View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L<2,,3:

MU

THE
EMPLOYMENT
PROBLEMS
OF OLDER
WORKERS
BU LLETIN 1721
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




document collection




THE
EMPLOYMENT
PROBLEMS
OF OLDER
WORKERS
Prepared for
The W hite House
Conference on Aging
Novem ber 29,1971
BU LLETIN 1721
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

rs rf
1971




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402 - Price 50 cents




P re fa c e
T h is b u lle tin w a s p r e p a r e d f o r d is tr ib u tio n a t th e
W h ite H o u se C o n fe re n c e on A g in g , N o v e m b e r 29 to D e ­
c e m b e r 3, 1971, in W a s h in g to n , D. C.
T h e b u lle tin w a s
p r e p a r e d in th e O ffic e of E c o n o m ic T r e n d s a n d L a b o r
C o n d itio n s ,; O ffic e of D a ta A n a ly s is , B u r e a u of L a b o r
S t a t i s t i c s , U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r 0
R o b e r t L . S te in a n d J a n ic e N e ip e r t H e d g e s h a d m a jo r
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r its p r e p a r a t i o n . D o n a ld M . L a n d a y an d
A rn o ld S t r a s s e r , O ffic e o f W ag es an d I n d u s t r i a l R e la tio n s ,
c o n tr ib u te d th e c h a p te r on P e n s io n P la n s a n d R e t ir e m e n t
B e n e f its . T h e c h a p te r on D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r M a n p o w e r
P r o g r a m s a n d S e r v ic e s w a s p r e p a r e d in th e M a n p o w e r A d ­
m in i s t r a t i o n , U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r , b y A lb e r t M ap o u
a n d F r e d A. K a h n .
M a r ia n L . H e s t e r , C a r o l M iln e r ,
an d M a r y E lle n T a l b e r t a ls o a s s i s t e d in th e p r e p a r a t i o n
of th e r e p o r t .




iii

C ontents
Page

C h a p te r s :
1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. L a b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n -----------------------------------------------------------------O ld e r m e n in th e la b o r f o r c e -------------------------------------------------------O ld e r w o m e n in th e la b o r f o r c e --------------------------------------------------F u tu r e g ro w th o f th e la b o r f o r c e -------------------------------------------------3. U n e m p lo y m e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 . W o rk e x p e r i e n c e --------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. M o b ility --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. In c o m e an d e a r n i n g s -------------------------------------------------------------------------7. P e n s io n p la n s a n d r e t i r e m e n t b e n e f i t s --------------------------------------------8. J o b p e r f o r m a n c e a n d tr a in in g p o t e n t i a l -------------------------------------------9. J o b d is c r i m i n a t i o n ---------------------------------------------------------------------------10. E d u c a t i o n -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. D e p a r tm e n t of la b o r m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m s a n d s e r v i c e s -----------------T a b le s :
A. E x p e c ta tio n s of y e a r s of lif e , w o r k lif e , an d r e t i r e m e n t f o r
m e n in th e la b o r f o r c e a t s e le c te d a g e s an d y e a r s ----------------------B . S e le c te d m e a s u r e s of u n e m p lo y m e n t, b y a g e a n d s e x , 1 9 7 0 ----------C. P e r c e n t o f p e r s o n s w ith w o rk e x p e r ie n c e in I9 6 0 , 1965 a n d
1970, w ho w o rk e d y e a r ro u n d fu ll tim e , b y a g e a n d s e x ------------D. P e r c e n t of p e r s o n s a t w o rk in n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s b y
p a r t - t i m e s t a t u s , a g e a n d s e x , a n n u a l a v e r a g e , 1970 ----------------E . O c c u p a tio n a l m o b ility r a t e s b e tw e e n J a n u a r y 1965 an d
J a n u a r y 1966 of e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s , b y a g e , s e x , a n d c o lo r ,
J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------F . P e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s w ho m o v e d to a d if f e r e n t c o u n ty
in th e U. S. b y a g e a n d s e x , M a r c h 1 9 6 9 - M a r c h 1 9 7 0 -----------------G . In d e x of m e d ia n e a r n in g s of s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s ,
1969 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------H. L a b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of th e p o p u la tio n , b y a g e an d
s e x , a n d y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p le te d , M a r c h 1 9 7 0 -----------------------J . F i r s t - t i m e e n r o l l e e s in m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m s , b y a g e g ro u p ,
f i s c a l y e a r 1 9 7 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
3
3
4
4
6
8
10
13
16
19
21
23
25

4
6
8
9
11
11
14
24
28

A p p e n d ix T a b le s :
L a b o r fo rc e p a rtic ip a tio n
A -l.
A -2 .

T o ta l la b o r f o r c e (in c lu d in g A rm e d F o r c e s ) a n d la b o r f o r c e
p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , b y a g e a n d s e x : A n n u a l a v e r a g e s , 1950,
I9 6 0 , 1970, 1971 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31
C iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , b y a g e a n d s e x :
A n n u al a v e r a g e s , 1950, I9 6 0 , 1970, a n d 1971 ------------------------ 31




iv

C o n te n ts------ C ontinued
Page

A p p e n d ix T a b le s — C o n tin u e d
L a b o r f o r c e p a r tic ip a tio n - — C o n tin u e d
A -3 .

C iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e a n d p a r t ic ip a tio n r a t e s , b y a g e , s e x , and
c o lo r : A n n u al a v e r a g e s , 1954, I9 6 0 , 1970, an d 1 9 7 1 ------------- 32
A -4 . T o ta l p o p u la tio n and to ta l la b o r f o r c e b y a g e a n d s e x :
A c tu a l I9 6 0 an d 1970 an d p r o je c te d , 1 9 8 0 -------------------------------- 33
A -5 . E m p lo y e d p e r s o n s , b y a g e a n d s e x : A n n u al a v e r a g e s , 1950,
I9 6 0 , 1970, a n d 1 9 7 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 34
A -6 . E m p lo y e d p e r s o n s , by a g e , s e x , an d c o lo r : A n n u al a v e r a g e s ,
1954, I9 6 0 , 1970, an d 1971 ------------------------------------------------------- 34
A -7 . P e r s o n s n o t in th e la b o r f o r c e , b y a g e a n d s e x : A n n u al
a v e r a g e s , 1950, I9 6 0 , 1970, an d 1 9 7 1 ------------------------------------- 35
A -8 . P e r s o n s n o t in th e la b o r f o r c e , b y a g e , s e x , a n d c o lo r :
A n n u al a v e r a g e s , 1954, I9 6 0 , 1970 an d 1971 -------------.------------- 35
U n e m p lo y m e n t
B -l.
B -2 .
B -3 .

U n e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s a n d u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s , b y a g e an d se x :
A n n u al a v e r a g e s , 1950, I9 6 0 , 1970, a n d 1 9 7 1 ------------------------- 36
U n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s , by a g e , s e x , an d c o lo r : A n n u al
a v e r a g e , 1950, I9 6 0 , 1970, a n d 1971 --------------------------------------- 36
L o n g - te r m u n e m p lo y m e n t c o m p a r e d w ith to ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t,
b y a g e a n d s e x : A n n u al a v e r a g e s , I9 6 0 , 1965, 1970, an d
1971 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
W o rk e x p e r ie n c e

C -l.

P e r s o n s w ith w o rk e x p e r ie n c e in 1965 an d 1970 w ho w e r e in
th e la b o r f o r c e 50 to 52 w e e k s , b y a g e , s e x , c o lo r , a n d
m a r i t a l s ta t u s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
C -2 , M a jo r r e a s o n f o r p a r t - y e a r w o rk in 1965 an d 1970 b y c o lo r :
P a r t - y e a r w o r k e r s , b y a g e an d s e x ----------------------------------------- 38
C -3 . N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l w o r k e r s on p a r t tim e , b y a g e a n d s e x :
A n n u al a v e r a g e s , I9 6 0 , 1970 an d 1 9 7 1 --------------------------------------- 38
C -4 . R e a s o n s f o r n o t w o rk in g : P e r s o n s w ith no w o rk e x p e r ie n c e
in I9 6 0 , b y a g e an d s e x a n d in 1965 an d 1970 b y a g e , s e x ,
an d c o l o r --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39
M o b ility
D -l.

O c c u p a tio n a l m o b ility r a t e s b y o c c u p a tio n : A ge a n d s e x ,
J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 -------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- 40
D -2 . A ge: E m p lo y m e n t s ta tu s in J a n u a r y 1965 of a l l p e r s o n s 35
y e a r s a n d o v e r e m p lo y e d in J a n u a r y 1966, b y s e x a n d c o l o r — 40
D -3 . A ge: T e n u r e on c u r r e n t jo b , b y s e x , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 8 ------------------ 41
D - 4 # O c c u p a tio n of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d a g e g r o u p s : T e n u re on
c u r r e n t jo b , b y s e x , J a n u a r y 1968 -------------------------------------------- 42




C o n tin u e d

C o n te n t

Page

A p p e n d ix T a b le s — C o n tin u e d
In c o m e a n d e a r n in g s
E -l.

M e d ia n w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f w a g e a n d s a l a r y w o r k e r s on f u l l ­
tim e s c h e d u le s , b y a g e , s e x a n d c o lo r , M ay 1 9 7 1 ------------------- 43
E d u c a tio n

F -l.

M e d ia n y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p le te d b y th e c iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e
18 y e a r s a n d o v e r , b y s e x a n d a g e , s e le c te d d a te s , 1 9 5 2 7 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 43
F - 2 . L a b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of th e p o p u la tio n by, a g e , s e x ,
a n d y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p le te d , M a r c h 1959, 1965 a n d 1 9 7 0 — 44
F -3 . E d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t of th e c iv ilia n la b o r f o r c e 25 y e a r s
a n d o v e r , b y a g e a n d c o lo r , M a r c h 1970 --------------------------------- 45
F -4 . O c c u p a tio n a l d i s tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s 35 y e a r s a n d
o v e r : A n n u al a v e r a g e s , 1970 ------------------------------------------------- 45
F - 5 . U n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s , b y a g e , s e x , a n d y e a r s o f s c h o o l
c o m p le te d , M a r c h 1962, 1965 a n d 1 9 7 0 ----------------------------------- 46




vi

C h a pte r 1. Introduction
T h e p o s itio n of th e o ld e r w o r k e r 1 in th e la b o r m a r k e t o f th e 1 9 7 0 ’s
in c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s tr e n g th s a s w e ll a s w e a k n e s s e s .
A long w ith o th e r
w o r k e r s h e h a s s h a r e d in th e b e n e f its of r is in g p r o d u c tiv ity an d e c o n o m ic
g ro w th a n d now e n jo y s a h ig h e r le v e l of in c o m e a n d lo n g e r p e r io d s o f l e i s u r e
th a n e v e r b e f o r e . H o w e v e r, o n ce o ld e r w o r k e r s h a v e a b r e a k i n e m p lo y m e n t
th e y h a v e m o r e s e r i o u s p r o b le m s in fin d in g a n o th e r jo b th a n y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .
A c tu a lly , th e o ld e r w o r k e r g e n e r a lly is in a good p o s itio n to r e t a i n
h is p la c e in th e la b o r m a r k e t .
H e h a s th e a d v a n ta g e of e x p e r ie n c e w h ic h
is r e g a r d e d a s a n a s s e t b y m a n y e m p lo y e r s .
H e is u n lik e ly to in itia te a
v o lu n ta r y jo b s h if t o r r e s i d e n t i a l c h a n g e .
H e h a s th e p r o te c tio n of s e n i o r ­
ity a n d , in s o m e i n d u s t r i e s , c o n tr a c tu a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w h ic h g u a r a n te e th e
c o n tin u ity o f h is s p e c if ic w o rk a c ti v ity u n til h e r e t i r e s .
W hen h e d o e s
r e a c h th e a g e of r e t i r e m e n t , h e p r o b a b ly w ill b e b e t t e r off th a n an y p r e ­
v io u s g e n e r a tio n of r e t i r e d w o r k e r s .
H is s o c ia l s e c u r i t y b e n e f its w ill b e
h ig h e r , h is o p p o r tu n itie s f o r p a r t - t i m e o r i n t e r m i t t e n t w o rk w ill b e
g r e a t e r , an d h e w ill b e r e t i r i n g a f t e r h a v in g e a r n e d m o r e d u rin g h is
w o rk in g life th a n d id p r e v io u s g ro u p s of r e t i r e e s .
A lth o u g h h is e a r n in g s
g e n e r a lly a r e s o m e w h a t lo w e r th a n th o s e o f w o r k e r s a g e d 3 5 -4 4 , h is
f a m ily r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in m o s t c a s e s a ls o a r e l e s s .
F o r a s iz a b le m in o r ity of w o r k e r s , h o w e v e r, th is r o s y p i c t u r e d o e s
n o t r e f l e c t th e f a c ts a c c u r a te ly .
O ld e r w o r k e r s do lo s e t h e i r jo b s f r o m
tim e to tim e .
E x p e r ie n c e an d s e n i o r i t y a r e no a b s o lu te g u a r a n te e s of
im m u n ity f r o m u n e m p lo y m e n t.
E v e n in a p e r io d of u n u s u a lly tig h t jo b
m a r k e t s , s u c h a s 1 9 6 8 -6 9 , 8 o u t o f e v e r y 100 w o r k e r s p a s t 45 y e a r s of
a g e h a d a t l e a s t one s p e ll of u n e m p lo y m e n t.
O n ce a n o ld e r w o r k e r lo s e s h is jo b , p r o s p e c t s f o r r e - e m p lo y m e n t
a r e d im m e r th a n f o r y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .
O ld e r w o r k e r s s t i l l f a c e d i s c r i m ­
in a tio n in h ir i n g .
In a d d itio n , t h e i r lo w e r a v e r a g e le v e l of e d u c a tio n a l
a tta in m e n t, an d in s o m e c a s e s o b s o le s c e n c e of s k i l l s , m a k e i t m o r e d if ­
f ic u lt f o r th e m to c o m p e te w ith y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .
M an y of th o s e w ho do
b e c o m e r e - e m p lo y e d fin d i t n e c e s s a r y to a c c e p t a lo w e r w a g e th a n th e y
r e c e iv e d on t h e i r p r e v io u s jo b .
T h e d iff ic u lty o f le a r n in g n ew s k ills o r
of r e lo c a tin g in a n ew c o m m u n ity a d d to th e p r o b le m of r e - e m p lo y m e n t.
F o r s o m e o ld e r w o r k e r s , e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t b e c k o n s a s a re fu g e f r o m th e
b u r d e n s of fa ilin g h e a lth an d u n s u c c e s s f u l jo b s e e k in g , e v e n th o u g h th e y
m u s t a c c e p t a p e r m a n e n t re d u c tio n in b e n e f it le v e l s .
T h e r e p o r t th a t fo llo w s a tte m p ts to p r e s e n t a b a la n c e d p i c t u r e of th e
p o s itiv e a n d n e g a tiv e a s p e c ts of th e o ld e r w o r k e r 's p o s itio n in th e la b o r
m a r k e t a s i t is r e f l e c t e d in th e l a t e s t a v a ila b le d a ta , u s u a lly 1970 o r 1971
(9 -m o n th a v e r a g e ) . 2 M o s t of th e ta b le s p r o v id e c o m p a r a tiv e d a ta f o r
e a r lie r p e rio d s .
A m ong th e m o r e im p o r ta n t s t a t i s t i c a l fin d in g s m a n i­
f e s te d in th e d a ta , th e fo llo w in g m e r i t h ig h lig h tin g —
1.

T h e la b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of o ld e r m e n a r e c o n tin u in g
to d e c lin e , w h ile th o s e o f o ld e r w o m e n c o n tin u e u p w a rd .
On




1

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

b a la n c e , th e n u m b e r of w o r k e r s o v e r 45 y e a r s of a g e w ill c o n ­
tin u e to g ro w in th e 1 9 7 0 's , b u t a t a m u c h s lo w e r r a t e th a n
p r e v io u s ly .
O p p o r tu n itie s f o r p a r t - t i m e a n d p a r t - y e a r e m p lo y m e n t h a v e g ro w n
s u b s ta n tia lly .
O nly a s m a l l p r o p o r tio n o f o ld e r w o r k e r s w o rk
p a r t - t i m e in v o lu n ta r ily , b e c a u s e of s la c k b u s in e s s c o n d itio n s ; a
m u c h l a r g e r p r o p o r tio n w o rk p a r t tim e b e c a u s e o f p o o r h e a lth
o r p a r t i a l d is a b i lity , o r f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s .
U n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s of o ld e r w o r k e r s c o n tin u e to b e lo w e r th a n
f o r y o u n g e r w o r k e r s , a lth o u g h b o th h a v e r i s e n s in c e la te 1969.
A m ong th o s e w ho do lo s e t h e i r jo b s , th e a v e r a g e d u r a tio n of
u n e m p lo y m e n t is s ig n if ic a n tly lo n g e r f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s .
O ld e r w o r k e r s a r e l e s s lik e ly th a n y o u n g e r w o r k e r s to c h a n g e
f r o m o n e e m p lo y e r to a n o th e r , f r o m o n e o c c u p a tio n to a n o th e r ,
o r f r o m o n e lo c a tio n to a n o th e r .
H o w e v e r, a s iz a b le m in o r ity
o f o ld e r w o r k e r s (12 p e r c e n t) do c h a n g e t h e i r la b o r m a r k e t s i t ­
u a tio n in s o m e r e s p e c t o v e r th e c o u r s e o f a y e a r .
O ld e r w o r k e r s h a v e l e s s a b s e n te e is m , h a v e g e n e r a lly h ig h r a t e s
of p r o d u c tio n , a n d b y m o s t o th e r in d e x e s sh o w th e m s e lv e s to b e
u s e f u l, r e l i a b l e , a n d p r o d u c tiv e w o r k e r s .
T h e e a r n in g s of f a m ily h e a d s g e n e r a lly a r e l e s s f o r th o s e o v e r
45 y e a r s of a g e th a n f o r th o s e a g e d 3 5 -4 4 y e a r s .
H o w e v e r,
f a m ily n e e d s of o ld e r w o r k e r s a ls o a r e l e s s .
W o r k e r s in th e
4 5 -5 4 y e a r a g e b r a c k e t a r e b e t t e r off in r e la tio n to b u d g e ta r y
r e q u i r e m e n t s th a n a r e y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .
On th e a v e r a g e , o ld e r w o r k e r s a r e n o t a s w e ll e d u c a te d a s th e
y o u n g e r g e n e r a tio n .
L a r g e ly f o r th is r e a s o n , a s o m e w h a t
s m a l l e r p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s p a s t 45 a r e in p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d
o th e r h ig h ly s k ille d jo b s .
H o w e v e r, th e e d u c a tio n a l g a p b e tw e e n
th e a g e g ro u p s h a s b e e n n a r r o w in g a n d i s l e s s th a n i t w a s 10
y e a rs ago.
O v e r h a lf a m illio n w o r k e r s 45 y e a r s o r o ld e r in d ic a te d th a t
th e y h a d e x p e r ie n c e d d is c r i m i n a t i o n on th e jo b in 1969.
P u b lic a n d p r i v a t e p e n s io n p a y m e n ts e v e n in c o m b in a tio n do n o t u s ­
u a lly e n a b le r e t i r e d w o r k e r s to m a in ta in th e s ta n d a r d of liv in g th e y
d e s i r e . M o r e o v e r , a m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s in th e p r i v a t e e c o n o m y
do n o t q u a lify f o r a p r i v a t e p la n b e n e f it. B e c a u s e o f th e le v e l of r e ­
t i r e m e n t b e n e f its a n d a ls o b e c a u s e w o rk o fte n f u lf ills a n e e d f o r a
p u r p o s e in lif e , m a n y o ld e r p e r s o n s w o rk p a r t - t i m e o r p a r t y e a r .
F o o tn o te s

1 A lth o u g h a g e 65 is c o n s id e r e d th e b e g in n in g of o ld a g e f o r m a n y
p u r p o s e s , th e o ld e r w o r k e r g e n e r a lly is d e fin e d a s th o s e w o r k e r s a g e d
45 o r o ld e r .
T h e r a tio n a le in th is c a s e f o r a d iv id in g lin e o f 45 y e a r s
is th a t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d a ta sh o w a t th is a g e th e o n s e t of a n i n c r e a s e in
w ith d r a w a ls o f m e n f r o m th e la b o r f o r c e , a n i n c r e a s e in th e p r e v a le n c e
o f p a r t - t i m e a n d p a r t - y e a r w o r k e r s , a d e c lin e in a n n u a l a n d w e e k ly e a r n ­
in g s , a n d a le n g th e n in g o f th e d u r a tio n of u n e m p lo y m e n t— a l l f a c t o r s th a t
i n c r e a s e in s u b s e q u e n tly o ld e r a g e g r o u p s .
2 F o r in f o r m a tio n on te c h n o lo g ic a l d is p la c e m e n t a n d w o r k e r p r o ­
d u c tiv ity , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y to d ra w on s tu d ie s c o n d u c te d in th e e a r l y
I9 6 0 's .




2

C h a p te r 2. L a b o r F o rce Participation
T h e p o p u la tio n 45 y e a r s of a g e a n d o ld e r n u m b e r e d a b o u t 62. 1 m i l ­
lio n in 1970.
Of th is to ta l a b o u t 3 1 .5 m illio n , o r o v e r h a lf, w e r e in th e
la b o r f o r c e .
T h e s e o ld e r w o r k e r s m a d e up a b o u t 37 p e r c e n t o f th e la b o r
fo rce .
B y 1980, th e p o p u la tio n 45 y e a r s of a g e an d o ld e r w ill i n c r e a s e to
a b o u t 66. 2 m illio n .
S o m e w h a t l e s s th a n h a lf, o r a b o u t 32. 6 m illio n a r e
e x p e c te d to b e in th e l a b o r f o r c e in th a t y e a r .
T h e y w ill a c c o u n t f o r
a b o u t 32 p e r c e n t of th e la b o r f o r c e .
T h e e x p e c te d i n c r e a s e of 1 m illio n o ld e r w o r k e r s d u rin g th e 1 9 7 0 's
c o m p a r e s w ith a n i n c r e a s e of 4 m illio n d u rin g th e 1 9 6 0 's .
T h e d e c lin e
in th e g ro w th o f th e o ld e r w o r k e r g ro u p is d u e to f a c t o r s th a t in c lu d e a
s m a l l e r i n c r e a s e in th e o ld e r p o p u la tio n an d a c o n tin u e d d e c lin e in th e
la b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s of a g e a n d o v e r .
T he d is c u s s io n th a t fo llo w s s u m m a r iz e s p a t t e r n s an d tr e n d s in th e
la b o r f o r c e p a r tic ip a tio n of o ld e r w o r k e r s .
O ld e r m e n in th e la b o r f o r c e
V ir tu a lly a ll m e n in t h e i r la te tw e n tie s , t h i r t i e s , a n d f o r t i e s w o rk
o r lo o k f o r w o rk .
B y a g e 5 5 -5 9 , h o w e v e r, 11 o u t of 100 m e n a r e no
lo n g e r in th e la b o r f o r c e a n d b y a g e 6 0 -6 4 , 28 o u t of 100 h a v e d ro p p e d
o u t.
B e tw e e n a g e s 64 an d 65, th e p r o p o r tio n o f m e n n o t in th e la b o r
f o r c e r i s e s r a p id ly , f r o m 36 to 50.
T h e r i s e r e f l e c t s th e w id e s p r e a d
e lig ib ility of w o r k e r s a t a g e 65 f o r r e t i r e m e n t u n d e r p r i v a t e a n d p u b lic
p e n s io n p la n s .
M an y m e n w ho le a v e th e la b o r f o r c e a t a g e 55, o r e v e n 6 5 , w o u ld
p r e f e r to c o n tin u e w o rk in g .
A s u r v e y in e a r l y 1 9 6 7 1 of m e n n o t in th e
la b o r f o r c e sh o w e d th a t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e 1 .3 m illio n w ho w e r e 5 5 -6 4
y e a r s o ld w ith d re w f r o m th e la b o r f o r c e b e c a u s e th e y w e r e s ic k o r d i s ­
a b le d .
T h is r e a s o n w a s g iv e n b y a l e s s e r p r o p o r tio n o f w h ite m e n th a n
b y m e n of o th e r r a c e s ; th is d if f e r e n c e is a r e f le c tio n of th e h ig h e r i n ­
c id e n c e of p o o r h e a lth an d d is a b i lity a m o n g m in o r ity r a c e s .
V e ry few of
th e s ic k o r d is a b le d m e n r e p o r t e d th a t th e y w o u ld b e a b le to o r p la n n e d
to w o rk w ith in a y e a r .
F o r m a n y of th e m in a b ility to w o rk w a s of long
d u r a tio n .
R e t ir e m e n t w a s th e s e c o n d m o s t im p o r ta n t r e a s o n m e n 55 to 64
y e a r s old w e r e n o t in th e la b o r f o r c e ; a lm o s t o n e - f if th g a v e th is r e a ­
so n . 2 T h e r e m a in in g fif th w e r e n o t in th e la b o r f o r c e f o r s u c h r e a ­
s o n s a s t e m p o r a r y w ith d r a w a l, f a m ily r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , o r p e r s o n a l
re a so n s.
W hen a w o r k e r le a v e s th e w o r k f o r c e a t a g e 55, th e e c o n o m ic lo s s
to th e n a tio n an d to th e in d iv id u a l is s u b s ta n tia l.
M en of 55 h a v e on th e
a v e r a g e 11 y e a r s of w o rk a h e a d of th e m , o r n e a r l y o n e - f o u r th of th e
e n tir e w o rk lif e e x p e c ta n c y f o r m e n a t a g e 16. 3 (See ta b le A. )




3

Table A .

