View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Frances P erk in s, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Isa d o r L u b in , Commissioner

+

Entrance Rates and F u ll-T im e Hours o f Common
Laborers Employed by Cities
September 1935

Prepared by the
D IVISIO N OF W A G E S, H O U R S , A N D W O R K IN G C O N D IT IO N S
J A C O B P E R L M A N , Chief

Bulletin 7<lo. 627
Decem ber 1936

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING O
FFICE
WASHINGTON : 1 3
97

F o r sale b y th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D o c u m e n ts, W a sh in g ton , D . C .




P rice 10 cents




CONTENTS
Page

S u m m ary and co n clu sion s_____________________________________________________
S cop e and m e th o d _____________________________________________________________
E n tran ce rates o f p a y _________________________________________________________
F u ll-tim e hours o f w o r k _______________________________________________________
Personnel p olicie s______________________________________________________________

1
2
5
9
13

Special Tables
T a b l e 1.— N u m ber o f com m on laborers cov ered in survey, b y region and
S ta te ____________________________________________________________
T a b l e 2.— C overa ge o f survey, b y size o f city and ty p e o f w o rk _____________
T a b l e 3.— D istrib u tion o f com m on laborers a ccord in g to h ou rly entrance
rates, b y re g io n _________________________________________________
T a b l e 4.— H o u rly en tran ce rates o f com m on laborers, b y region and
S ta te ____________________________________________________________
T a b l e 5.— A verage h ou rly en tran ce rates o f com m on laborers, b y size of
city and ty p e o f w o rk __________________________________________
T a b l e 6.— D istribu tion o f com m on laborers a ccord in g to fu ll-tim e hours
per w eek, b y r e g io n ____________________________________________
T a b l e 7.— A verage fu ll-tim e hours o f w ork per w eek o f com m on laborers,
b y region and S ta te____________________________________________
T able 8.— Full-time hours of work per week of common laborers, by size
of city and type of work_______________________________________

3
4
5
6
7
9
11
12

Appendices
A p p e n d ix I.— T a b le A .— E n tran ce rates o f p a y and full-tim e hours o f
w ork o f com m on street and sewer laborers, b y State and
city and ty p e o f w ork, S eptem ber 1935___________________
A p p e n d ix II.— C o p y o f schedule u sed _______________________________________




in

15
29




PREFACE

This is the third survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of
the entrance rates of pay and full-time hours of work of common
laborers employed by cities. The first of these surveys was con­
ducted in 1928 and the second in 1932.
The text of this bulletin describes the coverage of the survey and
gives an analysis of the data for the country as a whole, by region and
State, by size of city, and by type of work. There is also included a
brief summary dealing with certain personnel policies affecting the
common laborers of the cities. Averages for various types of work by
individual cities are given in an appendix.
The Bureau wishes to express its appreciation to the officials of the
various cities covered for their cooperation in furnishing the informa­
tion in this survey.
This bulletin was prepared by Robert S. Billups, under the direction
of Jacob Perlman, Chief of the Division of W ages, Hours, and W ork­
ing Conditions. George H . Loudenslager and Henry A . Bates
assisted in the work.

I sador L u b in ,

Commissioner of Labor Statistics.
J a n u a r y 14, 1937.




Bulletin Tip. 627 of the

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
Entrance Rates and F u ll-T im e H ours o f Common
Laborers Employed by Cities, September 1935

Summary and Conclusions
For the country as a whole, the average hourly entrance rate in
September 1935 of common laborers employed by cities of 10,000 or
more population on street and sewer work was 50.6 cents an hour.
The hourly entrance rate of approximately one-tenth (10.6 percent) of
the workers was under 37.5 cents, and half (51.1 percent) of them
earned 37.5 and under 52.5 cents an hour. One-third (33.8 percent)
earned 52.5 and under 72.5 cents, and 4.5 percent earned 72.5 cents an
hour and over.
There was a wide difference in the average hourly entrance rate be­
tween the cities of the North and South, the average rate for the
northern cities being 53.2 cents as against 32.0 cents for the southern
cities. Only 3.0 percent of common laborers in the North earned less
than 32.5 cents an hour, compared with 65.7 percent in the South.
Although there was a pronounced differential between the averages
in the northern and southern regions, there was very little evidence of
uniformity in the wage level of the various sections within each region,
the averages varying from one State to another irrespective of geog­
raphical location. In the North the average hourly entrance rates
ranged from 37.9 cents in M aine to 66.5 cents in Illinois, and in the
South from 20.3 cents in Georgia to 42.7 cents in Oklahoma. Aside
from Oklahoma and Louisiana, all the southern States show lower
averages than the lowest average in the North.
A n examination of the averages for the various types of work, by
size of city, indicates an unmistakable trend toward higher entrance
rates as the size of the city increases. A comparison between the
northern and southern regions for the various types of both street and
sewer work, by size of city, also shows that in each group the average
entrance rate of the smallest cities in the North exceeds that of the
largest cities in the South by a wide margin.
In numerous cities the same entrance rate was paid for the various
types of street and sewer work. Taking all cities in the North, how­
ever, the figures show that on new construction higher wages were paid
on street than on sewer work, but repair and cleaning paid more on
sewer than on street work. The exact opposite was true in the South.
The average full-time hours of common street and sewer laborers
for the United States as a whole was 41.8, with 70.0 percent of the
employees working a week of from 40 to 48 hours, inclusive. The
number of laborers having a short week of under 40 hours was 20.6
percent, these low hours for the most part being due to a program of
spreading the work.




1

2

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

The average weekly full-time hours was 41.1 in the North and 46.7
in the South. In the North only 5.6 percent of laborers worked more
than 48 hours, but in the South the full-time hours of 36.4 percent
exceeded 48 hours.
The average full-time hours per week ranged from 35.9 in Illinois to
48.2 in Maryland for the northern region and from 36.1 in Louisiana
to 54.5 in South Carolina for the southern region. In neither region
was there any geographical uniformity in the averages, the figures
varying from one State to another.
A n analysis of the data by type of work and size of city indicates
higher average full-time hours in the South as compared with the
North in almost every instance. Average weekly full-time hours
also tend to vary inversely with the size of the city, although this
tendency was less marked in the North than in the South.
The full-time hours per week were generally smaller in street than
in sewer work in the North, but in the South shorter full-time hours
existed for repair and cleaning but longer hours were found for new
construction in street work as compared with sewer work. In a num­
ber of cities, however, the same full-time hours were worked on all
types of work.
The great majority of the cities (652 out of 751 reporting on the
subject) did not advance their laborers beyond the entrance rate
because of length of service or efficiency.
O f the numerous cities that employed both white and colored work­
ers, only a few reported that lower rates were paid to Negroes. This
applied to both the northern and southern regions.
About two-thirds of the cities indicated that either part or all of
their workers at times engaged in overtime labor. M o st of these
cities reported that the rate for overtime was the same as for ordinary
working time.
The information given in this bulletin was obtained by means of a
questionnaire, which was sent to all cities in the country with a popu­
lation of 10,000 and over. The questionnaire asked for separate
information concerning the entrance wage rates and full-time hours
of common street laborers engaged on new construction, repair, and
cleaning work in both street and sewer departments. The figures
collected are for the pay-roll period ending nearest September 16,
1935. Only laborers employed directly by cities were included. Of
the 982 cities canvassed, replies were received from 780 cities, of which
754 employed common labor.

Scope and Method
The term “ common laborer” , as used in this survey, signifies one
who performs physical or manual work of a miscellaneous character,
which requires little or no skill or training beyond the ability to
follow specific instructions from a foreman or supervisor. B y “ en­
trance rate” is meant the wage at which a common laborer is first
hired, as distinguished from any later wage that m ay include an
increase due to length of service, relative efficiency, etc.1 “ Full-time
hours of work” pertain to the normal or regular hours customarily
worked, as compared with the hours actually worked, which in many
cases cover part-time as well as overtime work.
1 For a fuller discussion of the meaning of the terms "common laborer” and "entrance rate” , see the article
on Entrance Rates Paid to Common Labor, July 1935, in the March 1936 issue of the Monthly Labor Review
(pp. 698-706).




3

SCOPE AND METHOD

The information in the survey was obtained by mail through a
questionnaire, which covered separately new construction, repair, and
cleaning for both street and sewer work.
(See appendix I I .) In each
case, the questionnaire asked the entrance rate of pay, the unit of
time to which it applied (i. e., per hour, day, week, etc.), the number
of persons on the pay roll receiving such entrance rate, and the full­
time hours of work per week (itemized for each day from M onday to
Friday, for Saturday, and for Sunday, if any). These data cover the
pay-roll period ending nearest September 16, 1935. Information was
also requested as to the length of the period after which the rate was
advanced, possible differentials in the entrance rate between white
and other workers, provision as to pay in case laborers hired on a daily
basis worked less than a full day on Saturday, and overtime pay.
The questionnaire covered only laborers hired directly by the cities.
A ll laborers employed on a work-relief basis and on Works Progress
Administration projects were specifically excluded from the survey.
A s indicated above, the survey covered cities with a population of
10,000 and over. According to the Bureau of the Census, there were
982 such cities in the continental United States, with a total population
of 58,340,077 in 1930. Keplies were received from 780 cities, but 26
reported that no common laborers were employed by them on street
and sewer work during the pay-roll period covered, thus limiting the
survey to 754 municipalities, with a combined population of 48,567,300,
or 83 percent of the total. These 754 cities are located in every State
and the District of Columbia. The number of common laborers
employed at entrance rates by them directly in street and sewer work
at the time of the survey was 39,021.2 Table 1 shows the distribution
of these employees by States.
T able

1. —

N u m b e r o f c o m m o n la b o r e r s co v e r e d i n s u r v e y , b y r e g i o n a n d S ta te

Region and State
United States.—.....................................................
North i . ............................................... ..
Arizona_________________________
California__________________________________
Colorado________________________
Connecticut_____________________
Delaware________________________
District of Colum bia_____________
Idaho________________________________________
Illinois______________________________________
Indiana_____________________________________
Iowa__________________ ___________ __________
Kansas_____________________________________

M ain

a

Maryland___________________ ___________
M assachusetts____________________________
Michigan_____________________ ______ ______
Minnesota_______________________
Missouri________________________
Montana...__________________ __
Nebraska___________________________________
Nevada_____________________________________
New Hampshire_________________________
New Jersey _
_
N a w M A vio n
N a w York ............................... ...

N orth Dakota

Number
of
common
laborers
39.021
34. 271
70
1,491
123
1,118
188
405
29
2,648
993
631
284
316
232
4,070
2,564
1,152
990
95
52

6

576
1,251

19
4,844
20

Region and State
N orth—Continued.
Ohio..________ _____ ______ ____________
Oregon__________________________

Number
of
common
laborers

South Dakota____________________
Utah........................ .. ........................
Vermont________________________
Washington_____________________
West Virginia___ _______________________
Wisconsin___ ____________________________
Wyoming______ __________________________

3,389
165
3,363
865
119
54
127
238
213
1,543
28

South i........................................................................... ..

4,750

Alabama.._______________________________
Arkansas..._______________________________
Florida__________________ _______
Georgia_________________________
Kentucky_______________________
Louisiana__________________________________
Mississippi________________________________
North Carolina___________________________
Oklahoma_________________________________
South Carolina___________________________
Tennessee__________________________________
Texas________________________________________
Virginia_____________________________________

99
58
395
274
756
439
262
368
207
182
166
1,068
476

Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

_

___

i As generally defined in N. R. A. codes providing for regional differentials.
» These workers are all males, as there are no females employed as common laborers in street and sewer
work.
112 1 5 9°— 37-------2




4

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

For the purpose of analyzing the data, separate figures were com­
piled for the northern and southern regions, using these terms as most
frequently defined in those codes under the National Recovery Adm in­
istration that provided for a regional differential. The “ South” ,
as thus defined, includes the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Okla­
homa, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The remain­
ing States and the District of Columbia are classified as the “ N o rth .”
Table 2 shows the coverage of the survey by size of city and type
of work. It will be noted that only 15.9 percent of the 39,021 laborers
worked on new construction. For the United States as a whole,
13.5 percent of those engaged on street work were on new construction.
The corresponding figure for sewer work was 27.5 percent. In the
North, none of the cities with a population of 500,000 and over hired
labor directly for new street construction in the week studied in
September 1935; the number of workers employed by them in new
sewer construction was insignificant. Likewise, very few common
laborers were reported by southern cities with a population of 25,000
and under 100,000 as directly employed on new construction on
streets or sewers. In the group of smallest cities, both in the North
and South, more than one-quarter of the common laborers employed
directly by the municipalities were engaged on new work.
T a b l e 2 . — C overa g e o f s u r v e y , b y s iz e o f c ity a n d ty p e o f w o rk
Number of common laborers on
Total
num­
Street work
Num­
Size of city (based on 1930 cen­ ber of ber of
com­
sus of population)
cities mon
New
labor­
con­
Re­
ers
Total struc­ pair
tion

Sewer work
New
Clean­ Total con­ Re­ Clean­
ing
struc­ pair
ing
tion

United States...............................

754 39,021 32,332

4,361 16,169 11,802 6,689 1,839 2,742

2,108

North *
____ _____________ _____

628 34,271 28, 719

3,834 14,203 10,682 5,552 1,349 2,307

1,896

600,000 and over...... ......... .....
100,000 and under 600,000___
60,000 and under 100,000........
25,000 and under 50,000..........
10,000 and under 25,000.........
South 1
.............. ...........................

14
55
72
136
351
126

9,049
8,037
4,921
5,265
6,999
4,750

7,758
6,756
4,096
4,304
5,805
3,613

100,000 and under 500,000___
60,000 and under 100,000........
25,000 and under 50,000__ __
10,000 and under 25,000.........

14
19
26
67

2,072
797
743
1,138

1,576
579
605
853

825
804
678
1,627
527

4,185
2,963
1,854
2,281
2,920
1,966

3, 573
2,968
1,438
1,445
1,258
1,120

1,291
1,281
825
961
1,194
1,137

41
496
313
191
308
490

734
444
309
365
455
435

516
341
203
405
431
212

337
46
12
132

769
370
397
430

470
163
196
291

496
218
138
285

305
44

145
107
80
103

46
67
58
41

141

>As generally defined in N. R. A. codes providing for regional differentials.

The first survey of entrance rates and full-time hours of common
laborers employed directly by cities was made by the Bureau in
October 1928. I t covered all cities and towns with a population of
2,500 or over, but the data obtained was limited to street work.3 The
second survey was conducted by the Bureau in December 1932,4 its
scope being exactly the same as in 1928. Neither survey, however,
* See U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin No. 484, Wages and Hours of Labor of Common Street
Laborers, 1928.
* s.ee article on Wages and Hours of Labor of Common Street Laborers, 1932, in July 1933 Monthly Labor
Keview (pp. 143-166).




5

ENTRANCE RATES OF PAY

obtained the number of workers at the various entrance rates and full­
time hours, so that it is impossible to make comparisons between the
summary data in 1935 and the figures for 1928 and 1932.

