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Employment Requirements
of Mass Transit
A Case Study
of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics and
Employment and Training Administration
1978
BLS Bulletin 1989
ETA R&D Monograph 58




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Employment Requirements
of Mass Transit
A Case Study
of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
Employment and Training Administration
Ernest G. Green
Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training
August 1978
BLS Bulletin 1989
ETA R&D Mongraph 58




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock Number 029-001-02211-5




Library of C ongress C ataloging in Publication Data

U nited S ta te s . Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s .
Employment re q u ire m e n ts of mass t r a n s i t .
(R & D monograph ; 58) ( B u l le t in - Bureau of
Labor S t a t i s t i c s ; 1989)
1. U nited S ta te s - - P u b lic w orks--C ase s tu d ie s .
2. M assach u setts Bay T ra n s p o rta tio n A u th o rity .
3. Manpower p o lic y - -U nited S ta te s --C a s e s tu d ie s .
b.
I n t e r i n d u s t r y econom ics--C ase s t u d i e s .
I . B inion, Marvin L. I I . Flem ing, Thomas F.
I I I . R ogers, Kenneth W IV. T i t l e . V. S e r ie s .
.
VI. S e r ie s : U nited S t a te s . Bureau o f Labor
S t a t i s t i c s . B u lle tin ; 1989.
HD3890.MU152 1978
3 3 1. 1* 1
78-60606^

Preface
The Bureau of Labor Statistics, as part of its research on the employment requirements of
Federal programs, reviewed Federal aid for mass transit and selected the Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority for a case study. The research was carried out with the financial
assistance of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration, Office
of Research and Development, Howard Rosen, Director.
The mass transit study was a cooperative effort of two offices of the Bureau—the Office of
Economic Growth and the Office of Employment Structure and Trends. Direction was provided
by Ronald E. Kutscher, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Economic Growth, and Neal H.
Rosenthal, Assistant Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook. Coordination of the project was
provided by Thomas F. Fleming, Jr., of the Office of Economic Growth and Dixie A. Sommers
of the Office of Employment Structure and Trends. Robert L. Ball of the Office of Productivity
and Technology provided technical assistance on the capital improvements part of the study.
Data were collected primarily by the Bureau’s New England Regional Office, Wendell D.
Macdonald, Regional Commissioner, under the direction of Paul V. Mulkern, Assistant
Regional Commissioner. Leo Epstein supervised the field work for the study in the New England
region. The report was written by Marvin L. Binion, Thomas F. Fleming, Jr., and Kenneth W.
Rogers, of the Office of Economic Growth. Joseph B. Epstein was the project officer for the
Office of Research and Development of the Employment and Training Administration.
The Bureau gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the officials of the Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority who made the study possible as well as the cooperation of the many
contractors who provided the data upon which this report is based.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without
permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the
Employment and Training Administration and cite Employment Requirements o f Mass
Transit: A Case Study o f the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, BLS Bulletin 1989,
ETA R&D Monograph 58.




iii




Contents
Page
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................1
Federal mass transit assistance................................................................................................................................... 1
Selection of the MBTA for s tu d y .............................................................................................................................2
BLS research m ethods.................................................................................................................................................2
Overview of results.............................................................................................................................................................. 5
Comparison of direct and indirect em ploym ent.....................................................................................................5
Industry and occupational patterns...........................................................................................................................7
Part I. Current operations.................................................................................................................................................8
The MBTA system .......................................................................................................................................................8
R evenues...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Expenditures.................................................................................................................................................................9
Employment requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 10
Occupational p a tte rn s ............................................................................................................................................. 11
Part II. Capital im provem ents....................................................................................................................................... 12
Expenditures............................................................................................................................................................... 12
Employment requirements ....................................................................................................................................... 14
Occupational p a tte rn s ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Charts:
1. Relationship of expenditures, employment, and occupationalrequirements...................................................3
2. Comparison of direct and indirect employment requirements for current operations
and capital im provem ents...............................................................................................................................6
3. Federal grants to Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1965-75 ............................................... 13
Tables:
1. Capital grants by year and category, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, 1965-74 ........ 2
2. Capital grants to metropolitan areas, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, 1965-74........ 2
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority:
3. Percent distribution of indirect employment requirements for current operations and capital
improvements by industry s e c to r ......................................................................................................... 5
4. Percent distribution of employment requirements for current operations and capital
improvements by occupational g r o u p ................................................................................................. 5
5. Current operations statistics, 1974 ........................................................................................................... 8
6. Current operations expenditures, 1974-75 ............................................................................................... 9
7. Indirect employment requirements of purchases for current operations, major sectors
and selected industries, 1974 ................................................................................................................10
8. Direct and indirect employment requirements for current operations by occupational
group, 1974............................................................................................................................................. 11
9. Capital improvements expenditures by type of contract and expenditure, 1972-74 ....................... 12
10. Capital improvements expenditures (1972 dollars) and indirect employment
requirements by industry sector, 1972-74 ..........................................................................................14
11. Direct and indirect employment requirements of capital improvements projects
by occupational group, 1972-74 ........................................................................................................ 15
12. Percent distribution of hours worked by occupation and project type, 1972-74............................ 15




v

Contents—Continued
Page
Appendixes:
A. Data collection and methods of adjustment ........................................................................................................16
B. Forms used for data collection................................................................................................................................18
C. Interindustry employment model and industry-occupational m atrix ................................................................31
D. Detailed ta b le s ......................................................................................................................................................... 35
D-l. Current operations: Purchases of goods and services and indirect
employment by industry, Massachusetts Bay Transportation
Authority, 1974 ...........
36
D-2. Capital improvements: Purchases of goods and services by industry,
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-74..........................................................................39
D-3. Capital improvements: Direct employment by occupation,
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-74..........................................................................41
D-4. Capital improvements: Indirect employment by industry,
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-74............................................................................43




vi

Introduction
Since Federal policies and expenditures can sub­
stantially affect the kinds and numbers of jobs required
in the economy, it is important to have quantitative data
on their overall impact to assist in program planning and
evaluation. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has
undertaken a number of studies on the employment­
generating effect of Federal expenditures. These studies
initially dealt with broad sectors or categories of Federal
expenditures, such as defense outlays or State and local
governments; more recently, the studies have covered
specific agencies or programs.1
As a case study of employment arising from Federal
assistance for mass transit systems, this study provides
employment requirements, by industry and occupation,
for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority’s
current operations in 1974 and capital improvements
projects from January 1972 through June 1974. The
Federal role in underwriting mass transit, the selection of
the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
(MBTA) for the study, and BLS research methods are
discussed below. A more detailed discussion of research
methods is contained in the appendixes.

was the shift in ownership. In 1950, less than 2 percent of
these transit systems were publicly owned; by 1974, onethird of the existing systems were in public hands. Mass
transit systems for the past quarter-century have lost
passengers, raised fares, and incurred larger deficits as
more and more people have come to rely upon the
automobile.
Legislative history. From modest beginnings, the Fed­
eral Government has gradually devised a comprehen­
sive and substantial program of assistance for mass
transit.2 in 1961, Congress enacted a $25-million
pilot program for demonstration grants and technical
assistance to mass transit systems and provided a $50million borrowing authority for capital improvement
programs. The Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964
broadened the base for mass transit assistance, and
congressional amendments in 1966 extended the Federal
assistance available for mass transit to technical study
grants, managerial training, and grants to educational
institutions for graduate research and training programs.
In 1968, responsibility for all urban mass transportation
assistance at the Federal level was transferred to the
Department of Transportation from the Department of
Housing and Urban Development, and the Urban Mass
Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Admi ni s t r a t i on ( UMTA) was
established.
At the time of transfer, total grants-in-aid authorized
amounted to only $1.1 billion over the entire life of the
act. Subsequently, the 1970 Urban Mass Transportation
Assistance Act provided a higher level of funding,
lengthened the period of assured funding to 12 years, and
enlarged the roles of State governments and the private
sector. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 further
increased the availability of funds for mass transit capital
improvements and increased the share of Federal
participation in these projects. Most significantly, this
legislation opened the use of highway funds for both rail
and bus transit and also provided for use of highway
funds for exclusive lanes, traffic control devices, bus
shelters, and parking facilities. Interstate highway funds
also were made available for these purposes under certain
conditions.

Federal mass transit assistance

The need. Between 1950 and 1974, motor vehicle
registrations in the United States more than doubled. The
number of passengers carried by mass transit—light and
heavy rail, trolleys, and buses—declined to 40 percent of
the level nearly 25 years earlier. During the same period,
the number of transit systems across the country fell from
more than 1,400 to less than 1,000. Even more dramatic
'Studies include Manpower Impact o f Federal Government
Programs: Selected Grants-in-Aid to State and Local Governments,
Report 424 (1973); Expenditures and Manpower Requirements fo r
Selected Federal Programs, Bulletin 1851 (1975); Factbook fo r
Estimating the Manpower Needs o f Federal Programs, Bulletin 1832
(1975); and Impact o f Federal Pollution Control and Abatement
Expenditures on Manpower Requirements, Bulletin 1836 (1975). In
addition, the Bureau has published an extensive series of construction
labor requirements studies. For example, see Labor and Material
Requirements fo r Private Multifamily Housing Construction, BLS
Bulletin 1892 (1976). Articles on other recent construction labor
requirements studies include “Labor and Materials Requirements for
Sewer Works Construction,” Robert Ball and Joseph T. Finn, Monthly
Labor Review, November 1976; and “Decline Noted in Hours Required
to Erect Federal Office Buildings,” John G. Olsen, Monthly Labor
Review, October 1976.




legislative history based on information furnished by U.S.
Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation
Administration.

1

The 1974 National Mass Transportation Assistance
Act assured Federal funds for mass transit and
established an SI 1.8-billion. 6-year program to provide
assistance for both capital improvements and current
operating expenditures. Of the total amount provided b\
the 1974 legislation. S7.8 billion was made available for
mass transportation capital and planning projects
administered b\ l MTA. The major new provision of the
act was the apportionment of nearly S4 billion to urban­
ized areas for use in either mass transportation capital
projects or operating assistance projects.

Table 2. Capital grants to metropolitan areas, Urban Mass
Transportation Administration, 1965-741

Total metropolitan a re a s ...................

17
18

135 8
108 7
96 4
71 0
47 3

15
2
4

4
3
13

38 8

5
3

30 6
22
22
20
20
16
14
14
13
12
11

3

5
8
4
3
4
4
3
8
2

111

3
’

2
2
4
0
1
3
2
9
7
2

10 3

10 3

________

and by 1976 had become eligible for a total of overS625
million from L'MTA. in fact, the Administrator of the
Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Robert E.
Patricelli. stated in October 1976 that “more than any
other city. Boston has made effective use of Interstate and
other Federal aid in improving all aspects of its public
transportation system."'
The MBTA was selected for study because its broad
capital projects program provided a variety of
construction activities ranging from a new subway line to
station modernization projects. In addition, the current
operations of the Authority represented a wide range of
expenditures for several modes of mass transit. Annually,
the MBTA carries more than 144 million passengers,
using a fleet of nearly 1.200 buses. 290 light rail vehicles.
353 heavy rail cars, and 52 trackless trolleys (trolley
buses).4 In addition, the Authority subsidizes the opera­
tion of rail commuter service in the area.

A m o u n t i m illio n s )
Bus

643 7
405 4
270 4
267 4

22

SOURCE: Urban Mass Transportation Administration.

Table 1. Capital grants by year and category, Urban Mass
Transportation Administration, 1965-74

Rail

$2,314 5

21

Projects of over $10 million through Mar 31. 1974

Improvement of the MBTA’s capital plant has closely
paralleled the expansion of Federal aid to urban mass
transportation. The Authority received an initial S16
million of Federal assistance in 1964 for the first phase of
its systemwide modernization program. By early 1974.
the time this study originated, the MBTA had received
approval for more than S267 million in Federal grants

T o ta l

180

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Selection of the MBTA for study

Year

Amount
fmillionsi

New York-New Jersey-Connecticut region
San Francisco (BART system).....................
Chicago (including northern Indiana)........
Boston...............................................................
Philadelphia (including southern
New Jersey)..................................................
Atlanta...............................................................
Pittsburgh..........................................................
Washington. D C ..............................................
Baltimore ..........................................................
Los Angeles......................................................
Minneapolis-St P au l......................................
C levelan d..........................................................
Dallas.................................................................
Seattle-Everett ................................................
D etro it...............................................................
Kansas C it y ......................................................
Rochester..........................................................
New O r le a n s ....................................................
P o rtla n d . O r e g o n ............................................
C in c in n a ti ..........................................................
San Ju an P u e rto R ic o ...................................
A n a h e im -S a n ta A n a -G a rd e n G r o v e ...........
M ia m i .................................................................
H o n o lu lu ............................................................

Grants approved. At the time this study was planned.
UMTA had approved approximately S2.5 billion of capi­
tal grants (table 1). In the 10-vear period, the total amount
committed to mass transit assistance grew fivefold and
the number of projects funded increased in almost
every year to total 394. The largest commitments—twothirds of the total—were to rail transportation, although
in the earliest years UMTA’s funding of rail projects was
proportionally even higher. Almost 92 percent of the
total funds went to 24 major metropolitan areas for 180
projects (table 2). The balance was shared by smaller
communities for 214 projects, frequently the purchase of
buses. Four of the metropolitan areas—San Francisco.
Chicago. Boston, and the New York-New JerseyConnecticut region—accounted for nearly 63 percent of
the funding and 78 of the approved projects.

N um ber
0*
p ro je c ts

Number of
projects

Area

B o a t and
o th e r

BLS research methods
T o ta l .....................

394

1965 ......................................

17

1966

2~

1967 ......................................
1968 ......................................
1969 ......................................
1970 ......................................
1971 ......................................
1972 ......................................
1973 ......................................
1 9 .4 -firs t Q uarter ...........

22
26
28
28
49
66
94
37

S2.526 2 S1.669 9 S732 0
50 7
106 1
120 9
121 8
148 3
133 4
284 8
510 0
844 2
206 0

28 1
1106
104 8
121 9
83 2
160 2
280 4
583 0
133 3

9 3
39 5
10 3
17 0
26 4
49 8
116 1
166 3
235 4
61 9

S124 2

In preparing employment requirements studies, after
initial research indicates the feasibility of such a study,
the usual pattern is to define the characteristics of the
universe and. where necessary, to select a sample. In the
MBTA study. the information furnished by the
Authority permitted selection of contracts for the 30-

*3 3
2 2
—
—
—
8 5
63 2
25 8
10 7

Most recent information available at the time the study was planned

T MTA press release 101. Oct. 6. 1976.
JBased on data for 1974 supplied by the Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority.

NOTE Detail may not add to totals because of rounding
SOURCE Urban Mass Transportation Acmimstration




2

Chart 1. Relationship of expenditures, employment,
and occupational requirements

Total program
expenditures
($)

All other purchases
of goods and services
(bills of goods, $)

Input-output
system
Compensation of
employees directly on
payroll ($)

Indirect
employment
(jobs)

Direct employment,
by occupation
(jobs)




Occupational
matrix

Indirect employment,
by occupation
(jobs)

Total employment
requirements,
by occupation (jobs)

3

month period January 1972 through June 1974. The
study period was chosen to allow a mix of capital
projects; due to the long construction time of many of
these projects, it was felt that a single year would be
insufficient to reflect a representative mix. June 1974 was
chosen as the cutoff date, since data through that period
were the latest available at the planning stages of the
study.5

production links are translated into employment
requirements by use of employment-output ratios for
each sector.
The occupational matrix. After industry employment
requirements are developed, they become inputs to the
industry-occupational matrix. This matrix distributes
total national employment into 400 occupations and
cross-classifies them by 200 industries.

Employment definitions. In this study employment is
classified as direct or indirect. Direct employment is
defined as jobs identified specifically from the payrolls of
the MBTA. construction contractors, or architectural
and engineering firms. In contrast, indirect employment
results from the expenditures of the MBTA or its
contractors for all goods and services other than for the
direct compensation of their own employees. Included
are both the primary or first tier of jobs—those required
initially in the industry providing the product or service
bought—and the second tier, or all the remaining jobs
which are required in supporting industries (chart 1).

