
“

9
11
8
4
5
3
2

T ab le B -6. Num ber o f ea rn ers in fam ilies, re latio n sh ip o f earn ers, and fam ily incom e in 1982 by typ e o f fam ily , and race,
M arch 1983— C o ntinued
(Numbers in thousands)
Family income in 1982
Type gi fam ly, number of earners,
relationship, and race

$13,000
to
$14,999

$15,000
to
$19,999

$20,000
to
$24,999

$25,000
to
$34,999

$35,000
to
$49,999

$50,000
and over

Median
family
income

Black
All families..........................................................................................

344

Married-couple families......................................... ..................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Husband ...............................................................................................
W ife .......................................................................................................
Other family m ember..........................................................................
Two earn ers...........................................................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................................
Husband and other family m em ber.................................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................................
Three or more earners..........................................................................
Husband and w ife ...............................................................................
Husband an earner, not w ife.............................................................
Husband is not an earner..................................................................

180
27
66
49
17
74
57
7
10
13
10
4

459
31
153
96
47
10
236
207
17
12
40
33
5
2

Families maintained by w o m en..............................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Householder........................................................................................
Other family member..........................................................................
Two earn ers...........................................................................................
Householder and other family m ember(s)......................................
Householder is not an e a rn er...........................................................

136
1
90
70
20
45
39
6

233
3
138
115
23
92
82
10

Families maintained by m e n ...................................................................
No earners..............................................................................................
One e a rn e r.............................................................................................
Householder........................................................................................
Other family member..........................................................................
Two earners ...........................................................................................
Householder and other family member(s)......................................
Householder is not an e a rn er.............................. ............................

27
19
18
1
8
8

50
3
18
12
6
29
26
2

706

743

1 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Data on the number and type of families are collected in

,

927

507

173

$13,493

495
13
116
84
19
12
297
252
29
16
69
56
6
7

716
12
110
88
19
2
461
436
17
8
133
115
11
6

447
20
17
2
1
305
292
10
3
122
103
14
5

161
7
6
73
71
2
81
76
4
1

20,678
7,471
13,655
14,238
12,454
0
$24,962
26,105
20,170
0
$31,959
32,900
0
0

173
78
67
10
94
83
12

166
52
41
12
114
100
13

44
44
38
6

10
-

$7,489
4,069
9,419
9,370
9,558
18,504
18,780
16,218

44

16
8
8
8
8

38
-

-

27
25
2
11
9
2

March of the subsequent year.
preceding calendar year.

53

18
17
1
27
26
1

~

10
7
3
1
1
1

14,447
O
$13,777
14,263
0
$19,333
19,376
0

Income and earner status refer to the

T a b le B-7. N um ber o f ch ild ren in fam ilies in M arch 1983 and m edian fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily, em ploym ent
Number of children (in thousands)
Type of family employment status of parents,
race, and Hispanic origin

6 to 17 years
Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Median family income (in dollars)
6 to 17 years

Under
6
years

Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6
years

TOTAL

T o tal..................................................................

58,034

39,030

13,622

25,408

19,003

$23,017

$24,432

$26,800

$23,346

$20,514

Mother in labor force................................................
Employed..................................................................
Unemployed.............................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e.........................................

31,884
28,398
3,487
25,062

22,995
20,688
2,307
15,194

8,408
7,652
756
4,798

14,587
13,036
1,551
10,396

8,889
7,710
1,179
9,868

25,356
26,714
13,990
20,139

26,490
27,700
14,117
21,531

28,900
30,014
15,856
23,291

25,165
26,409
13,325
20,818

23,022
24,349
13,807
18,255

In married-couple familes.........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

46,084
25’166
22,944
2,222
20,918

30,344
17,794
16,390
1,404
12^550

10,404
6*477
6,023
454
3,927

19,940
11*317
10,367
950
8,623

15 740

28,808
30*964
31,582
22*334
25,292

'l l 3A3

?7

6,554
819
8,368

26 831
29*462
30,226
20 502
23*465

33*508
34,093
23 668
27^535

29*658
30,273

23,389
25*931
26,986

24,410

21*224

Father in labor fo rc e.......... ....................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed...........................................................
Unemployed ......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