Entrance Rates of Pay
As already stated, the average hourly entrance rate 5 for common
laborers employed by municipalities on street and sewer work in the
country as a whole was found to be 50.6 cents, but the individual
rates ranged from 11.5 to 86.6 cents. The detailed distribution of
rates m ay be seen in table 3. M ore than one-half of the employees
(51.1 percent) earned 37.5 and under 52.5 cents, and a third (33.8
percent) were grouped in the classes earning 52.5 and under 72.5
cents. It will be seen that 10.6 percent received under 37.5 cents
an hour, and 4.5 percent were paid 72.5 cents and over.
In the great m ajority of cities,5 common laborers are paid on an
hourly basis.6 The entrance rates are generally in round numbers.
Hence, in interpreting the figures shown by the wage ranges in table
3, it must be understood that the rates tend to cluster about multiples
of 5 or 10 cents.
T able

3.—

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o m m o n la b o re rs a c c o r d in g to h o u r ly e n tr a n c e r a t e s , b y
r e g io n

United States

Hourly entrance rate

South

Num­
Num­
Num­
ber of Simple Cumu­ ber of Simple Cumu­ ber of Simple Cumu­
com­ per­ lative com­ per­ lative com­ per­ lative
per­
per­
mon cent­ cent­ mon cent­ cent­ mon cent­ per­
cent­
labor­ age
age labor­ age
age labor­ age
age
ers
ers
ers

Total................................................... 39, 021
Under 17.5 cents_____________ ____
17.5 and under 22.5 cents___________
22.5 and under 27.5 cents...................
27.5 and under 32.5 cents...................
32.5 and under 37.5 cents...................
37.5 and under 42.5 cents...................
42.5 and under 47.5 cents...................
47.5 and under 52.5 cents..................
52.5 and under 57.5 cents...................
57.5 and under 62.5 cents...................
62.5 and under 67.5 cents...................
67.5 and under 72.5 cents...................
72.5 and under 77.5 cents...................
77.5 and under 82.5 cents...................
82.5 and under 87.5 cents...................

North

182
574
797
865
1,735
6,021
5,138
8, 764
2,262
3,830
2,617
4, 495
1,363
377
1

100.0
.5
1.5
2.0
2.2
4.4
15.4
13.2
22.5
5.8
9.8
6.7
11.5
3.5
1.0
(0

34,271
0.5
2.0
4.0
6.2
10.6
26.0
39.2
61.7
67.5
77.3
84.0
95.5
99.0
100.0
100.0

57
204
769
4,860
4,760
8,689
2,250
3,827
2,617
4,495
1,363
377
1

100.0

0.2
.6
2.2
14.2
13.9
25.3
6.6
11.2
7.6
13.1
4.0
1.1
0)

4,750

0.2
.8
3.0
17.2
31.1
56.4
63.0
74.2
81.8
94.9
98.9
100 0
100.0

100.0

182
574
740
661
966
1,161
378
75
10
3

3.8
12.1
15.6
13.9
20.3
24.4
8.0
1.6
- .2
.1

3.8
15.9
31.5
45.4
65.7
90.1
98.1
99.7
99.9
100.0

i Less than Ho of 1 percent.

A n y analysis of the entrance rates must take cognizance of the
differential m wages between the North and South. The existence
of such a differential is clearly indicated by their respective averages,
which were 53.2 and 32.0 cents.
In the North, the hourly entrance rates ranged from 24.0 to 86.6
cents. Only 3.0 percent of the workers earned under 37.5 cents.
The number receiving 37.5 and under 52.5 cents amounted to 53.4
percent, with 38.5 percent found in the classes receiving from 52.5
and under 72.5 cents. Lastly, 5.1 percent earned 72.5 cents and over.
* All average hourly entrance rates shown here were computed by weighting the individual rates by the
number of laborers receiving them.
•See p. 14. All daily, weekly, or monthly rates were converted to an hourly basis.




6

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

M uch of the concentration of the laborers within certain classes
in the northern distribution is due to the above-mentioned tendency
of many cities to pay rates in round numbers. Thus, out of the total
number covered, it was found that the rate of 10.1 percent was
exactly 40 cents, of 5.1 percent exactly 45 cents, of 22.4 percent
exactly 50 cents, and of 7.5 percent exactly 60 cents. The concen­
tration in the class of 67.5 and under 72.5 cents, however, is due to
the fact that New York and Chicago paid $5.50 for a day of 8 hours
and that a number of cities constituting metropolitan Boston paid
$30 for a week of 44 hours, thus resulting in rates between 67.5 and
70.0 cents per hour.
A totally different picture is shown by the distribution for the
South, where the individual entrance rates ranged from 11.5 to 59.8
cents per hour. In this region, the number of employees earning
under 37.5 cents amounted to 65.7 percent (as compared with only
3.0 percent in the North), with 15.9 percent of the workers receiving
wages lower than 22.5 cents. Those paid 37.5 and less than 52.5 cets
amounted to 34.0 percent,7 there being only three-tenths of 1 percent
receiving 52.5 cents and over (as against 43.6 percent in the N orth).
W hile there is a pronounced differential between the averages in
the northern and southern regions, there is very little evidence of
uniformity in the wage level of the various sections within each
region, the averages varying from one State to another irrespective
of geographical location. This m ay be seen by an examination of
table 4, which presents the averages for individual States.
T able

4. —

H o u r l y e n tr a n c e r a te s o f c o m m o n la b o r e r s , b y r e g i o n a n d S ta te

Hourly entrance
rates (in cents)

Hourly entrance
rates (in cents)
Region and State

Region and State
Aver­ Low
age
United States..........................

50.6

11.5

86.6

Nnrt.h

53.2

24.0

86.6

50.0
58.8
45.2
45.7
38.6
49.1
50.0
66.5
43.7
48.6
41.9
37^9
43.6
61.2
54.8
55.9
39.9
58.9
42.9
(i)
45.7
49.9
0)
58.7
0)

50.0
40.0
37.5
37.5
35.0
49.1
50.0
30.0
25.0
40.0
30. 0
32 ! 0
25.0
40.0
27.0
40.0
24.0
50.0
30.0
0)
40.0
36.0
0)
35.0
0)

50.0
75.0
50.0
62.5
40.0
49.1
50.0
80.0
60.0
55.0
56.3
50.0
55.0
75.0
60.0
62.5
56.3
75.0
50.0
0)
56.3
77.1
0)
86.6
0)

___

_ ...

Arizona__ _____ ________
California______________
Colorado_______________
Connecticut____________
Delaware_______________
District of Columbia.. - _
Idaho___ ______ ________
Tllinnis
. .
Indiana.............................
Tnwa
T an^iia
T
__
Main a
Maryland
Massachusetts _ ..... .. . _
Michigan
Minnesota ..............
Missouri_______________
Montana_______________
Nebraska
Nevada________________
Nfiw Hampshire _
New Jersey.
New Mexico____________
New York._____________
North Dakota__________

Aver­ Low High
age

High
North—Continued.
Ohio
Oregon_________________
"P n«y1 io
an
mn .
Rhode Island___________
South Dakota__________
T t.a
T h
____
___
Vermont_______________
Washington____________
West Virginia__________
Wisconsin
Wyoming _

51.8
56.5
46.3
47! 1
44.4
45.6
40.8
48.4
39.5
55.1
50.0

Smith T „

32.0

11.5

59.8

23.2
24.6
31.3
20.3
35.3
40.5
23.7
26.7
42.7
21.6
32. 2
36.1
28.3

15.0
18.8
20.0
12.5
25.0
37.5
12.5
15.0
30.0
11.5
22.2
12. 5
16.0

36.0
31.3
51.3
35.0
50.0
43.8
34.4
37.5
54. 6
33. 3
40. 0
59! 8
4o! 2

Alabama_______________
Arkansas
Florida__ ______________
Georgia
......
Kentucky______________
Louisiana______________
Mississippi____________
North Carolina.._______
Oklahoma.____________
South Carolina________
Tennessee
Texas____________ _
Virginia

35.0
40.0
25.0
45.0
35.0
43.8
40.0
40.0
30.0
30.0
50.0

60.0
63.1
66.0
53.1
50.0
59.8
45.0
76.9
70.0
82.0
50.0

1 Less than 25 laborers; no average computed.
7It was found that 17.4 percent of all employees reported in this region were paid exactly 40 cents per
hour.




7

ENTRANCE RATES OF PAT

In the North, the average entrance rates by States ranged from
37.9 in M aine to 66.5 cents in Illinois. Both Illinois and M assachu­
setts had averages in excess of 60 cents. Seven additional States
(M ontana, California, N ew Y ork, Oregon, M innesota, Wisconsin, and
Michigan) showed averages in excess of 53.2 cents, or the northern
average, with Ohio just below it and Arizona, Idaho, and W yom ing
with averages at exactly 50 cents. The States with averages of 45
and under 50 cents were New Jersey, District of Columbia, Iowa,
W ashington, Khode Island, Pennsylvania, N ew Hampshire, Connec­
ticut, U tah, and Colorado, while those averaging 40 and less than 45
cents were South D akota, Indiana, M aryland, Nebraska, Kansas,
and Vermont. The States with averages of less than 40 cents were
Missouri, W e st Virginia, Delaware, and M aine.
The average entrance rates in the South varied from 20.3 cents in
Georgia to 42.7 cents in Oklahoma. Only two of the States, namely
Oklahoma (42.7 cents) and Louisiana8 (40.5 cents), had averages
higher than the smallest State average reported in the North. The
Southern States with averages of over 30 and under 40 cents were
Texas (36.1 cents), Kentucky (35.3 cents), Tennessee (32.2 cents), and
Florida (31.3 cents). Those averaging under 30 cents were Virginia,
North Carolina, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabam a, South Carolina, and
Georgia.
The wide differentials in favor of the N orth as against the South for
the various kinds of work in identical city-size groups are brought out
very distinctly in table 5. In every case, the average entrance rate of
the smallest cities in the N orth exceeded by a wide margin that of the
largest cities in the South. Taking all types of work combined, the
differential was 14.5 cents for cities of 100,000 and under 500,000, 21.0
cents for cities of 50,000 and under 100,000, 21.2 cents for cities of
25,000 and under 50,000, and 19.1 cents for cities of 10,000 and under
25,000, with a differential of 7.9 cents between cities of 10,000 and
under 25,000 in the North, as compared with those of 100,000 and
T a b l e 5*— A v e r a g e h o u r l y en tr a n c e r a tes o f c o m m o n la b o r e r s , b y s i z e o f c i t y a n d
t y p e o f w o rk

Sewer work

Street work
Size of city (based on 1930 census of All
population)
work

New
All
con­
street struc­
work tion

New
All
Clean­ sewer con­
ing
work struc­
tion

Re­
pair

Clean­
ing

United States__________ __________ $0.506 $0,506 $0,488 $0,506 $0.512 $0,507 $0.474 $0.512

$0,531

North.._____________________ ____
500.000 and over

.

_ _

100,000 and under 500,000
50,000 and under 100,000..............
25,000 and under 50,000________
10,000 and under 25,000________
South

_ .

100,000 and under 500,000_______
50,000 and under 100,000_______
25,000 and under 50,000 _
10,000 and under 25,000________

.511

.530

.534

.545

.516

.551

.560

.632
.514
.517
.489
.448

.550
.546
.480
.486

.637
.516
.527
.492
.424

.626
.503
.487
.488
.454

.669
.538
.539
.485
.473

0)

.528
.539
.475
.471

.643
.533
.545
.491
.472

.700
.559
.531
.485
.476

.320

.320

.317

.329

.305

.322

.358

.305

.273

.373
.310
.276
.261

.374
.312
.279
.254

.334
<9

.399
.323
.276
.258

.363
.286
.285
.237

.369
.303
.262
.283

.379
C)
1

.351
.301
.284
.260

0)
.266
.232
0)

.532

.529

.637
.518
.520
.488
.452

i Less than 50 laborers; no average computed.
1Includes only the city of New Orleans.




Re­
pair

0)

.276

.311

8

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

under 500,000 in the South. Comparing the averages between the
Northern and Southern regions as a whole by type of work, the differ­
entials are 19.4 cents for new construction, 20.1 cents for repair, and
22.9 cents for cleaning, in street work; and 15.8 cents for new construc­
tion, 24.6 cents for repair, and 28.7 cents for cleaning, in sewer w ork.9
Two questions remain as regards the entrance rates: (1) D o they
vary according to the size of city?
(2) D o they vary according to
type of work, such as new construction, repair, and cleaning, between
and within street and sewer work? The answers to these questions
may also be obtained from the data in table 5.
The various averages in table 5 indicate an unmistakable trend
toward higher wage rates as the size of the cities increases. The few
minor exceptions to this rule are found between adjoining size groups.
In the North, the average entrance rates in the cities of 500,000 and
over were considerably above those of the cities in the other size
groups, the differential between the largest cities and those of the
next class amounting to 11.9 cents for all types of work combined.
There was very little difference in the wage rates between cities of
100.000 and under 500,000 and those of 50,000 and under 100,000.
However, substantial differentials were found to exist in nearly all
cases, first, between cities of 50,000 and under 100,000 and those of
25.000 and under 50,000, and, second, between cities of 25,000 and
under 50,000 and those of 10,000 and under 25,000, the differential for
all types of work combined amounting to 3.2 cents in the former and
3.6 cents in the latter comparison.
In the South, unlike in the North, there were important differentials
in the average entrance rates between cities of 100,000 and under
500.000 and those of 50,000 and under 100,000. The differential was
somewhat greater in sewer than in street work. For all types of work
combined, the differential between the two classes of cities amounted
to 6.3 cents. In nearly all cases, differentials were also found, first,
between cities of 50,000 and under 100,000 and those of 25,000 and
under 50,000, and second, between cities of 25,000 and under 50,000
and those of 10,000 and under 25,000, the combined figure being 3.4
cents in the former and only 1.5 cents in the latter comparison.
In the North the differentials for new construction, repair, and
cleaning, between street and sewer work were generally consistent
with the character of the work involved. New construction in street
work presents a greater variety in duties than work on new sewer con­
struction, and the wage scale was correspondingly somewhat higher on
street than on sewer work. This was found to be true in all northern
city groups for which figures are shown.1 In repair and cleaning, on
0
the other hand, sewer work is recognizedly more disagreeable and at
times more dangerous than street work. Hence, the entrance rates
for repair and cleaning were somewhat higher in sewer work than
in street work, this being true of all city groups except that of 25,000
and under 50,000. In the North as a whole, the differential in favor
of sewer as compared with street work was 2.1 cents in repair and
2.6 cents in cleaning.
9In making these comparisons between the North and South, it should be remembered that the former
includes cities of 600,000 and over with high entrance rates that are not found in the latter.
In the North as a whole, however, the average entrance rate was slightly higher in sewer than in street
work. This apparent inconsistency is due to the fact that, while the largest cities did no new street con­
struction, they engaged in some new sewer construction, and the relatively high rate paid by them for this
work was sufficient to raise the regional average for sewer work above that for street work.




9

FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

If the differentials in the North m ay be explained by the nature of
the work involved, no such ready accounting m ay be made of the
wages paid in the South, where virtually all of the differentials be­
tween the kinds of work were exactly opposite to those found in the
North. In the South as a whole, the differential for new construc­
tion in favor of sewer as against street work was 4.1 cents, while the
differentials for repair and cleaning in favor of street work as com­
pared to sewer work were respectively 2.4 and 3.2 cents.
W hen the wage rates for street work are compared according to
type of work, there is very little consistency in the averages for new
construction, repair, and cleaning shown for the various city-size
groups. In the North there was a tendency for new construction
to pay the most, repair work to pay the next, and cleaning to pay the
least in entrance rates.1 In the South repair and new construction
1
tended to pay more than cleaning. In sewer work, the tendency in
the North was for cleaning to pay the most, repair work the next,
and new construction the least, while in the South the order was new
construction, repair, and cleaning.
In numerous cities, it should be noted, the entrance rates were the
same for the various types of street and sewer work.