Manpow er factors. To aid in program planning and to
simplify comparisons of employment generated by
Federal expenditures, the Bureau of Labor Statistics fre­
quency provides “manpower factors” representing the
estimated number of jobs per million or billion dollars of
expenditures rather than just the number of jobs gener­
ated by actual dollars expended for the program. A com­
plete description of this process is contained in chapter 2
of Factbook for Estimating the Manpower Needs o f
Federal Programs Requests for additional information
may be addressed to the Assistant Commissioner. Office
of Economic Growth. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Washington. D.C. 20212.

Sources o f data. The direct employment information is
derived from primary sources either at the government
agency or through survey work and field visits. Direct
employment requirements for programs are usually
developed either from the records of Federal funds
recipients (e.g. the MBTA) or directly from payroll
records of contractors. The indirect employment
estimates are developed by obtaining detailed informa­
tion on specific costs of materials and services. (See
appendixes A and B for further detail and forms used for
data collection.)

Limitations. This study of the MBTA was a single case
study to measure the number of jobs, by occupation,
resulting from projects capable of being federally funded.
Despite the variety of projects and extensive expendi­
tures of the M BTA, this study in no way can be defined as
representative of other federally funded mass transit
projects at this time. Only additional survey work could
reveal whether the estimates of employment require­
ments would be roughly comparable in other mass transit
projects.
In addition, these employment estimates are qualified
in that they are average requirements and are not specifi­
cally the additional or incremental requirements due to
the Federal program. Furthermore, the employment
requirements presented here do not include the multiplier
or accelerator effects of the dollars expended. This means
that the further employment and occupational require­
ments generated as jobholders spend their earnings on
consumer goods and services and as businesses invest in
plant and equipment to meet increased demand are not
included in the estimates.

The interindustry model. The expenditures are then
grouped by industry sector to provide lists of purchases
(called “bills of goods”) required as input for the inter­
industry model which translates these dollar amounts
into the resultant employment by industry at both the
primary and secondary levels. Briefly, the interindustry
model traces the intricate linkages through the economy
and measures both the primary and secondary
requirements of the output of each of the industries.6The
’Since the survey was not actually taken until mid-1975, in retrospect
the survey period probably should have been extended forwarded into
1975.
6Appendix C describes the model in more detail. A complete
description o f the input-output system can be found in The Structure o f
the U.S. Economy in 1980 and 1985, Bulletin 1831 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1975). More information on the occupational matrix is avail-




able in Occupational Employment Statistics, 1960-70, 1738 (Bureau of
Labor Statistics, 1972).
’Bulletin 1832 (1975).

4

Overview of Results
Employment requirements arising from the M BTA’s

1974 current operations budget of $193.2 million were
estimated to total about 8,400 jobs. Nearly 6.400 of these
were directly on the Authority’s own payroll. The re­
maining 2.000 jobs were generated by its purchases of
goods and services to run the system. Employment re­
required to operate its mass transit routes ranked the

MBTA among the top 20 nongovernment employers in
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts that year.
Table 3. Percent distribution of indirect employment require­
ments for current operations and capital improvements by
industry sector, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority

Industry sector

T o tal.................................
Agriculture, forest!'/, and
fisheries ................................
M in in g ........................................
C onstruction.............................
Manufacturing...........................
Transportation, communi­
cations. and public
utilities....................................
Wholesale and retail trade . . .
Finance, insurance, and
real estate...............................
Services ....................................
Government enterprises ........

Capital improvements
1972-74
Current
Architectural
operations. Construction
and engineer­
1974
contracts
ing contracts
1000

100 0

100 0

.7
26
43
18 9

9
38
3.8
48 9

8
6
1.7
13.2

27 1
10 5

97
10 7

14 3
80

21 0
12 3
26

49
15 7
1.5

16 4
41 2
37

Data are for the 30-month period January 1972-June 1974
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding
SOURCE Bureau of Labor Statistics

Capital improvements contracts of the MBTA. total­
ing S63.2 million for the 30-month period, provided a
total of nearly 3.900 jobs. Construction contracts for a
new subway line, yards and shops, station modernization
projects, and other improvements to the MBTA system
provided over 90 percent of these jobs. The remainder
resulted from architectural and engineering contracts of
the MBTA.

Comparison of direct and indirect employment

In analyzing the employment requirements of mass
transit—and the MBTA in particular—it may be useful
to compare the direct and indirect employment generated
to estimate the number of job opportunities most likely to
be created locally. Direct employment is usually in the
local area: jobs generated through the purchase of goods
and services may be widespread geographically. Chart 2
shows the proportions of direct and indirect employment
for the various categories of MBTA expenditures.
The current operations of the MBTA had proportion­
ately the greatest direct employment, followed closely by
the architectural and engineering firms working on the
MBTA capital improvements programs. Since the con­
struction contracts themselves were less labor intensive
and required substantial purchases of materials, direct
employment requirements were less than half of the total
employment requirements arising from construction.

Table 4. Percent distribution of employment requirements for current operations and capital improvements by occupational group,
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority

Occupational group

Current
operations.
1974

Capital improvements. 1972-74
Construction
contracts

Architectural and
engineering contracts

Direct
T o tal.............................................................................................................................
Professional and technical w o rkers.................................................................................
Managers and administrators............................................................................................
Sales w o rke rs.......................................................................................................................
Clerical w o rkers...................................................................................................................
Craft workers .......................................................................................................................
Operatives .............................................................................................................................
Service w o rk e rs ...................................................................................................................
Laborers, farm workers ......................................................................................................
Data are for the 30-month period January 1972-June 1974
NOTE Detail may not add to totals because of iounding




Indirect

Direct

Indirect

Direct

Indirect

1000

1000

100 0

1000

100 0

1000

36
30
0
12 2
27 0
37 8
86
79

89
117
8 1
23 6
16 5
186
60
66

115
3.9
0
77
46 4
53
0
25 3

94
96
40
16 8
19 2
27 7
67
64

72 0
46
0
17 6
46
4

162
10 4
7 1
26 2
106
139
123
32

SOURCE Bureau of Labor Statistics

—

8

Chart 2. Comparison of direct and indirect
employment requirements for current operations
and capital improvements

Percent

Total expenditures
for current operations

Capital improvements—
construction contracts

Capital improvements—
architectural and
engineering contracts




6

Industry and occupational patterns

Another 16 percent of the jobs were found in services.
The largest portion of the indirect jobs generated by archi­
tectural and engineering contracts was in the services sector.
Occupational patterns varied (table 4). For direct em­
ployment, over three-quarters of the jobs arising from
current operations were classified in the operative, craft
worker, and clerical worker occupational groups—
ranked in that order. Almost half the direct jobs on con­
struction projects were in the crafts; another one-quarter
were laborer jobs. Direct jobs on architectural and engi­
neering contracts were heavily concentrated in the pro­
fessional and technical group.

Purchases of goods and services generated different
emloyment requirements for current operations than for
capital improvements projects. Almost half the indirect
jobs required by current operations were found in either
the transportation, communications, and public utilities
industries or in finance, insurance, and real estate (table
3). Manufacturing jobs accounted for another one-fifth
of the indirect jobs generated by current operations. For
construction contracts, however, manufacturing jobs
represented about half of all the indirect jobs required.




7

Part I. Current Operations
The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority had
its origins in the West End Railway company, founded in
1887. In 1918, after a succession of private efforts in
providing horse-drawn and, later, electric street railway
transportation to Boston, the State assumed its first role
in public transit by furnishing a subsidy to the operators.
In 1947, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts assumed
complete control through purchase of the system and
reorganized the transit service as the Metropolitan
Transit Authority (MTA) to operate in Boston and 13
adjoining cities and towns.
However, as suburban growth spread farther out from
the City of Boston in the postwar period, ridership fell
sharply. Revenue miles decreased from nearly 55 millon
in 1948 to approximately 36 million in 1963. In 1964, in
recognition of the regional nature of transportation
needs in the Boston metropolitan area, the State
chartered the Massachusetts Bay Transportation
Authority to encompass the 14 cities in the MTA
jurisdiction as well as the other 64 cities and towns which
made up the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical
Area (SMSA). One additional town outside the SMSA
elected to join the Authority, providing a total of 79 cities
and towns to support mass transportation in the Boston
metropolitan region.

Light rail (streetcar) lines are distinguished from heavy
rail lines primarily in the construction of the vehicles
operating on them. Light rail vehicles are much lighter in
weight and do not require as extensive a roadbed
foundation as heavy rail vehicles. Also, heavy rail routes
have platforms located at the same level as the floor of the
transit vehicle and the stations are at fixed points along
the route. Light rail vehicles, in contrast, require
passengers to step up or down to enter or leave the
vehicle, much like a bus, but have the advantage of being
able to pick up and discharge passengers at almost any
point along a surface route without requiring special
stations. Both types of vehicles are powered by electricity.
Operating in coordination with the rapid transit and
streetcar routes is a system of 218 bus routes in areas not
directly serviced by rail. In many cases, these bus routes
funnel a large portion of the commuter traffic directly to
rapid transit stations. In 1974, this combined
service accounted for 71 percent of all passengers; strictly
bus users accounted for 21 percent and exclusively rapid
transit users only 8 percent.

The MBTA system

Population of 79 communities in district
(1970 U.S. C en su s )........................................................
Daily passenger load (approx.)......................................
Annual passenger load (a p p ro x .)...................................

2,763,410
475,000
144,287,000

Routes:
Buses.................................................................................
Streetcars.........................................................................
Rapid tran sit........
Trackless tro lle y s ..........................................................

218
5
3
4

Equipment miles:
Buses.............................................................................
Single-track streetcars..................................................
Single-track rapid transit..............................................
Trackless trolleys...........................................................

722.4
86.7
77.3
15.7

Equipment units:
Buses.................................................................................
Streetcars.........................................................................
Rapid transit cars...........................................................
Rapid transit statio ns....................................................
Trackless trolleys...........................................................

1,197
290
353
51
52

Total annual revenue miles operated ...........................
Buses................................................................................
Streetcars.........................................................................
Rapid tra n s it...................................................................
Trackless trolleys...........................................................

40,750,384
23,212,289
6,313,820
10,325,344
898,931

Table 5. Current operations statistics,1 Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority, 1974
Item

The MBTA transportation system consists of five
streetcar and three rapid transit routes which form a
spiderlike rail network 73 miles long connecting the
Boston central business district with other major
commercial and residential centers in Boston and
surrounding communities (table 5).8 For the most part,
these transit routes are underground in the most densely
developed areas and at the surface or on elevated tracks
in the less intensely developed areas. In many instances,
these lines have remained unchanged since their original
construction in the early 1890’s. With its inception in
1964, the MBTA began an extensive capital
improvements program to upgrade or replace entirely the
oldest rapid transit and streetcar lines and their
associated stations. This ongoing capital improvements
program is expected to continue into the 1980’s, requiring
a large amount of local and Federal funding.

Number

'Excluding subsidized commuter rail operations.
SOURCE: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Tenth
Annual Report, p. 9.

8Based on information provided by the MBTA.




8

The third major segment of the MBTA system is the
commuter railroad service. In 1974, the MBTA paid
more than $12 million to the Penn Central and Boston
and Maine railroads to operate their existing commuter
rail services to many outlying communities. Involvement
in the commuter rail operation was further expanded in
1975 when the M BT A agreed to purchase the Boston and
Maine commuter rights of way and equipment, thus
incorporating the commuter rail service directly into the
operating system. By the end of 1975, the extent of
commuter operations was such that the MBTA was
providing transportation to over 30,000 persons daily on
routes totaling 244 miles.

Table 6. Current operations expenditures, Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority, 1974-75

Expenditure category

Percent
distribution

1974

1974

1975

$193.2

$212.4

100.0

100.0

Wages and salaries...........................
Other employee-related expenses .
Fuel ......................................................
Other materials, supplies, and
services............................................
Industrial and transit-related
accident claims...............................
Curent operations in terest..............
Railroad and mass transit subsidies
Fixed interest and principal ............
Other fixed c o sts...............................
Other current costs...........................

The total costs of operation of the M BT A were funded
in roughly equal shares by farebox and miscellaneous
revenue sources, State financial assistance, and local
community financial assistance. The MBTA has the
implicit authority to tax directly each community within
the MBTA district. This is accomplished through a
unique mechanism whereby the State pays the entire cost
of the MBTA deficit. In turn, the State apportions the
local community share of the deficit to each of the 79
cities and towns by a formula based on the total number
of commuters living in each jurisdiction and the number
of riders boarding express service buses or rapid transit
vehicles in each community. The local community is
obligated to furnish the funds—either from its own
sources or by obtaining funding from Federal sources—
or forego the services normally covered by the State aid.
Beginning in 1974, Federal grants to cover the costs of
operating local public transportation systems became
available and the MBTA received approximately $11
million in operating assistance from the U.S. Department
of Transportation.
Federal aid payments allowed by the National Mass
Transportation Assistance Act of 1974 are scheduled
to grow from $11 million in 1975 to nearly $20 million in
1979. In addition, since 1973, the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts has increased its level of aid to the MBTA
to cover approximately one-half the annual deficit
incurred by transit operations. The combined effect of
these two actions has been to reduce the local tax burden
imposed by the deficit.

1975

T o tal...........................................

Revenues

97.3
25.9
11.1

105.3
27.4
11.6

50.4
13.4
5.7

49.6
12.9
5.4

13.7

14.6

7.1

6.9

3.2
3.8
12.0
25.3
.1
.7

3.9
4.5
14.9
29.3
.1
.8

1.7
2.0
6.0
13.1
(')
.4

1.8
2.1
7.0
13.8
(')
.4

Less than 0.05 percent
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Based on information provided by the Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority

Wages and fringe benefits for its approximately 6,400
employees constitute the major current operations
expenditures of the M BTA .1 Compensation has been the
0
predominant expenditure category in all years,
amounting to 63.8 percent and 62.5 percent of current
operating expenses in 1974 and 1975, respectively. In
contrast, expenditures for fuel, materials, and supplies
accounted for only 12.8 percent of expenditures in 1974
and 12.3 percent in 1975. Prior to its reorganization as the
MBTA in 1964, fixed costs of the transit system were
fairly constant, ranging from $4 million to $7 million
annually, reflecting primarily the low level of capital
investment during those years. Beginningin 1964, MBTA
fixed costs rose dramatically to nearly $30 million in
1975, due primarily to the extensive capital improve­
ments undertaken to update and expand transit
operations. Table 6 details the major expenditure
categories for 1974 and 1975.
In 1974, total purchases of goods and services in
constant 1972 dollars totaled $23.3 million, excluding the
rail subsidy. Of this amount, over 65 percent represented
purchases from five industries, as shown inthe tabulation
below:
Industry

Percent of
total purchases

Insurance....................................................................... 29.5
Petroleum products...................................................... 15.9
Electric utilities................................................................ 8.4
Wholesale trade ............................................
Motor vehicles and p arts.............................................. 3.4

Expenditures

The total cost of operating the MBTA in 1974 was
$193,244,765. This amount included the costs of
operating and maintaining the bus, streetcar, and rapid
transit fleet; general management and administrative
costs; and the subsidy allocated to commuter rail
operations.9

8.1

The largest single industry affected by MBTA
purchases was the insurance industry. These purchases
were predominantly for health and medical insurance
1 Current operating expenses in this context are defined as those
0
variable costs incurred in transit operation not including operating
costs of a fixed nature such as interest and principal payments on bonds
used to finance capital construction or acquisition projects.

9The total costs and revenues from commuter rail operations are not
included since these operations were actually performed and accounted
for by the two railway companies involved.