Expectations of years of life, worklife, and retirement for men in the labor force

at selected ages and years

Life e x p ec ten cy

Expectation lo f w ork life

E xpectation o f retirem ent

A ge
1940
16
25
35
45
55
65
75

years — — -----years ----------------y e a r s ----------------y e a r s ----------------y e a r s ----------------y e a r s ----------------y e a r s -----------------

1950

1960

1968

1940

1950

1960

1968

1940

1950

1960

1968

5 0 .4
4 2 .4
3 3 .7
2 5 .5
1 8 .3
1 2 .2
7 .3

5 2 .6
4 4 .4
3 5 .2
2 6 .6
1 9 .0
1 2 .7
7 .8

5 3 .3
4 5 .0
3 5 .7
2 6 .9
1 9 .2
1 2 .8
8 .0

5 2 .9
4 4 .7
3 5 .6
2 6 .8
1 9 .0
1 2 .8
8 .2

4 4 .8
3 6 .7
2 8 .8
1 9 .7
1 2 .4
6 .8
4 .5

4 6 .8
3 8 .5
2 9 .3
2 0 .6
1 3 .0
7 .4
4 .7

4 6 .3
3 7 .9
2 8 .6
1 9 .7
1 1 .9
6 .3
5 .1

4 5 .3
3 7 .0
2 7 .7
1 8 .9
1 1 .0
5 .5
4 .9

5 .6
5 .7
5 .9
5 .8
5 .9
5 .4
2 .8

5 .8
5 .9
5 .9
6 .0
6 .0
5 .3
3 .1

7 .0
7 .1
7 .1
7 .2
7 .3
6 .5
2 .9

7 .6
7 .7
7 .9
7 .9
8 .0
7 .3
3 .3

L a b o r f o r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a t e s of m e n a g e d 55 a n d o v e r h a v e d e c lin e d
in r e c e n t y e a r s .
T h e r a t e f o r m e n a g e d 5 5 -6 4 d e c lin e d f r o m 87 to 83
p e r c e n t f r o m 1950 to 1970, w h ile th e r a t e f o r th o s e a g e d 65 an d o v e r d e ­
c lin e d f r o m 46 to 27 p e r c e n t.
O ld e r w o m e n in th e la b o r f o r c e
A m a r k e d i n c r e a s e in o ld e r w o m e n w o r k e r s h a s b e e n o n e o f th e
m o s t n o ta b le la b o r f o r c e d e v e lo p m e n ts o f th e p o s t- W o r ld W a r II p e r io d .
T h e n u m b e r of w o m e n w o r k e r s 45 y e a r s o f a g e an d o v e r m o r e th a n d o u b le d
b e tw e e n 1947 an d 1970.
W om en a c c o u n te d f o r a b o u t 30 p e r c e n t of th e
to ta l i n c r e a s e in th e c iv ilia n l a b o r f o r c e d u rin g th is p e r io d .
The p r o p o r ­
tio n of w o m e n 55 to 64 y e a r s o ld in th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c r e a s e d f r o m o n e f o u r th in 1947 to o v e r tw o - f if th s in 1970.
A m ong th o s e a g e d 45 to 54,
th e p r o p o r tio n in th e la b o r f o r c e r o s e f r o m o n e - t h i r d to o v e r o n e - h a lf
d u rin g th e s a m e p e r io d .
T he a g e p a t t e r n of la b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a m o n g w o m e n d if ­
f e r s fu n d a m e n ta lly f r o m th a t f o r m e n .
A lth o u g h a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h p r o p o r ­
tio n of young w o m e n a g e d 18 to 24 y e a r s a r e in th e la b o r f o r c e (57 p e r c e n t
in 1970), m a n y s to p w o rk in g w ith th e a r r i v a l of c h ild r e n .
As th e c h ild r e n
g ro w o ld e r , i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s of w o m e n a g a in s e e k jo b s .
T h e la b o r
f o r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a t e f o r w o m e n a g e d 45 to 54 in 1970 (54 p e r c e n t) a p ­
p r o a c h e d th a t f o r w o m e n 20 to 24 y e a r s .
O ld e r m a r r i e d w o m e n r e t u r n to w o rk f o r v a r i e d r e a s o n s .
T hese
in c lu d e h e lp in g to f in a n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n 's e d u c a tio n , p a y in g off th e m o r t ­
g a g e , r a is in g t h e i r f a m i l y 's liv in g s ta n d a r d , o r im p r o v in g t h e i r f in a n c ia l
s e c u r i t y a g a in s t o ld a g e .
S o m e w o rk in o r d e r to u s e t h e i r e d u c a tio n an d
tr a in in g o r to m e e t p e o p le .
B u t m a n y , in c lu d in g w id o w s an d th e w iv e s of
low e a r n e r s , w o rk b e c a u s e of f in a n c ia l n e c e s s i t y .
F u tu r e g ro w th of th e la b o r f o r c e
A s h a r p slo w d o w n is e x p e c te d in th e g ro w th of th e la b o r f o r c e a g e d
45 to 64 y e a r s . 4 T h e s e w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c te d to i n c r e a s e f r o m 28. 3 m i l ­
lio n in 1970 to 29. 3 m illio n in 1980,
T h is i n c r e a s e w ill b e o n ly o n e f o u r th a s g r e a t a s th a t b e tw e e n I9 6 0 a n d 1970.
T h e ir p r o p o r tio n of th e




4

to ta l la b o r f o r c e w ill d e c lin e s h a r p ly , f r o m a b o u t 33 p e r c e n t to a b o u t 29
p e rc e n t.
T h e slo w d o w n in th e g ro w th of th is g ro u p of w o r k e r s is e x ­
p e c te d l a r g e l y b e c a u s e of a s iz a b le d e c lin e in th e 4 5 -5 4 y e a r o ld p o p u ­
la tio n , a s a r e s u l t of th e c o m p a r a tiv e ly s m a l l n u m b e r of b i r t h s in th e
y e a r s of th e G r e a t D e p r e s s io n .
L a b o r fo rc e p a rtic ip a tio n ra te s fo r m en
a g e d 4 5 -5 4 y e a r s a r e e x p e c te d to r e m a in a b o u t th e s a m e , b u t r a t e s f o r
th o s e 5 5 -6 4 a r e e x p e c te d to d e c lin e slo w ly .
R a te s f o r m e n o v e r 65 a r e
e x p e c te d to c o n tin u e to d e c lin e s u b s ta n tia lly .
R a te s f o r w o m e n 5 5 -6 4 a r e
e x p e c te d to c o n tin u e to i n c r e a s e .
No s ig n if ic a n t c h a n g e is e x p e c te d in th e n u m b e r of w o r k e r s o v e r 65,
w ho w ill r e m a in a t j u s t o v e r 3 m illio n th ro u g h th e 1 9 7 0 f s .
A t th is le v e l,
th e y w ill r e p r e s e n t a d e c lin in g p r o p o r tio n of th e w o r k f o r c e .
The d e ­
c r e a s e d p r o p e n s ity to w o rk a f t e r 65 r e f l e c t s in p a r t th e im p r o v e m e n t in
r e t i r e m e n t b e n e f its , im p r o v e d s e c u r i t y a s a r e s u l t of h e a lth in s u r a n c e
p r o g r a m s , in c lu d in g m e d i c a r e an d m e d ic a id , an d i n c r e a s e d a s s e t s th a t
m a y h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m fu ll e m p lo y m e n t d u rin g th e l a t e r y e a r s of th e
w o r k lif e .
A l a r g e r s u p p ly of young w o r k e r s m a y a u g m e n t p r e s s u r e s on
o ld e r w o r k e r s to r e t i r e s o o n e r th a n th e y m ig h t o th e r w is e .
The tre n d fo r
m e n to r e t i r e e a r l i e r is e x p e c te d to c o n tin u e th ro u g h th e 1 9 7 0 f s .
F o o tn o te s
1 V e r a C. P e r r e l l a an d E d w a rd J . O* B o y le , " W o rk P la n s of M en
N o t in th e L a b o r F o r c e , " M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , A u g u st a n d S e p te m b e r
1968, p p . 8 - 1 4 , 3 5 -4 1 .
2 Ib id .
S e e a ls o H e r b e r t S. P a r n e s e t a l, T h e P r e - R e t i r e m e n t
Y e a r s , V ol. 1, O hio S ta te U n iv e r s ity , T h e C e n te r f o r H u m a n R e s o u r c e
R ese arch .
U n d e r c o n t r a c t to th e U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r .
P a rn e s
r e p o r t e d th a t o v e r f o u r - f i f t h s of th e 4 5 -5 9 y e a r o ld m e n s u r v e y e d w ho
r e t i r e d b e tw e e n 1966 a n d 1967 s a id th a t th e y w e r e n o t lo o k in g f o r w o rk
b e c a u s e of i l l h e a lth .
A n o t u n c o m m o n p a t t e r n w a s one in w h ic h th e
c o m b in a tio n of u n e m p lo y m e n t a n d p o o r h e a lth (and s o m e tim e s lim it e d
e d u c a tio n ) r e s u l t e d f in a lly in w ith d ra w a l f r o m th e l a b o r f o r c e .
3 H o w a rd N. F u l l e r t o n , "A T a b le o f E x p e c te d W o rk in g L ife f o r
M en , 1 9 6 8 ," M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w . J u n e 1971, p p . 4 9 -5 5 .
4 U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r , B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , T h e U. S.
E c o n o m y in 1980: A S u m m a r y of B L S P r o j e c t i o n s » B L S B u lle tin 1673,
1970.




5

C h a p te r 3. U n e m p lo ym e n t
T h e d if f ic u ltie s o ld e r w o r k e r s e n c o u n te r in th e la b o r m a r k e t a r e
e x p r e s s e d in th e le n g th of t h e i r p e r io d s of u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t h e r th a n in
th e in c id e n c e of u n e m p lo y m e n t U n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s 1 te n d to b e r e l a t i v e l y
low f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s .
In 1970, f o r e x a m p le , th e u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e
(a n n u a l a v e r a g e ) f o r m e n a g e d 45 an d o v e r w a s 2. 6 p e r c e n t , c o m p a r e d
w ith a r a t e of 3. 0 p e r c e n t f o r m e n 2 5 -4 4 .
(S ee ta b le B . ) T h o s e a g e d
4 5 -5 4 h a d a lo w e r u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e th a n a n y o th e r a g e g ro u p .
Even
th e h ig h e s t r a t e a m o n g o ld e r w o r k e r s , f o r th o s e 65 y e a r s an d o v e r , w a s
o n ly tw o - f if th s th e r a t e f o r m a le w o r k e r s a g e d 2 0 -2 4 .
A m ong w o m e n
d if f e r e n c e s in u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s b y a g e w e r e e v e n m o r e f a v o r a b le f o r
th e o ld e r g ro u p .
Table B.

Selected measures of unemployment, by age and sex, 1970

(Num ber in thousands)
D uration o f un em p loym en t
A ge

U n em p loyed
persons

M en, 16 years and o v e r - - — ------------------16
20
25
45

A verage
w eek s

Percent
u n em p loyed
15 or m ore w eeks

2, 235

4 .4

9 .5

1 7 .8

599
478
643
51515
247
197
71

1 5 .0
8 .4
3 .0
2 .6
2 .4
2 .8
3 .3

6 .7
7 .9
1 0 .0
1 3 .6
1 2 .0
1 4 .1
1 7 .4

1 0 .2
1 3 .7
1 9 .4
2 8 .3
2 4 .0
2 9 .8
3 9 .1

-------------

1 ,8 5 3

5 .9

7 .9

1 4 .3

to 19 y e a r s ----------------------------------to 24 y e a r s ------------------- --------------to 4 4 y e a r s ----------------------------------years and o v e r -----------------------------45 to 54 y e a r s ---------------------------55 to 64 y e a r s ---------------------------65 years and o v e r -----------------------

506
386
588
373
229
111
33

1 5 .6
7 .9
5 .0
3 .2
3 .5
2 .7
3 .1

6 .1
7 .1
8 .5
1 0 .3
1 0 .1
1 0 .2
1 1 .5

9 .3
1 2 .0
1 5 .6
2 1 .1
2 1 .0
2 0 .1
2 5 .6

to 19 years — -----------------------------to 24 y e a r s ----------------------------------to 44 y e a r s ----------------------------------years and o v e r -----------------------------45 to 54 y e a r s ---------------------------55 to 64 y e a r s ---------------------------65 years and o v e r -----------------------

W om en, 16 years and over —
16
20
25
45

U n em p loym en t
rate

L o w e r u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s a r e l a r g e l y a ttr ib u ta b le
to th e f a c t th a t th e y a r e l e s s lik e ly th a n y o u n g e r w o r k e r s to b e s u b je c t
to th e h a z a r d s of th e jo b s e a r c h .
F i r s t , t h e i r lo n g e r jo b t e n u r e 2 g iv e s
th e m g r e a t e r jo b s e c u r i t y .
F o r e x a m p le , f r o m th e f o u r th q u a r t e r of 1969
to th e s e c o n d q u a r t e r of 1971, a p e r io d w h e n th e u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e ( s e a ­
s o n a lly a d ju s te d ) f o r m a le s a g e d 2 5 -4 4 d o u b le d , th e r a t e f o r m a le s 45 an d




6

o v e r rose by a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t .
Second, o ld e r w o r k e r s are l e s s lik e ly to
le a v e t h e i r jo b s v o lu n ta r ily an d of c o u r s e a r e l e s s lik e ly to b e e n te r in g
th e la b o r f o r c e f o r th e f i r s t tim e (o r r e - e n t e r i n g a f t e r a p e r io d of
e d u c a tio n ).
H o w e v e r, o ld e r w o r k e r s a r e f a r f r o m im m u n e f r o m th e lo s s of t h e i r
jo b s .
E v e n v e r y long s e r v i c e is no g u a r a n te e a g a in s t in v o lu n ta r y s e p a r a ­
tio n s .
O ne o u t of e v e r y 25 b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s w ith 20 o r m o r e y e a r s
of s e r v i c e l o s t h is jo b in th e y e a r fo llo w in g th e f i r s t in te r v ie w (1966) of
th e P a r n e s s tu d y . 3
O nce o ld e r w o r k e r s h a v e a b r e a k in e m p lo y m e n t, th e y h a v e a s e r i ­
o u s p r o b le m in fin d in g a n o th e r jo b .
T h e a v e r a g e d u r a tio n of u n e m p lo y ­
m e n t in 1970 f o r m e n 45 y e a r s of a g e o r o v e r w a s n e a r ly d o u b le th a t of
young m e n u n d e r 25 y e a r s of a g e .
(See ta b le B . ) A b o u t 28 of e v e r y 100
u n e m p lo y e d o ld e r m e n h a d b e e n lo o k in g f o r w o rk 15 w e e k s o r lo n g e r ,
c o m p a r e d w ith 19 of e v e r y 100 u n e m p lo y e d m e n 2 5 -4 4 y e a r s of a g e .
I n s ig h t on th e e x p e r ie n c e of o ld e r w o r k e r s w ho a r e a f f e c te d b y p la n t
s h u td o w n s o r l a r g e s c a le la y o ffs i s p r o v i d e d b y r e s e a r c h c o n d u c te d in th e e a r ly
1 9 6 0 fs .
A s tu d y of fiv e p la n t sh u td o w n s o r l a r g e - s c a l e la y o ffs sh o w e d ,
f o r e x a m p le , th a t u n e m p lo y m e n t w a s m a r k e d ly h ig h e r a m o n g w o r k e r s a g e
45 a n d o v e r th a n a m o n g y o u n g e r w o r k e r s . 4 In tw o of th e c a s e s s tu d ie d
in w h ic h d e ta ile d a g e b re a k d o w n s w e r e f e a s i b l e , th e h ig h e s t u n e m p lo y m e n t
r a t e s b y f a r w e r e fo u n d in th e 5 5 -5 9 y e a r o ld g ro u p .
A s u b s ta n tia l p r o ­
p o r tio n of th e w o r k e r s a g e d 60 an d o v e r w ho w e r e la id off w e r e n o t s e e k ­
ing w o rk .
M an y h a d ta k e n e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t ; o th e r s m a y h a v e b e e n d is c o u ra g e d f r o m lo o k in g f o r w o rk .
In th e tw o p la n ts in w h ic h w o m e n w e r e a s ig n if ic a n t n u m b e r of th e
d is p la c e d w o r k e r s , th e u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e f o r w o m e n w a s a lm o s t t h r e e
tim e s th e r a t e f o r m e n .
A t e a c h le v e l of e d u c a tio n an d a g e u n d e r 60,
r a t e s f o r w o m e n w e r e m u c h h ig h e r th a n f o r m e n .
A m ong w o r k e r s 6 0 -6 4
y e a r s of a g e , a l a r g e r p r o p o r tio n of w o m e n th a n m e n w e r e n o t s e e k in g
e m p lo y m e n t.
T h e ' h ig h e s t r a t e of u n e m p lo y m e n t f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s w a s
f o r th o s e a g e d 45-5,4, c o m p a r e d w ith th e 5 5 -5 9 a g e g ro u p f o r m e n .
F o o tn o te s
1 T he u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e is th e p e r c e n t th a t th e u n e m p lo y e d c o n ­
s titu te of th e n u m b e r th a t a r e w o rk in g p lu s th o s e lo o k in g f o r w o rk .
2 T h e le n g th of tim e a p e r s o n h a s w o rk e d w ith o u t in t e r r u p t i o n f o r
th e s a m e e m p lo y e r .
S e e E d w a rd J . O fB o y le , 1 J o b T e n u r e : How i t R e ­
1
l a t e s to R a c e a n d A g e 1', M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w . S e p te m b e r 1969.
R e p r in t
112.
3 P a r n e s e t a l. , op. c it.
4 U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r , B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , C a s e
S tu d ie s of D is p la c e d W o r k e r s , B L S B u lle tin 1408, 1964.
S e e a ls o
R ic h a rd C. W ilc o c k an d W a lte r H. F r a n k e , U n w an ted w o r k e r s : P e r m a n ­
e n t L a y o ffs a n d L o n g - te r m U n e m p lo y m e n t, N ew Y o rk : F r e e P r e s s of
G le n c o e , 1963




7

C h a p te r 4. W o r k E xp e rie n ce
T h e p r o p o r tio n o f m e n w ho w o rk f u l l - t i m e f u l l - y e a r d e c lin e s in e a c h
s u b s e q u e n t a g e g ro u p a f t e r a g e s 3 5 -4 4 .
D a ta on w o rk e x p e r ie n c e f o r 1970
sh o w o n ly a s lig h t d e c lin e b e tw e e n a g e g r o u p s 3 5 -4 4 a n d 4 5 -5 4 in th e p r o ­
p o r tio n of m a le w o r k e r s w ho w o rk e d f u ll tim e fu ll y e a r , b u t th e g ro u p s
a g e d 5 5 -5 9 an d 6 0 -6 4 h a d d e c lin e s of a n o th e r 4 p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts .
(S ee
ta b le C. ) T h e p r o p o r tio n of m e n a g e d 65 a n d o v e r w ho w o rk e d fu ll tim e
f u ll y e a r in 1970 w a s 35 p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts lo w e r th a n th e p e r c e n ta g e of
th o s e a g e d 60 to 64 y e a r s (73 a n d 38 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c tiv e ly ) .
T h e a g e p a t t e r n of w o rk e x p e r ie n c e f o r w o m e n d if f e r s m a r k e d ly f r o m
th a t f o r m e n in th a t th e p r o p o r tio n w o rk in g f u ll y e a r fu ll tim e is h ig h e r
a m o n g th o s e 4 5 - 6 4 y e a r s of a g e th a n a m o n g th o s e 3 5 -4 4 .
H o w e v e r, th e
p r o p o r tio n w o rk in g fu ll tim e f u ll y e a r sh o w s a b o u t th e s a m e r e l a t i v e d e ­
c lin e b e tw e e n th e a g e s of 60 to 64 a n d 65 a n d o v e r a s f o r m e n .
Table C.

Percent of persons with work experience in 1960, 1965 and 1970, who worked

year round full time, by age and sex

1965

1960

1970

A ge
T o ta l
35
45
55
60

to 4 4 y e a r s ----------------------to 54 y e a r s ----------------------to 59 y e a r s ----------------------to 64 y e a r s ----------------------60 -6 1 y e a r s --------------------6 2 -6 4 y e a r s ---------------------

6 5 .2
6 4 .6
6 3 .0
6 0 .9

65 years and o v e r ----------------65 to 69 y e a r s ----------------70 years and o v e r ------------

3 5 .4
3 8 .5
3 1 .7

<>
}
t1
)

M ale

F em a le

T o ta l

M ale

F em a le

T o ta l

7 8 .7
7 5 .9
7 2 .3
6 9 .5

4 2 .7
4 6 .8
4 7 .1
4 4 .4

6 9 .6
6 9 .3
5 8 .1
6 3 .5

8 4 .1
8 2 .5
7 8 .1
7 2 .5

4 5 .8
4 8 .9
5 2 .3
4 7 .6

(?)
t1
)

(?>

t1
)

0)

(?
>
t1
)

(!)
( 1)

6 8 .5
7 1 .1
6 9 .5
6 4 .2
6 7 .5
6 1 .4

8 3 .0
8 2 .5
7 7 .3
7 3 .1
7 7 .1
6 9 .8

4 6 .0
5 4 .4
5 7 .7
5 0 .7
5 3 .5
4 8 .2

3 9 .1
4 3 .5
3 4 .2

2 7 .2
2 8 .6
2 5 .3

3 7 .9
4 3 .1
3 1 .0

4 3 .2
4 9 .2
3 4 .9

2 7 .8
3 0 .9
2 3 .8

3 3 .8
3 9 .1
2 6 .7

3 7 .8
4 4 .0
2 9 .6

2 6 .7
3 0 .4
2 1 .5

M ale

(}>

F em a le

* Not a v a ila b le .

T he p r o p o r tio n o f a l l m a le w o r k e r s on p a r t - t i m e s c h e d u le s (w h e th e r
f u l l - o r p a r t - y e a r w o r k e r s ) in 1970 i n c r e a s e d b y a g e f r o m a b o u t 4 p e r c e n t
a m o n g th o s e 4 5 -6 4 y e a r s o ld to 38 p e r c e n t a m o n g th o s e a g e d 65 a n d o v e r .
T h e h ig h e r p r o p o r tio n of p a r t - t i m e w o r k e r s 65 y e a r s of a g e o r o ld e r w a s
d u e a lm o s t e n t i r e l y to an i n c r e a s e b y a g e in th e p r o p o r tio n of th o s e on
v o lu n ta r y p a r t tim e , 2 p e r c e n t a m o n g th o s e 4 5 -6 4 a n d 35 p e r c e n t a m o n g
th o s e 65 a n d o ld e r .




8

In e v e r y a g e g r o u p , p a r t tim e is m o r e f r e q u e n t f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s
th a n f o r m e n . T h e p r o p o r tio n of a ll w o m e n w o r k e r s on p a r t tim e is a b o u t
o n e - f o u r th in th e a g e g ro u p s 2 5 -4 4 an d 4 5 -6 4 , b u t i n c r e a s e s to a lm o s t
o n e - h a lf a t a g e 65 a n d o v e r .
T he g r e a t m a jo r ity of w o m e n w ho w o rk
p a r t tim e do so v o lu n ta r ily .
(See ta b le D. )
Table D.

Percent of persons at work in nonagricultural industries by part-time status,

age and sex, annual average, 1970

A ge and sex

T o ta l
at
work

F u ll-tim e
schedules

P art-tim e schedules
T o ta l

E con om ic
reasons

V oluntary
reasons

M ale
25 to 44 y e a r s ----------------------------------45 to 64 y e a r s ----------------------------------65 years and o v e r ------------------------------

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

9 6 .6
9 5 .9
6 1 .8

3 .4
4 .1
3 8 .2

1 .9
2 .0
3 .0

1 .5
2 .1
3 5 .2

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

7 4 .3
7 6 .9
4 9 .9

2 5 .7
2 3 .1
5 0 .1

3 .5
3 .9
3 .9

2 2 .2
1 9 .2
4 6 .2

F em a le
25 to 44 y e a r s ----------------------------------45 to 64 y e a r s ----------------------------------65 years and o v e r ------------------------------

Includes persons w ho do not perfer, or are u n a v a ila b le for, fu ll-t im e work.

T he p r o p o r tio n of o ld e r w o r k e r s w ho v o lu n ta r ily w o rk p a r t tim e h a s
in c r e a s e d in r e c e n t y e a r s .
In I9 6 0 , f o r e x a m p le , a b o u t 7 p e r c e n t of a ll
w o r k e r s 4 5 -6 4 y e a r s of ag e and 30 p e r c e n t of th o s e 65 an d o v e r w e r e
e m p lo y e d p a r t tim e .
B y 1970, th e p r o p o r tio n s h a d r i s e n to 9 a n d 39 p e r ­
c e n t r e s p e c tiv e ly .
T h e p r o p o r tio n o f m a le w o r k e r s w ho w o rk p a r t y e a r ( i r r e s p e c t i v e of
f u l l - o r p a r t - t i m e ) i n c r e a s e s w ith a g e .
In 1970, f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o ­
p o r tio n of p a r t - t i m e w o r k e r s w a s 16 p e r c e n t f o r th o s e 4 5 -5 4 y e a r s o ld ,
22 p e r c e n t f o r th o s e a g e d 5 5 -6 4 , an d 43 p e r c e n t f o r th o s e 65 y e a r s of ag e
an d o v e r .
U n e m p lo y m e n t an d i l l n e s s o r d is a b i lity w e r e th e tw o m a jo r
r e a s o n s f o r p a r t - y e a r w o rk a m o n g m e n 4 5 -6 4 y e a r s o f a g e , 43 a n d 30
p e rc e n t re s p e c tiv e ly .
A m ong m e n 65 y e a r s of ag e a n d o ld e r , r e t i r e m e n t
an d o th e r r e a s o n s w e r e c ite d b y 72 p e r c e n t of th e p a r t - y e a r w o r k e r s .
T h e p r o p o r tio n of w o m e n w o r k e r s w ho w o rk e d p a r t y e a r d e c lin e d
f r o m 48 p e r c e n t a m o n g th o s e 25 to 44 y e a r s of a g e to a b o u t 35 p e r c e n t
f o r th o s e 45 to 54 y e a r s an d 55 to 64 , th e n r o s e to 51 p e r c e n t f o r th o s e
65 y e a r s of a g e an d o v e r .
W om en in e v e r y a g e g ro u p c ite d h o m e r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t i e s a s t h e i r m a j o r r e a s o n f o r p a r t - y e a r w o rk .




9

C h a p te r 5. M obility
T h e o ld e r w o r k e r u s u a lly is w e ll s e tt le d in h is c a r e e r an d in h is
c o m m u n ity .
H e is l e s s lik e ly th a n y o u n g e r w o r k e r s to m o v e v o lu n ta r ily
f r o m one jo b , o c c u p a tio n , o r r e s id e n c e to a n o th e r , a n d h e is l e s s a b le
to m o v e .
S ta b ility , r a t h e r th a n m o b ility , c h a r a c t e r i z e s th e o ld e r g ro u p .
A r e c e n t s u r v e y o f m a le w o r k e r s in th e " p r e - r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s " (a g e s 4 5 59) f o r e x a m p le , in d ic a te d th a t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e m h a d w o rk e d f o r t h e i r
p r e s e n t e m p lo y e r (o r h a d b e e n s e lf - e m p lo y e d ) f o r 10 y e a r s o r m o r e a n d
tw o - f if th s s a id th e y w e r e u n w illin g to c o n s id e r a n o th e r jo b e v e n f o r a
h ig h e r w a g e .
N in e o u t of te n lik e d t h e i r c u r r e n t jo b a n d tw o - th i r d s r e ­
g a r d e d i t a s th e b e s t of t h e i r l i v e s .
N e a r l y f o u r - f if t h s s a id th e y w o u ld
w o rk e v e n if th e y h a d e n o u g h m o n e y to liv e c o m f o r ta b ly w ith o u t w o r k i n g .1
A lth o u g h o ld e r w o r k e r s a r e s ig n if ic a n tly l e s s m o b ile th a n y o u n g e r
w o r k e r s , n o n e th e l e s s , P a r n e s fo u n d th a t a b o u t 12 p e r c e n t o f th e 4 5 - 5 9 y e a r - o l d m e n s u r v e y e d in 1966 w e r e in d if f e r e n t la b o r m a r k e t s itu a tio n s
in 1967, b e c a u s e of a m o v e f r o m one e m p lo y e r to a n o th e r , b e tw e e n e m ­
p lo y m e n t a n d u n e m p lo y m e n t, o r in to o r o u t o f th e la b o r f o r c e . 2
J o b m o b ilit y .
O ld e r w o r k e r s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of r a c e o r s e x , g e n e r a lly
s ta y lo n g e r on a jo b th a n y o u n g e r w o r k e r s . 3 S e n io r ity g iv e s th e o ld e r
g ro u p a l a r g e r d e g r e e of e m p lo y m e n t s e c u r i t y , h ig h e r r a t e s of p a y , a n d
m o r e g e n e r o u s f r in g e b e n e f its th a t in c lu d e lo n g e r p a id v a c a tio n s a n d p e n ­
s io n r i g h t s .
F u r t h e r m o r e th e y f e e l th a t m a n y e m p lo y e r s h e s i t a t e o r r e ­
fu s e to h i r e o ld e r a p p lic a n ts , e s p e c ia ll y th o s e w h o s e e x p e r ie n c e o r t r a i n ­
in g is n o t r e l a t e d s p e c if ic a lly to th e jo b o p e n in g .
E v e n if la y o ffs a r e
t h r e a te n e d — w h e th e r a s a r e s u l t of te c h n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e s , e c o n o m ic c o n ­
d itio n s , o r o th e r r e a s o n s ----th e y a r e lik e ly to c o n c lu d e th a t i t is l e s s r is k y
to s ta y w h e r e th e y a r e .
M o s t jo b s h if ts m a d e b y m e n o v e r 45 a r e e x p la in e d b y th e lo s s o f
t h e i r p r e v io u s jo b .
In c o n t r a s t , m o s t jo b c h a n g e s m a d e b y y o u n g e r m e n
a r e m a d e in th e e x p e c ta tio n of g e ttin g a b e t t e r jo b .
O c c u p a tio n a l m o b ility .
T h e o u ts ta n d in g d e m o g r a p h ic f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d
w ith o c c u p a tio n a l m o b ility is th e a g e of th e w o r k e r .
O c c u p a tio n a l m o b ility
d e c lin e s a s a g e i n c r e a s e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of s e x o r r a c e . 4 (See ta b le E . )
O ld e r w o r k e r s w ho c h a n g e t h e i r o c c u p a tio n o fte n m o v e in to s e r v i c e
j o b s , m a n y of w h ic h h a v e no g r e a t d e m a n d f o r s k ills a n d a r e l e s s d e ­
m a n d in g p h y s ic a lly th a n o th e r low s k ille d o r u n s k ille d w o rk .
F o r som e
o ld e r w o r k e r s , a n o c c u p a tio n a l s h if t is th e b e g in n in g of s e m i - r e t i r e m e n t .
C h an g e in r e s i d e n c e .
T h e p e r c e n t o f e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s w ho m o v e
to a d i f f e r e n t c o u n ty d e s c e n d s s h a r p ly w ith a g e .
D a ta on th e r e s i d e n t i a l
m o b ility of w o r k e r s f o r 1 9 6 9 -7 0 sh o w th a t l e s s th a n 3 p e r c e n t of a ll e m ­
p lo y e d p e r s o n s a g e 45 o r o ld e r c h a n g e d c o u n tie s d u rin g th e y e a r . 5 (See
ta b le F . ) A lth o u g h A m e r ic a n s u n d o u b te d ly d e s e r v e t h e i r r e p u ta tio n f o r
b e in g a p e o p le on th e m o v e , i t is p r i m a r i l y th e y o u n g e r g e n e r a tio n th a t
is d o in g th e m o v in g .
W hen o ld e r w o r k e r s do m o v e , t h e i r r e a s o n is
m o r e lik e ly to b e w o r k - r e l a t e d th a n in th e c a s e of y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .




10

Table E.

Occupational mobility rates1 between January 1965 and January 1966 of employed persons,

by age, sex, and color, January 1966

Negro and
other races

W hite

A ll persons
A ge
Men

W om en

M en

W om en

M en

W om en

T o ta l, 18 years and o v e r ------------

9 .9

6 .9

9 .6

6 .8

1 2 .4

7 .1

1 8 -1 9 y e a r s ------------------------------------------2 0 -2 4 y e a r s -----------------------------------------2 5 -3 4 y e a r s -----------------------------------------3 5 -4 4 y e a r s ----------------------------------------4 5 -5 4 y e a r s ------------------------------------------5 5 -6 4 y e a r s -----------------------------------------65 years and o v e r ---------------------------------

3 1 .7
2 8 .5
1 3 .8
7 .4
5 .2
3 .8
2 .7

2 9 .0
1 4 .9
8 .5
5 .3
4 .7
2 .4
1 .8

3 1 .8
2 8 .4
1 3 .5
7 .2
5 .1
3 .8
2 .7

2 8 .3
1 4 .4
8 .3
5 .5
4 .8
2 .6
1 .6

(2 >
2 9 .2
1 6 .8
9 .5
6 .6
3 .7
3 .5

( 2)
1 9 .0
9 .7
4 .3
3 .8
1 .2
( 2)

* Proportion o f persons em p lo y ed in both January 1965 and January 1966 who had a differen t o c c u p a ­
tio n in January 1966.
2 R ate not shown w here b ase is less than 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

Table F.

Percent of employed workers who moved to a different

county in the U.S. by age and sex, March 1969-March 1970

A ge

Percent

Men:
1 8 -2 4 y e a r s ---------------------------------------------2 5 -3 4 y e a r s ---------------------------------------------3 5 -4 4 y e a r s ------ -------------------------------------4 5 -6 4 y e a r s ---------------------------------- ---------65 years and o v e r -------------------------------------

1 2 .7
1 0 .4
4 .9
2 .7
1 .6

W om en:
1 8 -2 4 years — -------- ----- ---------------------- -—
2 5 -3 4 y e a r s ------ ------------------ ----- -------------3 5 -4 4 y e a r s ---------------------------------------------4 5 -6 4 y e a r s ---------------------------------------------65 years and o v e r -------------------------------------

1 4 .4
8 .0
3 .6
2 .3
2 .6

W illin g n e s s to m o v e is a p o s itiv e f a c t o r in o b ta in in g e m p lo y m e n t.
T h e s tu d y of p la n t c lo s in g s in th e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 fs f o r e x a m p le sh o w e d th a t
m o s t w o r k e r s h a d to lo o k o u ts id e t h e i r h o m e a r e a to o b ta in a jo b in th e
s a m e in d u s tr y .
G r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n s of e m p lo y e d th a n u n e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s
h a d s o u g h t w o rk o u ts id e t h e i r h o m e c i t i e s .
A s m e n tio n e d e a r l i e r , th e s t a b i lity of o ld e r w o r k e r s is a c o n s i d e r ­
a b le a s s e t to t h e i r e m p lo y e r s .
B u t w h en o ld e r w o r k e r s lo s e t h e i r jo b s —
f o r w h a te v e r r e a s o n — t h e i r a tta c h m e n t to a p a r t i c u l a r lin e of w o rk o r i n ­
d u s tr y , t h e i r s p e c ia liz a tio n in p a r t i c u l a r s k ills an d a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t h e i r




11

d e e p r o o ts in th e c o m m u n ity p u t th e m a t a d is a d v a n ta g e .
If t h e i r u n e m ­
p lo y m e n t r e s u l t s f r o m th e o b s o le s c e n c e of t h e i r s k ills (o r th a t of t h e i r
p la n ts ) , a s h if t in c o n s u m e r d e m a n d , o r th e d e c lin e o r r e lo c a ti o n o f t h e i r
in d u s tr y , t h e i r p r o b le m i s e v e n m o r e a c u te .
M a n p o w e r r e t r a i n i n g an d
r e lo c a ti o n a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s r e c o g n iz e th a t th e s e
w o r k e r s n e e d s p e c ia l a s s i s t a n c e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e im m o b ility .
F o o tn o te s
1 H e r b e r t S. P a r n e s e t a l , T h e P r e - R e t i r e m e n t Y e a r s , V o l. I, O hio
S ta te U n iv e r s ity , T h e C e n te r f o r H u m a n R e s o u r c e s .
U n d e r c o n t r a c t to
th e U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r , 1968.
2 P a r n e s , op. c i t . , V o l. II, 1970, p p . 2 9 -3 0 .
3 O 'B o y le , op. c it. , p p . 1 6 -2 3 .
* S a m u e l S a b e n , " O c c u p a tio n a l M o b ility of E m p lo y e d W o r k e r s " ,
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , J u n e 1967, p p . 3 1 -3 8 .
® U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of C o m m e r c e , B u r e a u of th e C e n s u s , M o b ility
o f th e P o p u la tio n of th e U n ite d S ta te s . M a r c h 1969 to 1 9 7 0 . S e r i e s P - 2 0 ,
N o. 210.




12

C h a p te r 6. Incom e and E a rn in g s
I n c o m e 1 f o r w o r k e r s a g e d 45 y e a r s an d o v e r g e n e r a lly is l e s s th a n
f o r w o r k e r s a g e d 3 5 -4 4 , th e p e a k e a r n in g g ro u p . T h e d if f e r e n c e a c c e l e r ­
a te s in s u c c e s s iv e ly o ld e r a g e g r o u p s .
T he to ta l in c o m e of o ld e r p e r s o n s c o m p a r e d w ith th a t of p e r s o n s
a g e d 3 5 -4 4 is sh o w n in th e fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n , by s e x f o r th e y e a r s I9 6 0 ,
1965, an d 1970.
T he f ig u r e s a r e e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s of r a t i o s (in c o m e
of a g e g ro u p 3 5 -4 4 = 1 0 0 ).
L i ttle if a n y c h a n g e is d is c e r n ib l e d u rin g th is
p e r io d in th e in c o m e - a g e in d e x e s f o r m e n .
T h e s m a l l im p r o v e m e n t in
th e in c o m e - a g e in d e x e s f o r w o m e n p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t s th e in c r e a s in g e m ­
p lo y m e n t of o ld e r w o m e n :
Year
Men:
1970 .................. ..........
1965 ...... ......................
1960 --------------------- .............
W omen:
1 9 7 0 .............................. .............
1 9 6 5 .............................. .............
1 9 6 0 ............................- - ...........

3 5 -4 4

4 5 -5 4

5 5 -6 4

65 and o1

100

97
95
95

81
78
78

32
32
31

100
100
100

107
103
103

85
81
70

44
40
44

O ld e r p e r s o n s liv in g on r e t i r e m e n t in c o m e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y lik e ly
to b e h a r d p r e s s e d f in a n c ia lly , b u t th o s e s t i l l in th e la b o r f o r c e a r e n o t
e x e m p t.
As n o te d e a r l i e r , th e w o rk e x p e r ie n c e of o ld e r p e r s o n s is c h a r ­
a c t e r i z e d by lo n g e r p e r io d s of u n e m p lo y m e n t an d m o r e p a r t - t i m e w o rk .
B u t e v e n th o s e e m p lo y e d y e a r ro u n d fu ll tim e h a v e lo w e r e a r n in g s th a n
younger w o rk e rs.
E a r n in g s of m a le h e a d s of f a m ilie s e m p lo y e d fu ll tim e
y e a r ro u n d in n o n f a r m o c c u p a tio n s in 1969, f o r e x a m p le , w e r e o n ly 86
p e r c e n t a s m u c h f o r th o s e a g e d 5 5 -6 4 a s f o r th o s e a g e d 3 5 -4 4 , w h ile
th o s e 65 a n d o v e r e a r n e d 68 p e r c e n t a s m u c h a s th e y o u n g e r g ro u p . 2
L o w e r a v e r a g e e a r n in g s of o ld e r w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d f u ll tim e y e a r
ro u n d a r e n o t e x p la in e d b y d if f e r e n c e s in w e e k ly h o u r s , a s th e fo llo w in g t a b ­
u la tio n in d ic a te s .
D if f e r e n c e s in m e d ia n y e a r s of e d u c a tio n b y a g e , h o w ­
e v e r , p r o b a b ly a c c o u n t f o r s o m e d if f e r e n c e s in e a r n in g s :




Earnings

A ge
3 5 -4 4 y e a r s ------------------------..........
4 5 -5 4 y e a r s -----------------------5 5 -6 4 y e a r s -----------------------65 years and o v e r -------------- ..........

100

68

Hours worked
100
98
96
96

NOTE: Earnings data refer to m en who head husband-w ife
fa m ilie s and who are em p loyed year round fu ll tim e in nonfarm
occu p ation s. Data on hours worked refer to m arried m e n , w ife
present, on f u ll-t im e schedules in nonagricultural industries, but
w ithout referen ce to year-round em p lo y m en t.

13

T h e d if f e r e n c e in e a r n in g s by a g e is m o r e p ro n o u n c e d in s o m e o c c u p a ­
tio n a l g ro u p s th a n m o t h e r s . 3 S a le s m e n a g e d 4 5 -5 4 e a r n e d o n ly n in e - te n th s
a s m u c h a s y o u n g e r s a le s m e n .
E a r n in g s of m a n a g e r s an d o f f ic ia ls a g e d
4 5 -5 4 a r e s u b s ta n tia lly l e s s th a n th o s e o f m a n a g e r s a g e d 3 5 -4 4 a ls o . B u t
in o th e r o c c u p a tio n s , w o r k e r s a g e d 4 5 -5 4 e a r n e d a b o u t th e s a m e a s th o s e
a g e d 3 5 -4 4 y e a r s .
(S ee ta b le G . )
Table G.

Index of median earnings of selected occupational groups, 1969

(A ge 3 5 -44= 100 )
A ge
O ccupation
3 5 -4 4

4 5 -5 4

5 5 -6 4

65 years
and over

T o t a l----------------------------

100

95

86

68

Professional w ork ers--------------Managers and o c c i c i a l s ---------C leric a l w orkers--------------------S a le s m e n -------------------------------C raftsm en -----------------------------O peratives r ---------------------------Laborers---------------------------------

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

102
94
99
91
101
97
97

98
86
96
77
96
94
88

77
63
77
69
72
81
69

T h e p e r io d of p e a k e a r n in g s c o v e r s a w id e r a g e g ro u p in s o m e o c ­
c u p a tio n s th a n in o t h e r s .
T h e 1 0 - y e a r a g e b r e a k s u s e d in th e ta b le , f o r
e x a m p le , in d ic a te a lo n g e r p e r io d of p e a k e a r n in g s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
c l e r i c a l , an d c r a f t w o r k e r s a n d o p e r a tiv e s th a n f o r w o r k e r s in o th e r
o c c u p a tio n s .
W hen 1969 in c o m e s of f a m ilie s h e a d e d b y m a le s w ho w o rk e d y e a r
ro u n d fu ll tim e th e p r e v io u s y e a r a r e r e l a t e d to th e B u r e a u of L a b o r
S t a t i s t i c s f a m ily b u d g e ts ,4 a b o u t o n e - f o u r th of th o s e h e a d e d b y m e n a g e
4 5 -5 4 a n d a lm o s t o n e - f if th of th o s e h e a d e d b y m e n 5 5 -6 4 w e r e a t o r
b e lo w th e lo w e r b u d g e t le v e l.
T h e s e p r o p o r tio n s w e r e l e s s th a n f o r
f a m ilie s h e a d e d b y m e n a g e d 3 5 -4 4 , tw o - f if th s , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e in c o m e
d e c lin e s l e s s r a p id ly th a n f a m ily s iz e .
T h e in c o m e - b u d g e t s itu a tio n of
th e s e o ld e r f a m ily h e a d s is a c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n , h o w e v e r, p a r t i c u l a r l y
s in c e th e B L S f a m ily b u d g e ts c o n ta in no p r o v is io n f o r s a v in g s o th e r th a n
p a y m e n ts f o r s o c ia l s e c u r i t y a n d life in s u r a n c e v a lu e d a t one y e a r* s
r e g u l a r f a m ily in c o m e .
F o o tn o te s
1 In c lu d e s e a r n in g s an d in c o m e f r o m o ld a g e , s u r v i v o r s , an d d i s a ­
b ility in s u r a n c e (OASID), p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n s , a n d o th e r s o u r c e s .
2 B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s a n a ly s is of in c o m e a n d w o rk e x p e r ie n c e
s u p p le m e n ts to th e C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u r v e y , B u r e a u of th e C e n s u s .
For
m o r e in f o r m a tio n on e a r n in g s a n d in c o m e by a g e s e e R o b e r t L . S te in an d
J a n ic e N. H e d g e s " E a r n in g s a n d F a m ily In c o m e , 1 M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w .
1
J u n e 1971.
R e p r in t 2738.



14

F o o t n o t e s - — C o n t in u e d
3

Ib id .
T h e B L S f a m ily b u d g e ts a r e b e n c h m a r k m e a s u r e s f o r r e s e a r c h
p u r p o s e s of how m u c h i t w o u ld c o s t to m a in ta in s p e c if e d le v e ls of liv in g
(id e n tifie d a s i n t e r m e d i a t e , lo w e r , a n d h ig h e r ) in u r b a n a r e a s .
T he
b u d g e ts c a n b e s c a le d to f a m ilie s of v a r io u s s iz e s a n d ty p e s liv in g in
d if f e r e n t a r e a s of th e U n ite d S ta te s .
S ee U. S. D e p a r tm e n t of L a b o r ,
B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B L S B u lle tin s 15 7 0 -1 to 1 5 7 0 -6 (1 9 6 8 -1 9 7 0 ).
4




15

C h a p te r 7. P e n sio n P lan s and R etirem ent B e n efits
U n le s s c o m p e lle d to r e t i r e f r o m th e la b o r f o r c e b e c a u s e o f d i s ­
a b i l i t y o r i l l h e a lth , m a n y m e n r e t i r e p a r t i a l l y in t h e i r e a r l y s ix tie s
( s o m e in t h e i r la te f if tie s ) , b y s w itc h in g f r o m f u l l - t i m e y e a r - r o u n d w o rk
to p a r t - t i m e p a r t - y e a r w o r k .
T h e n , d e p e n d in g o n th e s a t i s f a c t i o n s a n d
d e m a n d s o f t h e i r w o rk , th e y fu lly r e t i r e f r o m a ll g a in fu l a c ti v ity in t h e i r
l a t e s ix tie s a n d e a r l y s e v e n tie s a s t h e i r m e n ta l a n d p h y s ic a l c a p a b iliti e s
d e c lin e o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d n e e d s s h if t to o th e r a c t i v i t i e s .
A lth o u g h fu ll b e n e f its a r e n o t p a y a b le u n til a g e 65 u n d e r s o c ia l
s e c u r i t y a n d m o s t p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n s , t h r e e f a c t o r s e n c o u r a g e m e n to
r e t i r e f r o m fu ll e m p lo y m e n t b e f o r e th e y a tta in th a t a g e .
T w o o f th e m ---th e p r e v a le n c e o f p h y s ic a l a n d m e n ta l d i s a b i l i t i e s a n d i l l h e a lth a m o n g
o l d e r w o r k e r s a n d th e d is c r i m i n a t i o n s a n d o th e r d if f ic u ltie s th e y e n ­
c o u n te r in g e ttin g r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e jo b s — a r e d i s c u s s e d in o th e r c h a p t e r s .
T h e t h i r d f a c to r — p u b lic a n d p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n s — e n c o u r a g e s o ld e r
w o r k e r s to r e t i r e b y m e e tin g s o m e o f t h e i r f in a n c ia l r e q u i r e m e n t s b u t,
a t th e s a m e tim e , d is c o u r a g e s th e m f r o m c e a s in g a l l g a in fu l a c ti v ity ,
b e c a u s e a lo n e , o r e v e n in c o m b in a tio n , th e s e p la n s u s u a l l y do n o t e n a b le
w o r k e r s to m a in ta in th e s ta n d a r d o f liv in g th e y d e s i r e .
M an y o ld e r p e r ­
s o n s r e s o lv e t h i s c o n f lic t a n d f u lf ill t h e i r n e e d f o r m e a n in g fu l a c ti v ity —
" p s y c h ic in c o m e " — a n d f o r c o n ta c t w ith o th e r p e o p le b y w o rk in g p a r t tim e
o r p a rt y e ar.
T h e m ix tu r e o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d d is c o u r a g e m e n t s te m s f r o m t h r e e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e b e n e f its p r o v id e d b y t h e s e p la n s ; (1) t h e i r a v a i l ­
a b i l i t y to e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s , (2) t h e i r a v a il a b ili ty b e f o r e a g e 65, an d
(3) t h e i r l i m i t e d a d e q u a c y .
T h e r e f o r e , m a n y w o r k e r s c a n a n d do p a r ­
t i a l l y r e t i r e a s e a r l y a s a g e 62 on s o c ia l s e c u r i t y , b e c a u s e r e d u c e d
b e n e f its c o m m e n c in g a t th a t a g e a r e p a y a b le to q u a lif ie d w o r k e r s w ith o u t
f u r t h e r r e d u c tio n i f t h e i r e a r n in g s a r e b e lo w $ 1 , 680 a y e a r . 1 M an y o th e r
p u b lic a n d p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n s a ls o p a y p e n s io n s , u s u a ll y r e d u c e d b e ­
c a u s e o f a g e , to
m e m b e r s w ith th e r e q u i s i t e a m o u n t o f s e r v i c e 2, w ho
r e t i r e f r o m a jo b c o v e r e d b y th e p la n b e f o r e a g e 65, 3 a n d p e r m i t th e m
to e a r n a ll th e y c a n f r o m w o rk in g .
A s a r e s u l t , m o r e th a n h a lf th e m e n a w a r d e d s o c ia l s e c u r i t y r e t i r e ­
m e n t b e n e f its in
r e c e n t y e a r s a r e u n d e r a g e 6 5 . T w o o u t o f fiv e o f
th e m c o n tin u e to
w o rk c h ie f ly b e c a u s e of th e lo w le v e l of s u c h b e n e f its
a n d t h e i r in e lig ib ili ty , in m o s t in s t a n c e s , f o r a n o th e r p e n s io n .
In
a d d itio n , m a n y c o n tin u e to w o rk n o t o n ly f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s b u t a ls o
b e c a u s e o f th e n e e d f o r a m e a n in g fu l p u r p o s e in l if e .
In f a c t, th e s m a l l e r t h e i r s o c ia l s e c u r i t y b e n e f its th e l e s s lik e ly
th e y a r e to g e t a p r i v a t e p e n s io n a n d th e m o r e l i k e l y th e y a r e to do
so m e w o rk .
F e w e r th a n o n e o u t o f t h i r t y m a r r i e d m e n a w a r d e d s o c ia l
s e c u r i t y b e n e f its u n d e r $ 1 3 0 a m o n th in th e l a t t e r h a lf o f 1969, f o r
e x a m p le , a ls o r e c e i v e d p r i v a t e p e n s io n s c o m p a r e d w ith o v e r h a lf o f th o s e
a w a r d e d l a r g e r b e n e f its .
A s a r e s u l t , a l m o s t h a lf th e m a r r i e d c o u p le s
a n d t w o - t h i r d s o f th e s in g le p e r s o n s i n i t i a l l y e n title d to s o c ia l s e c u r i t y




16

r e t i r e d w o r k e r b e n e f its in la te 1969 h a d r e t i r e m e n t in c o m e s (p e n s io n s
p lu s in c o m e f r o m a s s e t s ) b e lo w th e p o v e r ty t h r e s h o l d a s p u b lis h e d b y th e
D e p a r tm e n t o f H e a lth , E d u c a tio n , a n d W e l f a r e . 4 O n ly a b o u t o n e in fo u r
c o u p le s a n d th e s a m e p r o p o r tio n of s in g le p e r s o n s c o u ld a f f o r d th e B L S
in te r m e d ia te le v e l o f liv in g on t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t in c o m e s .
H o w e v e r, w h e n
th e y s u p p le m e n te d th is b y t h e i r e a r n in g s a b o u t t h r e e o u t o f fiv e c o u p le s
a n d n e a r l y h a lf th e s in g le p e r s o n s c o u ld a f f o r d th a t le v e l.
(In 1969, th is
w a s $ 4 ,2 3 0 a y e a r f o r a c o u p le a n d $ 2 ,3 2 5 f o r s in g le p e r s o n s . ) N e v e r ­
t h e l e s s , m a n y w h o s e r e t i r e m e n t in c o m e f r o m s o c ia l s e c u r i t y an d p r iv a te
p e n s io n s is s u f f ic ie n t to m a in ta in t h e i r d e s i r e d s ta n d a r d o f liv in g n e e d
m o r e th a n c a n b e s u p p lie d b y m o n e y a lo n e .
T h ey p e rc e iv e a n eed —
w h ic h is v e r y r e a l to th e m — to h a v e a m e a n in g fu l p u r p o s e in lif e .
S u ch
a p u r p o s e c a n b e , a n d f o r m a n y i s , s a t i s f i e d b y c o m m u n ity s e r v i c e .
F o r o t h e r s , s u c h a n e e d c a n o n ly b e s a t i s f i e d b y g a in fu l e m p lo y m e n t.
A p a r t f r o m s o c ia l s e c u r i t y , p e n s io n s a r e
th e c h ie f s o u r c e s o f
r e t i r e m e n t in c o m e .
In la te 1969, p r i v a t e p e n s io n s w e r e r e c e i v e d b y
a b o u t o n e o f f o u r m a r r i e d c o u p le s n e w ly e n title d to s o c ia l s e c u r i t y b e n e ­
f it s (e x c lu d in g th o s e r e t i r e d f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a n d r a i l r o a d jo b s n o t
c o v e r e d b y s o c i a l s e c u r ity ) , b y one o u t o f s ix s in g le m e n , a n d b y one o u t
o f e ig h t s in g le w o m e n .
A s u b s ta n tia l m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s do n o t o b ta in a n y p e n s io n c o v e r ­
a g e o r do n o t a c q u ir e s u f f ic ie n t y e a r s of c o n tin u o u s c o v e r a g e d u r in g t h e i r
e n t i r e w o rk in g lif e to q u a lify f o r a p r i v a t e p la n b e n e f it.
T h e in c id e n c e
o f n o n c o v e r a g e i s h ig h e s t a m o n g th o s e w ho w o r k in t r a d e , s e r v i c e s , an d
c o n s tr u c tio n ; th e d e g r e e of c o v e r a g e o r p o te n tia l c o v e r a g e i s g r e a t e s t f o r
th o s e w ho w o rk f o r f i r m s in m in in g a n d m a n u f a c tu r in g .
E v en am ong
th e s e i n d u s t r i e s , h o w e v e r, w o r k e r s ' c h a n c e s o f o b ta in in g p e n s io n b e n e f its
a r e l e s s i f th e y a r e e m p lo y e d b y s m a l l n o n u n io n f i r m s th a n i f th e y w o rk
f o r i n d u s t r i a l g ia n ts o r f o r f i r m s w ith c o lle c tiv e b a r g a in in g a g r e e m e n t s .
In th e a g g r e g a te , a b o u t 55 p e r c e n t o f a l l p r i v a t e n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s
a r e e m p lo y e d b y f i r m s th a t h a v e e i t h e r a p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n , a d e f e r r e d
p r o f i t - s h a r i n g p la n , o r b o th .
H o w e v e r, a b o u t 40 p e r c e n t of th e s e w o r k e r s
do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e i r c o m p a n ie s ' p la n s b e c a u s e th e y a r e s h o r t - t e r m
e m p lo y e e s o r b e c a u s e th e y a r e e x c lu d e d fo r o th e r r e a s o n s . 5 M o r e o v e r ,
m a n y o f th e w o r k e r s n o t c o v e r e d b y a p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n h a v e l i t t l e
p r o s p e c t o f e v e r o b ta in in g a n y c o v e r a g e u n le s s th e y c a n o b ta in s te a d y
e m p lo y m e n t w ith a l a r g e f i r m o r w ith a u n io n iz e d f i r m .
T h o s e w ho g a in
e m p lo y m e n t w ith a s m a l l u n io n iz e d f i r m do n o t h a v e m u c h c h a n c e of
g a in in g a n y p e n s io n b e n e f it u n le s s th e f i r m p a r t i c i p a t e s in a m u ltie m p lo y e r
p la n .
S u ch p la n s a r e fo u n d in m a n y i n d u s t r i e s , b u t a r e p r e v a le n t c h ie f ly
in a p p a r e l m a n u f a c tu r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , tr u c k in g , an d th e m in in g i n d u s t r i e s .
T h e p r i v a t e p la n p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g th o s e w ho do p a r t i c i p a t e in
p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n s h a v e b e e n , a n d a r e e x p e c te d to c o n tin u e to b e ,
lib e ra liz e d .
D u rin g th e l a t t e r p a r t of th e 1 9 6 0 's , f o r e x a m p le , s h a r p
im p r o v e m e n ts o c c u r r e d in th e r e t i r e m e n t f o r m u la s o f p r i v a t e p la n s , an d
e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t a n d v e s ti n g 6 p r o v is io n s w e r e in tr o d u c e d o r l i b e r a l i z e d .
B y th e en d o f th e d e c a d e , m o r e th a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e w o r k e r s
c o v e r e d b y p r i v a t e p e n s io n p la n s w e r e in p la n s th a t h a d a v e s tin g p r o ­
v is io n , a n d m o r e th a n n in e - te n th s w e r e in p la n s w ith v e s tin g , e a r l y
r e t i r e m e n t , o r b o th .
A t th e b e g in n in g o f th e d e c a d e , o n ly a b o u t 59 p e r ­
c e n t of th e c o v e r e d w o r k e r s w e r e in p la n s w ith v e s tin g a n d a b o u t 82
p e r c e n t w e r e in p la n s w ith e i t h e r v e s tin g , e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t , o r b o th .




