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E m p lo y m e n t O u tlo o k in METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS Education and Ti Employment Outlook Earnings UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Martin P. Durkin, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, C o m m is s io n e r In cooperation with VETERANS ADMINISTRATION Reprint from 1951 Occupational Outlook Handbook Bulletin No. 1130 Employment Outlook in Metalworking Occupations A reprint from the 1951 Occupational Outlook Handbook Bulletin No. 1130 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Martin P. Durkin, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Com m issioner In cooperation with VETERANS ADMINISTRATION For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington 25. D. C. Price 30 cents Letter of Transmittal U nited S tates D epartm ent of L abor , B u r ea u of L abor S tatistics , Washington, D. G., January 21, 1953. The S ecretary of L abor : I have the honor of transmitting herewith a report on the employment outlook in metalworking occupations taken from our 1951 edition of the Occupational Out look Handbook. This reprint from the Handbook is being issued at this time to make available to the many counselors, teachers, students, and others who seek accurate occupational information, a separate report on metalworking which replaces our Bul letin 844 on welders, issued in 1945, Bulletin 880 on foundry occupations, issued in 1946, and Bulletin 895 on machine shop occupations, issued in 1947. In addition, this reprint covers forge shop work and a number of other metalworking occupations. Librarians, counselors, and other users of the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as others with special interest in a single occupation or industry, have indicated the need for separate reports on the major occupational and industrial fields covered in the Handbook. The research for the Occupational Outlook Handbook was carried on with the financial support of the Veterans Administration, which needed information for use in its vocational rehabilitation and education activities. E w an C l a g u e , Commissioner. Hon. M artin P. D u r k in , Secretary of Labor. Contents Machine-shop occupations_______________________________________________________________ All-round machinists________________________________________________________________ Machine tool operators______________________________________________________________ Tool and die makers________________________________________________________________ Set-up men (machine shop)__________________________________________________________ Lay-out men (machine shop)________________________________________________________ Foundry occupations____________________________________________________________________ Hand molders______________________________________________________________________ Machine molders___________________________________________________________________ Hand coremakers___________________________________________________________________ Machine coremakers________________________________________________________________ Patternmakers________________________________ Chippers and grinders (foundry)_____________________________________________________ Castings inspectors_________________________________________________________________ Melters (foundry)__________________________________________________________________ Foundry technicians________________________________________________________________ Forge shop occupations__________________________________________________ Helpers (hammer and press crews)___________________________________________________ Heaters____________________________________________________________________________ Hammersmiths_____________________________________________________________________ Drop-hammer operators_____________________________________________________________ Upsettermen_______________________________________________________________________ Forging-press operators_____________________________________________________________ Other forge shop workers____________________________________________________________ Other metalworking occupations_________________________________________________________ Arc and gas welders________________________________________________________________ Acetylene burners__________________________________________________________________ Resistance welders__________________________________________________________________ Assemblers (machinery manufacturing)_______________________________________________ Inspectors (machinery manufacturing)_______________________________________________ Blacksmiths________________________________________________________________________ Boilermakers_______________________________________________________________________ Millwrights________________________________________________________________________ Riveters, pneumatic (manufacturing)_____________________________________ 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. CHARTS Metalworking industries have most of the machine-shop jobs, employment 1949__________ Long range trend of employment in metalworking is upward..'