Amount
(millions)

9

provided employees as a fringe benefit. Other forms of in­
surance purchased were group life and accident policies.
The total does not include the cost of liability insurance.
Rather, the MBTA has chosen to be a self-insurer for
transit-related accidents and for industrial accidents up
to a certain level. Therefore, liability insurance purchased
covers only claims exceeding these amounts, with claims
for smaller amounts paid directly out of current oper­
ating costs.1
1
Ranked second in expenditures, petroleum products
totaled 16 percent of all purchases. These products were
primarily gasoline and diesel fuel used in the
bus operations and fuel oil used to power boilers. The
period 1972-74. witnessed a dramatic rise in the portion of
operating costs attributable to fuel. While some of this
rise was caused by an increase in the quantity of fuel
purchased, most of the increase reflected higher prices.
MBTA annual purchases of diesel fuel exceed 7 million
gallons, which, according to MBTA data, cost
approximately 12 cents per gallon in 1972 but by 2 years
later had nearly tripled, to 35 cents per gallon. Prices for
other petroleum products rose at similar rates.
Altogether, the M BTA paid $4.5 million in 1972 for total
fuel costs, including power purchased from independent
electric utilities. In 1974, this figure had increased to
$11.1 million.
Other major purchases were made predominantly
from the manufacturing and service sectors. Most
purchases from manufacturing industries were for tools,
repair and replacement parts, and equipment used to
maintain the transit rolling stock and associated
buildings and structures such as electrical substations.
Purchases from the services sector were primarily from
establishments providing business and professional
services and medical facilities.

Table 7. Indirect employment requirements of purchases for
current operations, major sectors and selected industries,
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1974
Sector and industry

Percent
distribution

T o ta l........................................................

1,967

100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.............
M in in g ...............................................................
C onstruction....................................................
Maintenance ................................................
Manufacturing..................................................
Transportation, communications, and
public utilities..........................................
Railroad transportation .............................
Electric utilities............................................
Wholesale and retail trade ...........................
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ...........
Insurance ......................................................
Services ...........................................................
Government enterprises ...............................

14
51
85
74
372

.7
2.6
4.3
3.8
18.9

534
386
43
207
413
338
241
51

27.1
19.6
4.4
10.5
21.0
17.2
12.3
2.6

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

unions to a variety of construction trade employee
associations and vary in size from fewer than 10
employees to thousands.
Indirect employment. Jobs generated indirectly through
purchases numbered nearly 2,000, with the impact spread
over a large number of different industries (table 7). The
major sectors most significantly affected were
transportation, communications, and public utilities;
and the finance, insurance, and real estate sector—which
together accounted for approximately 950 jobs. This
pattern is consistent with the pattern of direct purchases,
where the railroad subsidy and purchases of insurance
were the two largest categories of employment­
generating expenditures. The railroad subsidy itself
accounted for over 600 jobs—nearly 400 in the railroad
industry and the remainder in industries providing
materials and services directly to the railroads.
Business and professional services and wholesale and
retail trade were also substantially affected. This is
explained by the high labor content relative to the
amount of purchases in these industries. Employment
requirements in the manufacturing sector as a whole
ranked high, but because of the wide variety of
manufactured goods purchased, no one industry (with
the exception of petroleum products) was affected to a
large extent. The petroleum industry is unique in that,
while purchases of petroleum ranked second,
employment resulting from these purchases was
relatively small—in employment, the industry ranked
only Nth among all industries supplying the MBTA.
However, th ejo b requirements in the crude petroleum
industry, which is a major input into the petroleum
products industry, were significantly higher; the crude
petroleum industry ranked seventh in terms of the
number of jobs required. This is an excellent example of a
situation where the largest indirect employment impact is
not in the primary producing industry but rather in a

Employment requirements

MBTA operations provided nearly 8,400 full- and
part-time jobs in 1974 either directly on the payroll of the
MBTA or indirectly through the purchase of goods and
services.
Direct employment. Direct employees of the MBTA
accounted for nearly 6,400 jobs during 1974. The MBTA
makes a significant contribution to the employment rolls
in the New England region. Excluding employees of
Federal, State, and local government, the MBTA is the
19th largest employer in the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts and the 15th largest employer in the
Boston metropolitan area. Except for the top 150
managers and officials, MBTA employees are
represented by 28 separate collective bargaining units.
These units range from office and professional employee
"These costs, as discussed in appendix A, have been excluded from
this study.




Number of
jobs

10

secondary industry supplying major inputs into the
primary industry’s production process.

The remaining 1,500 jobs directly on MBTA payrolls
were divided equally between service workers, laborers,
and professional, technical, and managerial personnel.
Cleaning personnel and guards made up the majority of
the service group; the laborer group consisted mostly of
personnel engaged in track maintenance and repair and
helpers and assistants aiding skilled workers in most
maintenance and repair facilities. Engineers of various
specialties and unspecified managers made up the
remaining group.
Major occupations required by MBTA purchases were
in the clerical, skilled craft, and production worker fields.
These occupations accounted for nearly 60 percent of all
indirect jobs generated. Clerical workers employed in the
insurance industry accounted for 191 of the 464 clerical
jobs required and the railroad industry employed nearly
200 of the 690 craft and operative workers. One-fifth of
all the positions required were in professional and
managerial occupations; accountants, engineers,
engineering technicians, and miscellaneous office
managers and supervisors were the most common job
classifications. Service workers and laborers combined
accounted for only 12 percent of the indirect jobs
required.

Occupational patterns

Among MBTA employees, transportation and
equipment operatives made up the largest single group of
workers, totaling nearly 40 percent of all employees
(table 8). The majority of these workers were bus drivers
and rapid transit vehicle operators; the remainder were
operatives of various types of machinery and equipment.
Skilled crafts and kindred occupations formed the
second largest group of employees. These workers were
primarily employed as mechanics and other skilled
repairers involved in the extensive maintenance program
required to keep the transit fleet and related facilities
functioning.
Clerical personnel consisting mostly of secretaries,
bookkeepers, and miscellaneous clerks made up the third
largest group. These employees worked primarily in
general administrative positions such as accounting and
purchasing departments. Nearly one-third of the clerical
personnel were classified as dispatchers and vehicle
starters responsible for maintaining an orderly flow of
transit vehicles throughout the working day.

Table 8. Direct and indirect employment requirements for current operations by occupational group, Massachusetts Bay Transporta­
tion Authority, 1974
Total
Occupational group

Percent
distri­
bution

To tal.............................................................................................................................

8,359

Professional and technical w o rkers................................................................................
Engineers.......................................................................................................................
O th e rs ............................................................................................................................
Managers and administrators............................................................................................
Sales w o rke rs.......................................................................................................................
Clerical w o rkers...................................................................................................................
Craft workers .......................................................................................................................
O p eratives.............................................................................................................................
Bus drivers.....................................................................................................................
Rapid transit operators ..............................................................................................
Other ...............................................................................................................................
Service workers ...................................................................................................................
Laborers, farm workers ......................................................................................................

402
128
274
422
159
1,245
2,050
2,783
(’ )
(’ )
(’)
665
633

'Detail not available.




Number
of jobs

Percent
distri­
bution

100.0

6,392

4.8
1.5
3.3
5.0
1.9
14.9
24.5
33.3
(')
n
n
8.0
7.6

227
97
130
191

Number
of jobs

Percent
distri­
bution

100.0

1,967

100.0

3.6
1.5
2.0
3.0

175
31
144
231
159
464
325
365
(’ )
(’ )
(')
118
130

8.9
1.6
7.3
11.7
8.1
23.6
16.5
18.6
(’ )
(')
(')
6.0
6.6

—

781
1,725
2,418
2,025
207
186
547
503

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

11

Indirect

Direct

Number
of jobs

—

12.2
27.0
37.8
31.7
3.2
2.9
8.6
7.9

Part II. Capital Improvements
Since its receipt of an initial Federal grant of $16
million in February 1965—just 7 months after the
enactment of the Urban Mass Transportation Act of
1964—the MBTA has won approval of more than $700
million in Federal assistance to improve its system. The
30 months of capital improvements projects studied—
January 1972 to June 1974 represented $63 million, or 9
percent, of these dollars. As can be seen from chart 3,
although the trend of Federal assistance has been
strongly upward, there has been considerable year-toyear variation, especially in earlier years of UMTA
funding.

The transportation, communications, and public utilities
sector accounted for about 20 percent of the purchases;
highway transport and communications industries
accounted for the majority of the purchases within the
sector.
Employment requirements

The MBTA contractors spent $33 million on goods
and services from the private sector, which generated
about 2,000jobs in addition to those directly on their own
payrolls. The majority of these, jobs were concentrated in
manufacturing and services, which together accounted
for about two-thirds of the indirect employment (table
10). Blast furnaces, basic steel products, and fabricated
metals accounted for 10 percent of the construction
indirect employment, while none of the other industries
in the manufacturing sector accounted for more than 4
percent of the indirect employment.
More than 40 percent of the indirect employment
generated by purchases by the architectural and
engineering Firms was in services. Miscellaneous business
services accounted for 25 percent of the indirect employ­
ment within the service sector. The wholesale and retail
trade sector accounted for 10 percent of all indirect em­
ployment from capital products but only 5 percent of the
total dollars expended. This disparity arises because
services and trade are more labor intensive than the other
major sectors. Transportation, communications, and
public utilities accounted for 10 percent of the indirect
employment, evenly distributed throughout the sector.

Expenditures

The bulk of the expenditures forcapital improvements
projects studied went for construction.1 Almost two2
thirds of the $56.7 million of construction was done by
prime contractors with the MBTA. Direct payroll costs
were a much larger proportion of architectural and
engineering contracts—approximately 57 percent—than
for construction contracts, where they accounted for
roughly 25 percent of the total. Expenditures on
materials, services, and equipment accounted for over
half of the dollar value of construction contracts, but
dropped to about 3 percent for architectural and
engineering contracts (table 9).
Three manufacturing industries received over 40
percent of the total expenditures for manufacturing
goods $4 million for basic steel products, $2 million for
fabricated metals, and over $1 million for electric
transmission equipment. Another sector receiving a
substantial share of the purchases for the construction of
capital projects was services, which accounted for 11
percent of the purchases.
Almost 90 percent of the purchases of the architectural
and engineering firms with MBTA contracts were
centered in three industry sectors, the services sector
received the largest amount—40 percent—of the pur­
chases from architectural and engineering contractors,
with miscellaneous business services and professional
services accounting for nearly all of these purchases.
Finance, insurance, and real estate—primarily insur­
ance—accounted for about 30 percent of the purchases.

Occupational patterns

The employment requirements of the MBTA projects
for the 30 months totaled a little less than 4,000 jobs, of
which 1,882 represented jobs directly on the payrolls of
construction contractors or architectural and
engineering firms (table 11). For employees of
construction contractors, the largest single occupational
group was craft and kindred workers, which accounted
for 46 percent of all direct construction jobs. The next
largest occupational group was that of laborers, with 25
percent of direct construction jobs. Professional,
technical, and administrative workers represented 12
percent of the total direct employment on construction
contracts, while clerical workers made up 8 percent.
Operatives accounted for 5 percent of these direct jobs;

l3The scope of the case study was confined to construction and archi­
tectural and engineering contracts for capital improvements. Training
grants and equipment purchases of light rail vehicles, for example, were
excluded from the study.



12

Chart 3. Federal grants to Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority, 1965-75

109.7

1965

1966




1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

Total, 1965-75
13

1973

1974

1975

$457.7 million

the small remaining balance consisted of managers,
officials, and proprietors.
The occupational pattern was considerably different
for employment generated by architectural and
engineering contracts. Nearly three-quarters of all the
direct employment on these contracts was classified as
professional and technical. Clerical workers represented
the next largest group, with 18 percent. No other
occupational group accounted for as much as 5 percent of
the total direct employment. Within the broad groups,
civil engineers were the single most predominant
occupation, representing 30 percent of the direct
employment on architectural and engineering contracts.
Eighteen percent of the balance of the employees were
drafters, 10 percent were clerical workers, and 5 percent

Among the nine major occupational categories, the
largest group, operatives, accounted for 27 percent of the
indirect employment generated by the purchases of
MBTA contractors, while farm workers—the smallest
group—accounted for less than 1 percent of the indirect
employment. The largest subgroup for operatives was
“operatives, except transport,” which contained over 70
percent of the operatives. Transport equipment
operatives constituted 47 percent of the operatives, with
these jobs equally distributed among assemblers and
miscellaneous operatives.
Clerical and craft workers each represented 18 percent
of the total indirect employment. The largest subgroups
within these categories were “other clerical workers”—70
percent of all clerical workers—and mechanics, repairers,

were architects.
Table 9. Capital improvements expenditures by type of contract and expenditure, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,
1972-74'
Total
expenditures

Type of contract

Payroll

Materials
and
services

Equipment

Overhead
Payroll

Other

T o tal............................................................................................

$63,138,947

$17,650,321

$27,848,036

$3,844,611

$6,154,022

$7,641,957

Construction contracts .....................................................................
Prime contracts ..........................................................................
Subcontracts................................................................................

56,731,342
36,261,654
20,469,688

14,017,434
8,855.836
5.161.598

27,683,666
17,151,387
10,532,279

3,813,783
2,815.002
998,781

5,216,911
3,386,587
1,830.324

5,999,548
4,052,842
1 946,706

Architectural and engineering contracts ......................................
Prime contracts ..........................................................................
Subcontracts......................................................................

6.407,605
5,905,231
502,374

3.632,887
3,441,352
191,535

164,370
134,463
29,907

30,828
9,963
20,865

937,111
821,370
115,741

1,642,409
1,498,083
144,326

T o tal...........................................................................................

100.0

28.0

44.1

6.1

9.8

12.1

Construction contracts ....................................................................
Prime contracts ..........................................................................
Subcontracts................................................................................

100.0
100 0
100.0

24 7
24 4
25.2

48.8
47.3
51.4

6.7
7.8
4.9

9.2
9.3
8.9

10.6
11.2
9.5

Architectural and engineering contracts ......................................
Prime contracts ..........................................................................
Subcontracts................................................................................

100 0
100 0
100.0

56.7
58.3
38.1

2.6
2.3
6.0

.5
.2
42

14.6
13.9
23.0

25 6
25 4
28.7

Percent distribution

30-month period, January 1972-June 1974

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

NOTE: Percentages may not add to 100 0 because of rounding

Table 10. Capital improvements expenditures (1972 dollars) and indirect employment requirements by industry sector, Massachusetts
Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-74'

Industry sector
Expendi­
tures

Percent Indirect Percent
of
employ­
of
total
ment
total

Percent Indirect Percent
of
employ­
of
ment
total
total

Expendi­
tures

Expendi­
tures

Percent Indirect Percent
of
employ­
of
total
ment
total

100.0

2,005

100.0

$31,355,915

100.C

1,900

100.0

$1,606,745

100.0

104

100.0

6,199
939,879
1,953,051
20,277,065

(2)
2.9
5.9
61.5

18
73
75
943

1.0
3.6
3.7
47.0

6,187
939,879
1,953,051
20,124,154

(2)
3.0
6.2
64.2

17
72
73
929

.9
3.8
3.8
48.8

12
0
0
152,911

<
2)
0
0
9.5

1
0
0
14

8
.6
1.7
13.2

2,475,065
1,644,762

7.5
5.0

199
211

9.9
10.5

2,167,224
1,605,460

6.9
5.1

184
203

9.7
10.7

308,464
39,302

19.2
2.4

15
8

14.3
8.0

1,595,198
4,064,074
6,744

4.8
12.3
(2>

110
342
34

5.5
17.1
1.7

1,128,436
3,425,912
5,612

3.6
10.9
(2)

93
299
30

4.9
15.7
1.5

466,762
638,162
1,132

29.1
39.8
(2»

17
43
4

16.4
•41.2
3.7

Total............................... $32,962,037
Agriculture, forestry, and
fisheries ...............................
M ining......................................
Construction...........................
Manufacturing.............: ..........
Transportation, communi­
cations, and public
utilities..................................
Wholesale and retail trade .. .
Finance, insurance, and
real estate.............................
Services ..................................
Government enterprises .......

