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t

' 7 T / EMPLOYMENT OF
SCIENTISTS AND
ENGINEERS

1950-70

BULLETIN 1781

Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library

OCT 2 9 i973

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1973




DOCUMENT COLLECTION




EMPLOYMENT OF
SCIENTISTS AND
ENGINEERS

1950-70
Bulletin 1781

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Julius Shlskin, Commissioner
1 9 73




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Preface
Natural scientists and engineers contribute in countless ways to the
welfare and technological progress of the Nation. They are essential to the
functioning of an advanced industrial society and have an impact on society
disproportionate to their numbers.
A consistent historical series on employment of scientists and engineers in
various sectors of the economy is needed to assess the growth of manpower
in scientific and technical areas and the factors underlying this growth.
Although statistics on employment of scientists and engineers in various
sectors have been collected by Federal Government agencies, the
definitions, methods, survey coverage, and purposes for collecting the data
have frequently differed, creating problems of comparability. Also, major
gaps exist for specific years and for some important sectors of the economy.
As a result of its concern for a consistent series of data on employment of
scientists and engineers, the National Science Foundation has supported the
Bureau of Labor Statistics in its effort to develop such a series.




This bulletin presents comprehensive data on the employment of
scientists and engineers from 1950 to 1970 and includes estimates of each
major scientific occupational group in all sectors of the economy. Estimates
also are presented for scientists and engineers primarily engaged in research
and development. Employment estimates shown in this report supersede
those developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and published by the
National Science Foundation in Employment o f Scientists and Engineers in
the United States, 1950-66 (NSF 68-30).
This bulletin was prepared in the Division of Manpower and Occupational
Outlook, Office of Manpower Structure and Trends. The detailed estimates
were developed by Maurice Moylan, under the direction of Michael F.
Crowley, who prepared the introductory text.
Within the National Science Foundation, Norman Seltzer, Study
Director, Scientific Manpower Studies Group, provided general guidance
and direction.




Contents
Page

Page

Overall trends .................................................................................................. 1

7.

Employment by sector ......................................................................................5
Private in d u stry .............................................................................................. 5
Government ...................................................................................................7
Colleges and universities ............................................................................. 10
Nonprofit in stitutions................................................................................. 10

8.

Charts:
1. Factors affecting science and engineering employment,
1950-70 .................................................................................................. 2
2. Science and engineering employment, 1950-70 .................................4
3. Scientists and engineers, by sector, 1950-70 ..................................... 6
4. Research and development expenditures,
by sector, 1953-70 .................................................................................8
5. Growth in science and engineering employment,
by occupation, 1950-70 ...................................................................... 12
6. Contribution of R&D employment to growth
of engineering employment, 1951-70 .............................................. 13
7. Contribution of R&D employment to growth
of science employment, 1951-70 .......................................................14

Employment by occupation ........................................................................... 11
Engineers....................................................................................................... 11
Scientists....................................................................................................... 13
Text tables:
1. Factors affecting science and engineering
employment, 1950-70 ........................................................................ 1
2. Estimated employment of scientists and
engineers engaged in research and
development, 1950-70 ...........................................................................3
3. Scientists and engineers in research
and development and research and development
expenditures, by sector, 1953-70 ......................................................... 7
4. Scientists and engineers as a percent of total
employment by sector, selected years, 1950-70................................. 9
5. Earned degrees in natural sciences and engineering,
1950-70 .................................................................................................10
6. Components of science and engineering employment,
1950-70 .................................................................................................11




Estimated employment of scientists, by occupational
group, 1950-70 .................................................................................. 15
Percent distribution of scientists, by occupational
group, 1950-70 .................................................................................. 16

Appendixes:
A. Detailed tab les..................................................................................... 18
B. Guidelines and m ethods......................................................................82
C. Definitions............................................................................................93
D. Bibliography of source m aterials.......................................................94

v




Overall Trends
Employment of natural scientists1 and engineers increased by more than
1 million over the 20-year span starting in 1950, from almost 557,000 to
almost 1.6 million in 1970— increase of 186 percent. Engineering
an
employment was 1.1 million in 1970, up 690,000 or 169 percent, and
scientific employment reached almost 500,000, up 348,000 or 234 percent.
Employment of scientists and engineers increased at an average annual
rate of 5.42 percent between 1950 and 1970. However, growth, both
absolutely and relatively, was not constant over the 1950-70 period. Growth
was significantly faster in the first half of the period (7.1 percent a year)
than in the second half (3.8 percent a year). Within the 1960’s, employment
growth was greater in the first half of the decade. Between 1960 and 1965,
employment increased at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent while
averaging an increase of only 3.1 percent between 1965 and 1970.
Significant differences can be noted between engineers and scientists. For
example, over half of the engineering employment growth took place
between 1950 and 1960, while more than half of the growth in scientific
employment took place between 1960 and 1970.
Growth in scientific and engineering employment over the decades of the
1950’s and 1960’s reflected many interwoven factors, including overall
economic growth; increased research and development (R&D) expenditures;
the space race, culminating in astronauts walking on the moon; and the
development of complex new defense systems involving electronics, aircraft,
and missiles. (See table 1 and chart 1.) Since many scientists teach in

Table 1. Factors affecting science and engineering
employment, 1950-70
(In billions o f dollars)

Year

N a tio n a l
defense
e x p e n d itu re s

R&D
ex p e n d itu re s

1 9 5 0 ..........................................................................

$ 2 8 4 .8

$ 1 4 .1

1 9 5 1 ..........................................................................
1 9 5 2 ..........................................................................

3 2 8 .4

3 3 .6

3 4 5 .5

4 5 .9

1 9 5 3 ..........................................................................

3 6 4 .6

4 8 .7

I 1)
$ 5 .2

1 9 5 4 ..........................................................................

3 6 4 .8

4 1 .2

5 .7

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

3 9 8 .0
4 1 9 .2
4 4 1 .1
4 4 7 .3
4 8 3 .7

3 8 .6
4 0 .3
4 4 .2
4 5 .9
4 6 .0

6 .3
8 .5
9 .9
1 0 .9
1 2 .5

1 9 6 0 ..........................................................................
1 9 6 1 ..........................................................................
1 9 6 2 ..........................................................................
1 9 6 3 ..........................................................................
1 9 6 4 ..........................................................................

5 0 3 .7
5 2 0 .1
5 6 0 .3
5 9 0 .5

4 4 .9
4 7 .8
5 1 .6
5 0 .8

1 3 .7
1 4 .6
1 5 .7
1 7 .4

6 3 2 .4

5 0 .0

1 9 .2

1 9 6 5 ...............................................................

6 8 4 .9
7 4 9 .9
7 9 3 .9
8 6 4 .2

5 0 .1
6 0 .7
7 2 .4

..........................................................................
..........................................................................
..........................................................................
..........................................................................
..........................................................................

1 9 6 6 ..........................................................................
1 9 6 7 ...............................................................

1
In this report, the term “scientists” refers only to natural scientists, including
mathematicians. Excluded are social scientists and psychologists. (See appendix C.) For
ease of presentation, “scientists” rather than “natural scientists” will be used
throughout this report.
*
In this report, “average annual rate,’ “annual growth”, and similar terms are
used to describe the estimated annual compound rate of change between the first and
last year of the time period under discussion.




Gross
n a tio n a l
p ro d u c t

1 9 6 8 ..................................................................
1 9 6 9 ..........................................................................

9 3 0 .3

7 8 .3
7 8 .4

1 9 7 0 ..........................................................................

9 7 6 .4

75.1

1 N ot available.
S O U R C E : Council of Econom ic Advisers; National Science Foundation.

1

(!)
I 1)

2 0 .4
2 2 .3
2 3 .6
2 5 .2
2 6 .2
2 6 .3

Chart 1. FACTORS AFFECTING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING EMPLOYMENT, 1950-70
Billions of dollars

Millions of persons




S ources: B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s ; N a tio n a l Science F o u n d a tio n ;
C o u n c il o f E c o n o m ic A dvisers

2

colleges and universities, growth of college and university enrollments also
was a factor. Many technological innovations, such as the widespread use of
computers, also contributed to this growth, as did the expansion of
industrial output associated with the Korean and Vietnam conflicts.
Employment of scientists and engineers increased more rapidly than did
total employment in the economy, total white-collar employment, or total
professional employment between 1950 and 1970. Thus, scientists and
engineers increased from nearly 1 percent to about 2 percent of total
employment. (See chart 2.) About 30 percent of the increase in science and
engineering employment between 1950 and 1970 can be attributed to
overall economic growth (as measured by the growth of total employment).
The remainder can be attributed to the relatively greater utilization of
scientists and engineers. Among the major factors contributing to the
growth are increases in R&D activities, technological innovations, and
expansion of government programs employing large numbers of scientists
and engineers.
Increased expenditures for R&D contributed significantly to the growth
of employment of scientists, and engineers. Scientists and engineers engaged
in R&D increased from 158,000 in 1950 to 535,000 in 1970, an increase of
377,000, representing an average annual growth of 6.3 percent. As a percent
of all scientists and engineers, those in R&D increased from 28.4 in 1950 to
a high of 37.6 in 1965, and declined to 33.6 in 1970. (See table 2.) Over the
1950-70 period, the increase in employment of scientists and engineers in
R&D accounted for over 36 percent of total employment growth. In the
1950-60 period, R&D scientists and engineers represented about 42 percent
of total growth, compared to about 30 percent over the 1960-70 period.
In rough terms, general economic growth and increased R&D
expenditures accounted for about two-thirds of the increase in scientific and
engineering employment over the 1950-70 period. In the first half of the
period, increases in R&D were relatively more important than overall
growth; in the second half, overall economic growth was relatively more
important than the growth in R&D expenditures. The remaining growth
reflects the greater utilization of scientists and engineers in the
economy—
presumably because of technological innovation; greater




Table 2. Estimated employment of scientists and engineers
engaged in research and development, 1950-70
(E m plo ym ent in thousands)

Year

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

A ll
scientists
and
engineers

Engaged in R & D

N um ber

P ercen t

2 8 .4
2 8 .7

.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................

5 5 6 .7
6 1 1 .8
6 8 5 .9
7 4 8 .7
7 8 3 .7

1 5 7 .9
1 7 5 .4
2 0 4 .9
2 2 7 .8
2 4 3 .5

2 9 .9
3 0 .4
3 1 .1

1 9 5 5 .......................................................................................

8 1 2 .6
8 7 3 .7

2 4 8 .8
2 7 1 .0

3 0 .6
3 1 .0

9 5 8 .9
1 ,0 0 1 .2

3 0 8 .8
3 2 9 .7

3 2 .2
3 2 .9

1 ,0 5 7 .9

3 6 2 .1

3 4 .2

1 ,1 0 4 .0
1 ,1 5 1 .5
1 ,2 1 0 .3
1 ,2 8 0 .8
1 ,3 2 7 .0

3 8 6 .1
4 0 9 .5
4 4 1 .9
4 7 5 .7
4 9 7 .9

3 5 .6
3 6 .5
3 7 .1
3 7 .5

1 9 6 9 .......................................................................................

1 ,3 6 6 .3
1 ,4 1 7 .5
1 ,4 7 6 .7
1 ,5 2 5 .0
1 ,5 6 7 .7

5 1 3 .2
5 2 6 .3
5 5 4 .0
5 5 2 .8
5 4 9 .0

3 7 .6
3 7 .1
3 7 .5
3 6 .2
3 5 .0

1 9 7 0 .......................................................................................

1 ,5 9 4 .7

5 3 5 .4

3 3 .6

1 9 5 6 .......................................................................................
1 9 5 7 .......................................................................................
1 9 5 8 .......................................................................................
1 9 5 9 .......................................................................................
1 9 6 0 .......................................................................................
19 61
1962
1963
1964

.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................

1965
1966
1967
1968

.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
.......................................................................................

SOURCE:

3 5 .0

B ureau o f Labo r S tatistic s.

technical sophistication of the production process, government expenditures
for defense, space, and other programs requiring significant inputs of
scientific and engineering talent; and other factors.




Chart 2. SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
EMPLOYMENT, 1950-70
Thousands

1950 52

54

56

58

1960

Sou rce: Bureau o f L a b o r S tatistic s

4

62

64

66

68

1970

Employment By Sector
percent—
stimulated by a high demand for consumer durable goods and large
Federal expenditures for military items due to the Korean conflict. Slow
growth (2.2 percent a year) occurred over the 1965-70 period because of
declines in the late 1960’s when the Federal Government started to wind
down the Vietnam conflict and reduce R&D funding.
As a proportion of total scientists and engineers, those in manufacturing
rose from 44 percent in 1950 to a high of 50 percent in 1954. Between
1954 and 1967, the proportion of science and engineering employment in
manufacturing never fell below 48 percent. After 1967 the proportion
dropped, reaching 46 percent in 1970.
In addition to general economic growth, the increased employment of
scientists and engineers in manufacturing reflects mainly the changing
occupational composition of manufacturing industries in favor of highly
trained workers, and a rapid increase in R&D performed in these industries.
As a proportion of total manufacturing employment, scientists and
engineers increased from 1.6 percent in 1950 to 3.3 percent in 1960, and to
3.8 percent in 1970. (See table 4.)
Over the 1950-70 period, employment of scientists and engineers
engaged in R&D in manufacturing increased from 82,000 to 298,000,
representing an average annual growth of 6.6 percent. Increases in R&D
employment represented about 44 percent of the total growth of scientists
and engineers in manufacturing. Between 1950 and 1960, R&D increases
accounted for slightly over half of the growth; between 1960 and 1970 the
comparable figure was only about one-third. As a proportion of total
science and engineering employment in manufacturing, those in R&D
increased steadily from 34 percent in 1950 to 46 percent in 1964. After
1964 the proportion started to decline, reaching 41 percent in 1970.
In 1970, five industries—
electrical equipment, chemicals, machinery,
aircraft, and ordnance—
accounted for almost 70 percent of all scientists and
engineers in manufacturing, up from 56 percent in 1950 and 67 percent in

About 1.1 million (70 percent) of the almost 1.6 million scientists and
engineers employed in the United States in 1970 worked in private industry.
Federal, State, and local governments combined employed 239,000 (15
percent), colleges and universities 228,000 (14 percent), and nonprofit
organizations 16,000 (1 percent).
The proportion of scientists and engineers in the private sector declined
slightly between 1950 and 1970, and government’s share of total science
and engineering employment also dropped. In contrast, the proportions in
colleges and universities and nonprofit organizations increased. (See chart
3.)
As with total scientific and engineering employment, most (70 percent)
of those engaged in R&D were in private industry in 1970. About 14
percent worked in colleges and universities, nearly 14 percent in
government—
primarily in Federal agencies—
and under 3 percent in
nonprofit organization^. In general, the distribution of R&D funds followed
similar patterns. (See table 3 and chart 4.)
Private industry

Manufacturing. Approximately 733,000 scientists and engineers, 46 percent
of the Nation’s total, were employed in manufacturing industries in 1970.
In comparison, only 27.5 percent of all workers were employed in
manufacturing industries in 1970.
Over the 1950-70 period, nearly one-half of the growth in total science
and engineering employment took place in manufacturing. Growth in
manufacturing, however, was not constant over the entire period. Over the
1950-70 period, employment increased at an average annual rate of 5.6
percent. Between 1950 and 1960, the rate was 8.4 percent a year; it was
only 2.9 percent a year between 1960 and 1970. The most rapid growth
occurred between 1950 and 1955— an average annual rate of 10.3
at




5

Chart 3. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS
BY SECTOR, 1950 AND 1970
PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
1950

1970

N o n p r o fit
in s titu tio n s

1.0

P rivate
in d u s try
6 9 .7

C olleges an d
unive rsities

S o u rc e : B ureau o f
L a b o r S tatistic s




N onm anu­
fa c tu rin g

1960. These same five industries accounted for about 75 percent of the
total increase of scientists and engineers in manufacturing. Science and
engineering employment increases in these industries resulted from the rapid
increase in demand for the industries’ products as well as large increases in
R&D expenditures. In the chemicals industries, for example, output (as
measured by industrial production indexes) increased by 388 percent, while
employment of scientists and engineers increased by over 170 percent.
These five industries accounted for almost 78 percent of the scientists
and engineers engaged in R&D in manufacturing in 1970, compared to 65
percent in 1950, and accounted for over 82 percent of the growth of R&D
employment in manufacturing. Two industries—
electrical equipment and
aircraft—
accounted for almost half of the total increase of R&D scientists
and engineers in manufacturing.

Nonmanufacturing. Nonmanufacturing industries employed 378,000
scientists and engineers in 1970, 24 percent of the total, and 227,000 more
than the number employed in 1950. While this 150 percent increase (an
average increase of 4.7 percent a year) was less than that in manufacturing
(199 percent), it was more evenly distributed over the entire period.
Between 1950 and 1960, employment of scientists and engineers in
nonmanufacturing industries grew at a slower rate than in
manufacturing—
5.6 percent per year compared to 3.4 percent per year.
However, between 1960 and 1970, employment in nonmanufacturing
increased at an annual rate of 3.7 percent compared to 2.9 percent in
manufacturing. Between 1965 and 1970, the rate of increase was almost
twice that in manufacturing, 4.2 percent compared to 2.2 percent.
Employment of R&D scientists and engineers increased at a faster rate
than did total science and engineering employment over the period (6.7
percent per year) and by 1970 almost 20 percent of the scientists and
engineers in nonmanufacturing were engaged in R&D. This represents an
increase from about 13 percent in 1950 and 17 percent in 1960.
Almost two-thirds of the scientists and engineers in nonmanufacturing in
1970 were in only three industries—
engineering and architectural services,
miscellaneous business services (primarily commercial R&D labs), and
contract construction. These three industries accounted for two-thirds of
R&D growth. One industry alone—
miscellaneous business services—
accounted for over two-thirds of the growth in R&D nonmanufacturing
employment since 1950.

Table 3. Scientists and engineers in research and development and research and development expenditures,
by sector, 1953-70
(E m plo ym ent in thousands; expenditures in m illions of dollars)
P rivate in dus try

Federal G o v e rn m e n t

C olleges and un iversities

N o n p r o fit in s titu tio n s

Year
E m p lo y m e n t

1953
1954

...................................
...................................

E x p e n d itu re s

E m p lo y m e n t

1 6 0 .0
1 7 3 .2

$ 3 ,6 3 0
4 ,0 7 0

3 3 .1
3 2 .6

$ 1 ,0 1 0
1 ,0 2 0

2 8 .6
3 1 .1

4 ,6 4 0
6 ,6 0 5

2 7 .6
3 0 .4

7 ,7 31
8 ,3 8 9
9 ,6 1 8

3 4 .0
3 6 .6
4 2 .1

905
1 ,0 4 0
1 ,2 2 0
1 ,3 7 4
1 ,6 4 0

3 3 .8
3 5 .7
3 8 .8
4 2 .9
4 6 .0

1 0 ,5 0 9
1 0 ,9 0 8
1 1 ,4 6 4
1 2 ,6 3 0
1 3 ,5 1 2

4 8 .0
5 3 .1
5 6 .4
6 7 .2

1 ,7 2 6
1 ,8 7 4
2 ,0 9 8
2 ,2 7 9

1955

....................................

1 8 0 .4

1956
1957

....................................
....................................

1958
1959

....................................
...................................

1 9 7 .6
2 2 7 .8
2 4 1 .5
2 6 4 .2

1960

...................................

2 8 2 .4

19 61
1962

....................................
...................................

1963
1964

....................................
....................................

2 9 6 .8
3 1 8 .8
3 4 3 .2
3 5 1 .1

1965
1966
1967

....................................
....................................
....................................

1968
1969

1970

E x p e n d itu re s

4 4 .7

E m p lo y m e n t

2 ,8 3 8

1 4 ,1 8 5
1 5 ,5 4 8

7 1 .2
7 2 .3

....................................
...................................

3 5 9 .9
3 6 9 .9
3 8 4 .2
3 8 6 .5
3 8 7 .8

1 6 ,4 1 5
1 7 ,4 6 9
1 8 ,3 2 1

7 4 .5
7 2 .4
6 9 .4

3 ,0 9 3
3 ,2 2 2
3 ,3 9 5
3 ,4 9 3
3 ,4 9 8

..............................

3 7 2 .2

1 7 ,8 5 8

6 9 .6

3 ,8 7 6

NO TE:

E x p e n d itu re s

fo r

F e d e ra lly

F u nd ed

Research

and

E m p lo y m e n t

E x p e n d itu re s

455
518

3 .9
4 .3

$112
130

589
674

4 .7
4 .8

771
885
1 ,0 2 0

5 .6
5 .9
6 .7

145
164
190
222
262

4 8 .6
5 2 .4

1 ,1 8 5
1 ,3 7 9

7 .3
8 .5

5 5 .2
5 9 .3
6 2 .5

1 ,6 1 3
1 ,8 8 9
2 ,2 2 4

1 0 .6
1 2 .6
1 2 .9

6 4 .5
6 5 .6
77 .1

2 ,4 5 1
2 ,7 1 5
3 ,0 0 2

1 3 .3
1 4 .0
1 4 .4

7 5 .3
73 .1

3 ,3 1 8
3 ,4 3 0

1 4 .6

710
781
830
879

1 4 .6

930

7 5 .7

3 ,5 9 3

1 3 .7

960

E x p e n d itu re s

$

310
39 1
490
573
640

S O U R C E : E m p lo y m e n t, B ureau o f La b o r S tatistic s; e x p e n d itu re s .

D e v e lo p m e n t
C enters
a d m in is te re d
by
in d u s try ,
colleges
and
universities, and n o n p ro fit in s titu tio n s are includ ed in th e to ta ls fo r

N a tio n a l S cience F o u n d a tio n ,

th e ir respective sectors.

Scientists and engineers (mainly engineers) in contract construction
increased primarily because of expansion in the nonresidential sectors of the
industry, which include highways, schools, and sewage plants. Although
growth in engineering and architectural services reflects demand by all user
industries, these services have been particularly responsive to nonresidential
construction activity. Increases in miscellaneous business services were due,
for the most part, to the growth of independent R&D labs.



Government

Federal, State, and local governments combined employed 239,000
scientists and engineers in 1970. More than three-fifths (150,000) were in
Federal agencies, about 54,000 (23 percent) were in State governments, and
34,000 were in local governments.
The number of scientists and engineers employed at all levels of
7

government increased at an average annual rate of 4.1 percent between 1950
and 1970— slower rate of growth than the 5.4 percent recorded for the
a
entire economy. In the government sector, growth was faster between 1950
and 1960 (4.7 percent per year) than between 1960 and 1970 (3.5 percent a
year).

Chart 4. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
EXPENDITURES, BY SECTOR,
Billions of dollars
1953-70 '
28 I----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

T o ta l

R & D -e xp e n d itu res

Colleges,
u n ive rsities , and
n o n p ro fit
in s titu tio n s
Federal
G o v e rn m e n t

State Government. Employment of scientists and engineers in State
governments (excluding those in education) rose from 26,400 in 1950 to
54,300 in 1970. This represented an average increase of 3.7 percent per
year—
slower than in the Federal Government. As a proportion of all
scientists and engineers, those in State government fell from 4.7 percent in
1950 to 3.4 percent in 1970. Increased employment of scientists and
engineers primarily reflected expanding programs for highways, public
works, health, natural resources, and other programs associated with an
increasing population. The increase in employment of scientists and
engineers in State governments, however, was not as rapid as the total
growth in personnel (other than in education). Between 1960 and 1970, for
example, the proportion of employees in science and engineering jobs
declined from almost 3.9 percent to 3.5 percent.

P riv a te in d u s try

o L 1 1 1 ...I L 1 1

1 1 1 1 t i

L.J

1 J

1953 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
S o u rce : N a tio n a l Science F o u n d a tio n




Federal Government. Between 1950 and 1970, federally employed
scientists and engineers showed an average annual growth of 4.7 percent,
increasing from 60,000 to 150,000. This growth rate was less than that
shown for the entire economy, and scientists and engineers employed by the
Federal Government fell from 10.7 percent to 9.5 percent of the total. As
with the total of scientists and engineers, employment growth was faster in
the first half of the period (average annual growth of 5.1 percent) than in
the second half (4.4 percent a year). Growth was primarily related to
expansion of defense and space programs. Over 45 percent of the increase in
science and engineering employment was accounted for by increases in R&D
activities. Employment of R&D scientists and engineers grew from about
27,000 in 1950 to almost 75,000 in 1967, and declined to 70,000 in 1970.
Federal R&D scientists and engineers represented almost 95 percent of
those in R&D in all sectors of government.

Local government. Scientists and engineers employed by local governments
(excluding those in education) increased from 20,000 in 1950 to 34,000 in
1970. This rate of growth— percent a year— slower than that in both
2.6
was
Federal and State agencies. Growth was significantly faster between 1950
and 1960 (3.4 percent a year) than between 1960 and 1970(1.8 percent a

increasing concern of local governments with health, protective services, and
other programs that do not employ significant numbers of engineers and
scientists.

year). As a percent of total local government employment (except in
education), scientists and engineers declined from 1.3 in 1960 to 1.1 in
1970. Slower than average growth for those workers primarily reflected the

Table 4.

Scientists and engineers as a percent of total employment, by sector, selected years, 1950-70
1950

1952

1954

1956

1958

1960

1962

1964

1966

1968

1970

A ll s e c to r s ..................................................................................................

1 .2

1 .4

1 .6

1 .7

2 .0

2 .0

2 .2

2 .3 .

2 .2

2 .3

2 .3

P rivate in d u s t r y .............................................................................................................

1 .0

1 .2

1 .4

1 .5

1 .7

1 .8

1 .9

1.9

1 .9

1.9

1 .9

...............................................................................................

1 .6

2 .0

2 .4

2 .5

3.1

3 .3

3 .6

3 .7

3 .6

3 .7

3 .8

O rd n an c e ................................................................................................................
F o od ........................................................................................................................
T e x tile s and a p p a r e l..........................................................................................
L u m b e r and fu rn itu re .....................................................................................
Paper ........................................................................................................................

7 .0
.5
.3
.3
1 .4
6 .2
4 .7
2 .0
1 .0
1 .2
1 .6
2 .8
4 .5
2 .2

5 .8

9 .9
.7
.4
.4
1 .8
7 .5
5 .8

1 0 .5

1 1 .3
.7
.4

1 5 .5
.8
.5
.5
2 .3
9 .3
8 .2

1 7 .8
.9
.5
.6
2 .6
9 .8
9 .0
2 .5
1 .8

2 2 .4
.8

2 3 .0
.8
.7
.7

1 8 .5
.8

2 1 .8
.9

.6
.8
2 .7
9 .7
8 .8

S ector

M a n u fa c tu rin g

C h e m ic a ls ................................................................................................................
P e tro le u m r e f i n i n g .............................................................................................
R u b b e r .....................................................................................................................
S to n e , cla y and glass .......................................................................................
P rim a ry m e t a l s .....................................................................................................
F a b ric a te d m e ta ls ................................................................................................
M a c h in e ry .............................................................................................................

.6
.3
.3
1 .6
6 .9
5 .3
2 .2

2 .4
1 .3
1 .7
1 .9
3 .3
6 .1
2 .6
1 1 .9
.7
5 .3
.2

.7
.4
.4
1 .9
8 .0
6 .6
2 .3
1 .4
1 .7
2 .0
3 .2
6 .2

.5
2 .2
9 .3
7 .4

2 .6
1 3 .2
.7
5 .5
.2

2 .6
1 .6
2 .2
2 .2
4 .2
8 .6
3 .5
1 6 .9
.9
6 .7
.2

2 .6
1 .7
2 .3
2 .2
4 .2
8.1

.5
.6
2 .6
1 0 .3
9 .9

2 .6
1 0 .2
9 .3

2 .6
2 .3
4 .7
8 .5

2 .6
1 .7
2 .2
2 .3
5 .0
9.1

3.1
2 2 .6
1 .0
7 .5
.2

3 .3
2 3 .3
.9
8 .5
.2

3 .6
2 5 .3
.9
8 .4
.2

2 .6
1 .7
2.1
2 .2
4 .3
7 .7
3 .7
2 0 .0
.9
8.1
.2

2 .6
1.8
2 .2
2.1
4 .7
8.1

.6
.9
2 .8
1 0 .2
8 .6
2 .6
1 .9
2 .3
2 .2
4 .8
8 .4

3 .6
2 0 .5
.9
7.7
.2

4 .2
2 4 .8
1 .0
8 .2
.1

1 .0

E lectric al e q u ip m e n t ........................................................................................
M o to r vehicles .....................................................................................................
A ir c r a ft ...................................................................................................................
O th e r tra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t ...............................................................
Professional and s c ie n tific in s tr u m e n ts ....................................................
M iscellaneous m a n u f a c t u r in g .......................................................................

9 .3
1.1
4 .2
.2

1.1
1 .5
1 .8
2 .8
4 .8
2 .4
8 .9
.6
4 .5
.2

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g 1 ....................................................................................

.6

.7

.8

.8

.9

.9

.9

1 .0

1 .0

.9

..................................................................................................................

1 .8

F e d e r a l..........................................................................................................................
S ta te .............................................................................................................................

3.1
2
2

2 .0
3 .4
2
2

2 .0
3 .6
2
2

2 .0
3 .9
3 .7

2 .0
4 .2

2 .0
4 .3

2 .2
5 .4

3 .9

3 .9

2 .0
5 .2
3 .7

2 .0
5 .3

3 .6

2.1
4 .7
4.1

1 .3

1 .3

1 .3

1 .3

1 .3

1.2

G o v e rn m e n t

Local

.............................................................................................................................

^ T o ta l wage and s a la r y e m p lo y m e n t fo r n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g excludes a g ric u ltu re .
H o w e v e r, scientists and engineers e m p lo y e d in ag ric u ltu ra l services, fo re s try , and
fisheries (a b o u t 7 0 0 in 1 9 7 0 ) w ere in clu d ed in th e to ta ls fo r scientists and engineers
used to c o m p u te th e percentages.

1.1

N O T E : R atio s based on e m p lo y m e n t o f scientists an d engineers, by sector, to to ta l
w age a n d salary e m p lo y m e n t b y secto r. F o r S tate and local go vernm en ts, e m p lo y m e n t
o th e r th a n e d u c a tio n , ra th e r th a n to ta l e m p lo y m e n t, was used to c o m p u te percentages.
C o m p a ra b le d a ta fo r colleges are n o t a v a ilab le.

O

W age an d s a la r y data n o t availab le fo r S ta te and local g o vernm en ts se parately

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

p rio r to 1 9 5 5 .




3 .5
1 .2

1.9
5 .6
3 .5

9

Colleges and universities

In 1970, 228,000 scientists and engineers were employed by colleges and
universities, up from about 50,000 in 1950. Between 1950 and 1970,
employment in this sector increased at an average annual rate of 7.9
percent, faster than in any other sector except in nonprofit institutions,
where employment increased at the same rate. As a result, scientists and
engineers in colleges and universities increased from 9 percent of all
scientists and engineers in 1950 to 10 percent in 1960, and to over 14
percent in 1970. Over three-fifths of the growth of employment of scientists
and engineers took place over the 1960-70 period. These increases reflected
both greatly expanded enrollments and degrees in science and
engineering—
especially at the graduate levels—
and substantial increases in
the amount of R&D performed at these institutions. (See table 5 and chart
4.) In addition, employment grew because the estimates for scientists and
engineers include graduate students working part time as scientists and
engineers; these workers increased considerably over the 1950-70 period.
The number of scientists and engineers in colleges and universities and
their associated Federally Funded Research and Development Centers who
spent the greater proportion of their time in R&D activities increased from
about 23,000 in 1950 to 75,000 in 1970, an average annual increase of 6.2
percent. The proportion of scientists and engineers in R&D declined from
46 percent in 1950 to 33 percent in 1970. The college and university sector
was the only major sector of the economy in which growth of R&D
employment was slower than growth of all other science and engineering
employment.

Table 5. Earned degrees in natural sciences and engineering,
1950-70
(In thousands)
E ngineering

N a tu ra l sciences
Year
T o ta l

B achelor's
degree

...................................
...................................

1 0 0 .1
1 3 6 .3
1 1 4 .1
1 0 1 .4
9 7 .7

8 7 .4
1 1 7 .5
9 6 .3
8 4 .9

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

1950

...................................

1 9 51
1952

...................................
...................................

1953
1954

A dvanced
degrees

T o ta l

1 5 .4
1 8 .8
1 7 .8

5 7 .4
4 6 .8
3 5 .2

8 1 .5

1 6 .5
1 6 .2

2 8 .3
27 .1

9 7 .3
1 0 3 .0
1 1 3 .9
1 2 4 .1
1 3 3 .2

8 0 .4
8 6 .1
9 6 .0
1 0 4 .6
1 1 1 .7

1 6 .9
1 6 .9
1 7 .9
1 9 .5
2 1 .5

2 7 .7

4 1 .6
4 5 .5

1 3 7 .6
1 3 9 .0
1 4 3 .5
1 5 0 .3
1 6 2 .8

1 1 4 .7
1 1 3 .7
1 1 5 .6
1 1 9 .9
1 2 8 .7

2 2 .9
2 5 .3
2 7 .9
3 0 .4
34 .1

4 5 .6
4 4 .8
4 4 .7
4 4 .3
4 7 .5

3 1 .6
3 7 .0

B achelor's
degree

A dvanced
degrees

5 2 .2
4 1 .5

5 .0
5 .3

3 0 .5
2 4 .2

4 .7
4.1
4 .8

2 2 .3
2 2 .6
2 6 .3
3 1 .2
3 5 .2
3 8 .0

5.1
5 .3
5 .8
6 .4

3 7 .7
3 5 .7
3 4 .6
3 3 .3

7 .9
9.1
10.1
1 1 .0
1 2 .5

7 .5

1960

...................................

1961
1962
1963
1964

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

1 7 5 .2

1 3 6 .8

3 6 .6

1 3 8 .5
1 4 4 .4
1 5 5 .9
1 7 4 .0

3 8 .4
4 2 .7
4 6 .5
7 0 .4
5 3 .7

5 0 .8

1 8 1 .2
1 9 0 .9
2 2 6 .3
2 2 7 .7

5 1 .6
5 2 .4
5 5 .5
5 9 .9

3 5 .6
3 5 .9
3 7 .4
4 1 .2

1 4 .2
1 6 .0
1 6 .5
18.1
1 7 .8

1970

...................................

2 4 0 .1

1 8 4.1

5 6 .0

6 3 .8

4 4 .5

1 9 .3

SOURCE:

O ffic e

of

E d u c a tio n ,

U .S .

D e p a rtm e n t

of

3 5 .0

H e a lth ,

E d u c a tio n , and

Nonprofit institutions

W e lfa re .

Employment of scientists and engineers in nonprofit institutions
increased from 3,600 in 1950 to 16,400 in 1970, an average increase of 7.9
percent per year. Employment in this sector reached a high of 17,500 in
1968, with subsequent declines attributable to reductions in Federal R&D
funding. Over 80 percent of the scientists and engineers in this sector were
engaged in R&D—
by far the largest proportion among the sectors.

Employment growth in this sector is largely attributable to federally funded
R&D projects carried out by these institutions. Over two-thirds of all R&D
carried out in this sector in 1970 was financed by the Federal Government.3




^ N a tio n a l P a tte r n o f R & D R e s o u r c e s , 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 7 2 , NSF 72-300 (National Science
Foundation, 1971), table B-l.

Employment by Occupation
Engineers outnumbered scientists by more than 2 to 1 in 1970. Of the
estimated 1.6 million scientists and engineers employed in 1970, about 1.1
million (69 percent) were engineers and almost 500,000 (31 percent) were
scientists. (See table 6.)
The mix between engineers and scientists, however, varied widely by
industry. In colleges and universities, for example, there were four scientists
for every engineer in 1970. In manufacturing, there were four engineers for
every scientist. However, scientists outnumbered engineers in the chemicals
industry.
Over the 1950-70 period, employment of scientists increased by 234
percent, or at an average annual rate of 6.2 percent, while employment of
engineers increased by 169 percent, or by 5.1 percent ayear.(See chart 5.)
The faster growth recorded for scientists reflected their greater
concentration in R&D activities and faster than average growth in those
industries and sectors that employ relatively more scientists than engineers;
for example, colleges and universities.

Table 6.

N u m b e r (in thousands)

Year

T o ta l

Engineers

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

5 5 6 .7
6 1 1 .8
6 8 5 .9
7 4 8 .7
7 8 3 .7

4 0 8 .0
4 5 0 .6
5 0 7 .5
5 5 6 .2
5 8 1 .2
6 0 1 .4
6 4 6 .4
7 0 7 .9

1955

...................................
...................................

1958
1959

...................................
...................................

8 1 2 .6
8 7 3 .7
9 5 8 .9
1 ,0 0 1 .2
1 ,0 5 7 .9

1960
19 61
1962
1963
1964

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970

Engineering employment more than doubled between 1950 and 1970,
from 408,000 to 1,098,000, representing an average annual growth of 5.1
percent. Growth was significantly faster between 1950 and 1960 (7.0
percent a year) than between 1960 and 1970 (3.3 percent a year).
Employment growth slowed significantly between 1965 and 1970, averaging
only 2.6 percent a year. However, the effects on engineering employment of
the winding down of the Vietnam conflict and of cutbacks in R&D were not
yet fully reflected in the 1970 estimates since the annual estimates refer to
January or “early-in-year” employment. (See appendix B.)
Manufacturing industries employed about 53 percent of all engineers in
1970 (586,000), and employment of engineers in these industries increased

...................................

1956
1957

Engineers




Components of science and engineering employment, 1950-70

Percent

S cientists

T o ta l

Engineers

S cientists

1 4 8 .7
1 6 1 .2
1 7 8 .4
1 9 2 .5
2 0 2 .6

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 3 .3
7 3 .7
7 4 .0
7 4 .3
7 4 .2

2 6 .7
2 6 .3
2 6 .0
2 5 .7
2 5 .8

2 1 1 .2

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 4 .0
7 4 .0
7 3 .8
7 2 .9

2 6 .0
2 6 .0
2 6 .2
2 7 .1
2 7 .4

7 3 0 .3
7 6 8 .0

2 2 7 .3
2 5 1 .0
2 7 0 .9
2 8 9 .9

1 ,1 0 4 .0

8 0 1 .1

3 0 2 .9

1 0 0 .0

1 ,1 5 1 .5
1 ,2 1 0 .3
1 ,2 8 0 .8
1 ,3 2 7 .0

8 3 3 .3
8 7 3 .2
9 2 2 .7
9 4 5 .5

3 1 8 .2
3 3 7 .1
3 5 8 .1
3 8 1 .5

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 2 .6
7 2 .4
72.1
7 2 .0
7 1 .3

2 7 .6
2 7 .9
2 8 .0
2 8 .7

...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................
...................................

1 ,3 6 6 .3
1 ,4 1 7 .5
1 ,4 7 6 .7
1 ,5 2 5 .0
1 ,5 6 7 .7

9 6 9 .8
9 9 9 .6
1 ,0 3 7 .7
1 ,0 6 2 .4
1 ,0 8 5 .0

3 6 9 .4
4 1 7 .9
4 3 9 .0
4 6 2 .6
4 8 2 .7

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 1 .0
7 0 .5
7 0 .3
6 9 .7
6 9 .2

2 9 .0
2 9 .5
2 9 .7
3 0 .3
3 0 .8

...................................

1 ,5 9 4 .7

1 ,0 9 8 .2

4 9 6 .5

1 0 0 .0

6 8 .9

31 .1

NO TE:

7 2 .6

2 7 .4

D e ta il m a y no t add to to ta ls because o f ro u n d in g .