__________________________ Employment in machine-shop occupations, 1949_______________________________________ Four States have nearly half of the foundry jobs; distribution of foundry workers, 1947___ Number of foundry jobs far above prewar_____________________________________________ Major foundry occupations, employment, September 1949______________________________ Forge shop employment has varied greatly, but trend is upward________________________ Page 186 189 191 192 194 195 196 200 201 201 202 203 204 205 205 206 207 209 209 210 210 210 211 211 212 212 214 215 216 218 220 221 223 224 186 188 188 196 197 199 207 MACHINE-SHOP OCCUPATIONS Machine-shop workers are the largest occupa tional group in metalworking and one of the most important groups in all industry. In early 1950, more than 750,000 workers were employed in the skilled and semiskilled machining occupations. In addition, there were many thousands of other workers, such as assemblers, inspectors, helpers, and laborers, employed in machine shops.1 CHART 49 METALWORKING INDUSTRIES HAVE MOST OF THE MACHINE SHOP JOBS Em ploym ent 1 94 9 Prim ary and Fab ricated M eta ls Automobiles E le c tr ic a l M achinery Tran s p o rta tio n Equipment All O ther Industries UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS The long-range upward trend of employment in this field, together with a large volume of replace ment needs, should provide many opportunities for new workers. Job openings will be particu larly numerous in the early fifties as the metal working industries, which are the main sources of machine shop jobs, expand to meet defense requirements. Nature of Machine-Shop Work Machining is done by machine tools, and a ma chine shop is simply a workplace in which machine tools are used. A machine tool is a power-driven 1 Reports for some of these occupations, such as machinery assemblers and inspectors are elsewhere in this handbook. See index for page numbers. 186 machine which firmly holds both the piece of metal to be shaped and a cutting instrument, or “tool,” and brings them together so that the metal is cut, shaved, ground, or drilled. In some cases, the tool is moved and the metal held stationary; in others, the metal is moved against a stationary tool. The most common kinds of machine tools include the engine lathe, turret lathe, grinding machine, boring mill, drill press, milling machine, screw machine, shaper, and planer. The operation of lathes is known as “turning.” The piece of metal being cut is rotated against the cutting tool held in the machine. Boring mills and drilling ma chines are among the machines that make holes in metal. Grinding machines remove the metal with a power-driven, abrasive wheel. Milling ma chines shape metal with a saw-toothed cutting tool. Planers and shapers are used to machine flat sur faces. A screw machine is a type of lathe. Some machine shops manufacture metal prod ucts and others do maintenance work—making or repairing metal parts for equipment use. The manufacturing shops are of two main types—job shops and production shops—depending upon the way their production is organized. In job shops, the earliest developed, a wide variety of products may be made with relatively few of each kind. Production shops, on the other hand, make large quantities of identical items. Where Machine-Shop Workers Are Employed Because of their importance in making metal products, machine-shop workers are employed principally in the metalworking industries. Nearly every industry, however, employs some ma chine-shop workers in maintenance work. More than three-fourths of all workers in the machineshop occupations have jobs in metal industries like machinery, primary and fabricated metals, and automobiles. (See chart 49.) Most of the remaining machine-shop workers are employed by the railroads, public utilities, and in the maintenance shops of nonmetal manufac turing plants which make such products as cotton textiles, paper, cigarettes, and chemicals. Even though the number of machine-shop workers in most nonmetal industries is small, these industries, MACHINE-SHOP OCCUPATIONS taken together, are important as a source of em ployment for machine-shop workers since they provide almost a fourth of the jobs. Moreover, in many cases the machine-shop jobs rate among the better jobs in the plant and locality, as for ex ample, in many textile mills in southern towns. Because so many machine-shop workers are in metalworking industries, the bulk of them are found in the northeastern and mid western sec tions of the country, where these industries are concentrated. Some machine-shop employment, however, is scattered throughout the country in railroad repair shops and the maintenance shops of other industries. There are machine-shop jobs in every State. Outlook Many thousands of new workers will get ma chine-shop jobs during the next decade. Job openings will be particularly numerous in the early fifties as the metalworking industries, which are the main source of machine-shop jobs, expand to meet increasing defense requirements. The longrange employment trend in metalworking indus tries is also upward, as chart 50 shows. However, as the chart also shows, the metalworking