Architectural and
engineering contracts

Construction contracts

All capital improvements

'30-month period January 1972-June 1974.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

2
Less than 0.05 percent.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics




14

Occupations by project type. A study of construction
contracts by project type revealed significant differences
in the occupational mix. The project types studied are
shown in table 12—a major rail extension (HaymarketNorth), yards and shops, station modernization and
repair projects, and all other capital improvement
projects. While laborers contributed the largest
proportion of workers in each group, their importance
ranged from 21 percent on the major rail project to 50
percent on the station modernization and repair projects.
A significant proportion in each group—ranging from
8.5 percent up to 16 percent—were classified as bluecollar worker supervisors. Structural metal craft workers
as well as electricians were important to the
modernization and repair projects. Carpenters and
electricians each accounted for roughly 10 percent of the
work-hours on the rail project.

Table 11. Direct and indirect employment requirements of
capital improvements projects by occupational group, Massa­
chusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-741

Occupational group

All
Construction
capital
contracts
improvements

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

Direct Indirect Direct Indirect Direct Indirect
T o tal...................

1,882

2,005

1,618

1,901

264

374

197

185

180

189

17

74
0
170
760
87
0
409
0

194
62
183
83
0
76
124
348
321
374
748
363
541
527
86
127
140
0
114
407
111
0
12
11
Percent distribution

12
0
46
12
1
0
2
0

11
7
27
11
14
13
3
1

100.0

100.0

100.0

11.5

9.4

72.0

16.2

3.9
0
7.7
46.4
5.3
0
25.3
0

9.6
4.0
16.8
19.2
27.7
6.7
5.9
.6

4.6
0
17.6
4.6
.4
0
.8
0

10.4
7.1
26.2
10.6
13.9
12.3
2.5
8

Professional and
technical workers. . .
Managers and
administrators.........
Sales w o rke rs.............
Clerical w o rkers.........
Craft workers .............
Operatives ..................
Service w o rk e rs ..........
Laborers.......................
Farm workers .............
T o tal...................

100.0

100.0

100.0

20.0

9.8

3.9
0
9.1
40.6
4.6
0
21.8
0

9.7
4.1
17.4
18.7
27.0
7.0
5.7
.8

Professional and
technical workers. . .
Managers and
administrators..........
Sales w o rke rs.............
Clerical w o rkers..........
Craft workers .............
Operatives ...................
Service w o rk e rs ..........
Laborers.......................
Farm w o rke rs.............

104

Table 12. Percent distribution of hours worked by occupation
and project type, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,
1972-741

Occupation

HaymarketNorth,
new rail
extension

Station
All
Yards modern­
ization
and
other
shops
and
projects
repair

’30-month period January 1972-June 1974.
T o tal...................................
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding

Laborers......................................
Blue-collar worker supervisors
Carpenters...................................
Electricians .................................
Excavation equipment
operators .................................
Structural metal craft
w o rkers.....................................
Truck drivers...............................
M anag ers.....................................
Plumbers .....................................
Stationary engineers.................
All other occupations................

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

and installers—20 percent of all craft workers. Another
20 percent of craft workers were construction craft
workers. Each of three occupational groups represented
about 9 percent of the indirect employment—profes­
sional and technical workers; managers and officials; and
service workers. Cleaning service workers and food
service workers each accounted for 30 percent of the
indirect employment for service workers.




100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

21.3
13.9
10.8
9.1

31.4
15.4
7.6
8.2

50.0
8.5
.8
8.1

44.0
16.0
7.7
0

4.4

2.3

0

4.6

3.9
3.3
2.4
2.1
0
28.8

4.6
3.0
0
3.7
3.8
20.0

12.7
7.7
1.8
1.3
1.9
7.2

2.2
0
4.3
0
0
18.2

'30-month period January 1972-June 1974
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

15

Appendix A. Data Collection and Methods of Adjustment
Current operations

must be maintained to accommodate repair needs. The
identified expenditures for parts for various transit
vehicles and related facilities do not reflect actual usage
but rather replenishment of stocks or addition to
inventory reserves. This study required that the actual
usage of these items be reflected in expenditures.
Therefore, a second ledger file detailing actual inventory
usage was obtained from the MBTA and expenditure
data were adjusted to reflect annual usage. In cases where
inventories were drawn down, more expenditures for a
given class of items are noted to reflect a usage greater
than actual expenditures in that class. The opposite holds
true in those cases where inventories were built up—
actual expenditures were adjusted downwards.
Following the classification, all data were grouped,
with those items identified as having labor input in one
group and those items which had no effect or an
indeterminate effect on labor in a second group. This
latter group was excluded from further study, yielding a
modified MBTA budget (table A-l).
With the exception of wage data, all expenditure data
included in this portion of the study were classified into
one of 134 input-output producing industries of the BLS
interindustry model discussed in appendix B. The sum of
all industry purchases forms a bill of goods specifying the

For the current operations part of the study, data were
required to identify all the goods and services purchased
by the MBTA and the occupation and number of hours
worked by each employee. For the most part, data on
expenses were provided by the MBTA in the form of an
accounts payable ledger detailing all expenses incurred in
operating the transit system in 1974. Each of the
approximately 46,000 items in this account was evaluated
to determine if the item was supplied by an industry
which could be classified into the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC). A majority of the expense items
were purchases of goods and services and, as such, could
be identified with a producing industry. In the remaining
cases, each expense was classified in one of two ways.
The first classification constituted expenditures to
other general ledger accounts such as payroll, payroll
deductions, retirement funds, or social security. For the
most part, these items could not be classified as purchases
of goods and services and, with the exception of the
payroll ledger, were not included in this study. The
payroll account was treated separately and compared
with data provided directly from the payroll department
detailing the occupation and hours of each worker
employed by the MBTA.
The second classification consisted of transfer
payments from the MBTA to governments and
individuals, and reserves held aside by the MBTA as
investments. The transfer payments to governments were
primarily for taxes levied by various State and local
governmental units whereas transfer payments to
individuals were primarily made in compensation for
liability claims against the MBTA arising from injuries
and damages suffered in work-related or transit-related
accidents. These payments made up most of the $3.2
million spent in 1974 for injuries and damage claims by
private individuals and workers’ compensation claims by
MTBA employees. The remaining portions of these
funds were identified as payments made directly to
physicians, medical facilities, and attorneys involved in
settlement of claims. This category of items was
reclassified as a purchase of services and included in the
total for purchases of goods and services.
Adjustment was made to the data to reflect changes in
inventory. Given the diverse nature of the MBTA transit
system, a large inventory of repair and replacement parts



Table A-1. Direct operations budget, Massachussetts Bay
Transportation Authority, 1974
Item

Amount

T o ta l......................................................................

$193,244,785

Total: Items included in s tu d y ...................................
Wages and sa laries...............................................
Accident and sickness insurance.....................
Group life insurance.............................................
Blue Cross-Blue S h ie ld .......................................
Materials, supplies, and services.......................
Fuel ..........................................................................
Railroad and rapid transit subsidies ................
Bank service c h a rg e s ...........................................

143.986,502
97,346,037
504,392
729,795
7,706,728
14,507,221
11,110,575
12,040,187
41,567

Total: Items ex clud ed...................................................
MBTA pensions .....................................................
Social security ta xes.............................................
Workers' com pensation.......................................
Unemployment insurance...................................
Injuries and dam ages...........................................
T a x e s ........................................................................
Interest and principal paym en ts.......................
Miscellaneous fixed co s ts ...................................

49,258,283
11,839,299
4,753,356
1,158,825
115,000
'1,515,448
678,534
29,179,045
18,776

'Adjusted total after removing identified services.
SOURCE: Based on information provided by Massachusetts Bay

Transportation Authority

16

total purchases of goods and services bv the MBTA in
1974. One final adjustment was made to convert the
data in 1972 constant dollars for the purposes of
comparability with the construction portion of this studv
and the BLS model. With these data, the model
developed estimates of the indirect jobs created by
MBTA purchases of goods and services.

subcontractors who had worked on each of their projects.
The final list contained 514 names, later reduced to 340
because many of the original number were found to have
done no work during the period selected for study (table
A-2). It was decided that only 66 of the architectural and
engineering contracts, or about 50 percent, would be
included in the survey. These contracts were arranged in
rank order according to the amount of money spent
during the survey period. All architectural and
engineering contracts greater than $30,000 were included
in the sample, while only a portion of those less than
$30,000 were used although they were weighted to
compensate for the partial sample.
For the 340 contracts forming the final sample, refusals
totalled 15 or 4.4 percent of the total. A like number of
firms were found to be out of business by the time of the
survey in mid-1975. The overall response rate, then, was
greater than 91 percent for the whole project.
Architectural and engineering contracts had a 98.5percent response rate, while the rate for construction
contracts was slightly below 90 percent, reflecting both
refusals and a greater number of firms having gone out of
business.

Capital improvements
Direct employment information on MBTA capital
improvements was collected from the contractors, who
in most instances are required by the Davis-Bacon Act to
keep detailed weekly records for on-site workers
consisting o f the names, occupations, and hours worked.
This is required for all contractors and subcontractors
working on buildings or works financed in whole or in
part by loans or grants from the Federal Government.
Under provisions o f the act, contractors are required to
submit weekly payroll statements to the agency
contracting for or financing the work. The Davis-Bacon
Act does not cover employees in white-collar occupations
or immediate supervisors o f blue-collar employees. The
act applies only to actual construction contracts, and
does not apply to architectural and engineering design
contracts.
The MBTA supplied a listing of the 97 prime con­
tractors who had worked on the MBTA capital projects
during the 2 1 /2-year period, January 1972-June
1974. These prime contractors provided the names of

The direct employment was determined by dividing the
number of hours worked by the hours equivalent to 1
work-year for the occupations in the MBTA direct
employment sector. The estimates were based on two
sources:
•E stim a te s o f average an n u al hours for selected
co n stru ctio n crafts in three cities published in BLS
B u lle tin 1612, S e a s o n a lity a n d M a n p o w e r in
C onstruction. D ata fo r these occupations were also
used for related o r sim ilar occupations w here no data
were available.
•A ssu m p tio n o f 2,080-hour stan d ard w ork-year for all
o th er occupations.

Table A-2. Number of contracts for capital improvements
within scope of survey and number studied, Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority

Total

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
conracts

Total contracts in sample . . .

340

274

66

Less: Firms out of business...........
Refusals..........
Equals: Contracts studied ..............
Prime contracts ...............
Subcontracts.......................

15
15
310
97
213

14
15
245
55
190

1
0
65
42
23

Item

This approach provided employee-hour estimates
roughly comparable to those used by BLS’ Office of
Productivity and Technology (in construction labor
requirements studies) of 1,800 hours per employee for
onsite construction; 2,000 for offsite construction; 2,053
for manufacturing; 1,803 for wholesale trade,
transportation, and services; and 2,074 for mining and
other industries.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.




17




Appendix B. Forms Used for Data Collection

18

U.S, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

BLS-3061
June 1975

Office of Management and
Budget No. 44~S75014
Approval Exoires 12/3J./75

INTERVIEW GUIDE
Employment Impact of Mass Transit
System Construction
Schedule A
Contract No.

Interview conducted at
(company)

(address)
w i-h
<.

Date ____________
A.

______
_________________
(name of respondent)
Name of Interviewer

Telephone_____ _
_

_____________________

Introduction
This interview is being conducted as part of a study by the

Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U. S. Department of Labor, with the
permission and cooperation of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation
Authority (MBTA).

The study is intended to measure the number of jobs,

b* occupation, resulting from the construction of a mass transit system,
)and will provide information to manpower planners in areas where large
expenditures are planned for mass transit construction.
A list of design and construction contracts and information on
contract amounts and type of work involved has been furnished by the
MBTA.

For most construction contracts, data on employment of on-site

blue-collar workers has been compiled from weekly payroll statements
filed by the contractor as required under the Davis-Bacon Act.

In

this interview the respondent will be asked to verify the information
and to furnish additional data on employment, and on purchases and
other non-payroll costs associated with the contract.

Cost information

will be used to estimate the number of jobs created in industries pro­
ducing the goods and services purchased.



19

All data and information obtained in this interview will be held
in strict confidence by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and any published
information will not allow identification of individual contractors.

B.

Site Information

1.

What is the major activity of the respondent's establishment?
Include the type of construction, good, or service produced, such as
tunnel construction, landscape architecture.

SIC

2.

Contract Identification. All remaining questions pertain to work
performed by the respondent under MBTA contract number

a.

Was the respondent
Code
1 - A prime contractor?
2 - A subcontractor? List name and address of prime contractor.

3 • A sub-subcontractor?

b.

List name and address of subcontractor.

What type of work was performed by the respondent?
Code
1 - Architectural and engineering services
2 - Construction
3 - Other (specify)




20

1

3
B.




Site information, cont.
c.

What was the duration of the contract?
Starting date (for prime contracts, the date of notice
to proceed from MBTA)$..........................

/ /

4

f

/ / jJ

scheduled completion date..........

6

Duration of the contract in weeks • »
*

d.

What was the dollar amount of the contract?
For the total contract.................. .
For work performed between January 1, 1972 and
June 30, 1974?................................. .

e.

$

$

rr
8

For construction contracts only
9
Was this work primarily
Code
1 - New construction?
2 - Renovation, maintenance or repair?
Was the structure or facility constructed or renovated
primarily for
2SL
Code
1 - Heavy rail system?
2 - Light rail system?
3 - Bus sytem?
Were the structures or facilities constructed or renovated
primarily
Code
1 2 3 4 5 6 -

11
Yards and shops?
Stations?
Surface rail lines ?
Underground rail lines ?
Elevated rail lines?
Other? (describe)

21

B.

Site Info r m a t i o n , cont.

3.

For prime contracts and sub-contracts only.
the work subcontracted?

Was any of

a*

What was the total amount of all subcontracts?

b.

List the names and addresses of the subcontractors,
the dollar amounts of the subcontracts, and the type
of work performed.
NOTE:

Subcontract
Number

Do not include contracts that involved only a
purchase of goods or services. These should be
included under item D.

Name and address of subcontractor

Type of work
performed

Dollar. amount {
of subcontract

01

$

02

$

03

§

04

$

05

$

06

$

07

$

08

$-

09

$

10

$

TOTAL

Continue on additional sheets
if necessary.




22

$

- 5 -

C.

Employment and Payroll Information
IF THIS IS A CONSTRUCTION PRIME CONTRACT OR SUBCONTRACT, COMPLETE ITEM C.l.
IF IHIS IS A CONSTRUCTION SUB-SUBCONTRACT, OR AN
ENGINEERING DESIGN CONTRACT, GO TO ITEM C.2

ARCHITECTURAL &

For construction prime contracts and subcontracts.
a.

Total payroll and employment information for on-site
nonsupervisory blue-collar workers shown in Schedule B
has been compiled from weekly payroll statements, filed
by the contractor as required under the Davis-Bac^an Act.
The respondent should verify this information.
Total payroll for on-site nonsupervisory blue-collar
workers......................................

13

Total number of man-hours’for on-site nonsupervisory
’
blue-collar workers.................... ......
b.

What were the occupations, hours paid, and the total payroll
for on-site workers not included in weekly payroll statements?
These should include professional, technical, clerical, and
other white-collar workers, foremen, and working proprietors
who worked at the construction site.
Total payroll for on-site employment not included in
$
item l.a above................................

r_

Total man-hours
Code

hrs

Total hours
paid______

Employee's Name and Occupation

__ljiJ
1
hrs

Earnings**

**Use this column only if total payroll figure (item C.l.b) is not available
and must be computed by summing payroll amounts for individual occupations,




23

14

f
16

C.
Code

EMPLOYMENT AND PAYROLL INFORMATION, cont.
Total hours
Pa id .
.

Employee's Name and Occupation

Earnings **

i
i
1
|
i
l
i

TOTAL
hrs

_________________

**Use this column only if total payroll figure (item C.l.b) is not available and
must be computed by summing payroll amounts for individual workers.



24

7

C.

Employment and Payroll Information, cont.