Full-Tim e Hours of Work
Although the average full-time hours of common street and
sewer laborers in the United States as a whole amounted to 41.8, the
individual figures ranged from 10 to 66 hours, per week. A distribu­
tion of common laborers according to the weekly full-time hours of
work is presented in table 6. It shows that 20.6 percent of the
laborers had a short week of under 40 hours, 70.0 percent had a week
of from 40 to 48 hours, inclusive, and only 9.4 percent had one of more
than 48 hours.
T able 6.— Distribution of common laborers according to full-time hours of work per
week, by region
North

United States

Full-time hours of work per week

Num­ Sim­
ber of ple
com­ per­
mon
labor­ cent­
age
ers

Total................................................... 39,021
Under 16 hours............. ........... .........
16 and under 24 hours____ _________
24 and under 32 hours........................
Exactly 32 hours................................
Over 32 and under 40 hours............
Exactly 40 hours...............................
Over 40 and under 44 hours..............
Exactly 44 hours................................
Over 44 and under 48 hours..............
Exactly 48 hours................................
Over 48 and under 54 hours............
54 and under 60 hours.......................
60 hours and over......... .....................

16
547
1,360
4,464
1,671
11,179
167
6,521
2,033
7,410
1,741
1,611
301

South

Cu­ Num­
Cu­ Num­
mula­ ber of Sim­ mula­ ber of Sim­
ple
ple
tive com­ per­
tive com­ per­
per­
mon cent­ per­
mon cent­
cent­ labor­ age
cent­ labor­ age
ers
age
age
ers

100.0

34,271

100.0

4,750

0)
1.4
3.5
11.4
4.3
28.6
.5
5.2
16.7
19.0
4.5
4.1
.8

16
0)
1.4
547
4.9 1,160
16.3 4,464
20.6 1,248
49.2 10,460
49.7
167
54.9 5,925
71.6 1,670
90.6 6,690
95.1 1,452
99.2
472
100.0

0)
1.6
3.4
13.0
3.7
30.5
.5
17.3
4.9
19.5
4.2
1.4

0)
1.6
200
4.2
5.0
18.0
423
8.9
21.7
52.2
719
15.1
52.7
70.0 ’ "596" " i i ’e"
74.9
363
7.6
15.2
720
94.4
289
98.6
6.1
100.0 >1,139 *24.0
6.3
100.0
301

Cu­
mula­
tive
per­
cent­
age

100.0

4.2
4.2
13.1
28.2
28.2
40.8
48.4
63.6
69.7
93.7
100.0

1 Less than Ho of 1 percent.
2There were 814, or 17.1 percent, of the laborers working exactly 54 hours.
1 This is not brought out by the averages for the North as a whole, due to the fact that the largest cities,
1
which paid the highest rates, had no new street construction work, thus giving more weighting to repair
and cleaning. The same thing applies to the figures for the United States as a whole.




10

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

The very low full-time hours were, in most instances, due to a
rogram of spreading the work among as m any persons as possible
y limiting each laborer to a specified number of hours per week.
Thus, b y working 2, 3, or 4 days per week, the full-time hours might
run up to any multiple of 8 under 40 hours a week. In one city, each
laborer was limited to
days or 20 hours every other week, which
means an average of 10 hours per week. In two other cities, each
laborer was limited to 5 days of 8 hours every 2 weeks, an average
of 20 hours per week.
W ith the prevalence of the 8-hour day, it is natural to find a con­
centration of laborers in classes that are multiples of 8, such as 32,
40, 44, and 48 hours, which represent respectively weeks of 4, 5, 5K,
and 6 workdays.1
2
As in the case of entrance rates, there is a striking difference be­
tween the N orth and South in average full-time hours of work per
week, the figures being 41.1 in the former and 46.7 in the latter.
The weeldy full-time hours in the N orth ranged from 10 to 56.
The number having a short workweek— under 40 hours— formed 21.7
percent of the total. The percentage of those employed 40 to 48
hours, inclusive, was 72.7, leaving only 5.6 percent with a week of
more than 48 hours.
A n examination of the northern distribution shows the predomi­
nance of the 40-hour or 5-day week, with 30.5 percent of the total
having exactly 40 hours as their regular workweek. N ext in im ­
portance were the 48-hour or 6-day week and the 44-hour or 5K-day
week, the former accounting for 19.5 and the latter for 17.3 percent
of the total laborers. Finally, the hours of 13.0 percent were exactly
32 or a 4-day week.
The Southern range in full-time hours per week was from 30 to 66
hours. The workweek of 13.1 percent of the total laborers was under
40 hours, of 50.5 percent from 40 to 48 hours inclusive, and of 36.4
percent more than 48 hours.
A n inspection of the southern distribution indicates that the m ost
common workweek was that of 54 hours, consisting of 6 days of 9
hours each, which was that of 17.1 percent of the total laborers.
N ext in importance were the 48-hour week (6 days of 8 hours) and
the 40-hour week (5 days of 8 hours), the percentages of those hav­
ing these hours being respectively 15.2 and 15.1. The workweek of
12.6 percent was exactly 44 hours or 5K days.
Further light on the geographical differences in weekly full-time
hours is shown by table 7.
The average full-time hours per week in the N orth ranged from 35.9
in Illinois to 48.2 in M aryland. The States with averages of less than
40 hours were Illinois, Arizona, Ohio, M innesota, and Indiana.
Those reporting averages of 40 and under 44 hours were M assachu­
setts,
Wisconsin,
Pennsylvania,
Missouri,
Kansas,
Vermont,
M ichigan, Nebraska, N ew Y ork , U tah, Iowa, California, Delaware,
N ew Hampshire, and New Jersey. The States having averages of
44 and less than 48 hours were the District of Columbia, Connecticut,
Oregon, W ashington, M aine, W est Virginia, M ontana, Rhode Island,
and South D akota. The States with averages of 48 hours and over
were Idaho, W yom ing, Colorado, and M aryland. In other words, as

E

wAn examination of the basic data also shows minor concentrations at 30, 36, 45, 50, 54, 55, and 60, which
are the result of 6, 9,10, and 11 hours per day combined with a number of workdays ranging from 4 to 6.




11

FULL-TIME HOURS OF WORK

in the case of average entrance rates, there was no geographical
uniformity in the average full-time hours, the figures varying from one
State to another regardless of location.
T able 7.— Average full-time hours of work per week of common laborers} by region
and State

Region and State

Average
full-time
hours of
work per
week

Average
full-time
hours of
work per
week

Region and State

United States.......„......................... ........

41.8

North.

41.1

Oregon__________________________

36. 0
42. 5
48.1
44. 5
42. 6
44. 0
48. 0
35.9
39.7
42.3
40. 8
46. 5
48. 2
43. 0
41.1
39.0
40. 7

Rhode Island_______
_________
South Dakota_______ ____________
Utah...................................................

Arizona

California...........................................
Colorado__________ ______ ________
Connecticut_____________________
Delaware________________________
District of Columbia..... ................
Idaho__________________ ______
Illinois.
_
Indiana............... ...............................
Iowa . .......................
Kansas
Maine

Maryland__ ______ ______________
M assachusetts___________________
Michigan_____________ ___________
Minnesota_______________________
Missouri__________________ ______
Montana________________________
Nebraska_______________ ______
Nevada_________________________
New Hampshire....... ......... ..............
New Jersey______________________
New Mexico_____________________
New York_______________________
North Dakota_.................................

1L e ss

North—Continued.
Ohio

Pennsylvania

Vermont

Washington__ ___________________
West Virginia.
... _
W isconsin___ ____________________
Wyoming_____

___ _______

___

South .

46.7

Alabama
Arkansas

„ _
Florida__________________________
Georgia. _
_
_ .
_ .
Kentucky_______________________

Louisiana

43.7
43.7

Mississippi______________________
North Carolina__________________
Oklahoma_______________________
South Carolina___________________
Tennessee_______________________

41.9

Virginia_________________________

47.8
■41.9

(i)

(i)

Texas

37.0
44! 9
40.2
47.6
47.5
41.9
40.8
45.8
46.3
40.1
48.0

___

49.6
49.8
47.1
50.9
51.1
36.1
53.1
50.7
47.5
54.5
42.6
41.0
49.7

0)

th a n 25 la b o r e r s ; n o a v e ra g e c o m p u t e d .

In the South, the average full-time hours per week varied from 36.1
in Louisiana 1 to 54.5 in South Carolina. Two States besides Louisi­
3
ana had averages of less than 44 hours, namely Texas and Tennessee,
and two other States, Florida and Oklahoma, averaged less than 48
hours. The remaining States reported averages in excess of the maxi­
mum shown in the North, namely 48.2. Alabama, Virginia, and
Arkansas averaged less than 50 hours, and North Carolina, Georgia,
Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina averaged over 50 hours.
The variation in the weeky full-time hours according to size of
city and type of work is also brought out in table 8.
Longer hours in the South as compared with the North are revealed
in almost every instance. For all types of work combined the margin
was 1.8 hours for cities of 100,000 and under 500,000, 3.9 hours for
cities of 50,000 and under 100,000, 8.0 hours for cities of 25,000
and under 50,000, and 7.2 hours for cities of 10,000 and under 25,000.
Similarly, comparing the averages between the Northern and South­
ern regions as a whole by type of work, the margins are 9.2 hours
for new construction, 4.5 hours for repair, and 7.4 hours for cleaning
in street work, and 6.4 hours for repair work and 7.8 hours for clean­
ing in sewer work. It was only in new sewer construction that the
w I n c lu d e s o n l y th e c i t y o f N e w O rlea n s.

112159°— 37-------3




12

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

northern full-time hours exceeded those in the South, the margin
being 1.3 hours. A s regards all sewer work, the full-time workweek
in the South was still 3.4 hours more than in the northern territory.
T a b l e 8 . — Full-time hours of work per week of common laborers, by size of city and

type of work
Street work

Sewer work

Size of city (based on 1930 census of
population)

All
work

United States.....................................

41.8

41.6

43.7

41.3

41.1

43.0

42.4

42.7

North___________________________

41.1

40.9

42.6

40.8

40.4

42.4

42.7

41.7

43.1

37.4
41.7
42.9
41.4
43.5

36.9
41.4
43.1
41.1
43.6

41.4
41.7
39.4
44.4

37.9
39.7
44.3
40.9
43.1

35.8
43.1
42.3
42.0
43.6

40.5
43.1
42.0
43.0
43.2

C)
1
41.5
43.0
44.0
42.5

39.7
42.9
40.0
42.6
43.2

41.7
45.5
43.2
42.9
43.6

South______________ _____________

46.7

47.0

51.8

45.3

47.8

45.8

41.4

48.1

50.9

100,000 and under 500,000_______
50,000 and under 100,000_______
25,000 and nndar 50,000
10,000 and under 25,000________

43.5
46.8
49.4
50.7

44.3
46.5
49.3
50.9

53.8
(0
0)
49.5

41.0
45.7
48.8
49.7

43.0
48.8
50.3
53.3

41.1
47.6
50.1
50.3

37.4
0)

46.9
48.0
47.9
50.1

0)
49.0
53. 2
(*)

500,000 and nvar _
100,000 and under 500,000_______
50,000 and under 100,000_______
25,000 and under 50.000________
10,000 and under 25,000________

New
New
All
All
con­
con­
street struc­ Repair Clean­ sewer struc­ Repair Clean*
ing
ing
work tion
work tion

49.1

43.9

i Less than 50 laborers; no average computed.

According to table 8, there is a tendency for the full-time hours
per week to vary inversely with the size of the city. This tendency
was less marked in the North than in the South. The shortest full­
time hours in the northern region were found in the largest cities
(namely, those with a population of 500,000 and over) for all types of
work, and the longest hours generally existed in the smallest cities
(10,000 and under 25,000), the difference between the two groups
being 6.1 hours for all types of work combined. As for the interven­
ing size groups, the trend was mixed. In the South, the indirect
relationship between size of city and length of full-time hours was
found in practically all types of work, the difference between the
smallest (10,000 and under 25,000) and the largest (100,000 and under
500,000) cities amounting to 7.2 hours for all types of work combined.
In the northern region, the full-time hours per week were generally
smaller in street than in sewer work, the differences for the territoiy
as a whole being 0.1 hour in new construction,1 0.9 hour in repair,
4
and 2.7 hours in cleaning, with 1.5 hours in all types of work combined.
The situation was somewhat different in the South, where shorter
full-time hours existed for repair work and cleaning but longer hours
were found for new construction in street work as compared with
sewer work. The actual difference for the region as a whole was
2.8 and 3.1 hours less, respectively, in repair and cleaning and 10.4
hours m ore1 in new construction, with 1.2 hours more in all types
5
of work combined.
1 This difference is small, due to the fact that, while the largest cities did no new street construction, they
4
engaged in some new sewer construction, and the relatively lower full-time hours worked by them lowered
the regional average for sewer work considerably.
1 This pronounced difference may be accounted for largely by the extreme high and low hours reported
5
respectively for new construction in street and sewer work in cities of 100,000 and under 500,000.




PERSONNEL POLICIES

13

A s regards variations in full-time hours between new construction,
repair, and cleaning, in both street and sewer work, there was gener­
ally a tendency for the hours to be longer in cleaning than in repair and
new construction work. In the northern region, this was not so evi­
dent in street work but was very pronounced in sewer work, where the
figures for the region as a whole showed the longest hours in cleaning,
the next longest in new construction, and the shortest in repair work.
In the South, laborers employed in street work had longer hours in
cleaning than in repair in all city-size groups. In the cities of 10,000
and under 25,000, the full-time hours in repair were slightly higher
than in new construction but still considerably below those in clean­
ing. In the cities of 100,000 and under 500,000, however, workers in
new construction had the longest hours.1 Southern laborers employed
6
in sewer work showed the longest hours in cleaning, the next longest
in repair, and the shortest in new construction.
In many cities, however, the same full-time hours applied to the
various types of street and sewer work.

Personnel Policies
This survey covers only the entrance or hiring rates of pay of
common street and sewer laborers. Nevertheless, it is significant to
know to what extent the practice prevails among cities of paying
more than the entrance rate after a specified period of efficient and
satisfactory service; in other words, if it is possible for a common
laborer to obtain an increase, or if it is necessary for him in order to
obtain a higher rate to change to another occupation.
The great majority of the cities did not advance their laborers
beyond the entrance rate. Thus, out of a total of 751 cities reporting
on this point, 652 had only one rate of pay. The remaining 99 cities
raised the rate after certain periods of service, ranging from as low
as 2 weeks to as high as 5 years, the most frequent period being 1
year and the next one 6 months.
Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the differ­
ence in wage rates between white and colored workers.
This is
especially important in the case of common street and sewer laborers,
in which occupation the number of colored workers has shown a
steady growth in recent years.
In the North, of a total of 628 cities reporting on the subject, only
37 employed “ all white” laborers. The remaining 591 cities had both
white and colored employees, but only 7 cities paid their colored
workers a lower rate than the white laborers. In one of these cities
the hourly entrance rates were 40 to 45 cents for colored as against
45 to 50 cents for whites, while in another city they were 24 cents for
colored and 35 to 40 cents for whites. The rates were not shown by
color of workers in the remaining five cities.
In the South, 8 cities reported employing all white and 11 cities all
colored employees. Of the remaining cities, having both white and
colored laborers, 100 reported paying the same rates to all workers,
and only 9 paid less to their colored than to their white laborers.
i* The large weight contributed by these cities produced the same result in the region as a whole.




