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Fact book for Estimating the Manpower
Needs of Federal Programs
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1975
Bulletin 1832

Factbook for Estimating the Manpower
Needs of Federal Programs
U.S. Department of Labor
John T. Dunlop, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1975
Bulletin 1832

For sate by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. GPO Bookstore, or
BLS Regional Offices listed on inside back cover. Price $1.40
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.
Stock Number 029-001-01388-4
Catalog Number L 2.3:1832

Preface
This bulletin was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) with funds provided by the
Manpower Administration for a series of studies on the manpower impact of Federal programs. The
BLS has for some time been engaged in estimating the employment requirements by industry and
occupation of various government and private activities. This work received substantial impetus
when the President, in his Manpower Report of March 1972, directed the Department of Labor to
develop a capability for measuring the employment effects of all Federal programs and policies.
“Both the efficiency of our economy and ,the well-being of the country’s workers will be served
by more systematic assessment of the manpower consequences of government policies and
programs. Accordingly, I am instructing the Secretary of Labor to develop for my consideration
recommendations with respect to the most effective mechanisms for achieving such an
assessment and for assuring the findings receive appropriate attention in the government’s
decision-making processes.”
The Department of Labor has since taken a number of steps to help in this assessment. In the
BLS, techniques and models used in the past principally for long-term projections of industry and
occupational employment needs are being adapted to measure the current manpower requirements
of Federal spending programs, and work is underway on techniques for measuring the effects on
manpower supply. Future plans include the development of new methods for measuring the
employment effects of Federal policy changes and the manpower implications of programs that do
not involve significant changes in outlays. The results will be published as these studies are
completed.
This study was prepared in the Division of Economic Growth, Office of Economic Trends, under
the supervision of Ronald E. Kutscher. It was designed and written by Richard P. Oliver with the
editorial assistance of Virginia A. Broadbeck. Industry employment factors were developed by
Donald P. Eldridge and Marybeth Tschetter. Thomas F. Fleming, Jr., contributed to the section
illustrating the application of the factors to specific programs. The occupational demand factors and
contributions to the text were provided by Daniel Hecker, George Silvestri, Joel Segaloff, and David
Martin, under the direction of Michael F. Crowley of the Division of Manpower and Occupational
Outlook, Office of Manpower Structure and Trends. This research was funded by the Office of
Manpower Research and Development of the Manpower Administration, Howard Rosen, Director.

Contents
Page
Introduction

-

Chapter 1. What are manpower factors? ........................................................................................................................
Types of factors ....................................................................................................................................................
Methods used in deriving factors
........................................................................................................................
Limitations of f a c t o r s ............................................................................................................................................

1
2
2
2
3

Chapter 2. Using manpower factors to develop employment re q u irem en ts................................................................
5
Summary ................................................................................................................................................................
5
Program a n a l y s i s ....................................................................................................................................................
5
Selection of factor p r o g r a m s ................................................................................................................................
6
Data adjustment .....................................................................................................................................................
8
Factor adjustment
................................................................................................................................................
9
Employment calculations
........................................................................................................................................ 13
Chapter 3. Illustrations of uses of manpower f a c t o r s .................................................................................................... 14
Military expenditures, fiscal year 1974 budget p ro p o s a l.........................................................................................14
Program analysis
.............................................................................................................................................14
Factor s e le c tio n .................................................................................................................................................14
Data adjustment
........................................
15
Factor a d ju stm e n t.............................................................................................................................................15
Employment calcu latio n s................................................................................................................................ 16
Education revenue sharing, fiscal year 1974 budget p ro p o s a l............................ ................................................18
Program analysis
......................................................................................................................................... 1 8
Factor s e le c tio n .................................................................................................................................................18
Data adjustment
.............................................................................................................................................19
Factor a d ju stm e n t.............................................................................................................................................19
Employment calculations................................................................................................................................ 20
Occupational safety and health, fiscal year 1974 budget p ro p o s a l........................................................................ 20
Program analysis
............................................................................................................................................ 20
Factor s e le c tio n ................................................................................................................................................ 21
Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Factor programs
........................................................................................................................................
7
Adjustments for price c h a n g e ....................................................................................................................
9
Adjustments for productivity c h a n g e ............................................................................................................ 10
Total program manpower factors
.................................................................................................................10
Industry manpower f a c t o r s .............................................................................................................................11
Occupational manpower f a c t o r s .....................................................................................................................12
Military expenditures: Industry manpower factors
adjusted for productivity change, fiscal year1974
16
Military expenditures: Occupational manpowerfactors
adjusted for productivity change, fiscal year1974
16
Military expenditures: Calculated employment requirements by sector, fiscal year 1974
17

Contents— Continued
Tables—
Continued:

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Military expenditures: Calculated employment requirements
by occupational group, fiscal year 1974 ............................................................................................
Education revenue sharing: Industry manpower factors
adjusted for productivity change, fiscal year 1974 ............................................................................
Education revenue sharing: Occupational manpower factors
adjusted for productivity change, fiscal year 1974 ............................................................................
Education revenue sharing: Calculated employment requirements
by sector, fiscal year 1974 ....................................................................................................................
Education revenue sharing: Calculated employment requirements
by occupational group, fiscal year 1974 ........................................................................................

17
19
20
20
20

Appendixes:
A. Methods used to derive manpower f a c t o r s .................................................................................................... 22
B. Limitations of manpower f a c t o r s ................................................................................................................ 23
C. Outline of procedures for using manpower f a c t o r s ........................................................................................ 26
D. Factor detail by industry and occupation
.................................................................................................... 28
E. 1970 interindustry employment and industry-occupational m o d e ls ............................................................ 73

Introduction
Almost all Federal Government activities affect man­
power in some way. These effects range from the direct
hiring of Federal personnel to the employment created
in private industry by Federal spending programs, to the
more complicated manpower effects of Federal stan­
dards, regulations, and economic policies. The effects on
manpower vary with different activities, but a particular
Federal program may significantly influence the demand
for or the supply of labor, or may affect the skills and
well-being of the labor force.
Federal actions affecting manpower may be
classified in a number of different ways, but for
analytical purposes this study broadly classifies them as
actions which predominantly involve Federal money
flows and those which affect manpower mainly
through policies or regulatory actions. Money flow
programs are defined to include all types of Federal
outlays and revenue collections. Policy programs would
include cases where the Federal Government en­
courages or requires other sectors of the economy to
alter purchasing patterns, as well as cases where
manpower effects are significant although money flows
are small. Pollution control standards or occupational
safety and health regulations, which involve the
purchase of additional or modified equipment by the
private sector, are representative of policy impact
actions. This category also includes the military draft
and immigration policies, which affect the supply of
labor without involving major money flows.
This study deals with one of the more important
areas of Federal manpower impact— requirements for
the
manpower that are created by Federal expenditures. It is
intended to provide agency administrators with a means
of estimating the public and private employment re­
quirements of a program, based upon the program’s
outlays. The study will not address all of the effects on

manpower that are generated by any Federal program,
policy, or other type of Federal action. These effects
would encompass all of the influences working on the
quantity of manpower demanded and supplied, as well
as qualitative results such as improvements in health,
safety, education, and other social benefits. The effects
discussed here are an important, but limited, sector of
manpower impact, the demand for manpower created by
program outlays.
The Factbook contains sets of “manpower factors”
which show the amounts of employment, by industry
and occupation, which were generated by a billion
dollars of outlays for different Federal functions in a
recent period. By applying these factors to the amounts
of money projected for a Federal program, that pro­
gram’s future employment requirements may be roughly
estimated.
Manpower factors can have many policy uses. Pro­
grams can be considered for their employment gener­
ating characteristics as well as for their public benefits
and costs. The job requirements created by existing
programs can be estimated for past periods, and new
programs can be evaluated for their job-creating poten­
tial in individual industries and occupations. Loss of job
opportunities due to cutbacks, such as have occurred in
defense or space programs, can be calculated, pointing to
potential problems in individual industries and occupa­
tions. Or, in the case of expanding programs, bottlenecks
in particular occupations possibly may be foreseen if
labor supply information is also available, providing
guidance to manpower training programs. For example,
calculating the effects on employment of substantial
growth in health services may indicate a potential
shortage of doctors and other health personnel, requiring
additional professional training and a longer period of
time for achieving the goals.

Chapter 1. What Are Manpower Factors?
The manpower or employment requirements factors
given here relate'aggregate expenditures for a particular
program to the number of job opportunities created by
these expenditures. They do not provide estimates of the
actual employment that might result from a Federal
program. Actual employment will be determined as the
net result of all influences on both the demand for and
supply of labor. Manpower factors are simply multipliers
which will convert planned program expenditures into
estimates o f job requirements based upon recent indus­
try employment relationships.
This Factbook presents manpower factors for about
40 different categories of demand. These categories
cover the total economy considered as the demand side
of the gross national product. In some cases, these
demand categories have been separated into fairly
specific functions representing or approximately describ­
ing a Federal program or one of its components. In other
cases, the demand categories cover broad sectors of
expenditures that have not yet been studied from a
manpower point of view and assigned to specific
functional programs. For example, at this time, in the
area of Federal Government purchases, defense and
space programs have been analyzed separately, but all
other direct Federal purchases are lumped together in a
single category.
Since the outlays of many Federal programs ulti­
mately are spent by other sectors of the economy,
factors for these sectors also are provided. For example,
Federal grants are spent by State and local government
institutions, while transfer payments to persons become
primarily personal consumption expenditures. Thus, in
selecting a demand category to represent the outlays of a
given Federal program, it is frequently necessary to use
factors for some other sector where .the Federal funds
ultimately are spent.

Types of factors

Two types of factors are provided—
industry man­
power factors, which can be used to estimate the
amount of employment required in total or by industry,
and occupational manpower factors, which can be used
to calculate the employment required in different

occupations. Each program covered includes a list of
these factors for both the private and public sectors of
the economy.
Industry manpower factors are ratios showing the
relationship between dollars spent and the employment
required by these expenditures in each industry. They
represent the number of jobs required1 by $1 billion of
expenditures in 1972. As such, they reflect 1972 price
and productivity relationships. The factor tables provide,
for each program covered, factors for total employment
requirements (table 4), factors for the employment
required by major industry sector (table 5), and factors
for each of 134 industries (table D-l). For example, the
aggregate employment generated by $1 billion spent on
defense is shown, in table 4, as a requirement for 74,193
jobs of all types. This amount is disaggregated into major
industry sectors such as agriculture, mining, and manu­
facturing in table 5, and is further separated into
individual industries in table D-l.
Occupational manpower factors show the amounts of
employment required by occupation for $1 billion of
expenditures. Occupational manpower factors represent
the percentage distribution of industry manpower fac­
tors into specific occupations. The total number of job
requirements generated in each of nine major occupa­
tional groups is given in table 6 and these requirements
are broken down into the demand for each of 160
occupations in table D-3.
Methods used in deriving factors

The models and analytical approaches used to de­
velop these factors estimate employment requirements
in the private sector by tracing all production require­
ments generated by each program’s purchases. The basic
models are an interindustry employment model and an
industry-occupation model, discussed in detail in ap­
pendix E. The interindustry employment model traces
purchases of goods and services through each sector,
determining the employment needed in each industry to
1Manpower requirements are a count of the number of jobs
rather than the number of persons holding jobs. Thus, an
individual who holds more than one job is counted more than
once. The employment estimates cover wage and salary workers,
self-employed, and unpaid family workers.

support these purchases. The industry-occupation model
provides a distribution of the employment in each
industry into 160 occupational categories.
In this framework of analysis, where employment in
each industry is determined on the basis of generated
production levels, coverage of employment requirements
would generally be limited to direct Federal purchases of
goods and services. However, this system can be ex­
tended to other types of Federal outlays, such as
grants-in-aid, transfer payments, and subsidies, by deter­
mining the purchases made by the sector receiving the
Federal outlay. For example, the employment require­
ments created by grants to State and local governments
can be estimated from studies of the purchases made by
State and local governments in carrying out the purposes
of the grants. Similarly, transfer payments to persons
can be analyzed by considering the impact of these
payments on personal consumption expenditures. This,
of course, involves determining the extent to which
transfer payments become disposable income and con­
sumption expenditures and then identifying the pattern
of subsequent consumption purchases. Similarly, the
employment effects of subsidies to businesses can be
estimated once the extent and type of resulting business
purchases have been determined.
Manpower factors, then, were derived from inter­
industry employment requirements studies which pro­
vided industry employment requirements for each pro­
gram or category of demand. These estimates were used
first to construct industry manpower factors. They were
used next as input into the industry-occupation model
to obtain the occupational requirements which provide
the basis for the occupational manpower factors. Since
both types of factors were based on an interindustry
system, the employment included consists of both the
direct employment used in producing final products and
the indirect employment required in all supplying
industries. A fuller explanation of the derivation of
manpower factors is given in appendix A.
Limitations of factors

Manpower factors provide a consistent and reason­
ably comparable basis for estimating the employment
requirements of various Federal programs. They are
calculated within the framework of all requirements on
the economy, with given control totals for sector
expenditures and industry output and employment
levels ensuring a reasonable degree of accuracy. How­
ever, the development of these factors for Federal
programs is just getting underway and there are major
limitations and gaps in the current estimating system.
These limitations are covered in general terms in this
section and in more detail in appendix B.

The principal deficiency of manpower factors, from
the point of view of complete manpower assessment, is
that they provide estimates of employment requirements
and not estimates of the actual employment changes
that might be expected to result from a new Federal
program. Estimating actual employment effects would
require comprehensive information on all of the influ­
ences on both the demand and supply sides o f particular
labor markets. Manpower factors estimate just a part of
manpower demand and, as such, must be regarded as
estimates of job opportunities created rather than the
actual employment that might be created. In addition, in
cases of ongoing programs or new programs that replace
existing ones, there may be little or no change in actual
employment. Also, Federal funds that become grants to
States or transfer payments to persons may merely
replace money previously spent by these groups for the
same purpose, with little employment change directly
attributable to the new program. In some industries
operating at below capacity levels, additional Federal
funds may result in better utilization of the existing
labor force with a less than proportional increase in new
employment. The interindustry and occupational model
structures from which the manpower factors were
derived describe average relationships, or the average
employment required to produce the total annual
output of each industry. In this study, these factors are
used to estimate changes in employment requirements
due to an increment in purchases from a particular
industry. For this purpose, marginal or incremental
manpower factors are more appropriate. That is, a
directly proportional increase in employment may not
be required by an increment in outlays and a different
mix of production and administrative workers may
result. Also, in measuring or estimating actual employ­
ment effects, one would want to include the additional
employment that would be expected from the income
multiplier and accelerator effects.
The other major criticism of manpower factors is that
coverage is limited. Factors are not available for a
number of major Federal programs. Specific interindus­
try employment studies in depth are required to produce
manpower factors. At this time only defense and space
programs have been subjected to this kind of analysis.
Other Federal programs have been estimated as a single
aggregate of category of demand. Studies, currently
underway, will add a few new programs and reduce this
aggregate. Some Federal programs that are conducted
principally in other sectors of the economy, such as
highway construction grants, are covered in other
programs. However, a number of major programs such as
social security payments or Medicare and Medicaid
cannot be adequately expressed in existing factors and

require detailed study. Further, manpower factors are
calculated on a national basis and do not identify
requirements by region or demographic characteristic
such as age, sex, or race. Assessment of a program’s
consequences and the development of any needed
remedies require a more specific determination of the
people affected.
Since the manpower data included in these estimates
were basically derived from an interindustry employ­
ment model, these estimates will have the characteristic

features and limitations of an interindustry system. The
industries used here are those defined in the 1963
input-output study of the Department of Commerce.
Employment is on a “jobs” basis so that both full- and
part-time job requirements are estimated by using the
factors. Although the estimated employment includes
the direct employment in each industry and the indirect
employment generated in all of the supplying industries,
these estimates do not include the income multiplier and
accelerator effects. The limitations of the interindustry
system are covered in detail in appendix B.

Chapter 2. Using Manpower Factors to Develop
Employment Requirements
This chapter explains how to use manpower factors
to develop employment requirements. The summary
below outlines the major steps in the procedure; a more
detailed list of instructions is provided in appendix C.
Summary

A. Program analysis
1. Determining economic effects
2. Tracing program outlays to the sectors which
ultimately spend them
B. Selection of factor programs
Matching program outlays to factor programs
by:
1. purchasing sector
2. type of purchase
C. Data adjustment
1. Organizing expenditures by factor program
2. Adjusting expenditures to price level of base
period of factors
D. Factor adjustment
1. Adjusting industry factors for productivity
change
2. Adjusting occupational factors for produc­
tivity change
E. Employment calculations—
Multiplying adjusted outlays by adjusted factors

Program analysis

Economic analysis. Before estimating the employment
requirements of a Federal program or other activity, it is
first desirable to broadly examine the various economic
effects of the program to determine in general how they
will influence manpower. This examination should focus
on which sectors of the economy would be affected by
the program, the mechanism or way in which manpower
effects would be transmitted, and the kinds of effects on
manpower that would result. Such an analysis would
serve as the basis for estimating employment require­

ments and would give perspective to these estimates by
providing a general framework of manpower effects in
which employment requirements could be considered. It
would determine the sectors of the economy that
ultimately spend program funds for subsequent use in
calculating estimates of employment requirements. In
addition, it would outline the range and general magni­
tude of all types of manpower effects generated by the
program. For example, a Federal program might have
relatively low expenditures and consequently create
relatively small employment requirements using man­
power factors, but still have substantial impact in other
ways on the demand, supply, or quality of manpower.
While these aspects are not measurable through use of
employment requirements factors, their overall signifi­
cance should be considered in an agency’s assessment of
its programs.
Tracing outlays. Once an overall analytical framework
has been established, an agency is better able to proceed
with the more specific assessment of the job require­
ments created by outlays for a particular program.
Analyzing employment requirements involves tracing the
activities of a Federal program throughout the economy
and determining the effects on manpower at various
stages. At this time, when only Federal outlay programs
can be assessed, employment requirements are deter­
mined by tracing money flows. Of course, the direct
Federal employment for a particular program may be
readily available from agency personnel records. Most of
the employment effects, however, will usually occur in
other sectors, and these are determined by tracing
program funds to the actual spender.
National income accounting procedures are followed
in tracing Federal outlays, which are considered to
consist of direct purchases of goods and services,
grants-in-aid to State and local government institutions,
transfer and interest payments to persons, and subsidies,
transfers, and interest paid to businesses. This definition
classifies Federal outlays by the economic sector, or
component of demand, that ultimately spends the
program money. The way in which the money is spent
determines the employment requirements. Manpower
factors are based upon recent purchasing patterns of the

sectors receiving Federal funds and relate these pur­
chases to employment requirements.
Direct Federal purchases of goods and services in­
clude compensation for the direct employment of
Federal Government personnel and expenditures for
goods and services bought from the private economy.
These outside purchases create employment require­
ments both directly in the industries producing the
products purchased and indirectly in supporting indus­
tries. Grants-in-aid are Federal funds transferred to State
and local governments to be spent for particular pur­
poses, such as highway construction, or for broader
purposes, as in the case of revenue sharing. Transfer
payments to persons are Federal payments where pro­
ductive services are not required in return from the
recipients, such as Medicare and other social security
benefits. Subsidies are monetary grants to business to
achieve certain economic goals. In the case of direct
purchases of goods and services, the Federal Government
is the final spender, while grant outlays are spent by
State and local governments. All Federal payments to
persons constitute income which will be largely spent by
the recipient on personal consumption items. Payments
to businesses, such as subsidies, will be spent by the
business sector.
Tracing the employment requirements resulting from
Federal purchases is relatively straightforward. The
employment effects occur in the direct hiring of Federal
employees and in the employment required in the
private sector by the production of goods and services
actually purchased. These employment requirements are
embodied in the factors for the Federal government
programs. Grants-in-aid present a somewhat more com­
plicated path of effect. In these programs, some employ­
ment is generated by administrative purchases at the
Federal level. Most of the employment effects occur,
however, from the expenditure of the grant funds by the
State or local government. In many cases, a Federal
grant will trigger State or local contributions according
to some matching formula. The employment require­
ments generated by these matching funds should be
considered part of the program’s impact. Grant funds
will create employment in the direct hiring of State and
local employees and, when they are spent on purchases
of goods and services, will create employment in the
private sector. Outlays in the form of transfer payments
will create some direct Federal employment for program
administration, but will principally create employment
in the private sector as recipients use the money for
personal consumption purchases. Similarly, subsidies to
businesses will create some Federal employment but will
mainly affect the private sector.

After a program’s economic effects have been con­
sidered and outlays have been traced to the sector which
finally spends the funds, the next step is to select the
factor program which most closely represents the Fed­
eral action being studied. As indicated, a program may
be directly represented in the Federal purchases sector,
or in some other sector which spends program funds. In
some cases factors may not be available for all of the
component parts of a program and other factors which
reasonably approximate the remaining purchasing sec­
tors may be substituted. In other cases no factor
program will adequately describe the Federal program
under consideration. Since the factors apply only to
outlays, no attempt to use them should be made unless
Federal outlays are a significant part of a program. And,
since outlays may in part be spent through other sectors
of the economy, decisions on factor selection must be
postponed until program funds have been traced to the
various purchasing sectors.
Selecting appropriate program factors requires a basic
understanding of both the Federal program under
consideration and of the factor programs available.
Factor programs are organized first by the components
of demand, or the sectors which ultimately spend the
Federal funds. These demand categories include the
Federal Government, State and local governments, per­
sonal consumption expenditures, exports, and gross
private domestic fixed investment. Within these sectors,
programs are further broken down by the functional
types of purchases made by the sector. In a separate
category, construction programs are listed by type of
construction, such as residential, industrial, educational,
or local transit facilities.
Table 1 lists the programs and demand sectors for
which factors are currently available.
The total public sector encompasses Federal, State,
and local government sectors. Within the Federal sector,
defense purchases consist of Department of Defense
military outlays and Atomic Energy Commission ex­
penditures. The nondefense category includes all other
Federal spending, with National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) requirements given separately.
State and local government programs are grouped
into three functional areas: education, which consists
largely of elementary and secondary education require­
ments; health, welfare, and sanitation; and “other”
functions, which include highways, parks and recreation,
natural resources, civilian safety, general government,
and the capital purchases of government enterprises.
Each of the three functions, as well as total State and
local government purchases, is separated into new

Program
BY COMPONENT OF DEM A N D
Total, public sector
Federal Government
Defense
Nondefense
Except NASA
NASA
State and local government
Except structures
New construction
Education
Except structures
New construction
Health, welfare, and sanitation
Except structures
New construction
Other functions
Except structures
New construction
Total, private sector
Personal consumption expenditures
Durable goods
Nondurable goods
Food

construction and all spending excluding structures. State
and local construction categories differ from the types
of construction listed separately in table 1. State and
local programs represent construction purchased by
these levels of government in total and for each
functional area, regardless of whether a type of construc­
tion is primary to the function. Construction programs
classified by type refer more strictly to the construction
or renovation of the particular residential, nonresiden­
tial, or public utility facility itself. Demand for these
structures may be generated by any or all of the
components of demand—
Federal Government, State and
local government, or business investment.
For example, State and local new educational con­
struction includes such facilities as dormitories, apart­
ments, and administrative offices in addition to educa­
tional buildings themselves. Where construction pro­
grams are listed by type of building, educational
construction includes only educational buildings—
primarily schools, but also museums and art galleries.
Among the private sector programs, personal con­
sumption encompasses all spending by households on
durable goods, such as automobiles, furniture, and
household equipment; on nondurable goods, such as
food and clothing; and on services, which include
housing expenses, medical care, transportation, and
recreation.
Within the exports sector, merchandise exports are
composed of all exported goods and the trade and

Program
Services
Medical
Exports
Merchandise and services
Merchandise only
Gross private domestic fixed investment
Producers' durable equipment
Private new construction
BY TYPE OF CO NSTRUCTIO N
Residential buildings
Single-family
Multifamily
Nonresidential buildings
Industrial
Office and commercial
Educational
Hospital and institutional
Public utility structures
Telephone and telegraph
Electric
Water
Sewer
Local transit
Highways and streets

transportation costs incurred in their export. This is by
far the most important component of exports in terms
of manpower requirements. Nonmerchandise exports
consist largely of income flows from foreign invest­
ments, and have relatively minor manpower implications
in the context of this study.
In the gross private domestic Fixed investment sector,
producers’ durable equipment includes machinery and
all other capital goods except structures.
Factor selection, then, is mainly a process of match­
ing the outlay components of a Federal action to the
sector of the economy actually using the Federal funds,
and then matching the type of expenditure by function.
The tracing procedure of the preceding section will have
determined the sectors affected so that the remaining
problem at this stage is to determine which functional
category, if any, adequately describes the program being
considered.
Since only a few direct Federal purchasing functions
have been studied and have manpower factors readily
available, occasions for their use will be obvious but not
frequent. In other cases of Federal purchases of goods
and services, the employment requirements may be best
approximated by using the total “nondefense except
NASA” category. However, where program purchases
are known to be highly specialized, as in the case of
hospital operations or air traffic control electronics and
communication equipment, this residual program cate­
gory would not be satisfactory.

Federal grant programs will generally have a portion
of their outlays spent on administration, which will
result in some direct Federal employment and in some
private employment from direct overhead purchases.
The employment requirements created as States spend
grant funds may be approximated by selecting one or
more sets of factors from the State and local government
programs. If the grant is for education or for health,
welfare and sanitation, manpower factors are available in
the State and local government sector. If the grant is for
construction, State and local manpower factors include
construction for education, health, welfare, and sanita­
tion and all other functions. In addition, factors for
some specific types of construction are listed separately
in the factor tables. The effects of grants for purposes
other than those listed may be approximated by using
factors for “other” State and local government func­
tions. Factors for the total of State and local govern­
ment activities can be used to estimate the requirements
of general purpose grants such as general revenue
sharing. In all cases, the program should be examined to
see if matching State grants are required which would
generate additional employment requirements. State and
local contributions should be added to Federal grant
outlays to determine the total amount of money spent
by State and local governments.
The impact of transfer payments to persons can be
approximated by selecting the manpower factors for one
or more categories of personal consumption expendi­
tures. For example, the effects of social security
payments on employment requirements could be
roughly estimated by using factors for the total of
personal consumption expenditures. Medicare payments
would be best handled at this time by using factors for
personal consumption expenditures on medical services,
although the results would not be expected to be more
than a broad approximation.
Since subsidies represent grants to businesses, their
requirements may be approximated by using some factor
for business expenditures. This would be true for loan
guarantee programs also. However, where a subsidy is
given to a particular industry, such as agriculture or ship­
building, the program areas given for the business sector
will probably be too broad to use. And, if subsidy or
loan funds are granted to single firms within an industry,
the factors available will not provide suitable representa­
tion for estimating employment requirements.
In all cases where factor programs provide only an
approximate representation of the Federal action being
studied, an agency will have to determine their adequacy
in first describing the activity and then in estimating
employment effects. This, of course, will depend upon
how the employment requirements estimates will be

used. In some cases only a rough approximation will be
required while in others a more exact representation will
be needed.
Data adjustment

The only data required in order to use manpower
factors are the aggregate program expenditures. These
expenditures must be classified or distributed in the
same way in which the factor programs are organized—
by purchasing sector and by type of purchase. These
outlays must then be adjusted for price change to make
them compatible with the manpower factors.
Expenditures may be readily available in the form
required or an agency may have to estimate some of the
components. This task will probably have been accom­
plished earlier in the course of tracing program money
flows. An additional problem is that data for some
Federal programs may be available only as obligational
authority and not as expenditures. Since obligational
authority represents only potential expenditures, some
timing adjustments will have to be made to convert
obligations to anticipated expenditures in a particular
year. In some of these cases, expenditures may be easily
estimated since Federal money is required to be spent in
the same year in which it is obligated. In other cases,
obligated money may be spent over several years,
presenting substantial timing problems. Whether ex­
penditures for a program are obtained directly or are
estimated, they must be calculated for a 1-year period
since all factors are based on annual employment
requirements.
Once expenditures have been properly determined
and classified, the only adjustment needed is for price
changes. Annual program expenditures, as distributed by
spender and function, must be converted to 1972
dollars, the same base year for prices that was used for
the manpower factors. When factors are applied to
program expenditures for years other than 1972, em­
ployment requirements will be distorted to the extent
that prices are different from the base period. When
expenditures for a future year are being considered,
price deflators must be estimated on the basis of
historical price behavior and other pertinent informa­
tion. Price deflators should be representative of the
purchasing sector and type of purchase. For example,
Federal highway grants would be adjusted by the
national income deflator for public structures, highways,
and streets. Price adjustment then, simply consists of
dividing expenditures for a year other than 1972 by an
adjustment factor which eliminates the effects of price
change since 1972.

Average annual
percentage
change in
prices, calendar
years 1958-72

Program

Annual
price
adjustment

4.2
4 2
4.2
4 2
4.2
4.4
4.3
4.5
5.2
5.1
5.2

1.042
1 042
1.042
1 042
1.042
1.044
1.043
1.045
1.052
1.051
1.052

4.3
5.2
4.3
4.5
4.4
4.6
2.4

1.043
1.052
1.043
1.045
1.044
1.046
1.024

2.3
.8
2.2
2.3
3.1
4.7

1.023
1.008
1.022
1.023
1.031
1.047

Program

Average annual
Annual
percentage
change in
price
prices, calendar adjustment
years 1958-72

BY COMPONENT OF DEMAND
Total, public s e c to r..........................
Federal nondefense.................
NASA ...............................
State and local government . .
Except structures............
New construction............
Education...............................
Except structures............
New construction............
Health, welfare, and
sanitatio n .............................
Except structures............
New construction............
Other fu n c tio n s ...................
Except structures............
New construction............
Total, private sector..........................
Personal consumption
o v n o n r l iti irp s
n / u iuh lic y u u r lc
L n ra U fi nnnu o

•••••«••

M n n r lu i a Mliv n u u H o
iv u iiu n r u h o y n n u c

■• • • •

F n n fl
Spr\/irps

. .