17

In 1969, a b o u t 84 p e r c e n t o f a ll c o v e r e d w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d in
p la n s th a t g r a n te d a b e n e f it r ig h t b y a g e 55 u n d e r e i t h e r th e n o r m a l,
e a r l y , o r v e s tin g p r o v is io n of th e p la n to m e m b e r s w ho h a d th e r e q u i s i t e
s e rv ic e .
A lm o s t t h r e e - f i f t h s c o u ld g a in s u c h a r i g h t b y a g e 40, an d
a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s b y a g e 4 5, i f th e y a ls o m e t th e s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l, m o s t w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d in p la n s th a t r e q u ir e d n o t m o r e
th a n 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , a n d a lm o s t tw o - f if th s o f th e m in p la n s th a t
r e q u i r e d 10 y e a r s o r fe w e r to q u a lify f o r a n o n f o r f e ita b le b e n e f it r ig h t.
T o g a in th e s e r i g h t s , h o w e v e r, w o r k e r s h a d to m e e t a n ag o , s e r v i c e ,
o r , m o r e o fte n , a c o m b in a tio n o f a g e a n d s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s .
The
r e q u i r e m e n t s of th e p la n p r o v is io n s p r e v a ilin g in 1969 c a n b e i l l u s t r a t e d
g e n e r a lly b y c o n s id e r in g 100 w o r k e r s w ho e n t e r e d c o v e r e d e m p lo y m e n t a t
a g e 25.
U n d e r th e 1969 p r o v is io n s , i f th e s e w o r k e r s , who r e p r e s e n t a ll
c o v e r e d w o r k e r s , r e m a i n w ith t h e i r p la n f o r 10 y e a r s , o n ly 31 of th e m
w ill h a v e g a in e d a n o n f o r f e ita b le r ig h t to a p e n s io n b e n e f it; if th e y r e ­
m a in f o r 15 y e a r s , 51 o f th e m w ill h a v e a c h ie v e d s u c h a r ig h t; a n d a f t e r
20 y e a r s o n ly 57 o f th e m w o u ld a tta in a n o n f o r f e ita b le r ig h t to a p e n s io n
b e n e f it.
A t a n y o f th e s e s e r v i c e - a g e s , v i r t u a l l y a ll 57 w o u ld h a v e g a in e d
t h e i r b e n e f it r ig h t u n d e r th e v e s tin g p r o v is io n s of t h e i r p la n , b e c a u s e th e
e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t p r o v is io n s u s u a ll y do n o t b e c o m e o p e r a tiv e u n til th e
w o r k e r r e a c h e s 55 a n d n o r m a l r e t i r e m e n t r a r e l y o c c u r s b e f o r e a g e 60.
S h o u ld th e 100 w o r k e r s h a v e e n te r e d in to t h e i r c o v e r e d e m p lo y m e n t a t
a g e 30 in s te a d o f 25, h o w e v e r, m o r e th a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e m w o u ld
h a v e g a in e d a n o n f o r f e ita b le r ig h t a f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
Som e of
t h e s e w o u ld b e c o m e e lig ib le f o r e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t a f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e ,
a n d b y a g e 55 a b o u t t h r e e - f o t i r t h s o f th e m w o u ld h a v e q u a lif ie d f o r e a r l y
re tire m e n t.7
A s in d ic a te d p r e v io u s ly , e m p lo y m e n t b y a f i r m w ith a p r i v a t e p la n
is n o t ta n ta m o u n t to b e in g c o v e r e d b y th e p la n .
S o m e p la n s r e q u i r e th e
a tta in m e n t of a s p e c if ie d a g e o r le n g th o f s e r v i c e , o r b o th , b e f o r e a n ew
e m p lo y e e is e lig ib le to p a r t i c i p a t e . U s u a lly th e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e ju s t i f i e d
on th e b a s i s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t an d th e u n c e r ta in te n u r e o f n ew e m p lo y e e s .
H o w e v e r, th e a d o p tio n of a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s ig n if ie s m o r e th a n a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n v e n ie n c e , s in c e t h r e e - f o u r t h s of th e p la n s w ith p a r tic ip a tio n
r e q u ir e r n e n ts do n o t g iv e c r e d i t f o r e m p lo y m e n t s e r v e d b e f o r e jo in in g th e
p la n , e i t h e r in q u a lify in g f o r a p e n s io n o r in c o m p u tin g th e p e n s io n b e n e ­
f it .
T h e s e p la n s c o v e r e d a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r th s o f th e w o r k e r s in p la n s w ith
p a rtic ip a tio n re q u ire m e n ts .
F o o tn o te s
1 F o r e a c h $ 2 in a n n u a l e a r n in g s f r o m $ 1 ,6 8 0 to $ 2 ,8 8 0 , $1 in
b e n e f its is w ith h e ld a n d f o r e a c h $1 o v e r $ 2 ,8 8 0 , $ 1 in b e n e f its is
w ith h e ld .
H o w e v e r, fu ll b e n e f its a r e p a y a b le , r e g a r d l e s s of a n n u a l
e a r n in g s , f o r an y m o n th in w h ic h th e b e n e f ic ia r y e a r n e d l e s s th a n $ 140.
2 U s u a lly 20 to 30 y e a r s .
3 A ge 55 in tw o o u t of t h r e e p r i v a t e p la n s a n d in m o s t p la n s f o r
g o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y e e s .
4 S o c ia l S e c u r ity B u lle tin , J u ly 1971, p p . 1 1 -1 7 .
In 1969, th e p o v ­
e r t y th r e s h o ld f o r m a r r i e d c o u p le s w a s $ 2 ,2 0 0 an d f o r s in g le p e r s o n s ,
$ 1 ,7 5 0 .




18

F o o t n o t e s — C o n t in u e d

5 E m e r s o n B e i e r , " I n c id e n c e of p r i v a t e r e t i r e m e n t p la n s , " M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , J u ly 1971, p p . 3 7 -4 0 .
6 V e s tin g is d e fin e d a s a g u a r a n te e to th e w o r k e r o f a r ig h t in a
p e n s io n p la n b a s e d on a l l o r p a r t o f h is a c c r u e d r e t i r e m e n t b e n e f its
s h o u ld h is e m p lo y m e n t t e r m i n a t e b e f o r e h e b e c o m e s e lig ib le f o r r e t i r e ­
m e n t b e n e f its ; th a t i s , if h is r ig h t s a r e v e s te d , th e w o r k e r is e n title d to
a r e t i r e m e n t b e n e f it w h e n h e r e a c h e s r e t i r e m e n t a g e , r e g a r d l e s s o f
w h e re h e m a y b e a t th e tim e .
7 H a r r y E . D a v is a n d A rn o ld S t r a s s e r , " P r i v a t e P e n s io n P la n s ,
I9 6 0 to 1969— A n O v e r v ie w ," M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , J u ly 1970,
p p . 4 5 -5 6 .




19

C h a p te r 8. J o b P e rfo rm a n c e and Tra in in g Potential
C o m p a r is o n o f jo b p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s b y a g e in d ic a te s th a t r e f u s a l
to h i r e o ld e r w o r k e r s h a s l i t t l e m e r i t , e x c e p t f o r p o s itio n s w ith d e m a n d ­
in g p h y s ic a l r e q u i r e m e n t s .
S tu d ie s o f th e r e l a t i v e w o rk p e r f o r m a n c e o f o ld e r a n d y o u n g e r
w o r k e r s c o n d u c te d b y th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta t i s t i c s in th e la te 1 9 5 0 's
a n d e a r l y 1 9 6 0 's in d ic a te d no c o n s is te n t p a t t e r n o f s u p e r i o r p r o d u c tiv ity
in a n y a g e g r o u p . 1 A c tu a l r e c o r d s of w o rk p e r f o r m e d s h o w e d g r e a t e r
d if f e r e n c e s in p r o d u c tiv ity w ith in a g e g ro u p s th a n a m o n g d if f e r e n t a g e s .
L a r g e p r o p o r tio n s of w o r k e r s in th e o ld e r g ro u p s e x c e e d e d th e a v e r a g e
p e r f o r m a n c e of y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .
M o r e o v e r , o ld e r w o r k e r s h a d a
s t e a d i e r r a t e of o u tp u t.
R e s u lts w e r e s i m i l a r f o r e v e r y o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s u r v e y e d — o ffic e
w o r k e r s , o p e r a t i v e s , a n d m a il s o r t e r s — a s w e ll a s f o r h ig h e r v e r s u s
lo w e r s k ille d w o r k e r s , a n d tim e v e r s u s in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s .
M o re o v e r,
a tte n d a n c e a n d s a f e ty r e c o r d s of o ld e r w o r k e r s w e r e fo u n d to e q u a l o r
e x c e e d th o s e o f y o u n g e r w o r k e r s g e n e r a lly .
A c o m p a r is o n o f th e p e r f o r m a n c e o f o l d e r a n d y o u n g e r w o r k e r s
( m a in te n a n c e m e c h a n ic s , e n g in e e r s , c r a f t s m e n , a n d te le p h o n e o p e r a t o r s )
in i n d u s t r i a l r e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s s u g g e s ts th a t a g e b y i t s e l f i s n o t a
r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i o n f o r d e te r m in in g th e s u ita b ility o f w o r k e r s f o r tr a i n i n g .
A lth o u g h y o u n g e r w o r k e r s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r on th e a v e r a g e o v e r a l l th a n
o ld e r w o r k e r s , in d iv id u a l o ld e r w o r k e r s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r th a n th e a v e r ­
ag e y o u n g er w o r k e r .2
M o r e o v e r , a v e r a g e d if f e r e n c e s in th e s u c c e s s o f t r a i n i n g o ld e r a n d
y o u n g e r w o r k e r s h a v e b e e n fo u n d to d im in is h w h e n e d u c a tio n is h e ld c o n ­
s ta n t .
D if f e r e n c e s a r e f u r t h e r m in im iz e d b y a d a p tin g te a c h in g m e th o d s
to th e l e a r n in g a b i l i t i e s o f o ld e r w o r k e r s , f o r e x a m p le , s t r e s s i n g s im u ­
la t e d e x e r c i s e s r a t h e r th a n l e c t u r e s . 3
F o o tn o te s
1 S e e , f o r e x a m p le , J a m e s F . W a lk e r , " T h e J o b P e r f o r m a n c e o f
F e d e r a l M a il S o r t e r s by A ge, " M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , M a r c h 1964;
U. S. D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r , B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , C o m p a r a tiv e J o b
P e r f o r m a n c e b y A ge: O ffic e W o r k e r s , B L S B u lle tin 1273, I9 6 0 ; J o b
Pg
r m a n c e a n d A g e:
S tu d -----------------------------_ e r f-o------------------------------- A -------- y in M e a s u r e m e n t, B L S B u lle tin 1203,
2 U. S„ D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r, B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , I n d u s t r i a l
R e la tio n s P r o g r a m s f o r T e c h n o lo g ic a l C h an g e : A S tu d y o f th e P e r f o r m ­
a n c e o f O ld e r W o r k e r s , B L S B u lle tin 1368, 1963.
3 IL KL B e lb in , T r a in i n g M e th o d s f o r O ld e r W o r k e r s . O r g a n iz a tio n
f o r E c o n o m ic C o - o p e r a tio n a n d D e v e lo p m e n t, (O E C D ) P a r i s , 1965.




20

C h a p te r 9. J o b D iscrim ination
In a s u r v e y o f e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s in 1969, o v e r h a lf a m illio n
w o r k e r s 45 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o ld e r in d ic a te d th a t th e y h a d e x p e r ie n c e d
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on th e j o b . 1 T h e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s w ho e n c o u n te r a g e
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in s e e k in g e m p lo y m e n t m a y b e f a r g r e a t e r , a c c o r d in g to
d a ta on d i s c r i m i n a t o r y e m p lo y m e n t p r a c t i c e s .
T h e A ge D is c r im in a tio n in E m p lo y m e n t A c t (A D EA ), e n a c te d by th e
U . S. C o n g r e s s in 1967, 2 p r o h ib i ts d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a in s t w o r k e r s 4 0 -6 5
y e a rs of ag e.
T h e la w s t a t e s " . . . t h e p u r p o s e o f t h is A c t ( is ) to p r o ­
m o te e m p lo y m e n t o f o l d e r p e r s o n s b a s e d on t h e i r a b ility r a t h e r th a n a g e ;
to p r o h ib i t a r b i t r a r y a g e d i s c r im in a tio n in e m p lo y m e n t; to h e lp e m p lo y e r s
a n d w o r k e r s fin d w a y s o f m e e tin g p r o b le m s a r i s i n g f r o m th e im p a c t o f
a g e on e m p lo y m e n t."
T h e a c t p r o t e c t s w o r k e r s f r o m a g e d is c r im in a tio n
b y e m p lo y e r s t h a t h a v e 25 e m p lo y e e s o r m o r e ; b y e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c ie s
s e r v in g c o v e r e d e m p lo y e r s ; a n d b y la b o r o r g a iiiz a tio n s th a t h a v e 25
m e m b e r s o r m o r e , o r th a t m a k e r e f e r r a l s to c o v e r e d e m p lo y e r s o r th a t
r e p r e s e n t e m p lo y e e s o f c o v e r e d e m p lo y e r s . 3
T h e A D E A i s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y th e U .S . D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r .
V o lu n ta r y c o m p lia n c e is so u g h t, b u t le g a l a c tio n m a y b e in it i a t e d e i t h e r
b y th e D e p a r tm e n t o r th e in d iv id u a l if s u c h e f f o r t s f a il.
D u rin g f i s c a l
1970, 14, 000 e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h w e r e c o n ta c te d in f o r m a l ly r e m o v e d
p o te n tia lly d i s c r i m i n a t o r y e m p lo y m e n t p r a c t i c e s a f f e c tin g o v e r 500, 000
jo b s .
I n v e s tig a tio n s w e r e c o n d u c te d in a n a d d itio n a l 1 0 ,4 0 0 e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts , of w h ic h 2, 200 w e r e fo u n d in v io la tio n o f th e a c t.
I l l e g a l a d v e r t i s i n g w a s b y f a r th e le a d in g n o n c o m p lia n c e p r a c t i c e in
f i s c a l 1970; i t a c c o u n te d f o r h a lf th e p r a c t i c e s of w h ic h e m p lo y e r s w e r e
fo u n d in v io la tio n , a n d t w o - t h i r d s o f th o s e o f w h ic h e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c ie s
w e r e fo u n d in v io la tio n .
R e f u s a l to h i r e a c c o u n te d f o r a b o u t o n e - f o u r th
a n d p r o m o tio n a l b a r s f o r a b o u t o n e - te n th o f th e v io la tio n s o f e m p lo y e r s .
D is c h a r g e s a c c o u n te d f o r a s m a l l f r a c tio n , a b o u t o n e - tw e n ty fifth .
For
e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c ie s , f a i l u r e to r e f e r c o n s titu te d m o s t o f th e v io la tio n s
o th e r th a n i l l e g a l a d v e r tis i n g .
O ne la b o r o r g a n iz a ti o n w a s fo u n d in n o n c o m p lia n c e , f o r e x c lu d in g a w o r k e r f r o m u n io n m e m b e r s h i p b e c a u s e o f
age.
M o n e ta ry d a m a g e s p a id to in d iv id u a ls b y e s ta b lis h m e n ts in n o n c o m ­
p lia n c e h a v e i n c r e a s e d , f r o m $ 4 0 , 000 in 1969, th e f i r s t y e a r th e a c t
w a s in e f f e c t, to a lm o s t $ 7 4 0 , 000 in 1971 ( f is c a l y e a r s ) .
O n e of th e f i r s t in ju n c tio n s i s s u e d u n d e r th e A g e D is c r im in a tio n in
E m p lo y m e n t A c t c a m e w ith a r e c e n t r u lin g o f th e U. S. D i s t r i c t C o u rt in
M in n e s o ta th a t c o m p u ls o r y r e t i r e m e n t p r o v is io n s in a n e m p lo y e r 's p e n ­
s io n p la n m a y n o t b e u s e d to f o r c e e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t of n o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . 4
In a d d itio n to F e d e r a l p r o h ib itio n s o n a g e d i s c r im in a tio n , 27 s t a t e s
a n d P u e r t o R ic o h a d a g e d is c r i m i n a t i o n in e m p lo y m e n t la w s in 1970.
No a g e l i m i t s w e r e s p e c if ie d in th e la w s o f A la s k a , H a w a ii, a n d M a in e .
L o w e r a g e l i m i t s in th e r e m a in in g s t a t e s r a n g e d f r o m 18 y e a r s in
C o lo ra d o , M a r y la n d , a n d N ew M e x ic o to 45 y e a r s in D e la w a re , I llin o is ,



21

a n d R hode I s la n d .
U n d e r S ta te le g is la ti o n , c o v e r a g e o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
g e n e r a lly i s e x te n d e d to f i r m s th a t h a v e a m in im u m of 3 to 6 e m p lo y e e s ,
b u t in e le v e n s t a t e s l e g i s l a t i o n a p p lie d to a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e
of s iz e .
F o o tn o te s
1 S u rv e y o f W o rk in g C o n d itio n s , U n iv e r s ity of M ic h ig a n , S u rv e y
R e s e a r c h C e n te r , 1971.
2 P u b lic L aw 9 0 -2 0 2 ; e ffe c tiv e d a te , J u n e 1968.
3 E m p lo y e e s o f F e d e r a l , S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts a r e n o t c o v e r e d
u n d e r th e a c t.
P r o t e c t i o n a g a in s t a g e d is c r i m i n a t i o n i s a f f o r d e d F e d e r a l
e m p lo y e e s , h o w e v e r, voider 5 U . S. C . 3307 w h ic h p r o h ib i ts e s ta b lis h m e n t
o f a m a x im u m a g e l i m i t in f illin g p o s itio n s in th e c o m p e titiv e s e r v i c e .
A P r e s i d e n t i a l m e m o r a n d u m o f M a r c h 14, 1963, e x te n d e d t h is r e s t r i c t i o n
to th e e x c e p te d s e r v i c e .
E x e c u tiv e O r d e r 11141, F e b r u a r y 12, 1964,
e x te n d e d th e p r in c ip le o f e q u a l e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s
to p r i v a t e f i r m s h o ld in g c o n t r a c t s an d s u b c o n tr a c ts w ith th e F e d e r a l
G o v e rn m e n t.
E m p lo y e e s o f S ta te a n d lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts o fte n a r e c o v e r e d
u n d e r S ta g e a g e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in e m p lo y m e n t la w s .
4 S h u ltz v s . A m e r ic a n H a r d w a r e M u tu a l I n s u r a n c e C o m p a n y ( J u ly 1,
1 9 7 1).




22

C h a pte r 10. E ducation
O ld e r w o r k e r s a s a g ro u p h a v e l e s s e d u c a tio n th a n y o u n g e r w o r k e r s .
In M a r c h 1970, th o s e a g e d 4 5 -5 4 a v e r a g e d 1 2 .3 y e a r s of s c h o o lin g (m e d ia n ),
0 .4 y e a r s l e s s th a n w o r k e r s 2 0 -2 4 y e a r s of a g e .
E d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t
d e c lin e d to 1 1 .8 y e a r s f o r w o r k e r s a g e d 5 5 -6 4 a n d to 9 .6 y e a r s f o r th o s e
65 y e a r s of a g e a n d o v e r .
T h e e d u c a tio n g ap b e tw e e n w h ite an d m in o r ity w o r k e r s is g r e a t e s t
f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s : 3 .6 y e a r s f o r th o s e 55 y e a r s a n d o v e r , n in e tim e s
th e g a p f o r th o s e a g e d 2 5 -3 4 y e a r s .
T he d if f e r e n c e s in th e m e d ia n e d u c a tio n of o ld e r a n d y o u n g e r w o r k e r s
is l e s s , h o w e v e r, th a n th e d if f e r e n c e in th e m e d ia n e d u c a tio n of th e o ld e r
an d y o u n g e r p o p u la tio n .
W o r k e r s w ith th e lo w e s t e d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t
a r e m o r e lik e ly to w ith d ra w f r o m th e la b o r f o r c e .
In th e a g e g ro u p 5 5 64, f o r e x a m p le , th e m e d ia n e d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t of m e n w ho w e r e in
th e la b o r f o r c e in M a r c h 1970 w a s a b o u t 2*/2 y e a r s h ig h e r th a n th a t of
th o s e w ho h a d w ith d ra w n f r o m th e la b o r f o r c e .
T a b le H sh o w s la b o r f o r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a t e s b y y e a r s of s c h o o l
c o m p le te d .
T h e h o ld in g p o w e r of e d u c a tio n is i l l u s t r a t e d b y th e f a c t th a t
th e la b o r f o r c e p a r tic ip a tio n r a t e of a ll m a le s 5 5 -6 4 y e a r s of a g e w as
14 p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts lo w e r th a n f o r a ll m a le s 3 5 -4 4 y e a r s , w h ile th e d i f ­
f e r e n c e in p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a m o n g h ig h ly e d u c a te d w o r k e r s w a s o n ly 5
p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts .
E d u c a tio n a ls o is th e k e y to m a n y b e t t e r p a y in g o c c u p a tio n s . N o ta b le
d if f e r e n c e s in th e p r o p o r tio n s of o ld e r an d y o u n g e r m a le w o r k e r s in th e
p r o f e s s i o n s , f o r e x a m p le , a r e a ttr ib u ta b le in p a r t to d if f e r e n c e s in e d u c a ­
tio n a l a tta in m e n t.
A m ong w o r k e r s 5 5 -6 4 , f o r e x a m p le , 11 p e r c e n t of
w h o m h a v e f o u r y e a r s o r m o r e of c o lle g e , 10 p e r c e n t a r e in th e p r o f e s ­
s io n s , w h ile a m o n g th o s e 3 5 -4 4 , 16 p e r c e n t of w h o m h a v e fo u r y e a r s of
c o lle g e , 18 p e r c e n t a r e in th e p r o f e s s i o n s .
T h e le v e l of e d u c a tio n of w o r k e r s is a n im p o r ta n t f a c t o r in d e t e r m i n ­
ing t h e i r u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s .
T h is is tr u e of b o th o ld e r an d y o u n g e r
w o rk e rs.
In M a r c h 1970, th e u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e s f o r m e n a g e 5 5 -6 4
w e r e 1 .5 f o r th o s e w ith f o u r y e a r s of c o lle g e , 2 .5 f o r th o s e w ith fo u r
y e a r s of h ig h s c h o o l e d u c a tio n , an d 3. 5 f o r th o s e w ith an e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l
e d u c a tio n .
A m ong m e n w ith a h ig h s c h o o l e d u c a tio n , th e d if f e r e n c e b e ­
tw e e n th e u n e m p lo y m e n t r a t e of th o s e a g e 3 5 -4 4 an d th o s e 5 5 -6 4 w as o n ly
0 .5 p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts .




23

Table H.

Labor force participation rates o f the population, by age and sex, and years of school completed,

March 1970

Years of sch ool c o m p leted
and sex

T o ta l 18
years old
and over

18 to 24
years

25 to 34
years

35 to 44
years

4 5 to 54
years

55 to 64
years

65 years
and over

Men
T otal ----------------------------------Elem entary:

Less than 5 y e a r s 1 —
5 to 7 y e a r s -------------8 y ears--------------------H igh school: 1 to 3 y e a r s -------------4 y e a r s --------------------C o lleg e:
1 to 3 y e a r s-------------4 y e a r s ------ ------------5 years or m o re--------

8 1 .5

7 4 .7

9 6 .5

9 7 .1

9 4 .6

8 3 .4

2 7 .2

4 8 .7
6 6 .7
7 0 .7
8 3 .5
9 0 .1
8 0 .6
8 9 .8
9 0 .8

7 1 .4
8 5 .7
8 6 .9
7 5 .8
8 2 .8
5 9 .9
7 9 .7
6 1 .0

7 7 .2
9 2 .7
9 6 .0
9 7 .1
9 8 .2
9 5 .7
9 7 .2
9 3 .4

8 4 .1
9 2 .2
9 6 .3
9 6 .8
9 8 .2
9 8 .7
9 9 .5
9 7 .9

8 4 .4
8 5 .6
9 3 .1
9 4 .7
9 6 .3
9 7 .5
9 7 .6
9 7 .3

6 4 .8
7 5 .6
8 2 .7
8 4 .3
8 8 .8
8 7 .5
8 7 .5
9 2 .6

1 6 .5
2 3 .8
2 5 .1
2 9 .8
3 2 .5
3 3 .3
3 8 .6
5 4 .9

4 3 .8

5 4 .5

4 5 .6

5 1 .3

5 4 .4

4 3 .7

1 0 .3

1 7 .1
2 5 .7
3 0 .7
4 1 .0
5 0 .3
4 8 .6
5 5 .6
7 0 .6

2 6 .5
2 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 8 .7
5 9 .7
5 3 .8
8 3 .4
7 5 .6

2 8 .5
3 3 .9
3 8 .4
4 2 .4
4 5 .5
4 5 .5
5 4 .1
6 8 .2

3 5 .3
4 1 .0
4 5 .8
5 1 .1
5 2 .7
5 2 .7
4 9 .7
7 4 .4

3 3 .1
4 1 .2
4 8 .5
5 2 ,6
5 7 .8
5 7 .0
6 0 .6
8 2 .1

2 5 .0
3 2 .9
3 9 .4
3 9 .8
4 9 .4
5 0 .6
5 7 .7
7 6 .9

5 .0
7 .4
8 .8
1 0 .7
1 3 .1
1 5 .0
1 7 .6
3 5 .0

W om en
T o t a l----------------------------------E lem entray:

Less than 5 y e a r s1---5 to 7 years-------------8 years -------------------H igh school: 1 to 3 y e a r s -------------4 y e a r s --------------------C o lleg e:
1 to 3 y e a r s -------------4 y e a r s --------------------5 years or m o r e -------

1 Includes persons reporting no sch ool years c o m p leted .




24

C h a p te r 11. D e p a rtm e n t o f L ab o r M a n p o w e r
P ro g ram s and S e rv ic e s
T h e M a n p o w e r A d m in is tr a tio n 's p r i n c i p a l e f f o r t s f o r o ld e r w o r k e r s
in c lu d e e m p lo y m e n t a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s a n d m a n p o w e r w o rk a n d tr a in in g
p ro g ra m s.
E m p lo y m e n t a s s i s t a n c e h a s b e e n p r o v id e d to o ld e r w o r k e r s
b y th e M a n p o w e r A d m in is tr a tio n a n d a f f ili a te d S ta te e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e s
f o r m a n y y e a r s u n d e r th e a u th o r ity of th e W a g n e r - P e y s e r A c t.
M anpow er
w o rk a n d tr a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , f i r s t i n i tia te d in 1962, a r e c o n d u c te d u n d e r
f o u r l e g i s l a t i v e a c ts : T h e M a n p o w e r D e v e lo p m e n t a n d T r a in in g A c t
(M D T A ), th e E c o n o m ic O p p o rtu n ity A c t (E O A ), th e S o c ia l S e c u r ity A c t,
a s a m e n d e d , a n d th e r e c e n t l y e n a c te d E m e r g e n c y E m p lo y m e n t A c t (E E A ).
In a d d itio n , th e F e d e r a l - S t a t e U n e m p lo y m e n t I n s u r a n c e P r o g r a m p r o v id e s
e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s w ith in c o m e d u r in g p e r io d s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t.
E m p lo y m e n t A s s i s t a n c e A c t i v i t i e s .
T h ro u g h F e d e r a l g r a n ts S ta te s
o p e r a te o v e r 2, 300 l o c a l o f f ic e s of S ta te e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e s , w h ic h
s e r v e th o s e s e e k in g o r n e e d in g e m p lo y m e n t a n d th o s e p r o v id in g it.
G e n e r a l s e r v i c e s in c lu d e in te r v ie w in g , te s tin g , c o u n s e lin g , a n d r e f e r r a l to
p la c e m e n t o r to a p p r o p r i a t e tr a i n i n g o r o th e r s e r v i c e s in v o lv e d in r e a d y in g
in d iv id u a ls f o r e m p lo y m e n t.
S p e c ia liz e d s e r v i c e s to w o rk e rs a g e 45 a n d
o v e r in c lu d e s p e c ia liz e d jo b c o u n s e lin g , jo b d e v e lo p m e n t, r e f e r r a l to
tr a i n i n g o r n e c e s s a r y h e a lth a n d s o c ia l s e r v i c e s a n d jo b p la c e m e n t.
A
l im it e d n u m b e r o f lo c a l o ff ic e s h a v e o ld e r w o r k e r s e r v i c e u n its to in te n s if y
a n d in d iv id u a liz e s e r v i c e s to th is g ro u p .
In c a le n d a r y e a r 1969, th e
E m p lo y m e n t S e r v ic e p r o c e s s e d a b o u t 1 .4 6 m illio n n ew a p p lic a tio n s f o r
s e r v i c e s f r o m w o r k e r s 45 y e a r s o ld a n d o v e r , o r 15 p e r c e n t of to ta l n ew
a p p lic a tio n s .
A b o u t 1 1 2 ,0 0 0 in itia l c o u n s e lin g in te r v ie w s w e r e p r o v id e d
to o ld e r w o r k e r s , o r a b o u t 10 p e r c e n t of in te r v ie w s g iv e n to a ll a g e g r o u p s .
A b o u t 1 .0 3 m illio n n o n a g r ic u ltu r a l p la c e m e n ts w e r e o ld e r r e c ip ie n t s , o r
20 p e r c e n t o f t o ta l n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l p la c e m e n ts .
M D T A I n s titu tio n a l T r a in i n g . I n s titu tio n a l T r a in in g u n d e r th e M a n ­
p o w e r D e v e lo p m e n t a n d T r a in in g A c t o f 1962, a s a m e n d e d , p r o v id e s
c l a s s r o o m o c c u p a tio n a l tr a in in g , s u p p o r tiv e s e r v i c e s , a n d r e m e d ia l
e d u c a tio n to e q u ip u n d e r e d u c a te d a n d u n e m p lo y e d in d iv id u a ls w ith th e s k ills
th e y n e e d to o b ta in g a in fu l, s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g e m p lo y m e n t.
E m p h a s is i s
p la c e d o n a id in g d is a d v a n ta g e d in d iv id u a ls w ho do n o t r e q u i r e s p e c ia l
in te n s iv e a s s i s t a n c e .
In 1970, 1 in d iv id u a ls 45 y e a r s o ld an d o v e r r e p r e ­
s e n te d 9 p e r c e n t o f f i r s t - t i m e e n r o llm e n ts in th e p r o g r a m o r a b o u t 1 1 ,7 0 0
e n r o llm e n ts , th e h ig h e s t e n r o llm e n t in a b s o lu te n u m b e r s o f a l l m a n p o w e r
w o rk a n d tr a i n i n g p r o g r a m s .
J o b O p p o r tu n itie s in th e B u s in e s s S e c to r (JO B S ). 2 JO B S i s a n a tio n ­
w id e u n d e r ta k in g b y i n d u s t r y a n d g o v e rn m e n t to s tim u la te p r i v a t e i n d u s tr y
to h i r e , t r a i n , a n d r e t r a i n u n e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s , a n d to u p g r a d e th e s k ills
o f p e o p le a l r e a d y e m p lo y e d .
T h e p r o g r a m s e r v e s o n ly d is a d v a n ta g e d
w o r k e r s a n d in v o lv e s a c o m m itm e n t by e m p lo y e r s to h i r e th e w o r k e r s f i r s t
a n d t r a i n th e m a f t e r w a r d .
E m p lo y e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d to p r o v id e n o t o n ly
jo b s an d tr a i n i n g b u t a ls o a fu ll r a n g e of s u p p o r tiv e s e r v i c e s , s u c h a s
r e m e d i a l e d u c a tio n , p r e v o c a tio n a l a n d o n - th e - jo b s k ill t r a in in g , c o u n s e lin g ,