indus tries are more seriously affected by business depressions than industry generally. Thus, machine-shop workers suffer heavy lay-offs and a greatly reduced workweek when economic condi tions are bad. In the maintenance shops of nonmetal industries, long-run growth in machine-shop employment is also in prospect. These industries as a whole have a general upward trend associated with rising pop ulation and national income. Moreover, the grad ual mechanization of industry tends to expand the need for maintenance machine-shop workers to keep mechanical equipment in good condition. Many of these nonmetal industries are much less affected by changes in general business conditions than are the metalworking industries, so that ma chine-shop workers in the nonmetal industries tend to have fairly steady employment over the years. Genera! view of a small machine shop. Co u r tesy of n a t io n a l A r c h iv e s 187 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK In addition to the expected rise in machine-shop employment, replacement needs (resulting from the loss of experienced workers) will create thou sands of openings for beginners. Death and re tirement of experienced men may provide some thing in the order of 15,000 openings annually during the 1950-60 decade. This will be a par ticularly important factor in the skilled occupa tions, which have a relatively high proportion of older workers. In the less skilled occupations, shifting into other lines of work is fairly common; many thousands of openings for newcomers will arise in this way. In addition, replacements will be needed as workers are called up for service in the Armed Forces; although some of those who are in critical machine-shop occupations may be deferred. Machine -Shop Wo rke rs and The ir Jobs Employment in major machine-shop occupa tions is shown in chart 51. The basic machine shop job is that of machinist, employed mainly where workers are needed who are qualified to do any of the operations in a machine shop. Tool and die makers are essentially highly trained ma chinists who specialize in making the cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, and dies used in the various metal working operations. Machine-tool operators are the largest group of machine-shop workers; the occupation includes both skilled and semiskilled workers. Set-up men and lay-out men are skilled, CHART 50 LONG RANGE TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN METALWORKING IS UPWARD 1899 1904 ’09 *14 UNITED STATEB DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 188 ,*19 *24 *29 *34 *39 *44 1950 EMPLOYMENT IN MACHINE SHOP OCCUPATIONS, 1949 Thousands of Worker* 0_______ too______^0 0 ______ 300______ 400______ 300 T 1------------- 1----- --------1--------------! Machine-tool Operators Machinists 1— Tool and Diemakers Set-up and Lay-out men UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS CHART 51 specialized workers employed in shops which carry on volume production; these are among the smaller machine-shop occupations. Except for the semiskilled machine tool operat ing jobs, the main method of entering these occu pations is through apprenticeship. The appren tice must be mechanically inclined and tempera mentally suited to very careful and exact work. Apprentices are generally required to have highschool or trade-school education. There are no special educational requirements for the semi skilled jobs. Great physical strength is not required for ma chine-shop w^ork. The workers, however, usually must stand at their jobs most of the day and be able to move about freely. Since continuous atten tion is required when the machine is in operation, the work may often be rather tedious, especially on simple and repetitive machining jobs. Where the work is varied and complex, and the standards of accuracy high, the worker can consider himself a real craftsman and experience the satisfaction that this feeling gives to the conscientious and capable person. Because the work is not physically strenuous, many women are employed as machine-tool opera tors. However, most of them are employed in the less skilled machining operations; practically none are found among the tool and die makers and all-round machinists and relatively few among the skilled machine-tool operators. Most machine shops are relatively clean, well lighted, and free from dust. They are generally safer places in which to work than are most factories. MACHINE SHOP OCCUPATIONS The great majority of machine-shop workers are members of unions. There are a number of labor organizations in this field, some of the more important of which are the International Associ ation of Machinists (Independent), the Interna tional Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers (CIO), the United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (CIO), and the Mechanics Educational Society of America (Independent). All-Round Machinists (D. O. T. 4-75.010) Outlook Summary There will be many job opportunities in this occupation during the fifties, with many openings resulting from replacement needs. Nature of Work This is a skilled machine-shop occupation in which about 165,000 men are employed. In addi tion, there are many