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EM PLOYM ENT OUTLOOK IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION AND REFININ Job Prospects Duties Training Earnings Working Conditions UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR M A U RICE J. TOBIN, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS E W A N C L A G U E , Commissioner In cooperation with VETERANS ADMINISTRATION O CCU PA TIO N A L O U T LO O K SERIES Bulletin No. 994 Cover picture shows a rotary-drilling derrick. Employment Outlook in PETR O LEU M AND P R O D U C T IO N R E F IN IN G Bulletin No. 994 UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F L A B O R Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner In cooperation with V E T ER A N S A D M IN ISTR A TIO N For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - Price 30 cents LETTER O F T R A N S M IT T A L U n it e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s , W a s h in g t o n , D . C ., September 1 , 1950. The S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r : I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the employment outlook in petroleum production and refining occupations. This is one of a series of occupational studies conducted in the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Branch for use in schools, colleges, offices of the Veterans Administration, local offices of the State employment services affiliated with the United States Employment Service, and other agencies engaged in vocational counseling of veterans, young people, and others interested in choosing a field of work. This study was financed largely by the Veterans Administration, and the report was originally published as Veterans Administration Pamphlet 7-4.12 for use in vocational rehabilitation and education activities. The study was conducted under the supervision of Caiman R. Winegarden; this report was prepared by Sol Swerdloff and Mr. Winegarden, with the assistance of Vincent H. Arkell. The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the generous assistance and cooperation received in connection with the study from officials of other government agencies and of trade organizations, labor unions, and individual companies in the petroleum industry. E w an C lag ue, Hon. II M a u r ic e J. T o b in , Secretary oj Labor. Commissioner. CONTENTS Employment outlook in petroleum production and refining: The petroleum industry and its products______________________________________________________________ Petroleum production___________________________________________________________________________ Exploration________________________________________________________________________________ Drilling, rig building, and other oil field servicing______________________________________________ Crude petroleum production_________________________________________________________________ Petroleum refining______________________________________________________________________________ General employment outlook______________________________________________ The demand for petroleum products______________________________________________________________ The supply of petroleum_________________________________________________________________________ Job prospects___________________________________________________________________________________ Petroleum production_______________________________________________________________________ Petroleum refining__________________________________________________________________________ Occupations in petroleum production_________________________________________________________________ Duties, training, and qualifications_______________________________________________________________ Working conditions_________________________ Earnings___________________________________________ Occupations in petroleum refining____________________________________________________________________ Duties, training, and qualifications_______________________________________________________________ Working conditions______________________________________________________________________________ Earnings_______________________________________________________________________________________ State and regional employment outlook: West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas)___________________________________________ Pacific Coast (California, Oregon, Washington)______1_________________________________________________ Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania)_______________________________ _______________ East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin)_______________________________________ West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota)_______ Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming)--------------------------East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee)_______________________________________ South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia)___________________________________________________________________________ New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont)_____________ Petroleum jobs abroad_______________________________________________________________________________ Appendixes: I—Major oil fields in the United States______________________________________________________________ II—Petroleum refineries in the United States: January 1, 1949__________________________________________ No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Page 1 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 9 11 11 12 13 13 18 18 19 20 20 21 23 26 28 30 32 33 35 37 38 39 40 42 CHARTS The Southwest and California have most of the oil field jobs____________________________________________ Texas leads in drilling activity, 1949__________________________________________________________________ The oil fields of the United States_____________________________________________________________________ Some principal uses of petroleum products_______________________________ i -----------------------------------------Nearly all the refinery workers are in fourteen States___________________________________________________ Trend of U. S. petroleum consumption is sharply upward----------------------------------------------------------------------Petroleum rises in importance as a source of the Nation’s energy_________________________________________ The number of oil-using units is growing_______________________________________________________________ Recent trends in consumption of petroleum products-------------------------------------------------------------------Production and reserves show long-run growth_________________________________ Oil field employment has been growing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wildcat drilling has increased greatly since the war-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Total drilling activity in two decades__________________________________________________________________ Refinery employment has nearly doubled in the last decade-------------------------------------------------------Petroleum refining capacity and output----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -Drilling is the most hazardous branch of the petroleum industry------------------------------------------------------------Earnings are high in the petroleum industry___________________________________________________________ West South Central is the leading petroleum region-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Recent growth of the petroleum industry in the West South Central region---------------------------------------------- 2 3 4 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 15 18 24 25 III E M P L O Y M E N T O U T L O O K IN P E T R O LE U M P R O D U C T IO N A N D R E FIN IN G The petroleum industry is of paramount im portance in our economy. Its products provide a third of the energy used in our industrial civi lization. From this industry comes the gasoline used by the millions of cars and trucks and great fleets of military and civilian aircraft; the fuel oil that heats several million homes and powers thou sands of ships and locomotives; the lubricants without which no modern machinery could be operated; the asphalt covering on our highways; and hundreds of other products ranging from insecticides to plastic materials. Petroleum production and refining, the basic branches of the industry and the ones covered in this report, employed over 400,000 wage and sal ary workers in early 1950, in a wide range of jobs in many different parts of the country. Earnings are relatively high and many of the jobs require considerable skill. It is expected that there will be many openings for new workers during the next 5 to 10 years. For these reasons, information on the employment outlook in the industry is of interest to persons considering the choice of a vocation. The Petroleum Industry and Its Products Petroleum is a world-wide industry in which scores of nations participate. The United States, however, leads the world in petroleum production and consumption. At the beginning of 1948, this country had 90 percent of the world’s oil wells and, in 1948, produced nearly three-fifths of the oil. The United States refined and consumed over 60 percent of all petroleum produced in 1948; its per capita consumption was 28 times the average for the rest of the world. Nearly a third of the world’s proved oil reserves were in the United States. If foreign holdings of American com panies are added, our reserves constituted nearly three-fifths of the total. (“Proved reserves” means the estimated amount of oil which has been discovered, still remains underground, and is re coverable by present methods of petroleum pro duction.) Crude oil is the raw material of the petroleum industry. The origin of oil is not fully under stood. The most probable explanation, however, is that it was formed by the slow distillation of plant and animal life. The shallow waters of primeval oceans and lakes were filled with various organisms which, as they died, dropped to the bot tom and were buried under sand and clay deposits. Over millions of years, the sand and clay were formed into thick layers of rock. Under the re sulting pressure and higher temperatures, the plant and animal material underwent chemical change, eventually becoming oil or gas. In the course of geologic change, the rock layers were tilted, folded, or broken up, creating underground collecting places, or “traps,” for the oil and gas. This is what formed the “pools” of oil. The func tion of the petroleum industry is to find these un derground pools, to bring the oil to the surface, to turn the crude petroleum into useful products, and to distribute and market these products. To provide the huge quantities of petroleum products needed in our economy (by the end of 1949, 39 billion barrels of petroleum had been pro duced in the United States since the oil industry was started in 1859) a large and complex industry with many specialized branches has been devel oped. Most of the thousands of companies in the oil business are engaged in a single specialized as pect, such as exploring, drilling wells, producing or transporting oil, operating refineries, or oper ating filling stations. The bulk of the oil business, 1 however, is done by a limited number of large firms engaged in all branches, from production through marketing. These “integrated” firms provide a large share of the jobs in the industry. Production, refining, transportation, and mar keting constitute the main branches of the petro leum industry. This report deals exclusively with production and refining. It does not cover trans portation or marketing. Production of natural gas, often carried on in conjunction with petro leum production, is not included in the report. However, some workers, such as drilling crews, are employed in both petroleum and natural gas oper ations. Petroleum Production In the fall of 1949, w7ell over 200,000 wage and salary workers were employed in petroleum pro duction. There were about 13,000 separate com panies engaged in various oil field activities. Em ployment is concentrated in certain States, although occurring to some extent in a number of other States. As chart 1 indicates, Texas is far and away the leading State in the number of oil field jobs, followed by Oklahoma, California, Louisiana, Kansas, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Wyoming, in that order. An additional 10 States 2 each provided 1,000 or more jobs in 1948. Petroleum production includes three broad kinds of work: exploration, drilling and other oil field servicing, and crude production (well oper ation and maintenance). Exploration Since oil is difficult to find—only rarely are there surface indications of its presence under ground—a sizable business has grown up in the ap plication of scientific methods to the search for oil. This work is done mostly by the exploration departments of major oil companies; a number of independent firms are also engaged in exploration, and work under contract for companies or indi viduals seeking oil. The various exploration methods can neither show the precise location of oil nor indicate with certainty whether or not petroleum is present at a particular place. They can only locate geologic formations “favorable” to oil accumulation. The old adage, “oil is where you find it,” still holds, and the way to find it is to drill a hole in the ground down to the oil level. D rilling, Rig Building, and Other O il Field Servicing More than 39,000 wells were drilled in the United States in 1949. Oil producing companies do some drilling, but most is done by independent firms working under contract. Of the wells drilled in 1949, 19 percent were “wildcats”, that is, they were drilled in places where oil had not previously been found. The remainder were “development” wells, drilled in connection with the development and extension of existing fields. Chart 2 shows the geographical distribution of drilling activity in 1949. Texas was by far the most important Chart 2 TEXAS NUMBER OF W E L L S LEAD S IN DRILLING ACTIVITY/ 1949 D R IL L E D FOOTAGE THOUSANDS I4 I2 IO 8 6 D R IL L E D MILLIONS 4 2 0 0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 Texas Oklahoma Kansas Illinois California Louisiana Pennsylvania Indiana Ohio Kentucky Michigan New York Wyoming West Virginia New Mexico M ississippi Arkansas Montana U N ITE D STATES DE P A R TM E N T OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S Source: O IL AN D GAS J O U R N A L 3 Chart 3 THE O IL FIELDS OF THE State, both in number of wells and total footage drilled. Wells were drilled in 25 other States, but mainly in Oklahoma, Kansas, Illinois, California, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. Before a well can be drilled, a derrick must be built on the spot where the drilling is to be done (unless a portable rig is used) and the drilling rig put in place. A number of independent contract ing companies specialize in rig and derrick build ing, repairing, and dismantling. In addition to rig building and drilling, a num ber of other necessary services are performed in connection with oil production. These services include hauling supplies, cementing wells, chemi cal treatment in cleaning of wells, and other special UNITED STATES, 1949 operations. Much of this is handled by inde pendent contractors. Crude Petroleum Production Once oil is found, the next job is to bring it out of the ground. More than half of the oil field workers are engaged in operating and maintain ing the Nation’s 445,000 producing wells. Thou sands of companies operate oil wells, and range in size from some of the largest concerns in the world to small firms with only a single well. There are over 4,000 oil fields in the United States, but 130 major fields (listed in Appendix I) accounted for half of the Nation’s output in 1948. Location of oil fields is outlined in chart 3. Refining Crude oil—petroleum as it comes from the ground—has very few uses. The process of turn ing crude oil into hundreds of useful products is 4 known as refining. Chart 4 illustrates the main uses of refined products. There were about 375 refineries in the United States, employing about General view of a refinery. 889849°—i 5 200,000 wage and salary workers at the beginning of 1950.1 Refineries range in size from small plants, with less than 50 employees, to the rela tively few large ones, each having several thou sand workers on its payroll. The 16 largest refineries accounted for over a third of total ca pacity in 1948. Geographic distribution of refinery employment in 1948 is shown in chart 5. The location of re fineries is determined by two factors: proximity to markets or nearness to the supply of crude pe troleum, i. e., near oil fields, at the terminals of oil pipelines, or on deep water ports where tankers can dock. Refineries, therefore, tend to be con centrated in the great oil-producing or oil consuming areas. Texas led in refinery jobs (with a fourth of the United States total) followed by California and Pennsylvania. Eleven other States, of which Indiana, Louisiana, and New Jer sey, were the most important, each accounted for 1 percent or more of the Nation’s refinery employment. 1 This figure includes employment in central administrative offices of integrated oil companies, even when these offices are located away from refineries. General Employment Outlook Many factors affect the long-range outlook for employment in the petroleum industry. Some of them are reasonably predictable, such as the gen erally rising trend in demand for petroleum prod ucts. Others are fundamentally uncertain. No one can say, for example, exactly how much oil re mains underground, where it is, or how long it will be before it is discovered. Another imponder able, in the long run, is the rate at which alternate sources of energy may be developed. (How rapidly may atomic energy be adapted to peace time uses?) The future is uncertain in another respect. The petroleum industry is world-wide and its products are not only essential in the normal operation of our industrial society but also have critical military importance. Unpre dictable military and diplomatic factors, therefore, may greatly affect the outlook. Nevertheless, observable trends can be used in evaluating future job opportunities, subject to the qualifications which we have noted. The Demand for Petroleum Products The long-range trend in demand for petroleum products has been sharply upward. Chart 6 shows the steeply rising demand for these products in the United States. Total domestic consumption in 1949 was nearly six times the 1919 level. It is also apparent from the chart that per capita con sumption has nearly kept pace with the growth in 6 total consumption, indicating that population growth, although a factor in the rising demand, has been less important than the intensified use of petroleum in our economy. There has been a great rise in the relative im portance of petroleum as a source of energy. This is illustrated in chart 7, which shows the Chart 5 N EARLY A U . THE REFINERY W ORKERS ARE IN FOURTEEN STATES L e s s than l % 1% - 4 . 