Medical ...................

Most agencies have had considerable experience in
estimating price changes in their programs over the near
future. Data on past and relatively recent changes by
overall program can be found for most programs in the
national income series of implicit deflators.2 Price
changes in programs dealing with types of construction
can be found in Bureau of the Census construction
data.3 For guidance, the average annual changes in
program prices for 1958 to 1972 are given in table 2.
Other information on price changes in a particular
program should also be considered. In periods of rapid
change in prices an estimated rate of current or future
change may differ significantly from the rates shown.
Factor adjustment

Since the manpower factors in this Factbook are
based upon industry productivity relationships in 1972,
the factors themselves should be adjusted when applied
to other years. If productivity or output per employee
were to increase from 1972 to a future year, fewer
employees would be required than are indicated by these
factors. If productivity were to drop, more employees
would be needed to produce the same amount as was

Exports, merchandise and services .
Merchandise o n ly .....................
Gross private domestic fixed
investment......................................
Producers' durable
equipment ..........................
Private new construction

1.9
2.0

1.019
1.020

2.7

1.027

1.7
3.9

1.017
1.039

2.6
2.8

1.026
1.028

4.2
4.4
4.4

1.042
1.044
1.044

4.4

1.044

4.5
3.1
4.6
4.8
4.1
3.5

1.045
1.031
1.046
1.048
1.041
1.035

BY TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
Residential buildings:
S in gle-fam ily...................
M u ltifa m ily ......................
Nonresidential buildings:
Ind ustrial..........................
Office and commercial. .
Educational......................
Hospital and
jnctitiitjnnal
Public utility structures:
Telephone and
telegraph......................
E le c tric .............................
W a te r.................................
Sew er.................................
Local transit ...................
Highways and streets..............

produced in 1972. Factor distortion due to productivity
changes will generally be greater the more the program
period departs in time from the base period.
Industry manpower factors. Table 3 provides the average
annual changes in productivity that occurred between
1958 and 1970 for the total economy and in selected
major sectors.
Information on productivity change is available for
the total economy and for most industry sectors. While
it is obtainable for some individual industries, it is not
available for many others. Productivity changes are not
available by type of occupation. As a result, factor
adjustment for productivity change must occur first in
the industry factors, with the derived changes being used
to adjust the occupational factors. Also, although
industry factors are provided at three levels of aggrega­
tion-total economy, industry sector, and individual
industry—
productivity adjustments are recommended
2 This series is compiled by the Bureau of Economic Analysis,
U.S. Department of Commerce, and is published annually in the
July issue of the Survey o f Current Business.
3 Presented in Construction Review, various issues (U.S.
Department of Commerce).

Average annual
Annual produc­
percentage
tivity
change in output
adjustment
per man-hour,
calendar
years 1958-70

Sector

Total public
and private sectors..............
Agriculture...................
Private n o n fa rm ..........
Mining ..............
Construction . .
Manufacturing .
Transportation . .
Communication
Public utilities .
T r a d e .................
Finance,
insurance, and
real estate . . .
Other services . . .
Government
enterprises . . .

2.7
5.9
2.8
3.8
(1)
3.2
4.1
5.4
4.7
3.3

1.027
1.059
1.028
1.038
(1)
1.032
1.041
1.054
1.047
1.033

(1)
(1)

(1)
(1)

2.6

1.026

XJ S in ce estim ates o f p ro d u c tiv ity change are gen e ra lly n o t
p u blish ed fo r these sectors, it is suggested th a t t h e private
n o n fa rm a d ju s tm e n t (1 .0 2 8 ) be used.

only at the first two levels. Where industry detail is
desired, the individual industry factors can be adjusted
by the change in total sector productivity. In some few
cases, if data on individual productivity changes are
Table 4.

available, these industries may be separately adjusted,
with the remaining industry factors adjusted by the
expected change in total sector productivity.
Since short-term productivity forecasts are usually
not available, the rates given in table 3 should generally
be used to estimate productivity changes that might
occur in the next few years. Of course, where individual
industry detail is desired, these rates can be applied, but
with less reliability, to each of the industries within the
sector. For example, the rate of change in manufacturing
productivity has averaged 3.2 percent over the 12 years
from 1958 to 1970. This rate could be applied to each
of the manufacturing industries. While it is not likely
that productivity will change at the same rate in
different industries such as electronics, food processing,
or automobile production, this adjustment would prob­
ably minimize distortion due to productivity changes
where more than 1 year is involved.
The productivity adjustment of industry manpower
factors simply involves dividing each of the factors by
the appropriate productivity adjustment figure given in
table 3. For example, manpower factors for manufactur­
ing would be adjusted to calendar year 1973 by dividing
by 1.032. If the factors are used for calendar year 1974,
they would be divided by 1.065 (1.032 x 1.032). On the
other hand, if the program is for fiscal year 1973 the
adjustment amount would reflect half the annual rate of

Total program manpower factors

(E m p lo y m e n t req u ire m en ts per b illio n do llars o f e x p e n d itu re s , calendar year 1 9 7 2 )

Factor

Program

Program

Factor

BY COMPONENT OF D EM A N D
Total, public sector .........................................
Federal Government:
D e fe n s e ......................................
N ondefense................................
Except N A S A ................
NASA ............................
State and local g overn m en t................
Except structures . . . .
New construction . . .
E d ucation ..................................
Except structures . . . ,
New construction . . ,
Health, welfare,and sanitation
Except structures . . . ,
New construction . .
Other functions ...................
Except functions . . .
New construction . .
Total, private s e c to r......................................
Personal consumption expenditures . . . .
Durable goods ...................................
Nondurable g o o d s .............................
F ood ......................................
S e rv ic e s ................................................
M e d ic a l...................................

90,054

.
.
.
.

.

.
.

74,193
66,592
68,846
62,411
101,283
112,265
59,908
108,803
114,957
63,541
94,966
95,313
56,620
90,028
116 789
59,049
69,009
70,310
71,248
76,630
77,529
63,811
81,678

Exports, merchandise and services......................
Merchandise o n l y .........................................
Gross private domestic fixed investment . . . .
Producers' durable equipment ................
Private new construction .........................

49,865
57,474
67,571
62,207
69,309

BY TYPE OF CONSTRUCTIO N
Residential buildings:
Single-family ...................................
Multifamily ......................................

77,223
75,860

Nonresidential buildings:
Industrial .........................................
Office and c o m m e rc ia l...................
Educational ......................................
Hospital and institutional .............

62,488
61,394
62,407
60,703

Public utility structures:
Telephone and teleg rap h ................
E le c tric ...............................................
W a t e r ...................................................
S e w e r...................................................
Local tr a n s it......................................
Highways and streets...................................

53,749
60,266
59,871
53,992
44,772
57,802

Table 5.

Industry manpower factors

( E m p lo y m e n t r e q u ir e m e n ts per b illio n d o lla rs o f e x p e n d itu r e s , b y m a jo r in d u s tr y s e c to r, c a le n d a r y ear 1 9 7 2 )

Program

Total

Agriculture

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Transportation,
communication,
and public
utilities

Trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Other
services

Government
enterprises

General
government

B Y C O M PO N EN T O F D E M A N D

Total, public se cto r.................................
Federal defense............................
Federal nondefense......................
Except N A S A ...................
N A S A .................................
State and local government.........
Except structures . .
New construction ..
E d u ca tio n ..........................
Except structures . .
New construction . .
Health, welfare, and
sanitation......................
Except structures . .
New construction . .
Other functions ...............
Except structures . .
New construction . .
Total, private s e c to r..............................
Personal consumption
expenditures ..........................
Durable goods....................
Nondurable goods.............
F o o d ........................
Services..............................
M edical....................
Exports, merchandise and
services ........................ ..........
Merchandise only .............
Gross private domestic fixed
investm ent..............................
Producers' durable
e q u ip m e n t....................
Private new construction .

90,054
74,193
66,592
68,846
62,411
101,283
112,265
59,908
108,803
114,957
63,541

585
560
193
191
318
622
679
503
428
415
595

624
382
393
427
349
834
640
1,622
491
435
1,049

3,567
1,126
2,742
3,088
1,281
5,038
2,392
22,234
2,896
1,225
22,466

13,261
15,566
10,596
8,513
30,167
10,774
9,830
17,915
9,219
8,008
21,185

2,754
3,212
2,729
2,639
4,880
3,480
3,472
4,359
3,336
3,265
4,445

2,765
1,802
2,559
2,581
3,795
3,201
2,778
5,993
2,044
1,489
7,220

876
515
742
785
852
1,116
1,171
1,118
775
759
1,038

5,754
4,076
8,692
8,998
11,387
5,731
6,039
5,625
1,411
2,326
4,997

841
516
1,268
1,380
1,200
895
1,014
539
875
924
546

59,027
46,438
36,678
40,244
8,182
69,592
84,250
—
87,328
96,111
—

94,966
95,313
56,620
90,028
116,789
59,049
69,009

1,438
1,573
483
523
636
479
4,153

570
484
1,199
969
864
1,887
646

3,133
1,025
19,713
6,765
3,856
22,556
3,504

13,191
12,268
20,273
10,382
10,447
16,329
18,607

3,316
3,255
3,824
3,300
3,567
4,395
5,525

3,430
3,265
4,653
3,726
3,786
5,735
17,777

1,076
1,089
1,024
1,278
1,553
1,160
3,199

12,192
13,256
4,947
6,122
7,304
5,965
14,378

1,060
1,139
504
788
1,014
543
1,220

55,560
57,959

70,310
71,248
76,630
77,529
63,811
81,678

4,430
591
9,041
16,149
1,234
695

554
417
767
365
392
194

874
330
462
475
1,498
407

15,439
28,903
22,196
16,907
3,472
7,096

5,523
3,782
4,014
4,520
7,742
2,334

20,575
32,531
34,235
32,860
2,200
13,413

3,812
1,129
1,580
1,626
7,095
4,758

17,704
2,730
3,430
3,760
38,060
51,857

1,399
835
905
867
2,118
924

49,865
57,474

5,978
7,997

1,194
1,560

435
454

23,472
30,831

6,724
5,246

5,204
6,347

1,325
1,229

4,780
3,215

753
595

67,571

705

775

15,684

30,079

3,996

10,698

1,292

3,741

601

13,102
8,164

1,095
1,081

2,765
4,554

621
555

62,207
69,309

400
1,007

499
1,083

302
28,310

39,406
20,098

4,017
4,457

Residential buildings:
Single-fam ily......................
M u ltifa m ily ........................

77,223
75,860

1,889
1,466

992
1,049

33,980
33,969

19,284
19,266

4,469
4,333

10,419
8,987

1,085
1,095

4,527
5,112

62,488
61,394
62,407
60,703

395
452
575
491

929
1,041
1,050
1,048

21,303
21,277
21,276
21,266

20,546
20,586
21,327
19,675

5,147
4,654
4,427
4,174

7,340
6,837
7,178
7,232

1,174
1,031
1,043
1,059

5,062
4,969
4,987
5,197

53,749
60,266
59,871
53,992
44,772
57,802

449
613
248
465
224
384

1,429
1,051
1,031
1,274
747
2,538

18,410
18,422
18,403
18,393
18,310
22,970

18,694
24,214
25,283
20,428
13,850
13,584

3,722
4,475
3,771
3,681
2,421
4,581

5,137
5,283
4,851
3,330
3,425
5,257

976
1,046
1,049
1,054
843
1,236

4,433
4,642
4,741
4,883
4,444
6,695

499
520
494
484
508
557

—
—
—
—

592
547
544
561

Public u tility structures:
Telephone and telegraph . .
E le c tric ..............................
Water .................................
S e w e r.................................
Local tr a n s it......................
Highways and streets .................

—

578
583

Nonresidentia! buildings:
Industrial ..........................
Office and commercial . . .
Educational ......................
Hospital and institutional .

—

56,175
83,762
—

BY TY P E OF C O NS TRU CTIO N

NO TE: These data are summarized from requirements for 134 industry sectors shown in appendix D.

_
_

-

(Em ploym ent requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by major occupational group, calendar year 1972)
P ro fe ss io n al
P ro g ra m

T o ta l

M a n a g e rs

and

and

te c h n ic a l

a d m in is tr a to r s

C r a ft
C le ric a l

S ales-

and

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

k in d re d

O p e ra tiv e s

S e rv ic e
w o rke rs

L a b o re rs ,

F a rm e rs

e x c e p t fa r m

an d fa r m

a n d m in e

w o rk e rs

w o rk e rs

A rm e d
F o rc e s

BY COMPONENT OF DEMAND
T o t a l , p u b lic s e c t o r .............................................................
F e d e r a l d e f e n s e .......................................................
F e d e r a l n o n d e f e n s e ...............................................
E x c e p t N A S A ............................................
N A S A .............................................................
S t a t e a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n t .............................
E x c e p t s tr u c tu r e s

....................

N e w c o n s t r u c t i o n ....................
E d u c a t i o n ....................................................
E x c e p t s t r u c t u r e s ....................
N e w c o n s t r u c t i o n ....................

90,050
74,200
66,600
68,850
62,400
101,250
112,250
59,850
108,800
114,950
63,550

17,000
7,550
15,750
15,400
19,600
34,150
42,950
5,550
58,950
64,550
5,550

4,200
3,500
4,550
4,750
4,950
7,150
7,350
5,400
4,800
4,150
6,250

10,400
7,850
21,550
22,700
12,150
16,500
19,350
7,500
14,250
15,400
8,200

900
950
1,050
1,050
1,600
1,450
1,400
2,000
1,100
1,050
2,350

7,200
7,550
7,950
8,150
8,850
11,500
8,150
17,550
7,350
6,700
18,550

6,550
8,850
7,300
7,550
10,700
9,250
8,350
13,500
7,500
7,250
14,200

7,500
2,050
6,250
6,900
2,700
16,150
20,750
1,050
12,150
13,450
1,100

2,500
2,000
1,800
1,900
1,650
4,450
3,200
7,050
2,350
2,000
7,000

400
500
400
400
200
650
750
300
300
350
300

94,950
95,300
56,600
90,050
116,800
59,050
69,000
70,300
71,250
76,650
77,550
63,800
81,650

24,000
25,000
5,450
10,450
15,700
5,450
6,050
6,300
3,650
3,650
2,700
10,150
22,300

4,950
4,700
5,550
10,050
13,650
5,000
7,900
8,400
10,450
10,600
10,100
5,400
4,650

16,000
16,350
7,150
18,250
29,300
7,250
11,400
12,000
11,400
11,350
11,100
12,950
15,300

1,550
1,500
1,700
1,550
1,700
1,850
5,150
5,800
8,650
8,050
5,550
2,350
5,600

7,550
6,300
16,150
16,750
11,350
16,950
9,550
7,600
13,850
6,200
5,400
6,750
3,800

10,350
9,650
13,950
9,700
9,100
14,150
13,700
13,050
18,000
19,450
15,050
4,800
5,500

25,700
27,100
1,000
15,750
29,600
1,000
8,300
10,450
1,600
6,350
10,200
18,050
22,650

3,750
3,400
5.350
6,600
5,000
7,100
3,550
3,000
3,250
3,500
4,150
2,350
1,300

1,150
1,250
300
850
1,350
300
3,400
3,700
400
7,500
13,300
1,000
550

33,400
33,400
—

—
—

—
-

H e a lt h , w e lf a r e , a n d
s a n i t a t i o n ..............................................
E x c e p t s t r u c t u r e s ....................
N e w c o n s t r u c t i o n ....................
O t h e r f u n c t i o n s .........................................
E x c e p t s tru c tu re s

....................

N e w c o n s t r u c t i o n ....................

Total private s e c to r..............................................
P e rs o n a l c o n s u m p t io n e x p e n d itu r e s
D u r a b le g o o d s ...........................................
N o n d u r a b le g o o d s ...................................
F o o d .................................................
S e r v i c e s ..........................................................
M e d i c a l ............................................

—

E x p o r t s , m e rc h a n d is e
a n d services

.......................................................

M e r c h a n d is e o n ly

...................................

7,950
8,700

2,050
2,350

7,550
9,150

13,250
16,600

2,300
1,500

2,850
2,900

4,750
6,350

6,650

9,200

3,300

18,200

16,700

1,300

6,300

450

5,900
4,950

6,400
6,300

10,400
7,800

3,950
2,250

12,400
22,450

18,800
14,600

1,400
1,100

2,700
9,250

250
600

77,200
75,850

4,300
5,100

7,300
6,900

8,200
9,500

3,000
2,750

26,650
26,450

13,050
11,800

1,150
1,150

12,450
11,200

1,100
950

62,500
61,400
62,400
60,700

5,500
5,700
5,700
6,600

6,500
6,100
6,150
6,050

8,550
8,200
8,150
8,500

2,400
2,250
2,200
2,100

18,050
18,000
17,800
17,650

13,550
13,350
14,500
12,050

1,150
1,150
1,100
1,100

6,550
6,350
6,450
6,300

250
300
350
350

53,750
60,200
59,650
54,000
44,750
57,750

5,350
6,050
5,650
5,450
5,350
5,550

5,100
5,700
5,500
5,200
4,150
4,300

7,050
7,750
7,700
6,700
5,600
7,000

1,700
1,850
1,750
1,500
1,250
1,850

15,050
16,200
17,500
15,050
13,450
16,600

14,050
16,450
15,800
14,200
11,000
13,950

1,000
1,100
1,000
1,000
750
1,000

4,050
4,800
4,600
4,650
3,050
7,250

250
300
150
250
150
250

49,850
57,500

4,500
5,200

67,650

5,550

62,200
69,300

4,650
4,750

-

G ro s s p r iv a te d o m e s t ic fix e d
i n v e s t m e n t ..........................................................
P r o d u c e rs ' d u r a b le
e q u i p m e n t ...........................................
P r iv a te n e w c o n s t r u c t io n ....................

BY TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
R e s id e n tia l b u ild in g s :
S i n g l e - f a m i l y ...............................................
M u l t i f a m i l y .................................................

-

N o n r e s id e n tia l b u ild in g s :
In d u s tr ia l

....................................................

O f f i c e a n d c o m m e r c ia l

.......................

E d u c a t i o n a l .................................................
H o s p ita l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l .................

—
—
-

-

P u b lic u t i l i t y s tru c tu re s :
T e le p h o n e a n d t e l e g r a p h ....................
E l e c t r i c ..........................................................
W a te r

.............................................................

Sew er

.............................................................

L o c a l t r a n s i t ...............................................
H ig h w a y s a n d s t r e e t s ............................................

N O TE : These data are summarized from the full occupational detail shown in appendix D.

Occupational factors have been rounded to nearest 50.

—
—
—
—

-

change, and would be 1.016.
Occupational manpower factors. Since changes in pro­
ductivity are only available by major sector, productivity
adjustments must first be made to the industry man­
power factors to provide a basis for adjusting occupa­
tional factors. For any given program, adjusting the
industry manpower factors will provide a new total of
the employment required per billion dollars. This ad­
justed total employment should be compared to the
unadjusted total for the program. The ratio of the
adjusted employment to the unadjusted total may be
viewed as a percent or scaling factor which is simply
multiplied by each of the occupational manpower
factors for the program. Each program would, of course,
have different scaling factors, which will produce ad­
justed totals of the occupational employment required
per billion dollars.
Employment calculations

Estimating employment requirements is now simply a
matter of multiplying the price-adjusted expenditures,
expressed in billions of 1972 dollars, by the produc­
tivity-adjusted set of factors. Five different factor tables
are provided which give varying degrees of employment
detail. These tables provide three different levels of
employment aggregation. If only the total amount of job
opportunities generated by a Federal program is desired,
it can be obtained by using table 4. In this case the
price-adjusted program total would be multiplied by a
single productivity-adjusted factor representing that pro­
gram. If employment requirements are desired by major
industry sector, such as agriculture, mining, or manu­
facturing, table 5 should be used. In this case, the total
of price-adjusted expenditures would be multiplied by
10 adjusted factors representing the employment re­
quirements in each industry sector for that program.
Similarly, in order to estimate employment requirements
by occupational group, one would multiply total pro­

gram expenditures in 1972 dollars by nine adjusted
occupational factors from table 6. If full industry and
occupational detail is desired it can be obtained by using
factor tables D-l and D-3 in appendix D. Use of these
tables, as with tables 4-6, involves simply multiplying a
program total, in billions of 1972 dollars, by factors in
that program which have been adjusted for productivity
changes.
Examples of how the factors can be used with
different types of programs are provided in the next
chapter.
Total employment requirements per billion dollars o f
program expenditures, 1972. Table 4 shows the total
employment requirements per billion dollars of expendi­
tures for various purchasing sectors or factor programs.
These requirements are based upon a cross-section of the
expenditures that each purchasing sector made in 1970
and therefore assume that expenditure patterns will be
largely maintained in the period in which the factors are
used. The factors reflect 1972 prices and productivity
levels.
Manpower factors by major industry sector. Table 5
provides a breakdown by major industry sector of the
total employment requirements per billion dollars of
expenditures for each program. This employment in­
cludes both the direct jobs required in producing the
final product and the indirect employment required in
supporting industries which produce the raw materials,
fuels, transportation, trade, and other services embodied
in the final product. The factors are stated in 1972 price
and productivity levels.
Manpower requirements by occupational group. Table 6
shows the employment requirements per billion dollars
of expenditures by major occupational groups, stated in
1972 prices and productivity levels. These occupational
requirements include both the direct and indirect jobs
required for a program.

Chapter 3. Illustrations of Uses of Manpower Factors
This chapter presents three different applications of
manpower factors to proposed programs to demonstrate
how the factors can be used. These include a case where
a Federal program has already been studied and factors
are directly available, one where a program has not been
covered but where other factors may be reasonably
substituted, and, third, a case where none of the factors
currently available would be considered suitable. Mili­
tary expenditures were selected to illustrate the first case
since defense program factors principally describe this
program’s outlays. Education revenue sharing outlays
were selected for the second case, and occupational
safety and health regulations for the third. In the
examples given, factors are applied by main industry
sector and occupational group (tables 5 and 6). If a total
employment estimate for a program is desired, table 4
factors would be used. Detailed industry and occupa­
tional estimates would require using appendix D-l and
D-3 tables.

M ilitary expenditures, fiscal year 1974
budget proposal
Program analysis

This program is defined to cover all Department of
Defense (DOD) military outlays planned for fiscal year
(FY) 1974, including civil defense, housing provided for
military families, and deliveries under foreign military
aid. Expenditures for DOD civil functions, such as the
development of water resources by the Corps of Engi­
neers, are excluded. Also excluded are Atomic Energy
Commission outlays, frequently defined as part of
national defense.
The analysis of economic effects was confined to
outlays. While the impact of defense programs on the
supply of manpower in certain age groups and on
manpower training is obviously substantial, it is beyond
the scope of the Factbook. The first step in this analysis
was to examine military expenditure aggregates in the
FY 1974 Federal budget to determine which DOD
accounting adjustments, if any, would have the effect of
overstating or understating employment requirements.
DOD military expenditures were estimated at a total of
$78,200,000,000 in the 1974 budget proposal. However,

miscellaneous receipts of $95 million were used to offset
total expenditures in thif^stimate. Since this subtraction
reduces total outlays, it has the effect of causing actual
employment requirements to be understated. This
amount was therefore added back to the total. Other
accounting adjustments were not judged to be substan­
tial, so no further changes were made.
A total of $78,295,000,000 of military expenditures
in FY 1974 was accepted for the calculation of
employment requirements. This total was examined to
determine the amounts to be spent by various sectors of
the economy or, in our analysis, the amounts to be used
with different factor programs. Military outlays can be
divided into three different expenditure groups: 1)
direct purchases of goods and services by DOD, 2)
personal consumption purchases resulting from transfer
payments to persons, which consist almost completely
of retirement pay, and 3) the spending of grants-in-aid to
State and local government institutions. Military outlays
for FY 1974 were estimated to be distributed among
these economic sectors as follows (in millions of
dollars):
T o t a l ........................................................................$78,295
Purchases of goods and s e r v ic e s ............................................ 73,195
Transfer payments
.................................................................... 4,900
G ra n ts -in -a id .................................................................................... 200

Factor selection

The next step was to select the most appropriate
factor programs to use in estimating the employment
effects of each of the three expenditure groups. The
direct purchases, transfers, and grants were examined to
determine if it would be desirable and possible to further
distribute these amounts to various programs within the
Federal, State and local, and personal consumption
demand categories. In the case of direct military
purchases, factors for the total of national defense
outlays are available. As previously noted, these factors
are based upon 1970 purchasing patterns. While these
distributions tend to be relatively stable over a few
years, some moderate distortion would occur in this
case. The use of total defense program factors to
estimate 1974 defense employment requirements would
tend to understate requirements in such industries as

shipbuilding and to overstate them in others such as
ammunition. Also, these factors include the employment
requirements of Atomic Energy Commission purchases
as well as those of DOD, while the program being
considered is only DOD. Use of these factors would
result in some overstatement of employment require­
ments in a few industries, including chemicals and
electric power generation, but not to a significant
degree. However, since DOD employment represented
by far the largest weight in constructing these factors, it
was decided that the defense program factors would
provide a good measure of the DOD impact.
In the case of transfer payments, which consist
primarily of retirement pay, overall personal consump­
tion purchases were selected as most representative. It
was assumed, for simplicity, that all transfer payments
would be spent on consumption. More realistically, a
somewhat smaller amount would be spent, and a
program that was more closely oriented toward the
purchases of older or retired persons would be more
appropriate than overall consumption expenditures. At
this time such a program is not available.
Grants consist largely of research contracts with State
and local universities. Although the program factors
selected should approximate the purchasing patterns of
these institutions in fulfilling DOD contracts, there is no
State or local program that adequately describes this
activity. Since the factors given for State and local
education are weighted heavily by the employment
requirements for elementary and secondary public edu­
cation, these factors were rejected. The total purchases
for all State and local government functions were
ultimately selected as providing the best available ap­
proximation of DOD grant effects at this time. While
this choice was not entirely satisfactory, the amount of
grant funds is relatively small and would not signifi­
cantly distort DOD employment requirements.

Data adjustment

At this point the three expenditure groups were
examined to determine their relationship to calendar
year (CY) 1972 prices. The FY 1974 budget proposal
includes expected pay increases as well as estimated
increases in most program costs. This budget amount
was, therefore, assumed to be in FY 1974 dollars. In
order to use these amounts with the factors provided,
the expenditures had to be deflated to CY 1972 dollars.
Separate price deflators were estimated for Federal
purchases, transfers, and grants. The historical implicit
price deflators were considered and rejected as under­
stating price increases in recent months. Rough estimates

were made for changes from CY 1972 to FY 1974. The
price increases for the three sectors for this lH-year
period were estimated as follows:
Percent

Federal Government purchases
................................................ 10.1
Personal consumption expenditures
.......................................... 8.0
State and local government purchases
......................................8.7

It should be noted that the GNP implicit deflators are
more comprehensive than the program being considered.
Separate deflators are not available for the defense and
nondefense portions of Federal purchases, so the total
was used. While more detailed deflators are available for
compensation, construction, and the total of other
purchases of the Federal government, they were not
used. Defense factors, like other program factors, are
based on total outlays which include construction and
government compensation. In the cases of consumption
expenditures and State and local government purchases,
the total program factors were being used so that overall
deflators were appropriate. When these deflators were
applied to the three expenditure groups, they adjusted
expenditures to the following, in millions of CY 1972
dollars:
T o t a l ........................................................................$71,201
Purchases of goods and s e r v ic e s ............................................66,480
Transfer payments
.................................................................... 4,537
G ra n ts -in -a id .....................................................................................184

Factor adjustment

The next step was to adjust the industry and
occupational manpower factors given by major industry
sector for estimated productivity changes from CY 1972
to FY 1974. Table 7 illustrates the adjustment for
productivity change of the industry manpower factors.
As indicated, this adjustment is carried over to the
occupational manpower factors since productivity esti­
mates are not available by occupation.
Industry manpower factors. Since productivity projec­
tions were not available, estimates of the productivity
changes that were likely to occur from CY 1972 to FY
1974 were obtained by assuming that past rates of
increase in each industry sector would continue. These
annual adjustments, given by industry sector in table 3,
were converted to a l^-year period, as shown in the first
column of table 7. The manpower factors for each of the
three program areas (defense, total personal consump­
tion, and total State and local government) were
obtained from table 5 and were then divided by these
productivity adjustments. Government employment was
not adjusted since, by national income definition,
government is assumed to have a fixed productivity over

Table 7. Military expenditures: Industry manpower factors adjusted for productivity
change, fiscal year 1974

Sector

T otal

Productivity
adjustment
C Y 1 9 7 2 -F Y 1974

State and
local
government
purchases

Defense
purchases

Consumption
purchases

-

72,848

66,886

99,784

—
1.090
1.058
1.042
1.049

26,410
514
361
1,081
14,839

66,886
4,064
524
839
14,718

30,192
571
788
4,835
10,271

1.072
1.050

2,996
1,716

5,152
19,595

3,246
3,049

1.042
1.042
1.039

494
3,912
497
46,438
33,390
13,048

3,658
16,990
1,346
—

1,071
5,500
861
69,592
—
69,592

......................................................