thousands with training as all-round machinists, but employed in other machine-shop occupations, such as that of ma chine-tool operator. Variety is the main feature of the all-round machinist’s work. His training enables him to plan and carry through all operations needed in turning out a machined product and to switch readily from one kind of product to another. He knows how to work from blueprints and written specifications, can select the proper tools and ma terials required for each job, and can plan the proper sequence of cutting and finishing opera tions. When necessary, he lays out the work by marking the surface of the metal to show where machining is needed and to indicate the shape and depth of the cuts. After machining, he may finish his work by hand, using files and scrapers, and may assemble the parts by welding. His knowl edge of shop practice, of the working properties of such metals as steel, cast iron, aluminum, and brass, and of what the various machine tools do, makes it possible for him to turn a block of metal into an intricate, precise part. An apprentice machinist must be mechanically inclined and temperamentally suited to very care ful and exact work. Great physical strength is not required for this work. A high school or grade school education is desirable preparation for ma chinist training and some employers require such preparation. In general, this is a man’s occupa tion. Where Employed The majority of all-round machinist jobs are in maintenance shops in a variety of industries, such as railroads, textile mills, automobile factories, oil T h e basic m achine shop jo b is th a t of the a ll-ro u n d m achinist, w h o can operate all standard types of m achine too ls. Co u r tesy of N a t io n a l A r c h iv e s T r a in in g a n d Q u a lific a tio n s According to most authorities, a 4-year appren ticeship is the best way to learn the machinist trade. Many have qualified without an appren ticeship, however, by picking up the trade over a number of years of varied shop experience. 189 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK refineries, steel mills, and printing plants. Many all-round jobs are also found in manufacturing shops (including job and production shops). In production shops, there are large numbers of men trained as all-round machinists, but not usually employed as such; these men specialize in a single machine-shop function, such as set-up or operation of one type of machine tool. Most of the machinists’ jobs are in the Middle Western and Northeastern States where the metal working industries are concentrated. Machinists are employed in every State, however, because of their use in maintenance w^ork. Outlook Job openings for machinists will be plentiful during the early fifties, to fill the needs of expand ing defense industries. However, there will be relatively few apprentice openings. In the long run, the number of jobs for all-round machinists in production work may show a slight decline. Continuing technical changes will reduce the skill needed in many machining operations, permitting the substitution of less trained men for machin ists. Machinist training will continue, however, to offer considerable advantage to men going into these shops. Machinists are generally pre ferred for the specialized machine-tool operator jobs, which often pay as well or better than all-round jobs. They also will have many chances to get jobs setting up machines for groups of semiskilled operators. Moreover, all-round machine-shop workers must continue to be hired in order to supply the necessary supervisory staffs— the lead men and foremen—which are extremely important in the modern mass-production shops. In maintenance shops, the number of all-round machinist jobs should show some growth over a period of many years. The increasing mechaniza tion of industry will expand the need for men to keep production equipment in good working order, and this may mean more jobs for maintenance ma chinists. Replacement needs will provide many job opportunities. To provide for the replacement 190 of all-round machinists who die or retire, BO to 40 thousand new machinists must be trained between 1950 and 1960. In June 1949, there were nearly 10,000 registered machinists in training. Earnings and Working Conditions Although the pay of all-round machinists com pares favorably with that of other machine-shop workers, it is often lower than the earnings of skilled machine-tool operators, many of whom work on an incentive basis. Earnings of produc tion machinists in the machinery industries in selected cities in November 1949, are shown in the following tabulation: Oity Average hourly earnings1 Oity Atlanta ________ $1. 48 Los Angeles______ Baltimore- _______ 1. 44 Milwaukee_______ Boston. _____ 1. 57 M inneapolis-St. Paul. Chattanooga_________ 1.53 N ew a rk -Jersey City. Chicago _ __ ____ 1. 81 New York City___ Cincinnati__ ______ 1. 42 Philadelphia..___ Cleveland___ _____ 1. 71 Pittsburgh _ ______ D allas ________________ 1. 50 Portland, Oreg___ _ Denver____ __ ________ 1. 51 Providence_________ Detroit__________ _____ 1. 79 St. Louis____________ H artford _________ __ 1. 46 Seattle __________ H ouston _______ _____ 1. 