43,150
23,919
21,871
2,048
19,231

28,364
16,869
15,582
1,287
11,495

9,619
6,086
5,686
400
3,533

18,746
10,783
9,896
886
7,963

14,786
7,050
6,289
761
7,736

27,638
29,957
30,652
21,439
24,444

29,631
31,492
32,047
23,613
26,580

32,416
34,200
34,679
25,833
29,158

28,294
30,113
30,685
22,603
25,460

23,981
26,359
27,333
18,541
22,035

Father employed............................. .....................
Mother in labor force .......................................
Employed........................................................
Unemployed....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

39,312
21,783
20,196
1,587
17,529

26,012
15,458
14,456
1,002
10,554

8,900
5,646
5,323
322
3,254

17,112
9,812
9,133
679
7,300

13,301
6,326
5,740
586
6,975

28,684
30,882
31,372
23,933
25,599

30,586
32,373
32,749
26,638
27,726

33,292
35,002
35,410
29,386
30,177

29,286
31,017
31,406
25,464
26,661

24,939
27,402
28,096
19,625
23,093

Father unemployed........................... .................
Mother in labor force .......................................
Employed ........................................................
Unemployed....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

3,838
2,136
1,675
461
1,702

2,353
1,411
1,126
285
941

719
440
363
78
279

1,634
971
764
207
663

1,485
724
549
176
761

16,423
19,748
20^954
15,695
12,751

17,936
20,462
21 > 59
16,755
13,796

19,776
21 716
24*360
15,846
17,267

17,155
20 044
20*863
17,244
12,740

14,335
18,572
19^891
13,754
11,659

Father not in labor fo rc e .......................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed...........................................................
Unemployed ......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

1,949
843
724
119
1,106

1,482
672
571
101
810

668
326
274
52
342

814
346
297
49
468

468
171
154
18
296

12,601
17,736
18357
12,673
9,527

13,248
17 613
18*640
13,160
9,875

14,877
16 293
19^493

11,626
16 666
17>75

11,178
18 264
19>80

Father in Armed Forces........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed...........................................................
Unemployed ......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

984
404
349
56
580

498
253
237
16
245

118
65
64
1
52

380
188
174
14
192

487
151
111
40
336

19,541
23,565
24,950

23,837
27,254
28,039

0

0

$17,138

$19,267

In families maintained by women ...........................
Mother in labor fo rce.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

10,862
6,718
5,453
1,264
4,145

7,845
5,201
4,297
904
2,644

2,801
1,931
1,628
302
871

5,044
3,270
2,669
601
1,774

3,017
1,517
1,156
361
1,501

7,912
11,428
12,696
5,127
4,968

9,070
12,066
13,405
5,511
5,596

In families maintained by m e n ................................
Father in labor fo rce..............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Father not in labor fo rc e .......................................
Father in Armed Forces........................................

1,087
949
796
153
120
19

842
729
629
101
104
9

417
361
315
46
53
4

425
368
314
55
51
5

246
220
167
53
16
10

17,573
18,882
20,632
9,152
7,812

19,858
21,527
23,030
9,730
8,043

See footnotes at end of table.

54

7,312

0

0

0

?1

0

ft

$11,530

$8,754

$8,928

28,956

22,350
25,897
26,926

16,301
18,349
18,143

(’)

ft

0

ft

$18,656

$14,900

$11,087
14,326
15,696
6,822
6,289

8,377
11,200
12,403
5,118
5,316

5,505
8,808
10,651
3,929
4,206

21,412
23,985
25,479

18,448
20,025
21,602

12,531
12,761
14,734

0
0

0

ft
ft

0
0
0

ft
ft
ft

T ab le B -7. Num ber o f ch ild ren in fam ilies in M arch 1983 and m edian fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily , em ploym ent
Median family income (in dollars)

Number of children (in thousands)
Type of family employment status of parents,
race, and Hispanic origin

6 to 17 years
Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

6 to 17 years

Under
6
years

Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6
years

White
T o tal..................................................................