14

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

The entrance rates, by color of workers, in each of these cities were as
follows:
White
C i t y n o . 1 __________________ , _________ p e r w e e k . . $15. 00, $16. 0 0
2 __________________________ p e r m o n t h . .
1 1 2 .5 0
3 ................ .......................... ......... p e r d a y 2 .7 5 4 .0 0
4 ________________ ________________d o _____
2 .7 5
5 ________________________________ d o _____
2 .5 0
6 ________________________ A _____ d o _____
2 .0 0 2 .5 0
.3 5 6 3
7 ____________________________ p e r h o u r . .
8 . . . _______ _______________________d o _____
.4 0
9 ................ ............................................. d o _____
.2 5 ,
.3 0

Colored
$12. 0 0
7 5 .0 0
2 .0 0 2 .7 5
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
1 .5 0 1 .7 5
. 325
.3 0
.2 0

The payment of wages on an hourly basis was much more frequent
than on any other basis in the cities of the country. W eekly and
monthly rates were paid in a few cities and yearly rates in only one.
Out of approximately 285 cities in which the regular hours of work
on Saturday were less than on other days of the week, there were 35
cities where laborers were paid day rates and the same for the short
Saturday as for other days. Four other cities paid as follows: In
one, the day rate of $5 for 8 hours was paid for a short Saturday of
4 hours, if the laborer worked 4 full days in the week; in another, the
day rate of $4,275 for 8 hours was paid for a short Saturday of 4 hours,
provided a laborer worked 36 hours in the week; in a third, one-half
of the day rate of $4 for 8 hours was paid for Saturday, although
there was no work on that d ay; and in a fourth, one-half of the day
rate of $4.50 for 8 hours was paid under the same circumstances.
O f the 756 cities reporting on the subject, only 236 declared that no
overtime was worked by their laborers, the remaining 520 cities report­
ing that either part or all of their laborers worked overtime. N o pay
for overtime was allowed in 13 cities, the regular hourly rate was paid
in 446, time and one-third in 1, time and one-half in 36, and double
time in 2. In eight of the cities, 1 hour off duty with pay was allowed
for each hour of overtime, and in another city, 1y2 hours off duty with
pay was given for each hour worked as overtime. In 11 other cities,
the provisions were as follows:
C i t y n o .—
1. L a b o r e r s a t d a y r a te s w e re n o t p a id a n y t h in g f o r o v e r t im e , b u t t h o s e
a t m o n t h ly r a te s w e re a llo w e d 1 h o u r o ff d u t y w ith p a y f o r e a c h h o u r
o f o v e r t im e .
2. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s g r a n te d f o r o v e r t im e a t n ig h t a n d o n S u n d a y a n d
p r o r a t a f o r a ll o th e r o v e r t im e .
3. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s g iv e n f o r o v e r t im e fr o m 6 p . m . t o 6 a. m . a n d
d o u b le t im e f o r o v e r t im e o n S u n d a y a n d h o lid a y s .
4. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s p a id t o se w e r la b o r e r s o n ly f o r a ll o v e r t im e .
5. D o u b le t im e w a s a llo w e d f o r o v e r t im e o n S u n d a y a n d h o lid a y s a n d t im e
a n d o n e -h a lf f o r o v e r t im e o n o th e r d a y s .
6. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s p a id f o r o v e r t im e o n S u n d a y a n d h o lid a y s o n ly .
7. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s g r a n t e d t o se w e r la b o r e r s a n d p r o r a ta t o s tr e e t
la b o r e r s f o r a ll o v e r t im e .
8. D o u b le t im e w a s g iv e n f o r o v e r t im e o n S u n d a y a n d tim e a n d o n e -h a lf
f o r all o th e r o v e r t im e .
9. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s p a id f o r o v e r t im e o n S u n d a y o n ly .
10. T im e a n d o n e -h a lf w a s a llo w e d fo r o v e r t im e a t n ig h t a n d o n S u n d a y .
11. D o u b le t im e w a s a llo w e d f o r o v e r t im e a t n ig h t a n d o n h o lid a y s .

In the two remaining cities, the provisions with respect to overtime
were not specified.




Appendix I
T

able

A - — Entrance rates of pay and full-time hours of work of common street and
sewer laborers, by State and city and type of work, September 19S5
[For footnotes, see end of table]
H ourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

. Sewer work
Street work
Popula­ A ver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
New
all
census) types con­
con­
Per
Repair Clean­ struc­ Repair Clean­ Mon­
ing day to Sat­ week
ing
struc­
of
tion
tion
work
Fri­ urday

day

Alabama

Mobile....................
Decatur..................
Fairfield..................
Huntsville... ...........
Tuscaloosa..............

$0.250 $0.250
.207

$0.250 $0,300
.207
.360
.200
.167
.150
.150

68,202 $0,279
.207
16,693
.280
11,069
.167
11,554
.153
20,659

8.0
10.0
10.0
9.0
10.0

5.0

9.0
5.0

9.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
8.0

5.0
6.0
9.0
10.0
8.0

50.0
46.0
54.0
60.0
48.0

6.0
6.0

.200

45.0
58.0
50.0
54.0
55.0

6.0
6.0

36.0
36.0

8.0

Arkansas

Little Rock______
Fort Smith............
Hot Springs........ ....
Jonesboro........ .......
Pine Bluff...............

81,679
31,429
20,238
10,326
20,760

.236
.313
.308 $0.308
.200
.231

.222
.313
308
.200
.250

.313
308 $0. 308
.200
.188

48,118
82,606

.500
.500

.500

.500
.500

Los Angeles........ . 1,238,048
San Francisco_____ 634,394
Long Beach............. 142,032
Oakland.................. 284,063
San Diego............... 147,995
Berkeley................. 82,109
Fresno.................... 52, 513
Glendale________ 62,736
Pasadena................. 76,086
Sacramento............. 93,750
San Jose_________ 67,651
Alameda................. 35,033
Alhambra.............— 29,472
Bakersfield.............. 26,015
Huntington Park__ 24,591
Inglewood............... 19,480
Riverside................ 29,696
San Bernardino___ 37,481
Santa Ana............... 30,322
Santa Barbara____ 33,613
Santa Monica.......... 37,146
Stockton................. 47,963
Anaheim................. 10,995
Beverly Hills........... 17,429
Brawley.................. 10,439
Burbank................. 16,662
Burlingame--......... 13,270
Fullerton... ............. 10,860
Monrovia............... 10,890
Ontario................... 13,583
Palo Alto................ 13,652

.577
.750
.544
.568
.404
.538
.500
.520
.500
.663
.728
.533
.500
.594
.500
.525
.557
.531
.500
.477
.520
.500
.530
.500
.531
.577
.625
.511
.600
.500
.500

.306
.313
.308

.306
.313
.308

.250

.250

Arizona

Phoenix..................
Tucson............ .......
{California




.577
.750
.544
. 550
.563

.563
.520
.500

.500

.500

.625
.500
.500

.734
.529
.500
.594
.500
.525
.557
.531
.500
.475
.650
.500
.530
.500
.531
.577
.500
.500
.540
500

.577
.750
.550
.404
,500
.500
.520
.500
.663
.708
.529

.577

.594

. 663

.594
.525
.557
.631
.500
.475
.500
.500
.530
.500
.531

.700
.404
.563
.500
.663
.734
.553
.500

.577
.750
.700
.404
.563
.620
. 500
.663
.734

.530

.525
.557
. 531
. 500
.475
.550
.500
.530

.531

.£31

.557
.531
.506

8.0
8.0
8.7
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.7
8.0
4.0
8.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

8.0
4.0
8.0
4.0
4.0

~ .”(T
8
8.0
1.5

g.e

.625
.500
460

8.0

.500
.500

.500

4.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.0

4.4
8.0

15

40.0
40. G
48.6
48.0
44 0
48! 0
44. G
44. 0
44.0
40! 0
44! 0
48.0
44.0
48! 0
44.0
44.0
4o! g
40.0
4?! 0
40.0
4o! o
48.0
41. 5
4o! o
4G G
.
40.0
44.0
44.4

48.0
44.0
40.0

16

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OP COMMON LABOR

T a b l e A .— E n t r a n c e r a te s o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 5 — Continued

Hourly entrance rates

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work

State and city

Street work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
all
census) types New
con­
Clean­ con­
Per
Clean­ Mon­
struc­ Repair ing struc­ Repair ing
of
day to Sat­ week
work tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

California—Contd.
Pomona...........
Redlands______
Richmond..........
Salinas..............
San Leandro----San Mateo........
Santa Cruz.........
Santa Rosa_____
South Gate____
South Pasadena.
Vallejo................
Ventura..............
Whittier_______

20,804 $0.455 $0.455 $0,455 $0.455
$0.455 $0.455
.400
.400
14,177
.665
.665
.548
.548
.630
20, 093
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
10,263
.438
.438
.438
11,455
.438
.500
.500
13,444
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
14, 395
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
10,636
.425
.425
.425
19, 632
.425
.470
.470
.470
.470
.470
13, 730
.625
.625 $0.625
.625
.625
.625
14,476
.625
.500
.500
.500
11, 603
.500
14,822
.500
.500

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.0

44.0
40.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
44.0

.463
.500

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
149.0

.500
.475
.413
.400

1.1
8.0
5.0
5.4

4.6
8.0
7.0

230. 7
*35.3
50.0
45.4
45.0
48.0
45.0
48.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
44.0
*38.1
44.0
232.0
44.0
48.0
42.0

4.0
8.0
4.0
8.0
4.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
4.0

Colorado
Colorado Springs.
Boulder_________
Fort Collins-------Grand Junction...
Greeley--------------

33,237
11,223
11,489
10,247
12, 203

.463
.461
.407
.475
.375

.463
.438

146, 716
164, 072
99,902
68,128
28,451
38,481
24, 554
29, 640
46, 346
24, 941
25,808
19,898
22,261
17,125
14,315
10,113
19,212
11,170

.500
.495
.413
.400
.450
.500
.400
.484
.614
.450
.375
.438
.556
.400
.500
.500
.500
.450

.500
.500
.413

.463
.438
.400
.475
.375

.463
.438

.500
.500
.413
.400
.450
.500

.500
.500
.413
.400

.500

.463
.500
.450

.413
.400

.475
.413
.400
.450
. 500

.475
.375

Connecticut
Bridgeport____
Hartford......... .
Waterbury____
N ew Britain_
_
Bristol-----------Meriden______
Middletown___
New London.
Stamford_____
West Hartford..
West Haven_
_
Ansonia______
Danbury-------East Hartford..
Naugatuck.......
Shelton_______
Stratford______
Wallingford___

.500
.500
.500
.450

.500

.500

.450

.500
.450

.500
.450

8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
8.6
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0

.400

.350

.400

.400

.400

8.0

2.6

42.6

.491 —

.491

.491

.491

.491

.491

8.0

4.0

44.0

.367
.327
.281
.203
.448
.230

.400
.375
.278
.200
.438
.219
.200
.300
.250

.300
.275
.278
. 200
. 513
.250
.200
.300
.250

.400
.275
.333
.220
.513
.250

8.0
8.0
9.0
9.7
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.0
4.0
9.0
5.5
5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

44.0
445.0
54.0
* 55.0
45.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
40.0

.500
.500
.500
.450

.500
.614
.450
.375
.438
.563
.400
.500
.500
.500
.450

.400

.450

.500
.400
.500
.614
.450
.375
.438
.500

.400

.500

.450

.614
.450

.438

.438
.625

8.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
1.7
4.0

._ _

Delaware
Wilmington.............

106,597

District of Columbia
Washington....... .....

486,869

Florida
129, 549
Jacksonville___
Miami_______
110, 637
Tampa.............
101,161
Orlando______
27,330
Pensacola........
31, 579
St. Petersburg..
40,425
10,465
Gainesville.......
Lakeland_____
18, 554
12, 111
St. Augustine..
See footnotes at end of table.




.200

.300
.250

.

.271
.278
.200
.438
.219
.300
.250

.250

17

APPENDIX I
T

A.— E n t r a n c e r a tes o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 5 — Continued

able

Hourly entrance rates
Sewer work

Street work
State and city

Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
city
for
(1930
all
census) types
of
work

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Per day
New
New
con­ Repair Clean­ con­ Repair Clean­ Mon­
Per
struc­
ing
ing
struc­
day to Sat­ week
tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

Georgia

Griffin---------------------

$0. 350 $0.350
60,342 $0.350
$0.350 $0.350
.250
.194
.175
53! 829
.300
.250
.200
85,024
.200
.200
.200
.200
.210
.210
.210
43,131
.210
.210
14, 022
.230
.230
.230
.250
.250
.250
13] 276
.250
. 150
. 150
.150 $0.150
10,321
.150 $0.150
. 150
.200
.200
.200
20,131
.200
.200
.125
.125
13] 482
. 125
.125
.200
.200
15] 510
.200

9.0
8.1
9.0
8.0
10.0
8.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
4. 0
5.0
5. 0
5. 0
7. 2

47. 8
45.9
50. 0
40. 0
60.0
44.0
55.0
55. 0
55. 0
s 55] 0

.500
. 500

8.0
8.0

8. 0
8. 0

48. 0
48] 0

.794

.794

.500
.700
.500
.600
.500
.500
.500
.550
.500
.500
.750

. 500

8.0
7. 4
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8. 0
9.0
7.2
6. 0
8.0
8. 0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8. 0
8. 5
8. 0
9. 0
8.0
8.0
8. 0
8. 0
8.0
8. 0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8. 0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9. 0
8.0
8. 0
8. 0
8.0
8. 0
8.0

5.4
5.0

Idaho
21, 544
16] 471

.500
.500

.500
.500

.500
.500

.500
. 500

Illinois

Chicago
Peoria,
Rerwyn
Cicero

_____ _ 3,376,438
____ 104,969
_ _____ 47,027
_____ 66,602
57, 510
Decatur___ _______
74,347
East St. Louis___ Evanston
- _ 63,338
63, 982
Oak Park________ 85, 864
Rockford............. —71,864
Springfield
_____
30,151
Alton..................... .

Aurora _________ Belleville______ - - Elgin
__________
Galesburg
____
Granite City _____
_________
Joliet
Moline __________
Quincy _____ _____
Waukegan_________
Blue Island_________
Brookfield__________
Canton___________ Centralia-------------- .
Chicago Heights..- _
East Moline________
Harvey
_ ______
Highland Park_____
Jacksonville________
Kankakee__________
La Grange_________
Lincoln.______ _____
Melrose Park_______
Mount Vernon___ .
Park Ridge_________
Sterling____________
Streator____________

TTrhana . _ . . . _

Winnetka__________

46, 589
28, 425
35, 929
28, 830
25,130
42, 993
32, 236
39, 241
33, 499
16, 534
10,035
11,718
12,583
22,321
10,107
16, 374
12,203
17, 747
20,620
10,103
12, 855
10, 741
12,375
10,417
10,012
14,728
13,060
12,166

.724
.750
.642
.650
.500
.500
.600
.449
.450
.468
.500
.577
.750
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500 "'."566" .500
.550
.550
.500
.500
.500
.426
.410
.750
.750
.574
. 600
. 500
. 500
.800
.800
.541
.400
.400
.400
.400
.563
.563
.563
.550
.450
.550
’ .550’
.530
.530
.530
.536
.500
.481
.481
.500
.500
.765
. 765
.370
.370
.350
.413
.500
.500
.400
.400
.500
.500
.400
.567
.550
.300
.300
.650
.650
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500

.693

. 500

.625

.375
.450

.500
.500
.500
.550
.500
.410
.750
.315
.800
.471
.400
.400
.563
.550
.450
.550
.530
.500

.500
.500

.800

.600
.500

.500
.500
.500
.550
.500
. 500
.750
.600
. 500
.800
. 553

.400
.563
.600
.530

. 500

.400
.563
.600

.530
.625

.530
.625

. 500

.765
.350
.400
.500
.400
.500
.400
.550
.300
.650

.765
.472

.500
. 765
.500

.500

.500

. 600

. 600
.500

.500

.500

.450
.450
.500
.400
.440

.450
.450
.560
.400
.440

4.0

3 32,9
36] 9
40.0
48] 0
40.0
40] 0
40. 0
45.0
39] 6
36. 0
44] 0
48. 0
40. 0
44. 0
44. 0
40. 0
51. 0
48. 0
50. 0
45] 7
44. 0
44. 0
6 43. 0
48’ 0
.
40. 0
48. 0
54. 0
44. 0
45. 2
45. 0
48. 0
44. 0
50.0
45.0
42. 7
40. 0
44. 0
40. 0
44.0

5.6

40.0
40.0
40. 0
1 32. 0
45.0

8.0

3.5
4.0
8. 0
4. 0
4.0
8. 5
8.0
5. 0
5. 7
4. 0
4. 0
2] 0
8.0
8. 0
9.0
4! o
5.2
5. 0
8. 0
4.0
5.0
5.0
2.7
4. 0

Indiana

Evansville _
Fort. Wayne
Gary_______________
Indianapolis_______

South Bend...............