80 Syracuse_____ _______ Indianapolis__________ 1. 65 Tulsa ___ ___ Average hourly earnings1 $1. 72 1. 65 . 60 1 1. 62 1. 70 1. 61 1. 52 1. 75 1. 40 1. 74 1. 79 1. 54 1. 55 1 Straight-time earnings (excluding premium pay for overtime and night work). Average straight-time hourly earnings for pro duction machinists in the airframe industry in May-June 1949 were $1.72. Recent earnings data for other industries are not available. Promotional opportunities for all-round ma chinists are good. Many advance to foreman of a section in the shop, or to other supervisory jobs. With additional training, some develop into tool or die makers. Some are successful in opening and operating machine shops of their own. MACHINE SHOP OCCUPATIONS Machine Tool Operators (D. O. T. 4-78.000 to 78.039 and 6-78.000 to 78.039; 4-78.500 to 78.589 and 6-78.500 to 78.589; 4 -78.060 to 78.069) Outlook Summary Good job prospects. Nature of Work The operators of machine tools make up the bulk of the workers in machine shops. Nearly 470,000 workers were employed as machine-tool operators in the fall of 1949. Machine-tool operating jobs may be divided into two main classes, according to the skill required. The skilled machine-tool operator does widely varying kinds of machining. Working from blue prints or lay-outs, he sets up his machine for each machining operation, adjusts the feed and speed controls, and measures the finished work to see if it meets specifications. He knows how to sharpen cutting tools when they become dull and under stands the machining qualities of various metals. In brief, his work is very much like that of the all-round machinist, except that it is limited to a single type of machine tool. The majority of machine-tool operators are much less skilled than the machine-tool specialists described above and do work which is repetitive, rather than varied. A typical job consists mainly of placing rough metal stock into an automatic machine tool, watching the machining operation for signs of trouble, and measuring the finished work with specially prepared gages which simplify measurement. He may make minor adjustments to keep the machine tool in operation, but must de pend on more skilled men for major adjustments. Machine-tool operators, skilled and semiskilled alike, are designated according to the kind of tool which they operate—for example, engine-lathe op erator, turret-lathe operator, drilling-machine op erator, grinding-machine operator, milling-ma chine operator. There are many other kinds of machine-tool specialists, each of whom knows his particular machine tool. To become a skilled machine-tool operator re quires from iy2 to 3 years of on-the-job training. Many of these jobs, however, are filled by men who have completed all-round machinist appren ticeships. Semiskilled machine-tool operators are generally trained in not more than 6 months on the job. Where Employed Skilled machine-tool specialists are employed in all types of machine shops, but most of them work in production shops. The propor tion of these specialists varies greatly among production shops, however, depending on the extent of job breakdown and the kind of ma chining done. They form a smaller percentage of the workers in job and maintenance shops, where an all-round knowledge of machine-shop practice is generally preferred. Nevertheless, a substantial number of skilled operators are em ployed in these shops, working under the guidance of all-round machinists. The employment of semiskilled machine-tool op erators is confined mainly to production shops and is concentrated particularly in such mass-produc tion industries as automobiles and farm machin ery. Because of their limited training, few can be used in either job or maintenance shops. Outlook There will be many thousands of opportunities for new workers to get jobs as machine tool opera tors during the next decade. Job openings will be particularly numerous during the early fifties as the metalworking industries expand to meet defense requirements. Long-run job prospects for skilled machine-tool specialists are likely to be good. Some employers will continue to train specialists in preference to training all-round men, because it costs less. The growth of specialization in machine-shop work will continue and this trend may offset technical advances which otherwise would reduce the need for skilled operators. Those who get jobs as semiskilled operators also have good prospects for continued employment in the future. The gradual simplification of ma chine-tool work through greater use of auto matic machines may widen their field of employ ment. On the other hand, technical advances 191 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK which increase the efficiency of machine tools will tend to hold down the total number of jobs in this occupation. The need to replace the many machine-tool op erators who shift to other occupations or who die or retire will result in many job openings for new workers each year. Replacements will also be needed for those entering the Armed Forces. Earnings and Working Conditions Many machine-tool operators, especially the less skilled, are paid on an incentive basis and hence their earnings are often as high as machineshop workers of greater skill. Average hourly straight-time earnings (excluding premium pay for overtime and night work) for drill-press op erators and engine-lathe operators in machinery manufacturing industries in selected cities in November 1949 are shown in the accompanying table. Average straight-time hourly earnings for ma chine tool operators, in plants producing passenger cars, in February 1950, were as follows: Boring-mill operators_______________ ___ $2.00 Drill-press operators___________________ 1. 