SOURCE:

B ureau o f L a b o r S tatistic s.

at an average rate of 5.7 percent between 1950 and 1970—
faster than the
rate of growth of the entire economy. Growth was much faster between
1950 and 1960 (8.6 percent per year) than between 1960 and 1970 (2.9
11

Chart 5. GROWTH IN SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING EMPLOYMENT, BY OCCUPATION,
____________ I 1950-70
A ll scientists and engineers

I
Engineers

Scientists

Chemists

I

Physicists

Geologists and geophysicists

I
Other physical scientists
S ou rce :
B ureau o f L a b o r S tatistics

I
Agricultural scientists

Z _.........
Biological scientists

1

Medical scientists

0

Mathematicians
1
100




1
1
200

1
300
Percent

1
400

1
500

percent a year). Between 1950 and 1960, increased employment of
engineers in manufacturing accounted for about 63 percent of the total
increase in engineering employment in the economy. However, between
1960 and 1970, manufacturing only accounted for about half of the total
growth. The relatively slow growth in the latter part of the 1960’s primarily
reflected cutbacks associated with the Vietnam conflict and reduced space
exploration activities. Between 1969 and 1970, for example, employment
of engineers in industries heavily involved in these activities—
ordnance,
aircraft, and fabricated metals-declined by over 15,000.
Nonmanufacturing industries employed almost 312,000 engineers in
1970, or over 28 percent of the Nation’s total. Between 1950 and 1970,
employment of engineers in these industries increased at an average annual
rate of 4.6 percent, a slower rate of growth than in manufacturing or in the
economy as a whole. However, growth was more consistent than in
manufacturing; over the 1950’s engineering employment in nonmanufac­
turing showed an average annual increase of 5.7 percent, and over the
1960’s 3.5 percent. Two industries—
engineering and architectural service
firms, and miscellaneous business services—
employed slightly under half of
the engineers in nonmanufacturing in 1970, and accounted for slightly over
half of the growth in this sector. Within nonmanufacturing, only the
railroad industry showed a consistent downward trend in engineering
employment.
Employment of engineers in government increased by over 77,000
between 1950 and 1970, from 75,400 to 152,700. This represents a slower
than average rate of growth (3.6 percent per year), and the proportion of
engineers employed by government declined from 18.5 percent in 1950 to
13.9 percent in 1970. About two-thirds of the employment growth took
place in the Federal Government.
Nonprofit organizations and college and universities showed aboveaverage rates of growth. Employment of engineers in colleges and
universities increased by more than 30,000, representing an average rate of
growth of 6.8 percent a year. In nonprofit organizations, engineering
employment climbed from 1,100 in 1950 to 5,700 in 1970, or by 8.6
percent a year.
Approximately 342,000 engineers— percent of all engineers—
31
were
engaged in R&D in 1970. In 1950, only 94,000 engineers— percent of the
23
total—
were in R&D. Thus, engineers engaged in R&D increased at a faster
average annual rate (6.7 percent) than did total engineering employment
(5.1 percent). Growth was about three times faster between 1950 and 1960
(average annual increase of 10.2 percent) than between 1960 and 1970

Almost two-fifths of all scientists employed in 1970 were in colleges and
universities. Employment of scientists in this sector increased from 39)00 in
1950 (29 percent of all scientists) to 186,500 in 1970, an average annual
increase of 8.1 percent—
substantially above the average for the entire
economy. Over two-fifths of the total growth in scientific employment over
1950-70 period took place in colleges and universities.
Manufacturing industries accounted for about 27 percent of the increase
in scientific employment, with the chemicals industry contributing over
two-fifths of this growth. Large increases also occurred in the Federal
Government and miscellaneous business services.
Employment of scientists primarily engaged in research and development
peaked at 195,700 in 1967, up from 63,600 in 1950. In 1970, 194,000
scientists were engaged in R&D activities. Declines between 1967 and 1970
occurred in colleges and universities, manufacturing, the Federal
Government, and nonprofit organizations. R&D employment in nonmanu­
facturing increased somewhat. Despite the rapid growth in numbers the
proportion of scientists primarily engaged in R&D declined from 43 percent
in 1950 to 39 percent in 1970. However, over the 1950-70 period, about 37

(average annual increase of 3.2 percent). Between 1965 and 1970,
employment of R&D engineers showed an average increase of less then 1
percent per year. The number of engineers in R&D increased every year
from 1950 to 1968. Between 1968 and 1970, however, employment
dropped by over 17,000, primarily reflecting cutbacks in defense-related
activities. (See chart 6.)
Scientists

Scientists numbered 496,000 in 1970, an increase of 234 percent over
1950, representing an average annual increase of 6.3 percent. Over the
1950-60 period, employment grew on the average by 7.4 percent per year;
over the 1960’s employment grew by 5.1 percent per year. Rapid increases
in college and university employment of scientists explain in large part why
scientific employment increased at a faster rate than engineering
employment. Excluding colleges and universities, scientific employment
grew at an average annual rate of 5.3 percent over the 1950-70 period, only
slightly faster than the 5.1 percent recorded for engineers.
Percent

100
90

Chart 6. CONTRIBUTION OF
R&D EMPLOYMENT TO
GROWTH OF ENGINEERING
EMPLOYMENT, 1951-70




80
70
60
50
40
30

20
10
0
1951 52
N o te :

53

54

55

56

57

58

59 1960 61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

E m p lo y m e n t o f engineers in R & D d e c lin e d in 1 9 6 9 a n d 1 9 7 0 . T h u s . R & D e m p lo y m e n t m ade no
c o n tr ib u tio n to to ta l en gin eering e m p lo y m e n t g ro w th in th o se years.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
13

70

percent of the growth in employment of scientists can be attributed to
increasing R&D activities, primarily resulting from increased Federal funds.
The amount of growth attributable to R&D varied from year to year,
however. (See chart 7.) About three-fifths of all scientists in R&D in 1970
were employed in only three areas—
colleges and universities (29.8 percent),
the chemicals industry (16.9 percent), and the Federal Government (12.8
percent). Other industries employing significant proportions of R&D
scientists in 1970 were miscellaneous business services (8.7 percent),
electrical equipment (4.2 percent), aircraft and parts (2.5 percent), and
ordnance (2.1 percent).
Chemists constitute the largest natural science occupation, 133,000, or
more than one-fourth of all scientists in 1970. (See tables 7 and 8.)
Employment of chemists, however, grew more slowly (4.8 percent per year)
than the average for all scientists combined. About 70 percent of all
chemists were in the private sector of the economy, with almost half of
these in the chemicals industry.

Geologists and geophysicists represent the smallest scientific occupation
for which separate estimates were developed. This occupation also showed
the slowest overall rate of growth over the 1950-70 period, increasing from
13.000 in 1950 to 30,600 in 1970, an average growth of 4.4 percent a year.
Over 40 percent of all geologists and geophysicists were concentrated in the
mining industry. Another 30 percent were in colleges and universities in
1970, where employment of these scientists increased at an average annual
rate of 10.7 percent between 1950 and 1970.
Medical scientists showed the fastest growth of any scientific
occupation— percent a year, increasing from almost 9,000 in 1950 to
9.4
53.000 in 1970. As a proportion of total scientists, medical scientists
increased from 5.9 percent in 1950 to 10.7 percent in 1970. Colleges and
universities accounted for nearly 80 percent of this growth and employed
almost three-fourths of all medical scientists in 1970. Within manufacturing,
only the chemicals industry employed significant numbers of these scientists
(4,100). About 10 percent, or 5,500, were employed in government.

Percent

1001—

Chart 7. CONTRIBUTION OF
R&D EMPLOYMENT TO GROWTH
OF SCIENCE EMPLOYMENT,




A ll o th e r g ro w th

1951-70

N o te :

E m p lo y m e n t o f scientists in R & D d e c lin e d in 1 9 6 8 and 1 9 6 9 .
c o n tr ib u tio n to to ta l e m p lo y m e n t g ro w th in th ose years.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

14

T h u s , R & D e m p lo y m e n t m ad e no

Table 7. Estimated employment of scientists, by occupational group, 1950-70
(In thousands)
L ife scientists

Physical scientists
Year
A ll
scientists
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954

.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................

1 4 8 .7
1 6 1 .2
1 7 8 .4
1 9 2 .5
2 0 2 .6

T o ta l

Chem ists

Physicists

G eologists
and geo­
physicists

8 9 .1
9 7 .6
1 0 8 .6
1 1 8 .3
1 2 4 .2

5 1 .9
5 6 .8
6 2 .9
6 7 .9

1 4 .0
1 5 .2
1 6 .7
1 8 .0
19.1

1 3 .0
1 3 .3
1 3 .8
1 5 .5
16.1

1 0 .2
1 2 .3
1 5 .2
1 6 .9
1 7 .4

7 3 .9
7 9 .2

17.1
1 7 .9

7 1 .6

M a th e ­
m aticians

A g ric u l­
tu ra l

B io ­
logical

1 6 .9
1 8 .2
2 0 .4
2 1 .5
2 1 .7

1 9 .9
2 1 .2
2 3 .0
2 4 .1

1 9 .5

4 5 .6
4 8 .9
5 3 .7
5 6 .6
5 8 .9

1 7 .4

2 1 .1

6 1 .8
6 7 .3
7 6 .7

2 2 .2
2 3 .7

2 7 .3

1 8 .5

O th e r

1 3 .8
1 4 .7
16.1
1 7 .7

T o ta l

1955

.........................................................

2 1 1 .1

1956
1957

.........................................................
.........................................................

2 2 7 .3
2 5 1 .0

1 2 8 .3
1 3 7 .0
1 4 8 .4

8 4 .5

1 9 .9
2 1 .4
2 3 .7

1 9 .6

2 0 .6

2 3 .1
26 .1

1958
1959

.........................................................
.........................................................

2 7 0 .9
2 8 9 .9

1 5 7 .4
1 6 6 .2

9 0 .6
9 5 .4

2 6 .1
2 8 .6

2 0 .1
2 0 .9

2 0 .6
2 1 .3

2 8 .5
3 1 .7

8 4 .9
9 2 .0

1960
19 61
1962
1963
1964

.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................

3 0 2 .9
3 1 8 .2

1 7 2 .0
1 7 8 .8

9 9 .7
1 0 2 .8

2 0 .4
2 0 .6

22 .1
2 3 .8

3 4 .2
3 6 .3

3 3 7 .1
3 5 8 .1

1 8 6 .0
1 9 4 .1

1 0 6 .8
1 1 0 .0

2 9 .8
3 1 .6
3 3 .9
3 6 .3

2 1 .1
2 2 .5

2 4 .2
2 5 .3

3 9 .8
4 3 .6

3 8 1 .5

2 0 3 .7

1 1 5 .0

3 9 .0

2 3 .4

2 6 .3

4 7 .2

9 6 .7
1 0 3 .3
1 1 1 .5
1 2 0 .3
1 3 0 .5

1965

.........................................................

3 9 6 .4

1 1 6 .7

3 9 .9

.........................................................
.........................................................

4 1 7 .9
4 3 9 .0

1 1 9 .6
1 2 2 .8

4 2 .1
4 4 .4

2 5 .5
2 6 .2
2 8 .4

2 7 .1
2 9 .1
3 0 .2

1 3 6 .9
1 4 7 .0
1 5 1 .1

1968
1969

.........................................................
.........................................................

4 6 2 .6
4 8 2 .7

2 4 3 .8

1 2 7 .3
1 3 1 .0

4 6 .2
4 8 .4

2 9 .0
2 9 .4

3 3 .6
3 5 .0

5 0 .3
5 3 .9
6 1 .9
6 7 .1
7 3 .0

4 4 .1

1966
1967

2 0 9 .2
2 1 7 .1
2 2 5 .8
2 3 6 .1

1 5 9 .4
1 6 5 .9

1970

..........................................................

4 9 6 .5

2 4 8 .8

1 3 2 .9

4 9 .1

3 0 .6

3 6 .2

7 4 .3

1 7 3 .4

NO TE:

D e ta il m ay n o t add to to ta ls because o f ro u n d in g .

SOURCE:

Employment of mathematicians grew much faster than the average for all
scientists, increasing from almost 14,000 in 1950 to 74,300 in 1970-an
average annual increase of 8.8 percent. Although mathematicians are
employed in nearly every industry, about 40 percent of the growth took
place in colleges and universities, which employed about 40 percent of these
workers in 1970. Within manufacturing, significant numbers were in
ordnance, chemicals, machinery (including computer manufacturing),
electrical equipment, and aircraft and parts industries.
The number of employed physicists grew at an average annual rate of 6.5
percent between 1950 and 1970, from 14,000 to 49,100. Almost 44




2 5 .5

M edical
8 .8
9 .5
1 0 .3
1 1 .0
1 1 .7

2 5 .6

2 9 .9
3 4 .8

1 2 .3
1 3 .7
1 6 .3

2 7 .3
2 9 .5

3 9 .0
4 2 .5

1 8 .6
2 0 .0

3 0 .4

4 4 .3
4 6 .9

2 1 .5
24 .1
2 7 .2
3 0 .5

3 2 .3
3 5 .3
3 8 .5
4 1 .5

4 9 .0
5 1 .3
5 4 .4

3 4 .6

4 7 .2
4 7 .5

5 5 .6
5 6 .9
6 2 .6
6 5 .8
6 7 .7

3 7 .2
4 3 .2
4 2 .0
4 6 .4
5 0 .7

4 9 .3

71.1

5 3 .0

4 6 .9
4 6 .5

B ureau o f Labo r S tatistics.

percent of all physicists were in colleges and universities in 1970, and
growth in this sector accounted for about 45 percent of total growth in this
occupation. Significant increases also occurred in industries manufacturing
ordnance, chemicals, electrical equipment, aircraft and parts, and
instruments. Employment of physicists in nonmanufacturing increased
almost 4 times over the 1950-70 period, primarily in miscellaneous business
and engineering and architectural services.
Employment of agricultural scientists grew at a slower than average
rate— percent per year. These occupations were heavily concentrated in
5.5
government and colleges and universities. In 1970, the Federal Government
15

Table 8.

Percent distribution of scientists, by occupational group, 1950-70
L ife scientists

Physical scientists
Year
A ll
scientists

T o ta l

C hem ists

Physicists
9 .4
9 .4
9 .4
9 .4
9 .4

1950

..........................................................

19 51
1952

..........................................................
..........................................................

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 9 .9
6 0 .5
6 0 .9

3 4 .9
3 5 .2
3 5 .3

1953
1954

..........................................................
..........................................................

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

6 1 .5
6 1 .3

3 5 .3
3 5 .3

1955
1956
1957
1958

..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

6 0 .8
6 0 .3

3 5 .0
3 4 .8

5 9 .1
5 8 .1

3 3 .7
3 3 .4

1959

.........................................................

1 0 0 .0

5 7 .3

1960

.........................................................

1 0 0 .0

1961
1962
1963
1964

.........................................................
..........................................................
.........................................................
................... ......................................

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 6 .8
5 6 .2
5 5 .2

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................
.........................................................

1970

.........................................................

NO TE:

O th e r

8 .7
8 .3
7 .7
8.1
7 .9

6 .9
7 .6
8 .5
8 .8
8 .6

8.1
7 .9

8 .2
8.1

9 .6

7 .8
7 .4

3 2 .9

9 .9

7 .2

3 2 .9
3 2 .3
3 1 .7

9 .8
9 .9
1 0 .0

5 4 .2
5 3 .4

3 0 .7
30 .1

10.1
1 0 .2

6 .7
6 .5
6 .3
6 .3

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

5 2 .8
5 2 .0
5 1 .4
5 1 .0
5 0 .5

2 9 .4
2 8 .6
2 8 .0
2 7 .5
2 7 .1

10.1
10.1
10.1
1 0 .0
1 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 0 .1

2 6 .8

9 .9

9 .4
9 .4
9 .4

D e ta il m ay n o t add to to ta ls because o f ro u n d in g .

M a th e ­
m atic ians

T o ta l

9 .3
9.1
9 .0
9 .2

A g ric u l­
tu ra l

B io ­
logical

1 1 .4
1 1 .3
1 1 .4
1 1 .2
1 0 .7

1 3 .4
1 3 .2
1 2 .9
1 2 .5
1 2 .6

5 .9
5 .9
5 .8
5 .7
5 .8

1 2 .9
1 3 .2
1 3 .9

6 .0
6 .5

3 0 .7
3 0 .3
3 0 .1
2 9 .4

M e dica l

9 .6

2 9 .0
2 9 .3

8 .2

1 0 .0
1 0 .2
1 0 .4

2 9 .6
3 0 .5

1 0 .5
1 0 .4
1 0 .2

7 .6
7 .3

1 0 .5
1 0 .9

3 1 .3
3 1 .7

10 .1
1 0 .2

1 4 .4
1 4 .7

6 .9
6 .9

7 .3
7 .5
7 .2

1 4 .8
1 4 .7

1 0 .5
1 0 .8

1 4 .5
1 4 .3

6.1

6 .9

1 2 .4

3 1 .9
3 2 .5
3 3 .1
3 3 .6
3 4 .2

1 0 .0
1 0 .2

7.1

1 1 .2
1 1 .4
1 1 .8
1 2 .2

1 0 .9

1 4 .3

7.1
7 .6
8.1
8 .5
9.1

6 .4

6 .8

6 .3
6 .5
6 .3
6.1

7 .0
6 .9
7 .3
7 .3

1 2 .7
1 2 .9
14.1
1 4 .5
15.1

3 4 .5
3 5 .2
3 4 .4
3 4 .5

11.1
1 1 .2

1 4 .0
1 3 .6

9 .4
1 0 .4

3 4 .4

1 0 .6
1 0 .2
9 .8

1 4 .3
1 4 .2
1 4 .0

9 .6
1 0 .0
1 0 .5

6 .2

7 .3

1 5 .0

3 4 .9

9 .9

1 4 .3

1 0 .7

SOURCE:

employed over 31 percent of these workers, while almost 16 percent were
employed in State and local governments. Over 40 percent were in colleges
and universities. Governments and colleges and universities accounted for
almost 90 percent of the growth over the 1950-70 period. The rate of
growth, however, was significantly faster in colleges and universities than in
government.
Biological scientists made up the largest of the life science occupations
and the third largest group of scientists after chemists and mathematicians.
Employment of biologists grew at a slightly faster rate than the average for




G eologists
and geo­
physicists

5 .8

B ureau o f L a b o r S tatistic s.

all scientists (6.6 percent per year), reaching 71,000 in 1970. Over 80
percent were employed in colleges and universities (55 percent) and
government agencies (25 percent); these sectors accounted for about 80
percent of the growth over the period. Employment growth, however, was
greater in colleges and universities than in government. Employment of
biological scientists in the chemicals industry increased by more than 2-1/2
times between 1950 and 1970, when employment reached 6,700. In
nonprofit organizations, employment of biological scientists increased by
400 percent, from 600 to 3,000, between 1950 and 1970.

16




Appendixes

Appendix A.

Detailed Tables

Page

Page

A- 1. Estimated employment of scientists and
engineers, by sector, 1950-70 .......................................................... 20

A-10. Percent of engineers engaged in research and
development, by sector, 1950-70 ..................................................... 38

A- 2. Percent distribution: Estimated employment
of scientists and engineers, by sector, 1950-70 ............................. 22

A-l 1. Estimated employment of scientists, by sector,
1950-70 .............................................................................................. 40

A- 3. Estimated employment of scientists and engineers
engaged in research and development, by sector,
1950-70 .............................................................................................. 24

A-12. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
scientists, by sector, 1950-70 .......................................................... 42
A-l 3. Estimated employment of scientists engaged in
research and development, by sector, 1950-70 ............................. 44

A- 4. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
scientists and engineers engaged in research and
development, by sector, 1950-70 ..................................................... 26

A-14. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
scientists engaged in research and development,
by sector, 1950-70 ............................................................................ 46

A- 5. Percent of scientists and engineers engaged in
research and development, by sector, 1950-70 ............................. 28

A -l5. Percent of scientists engaged in research and
development, by sector, 1950-70 ..................................................... 48

A- 6. Estimated employment of engineers, by sector,
1950-70 .............................................................................................. 30

A-l 6. Estimated employment of chemists, by sector,
1950-70 .............................................................................................. 50

A- 7. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
engineers, by sector, 1950-70 .......................................................... 32

A-l7. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
chemists, by sector, 1950-70 .......................................................... 52

A- 8. Estimated employment of engineers engaged in
research and development, by sector, 1950-70 ............................. 34
A- 9. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
engineers engaged in research and development,
by sector, 1950-70 ............................................




A-18. Estimated employment of physicists, by sector,
1950-70 ............................................................................................... 54
A-19. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
physicists, by sector, 1950-70 .......................

36
18

56

Detailed Tables—Continued
Page

Page

A-26. Estimated employment of agricultural scientists,
by sector, 1950-70 .......................................................... .............. 70

A-20. Estimated employment of geologists and geophysicists,
by sector, 1950-70 .................................................................... . . . 58
A-21.

A-21. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of

Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
geologists and geophysicists, by sector, 1950-70 ................. . . . 60

agricultural scientists, by sector, 1950-70 ..................................... 72

A-22. Estimated employment of other physical scientists,
by sector, 1950-70 ................................................................... . . . 62

A-28. Estimated employment of biological scientists,
by sector, 1950-70 .......................................................... .............. 74

A-23. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of other
physical scientists, by sector, 1950-70 ................................... . . . 64

A-29. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
biological scientists, by sector, 1950-70 ........................................ 76

A-24. Estimated employment of mathematicians, by sector,
1950-70 ..................................................................................... . . . 66

A-30. Estimated employment of medical scientists, by
sector, 1950-70 ................................................................ ................ 78

A-25. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
mathematicians, by sector, 1950-70 ...................................... . . . 68

A-31. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of
medical scientists, by sector, 1950-70 ........................................... 80




19

Table A-1. Estimated employment of scientists and engineers, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousan s)
d
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

556.7

611.8

685.9

748.7

783.7

812.6

873.7

958.9

1001.2

1057.9

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

396.3

439.4

500.1

557.5

590.0

610.1

656.3

719.6

743.5

778.3

MANUFACT URI NG....................................................................................................

245.2

275.9

326.8

371.0

393.2

399.6

427.3

478.1

496.5

521.4

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P PA R E L ...........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE* C LAY * AND GLASS......................................................................
PRI MARY METAL S.............................................................................. .............
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
MA C H I N E R Y ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S . . . . .................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E QU I P ME NT ................................................
P ROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELL ANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

2.1
9.7
3.1
2.2
5.6
39.4
8.7
6.1
5.4
15.4
15.5
33.6
44.9
17.6
17.6
2.8
10.5
4.9

3*0
10.6
3.4
2.5
6.4
45.3
9.5
6.6
6.0
17.6
17.7
38.0
48.5
18.5
22.4
2.8
12.0
5.1

ID .4
11.2
3.5
2.6
6.9
50.4
10.7
7.3
6.4
19.2
18.9
43.0
57.3
18.8
37.7
3.2
14.0
5.3

16.2
11.6
3.6
2.7
7.4
56.1
11.7
7.9
6.9
20.7
20.2
45.5
66.5
19.2
50.0
3.7
15.7
5.4

16.1
12.1
3.6
2.7
7.7
60.2
12.5
8.0
7.1
21.3
20.4
47.4
72.6
19.7
55.7
3.6
17.0
5.5

14.8
12.4
3.8
2.7
8.3
60.4
13.0
8.1
7.5
20.4
21.0
47.5
74.9
19.8
58.8
3.3
17.3
5.6

14.6
12.8
3.8
2.9
9.0
63.3
13.2
8.5
8.2
22.3
22.7
49.9
82. 1
20.6
65.3
3.7
18.6
5.8

18. 1
13.1
3.9
3.1
9.6
68.6
13.3
9.0
8.6
24.9
24.0
55.9
97.0
20.5
77.7
4.3
20.5
6.0

17.8
13.6
3.9
3.1
10.0
73.9
14.0
9.1
9.1
25.8
24.1
56.5
107.4
21.0
74.6
4.7
21.8
6.1

29.2
14.2
4.0
3.2
10.3
74.5
14.0
9.4
9.5
26.7
24.3
59.1
108.7
21.4
78.0
4.7
24.0
6.2

151.1

163.5

173.3

186.5

196.8

210.5

229.0

241.5

247.0

256.9

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER TR A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
R A D I O AND T V ..................................................................................................
P U BL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

14.5
5.8
24.6
5.3
3.5
6.3
1.5
10.7
23.1
0.5
41.3
14.0

14.5
5.8
29.3
5.4
3.6
6.6
1.8
11.8
24.4
0.6
45.4
14.3

15.1
6.1
31.4
5.4
3.7
7.2
1.9
11.8
25.8
D. 6
49.3
15.0

17.5
6.4
33.5
5.4
3.8
7.7
1.9
13.5
27. 1
0.7
53.4
15.6

18.7
6.1
33.8
5.3
3.9
8.0
2.5
15.1
28.5
0.8
57.5
16.6

20.0
5.9
37.3
5.3
4.0
8.2
3.8
16.8
29.8
0.8
61.3
17.3

21.5
6.1
39.5
5.3
4.1
8.6
4.0
17.3
32.3
0.9
71.0
18.4

24.0
6.4
41.0
5.2
4.2
8.9
4. 1
19.0
34.6
0.9
74.6
18.6

g o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................................................................

106.5

119.5

132.1

135.3

132.9

135.7

142.4

151.3

155.4

165.0

F E D E R A L .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCA L ............................................. ............................................................................

59.7
26.4
20.4

70.7
27.8
21.0

82.2
29.5
20.4

84.9
29.4
21.0

79.7
31.5
21.7

81.5
31.5
22.7

85.4
33.4
23.6

90. 1
35.3
25.9

91.7
36.7
27.0

97.7
39.3
28.0

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

50.3

49.2

49.4

51.2

55.8

61.2

69.4

81.5

95.3

106.7

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

3.6

3.7

4.3

4.7

5.0

5.6

5.6

6.5

7.0

7.9

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................

PRIVATE

NONMANUF ACTURI NG...................................................................................... ..

COLLEGES
NONPROF I T
NOTE:

DETAIL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS DUE TO ROUNDI NG.




0.0

IS

LESS

20

THAN 5 0 .

24.5
6.8
42.1
5. 1
4.3
8.9
4.3
20.3
37.3
0.9
73.2
19.3

24.4
6.9
43.6
5.0
4.6
9.1
4.4
20.8
41.9
1.0
74.8
20.4

SECTOR

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1104.0

1151.5

1210.3

1280.8

1327.0

1366.3

1417.5

1476.7

1525.0

1567.7

1594.7

..ALL

812.0

842.2

878.3

925.2

946.6

968.0

1004.2

1044.2

1069.8

1100.2

1111.2

..PRIVATE

550.1

577.1

603.0

638.1

643.7

658.3

681.5

714.5

729.6

734.4

733.2

34.1
14.8
4.2
3.3
10.9
77.3
14.6
9.7
10.0
26.2
25.2
62.6
118.9
22.2
76.3
4.9
26.6
6.3

40.6
15.4
4.0
3.4
11.8
79.4
14.2
10.2
10.2
30.3
25.9
67.2
128.5
22.5
74. 1
4.8
23.5
6.1

47.0
14.9
4.1
3.4
12.6
83.1
14.4
10.3
10.5
30.3
26.0
70.4
133.8
22.8
77.9
4.8
30.4
6.3

52.8
15.3
4.3
3.4
12.6
85.0
14.6
11.1
10.7
28.7
27.0
75.7
146.1
24.6
83.0
5.0
31.5
6.7

54.6
14.1
5.1
3.5
12.8
90. 8
14.8
11.5
10.5
27.0
27.3
79.9
141.0
27.3
8C.9
4.9
31.2
6.5

58.5
14.1
5.8
3.7
13.0
91.8
14.0
12.2
10.5
27.1
28.9
80.0
142.2
29.6
82.3
5.2
32.8
6.5

59.9
14.0
6.3
4.0
13.3
97.7
13.8
13.5
11.2
27.7
30.2
81.6
146.2
32.1
83.3
5.5
34.8
6.4

60.9
14.0
5.6
4.3
14.0
99.6
14.7
14.1
12.0
29.2
31.8
88• 6
152.5
32.4
92.8
5.9
35.8
6.3

62.4
14.4
5.8
4.8
14.6
100.2
13.2
14.5
11.7
28.5
29.0
91.3
160.4
31.8
99.9
5.8
35.4
5.9

63.2
14.7
5.8
5.0
14.7
103.5
12.7
14.2
3- 2. 1
30.9
31.2
89.8
158.8
32.4
98.2
5.4
35.7
6.2

52.7
15.2
5.9
5.0
15.0
107.3
13.2
15.0
12.3
29.8
30.2
94.1
161.8
33.9
91.8
6.1
37.5
6.4

261.9

265.1

275.3

287.1

302.9

309.7

322.7

329.7

340.2

365.8

378.0

23.3
6.7
45.0
5.0
4.7
9.2
4.4
21.6
44.3
1.0
75.6
21.0

23.3
6.8
45.5
4.9
5.0
9.4
4.5
22.9
45.7
1.0
74.4
21.7

22.9
6.4
46.9
4.8
5.0
9.7
4.5
24.0
47.7
1.1
77.3
25.0

23.8
6.8
48.2
4.5
4.8
9. 8
4.5
24.6
53. 1
1.1
79.7
26.2

23.8
6.5
47.4
4.9
5.0
10.5
4.7
25.3
56.0
1.2
87.9
29.7

24.2
6.9
47.1
4.4
5.4
11.8
5.1
26.7
55.1
1.3
89.2
32.5

23.9
7.2
51.6
4.3
5.4
12.1
5. 1
27.1
57.0
1.4
93.0
34.7

24.6
7.1
48.1
4.6
5.3
12.9
5.3
27.0
61.1
1.5
96.2
36.0

25.0
7.1
47.2
4.4
5.4
15.0
5.6
27.5
65.9
1.5
97.4
38.2

25.8
7.6
53.6
4.4
5.6
15.7
5.8
28.3
74.5
1.4
101.9
41.1

24.7
7.8
55.2
4.4
5.8
16.1
6.0
30. 1
76.1
1.5
107.6
42.7

168.5

176.8

188.6

199.3

207.0

214.8

218.5

221.0

231.9

233.0

238.9

. . GOV E R N ME N T

97.9
42.0
28.6

102.2
44.8
29.8

110.6
47.4
30.6

120.0
47.9
31.4

126.4
48.5
32.1

132.1
49.7
33.0

134.2
50.4
33.7

136.0
51.2
33.8

145.4
52.8
33.7

146.3
53.2
33.5

150.4
54.3
34.2

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LO CAL

114.8

122.5

130.9

141.6

158.2

167.8

178.1

194.3

205.8

217.1

228.2

..COL LE GE S

8.7

10.0

12.5

14.7

15.2

15.7

16.7

17.2

17.5

17.4

16.4




21

SECTORS
I NDUST RY

....MANUFACTURING

. . . . NONMANUFACTURI NG

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-2. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of scientists and engineers, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

SECTOR

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

71.2

71.8

72.9

74.5

75.3

75.1

75.1

75.0

74.3

73.6

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

44.0

45. 1

47.6

49.6

50.2

49.2

48.9

49.9

49.6

49.3

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
l u m b e r a n d f u r n i t u r e ............................................................................
PAPER......................................................................................................................
C H E MI C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I n I n O.................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS............................... .. ...................................
PRI MARY ME T A L S ............................................................................................
FABRI CATED ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P M E N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.4
1.7
0.6
0.4

0.5
1.7
0.6
0.4
1.0
7.4
1.6

2.1
1.5
0.5
0.3
1.0
7.7
1.6

1.8
1.5
0.5
0.3
1.0
7.4
1.6

1.7
1.5
0.4
0.3

1.9
1.4
0.4
0.3

1.8
1.4
0.4
0.3

2.8
1.3
0.4
0.3

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................

P RI VAT E

2.2
1.5
0.5
d.4
1.0
7.5
1.6
1.1
0.9
2.8
2.7
6. 1
8.9
2.6
6.7
0.5
2. 1
0.7

1. 0

1. 1
1.0

2.8
2.8
6.0
8.1
3.2
3.2
0.5
1.9
0.9

2.9
2.9
6.2
7.9
3.0
3.7
0.5
2.0
0.8

1.5
1.6
0.5
0.4
1.0
7.3
1.6
1.1
0.9
2.8
2.8
6.3
8.4
2.7
5.5
0.5
2.0
0.8

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

27.1

26.7

25.3

24.9

25.1

p e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ...................................................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
r a i l r o a d s ..................................... ....................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ...........................................................................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
r a d i o a n d t v ..................................................................................................
p u b l i c U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
miscellaneous b usin ess
s e r v i c e s .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ......................................................................

2.6

0.6
1.1
0.3
1.9
4.1
0.1
7.4
2.5

2.4
0.9
4.8
0.9
0.6
1.1
0.3
1.9
4.0
0.1
7.4
2.3

2.2
3.9
4.6
0.8
0.5

2.3
0.9
4.5
0.7
0.5

2.4
0.8
4.3
0.7
0.5

g o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................................................................

19.1

19.5

19.3

18.1

17.0

FEDERAL.....................................................................................................................
S TATE...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

10.7
4.7
3.7

11.6
4.5
3.4

12.0
4.3
3.0

11.3
3.9
2.8

COLLEGES AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

9.0

8.0

7.2

.................................................................................

0.6

0.6

0.6

nonprofit

N OTE:

in s t itu t io n s

O E T A IL

MAY NOT ADO TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

1.0
7.1
1.6
1.1

1. 0
4.4

1.0

0 .0

IS

LESS

22

1.0

1.0

1.0

1. 0

7.2
1.5

7.4
1.4
0.9
0.9
2.6
2.4
5.6
10.7
2.1
7.5
0.5
2.2
0.6

7.0
1.3
0.9
0.9
2.5
2.3
5.6
10.3
2.0
7.4
0.4
2.3
0.6

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.9
2.7
2.6
6.0
9.3
2.5
7.1
0.5
2.2
0.7

0.9
2.5
2.6
5.8
9.2
2.4
7.2
0.4
2. 1
0.7

0.9
2.6
2.6
5.7
9.4
2.4
7.5
0.4
2.1
0.7

7.2
1.4
0.9
0.9
2.6
2.5
5.8
10.1
2.1
8.1
0.4
2.1
0.6

25.9

26.2

25.2

24.7

24.3

2.5
0.7
4.6
0.7
0.5

2.5
0.7
4.5
0.6
0.5

2.5
0.7
4.3
0.5
0.4
0.9
0.4
2.0
3.6

2.4
0.7
4.2
0.5
0.4
0.9
0.4
2.0
3.7

2.3
0.7
4.1
0.5
0.4
0.9
0.4
2.0
4.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.3
1.7
3.8
0.1
7.2
2.2

0.3
1.8
3.6

0.3
1.9
3.6

0.5
2. 1
3.7

0.5
2.0
3.7

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

7. 1
2. 1

7.3
2.1

7.5
2. 1

8.1
2.1

7.8
1.9

7.3
1.9

7.1
1.9

16.7

16.3

15.8

15.5

15.6

10.2
4.0
2.8

10.0
3.9
2.8

9.8
3.8
2.7

9.4
3.7
2.7

9.2
3.7
2.7

9.2
3.7
2.6

6*8

7.1

7.5

7.9

8.5

9.5

10.1

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.7

THAN 5 0 .

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

103.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

73.6

73.1

72.6

72.2

71.3

70.8

70.8

70.7

70.2

70.2

69.7

• ■ PRIVATE

50. 1

49.8

49. 8

48.5

48.2

48.1

48.4

47.8

46.8

46.0

....MANUFACTURING

3.1
1.3
0.4
0.3
1.0
7.0
1.3
0.9
0.9
2.6
2.3
5.7
10.8
2.0
6.9
0.4
2.4
0.6

3.5
1.3
0.3
0.3
1.0
6.9
1.2
0.9
0.9
2.6
2.2
5.8
11.2
2.0
6.4
0.4
2.5
0.5

3.9
1.2
0.3
3.3
1.0
6.9
1.2
3.9
0.9
2.5
2.1
5.8
11.1
1.9
6.4
0.4
2.5
3.5

4.1
1.2
0.3
0.3
1.0
6•6
1.1
0.9
0. 8
2.2
2. 1
5.9
11.4
1.9
6.5
0.4
2.5
0.5

4.1
1.1
0.4
0.3
1.0
6.8
1.1
0.9
0.8
2.0
2.1
6.0
10.6
2. 1
6.1
0.4
2.4
0.5

4.3
1.0
0.4
0.3
1.0
6.7
1.0
0.9
0.8
2.0
2. 1
5.9
10.4
2.2
6.0
0.4
2.4
0. 5

4.2
1.0
0.4
0.3
0.9
6.9
1.0
1.0
0.8
2.0
2. 1
5.8
10.3
2.3
5.9
0.4
2.5
0.5

4. 1
0.9
0.4
0.3
0.9
6.7
1.0
1.0
0.8
2.0
2.2
6.0
10.3
2.2
6.3
0.4
2.4
0.4

4. 1
0.9
0.4
0.3
1.0
6.6
0.9
1.0
0.8
1.9
1.9
6.0
10.5
2.1
6.6
0.4
2.3
0.4

4.0
0.9
0.4
0.3
0.9
6.6
0.8
0.9
0.8
2.0
2.0
5.7
10.1
2.1
6.3
0.3
2.3
0.4

3.3
1.0
0.4
0.3
0.9
6.7
0.8
0.9
0.8
1.9
1.9
5.9
10.1
2.1
5.8
0.4
2.4
0.4

23.7

23.0

22.7

22.4

22.8

22.7

22.8

22.3

22.3

23.3

23.7

2.1
0.6
4.1
0.5
0.4
0.8
0.4
2.0
4.0
0.1
6.8
1.9

2.0
0.6
4.0
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.4
2.0
4.0
o.i
6.5
1.9

1.9
0.5
3.9
0.4
0.4
3.8
3.4
2.0
3.9
3.1
6.4
2.1

1.9
0.5
3.8
0.4
0.4
0.B
0.4
1.9
4. 1
0.1
6.2
2.0

1.8
0.5
3.6
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.4
1.9
4.2
0.1
6.6
2.2

1.8
0.5
3.4
0.3
0.4
0.9
0.4
2.0
4.0
0. 1
6.5
2.4

1.7
0.5
3.3
0.3
0.4
0.9
0.4
1.8
4.1
0.1
6.5
2.4

1.6
0.5
3.1
0.3
0.4
1.0
0.4
1.8
4.3
0.1
6.4
2.5

1.6
0.5
3.4
0.3
0.4
1.0
0.4
1.8
4.3
0.1
6.5
2.6

1.5
0.5
3.5
0.3
0.4
1.0
0.4
1.9
4.8
0.1
6.7
2.7

15.3

15.4

15.6

15.6

15.6

15.7

15.4

15.0

15.2

14.9

15.0

8.9
3.8
2.6

8.9
3.9
2.6

9.1
3.9
2.5

9.4
3.7
2.5

9.5
3.7
2.4

9.7
3.6
2.4

9.5
3.6
2.4

9.2
3.5
2.3

9.5
3.5
2.2

9.3
3.4
2.1

9.4
3.4
2.1

10.4

10.6

13.8

11.1

11.9

12.3

12.6

13.2

13.5

13.8

14.3

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.0

s
O
•
00

I9 6 0

00
•
o




1. 1

1.7
0.5
3.6
0.3
0.4
0.9
0.4
1.9
4.0
0. 1
6.6
2.4

23

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . NONMANUFACTURI NG

. . GOV E R N ME N T
....FEDERAL
••••STATE
• • • • LOCAL
..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-3. Estimated employment of scientists and engineers engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousan s)
d
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

157.9

175.4

204.9

227.8

243.5

248.8

271.0

308.8

329.7

362.1

.................................................................................................

102.6

115.7

138.7

160.0

173.2

180.4

197.6

227.8

241.5

264.2

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

82.4

93.9

115.1

134.3

145.4

150.6

164.4

190.9

203.0

222.0

o r d n a n c e .............................................................................................................

0.6
2.5
0.7
0.2
2.2
13.1
1.8
2.4

2.9
2.9
0.8
0.2
2.6
17.3
2.3
2.8
1.4
2.6
4.4
14.8
24.9
5.4
20.6
1.0
6.5
1.7

4.7
3.1
0. 9
0.2
2.7
19.5
2.5
3.0
1.5
2.8
4.8
15.7
29. 1
5.5
28. 1
1.1
7.3
1.3

4.8
3.2
0.9
0.3
2.8
21.2
2.7
3.0
1.6
2.9
4.9
16.5
32.1
5.7
32.0
1.1
7.9
1.8

4.7
3.3
0.9
0.3
3.0
21.9
2.9
3.0
1.7
2.9
5.1
16.7
33.3
5.7
34.2
1.0
8.1
1.9

4.8
3.4

7.6
3.6

8.1
3.7

16.2
3.9

1.0

1. 0

1.0

1. 0

0.3
3.3
23.5
2.9
3. 1
2.0
3.4
5.6
17.6
36.8
5.9
39.0
1.1
8.7
2.0

0.3
3.4
26.1
2.9
3.3
2.2
4.0
6.0
19.8
43.8
5.8
48.2
1.3
9.6
2.0

0.4
3.6
29.4
3.1
3.3
2.3
4.3
6. 1
20.2
51.2
6.1
46.5
1.4
10.2
2.1

0.4
3.8
30.4
3.1
3.3
2.5
4.6
6.2
21.2
55.4
6.2
49.1
1.4
11.2
2.1

SECTOR

ALL

private

ind u s tr y

FOOD................................................... ....................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P PA R E L ...........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...........................................................................
PAPER......................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS......................................................................
PRI MARY ME T A L S ............................................................................................
F A B R I C A T E D METAL S....................................................................................
MA C H I N E R Y ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T ........................................................... .. ...............................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

2.0
3.6
11.4
19.3
5.0
9.3
0.8
4.9
1.6

0.8
2.8
0.8
0.2
2.4
15.4
2.0
2.6
1.2
2.3
4. 1
12.9
20.9
5.4
12.0
0.9
5.6
1.6

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

20.2

21.8

23.6

25. 7

27.8

29.8

33.2

36.9

38.5

42.2

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON .................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L E C O M MU N I C A T I O N S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T ORI ES.............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

2.1
0.5
0.2

2.1
0.5
0.2

2.2
0.5
0.3

2.5
0.5
0.3

2.8
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.2

2.9
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.3

3.2
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.3

3.2
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.3

3.2
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.3

1.0

0.1

0. 1

0. 1

0.1

0.3
0.2

0.3
0.2

0.3
0.2

0.3
0.2

2.6
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3
11.6

0.3
12.5

0.3
13.4

0.4
14.4

0.5
15.4

0.5
16.4

0.5
18.1

0.6
19.9

0.6
21.7

0.6
24.7

0.1

0.1

0. 1

0.1

0.1

0. 1

0. 1

0. 1

0.1

0. 1

3.8
1.0

4.4
1.1

5.1
1.1

5.7
1.2

6.4
1.3

6.9
1.4

8.3
1.5

9.5
1.6

9.2
1.7

9.8
1.8

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

29.3

32.9

36.2

35.3

34.9

29.9

32.9

36.6

39.4

45.2

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
s t a t e ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

27.4
1.3
0.6

30.9
1.4
0.6

34.1
1.5
0.6

33. 1
1.5
0.7

32.6
1.6
0.7

27.6
1.6
0.7

30.4
1.7
0.8

34.0
1.8
0.8

36.6
1.9
0.9

42. 1
2.2
0.9

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S ........................................................................