2.

For construction sub-subcontracts and architectural and engineering
contracts.
What were the occupations, hours paid, and the total payroll of
workers employed by the contract?
For construction, list only on-site workers.
For architectural and engineering design contracts, list only
workers whose time was charged directly to the contract.

hrs

Total number of man-hours
Employee's Name and Occupation

Code

17

$

Total payroll ..........

Total hours
worked

18

Earnings **

i

i

i

i
!
;

i

**Use this column only if total payroll figure (item C.2) is not available and
must be computed by summing payroll amounts for individual workers.



25

C.

EMPLOYMENT AND PAYROLL INFORMATION, continued.

Code

Employee's Name and Occupation

Total hours
paid

Earnings ** ?
1
t
»

J

i
i

i
J

i

!

i

TOTAL

$
hrs

**Use this column only if total payroll figure (item C.2).is not available and
must be computed by summing payroll amounts for individual workers.



26

9

U.

MATERIALS, SUPPLIES, AND SERVICES PURCHASED

i.

a.

What was the total cost of materials, supplies
for the contract? . .. ..... a..................

and services purchased
.................

Include only the actual purchase price, not the cost charged to MBTA or
the prime contractor.
Service of consultants should be listed as
subcontracts in item B.3 above.

List the specific items of materials, supplies, and services
purchased and the cost.
Show amount purchased only if cost infor­
mation is not available.
Amount V
c
Cos t
Code
Description of item purchased
Purchased
—
b.

1
—

,

•

.

i

j
!
;

.

i

i

............................................
............ ...

- ...........- .

,

------

]
i

I
!

'

[
.

'

i

----1
i

T

*Use this column only if cost
information is not available.




TOTAL

27

$

E.

CAPITAL EQUIPMENT

1.

What kinds of capital equipment were used for this contract*
and what was the cost charged to the contract for each item?
Capital equipment includes machinery or other durable goods
lasting one year or longer. Include items purchased specifically
for the contract as well as charges for owned or rented items.
SIC
Description of Equipment, including type and! Hours
Used
size.

Code

Charge to
the contract

1

If

_

_




TOTAL
28

$

F. OVERHEAD COSTS
l.a *What were the total overhead costs charged to the contract? Indicate
the amount of payroll and non-payroll costs charged to overhead.

b.

List the occupations.and number of man-hours charged to overhead
x for the contract....... ................. .

hrs 24
2ode

^Occupation

Total hours— Earnings ***
worked

TOTAL

$

** Use this column only if total payroll figure is not available and must
be obtained by adding individual items.



29

- 12 F.

OVERHEAD COSTS, continued.

c.

Code

List the items of goods and services charged to non-payroll
overhead for the contract.

Amount *
Purchased

Description of item purchased

Coat

I

,
.
.
, .r
*Use this column only if cost

TOTAL

information is not available.



30

$

Appendix C. Interindustry Employment Model and
Industry-Occupational Matrix
This appendix describes the interindustry model and
the national industry-occupational matrix. Specific
methodologies used in the current operations and capital
improvements parts of the study are covered in appendix
A. The purpose of this appendix is to furnish the overall
analytical framework for the studies.

industry would have to buy from such industries as
rubber, textiles, steel, aluminum, advertising business
services, plastics, transportation, and trade in order to
produce a unit value of output.
These purchases represent the requirements from the
immediate or first tier of supplying industries. Each of
these supplying industries would also require inputs in
order to manufacture its product. The steel industry
would need coal and iron ore to make steel. The coal and
iron ore industries, in turn, would need fuel and other
products and services to produce their outputs. Each
final purchase would require a chain of purchases back
through the more basic supplying industries. An
interindustry model provides a way of solving simul­
taneously all of the interrelated requirements created in
the economy by purchases of the various final demand
sectors or programs.
The elements of this model can be transformed from
production requirements to employment requirements
by applying employment-output ratios to each industry’s
total output. The interindustry employment table which
results from this process shows the total employment
attributable to deliveries to final demand. Total employ­
ment generated by a given type of final demand using an
interindustry model consists of the employment in the
industry producing the final product or service and also
the employment in all the supporting industries.
The interindustry table used here is expressed in terms
of 1972 prices. Moreover, the transactions in 1972 dollars
are in terms of producers’ value and not purchasers’
values. Producers’ values are purchasers’ values minus
trade and transportation costs—put another way,
producers’ values are values stated at the site of
production. The trade margins and transportation costs
associated with all of the transactions appear as direct
purchases from the trade and transportation industries.
Use of this table, therefore, requires the conversion of
purchases to 1972 producers’ prices.

Interindustry employment model

The interindustry employment model used contains
134 industry sectors. Each sector represents a group of
industries classified by Standard Industrial Classification
(SIC) codes as shown in table C-l. An interindustry
model, in its most basic form, distributes the transaction
value of the sales that each industry sector makes to
itself, to each of the other industry sectors, and to final
purchasers.
In an interindustry model, intermediate goods are sold
to other industries where further fabrication occurs
before a finished good is produced. Finished products
are sold to the final demand or product sectors of
the national income accounts—personal consumption
expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net
exports of goods and services, Federal Government
purchases, and State and local government purchases.
Intermediate sales provide the basic structure of an
interindustry model while final sales, or final demand,
represent the usual input to a model of this type.
Each of the 134 rows in the interindustry model shows
the sales made by an industry to itself, to other industries,
and to the final demand sectors. Each of the 134 columns
shows an industry’s purchases from each industry,
including itself, which were required to produce its own
output. The sum of all purchases in a column plus that
industry’s value added1 is equal to the total value of
production for that industry. When the purchases in a
column are divided individually by the total production
of that industry, they form ratios that define the amount
of input required from each industry in order to produce
a unit of output (usually stated in dollar terms) of the
purchasing industry. For example, these ratios, or
coefficients, would show how much the automobile

National industry-occupational matrix

The employment generated in each industry is dis­
aggregated into occupations using the national industryoccupational employment matrix. This matrix is a
table which presents for total U.S. employment the

'The value added of a sector includes compensation of employees,
depreciation, profits, and other payments to the factors of production.



31

tries in the interindustry model was accomplished by
comparing the industries in terms of Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) codes and making necessary adjust­
ments. While many of the industries in both models
matched exactly by SIC code, there were various
differences that had to be reconciled.
In some areas, there was greater industry detail in the
occupational matrix than in the interindustry model. In
these cases, the matrix industries were aggregated. Where
the industry-occupational matrix industries were less
detailed than those in the interindustry model, the
employment of the matrix industry was distributed
according to the proportion of its SIC content. Thus, if a
matrix industry was composed of two SIC industries, the
total employment of each SIC industry as found in
Employment and Earnings (Bureau of Labor Statistics)
was added together, then divided by the total to calculate
a percent distribution for the matrix industry in terms of
its SIC content. This distribution was used to adjust each
cell of the matrix industry, and these adjusted cells were
used to form the interindustry model sector or were
added to corresponding adjusted cells from other matrix
industries to form the input-output sector. For example,
if an SIC industry was found to represent 30 percent of
the total employment of a matrix industry, each cell of
the matrix industry was multiplied by 30 percent to form
the corresponding cell for the interindustry model sector
or was added to similarly adjusted cells from other matrix
industries to form the interindustry model sector’s cell.
These operations were performed on private wage and
salary, self-employed, and unpaid family worker
occupational cells for each industry. Government
workers were placed in three input-output cells based on
independent information.

percent distribution o f 422 occupations in each o f 201
industries. By applying an industry’s occupational
pattern to total employment in that industry, estimates
are developed o f the industry’s employment by
occupation. T o arrive at total national requirements for
each occupation, the estimates for all the industries are
summed across each row in the table or matrix.
The current industry-occupational matrix is based
primarily on data from the 1970 Census o f Population,
supplemented by data from other sources. These
supplemental data include annual averages from the
Current Population Survey (C PS) and:

• Employment estimates for teachers and librarians based on
data collected by the Office of Education;
• Occupational employment data collected by regulatory
agencies for regulated sectors such as railroads, airlines,
and telephone and telegraph communications;
• Employment data collected by professional societies,
especially for medical and health occupations;
• Federal Civil Service Commission statistics on employ­
ment by occupation in Federal Government agencies;
• Occupational employment information compiled by the
Postal Service on its employees.
The 1970 matrix was used to prepare the 1972-74
occupational employment estimates since each industry’s
occupational structure changes slowly and is relatively
stable over the short run.
A number of adjustments had to be made to the
occupational matrix in order to use it in conjunction with
the interindustry model system for the studies presented
in this report, since the industry classifications differ in
the two systems. The restructuring of the 201 industries in
the occupational matrix to conform to the 134 indus­




32

Table C-1. Interindustry model sectoring plan
rfumber

1963
Input-output
number

Sec,or name

A griculture, forestry, and fisheries:
1
Livestock and livestock products . . .
2
Crops and other agricultural
p ro d u c ts ............................................
3
Forestry and fis h e rie s .........................
4
A griculture, forestry, and
fishery services ................................

SIC code1

01

2.01-2.07
3

01
0.74, 08, and 091
071 ,0 7 2 3 , pt. 0729,
073, 085, and 098

Mining:
5
6
7

Iron ore m in in g .....................................
Copper ore m ining ..............................
O ther nonferrous metal ore mining . .

8
9
10

Coal m in in g ............................................
Crude p e tro le u m ..................................
Stone and clay m ining and
q u a rry in g ..........................................

7
8

Chemical and fe rtiliz e r m ining

10

11
Construction:
12

13
L*J
L*J

14
15
16
17
M anufacturing:
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

29
30
31

Sm

101 ,106
102
103-109, except
106
11, 12
1 3 1 1 ,1 3 2 1 ,1 3 8

5
6.01
6.02

.........

New residential building construction
(excludes equipment and land
development costs) .......................
New nonresidential building
c o n s tru c tio n .....................................
New public u tilitie s construction . . .
New highway construction ................
A ll other new c o n s tru c tio n ................
Maintenance and repair
c o n s tru c tio n .....................................
Guided missiles and space vehicles ..
Other o rd n a n c e .....................................
Food products .................................
Tobacco m anufacturing .....................
Fabric, yarn, and thread m il ls ...........
Miscellaneous textiles and flo o r
coverings ..........................................
Hosiery and k n it g o o d s .......................
A p p a re l...................................................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile
p ro d u c ts ............................................
Logging, sawmills, and planing
m il ls ...................................................
M illw o rk , plyw ood , and other wood
p ro d u c ts ............................................
Household f u r n it u r e ...........................
O ther f u r n it u r e .....................................
Paper products .....................................

f o o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .




141-145, 148,
and 149
147

9

26.05-26.08

35

27.01 and
27.04
27.02-27.03
28.01-28.02
28.03-28.04
29.01
29.02-29.03
30
31.01-31.03
32.01-32.03
32.04

2821,2822
282 3,28 24
283
284
285
29
30 except 307
307

33 and 34.01
34.03
35.01-35.02

31

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

25
26.01 -26.04

Plastic materials and synthetic

Leather, footw ear, and leather

3 21 ,322 , and 323

Cement, clay, and concrete
36.01 -36.05
and 36.10-36.14

Blast furnaces and basic steel

50

Iron and steel foundries, and

"

/

227 and 229
225
23 (except 239),
3992

19.01-19.03

239

20.01-20.04

37.01

51
52
53

331

37.02-37.04
38.01
38.04

332, 3391, and 3399
3331
3334 and 28195

38.02-38.03,
38.05, and
38.06
38.07
38.08

3332, 3333, 3339,
and 334

Other prim ary and secondary

54
55
56
57

3351
3352

Other nonferrous rolling and
Miscellaneous nonferrous metal

38.09-38.10

3 3 5 6 and 3357

38.11-38.14
39.01-39.02

336 and 3392
341 and 3491

60
61
62

40.01-40.03
40.04-40.09
41.04-41.02
42.01-42.11

63
64

43.01-43.02
44

343
344
345 and 346
342, 347, 348 and
349 except 3491
351
352

58
59

241 and 242

20.05-20.09
243 244 and
and 21
249
22.0122.04 251
23.0123.07 25 except 251
24.0124.07 26 except 265

326, 328, and
329

Miscellaneous stone and clay

49
j

324, 325, and
327

36.06-36.09
and 36.1536.22

48

1925
13.01
19 except 1925
13.02-13.07
14.0114.32 20
15.0115.02 21
16.01-16.04
221 ,2 2 2 , 223,
224, 226 and 228
17.01-17.10
18.01-18.03
18.04

SIC code1

34

\

11.02
11.03
11.04
11.05
12.01-12.02

1963
Input-output
number

265
2 71 ,272 , 273,
and 274
275, 276, 277,
2 7 8 ,and 279
281, 286, and 289
(except 28195)
287

46
47
11.01

Sector name

M anufacturing — Continued
32
33

1.01 -1.03

4

Sector
number

Heating apparatus and plumbing

Table C-1.

Interindustry model sectoring plan—Continued

Sector
number

Sector name

M anufacturing — Continued
65
Construction, m ining, and o ilfie ld
machinery ........................................
66
Material handling e q u ip m e n t..............
67
68
69
70
71
72

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

LO

81
82
83
84
35
86
87
88

89
90
91
92
Transportation,
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

M etalworking m a c h in e ry ..................
Special in dustry m a c h in e ry ..............
General industrial m achinery ............
Machine shop p r o d u c ts .....................
Computers and peripheral equipment
Typew riters and other o ffic e
machines ..........................................
Service industry m achin es...................
Electric transmission equipm ent . . . ,
Electrical industrial app a ra tu s.........
Household a p p lia n c e s ..........................
Electric lighting and w i r in g ..............
Radio and television s e ts ..................
Telephone and telegraph apparatus . .
Other electronic com m unication
equipm ent ........................................
Electronic c o m p o n e n ts .....................
O ther electrical m achinery ................
M otor vehicles.....................................
A ir c r a f t .................................................
Ship and boat building and repair . . .
Railroad and other transportation
equipm ent ........................................
Transportation equipm ent ................
Scientific and c o ntrolling
instrum ents ......................................
Medical and dental in stru m e n ts......
Optical and o ph thalm ic equipm ent . .
Photographic and equipm ent and
supplies .............................................
Miscellaneous manufactured
p ro d u c ts .............................................
com m unication, and p ub lic u tilities:
Railroad tra n s p o rta tio n .....................
Local transit and in tercity bus .........
Truck tra n s p o rta tio n .........................
Water tra n s p o rta tio n .........................
A ir tra n s p o rta tio n ..............................
Other tra n s p o rta tio n .........................
Comm unications, except radio and
T V ......................................................
Radio and T V broadcasting..............
Electric u t ilit ie s ...................................
Gas u t ilit ie s ..........................................

1963
Input-output
number

SIC code1

Sector
number




1963
Input-output
number

SIC code1

Transportation, com m unication
and public utilities — Continued
45 01 -45 03
3531 3532 and 3533
46.0146.04 3534, 3535^ 3536,
and 3537
354
47.01- 47.04
355
48.01- 48.06
49.01- 49.07
356
50
359
357 3,35 74
51.01

52.01 -52.05
53.01-53.03
53.04-53.08
54.01-54.07
55.01-55.03
56.01 -56.02
56.03

(|57, except 3573
and 3574
358
361
362
363
364
365
3661

56.04
57.01-57.03
58.01 -58.05
59.01-59.03
6U.01 -6U.U4
61.01-61.02

62.01-62.03
and 62.07
62.04-62.06
63.01 -63.02

3 8 1 ,3 8 2 , and
387
384
383 and 385

63.03
64.01-64.12
65.01
65.02
65.03
65.04
65.05
65.06-65.07

40 and 474
41
42 and 473
44
45
46, 47 (except
473 and 474)

70.01-70.03
70.04-70.05
70.01
71.02

60. 6 1 ,6 2 . and 67
63 and 64

72.01
72.02-72.03
73.01
73.02

70
72 and 76
73 except 731
731

73.03 and 74

107
108
109
Services:
110
111
112
113
114

81 and 89 except
892, non pro fit
research
75
78
79
8 0 (except 806),
0722
806
82
84. 86, and 892

( 2)

65 and 66

Miscellaneous professional

115
116
117
118

75
76.01
76.02
77.03
77.02
77.04
77.05

119
120
121
Government enterprises:
122
Post O ffice ...............................................................
123
124

( 2)

125

78.01
78.03
78.02 and
78.04

(2 )
(2)

79.01 -79.03

386
39 (except 3992)

50
52, 53, 54, 55, 56,
57, 58, and 59

Finance, insurance and real estate:

374 and 375
379

51.02-51.04

4 9 4 ,4 9 5 , 4 96 ,497 ,
and part 493

69.01
69.02

105

3662
367
369
371
372
373

61.03-61.05
61.06-61.07

68.03
Wholesale and retail trade:

( 2)

80.01
80.02

( 2)
( 2)

81
82
83

(2)

84
85

( 2)

State and local government

Im ports:
126
197

Dum m y industries:
128
Business travel, entertainm ent.
129

( 2)

(2)

Special industries:
66
67
68.01
68.02

48 except 483
483
491 and part 493
492 and part 493

1Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1967 edition. Bureau of the Budget (now O ffice of Management and Budget).
5 No comparable industry.