Private e m p lo y m e n t...............................................
Agriculture ...................................................
M in in g ............................................................
Construction ...............................................
Manufacturing ............................................
T ransportation, communication,
and public utilities ................................
T rade ............................................................
Finance, insurance, and
real estate ...............................................
Other services...............................................
Government e nterp rises.............................
Public employment ...............................................
Military .........................................................
Civilian .........................................................

Adjusted factors
(employment requirements per
billion dollars)

—

1.000
1.000

time. The rate of change in the total private nonfarm
economy was used to estimate productivity changes in
construction, finance, and services. The productivity
adjustments used and the adjusted manpower factors are
given in table 7.

—

—

their respective columns of adjusted factors given in
tables 7 and 8. The program amounts in billions of
dollars were:
Defense purchases
............................................................... $66,480
Consumption purchases
........................................................... 4.537
State and local government purchases
................................. 0.184

Occupational manpower factors. At this stage the
adjusted total employment per billion dollars of expen­
Industry employment requirements. The results of
ditures in each program was compared with the un­
multiplying these dollar amounts by their respective
adjusted total. The ratio of the adjusted to the un­
adjusted total provided the basis for adjusting the
occupational factors for productivity change. For Table 8. Military expenditures: Occupational manpower
example, the total employment per billion dollars in factors adjusted for productivity change, fiscal year 1974
defense was adjusted from 74,193 to 72,848, forming a (E m p lo y m e n t req u ire m en ts per b illio n do llars)
ratio of 98.19 percent. The ratios for personal consump­
Adjusted factors
tion and State and local government were 95.13 and
State and
98.52 respectively.
Consump­
Occupational group
local gov­
Defense
tion
The factors for the occupational groups given in table
ernment
purchases
purchases
purchases
6 were then scaled by these ratios. That is, the factors
given for defense were multiplied by 98.19 percent or by
66,877
Total ...................... 72,857
99,752
0.9819; those for consumption were multiplied by
Professional and technical
0.9513; and those for State and local government were
w o r k e r s ...............................
7,413
5,993
33,645
multiplied by 0.9852. The adjusted occupational factors Managers and administrators . 3,437
7,991
7,044
7,708
Clerical workers ......................
11,416
16,256
are given in table 8.
Employment calculations

The next step was to multiply the adjusted program
expenditures, expressed in billions of 1972 dollars, by

Sales w o rk e rs ............................
Craft and kindred workers . .
Operatives ................................
Service workers ......................
Nonfarm laborers ...................
F a rm e rs ......................................
Armed Forces .........................

933
7,413
8,690
2,013
1,964
491
32,795

5,518
7,230
12,414
9,941
2,854
3,520
-

1,429
11,330
9,113
15,911
4,384
640
-

columns of adjusted factors in table 7 are given in table
9.

These figures may be used as estimates of the
employment required by the FY 1974 military budget.
However, an additional adjustment could be made. Since
the budget contains planned levels for military and
civilian manpower at the end of the fiscal year, average

Table 9.

levels could be derived directly and substituted for the
calculated amounts in the public sector. The levels that
were estimated directly from budget manpower figures
amount to an average of about 925,000 for civilian
employees in the United States and 2,300,000 for
military forces. When these estimates were substituted
for the calculated amounts the final estimates of

Military expenditures: Calculated employment requirements by sector,

fiscal year 1974
(In thousands)

Total

Defense
purchases

Consump­
tion
purchases

State and
local gov­
ernment
purchases

T o t a l..........................

5,164.9

4,843.0

303.5

18.4

Private em p loym en t.................
A g riculture.....................
Mining .............................
Construction .................
Manufacturing ..............
Transportation,
communication,
and public
u tilitie s .....................
T r a d e ...............................
Finance, in­
surance, and
real e s ta te .................
Other services.................
Government
enterprises.................
Public employment .................
Military ..........................
C iv ilian .............................

2,064.9
52.7
26.5
76.6
1,055.2

1,755.8
34.2
24.0
71.9
986.5

303.5
18.4
2.4
3.8
66.8

5.6
.1
.1
.9
1.9

223.2
203.6

199.2
114.1

23.4
88.9

.6
.6

49.6
338.2

32.8
260.1

16.6
77.1

.2
1.0

39.3
3,100.0
2,219.8
880.2

33.0
3,087.2
2,219.8
867.4

6.1

.2
12.8
—
12.8

Sector

—
—

-

Table 10. Military expenditures: Calculated employment requirements by
occupational group, fiscal year 1974
(In thousands)

Occupational group

Total

........................

Professional and
technical workers ..............
Managers and
adm inistrators.....................
Clerical w o rk e rs ........................
Sales w o rk e rs .............. ..........
Craft and kindred
w o rk e rs .................................
Operatives ..................................
Service workers ........................
Nonfarm laborers.....................
F a rm e rs ......................................
Armed Forces1 ..........................

Total

Defense
purchases

Consump­
tion pur-

State and
local gov­
ernment
purchases

5,285.0

4,963.2

303.4

18.4

526.2

492.8

27.2

6.2

266.1
567.2
87.3

228.5
512.4
62.0

36.3
51.8
25.0

1.3
3.0
.3

527.7
635.7
181.8
144.3
48.7
2,300.0

492.8
577.7
133.8
130.6
32.6
2,300.0

32.8
56.3
45.1
12.9
16.0
-

2.1
1.7
2.9
.8
.1
-

1 Planned level has been substituted for calculated level.

employment requirements became (in thousands):
Consump -

State and
local govern-

tion
purchases

ment
purchases

Total

Defense
purchases

5,304

4,981

304

19

1,756
3,225
2,300
925

304
-

6
13

—

13

Private ................... 2,066
P u b lic ....................... 3,238
Military . . . 2,300
Civilian . . . .
938

Occupational employment requirements. When the same
program expenditures were multiplied by the adjusted
occupational factors from table 8, the results were as
shown in table 10.
Differences in the employment estimates calculated
with the industry and occupational factors result from
rounding the occupational factors to the nearest 50, and
excluding all amounts under 50.
Education revenue sharing, fiscal year
1974 budget proposal
Program analysis

The FY 1974 budget contains a special revenue
sharing proposal intended to replace approximately 30
separate educational programs with flexible funding for
the following major purposes: elementary and secondary
education, school assistance in federally affected areas,
education for the handicapped, vocational and adult
education, and the basic school lunch program. This
proposal is designed to permit some flexibility in
transferring funds among these functions, while allowing
considerable freedom in the way in which funds for a
particular function are spent.
The total outlays proposed for education revenue
sharing in FY 19744 are estimated to be $1.9 billion,
with funds earmarked in six categories to insure that
minimum levels of spending are maintained for certain
purposes. The amounts specified, in thousands of
dollars, are as follows:
T o t a l ..................................................................$1,936,699
Elementary and secondary education
...................... 1,190,639
Education for the h a n d ic a p p e d ............................................ 15,759
School assistance in federally affected a r e a s ................. 192,500
Vocational and adult e d u c a tio n ....................................... 238,770
Other (e d u c a tio n )....................................................
55,031
Basic school lunch p ro g r a m ................................................ 244.000

The proposal is designed to encompass existing pro­

grams, so that local education agencies do not suffer
from a shortage of grant funds before passage.
Factor selection

Since this proposal is new and provides greater
flexibility and freedom to local education agencies in
their disbursement of Federal funds for education, no
existing set of factors specifically covers this program.
However, it is likely that this funding, if approved, will
be spent largely as designated since it replaces other
funds for these purposes. It is also likely that the ways in
which this money is spent will, for the most part,
approximate past expenditure patterns for these func­
tions. It was, therefore, decided that actual expenditures
stemming from education revenue sharing would prob­
ably resemble the usual patterns of State and local
government spending for education.
Existing program factors for education were then
compared with the proposed allocations for education
revenue sharing. An examination of the amounts in the
six revenue sharing categories indicated a somewhat
different distribution of funds than had occurred pre­
viously in overall State and local spending for education.
This appeared to be a significant problem only in the
case of school lunch assistance, to which a relatively
higher proportion of funds was allocated, compared to
the previous overall pattern. Use of the current factors
for State and local education would therefore somewhat
understate requirements for farmers, food manufac­
turing employees, and cafeteria workers, while slightly
overstating requirements for teachers and other educa­
tional employees. However, since both the revenue
sharing proposal and the factor program for education
would generate requirements predominantly for educa­
tional personnel, it was felt that these factors provided a
reasonable approximation of the proposal’s employment
effects.
In addition, since the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act, which the program primarily replaces,
has included only very small amounts of new construc­
tion in recent years, it seemed reasonable to further
refine factor selection and use the factor for State and
local education except structures. This decision was
reinforced by the current decline in public school
enrollments on a nationwide basis, which has resulted in
a significant decline in construction of educational
facilities.
4Department o f Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare
Appropriations for 1974, Hearings, 93d Congress, (1973) pt. 1,
pp. 66-67.

It was, therefore, decided that the planned functional
distribution of educational revenue sharing outlays could
best be considered as a single program (the total outlays)
and that this amount could be adequately represented
by the program factors for State and local education
minus structures.
Data adjustment

Factor adjustment

Before the factors could be applied to the adjusted
outlays, they also had to be adjusted to reflect the
productivity changes expected between 1972 and FY
1974. Table 11 shows the productivity adjustments of
the industry manpower factors which are described
below.

Because the revenue sharing proposal was expected to
cover FY 1974 outlays for previously existing programs,
it was necessary to adjust program outlays to reflect
1972 prices. To match the factors being used, an
estimated deflator was required for State and local
government purchases for education, except structures.
After examining historical implicit price deflators for
State and local government, an estimated deflator was
developed on the basis of past patterns of price behavior
in this area coupled with anticipated price changes
between 1972 and FY 1974. The adjustment for FY
1974 outlays is shown below:

Industry manpower factors. As in the previous example
of defense purchases, the productivity adjustment from
1972 to FY 1974 was accomplished by assuming that
past rates of increase in each industry sector would
continue in this 18-month period. The productivity rate
for the private nonfarm sector was used for construc­
tion, finance, and services. It should be noted again that,
by national income conventions, direct government
employment is assumed to have no productivity change
from year to year. Table 11 shows the 1972 factors by
major sector, the estimated productivity adjustments
between 1972 and FY 1974, and the adjusted 1974
factors.

Combined total in FY 1974 prices
(thousands of d o lla r s ) .................................................$1,936,699
Implicit price deflator (1972 = 1 0 0 ) ................................... 109.6
Combined total in CY 1972 prices
(thousands of d o lla r s )................................................ 1,767,061

Occupational manpower factors. The occupational
factors were adjusted by using the ratio of adjusted total
employment to the total employment unadjusted for

Table 11.

Education revenue sharing: Industry manpower factors adjusted for

productivity change, fiscal year 1974

Sector

T o t a l ..........................
Private employment:
A griculture.....................
Mining .............................
Construction .................
M an u fa c tu rin g ..............
Transportation,
communcation,
and public
utilities .....................
T r a d e ...............................
Finance, in­
surance, and
real estate .................
Other services.................
Government
enterprises.................
Public employment:
State and local
governm ent..............

1972 factors
(employment
requirements
per billion
dollars)

Productivity
adjustment
CY 1 9 7 2 FY 1974

Adjusted
1974 factors
(employment
requirements
per billion
dollars)

114,957

-

114,026

415
435
1,225
8,008

1.090
1.058
1.042
1.049

381
411
1,176
7,634

3,265
1,489

1.072
1.050

3,046
1,418

759
2,326

1.042
1.042

728
2,232

924

1.039

889

96,111

1.000

96,111

Table 12. Education revenue sharing: Occupational
manpower factors adjusted for productivity change,
fiscal year 1974
Employment requirements
per billion dollars

Table 14. Education revenue sharing: Calculated
employment requirements by occupational group,
fiscal year 1974
Occupational group

Occupational group
1972 factors
T o t a l .........................
Professional and technical
w o r k e r s ................................
Managers and
administrators ...................
Clerical w o r k e r s ......................
Salesw orkers............................
Craft and kindred
w o r k e r s ................................
Operatives ................................
Service workers ......................
Nonfarm laborers ...................
F a rm e rs ......................................

Adjusted
1974 factors

114,950

114,026

64,550

64,031

4,150
15,400
1,050

4,117
15,276
1,042

6,700
7,250
13,450
2,000
350

6,646
7,192
13,342
1,984
347

productivity change. The total employment per billion
dollars for State and local education, except structures,
was adjusted from 114,957 to 114,026, forming a ratio
of 99.2 percent. The factors for the occupational groups
in table 6 were then scaled by this ratio, with the
adjusted factors shown in table 12.5

Employment
requirements

T o t a l ...................................................

201,495

Professional and technical workers .............
Managers and adm inistrators.........................
Clerical workers ...............................................
Sales w o rk e rs ......................................................
Craft and kindred workers ............................
Operatives .........................................................
Service workers ...............................................
Nonfarm laborers ............................................
F a rm e rs ...............................................................

113,149
7,275
26,994
1,841
11,744
12,709
23,577
3,506
613

program outlays for FY 1974, deflated into 1972
dollars, were multiplied by the adjusted factors. The
total employment requirements estimated for this pro­
gram in FY 1974 were 201,490 employees of all types.
However, it is likely that little or no new employment
will be required by this proposal since revenue sharing
funds primarily represent a substitute for grants pro­
vided in the past to local education agencies.
Industry employment requirements. Following the pro­
cedure outlined above, the employment requirements by
major sector were estimated as shown in table 13.

Employment calculations

At this point, the manpower requirements of this
program could be estimated for FY 1974. Proposed

Table 13. Education revenue sharing: Calculated
employment requirements by sector, fiscal year
1974
Sector

Occupational employment requirements. The calculated
occupational employment requirements are given in
table 14.

Occupational safety and health,
fiscal year 1974 budget proposal

Employment
requirements

Program analysis
T o t a l .........................................................

201,490

Private employment:
Agriculture ............................................
M in in g ......................................................
Construction .........................................
Manufacturing ......................................
T ra n s p o rta tio n ......................................
T rade ......................................................
Finance ...................................................
Services ...................................................
Government enterp rises......................

673
726
2,078
13,490
5,382
2,506
1,286
3,944
1,571

Public employment:
State and local g o v e rn m e n t................

169,834

5 Differences in totals in tables 11 and 12, and 13 and 14,
arise from rounding of occupational factors.

The Federal occupational safety and health program
is presented as an example of one whose activities are
not reasonably approximated by an existing factor
program. This program is administered by the Occupa­
tional Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the
Department of Labor with support from the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in
the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and
from the Occupational Safety and Health Review Com­
mission. OSHA is responsible for setting workplace
safety and health standards, and for enforcing them by
inspecting plants, issuing citations, and assessing
penalties for violations. OSHA also grants funds to

States according to matching formulas for the develop­
ment and operation of State safety and health programs.
NIOSH conducts background research to identify health
hazards in the workplace and develops criteria for
standards. Both agencies offer safety and health training
programs for public and private personnel. Private firms
are required to take necessary actions to meet specified
safety and health standards or face penalties for noncompliance.
In FY 1974, OSHA is budgeted for outlays of $64
million, NIOSH for about $25 million, and the Review
Commission for about $5 million, for a total outlay of
about $94 million. Since NIOSH is funded through the
appropriation for “Preventive Health Services” , its out­
lays were not separately obtainable but were estimated
from obligations. Almost half of the Federal funds for
the program are to be transferred to States as grants
while most of the remainder will be used for Federal
salaries and administrative expenses.
The areas o f direct manpower impact resulting from
these expenditures would be the Federal sector, which
hires researchers, inspectors, and program administra­
tors, and the State governments which will spend the
Federal grant money, plus matching funds, to employ
State inspectors and administrators. However, the princi­
pal manpower impact of the program would occur in the

private sector which will be required to spend additional
amounts of money for safety and health improvements.
These outlays would vary by industry and by the safety
conditions of each establishment affected by OSHA
standards.
Factor selection

In attempting to find factor programs to represent
this activity, it is obvious that the employment require­
ments of these private purchases cannot be covered.
Although private expenditures represent the area of
greatest employment impact, there is no comprehensive
information available on the kinds of purchases required
under this program in the past, and it does not appear
that any existing factor program would approximate
these purchases. Information on the private purchases
stimulated or required by OSHA standards could only be
obtained through extensive and time-consuming surveys.
While some approximation might be made of the
employment effects of Federal and State outlays for
administration, they represent a relatively small part of
this program’s overall employment requirements. We
would, therefore, conclude that employment require­
ments estimates cannot be made for this program
through the use of existing manpower factors.

Appendix A.

Methods Used to Derive Manpower Factors

Industry manpower factors for each program were
developed initially from an interindustry em ployment
model system. An interindustry model takes the final
purchases o f a particular Federal program, such as
defense, or an econom ic demand category, such as
personal consumption expenditures, and translates these
in to industry-by-industry production requirements
which are necessary to produce the final product. For
example, the purchase o f single-family housing requires
em ploym ent, not only in the construction industry, but
in all major building component industries such as
lumber, heating and plumbing products, stone, clay, and
glass products and in all supplying industries such as
metals and basic mining activities. The interindustry
model, through its input coefficients, provides a mathe­
matical solution o f the material and service inputs
required through all stages o f production o f a final
product. The only information needed to use this model
is a list o f final purchases made to carry out a particular
program. These purchases are then converted by the
model into the production required through all stages in
all industries. Employm ent-output ratios or productivity
factors are used to convert these gross industry outputs
into the employment required in each industry. The
manpower factors calculated through this model include
the direct employment required in the producing in­
dustry and the indirect employment required in all
supporting industries providing material or service inputs
to the producing industry,
The industry manpower factors in thisstudy were
derived in the following manner. First, lists o f final
purchases, or “bills o f goods” were prepared for each
program or demand category. Compiling these bills o f
goods frequently involved very detailed analyses of
the program sectors. These purchases were used with
an interindustry model for 1970 In which the sector
relationships had been developed in 1963 dollars.

Program purchases for 1970 were, therefore, deflated
to 1963 dollars to be compatible with the model.
The bills, o f goods were then applied as inputs to the
m odel to produce the output requirements o f all
industries through ail stages o f production. Output
requirements were next converted to the total em­
ploym ent required in each industry. To make this
generated em ploym ent comparable for all programs, it
was put on a “per billion dollar” basis by dividing
generated em ploym ent by total expenditures for each
program or demand com ponent. The factors for each
program, therefore, implicitly assume that a billion
dollars is spent on a weighted cross-section o f all
purchases for that program in 1970, .
At this stage, the manpower factors represented the
em ploym ent, given 3970 productivity levels, that would
be generated by a billion dollars o f purchases for each
program or demand category, stated in 1963 dollars. The
factors were divided by price changes from 1963 to
1972 in each industry sector and by estimates o f
industry productivity changes from 1970 to 1972 in
order to convert them to 1972 price and productivity
levels. The factors for public em ploym ent were not
generated by the model but were derived through study
o f the particular program or by using directly available
data on employment in the particular government
agency.
The industry em ploym ent requirements for each
program were next used as inputs to the industryoccupational matrix, which distributed these require­
ments into 160 occupational categories. The results were
then summed for each occupation. This distribution was
based on the estimated 1970 occupational patterns given
in the occupational model. The occupational levels
obtained were then used to create the occupational
manpower factors, or the occupational requirements for
each billion dollars o f program expenditures in 1972,

Appendix B.

Limitations of Manpower Factors

The development of manpower factors for Federal
programs is just getting underway, and there are major
limitations and gaps in the current estimating system
which are discussed below, These problem areas are
grouped into the following broad categories: limitations
of coverage, limitations of the model system, and
limitations of the employment requirements estimates
themselves.
Limitations of coverage

Limited coverage o f Federal programs. As already noted,
one of the major gaps in this presentation of manpower
factors is the limited number of Federal programs
studied to date. Past work has dealt with major demand
components of the economy, with subsectors, or with
programs covered only as special needs arose. Lists of
purchases, or bills of goods, were developed for broad
categories of demand such as Federal Government
purchases, State and local government purchases, per­
sonal consumption expenditures, exports, and business
expenditures for producers’ durable equipment. Federal
Government coverage was limited to defense, space, and
all other nondefense programs combined. Work is now
underway, with the financial sponsorship of the National
Science Foundation, on the manpower requirements
related to Federal grants for pollution control. A few
special studies have examined sectors of the economy
other than the Federal Government. These include State
and local government purchases for education, health,
welfare, and sanitation, and other State and local
functions. Also, for a number of years, the BLS has
worked on a program of construction labor require­
ments, which has developed employment estimates for
various types of construction, such as highways, housing,
and sewers.
Im bility to estimate the effects on manpower supply.
The existing system for analyzing manpower effects, as
indicated, is demand oriented. Current factors accord­
ingly represent just a basis for estimating requirements
for labor and do not provide supply effects. Adequate
coverage, therefore, is not possible for some Federal
actions, such as immigration policies, where supply

effects are predominant. And, more importantly, lack of
supply data precludes a full assessment of the employ­
ment impact of any Federal program.
Manpower factors do not specifically identify the groups
affected. Manpower factors are calculated on a national
basis and do not identify employment requirements by
region or by demographic characteristic such as age, sex,
or race. In many cases, Federal actions do not affect
manpower uniformly in different regions. For example,
defense and space program cutbacks affected employ­
ment most severely on the West Coast due to the relative
importance of defense industries in that region. And, in
many cases, Federal policies or programs are designed to
affect disadvantaged groups. Thus, with the current
system of manpower analysis, the effects can be shown
by industry and occupation but not by particular age or
socioeconomic group.

Limitations of the model system

Aggregate industry classification. The analytical frame­
work used to derive manpower factors divides all
purchases into 134 industry sectors. Most sectors include
more than one kind of product or service and the inputs
to these sectors reflect the production and employment
requirements of all of these products. However, the
interindustry model can not differentiate between the
products or services within a particular sector, and a
specific purchase will create requirements for employ­
ment in all industries supporting the overall sector, even
though some of the requirements may not be related to
the product purchased. The average requirements for
each sector will generally be close to the actual
requirements for a single purchase since the industry
sectors are defined to include related or homogeneous
products. Problems will exist, however, where program
purchases are specialized. For example, the food prod­
ucts sector in the interindustry framework consists of all
of the food products industries. Consequently, using the
interindustry model to determine the manpower require­
ments of purchases of canned or frozen goods will

generate employment in all food products industries
including meatpacking, soft drinks, and dairy products.
Manpower factors do not include multiplier and accel­
erator effects. Manpower factors presented here include
the primary employment required in the industries
producing the goods or services actually purchased for a
particular program and the supporting labor required to
produce the materials, parts, services, and other items
embodied in these final products. They do not include
the multiplier effect, which generates additional jobs as
workers spend their earnings for consumer goods and
services. Also excluded is the accelerator effect, which
would increase jobs when businesses expand their
investment in plant and equipment in response to the
increased demand for output.
Manpower factors describe average and not incremental
employment requirements. Manpower factors reflect the
average employment required to produce the total
annual output of each industry. They are based upon
overall or average interindustry relationships, produc­
tivity ratios, and occupational distributions for a parti­
cular year. As such, they would be most appropriately
applied to estimation of the employment requirements
of the total purchases from an industry. In most
instances, however, these factors will be used to deter­
mine the employment requirements of a change in a
given program or of an increment in purchases from a
particular industry. For this purpose, marginal or incre­
mental manpower factors would be more appropriate.
Average manpower factors imply that employment will
increase in proportion to the increase in output.
At any given time, average and marginal employment
requirements are likely to be different. This is true
because the level of operation of the economy and of
the industries involved will affect employment require­
ments. If productive resources were not fully utilized,
output could be intially expanded with little or no
increase in employment. If the economy were operating
at a high level, employment requirements would increase
up to the point where plant capacity was fully utilized.
Occupational estimates would be further distorted by
marginal changes in occupational requirements. Firms do
not normally change the level of employment of each
occupation equally when changing the level of output.
The level of employment of nonproduction workers
generally responds less to changes in the level of output
than does the level of employment of production
workers. Thus, the use of average occupational patterns
in these applications tends to overstate the impact on
employment of nonproduction workers while underesti­
mating the impact on production workers.

Limitations of the employment requirements estimates

Timing problem. Estimates of employment requirements
do not deal with the timing of employment reduction or
growth. In the case of shifts in spending priorities or
other policy changes, the time gap between reduction in
employment in one area and growth in another is
important. But the lag between program changes and the
resulting production and employment changes is not
currently considered in these estimates. The considera­
tion of many policy questions would benefit from good
estimates of the timing of any employment effects.
Comparability problems. Program factors are not com­
pletely comparable and therefore comparisons of job
requirements for different programs must be made with
caution. As developed by the model system, manpower
estimates refer to the total number of jobs required
without distinction between full- and part-time jobs.
Since full- and part-time jobs have equal weight, pro­
grams with more part-time jobs will appear to have
greater job requirements. Programs that draw heavily on
the retail trade and personal services sectors, where
part-time jobs are concentrated, would be most affected.
Also, programs in which average pay levels are high will
employ fewer people, all else being equal, than programs
having lower pay levels. Further, manpower factors
include the jobs required in both the private and public
sectors. In general, programs with a high proportion of
their outlays going directly to public employment will
show greater employment requirements than those
whose expenditures are concentrated in the private
sector. This occurs because purchases from the private
sector embody not only wages, but taxes, depreciation,
and profits. While these factors also generate jobs, they
are not included in the program estimates.
1970 pattern o f distribution o f purchases. The 1972
manpower factors were constructed by adjusting the
1970 industry requirements of each program for produc­
tivity and price changes to 1972. As such, the relative
distribution of purchases in 1970 is implicitly embodied
in the 1972 factors. Utilization of these factors for other
years assumes that the pattern of program purchases
remains fairly stable. Purchasing patterns, given the
levels of industry aggregation used, are relatively stable
over a few years. However, when factors are applied to
longer periods or when the relative distribution of
program purchases is expected to change substantially,
distortions in the employment estimates will occur in
some industries.1
Variation in number o f recipients. Another problem in

estimating employment requirements is the variation in
the number of recipients of a Federal expenditure.
Expenditures for a particular program may be concen­
trated in a few establishments or they may be dispersed
among many, with different resulting manpower effects.
For example, if a billion dollars of purchases by the
Federal Government is spread over many individual
establishments, the increased output required in each
establishment may be absorbed with little or no increase
in employment, the only effect being an increase in total
hours worked or in output per man-hour. However, an
equal amount spent in the same industries but in fewer
establishments is likely to require more new employ­
ment. Since the existing analytical framework is national
in scope and treats each industry in total, differences of
this type cannot be determined.

1An extreme case which has been examined was the change
in defense purchases from mid-1965, just prior to the Vietnam
buildup, to the peak in 1968. Even with defense purchases
greatly expanded, many industries, including electronics and
communications equipment and shipbuilding and repair, con­
tinued to receive about the same proportion of defense funds.
However, the proportion o f ordnance purchases doubled and
relative requirements for transportation services increased sub­
stantially. While most programs will not change this drastically in
a short-run period, all programs should be reexamined after 3 to
5 years and the factors used should be adjusted or recalculated if
necessary.

Substitution effects. A particularly severe problem in
manpower assessment arises from the difficulty of
determining whether a proposed expenditure by the
Federal Government is really a net addition to an
existing level of expenditures or whether it is offset by a
reduction in expenditures by the recipient. This problem
affects programs where final purchases are made, not by
the Federal Government, but by other sectors of the
economy. For example, grants to State or local govern­
ments may, in part, be substituted for expenditures
normally made by the State or local government. Or, in
the case of transfer payments to persons, the use of this
income may be offset by reductions in normal expendi­
tures by the recipient. Thus, Medicare payments may, at
least in part, substitute for purchases that otherwise
would have been made by individuals from their own
funds.
Use of manpower factors in these cases requires
further analysis to assess the extent to which a
program’s outlays are likely to affect total expenditures.
An agency may either make a rough estimate of the
degree to which Federal funds might be substituted for
other funds and adjust total program expenditures
accordingly, or it may ignore these substitution effects
in its calculations of employment requirements. If
potential substitution of funds is not accounted for,
however, an agency should qualify its employment
estimates for possible overstatement.

Appendix C.