22.9

23.6

26.3

28.6

31.1

33.8

35.7

38.8

42.9

46.0

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

3.1

3.2

3.7

3.9

4.3

4.7

4.8

5.6

5.9

6.7

COLLEGES
NONP ROFI T
NOTES

D E T A IL

MAY MOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

24

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

386.1

409.5

441.9

475.7

497.9

513.2

526.3

554.0

552.8

549.0

535.4

..ALL

282.4

296.8

313.8

343.2

351.1

359.9

369.9

384.2

386.5

387.3

372.2

..PRIVATE

237.9

250.7

270.1

290.3

296.8

300.5

306.9

317.6

317.7

316.5

298.4

....MANUFACTURING

19.2
4.1
1.1
0.4
4.0
32.4
3.3
3.4
2.8
4.9
6.5
22.6
62.1
6.4
48.5
1.5
12.5
2.2

23.2
4.2
1.0
0.4
4.2
34.0
3.2
3.4
2.9
5.5
6.7
24.4
66.5
6.4
47.4
1.2
14.0
2.1

27.2
4.1
1.1
0.4
4.3
36.9
3.5
3.4
3.1
5.1
6.8
26.4
73.8
6.6
50.3
1.3
13.6
2.2

31.0
4.1
1.5
0.4
4.2
39. 1
3.7
3.5
3.2
4.7
7. 1
29.0
82.4
6.9
53.8
1.3
12.5
1.9

33.2
4.5
1.4
0.4
4.4
40.7
3.8
3.6
3.3
5.2
7.1
31.0
79.4
7.7
52.8
1.4
14.9
2.0

35.3
4.3
1.7
0.5
4.7
41.9
3.7
4.0
3.2
4.5
7.3
31.7
78.1
8.5
52.9
1.5
14.9
1.8

37.4
4.0
1.9
0.5
5.0
43.0
3.6
4.2
3.1
3.8
7.4
32.3
80.2
9.3
53.0
1.5
14.8
1.9

36.9
4.0
1.8
0. 5
4.8
43.9
3.5
4.2
3.3
4.0
8.7
33.4
82.3
9.7
57.8
1.6
15.2
2.0

34.0
4.2
1.7
0.6
4.7
43.0
3.4
4.4
3.5
3.9
8.5
34.3
81.9
9.9
60.3
1.8
15.6
2.0

34.3
4.3
1.9
0.7
4.9
43.6
3.3
4.4
3.6
4.2
9.1
33.2
80.8
10.1
59.3
2.0
15.2
1.6

26.2
4.5
2.1
1.0
5. 1
44.9
3.5
4.5
3.5
4.5
9.4
31.6
78.7
9.9
50.5
2.0
14.9
1.6

44.5

46.1

48.7

52.9

54.3

59.4

63.0

66. 6

68.8

71.3

73.8

3.0
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.0
0.6
26.6
0.1
10.2
1.9

2.9
0.6
0.5
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.0
0.8
27.9
0.1
10.4
2.0

3.0
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.0
0.8
29.8
0.1
10.6
2.3

3.2
0.6
0.7
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.9
34.2
0. 1
10.2
2.0

3.3
0.5
0.8
0.2
0.6
0.3
0.1
0.9
34.5
0.1
10.8
2.2

3.6
0.7
0.8
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.1
0.9
38.9
0.2
10.4
2.5

3.6
0.9
1.0
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.1
0.9
42.3
0.2
9.6
3.0

3.9
1.1
1.2
0.2
0.7
0.6
0.1
1.0
43.7
0.4
10.7
3.0

4.2
0.7
1.4
0.2
0.6
0.7
0.2
1.4
45.2
0.3
10.9
3.0

4.4
0.8
1.7
0.2
0.7
0.9
0.2
1.5
46.7
0.4
10.4
3.4

4.5
0.9
1.8
0.4
0.6
1.1
0.2
1.6
47. 9
0.4
10.8
3.6

48.1

51.8

57.3

60.6

71.4

75.5

76.8

78.3

76.4

73.5

73.8

. . GOVERNMENT

44.7
2.5
0.9

48.0
2.8
1.0

53.1
3.1
1.1

56.4
3.1
1.1

67.2
3.1
1.1

71.2
3.2
1.1

72.3
3.3
1.2

74.5
2.6
1.2

72.4
2.7
1.3

69.4
2.8
1.3

69.6
2.9
1.3

. . . . FEDERAL
....STATE
....LO CAL

48.6

52.4

55.2

59.3

62.5

64.5

65.6

77.1

75.3

73.1

75.7

..COL LE GE S

7.3

8.5

10.6

12.6

12.9

13.3

14.0

IA .4

14.6

14.6

13.7

..NONPROFIT




25

sector

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . NONMANUFACTURI NG

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-4. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of scientists and engineers in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

65.0

66.0

67.7

70.2

71.1

72.5

72.9

73.8

73.2

73.0

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

52.2

53.5

56.2

59.0

59.7

60.5

60.7

61.8

61 . 6

61.3

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P PA R E L ............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................... ............................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
r u b b e r ...................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS......................................................................
primary
m e t a l s ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
MA C H I N E R Y ............ .. ...........................................................................................
electrical
e q u i p m e n t ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELL ANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.4
1.6
0.4
D .l
1.4
8.3
1.1
1.5
0.6
1.3
2.3
7.2
12.2
3.2
5.9
0.5
3.1
1.0

0.5
1.6
0.5
0.1
1.4
8. 8
1.1
1.5
0.7
1.3
2.3
7.4
11.9
3.1
6.8
0.5
3.2
0.9

1.4
1.4
0.4
0.1
1.3
8.4
1.1
1.4
0.7
1.3
2.1
7.2
12.2
2.6
10.1
0.5
3.2
0.8

2.1
1.4
0.4
0. 1
1.2
8.6
1.1
1.3
0.7
1.2
2.1
6.9
12.8
2.4
12.3
0.5
3.2
0.8

2.0
1.3
0.4
0.1
1.1
8.7
1.1
1.2
0.7
1.2
2.0
6.8
13.2
2.3
13.1
0.5
3.2
0.7

1.9
1.3
0.4
0. 1
1.2
8.8
1.2
1.2
0.7
1.2
2.0
-6 .7
13.4
2.3
13.7
0.4
3.3
0.8

1.8
1.3
0.4
0.1
1.2
8.7
1.1
1.1
0.7
1.3
2.1
6.5
13.6
2.2
14.4
0.4
3.2
0.7

2.5
1.2
0.3
0.1
1.1
8.5
0.9
1. 1
0.7
1.3
1.9
6.4
14.2
1.9
15.6
0.4
3.1
0.6

2.5
1.1
0.3
0.1
1.1
8.9
0.9
1.0
0.7
1.3
1.9
6.1
15.5
1.9
14.1
0.4
3.1
0.6

4.5
1.1
0.3
0.1
1.0
8.4
0.9
0.9
0.7
1.3
1.7
5.9
15.3
1.7
13.6
0.4
3.1
0.6

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

12.8

12.4

11.5

11.3

11.4

12.0

12.3

11.9

11.7

11.7

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
CON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ...........................................................................
T E L E C OM MU N I C A T I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
P U BL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S .........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

1.3
0.3
D .l
0.1
0.2
0.1

1.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1

1.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2
7.3
0.1
2.4
0.6

0.2
7.1

0.1
6.5

1.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.3

1.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.2
6.6

1.1
0.2
0. 1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.7

1.0
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.4

0. 1

0.0

2.5
0.6

2.5
0.5

1.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0. 1
0.0
0.2
6.3
0.0
2.5
0.5

0.9
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.8
0.0
2.7
0.5

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

18.6

18.8

17.7

FE D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
s t a t e ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

17.4
0.8
0.4

17.6
0.8
0.3

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

14.5

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

2.0

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................

P R I VA T E

COLLEGES
NONPROFI T
NOTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.6
0.5

2.8
0.6

3.1
0.6

3.1
0.5

15.5

14.3

12.0

12.1

11.9

12.0

12.5

16.6
0.7
0.3

14.5
0.7
0.3

13.4
0.7
0.3

11.1
0.6
0.3

11.2
0.6
0.3

11.0
0.6
0.3

11.1
0.6
0.3

11.6
0.6
0.2

13.5

12.8

12.6

12.8

13.6

13.2

12.6

13.0

12.7

1.8
IS

0.0

1.0
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.6
0.0
2.8
0.5

1.8

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.9

LESS

26

0.0

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

73.1

72.5

72.1

72.1

70.5

70. 1

70.3

69.4

69.9

70.6

69.5

..PRIVATE

61.6

61.2

61.1

61.0

59.6

58.6

58.3

57.3

57.5

57.7

55.7

....MANUFACTURING

5.0
1. 1
0.3
0.1
1.0
8.4
0.9
0.9
0.7
1.3
1.7
5.9
16.1
1.7
12.6
0.4
3.2
0.6

5.7
1.0
0.2
0.1
1.0
8.3
0.8
0.8
0.7
1.3
1.6
6.0
16.2
1.6
11.6
0.3
3.4
0.5

6.2
0.9
0.2
0.1
1.0
8.4
0.8
0.8
0.7
1.2
1.5
6.0
16.7
1.5
11.4
0.3
3.1
0.5

6. 5
0.9
0.3
0. 1
0.9
8.2
0.8
0.7
0.7
1.0
1.5
6.1
17.3
1.5
11.3
0.3
2.6
0.4

6.7
0.9
0.3
0.1
0.9
8.2
0.8
0.7
0.7
1.0
1.4
6.2
15.9
1.5
10.6
0.3
3.0
0.4

6.9
0.8
0.3
0. 1
0.9
8.2
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.9
1.4
6.2
15.2
1.7
10.3
0.3
2.9
0.4

7.1
0.8
0.4
0. 1
1.0
8.2
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.7
1.4
6.1
15.2
1.8
10. 1
0.3
2.8
0.4

6.7
0.7
0.3
0. 1
0.9
7.9
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.7
1.6
6.0
14.9
1.8
10.4
0.3
2.7
0.4

6.2
0.8
0.3
0.1
0.9
7.8
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.7
1.5
6.2
14.8
1.8
10.9
0.3
2.8
0.4

6.2
0.8
0.3
0.1
0.9
7.9
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.8
1.7
6.0
14.7
1.8
10.8
0.4
2.8
0.3

4.9
0.8
0.4
0.2
1.0
8.4
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.8
1.8
5.9
14.7
1.8
9.4
0.4
2.8
0.3

11.5

11.3

11.0

11. 1

10.9

11. 6

12. 0

12.0

12.4

13.0

13.8

0.8
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.9
0.0
2.6
0.5

0.7
0.1
0. 1

0.7
0.1

0.7
0.1
0.2

0. 1
0.0
0.2
6.8
0.0
2.5
0.5

0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.7
0.0
2.4
0.5

0.7
0. 1
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.6
0.0
2.0
0.5

0.7
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.1

0.7
0.1
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.2
0.0
2. 1
0.4

0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
8.0
0.0
1.8
0.6

0.7
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.9
0.1
1.9
0.5

0.3
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
8.5
0.1
1.9
0.6

0.8
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
8.9
0.1
2.0
0.7

12.5

12.6

13.0

12.7

14.3

14.7

14.6

14.1

13.8

13.4

13.8

. . GOV E RNME NT

11.6
0.6
0.2

11.7
0.7
0.2

12.0
0.7
0.2

11.9
0.7
0.2

13.5
0.6
0.2

13.9
0.6
0.2

13.7
0.6
0.2

13.4
0.5
0.2

13.1
0.5
0.2

12.6
0.5
0.2

13.0
0.5
0.2

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LO CAL

12.6

12.8

12.5

12.5

12.6

12.6

12.5

13.9

13.6

13.3

14.1

..COLLEGES

1.9

2. 1

2.4

2.6

2.6

2.6

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.7

2.6

0.1




0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
6.9

0.0
2.2
0.4

0.0

0.8
0. 1
0.3
0.0
0. 1
0. 1
0.0
0.3
8.2
0.1
2.0
0.5

27

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . NON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-5. Percent of.scientists and engineers engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

28.4

28.7

29.9

30.4

31.1

30.6

31.0

32.2

32.9

34.2

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

25.9

26.3

27.7

28.7

29.4

29.6

30.1

31.7

32.5

33.9

MANUFACT URI NG....................................................................................................

33.6

34.0

35.2

36.2

37.0

37.7

38.5

39.9

40.9

42.6

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P PARE L ...........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...........................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE* CLAY* AND GLASS......................................................................
PRI MARY METAL S............................................................................................
F A B R I C A T E D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MA C H I N E R Y ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T ............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
P ROFE S SI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

28.6
25.8
22.6
9.1
39.3
33.2
20.7
39.3
18.5
13.0
23.2
33.9
43.0
28.4
52.8
28.6
46.7
32.7

26.7
26.4
23.5
8.0
37.5
34.0
21.1
39.4
20.0
13.1
23.2
33.9
43. 1
29.2
53.6
32.1
46.7
31.4

27.9
25.9
22.9
7.7
37.7
34.3
21.5
38.4
21.9
13.5
23.3
34.4
43.5
28.7
54.6
31.3
46.4
32.1

29.0
26.7
25.0
7.4
36.5
34.8
21.4
38.0
21.7
13.5
■3 . 8
>
'
34.5
43.8
28.6
56.2
29.7
46.5
33.3

29.8
26.4
25.0
11.1
36.4
35.2
21.6
37.5
22.5
13.6
24.0
34.8
44.2
28.9
57.5
30.6
46.5
32.7

31.8
26.6
23.7
11.1
36.1
36.3
22.3
37.0
22.7
14.2
24.3
35.2
44.5
28.8
58.2
30.3
46.8
33.9

32.9
26.6
26.3
10.3
36.7
37.1
22.0
36.5
24.4
15.2
24.7
35.3
44.8
28.6
59.7
29.7
46.8
34.5

42.0
27.5
25.6
9.7
35.4
38.0
21.8
36.7
25.6
16.1
25.0
35.4
45.2
28.3
62.0
30.2
46.8
33.3

45.5
27.2
25.6
12.9
36.0
39.8
22.1
36.3
25.3
16.7
25.3
35.8
47.7
29.0
62.3
29.8
46.8
34.4

55.5
27.5
25.0
12.5
36.9
40.8
22.1
35.1
26.3
17.2
25.5
35.9
51.0
29.0
62.9
29.8
46.7
33.9

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

13.4

13.3

13.6

13.8

14.1

14.2

14.5

15.3

15.6

16.4

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ............................................................................ .. ...................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N .................................................................................................
r a i l r o a d s ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
TE L E C OM MU N I C A T I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
public
u t i l i t i e s * ....................................................................................
MI SCELL ANEOUS b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s .............................................
m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l l a b o r a t o r i e s .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ..........................
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ......................................................................

14.5
8.6
0.8
1.9
8.6
3.2

14.5
8.6
0.7
1.9
8.3
3.0

14.6
8.2

13.9
8.2
0.9
1.9
10.3
2.5

14.0
8.5
1.1
3.8
10.0
2.4

13.5
8.2

1.9
8.1
2.8

14.3
7.8
0.9
1.9
7.9
2.6

3.8
9.8
3.5

13.3
9.4
1.2
3.8
9.5
3.4

13.1
8.8
1.2
3.9
9.3
3.4

13.1
8.7
1.1
4.0
8.7
3.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0 .0

0 .0

0.0

0 .0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.8
50.2
20.0
9.2
7.1

2.5
51.2
16.7
9.7
7.7

2.5
51.9
16.7
10.3
7.3

3.0
53.1
14.3
10.7
7.7

3.3
54.0
12.5
11*1
7.8

3.0
55.0
12.5
11.3
8.1

2.9
56.0
11.1
11.7
8.2

3.2
57.5
11.1
12.7
3.6

3.0
58.2
11.1
12.6
8.8

2.9
58.9
10.0
13.1
8.8

g o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................................................................

27.5

27.5

27.4

26.1

26.3

22.0

23.1

24.2

25.4

27.4

F E D E R A L .....................................................................................................................
s t a t e ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

45.9
4.9
2.9

43.7
5.0
2.9

41.5
5.1
2.9

39.0
5.1
3.3

40.9
5.1
3.2

33.9
5.1
3.1

35.6
5.1
3.4

37.7
5.1
3.1

39.9
5.2
3.3

43.1
5.6
3.2

.........................................................................

45.5

48.0

53.2

55.9

55.7

55.2

51.4

47.6

45.0

43.1

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

86.1

86.5

86.0

83.0

86.0

83.9

85.7

86.2

84.3

84.8

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS...............................................................................................................

PRIVATE

COLLEGES
N ON P RO F I T
N OTE:

and

u n iv e r s it ie s

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

28

1.0

THAN 5 0 .

1.0

\ I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

35.0

35.6

36.5

37.1

37.5

37.6

37.1

37.5

36.2

35.0

33.6

..ALL

34.8

35.2

36.3

37.1

37.1

37.2

36.8

36.8

36.1

35.2

33.5

..PRIVATE

43.2

43.4

44.8

45.5

46.1

45.6

45.0

44.5

43.5

43.1

40.7

....MANUFACTURING

56.3
27.7
26.2
12.1
36.7
41.9
22.6
35.1
28.0
17.4
25.8
36.1
52.2
28.8
63.6
30.6
47.0
34.9

57.1
27.3
25.0
11.8
35.6
42.8
22.5
33.3
28.4
18.2
25.9
36.3
51.8
28.4
64.0
25.0
49.1
34.4

57.9
27.5
26.8
11.8
34.1
44.4
24.3
33.0
29.5
16.8
26.2
37.5
55.2
28.9
64.6
27.1
44.7
34.9

58.7
26.8
34.9
11.8
33.3
46.0
25.3
31.5
29.9
16.4
26.3
38.3
56.4
28.0
64.8
26.0
39.7
28.4

60.8
31.9
27.5
11.4
34.4
44.8
25.7
31.3
31.4
19.3
26.0
38.8
56.3
28.2
65.3
28.6
47.8
30.8

60.3
30.5
29.3
13.5
36.2
45.6
25.4
32.8
30.5
16.6
25.3
39.6
54.9
28.7
64.3
28.8
45.4
27.7

62.4
28.6
30.2
12.5
37.6
44*0
26.1
31. 1
27.7
13.7
24.5
39.6
54.9
29.0
63.6
27.3
42.5
29.7

60.6
28.6
32.1
11.6
34.3
44.1
23.8
29.8
27.5
13.7
27.4
37.7
54.0
29.9
62.3
27. 1
42.5
31.7

54.5
29.2
29.3
12.5
32.2
42.9
25.8
30.3
29.9
13.7
29.3
37.6
51.1
31.1
60.4
31.0
44.1
33.9

54.3
29.3
32.8
14.0
33.3
42.1
26.0
31.0
29.8
13.6
29.2
37.0
50.9
31.2
60.4
37.0
42.6
25.8

49.7
29.6
35.6
20.0
34.0
41.8
26.5
30.0
28.5
15.1
31.1
33.6
48.6
29.2
55.0
32.8
39.7
25.0

17.0

17.4

17.7

18.4

17.9

19.2

19.5

20.2

20.2

19.5

19.5

12.9
9.0
1.3
4.0
8.5
3.3

12.4
8.8
1.1
4.1
8.0
3.2

13.1
9.4
1.3
4.2
8.0
3.1

13.4
8.8
1.5
4.4
8.3
4. 1

14.9
10.1
1.7
4.5
11. 1
4.2
2.0
3.4
70.6
15.4
11.7
7.7

15.1
12.5
1.9
4.7
11.1
5.0
2.0
3.3
74.2
14.3
10.3
8.6

15.9
15.5
2.5
4.3
13.2
4.7
1.9
3.7
71.5
26.7
11.1
3.3

16.8
9.9
3.0
4.5
11.1
4.7
3.6
5.1
68.6
20.0
11.2
7.9

17.1
10.5
3.2
4.5
12.5
5.7
3.4
5.3
62.7
28.6
10.2
8.3

18.2
11.5
3.3
9. 1
10.3
6.8
3.3
5.3
62.9
26.7
10.0
8.4

SECTOR

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . NONMANUFACTURI NG

0.0

0.0

3.5
61. 1
10.0
14.0
9.2

3.3
62.5
9.1
13.7
9.2

3.7
64.4
9. 1
12.8
7.6

28.5

29.3

30.4

30.4

34.5

35.1

35.1

35.4

32.9

31.5

30.9

. . GOV E RNME NT

45.7
6.0
3.1

47.0
6.3
3.4

48.0
6.5
3.6

47.0
6.5
3.5

53.2
6.4
3.4

53.9
6.4
3.3

53.9
6.5
3.6

54.8
5.1
3.6

49.8
5.1
3.9

47.4
5.3
3.9

46.3
5.3
3.8

....FEDERAL
....S TA TE
....LOCAL

CM

42.8

42.2

41.9

39.5

38.4

36.8

39.7

36.6

33.7

33.2

..COLLEGES

83.9

85.0

84.8

85.7

84.9

84.7

83.8

83.7

83.4

83.9

83.5

..NONPROFIT

•

0.0

**

0.0
2.8
60.0
10.0
13.5
9.0

13.9
7.7
1.7
4.1
12.0
2.9
2.1
3.6
61.6
8.3
12.3
7.4




29

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-6. Estimated employment of engineers, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

408.D

450.6

507.5

556.2

581.2

601.4

646.4

707.9

733.3

768.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

320.3

355.5

405.9

453.3

479.0

496.2

535.4

588.1

605.4

634.1

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

193.4

216.7

259.8

295.2

312.6

317.2

340. 1

382.3

395.8

416.9

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD.......................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ................................................................
PAPER......................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS.......................... .. .........................................
PRI MARY METALS............................................................................................
FAB R I C A TE D ME TAL S ....................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P ME N T ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
a i r c r a f t .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E QU I P ME NT ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I NS T RUME NT S .......................
MI SCELL ANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG...................................................

1.9
5.0
2.2
2.0
3.9
19.7
6.1
4.3
4.2
11.2
14.2
31.3
40.5
15.7
16.0
2.7
8.7
3.8

2.8
5.5
2.4
2.3
4.4
21.7
6.7
4.7
4.7
12.6
16.3
35.3
43.7
16.6
20.3
2.7
10.1
3.9

9.6
5.8
2.5
2.4
4.8
22.9
7.6
5.2
5.1
13.7
17.4
40.0
51.8
16.9
34.2
3.1
11.7
4.1

14.8
6.0
2.6
2.5
5.2
25.6
8.2
5.7
5.3
14.8
18.6
42.3
60.3
17.3
45.2
3.5
13. 1
4.2

14.7
6.4
2.6
2.5
5.4
26.8
8.8
5.8
5.5
15.1
18.8
44.2
66.1
17.7
50.2
3.4
14.3
4.3

13.5
6.5
2.7
2.5
5.8
26.6
9. 1
5.9
5.9
14.4
19.3
44.2
68. 1
17.8
52.8
3.1
14.6
4.4

13.3
6.8
2.7
2.7
6.3
27.5
9.3
6.2
6.4
15.8
20.8
46.4
75.0
18. 5
58.6
3.5
15.7
4.6

16.4
6.9
2.8
2.7
6.7
29.6
9.4
6.6
6.8
17.6
22.1
51.9
88.8
18.3
69.5
4.1
17.4
4.7

16.2
7.2
2.8
2.7
7.0
31.8
9.9
6.7
7.1
18.1
22.2
52.5
98.5
18.9
66.4
4.5
18.5
4.8

26.3
7.6
2.8
2.8
7.2
31.4
9.9
7.0
7.5
18.6
22.4
54.9
99.9
19.0
69.8
4.5
20.4
4.9

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

126.9

138.8

147.1

158. 1

166.4

179.0

195.3

205.8

209.6

217.2

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS........................................................... ....................................................

PRIVATE

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N . . . . . ..............................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ..................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ....................................... ...................................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
P U BL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O R I E S .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

6.0
4.5
24.4
5.1
3.4
6.2
1.5
10.2
16.2
0.0
40.5
8.9

6.1
4.6
29.1
5.2
3.5
6.5
1.8
11.3
17.2
0.0
44.4
9. 1

6.5
4.7
31.2
5.2
3.6
7.1
1.9
11.3
17.9
0.0
48.2
9.5

7.7
4.9
33.3
5.2
3.7
7.6
1.9
12.8
18.9
0.0
52.2
9.9

8.4
4.7
33.6
5.1
3.7
7.9
2.5
14.4
19.7
0.0
56.0
10.4

9.1
4.5
37.1
5.1
3.8
8.1
3.8
16.1
20.6
0.0
59.8
11.0

10.3
4.6
39.3
5.1
3.9
8.5
4.0
16.6
22.2
0.0
69.1
11.7

11.9
4.8
40.8
5.0
4.0
8.8
4.1
18.2
23.9
0.0
72.5
11.8

12.4
5.1
41.9
4.9
4.1
8.8
4.3
19.4
25.4
0.0
71.1
12.2

12.3
5.1
43.3
4.8
4.4
9.0
4.4
19.9
28.5
0.0
72.7
12.9

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

75.4

83. 1

89.9

90.7

88.9

90.5

94.6

100.5

103.5

110.0

F E D E R A L .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
L O C A L . ........................................................................................................................

38.8
18.9
17.7

45.1
19.9
18.1

51.3
21.1
17.5

51.8
21.0
17.9

48.0
22.5
18.4

48.8
22.5
19.2

50.9
23.9
19.8

53.6
25.2
21.7

54.7
26.2
22.6

58.5
28.2
23.3

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

11.2

10.9

10.5

10.9

11.8

13.0

14.7

17.3

19.3

21.6

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

1.1

1. 1

1.2

1.3

1.5

1.7

1.7

2.0

2.1

2.3

COLLEGES
N ON P ROF I T
NOTES

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

30

THAN

50.

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1 9 65

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

801.1

833.3

873.2

922.7

945.5

969.8

999.6

1037.7

1062.4

1085.0

1098.2

662.6

686.9

716.1

756.5

771.6

789. 1

816.1

850.8

869.3

890.7

898.1

..PRIVATE

586.6

. . . . manufacturing

440.8

462.4

483.5

514.8

518.1

531.2

548.4

578.0

587.7

588.6

30.4
7.9
2.9
2.9
7.6
32.0
10.3
7.3
8.0
19.6
23.2
58. 1
109.7
19.8
68.7
4.7
22.7
5.0

36.2
8.2
2.7
3.0
8.3
32.2
io.o
7.6
8. 1
20.5
23.9
62. 3
118.6
20.1
67. 1
4.6
24.3
4.7

41.1
7.8
2.8
3.0
9.8
33.2
10.1
7.6
8.4
21.1
23.9
65.2
123.6
20.4
71.1
4.6
25.9
4.9

46.2
7.9
3.0
3.0
8.8
34.6
10.3
8.0
8.5
20.3
24.7
69. 9
134.8
21.8
76. 1
4.8
26.9
5. 2

47.4
6.8
3.4
3.1
8•6
39.4
10.5
8.5
8.3
19.4
24.8
73.3
130.5
24.1
73.9
4.7
26.6
4.8

50.6
6.8
3.5
3.3
9.0
38.6
10. 1
9.2
8.4
20.0
26.2
73.5
132.2
26.6
75.5
4.9
27.9
4.9

51.5
7.0
3.7
3.6
9.1
40.6
9.9
10.1
8.9
20.5
27.9
75.1
135.6
29. 1
76.2
5.2
29.6
4.8

51.9
7.0
3.8
3.9
9.4
42.5
10.7
10.7
9.6
21.4
29.2
81.5
142.0
29.3
84.5
5.7
30.1
4.8

53.7
7.1
3.8
4.2
9.3
42.4
9.2
10.9
9.4
19.7
26.6
83.5
148.9
28.5
90.6
5.6
29.8
4.5

54.2
7.4
3.7
4.4
9.2
44.2
8.9
10.6
9.7
21.6
28.7
81.1
146.7
29.1
89.3
5.3
30.0
4.6

224.5

232.6

241.7

253.5

257.9

267.7

272.8

281.6

302.1

311.5

12.1
4.9
44.7
4.8
4.5
9.1
4.4
20.7
29.9
0.0
73.5
13.2

12.5
4.9
45. 3
4.7
4.9
9.3
4.5
21.9
30.5
0.0
72.3
13.7

12.1
4.5
46.6
4.6
4.9
9.6
4.5
23.2
31.3
0.0
75.0
16.3

13.2
4.8
47.9
4. 3
4. 7
9.7
4.5
23.6
34.8
0.0
77.4
16.8

13.0
4.6
47.1
4.6
4.9
10.4
4.7
24.1
36.2
0.0
84.7
19.2

11.7
5.5
51.1
4.0
5.3
12.0
5.1
26.0
35.4
0.0
90.1
21.5

12.0
5.3
47.7
4.2
5.2
12.5
5.3
25.9
39.5
0.0
92.9
22.3

12.1
5.6
46.8
4.0
5.2
14.6
5.6
26.4
43.7
0.0
93.9
23.7

12.5
6.2
53.2
3.9
5.4
15.3
5.8
27.0
49.0
0.0
98.2
25.6

112.5

118.4

126.6

133.0

137.4

141.9

142.8

142.9

148.2

148.6

152.7

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUST RY

45.4
7.7
3.9
4.4
9.5
46.4
9.2
11.2
9.8
20.9
27.6
85. 1
149.0
30.5
83.8
5.9
31.5
4.8

221.8

SECTOR

12.2
5.2
46.7
4. 1
5.3
11.7
5.1
25.5
34.7
0.0
87.1
20.3

....NONMANUFACTURING

11.7
6. 1
54.7
3.9
5.6
15.8
6.0
28.7
48.7
0.0
103.8
26.5
. . GOV E RNME NT

58.6
30.1
23.8

61.8
32. 1
24.5

67.5
34.0
25.1

73.0
34. 2
25.8

76.4
34.5
26.5

79.7
34.9
27.3

80.1
34.7
28.0

81.1
34.2
27.6

86.2
34.9
27.1

87.0
34.8
26.8

90.4
35.0
27.3

. . ..FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LOCAL

23.3

24.8

26.5

28.4

31.5

33.4

35.1

38.3

39.1

39.9

41.7

..COL LE GE S

2.7

3.2

4.0

4.8

5.0

5.4

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.8

5.7




31

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-7. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of engineers, by sector, 1950—70

(In thou
sands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS.............................................................................. ................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

. . . . . ....................................................................................

78.5

78.9

80.0

81.5

82.4

82.5

82.8

83. 1

82.9

82.6

48.1

51.0

53. 1

53.8

52.7

52.6

54.0

54.2

54.3

0.6
1.2
0.5
0.5

1.9
l.l
0.5
0.5
0.9
4.5
1.5
1.0

2.7

2.5

2.2

2.1

2.3

2.2

3.4

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5
0.4
0.9
4.6
1.5

0.4
0.4
0.9
4. 6
1.5

0.4
0.4

0.4
0.4

0.4
0.4
0.9
4.2
1.3
0.9

0.4
0.4

0.4
0.4
0.9
4.1
1.3
0.9

SECTOR

ALL

private

industry

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

47.A
0.5
1.2
0.5
0.5

o r d n a n c e .............................................................................................................

FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L ...........................................................................
LUMBER a n d F U R N I T U R E . . . . ................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ......................................................................................................
p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g . . . .........................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y ..........................................................................................................
electrical
e q u i p m e n t ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S . .........................................................................................
A I R C R A F T . . . . . . . . . ....................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
p r o f e s s io n a l and SC IEN TIFIC
I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELL ANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

1.0

1.0
1.0

2.7
3.5
7.7
9.9
3.8
3.9
0.7
2.1
0.9

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

1.0

1. 0

4.8
1.5
1.1

4.8
1.5

1.0

1. 0
1. 0

2.8
3.6
7.8
9.7
3.7
4.5
0.6
2.2
0.9

2.7
3.4
7.9
10.2
3.3
6.7
0.6
2.3
0.8

31.1

30.8

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N . . . . . ..............................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON .......................................... .......................................................
R A I L R O A D S ............... ................................... .......................................................
OTHER T RANS P O RT AT I ON ...........................................................................
TE L E C OM MU N I C A T I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V . . . . . ...................................................................................
P U BL I C U T I L I T I E S * . .................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS BUSI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A BORATORI ES .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

1.5
1.1
6.0
1.2
0.8
1.5
0.4
2.5
4.0

1.4
1.0
6.5
1.2
0.8
1.4
0.4
2.5
3.8

0.0

0 .0

9.9
2.2

9.9
2.0

GOVERNMENT....................... ...........................................................................................

18.5

18.4

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL.......................... ................................................................................................

9.5
4.6
4.3

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................
I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

COLLEGES
NONPROFI T
N O TE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS DUE TO R O U N D IN G .




1.0
4.3
1.4

1.0
4.4
1.4
0.9

1.0
1.0

1. 0
1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.7
3.3
7.6
10.8
3. 1
8. 1
0.6
2.4
0.8

0.9
2.6
3.2
7.6
11.4
3.0
8.6
0.6
2.5
0.7

2.4
3.2
7.3
11.3
3.0
8.8
0.5
2.4
0.7

2.4
3.2
7.2
11.6
2.9
9.1
0.5
2.4
0.7

2.5
3. 1
7.3
12.5
2.6
9.8
0.6
2.5
0.7

2.5
3.0
7.2
13.5
2.6
9.1
0.6
2.5
0.7

2.4
2.9
7.1
13.0
2.5
9.1
0.6
2.7
0.6

29.0

28.4

28.6

29.8

30.2

29.1

28.7

28.3

1.3
0.9
6.1

1.4
0.9
6.0
0.9
0.7
1.4
0.3
2.3
3.4

1.4
0.8
5.8
0.9
0.6
1.4
0.4
2.5
3.4

1.5
0.7
6.2
0.8
0.6
1.3
0.6
2.7
3.4

1.7
0.7
5.8
0.7
0.6
1.2
0.6
2.6
3.4

1.7
0.7
5.7
0.7
0.6
1.2
0.6
2.7
3.5

1.6
0.7
5.6
0.6
0.6
1.2
0.6
2.6
3.7

0 .0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

9.5
1.9

9.4
1.8

9.6
1.8

9.9
1.8

10.7
1.8

10.2
1.7

9.7
1.7

9.5
1.7

17.7

16.3

15.3

15.0

14.6

14.2

14.2

14.3

10.0
4.4
4.0

10.1
4.2
3.4

9.3
3.8
3.2

8.3
3.9
3.2

8.1
3.7
3.2

7.9
3.7
3.1

7.6
3.6
3.1

7.5
3.6
3.1

7.6
3.7
3.0

2.7

2.4

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.6

2.8

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0 .0

IS

LESS

32

1.0
0.7
1.4
0.4
2.2
3.5

THAN 5 0 .

1.0

1.0
4.4
1.5

1.6
0.7
6. 1
0.8
0.6
1.3
0.6
2.6
3.4

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

82.7

82.4

82.0

82.0

81.6

81.4

81*6

82.0

81.8

82.1

81.8

. . PRIVATE

55.0

55.5

55.4

55.8

54.8

54.8

54.9

55.7

55.3

54.2

53.4

....MANUFACTURING

3.8
1.0
0.4
0*4
0.9
4.0
1.3
0.9
1.0
2.4
2.9
7.3
13.7
2.5
8.6
0.6
2.6
0.6

4.3
1.0
0.3
0.4
1.0
3.9
1.2
0.9
1.0
2.5
2.9
7.5
14.2
2.4
8. 1
0.6
2.9
0.6

4.7
0.9
0.3
0.3
1.0
3.8
1.2
0.9
1.0
2.4
2.7
7.5
14.2
2.3
8.1
0.5
3.0
0.6

5.0
0.9
0.3
0.3
1.0
3.7
1.1
0.9
0.9
2.2
2.7
7.6
14.6
2.4
8.2
0.5
2.9
0.6

5.0
0.7
0.4
0.3
0.9
4.2
1.1
0.9
0.9
2.1
2.6
7.8
13.8
2.5
7.8
0.5
2.8
0.5

5.2
0.7
0.4
0.3
0.9
4.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
2. 1
2.7
7.6
13.6
2.7
7.8
0.5
2.9
0.5

5.2
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.9
4.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
2.1
2.8
7.5
13.6
2.9
7.6
0.5
3.0
0.5

5.0
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.9
4.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
2.1
2.8
7.9
13.7
2.8
8.1
0.5
2.9
0.5

5.1
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.9
4-0
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.9
2.5
7.9
14.0
2.7
8.5
0.5
2.8
0.4

5.0
0.7
0.3
0.4
0.8
4.1
0.8
1.0
0.9
2.0
2.6
7.5
13.5
2.7
8.2
0.5
2.8
0.4

4. 1
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.9
4.2
0.8
1.0
0.9
1.9
2.5
7.7
13.6
2.8
7.6
0.5
2.9
0.4

27.7

26.9

26.6

26.2

26.8

26.6

26.8

26.3

26.5

27.8

28.4

1.5
0.6
5.6
0.6
0.6
1.1
0.5
2.6
3.7
0.0
9.2
1.6

1.5
0.6
5.4
0.6
0.6
1.1
0.5
2.6
3.7
0.0
8.7
1.6

1.4
0.5
5.3
0.5
0.6
1.1
0.5
2.7
3.6
0.0
8.6
1.9

1.4
0.5
5.2
0.5
0.5
1. 1
0.5
2.6
3.8
0.0
8.4
1.8

1.4
0.5
5.0
0.5
0.5
1.1
0.5
2.5
3.8
0.0
9.0
2.0

1.3
0.5
4.8
0.4
0.5
1.2
0.5
2. 6
3.6
0.0
9.0
2.1

1.2
0.5
4.6
0.4
0.5
1.2
0.5
2.5
3.8
0.0
9.0
2.1

1.1
0.5
4.4
0.4
0.5
1.4
0.5
2.5
4. 1
0.0
8.8
2.2

1.2
0.6
4.9
0.4
0.5
1.4
0.5
2.5
4.5
0.0
9.1
2.4

1.1
0.6
5.0
0.4
0.5
1.4
0.5
2.6
4.4
0.0
9.5
2.4

14.0

14.2

14.5

14.4

14.5

14.6

14.3

13.8

13.9

13.7

13.9

7.3
3.8
3.0

7.4
3.9
2.9

7.7
3.9
2.9

7.9
3.7
2.8

8.1
3.6
2.8

8.2
3.6
2.8

8.0
3.5
2.8

7.8
3.3
2.7

8.1
3.3
2.6

8.0
3.2
2.5

8.2
3.2
2.5

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
. . . . local

2.9

3.0

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.8

..COLLEGES

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

..NONPROFIT




1.2
0. 6
5. 1
0.4
0.5
1.2
0.5
2.6
3.5
0.0
9.0
2.2

33

1

1970

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . N ON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

. . government

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-8. Estimated employment of engineers engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

94.0

105.7

126.2

142.8

152.8

156.0

171.1

197.9

209.6

232.8

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

69.8

79.2

97.2

113.8

123.5

129.2

142.0

165.5

175.0

193.8

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

56.4

64.5

81.1

96.2

104.4

108.5

118.8

139.8

148.3

164.4

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...........................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G ......................................................................... ..
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE. C L A y , AND GLASS......................................................................
PRI MARY ME T A L S ............................................................................................
F A B R I C A T E D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MA CHI NE RY ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................

0.7
0.6
0.4
0.2
1.1
3.8
0.9
1.4
0.6

OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

3.5
0.6
0.4
3.2
1.0
3.2
0.8
1.3
0.5
0.9
3.0
9.6
16.0
4.4
8.1
0.8
4.0
1.1

3.5
10.9
17.5
4.8
10.5
0.9
4.6
1.1

2.4
0.7
3.4
3.2
1.2
4.3
1.1
1.5
0.7
1.1
3.7
12.5
21.0
4.8
18.0
1.0
5.4
1.1

3.8
0.7
0.5
0.2
1.3
4.9
1.2
1. 7
0.8
1.2
4.1
13.3
24.7
4.9
24.7
1.0
6.0
1.2

3.9
0.7
0.5
0.2
1.3
5.4
1.3
1.7
0.8
1.2
4.1
14.0
27.4
5.1
28.1
1.0
6.5
1.2

3.9
0.8
0.5
0.2
1.4
5.4
1.3
1.7
0.9
1.2
4.3
14.3
28.5
5. 1
30.1
0.9
6.7
1.3

4.0
0.8
0.5
0.2
1.6
5.6
1.3
1.8
1.0
1.4
4.7
15.3
31.5
5.2
34.4
1.0
7.2
1.3

6.3
0.9
0.5
0.2
1*6
6.0
1.3
1.9
1.1
1.7
5.1
17.4
37.6
5. 1
42.6
1.2
8.0
1.3

6.7
0.9
0.4
0.3
1.7
6.8
1.4
1.9
1.2
1.9
5.2
18.0
44.1
5.4
41.2
1.3
8.5
1.4

13.7
1.0
0.4
0.3
1.8
7.1
1.4
1.9
1.3
2.3
5.2
19.1
47.9
5.5
43.5
1.3
9.3
1.4

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

13.4

14.7

16. 1

17.6

19.1

20.7

23.2

25.7

26.7

29.4

p e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ...................................................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ............ ....................................................................................
r a i l r o a d s ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L E C O M MU N I C A T I O N S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
public
u t i l i t i e s ......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l l a b o r a t o r i e s .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

0.5
0.1
0.2

0.5
0. 1
0.2

0.6
0.2
0.3

0.7
0.2
0.3

0.1
0. 1
0.1

0.1
0. 1
0 .1

3.5
0.2
3.3
3.1

0. 1

0 .1

0.1

0.1
0.1

0.1
0.1

0.7
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.9
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.9
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.3
7.9
3.0
3.4
0.7

0.0
0.3
8.6

0.8
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.5
12.2

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0.6
13.3

0.6
14.5

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

7.3
1.1

8.3
1.2

8.0
1.3

0.6
16.5
0.0
8.5
1.4

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................
FE D E R AL ....................................................................................... ..............................
s t a t e ...........................................................................................................................
L OCAL...........................................................................................................................

SECTOR

ALL

S ECT ORS ................................................................................................................

P R I VA T E

AIRCRAFT.........................................................................................

COLLEGES
N ONPROFI T
NO TE:

1.0

1.0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0.4
9.8
0.3
5.1
0.9

0.5
10.4

3.9
0.8

3.1
3.0
0.3
9.1
3.0
4.6
3.8

1 .0

0.5
11.1
0.0
6.0
1.1

18.1

20.3

22.4

21.8

21.5

18.2

20.1

22.5

24.1

27.8

17.7
0.2
0.2

19.9
0.2
0.2

22.0
3.2
0.2

21.4
0.2
0.2

21.1
0.2
0.2

17.8
0.2
0.2

19.6
0.3
0.2

22.0
0.3
0.2

23.6
0.3
0.2

27.2
0.4
0.2

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

5.1

5.2

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.1

7.5

8. 1

8.6

9.2

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.5

1.5

1.8

1.9

2.0

O E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

0 .0

IS

LESS

34

THAN 5 0 .

