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L 2 .3 .

Expenditures and Manpower
Requirements for
Selected Federal Programs
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1975
Bulletin 1851




United S ta te s. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s .
Expenditures and manpower requirem ents fo r se lec te d
F ederal programs.
(B u lle tin - Bureau of Labor S t a ti s t i c s ; 1851)
Supt. of Docs, n o .: 12.3:1851
1. Manpower policy--U nited S ta te s . 2. Employment
fo recastin g --U n ited S ta te s . I . T it l e . I I . S eries:
United S ta te s. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s . B u lle tin ;
1851.
75-6190U6
HD5723.U53 1975
331.1’1 ’0973




Expenditures and Manpower
Requirements for
Selected Federal Programs
Veterans Administration Health Care
National Institutes of Health
Manpower Institutional Training Program
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Space Shuttle
U.S. Department of Labor
John T. Dunlop, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1975
Bulletin 1851

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
GPO Bookstore, or BLS Regional Offices listed on inside back cover.
Price $1.20. Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.
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Preface
This study presents the manpower requirements, by industry and occupation, of a selected group
of programs and agencies which are broadly representative of different types of Federal
expenditures. The report was prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics with the financial
assistance of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Manpower Administration, Office of Manpower
Research and Development, Howard Rosen, Director.
The Bureau has already published, or is in the process of publishing, a number of other studies of
the manpower impact of Federal expenditures. Manpower Impact o f Federal Government Programs:
Selected Grants-in-Aid to State and Local Governments (Report 424, 1973), summarizes earlier BLS
work on manpower requirements, provides an overview of the difficulties of tracing the downward
flow o f Federal monies, and presents the results of studies of two Federal programs—
Title I of the
Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the National School Lunch Program. Another
project, in press, Factbook for Estimating the Manpower Needs o f Federal Programs (Bulletin
1832), brings together in one publication a set of employment and occupational factors designed to
aid agency administrators in estimating the manpower requirements of Federal outlays. A
forthcoming study, focusing not only on the demand generated for manpower but also on the
supply for 1972 and selected future years, is Research on the Effects o f Federal Programs on
Occupational Requirements and Supply: A Demonstration Study o f the National Institutes o f
Health. Still another BLS research study, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is Impact
o f Federal Pollution Control and Abatement Expenditures on Manpower Requirements (Bulletin
1836), which uses data collected from primary rather than secondary sources.
Coordination of the studies in this bulletin was provided by Thomas F. Fleming, Jr., of the
Bureau’s Division of Economic Growth, and Michael F. Crowley, of the Division of Manpower and
Occupational Outlook. Participating in the research and the preparation of the report were:
Arthur J. Andreassen, Douglas J. Braddock, Virginia A. Broadbeck, Mary S. Carroll, David S.
Frank, Richard P. Oliver, Valerie S. Personick, Kenneth W. Rogers, and Marybeth M. Tschetter.
The Bureau gratefully acknowledges the help and cooperation of the many officials in the
Federal agencies who provided the data on which these studies are based.




in

Page
Introduction
........................................................................................................................................................................
Analytical fr a m e w o rk ................................................................................................................................................
Limitations ................................................................................................................................................................

1
1
2

Overview of r e s u l t s ................................................................................................................................................................
Employment requirements per billion d o l l a r s ........................................................................................................
Employment requirements by industry s e c t o r ........................................................................................................
Occupational p a t t e r n s ................................................................................................................................................

4
4
5
6

Chapter 1. Veterans Administration health care p r o g r a m ...........................................................................................
8
Summary .................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Program d e sc rip tio n ....................................................................................................................................................
8
Expenditures
............................................................................................................................................................ 8
Employment re q u ire m e n ts.......................................................................................................................................
9
Occupational p a t t e r n s .................................................................................................................................................10
Chapter 2. National Institutes of H e a l t h .........................................................................................................................12
Summary .....................................................................................................................................................................12
Extramural program
.................................................................................................................................................13
Direct o p e ra tio n s .........................................................................................................................................................17
Chapter 3. Manpower institutional training p r o g r a m ................................................................................................ 19
S u m m a r y .....................................................................................................................................................................19
Program d esc rip tio n .....................................................................................................................................................19
Data and sample ........................................................................................................................................................ 20
Expenditures
.............................................................................................................................................................20
Employment requirements and occupational patterns
........................................................................................ 20
Chapter 4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Space Shuttle program
................................ 25
Summary .....................................................................................................................................................................25
Program d esc rip tio n .....................................................................................................................................................25
Data and sample .........................................................................................................................................................25
Expenditures
.............................................................................................................................................................26
Employment re q u ire m e n ts.........................................................................................................................................28
Occupational p a t t e r n s .................................................................................................................................................30




Tables:
1.

Employment requirements per billion dollars of expenditures
by program and industry sector ........................................................................ Veterans Administration health care:
2. Expenditures by industry sector, fiscal year 1972
............................................................................
3. Employment requirements by industry sector, fiscal year 1972 ........................................................
4. Employment requirements by occupation, fiscal year 1972
............................................................
National Institutes of Health:
5. Expenditures and employment requirements by program,
fiscal years 1969 and 1972 .................................................................................................................
6. Employment requirements by occupation, fiscal year 1969
............................................................
7. Domestic awards (extramural program) by type,
fiscal year 1969 ........................................................................................................................................
8. Expenditures and employment requirements, extramural
program, fiscal year 1969 ........................................................................
.1
9. Direct employment requirements, extramural program,
by occupation, fiscal year 1969 ........................ ........................................
.1
10. Purchases resulting from extramural program by industry
.1
sector, fiscal year 1969 ........................................................ ...
11. Indirect employment requirements of extramural
.1
program by industry sector, fiscal year 1969 ....................................
12. Employment by occupation, direct operations,
fiscal year 1969 ........................................................................................
.1
13. Employment generated by purchases, direct operations,
fiscal year 1969 ....................................................................................
.
Manpower Development and Training Act institutional training program:
14. Employment requirements by occupation,
fiscal year 1972 ............................................................................
15. Direct employment requirements by occupation,
fiscal year 1972 ............................................................
16. Indirect employment requirements by industry sector,
fiscal year 1972 ............................................................
17. Indirect employment requirements by occupation,
fiscal year 1972 ........................ ... ............................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration:
18. NASA purchases, selected industries, fiscal year 1973 .
19. Space Shuttle purchases, selected industries,
fiscal year 1973 ........................................................................
20. NASA indirect employment requirements by industry sector,
fiscal year 1973 ........................................................................
21. NASA indirect employment requirements, selected
industries, fiscal year 1973 ........................................
22. Space Shuttle indirect employment requirements by
industry sector, fiscal year 1973 ........................................
23. Space Shuttle indirect employment requirements, selected
industries, fiscal year 1973 ................................................
24. NASA employment requirements by occupation,
fiscal year 1973 ................................................................
25. Space Shuttle employment requirements by occupation,
fiscal year 1973 ................................................................



5
9
10
11

12
13
14
5
5
6
7
7
18

21
22
23
.

23

.

27

.

28

.2 9
.

29

.

29

.3 0
.

30

.

31

Page
Charts:
1.
2.

Relationship of expenditures, employment, and occupationalrequirements .........................................
Occupational patterns of selected Federal programs
.............................................................................

3
6

Appendixes:
A. Technical notes .................................................................................................................................................32
B. Detailed tables:
38
B -l. Expenditures for goods and services by program
and in d u s tr y ...........
.3 9
B-2. Indirect employment requirements by program
and i n d u s tr y .....................................................................................................................................41
B-3. Employment requirements by program andoccupation ..................................................................45




Introduction
Substantial amounts of Federal dollars flow into the
economy each year. Federal expenditures in fiscal 1973
totaled more than $255 billion, up from $233.2 billion a
year earlier. Just a decade earlier, Federal expenditures,
at $106.3 billion, were less than half their 1972 level.
During the intervening 10 years, Federal Government
expenditures for goods and services alone increased from
$61.0 billion to $103.2 billion. Grants-in-aid to State
and local governments climbed even faster—
more than
quadrupling in the period—
with an average growth rate
of approximately 16 percent. At the same time, transfer
payments expanded by more than $50 billion over the
10 years, for an average annual rate of growth of close to
12 percent.
Since Federal expenditures and policies substantially
affect, not only public employment, but also private
sector job opportunities, the development of a mech­
anism to measure their total impact on manpower is
essential for assessing the effects of government pro­
grams.1 In this study, and in other related studies, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics has adapted techniques and
models developed initially for long-term projections of
industry and occupational employment needs to mea­
sure the current manpower requirements of Federal
spending programs.
This report, consisting of five studies, focuses on the
manpower requirements by industry and occupation for
a selected group of programs and agencies which are
broadly representative of different types of Federal
expenditures. The Veterans Administration (VA) health
care program is primarily an example of one in which
the Federal Government is the direct purchaser of goods
and services— this case, the goods and services required
in
for the operation of health facilities and medical
programs. Research on the manpower requirements for
the National Institutes of Health (NIH) not only studies
the government in its role as a purchaser for its own
research facility, but also investigates the impact of
grants-in-aid or research contracts on other health care
and research facilities. The study of the institutional
training program under the Manpower Development and
Training Act (MDTA), jointly administered by the U.S.

Departments of Labor and of Health, Education, and
Welfare, shows the employment requirements of grantsin-aid or contracts to local governments and private
organizations to train workers. The National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA) manpower impact
study centers on the budget of an entire agency, much
of which is contracted out to a variety of industrial,
research, and academic facilities. In addition, the NASA
study provides separate manpower requirements for the
Space Shuttle program to demonstrate how require­
ments of a particular program change as it advances from
the design stage through its completion.
Analytical framework

At the heart of the manpower requirements esti­
mating process are the Bureau’s interindustry employ­
ment model and its industry-occupational matrix. The
input-output tables2 show what each industry in the
economy purchases from every other industry, thereby
providing an analytical tool for measuring the total
effect on the production system, industry by industry,
of a specified amount of demand for a final product. For
example, the purchase of a new house requires employ­
ment not only in the construction industry but also in
such sectors as lumber, heating, and plumbing as well as
in supplying industries such as metals and basic mining.
In addition, demands are created for a host of other
purchases such as energy, packaging, and so on, through
the whole cycle of production and distribution. The
interindustry model traces the intricate linkages through
the economy and measures both the direct and indirect
requirements of the output of each of the industries.
The production links are translated into employment
requirements by use of employment-output ratios for
each sector. After industry employment requirements
are developed, they become the inputs to the industryoccupational matrix.3 This matrix distributes total

2Appendix A describes the input-output system in more
detail. See also appendix A o f The Structure o f the U.S.
Economy in 1980 and 1985, Bulletin 1831 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1975).
3Appendix A describes the occupational matrix in more
1 Manpower Report o f the President (U.S. Department of detail. See also Occupational Employment Statistics, 1960-70,
Labor, March 1972).
Bulletin 1738 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1972).




national employment into occupations and crossclassifies them by industries. A newly revised matrix,
based on the 1970 Census of Population, distributes
approximately 400 occupations and cross-classifies them
by 200 industries.
In this framework of analysis, where employment in
each industry is determined by generated production
levels, the estimates of employment requirements would
generally be limited to direct Federal purchases of goods
and services. This system, however, can be extended to
other types of Federal outlays, such as grants-in-aid,
transfer payments, and subsidies, by determining the
purchases made by the sector receiving the Federal
outlay. For example, the employment requirements
created by grants to State and local governments can be
estimated from studies of the purchases made by State
and local governments in carrying out the purpose of the
grants. Similarly, transfer payments to persons can be
analyzed by considering the impact of these payments
on personal consumption expenditures. This of course,
involves determining the extent to which transfer pay­
ments become disposable income and consumption
expenditures and further identifying the pattern of
subsequent consumption purchases.4
BLS research methods. First the amount of direct
employment generated in the public sector (and in
certain of these studies, the private sector) was obtained
from agency personnel records and published sources.
The compensation associated with this employment was
then subtracted from the expenditures of the program.
Next, the balance of purchases formed the primary input
into the input-output system. These remaining purchases
were then sorted into a “bill of goods” which was
developed by distributing a detailed list of purchases for
each program or agency among those industry sectors
which provide the product or service. Compilation of the
bill of goods frequently involved examining an agency’s
records to determine expenditures for the program
studied in the greatest amount of detail available. For
studies of the VA health care program and the Space
Shuttle program of NASA, data were collected for
expenditures covering the whole program or agency. On
the other hand, in the NIH, NASA, and MDTA studies,
samples of the data were developed since the data
sources themselves-grants-in-aid or contracts-were so
numerous.
For the programs studied in this report, purchases
developed into bills of goods were converted into 1963
dollars so that they would be compatible with the
interindustry model for 1970 in which the sector

relationships are stated in 1963 dollars. The bills of
goods were used as inputs into the model to produce the
requirements for the output of all industries through all
stages of production. Output requirements were next
converted to the total employment required in each
industry. Employment estimates, adjusted to represent
price and productivity changes from 1970 to the year
for which the programs were studied5, were used as
inputs into the industry-occupational matrix. The em­
ployment data were analyzed before the matrix was used
to distribute the jobs into occupational requirements,
based on 1970 patterns. Distortions stemming from the
use of the 1970 occupational data base are considered to
be minimal since the occupational structures of indus­
tries change slowly and these variations are not usually
significant in the short run. Chart 1 summarizes the
process by which occupational requirements are derived.
Employment definitions. In this report, employment is
classified as direct or indirect. Direct employment is
defined as those jobs identified specifically from the
payroll of the agency, program, or grant-in-aid exam­
ined; it is not a product of the input-output system.
Direct employment is usually in the public sector, but
may be in the private sector in the case of programs not
operated by the government but funded by research
contracts or grants-in-aid, such as those found in the
NIH and MDTA studies. In contrast, indirect employ­
ment is that resulting from the expenditures of the
agency or program for all goods and services other than
those for the direct compensation of its own personnel.
Included are both the primary or first tier of jobs—
those
required initially in the industry providing the product
or service demanded—
and the secondary tier, or all
remaining jobs which are required in supporting indus­
tries. (See chart 1.)
Limitations

Several qualifications should be noted with respect to
use of the interindustry employment model and the
occupational matrix. The figures provided in this report
refer only to average manpower requirements of a
Federal program and not to the additional or incremen­
tal requirements resulting from an increase in the
program. In determining the incremental requirements
of a program, much depends on the nature of the
producing sector and the state of the economy when the
addition to demand is made. Since information is
currently not available on incremental or marginal
productivity ratios it is impossible to specify how many
additional workers would actually be hired as a result of
an increase in any of the programs covered. The

4
At present, consumption patterns for differing population
5
Data for the VA health care and MDTA programs are for
groups are available only for 1960-61. BLS expects soon to
fiscal year (FY) 1972. NASA and Space Shuttle data are for FY
complete expenditure patterns for 1972-73 which will update
1973. The NIH study is based on FY 1969 data, which were
and greatly expand this information.
updated to 1972.




Chart 1.

Relationship of Expenditures, Employment, and Occupational Requirements

difference between, average and marginal impact on
manpower requirements is significant both for individual
industries and for the entire economy.6
The relative dispersion of the government expendi­
tures also can affect manpower requirements. If a large
amount of Federal dollars were spread over a large
number o f establishments or local governments in broad
geographic areas, then the increment to each may be
readily absorbed without additions to employment.
However, if the same amount were expended in one
establishment, industry, or area, then the relative impact
o f the increment may be such that it would substantially
affect manpower requirements.
Another difficulty in assessing manpower require­
ments arises from the inability to ascertain whether a
proposed expenditure by the Federal Government is an
addition to, or a substitution for, other expenditures.
For example, grants-in-aid to State and local govern­
ments may take the place of expenditures that would
otherwise be funded by States and localities themselves.
The grants would therefore be spent in lieu of the State
or local funds. Transfer payments also do not necessarily
lead to additional purchases of goods and services.
‘ Even for industries, the averages are only approximately
representative, since differences in product-mix and establish­
ment size would be involved in a specified demand change.




Medicare payments may in part substitute for the use of
private funds by individuals to purchase health services.
In this case, the funds would partially substitute for
other expenditures and would also add new expendi­
tures.
A further limitation to the manpower requirements
studies is the omission of the multiplier and accelerator
effects of the dollars expended. This means that the
further employment and occupational effects generated
as newly employed workers spend their earnings and
consumer goods and services and as businesses invest in
plant and equipment to meet increased demand are not
included in the estimates.
Nevertheless, while these limitations exist, these five
studies, together with other BLS research on manpower
requirements, form a useful analytical framework for
assessing the manpower requirements stemming from
expenditures of Federal dollars. BLS has already started
to disaggregate Federal expenditures both by program or
agency—
NASA, NIH, and so on—
and by type—
direct
purchases or grants-in-aid. As a result, the employment
and occupational patterns for individual programs and
agencies have been shown to vary considerably. Such
information should be useful for the determination of
both the manpower requirements and the feasibility of
proposed programs.

Overview of Results
More than 500,000 job opportunities78 were gener­
ated in the public and private sectors by the expenditure
of some $7.5 billion of Federal funds for the programs
studied here. The size of the programs ranged from the
$3.3 billion of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration, which provided 194,280 jobs, to the
Manpower Development and Training Act’s institutional
training programs with an expenditure of $253 million,
which required approximately 26,000 jobs for its opera­
tion. The Veterans Administration health care program
was budgeted at $1.8 billion and provided over 157,000
jobs, while the National Institutes of Health budget of
$2.1 billion was estimated to generate approximately
154,000 jobs.

FY 1972 expenditures*
(millions)
T o ta l.........................................
VA health care.........................................
N IH ...........................................................
MDTA institutional training
program .............................................
NASA9 ....................................................
Space Shuttle program ................

$7,468.8
1,822.2
2,077.9
253.5
3,315.2
230.1

Since the actual employment and occupational pat­
terns of the programs studied will be covered in their
respective chapters, only a brief comparison of their
relative job-generating characteristics is included here.
For this comparison the best method is to state the
manpower requirements in terms of the number of jobs
generated over a common denominator such as a billion
dollars of expenditures.10 This approach readily points
7 The concept of employment refers to the number of jobs
and therefore is higher than the number of persons employed as
measured in labor force surveys because of dual jobholding and
other statistical differences.
8Annual references in this report are to fiscal years unless
otherwise noted.
9The NASA study used FY 1973 data rather than FY 1972.
To a limited extent the comparison with other programs could
be affected by this time difference.
10 This approach forms the basis for the manpower factors
presented in detail in the Factbook for Estimating the Manpower
Needs o f Federal Programs, Bulletin 1832 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1975).




out the differences in manpower requirements that
various programs or demand categories will produce.

Employment requirements per billion dollars

Three of the five programs studied required more jobs
per billion dollars of expenditures than the average for
all Federal nondefense purchases of 66,600 jobs per
billion dollars. (See table 1.) The institutional manpower
training program generated the largest number of jobs of
the programs analyzed for this report—
approximately
136,500 per billion dollars of expenditures. Total NIH
expenditures for running both its own facilities and its
grants-in-aid activities generated about 83,700 jobs per
billion dollars in 1972. NASA expenditures for 1973
generated job requirements equaling 58,600 jobs for
each billion dollars spent. The Space Shuttle program of
NASA considered alone required 57,000 jobs on the
same billion-dollars basis.
Differences in the mix of public and private employ­
ees accounted for a substantial amount of the variance
among the programs studied. For Federal nondefense
purchases of goods and services as a whole, the number
of employees on Federal payrolls constituted 55 percent
of the jobs required. NASA contracts out a substantial
share of its budget and has only 17 percent of its jobs
within the agency. Similarly, the Space Shuttle program
has only 19 percent of its jobs on its own payroll. The
other three programs studied (NIH, VA, and MDTA
programs) each had a much higher proportion of the
employment generated by their expenditures on their
own payrolls—
reaching about 70 percent in the case of
the VA health care program. Although this difference
may reflect the labor intensiveness of some public
programs as compared to others, it also reflects the fact
that the system used in this analysis accounts for all
dollars expended in the public sector, while in the
private sector the procedures used do not reflect the
manpower impact of depreciation, rental income, or
corporate profits. Inclusion of these would narrow the
differences between the private and public sectors in the
number of jobs required.

Sector

T o ta l...............................................
Direct employment ......................................
Indirect em ploym ent....................................
A griculture...........................................
Mining .................................................
Construction ......................................
Manufacturing ....................................
Transportation, communication,
and public u tilitie s.........................
T ra d e ....................................................
Finance, insurance, and real
estate...............................................
Services ...............................................
Government enterprises....................
T o ta l...............................................
Direct employment ......................................
1ndirect em ploym ent....................................
A griculture...........................................
Mining .................................................
Construction ......................................
Manufacturing ....................................
Transportation, communication,
and public u tilitie s .........................
Trade ....................................................
Finance, insurance,and real
estate...............................................
Services ...............................................
Government enterprises....................

Veterans
Average,
Federal
Administration
i nondefense
health care
programs1
(VA)
(calendar
year 1972)
66,592
36,678
29,914
193
393
2,742
10,596

(fiscal
year 1972)
88,955
62,434
26,521
824
240
1,722
8,311

Manpower
National
Development Aeronautics
and Training
and Space
Act (MDTA) Administration
institution :l
(NASA)
program
(fiscal
(fiscal
(fiscal
year 1972) year 1972)
year 1973)
58,603
136,464
83,735
10,214
70,270
47,601
66,194
48,389
36,134
234
2,262
3,996
567
343
311
954
1,508
1,021
26,584
15,490
9,973
National
Institutes
of Health
(NIH)

(fiscal
year 1973)
57,013
10,618
46,395
209
352
648
31,043

8,373
18,264

2,656
2,650

2,173
2,473

1,285
3,689
10,313
12,661
732
2,133
Percent distribution
100.0
100.0
51.5
56.8
48.5
43.2
2.9
2.7
.4
.4
.7
1.8
11.4
11.9

1,006
13,120
912

895
7,832
769

100.0
17.4
82.6
.4
.6
1.6
45.4

100.0
18.6
81.4
.4
.6
1.1
54.5

6.1
13.4

4.5
4.4

3.8
4.3

2.7
9.3
1.6

1.7
22.4
1.6

1.6
13.7
1.4

2,729
2,559

2,481
2,544

742
8,692
1,268

592
9,147
660

100.0
55.1
44.9
.3
.6
4.1
15.9

100.0
70.2
29.8
.9
.3
1.9
9.3

4.1
3.8

2.8
2.9

2.9
8.7

1.1
13.1
1.9

.7
10.3
.7

1.5
12.3
.9

1 Based on fa c to rs given in the Factbook for Estimating the
Manpower Needs of Federal Programs, B u lle tin 1 8 3 2 (B u re a u o f

Space
Shuttle

2,439
7,311

SO U RCE:

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

L a b o r S ta tistic s, in press), p. 12.

Employment requirements by industry sector

In terms of job opportunities by major industry
sector, the programs studied varied considerably among
themselves and also differed from the pattern of total
Federal nondefense purchases. Looking at the indirect
jobs, the sectors affected most substantially were usually
manufacturing, services, and trade, but the variations
from one program to another were sizable. Manufac­
turing showed a range of 8,311 job opportunities (VA)
to 26,584 (NASA) for a billion dollars expended
compared to 10,596 per billion for total Federal
nondefense purchases. With the exception of NASA, all
programs studied purchased fewer goods on the average
than the typical government program, and the types of
purchases made were less likely to require large numbers
of indirect jobs in supporting industries.




Services accounted for 8,692 jobs or 13.1 percent of
the employment generated by a billion dollars of Federal
nondefense spending. The five programs generated ser­
vice jobs in a range of 9,147 (VA) to 13,120 (NASA)
jobs per billion dollars. As a proportion of all the jobs
generated by a particular program, services were highest
for NASA, at 22.4 percent. This high percentage of
service jobs is due to the greater than average reliance of
the space agency on outside contractors for services.
Among the other major sectors, between 2,544 jobs
(VA) and 18,264 (MDTA) in trade were required per
billion dollars worth of expenditures compared to 2,559
for all Federal nondefense purchases. The very large
number of trade sector job opportunities provided by
the MDTA program reflected the allowances provided
trainees which were used to purchase consumer goods in

the retail trade sector. Similarly, the MDTA program’s
allowances for personal living expenses generated the
highest number of jobs in the agriculture sector (food
purchases), with transportation and utilities also af­
fected. All the programs studied, however, required
fewer jobs in construction than the average of 2,742 jobs
per billion dollars for all Federal nondefense purchases.
The VA health care program, which included hospital
and extended care facility construction, generated the
greatest number of construction jobs per billion
dollars—
1,722— the five programs studied.
of

Occupational patterns

Only in a very broad way do the major occupational
groupings of the five studies resemble the pattern for
total Federal nondefense expenditures. As in the sector
as a whole, more than half of the occupations in these
studies were classified as white collar; only a very small
proportion were in the sales worker, laborer, or farm
worker categories. Considerable variation was evident,
however, in the proportion of jobs classified as opera­
tives, craft workers, and service workers (chart 2).

Chart 2.

Occupational Patterns of Selected Federal Programs

Percent

100

Professional,
technical,
and kindred
workers

80

Managers,
officials, and
proprietors

60

Clerical
workers
Sales workers
40
Craft workers

Operatives

20

Service
workers
Laborers,
rm workers

0
AVERAGE,
FEDERAL
N O N D EFEN SE
PROGRAMS

Calendar year
1972

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.




NIH

H EALTH
CARE

Fiscal year
1972

Fiscal year
1969

MDTA
PROGRAM

Fiscal year
1972

NASA

Fiscal year
1973

PROGRAM AND Y E A R OF STUDY

SPACE
SH U TTLE

Fiscal year
1973

Nevertheless, the mixture of white-collar jobs and
other specific occupational requirements for the pro­
grams varied significantly from that for total Federal
Government (nondefense). Although approximately 24
percent of all Federal nondefense jobs were classified as
professional and technical, the share of these jobs for the
programs studied ranged from a low of about 30 percent
(NASA) to a high of more than 48 percent (NIH). The
high proportion of professional and technical occupa­
tions reflected the more extensive scientific and tech­
nical missions of the programs studied than found in the
government as a whole. In the case of NASA and the
Space Shuttle program, substantial numbers of engineers
are required both directly on government payrolls and in
the aerospace and electronics industries which hold
many of the NASA contracts. The large numbers of
physicians, scientists, nurses, and other health-related
occupations required for the health care and medical
research programs of VA and NIH accounted for their
high proportion of professional and technical occupa­
tions.
Twenty-three percent of the jobs required for all
Federal nondefense expenditures were found in the craft
and operative classifications. Unlike the total Federal
nondefense sector, however, where the jobs were split
fairly evenly between the two broad occupational
groups, the programs studied displayed wide variations
in their shares of the total. Both NASA and the Space
Shuttle program had a higher proportion of their jobs in
both the craft and operative categories than either the
average of all Federal nondefense or any of the other




programs studied. The nature of the contracted-out
expenditures for the space mission of NASA was the
major factor accounting for its larger proportion of
operatives and craft workers.
The programs in this study have a far smaller share of
their jobs classified as clerical than does the Federal
Government as a whole. Sales workers accounted for
roughly the same percentage of all occupations for the
Federal Government as a whole and the individual
programs, with one exception— MDTA institutional
the
training program. Due primarily to the impact of living
allowances paid to trainees, which, for the purposes of
determining manpower requirements, were distributed
through a personal consumption expenditures pattern,
the MDTA study showed 4 percent of its jobs in the
sales category—
more than double the proportion in the
other programs studied.
In four of the five studies laborers accounted for
somewhat fewer jobs than the average for the Federal
nondefense sector. In the NIH program, however,
laborers accounted for 6.6 percent of the jobs because of
the large number of caretakers needed for research
animals. Farm workers amounted to less than 1 percent
of the workers for the Federal nondefense sector as a
whole and for most of the programs studied. The MDTA
institutional training program, however, had a somewhat
larger percentage of its jobs in farming, again due to the
requirements generated by food purchases in the per­
sonal consumption expenditure pattern applied to the
trainees’ living allowances.

Chapter 1. Veterans Administration Health Care Program
Summary

Expenditures for health care by the Veterans Admin­
istration (VA) totaled slightly more than $1.8 billion in
1972. Roughly 60 percent of the VA budget was
allocated to meet the payroll costs of its 111,000 fulland part-time employees. The remainder of its monies
generated 47,450 indirect jobs in supporting industries
and services. Although the majority of employees
directly on VA’s payroll were health professionals—
physicians, dentists, nurses, and medical and dental
technicians— single occupational group accounted for
no
as much as one-fifth of the employment. Nearly twothirds of the employment generated outside of VA
occurred in the services and manufacturing sectors. The
bulk of these jobs were in the transportation, communi­
cation, public utilities, trade, and construction sectors of
the economy.
Program description

The Veterans Administration was established in 1930
to serve the country’s veterans and their immediate
families. By 1972, the VA was spending nearly $11
billion on various programs to aid 98.3 million bene­
ficiaries—
veterans, their families, and the dependents of
deceased veterans. This study focuses on the VA health
care program, which includes funding for 167 general
and psychiatric hospitals, 77 nursing homes, 18 domiciliaries, and 8 restoration centers throughout the Nation.
In addition, the VA engages in various types of medical
and prosthetic research, postgraduate and in-service
training, outpatient care in 200 clinics, and the construc­
tion of hospitals and other operating facilities. The VA
provides services to approximately 950,000 patients
through this nationwide network of hospitals, clinics,
and other health facilities. These services include mental
hygiene, speech pathology, spinal cord injury centers,
nuclear medicine, drug dependence treatment centers,
open heart surgery, clinics for the blind, and many
others.
Expenditures

From 1962 to 1972, total VA expenditures increased




rapidly, at an average annual rate of 7.1 percent. Medical
care expenditures, however, advanced at an even faster
pace during this period— an annual rate of 8.6 percent.
at
After attaining the $1 billion mark in the early 1960’s,
these expenditures reached more than $1.8 billion in
1972. Nearly 60 percent of this amount was direct
compensation for the VA health care program’s 111 ,000
full- and part-time employees. The remaining $73
million was spent in 73 of the 134 industries delineated
in the input-output model used in this study. VA health
care expenditures were coded to the industries in the
BLS interindustry model system, based on the goods and
services actually purchased, in order to provide a bill of
goods for the health care program.11
The manufacturing industries constituted the largest
economic sector for VA health care purchases (table 2).
They accounted for more than 46 percent of spending
aside from compensation, and close to one-fourth of the
total expenditures for the program. Of the 46 manufac­
turing industries that sold their products to the VA, 7
accounted for about 83 percent of the total expendi­
tures for manufactured goods. Well over $100 million
was spent on food and drugs alone, and another $60
million was used for medical, dental, and scientific
instruments. Photographic equipment, electrical machin­
ery, paper products, and miscellaneous textile products
were the other major purchases from this sector.
Service industries received less than half as much
money as the manufacturing industries. In this sector,
medical services was the most important producing
industry. The VA buys medical services such as medical
and dental examinations, nursing services, contract
hospitalization, outpatient treatment, and therapy. Ac­
counting for one-half of the service expenditures, the
medical services industry received more money than any
other with the exception of the drug industry.
Within the transportation, communication, and pub­
lic utilities sector, the significant industries for VA
purchases were local transit and intercity bus transpor­
tation; electric utilities; and communications other than
11
In addition, by reviewing the records of the Baltimore and
Washington area VA hospitals, a distribution for capital assets
was developed for use in estimating the manpower impact of
these purchases. All assets purchased were amortized over their
estimated service lives on a straight-line depreciation basis.

Sector

Expenditures
(thousands)

Percent
of
total

T o ta l.............................................................
Compere ***** ‘Veterans Administration
employ'd** * * * . * ....................................................
Total, excluding compensation1 ................................
Construction ....................................................
Manufacturing ..................................................
Transportation, communication, and
public u tilitie s .............................................
T ra d e .................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate................
Services .............................................................
Government enterprises..................................
All other2 ...........................................................

$1,822,213

100.0

-

1,091,197
731,016
130,563
340,313

59.9
40.1
7.2
18.7

100.0
17.9
46.6

64,753
734
1,525
186,478
2,680
3,970

3.6
3.1
.1
10.2
.1
.2

8.9
.1
.2
25.5
.4
.5

1 N o V A h e alth care e x p e n d itu re s are in clu d e d
fo r the a gric u ltu re o r m in in g sectors.
2 In c lu d e s th re e d u m m y in du stries: b u sin e ss
travel, e n te rta in m e n t, an d gifts; o ffic e su pplies; an d
scrap, used an d s e c o n d h a n d . F o r e x p la n a tio n , see

Percent,
excluding
compensation

—

a p p e n d ix A t o th e Structure o f the U.S. Economy
in 1980 and 1985, B u lle tin 1831 (B u re a u o f L a b o r
S ta tistic s, 1 9 7 5 ).
SO U RCE:

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

three-fourths of the generated jobs fell into 25 indus­
tries.
Among the major sectors of the economy, manufac­
turing and services shared about two-thirds of the
indirect employment (table 3). More than one-half of
the remaining jobs were generated in transportation,
communication, and public utilities, and in wholesale
and retail trade. The construction sector accounted for
6.5 percent of the generated indirect employment, while
agriculture, finance, insurance, real estate, and govern­
ment enterprises together accounted for 8 percent. The
mining sector was affected only marginally, with less
than 1 percent of the indirect employment generated.
The manufacturing sector was by far the largest
provider of the goods and services purchased for VA
health care. Services, however, are more labor intensive
Employment requirements
than the manufacturing sector; employment per unit of
output is higher than in manufacturing. This explains
A little more than a half billion dollars of expendi­
why more jobs were generated in the service industries,
tures on goods and services from the private sector
despite the fact that VA expenditures for manufactured
generated close to 47,500 jobs in addition to those
goods were more than one-half of total spending except
found directly on VA payrolls in 1972.13 These
for payrolls.
manpower requirements were distributed over nearly all
Most of the manufacturing employment occurred in
of the private industry sectors in the BLS interindustry
the production of medical and dental instruments, drugs,
model. While no single industry accounted for more than
scientific and controlling instruments, and processed
12 percent of the total indirect employment, nearly
foods. Combined, these industries accounted for about
36 percent of the jobs generated in this sector, and for
nearly 12 percent of all the indirect employment. Two
12In the input-output framework, goods are considered to be
bought from the producer, that is, drugs are bought from the
of these sectors—
medical and dental instruments, and
drug manufacturer and not from a wholesaler or retailer.
scientific and controlling instruments— characterized
are
However, at the time a purchase is assumed to be made,
by high ratios of employment to output. Consequently,
transportation costs are assumed to be incurred.
13
The detailed purchases for VA health care and the even though they received considerably less VA money
than the drug and food products industries, their share
resulting employment by detailed industry are shown in appen­
dix tables B-l and B-2.
of the generated employment was greater. None of the
radio and television. Much of the money spent on local
transportation was for payment to beneficiaries for
travel to and from medical treatment centers. Telephone
usage made up the major part of the communications
expenditures.
Construction expenditures were for new hospital
construction (which accounted for the bulk of the
money spent in this sector) and for maintenance and
repair. Virtually all of the expenditures in the trade
sector were for goods handled by wholesalers. Less than
$1 million, a very small portion of VA’s health care
expenditures12 , was spent in the retail trade sector and
in the remaining economic sectors, which include gov­
ernment enterprises, finance, insurance, and real estate.