48,526

32,546

11,375

21,171

15,980

$24,538

$26,327

$29,058

$24,923

$21,719

Mother in labor force.................................................
Employed..................................................................
Unemployed.............................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e.........................................

26,314
23,831
2,482
21,340

19,058
17,367
1,691
12,809

7,037
6,475
561
3,996

12,021
10,892
1,129
8,813

7,256
6,464
792
8,531

26,866
27,835
16,972
22,109

28,152
29,039
17,609
23,801

30,878
31,691
18,776
26,135

26,650
27,559
16,976
22,880

23,905
24,816
15,822
20,072

In married-couple familes..........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e .............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

40,814
21,840
19,988
1,851
18,975

26,814
15,517
14,300
1,217
11,298

9,208
5,697
5,307
390
3,511

17,606
9,820
8,993
827
7,786

14,000
6,323
5,688
634
7,677

27,380
29,986
30,669
21,563
24,141

29,498
31,625
32,213
23,231
26,259

32,410
34,529
35,055
25,659
28,723

28,099
30,120
30,729
22,320
25,210

23,644
26,097
26,950
18,955
21,786

Father in labor fo rc e ..............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed .......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

38,512
20,885
19,160
1,724
17,628

25,240
14,793
13,672
1,121
10,446

8,617
5,406
5,059
347
3,210

16,623
9,387
8,613
774
7,236

13,273
6,091
5,489
603
7,181

28,044
30,393
31,022
22,434
24,935

30,193
32,070
32,589
24,431
27,324

33,226
35,069
35,585
28,006
30,019

28,739
30,523
31,090
23,155
26,183

24,110
26,433
27,248
19,258
22,408

Father employed...................................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ........................................
Employed.........................................................
Unemployed.....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

35,307
19,145
17,814
1,331
16,162

23,310
13,667
12,787
880
9,643

8,025
5,053
4,768
285
2,972

15,284
8,614
8,019
595
6,670

11,997
5,478
5,027
451
6,519

29,006
31,242
31,660
25,453
26,120

31,049
32,846
33,200
27,488
28,377

33,997
35,908
36,240
31,005
30,948

29,642
31,329
31,708
25,934
27,313

25,021
27,473
27,971
21,508
23,369

Father unemployed ..............................................
Mother in labor force ........................................
Employed.........................................................
Unemployed.....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

3,206
1,739
1,346
393
1,466

1,930
1,126
885
241
804

592
353
291
62
238

1,338
773
593
179
566

1,276
613
462
152
662

16,639
20,429
22,068
15,610
13,059

18,361
21,702
23,682
16,964
13,896

21,396
24,411
26,936
$17,539

17,257
20,786
22,117
17,252
12,924

14,517
18,718
20,270
13,664
12,174

Father not in labor fo rc e ........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ...........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed ......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ............................. ...

1,495
644
549
95
851

1,147
513
428
85
634

501
245
204
41
256

645
268
224
44
378

349
131
121
11
217

12,899
17,613
18,671
12,601
10,123

13,597
17,400
18,459
12,628
10,653

15,476
18,234
19,452

11,758
16,424
17,329

11,270
18,555
19,567
0
$9,118

Father in Armed Forces........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed ......................................................
Mother not in labor force ...................................

807
311
279
32
496

428
211
200
11
217

90
45
44
1
45

339
166
156
9
173

378
100
79
21
278

19,668
25,170
26,527
(’)
$17,739

In families maintained by w o m en ...........................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed ..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

6,839
4,474
3,843
631
2,365

5,053
3,541
3,068
473
1,512

1,825
1,340
1,168
171
485

3,228
2,201
1,899
302
1,027

1,786
933
776
157
853

In families maintained by men ................................
Father in labor fo rc e..............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed ..........................................................
Father not in labor fo rc e .......................................
Father in Armed Forces........................................