Outline of Procedures for Using
Manpower Factors

The purpose of this appendix is to further illustrate
the technique of estimating employment requirements
using manpower factors. While an explanation of the
calculation procedures is presented in some detail in the
body of this report, the intention here is to simplify the
presentation by giving the steps in outline form.
Two general stages can be distinguished in the use of
manpower factors: program analysis and factor selec­
tion; and actual employment calculations. In the first
phase, the Federal program being considered is analyzed
to determine in which sectors of the economy Federal
program funds are spent. The nature of these sector
expenditures is then examined to establish which factor
programs, if any, reasonably approximate the outlays.
The second phase involves the actual calculation of
employment requirements once factor programs have
been selected to represent the Federal program or
subprograms. While these calculations may be carried
out at any of three different levels of factor aggregation,
the procedures are basically the same: Total outlays for
the Federal program or subprograms must be put in
terms of 1972 dollars; manpower factors must be
adjusted for productivity change from the 1972 base;
and the adjusted outlays must be multiplied by the
adjusted factors.
A . Program analysis and factor selection

1. Identify precisely the Federal program area
to be studied.
2. Determine total program outlays, ignoring
offsetting receipts or other accounting ad­
justments that would change actual program
expenditures.
3. Separate program outlays into direct Federal
purchases of goods and services, grants,
transfer payments, and subsidies.
4. Trace outlay ag^ egates to the sectors of the
economy which actually spend them.
5. Determine the general nature of the expendi­
tures ultimately made by a sector.
6. Examine available factor programs to deter­
mine which, if any, is suitable for a sector’s
expenditures.
7. Match program or subprogram outlay

amounts with the corresponding factor pro­
gram.
8. In cases of generalized program outlays it
may be appropriate to match them to an
overall or nonspecific factor program.
9. Where no match is suitable, that part of the
program must be dropped from the analysis.
For guidance, table C-l suggests matching factor
programs for different types of Federal outlays.
B. Adjustment and employment requirements calcula­
tions
I.

Data adjustments

1. Estimate the price change in each program
sector from the base year 1972 to the year
being studied. Use table 2 on page 9 and
other data.
2. Divide program and subprogram outlay
amounts by their respective price change
adjustment to convert to 1972 dollars.
Table C-1. Types of Federal outlays and matching
factor programs
Type of Federal outlay
Direct Federal
p u rch ases................

G ra n ts .............................

Transfers to persons . .

Probable matching
factor program
Federal Government, total
Defense
Nondefense except NASA
NASA
State and local government, total
Except structures
New construction
Education
Except structure
New construction
Health, welfare, and sanitation
Except structures
New construction
Other functions
Except structures
New construction
Personal consumption expenditures
Durable goods
Nondurable goods
Food
Services
Medical

3. Divide outlays in 1972 dollars by $1 billion
to put them in terms of outlays per billion
dollars.
II. Factor adjustment

1. Decide the level of aggregation desired: total
program only; major industry sector and
occupational group; or individual industry
and occupation estimates.
2. If just the total employment requirements
estimate of the program is desired, only one
factor is adjusted for each subprogram.
a. Select the factor given in table 4, p. 11,
for each program or subprogram.
b. Consult table 3 on page 10 giving annual
productivity adjustments, 1958-70.
c. Select the annual productivity adjust­
ment for the total public and private
economy (1.027) as most representative
of total program employment.
d. Convert this annual figure for the time
period being considered, that is, the
number of years from calendar year 1972
to the year needed.
e. Divide the selected program factor or
factors by this adjustment to take into
account the effects of productivity
change.
f. No adjustment is made of occupational
factors at this level of estimation.
3. If the employment requirements estimate is
desired by industry sector and occupational
group the factor program should be selected
from table 5, p. 12.
a. List the program factors for the 10
industry sectors given in table 5.
b. Consult table 3 on page 10 giving annual
productivity adjustments by sector.
c. Select the adjustment for each sector. In
the three sectors where figures are not
provided, use the private nonfarm figure
(1.028).
d. Multiply each adjustment by itself for
the number of years needed from the
base year 1972. For example, in the case
of the services sector use the private
nonfarm figure. To adjust this to 1974
multiply 1.028 x 1.028, = 1.057.
e. Divide each industry sector factor in
table 5 by its adjustment for productivity
change. Using the “other services” sector
as an example, the unadjusted 1972

factor for the total public sector in the
first row of table 5 is 6,947. Dividing by
an estimated 2-year productivity change
of 1.057 gives a factor adjusted to 1974
of 6,574.
f. The total of adjusted factors is then used
as a basis for adjusting the occupational
factors in table 6. Divide the new total of
industry factors by the old total (table 5)
to obtain a percentage of change. This
percentage is then used to scale the
corresponding program row of occupa­
tional factors in table 6.
4. If the employment requirements estimate is
desired by individual industry and occupa­
tion, tables D-l and D-3 in appendix D
would be used.
a. Obtain estimates of annual change in
productivity for each industry where
available.
b. Where productivity change data are not
available for particular industries, use the
figure given in table 3 for the overall
industry sector.
c. Convert annual productivity adjustments
to cover the time period between 1972
and the program year being studied.
d. Divide each industry factor for the pro­
gram, as given in table D-l, by the
productivity adjustment developed for
each industry.
e. The result of this is a list of industry
factors for the program which have been
adjusted for estimated productivity
change from 1972 to the year being
studied.
f. Again, obtaining the total of these fac­
tors for the program, and dividing this
total by the 1972 program total (table
D-l program total) provides a measure of
total program productivity change. This
rate is used to adjust the occupational
factors in table D-3 by simply multiply­
ing down the column of program factors
in the table.
II I. Employment calculations

1. The calculation of employment require­
ments, for all three levels of aggregation,
simply involves multiplying program outlays
in billions of 1972 dollars by the already
adjusted program factors.

Appendix D.

Factor Detail by Industry and Occupation

Industry manpower factors

Occupational manpower factors

Table D-l shows the full industry detail for the data
summarized in the text in tables 4 and 5. Industry
manpower factors, which include both the direct and
indirect employment requirements, are given for 134
industry sectors, including Federal, State, and local
governments and for employment of domestic workers
in households. Table D-2 lists the individual industries
constituting each sector, as numbered in the inter­
industry model of BLS and in the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) of the Bureau of the Budget (now
the Office of Management and Budget).

Table D-3 shows the occupational requirements per
billion dollars, given 1972 productivity and price levels.
Here the industry employment totals from table D-l are
distributed over 160 occupations in the private sector.
The manpower factors given in table D-l for the Federal
Government and for State and local government are also
disaggregated in this table into occupational groups,
except for the Armed Forces. These data provide the full
occupational detail of the data summarized in table 6 of
the text.

Public sector
Federal
Industry number and title

Total
public
sector

State and local
Nondefense

Defense

Total

Except
NASA

Education
NASA

Total
New
Except
State
structures construc­
and local
tion

Total

Health,, welfare, and sanitation

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

Total

Except
structures

New
construc­
tion

Other functions
Total

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries:
1. Livestock and livestock p ro d u c ts ...............
2. Crops and other agricultural prod­
ucts ............................................................
3. Forestry and fisheries..................................
4. Agriculture, forestry, and fishery ser­
vices ...........................................................
Mining:

188

198

146

167

92

171

199

82

119

124

95

442

499

80

133

174

82

303
34

270
16

29
9

12
6

153
16

352
48

388
44

263
76

213
36

204
30

315
91

795
48

871
41

240
87

322
51

407
55

243
74

60

76

9

6

57

51

48

82

60

57

94

153

162

76

17

_

80

5. Iron ore m inin g ............................................
6. Copper ore mining ......................................
7. Other nonferrous metal ore m inin g ............
8. Coal mining .................................................
9. Crude petroleum ..........................................
10. Stone and clay mining and quarry ............
11. Chemical and fertilizer mining ...................

23
30
39
88
205
216
23

16
26
42
61
180
41
16

9
33
75
47
145
75
9

6
35
81
46
161
86
12

20
39
58
59
105
55
13

29
28
24
164
214
347
28

23
23
30
106
207
229
32

64
59
53
135
298
995
18

17
24
19
109
174
136
12

14
16
13
110
178
93
11

53
106
65
119
164
522
20

24
32
32
88
185
177
32

21
31
25
87
182 *
105
' 33

62
35
46
153
164
720
19

37
28
24
98
231
514
37

33
28
24
102
233
393
51

74
44
41
145
364
1,200
19

Construction:
12. New residential building construc­
tion ...........................................................
13. New nonresidential building con­
struction ...................................................
14. New public utilities construction ...............
15. New highway constru ction .........................
16. A ll other new construction.........................
17. Maintenance and repair co n stru ctio n ........

160

80

242

1,714

256

3,186

95

836

248

1,334

700
247
742
310
1,408

157

222

233

250

1,527

18,990

2,392

7,678
3,015
8,715
806
306

3,856

3,839
2,659
13,189
1,221
314

Manufacturing:
18. Guided missiles and space vehicles ............
19. Other ordnance............................................
20. Food products .............................................
21. Tobacco manufacturing .............................
22. Fabric, yarn, and thread m ills .....................
23. Miscellaneous textiles and floor
coverings.................................................
24. Hosiery and knit goods................................
25. Apparel.........................................................
26. Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products .................................................
27. Logging, sawmills, and planning m ills ........
28. M illwork, plywood and other wood
products .................................................
29. Household fu rn itu re ....................................
30. Other fu rn itu re .............................................
31. Paper p ro d u c ts ............................................
32. Paperboard...................................................
33. Publishing.....................................................
34. P rinting.........................................................
35. Chemical products ......................................
36. Agricultural chemicals ................................
37. Plastic materials and synthetic rub­
ber ............................................................

—

—

—

23
381
485

138
1,122
1,260

159
1,282
1,414

125
906

1,082
425
1,227
113
1,949

356
522
261
1
123

645
1,309
235

887
29
334

185
23
393

—

—

—

104

3
6
280
1
114

—

94

3
7
238
1
105

—

136

6,085
91
132
2
71

88

36
25
128

33
26
106

14
23
178

12
29
208

25
15
77

39
22
121

35
23
137

39
205

44
79

38
127

46
144

14
91

32
288

192
41
137
230
102
298
378
368
32

74
16
25
140
74
132
240
419
12

118
47
127
202
66
51
80
225
14

133
52
150
220
69
35
41
231
17

79
17
31
194
89
198
405
296
10

70

61

47

46

91

-

—

—

—

—

762
1,344

—

6,731
11,877

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1,113

1,225

290

932

1,025

269

713
494
2,447
227
2,636

3
4
160

4
16
103
2
119

8
8
643

70

2
3
169
1
65

297

7
7
730
1
347

3
9
90
2
82

2
7
181
2
77

3
9
242
2
92

3
8
94
2
80

64
18
70

36
10
39

29
7
35

92
17
77

48
80
522

48
89
589

58
16
84

35
15
79

37
18
97

56
15
72

37
254

18
521

19
204

19
162

33
595

56
257

69
210

22
572

33
332

44
346

18
482

272
52
225
275
118
435
499
322
46

216
54
242
293
128
510
583
332
55

609
59
76
258
105
187
217
351
18

204
75
373
267
119
727
407
221
24

148
76
407
259
119
798
435
207
26

723
66
126
365
139
199
232
365
14

386
32
72
410
273
313
594
723
24

223
33
86
428
307
328
652
784
32

1,536
17
10
256
97
167
189
314
12

273
35
89
225
72
201
500
276
65

272
32
112
269
78
243
683
305
90

437
64
68
215
92
182
209
347
16

73

71

99

68

55

184

104

109

87

63

72

67

—
—
—

12
94

—
—
—

Public sector
State and local

Federal
Industry number and title
Total
public
sector
Manufacturing — Continued
38. Synthetic fibers ...........................................
39. D ru g s ............................................................
40. Cleaning and toilet preparations.................
41. P a in t..............................................................
42. Petroleum products ....................................
43. Rubber products...........................................
44. Plastic products ...........................................
45. Leather, footwear, and leather prod­
ucts ..........................................................
46. Glass..............................................................
47. Cement, clay, and concrete p ro d u c ts .........
48. Miscellaneous stone and clay prod­
ucts ..........................................................
49. Blast furnaces and basic steel prod­
ucts ..........................................................
50. Iron and steel foundries and fo rg in g s .........
51. Primary copper metals ................................
52. Primary aluminum ......................................
53. Other primary and secondary nonferrous m e ta l...........................................
54. Copper rolling and draw ing..........................
55. Aluminum rolling and d ra w in g ...................
56. Other nonferrous rolling and d raw ing.........
57. Miscellaneous nonferrous metal
products . . . . .........................................
58. Metal containers...........................................
59. Heating apparatus and plumbing fix ­
tures ........................................................
60. Fabricated structural m e ta l..........................
61. Screw machine p rod u cts..............................
62. Other fabricated metal p rod u cts.................
63. Engines, turbines, and generators...............
64. Farm m achinery...........................................
65. Construction, mining, and oilfield
machinery ...............................................
66. Material handling equipment .....................
67. Metalworking machinery ............................
68. Special industry m achinery..........................
69. General industrial machinery .....................
70, Machine shop products................................
71. Computers and peripheral equipm ent.........
72. Typewriters and other office ma­
chines .....................................................
73. Service industry machines............................
74. Electric transmission equipm ent.................
75. Electrical industrial apparatus......................
76. Household appliances..................................
77. Electric lighting and w irin g ..........................
78. Radio and television sets..............................
79. Telephone and telegraph apparatus.............

Defense

Total

Except
NASA

NASA

New
Total
Except
construc­
State
and local structures
tion

Total

Other functions

Health, welfare, and sanitation

Education

Nondefense

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

Total

Except
structures

New
construc­
tion

Total

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

28
6
14
82
94
162
354

17
11
19
111
147
149
185

24
15
21
132
148
167
220

175
294

11
111
4,129

2
70
1,099

78
857

10
85
2,507

273

181

878

219

198

425

1,199
293
46
94

538
161
8
24

408
141
11
23

1,423
330
12
93

870
278
11
31

756
197
11
28

1,745
698
15
63

15
19
36
45

78
104
211
683

32
32
64
153

29
25
46
162

44
34
207
56

28
28
67
96

26
27
57
112

44
43
131
104

32
19

27
20

74
22

32
48

25
53

47
21

33
24

37
28

48
26

334
3,301
269
755
64
6

165
747
177
286
22
19

100
483
146
219
20
22

745
3,189
456
927
43
6

80
1,108
153
313
40
8

59
607
144
246
34
8

273
4,686
224
771
49
7

113
1,322
153
387
46
11

109
989
164
362
46
14

190
3,163
211
689
67
9

89
55
98
30
104
159
66

252
111
140
41
267
164
18

32
56
109
32
97
198
89

25
54
98
30
79
212
98

88
69
227
39
272
113
19

72
56
72
40
104
72
32

43
35
62
34
79
61
38

232
189
119
36
239
98
17

173
63
92
24
127
123
29

162
58
104
25
131
127
40

304
113
118
36
194
183
17

66
110
139
119
35
224
17
23

6
140
515
193
29
544
12
29

92
151
244
119
36
243
24
19

105
134
95
101
36
212
25
17

8
270
1,581
286
59
563
15
39

24
88
145
112
32
193
8
24

32
94
143
101
38
172
14
31

7
90
106
192
20
301
9
21

26
79
151
123
28
280
9
24

35
88
172
135
33
239
12
28

7
105
173
160
24
572
9
23

58
865
50
53
105
224
412

26
75
34
66
127
142
248

30
25
12
30
119
140
209

19
80
19
47
89
80
193

17
98
17
52
98
81
185

18
9
23
44
63
127
360

22
102
50
89
127
142
262

22
128
59
92
121
141
254

23
6
18
94
187
181
363

17
12
88
58
95
92
289

17
12
97
57
97
84
227

42
8
13
78
97
172
879

48
755
40
56
96
217
402

22
89
531

50
61
90

9
75
202

12
81
231

8
94
127

2
102
857

12
123
2,534

3
112
458

_

102
291

12
212
2,003

_

103
549

169
771

174

94

85

81

142

232

179

538

206

150

713

547
221
12
36

346
230
10
41

324
127
19
29

329
110
17
23

445
292
17
70

679
211
11
29

524
147
8
22

1,586
568
23
70

388
112
10
24

300
93
6
18

41
28
73
92

33
26
83
71

113
14
42
23

127
12
29
6

59
34
138
145

26
29
65
112

22
25
48
91

53
59
217
240

20
27
53
106

72
25

113
22

80
14

57
17

255
16

34
26

32
28

53
23

91
728
221
325
63
12

33
184
269
256
90
7

33
282
188
249
61
5

35
306
162
236
63
6

43
288
471
450
83
8

135
1,131
170
357
38
15

101
734
158
292
35
17

94
60
165
33
149
288
118

59
57
240
31
183
464
123

75
33
127
38
103
188
347

87
35
81
41
92
92
381

34
34
502
43
222
945
327

113
62
101
30
118
154
55

38
84
200
161
30
212
26
59

14
48
195
185
23
109
38
99

29
42
136
169
23
183
23
61

29
46
110
150
23
185
17
52

54
56
380
397
32
265
82
160

54
111
195
127
33
268
16
23

_

27
7
14
103
240
187
187

Public sector
Federal
Industry number and title

Manufacturing — Continued
80. Other electronic communication
equipm ent............... .............................
81. Electronic components.............................
82. Other electrical m a chin e ry.......................
83. Motor vehicles ..........................................
84. A irc ra ft.......................................................
85. Ship and boatbuilding and repair ............
86. Railroad and other transportation
equipm ent............................................
87. Miscellaneous transportation equip­
ment .....................................................
88. Scientific and controlling instru­
ments .....................................................
89. Medical and dental instruments ..............
90. Optical and ophthalmic equipment..........
91. Photographic equipment and sup­
plies .......................................................
92. Miscellaneous manufactured prod­
ucts .......................................................
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities:
93. Railroad transportation ...........................
94. Local transit and intercity bus trans­
portation ...............................................
95. Truck transportation ................................
96. Water transportation..................................
97. A ir transportation......................................
98. Other transportation..................................
99. Communications, except radio and
T V .........................................................
100. Radio and TV broadcasting .....................
101. Electric utilities ........................................
102. Gas u tilitie s .................................................
103. Water and sanitary services.......................
Wholesale and retail trade:
104. Wholesale tra d e ..........................................
105. Retail trade.................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
106. Finance .......................................................
107. Insurance ...................................................
108. Owner-occupied dwellings .......................
109. Other real e state........................................
Services:
110. Hotels and lodging pla ce s.........................
111. Other personal services.............................
112. Miscellaneous............................................
113. A dve rtisin g .................................................

State and local
Nondefense

Total
public
sector

Defense

831
543
57
198
1,419
256

1,614
1,031
70
140
3,227
559

1,235
625
38
103
1,165
98

14

12

9

2

4

229
53
52

277
34
100

89

Total

Education
Total
New
Except
State
construc­
structures
tion
and local

Health, welfare, and sanitation

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

Other functions
New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

NASA

964
485
35
122
231
116

3,613
1,893
78
22
8,041
57

99
122
46
238
33
46

106
121
45
295
31
38

88
152
58
17
53
94

60
126
29
162
27
27

57
110
28
181
22
20

108
296
60
15
62
104

321
177
64
96
40
32

358
194
62
113
38
23

47
93
47
11
50
122

68
94
50
304
33
59

76
106
54
452
35
60

4

6

11

8

6

10

24

33

9

1

4

1

4

4

4

10

Total

Total

Except
structures

New
construc­
tion

Except
NASA

Total

92
117
61
17
45
89

6

18

16

18

6

_

11

2

1

6

267
61
47

254
57
29

496
100
210

163
60
15

144
73
17

293*
12
6

240
14
22

176
14
25

840
16
9

209
394
24

190
454
27

313
13
7

79
11
5

92
13
6

88
12
6

95

98

92

174

73

85

35

70

74

37

161

181

25

48

62

31

136

55

71

75

79

193

216

70

230

248

105

120

127

86

163

196

149

427

348

319

352

265

462

411

819

325

278

788

466

434

709

522

518

842

298
778
226
393
86

60
638
469
477
86

61
605
38
409
66

63
664
35
421
75

93
534
87
546
57 '

485
831
68
289
81

593
713
65
293
80

88
1,598
99
339
105

865
609
51
177
60

967
505
50
160
60

93
1,609
76
367
77

273
803
64
353
80

303
745
63
356
79

85
1,259
73
324
71

199
929
75
331
89

272
878
77
393
94

85
1,640
110
330
126

82
51
270
95
48

877
31
147
50
29

1,043
38
33
75
42

843
41
12
87
46

2,956
48
189
57
48

644
62
379
121
58

623
66
436
129
63

901
59
199
105
47

422
70
475
151
131

360
72
512
158
143

1,016
64
213
101
41

755
72
313
129
8

739
76
335
125
-

879
53
207
121
43

727
48
286
85
9

818
55
368
94
-

861
56
197
108
40

1,765
1,000

1,261
541

1,695
864

1,686
895

2,686
1,109

1,951
1,250

1,843
935

2,938
3,055

1,639
405

1,489
-

3,193
4,027

2,193
1,237

2,182
1,083

2,355
2,298

1,949
1,777

2,000
1,786

2,932
2,803

256
362

124
243

188
267

196
283

224
301

338
477

363
490

298
527

172
441

156
451

330
415

249
490

251
490

280
487

452
456

586
504

289
571

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

258

148

287

306

327

301

318

293

162

152

293

337

348

257

370

463

935
181
1,747
48

795
121
1,442
34

1,343
254
1,906
38

1,559
283
1,813
41

633
196
3,549
53

851
189
1,746
55

1,028
220
1,907
55

211
82
1,399
64

22
114
128
39

117
1,285
36

228
94
1,382
73

1,237
490
1,968
80

1,385
553
2,048
86

208
92
1,404
60

1,313
159
1,888
55

1,903
212
2,391
63

_

300 .
209
81
1,404
64

P u b lic s ector

State and local

Federal
Industry number and title
public
sector

Services —Continued
114. Miscellaneous professional services...........
115. Automobile repair ....................................
116. Motion pictures .........................................
117. Other amusements ....................................
118. Health services except h o sp ita ls...............
119. Hospitals......................................................
120. Educational services..................................
121. Nonprofit organizations ......... ..................
Government enterprises:
122. Post O ffic e .................................................
123. Commodity Credit C orp o ra tion ...............
124. Other Federal enterprises..........................
125. State and local government enter­
prises .....................................................

Defense

1,096
156
64
60
345
307
404
411

454
89
80
112
78
76
285
510

468
55
318

Except
NASA

NASA

921
108
61
9
272
423
2,282
1,075

820
110
35
6
323
514
2,593
901

2,105
166
274
52
71
38
1,417
2,833

337
34

385
33

358
—
6

757
—
244

145

850

1,016

Total

Health, welfare, and sanitation

Education

Nondefense
New
Total
Except
State
construc­
structures
and local
tion

Total

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion
2,664
264
34
51
28
4
13
162

964
193
32
40
3.486
3,413
48
241

728
181
39
41
3,980
3,901
55
259

2,684
232
29
44
30
4
12
148

1,999
233
28
37
137
4
96
173

1,833
273
32
42
193
6
141
215

3,708
234
31
45
35
4
12
138

1,077
—
62

239
—
52

555
—
63

749
78

266
—
55

213

170

187

222

—

—
~

—

—

—
~

—
-

—
-

83,762
—

—

3,354
246
29
47
35
—
12
146

754
128
68
4
53
3
3
95

550
116
73
—
57
3
—
89

529
—
68

610
—
73

269
—
59

296
—
68

302
—
68

279
—
65

972
—
64

199

298

331

211

511

554

202

24

-

Imports:
126. Transferred im p o rts ..................................
127. Transferred imports ..................................

-

—
-

-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
—

—
—

—
—

Dummy industries:
128. Business travel, entertainment, and
g if ts ........................................................
129. Office su pp lies...........................................
130. Scrap, used and secondhand goo d s...........

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
—

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
~

—
-

40,244
—
—

8,182
—

69,592
—

84,250
—

—
—

87,328
—

96.111
—
—

55,560
—
—
—
~

57,959
—

—

Special industries:
131. Government in d u s try ................................ 59,027
132. Rest of the world in d u s try ........................
133. Households.................................................
134. Inventory valuation adjustment ...............
-

46,438
—

36,678
-

—

~

—

—

—

—

—

New
Except
construc­
structures
tion

Total

New
construc­
tion

1,154
197
51
23
642
523
70
169

1,473
197
46
26
516
416
57
159

Other functions

Except
structures

—

—

Total

56.175
—

—

—

Private sector
Personal consumption expenditures
Industry number and title

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries:
1. Livestock and livestock products ...............
2. Crops and other agricultural prod­
ucts .........................................................
3. Forestry and fisheries..................................
4. Agriculture, forestry, and fishery ser­
vices .........................................................

Total
private
sector

Exports

Nondurable goods
Total

Durable
goods

Total

Services

Food

Total

Medical

Total
merchandise
and
services

Gross private domestic investment
Merchan­
dise
only

Total

Producers'
durable
equipment

New
construction

1,405

1,662

132

3,514

6,851

374

224

829

946

108

91

121

2,267
76

2.291
60

293
62

4,597
106

7,773
162

722
14

370
16

4,400
103

6,037
141

361
115

182
35

531
206

405

417

104

824

1,363

124

85

646

873

121

92

149

26
31
26
126
314
94
29

13
13
14
102
339
51
22

41
41
40
96
126
51
22

11
10
14
93
546
61
32

12
8
11
67
179
56
32

4
6
6
113
212
40
11

5
5
8
50
91
22
13

95
105
75
359
309
143
108

123
146
104
500
342
196
149

63
76
56
122
165
274
19

66
67
58
116
122
53
17

62
91
55
132
208
514
21

519
247
—
94
756

_
—
—
874

_

_

_

_

_

_

—
—
330

—
—
462

—
—
—
475

—
—
1,498

—
—
407

_
—
—
435

—
—
454

2,904
1,378
—
523
331

—
—
302

5,296
2,514
—
954
312

8
35
1,853
85
693

4
19
2.273
101
802

7
55
101
1
690

4
23
5,221
236
1,579

4
2
10.327
1
121

2
1
123
1
60

2
6
329
21
91

38
217
1,000
99
551

52
313
1,046
141
621

19
21
111
2
187

34
30
109
2
228

4
11
111
2
136

158
299
1,344

163
375
1,696

583
38
74

151
862
3,952

50
28
52

16
10
35

21
10
25

117
103
457

147
88
241

123
21
79

128
24
85

117
18
74

224
293

260
172

358
398

448
177

92
146

34
80

42
72

123
479

158
668

84
756

132
217

32
1,376

Mining:
5. Iron ore m inin g .............................................
6. Copper ore m in in g ......................................
7. Other nonferrous metal ore m ining.............
8. Coalmining .................................................
9. Crude petroleum ..........................................
10. Stone and clay mining and q ua rryin g .........
11. Chemical and fertilizer mining ...................
Construction:
12. New residential building construc­
tion .........................................................
13. New nonresidential building con­
struction .................................................
14. New public utilities construction ...............
15. New highway constru ction .........................
16. All other new construction.........................
17. Maintenance and repair co n stru ctio n ........
Manufacturing:
18. Guided missiles and space vehicles.............
19. Other ordnance.............................................
20. Food products .............................................
21. Tobacco manufacturing .............................
22. Fabric, yarn, and thread m ills .....................
23. Miscellaneous textiles and floor
coverings.................................................
24. Hosiery and knit goods................................
25. A pparel.........................................................
26. Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products .................................................
27. Logging, sawmills, and planing m ills ...........

10,548

1,888

19.234

_

Component o f demand
Private sector

Industry num ber and title

M anufacturing — Continued
2 8 . M ilw o rk , plyw ood, and other
wood produ cts.............................................
2 9 . Household fu rn itu re .......... ..........................
3 0 . O ther fu rn itu re ..................................................
3 1 . Paper p ro d u c ts ......................
32. P aperboard....................................................
3 3 . P o lis h in g ............................................... ...........
3 4 . P rin tin g ........................................................... ....
35 . Chemical p ro d u c ts ...........................................
36 . Agricultural chemicals ..................... .............
3 7 . Plastic m aterials and synthetic rub­
ber ..................................................................
3 8 . Synthetic fibers ...............................................
3 9 . D ru g s ..................................................................
4 0 . Cleaning and to ile t p reparations...................
4 1 . P a in t....................................................................
4 2 . Petroleum products ........................................
4 3 . Rubber produ cts...............................................
4 4 . Plastic products ...............................................
4 5 . Leather, footw ear, and leather prod­
ucts ................................................................
4 6 . G lass....................................................................
4 7 . Cem ent, clay, and concrete p ro d u c ts ..........
4 8 . Miscellaneous stone and clay prod­
ucts ................................................................
4 9 . Blast furnaces and basic steel prod­
ucts ................................................................
5 0 . Iro n and steel foundries and fo rg in g s .........
51 . Prim ary copper m e ta ls ...................................
5 2 . Prim ary a lu m in u m ...........................................
5 3 . O ther prim ary and secondary nonferrous m e ta l...............................................
5 4 . Copper roiling and draw ing.............................
55 . Alum inum rolling and d ra w in g .....................
5 6 . O ther nonferrous rolling and d raw in g ..........
57. Miscellaneous nonferrous m etal
products ......................................................
58 . M etal co n tain ers...............................................

Total
private
sector

Total

284
351
119
467
231
603
547
446
67

154
387
21
489
242
686
609
368
63

136
145
167
142
64
184
302
428

110
156
193
175
50
196
309
382

319
161
229

410
150
54

Services

Nondurable goods
Durable
goods

Total
merchandise
and
services

135
12
4
779
432
943
835
536
95

151
10
4
635
495
527
774
338
148

39
4
2
169
44
278
410
145
49

35
7
25
363
138
372
387
290
17

175
42
25
670
208
417
395
1,217
159

234
55
34
888
264
506
466
1,658
216

935
279
638
291
158
242
269
368
16

267
215
1.132
271
187
278
303
366

277
225
11

86
31
74
18
37
110
105
281

33
14
110
19
45
66
77
107

66
IS
2,246
48
17
50
138
235

340
179
176
66
66
195
283
481

464
225
242
72
86
214
357
625

:

143
56
11
13
117
99
250
567

161

95
73
1,173
1,023

123
271
344
386
38
371
213
412

90
71
336
673

154
443

122
281
55

924
210
52

16
315
44

39
56

6
131
26

100
204
92

!
S
!
!