Sector name

132
133
134

(

2)

86

(2
)

87

( 2)




Appendix D. Detailed Tables

35

Table D-1. Current operations: Purchases of goods and services and indirect employment by industry, Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority, 1974
Indirect employment1

Purchases
Total,
without
rail
subsidy

Total,
with
rail
subsidy

Industry

Total,
Total,
Main­ General with
Transit
without
services tenance over­
rail
rail
head subsidy subsidy

Transit
services

Main­
tenance

T o tal.............................
Livestock and livestock........
products .............................
Crops and other agri­
cultural pro d u c ts..............
Forestry and fisheries..........
Agriculture, forestry,
and fishery services
Iron ore m ining......................
Copper ore mining ..............
Other nonferrous m etal........
ore m in in g ..........................
Coal m in in g ................. ..........
Crude petroleum ..................
Stone and clay mining ........
and qu arry in g ....................
Chemical and fertilizer

$6,286,942

$6,121,486

$20,685,248

$33,093,600

$22,448,080

53.51

62.56

205.84

321.90

228.14

0

0

0

0

0

.14

.14

.25

.53

.43

0
0

0
0

15
0

15
0

15
0

.27
.02

.27
.10

.41
.05

.95
.17

.80
.14

0
0
0

12,249
0
0

0
0
0

12,249
0
0

12,249
0
0

.12
.01
.02

.33
.08
.14

.11
.03
.03

.56
.12
.19

.51
.10
.17

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

.01
.65
5.04

.06
.23
.54

.02
.47
.89

.09
1.34
6.47

.08
1.20
5.93

0

14,599

0

14,599

14,599

.14

.19

.13

.46

.36

mining...............................

0

41,885

0

41,885

41,885

.01

.12

.01

.14

.14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

245,779
0

245,779
0

0
0

1.19
0

.01
0

1.20
0

1.20
0

New residential
buildings..............................
New nonresidential
buildings.............................
New public u tilitie s ..............
New streets and
highways ...........................
All other new
construction ......................
Maintenance and
re p a ir....................................
Guided missiles and
space vehicles....................
Other ordnance ....................
Food products ......................
Tobacco manufac­
turing ...................................
Fabric, yarn, and
thread m ills ........................
Miscellaneous textiles ........
and floor coverings..........
Hosiery, knit go o d s..............
A p p a re l......................... ..........
Miscellaneous fabri­
cated textile
prod ucts..............................
Logging, sawmills, and
planing m ills ......................
Millwork, plywood,
and other wood
prod ucts.............................
Household fu rn itu re ............
Other fu rn itu re ......................
Paper products......................
Paperboard ............................
Publishing ..............................
P rin tin g...................................
Chemical p ro d u c ts ..............
Agricultural chemicals
Plastic materials and
synthetic rubber
Synthetic fibers ....................
D rugs.......................................
Cleaning and toilet
preparations ......................
Paint.........................................
Petroleum products..............
Rubber products ..................
Plastic prod ucts....................
Leather, footwear, and
leather products................
G la s s .......................................
Cement, clay, and
concrete prod ucts............
Miscellaneous stone
and clay p ro d u c ts ............
Blast furnaces and
basic steel products
Iron and steel foundries
and forgings ......................
Primary copper metals
Primary alum inum ................
Other primary and
secondary nonfer­
rous metal products ........

General
overhead

1,612
0

0
0

244.167
0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.14

.74

9.27

12.14

4.06

0
0
0

0
0
58

0
0
20

0
0
78

0
0
78

.01
0
.14

.01
.02
.12

.01
.01
.27

.02
.03
.53

.02
.03
.43

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

.01

0

0

0

256

256

256

.38

.17

.14

.70

.67

0
0
167,025

486
0
427

0
161
182

486
161
167,634

486
161
167,634

.03
.15
1.39

.07
.02
.09

.06
.01
.07

.16
.18
1.54

.14
.18
1.51

74

257

39

371

371

.03

.10

.03

.16

.15

0

140,818

201

141,019

141,019

.15

1.01

.43

1.59

1.33

0
0
0
3,235
0
46
31,519
0
0

3,929
0
10,056
1,644
0
1,697
1,368
30,692
0

0
0
2,722
13,255
1,019
8,085
89,387
5,700
0

3,929
0
12,777
18.134
1,019
9,828
122,273
36,392
0

3,929
0
12,777
18,134
1,019
9,828
122,273
36,392
0

.10
.01
.01
.32
.12
.39
.78
.55
.02

.29
.03
.10
.26
.16
.30
.42
.51
.01

.21
.01
.04
.82
.15
1.41
3.19
.48
.02

.59
.05
.15
1.39
.43
2.10
4.40
1.54
.05

.46
.04
.14
1.24
.38
1.90
3.91
1.33
.04

0
0
0

7,221
0
9

0
0
4,166

7,221
0
4,175

7,221
0
4,175

.05
.04
.01

.18
.03
.01

.15
.03
.05

.38
.10
.07

.33
.10
.07

1,677
0
3,348,118
40
3,087

26,623
32,666
260,608
21,374
38

1,078
223
91,393
147,446
0

29,378
32,889
3,700,120
168,859
3,126

29,378
32,889
3,700,120
168,859
3,126

.03
.05

3.55
.08
.11

.06
.16
.36
.35
.41

.02
.36
.56
.89
.30

.11
.36
4.47
1.33
.82

.10
.24
4.10
1.23
.68

0
0

103
85,782

0
0

103
85,782

103
85,782

.03
.03

.05
.60

.05
.10

.12
.74

.10
.67

.51

.16

.80

.69

0

63,263

70

63,333

63,333

.14

1,014

3,270

318

4,630

4,630

.13

.24

.15

.53

.43

0

182,903

18

182,920

182,920

.19

1.98

.59

2.76

2.29

0
0
0

114,197
0
0

4
0
0

114,201
0
0

114,201
0
0

.06
.01
.01

1.25
.07
.09

1.04
.01
.02

2.34
.09
.13

1.35
.08
.11

0

0

0

0

0

.02

.15

.04

.21

.18

See footnote at end of table.




36

Table 0-1. Current operations: Purchases of goods and services and indirect employment by industry, Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority, 1974—Continued
Purchases
Industry

Transit
services

Copper rolling and
draw ing.....................
Aluminum rolling and
draw ing.....................
Other nonferrous
rollinq and drawing .
Miscellaneous nonferrous metal
products...................
Metal containers.........
Heating apparatus and
plumbing fixtures . . .
Fabricated structural
metal .........................
Screw machine
products...................
Other fabricated
metal p rod ucts........
Engines, turbines, and
generators ...............
Farm m achinery..........
Construction, mining
and oil field machinery.
Material handling
equipment ...............
Metalworking
machinery ...............
Special industry
machinery ...............
General industrial
machinery ...............
Machine shop
products...................
Computers and
peripheral
equipment ...............
Typewriters and
other office
machines .................
Service industry
machines .................
Electric transmission
equipment ...............
Electrical industrial
apparatus.................
Household appliances
Electric lighting
and wiring.................
Radio and television
sets.............................
Telephone and tele­
graph apparatus . . . .
Other electronic com­
munication equip­
ment ...........................
Electronic
components.............
Other electrical
machinery ...............
Motor vehicles ............
Aircraft .........................
Ship and boat building
and repair.................
Railroad and other
transportation
equipment ...............
Miscellaneous trans­
portation equipment
Scientific and control­
ling instruments . . . .
Medical and dental
instrum ents.............
Optical and ophthalmic
equipment ...............
Photographic equip­
ment and supplies ..
Miscellaneous manu­
factured products ..
Railroad transpor­
tation .........................
Local transit and
intercity bus.............
Truck transportation ..

Main­
tenance

Indirect employment'
Total,
with
rail
subsidy

General
overhead

Total,
Total,
with
Transit
Main­ General
without
over­
services tenance
rail
rail
head subsidy subsidy

0

$3,426

$ 2

$ 3,429

$ 3,429

0.01

0 .14

0.03

0.18

0.16

0

0

0

0

0

.02

.20

.04

.27

.24

0

197,416

71

197,487

197,487

.05

.70

.07

.82

.77

$ 312
0

19,261
23

166
0

19,739
23

19,739
23

.02
.11

.2
.04

.09
.05

.39
.20

.32
.17

0

10,066

6

10,072

10,072

.02

.09

.06

.16

.11

0

353,935

48

353,982

353.982

.14

2.36

.21

2.71

2.55

0

16,271

188

16,459

16,459

.06

70

21

.98

.85

3,944

185,579

1,647

191,169

191,169

.15

1.52

.66

2.32

1.79

0
0

14,888
0

199
0

15,087
0

15,087
0

.04
0

.20
.02

.21
.01

.45
.03

.27
.03

0

24,933

0

24,933

24,933

.06

.23

.07

.36

.31

0

216,609

0

216,609

216,609

.02

1.01

.04

1.07

1.04

0

39,439

24

39,463

39,463

.04

.68

.29

1.02

.77

0

834

252

1,086

1.086

.03

.09

.06

.19

.16

0

83,581

5,632

89,213

89,213

.08

.90

.23

1.20

1.04

0

21,413

56

21,469

21,469

.08

1.00

32

1.39

1.17

204

33

94,439

94,676

94,676

.02

.03

.58

.64

.62

1,897

3,268

47,431

52,596

52,596

.02

.04

.23

.28

.27

284

3,324

153

3,760

3,760

.02

.14

.07

.23

.18

0

171,845

0

171,845

171,845

.05

1.65

.21

1.91

1.76

0
771

315,090
29,900

19,780
376

334,869
31,046

334,869
31,046

.15
.01

2.53
17

.41
.03

3.08
.21

2.88
.20

0

99,049

299

99,348

99,348

.07

.76

.22

1.04

.89

43

5

25

73

73

0

.03

.02

.05

04

0

390

0

390

390

.02

.05

.11

.18

.16

21.337

30,662

6.597

58.596

58.596

11

.22

.07

.40

.38
.68

0

715

3,444

4,159

4,159

.09

.40

.30

.79

983
1,240
100

253,572
804.164
0

1,186
621
0

255,741
806,025
100

255,741
806,025
100

.03
.01
.05

1.26
2.14
.13

.19
.03
.12

1.48
2.17
.30

1.34
2.16
.24

0

0

0

0

0

.07

.12

.04

.23

.20

0

351,770

711

352,481

352,481

.01

1.55

.22

1.78

1.57

0

0

0

0

0

0

.01

0

.01

.01

0

8,791

1,822

10,612

10,612

.03

.29

.09

.42

.37

349

1,673

4.964

6,986

6,986

.01

.03

.08

.12

.11

.02

.01

.04

.04

12

22

1

35

35

0

445

72

4,186

4,703

4,703

.04

.05

.18

.27

.24

274

10,080

1,808

12,162

12,162

.10

.19

.31

.61

.52

45,160

58,504

10,649,008

10,752,671

107,055

.73

.80

61.41

62.94

1.87

0
48,204

0
70,001

193
215,936

193
334,140

193
334,140

.08
1.19

.09
1.47

.62
2.75

.80
5.41

.37
4.69

See footnote at end of table.




Total,
without
rail
subsidy

37

Table D-1. Current operations: Purchases of goods and services and indirect employment by industry, Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority, 1974—Continued
Purchases

Indirect employment'

Industry
Transit
services

Water transportation ..
Air transportation........
Other transportation ..
Communications,
except radio and TV.
Radio and TV
broadcasting............
Electric utilities............
Gas u tilitie s.................
Water and sanitary
services.....................
Wholesale tr a d e ..........
Retail trade ..................
F in an ce .........................
Insurance .....................
Owner-occupied
dwellinqs ..................
Other real e s ta te ........
Hotels and lodging
places .......................
Other personal
services......................
Miscellaneous business
services.....................
Advertising...................
Miscellaneous professional services . . .
Automobile r e p a ir ___
Motion pictures ..........
Other amusements . . .
Health services
except hospitals . . . .
Hospitals.......................
Educational services ..
Nonprofit organizatio n s...........................
Post O ffic e ...................
Commodity Credit
C orpo ration..............
Other Federal
enterprises................
State and local government enterprises . . .
Directly allocated
imports .....................
Transferred imports ..
Business travel,
entertainment, and
gifts ...........................
Office su p p lies............

Main­
tenance

Total,
with
rail
subsidy

General
overhead

Transit
services

Main­
tenance

Total,
Total,
General
with
withou
over­
rail
rail
head
subsidy subsid

$65,731
88
38,199

$9,066
1,941
8,387

$1,875
627
8,782

$ 76,673
2,655
55,369

$ 76,673
2,655
55,369

0.45
.16
1.05

0.09
.20
.17

0.11
.79
.94

0.66
1 .14
2.16

058
.74
1.36

155

6,173

341,508

347,835

347,835

.39

.44

3.98

4.81

4.07

0
1,414,757
0

0
119
0

0
545,668
33,982

0
1,960,544
33,982

0
1,960,544
33,982

.12
4.61
.37

.09
.30
.13

.41
2.38
.38

.63
7.29
.89

.57
7.06
.79

3,292
879,216
184.485
0
0

99,406
441,051
169.429
3.487
0

54,392
80,806
83,103
45.655
6,864,111

157,090
1,401,073
437.016
49,142
6,864,111

157,090
1,401,073
437.016
49,142
6,864,111

.05
9.37
5.08
1.42
.64

.23
5.78
4.42
.84
.48

.29
3.99
5.24
4.68
54.65

.58
19.13
14.74
6.94
55.78

.46
17.31
13.29
5.51
55.27

0
0

0
108,839

0
0

0
108,839

0
108,839

0
1.18

.62

0
1.86

0
3.66

0
2.92

0

0

3,389

3,389

3,389

.25

.24

.74

1.23

1.05

9,120

118,368

65,433

192,921

192,921

29

2.55

1.69

4.52

4.34

3,045
0

96,222
0

128,013
189,610

227,280
189,610

227,280
189,610

2.32
.13

2.59
.09

7.84
.42

2.75
.64

10.43
.58

251
0
0
0

227,196
109,617
0
0

301,504
164,804
0
0

528,951
274,421
0
0

528,951
274,421
0
0

.83
26
09
.08

2.27
.73
.07
.06

5.53
1.22
.29
.21

8.63
2.21
.45
.35

7.46
2.00
.40
.30

0
0
833

0
0
4,572

44,953
206,639
8,376

44,953
206,639
13.781

44,953
206,639
13,781

.07
.02
.04

.05
.01
.09

3.49
3.33
.30

3.62
3.36
.43

3.56
3.35
.38

597
0

6,469
0

29,817
22,044

36,883
22,044

36,883
22,044

15
.46

.24
.39

2.09
2.21

2 48
3.06

1.96
2.53

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

171

176

176

.42

.06

.39

.87

.70

27

2.382

11.086

13.495

13.495

1.68

.70

2.04

4.41

3 84

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
5,721

0
5,769

0
20,410

0
31.900

0
31.900

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

'Employment numbers are not rounded to preserve detail at industry level.