102,249
114,946
100,426
364,161
104,193

See footnotes at end of table.




.450
.450
.517
.400
.440

.450
.450
.560
.400
.440

........

.450
.450
.560
.400
.440

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

18

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

T a b l e A . — E n t r a n c e ra tes o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n street a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k y S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 5 — Continued

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work
Street work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
all
census) types New
Clean­ con­
Per
con­
Clean­ Mon­
struc­ Repair ing struc­ Repair ing
of
day to Sat- week
work tion
tion
Pri- urday
day

Indiana—Continued
East Chicago...........
Hammond................
Terre Haute.............
Anderson..................
Elkhart.................. Kokomo...................
Michigan City.........
Mishawaka...............
Muncie.................. .
New Albany.............
Richmond............. .
Bedford.....................
Bloomington............
Crawfordsville..........
Elwood.....................
Frankfort-—............
Goshen......................
Huntington..............
Jeffersonville. ..........
La Porte.............. .
Marion.................. .
Newcastle.................
Peru______________
Shelbyville------------Vincennes_________
Whiting....................

54,784 $0.500
$0.500 $0.500
$0.500 $0.500
.600
.600
.600
64,560
.600 $0. 600
.600
.375
.375
.375
.375
62,810
.375
.460
.500
.460
39,804
.475
.500
.500
.500
.500
32,949
.400
.400
32,843
.450
.450
.450
.450
26,735
.450
.570
.570
.570
.570
28, 630
.570
.450
. 500
46, 548
.452
.450
.300
.327
25,819
.302
.350
32, 493
.350
.350
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
13, 208
.450
.450
18,227
.450
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
10,355
.380
.380
.380
.380
.380
10,685
.400 $0.400
.400
.400
12,196
.400 " ” 400’ .400
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
10,397
13, 420
.250
.250
.350
11,946
.350
.473
.495
.495
15, 755
.466
.433
.400
.400
.400
.400
24,496
.400
.400
.400
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
14,027
.400
12,730
.400
.400
.400
10,618
.333
. 300
.400
.300
17, 564
.300
.300
.300
.300
.500
.500
10, 880
.500
.500
.500

7.0

8.0
8.0
8.2
7.0
8.0
8.0
10.0

9.0
8.0

9.0
9.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
7.3
9.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
9.0

7.0
35.0
....... 40.0
....... 40.0
____ 41.6
7.0 42.0
8.0 48.0
____ 40.0
5.0 35.0
.2 40.2
5.0 55.0
------ 45.0
____ 40.0
5. 0 50. 0
5.0 50. 0
4.0 845. 6
____ 40.0
5.0 45. 0
____ 40.0
9.0 54. 0
3.3 40.0
5.0 50.0
5.0 45.0
5. 0 45. 0
4. 0 44.0
9.0.....54.0
....... 936.0

Iowa
Des Moines.............. 142, 559
Cedar Rapids______ 56,097
Davenport................ 60, 751
79,183
Sioux C ity ......... .
26, 755
Burlington............ .
25, 726
Clinton_____ ______
42, 048
Council Bluffs_____
Dubuque..... ............. 41, 679
Ottumwa.................. 28,075
Waterloo................. . 46,191
10, 261
Ames........ - ..............
Boone........................ 11,886
Fort Dodge............... 21,895
15,340
Iowa City.................
15,106
Keokuk___________
Marshalltown........... 17,373
Mason City.............. 23,304
Muscatine................. 16, 778
Newton..................... 11, 560

.540
.500
.450
.500
.500
.447
.500
.450
.500
.400
.500
.483
.431
.400
.500
.441
.426
.400
.416

.540
.500
.450
.500
.500
.400
.500
.450
.400
. 500
.500

.400
.500
.450
.410
.400
.500
.450
.400
.4C0
.400

.540
.500
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500
.450
.500
.400

.540
.500
.450
.500
.500
.400
.450
.400

.450
.410 ” . 450"
’
.400
.500
.400
.450
.400
. 4C
0

. 540
.500

.450
.500
.400

.400
. 550
.450
.400
.500
.450
.450
.400
.450

.500
. 500
.500

.550
.450
.400
.500
.500
.400
.450

8. 0
8. 0
8.0
8.0
8. 0
8. 0
8.0
8.0
8. 0
9. 0
8. 0
8. 0
8.0
8. 0
8. 0
7. 4
8. 0
8. 0
8. 0

5. 0
45. 0
8.0
48.0
_____ 7 32. 0
......... 7 32.0
_____ 40.0
8. 0
48. 0
_____ 7 32.0
4.0
44.0
8.0
48. 0
9.0
54.0
......... 40. 0
8.0
48.0
8.0
48. 0
5.0
45.0
8.0
48. 0
7.4
44. 2
8. 0
48.0
_____ 40.0
4.0
44. 0

Kansas
Kansas City............. 121,857
Wichita..................... 111,110
Topeka...................... 64,120
Hutchinson .............. 27,085
13,946
Arkansas City_____
Atchison...... ............. 13,024
Chanute............. ...... 10, 277
Coffeyville................ 16,198
El Dorado................. 10,311
14,067
Emporia...................
Independence........... 12,782
Lawrence.................. 13, 726
Leavenworth______
17,466
Manhattan...............
10,136
Newton..................... 11,034
See footnotes at end of table.




.500
.375
.400
.400
.400
.380
.390
.469
.300
.400
.338
.350
.398
.384
.350

.500
.375
.400
.450
.450
.469
.300
.400
.338
.350
.438
.384
.350

.500
.375
.400
.400
.400
.350
.350
.469
.300
.400
.338
.350
.375
.384
.350

.375

.500
.375
.400
.400

.350
.469

.469

.338

.338
.350
.438
.384

.375
.384

8.0 .........
8.0 5. 2
7. 5 4.0
7.0 _____
8.0 8.0
8. 0 4.0
8.0 8. 0
8.0 8.0
8. 0 8.0
8.0 8.0
8.0 ______

8. 0
8. 0
8.0
8.0

8. 0
8.0
8. 0
8.0

40.0
40.0
41. 5
35.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48. 0
48.0
40.0

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

19

APPENDIX I

A.— E n t r a n c e ra te s o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n street a n d
s e w e r laborerSy b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k f S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 5 — Continued

T able

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Street work
Sewer work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
city
Per day
for
(1930
New
all
census) types New
con­
Clean­ con­
Per
Clean­ Mon­
struc­ Repair ing struc­ Repair ing day to Sat­ week
of
work tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

Kansas—Continued
Parsons___________
Pittshnrg
Salina ~

14,903 $0,400
18,145
.522
.350
20,155

$0,400
.500 $0.563
.350
.350

$0,400
.563 $0.563
.350

8.0
8.0
8.0

8.0

9.0

.500
.350

9.0
8.0
12.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
10.0
8.0

8.0

48.0

10 16.0

48.0

Kentucky
Louisville................. 307, 745
Covington
65,252
Ashland .
29,074
Lexington
4 ^ 736
5
Newport_________
29,744
Paducah___________ 33j541
Port Thomas
10,008
10, 746
Hopkinsville_____
Middleshnro
10; 350

.333 $0.335
.423
.316
.355
.500
.350
.450
.250
.376

.335
.430
.320
.350
.500
.350
.450
.250
.393

.330 $0.335
.400
.266
.350
.500
.350
.450
.250
.341

.405

.438

.375

.400

.400

8.0

.389
.350
.320
.350
.333
.389
.400

.389
.500
.350
.350
.320
.333
.350
.333 'M & T
.389
.389
.400

.500
.350

.389
.350

9.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
9,0
9.0
8.0

.350
.500
.300
.250

.350
.500
.350
.250

.335

.335

.320
.388
.500

.320

5.0
5.0
4.0
5.0
4.0

54.0
40.0
65.0
40.0
40.0
50.0
44.0
55.0
44.0

Louisiana
New Orleans_______ 458, 762

.2 *36.5

Maine
Portland__________
Bangor.........- ...........
Anhnrn
Augusta....................
Biddeford_____ ____
South Portland........
Waterville_______

70,810
28, 749
18,571
17,198
17, 633
13,840
15,454

.399
.350
.323
.350
.333
.389
.400

30,861
37,747
14,434
10,997

.350
.500
.302
.250

781,188
113,643
115,274
102, 320
112, 597
103,908
149,900
195,311
63, 797
56, 537
85, 068
58, 036
59,714
65, 276
49, 677
71. 983
36, 094
25, 086
47,490
45,816
43,930
48,424
40,692
48,710
35, 680
43,353

.682
.682
.500
.700
.495
.665
.560
.500
.650
.500
.619
.550
.730
.691
.450
.625
.560
.625
.682
.682
.568
.682
.460
.625
.545
.682

.389
.350
.320
.350
.333
.389

.350
.333 ‘ ".'333"
.389
.389

9.6
8.0
9.0
8.0

45.0
40.0
54.0
48.0
54.0
45.0
48.0

Maryland
Hagerstown________
Cumberland ___ .
Frederick
Salisbury__________

.250

.500

.550
.300

.500
.300

.682
.682

.682
.682
.500
.700
.500
.665

8.0
9.6
9.0
9.0

4.1
5.0
5.0

44.1
48.0
50.0
50.0

Massachusetts
Boston__ __ ____
Cambridge...............
Fall River_________
Lynn_____________

N ew Bedford ____
Somerville

Springfield_________
Worcester_________
Brockton................. .
Holyoke___________
Lawrence

Malden___________
Medford___ _______
Newton___________
Pittsfield...................
Quincy____________
Arlington..................
Beverly................... .
Brookline__________
Chelsea ..............
Chicopee _ .

Everett____________
Fitchburg.................
Haverhill
R evere __

Salem........................

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




.682
.700
.560
.500
.650
.619
.550
.682
.687
.450
.625
.625
.682
.460

.682
.682
.500
.700
.500.
.665
.560
.500
.650
.500
.619
.750
.687
.450
.625
.560
.625
.682
.568
.682
.460
.625
.545
.682

.682
.500
.700
.476
.665
.560
.650
.500
.619
.750
.687
.450
.625
.560
.625
.682
.682
.568
.682
.460
.625
.545
.682

.682
.682

.700
.500
.665
.560
.650

.650
.500

.550
.750
.709
.450
.625

.650
.500
.619

.709
.450

.709
.450
.625

.625

.625

.460

.682
.568
.682
.460

.625
.682
.682
.568
.682
.460
.625
.545
.682

.545

8.0
8.0
8.5
8.0
8.5
8.0
» 9.0
**9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.7

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.0
44.0
44.0
4.0
5.5
48.0
4.0
44.0
5.5
48.0
4.0
44.0
4.0 11 48.0
5.0 w 48.0
4.0
44.0
40.0
4.8
44.8
40.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.7 48.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
8.0
48.0
8.0
48.0
4.0
44.0

4.0

44.0

20

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

A . — E n t r a n c e r a te s o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s f b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 — Continued

T able

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Street work
Sewer work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
city
Per day
for
(1930
New
New
all
census) types con­
Clean­ con­
Clean­ Mon­
Per
struc­ Repair ing struc­ Repair ing
of
day to Sat­ week
work tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

Massachusetts—Con.
Taunton...... .............
Watertown............ .
Amesbury__............ .
Attleboro..... ........... .
Belmont................
Clinton.....................
Dedham...... .............
Easthampton______
Gloucester___ _____
Greenfield.................
Leominster-..............
Marlborough............
Melrose................. .
Methuen____ ____
Milford.....................
Milton......................
Needham..................
Newburyport..........
North Adams______
Northampton......... .
Peabody__________
Southbridge.............
Stoneham.................
Swampscott..............
Wakefield_________
Webster.................. .
Wellesley..... ......... .
Westfield— ..............
Weymouth...............
Winchester
Winthrop.................
Woburn___________

37,355 $0.508 $0.500 $0,500 $0,500
$0.580 $0. 580
.682
.682
34,913
.682
.682
.682
.500
11,899
.500
.500
.500
.450
.450
21,769
.450
.606
.606
.606
.606 $0. 606
21, 748
.606
.606
12,817
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.531
.531
15,136
.500
.500
.500
11,323
.500
.500
.600
.600
24, 204
.600
.600
.600
.600
.400
.400
.400
.400
15,500
.400
.400
.400
.434
.400
.400
.400
21,810
.500
.500
.500
.625
.625
.625
15, 587
.625
.655
.655
.655
23,170
.655
.655
.569
.569
.569
.569
21,069
.569
.500
14, 741
.500
.500
.625
.625
16, 434
.625
.450
10,845
.450
.450
.500
.500
.500
15,084
. 500
. 500
.500
.500
21,621
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
24, 381
.500
.500
.500
.625
.625
.625
.625
21,345
.625
.480
14, 264
.480
.480
.620
.620
.620
10,060
.620
.682
.682
.682
10, 346
.583
.583
.583
.583
16, 318
.500
.500
.500
12,992
. 500
.500
.667
.667
.667
.667
11, 439
.667
.667
.667
.500
.500
.500
19, 775
. 500
.625
.625
.625
.625
20,882
.479
.400
.550
.550
12, 719
.550
.550
.550
.509
.500
.500
16,852
. 500
.550
.438
.438
.438
19,434

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.8
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.8
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8. 0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

0.4 2 26.0
4.0 13 36.0
40.0
8. 0
48. 0
4.5
47.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44. 0
40! 0
5.0
45.0
.1 1 40.1
40.0
8.0
48.0
4. 0
44! 0
4.3
48! 0
4.0
44! 0
.8
40! 0
4.0
44. 0
-? 16.0
33.8
.8
40! 8
4. 6
44. 6
4.0
44! 0
40! 0
4.0
44! 0
4. 0
44.0
41* 8
1.8
5.0
45! 0
8.0
48.0
40.0
3.1
43.1
4.0
44. 0
4.5
44. 5

Michigan
Detroit...................... 1,568,662
Flint....................... . 156,492
Grand Rapids_____ 168,592
50,358
Dearborn..................
Highland Park....... . 52,959
Jackson................... . 55,187
54, 786
Kalamazoo____ ____
78, 397
Lansing___________
64,928
Pontiac.....................
Saginaw.................... 80, 715
26,944
Ann Arbor................
47,355
Bay City..................
41,390
Muskegon................
31,361
Port Huron..............
Royal Oak................ 22,904
Wyandotte............... 28,368
13,064
Adrian............ .........
12,166
Alpena____________
Benton Harbor_____ 15, 434
12, 716
Ecorse................ ......
20,855
Ferndale_____ _____
Grosse Pointe Park.. 11,174
14,346
Holland....................
14, 299
Ironwood____ _____
Lincoln Park—......... 12,336
Marquette_________ 14, 789
13,497
Mount Clemens.......
11,326
Niles.........................
Owosso...................... 14,496
River Rouge. ........... 17,314
Sault Ste. Marie....... 13,755
Traverse City........... 12, 539
See footnotes at end of table.