9 % 5 % - 9.9 % 10 % ~ 19 . 9 % O ver 2 0 % sources of fuel energy in the United States over the last five decades. At the turn of the century, crude oil accounted for only about 5 percent of energy produced; by 1948, the percentage had risen to nearly 35. Many factors have contributed to the growth of the petroleum industry. Probably the most important single element has been the rapid in crease in the number of motor vehicles. In 1900, for example, about 4,000 automobiles were regis tered in the United States; in 1949, the total was more than 43 million cars and trucks. Residual fuel oil has become important as a source of energy for industrial heating and power generation, as well as for fueling ships and locomotives. Sev eral million homes and other buildings are heated by distillate oils, and thousands of Diesel units use petroleum fuels. About three million petroleumoperated tractors are in use on the Nation’s farms. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Thousands of airplanes consume growing quan tities of aviation gasoline. Large amounts of asphalt are used in road construction and main tenance. In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in the importance of liquefied petroleum gases as fuel for homes and industry. The de velopment of petro-chemistry has created a multi tude of new uses for petroleum. It is now an in gredient in many cosmetic, insecticides, medicines, paints, and plastics. Chart 8 shows the trend in the number of certain types of major petroleum consuming units. The rise in demand for petroleum products has been exceedingly sharp in recent years. Domestic consumption in 1948 was about 74 percent above the 1939 level. During the war, demand reached unprecedented heights; vast quantities of petro leum products (especially aviation gasoline) were required by the Armed Forces and by war indus7 Chart 6 TREND OF U.S. PETROLEUM CONSUMPTION IS SHARPLY UPWARD 1919 1925 1930 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 1935 1940 1945 1950 kinds of petroleum products differently. The big gest increases are likely in gasoline, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas. Demand for kero sene will increase to a lesser extent. Little rise in requirements for lubricants is likely. A slight decline in the demand for residual fuel oil is pos sible. Kecent trends in domestic demand for petroleum products are shown in chart 9. The effects of several of the general factors in the demand for petroleum are difficult to gage. One of these is the price of petroleum relative to that of other fuels—principally coal and natu ral gas. Changes in this relationship cannot be anticipated precisely. It can be safely said, how ever, that small changes in the relative prices are unlikely to affect demand significantly in most major uses. It is necessary also to consider pos sible technological developments that may make oil-consuming units more efficient, e. g., the high compression automotive engine. Improved meth ods of using other fuels, such as coal, may also affect demand for petroleum over the long run. In general, these developments are unlikely to have any marked effect on petroleum requirements SO U RC E: U.S. BUREAU OF MINES; U.S. BUREAU OF CENSUS Chart 7 tries. Following the war, a further sharp in crease in demand occurred. This unexpected de velopment placed great strain on petroleum refining and transportation facilities, so that in 1946 and 1947 there were local temporary short ages of fuel oil and gasoline (particularly the former). In 1948 and 1949, however, petroleum supplies were ample. What will be the future trend in demand ? All indications point to a continued and fairly rapid rise during the next 5 or 10 years. Most of the factors responsible for past growth will continue to operate—rising number of motor vehicles, growth of aviation, increased use of oil in heating, wider application of the Diesel engine, greater use of petroleum byproducts and, finally, a con tinued growth of United States population and industry. On the other hand, exports of petroleum may continue the recent decline, partly because in creased refinery capacity in Europe, which utilizes crude petroleum from the Middle East, has reduced demand for United States oil. The expected rise in demand will affect various 8 PETROLEUM RISES IN IMPORTANCE AS A 1899 1910 1920 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 1930 1940 SOURCE 1950 S o u r c t • U .S . DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR . BUREAU OF MINES during the next decade. Finally account should be taken of the possible impact of the development of atomic energy. At the present time, it seems THE 1935 '36 NUMBER OF OIL - USING UNITS IS GROW ING '37 '38 '39 '40 '41 '42 '43 *44 '45 '46 '47 1948 T H O U SAN D S 4,000 most unlikely that atomic energy will compete seriously with oil as a fuel in any important field of consumption for a good many years. 1 9 3 3 '3 4 '35 '36 '37 *38 '39 '40 ’41 '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 *471948 NUMBER r~ 12,000 TRACTO RS D IE S E L L O C O M O T IV E U N IT S 3,000 8,000 2,000 - 4,000 1934 '35 '36 '37 '38 '39 ‘4 0 ’41 '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 '47 1948 - 1939 '40 '41 '42 '43 '44 '45 *46 '47 |948 U N IT E O S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R BUR EAU OF L A B O R S T A T I S T I C S The Supply of Petroleum Will there be enough oil to meet the expected demand? All indications are that the supply is adequate for a number of years to come. Chart 10 shows trends in petroleum production and proved reserves since 1903. The trend in reserves is clearly upward, and there have been relatively few years in which reserves were not greater than those of the preceding year. However, in recent years reserves have been rising at a diminishing rate, and the gap between reserves and produc tion has been narrowed somewhat. At the end of 1948, estimated proved reserves in the United States were over 23 billion barrels (crude petro leum) . In addition, reserves of natural gas liquids totaled about 3.5 billion barrels. It is estimated that another 2 to 5 billion barrels of oil are recoverable by the application of secondary recovery techniques in the older fields.2 It should be noted, however, that proved reserves do not represent the total supply of oil. As indicated previously, “proved reserves” refers to the esti mated amount of oil which has been discovered, which remains underground, and which is recov erable by present methods of production. If to the proved reserves were added the oil believed to 2 “Secondary recovery” refers to a variety of methods for in creasing the proportion of oil which can be obtained from a par ticular pool. 9 be present, but not yet discovered, upwards of 60 billion barrels of “ultimate reserves” remain, according to one estimate. Since the petroleum industry is world-wide in its scope, it is necessary also to take into account the estimates of oil supply abroad. Crude re serves in the Western Hemisphere outside of the United States are estimated at 11 billion barrels, most of it in Venezuela. In the Eastern Hemi sphere, proved reserves amount to 37 billion bar rels, located mainly in the Middle East. Proved reserves of the entire world were estimated at 70 billion barrels at the beginning of 1948. There fore, if the United States has access to the world’s Sources of petroleum, supply should be adequate to meet demand for many years. On the other hand, possible international developments might force the United States to depend almost entirely on domestic supplies. Although our domestic proved reserves have been rising, it has been at a declining rate and oil is getting harder to find. We formerly exported more oil than we received from abroad. In 1948 and 1949, however, this situation was changed and our imports exceeded our exports. 10 Our oil supplies are being stretched by more ef fective conservation methods. In the early days of the oil industry, there was considerable wastage through the uncontrolled “flush” production of wells. But in recent years the rate at which oil is withdrawn from the ground has been controlled by State action or by voluntary agreements of petroleum producers, thereby increasing the ulti mate amount of oil recoverable from each pool. Moreover, this control of the rate of output, or “prorationing”, has prevented temporary over production of petroleum and consequent waste. Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the possibility of producing large quan tities of synthetic petroleum. The main sources of synthetic petroleum in the United States are oil-bearing shale, natural gas, and coal. Although methods have been developed to obtain oil from each of these three materials, the methods have not yet become commercially feasible. However, if an oil scarcity situation approaches or if national defense considerations require, the synthetic pe troleum industry is likely to be developed on a large scale. Geologists believe that oil-bearing shale contains billions of barrels of petroleum. The coal supplies of this country are virtually in exhaustible and an almost endless amount of oil could be forthcoming if large-scale synthesizing of coal into petroleum were to be undertaken. In conclusion, it appears that although oil may eventually become scarce in the United States, its supply is adequate to permit a high and rising level of employment in the petroleum industry for a number of years. Job Prospects It is expected that there will be a substantial number of jobs for new workers in petroleum production and refining during the next 5 to 10 years. Petroleum Production Chart 11 shows the recent trend of employment in the Nation’s oil fields. In 1949, the employ ment level was considerably above prewar. Over the next 5 to 10 years, the number of jobs is ex pected to increase gradually. Exploration activity in 1948 and 1949 was at the highest level in history. Chart 12, showing the number of wildcat wells drilled each year since 1935, provides a general index of the rate of exploration. Several factors entered into the record rate. One was the relatively high price of crude petroleum, which doubled between 1946 and 1948. Another factor was the strong demand for petroleum in the last few years. Finally, a back log in exploration activity resulted from the wartime restrictions on exploratory work. Expec tations are that the present level of employment in exploration will be maintained during the next 5 to 10 years, both because of the rising demand for oil and the growing difficulty in finding new fields. Employment in drilling and related activities also reached a peak in 1948 and 1949. Chart 13 shows the trend in total number of wells drilled and footage drilled in recent years. Total foot age has risen much more sharply than the number of wells drilled, because it has become necessary to drill deeper to find oil. The high price of 11 Chart 13 TOTAL DRILLING ACTIVITY IN TWO DECADES NUMBER OF WELLS DRILLED ( in thousands) FOOTAGE D R I L L E D (in millions) as laborers, roustabouts, or helpers. In addition, a large number of openings are anticipated for petroleum engineers, geologists, geophysicists, sur veyors, draftsmen, and other technical workers. However, during the next few years, competition may be keen for openings in some of these occupa tions owing to the large number of persons com pleting training. This competition will be espe cially keen for those seeking professional jobs with only a minimum of preparation such as a bache lor’s degree. Although many uncertainties cloud the employ ment outlook beyond the next decade, it is prob ably safe to say that those who do obtain jobs in petroleum production during the next 5 to 10 years will probably continue to hold them over a much longer period. Job opportunities vary widely among the dif ferent regions of the United States. Information concerning these regional differences is given in the second part of this study. Petroleum Refining petroleum, the strong demand for petroleum prod ucts, and the backlog of drilling built up during the war years are factors behind these high levels. Continued demand for petroleum and the trend toward deeper drilling are expected to keep such employment at or near the peak levels during the next 5 to 10 years. More than 2 billion barrels of crude—an alltime high—were produced in U. S. oil fields in 1948. Because of rising demand, production dur ing the next decade will reach an even higher level. The upward trend in number of producing wells and fields is expected to continue. This will mean more jobs in well operation and maintenance. The gradual rise in employment will create op portunities for new workers in petroleum produc tion. A much larger number of jobs, however, will result from replacement needs. In a field of em ployment as large as this one, annual replacement needs are very substantial. The number of work ers who die or retire each year may be about 4 thousand, and additional thousands will transfer into other lines of work. Various kinds of workers will be needed in oil' production. Most of the new workers will start 12 Refinery employment in 1948-49 was the high est ever attained in the industry. Much of the increase has occurred in the last several years, as Chart 14 REFINERY EMPLOYMENT HAS NEARLY DOUBLED IN THE LAST DECADE THOUSANDS U N IT E D S TATE S D E P A R TM E N T OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS PE TRO LE UM R E F IN IN 6 IN D U S TR Y chart 14 indicates. However, the long-range trend has also been upward. Between 1909 and 1939, refinery employment rose 500 percent; this was one of the fastest rates of growth shown by any industry. Chart 15 illustrates the growth of refining ca pacity and activity since 1918. In recent years, both capacity and output have risen very greatly and, at the same time, the gap between the two has been narrowed. The outlook for the next 5 to 10 years is for continued advance in refinery output but at a slower rate than in many past periods. Reasons for this expected growth have been indicated in the preceding discussion of the future demand for petroleum products. To achieve any substantial increases in output, considerable expansion of re fining capacity will be needed. In 1948-49, work was begun on the construction of new refineries and additions to existing ones; greater capacity is planned for the near future. The rise in output and capacity will markedly increase the number of refinery jobs. Even in a general business depression, with out put of petroleum products falling far below the expected levels, refinery employment should not decline greatly. Such employment is more closely related to changes in capacity than to variations in output. A refinery may be operated at widely varying rates without greatly affecting the total number of workers needed. A large share of re finery employment is in maintenance departments, which have nearly as much work to do when the refinery is operating at 70 percent of capacity as at 90 percent. The number of administrative, tech nical, and clerical employees is also fairly stable, regardless of the rate of production. Finally, processing jobs involve mainly the tending of types of equipment which require a relatively fixed number of workers. In addition to the many job opportunities re sulting from the expected expansion in refining, replacement needs (resulting from death, retire ment, and transfers into other industries) will be great, Most new plant workers will start as labor ers, since the usual practice in refineries is to fill the more skilled jobs by promoting from within. There will be many opportunities in technical jobs, especially for chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and laboratory technicians. Accountants, bookkeepers, stenographers, typists, and various kinds of clerical workers will also be needed. Refinery employment is expected to grow much more rapidly in some regions than in others. These regional trends are discussed in this study beginning on page 23. Occupations in Petroleum Production Petroleum production includes three broad kinds of work—exploration, drilling, and well op eration and maintenance. 