Percent of
indirect
employment

Sector

Number
of jobs

Percent
of total
employment

T o ta l.............................................................
Direct employment (Veterans Administration) . . .
Indirect em ploym ent..................................................
A griculture........................................................
Mining ...............................................................
Construction ....................................................
Manufacturing ..................................................
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities ........................................................
T ra d e .................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate................
Services .............................................................
Government enterprises..................................

159,151
111,702
47,449
1,475
429
3,081
14,869

100.0
70.2
29.8
.9
.3
1.9
9.3

100.0
3.1
.9
6.5
31.3

4,438
4,551
1,059
16,366
1,181

2.8
2.9
.7
10.3
.7

9.4
9.6
2.2
34.5
2.5

SO U RCE:

-

Bu re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

other manufacturing industries accounted for as much as
2 percent of the total indirect manpower impact.
The services sector is not nearly as large as manufac­
turing— accounted for only 10.6 percent of total final
it
demand and 9.4 percent of total output for the entire
U.S. economy in 1970.14 But, while VA’s spending for
health care in the services sector was a little more than
half of the expenditure total for manufactured goods,
about 1,500 more jobs were generated in service
industries than in manufacturing (due mainly to the
more labor-intensive characteristics of the services
sector). Six industries within this sector shared about 30
percent o f the total generated employment and more
than 86 percent of the service-related jobs.
Due to the large expenditures for nursing services,
medical and dental examinations, hospital services,
outpatient care, and research, the greatest employment
effects in the services sector were for doctors, dentists,
and other medical services and for nonprofit organiza­
tions. The professional services accounted for over
three-fifths of the service employment. Contractual
services, equipment rental, maintenance and repair, as
well as various other services including laundry and
cleaning, janitorial, and burial services, were largely
responsible for the remaining service-generated jobs.
In FY 1972, the trade sector received $734 million
in VA health care expenditures, with the vast bulk of
these funds going to the wholesale sector. Even though
the employment/output ratio in the retail trade industry
was nearly three times as high as in the wholesale sector,
it could not offset the huge difference in the amounts

spent in each industry. Only 1,234 jobs were generated
in retail trade, which was little more than a third of the
employment that occurred in wholesale trade.
Slightly more than 4,400 jobs were generated in the
industries making up the transportation, communica­
tion, and public utilities sector. A relatively small sector
of the economy, this group of industries gained only
about 30 percent as much employment as the manufac­
turing sector as a result of VA spending. Most of the
expenditures in this sector were concentrated in local
transportation, communications (largely telephone
usage), and electric utilities. Local transportation, truck
transportation, and communications as a group ac­
counted for two-thirds of the employment generated in
this sector, but for only 6.5 percent of the total indirect
employment. The remaining jobs in this area were
distributed mainly among railroad and air transportation
and gas and electric utilities.
Of the remaining sectors of the economy, construc­
tion was the most important in terms of manpower
impact. In this sector, expenditures of $130.6 million
generated 3,081 jobs—
two-thirds in maintenance and
repair construction and the remainder in new hospital
construction. Agricultural employment was generated by
the large amount of VA expenditures for processed food
products, which in turn generated jobs in basic agricul­
tural production. The small amount of indirect employ­
ment in the mining sector hinged on the demand for
crude petroleum, gasoline, and other fuels. Employment
was equally distributed among the finance, insurance,
and real estate sectors.

14
In this context, finance, insurance, and real estate;
Occupational patterns
transportation, communication, and public utilities; and whole­
sale and retail trade are classified outside the services sector.
In 1972, the manpower requirements of the VA
Services include medical, legal, educational, business, and other
professional services.
health care program totaled slightly more than 159,000




jobs. Of this number, well over 111,000 represented
employees directly on VA payrolls. Reflecting the
purpose of the VA health care program, the occupa­
tional pattern was oriented heavily toward medical
occupations (table 4). Approximately one-half of those
employed by the VA in its health care program were
registered nurses, physicians and surgeons, or other
medical and dental workers. Practical nurses accounted
for more than another quarter of VA employment.
Clerical workers were the only nonmedical or nonscientific occupational group with significant represen­
tation.
The indirect employment generated by VA health
care spending was distributed among 421 detailed
occupations in the BLS industry-occupational matrix.15
These jobs were fairly evenly dispersed among the nine
major occupational categories, with no single category
containing less than 1,000 or more than 9,000 jobs. The
largest group, operatives, accounted for about 19 per­
cent of the occupational employment while the smallest,

farmers and farm workers, made up about 3 percent of
the total. The “other operatives” subgroup (excluding
transportation operators) contained close to one-half of
all the operatives required. Most of these workers were
machine operators, assemblers, sewers, or stitchers.
Truck and bus drivers represented the next largest group,
accounting for more than one-fourth of the total
number of operatives. Their employment was generated
by the transportation expenditures for which re Ipients
of VA medical care are reimbursed.
Professional and technical workers made up 18
percent of the total indirect employment. The largest
subgroup within this category were the medical workers,
reflecting the relatively heavy purchases of medical
services. Dentists constituted about one-half of this
group, while most of the remainder consisted of physi­
cians, osteopaths, and registered nurses. The “ other
professional and technical workers” were primarily
accountants, research workers, personnel and labor
relations workers, and psychologists, while “health
technologists and technicians” were largely prosthetic
15
Detailed occupational data for the VA employmentdevice repairers, clinical lab technicians, and dental
requirements are shown in appendix table B-3.
hygienists.

Table 4.

Employment requirements of V A health care by occupation, fiscal year 1972

Occupation

Total ................................................................. 159,150
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers ........................................................................ 66,050
Medical workers, except technicians.................. 51,361
2,110
Dentists........................................................
Physicians.................................................... 14,650
Registered nurses......................................... 20,530
8,590
Health technologists and technicians..................
Other professional and technical
7,000
workers .............................................................
1,800
Psychologists...............................................
4,720
Managers, officials, and proprietors................................
1,530
Sales workers......................................................................
Clerical workers................................................................. 14,810
Stenographers, typists, and
7,100
secretaries...........................................................
7,520
Craft and kindred w orkers...............................................
9,210
Operatives..........................................................................
Service w orke rs................................................................. 51,630
Practical nurses...................................................... 31,100
2,430
Laborers, except fa rm ......................................................
1,310
Farmers and farm workers...............................................
NOTE:

Ite m s m a y n o t ad d to t o ta ls b e cau se o f ro u n d in g .




Direct employment
Number
Percent
of
jobs

Indirect employment
Number
of
Percent
jobs

100.0

111,700

100.0

47,450

100.0

41.5
32.3
1.3
9.2
12.9
5.4

57,440
49,361
1,100
14,200
20,150
7,490

51.4
44.2
1.0
12.7
18.0
6.7

8,610
2,000
1,010
450
380
1,100

18.1
4.2
2.1
1.0
.8
2.3

4.4
1.1
3.0
1.0
9.3

5,390
1,800
830

4.8
1.6
.7

6,360

5.7

1,610
3,890
1,530
8,450

3.4
8.2
3.2
17.8

4.5
4.7
5.8
32.4
19.5
1.5
.8

4,190
450
220
46,000
30,840
450
—

3.8
.4
.2
41.7
27.6
.4
—

2,910
7,070
8,990
5,630
260
1,980
1,310

6.1
14.9
18.9
11.9
.5
4.2
2.8

Total employment
Number
Percent
of
jobs

SO U RCE:

—

—

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

Chapter 2.

National Institutes of Health

Summary

The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal
Government’s chief biomedical research agency, funds
an extensive program of health research, training, con­
struction, and dissemination of medical information.
This is accomplished primarily through grant and con­
tract awards to individuals for medical and related
projects, but also through the operation of its own
laboratories and clinical center.
Since 1960, grants and other awards have typically
represented over 85 percent of the total NIH budget. In
fiscal year 1969, the year selected for the manpower
impact study, grants and awards, or the extramural
program, accounted for almost $1.3 billion of total NIH
expenditures of $1.5 billion. The extramural program
supported slightly over 112,000 jobs throughout the
economy that year, nearly 57,000 full-time equivalent
jobs directly supported by the award funds and over
55,000 full- and part-time jobs generated indirectly by
Table 5.

the purchases made by the grantees and contractors.16
Fiscal year 1969 was selected for study on the basis
of data availability. Since that time the budget of the
National Institutes of Health has topped the $2 billion
mark, with the extramural program rising to $1.8 billion
in 1972. By using the data developed in the 1969 study,
it was estimated that the 1972 awards program sup­
ported over 77,000 direct full-time equivalent jobs and
generated an additional 61,000 jobs through purchases,
for a total of about 138,00c).17 The direct operations of
NIH resulted in 12,300 jobs on its own payroll in FY
1972 and an estimated 6,000 jobs in indirect employ­
ment.
As summarized in table 5, NIH expenditures for all
1 6These manpower requirements for NIH extramural opera­
tions exclude the manpower requirements for overhead costs of
institutions performing the grants or contracts.
1 7To estimate the 1972 employment figures, expenditures
on grants and other awards in 1972 were scaled to the totals for
1969, with adjustments made for productivity and price changes.

NIH expenditures and employment requirements by program, fiscal years 1969 and 1972

1972

1969
Program

Expenditures
(thousands)

Total ...............................................................
Total less grant overhead...............................................
Awards (extramural program )......................................
Awards less grant overhead...............................
Fellowships and lo a n s.............................
Construction grants..................................
Other grants and contracts ....................
Personnel ......................................
Purchases ......................................
Overhead.........................................
Direct operations ..........................................................
Personnel (NIH staff) ........................................
Purchases .............................................................

$1,479,695
1,333,054
1,291,075
1,144,435
132,071
172,955
986,049
2471,099
2331,190
2 146,640
188,620
123,484
65,136

1 D ata o n e m p lo y m e n t re su ltin g fr o m o verh ead e x p e n d itu re s
n o t available.
2 R e p re se n ts sam ple resu lts and th erefo re d o e s n o t add
p re cise ly t o to ta l.
3 F u ll-tim e e q u ivale n t jo b s; all o th e r e m p lo y m e n t fig u re s are a
c o u n t o f b o th fu ll- an d p a rt-tim e jo b s. F u ll-tim e e q u iva le n t




Employment

C
1)
128,984

C1)

112,027
13,239
10,773
C)

356,914
31,101
C)

16,957
511,605
5,352

Expenditures
(thousands)
$2,077,908
1,841,572
1,815,098
1,578,762
211,599
73,819
1,529,680
4 759,453
533,892
4236,336
262,810
178,268
84,542

Employment

C
1)
154,204

C
1)

137,983
14,878
4,480
C)

377,390
41,235

C
1)

16,221
510,270
5,951

e q u a ls the to ta l n u m b e r o f h o u rs w o rk e d o n a jo b in 1 year
d iv id e d b y 2 ,0 8 0 , the to ta l n u m b e r o f h o u rs w o rk e d o n a
fu ll-t im e jo b in a regular w o r k year.
4 E s t im a t e d .
5 F u ll-tim e o n ly .
SO U RCE:

Bu re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

programs generated total employment requirements of
over 154,000 jobs in 1972. Table 6 summarizes the
occupational composition of this employment. Although
these data are for FY 1969, the proportions in the
occupational groups would not be significantly different
for 1972.

Extramural program

Under the BLS system of determining manpower
impact, the expenditures for grants and awards might be
considered purchases of services and be applied to the
appropriate industry sector in the bill of goods to
determine the employment indirectly supported in the
educational services and other industry sectors receiving
these funds. However, this technique would not give
very enlightening results because of the specialized
nature of the employment requirements and the magni­
tude of the extramural awards program. Instead, the
extramural awards program was examined separately, in
much the same manner as if it were a separate Federal
Table 6.

program. Thus, there are direct and indirect employment
requirements for the awards program as well as for the
direct NIH operations.
The direct awards program employment consists of
those who work directly on the grants and contracts.
They are not Federal employees, as would be the case
with the direct employment in other programs. The
indirect employment is the employment supported
throughout the economy by the contractors’ and grant­
ees’ expenditures for goods and services used in fulfilling
the grants and contracts.
There were two parts of the extramural awards
program which had no direct employment; these were
examined separately. The fellowships, scholarships, and
loans program, which involves direct payments to
students, generated indirect employment when the
students spent these funds for goods and services. Funds
for construction generated indirect employment in the
construction and other industries. There was also a
portion of the contractors’ and grantees’ expenditures
for goods and services, the “overhead” portion, for
which no employment estimate was available.

NIH employment requirements by occupation, fiscal year 1969

Occupation

Extramural program
Total
(except
Indirect employment
Direct
fellowships
Generated
Generated by
and loans) employment construction grants by purchases

Direct operations
NIH
staff

Employment
generated
by purchases

T o ta l....................................................
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers ...........................................
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ....................................................
Sales w o rke rs......................................................
Clerical w o rke rs..................................................
Craft and kindred w o rke rs................................
Operatives ...........................................................
Service workers ..................................................
Laborers, except farm ......................................
Farmers and farm w o rke rs................................

115,745

56,914

10,773

31,101

11,605

5,352

56,646

44,736

858

5,119

5,213

720

5,691
2,554
18,746
8,357
8,724
6,583
7,604
840

179
7,229
323
9
896
3,542
-

2,845
1,916
6,002
3,558
5,309
4,075
1,750
527

1,149
—
3,039
371
330
706
797
-

458
224
1,038
735
1,006
526
397
248

T o ta l....................................................
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers ...........................................
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ....................................................
Sales w o rke rs......................................................
Clerical w o rke rs..................................................
Craft and kindred w o rke rs................................
Operatives ...........................................................
Service workers ..................................................
Laborers, except farm ......................................
Farmers and farm w o rke rs................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

48.9

78.6

8.0

16.5

44.9

13.5

4.9
2.2
16.2
7.2
7.5
5.7
6.6
.7

—
12.7
.6
1.6
6.2
—

9.8
3.8
13.4
31.3
19.2
3.5
10.4
.6

9.2
6.2
19.3
11.4
17.1
13.1
5.6
1.7

9.9
—
26.2
3.2
2.8
6.1
6.9
—

8.6
4.2
19.4
13.7
18.8
9.8
7.4
4.6

N O T E : D ire c t jo b s o f th e e x tra m u ra l p ro gra m ar« fu ll-tim e
e q u iv a le n t jo b s (see fo o t n o te 3, tab le 5). N I H staff jo b s are
fu ll-tim e jo b s o n ly . A ll o th e r job m easures are a c o u n t o f b o th
f u ll- a n d p a rt-tim e jo b s.




—

1,060
414
1,438
3,370
2,070
380
1,118
65
Percent distribution
100.0

SO U RCE:

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s,

Program description. Research grants, the largest grant
category in terms of both number and dollar amount,
support a wide variety of projects. These range from the
funding of discrete, specified research projects requiring
less than $5,000 to the support of entire centers engaged
in health research, amounting in some cases to more
than $1 million.
While research grants are geared primarily toward the
support of basic research, research contracts are used
mainly to test or develop new products or procedures
for use by the scientific community. This form of award
for research has grown more rapidly than grants in the
last few years: in 1963 contracts accounted for about 9
percent of total research award funds; by 1969 they
were 14 percent; and in 1972 about 21 percent.
Medical training grants are awarded by the Bureau of
Health Manpower Education, a division which has since
been transferred out of NIH to another part of the
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. These
grants support programs training a wide variety of health
professions personnel.
Loans, fellowships, and related awards make up a
relatively small share of the extramural program com­
pared to grants and contracts. In 1969, $132 million was
awarded for loans and fellowships, about 10 percent of
total awards. To derive the employment impact of loans
and fellowships, a standard expenditure pattern for
personal consumption expenditures was applied to the
total sum of loans and fellowships in lieu of any actual
expenditure data.18 These expenditures generated em­
ployment requirements equaling slightly more than
13,000 jobs.
Construction grants support the building of research
facilities, medical and nursing schools, hospitals, and
related health facilities. These grants were not included
in the sample studied because of the lack of data on
actual construction materials purchased and labor em­
ployed. Rather, the employment impact of these con­
struction grants was estimated using existing BLS studies
on the employment generated by hospital construc­
tion.19 Although the grants were not specifically for
hospitals, it was felt that the hospital data more closely
approximated the actual manpower requirements of the
construction grants than any other data available.
It should be noted in connection with the construc­
tion grants that although the study is based on funds
awarded in 1969, the actual expenses for construction
occurred over a period of a few years, beginning with
18 The use of a standard personal consumption expenditure
pattern is not accurate to the extent that the consumption
pattern of recipients of these loans or fellowships differs from
that of the average consumer.
1 9 See Factbook.




1970. However, the figure of almost 10,800 jobs
associated with 1969 construction funds is an estimate
assuming that the funds had been spent in one year; in
reality these 10,800 jobs would result over several years.
Data and sample. Over 25,000 individual awards were
made in 1969. Each award recipient submitted a record
of expenditures to NIH, and these records served as the
data base for the manpower impact study. It was found,
in a pretest of several records, that detailed reporting of
expenditures, itemizing personnel and purchases, was
discontinued in 1970. Hence 1969 was selected as the
fiscal year for this study. A sample was drawn to collect
expenditures and employment data, stratified by type
and dollar amount, since the spending and employment
patterns of the awards were expected to vary depending
upon these characteristics. Table 7 shows the number of
each type of award included in the sample and the total
amount of funds awarded for each of the various types
in 1969.
The proportion of grants selected for the sample
increased as the dollar size of the grants increased—
all
awards of $1 million or more were included in the
sample, while for grants of less than $10,000 only one
out of every 254 was chosen. Research grants consti­
tuted the largest proportion of grants sampled—
226 out
of the total of 368 in the sample—
since they accounted
for the largest share of total award money (about half).
Research and medical training grants and research
contracts each had about the same number of grants in
the sample (43 to 49) since they all represented roughly
the same proportion of total award funds (8 to 11
percent). Construction grants and fellowships, scholar­
ships, and loans were not included in the sample.
Almost 80 percent of all grants and contract awards
were received by persons affiliated with institutions of
higher education, which implies that most of the direct
Table 7.
Domestic awards made by NIH (extramural
program) by type, fiscal year 1969

Type of av ard

Number
Amount
Sample (thousands)
of
awards

Total . . .................... 25,124
Research gra n ts......................... 12,088
Research trainin g....................... 2,382
Medical trainin g......................... 1,848
948
Research contracts....................
395
Medical libraries.........................
75
Construction grants..................
Loans, fellowships,
and scholarships.................. 7,388

368
226
48
49
43
2
-

$1,291,075
622,111
140,121
117,881
101,776
4,160
172,955
132,071

S O U R C E : N a tio n a l In stitu te s o f H e a lth , U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f
H e a lth , E d u c a tio n an d W e lfare .

manpower requirements of the NIH award program were
met by universities and medical schools. Other types of
institutions receiving support were hospitals not affili­
ated with medical schools, about 8 percent of total NIH
awards, and research institutes, about 7 percent.
About half of all nonconstruction grant and contract
money awarded in 1969—
$471 million out of $986
million—
was for compensation and benefit payments to
personnel directly employed on the grants (table 8). An
additional 35 percent was spent on the purchases of
goods and services such as equipment, supplies, travel,
hospitalization, and related items.
The remaining 15 percent represented payments to
the institutions receiving grants to cover indirect costs
such as administration, utilities, use of facilities and, in
the case of profit firms, a fee. Indirect costs are based
upon a fixed rate for each recipient institution, which is
set through negotiation between the institution and the
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).
This rate applies to all grants awarded to that institution
by any of the agencies of HEW. The specific indirect (or
overhead) costs associated with each grant are usually
not itemized, so developing a distribution for these costs
by type for each grant was not possible. In light of this
difficulty, and also because the costs were rather general
and were not unique to health research and training, a
thorough analysis of the manpower effects of these costs
was not undertaken.
Direct employment requirements. The largest share of
the 1969 extramural funds—
that allocated to employee
Table 8.
Expenditures and employment requirements
of NIH extramural program, fiscal year 1969

Expenditures
Total
(thousands) Percent

Program

Total . . . $1,291,075
Fellowships and
132,071
loans ..................
Construction
172,955
grants ................
Other grants and
contracts........... 1948,929
Personnel .. . 471,099
Purchases . . . 331,190
Overhead . . . 146,640

Employment
Total

Percent

-

112,027

-

—

13,239

-

-

10,773

-

88,015
256,914
31,101
(3)

100.0
64.7
35.3
—

100.0
49.6
34.9
15.5

S a m p l e resu lt an d d o e s n o t ad d t o to ta l. U n ive rse to ta l fo r
o th er g ran ts an d c o n tra c ts e q u als $ 9 8 6 ,0 4 9 ,0 0 0 .
2 F u ll-tim e e q u ivale n t jobs; all o th e r e m p lo y m e n t figu re s are a
co u n t o f b o th fu ll- an d p a rt-tim e jo b s. F u ll-tim e equ ivale n t is the
to ta l n u m b e r o f h o u rs w o rk e d in 1 year d iv id e d b y 2 ,0 8 0 hours,
the to ta l n u m b e r o f m a n -h o u rs in a fu ll w o r k year.
3 N o t availab le.
SO U RCE:

B u reau o f L a b o r Sta tistic s.




Table 9.
Direct employment requirements of NIH
extramural program,1 by occupation, fiscal year 1969

Occupation
T o ta l..................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers........................................................
Life and physical
scientists...........................................
Other health w orkers...........................
Technicians (except m edical)..............
Other professional or
technical w o rke rs...........................
Clerical w orkers...............................................
Laborers, except fa r m ....................................
A ll other ...........................................................

Full-time
equivalent jobs2
Number Percent
56,914

100.0

44,736

78.6

22,741
4,179
14,306

40.0
7.3
25.1

3,510
7,229
3,542
1,407

6.2
12.7
6.2
2.5

1 E x c lu d e s c o n s tr u c tio n gran ts, fe llo w s h ip s, an d loan p ro ­
gram s.
2 F u ll-tim e e q u iva le n t is the to ta l n u m b e r o f h o u rs w o rk e d in
a year d iv id e d b y 2 ,0 8 0 hou rs, the to ta l n u m b e r o f m a n -h o u rs in
a fu ll w o rk year. T h is m easu re d iffe rs fr o m a to ta l job co u n t
m easu re used elsew here in the re p ort, w h ic h c o u n ts th e n u m b e r
o f b o th fu ll and p a rt-tim e jo b s.
SO U RCE:

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

compensation—
supported a total of 56,914 full-time
equivalent jobs.20 These jobs encompassed a wide
variety of occupations ranging from professional re­
search workers to technical and clerical personnel. As
noted earlier, approximately 80 percent of the grants
were directed to universities and medical schools; hence
most of the employment occurred at these institutions.
It should be noted that the full-time equivalent jobs
total of 56,914 actually represents substantially more
individuals, because of the large number of graduate
students and others who usually work only part time on
a grant. Also, the job count includes only workers who
received compensation from the grant funds and ex­
cludes those who were paid entirely from other sources
but who nevertheless may have participated in the
research.
Over three-fourths of the jobs related directly to the
extramural program were in the professional or technical
field. About half of these jobs, 22,741 full-time equiva­
lents, were held by life and physical scientists (table 9).
Among the scientists, those in the area of clinical
medicine were the largest group (7,413 full-time equiva­
lent jobs), followed by biological sciences (7,219 jobs)
and basic medicine (5,016 jobs).21 The individual
specialties in the medical science field with the greatest
representation were biochemistry, pathology, pediatrics,
20For definition of a full-time equivalent job, see table 8,
footnote 2.
2 d eta iled occupational data for the NIH employment
requirements are shown in appendix table B-3.

physiology, and biophysics. According to the study, at
least 65 percent of all the medical scientists supported
by NIH grants and contracts held M.D.s (35 percent) or
Ph.Ds (29 percent) or both (1.4 percent).
Second to medical scientists in numbers were non­
medical technicians, 14,306 full-time equivalents or
about one-quarter of the total number of jobs. Most of
these technicians were classified as laboratory tech­
nicians, with a small number of research assistants and
animal technicians making up the balance.
Purchases. In addition to the $471 million for employee
compensation, NIH grantees and contractors purchased
$331 million of goods and services from FY 1969 award
funds—
about 35 percent of the total money awarded.
The manufacturing sector was the largest source of
these purchases, representing more than half of all
expenditures (table 10). Two industries in particular
accounted for over 16 percent of total expenditures—
chemicals, and scientific and controlling instruments
(laboratory equipment). Over $25 million was spent in
each of these two sectors. The food industry also ranked
high as a percent of the total, reflecting the payments of
living expenses to students under training grants to
which a personal consumption expenditure distribution
was applied. Other manufactured goods purchased in
large quantities directly by grantees and contractors
Table 10.
Purchases resulting from NIH extramural
program1 by industry sector, fiscal year 1969

Amount
(thousands) Percent

Sector

T o ta l........................................... $331,190
10,657
A griculture.................................................
12
Mining ........................................................
8,930
Construction .............................................
Manufacturing ........................................... 186,577
28,475
Chemicals.........................................
Scientific and controlling
26,426
instrum ents................................
Transportation, communication, and
15,274
public u tilitie s ......................................
17,119
Trade ...........................................................
4,095
Wholesale.........................................
13,024
R e ta il...............................................
Finance, insurance, and real
13,964
estate......................................................
78,657
Services ......................................................
23,594
Hospitals .........................................
Miscellaneous business
23,152
services ......................................
18,579
Educational services......................
982
Government enterprises...........................
1 E x c lu d e s
gram s.
SO U RCE:

c o n s tr u c tio n

gran ts, fe llo w s h ip s, an d

Bu re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.




100.0
3.2
—
2.7
56.3
8.6
8.0
4.6
5.2
1.2
3.9
4.2
23.8
7.1
7.0
5.6
.3
loan p r o ­

included drugs, computer equipment, glassware, optical
equipment, photographic equipment, and medical and
surgical instruments.
Service industries received slightly less than onequarter of grantee expenditures, about $79 million.
Within the services sector, the largest sum went for
hospital costs, followed closely by the purchase of
miscellaneous business services such as building services
(janitorial, for example), equipment maintenance and
repair, and computer time. Educational services, reflect­
ing training grant tuition payments, and medical services
were the two other major service industries receiving
NIH funds.
The other major industrial sectors had much smaller
shares of total purchases. Retail trade accounted for
only about 4 percent of all expenditures, again mostly
attributable to trainee stipends. The wholesale trade
margin on goods which were purchased by NIH grantees
or contractors represented only about 1 percent of total
purchases.
Construction accounted for almost 3 percent of all
expenditures, chiefly maintenance and repair construc­
tion. The agriculture and livestock component received
$11 billion, or about 3 percent of the total, primarily
reflecting the purchase of laboratory animals by re­
searchers. Transportation, in particular air transport,
made up about 3 percent of all grant and contract
expenses as well, representing travel by scientific investi­
gators supported by NIH funds.
Indirect employment requirements. The purchases by
NIH grantees or contractors, totaling $331 million in
1969, supported 31,100 full- and part-time jobs through­
out the economy that year (table 11). About 30 percent
of these jobs were in the services sector, particularly in
hospitals, educational services, and business services.
These three industries accounted for almost one-fourth
of all generated jobs, reflecting the large outlays for
hospitalization, computer time, equipment maintenance,
and tuition payments.
The manufacturing sector also had about 30 percent
of the generated employment. About half of the 9,300
jobs in manufacturing were generated by the program
purchases described earlier and about half were gener­
ated indirectly through other industries’ requirements
for manufactured products.
Within the manufacturing sector, industries affected
by the NIH extramural program included scientific and
controlling instruments (4 percent of total generated
employment), chemicals (2.3 percent), and printing,
glass, computer equipment, publishing, optical equip­
ment, electronic components, food products, and medi­
cal instruments (each 1.7 to 1.0 percent of total

Table 11.

Indirect employment requirements of NIH

Direct operations

extramural program1 by industry sector, fiscal year 1969

Full-and part-time jobs
Number
Percent

Sector

T o ta l......................................... 31,101
1,917
Agriculture .............................................
M in in g ......................................................
226
C onstruction...........................................
675
M anufacturing......................................... 9,300
Scientific and controlling
1,245
instruments.............................
Chemical products.......................
715
P rin tin g .........................................
519
G lass.............................................
516
Transportation, communication, and
public u tilitie s.................................... 1,889
T rade........................................................ 5,989
Wholesale......................................
1,887
R etail............................................. 4,102
Finance, insurance, and real
estate ..................................................
943
Services.................................................... 9,532
H ospitals......................................
2,651
2,477
Educational services....................
Miscellaneous business
services.................................... 2,248
Government enterprises.........................
630
1 E x c lu d e s c o n s tr u c tio n
gram s.
NOTE:

gran ts, fe llo w s h ip s, an d

100.0
6.2
.7
2.2
29.9
4.0
2.3
1.7
1.7
6.1
19.3
6.1
13.2
3.0
30.7
8.5
8.0
7.2
2.0
lo an s p ro ­

Ite m s m a y n o t ad d to to ta ls d u e to ro u n d in g .

SO U RCE:

Bu re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

generated jobs).22
The trade sector accounted for nearly 6,000 jobs or
19 percent of the total, while 6.2 percent were in
agriculture. More than half of the jobs in agriculture,
which also includes the livestock industry, reflected the
large demand for laboratory animals on the part of NIH
researchers.
The largest occupational group affected by NIH
grantee and contractor purchases was clerical workers,
6,000 out of the total of 31,100 generated jobs (table
6). Operatives constituted the second largest category,
with 5,300 jobs or 17.1 percent of the total, while the
professional and technical component accounted for
5,100 jobs or 16.5 percent. Within the professional and
technical category, medical workers such as nurses and
teachers were the largest occupations. Service workers,
in services including food, cleaning, and health services,
also constituted a sizable share of total jobs, 13.1
percent.2 3
2 2 The purchases and resulting requirements by detailed
industry for all of NIH are shown in appendix tables B-l and
B-2.
2 3 The occupational requirements for NIH by detailed occu­
pation are shown in appendix table B-3.




The expenditures of NIH for its direct operations
were tabulated directly from data covering all NIH
operations and thus did not involve the use of a sample.
For the direct employment of NIH, totaling 11,605
full-time employees in 1969, a listing of all jobs by
occupation was obtained and summarized by major
occupational group. Since NIH directly operates research
laboratories and a clinical center, a large number of NIH
employees were life and physical scientists, about 19
percent of the total; science technicians, 8.8 percent;
and medical workers, 6.1 percent. Together with other
related occupations, the professional and technical group
accounted for almost half of all the jobs at NIH in 1969
(table 12).
Clerical personnel were the second largest category,
about one-fourth of the total. In addition to secretaries,
typists, and stenographers, this group also included a
large number of grants-processing personnel, reflecting
the magnitude of the NIH award program.
Information on purchases of supplies, equipment,
services, and all other items was obtained from NIH’s
accounting and procurement offices. It was found that
expenditures for NIH direct operations and resulting
employment closely resembled the pattern of expendi­
tures of grantees and contractors, since both programs
are involved in medical research.
Table 12.
Employment by occupation, NIH direct
operations, fiscal year 1969

Occupation
T o ta l..................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers.........................................................
Life and physical scientists ................
Biologists....................................
C hem ists....................................
O th e r...........................................
Science technicians .............................
Biological
technicians...........................
Other . . . .....................................
Medical workers....................................
N urses.........................................
Other ...........................................
O th e r......................................................
Managers, officials, and proprietors..............
Clerical w orkers...............................................
Craft and kindred w orkers.............................
Operatives.........................................................
Service w o rke rs...............................................
Laborers, except fa r m ....................................

Full-time jobs
Number Percent
11,605

100.0

5,213
2,203
613
581
1,009
1,017

44.9
19.0
5.3
5.0
8.7
8.8

697
320
712
381
331
1,281
1,149
3,039
371
330
706
797

6.0
2.8
6.1
3.3
2.9
11.0
9.9
26.2
3.2
2.8
6.1
6.9

S O U R C E : N a tio n a l In stitu te s o f H e a lth , U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f
H e a lth , E d u c a t io n , an d W elfare . C o m p ile d b y B u re a u o f L a b o r
S ta tistic s.

Principal expenditures of NIH in 1969 were for the
direct purchase of doctors’, dentists’, and medical
workers’ services on a contract basis to supplement
NIH’s own staff. This industry received $7.6 million of
the $65 million total, or 11.6 percent. Almost $4.5
million was spent for scientific and controlling instru­
ments, while miscellaneous business services received
$3.8 million and chemicals received $3.6 million. Other
industries with purchases of over $2 million were
maintenance construction, drugs, air transportation,
optical equipment, printing, communications, and food
products.
The employment generated by these purchases oc­
curred primarily in manufacturing and service industries,
mirroring the employment generated by the extramural
program expenditures. Within the manufacturing sector,
however, employment resulting from NIH purchases was
more evenly distributed than that resulting from the
extramural purchases, with no single industry accounting
for more than 5 percent of total jobs. In the services
sector, medical services represented 10.3 percent of all
jobs and business services 6.5 percent. The trade
category constituted another 10.1 percent of all jobs,
agriculture 8.8 percent, and transportation 6.6 percent.
(See table 13.)
Major occupations affected by NIH purchases in­
cluded clerical workers and operatives, as was true in the




extramural program. The third largest occupational
group was craft workers, including skilled construction
workers, mechanics, and repairers.
Table 13.
Employment generated by purchases of NIH
direct operations, by industry sector, fiscal year 1969

Sector

Full- and part-time jobs
Number
Percent

T o ta l.........................................
Agriculture .............................................
M in in g ......................................................
C onstruction...........................................
M anufacturing.........................................
Scientif ic and controll ing
instruments.............................
P rin tin g .........................................
Transportation, communication, and
public u tilitie s....................................
Trade ........................................................
Wholesale......................................
R etail.............................................
Finance, insurance, and real
estate ..................................................
Services....................................................
Medical services...........................
Miscellaneous business
services....................................
Government enterprises.........................
SO U RCE:

B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

5,352
471
62
194
1,877

100.0
8.8
1.1
3.6
35.1

219
175

4.1
3.3

569
538
341
197

10.6
10.1
6.4
3.7

129
1,354
552

2.4
25.3
10.3

349
158

6.5
3.0

Chapter 3.