0 .0
5.7

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

248.5

263.0

284.4

311.0

321.6

330.5

339.4

359.2

359.2

356.8

341.6

..ALL

206.7

217.9

234.5

257.7

260.6

266.4

274.2

285.2

288.3

288.7

273.0

..PRIVATE

175.9

186.0

200.5

221.3

223.7

226.6

231.7

241.2

242.6

241.7

224.2

....MANUFACTURING

16.0
1.0
0.4
0.3
1.8
7.6
1.5
2.0
1.4
2.4
5.5
20.2
53.7
5.7
43.1
1.4
10.4
1.5

19.4
1.0
0.4
0.3
1.8
8.0
1.4
2.0
1.5
2.8
5.7
21.7
57.8
5.7
42.2
1.2
11.7
1.4

22.8
1.0
0.5
0.3
1.8
9.4
1.5
2.1
1.6
2.6
5.8
23.1
64.5
5.8
44.4
1.3
10.7
1.3

26. 1
0.8
0.8
0.3
2.0
10.6
1.6
2.1
1.6
2.5
6.0
25.9
73.6
6. 1
48.6
1.3
10. 1
1.3

27.5
0.9
0.6
0.3
2.1
11.6
1.6
2.3
1.7
2.8
5.7
26.8
70.8
6.8
47.5
1.4
12.0
1.3

29.4
0.9
0.6
0.4
2.7
11.5
1.6
2.5
1.6
2.6
6. 1
27.5
70. 1
7. 5
47. 1
1.5
11.8
1.2

31.2
0.8
0.6
0.4
2.7
11.4
1.4
2.7
1.5
2.4
6.4
28.2
72.2
8.2
47.4
1.5
11.6
1.1

30.6
0.8
0.8
0.4
2. 5
11.5
1.3
2.7
1• 6
2.5
7.4
29.3
74.3
8.5
52.0
1.6
12.2
1.2

28.9
0.9
0.8
0.5
2.4
11.2
1.2
2.8
1.8
2.2
7.1
30.3
73.3
8.7
54.7
1.7
12.8
1.3

29.2
0.9
0.9
0.5
2.6
11.7
1.2
2.9
1.8
2.9
7.7
28.9
72.3
9.1
53.8
1.9
12.5
1.0

22.1
1.0
0.9
0.6
2.6
12.1
1.6
2.9
1.7
3. 1
8.0
27.6
70.5
8.9
45.6
1.9
12.2
0.9

31.9

34.0

36.4

36.9

39.8

42.5

43.9

45.7

47.0

48.8

0.9
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.3
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2

1.1
0.4
0.7
0.2
0.2
0. 3
0.0
0.8
22.5
0.0
8.8
1.4

1.1
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.3
0.3

1.2
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.3
0.4

1.2
0.4

0. 1

0.2
0.3
0.5

0.1

1.3
0.5
1.2
0.2
0.4
0.3

0.8
22.5
0.0
9.0
1.5

0.8
24.5
0.0
8.5
1.8

0.8
27.8
0.0
8.1
2.1

0.8
28.4
0.0
8.7
2.0

1.6
0.3
1.3
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.2
1.2
29.3
9.0
1.8

1.7
0.4
1.5
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.2
1.3
30.2
0.0
8.5
2.2

1.8
0.4
1.6
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.2
1.3
31.0
0.0
8.8
2.3

C
O
•
o

I960

0.9
0.3
0.6

0.2

0.0

0.1

1.0

I NDUSTRY

....NONMANUFACTURING

0.0

0.0

0.6
17.6
0.0
8.8
1.4

0.7
18.5
0.0
8.9
1.5

0.7
20.2

29.6

31.8

35.4

37.4

44.4

46.9

47.5

48.8

47.4

45.5

45.6

. . GOV E RNME NT

28.9
0.5
0.2

31.0
0.6
0.2

34.3
0.8
0.3

36.4
0.7
0.3

43.4
0.7
0.3

46.0
0.6
0.3

46.6
0.6
0.3

49.0
0.5
0.3

46.6
0.5
0.3

44.7
0.5
0.3

44.8
0.5
0.3

....FEDERAL
....S T A T E
....LOCAL

10.5

11.0

11.7

12.3

12.6

12.7

19.0

18.2

17.3

17.9

..COLLEGES

2.8

3.5

4.2

4.3

4.6

5.0

5.2

5.3

5.3

5.1

2.4

0.0

8.9
1.7




0.1

SECTORS

00
0•

0.2
0.2

1.0

SECTOR

0.0

35

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-9. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of engineers engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

103.3

100.0

103.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

..................................................................................................

74.3

74.9

77.0

79.7

80.8

82.8

83.0

83.6

83.5

83.2

MANUFACT URI NG.....................................................................................................

60.0

61.0

64.3

67.4

68.3

69.6

69.4

70.6

70.8

70.6

ORDNANCE............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S a n d AP PARE L...........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...........................................................................
PAPER......................................................................................................................
c h e m i c a l s ..........................................................................................................
p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
r u b b e r ..................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS......................................................................
PRI MARY ME T A L S ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ............................ .......................................................
MACHI NE RY ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............ .. .............................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P ME NT ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I NS T RUME NT S .......................
MI SCELL ANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
1.1
3.4
0.9
1.4
0.5

0.7
0.6
0.4
0.2

2.7
0.5
0.4

2.6
0.5
0.3

2.5
0.5
0.3

0. 1

2.3
0.5
0.3

0.1

3.2
0.4
0.2

5.9
0.4
0.2

0.9
3.5
0.9
1.1
0.5
0.8
2.7
9.2
17.9
3.3
18.4
0.7
4.3
0.8

0.9
3.5
0.8

0.9
3.3
0.8

1.0

0.9
3.4
0.8
1.2
0.6
0.8
2.9
9.3
17.3
3. 4
17.3
0.7
4.2
0.8

3.2
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.8
3.0
0.7

3.2
10.2
17.0
4.7
3.6
0.9
4.3
1.2

1.9
3*6
0.3
3.2
1.3
3.4
0.9
1.2
3.6
0.9
2.9
9.9
16.6
3.8
14.3
3.8
4.3
3.9

0.6
0.8
2.8
9.2
18.3
3.3
19.3
0.6
4.3
0.8

0.6
0.8
2.7
8.9
18.4
3.0
20. 1
0.6
4.2
0.8

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

14.3

13.9

12.8

12.3

12.5

13.3

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ............................................................................
T E L E C O M MU N I C A T I O N S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
public
u t i l i t i e s .......................................................................................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s .............................................
m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l l a b o r a t o r i e s .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ......................................................................

0.5
0.1
0.2
3.1

0.5

3.4
0.2
3.2
3.1
3.1

0.4
0.1
0.2

0.1

0.5

3.6
0.7

0.3
8. 1
0.0
3.7
0.8

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

19.3

F E D E R A L .....................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

SECTOR

ALL

private

industry

1.0

N ON P ROF I T
N O TE :

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

MAY SOT ADD TO TOTALS




0. 1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0

0.3
8.4

0.0

0.1

3.0
3.2
7.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.6
0.9
2.6
8.8
19.0
2.6
21. 5
0.6
4.0
0.7

0.8
3.2
0.7
0.9
0.6
0.9
2.5
8.6
21.0
2.6
19.7
0.6
4.1
0.7

0.8
3.0
0.6
0.8
0.6

2.2
8.2
20.6
2.4
18. 7
0.6
4.0
0.6

13.6

13.0

12.7

12.6

0.1
0. 1
0.0

0.5
0.2
0.2
0.1

0.4
0.1
0.2
0.1

0.1

0.1
0.0

0.1
0.1
0.0

0.5
0.2
0.3
0.1

0.4

0.2
0.1
0.1

0.4
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1

0.3
6.9

0.3
6.8

0.3
7.1

0.3
7.1

0.3
6.7

0.3
6.9

0.0
0.3
7.1

0.1
0.0

1. 1

0.0

1. 1

0.0

1.0

0.1
0. 1
0.0

0.0

0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0

1. 0

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.2

0.0

0.0

3.6
0.6

3.7
0.7

3.8
0.7

4.3
0.6

4.2
0.6

3.8
0.6

3.7
0.6

19.2

17.7

15.3

14.1

11.7

11.7

11.4

11.5

11.9

18.8
0.2
0.2

18.8
0.2
0.2

17.4
3.2
3.2

15.0

13.8

11.4

11.5
0.2

11.1
0.2

11.3
0.1

11.7
0.2

0.1

0.1
0.1

5.4

4.9

4.4

4.2

4.3

4.6

4.4

4. 1

4.1

4.0

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

1. 0

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

!

DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

36

0.0

0. 1

3.6
0.6

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................
D E T A IL

3.6
0.9
1.3
0.6
0.9
3.3
10.3
16.6
4.5
9.9
0.9
4.4

0. 1
0.1
0.0

state

COLLEGES

1.0

THAN 5 0 .

0.1

0. 1
0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

83.2

82.9

82.5

82.9

81.0

80.6

80.8

79.6

80.3

80.9

79.9

..PRIVATE

70.8

70.7

70.5

71.2

69.6

68.6

68.3

67.3

67.5

67.7

65.6

....MANUFACTURING

6.4
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.7
3.1
0.6
0*8
0.6
1.0
2.2
8.1
21.6
2.3
17.3
0.6
4.2
0.6

7.4
0.4
0.2
0. 1
0.7
3.0
0.5
0.8
0.6
1. 1
2.2
8.3
22.0
2.2
16.0
0.5
4.4
0.5

8.0
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.6
3.3
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.9
2.0
8.1
22.7
2.0
15.6
0.5
3.8
0.5

8.4
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.6
3.4
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.8
1.9
8.3
23.7
2.0
15.6
0.4
3.2
0.4

8.6
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.7
3.6
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.9
1.8
8.3
22.0
2.1
14.8
0.4
3.7
0.4

8.9
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.8
3.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.8
1.8
8.3
21.2
2.3
14.3
0.5
3.6
0.4

9.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.8
3.4
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.7
1.9
8.3
21.3
2.4
14.0
0.4
3.4
0.3

8.5
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.7
3.2
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.7
2.1
8.2
20.7
2.4
14.5
0.4
3.4
0.3

8.0
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.7
3.1
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.6
2.0
8.4
20.4
2.4
15.2
0.5
3.6
0.4

8.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.7
3.3
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.8
2.2
8.1
20.3
2.6
15.1
0.5
3.5
0.3

6.5
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.8
3.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.9
2.3
8.1
20.6
2.6
13.3
0.6
3.6
0.3

12.4

12.1

12.0

11.7

11.5

12.0

12.5

12.3

12.7

13.2

14.3

0.4
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.1
0.0
3.1
0.6

0.4
0. 1
0.2
0.1
0. 1
0. 1
0.0
0.3
7.2
0.0
2.8
0.5

0.3
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.0
0.0
2.8
0.5

0.4
0.1
0.2
0. 1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.4
0.0
2.6
0.5

0.4
0.1
0.3
0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.9
0.0
2.4
0.6

0.4
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
8.2
0.0
2.5
0.5

0.5
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
8.5
0.0
2.4
0.6

0.4
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
7.1
0.0
3.5
0.6

0.3
0. 1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.0
0.3
7.0
0.0
3.4
0.6

0.4
0.1
0.3
0. 1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.2
8.2
0.0
2.4
0.6

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUST RY

. . . . N ON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

0.5
0. 1
0.5
0. 1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.4
9.1
0.0
2.6
0.7

11.9

12.1

12.4

12.0

13.8

14.2

14.0

13.6

13.2

12.3

13.3

. . GOV E RNME NT

11.6
0.2
0.1

11.8
0.2
0.1

12.1
0.3
0.1

11.7
0.2
0.1

13.5
0.2
0.1

13.9
0.2
0.1

13.7
0.2
0. 1

13.4
0.1
0. 1

13.0
0.1
0. 1

12.5
0.1
0.1

13. 1
0.1
0. 1

....FEDERAL
....S T A T E
....LO CAL

3.9

4.0

3.9

3.8

3.8

3.8

3.7

5.3

5.1

4.8

5.2

..COLLEGES

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

..NONPROFIT




37

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-10. Percent of engineers engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In th sands)
ou
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

23.0

23.5

24.9

25.7

26.3

25.9

26.5

28.0

28.7

30.3

I n d u s t r y ..................................................................................................

21.8

22.3

23.9

25. 1

25.8

26.0

26.5

28.1

28.9

30.6

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

29.2

29.8

31.3

32.6

33.4

34.2

34.9

36.6

37.5

39.4

o r d n a n c e .............................................................................................................

FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G ..................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS...................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............ • • ........................... .. ................ .. ................ ...
FABRI CATE D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY................................................................. .. ......................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................ ...............................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

26.3
12.0
18.2
10.0
25.6
16.2
13.1
30.2
11.9
8.0
21.1
30.7
39.5
28.0
50.6
29.6
46.0
28.9

25.0
10.9
16.7
8.7
25.0
17.5
13.4
29.8
12.8
7.9
21.5
30.9
40.0
28.9
51.7
33.3
45.5
28.2

25.0
12.1
16.0
8.3
25.0
18.8
14.5
23.8
13.7
8.0
21.3
31.3
40.5
23.4
52.6
32.3
46.2
26.8

25.7
11.7
19.2
8.0
25.0
19.1
14.6
29.8
15. 1
8.1
22.0
31.4
41.0
28.3
54.6
28.6
45. 8
28.6

26.5
10.9
19.2
8.0
24.1
20.1
14.8
29.3
14.5
7.9
21.8
31.7
41.5
28.8
56.0
29.4
45.5
27.9

28.9
12.3
18.5
8.0
24.1
20.3
14.3
28.8
15.3
8.3
22.3
32.4
41.9
28.7
57.0
29.0
45.9
29.5

30.1
11.8
18.5
7.4
25.4
20.4
14.0
29.0
15.6
8.9
22.6
33.0
42.0
28. 1
58.7
28.6
45.9
28.3

38.4
13*0
17.9
7.4
23.9
20.3
13.8
23.8
16.2
9.7
23. 1
33.5
42.3
27.9
61.3
29.3
46.0
27.7

41.4
12.5
14.3
11.1
24.3
21.4
14.1
28.4
16.9
10.5
23.4
34.3
44.8
28.6
62.0
28.9
45.9
29.2

52.1
13.2
14.3
10.7
25.0
22.6
14.1
27.1
17.3
12.4
23.2
34.8
47.9
28.9
62.3
28.9
45.6
28.6

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

10.6

10.6

13.9

11. 1

11.5

11.6

11.9

12.5

12.7

13.5

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
CONS TRUCTI ON.........................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ............................................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . ......................................................................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
RADI O a n d T V ..................................................................................................
P UBL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O R I E S .................... ........................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

8.3
2.2
0.8
2.0
2.9
1.6
0.0
2.9
48.8

8.2
2.2
0.7
1.9
2.9
1.5
0.0
2.7
50.0

7.8
4. 1
0.9
1.9
2.7
1.3
0.0
3. 1
51.9

8.3
4.3
0.9
2.0
2.7
1.3
0.0
3.5
52.8

7.7
6.7

7.8
6.5

7.6
6.3
1.2
4.0
5.0
2.3
0.0
3.3
55.6

7.3
5.9
1.2
4.1
4.9
2.3
0.0
3.1
57.1

8.1
5.9
1.2
4.2
4.5
2.2
0.0
3.0
57.9

SECTOR

ALL

private

0 .0

0 .0

8.4
7.9

8.8
8.8

7.7
4.3
1.0
1.9
2.8
1.4
0.0
2.7
53.8
3.0
9.5
8.4

GOVERNMENT...................................................................................................................

24.0

24.4

24.9

F E DE RAL.....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

45.6
1.1
1.1

44.1

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

45.5

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

90.9

COLLEGES
N ONPROFI T
NOTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

1. 1
3.9
5.3
2.5
0.0
3.1
53.9

1 .0
3.9
5.1
2.4
0.0
3.0
55.0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

9.8
9. 1

10.2
9.6

10.0
10.0

10.6
9.4

11.4
10.2

11.3
10.7

11.7
10.9

24.0

24.2

20.1

21.2

22.4

23.3

25.3

42.9
0.9
1.1

41.3
1.0

44.0
0.9
1.1

36.5
0.9

38.5
1.3

1.0

1 .0

41.0
1.2
0.9

43.1
1.1
0.9

46.5
1.4
0.9

47.7

52.4

55.0

55.1

54.6

51.0

46.8

44.6

42.6

90.9

91.7

92.3

80.0

88.2

88.2

90.0

90.5

87.0

1.0
1. 1

IS

LESS

38

THAN 5 0 .

1. 1

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

30.3

31.0

31.6

32.6

33.7

34.0

34.1

34.0

34.5

33.8

32.9

..ALL

30.6

31.2

31.7

32.7

34.1

33.8

33.8

33.6

33.5

33.2

32.4

..PRIVATE

39.4

39.9

40.2

41.5

43.0

43.2

42.7

42.3

41.7

41.3

41. 1

....MANUFACTURING

52.1
13.2
14.3
10.7
25.0
22.6
14.1
27.1
17.3
12.4
23.2
34.8
47.9
28.9
62.3
28.9
45.6
28.6

52.6
12.7
13.8
10.3
23.7
23.8
14.6
27.4
17.5
12.2
23.7
34.8
49.0
28.8
62.7
29.8
45.8
30.0

53.6
12.2
14.8
10.0
21.7
24.8
14.0
26.3
18.5
13.7
23.8
34.8
48.7
23.4
62.9
26.1
48.1
29.8

55.5
12.8
17.9
10.0
20.5
28.3
14.9
27.6
19.0
12.3
24.3
35.4
52.2
28.4
62.4
28.3
41.3
26.5

56.5
10.1
26.7
10.0
22.7
30.6
15.5
26.3
18.8
12.3
24.3
37.1
54.6
28.0
63.9
27.1
37.5
25.0

58.0
13.2
17.6
9.7
24.4
29.4
15.2
27. 1
20.5
14.4
23.0
36.6
54.3
28.2
64.3
29.8
45. 1
27. 1

58. 1
13.2
17.1
12.1
30.0
29.8
15.8
27.2
19.0
13.0
23.3
37.4
53.0
28.2
62.4
30.6
42.3
24.5

60.6
11.4
16.2
11.1
29.7
2B.1
14.1
26.7
16.9
11.7
22.9
37.5
53.2
29.2
62.2
28.8
39.2
22.9

59.0
11.4
21.1
10.3
26.6
27.1
12.1
25.2
16.7
11.7
25.3
36.0
52.3
29.0
61.5
26.1
40.5
25.0

53.8
12.7
21.1
11.9
25.8
26.4
13.0
25.7
19.1
11.2
26.7
36.3
49.2
30.5
60.4
30.4
43.0
28.9

53.9
12.2
24.3
11.4
28.3
26.5
13.6
26.4
18.6
13.4
26.8
35.6
49.3
31.3
60.2
35.8
41.7
21.7

13.5

13.9

14.2

14.6

15.1

14.6

15.4

15.9

16.1

16.2

15.6

8.1
5.9
1.2
4.2
4.5
2.2

7.4
6.1
1.3
4.2
4.4
2.2

7.2
6.1
1.1
4.3
4.1
2.2

8.3
6.7
1.3
4.3
4.1
2.1

8.3
8.3
1.5
4.7
4.3
3.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.0
57.9

2.9
58.9

3.2
60.7

3.0
64. 5

8.5
6. 5
1.7
4.3
6.1
2.9
2. 1
3.3
62.2
0.0
10.6
7.8

9.8
5.8
1.7
4.9
5.7
3.4
2.0
3. 1
70.6
0.0
9.8
8.9

10.3
7.3
2.0
5.0
5. 7
4.2
2.0
3.1
78.5

10.8
9.4
2.5
4.8
7. 7
2.4
1.9
3.1
71.9

13.6
6.5
2.8
5.1
5.6
3.3
3.4
4.8
61.6

0.0

0.0

9.0
9.8

9.4
9.0

13.2
5.4
2.8
5.0
7.7
2.7
3.6
4.5
67.0
0.3
9.6
7.6

SECTOR

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

....NONMANUFACTURING

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.7
10.9

12.0
10.6

12.3
10.9

11.9
10.4

3.4
64.7
0.0
11.4
8.3

25.3

26.3

26.9

28.0

28.1

32.3

33.1

33.3

34.1

32.0

30.6

. . GOV E RNME NT

46.5
1.4
0.9

49.3
1.7
0.8

50.2
1.9
0.8

50.8
2.4
1.2

49.9
2.0
1.2

56.8
2.0
1.1

57.7
1.7
1.1

58.2
1.7
1.1

59.2
1.5
1.1

54.1
1.4
1.1

51.4
1.4
1. 1

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LO CAL

42.6

42. 1

42.3

41.5

41.2

39.0

37.7

36.2

49.6

46.5

43.4

..COLLEGES

87.0

88.9

87.5

87.5

87.5

86.0

85.2

89.3

91.2

91.4

91.4

..NONPROFIT




39

0.0
8.7
8.6

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A -11. Estimated employment of scientists, by sector, 1950—70

(I nthou
sands)
1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

148.7

161.2

178.4

192.5

202.6

211.2

227.3

251.0

270.9

289.9

..................................................................................................

76.0

83.9

94.2

104.2

111.0

113.9

120.9

131.5

138.1

144.2

m a n u f a c t u r i n g ....................................................................................................

51.8

59.2

68.0

75.8

80.6

82.4

87.2

95.8

100.7

104.5

ORDNANCE.............................................................. .. ............................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L ............................................................................
l u m b e r a n d f u r n i t u r e ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE* CLAY* AND GL ASS......................................................................
PRI MARY METAL S............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y .................... .. ..................................................................................
electrical
e q u i p m e n t ............................................................................
m o t o r v e h i c l e s .............................................................................................
a i r c r a f t .............................................................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n E Q U I P M E N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACT URI NG........................................................

0.2
4.7
0.9
0.2
1.7
19.7
2.6
1.8
1.2
4.4
1.2
2.3
4.4
1.9
1.6
0.1
1.8
1.1

0.2
5. 1
1.0
0.2
2.0
23.6
2.8
1.9
1.3
5.0
1.4
2.7
4.8
1.9
2. 1
0. 1
1.9
1.2

D• 8
5.4
1.0
D.2
2.1
27.5
3.1
2.1
1.3
5.5
1.5
3.0
5.5
1.9
3.5
0.1
2.3
1.2

1.4
5.6
1.0
0.2
2.2
30.5
3.5
2.2
1.6
5.9
1.6
3.2
6.2
1.9
4.8
0.2
2.6
1.2

1.4
5.7
1.0
0.2
2.3
33.4
3.7
2.2
1.6
6.2
1.6
3.2
6.5
2.0
5.5
0.2
2.7
1.2

1.3
5.9
1. 1
0.2
2.5
33.8
3.9
2.2
1.6
6.0
1.7
3.3
6.8
2.0
6.0
0.2
2.7
1.2

1.3
6.0
1.1
0.2
2.7
35.8
3.9
2.3
1.8
6.5
1.9
3.5
7.1
2.1
6.7
0.2
2.9
1.2

1.7
6.2
1.1
0.4
2.9
39.0
3.9
2.4
1.8
7.3
1.9
4.0
8.2
2.2
8.2
0.2
3.1
1.3

1.6
6.4
1.1
0.4
3.0
42.1
4.1
2.4
2.0
7.7
1.9
4.0
8.9
2.1
8.2
0.2
3.3
1.3

2.9
6.6
1.2
0.4
3.1
43.1
4.1
2.4
2.0
8.1
1.9
4.2
8.3
2.4
8.2
0.2
3.6
1.3

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

24.2

24.7

26.2

28.4

30.4

31.5

33.7

35.7

37.4

39.7

PETROLEUM e x t r a c t i o n ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ...........................................................................
T E L E C O M MU N I C A T I O N S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
PUBL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O R I E S .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

8.5
1.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
D .l
0.0
0.5
6.9
0.5
0.8
5.1

8.4
1.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.5
7.2
0.6
1.0
5.2

8.6
1.4
3.2
3.2
0.2
D .l
0.0
0.5
7.9
3.6
1.1
5.5

9.8
1.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.7
8.2
0.7
1.2
5.7

10.3
1.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.7
8.8
0.8
1.5
6.2

10.9
1.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.7
9.2
0.8
1.5
6.3

11.2
1.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.7
10.1
0.9
1.9
6.7

12.1
1.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.8
10.7
0.9
2.1
6.8

12.1
1.7
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.9
11.9
0.9
2.1
7.1

12.1
1.8
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.9
13.4
1.0
2.1
7.6

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

31.1

36.4

42.2

44.6

44.0

45.2

47.8

50.8

51.9

55.0

FEDERAL....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

20.9
7.5
2.7

25.6
7.9
2.9

33.9
8.4
2.9

33.1
8.4
3.1

31.7
9.0
3.3

32.7
9.0
3.5

34.5
9.5
3.8

36.5
10.1
4.2

37.0
10.5
4.4

39.2
11.1
4.7

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

39.1

38.3

38.9

40.3

44.0

54.7

64.2

76.0

85.1

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

2.5

2.6

3.1

3.4

3.5

3.9

4.5

4.9

5.6

ALL

private

industry

COLLEGES
N ONPROFI T
N OTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

40

THAN 5 0 .

G
O

1951

<
M

1950

SECTOR

3.9

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

302.9

318.2

337.1

358.1

381.5

396.4

417.9

439.0

462.6

482.7

496.5

..ALL

149.4

155.3

162.2

168.7

175.0

178.9

188.1

193.4

200.5

209.5

213.1

..PRIVATE

109.3

114.7

119.5

123.3

125.6

127.1

133.1

136.5

141.9

145.8

146.6

....MANUFACTURING

3.7
6.9
1.3
0.4
3.3
45.3
4.3
2.4
2.0
8.6
2.0
4.5
9.2
2.4
7.6
0.2
3.9
1.3

4.4
7.2
1.3
0.4
3.5
47.2
4.2
2.6
2.1
9.8
2.0
4.9
9.9
2.4
7.0
0.2
4.2
1.4

5.9
7.1
1.3
0.4
3.8
49.9
4.3
2.7
2.1
9.2
2.1
5.2
10.2
2.4
6.8
0.2
4.5
1.4

6.6
7.4
1.3
0.4
3.8
50.4
4.3
3. 1
2.2
8.4
2.3
5.8
11.3
2.8
6.9
0.2
4.6
1.5

7.2
7.3
1.7
0.4
4.2
51.4
4.3
3.0
2.2
7.6
2.5
6*6
10.5
3.2
7.0
0.2
4.6
1.7

7.9
7.3
2.3
0.4
4.0
53.2
3.9
3.0
2. 1
7. 1
2.7
6.6
10.0
3.0
6.8
0.3
4.9
1.6

8.4
7.0
2.6
0.4
4.2
57.1
3.9
3.4
2.3
4 7.2
2.3
6.5
10.6
3.0
7.1
0.3
5.2
1.6

9.0
7.0
1.8
0.4
4.6
57.1
4.0
3.4
2.4
7.8
2.6
7.1
10. 5
3.1
8.3
0.2
5.7
1.5

8.7
7.3
2.0
0.6
5.3
57.8
4.0
3.6
2.3
8.8
2.4
7.8
11.5
3.3
9.3
0.2
5.6
1.4

9.0
7.3
2.1
0.6
5.5
59.3
3.9
3.6
2.4
9.3
2.5
8.7
12.1
3.3
8.9
0.1
5.7
1.6

7.3
7.5
2.0
0.6
5.5
60.9
4.0
3.8
2.5
8.9
2.6
9.0
12.8
3.4
8.0
0.2
6.0
1.6

.......ORDNANCE

40.1

40.6

42.7

45.4

49.4

51.8

55.0

56.9

58.6

63.6

66.5

. . .. NON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

11.2
1.8
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.9
14.4
1.0
2.1
7.8

10.8
1.9
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.0
1.0
15.2
1.0
2.1
8.0

10.8
1.9
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.8
16.4
1.1
2.3
8.7

10.6
2.0
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
1.0
18.3
1.1
2.3
9.4

10.8
1.9
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.0
1.2
19.8
1.2
3.2
10.5

12.0
1.7
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.0
1.2
20.4
1.3
2.1
12.2

12.2
1.7
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.0
1.1
21.6
1.4
2.9
13.2

12.6
1.8
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.0
1.1
21.6
1.5
3.3
13.7

12.9
1.5
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.0
1.1
22.2
1.5
3.5
14.5

13.3
1.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.0
1.3
25.5
1.4
3.7
15.5

13.0
1.7
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.0
1.4
27.4
1.5
3.8
16.2

56.0

58.4

62.0

66.3

69.6

72.9

75.7

78.1

83.7

84.4

86.2

. . GOV E R N ME N T

39.3
11.9
4.8

40.4
12.7
5.3

43.1
13.4
5.5

47.0
13.7
5.6

50.0
14.0
5.6

52.4
14.8
5.7

54. 1
15.7
5.9

54.9
17.0
6.2

59.2
17.9
6.6

59.3
18.4
6.7

60.0
19.3
6.9

....FEDERAL
....S T A T E
....LO CAL

91.5

97.7

104.4

113.2

126.7

134.4

143.0

156.0

166.7

177.2

186.5

6.0

6.8

8.5

9.9

10.2

10.3

11.1

11.5

11.7

11.6

10.7




41

SECTOR

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-12. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of scientists, by sector, 195Q—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

51.1

52.0

52.8

54.1

54.8

53.9

53.2

52.4

51.0

49.7

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

34.8

36.7

38.1

39.4

39.8

39.0

38.4

38.2

37.2

36.0

0.4
3.0
0.6

0.7
2.9
0.5
0.1
1. 1
15.8
1.3

0.7
2.8
0.5

0.6
2.8
0. 5

0.6
2.6
0.5

0.6
2.4
0.4

2.3
0.4

0.1
1.1

0.1

0.1

1.2
16.0
1.3

1.2
15.8
1.7

0.7
2.5
0.4
0.2
1.2
15.5
1.6

0. 1
1.1

0.1
1.1

15.5
1.5
0.9
0.7
2.8
0.7
1.5
3.3
0.8
3.0

14.9
1.4
0.8
0.7
2.8
0.7
1.4
3.0
0.8
2.8

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS...............................................................................................................

PRIVATE

ORDNANCE............................................................................................ ...............
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
RUBBER................. .................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GL ASS......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s .................... .. .........................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y ..........................................................................................................
e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g ........................................................

0. 1

0. 1

3.2
3*6
o.l
1.1
13.2
1.7
1.2
0.8
3.0
0.8
1.5
3.0
1.3
1.1

3.2
0.6
0. 1
1.2
14.6
1.7
1.2
0.8
3. 1
0.9
1.7
3.0
1.2
1.3

0.1

0. 1

1.2
0.7

1.2
0.7

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

16.3

15.3

14.7

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ......................................................................................... ................ ...
C ON S T R U C T I ON .................................................................................................
R A I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O RT A T I ON ...........................................................................
TE L E C OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
P U BL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

5.7
0.9
0.1

5.2
0.7

0.1
0.0
0.3
4.6
0.3
0.5
3.4

0. 1
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0 .0

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................
FE D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................
COLLEGES
N ONPROFI T
N OTE:

0.1
1.2
15.4
1.7
1.2
0.7
3.1
0.8
1.7
3.1
l.l
2.0

16.5
1.8

1. 1

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

O. B
3. 1
0.8
1.7
3.2

0.8
3.1
0.8
1.6
3.2

0.8
2.9
0.8
1.5
3.1
0.9
2.9

0.7
2.9
0.8
1.6
3.3
0.9
3.3

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.5

2.7

0.8
2.8
0.8
1.6
3.2
0.9
2.8

0.1

0. 1

0.1

0. 1

0. 1

0. 1

0. 1

0.1

1.3
0.7

1.4
0.6

1.3
0.6

1.3
0.6

1.3
0.5

1.2
0.5

1.2
0.5

1.2
0.4

14. B

15.0

14.9

14.8

14.2

13.8

13.7

4.8
0.8

5. 1
0.8

5.1
0.7

5.2
0.7

4.9
0.7

4.8
0.6

4.5
0.6

4.2
0.6

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.1
0. 1
0 .1
0. 1

0.1
0.1
0.1

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0

0.0
0.4
4.3
0.4
0.6
3.0

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0 .0

0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.0

0.3
4.3
0.4
0.7
3.1

0.0
0.3
4.4
0.4
0.7
3.0

0.1
0.1
0. 1
0 .0
0.0

0.3
4.5
0.4
0.6
3.2

0.0
0.3
4.4
0.3
0.6
3.1

0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.3
4.4
0.4
0.8
2.9

0.3
4.3
0.4
0.8
2.7

0.3
4.4
0.3
0.8
2.6

0.3
4.6
0.3
0.7
2.6

20.9

22.6

23.7

23.2

21.7

21.4

21.0

20.2

19.2

19.0

14.1
5.0
1.8

15.9
4.9
1.8

17.3
4.7
1.6

17.2
4.4
1.6

15.6
4.4
1.6

15.5
4.3
1.7

15.2
4.2
1.7

14.5
4.0
1.7

13.7
3.9
1.6

13.5
3. B
1.6

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

26.3

23.8

21.8

20.9

21.7

22.8

24. 1

25.6

28.1

29.4

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

1.7

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.7

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.9

D E T A IL

MAY MOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE

0.1
0.1

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

42

THAN 5 0 .

0.0

0.0

1.7

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.3

100.0

49.3

48.8

48.1

47.1

45.9

45.1

45.0

44.1

43.3

43.4

42.9

..PRIVATE

36.1

36.0

35.4

34.4

32.9

32. 1

31.8

31.1

30. 7

30.2

29.5

. . . . manufacturing

1.2
2.3
0.4
0.1
1.1
15.0
1.4
0.8
0.7
2.8
0.7
1.5
3.0
0.8
2.5
0.1
1.3
0.4

1.4
2.3
0.4
0.1
1.1
14.8
1.3
0.8
0.7
3. 1
0.6
1.5
3-1
0.8
2.2
0.1
1.3
0.4

1.8
2.1
0.4
0.1
1.1
14.8
1.3
0.8
0.6
2.7
0.6
1.5
3.0
0.7
2.0
0.1
1.3
0.4

1.8
2. 1
0.4
0. 1
1. 1
14.1
1.2
0.9
0.6
2.3
0.6
1.6
3.2
0. 8
1.9
0.1
1.3
0.4

1.9
1.9
0.4
0.1
1. 1
13.5
1.1
0.8
0.6
2.0
0.7
1.7
2.8
0.8
1.8
0.1
1.2
0.4

2.0
1.8
0.6
0. 1
1.0
13.4
1.0
0.8
0.5
1.8
0.7
1.7
2.5
0.8
1.7
0.1
1.2
0.4

2.0
1.7
0.6
0.1
1.0
13.7
0.9
0.8
0.6
1.7
0.6
1.6
2.5
0.7
1.7
0.1
1.2
0.4

2.1
1.6
0.4
0.1
1.0
13.0
0.9
0.8
0. 5
1.8
0.6
1.6
2.4
0.7
1.9
0.0
1.3
0.3

1.9
1.6
0.4
0.1
1.1
12.5
0.9
0.8
0.5
1.9
0.5
1.7
2.5
0.7
2.0
0.0
1.2
0.3

1.9
1.5
0.4
0.1
1.1
12.3
0.8
0.7
0.5
1.9
0.5
1.8
2.5
0.7
1.8
0.0
1.2
0.3

1.5
1.5
0.4
0.1
1.1
12.3
0.8
0.8
0.5
1.8
0.5
1.8
2.6
0.7
1.6
0.0
1.2
0.3

13.2

12.8

12.7

12.7

12.9

13. 1

13.2

13.0

12.7

13.2

13.4

2.8
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.2
0.3
0.8
2.8

3.0
0.4
0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0. 0
0.3
5.1
0.3
0.5
3. 1

2.9
0.4
0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.3
4.9
0.3
0.8
3.1

2.8
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
4.8
0.3
0.8
3.1

2.8
0.3
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.3
0.3
5.3
0.3
0.8
3.2

2.6
0.3
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.3
5.5
0.3
0.8
3.3

3.7
0*6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
4.8
0.3
0.7
2.6

3.4
0.6
0. 1
0.1
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.3
4.8
0.3
0.7
2.5

3.2
0.6
0.1
0.1
o.l
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.9
0.3
0.7
2.6

3.0
0.6
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.1
0.3
0.6
2.6

2.9
0.4
0.1
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.2
0.3
0.7
3.2

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . nonmanufacturing

18.5

18.4

13.4

18.5

18.2

18.4

18.1

17.8

18. 1

17.5

17.4

. . GOV E R N ME N T

13.0
3.9
1.6

12.7
4.0
1.7

12.8
4.0
1.6

13. 1
3.8
1.6

13.1
3.7
1.5

13.2
3.7
1.4

12.9
3.8
1.4

12.5
3.9
1.4

12.8
3.9
1.4

12.3
3.8
1.4

12.1
3.9
1.4

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LOCAL

30.2

30.7

31.0

31.6

33.2

33.9

34.2

35.5

36.0

36.7

37.6

..COL LE GE S

2.5

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.0

2. 1




43

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-13. Estimated employment of scientists engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

63.6

69.6

78.7

85.0

90.5

92.9

99.9

110.9

120.1

129.3

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

32.5

36.4

41.5

46.2

49.6

51.3

55.6

62.3

66.5

70.4

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

25.9

29.4

34.0

38.1

41.0

42.1

45.6

51.1

54.7

57.6

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER...................................................... ..............................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
r u b b e r ...................................................................................................................
s t o n e , c l a y , a n d g l a s s ......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
MA C H I N E R Y ............................................................................................ .. . . .
electrical
e q u i p m e n t ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.1
1.9
0.3
D. O
1.2
9.9
0.9
1.1
0.5
1.1
0.6
1.8
3.3
0.6
1.2
0.0
0.9
0.5

0.1
2.2
0.4
0.0
1.3
11.6
1.1
1.2
0.6
1.3
0.6
2.0
3.4
0.6
1.5
0.0
1.0
0.5

0.5
2.2
0.4
0.0
1.4
13.0
1.2
1.3
0.7
1.5
0.7
2.3
3.9
0.6
2.6
0.0
l.l
0.6

0.9
2.4
0.4
0.0
1.4
14.6
1.3
1.3
0.7
1.6
0.7
2.4
4.4
0.6
3.4
0. 1
1.3
0.6

0.9
2.5
0.4
0.1
1.5
15.8
1.5
1.3
0.8
1.6
0.8
2.5
4.7
0.6
3.9
0.1
1.4
0.6

0.8
2.5
0.4
0.1
1.6
16.5
1.6
1.3
O. B
1.7
0.8
2.4
4.8
0.6
4.1
0.1
1.4
0.6

0.8
2.6
0.5
0. 1
1.7
17.9
1.6
1.3
1.0
2.0
0.9
2.3
5.3
0.7
4.6
0.1
1.5
0.7

1.3
2.7
0.5
o.i
1.8
20.1
1.6
1.4
1.1
2.3
0.9
2.4
6.2
0.7
5.6
0.1
1.6
0.7

1.4
2.8
0.6
0.1
1.9
22.6
1.7
1.4
1.1
2.4
0.9
2.2
7.1
0.7
5.3
0.1
1.7
0.7

2.5
2.9
0.6
0.1
2.0
23.3
1.7
1.4
1.2
2.3
1.0
2.1
7.5
0.7
5.6
0.1
1.9
0.7

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

6.6

7.0

7.5

8.1

8.6

9.2

10.0

11.2

11.8

12.3

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
CON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ...........................................................................
TE L E C OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g .................................. .. ................................

1.6
0.3
D. O
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
3.6
D .l
0.4
0.3

1.6
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.1
0.5
0.3

1.7
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
4.3
0.1
0.5
0.3

1.9
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
4.6
0. 1
0.6
0.3

1.9
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
5.0
0.1
0.7
0.3

2.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.0
5.3
0. 1
0.9
0.3

2.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
7.2
0.1
1.2
0.4

2.2
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
8.2
0.1
1.3
0.4

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

11.2

12.6

13.8

13.5

13.4

11.7

12.8

14.1

15.3

17.4

F E DE RAL.....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

9.7
1.1
0.4

11.0
1.2
0.4

12.1
1.3
0.4

11.7
1.3
0.5

11.5
1.4
0.5

9.8
1.4
0.5

10.8
1.4
0.6

12.0
1.5
0.6

13.0
1.6
0.7

14.9
1.8
0.7

COLLEGES AND U N I V E R S I T I E S ........................................................................

17.8

18.4

20.8

22.6

24.5

26.7

28.2

30.7

34.3

36.8

2.1

2.2

2.6

2.7

3.0

3.2

3.3

3.8

4.0

4.7

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................. .. ...........................

PRIVATE

N ONPROFI T
N OTE:

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................
D E T A IL

HAY NOT ADO TO TOTALS DUE TO R O U N D IN G .




0 .0

IS

LESS

44

THAN 5 0 .