889843°—50 -3 Duties, Training, and Qualifications Exploration has to do with the finding of under ground geologic structures likely to contain oil. 13 Two main methods are used—geological and geo physical. These methods are often combined in the search for oil. The results of a special survey made by a com mittee of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists indicates that at the beginning of 1950 an estimated 10,000 geologists and geophysicists were working in petroleum exploration and ex ploitation in the United States. Of these, ap proximately 7,700 were professional geologists and geophysicists (graduates or with 4 or more years of college training). The remaining 2,400 were technicians or subprofessional employees with less than 4 years of college training. There are an estimated 6,000 petroleum geolo gists in the United States. They are on the stalls of oil companies, work for independent explora tion firms, or operate as independent consultants. Their main function is to recommend where to drill for oil. However, they also advise manage ment on methods of drilling and oil field develop ment, make appraisals of properties for leasing, and estimate oil reserves. Four or 5 years of col lege training in geology are needed to get a job as a beginning petroleum geologist. Some geologists are in central or district offices of oil companies or exploration firms. Most of Field geologist taking reading with a compass. The main functions of the petroleum geologist is to recommend where to drill for oil. 14 them, however, spend a great deal of their time making field surveys. Geological parties, headed by petroleum geologists, study and map surface and subsurface geologic structures. In addition, the parties may include collegetrained paleontologists and chemists. Paleontol ogists study fossils—the remains of organic life in rocks—in order to determine the geologic age of the rocks. Chemists conduct analyses of rock samples. Plane-table operators. draftsmen, and rodmen assist in surveying and mapping opera tions. Another science used in exploration is geophys ics—the application of the principles of physics to the study of the subsurface structure of the earth. Seismic prospecting is by far the most exten sively used of geophysical exploration methods. The seismograph (originally devised to record earthquakes) measures and records the rate of transmission of sound waves through the earth. In oil prospecting, a dynamite blast is set off. sending energy waves down into the earth. As these waves strike rock formations, they are re flected back to sensitive detecting instruments. The instrument readings are recorded on film and interpreted by geophysicists, who can thus deter mine the nature of underground formations. A seismograph crew is composed of from 10 to 18 persons, working under the supervision of a party chief, who is usually a college-trained geophysi cist. Computers, who usually have had college training in geophysics, mathematics, or engineer ing, prepare maps from the seismic data. Ob servers operate and maintain the seismic equip ment ; they generally have a degree in electrical engineering. Drillers and their helpers operate portable drilling rigs used to make holes into which explosive charges are placed. Shooters are in charge of the placing and detonation of explo sive charges. Gravity prospecting, another method of finding oil traps, involves use of the gravity meter. This instrument is an extremely sensitive scale that measures the vertical pull of gravity with minute accuracy. Heavy rocks near the surface pull harder than light ones or than heavy rock at greater depth. The gravity meter, by detecting these variations, helps disclose the possible pres- Rig builders erect and dismantle the giant steel derricks. ence of oil-bearing structures. Workers em ployed in gravity prospecting include operators of gravity measuring instruments, draftsmen, com puters, party chiefs, and surveying crews. Another method of exploring underground rock is by electricity. A special electric probe is lowered into a well. A current is passed through the rock layers and the rock's resistance to the current is measured. Different kinds of rock have varying resistance to electricity. Resistance is affected also by the oil, gas, or water content of the rock. An electrical prospecting party usually has four to eight members including the party chief, surveyor, operators of electrical measuring instru ments, and cablemen. The land man (or lease man) has essential func tions in exploration and oil-field development. His job is to make the necessary legal and financial arrangements with the owners of prospective oil land in which his company is interested. Another important job in oil exploration is that of the scout. He keeps his company informed on all exploration, leasing, drilling, and production activity in his area. Drilling. In spite of all the exploration methods that have been developed, no device will actually find petroleum. Only by drilling can the presence of oil be proved. There are two methods of drilling a well: cable tool drilling and rotary drilling. Cable tool drilling was the original method, but it has been replaced to a great extent by rotary drilling. At present, the cable tool method is mainly employed in drilling shallow wells in hard rock formations. Most of the cable tool drilling is done in Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia. In cable tool drilling, a hole is pounded through the rocks by raising and dropping (over and over again) a heavy, sharp ened bit attached to the end of a cable. The usual cable-tool drilling crew consists of the driller and the tool dresser. The cable-tool driller is in charge of all operations during his tour of duty and maintains a detailed record of drilling activity. One of his main functions is to control the force with which the bit strikes the bot tom of the well. He also supervises and helps in the setting up of the machinery and derrick. The cable-tool dresser assists the driller and main tains the equipment. DRILLING IS THE MOST HAZARDOUS BRANCH OF THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY Average Number of Disabling Work In ju rie s Per M illio n Employee-Hours Worked in 1948 15 Almost all the deeper wells are drilled by the rotary method. Rotary drilling bores a hole into the ground as a carpenter bores a hole with a brace and bit into a board. The drilling bit is a steel tool having a cutting surface at its lower end. The bit is attached to a string of jointed hollow pipe held in place by a round table which is rotated by a steam, Diesel, or gasoline engine. As the bit goes down, the drill stem is lengthened by the addition of more pipe. A stream of mud is continuously pumped through the pipe in order to cool the drilling bit and to plaster the walls of the hole to prevent cave-ins. A typical rotary drilling crew consists of a ro tary driller and four or five helpers. To operate one rig the customary 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, about 20 workers are required. The rotary driller is in charge of the work of the crew dur ing his tour of duty and operates the drilling ma chinery. His duties include controlling drilling speed and pressure, and keeping a record of opera tions. He must be ready to meet a variety of emergencies, such as breakdown of equipment or encountering unusual geological formations. His helpers include a derrickman, a fireman (or engineman), and two or three rotary floormen. The derrickman is second in charge on the drilling rig. When pipe is being removed and replaced, the derrickman handles the upper end of the pipe, working on a small platform high on the rig ; the rotary floormen handle the lower end, racking and unracking pipe sections and connecting and dis connecting pipe joints. The derrickman also con trols the consistency and circulation of the drilling mud. The fireman or engineman operates the engine which provides power for drilling. Rotary floormen preparing to run drill pipe into the well. 16 \ rotary driller is in charge of the drilling crew. Part of his job is to operate the drilling machinery, controlling drilling speed and pressure. Another important oil field worker is the tool pusher. He supervises the operations of a group of drilling rigs, and has the responsibility of sup plying the drilling crews with needed materials and equipment. Roustabouts are sometimes em ployed in drilling operations to do odd jobs around the drilling rigs. Among other workers con nected with drilling operations are the rig builders, who erect and dismantle the giant steel derricks. Crude oil production. Production begins once the well is drilled and oil is found. Many dif ferent kinds of workers are employed in a pro ducing field. Switchers work in fields where oil flows under natural gas pressure and does not re quire pumping. They open and close valves to regulate the flow of oil from well to tanks, be tween tanks, or into pipelines. Pumpers operate and maintain power units, pumps, com pressors, and other equipment used in producing an artificial flow of oil from the wells. This is the largest occupation in the oil fields. Generally, a pumper operates a group of wells. Gagers meas ure and record the contents of the field tanks and take samples of the oil. In many fields, the jobs of switchers, gagers, and pumpers are combined in various ways. Treaters test oil from wells for sediment and water content and use chemical or electrical equipment to treat oil in the storage tanks. (This occupation may also be combined with pumper or gager.) Roustabouts perform the various duties of field and well maintenance; these require relatively little skill but often in volve heavy, hazardous work. A number of workers are engaged in various specialized maintenance operations in the oil fields. Welders, carpenters, electricians, machinists, and blacksmiths are employed to repair and install equipment. IFell-pulling crews use mechanical winches to remove the pumping rods and steel casing from wells; this is clone either to clean and repair pumping equipment or to salvage the casing when wells are abandoned. Petroleum Engineers. Over-all planning and supervision of drilling and production operations are usually the responsibility of the petroleum en gineer. He helps to select drilling sites and di rects rig builders and other workers in erection of the derrick and installation of the drilling machin ery. He advises drilling personnel on technical matters and may supervise the completion of wells. A yager measuring the contents of storage tanks out in the oil fields. 17 Pumper-switcher opening and closing valves to regulate the flow of oil from the wells. One of his principal functions is to prevent waste; he may determine oil flow rates and pumping methods. The usual requirement for this job is graduation from a 4-year college course. Some petroleum engineers are trained in specialized pe troleum engineering courses in colleges and uni versities. Others have degrees in chemical, min ing, or mechanical engineering or nonengineering degrees in the physical sciences, such as geology. W orking Conditions Most oil field work is done outdoors and the workers are thus exposed to extremes in weather. Fields may be near cities; however, they are often far from sizable communities and are sometimes in swamps or deserts. A few drilling crews actu ally work and live on specially constructed plat forms miles off-shore in the Gulf of Mexico. Drill ing employees may expect to remain in one place a few years at most; their work in a particular field may be completed in less than a year. Explora tion personnel move around even more frequently. Well operation and maintenance workers, how ever, may stay in the same locality for years. Drilling employees who wish to settle in one place sometimes transfer to lower-paying production jobs. Accident data indicate that exploration and crude production are not particularly dangerous; they have a lower accident frequency rate, for ex ample, than the average for manufacturing indus 18 try generally. Drilling, on the other hand, is much more hazardous. Chart 16 shows accident frequency rates in various branches of the indus try. Most oil field workers are not union members. Some of the fields have been organized, however, by the Oil Workers International Union (CIO) and by various independent unions. Except for scientists, engineers, and other tech nical employees, oil field workers generally are hired as laborers, roustabouts, or helpers, and ad vance to more skilled jobs as openings occur. In rotary drilling, for example, a new crew member is hired as a fireman or floorman. A ffoorman can advance to derrickman, and then to driller. It takes several years to attain the status of driller. Much drilling and exploratory work requires men capable of performing heavy physical labor. Well operation and maintenance, with the excep tion of some of the heavy labor done by the roust abouts, does not require great physical effort. Women are employed only in the offices and labora tories of oil producing companies. Most oil field workers are hired at the field or through the local offices of the various State em ployment services affiliated with the United States Employment Service. Appendix I gives the loca tion of the major oil fields. Earnings Earnings of oil field workers compare favorably with those , in industry generally. In January 1950, average weekly earnings of production work ers in petroleum and natural gas production (ex cluding drilling and rig building) were over $76 for nearly 42 hours of work. Recent earnings information for individual occupations is not available. Examination of a number of union agreements which cover only a small part of oil field employment indicates the following range of hourly earnings in important occupations in 1948-49. Occupation Typical straight-tim e hourly earnings Rotary driller___________________ $2. 25-$2. 85 Derrickman______________________ 1. 75- 2. 00 Rotary doorman_________________ 1. 00- 1. 85 Fireman_________________________ 1. 60- 1. 85 Pumper, switcher, and gager--------- 1. GO- 1. 90 Roustabout______________________ 1.40-1.80 Occupations in Petroleum Refi ning Petroleum refining is the processing of crude petroleum into usable end products, such as gaso line, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricants. This proc essing is done in plants called refineries. The equipment looks very much like chemical labora tory apparatus built on a gigantic scale. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon com pounds which boil at different temperatures. The basic process of refining is distillation, which con sists of breaking down or “fractionating” the crude. This is done by controlled heating, during which the compounds are first vaporized and then condensed, forming the various products, gasoline, kerosene, etc. In many refineries large “cracking” units are employed to obtain more gasoline per barrel of Stillmen and their helpers control the operation of the refinery units. They observe and record instrument readings showing temperature, pressure, and oil flow. 19 crude. As its name implies, cracking breaks down, or rearranges, the molecules of heavy oils into lighter hydrocarbons. Cracking is accomplished in these units through the application of either great heat and pressure or somewhat less heat plus the action of a catalyst. Duties, Train in g, and Qualifications About a third of the plant workers in a modern refinery are engaged in processing. The proc essing operations are highly mechanized and are controlled by a large number of instruments, so that relatively little manual work is required. Stillmen (operators) have the responsibility of running the various distillation and cracking units safely and economically. In order to control the operation of the equipment, they observe and re cord instrument readings showing the tempera ture, pressure, and oil flow. A Stillman has two or more assistants (stillmen’s helpers). Stillmen also supervise firemen who operate the burners which maintain required temperatures in the re fining units. Pumpmen and their helpers mainMaintenance workers checking refinery equipment. Periodically every unit in a refinery is checked cleaned, and repaired. tain and operate power-driven pumps which cir culate petroleum products, chemicals, and water through units during processing. Impurities present in gasoline, oil, and other products are removed in purification units run by treaters. More than half of the plant workers in a typical refinery are employed in the repairing, rebuilding, and cleaning of operating equipment. Included among these are skilled boilermakers, bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, instrument repairmen, leadbumers, machinists, painters, pipefitters, pipe coverers, riggers, sheet metal workers, and weld ers. There are also many helpers and trainees in these trades. In addition to process and maintenance jobs, a number of workers are employed in the packaging and shipping departments. Petroleum refining employees include a rela tively large proportion of professional and technical workers. Among these are chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, labora tory technicians, and draftsmen. Chemists control the quality of petroleum prod ucts by conducting tests and analyses to determine their chemical and physical properties. Many chemists are engaged in the development of new products. Engineers are employed in a variety of refinery activities, including design of chemical equip ment, supervision and development of processes, plant lay-out, and quality control. Some labora tory technicians assist the chemists in research projects; others do routine testing. Draftsmen prepare working plans and detailed drawings required in refinery construction and maintenance. W orking Conditions Working conditions in refineries compare favor ably with those in manufacturing industry gener ally. Most refinery jobs do not require great physical effort. Some workers, however, climb stairs and ladders to considerable heights in the course of their duties. Others work in hot places or are exposed to unpleasant odors. Refineries are relatively safe places in which to work; acci dent frequency is barely half the average for manufacturing as a whole. Because refineries operate 21 hours a day, 7 days a week, many of the process workers are on night shifts and many 20 work on week ends. Plant jobs in refineries are filled by men; there are jobs for women in the laboratories and offices. There is little seasonal variation in refinery employment; nearly all the workers have year-round jobs. The majority of refinery workers are union members. A large number of petroleum refineries have been organized by the Oil Workers Interna tional Union (CIO) ; many refinery workers are in various independent unions. Some are members of AFL craft unions. Persons interested in getting refinery jobs should apply directly to a refinery or to the local office of their State Employment Service. The name and location of the refineries in each area appear in Appendix II. Except for the office help and technical workers, the usual way to start in a refinery is as a laborer. When a vacancy occurs, the worker is assigned to one of the processing or maintenance departments. Here, the more skilled work is learned on the job, with advancement by strict seniority. For ex ample, in a processing department, a worker may advance along these lines: laborer, fireman, assis tant stillman, stillman. In maintenance depart ments, a worker advances from laborer to helper or learner. He trains, over a period of 3 or 4 years, to become skilled in such work as boilermaking, pipefitting, or welding. Some refineries have formal apprenticeship programs to train workers for skilled maintenance occupations. Earnings Earnings in petroleum refining are among the highest in industry. In January 1950, produc tion workers in petroleum refining earned, on the average, $77.68 for a workweek of 40.8 hours. (In the same month, the average for all manufacturing industries was $56.29 for 39.7 hours of work.) The following tabulation gives straight-time aver age hourly earnings for selected occupations in refineries in September 1948.1 889849°—50- 4 Occupation Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant stillman, cracking_____________ $1. 