Manpower Institutional Training Program

Summary

The program of institutional manpower training
authorized by the Manpower Development and Training
Act of 1962 (MDTA) required 26,160 direct and
indirect jobs to supply program needs (including training
allowances) in 1972. The direct employment, which is
the total number of jobs located at the training sites, was
estimated to be 12,300 or 47 percent of total program
requirements. Over half of these jobs at the training sites
were in the professional and technical category, includ­
ing teachers and counselors. The indirect employment,
which was the employment generated in the private
sector by all program expenditures except compensa­
tion, was concentrated in the trade, service, and manu­
facturing industries, chiefly retail trade, personal ser­
vices, food, and apparel. Forty percent of the total
indirect employment was concentrated in the operative
and clerical occupations, specifically bus and truck
drivers, machine operators, secretaries, and cashiers.
Craft and kindred workers constituted 12 percent of the
generated employment; these workers were in a wide
range of occupations, but a large proportion were
mechanics. No other major occupational group made up
as much as 10 percent of the indirect employment.
Program description

Since the early 1960’s the Federal Government has
been strongly committed to the development of the
Nation’s manpower resources. In the past decade, nearly
a dozen manpower training programs have been created
to upgrade the skills of the labor force. The national
program of institutional manpower training, the oldest
Federal manpower program, was created under the
authority of the Manpower Development and Training
Act of 1962 2 4 In its first decade, more than 1.2 million
2 4The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of
1973 incorporated into one piece of legislation the Federal
manpower training and support services which had been pro­
vided under the Manpower Development and Training Act, the
Economic Opportunity Act, and the Emergency Employment
Act. In the future, State and local governments will receive
annually one Federal appropriation for all job training activities
and will determine the mix o f programs to best meet local needs.




trainees had enrolled in the institutional program and
over $2 billion in Federal funds were required to support
program activities.
The program provided grants to States and territories
for classroom occupational training. Its purpose was to
equip the disadvantaged, unemployed, and under­
employed 16 years of age and older with marketable
occupational skills and to reduce labor shortages in local
areas. Training was provided through State and local
education agencies and was restricted to occupational
skills in short supply. A living allowance equivalent to
the State’s average unemployment compensation benefit
and a transportation allowance were provided to train­
ees. Although the length of training varied with the
individual trainee’s needs, the maximum period of time
for providing trainee allowances was 104 weeks. The
average length of training projects was from 6 to 9
months, although most projects were continuously
funded and repeated each year.
The program, introduced in a time of high unemploy­
ment, initially emphasized short training periods and
rapid job placement. At first most trainees were heads of
households, with 3 years’ work experience, whose jobs
had been eliminated by automation, foreign competi­
tion, or other economic dislocations. In the late 1960’s
the program’s orientation shifted to disadvantaged job­
less youth. As a result of this shift, the training
curriculum was expanded to include remedial education,
communication skills, and supportive services such as job
counseling and placement.
Originally, training took place only in groups organ­
ized for training in a single occupation. Later, skill
centers were introduced which offered multioccupational training and supportive services. Training could
also be carried out by individual referral whereby a
student was enrolled in an ongoing vocational program
operated by a public or private institution. In this
situation, tuition was paid out of manpower training
funds.
A wide variety of occupational training was offered
under the program, ranging from technical training in
drafting and practical nursing to bench and structural
work in machine operation and welding. The training
courses with the largest enrollments were for the

secretarial, auto mechanic, welding, and practical nursing
occupations.
The program was administered jointly at the Federal
level by the Department of Labor (DOL)—
responsible
for determining the Nation’s manpower and training
needs, trainee selection, and allowances— the Depart­
and
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)—
charged
with establishing and funding individual training proj­
ects. Federal funds were apportioned among the States
and territories according to an allocation formula estab­
lished in the 1962 legislation, and they reached the local
training agencies through State employment security
offices and State boards of education. The States were
required to match up to 10 percent of their total Federal
allocation to offset program expenses.
Data and sample

This study was based on data submitted to HEW in
the statement of proposed expenditures required for
each training project as part of the application for
Federal funding. The following list briefly states the
types of data provided:
• Facility costs (rents, utilities, remodeling)
• Administrative salaries (administrator, clerical, cus­
todian, employee fringe and travel expenses)
• Instructional salaries (instructors, guidance coun­
selors)
• Equipment (major, minor, repair and servicing,
rental)
• Instruction materials (audiovisual, textbooks,
workbooks)
Although the data supplied are for proposed rather than
actual expenditures, they constitute the most complete
and detailed source of information currently available.
In 1972, over 1,500 institutional training projects
were funded under MDTA. The BLS Office of Survey
Design constructed a weighted sample of 259 grants
from this total.25 Data on the sample members were
gathered and coded according to the appropriate produc­
ing industry in the input-output system and the occupa­
tional definitions used in the industry occupational
matrix.
Program totals developed from the sample will vary
from other published figures for the MDTA program.
This may be due to changes in planned expenditures, to
the lack of complete data on a project which may have
been renewed during the fiscal year, or to the difference
between obligated funds and outlays. Nevertheless, the
results of the study are not weakened since the
interpretation of the results depends primarily on the2

percent distributions of the bill of goods, employment,
and occupational requirements.
Expenditures

The results of the study sample for the MDTA
institutional training program, broken down into the
major categories of expenditure and their proportion of
the program total, are shown below for fiscal year 1972:

Amount
(millions) Percent
Total ............................................. $253.5
Cost of training (H E W )................................ 125.3
Compensation of employees at
training sites.................................
74.6
Purchases of goods and services . . . .
50.7
Allowances (DOL) ...................................... 128.2
Training ............................................. 119.8
Transportation ..................................
8.4

100.0
49.4
29.4
20.0
50.6
47.3
3.3

The cost of training, including compensation and
purchases of goods and services in the private sector,
amounted to slightly less than half of the total program
expenditures. Of this amount, 60 percent went directly
to compensation of teachers and other employees at the
training site. The remaining $50.7 million represented
the amount spent on equipment, books, utilities, rentals,
and other goods and services.
A bill of goods was developed from these expendi­
tures for further analysis within the input-output frame­
work. This analysis provides the numbers of jobs in each
industry required to produce the goods and services
purchased. The allowances, which amounted to $128.2
million, were considered as a transfer payment. Since
there was no detail available on how trainees spent these
funds, it was assumed that the expenditure pattern for
this segment of the program would resemble the
personal consumption expenditure (PCE) pattern of a
low-income family. Such a PCE pattern was approxi­
mated and applied to the total for training allowances
generated by the sample and in turn was anlayzed within
the input-output system. A separate bill of goods based
on the PCE pattern was constructed for the $119.8
million in trainee allowances estimated in the sample.
The $8.4 million in transportation allowances was added
into the railroad and local and intercity bus transporta­
tion sectors of this bill of goods. The complete bill of
goods for the PCE distribution and for program pur­
chases of goods and services is provided in appendix
table B-l.
Employment requirements and occupational patterns

2 5Excluded from the sample are projects funded in Hawaii
and U.S. territories, and experimental and demonstration grants.




It is estimated that a total of 26,160 full- and

part-time jobs was generated directly and indirectly from
the MDTA institutional program expenditures of $253.5
million in 1972 (table 14).26 Employment directly on
the payrolls of the grantees constituted approximately
47 percent of the total jobs generated. Jobs generated
directly in the State and local government sector,
representing 4.3 percent of the program’s manpower
requirements, were not part of the training project
staffs, but were generated as a result of the tuition paid
under the individual referral type of training. The
indirect employment generated in the private sector
accounted for 48.5 percent of the program’s employ­
ment impact.
Direct employment at training sites. The direct employ­
ment data summarized in the first column in table 15
were taken directly from the “Cost of Occupational
Training” forms submitted to HEW by each of the
sample members. The forms supplied the number of
jobs, occupational titles, total number of hours required
for each job during the project, and hourly wage for
2 6Detailed occupational data for the MDTA employment
requirements are shown in appendix table B-3.

Table 14.

each position. The number of jobs by occupational
group in table 15 is derived from the sample members
and weighted to provide an estimate of the program’s
total direct employment and full-time equivalents. Due
to the extensive part-time nature of the direct employ­
ment in this program, it is useful to look at some
occupations in terms of the number of full-time equiva­
lent jobs. The full-time equivalent, as noted earlier, is the
total number of hours a person worked on a job in 1
year, divided by 2,080 hours, the total number of hours
worked on a full-time job in a regular work year. Most of
the projects sampled operated for less than a full year,
which accounts in part for the large differences between
the number of jobs and the full-time equivalents.
Professional and technical workers, especially in the
teaching and counseling professions, accounted for 51
percent of the approximately 12,350 djfectly generated
jobs. The managers, officials, and proprietors group
made up 14 percent of the total jobs and comprised
those jobs involved in the administration of the projects,
which were usually on a part-time basis. Clerical workers
made up 24 percent of the total direct employment;
almost half of these workers were secretaries. Service

Employment requirements of M DTA institutional training program by occupation, fiscal year 1972

Full- and part-time jobs
Direct
Direct
employment
employment at
generated by
training sites
tuition costs

Occupation

Total
employment

T o ta l.............................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
w orke rs....................................................................
Managers, officials, and proprietors .........................
Sales w o rke rs...............................................................
Clerical w o rke rs...........................................................
Craft and kindred w o rke rs ........................................
Operatives ...................................................................
Service workers ..........................................................
Laborers, except farm ...............................................
Farmers and farm w o rke rs........................................

26,160

12,347

1,125

12,688

8,220
3,077
1,080
5,313
1,520
2,808
2,823
600
690

6,337
1,736

753
61

1,130
1,280
1,080
2,250
1,520
2,808
1,330
600
690

T o ta l.............................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
w orke rs....................................................................
Managers, officials, and proprietors .........................
Sales w o rke rs...............................................................
Clerical w o rke rs..........................................................
Craft and kindred w o rke rs........................................
Operatives ....................................................................
Service workers ...........................................................
Laborers, except farm ...............................................
Farmers and farm w o rke rs........................................

100.0
31.5
11.8
4.1
20.3
5.8
10.7
10.8
2.3
2.6

1 In c lu d e s in d ire ct e m p lo y m e n t generated b y t u itio n costs.
2 Less th a n 50.




—

2,954
—
-

1,320
—

—

109
(2)
(2)
173
(2)
-

Percent distribution
100.0
100.0
51.3
14.1
—
23.9
—
10.7
—
—
SO U RCE:

67.0
5.4
—
9.7
—
15.4
—
—

B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

I nd irect
employment1

100.0
8.9
10.1
8.5
17.8
12.0
22.1
10.5
4.7
5.4

Table 15.
Direct employment requirements of M DTA institutional training program
by occupation, fiscal year 1972

Occupation

Full- and part-time jobs
Number
Percent

Full-time equivalent jobs1
Percent
Number
i

Total .............................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
w o rk e rs ....................................................
Teachers.............................................
Counselors .........................................
O thers..................................................
Managers, officials, and
proprietors...............................................
Administrators ..................................
Clerical workers ...........................................
Secretaries...........................................
Bookkeepers.......................................
C le rks..................................................
Teaching aides....................................
O thers..................................................
Service workers.............................................
Janitors...............................................

12,347

100.0

6,179

100.0

6,337
5,117
1,027
193

51.3
41.4
8.3
1.6

3,799
3,250
483
66

61.5
52.6
7.8
1.1

1,736
1,736
2,954
1,307
425
361
585
276
1,320
1,320

14.1
14.1
23.9
10.6
3.4
2.9
4.7
2.2
10.7
10.7

554
554
1,322
606
131
114
282
189
504
504

9.0
9.0
21.4
9.8
2.1
1.8
4.6
3.1
8.2
8.2

1 F u ll-tim e e q u ivale n t is the to t a l n u m b e r o f
h o u rs w o rk e d in 1 year d iv id e d b y 2 ,0 8 0 hou rs,
the to ta l n u m b e r o f m a n -h o u rs in a fu ll w o rk
year. F o r e x a m p le , if a teacher w o r k s 4 0 h o u rs a

workers accounted for 11 percent of the jobs directly
generated.
As seen in table 15, professional and technical
workers, particularly teachers, constituted a greater
percentage of the total full-time equivalent employment
than of the total jobs generated, indicating that teachers
were the most likely to be employed full time. For all
other groups, their share of full-time equivalent employ­
ment was smaller than their share of total jobs.
Employment generated by tuition costs. As previously
stated, occupational skill training under the MDTA
institutional program is carried out in manpower training
centers, in small groups organized by local school
systems and by individual referral. Training by individual
referral means that a trainee is placed in an ongoing
training program operated by a public or private
institution and the tuition costs incurred are paid out of
MDTA funds. Detail on how tuition receipts were spent
by the institutions was not available; instead, the results
of prior research on State and local education expendi­
tures (less construction) were used to develop the direct
and indirect employment impact of these expenditures.
The distribution in table 14 includes estimates of the
direct employment impact of these expenditures at the
State and local level. Purchases of goods and services
made with these funds were incorporated into the bill of
goods for program purchases and the indirect employ­
ment effects of the tuition payments were combined
with the indirect employment effects discussed in the
following section.



w eek fo r 2 6 w e e k s, the fu ll-tim e e q u iv a le n t o f
th a t jo b is 0.5 (1 ,0 4 0 h o u rs -f 2 ,0 8 0 h o u rs).
SO U RCE:

Bu re au o f L a b o r Sta tistic s.

Indirect employment. The total indirect employment
generated under the MDTA institutional training pro­
gram in 1972 amounted to about 12,700 full- and
part-time jobs. More than 10,000 of these resulted from
the trainee allowances; the remainder were generated by
program purchases of goods and services, including the
purchases arising from tuition costs, as discussed in the
previous section. Although about 85 percent of the jobs
generated by each of the bills of goods were in the
manufacturing, transportation, trade, and service indus­
tries, the distribution of jobs among the industries was
very different for the two bills of goods (table 16).
Obviously, the impact of the training allowances
dominated the program’s indirect employment require­
ments. The resulting employment fell largely in the trade
industries since most consumer purchases are made from
the retail trade industry. Manufacturing industries most
affected by allowances were food and apparel; employ­
ment was also high in the service industries, reflecting
not only the demand for services but also the laborintensive nature of this sector.
The employment requirements generated by program
purchase were concentrated in the manufacturing and
service industry sectors. Manufacturing jobs made up 38
percent of total employment. Four industries—
paper,
printing, publishing, and “other” fabricated metal products-had the largest employment requirements, reflect­
ing this program’s high demand for paper supplies,
textbooks, and equipment. Seventy-six percent of the
employment in the services group was in educational and

Table 16.
Indirect employment requirements of M DTA institutional training program by industry sector,
fiscal year 1972

Jobs generated
by total
bills of goods
Percent
Number

Sector

Total ...............................................................
A g ricu ltu re ......................................................................
M ining...............................................................................
C onstruction....................................................................
Manufacturing.................................................................
Transportation, communication,
and public u tilitie s ....................................................
Trade ...............................................................................
Finance, insurance,and
real estate....................................................................
Services.............................................................................
Government enterprises ...............................................
SO U RCE:

Jobs generated
by program
purchases
Number
Percent

12,688
766
108
195
2,970

100.0
6.0
.9
1.5
23.4

10,238
729
77
148
2,036

100.0
7.1
.8
1.4
19.9

2,450
37
31
47
934

100.0
1.5
1.3
1.9
38.1

1,606
3,502

12.7
27.6

1,360
3,239

13.3
31.6

246
263

10.0
10.7

707
2,426
408

5.6
19.1
3.2

579
1,762
308

5.7
17.2
3.0

128
664
100

5.2
27.2
4.1

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

miscellaneous business services, due to such program
expenses as educational testing and counseling services,
equipment rental, repair, and duplicating services.

Table 17 provides the program’s indirect employment
requirements distributed among major occupational
groups. It should be noted that the requirements by

Indirect employment requirements of M DTA institutional training by occupation, fiscal year 1972

Occupation
Total ................................
Professional, technical, and kindred
w o rk e rs ......................................
Engineers .............................
Technical ..................
Scientific
technicians...........
Medical workers ..................
All other professional and
technical w orkers...........
Managers, officials, and
proprietors..................................
Sales workers ..................................
Clerical workers .............................
Stenographers, typists, and
secretaries .......................
Office machine operators . .
Other clerical w orkers.........
Craft and kindred workers ...........
Construction c ra fts ..............
Blue-collar worker
supervisors.......................
Metalworking crafts ...........
Mechanics.............................
All other craft and kindred
workers ...........................




Full- and
part-time jobs
Number Percent
112,680

100.0

1,130
220
120

8.9
1.7
1.0

100
160

.8
1.3

750

5.9

ro
00
o

Table 17.

Full- and part-time jobs
Jobs generated
by trainee
allowances
Percent
Number

1,080
2,250

10.1
8.5
17.8

590
100
1,560
1,520
250

4.7
.8
12.3
12.0
2.0

220
120
490

1.7
1.0
3.9

440

3.5

Occupation
Operatives......................................................
Semiskilled packing and
inspecting.......................................
Sewers and stitch e rs.........................
Miscellaneous machine
operatives......................................
Other operatives, not
transport ......................................
Transport equipment
operatives......................................
Bus drivers .............................
Taxicab d rive rs.......................
Truck drivers...........................
Other transport
operatives...........................
Service w orkers.............................................
Cleaning service
w o rk e rs .........................................
Food service workers .......................
Health service workers ....................
Personal service w o rke rs ..................
Protective service
w o rk e rs .........................................
Laborers, except fa rm ..................................
Farmers and farm workers .........................

Full- and
part-time jobs
Number Percent
2,800

22.1

260
250

2.1
2.0

220

1.7

1,040

8.2

1,030
310
220
230

8.1
2.4
1.7
1.8

270
1,330

2.1
10.5

310
520
150
280

2.4
4.1
1.2
2.2

70
600
690

.6
4.7
5.4

occupation reflect in large part the spending by trainees
of the allowances provided them. The largest share of
the jobs generated in the private sector was in the
operative occupations, which provided 2,800 jobs or
approximately 22 percent of the total indirect employ­
ment. Within this group, the occupations most greatly
affected were bus and truck drivers, semiskilled packers
and inspectors, sewers and stitchers, and miscellaneous
machine operators. The clerical occupations commanded
18 percent of the generated employment, or 2,250 jobs.
This group contains the largest of the detailed occupa­
tions—
stenographers, typists, and secretaries. The third
largest occupational group affected by the program was
craft and kindred workers, which absorbed over 1,500
jobs. Auto mechanics and heavy equipment mechanics




were the occupations most called for in this group.
Managers, officials, and proprietors and service workers
both held approximately 10 percent of the total jobs. In
the service group, cleaning and food service workers
accounted for the largest specific occupations. Profes­
sional and technical workers absorbed 9 percent of the
total. This category has a small number of jobs distrib­
uted over a large number of specific occupations, which
in table 17 are combined into “all other professional and
technical workers.” Nonfarm laborers and farmers and
farm workers constituted 4.7 percent and 5.4 percent of
the total indirect employment. (A more detailed occupa­
tional breakdown of the employment is available in
appendix B.)

Chapter 4.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
and the Space Shuttle Program

Summary

The total National Aeronautics and Space Admini­
stration (NASA) program in fiscal year 1973, with
outlays of about $3.3 billion, is estimated to have
generated over 194,000 jobs in both the public and
private sectors, or about 58,600 jobs per billion dollars.
Most of these jobs were in the manufacturing and
services sectors, and, as might be expected, aerospace
and research-oriented industries accounted for most of
the employment. Professional and technical employees,
including engineers, and equipment operatives were the
occupational groups most affected.
The Space Shuttle program, NASA’s major new
program, spent an estimated $230 million in 1973 and
generated a little more than 13,000 jobs, or about
57,000 jobs per billion dollars. While these jobs were
also highly concentrated in manufacturing and services, a
somewhat higher proportion was in manufacturing than
was the case for total NASA. Also, these jobs showed a
heavier concentration in the aerospace industries than
did NASA jobs as a whole. Professional and technical
workers were by far the largest occupational group
affected—
about 83 percent of the private employment
attributable to Space Shuttle was in this category.
Program description

The NASA study covered 1) employment require­
ments generated by all NASA functions and 2) require­
ments of the Space Shuttle program specifically. The
total NASA phase of the study covers all outlays made
by the agency in fiscal year 1973, the latest year for
which complete data were available. NASA activities in
this year were marked by the end of the Apollo
program, with the last of the manned flights to the
moon, and a consequent dip in manned space flight
program outlays. This year also saw the first use of the
Skylab space station in which man demonstrated a
capability to perform various tasks in space for an
extended period. NASA’s launch activities in 1973
included two manned missions and 15 unmanned mis­




sions, including the Pioneer II launch to Jupiter.
This year also marked the beginning of more sub­
stantial outlays on the Space Shuttle program, the
largest new program of NASA, which was scheduled to
continue over the next few years. In 1973 this program
moved out of the definitional phase into more advanced
development. The Space Shuttle is a flyable orbit er, to
be launched into a low earth orbit by two solid rocket
boosters and its own main engines. The solid rocket
boosters will detach at an altitude of about 25 miles and
will then be recovered and reused. The orbiter, under its
own power and using fuel from an expendable drop
tank, will perform its tasks in low earth orbit and
subsequently be flown back to earth for an unpowered
aircraft type of landing. Since many of the components
are reusable, the Space Shuttle is expected to provide a
cheaper way of launching satellites and servicing and
retrieving them, as well as provide a number of other
space services not currently feasible.
Data and sample

For the purpose of this study, it was necessary to
identify purchases by specific product or service. Also,
purchases were desired in terms of expenditures or costs
incurred rather than obligations, which imply varying
time lapses before employment actually takes place.
Purchases in this form provide the initial input into the
model system used to estimate employment require­
ments.
NASA records were first examined to determine the
availability of detailed information on purchases. The
most useful sources of information were computer tapes
provided by NASA containing details of all prime
contracts (approximately 9,500) and subcontracts.
These records identified contract purchases of $1,000
and greater by product or service bought and by
company. They also provided, not only the total amount
obligated under the contract, but total expenditures and
costs incurred during 1973. In the case of large
contracts, the service or product identification was
sometimes highly aggregated and could not be coded to

a specific producing industry. In these cases, subcon­
tracts provided useful additional information.
NASA obligations by budget object class provided
another source of data. For the most part, this informa­
tion was also too aggregated to be useful, but in some
cases products and services were sufficiently detailed for
industry identification. This source of data was particu­
larly helpful in providing good descriptions in a number
o f areas not adequately covered by the contract data. On
the other hand, use of these data required making
assumptions about the time lag between obligations and
actual expenditures.
Control totals were available for total NASA expendi­
tures and for three major functional groupings. NASA
funds are earmarked by use for eight different functions
which conveniently collapse into the three major activi­
ties of administration, research and development, and
construction. These sources of funding were also identi­
fied in the contract and budget object class data. As a
result, both of these data sources could be organized
according to type of funding, providing finer control
totals and a basis for cross-referencing in coding.
Of the 9,500 contracts, a sample of 401 was taken
(along with their subcontracts where available). All 301
contracts that totaled $1 million or more were included;
approximately 77 percent of total contract value was in
this category. The remaining 100 contracts were deter­
mined by the relative dollar amount of the contracts in
the universe. Several contracts selected could not be
identified by type of purchase and contracts of like
magnitude were substituted.
The sample of prime contracts and their subcontracts
next was coded by 4-digit Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion (SIC) codes. The amounts used were costs incurred,
which were considered to be most representative of their
employment impact. These were then expanded to
represent the universe of contract values. Budget object
class obligations were also coded to 4-digit SIC codes
where possible. These were used as a check on contract
results where appropriate, and more importantly, they
were used to estimate noncontract outlays.
Sampling procedures were not used in estimating
Space Shuttle purchases. Instead, all Space Shuttle prime
contracts and their subcontracts were coded and used.
Some 832 Space Shuttle prime contract actions were
considered and all costs incurred on these contracts were
coded. Contracts cancelled under the definitional phase
of Space Shuttle with funds shifted to developmental
Space Shuttle programs were coded to the costs incurred
in the new program areas. In addition to contract values,
the Space Shuttle program was credited with a per­
centage of NASA’s administrative costs, supplies, and




services based upon the number of NASA employees
working on Space Shuttle.
Direct NASA employment of Federal workers was
obtained from NASA personnel records. NASA employ­
ment assigned to the Space Shuttle program was
estimated with the assistance o f NASA.
Expenditures

The total NASA program in fiscal year 1973
amounted to $3.3 billion, slightly higher than in 1972.
Most of this money, about 77 percent, was channelled to
development and ongoing space programs, while about
22 percent went to salaries and program administration.
NASA’s activities affect the economy largely through
contract outlays for research, operations, and admini­
strative support. These amounted to about 80 percent of
all NASA expenditures in 1973. Contract outlays went
largely to business firms, which received about 90
percent of total contract value. The remainder of the
contracts went to educational and nonprofit institutions
and to other government agencies.
The Space Shuttle program in 1973 is estimated to
have cost about $230 million, or almost 7 percent of
total NASA outlays. This figure was derived by totaling
the costs incurred under all Space Shuttle contracts
during the year. To this was added an estimate of the
compensation and benefits received by NASA employees
working on this program as well as a proportion of total
NASA administrative support costs, such as the purchase
of supplies and travel services.
Total NASA. In examining NASA outlays to determine
their employment requirements, it was first necessary to
determine which group ultimately spent NASA funds
and how the funds were generally spent. Most NASA
outlays, of course, were spent by NASA directly for the
hire of personnel and for outside purchases of goods and
services. However, some NASA outlays went to other
Federal Government agencies and to State and local
government institutions, which ultimately used the
money to hire other government workers and to make
purchases of goods and services in the private sector.
Aggregate NASA outlays to other Federal agencies
and to State and local institutions were estimated by
sampling NASA contracts and expanding the results.
Where a Federal agency provided a product for NASA, it
was assumed that the purchase was made during FY
1973 and it was treated as a direct purchase by NASA
from the private economy. Where a service was pur­
chased from another Federal agency, this amount was
lumped into a Federal purchase sector and later distri­
buted to other Federal compensation and purchases

from the private sector. Similarly, contracts to a State or
locally controlled university were coded to an overall
State and local sector on education and ultimately
distributed to State and local government compensation
and to specific State and local purchases.
Total NASA outlays for FY 1973 were first distributed
as follows:

(thousands)
T o ta l........................................................... $3,315,220
Direct NASA compensation....................................
563,800
Direct NASA purchases........................................... 2,586,318
Payments to other Federal agencies.......................
122,651
Payments to State and local in s titu tio n s ..............
42,451
With further refinement, these became:

(thousands)
T o ta l........................................................... $3,315,220
Purchases from the private sector:
NASA ............................................................. 2,586,318
Other Federal agencies..................................
70,573
State and local institutions .........................
12,065
Compensation:
NASA employees...........................................
563,800
Other Federal employees.............................
52,078
State and local em ployees...........................
30,386
The total of NASA purchases from the private sector
was translated into specific purchases through the use of
the sample of contract costs, obligations by object class
detail, and other sources. In cases where large prime
contracts had a general function and could not be
reasonably coded to a single product or service, the
amount was allocated to the performing establishment
and to its subcontractors. Purchases by other Federal
agencies and State and local institutions were estimated
by using previous studies of purchases by these sectors.
Total NASA purchases from the private sector in FY
1973 were made largely from the manufacturing sector,
which accounted for about 76 percent of the total.
Purchases of services amounted to about 17 percent.
Industry purchases showed a marked concentration, as
might be expected from NASA’s functions. In the
manufacturing sector, the space vehicle and aircraft
industries received almost half of the outlays made in
the private economy. The space vehicle industry, which
includes only completely assembled space vehicles,
accounted for almost 29 percent of outlays from the
private sector. (See table 18.) Purchases from the aircraft
industry were high, accounting for about 19 percent,
since this industry is defined to include space vehicle
engines and vehicle components. Electronics and com­
munications received about 13 percent. Major purchases




Industry

Amount Percent of
(millions) total NASA
purchases

Manufacturing:
Completed space
vehicles....................................
Aircraft and space
com ponents...........................
Communications
equipment .............................
Electronic com ponents..............
Computers....................................
Services:
Educational services....................
Miscellaneous business
services....................................
SO U RCE:

$763

28.6

496

18.6

300
45
106

11.2
1.7
4.0

213

8.0

131

4.9

B u re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

in the services sector were made from the educational
services industry, which includes research and develop­
ment performed by private universities, and from mis­
cellaneous business services, which includes computer
programming and other computer services.
Space Shuttle. Total Space Shuttle costs in 1973 had to
be derived from several sources since a comprehensive
estimate was not available. Total expenditures were
obtained from contract values, outside contract manage­
ment costs, compensation expenditures, and administra­
tive purchases. Purchases from the private economy were
obtained by totaling all costs incurred in 1973 under all
contracts with a Space Shuttle designation. Negative
contract amounts, used to indicate a shift of contract
funds from a definitional to a developmental program,
were not used to offset other contract amounts, since
this would result in an understatement of employment
requirem ents. Other purchases from the private econ­
omy were estimated by prorating a part of NASA’s
administrative and overhead purchases to the Space
Shuttle based on the number of NASA employees
assigned to this program. Compensation of NASA
employees was estimated by first determining the
number of workers assigned, and then using average
NASA compensation per worker to determine the
amount of total NASA compensation that should be
attributed to Space Shuttle. The amount of Space
Shuttle outlays going to other Federal agencies and to
State and local institutions was obtained by simply
totaling all contracts with these organizations. In addi­
tion, contract administration, representing payments to
the Defense Contract Audit Agency, was added to
outlays going to all other Federal agencies.
Outlays on Space Shuttle in 1973, on this basis, were

estimated to amount to about $230 million, as follows:

(thousands)
T o ta l.......................................................... $230,069
Direct NASA compensation....................................
45,726
Direct NASA purchases........................................... 178,813
Payments to other Federal agencies.......................
4,595
Payments to State and local in s titu tio n s ..............
934
For use with the employment model, these outlays
were rearranged as follows:

Some 86 percent of these purchases were from manufac­
turing establishments in 1973 while about 9 percent
were from services. Purchases were concentrated in the
aerospace industries, which received more than threequarters of total private outlays. The space vehicle and
aircraft industries together received about 74 percent of
the purchases from the private sector (table 19).
Communications equipment and electronic components
accounted for 5 percent.
Employment requirements

(thousands)
T o ta l........................................................... $230,069
Purchases from the private sector ......................... 181,726
NASA ............................................................. 178,813
2,647
Other Federal agencies..................................
State and local institutions .........................
266
Compensation...........................................................
48,343
NASA employees...........................................
45,726
Other Federal employees.............................
1,948
State and local employees...........................
669
NASA purchases for Space Shuttle were distributed
to specific industries by coding all Space Shuttle prime
contracts and their subcontracts to an industry. Outlays
received by other Federal and State and local organiza­
tions were again distributed to compensation and to
specific industries based upon past purchasing patterns
for these sectors.
Space Shuttle purchases from the private sector were
more concentrated than in the case of total NASA.
Table 19.
Space Shuttle purchases, selected
industries, fiscal year 1973

Industry

Percent of
Amou nt
total Space
(millions) Shuttle purchases

Manufacturing:
Completed space
vehicles......................... $67.4
Aircraft and space
components.................. 67.4
Communications
5.5
equipm ent....................
Electronic
3.6
components..................
4.0
Com puters.........................
Professional and
scientific
4.5
instrum ents..................
Services:
Educational
1.0
services .........................
Miscellaneous business
9.5
services .........................
Nonprofit
3.1
organizations................




37.1
37.1
3.0
2.0
2.2
2.6
.6
5.2
1.7

NASA employment requirements were estimated on
the same basis as the other programs reported on here.
They were calculated through the use of an interindustry
employment model and have the characteristic strengths
and weaknesses of this system.
Total NASA. Total NASA outlays in 1973 generated
requirements for about 194,000 jobs. Of these jobs,
160,000 or almost 83 percent were in the private sector,
with nearly 34,000 or 17 percent in the public sector. Of
the public sector employees, almost 28,000 were NASA
employees:

Total NASA-related em ploym ent................
Private sector .................................................................
NASA purchases..................................................
Other purchases ..................................................
Public secto r....................................................................
NASA direct employees ....................................
Other Federal employees ..................................
State and local employees..................................

194,280
160,417
155,763
4,654
33,863
27,745
3,768
2,350

The job requirements generated by NASA in the
private sector did not show as heavy a concentration in
manufacturing and the aerospace industries as appeared
in expenditures. This occurred because expenditures
represent the initial impact on the system while employ­
ment is the result of tracing this impact through the
more basic stages of supplying industries. Manufacturing
accounted for about 55 percent of the employment in
the private sector required by NASA (table 20). Various
business and professional services accounted for about
27 percent.
The largest employment impact occurred in the
aircraft industry, which includes space vehicle engines
and components. This industry accounted for 15 percent
of all private jobs required, while completed space
vehicles accounted for 9 percent. (See table 21.) This
occurred in spite of the fact that initial NASA outlays
were heavier in the completed space vehicles industry.
However, jobs in the aircraft and components industry
were created not only by direct purchases for space
vehicle components but also by the indirect require-

Sector

Percent of
Number NASA indirect
employment

T o ta l.................................... 160,417
774
Agriculture .........................................
M in in g .................................................. 1,137
3,163
C onstruction......................................
M anufacturing.................................... 88,133
Transportation, communication, and
public u tilitie s................................ 8,804
T rade.................................................... 8,554
Finance, insurance, and real
estate ............................................. 3,335
Services............................................... 43,494
Government enterprises.................... 3,024
SO U RCE:

100.0
.5
.7
2.0
54.9
5.5
5.3
2.1
27.1
1.9

B u reau o f L a b o r Sta tistic s.

be working on the Space Shuttle program. NASA
employment on the Space Shuttle was estimated by
taking the people directly allocated to the Shuttle
project at NASA headquarters and at the Johnson,
Kennedy, and Marshall Space Centers. In addition, a
proportion of the administrative and clerical personnel
in these locations was included, based upon the extent
of Space Shuttle employment.

Total Space Shuttle-related
em ploym ent.............................................
Private sector ..................................................................
NASA purchases..................
Other purchases ..................................................
Public secto r....................................................................
NASA direct employees ....................................
Other Federal employees ..................................
State and local employees..................................