2.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.0
5.9
0. 1
1.0
0.4

2.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
6.6
0. 1
1.2
0.4

| 1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

137.9

146.4

157.4

164.6

176.1

182.8

186.4

195. 7

193.7

192.2

193.8

75.7

78.8

84.2

85.4

90.3

93.9

95.7

99.0

98.3

99. 1

99.2

..PRIVATE

62.0

64.6

69.5

68.9

72.9

74.3

75.2

76.4

75.1

74.8

74.3

....MANUFACTURING

3.2
3.1
0.7
0.1
2.2
24.8
1.8
1.4
1.4
2.5
1.0
2.4
8.4
0.7
5.4
0.1
2.1
0.7

3.8
3.2
0.6
0.1
2.4
26.0
1.7
1.4
1.4
2.7
1.0
2.7
8.7
0.7
5.2
0.0
2.3
0.7

4.4
3.1
0.6
0.1
2.5
27.5
2.0
1.3
1.5
2.5
1.0
3.3
9.2
0.8
5.9
0.0
2.9
0.9

4.9
3.2
0.7
0.1
2.2
28.5
2. 1
1.4
1.6
2.2
l.l
3. 1
8.8
0.8
5.2
0.0
2.4
0.6

5.7
3.6
0.8
0.1
2.1
29.1
2.2
1.3
1*6
2.4
1.4
4.2
8•6
0.9
5.3
0.0
2.9
0.7

5.9
3.5
1.1
0.1
2.0
30.4
2.3
1.5
1.6
1.9
1.2
4.2
8.1
1.0
5.8
0.0
3.1
0.6

6.2
3.2
1.3
0.1
2.3
31.6
2.2
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.0
4.1
8.0
1.1
5.6
0.0
3.2
0.8

6.3
3.2
1.0
0.1
2.3
32.4
2.2
1.5
1.7
1.5
1.3
4.1
8.0
1.2
5.8
0.0
3.0
0.8

5.1
3.3
0.9
0.1
2.3
31.8
2.2
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.4
4.0
8.6
1.2
5.6
0.1
2.8
0.7

5.1
3.4
1.0
0.2
2.3
31.9
2.1
1.6
1.8
1.3
1.4
4.3
8.5
1.0
5.5
0.1
2.7
0.6

4.1
3.5
1.2
0.4
2.5
32.8
1.9
1.7
1.8
1.4
1.4
4.0
8.2
1.0
4.9
0.1
2.7
0.7

13.7

14.2

14.7

16.5

17.4

19.6

20.5

22.6

23.2

24.3

24.9

2.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
9.0
o.l
1.4
0.5

2.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.1
9.4
0.1
1.5
0.5

2.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
9.6
1.7
0.6

2. 1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.1
11.7
0.1
1.4
0.6

2.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
12.0
0.1
1.8
0.7

2.4
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
13.5
0.2
1.9
0.7

2.4
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
14.5
0.2
1.5
0.9

2.6
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.3
Q. O
0.2
15.3
0.4
1.9
1.0

2.6
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2
15.9
0.3
1.9
1.2

2.7
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.2
16.5
0.4
1.9
1.2

2.7
0.5
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.3
16.9
0.4
2.0
1.3

0.1

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

. . . . N ON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

18.5

20.0

21.9

23.4

27.0

28.3

28.8

29.4

29.0

28.0

28.2

. . GOV E RNME NT

15.8
2.0
0.7

17.0
2.2
0.8

18.8
2.3
0.8

20.2
2.4
0.8

23.8
2.4
0.8

25.2
2.3
0.8

25.7
2.2
0.9

26.5
2.1
0.9

25.8
2.2

24.7
2.3

24.8
2.4

1.0

1.0

1.0

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LOCAL

38.8

41.9

44.2

47.6

50.2

51.9

52.9

58.1

57.1

55.B

57.8

4.9

5.7

7.1

8.2

8.6

8.7

9.0

9.2

9.3




45

9.3

8.6

..COL LE GE S
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-14. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of scientists engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

SECTOR

all

1950

s e c t o r s ................................................................................................................

PRIVATE

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.D

100.0

1DD.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

51.1

52.3

52.7

54.4

54.8

55.2

55.7

56.2

55.4

54.4

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .....................................................................................................

40.7

42.2

43.2

44.8

45.3

45.3

45.6

46. 1

45.5

44.5

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
textiles
a n d a p p a r e l ............................................................................
l u m b e r a n d f u r n i t u r e ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ............................................................................................ .............
p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE* CLAY* AND GLASS....................... . ............................................
PRI MARY METAL S............................................................................................
FABRI CATE D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y ..........................................................................................................
electrical
e q u i p m e n t ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T ............................... ...................................... .. ...................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E Q U I P M E N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.2
3.0
0.5
O. D
1.9
15.6
1.4
1.7

1. 1
2.8
0.5
0.0
1.6
17.2
1.5
1.5
0.8
1.9
0.8
2.8
5.2
0.7
4.0
0.1
1.5
0.7

1.0
2.8
0.4
0.1
1.7
17.5
1.7
1.4
0.9
1.8
0.9
2.8
5.2
0.7
4.3
0.1
1.5
0.7

0.9
2.7
0.4
0.1
1.7
17.8
1.7
1.4
0.9
1.8
0.9
2.6
5.2
0.6
4.4
0.1
1.5
0.6

0.8
2.6
0.5
0.1
1.7
17.9
1.6
1.3
1.0
2.0
0.9
2.3
5.3
0.7
4.6
0.1
1.5
0.7

1.2
2.4
0.5
0.1
1• 6
18.1
1.4
1.3
1.0
2.1
0.8
2.2
5.6
0.6
5.0
0.1
1.4
0.6

1.2
2.3
0.5
0.1
1.6
18.8
1.4
1.2
0.9
2.0
0.7
1.8
5.9
0.6
4.4
0.1
1.4
0.6

1.9
2.2
0.5
0.1
1.5
18.0
1.3
1.1
0.9
1.8
0.8
1.6
5.8
0.5
4.3
0.1
1.5
0.5

0. 1

1.7
0.9
2.8
5.2
0.9
1.9

1.9
16.7
1.6
1.7
0.9
1.9
0.9
2.9
4.9
0.9
2.2

0.0

0 .0

1.4
0.8

1.4
0.7

0.6
2.8
0.5
D. O
1.8
16.5
1.5
1.7
0.9
1.9
0.9
2.9
5.0
0.8
3.3
D. O
1.4
0.8

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ........................................................ ...................................

10.4

10. 1

9.5

9.5

9.5

9.9

10.0

10.1

9.8

9.9

p e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
CON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
r a i l r o a d s ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O RT A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L EC OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
PU BL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S .........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG..................................... .. ..............................

2.5
0.5

2.3
0.4

2.2
3.4

2.2
0.4

2.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2

2.3
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2

2.1
0.2
0.0

2.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2

0.1

0. 1
0.0
0 .0

1.9
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1

1.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1

5.7
0.2
0.6
0.5

5.6

GOVERNMENT..................................................... ...........................................................

17.6

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
s t a t e ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................
COLLEGES
NONPROFI T
NOTE:

0.6

3.2
0.6

0.0

0. 0

0 .0

0.0

0 .0

0.0
0.3
0.2

0.0
0.3

0.0
3.3
3.1

0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0

0. 1
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0 .0

5.7
0.1
1.0
0.3

5.9
0.1
1.0
0.4

6.0
0.1
1.1
0.4

6.0
0.1
1.0
0.3

6.3
0.1
1.0
0.3

0.1

0.0
0.0

0.0

5.5
0.1
0.6
3.4

5.4
0.1
0.7
0.4

0.0
0.0
5.5
0.1
0.8
0.3

18. 1

17.5

15.9

14.8

12.6

12.8

12.7

12.7

13.5

15.3
1.7
0.6

15.8
1.7
0.6

15.4
1.7
0.5

13.8
1.5
0.6

12.7
1.5
0.6

10.5
1.5
0.5

10.8
1.4
0.6

10.8
1.4
0.5

10.8
1.3
0.6

11.5
1.4
0.5

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

28.0

26.4

26.4

26.6

27.1

28.7

28.2

27.7

28.6

28.5

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.4

3.3

3.6

D E T A IL

HAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

0. 1
0.7
0.4

IS

LESS

46

3.3 .
THAN

50.

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

54.9

53.8

53.5

51 .9

51.3

51 .4

51.3

50.6

50.7

51.6

51.2

..P R IV A TE

45.0

44. 1

44.2

41.9

41 .4

40. 6

40.3

39.0

38.8

38.9

38.3

....M ANUFACTURING

2.3
2.2
0.5
0.1
1.6
18.0
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.8
0 .7
1.7
6.1
0.5
3.9
0.1
1.5
0.5

2.6
2.2
0.4
0.1
1• 6
17.8
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.8
0.7
1.8
5.9
0.5
3.6
0.0
1.6
0.5

2.8
2.0
3.4
3.1
1.6
17.5
1.3
0.8
1.0
1.6
0.6
2.1
5.8
0.5
3.7
3.0
1.8
0.6

3.0
1.9
0.4
0.1
1.3
17.3
1.3
0.9
1.0
1.3
0.7
1.9
5.3
0.5
3.2
0.0
1.5
0.4

3.2
2.0
0.5
0.1
1.2
16.5
1.2
0.7
0.9
1.4
0.6
2.4
4.9
0.5
3.0
0.0
1.6
0.4

3.2
1.9
0.6
0.1
1. 1
16.6
1.3
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.7
2.3
4.4
0.5
3.2
0.0
1.7
0.3

3.3
1.7
0.7
0.1
1.2
17.0

3.2
1.6
0.5
0.1
1.2
16.6

1.2
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.5
2.2
4.3
0.6
3.0
0.0
1.7
0.4

1.1
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.7
2.1
4.1
0.6
3.0
0.0
1.5
0.4

2.6
1 .7
0.5
0.1
1.2
16.4
1.1
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.7
2.1
4.4
0.6
2.9
0.1
1.4
0.4

2.7
1.8
0.5
0.1
1.2
16.6
1.1
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.7
2.2
4.4
0.5
2.9
0.1
1.4
0.3

2.1
1.8
0.6
0.2
1.3
16.9
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.7
2.1
4.2
0.5
2.5
0.1
1.4
0.4

9.9

9.7

9.3

10.0

9.9

10.7

11.0

11. 5

12 .0

12.6

12.8

1.5
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
6.5
0.1
1.0
0.4

1.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0. 1
0.0
0. 1
6.4
0. 1
1.0
0.3

1.3
3.2
3.0
0.0
3.1
3.1
0.0
o .l
6.1
0.1
1.1
3.4

1. 3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0. 1
0.0
0. 1
7. 1
0. 1
0.9
0.4

1.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
6.8
0.1
1.0
0.4

1.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
7.8
0.1
0.8
0.5

1.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.1
7.8
0.2
1.0
0.5

1.3
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0. 1
7.4
0. 1
1.0
0.4

1.3
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.1
8.2
0.2
1.0
0.6

1.4
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.1
8.6
0.2
1.0
0.6

SECTOR

..A L L

S ECT ORS
INDUSTRY

. . . . NONMANUFACTURING

1.4
0.3
0. 1
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.2
8.7
0.2
1.0
0.7

13.4

13.7

13.9

14.2

15.3

15.5

15.5

15.0

15.0

14.6

14.6

..GOVERNMENT

11.5
1.5
0.5

11.6
1.5
0.5

11.9
1.5
0.5

12.3
1.5
0.5

13.5
1.4
0.5

13.8
1.3
0.4

13.8
1.2
0.5

13.5
1.1
0.5

13.3
1.1
0.5

12.9
1.2
0.5

12.8
1.2
0.5

....F E D E R A L
....S T A T E
....LO C A L

28.1

28.6

28.1

28.9

28.5

28.4

28 .4

29.7

29 .5

29.0

29.8

..COLLEGES

3.6

3.9

4.5

5.0

4.9

4.8

4.8

4.7

4.3

4.8

4.4




47

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-15. Percent of scientists engaged in research and development, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

S E C T O R S ..........................................................................................................................

42.8

43.2

44.1

44.2

44 .7

44 .0

44.0

44 .2

44.3

44.6

...........................................................................................................

42.8

43.4

44.1

44.3

44.7

45 .0

46.0

47.4

48.2

48.8

..............................................................................................................

50.0

49 .7

50.0

50 .3

50.9

51.1

52.3

53.3

54 .3

55.1

O R D N A N C E .......................................................................................................................
F O OD ...................................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P P A R E L ..................................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...................................................................................
P A P E R ................................................................................................................................
c h e m i c a l s ....................................................................................................................
P ET R O L E U M r e f i n i n g ........................................................................................
R U B B E R .............................................................................................................................
S T O N E , C L A Y , AND G L A S S ............................................................................
P R I M A R Y M E T A L S .....................................................................................................
f a b r ic a te d
m e t a l s ...........................................................................................
M A C H I N E R Y ....................................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L e q u i p m e n t ..................................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ....................................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .......................................................................................................................
OT HER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N E Q U I P M E N T ....................................................
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .........................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G .............................................................

50.0
40.4
33.3
0.0
70.6
50.3
34.6
61.1
41.7
25.0
50.0
78.3
75.0
31.6
75.0
0.0
50.0
45 .5

50.0
43. 1
40.0
0.0
65 .0
49.2
39.3
63.2
46.2
26.0
42.9
74.1
70.8
31 .6
71.4
0.0
52.6
41.7

62 .5
40 .7
40.0
0.0
66.7
47.3
38.7
61.9
53.8
27.3
46.7
76.7
73.9
31 .6
74.3
0.0
47.8
50.0

64 .3
42.9
40 .0
0.0
63.6
47.9
37. 1
59. 1
43 .7
27. 1
43 .7
75 .0
71 .0
31 .6
70.8
50 .0
50.0
50.0

64.3
43.9
40.0
50.0
65.2
47.3
40.5
59.1
50.0
25 .8
50.0
78.1
72.3
30 .0
70.9
50.0
51.9
50.0

61.5
42.4
36.4
50.0
64.0
48.8
41 .0
59.1
50.0
28.3
47. 1
72.7
70.6
30.0
68 .3
50.0
51.9
50.0

61.5
43.3
45.5
50.0
63.0
50.0
41.0
56.5
55.6
30 .8
47.4
65.7
74 .6
33.3
68.7
50.0
51.7
58.3

76.5
43. 5
45.5
25.0
62. 1
51 .5
41 .0
58.3
61.1
31. 5
47.4
60.0
75 .6
31.8
68.3
50.0
51.6
53.8

87.5
43 .8
54.5
25 .0
63.3
53.7
41.5
58.3
55 .0
31.2
47.4
55.0
79.8
33.3
64.6
50.0
51.5
53.8

86.2
43.9
50.0
25.0
64.5
54.1
41.5
58 .3
60.0
28.4
52 .6
50.0
85.2
29.2
68.3
50.0
52.3
53.8

N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ....................................................................................................

27.3

28.3

28.6

28.5

28 .3

29.2

29.7

31.4

31.6

32.2

P E T R O L E U M E X T R A C T I O N ................................................................ .. ...............
M I N I N G ............................................................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ..........................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ....................................................................................................................
OT HER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..................................................................................
T E L E C O M M U N I C A T I O N S ........................................................................................
R A D I O AND T V ................................................. ........................................................
P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ..............................................................................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .................................................
M E D I C A L AND D E N T A L L A B O R A T O R I E S .................................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L S E R V I C E S ............................
OTHER N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ............................................................................

18.8
23.1
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
52.2
20.0
50.0
5.9

19.0
25.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
54 .2
16.7
50.0
5.8

19.8
21.4
3.0
0.0
103.0
103.0
0.0
0.0
54.4
16.7
45.5
5.5

19.4
20.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
56. 1
14.3
50.0
5.3

18.4
21 .4
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
56.8
12.5
46.7
4.8

19.3
14.3
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
57 .6
12.5
60 .0
4.8

18 .8
13.3
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
58.4
11.1
52.6
6.0

19.0
18.7
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
61.7
11. 1
57.1
5.9

19.0
17.6
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
60 .5
11.1
57.1
5.6

18.2
16. 7
0.0
0.0
100.3
100.0
0.0

.............................................................................................................................

36.0

34 .6

32 .7

30.3

30.5

25.9

26 .8

27.8

29.5

31.6

F E D E R A L ...............................................................................................................................
S T A T E .....................................................................................................................................
L O C A L ................... ..................................................................................................................

46.4
14.7
14.8

43.0
15.2
13.8

39.2
15.5
13.8

35.3
15.5
16. 1

36.3
15 .6
15.2

30 .0
15.6
14.3

31.3
14.7
15.8

32.9
14.9
14.3

35.1
15.2
15.9

38.0
16.2
14.9

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S ...............................................................................

45.5

48.0

53.5

56. 1

55.7

55.4

51.6

47.8

45.1

43.2

I N S T I T U T I O N S ........................................................................................

84.0

84.6

83.9

79.4

85.7

82. 1

84.6

84.4

81.6

83.9

S EC T OR

ALL

pr iv a te

in d u s t r y

m anu fa c tu r in g

government

COLLEGES
NONPROFIT

MOTE!

D E T A IL

MAY MOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

48

THAN 5 0 .

0.0
61.2
10.0
61.9
5.3

i960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

44.6

45.5

46.0

46 .7

46.0

46.2

46.1

44.6

44 .6

41.9

39.8

..A L L

48.8

50.7

50.7

51 .9

50.6

51 .6

52.5

50.9

51.2

49 .0

47 .3

..PRIVATE

55.1

56 .7

56.3

58.2

55 .9

58 .0

58.5

56 .5

56 .0

52.9

51.3

. . . . MANUFACTURING

86.2
43.9
50.0
25.0
64.5
54.1
41.5
58.3
60.0
28.4
52-6
50.0
85.2
29.2
68.3
50.0
52.8
53.8

86.5
44 .9
53.8
25.0
66 .7
54.7
41.9
58.3
70 .0
29.1
50.0
53 .3
91.3
29 .2
71 .1
50 .0
53 .8
53.8

86.4
44.4
46.2
25.0
68.6
55.1
40 .5
53 .8
66.7
27 .6
50.0
55.1
87.9
29.2
74.3
0.0
54 .8
50.0

74.6
43.7
46.2
25 .0
65.8
55 .1
46 .5
48. 1
71.4
27 .2
47 .6
63.5
90.2
33.3
86.8
0.0
64.4
64.3

74.2
43.2
53 .8
25.0
57.9
56.5
48.8
45.2
72.7
26 .2
47 .8
53.4
77 .9
28.6
75.4
0.0
52.2
40 .0

79.2
49 .3
47 .1
25 .0
50 .0
56.6
51.2
43.3
72.7
31.6
56.0
63 .6
81.9
28.1
75.7
0.0
63.0
41.2

74 .7
47.9
47.8
25.0
50.0
57.1
59.0
50 .0
76.2
26 .8
44.4
63.6
81.0
33 .3
85.3
0.0
63.3
37.5

73.8
45.7
50.0
25.0
54.8
55.3
56.4
44. 1
69 .6
19.4
43 .5
63.1
75.5
36.7
78.9
0.0
61 .5
50.0

70 .0
45.7
55.6
25.0
50.0
56.7
55 .0
44.1
70.8
19.2
50 .0
57.7
76 .2
38.7
69.9
0.0
52.6
53.3

58 .6
45 .2
45.0
16.7
43.4
55.0
55.0
44.4
73.9
19.3
58.3
51 .3
74.8
36.4
60.2
50.0
50.0
50.0

56.7
46.6
47.6
33.3
41.8
53.8
53.8
44.4
75.0
14.0
56.0
49.4
70.2
30.3
61.8
100.0
47.4
37.5

32.2

34.2

35 .0

34.4

36.3

35.2

37.8

37.3

39.7

39.6

38.2

18.2
16.7

18.8
16.7

18.5
15.8

0.0
0.0

19.7
29.4
0.0

20.6
33.3
0.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100*0

19.8
10 .0
0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0

20 .4
10.5
0.0

20 .0
23 .5

0.0
0.0

18.5
15.8
0.0

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
66.7
100.0

0.0

0.0
100.0

0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0

0.0

0.0
100.0
75.0
0.0
18.2
70.8
26 .7
57.6
7.3

20.2
26.7
25.0
0.0
100*0
100.0
0.0
18.2
71.6
20.0
54.3
8.3

0.0

0.0
0.0

10.0
63.9
9.1
60.9
6.4

8.3
60.6
8.3
56 .3
6.7

8.3
66.2
15.4
90.5
5.7

100.0
100.0
0.0
9.1
67.1
14.3
51.7
6.8

SECTOR

SECT ORS
INDUSTRY

. . . . NONMANUFACTURING

20.3
28 .6
50.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
15.4
64. 7
28.6
51.4
7.7

62.5
10.0
66.7
6.4

10.0
61 .8
10.0
71 .4
6.3

100.0
100.0
0.0
12.5
58.5
9.1
73.9
6.9

31.6

33.0

34.2

35.3

35.3

38.8

38 .8

38.0

37 .6

34.6

33.2

..GOVERNMENT

38.0
16.2
14.9

40.2
16.8
14.6

42 .1
17.3
15.1

43.6
17.2
14.5

43 .0
17.5
14.3

47.6
17.1
14.3

48. 1
15.5
14.0

47. 5
14.0
15.3

48.3
12.4
14.5

43.6
12.3
15.2

41.7
12.5
14.9

....F E D E R A L
....S T A T E
• • • • LOCAL

43.2

42.4

42.9

42.3

42.0

39 .6

38 .6

37.0

37 .2

34.3

31.5

..COLLEGES

83 .9

81.7

83 .8

83 .5

82.8

84 .3

84.5

81.1

80 .0

79.5

80.2

..NONPROFIT

0.0
61.2
10.0
61 .9
5.3

0.0




0.0

49

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A- 16 . Estimated empl oy me nt of chemists, by sector, 1 9 5 0 —7 0

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

51.9

56.8

62 .9

67.9

71 .6

73.9

79 .2

84 .5

90.6

95.4

36.6

40 .9

46 .4

50.5

53 .9

55.1

58.3

62.6

66 .3

68.7

..............................................................................................................

31. 1

35.3

40 .4

44 .2

47.2

48 .2

50.7

54.6

57.7

59 .4

O R D N A N C E .............................................................................................................. ...
F O OD ...................................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P P A R E L ...................................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...................................................................................
P A P E R ................................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ....................................................................................................................
petroleum
R E F I N I N G ................ ........................................................................
R U B B E R .............................................................................................................................
S T O N E , C L A y , AND G L A S S .............................................................................
prim ary
m e t a l s .....................................................................................................
f a b r ic a te d
m e t a l s ............................................................................................
M A C H I N E R Y ....................................................................................................................
elec tr ic a l
e q u i p m e n t ...................................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ................................................................... ...........................
A I R C R A F T .......................................................................................................................
OT HER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N E Q U I P M E N T ....................................................
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .........................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G .............................................................

0.0
2.9
0.9
3.1
1.5
13.4
2.3
1.6
0.9
2.0
0.5
0.7
1.3
0.5
0.4
0.1
1.0
1.0

0.0
3.2
1.0
0.1
1.7
15.8
2.5
1.7
1.0
2.2
0.6
0.8
1.4
0.5
0.5
0. 1
1. 1
1.1

0.2
3.3
1.0
3.1
1.8
18.8
2.8
1.9
1.0
2.4
0.6
0.9
1.6
0.5
3.9
3.1
1.4
1.1

0.2
3.5
1.0
0. 1
1.9
21.0
3. 1
2.0
1.2
2.5
0.6
0.9
1.8
0.5
1.2
0. 1
1.5
1. 1

0.2
3.6
1.0
0.1
2.0
23.3
3.3
2.0
1.2
2.5
0.6
0.9
1.9
0.5
1.3
0. 1
1.6
1.1

0.2
3.6
1.1
0. 1
2.1
23.7
3.5
2.0
1.2
2.3
0.7
0.9
2.0
0.5
1.5
0.1
1.6
l. 1

0.2
3.7
1.1
0. 1
2.3
25.1
3.5
2.1
1.3
2.4
0.8
1.0
2.0
0.5
1.7
0.1
1.7
1.1

0.3
3.9
1.1
0.2
2.5
27.0
3.5
2.2
1.3
2.6
0.8
1.1
2.3
0.5
2.1
0.1
1.9
1.2

0.3
4.1
1.1
0.2
2.5
29.2
3.7
2.2
1.5
2.6
0.8
1.1
2.5
0.5
2.1
0.1
2.0
1.2

0.5
4.2
1.2
0.2
2.6
30.1
3.7
2.2
1.5
2.6
0.8
1.1
2.5
0.6
2.1
0.1
2.2
1.2

N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G .....................................................................................................

5.5

5.6

6.0

6.3

6.7

6.9

7.6

8.0

8*6

9.3

petroleum
e x t r a c t i o n ..................................................................................
M I N I N G .............................................................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ...........................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ....................................................................................................................
other
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ..................................................................................
T E L E C O M M U N I C A T I O N S .........................................................................................
r a d io
AND T V ...........................................................................................................

P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ...............................................................................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .................................................
M E D I C A L AND D E N T A L L A B O R A T O R I E S .................................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L S E R V I C E S ............................
OTHER N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ............................................................................

0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
2.8
0.1
0.2
1.4

0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
2.9
0.1
0.2
1.5

3.1
0.4
0.1
3.2
3.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
3.2
0.1
0.2
1.5

0.1
0.4
0. 1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
3.3
0.2
0.2
1.6

0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
3.4
0.2
0.3
1.7

0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
3.6
0.2
0.3
1.7

0. 1
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.0
0.2
0.3
1.9

0.1
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
4. 1
0.2
0.4
1.9

0.1
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
4.6
0.2
0.4
2.0

0.1
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.3
0.2
0.4
2.1

G O V E R N M E N T .............................................................................................................................

4.4

5.2

6.1

6.5

6.4

6.5

7.0

7.3

7.4

7.9

F E D E R A L ................................................................................................................................
S T A T E ......................................................................................................................................
L O C A L ......................................................................................................................................

3.2
0.8
0.4

3.9
0.8
0.5

4.7
0.9
0.5

5.0
0.9
0.6

4.8
0.9
0.7

4.9
0.9
0.7

5.2
1.0
0.8

5.3
1.1
0.9

5.4
1.1
0.9

5.7
1.2
1.0

U N I V E R S I T I E S ...............................................................................

10.2

9.9

9.5

9.8

10.1

11.1

12 .6

13.2

15.4

17.3

I N S T I T U T I O N S ........................................................................................

0.7

0.8

3.9

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

SECTOR

ALL

S E C T O R S ..........................................................................................................................

PRIVATE

I N D U S T R Y ...........................................................................................................

m a n ufa cturing

COLLEGES
NONPROFIT

NOTE:

AND

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADO TO TOTALS




DUE TO ROUND IM G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

50

THAN 5 0 .

I96 0

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

99. 7

102.8

106.8

110.0

115.0

116.7

119.6

122.8

127.3

131.0

132.9

74.7

77.7

79.7

83 .4

84. 5

87.3

86.7

89.5

92.0

93.5

..PRIVATE

76.5

77.6

. . . .

1.5
4.3
1.8

72.1
62.3

64.4

66. 6

0.7
4.4
1.3
0.2
2.8
32.0
3.9
2.2
1.5
2.7
0.8
1.2
2.5
0.6
1• 8
0.1
2.4

0.8
4.6
1.3
0.2
3.0
33.1
3.8
2.4
1.6
2.9
0.8
1. 3
2.6
0.6
1.6
2.4
1.3

0.9
4.5
1.3
0.2
3.0
35.3
3.8
2.4
1.6
2.7
0.8
1.2
2.8
0.6
1.5
0.1
2.6
1.3

•

10.3

0.1
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.1

0.1
0.8

1.2

0. 1

CO

O'

0. 1

68. 1

70.0

69.5

73.7

73 .3

75 .1

1. 1

1.2
4.5
1.7
0.2
3.1
36.3
3.9
2.7
1.6
2.3
1.1
1.7
2.9
0.8
1.4

1.5
4.5
1.9

1.6
4.1
1.5
0. 1
2.9
40 .5
3.3
2.9
1.4
2.3
0.9
1.8
2.5
0.9
1.8
0.1
3.5
1.2

1.5
4.4
1.7
0.2
3.1
40 .9
3.2
3.1
1.3
2.6
0.9
1.8
2.6
0.9
2.1

0. 1

0.1

0. 1

2.7
1.4

3.0
1.5

3.2
1.4

11.1

11.6

13.4

13.6

13.6

13.5

14.4

15.5

15.9

0.1
0.8
0.1
0.2

0.1
0.8

0.3
0.7

0.3
0.7

0. 1

0. 1

0.2

0.2

0.4
0.5
0.1
0.2

0.1
0.0
0.0

0. 1
0. 0
0. 0

0.0

0.0
0 .0

0.3
6.3
0.2
0.4
2.6

0.5
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
8.5
0.2
0.6
4.6

IMDUSTRY

m a nufa cturing

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
8.6
0.3
0.7
4.5

0.2
2.9
37.8
3.4
2.8
1.5
2.2

1. 1
1.7
2.5
0.8
1.4

0.1

0.1
3.3
41.6
3.3
2.8
1.4
2.9

0.3
6.5
0.2
0.4
2.9

0.0
0.4
7.3
0.3
0.6
3.4

0.0
0.0
0.5
7.3
0.3
0.3
3.9

0.0
0.5
7.0
0.3
0.4
4.1

0.0
0.0
0.4
6.9
0.3
0.5
4.3

0.3
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
7.5
0.3
0.5
4.5

10.3

10.9

11.3

11.5

12.1

12.1

12.4

7.7
1.4
1.2

8.2
1.5
1.2

8.4
1.6
1.3

8.4
1.7
1.4

8.8
1.8
1.5

8.8
1.8
1.5

8.9
1.9
1.6

0. 1

7.9

8.1

8.9

9.7

5.7
1.2
1.0

5.7
1.3
1. 1

6.4
1.4
1.1

7. 1
1.4
1.2

0. *

SECTORS

0.5
0.5

0.2

0 .3
0.7
O .i
0.2

2.2

0.3
5.6
0.2

..A L L

1.2
4.5
1.7
0. 1
3.6
42.8
3.2
3.0
1.5
2.4
0.9
2.0
3.0
1.1
1.8
0.0
3.3
1.5

1.6
4.4
2.1
0.2
2.8
40.3
3.3
3.0
1.6
2.2
0.8
1.7
2.6
0.8
1.5
0.1
3.4
1.3

4.6
1.3
0.2
3.0
35.3
3.8
2.8
1.6
2.5
0.9
1.4
3.2
0.8
1.4

0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.8
0.2
0.4
2.3

0. 0
0.0

3.4
1.3

1.0
2.0
2.3
1.0
2.0
0.0
3.2
1.5

SECTOR

0. 1
0.0

0 .0

0. 1

18.1

18.4

18.6

19.0

19.7

19.7

19.3

22.8

23.9

25.1

25 .3

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.7




51

....N3NMANUFACTURING

. .GOVERNMENT
....F E D E R A L
....S T A T E
....L O C A L
..COLLEGES
..N O N P R O FIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-17. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of chemists, by sector, 1950—70
.(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

S E C T O R S ..........................................................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

...........................................................................................................

70.5

72.0

73.8

74.4

75 .3

74. 6

73.6

74.1

73.2

72.0

M A N U F A C T U R I N G ..............................................................................................................

59.9

62. 1

64.2

65 .1

65 .9

65.2

64.0

64.6

63 .7

62.3

O R D N A N C E . . .................................................................................................................
F O O D ...................................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P P A R E L ...................................................................................
lumber
and
f u r n i t u r e ...................................................................................
P A P E R ................................................................................................................................
c h e m i c a l s ....................................................................................................................
P ET R O L E U M r e f i n i n g .........................................................................................
r u b b e r .............................................................................................................................
S T O N E , C L A Y , AND G L A S S ............................................................................
P R I M A R Y M E T A L S .....................................................................................................
fa b r ic a te d
m e t a l s ............................................................................................
M A C H I N E R Y ...................................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ...................................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S .....................................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .......................................................................................................................
other
tr a n spo r ta tio n
e q u i p m e n t .....................................................
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .........................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G .............................................................

0 .0

0.0

5.6
1.7
0.2
2.9
25.8
4 .A
3.1
1.7
3.9

3.3
5.2
1.6
D .2
2.9
29.9
4.5
3.0
1.6
3.8

0.3
4.9
1.5

0.3
4.7
1.4

0.1

0. 1

0.1

2.8
32.5
4.6
2.8
1.7
3.5
0.8
1.3
2.7
0.7
1.8

2.8
32.1
4.7
2.7
1.6
3. 1
0.9
1.2
2.7
0. 7
2.0

2.9
31.7
4.4
2.7
1.6
3 .0

1.4
2.5
3.8
1.4
0.2
2.2
1.7

0.3
5.2
1.5
0.1
2. B
30.9
4.6
2.9
1.8
3.7
0.9
1.3
2.7
0. 7
1.8
0.1
2.2
1.6

0.3
5.0
1.4

0.8
0.2
1.9
1.9

5.6
1.8
0.2
3.0
27.8
4.4
3.0
1.8
3.9
1.1
1.4
2.5
0.9
0.9
0.2
1.9
1.9

0.3
4.5
1.2
0.2
2.8
32.2
4. 1
2.4
1.7
2.9
0.9
1.2
2.3
0.6
2.3

0.5
4.4
1.3
0.2
2.7
31 .6
3.9
2.3
1.6
2.7
0.8
1.2
2.6
0.6
2.2

0. 1

0. 1

0.1

0.1

0. 1

2.2
1.5

2.2
1.5

2. 1
1.4

0.4
4.6
1.3
0.2
3.0
32.0
4. 1
2.6
1.5
3.1
0.9
1.3
2.7
0.6
2.5
0.1
2.2
1.4

2.2
1.3

2.3
1.3

N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G .....................................................................................................

10.6

9.9

9.5

9.3

9.4

9.3

9.6

9.5

9.5

9.7

P E T R O L E U M E X T R A C T I O N ..................................................................................
M I N I N G ........................................... .................................................................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ..........................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ....................................................................................................................
other
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ......................... .. ......................................................
T E L E C O M M U N I C A T I O N S ........................................................................................
R A D I O AND T V ...........................................................................................................
pu b lic
u t i l i t i e s ..............................................................................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .................................................
m ed ic a l
and
dental
l a b o r a t o r i e s .................................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L S E R V I C E S ............................
OTHER N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ............................................................................

0.2
0.8
0.2
0.4

0.2
0.5
0.2
0.4

0.2
0.6
3.2
0.3

0.1
0.6

0.1
0.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

0. 1

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.5

0. 1

0.1

0. 1
0.5
0.1
0.3

0. 1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0

0 .0
0.0
0.0

0.0

0.4
5.4
0.2
0.4
2.7

0.4
5. 1
0.2
0.4
2.6

3.0
3.0
0.3
5.1
0.2
3.3
2.4

.............................................................................................................................

8.5

9.2

F E D E R A L ...............................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
L O C A L ............................ .........................................................................................................

6.2
1.5
0.8

U N I V E R S I T I E S ...............................................................................

I N S T I T U T I O N S .........................................................................................

SECTOR

all

p r iv a te

in d u s tr y

government

1.0
1.3
2.5

1.0

0.3

0.3

0 .0
0 .0
0.0

0.1
0 .0
0 .0

0.3
4.9
0.3
0.3
2.4

9.7

6.9
1.4
0.9

19.7
1.3

s ta te

COLLEGES
NONPROFIT

N 3TE:

AND

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD T O .T O T A L S




1.0

DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

1.0
1.3
2.5
0.6
2.1

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0 .0

0 .1
0 .0
0 .0

0.1
0 .0
0.0

0.1
0 .0
0.0

0.1
0.0
0.0

0.3
4.7
0.3
0.4
2.4

0.3
4.9
0.3
0.4
2.3

0.3
5.1
0.3
0.4
2.4

0.4
4.9
0.2
0. 5
2.2

0.3
5.1
0.2
0.4
2.2

0.3
5.6
0.2
0.4
2.2

9.6

8.9

8.8

8.8

9. 6

8.2

8.3

7.5
1.4
3.8

7.4
1.3
0.9

6.7
1.3

6.6
1.3

6.0
1.3

1.0

5.3
1.3
1.1

6.0
1.2

1.0

6.6
1.2
0.9

1.0

1.0

17.4

15.1

14.4

14.1

15.0

15.9

15.6

17.0

18.1

1.4

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.6

IS

LESS

52

THAN 5 0 .

0.1
o.o

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

72.3

72 .7

72.8

72.5

72.5

72.4

73.0

70.6

70.3

70.2

70.4

..PR IVA TE

62.6

62 .4

61.9

60 .9

59 .6

61.6

59.0

58.4

58.4

....M ANUFACTURING

62.3

59.7

SECTOR

..A L L

S ECT ORS
INDUSTRY

0.7
4.4
1.3
0.2
2.8
32.1
3.9
2.2
1.5
2.7
0.8
1.2
2.5
0.6
1.8
0.1
2.4
1.2

0.6
4.5
1.3
0.2
2.9
32.2
3.7
2.3
1.6
2.8
0.8
1.3
2.5
0.6
1.6
0.1
2.3
1.3

0.8
4.2
1.2
0.2
2.8
33.1
3.6
2.2
1.5
2.5
0.7
1.1
2.6
0.6
1.4
3.1
2.4
1.2

1.0
4.2
1.2
0.2
2.7
32. 1
3.5
2.5
1.5
2.3
0.8
1.3
2.9
0.7
1.3
0.1
2.5
1.3

1.0
3.9
1.5
0.2
2.7
31.6
3.4
2.3
1.4
2.0
1.0
1.5
2.5
0.7
1.2
0.1
2.6
1.3

1.3
3.9
1.6
0.2
2.5
32.4
2.9
2.4
1.3
1.9
0.9
1. 5
2.1
0.7
1.2
0.1
2.7
1.2

1.3
3.7
1.8
0.2
2.3
33 .7
2.8
2.5
1.3
1.8
0.7
1.4
2.2
0.7
1.3
0. 1
2.8
l . l

1.3
3.3
1.2
0.1
2.4
33.0
2.7
2.4
1.1
1.9
0.7
1.5
2.0
0.7
1.5
0. 1
2.9
1.0

1.2
3.5
1.3
0.2
2.4
32.1
2.5
2.4
1.0
2.0
0.7
1.4
2.0
0.7
1.6
0.1
2.7
1.0

1.1
3.3
1.4
0.1
2.5
31.8
2.5
2.1
1.1
2.2
0.8
1.5
2.1
0.8
1.5
0.0
2.4
1.1

0.9
3.4
1.3
0. 1
2.7
32.2
2.4
2.3
1.1
1.8
0.7
1.5
2.3
0.8
1.4
0.0
2.5
1.1

9.8

10.0

10.4

10.5

11.7

11.7

11.4

11.0

11.3

11.8

12.0

0.1
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.6
0.2
0.4
2.2

0.1
0.8
0. 1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.6
0.2
0.4
2.2

3.1
0.7
0.1
0.2
3.1
0.0
0.0
3.3
5.9
0.2
3.4
2.4

0.1
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0. 3
5.9
0.2
0.4
2.6

0.3
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.3
6.3
0.3
0.5
3.0

0.3
0. 6
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
6.3
0.3
0.3
3.3

0.3
0.6
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
5.9
0.3
0.3
3.4

0.3
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.6
0.2
0.4
3.5

0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
5.9
0.2
0.4
3.5

0.4
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
6.5
0.2
0.5
3.5

0.4
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
6.5
0.2
0.5
3.4

7.9

7.9

8.3

8.8

9.0

9. 3

9.4

9.4

9.5

9.2

9.3

..GOVERNMENT

5.7
1.2
1.0

5.5
1.3
1.1

6.0
1.3
1.0

6.5
1.3
1.1

6.7
1.2
1.0

7.0
1.3
1.0

7.0
1.3
1.1

6.8
1.4
1.1

6.9
1.4
1.2

6.7
1.4
1.1

6.7
1.4
1.2

....F E D E R A L
....S T A T E
....L O C A L

18.2

17.9

17.4

17.3

17.1

16.9

16.1

18.6

18.8

19.2

19.0

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.3




53

....N ONM ANUFACTURIN G

..COLLEGES
..N O N P R O FIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
IN S TIT U TIO N S

Table A-18. Estimated employment of physicists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

14.0

15.2

16.7

18.0

19.1

19.9

21.4

23 .7

26.1

28.6

I N D U S T R Y ...........................................................................................................

5.8

6.7

7.7

8.8

9.6

9.8

10 .4

11.7

12.2

13.1

M A N U F A C T U R I N G ..............................................................................................................

4.2

4.9

5.8

6.9

7.4

7.5

7.9

9.0

9.3

10.0

O R D N A N C E .......................................................................................................................
F O O D ...................................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P P A R E L ...................................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ...................................................................................
P A P E R ................................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S .................................................... ...............................................................
P E T R OL E U M R E F I N I N G ........................................................................................
R U B B E R ......................................................................... ...................................................
S T O N E , C L A Y , AND G L A S S .............................................................................
prim ary
m e t a l s .....................................................................................................
fab r ic a ted
m e t a l s ............................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y ........................................................................................................ ...
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ..................................................................................
MOTOR v e h i c l e s .....................................................................................................
A I R C R A F T ............. .........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N E Q U I P M E N T ....................................................
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .........................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G ............. .. .............................................

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
1.4
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.5
0.1

0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0. 1
0.1
0.1
0. 1
0.2
0.5
1.6
0.2
0.7
0.0
0.5
0. 1

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.5
1.8
0.2
1.0
0.0
0.6
0.1

0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0. 1
0.1
0.2
0. 1
0.2
0.6
2.0
0.2
1.3
0.0
0.7
0. 1

0.6
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0.8
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.6
2.1
0.2
1.6
0.0
0.7
0.1

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
Q. 6
2.2
0.2
1.7
0.0
0.7
0. 1

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0. 1
0. 1
0.3
0. 1
0.2
0.6
2.2
0.2
1.9
0.0
0.8
0.1

0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.1
0. 1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.7
2.6
0.2
2.3
0.0
0.8
0.1

0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.1
0. 1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.7
2.8
0.2
2.2
0.0
0.9
0.1

1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.8
2.8
0.2
2.2
0.0
0.9
0.1

....................................................................................................

1.6

1.8

1.9

1. 9

2.2

2.3

2.5

2.7

2.9

3.1

P ET R O L E U M E X T R A C T I O N ........................................... .. .......................... ...
M I N I N G ........................................................................................ ...................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ................................................................ .........................................
R A I L R O A D S ....................................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ..................................................................................
T E L E C O M M U N I C A T I O N S ........................................................................................
R A D I O AND T V ...........................................................................................................
P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ...............................................................................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .................................................
M E D I C A L AND D E N T A L L A B O R A T O R I E S .................................................
E N G I N E E R I N G AND A R C H I T E C T U R A L S E R V I C E S ............................
OTHER N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ............................................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.0
0.2
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.0
0.3
0. 1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.0
0.3
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
Ot 0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.0
0.3
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
0.0
0.4
0.1

0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
0.0
0.4
0. 1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
0 .0
0.5
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
0.5
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.2
0.0
0.5
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4
0.0
0.5
0.1

G O V E R N M E N T ............................................................................................................................

2.3

2.7

3.1

3. 1

2.9

2.8

2.8

2.8

3.2

3.5

F E D E R A L ...............................................................................................................................
S T A T E ......................................................................................................................................
L O C A L ......................................................................................................................................

2.3
0.0
0.0

2.7
0.0
0.0

3.1
0.0
0.0

3.1
0.0
0.0

2.9
0.0
0.0

2.8
0.0
0.0

2.8
0.0
0 .0

2.8
0.0
0.0

3.2
0.0
0.0

3.5
0.0
0.0

U N I V E R S I T I E S ...............................................................................