95 Assistant stillman, straight-run_________ 1. 91 Assistant stillman, combination units____ 1. 97 Carpenter, maintenance------------------------ 1. 98 Electrician, maintenance_______________ 2. 01 Fireman, stills, cracking_________ ______ 1. 84 Fireman, stills, straight-run_____________ 1. 76 Fireman, stills, combination units_______ 1. 87 Gager_________________________________ 1. 87 Helper, maintenance___________________ 1. 67 Instrument repairman__________________ 2. 01 Laborer_______________________________ 1. 42 Loader, tank cars or trucks_____________ 1. 70 Machinist, maintenance___________ _____ 2. 01 Packer, hand__________________________ 1. 66 Pipefitter______________________________ 1. 98 Pumpman_____________________________ 1. 92 Pumpman’s helper-------------------------------- 1. 83 Routine tester, laboratory--------------------- 1. 77 Stillman, cracking_____________________ 2.15 Stillman, straight-run__________________ 2. 07 Stillman, combination units_____________ 2.18 Treater, light oils______________________ 1. 96 Treater, heavy oils_____________________ 1. 97 Treater’s helper, light oils______________ 1. 89 Treater’s helper, heavy oils-------------------- 1. 86 Welder, hand, maintenance_____________ 2. 02 Mechanic, maintenance_________________ 1. 92 There have been some wage increases in petro leum refineries since September 1948; average earnings of production workers in petroleum re fining rose from about $1.87 an hour in Septem ber 1948 to about $1.90 in January 1950. Employees generally receive additional pay for working the second or third shifts. Most petro leum refinery workers are granted vacations with pay after 1 year’s service. Many firms also make provision for paid sick leave. A large number of the companies have adopted some type of insur ance or pension arrangements for their employees; some provide life insurance plans, others have health insurance programs or retirement and pen sion plans. Employee stock-purchase plans are in effect in many firms. 1 Data are for refineries with 51 or more employees. Earnings exclude premium* pay for overtime and night work. 21 S T A T E A N D R E G IO N A L E M P L O Y M E N T O U T L O O K 22 W est South Central (ARKANSAS, LOUISIANA, OKLAHOMA, TEXAS) Sum m ary Opportunities for large numbers of new work ers in the region’s oil fields and refineries are in prospect; Texas will continue to have most of the jobs. Background C rude P etroleum P roductio n .—This is “the oil country,” the principal petroleum region in the United States. Crude production in 1949 of over 1.1 billion barrels was about three-fifths of the Nation’s output. All four West South Central States are among the first 10 States in crude pro duction. These States together have nearly 70 percent of the estimated United States proved reserves. In 1948, about 140,000 oil field workers, 60 percent of the United States total, had jobs in this region (see chart 18). Texas is the main producing area in the world. In 1948, Texas petroleum producers and oil field contractors employed about 85,000 workers. Dur ing 1949, the 117,000 wells in the State yielded about 750 million barrels of crude, over 40 percent of United States output. About three-fifths of this oil was processed by Texas refineries and the remainder was supplied to refineries in 17 other States, principally Pennsylvania, Indiana, New Jersey, Louisiana, and Illinois. Petroleum pro duction is the State’s leading industry (measured in value of product). More than a third of the State’s area—about 58 million acres—was under lease to petroleum producers in 1947. There are more than 1,000 fields in the State, but 60 percent of the crude in 1948 came from 51 major fields (listed in Appendix I). There are six main oil producing areas in this State—eastern, west Texas, Gulf Coast, north Texas, Panhandle, and southwest. The eastern district contains the fabulous East Texas field which has been considered the world’s most pro ductive oil reservoir. In its 18-year producing history, this field has yielded about a fifth of all the oil taken out of the ground in Texas and nearly 7 percent of the total United States production. West Texas, which in 1948 was the leading pro ducing area in the State, produced more oil than any State other than Texas, with the exception of California. The Gulf Coast area produced only slightly less than west Texas. The other three regions, the southwest, north Texas, and the Panhandle accounted for less than a quarter of the State’s output. Oklahoma ranks second in crude petroleum em ployment. About 35,000 oil field workers, 17 per cent of the Nation’s total, had jobs in this State in 1948. Oklahoma’s 54,000 wells produced over 150 million barrels of crude in 1949, nearly a twelfth of the Nation’s output. Oklahoma has more than 900 oil fields, but nearly two-fifths of the State’s output in 1948 came from 18 of them. The fields lie in a wide belt extending from the northeast corner of the State to the Texas State line. Fifty-seven of the State’s 77 counties have oil or gas wells. In 1948, over 20,000 oil field workers were em ployed in Louisiana the third ranking petroleum producing State. In 1949, Louisiana’s output of over 190 million barrels amounted to 10 percent of the United States total. Average production per well in Louisiana is the highest among the leading petroleum States; in 1948, it was over 4 times the national average. This is one of the rea sons why fewer workers are needed to produce a given amount of oil in Louisiana than in most other States. There are two main oil areas in the State—one in the north and the other along the Gulf Coast. The latter accounts for most of the output. Most of the oil lands in Arkansas are in the southwest part of the State. In 1948, Arkansas ranked tenth in employment and provided jobs for about 2,800 workers. The State’s two major fields—Magnolia and Smackover—together ac counted for about a quarter of the output of nearly 30 million barrels in 1949. R e f in in g .—In 1948, nearly 70,0001 persons were employed in the 119 refineries operating in the region. These refineries had over 40 percent of the United States total refining capacity at the 1 This figure is inflated by inclusion of central office employees of oil companies. 23 Outlook Char* 18 Percent of U.S. Total WEST SOUTH CENTRAL IS THE LEADING PETROLEUM REGION U.S. Total Percent o( U.S. Total U.S.Total UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O LABOR F BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS beginning of 1949. Three-fifths of the region’s refinery workers had jobs in Texas, which is the Nation’s leading refinery State. Petroleum refining, Texas' largest manufactur ing industry, had about 41,000 wage and salary workers in 1948. While only 27 of the 71 operating refineries were in the Gulf Coast area, these re fineries had over four-fifths of the State’s total capacity. The principal refinery centers in Texas, and among the most important in the Nation, are in the Beaumont-Port Arthur, Houston-Texas City, and Corpus Christi areas. Louisiana's 15 refineries employed about 15,000 workers in 1948. More than 95 percent of the State’s facilities are located along the Gulf Coast. Two refineries, one in Baton Rouge and the other in Lake Charles, have about three-quarters of the refining capacity. Oklahoma ranks eighth in refining capacity. About 11,000 wage and salary workers had jobs in 24 refineries in 1948. The largest refineries are in Tulsa and Ponca City. The 6 refineries in Arkansas provided jobs for somewhat over 2,000 workers. 24 C rude P etroleum P roductio n .—The region’s oil fields will provide many jobs for new workers during the next 5 to 10 years. Rising demand for petroleum products in the United States will mean stepped-up production in this region, which in 1949 supplied about three-fifths of the Nation’s crude. These four States have 70 percent of the United States proved reserves. It appears likely that they will continue to provide for the great bulk of our crude petroleum needs. During the last decade, output rose 90 percent in Texas and Louisiana, and is expected to continue to rise over the long run. In spite of greatly increased pro duction, the proved reserves of these States have continued to grow. During the last 10 years, esti mated proved reserves in Texas were increased by about 3 billion barrels and more than doubled in Louisiana. Moreover, a new oil frontier, the con tinental shelf on the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana may very well become an important source of petroleum. Oklahoma’s oil production in 1948 was below the output in 1938. However, during the last 5 years, the downward trend of the previous decade was reversed and production is again on the up grade. Crude production in Arkansas has been increasing slowly during the last 10 years. Drilling activity is expected to continue at very high levels during the next several years. In 1949. an all time high in drilling activity was re corded : More than 13,000 wells were drilled in Texas, 4,300 in Oklahoma, and 2,400 in Louisiana. At year’s end about 1,600 drilling rigs were op erating in this region. To operate one rig the customary 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, about 20 workers are required. Exploration for oil in this region was on the greatest scale ever known. A record total of nearly 4,000 wildcat wells were drilled in the West South Central States in 1949. Expanded employment should provide a sub stantial number of openings for new workers. Many more job opportunities will result from the need to replace the several thousand workers who leave the oil fields each year because of shifting to other lines of work and because of death or retirement. R e f in in g .—Refinery employment is expected to increase substantially above its present level. refining facilities, replacement needs will also pro vide a number of job opportunities. Earnings September 1948 average straight-time hourly earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected occupations in the West South Central States are shown in the following tabulation. Occupation Both refining capacity and employment have grown rapidly during the last decade. Crude runs to stills in 1948 were nearly 65 percent above the 1939 level (see chart 19). Refining capacity in the region is expected to increase greatly to meet the growing national demand for petroleum prod ucts. Construction of a considerable amount of new capacity was begun in 1948-49. Major ex pansion programs were started in Corpus Christi, Port Arthur, and Baytown, Tex.; Baton Rouge and Lake Charles, La.; and West Tulsa, Okla. In addition to the workers needed to man new Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant still men, cracking______________ $1. 99 Assistant stillmen, straight-run__________ 1. 89 Assistant stillmen, combination units_____ 1. 97 Carpenters, maintenance___ ____________ 2. 05 Electricians, maintenance_______________ 2. 08 Firemen, stills, cracking________________ 1. 87 Firemen, stills, straight-run_____________ 1. 81 Firemen, stills, combination units______ 1. 84 Gagers________________________________ 1. 88 Helpers, maintenance__________________ 1. 67 Instrument repairmen___________________ 2.06 Laborers_______________________________ 1.38 Loaders, tank cars or trucks____________ 1. 65 Machinists, maintenance________________ 2. 08 Mechanics, maintenance________________ 1. 95 Packers, hand_________________________ 1. 69 Pipe fitters____________________________ 2. 06 Pumpmen-------------------------------------------- 1. 88 Pumpmen’s helpers_____________________ 1. 80 Routine testers, laboratory______________ 1. 82 Stillmen, cracking________________ _____ 2.14 Stillmen, straight-run__________________ 2. 05 Stillmen, combination units_____________ 2.12 Treaters, light oils__ __________________ 1. 92 Treaters, heavy oils____________________ 2. 08 Treaters’ helpers, light oils______________ 1. 89 Treaters’ helpers, heavy oils____________ 1. 85 Welders, hand, maintenance______________ 2.05 Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earnings data for the country as a whole see page 19. 25 Pacific Coast (CALIFORNIA, OREGON, WASHINGTON) Sum m ary Oil fields and refineries in California, the Na tion’s second most important petroleum State, will provide a growing number of jobs during the next 5 to 10 years. Background C rude P etroleum P roductio n .— The petroleum industry of the Pacific Coast is located almost en tirely in California. Although for a number of years prospecting crews have been searching for oil in Washington and Oregon, as yet there has been no commercial production in these two States. California's oil fields employed about 26,000 workers in 1948, a ninth of the Nation’s total. Since oil was first discovered in California in 1867, this State has produced about 8 billion barrels of crude, over a fifth of all the oil taken out of the ground in the United States. Today, California is second only to Texas as a producing State and its output in 1949 of 335 million barrels was more than 18 percent of the Nation’s total. At the end of 1949, there were about 25,000 producing wells in the State’s approximately 170 oil fields, with 29 major fields (listed in Appendix I) ac counting for the bulk of the output. Fewer work ers are needed to produce a given amount of oil in California than in the country as a whole. For one thing, oil sands in California are much thicker than in most parts of the country; average out put per well in this State is 3 times the national average. Producing fields in California are located in three general areas. The largest producing area is in the San Joaquin Valley, in Kern, Fresno, and Kings Counties. The second largest section is the Los Angeles Basin in the southwest part of the State, principally in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The third section is the so-called coastal area extending between Ventura in the south and Santa Maria in the north. The oil fields here are primarily in southern Ventura and western Santa Barbara Counties. In the latter 26 two sections, oil production methods are somewhat different from those in the rest of the State since some of the oil deposits are under water, just oft' the ocean shores. These pools are reached either by drilling diagonally out from the shoreline or by locating the drilling rigs on piers built out in the water. Neither central nor northern Cali fornia has large fields. R e f in in g .— In 1948, there were 51 refineries op erating in the Pacific coast region, all but three of them in California. California is the Nation’s second ranking refining State both in capacity and Drilling a test hole away from shore. Off-shore oil fields may become an important source of petroleum. employment. Its 48 operating refineries provided jobs for about 28,000 wage1 and salary workers. Operating at full capacity, these refineries could process about one million barrels a day, more than a sixth of the United States total. Because of California’s large crude production and because of its geographic isolation from other oil areas, 1 This figure has been inflated considerably by inclusion of central office employees of oil companies. its refineries are supplied almost entirely by crude produced witliin the State. Most refining facilities are located near the cen ters of population and industry around Los An geles and San Francisco. In the Los Angeles area, large refineries are located near the coast in the vicinity of Long Beach, Wilmington, El Segundo, Torrance, and in Los Angeles itself. In the San Francisco Bay region, there are major refineries in Richmond, Avon, Martinez, and Oleum. Consid erable refining is done also in the Bakersfield area in the lower San Joaquin Valley, near the produc ing fields. There are three refineries in the region outside of California. The two refineries in Oregon, pro ducing mainly asphalt, are located in Portland and Willbridge. The one refinery in Washing ton is in Spokane. Outlook Prospects for the next 5 to 10 years are for ris ing employment in both petroleum production and refining in California. Crude output in 1948 and 1949 in California was the highest in the State’s 80-year producing history; production of around 840 million barrels in each of these years was about 50 percent above 1941. Even higher output from the California oil fields will be needed to meet the growing demand for crude by the State’s refineries. Exploration and drilling activities during 1948-49 were at the highest rate in California’s history. The 2,500 wells drilled during 1949 rep resented total footage of over 10 million feet. Proved reserves at the end of 1948 were estimated at about three and three-quarter billion barrels, nearly a half billion higher than the year before. Exploration and drilling are expected to continue at a very high rate. Most of this activity will probably continue to be centered in the three prin cipal producing sections (San Joaquin Valley, Los Angeles Basin, and the Coastal area). However, considerable activity is expected in the Cuyama and Salinas Valleys and beneath the Tidelands off the coast of Santa Barbara County. The long run upward trend of demand for petroleum products on the West Coast should re sult in increased output in California’s refineries. Because of the State's geographical isolation and because of the high cost of transporting petroleum products overland, the market for these refineries is limited to the three Coastal States and, to a lesser extent, Arizona and Nevada, plus some over seas exports. Similarly, a very small amount of petroleum products comes into the State from other areas. The demand for petroleum in Cali fornia differs somewhat from that of other regions. California crudes are, in general, heavier and of a somewhat lower gasoline content than those of other areas, producing a high yield of residual fuel oil when refined. (In November 1949, for example, the residual yield was 39.1 percent of re fined products in California, compared with 21.8 percent for the Nation as a whole.) The high yield of heavy residual oil goes well with the un usually high demand for this product in the re gion. Since California is without commercial production of coal, it relies on fuel oil (together with water power and natural gas) to supply the heat and power necessary for industry. Western railroads operate to a large extent on residual oil. California industry depends heavily on this oil for the uses to which coal is put in other parts of the country. Fuel oil is also used to a consider able extent for electric power generation and is employed increasingly for space heating. In addition, ships docking in West Coast ports re quire large quantities of residual fuel oil. Several factors contribute to the expectation of long-range expansion of demand for petroleum products on the Pacific Coast. One is the grow ing industrialization of the region as evidenced by the continual addition of new industrial facil ities. Other factors include the rapidly grow ing population and the increasing number of motor vehicles in use. Offsetting these somewhat is a trend toward substituting Diesels for residual oil-burning locomotives, which tends to reduce total oil consumption of the railroads. Stepped-up activity in the petroleum industry in California should result in rising employment in both the oil fields and refineries. Additional opportunities for new workers will result from the need to replace persons leaving the oil fields and refineries because of death or retirement or because of shifting to other lines of work. 27 Earnings September 1948 average straight-time hourly earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected occupations in the Pacific Coast States are shown in the following tabulation: Occupation Average straight-tim e hourly-earnings Assistant stillmen, cracking___________ $1. 