25

t e s t i n g , a n d c o a c h in g r e q u i r e d to h e lp s e v e r e l y d is a d v a n ta g e d w o rk e rs
m a k e a s a t i s f a c t o r y jo b a d ju s t m e n t.
In 1970, 4 p e r c e n t o f f i r s t - t i m e
e n r o llm e n ts o f JO B S o r a b o u t 3, 500 e n r o llm e n ts w e r e 45 y e a r s o ld a n d
o v e r.
T h e JO B O p tio n a l P r o g r a m 3 i s s i m i l a r in n a tu r e to JO B S .
It is
in te n d e d p r i m a r i l y to s e r v e d is a d v a n ta g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s in th o s e c a s e s
w h e r e th e tr a i n i n g o b je c tiv e s c a n b e s a t i s f i e d w ith a lo w le v e l o f s u p p o r t­
iv e a s s i s t a n c e .
A b o u t 10, 000 in d iv id u a ls 45 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o v e r , o r
11 p e r c e n t o f a l l f i r s t tim e e n r o llm e n ts , p a r t i c i p a t e d in M D T A o n - th e - jo b
tr a i n i n g in 1970. (S ee ta b le J . )
C o n c e n tr a te d E m p lo y m e n t P r o g r a m .
T h e C o n c e n tr a te d E m p lo y m e n t
P r o g r a m (C E P )4 is a s y s t e m f o r p a c k a g in g a n d d e liv e r in g m a n p o w e r
s e rv ic e s .
W o rk in g th r o u g h a s in g le c o n tr a c t w ith a s in g le s p o n s o r ( u s ­
u a lly a C o m m u n ity A c tio n A g e n c y ), th e M a n p o w e r A d m in is tr a tio n p r o v id e s
a f le x ib le p a c k a g e o f m a n p o w e r s e r v i c e s , in c lu d in g o u tr e a c h a n d r e c r u i t ­
m e n t; o r ie n ta tio n ; c o u n s e lin g a n d jo b c o a c h in g ; b a s ic e d u c a tio n ; v a r io u s
m e d ic a l, d a y c a r e , an d o th e r s u p p o r tiv e s e r v i c e s ; w o rk e x p e r ie n c e o r
v o c a tio n a l tr a i n i n g u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f in d iv id u a l m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m s ; jo b
d e v e lo p m e n t a n d p la c e m e n t; a n d in d iv id u a liz e d fo llo w u p a f t e r p la c e m e n t.
P r o j e c t s a r e e s ta b lis h e d b y p r i o r i t y in u r b a n n e ig h b o rh o o d s o r r u r a l
a r e a s h a v in g s e r i o u s p r o b le m s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t an d u n d e r e m p lo y m e n t,
c o o r d in a tin g a n d c o n c e n tr a tin g F e d e r a l m a n p o w e r e f f o r t s to a tta c k th e
t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t p r o b le m s of th e h a r d e s t h it o f th e d is a d v a n ta g e d in a
w a y th a t w ill m a k e a s ig n if ic a n t im p a c t o n th e t o t a l w e ll- b e in g o f th e a r e a .
P o o r a n d u n e m p lo y e d in d iv id u a ls 45 y e a r s o r o ld e r , r e s i d e n t s o f a
d e s ig n a te d C E P t a r g e t a r e a , a r e e lig ib le to r e c e i v e s e r v i c e s .
In 1970,
8 p e r c e n t o f f i r s t - t i m e e n r o l l e e s o r a b o u t 8, 800 C E P e n r o l l e e s w e r e 45
y e a r s o ld a n d o v e r . (S ee t a b le J . )
W o rk I n c e n tiv e P r o g r a m (W IN ).
T h e p u r p o s e o f th e W o rk In c e n tiv e
P r o g r a m 5 i s to p r o v id e a ll th e s e r v i c e s a n d o p p o r tu n itie s n e c e s s a r y to
m o v e A id to F a m i l i e s w ith D e p e n d e n t C h ild r e n (A FD C ) r e c i p i e n t s f r o m
d e p e n d e n c y to s ta b l e e m p lo y m e n t a t a liv in g w a g e .
W IN p r o v id e s a
c o m p r e h e n s iv e p r o g r a m o f th e s e r v i c e s r e q u ir e d , in c lu d in g c h ild c a r e
a n d o th e r s u p p o r tiv e s e r v i c e s , fu n d e d th r o u g h a s in g le s o u r c e .
W IN e n ­
r o l l e e s a r e p r o v id e d w ith tr a i n i n g , e d u c a tio n a n d w o rk e x p e r ie n c e to
p r e p a r e th e m to u s e t h e i r p o te n tia ls in a jo b .
W h e re s u ita b le w o rk
o p p o r tu n itie s in o th e r m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m s o r in th e jo b m a r k e t do n o t
e x i s t , s p e c ia l w o rk p r o j e c t s m a y b e d e v e lo p e d f o r c e r t a i n in d iv id u a ls .
E l d e r l y w e lf a r e r e c i p i e n t s c o v e r e d b y th e A F D C p r o g r a m a r e r e f e r r e d
b y w e lf a r e a g e n c ie s to th e lo c a l o ffic e of th e S ta te E m p lo y m e n t S e r v ic e .
In 1970, p e r s o n s 45 y e a r s o ld a n d o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d 6 p e r c e n t o f f i r s t ­
tim e e n r o llm e n ts in th e p r o g r a m , o r a b o u t 5, 600 e n r o llm e n ts .
O p e r a tio n M a in s tr e a m .
O p e r a tio n M a i n s t r e a m 6 i s a jo b c r e a t i o n a n d
w o rk t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r c h r o n ic a ll y u n e m p lo y e d p o o r a d u lts , m a in ly in
r u r a l a r e a s , w ho h a v e no r e a s o n a b le p r o s p e c t s f o r f u ll - tim e e m p lo y m e n t
o r t r a i n i n g a s s i s t a n c e u n d e r o th e r p r o g r a m s .
E n r o l l e e s p a r t i c i p a t e in
p r o j e c t s d e s ig n e d to im p r o v e o r b e a u tify th e c o m m u n ity .
P r o je c t a c tiv itie s
c o n tr ib u te to th e m a n a g e m e n t, c o n s e r v a tio n , o r d e v e lo p m e n t of n a t u r a l
r e s o u r c e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s , p a r k s , h ig h w a y s , a n d o th e r la n d s in r u r a l
a r e a s a n d s m a l l to w n s .
T h e r e g u l a r M a i n s t r e a m p r o g r a m 7 p r o v id e s 4 0 h o u r w o rk w e e k s . In a d d itio n , w o r k a n d t r a i n i n g o p p o r tu n itie s a r e p r o v id e d
in p r o j e c t s f o r s e n io r c i tiz e n s ; t h e s e l i m i t th e w o rk w e e k to 20 h o u r s .
In 1970, p e r s o n s 45 y e a r s o ld a n d o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d a b o u t 51 p e r c e n t o f




26

f i r s t - t i m e e n r o llm e n ts in th e r e g u l a r p r o g r a m o r a b o u t 6, 4 0 0 e n r o l l ­
m e n ts . 8
O p e r a tio n M a in s tr e a m h a s th e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n ta g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of
o ld e r w o r k e r s o f a l l m a n p o w e r p r o g r a m s .
L a r g e n a tio n a l c o n tr a c ts
r e f e r r e d to a s S e n io r C itiz e n P r o g r a m s s e r v e o n ly w o r k e r s o v e r 55 y e a r s .
P r o g r a m g u id e lin e s f o r c o n tr a c ts a d m i n i s t e r e d th ro u g h th e r e g io n a l o ff ic e s
o f th e M a n p o w e r A d m in is tr a tio n c l e a r l y s p e c if y th a t e m p h a s is i s to b e on
o ld e r w o r k e r s . 9
N ew C a r e e r s .
N ew C a r e e r s 10 i s a w o r k - tr a in in g e m p lo y m e n t p r o g r a m
f o r b o th y o u th a n d a d u lts in v o lv in g a c ti v itie s d e s ig n e d to im p r o v e th e p h y s i­
c a l, s o c ia l, e c o n o m ic , o r c u l t u r a l c o n d itio n s o f th e c o m m u n ity .
It a s s i s t s
th e d e v e lo p m e n t of e n t r y - l e v e l e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s ; p r o v id e s m a x i ­
m u m p r o s p e c t s f o r a d v a n c e m e n t a n d c o n tin u e d e m p lo y m e n t w ith o u t F e d e r a l
a s s i s t a n c e ; a n d c o m b in e s w o r k - tr a in in g e m p lo y m e n t w ith n e c e s s a r y e d u c a ­
tio n a l tr a i n i n g , c o u n s e lin g , a n d o th e r s u p p o r tiv e s e r v i c e s a s m a y b e
needed.
A n o th e r p u r p o s e o f N ew C a r e e r s is to c o n tr ib u te to th e d e s ig n
a n d c r e a t i o n of n e w c a r e e r jo b s in p u b lic s e r v i c e a s s u p p o r t o r p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l.
In d iv id u a ls 45 y e a r s a n d o ld e r who a r e p o o r o r
u n e m p lo y e d a r e e lig ib le to e n r o ll in p r o j e c t s .
In 1970, th e y r e p r e s e n t e d
7 p e r c e n t of f i r s t - t i m e e n r o llm e n ts in th e p r o g r a m , o r a b o u t 300 e n ­
r o l l m e n t s . (S ee ta b le J . )
N ew P r o g r a m — E m e r g e n c y E m p lo y m e n t A c t of 1971 (E E A ). A n ew
p r o g r a m is b e in g in i t i a t e d u n d e r th e r e c e n t l y e n a c te d E m e r g e n c y E m p lo y ­
m e n t A c t of 1971 (P . L 9 1 -5 4 ) w h ic h p r o v id e s te m p o r a r y 2 - y e a r
a u th o r ity f o r a p p r o x im a te ly 150, 000 a d d itio n a l n e w jo b s e a c h f i s c a l y e a r
in th e f ie ld o f p u b lic s e r v i c e f o r th e u n e m p lo y e d a n d u n d e r e m p lo y e d ,
in c lu d in g a s ig n if ic a n t n u m b e r o f m id d le - a g e d a n d o ld e r p e r s o n s .
The
e m p lo y m e n t a n d tr a in in g o p p o r tu n itie s p r o v id e d b y th e E E A a r e in
a d d itio n to e x is tin g m a n p o w e r w o rk an d tr a i n i n g p r o g r a m s .
T h e jo b s a r e
" t r a n s i t i o n a l " in t h a t th e y w ill le a d p e o p le in to p e r m a n e n t jo b s , a n d n o t
b e a s u b s titu te f o r th e m .
T h e E m e r g e n c y E m p lo y m e n t A c t a u th o r iz a t io n
f o r fu n d s w ill b e t r i g g e r e d w hen th e n a tio n a l r a t e of u n e m p lo y m e n t i s
4 - 1 / 2 p e r c e n t o r m o r e f o r t h r e e c o n s e c u tiv e m o n th s .
In a d d itio n , lo c a l
a r e a s s u f f e r in g f r o m c o n tin u in g h ig h u n e m p lo y m e n t ( o v e r 6 p e r c e n t) w ill
q u a lify f o r a s e p a r a t e p r o g r a m a u th o r iz e d b y th e b ill.
T h is n ew p r o g r a m
w ill p r o v id e a m e a s u r e o f a d d itio n a l a s s i s t a n c e to th e m id d le - a g e a n d
e l d e r l y u n e m p lo y e d a n d u n d e r e m p lo y e d .
U n e m p lo y m e n t I n s u r a n c e P r o g r a m (U I).
T he F e d e ra l-S ta te P r o g ra m
o f U n e m p lo y m e n t I n s u r a n c e now c o v e r s a b o u t 52 m illio n w o rk e rs a n d
a n o th e r 5 m illio n w ill b e c o v e r e d s t a r t i n g J a n u a r y 1, 1972, a s a r e s u l t
o f th e E m p lo y m e n t S e c u r ity A m e n d m e n ts of 1970, P . L . 9 1 -3 7 3 .
The
s y s t e m p r o v id e s e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s w ith in c o m e r e p la c e m e n ts d u rin g
in v o lu n ta r y u n e m p lo y m e n t.
In f i s c a l y e a r 1971, t o t a l b e n e f its a m o u n tin g
to $ 4 . 8 b illio n w e r e p a id to a b o u t 7 m illio n d if f e r e n t in d iv id u a ls .
On
th e a v e r a g e a b o u t 40 p e r c e n t o f th o s e r e c e iv in g b e n e f its w e r e a g e 45 o r
o ld e r . W o r k e r s 45 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o ld e r r e p r e s e n t e d s o m e th in g l e s s
th a n o n e - f o u r th of th e 1970 u n e m p lo y e d .
B e n e fits a r e p a y a b le in m o s t S ta te s f o r a m a x im u m o f 26 w e e k s in
a y ear.
A s a r e s u l t o f th e 1970 F e d e r a l A m e n d m e n ts , d u r a tio n o f U I
b e n e f its m a y b e e x te n d e d f o r a n o th e r 13 w e e k s d u r in g p e r io d s o f h ig h
u n e m p lo y m e n t ( e i t h e r 4 .5 p e r c e n t i n s u r e d u n e m p lo y m e n t n a tio n a lly o r
4 . 0 p e r c e n t i n s u r e d u n e m p lo y m e n t in a S ta te , p lu s 20 p e r c e n t o v e r th e
le v e l in th e p r e c e d in g y e a r b a s e p e r io d ) — e c o n o m ic c o n d itio n s d u r in g




27

w h ic h u n e m p lo y m e n t e f f e c ts e v e n o ld e r , m o r e e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s . S in c e
o ld e r w o r k e r s w ho b e c o m e u n e m p lo y e d te n d to h a v e s p e c ia l d if f ic u lty in
fin d in g n e w jo b s , e x te n d e d b e n e f its a r e e s p e c i a l l y h e lp fu l f o r th e m .
In
1971, 21 S ta te s p a id e x te n d e d b e n e f its , to ta llin g a b o u t $ 3 5 0 m illio n .

Table J.

First-time enrollees in manpower programs, by age group, fiscal year 1970

{Numberinthousands)
Under a g e 22

A g e 45 and over

T

i o ta Il

Program

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

T o t a l------------------------------------------ -------------

1 ,0 5 1 .4

68

7 1 6 .8

4

4 6 .3

M anpower D ev elo p m en t and T raining A ct:
In s titu tio n a l------------------------------------------- -----O n -th e -jo b -tr a in in g ---------------------- ----------- - -

1 3 0 .0
9 1 .0

37
35

4 8 .1
3 1 .9

9
11

1 1 .7
1 0 .0

JO B S -------------------------------------------------------------------C oncentrated E m ploym ent P rogram --------------------Work In cen tive P r o g r a m --------------- -------------------O peration M a in str e a m --------------------------------- -----N ew C a r e e r s ------------------- -----------------------------------

8 6 .8
1 1 0 .1
9 2 .7
1 2 .5
3 .6

47
41
23
4
21

4 0 .8
4 5 .1
2 1 .3
5 5 .0
.8

4
8
6
51
7

3 .5
8 .8
5 .6
6 .4
.3

Youth programs:
N eighborhood Youth Corps:
In -sch o o l — - — ------------- -— - — — ----------- O u t -o f- s c h o o l-------------------------------------------S u m m e r ---------------------------------------------------Job C o r p s -------------------------------------------------------------

7 4 .4
4 6 .2
3 6 1 .5
4 2 .6

100
98
100
100

7 4 .4
4 5 .3
3 6 1 .5
4 2 .6

_

•

•

-

-

F o o tn o te s
1 A ll d a ta in t h is s e c tio n r e f e r to th e f i s c a l y e a r ( J u ly 1 th r o u g h
J u n e 30) u n le s s o th e r w is e s p e c if ie d .
2 42 U .S . C. 2 5 7 1 -2 6 2 0 , P u b lic L aw 9 0 -6 3 6 .
3 M a n p o w e r D e v e lo p m e n t a n d T r a in in g A c t o f 1962.
4 E c o n o m ic O p p o rtu n ity A c t o f 1964, a s a m e n d e d , S e c tio n 123 (a)
(5), a n d T i tle II o f M D T A o f 1962, a s a m e n d e d .
5 P a r t C o f T itle IV of S o c ia l S e c u r ity A c t o f 1935, a s a m e n d e d in
1967.
6 T itle I - B , S e c tio n 123 (a) (3) o f th e E c o n o m ic O p p o rtu n ity A c t o f
1964, a s a m e n d e d in 1967; T itle I - E , S e c tio n 162 (a) (1) o f th e E c o n o m ic
O p p o rtu n ity A c t o f 1964, a s a m e n d e d in 1969.
7 T itle I - B .
8 T h e s e d a ta do n o t in c lu d e T i t l e I - E p r o g r a m s w h ic h o p e r a te in
a r e a s o f s p e c ia l n e e d s . T itle I - E p r o g r a m s d id n o t b e g in a c tu a l o p e r a tio n s
u n til w e ll in to 1971.
9 A r e c e n t M a n p o w e r A d m in is tr a tio n O r d e r , MAO 1 9 -7 1 , r e q u i r e s
t h a t 40 p e r c e n t o f a ll O p e r a tio n M a in s tr e a m p o s itio n s b e r e s e r v e d f o r
a p p lic a n ts 55 a n d o v e r .
O n ly p r o j e c t s o n In d ia n r e s e r v a t i o n s a r e e x e m p te d .



28

F o o tn o te s — C o n tin u e d
10
T i tle I - B o f th e E c o n o m ic O p p o rtu n ity A c t o f 1964, m e n d e d
as a
in 1966; n o w p a r t o f th e P u b lic S e r v ic e C a r e e r s P r o g r a m , w h ic h w a s
in i t i a t e d d u r in g th e f o u r th q u a r t e r o f F Y 1970.




29




Appendix Tables

Table A-l,
Total labor force (including Armed Forces) and labor force participation rates, b y age and sex;
An n u a l averages, 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1971 J./
(Numbers in thousands)
Pa rticioat;Lon rate.

Total labor force

A
Ag6 dtld S6 X

1950

1960

1970

1971

1950

1960

45,446
2,821
5,224
11,044
9,952
16,405
8,152
5,800
2,453

48,870
3,184
5,089
10,930
11,340
18,326
9,634
6,405
2,287

54,343
4,395
7,378
11,974
10,818
19,778
10,487
7,127
2,164

54,862
4,559
7,625
12,209
10,684
19,784
10,528
7,157
2 ,1 0 0

8 6 .8
65.9
89.1
96.2
97.6
79.9
95.8
86.9
45.8

84.0
59.4
90.2
97.7
97.7
75.3
95.8
8 6 .8
33.1

18,412
1,704
2,681
4,101
4,166
5,751
3,328
1,839
584

23,272
2,062
2,590
4,140
5,308
9,173
5,280
2,986
907

31,560
3,250
4,893
5,704
5,971
11,742
6,533
4,153
1,056

31,865
3,316
5,049
5,827
5,922
11,751
6,524
4,182
1,046

33.9
40.8
46.1
34.0
39.1
26.6

37.8
39.4
46.2
36.0
43.5
33.9
49.8
37.2
1 0 .8

1970

1971

80.6
58.4
8 6 .6
96.6
97.0
71.1
94.3
83.0
26.8

80.2
59.1
8 6 .1
92.6
96.6
70.5
94.1
82.4
25.7

43.4
44.0
57.8
45.0
51.1
36.1
54.4
43.0
9.7

43.1
43.9
57.4
44.9
51.2
35.6
53.9
42.7
9.4

MALE
Total, 16 years and over -----------------------------16-19 years -------------------------------------------------------20-24 years -------------------------------------------------------25-34 y e a r s -------- --------- -----------------35-44 y e a r s -------------------------------- ---------------------45 years and o v e r -------------------- -------------------45-54 years --------------- ---------------------------------55-64 y e a r s -------- -----------------------------------------65 years and over ------------------------------------------

.

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and over -------------16-19 y e a r s -------- ------ ----- ----20-24 years -------------------------------------------------------25-34 years --------------------------35-44 y e a r s ----------- -------------------------------------------45 years and over -----------------------------------------45-54 years --------------------------------------------------55-64 years ------ -------------------------------------------65 years and o v e r ---------------------------- ----------

If

38.0
27.0
9.7

Data for 1971 are 9 -month averages.

Table A-2.
Civilian labor force and participation rates, b y age and sex:
and 1971 1/

Annual averages,

1950, 1960, 1970,

(Numbers in thousands)
Age and sex
1950

Civilian 1 abor force
,
1960
1970

1971

1950

52,044
4,230
6,178
11,586
10,329
19,720
10,467
7,153
4,234
1,374
1,544
2,100

86.4
63.2
87.9
96.0
97.8
79.8
95.8
86.9
(2)
(2)
(2)
45.8

Participation rates
1960
1970

1971

MALE
Total, 16 years and o v e r ......
16-19 y e a r s ..................
20-24 y e a r s ..................
25-34 y e a r s ...................
35-44 y e a r s ..................
45 years and o v e r ...........

43,819
2,504
4,632
10,527
9,793
16,365
8,117
5,794
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,454

46,388
2,786
4,123
10,252
10,967
18,261
9,574
6,400
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,287

51,195
4,006
5,709
11,311
10,464
19,705
10,417
7,124
4,218
1,365
1,541
2,164

18,389
1,712
2,675
4,092
4,161
5,750
3,327
1,839

23,240

31,520

31,825

33.9

16-19 y e a r s ..................
20-24 y e a r s ..................
25-34 y e a r s ..................
35-44 y e a r s ..................
45 years and o v e r ............
45-54 y e a r s ................
55-64 y e a r s ................

2,055
2,580
4,131
5,303
9,171
5,278
2,986

55-59 y e a r s ..............
60-61 y e a r s ..............
62-64 y e a r s ..............
65 years and o v e r .........

(2)
(2)
(2)
584

(2)
(2)
(2)
907

3,241
4,874
5,698
5,967
11,740
6,531
4,153
2,547
775
832
1,056

3,307
5,030
5,820
5,919
11,749
6,522
4,182
2,536
817
829
1,046

40.9
46.1
34.0
39.1
26.6
37.9
27.0
(2)
(2)
(2)
9.7

45-54 y e a r s ................
55-64 y e a r s ................
55-59 y e a r s ..............
60-61 y e a r s ..............
62-64 y e a r s ..............
65 years and o v e r .........

83.3
56.1
88.1
97.5
97.7
75.2
95.7
86.8
(2)
(2)
(2)
33.1

79.7
56.1
83:3
96.4
96.9
71.1
94.2
83.0
89.5
82.6
69.4
26.8

79.4
57.3
83.3
96.0
96.5
70.5
94.1
82.4
89.1
81.8
68.7
25.7

37.7

43.3

39.3
46.1
36.0
43.4
33.9
49.8
37.2
(2)
(2)
(2)
10.8

44.0
57.7
45.0
51.1
36.1
54.4
43.0
49.0
41.4
32.3
9.7

43.1
43.8
57.3
44.9
5

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and o v e r ......

1/
2/

Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
Data not available.




31

,

5j
42.7
48.2
42.7
31.6
9.4

Table A-3.
Civilian labor force and participation rates,by age,
1960, 1970, and 1971 1 /
(Numbers in thousands)

sex, and color:

Annual averages,

Civilian labor force
Age,

1954,

Participation rates

sex, and color
1954

1960

1970

1971

1954

1960

1970

1971

39,760
1,989
2,656
9,695
9,516
15,906
7,914
5,654
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,338

41,742
2,433
3,559
9,153
9,919
16,679
8,689
5,861
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,129

46,013
3,550
4,983
10,088
9,413
17,980
9,488
6,515
3,858
1,251
1,406
1,977

46,816
3,771
5,406
10,332
9,290
18,017
9,540
6,551
3,867
1,267
1,416
1,926

85.6
57.6
86.4
97.5
98.2
78.4
96.8
89.2
(2)
(2)
(2)
40.4

83.4
55.9
87.8
97.7
97.9
75.3
96.1
87.2
(2)
(2)
(2)
33.3

80.0
57.5
83.3
96.7
97.3
71.3
94.9
83.3
90.1
83.0
69.3
26.7

79.9
59.0
83.5
96.4
97.0
70.8
94.8
82.9
89.5
82.7
68.9
25.7

17,057
1,512
2,098
3,532
4,025
5,890
3,346
1,937
(2)
(2)
(2)
607

20,171
1,843
2,228
3,441
4,531
8,129
4,633
2,661
(2)
(2)
(2)
835

27,505
2,889
4,246
4,790
5,112
10,467
5,781
3,734
2,279
699
756
952

27,738
2,968
4,379
4,867
5,051
10,474
5,768
3,755
2,267
738
750
951

33.3
40.6
44.4
32.5
39.4
27.1
39.8
29.1
(2)
(2)
(2)
9.1

36.5
40.3
45.7
34.1
41.5
32.8
48.6
36.2
(2)
(2)
(2)
10.6

42.6
45.6
57.7
43.2
49.9
35.4
53.7
42.6
48.5
41.0
32.1
9.5

42.3
45.7
57.4
42.9
49.8
34.9
53.3
42.2
47.7
42.5
31.3
9.3

4,203
305
396
1,074
997
1,428
790
451
(2)
(2)
(2)
187

4,645
353
564
1,099
1,049
1,580
884
538
(2)
(2)
(2)
158

5,182
455
725
1,223
1,052
1,726
929
609
360
114
134
188

5,228
458
773
1,255
1,039
1,703
927
602
367
107
128
174

85.2
61.1
91.1
96.2
96.6
77.3
93.2
83.0
(2)
(2)
(2)
41.2

83.0
57.5
90.4
96.2
95.5
74.6
92.3
82.5
(2)
(2)
(2)
31.2

76.5
47.2
83.5
93.7
93.2
68.8
88.2
79.2
83.3
78.6
69.8
27.4

75.3
46.0
82.3
92.9
92.3
67.2
87.0
77.6
84.6
71.8
66.3
25.1

2,621
169
326
680
684
761
476
226
(2)
(2)
(2)
59

3,069
213
352
690
771
1,042
645
324
(2)
(2)
(2)
73

4,015
351
628
907
855
1,273
750
419
268
76
75
104

4,087
339
652
952
868
1,276
754

46.1
31.0
49.6
49.7
57.5
39.6
53.4
41.2
(2)
(2)
(2)
12.2

48.2
32.8
48.8
49.7
59.8
44.9
60.5
47.3
(2)
(2)
(2)
12.8

49.5
34.1
57.7
57.6
59.9
42.6
60.2
47.1
53.5
45.5
34.1
12.2

49.1
31.9
56.4
58.7
60.8
41.8
59.4
47.0
52.8
45.4
35.1
10.8

WHITE
Male
Total, 16 years and over--------------16-19 years---------------------------20-24 years--------------- ----- -----25-34 y e ars---------------------------35-44 years------------ ---- ------ --45 years and over------------------- —
45-54 years— ------ -—
55-64 years----------------— ---55-59 y e ars----------------------60-61 y e ars----------------------62-64 y ears-------- - — ---------65 years and over------------------Female
Total, 16 years and over-----— ----- 16-19 years---------------------------20-24 ye a r s ---------------- ---------- 25-34 y e ars---------------------------35-44 years---------------------------45 years and over------- -— -------45-54 years-------------------------55-64 y e a r s -------------------------55-59 years .......................
60-61 y ears----------------------62-64 ye a r s ----------------------65 years and ove r ------------------N E GRO A N D O T HER RACES
Male
Total, 16 years and over - - ------ ----- 16-19 y e a r s ---- ---- ------------- 20-24 y e a r s ---------------------------25-34 y e a r s ---------------------------35-44 y e a r s ---------------------------45 years and o v e r------------------- 45-54 y e a r s -------------------------55-64 y e a r s - ----- ---------- ------- 55-59 y e a r s — -------------------60-61 ye a r s ----------------------62-64 y e a r s ----------------------65 years and o v er------- ----------Female
Total, 16 years and ove r --------------16-19 y e a r s ---------------------- ----20-24 ye a r s ---------------------------25-34 y e a r s - ----- --- ------ ----------35-44 ye a r s - - ----- ----- ------- -----45 years and ove r --------------------45-54 ye a r s -------------------------55-64 ye a r s -------------------------55-59 ye a r s ----------------------60-61 ye a r s ---------------- -----62-64 ye a r s -------------- ---- ---65 years and ov e r ---- ------------- -

1/
2/




Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
Data not available.