5.6

5.5

5.5

5.7

6.2

6.8

7.7

8.6

10.1

11.3

I N S T I T U T I O N S ........................................................................................

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0 .5

0.6

0.6

0.7

SECTOR

AL L

S E C T O R S ..........................................................................................................................

PRIVATE

n o n m a n u f a c tu r in g

COLLEGES
NONPROFIT

NOTE:

AND

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DOE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

54

THAN 5 0 .

SECTOR

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

29 .8

31.6

33.9

36.3

39.0

39.9

42.1

44.4

46.2

48 .4

49.1

..A L L

13.2

13.7

14.7

15.5

16.4

16. 1

17.1

17.4

17.9

19.3

19.8

..PRIVATE

9.9

10.2

10 .7

11.2

11.6

11.0

11.7

11.8

12.4

13.3

13.5

....M ANUFACTURING

1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.3

1.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1. 1
0.1
0. 1
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.9
3.0
0.2
1.4
o.o
1.1

2.2
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
3.1

2.2
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
1.5
0. 1

2.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.6
0.1

0 .1

0.3
3.1
0.3
0.9
2.9
0.2
1.2
0.0
1.0

0.3
0. 1
0.3
0.9
3.2
0.2

0. 1

0.1

1 .1
0. 1

0.3
0.1
0.4
0.9
2.9
0.5
1.2
0.0
1.1
0.1

2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
o .l
2.1
0.1
0.1
0.2

2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
2.2

0. 1

2.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
2.0
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.7
3.0
0.4
1.2
0.0
1.0
0.1

2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
2.0
0.2

0 .1

2.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.8
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.8
2.7
0.4
1.1
0.0
0.9
0.1

3.3

3.5

4.0

4.3

4.8

5.1

0 .1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.8
0.0
0.5
0. 1

3.1
3.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.1
0.0
3.6
0.2

0. 1

0.1

0. 1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.6
0.0
0.5
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.6
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.7
0 .0
0.8
0.2

3.7

4.2

4 .6

5.0

0 .1
0.2
0.8
2.9
0.2
1.7
0.0

1.0
0.1

1. 1
0.0

0 .1

0 .1
0 .1

S ECT ORS
INDUSTRY

2.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
2.3
0.2

0 .1

o .l

3.1
0.4
1.5
0.0
1.1
0.0

0.3
0.2
0.3
1.0
3.4
0.4
1.6
0.0
1.1
0.0

0.3
0.2
0.3
1.1
3.5
0.4
1.5
0.0
1.3
0.0

5.4

5.6

5.5

6.0

6.3

0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4 .3
0.0
0.5
0.2

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.6
0.2

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.6
0.0
0.7
0.2

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.4
0.0
0.8
0.2

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.9
0.4

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.8
0.0

5.3

5.6

5.9

6.0

6.5

6.5

6.5

..GOVERNMENT

5.3
0.0
0.0

5.6
0.0

0 .0

5.9
0.0
0.0

6.0
0.0
0.0

6.5
0.0
0.0

6.5
0.0
0.0

6.5
0.0
0.0

....FE DE R A L
....S T A T E
. . . . LOCAL

0. 1
0.3
0.6
2.9
0.3
1.4
0.0

1.0

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.8

0 .0

1.0

3.7

4.2

4.6

0 .0

0 .0

0.0

3.0

5.0
0.0
0.0

12.2

12.9

13.6

14.6

16.1

16.9

17.7

19.5

20 .3

21.1

21.4

0 .7

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.4

55

....N ONM ANUFACTURIN G

0.4

0 .0
0 .0




.

..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

------ -— — — ^

Table A-19. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of physicists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS......................................................................... .. ...................................

PRIVATE

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

41. 4

44. 1

46.1

48.9

50.3

49.2

48.6

49.4

46.7

45.8

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

30.0

32.2

34.7

38.3

38.7

37.7

36.9

38.0

35.6

35.0

o r d n a n c e .............................................................................................................

FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L...........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E MI C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE, C LAY , AND GL ASS......................................................................
PRI MARY METALS............................................................................................
FABRI CATE D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P M E N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACT URI NG........................................................

0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
2.9
10.0
1.4
3.6
o.o
3.6
0.7

0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.3
3.3
10.5
1.3
4.6
0.0
3.3
0.7

1.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.2
0.6
0.6
D* 6
0.6
1.2
3.0
10.8
1.2
6.0
0.0
3.6
0.6

3.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.6
0.6
1. 1
0.6
1. 1
3.3
11.1
l. 1
7.2
0.0
3.9
0.6

3.1
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
4.2
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
3.1
11.0
1.0
8.4
0.0
3.7
0.5

2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
3.0
11.1
1.0
8.5
0.0
3.5
0.5

2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.7
0.5
0.5
1.4
0.5
0.9
2.8
10.3
0.9
8.9
0.0
3.7
0.5

2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
0.4
0.4
1.3
0.4
0.8
3.0
11.0
0.8
9.7
0.0
3.4
0.4

2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
0.4
0.4
1.1
0.4
0.8
2.7
10.7
0.8
8.4
0.0
3.4
0.4

3.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
0.3
0.3
1.0
0.3
0.7
2.8
9.8
0.7
7.7
0.0
3.1
0.3

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

11.4

11.8

11.4

10.6

11.5

11.6

11.7

11.4

11.1

10.8

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ONS TRUCTI ON..................................................................................................
r a i l r o a d s ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L E C OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V .................................................................................................
p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL LA B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G - A N D ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.3
o.o
1.4
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
o.c
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.2
0.0
2.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.0
0.0
1.8
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.3
0.0
1.7
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.9
0.0
2.1
0.5

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.5
0.0
2.0
0.5

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.4
0.0
2.3
0.5

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.4
0.0
2.1
0.4

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.4
0.0
1.9
0.4

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.4
0.0
1.7
0.3

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

16.4

17.8

IB .6

17.2

15.2

14.1

13.1

11.8

12.3

12.2

f e d e r a l .....................................................................................................................

16.4
0.0
D. O

17.8
0.0
0.0

18.6
0.0
0.0

17.2
0.0
0.0

15.2
0.0
0.0

14.1
0.0
0.0

13.1
0.0
0.0

11.8
0.0
0.0

12.3
0.0
0.0

12.2
0.0
0.0

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

40.0

36.2

32.9

31.7

32.5

34.2

36.0

36.3

38.7

39.5

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

2.1

2.0

2.4

2.2

2.1

2.5

2.3

2.5

2.3

2.4

..........................................................................................................................
LOCAL..........................................................................................................................
state

COLLEGES
NONPROFI T
MOTE:

D E T A IL

MAY MOT ADD TO TOTALS DUE




TO RO U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

56

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

44.3

43.4

43.4

42.7

42. 1

40.4

40.6

39.2

38.7

39.9

40.3

..PRIVATE

33.2

32.3

31.6

30.9

29.7

27.6

27.8

26.6

26.8

27.5

27.5

....MANUFACTURING

4.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.7
0.3
0.3
1.0
0.3
0.7
2.7
9.7
0.7
5.7
0.0
3.4
0.3

4.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.5
0.3
0.3
0.9
0.9
0.6
2.8
9.5
0.6
4.4
0.0
3.5
0. 3

6.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
0.3
0.3
0.9
0.3
0.9
2.7
8*6
3• 6
3.5
0.0
2.9
0.3

5.6
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.3
4.1
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.3
1.0
2.3
7.4
1.3
3.1
0.0
2.8
0.3

6.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
4.5
0.5
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.8
2.0
6• 8
1.0
2.8
0.0
2.3
0.3

5.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.7
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.7
1.4
6. 5
0.7
3.2
0.0
2.3
0.2

5.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.3
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
1.7
6.7
0.9
3.2
0.0
2.4
0.0

5.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.5
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.6
2.1
7.0
0.8
3.3
0.0
2.3
0.0

11.1

11.1

11.8

11.3

12.3

12.8

12.8

12.6

11.9

12.4

12.8

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.7
0.0
1.7
0.3

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.9
0.0
1.6
0.3

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.1
0.0
1.8
3*6

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.4
0.0
1.7
0.6

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.5
0.0
2.1
0.5

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.8
0.0
1.3
0.5

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.7
0.0
1.4
0.5

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.4
0.0
1.6
0.5

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.5
0.0
1.7
0.4

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.3
0.0
1.9
0.8

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.8
0.0
2.0
0.8

12.4

13.3

13.6

13.8

13.6

14.0

14.0

13.5

14.1

13.4

13.2

. . GOVERNMENT

12.4

13.6
0.0
0.0

13.8
0.0
0.0

13.6
0.0
0.0

14.0
0.0
0.0

14.0
0.0
0.0

13.5
0.0
0.0

14.1
0.0
0.0

13.4
0.0

13.2

0.0

13.3
0.0
0.0

0.0

0.0

....FEDERAL
. . . . STATE
• • • • LGCAL

40.9

40.8

40.1

40.2

41.3

42.4

42.0

43.9

43.9

43.6

43.6

2.3

2.5

2.9

3.3

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.4

3.2

3.1

2.9

0.0

0.0




6. 1
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4. 1
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.3
0.B
2.5
8.8
0*6
3.0
0.0
3.0
0.3

5.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.8
0.5
0.2
0.7
0.0
0.5
1.7
7. 1
1.0
2.9
0.0
2.4
0.2

57

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

4.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
4.7
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.6
2.2
7. 1
0. 8
3.1
0.0
2.6
0.0

0.0

. . . . NON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-20. Estimated employment of geologists and geophysicists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

13.0

13.3

13.8

15.5

16.1

17.1

17.9

19.6

20.1

20.9

..................................................................................................

10.2

10.2

10.6

12.0

12.5

12.9

13.4

14.5

14.7

14.9

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

0.6

0.7

3.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g . . . . ......................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE. C L A Y , AND GL ASS...................................................................
PRI MARY METAL S............................................................................................
FABRI CATED ME T A L S ....................................................................................
M A C H I N E R Y . . . . . ............................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.2
3.1
0.0
3.1
3.2
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.1
3.0
3.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

9.6

9.5

9.9

11.3

11.8

12.2

12.6

13.7

13.9

14.1

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O RT A T I ON ......................................................’ ...................
.
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
P UBLI C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O RI E S .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG................................................................... ..

8.3
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.l
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.1

8.2
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.1

8.4
3.7
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.1
3.3
0.0
0.3
3.1

9.6
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.1

10.1
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.1

10.6
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.3
0.1

10.9
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.4
0. 1

11.8
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.5
0.1

11.8
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.0
0.4
0.1

11.8
0.8
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.0
0.5
0.1

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

1.5

1.8

1.9

2.1

2.1

2.3

2.3

2.4

2.3

2.6

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ..........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

1.0
0.5
0.0

1.3
0.5
0.0

1.4
0.5
3.0

1.6
0.5
0.0

1.5
0.6
0.0

1.7
0.6
0.0

1.7
0.6
0.0

1.8
0.6
0.0

1.7
0.6
0.0

2.0
0.6
0.3

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.8

2.1

2.5

2.9

3.2

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

0.1

0.1

3.1

0.1

0.!

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

SECTOR

ALL

private

industry

COLLEGES
N ONP ROFI T
NOTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

58

THAN 5 0 .

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

fS
i

20.6

21.1

22. 5

23.4

25.5

26.2

28.4

29.0

29.4

30.6

..ALL

14.0

13.5

13.4

13.8

13.8

15.1

15.5

16.3

16.3

16.4

16.8

..PRIVATE

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

0. 8

0.6

0.6

1.0

0.9

1.0

1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
O.i

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.1
0.0
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
o.o
0.0
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0. 1
0.0
0.1
0.1

o .o

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.2
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0. 0

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o .i
0. 1
0.0
0. 1
0.1

0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
3.3
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.0
0.2
3.0
3.0
0.1
3.0
3.0
3.0

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
o.o

13.2

12.7

12.4

12.8

10.9
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.7
0.0
0.3

10.4
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.7
0.0
0.5

10.4
3.6
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.1
3.7
0.0
0.5

0.1

0 .0

2.7
2.0
0.7

*
•
o

I960

SECTOR

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

....MANUFACTURING

o .o

o .o

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

o .o

o .o

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
o.o

13.0

14.5

14.9

15.3

15.4

15.4

15.8

10.3
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.4
0.1

11.3
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.8
0.0
0.5
0.1

11.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1•8
0.0
0.6
0.2

11.7
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.8
0.0
0.6
0.2

12.1
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.7
0.0
0.6
0.1

12.0
0.8

0.1

10. 3
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.5
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.6
0.0
0.5
0.1

12.0
0.9
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.9
0.0
0.6
0.0

3.0

3.1

3.6

3.8

4.1

4.1

4. 1

4.2

4.1

4.2

. . GOVERNMENT

0 .0

2.0
0.8
0.2

2.0
0.9
0.2

2.4
1.0
0.2

2.6
1.0
0.2

2.8
1.1
0.2

2.8
1.1
0.2

2.8
1.1
0.2

2.8
1.2
0.2

2.7
1.2
0.2

2.6
1.3
0.2

....FEDERAL
....S TA TE
....LOCAL

3.5

3.8

4.2

4.6

5.3

5.8

6.1

7.5

8.0

8.4

9.2

..COLLEGES

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.4

..NONPROFIT

o .o
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0

o .o

o .o




1.1

59

o .o

. . . . N ON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-21. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of geologists and geophysicists, by sector, 1950—70
jin thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

78.5

76.7

76.8

77.4

77.6

75.4

74.9

74.0

73.1

71.3

MANUFACTURI NG....................................................................................................

4.6

5.3

5.1

4.5

4.3

4. 1

4.5

4.1

4.0

3.8

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ..........................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GLASS......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d METAL S....................................................................................
m a c h i n e r y ..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L e q u i p m e n t ...........................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.8
0.0
0.8
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.8
0.0
0.8
1.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.7
0.0
0.7
1.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
1.3
0.6
0.0
0.6
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
0.6
0.0
0.6
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
0.6
0.0
0. 6
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
0.6
0.0
0.6
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

73.8

71.4

71.7

72.9

73.3

71.3

70.4

69.9

69.2

67.5

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S TRUCTI ON.................................................................................................
R A I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER TR A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L EC OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
PUBL I C U T I L I T I E S ......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS BUSI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T ORI ES.............................................
E N G I N E E R I N G ANO ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................

63.8
4.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.8
2.3
0.0
1.5
0.8

61.7
4.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
2.3
0.0
1.5
0.8

60.9
5.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
2.2
0.0
2.2
0.7

61.9
5.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
1.9
0.0
1.9
0.6

62.7
4.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
2.5
0.0
1.9
0.6

62.0
3.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
2.3
0.0
1.8
0.6

60.9
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
2.2
0.0
2.2
0.6

60.2
3.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
2.6
0.0
2.6
0.5

58.7
3.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
3.0
0.0
2.0
0.5

56.5
3.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
2.9
0.0
2.4
0.5

g o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................................................................

11.5

13.5

13.8

13.5

13.0

13.5

12.8

12.2

11.4

12.4

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
s t a t e ..........................................................................................................................
LOCAL..........................................................................................................................

7.7
3.8
0.0

9.8
3.8
0.0

10.1
3.6
0.0

10.3
3.2
0.0

9.3
3.7
0.0

9.9
3.5
0.0

9.5
3.4
0.0

9.2
3. 1
0.0

8.5
3.0
0.0

9.6
2.9
0.0

COLLEGES AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

9.2

9.0

8.7

8.4

8.7

10.5

11.7

12.8

14.4

15.3

NONPROFI T

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

1.0

1.0

1.0

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................

PRIVATE

N O TE:

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................
D E T A IL

HAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

60

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

103.0

100.0

103.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

6 8 «6

65.5

63.5

61.3

59.0

59.2

59.2

57.4

56.2

55.8

54.9

3.9

3.9

4.7

4.4

3.4

2.4

2.3

3.5

3.1

3.4

3.3

0.0
0.0
. 0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.5
3.0
0.5
1.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.5
0.0
0.5
0.5
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
1.4
0.5
3.0
0.5
0.9
0.0
3.9
0.0
0.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
0.4
0.0
0.4
0.9
0.0
0.4
0.0
0. 0
0.4
o.o
0.0
0.0

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.4
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.7
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.4
1.1
0.0
0.7
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o

0.3
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.7
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0

64.7

61.7

58.8

56.9

55.6

56.9

56.9

53.9

53.1

52.4

51.6

53.4
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
1.5
3.4
0.0
2.5
0.5

50.5
3.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
3.4
0.0
2.4
0.0

49.3
2.8
0.0
3.0
0.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
3.3
0.0
2.4
0.5

45. B
2.7
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
4 .4
0.0
2.2
0.4

44.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
4.7
0.0
1.7
0.4

44.3
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
7. 1
0.0
2.0
0.4

43.9
1.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
6.9
0.0
2.3
0.8

41.2
2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
6.3
0.0
2. 1
0.7

41. 7
2.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
5.9
0.0
2.1
0.3

40.8
2.7
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
5.4
0.0
1.7
0.3

39.2
2.9
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
6.2
0.0
2.0
0.0

13.2

14.6

14.7

16.0

16.2

16. 1

15.6

14.4

14.5

13.9

13.7

9.8
3.4
0.0

9.7
3.9
1.0

9.5
4.3
3.9

10.7
4 .4
0.9

11.1
4.3
0.9

11.0
4.3
0.8

10.7
4.2
0.8

9.9
3.9
0.7

9 .7
4.1
0.7

9.2
4.1
0.7

8.5
4.2
0.7

17.2

18.4

19.9

20.4

22.6

22.7

23.3

25.4

27.6

28.6

30.1

1 .0

1.5

1 .9

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.7

1.7

1.3




61

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS

..PRIVATE

I NDUSTRY

....MANUFACTURING

. . . . NONMANUFACTURING

. . GOVERNMENT
....FEDERAL
. . ..STATE
....LO CAL
..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-22. Estimated employment of other physical scientists, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

10.2

12.3

15.2

16.9

17.4

17.4

18.5

20.6

20.6

21.3

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................
I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

6.4

7. 1

8.4

9.6

10.3

10.4

11.3

12.7

12.9

13.6

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

5.7

6.4

7.5

8.5

9.1

9.1

9.9

11.3

11.5

12.1

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L ........................................................... ...............
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER......................................................................................................................
c h e m i c a l s ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
r u b b e r ................................................................... ...............................................
stone,
c l a y , a n d g l a s s ......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s .............................................................................................
FABRI CATED m e t a l s ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ................................................................... ..
MOTOR V E H I C L E S .............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E Q U I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.9
0.3
0.6
0.7
0.9
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0. 1
2.2
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.0
0.4
0.0
3.0
0.0
0.6
3.0
0.0
0.1
2.5
0.3
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.0
3.2
0.0

0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0. 1
2.8
0.4
0.8
1.1
0.9
1.1
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
3.1
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.0
1.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0. 1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
3.1
0.4
O. B
1.2
1.0
1.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.1
3.5
0.4
0.9
1.3
1.1
1.3
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.2
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.1
4.1
0.4
1.0
1.4
1.2
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.1
4.5
0.4
1.0
1.5
1.1
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.1
4.9
0.4
1.0
1.4
1.2
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.0

..................................... .... ...............................................

0.7

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ........................................................ .. .......................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ...........................................................................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
P U B L I C u t i l i t i e s ......................................................................................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T ORI ES .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ......................................................................

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0. 1

0.0
0.3
3.0
0.0
0.1
3.0
3.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2

0.0
0. 3
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.2

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.2

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.2

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.2
0.2

G O V E R N M E N T . . . . .......................................................................................................

3.5

4.9

6.5

6.9

6.6

6.5

6.7

7.3

7.0

6.9

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

3.3
0.1
0.1

4.6
0.2
0. 1

6.2
3.2
0.1

6.6
0.2
0.1

6.3
0.2
0.1

6.2
0.2
0.1

6.4
0.2
0.1

7.0
0.2
0.1

6.6
0.3
0.1

6.5
0.3
0.1

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

0.2

0.2

3.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.5

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

0.1

0. 1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

PRIVATE

nonmanufacturing.

state

COLLEGES
N ONPROFI T
NOTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

62

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

22.1

23.8

24.2

25.3

26.3

27. 1

29. 1

30.2

33.6

35.0

36.2

..ALL

14.4

15.9

15.9

15.9

15.7

15.8

16.8

17.7

19.0

19.9

20.2

..PRIVATE

12.8

14.3

14.3

14.1

13.8

13.9

14.7

15.4

16.4

16.8

16.8

....MANUFACTURING

0.4
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.1
5.3
0.5
1.0
1.4
1.2
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.8
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.0
0.0
0. 1
6.2
0.5
1.0
1.5
1.2
1.5
o.o
0.3
0.0

0.6
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.1
1.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
5.9
0.3
1.0
1.5
1.2
1.5
0.0
0.4
0.0

0.6
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.3
0.0
0. 1
0.1
5.3
0.5
1.1
1.7
1.3
1.5
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.8
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.3
0.0
0.1
0.1
4.9
0.4
1.2
1.7
1.3
1.4
0.0
0.1
0.1

0.5
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.3
1.4
0.1
0.2
0.2
4.5
0.8
1.2
1.5
1.2
1.2
0.0
0.4
0.0

0.6
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.4
1.5
0.1
0.3
0.2
4.6
0.8
1.2
1.5
1.2
1.4
0.1
0.4
0.0

0.6
0.4
0.1
0.0
0. 5
1.5
0.1
0.3
0.4
4.9
0.8
1.3
1.4
1.1
1.5
0.0
0.5
0.0

0.5
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.7
1.4
0.1
0.3
0.4
5.4
0.8
1.6
1.6
1.1
1.7
0.0
0.4
0.0

0.5
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.6
1.7
0.0
0.4
0.3
5.7
0.8
1.9
1.5
1.1
1.4
0.0
0.4
0.0

0.4
0.2
0. 1
0.1
0.5
1.7
o.i
0.4
0.3
5.9
1.0
1.9
1.7
1.0
1.1
0.1
0.3
0.0

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.8

1.9

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.6

3.1

3.4

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.5

0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0

0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.1
0.3

o.i
0.4

0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.0
0.4
0.5

0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0. 1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.2
0.3

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.2
0.3

0 .1
1.7
0.0
0.4
0.5

0. 1
2.1
0.0
0.3
0.5

6.7

6. 8

11.0

11.1

11.7

. . GOV E R N ME N T

6.3
0.3
0.1

11. 1
0.5
0. 1

....FEDERAL
....S T A T E
....LOCAL

0 .0

o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0

0.0
1.0
0.0
0.2
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.3
0.4

SECTOR

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

....NONMANUFACTURING

0.8
0.0
0.2
0.3

0.0
o.o
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.5
0.3

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.2

8.6

9.3

6.4
0.3
0.1

6.6
0.3
0.1

7.2
0.2

.

7.8
0.1

0 1

0 .1

8.0
0.1
0.1

8.4
0.1
0.1

8.8
0.4
0.1

10.5
0.4
0.1

10.6
0.4
0.1

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.4

2.1

2.6

3.1

2.6

3.0

3.5

3.9

..COLLEGES

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.4

..N ONPROFIT .INSTIT UTIO NS




o.o
o.o

o.o

0.1
l.l
0.0
0.3
0.3
,

63

0 .0

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S

Table A-23. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of other physical scientists, by sector, 1950—70
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

62.7

57.7

55.3

56.8

59.2

59.8

61.1

61.7

62.6

63.8

m a n u f a c t u r i n g .................................................................... ................................

55.9

52.0

49.3

50.3

52.3

52.3

53.5

54.9

55.8

56.8

ORDNANCE......................................................................... .. ................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE* CLAY* AND GLASS....................... .. ............................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............................................................................................
FABRI CATED ME TAL S ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY.................................................................................... .. ...................
e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T ............... .. ...........................................................................................
OTHER T RANS PORT ATI ON E Q U I P M E NT ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g ........................................................

0.0
2.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
o.o
0.0
18.6
2.9
5.9
6.9
8.8
2.9
0.0
2.0
0.0

0.0
2.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
4. 1
0.0
0.0
0.8
17.9
2.4
5.7
6.5
7.3
3.3
0.0
1.6
0.0

0.0
2.6
0.0
3.0
0.0
3.9
3.0
3.0
0.7
16.4
2.0
5.3
6.6
5.9
4.6
0.0
1.3
0.0

0.6
2.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.6
0.0
0.0
0.6
16.6
2.4
4.7
6.5
5.3
6.5
0.0
1.2
0.0

0.6
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.6
17.8
2.3
4.6
6.9
5.7
6.9
0.0
1.1
0.0

0.6
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.6
17.8
2.3
4.6
6.9
5.7
6.9
0.0
1. 1
0.0

0.5
2.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.2
0.0
0.0
0.5
18.9
2.2
4.9
7.0
5.9
7.0
0.0
1.1
0.0

1.0
1.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.5
19.9
1.9
4.9
6.8
5.8
7.8
0.0
1.0
0.0

0.5
1.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.5
21.8
1.9
4.9
7.3
5.3
7.8
0.0
1.0
0.0

1.4
1.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
0.0
0.5
23.0
1.9
4.7
6.6
5.6
7.5
0.0
0.9
0.0

NONMANUFACTURI NG..................................................... .....................................

6.9

5.7

5.9

6.5

6.9

7.5

7.6

6.8

6.8

7.0

0.0
2.9
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.0

0.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
0.7
3.0
3.0

0.0
1. 8
0.0
0.0
0. 6
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4
0.0
0.6
1.2

0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9
0.0
0.6
1.1

0.0
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9
0.0
0.6
1.1

0.0
2.2
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
2.7
0.0
1.1
1.1

0.0
1.9
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4
0.0
1.0
1.0

0.0
1.9
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0

0.0
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9

1.0

0.0
2.4
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.0
0.0
0.8

1 .0

0.9
0.9

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

34.3

39.8

. 42.8

o
•

0
0

(In thousands)

37.9

37.4

36.2

35.4

34.0

32.4

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

32.4
1.0
1.0

37.4
1.6
0.8

43.8
1.3
0.7

39. 1
1.2
0.6

36.2
1.1
0.6

35.6
1.1
0.6

34.6
1.1
0.5

34.0
1.0
0.5

32.0
1.5
0.5

30.5
1.4
0.5

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S ........................................................................

2.0

1.6

1.3

1.2

1.7

1.7

1.6

1.9

2.4

2.3

I N S T I T U T I O N S . ..............................................................................

1 .0

0.8

0.7

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1 .0

1.4

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................

PRIVATE

p e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ....................... .. ........................................................................................
CONST RUCT I ON.................................. ................ .. ............................................
R A I L R OA D S .................... .....................................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ............................................................................
TEL EC OM MU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
PUBL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS BUSI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B O R A T O RI ES .............................................
E N GI N EE R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

COLLEGES
N ON P ROF I T
NOTES

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

1 .0

0 .0

0 .0

IS

LESS

64

0 .0

2.0
0 .0

0.0
1.3

THAN 5 0 .

0 .0

0 .0

0.0
2.4
0.0
1.0

0 .0

I9 6 0

1961

1962

1963

1966

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

loo.o

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

65.2

66.8

65.7

62.8

59.7

58.3

57.7

58.6

56.5

56.9

55.8

..PRIVATE

57.9

60.1

59.1

55.7

52.5

51.3

50.5

51.0

68.8

68.0

66.6

....MANUFACTURING

1.8
1.6
0.0*
0.0
0.0
3.6
0.0
0.0
0.5
26.0
2.3
6.5
6.3
5.6
7.2
0.0
0.9
0.0

3.6
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
0.0
0.0
0.6
26.1
2.1
6.2
6.3
5.0
6.3
0.0
1.3
0.0

2.5
1.2
0.6
0.0
0.6
5.0
0.0
0.6
0.6
26.6
1.2
6.1
6.2
5.0
6.2
0.0
1.7
0.0

2.6
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.6
5.1
0.0
0.6
0.6
20.9
2.0
6.3
6.7
5.1
5.9
0.0
0.8
0.0

3.0
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.6
6.9
0.0
0.6
0.6
18.6
1.5
6.6
6.5
6.9
5.3
0.0
0.6
0.6

1.8
1.1
0.6
0.0
1. 1
5.2
0.6
0.7
0.7
16.6
3.0
6.6
5.5
6.6
6.6
0.0
1.5
0.0

2.1
1.0
0.3
0.0
1.6
5.2
0.3
1.0
0.7
15.8
2.7
6.1
5.2
6.1
6.8
0.3
1.6
0.0

2.0
1.3
0.3
0.0
1.7
5.0
0.3
1.0
1.3
16.2
2.6
6.3
6.6
3.6
5.0
0.0
1.7
0.0

1.5
0.9
0.3
0.0
2.1
6.2
0.3
0.9
1.2
16.1
2.6
6.8
6.8
3.3
5.1
0.0
1.2
0.0

1.6
0.9
0.3
0.3
1.7
6.9
0.0
1.1
0.9
16.3
2.3
5.6
6.3
3.1
6.0
0.0
1.1
0.0

1.1
0.6
0.3
0.3
1.6
6.7
0.3
1.1
0.8
16.3
2.8
5.2
6.7
2.8
3.0
0.3
0.8
0.0

7.2

6.7

6.6

7.1

7.2

7.0

7.2

7.6

7.7

8.9

9.6

0.0
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.7
0.0
0.9
0.9

0.0
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9
0.0
0.8
1.3

0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9

0.0
1.1
0.0
0.0

0.8
1.2

0.0
2.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.2
0.0
0.8
1.2

0.0
0.0
o.o
3.0
0.0
1.9
1.1

0.6
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.7
0.0
0.7
1.1

0.3
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.6
0.0
1.0
1.6

0.3
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
3.6
0.0
1.0

1.0

0.3
0.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.0
1.2
1.5

0.6
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
6.9
0.0
1.1
1.6

0.3
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
5.8
0.0
0.8
1.6

30.3

28.6

28.9

29.6

30.6

30.3

29.6

30.8

32.7

31.7

32.3

..GOVERNMENT

28.5
1.6
0.5

26.9
1.3
0.6

27.3
1.2
0.6

28.5
0.8
0.6

29.7
0.6
0.6

29.5
0.6
0.6

28.9
0.3
0.3

29.1
1.3
0.3

31.2
1.2
0.3

30.3
1.1
0.3

30.7
1.6
0.3

....FEDERAL
....STATE
....LOCAL

3.2

3.6

3.7

5.5

8.0

9.6

10.7

8.6

8.9

10.0

10.8

..COLLEGES

1.6

1.3

1.7

2.0

1.9

1.8

2.1

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.1

0.0




0.0

65

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
INDUSTRY

.... N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G

..NONPROFIT

AND

UNIVERSITIES

INSTITUTIONS

Table A-24. Estimated employment of mathematicians, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

13.8

14.7

16.1

17.7

19.5

21.1

23.1

26.1

28.5

31.7

I N D U S T R Y ......................................................

8.4

9.0

13.2

11.7

12.6

13.3

14.3

15.6

16.2

17.7

.......................................................

3.5

3.9

4.8

6.0

6.3

6.7

7.2

8.3

8.5

9.2

........... ................................................
F O O D ..................................................................

T E X T I L E S A N D A P P A R E L .........................................
L U M B E R A N D F u R N I T J R E ..........................................
P A P E R . . . . ...........................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................
p e t r o l e u m
r e f i n i n g .............................................
R U B B E R ...............................................................
S T O N E , C L A y , A N D G L A S S ......................................
p r i m a r y
m e t a l s ...................................................
F A B R I C A T E D M E T A L S ..............................................
M A C H I N E R Y ...........................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T .........................................
M O T O R V E H I C L E S ..................................................
A I R C R A F T ............................................................
O T H E R T R A N S P O R T A T I O N E Q U I P M E N T ..........................
P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S ............
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G ......... ....................

0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.6
0.9
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.0

0. 1
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.7
1.0
0.3
0.4
0.0
0. 1
0.0

3.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.4
3.1
0.1
0.0
3.2
0.4
0.8
1.1
0.3
0.8
0.0
3.1
3.0

0.5
0.1
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.9
1.3
0.3
1.1
0. 1
0.2
0.0

0.5
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.9
1.3
0.3
1.3
0.1
0.2
0.0

0.5
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.4
1.0
1.4
0.3
1.5
0.1
0.2
0.0

0.5
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.6
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.0
1.6
0.3
1.7
0.1
0.2
0.0

0 •6
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.2
1.9
0.3
2.1
0.1
0.2
0.0

0.6
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.2
2.1
0. 3
2.1
0.1
0.2
0.0

1.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.3
2.1
0.4
2.1
0.1
0.3
0.0

N O N M A N U F A C T J R I N G ...................................................

4.9

5. 1

5.4

5.7

6.3

6.6

7.1

7.3

7.7

8.5

P E T R O L E U M E X T R A C T I O N .........................................
M I N I N G ....................... ......................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ......................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................
O T H E R T R A N S P O R T A T I O N .........................................
.............................................
T V ......................................................
p u b l i c
u t i l i t i e s ................................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .........................
M E D I C A L A N D D E N T A L L A B O R A T O R I E S .........................
E N S I N E E R I N G a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ..............
O T H E R N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ......................................

0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
1.7
0.0
0.2
2.6

0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0. 1
1.8
0.0
0.3
2.6

3.1
0.0
0.1
3.0
3.0
0.1
3.0
3.1
2.0
0.0
3.3
2.7

0. 1
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.2
2.1
0.0
0.3
2.8

0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
2.2
0.0
0.4
3.2

0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.2
2.4
o.o
0.4
3.3

0. 1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
2.6
0.0
0.5
3.5

0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
2.8
0.0
0.5
3.5

0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
3.0
0.0
0.5
3.7

0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
3.5
0.0
0.5
3.9

...............................................................

1.1

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.9

2.2

2.4

2.3

2.5

................................................................
....................................................................
L O C A L ..................................................................

0.9
0.2
0.0

1.3
0.2
0.0

1.4
3.2
3.0

1.4
0.2
0.0

1.3
0.2
0.0

1.7
0.2
0.0

2.0
0.2
0.0

2.2
0.2
0.0

2.1
0.2
0.0

2.2
0.2
0.1

........................................

4.1

4.0

4.0

4. 1

5.1

5.6

6.3

7.8

9.6

10.8

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.7

SECTOR

ALL

S E C T O R S .............................................................

PRIVATE

m a n u f a c t u r i n g

o r d n a n c e

t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s

RADIO

AND

g o v e r n m e n t

f e d e r a l

s t a t e

c o l l e g e s

NONPROFIT

NOTE:

a n d

u n i v e r s i t i e s

I N S T I T U T I O N S ............................................

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

66

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

34.2

36.3

39.8

43.6

47.2

50.3

53.9

61.9

67.1

73.0

74.3

..ALL

18.9

19.8

22.2

23.9

25.5

27.1

29.4

33.2

34.9

37.9

38.7

..PRIVATE

10.1

10.8

12.4

13.5

13.7

15. 3

16.2

19.0

20.2

21.3

20.7

....MANUFACTURING

2.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
0-9
0.2
0. 1
0.1
0.2
0.5
2.5
3.0
0.6
2.7
0.1
0.2
0.0

2.9
0. 1
0.3
0.0
0.2
1.2
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.3
0.5
2.7
3. 1
0.6
2.8
0. 1
0.2
0.1

3.6
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.6
3.2
3.4
0.8
3.4
0.1
0.5
0.2

3.6
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
1.5
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.5
3.4
3.9
0.9
3.8
0.1
0.4
0.1

3.9
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.4
1. 7
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.4
3.6
4.2
0.8
3.6
0.1
0.6
0.1

13.2

14.2

14.7

16.6

18.0

3.1
0. 1
0.4
0.0
0.3
1.3
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.5
2.7
3.3
0.6
2.8
0. 1
0.2
0.2

SECTOR

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

3.0
0.3
0.2
0. 1
0.5
1.9
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.4
3.8
4.3
0.9
3.3
0. 1
0.7
0.1

1.2
0.1
o.o
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.5
2.4
0.4
2.3
0.1
0.3
0.0

1.3
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.6
2.8
0.4
2.3
0.1
0.3
0.0

2.0
3.1
3.0
0.0
0.2
3.8
0.2
0.1
3.0
3.2
0.7
1.8
3.0
3.4
2.4
0.1
3.4
3.0

8.8

9.0

9.8

10.4

11.8

0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
3.7
0.0
0.5
4.0

0.2
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
o.i
0.0
0.2
3.8
0.0
0.5
4. 1

0.2
0.0
3.2
3.0
0.0
3.1
0.0
0.3
4.1
3.0
0.6
4.3

0. 1
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.3
4.5
0.0
0.6
4.6

0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.4
5.0
0.0
0.8
5.1

0.2
0. 1
0.3
0.1
0. 1
0. 1
0.0
0.2
4. 1
0.0
0.5
6. 1

0.2
0.1
0.3
o.i
0.1
O .i
0.0
0.2
4.8
0.0
0.8
6.5

0.3
O.i
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.2
4.7
0.0
1.1
6.8

0.3
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2
4.5
0.0
1.2
7.3

0.4
0.0
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.3
5.5
0.0
1.3
8.0

0.3
0.0
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3
o.o
0.4
6.1
0.0
1.2
8.9

2.6

2.8

2.7

3.3

3.7

4.2

4.6

4.6

5.2

5.3

4.7

. . GOVERNMENT

2.2
0.3
0.1

2.4
0.3
0. 1

2.3
3.3
0.1

2.9
0.3
0. 1

3.3
0.3
0.1

3.8
0.3
0. 1

4.1
0.4
0.1

4.2
0.3
0.1

4.8
0.3
0.1

4.9
0.3
0.1

4.3
0.3
0. 1

....FEDERAL
....STATE
....LOCAL

2.1
0. 1
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.9
0.2
0. 1
0.0
0.2
0.6
2.2
3.2
0.5
2.6
0. 1
0.4
0.0

11.8

12-0

12.8

13.5

14.5

15.9

16.8

17.5

21.6

24.4

27.2

28.5

0.7

0.9

1.4

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.6

2.4




67

. . . . NONMANUFACTURI NG

..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-25. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of mathematicians, by sector, 1950—70

(In thousands)
1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

s e c t o r s ............................... ...............................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.................................................................................................

60.9

61.2

63.4

66. 1

64.6

63.0

61.9

59.8

56.8

55.8

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

25.4

26.5

29.8

33.9

32.3

31.8

31.2

31.8

29.8

29.0

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD.......................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND AP PARE L...........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
c h e m i c a l s ....................... .. ...................................... ........................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................... ............................................................
RUBBER..................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GL ASS......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E QU I P ME N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ........................................................ .. .................................
A I R C R A F T ...................................................................... .....................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.7
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.7
2.2
0.7
0.7
0.0
1.4
2.2
4.3
6.5
2.2
2.2
0.0
0.7
0.0

0.7
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.7
2.7
0.7
0.7
0.0
1.4
2.0
4.8
6.8
2.0
2.7
0.0
0.7
0.0

1.9
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.6
2.5
0.6
0.6
0.0
1.2
2.5
5.0
6.8
1.9
5.0
0.0
0.6
0.0

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

35.5

34.7

33.5

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ONS TRUCTI ON..................................................................................................
R A I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER TR A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L EC OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V .................................................................................................
P U BL I C U T I L I T I E S ......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T ORI ES .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

0.7
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.7
12.3
0.0
1.4
18. 8

0.7
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.7
12.2
0.0
2.0
17.7

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

8.0

F E DE RAL.....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ..........................................................................................................................
LOCAL..........................................................................................................................
POLLEGES AND U N I V E R S I T I E S ........................................................................