873
772
681
91
86
15

679
601
544
57
70
7

342
307
281
27
32
2

337
294
264
30
38
4

194
170
136
34
15
9

See footnotes at end of table.

55

O

O

0

$13,030

$8,946

25,381
28,903
29,390
(')
$19,464

32,562
(’)

23,210
27,026
27,648

9,246
12,714
13,757
5,942
5,254

10,929
13,642
14,679
7,046
5,843

19,008
20,282
21,614
10,937
7,894

21,668
23,382
24,578

O

O
(’)
0

$18,710

16,273
17,094
16,945
(’)
$15,892

$13,611
16,317
17,323
7,902
6,498

9,890
12,279
13,168
5,781
5,583

6,013
9,954
11,008
4,517
4,282

24,410
26,172
27,018
0
0

20,359
21,594
22,660

13,409
13,784
15,185

O

O
0
O

0
0

0

O

O

(’)
(’)

T ab le B -7. N um ber o f ch ild ren in fam ilies in M arch 1983 and m edian fam ily incom e in 1982 by typ e o f fam ily, em ploym ent
Number of children (in thousands)
Type of family employment status of parents,
race, and Hispanic origin

6 to 17 years
Total
Total

•

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Median family income (in dollars)
6 to 17 years

Under
6
years

Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6
years

Black
T o tal..................................................................

7,692

5,266

1,884

3,382

2,426

$11,667

$12,205

$13,256

$11,643

$10,475

Mother in labor fo rce............... .................................
Employed..................................................................
Unemployed.............................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e .........................................

4,524
3,641
883
2,975

3,200
2,672
528
1,921

1,137
979
158
680

2,063
1,693
370
1,240

1,324
969
355
1,054

16,586
19,522
6,553
6,845

16,663
19,568
6,002
7,448

18,054
20,071
7,976
8,269

15,780
19,240
5,644
6,965

16,440
19,414
9,056
5,693

In married-couple familes.........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e..............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

3,769
2,467
2,161
305
1,302

2,546
1,677
1,535
143
869

915
602
554
48
313

1,631
1,075
980
94
556

1,223
789
627
163
433

21,949
24,873
26,103
17,275
14,545

22,771
25,684
26,377
17,564
15,694

23,044
25,435
26,335
0
$16,455

22,607
25,812
26,400
16,482
15,222

20,119
23,373
25,436
17,134
12,516

Father in labor fo rc e..............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed...........................................................
Unemployed ......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

3,333
2,253
1,977
277
1,080

2,256
1,530
1,394
136
726

765
522
476
46
243

1,491
1,008
918
89
484

1,077
723
582
141
354

22,992
25,700
26,858
17,011
16,315

23,884
26,603
27,301
17,390
17,591

24,460
26,762
27,741
0
$19,098

23,554
26,527
27,084
15,849
16,713

21,039
23,780
25,757
16,840
13,334

Father employed..................................................
Mother in labor force .......................................
Employed.........................................................
Unemployed.....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

2,853
1,950
1,732
218
903

1,942
1,318
1,220
98
624

664
453
419
34
211

1,277
865
800
64
413

912
632
513
120
279

24,293
26,995
27,994
17,200
17,345

25,235
28,003
28,487
19,370
18,266

25,888
28,302
28,967

24,862
27,852
28,243
0
$17,374

22,326
24,620
26,775
16,764
15,044

Father unemployed.............................................
Mother in labor force .......................................
Employed.........................................................
Unemployed.....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

480
303
244
59
177

315
212
175
37
103

100
69
57
12
31

214
143
118
25
71

165
91
70
21
74

15,232
16,900
17,069
0
$10,815

15,964
16,704
16,990

16,270
17,638
18,012

12,321
17,374
(')

Father not in labor fo rc e .......................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed .......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

320
154
147
7
166

244
123
121
2
121

130
67
65
2
62

115
56
56

12,958
20,205
20,595
(’)
$8,729

$12,179

59

76
31
26
5
45

Father in Armed Forces........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed .......................................................
Mother not in labor force ...................................