}

33
156
1.137

50
173
58

14
136
2.257

186

|

274

462

187

753

1.055
470

!
I

1.452
652
46
130

j

1.462
704
31
76

1,559
1,017
27
77

1,436
298
38
75

108
54
150
150

68
87
152
278

74
72
143
158

66
108
162
443

169
86

159
27

252
27

59
29

73

199

60

44

51

34

948
509
16
52

215
49
3

253
47
2
13

82
30
2
5

88

j

21
1

?
!
!

48
43
100
78

13
7
26
15

11
5
32
10

7
5
8
15

9

3
8
7

167
24

13
222

9
375

8
14

8
37

i

59
74

12
30
25

63
91

36
103

niew
construction

504
2 ,384
115
435
258
1.076
531
508
16

276
114
5
15

IS

Producers'
durable
equipm ent

Food

152

30
27

Total

Total

23

Medical

Merchan­
dise
only

T o tal

534
237
11

32

Gross private domestic investment

Exports

Personal consumption expenditures

j|
j

1
2

4

j
:
I

33
93
79

29
109

I
i

m

|
!

123

73

[
I
!
I
:
!
[
!

111
259
119

!

j
j

13

62

13
13

1,707
349
114

311
128
197
225

376
19
124
49
8
14
153

129

Private sector
Personal consumption expenditures
Industry number and title

M anufacturing — Continued
5 9 . Heating apparatus and plum bing fix ­
tures .............................................................
6 9 . Fabricated structural m e ta l............................
6 1 . Screw m achine produ cts.................................
6 2 O ther fabricated m etal p ro d u cts...................
63 . Engines, turbines, and g en erato rs................
6 5 . Construction, m ining, and o ilfield
m a c h in e ry .....................
.....................
6 6 . M aterial handling eoucm ent .......................
87 M etalw orking machinery
................
6 8 . Special industry roacm nery............................
6 9 . General industrial m a c h in e ry .......................
70. M achine shop pro d u cts...................................
71 Computers and peripheral equ ipm ent.........
72. Typew riters and other o ffice m a­
chines . . .
......................................
73. Service industry m achines...............................
74. Electric transmission eq u ip m en t...................
75. Electrical industrial apparatus.......................
76. Household app liances.....................................
77. Electric lighting and w irin g ............................
78. Radio and television s e ts ..............................
79. Teiepbone and telegraph apparatus..............
80 Other electronic com m unication
equipm ent
..........
..
.........
81 Electronic components .................................
S2 O ther electrical m ach in ery ............................
82. M otor vehicles
..
............................
84. A k c ra ft........................................ .. ................
85. Sh-p and boatbuilding and repair ................
8 6 . Railroad and other transportation
equipm ent ....................................................
87 Miscellaneous transportation equip­
m ent . . . . .................................................
89. S cientific and controlling instru­
m ents ................................. ...........................
89. M edical and denta! instrum ents ...................

Total
private
sector

Total

Durable
goods

T o tal

Services

Food

Gross private domestic investment

Exports

Nondurable goods
T o tal

M edical

T otal
merchandise
and
services

Merchan­
dise
only

T o tal

Producers'
durable
equipm ent

New
construction

80
373
297
418
101
136

31
70
205
272
40
10

95
182
793
883
162
24

11
53
130
230
17
11

10
48
157
195
17
17

2?
45
56
SO
16
4

7
23
54
68
8
3

61
300
547
642
243
140

82
398
756
861
340
196

320
1JB49
572
958
320
732

88
904
837
1.035
558
1.407

564
2.834
286
892
68
7

135
83
297
183
262
173
231

20
16
81
35
62
97
22

37
31
369
62
228
360
33

18
15
31
43
38
39
20

15
13
29
34
32
42
20

15
11
21
16
22
56
1S

8
6
16
15
15
22
14

689
117
581
476
590
377
751

980
165
816
674
830
515
1.075

716
387
1.169
747
1.045
418
1.116

1,244
585
2.141
1.403
1.775
700
2.137

155
194
121
43
272
113
18

45
142
189
203
247
164
172
161

14
63
47
93
263
95
193
38

58
299
139
357
1,480
300
1,176
44

7
15
31
47
43
73
6
18

6
15
22
35
9
32
6
18

5
20
28
39
20
39
e
56

4
12
17
22
16
26
6
18

65
191
350
400
155
196
94
102

92
269
491
550
157
275
125
137

178
490
778
605
134
46 6
75
797

337
765
1.178
989
179
306
135
1.511

7
202
291
191
90
647
10
32

143
405
106
674
250
98

29
240
79
575
46
42

120
854
304
3.545
109
136

12
56
35
8
34
22

9
42
32
10
30
23

191
3S
15
35
8

H
66
18
4
24
4

356
1,131
151
803
1.422
170

497
1.596
207
1.096
1.926
144

574
820
206
1.248
496
345

1.038
1.456
336
2,400
910
574

77
132
68
14
50
99

5

5

2

49

61

379

722

to

19

26

134

255

5

485
110

676
153

455

674
347

186
15

I1
!i
j
if
j1
ii

SO

21

106

5

105

104

648

1

2

1

•

181
85

88
59

44 4
53

22
52

16
17

20
69

26
57 6

187

Private sector
Personal consumption expenditures
Industry number and title

Manufacturing —Continued
90. Optical and ophthalmic equipment...........
91. Photographic equipment and supp lie s ........................................................
92. Miscellaneous manufactured produ c ts ........................................................

Total
private
sector

52

Total

37

Durable
goods

184

Total

14

Food

6

Gross private domestic investment

Exports
Services

Nondurable goods
Total

5

Medical

36t

Total
merchandise
and
services

67

Merchan­
dise
only

93

Total

118

Producers*
durable
equipment

New
construction

220

8

109

83

115

80

40

73

117

208

250

180

320

30

483

510

1,449

556

80

105

72

387

479

378

626

112

626

520

722

703

919

258

189

1.171

1.554

805

685

956

Transportation, communication, and public
utilities:
93. Railroad transportation ............................
94. Local transit and intercity bus trans­
portation ...............................................
95. Truck transportation ................................
96. Water transportation..................................
97. A ir transportation.......................................
98. Other transportation..................................
99. Communications, except radio and
T V ..........................................................
100. Radio and TV broadcasting ......................
101. Electric utilities .........................................
102. Gas u tilitie s ..................................................
103. Water and sanitary services........................

242
976
278
508
146

293
870
148
494
138

68
1,006
135
295
67

67
1,340
228
293
212

64
1,826
183
277
88

607
344
72
772
90

97
433
24
380
45

67
1,280
1,903
916
337

80
1,692
232
346
304

86
1.245
88
362
77

84
1,061
81
376
64

88
1,473
98
342
90

1,926
126
402
203
92

2,117
135
464
236
108

1,000
137
228
85
39

609
194
219
95
54

618
186
216
89
54

4.067
75
809
436
212

661
120
239
74
72

606
109
192
100
43

545
102
225
118
48

910
81
209
94
39

1,246
96
206
83
35

986
64
213
104
43

Wholesale and retail trade:
104. Wholesale tra d e ...........................................
105. Retail tra d e .................................................

3,953
13,824

3,826
16,749

4,514
28,017

6,447
27,788

6.073
26,787

914
1.286

2,116
11,297

3.963
1.241

5.296
1.051

4,319
6,379

5,299
7,808

3.276
4,888

Finance, insurance,and real estate:
106. Finance........................................................
107. Insurance .................................... ■
.............
108. Owner-occupied dwellings ........................
109. Other real e sta te .........................................

1,077
1,275
847

1,300
1.540
972

362
363
404

532
489
559

525
558
543

2.435
3.052
1.608

395
3,803
560

385
457
483

421
430
378

447
427
418

432
370
—
293

344
439
298

Services:
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.

807
2.184
1,421
141
941
518

886
2,828
1,425
153
874
612

177
167
1,160
158
513
240

185
243
1,427
223
600
233

175
285
1.542
213
609
282

2,084
6,457
1.525
80
1,288
1.137

259
463
1.104
137
575
132

1,248
233
1.357
104
672
179

195
271
1,570
117
526
220

220
113
1,356
93
1,422
238

207
131
1,308
110
513
216

214
90
1,367
73
2,253
259

Hotels and lodging places..........................
Other personal services..............................
Miscellaneous.............................................
Advertising..................................................
Miscellaneous professional services...........
Automobile repair ....................................

-

Private sector
Personal consumption expenditures
Industry number and title

Services — Continued
116. Motion pictures ........................................
117. Other amusements ....................................
118. Health services except h o sp ita ls...............
119. Hospitals.....................................................
120. Educational services..................................
121. Nonprofit organizations...........................
Government enterprises:
122. Post O ffic e .................................................
123. Commodity Credit C orp o ra tion ...............
124. Other Federal enterprises.........................
125. State and local government enter­
prises .....................................................

Total
private
sector

Exports
Services

Nondurable goods
Total

Durable
goods

Total

Food

Total

Medical

Total
merchandise
and
services

Gross private domestic investment

Merchan­
dise
only

Total

Producers'
durable
equipment

New
construction

161
535
1,455
1,388
1.056
1.529

160
664
1,900
1.826
1.375
1.969

67
90
30
5
11
112

94
106
158
7
14
140

90
101
279
7
15
162

263
1,506
4.375
4,361
3.298
4,528

62
78
23,792
25.078
15
162

394
272
66
6
128
121

52
52
60
5
12
135

43
57
31
6
13
149

49
60
25
4
11
131

34
50
30
4
13
167

550
207

620
—
239

398
—
202

432
—
207

399
—
202

894
—
285

544
—
110

321
—
157

330
—
59

320
—
80

351
—
85

281
—
70

463

540

235

266

266

939

270

275

206

201

180

204

-

Imports:
126. Directly allocated imports .......................
127. Transferred im p o rts ..................................

-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

Dummy industries:
128. Business travel, entertainment, and
g if ts .......................................................
129. Office supplies ..........................................
130. Scrap, used and secondhand goods..........

—
-

—
-

—
-

—

-

—
-

—
-

—
~

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

Special industries:
131. Government in d u s try ................................
132. Rest of the world in d u s try .......................
133. Households.................................................
134. Inventory valuation adjustment ...............

—
2,242
-

—
—
3,032
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—
—

—
—
7,158
—

—
—
—
~

—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—

—
—
—
“

—
—
—

—

—

—

—

—
—
—
~

Type of construction
Industry number and title
Single­
family

M ulti­
family

Public u tility structures

Nonresidential buildings

Residential buildings
I ndustrial

Office
and
commercial

Educational

Hospital
and
institutional

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries:

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Sewer

Water

Local
transit

ways
and
streets

176

156

90

89

93

93

79

89

63

73

52

75

1,044
413

886
221

197
35

228
57

302
88

272
47

201
88

232
190

116
18

217
103

100
28

176
64

256

203

73

78

92

79

81

102

51

72

44

69

38
53
33
115
187
546
20

51
70
43
126
198
541
20

56
80
52
119
157
444
21

63
72
54
129
207
495
21

51
114
67
116
165
517
20

76
50
57
141
169
533
22

34
565
207
87
233
278
25

75
101
70
132
201
446
26

105
52
63
191
131
472
17

56
25
41
160
155
820
17

52
31
39
84
209
308
24

80
26
33
156
465
1,761
17

33,648

33,648
20,987

20,987

20,987
_
_
_
279

18,130
_
_
280

18,130,
-

18,130

18,130

18,130

22,636

2. Crops and other agricultural prod-

4. Agriculture, forestry, and fishery serMining:

8. Coal mining
...............................................
9 Crude petroleum
.......................................
10 Stone and clay mining and q u a rry in g .........
11 Chemical and fertilizer mining ...................

U>
00

Construction:
12. New residential building construc­
tion ........................................................
13. New nonresidential building con­
struction .................................................
14 New public utilities construction ...............
15 New highway co nstru ction ..........................
16 A ll other new co nstruction..........................
17 Maintenance and repair construction .........
Manufacturing:
18 Guided missiles and space vehicles .............
19 Other ordnance.............................................
20 Food products .............................................
21 Tobacco manufacturing ..............................
22 Fabric yarn and thread m ills .....................
23. Miscellaneous textiles and floor
coverings.................................................
24 Hosiery and knit goods................................
25 Apparel..........................................................
26. Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products .................................................
27 Logging sawmills and planing m ills ...........
28. Millwork, plywood and other wood
p rn rlu n ts

29 Household furniture

..................................

................................

_
_
332

321

316

290

20,987
_
_
_
289

3
6
140
2
121

3
9
113
2
245

3
12
114
2
95

3
11
104
2
121

4
17
102
2
120

5
10
107
2
116

91
18
75

314
23
69

70
17
76

100
17
71

89
17
78

25
2,779

40
1,481

30
219

32
372

3,321
598

1,207
819

279
17

490
22

_
_

_
_

_

-

-

...

—

-

292

273

263

180

334

3
6
88
1
142

7
18
92
1
99

3
15
86
1
48

2
8
82
1
56

12
9
69
1
53

3
5
92
2
54

106
17
72

81
16
73

53
16
79

20
12
61

28
10
47

31
11
48

25
14
71

33
575

40
298

19
580

32
1,270

14
108

19
686

14
307

12
419

666
56

544
16

1,077
16

1,852
22

128
9

2,002
17

215
14

231
9

-

—
-

Type of construction
Nonresidential buildings

Residential buildings
Industry number and title

Office
and
commercial

Public u tility structures
Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

10
207
77
149
173
257
11

36
177
64
115
137
605
11

6
177
71
180
206
342
11

47
14
6
13
82
68
129
134

56
16
6
15
78
88
181
126

50
14
8
10
42
137
167
118

52
16
7
14
113
311
195
113

12
101
2,761

10
86
5,212

7
75
525

9
58
2,930

Single­
family
Manufacturing — Continued
30. Other fu rn itu re .............................................
31. Paper p ro d u c ts ............................................
32. Paperboard...................................................
33. Publishing.....................................................
34. P rintin g .........................................................
35. Chemical products ......................................
36. Agricultural chemicals ................................
37. Plastic materials and synthetic rub­
ber ...........................................................
38. Synthetic fibers ..........................................
39. Drugs ...........................................................
40. Cleaning and toilet preparations.................
41. P a in t..............................................................
42. Petroleum products ....................................
43. Rubber products..........................................
44. Plastic products ..........................................
45. Leather, footwear, and leather prod­
ucts .........................................................
46. Glass..............................................................
47. Cement, clay, and concrete p ro d u c ts ........
48. Miscellaneous stone and clay prod­
ucts .........................................................
49. Blast furnaces and basic steel prod­
ucts .........................................................
50. Iron and steel foundries and fo rg in g s........
51. Primary copper metals ................................
52. Primary aluminum ......................................
53. Other primary and secondary nonferrous m e ta l..........................................
54. Copper rolling and draw ing.........................
55. Aluminum rolling and d ra w in g ...................
56. Other nonferrous rolling and draw ing........
57. Miscellaneous nonferrous metal
products .................................................
58. Metal containers..........................................
59. Heating apparatus and plumbing fix ­
tures .......................................................
60. Fabricated structural m e ta l.........................
61. Screw machine products.............................
62. Other fabricated metal products.................
63. Engines, turbines, and generators...............

M ulti­
fam ily

93
314
121
199
229
341
27

45
341
127
201
231
336
24

197
331
130
206
239
391
12

300
370
156
196
223
362
12

138
371
141
196
232
374
14

27
338
134
195
218
420
13

81
256
114
185
202
502
13

35
242
126
183
212
367
12

12
175
90
170
193
257
37

103
40
8
14
154
113
109
424

108
108
8
15
147
121
175
396

149
34
8
17
379
151
171
624

115
43
8
17
101
128
188
444

198
42
8
13
74
98
175
960

154
45
8
13
93
101
153
835

291
44
8
12
50
147
138
266

126
29
7
12
78
125
185
324

13
155
2,872

12
134
2,682

10
162
3,194

12
150
2,035

12
214
1,939

40
154
1,849

11
59
820

14
121
1,361

Industrial

Educational

Electric

Water

Sewer

552

686

571

973

671

678

392

1.978

146

961

155

157

860
213
22
44

1,156
277
29
62

1,278
394
33
86

1,444
306
29
94

1.146
292
48
94

1,785
345
18
105

670
214
253
159

1.736
365
42
105

2,518
7,072
19
113

1,274
339
8
87

1,216
451
10
64

1,908
201
7
46

39
79
95
118

49
106
130
173

56
127
180
159

58
103
199
173

82
104
212
774

57
42
244
111

318
453
373
5,408

82
90
224
664

65
26
219
52

37
19
189
42

38
22
138
88

35
15
97
33

43
29

54
27

84
45

75
25

75
22

79
23

39
21

72
24

104
21

33
21

43
20

31
27

702
1,113
172
764
33

731
2.571
238
820
40

904
4,254
277
618
59

537
4,634
349
905
53

762
3.010
486
917
42

710
2,956
270
1,428
49

146
1.350
386
772
42

89
4,736
499
814
328

57
5,999
216
668
57

78
5,441
163
468
50

33
3.573
192
626
59

28
2.459
140
571
56

Type of construction
Residential bufldings

Public u tility structures

Nonresidential buildings

industry number and title

Office
and
commercial

Hospital
and
institutional

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

8

17

71

244
49
294
101
367
602
19

308
49
104
32
192
86
16

1,228
41
155
34
193
106
18

328
43
86
25
114
176
16

7
70
1,557
278
40
854
23
41

7
34
92
332
17
375
8
23

6
30
48
126
11
26
7
15

8
24
87
134
13
224
15
38

6
22
58
107
11
332
8
18

52
105
195
25
36
52

358
344
86
18
71
129

18
84
39
19
52
145

13
50
46
10
44
132

838
539
26
11
59
100

71
76
53
16
38
69

7

14

13

10

9

8

Telephone
and
telegraph

Single­
family
Manufacturing —Continued
64. Farm m achinery...........................................
65. Construction, mining, and oilfield
m a chin e ry...............................................
66. Material handling equipment ......................
67. Metalworking machinery ............................
68. Special industry machinery..........................
69. General industrial m a ch in e ry......................
70. Machine shop p rod u cts................................
71. Computers and peripheral equipm ent.........
72. Typewriters and other office ma­
chines ......................................................
73. Service industry machines............................
74. Electric transmission equipm ent.................
75. Electrical industrial apparatus......................
76. Household appliances..................................
77. Electric lighting and w irin g ..........................
78. Radio and television sets..............................
79. Telephone and telegraph apparatus.............
80. Other electronic communication
e quipm ent...............................................
81. Electronic components................................
82. Other electrical m a ch in e ry..........................
83. Motor vehicles .............................................
84. A irc ra ft..........................................................
85. Ship and boat building and re p a ir...............
86. Railroad and other transportation
equ ip m en t...............................................
87. Miscellaneous transportation equip­
ment ........................................................
88. Scientific and controlling instru­
ments ........................................................
89. Medical and dental instruments .................
90. Optical and ophthalmic equipm ent.............
91. Photographic equipment and sup­
plies ..........................................................
92. Miscellaneous manufactured prod­
ucts ..........................................................
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities:
93. Railroad transportation ..............................

M ulti­
family

6

7

8

7

6

7

6

9

25

58
30
81
44
188
77
18

76
76
105
41
182
95
18

138
728
149
47
468
147
20

113
439
147
45
406
121
20

86
42
240
38
267
114
19

104
507
153
45
401
131
19

159
120
104
34
155
192
15

243
60
164
44
436
150
19

6
71
113
120
181
323
7
23

7
214
158
169
79
617
9
32

8
328
180
241
46
666
10
39

9
523
217
259
66
1,133
10
36

8
272
1,814
300
63
550
15
40

8
195
188
314
37
870
12
34

6
120
104
117
32
474
11
37

21
71
53
10
38
74

24
96
64
12
46
96

32
127
52
16
58
133

30
134
67
16
60
129

115
323
62
15
63
101

149
222
52
14
64
98

7

9

11

14

11

11

Industrial

Educational

Electric

Water

Sewer

4

6

5

8

3

4

2

5

5

5

4

14

121
14
7

179
15
7

284
14
8

212
14
8

895
16
10

868
16
8

90
13
8

87
15
9

47
15
8

31
12
7

37
13
5

29
10
5

26

27

34

33

38

30

23

41

25

23

23

31

106

115

85

146

106

91

103

94

66

55

39

184

976

844

795

774

723

731

939

671

714

357

912

1,129
________ 1__
_

Type of construction
Residential buildings

Nonresidential buildings

Industry number and title

Office
and
commercial

Public u tility structures
Sewer

Local
transit

H jghways
and
streets

82
1,133
75
311
63

79
1.205
75
301
68

59
735
49
229
63

85
1,777
131
328
148

902
59
202
97
34

976
54
242
131
33

838
46
207
118
30

695
34
117
63
20

801
54
192
111
42

3.227
1.910

2,858
2,425

2,703
2.148

2.030
1,300

2,055
1.370

2.818
2.439

332
428

280
438

289
494

297
506

274
544

156
481

276
645

299

258

263

246

236

206

315

227
93
1.379
72
2.662
260
34
51
28
4
13
164

246
92
1.389
72
2,802
286
34
53
29
4
14
176

177
68
1.242
69
2.448
184
32
41
28
4
11
129

195
100
1,363
67
2.456
207
31
43
31
4
11
134

200
109
1,382
62
2.582
200
29
42
30
3
8
94

193
91
1.441
53
2.610
204
26
39
32
3
13
178

149
69
1.301
39
2.568
166
19
30
28
3
6
66

210
72
1,418
62
4.444
232
30
45
38
4
11
129

279

Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Single­
family
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities — Continued
94. Local transit and intercity bus transp o rta tio n ...............................................
95. Truck transportation ................................
96. Water transportation..................................
97. A ir transportation......................................
98. Other transportation..................................
99. Communications, except radio and
T V .........................................................
100. Radio and TV broadcasting .....................
101. Electric utilities ........................................
102. Gas u tilitie s .................................................
103. Water and sanitary services.......................
Wholesale and retail trade:
104. Wholesale trade............................
105. Retail tra d e .................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
106. Finance.................................................
107. Insurance...................................................
108. Owner-occupied dwellings .......................
109. Other real e sta te ........................................
Services:
110. Hotels and lodging pla ce s.........................
111. Other personal services.......................
112. Miscellaneous..........................
113. A dve rtisin g .................................. .... . . : . . .
114. Miscellaneous professional services . . . . . .
115. Automobile repair ................. ...............
116. Motion pictures ..........................
117. Other amusements.....................
118. Health services except hospitals
-* ......
119. Hospitals........................................... . . . . .
120. Educational services................... ...........
121. N onprofit organizations...........v .............
Government enterprises:
122. Post office .................................................
123. Commodity Cred it C o rp o ra tio n ...............
124. Other Federal enterprises.........................

M ulti­
family

90
1,275
103
349
83

95
1,247
88
368
83

95
2,133
81
362
109

92
1,812
80
355
93

93
1.620
75
367
77

100
1,372
69
382
76

72
1.056
198
297
81

80
1,664
92
321
85

1.013
65
213
103
46

1,043
65
216
105
47

1,070
67
223
116
47

1.009
63
209
103
43

1.007
63
210
100
41

1.025
63
214
102
48

863
60
217
103
44

3,368
7.051

3,388
5,599

3.403
3,937

3.164
3.673

3.186
3,992

2.975
4,257

344
422

343
435

443
419

319
417

—

—

—

—

319

317

312

295

334
417
—
292

218
79
1.373
75
2,184
285
35
54
32
4
14
174

232
90
1,404
74
2,705
282
35
54
32
4
15
185

233
106
1.394
76
2,650
282
36
52
29
4
15
185

224
103
1,376
72
2.639
262
34
50
28
4
13
164

285

292

307

287

Industrial

Educational

_

_

Electric

_

Water

_

_

292

_

248

264

—

_

232

—

_

252

—

_

270

—

_

240

—

83

75

68

62

64

66

54

54

57

46

55

53

Type of construction
Public u tility structures

Nonresidential buildings

Residential buildings
Industry number and title

Office
and
commercial

Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Single­
family

Multi­
family

Government enterprises — Continued
125. State and local government enter­
prises ......................................................

210

216

Imports:
126. Directly allocated imports ........................
127. Transferred imports ..................................

—
-

-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
—

Dummy industries:
128. Business travel, entertainment, and
g if ts ........................................................
129. Office supplies ...........................................
130. Scrap, used and secondhand g oods...........

—
-

-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—
-

—

-

-

—
—
-

—
-

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

Special industries:
131. Government in d u s try ................................
132. Rest of the world in d u s try ........................
133. Households.................................................
134. Inventory valuation adjustment ...............

—

—

I ndustrial

217

“

198

Educational

201

'

203

205

Electric

196
—
—

Water

185
—
—

Sewer

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

206

205

240

—

—
~

—
—

—

—

—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—

-

Sector
number

1963
Input-output
number

Sector name

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries:
1
Crops and other agricultural
2
products.........................................................
3
4
Agriculture, forestry, and

SIC code1

1.01-1.03

01

2.01-2.07
3

01
0.74 08, and 091
071,0723, pt. 0729,
0 7 3 ,0 8 5 ,and 098

4
Mining:
5
6
7

Iron ore m in in g ..................................................
Copper ore mining ............................................
Other nonferrous metal ore m in in g ...................

5
6.01
6.02

8
9
10

Coal m inin g .........................................................
Crude petroleum ................................................
Stone and clay mining and
q u a rryin g .......................................................

7
8

Chemical and fertilizer mining .........................

10

11
Construction:
12

13
14
15
16
17

New residential building construction
(excludes equipment and land
development costs) ......................................
New nonresidential building
construction..................................................
New public utilities construction .....................
New highway co nstru ction ...............................
All other new construction...............................
Maintenance and repair
construction..................................................

Manufacturing:
fiiiiriorl micciloc anri cparo v/phirloc
18
Othof*
19
20
Food products ..................................................
Tnharrn manufarturing
21
22
Fabric, yarn, and thread m ills ...........................
23
24
25
26
27
28

29
30
31

Miscellaneous textiles and floor
coverings.......................................................
Hosiery and kn it goods......................................
Apparel
.........................................................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile
prndunt«i
Logging, sawmills, and planing
m i 1q
1
M illw ork, plywood, and other wood
pmrinrts

....

101,106
102
103-109, except
106
11, 12
1311,1321,138
141-145,148,
and 149
147

9

11.01
11.02
11.03
11.04
11.05
12.01-12.02

\
1
I
1

)
1925
19 except 1925
20
21
221,222, 223,
224, 226 and 228

17.01 -17.10
18.01-18.03
18.04

227 and 229
225
23 (except 239),
3992

20.01-20.04

Household fu rn itu re ..........................................
Other furniture . . .
.............
Paper prnriiirt^

239

26.05-26.08

35

Chemical products ............................................

36
37

Agricultural chemicals........................................
Plastic materials and synthetic
r i ihhpr
<^ynthpfir fihprc

27.01 and
27.04
27.02-27.03
28.01-28.02
28.03-28.04
29.01
29.02-29.03
30
31.01 -31.03
32.01-32.03
32.04

2821,2822
2823,2824
283
284
285
29
30 except 307
307

33 and 34.01
34.03
35.01-35.02

31

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

49

51
52
53

54
55
56

243, 244, and
249
251
25 except 251
26 except 265

Cleaning and toilet preparations.......................
Paint
Pptrnlpiim prnHnpts
Rubber products................................................
Plpctir* prnrliirtQ
Leather, footwear, and leather
products
Glass...................................................................
Cement, clay, and concrete
products.........................................................
Miscellaneous stone and clay
products.........................................................
Blast furnaces and basic steel
products.........................................................
Iron and steel foundries, and
forgings .........................................................
Primary copper metals ......................................
Primary aluminum ............................................
Other primary and secondary
nonferrous m e ta l..........................................

60
61
62

Copper rolling and draw ing................................
Aluminum rolling and d ra w in g .........................
Other nonferrous rolling and
drawing .........................................................
Miscellaneous nonferrous metal
products.........................................................
Metal containers................................................
Heating apparatus and plumbing
fixtures .........................................................
Fabricated structural m e ta l................................
Screw machine p rod u cts....................................
Other fabricated metal p rod u cts.......................

63
64

Engines, turbines, and generators.....................
Farm m achinery.................................................

57
58
59

25
26.01 -26.04

SIC code1

P rinting...............................................................

34

241 and 242

20.05-20.09
and 21
22.01-22.04
23.01-23.07
24.01-24.07

1963
I nput-output
number

265
271,272,273,
and 274
275, 276, 277,
278, and 279
281, 286, and 289
(except 28195)
287

50

13.01
13.02-13.07
14.01-14.32
15.01-15.02
16.01-16.04

Sector name

Manufacturing -- Continued
Paperboard .........................................................
32
33
Publishing...........................................................

Vi 5, 16, and 17

|
1

19.01-19.03

..