61 Lathe operators________________________ 1. 63 Milling-machine operators______________ 1. 61 Screw-machine operators_______________ 1. 67 Recent earnings data for other industries are not available. Skilled machine-tool specialists may be pro moted to such jobs as set-up man or supervisor (on machines on which they have specialized). If they can get experience on several different kinds of machine tools, they, also, may develop into all round machinists. Semiskilled operators gener ally have little chance for advancement since they are employed mainly in production shops where the work is very repetitive and where there are few opportunities to develop additional skills. Average hourly straight-time earnings, 1949 City Drill-press operators, single- Engine-lathe operators and multiple-spindle Class A Atlanta Baltimore Boston______ $1. 67 Buffalo_____ Chattanooga. _____ Chicago 1. 65 Cincinnati__ 1. 52 Cleveland___ 1. 70 Dallas. _ _ _ 1. 36 Denver_____ 1. 80 Detroit. _ Hartford__ 1. 84 Houston. 1. 60 Indianapolis. . 1. 58 Los Angeles. _ 1. 53 Milwaukee__ 1. 69 MinneapolisSt. P a u l... 1. 61 Newark-Jer sey City__ 1. 53 N ew Y ork City--------- 1. 76 Philadelphia.. 1. 52 Pittsburgh P o r tla n d , Oreg 1. 61 Providence__ 1. 30 St. Louis____ 1. 62 Seattle_____ Syracuse____ 1. 81 T ulsa 1. 28 Worcester.__ 1. 62 Class B Class C Class A Class Class C B $1. 16 1. 19 $1. 12 $1. 50 1. 37 1. 26 1. 65 $1. 41 1. 28 1. 65 1. 43 1. 35 1. 05 1. 51 1. 41 1. 52 1. 34 1. 72 1 .5 6 1. 34 1. 05 1. 51 1. 31 1. 70 1. 28 1. 74 1. 65 . 95 1. 47 1. 33 1. 62 1. 31 1. 57 1. 44 2. 08 1. 73 1. 35 1, 33 1. 62 1. 40 1. 76 1. 65 1. 58 1. 12 1. 57 1. 38 1. 11 1. 69 1. 48 1. 59 1. 43 1. 65 1. 59 $1. 00 1. 36 1. 08 1. 33 1. 23 1. 35 1. 49 1. 47 1. 16 1. 65 1. 43 1. 39 1. 67 1. 50 1. 30 1. 48 1. 35 1. 60 1. 18 1. 24 1. 14 1. 75 1. 80 1. 70 1.51 1. 52 1. 56 1. 21 1. 33 1. 37 1. 19 1. 41 1. 56 1 .5 4 1. 19 1. 45 1. 19 1. 11 1. 72 1. 40 1. 64 1. 23 1. 49 1. 20 1. 37 1. 30 1. 36 1. 24 1. 43 . 97 I. 57 1. 51 1 .4 9 Tool and Die Makers (D. O. T. 4-76.010, .040, and .210) Outlook Summary Tool and die making offers good long-range employment prospects. Nature of Work The function of tool makers is to make the cut ting tools used on machine tools, and the jigs, 192 fixtures, and other accessories which hold the work while it is being machined. They also make the gages and other measuring devices needed for pre cision work. Die makers construct the dies which are used in such metal-forming operations as forging, stamping, and pressing, and they also make the metal molds used in die-casting metal and molding plastics. Tool and die makers must MACHINE SHOP OCCUPATIONS Average straight-time hourly earnings of tool and die makers City Jobbing shops Atlanta__ __ Baltim ore___ Boston._ __ __ Buffalo _ Chicago . . Cincinnati Cleveland. . . . Dallas_____ Detroit. _ Hartford. _ Houston___ _ _ Indianapolis Los Angeles. _ Milwaukee____ Minneapolis-St. Paul Newark-Jersey City New York City__ . Philadelphia. __ Pittsburgh___ __ Portland, Oreg . _ . . _ Providence__ . St. Louis.. __ ____ Seattle__ __________ Syracuse __ __ _____ Tulsa________ ________ . Worcester. _ _ . _ _ _ _ $1. 74 1. 77 2. 05 1. 74 1. 85 2. 25 1. 65 1. 78 1. 87 1. 82 1. 93 2. 00 1. 73 2. 08 1. 70 Other than jobbing shops $1. 80 1. 68 1. 70 1. 75 1. 94 1. 64 1. 90 1. 67 2. 08 1. 70 1. 89 1. 84 1. 81 1. 74 1. 77 1. 86 1. 91 1. 77 1. 81 1. 78 1. 60 1. 96 2. 06 1. 69 1. 71 1. 62 have the broad knowledge of the all-round ma chinist, including blueprint reading, lay-out work, setting up and operating machine tools, using pre cision measuring instruments, understanding the working properties of common metals and alloys, and making shop computations. In addition, they must be able to work to closer tolerances than those usually required of machinists and must do a greater amount of precise hand work. These requirements, plus specialization on tools and dies, distinguish tool and die makers from all-round machinists. training in various parts of the job. In addition, during the apprenticeship, courses such as shop arithmetic and blueprint reading are usually given in vocational schools. After apprentice ship, a number of years of experience as a journey man is often considered necessary to qualify for the more difficult tool and die work. Since tool and die making is the most exacting type of ma chine-shop jobs, persons planning to enter the trade should have a great deal of mechanical abil ity and liking for painstaking work. This is essentially a man’s job, although little physical strength is required. Where Employed The estimated 85,000 tool and die makers are employed in many different metalworking indus tries. The automobile industry is the