32

427
269
79
79
95

T a b l e A-4.

T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d total l a b o r f o rce b y a g e a n d sex:

A c t u a l I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 0 a n d projected,

19 8 0

Total l a b o r for ce,
(annual a v e r a l e )

Total population, J u l y 1
A g e and sex

L a b o r force
p a r ticipation raites

Change, 1960-1970
(in total la b o r force)

Change, 1970-1980
(in total 1 a b o r force)
;

Amount

Percent

Amount

Percent

19 6 0

1970

1980

I9601

1970

1980

121,817
68,951
52,865
20,586
15,634
8,465
7, 169
16,645
6,288
10,358

142,916
80,845
62,074
23,269
18,648
9,992
8,656
20,157
6,831
13,326

166,553
100,311
66,244
22,148
21,032
11,262
9, 7 7 0
23, 0 6 4
8, 2 2 3
14,841

72,104
44,598
27,506
14,718
9,409
5,530
3,879
3, 3 7 9
1,927
1,452

85,903
54,382
31,520
17,020
11,280
6,768
4,512
3,220
1,922
1,298

100,727
68,166
32,561
16,341
12,952
7,685
5,267
3,268
2, 0 4 8
1,220

59.2
64. 7
52. 0
71. 5
60. 2
65. 3
54. 1
20. 3
30.6
14. 0

60. 1
67. 3
50.8
73. 1
60. 5
67. 7
52. 1
16. 0
28. 1
9.7

60. 5
68. 0
49. 2
73. 8
61.6
68.2
53.9
14. 2
24. 9
8. 2

13,799
9,784
4,014
2, 3 0 2
1,871
1,238
633
1 59
5
1 54

19. 1
21.9
14.6
15.6
19.9
22.4
16. 3
4.7
.3
- 10.6

14,824
13,784
1, 0 4 1
679
1,672
9 17
755
48
126
78

17. 3
25. 3
3. 3
- 4. 0
14.8
13.5
16. 7
1. 5
6.6
- 6.0

59,420
34,176
25,242
10,148
7,564
4, 144
3,420
7,530
2,941
4,590

68,696
40,213
28,485
11,229
8,815
4,771
4,044
8, 4 4 1
3,075
5,366

80, 3 3 2
50,355
29,978
10,726
9,745
5, 2 7 8
4,467
9,507
3,635
5,872

48,933
30,495
18,438
9,568
6,445
3, 7 2 7
2,718
2,425
1,348
1, 0 7 7

54,343
34,565
19,778
10,487
7, 127
4,221
2,906
2, 164
1,278
886

63,612
43,591
20,021
10,082
7,849
4,597
3,252
2, 0 9 0

82.4
89.2
73. 0
94. 3
85. 2
89.9
79.5
32. 2
45.8
23. 5

79. 1
86. 0
69.4
93.4
80.9
88. 5
71.9
25.6
41.6
16.5

79. 2
86.6
66. 8
94. 0
80. 5
87. 1
72.8
22. 0
36. 0
13.3

5,410
4,070
1,340
919
682
494
188
2 61
70
191

11. 1
13. 3
7. 3
9.6
10. 6
13. 3
6.9
10.8
5.2
17.7

9,269
9,026
243
405
722
3 76
3 46
74
31
105

17. 1
26. 1
1. 2
- 3.9
10. 1
8.9
11. 9
- 3.4
2.4
- 11.9

62,397
34,775
27,623
10,438
8,070
4, 321
3,749
9, 115
3,347
5,768

74,220
40,632
33,589
12,040
9,833
5,221
4,612
11,716
3,756
7,960

86,221
49,956
36,266
11,422
11,287
5,984
5, 3 0 3
13,557
4,588
8,969

23,171
14,103
9, 0 6 8
5, 150
2,964
1,803
1, 161
954
579
3 75

31,560
19,817
11,742
6,533
4, 153
2,547
1,606
1,056
644
412

37,115
24,575
12, 5 4 0

37. 1
40.6
32.8
49. 3
36. 7
41. 7
31. 0
10. 5
17. 3
6.5

42. 5
48.8
35. 0
54. 3
42.2
48.8
34.8
9.0
17. 1
5. 2

43. 0
49. 2
34.6
54.8
45. 2
51. 6
38. 0
8. 7
16. 1
4.9

8, 3 8 9
5,714
2,674
1,383
1, 1 89
744
445
1 02
65
37

36. 2
40. 5
29. 5
26.9
40. 1
41. 3
38. 3
10. 7
11. 2
9.9

5,555
4,758
798
274
950
541

17.6
24. 0
6. 8
- 4. 2
22. 9
21. 2
25. 5
11. 6
14.8
6.6

1960

19702

1980

B o t h sexes
Total, 16 y e a r s a n d o v e r -----------------------16 to 4 4 y e a r s --------------------------------4 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ----------------------------4 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ----------------------------55 to 6 4 y e a r s ----------------------------55 to 5 9 y e a r s -------------------------6 0 to 6 4 y e a r s -------------------------6 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ------------------------6 5 to 6 9 y e a r s -------------------------7 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r --------------------Male
Total, 16 y e a r s a n d o v e r -----------------------16 to 4 4 y e a r s --------------------------------4 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ---------------------------4 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ----------------------------55 to 6 4 y e a r s ----------------------------55 to 59 y e a r s -------------------------6 0 to 6 4 y e a r s -------------------------65 y e a r s a n d o v e r ------------------------65 to 6 9 y e a r s -------------------------7 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ---------------------

1,309
781

-

Female
Total, 16 y e a r s a n d o v e r -----------------------16 to 4 4 y e a r s --------------------------------4 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ---------------------------4 5 to 5 4 y e a r s ----------------------------55 to 6 4 y e a r s --------------------------- —
55 to 5 9 y e a r s -------------------------6 0 to 6 4 y e a r s -------------------------6 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ------------------------6 5 to 6 9 y e a r s -------------------------7 0 y e a r s a n d o v e r ---------------------

6,259
5, 103
3, 0 88
2, 0 1 5
1, 178
739
439

409
122
95
27

1 B a s e d o n r e v i s e d pop u l a t i o n da t a reflecting the I 9 6 0 D e c e n n i a l C e n s u s results.
F o r this r e a s o n they differ s o m e w h a t f r o m figures s h o w n in the p r e c e e d i n g table, w h i c h w e r e b a s e d o n e s t i m a t e s
of the population.
2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n rates differ f r o m th ose in the p r e c e e d i n g table b e c a u s e they a r e b a s e d o n total p opulation as of Jul y 1.




Table A-5.
Employed persons, by age and sex: A n n u a l averages,
and 1971 1/
(Numbers in thousands)
A ge and sex

1950

1950,

1960,

1970,

1960

1970

1971

48,960
3,407
5,230
10,921
10,211
19,191
10,171
6,926
4,094
1,331
1,502
2,094

49,204
3,531
5,528
11,069
10,002
19,073
10,145
6,902
4,088
1,329
1,484
2,027

29,667
2,734
4,489
5,372
5,705
11,367
6,302
4,042
2,474
757
811
1,023

29,572
2,726
4,528
5,407
5,605
11,306
6,256
4,034
2,446
787
805
1,011

MALE
Total, 16 years and o v e r —
16-19 years -------------20-24 y e a r s ---- --- — ---25-34 years --------------

41,580
2,186
4,255
10,060

35-44 y e a r s ------------ —
45 years and o v e r - — ---45-54 years — ---------55-64 y e a r s -----------55-59 y e a r s --------60-61 y e a r s ---------62-64 years — ---- --65 years and o v e r ---—

9,445
15,634
7,790
5,508

43,904
2,360
3,754
9,759
10,551
17,479
9,182
6,106

(2)
(2)
(2)
2,336

(2)
(2)
(2)
2,191

17,340
1,517
2,491
3,857
3,979
5,496
3,176
1,757
(2)
(2)
(2)
563

21,874
1,769
2,366
3,871
5,046
8,821
5,055
2,884

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and over —
16-19 y e a r s ----- --- ----20-24 y e a r s — ------- ---25-34 y e a r s ---- ---- ----35-44 y e a r s -------------45 years and o v e r - -----45-54 y e a r s ---- -------55-64 y e a r s ------- ---55-59 y e a r s ---------60-61 y e a r s ---------62-64 y e a r s ---- ----65 years and o v e r - ----

(2)
(2)
(2)
882

1 / Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
2/ Data not available.

Ta b l e A-6.

Employed persons,by age, sex, and color:

Annual a verages, 1954, 1960, 1970, and 1971 J^/

(Numbers in thousands)
Neero an d other races

Wh ite

A g e and sex
1954

1960

1970

1971

1954

1960

1970

1971

MA L E
Total, 16 years and over ----16-19 years — — ------------20-24 y e a r s ------- ---------25-34 y e a r s --------- ------35-44 y e a r s ----------------45 years and o v e r ------- -—
45-54 years ---------- ----55-64 y e a r s ------ --------55-59 years — ----------60-61 y e a r s ----- -— - — 62-64 years — ---- -----65 years and over --------

37,847
1,724
2,394
9,287
9,175
15,267
7,614
5,412
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,241

39,775
2,092
3,264
8,777
9,589
16,033
8,372
5,618
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,043

44,157
3,065
4,596
9,773
9,200
17,523
9,272
6,338
3,748
1,219
1,371
1,913

44,458
3,207
4,884
9,904
9,015
17,448
9,261
6,330
3,738
1,227
1,365
1,858

3,772
261
330
967
907
1,307
716
418
(2)
(2)
(2)
173

4,148
268
490
982
963
1,444
809
487
(2)
(2)
(2)
148

4,803
342
634
1,148
1,011
1,668
899
588
346
111
131
181

4,746
324
645
1,166
987
1,625
884
572
350
102
119
169

16,110
1,355
1,964
3,329
3,825
5,637
3,197
1,850
(2)
(2)
(2)
590

19,095
1,609
2,067
3,244
4,341
7,834
4,448
2,574

26,025
2,504
3,955
4,536
4,891
10,140
5,582
3,637
2,216
683
738
921

25,940
2,508
3,992
4,557
4,799
10,085
5,536
3,628
2,189
711
728
920

2,378
135
283
607
634
720
449
215

2,779
160
298
627
705
988
608
310

3,631
218
536
849
807
1,221
720
410

(2)
(2)
(2)
56

(2)
(2)
(2)
70

3,642
231
534
836
814
1,227
720
405
259
74

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and over ----16-19 y e a r s ------- ------- 20-24 years -----------------25-34 years -----------------35-44 years -----------------45 years and over ----------45-54 y e a r s ------ --------55-64 years — ------------55-59 y e a r s ---- --------60-61 y e a r s ----------- —
62-64 y e a r s ---— ------65 years and o v e r ---- ----

1/
2/




(2)
(2)
(2)
812

D ata for 1971 a re 9-month averages.
D ata not available.

34

72
102

257
76
77
91

Table A-7.
Persons not in the labor force,by age and sex:
1950, 1960, 1970, and 1971 U
(Numbers in thousands)

Annual averages,

1950

1960

1970

1971

6,906
1,459
639
437
242
4,131
356
871
(2)
(2)
(2)
2,904

9,274
2,178
556
262
263
6,015
427
973
(2)
(2)
(2)
4,615

13,066
3,136
1,142
422
340
8,025
636
1,464
496
287
681
5,925

13,508
3,156
1,235
477
375
8,265
659
1,529
520
306
703
6,077

35,881
2,470
3,136
7,958
6,486
15,831
5,442
4,966
(2)
(2)
(2)
5,423

38,343
3,168
3,014
7,354
6,905
17,902
5,323
5,051
(2)
(2)
(2)
7,528

41,214
4,130
3,579
6,972
5,711
20,822
5,475
5,496
2,654
1,097
1,745
9,851

42,053
4,246
3,747
7,142
5,644
21,274
5,575
5,619
2,730
1,095
1,794
10,080

Age and sex

MALE
Total, 16 years and over-16-19 years-------------20-24 years-------------25-34 years-------------35-44 years-------------45 years and over------45-54 years-----------55-64 years-----------55-59 years--------60-61 years--------62-64 years--------65 years and over ----FEMALE
Total, 16 years and over-16-19 years-------------20-24 y e ars-------------25-34 years-------------35-44 y e ars-------------45 years and ov e r ------45-54 years-----------55-64 years-----------55-59 years---------60-61 y ears--------62-64 years--------65 years and over-----

1/
2/

Table A-8.
and 1971 1 /

Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
Data not available.

Persons not in the labor force, by age,

sex, and color:

Annual averages,

1954,

1960,

1970

(Numbers in thousands)
Negro and other races

White
Age and sex
1954

1960

1970

1971

1954

1960

1970

1971

MALE
Total, 16 years and o v e r -----------16-19 y e a r s ------------------------20-24 y e a r s ------------------------25-34 y e a r s ------------------------35-44 y e a r s ----------— ------ ----45 years and o v e r - - --------------45-54 y e a r s ---------------------55-64 y e a r s --------------- -----55-59 y e a r s -------------------60-61 y e a r s ------------------62-64 y e a r s -------------------65 years and o v e r ---------------

6,702
1,466
418
253
172
4,394
258
687
(2)
(2)
(2)
3,449

8,325
1,916
495
220
212
5,479
353
860
(2)
(2)
(2)
4,266

11,475
2,628
999
341
263
7,244
512
1,304
425
256
623
5,428

11,789
2,618
1,069
381
288
7,433
521
1,355
453
264
638
5,557

729
194
40
45
34
419
57
94
(2)
(2)
(2)
268

950
261
61
42
50
537
75
114
(2)
(2)
(2)
348

1,591
508
143
82
77
782
125
160
71
31
58
497

1,718
538
166
96
87
832
139
174
67
42
65
520

34,186
2,213
2,622
7,338
6,202
15,810
5,051
4,715
(2)
(2)
(2)
6,044

35,044
2,732
2,645
6,656
6,387
16,621
4,903
4,688
(2)
(2)
(2)
7,030

37,119
3,452
3,118
6,305
5,140
19,105
4,979
5,026
2,420
1,006
1,600
9,100

37,823
3,522
3,246
6,473
5,085
19,497
5,061
5,138
2,490
1,000
1,648
9,298

3,062
377
330
687
507
1,162
415
322

3,300
436
370
697
519
1,279
419
363
(2)
(2)
(2)
497

4,095
678
461
667
571
1,717
496
470
233
92
145
751

4,230
723
501
669
559
1,777
514
481
240
95
146
782

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and o v e r -----------16-19 y e a r s ------ ----------- -----20-24 y e a r s -----------------------25-34 y e a r s ------------------------35-44 y e a r s -------- — ------------45 years and o v e r ----- --- --------45-54 y e a r s ---------------------55-64 y e a r s ---— ---- -----------55-59 y e a r s -------------------60-61 y e a r s ---- --------------62-64 y e a r s ---- ---------------65 years and o v e r -------- ------




1/

2/

Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
Data not available.

35

(2)
(2)
(2)
425

Table B-l.
Unemployed persons and unemployment rates, by age and sex:
and 1971 1/
(Numbers in thousands)
A g e and sex
1950

Unemployed persons
1960
1970

Annual averages,

1971

1950,

1960,

1970

Unemploynlent rates
1960
1970
1971

1950

MALE
Total, 16 years and over-------- ------16-19 years----- ------- ------- ------ 20-24 years----------------------------25-34 years-------- --- ---- ------ ----35-44 years----— — — ------ --------45 years and over— ------- -----------45-54 years------------- ------ -----55-64 years-------------- ---- - — -- —
55-59 years------------------------60-61 years----------- ----------- 62-64 years------------------------65 years and over-— ------------ —

2,239
318
377
467
348
730
327
286
(2)
(2)
(2)
117

2,486
425
369
492
415
782
392
294
(2)
(2)
(2)
96

2,235
599
478
390
253
515
247
197
124
35
39
71

2,840
699
650
517
327
647
322
251
146
45
60
73

5.1
12.7
8.1
4.4
3.6
4.5
4.0
4.9
(2)
(2)
(2)
4.8

5.4
15.3
8.9
4.8
3.8
4.3
4.1
4.6
(2)
(2)
(2)
4.2

4.4
15.0
8.4
3.4
2.4
2.6
2.4
2.8
2.9
2.5
2.5
3.3

5.5
16.5
10.5
4.5
3.2
3.3
3.1
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.9
3.5

1,049
195
184
235
182
253
151
82
(2)
(2)
(2)
20

1,366
286
214
260
256
348
222
101
(2)
(2)
(2)
25

1,853
506
386
263
262
373
229
111
73
18
21
33

2,253
580
502
413
313
444
265
144
90
30
24
34

5.7
11.4
6.9
5.7
4.4
4.4
4.5
4.5
(2)
(2)
(2)
3.4

5.9
13.9
8.3
6.3
4.8
3.8
4.2
3.4
(2)
(2)
(2)
2.8

5.9
15.6
7.9
5.7
4.4
3.2
3.5
2.7
2.8
2.3
2.5
3.1

7.1
17.6
10.0
7.1
5.3
3.8
4.1
3.4
3.5
3.7
2.9
3.3

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and over---- ------ - —
16-19 years----------------------------20-24 years----------------------------25-34 years----------------------------35-44 years---- ---------- ---------- ---45 y ears and over---------------------45-54 years------------ -------------55-64 years- —
— ---- ---------- 55-59 years---- -------------------60-61 years-------------------- ---62-64 years------------------------65 years and over------- ------- -

1/
2/

Table B-2.

Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
Data not available.

and color:

Unemployment rates,by age.

Annual average,

1950,

I960,

1970, and 1971 1 /

N e gro and other races

White
Age and sex
1950

1960

1970

1971

1950

1960

1970

1971

4.7
12.4
7.7
3.9
3.2
4.2
3.7
4.7
(2)
(2)
(2)
4.6

4.8
14.0
8.3
4.1
3.3
3.9
3.6
4.1
(2)
(2)
(2)
4.0

4.0
13.7
7.8
3.1
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.7
2.8
2.5
2.5
3.2

5.0
15.0
9.7
4.1
3.0
3.2
2.9
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.6
3.5

9.4
15.0
12.6
10.0
7.9
7.5
7.4
8.0
(2)
(2)
(2)
7.0

10.7
24.0
13.1
10.7
8.2
8.6

(2)
(2)
(2)
6.3

7.3
25.0
12.6
6.1
3.9
3.4
3.3
3.4
4.0
2.4
2.5
3.8

9.2
29.4
16.6
7.1
5.0
4.6
4.6
5.0
4.5
4.4
7.0
3.1

5.3
10.9
6.1
5.2
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.3
(2)
(2)
(2)
3.1

5.3
12.7
7.2
5.7
4.2
3.6
4.0
3.3
(2)
(2)
(2)
2.8

5.4
13.4
6.9
5.3
4.3
3.1
3.4
2.6
2.8
2.3
2.4
3.3

6.5
15.5
8.8
6.4
5.0
3.7
4.0
3.4
3.4
3.6
2.9
3.3

8.4
15.4
13.0
9.1
6.6
5.5
5.9
4.8
(2)
(2)
(2)
5.7

9.4
24.8
15.3
9.1
8.6
5.2
5.7
4.3
(2)
(2)
(2)
4.1

9.3
34.4
15.0
7.9
4.8
3.6
4.0
3.2
3.4
2.1
4.0
1.9

11.1
35.6
17.7
10.8
7.1
4.3
4.5
4.0
4.4
3.9
2.8
3.8

MALE
Total, 16 years and over--------------16-19 y e a r s ---------------------------20-24 y e a r s ---------------------------25-34 ye a r s ---------------------------35-44 y e a r s ---------------------------45 years and ov e r --------------------45-54 y e a r s -------------------------55-64 ye a r s -------------------------55-59 ye a r s ----------------------60-61 ye a r s ----------------------62-64 ye a r s ----------------------65 years and over-------------------

8.5
9.5

FEMALE
Total, 16 years and over--------------16-19 years---------------------------20-24 years---------------------------25-34 years---------------------------35-44 years---------------------------45 years and over--------------------45-54 years-------------------------55-64 years------------------- ----55-59 years-..... - ------ --------60-61 years------------ ----------62-64 years----------------------65 years and over-------------------

1/
2/




Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.
Data not available.

36

fable B-3.
Long-term j-.iemployner.t compared w i t h total unemployment, by age and sex:
i960, ld6b, 1970, and 7 971 J./

Annual averages

(.Percent di sc r: but ion ‘

Total
Age and sex

15 weeks and over

1960

Total:

Number ( h u . —
tos)
P e r cent--------

1965

1970
2/

2,931
100,0

3,456
100.0

4,088
100.0

5,093
100.0

54.7
14.7
7.5
7.2
11.7
15.7
10.9
1.7

55.8
13.7
6.9
6,9
12.8
16.6
11.3
1.4

45.3
12.4
5.7
6.7
9.4
14.4
8.3
.8

44.2
11.4
5.0
6.4
9.9
14.3
8.0
.7

M a l e .....................
Un d e r 20 y e a r s - -----Under 18-----------1C and 19 ...........
20 to 24 y e a r s ------25 to 44 y e a r s ------45 to 64 / ears ------- i
65 years and o v e r ----

64.6
12.2
6.5
5.7
9.A
17.5
2.4

57.3
15.8
9.1
6.7
9.0
16.7
13.7
2.2

F e m a l e -------- ------ --U n der 20 ye a r s ------Under 18 ----- -----18 and 1 9 ..........
20 to 24 ye a r s ------25 to 44 ye a r s ----45 to 64 y e a r s ------65 years and o v e r ----

35.4
7.9
3.8
4.1
5.5
13.1
8.2
.6

42.7
12.1
5.4
6.7
7.1
14.4
8.2
.8

23.1

1971 i I960
;

7 weeks and over

L965

1970

1971

1960

1965

755
100.0

662
100.0

1,212
100.0

454
100.0

351
100.0

235
100.0

520
100.0

69.5
8.7
4.2
4.5
8.6
24.0
2^,3 i
|
3.9 !

60.8
10.6
5.6
4.9
6.8
18.3
21.1
4 .1

60.1
9.2
4.5
4.7
10.0
16.9
17.8
4.2

62,8
9.1
3,8
5.3
12.1
21.5
17.4
2.7

72,2
7.3
3.5
3.7
7,7
24.2
27 .4
5.6

65.0
9.1
5.1
4.0
6,6
19.1
25.1
5.1

62.4
5.5
3.4
2.1
9.3
20% 3
21.5
5.9

62.9
7.5
2.9
4.6
11.0
21.3
19.8
3.5

30.5
4.3
1.7
2.6
4.7
12.0
8.6
.8

39.2
8.2
3.1
5.2
4.9
14.0
10.7
1.3

39.9
7.1
3.2
3.9
6,9
14.0
10.6
1.2

37.3
5,0
1.7
3,2
7.2
14.2
10.0
,9

27.8
3.1
1.3
2.0
4.4
10.8
8.5
1.1

35.0
5.1
2.0
3.1
4.0
13.7
10.5
1.7

37.6
4.2
1.3
3.0
5.9
13.9
11.8
1.7

37.1
4,8
1.3
3.7
6.2
14.2
10.8
1.2

956
100.0

1970 1 1971

|
j
i
i
|
1

1/ Data for 1971 are 9-month averages,
2/ Data refer to persons 16 years and over in accordance w i t h the changes in age limit and concepts
introduced in 1967; prior to this the items "under 20 years" and "under t8 years" referred to persons 14 to
19 years and 14 to 17 years respectively.




Table C-l,
Persons w i t h w o r k experience in 1965 and 1970 w h o w e r e
force 50 to 5l weeks, b y age, sex, color, and marital status

in the labor

(P-Sicoiu distribution)

Female

Male
Age and marital status
Total

(Negro and
White jjother races

Total

White

Negro and
other races

i

1965
A L L PERSONS
25
45
55
65

to 44
to 54
to 64
years

y e a r s .......... .......
y e a r s ............ .
y e a r s ........ ..........
and o v e r .............

1 91.5
91.4
85.9
62.6

91.8
91.8
86.3
63,7

88.8
87.0
82.0
50.7

56.2
65.7
67.9
49.8

55.8
65.9
68.6
51.0

58.8
64.7
62.0
41*. 2

i
1 92.6
86.7

92.9
87.0

90.3
83.1

50.5
50.7
j
60.5 | 61.0

51.5
56.2

MARRIED, SPOUSE PRESENT
25 to 44 y e a r s ..................
45 years and o v e r ...............

1

SINGLE AND OTHER M A R ITAL STATUS
83.7
77.6

83.8
78.5

83.3
72.4

73.2
70.7

73.9
71.4

70.9
65.9

90.6
90.8
85.7
60.4

91.1
91.1
86.1
61.0

86.0
88.4
80.6
53.6

58.6
70.9
71.3
51.5

57.1
71.1
72.3
52.2

66.8
70.1
63.1
44.4

25 to 44 y e a r s ..................
91.8
1 85.9
45 and o v e r ......
45 to 54 y e a r s ............... | 91.6
86.9
55 to 64 years ...............
65 years and o v e r ............
60.8

92.2
86.2
91.8
87.1
61.2

87.8
82.7
89.0
83.9
55.7

53.5
67.4
68.2
68.1
53.2

52.0
67.5
68.2
68.7
53.7

65.6
65.7
68.8
62.5
(1)

84.5
77.6

80.4
74.3

74.0
71.3

75.9
72.3

68.5
64.7

25 to 44 y e a r s ..................
45 years and o v e r ...............
1970
A L L PERSONS

25 to 44 y e a r s ..................
45 to 54 y e a r s ..................
55-64 y e a r s ................... .
65 years and o v e r ..........
MARRIED, SPOUSE PRESENT

SINGLE AND OT H E R MARITAL STATUS
25 to 44 y e a r s .............. .
45 years and o v e r ....... .......

1/

83.8
77.1

Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000,

37

Table C-2.