Total,
without
rail
subsidy

38

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table D-2. Capital improvements: Purchases of goods and services by industry, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,
1972-74
1973'

1972'
Industry

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

19742

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

T o ta l............................................................................

$6,776,004

$525,617

$14,293,323

$735,495

$10,286,588

$345,633

Livestock and livestock pro d u c ts...................................
Crops and other agricultural p ro d u c ts.........................
Forestry and fisheries........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishery services...................
Iron ore m ining....................................................................
Copper ore mining ............................................................
Other nonferrous metal ore m in in g ...............................
Coal m inin g..........................................................................
Crude petroleum ................................................................
Stone and clay mining and quarrying...........................
Chemical and fertilizer m ining.........................................
New residential buildings ................................................
New nonresidential buildinqs...........................................
New public u tilitie s ............................................................
New streets and highways ...............................................
All other new construction...............................................
Maintenance and rep a ir............: ......................................
Guided missiles and space vehicles .............................
Other ordnance ..................................................................
Food products ....................................................................
Tobacco m anufacturing....................................................
Fabric, yarn, and thread mills .........................................
Miscellaneous textiles and floor coverings .................
Hosiery, knit go od s............................................................
A p p a re l.................................................................................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile p ro d u c ts ...................
Logging, sawmills, and planing m ills.............................
Millwork, plywood, and other wood products..............
Household furniture ..........................................................
Other fu rn itu re ....................................................................
Paper products....................................................................
Paperboard ..........................................................................
Publishing ............................................................................
P rin tin g .................................................................................
Chemical products ............................................................
Agricultural ch em icals......................................................
Plastic materials and synthetic r u b b e r.........................
Synthetic fibers ..................................................................
D rugs.....................................................................................
Cleaning and toilet preparations.....................................
Paint.......................................................................................
Petroleum products............................................................
Rubber products ................................................................
Plastic prod ucts..................................................................
Leather, footwear, and leather products.......................
G la s s .....................................................................................
Cement, clay, and concrete p rod ucts...........................
Miscellaneous stone and clay p ro d u c ts.......................
Blast furnaces and basic steel products.......................
Iron and steel foundries and forgings...........................
Primary copper m etals......................................................
Primary alum inum ..............................................................
Other primary and secondary nonferrous
metal pro d u c ts................................................................
Copper rolling and d ra w in g .............................................
Aluminum rolling and drawing .......................................
Other nonferrous rolling and drawing...........................
Miscellaneous nonferrous metal products...................
Metal containers..................................................................
Heating apparatus and plumbing fixtures ...................

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
191,950
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
24
18
0
42
0
0
8,188
0
16
1,817
32
0
0
0

0
3,112
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
537,886
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3,075
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
210,043
0

0
12
0

F a b ric a te d s tru c tu ra l m e ta l...................................................

482
0
0
160
280,547
157,991
0
11,540
6,312
19
0
0
28,235
3,331
1,182

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
65
50
0
96
0
172
11,253
0
23
4,262
383
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
231
13,549
0
62
1,566
339,365
89,364
0
5,095
1,400
0
0
0
4,335
2,571
412

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
133
3,781
0
0
155
0
0
0

3,478
624,145
52,732
921,591
48,058
0
0

0
0
36
12
0
0
21
44
0
408
803
0
0
0

102
2,689
517
22,103
80,097
31,453
67,167
422
9,069
1,146,943
244,780
1,888,199
75,372
0
0

0
0
0
97
27
0
0
55
83
0
455
0
0
0
0

0
0
729
14,509
19,650
28,081
9,402
207
4,306
412,603
688,646
1,859,139
19,476
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

8
5,530
97
21,446
0
0
44,634
640,362

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,967

6
27,917
1,555
590,845
0
0
174,240
917.850

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,217

2
34,768
609
468,301
0
0
122,200
395,022

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

586,522

0
0
0
0
0
0
372
0
482
506
0
0
29
115,340
144,821
0
320
1,477
6
0
19
29,418
0
0
178
0
43
5,370
73,960
1.307
51,395

0

See footnotes at end of table.




39

0
765,692
0
0

0
0
0

0
92

0
3,744

0

0
0
0
0

0
600,837
0

Table D-2. Capital improvements: Purchases of goods and services by industry, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,
1972-74—Continued
1973'

1972’
Industry

Screw machine products..................................................
Other fabricated metal products.....................................
Engines, turbines, and generators ...............................
Farm m achinery..................................................................
Construction, mining,and oil field m achinery.............
Material handling eq u ip m e n t..........................................
Metalworking m achinery..................................................
Special industry machinery ............................................
General industrial m achinery..........................................
Machine shop products....................................................
Computers and peripheral equipm ent...........................
Typewriters and other office machines.........................
Service industry machines ..............................................
Electric transmission equipm ent.....................................
Electrical industrial apparatus.........................................
Household appliances ......................................................
Electric lighting and w iring..............................................
Radio and television set ..................................................
Telephone and telegraph apparatus .............................
Other electronic communication equipm ent...............
Electronic components ....................................................
Other electrical m ach inery...............................................
Motor vehicles ....................................................................
Aircraft ..................................................................................
Ship and boat building repair .........................................
Railroad and other transportation equipm ent.............
Miscellaneous transportation eq u ip m e n t.....................
Scientific and controlling instruments .........................
Medical and dental instruments .....................................
Optical and ophthalmic equipment ...............................
Photographic equipment and supplies.........................
Miscellaneous manufactured prod ucts.........................
Railroad transportation ....................................................
Local transit and intercity b u s .........................................
Truck transportation..........................................................
Water transportation..........................................................
Air transportation................................................................
Other transportation..........................................................
Communications, except radio and T V .........................
Radio and TV broadcasting...............................................
Electric utilities....................................................................
Gas u tilitie s ..........................................................................
Water and sanitary services.............................................
Wholesale tr a d e ..................................................................
Retail trade ..........................................................................
F in an ce..................................................................................
Insurance ..............................................................................
Owner-occupied dw ellings...............................................
Other real estate ................................................................
Hotels and lodging places ...............................................
Other personal services....................................................
Miscellaneous business services.....................................
Advertising............................................................................
Miscellaneous professional services .............................
Automobile r e p a ir ..............................................................
Motion pictures ..................................................................
Other amusements ............................................................
Health services except hospitals.....................................
Hospitals................................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Nonprofit organizations....................................................
Post O ffic e ............................................................................
Commodity Credit Corporation.......................................
Other Federal enterprises................................................
State and local government enterprises.......................
Directly allocated im ports.................................................
Transferred imports ..........................................................
Business travel, entertainment, and g ifts .....................
Office su p p lies....................................................................
'All contracts for calendar year.

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

$ 6,809
218,326
0
259
221,408
8,216
24,696
16,320
20,855
0
486
22,398
4,137
490,305
35,703
385
20.316
0
0
99,292
27
34,975
61,426
0
0
4,587
501
5,245
0
0
0
51,098
106,268
45,379
172,152
9,613
7,504
39,872
55,957
0
5,121
105
60
263,879
72,728
301
177,823
0
84,336
1,789
53
380,710
864
51,190
325,269
0
0
0
0
0
61,202
0
0
376
87
0
0
0
0

0
71
0
0
$3,680
0
12
12
613
0
84
2,600
0
2,165
462
0
387
0
0
0
0
1
2,251
0
0
0
0
377
0
0
19
24,750
614
28,129
807
12
43,617
850
22,641
0
4,901
0
1,669
5,752
7,732
132
66,259
0
74,387
1,174
75
114,058
223
95,472
1,779
0
0
0
0
6
3,005
411
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$ 38,750
288,734
94
3,472
462,305
68,444
57,787
11,702
161,484
0
675
46,254
22,306
604,790
90,491
5,312
355,823
77,711
103,059
653,471
26
64,667
125,361
0
0
8,105
1,166
7,776
0
0
0
115,148
240,464
97,203
451,146
20,654
5,203
75,746
115,577
0
11,463
127
412
572,450
157,026
0
351,110
0
157,246
1.145
2,517
903,102
2,015
90.453
452,195
0
0
0
0
11
127,679
634
0
0
1,241
0
0
0
0

$ 107
85
0
0
915
0
32
31
0
680
3,299
3,601
0
1,079
1,227
0
181
0
0
122
1,616
2
1,833
0
0
0
0
522
0
0
106
33,959
802
42.951
1,280
17
52,459
1,475
33,312
0
6,459
134
1,673
8,157
10,265
1,374
103,467
0
115,341
959
127
154,987
371
117,686
1,814
0
0
0
0
6
5,131
613
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$23,419
177,479
0
5,452
295,989
144,599
51,692
0
99,136
0
1,277
29,855
8,681
320,011
64,923
1,119
392,265
9,490
78,030
430,935
12
7,830
73,064
0
0
3,720
336
4,148
0
25
0
80,359
170,819
88,874
286,987
10,582
2,856
52,251
86,501
0
5,984
81
2,263
418,369
121,008
13
247,317
0
110,290
600
2,807
698,252
5,492
65,362
165,294
0
0
0
0
116
87,795
2,640
0
0
634
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
$1,001
643
796
0
1,703
25
0
35
0
0
175
2,423
0
0
0
0
0
0
688
0
0
247
14,559
262
25,548
554
4
18.581
618
15,888
0
2,356
32
819
2,997
4,399
1,488
47,475
0
56,839
720
52
76,620
138
60,023
728
0
0
0
0
2
3,006
108
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

__________ __________

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

2
AII contracts for 6 months, January 1 to June 30.




19742

40

Table D-3. Capital improvements: Direct employment by occupation, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-74
Construction contracts

Architectural and engineering contracts

Occupation

Total1

19722

19733

19743

T o tal.................................................................................................

1,618.28

350,52

767.45

Accountants .........................................................................................
A rchitects...............................................................................................
Computer systems an alysts..............................................................
Engineers, c iv il.....................................................................................
Engineers, ele ctrica l...........................................................................
Engineers, industrial...........................................................................
Engineers, m echanical.......................................................................
Sales engineers ...................................................................................
Engineers, oth er...................................................................................
Lawyers...................................................................................................
Statisticians...........................................................................................
Geologists .............................................................................................
Life, physical scientists......................................................................
Personnel, labor relations..................................................................
Economists ...........................................................................................
Urban and regional plann ers............................................................
D rafters..................................................................................................
Electrical, electronics technicians....................................................
Industrial engineering technicians..................................................
Mechanical engineering technicians..............................................
Surveyors...............................................................................................
Engineering, science technicians............... ....................................
Designers...............................................................................................
Painters and sculptors.......................................................................
Public relations workers and w rite rs ..............................................
Research w o rke rs................................................................................
Purchasing agents, b u yers................................................................
Railroad conductors...........................................................................
Other managers, adm inistrators......................................................
Sales personn el...................................................................................
Billing c le rk s .........................................................................................
Bookkeepers .........................................................................................
Clerical supervisors ............................................................................
Enumerators and interviewers..........................................................
Estimators, investigators ..................................................................
Expeditors, production controllers..................................................
Bookkeeping, billing operato rs........................................................
Computer, peripheral equipment operators .................................
Duplicating machine operators........................................................
Other office machine operators ......................................................
Payroll, timekeeping clerks................................................................
Legal secretaries .................................................................................
Secretaries, other.................................................................................
Statistical clerks...................................................................................
Stenographers .....................................................................................
Stock clerks, storekeepers ................................................................
Telephone operators...........................................................................
Typists....................................................................................................
Miscellaneous clerical w o rke rs........................................................
Clerical, not specified.........................................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons........................................................
Brick and stonemason apprentices ................................................
Bulldozer operators.............................................................................

13.11
3.75

3.00
.71

5.79
1.72

36.68
62.43

8.25
11.29

17.73
28.75

10.70
22.39

.16
.01
9.52
.12

.01
0
2.90
0

.10
.01
3.99
.06

.05
0
2.63
.06

—

—

—

—

—

—

.11

06

—

—

.04

—

—

—

.05

.03

.02

19722

19732

19743

506.31

264.03

82.24

120.56

61.24

4.32
1.32

1.98
13.53
12
76.94
10.67
2.63
.91

.62
4.65
.05
23.21
2.94
1.27
.01

.99
6.02
.05
33.33
5.01
1.02
.47

.46
2.86
.02
20.40
2.72
.34
.44

3.45
.09
.22
.47
.14
1.02
.15
5.49
47.51
.26
.07
09
.90
11.78
8.95
.01
.29
.59
11.98

.90
.04
.10
.07
.14
.31
0
1.99
16.34
.09
0
0
.12
3.56
1.08
0
.14
.19
3.54

1.69
.05
.11
.24
0
.47
0
3.37
20.03
.06
.07
.04
.50
5.28
4.68
0
.14
.39
6.13

.86
0
.01
.16
0
.24
.15
.13
11.12
.11
0
.06
.28
2.94
3.18
.01
.01
.01
2.31

—

—

—

6.41
.42

2.52
0

2.85
.42

1.04
0

1.01

1.50

.78

—

—

—

—

0
0

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

49.07
.71

8.07
.02

22.27
.31

18.73
.38

.39
7.24
1.91
.42

.39
1.65
.79
.01

0
3.58
.93
.04

—
—

—
—
—

0
2.01
20
.38

0
0
15.00
.02
0
.81
0

.17
0
26.55
.27
0
.81
.09

.18
0
20 10
.06
.06
18
.36

59.76

87
.03
1.84
.54
0
.74
11.50

2.58
0
2.54
1.28
0
1.49
26.58

1.72
0
1.68
1.15
0
1.14
21.69

27.34

5.09

13.15

9.10

1.68
.02
.03
0
7.18
8.58
13.73
.29
8 14

1.05
.01
0
0
2.08
3.22
3.15
.08
2.86

.57
01
02
0
3.41
3.37
5.99
.08
4.00

.06
0
0
0
1.70
1.99
4.58

—

—

—

—

—

—
.35
.01
61.65
35
.06
1.80

.44
—

—

5.17
.03
6.05
2.97
0

3.37
—

—

—

—

See footnotes at end of table.




—

Total1

4I

—

—

—

—

—

—
—
—

—

—

—

.13
1.28

—

—
—
.11
—

—

3.28

—

0
.13

—

—
—

02

_
_

—

0
.05

—

—
—

.06

_
_

—

0
.05

—

_
_
—

.04

0
.03

—

—

—

—

.01
.18
.05
11.34
.48
.30

.01
.08
.05
4.13
0

0
.11
0
5.13
.48
.12

0
0
0
2.09
0
.07

.11

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

.02
10.80
15.30

.01
3.16
4.22

.01
5.12
7.48

0
2.52
3.60

—
—
—

—
—
—

_
_
—
—

—

_
_
—

Table D-3. Capital improvements: Direct employment by occupation, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,
1972-74—Continued
Construction contracts

Architectural and engineering contracts

Occupation
Total1
C arpenters.............................................................................................
Carpenters’ apprentices......................................................................
Cement and concrete finishers.........................................................
Crane, derrick, hoist o p erato rs........................................................
Electricians ...........................................................................................
Electrical apprentices..........................................................................
Electric power line installers and repairers...................................
Excavating, grading machine operators.........................................
Floor layers, except tile s e tters........................................................
Blue-collar worker supervisors ......................................................
G laziers...................................................................................................
Inspectors, o t h e r ..................................................................................
Locomotive engineers ........................................................................
Air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration mechanics..............
Automobile mechanics and apprentices.........................................
Heavy equipment mechanics including d ie s e l.............................
Household appliance mechanics ....................................................
Rail carshop m echanics......................................................................
Mechanical apprentices......................................................................
Other mechanics and repairers........................................................
Mechanics not specified ....................................................................
M illw rights.............................................................................................
Painters, construction and maintenance .......................................
Painters’ ap p ren tices..........................................................................
Plasterers ...............................................................................................
Plumbers and pipefitters....................................................................
Plumbers' apprentices ........................................................................
Roofers and slaters..............................................................................
Sheetmetal workers, tinsm iths..........................................................
Sheetmetal apprentices......................................................................
Sign painters and le tterers................................................................
Stationary engineers............................................................................
Structural metal w o rke rs....................................................................
Telephone installers, repairers ........................................................
Telephone installers, splicers............................................................
Tilesetters...............................................................................................
Craft apprentices ................................................................................
Craft and kindred w o rke rs.................................................................
Asbestos, insulation w o rk e rs ............................................................
Assemblers ...........................................................................................
Blasters...................................................................................................
Surveyors' helpers................................................................................
Checkers, examiners ..........................................................................
Cutting operatives................................................................................
Drillers, earth .......................................................................................
Drywall installers.................................................................................
Oilers, greasers, except a u to ............................................................
Packers, wrappers, except m e a t......................................................
Painters, manufactured articles........................................................
Punch stamping press operators ....................................................
Sawyers .................................................................................................
Stationary firefighters................................................................
Welders and tlame cutters ................................................................
Miscellaneous machine operators ..................................................
Operatives .............................................................................................
Busdrivers .............................................................................................
Delivery and route workers................................................................
Forklift, tow motor operators ..........................................................
Railroad brake operators and couplers...........................................
Rail switch operators ...........................................................................
Truck drivers.........................................................................................
Carpenters' helpers..............................................................................
Construction laborers, except carpenters' h e lp e rs.....................
Freight material handlers ..................................................................
Teamsters...............................................................................................
Other laborers.......................................................................................
Janitors and sextons............................................................................
Guards ...................................................................................................