13,117
10,674
10,516
158
2,443
2,250
141
52

Space Shuttle. The Space Shuttle program in 1973
created requirements for more than 13,000 jobs in both
the public and private sectors, as shown in the following
tabulation. About 81 percent or almost 11,000 of these
were in the private sector, and the remaining 19
percent—
about 2,400 jobs—
were in the public sector.
Some 2,250 direct NASA employees were estimated to

Job requirements generated by the Space Shuttle
program were also less concentrated than indicated by
Space Shuttle outlays. The manufacturing sector ac­
counted for two-thirds of the private jobs generated,
higher than the total NASA proportion. (See table 22.)
Business and professional services accounted for about
17 percent.
Space Shuttle employment requirements in 1973
were more concentrated in the aerospace industries than
was the case with total NASA. The aircraft and space
vehicle components industry accounted for almost 26
percent of the job impact in the private sector. (See
table 23.) This industry, along with the completed space
vehicles industry, accounted for 38 percent of the total
indirect employment generated by the Space Shuttle
program, as compared to 24 percent for all of NASA.
However, the effect of Space Shuttle outlays on employ­
ment in education was much less than that of NASA as a

Table 21.
Total NASA indirect employment
requirements, selected industries, fiscal year 1973

Table 22.
Space Shuttle indirect employment
requirements by industry sector, fiscal year 1973

ments generated by the purchase of completed space
vehicles. About 11 percent of total private employment
requirements were generated in educational services,
reflecting heavy NASA purchases of research and devel­
opment services from institutions of higher learning.
Employment requirements in machine shops were rela­
tively high, with 2.1 percent of private employment
requirements. This resulted from strong direct and
indirect demand for specialized machine shop products.

Industry
Aircraft and space vehicle
com ponents..................................
Educational services...........................
Completed space vehicles..................
Miscellaneous business services . . . .
Communications equ ipm ent...........
Miscellaneous professional
services...........................................
Electronic components ....................
Machine shop products ....................
Computers...........................................
Nonprofit organizations....................
Professional and scientific
instruments....................................




Percent of
Number NASA indirect
employment
24,373
18,254
14,354
12,122
9,015

15.2
11.4
9.0
7.6
5.6

5,300
4,891
3,382
3,345
3,191

3.3
3.1
2.1
2.1
2.0

2,960

1.9

Sector

Percent of
Number Space Shuttle
indirect
employment

T o ta l......................................... 10,674
48
Agriculture .............................................
M in in g ......................................................
81
C onstruction...........................................
149
Manufacturing......................................... 7,142
T ransportation, communication, and
public u tilitie s ....................................
500
Trade........................................................
569
Finance, insurance, and real
e sta te ..................................................
206
Services.................................................... 1,802
Government enterprises.........................
177

100.0
.5
.8
1.4
66.9
4.7
5.3
1.9
16.9
1.7

Industry

Percent of
Space Shuttle
Number
indirect
employment

Aircraft and space vehicle
components ....................................... 2,750
Completed space vehicles....................... 1,323
Miscellaneous business services ...........
898
373
Machine shop products .........................
338
Nonprofit organizations.........................
319
Communications equipment ................
Electronic components .........................
268
Professional and scientific
250
instruments............................... ..
Miscellaneous professional
204
services...................................... . . . .
127
Computers...............................................
110
Educational services................................
SO U RCE:

25.8
12.4
8.4
3.5
3.2
3.0
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.2
1.0

B u reau o f L a b o r Sta tistic s.

whole. Total NASA job requirements in education
amounted to over 11 percent of indirect requirements
while Space Shuttle requirements in this industry were
only 1 percent. This reflects the fact that much of Space
Shuttle development work occurred in industrial facili­
ties rather than in university research centers.
Occupational patterns

Total NASA direct employment. NASA employed
27,745 Federal workers in 1973, on the average. About
two-thirds of these employees were professional and
technical workers. (See table 24.) More than 10,000
were engineers, principally aero-astronautical and electri­
cal. Some 4,000, or almost 15 percent, were nonmedical
technicians. Clerical workers were the second largest
occupational group, with almost 4,000 employees or
about 14 percent in this classification.
Table 24.

Total NASA indirect employment. NASA’s purchases
from the private economy generated requirements for
some 160,400 employees in various occupational groups.
Professional and technical workers were the largest
occupational group, accounting for almost 24 percent of
the total. In this group, engineers represented the largest
occupation, with about 9 percent of all indirect employ­
ment generated by NASA, or about 14,000 workers.
About one-third of these were aero-astronautical engi­
neers. Transportation and other equipment operatives
were the next largest occupational group, accounting for
almost 22 percent of indirect employment requirements.
Clerical workers, the third largest group, made up about
one-fifth of indirect employment.
Space Shuttle direct employment. About 2,250 NASA
employees were assigned to the Space Shuttle program
in 1973. About 83 percent of these workers were
classified as professional or technical (table 25). About
1,300, or some 58 percent, were engineers. About half
of these were aero-astronautical engineers. Clerical
workers and managers largely accounted for the remain­
ing 17 percent.
Space Shuttle indirect employment. Space Shuttle pur­
chases from the private economy in 1973 were estimated
to have generated almost 11,000 jobs. The occupational
pattern of these jobs is similar to that for total NASA
outlays, with a somewhat higher proportion of opera­
tives and craft workers and a slightly lower share of
professional and technical and clerical workers. Opera­
tives, principally metalworkers and assemblers, ac­
counted for about one-quarter of Space Shuttle employ­
ment requirements. Professional and technical workers
accounted for one-fifth, with engineers representing
about 7 percent of total indirect employment require­
ments.

Total NASA employment requirements by occupation, fiscal year 1973

Occupation

Total employment
Number
Percent

Total ............................................................... 188,145
Professional, technical, and kindred w orkers.............. 56,761
15,483
Managers, officials, and proprietors.............................
Clerical workers ............................................................. 34,783
3,973
Sales workers .................................................................
Craft and kindred workers ........................................... 26,269
Operatives........................................................................ 35,093
Service w orkers............................................................... 10,368
Laborers..........................................................................
4,803
Farmers and farm workers ...........................................
619




100.0
30.2
8.2
18.5
2.1
14.0
18.7
5.5
2.6
.3

Direct employment
Number
Percent
27,745
18,696
3,238
3,840
6
1,535
315
40
75
—

100.0
67.4
11.7
13.8
—

5.5
1.1
.1
.3
—

Indirect employment
Number
Percent
160,400
38,065
12,245
30,943
3,967
24,734
34,778
10,328
4,728
619

100.0
23.7
7.6
19.3
2.5
15.4
21.7
6.4
3.0
.4

Occupation
Total ...............................................................
Professional, technical, and kindred w orkers..............
Managers, officials, and proprietors.............................
Clerical workers .............................................................
Sales workers ..................................................................
Craft and kindred workers ...........................................
Operatives........................................................................
Service w orkers...............................................................
Laborers...........................................................................
Farmers and farm workers ...........................................
NOTE:

Total employment
Number
Percent
12,924
3,962
997
2,205
265
1,888
2,643
599
327
38

Ite m s m a y n o t add t o t o t a ls b ecau se o f ro u n d in g .




Direct employment
Number
Percent

100.0
30.7
7.7
17.1
2.0
14.6
20.4
4.6
2.5
.3
SO U RCE:

2,250
1,861
176
209
—
—

3
—
1
—

100.0
82.7
7.8
9.8
—
—

.1
—
—

—

Indirect employment
Number
Percent
10,674
2,101
821
1,996
265
1,888
2,640
599
326
38

Bu re au o f L a b o r S ta tistic s.

100.0
19.7
7.7
18.7
2.5
17.7
24.7
5.6
3.0
.4

Appendix A.

Technical Notes

This appendix describes in fuller detail the inter­
industry employment model, the national industry
occupational matrix, and the procedures used to develop
the employment and occupational requirements esti­
mates for the five studies. It is designed to supplement
the brief descriptions of method and limitations pro­
vided in the introduction.
Interindustry employment model

The 1970 employment table was constructed from a
1970 interindustry model of 134 industry sectors. Each
sector represents a group of industries classified by
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes as shown
in table A-l. An interindustry model, in its most basic
form, distributes the transaction value of the sales that
each industry sector makes to itself, to each of the other
industry sectors, and to final purchasers.
In an interindustry model, intermediate goods are
sold to other industries where further fabrication occurs
before a finished good is produced. Finished products
are sold to the final demand or product sectors of the
national income accounts—
personal consumption ex­
penditures, gross private domestic investment, net ex­
ports of goods and services, Federal Government pur­
chases, and State and local government purchases.
Intermediate sales provide the basic structure of an
interindustry model while final sales, or final demand,
represent the usual input to a model of this type.
Each of the 134 rows in the interindustry model
shows the sales made by an industry to itself, to other
industries, and to the final demand sectors. Each of the
134 columns shows an industry’s purchases from each
industry, including itself, which were required to pro­
duce its own output. The sum of all purchases in a
column plus that industry’s value added1 is equal to the
total value of production for that industry. When the
purchases in a column are divided individually by the
total production o f that industry, they form ratios that
lrThe value added of a sector includes compensation of
employees, depreciation, profits, and other payments to the
factors of production.




define the amount of input required from each industry
in order to produce a unit of output (usually stated in
dollar terms) of the purchasing industry. For example,
these ratios, or coefficients, would show how much the
automobile industry would have to buy from such
industries as rubber, textiles, steel, aluminum, adver­
tising, business services, plastics, transportation, and
trade in order to produce a unit value of output.
These purchases represent the requirements from the
immediate or first tier of supplying industries. Each of
these supplying industries would also require inputs in
order to manufacture its product. The steel industry
would need coal and iron ore to make steel. The coal
and iron ore industries, in turn, would need fuel and
other products and services to produce their outputs.
Each final purchase would require a chain of purchases
back through the more basic supplying industries. An
interindustry model provides a way of solving simul­
taneously all of the interrelated requirements created in
the economy by purchases of the various final demand
sectors or programs.
The elements of this model can be transformed from
production requirements to employment requirements
by applying employment-output ratios to each indus­
try’s total output. The interindustry employment table
which results from this process shows the total employ­
ment attributable to deliveries to final demand. Total
employment generated by a given type of final demand
using an interindustry model consists of the employment
in the industry producing the final product or service, as
well as the employment in all the supporting industries.
It should be noted that the interindustry employment
table reflects 1970 industry technology and productivity
and is expressed in 1963 prices. Also, the transactions in
1963 dollars are in terms of producers’ values and not
purchasers’ values. Producers’ values are purchasers’
values minus trade and transportation costs— another
put
way, producers’ values are values stated at the site of
production. The trade margins and transportation costs
associated with all of these transactions appear as direct
purchases from the trade and transportation industries.
Use of this table, therefore, requires the conversion of
purchases to 1963 producers’ prices.

Using the employment table for manpower requirements
studies

After initial research indicates the feasibility of a
manpower requirements study, the first step toward
using the employment table is to separate program
expenditures into direct Federal purchases of goods and
services, grants, transfers, and subsidy outlays. These
amounts are then allocated to the appropriate pur­
chasing sectors. For example, grants represent purchases
of goods and services by State and local governments,
whereas transfers are considered personal consumption
expenditures, and so on. This grouping of program
expenditures by purchasing sector provides the totals for
the separate bills of goods or lists of purchases required
in order to use the employment model. Each total must
then be broken down into the purchases made from each
of the 134 industry sectors of the model. These sectors
consist of industry groupings defined by SIC codes.
These aggregate and functional expenditures have to be
broken down into the actual purchases made, a step
which requires familiarity with the program and its
reporting procedures.
Detail on program purchases usually appears as
obligations rather than expenditures. In some cases,
obligated amounts will equal or approximate actual
expenditures in a given period. This is usually the case
for employee compensation and other administrative
overhead costs. However, where long-leadtime purchases
are involved, such as construction, research and develop­
ment, or the production of ships and weapon systems,
obligated funds may not be completely spent for several
years. Expenditures in a given year will include funds
that were obligated in several previous years. These
amounts must be summed to arrive at expenditures for a
given year.
The list of purchases, or bill of goods, for each
purchasing sector is adjusted to 1963 prices before it can
be used with the employment table. In addition, the
amount of trade and transportation costs included in the
purchases from each industry must be determined and
subtracted from these purchases. Individual trade and
transportation costs are totaled and added to the total
purchases from the trade and transportation sectors. The
direct purchases from each industry and the trade and
transportation costs associated with each product pur­
chased comprise the total bill of goods for a program.
Use of these bills of goods with the 1970 employ­
ment table involves multiplying the table, considered as
a matrix, by each of the bills of goods, considered as
column vectors. Since each column provides the employ­
ment required for each billion dollars of purchases, this
calculation would yield the employment generated by




each program. The amount of employment generated
within the same industry as the producing industry in
each row is considered the first tier or primary employ­
ment requirements, while the employment totals of the
other industries in each row constitute the second tier,
or secondary employment requirements.
National industry-occupational matrix

The employment generated in each industry is dis­
aggregated into occupations using the national industryoccupational employment matrix. This matrix is a table
which presents for total U.S. employment the percent
distribution of 422 detailed occupations in each of 201
industries. By applying an industry’s occupational pat­
tern to total employment in that industry, estimates are
developed of the industry’s employment by occupation.
To arrive at total national requirements for each
occupation, the estimates for all the industries are
summed across each row in the table or matrix.
Currently, industry-occupational matrices are avail­
able for 1970, 1980, and 1985.2 The 1970 matrix is
based primarily on data from the 1970 Census of
Population, supplemented by data from other sources.
These supplemental data include annual averages from
the Current Population Survey (CPS) and:
•

E m ploym ent estim ates for teachers and librarians
based on data collected b y the O ffice o f Educa­
tion;

•

O ccupational em p loym en t data collected b y regu­
latory agencies for regulated sectors such as
railroads, airlines, and telep h on e and telegraph
com m unications;

•

E m ploym ent data collected b y professional
societies, especially for m edical and health occupa­
tions;

•

Federal Civil Service C om m ission statistics on
em ploym ent by occu p ation in Federal Govern­
m ent agencies;

•

O ccupational em p loym en t inform ation com piled
by the Postal Service on its em p loyees.

The 1980 and 1985 matrices were projected using
currently available data and independently projected
estimates for total national employment, employment in
occupational groups and selected occupations, and total
employment by industry.3
2 Matrices based on the classification of occupations in the
1960 Census of Population are available for 1960, 1967, 1970,
and 1980, but these are not comparable to the ones used in this
study because they only show the distribution of 160 occupa­
tions in 116 industries.

The 1970 matrix was used to prepare 1972 occupa­
tional employment estimates since each industry’s occu­
pational structure changes slowly and is relatively stable
over the shortrun.
A number of adjustments had to be made to the
occupational matrix in order to use it in conjunction
with the interindustry model system for the studies
presented in this report, since the industry classifications
differ in the two systems. The restructuring of industries
in the occupational matrix (201 industries) to conform
to the industries in the interindustry model (134
industries) was accomplished by comparing the indus­
tries in terms of codes and making necessary adjust­
ments. While many of the industries in both models
matched exactly by SIC code, there were various
differences that had to be reconciled.
In some areas, there was greater industry detail in the
occupational matrix than in the interindustry model. In
these cases, the matrix industries were aggregated. Where
the industry-occupational matrix industries were less
3For a discussion of the methodology used to project
occupational matrices see Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs,
Volume IV, Revised, Bulletin 1737 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1971).




detailed than those in the interindustry model, the
employment of the matrix industry was distributed
according to the proportion of its SIC content. Thus, if a
matrix industry was composed of two SIC industries, the
total employment of each SIC industry as found in
Employment and Earnings was added together, then
divided by the total to calculate a percent distribution
for the matrix industry in terms of its SIC content. This
distribution was used to adjust each cell of the matrix
industry, and these adjusted cells were used to form the
inter-industry model sector or were added to corre­
sponding adjusted cells from other matrix industries to
form the input-output sector. For example, if a SIC
industry was found to represent 30 percent of the total
employment of a matrix industry, each cell of the
matrix industry was multiplied by 30 percent to form
the corresponding cell for the inter-industry model
sector or was added to similarly adjusted cells from
other matrix industries to form the interindustry model
sector’s cell. These operations were performed on private
wage and salary, self-employed, and unpaid family
worker occupational cells for each industry. Government
workers were placed in three input-output sectors based
on independent information.

Sector number and name

1963
input-output
number

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries:
Livestock and livestock
1
products......................... 1.01-1.03
Crops and other agri2
cultural prod ucts......... 2.01-2.07
3
Forestry and f isheries . . . .
3
4
Agriculture, forestry, and
fishery services..............
4
Mining:

SIC code1

01
01
074, 08, and 091
071,0723, pt. 0729,
07 3 ,0 8 5 ,and 098

5
6
7

Iron ore m in in g ..................
Copper ore mining ...........
Other nonferrous metal ore
mining ...........................

5
6.01

101,106
102

6.02

8
9
10

Coal m ining.........................
Crude petroleum ...........
Stone and clay mining and
q u a rryin g ......................

7
8

103-109, except
106
11, 12
1311,1321,138

11

Chemical and fertilizer
m in in g ...........................

Construction:
12
13
14
15
16
17

141-145, 148,
and 149

10

147

New residential
11.01
buildings.........................
New nonresidential
11.02
buildings .......................
11.03
New public u tilitie s ...........
1
New streets and
/>15 16 OIIU 17
1 IUr and 1/
hinhiA/av/c
11.04
iiiyiivvciyo .................. .. •
A ll other new
1
r'onctn i in n
11.05
UUIIallUl/UUII........... ..
)
Maintenance and
12.01-12.02
P

Manufacturing:
Guided missiles and space
18
vehicles ........................
19
Other ordnance..................
20
Food products ..................
21
Tobacco manufacturing ..
22
Fabric, yarn, and thread
m ills ...............................




9

)
/
(

\Jf

/

13.01
13.02-13.07
14.01 -14.32
15.01-15.02

1925
19 except 1925
20
21

16.01 -16.04

221,222, 223,224,
226, and 228

Sector number and name

1963
input-output
number

Manufacturing--Continued
23
Miscellaneous textiles and
floor coverings.............. 17.01-17.10
24
Hosiery and knit goods . .. 18.01-18.03
25
18.04
A pp arel................................
26

29
30
31
32
33

Miscellaneous fabricated
textile p ro d u cts........... 19.01-19.03
Logging, sawmills, and
planing m ills .................. 20.01-20.04
M illwork, plywood, and
other wood
prnrli irts
20.05-20.09
and 21
Household fu rn itu re ......... 22.01-22.04
Other fu rn itu re .................. 23.01 -23.07
Paner nrnHnrt*:
24.01-24.07
Papprhnarri
25
Publishing........................... 26.01-26.04

34

P rintin g................................ 26.05-26.08

35

nhpmiral nrnrliipt*;

27
28

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

27 01 and
27.04
Agricultural chemicals . . . . 27.02-27.03
Plastic materials and
synthetic rubber........... 28.01-28.02
Synthetic fibers.................. 28.03-28.04
29.01
Drugs ..................................
Cleaning and toilet
preparations.................. 29.02-29.03
30
P a in t....................................
Petroleum products........... 31.01-31.03
Rubber products................ 32.01 -32.03
32.04
Plastic products..................
Leather, footwear, and
leather products........... 33,34.01,
and 34.03
Glass.................................... 35.01-35.02
Cement, clay, and concrete
products......................... 36.01-36.05
and 36.1036.14

SIC code1

227 and 229
225
23 (except 239),
3992
239
241 and 242
243,244,and
249*
251
25 except 251
26 except 265
265
271,272, 273,
and 274
275,276, 277,
278, and 279
281 (except 28195),
286, and 289
287
2821,2822
2823,2824
283
284
285
29
30 except 307
307
31
321 ,322,and 323
324,325,and
327

Sector number and name
Manufacturing--Continued
48
Miscellaneous stone and
H a y p ro d u cts

49
50
51
52
53

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

Blast furnaces and basic

1963
input-output
number
36 06-36.09
and 36.1536.22

steel p r o d u c t s ...............
37.01
Iron and steel foundries
and forgings.................. 37.02-37.04
38.01
Primary copper metals . ..
38.04
Primary aluminum ...........
Other primary and secondary nonferrous
metal products.............. 38.02-38.03
and 38.0538.06
Copper rolling and
38.07
drawing .........................
Aluminum rolling and
38.08
drawing .........................
Other nonferrous rolling
and dra w in g .................. 38.09-38.10
Miscellaneous nonferrous
metal products.............. 38.11-38.14
Metal containers................ 39.01-39.02
Heating apparatus and
plumbing fix tu re s ......... 40.01 -40.03
Fabricated structural
metal ......................... 40.04-40.09
Screw machine products . . 41.01-41.02
Other fabricated metal
n r n r li
42.01-42.11
ir t c

63

Engines, turbines, and

64
65

Farm m a ch inery................
Construction, mining, and
oil field

66
67
68




n e n p ra tn r?

43.01-43.02
44

m a c h in e ry ................... 45.01 -45.03
Material handling equip­
ment .............................. 46.01 -46.04

Metalworking
machinery ..................... 47.01-47.04
Special industry
machinery ..................... 48.01-48.06

SIC code1

326 328 and
329
331
332, 3391, and 3399
3331
3334 and 28195
3332,3333,3339,
and 334

Sector number and name

Manufacturing--Continued
General industrial
69
machinery .................... 49.01 -49.07
70
Machine shop
50
products............... . . . . .
71
Computers and peripheral
51.01
equipm ent....................
Typewriters and other
72
office m achines........... 51.02-51.04
73
74
75

3351

76
77

3352

78

3356 and 3357

79

336 and 3392
341 and 3491

80

343

81
82

344
345 and 346

83
84
85

342, 347, 348, and
349 except 3491
351
352
3531,3532, and 3533
3534,3535,3536,
and 3537
354
355

1963
input-output
number

86
87
88
89
90
91

Service industry
machines ....................... 52.01-52.05
Electric transmission
e q u i p m e n t ................... 53.01-53.03
Electrical industrial
apparatus....................... 53.04-53.08
54.01-54.07
Household appliances
Electric lighting and
w irin g ............................. 55.01-55.03
Radio and television
sets.................................. 56.01-56.02
Telephone and telegraph
56.03
apparatus.......................
Other electronic communi­
56.04
cation equipment . .
Electronic components . . . 57.01-57.03
Other electrical
machinery .................... 58.01-58.05
Motor vehicles.................... 59.01 -59.03
A irc ra ft................................ 60.01-60.04
Ship and boat building and
re p a ir............................. 61.01-61.02
Railroad and other trans­
portation equip­
ment ............................. 61.03-61.05
Miscellaneous transporta­
tion equipment.............. 61.06-61.07
Scientific and controlling
instruments .................. 62.01 -62.03
and 62.07
Medical and dental instru­
ments .............................. 62.04-62.06
Optical and ophthalmic
equipm ent.................... 63.01-63.02
Photographic equipment
63.03
and supplies..................

SIC code1

356
359
3573,3574
357, except 3573
and 3574
358
361
362
363
364
365
3661
3662
367
369
371
372
373
374 and 375
379
3 8 1 ,382,and
387
384
383 and 385
386

Sector number and name

1963
input-output
number

Manufacturing—Continued
92
Miscellaneous manufactu re d p r o d u c t s ............. 64.01-64.12
Transportation, communication, and public
utilities:
Railroad transportation . . . 65.01
93
Local transit and intercity
94
65.02
b u s ..................................
65.03
Truck transportation.........
95
65.04
Water transportation.........
96
65.05
97
A ir transportation.............
Other transportation......... 65.06-65.07
98

SIC code1

39 (except 3992)
40 and 474
41
42 and 473
44
45
46, 47 (except
473 and 474)

Communications, except
radio and T V ................
Radio and TV broadca stin g ...........................
E le c tric u tilitie s
....
Gas u tilitie s .........................
Water and sanitary
services...........................

67
68.01
68.02

483
491 and part 493
492 and part 493

68.03

494,495, 496,497,
and part 493

Wholesale and retail trade:
104
Wholesale tra d e ..................
Retail tra d e .........................
105

69.01
69.02

50
52, 53, 5 4,5 5,56,
5 7 ,5 8 ,and 59

99
100
101
102
103

66

Finance, insurance, and real estate:
106
Finance............................... 70.01 -70.03
107
Insurance ........................... 70.04-70.05
108
Owner-occupied
70.01
d w e llin g s......................
Other real estate
....
71.02
109
Services:
110
Hotels and lodging
places.............................
72.01
111
Other personal services . . . 72.02-72.03
112
Miscellaneous business
73.01
services...........................
113
73.02
A dve rtising.........................
1Standard Industrial Classification Manual,
2 N o c o m p a r a b le in d u stry .




48 except 483

60, 6 1 ,6 2 ,and 67
63 and 64
(2)
65 a nd 66
70
72 and 76
73 except 731
731

Sector number and name

1963
input-output
number

SIC code1

Services—Conti nued
Miscellaneous professional
114
services ........................... 73.03 and 74 81 and 89 except
892, nonprofit
research
75
75
Automobile repair..............
115
78
76.01
Motion pictures..................
116
79
76.02
Other amusements ............
117
Health services except
118
hncnitalc
80 (except 806),
77.01 and
0722
77.03
Hncnitak
77.02
806
119
F rli ir*a+ir»r»a 1 co r\/iroQ
82
77.04
120
84, 86, and 892
77.05
Nonprofit organizations . .
121
Government enterprises:
(2)
78.01
Post O ffic e .........................
122
Commodity Credit
123
(2)
78.03
C orporation..................
Other Federal
124
(2)
enterprises..................... 78.02 and
78.04
State and local government
125
(2)
enterprises..................... 79.01-79.03
Imports:
Directly allocated im­
126
(2)
80.01
ports ..............................
80.02
(2)
127
Transferred imports .........
Dummy industries:
Business travel, entertain­
128
(2)
81
ment, and g ifts ..............
82
(2)
Office supplies ..................
129
Scrap, used and second­
130
hand aoods ....................
(2)
83
Special industries:
84
(2)
Government industry
131
Rest of the world
132
85
(2)
in d u stry.........................
(2)
86
Households.........................
133
134
Inventory valuation
87
(2)
adjustm ent....................

1967 e d itio n , Bu re au o f th e B u d g e t (n o w O ffic e o f M a n a g e m e n t an d B u d g e t).




Appendix B.

Detailed Tables

Table B-1. Expenditures for goods and services by program and industry
(Thousands of dollars)

PRODUCING I N DUS TR Y

VETERANS
ADMIN IS­
T R A TI O N
HEALTH
CARE1

NA TI ONA L I N S T I T U T E S
OF HEALTH2 '

MDTA I N S T I T U T I O N A L
TRAINING3

EXTRAMURAL
DI RE CT
PROGRAM
OPERATI ONS

TOTAL

PROGRAM
PURCHASES

TOTA L

ALLOWANCES

NATI ONAL 1lERONAUTI CS
AND £SPACE
ADMINIS T R A T I O N 4 '
SPACE
TOTAL
SHUTTLE
PROGRAM

$331,190

$ 65,136

$1 2 2 ,7 9 6

$ 2 7 ,3 3 7

$ 9 5 ,4 5 9

$2,6 6 9 ,0 2 8

9,99*
527
131

-

3
7

“

6 30
549
102

627
542
102

50
71
25

2 ,1 0 1

3

2 ,098

-

-

41

2

2 ,101
4
24

2 ,0 9 8
24

4

4

_

-

3
4

-

41
61
908

2
2
12

-

-

-

-

~

STONE AND CLAY MI NI NG AND QU AR R YI N G...............
CHEMICAL AND F E R T T L I Z E R M I N I N G.............................
NEW R E S I D E N T I A L B U I L DI N G CONS TR UC TI ON_____
NEW N ON R ES ID E NT I AL B UI L D I NG CONS TR UC TI ON.
NEW PUB LI C U T I L I T I E S C O N ST RU CT I O N....................

8 2 ,662

115
457

7
430

108
27

-

-

-

-

-

~

■

“

_

61
2 9 ,1 6 4
290

2
734
89

NEW HIGHWAY C O N ST RU CT I ON..............................................
ALL OTHER NEW C O NS T RU CT I ON.........................................
MAINTENANCE AND R E P A I R C O N ST RU CT I O N...............
GUIDED M I S S I L E S AND SPA CE V E H I C I E S ..................
OTHER ORDNANCE...........................................................................

47,901
-

229
11,712
1

-

268
-

-

8 ,5 0 0
-

229
3 ,212
1

-

1,7 0 0
3 8 ,1 1 0
2 1 ,8 5 4
7 6 3 ,1 3 7
1 ,914

49
684
2 ,036
67,4 0 0
3

FOOD PR ODUC TS ..............................................................................
TOBACCO MANUFACTURI NG.......................................................
F A B R I C , Y A R N , AND THREAD M I L L S ................................
MI SCELLANEOUS T E X T I L E S AND
FLOOR C O V E R I N G S . ..........................................................
H OS IE RY AND K NI T GOODS....................................................

45,640

23,5 8 3
1,049
162

21,282
1,0 4 9
155

2 ,3 0 1

104

-

22
25

22
25

“

54
4

A P PA R EL ...............................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS F AB R I C A T E D T E X T I L E
P RO D U C T S .................................................................. ..............
L OG GI N G, S A W MI L L S, AND PLANI NG M I L L S ............
MTLIWOPI,. PLYWOOD, AND OTHER
WOOD PR OD UC TS ...................................................................
HOUSEHOLD F U RN I TU R E.............................................................

1 ,362

4 ,2 2 0

3 ,3 7 5

845

9 ,4 4 1
“

320
187

148
21

128
96

1,2 6 0
288

OTHER F U R N I T U R E ........................................................................
PAPER P RODUC TS ...........................................................................
PAPE RB OA RD.......................................................................................
P U B L I S H I N G .......................................................................................
P R I N T I N G .............................................................................................

1,2 0 2
9,528
2,999
2,141
1 ,809

CHEMICAL P RODUC TS ...................................................................
A GRI CULTURAL C HE M I C A L S .....................................................
P L A S T I C M A TE R I A L S AND S Y NTH ETI C R U B B E R . . .
S YN T HE T I C F I B E R S ......................................................................
DRUGS.....................................................................................................
CLEANI NG AND T O I L E T P R E P A R A T I O N S ........................
P A I N T .....................................................................................................
PETROLEUM PR OD UC TS ................................................................
RUBBER PR ODUC TS .........................................................................
P L A S T I C P R OD UC TS ......................................................................

5,529
1,5 8 1
2,500

T O T A L ........................................................................

$731,018

L I V E ST OC K AND L I V E S T O C K PR OD UC TS .......................
CROPS AND OTHER AGRI CULTURAL PRODUCTS_____
FORESTRY AND F I S H E R I E S ....................................................
A GR I CU LT UR E , F O R E S T R Y , AND F I SH E R Y
S E R V I C E S .................................................................................

-

I R ON ORE M I N I N G ........................................................................
COPPER ORE M I N I N G ...................................................................
OTHER NONFERROUS METAL OPE M I N I N G .....................
COAL M I N I N G ....................................................................................
CRUDE PETROLEUM........................................................................

_

LE A TH ER , FOOTWEAR, AND LEATHER P R O D U C T S . .
G L A S S .....................................................................................................
CEMENT, C L A Y , AND CONCRETE PR ODUC TS...............
MI SCELLANEOUS STONE AND CLAY PR ODUC TS-------BLAST FURNACES AND B A S I C STEEL P R O D U C T S . .
I RON AND S TEEL FOUNDR IE S > AND F O R G I N G S . . .
PRI MARY COPPER M E T A L S . . . . ...........................................
PRI MARY ALUMINUM......................................................................
OTHER PR IMA RY AND SECONDARY NONFERROUS
METAL PRODUCTS................................................................
COPPER R OL LI NG AND DRAWI NG.........................................
ALUMINUM R O L LI N G AND DRAWING...................................
OTHER NONFERROUS R OL LI NG AND DRAWI NG............
MI SCELLANEOUS NONFERROUS METAL P R O D U C T S . .
METAL C O N T A I N E R S ......................................................................
HEATING A PPARATUS AND PLUMBING F I X T U R E S . .
FA BR IC ATE D STRUCTURAL METAL ......................................
SCREW MACHINE PR OD UC TS .....................................................
OTHER F A B R I C AT ED METAL PR ODUC TS ...........................
E NG I N E S , T U R B I N E S , AND GE NE RA TOR S .....................
FARM M A C H I N E R Y . . . . . .............................................................




“

$3 9 6 ,3 2 6
9 ,9 9 6
128
131 ,

■

“

268
-

$18 1 ,7 2 5
2
2
1

“

~

423

15,5 8 4
1,4 0 3
10 3

2,9 1 7
185

1

54
4

-

59

4

4 ,7 8 4

332

4,452

453

16

172
166

294

85

209

133
10

6

1,156
268

104
20

157
377

157
22

355

482
16 9

34
6

1 ,283
2 ,5 3 2
96
4,3 5 8
6,6 3 4

997
1 ,710
86
3,463
4,0 2 5

286
822
10
895
2,609

427
904
28
1,673
873

427
724
28
1 ,673
873

1 ,387
1 ,942
122
1 ,254
6 ,0 4 2

59
38
3
32
250

372
8 4 ,7 5 2

32,074
25
92
14,859

2 8,475
7
25
1 1 ,977

3 ,599
18
67
2 ,882

443
11
899

443
11
19

880

1 5 ,935
177
912
772

1 ,663
6
840
28

3 ,030
-

2,8 8 5
154
3,6 8 7
364
2,6 7 8

2 ,700
15
2 ,057
319
2 ,556

185
139
1,630
45
122

2 ,562
110
2,6 1 0
408
196

376
110
775
63
63

2,1 8 6
1,8 3 5
345
133

70H
158
1 4 ,9 9 6
322
606

22
9
166
47
451

459
11,452
17
150
43

938
94
89
89

644
113
51
91
305

33
38
51
91
305

611
75
-

“

459
12,3 9 0
111
239
132

12
487
381
39U
1 ,4 1 7

1
73
119
20
1 ,257

-

27

3
-

2U
-

58
-

58
-

1,2 9 9
229
80

222
8
40

1,764
79

121
2

64
1 ,667
1 ,3 3 8

16
42
1 ,148

-

2,116
1,0 7 6

_
24
-

1 ,610

“

-

16 ,0 0 7
1,4 0 3
159

-

-

“

"

"

-

12

1

11

75

107
63
37
27
121

104
45
30
3
59

3
18
7
24
62

24
119
46
39 ;

356
77
3 ,3 2 0
2
52

15
41
2,8 0 0

741

67
"
_
-

8 31
-

73

*•

36
S20
j

37 |

15

“

~

~

-

56

“

39

78
58
862
41
9

“
75
24
119
46
39
39
78
58
862
41
9

180
-

-

-

-

-

"

"
-

-

-

-

486

27

-

2,895
322
2 ,1 0 5
969
46

244
153
674
32
1

*

I

(Thousands of dollars)

VETERANS
ADMIN IS­
TR A TI O N
HEALTH
C AR E1

PRODUCING I N DUS TR Y

C ON ST RU CT I ON , M I N I N G , AND O I L F I E L D
M AC HI NE RY..............................................................................
MATERI AL HANDLING EQUI PME NT......................................
METALWORKING MACHI NERY...............................................
S P E C I A L I ND US T RY MACHI NERY.........................................
GENERAL I N D U S T R I A L MACHI NERY...................................