Ma j o r reason for part-year w o r k in 1965 and 1970 by color:
Part-year workers, b y age and sex
(Numbers in thousands)
WH I T E

NEGRO AND OTHER RACES

Persons w h o did not w o r k a full-year because o f —
A ge and sex

Illness
or
disability
1/

Taking
care
of
home

Going
to
school
2/

3,767
2,195
426

395

Total
partyear
w orkers

Unem p l o y ­
ment

SEXES
to 44 y e a r s ----to 64 y e a r s ----years and over--

8,230
6,458
1,644

2,267
1,813
162

876
1,320
262

MEN
25 to 44 y e a r s ----45 to 64 y e a r s ----65 years and over--

3,110
2,750
1,006

1,699
1,193
123

480
832
188

W O MEN
25 to 44 y e a r s ---- 45 to 64 years----65 years and over--

5,120
3,708
638

568
620
39

396
433
74

3,767
2,195
426

126

SEXES
to 44 y e a r s — —
to 64 y e a r s ----years and over--

9,475
6,728
1,866

2,981
1,978
142

922
1,459
286

4,090
2,029
371

573

MEN
25 to 44 y e a r s ----45 to 64 y e a r s ----65 years and over--

3,656
3,037
1,125

2,097
1,306
99

510
900
192

WOMEN
25 to 44 y e a r s ----45 to 64 y e a r s----65 years and over--

5,819
3,691
741

884
672
43

412
559
94

Persons w h o did not w o r k a full-year because of
Other
reasons
3/

Total
partyear
workers

Unemp l o y ­
ment

Illness
or
disability
1/

Taking
care
of
home

Going
to
school
2/

Other
reasons
3/

1965
BOTH
25
45
65

-

-

-

925
1,130
794

1,526
987
224

586
336
20

212
228
81

538
284
61

35

662
725
695

583
453
122

362
228
13

91
125
56

-

23

-

-

-

-

263
405
99

943
534
102

224
108
7

121
103
25

538
284
61

-

909
1,262
1,067

1,512
910
220

556
276
25

279
271
71

417
248
45

705
831
834

652
373
135

360
161
18

128
129
46

-

54
-

-

-

204
431
233

860
537
85

196
115
7

151
142
25

417
248
45

57
-

269
-

-

-

-

_

-

12
-

155
139
62

107
100
53

48
39
9

1970
BOTH
25
45
65

1/

-

-

-

344
-

-

-

229
-

4,090
2,029
371

-

Ill
-

149
115
79

110
83
71

"

Excludes paid sick leave from job (which counted as time worked) and period of illness or disability during w h ich the person would not

have wor k e d or w o u l d not have been in the labor force even if well.
2/ R e s t ricted to persons under 30 years of age.
3/ Includes A r m e d Forces, retirement, unpaid vacations, strikes, and summer vacations for students.

T a ble C-3.

Nonagricultural workers on part time, by a ge and sex: A n n u a l averages,

1960, 1970 and 1971

U

(Percent distribution)

1960

Total
1970

N u mber (thousands)--------Percent --------------------

8.375
100.0

11,583
100.0

---------------------------------

41.2

Under 18 years-------------------18 to 24 years ------------------25 to 44 years ------------------45 to 64 years ------------------45 to 54 years ----------------55 to 59 years ----------------60 to 64 years ----------------65 years and over ----------------

10.5
7.7
8.9
8.7
(3)
(3)
(3)
5.4

_______________________________

Under 18 y e a r s --------------18 to 24 years ------------------25 to 44 years ------------------45 to 64 years ------------------45 to 54 years ----------------55 to 59 years ----------------60 to 64 years _________________
65 years and over ----------------

Ecor omic reasons
1960
1970
1971

Volunt.ary part time 2/
1960
1970
1971

11,651
100.0

2,560
100.0

2,196
100.0

2,502
100.0

5,815
100.0

9,387
100.0

9,149
100.0

35.6

36.2

57.7

50.3

50.0

33.9

32.2

32.3

8.3
11.3
5.7
5.3
2.4
1.4
1.5
5.1

8.2
11.5
6.0
5.5
2.6
1.4
1.5
4.9

4.5
9.8
21.6
19.1
(3)
(3)
(3)
2.7

4.5
12.9
17.0
13.8
7.6
3.7
2.5
2.1

5.0
13.4
16.6
13.1
7.1
3.5
2.5
2.0

13.2
6.7
3.3
4.1
(3)
(3)
(3)
6.6

9.2
11.0
3.0
3.3
1.1
.9
1.3
5.8

9.0
11.0
3.2
3.4
1.3
.9
1.2
5.7

58.8

64.4

63.8

42.3

49.6

50.0

66.1

67.8

67.7

8.0
6.6
21.5
18.6
(3)
(3)

7.2
12.2
22.5
18.6
10.9
4.4
3.3
3.9

7.2
12.7
21.7
18.3
10.7
4.2
3.4
4.0

2.9
6.5
16.4
15.0

3.2
12.2
16.2
16.5
9.7
4.2
2.5
1.6

3.9
13.0
15.9
15.5
9.1
3.9
2.5
1.6

10.2
6.7
23.8
20.2

8.2
12.2
23.9
19.1
11.2
4.4
3.5
4.4

8.1
12.6
23.3
19.0
11.1
4.3
3.6
4.7

A g e and sex

Total:

MEN

WOMEN

(3)
4.0

1971

(3)
(3)
(3)
1.4

1/

Data for 1971 are 9-month averages.

2/

Includes persons who do not prefer, or are unavailable for, full-time work.
Not available.

3/




38

(3)
(3)
(3)
5.2

39
32
8




Table C-4.
Reasons for not working:
Persons wi t h no wor k experience in 1960,by age
and sex and in 1965 and 1970 by age, sex, and color
(Numbers in thousands)

Age,

sex, and color

Total
wit h no
work ex­
perience

Persons w h o did not w o r k because of-'
Illness
or
disability

Taking
care of
home 1 /
.

Going
to
school 2/

Inability
to find
work

Other
reasons
3/

1960
A L L PERSONS
Men
25 to 64 ye a r s ---------65 years and o v e r ------

1,544
3,962

832
1,015

Wo m e n
25 to 64 y e a r s ---------65 years and o v e r ------

20,597
7,229

695
992

Men
25 to 64 years — - — - —
65 years and o v e r ------

1,511
4,600

880
927

Wo m e n
25 to 64 y e a r s --------65 years and over------

18,897
7,930

689
979

Men
25 to 64 y ears ---------65 years and ove r ------

307
410

226
152

Women
25 to 64 y e a r s ----— --65 years and o v e r ------

1,670
589

197
174

2,176
5,241

1,350
1,210

19,963
9,471

1,546
1,889

Men
25 to 64 years — — ---65 years and over----—

399
431

287
179

Women
25 to 64 y e a r s --------65 years and over- -----

1,803
732

433
328

43

452
2,872

374
30

329
526

112
37

476
3,636

76

157
21

552
708

15

36
1

30
257

49
1

40
47

-

115
20

599
4,011

123
7

220
29

371
2,032

23

19,172
5,681

217
75

43

-

-

30
2

59
250

17
1

62
3

36
108

-

27
*

1965
A L L PERSONS

-

17,423
6,222

NEGRO AND O T HER RACES

-

1,371
367

"

13
-

1970
A L L PERSONS
Men
25 to 64 y e a r s --------65 years and o v e r ----—
Women
25 to 64 y e a r s --------65 years and o v e r ------

112
-

17,703
5,514

NEGRO A N D OTHER RACES

1/
2/
3/

-

1,255
292

Rea s o n restricted to women*
Reason restricted to persons under 30 years of age*
Includes retirement and service in the A rmed Forces.

39




Table D-l.

O c c u pational m o b i l i t y rates 1 / by occupations

Age a n d sex, January 1966
Occupation in January 1966

A g e a n d sex
T o tal

Profes­
sional,
technical,
and
kindred
workers

Farmers
and farm
managers

Managers,
officials,
and pro­
prietors,
except
farm

Clerical
and
kindred
workers

Sales
workers

Crafts­
men,
foremen,
and
kindred
workers

Oper­
atives
and
kindred
workers

Private
house­
hol d

Service
workers,
except
private
house­
hold

Farm
laborers
and
foremen

Laborers,
except
farm and
mine

A L L PERSONS
Men
25 to 44 y e a r s ------------45 to 54 y e a r s ------------55 years and o v e r - - -------

10.4
5.2
3.6

5.9
4.4
1.8

3.1
1.1
.4

9.9
4.2
2.8

13.7
7.0
4.4

9.9
5.3
1.1

10.3
4.4
2.5

12.7
6.0
5.7

(2)
(2)
(2)

10.5
7.3
7.0

12.1
5.7
4.5

16.1
8.9
8.8

6.7
4.7
2.3

2.9
3.8
1.1

(2)

11.2
2.8
3.2

7.2
5.1
3.6

8.1
6.0
1.9

(2)
(2)
"

7.0
4.0

3.2
1.7
2.3

8.2
6.9
3.4

2.6
-

(2)
(2)

"

~

Women
25 to 44 y e a r s ---- --------45 to 54 y e a r s ------------55 years a nd o v e r ------ ---

If
If

-

■

1.0

P r o p ortion of persons employed in both January 1965 and January 1966 w h o had a different occupation in January 1965*
R a t e n o w shown w h e r e bas e is less than 100,000.

Table D-2.

Age:

Employment status in January 1965 of all persons 35 years and over employed in January 1966, b y sex and color
(Percent distribution)
Women

Men
Total employed
in Janu a r v 1966
Age and color

Same
occupation in
January
1965

Different
o ccupa­
tion in
January
1965

Not
working
in
January
1965

Occupa­
tional
mobility
rate 1/

Total employed
in Janu a rv 1966
Number
(thou­
sands)

Same
occupation in
January
1965

D i f f erent
occupa­
tion in
J anuary
1965

Not
working
in
January
1965 '

Occupa­
tional
mob i l i t y
rate If

Number
(thou­
sands)

Percent

10,721
9,778
6,453
1,910

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

90.9
93.1
93.7
92.0

7.3
5.1
3.7
2.6

1.8
1.8
2.6
5.4

7.4
5.2
3.8
2.7

5,419
5,511
3,551
942

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

80.8
86.5
92.5
91.4

4.6
4.2
2.3
1.6

14.6
9.3
5.2
7.0

5.3
4.7
2.4
1.8

1,002
875
553
144

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

88.6
90.1
91.7
95.1

9.3
6.4
3.6
3.5

2.1
3.5
4.7
1.4

9.5
6.6
3.7
3.5

796
627
359
86

100.0
100.0
100.0
(2)

86.5
87.0
93.1

3.9
3.4
1.1
“

9.6
9.5
5.7

4.3
3.8
1.2
(2)

Percent

A L L PERSONS
35
45
55
65

to 44
to 54
to 64
years

y e a r s ------y e a r s ----- y e a r s ---- - —
and o v e r ----

NEGRO A N D OT H E R RACES
35
45
55
65

to 44
to 54
to 64
years

y e a r s ------y e a r s ------y e a r s — ----and o v e r ----

■

If Proportion of persons employed in both January 1965 and January 1966 w h o had a different occupation in J a n uary 1965,
2/ Percent (or rate) not shown where base is less than 100,000.

~

Table D -3. Age:

Tenure on current job, by sex, January 1968
^^JPerjcent^istribiation^

Total
employed
Age and sex

Number
(in thou­ Pe rce nt
sands)

Tenure on current job

July
1967- Jan.— J a n . Dee.
Jan. June
1967
1 96 6
196 8

3

10
15
5
to 5
to 10 to 15 to 2 0
y ea rs v e a r s v ea r s v ea r s
Period when job started
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.— Jan.
195 8- 1953- 19 48Dec. 1963Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
1965
1957
1962
1952
1964

7
2
months to 1 2
to 3
to 2
or l e s s months v e a r s vear s
6

to 25
Years

25
to 30
v ea r s

30
to 35
vears

Jan.
194 3Dec*
1947

Jan.
193 8Dec.
1942

Jan.
193 3Dec.
1937

2. 7

1. 5

20

Over
35
v ea r s Median
y ea r s
on job
Prior
to
Jan.
1933

BOTH SEXES
Total, 16 ye ar s old and o v e r __
16 and 17 y ea r s _ _________ _
—_
18 and 19 y e a r s _____________________
20 to 24 y e a r s ______________________
_
25 to 34 y e a r s __ _ _ _
' 25 to 29 y e a r s ___________________
30 to 34 y e a r 8 ___________________
35 to 44 y e a r s ______________________
35 to 39 y e a r s ___________________
40 to 44 y e a r s ___________________
45 to 54 y e a r s ______________________
45 to 49 y e a r s ____________________
50 to 54 y e a r s
_ _
55 to 64 y e a r s ______________________
55 to 59 y e a r s ___________________
60 to 64 y e a r s ___________________
65 y ea r s and o v e r __________________
65 to 69 y e a r s ___________________
70 y e a r s and o v e r _______________

7 3, 2 75

100 .0

19.1

7 .8

11. 3

7.9

1, 859
2 , 9 77
8,383
14,789
7 ,7 9 6
6 , 9 93
16,135
7 ,6 0 7
8,528
15,828
8, 35 1
7, 47 7
10,430
6 , 195
4 ,2 3 5
2 ,8 7 4
1,7 22
1, 152

1 00 .0
100. 0
100 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00.0
1 00 .0
1 00.0
1 00 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00.0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0

5 3 .7
5 5 .9
39.4
21. 2
2 4 .2
17.9
13.9
15.0
12.9
9.6
10.9

16.6
17. 1
13.9
9.4

15.0
18.2
19.8
1 4. 9
1 6. 2
13.4

6 .6

46,472
1, 103
1, 443
4 ,6 2 9
10,1 50
5,3 01
4,849
10,530
5 ,06 2
5 , 4 68
9 ,9 5 9
5 , 2 66
4,693
6,7 11
3 ,9 4 9
2 ,7 6 2
1,947
1, 165
782

1 0.8

7.9
7. 1
7.7

10.2
11.0

1 1.2
1 1.0

4. 7
5 .0
4. 3
3 .5
3 .6
3 .2
4.0
4.8

11.5

2 .8

9.4
7.9
8. 3
7. 3
5.2
5. 3
5.2
5 .4
5.7
4.8

1 00 .0

16. 3

7.2

9.9

1 00 .0
1 00.0
1 00.0
1 00.0
100 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
100 .0
1 00.0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 00.0

5 4 .4
55 .0
40. 3
17.4
20. 6
13.9

16.9
16.9
14.5
8.9
10.5
7.0
6. 3
7.0
5.7
3. 9
4. 1
3 .6
3. 3
3.3
3 .2
3. 6
4.6
2. 1

14.8
17.4
18 .0
14. 3
16.4
12. 1
8. 3
9.2
7.6
6. 3
6.5

8 .2

7.6
7.8
7 .4

6 .6

5.9
11.5
11 . 6
12.9
10 . 2
7.5
8 .2
6 .8

6 .4
6 .7
6 .0

4.7
5. 1
4. 1
4.7
4.5
5.0

7 .5

1 0.2

6.5
2. 1
1 1.0

14.6
15.7
13.4

15. 1
1.7
.8

4. 1
20. 1
17. 7

1 0.0

_

_

0. 2

-

7 .0
2.4

2 2.8

1 2.2

15.2
16.8
13.8
13. 3

7.6

18. 5
19.4
17. 7
16.9
17.6
16. 1
15.8
16.0
15. 5
13.4
13.7
13.0

9.9

15.4

5.7
3. 4

2. 1
1.4
4.8
22. 7
19.5
26. 3
18 .5

1 0.8

11.4
10.4
9.5
9.8
9.3
7.5
7. 3
7 .9
6 .7
6 .0

7. 1

1 .0
.1
2. 1

10.9
8 .2

5.0
_
_
0. 1
_
.1
4.8
2. 2
7. 1

13.9
13.0
13. 5
12. 2

13.3
11.9
12. 3
11. 5
11. 1
11.5
10. 6

11.6

8 .8

13. 3
9. 3

9.3

9.9
10. 5
10. 1
10.4
9.7
7.9
8.7

8 .0

10. 8

12.8

1 0.2

_
_
0. 8
.2
1. 3
6. 1
5 .2
7. 1

_
_
-

_
_
(*)
0. 1

2.4
.6

2. 3
_
_
0. 3
_

3.8
0 .6
.6
1 .0

2.5
2 .0

3. 2
5.2
4. 5
6. 2

.6
1. 2

8 .6

.9
1. 5
9.0

7.7
9 .7
12. 3

6 .8
12. 1

1 2.0
1 2.8
12. 1

6 .8

5.7
5 .7
5. 7

4.4
5. 7
5 .9
5 .5
3. 1
3. 2
3 .0

17.4
14. 0
2 2 .5

11.7
13.0

8.4

6 .2

3. 5

2. 0

2 .9

4.8

_
-

_
_
0. 1
_

-

_
_
_
_
_
(*)

_
_
_
_
_
0.4
_
.7
1. 3
.9
1.7
11. 0
8. 7
14.4

6 .8

7 .0
6 .6

MEN
Total, 16 ye ar s old and o ve r__
16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

and 17 y e a r s _____________________
and 19 y e a r s _____________________
to 24 y e a r s ______________________
to 34 y e a r s ____________________ _
25 to 29 y e a r s ___________________
30 to 34 y e a r s ___________________
to 44 y e a r s ______ I_____________
35 to 39 y ea r s
_ _ _
40 to 44 y e a r s _
to 54 y e a r s ______________________
45 to 49 y e a r s
50 to 54 y e a r s
___
to 64 y e a r s _
_ _
- __
55 to 59 y e a r s
__ __ _
60 to 64 y e a r 8
. ...
___
ye a r s and o v e r _______ ___________
65 to 69 y e a r s .
____
70 y e a r 8 and over ________________

1 1.0
12 . 2

9.9
7.9
5
7. 1

8.

6 .2
6. 3
6 .0
1 0.0
10. 9
8 .6

6 .2

4.2
4.0
4.4
5. 1
5.6
4. 5

6. 1

5.9
1 1.0
1 1.8

13.4
1 0.0

6.5
7.4
5.6
5.4
5 .9
5.0
4. 3
4.6
3 .8
5. 3
5. 1
5.6

1 1.0

15.6
17.0
14. 1
9 .8
10.5
9. 1
8 .0

8.4
7.5
7.0
6. 5
7.8
6.4
6. 1
6 .9

_
0. 3
8 .0

1 .2

. 1
2 .4
14. 1
10. 3
17.6
14. 6
15. 7
13.4
10. 5
7.6

8 .0

8. 1

13. 1

2. 5
14.0
18.2
20 .4
16. 1
13. 3
13. 1
13.4
11.7
12. 1
11. 1
9.9
11. 3
7 .9

6 .9

8.

4.9

2 0 .2

17. 0
14.9
15.9
13.7
13.6
13.8
13. 3
12.6
1 2.2

1 0.8
10. 1

.2
6 .0

2 .7
9. 1
13.0
13.2
12.7
12. 1
12.7
11. 3

_
_
_
0. 9
.2
1 .6
8. 2

0. 1

3. 3

8.5
7.4

6.9
9.7
8. 5
9. 1
7. 7
6. 1
6. 1
6. 1

6.9
3.8
4. 3
3 .0

17. 2
2 8 .0

2.9

1. 3

0

.

1. 3

.8
6 .0

7. 5
8 .0

21.6

0. 5
.5
.8
2 .8
2. 1

3 .9
6.9
5.8
8.4
11. 3
1 0.2
1 2.6

14.8
14.7
15. 1
13. 5
12.4
16.0

WOMEN
Total, 16 y ea r s old and o v e r __
16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

2 6 ,8 0 3

1 00 .0

23 .9

9.0

13.7

8 .8

10.7

14. 5

and 17 ye ar s _________________ _
and 19 y e a r s _____________________
to 24 y ea r s ______________________
to 34 y ea r s ______________________
25 to 29 y e a r s ___________________
30 to 34 y e a r s ____________________
to 44 y e a r s ______________________
35 to 39 y e a r s _______________
40 to 44 y e a r s ___________________
to 54 y e a r s ____
_____ __
45 to 49 y e a r s
50 to 54 y e a r s _________________
to 64 ye ar s _ _
_ _ _ _ _
55 to 59 y e a r s ___________________
60 to 64 y e a r s __________________
y ea r s and o v e r ________________ _
65 to 69 y e a r s ___________________
70 y e a r s and o v e r ___ _ _

756
1,534
3 ,75 4
4 ,6 3 9
2 ,4 9 5
2, 144
5 ,6 0 5
2,545
3 ,0 6 0
5 , 8 69
3,0 8 5
2 ,7 8 4
3,7 19
2,246
1,4 73
927
557
370

100 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
100. 0
1 00.0
1 00.0
100 .0
1 00.0
1 00.0
1 00.0
1 00 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
100 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0

5 2. 8
56 .8
3 8. 3

16.0
17.2
13. 2
10. 7
11.4
9.9

1 5. 3

7.3
5 .8

7. 6
.9

1 .0
#3

_

1 2.2
1 1.2

1 1.0

l.Z

0 .2

1

29.6

31.8
27 .0
19.3
20. 6
18. 2
12. 5
14.9
1 0.0
10. 1
10. 3
9.9
13.9
11. 3
17.6

8 .6

9. 1
8. 3
6 .0
6 .6

5.4
3.8
4. 1
3. 3
4.7
5. 1
4. 1

19.0
22. 1
16. 0

15.9
16. 1
13.5
14.5
12.7
10.4
11.5
9.2
7. 1
7.6
6.5
5.8
6. 1
5 .4

L e s s t h a n 0. 0 5 percent.




41

11.7
1 0.6

9 .4
9 .9
9.0
7 .9
8 .2

7.6
5. 5
5.9
4.7
3 .4
3. 1
3 .9

12. 3
12.9
11.8
1 2.8

13. 1
1 2.6
12 . 2
12 . 1

12. 3
8.4
8 .6
8 .0

7.2
5.9
9.0

14. 5
14.0
15. 1
18.4
17.8
19.0
20. 2
20.4
20. 0
19.6
19.7
19.4
15. 2
16.9
12.7

5

4. 9
2. 2
8 .0

9.6
9.5
9.7
13.4
12. 3
14.6
15.3
15.9
14.4
15.2
17. 3
12. 1

_
_
0. 7
.2
1.4
5.0
4. 2
5.7
7. 3
6.4
8. 3
12. 1
12. 5
11.6
11. 1

11.7
10. 3

_
_
_
_
2. 5
1. 3
3.5
5.5
4.2
6.9
6.5
6. 3
6.9
7. 7
9. 1
5.7

_
_
_
_
_
0. 5
.1
.8

2. 5
2. 3

6

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_

(*>

0 .2

<*)
0. 9

1 .0

. i

_
.4

.9

2 .6

1 .8

1 .2

3. 7
3. 2
4,5
5 .0
5. 1
4.9

5
2. 3

5.4
3. 6

2 .8

8 .0

1.9

8.9
7. 3
11 . 1

1 .0

3. 1

2.4
0. 5
.5
.9
1 .6

1.4
1 .8

2.9
2. 6

3.2
5. 1
4.4
6. 2
8.7
8. 2
9 .4
1 0.0

10. 5
9. 1

Ta b le D > 4 . Occupation

of

w o rk e rs

in

selected

age

groups:

Te n u re

on cu rren t

job,

by

sex,

January

1968

(Percent distribution)
Total emplo y e d

M ajor o c c u p a tio n g r o u p ,
a g e , and s e x

N u m b er
(in th o u ­ P e r c e n t
sa n d s)

Period w h e n current job started

J u ly
1967Jan.
1968

Jan.
J a n .— J a n .— J a n .—
1963June
D ec.
D ec.
D ec.
1967
1966
1965
1964

Jan.
1958D ec.
1962

Jan.
1953D ec.
1957

Jan.
1948D ec.
1952

Jan.
1943D ec.
1947

Jan.
1938D ec.
1942

7 .8

3. 1

0 .5

J a n . P r io r
1933to
D ec.
Jan.
1937
1933

years
on
job

(l )

0 .2

4. 2

(l )
(*)

3 .9
3 .6
7 .4
10. 8

M EN
T o ta l, 25 to 44 y e a r s old
P r o f e s s i o n a l, t e c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d
w ork ersW age and s a la r y w o r k e r s
S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s
F a r m e r s and fa rm m a n a g e r s M a n a g e r s, o f f i c ia l s , and p r o p r ie t o r s ,
e x c e p t f a r m ____ ___ ______________— —
W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s
S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s _____ — ———
C l e r ic a l and k in d r e d w o r k e r s -------- -----S a le s w o r k e r s
— - —
C r a fts m e n , fo r e m e n , and k in d red
w ork ers- —
O p e r a tiv e s and k in d r e d w o r k e r s — —__
S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , in c lu d in g p r iv a te
h o u se h o ld
- F a r m la b o r e r s and f o r e m e n ________ ___
L a b o r e r s , e x c e p t fa r m and m in e - _____
T o ta l, 45 y e a r s o ld and o v e r ------P r o f e s s i o n a l, t e c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d
w o r k e r s ___________________ ______ ___ _
W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s ----------— —
S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s ———________ F a r m e r s and fa rm m a n a g e r s --------------M a n a g e r s, o f f i c ia l s , and p r o p r ie t o r s ,
e x c e p t fa r m —
W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s .________ __
S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s C le r ic a l and k in d r e d w o r k e r s ----------- —
S a le s w o r k e r s ____
C r a fts m e n , fo r e m e n , and k in d r e d
w o r k e r s ________________
........ ,
O p e r a tiv e s and k in d red w o r k e r s S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , in c lu d in g p r iv a te
h o u s e h o ld _____________________________
F a r m la b o r e r s and f o r e m e n -____——
L a b o r e r s , e x c e p t fa rm and m in e —__ —

2 0 .6 5 6

100. 0

14. 1

7 .6

11. 3

9 .1

1 2 .6

2 0 .6

1 3 .2

3 ,5 6 7
3, 309
258
500

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

1 3 .8
1 4 .4
5 .8
3 .2

7 .0
7 .2
4. 3
3 .6

1 3 .6
14. 3
3 .9
5 .4

9 .5
9 .8
5 .4
4 .0

1 2 .9
1 2 .7
15. 1
7 .4

2 2 .4
2 2 .0
28. 3
2 2 .6

13.
12.
24.
23.

1
3
0
0

5 .9
5 .7
8 .9
1 7 .6

1 .4
1 .2
3 .9
1 1 .2

0. 1
.2
1 .8

0. 2

0. 1
. 1
.4
_

2 ,9 0 6
2 ,2 6 0
646
1 ,4 4 0
1, 137

1 0 0 .0
iOO.O
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

9 .9
10. 1
9 .3
11. 1
1 5 .4

6 .8
7. 1
5 .6
7 .0
9 .9

1 1 .6
11. 3
12. 8
9 .6
1 1 .8

9 .5
9 .8
8 .4
9. 1
11. 1

13. 7
1 2 .9
1 6 .6
1 1 .9
1 1 .6

2 2 .9
2 3 .2
22. 0
2 1 .7
2 1 .9

13. 1
1 3 .5
1 1 .6
16. 3
1 1 .2

8 .0
7 .8
8. 5
7 .9
5 .2

3 .6
3 .4
4 .2
5. 1
1 .9

.7
.7
.6
. 3
. 1

. 1
. 1
_
_

.3
.2
.5
. 1
_

4 .7
4 .8
4 .7
5 .3
3 .3

4 ,4 4 6
4 ,2 7 5

100. 0
100. 0

1 3 .8
1 5 .6

7 .6
8. 1

1 0 .6
11. 0

8 .4
9 .4

1 1 .7
1 3 .8

1 9 .9
1 8 .7

1 3 .6
1 1 .7

9 .7
8 .0

4 .0
2 .9

.6
.4

_
(M

.2
.3

4 .6
3 .8

1 ,0 6 8
261
1 ,0 5 6

100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

15. 3
3 7 .2
23. 3

6 .9
1 0 .0
9 .4

1 1 .9
7 .7
1 1 .4

9 .5
8 .0
8. 3

1 3 .8
9 .2
1 2 .4

20. 1
1 3 .8
1 6 .6

1 4 .4
10. 0
10. 9

6 .0
1 .5
5 .2

1. 3
1 .9
1 .6

.7
.8
.5

-

. 1
.5

3 .9
1 .4
2 .7

1 8 ,6 4 6

1 0 0 .0

7. 5

3 .6

5 .4

5 .0

7. 5

1 4 .2

12. 3

1 2 .4

12. 1

8. 1

4 .9

6 .9

1 2 .7

2 ,0 4 8
1 ,6 7 4
374
1, 189

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0

6 .2
7 .0
2 .7
1 .4

2 .8
3 .2
1. 1
1 .8

6. 1
7 .2
1 .6
1 .6

4 .8
5 .5
1. 3
1 .3

7 .5
8 .6
2 .4
2 .7

1 4 .4
15. 8
8. 3
7 .6

1 1 .7
12. 3
9. 1
6 .7

1 2 .8
1 1 .2
19. 8
1 0 .4

13. 0
11. 3
2 0 .6
1 4 .9

9 .2
9. 1
9 .4
14. 8

4 .4
3 .9
6 .4
1 0 .4

7. 1
4 .8
1 7 .4
2 6 .4

1 3 .4
11. 1
20. 9
2 5 .4

3 ,3 5 1
2 , 184
1, 167
1, 168
950

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0

4 .5
4 .8
3 .9
5. 3
8 .6

3 .5
3 .7
3 .3
3 .0
4 .9

4 .2
5 .2
2 .4
7 .4
6. 0

.4 .8
4 .9
4. 5
5 .0
8. 1

7 .6
7. 1
8 .6
6 .7
8 .8

16. 5
1 5 .2
18. 9
13. 1
1 6 .2

13. 3
1 2 .9
14. 0
1 1 .4
13. 0

12. 3
12. 1
1 2 .8
14. 3
13. 3

13. 2
1 3 .2
1 3 .2
14. 5
8. 3

7 .4
8. 1
6 .2
9 .2
5. 0

5 .5
5. 9
5 .0
4. 5
2 .9

7. 1
7. 1
7 .2
5 .7
4 .8

13.
13.
13.
14.
9.