124.45
3.71
10.40
13.89
125.14
21.15
10.99
46.37
3.16
178.16
2.05
.28
.01
0
.09
10.43
2.49
1.19
.02
.47
.18
.50
10.34
.46
.17
30.23
5.67
5.35
4.88
.53
14
29.77
78.63
.25
04
.32
8 42
07
3.43
.28
.20
7.44
—
0
.89
.05
15.56
.04
0
.03
.03
58
6.59
11.63
.24
.01
02
.93
7.97
99
29.05
1.96
366.93
1.52
.64
35.22
0
.97

'Data are for the 30-month period January 1972-June 1974.

25.64
0.70
2.08
3.19
18.50
3.25
.05
16.81
1.11
35.58
.13
.26
0
0
.06
3.02
2.03
.48
.01
.01
.07
.05
1 .13
0
.07
4.53
.69
.91
1.00
.48
.13
6.14
13.76
.25
.01
0
.51
.04
0
.01
.08
2.95
—
0
.89
.04
4.64
0
0
0
0
.25
2.99
2.87
.11
0
0
.26
3.19
.39
8.57
.32
81.43
.09
.07
12.43
0
.18

19732
58.92
2.10
6.01
6.00
68.82
13.54
5.80
19.94
1.36
85.79
1.33
.01
0
0
.03
4.09
.46
.48
.01
.17
.07
.29
6.00
.31
.10
14.86
3.59
2.59
2.26
.01
.01
14.20
40 12
0
.01
.25
4.76
.03
2.96
.18
. .09
3.01
—
0
0
.01
7.19
.03
0
.02
.02
.29
2.50
5.77
.11
.01
.02
.48
3.19
.39
13.82
1.60
166.17
.92
.31
16.20
0
.52

19743
39.89
0.90
2.31
4.70
37.82
4.36
5.14
9.61
.69
56.79
.59
.01
0
0
0
3.33
0
.24
0
.29
.04
.16
3.22
.15
0
10.85
2.39
1.85
1.62
.04
0
9.43
24.74
0
.01
.07
3.14
0
.47
.09
.04
1.48
—
0
0
0
3.74
.01
0
.01
.01
03
1.10
2.99
.01
0
0
.19
1.60
20
6.65
.04
119.33
.51
.26
6.59
0
.27

Total'
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.22
—
1.56
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
9.60
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.00
—
.27
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.12
--—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.85
—
—
1.34
—
—

19722
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.03
—
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
3.88
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.26
—
.27
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
08
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.63
—
—
.36
—
—

19732
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.19
—
.78
—
—
—
—
—
—
4.26
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.71
—
0
--—
—
—
—
—
—
.04
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.22
—
—
.98
—
—

19743
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0.01
—
.78
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.47
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.02
—
0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
0
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

0

0
—
—

“Employment numbers are not rounded to preserve detail at the occupa­
tional level.

'All contracts for calendar year.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

3
AII contracts for 6 months, January 1 to June 30.




19722

42

Table D-4. Capital improvements: Indirect employment by industry, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, 1972-74
1972'
Industry

Construction
contracts

1974?

1973’

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

T o ta l...........................................................................

420.46

33.95

851.53

47.26

628.81

22.63

Livestock and livestock p ro d u c ts...................................
Crops and other agricultural pro d u c ts.........................
Forestry and fisheries ......................................................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishery services...................
Iron ore m ining....................................................................
Copper ore mining ............................................................
Other nonferrous metal ore m in in g ...............................
Coal m inin g.........................................................................
Crude petroleum ................................................................
Stone and clay mining and quarrying...........................
Chemical and fertilizer m ining.........................................
New residential buildings ................................................
New nonresidential buildings...........................................
New public u tilitie s............................................................
New streets and highways ..............................................
All other new construction..............................................
Maintenance and rep a ir....................................................
Guided missiles and space vehicles .............................
Other ordnance ..................................................................
Food products ....................................................................
Tobacco m anufacturing....................................................
Fabric, yarn, and thread mills .........................................
Miscellaneous textiles and floor coverings .................
Hosiery, knit goods ..........................................................
A p p a re l.................................................................................
Miscellaneous fabricated textile p ro d u c ts ...................
Logging, sawmills, and planing m ills.............................
Millwork, plywood, and other wood products.............
Household furniture ..........................................................
Other furniture ....................................................................
Paper products....................................................................
Paperboard .........................................................................
Publishing ...........................................................................
P rin tin g.................................................................................
Chemical products ............................................................
Agricultural chem icals......................................................
Plastic materials and synthetic ru b b e r.........................
Synthetic fibers ..................................................................
D rugs.....................................................................................
Cleaning and toilet preparations.....................................
Paint.......................................................................................
Petroleum products............................................................
Rubber products ................................................................
Plastic prod ucts..................................................................
Leather, footwear, and leather products.......................
G la s s .....................................................................................
Cement, clay, and concrete p rod ucts...........................
Miscellaneous stone and clay p ro d u c ts.......................
Blast furnaces and basic steel products.......................
Iron and steel foundries and forgings...........................
Primary copper m etals......................................................
Primary alum inum ..............................................................
Other primary and secondary nonferrous metal
products...........................................................................
Copper rolling and d ra w in g ............................................
Aluminum rolling and drawing .......................................
Other nonferrous rolling and draw ing...........................
Miscellaneous nonferrous metal products...................
Metal containers..................................................................
Heating apparatus and plumbing fixtures ...................
Fabricated structural m etal..............................................

.69
1.56
.72
.57
1.33
.63
.37
2.58
1.68
9.20
10
0
14.33
0
0
0
4.58
.06
16
.70
.01
.63
.28
.09
.45
19
6.93
6.28
15
.18
1.83
91
1.52
2.14
2 65
.08
.76
.16
.05
.12
65
1.10
1.31
3.10
.17
.94
22.79
3.73
30.71
4.94
.24
49

.07
.16
.01
.03
.01
.01
.01
.05
.10
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
.56
0
0
.07
0
.05
.01
0
.02
.01
.09
.05
.01
0
.32
.05
.18
.37
.10
.01
.03
.01
0
.01
.02
.07
05
09
.02
.02
.02
.04
.14
.05
0
.01

1.45
3.07
1.40
1.20
2.44
2.45
.83
5.14
3.08
21.71
.21
0
19.60
0
0
0
9.62
.28
.31
1.43
02
1.65
65
.18
.92
.39
13.65
9.40
.52
.76
3.70
1.95
3.21
4.66
4.90
.21
1.82
.33
.15
.23
1.25
1.98
3.54
6 20
.42
2.16
41.25
12.01
52 30
8.64
.99
.92

.10
.21
.01
.05
.01
.01
.01
.07
.15
.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
.84
0
0
.10
.07
.07
.02
.01
.03
.01
.13
.08
.01
.01
.43
.07
.25
.61
.13
.01
.05
.01
0
.01
.03
.10
06
.14
.03
.03
.03
.05
16
.05
0
.01

1.21
2.73
1.51
1.04
1.87
1.72
.58
4.16
2.04
10.07
.20
0
17.92
0
0
0
6 85
.21
.18
1.00
.01
1.47
.75
.73
.13
.45
14.93
6.58
.25
.48
2.64
1.40
2.51
4 00
4.26
18
1.68
.30
.06
.15
.77
1.16
2.57
3.89
.35
1.38
18.44
30.14
45.72
5.06
.81
.74

.05
.11
.01
.02
0
0
0
.03
.07
.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
.41
0
0
.04
0
.03
.01
.01
0
0
.06
.04
0
.01
.17
.03
.12
.25
06
0
.03
0
0
.01
01
.04
.03
.07
.02
.01
.01
.02
05
.02
0
0

.56
.60
1.56
1.25
.84
.19
1.68
25.87

.01
.01
.02
02
02
.01
.01
.14

1.56
2.19
2.76
11.01
80
.36
5.01
3641

.01
.01
02
.02
.02
.01
.01
.33

1.58
1.78
1.73
9.00
1.18
.25
3.20
19.21

.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
0
.02

See footnotes at end of table.




43

Table D-4. Capital improvements: Indirect employment by industry, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority,
1972-74—Continued
1972’
Industry

Screw machine products..................................................
Other fabricated metal products.....................................
Engines, turbines, and g enerators.................................
Farm m achinery..................................................................
Construction, mining, and oil field machinery ............
Material handling eq uip m ent...........................................
Metalworking m achinery...................................................
Special industry machinery .............................................
General industrial m achinery...........................................
Machine shop products.....................................................
Computers and peripheral equipm ent...........................
Typewriters and other office m achines.........................
Service industry machines ...............................................
Electric transmission equipm ent.....................................
Electrical industrial apparatus.........................................
Household appliances ......................................................
Electric lighting and w iring...............................................
Radio and television sets...................................................
Telephone and telegraph apparatus .............................
Other electronic communication equipm ent................
Electronic components ....................................................
Other electrical m ach inery...............................................
Motor vehicles ....................................................................
Aircraft ..................................................................................
Ship and boat building and r e p a ir .................................
Railroad and other transportation equipment ...........
Miscellaneous transportation eq u ip m e n t.....................
Scientific and controlling Instruments .........................
Medical and dental instruments .....................................
Optical and ophthalmic equipment ...............................
Photographic equipment and su pp lies.........................
Miscellaneous manufactured products.........................
Railroad transportation ....................................................
Local transit and intercity b u s .........................................
Truck transportation..........................................................
Water transportation..........................................................
Air transportation................................................................
Other transportation..........................................................
Communications, except radio and T V .........................
Radio and TV broadcasting ...........................................
Electric utilities....................................................................
Gas u tilitie s ..........................................................................
Water and sanitary services.............................................
Wholesale tr a d e ..................................................................
Retail trade ..........................................................................
Finance .................................................................................
Insurance ..............................................................................
Owner-occupied dw ellings..............................................
Other real estate ................................................................
Hotels and lodging places ...............................................
Other personal services....................................................
Miscellaneous business services.....................................
Advertising............................................................................
Miscellaneous professional services.............................
Automobile r e p a ir ..............................................................
Motion pictures ..................................................................
Other amusements ............................................................
Health services except hospitals.....................................
Hospitals................................................................................
Educational services..........................................................
Nonprofit organizations....................................................
Post O ffic e ............................................................................
Commodity Credit Corporation.......................................
Other Federal enterprises................................................
State and local government enterprises.......................
Directly allocated im ports.................................................
Transferred imports ..........................................................
Business travel, entertainment,and g ifts .......................
Office su p p lies....................................................................
All contracts for calendar year.
:AII contracts for 6 months, January 1 to June 30.




Construction
contracts

3.07
10.38
.72
.13
6.13
.86
2.67
.82
2.59
2,01
.33
.70
.67
20.78
4.33
.38
2.00
.13
.48
2.88
2.58
1.55
1.16
.61
.96
.23
05
1.35
.12
08
.35
2 68
8.03
3.09
16.31
.87
1.54
2.07
4.93
.52
2.22
.90
.19
26 48
17.49
4.63
12.24
0
3.91
1.78
.84
36.83
.57
7.70
10.39
.41
.42
.72
.06
.50
7.17
3.43
0
.41
2.61
0
0
0
0

1973’

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

.06
.08
.03
.01
.10
.01
.04
.02
05
.05
.06
.09
.03
.10
.08
.01
.04
0
.04
.01
.05
.03
.04
.10
01
01
0
.04
0
0
.06
1.06
.14
1.64
.25
02
1 33
.13
1.05
.05
.21
.04
.03
.91
1.84
.46
3.53
0
1.23
.37
.08
8.53
05
4.32
.18
.05
.06
.20
.02
.04
.44
.62
0
.04
.59
0
0
0
0

Construction
contracts

1974?

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

7.77
16.13
1.46
.33
12.33
2.91
5.83
1.09
8.51
4.57
.75
1.38
1.59
27.56
8.58
.76
14.31
1.88
5.99
15.81
8.38
3.33
2.27
1.48
1.88
.43
.09
2.56
.26
18
.79
6.00
15.54
6.63
36.04
1 33
2 89
3.71
10.26
1.14
4.40
1.91
.42
56.30
34 80
11.14
23.79
0
7.46
3.38
1.91
82,89
1.14
14.43
14.92
.83
.84
1.50
.12
1.05
13.99
7.15
0
.78
5.33
0
0
0
0

.08
.11
.04
.01
.04
.01
.05
.02
.04
.10
.19
.11
.04
.09
.13
.01
.04
.01
.06
.02
.14
.03
.04
.13
.02
.01
0
.05
.01
0
.09
1.48
.17
2.50
.33
02
1.61
.17
1.53
.07
.27
.06
.04
1.31
2.50
.89
5.33
0
1.81
.44
.11
11.54
.07
5.42
.22
.07
.08
.33
.03
.07
.67
.82
0
.06
.83
0
0
0
0

Construction
contracts

Architectural
and
engineering
contracts

5.25
11.08
.92
.30
8.53
4.55
4.56
.60
5.76
3.76
.60
.95
1.02
17.25
6.53
.42
15.55
.36
3.27
11.80
5.41
1.36
1.41
1.15
1.28
.31
.04
1.66
.19
.11
.56
4.82
11.63
5.68
23.52
.90
1.91
2.47
6 97
.77
3.55
1.50
.36
41.63
26 39
8.07
16.87
0
4.96
2.33
1.39
60.52
.78
10.63
6.65
.58
.57
1.09
.09
.76
9.50
5.58
0
.53
4.03
0
0
0
0

.03
.04
.02
.01
.01
0
.02
.01
.02
.11
.06
.03
.02
.09
.05
0
.02
0
.02
.01
.13
.02
0
.06
0
.01
0
.04
0
0
.05
.71
.08
1.43
.15
01
56
.07
.68
.03
13
.03
02
58
1.20
49
2.48
0
.85
.24
.05
5.50
03
2 83
.11
.03
.03
.16
.01
.04
.36
.40
0
.0
.45
0
0
0
0

NOTE: Employment numbers are not rounded to preserve detail at the
industry level.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I

1603 JFK Federal B uilding
G overnm ent Center
Boston. Mass 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV

1371 Peachtree Street, NE
Atlanta, Ga 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418
Region V

Region II

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405
Region III

3535 M arket Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa 19101
Phone (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal O ffice Building
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago, III 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions VII and V III*

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481
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450 G olden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region VI

Second Floor
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Dallas. Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

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