EXTRAMURAL
DI RE CT
PROGRAM
OPERATI ONS

TOTAL

PROGRAM
PURCHASES

TOTA L

ALLOWANCES

129
317
345
83
235

801
99
566
199
-

MDTA I N S T I T U T I O N A L
TRAINING3

N ATI ONA L I N S T I T U T E S
OF HEALTH2

17
242
34
80

129
300
103
49
155

7
41
411
159
166

7
41
411
159
166

3 98
11,491
618
301
2,3 2 1

27
1 ,3 2 3
377
422
332

118
56
647
237
205

118
56
647
237
205

973
700

MACHINE SHOP PR ODUC TS.......................................................
COMPUTERS AND P ER IPH ER AL E QUI PMENT..................
T YP EW RI TE RS AND OTHER O F F I C E M A C H I N E S . . . .
S E RV I C E I N D US T RY MA C HI NE S ............................................
E L E C T R I C T RA NS M I S S I O N EQUI PMENT...........................

1 ,3 9 3
4,487
2 ,900
2,135

425
12,8 1 4
995
723
2 ,653

E LE C T R I C I N D U S T R I A L A PP A R A T U S ................................
HOUSEHOLD A PP L T A N C E S..........................................................
E L E CT RI C L I G H T I N G AND W I R I N G ...................................
RADI O AND T E L E V I S I O N S E T S ...........................................
TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH A P P AR A TU S.....................

234
396
164
5,844
63

984
1,119
240
1 ,7 3 3
505

87 3
1,057
150
1 ,695
482

111
62
90
38
23

386
1,017
156
982
“

386
44
156
2 82
-

OTHER ELE CTR ONI C COMMUNICATION E QUI PMENT.
ELE CTR ONI C COMPONENTS.......................................................
OTHER E LE C T R I C A L MACHI NERY.........................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ...........................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................

4,109
24
25,177
«i94

3,9 2 4
3,4 9 2
3,277
1,572

3,2 6 6
3 ,232
2,822
1 ,374

658
260
455
198

37
199
131
2 ,072

37
199
59
390

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

"
_

-

S H I P AND BOAT B U I L DI N G AND R E P A I R ....................
RA ILR OA D AND OTHER
TRA NS POR TA TI ON EQUI PME NT................................
MI SCELLANEOUS TRA NS POR TA TI ON E Q U I P M E N T . . .
S C I E N T I F I C AND CONTROLLI NG I N S T R U M E N T S . . .
MEDICAL AND DENTAL I NS T RUM ENT S.............................

-

_

_

5,4 7 7
3 ,5 8 5
5
80
6 1 ,4 3 9

-

_

1 ,0 4 0

14

_

_

_

_

_

3
187
162

3
187
162

U7
5 3 ,659
8 ,4 6 5

2
4, 540
13

89
332
475
179
404

210
2 ,571
7 ,2 0 0

2 6 ,710
8,1 0 8
832
2 ,780
2,4 9 7

32
111
135
103
140

2 ,8 9 7

46
159
5
803

607
815
4
2,0 9 4

4 ,454
454
2 6 ,2 3 7
72
4 7 ,1 4 5

190
8
785
1
1 ,190

15
3,290
897
857
1,3 2 6

15
1 ,022
731
372
2,110

2,2 6 8
166
485
1 1,159

1,0 8 0
20,418
7 ,7 2 3
3,4 4 0
2 ,901

1
1 ,374
245
155
97

15,4 6 8
-

158
364
1,994

158
1,794
3 ,857
10,1 0 2

2 ,661
258
402
-

200
10
11
74

O P T I C A L AND OPHTHALMIC EQUI PME NT.......................
PHOTOGRAPHI C EQUIPMENT AND S U P P L I E S ...............
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURED PR ODUC TS ...............
R AI LR OA D T R A N S P O R T A T I O N .................................................
LOCAL T R A N S I T AND I N T E R C I T Y B U S ..........................

7,108
14,7 0 1
797
77
21,2 7 3

1 1,555
9 ,158
477
1,4 2 5
2,2 8 5

8,9 4 3
7,4 8 5
336
1,397
1,813

2 ,6 1 2
1 ,673
141
28
472

89
332
685
2,750
7 ,604

TRUCK T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
WATER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
A I R T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
C OM MUN IC A TI O NS , EX CE PT R ADI O AND T V ..................

3,267
-

1,5 5 9
396
7 ,598
2
4,8 4 7

882
396
4,9 5 6
2
2 ,431

677
2,6 4 2
2,4 1 6

804
861
16 3
5

8
3,1 5 8
1 ,128
889
4,141

8
1,778
1,123
491
4,0 9 5

1 ,380
5
398
46

13,024
1 ,742
2 ,098
10,124

13,808
118
215

1 4,232
6,573
5 ,130
734
-

609
3, 963
24
19
300

2 9 9 ,7 4 9
44 , 6 9 7
2 ,9 1 0
9 ,864
4 9 5 ,6 5 6

26,426
7 ,4 7 9

_

4,241
106,125
1 ,5 6 1
417
36,9 9 9

_
72
1 ,682

774
2 4 ,754
65,189

_

-

1
22
288
18
674

123
14
48
22
1"7

1
14
4 ,468
1 ,813

RADI O AND TV B R O AD C AS T IN G ............................................
E L E C T R I C U T I L I T I E S ................................................................
GAS U T I L I T I E S ..............................................................................
WATER AND S A NI T A RY S E R V I C E S ......................................
WHOLESALE T R A D E ........................................................................

-

42
4 37
577
2 ,456
2 ,787

3 ,236
228
874
629
2 ,2 4 9

1
14
30,894
9 ,292

2,9 2 1
11,282

-

NA TI ONA L A ER ONA UTIC S
l
AND S: PACE
A DMI NI S ITP.ATION4
SPACE
TOTAL
SHUTTLE
PROGRAM

19*7

-

-

R E T A I L T R A D E .................................................................................
F I N A N C E ....... .............................................................. .........................
I N S U R A N C E . . * , * . . ' . .........................................................................
OWNE R- OC CUPI ED D W EL LI N G S..............................................
OTHER REAL E S T A T E ...................................................................

1,4 7 5

1 5,310
1 ,860
2,0 9 8
1 0,339

HOTELS AND; LODGI NG P L A C E S ............................................
OTHER PERSONAL S E R V I C E S .................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B US I N E S S S E R V I C E S ..........................
A D V E R T I S I N G ......... ..........................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS PR O FE S SI O NA L S E R V I C E S ...............

907
7,814
9 ,175
A
18,698

2,7 6 5
2,3 1 5
2 6 ,968
34
2 ,082

1,873
2 ,255
2 3,152
13
1 ,929

892
60
3 ,816
21
153

291
2,9 0 7
2,024
3
187

48
100
2 ,0 2 4
3
187

243
2 ,8 0 7
-

3 ,9 8 7
9 ,5 8 3
131,392
8
50,3 9 0

248
259
9 ,5 3 9
100

AUTOMOBILE R E P A I R ...................................................................
MOTION P I C T U R E S ........................................................................
OTHER AMUSEMENTS.....................................................................
HEALTH S E R V I C E S EXCEPT H O S P I T A L S ........................
H O S P I T A L S ..........................................................................................

3,067
203
9 3 ,4 6 3
4 ,5 9 5

848
304
197
12,139
23,602

797
298
197
4,5 6 4
23,594

51
6
7 ,5 7 5
8

231
399
271
1,662
1,900

148
255
21
4

83
144
250
1 ,658
1,9 0 0

6 ,549
4,5 1 3
12
896
797

30
18
2
3

EDUCATI ONAL S E R V I C E S ..........................................................
NONPROFIT O R G A N I Z A T I O N S ..................................................
POST O F F I C E ....................................................................................
COMMODITY C R E D I T C O R PO R AT I O N...................................
OTHER FEDERAL E N T E R P R I S E S ............................................

6 ,260
42,297
2 ,6 8 0
-

18,904
2,366
1 ,4 9 6
-

1 8 ,5 7 9
1,408
981
-

361
958
515
-

1 ,829
1,3 6 0
502
-

1,8 2 9
3
187
-

-

103
314
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 13,115
28,036
2 ,227
1,200

678

55
673
106

55
106

3 ,317
4 3 ,3 0 9
10,905

12
349
25

50
-

_

S TATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT E N T E R P R I S E S . . .
DI RE C TL Y ALLOCATED I M P O R T S ........................................
transferred
i m p o p t s .................. .. .......................................
B U S I N E S S T R A V E L , E NTERTAI NMENT, AND G I F T S
O F F I C E S U P P L I E S ........................................... ................

1 FY
2 FY
3f y
4fy

1972.
1969.
1972.
1973.

SEE
SEE
SEE
SEE

TE XT FOP
T EXT FOR
TE XT FOR
TEXT FOR




D E TA I LS
D E T AI L S
D ET A I L S
DETAILS

OF
OF
OF
OF

_
525
-

-

397

STUDY.
STUDY.
STUDY.
STUDY.

3

_
525
-

i
j |

2 ,773

_

2 ,1 5 8
3,8 5 7
12 ,0 9 6

1,357
315
-

_
673
“

2,1 5 1

-

PRODUCING

I NDUS TR Y

VETERANS
A DM I N I ST R A T I O N
HEALTH
CARE

NATIONAL
TOTAL
EXTRAMURAL
AND DI RECT

TOTAL

I N S T I T U T E S OF HEALTH
EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS
LOANS AND
PROGRAM
C ONS TRUCTI ON
DI RE CT
FE LLOWS HI PS 2 O PE RA TI ONS
PURCHASES
GRANTS1

T O T A L ........................................................................

47,450

6 0 ,465

55,113

31,1 0 1

1 0,773

1 3 ,2 3 9

5,3 5 2

L I V E ST O C K AND L I V E S T O C K PR ODUC TS ........................
CROPS AND OTHEP AGR IC ULTUR AL P R O D U C T S . . . .
PORESTRY AND P I S H E R I E S ....................................................
A G R I C UL TU RE , P O R E S T R Y , AND F I SH E R Y
S E R V I C E S .................................................................................

62 8
688
53

1,939
847
50

1 ,8 8 0
735
42

1 ,541
299
18

16
48
8

323
388
16

59
112
8

106

414

121

59

14

48

293

I RON ORE M I N I N G .........................................................................
COPPER ORE M I N I N G ...................................................................
OTHER NONFERROUS METAL ORE M I N I N G .....................
COAL M INI NG....................................................................................
CRUDE PETROLEUM.........................................................................

19
22
22
99
170

29
31
31
100
203

27
28
28
89
174

10
16
16
43
91

14
9
10
25
29

3
3
2
21
54

2
3
3
11
29

STONE AND C LA Y MI NI NG AND QUA RR YI NG...............
CHEMICAL AND F E R T I L I Z E R M I N I N G ..............................
NEW R E S I D E N T I A L B UI L D I NG C ONS TR UC TI ON_____
NEW N ON R ES ID E NT I AL B UI L DI N G C ONS T RU CT I ON .
NEW PUB LI C U T I L I T I E S C O N S T RU CT I O N.....................

79
14
977

143
30

30
20

3 ,863

132
27
3,8 6 2

94
4
3 ,846

8
3
-

11
3
1

-

-

-

“

-

-

"

NEW HIGHWAY C ON ST RU CT I ON..............................................
A LL OTHER NEW C O N ST RU CT I O N.........................................
MAINTENANCE AND R E P A I R C ONS T RUC TI ON...............
GUIDED M I S S I L E S AND S PA CE V E H I C L E S ..................
OTHER ORDNANCE...........................................................................

_

-

-

_

-

2,104
5
12

6
1,072
8
12

885
7
11

658
5
6

51
1
2

176
1
3

6
187
1
1

POOD PR ODUC TS ..............................................................................
TOBACCO MANUFACTURING.....................................................F A B R I C , Y A R N , AND THREAD M I L L S ................................
MI SCELLANEOUS T E X T I L E S AND
FLOOR C O V E R I N G S .............................................................
HOS IE RY AND K NI T GOODS....................................................

897
1
469

807
33
30 3

743
33
274

298
14
122

19
20

426
19
132

64
29

86
31

67
10 6

61
98

18
37

18
3

25
58

6
8

A P P A R E L ................................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS F A B RI C AT ED T E X T I L E
p r o d u c t s .................................................................................
L OG G I N G , S A W M I L L S , AND PLANI NG M I L L S ............
H ILLWORK, PLYWOOD, AND OTHER
-WOOD P R OD UC TS ...................................................................
HOUSEHOLD F U R N I T U R E .............................................................

118

633

577

262

13

302

56

299
183

74
226

65
195

20
109

7
51

38
35

9
31

110
34

250
108

232
105

109
31

944
3

29
71

18
3

OTHEP F U R N I T U R E ........................................................................
PAPER PR O DU CT S...........................................................................
PA PE RB OA RD.......................................................................................
P U B L I S H I N G .......................................................................................
P R I N T I N G .............................................................................................

45
564
263
429
532

66
480
194
597
839

54
410
171
522
664

45
265
1 04
367
519

5
59
24
34
37

4
86
43
121
108

12
70
23
75
175

CHEMI CAL PR ODUC TS ...................................................................
A GRI CULTURAL C H EM I CA LS .....................................................
P L A S T I C M A TE R I A L S AND S Y NTH ETI C R U B B E R . . .
S YNT HE TI C F I B E R S ......................................................................
DRUGS .....................................................................................................

3 61
18
102
69
1,5 9 0

95 1
31
118
61
375

84 7
28
106
55
310

715
16
62
24
278

75
2
28
8
1

57
10
16
23
31

104
3
12
6
65

CLE ANI NG AND T O I L E T P R E P A R A T I O N S ........................
P A I N T ......................................................................................................
PETROLEUM PR OD UC TS ...................................... .. .......................
RUBBER P R O D UC TS ........................................................................
P L A S T I C PR ODUC TS ......................................................................

66
57
89
174
384

91
61
129
15 5
427

86
52
11 1
143
395

55
27
58
64
203

2
16
18
27
147

29
9
35
52
45

5
9
18
12
32

LE A TH ER , FOOTWEAR, AND LEATHER P R O D U C T S . .
G L A S S .....................................................................................................
CEMENT, C L A Y , AND CONCRETE P RODUC TS...............
MI SCELLANEOUS STONE AND CLAY P R O D U C T S . . . .
B LAST FURNACES AND B A S I C STEEL P R O D U C T S . .

99
180
14 5
154
361

142
621
375
198
574

139
573
363
186
537

48
516
35
53
166

7
27
318
117
317

84
30
10
16
54

3
48
12
12
37

I RON AND S T E EL FOUNDRIES
AND F O R G I N G S . . .
P RI MARY COPPER ME TA LS.......................................................
PRI MARY ALUMINUM......................................................................
OTHER PRI MARY AND SECONDARY NONFERROUS
METAL P RODUC TS ....................................J .........................
COPPER R OLLI NG AND DRAWI NG.........................................

93
8
19

161
11
34

147
10
32

64
6
11

60
3
18

23
1
3

14
1
2

39
22

37
30

33
27

20
16

10
8

3
3

4
3

ALUMINUM ROLLI NG AND DRAWI NG...................................
OTHER NONFERROUS R O LL I NG AND DRAWING............
MI SCELLANEOUS NONFERROUS METAL P R O D U C T S . .
METAL C O N T A I N E R S ......................................................................
HEATI NG APPA RA TUS AND PLUMBING F I X T U R E S . .

35
51
50
63
58

72
67
72
56
145

68
61
64
50
140

19
36
42
28
13

44
20
14
4
122

5
5
8
18
5

4
6
8
6
5

F AB RI CA TE D S TRUCTURAL METAL......................................
SCREW MACHINE P RODUC TS....................................................
OTHER F AB R I C A T E D METAL PRODUCTS...........................
E N G I N E S , T U R B I N E S , AND GENE RA TOR S.....................
FARM MACHI NERY...........................................................................

195
173
260
18
6

580
220
554
35
9

55 9
199
507
32
8

38
112
206
16
5

509
47
250
9
1

12
40
51
7
2

21
21
47
3
1




-

-

-

16

PRODUCING

I NDUS TR Y

VETERANS
A D M I N IS TR A TI O N
HEALTH
CARE

NATI ONAL
TOTAL
EXTRAMURAL
AND DIRECT

TOTAL

I N S T I T U T E S OF HEALTH
EXTRAMURA L PROGRAMS
CONSTRUCTI ON
PROGRAM
GRANTS1
PURCHASES

DIRECT
LOANS AND
FELLOWSHI PS2 OPE RA TI ONS

C O NS T RU CT I ON , M I N I N G , AND O I L F I E L D
M ACHI NERY..............................................................................
MATERI AL HANDLING EQUI PMENT......................................
METAL WORKING MACHI NERY..............................................
S P E C I A L I N DUS TR Y MACHI NERY.........................................
GENERAL I N D U S T R I A L MACHINERY...................................

24
58
81
48
82

42
112
133
54
145

35
103
117
47
130

13
11
74
32
48

18
89
27
8
70

4
3
16
7
12

7
9
16
7
15

MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS.......................................................
COMPUTERS AND PE RI P HE R AL EQUI PMENT..................
T YP EW RI TE RS AND OTHER O F F I C E M ACHI NES_____
S B R V I C E I N DUS TR Y M AC HI NE S...........................................
E L E C T R I C T RA NS M I S S I O N E QUI PMENT..........................

69
60
125
85
174

123
455
42
92
26 2

112
405
31
79
233

69
398
26
34
191

23
3
2
11
33

20
4
3
11
9

11
50
11
13
29

E L E CT RI C I N D U S T R I A L A P P AR A TU S................................
HOUSEHOLD A P P L I A N C E S ..........................................................
E LE C T R I C L I G H T I N G AND W I R I N G ...................................
RADI O AND T E L E V I S I O N S E T S ............................................
TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH A P P A R A T U S .....................

113
32
12 4
89
37

197
83
257
74
73

179
79
243
72
65

108
36
68
42
52

54
6
156
2
6

17
37
19
28
7

18
4
14
2
8

OTHER ELE CTR ONI C COMMUNICATION E QUI PMENT.
ELECTRONI C COMPONENTS.......................................................
OTHER E L E C T R I C A L MACHI NERY.........................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................. .............
A I R C R A F T ...........................................................................................

189
207
612
23
52

276
464
1 31
171
86

236
417
115
166
73

205
345
91
36
52

26
41
9
3
11

5
31
15
127
10

40
47
16
5
13

S H I P AND BOAT B UI L DI N G AND R E P A I R .....................
RAI LROAD AND OTHER
TRANS PORTATI ON E QUI PMENT................................
MI SCELLANEOUS TR ANS POR TA TI ON E Q U I P M E N T . . .
S C I E N T I F I C AND C ONTROLLI NG I N S T R U M E N T S . . .
MEDICAL AND DENTAL I N ST R U M E N T S.............................

14

36

34

8

17

9

2

9
15
961
1 ,887

13
17
1 ,6 3 2
37 5

12
16
1 ,413
311

6
1,245
298

2
1
152
3

4
15
16
10

1
1
219
64

O P T I C A L AND OPHTHALMIC E QUI PMENT........................
PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT AND S U P P L I E S ...............
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURED P RODUC TS...............
R a i l r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ..................................................
LOCAL T R A N S I T AND I N T E R C I T Y B U S ..........................

228
326
137
355
1,2 0 9

406
200
195
578
286

323
155
177
525
246

316
136
75
307
173

1
5
16
128
17

6
14
86
90
56

83
45
18
53
40

TRUCK T RA N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ..........................................................
A I R T RA NS P O R T A T I O N ................................................................
OTHER T RA N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
C OM MUN IC A TI O NS , EX CE PT RADI O AND T V ..................

969
43
259
63
781

1,0 0 1
84
504
86
837

87 2
76
39 2
73
695

441
45
268
40
324

241
12
68
13
180

190
19
56
20
191

129
8
112
13
142

R ADI O AND TV B R O A D CA S T I N G............................................
E L E C T R I C U T I L I T I E S ................................................................
GAS U T I L I T I E S ..............................................................................
WATER AND S A N I T A F Y S E R V I C E S ......................................
WHOIESALE T R A D E ........................................................................

131
345
196
87
3,317

113
27 6
158
58
3 ,466

102
235
147
48
3 ,125

63
120
82
26
1,8 8 7

11
37
18
8
521

28
78
47
14
717

11
41
11
10
341

R E T A I L T R A D E .................................................................................
F I N A N C E ...............................................................................................
I N S U RA NC E ..........................................................................................
OWNER- OCCUPI ED DW EL LI N GS ..............................................
OTHER REAL E S T A T E ...................................................................

1 ,234
394
333

8,24 5
753
770

8,0 4 8
70 9
725

-

-

-

332

640

600

4 , 102
257
326
361

746
59
75
52

3,200
393
324
187

197
44
45
40

HOTELS AND LODGING P L A C E S ............................................
OTHER PERSONAL S E R V I C E S ..................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI N ES S S E R V I C E S ...........................
A D V E R T I S I N G ....................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS P R OF ES SI O NA L S E R V I C E S ...............

281
1 ,093
1 ,623
141
1 ,372

746
929
3,0 9 7
110
1 ,1 1 5

599
905
2,748
100
1,058

408
400
2,248
60
403

42
16
236
13
ip a

149
489
264
27
18 1

147
24
349
10
67

AUTOMOBILE R E P A I R ...................................................................
MOTION P I C T U R E S ........................................................................
OTHER AMUSEMENTS.....................................................................
HEALTH S E R V I C E S EXCEPT H O S P I T A L S ........................
H O S P I T A L S ..........................................................................................

272
96
74
5,676
428

318
119
217
1,310
3 ,114

300
112
211
758
3,1 1 2

121
68
61
371
2,651

50
6
9
c
1

129
38
141
382
460

18
7
6
55 2
2

9 01
4,4 0 9
590
459

2,821
86 2
715
99

2 ,771
730
60 8
92

2,477
264
424
43

2
31
51
12

292
435
133
37

50
132
107

532
-

34 3
~

29 8
-

163
“

35
"

100
-

45
“

EDUCATI ONAL S E R V I C E S ..........................................................
NONPROFIT O R G A N I Z A T I O N S ..................................................
POST O F F I C E ....................................................................................
COMMODITY C R E D I T C O R P O RA TI O N...................................
OTHER FEDERAL E N T E R P R I S E S ............................................
STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT E N T E R P R I S E S . . .
D I RE C TL Y ALLOCATED I M P O R T S .........................................
TRANSFERRED I M P O R T S .............................................................
B US I N E S S T R A V E L , E NTERTAI NMENT, AND G I F T S
O F F I C E S U P P L I E S ........................................................................




-

“

i

l

"

7

PRODUCING I NDUS TR Y
TOTAL

MANPOWER I N S T I T U T I O N A L
T R A I N I N G PROGRAM
LIV IN G
PROGRAM
ALLOWANCES
PURCHASES

N A TI O NA L AERONAUTICS
AND S PA C E A D M I N I ST RA TI O N
TOTAL
S PACE
NASA
SHUTTLE

T O T A L ........................................................................

12,688

1 0 ,238

2,4 5 0

160 ,4 1 7

1 0 0,674

L I V E ST O C K AND L I V E S T O C K PR ODUC TS ........................
CPOPS AND OTHER A GRI CULTURAL P RODUC TS_____
PORES TRY AND F I S H E R I E S ....................................................
A G R IC UL TU RE , F O R E S T R Y , AND F I SH E R Y
SEF V I C E S .................................................................................

326
368
11

314
349
9

12
19
2

237
388
3U

14
24
3

61

57

4

115

7

I RON ORE M I N I N G ........................................................................
COPPER ORE M I N I N G ...................................................................
OTHER NONFERROUS METAL ORE M I N I N G .....................
COAL M I N IN G....................................................................................
CRUDE PETROLEUM........................................................................

3
4
3
23
63

2
2
2
16
47

1
2
1
7
16

61
164
127
275
373

6
14
11
19
20

STONE AND C LA Y MI NI NG AND QUA RR YI NG...............
CHEMICAL AND F E R T I L I Z E R M I N I N G ..............................
NEW R E S I D E N T I A L B U I L D I N G C O N S T R U C T I O N . . . .
NEW N O N R ES I DE NT I A L B U I L DI N G C ON STR UC TI ON.
NEW PUB LI C U T I L I T I E S C O N ST RU CT I ON .....................

9
3
-

6
2
-

3
1
-

-

“

-

110
27
614
7

8
3
15
2

NEW HIGHWAY C O NS T R UC T I O N ..............................................
ALL OTHER NEW C O NS T RU CT I ON .........................................
MAINTENANCE AND R E P A I R C ONS T RUC TI ON...............
GUI DED M I S S I L E S AND S PA CE V E H I C L E S ..................
OTHER ORDNANCE...........................................................................

195

148

1

33
820
1 ,689
1 4,354
213

117

1

47
-

1 ,3 2 3
13

FOOD PR ODUC TS..............................................................................
TOBACCO MANUFACTURING........................................................
F A B R I C , Y A R N , AND THREAD M I L L S ................................
MI SCELLANEOUS T E X T I L E S AND
FLOOR C O V E R I N G S .............................................................
HOS IE RY AND KNI T GOODS....................................................

439
20
126

422
20
109

17

313
4
189

20
12

14
49

10
45

4
4

57
29

4
2

a p p a r e l ................................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS F A B RI C AT ED T E X T I L E
PR OD UC TS .................................................................................
L OG G I N G , S A W M I L L S, AND PLANI NG M I L L S .............
HI LLWOR K, PLYWOOD, AND OTHER
WOOD PR ODUC TS ...................................................................
HOUSEHOLD F U R N I T U R E .............................................................

378

350

28

160

12

25
37

20
22

5
15

40
282

2
18

31
32

16
28

15
it

238

HI

16
3

OTHER F U R N I T U R E .........................................................................
PAPER PR O DU CT S ............................................................................
PAPE RB OA RD.......................................................................................
P U B L I S H I N G .......................................................................................
P R I N T I N G .............................................................................................

26
115
46
167
163

1
62
36
60
75

25
53
10
107
88

132
644
272
725
1,4 1 7

10
36
18
33
63

CHEMICAL PR ODUC TS...................................................................
AGRI CULTURAL C HE M I C A L S .....................................................
P L A S T I C M A TE R I A L S AND S YNT HE TI C R U B B E R . . .
S YN TH E TI C F I B E R S ......................................................................
D RUGS .....................................................................................................

71
9
16
19
30

44
8

27
1
5
3

84
28
220
39
30

72
2
28
3
2

CLE ANI NG AND T O I L E T P R E P A R A T I O N S ........................
P A I N T ......................................................................................................
PETROLEUM p r o d u c t s ................................................................
RUBBER P R OD UC TS .........................................................................
P L A S T I C P RODUC TS ......................................................................

46
37
39
49

39
6
28
31
34

9
8
15

43
106
232
311
708

3
8
13
23
57

66
32
14
17
67

62
26
9
8
33

4
6
5
9
34

50
392
204
329
1 ,326

4
20
13
23
123

I RON AND S T E E L FOUNDRIES
AND F O R G I N G S . . .
PRI MARY COPPER M ETA LS .......................................................
PRI MARY ALUMINUM......................................................................
OTHEP P RI MARY AND SECONDARY NONFERROUS
METAL PR ODUC TS ................................................................
COPPER R OL LI NG AND DRAWI NG.........................................

27
2

14

13

L EA TH ER ,

FOOTWEAR,

AND LEATHER P R O D U C T S . .

G L A S S .....................................................................................................
CEMENT, C L A Y , AND CONCRETE PR ODUC TS ...............
MI SCELLANEOUS STONE AND CLAY P R O D U C T S . . . .
BLA ST FURNACES AND B A S I C STEEL P R O D U C T S . .

“

11

-

11
16
29

17
-

1
7
5

1
14

n

1

1

2

2

943
70
155

89
5
19

4
6

2
2

2
4

165
148

14
10

ALUMINUM R OLLI NG AND DRAWING...................................
OTHER NONFERROUS R O LL I NG AND DRAWI NG............
MI SCELLANEOUS NONFERROUS METAL P R O D U C T S . .
METAL C O N T A I N E R S ......................................................................
HEATI NG APPA RA TUS AND PLUMBING F I X T U R E S . .

6
9
10
20
6

3
3
4
17
3

3
6
6
3
3

286
468
931
44
61

26
32
120
3
4

FA B PI C AT ED STRUCTURAL METAL......................................
SCREW MACHINE P R OD UC TS ....................................................
OTHER F A B R I C A T E D METAL PRODUCTS ...........................
E N G I N E S , T U R B I N E S , AND GENE RA TOR S.....................

17
35
76
7

9
28
4

8
14
48
3

435
1,3 7 7
1 ,27 5
159

27
102
114




21

12

PRODUCING I N DUS TR Y
TOTAL

MANPOWER I N S T I T U T I O N A L
T R A I N I N G PROGRAM
PROGRAM
LI VIN G
PURCHASES
ALLOWANCES

N AT I ONA L J
AERONAUTICS
AND SPA CE A D M I N I ST RA TI O N
S PACE
TOTA L
SHUTTLE
NASA

FARM MACHI NERY...........................................................................
C O NS T R U C T I O N , M I N I N G , AND O I L P I E L D
M AC HI NE RY..............................................................................
M ATERI AL HANDLING EQUI PME NT........................ ..
METALWORKING MACHI NERY...............................................
S P E C I A L I NDUS TR Y MACHI NERY.........................................

2

1

1

23

2

5
5
36
15

3
2
8
6

2
3
28
9

98
98
1 ,327
156

7
8
130
8

GENERAL I N D U S T R I A L M ACHI NERY...................................
MACHINE SHOP PR ODUC TS.......................................................
COMPUTERS AND P E R IP H ER A L EQUI PMENT..................
T YP EW RI TE RS AND OTHER O F F I C E M A C H I N E S . . . .
S E R V I C E I N D US T RY M AC HI NE S............................................

20
26
8
28
12

7
10
3
1
4

13
16
5
27
8

624
3 ,382
3 ,3 7 5
98
127

62
373
127
4
7

E L E C T R I C T RA NS M I S S I O N E QUI PME NT..........................
E LE C T R I C I N D U S T R I A L A P P A R A T U S ................................
HOUSEHOLD A P P L I A N C E S ..........................................................
E L E C T P I C L I G H T I N G AND W I R I N G ....................................
R AD I O AND T E L E V I S I O N S E T S ............................................

22
37
32
19
23

6
12
29
8
16

16
25
3
11
7

2 ,1 5 4
836
94
777
12 1

63
50
5
49
6

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH A PP A R A T U S .....................
OTHER E LE C TR O NI C COMMUNICATION E QUI PME NT.
ELE CTR ONI C COMPONENTS........................................................
OTHER E L E C T R I C A L MACHI NERY.........................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................

8
6
35
14
60

5
2
19
Q
49

3
4
16
5
11

528
9,015
4,8 9 1
261
174

22
319
268
16
4

A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................
S H I P AND BOAT B U I L D I N G AND P E P A T p .....................
R A I L R OA D AND OTHER
TRA NS POR TA TI ON EQUI PME NT................................
MI SCELLANEOUS T RA NS POR TA TI ON E Q U I P M E N T . . .
S C I E N T I F I C AND CONTROLLI NG I N S T R U M E N T S . . .

9
5

6
4

3
1

2 4 ,3 7 3
108

2 ,7 5 0
6

4
20

3
6

1
14

29
4
2 ,9 6 0

3
250

MEDICAL AND DENTAL I NS T RU ME NT S.............................
O P T I C A L AND OPHTHALMIC E QUI PME NT........................
PHOTOGRAPHI C EQUIPMENT AND S U P P L I E S . . . . . . .
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURED PR ODUC TS ...............
R A ILR OA D T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..................................................

14
6
21
57
205

6
1
7
29
180

8
5
14
28
25

299
1,019
459
281
861

3
b
21
19
60

LOCAL T F A N S I T AND I N T E R C I T Y B U S ..........................
TRUCK T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
WATER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..........................................................
a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ..........................................................

656
203
47
41
21

618
162
43
26
16

38
41
4
15
5

438
1 ,570
113
1,405
185

30
109
6
71
10

C OM M UN I CA TI O NS , EX CE PT RADI O AND T V ..................
R ADI O AND T V B R O A D CA S T I N G............................................
E L E C T R I C U T I L I T I E S ................................................................
GAS U T I L I T I E S ..............................................................................
WATER AND S A NI T A RY S E R V I C E S ......................................

207
30
96
76
24

153
24
69
54
15

54
6
27
22
9

2 ,872
185
862
214
99

130
9
49
19
7

WHOLESALE T R A D E ........................................................................
P E ^ A I L T R A D E .................................................................................
F I N A N C E ...............................................................................................
I N S U R A N C E ...................................... ...................................................
OWNER“ OC C UP I ED DW EL LI N GS ...............................................

1,0 9 7
2 ,4 0 5
139
288

906
2,3 3 3
112
238

191
72
27
50

5 ,222
3,3 3 2
1 ,175
1 ,063

344
225
79
71

-

-

“

“

~

OTHER REAL E S T A T E ...................................................................
HOTELS AND LODGING P L A C E S ............................................
OTHER PERSONAL S E R V I C E S ..................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B US I N E S S S E R V I C E S ...........................
A D V E R T I S I N G ....................................................................................

280
96
489
427
29

229
77
4 69
204
24

51
19
20
223
5

1 ,097
1,366
1,5 8 3
1 2,122
144

56
90
73
898
9

MI SCELLANEOUS P R O F E S S I O N A 1 S E R V I C E S ...............
AUTOMOBILE R E P A I R ...................................................................
MOTION P I C T U R E S .........................................................................
OTHER AMUSEMENTS......................................................................
HEALTH S E R V I C E S EXCEPT H O S P I T A L S ........................

154
62
65
51
183

111
46
32
45
179

43
16
33
6
4

5 ,300
604
509
180
145

204
38
20
11
7

H O S P I T A L S ..........................................................................................
EDUCATI ONAL S E R V I C E S ..........................................................
NONPROFIT O R G A N I Z A T I O N S ..................................................
POST O F F I C E ....................................................................................
COMMODITY C R E D I T C O RP OR A TI O N....................................

314
303
253
164

313
17
245
108

1
28 6
8
56

96
1 8 ,254
3 ,1 9 1
1,837

110
33 8
114

-

”

“

~

“

OTHER FEDERAL E N T E R P R I S E S ............................................
STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT E N T E R P R I S E S . . .
D I R E CT L Y ALLOCATED I M P O R T S .........................................
TRANSFERRED I M P O R T S .............................................................
B U S I N E S S T R A V E L , ENTERTAI NMENT, AND G I F T S
O F F I C E S U P P L I E S ........................................................................