115
59
37
22
56

45
24
19
5
21

21
13
13

70
35
18
17
34

19.954
(’)

8

25
11
6
5
13

In families maintained by women ...........................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

3,730
2,057
1,480
577
1,673

2,574
1,522
1,137
386
1,052

902
534
424
110
368

1,672
988
712
276
684

1,156
535
343
192
621

In families maintained by men ................................
Father in labor fo rc e..............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Father not in labor fo rc e .......................................
Father in Armed Forces........................................

193
165
105
60
25
4

146
119
77
42
25
2

67
49
32
17
16
2

79
70
46
24
8

48
46
28
18

-

See footnotes at end of table.

56

-

-

2

0
$19,845
15,527

O
0

O

O
O

O
O

13,433
20,266
20,382

$14,239

$12,344

$11,815

O

O
O

O
O

O
O

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0

(’)
0
0

0
0
(1
)
0
(1
)

0
0
(’)
0

0
(1
)
0
0
0

$6,108
8,538
10,590
4,129
4,602

$6,796
8,915
10,861
4,497
4,894

$7,878
10,258
11,610
4,934
5,710

$6,439
8,486
10,442
4,315
4,720

$4,842
6,733
8,995
3,741
4,111

9,584
10,682
16,547
(’)
0

9,884
14,104
17,853
0
0
0

O
O

9,846

O

O

(’)
(’)
(’)
0

0
(’)
0
0

(’)
0
(’)
0

O

O
0

O

O

$8,630
0

O

•

0

T ab le B -7. N um ber o f ch ild ren in fam ilies in M arch 1983 and m edian fam ily incom e in 1982 by ty p e o f fam ily , em ploym ent
Median family income (in dollars)

Number of children (in thousands)
Type of family employment status of parents,
race, and Hispanic origin

6 to 17 years
Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6
years

6 to 17 years
Total
Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

Under
6
years

H is p a n ic o r ig in

T o tal..................................................................

5,095

3,347

1,023

2,324

1,748

$14,776

$15,568

$16,320

$15,229

$13,127

Mother in labor force.................................................
Employed..................................................................
Unemployed.............................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e..........................................

2,233
1,831
401
2,777

1,611
1,340
271
1,676

510
441
69
487

1,101
899
202
1,189

621
491
130
1,101

19,719
21,337
13,342
11,423

19,627
20,776
14,638
11,899

20,045
21,158
0
$12,280

19,452
20,606
14,127
11,779

19,982
22,631
12,246
10,769

In married-couple familes..........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ..............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e .......................................

3,722
1,684
1,370
314
2,039

2,372
1,164
953
212
1,208

675
347
299
47
329

1,697
818
653
164
879

1,350
519
417
102
830

18,686
23,830
25,708
16,503
14,785

19,510
24,367
26,140
17,829
15,787

21,181
26,334
27,640
$17,377

16,946
23,641
25,504
17,339
15,101

16,983
22,749
24,845
14,121
13,339

Father in labor fo rc e...............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ...........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed .......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ....................................

3,460
1,612
1,314
298
1,848

2,191
1,112
915
197
1,078

610
329
287
42
282

1,581
784
628
156
797

1,269
499
399
100
769

19,225
23,961
25,880
16,628
15,416

20,163
24,598
26,395
18,078
16,517

22,329
26,850
28,012
0
$18,326

19,456
23,793
25,729
17,345
15,852

17,422
22,726
24,813
14,054
13,840

Father employed...................................................
Mother in labor force ........................................
Employed.........................................................
Unemployed.....................................................
Mother not in labor force..................................

2,954
1,354
1,167
187
1,600

1,878
943
817
126
935

530
285
257
27
245

1,348
658
560
99
690

1,076
412
350
61
664

20,513
25,272
26,751
16,862
16,650

21,351
25,666
27,065
17,692
17,680

23,664
28,744
29,205
0
$19,435

20,419
24,454
26,201
16,183
17,030

19,037
24,587
26,080
0
$14,877

Father unemployed..............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ........................................
Employed.........................................................
Unemployed.....................................................
Mother not in labor force.................................