89 Assistant stillmen, straight-run__________ 1.88 Assistant stillmen, combination units___ 1. 93 Carpenters, maintenance_________________ 1.92 Electricians, maintenance_______________ 1.93 Firemen, stills, cracking_________________ 1.80 Firemen, stills, straight-run______________ 1.78 Gagers________________________________ 1. 83 Helpers, maintenance----------------------------- 1.65 Instrument repairmen----------------------------- 1.92 Laborers_______________________________ 1.53 Occupation — Con. Averag e-straight-tim e hourly earnings Loaders, tank cars or trucks____________ $1. 73 Machinists, maintenance____________ ____ 1. 93 Mechanics, maintenance________________ 1. 90 Packers, hand_____________________ - ___ 1. 59 Pipe fitters____________________________ 1.92 Pumpmen_____________________________ 1. 87 Pumpmen’s helpers________________ ____ 1. 70 Routine testers, laboratory_____________ 1. 80 Stillmen, cracking_______ ______________ 2.13 Stillmen, straight-run__________________ 2. 08 Treaters, light oils_____________ _______ 1. 96 Treaters, heavy oils____________________ 1. 85 Treaters’ helpers, light oils_____________ 1. 82 Treaters’ helpers, heavy oils____________ 1. 79 Welders, hand, maintenance____________ 1. 93 Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earn ings data for the country as a whole see page 19. Middle Atlantic (NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA) Sum m ary Outlook is for a growing number of refinery jobs; oil field employment should remain stable for several years but may later begin to decline. Background C htjde P etroleum P roductio n .— This is the oldest producing region in the United States. About a fourth of the Nation’s 445,000 producing wells are here, but less than 1 percent of the crude comes from these 3 States. The region produces, how ever, a large proportion of the crude from which high grade lubricating oil is made. In 1948, more than 10,000 workers were employed in the region’s 011 fields; about four-fifths of them had jobs in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania has been producing oil since 1859, when Col. E. A. Drake drilled the world’s first oil well near Titusville, in Vennango County. In 1948, more than 8,000 workers were employed in the oil fields. Although there are about 80,000 producing wells in the State (about a fifth of the Nation’s total), crude production in 1948 ac counted for only 0.6 percent of the country’s out put. Production per well in this State averaged about one-half barrel a day compared with about 12 barrels a day for the country as a whole. As can be seen from the map, the oil and gas produc28 ing area of Pennsylvania lies in a belt from 25 to 120 miles wide and nearly 200 miles long, ex tending across the western side of the State. The Bradford field, located in the northwestern part of the State, has been the most productive field in the entire Appalachian region. In 1947, it accounted for more than four-fifths of the total oil produced in Pennsylvania. New York oil fields are located primarily in three counties in the southwestern part of the State (Allegany, Cattaraugus, and Steuben), all of which border on Pennsylvania. In 1948, about 2,000 workers were employed in the oil fields. Al though there are about 22,000 operating wells in the State, 1949 output of 4,250,000 barrels was less than one-fourth of 1 percent of total crude pro duced in the United States. While the amount produced is comparatively small, New York’s crude petroleum is important in the manufactur ing of lubricating oil and commands a relatively high price. A large proportion of the wells drilled in New York oil fields in 1949 were in con nection with secondary-recovery operations. R e f in in g .—In 1948, about 40,000 workers,1 over a fifth of the Nation’s total, were employed in the 1 This figure is considerably inflated by inclusion of central office employees of oil companies. 30 refineries located in these three States. These refineries depend to a large extent on shipments from other regions and from foreign countries for their crude petroleum. More than half of the crude comes from Texas; foreign imports make up most of the balance. This region receives about four-fifths of total United States imports of crude petroleum. Pennsylvania is the Nation’s third leading State in refining capacity and number of employees. Four large refineries in eastern Pennsylvania (2 in the Philadelphia area and 2 in Marcus Hook) have nearly seven-eighths of the refining capacity. The other 13 refineries are small; nearly all of them are located in the petroleum-producing area in the western part of the State. Pennsylvania gets 90 percent of the crude needed for its refinery opera tions from foreign or interstate sources. More than half of the crude is brought in from Texas; over a quarter comes from foreign countries, mainly Venezuela. New Jersey is the only major refining State which has no producing wells. Most of the crude petroleum refined in this State comes from Texas; much of the remainder is brought in by tankers from abroad. Two large refineries, in the Bayonne area, have about three-fourths of the capacity of the State’s 6 refineries. The other 4 refineries are located in Paulsboro, Perth Amboy, Linden, and Petty’s Island. Two of New York’s 6 refineries are located in the New York City area, 2 around Buffalo, and the others in Glean and Wellsville (in the oil-pro ducing area). Crude production in New York supplies only a small proportion of its own refining needs. The bulk of the crude comes from Texas, Oklahoma, Illinois, and from foreign sources. Outlook C rude O il P roductio n .—Little change in the number of oil field jobs in the region is expected for the next several years. Looking further into the future, the outlook in this branch of petroleum is for gradually decreasing employment. While the region’s crude production has fallen somewhat in recent years, the number of produc ing oil wells and the number of workers have not changed materially. No new pools of any great significance have been discovered during the last 10 years. However, wells drilled in connection with secondary recovery operations have kept drilling activity at a fairly steady level. While it is possible that new oil pools will be discovered in this area, future production will be determined by the amount of oil remaining in existing fields. Estimated proved reserves in the region have been decreasing steadily. On January 1,1947, the esti mated reserve in Pennsylvania was only about a third of the amount estimated 10 years previously. While there is a considerable area remaining to be developed by secondary-recovery methods, these methods have already been applied to many of the best oil pools. Oil field employment is ex pected to remain around its 1948 level, about 10,000 workers, during the next few years. Over the longer run however, prospects are for slowly declining employment. If at any time, however, there should be any great reduction in the price of crude from its 1948-49 levels, a sharp drop in the number of jobs may occur. A substantial price reduction might cause a considerable decrease in secondary-recov ery activity and might also lead to the closing down of many of the less productive wells in the region. R e f in in g .—Rising employment in petroleum re fining in this region is expected during the next few years and over the longer run. The region’s petroleum-refining industry has expanded consid erably in recent years. In order to satisfy war time demands, new capacity was rushed into construction. Much new equipment was added to existing refineries in order to produce large quan tities of aviation gasoline. Since the war, the industry has continued to expand because of the rapidly rising demand for petroleum products. More workers will be needed to man the new re fining facilities placed under construction in 1948-49 in the Philadelphia and New York City areas. Longer run refinery prospects are also favorable in this region. Refineries in New Jersey and east ern Pennsylvania have had the advantage of major markets close at hand—in the big concentrations of industry and population around New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. This marketing fac tor, plus the growing importance of foreign crude oil in refinery operations, is expected to result in a more rapid growth in the East than in the other 29 important refining areas. Another important consideration is the comparatively recent develop ment of catalytic cracking, which is likely to be used in place of thermal cracking units in new refineries and in expansion of existing refineries. Catalytic cracking eliminates to a great extent the advantage of having refineries located in areas (such as Texas) where there is an abundance of the inexpensive natural gas used as a fuel in ther mal cracking operations. S y n t h e t ic P etroleum .— The United States Bu reau of Mines and several oil companies are work ing together to perfect processes for manufactur ing synthetic petroleum fuels. Natural gas, oil shale, and coal are the three raw materials from which liquid fuels can be made. In this region, there are laboratories and pilot plants in Bruceton and Library (Pennsylvania), engaged in re search and development of synthetic liquid fuels from coal. If a commercial synthetic industry using coal as a raw material is developed, it prob ably will be located in this region because of the great coal concentration in Pennsylvania. occupations in the Middle Atlantic States are shown in the following tabulation. Earnings Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earn ings data for the country as a whole see page 19. September 1948 average straight-time hourly earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected Occupation Typical straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant stillmen, cracking_____________ $1. 96 Assistant stillmen, straight-run_________ 1. 86 Assistant stillmen, combination units____ 1. 99 Carpenters, maintenance_______________ 2. 08 Electricians, maintenance______________ 1. 98 Firemen, stills, cracking______ 1. 81 Firemen, stills, straight-run____________ 1. 70 Gagers________________________________ 1. 85 Helpers, maintenance__________________ 1. 62 Instrument repairmen__________________ 1. 95 Laborers______________________________ 1. 43 Loaders, tank cars or trucks___________ 1. 57 Machinists, maintenance_______________ 1. 99 Packers, hand_________________________ 1. 56 Pipe fitters____________________________ 1. 94 Pumpmen_____________________________ 1. 87 Pumpmen’s helpers____________________ 1. 78 Routine testers, laboratory_____________ 1. 66 Stillmen, cracking_____________________ 2. 24 Stillmen, straight-run__________________ 2. 03 Treaters, light oils_____________________ 1. 87 Treaters, heavy oils____________________ 1. 81 Treaters’ helpers, light oils_________ 1. 80 Treaters’ helpers, heavy oils____________ 1. 80 Welders, hand maintenance_____________ 2. 05 East North Central (ILLINOIS, INDIANA, MICHIGAN, OHIO, WISCONSIN) Sum m ary Refinery employment is expected to rise; the number of oil field jobs is likely to remain fairly stable. Background C rude P etroleum P roduction .—In 1948, the re gion’s oil fields had about 17,000 workers, almost 8 percent of the Nation’s total. The 60,000 oil wells in the East North Central States produced about 94 million barrels of crude during 1949, ap proximately 5 percent of the United States output. Three-fifths of the region's oil field workers have jobs in Illinois. Most of the others are employed in Ohio and Michigan. As can be seen from the map (chart 3), the oil 30 fields in Illinois are in the southern part of the State. While Illinois has 280 oil fields, about a quarter of the crude produced in 1948 came from its four major fields—Louden field in Effingham and Fayette Counties, Salem field in Marion County, Bridgeport in Lawrence County, and Robinson in Crawford County. Illinois, the Na tion’s sixth ranking State in petroleum produc tion, employed about 10,000 oil-field workers in 1948. The 30,000 wells in the State produced 65 million barrels of crude in 1949, slightly over 3 percent of the Nation’s output. More than 3,500 workers had jobs in Ohio’s oil fields in 1948. Petroleum production in Ohio is concentrated in 2 separate areas; 1 in the north west and the other in the southeast. During 1949, the State’s 22,000 wells yielded only a fraction of All but 1 of Michigan's 17 refineries are small; 1 percent of the Nation’s crude. Average output the exception is the refinery located in Trenton. per well wT less than a half barrel a day, com IF isconsin's only refinery, a small one, is in She as pared with about 12 barrels for the country as a boygan. whole. In Michigan, about 2,000 workers had jobs in Outlook approximately 125 fields. Thirty-eight of the 83 C rude P etroleum P roductio n .— Production in counties have some oil or gas wells. The 3,800 the East North Central States reached a high in wells in Indianans 64 fields produced about 9y2 1940 of 175 million barrels (13 percent of the Na million barrels in 1949. Most of the oil lands are tion’s total) and 6 times what it had been 3 years in the southwestern part of the State. Although before. Since then production has decreased each a number of wells have been drilled in Wisconsin, year and by 1949 had fallen to about half the 1940 total. This sharp rise and fall in production was no oil has been discovered. due to the discovery in 1938-1940 of a group of R e f in in g .— 1 he region has nearly a sixth of the T Wells these fields were Nation’s refining capacity. Fifty-three refineries new fields in Illinois. withoutinapplication of us allowed to flow provided jobs for about 30,000 workers in 1948. ual conservationfreely, and, consequently, are methods Much of the capacity is located near the centers of now producing at a lower and declining rate. industry and population around Chicago and St. Louis. Indiana and Illinois together employ While production has been falling, the number of about three-fourths of the region’s refinery wells in Illinois has been slowly increasing dur ing the last several years. There has been con workers. In 1948, more than 13,000 persons worked in siderable exploration and drilling activity in the Indiana?s 9 refineries. Five of these refineries East North Central States since the war, and this (including one of the Nation’s largest) located activity is expected to continue at its present high just over the State line from Chicago, have about level during the next several years. Not much change in employment is in prospect 94 percent of the State’s refining capacity. Texas and Oklahoma fields supply most of the crude used in the region’s crude petroleum industry during the next 5 or 10 years. Replacement needs, how by Indiana refineries. The 15 operating refineries in Illinois had total ever, will provide a small number of job oppor capacity of more than 340,000 barrels daily in tunities each year. 1948 and employed nearly 10,000 workers. The 3 R e f in in g .— Rising employment is expected in the largest refineries, 2 in Wood River (not far from refining industry. There has been a rapid growth St. Louis) and the other in Lockport (near Chi during the last decade in refining capacity and cago) together have about three-fifths of the employment. Crude runs to stills in 1948 were State’s capacity. Other large refineries are lo nearly double the 1938 level. Capacity is ex cated in Lamont, Lawrenceville, Hartford, East pected to increase, particularly near Chicago and St. Louis, and Robinson. In 1948, Illinois oil St. Louis in order to supply the growing demand fields supplied only about a fifth of the crude for petroleum products in these areas. A con refined in the State; the rest came from Texas, siderable amount of new refining capacity was Oklahoma, and Kansas. under construction in 1948-49 which will probably Four of the 11 refineries in Ohio are in Toledo. increase employment. In addition, replacement Large plants are also located in Cleveland, Cleves, needs will provide a number of job opportunities Lima, and Heath. Petroleum refining provided for new workers. jobs for over 5,500 Ohio workers in 1948. The State’s fields supply only a small portion of the Earnings needs of its refineries. Most of the crude is September 1948 average straight-time hourly brought in from Illinois, Texas, and Oklahoma. earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected 31 occupations in the East North Central States are shown in the following tabulation: Occupation Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant stillmen, cracking--------------------$1. OS Assistant stillmen, straight-run__________ 2.00 Assistant stillmen, combination units----- 1. 