.600
.483
.500
.550
.550
.506
.450
.550
.550
.475
.433
.440
.400
.400
.500
.509
.361
.400
.350
.600
.500
.600
.450
.443
.600
.350
.430
.400
.317
.500
.499
.350

.600
.500

.500
.550

.600
.400

.550
.550

.550
.550
.600
.450

.550
.550
.500
.500
.440
.400
.400
.500

.600

.600
.450
.438
.600
.350
.450
.400
.350

.550
.500
.500
.440
.400
.400
.500
.500
.350
.400
.350
.600
.500
.600
.450
.438
.600
.350
.400
.400
.270

.500

.500
.350

.440
.350

.440

.400
.350

.350
.350
.600

.500
.550
.400
.400
.440

.600
. 500
. 500
.550
.550
.500
.550
.500
.440
.400
.400
.400

.350

.350
.600

.600

.500

. 519
.600
.350
.440
.350
.500
"".’ 350’

.600
. 500
. 500
.550
.550
.500
.550
.550
.500
.500
.440
.400
.550
.400
.400
.350
. 600
.450
.550
.600
.350
.440
.400
.350

8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
8.6
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.3
8. C
8.0
8.0
7.3
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.1
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
8.4
8.0
6.9
10.0

8.0
4.0

6.0
4.6
8.0
4.0
3.8
8.0
4. 0
3.5
4.0
5.1
8.0
4.0
4.0
8. 0
3.4
8.0
9.0
8.0
5.0
8.4
6.9
5.0

40. 0
48.0
44. 0
45! 0
40.0
40.0
36.0
47. 7
40 0
48.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
48.0
44.0
40* 0
44.0
2 39.3
48.’ 0
44. 0
44.0
48.0
43! 7
u 24.0
40.0
54. 0
40.0
50.0
50.5
40.0
41.1
55.0

21

APPENDIX I

A.— E n t r a n c e r a te s o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S t a t e a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k f S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 — Continued

T able

Hourly entrance rates
Street work

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work

Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
all
census) types New
con­ Repair Clean­ con­ Repair Clean­ Mon­
Per
ing struc­
ing
of
struc­
day to Sat­ week
work tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

M in n e so ta

Duluth_______
Minneapolis—
St. Paul............
Albert Lea........
Austin............ .
Faribault..........
Hibbing............
Mankato______
Rochester_____
South St. Paul.
St. Cloud-------Winona.............

101,

464,
271,
10,
12.

12,
15,

1,
4

20,
10,
21
20,

,

$0,500 $0,500
$0.500
.625
.625 $0.625 $0. 625 $0. 625
.625 $0. 625
.450
.462
.450
. 500
.500
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450 ” .450’
.450
.625
.625
. 625
.625
.625
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.600
.600
.450
.450
.450
.450
.469
.469
.469
. 469
.469
.500
.500
.500

8.0
6.6
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.0
8.0

4.0
1.9
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

44.0
34.7
48.0
449. 3
48.0
1 50.3
40.0
8.0
48.0
is 30.0
7.0
42.0
4.0 44.0
234.0

Mississippi
.313
.254
.150
.344
,194
.300

.250
.313
.280
. 125
.344
. 194
.290

.2 0 0
.2 0 0

.2 0 0
.2 0 0

.375
.400
.450
.400
.350
.500
.350
.375

.375
.400
.450
.400
.350
.551
.240
.375
.300
.563
.450
.348
.300
.400
.544

31,954
14,850
10,043
14, 807
12, 547
18, 601
18,017
13,422
22,943

.228
.313
.265
. 151
.344
.194
.295

821,960
399, 746
57,527
80, 935
33, 454
25,809
16, 227
14,967
22,761
15,296
21,596
13, 772
20,806
10,491
16,487

.394
.400
.450
.400
.350
.604
.286
.375
.359
.507
.450
.348
.300
.400
.544

39,532
28,822
12,494
16,380
11,803
14,657

.720
.600
.563
.500
.540

214,006
75,933
10,297
11,407
18,041
15,490

.500
.350
.300
.438
.450
.400

.400

.300
.438
.450
.400

Reno.........................
18,529
See footnotes at end of table.

.563

.563

.563

Meridian---Biloxi...........
Clarksdale.._
Greenville...
Gulfport___
Hattiesburg.
Laurel..........
Natchez____
Vicksburg-__

.2 0 0

. 150
.300

.200
.200

.2 0 0

.175
.280

.2 0 0

.313

.313

. 175
.344
194
320

.175
.344

.2 0 0

9.0
8.0
10.0
10.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
9.0

9.0
54.0
8.0
40.0
9.0
59.0
10.0 *62.8
40.0
9.0
54.0
8.0 i« 48.3
9.0 i«54.5
9.0 17 56. 5

4.5
4.0
8.0
4.0
5.5

40.0
40.0
30.0
40.0
48.0
44.3
49.2
48.0
43.1
40.0
49.5
44.0
48.0
44.0
48.0

Missouri
St. Louis............
Kansas City.......
Springfield........
St. Joseph..........
Joplin------ -------University City.
Cape Girardeau.
Columbia...........
Hannibal______
Independence.. .
Jefferson City_
_
Moberly.............
Sedalia...............
St. Charles.........
Webster Grove. _

. 450

.400

.450
.348
.300
.400
.544

.500
.450
.348
.300
.400
.544

.450

.500
.450

.400
.544

.400
.544

.400
.544

8.0
8.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.6
8.0
7.2
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.5

.720

.720
.600
.563
. 500
.500
.656

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
4.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

48.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

.500

.500
.350

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0

56.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
54.0
10 16.0

.563

.563

8.0

8.0

48.0

.438
.400

.438
.400

.400
.350
.500

.400
.350
.500

.375

.375
.400
.450

8.0
4.3
6.3
8.0
7.2

Montana
Butte______
Great Falls..
Anaconda...
Billings____
Helena....... .
Missoula___

.600
.563
.750

.720
.600
.563
. 600
.500
.656

.720
.563
.500
.601
.656

.563

.563
. 600
. 500
.656

Nebraska
Omaha............
Lincoln.........
Beatrice..........
Fremont_____
Grand Island..
Hastings_____

.350
.300

Nevada




22

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

Entrance rates of pay and full-time hours of work of common street and
sewer laborers, by State and city and type of workf September 1986— Continued

T able An
—

Hourly entrance rates

Street work
State and city

Popula­
tion of
city
(1930
census)

Aver­
age
for
all
types
of
work

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work

Per day
New
New
con­
Clean­ con­
Repair
Repair Clean­
ing
struc­
struc­
ing
tion
tion

Per
M on­
day to Sat­ week
Fri­ urday
day

N e w H a m p s h ir e

Manchester..........
Concord................
Nashua..................
Berlin.....................
Claremont---------Dover.....................
Laconia.................

76,834
25,228
31,463
20,018
12,377
13, 573
12,471

l. 460 $0,460 $0.460 $0.460 $0.460 $0. 460 $0,460
.600
.400
.468
.550
.450
.450
.450
.450
.430
.430
.430
.430
.430
.430
.430
. 400
.400
.400
.400
.563
.563
.563
.563
.400
.400
.400
.400

8.0
9.0
8.8
8.0
8.5
8.7
9.0

5.8
4.0
8.0
4.7
4.7
9.0

40.0
50.8
48.0
48.0
47.3
48.0
54.0

N e w J e r s ey

Newark....................
Paterson-................ .
Trenton....................
Bayonne...................
Clifton......................
East Orange.............
Irvington..................
Passaic.....................
Union City-----------Bloomfield________
Garfield___________
Kearny.......... ..........
Montclair-...............
New Brunswick.......
Orange. ------- --------Perth Amboy--------Plainfield..................
West New York......
West Orange---------Asbury Park............
Bridgeton-------------Burlington...............
Carteret..............—
Cliflside Park......... .
Collingswood.......... .
Englewood...............
Gloucester City.......
Harrison..................
Linden......................
Long Branch— .......
Millville...................
Morristown_______
Nutley-----------------Rahway______ ____
Ridgewood...............
Roselle......................
South Orange...........
South River_______
Summit___________
Westfield..... ........... .
New Mexico
Albuquerque------Roswell......... .........

442,337
138, 513
123,356
88,979
46,875
56, 733
62,959
58, 659
38,077
29,739
40,716
42, 017
34, 555
35, 399
43,516
34,422
37,107
24,327
14,981
15, 699
10.844
13,339
15, 267
12, 723
17,805
13, 796
15, 601
21,206
18,399
14,705
15,197
20, 572
16,011
12,188
13,021
13,630
10,759
14, 556
15,801

.598
.563
.433
.563
.534
.606
.480
.449
.547
.697
.500
.481
.600
.516
.539
.516
.450
.541
.542
.400
.360
.463
.420
.600
.388
.484
.600
.670
.550
.375
.400
.380
.600
.400
.639
.448
.576
.500
.550
.500

26,570
11,173

.350
.420

573,076
1,079,129
1,265,258
2,560,401
127,412

.595

68, 020

.540
.563
.480
.563
.500
.480

.480
.688
.550
.506
.500
.500
.521
.486
.450

.400
.360
.400

.380

.550

.500
.400
.568
.430
.500
.375
.500
.771
.550
.375
.400
.380
.600
.400
.639
.600
.545
.500
.550
.500

.420

.667
.563
.500
.563

.400

.400

.375
.545
.500
.650
.500

.716.

.500
.716

.550
.500

.550
.500

8.0
8.0
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8. C
8.0
u 9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.8
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.7
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.4

.350
.420

8.0
8.0

.685
.750
.750
.750
.625

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

.750
.600
.531
.625
.500

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

.563
.400
.563
.500
.550
.480
.438
.500
.605
.450
.500
.500
.621
.486
.450
.633
. 500
.400
.568
.375
.500
.375
.413
.500
.643
.550
.375
.400
.380

.563
.400
.625
.480

.480
.650
.500
.606

.650
.480
.563
.625
.650

.655
.563
.630

.506
.500
.555
.563
.630

.400

.625
.400

.600
.625
.400

.400

.568
.500
.455

.568
.430
.500
.455

.550

.643
.550

.380
.500

.550

.350
.420

.380

3.6
5.3
5.0
8.0

4.0
4.0
4.0
6.0

43.6
45.3
47.6
48.0
40.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
40.0
44.0
44.0
» 48. 0
40.0
42.3
48.0
38.8
40.0
45.0
8 37.3
54.0
50.0
42.5
40.0
40.0
47.3
48.0
44.0
39.0
40.0
40.0
45.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
46.0
40.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
48.0

4.0
8.0

44.0
48.0

6.5

46.5
40.0
44.0
40.8
40.0

8.0
4.0
8.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
2.3
8.0
5.0
5.0
9.0
5.0
2.5
4.0
8.0
4.0
4.0
8.6
5.0

__
6.0

N ew Y ork

Buffalo..........................
Queens Borough____
Bronx Borough--------Brooklyn Borough—
Albany.............. ...........
N . Y ., Richmond
Borough___________
Rochester.....................
Syracuse_____________
Yonkers________ - ____
Binghamton_________

158,346
328,132
209,326
134,646
76,662

See footnotes at end of table.




.537

"".’ 655"

.495
.625
.625
.500

____
____

.563
.688
.688
.688
.563
.688
.550
.656
.625
.500

.608
.688
.688
.500
.450
.625
.625
.500

.563
.688
.500

.750
.656
.750
.550
.531

___ _

.500

4.0
.8
8.0
8.0
4.1
4.0

48.0
40.0
48.0
44.1
44.0

23

A P P E N D IX I
T able

A.—

E n t r a n c e r a te s o f p a y a n d f u l L t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n street a n d

nst/tis

J\/it

Q ffs iis i sw/nA M + A ! f l Vi A

^1/V tA n / A fl/vrZ *

£ 1 0 0^4 0

J*/>*

1 O Q /l—

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

f 't / M 'l *f.1 T i l l

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work
Street work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
New
all
census) types con­
Clean­ Mon­
Clean­ con­
Per
struc­ Repair ing struc­ Repair ing
of
day to Sat­ week
tion
work tion
Fri­ urday
day

New York—Con.
M o u n t V e r n o n --------N e w R o c h e l l e ----------N ia g a r a F a lls -----------S c h e n e c t a d y —............
A m s t e r d a m ........... . .
A u b u r n ..........................
E l m i r a ............................
J a m e s t o w n ...................
K in g s t o n .......................
L a c k a w a n n a ...............
N e w b u r g h ---------------P o u g h k e e p s ie ----------R o m e ---------- -------------W a t e r t o w n . ................
B a t a v ia ........ .................
B e a c o n . .........................
C o h o e s ............ — ...........
C o r n i n g .............. ...........
C o r t l a n d .......................
D u n k i r k ........................
E n d i c o t t . ................... ..
F r e e p o r t ..................—
F u l t o n ........ ................. ..
G e n e v a ......... .................
G le n C o v e . ..................
H e m p s t e a d ..................
G lo v e r s v i ll e .................
H o r n e ll ........................ ..
H u d s o n ..........................
I t h a c a -----------------------J o h n s o n C i t y . ............
J o h n s t o w n ...................
K e n m o r e . . ...................
L i t t le F a ll s ..................
L o c k p o r t .......................
L y n b r o o k .....................
M a m a r o n e c k ..............
M a s s e n a _____________
M i d d l e t o w n ------------N orth T on a w a n d a .
O le a n ..........................
O n e o n t a -------------------O s s in in g ....... .................
O s w e g o — ...................
P e e k s k ill.......................
P l a t t s b u r g h .................
P o r t C h e s te r ..............
P o r t J e r v is __________
R o c k v ille C e n t e r ...
S a r a to g a S p r i n g s . . .
V a lle y S t r e a m ...........
W a t e r v li e t ...............