3 ,9 0 0
3 ,2 8 8

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

8 .0
7 .9

4 .2
2. 5

5. 3
5 .4

4 .3
5. 1

7. 8
7. 3

1 2 .8
1 3 .6

1 2 .4
1 4 .2

12. 3
1 4 .5

1 2 .7
1 2 .4

8 .6
8. 7

5. 3
4. 5

6. 3
3 .9

1 3 .0
1 2 .8

1 ,3 9 9
332
1 ,0 2 1

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

13. 1
25. 3
11. 3

5 .3
8 .4
5. 0

8. 1
4 .8
6 .6

7 .6
4. 5
6 .8

9 .0
1*2. 0
8. 1

1 7 .4
1 4 .8
1 5 .7

1 2 .8
7 .2
12. 3

9 .9
7. 5
1 0 .2

7. 5
3 .6
1 0 .6

3 .8
3. 3
6 .2

1 .9
3 .6
3 .4

3 .6
4 .8
4 .0

6 .7
4. 2
8 .8

1 0 .2 3 4

1 0 0 .0

2 3 .9

9 .6

1 4 .6

10. 2

1 2 .6

1 6 .6

7. 5

3. 1

1 .4

0 .3

n

0. 1

2. 1

1 ,7 1 5
1 ,6 5 8
57
24

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
(?)
(2 )

25. 1
2 5 .2
-

5 .9
5 .7
-

1 4 .7
14. 9

11. 5
1 1 .6

1 8 .6
19. 0

-

-

1 3 .9
14. 1
-

7. 2
6. 8
-

2 .4
2. 1
-

0 .7
.5
-

-

_
-

0. 1
. 1
-

2. 3
2. 3
<*)
(2 )

368
267
101
3 ,4 6 5
546

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0

14. 8
1 7 .8
6 .9
1 9 .4
30. 5

10. 5
8 .6
1 5 .7
10. 1
12. 0

13. 7
14. 9
1 0 .8
1 4 .2
1 5 .6

10. 2
1 0 .4
9 .8
10. 8
9 .8

14. 8
1 2 .6
2 0 .6
13. 0
1 1 .6

19. 1
1 9 .0
1 9 .6
18. 5
1 2 .2

9.
9.
8.
8.
3.

2
3
8
7
8

4 .9
5 .2
3 .9
3 .2
2. 2

1 .9
1. 1
3 .9
1 .7
1. 1

0. 5
.7
.4
.7

.
0. 2

.3
.4
.2
.2

3. 1
2 .8
3. 7
2. 5
1. 5

121
1 ,8 2 3
2 , 021
427

100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0

1 2 .4
2 2 .9
3 2 .7
3 4 .4

8. 3
9 .7
1 1 .4
9. 3

1 4 .0
16. 1
15. 0
8. 8

8. 3
8. 3
1 0 .4
1 3 .0

1 7 .4
11. 4
1 1 .6
11. 2

24. 0
1 6 .5
1 1 .6
1 3 .7

7 .4
9 .0
4. 1
4. 0

4. 1
4. 1
1 .8
2. 8

3. 3
1 .6
1. 0
1 .9

. 8
.2
.2
. 9

-

.2
. 1
-

3. 8
2. 1
1. 3
1 .7

1 ,5 9 4
108
43

100. 0
100. 0
(2 )

32. 3
16. 5
-

1 2 .0
3 .7
-

1 6 .6
2. 8
-

9 .7
4 .6
-

1 1 .7
10. 1
-

11. 1
2 2 .9
-

4. 2
20. 2
-

1. 5
16. 5
"

.7
1. 8
-

.9
-

-

. 1
-

1. 3
7. 0
< )
2

1 0 .5 2 8

100. 0

11. 8

5. 1

8. 8

6 .6

1 0 .4

19. 5

14. 3

9 .4

6. 1

3. 1

1 .6

3. 3

6 .6

1 ,4 7 8
1, 362
116
56

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
(2 )

1 0 .0
1 0 .6
3. 4

3 .2
3 .4
1 .7

6 .4
6 .6
4. 3

8. 1
8 .2
6. 8

11. 3
1 1 .7
7 .7

-

7. 3
7 .5
5. 1
-

3 .8
3 .6
6 .8

-

2 1 .4
21. 8
17. 1
-

1 5 .2
15. 0
17. 1

-

4 .4
4. 5
3 .4
-

-

2 .8
2 .7
4. 3
-

5 .9
4. 5
2 2 .2
-

9. 1
8 .8
1 4 .2
(2 )

730
470
2 60
2 ,8 2 6
858

100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0

6 .7
7. 8
4 .6
10. 0
1 3 .9

2 .9
3 .6
1. 5
4 .6
6. 1

6. 1
7 .6
3 .4
8. 3
1 0 .6

5 .4
6. 3
3 .8
7. 3
6. 0

11. 8
12. 3
11. 1
1 0 .9
1 2 .4

2 1 .8
1 9 .7
2 5 .6
1 9 .3
22. 0

1 5 .4
1 3 .7
18. 3
1 5 .7
1 1 .8

1 0 .5
9 .9
1 1 .4
9 .5
7 .2

8 .6
7. 8
9 .9
6 .6
3 .7

5. 3
4 .9
6. 1
3 .3
3 .4

1. 8
1 .9
1 .5
1 .2
1 .4

3 .8
4 .4
2 .7
3. 3
1 .5

8 .9
8. 0
1 0 .2
6 .9
5. 1

161
1 ,6 3 2
2 ,6 0 1
864

100.
100.
100.
100.

6 .2
9 .6
18. 0
2 1 .6

2. 5
4.7

8 .7
8. 5
11. 3
1 0 .6

5. 0
6. 8
8. 1
8 .5

7. 5
9 .7
11. 3
8. 3

2 3 .6
18. 9
18. 1
1 6 .6

1 2 .4
16. 1
1 1 .7
11. 3

1 8 .6
10. 7
6 .9
6 .8

6 .8
7 .9
3. 1
4 .6

1 .2
2 .6
1 .4
1 .4

3. 1
1. 5
.7
1 .4

4. 3
3 .2

7.7

2. 3

3 .8
3 .6

7 .9
2 .7

1 2 .9
3 .4

1 8 .8
15. 1

1 1 .9
1 1 .6

7. 0
1 1 .0

2 .4
1 2 .3

1 .5
15. 1

.4

6 .2

1. 1
8 .2

3 .9
1 6 .2

“

■

3
5
0
3
1

WOMEN
T o ta l, 25 to 44 y e a r s o l d ------ --- -P r o f e s s i o n a l, t e c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d
w orker s
, ...... _
- -----W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s
S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s
F a r m e r s and fa rm m a n a g e r s ---------------M a n a g e r s, o f f i c ia l s , and p r o p r ie t o r s ,
e x c e p t fa r m --------------W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s ———— — —
S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s --------------------C le r ic a l and k in d red w o r k e r s --------------S a le s w o r k e r s - — ------ - —
C r a fts m e n , fo r e m e n , and k in d red
w
o r k e r s --m-n-v—r—. __,_______
O p e r a tiv e s and k in d r e d w o r k e r s ----------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s ----------------------------------- —
P r iv a te h o u s e h o ld w o r k e r s — S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , e x c e p t p r iv a te
h o u s e h o ld ----------------------------------------F a r m la b o r e r s and f o r e m e n ----------------L a b o r e r s , e x c e p t fa r m and m in e .-------T o ta l, 45 y e a r s o ld and o v e r ----- P r o f e s s i o n a l, t e c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d
w o r k e r s . . . . . . _,.____ ... .. .. ..
W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s ----------------S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s --------------------F a r m e r s and fa rm m a n a g e r s — -------M a n a g e r s , o f f i c ia l s , and p r o p r ie t o r s ,
e x c e p t f a r m ------------— — --------W age and s a la r y w o r k e r s -------------- S e lf- e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s --------------------C l e r ic a l and k in d red w o r k e r s - ------------S a le s w o r k e r s ........ ........ .___
C r a fts m e n , fo r e m e n , and k in d r e d
w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------—
O p e r a tiv e s and k in d red w o r k e r s ----------S e r v ic e w o r k e r s ---------------— — _
P r iv a te h o u se h o ld w o r k e r s — _____ S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , e x c e p t p r iv a te
hous e ho id — — — — — — — — — — —
F a r m la b o r e r s and f o r e m e n ----------L a b o r e r s , e x c e p t fa rm and m i n e _____

0
0
0
0

-

7 .7
6 .8

-

-

-

-

-

l. 5

9 .4

-

737
145
41

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
(2 )

1 6 .2
6 .2
~

8. 2
3 .4

11. 7
4 .8

■

■

1 Less than 0. 05 percent.
2 Percent and m e d i a n not s h o w n w h e r e base is less than 75, 000.




-

42

"

“

■

"

“

(2 )

>1.

Median w eeklv ea rn in g s o f wage and s a la r y w orkers on fu l 1-tiir.e s c h e d u le s , bv a g e , sex and c o l o r , May 1971

Male
Age
j
35-44 y e a r s .....................
45-49 y e a r s .....................
50-54 y e a r s .....................
55 years and o v e r . . . .
55-59 y e a r s ..............
60-64 y e a r s ..............
60-61 y e a r s . . . .
62-64 y e a r s . . . .
65 ye a r s and o v e r . . . .

Earnings in
d o lla r s
Negro and
White
o th e r ra c es

...

i

. ..
...
...
...

|
j
1
:

164
172
162
162

...

|

$132
134
128
113
115
121
0)
(1)
(1)

185

127

i

Female

Earnings in
of
I index i ea rn in g s i
1
d o lla r s
j
35 -44=100
Negro and
! Negro and
White
White oth er r a ces
o th e r r a c es
100
102
97
86
87
92
(1)
(1)
(1)

100
98
96
87
91
86
86
86
67

Index o f ea rn in g s
35-44=100
Negro and
White o th e r r a ces
100
102
102
98
100
101
101
101
80

$96
87
78
71
72
(1)
(1)
0)
(1>

$105
107
107
103
105
106
106
106
84

i
1
1/




Median e a rn in g s not shown where b a se i s l e s s than 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

Table F - l . Median yea rs o f sc h o o l com pleted by th e c i v i l i a n la b o r fo r c e 18 y ears
and over, by se x and a g e , s e le c t e d d a t e s , 1952-70
Sex and d a te

18 to 24
yea rs

25 to 34
yea rs

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
y ears

1 2 .2
12 .3
1 2 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .5
12 .5
1 2 .5
12 .5
1 2 .6

1 2 .1
1 2 .2
1 2 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .5
12 .5
12.5
12.5
12.6
12 .6

1 1 .4
1 2 .0
1 2 .1
12.2
1 2 .2
1 2 ,3
12 .3
12 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4

1 0 .8
1 1 .6
1 2 .0
1 2 .0
1 2 .1
1 2 .1
1 2 .2
1 2 .3
1 2 .3

11 .5
1 2 .1
1 2 .1
1 2 .3
1 2 .3
1 2 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
12.5

1 2 .1
1 2 .2
12 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .5
12.5
1 2 .5
12 .5
1 2 .6
12 .6

11.2
1 1 .8
1 2 .1
1 2 .2
12 .2
1 2 .3
1 2 .3
12 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4

1 0 .4
ll.l
1 1 .6
1 1 .7
11 .9
1 2 .1
1 2 .2
1 2 .2
12.3

1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .5
12.5
1 2 .5
1 2 .6
1 2 .6
1 2 .6
1 2 .6
1 2 .6

1 2 .2
1 2 .3
1 2 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
1 2 .5
1 2 .5
1 2 .5
1 2 .5
12 .5

11 .9
12.1
1 2 .2
12.3
12.3
1 2 .3
1 2 .3
12.3
12 .3
1 2 .4
1 2 .4

11 .7
12 .1
1 2 .1
1 2 .2
12 .2
1 2 .2
1 2 .3
12.3
12 .3

55 to 64
y ea rs

65 y ears
and over

8 .9
9 .4
1 0 .0
1 0 .3
1 0 .4
1 0 .8
1 1 .1
1 1 .4
11 .8

8 .3
8 .5
8 .6
8 .8
8 .9
8 .9
9 .1
9 .0
9 .3
9 .3
9 .6

8 .8
9 .0
9 .3
9 .6
9 .7
1 0 .4
1 0 .6
1 0 .9
1 1 .2

8 .2
8 .4
8 .5
8 .7
8 .8
8 .8
8 .9
8 .9
9 .0
9 .0
9 .0

BOTH SEXES
O ctober 1952-------March 1957...............
March 1959...............
March 1962...............
March 1964----------March 1965 — ..........
March 1966—-------March 1967...............
March 1968...............
March 1969.............March 1970...............

8 .8
9 .5

M
ALE
O ctober 1952-------March 1957...............
March 1959...............
March 1962...............
March 1964...............
March 1965...............
March 1966...............
March 1967...............
March 1968— ..........
March 1969----------March 1970...............

8, 7
9,.0

FEM
ALE
O ctober 1952-------March 1957----------March 1959----------March 1962...............
March 1964----------March 1965— -----March 1966----------March 1967...............
March 1968...............
March 1969...............
March 1970— ..........

9. , 2
10.,8
1 0 .0
1 0 .7
1 1 .2
11 .5
1 1 .6
1 1 .6
1 2 .0
1 2 .1
_ ^

43

_ 1

8 .8
8 .8
8 .8
9 .0
10 .2
9 .8
1 0 .4
1 0 .1
1 0 .3
10 .2
10 .9

100
91
81
74
75
(1)
(1)
(1)
(D




T a b le F -2 .

L abor f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f the p o p u la tio n by, a g e , s e x , and y e a r s o f sch ool co m p leted , March 1959, 1965 and 1970

Years o f sc h o o l
c om pleted and se x

19'59

1965

35 to 44
y ea rs

45 to 54
yea rs

55 t o 64
years

65 yea rs
and over

35 t o 44
years

45 t o 54
years

1970

55 to 64
years

65 years
and over

35 t o 44
years

45 t o 54
ye a r s

55 t o 64
y ears

65 ye a r s
and over

BOTH SEXES
6 9 .5

7 1 .6

6 0 .8

2 1 .0

7 0 .4

7 2 .2

6 2 .1

1 8 .2

7 3 .3

7 3 .7

6 2 .4

17.5

E lem en ta ry :

1 t o 4 y e a r s 1 / --------5 t o 7 y e a r s --------------8 y e a r s -----------------------

7 0 .4
6 7 .2
6 9 .7

6 5 .5
6 5 .9
7 0 .0

5 3 .3
5 5 .3
6 2 .0

16 .3
1 9 .4
20 .9

6 2 .8
6 9 .5
7 2 .7

67.1
6 7 .6
7 L. 6

5 3 .5
5 4 .3
6 1 .2

1 2.5
1 5 .0
1 6 .4

6 4 .2
6 9 .0
7 3 .8

6 0 .0
6 4 .0
7 1 .2

4 6 .5
5 3 .9
6 0.1

10.7
14.5
1 6 .0

High sc h o o l :

1 t o 3 y e a r s --------------4 y e a r s -------------------- -

7 1 .4
6 5 .9

7 1 .9
7 1 .6

6 1 .0
6 1 .6

2 2 .3
23 .5

6 9 .9
6 7 .3

7 0 .9
7 1 .4

6 1 .2
6 4 .1

20.7
21.9

7 0 .8
7 1 .2

7 2 .3
7 3 .8

6 0 .7
6 6 .2

1 8 .4
1 9 .7

C o lle g e :

1 t o 3 y e a r s --------- 4 y e a r s ---- -------------5 y e a r s or more---------

7 0 .1
7 4 .3
9 0 .3

73 .1
8 3 .7
9 2 .2

6 3 .2
7 2 .6
8 4 .0

28 .5
3 0 .9
5 2 .6

6 7 .8
7 9 .2
9 2 .9

7 4 .0
8 0 .5
9 4 .0

6 4 .6
7C.5
8 7 .9

2 6 .2
2 9 .3
5 0 .5

7 6 .6
7 9 .2
9 1 .4

7 8 .2
8 2.1
9 2 .5

6 7 .5
7 1 .6
8 6 .9

2 1 .8
2 7 .8
4 7 .4

T o t a l-

M
ALE
9 7 .9

9 6 .0

8 6 .8

3 3 .9

9 7 .2

9 5 .5

85.1

28.1

9 7.1

9 4 .6

8 3 .4

2 7 .2

Elem entary:

1 t o 4 y e a r s 1J --------5 t o 7 y e a r s -------------8 y e a r s -----------------------

9 1 .9
9 6 .7
9 8 .6

8 8 .8
9 3 .0
9 5 .6

7 6 .7
8 2 .2
8 8 .9

2 6 .0
3 1 .6
3 4 .3

85.1
9 2 .8
9 5 .6

8 6 .0
8 3 .4
9 4 .8

74 .1
7 7 .9
8 5 .5

1 7.7
22.9
27.1

84.1
9 2 .2
9 6 .3

8 4 .4
8 5 .6
93.1

6 4 .8
7 5 .6
8 2 .7

16.5
23.8
25.1

High sc h o o l :

1 t o 3 y e a r s - - ----------4 y e a r s -----------------------

9 8 .3
9 8 .7

9 7 .4
9 7 .5

8 9 .6
9 0 .5

3 8 .3
3 9 .2

9 7 .2
9 8 .7

9 4 .9
9 7 .2

8 5 .3
9 0 .0

3 5 .5
35. J

9 6 .8
9 8 .2

9 4 .7
9 6 .3

8 4 .3
8 8 .8

2 9 .8
3 2 .5

C o lle g e :

1 t o 3 y e a r s ---- ------- 4 y e a r s ----------------------5 y e a r s or more— - —-

9 8 .1
9 7 .8
9S .8

9 7 .4
9 9 .0
9 9 .3

8 9 .5
9 3 .4
9 1 .2

4 9 .8
4 8 .8
5 9 .2

9 8 .4
9 9 .5
9 8 .9

9 8 .0
9 8 .2
9 9 .4

9 0 .6
9 3 .9
9 3 .9

4 4.1
4 1 .1
5 7 .5

9 8 .7
9 9 .5
9 7 .9

9 7 .5
9 7 .6
9 7 .3

8 7 .5
8 7 .5
9 2 .6

3 3 .3
3 8 .6
5 4 .9

T o ta l -

FEM
ALE
4 3 .3

4 8 .5

3 6 .7

1 0 .4

4 5 .7

5 0 .3

4 1 .0

1 0.5

5 1 .3

5 4 .4

4 3 .7

10.3

Elem entary:

1 t o 4 y e a r s 1 / --------5 t o 7 y e a r s -------------8 y e a r s -----------------------

3 7 .2
3 9 .2
4 0 .9

3 5 .0
4 0 .6
4 4 .5

2 8 .2
2 9 .3
3 4 .2

5 .7
8 .5
10 .6

3 2 .3
4 3 .4
4 7 .1

3 8 .7
4 2 .0
4 7 .4

2 6 .0
3 1 .4
37 .1

7 .5
8 .1
7 .9

3 5 .3
4 1 .0
4 5 .8

33.1
4 1 .2
48. 5

2 5 .0
3 2 .9
3 9 .4

5 .0
7 .4
8 .8

High sc h o o l :

1 t o 3 y e a r s -------------4 y e a r s - - - -----------------

4 5 .3
4 2 .9

4 6 .6
5 2 .7

3 5 .7
4 1 .4

1 2 .3
14.1

4 5 .8
4 6 .2

4 8 .1
5 2 .7

3 9 .6
4 6 .0

11.8
1 3.8

5 1.1
5 2 .7

5 2 .6
5 7 .8

3 9 .8
4 9 .4

1C.7
13.1

C o lle g e :

1 t o 3 y e a r s - - ----------4 y e a r s or m o r e ------4 y e a r s ------------- -----5 y e a r s or m ore-----

4 1 .4
53 .1
(2 )
(2 )

5 3 .2
6 9 .4
(2 )
(2 )

4 5 .7
5 7 .2
(2 )
(2 )

1 4 .0
17.1
(2 )
(2 )

3 9 .2
(2 )
4 9 .9
7 3 .7

5 1 .4
(2 )
3 9 .4
8 4 .3

4 6 .3
(2 )
63 .1
7 8 .1

14.7
(2 )
2 0.6
3 8 .7

5 2 .7
(2 )
4 9 .7
7 4 .4

5 7 .0
(2 )
6 0 .6
82.1 ,

5 0 .6
(2 )
5 7 .7
7 6 .9

1 5 .0
(2 )
1 7.6
3 5 .0

T o t a l-

lJ
2/

I n c lu d e s p erso n r e p o r tin g no sch ool y ea rs com pleted.
Not a v a i la b l e .

Table F-3. Educational attainment of the civilian labor force 25 years and over,
by age and color, March 1970
(Percent distribution)

Years of school completed
Age and color
Total

High school
Elementary '
4 years
(8 years
1 to 3
or less)
or more
years

College
1 to 3 4 years
years
or more

WHITE
25
35
45
55
65

to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

years............
years...... .
years............
years...... .
and over.........

100
100
100
100
100

78
15
19
32
45

14
17
18
17
15

44
40
40
30
19

15
12
11
10
8

19
16
12
11
13

100
100
100
100
100

14
28
41
61
71

28
25
23
17
13

38
30
24
13
11

11
9
7
3
2

11
8
6
7
3

NEGRO AND OTHER RACES
25
35
45
55
65

to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

NOTE:

Table F-4.

years............
years............
years....... .
years............
and over.... .

Individual items may not total 100 due to rounding.

Occupational distribution of employed persons 35 years and over;

Annual averages, 1970

(Percent distribution)

45 y ears and over
Major o c c u p a tio n group and se x

35 - 44
years

T o ta l

45 - 54
years

55 - 64
years

65 y ea rs
and over

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

P r o f e s s io n a l, t e c h n ic a l and kindred w o rk ers..........
Farmers and farm m anagers...................................................
Managers, o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p r ie t o r s ..........................
C le r ic a l and kindred w o rk ers............................................
S a le s w ork ers...............................................................................
Craftsm en, forem en and k in d r e d ........................................
O p eratives and kindred w o rk ers........................................
P r iv a te household w o rk ers...................................................
S e r v ic e w orkers, e x c lu d in g p r iv a te h o u s e h o ld s ...
Farm la b o r e r s and forem en...................................................
Nonfarm la b o r e r s ........................................................................

1 6 .8
2 .7
1 7 .4
6 .1
5 .0
2 2 .8
1 8 .3

1 1 .5
6 .0
1 8 .1
6 .5
5 .5
2 1 .6
1 6 .8
0 .1
6 .8
1 .5
5 .6

1 2 .8
3 .9
1 8 .5
6 .8
5 .1
2 3 .0
1 8 .2
—
5 .2
1 .0
5 .3

9 .9
6 .1
1 7 .6
6 .4
5 .4
2 2 .1
1 7 .2
0 .1
7 .5
1 .7
5 .9

1 0 .8
1 6 .3
1 7 .2
S. 8
7 .6
1 2 .6
8 .5
0 .4
1 1 .7
3 .3
5 .6

Fem ale, t o t a l
P r o f e s s io n a l, t e c h n ic a l and kindred w o rk ers..........
Farmers and farm m anagers...................................................
M anagers, o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p r ie t o r s ..........................
C le r ic a l and kindred w o rk ers............................................
S a le s w ork ers...............................................................................
Craftsm en, forem en and kindred w o rk ers.....................
O p eratives and kindred w o rk ers........................................
P r iv a te household w o rk ers...................................................
S e r v ic e w orkers, e x c lu d in g p r iv a te h o u s e h o ld s ...
Farm la b o r e r s and forem en...................................................
Nonfarm la b o r e r s ........................................................................

1 0 0 .0
1 5 .3
0 .1
4 .8
3 3 .4
6 .1
1 .3
1 7 .3

1 0 0 .0
1 3 .3
0 .6
6 .8
2 7 .8
8 .2
1 .4
1 5 .4
7 .0
1 7 .4
1 .8
0 .4

1 0 0 .0
1 2 .6
0 .3
6 .2
3 0 .9
7 .9
1 .5
1 6 .9
4 .6
1 7 .0
1 .8
0 .4

1 0 0 .0
1 4 .6
0 .6
7 .2
2 5 .3
8 .3
1 .3
1 4 .5

1 0 0 .0
1 2 .5
2 .2
8 .9
1 8 .3
9 .8
1 .2
9 .3
1 8 .5
1 7 .3
2 .0

M ale, t o t a l

NOTE:




—

4.7

1 .1
5 .2

3.3

1 6 .1
1 .8
0 .5

Individual items may not total 100 due to rounding.

45

7.7

1 8 .1
1 .9
0 .4

0.2

T able F-5.

Unemployment

rates, by age, sex, and years of school completed, March 1962,

Years of school
completed and sex

1965 and 1970

19>62
35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

1965

55 to 64
years

65 years
and over

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

1970
55 to 64
years

65 years
and over

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

55 to 64
years

65 years
and over

MALE
4.7

Total —
Elementary:

High school:

College:

1 to 4 y e ars 1/-----5 to 7 y e a r s ---- ----8 y e a r s --------------1 to 3 y e a r s ---------4 y e a r s - - ---- -—
1 to 3 y e a r s --------4 years or m o r e — ----

5.0

5.3

5.0

3.4

3.4

4.0

4.7

9.0
9.0
7.4

11.5
7.8
7.3

12.4

8.2

5.7

8.1

6.2

10.8

2.6
8.0

5.6

4.9
4.0

6.8
6.0

4.2

4.5

4.8
5.2

3.3
3.6

3.5
4.4

4.7
3.1

4.1
3.4

6.5

6.1

5.1
2.3

4.4

6.0

3.5

3.0
3.3
.9

2.5

3.1
2.5

3.9

1.0

-

2.6
1.2

6.6

6.1

2.5

3.2

7.3
3.7
2.7

2.4
3.4
3.5

2.8
2
.1
2.2

2.2

4.3
3.0

1.7
.4

1.6

5.5
2.4

2.0
2.8
.6

2.9

3.3

4.4

3.8

4.7
5.1

8.5
2.7
2.5

2.4
6.4
7 .4

6.3
5.2
4.5

5.0

3.8
4.5

3.9

4.7
3.4

3.8
1.4

3.5
1.5

1.5

2.9

1.4

3.7
'

6.4
3.7
4.7

4.1
2.5

3.5
1.9

4.2
1.5

2.7
.9

2.7

2.6

FEMALE
5.3

Total--Elementary:
☆ U. S. G O V E R N M E N T
P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1971 O - 484-786 (36)




Hig h s c h o o l :

College:

1/
2/

1 to 4 years 1/-----5 to 7 y e a r s --------8 y e a r s ---------------

4.4

3.4

2.7

4.4

3.6

9.9
5.0
8.7

7.2
8.7
4.8

7.4
4.3
2.9

(2)
2.5
3.7

9.9
10.3
5.8

12.4

5.9
3.6

4.4
4.3

2.3
2.5

5.3
3.6

5.3
3.1

-

(2)
(2)

2.7
1.5

8.0

1 to 3 y e a r s --------4 ye a r s - - - - - - - - - ----

4.3

1 to 3 y e a r s ---------4 years or more------

2.4
2.9

2.8
.4

Includes p ersons reporting no school completed.
Percent not shown where base is less than 100,000.

.3

6.0
3.0

.2
.8

2.8

2.1
.6
"

(2)

-

6.1

8.2

-

3.7
4. 0

5.5
3.6

3.4

2.0

1.5
2.7

.7

1.2
1.2

1.0




U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

T

H

I

R

D

C

L

A

S

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S TA TISTIC S
W A S H I N G T O N , D .C . 20212
P O S T A G E A N D F E E S PA ID
O F F I C I A L B U S IN E S S

P E N A L T Y F O R P R I V A T E U S E , $300




U .S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

V,

S

M

A

I