Sector
number

321,322, and 323

36.01 -36.05
and 36.10-36.14

324,325,and
327

36.06-36.09
and 36.1536.22

326, 328,and
329

37.01

331

37.02-37.04
38.01
38.04

332, 3391, and 3399
3331
3334 and 28195

38.02-38.03,
38.05, and
38.06
38.07
38.08

3332, 3333, 3339,
and 334
3351
3352

38.09-38.10

3356and 3357

38.11-38.14
39.01-39.02

336 and 3392
341 and 3491

40.01-40.03
40.04-40.09
41.04-41.02
42.01 -42.11

343
344
345 and 346
342. 347,348 and
349 except 3491
351
352

43.01-43.02
44

Sector
number

Sector name

1963
Input-output
number

SIC code1

Manufacturing — Continued
65
Construction, mining, and oilfield
45.01-45.03
46.01-46.04

66
67
68
69
70
71
72

47.01-47.04
48.01-48.06
49.01-49.07
50
51.01

3531,3532, and 3533
3534, 3535,3536.
and 3537
354
355
356
359
3573,3574

Typewriters and other office
51.02- 51.04

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

4^

81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

89
90
91
92

Telephone and telegraph apparatus...................
Other electronic communication
e q u ip m en t.....................................................
Electronic components......................................
Other electrical machinery ................................
Motor vehicles.....................................................
A irc ra ft................................................................
Ship and boat building and re p a ir.....................
Railroad and other transportation
e q u ip m e n t.....................................................
Transportation equipment ................................
Scientific and controlling
instrum ents...................................................
Medical and dental instruments.........................
Optical and ophthalmic equipm ent...................
Photographic and equipment and
supplies .........................................................
Miscellaneous manufactured
nrnducts
_____

Transportation, communication, and public utilities:
0.1
Railroad tra n s o o rta tio n ............ ...........................
Local transit and intercity bus ..........................
94
Truck transportation...........................................
95
Water transportation...........................................
96
A ir transportation...............................................
97
Other transportation...........................................
98
99
100
101
102

Communications, except radio and
T V ..................................................................
Radio and TV broadcasting................................
Electric u tilitie s ...................................................
Gas u tilitie s .........................................................

357, except 3573
and 3574
52.0152.05 358
53.01-53.03
361
53.04-53.08
362
54.0154.07 363
55.0155.03 364
56.0156.02 365
3661
56.03

Sef ^ ° r
number

68.03

494,495,496,497.
and part 493

69.01
69.02

50
52. 53.54. 55,56,
57. 58. and 59

Finance, insurance and real estate:
106
Finance...............................................................
107
Insurance ...........................................................
108
Owner-occupied dwellings..................................
109
Other real e s ta te .................................................

70.01-70.03
70.04-70.05
70.01
71.02

6 0.6 1.62 . and 67
63 and 64
(2)
65 and 66

72.01
72.02-72.03
73.01
73.02

70
72 and 76
73 except 731
731

73.03 and 74

81 and 89 except
892. nonprofit
research
75
78
79
80 (except 806).
0722
806
82
84, 86, and 892

Services:
110
111
112
113
114

39 (except 3992)

65.01
65.02
65.03
65.04
65.05
65.06-65.07

40 and 474
41
42 and 473
44
45
46, 47 (except
473 and 474)

66
67

68.01
68.02

48 except 483
483
491 and part 493
492 and part 493

Automobile repair...............................................
Motion pictures...................................................
Other amusements.............................................
Health services except hospitals .......................

119
120
121

Hospitals.............................................................
Educational services..........................................
Nonprof it organizations....................................

Government enterprises:
122
Post O ffic e .........................................................
123
Commodity Credit Corporation .......................
124
Other Federal enterprises..................................

75
76.01
76.02
77.01 and
77.03
77.02
77.04
77.05
78.01
78.03
78.02 and
78.04

(2)
(2)
(2)

State and local government
enterprises.....................................................

79.01-79.03

(2)

Directly allocated im ports..................................
Transferred imports ..........................................

80.01
80.02

(2)
(2)

Dummy industries:
128
Business travel, entertainment.
and g ifts .........................................................
129
Office supplies ...................................................
130
Scrap, used and secondhand g o o d s ...................

81
82
83

(2)
(2)
(2)

Special industries:
131
Government industry ........................................
132
Rest of the world industry ................................
133
Households.........................................................
134
Inventory valuation adjustment .......................

84
85
86
87

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

125
Imports:
126
127

1Standard Industrial Qassification Manual, 1967 edition. Bureau of the Budget (now Office of Management and Budget).
3 No comparable industry.

Hotels and lodging pla ce s..................................
Other personal services......................................
Miscellaneous business services.........................
A dvertising.........................................................
Miscellaneous professional
services...........................................................

115
116
117
118

386

64.01- 64.12

SIC code1

Wholesale and retail trade:
104
Wholesale tra d e ...................................................
105
Retail tra d e .........................................................

61.0361.05 374 and 375
61.06-61.07
379

63.03

1963
Input-output
number

Transportation, communication
and public utilities — Continued
103
Water and sanitary services................................

3662
57.0157.03 367
58.01- 58.05
369
371
59.01-59.03
60.01-60.04
372
61.01-61.02
373

62.0162.03 381,382, and
387
and 62.07
384
62.04- 62.06
63.01-63.02
383 and 385

Sector name

Component of demand
Public sector
Occupation

State and local

Federal
Total
public
sector

Defense

T o t a l............................................................

90,050

Professional and technical workers .....................
Engineers.....................................................
Aeronautical ....................................
C he m ical...........................................
C iv il...................................................
E lectrica l...........................................
In d u stria l...........................................
Mechanical.........................................
Metallurgical ....................................
M in in g ...............................................
Sales .................................................
O th e r.................................................
Medical and health w o rke rs.......................
D e n tists.............................................
Dietitians and n u tritio n is ts .............
Professional nurses............................
O pto m e trists....................................
Osteopaths.........................................
Pharmacists......................................
Physicians and surgeons...................
Psychologists....................................
Medical and dental
technicians..................................
Veterinarians....................................
O th e r.................................................
Teachers .....................................................
Elementary ......................................
Secondary.........................................
College...............................................
O th e r.................................................
Natural scientists.........................................
Chemists ...........................................
Agricultural scientists .....................
Biological scientists..........................
Geologists and geo­
physicists ....................................
Mathematicians................................

17,000
1,100
100
*
200
250
100
200
*
*
*
100
1,650
*
*
800
*
*
*
150
50

*

*

250
*
250
7,850
3,250
2.600
1.400
550
500
100
100
100

*
*
*
300
100
50
*
150
450
100
*

400
100
350
1.400
600
500
250
100
1,300
150
450
200

450
100
400
1,600
650
550
300
100
1,200
150
500
200

*
50

*
100

50
100

100
100

Nondefense
Total

Except
NASA

NASA

Total
State and
local

74,200

66,600

68,850

62,400

7,550
2,500
350
100
200
750
200
550
50
*
100
200
200
*
*
100
*
*
*
*

15.750
1,900
350
50
200
500
150
300
*
*
50
200
2,350
50
50
1,050
*
*
50
250

15,400
1,100
100
*
200
300
100
150
*
*
*
150
2,650
50
50
1,200
*
*
50
250

19,600
8.550
2.500
200
300
2,000
500
1,550
150
*
200
900
100

*

Education

Except
structures

New construction

Total

Except
structures

New con­
struction

101,250

112,250

59,850

108.800

34.150
1,050
*
*
400
150
100
150
*
*
*
100
3,450
100
100
1.650
*
*
50
350
150

42,950
950
*
*
300
150
50
150
*
*
*
100
4.450
100
100
2.100
*
*
100
450
200

5,550
1.250
*
50
400
150
100
250
*
*
100
200

2,200
200
*
50

550
*
500
18,550
7.700
6.200
3.400
1.300
700
150
100
150

700
*
650
24.200
10.000
8.100
4,400
1.650
850
150
150
200

*
300

*
*

*
50

150
—
—
150
—

150
50
*

*
*
*

114.950

63,550

58,950
700
*
*
150
200
*
150
*
*
*
100
900
*
50
300
—
—
*
50
250

64,550
700
*
*
100
200
*
150
*
*
*
100
950
*
100
350
—
*
50
300

5,550
1,400
*
*
450
250
100
200
*
*
100
200

100
*
50
42.950
17,850
14.400
7.850
2,800
1.050
150
150
200

100
*
50
47.250
19.650
15,850
8,650
3.100
1,150
200
150
250

50
100

50
100

—

150
100
*

*
*

Component of demand
Public sector
Occupation

Natural scientists — Continued
Physicists............................ ...............
O th e r..................................................
Social scientists...........................................
Econom ists.......................................
Statisticians and a ctu a rie s ...............
O th e r.................................................
Technicians, except medical
and d en tal...............................................
D rafte rs.............................................
S u r v e y o r s .........................................................

A ir traffic controllers........................
R a d io operators................................
Electrical and electronic
technicians..................................
Other engineering and
physical science
technicians................. .................
O th e r.................................................
Other professional and
technical w o rk e rs ..................................
Accountants and a u d ito rs ...............
Airplane pilots and
navigators.....................................
Architects .........................................
Clergy ...............................................
Designers, except
drafters .........................................
Editors and reporters........................
Lawyers and ju d g e s..........................
Librarians ................................ .
Personnel and labor
relations workers ........................
Photographers..................................
Social and welfare
w orkers.........................................
Workers and teachers
in the arts and
entertainm ent..............................
Professional and technical
workers not elsewhere
classified.......................................

State and local

Federal
Total
public
sector

Nondefense
Defense

Total

Except
NASA

NASA

Total
State and
local

50
150
50
*
*
*

100
150
100
*
*
*

1,200
350
100

1,150
250
50

50
100
50
*
*
*

100
50
50
*
*
*

50
200
350
200
150
*

50
50
350
200
150
*

200
1,400
50
*
*
*

1,100
200
50
50
*

1,650
350
*
*
*

2,750
300
*
650
*

2,600
250
*
750
*

4,400
850
50

200

500

500

300
200

550
150

4,750
400

’

Except
structures

New con­
struction

*
*
*
*
*
*

Education
Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

150
250
50
*
*
*

150
300
50
*
*
*

1,100
200
*

1,600
750
100
*
*

*
*
—

—

—

—

*

50

50

1,550
650
300
*
*

*

1,100
150
*
—
*

400

1,300

150

150

150

150

150

100

850
400

750
400

1,800
350

250
300

200
400

350
100

200
550

200
600

450
50

2,400
300

5,750
1,150

5,950
1,200

4,150
650

9,100
650

11,300
650

1,500
750

12,200
300

13,400
250

2,400
700

*
*
*

100
*
100

150
*
250

150
*
250

100
50
-

50
50
50

50
*
50

*
100
*

*
*
*

*
*
50

50
100
*

*
50
300
300

50
100
100
*

100
100
650
100

100
50
700
100

100
100
500
*

50
100
550
700

150
100
550
900

100
*
750
*

*
100
200
1,550

*
100
150
1,700

100
*
600
*

200
*

150
50

300
50

300
50

200
100

350
*

400
50

100
*

100
50

100
50

100
*

400

*

150

150

50

900

1,150

*

150

200

*

1,200

200

750

800

2,600

3,400

100

5,600

6,200

1,750

1,150

1,950

1,950

3,050

3,800

550

3,950

4,350

2,250

—

700

Public sector
Occupation

State and local

Federal
Total
public
sector

Nondefense
Defense

Except
NASA

Total

4.750
*

NASA
4,950
*

Total
State and
local

Except
structures

7,150
*

7,350
*

New const ruction

Education
Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

Managers and adm inistrators................................
Railroad conductors ............................ . . .
Ship officers, pilots.
and engineers ........................................
Credit and collection
managers.................................................
Purchasing agents........................................
Postmasters and assistants..........................
Managers and administrators
not elsewhere classified..........................

4,200
*

3,500
*

4,550
*

Clerical w orkers.....................................................
Stenographers, typists, and
secretaries...............................................
Office machine operators ............................
Other clerical w o rk e rs ................................
Accounting clerks ............................
Bookkeepers....................................
Bank te lle rs ......................................
Cashiers.............................................
Mail carriers......................................
Postal clerks......................................
Shipping and receiving
clerks ...........................................
Telephone o p e ra to rs.......................
Clerical workers not
elsewhere classified.....................
Salesworkers ..........................................................
Insurance agents and
b roke rs...................................................
Real estate agents and
b roke rs...................................................
Other salesworkers not
elsewhere classified................................

50

50

100

100

100

100

100

100

50

50

100

750

850

850

850

1,400

1,200

1,150

1,750

900

850

2,100

Craft and kindred w orke rs....................................
Construction craftw orkers..........................
Carpenters........................................
Brickmasons, stone and
tile setters....................................

7,200
2.700
750

7,550
1,450
300

7,950
2,600
800

8,150
2,850
900

8,850
1.300
250

11.500
4,950
1,400

8,150
1,900
450

17,550
9.700
2,450

7,350
2,000
550

6,700
1,350
350

18,550
10,950
3,050

150

*

100

150

50

350

50

650

150

*

1,250

5,400
50

4,800
*

4,150
*

6,250
100

*

100

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*
100
*

*
250
*

*
100
*

*
50
*

*
500
*

*
150
*

*
150
*

*
150
*

*
150
*

*
150
*

*
150
*

4,000

3,100

4,400

4,600

4,350

6,900

7,100

5,150

4,650

3,950

6,000

10,400

7,850

21,550

22,700

12,150

16,500

19,350

7,500

14,250

15,400

8,200

3,500
350
6,600
350
300
*
150
100
150

2,300
400
5,150
300
300
*
100
100
150

4,950
300
16,300
650
250
*
200
150
150

5,200
300
17,150
700
250
*
200
150
150

3,850
450
7,850
350
500
*
200
300
350

5,950
500
10,100
650
550
*
350
200
250

7,100
550
11,700
600
500
50
400
200
250

2,250
300
4,950
350
700
*
100
100
100

6,000
300
8,000
350
400
*
350
100
150

6,550
300
8,550
350
400
*
400
100
150

2,350
300
5,550
400
900
*
100
100
100

150
150

200
350

200
450

200
400

300
900

200
450

200
500

250
300

150
350

150
350

150
350

5,250

3,600

14,200

15,100

4,900

7,550

8,950

3,000

6,100

650

3,200

900

950

1,050

1,050

1,600

1,450

1,400

2.000

1,100

1,050

2,350

100

50

100

100

100

150

150

150

150

150

150

Public sector
Occupation

State and local

Federal
Total
public
sector

Nondefense
Defense

Except
NASA

Total

Total
State and
local

NASA

Except
structures

New con­
struction

Education
Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

Construction craftworkers — Continued
Cement and concrete
finishers .......................................
E lectricians.......................................
Excavating, grade, and road
machinery operators...................
Painters and paperhangers .........................................
Plasters .............................................
Plumbers and p ip e fitte rs .................
Roofers and slaters ..........................
Structural m e ta lw o rke rs.................
Blue-collar worker supervisors
not elsewhere classified..........................
Metalworking craftworkers
except mechanics..................................
M achinists.........................................
Blacksmiths, forge and
hammer operators........................
Boilerm akers.....................................
Heat treaters, annealers,
and temperers..............................
M illw rig h ts.........................................
Metal molders ..................................
Metal and wood
patternmakers..............................
Rollers and roll h a n d s ......................
Sheet metal workers ........................
Toolmakers, diemakers,
and setters ..................................
Mechanics and repairers..............................
A ir conditioning, heating,
and refrigeration..........................
A irplane.............................................
Motor vehicle.....................................
Office machine ................................
Radio and TV ..................................
Railroad and car shop ......................
O th e r.................................................

50
450

450

450

450

450

150
650

400

400
750

350

300

400
1.100

400

100

350

400

100

850

200

3,150

150

100

950

400
*
350
50
100

200
*
300
*
100

400
*
250
*
150

450
*
300
*
150

200
*
200
*
*

750
50
550
100
150

450
*
250
*
*

700
150
800
300
350

400
*
250
50
*

300
*
200
*
*

1.500
300
1,300
700
350

950

1,000

1,450

1,450

1,550

1,400

1,200

2,200

1,050

1.000

1,950

800
400

1.650
850

950
550

850
500

2,150
1,150

-850
350

650
300

f,500
500

650
300

550
300

1,850
650

*
*

.
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
50

*
*

.
*

*
*

#
*
*

»
100
100

*
*
*

.
*
*

.
100
50

*
50
*

.
*
*

*
100
100

*
*
*

*
*
*

.
100
100

.
*
150

100
*
300

*
*
100

*
*
50

100
*
300

*
*
200

.
*
100

*
50
400

*
*
100

*
*
50

*
50
600

100
1,850

250
2,200

150
1,750

150
1,800

400
2,050

100
2,700

100
2,900

150
2.100

100
2,300

100
2,450

200
1.850

100
200
200
*
50
*
1,250

100
550
250
*
150
*
1,150

100
350
150
*
*
*
1,100

100
300
150
*
*
*
1,100

50
550
200
50
50
*
1,100

100
100
350
*
*
*
2,000

50
100
400
*
50
*
2,200

100
50
350
100
*
*
1.450

50
50
250
*
*
*
1,900

.
50
250
*
*
*
2.000

100
50
300
*
*
*
1,300

Public sector
Federal
Total
public
sector

Printing trades craftworkers................. . . .
Compositors and type­
setters ...........................................
Electro typers and stereo­
typers ...........................................
Engravers, except
photoengravers............................
Photoengravers and lithographers . .
Pressmen and plate
printers .........................................
Transportation and public
u tility craftw orkers................................
Telephone and power
installers and repairers ...............
Locomotive engineers .....................
Locomotive firemen .......................
Other craft and kindred w o rk e rs ...............
B a ke rs...............................................
Cabinetmakers..................................
Crane, derrick, and
hoist o p e ra to rs............................
G laziers.............................................
Jewelers and watchmakers .............
Loom fix e rs ......................................
Opticians, lens grinders,
and polishers................................
Log and lumber inspectors...............
Other inspectors ..............................
Upholsterers ....................................
Craft and kindred workers
not elsewhere classified...............
O peratives..............................................................
Drivers and delivery w o rk e rs .....................
Bus, truck, and tractor
drivers...........................................
Delivery and route
workers.........................................
Semiskilled metalworking occupations . ..
Metalworking assemblers,
class A ........................................

State and local

Nondefense
Defense

Except
NASA

Total

NASA

Total
State and
local

Except
structures

New construction

Education
Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

150

150

150

150

200

250

300

100

300

350

100

100

50

100

150

100

150

200

50

200

200

50

*

*

•

*

*

•

•

•

•

•

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

.
*

*
*

*
*

•
*

*
*

*

50

*

*

50

50

100

•

100

100

•

100

350

350

300

950

350

300

450

200

200

400

100
*
*
650
*
*

350
*
*
650
*
*

350
*
*
700
*
*

300
*
*
750
*
*

950
*
*
700
*
*

300
*
*
1,050
50
*

250
*
*
900
100
*

350
50
*
1.500
*
*

200
*
*
800
100
50

200
*
*
800
100
50

350
50
*
1.450
*
100

100
*
*
*

150
*
*
*

50
*
*
*

50
*
*
*

100
*
*
*

200
*
*
*

100
*
*
*

600
50
*
*

100
*
*
*

50
*
*
*

400
150
*
*

•
*
50
*

.
*
50
*

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*

.
*
50
*

*
*
100
*

.
*
50
*

•
*
200
*

•
*
50
*

.
*
50
*

.
*
200
*

-

350

350

500

500

400

550

550

500

450

450

500

6.550
1,450

8,850
1,000

7,300
1.150

7.550
1.250

10,700
1.000

9.250
2.600

8,350
2.350

13,500
4,000

7,500
2,400

7.250
2,450

14,200
3,050

1,250

800

1,000

1.050

800

2,300

1.950

3.800

2,050

2.000

2.800

200
1.150

200
2,250

150
1,650

150
1.450

200
3,600

350
1,150

350
900

200
2,200

400
950

450
800

250
3.050

100

200

150

100

400

50

50

100

50

50

200

Component of demand
Public sector
State and local

Federal
Total
public
sector
Semiskilled metalworking — Continued
Metalworking assemblers,
class B ...........................................
Metalworking inspectors,
class B ...........................................
Machine tool operators,
class B ...........................................
Electroplaters ..................................
Electroplater h e lp e rs........................
Furnace tenders, smelters,
and pourers, metal ......................
Metal heaters.....................................
Welders and flame
cutters .........................................
Selected transportation and
public u tility operatives ........................
Railroad brake and switch
operators and co up le rs...............
Power station operators....................
Sailors and deck hands......................
Semiskilled textile o ccupations.................
Knitters, loopers, and
to p p e rs.........................................
Spinners.............................................
Weavers.............................................
Sewers and stitchers..........................
Other operatives and kindred
w orkers....................................................
Asbestos and insulation
workers.........................................
Auto attendants................................
Blasters .............................................
Laundry and drycleaning operatives......................
Mine operatives and laborers
not elsewhere classified...............
Meat cutters, except meat­
packing .........................................
Operatives not elsewhere
classified.......................................

Nondefense
Defense

Except
NASA

Total

NASA

Total
State and
local

Except
structures

New con­
struction

Education
Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

350

750

500

450

1,300

300

250

400

250

250

650

150

350

150

150

550

100

100

200

100

100

300

150
*
*

350
*
*

200
*
*

150
*
*

650
*
*

150
*
*

150
*
*

250
*
*

150
*
*

100
*
*

300
*
*

*
*

50
*

*
*

*
*

50
*

*
*

*
*

100
*

*
*

*
*

100
*

350

500

550

550

550

500

300

1,100

350

250

1,500

100

200

50

50

50

100

100

150

50

50

150

*
*
*
100

50
*
100
200

*
*
*
150

*
*
*
150

*
*
*
100

50
*
*
100

50
*
*
150

100
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

100
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

*
*
150

*
*
100

*
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
*
50

*
*
*
50

*
*
*
100

3,750

5,250

4,350

4,650

6,150

5,250

4,900

7,050

4,000

3,850

7,800

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

.
*
*

50
*

*
*
*

*
50
*

100
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

150

100

*

*

*

200

300

100

100

*

150

100

100

150

100

250

200

450

150

150

300

*

50

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

3,450

4,950

4,100

4,400

5,750

4,700

4,350

6,400

3,650

3,550

7,250

Public sector
Occupation

Federal
Total
public
sector

State and local

Nondefense
Defense

Total

Except
NASA
6,900
—
900
—
450
450
800
*

Total
State and
local

structures

350
*
*
300
400
*

16,150
4,900
1,200
2,700
1,000
2,200
*

20,750
6,350
1,550
3,500
1,250
2,850
*

1.050
*
200
*
*
200
150
*

150

1,200

1,550

NASA

New con­
struction

50
200
3,750
*

100
300
4,100
*

*

2,050

2,250

750
550
11,550
*

*
50
650
*

1,150
550
8,100
*

1,250
600
9,000
*

*
*
700
*

2,100

2,750

*

200

250

*

200
600
*

400
2,400
650

450
3.050
850

100
200
*

350
3,900
*

400
4,350
*

100
200
*

950
1,650
200

3,450
4,450
650

4,400
3,200
750

300
7,050
300

3,600
2,350
300

3,950
2,000
350

350
7,000
350

2,050
*
350
100
*
250
350
*

6,250
—
850
*
400
450
700
*

550

100

300

250
200
4,300
*

*
100
1,350
50

150
250
4,700
*

150
300
5.200
*

50
200
1,900
50

600
450
9,000
*

1.000

50

1,550

1,750

50

200
1,100
300

100
300
50

300
550
350

350
550
400

1,700
2,500
400

800
2,000
500

1,900
1.800
400

2,100
1.900
400

Armed F o rc e s .......................... .............................

33,400

33,400

-

Except
structures
13,450

7,500
2,200
500
1,150
500
1,000
*

-

Education
I otal
12,150
—
300 '

2,700

Service w o rk e rs .....................................................
Private household w orke rs.........................
Protective service w o rk e rs .........................
F ire fig hte rs......................................
Police and detectives........................
Guards...............................................
Food service w orke rs......................... . . . .
Bartenders.........................................
Cooks, except private
household....................................
Counter and fountain
w orkers........................................
Waiters and waitresses.....................
Other service workers ................................
Flight attendants..............................
Hospital and other
institutional attendants...............
Building interior cleaners,
not elsewhere classif ie d ...............
Janitors and sextons .......................
Practical n urse s................................
Other service workers not
elsewhere classified.....................
Laborers, except farm and mine .........................
Farmers and farm w orke rs....................................

300

New construction

-

-

-

-

350
-

-

-

1,100
*
250
*
*
200
150
*

-

Component of demand
Private sector

Public sector
State and local
Occupation

Health, welfare, and sanitation

Other functions

Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

Total

56,600

Except
structures

New con­
struction
59,050

Total
private
sector

Personal consumption expenditures

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable goods
Total

Food

76.650

77,550

T o ta l........................................................

94,950

95,300

90.050

116,800

69,000

70.300

Professional and technical workers ......................
Engineers......................................................
Aeronautical .....................................
C hem ical...........................................
C iv il....................................................
E lectrica l...........................................
In d u strial...........................................
Mechanical.........................................
Metallurgical .....................................
M in in g ................................................
Sales ..................................................
Other ..................................................
Medical and health w o rke rs........................
D en tists.............................................
Dietitians and nutritionists .............
Professional nurses............................
O p to m e trists.....................................
Osteopaths.........................................
Pharmacists.......................................
Physicians and surgeons...................
Psychologists.....................................
Medical and dental
technicians..................................
Veterinarians.....................................
O th e r..................................................
Teachers ......................................................
Elementary ....................................
S econdary.........................................
College...............................................
O th e r..................................................
Natural scientists.........................................
Chemists ...........................................
Agricultural scientists ......................
Biological scientists..........................
Geologists and geophysicists...........

24,000
700
*
50
150
150
50
100
*
*
*
100
1,600
400
250
7,950
50
50
250
1.600
100

25,000
600
*
50
100
150
50
100
*
*
*
100
17,950
450
300
8,400
50
50
250
1,700
100

5,450
1,150
*
*
400
150
100
200
*
*
100
150
*
*
—
*
—
—
*
*
*

10,450
1,450
*
*
800
150
100
150
*
*
*
150
250
*
*
50
*
*
*
*
50

15,700
1.500
*
*
850
150
100
150
*
*
*
150
400
*
*
100
*
*
*
50
100

5,450
1.250
*
*
350
150
100
250
*
*
100
200
*
*
—
*
—
•
*
*

6,050
800
*
*
100
200
100
150
*
*
*
100
1.200
*
*
450

*
250
100
*

6.300
550
*
*
100
150
50
100
*
*
*
50
1,600
*
*
600
*
*
350
150
*

3.650
900
*
*
*
250
150
200
*
*
50
150
50
*
—
*
*
—
*
*
—

3,650
450
*
50
50
50
50
100
*
*
*
50
800
*
*
*
*
—
750
*
*

2,700
350
*
*
50
50
*
50
*
*
*
50
150
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

3,000
*
2,650
200
50
*
*
100
350
200
*
50
*

*
—
*
*
»
*
*
*
150
100
*
*
*

*
*
*
150
*
*
*
100
400
100
150
100
*

*
*
*
300
*
*
*
200
700
100
300
200
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*
*

150
*
150
500
200
200
100
50
200
100
*
*
*

200
*
200
700
300
250
100
100
200
100
*
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
100
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
250
150
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
200
100
50
*

2,850
*
2,500
200
50
*
*
100
400
200
*
150
*

!

#

71,250

Component of demand
Public sector

Private sector

State and local
Occupation

Health, welfare,and sanitation
Total

Mathematicians................................
Physicists...........................................
O th e r.................................................
Social scientists...........................................
Economists ......................................
Statisticians and actu a rie s...............
O th e r.................................................
Technicians, except medical
and den tal...............................................
D ra fte rs.............................................
Surveyors...........................................
A ir traffic controllers.......................
Radio operators................................
Electrical and electronic
technicians..................................
Other engineering and
physical science technicians . . . .
Other .................................................
Other professional and
technical w o rk e rs ..................................
Accountants and a u d ito rs ...............
Airplane pilots and
navigators....................................
Architects ........................................
Clergy ............................................... '
Designers, except d ra fte rs ...............
Editors and reporters.......................
Lawyers and ju d g e s..........................
Librarians .........................................
Personnel and labor
relations workers .......................
Photographers..................................
Social and welfare
w orkers.........................................
Workers and teachers in the
arts and entertainm ent...............
Professional and technical workers
not elsewhere classified...............

Except
structures

Other functions

New con­
struction

Total

Except
structures

New con­
struction

*
*
*
*
*
*
—

*
*
*
*
*
*
—

*
*
*
*
*
*
—

*
*
*
100
*
50
*

*
*
*
200
50
100
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
—

700
250
*
*

550
150
*
—
*

1,800
650
200
*

1,500
450
200
—
150

1,650
400
200
300

1,500
600
400
—
*

100

100

250

100

150

200
100

150
100

550
100

150
450

300
300

6,000
400

6,300
350

2,250
700

6,600
1,000

10,950
1,500

53
*
200
50
100
250
100

50
*
200
50
100
200
150

*
50
*
150
*
600
*

50
50
*
100
100
1,000
*

200
50

200
50

50
*

500

550

500

550

3,500

3,850

500

Total
private
sector

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Personal consumption expenditures
Durable
goods

Total

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Nondurable goods
Total

Food

*
*
*
*
*
*
—

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
-

450
100
*
*

450
100
*
*

750
250
*
—
*

550
150
*
—
*

800
300
*
—
*

150

150

100

200

50

50

250
50

200
100

150
100

200
100

100
150

100
150

2,600
750

2,550
400

2,700
350

1,700
400

1,600
300

1,550
300

100
50
*
50
100
1,450
*

*
100
*
100
*
850
*

50
*
150
100
100
200
*

50
*
200
50
100
200
*

*
*
*
150
100
100

50
*
*
100
150
150
*

50
*
*
*
100
150
*

650
*

1,200
50

100
*

100
50

100
100

100
*

100
*

50
*

*

1,950

3,750

*

*

50

.