$0,500 $0.500
$0.500
61,499 $0. 500
.500
$0.563
.530
.563
.563
54,000
.500
.500
.500
.500
75,460
.594
.594
.594
.587
.563 $0. 594
95, 692
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
34,817
.400
.400
.400
36.652
.450
.450
.450
.450
.450
47,397
.500
.500
.450
.450
45,155
.470
.500
.438
.440
.438
.438
28,088
.440
.440
.400
.500
.447
23,948
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
31.275
.400
.400
.400
40,288
.400
.400
.400
32, 338
.400
32, 205
.500 $0. 500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.400
.400
.400
17,375
.400
.429
.500
11,933
.481
.481
.454
.375
.481
23, 226
.402
.400
.450
.400
15,777
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
15, 043
.400
17,802
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
16,231
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.682
.682
.682
15,467
12,462
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.450
.500
.500
16,053
.457
.450
.545
.545
11,430
.545
.545
.594
12,650
.534
.500
.500
.450
23,099
.457
.500
.400
16, 250
.400
.400
12, 337
.475
.475
.475 ’ ".'475" .475
.475
.475
.560
.500
.500
.526
20,708
.500
.450
.450
.450
.450
13, 567
.450 " . 450
.450
.450
10,801
.450
.450
.450
16,482
.500
.500
. 500
.500
.450
11,105
.450
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
23,160
.500
.550
.550
11,993
.550
.640
.625
11, 766
.866
.625
.372
.350
10, 637
.458
.495
21.276
.495
.495
.495
.495
.400
.400
.400
.400
19,019
.400
.500
.500
21, 790
.500
12, 536
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.682
.682
15, 241
22.652
.500
.500
.500
17,125
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.400
.400
.400
13,349
.400
.400
22,662
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
.563
10,243
.500
.500
.500
.627
.568
13,718
.568
.500
.500
13,169
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
11,790
.500
.500
16,083
.500
.500
.500

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.5

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.6

8.0
8.8

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

8.0
8.0
4.0

40.0
48.0
46.2
40.0
44.0
40.0

4a 0

732. 0
is 20.0

5.0
4.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
4.0
3.0

8.0
8.0
5.0
8.0

4.0

4.0

5.0

8.0
4.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
4.0

8.0
4.0

8.0
8.0
4.0
8.0

n 24.0
47.5
44.0
48.0
40.0
48.0
40.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
40.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
40.0
45.0
40.0
48.0
44.0
40.0
48.0
40.0
48.0
t#38.3
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
44.0
40.0
48.0
1 50.0
44.0
48.0
40.0
44.0

North Carolina
Asheville..........
50,193
Charlotte--------82,675
Durham_______
52.037
Greensboro........
53, 569
Winston-Salem..
75,274
High Point____
36,745
Raleigh..............
37,379
Concord.............
11,820
Elizabeth City..
10.037
Gastonia______
17,093
Rocky Mount...
21,412
Salisbury.......... .
16,951
Shelby...............
10, 789
3 footnotes at end of table.




.317
.264
.300
.250
.220
.314
.250
.309
.242
.150
.200
.250
.273

.338
.264
.800
.250
.220
.300
.250
.300
.200
.250
.273

.313
.264
.300

.313
.264
.300

.300
.264
.300

.220
.300
.250
.375
.250
.150
.200
.250
.273

.220
.360
.250

.220
.360
.250

.225

.225

.273

8.2
8.8
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.2

8.8
8.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

6.9
4.0
4.5

5.0
4.3

10.0

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

48.0
48.0
45.0
45.0
49.5
51.2
48.0
40.0
60.0
55.0
55.0
556.3
55.0

24
T

ENTRANCE

RATES

AND

HOURS

OF

COM MON

LABOR

A . — Entrance rates of pay and full-time hours of work of common street and
sewer laborers, by State and city and type of work, September 1985 — C o n tin u e d

able

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work
Street work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
New
all
census) types con­
Per
Repair Clean­ con­ Repair Clean­ Mon­
week
ing
ing
struc­
struc­
of
day to Sat­
tion
tion
work
Fri­ urday
day

N o rth C a ro lin a —

Continued
Statesville. __
Thomasville.
Wilson_____

$0,250 $0.250
$0. 250
10,490 $0,250
.2 0 0
.200
10,090
.2 0 0 $0,200
.2 0 0
.2 0 0 $0,200
.200 $0,200
12,613

9.5

7.6 20 56.6
60.0
i 60.2

10 .0
10.0

1 0 .0
10 .0

8 .0
8 .0

8 .0
8 .0

N o rth D a k ota

Fargo................... .
Bismarck............

28,619
11,090

. 500
.350

.500

.500
.350

900,429
255,040
104,906
451,160
290,564
200,982
290,718
170,002
52,176
70,509
68 ,743
23,934
39,667
25, 633
44, 512
33,525
31,084
26,400
29,992
33,411
42, 560
41,062
36,440
23,047
11,141
23,301
10,027
16,129
14,673
18,340
10,908
19,797
23,329
19, 363
12,790
13,422
16,621
18,716
14,285
14,524
10,944
13,899
16.009
24, 622
17, 783
11,249
10,742
10,507

.600
.500
.500
.475
.500
.396
.550
.500
.500
.550
.500
.425
.461
.502
.500
.455
.500

.600
.500
.500
.450
.500
.375
.550
.500
.500
.550
.500
.400
.500

.600
.500
.500
.475
.500
.400
.550
.500

185,389
141,258
26, 399
32, 026
11, 261
15, 741

.421
.507
.457
.300
.481
.371

48.0
48.0

Ohio

Cleveland...........
Akron..................
Canton................
Cincinnati--------Columbus...........
Dayton................
Toledo.................
Youngstown___
Hamilton_______
Lakewood............
Springfield.........
Barberton______
East Cleveland.
Elyria__________
Lorain_________
Mansfield...........
Marion_________
Massillon______
Middletown___
Norwood_______
Portsmouth____
Warren...... .........
Zanesville..........
Alliance...............
Ashland...............
Ashtabula..........
Bucyrus..............
Cambridge_____
Campbell______
Chillicothe.........
Coshocton_____
Cuyahoga Falls.
East Liverpool.
Findlay...............
Fostoria...............
Fremont..............
Ironton................
Lancaster...........
Marietta_______
Martins Ferry..
Painesville.........
Parma.................
Piqua..................
Sandusky______
Shaker Heights.
Struthers............
Wooster...............
Xenia...................

.473

.500
.550
.425
.500
.450
.450
.425
.500
.500
.388
.500
.500
.500

.450

.500

.500
.400
.450
.375
.500
.500
.600
.459
.407
.500
.500
.492
.450

.500

.500
.500
.450

.500
.450
.500
.500
.500
.550
.425
.500
.500
.400
.450
.450
.450
.500
.500
.380
.500
.500
.400
.500
.450
.400
.450
.375
.500
.500
.600
.550
.400
.500
.500
.500
.450

.550
.500
.400
.430
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550

.600
.500
.500
.500
.500

.600
.500
.500
.475
.500

.550
.500

.500

.550
.500
.500

.550
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.550

.500
.500
.450
.350
.500
.500
.420
.500
.500
.500
.500
.450
.400
.450
.375
.500
.500
.600
.450
.420
.500
.500
.450
.450

.450
.450

.450

.500
.500
.500
.550
.425
.500
.500
.400
.450

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .2
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .8
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
6 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

8 .0

5.0
6.9
4.0
8 .0
8 .0

4.0
4.0
5.0

4.0
5.0
4.0

5.8
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

8 .0
8 .0

8.5
.500
.500

.500

.500
.550
.500
.520
.500

8 .0

(21)

.500

.500
.500
.380
.500
.500

5.0

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

8 .0
8 .0

7.6

7.6

.450
.375

.450
.375

.450
.420

.450

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
6 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
6 .0
8 .0

7.9

7.8
4.4

.500
.450
.450

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

4.0

8 .0

8 .0

8.5

4.0

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

.500
.450

.500

.500
.450

.500
.450
.450

8 .0

4.5
6 .0

5.0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
8 .0

5.0

7 32.0
2 32.0
i
i« 17.3
40.0
41.9
48.0
44.0
40.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
45.0
40.0
30.0
40.0
40.0
44.0
45.0
44.0
29. 2
48.0
48.0
40.0
2 30.6
47. 5
40.0
2 41. 2
2
48.0
45. 6
40.0
2 40. 8
3
48.0
44. 5
36.0
45.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
40.0
48.0
30.0
1 51.0
* 44.4
40.0
45.0
40.0
44.0

O klahom a

Oklahoma City.
Tulsa.............. .
Enid...................
Muskogee-------Ada----------------Ardmore...........

See footnotes at end of table.




.413
.500
.457
.300
.300

.413
.500
.457
.300
.481
.433

.457
.546 ’ ""546"
.300

.300

.400

.400

48.0
46. 5
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

25

APPENDIX I

A.— E n t r a n c e r a tes o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o re rs , b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 5 — Continued

T able

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Street work
Sewer work
Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
city
Per day
for
(1930
all
New
census) types New
con­
Clean­ con­
Clean­ Mon­
Per
of
struc­ Repair ing struc­ Repair ing
day to Sat­ week
work tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

Oklahoma—Contd.




$0,470
.361 $0.361
.400
§
o

Bartlesville............... 14,763 $0,470
Chickasha................. 14,099
.361
Okmulgee................. 17,097
.386
Ponca City________
16,136
.400
Seminole.____ _____
11,469
.400
Wewoka...................
10,401
.476
Oregon
.602
Portland................... 301,815
Salem_____________ 26,266
.425
Astoria...................... 10,349
.500
Eugene----------- -----18,901
.440
Klamath Falls........
16,093
.481
Medford.... ..............
11,007
.500
Pennsylvania
.469
Philadelphia ............ 1,950,961
Pittsburgh................ 669,817
.500
.486
Erie________ _____ _ 115,967
Reading.................... 111,171
.500
Scranton__________ 143,433
.616
92,563
.501
Allentown................
Bethlehem....... ........ 67,892
.400
.400
Johnstown............... 66,993
.367
Harrisburg.. ............ 80,339
.373
59,949
Lancaster. ...............
54,632
.479
McKeesport_______
.500
Wilkes Barre...........
86,626
.400
York........................ 55,254
.450
Easton.. ................... 34,468
.551
Hazelton................. . 36,765
25, 561
.400
Lebanon__________
.530
26,043
Nanticoke_________
.400
Norristown________
35,853
.425
Sharon...................... 25,908
.416
Washington............ 24,545
.500
Wilkinsburg............. 29,639
.263
45, 729
Williamsport..........
10,575
.400
Arnold________ ___
.400
Beaver Falls_______ 17,147
.400
Bellevue...... ............. 10,252
Berwick_____ _____
12,660
.350
.375
Braddock.................. 19,329
.531
19,306
Bradford__________
11,799
.320
Bristol ......................
.500
Butler.................... .
23,568
.500
Carbondale............... 20,061
12,596
.375
Carlisle___________
.430
12,497
Carnegie.................
.350
13,788
Chambersburg.........
.500
11,260
Charleroi..................
.400
Clairton.................... 15,291
.370
14,682
Coatesville...............
11,349
.350
Columbia_________
.448
13,290
Connellsville______
.450
10,724
Coraopolis................
.470
Donora...................... 13,905
.450
Dormont................... 13,190
11,595
.500
DuBois.....................
21,396
.470
Duquesne____ ____
12,323
.440
Elwood City...........
.425
Farrell. .................... 14,359
.450
Franklin................ . 10,254
.450
16, 508
Greensburg........... .
.500
Jeannette__________ 15,126
.500
Kingston.................. 21,600
10,644
.450
Latrobe.................
See footnotes at end of table.

• .400
.541

.400
.433

.597
.438
.500
.433
.481
.500
.469
.600

.400

.550
.530
.400

.400

.531
.500

.500
.440

.500

.500
.610
.500
.400
.400
.400
.375
.500
.400
.450
.550
.400
.530
.400
.425
.4 00
.500
.300
.400
.400
.400
.350
.375
.531
.500
.500
.375
.430
.350
.500
.400
.370
.350
.469
.450
.470
.450
.500
.470
.440
.425
.450
.500
.500
.450

.500
.483
.500
.610
.500
.400
.400
.350
.350
.500
.400
.550
.400
.530
.400
.425
.400
.500
.250
.400
.400
.400
.350
.375
.531
.500
.500
.375
.430
.350
.500
.370
.350
.438
.450
.470
.450
.500
.470
.440
.450
.450
.500
.500
.450

.479
.400

48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
143.2

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.0
8.0
4.0
8.0
8.0

44.0
48.0
44.0
48.0
48.0
1 24.0
4

.469
.500
.500
.500
.660
.500

.597
.414
.500
.433
.481

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.8

.631 $0. 631
.438
.438
.500
.503
.433
.481
.481

$0.400

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.8

8.0
8.0
8.2
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.5
7.1
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
8.0
8.0

$0. 350

.400
.400
.400
.500

.500
.500
.500
.660
.550
.400
.400
.400
.400
.500
.400
.580

.530

______
______

.530
.400
.425
.500

.400

.531
.320
.500
.375

.530
.400
.425
.625
.500
.300

.400
.400
.350
.375
.531

.400
.350
.375
.531

.500
.500

.500
.500

.430

.440

.500

.500

.370

.500

.430

.500

.370

.469
.450
.470
.450
.500
.470
.440
.425

.438
.450
.470
.450
.500
.470
.440

.500

.500
.500
.450

.450

3.6
5.0
8.0
4.0
9.0
6.0
5.0
5.0
4.0
6.8
4.0
5.0
.6
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
8.5
5.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
5.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
8.0

732.0
9 36.0
44.6
45.0
48.0
44.0
64.0
46.0
3 35.8
50.0
40.0
45.0
49.0
40.0
46.8
40.0
732.0
44.0
47.5
35.9
44.0
44.0
44.0
44.0
51.0
45.0
332.3
48.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
48.0
48.0
45.0
40.0
48.0
50.0
40.0
54.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
h 24.0
44.0
44.0
34.0
48.0
40.0

26

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

A.— E n t r a n c e ra tes o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S t a t e a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 — Continued

T able

H o u r ly e n trance rates
S tre et w o r k
State and city

Popula­
tion of
city
(1930
census)

Aver­
age
for
all
types
of
work

A ve rag e f u ll - tim e
h o u rs in stre et a n d
sewer w o rk

Sewer w o r k

Per day
N ew
N ew
con­ R e p a ir C le a n ­ con­ R e p a ir C le a n ­
Per
M on­
in g
in g
s tru c ­
s tru c ­
d a y to S a t­ w eek
tio n
tio n
F r i­ u rd a y
day

P e n n s y lv a n ia — C on.

Lewistown .................
M cK ee’s R ock...........
Monessen....................
M t . Carmel................
M unhall____________
New Kensington___
Oil C ity_____________
Old F o r g e __________
Phoenixville—............
Pittston___________
Plymouth.....................
Pottsville___________
Shamokin___________
Steelton................ .......
Sunbury______ ______
Swissvale....................
Tam aqua....................
Union town..................
Vandergrift.................
W arren.........................
W aynesboro...............

13,357 $0.300
$0.300 $0.300
.400
18,116
.400
$0.400
.450
20,268
.450
.450
.450
$0.450
.563
17,967
.566
.570
.563
.570
12,995
.380
.380
.380
.380
16, 762
.400
.400
22, 075
.400
.400
.400
.400
12,661
.375
.375
.375
.380
12, 029
.380
$0,380
18, 246
.500
.500
.500
.400
16, 543
.500
.450
.500
.400
24, 300
.500 "'."Boo" .500
.500 $0. 500
.500
.500
20, 274
.578
.578
.578
.578
.578
.578
13, 291
.356
.360
.350
.360
15, 626
.350
.350
.350
.350
.400
16,029
.500
.457
.500
.500
.500
12,936
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.400
.400 ""." 466" .400
19,544
.400
.400
.400
11,479
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
14,863
.400
.400
.400
.400
.400
.650
10,167
.350
.350
.350

9.0
8.0
7.0
8.1
8.0
8.0
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.5
7.6

5.0
7.0
8.1
8.0
5.5
8.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
5.0
5.3

50.0

14 24.0

42.0
50.1
40.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.0
40.0
44.0
45.0
40.0
40.0
i 50.0
24 15. 7
48.0
54.0
45.0
52.5
u 44.4

R h od e Isla n d

Providence..................
Pawtucket__________
Woonsocket_________
Central Falls...............
Cranston____________
East Providence........
Newport............... .......
North Providence. . .
W arwick.......................
W esterly.......................