99 Carpenters, maintenance-------------------1.95 Electricians, maintenance________________ 2.01 Firemen, stills, cracking___________ —---- 1. 86 Firemen, stills, straight-run_____________ 1.76 Firemen, stills, combination units------------ 1.90 Gagers_________________________________ 1-91 Helpers, maintenance___________________ 1.72 Instrument repairmen___________________ 2.02 Laborers_______________________________ 1.51 Loaders, tank cars or trucks___________ - 1. 80 Machinists, maintenance-------------------------- 2.00 Occupation — Con. Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Mechanics, maintenance_________________ $1. 91 Packers, hand_________________________ 1. 83 Pipe titters_______ 1. 98 Pumpmen_____________________________ 2. 08 Pumpmen’s helpers__________ 1. 92 Routine testers, laboratory_____________ 1. 80 Stillmen, cracking________________ _____ 2.16 Stillmen, straight-run__________________ 2. 09 Stillmen, combination units_____________ 2. 22 Treaters, light oils___________________ __1. 98 Treaters, heavy oils_____________ ______ 2. 21 Treaters’ helpers, light oils_____________ 1. 94 Welders, hand, maintenance____________ 2. 05 Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earn ings data for the country as a whole see page 19. W est North Central (IOWA, KANSAS, MINNESOTA, MISSOURI, NEBRASKA, NORTH DAKOTA, SOUTH DAKOTA) Sum m ary Slowly rising employment in the oil fields and refineries of Kansas is in prospect. There is a long-run possibility of new oil field jobs in the Dakotas and Minnesota. Background C rude P etroleum P roduction .—In 1948, there were about 12,000 oil field workers, slightly more than 5 percent of the Nation’s total, in the West North Central States. Kansas, the Nation’s fifth ranking petroleum producing State, has the great bulk of the jobs. Oil fields in Kansas are in 2 districts, 1 in the eastern and southern part of the S ta te and the other in the west central section. However, 67 of the State’s 105 counties have one or more oil or gas wells. In 1949, the 29.000 oper ating wells in Kansas produced about 102 million barrels of crude, amounting to 5.5 percent of the United States output, with about half the oil going to refineries within the State. Oil production in Nebraska is limited to the four fields in Richardson County (in the extreme southeast corner of the State). In 1949, Nebraska produced only 311,000 barrels of crude. There is also some small-scale oil production in Missouri. R e f in in g .—The 26 refineries operating in this region in 1948 employed nearly 7,000 workers, 32 under 4 percent of the United States total. Kan sas, which has about four-fifths of the region’s jobs, is the Nation’s tenth ranking State in re fining capacity. In January 1949, the 16 Kansas refineries had a total capacity of about 186,000 barrels a day. The State’s three largest refineries are located in Kansas City, El Dorado, and Augus ta. Missouri’s only refinery is in Sugar Creek and has a capacity of about 37,000 barrel a day. There are three very small refineries in Nebraska and one in South Dakota. Outlook C rude P etroleum P roduction .—Slowly increas ing employment is in prospect in Kansas oil fields. In addition, replacement needs will provide sev eral hundred job opportunities annually. In 1948-49, crude output in Kansas was at the highest level in the State’s 60-year producing history. Although Kansas has been producing oil since 1889, output did not become large until 1917, when important discoveries were made in Butler, Marion, and Chase Counties. In 1918, Kansas provided an eighth of the Nation’s output. The trend in production was gradually upward unr l World War II, when output began to rise shard, reaching a peak in 1948 of 110 million bar ‘ nearly double the output in 1938. During 19_'< ploration and drilling activity was at a very h rate ; nearly 3,400 wells were completed, of which 522 were wildcats. Exploration and drilling ac tivity is expected to rise somewhat above its pres ent high rate during the next several years. Elsewhere in the region, the outlook for oil-field employment is problematical. Greatly steppedup exploration activity is expected in the Dakotas and Nebraska. If large deposits of petroleum are found, a number of oil-field workers will be needed. R e f in in g .—A small increase in refinery employ ment is likely during the next several years. Some new facilities were under construction in 1948-49. Replacement needs also will provide a small num ber of openings each year. Earnings September 1948 average straight-time hourly earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected occupations in the West North Central States are shown in the following tabulation: Occupation Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant stillmen, cracking_____________ $1.83 Carpenters, maintenance_______________ 1. 88 Electricians, maintenance_______________ 1. 93 Firemen, stills, cracking________________ 1. 70 Firemen, stills, straight-run_____________ 1. 78 Gagers________________________________ 1. 74 Helpers, maintenance__________________ 1. 69 Instrument repairmen__________________ 1. 97 Laborers______________________________ 1. 43 Loaders, tank cars or trucks___________ 1. 66 Machinists, maintenance________________ 1. 95 Pipe fitters____________________________ 1. 90 Pumpmen__ __________________________ 1. 89 Pumpmen’s helpers_____________________ 1. 73 Routine testers, laboratory______________ 1. 67 Stillmen, cracking_______________ _____ 2. 02 Treaters, light oils_____________________ 1. 86 Treaters' helpers, light oils______________ 1. 72 Welders, hand, maintenance____________ 1. 95 Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earnings data for the country as a whole see page 19. Mountain (ARIZONA, COLORADO, IDAHO, MONTANA, NEVADA, NEW MEXICO, UTAH, WYOMING) Sum m ary A rue in employment in both petroleum pro duction and refining is in prospect, with the larger increase occurring in production employment. Background C rude P etroleum P roductio n .—This is one of the fastest growing producing regions. However, out put in 1949 was only about 7 percent of the Nation’s total. In 1948, about 13,000 workers were em ployed by the region’s petroleum producers and oil-field contractors. Over 5,000 of the jobs were in Wyoming and nearly that many were in New Mexico. Colorado and Montana had most of the other oil field jobs. New Mexico has two producing areas. One is in fhe eastern section in Lea and Eddy Counties. The other is in the northwestern corner of the -tate, in San Juan and McKinley Counties. In h , New Mexico’s 76 fields, with their 5,600 wells, , vduced 48 million barrels of crude.—2.6 percent y Nation’s total. :Vyoming was the eighth ranking producing State in 1949. Its 4,900 wells yielded 47 million barrels during the year. The fields in Wyoming are scattered throughout the State, with some oil or gas wells in 19 of the 23 counties. The princi pal fields are in Natrona, Park, Fremont, Big Horn, Sweetwater, Niobrara, Carbon, and Hot Springs Counties. The 750 oil wells in Colorado produced about 24 million barrels of crude in 1949. These wells had a daily average of 85 barrels, compared with a national average of about 12 barrels. Oil and gas is produced in 12 of the 63 counties. As can be seen from the map (chart 3), most of the producing area is in the northern part of the State, with some fields in the southwest. Eighteen of Montands 56 counties have oil or gas wells. The two principal fields are the Cut Bank field in Glacier County and Kavin-Sunburst field in Toole County. Together they accounted for more than half of Montana’s output of over 9 million barrels of crude in 1948. R e f in in g .— Over 5,000 workers were employed in refining in the Mountain States in 1948. Nearly 33 all the 42 operating refineries in this region are small; their combined capacity is less than 3 per cent of the United States total. Over half of the region’s refinery workers have jobs in Wyoming’s IT operating refineries. These refineries are scattered throughout the State. The larger refineries are located in Casper, Sinclair, and Cheyenne. Two refineries in Salt Lake City have nearly all of Utah’s refining capacity. There are 7 refineries operating in Montana, with total capacity of 40,000 barrels per day. The three largest refineries, which have tliree-fourths of the State’s capacity, are located in Billings, Laurel, and Sunburst. There are 6 refineries in Colorado, 7 in New Mexico, and 1 in Idaho, all of them small. O utlook C rude P etroleum P roduction .—Outlook is for rising employment during the next 5 or 10 years. A derrickman working on a small platform high on a rotary drilling rig handles the upper end of the pipe when it is being removed and replaced. Output of crude petroleum in the Mountain States has more than doubled during the last 10 years. The output of the Mountain region’s 4 producing States reached record levels during 1948 and 1949. While this region, even in 1949, accounted for less than 4 percent of all the wells drilled in the United States, increasing interest in this area as a possible location of important new discoveries has led to a relatively big rise in drilling activity during the last 2 or 3 years. The amount of proved reserves is also on the upgrade in this region. At the end of 1948, the Mountain States accounted for about 7.5 percent of the United States total proved reserves. In addition to the openings which will result from increasing employment, there will be some job opportunities created in the replacement of those who leave the oil fields. A long-range possibility is the extensive devel opment of the vast oil shale deposits in this region. Several pilot plants for conversion of oil shale into petroleum products are being operated in the Mountain States. If oil shale eventually becomes a major source of petroleum, much of the activity may be centered in this region. R e f in in g .—Increasing employment in the refin ing industry is in prospect. However, this region will continue to have only a small share of the Nation’s refinery workers. The rapid growth in refinery employment which has taken place dur ing the last several years is expected to continue. New facilities were under construction in order to handle the increased production of nearby oil fields. New refineries in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Billings, Mont., were under construction in early 1949. Additions to existing facilities were being made in Thermopolis and Casper, Wyo., and in Denver, Colo. In addition to new jobs that will result from rising employment, there will be a small number of openings each year because of replacement needs. Earnings September 1948 average straight-time hourly earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected occupations in the Mountain States are shown in the following tabulation. 34 Occupation Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant stillinen, straight-run__________ $1. 94 Carpenters, maintenance__ - ___________ 1. 77 Electricians, maintenance______________ 1. 94 Firemen, stills, cracking__________ 1. 75 Firemen, stills, combination units_______ 1. 90 Helpers, maintenance__________________ 1. 69 Instrument repairmen_________________ 1. 92 Laborers______________________________ 1. 48 Loaders, tank cars or trucks____________ 1. 78 Mechanics, maintenance________________ 1. 99 Pipe fitters____________________________ 1. 97 Occupation — Con. Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Pumpmen_____________________________ $1. 96 Pumpmen’s helpers____________________ 1. 79 Routine testers, laboratory_____________ 1. 75 Stillinen, cracking_____________________ 2.10 Stillinen, straight-run__________________ 2.15 Stillinen, combination units____________ 2.15 Treaters, light oils_____________________ 2. 00 Welders, hand, maintenance____________ 1. 93 Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earnings data for the country as a whole see page 19. East South Central (ALABAMA, KENTUCKY, MISSISSIPPI, TENNESSEE) wells, its output per well is about 6 times the United States average. The 22 producing fields in Mis sissippi are spread over 17 counties, located prin cipally in the southern part of the State. During the last few years, however, prospecting crews have been hunting for oil throughout the State, Background C rude P etroleum P roduction .— Nearly 6,000 and wildcat wells have been drilled in 78 of the 82 workers were employed in 1948 in the East South counties. The Tinsley field (in Yazoo County) Central States in the search for oil, in drilling, and in its 10-year history has produced more than in the operation and maintenance of the region’s three-fifths of all the oil taken out of the ground 16,000 producing oil wells. The 47 million bar in Mississippi. The 2 small oil fields in Alabama are located in rels of crude produced in this region in 1949 con Choctaw County. The Gilbert field, discovered in stituted 2.5 percent of total United States output. Nearly all the oil field jobs are in Kentucky and 1944, and the East Gilbert field, discovered in 1945, together have 38 wells. Tennessee's oil fields Mississippi. Kentucky's nearly 15,000 wells produced about are confined to 5 counties in the northern part 8% million barrels of crude in 1949, less than of the State. In early 1948, there were 34 pro one-half of 1 percent of the United States total. ducing wells in the 6 small oil fields of this State. Output per well in Kentucky is only about 1.6 R e f in in g .—This is not one of the important pe barrels a day compared to the national average troleum refining regions. The 12 refineries in the of about 12 barrels. The 51 fields in Kentucky 4 East South Central States employed fewer than are located in 44 of the 120 counties, in the west, 1,500 workers in 1948, less than 1 percent of the the south central, and the eastern part of the United States total. Kentucky’s 6 refineries have State. Two-thirds of Kentucky’s crude comes most of the jobs. The 2 largest refineries in Ken from the western part of the State; the combined tucky are located in Catlettsburg and Latonia; 3 output of Henderson and Union Counties consti refineries are in Louisville, and 1 in Somerset. tutes over half of the State’s production. About half of Kentucky’s crude is delivered to Almost half of the region’s oil field workers refineries within the State. The rest of the crude have jobs in Mississippi, the Nation’s ninth rank needed for the State’s refinery operations is sup ing State in petroleum production. While this plied by fields in Indiana, Mississippi, Louisiana, State has only 1 out of every 300 of the Nation’s and Illinois. There are 2 small refineries in each Sum m ary Outlook is for rising employment in the oil fields of Mississippi. No increase in refinery employ ment is in prospect in the region. 35 of the other 3 East South Central States. These are located in Mobile and Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Sandersville and Yazoo City, Miss.; and Memphis and Nashville, Tenn. Outlook C rude P etroleum P roduction .— Employment in the region's crude petroleum industry is on the upgrade, but the East South Central States will continue to have only a small portion of the Na tion’s oil field workers. In Mississippi, crude production is of recent origin; while oil was first discovered in 1933, production through 1938 was negligible. Except for some curtailment during the war, output has risen rapidly during the last 10 years. From 100,000 barrels in 1939, Missis sippi’s output climbed to 46 million barrels in 1948. Prospects are that this expansion will continue. For Kentucky, on the other hand, slowly de creasing production is forecast. This State has been producing oil since 1860, reaching a peak in Engineers checking flow chart in the control room of a catalytic cracking unit of a refinery. 36 1919 when its 9 million-plus barrels were about percent of the United States total. Ken tucky’s production showed continuous decline be tween the two world wars. The downward trend was reversed during the recent war years when a sharp increase in activity in Kentucky fields occurred. Production rose from 5 million barrels in 1941 to a new high of 10 million in 1945. Since the war, however, output has fallen off somewhat and is likely to continue to decline. While some 21/2 increase in activity in Alabama’s oil industry is probable, neither that State nor Tennessee is likely to be a larger employer of oil field workers in the foreseeable future. R e f in in g .—Job prospects in the region’s petro leum refineries are not bright. No expansion in refining capacity in the East South Central States is in sight. Moreover, replacement needs will pro vide very few job openings annually because of the small size of the industry in this region. South Atlantic (DELAWARE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, FLORIDA, GEORGIA, MARYLAND, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, WEST VIRGINIA) Sum m ary Little increase is expected in employment in petroleum production and refining. West Vir ginia will continue to have most of the oil field jobs and Maryland most of the refining jobs. Background C rude O il P roductio n .