506
257
147
111
248

313
170
98
72
143

80
44
29
15
36

232
126
69
57
107

193
88
49
39
105

12,685
16,260
16,202
16,316
9,714

13,901
17,893
16,967
0
$10,392

13,798
0
0
0
0

13,941
18,731
0
0
$9,983

10,216
14,137
0
0
$8,953

Father not in labor fo rc e ........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ...........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed .......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ...................................

204
55
40
15
149

155
43
29
14
112

63
17
11
6
46

92
26
18
9
66

48
12
12

11,343
0

11,461
0

Father in Armed Forces.........................................
Mother in labor fo rc e ...........................................
Employed............................................................
Unemployed .......................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ....................................

59
17
15
1
42

26
9
9

3
2
2

24
7
7

In families maintained by w o m en ...........................
Mother in labor fo rc e ............ .................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e .......................................
In families maintained by m e n ................................
Father in labqr fa rc e ...............................................
Employed...............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Father not in labor fo rc e .......................................
Father in Armed Forces........................................

-

36

O

0
$9,519

O

0
$9,846

(’)

( ')

0
0
0
0

17

1

16

33
8
6
1
25

1,287
549
461
87
738

915
447
388
59
468

322
163
142
21
158

594
284
246
38
310

372
102
74
28
270

$6,678
10,055
11,141
5,349
5,565

$7,725
10,740
11,737
0
$5,978

86
65
50
16
16
4

59
41
32
9
16
2

26
16
15
1
10

33
25
17
8
6
2

26
24
18
6

12,493
C)

(')
0
(’)

0

O

0

0
0

O

0
0

-

-

-

-

Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not
sum to totals because data for the “other races” group are not presented

-

2

(')

0

0

0
0
0
0

( ')

( 1)

0

0
0
0

O

( ')

0

0

$8,181
12,642
13,396
0
$6,252

9,961
( ')

O
O

0

(’)

( ')

0

( ')

(’)

0
0
0
0
0
$7,455
10,204
11,128
0
$5,810

0
C)

0
0
0
$5,246
6,956
0
0
$4,916

O

O

0

0

0
(')
(')
0
0

0
0
(')
0

O

C)

and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
Data on children in families are collected in March of the subsequent
year. Data on income refer to the preceding calendar year.

57

Table B-8. Number of families with children in March 1983 and median family Income in 1982 by type of family, employment
statue of mother, race. Hispanic origin, and age of children____________________ ____________________________________
Median family income in 1982 On dollars)

Number of families (in thousands)
With children 6 to 17 only
Type of family, employment status of mother,
race, and Hispanic origin

With
children
under 18
years

Total

With
children
14 to 17
years,
only

With
children
6 to 13
years

With children 6 to 17 only
With
children
under 6
years

With
children
under 18
years

Total

With
children
14 to 17
years,
only

With
children
6 to 13
years

With
children
under 6
years

TOTAL
Married-couple fam ilies............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed..........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

24.371
13,992
12,834
1,158
10,379

12,906
8,244
7,688
556
4,662

4,014
2,605
2,472
133
1,408

8,893
5,639
5,216
423
3,254

11,465
5,748
5,145
603
5,717

$27,538
30,027
30,768
20,922
23,893

$31,044
32,767
33,291
24,803
27,723

$33,832
36,442
36,947
23,488
29,547

$29,960
31,458
31,944
25,296
26,932

$23,856
26,301
27,288
18,477
21,520

Families maintained by wom en...............................
Mother in labor fo rc e .............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

6,040
4,047
3,347
700
1,993

3,746
2,780
2,374
406
966

1,147
867
758
109
280

2,599
1,913
1,616
297
685

2,294
1,266
973
294
1,028

8,712
12,067
13,337
4,992
4,707

11,190
13,435
14,749
5,725
5,595

13,786
16,420
17,484
7,267
6,026

10,430
12,292
13,576
5,397
5,468

5,834
9,191
11,004
3,944
4,150

Families maintained by m en ....................................