.468
.450

.468
.450
.500
.450
.500
.450
.500
.500
.500
.500

252,981
77,149
49, 376
25,898
42,911
29,995
27,612
11,104
23,196
10,997

.468
.450
.500
.450
.500
.450
.502
.500
.500
.500

62,265
51, 581
29,154
28,723
11,322
11,780

.298
.227
.150
.150
.200

33,362
16,465
10,946
10,404
10,214

.479
.369
.481
.500
.350

119,798
153,866
11,914
25,080
22,172
12,005

.250
.400
.250
. .250
.250

.250
.222
.250

102,421
163,447
292,352
53,120

.281
.400
.400
.368
.341

.281
.400
.400
.368
.356

.500
.500

.468
.450
.500
.450

.450
.500
.450

.468
.450
.500
.450

.450
.500
.500
.500
.500

.450

.450
.531

.468
______

9.0
7.8
8.1
8.0
9.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

5.0
50.0
.7 w 40.0
.8 2« 28.0
4.0
44.0
5. 0
50.0
9 .0
54! 0
8.0
48.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0
4.0
44.0

S ou th C a rolina

Charleston...................
Columbia___________
Greenville-..................
Spartanburg...... .........
Rock H ill.....................
Sumter..........................

.313
.229
.150
.150
.200
.115

.333
.218

.150
.200
.115

.200

.450
.350
.481
.500
.350

r§6o”
.481
.600
.350

.250
.400

.117

.279
.227

.250
.400
.250

.400

.222
.250

.250

.281
.400
.400
.368
.325

.400
.400
.368

.229
.150
.150
.200
.135

8.8
10.2
11.0
10.0
8.0
10.0

4.3
5.1
5.0
10.0
6.0
10.0

48.0
55.9
60.0
60.0
4 47.6
60.0

S ou th D a k ota

Sioux Falls...................
Aberdeen......................
H u r o n .........................
Rapid C ity..................
Watertown..................

.500
.400

.500
.400

.400

.350

.500
.350

8.0
7.8
8 .0
8.0
9.0

8.0
48.0
8.2 23 42.8
8.0
48.0
8 .0
48.0
9.0
54.0

T e n n essee

Chattanooga...............
Nashville......................
Kingsport___________
Johnson C ity..............
Jackson..........................
Bristol............................

.222

.250
.400

8.0
8.0
10.0
8.0
9.0
8.0

10.0
5.0
9.0
4.0

40.0
40.0
60. 0
45.0
54 ! 0
44 ! 0

T exa s

E l Paso.........................
Fort W orth .................
Houston........................
Austin____ _____ _____
Beaumont___________

57,732

See footnotes a t end o f table.




.368
—

.281
.400
.400
.400
.368
.356 " ’ . 325"
’

8.0
8.0
7.1
8.0
11 9.0

4.0

44. 0
40. 0
35. 7
4.0
44.0
4.0 11 48. 0

27

APPENDIX I

T a b l e A .— E n t r a n c e ra tes o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n street a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k t S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 — Continued

Hourly entrance rates
Street work

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work

Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
all
census) types New
con­ Repair Clean­ con­ Repair Clean­ Mon­
Per
ing
ing struc­
of
struc­
day to Sat­ week
work tion
tion
Fri­ urday
day

Texas—Continued
Galveston................
Port Arthur............
Waco.......................
Amarillo_____ ____
Laredo___________
San Angelo..............
Wichita Falls_____
Big Spring________
Denison__________
Corpus Christi____
Greenville...............
Lubbock............ .
Marshall.................
Palestine_________
Pampa___________
Paris......................
San Benito..............
Temple....................
Tyler......................

52,938
50,902
52,848
43,132
32,618
25,308
43,690
13,735
13,850
27, 741
12,407
20,520
16, 203
11,445
10,470
15,649
10,753
15, 345
17,113

$0.462
$0,598 $0,598
$0.450
.400
.400
$0,400
.300
.300
.300 $0,300
.300 $0.300
.300
.403
.400
.400
.481
.215
.250
.2 10
.210
.313
.300
.350
.350
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300
.400
.400
.300
.300
.253
.250
.300
.250
.383
.383
.383
.383
.400
.400
.400
.400
.200

.200

.200

.200

.281
.360
.313
.125
.350
.300

.313
.300

.281
.350
.313
.125
.350
.300

140,267
40,272

.460
.438

.438

.438

.438
.438

24,789
11,307
17,315

.400
.438
.450

.400

.400
.438
.450

.438
.450

129,710
182,929
69, 206
22, 247
40, 661
34, 417
28,564
45,704
24,149
15,245
11,327
11,990
10,271
10,855

.285
.402
.333

.285
.402
.333

.285
.402
.333

.250
.250
.250
.304
.350
.250
.300
.250
.167
.273

365, 583
115,514
106,817
30,823
30, 567
21,723
12, 766
10,652
11,733
10,188
15, 766
15,976
11,627

.508
.444
.499
.450
.493
.461
.497
.500
.667
.472
.400
.420

60,408
75,572
61, 659

.390
.300
.350

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

4.0

4.0
4.0
8.0
4.5
8.0

8.0
4.0

8.0
4.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
4.8
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

44.0

44.0
44.0
48.0
44.5
48.0
48.0
44.0

48.0
44.0

47.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
44.8
48.0
48.0
48.0
48.0

.281
.350
.313
.125

.350

.281
.350
.313

.400

.300

.300

.350
.300

.350
.300

.598

.598

ao
8.0

.5
8.0

40.5
48.0

.438
.450

.400
.438
.450

ao
ao
8.0

8.0

1.1

40.0
41.1
48.0

.285
.402
.333

.285
.402
.333

9.0
9.0

2.2
6.0

42.2

U tah

Salt Lake City.
Ogden----------V erm o n t

Burlington...........
Barre___________
Rutland...............

.450

.400
.450

V irg in ia

Norfolk........ .......
Richmond........ .
Roanoke_______
Danville________
Lynchburg_____
Newport News...
Petersburg______
Portsmouth_____
Alexandria______
Charlottesville__
Hopewell_______
Staunton..............
Suffolk.................
Winchester_____

.222

.285
.333

.222

.250
.300
.160
.275

.222

.250
.250
.250
.300
.350
.250
.300
.250
.160
.275

.250
.250
.250
.300
.350
.250
.300
.250
.160
.250

.506
.444
.505
.450
.493
.531
.400
.500
.667
.472
.400

.506
.444
.481
.450
.493
.438
.500
.500
.667
. 472
.400
.400

.390
.300
.350

.390
.300
.350

.285
.333

.222

.250
.350
.250
.300
.200

.320
.350
.250
.300

.250
.350
.250
.300

.275

8.0

5.0
9.0 4.5
10.0 10.0
9.0 5.0
9.0 5.0
8.0
8.0 8.0
8.0 6.0
8.0 5.0
8.0 8.0
10.0 10.0
8.0 4.0

51.0
50.0
49.5
60.0
50.0
50.0
40.0
48.0
46.0
45.0
48.0
60.0
44.0

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
8.0
8.0

40.0
48.0
48.0
48.0
40.0
48.0
48.0
45.0
44.0
30.0
44.0
48.0
48.0

5.0
8.0
4.0

50.0
48.0
44.0

W a sh in g ton

Seattle.................
Spokane...............
Tacoma...............
Bellingham.........
Everett................
Aberdeen. ...........
Hoquiam_______
Longview............
Olympia...........
Port Angeles____
Vancouver______
Walla Walla____
Wenatchee_____

.715

.506

.400

.400

. 472
*400
.*650

8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
8.0
8.0
8.0

. 390
. 300
! 350

. 390
’ 300
! 350

9.0
8.0
8.0

.715
.444
. 450
493
.531
.500
.472

. 538
.444
. 450
; 493
; 43g
.641
*.500

W e s t V irg in ia

Charleston.........
Huntington.........
Wheeling.............




28

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

T a b l e A . — E n t r a n c e ra tes o f p a y a n d f u l l - t i m e h o u r s o f w o r k o f c o m m o n s treet a n d
s e w e r la b o r e r s , b y S ta te a n d c i t y a n d t y p e o f w o r k , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 — Continued

Hourly entrance rates

State and city

Average full - time
hours in street and
sewer work

Sewer work

Street work

Popula­ Aver­
tion of
age
Per day
city
for
(1930
New
all
census) types New
con­ Repair Clean­ con­ Repair Clean­ Mon­
Per
ing
ing struc­
of
struc­
day to Sat­ week
tion
work tion
Fri­ urday
day

West Virginia—Con.
Clarksburg________
Parkersburg_______
Bluefield._r_______
Fn/frm
nnt:
Martinsburg
M
nrgftritnw
Ti
Moundsville_______

28,866 $0.486
.500
29, 623
19,339
.300
23,159
.430
1 ^857
4
.307
16,186
.475
.400
14,411

$0. 500 $0.450
.500
.500
.300
.300
.430
.430
. 300
.325
.400
.400
.400

$0,500 $0.450
.500
.500
.300
.300
. 700
.400

.400

6.6
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
6.0
8.0

6.6
4.6
8.0
8.0
9.0

3 35.9
5.0 * 51.0
4. 5
44. 5
4.0
44.0
8.0
48.0
5. 0
45. 0
8.0
48.0
40.0
4.0
44.0
40.0
40.0
2 35.4
3
8.0
48.0
8.0
48.0
40.0
40.0
5. 0
45.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
6. 7
46. 7
5.0
40.0
40! 0
40.0

8.0

6.0

39.4
44.6
48.0
48.0
54.0
30.0
46.0

Wisconsin
Milwaukee_______ 578, 249
Kenosha________ __
50,262
67, 542
Racine __________
Appleton...............
25, 267
Eau Claire_________ 26, 287
Fon du Lac________ 26, 449
Green Bay_________ 37,415
T^. Crnssft
39, 614
Oshkosh___________ 40,108
Sheboygan_________ 39,251
Superior___________ 36,113
West Allis................. 34,671
10, 622
Ashland___________
23,611
Beloit_____________
C udahy___________ 10,631
Janesville__________ 21,628
22,963
Manitowoc________
13, 734
Marinette_________
Shorewood_________ 13,479
10, 706
South Milwaukee__
13,623
Stevens Point______
Two Rivers_______ 10,083
10,613
Watertown________
21,194
Wauwatosa________

.704
.490
.562
.400 $0. 400
.375
.375
.390
.400
.500
.420
.500
.500
.695
.400
.400
.547
.450
.500
.400
.550
.570
.329
.450
.417
.500

.800
.490
.550
.400
.375
.400
.400
.500
.420
.500
.500
.680
.400
.400
.520
.450
.500
.400
. 550
.570
.350
.450
.400
.500

.650 $0. 750
.490
.460
.400
.400
.375
.350
.400
. 500
.420
.500
.500
. 720
.650
.400
.400
. 570
.450
.500
. 400
. 550
.570
.300
.450
.400
.500

.750
.490
. 550
.400

.700
.490
.680
.400

.400

.400

.420
. 500
.500
.720

.500
.420
.500
.500
.820

.400
. 520
.450
. 500
. 400

.400
. 570
.450
. 500
.400

.570
.350
. 450
. 500
. 500

. 570
.300
.450
. 500
.500

8.0
9.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
8.0
8.0

.500

.500

.500

.500

.500

.500

8.0

Wyoming
Cheyenne_________

17, 361

48.0

1 The hours of some laborers also included 4 on Sunday.
2The hours of some laborers were 8 per day 3 days per week.
3 The hours of some laborers were 8 per day 4 days per week.
* The hours of some laborers also included 8 on Sunday.
* The hours of some laborers also included 5 on Sunday.
* Included 1 hour on Sunday.
7For 4 days of 8 hours each.
s The hours of some laborers included 5H on Sunday.
» For 4 days of 8 hours each and 4 hours 1 day.
For 2 days of 8 hours each,
n 8 hours on Friday.
1 8 hours on Thursday and Friday.
2
is For 4 days of 8 hours each and 4 hours on Saturday.
n For 3 days of 8 hours each.
is For 3 days of 8 hours each and 6 hours 1 day.
16 The hours of some laborers also included 2 on Sunday.
1 The hours of some laborers also included 9 on Sunday,
7
is For 2 days of 8 hours each and 4 hours 1 day.
i« The hours of some laborers were 8 per day 2 days per week.
20 The hours of some laborers also included 2x on Sunday.
/i
2 The hours of some laborers were 6 per day for 5 days, of others 7 per day for 5 days, and of still others
1
8 per day for 4 days.
22 The hours of some laborers were 8 per day for 5 days or 40 hours per week, and of others 8 per day for
6 days, or 48 hours per week.
2 The hours of some laborers also included 3 on Sunday.
3
2 The hours of some laborers were 10 per week and of others 20 per week.
4
2 Included 5H hours on Sunday.
«
*6The hours of some laborers were 8 per day, 3 days per week and 5 on Sunday.




Appendix
B. L. S. 918

II.

—Copy of Schedule Used

U. S, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU O F LA BO R S T A T IS T IC S

WASHINGTON

Common
Street
Labor

HIRING OR ENTRANCE RATES OF PAY AND FULL-TIME
HOURS OF WORK OF COMMON STREET LABORERS,
SEPTEMBER 16, 1935
1. Are the following kinds of city work being d o n e ? ________________
(Yes or no)
Street work:
New construction____________________________ ____________
Repair______________________________________
____________
Cleaning____________________________________
____________
Sewer work:
New construction____________________________ ____________
Repair______________________________________
____________
Cleaning____________________________________
____________
2. If any of the above work was being done by contract on Sep­
tember 16, 1935, please list the name and address of the p rin ­
cipal contractors, specifying in each case the kind of work being
done.*
(Use other side of sheet, if necessary.)
* For cities doing any of their work by contract, an attempt was made to
obtain the information from the contractors, but too few replies were received to
justify the tabulation of the data.
Kind of work




Name of contractor

Address

29

30

If any of the above work was being done on September 16, 1935,
by labor hired directly by the city government, please give the
following information:
a . Hiring or entrance rates of wages paid to common street laborers
and full-time hours of work during the pay-roll period ended
nearest September 16, 1935.
(Exclude those employed on
work-relief basis and those on W . P. A . projects.)

Per week

Sunday, if any

Monday to Friday

Unit of time (per hour,
day, week, etc.)

Saturday

Number of full-time
hours of work

Wages

Entrance rate

Kind of work

Number of laborers on pay roll
at entrance rate

3.

ENTRANCE RATES AND HOURS OF COMMON LABOR

Street work:
New construction
Repair
Cleaning
Sewer work:
N ew construction
Repair
___
Cleaning ____
_ _

6. D o laborers, after a specified period of service, receive a rate of
pay higher than the entrance rate? _________
If so, what
(Yes or no)

is the length of such period of service?

______________________

c. Is the entrance rate of pay of white common street laborers the
same as for other groups? -------------If not, please report
(Yes or no)

d.

the rates:
For white_____________________
For other_____________________
If the laborers working at entrance rates of pay are hired at a
day rate, and their regular hours on Saturday are less than
on other days, are they paid—
For a full day, as on (Yes or no)
other days?------------------------For the actual hours
of work on Satur­
day?-------------------------------------




31

APPENDIX II

e.

D o any laborers at entrance rates of pay work overtime, that is,
more hours per day or week than reported under inquiry 3a?
_________
If yes, are they paid for overtime work? _________
(Y e s or no)

( Y e s or no)

If yes, indicate whether at regular time, l}i time, 1 % time,
etc__________________________________________________________________

/ . Are any of these laborers taken from relief rolls?

_________
(Y e s or no)

If yes, indicate variations in the rates of pay and hours of
work, if any_______________________________________________________

4.

Remarks

N o t e . — If

copies of the wage scale of your street and sewer workers are
available in either printed or mimeographed form, please send one with
your report.
(City)




(State)

(Name of official)
(Title)

O