30
214
-

25
175
-

5
39
-

193
994
-

8
55
-

“

“

— Denotes no employment.
1 Based on factors for hospital construction in Fact book for Esti­
mating the Manpower Needs of Federal Programs, Bulletin 1832 (Bureau




“

-

U

of Labor Statistics, 1975).
2 Employment generated by a standard pattern
of personal consumption expenditures.

VETERANS A DM INI S T RATI ON
EEALTH CAR E

NA TI ONA L I N S T I T U T E S OF HEA LTH
D I RE C T OPERATI ONS
EXTRAMURAL P ROGRAM
C ONSTRUCTI ON
NIH
GRANTS
S TA FF
D I RE CT
INDIRECT
INDIRECT

OCCUPATI ON
IN DI RECT

TOTAL

159,150

111,700

47,4 5 0

1 15,750

5 6 ,9 1 0

31 ,1 0 0

10,770

11,610

5 , 350

AND TEC HNI CA L W O R K E R S . . .

66 ,0 5 0

5 7 ,4 4 0

8 ,6 1 0

6 ,650

4 4 ,7 4 0

5 ,120

86 0

5 ,2 1 0

72 0

E N G I N E E R S , T E C H N I C A L ......................................
E NG I NE E RS , A E R O - A S T R O N A U T I C A L . . .
E NG I NE E R S , C H E M I CA L ...................................
E NG I NE E RS , C I V I L ............................................
E NG I NE E RS , E L E C T R I C A L .............................
E N GI N EE R S, I N D U S T R I A L .............................
E NG I NE E R S , MECHANI CAL..............................
E N G I NE E RS , M E T A L L UR G I CA L.....................
E N G I N E E R S , M I N I N G .........................................
E NG I NE E RS , PE TROLEUM................................
E NG I NE E R S , S A L E S ............................................
E NG I NE E RS , O TH ER ............................................

780
*
60
*
NA
NA
NA
*
*

730
♦
60
♦
220
120
110
*
*
*
*

1,490
*
70
1 80
460
150
19 0
*
*
*
*

530
*
*

520
*
*
*

200
*
*

160
90
80
*
-

12 0

370

210
60
230

80

*
*
*
*
*
*

150
90
*
*
*

100
*

NA

50
*
*
*
*
*

L I F E AND P H Y SI C A L S C I E N T I S T S ...............
A GRI CULTURAL S C I E N T I S T S ........................
A TM OS PH ER IC , SPA CE S C I E N T I S T S . . .
B I O L O G I C A L S C I E N T I S T S .............................
C H E M I S T S ...................................................................
G E O L O G I S T S .............................................................
MARINE S C I E N T I S T S .........................................
P H Y S I C I S T S AND ASTRONOMERS...............
L I F E , P H YS I CA L S C I E N T I S T S N E C . . .

2,1 1 0
*
*

1,2 7 0
*
-

790
*
*

5 ,110
*
*

170
4 80
*
*
*
*

3 ,250
5,5 1 0
*
*

NA
*

460
730
60
*

130
80
-

*
*
*
*

2 ,200
*
-

63 0
1 ,2 1 0
*
*

2 2 ,7 4 0
2 ,610
4 , 820
1 ,4 4 0
13 ,8 7 0

*
*
*
*
*
*

MATHEMATICAL S P E C I A L I S T S ..........................
A C T U A R I E S ................................................................
MATHE MA TI CI ANS ..................................................
S T A T I S T I C I A N S ....................................................

*

_

80
510

420
*
380

-

*

*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*

160
*
110

*
*

790

130

790

6 ,050

1 4,310

470

170

1 ,020

90

180
80
180

-

180
80
180

4 ,1 5 0
80
290

13,430
*

60
150

*
90

700
*

*
*
*

180

60

120

580

370

90

*

80

*

*
-

*
-

-

*
-

*
-

-

*
-

TOTAL
TOTAL,

ALL O C C U P A T I O N S .........................................

PR OF ES SI O NA L

E NGI NEERI NG AND S C IE NC E
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
AGRI CULTURAL AND B I O L O G I C A L
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
CHEMICAL T E C H N I C I A N S ................................
D R A F T E R S ...................................................................
E L E C TR I CA L AND E LE CTR ONI C
T E C H N I C I A N S ..................................................
I N D U S T R I A L E NGI NEERI NG
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
MATHEMATICAL T E C H N I C I A N S ....................
MECHANICAL E NGI NEERI NG
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
S UR VE YO R S................................................................
E NGI NEERI NG AND S CI EN C E
TECHNI CTANS N EC ......................................
MEDICAL WORKERS, EXCEPT
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
C H IR O P R A C T O R S ....................................................
D E N T I S T S ..................................................................
D I E T I T I A N S .............................................................
O P T O M E T R I S T S .......................................................
P H A R M A C I S T S ..........................................................
P H Y S I C I A N S , MD O S T E O PA TH S..................
P O D I A T R I S T S ................................................. . . .
r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s ........................................
T H E R A P I S T S .............................................................
V E T E R I N A R I A N S ....................................................
OTHER MEDICAL AND HEALTH
WORKERS.............................................................
HEALTH T EC HNOLOGI STS AND
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
C L I N I C A L LA B T E C H N I C I A N S ....................
DENTAL H Y G I E N I S T S .........................................
HEALTH RECORD T E C H N I C I A N S ..................
R A DI O L O G I C T EC HNOLOGI STS AND
T E C H N I C I A N S .................................................
THERAPY A S S I S T A N T S ......................................
OTHER HEALTH TE CH NOLOGI STS AND
T EC H N I C I A N S N E C......................................

D I RE CT

*
*

*
*

*

*

*

-

610
580
*
960

*

*
♦

*
*
*
-

♦
*
*

~

*
*

-

*
*

*
*

-

*
♦

*
*

-

*
*

270

70

200

900

490

130

*

230

♦

51 , 3 6 1
*

49,361
1 ,1 0 0
1 ,000
♦

2,0 0 0
*

3,560
*
16 0
140
*

960
*
♦
*
50
210
*
520
*
110

*
*
*
-

710
120
*
*
380
♦
*

17 0
*
*
*
*
♦

NA
1 4 ,650
*

450
*
380
*
*

90
350
*
2,3 8 0
90
180

1 ,700
90
*
80
1 ,440
*
*

1 ,0 1 0
*
.*
*

20,5 3 0
*
*

950
14,200
2 0 ,1 5 0
*

NA

4 ,210

*

130

*

-

8,5 9 0
170
160
*

7 ,4 9 0

1,100
170
160
*

3 ,250
2,4 9 0
80
*

2 ,480
2,2 3 0
80
-

540
110
*
*

*

220
430

170
-

*
370

90

90

*

~
-

*
*
*
*
*

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

200
120
70
*

1 ,090
NA
NA
NA

110
60
*

1,2 2 0
60

1 ,090

“

*
720

-

-

90

T E C H N I C A N S , EXCEPT HEALTH........................
A IR PL AN E P I L O T S ...............................................
a ir t r a f f ic
c o n t r o l l e r s ........................
EMBALMERS................................................................
flig h t
e n g i n e e r s ............................................
R ADI O O P E RA TO RS ...............................................
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NU ME RI CA L............
OTHER TECHNI CANS EXCEPT H E A L T H . .

*
*
*
*

930
-

930
*

930

COMPUTER S P E C I A L I S T S ......................................
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS................................
COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T S ..................
OTHER COMPUTER S P E C I A L I S T S ...............

200
120
70
*

-

S O C I A L S C I E N T I S T S ...............................................
E C ONOM IS TS .............................................................
P O L I T I C A L S C I E N T I S T S ................................

11 0
60
*




590

*
*

-

2 ,110
NA
*

|

1,500
4,8 3 0

!

-

“

NA
-

720

-

60
*
*
*
*

90

-

-

210
140

-

-

-

*

*
*
*
-

-

60

-

-

*
*

60

*

-

*

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

-

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

3 00
NA
NA
NA

*

-

*

NA
NA
NA

-

NA
NA
NA

-

60
*

*
*

50
♦

*
♦

-

-

-

-

720
NA
NA
NA

-

“

VETERANS A DM I N I ST R A T I O N
HEALTH CARE
OCCUPATI ON
DI RE CT

TOTAL

1 ,080
*
*

*

*
*
*
*

510
*
*

*
-

510
*
*

780
NA
NA
NA

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

_

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

60
*
*

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

*

NA
NA
NA
NA

1,800
*
♦
*

1 ,800
-

T E A CH E RS ........................................................................
ADULT E D UC A T I O N ..............................................
A G R I CU LT UR E ..........................................................
A RT , DRAMA, M U S I C .........................................
A TM O SP H ER IC , E AR TH , AND
MARINE S C I E N C E .........................................
B I O L O G Y .....................................................................
B U S I N E S S , COMMERCE......................................
C H E M I S T R Y ................................................................
COACHES, P H Y S I C A L E DU CA TI O N............
ECONOMI CS ................................................................
E DUC A TI ON................................................................
ELEMENTARY S CHOOL.........................................
E N G I N EE R I NG ..........................................................
E N G L I S H ......................................................................
FOREI GN LANGUAGE...................................
HEALTH S P E C I A L T I E S ......................................
H I S T O R Y .....................................................................
HOME E C ONOM IC S.................................................
LAW.................................................................................
MA THE MA TI CS ..........................................................
P H Y S I C S .....................................................................
PR ES CHOOL, KI NDE RGA RTE N.......................
P SYCHOLOGY.............................................................
SECONDARY S CHOOL............................................
S O C I O L O G Y ................................................................
S O C IA L S CI EN C E TEACHERS N EC............
MI SCELLANEOUS COLLEGE AND
U N I V E R S I T Y T EA CH ER S...........................
COLLEGE AND U N I V E R S I T Y
TEACHERS NEC...............................................
T HE OLOGY...................................................................
TR A DE , I N D U S T R I A L .........................................
TEACHERS NEC, EXCEPT COLLEGE
AND U N I V E R S I T Y .........................................
W R I T ER S , A R T I S T S , E N T E R T A I N E R S . . . .
A C T OR S ........................................................................
ATHLETES AND KINDRED W O R K E R S . . . .
AUTHORS......................................................................
DANCERS......................................................................
D E S I G N E R S ....................................................... .. . .
E DI TOR S AND R EP OR TE R S.............................
M U SI C IA N S AND COMPOS ERS ........................
P A I N T E R S AND S C U L P T O R S ..........................
PHOTOGRAPHERS....................................................
PUB LI C R E LA TI ONS WORKERS AND
W R I T E R S .............................................................
R A D I O , TV ANNOUNCERS................................
W R I T E R S , A R T I S T S , AND
E NTE RTA INE RS N EC...................................
OTHER P R OF ES SI O NA L AND TE CHNI CA L
WORKERS.............................................................
ACCOUNTANTS..........................................................
A R C H I T E C T S .............................................................
A R C H I V I S T S AND CUR ATOR S........................
C LE R GY........................................................................
R E L I G O U S , EXCEPT CLE RGY.......................
FARM MANAGEMENT A D V I S O R S .....................
F OR E S T E R S , C O N S E R V A T I O N I S T S ............
HOME MANAGEMENT A D V I S O R S .....................
J U D G E S........................................................................
L A WY E RS .....................................................................
L I B R A R I A N S .............................................................
O P E R A T I O N S , SYSTEMS R E S E A R C H . . . .
PERSONNEL, LABOR R E L A T I O N S ...............
RESEARCH WORKERS N EC................................
R EC REATI ON WORKERS......................................
S O C I A L WORKERS.................................................
V OCATI ONAL COUNSE LOR S.............................

90
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

-

-

60
*
*

-

*

_

60
*

*
*

*
60
*

_

*

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

♦
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

*

*
NA
NA
NA

7 30
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

*

-

-

~

-

150

-

150

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

790
*
*
140
*

1,210
*
*
*
*
100
130
*

420

40
*
*
*
*

70

230

-

-

80
*
*
♦
*
*
*
*

790
*
*
1 AO
*
90
m o
50
*
200

200
-

*
-

200

_

90
140
50
*
*

!

-

80
300

170

70
100
*
60
*

*
♦
*
*
*
*
*

90

80
*

240
*

60
-

*
*

*
♦

120

-

-

*
*

160

-

160

260

190

*

*

*

*

7 ,0 0 0
320
*
*
800
*
*
*
*

5,390
*
-

930
290
*
*
50
*
*
*
♦

330
140
*
♦

460
60
*

150
50
*

350

-

2,860

14 0

220
540
*r0
*
80
*
*
*
*
240
360
60
320
360
90
♦

340

-

1 ,610
320
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
50
*
60
190
370
*

80
*

50
350
60
190
370
NA
3 ,0 0 0

-

800
-

-

-

-

B UY E RS , S ALES AND LOAN M A N A G E R S . . .
BANK, F I N A N C I A L MANAGERS.....................
C RE DI T MANAGERS...............................................
B UY E RS , S H I P P E R S , FARM PRODUCTS.
B U Y E R S , WHOLESALE, R E T A I L ..................
PURCHASI NG AGENTS , BUYERS N E C . . .
S ALES MANAGERS, R E T A I L T R A D E . . . .
SALES MANAGERS, EXCEPT
R E T A I L TR A DE ...............................................

580
130
*
*

_

580
130
*
*

50
120
*
230

-

-

-

-

-

-

120
*
*

230
-

50
50
“

“
3 ,890




*

*
*

♦
♦
*

830

AND

*

~

*
*

1 ,040
50

*
*
*

4 ,720

OFFICIALS,

70

90
*
♦
*
*
*
*

P RO P R I E T O R S .

MANAGERS,

TOTAL

INDIRECT

P S Y C H O L O G I S T S ....................................................
S O C I O L O G I S T S .......................................................
URBAN AND REGI ONAL PLA NNE RS............
OTHER S O C I A L S C I E N T I S T S ........................

NATI ONAL I N S T I T U T E S OF HEALTH
D I R E C T O P E R A TI O NS
EXTRAMURAL PIJOGRAM
CONSTRUCTI ON
NIH
INDIR ECT
STAFF
D I R E CT
INDIRECT
GRANTS

5,690

-

50
12 0
*

710
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

_

230

NA

-

*

180
-

160
100
♦
*
*
2 ,850

-

*
100
*
*
*
*

-

-

*
-

*

*

-

*
-

*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

80
-

-

90
190
*

-

-

-

“

~

~

1 ,0 6 0

1 ,1 5 0

460

*

-

500
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

130
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

80
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

_

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

-

VETERANS A D M I N I S T R A T I O N
HEALTH CARE
OCCUPATI ON
TOTAL
PUBLIC ADM INISTRATORS, INSPECTORS.
A S S E S S O R S , C O NT RO L L E R S , AND
T R E A S U R E R S ....................................................
CONSTRUCTI ON I N S P E C T O R S ........................
HEALTH A D M I N I S T R A T O R S .............................
I N S P E C T O R S , EXC EPT P UB 1 I C
C O NS T R U C T I O N ...............................................
PU BL I C A D M I NI S T R AT O RS AND
O F F I C I A L S N E C ............................................
POSTMASTERS AND MAI L
S U P E R V I S O R S ..................................................
SCHOOL A D M I N I S T R A T O R S , C O L L E G E . .
SCHOOL A D M I N I S T R A T O R S ,
ELEMENTARY AND SEC ONDA RY............
OTHER MANAGERS, O F F I C I A L S , AND
P R O P R I E T O R S ..................................................
FUNERAL D I R E C T O R S .........................................
MANAGERS AND B U I L D I N G
S UP ER I NT EN DE N TS ......................................
O F F I C E MANAGERS N E C...................................
O F F I C E R S , P I L O T S , P U RS E R S , S H I P .
O F F I C I A L S OF L O D G E S , U N I O N S ............
RAI LR OA D CONDUCTORS...................................
R ES T AUR A NT , C A F E , BAR M A NA GE RS ..
OTHER MANAGERS, A D M I N I S T R A T O R S . .
SALES WORKERS..........................................................
A D V E R T I S I N G AGENTS AND
SALES WORKERS...........................................
A UC TI O NE E RS ..........................................................
d e m o n s t r a t o r s ....................................................
HUCKSTERS AND PE DD LE R S..........................
I NSURANCE A GE NT S , BROKE RS , AND
UNDERWRI TERS...............................................
NEWSPAPER C A R R I E R S AND V E N D O R S . .
REAL E S T A T E A G EN TS , BR OKE RS............
STOCK AND BOND S A L ES A GE NTS ............
SALES R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S , MFG...............
SALES R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S ,
WHOLESALE T R A D E ......................................
SALES C L E R K S , R E T A I L T P A D E ...............
SALES WORKERS, R E T A I L T P A D E ,
EXCEPT C L E R K S .................................................
SALES WORKERS, S E RV I C E AND
C O NS T R UC T I O N ..............................................
CLERICAL

WORKERS..........................................................

STE NOGR APHE RS , T Y P I S T S , AND
S E C R E T A R I E S .................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S , L E G A L ......................................
S E C R E T A R I E S , M E D I C A L ................................
S E C R E T A R I E S , O T H E P ......................................
STE NOGR APHE RS....................................................
T Y P I S T S ......................................................................
O F F I C E MACHINE O P E R A T O R S . . . . . . . .
BOOKKE EPI NG, B I L L I N G O P E R A T O R S . .
CALC ULA TI NG MACHINE O P E R A T O R S . . .
COMPUTER, P ER I PH ER AL EQUIPMENT
O P E R A T O R S .......................................................
D U P L I C A T I N G MACHINE O P E R A T O R S . . .
KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R S ......................................
T ABULATI NG MACHINE OPE RA TO RS -------OTHER O F F I C E MACHINE O P E R A T O R S . .
OTHER C L E R I C A L WORKERS................................
BANK T E L L E R S .......................................................
B I L L I N G C L E R K S .................................................
BOOKKE EPE RS ..........................................................
C A S H I E R S .......................................................... ..
CLERICAL A S S I S T A N T S , SOCIAL
*
WELFARE.............................................................
C L E R I C A L S UP E R V I S O R S N E C .....................
C O L L E C T O R S , B I L L AND A C C O U N T . . . .
COUNTER C L E R KS , EXCEPT F O O D . . . . .
DISP ATC HERS, ST ARTE RS, V E H I C L E ..
ENUMERATORS AND I N T E R V I E W E R S . . . .
ESTIMATORS , INVESTIGATORS N E C . . .
E X P E D I T E R S , PRODUCE CONTR OLLE RS .
F I L E C L E R K S ..........................................................
I NS URANCE A D J U S T E R S , E X A M I N E R S . .
L I B R A R Y A TT ENDA NT S, A S S I S T A N T . . .
H AI L C A R R I E R S , POS T O F F I C E ...............
HAI L HA NDLE RS , ECEPT
POST O F F I C E .................................................
MESSENGERS AND O F F I C E H E L P E R S . . .




INDIRECT

D I RE CT

310

130

170

♦

-

*

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

_

80

NA
NA
NA

-

NA
NA
NA

140

_

140

_

_

_

80

-

*
*

_
_
_

TOTAL

NA TI ONAL I N S T I T U T E S OF HE1 LTH
D I R E C T O P ER A TI O NS
EXTRAMURAL PIROGPAM
NIH
CONSTRUCTI ON
STA FF
GRANTS
INDIR ECT
INDIRECT
D I R E CT

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

_

NA

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

_

NA

_

*
*

-

*
*

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

-

NA
NA

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

3,1 7 0
*

-

3 ,170
*

4 ,6 7 0
NA

50
NA

2,180
NA

930
NA

1,150
NA

370
NA

50
220
*

-

50
220
*

830

210
2,4 5 0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

-

1,5 3 0

220
*
210
3,2 8 0
1 ,530
60
*
*
*
100
*

_

_
-

-

_
-

220
*

2 ,5 5 0

60
*
*
*

NA
NA
NA
NA

100
*
130
*
4 60

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

-

_
-

_
-

410

-

220

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

_
-

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

-

1 ,920

_

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

130
*
460

-

530
*

530
♦

NA
NA

-

NA
NA

NA
NA

_

-

-

NA
NA

_

_

_

NA

_

NA

NA

-

NA

150

-

150

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

1 4 ,810

6 ,360

8 ,4 5 0

1 8 ,750

7 ,2 3 0

6,000

1,4 4 0

3 ,040

1,0 4 0

4 ,190
-

2 ,9 1 0
*

1 0,550
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
660
NA
NA

6,4 7 0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
50
NA
NA

1,8 4 0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
380
NA
NA

450
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
70
NA
NA

1,490
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
110
NA
NA

300
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
50
NA
NA

180
*
*

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

5 ,160
70
90
940
150

7 ,540
NA
NA
NA
NA

710
NA
NA
NA
NA

3 ,780
NA
NA
NA
NA

920
NA
NA
NA
NA

1 ,4 4 0
NA
NA
NA
NA

690
NA
NA
NA
NA

*

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

7 ,100
♦
120
2,180
60
550
810
*
*
90
♦
180
*
*
5 ,160
70
90
94 0
150
*
90
*
130
70
♦
180
140
150
*
*
220
90
*

_

440
-

_
*
-

*

*

-

_

120
2,1 8 0
60
550
370
*
*
90
*

-

90
*
130
70
♦
180
140
150
♦
*

-

220

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

90
*

NA
NA

-

-

_
-

_

na

VETERANS AD M IN IST R A T IO N
HEA LTH

NATIONAL

CARE

I N S T IT U T E S OF HEALTH

E X T R A M UR A L

OCCUPATION
TOTA L
METER R E A D E R S , U T I L I T I E S ........................
P A Y R O L L , T I M E K E E P I N G C L E R K S ..............
P O S T A L C L E R K S .............. .............................................
P R O O F R E A D E R S ...............................................................
R E A L E S T A T E A P P R A I S E R S ..............................

INDIRECT

DIRECT

DIRECT

TOTAL

*

_

♦

NA

100

-

100

NA

260
*

NA
NA

260
*
*

R E C E P T I O N I S T S ............................................................
S H I P P I N G , R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S .................
S T A T I S T I C A L C L E R K S ...........................................

640
310
160

S T O C K C L E R K S , S T O R E K E E P E R S .................
TEACHE R A I D E S , E X C E P T M O N I T O R S . .
telegraph
m e s s e n g e r s ....................................
T E L E G P A P H O P E R A T O R S .......................................
T E L E P H O N E O P E R A T O R S . . . . ...........................
TIC KE T STATIO N EXPRESS A G E N T S . . .

-

!

*

-

640
310
160

250
*

-

250
*

*
*

-

*
*

I
|
!
i

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

!
!
|

NA

NA

!

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

!
!

NA

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

!

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

3,56 0

I

280
90
*

2 ,19 0

1,70 0

490

W O R K E R S .................... .......................................................

7,52 0

450

7,07 0

8,35 0

320

2,230

*

2,2 3 0

3,20 0

*

*

680
*

W O R K E R S .......................

C A R P E N T E R S .....................................................................
CARPENTERS'
A P P R E N T I C E S ...........................
B B I C K M A S O N S AND S T O N E M A S O N S . . . . .

NA
*

A P P R E N T IC E S ...

150
*
*
*

E L E C T R I C I A N S ...............................................................
E L E C TR IC IA N S'
A P P R E N T I C E S ....................
E X C A V A T I N G , G R A D I N G , MACH INE

NA
*

O P E R A T O R S ...............................................................
FLOOR L A Y E R S , E XC E F T
t i l e s e t t e r s ........................................................

80

STONEMASON

p a in t e r s

,

C O N S T R U C T I O N AND
........................................................

m a in te n a n c e

PAINTERS'

A P P R E N T I C E S .................................

P A P E R H A N G E R S ........................................ ......................
P L A S T E R E R S ........................... ......................... ...............
PLASTERERS’
PLUMBERS

A P P R E N T I C E S ...........................

A ND

*

*
-

_
_

150
*
*
*

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

740
NA
NA
NA
NA

360
*

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

80

NA

NA
NA

NA

|

I

NA
NA
i

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

3 ,37 0

370

740

2,14 0
NA
NA
NA
NA

160
NA
NA
NA

150
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA

NA
NA

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

*

330
*
*
*

*

NA
*
*
*

*
-

-

-

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

300

NA

NA

*

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

*

560

56 0

*

120

400
NA
NA

*
NA
NA

80
NA
NA

!
j

-

B L U E - C O L L A R WORKER
S U P E R V I S O R S N E C ...........................................

950

-

950

E X C L U D I N G M E C H A N I C S .....................
B L A C K S M I T H S ..................................................................
B C I L E R M A K E R S ..............................................................
H EA T T R E A T E R S ,
A N N E A L E R S , AND

670
*
*

*

670
*
*

960
NA
NA

180

400

-

NA
NA

NA
NA

T E M P E R E R S ...............................................................
F O R G E A ND HAMMER O P E R A T O R S .................

*
*

*
*

NA
NA

NA
NA

50
230
*

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

*

NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

70
60
*

_
-

1,01 0

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

WORKER S

M E T A L .................

50

M A C H I N I S T S .....................................................................
M A C H I N I S T S ' A P P R E N T I C E S ...........................
M I L L W R I G H T S ..................................................................
H O L D E R S , M E T A L ........................................................
H O L D E R S ' A P P R E N T I C E S ....................................
P A T T E R N AND MODEL M A K E R S .......................

230
*

DIE

NA
NA

NA

70
60
*

A ND

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA

JOB

NA
NA
NA

NA

P I P E F I T T E P S .......................

CRAFT

NA
NA

NA
NA

P L U M B E R S ' AND P I P E F I T T E R S '
A P P R E N T I C E S ........................................................
R O O F E R S AND S L A T E R S ........................................
S T R U C T U R A L ME TA L W O R K E R S ........................
T I L E S E T T E R S ..................................................................

MET ALWORKING

NA
NA

I

B U L L D O Z E R O P E R A T O R S ........................................
CE ME NT AND C O N C R E T E F I N I S H E R S . . .

BRICK,

TNDTP.ECT

;

-

CRAFT

() P E R A T I O N S

NA

280
90
*

CONSTRUCTION

DIRECT
NIH
STAFF

NA

W E I S H T E R S ...............................................................
M IS C E LL A N EO U S C L E R I C A L
WO RK ER S N E C ........................................................
CRAFT

P R O G RA M
Ic o n st r u c t io n
;
j
GRANTS

in d ir e c t

SETTEES,

50
*
*
*

R O L L E R S AND F I N I S H E R S , M E T A L --------S H E E T M E T AL W O R K E R S , T I N S M I T H S . .
SHEET METAL A P P R E N T I C E S . . . . . . . . .

100
♦

TOOL,
TOOL,

110
♦

D T E M A K E R S ..................................................
D I E M A K E R A P P R E N T I C E S .................

_
*

50
*
*
*

*
-

100
*
110
*

;

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

MECHAN ICS, R E P A IR E R S , IN S T A L L E R S ..
A I R C O N D I T I O N I N G , H E A D I N G , AND

1,4 7 0

210

1,470

1,62 0

120

940

330

80

160

R E F R I G E R A T I O N ..............................................
A I R C R A F T M E C H A N I C S ........................... ...............

♦
-

90
50
*

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

A U TO

ACCESSORIES

I N S T A L L E R S ..............

90
50
*

AUTO
AUTO
A UTO

B O D Y R E P A I R E R S ........................................
M E C H A N I C S . . . ..............................................
M E C H A N I C S ' A P P R E N T I C E S ..............

50
320
*

DATA

PROCESSING

MACHINE

R E P A I R E R S . . .......................................................
FARM I M P L E M E N T M E C H A N I C S .......................

*
*

HE AV Y E Q U I P M E N T M E C H A N I C S
I N C L U D I N G D I E S E L ....................................
H O US E H O L D A P P L I A N C E M E C H A N I C S . . .
LOOM F I X E R S ........................................................... ...
O F F I C E M A C H I N E R E P A I R E R S ........................

460
70
*

R E P A I R E R S ..............

80
*
*

M E C H A N I C S , E X C L U D I N G A UTO
A P P R E N T I C E S ........................................................

*

RADIO ,

TV

RAILROAD

R E P A I R E R S .......................................
CAR




SH OP

-

_
-

_
*

NA
NA

50
320
*

NA

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

*
*

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

460
70
*

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

NA

NA
NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

*

80
*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

NA

!

NA

VETERANS

N ATION AL

A D M IN IST RA T IO N

IEALTH

IN ST ITU TE S

E X T !PAMURAL

CARE

DIRECT

TOTAL
H EC H A N IC S

PR IN TIN G

CRAFT

AND

R E P A IR E R S ...

W O R K E R S ...........................................

B O O K B I N D E R S .............................................................................
CO M PO SITO RS

AND

T Y P E S E T T E R S ................

BLECTROTYPERS,
ENGRAYERS

S T E R E O T Y P E P S ................

NA

210

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

_

340
*

450

NA

2 9 0

♦

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

140
*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

140
*

-

8 0

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

*

NA

-

NA

j

NA

NA

NA

120
♦

*

120
*

NA

-

NA

j

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

*

-

♦

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

3 8 0

310

1 60

9 0

A P P R E N T I C E S ....................

PRIN TIN G

A P P R E N T IC E S,

EXCEPT

O P E R A T O R S ..................................................
P U B L IC

U T IL IT Y

W O R K E R S ..........................................................
LIN E

380

IN STALLERS

_
_

NA

NA

_
_

60

NA

-

-

NA

NA

H E L P E R S ...

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

O P E R A T O R S ...............................

♦

-

♦

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

2 2 0

-

220

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

E N G I N E E R S ..........................................

LO C O M O T IV E

E N G IN E E RS'

ST A TIO N

TELEPHONE

IN ST A L LE R S,

TE LE PH IN E

LIN E

R E PA IR E R S.

80
*

NA

_

_

80
*

R E P A I R E R S ..........................................................

LO CO M O TIV E
PO W ER

IN D IRE C T

2 0 0

-

O P E R A T O R S ...........................

AND

C PE RA T IO H S
3

N IH
STAFF

-

PRESS

POWER

D IR EC T

GRANTS

IN D IRE C T

*

PRESS

CRAFT

D IR EC T

*

PR IN TIN G

E L E C T R IC

340
♦

TOTAL

PHOTOENGRAVERS.

PR IN TIN G

TRAN SPO RTATIO N ,

21 0

IN D IRECT

L IT H O G R A P H E R S ...

EXCEPT

PHOTOENGRAVERS,

PRESS

HEALTH

CON STRU CTION

OCCU PATION

OTHER

OF

P iIO G R A H

NA

-

NA

IN STALLE R S,

S P L I C E R S ............................................................................

W O R K E R S ......................................................

1 ,0 3 0

2 1 0

*

4 60

190

*

90

NA

1 7 0

1 ,0 3 0
*

800

B A K E R S ................................................................................................

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

C A B I N E T M A K E R S .....................................................................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

90
♦

-

90

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

OTHER

CRAFT

CARPET

I N S T A L L E R S .....................................................

CRANE,

D E R R IC K ,

DECORATORS,

H O IST

W INDOW

OPERATORS.

D R E S S E R S ................

150
♦

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

150
*

NA

F IN IS H E R S ....

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

F U R R I E R S ........................................................................................

-

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

G L A Z I E R S ........................................................................................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

IN SPEC TO RS,

LOG

L U M B E R ....................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

IN SPE C TO R S,

O T H E R ......................................................

60

-

60

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

W A T C H M A K E R S ...........................

60

-

NA

NA

DENTAL

LABORATORY

F U R N ITU R E

AND

AND

AND

M ILLE R S,

60

NA

NA

NA

NA

F E E D ................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

G R A IN ,

PICTU RE

O P TIC IA N S,

NA

P R O J E C T IO N IS T S ...

JEW ELERS
M OTION

T E C H N IC IA N S ...

W OOD

FLOUR,

LENS

G RIN D ERS,

AND
_

140
*

NA

NA

NA

-

140
*

NA

R E P A IR E R S ..

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

S H I P F I T T E R S .............................................................................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

SHOE

R E P A I R E R S .................................................................

♦

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

SIGN

PA IN TE R S

P O L I S H E R S .........................................................................
PIAN O ,

ORGAN

TUNERS,

L E T T E R E R S ................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

E N G I N E E R S ...........................................

ST A TIO N A RY

120
*

-

120
*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

AND

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

T A I L O R S ................................... ... ....................................................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

U P H O L S T E R E R S .........................................................................

120

*

120

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

50
*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

STONE

CUTTERS,

STONE

C A R V E R S ....

N E C ...

50

*

N E C .......................................

*

-

O P E R A T I V E S ...................................................................................................

CRAFT

AND

CRAFT

A PPR E N T IC E S

K IN D RED

WORKERS

9 ,2 1 0

2 2 0

8 ,9 9 0

8 ,7 2 0

-

5 ,3 1 0

2 ,0 7 0

3 3 0

1 ,0 1 0

OPER A TIV ES,

EXCEPT

T R A N S P O R T ....................

6 ,4 2 0

-

6 ,4 2 0

6 ,5 8 0

-

4 ,2 1 0

1 ,6 0 0

-

780

SE M IS K IL L E D

M E T A L W O R K I N G ...................................

7U0

_

74 0

910

-

45 0

3 8 0

-

° 0

50

-

50

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

D R ILL

PRESS

FURNACE

O P E R A T I V E S ...................................

TENDERS,

SM ELTERS,
*

_

*

NA

_

NA

NA

GRIN D IN G

M AC H IN E

O P E R A T I V E S ................

80

-

-

NA

NA

-

NA

M E T A L .................................................................

♦

-

80
*

NA

HEATERS,

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

90
*

NA
NA

_

NA

NA

-

-

NA

NA

-

NA

_

*

NA

_

NA

NA

_

NA

AND

LATHE

P O U R E R S .................................................................

AND

H IL L IN G

M ACH IN E

O P E R A T I V E S .....................................................................
M E T A L P L A T E R S .....................................................................
OTHER

PR E C IS IO N
STAM PIN G

PRESS

O P E R A T O R S ..

S O L D E R E R S ....................................................................................
WELDERS

AND

_

_

NA

NA

M AC H IN E

O P E R A T O R S .....................................................................
PUNCH

90
*

_

FLAME

C U T T E R S ........................

T E X T IL E

W O R K E R S ........................

L A PP IN G ,

C O M B I N G ........................

*
100

-

100

NA

-

NA

NA

-

50

-

50

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

27 0

-

27 0

NA

-

NA

NA

“

NA

28 0

-

NA

-

80

*

*

*

-

28 0
*

120

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

T O P P E R S ..

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

W I N D E R S ................

110
*

-

110
*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

W E A V E R S ............................................................................................

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

OTHER

110

110

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

SE M IS K IL L E D
C A R D IN G ,
K N ITTERS,

LOOPERS,

SP IN N E R S ,

TW ISTE R S,

T E X T IL E

SE M ISK IL L E D

AND

O P E R A T I V E S ...........................