747

541

251

290

206

17,463

20,340

21,540

19,436

12,303

Married-couple families............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed .........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

21,702
12,223
11,257
966
9,480

11,529
7,297
6,805
492
4,232

3,596
2,345
2,235
110
1,251

7,933
4,952
4,570
381
2,982

10,173
4,926
4,452
474
5,247

27,990
30,448
31,114
21,926
24,532

31,659
33,330
33,853
25,556
28,644

34,858
37,336
37,717
25,921
30,916

30,391
31,850
32,369
25,500
27,691

24,079
26,473
27,293
19,207
22,022

Families maintained by women...............................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

3,959
2,782
2,408
373
1,178

2,580
2,000
1,759
240
580

819
652
579
73
167

1,761
1,348
1,181
167
413

1,379
782
649
133
597

10,423
13,287
14,357
5,837
4,874

12,747
14,862
15,811
7,390
5,862

15,980
17,705
18,527
(’)
$6,633

11,644
13,413
14,480
6,953
5,605

6,280
10,302
11,266
4,441
4,217

Families maintained by m en ....................................

604

442

212

230

162

18,681

21,931

23,467

21,088

13,016

Married-couple families............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ..................................... .’

1,911
1,306
1,151
155
605

996
690
645
45
306

327
202
184
18
126

669
489
461
28
180

915
616
506
110
299

22,812
26,000
27,212
17,615
14,664

24,687
27,976
28,388
(’)
$16,057

22,967
26,783
27,901
(’)
$15,390

25,610
28,338
28,538
(’)
$16,525

20,895
23,797
25,596
16,913
13,093

Families maintained by wom en...............................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

1,923
1,159
861
298
765

1,069
715
569
146
354

298
190
163
27
108

771
525
405
119
246

854
444
292
151
411

6,350
8,996
11,171
4,007
4,432

7,903
10,210
11,699
4,473
4,836

8,789
11,506
12,451
0
$4,701

7,591
9,545
11,273
4,641
4,870

5,066
7,258
10,175
3,789
4,024

Families maintained by m en ....................................

129

90

37

53

40

11,126

13,919

O

O

O

Married-couple families............................................
Mother in labor fo rc e .............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ......................................

1,691
790
649
141
901

729
390
324
66
338

171
90
80
10
81

558
301
245
56
257

962
399
325
75
563

19,255
24,333
25,906
17,507
15,100

21,361
25,732
27,000
(’)
$17,419

$23,734
28,600
29,234
0
$18,575

$20,581
24,892
26,398
0
$16,991

$17,670
23,284
24,937
14,977
13,731

Families maintained by wom en...............................
Mother in labor fo rc e.............................................
Employed..............................................................
Unemployed.........................................................
Mother not in labor fo rc e ..................... ................

585
282
237
45
303

325
196
172
24
130

83
52
41
11
32

242
144
131
13
98

260
86
66
21
174

6,653
10,720
11,811
0
$5,085

8,904
12,448
13,432
0
$5,715

10,113
0
0
0
0

8,677
11,801
12,758
0
$5,646

5,180
6,938

Families maintained by m en ....................................

54

34

14

19

20

(’)

(’)

O

White

Black

Hispanic origin

1 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
NOTE: Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not
sum to totals because data for the "other races" group are not presented
and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population group.

0

O
(’)
$4,667
0

Data on the number and type of families are collected in March of the
subsequent year.
Income and earner status refer to the preceding
calendar year,

58

BLS projections
of employment

Employment Projections
for1995
US Department ot Labor
Bureau ot Labor Statistics
March 1964

Growth in employment, output, income,
and demand over the next decade is
discussed in this collection of four ar­
ticles from the M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w .
Additional detailed tables supplement
the articles.
Subjects include:
• The labor force— expected changes
in size and composition.
• Industry output and employment.
• Gross national product and in­
c o m e -p r o je c te d trends and
major underlying assumptions.
• Distribution of demand— changing
patterns in the major sectors of
consumption, business invest­
ment, government expenditures,
and foreign trade.

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Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street address
City, State,
Zip

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
Suite 1603
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Second Floor
Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678