—In 1948, about 3,600 workers, less than 2 percent of the Nation’s total, were employed in crude production in the South Atlantic States. Except for a small number in Florida and Virginia, all of the jobs in this region were in West Virginia. The 17,000 oil wells in this State produced about 2,800,000 barrels in 1949, making it the nineteenth ranking State, While total output is relatively small, West Vir ginia crude is of high quality, yielding a good grade of lubricating oil and commanding a com paratively high price. West Virginia oil fields are in the northern and western part of the State. They lie in a belt about 40 to 70 miles wide, ex tending from Pennsylvania to the Kentucky State line. Virginia and Florida are the only other South Atlantic States which have producing wells. Pe troleum production in Virginia has been limited to the small Rose Hill field in Lee County in the extreme southwestern part of the State. The five producing oil wells in Florida at the beginning of 1948 were all in the recently developed Sunnyland field in Collier County. R e f in in g .—About 3,000 workers were employed in 1948 in the 10 refineries located in this region; Baltimore is its only major refining center. The one large and two smaller refineries in Baltimore, Md., had a total capacity of 67,000 barrels a day, more than two-thirds of the region’s total capacity. Most other refinery workers were employed in the four small refineries located in the petroleum pro ducing area of West Virginia. There are three other refineries in this region, all of them small and engaged principally in producing asphalt for local markets. These refineries are located in Claymont, Del.; Savannah, Ga.; and Charleston, S. C. Outlook C rude P roductio n .—There will be few openings for new workers in crude petroleum production in this region. In West Virginia, where nearly all of the region’s oil fields are located, petroleum pro duction has been decreasing steadily for many years. In 1900, this was one of the leading pro ducing States with an output of 16 million barrels, representing more than a fourth of the United States total. By 1920, production had fallen to half of the 1900 figure; in 1949, the State’s output of less than 2,800,000 barrels was only a little more than one-tenth of 1 percent of the Nation’s total. While there has been an increased amount of ex ploration and drilling activity since the war and some new oil pools have been discovered, no sig nificant expansion of the petroleum production 37 industry is in sight. However, possible steppingup of secondary recovery operations may create some additional jobs. Because of the limited size of the industry in this region, replacement needs will provide only a small number of job oppor tunities in any one year. R e f in in g .—Job prospects in petroleum refineries in the South Atlantic States are not promising. Employment in the 10 plants in this region is not expected to increase much above the 1948 level in the foreseeable future. Although some openings for new workers will arise from replacement needs, the number will be limited because of the small size of the industry in this region and because the turn-over rate in refining is one of the lowest in industry. Earnings September 1948 average straight-time hourly earnings of petroleum refinery workers in selected occupations in the South Atlantic States are shown in the following tabulation: Occupation Average straight-tim e hourly earnings Assistant stiIlmen, cracking______________ $2. 05 Assistant stillmen, straight-run_________ 2. 01 Assistant stillmen, combination units____ 2. 02 Carpenters, maintenance________________ 1.93 Electricians, maintenance________________ 2.02 Helpers, maintenance____________________ 1. 58 Instrument repairmen___________________ 2.01 Laborers_______________________________ 1.38 Loaders, tank cars or trucks_____________ 1. 65 Machinists, maintenance________________ 1.98 Mechanics, maintenance_________________ 1.83 Packers, hand__________________________ 1.54 Pipe fitters____________ _______________ 1.96 Pumpmen_____________________________ 1. 96 Pumpmen’s helpers_____________________ 1. 83 Routine testers, laboratory______________ 1. 67 Stillmen, cracking_______________________ 2.33 Stillmen, straight-run___________________ 2.33 Treaters’ helpers, light oils_____________ 1. 89 Welders, hand, maintenance______________ 1.96 Recent wage information on petroleum produc tion for this region is not available. For earnings data for the country as a whole see page 19. New England (CONNECTICUT, MAINE, MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE, RHODE ISLAND, VERMONT) There will be very limited opportunities for employment in the petroleum industry in this area. R. I., area are small and produce mainly asphalt for local use. Most of the crude needed for refin ing operations in this region comes from Texas and Venezuela. Background Outlook Sum m ary New England produces no crude petroleum and has barely 1 percent of the Nation’s refining ca pacity. In 1948, about 1,000 wage and salary workers were employed in the 5 refineries located in this region. Two of the refineries are in Massa chusetts—one in East Braintree and one in Ever ett. The other three, located in the Providence, 38 No expansion in the petroleum refining industry in this region is in sight. Because of the small size of the industry, replacement needs will pro vide only a very few openings for new workers. Owing to the geological characteristics of New England, there is little chance that petroleum de posits will be found. Petroleum Jobs Abroad In addition to the personnel working in the oil fields and refineries in this country, United States oil companies employ several thousand Americans abroad. American companies operating in for eign countries accounted, in 1947, for nearly twofifths of all the oil produced outside the United States. These companies also operate a number of refineries abroad. Recent data are not avail able on the total number of workers employed in the foreign activities of these American compa nies. In 1944, however, 11 American companies and their subsidiaries employed about 67,000 workers outside of the United States. The great bulk of these were nationals of the respective countries, but a high percentage of the technical and skilled jobs were filled by Americans. Since 1944, employment has risen considerably. American oil companies are operating in about 20 foreign countries. Most jobs abroad are in the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia, and in South America, principally in Venezuela. In the last year or two a number of United States oil companies’ employees have been working in Can ada. Most foreign jobs for Americans are for experienced, skilled production workers and for professional and technical personnel. These in clude keymen in geological and geophysical ex ploration parties; petroleum engineers; tool push ers, drillers, and derrickmen as the basic members of drilling crews; pumpers, switchers, pipe fitters, and welders in the producing fields; and chemical engineers, chemists, operators (stillmen), and skilled maintenance workers in the refineries. Prospects are that the foreign activity of United States oil companies will increase. However, the trend is to employ, insofar as possible, nationals of the countries concerned. Wages paid to AmerShooter lowering charge of dynamite down shot hole. These workers are part of a seismograph pros pecting crew. ican oil workers abroad tend to be considerably higher than the rates paid for comparable jobs in this country. 39 APPENDIX I—M A JO R O IL FIELDS IN THE UNITED STA TES1 130 fields produced half of the United States oil in 1948 State and field Arkansas: Magnolia _ _ Smackover _ _ _ _ California: Buena Vista Coalinga, East Coalinga, Nose Coalinga, West Coles Levee, North___ Elk Hills_____________ Kern Front Kern River K ettlem a n , N orth Dome. McKittrick-Cymric___ Midway-Sunset Mount Poso Rio Bravo _ Elwood _ _ Orcutt Santa Maria Valley__^ Ventura Avenue Brea Olinda Coyote, West Dominguez Huntington Beach Inglewood _ Long Beach _ ___ Montebello _ _ _ _ _ Richfield __ Santa Fe Springs Seal Beach Torrance Wilmington Colorado: Rangely Illinois: Bridgeport Louden Robinson Salem Kansas: El Dorado Silica Trapp Louisiana: Caddo Delhi-Big Creek Erath _ Haynesville Iowa_ _ 40 County Columbia. Union, Ouachita. Kern. Fresno. Fresno. Fresno. Kern. Kern. Kern. Kern. Fresno, Kings. Kern. Kern. Kern. Kern. Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara. Ventura. Orange. Orange. Los Angeles. Orange. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. Orange. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. Rio Blanco. Lawrence. Effingham, Fayette. Crawford. Marion. Butler. Rice, Barton. Russell, Barton. Caddo. Richland, Franklin. Vermillion. Claiborne. Calcasille, Jeff Davis. State and field County Louisiana—Continued Jennings_____________ Acadia. Lafitte_______________ Caddo, Jefferson. Rodessa (Ark.-La.Mille (Ark.), Caddo (La.), Tex.) Cass (Texas). Vinton_______________ Calcasieu. Mississippi: Cranfield_____________Adams, Franklin. Heidelberg___________ Jasper. Tinsley______________ Yazoo. New Mexico: Eunice_______________ Lea. Hobbs_______________ Lea. Monument___________Lea. Vacuum_____________ Lea. Oklahoma: Avant_______________ Osage. Bowlegs______________ Seminole. Burbank_____________ Osage, Kay. Cement______________Caddo, Grady. Cushing______________ Creek, Payne. Earlsboro____________ Seminole, Pottawatomee. Edmond, West_______ Logan, California, Cana dian, Kingfisher. Fitts_________________Pontotoc. Glenn Pool___________Creek, Tulsa. Healdton_____________ Carter, Jefferson. Hewitt and West_____ Carter. Little River__________ Seminole. Oklahoma City_______ Oklahoma, Cleveland. Seminole City________ Seminole. Sholem Alechem______ Carter, Stephens. St. Louis_____________ Pottawatomee. Tonkawa_____________ Noble, May. Vehna_______________ Stephens. Pennsylvania: Allegheny____________ Allegheny. Bradford_____________ McKean (Pa.), Allegany (NY). Texas: Eastern Texas: East Texas field__Smith, Rusk, Gregg, Upshur, Cherokee. Hawkins_________Wood. Mexia___________ Limestone. Powell___________Navarro. Talco____________ Frankline, Titus. Van_____________ Van Zandt. Source: Oil and Gas Journal, The Petroleum Publishing Co., Tulsa, Okla. APPENDIX I—M A JO R O IL FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued County State and field Texas—Continued North Texas: Burkburnett_____ K. M. A_________ Electra__________ Panhandle Texas: Badger__________ Borger-Pantex___ Finley___________ West Pampa_____ Southwest Texas: Luling-Bravon___ Darst Creek_____ Texas Gulf coast: Agua Dulce to La Gloria. Anahuac_________ Barbers Hill_____ Conroe__________ Greta____________ Hastings_________ Hull_____________ Humble and Light. Katy____________ Magnet-Withers and North. Old Ocean_______ Refugio area_____ Sour Lake_______ Spindletop_______ Thompson_______ Tom O’Connor___ Wichita. Wilbarger, Wichita. Wilbarger. Hutchinson. Hutchinson. Gray. Gray. Caldwell, Guadalupe. Guadalupe. Nueces, Jim Wells, Brooks. Chambers. Chambers. Montgomery. Refugio. Brazoria. Liberty. Harris. Waller. Wharton. Brazoria. Refugio. Mardin. Jefferson. Ft. Bend. Refugio. State and field County Texas—Continued Texas Gulf Coast—Continued Webster (Friends- Harris, wood). West Columbia__ Brazoria. West Ranch_____ Jackson. West Texas: Big Lake________ Reagen. Cowden, North__ Ector. Foster___________ Ector. Fullerton________ Andrews. Goldsmith_______ Ector. Hendrick________ Winkler. Howard-Glasscock_ Glasscock, Howard. Keystone________ Winkler. Levelland________ Hockley. McCamey_______ Upton. McElroy_________ Crane. Seminole_________ Gaines. Slaughter________ Cochran, Hockley, Terry. T-X-L___________ Ector. Ward, North, and Ward. Estes. Wasson__________ Gaines. Yates____________Pecos. Wyoming: Elk Basin (Wyo. and Park (Wyo.), Carbon (Mont.) Mont.). Lance Creek________ Niobrara. Oregon Basin_________Park. Salt Creek___________ Natrona. 41 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1 ,1 9 4 9 1 Location Com pany Coastal Petroleum Corp Hunt Oil Co__________ Alabama Arkansas Berry Asphalt Co______________ Do_______________________ Henry H. Cross Co____________ Lion Oil Refining Co___________ Macmillan Petroleum Corp_____ Root Petroleum Co____________ California Calstate Refining Co_________ Caminol Co., Ltd____________ Century Oil Co______________ Douglas Oil Co. of Calif--------Do_____________________ Edgington Refining Co---------Envoy Petroleum Co________ Five C Refining Co--------------Fletcher Oil Co______________ General Petroleum Co. of Calif Do_____________________ Do_____________________ Golden Bear Oil Co__________ Hancock Oil Co. of Calif_____ MacMillan Petroleum Corp__ McCallen Refining Co_______ Mohawk Petroleum Corp____ Newhall Refining Co_________ Norwalk Co_________________ Oxnard Oil & Refining Co____ Pacific States Oil Co_________ Palomar Refining Co_________ Paraffine Companies, Ltd_____ The Petrol Corp_____________ Richfield Oil Corp___________ Rothschild Oil Co___________ Seaside Oil Co_______________ Shell Oil Co_________________ Do_____________________ Socal Oil & Refining Co______ Standard Oil Co. of Calif_____ Do_____________________ Do_____________________ Sunland Refining Co_________ Sunray Oil Corp_____________ Mobile___ Tuscaloosa Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day Stephens. _ Waterloo. _ Smackover El Dorado. Norphlet.. El DoradoLong Beach______ Hansford________ Long Beach_____ Bakersfield_______ Clearwater_______ Long Beach______ ___ do___________ Santa Maria_____ Wilmington______ Lebac___________ Torrance________ Vernon__________ Bakersfield______ Long Beach______ ____do___________ Huntington Beach. Bakersfield______ Newhall_________ Maricopa________ Oxnard__________ Wilmington______ Bakersfield______ Emeryville_______ Los Angeles______ Watson__________ Santa Fe Springs.. Ventura_________ Martinez________ Wilmington______ Huntington Beach. El Segundo______ Richmond_______ Segura__________ Bakersfield______ Santa Maria_____ 1 Source: Information Circular. United States Departm ent of the Interior— Bureau of M ines—I. C. 7537—September 1949. 42 8, 000 3, 000 1, 500 ____________ 1, 000 _________ 3, 600 ____________ 22, 000 2, 500 4, 000 ____________ 23, 300 4, 9Q0 4, 000 4, 000 7, 400 4, 500 3, 000 3, 000 3, 500 3, 600 23, 000 500 850 1, 700 100, 000 25, 800 12 , 000 1, 800 4, 000 2, 500 7, 500 5, 000 7, 500 3, 000 3, 000 10 , 000 1, 500 25, 000 1, 300 2, 400 5, 000 85, 000 6, 300 4, 500 45, 000 52, 000 1, 800 117, 000 138, 000 15, 000 1, 700 2, 500 17, 500 1, 125 8, 000 17, 700 500 21, 200 30, 600 600 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1, 1949—Continued Crude-oil capacity (in operation) California—Continued Sunset Oil Co The Texas Co Do. _ _ Tide Water Associated Oil Co Do Triangle Oil Co Union Oil Co. of Calif Do Do Western Asphalt fc Tiefining Co Wilshire Oil Co. Inc Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Location Com pany Barrels per day 3, 500 5, 000 50, 000 85, 000 14, 000 2, 500 8, 100 62, 800 62, 000 1, 200 17, 000 Torrance Fillmore _ __ ___ Wilmington Avon Watson Venice Maltha Oleum _ - ____ _ ________________ Wilmington Santa Maria Norwalk- 1, 000 13, 000 11, 100 400 4, 050 20, 200 3, 800 Colorado The Bay Petroleum Corp ____ Continental Oil Co ___ Gordon Refining Co ______ Oriental Refining Co Do __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Shelly Oil Co _ _____ The Texas Co Delaware Denver _ do Ft. Morgan Alamosa. _ Denver __ do _ ____ 6, 000 6, 750 200 1, 100 1, 500 1, 500 __ 3, 500 ________ __ __ 5, 500 _ _ _ _________ 4, 500 _ __ Claymont 2, 000 3, 975 500 500 260 Georgia Mexican Petroleum Corp. of Georgia Idaho Wasatch Oil Co ____ __ - Savannah _ __ __ _ Pocatello 600 Illinois Advance Refining Co , Inc Arrow Petroleum Co Calumet Refining Co Henry H. Cross Co The Globe Oil & Refining Co Great Lakes Petroleum Co The Ohio Oil Co Pana Refining Co Shell Oil Co., Inc Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc Standard Oil Co. (Ind.) The Texas Co Do ____ - - _________ - - ___ B F. Wireback __ _ Wood River Oil & Refining Co., Inc Indiana Cities Service Oil Co _ _ ____ ____ Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association, Inc__ Johnson Oil Supply Corp Rr J Oil A R.pfining On Tne f: Rock Island Refining Corp__ __ __ __ Centralia do Burnham Colmar Lamont Blue Island Robinson Pana Roxana E. St. Louis Wood River Lawrenceville Lockport Plymouth Hartford E. Chicago Mt. Vernon Gary Princeton Rock Island __ _ 2, 500 5, 000 1, 000 200 31, 925 10, 000 18, 500 4, 000 100, 000 22, 700 42, 600 27, 000 55, 000 250 22, 500 33, 000 8, 000 2, 000 1, 200 8, 500 8, 750 1, 000 10, 800 700 33, 600 4, 730 12, 000 8, 000 24, 000 5, 000 11, 000 3, 500 2, 200 43 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1, 1949—Continued Com pany Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Indiana—Continued Khnsas Kentucky Aetna Oil Co Ashland Oil & Refining Co Louisville Refining Co. Inc Standard Oil Co. (Ohio) _ Somerset Refinery Stoll Oil Refining Co., Inc 32, 000 8, 000 50, 800 7, 500 7, 000 800 17, 000 4, 000 9, 000 6, 400 8, 500 1, 650 18, 000 38, 000 2, 500 25, 000 26, 500 8, 500 5, 500 Wichita _ McPherson Chanute Coffeyville Phillipsburg Wichita El Dorado Arkansas City Chanute McPherson Kansas City. Shallow Water El Dorado Augusta Neodesha Potwin Louisville . _ Cattlettsburg Louisville Latonia Somerset Louisville Barrels per day 85, 000 25, 000 175, 800 1, 500 Sinclair Refining Co E. Chicago do Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc Standard Oil Co. (Ind.).