PACKIN G

AND

GRADERS
MEAT

WRAPPERS,

PACKERS,
GROCERY
OTHER

O PERATIVES,

NA

*

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

-

-

NA

-

NA

NA

-

-

56 0

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

*

-

*

NA

~

NA

4 ,2 1 0
*

2 1 0

4 ,2 1 0
*

53 0

1 9 0
*

-

-

T R A D E ................

-

M E A T ..

560

P A C K E R S ...............................

R E TA IL

EXCEPT

1 ,1 8 0

1 ,0 5 0

NA

NA

NA

EXCEPT

IN SU L A T IO N

W O R K E R S ....

A S S E M B L E R S ................................................................................
B L A S T E R S ........................................................................................




-

♦

T R A N S P O R T .........................................................................
ASBESTOS,

NA

M F G ............................

WRAPPERS,
PRODUCE

na

1 ,1 8 0
570

SORTERS,

140

190

-

-

EXCEPT

.

7 2 0

NA

570

E XA M IN E R S,

AND

.

MFG.

I N S P E C T I N G .....................................................................
CHECKERS,

-

-

-

7 9 0
*

.

1 ,0 2 0

2 5 0

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

4 ,7 6 0

2 ,9 6 0

NA

VETERANS

N ATIO N AL

A D M IN IST R A T IO N

HE A L T H

IN ST IT U T E S

EXTRAMURAL

CARE

IN D IR E C T

D IR EC T

*

_

♦

NA

-

H E L P E R S ..................................................

DIR EC T

iP E R A T 1 0 N S

NA

NIH

GRANTS

STAFF

NA

NA

NA
NA

IN D IR E C T

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

P P E S S E B S ...

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

N E C ...................................

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

180
*

NA

F A C T O R Y ................

18 0
*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

E A R T H .............................................................

-

NA

SURVEYORS'
CLOTHIN G
C U TT IN G

TOTAL

IN D IRE C T

DIRECT

O P E R A T IV E S ....

CAN N IN G

H E IIL T H

C O N STR U C TIO N
TOTAL

BO TTLIN G ,

OF

PROGRAM

OCCUPATION

IBO NERS

AND

O PERATIVES

DRESSMAKERS,

EXCEPT

NA

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

L A T H E R E R S ..

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

D R Y E R S ...............................................................................................

♦

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

D RILLERS,
DRY

WALL

IN STALLE R S,

100

NA

*

_

*

NA

_
_

*

-

*

NA

-

NA
♦

150

*

NA

_

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

-

-

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

N E C ..............................................

110

O P E R A T I V E S ......................................................

F IL E R S,

PO LISH ERS,

SANDERS,

AND.

B U F F E R S ................................................................................
GARAGE

WORKERS

ST A TIO N
LAUNDRY,

AND

D R YC LE A N IN G

EXCEPT

AND

OPERATIVES.

BUTCHERS

M F G .................................................................

HEATCUTTERS,

BUTCHERS,

H F G ....................

M I L L I N E R S ....................................................................................
O PERATIVES

M IX IN G
O ILE R S,

GREASERS,

PAIN TE R S,

-

110

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

70

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

*

-

70
*

NA

A U T O ...

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

A R TIC L E S .

100

-

100

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

W O R K E R S ....

60
*

-

60
♦

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

EXCEPT

MANUFACTURED

P H O T O G R A PH IC

PROCESS

R IV E T E R S

F A S T E N E R S ...................................

AND

100

GAS

A T T E N D A N T S .......................................

HEATCUTTERS

M IN E

NA

-

NA

NA

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

S A W Y E R S ...........................................................................................

60

-

60

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

S T I T C H E R S ..........................................

27 0
*

-

270
*

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

SA ILO R S

SEWERS

D E C K H A N D S ......................................

AN D

AND

SH O E M AK IN G

M ACH IN E

-

NA

5 0

_

50

NA

_

NA

NA

70

-

70

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

O P E R A T O R ..

1 ,1 1 0

-

1 ,1 1 0

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

N E C .................................................................

84 0

60

840

NA

"

NA

NA

NA

NA

250
*

-

2 ,5 7 0

♦

1 ,1 1 0

4 7 0

70

230

O P E R A T O R S .................................................................

-

*

NA

NA

NA

n a

NA

NA

D R I V E R S ............................................................................

60 0

-

600

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

FURNACE

TENDERS,

EXECEPT
W INDING

OPER A TIV ES
TRANSPORT
BOAT
BUS

STOKERS,

M E T A L ..........................................................

O PERATIVES

M ISC E LL A N EO U S

N E C ...................................

M AC H IN E

EQUIPM EN T

CONDUCTORS

AND

O P E R A T O R S ................

OPERATORS,

_

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

«

410

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

N E C ....................

-

170
*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

A T T E N D A N T S ..................................................

♦

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

R A I L .....................................................................
AND

FORK

L IF T ,

R A IL

ROUTE

V EH ICLE

PARKING

TOW

W O R K E R S ....................

MOTOR

O P E R A T O R S ..

OPERATORS

*

1 ,8 9 0

NA

170
*

URBAN
D E LIV ER Y

NA

*

_

NA

NA

NA

O P E R A T O R S ........................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

C H A U F F E U R S ................

M O

-

410

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

D R I V E R S . . .............................................................

890

-

890

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

W O R K E R S ................................................................................

5 1 ,6 3 0

4 6 ,0 0 0

5 ,6 3 0

6 ,5 8 0

900

4 ,0 8 0

3 8 0

7 1 0

530

_

1 ,3 8 0

1 ,6 5 0

130

1 ,2 0 0

15 0

♦

170

110

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

R A ILR O A D
AND

BRAKE

TRUCK

OPERATORS

C O U P L E R S .............................................................

R A ILR O A D
TAXICAB

SE R V IC E

O P E R A T IV E S ...

CLE A N IN G

SW IT C H
D RIVERS,

S E R V IC E

LO DGING

W O R K E R S ...................................

QUARTERS

EXCEPT

1 ,3 8 0

CLEANERS,

P R I V A T E .....................................................

110

♦

_

NA

N E C ..

470

-

4 7 0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

S E X T O N S ..........................................

NA

*

8 1 0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

W O P K E R S ..................................................

1 5 ,5 7 0

1 4 ,1 5 0

1 ,4 2 0

1 ,7 2 0

90

1 ,3 6 0

150

*

100

b a r t e n d e r s ................................................................................

110

-

110

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

50

-

50

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

P R I V A T E .......................................

2 ,4 9 0

390

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

D I S H W A S H E R S ............................................................................

100

2 ,1 0 0
-

100

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

B U ILD IN G

IN TE R IO R

JA N ITO RS

AND

FOOD

SE R V IC E

W AITERS *
COOKS,
FOOD

A S S I S T A N T S ..............................................

EXCEPT

W O R K E R S ..

90

-

90

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

W A I T R E S S E S ..............................................

510

-

510

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1 2 ,2 1 0

1 2 ,0 5 0

160

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

3 1 ,8 4 0

2 ,0 1 0

6 8 0

*

5 6 0

140

1 ,0 4 0

COUNTER,

W AITE R S,
FOOD

CLEANERS

WORKERS

FO UNTAIN
NEC,

EXCEPT

P R I V A T E ................................................................................
W O R K E R S ..........................................

2 ,0 1 0

DENTAL

A S S I S T A N T S ......................................................

1 ,0 4 0

-

HEALTH

A ID E S ,

T R A I N E E S ..............................................................

1 ,1 1 0
*

97 0

HEALTH

HEALTH

LAY

SE R V IC E

EXCEPT

N U R S IN G ....

PERSONAL

-

-

*

100

-

27 0

*

-

*

-

-

-

*

NA

-

-

-

-

-

-

570

990

190

5 0 0

*

240

fO

N U P S E S .........................................................

31 ,1 0 0

3 0 ,8 4 0

260

76 0

4 0 0

2 9 0

570

_

4 60

*

SE R V IC E

W O R K E R S ...................................

A T T E N D A N T S .....................................................

F L IG H T

90

*

5 7 0

A ID E S ,

PR A C TICA L

*
480

140
♦

9 1 0
*

O R D E R L I E S ...........................

M I D W I V E S .........................................................................

NURSES*

-

2 ,2 9 0

ATTENDANTS,

RECREATION

-

50

-

580
*

NA

-

NA

NA

*

_

*

NA

-

NA

NA

*

580
♦

AND

A M U S E M E N T ........................................................................
ATTENDANTS,

*

PERSONAL

-

_

NA

NA

*

_

NA

_

NA

NA

B E L L H O P S ....

*

-

♦

NA

-

NA

NA

-

B A R B E R S ...........................................................................................

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

B O A R D IN G ,

*

-

*

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

-

-

SE R V IC E
BAGGAGE

N E C .................................................................

PORTERS

AND

LO D G IN G

H O U S E K E E P E R S ..

B O O T B L A C K S ................................................................................
CH ILD

CARE

WORKERS,

NA
NA

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

EXCEPT

P R I V A T E ................................................................................




-

_

♦

7 0

3 3 0

I

3 3 0

I

f

...... ... ................. .......... .............

......-

....................... ........
VETERANS

A D M IN IST R A T IO N

iE A L T H

N ATION AL

CARE

IN ST ITU TE S

EXTRAMURAL

O P E R A T O R S ..................................................

DIRECT
*

_

TOTAL

D IR EC T

*

NA

_

IN D IRE C T

D IRECT
STAFF

O PERATIO N S

N IH

GRANTS

NA

NA

_

IN D IRE C T
NA

*

-

*

NA

NA

-

NA

-

70

NA

-

NA

70

NA

NA

-

NA

A P P R E N T IC E S ....

-

-

-

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

M O N I T O R S . . ......................................................

*

C O S M E T O L O G I S T S _______
EXCEPT

PERSONAL
SCH OOL

SE R V IC E

-

NA

-

NA

240
♦

360

*

15 0

*

12 0

♦

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

SE R V IC E

W O R K E R S ............................

C R O SS IN G

GUARDS,

B R ID G E T E N D B R S . .

24 0
*

.........................................................................

♦

G U A R D S ................................................................................................

_
-

-

NA
NA
NA

-

-

220
-

NA

C O N S T A B L E S ...............................

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

D E T E C T I V E S .......................................

*

-

*

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA

AND

AND

SH E R IF F S

-

NA

-

NA

*

A H U S B H E N T .. .

P R O T EC T IV E

PO LICE

NA

NA

NA

*

-

SER YIC B

M ARSHALS

NA
NA

*

-

*

RECR E A TIO N ,

WELFARE

r i r b r i g h t e r s

-

*

A I D E S .......................................

USHERS,

AND

B A I L I F F S .......................................

22 0

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

*

-

W O R K E R S ...............................

-

_

_

W O R K E R S ..................................................

-

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

P R I V A T B .................................................................

-

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

P R I V A T E .......................................

-

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

P R I V A T E ...............................................

-

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

-

-

-

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

2 ,4 3 0
*

4 5 0
-

1 ,9 8 0

7 ,6 0 0

3 ,5 4 0

1 ,7 5 0

♦

1 ,7 3 0

6 2 0

4 0 0
*

H E L P E R S ..............................................

80

-

80

200

7 8 0
-

1 ,1 2 0
*

8 0 0

C A R E T A K E R S ......................................................

660
*

HOUSEHOLD

C H ILD

IN D IRE C T

P R I V A T E ----------

H AIR D B E SSE B S,
HOUSEKEEPERS,

PR IV A TE

HEALTH

C O N STR U C TIO N
TOTAL

ELETATOB

OF

PIR O G R A M

OCCU PATION

CARE

COOKS,

HOUSEKEEPERS,
1AUN DERERS,
PR IVA TE
AND

HOUSEHOLD

CLEANERS

S E R V A N T S .............................................................

LABORERS,
ANIMAL

EXCEPT

CARPENTERS'
C O N STR U C TIO N

F A R M ..............................................

LABORERS,

CARPENTERS'

*.

190

-

100
♦

54 0
*

EXCEPT

_

*
♦

T R A P P E R S ..

380
*

-

380
*

-

*

FR E IG H T

M ATERIAL

H A N D L E R S ........................

5 0 0

-

500

3 0 0

140

-

60

C O L L E C T O R S ..................................................

*

-

*

500
*

-

GARBAGE

-

*

*

-

*

130

-

130

260

-

90

*

-

15 0

♦

*

_

*

*

_

_

*

*

_

6 0
*

-

*

-

*

_

FISH E R S,

H E L P E R S ...................................

2 9 0
-

HUNTERS,

GARDENERS

AND

LONGSHORE

AND

WORKERS

G R O U N D S K E E P E R S ....

♦

_

W O R K E R S ................................................................................

♦

_

*

*

S T O C K H A N D L E R S .....................................................................

160
*

-

160
*

350

-

2 60

*

-

*

_

AND

S T E V E D O R E S .....................................................................
TIM BER

CU TTIN G

AND

LO GGING

T E A M S T E R S ....................................................................................
VEH ICLE

AND

100

90

60

*

90

-

90

80

-

50

♦

-

*

3 6 0

-

360

3 ,6 1 0

2 ,7 7 0

190

110

5 1 0

*

-

2 5 0

AND

FARM

LABORERS

W O R K E R S ..............................................

1 ,3 1 0

-

1 ,3 1 0

840

-

5 30

70

M A N A G E R S ..................................................

7 3 0

_

73 0

NA

_

NA

NA

-

7 1 0
*

NA

-

NA

~

NA

FARM
AND

FARMERS
FARM

_

100

N E C ...................................

L A B O R E R S .................................................................

OTHER

FARMERS

WASHERS

*

C L B A N E R S .............................................................

AND

WAREHOUSE

FARMERS

EQU IPM EN T,

*

(OWNERS

AND

T E N A N T S )....

M A N A G E R S .....................................................................

LABORERS

AND

NA

_

NA

NA

-

NA

NA

-

HA

LABOR

S U P E R V I S O R S .................................................................

NA

580
*

NA

-

580
*

NA

S U P E R V I S O R S ...................................

NA

-

NA

NA

-

W O R K E R S ................

3 7 0

-

370

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

F A M IL Y ....

.2 0 0

-

200

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

S E L F -E M P L O Y E D ....

-

-

-

NA

-

NA

NA

-

NA

FARM

LABOR

FARM

LABORERS,

WAGE

FARM

LABORERS,

U N P A ID

FARM

LABORERS,

SEE FOOTNOTES

7 1 0
*

*

AT END OP T A B L E .




NA
NA

OCCUPATION

HANPO HER IN S T IT U T IO N A L T R A IN IN G
1INDIRECT
A LLO H PURANCES
CHASES
TOTAL D IRECT1 TOTAL

N ATIONAL

AERONAU TICS

ANI) SPACE

TO TAL PR0G RAH
D IR E C T
IN D IR E C T
TOTAL

A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

SPACE
TOTAL

SHUTTLE
DIRECT

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T

26, n o

1 3 ,0 7 0

1 2 ,6 7 0

1 0 ,2 3 0

2 ,0 1 0

1 8 8 ,1 5 0

2 7 ,7 5 0

1 6 0 ,4 0 0

1 2 ,9 2 0 -

2 ,2 5 0

1 0 ,6 7 0

AND T E CH N ICAL H O R N E R S ...

8 ,2 2 0

7 ,0 9 0

1 ,1 3 0

750

380

5 6 ,0 9 0

1 8 ,4 4 0

3 8 ,0 5 0

3 ,9 6 0

1 ,8 6 0

2 ,1 0 0

ENG IN B E P.S, T E C H N IC A L ......................................
E N G IN E E R S , A E R O -A S T R O N A U T IC A L .. .
E N G IN E E R S , CH EM ICAL...................................
E N G IN E E R S , C I V I L ............................................
E N G IN E E R S , E L E C T R IC A L .............................
E N G IN E E R S , IN D U S T R IA L .............................
E N G IN E E R S , M ECHANICAL.............................
E N G IN E E R S , M E TALLU RG ICAL.....................
E N G IN E E R S , M IN IN G .........................................
E N G IN E E R S , PETROLEUM................................
E N G IN E E R S , S A L E S ............................................
E N G IN E E R S , OTHER............................................

120
*
♦
*
*
*
♦
*
*
*
*
*

_

2 5 ,2 0 0
9 ,6 6 0
370
580
5 ,8 3 0
1 ,0 0 0
2 ,3 2 0
530
-

1 0 ,4 3 0
480
*
4c

1tt, 8 1 0
4 ,7 8 0
370
580
3 ,6 0 0
1 ,3 0 0
2 ,1 9 0
230
-

2 ,0 9 0
850
4c
*

1 ,3 0 0
640
4
c
-

790
210
4
c
4c

430
100
190
4c
♦
4c
4c

240
4c
*
*
-

190
100
190
4c
4
c
4t
4
c

460

380

80

L I F E AND P H T S IC A L S C I E N T I S T S ...............
AGRICULTURAL S C I E N T I S T S ........................
A T M O SP H E R IC , SPACE S C I E N T I S T S . . .
B IO L O G IC A L S C I E N T I S T S ..............................
C H E M IS T S ..................................................................
G E O L O G IS T S .............................................................
MARINE S C I E N T I S T S .........................................
P H Y S IC IS T S AND ASTRONOMERS............ ..
L I F E , P H Y S IC A L S C IE N T IS T S N E C . . .

*
*

140
4c
4
>
4c
♦
4c
4c
4
c

100
4c
♦
4
c
4
c
_
*

40
*
4c
4c
4c
4c
4c

MATHEMATICAL S P E C I A L I S T S ...........................
A C T U A R IE S ................................................................
M ATH E M A TIC IA N S..................................................
S T A T I S T I C I A N S ....................................................

*
*
♦
*

4c
4
c
4c

♦
_

TOTAL,

ALL O C C U P A T IO N S .........................................

P R O F E SSIO N A L

E N G INEERING AND S C IE N C E
T E C H N IC IA N S .................................................
AGRICULTURAL AND B IO L O G IC A L
T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................................
CHEMICAL T E C H N IC IA N S ................................
d r a f t e r s ...................................................................
E L E C T R IC A L AND ELE C TR O N IC
T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................................
IN D U S T R IA L ENGINEERING
T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................................
MATHEMATICAL T E C H N IC IA N S .....................
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................................
SUR V E YO R S................................................................
ENG INEERING AND S C IEN CE
T E C H N IC IA N S NEC......................................
MEDICAL

EXCEPT
t e c h n i c i a n s ..................................................
C H IR O P R A C T O R S ....................................................
D E N T IS T S ..................................................................
D I E T I T I A N S .............................................................
O P T O M E T R IST S .......................................................
P H A R M A C IST S ..........................................................
P H Y S I C IA N S , HD O STE O PA TH S..................
P O D I A T R IS T S ..........................................................
R E G IST E R E D NU RSES.........................................
T H E R A P IS T S .............................................................
V E T E R IN A R IA N S ....................................................
OTHER M EDICAL AND HEALTH
HORNERS.............................................................

*
*

*
*

-

_
-

80
4c
*
*
#
4c
*
4
c
4
c
4
c
*

00
4
c
4c
4
>
4
c
*
4c
*
*
4c
4
c

4
c
4
c
4c
c
4
4c
*

4c
4c
*
♦
4c
4c

4
c
4c
*
4c
4
>

5 ,0 1 0
4c
1 ,7 1 0
70
630
200
-

-

-

120
4c
4c
4
<
4c
4c
4c
c
4
4c
*
4
c
4c

~

4
c
*
4c
4
c

4c
4c
4
c

♦
4
c

4c

9 ,0 7 0

130
0 ,3 5 0

2 ,3 3 0
100
130
300
2 ,7 6 0
1 ,4 2 0
4c
♦
70
90
4c

3 ,5 9 0
-

1 ,6 2 0
620

870
380

750
240

1 ,2 1 0
-

850
-

360
-

1 ,1 0 0
100

850
4c !

250
100

100

-

♦
♦
*

-

4c
4
>
: 4c

*
4c
4c

*
4c
4c

180
1 ,7 6 0

*

-

4
c

4
c

4c

-

♦
♦

-

*
4c

4
c
4c

4c
4c

3 ,1 7 0
160

-

-

-

-

-

70
810

70
700

*

-

4c

4c

4c

130

-

160
c
4
>
4
4c
4c
4c
4c
*
70
4c
4
>

150
4c
4c
4c
4c
4
<
*
4
c
70
4c
4
c

4c
4c
4
>
*
-

100

70

130
1 ,5 9 0

4c

4 ,0 7 0
4c
4c
4c
1 ,7 6 0
4c

1 ,7 1 0
540
240
-

5 ,0 0 0
_

60

30
-

640

300
4
c
4c

4c
4c

180
1 ,7 6 0

130

-

-

4c
_
4c
4c

340
4c
130

-

-

1 ,4 1 0
160

150
4
c

60
4c

90
4c

_
110

4
>
4
>

*
70

4c
*

130

4c

-

4c

1 ,2 2 0
330
70
-

230
♦
*
4c
4
>
4c

150
_
_
_
_
_
-

80
4c
_
_
-

HORNERS,

HEALTH TECH NO LO GISTS AND
T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................................
C L IN IC A L LAB T E C H N IC IA N S .....................
DENTAL H Y G IE N IS T S .........................................
HEALTH RECORD T E C H N IC IA N S ..................
R A D IO L O G IC TECHNOLOGISTS AND
T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................................
THERAPY A S S I S T A N T S ......................................
OTHER HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
T E C H N IC IA N S N EC ......................................

250
*
*
♦
. *
*
*

*

NA
*
*

90
*
*
♦
4c
*

*

-

*

*

♦
*
*
*

-

*
4c
4c
4c

♦
4c
4
c
4
c

-

4c

*

*

-

4c

*

4c

4c

4c

4c

♦
-

4c

4<

-

-

♦
♦

-

*

T E C H N IC A N S , EXCEPT HEALTH........................
A IR P L A N E P I L O T S ...............................................
A IR T R A F F IC C ON TROLLERS........................
E H B ALRERS................................................................
f l ig h t
e n g i n e e r s ............................................
R A D IO OPE R A TO RS...............................................
TOOL PROGRAMMERS, N U M ERICAL............
OTHER TECH NICANS EXCEPT H E A L T H ..

*
*
*
*
♦
♦

_
-

COMPUTER S P E C I A L I S T S ......................................
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS................................
COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A L Y ST S ..................
OTHER COMPUTER S P E C I A L I S T S ...............

5

S O C IA L S C I E N T I S T S ...............................................
E C O N O M IST S.............................................................
P O L I T IC A L S C I E N T I S T S ................................




*
*
*
*

*
-

-

4c

4c
4c

4>

*

2 ,7 0 0
330
4
>
4c
-

1 ,4 8 0
4
<
_
♦
4
>
-

*

4c
-

160
-

-

150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4c
4
c
-

-

_
*
4c
_

-

-

_

_

_

-

110

4c

-

4c

470
220
_

4t
4c

4c

4c
4c

150
4c
-

4c

550
220
-

4c
♦

4c

80
4<

_

_
_
_
_
*
_

_
_

610

-

_

4c
4<

_

4c

4c

4c

-

-

-

-

*

4c

4c

4c

190

70

120

4c
4c

-

5

4>

4c

-

4c

4<

*

4>
4c
4c

200
120
60

4>

2 ,3 2 0
1 ,3 8 0
760
110

2 ,1 2 0
1 ,2 6 0
700
110

130
80
50
*

4c
4c

*
-

4c

4c

*

_

4c

4c

4c

400
330
-

4c

4c

-

-

4c
4c

♦
4c
_
4
c
4c

610

450
330
-

4c

50
4c

-

' *
-

_
4c

*
4c

*
4>
4c

_
I

130
80
50
4c

*
4c

-

MANPOWER IN S T IT U T IO N A L T R A IN IN G
IN D IR E C T
ALLOW­
pur­
ANCES
ch ases
TOTAL D IR E C T1 TOTAL

OCCUPATION

P S Y C H O L O G IS T S ....................................................
S O C IO L O G I S T S .......................................................
URBAN AND REGIONAL PIA N N E R S ............
OTHER S O C IA L S C I E N T I S T S ........................

*
*

TE A C H E R S .........................................................................
ADULT E D U C A T IO N ..............................................
A G R IC U L T U R E ..........................................................
A R T , D RAH A, M U S IC .........................................
A T M O S P H E R IC , E A R TH , AND
MARINE S C IE N C E .........................................
B IO L O G Y .....................................................................
B U S IN E S S , COMMERCE......................................
C H E M IST R Y ................................................................
CO ACH ES, P H Y S IC A L E D U CATIO N ............
ECONOM ICS................................................................
ED U C A TIO N ................................................................
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.........................................
E N G IN E E R IN G ..........................................................
E N G L IS H ......................................................................
FOREIGN LANGUAGE............................................
HEALTH S P E C I A L T I E S ......................................
H IS T O R Y ......................................................................
HOME ECO N O M IC S.................................................
LAW.................................................................................
M ATHEM ATICS..........................................................
P H Y S I C S .....................................................................
PRESCH OOL, KINDERGARTEN........................
PSYCHOLOGY.............................................................
SECONDARY SCHOOL............................................
S O C IO L O G Y ................................................................
S O C IA L SC IE N C E TEACHERS NEC............
MISCELLANEOUS COLLEGE AND
U N IV E R S IT Y TEACH ERS..........................
COLLEGE AND U N IV E R S IT Y
TEACHERS NE C..............................................
THEOLOGY...................................................................
TR A D E , IN D U S T R IA L .........................................
TEACHERS N E C , E XCEPT COLLEGE
AND U N IV E R S IT Y .........................................

NA
*
*
*
♦
-

W R IT E R S , A R T I S T S , E N T E R T A I N E R S ....
AC TO R S.........................................................................
A TH LETES AND KINDRED W O R K E R S ....
AUTHORS......................................................................
D ANCERS......................................................................
D E S IG N E R S ................................................................
E D IT O R S AND R E P O RTERS.............................
M U S IC IA N S AND COM POSERS........................
P A IN T E R S AND S C U L P T O R S ..........................
PH OTOGRAPHERS....................................................
P U B L IC R E L A T IO N S WORKERS AND
W R IT E R S .............................................................
R A D IO , TV ANNOUNCERS................................
W R IT E R S , A R T I S T S , AND
ENTE R TA IN E R S N E C .......................... .. . .

160
*
*
*
*
*
♦
♦
*
*

P R O F E SSIO N A L AND TECHNICAL
WORKERS.............................................................
a c c o u n t a n t s ..........................................................
A R C H IT E C T S .............................................................
A R C H IV IS T S AND CURATORS........................
c l e r g y .........................................................................
R E L IG O U S , EXCEPT CLERGY........................
FARM MANAGEMENT A D V IS O R S .....................
F O R E S T E R S , C O N S E R V A T IO N IS T S ............
HOME MANAGEMENT A D V IS O R S .....................
JU D G E S.........................................................................
LAW YERS......................................................................
L I B R A R IA N S .............................................................
O P E R A T IO N S , SYSTEMS R E S E A R C H ....
P ERSO NNEL, LABOR R E L A T IO N S ...............
RESEARCH WORKERS NEC................................
RECREATION WORKERS......................................
S O C IA L WORKERS..................................................
VO CATIO NAL COUN SELORS.............................

♦
-

NATIONAL

A D M IN IST R A T IO N
SHUTTLE
DIRECT

_
-

*
*

-

*
-

*
-

-

"

-

*
♦

5 ,8 3 0
-

*
*
-

*
*
-

_
-

840
*
-

-

*
♦
*
-

*
*
*
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*
-

-

*
-

-

♦

*
-*

AND SPACE
SPACE
TOTAL

*
*

-

AERONAU TICS

TO TAL PROG RAM
TOTAL
DIR E C T
IN D IR E C T
*
*

_
“

_

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T
*
-

*
~

*
* •
-

840
-

280
120
180
-

-

280
120
180
-

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

250
-

-

250
-

-

-

-

*

-

*

*

*

-

-

160
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

110
*
*

50
*
*
*

2 ,9 6 0
230
500
370
-

400
-

230
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

60
*
*
♦
*
*

170
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

*
*

♦
*

*

410
10
♦
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
♦
*
♦
♦
*

-

*

70
*

-

*

*
-

-

70
*

*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

*

-

*
-

-

350
310

120

2 ,5 6 0
170
500
370
350
190

*

340
-

70
-

270
-

*
♦

*
*

*
*

*

*

810

120

690

*

♦

*

220
70
*
*
*
*
*
♦
*
♦
*
*
*
*

190
*
*

8 ,3 2 0
2 ,7 4 0
250
*
1 ,3 1 0
330
900
1 ,4 0 0
960
80

880
370
♦
*
-

7 ,4 4 0
2 , 370
250

470
150
*

*

-

*
♦
*
*
*

470
150
*
-

*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*

*

*
*

*
*

60
*

OTHER

MANAGERS,

O F F IC IA L S ,

AND

P R O P R IE T O R S .

B U Y E R S, SA LE S AND LOAN M A N A G E R S ...
BANK, F IN A N C IA L MANAGERS.....................
C R E D IT MANAGERS...............................................
B U Y E R S, S H IP P E R S , FARM PRO D U CTS.
B U Y E R S, W HOLESALE, R E T A I L ..................
PURCHASING A G E N T S , BUYERS N E C . . .
SALES MANAGERS, R E T A IL TR A D E -------SALES M ANAGERS, EXCEPT
R E T A IL T R A D E ...............................................




1 ,5 8 0
200
*
♦
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

1 ,1 7 0
100
-

3 ,0 8 0

1 ,8 0 0

1 ,2 8 0

-

230
*
♦
*
*
*
50
60

-

*
*
-

*
1 ,0 4 0

230
*
*
♦
*
*
*

*
-

*

-

-

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
-

*
*

270

1 ,0 6 0

220

1 5 ,2 0 0

190
*
♦
*
*
*

3 ,0 1 0
490
90
-

50

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

80
1 ,7 0 0
80

*

*

560

-

90
*
80
220
60
-

-

2, r9 5 0

-

1 ,2 2 0
330
820
1 ,1 8 0
900
80
270

60
*
*
50
♦
60
90
*

60
*
*
50
*
60
90
*

-

-

-

*
*

-

*
*

1 2 ,2 5 0

1 ,0 0 0

180

820

2 , 1 2C
490
90
-

*
*

160
*
*
*
*

-

60
*

-

*

-

80
810
80

160
*
*
*
*
60
*

-

560

*

890
890

-

OCCUPATION

P U B L IC A D M IN IS T R A T O R S , I N S P E C T O R S .
A S S E S S O R S , C O N T R O L IE P S , AND
T R E A SU R E R S.....................................................
CONSTRUCTION IN S P E C T O R S ........................
HEALTH A D M IN IST R A T O R S ..............................
I N S P E C T O R S , EXCEPT P U B L IC
C O N ST R U C T IO N ...............................................
P U B LIC A D M IN IST R A TO R S AND
O F F I C IA L S NEC............................................
POSTM ASTERS AND MAIL
S U P E R V IS O R S .................................................
SCHOOL A D M IN IS T R A T O R S , C O L L E G E ..
SCHOOL A D M IN IS T R A T O R S ,
ELEHENTAPY AND SECONDARY............
OTHER MANAGERS, O F F I C I A L S , AND
P R O P R IE T O R S ..................................................
FUNERAL D IR E C T O R S .........................................
MANAGERS AND B U IL D IN G
SU P E R IN T E N D E N TS......................................
O F F IC E MANAGERS N EC...................................
O F F IC E R S , P I L O T S , PU RSERS, S H IP .
O F F I C IA L S OF L O D G E S , U N IO N S ............
R A IL R O A D CONDUCTORS...................................
R E STA U R A N T, C A F E , BAR M AN A G E R S ..
OTHER MANAGERS, A D M IN IS T R A T O R S ..
SALE S WORKERS..........................................................
A D V E R T IS IN G AGENTS AND
SALE S W O R K E R S . . . . ................................
A U C T IO N E E R S ..........................................................
d e m o n s t r a t o r s ....................................................
h u c k s t e r s a n d p e d d l e r s ...........................
INSURANCE A G E N TS, BROKERS, AND
UNDERW RITERS..............................................
NEWSPAPER C A R R IE R S AND V E N D O R S ..
REAL E ST A T E A G EN TS, BROKERS............
STOCK AND BOND SALES AG EN TS............
SALES R E P R E S E N T A T IV E S , MFG...............
SALES R E P R E S E N T A T IV E S ,
WHOLESALE T P A D E ......................................
SALES C L E R K S , R E T A IL TR A D E ...............
salbs
w o rk ers,
r e t a il t r a d e .
EXCEPT CLE R K S.................................................
SALES WORKERS, S E R V IC E AND
C O N ST R U C T IO N ..............................................
C L E R IC A L

WORKERS..........................................................

STEN O G R A PH E R S, T Y P I S T S , AND
S E C R E T A R IE S ..................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S , L E G A L ......................................
S E C R E T A R IE S , M E D IC A L ................................
S E C R E T A R T E S , O THER......................................
STENOGRAPHERS....................................................
T Y P I S T S .....................................................................
O F F IC E MACHINE O P E R A T O F S ....................
BO O K K EEPING , B I L L IN G O P E R A T O R S ..
C ALCULATING MACHINE O P E R A T O R S ...
COMPUTER, P E R IPH ERAL EQUIPMENT
O P E R A T O R S .......................................................
D U P L IC A T IN G MACHINE O P E R A T O R S ...
KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R S......................................
TABU LATIN G MACHINE O P E R A T O R S ....
OTHER O F F IC E MACHINE O P E R A T O R S ..
OTHER C L E R IC A L WORKERS................................
BANK T E L L E R S .......................................................
B IL L IN G C L E P K S ..................................................
BOOKKEEPERS..........................................................
C A S H IE R S ...................................................................
C L E R IC A L A S S I S T A N T S , S O C IA L
W ELFARE.............................................................
C L E R IC A L S U P E R V ISO R S N E C .....................
C O L L E C T O R S , B I L L AND A C C O U N T ....
COUNTER C L E R K S , EXCEPT FO O D ............
D IS P A T C H E R S , S T A R T E R S , V E H I C L E ..
ENUMERATORS AND I N T E R V I E W E R S ....
E S T IM A T O R S , IN V E S T IG A T O R S N E C . . .
E X P E D IT E R S , PRODUCE CONTROLLERS.
F I L E C L E R K S ..........................................................
INSURANCE A D J U S T E R S , E X A M IN E R S ..
L IB R A R Y A TTEN D AN TS, A S S I S T A N T ...
M AIL C A R R IE R S , POST O F F I C E ...............
MAIL H A N D LE PS, ECEPT
POST O F F I C E .................................................
MESSENGERS AND O F F IC E H E L P E R S ...