SECTOR

all

private

industry

NONP ROFI T
NOTES

2.6
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
3.1
1.0
0.5
0.0
1.0
2.1
4.6
6.7
1.5
6.7
0.5
1.0
0.0

2.4
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
2.8
0.9
0.5
0.0
0.9
1.9
4.7
6.6
1.4
7. 1
0.5
0.9
0.0

2.2
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
2.6
0.9
0.4
0.0
0.9
2.2
4.3
6.9
1.3
7.4
0.4
0.9
0.0

2.3
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
2.7
0.8
0.4
0.0
0.8
1.9
4.6
7.3
1.1
8.0
0.4
0.8
0.0

2.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
2.5
0.7
0.4
0.0
0.7
1.8
4.2
7.4
1.1
7.4
0.4
0.7
0.0

3.2
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
2.2
0.6
0.3
0.0
0.6
1.6
4.1
6*6
1.3
6.6
0.3
0.9
0.0

32.2

32.3

31.3

30.7

28.0

27.0

26.8

0.6
0.0
D*6
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0•6
12.4
0.0
1.9
16.8

0.6
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0. 6
0.0
1.1
11.9
0.0
1.7
15.8

0.5
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
1.0
11.3
0.0
2.1
16.4

0.5
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.9
11.4
0.0
1.9
15.6

0.4
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.9
11.3
0.0
2.2
15.2

0.4
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.8
10.7
0.0
1.9
13.4

0.4
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.7
10.5
0.0
1.8
13.0

0.3
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.6
11.0
0.0
1.6
12.3

10.2

9.9

9.0

7.7

9.0

9.5

9.2

8.1

7.9

6.5
1.4
0.0

8.8
1.4
0.0

8.7
1.2
0.0

7.9
1.1
0.0

6.7
1.0
0.0

8.1
0.9
0.0

8.7
0.9
0.0

8.4
0.8
0.0

7.4
0.7
0.0

6.9
0.6
0.3

29.7

27.2

24.8

23.2

26.2

26.5

27.3

29.9

33.7

34.1

1.4

1.4

1.9

1.7

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.1

1.4

2.2

I N S T I T U T I O N S ........................................................................
D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS DUE




2.8
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.6
2.8
1. 1
0.6
0.0
1. 1
2.3
5. 1
7.3
1.7
6.2
0.6
1. 1
0.0

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

68

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

55.3

54.5

55.8

54.8

54.0

53.9

54.5

53.6

52.0

51.9

52. 1

..PRIVATE

29.5

29.8

31.2

31.0

29.0

30.4

30.1

30.7

30. 1

29.2

27.9

....MANUFACTURING

3.5
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
2.0
0.6
0.3
0.0
0.6
1.5
4.6
7.0
1.2
6.7
0.3
0.9
0.0

3.6
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.3
1.9
0.6
0.3
0.0
0.6
1.4
4.4
7.7
1.1
6.3
0.3
0.8
0.0

5.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.5
2.0
0.5
0.3
0.0
0.5
1.8
4.5
7.5
1.0
6.0
0.3
1.0
0.0

4.8
0.2
0.0
0. 0
0.5
2.1
0.5
0.2
0*0
0.5
1.4
5.0
7.3
1.1
6.0
0.2
0.9
0.0

4.9
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.9
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.4
1.1
5.3
6.4
1.3
5.7
0.2
0.4
0.0

5.8
0.2
0.6
0.0
0.4
2.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.6
1.0
5.4
6.2
1.2
5.6
0.2
0.4
0.2

5.8
0.2
0.7
0.0
0.6
2.4
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.6
0.9
5.0
6.1
1.1
5.2
0.2
0.4
0.4

5.8
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.6
2.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.5
1.0
5.2
5.5
1.3
5.5
0.2
0.8
0.3

5.4
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.6
2.2
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.7
0.7
5.1
5.8
1.3
5.7
0.1
0.6
0.1

5.3
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.5
2.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.7
0.5
4.9
5.8
1.1
4.9
0.1
0.8
0.1

4.0
0.4
0.3
0. 1
0.7
2.6
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5
5.1
5.8
1.2
4.4
0.1
0.9
0.1

25.7

24.8

26.6

23.9

25.0

23.5

24.5

22.9

21.9

22.7

24.2

0.3
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.6
10.8
0.0
1.5
11.7

0.6
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.6
10.5
0.0
1.4
11.3

0.5
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.8
10.3
0.0
1.5
10.8

0.2
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.7
10.3
0.0
1.4
10.6

0.2
0.0
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.8
10.6
0.0
1.7
10.8

0.4
0.2
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.4
8.2
0.0
1.0
12.1

0.4
0.2
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.4
8.9
0.0
1.5
12.1

0.5
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.0
0.3
7.6
0.0
1.8
11.0

0.4
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.0
0.3
6.7
0.0
1.8
10.9

0.5
0.0
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.0
0.4
7.5
0.0
1.8
11.0

0.4
0.0
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.0
0.5
8.2
0.0
1.6
12.0

7.6

7.7

6.8

7.6

7.8

8.3

8.5

7.4

7.7

7.3

6.3

. . GOV E R N ME N T

6.4
0.9
0.3

6.6
0.8
0.3

5.8
0.8
0.3

6.7
0.7
0.2

7.0
0.6
0.2

7.6
0.6
0.2

7.6
0.7
0.2

6.8
0.5
0.2

7.2
0.4
0.1

6.7
0.4
0.1

5.8
0.4
0.1

....FEDERAL
....STATE
. ...LOC A L

35.1

35.3

33.9

33.3

33.7

33.4

32.5

34.9

36.4

37.3

38.4

2.0

2.5

3.5

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.5

4.0

3.9

3.6

3.2




69

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

...............STONE,

C LAY ,

ANO GLASS

. . . . N ON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-26. Estimated employment of agricultural scientists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

16.9

18.2

20.4

21.5

21.7

22.2

23,7

25.6

27.3

29.5

..................................................................................................

2.4

2.7

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.5

3.8

4.0

4.2

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

1.7

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.5

2.6

2.9

3.1

3.2

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND A P P A R E L . .........................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ...........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE, C L A Y , AND GL ASS ......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s .............................................................................................
F A B R I CATE D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY...........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E Q U I P M E N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
1.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.2
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.2
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.2
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.3
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.3
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.4
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

o.o
1.4
0.0
0.2
0.4
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NONMANUFACTURI NG............................................................................................

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.0

p e t r o l e u m e x t r a c t i o n ............................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O RT A T I ON ............................................................................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
public
u t i l i t i e s .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B U SI NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O R I E S .............................................
engineering
a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.6

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

10.8

11.9

13.9

14.8

14.5

14.8

15.5

16.4

17.0

18.2

F E D E R A L .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

7.7
2.3
0.8

8.7
2.4
0.8

10.5
2.6
0.8

11.4
2.6
0.8

10.9
2.8
0.8

11.1
2.8
0.9

11.6
2.9
1.0

12.3
3.1
1.0

12.6
3.3
1.1

13.6
3.5
1.1

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.6

4.0

4.0

4.6

5.3

6.2

7.0

I N S T I T U T I O N S ..............................................................................

0.1

0.1

0.1

0. 1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

SECTOR

ALL

private

industry

COLLEGES
N ON P ROF I T
N OTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

70

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

30.4

32.3

35.3

38.5

41.5

44.1

46.9

46.5

47.2

47.5

49.3

4.4

4.5

4.7

5.3

5.3

5.5

5.4

5.6

5.7

6.0

6.0

..PRIVATE

3.3

3.3

3.4

3.7

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.6

3.8

3.9

3.9

....MANUFACTURING

0.0
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.4
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.4
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.6
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.8
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.7
0.0
0.2
0.7
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.7
0.0
0.2
0.5
1. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0

0.0
1.5
o.o
0.2
0.6
1.1
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0

0.0
1.5
0.0
0.2
0.7
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.5
0.0
0.3
0.9
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.4
0.0
0.3
1.0
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.5
0.0
0.3
0.8
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.6

1.5

1.9

1.9

2.0

1.9

2.1

2.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.1
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.6

0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.6

0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.7

0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.8

0.0
0. 1
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.9

0.0

0.0

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.8
0.0
0.0
1.0

0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.8
0.0
0.0
1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.1
0.0
0.0
0.9

18.4

18.8

20.0

20.6

20.9

21.1

21.5

22.4

22.9

22.9

23.3

. . GOV E R N ME N T

13.5
3.7
1.2

13.7
3.9
1.2

14.6
4.1
1.3

15.2
4.1
1.3

15.4
4.2
1.3

15.5
4.3
1.3

15.6
4.5
1.4

15.5
5.4
1.5

15.6
5.7
1.6

15.4
5.9
1.6

15.5
6.1
1.7

....FEDERAL
....STATE
. . . . LOCAL

7.5

8.9

10.5

12.5

15.2

17.4

19.9

18.4

18.5

18.5

19.9

..COLLEGES

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1




.

71

0. 1

SECTOR

. . all

SECTORS
I N DUST RY

....NONMANUFACTURING

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-27. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of agricultural scientists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

LOD.O

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

14.2

14.0

14.3

14.9

14.8

14.8

14.7

14.2

SECTOR

ALL

S E C T O R S ........................................................

(M
t
*■
H

14.8

M A N U F A C T U R I N G ...................................................

10.1

11.0

10.3

10.2

10.6

11.3

11.0

11.3

11.4

10.8

O R D N A N C E .......................................................
F O O D .............................................................
t ex ti le s
a n d a p p a r e l ......................................
L U M B E R A N D F U R N I T U R E ......................................
P A P E R ...........................................................
C H E M I C A L S ......................................................
P E T R O L E U M r e f i n i n g . . . . ...................................
R U B B E R ..........................................................
S T O N E , C L A Y , a n d G L A S S ...................................
P R I M A R Y M E T A L S ...............................................
f ab ri ca t ed
m e t a l s ..........................................
m a c h i n e r y ......................................................
ele ct ri c al
e q u i p m e n t ......................................
motor
v e h i c l e s ...............................................
a i r c r a f t . ................................. ....................
O T H E R T R A N S P O R T A T I O N E Q U I P M E N T ........................
P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S ...........
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G ............................

0.0
5.9
0.0
0.6
0.6
2.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
6.0
0.0
0.5
1.1
2.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.9
0.0
0.5
1.0
2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.6
0.0
0.5
0.9
2.8
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.5
0.0
0.5
0.9
3.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.9
0.0
0.5
1.4
3.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5. 5
0.0
0.4
1.3
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.5
0.0
D. 8
1.2
3.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.1
0.0
0.7
1.5
3.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
5.1
0.0
0.7
1.4
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

4.1

3.8

3.9

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.8

3.5

3.3

3.4

P E T R O L E U M e x t r a c t i o n ......................................
M I N I N G . . . . . ................................................
C O N S T R U C T I O N .................................................
R A I L R O A D S ......................................................
O T H E R T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ......................................
T E L E C O M M U N I C A T I O N S .........................................
R A D I O A N D T V .................................................
P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ............................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .......................
M E D I C A L A N D D E N T A L L A B O R A T O R I E S .......................
E N G I N E E R I N G A N D A R C H I T E C T U R A L S E R V I C E S .............
O T H E R N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ...................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
1.2
0.0
0.0
2.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.1
0.0
0.0
2.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.0
2.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.9
0.0
0.0
2.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.9
0.0
0.0
2.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.9
0.0
0.0
2.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.3
0.0
0.0
2.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.2
0.0
0.0
2.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.1
0.0
0.0
1.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
1.0
0.0
0.0
2.0

..........................................................

63.9

65.4

69.1

68.8

66.8

66.7

65.4

64. 1

62.3

61.7

F E D E R A L ...........................................................
S T A T E ..............................................................
L O C A L ..............................................................

45.6
13.6
4.7

47.8
13.2
4.4

51.5
12.7
3.9

53.0
12.1
3.7

50.2
12.9
3.7

50.0
12.6
4.1

48.9
12.2
4.2

48.0
12.1
3.9

46.2
12.1
4.0

46.1
11.9
3.7

U N I V E R S I T I E S .....................................

21.3

19.2

17.2

16.7

18.4

18.0

19.4

20.7

22.7

23.7

I N S T I T U T I O N S .........................................

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.3

PRIVATE

I N D U S T R Y .................... ............................

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

g o v e r n m e n t

COLLEGES
NONPROFIT
N OTE:

AND

D E T A IL

..............................................

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

72

THAN 5 0 .

i 1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
12.2

13. B

12.8

12.5

11.5

12.0

12.1

12.6

9.6

9.6

9.2

8.2

7.5

7.7

8.1

8.2

7.9

o.o
4.5
o.o

0. 0
4. 7
o. o
0* 5
1.3
2.9
0. 0
o. 0
o.o
0. 3
0. 0

0.0

0. 0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.7
2.7

0.0
0.0

0.0
0. 0

3.2
n.n
0,4
1.5
2. 2

3.2
n.n
n.f>
1.9

2. 5

3. 2
n.o
0.4
1.3
2. 3

2.9

0,5

3. 9
n.o
0*5

n.o

n. n

0.0
n.o

0.0

0.0

o.o

o. o

o.o

13.9

13.3

10.9

10.2

o.o

o.o
5.0
o. 0

o.o
n 7
1*3

0 6
1-2

3-3

3. 1

0.0

o.o
o.o
0.3

0.0
o. 0
o.o
n. 3
o.o

0.6
1.4

2.8
0.0
0.0
o.o

0.0

0.0

o. 0
o.o
o.o
Q.Q
o.o
o.o

o.o
o. o
o.o
o.o
0. 0
o.o

o.o
3.0
o.o
o.o
o.o
o.o
o.o
o.o

3.6

3.7

3.7

o.o

o.o
0^-0
Om 0

o.o

0*0

q

9q

o.o
n *
n.n

0*0
o.o
n *
1.3
ft - n
o.o
2*0

0*0
o. 0
o.o
0 3
1.5
o.o
o.o
1*9

..ALL

SECTORS

0.0

4.1
0. 0

14.5

5.3

SECTOR

0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.2
0*0
0.2
0.0

2.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

o.o
o. o
o.o
3 «3
1.4
o.o
o.o

....MANUFACTURING

0.0
0.6
1.6

2.3

2.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0. 0
0.0
0.0

0.0

o.o
o.o

n.o

0.2
0.0

0.2
0.0
o.o
0.0
0. 0

0.0

0.0
0. 0
0.0

o.o

o.o
0. 0
o. o
0. 0
0* 0

0.0

o.o

0.0

O.o
6.5

4.2

3.6

4.3

4. 1

4.3

4.0

4.4

4.3

o.o
Q*-3
o.o

o.o
0*2
o.o
o.o
o.o
o.o
o.o
0*2
1.4
o.o
o.o
1*7

o. 0
0*2
0-0
o. 0
o. 0
0.0
n. o
Q. 5
1.3
o. o
0. 0

0.0
0-2
o.o
o.o
o. 0
0.0
n.n
0. 2
1.7

0.0
Q. 7
0*0
0*0
0*0
0.0
n. o
0. 2
1.7
0. 0

0.0
0*0
0.0
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
1.7

0.0
0*0
0.0
0*0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 4
2.1

o.o
0.0
0. 0
0. 0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.2
2.2

o. o
o.o
o. 0
0. 0
0. 0

o.o
o. 0
o. o
0*3
l.B
o. 0
o.o

0.2
0.0

0.0

I NDUSTRY

3.0

0.0
0.6
2. 1

1.8

0*0

0.0
o. 0

0*0

1.1

..PRIVATE

Q.p

0.0
o.o

0.0

1.8

0.0
0.0

o.o

1*9

0.0
2.2

0.2
0.0
o.o

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

2.1

1.9

0.0
0.0
1.8

. . . . . . MACHI NE RY

...............OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON EQUI PMENT

••••NDNMANUFACTURING

...............MEDI CAL AND DENTAL LABORATORI ES
. . . . . . E N G I N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL SERVI CES

60.5

58.2

56.7

53.5

50.4

47.8

45.8

48.2

48.5

48.2

47.3

. . GOVERNMENT

44.4
12.2
3.9

42.4
12.1
3.7

41.4

37.1
10.1
3.1

35.1
9.8
2.9

33.3
9.6
3.0

33.3

3.7

39.5
10.6
3.4

3.2

33.1
12.1
3.4

32.4
12.4
3.4

31.4
12.4
3.4

....FEDERAL
....S T A T E
. . ..LOCAL

24.7

27.6

29.7

32.5

36.6

39.5

42.4

39.6

39.2

38.9

40.4

..COLLEGES

0.3

0.3

3.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

11.6




11.6

73

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-28. Estimated employment of biological scientists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

19.9

21.2

23.0

24. 1

25.5

27.3

29.9

34.8

39.0

42.5

I N D U S T R Y ......................................................

3.6

4.3

4.8

5. 1

5.3

5.4

5.7

6.3

6.9

7.1

.......................................................

2.9

3.5

4.0

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.8

5.4

5.9

5.9

O R D N A N C E ............................................................
F O O D ..................................................................
T E X T I L E S A N D A P P A R E L ..........................................
L U M B E R A N D F U R N I T U R E ..........................................
P A P E R .................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................
P E T R O L E U M R E F l N l N S .............................................
R U B B E R ...............................................................
S T O N E , C L A Y , A N D G L A S S .......................................
p r i m a r y
m e t a l s ...................................................
f a b r i c a t e d
M E T A L S ..............................................
M A C H I N E R Y ...........................................................
E L E C T R I C A L E Q U I P M E N T ..........................................
M O T O R V E H I C L E S ...................................................
a i r c r a f t ............................................................
O T H E R T R A N S P O R T A T I O N E Q U I P M E N T ..........................
P R O F E S S I O N A L A N D S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S ............
M I S C E L L A N E O U S M A N U F A C T U R I N G ...............................

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
3. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.4
0.0
0,0
0.0
3.6
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0

0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

...................................................

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.2

p e t r o l e u m
e x t r a c t i o n .........................................
M I N I N G ..................................... .........................
C O N S T R U C T I O N ......................................................
R A I L R O A D S ..........................................................
o t h e r
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ................... ......................
t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .............................................
r a d i o
and
t v ......................................................
P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ................................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S B U S I N E S S S E R V I C E S .........................
M E D I C A L A N D D E N T A L L A B O R A T O R I E S .........................
E N G I N E E R I N G A N D A R C H I T E C T U R A L S E R V I C E S ..............
O T H E R N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G . .....................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2

o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.5
0.0
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.6
0.0
0.3

G O V E R N M E N T .............. ................................................

5.6

6.3

7.0

7.2

7.5

7.9

8.5

9.2

9.6

10.3

F E D E R A L . . . ............................................................
S T A T E ....................................................................
L O C A L ....................................................................

2.1
2.5
1.0

2.5
2.7
1. 1

3.1
2.8
1.1

3.3
2.8
1.1

3.3
3.0
1.2

3.6
3.0
1.3

3.9
3.2
1.4

4.2
3.4
1.6

4.5
3.4
1.7

4.8
3.7
1.8

U N I V E R S I T I E S ........................................

10.1

9.9

10.4

10.9

11.8

13.0

14.7

18.1

21.2

23.7

I N S T I T U T I O N S .............................................

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.3

1.4

SECTOR

ALL

S E C T O R S .............................................................

PRIVATE

m a n u f a c t u r i n g

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

COLLEGES
NONPROFIT

NOTE:

AND

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADO TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

74

THAN 5 0 .

SECTOR

I9 6 0

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

4 4 .8

4 6 .9

4 9 .0

5 1 .3

5 4 .4

5 5 .6

5 6 .9

6 2 .6

6 5 .8

6 7 .7

71. 1

..ALL

7.5

8 .2

8.6

9.0

9 .4

9 .4

9 .9

9 .5

1 0 .3

1 0 .8

1 1 .0

..PRIVATE

6.2

6 .9

7 .2

7.4

7.6

7 .6

7 .8

7.5

8 .1

8.2

8.4

0.1
0.5
0 .0

o.i

0 .2

0.4

0 .4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.6
0.0

0 .6

0.6

0.7

0.7

0 .7

0 .7

0.8

0 .0

6.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
6 .0

0 .0
6 .1

0 .0
6.3

0.0

5 .5
0 .0

0 .1
6 .0

6.0

0.1
6.4

0.0
0.1
6 .5

0 .0

0.1

0.0
0.0
6 .1

0 .0
0.0

1 .0
0.0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

o.o

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0 .0
0 .1

0 .0
0.0

0.9
0.0

0 .0
6 .7

0.1
0 .0

0. 1
0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0.0

0.0
0 .0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0.0
0 .0

o.o

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0.0
0 .0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0.1

0.0
0.1

0 .0
0.1

0.0
0.1

0 .0
0. 1

0.2
0 .0
0.1

0 .2
0 .0

0 .2
0 .0

0.1

0.1
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0 .0

0 .0
0.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0
0.0

0.0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0.0

0.1
0.0
0.0

0.1
0 .0
0 .0

0.1
0.2
0.0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0. 1
0 .0

0 .1
0 .0

0.1
0.0

0 .0

0.0
0.0

0. 1
0 .0

0 .1
0.0

0. 1
0.0

0.1
0 .0

0. 1
0.0

0. 1
0 .0

0.0

1 .3

1.3

1.4

1 .6

1.8

1 .8

2. 1

0 .0

0 .0

0.0

0.0

0 .0

0.0

0 .0

0.0
0 .0

0.0

0.0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.7

0 .0
0. 0
0.0
0. 0
0.6
0.7

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0 .4

0.0

0.0

2.0

0 .0

0.0

0 .0
0.0
0.0
0 .0

0.0
0 .0

0.0

0 .0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0 .0
0 .4

0.6

0.6

0.0

0 .0

0.3

0.3

0.0
0.3

1 0 .6

1 1 .1

1 1 .7

0 .6
0 .7

0.2

0 .0

o.o

0. 1
0 .0

2 .2

2 .6

2 .6

0.0

0.0

0.0

o.o

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0.0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4

0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0 .0
0.0
0.0
1 .2
0.9

0.0
0 .1

0.1

0.0
0.7

....NONMANUFACTURING

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
1 .2
0.9

0.8

0 .9

0.9

0.9

0 .1
0.5

0.2

0.1

0 .0

0 .0

0 .0

0. 3

0.1
0 .4

0.6

0.6

0.6

0 .5

0.5

1 2 .3

1 3 .0

1 3 .8

1 4 .4

1 4 .9

1 6 .2

1 6 .7

1 7 .9

4.8

4 .9

5.2

5.6

6.7

7.0

7.9

8 .1

9.0

4 .3
1 .9

4.5
2 .0

4.7

6 .0
5.0

6 .4

4.0
1 .8

5.3

5.6

5 .7

6 .0

2.0

2 .0

2. 1

2.1

2.2

2.3

6.2
2 .4

6.5
2 .4

2 5 .1

2 5 .8

2 6 .4

2 7 .3

2 9 .2

2 9 .6

2 9 .6

3 6 .1

3 7 .0

3 9 .2

1 .6

1 .8

2.3

2.7

2 .8

2.8

3 .0

3 .2

3.2

3 .0




....m a n u f a c t u r i n g

0 .0
0. 1

0.1
0.0

INDUSTRY

0.2

0 .0
0.1
0.0

SECTORS

35. 1
3.1

75

..GOVERNMENT
....FEDERAL
....STATE
....LOCAL
..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND UN I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-29. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of biological scientists, by sector, 1950—70

(In thou
sands)
1950

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................. ..............................

1951

1952

1953

195t

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

103.D

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

18.1

20.3

20.9

21.2

20.8

19.8

19.1

18.1

17.7

16.7

MANUFACTURI NG....................... .. ..........................................................................

I t . 6

16.5

17.t

17.8

17.3

16.5

16.1

15. 5

15. 1

13.9

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL...........................................................................
l u m b e r a n d f u r n i t u r e ...........................................................................
PAPER.....................................................................................................................
C HEMI CALS .................................. .. .....................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
RUBBER............................................................................................ .. ...................
STONE* CLAY* AND GL ASS......................................................................
PRI MARY METALS............................................................................................
FABRI CATE D ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY..........................................................................................................
EL E C T R I C A L E Q U I P ME N T ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E Q U I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U M E N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
D. O
12.6
0.0
O. D
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
I t . 6
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.7
0.0
3.0
0.0
15.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
16.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
15.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
I t . 7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
lt .t
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
l.t
0.0
0.0
0.0
lt.l
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
13.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ...........................................................................................

3.5

3.8

3.5

3.3

3.5

3.3

3.0

2.6

2.6

2.8

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N . . . . ................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
CONSTRUCTI ON.................................................................................................
r a i l r o a d s .................... .. ..................................................................................
o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ...........................................................................
TE L E C OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O a n d t v .................................................................................................
P UBLI C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s .............................................
m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l l a b o r a t o r i e s .............................................
E N GI N EE R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG............ .. .......................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
O. D
0.0
1.0
1.5
3.0
1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
1.9
0.0
0.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
1.7
0.0
0.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
1.7
0.0
0.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
2.0
0.0
0.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.8
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.7
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
l.t
0.0
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
1.3
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
l.t
0.0
0.7

g o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................................................................

28.1

29.7

33.t

29.9

29.t

28.9

28.t

26. t

2t.6

2t. 2

f e d e r a l .....................................................................................................................

10.6
12.6
5.0

11.8
12.7
5.2

13.5
12.2
t .8

13.7
11.6
t. 6

12.9
11.8
t . 7

13.2
11.0
t. 8

13.0
10.7
t. 7

12.1
9.8
t. 6

11.5
8.7
t.t

11.3
8.7
t .2

AN0 U N I V E R S I T I E S ........................................................................

50.8

t6 .7

t5. 2

t5. 2

t6.3

t7 .6

t9 .2

52.0

5 t.t

55.8

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

3.0

3.3

3.5

3.7

3.5

3.7

3.3

3. t

3.3

3.3

PRI VAT E

........................................................................... ..............................................
LOCAL..........................................................................................................................

state

COLLEGES
N ONPROFI T
N OTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

76

THAN

50.

SECTOR

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.0

100.0

109.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

16.7

17.5

17.6

17.5

17.3

16.9

17.4

15.2

15.7

16.0

15.5

..PRIVATE

13.8

14.7

14.7

14.4

14.0

13.7

13.7

12.0

12.3

12.1

11.8

....MANUFACTURING

0.2
1.1
o.o
0.0
0.2
12.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.2
1.3
o.o
0.0
0.2
12.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.4
1.2
9.0
0.0
9.2
12.2
9.2
9.0
9.0
9.0
0.0
0.2
9.0
0.0
0.0
9.0
9.2
0.0

0.8
1.2
0.0
0.0
0. 0
11.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.7
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
11.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.5
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
11.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
o.o
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2
o.o
0.2
0.0

0.5
1.2
0.0
0.0
o.o
11.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.5
1.1
0.0
0.0
o.o
9.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.5
1.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
9.7
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.3
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
9.6
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0

0.3
1.4
0.0
o.o
0.0
9.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.0

2.9

2.8

2.9

3. 1

3.3

3.2

3.7

3.2

3.3

3.8

3.7

0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
9.0
0.0
9.0
9.0
0.0
0.0
9.0
D• 8
1.4
9.0
9.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
1.4
0.0
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
1.1
1.3
0.2
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.4
0.2
0.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
1.6
0.4
1. 1

0.0
0.0
o.o
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
1.4
0.2
1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
1.4
0.0
0.9

0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
1.3
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
1.3
0.0
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
1.3
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
1.7
1.3
0.0
0.7

23.7

23.7

23.9

24.0

23.9

24.8

25.3

23.8

24.6

24.7

25.2

. . GOVERNMENT

10.7
8.9
4.0

10.4
9.2
4.1

10.6
9.2
4.1

10.9
9.2

11.5
9.5
3.8

11.8
9.8
3.7

11.2

3.9

11.0
9.2
3.7

3.5

12.0
9.1
3.5

12.0
9.2
3.5

12.7
9.1
3.4

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LO C A L

56.0

55.0

53.9

53.2

53.7

53.2

52.0

56.1

54.9

54.7

55.1

..COLLEGES

3.6

3.8

4.7

5.3

5. 1

5.0

5.3

5.0

4.9

4.7

4.2

0.0




0 .0

9.1

77

..ALL

. . . .

SECTORS
I NDUSTRY

n o n m an u fac tu r in g

..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-30. Estimated employment o f medical scientists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

SECTORS................................................................................................................

8• 8

9.5

10.3

11.0

11.7

12.3

13.7

16.3

18.6

20.0

..................................................................................................

2.5

3.0

3.2

3.5

3.7

3.7

4.0

4.4

4.8

4.8

.....................................................................................................

2.0

2.5

2.7

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.3

3.6

3.9

3.9

ORDNANCE.............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S ANO A P P A R E L ............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER......................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ..........................................................................................................
PETROLEUM r e f i n i n g .................................................................................
r u b b e r ...................................................................................................................
STONE* CLAY* AND GLASS......................................................................
PRI MARY METALS............................................................................................
FABRI CATED ME T A L S ....................................................................................
MA CHI NE RY ..........................................................................................................
electrical
e q u i p m e n t ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................

0 .0
0 .0
0.0
0.0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0;0
0 .0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0.0

0 .0

0.0
0.0

0 .0

0 .0

o.o

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0. 0'
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

SECTOR

I

']

i l l

private

industry

hanufacturing

0.0

2.0

2.5

2.7

3.0

3.2

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

OTHER TRANSPORTATI ON E QU I P ME N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0.0
0 .0

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

0.5

0.5

0.5

PETROLEUM E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ..................................................................................................................
C ON S T R U C T I ON ..................................................................................................
RA I L R OA D S ..........................................................................................................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I ON ...........................................................................
T E L E C OM MU N I C A T I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
PU BL I C U T I L I T I E S .......................................................................................
MI SCELLANEOUS B USI NESS S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O R I E S .............................................
E NGI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S .........................
OTHER NONMANUFACTURI NG......................................................................

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

A I R C R A F T ................................................. .................. ..

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0

3.2
0.0

0.0
,0.0
0.0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0

0.9

0.9

0 .0

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0 .0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0 .0

0.2

0 .1
0 .0

0. 1
0 .0

0 .1
0.0

0 .1

0 .1

0 .1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.0
0.2

0.0
0.2

g o v e r n m e n t ..................................................................................................................

1.9

2.1

2.1

2.4

F E D E R AL .....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ...........................................................................................................................
LOCAL..........................................................................................................................

0.4
1.1
0.4

0 .6
1 .1

0.5

0.4

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

4.1

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

0.3




0.0

0 .0

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0 .0

0.3
0.2

0.0
0.2

0.3
0.2
0.0
0.2

2.5

2.5

0.4

0.7
1.2
0.5

0.7
1.3
0.5

4. 1

4.6

4.7

0.3
IS

0.4

0.4

LESS

78

0.0
0.0

0.8

0 .0

0 .0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.7

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

1 .2

THAN 5 0 .

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .1
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.5

0.2

DUE TO R O U N D IN G .

3.8
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.5

0.2

MAY MOT ADO TO TOTALS

3.8
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.5

0 .0

D E T A IL

0.0

0.0
0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0

0.2

MOTE:

0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0.0

0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0.2

NONPROFI T

0.0

3.6
0.0
0.0

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0

0.2

COLLEGES

3.3

0.0
0 .0

0 .1
0 .0

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0

0.4
0.2

0.3

0.4
0.2
0.0
0.3

2.8

3.0

3.1

3.2

0.7
1.3
0.5

0.9
1.4
0.5

0.9
1.5
0.6

0.9
1.6
0.6

0.9
1.7
0.6

5.1

5.6

6.4

8.3

10.1

11.3

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.7

0 .0

0 .0

0.3

1,60

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

21.5

24. 1

27.2

30.5

34.6

37.2

43.2

42.0

46.4

50.7

53.0

SECTOR

1970

..ALL

SECTORS

5.2

5.2

5.6

5.5

5.3

6.7

6.8

6.9

7.2

7. 1

..PRIVATE

4.0

4.2

4.1

4.3

4.3

4. 1

4.9

4.9

5.0

4.9

4.7

....MANUFACTURING

0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.1
' 0.0
0.0
3.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
3.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.0
3.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
3.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.0

0.2
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.7
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0. 1
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 1
0.0
0.1
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
o.o
0.2
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.0

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4. 1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.0

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.8

1.9

1.9

2.3

2.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
3.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
3.0
3.0
0.0
3.0
3.0
0.0
0.6
3.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.3
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
1.3
0.3
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.3
0.0
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.3
0.0
0.5

3.4

3.6

4.0

4.3

4.6

5.0

5.3

5.3

5.6

5.7

5.5

. . GOVERNMENT

1.1
1.7
0.6

1.1
1.8
0.7

1.4
1.9
3.7

1.6
2.0
0. 7

1.9
2.0
0.7

2.1
2.2
0.7

2.2
2.4
0.7

2.2
2.4
0.7

2.3
2.5
0.8

2.3
2.6
0.8

2.0
2.7
0.8

....FEDERAL
....S TATE
• • • • L OC AL

14.3

16.7

19.3

23.2

25.6

29.8

23.5

32.5

36.4

39.1

1.0

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

•

eg

4.9

o
•

00

r




79

I NDUSTRY

. . . . NON MA NU FA CT UR IN G

..COL LE GE S
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Table A-31. Percent distribution: Estimated employment of medical scientists, by sector, 1950—70
(In thousands)

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I N D U S T R Y ..................................................................................................

28.4

31.6

31.1

31. B

31.6

30.1

29.2

27.0

25.8

24.0

MANUFACTURI NG.....................................................................................................

22.7

26.3

26.2

27.3

27.4

26.0

24. 1

22.1

21.0

19.5

ORDNANCE............................................................................................................
FOOD........................................................................................................................
T E X T I L E S AND APPAREL............................................................................
LUMBER AND F U R N I T U R E ............................................................................
PAPER....................................................................................................................
C H E M I C A L S ............................................. ...........................................................
PETROLEUM R E F I N I N G .................................................................................
RUBBER...................................................................................................................
STONE, C LAY , AND GLASS......................................................................
p r i m a r y m e t a l s ............................................................................................
f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s ....................................................................................
MACHI NERY..........................................................................................................
E L E C T R I C A L e q u i p m e n t ............................................................................
MOTOR V E H I C L E S ............................................................................................
A I R C R A F T .............................................................................................................
OTHER TRANSPORT ATI ON E Q U I P M E N T ................................................
PROFESSI ONAL AND S C I E N T I F I C I N S T R U ME N T S .......................
MI SCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURI NG........................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
26.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
26.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
27.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
27.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
26.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
24.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
19.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ............................................................................................

5.7

5.3

4.9

4.5

4.3

4.1

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.5

p e t r o l e u m E X T R A C T I O N ...........................................................................
M I N I N G ................................................................................. .................................
CONS T RUCT I ON.............................................................................. .. ................
R A I L R OA D S ....................................................................................... ..................
OTHER T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ...........................................................................
TE L E C OMMU N I C AT I ON S .................................................................................
RADI O AND T V ..................................................................................................
PUBL I C U T I L I T I E S * .............................................................................. ..
MI SCELLANEOUS B U S I NE S S S E R V I C E S .............................................
MEDI CAL AND DENTAL L A B OR A T O R I E S .............................................
E N GI N E E R I N G AND ARCHI TECTURAL S E R V I C E S ..........................
o t h e r n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ......................................................................

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.3
1.1
0.0
2.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2. 1
1.1
0.0
2.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.9
1.0
0.0
1.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
1.8
0.9
0.0
l.B

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
0.9
0.0
1.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.8
0.0
1.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.2
1.5
0.0
1.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
1.2
0.0
1.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.2
1.1
0.0
1.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
1.5

GOVERNMENT..................................................................................................................

21.6

22. 1

20.4

21.3

21.4

20.3

20.4

18.4

16.7

16.0

F E DE RAL.....................................................................................................................
S T A T E ..........................................................................................................................
LOCAL...........................................................................................................................

4.5
12.5
4.5

6.3
11.6
4.2

4.9
11.7
3.9

6.4
10.9
4.5

6.0
11.1
4.3

5.7
10.6
4.1

6.6
10.2
3.6

5.5
9.2
3.7

4.8
8.6
3.2

4.5
8.5
3.0

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S .........................................................................

46.6

43.2

44.7

42.7

43.6

45.5

46.7

50.9

54.3

56.5

I N S T I T U T I O N S .................................................................................

3.4

3.2

3.9

3.6

3.4

4.1

3.6

3.7

3.2

3.5

SECTOR

ALL

SECTORS................................................................................................................

P R I VA T E

COLLEGES
NONPROFI T
NOTE:

D E T A IL

MAY NOT ADD TO TOTALS




DUE

TO R O U N D IN G .

0 .0

IS

LESS

80

THAN 5 0 .

I960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

100.9

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

103.0

100.0

100.0

22.8

21.6

19.1

18.4

15.9

14.2

15.5

16.2

14.9

14.2

13.4

18.6

17.4

15.1

14. 1

12.4

11.0

11.3

11.7

10.8

9.7

8.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
13.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
o.o
o.o
0.0
17.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
14.7
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
12.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0. 0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0

0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
11.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.0

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.0

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
o.o
0.2
0.0

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
o.o
0.4
0.0

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
8.5
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.6
0.0

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.6
0.0

4.2

4.1

4.0

4.3

3.5

3.2

4.2

4.5

4.1

4.5

4.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.9
0.9
0.0
1.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
2.1
0.8
0.0
1.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
2.2
0.7
0.0
1.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
2.6
0.7
0.0
1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
2.0
0.6
0.0
0.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o
0.0
0.0
1.9
0.5
0.0
0.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.5
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3. 1
0.7
0.0
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.8
0.6
0.0
0.6

0.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.6
0.3
1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.0
0.6
0.0
0.9

00
•
H

14.9

14.7

14.1

13.3

13.4

12.3

12.6

12.1

11.2

10.4

5.1
7.9
2.8

6
7.5
2.9

5.1
7.0
2.6

5.2
6.6
2.3

5.5
5.8
2.0

5.6
5.9
1.9

5.1
5.6
1.6

5.2
5.7
1.7

5.0
5.4
1.7

4.5
5.1
1.6

57.7

59.3

61.4

63.3

67.1

68.8

69.0

67.9

70.0

71.8

73.8

3.7

4.1

4.8

4.3

3.8

3.5

3.2

3.3

3.0

2.8

2.5

o.o




81

3.8
5. 1
1.5

SECTOR

..ALL

SECTORS

..PRIVATE

I NDUSTRY

....MANUFACTURING

. . . . NONMANUFACTURI NG

....c.RAILROADS

. . GOVERNMENT
....FEDERAL
....S TATE
....LO CAL
..COLLEGES
..NONPROFIT

AND U N I V E R S I T I E S
INSTITUTIONS

Appendix B. Guidelines and Methods
Over the past two decades, statistics on science and engineering
employment have been collected by many organizations for a variety of
purposes. Differences in occupational definitions, industry coverage, survey
techniques, and a variety of other factors, however, have created problems
of comparability. In addition, data on employment of scientists and
engineers are not available for some economic sectors for a number of years.
The main purpose of this study was to resolve problems created by the
gaps and inconsistencies in employment data for scientists and engineers in
order to develop a comprehensive and consistent historical employment
series applicable to them. To accomplish this it was necessary, first of all, to
establish guidelines for the occupations to be included in the study; to
resolve definitional problems, such as who should be counted as being
engaged in R&D work; to establish the reference period applicable to each
year’s employment estimates (i.e., annual average, “early-in-year,” midyear,
etc.). This appendix identifies these guidelines. It also presents the basic
sources of data on science and engineering employment and discusses the
methods used to develop the estimates.

Definitions

The basic definitions used in this time series are those used in the
periodic surveys of scientific and technical personnel in private industry and
in State and local governments that have been conducted by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics. These surveys cover about four-fifths of all scientists and
engineers. Following are the major definitions used in these surveys;

1. Scientists and engineers are workers who perform at a level requiring
education or training equivalent to that acquired through completion of
a 4-year college course with a major in a natural scientific or engineering
field. (See appendix C for additional definitions of the individual science
and engineering occupations.)
2. R&D scientists and engineers are defined as those who spend the
greater portion of their time in basic and applied research in the natural
sciences (including medical science) and engineering, and in design and
development of prototypes and processes.
3. The overall employment data include all workers employed as
scientists and engineers whether full or part time.

Coverage

Scientists and engineers in this report include those who “work as”
natural scientists or engineers. This concept, therefore, includes persons
without college degrees in science and engineering who are working in
engineering and science jobs. It does not include individuals with college
degrees in science and engineering who are not working in these fields. Also
excluded are social scientists, psychologists, and high school teachers of
science subjects, as well as medical scientists who spend the greatest portion
of their time providing care to patients. Estimates were developed for total
employment and for employment in research and development.



4. Industry classifications used are those of the Standard Industrial
Classification Manual, 1967.

Period covered

This employment series covers the 1950-70 period. Preliminary efforts to
develop comparable employment estimates for earlier years were abandoned
82

because the decennial censuses are almost the only sources of earlier data.
Thus, these estimates could not be augmented or modified by other studies
as were the data for the later period.
The annual estimates refer to January or “early-in-year” employment,
reflecting the same time period as the surveys of scientific and technical
personnel in private industry. Relatively few adjustments were necessary for
survey data on science and engineering employment in State governments,
universities and colleges, and nonprofit organizations, as most data collected
were “early-in-year” . Admustments were necessary for survey data on
Federal Government and local governments, as October was generally the
date of the surveys in these sectors.

employment and production worker employment; information from the
Decennial Census of Population; Current Population Surveys; information
on R&D expenditures from the NSF and the Department of Defense;
information from the NSF’s National Register of Scientific and Technical
Personnel on scientists, by field, type of employer, and function; and data
on full-time-equivalent R&D employment of scientists and engineers in
private industry from NSF reports.
This bulletin also reflects information obtained directly from the BLS
programs of occupational outlook and manpower research, which yield
valuable industry and occupational data. It is this framework of studies,
reports, and analyses which provided the basis for making the many
judgments needed to develop the time series covering science and
engineering employment.

Sources of data

Historically, surveys of science and engineering employment have been
made separately for six major sectors of the economy-private industry,
Federal Government, State governments, local governments, colleges and
universities, and nonprofit organizations.1 In private industry, surveys of
scientific and technical personnel were conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics for the years 1952, 1954, and annually 1959 through 1964 and
1966 through 1970. Data on State government employment, also collected
by the BLS, are available only for the years 1959, 1962, 1964, and 1967.
Non-recurring BLS surveys in this field include a survey of science and
engineering employment in local governments for the year 1963 and a pilot
survey covering such employment in six States in 1960. Surveys of science
and engineering employment in universities and colleges were conducted by
the National Science Foundation (NSF)in 1954, 1958, 1961, and biennially
from 1965 through 1971. Scientists and engineers employed by nonprofit
organizations were surveyed by the BLS in 1958 and the NSF in 1965,
1967, and 1970. An NSF survey in 1960 of such employment was limited in
scope. (For a detailed listing of these surveys see appendix D.)
To augment the data from the various surveys of scientific and
engineering employment, other sources of information were used. These
included BLS establishment data on total wage and salary worker*
* This nonprofit sector includes philanthropic foundations, voluntary health
agencies, independent nonprofit institutes, certain Federally Funded Research and
Development Centers, professional and technical societies, and science museums,
zoological and botanical gardens, and arboretums.



General methods

Total estimates of science and engineering employment were derived by
aggregating the separate estimates made for each of the six sectors of the
economy for which data were available. Within private industry, estimates
were derived separately for 31 industry groups.
In developing the six sector estimates, data from each employment
survey conducted during the 1950-70 period were analyzed. Survey data for
the various years were analyzed extensively for inconsistencies resulting
from changes in survey coverage and definitions. In private industry, for
example, it was necessary to account for changes from company to
establishment reporting between 1960 and 1961; for State governments,
adjustments were made for the different occupational definitions used in
the 1961, 1964, and 1967 surveys.
Trends in employment for each sector based on the survey data were
reviewed and analyzed for consistency. For example, in each of the
manufacturing industries, science and engineering employment as reported
in the Surveys of Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry (STP) was
analyzed in relation to the trends of employment indicators, such as total
employment, nonproduction worker employment, output, and R&D
expenditures. When needed, adjustments were made to resolve incon­
sistencies. In a few industries the more current levels of employment
estimates were thought to be more accurate and reliable. In these instances
adjustments were made to the earlier data. Thus, for each industry, the data

for years in which a survey was conducted are not necessarily identical to
previously published survey data.2
Statistical relationships between the key industry indicators and science
and engineering employment for each survey year served as the means of
developing initial employment estimates for nonsurvey years. For example,
for each industry within the private industry sector, ratios of science and
engineering employment to total employment were developed each survey
year. A trend of these ratios was then developed for the entire 1950-70
period. The resulting ratios were applied to estimates of total industry
employment in corresponding years to derive “initial” estimates of science
and engineering employment. An analysis was then made to see whether the
“initial” estimates of science and engineering employment were consistent
with other indicators, such as nonproduction worker employment and R&D
expenditures.
In using the employment estimates developed in this report, perhaps the
most important point to keep in mind is that a considerable amount of
judgment was used in making the estimates. Additional study could possibly
result in further refinement and greater reliability of the employment
estimates.
Further, the degree of confidence in the estimates varies from sector to
sector and from year to year within the same sector. In general, the
estimates of all sectors are weaker in the earlier years because of the
infrequency of the surveys, the more experimental nature of the earlier
surveys, and the smaller amount of related information upon which
judgments could be based. The estimates of Federal Government
employment, followed by private industry, are felt to be the most reliable,
as much more direct and related information was available on science and
engineering employement in these sectors. Since these two sectors represent
about 80 percent of all science and engineering employment in the United
States, the estimates of total employment of scientists and engineers are
believed to be good.
2
For private industry, published data also differ because adjustments are made to
include those not covered by the STP surveys - the self-employed and those in firms
below the cutoff size.