___ __________________________ Whiting Maxville Troy Refining Corp Bareco Oil Co The Bay Petroleum Corp The Chanute Refining Co Cooperative Refining Association Do ___ ______________________________ The Derby Oil Co ____________________________ El Dorado Refining Co The Kanotex Refining Co M. F. A. Refining Co National Coop. Refining Association Phillips Oil Co Shallow Water Refining Co Skelly Oil Co _________________________ _ _ Socony-Vacuum Oil Co Standard Oil Co. (Ind.) The Vickers Petroleum Co., Inc Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Location __ 5, 650 3, 600 3, 500 1, 200 2, 200 2, 560 5, 800 400 10, 100 13, 000 600 8, 000 7, 100 2, 640 2, 800 8, 000 38, 000 6, 000 16, 500 1, 500 1, 800 1, 100 10, 500 2, 500 6, 000 12, 000 800 900 2, 000 7, 000 4, 300 4, 300 Louisiana Inland Shreveport Hosston Princeton Cotton Valley Superior. Atlas Oil & Refining Corp Bayou State Oil Corp Calumet Refining Co Coast Oil Co Stanolind Oil & Gas Co 2, 000 G ulf Breaux Bridge Oil Refining Co Chalmette Petroleum Corp Cities Service Oil Co Continental Oil Co Esso Standard Oil Co Evangeline Refining Co Gilorease Oil Co Pan American Petroleum Corp Petco Corp Shell Oil Co., Inc . ___________ _________ Southern State Refining Co _ __ __ 44 Anse La Butte Chalmette Lake Charles West Lake (Lake Charles) Baton Rouge. Jennings__ Meraux _ Destrehan Marvero Norco Eola _ _ 500 14, 000 110, 000 11, 000 235, 000 1, 000 4, 000 9, 500 5, 000 45, 000 1, 000 2, 650 25, 000 4, 115 36, 700 800 8, 600 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1, 1949—Continued Location Com pany M aryland American Bitumuls________ Esso Standard Oil Co______ Pan American Refining Corp Baltimore ___ do__ ___ do__ Crude-oil capacity (in operation) C racked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day 6, 000 54, 700 6, 500 14, 260 Massachusetts Michigan Aurora Gasoline Co_____ Do_________________ Bay Refining Corp______ Crystal Refining Co., Inc _ Lakeside Refining Co____ Leonard Refineries, Inc__ Louis Rose Refining C o... Marvel Refining Co-------Mid-West Refineries_____ Naph-Sol Refining Co___ Old Dutch Refining Co___ Osceola Refining Co_____ Petroleum Specialties, Inc Producers Refining, Inc _ _ The Pure Oil Co________ Roosevelt Oil Co________ Socony-Vacuum Oil Co__ E. Braintree Everett___ 15, 000 38, 000 Detroit______ Elsie________ Bay City____ Carson City _ _ Kalamazoo__ Alma________ Saginaw_____ Grand Rapids. Alma________ Muskegon___ ___ do______ Reed City___ Flat Rock___ West Branch. Midland_____ Mt. Pleasant. Trenton_____ 16, 000 4, 000 5, 921 St. Paul Park 5, 000 Crupp_____ Sandersville. 3, 500 4, 500 1, 000 Sugar Creek Cities Service Oil Co. (Pa.) Esso Standard Oil Co_____ 37, 100 15, 500 Kevin____ Billings___ Cut Bank.. Laurel____ Sunburst. _ Cut Bank.. Great Falls 1, 500 11, 000 3, 800 9, 500 7, 500 3, 500 2, 800 1, 000 1, 300 900 2, 370 2, 500 1, 200 600 Scotts Bluff Chadron__ Omaha____ 1, 900 600 360 8, 000 6, 000 6, 000 2 , 000 8, 500 3, 500 7, 750 2, 000 1, 800 4, 000 5, 100 4, 500 750 3, 500 1, 899 4, 700 7, 500 25, 000 1, 200 1, 700 3, 000 7, 299 Minnesota Northwestern Refining Co Mississippi Paluxy Asphalt Co______________ Southland Oils, Inc_____________ Missouri Standard Oil Co. (Ind.) Montana Big West Oil Co_______________ Carter Oil Co_________________ Do________________________ Farmers Union Central Exchange The Texas Co_________________ Union Oil Co. of Calif__________ Wasatch Oil Co.-Ada Oil Co____ Nebraska Cooperative Refining Association Petroleum Utilities Co_________ Searle Petroleum Co___________ 1, 000 45 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1 , 1949—Continued Location Com pany N ew J ersey Barber Linden ______________________ Petty’s Island Bayonne, etc. Esso Stan Hard Oil Co Paulsboro Socony-Vacuum Oil Co. Inc Bayonne Tido Water Associated Oil Co California Refining Co Cities Service Oil Co. (Pa.) Do _________ Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day 20, 000 15, 000 10, 000 175, 000 47, 000 70, 000 6, 000 35, 000 12, 600 14, 500 N ew M exico Continental Oil Co Do _Maicn Refineries Tnc McNutt Oil A Refining Co r New Mexico Asphalt Refining Co Petroleum Products Refining Co N ew Y ork Prontier Pnel Oil Gulf Oil Corp Sinclair Refining Co Socony-Vacuum Oil Co Tnc Do Do Bloomfield Artesia _______ ______ Farmington Roswell Brickland Artesia 200 3, 000 350 1, 800 3, 000 4, 000 2, 000 750 350 200 2, 000 Tonawanda Gulfport Wells ville Brooklyn - ______________ Buffalo Olean The Aerex Co Inc 10, 000 20, 000 9, 000 26, 000 22, 000 7, 000 3, 500 3, 000 5, 800 6, 900 12, 000 26, 600 23, 000 9, 300 15, 500 29, 400 42, 500 17, 500 21, 000 37, 000 2, 500 9, 055 7, 400 5, 400 7, 950 14, 800 18, 500 5, 000 7, 800 13, 700 1, 500 10, 000 5, 500 4, 500 17, 500 15, 000 38, 600 12, 500 1, 850 6, 000 7, 500 2, 000 45, 000 6, 500 3, 000 1, 700 1, 700 7, 000 2, 500 12, 035 4, 500 2, 750 625 14, 580 1, 826 Prewitt Ohio Ashland Oil Sr R,efininer Co Gulf R e f in in g Co Do The Nationa.l Refinine- Co The Pure Oil Co Do The Standard Oil Co. (Ohio) Do Do Sun Oil Co Western Reserves Allied Materials Corp _ _ - _________ - Oklahom a Anderson Prichard Refining Co Bell Oil & Gas Co Ben Franklin Refining Co Ohamplin Refioing Co Cities Service Oil Co Continental Oil Co Deep Rock Oil Corp Denver Prndncincr A Refinincr Co r Johnson Oil & Refinin0- Co Kerr-Me Gee Oil Industries Inc Mercury Oil Refining Co Mid-Continent Petroleum Corp Midland Cooperative Wholesale, _ 46 __ - ______________ _ _ _________ Canton Cleves Toledo Findlay Heath Toledo Cleveland Lima Toledo do Miles Stroud C yril_________________ _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Grandfield Ardmore Enid Ponca City do Cushing Edmond Cleveland Wynne wood Oklahoma City West Tulsa Cushing - APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1 , 1949—Continued Location Com pany Oklahoma—Continued Monarch Refineries, Inc______________ Peppers Gasoline Co_________________ Phillips Oil Co______________________ Rock Island Refining Co--- ----------------Sunray Oil Co----------------------------------Do_____________________________ The Texas Co_______________________ Tide Water Associated Oil Co_________ Wilcox Oil & Gas Co_________________ Oklahoma Citv do Okmulgee Beckett Allen _ Duncan W. Tulsa_____________________ Drumright Bristow. Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day 700 1, 500 11, 000 7, 100 12, 500 20, 000 21, 000 12, 000 5, 000 500 1, 600 1, 700 6, 875 10, 000 7, 000 2, 700 2, 000 Oregon Stan cel Asphalt & Bitumuls Co___ Portland. 4, 200 Pennsylvania E ast The Atlantic Refining Co_________ Gulf Oil Corp___________________ Sinclair Refining Co______________ Sun Oil Co______________________ W Philadelphia _ Girard Point. Marcus Hook ___ do______ 117, 000 76, 700 70, 000 140, 000 28, 500 22, 000 29, 000 53, 000 est Cities Service Oil Co. (Pa.)_______ Franklin Refinery________________ Freedom-Valvoline Co___________ Gulf Oil Corp___________________ Kendall Refining Co_____________ Pennsylvania Refining Co________ The Pennzoil Co_________________ Quaker State Oil Refining Corp___ Do_________________________ Do_________________________ United Refining Co______________ Waverly Oil Works______ ______ Wolfs Head Oil Refining Co., Inc_. Titusville_____ Franklin______ Freedom______ Neville Island. _ Bradford_____ Karns City___ Rouseville____ Emlenton_____ Farmers Valley. Oil City______ Warren_______ Pittsburgh____ Reno_________ 3, 000 1, 650 4, 000 14, 500 4, 800 1, 500 8, 400 2, 000 4, 000 2, 800 5, 500 2, 500 2, 000 1, 000 4, 800 1, 000 2, 674 1, 080 1, 500 1, 508 1, 600 1, 027 Rhode Island Providence__ E. Providence. Providence__ 1, 200 8 , 000 Charleston American Bitumuls Co_____ Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc The Texas Co_____________ 6, 500 3, 500 700 South Carolina Esso Standard Oil Co. South Dakota How-Kola Refining Co Sturgis. 100 47 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1, 1949—Continued Com pany Tennessee Delta Refining Co_____________ Southern Oil Service___________ Location Memphis Nashville ___ ____________ ___ ________ Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day 4, 000 1, 000 600 13, 000 9, 000 10, 000 5, 200 6, 300 15, 000 2, 000 2, 500 9, 500 10, 000 7, 000 1, 500 2, 000 12, 000 2, 500 4, 000 3, 800 1, 500 4, 000 1, 500 1, 000 56, 000 500 2, 000 5, 000 2, 500 8, 000 4, 500 1, 900 1, 000 3, 500 Texas Inland American Liberty Oil Co__________________ Bryson Pipeline & Refining Co____________ Col-Tex Refining Co______________________ Consumers Cooperative Refining Association Continental Oil Co_______________________ Cosden Petroleum Corp___________________ Danaho Refining Co______________________ Glade water Refining Co__________________ Gulf Oil Corp____________________________ Do__________________________________ Humble Oil & Refining Co________________ Inland Refining Co_______________________ LaSalle Petroleum Corp__________________ Magnolia Petroleum Co___________________ McBride Refining Co., Inc________________ McMurrey Petroleum Corp_______________ Onyx Refining Corp______________________ Panhandle Producing & Refining Co_______ Do__________________________________ Patton Oil Co____________________________ Pay ward Refining Co_____________________ Phillips Petroleum Co____________________ Phoenix Refining Co_____________________ Pioneer Oil & Refining Co________________ Premier Petroleum Co____________________ Do__________________________________ Do__________________________________ Do__________________________________ Prichard Refining Co., Ltd________________ Radio Refining Co., Ltd__________________ Reischman Refinery______________________ Roger Lacy, Inc_________________________ The Shamrock Oil & Gas Corp____________ Skelly Oil Co____________________________ Standard Oil Co. of Texas________________ The Texas Co___________________________ Do_________________________________ Do_________________________________ Do_________________________________ Three Rivers Refinery____________________ The Tydol Co___________________________ Ute Oil & Refining Co____________________ Waggoner, W. T., Estate_________________ Wickett Refining Co_____________________ Digitized 48 FRASER for Mt. Pleasant _ _ __ __ Bryson Colorado Citv Levelland Wichita Falls Big SpringsPettus Gladewater Ft. Worth Sweetwater San Antonio Tucker Burkburnett Ft. Worth _ LaBlanca _ Tyler Abilene Lueders Wichita Falls Rotan Shamrock Borger _ __ San Antonio Somerset Arp Baird Fort Worth Longview San Antonio McAllen Pecos Big Sandy Moore County _ _ Longview __ El Paso ------Amarillo. ------------El Paso ----- _ San Antonio West Dallas Three Rivers Gainesville Graham __ _ Electra Wickett 200 3, 000 7, 000 7, 000 18, 000 8, 000 5, 000 7, 000 15, 000 1, 000 2, 000 800 7, 000 1, 500 2, 000 850 3, 025 6, 000 300 1, 500 1, 975 1, 950 400 4, 600 4, 500 3, 000 350 1, 000 23, 000 2, 800 750 1, 500 2, 000 1, 000 4, 300 1, 750 3, 000 3, 000 1, 500 2, 500 5, 000 2, 500 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1, 1949—Continued Com pany Location Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day Texas—Continued G ulf Alamo Refining Co________________ American Mineral Spirits Co_______ Atlantic Refining Co______________ Bennett Oil & Refining Co. of Texas Coastal Refineries_________________ Crown Central Petroleum Corp____ Eastern States Petroleum Co., Inc__ Eddy Refinery____________________ Gulf Oil Corp____________________ Hamman Oil & Refining Co_______ Humble Oil & Refining Co________ Hutex Oil & Refining Co__________ Magnolia Petroleum Co___________ Maritime Oil Co__________________ Pan American Refining Co________ Petrol Terminal Corp_____________ Pontiac Refining Co_______________ The Pure Oil Co__________________ Republic Oil & Refining Co________ Shell Oil Co., Inc_________________ Sid Richardson Refining Co_______ Sinclair Refining Co_______________ Do__________________________ Southwestern Oil & Refining Co____ Taylor Refining Co_______________ The Texas Co____________________ Do__________________________ Utah Uinta Oil Co________________ Utah Oil Refining Co________ Wasatch Oil Refining Co_____ Wasatch Oil Co Washington Sweeney____________ Corpus Christi______ Atreco (Port Arthur) _ Refugio_____________ Port Isabel__________ Houston____________ ____do______________ ____do______________ Port Arthur_________ Bay City___________ Baytown____________ Hardin______________ Beaumont___________ Galena Park________ Texas City__________ ___ do______________ Corpus Christi______ Nederland__________ Texas City__________ Houston (Deer Park) _ Texas City__________ Corpus Christi______ Houston____________ Corpus Christi______ ____do______________ Port Arthur_________ Port Neches_________ Jensen_______ Salt Lake City. Woods Cress. _ 45, 000 9, 000 40, 000 1, 500 6, 500 24, 000 25, 000 2, 200 11 , 000 6, 300 600 6, 850 28, 500 220, 000 53, 350 237, 000 45, 600 2 , 100 1, 000 150, 000 5, 000 114, 000 15, 600 19, 000 58, 000 34, 000 110, 000 20, 000 16, 000 85, 000 18, 000 31, 000 190, 000 40, 000 700 34, 630 47, 000 4, 500 16, 500 24, 000 25, 500 4, 500 10, 400 25, 000 1, 500 85, 000 22, 000 4, 200 6, 995 800 Spokane. 5, 500 1, 000 Charleston__ Falling Rock_ Cabin Creek. St. Marys__ 2, 500 4, 500 5, 500 2, 500 1, 000 Sheboygan. 5, 000 Lusk_______ Glenrock___ New Castle. Osage_____ Thermopolis 160 3, 400 West Virginia Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Co. Elk Refining Co_______________ The Pure Oil Co_______________ Quaker State Oil Refining Co___ 1, 200 1, 400 1, 050 Wisconsin Wisconsin Oil Refining Co Wyoming C & H Refinery_______________ Continental Oil Co_____________ Cooperative Refinery Association Elk Horn Gas Refinery________ Empire State Oil Co---------------- 2 , 000 55 1, 500 989 890 49 APPENDIX II—PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, JA N U A R Y 1,1949—Continued Com pany Wyoming —Continued Orac° Oil "R.pfinirig On TTuslry Rpfining On TrifJnpnnrlPint R.pfinpry OTiin Oil On Pilnt Oil On Rpppliltp Oil Onrp Sinclair R.pfining On Socony-Vacuum Oil Co Inc Standard Oil Co (Ind.) Tire Tpxaa On Do 50 Location Cheyenne New Castle Cody Lusk Lovell Morton Badger Basin Sinclair Casper do Calpet Casper Crude-oil capacity (in operation) Cracked-gasoline capacity (in operation) Barrels per day Barrels per day 11, 000 2, 500 4, 500 95 6, 000 200 1, 200 20, 000 3, 300 14, 000 400 12, 000 5, 750 7, 000 750 3, 800 4, 500 Occupational Outlook Publications of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Studies of employment trends and opportuni ties in the various occupations and professions are made by the Occupational Outlook Branch of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Reports are prepared for use in the vocational guidance of veterans, young people in schools, and others considering the choice of an occupation. Schools concerned with vocational training and employers and trade-unions interested in on-thejob training have also found the reports helpful in planning programs in line with prospective employment opportunities. Two types of reports are issued, in addition to the Occupational Outlook Handbook: Occupational outlook 'bulletins describe the longrun outlook for employment in each occupation and give information on earnings, working con ditions, and the training required. Special reports are issued from time to time on such subjects as the general employment outlook, trends in the various States, and occupational mobility. The reports are issued as bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Occupational Outlook Handbook Includes brief reports on each of 288 occupa tions of interest in vocational guidance, including professions; skilled trades; clerical, sales, and service occupations; and the major types of farm ing. Each report describes the employment trends and outlook, the training qualifications required, earnings, and working conditions. Introductory sections summarize the major trends in popula tion and employment, and in the broad industrial and occupational groups, as background for an understanding of the individual occupations. The Handbook is designed for use in counsel ing, in classes or units on occupations, in the train ing of counselors, and as a general reference. It is illustrated with 79 photographs and 47 charts. This handbook is now being revised and brought up to date. Bulletin 940 (1948). 1950 revision (Bulletin 998) in press. Occupational Outlook Bulletins Employment Opportunities for Diesel-Engine Mechanics Bulletin 813 (1945). 5 cents. Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occupations, Part I—Postwar Employment Outlook Bulletin 837-1 (1945). (Edition sold out; copies are on file in many libraries.) Employment Opportunities in Aviation Occupations, Part II—Duties, Qualifications, Earnings, and Working Conditions Bulletin 837-2 (1946). 25 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook for Automobile Mechanics Bulletin 842 (1945). 10 cents. Employment Opportunities for Welders Bulletin 844 (1945). 10 cents. Postwar Outlook for Physicians Bulletin 863 (1946). 10 cents. Employment Outlook in Foundry Occupations Bulletin 880 (1946). 15 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook for Business-Machine Servicemen Bulletin 892 (1947). 15 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in Machine-Shop Occupations Bulletin 895 (1947). 20 cents. Illus. 51 Occupational Outlook Bulletins— Continued Employment Outlook in Printing Occupations Bulletin 902 (1947). 20 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in Hotel Occupations Bulletin 905 (1947). 10 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in the Plastics Products Industry Bulletin 929 (1948). 15 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in Electric Light and Power Occupations Bulletin 944 (1949). 30 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in Radio and Television Broadcasting Occupations Bulletin 958 (1949). 30 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in Railroad Occupations Bulletin 961 (1949). 30 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook in the Building Trades Bulletin 967 (1949). 50 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook for Engineers Bulletin 968 (1949). 50 cents. Illus. Employment Outlook for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers Bulletin 972 (1949). 35 cents. Special Reports Occupational Data for Counselors. A Handbook of Census Information Selected for Use in Guidance Bulletin 817 (1945). 15 cents (prepared jointly with the Occupational Information and Guidance Service, U. S. Office of Education). Factors Affecting Earnings in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Bulletin 881 (1946). 10 cents. Economic Status of Ceramic Engineers, 1939 to 1947 Mimeographed. Free; order directly from Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Mailing List Schools, vocational guidance agencies, and others who wish to receive brief summaries of each new Occupational Outlook report may be placed on a mailing list kept for this purpose. Requests 52 should be addressed to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Washing ton 25, D. C., specifying the Occupational Outlook Mailing List. Please give your postal zone. U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OF FI CE: 19S0 The photographs in this bulletin are reproduced by courtesy of the Standard Oil Company (New Jersey). Photographs were taken for the Standard Oil Co. by Messrs. Rosskam, Collier, Libsohn, Corsini, Lee, Stevens, Morris, Bubley, and Roberts.