MANP<DWER INS T IT U T IO N A L T R A IN IN G
CNDTRECT
ALLOW­
PURANCES
CHASES
TOTAL d i r e c t 1 TOTAL

NATIONAL

AERONAU TICS

AND SPACE A D M IN IST R A T IO N

TOTAL PROGRAM
TOTAL
D IR E C T
IN D IR E C T

SPACE
TOTAL

SHUTTLE
DIRECT

*

_

♦

*

*

1 ,9 1 0

910

*

120

*

-

♦

♦

-

♦
-

*
-

-

*
-

*
-

570

570

*

2 ,8 2 0

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

*

*

-

1 ,3 0 0

*
*

-

*
*

*
*

*
*

90
600

*

1 ,7 9 0

*

-

*

1 ,0 9 0
*

60
-

1 ,0 3 0
*

860
*

170
-

*
*
*
*
*

*

*
60
♦
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

50

90
810

80
660

150

190
8 ,6 6 0

150

-

1 ,0 8 0

950

130

3 ,9 7 0

NA
860
1 ,0 8 0

*
*
*

-

*
*

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T
♦
-

*

-

1 ,3 0 0

-

*

80

♦

-

90
600

*
*

-

*
♦

-

-

-

*

-

*

9 ,5 7 0
-

150
-

9 ,9 2 0
-

650
*

*
-

650
*

190
510
-

*
-

190
510
190
8 ,5 1 0

♦
*
*
♦
*
*
580

*

*
♦
*
*
*
*

*

3 ,9 7 0

*

_

580
*

♦
*
♦
*

-

♦
*
♦
*

*
♦
*
*

*
*
*

100
-

-

100
-

*
*
*
*

-

*
*
*
♦

90
*
110
*

90
*

70
*

330
930
70
1 ,0 6 0

*
-

330
-

70

-

930
70
1 ,0 6 0

*
*
♦
*
70

-

*
*
*
*
70

180
930

720
620

-

720
620

60
*

-

60
*

110
♦

90
*

70

50

*
*
*
♦
*

-

180
930

150
920

*
*

80

-

80

80

*

110

-

110

*

-

*

*

-

*

*

*

980

-

980

*

-

*

5 ,3 1 0

3 ,0 6 0

2 ,2 5 0

1 ,7 9 0

510

3 0 ,9 9 0

-

3 0 ,9 9 0

2 ,2 1 0

210

2 ,0 0 0

1 ,9 9 0
*
*

1 ,3 5 0
-

990
*
*

150
*
-

1 9 ,8 6 0
2 ,9 7 0
-

650
*
*

310
*
100
70
*
*

110
*
♦
♦
♦
*

7 ,2 9 0
1 ,8 3 0
2 ,6 8 0
2 ,6 7 0
160
60

790
*
*
530
*
150
190
*
90

190
-

1 ,3 5 0
*
*
9 30
930
-

9 ,9 2 0
2 ,5 0 0
-

1 0 ,9 9 0
970
-

1 ,7 6 0
*
NA
530
♦
*

590
*
*
910
*
190
100
*
*

80
*
*
*
-

9 50
*
150
190
*
90

*
*

*
-

*
♦

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
♦

620
150
970
*
160

*
*
*
*
*

*
-

-

50
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

1 ,2 8 0
*
*

1 ,5 6 0
*
♦
28 0
180

1 ,2 3 0
*
*
230
1 70

330
*
*
*
♦

2 0 ,3 1 0
210
210
2 ,6 6 0
560

1 ,8 6 0
-

1 ,2 7 0
*
*
160
♦

70
*
*

1 ,2 0 0
*
*
160
♦

360

*
*

*
*

-

60
♦
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

380
190
500
110
110
710
1 ,5 0 0
680
100
510
690

*

♦
*
*
*
*

_

_
*
*
*
*
*

*
♦

390
130

NA
*
*
2 ,8 9 0
*
*
NA
NA
*
*
60
*
*

*

50
*
*
*
*

60

-

60

50
*
*
♦
*
*
*
*
*

*
♦

-

♦
*

*
*

50
*
NA
*
*

-

-

1 ,5 9 0
330
630
60
50
*
*

170
*

7 ,2 9 0
290
2 ,3 5 0
2 ,0 9 C
100
€0
620
100
970
160
1 8 ,9 5 0
21 C
210
2 ,9 9 0
560
-

-

380
190
500
110
110
710
1 ,5 0 0
680
100
960
690

90
♦

390
130

-

*

-

-

50

50
130
80
*
*

*

-

_

*
♦

*
-

-

50
130
80
*

*

-

*
*

OCCUPATION

METER R E A D E F S , U T I L I T I E S .....................
P A Y R O L L , T IH E K E E P IN G C L E R K S ............
POSTAL C L E R K S .....................................................
PROOFREADERS.......................................................
REAL E STA TE A P P R A IS E R S ..........................
R E C E P T I O N I S T S ....................................................
S H I P P I N G , R E C E IV IN G C LE R K S ...............
S T A T IS T I C A L C L E R K S ......................................
STOCK c l e r k s , S T O REK EEPERS...............
TEACHER A I D E S , E XCEPT H O N ITO RS. .
TELEGRAPH M ESSENGERS................................
TELEGRAPH O P E R A T O F S ...................................
TELEPHONE O P E R A T O R S ...................................
T IC K E T S T A T IO N EXPRESS A G E N T S ...
W E IG H TERS................................................................
MISCELLANEOUS C L E R IC A L
WORKERS NEC.................................................
CRAFT

WORKERS...................................................................

CONSTRUCTION CRAFT WORKERS....................
C A R P E N T E R S.............................................................
C A R P E N T E R S ' A P P R E N T IC E S ........................
BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS ......
B R IC K , STONEMASON A P P R E N T I C E S ...
BULLDOZER O P E R A T O R S .................
CEMENT AND CONCRETE F I N I S H E R S ...
E L E C T R IC IA N S .......................................................
E L E C T R IC IA N S ' A P P R E N T IC E S ........
E X C A V A T IN G , G R A D IN G , MACHINE
O P E R A T O R S .......................................................
FLOOR L A Y E P S , EXCEPT
t i l e s e t t e r s .................................................
P A IN T E R S , CO NSTRUCTION AND
m a i n t e n a n c e .................................................
P A IN T E R S ' A P P R E N T IC E S .............................
PAPERH ANGERS ...........................
P L A S T E R E R S ..............................
P L A S T E R E R S ' A P P R E N T IC E S ...........
PLUMBERS AND P I P E F I T T E F S .....................
PLUMBERS* AND P I P E F I T T E R S '
A P P R E N T I C E S . . . . ......................................
ROOFERS AND S L A T E R S ...................................
STPUCTURAL METAL WORKERS ..........
T I L E S E T T E R S ............................
B L U E -C O L L A R WORKER
SU P E R V ISO R S N E C ..................
METALWORKING CRAFT WOFKERS
EXCLU DIN G M ECHANICS .............
B L A C K S M IT H S ............................
B O IL E R M A K E R S.......................................................
HEAT T R E A T E R S , A N N EALERS, AND
T E M PE R E R S.............................................. ..
FORGE AND HAMMER O PERATO RS...............
JO B AND D IE S E T T E R S , M ETAL .......
M A C H IN IS T S ..............................
M A C H IN IS T S ' A P P R E N T IC E S ...........
M IL L W R IG H T S ............................
H O LD ERS, METAL ........................
H O LD E R S' A P P R E N T IC E S ................................
PATTERN AND MODEL MAKERS.....................
ROLLERS AND F I N I S H E R S , METAL ___
SHEET METAL WORKERS, T I N S M I T H S ..
SHEET METAL A P P R E N T IC E S ...........
T O O L , D IE M A K E R S .......................
T O O L , DIEMAKER A P P R E N T IC E S .......
M EC H A N IC S, R E P A IR E R S , I N S T A L L E R S ..
A IR C O N D IT IO N IN G , H E A T IN G , AND
R E F R IG E R A T IO N .........................................
A IR C R A F T M ECH ANICS......................................
AUTO A C C E S S O R IE S I N S T A L L E R S ......
AUTO BODY R E P A IR E R S .................
AUTO M ECHANICS ........................
AUTO M E C H A N IC S ' A P P R E N T IC E S ......
data

p r o c e s s in g

*
*
70
*
*
NA
90
*
360
NA
*
*
NA
*
*

_

*
*
♦
280
620

-

*
-

NATIONAL

AERONAU TICS

ANI> SPACE

TC>TAL PROG RAH
D IR E C T
IN D IR E C T
TOTAL

*
*
70
*
*

♦
*
*
*
*

70
90
*
80
*
*
*

50
70
*
60
-

♦
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
♦
*

-

-

*

*

-

80
*
*

60
*
*

2
♦
*

70
540
810
760
930
820
1 ,8 1 0
210

_

60
*
*
110
340

70
480
810

-

760
930
71C
1 ,4 7 0
210

A D M IN IST R A T IO N

SPACE
TOTAL

SHUTTLE
DIRECT

♦
*
50
♦
*
*
20
50
120

_

*

*
*

*
-

-

*
-

1 ,1 4 0
300
100

*
-

1 ,1 4 0
300
100

60
*
*

*
*

-

-

no

*

*

*

*

3 ,1 4 0

1 ,0 1 0

2 ,1 3 0

*

VK

*

1 ,5 2 0

1 ,1 5 0

370

2 5 ,7 6 0

1 ,0 3 0

2 4 ,7 3 0

1 ,8 9 0

250
60

190

60

4 ,4 5 0
930

240

4 ,2 1 0
930

290
60

_
-

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T
♦
*
50
*
*
*
20
50
120
*
*
60
*
*
140
1 ,8 9 0

*

*
*
*
*
-

*

_

*

*

*

200

*

*

_

*

*

_

_

_

*
*

♦
♦
♦
*

*
*
*
*

*
♦
*

*
*
*
*

_

_

_

_

-

*
*
*
*

*
*
*

60
100

*

60
100

*
*
*
*

-

*
*
*
*

*

220

170

60

4 ,2 1 0

*

4 ,2 1 0

340

-

340

120

70

*
•*

*
*

6 ,0 5 0

200

5 ,8 5 0

520

*
*
*
♦
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
-

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

U 90

410

80

NA
NA

*
*
*
*

NA

*
*
*
♦
*
♦
*
*
NA

_

120

*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

_
-

-

*
_
*
-

*

_

-

*
*
*

♦
*
NA

*
*
*
*
NA

m a c h in e

R E P A IR E R S .......................................................
FARM IMPLEMENT M ECHANICS.....................
HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS
IN C LU D IN G D I E S E L ...............
HOUSEHOLD A P P L IA N C E M E C H A N I C S ...
LOOM F I X E R S ............................
O F F IC E MACHINE R E P A IR E R S ..........
R A D IO , TV R E P A IR E R S .................
R A IL R O A D CAR SHOP R E P A IR E R S ......
M ECH ANICS, EXCLUDING AUTO
A P P R E N T IC E S ........................




HANP<3WER IN S T IT U T IO N A L T R A IN IN G
I NDIRECT
ALLOW­
PUPANCES
TOTAL
CHASES
TOTAL DIRECT

*

-

*
*
*
*
*

*
-

*

_

NA

*
♦
*
♦
*

*
*
♦
*
*
*

*
*

♦
♦
*
*
*
*

*
♦
*
*

*
*
*
*

120

150

-

*
♦
-

*

*

*
*

*
*

110

80

-

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
♦

*

_

-

180

-

110
50
1 ,3 8 0
-

590

*
-

600

*

130
80
520
2 ,1 8 0

-

250
240

-

390
60
820

-

1 ,2 0 0

6 ,5 3 0
190
1 ,6 9 0

-

120

*
-

230

-

1 ,8 9 0
150

-

140
300

70
_

*
*
*
-

140

-

*
*
*

*
_

60

-

110

*

-

“
430

*
*
*
*
*
*
_

-

180

♦
*
*

290
60

*
*
*

110
50
1 ,2 4 0

100

200

*

_

_

*

_

*

*
*
*
♦

_

*
*
*
*

-

-

590

-

600

-

130
80
520
2 ,1 2 0

-

250
240

-

♦

♦
♦
*
*
*

190

*
*
*
-

*
*

280
60
820

80

1 ,2 0 0

110

-

*

-

_

-

■

*

6 , 100

490

-

♦

_

190
1 ,6 9 0

170

120
690

50

230

-

>
-

100

*
*

5 20

*
*

*
*
*
190

*
*
*
*
*

80

*

110

*

490

*
170

-

-

*

_

*

*

-

*

1 ,8 9 0
150

150

-

*

50

-

*

150

140
300
70

*
♦
*
*

-

*
*
*
*

-

*

-

*

-

OCCUPATION

OTHER

MECHANICS

AND R E P A I R E R S ...

P R IN T IN G CRAFT WORKERS................................
B O O K B IN D E R S..........................................................
C O M PO SITO RS AND T Y P E S E T T E R S ............
E LE C T R O T YP E R S, ST E P E O T Y P E R S ............
ENGRAVERS EXCEPT PHOTOENGRAVERS.
PHOTOENGRAVERS, L I T H O G R A P H E R S ...
P R IN T IN G PRESS O P ERATO RS.....................
P R IN T IN G P P E SS A P P R E N T IC E S ...............
P R IN T IN G A P P R E N T IC E S , EXCEPT
P R E SS O PE R A TO R S......................................
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N , P U B L IC U T I L I T Y
C RAFT WORKERS............................................
E L E C T R IC POWER L IN E IN S T A L L E R S
AND R E P A IR E R S ............................................
LOCOMOTIVE E N G IN E E R S ................................
LOCOMOTIVE E N G IN E E R S ' H E L P E R S ...
POWER S T A T IO N O PE RATO RS........................
TELEPHONE I N S T A L L E R S , R E P A IR E R S .
T E L E P H IN E L IN E I N S T A L L E R S ,
S P L I C E R S ..........................................................
OTHER C R A FT WORKERS.........................................
B A K ERS........................................................................
CABINETM AKERS.....................................................
CARPET IN S T A L L E R S .........................................
• C RANE, D E R R IC K , H O IS T OPE R A TO R S .
D E CO RATO RS, WINDOW D R E S S E R S ............
DENTAL LABORATORY T E C H N I C I A N S ...
FURN ITU RE AND WOOD F I N I S H E R S . . . .
P U R R IE R S ...................................................................
G L A Z I E R S ...................................................................
i n s p e c t o r s , LOG AND LUMBER...............
IN S P E C T O R S , O TH E R.........................................
JEWELERS AND WATCHMAKERS.....................
M IL L E R S , G R A IN , FLO U R, FE E D ............
MOTION P IC T U R E P R O J E C T I O N I S T S ...
O P T I C IA N S , LENS G R IN D E R S , AND
P O L IS H E R S .......................................................
P IA N O , ORGAN T U N E R S, R E P A I R E R S ..
S H I P F I T T E R S ..........................................................
SHOE R E P A IR E R S .................................................
SIG N P A IN T E R S AND L E T T E R E R S ............
ST A T IO N A R Y E N G IN E E R S ................................
STONE C U T T E R S , STONE C A R V E R S . . . .
T A I L O R S .....................................................................
UPH O LSTE R E R S.......................................................
CRAFT AND KINDRED WORKERS N E C . . .
CRAFT A P P R E N T IC E S NEC.............................

MANPOWER IN S T IT U T IO N A L T R A IN IN G
IN D IR E C T
ALLOW­
PURANCES
TOTAL D IR E C T 1 TOTAL
CHASES
♦

-

100
*
*
*
*
*

-

*

*

*
-

-

100
*
♦
*
*
*
*
-

*

-

*

*

110
*
*
*

110

_

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

4c

80

*

1 ,6 1 0

*

1 ,6 1 0

80

*
*
*
*
*

180
-

*

*

NA
♦
*
*
*
*
*
*

230
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

190

*
*
*
*
♦
*

*
*

*
*

*

*
*
*
*

*
*

-

_

*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
♦
*
*
*
*
♦

-

-

-

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
♦

-

4>

*

*
♦
♦
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

-

-

*

-

*

50
4
c
4c
c
4
4
c
4
c
4
<

-

*

-

4c

_

-

*
*

*
-

-

*
50

.

50
♦
*
*
*
*
*

-

-

*

*
*

860
70
330
80
330

*

*

-

-

540

-

-

*

*
-

350

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T

*

60

4c

890

SPACE SHUTTLE
TOTAL
DIRECT

70
-

*

4c

AND SPACE A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

930
70
330
*
380

-

4c

AERONAU TICS

TOTAL PROGRAM
DIR E C T
I N D IR E C T
TOTAL

60
*
*
*
*

*

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

■*
*

NATIONAL

1 ,1 6 0

*

1 ,1 6 0

*
*
*
*
50

160

-

160

180
-

1 ,9 7 0
60
60

-

400
80
-

-

*
*
*
*
*

220
60

*

110

*

1 ,8 9 0
60
60

-

-

*

400
80

80

-

-

*

-

-

♦

-

220
60

80
_

4c
4c
4c

-

50

*

-

4c

130
*
*
*
*
*

_

-

*

*
*
*
4c

130

-

4c
4"
4c
4c
4c

-

-

-

-

4c

4c
4c

-

-

4c
4c

*

*

_

110

*

_

4>

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4c

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

100
390

100
390

-

-

-

*
*
*

-

-

-

70
130

-

*

70
130

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

-

-

4c

-

-

-

NA

*

2 ,8 0 0

2 ,2 9 0

510

3 5 ,5 7 0

790

3 4 ,7 8 0

2 ,6 4 0

TR A N SPO R T ...............

NA

♦

1 ,7 7 0

1 ,3 8 0

390

3 7 ,8 8 0

770

3 7 ,1 1 0

mo

_

1ft0
*

80

60
*

6 ,1 4 0
500

6 ,1 4 0
500

520

S E M IS K IL L E D T E X T IL E WORKERS..................
C A R D IN G , L A P P IN G , COMBING..................
K N IT T E R S , L O O P E R S , AND T O P P E R S ..
S P IN N E R S , T W IS T E R S , WINDERS............
WEAVERS.....................................................................
OTHER T E X T IL E O P E R A T IV E S .....................

90
*
*
*
♦
*

-

4c
4c
4c
4c

-

4c
4c
4c

-

4c

2 ,3 6 0

S E M IS K IL L E D METALWORKING...........................
DRTLL P RESS O P E R A T IV E S ..........................
FURNACE TE N D E R S, S H E L T E P S,
AND PO URERS.................................................
G R IN D IN G MACHINE O P E R A T IV E S ............
H E A T E R S , M E TA L.................................................
LATHE AND M IL L IN G MACHINE
O P E R A T IV E S ....................................................
METAL P L A T E R S .....................................................
OTHER P R E C IS IO N MACHINE
O P E R A T O R S ....................................................
PUNCH STAM PING PR ESS O P E R A T O R S ..
SO L D E R E R S ...............................................................
WELDEPS AND FLAME C O T T E R S ..................

4c

O P E R A T IV E S ...........................................................................
O P E R A T IV E S ,

EXCEPT

4t

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

_

260
100
♦
♦
*
*

OTHER O P E R A T IV E S , EXCEPT
TR A N S P O R T .......................................................
A S B E S T O S , IN S U L A T IO N W O R K E R S ....
A S SE M B L E R S .............................................................
B L A S T E R S ...................................................................

100
*

_

*
*
*

*
*

*
*

280
830

*

28C
830

-

-

-

-

-

*
*

*
*

*
*

1 ,0 9 0
210

*
*
*
60

*
*
*
*

*

430
760
450
1 ,5 7 0

*

90
*
*
*
*
*

70
♦
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

130

_

-

260
100
♦
*

200
70
*
*

60
*
*

5 ,6 0 0
4 ,4 4 0
60

-

-

-

-

mo

110

1 ,0 7 0

-

-

*

*

*

*

1 ,2 9 0
*

1 ,0 2 0
*

100
♦

60
♦

_
-

_
-

60

PACKING AND
i n s p e c t i n g ....................................................
C H E C K E R S, E XA M IN E R S , EXCEPT MFG.
GRADERS AND S O R T E R S , MFG.....................
MEAT W RAPPERS, R E T A IL T R A D E ............
PA C K E R S , W R A PPE R S, EXCEPT M E A T ..
GROCERY PRODUCE P A C K E PS ........................

*

*

_
-

.

*

*
*

.
-

-

*

1 ,0 9 0
210
430
760
450
1 ,5 7 0
130

4c

520

_

80
4<

100

4c
4c

-

80
4c

_

4c

100

-

4c

_

60

4c
4c

-

60

-

4c

130

*

130

4c
-

_

4c

-

-

-

-

-

-

4c
4c

50

2 ,3 6 0

-

-

50

2 ,6 0 0

_

4c

-

-

4c

*

-

4<
-

-

4c
4c

-

*

S E M IS K IL L E D




NA
*

-

-

*

*

*

-

1 ,0 7 0

-

-

260
♦

5 ,6 0 0
4 ,4 4 0
60

1 9 ,8 9 0
«

730
*

1 9 ,1 6 0

6 ,9 1 0

-

6 ,9 1 0
"

-

-

420
340
4c
4c

70
*

4c
4c

500
4c

020
300

-

4"
4c

-

70
4c

4c
-

-

1 ,0 0 0
4C

I

500

OCCUPATION

B O T T L IN G , CANNING O P E R A T IV E S . . . .
SURVEYORS* H E L P E R S ......................................
CLOTHING IR O N E R S AND P R E S S E R S ...
C U TTIN G O P E R A T IV E S NEC...........................
D R ESSM AK ERS, EXCEPT FACTO RY............
D R I L L E R S , EARTH ..............................................
DRY NALL IN S T A L L E R S , L A T H E R E R S ..
D R YERS.........................................................................
F I L E R S , P O L IS H E R S , SA N D E R S , AND.
B U F F E R S .............................................................
GARAGE WORKERS AND GAS
S T A T IO N ATTENDAN TS.............................
LAUN DRY, DRYCLEANING O P E R A T IV E S .
HEATCUTTERS AND BUTCHERS
EXCEPT HFG..................................................
H E A TC U TTE R S, B U TCH ERS, HFG ...............
M IL L IN E R S ................................................................
HINE O P E R A T IV E S NEC...................................
MIXING O P E R A T IV E S .........................................
O I L E R S , G R E A S E R S, EXCEPT A U T O ...
P A IN T E R S , MANUFACTURED A R T I C L E S .
PHOTOGRAPHIC PRO CESS W O R K E R S ....
R IV E T E R S AND F A S T E N E R S ..........................
S A IL O R S AND DECKHANDS.............................
SAW YERS.....................................................................
SEWERS AND S T IT C H E R S ................................
SHOEHAKING MACHINE O P E R A T I V E S ...
FURNACE TE N D E R S, ST O K E R S,
EXBCEPT METAL............................................
WINDING O P E R A T IV E S NEC...........................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s MACHINE O P E R A T O R ..
O P E R A T IV E S NE C .................................................
TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT O PE R A TO R S............
BOAT O PE R A T O R S ..................................................
BUS D R IV E R S ..........................................................
CONDUCTORS AND O P E R A T O R S ,
URBAN R A I L ....................................................
D E L IV E R Y AND ROUTE WORKERS...............
FORK L I F T , TOW MOTOR O P E R A T O R S ..
R A IL V E H IC L E OPERATORS N E C ...............
PARKING A TTEND AN TS......................................
R A IL R O A D BRAKE OPERATORS
AND C O U P L E R S ...............................................
R A IL R O A D SWITCH O PE R A TO R S ..................
T A X IC A B D R I V E R S , CH AUFFEURS............
TRUCK D R IV E R S .....................................................

HANP(5WER IN S T IT U T IO N A L T R A IN IN G
] NDIRECT
ALLOW­
PURANCES
TOTAL D IR E C T 1 TOTAL
CHASES
♦
*
*
♦
*
*
*

*

*
-

“

*

♦
*
*
*
♦
♦
*
*

♦
*
*
*
♦
♦
*
♦

*
*
♦
*
♦
*

*

-

*

*

N ATION AL

_

120
480
80
150
-

♦
-

“

~
~

520

100
*

-

100
♦

90
*

*
*

170
160

*
”

170
160

*
*
*

-

*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
♦
*
*
*

80
-

♦
*
-

80
300
15C
110
630
360
180
180
300

60
60

220
420
3 ,7 7 0
4 ,3 3 0

*
700

220
420
3 ,7 7 0
3 ,6 3 0

120
*

3 ,7 5 0
390

*
♦

3 ,7 5 0
390

♦
♦
*
*

710
610
-

*
-

710
610
-

60
70
200
1 ,6 1 0

♦
♦
~

60
70
200
1 ,6 1 0

*

1 0 ,3 3 0

*

*

*
*
*
*
*
♦
250
*
*
*
220
200

"
*
-

*

*
*

*

*
*
*
250
*
*
♦

230
*
*

220
200

♦
160
140
*

1 ,0 3 0
*

*

-

1 ,0 3 0
*

910
*

NA

*

310

290

*

*
-

NA
*
*
*

"

*

*

190
*
*
*

160
*
♦
*

*

*
*
*
■*
*
*

300
150
110
630
360
180
180
300

“

*
*

220
NA

220
230

200
190

*
*
*
*

WORKERS.............................................................

2 ,8 1 0

1 ,4 9 0

1 ,3 2 0

1 , 140

180

1 0 ,3 3 0

CLEANING S E R V IC E WORKERS...........................
LODGING QUARTERS CLE A N E R S,
E XC B PT P R IV A T B .........................................
B U IL D IN G IN T E R IO R CLEANERS .N E C ..
J A N IT O R S AND S E X T O N S ................................

1 ,7 0 0

1 ,3 9 0

310

230

80

4 ,7 8 0

*

*

*
110
180

80
130

*
*

520
*
♦

470
*
*

NA
*
*
NA

70
*
♦
♦
♦

130
♦
*

120
*

210

*
*

♦
NA
1 ,5 6 0

“

~

-

~

SHUTTLE
DIRECT

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

120
480
80
15C
-

520

A D M IN IST R A T IO N

SPACE
TOTAL

_

-

*
*

-

_

~

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T
*
*
*
♦
*
*
*
♦

~

♦

*
♦

-

*
*

*
*
*
*

-

i

50
*
*
*
*
♦
*

~

♦
*
*
♦
*

“

50
*
*
*
*
*
♦

290
280

*

290
280

280
*
*

”

*
*

*
50
*
*
*
*
*
*

-

-

♦
*

280
*
*
*
50
*
*
♦

-

120

_

♦
*
*
120

600

-

6 00

4 ,7 8 0

290

-

290

450
1 ,3 8 0
2 ,9 6 0

*
*

-

*
*

50

450
1 ,3 8 0
2 ,9 6 0

180

-

180

2 ,4 3 0
90
90
630
250
340
610

_
-

2 ,4 3 0
90
90
630
250
340
610

90
*
♦
*
♦
♦
*

-

190

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

90
*
*
*
*
*
*

50

*

*

420

-

420

*

"

*

150
♦
*
*
80
*

150
*
*
*

140
*
*
70

♦
*
*
-

140
70

“

-

*
*
*
*
♦

-

80
*

*
♦
♦

*
*
*
♦
♦

28 0
*

240
*

*
*

1 ,3 4 0
140

♦

1 ,3 4 0
140

90
*

*

*

*

*

100

~

100

*

*
*
♦
*
*

*
*
*
♦
*

*
*
*
-

110

-

110

“

“

*
*
120

*
*
*

60
420

1 ,3 8 0

FOOD S E R V IC E WORKERS......................................
B ARTEND ERS.............................................................
w a i t e r s * a s s i s t a n t s ...................................
C O O K S, EXCEPT P R I V A T E ..............................
DISH W A SH E R S..........................................................
FOOD COUN TER, FOUNTAIN W O R K E R S ..
W A IT E R S , W A IT R E S S E S ...................................
FOOD WORKERS N E C , EXCEPT
P R I V A T E .............................................................

590
*
*

NA

*

HEALTH S E R V IC E WORKERS................................
DENTAL A S S I S T A N T S .........................................
HEALTH A I D E S , E XCEPT N U R S I N G . . . .
HEALTH T R A IN E E S ...............................................
LAY H ID W IV E S ........................................................
NURSES* A I D E S , O R D E R L IE S .....................
P R A C T IC A L N U R SE S............................................

NA
♦
*
*
NA
♦

*
*

PERSONAL SE R V IC E WORKERS..........................
F L IG H T ATTENDAN TS.........................................
A TTE N D A N TS, RECRBATION AND
a m u s e m e n t .......................................................
A TTE N D A N TS, PERSONAL
S E R V IC E N E C ..................................................
BAGGAGE PORTERS AND B E L L H O P S ....
B A R B E R S......................................................................
B O A R D IN G , LODGING H O U S E K E E P E R S ..
BO O TB LA C K S.............................................................
C H IL D CARE WORKERS, EXCEPT
P R I V A T E .............................................................
ELEVATOR O P E R A T O RS......................................
H A IR D R E S S E R S , C O S M E T O L O G I S T S ....

NA
*

*

*
♦
♦
*
♦
♦




AN1) SPACE

_

*

S E R V IC E

AERONAU TICS

TC TAL PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T
D IR E C T
TOTAL

-

~

-

-

♦
*

*
-

*
♦

NA

-

NA

*

*

_

“
-

90
*

*

“

♦

♦
*
*
*

-

*
*
*
*

-

-

-

140
-

-

140
”

~

-

60
420

*
♦
*

-

-

“
-

*
*
*

OCCUPATION

HANPC) WER IN S T IT U T IO N A L TR A IN IN G
IN D IR E C T
ALLOW­
PURCHASES
TOTAL D IR E C T 1 TOTAL
ANCES

H O USEKEEPERS, E XCEPT P R I V A T E . . . .
PERSONAL S B P V IC E A P P R E N T I C E S ....
SCHOOL M ONITORS...............................................
U SH ERS, R E C R E A T IO N , A M U S E M E N T ...
WELFARE S E R V IC E A I D E S .............................

♦
♦
*
♦

4c
*
-

P R O T E C T IV E S E R V IC E WORKERS.....................
C R O SSIN G GUARDS, BRIDGETEN DERS. .
F I R E F IG H T E R S .......................................................
GUARDS.........................................................................
MARSHALS AND C O N S TA B LE S ........................
P O L IC E AND D E T E C T IV E S .............................
S H E R IF F S AND B A I L I F F S .............................

NA
♦
*
NA

♦
4
c

-

-

*

-

P R IV A T E HOUSEHOLD WORKERS........................
C H IL D CARE WORKERS......................................
CO O K S, P R IV A T E .................................................
HOUSEKEEPERS, P R IV A T E .............................
LAUN D ERERS, P R I V A T E ...................................
P R IV A T E HOUSEHOLD CLEANERS
AND S E R V A N T S...............................................

_
-

L A B O R E R S , EXCEPT FARM ...................................
ANIMAL C A R ETAK ERS.........................................
C A R P E N T E R S ' H E L P E R S ...................................
CONSTRUCTION L A B O R E R S , EXCEPT
C A R P E N T E R S ' H E LPE R S ..........................
F I S H E R S , HUN TERS, AND T R A P P E R S ..
FR E IG H T MATERIAL HANDLERS..................
GARBAGE C O LLE C TO RS......................................
GARDENERS AND G R O U N D S K E E P E R S ....
LONGSHORE WOFKERS AND
STE V E D O R E S....................................................
TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING
WORKERS.............................................................
STOCKHANDLERS....................................................
TE A M STE R S................................................................
V E H IC LE AND EQ UIPM ENT, WASHERS
AND C L E A N E R S..............................................
WAREHOUSE LABORERS NEC..........................
OTHER LA B O R E R S.................................................

NA
*
*

4c
-

4c
4c

4c
*
*
4
<

-

-

4
>

70
4
>
*
60
4t

4
c
4c

*
*

_

4
c
*
-

*
-

'4
c
1 ,4 7 0
-

4c

4c

1 ,3 2 0
-

220
-

-

1 ,6 5 0
-

4
c
4
c
-

_
-

_

_

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A D M IN IST R A T IO N

SPACE
TOTAL

120
-

-

-

4
>

-

4c

1 ,4 7 0
-

100

-

100

-

1 ,3 2 0
-

4c

-

*

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

80

a , 730

330

4c

4c

4>

4c

*
*

90

_

4c

4c

4c

-

4c

*

NA

110

4>
4c

-

4c

*

4c

*

4>

4c

4c

4c

_

4<

4c

.

4c

NA

-

NA

4c

-

4<

4c

_

4c

4c

-

4c

-

4c

1 ,3 6 0
70
290

-

*

.

_

4>
4c
-

.

4>

280
170

4c
4c

-

620

-

4c
4c

4c

*

4c

350
340
-

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1975 O - 583-674 (85)

*

4c

280

*

1 Includes direct employment generated by tuition costs.
* Denotes fewer than 50 jobs.
NA = not available.
— denotes no employment.

4c

4c

370
360

NA
NA
*

-

4>
4c

4c

660

4>

290
4c

*

-

100

4c

1 ,1 2 0

180
90

-

.

*

-

4c

*

90
4c

620

4c

-

4c
4c

_

*

-

4c

-

-

280
-

90

-

4c

350
340
-

-

190

*

4c

-

280

-

_

4c
4>

100

4c
-

NA
NA

4c

-

-

4c

4c

-

100

-

50

-

330

♦

-

1 ,3 6 0
70
290

-

NA

-

4c
4c

-

220
1,1 2 0

4>

600

.

*

NA

_

4>

_

-

4>

70
570

>

NA

4c

90

70
570

*
80

4<

-

4c
-

4c
4c
-

NA
NA

NA
NA
*

4>

NA

NA

4c

-

_

-

-

*

_

120

-

4 ,8 1 0

_

_

-

-

600

-

*
*
4c

-

110

4<
-

-

_
-

-

*
130

PROGRAM
IN D IR E C T

-

-

A 90

NA

_

1 ,6 5 0

-

-

4c

SHUTTLB
D IR E C T

4c
4c
*

220

600

NA




AND SPACE

-

_
-

WORKERS...................................

FARM LABORERS AND LABOR
S U P E R V IS O R S .................................................
FARM LABOR S U P E R V IS O R S ..........................
FARM L A B O R E R S , WAGE WORKERS............
FARM L A B O R E R S , U N PAID F A M IL Y _____
FARM L A B O R E R S , S E L F -E M P L O Y E D ....

4c
-

-

FARMERS AND MANAGERS......................................
FARMERS (OWNERS AND T E N A N T S ) . . . .
FARM MANAGERS....................................................

FARMERS AND FARM

AERONAU TICS

___TOTAL PROG RAH
D IR ECT
TOTAL
IN D IR E C T

4
c
4
c
*

_

N ATIONAL

-

180
90
-

4c
-

*

-

4c

-

4c
4c
4c

-

NEC = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
Also,
data for occupations with fewer than 50 jobs are not shown but are in­
cluded in the totals.

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
Region III
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)
Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)




Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Regions VII and VIII *
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
Regions IX and X **
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
Regions IX and X are serviced by San Francisco