*

*

100

200

350

50

300

450

*

200

*

1,450

2,200

550

900

950

750

500

750

-

Component of demand
Private sector

Public sector
State and local
Occupation

Clerical w orke rs......................................................
Stenographers, typists, and
secretaries...............................................
Office machine operators............................
Other clerical w o rk e rs ................................
Accounting c le rk s ............................
Bookkeeping.....................................
Bank te lle rs .......................................
Cashiers.............................................
Mail carriers.......................................
Postal clerks.......................................
Shipping and receiving
clerks ...........................................
Telephone o p e ra to rs........................
Clerical workers not
elsewhere classified.....................

Except
structures

New con­
struction

Total
private
sector

Personal consumption expenditures
Durable
goods

Nondurable goods

Except
structures

New con­
struction

Total

4,950
*

4,700
*

5,550
*

10,050
*

13.650
*

5,000
50

7,900
*

8,400
*

10,450
*

*

*

50

*

*

*

*

*

*

*
150
*

*
150
50

*
150
*

*
150
*

*
200
*

*
100
*

50
150
*

50
100
*

150
150
*

50
100
*

Total

Managers and adm inistrators................................
Railroad conductors ..................................
Ship officers, pilots,
and engineers .........................................
Credit and collection
managers.................................................
Purchasing agents.........................................
Postmasters and assistants..........................
Managers and administrators
not elsewhere classified..........................

Other functions

Health , welfare, and sanitation

Total

Total

Food

10,600
*

10,100
50

* ■

*
*
100

4,650

4,400

5,150

9,800

13,350

4,750

7.600

8,100

10,050

10,300

9,850

16,000

16,350

7,150

18,250

29,300

7,250

11,400

12,000

11,400

11,350

11,100

550
350
10,150
400
750
200
150
350
400

5,650
300
10,400
400
700
200
150
400
450

2,100
250
4.750
350
700
*
100
100
100

5,750
750
11,800
800
550
50
300
200
250

9,450
1,250
18,650
1,250
450
100
500
250
300

2,150
300
4,800
300
700
*
100
100

100

2,600
500
8,300
400
900
150
900
200
250

2,650
500
8,850
400
950
200
1,150
200
250

2,450
500
8,400
500
1,700
50
250
150
150

1,950
500
8,850
450
950
100
2,200
150
200

1,700
450
8,950
400
650
100
3,200
150
150

200
550

250
300

350
600

350
650

550
400

450
250

350
250

250
650

250
650

250
300

200
400

6,950

7,200

2,850

9,050

15,050

2,950

4,550

4,650

4,700

4,150

3,700

Salesworkers ..........................................................
I nsurance agents and brokers.....................
Real estate agents and
b ro ke rs...................................................
Other salesworkers not
elsewhere classif ie d ................................

1,550
150

1,500
150

1,700
150

1,550
150

1,700
150

1,850
150

5,150
400

5,800
450

8,650
100

8,050
150

5,550
200

100

100

50

100

150

100

250

250

100

150

150

1,350

1,300

1,500

1,300

1,400

1,600

4,500

5,050

8,400

7,750

5,200

Craft and kindred w orkers.....................................
Construction craftw orkers..........................
Carpenters.........................................
Brickmasons, stone and
tile setters.....................................

7,550
2,000
500

6,300
1,200
300

16,150
8,140
2,150

16,750
9,100
2,650

11,350
2,900
600

16,950
9,250
2,200

9,550
2,250
850

7,600
850
200

13,850
1,050
300

6,200
600
150

5,400
600
150

100

*

900

650

100

450

150

50

*

( E m p lo y m e n t re q u ir e m e n ts p er b illio n d o lla rs o f e x p e n d itu re s , b y o c c u p a tio n , c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 7 2 )

Component of demand
Public sector

Private sector

State and local
Occupation

Except
structures

Total

Construction craftworkers—
Continued
Cement and concrete
finishers ......................................
Electricians ......................................
Excavating, grade, and road
machinery operators...................
Painters and paperhangers...............
Plasterers...........................................
Plumbers and pipefitters .................
Roofers and slaters ..........................
Structural metalworkers .................
Blue-collar worker supervisors
not elsewhere classified...............
Metalworking craftworkers
except m echanics..................................
M achinists.........................................
Blacksmiths, forge and
hammer operators.......................
Boilerm akers....................................
Heat treaters, annealers,
and temperers..............................
M illw rights.........................................
Metal molders ..................................
Metal and wood
patternmakers..............................
Rollers and roll h a n d s.....................
Sheet metal workers .......................
Toolmakers, diemakers,
and setters ..................................
Mechanics and repairers..............................
A ir conditioning, heating,
and refrigeration..........................
A irplane.............................................
Motor vehicle....................................
Office machine ................................
Radio and TV ..................................
Railroad and car shop .....................
O th e r.................................................

Other functions

Health , welfare, and sanitation
New construction

Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

Total
private
sector

Personal consumption expenditures

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable goods
Total

Food

400

300

200
1.100

250
1,050

600

500
550

350

200

350

150

150

200
350
*
300
*
50

100
300
*
150
*
*

1,000
650
100
1,150
250
600

1,700
1,300
100
1,000
200
250

450
650
*
350
*
*

4,000
450
100
600
150
300

150
350
*
250
*
50

100
150
*
100
*
*

50
100
*
150
*
*

50
100
*
100
*
*

50
100
*
50
*
*

1,150

1,000

2,000

1,800

1,600

2,300

1,400

1,150

1,900

1,450

1,300

700
300

550
250

1,800
500

1,000
350

850
400

1,350
450

950
500

550
250

1,750
850

400
200

350
200

.
*

*
*

*
150

*
*

*
*

*
50

.
*

*
*

.
*

»
*

.
*

*
50
*

*
*
*

*

*
100
*

•
50
*

*

*
*
*

*

*

100
100

*
50
*

*

150
50

100
100

50
*

50
*

*
*
150

*
*
50

50
700

*
*
300

*
*
150

100
350

*
*
100

*
*
*

100
*
150

,
*
*

*
*
*

100
2,150

100
2,100

150
2,000

100
3,100

100
4,250

150
2,000

150
2,800

100
2.900

350
6,250

50
1,850

1,550

100
50
250
*
*
*
1,650

50
50
250
*
*
*
1,650

300
50
250
*
*
*
1,250

50
150
500
*
100
*
2,250

100
200
750
*
150
*
2,950

100
50
350
*
*
*
1,400

50
100
950
50
250
*
1,350

100
100
1,100
50
300
*
1,250

*

*

*

100
3,450
100
650
*
1,900

50
500
50
50
*
1,150

50
300
*
*
*
1,150

*

*

Component of demand
Private sector

Public sector
State and local
Occupation

Total

Printing trades craftworkers........................
Compositors and typesetters...........
Electrotypers and stereotypers . . . .
Engravers, except
photoengravers............................
Photoengravers and lithographers . .
Printing press operators...................
Transportation and public
u tility craftworkers................................
Telephone and power
installers and repairers ...............
Locomotive engineers ......................
Locomotive firemen ........................
Other craft and kindred w o rk e rs ...............
B a ke rs...............................................
Cabinetmakers..................................
Crane, derrick, and
hoist ope ra to rs............................
G laziers.............................................
Jewelers and watchmakers...............
Loom fix e rs .......................................
Opticians, lens grinders,
and polishers................................
Log and lumber inspectors...............
Other inspectors ..............................
Upholsterers .....................................
Craft and kindred workers
not elsewhere classified...............
Operatives: ............................................................
Drivers and delivery w o rk e rs .....................
Bus, truck, and tractor
drivers ...........................................
Delivery and route w o rk e rs .............
Semiskilled metalworking
occupations ...........................................
Metalworking assemblers,
class A .........................................
Metalworking assemblers,
class B ...........................................

Other functions

Health , welfare, and sanitation
Except
structures

New const ruction

Total

Except
structures

New con­
struction

Total
private
sector

rersonai consumption expenditures

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable goods
Total

Food

250
150
*

100
50
*

300
150
*

300
200
*

400
200
*

450
250
*

300
200
*

*
*
50

*
*
*

*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
100

•
*
100

400

400

450

700

750

450

300

300

350
*
*
1,200
*
*

350
*
*
1,100
*
*

350
50
*
1,500
*
*

650
*
*
1,150
100
100

700
*
*
1,150
100
100

350
*
*
2,050
*
450

200
*
*
1,200
250
*

200
50
*
1,000
250
*

400
50
*
*

300
*
*
*

150
*
*
*

750
50
*
*

100
*
*
*

50
*
50
*

150
*
100
*

50
*
*
50

50
*
*
*

*
50
200
*

*
*
100
*

*
*
50
*

*
*
150
*

»
*
50
100

*
*
50
100

50
*
50
300

*
*
50
*

*
*
50
*

250
150
*

250
150
*

100
50
*

*
*
50

*
*
50

*
*
*

350

300

600

300
*
*
1,000
50
*

250
*
*
900
50
*

550
50
*
1,500
*
*

100
*
*
*

100
*
*
*

*
*
150
*

*
*
100
*

200
100
*
* •
*
50

550

500

700

650

800

500

550

550

850

600

350

10,350
2,150

9,650
2,000

13,950
2,800

9,700
2,750

9,100
2,300

14,150
4,600

13,700
2,400

13,050
2,350

18,000
2,700

19,450
3,400

15,050
4,350

1,800
350

1,650
350

2,600
200

2,500
250

2,000
350

4,350
250

1,750
650

1,650
750

1,900
750

2,250
1,150

2,800
1,550

1,000

850

2,150

1,300

1,100

2,050

1,650

1,000

3,750

450

400

100

100

100

50

50

100

100

50

250

*

*

250

250

350

250

300

350

500

300

1,500

100

100

(Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by occupation, calendar year 1972)

Component of demand
Public sector

Private sector

State and local
Occupation

Health , welfare, and sanitation
Except
structures

Total

C/l

Operatives — Continued
Metalworking inspectors,
class B ...........................................
Machine tool operators,
class B ...........................................
Electroplaters ..................................
Electroplater helpers .......................
Furnace tenders, smelters,
and pourers, metal .....................
Metal heaters....................................
Welders and flame
cutters ........................................
Selected transportation and
public u tility operatives .......................
Railroad brake and switch
operators and co u p le rs...............
Power station operators...................
Sailors and deck hands.....................
Semiskilled textile occupations.................
Knitters, loopers, and
to p p e rs........................................
Spinners.............................................
W eavers.............................................
Sewers and stitchers..........................
Other operatives and kindred
workers...................................................
Asbestos and insulation
workers.........................................
Auto attendants................................
Blasters .............................................
Laundry and dry
cleaning operatives.....................
Mine operatives and laborers
not elsewhere classified...............
Meat-cutters, except meat­
packing .........................................
Operatives not elsewhere
classified......................................

Other functions

New construction

Except
structures

Total

New con­
struction

Total
private
sector

Personal consumption expenditures
Durable
goods

Total

Nondurable goods
Total

Food

100

100

150

100

100

150

200

100

500

100
*
*

100
*
*

200
*
*

150
*
*

150
*
*

200
*
*

250
*
*

150
*
*

600
*
*

50
*
*

50
*
*

*
*

*
*

100
*

50
*

50
*

100
*

«
*

*
*

100
*

*
*

*
*

400

250

1,200

600

400

1,100

450

300

750

200

150

100

100

200

100

100

150

150

100

150

150

150

50
*
*
400

50
*
*
400

100
*
50
100

100
*
*
100

50
*
*
100

100
*
*
100

100
*
*
1,050

100
*
*
1,300

100
*
*
550

100
*
*
2,850

100
*
*
100

*
*
*
300

*
*
*
350

*
*
*
50

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
100

*
*
*
50

50
50
50
900

100
50
100
1,100

*
50
100
400

150
150
150
2,400

*
*
*
100

6,700

6.300

8,700

5,500

5,500

7,300

8,450

8,300

10,900

12,600

10,100

*

*

•

•

«

«

100
*

50
*
50

*

50
*

50
100
*

*

50
*

100
*
*

450
*

600
*

150
*

1,250
*

50
*

900

950

*

*

*

*

50

100

*

*

«

150

150

350

300

250

550

200

150

150

200

100

50

50

*

*

*

*

250

350

*

750

1,300

5,550

5,150

8,200

5,000

5,050

6,600

7,450

7,100

10,600

10,400

8,600

Component of demand
Private sector

Public sector
State and local
Occupation

Total

Service w o rk e rs ......................................................
Private household w orke rs..........................
Protective service w o rk e rs ..........................
Fire fig hte rs.......................................
Police and detectives........................
Guards...............................................
Food service w orke rs..................................
Bartenders.........................................
Cooks, except private
household.....................................
Counter and fountain
workers.........................................
Waiters and waitresses......................
Other service workers ................................
Flight attendants..............................
Hospital and other
institutional attendants...............
Building interior cleaners
not elsewhere classified...............
Janitors and sextons ........................
Practical n urse s................................
Other service workers
not elsewhere classified...............
Laborers, except farm and mine ..........................
Farmers and farm w orke rs....................................

Other functions

Health , welfare, and sanitation
Except
structures

New construct ion

Total

Except
structures

New con­
struction

Total
private
sector

Personal consumption expenditures

Total

Durable
goods

Nondurable goods
Total

200
*
*
200
150
*

8,300
1,950
250
*
*
250
1,700
150

10,450
2.650
200
*
*
200
2,150
150

1,600
250
*
*
250
200
*

200
*
200
3,950
350

10,200
200
*
200
7,000
650

350

.

500

650

*

1,050

2,000

.
250
2,750
*

50
400
4,500
*

*
50
650
*

200
850
4,400
50

300
1,050
5,450
50

*
100
1,150
*

500
2,050
2,200
*

600
3,750
3,000
*

*

150

250

*

600

800

*

50

100

650
2,000
3,600

100
200
*

250
800
50

400
1,400
100

100
200
*

200
550
250

250
600
350

150
300
*

200
350
*

200
350
*

7,200
3,400
1,250

300
5,350
300

1,450
6.600
850

2,300
5,000
1,350

350
7,100
300

2,750
3,550
3,400

3,400
3,000
3,700

650
3,250
400

1,600
3,500
7,500

2,300
4,150
13,300

1,000

15,750

29,600

25,700
400
*
*
350
2,000
*

27,100
400
*
*
350
2,100
*

200
*
200
100
*

12,500
3,200
7.100
2,150
550
*

24.200
6.300
13,900
4,050
850
50

1,150

1,200

*

200

350
450
23,300
*

400
500
24,600
*

»
50
650
*

10,500

11,100

600
1,950
3,400
6,800
3,750
1,150

-

-

-

1.000

-

6,350

Food

(Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by occupation, calendar year 1972)

T ype of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures
Services
Total

Total ...................................................
Professional and technical w o rk e rs ...................
Engineers .................................................
A eronautical..................................
C hemical........................................
Civil ...............................................
Electrical........................................
Industrial ......................................
Mechanical ....................................
M etallurgical..................................
M inin g .............................................
S ales...............................................
Other .............................................
Medical and health w orkers.....................
Dentists..........................................
Dietitians and n u tritio n is ts ...........
Professional nurses .......................
O ptom etrists..................................
Osteopaths ....................................
Pharmacists....................................
Physicians and surgeons ...............
Psychologists..................................
Medical and dental
technicians................................
Veterinarians..................................
Other .............................................
Teachers...................................................
Elem entary....................................
Secondary ......................................
College ..........................................
Other .............................................
Natural scientists......................................
Chemists.........................................
Agricultural scientists...................
Biological scientists........................
Geologists and geophysicists........
Mathematicians..............................

Medical

63,800
10,150
500
*
*
150
100
*
50
*
*
*
50
3,000
100
*
1,400
*
*
*
350
*

81,650
22,300
350
*
*
50
100
* •
50
*
*
*
50
18,650
550
250
7,650
100
100
2,800
1,900
50

500
*
450
1.700
700
550
300
150
200
50
*
*
*
*

2,800
150
2,300
100
*
*
*
100
550
200
*
200
*
*

Exports

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment

Total
merchandise
and services

Merchandise
only

49,850
4,500
1,250
100
100
100
300
150
300
*
*
100
150
*
*
—
*
—
*
*
*

57,500
5,200
1,600
150
100
100
350
200
400
*
*
100
150
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
—
*
50
*
*
*
*
300
150
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
400
200
*
*
*
50

Producers'
durable
equipment

New
construction

Single­
family

67,650
5,550
1,650
*
*
300
400
200
350
*
*
100
200
*
*
*
*
—
*
*
*

62,200
5,900
2,000
50
50
50
600
250
500
*
*
150
200
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

69,300
4,950
1,250
*
*
500
150
100
150
*
*
100
150
*
*
*
*
*
*

77,200
4,300
1,100
*
*
550
100
50
100
*
*
50
100
*
*
*
_
*
*
—

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
200
100
*
*
*
50

.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
250
100
*
*
*
100

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*
*
*

*
_
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*
*
*

Total

(Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by occupation, calendar year 1972)

T ype of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures
Services
Medical

Total
Natural scientists — Continued
Physicists .......................................
Other .............................................
Social scientists.........................................
Economists.....................................
Statisticians and actuaries.............
Other .............................................
Technicians, except medical
and dental ...........................................
D rafters...........................................
Surveyors .......................................
A ir traffic controllers ...................
Radio operators ............................
Electrical and electronic
technicians................................
Other engineering and
physical science technicians . . .
Other .............................................
Other professional and
technical w orke rs................................
Accountants and a u d ito rs.............
Airplane pilots and
navigators..................................
A rch ite cts.......................................
C le rg y.............................................
Designers, except d ra fte rs .............
Editors and reporters ...................
Lawyers and judges........................
Lib ra ria n s......................................
Personnel and labor
relations w o rk e rs ......................
Photographers................................
Social and welfare
workers ....................................
Workers and teachers in the
arts and entertainm ent.............
Professional and technical workers
not elsewhere classified ...........

Total
merchandise
and services

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment

Exports
Merchandise
only

Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
100
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
-

*
*
*
*
*
—

500
150
*
*

450
100
*
*

1,000
300
*
*

1,250
400
*
*

1,500
700
50
*

1,600
650
*
—
*

New
construction

*
*
*
*
*
1,300
700
100
—
*

Single­
family

*
*
*
*
*
1,000
700
100
*

100

50

200

300

300

450

150

50

100
100

100
200

250
150

350
200

350
100

400
100

300
50

100
50

4,250
400

2,200
300

1,800
350

1,850
400

2,100
500

1,950
450

2,200
550

2,000
450

100
*
500
*
100
300
100

*
*
*
*
50
150
100

100
*
*
100
50
150
*

50
*
*
100
100
150
*

*
50
*
100
*
350
*

50
*
*
150
50
150
*

*
100
*
100
*
500
*

*
100
*
50
*
400
*

100
150

150
50

100
*

100
*

100
*

150
*

50
*

50
*

150

250

*

*

*

*

*

*

800

*

250

150

100

150

100

50

1,550

950

600

750

750

800

700

750

(Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by occupation, calendar year 1972)

Type of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures
Services
Total

Managers and administrators..............................
Railroad co nd u cto rs................................
Ship officers, pilots.
and engineers......................................
Credit and collection
managers.............................................
Purchasing agents ....................................
Postmasters and assistants........................
Managers and administrators
not elsewhere classified .....................
Clerical workers .................................................
Stenographers, typists, and
secretaries ...........................................
Office machine operators .......................
Other clerical w orkers..............................
Accounting c le rk s .........................
Bookkeepers..................................
Bank te lle rs....................................
Cashiers...........................................
Mail carriers ..................................
Postal clerks ..................................
Shipping and receiving
clerks .........................................
Telephone operators.....................
Clerical workers not
elsewhere classified ' .................

Medical

Total
merchandise
and services

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment

Exports
Merchandise
only

Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

New
construction

Single­
family

5,400
*

4,650
*

4,650
50

4,750
100

6,650
50

6,400
*

6,300
50

7,300
50

‘*

*

250

*

*

*

*

*
*
150
*

*
50
*

*
100
*

*
150
*

*
200
*

*
200
*

50
250
*

*
150
*

5,250
12,950

4,450
15,300

4,150
7,950

4,350
8,700

6,300
9,200

6,000
10,400

6,050
7,800

7,000
8,200

3,500
450
9,000
400
700
350
400
300
400

4,350
400
10,550
400
750
50
800
200
250

1,950
400
5,650
300
400
100
200
100
150

2,200
450
6,050
350
450
50
150
100
150

2,400
400
6,350
400
850
50
150
100
150

2,550
550
7,300
400
750
100
150
150
150

2,150
300
5,350
400
900
50
100
100
100

2,150
300
5,700
450
1,100
50
100
100
100

100
1,200

200
550

400
250

450
250

450
300

550
400

300
300

300
350

5,200

7,350

3,750

4,100

3,900

4,650

3,050

3,150

Sales workers .....................................................
I nsurance agents and brokers .................
Real estate agents and
brokers.................................................
Other sales workers not
elsewhere classified ............................

2,350
900

5,600
1,100

2,050
150

2,350
150

3,300
150

3,950
100

2,250
150

3,000
150

450

150

150

100

100

100

100

100

1,000

4,350

1,750

2,100

3,050

3,750

2,000

2,750

Craft and kindred workers ................................
Construction craft w orke rs.....................
Carpenters......................................

6,750
1,050
250

3,800
700
150

7,550
900
150

9,150
1,000
200

18,200
9,000
3,900

12,400
1,100
250

22.450
15,400
6,850

26,650
20,350
10,450

(Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by occupation, calendar year 1972)

T ype of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures
Services
Medical

Total
Construction craftworkers — Continued
Brickmasons, stone and
tile setters ................................
Cement and concrete
fin ish e rs.....................................
Electricians.....................................
Excavating, grade, and road
machinery operators ...............
Painters and paperhangers.............
Plasterers .........................................
Plumbers and p ip e fitte rs ...............
Roofers and sla te rs........................
Structural m etalw orkers...............
Blue-collar worker supervisors
not elsewhere classified ...........
Metalworking craftworkers
except mechanics................................
Machinists.......................................
Blacksmiths, forge and
hammer operators ...................
Boilermakers..................................
Heat treaters, annealers.
and temperers ..........................
Millwrights .....................................
Metal m o ld e rs................................
Metal and wood
patternmakers ..........................
Rollers and roll h ands...................
Sheet metal w o rk e rs .....................
Toolmakers, diemakers.
and se tte rs................................
Mechanics and repairers ..........................
A ir conditioning, heating.
and refrigeration .....................
Airplane .........................................
Motor vehicle ................................
Office m a chin e ..............................
Radio and T V ................................

Total
merchandise
and services

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment

Exports
Merchandise
only

Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

New
construction

Single­
family

850

*

1,550

1,950

*
250

*
200

*
300

*
400

300
850

*
350

550
1.200

800
1,300

100
250
*
150
*
*

*
200
*
100
*
*

100
100
*
150
*
*

150
100
*
150
*
*

500
1,100
100
1,000
150
250

50
100
*
200
*
*

850
1,850
150
1,650
250
400

750
2,500
100
2,050
150
300

550

600

1,550

1,950

2,050

2,150

1,850

1,700

250
100

200
100

1,700
900

2,350
1,250

2,600
1,300

3,700
2,050

1,450
550

900
400

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
50

*
*

*
*

*
100
100

*
150
100

*
150
150

100
150
200

*
100
100

*
100
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

50
*
150

50
50
150

100
50
300

100
50
250

*
50
350

*
*
150

*
2,700

*
1,350

300
1,950

400
2,200

450
2,700

700
3,550

150
1,800

100
1,800

100
150
750
50
400

*
50
150
*
*

*
250
200
100
*

*
150
300
100

50
100
800
150
*

*
150
1,250
250

100
50
300
*

50
300
*

*
*
*

-

*

(E m p lo y m e n t r e q u ire m e n ts p er b illio n d o lla rs o f e x p e n d itu re s , b y o c c u p a tio n , cale n d a r ye a r 1 9 7 2 )

Type of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures

Exports

Services
Total
Mechanics and repairers — Continued
Railroad and car s h o p ...................
Other .............................................
Printing trades craftworkers ...................
Compositors and typesetters........
Electrotypers and stereotypers . . .
Engravers, except
photoengravers.........................
Photoengravers and lithographers .
Printing press operators.................
Transportation and public
u tility craft w orkers............................
Telephone and power
installers and repairers............
Locomotive engineers...................
Locomotive fire m e n .....................
Other craft and kindred w orke rs.............
Bakers.............................................
Cabinetmakers ..............................
Crane, derrick, and
hoist operators.........................
Glaziers...........................................
Jewelers and watchmakers ...........
Loom fixers ..................................
Opticians, lens grinders
and polishers ............................
Log and lumber inspectors..........
Other inspectors............................
Upholsterers..........................
Craft and kindred workers
not elsewhere classified ..........
Operatives............................................................
Drivers and delivery w orkers...................
Bus, truck, and tractor
drivers ......................................
Delivery and route w orke rs..........

Medical
*

Total
merchandise
and services

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment
Merchandise
only

Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

New
construction

*

Single­
family

1,200
150
100
*

1,050
200
100
*

100
1,250
200
100
*

100
1,500
250
150
*

1,550
150
100
*

1,800
150
100
*

1,250
100
50
*

50
1,300
100
50
*

*
*
*

*
*
50

*
*
50

*
*
50

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

1,300

250

350

400

400

500

450

450

1,300
*
*
750
*
*

200
*
*
550
50
*

250
100
*
900
*
*

250
100
*
1,000
*
*

350
50
*
1,300
*
150

450
50
*
1,200
*
100

400
50
*
1,350
*
150

350
50
*
1,300
*
250

*
*
*

*
*
*
*

200
*
*
*

250
*
*
*

300
50
*
*

250
*
*
*

300
100
*
*

200
100
*
*

*
*
50
100

*
*
100
*

*
*
100
*

*
*
100
*

*

*
*
50
100

*

.

50
100
50

100
150
*

150
100
*

450

300

450

500

550

550

500

400

4,800
1,250

5,500
1,200

13,250
1,900

16,600
2,400

16.700
2,550

18,800
1,800

14,600
3,150

13,050
3,800

950
350

600
600

600
300

2,000
350

2,250
300

1,500
350

2,950
200

3,500
300

Table D-3.

Occupational manpower factors—Continued

(Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures, by occupation, calendar year 1972)
T ype of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures
Services
Total

Semiskilled metalworking
occupations.........................................
Metalworking assemblers.
class A .......................................
Metalworking assemblers.
class B .......................................
Metalworking inspectors,
class B ......................................
Machine tool operators.
class B .......................................
Electroplaters................................
Electroplater helpers.....................
Furnace tenders, smelters.
and pourers, m e ta l...................
Metal heaters..................................
Welders and flame
c u tte rs .......................................
Selected transportation and
public u tility operatives......................
Railroad brake and switch
operators and couplers.............
Power station operators ...............
Sailors and deck h a n d s .................
Semiskilled textile occupations...............
Knitters, loopers, and
toppers.......................................
Spinners .........................................
Weavers...........................................
Sewers and s titc h e rs ......................
Other operatives and kindred
w o rk e rs ...............................................
Asbestos and insulation
workers .....................................
Auto attendants ............................
Blasters ...........................................
Laundry and dry
cleaning operatives...................

Medical

Total
merchandise
and services

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment

Exports
Merchandise
only

Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

New
construction

Single­
family

500

300

2,500

3,650

4,200

6.200

2,050

1,200

*

50

250

350

350

550

100

50

100

100

900

1,200

1,300

2,150

400

250

*

*

350

450

450

700

200

150

*
*
*

*
*
*

500
*
*

700
*
*

750
*
*

1,200
*
50

250
*
*

150
*
*

*
*

*
*

100
*

150
*

150
*

150
*

100
*

50
*

300

100

550

750

1,150

1,350

950

450

100

*

400

250

150

100

150

200

*
*
*
50

*
*
*
50

150
*
200
450

200
*
*
400

100
*
*
200

100
*
*
250

150
*
*
150

150
*
*
150

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*
50
350

*
50
50
250

*
*
*
150

*
*
*
200

*
*
*
100

*
*
*
100

2,900

3,850

7,850

9,900

9,550

10,400

9,100

7,750

*
100
*

*
50

*
50
*

*
*
*

*
50
*

*
50
*

50
*
*

*
*
*

200

750

*

*

*

*

*

-

( E m p lo y m e n t r e q u ire m e n ts p e r b illio n d o llars o f e x p e n d itu re s , b y o c c u p a tio n , c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 7 2 )

Type of
construction

Component of demand
Private sector
Occupation

Personal consumption
expenditures
Services
Total

Other operatives and kindred
workers —Continued
Mine operatives and laborers
not elsewhere classified ..........
Meatcutters, except meat­
packing ....................................
Operatives not elsewhere
classified ..................................
Service w orke rs...................................................
Private household workers .....................
Protective service w orke rs.......................
Fire fighters ..................................
Police and detectives.....................
Guards ...........................................
Food service workers ..............................
Bartenders......................................
Cooks, except
private household.....................
Counter and fountain
workers ....................................
Waiters and waitresses...................
Other service w o rk e rs ..............................
Flight attendants...........................
Hospital and other
institutional a tte n d a n ts..........
Building interior cleaners
not elsewhere classified ..........
Janitors and se xto n s.....................
Practical nurses..............................
Other service workers
not elsewhere classified ..........
Laborers except farm and m in e .........................
Farmers and farm workers ................................