The weakest estimates are for scientists and engineers in the local
government and nonprofit organizations sectors, in which comprehensive
surveys of science and engineering employment have been conducted very
infrequently. The later-year estimates for nonprofit organizations are more
reliable, however.

Occupational distribution. Employment in each science and engineering
occupation was developed on the basis of occupational distributions in
individual industries as shown by various surveys. Inconsistencies in the
distributions were resolved on the basis of an analysis of the trends that
most logically fit the data. Final ratios for each year were applied to the
estimates of total science and engineering employment in the industry for
the corresponding year to derive employment estimates for individual
occupations.

Research and development. The methods for deriving employment
estimates for scientists and engineers engaged in research and development
were similar to those for total science and engineering employment. First,
estimates were made for the years for which survey information was
available. After several tests were conducted for consistency between the
R&D employment and related industry indicators, particularly data on R&D
expenditures, ratios were developed relating R&D employment of scientists
and engineers to total science and engineering employment. The ratios were
then applied to science and engineering employment in corresponding years
to derive R&D employment estimates. Another method used to develop
estimates of R&D science and engineering employment was to develop a
trend of R&D expenditures per scientist or engineer engaged in research and
development based on survey-year data and then to apply the annual
estimates of such expenditures to total R&D expenditures in that sector.
Similar techniques were used to develop estimates for scientists and
engineers separately. (See discussion on colleges and universities later in this
appendix.)

Methods for economic sectors

Private industry
Employment information on scientists and engineers in private industry
was obtained from surveys of employment of Scientific and Technical
Personnel in Industry (STP Surveys) for the years 1954, 1957, annually
1959 through 1964, and 1966 through 1970. These studies furnished the
basic data on which estimates were developed for 31 two- and three-digit
industries as defined by the Standard Industrial Classification system. The
1966 through 1969 surveys are believed to be the most reliable as they had
a much larger sample and the statistical techniques are assumed to be better.
The data reported in these surveys were used, therefore, as benchmarks for
the entire series. The basic problem encountered in developing the series was
to devise measures of estimating employment for years for which no survey
was conducted and of minimizing the effects of changing survey concepts
from year to year.
Survey-year estimates. Employment of scientists and engineers in each
industry as reported in the separate surveys was first tabulated and analyzed
for consistency with total industry employment, R&D expenditures, and
other indicators of industry employment activity. A key measure of
consistency was the employment data reported in each survey for the
previous year. For example, the 1961 survey collected data for both 1961
and 1960. Previous-year data were particularly helpful in bridging years
between which significant changes in survey concepts occurred, or between
years for which the levels of employment reported in the surveys were not
consistent. For example, the 1960 survey reported 71,400 scientists and
engineers employed in the machinery industry. The 1961 survey reported
65,400 but also indicated that employment increased 7.2 percent from
1960. A back-year estimate based on the 1961 survey indicated 60,900 as
the 1960 employment. The back-year estimate was generally used as the
“initial” survey-year estimate, which was in turn checked out for
consistency with available information.
The most important change to affect comparability of industry survey
data was the conversion from company to establishment reporting between
1960 and 1961. In the 1960 and earlier surveys, company reporting




restricted identification of industry employment to the industrial
classification in which the largest proportion of company personnel were
employed. The change to establishment reporting in 1961 provided more
specific identification of the industry of employment. This was particularly
true in large, multiestablishment companies engaged in widely diverse
activities.3 Beginning in 1961, establishments in these large companies were
classified separately.
In addition to the adjustments for changes in survey methods and
techniques, other adjustments were necessary to assure coverage of all
scientists and engineers in the economy. The major adjustment was the
inclusion of self-employed scientists and engineers, who are excluded from
coverage in the STP surveys. The benchmark estimate of these workers was
based upon data in the 1960 census, and trends were established from
unpublished data in the Current Population Survey. The large majority of
these workers were engineers classified in the engineering and architectural
services industry.
Adjustments also were made to account for a small number of scientists
and engineers who were estimated to be employed in firms of smaller size
than the minimum employment size of firms in the STP surveys. Most of
these “cutoffs” were in the construction industry. In total, adjustments for
cutoffs were made in 6 of the 31 industry groups for which separate
estimates were developed in this study. The tabulation on the following
page shows which cutoff adjustments were made for 1966-70.
Exclusion of industry segments in early surveys also produced problems
of comparability in survey data. For example, in 1957 surveys the minimum
employment size of firms providing miscellaneous business services was 100
employees; in 1959, 50. The change in employment size for cutoffs in
construction firms from 10 in the 1964 survey to 4 in the 1966 survey also
had a pronounced effect on reported employment.
Many sources of industry information were used in appraising the
consistency of year-to-year variations in survey-year employment as shown
by the initial estimates, especially information from reports of industry
activity and employment prepared by government agencies. Industry
3
For illustration of the effect of company versus establishment reporting, see
National Science Foundation, Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in the 1 9 6 0 ’
s:
Requirem ents and Supply, NSF 63-34. (Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1964), appendix table G-l.

N u m b e r o f em p lo yee s
in s m alle st size o f
In d u s tr y

fir m s a m p le d

T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts and a p p arel:
T e x tile m ill p ro d u c ts 4 ................................................................................ 5 0
A p p a r e l4 ............................................................................................................1 0 0
L u m b e r an d f u r n i t u r e .......................................................................................

50

C o n tra c t c o n s t r u c tio n .......................................................................................

4

M iscellaneous m a n u fa c tu rin g :
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu re rs 4 .......................................................................... 5 0
P rin tin g , p u b lis h in g , and allied
in d u s tries4 .................................................................................................. 1 0 0
M iscellaneous m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s tries4 ......................................
10
M in in g , e x c e p t p e tro le u m

.............................................................................

10

O th e r tra n s p o rta tio n services:
Lo cal passenger tr a n s p o rta tio n 4 ............................................................1 0 0
T ru c k in g 4 ......................
10
W a te r tr a n s p o rta tio n 4 ...............
10
A ir tr a n s p o rta tio n 4 ..................................................................................... 1 0 0
P ip e lin e tr a n s p o rta tio n 4 ............................................................
50

occupational data, such as those periodically reported by regulatory
agencies, and information collected during the course of research for the
Bureau’s occupational outlook program, also were used to develop the
employment estimates.
In analyzing survey-year science and engineering employment by
industry, extensive analysis was made of the relationship of STP survey data
to BLS data on employment of wage and salary workers. In each
industry, ratios of science and engineering employment to total
employment and to nonproduction worker employment were developed by
relating science and engineering employment as reported in the STP surveys
to wage and salary worker employment and to nonproduction worker
employment statistics based on payroll data. Consistency of trends in these

^ A separate series was not developed for this industry.
5 The revised 1961 and 1962 survey data are published in BLS Bulletin 1609,
along with the reports on the 1963, 1964, and 1966 surveys.




latter ratios was considered to be of the highest importance, and many of
the judgment estimates resulted from elimination of computed ratios that
were inconsistent.
Improvements in STP survey techniques since 1962 have significantly
reduced the inconsistency of survey data. Few “judgment” changes were
made to the reported data in the 1963 and 1964 surveys and almost none to
the 1966 through 1970 survey data. The 1962 and 1961 survey data that
were revised based on new survey estimating procedures also were consistent
with other data and only minor adjustments were made.5 Thus, data in the
published 1962 and 1961 surveys were not used extensively. They were
used primarily to adjust year-to-year changes. For example, information in
the 1961 survey on 1961 and 1960 employment was used primarily to
develop the percent increase in employment between 1960 and 1961. By
relating this change to the 1961 revised survey data, the initial 1960
estimate was developed.
Nonsurvey year estimates. The initial estimates of science and engineering
employment for non-STP-survey years relied heavily on the use of ratios of
science and engineering employment to total industry employment that
were developed based upon trends in these ratios in the survey years. The
initial employment estimates obtained by applying estimated ratios to
appropriate BLS wage and salary worker employment were analyzed in
relation to other industry indicators such as production levels, product mix,
capital expenditures, technology, and R&D expenditures. This analysis
provided a basis for necessary adjustments to the initial estimates.
Occupational estimates. In developing occupational estimates, employment
in each occupation by industry was computed as a percent of the industry’s
total science and engineering employment as was reported in each survey.
Changes in the proportions from year to year were examined for
consistency and reasonableness. Extreme variations were examined for
possible industry and occupational classification differences. For example,
survey data for the iron and steel industry showed that employment of
metallurgists (included in “other physical scientists”) and engineers moved
radically in opposite directions from year to year. Investigation indicated
that the differences shown in these occupations from survey to survey
resulted from classification problems rather than from actual employment
changes.

Adjusted survey-year proportions in each occupation were used to
develop trends from which initial estimates were made for nonsurvey years.
For all years, the percent that each occupation made up of total science and
engineering employment in each industry was applied to estimates of total
science and engineering employment. The resulting employment levels were
checked for consistency with any available data, such as 1950, 1960, and
1970 Census of Population information or the special industry . tudns.

existed. This same procedure was followed for scientists. Both sets of
estimates were compared to more recent ratios and analyzed in relation to
R&D funds, by industry, where data were available.
STP survey data for individual science occupations employed in research
and development were found to be so inconsistent, especially in the earlier
years, that occupational series were not developed.
Federal Government

R&D estimates. To develop estimates of scientists and engineers engaged in
research and development, the proportions that R&D scientists and
engineers made up of all scientists and engineers were derived by industry
for each STP survey. These data were considered in conjunction with other
data, such as R&D expenditures by industry and statistics on full-time
equivalent employment of scientists and engineers collected by the Bureau
of the Census for the National Science Foundation. After adjustments in the
survey-year ratios were made for irregularities, trends were developed for
the entire 1950-70 period, which provided proportions of total science and
engineering employment in research and development for the nonsurvey
years. The R&D employment series was developed by applying these ratios
to estimates of total science and engineering employment.
Separate estimates for scientists and engineers were available for 1963,
1964, and 1966 through 1970. These data served as benchmarks and were
used to develop estimates for years prior to 1963. When separate estimates
for scientists and engineers were available prior to 1963, ratios of engineers
in R&D to total R&D scientists and engineers were developed by industry.
This same procedure was followed for scientists. These ratios were analyzed
in relation to those available from 1964-70, and in most instances were
comparable to the latter data even though the reported numbers were out of
line with more current estimates.
Ratios for intervening years were interpolated. For industries where data
did not exist prior to 1963, regression analysis was used to establish the
relevant ratios. After a complete set of ratios had been established for 1950
through 1970 for both scientists and engineers, these ratios were applied to
the estimates of total scientists and engineers in R&D prior to 1963 to
obtain separate estimates of engineers in R&D and scientists in R&D.
As a final check, ratios were developed for engineers in R&D to total
engineers prior to 1963 and analyzed in relation to ratios where actual data




Employment estimates developed for the Federal Government sector
were based primarily on Civil Service Commission surveys of Federal
Government employment for the years 1951,1954, annually 1957 through
1962, 1964, and 1966 through 1970. The basic problem encountered was
the lack of comparability of occupational titles used in the time series with
the many job titles in the CSC code. To develop comparable occupational
categories, Federal Government occupational titles were analyzed in detail
by evaluating written descriptions and by discussing problem occupations
with CSC officials and in some cases with supervisors of workers in the
occupations in question. The following tabulation shows the CSC
occupational codes and titles (as of October 1969) that were included in the
occupational employment estimates in this report.

O c c u p a tio n a l cla ssificatio n
fo r e m p lo y m e n t series
Engineers

C iv il S ervice C o m m ission c o d e a n d
o c c u p a tio n a l title
G S -80 1
G S -8 0 3
G S -8 0 4
G S -8 0 6

G eneral engineering
S a fe ty en gineering
Fire p re v e n tio n engineering
M a terials engineering

G S -8 0 8
G S -8 1 0

A rc h ite c tu re 6
C ivil e n g in e e rin g 7

G S -8 1 9

S a n ita ry engineering

G S -8 3 0

M echanical e n g in e e rin g 7 -8

G S -8 4 0

N u c le a r engineering

G S -8 5 0

E lectric al engineering

^ Series established in August 1962: replaced former G-1040, Architecture.
^ Includes positions formerly in Valuation engineering, GS-897, coded GS-800
after June 1965.
O

° Includes positions formerly in Marine engineering, GS-870, abolished August
1968.

O c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n
f o r e m p lo y m e n t series

C iv il S ervice C om m issio n co d e a n d
o c c u p a tio n a l title

G S -8 5 5
G S -8 6 1
G S -8 7 1

E le c tro n ic engineering
A erospace engineering
N aval a rc h ite c tu re

G S -8 8 0
G S -88 1
G S -8 9 0
G S -8 9 2
G S -8 9 3
G S -8 9 4

M in in g en gineering
P e tro le u m e n gin eering7 -9
A g ric u ltu ra l engineering
C e ra m ic engin eering
C he m ic al engineering
W eld in g engin eering

G S -8 9 6
G S -1 3 0 1

E ngineers (C o n tin u e d )

In d u s trial engineering
G en eral physical science10

O c c u p a tio n a l cla ssificatio n
f o r e m p lo y m e n t series

G eologists and
geophysicists

p rio r to th e ir d is c o n tin u a n c e . Personnel in these
series w ere reclassified in to o th e r engineering
series. F o r e x a m p le , stru ctu ral engineers w ere
classified as civ il engineers in D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .

G S -8 1 2
G S -8 1 3
G S -8 2 0
G S -8 2 4
G S -83 1
G S -8 3 2
G S -8 3 4

G S -8 6 2

G en eral physical science10
H e a lth physics
Physics

G S -0 1 5

O p e ra tio n s research
G en eral physical science10
H y d ro lo g y
M e ta llu rg y
A s tro n o m y an d space science12
M e te o ro lo g y
O c e a n o g ra p h y 13

G S -1 3 7 0

C a rto g ra p h y

G S -1 3 7 3
G S -1 3 8 0
G S -1 3 8 2
G S -1 3 8 4

d is c o n tin u e d , D ec e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .
C o n s tru c tio n engin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , D ec e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .
S tru c tu ra l en gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , D ec e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .
H y d ra u lic engin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , D ec e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .
H ig h w a y en gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , D e ce m b er 1 9 6 4 .

C adastral survey
Fo rest p ro d u c ts te c h n o lo g y
F o o d te c h n o lo g y
T e x tile te c h n o lo g y

D ata fo r G S -1 3 9 0 , T e c h n o lo g y , w ere used p rio r to
th e d is c o n tin u a n c e o f th e series in June 1 9 6 6 .
Personnel w ere reclassified in to th e physical
sciences series.
A g ric u ltu ra l
scientists

G S -4 3 4
G S -4 3 7

P la n t p a th o lo g y
H o r tic u ltu re

G S -4 5 2

P ark n a tu ra lis t

G S -4 5 4

R ange co nse rv atio n

In te rn a l c o m b u s tio n p o w er p la n t
e n gin eering . Series d is c o n tin u e d ,
A u g u st 1 9 6 1 .
A irw a y s en gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , D ece m b er 1 9 6 4 .

G S -8 7 0

M a rin e en gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , A ug ust 1 9 6 8 .

G S -8 9 7

V a lu a tio n en gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , Ju ne 1 9 6 5 .

M a th e m a tic ia n s

G S -1 5 2 0
G S -1 5 2 9

M a th e m a tic s
M a th e m a tic a l s ta tis tic ia n 11

C hem ists

G S -1 3 0 1

G en eral physical science10

G S -1 3 2 0

C h e m is try




G S -1 3 0 1
G S -1 3 0 6
G S -1 3 1 0

G S -1 3 2 1
G S -1 3 3 0
G S -1 3 4 0
G S -1 3 6 0

M a in te n a n c e en gin eering . Series

Bridge e n gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , D ec e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .
A u to m o tiv e en gin eering , Series n u m b e r
changed to G S -8 3 2 J a n u a ry , 1 9 5 8 .
A u to m o tiv e en gin eering . Series
d is c o n tin u e d , F e b ru a ry 1 9 6 5 .

G en eral physical science10
G eophysics
G eo log y
G eodesy

O th e r physical
scientists

G S -8 1 1

G S -1 3 0 1
G S -1 3 1 3
G S -1 3 5 0
G S -1 3 7 1

G S -1 3 0 1
G S -1 3 1 5

Physicists

D a ta fo r th e fo llo w in g engineering series w e re used

G S -8 0 5

C iv il S erv ic e C o m m is s io n c o d e a n d
o c c u p a tio n a l t it le

^ Series title changes from Petroleum production and natural-gas engineering in
June 1966.
I® This series was distributed into engineering and physical science occupational
groups based upon the proportion that each occupation was of combined engineering
and physical science employment before the addition. The majority of these workers
are employed at NASA.
11 Series established in February 1961; personnel formerly classified in GS-1530,
Statistician.
19

1

1^

Series title changed from Astronomy in August 1961.
Series title changed from Nautical science in August 1963.

O c c u p a tio n a l cla ssification

C iv il S ervice C om m issio n c o d e a n d
o c c u p a tio n a l t it le

fo r e m p lo y m e n t series

A g ric u ltu ra l
scientists (C o n tin u e d )

G S -4 5 7
G S -4 6 0
G S -4 7 0
G S -47 1
G S -4 8 7
G S -70 1

Soil conse rv atio n
Fo re s try
Soil science
A g ro n o m y
H u s b an d ry
V e te rin a r y m edical science14

D ata fo r G S -4 5 0 , G en eral ag ric u ltu re a d m in is tra ­
tio n , and G S -4 5 1 , G eneral a g ric u ltu re , w e re used
p rio r to th e d is c o n tin u a n c e o f th e series in A p ril
1 9 6 7 . A n a d ju s tm e n t was m ade to da ta re p o rte d
fo r G S -45 1 p rio r to A ug ust 1 9 5 9 , a t w h ic h tim e
th e U .S . C ivil S ervice C om m issio n created G S -4 7 5 ,
F a rm m an a g e m e n t lo a n , fro m a p o rtio n o f G S -4 5 1 .
A fte r
1 9 6 4 , th e title was changed to F a rm
m an a g e m e n t.
B iological scientists




G S -40 1

B iology

G S -4 0 3
G S -4 0 5

M ic ro b io lo g y
P harm aco log y

G S -4 1 0
G S -4 1 1
G S -4 1 2
G S -4 1 3
G S -4 1 4
G S -4 1 5
G S -4 3 0
G S -4 3 5
G S -4 3 6
G S -4 4 0
G S -4 8 0
G S -4 8 2
G S -4 8 5
G S -4 8 6

Z o o lo g y
S y s te m a tic zoo log y
P arasitology
Physiology
E n to m o lo g y
N e m a to lo g y
B o tan y
P lan t p h ysio lo g y
P la n t q u a ra n tin e and pest c o n tro l
G en etics
G en eral fish an d w ild life a d m in is tra tio n
Fishery bio lo g y
W ild life refuge m ana gem en t
W ild life b io lo g y

D a ta fo r th e fo llo w in g series w e re used p rio r to
th e ir d is c o n tin u a n c e . Personnel in these series w ere

O c c u p a tio n a l classification
fo r e m p lo y m e n t series

M e d ic a l sc ientists14

C iv il S ervice C om m issio n co de a n d
o c c u p a tio n a l title

G S -6 0 2
G S -6 3 0
G S -6 6 0
G S -6 6 2
G S -6 8 0
G S -6 8 5
G S -6 9 0
G S -6 9 5

M edical o ffic e r
D ie titia n
P harm acist
O p to m e tr is t
D en tal o ffic e r
P ub lic health prog ram specia list15
In d u s trial hygiene
F o o d an d drug o ffic e r

Most CSC surveys were conducted as of October 31. Therefore,
adjustments were made, based on the relationship of science and engineering
employment to total Federal employment, to make the data conform to the
January dateline of the other sectors. Once satisfactory estimates were
derived for the survey years, estimates for the nonsurvey years were
obtained by applying rates of change to the survey year estimates based on
changes in total Federal Government employment.
Estimates of employment of scientists and engineers engaged in research
and development were based upon CSC survey data and trends in R&D
expenditures per R&D scientist or engineer. Survey data were available for
the years 1958 through 1962, 1967, and 1969.
State Government
Estimates of employment of scientists and engineers in State
governments were based primarily on information in the BLS surveys of
scientists and engineers employed in this sector in 1959, 1962, 1964, and
1967.16 After the data from these surveys were adjusted for comparability

reclassified in to o th e r biological sciences.

^

Only those persons engaged in R&D activities were counted.

G S -4 2 0

^

Series title changed from Public health administration in October 1963.

B a c te rio lo g y . Series d is c o n tin u e d ,
Decem ber 1 9 6 2 .

G S -43 1

M y c o lo g y . Series d is c o n tin u e d ,
D ecem ber 19 6 2 .

G S -4 3 3

P la n t ta x o n o m y . Series d is c o n tin u e d ,

G S -4 8 4

A n im a l c o n tro l b io lo g y . Series

G S -4 9 4

d is c o n tin u e d , F e b ru a ry 1 9 6 6 .
M ic ro an a lysis. Series d is c o n tin u e d ,

A p ril 1 9 6 6 .

Decem ber 19 6 2 .

' ^ National

Science Foundation, E m ploym ent o f Scientific and Technical
Personnel in State Governm ent Agencies. R eport on a 1959 Survey, NSF 61-17,
(1961); U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Em ploym ent o f
Scientific and Technical Personnel in State Governm ent Agencies, 1962, Bulletin No.
1412, (1964); R eview o f Occupational E m ploym en t Statistics: E m ploym ent o f
Scientific, Professional, and Technical Personnel in State Governments, January 1964,
Bulletin No. 1557, (1967); Scientific and Professional E m ploym en t by State
Governments, reprint 2675 from the M onthly L abor Review , August 1969.

of occupational classifications, total science and engineering employment
and employment by occupation were estimated for the intervening years
through an analysis of the relation of science and engineering employment
to total State government employment (less State educational employ­
m ent)17 as reported by the BLS. Other data used to analyze engineering
employment were expenditures for highway programs and total highway
department employment, as about 80 percent of the scientists and engineers
in State governments were employed in highway departments.
For estimates of employment of engineers in State governments for 1950
through 1956 use also was made of two Bureau of Public Roads inventories
of State highway engineering manpower, for 1956 and 1960, which
included data for the years 1950, 1954, 1955, and 1960. Census o f
Government data provided highway employment and expenditures informa­
tion for 1950 and 1952 through 1970.
Estimates of employment of scientists and engineers in R&D activities
were derived by an analysis of the ratio of scientists and engineers in
research and development to total scientists and engineers in the STP survey
years. These ratios were used to develop ratios for nonsurvey years which
were applied to total science and engineering employment estimates.
Estimates of engineers in R&D and scientists in R&D were developed by
establishing a ratio of engineers in R&D and scientists in R&D to total
scientists and engineers in R&D in survey years. These ratios were used to
develop ratios for nonsurvey years which were then applied to the total
estimate of scientists and engineers in R&D.

Local government
Estimates of employment in this sector are weaker than those in other
sectors because of the dependence on only two surveys of science and
engineering employment, one of which was only a pilot survey of
employment in six States as of January 1960. Data from the other survey,
which reported employment as of October 1963, were adjusted to the
desired January levels based on an analysis of the change in total local
government employment.
Initial estimates of science and engineering employment for the 1950-66
period were developed by relating the growth of total local government
employment (minus education)18 over this period to the 1963 science and




engineering employment. The initial estimates were adjusted to reflect the
changes in employment of local governments serving populations of 50,000
or more to those with less than 50,000 as the former generally have a higher
proportion of scientists and engineers.
Information on local government expenditures by function derived from
Census o f Government data provided the means of estimating changes in the
occupational composition of scientists and engineers for the 1950-70
period. For the lack of any substantive information on R&D activities in
local governments, estimates of employment of scientists and engineers
engaged in research and development in this sector were based on the
proportion that scientists and engineers in R&D activities made up of total
scientists and engineers in State governments. The split between scientists
and engineers in R&D was based upon the same ratios established for State
governments. The ratios were then applied to the total estimate of R&D
scientists and engineers in local governments.

Colleges and Universities
The published NSF studies of scientists and engineers employed by
colleges and universities19 in 1954, 1958, 1961, and biennially from 1965
through 1971 provided the basic employment information. Substantial
adjustments to these data were required to make the information
comparable among the surveys. For example, the 1954 survey provided
information on faculty by occupation but omitted information on
^ Educational employment was excluded from the series because employment in
universities and colleges, which represents the major portion of State educational
employment, is included in the coverage of surveys of universities and colleges
conducted by the National Science Foundation.
I ft

10 Educational employment was excluded from the local government employment
series because those employees in the local school system with science backgrounds,
such as instructors in physics or mathematics, are regarded as teachers rather than
scientists. Local government employment, minus education, for the years 1955-66, was
available from BLS establishment data, and estimates for the years 1950-54 were made
using the relationship of employment minus education to total employment for the
later period.
19 including Federally Funded Research and Development Centers operated by
universities and colleges.

nonfaculty and research center employment by occupation; the 1958 survey
provided data on faculty and other personnel but omitted information on
scientists by occupation.
The employment estimates of scientists and engineers over the 1950-70
period were developed separately for research and development and for
teaching. All scientists and engineers engaged in other activities, such as
administration, were included with teachers, as they represented a small
portion of the total.
Estimates of teachers were based primarily on the ratio of science and
engineering graduates to science and engineering teachers in the survey
years. It was felt that this relationship would provide the best measure for
judging employment changes among science and engineering teachers.
Problems arose in analyzing data for the early 1950’s. By applying the
graduate-to-teacher ratio which was extrapolated for the entire 1950-70
period based on the data from three surveys (not including 1954), the
number of teachers calculated for the early 1950’s was much larger than
appears probable. This reflected, of course, the large number of graduates in
the early 1950’s, which resulted from the presence of World War II veterans
in those classes. It was assumed, therefore, that the science and engineering
graduate-to-teacher ratio was much higher in the earlier years than in the
mid-1950’s. This was consistent with Office of Education data for all fields
of study combined.
R&D scientists and engineering employment was based on the
relationship of R&D expenditures to R&D scientists and engineers in
addition to survey data. A trend was established from survey-year data of
R&D dollar expenditures per R&D scientist or engineer employed. These
ratios were plotted over time for the 1950-70 period and then applied to
data on R&D dollars expended for research in colleges and universities.
The total employment estimate derived by aggregating the teaching and
R&D scientist and engineer totals for each year was checked for
consistency. For example, a check was made to assure a logical relationship
in the trend of employment in teaching and in research and development.
The occupational distribution of total science and engineering
employment was based on an analysis of the 1954, 1961, 1965, 1967, 1969,
and 1971 distributions, from which trends were developed for the entire
1950-70 period. The initial estimates were checked and revised to assure
consistency with data on degrees granted by field of study.
In deriving the total employment estimates for this sector, it was




assumed that a large majority of all scientists and engineers employed part
time by universities and colleges have their primary employment in some
other sector. Since no estimates were available of the small number of
part-time personnel who are not employed in some other sector, all
part-time scientists and engineers were excluded. The total annual estimates
are not believed to be significantly affected by their exclusion. However,
salaried graduate students employed by universities and colleges in the
covered occupations were included in the total annual estimates (about
66,000 in 1970).

Nonprofit institutions
Estimates in this sector were based primarily on information from the
1958, 1965, 1967, and 1970 NSF surveys of science and engineering
employment in nonprofit organizations. Substantial adjustment was
necessary to make the data from the 1958 survey consistent with the other
industry sectors, as the occupational distribution was different and the data
were on a full-time-equivalent basis. Since survey data indicated a high ratio
of R&D personnel to total science and engineering employment in nonprofit
organizations, this area of employment was developed first.
A series of R&D expenditures (in constant dollars) was derived for the
entire 1950-70 period, using NSF and Department of Defense data. The
1958, 1965, 1967, and 1970 estimates of expenditures were then related to
survey employment data in the respective years to obtain estimates of R&D
expenditures per R&D scientist or engineer in these years. Despite the
weakness of a trend based on four points in time, a trend was developed
which was based heavily on an analysis of the changes in R&D expenditures
per scientist or engineer in other industry sectors over the 1950-70 period.
This series, in turn, was applied to the estimates of total expenditures for
R&D activities by nonprofit organizations in the nonsurvey years to obtain
an employment series for scientists and engineers engaged in research and
development. The estimate of total employment of scientists and engineers
over the 1950-70 period was based on the relationship of R&D employment
of scientists and engineers to total employment in the years the surveys
were conducted. The occupational distribution over the period also was
based on the distributions in the surveys.

Analysis of aggregate science and engineering employment

The estimates of science and engineering employment in all sectors of the
economy combined were analyzed on an aggregate basis to assure
consistency of the totals with employment indicators on an aggregate basis.
For example, an analysis was made of trends in total science and engineering
employment compared to trends in total employment, total R&D
expenditures, and total professional, technical, and kindred worker
employment.
A comparison also was made of the employment growth over the
1950-70 period with the growth that would be indicated by the supply from
college graduates, immigrants, workers returning to the labor force, persons
in other occupations transferring to science and engineering jobs, and
occupational losses that would result from deaths, retirements, and transfers
to other occupations.
Engineering employment estimates developed in this report were
analyzed in conjunction with estimates from the 1950, 1960, and 1970
decennial censuses. The 96 percent growth in engineering employment
from 1950 to 1960 indicated in the employment series developed in
this report is more rapid than the 67 percent increase shown by Census data.
However, the 37 percent increase in engineering employment between 1960
and 1970 shown in this report is consistent with the 42 percent increase
shown by the Census. Substantially different growth rates between 1950
and 1960 primarily reflect the substantially lower level of estimates for
engineering employment in 1950 developed in this report, about 80 percent




of the level of the 1950 Census. In 1960 and 1970, the estimates shown in
this report were 95 percent and 90 percent of the respective Census totals.
The much larger difference in 1950 probably results from an overstatement
of engineering employment to a greater degree than occurred in later
censuses since there was less familiarity with technican occupations—
the
lower level occupations most closely related to engineers— the time of the
at
1950 census. Overstatement of engineering employment in a census or
household survey—
compared to a survey of employers—
generally can be
expected. This is indicated by a special tabulation of the 1950 Census data
provided to BLS. This table, which cross-classified engineering employment
by age and years of school attended, shows that about 4.5 percent of those
reported as engineers were too young, or had insufficient schooling in
relation to age, to qualify for the work normally performed by engineers.
That these two reporting techniques provide somewhat different results also
is indicated by the post-censal report, The Employment Record Check1®.
The tabulations in this study, covering major occupational groups, show
higher proportions reported in professional and technical, sales, and
craftsman categories, and lower proportions in managerial, service, and
laborer classifications in the household count than in data reported by
employers.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, E v a lu a tio n a n d R e se a r c h
o f th e U .S. C e n su s o f P o p u la tio n a n d H o u sin g , Series BR60 No. 6
(Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965).
2®

P ro g ra m

Definitions

Appendix C
The scientific and engineering occupational definitions used in this report
are the same as those specified in the latest published report on science and
engineering employment in private industry, Scientific and Technical
Personnel in Industry, 1969. The occupational definitions provided by the
questionnaire for this survey were furnished as a guide to establishment
personnel from whom this information was solicited.
Scientists represent all persons actually engaged in scientific work at a
level which requires knowledge of physical, life, engineering, or
mathematical sciences equivalent at least to that acquired through
completion of a 4-year college course with a major in one of these fields,
regardless of whether they hold a college degree in the field. Included are
those persons in research-development, production, management, technical
service, technical sales, and other positions which require them to use the
indicated level of knowledge in their work. Excluded are those persons
trained in science but currently employed in positions not requiring the use
of such training. Excluded also are psychologists and social scientists.
Engineers represent all persons actually engaged in chemical, civil,
electrical, mechanical, metallurgical, and all other types of engineering work
at a level which requires knowledge of engineering, physical, life or
mathematical sciences equivalent at least to that acquired through
completion of a 4-year college course with a major in one of these fields,
regardless of whether they hold a college degree in the field. Included are
persons in research-development, production, management, technical
service, technical sales, and other positions which require them to use the
indicated level of knowledge in their work. Included also are architectural
engineers, but not architects. Also excluded are persons trained in
engineering but currently employed in positions not requiring the use of
such training.




Mathematicians represent only those persons whose positions require
knowledge of mathematics equivalent at least to that acquired through
4-year college courses with a major in mathematics and who spend the
greatest proportion of their time in development or application of
mathematical techniques. Included are actuaries and mathematical
analysts. Included also are statisticians and programers, but only if they
specialize in mathematical techniques. Accountants are excluded.
Medical scientists represent only those physicians, dentists, public health
specialists, pharmacists, and members of other scientific professions
concerned with the understanding of human diseases and improvement of
human health who spend the greater portion of their time in clinical
investigation and other research, production, technical writing, and related
activities, Excluded are persons who spend the greatest portion of their time
in providing care to patients, dispensing drugs or services, diagnosis, etc.
Persons working as pathologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists, etc. are
excluded from the figures on medical scientists and included in the figures
on biological scientists.
Agricultural scientists represent all persons who spend the greatest
portion of their time in understanding and improving agricultural
productivity, such as those working in agronomy, animal husbandry,
forestry, horticulture, range management, soil culture, and veterinary
science. Excluded are veterinarians who are primarily engaged in providing
care to animals.
Biological scientists represent all persons who work in sciences which
deal with life processes, other than those classified as agricultural and
medical sciences. Included are pathologists, microbiologists, pharma­
cologists, bacteriologists, toxicologists, botanists, zoologists, and kindred
specialists.

93

Appendix D.

Bibliography of Source Materials

This bibliography presents a selected list of reports and bulletins on surveys of employment of scientists and engineers conducted
by the Federal Government over the 1950-70 period. The items are listed by the sector for which data were collected.
Private industry

National Science Foundation. Science and Engineering in American Industry, Final Report on a 1953-1954 Survey. NSF 56-16, 1956.
_________ _ Science and Engineering in American Industry, Report on a 1956 Survey. NSF 60-62, 1960.
_________ . Scientific and Technical Personnel in American Industry, Report on a 1959 Survey. NSF 60-62, 1960.
__________ . Scientific and

Technical Personnelin Industry,1960.NSF61-75, 1961.

__________ . Scientific and

Technical Personnelin industry,1961.NSF63-32, 1964.

-------------- - Research and Development in Industry, 1970. NSF 72-309, 1972.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Scientific Research and Development in American Industry. BLS Bulletin 1148,
1953.
_________ . Employment o f Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1418,1964.
_________ . Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry, 1961-66. BLS Bulletin 1609, 1968.
_________ . Scientific and

Technical Personnelin Industry,1967.BLSBulletin 1674,1970.

_________ . Scientific and

Technical Personnelin Industry,1969.BLSBulletin 1723,1971.

Federal Government

National Science Foundation. Scientists and Engineers in the Federal Government, October 1958. NSF 61-43, 1961.
_________ _ Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Federal Government, 1959, and 1960. NSF 62-26, 1962.
_________ . Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Federal Government, 1961 and 1962. NSF 6 4 4 , 1965.



94

_________ _ Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Federal Government, 1964. NSF 67-21, 1967.
_________ . “Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Federal Government 1 9 6 6 Reviews o f Data on Science Resources, No. 14.
NSF 68-16, April 1968.
_________ . Scientific and Technical Personnel in the Federal Government, 1968. NSF 70-24, 1970.
_________ . Scientific, Technical and Health Personnel in the Federal Government, 1969. NSF 70-44, 1970.
U.S. Civil Service Commission. Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, Showing Sex, Grades, and Average Salaries o f Employees
on August 31. 1954. Pamphlet 56, June 1955.
_________ . Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, February 28, 1957. Pamphlet 56-1, June 1958.
_________ . Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, October 31, 1958. Pamphlet 56-2, April 1960.
_________ _ Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, October 31, 1959. Pamphlet 56-3, June 1961.
_________ _ Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, October 31, 1960. Pamphlet 5 6 4 , February 1963.
_________ _ Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, October 31, 1966. Pamphlet 56-6, June 1968.
_________ . Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Workers, October 31, 1967. Pamphlet SM 56-7, 1968.
_________ _ Occupations o f Federal White Collar Workers, October 31, 1968. Pamphlet SM 56-08, 1970.
_________ _ Occupations o f Federal White Collar Workers, October 31, 1969 and 1970. Pamphlet SM 56-09, 1972.
_________ . “Trend of Federal civilian employment in scientific, engineering, and related supporting occupations, 1938 to 1961.”
Unpublished summary, 1965.

State Government

National Science Foundation. Employment o f Scientific and Technical Personnel in State Government Agencies, Report on a 1959
Survey. NSF 61-17, 1961.
_________ . Research and Development Activities in State Government Agencies, F Y 1964 and 1965. NSF 67-16,1967.
_________ . Research and Development Activities in State Government Agencies, F Y 1967 and 1968. NSF 70-22, 1970.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment o f Scientific and Technical Personnel in State Government
Agencies, 1962. BLS Bulletin 1412, 1964.
_________ . Review o f Occupational Employment Statistics: Employment o f Scientific, Professional, and Technical Personnel in
State Governments, January 1964. BLS Bulletin 1557, 1967.
_________ _ Scientific and Professional Employment by State Governments. Reprint 2675 from Monthly Labor Review, August
1969.



95

Local government

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Survey of scientific and technical personnel employed by local government
units, October 1963.“ Unpublished preliminary summary for internal use only, 1966.
Colleges and universities

National Science Foundation. Scientific Research and Development in Colleges and Universities-Expenditures and Manpower,
1953-54. NSF 59-10, 1959.
-------------- . Scientific Research and Development in Colleges and Universities-Expenditures and Manpower, 1958. NSF 6244,
1963.
_________ _ Scientists and Engineers in Colleges and Universities, 1961. NSF 65-8, 1965.
__________ “Resources for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, 1964,” Reviews o f Data on Science Resources, No. 9,
NSF 66-27, August 1966.
-------------- - Science and Engineering S ta ff in Universities and Colleges, 1965- 75. NSF 67-11, 1967.
_________ . Federal Support to Universities and Colleges, F Y 1968. NSF 69-32, 1969.
_________ _ Federal Support o f Research and Development at Universities and Colleges, and Selected Nonprofit Institutions, F Y
1968. NSF 69-33, 1969.
_________ _ Resources for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, 1969. NSF 70-16, 1970.
-------------- - Resources for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, 1971. NSF 72-315, 1972.
Nonprofit organizations

National Science Foundation. Scientific Research and Development o f Nonprofit Organizations-Expenditures and Manpower, 1957,
NSF 61-37, 1961
__________ Research and Other Activities o f Private Foundations, 1960. NSF 64-14, 1964.
_________ . Scientific Activities o f Nonprofit Organizations, 1964. NSF 67-17, 1967.

'

__________ Scientific Activities o f Nonprofit Institutions, 1966. NSF 69-16, 1969.
__________ Scientific Activities o f Independent Nonprofit Institutions, 1970. NSF 71-9, 1971.
General information

National Science Foundation. National Patterns o f R&D Resources. NSF 72-300, 1971.



96

*

U .S . G O V ER N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 19 73 O — 5 4 3 -7 S C (8)

Region I
1 6 0 3 J F K Federal B u ild in g
G o v e rn m e n t C e n te r
B o s to n , Mass. 0 2 2 0 3
P hone: 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2 (A re a C ode 6 1 7 )
Region II
1 5 1 5 B ro a d w a y
N e w Y o r k , N .Y . 1 0 0 3 6
P hone: 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5 (A re a C od e 2 1 2 )




R egion I I I

R egion V

P. O . B o x 1 3 3 0 9
P h ila d e lp h ia , Pa. 1 9 1 0 1
Phone: 5 9 7 -1 1 5 4 (A re a C ode 2 1 5 )

8 t h F lo o r, 3 0 0 S o u th W a c k e r D rive
C hic ago , III. 6 0 6 0 6
P hone:

3 5 3 -1 8 8 0

(A re a C ode 3 1 2 )

Regions V I I a n d V I I I *
Federal O ffic e B u ild in g
9 1 1 W a ln u t S t., 1 5 th F lo o r
Kansas C ity , M o . 6 4 1 0 6
P hone: 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1

Region IV

R egion V I

S u ite 5 4 0
1 3 7 1 Peachtree S t., N E .
A tla n ta , G a. 3 0 3 0 9
P hone: 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8 (A re a C ode 4 0 4 )

*
*•

1 1 0 0 C o m m e rc e S t., R m . 6 B 7
D allas, T e x . 7 5 2 0 2
P hone:

7 4 9 -3 5 1 6

(A re a C ode 2 1 4 )

Regions V I I an d V I I I are serviced b y Kansas C ity .
Regions IX and X are serviced b y San Francisco.

(A re a C ode 8 1 6 )

Regions IX and X * *
4 5 0 G o ld e n G ate A ve.
Box 3 6 0 1 7
San Fran cisco, C a lif. 9 4 1 0 2
P ho ne:

5 5 6 -4 6 7 8

(A re a C ode 4 1 5 )

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

T H IR D C LA S S M A IL

BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
W A S H IN G T O N , D .C . 2 0 2 1 2

P O S TA G E A N D FEES P A ID

U.S. D EP A R TM E N T OF LABOR
O F F IC IA L B U S IN E S S
P E N A L T Y F O R P R IV A T E U S E , $ 3 0 0




L A B -4 4 1