Medical

100
*

50

Total
merchandise
and services

400

Residential
buildings

Gross private domestic fixed investment

Exports
Merchandise
only

500

Producers'
durable
equipment

Total

New
construction

Single­
family

250

150

350

300

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

2,500

2,950

7,350

9,300

9,300

10,100

8,650

7,400

18,050
6,050
250
*
*
200
1,100
50

22,650

2,300

1,500
*
300
*
*
300
200

1,300

1,400
*
300
*
*
300
200

1,100

1,150

*

*

*

450

1,000

150

100

—

250
*
*
200
2,700

-

250
*
*
250
450

—

300
*
*
250
150

—

250
*
250
150

-

300
*
300
150

#
50

50
*

*
200
1,600
100

*
100
1,000

*
100
850

*
100
900

*
50
650

*

*

*

*

*

*

100
250

100
300

100
150

100
200

400
6,300
450

450
2,700
250

350
9,250
600

150
450
10,400
100

1,000
700
19,700

1,850

9,850

*

*

*

350
1,000
750

500
700
3,300

150
250

100
250

6,350
2,350
1,000

5,300
1,300
550

1.050
2,850
4,750

550
2,900
6,350

*

*

*

*
50
700

*

350
12,450
1,100

Type of construction

Occupation

Residential
buildings

Public utilities structures

Nonresidential buildings

Educational

T elephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

62,400

60,700

53,750

60,200

59,900

54,000

44,750

57,750

5,350
1,100
*
*
300
200
100
200
*
*
100
150
*
*
—
*
—
—
*
*
*

5,550
1,200
*
*
350
150
100
250
*
*
50
200
*
*
—
*
*
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*

Industrial

75,850

62,500

61,400

5,100
1,350
*
*
600
100
100
150
*
*
50
200
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

5,500
1,300
*
50
450
150
100
200
*
*
100
200
*
*
*
*
*
*

5,700
1,350
*
*
450
150
100
250
*
*
100
200
*
*
—
*
—
—
*
*
*

5,700
1,400
*
*
400
250
100
200
*
*
*
200
*
*
—
*
—
—
*
*
*

6,600
1,450
*
*
450
200
100
250
*
*
100
250
*
*
—
*
—
—
*
*
*

5,500
1,100
*
*
300
150
100
200
50
*
50
150
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

6,050
1,300
*
50
300
250
100
250
*
*
100
150
*
*
—
*
—
—
*
*
*

5.800
1,200
*
*
300
150
100
200
50
*
100
150
*
—
—
—
—
—
—

5,450
1.050
*
*
300
100
100
200
*
*
100
150
*
*
*
—
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
100
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
100
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
200
100
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
200
100
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
200
100
*
*

—
—
—
*
—
—
150
50
*
*

*
—
*
*
*
*
*
*
150
50
*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*

Total ............................................................
Professional and technical w o rk e rs ............................
Engineers ..........................................................
A eronautical...........................................
Chemical.................................................
Civil ........................................................
Electrical..................................................
Industrial ...............................................
Mechanical .............................................
M etallurgical...........................................
M ining......................................................
S ales........................................................
Other ......................................................
Medical and health w orkers..............................
D entists....................................................
Dietitians ...............................................
Professional nurses ................................
Optom etrists...........................................
Osteopaths .............................................
Pharmacists.............................................
Physicians and surgeons ........................
Psychologists...........................................
Medical and dental
technicians.........................................
Veterinarians...........................................
Other ......................................................
Teachers............................................................
Elem entary.............................................
Secondary...............................................
College ...................................................
Other ......................................................
Natural scientists...............................................
Chemists..................................................
Agricultural scientists............................
Biological scientists................................
Geologists and geo­
physicists ...........................................
Mathematicians.......................................
Physicists ...............................................
Other ......................................................

*
*
*
*

Highways
and
streets

Hospital
and
institutional

Office
and
commercial

M ulti­
family

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*

*

*

*

*
*
*

Type of construction
Residential
buildings
M ulti­
family
Social scientists.................................................
Econom ists.............................................
Statisticians and actuaries.....................
Other .....................................................
Technicians, except medical
and dental ...................................................
D rafters...................................................
Surveyors ...............................................
Air tra ffic controllers ............................
Radio operators ....................................
Electrical and electronic
technicians........................................
Other engineering and
physical science technicians.............
Other .....................................................
Other professional and
technical w orke rs........................................
Accountants and a u d ito rs .....................
Airplane pilots and
navigators...........................................
A rc h ite c ts ...............................................
C le rg y .....................................................
Designers, except
drafters .............................................
Editors and reporters ...........................
Lawyers and judges................................
L ib ra ria n s...............................................
Personnel and labor
relations w o rk e rs ..............................
Photographers........................................
Social and welfare
workers .............................................
Workers and teachers in
the arts and entertainm ent...............
Professional and technical
workers not elsewhere
classified ...........................................

*
*
*
*

Nonresidential buildings

Industrial
*
*
*
*

Office
and
commercial

Educational

*
*
*
—

*
*
*

Public utilities structures
Hospital
and
institutional
*
*
*
*

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
—
2,150
700
200
—
*

Highways
and
streets

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

*
_
_

*
*
*
*

*
*
*
-

2,050
650
200
*
*

1,950
600
200
—
*

1,950
600
200
—
*

1,400
550
550
*

-

*
*
*
-

1,200
800
100
*
*

1,600
750
100
—
*

1,600
750
100
*

1,650
750
100
*
*

1,750
800
150
—
*

1,900
550
200
*
*

100

150

150

200

200

350

400

350

300

400

100

150
50

500
100

500
100

500
100

500
100

700
100

700
100

650
100

650
100

650
100

150
100

2,400
600

2,350
700

2,500
750

2,400
700

3,150
950

2,250
700

2,350
700

2,300
700

2,250
650

2,050
600

2,750
850

*
100
*

50
100
*

50
100
*

50
100
*

50
150
*

*

*

*

50
*

*
50
*

*

50
*

50
*

50
*

*
100
*

50
*
600
*

100
*
600
*

100
*
700
*

100
*
600
*

150
*
950
*

150
*
550
*

200
*
550
*

150
*
600
*

150
*
600
*

150
*
600
*

50
*
1,000
*

50
*

100
*

100
*

100
*

100
*

100
*

100
*

100
*

50
*

50
*

50
*

.

*

*

.

*

•

*

*

*

100

100

100

100

200

*

100

100

50

50

700

550

550

650

600

600

600

500

450

550

*

600

,

Type of construction

Occupation

Residential
buildings
M ulti­
family

Managers and adm inistrators.......................................
Railroad cond u cto rs.........................................
Ship officers, pilots, and
engineers ......................................................
Credit and collection managers........................
Purchasing agents .............................................
Postmasters and assistants................................
Managers and administrators
not elsewhere classified ..............................

Public utilities structures

Nonresidential buildings

Industrial

Office
and
commercial

Educational

Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

6,900
50

6,500
50

6,100
50

6,150
50

6,050
*

5,100
50

5,700
50

5,500
*

5,200
*

4,150
*

4,300
50

*
*
150
*

*
*
150
*

*
*
150
*

*
*
150
*

*
*
150
*

100
*
150
*

50
*
150
*

50
*
150
*

50
*
150
*

50
*
. 100
*

*
*
100
*

6,600

6,250

5,850

5,900

5,800

4,800

5,350

5,200

4,950

3,950

4,050

Clerical workers ..........................................................
Stenographers, typists, and
secretaries ....................................................
Office machine operators ................................
. Other clerical w orke rs.......................................
Accounting c le rk s ..................................
Bookkeepers...........................................
Bank te lle rs .............................................
Cashiers....................................................
Mail carriers ...........................................
Postal clerks ...........................................
Shipping and receiving
clerks .................................................
Telephone operators..............................
Clerical workers not
elsewhere classified ..........................

9,500

8,550

8,200

8,150

8,500

7,050

7,750

7,700

6,700

5,600

7,000

3,400
350
5,800
450
1,050
50
100
100
100

2,400
350
5,800
450
850
50
100
100
100

2,400
300
5,450
400
800
*
100
100
100

2,350
350
5,500
400
850
50
100
100
100

2,650
350
5,500
400
900
*
100
100
100

2,100
300
4,650
350
700
*
100
100
100

2,250
300
5,150
350
650
*
100
100
100

2,200
300
5,150
400
600
*
50
100
100

2,000
250
4,450
300
600
*
100
100
100

1,800
250
3,550
250
450
*
100
50
100

2,150
250
4,550
250
600
*
100
100
100

300
350

350
350

300
350

350
350

300
350

300
300

350
300

350
350

250
300

200
250

200
250

3,250

3,350

3,200

3,200

3,150

2,700

3,150

3,200

2,700

2,150

2,900

Salesworkers................................................................
Insurance agents and brokers ..........................
Real estate agents and
brokers..........................................................
Other sales workers not
elsewhere classified .....................................

2,750
150

2,400
150

2,250
150

2,200
150

2,100
150

1,700
150

1,850
150

1,750
150

1,500
150

1,250
150

1,850
200

100

100

100

100

100

50

1,050

50

50

50

100

2,500

2,150

2,050

2,000

1,900

1,450

650

1,550

1,250

1,050

1,600

Type of construction

Occupation

Residential
buildings

Nonresidential buildings

Public utilities structures

Highways
and
streets

M ulti­
family
Craft and kindred workers .........................................
Construction craftworkers ..............................
Carpenters...............................................
Brickmasons, stone and
tile setters .........................................
Cement and concrete finishers .............
Electricians.............................................
Excavating, grade, and road
machinery operators .......................
Painters and paperhangers.....................
Plasterers .................................................
Plumbers and p ip e fitte rs .......................
Roofers and slaters . . . ( .......................
Structural m etalw orkers.......................
Blue-collar worker supervisors
not elsewhere classified ...................
Metalworking craftworkers,
except mechanics........................................
Machinists...............................................
Blacksmiths, forge and
hammer operators ............................
Boilermakers..........................................
Heat treaters, annealers and
temperers...........................................
Millwrights .............................................
Metal m old e rs........................................
Metal and wood
patternmakers ..................................
Rollers and roll hands................... .... . .
Sheet metal w o rk e rs ..............................
Toolmakers, diemakers, and
setters ...............................................
Mechanics and repairers....................................
A ir conditioning, heating,
and refrigeration ..............................
Airplane .................................................
Motor vehicle ........................................
Office m a chin e ......................................
Radio and T V ........................................
Railroad and car s h o p ............................
Other .....................................................

Industrial

Office
and
commercial

26,450
20,050
10,150

18,050
10,100
2.350

18,000
10,050
2,350

17,800
10.050
2.350

17,650
10,050
2,350

15.050
6,750
1,800

16,200
6.850
1,800

17.500
7,000
1,800

15,050
6,850
1,800

13,450
6,450
1.700

16,600
8,900
1.750

1,900
750
1,350

1,200
350
1,100

1,200
300
1,100

1,200
350
1,100

1,200
350
1,100

700
150
1.150

700
100
1,150

750
150
1,200

700
150
1,100

700
150
1.050

50
550
250

750
2,500
150
1,950
150
350

1,000
1,400
300
1,250
750
400

950
1,400
300
1,250
800
400

950
1,400
300
1,200
800
350

950
1,400
300
1,250
800
350

950
250
*
1,100
*
650

950
250
50
1,100
*
700

950
300
*
1.100
*
700

1,000
300
*
1.050
*
700

900
250
*
1,050
*
700

5.850
100

1,750

1,950

1,950

2,000

1,900

2,150

2,300

2,400

2.050

1,650

2,500

1,150
500

1,950
650

2,000
650

1,900
650

1,900
650

1,900
550

2,250
650

3.200
700

1,800
400

1,750
500

950
350

*
*

*
50

*
50

*
*

,
*

,

»

*

250

100
250

*

200

200

200

*

*
100
50

*
100
100

*
150
100

*
150
100

*

.

,

150
100

150
150

150
100

100
200
550

150
50

100
100

100
50

*
50
200

*

*

.

50
700

100
700

50
600

100
600

50
450

100
700

100
150
800

50
750

50
600

50
200

150
1,750

200
1,950

200
2,000

200
1,900

200
1,850

200
2,000

200
2,250

250
2,300

100
2,000

150
1,650

100
2,200

*
50
300
*
*
50
1,250

100
50
350
*
*
*
1,300

100
50
300
100
*
*
1.350

100
100
300
*
*
*
1.300

100
50
300
*
*
*
1,250

400
50
250
*
*
*
1,200

400
50
250
*
*
*
1,400

400
50
250
*
*
*
1.500

400
50
250
*
*
*
1,250

400
*
200
*
*
*
950

50
400
100
*
*
1,550

Educational

Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

*

.

150
•
150

#

,

»

Type of construction

Occupation

Residential
buildings
M ulti­
family

Printing trades cra ftw o rke rs ............................
Compositors and typesetters.................
Electrotypiers and stereotypers.............
Engravers, except
photoengravers..................................
Photoengravers and lithographers.........
Printing press operators..........................
Transportation and public
u tility cra ftw o rke rs.....................................
Telephone and power
installers and repiairers......................
Locomotive engineers............................
Locomotive fire m e n ..............................
Other craft and kindred w orkers......................
Bakers......................................................
Cabinetmakers .......................................
Crane, derrick, and
hoist operators..................................
G la zie rs..................................................
Jewelers and watchmakers ...................
Loom fixers ...........................................
Opticians, lens grinders, and
piolishers.............................................
Log and lumber inspectors...................
Other inspectors.....................................
U pholsterers...........................................
Craft and kindred workers
not elsewhere classified ...................
Operatives.....................................................................
Drivers and delivery w o rke rs ............................
Bus, truck, and tractor
d riv e rs ...............................................
Delivery and route w orkers....................
Semiskilled metalworking
occupations.................................................
Metalworking assemblers,
class A ...............................................
Metalworking assemblers,
class B ...............................................
Metalworking inspectors,
class B ................................................

Public utilities structures

Nonresidential buildings

Industrial

Office
and
commercial

Educational

Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
50
*

100
*

50
*
*

100
50

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*

*

*
*
*

450

450

400

400

400

750

750

750

750

700

350

650
50
*
1,450
*
*

650
50
*
1,650
*
*

700
50
*
1,700
*
*

700
50
*
1.500
*
*

650
*

250
50

1,250
*
*

1,600
*
*
900

350
50
*
1,200
*
200

350
50
*
1,450
*
50

350
50
*
1,450
*
50

350
50
*
1.400
*
50

350
50
*
1,400
*
50

250
50
*
*

500
150
*
*

450
150
*
*

450
100
*
*

450
150
*
*

350
*
*
*

350
*
*
*

600
*
*
*

400
*
*
*

250
*
*
*

*
100
100
*

*
*
200
*

*
*
200
*

*
*
200
*

*
*
200
*

*
*
200
*

*
100
200
*

*
*
200
*

*
50
200
*

*
*
150
*

400

500

500

500

500

850

900

850

800

800

450

11,800
3,550

13.550
3,450

13,350
2.950

14.500
3,000

12,050
2,750

14,050
2,150

16.450
2,650

15,800
2,450

14.200
2.750

11,000
1,550

13,950
5,700

3,250
300

3,150
250

2,750
200

2,750
250

2,550
200

1.950
200

2,450
200

2,250
200

2.550
200

1.450
150

5.500
200

1,700

3,000

3,150

3,200

2,950

1,850

2,700

3.050

1,800

1.850

1.450

100

150

150

200

150

100

150

100

50

100

50

350

450

550

650

550

350

700

450

250

400

250

150

200

250

300

250

250

300

300

100

150

100

*

*
*
*
150
*

Type of construction

Occupation

Residential
buildings
M u lti­
fam ily

Operatives — Continued
Machine to o l operators,
class B ...............................................
E le c tro p la te rs ............................................
Electroplater h e lp e rs .................................
Furnace tenders, smelters, and
pourers, metal .....................................
Metal heaters...............................................
Welders and flam e
c u t te r s ....................................................
Selected transportation and public
u tility operatives ............................................
Railroad brafce and switch
operators and c o u p le rs .......................
Power station operators .........................
Sailors and deck hands ............................
Semiskilled te x tile o c c u p a tio n s .........................
K n itters, loopers, and
to p p e rs ...................................................
Spinners ......................................................
W eavers........................................................
Sewers and stitchers .................................

Nonresidential buildings

Industrial

O ffice
and
commercial

Educational

Public u tilities structures
Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

200
*
*

300
*
*

300
*
*

300
*
*

300
*
*

250
*
*

300
*
*

350
*
*

200
*
*

250
*
*

150
*
*

100
*

100
*

100
*

150
*

100
*

300
*

150
*

350
50

100
*

100
*

100
*

700

1,700

1,750

1,550

1,500

600

1,100

1,450

1,050

800

750

150

150

150

150

100

250

250

250

200

150

100

150
*
*
200

100
*
*
100

100
*
*
100

100
*

100
*
100
100

150

100

*

*

100

100
*
*
100

100
100

100
50

100
*
100
50

50
*
200
*

150
*
*
50

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
100

*
*
50

*
*
100

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
50

Other operatives and kindred w o rk e rs .........................
Asbestos and insulation
workers .................................................
A u to attendants ........................................
B la s te rs ........................................................
Laundry and dry-cleaning
ope rative s...............................................
Mine operatives and laborers
not elsewhere classified .....................
M eatcutters, except m eat­
packing .................................................
Operatives not elsewhere
classified ...............................................

6,350

7,150

7,000

8,100

6,100

9,700

10,750

10,000

9,350

6,800

6,550

*
*
*

200
*
*

200
*
*

200
*

200
*
*

50
*
*

50
*
*

50
*
*

50
*
*

50
*
*

*
*
100

300

350

300

300

300

450

300

300

400

200

750

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

5,900

6,250

6,450

7,500

5,550

9,150

10,300

9,550

8,850

7,050

5,700

Service w o rk e r s ..................................................................
Private household w orkers ................................
Protective service w o rk e r s ...................................
F ire fig h te rs ...............................................
Police and d e te c tiv e s .................................
Guards ........................................................

1,150

1,150

1,150

1,100

1,000

300

200
-

200

1,100
—
200

250

1,100
250

1,000
*
250

1,000
_
250

*

*

*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

1,000
_
200
-

*

*
*

750
_
150
-

250

200

200

200

200

200

250

250

200

-

-

-

-

*

*

-

250
-

-

*

*

150

200

Table D-3.

Occupational manpower factors—Continued

Type of construction

Occupation

Residential
buildings
Multi­
family

Service workers — Continued
Food service workers .......................................
Bartenders...............................................
Cooks, except private
household .........................................
Counter and fountain
workers .............................................
Waiters and waitresses............................
Other service w o rk e rs .......................................
Flight attendants....................................
Hospital and other
institutional a tte n d a n ts ...................
Building interior cleaners
not elsewhere classified ...................
Janitors and se xto n s..............................
Practical nurses.......................................
Other service workers
not elsewhere classified ...................
Laborers except farm and m in e ..................................
Farmers and farm workers .........................................

Public utilities structures

Nonresidentiai buildings

Industrial

Office
and
commercial

Educational

Hospital
and
institutional

Telephone
and
telegraph

Electric

Water

Sewer

Local
transit

Highways
and
streets

150
*

150
*

250
•

150
*

150
*

100
*

150
*

50
*

150
*

100
*

150
*

•

,

•

•

«

*

•

•

*

.

,

*

•

.

*

.

»

*

.

100
750
*

150
700
*

50
700
*

50
700
*

100
600
*

50
700
*

•
*
650
*

.

100
750
*

50
650
*

50
500
*

50
650
*

*

*

•

•

•

•

,

•

*

.

.

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
200
*

100
150
*

100
150
*

100
150
*

350
11,200
950

350
6,550
250

350
6,350
300

350
6,450
350

350
6,300
350

300
4,050
250

350
4,800
300

300
4,700
150

300
4,650
250

250
3,050
150

300
7,250
250

Appendix E.

1970 Interindustry Employment

and Industry-Occupational Models
This appendix describes the 1970 interindustry em­
ployment model and the national industry-occupational
matrix which were used in the basic stages of the
development of the manpower factors presented in this
bulletin.
Interindustry employment model

The 1970 employment table was constructed from a
1970 interindustry model of 134 industry sectors. Each
sector represents a group of industries classified by
4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. An
interindustry model, in its most basic form, distributes
the transaction value of the sales that each industry
sector makes to itself, to each of the other industry
sectors, and to final purchasers. Intermediate goods are
sold to other industries where further fabrication occurs
before a finished good is produced. Finished products
are sold to the final demand, or product, sectors of the
national income accounts—
personal consumption ex­
penditures, gross private domestic investment, net ex­
ports of goods and services, Federal government pur­
chases, and State and local government purchases.
Intermediate sales provide the basic structure of an
interindustry model while final sales, or final demand,
represent the usual input to a model of this type.
Each of the 134 rows in the interindustry model
shows the sales made by an industry to itself, to other
industries, and to the final demand sectors. Each of the
129 columns shows an industry’s purchases from each
industry, including itself, which were required to pro­
duce its own output. The sum of all purchases in a
column plus that industry’s value added1 is equal to the
total value of production for that industry. When the
purchases in a column are divided individually by the
total production of that industry, they form ratios that
define the amount of input required from each industry
in order to produce a unit of output (usually stated in
dollar terms) of the purchasing industry. For example,
these ratios, or coefficients, would show how much the
automobile industry would have to buy from such
1The value added o f a sector includes compensation of
employees, depreciation, profits, and other payments to the
factors o f production.

industries as rubber, textiles, steel, aluminum, advertis­
ing, business services, plastics, transportation, and trade
in order to produce a value unit of output.
These purchases represent the requirements from the
immediate or first tier of supplying industries. Each of
these supplying industries would also require inputs in
order to manufacture its product. The steel industry
would need coal and iron ore to make steel. The coal
and iron ore industries, in turn, would need fuel and
other products and services to produce their outputs.
Each final purchase would require a chain of purchases
back through the more basic supplying industries. An
interindustry model provides a way of solving simulta­
neously all of the interrelated requirements created in
the economy by purchases of the various final demand
sectors or programs.
The elements of this model can be transformed from
production requirements to employment requirements
by applying employment-output ratios to each in­
dustry’s total output. The interindustry employment
table which results from this process shows the total
employment attributable to deliveries to final demand.
(Total employment consists of direct employment in the
industry producing the final product or service, and
indirect employment in all the supporting industries).
Total employment can be easily converted to employ­
ment per billion dollars of delivery to final demand by
each industry in the economy.
It should be noted that the resulting table reflects
1970 industry technology and productivity levels and is
expressed in 1963 prices. Also, the transactions in 1963
dollars are in terms of producers’ values and not
purchasers’ values. Producers’ values are purchasers’
values minus trade and transportation costs— another
put
way, producers’ values are values stated at the site of
production. The trade margins and transportation costs
associated with all of these transactions appear as direct
purchases from the trade and transportation industries.
Using the data would, therefore, require converting
purchases to 1963 producers’ prices.
In cases where the manpower factors presented in this
bulletin do not satisfactorily match a program, some
agencies may wish to make their own calculations using
the model described above. Any agency contemplating
this approach should contact the Division of Economic

Growth in BLS concerning the feasibility o f the project
and the data and techniques for undertaking it.

•

Selected data from BLS industry and metropolitan area
occupational wage rate surveys.

•

Federal Civil Service Commission statistics on employ­
ment by occupation in Federal Government agencies.

•

Occupational employment information compiled by the
Postal Service on its employees.

Industry-occupational model

The 1970 industry-occupational matrix is a table
which distributes total U.S. em ploym ent into 160
occupations cross-classified by 116 industries. Each
column shows an industry’s occupational structure by
giving each o f the 160 occupations as a percent o f total
industry em ploym ent. Estimated em ploym ent require­
ments for specific occupations can be obtained by
applying each industry’s occupational structure to the
estimates o f total em ploym ent in that industry. To
arrive at total requirements for each occupation, the
estimates by industry are summed across each row in the
table.
The data incorporated into the matrix are based on
1970 occupational distributions. Since each industry’s
occupational structure changes slowly and is relatively
stable over short time periods, these distributions were
used to estimate occupational requirements for 1972.

A second general m ethod is used in those cases where
detailed occupational em ploym ent data are not available
annually, or every few years. For these occupations, data
from the O ccupation b y In d u stry tables o f the Bureau o f
the Census are adjusted alternately to current industry
em ploym ent control totals, and to occupational group
control totals. This iterative adjustment procedure is
repeated until the census estimates are consistent with
both sets o f controls.
Estimates from sources other than the census account
for roughly 60 percent o f all professional and technical
workers and for about 20 percent o f all nonagricultural
em ploym ent. Data from non census sources are poor,
however, for blue-collar occupations, which make up
about 75 percent o f the model-derived em ploym ent
estimates. Recently the BLS has developed industry
surveys as part o f an occupational em ploym ent statistics
program that will provide data on em ploym ent in many
blue-collar occupations as well as additional detail on
various white-collar occupations. It is expected that
these data will eventually fill many o f the existing gaps
in occupational em ploym ent statistics.

U pdating th e m atrix. The BLS is now compiling em ploy­
m ent data by industry and occupation from the 1970
Census o f Population, which will be used to revise the
1970 matrix. Between decennial censuses, a variety o f
less comprehensive sources are used to update the
m odel. Estimates o f total U.S. em ploym ent and em ploy­
ment in broad occupational groups are based on an A d ju stm e n ts to th e m a trix . A number o f adjustments
annual average o f the m onthly data collected by the had to be made to the occupational matrix in order to
Bureau o f the Census in its Current Population Survey use it in conjunction with the interindustry m odel
(CPS). The occupational group estimates provide control system since the industry classifications differ in the tw o
totals for estimates o f em ploym ent in the detailed systems. The restructuring o f industries in the occupa­
occupations within each group.
tional matrix (116 industries) to conform to the
Detailed occupational estimates for the matrix are industries in the interindustry m odel (134 industries)
obtained in tw o general ways. For a number o f was accomplished by comparing the industries in terms
occupations, current data sources are available. In o f Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and
addition to CPS em ploym ent estimates, the following making necessary adjustments. While many o f the
data are compiled more frequently than census reports industries in both models matched exactly by SIC codes
and are incorporated directly into the matrix:
there were various differences that had to be reconciled.
In some areas, there was greater industry detail in the
occupational matrix than in the interindustry m odel. In
• Employment of scientists, engineers, and technicians by
industry based on BLS surveys of employers.
these cases, the matrix industries were simply aggre­
gated, with the exception o f the wholesale and retail
• Employment of teachers and librarians based on data
trade sectors, where the matrix contains detail on seven
collected by the Office of Education of the U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
wholesale and eleven retail industries. The em ploym ent
generated by the interindustry m odel for wholesale and
• Occupational employment data collected by regulatory
retail trade was allocated to each o f the matrix trade
agencies for sectors such as railroads, airlines, and
telephone and telegraph communications.
industries in proportion to the trade margins associated
with each bill o f goods. The corresponding occupational
• Employment data collected by professional societies,
trade pattern was then applied to each trade industry.
especially for medical and health occupations.

Where the matrix industries were less detailed than
those in the interindustry model, three methods were
used to construct occupational patterns for the inter­
industry sectors. First, the occupational patterns of
some 2-digit SIC industries were adjusted by a series of
factors to produce the desired 3-digit SIC industry
detail. These factors were based on the ratios of
production and nonproduction workers in each 3-digit
SIC industry and on the different employment ratios of
scientists, engineers, and technicians in each industry.
Second, aggregate occupational patterns were used in
cases where additional industry detail was not available
in the matrix. For example, the total metal mining
pattern was used for iron ore mining and nonferrous
metal ores mining. Finally, when a matrix industry
classification differed greatly from a particular interin­
dustry sector, data were obtained from outside sources
and a new occupational pattern was constructed. Special
handling was required for the government enterprise
sector in the interindustry model. Since employment in
government enterprises in the occupational matrix is
allocated to the corresponding private industry, no
occupational pattern exists for this sector. Based on an

examination of each program, the occupational pattern
for government enterprise was developed by determining
the most appropriate private industry counterpart(s) and
by using the private industry occupational pattern(s).
New occupational patterns were also developed for
specific programs which were not adequately repre­
sented by existing matrix patterns. For example, the
occupational distribution of the Federal public employ­
ment sector for the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) was based on employment data
obtained from NASA rather than on the pattern for all
Federal public employment. A new pattern was similarly
developed for highway construction.
Agencies wishing additional information on occupa­
tional employment patterns and on the methodology
used to generate these estimates may consult Tomor­
row ’ Manpower Needs, Volume IV, Revised 1971,
s
Bulletin 1737 (Bureau of Labor Statistics) for the
complete 1970 industry-occupational matrix. Inquiries
concerning the development of the 1972 occupational
requirements factors should be directed to the Division
of Manpower and Occupational Outlook in BLS.

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

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