largest employer of these workers. Also very important are tool and die jobbing shops. Many are em ployed in other machinery industries. Among the nonmetal industries using these workers is the plastics products industry, which employs die makers to make metal molds. Most of the tool and die maker employment is in the midwestern and northeastern sections of the country. Michigan, especially the Detroit area, has more jobs than any other section. Many An apprentice tool and die m aker learns how to operate sta n d a rd m achine too ls, such as th is shaper. Ph o to g r a p h by u . S. d e p a r tm e n t of Labo r T ra in in g a n d Q ualifications This work requires rounded and varied ma chine-shop experience, usually obtained through formal apprenticeship or the equivalent in other types of on-the-job training. In July 1919, there were about 6,000 tool and die maker apprentices in training. A tool and die apprenticeship ordi narily covers 4 or 5 years, including mainly shop 193 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK are also employed in Ohio, Illinois, New York, and Pennsylvania. Outlook Tool and die making offers good long-range em ployment prospects. These workers are needed not only to repair and replace the tools and dies normally used by industry but also to retool plants for new models and new products. Also the trends toward greater use of die casting, stamping, and plastics molding will tend to increase diemaker employment. In the early fifties, the de mand for tool and die makers will be particularly strong as the metalworking industries expand to meet defense requirements. Even in the event of a general business depres sion, with machine-shop employment temporarily falling to a low level, experienced tool and die makers, because of their all-round skills, would have fairly good chances to get lower rated ma chine-shop jobs. Thus, from the point of job security, they may have a considerable advantage over other machine-shop workers. Earnings and Working Conditions This is the highest paid machine-shop occupa tion. In November 1949, the average straighttime hourly earnings (excluding premium pay for overtime and night work) of tool and die makers employed in the machinery industries in selected cities are shown in the foregoing tabulation. Higher rates are generally paid in jobbing shops than in production shops. Average earnings in the airframe industry for tool and die makers in mid1949 were $1.79 an hour. In passenger-car manu facturing plants, average straight-time hourly earnings, in February 1950, were $1.98 for die makers (excluding leaders) and $1.97 for tool makers (excluding leaders). Recent earnings in formation for other industries is not available. Tool and die makers often rise to better jobs. Many have advanced to shop superintendent or other responsible supervisory work, or to such posi tions as tool designer. (See statement on this oc cupation, p. 192.) Another avenue of opportunity is the opening of their own small tool and die job bing shops. Set-up Men (Machine Shop) (D. O. T. 4-75.160) Outlook Summary Some openings for qualified men in this small, growing occupation. Nature of Work The set-up man is a skilled specialist employed in machine shops which carry on large-volume production. His job is to install cutting tools and adjust the controls of machine tools so that they can be run by semiskilled operators. The usual practice is to assign a set-up man to a number of machine tools, which are often of one type, such as the turret lathe. The set-up man works from blueprints, written specifications, or job lay-outs in order to set the cutting tools in place and to adjust for each machining operation the guides, speed and feed controls, working tables, and other parts of machine tools. After setting up and adjusting a machine, he makes a trial run to see if it is working properly, and then turns it 194 over to the regular operator. During the machin ing operation he makes all important adjustments needed for accurate production. In order to become a set-up man, it is usually necessary to qualify first as an all-round machin ist or as a skilled machine-tool specialist, since the job requires a good background in machine-shop practice as well as a thorough knowledge of the operation of at least one type of machine tool. Outlook Set-up men comprise one of the smaller occu pations among machine-shop workers. However, the long-run trend toward using these skills in conjunction with semiskilled machine-tool opera tors in many shops is expected to continue. Thus, there should be openings for men with the neces sary qualifications. The number of set-up men should increase substantially during the early fifties because of the expected expansion of pro duction in metalworking industries. MACHINE SHOP OCCUPATIONS Lay-out Men (Machine Shop) (D. O. T. 4-75.140) Outlook Summary There will will be openings for experienced all round machinists to get into this field. Nature of Work The lay-out man is a highly skilled specialist whose job is to make guide marks on metal before it is machined to indicate to the machine-tool op erators the kind of machining needed. Working from blueprints or written specifica tions, the lay-out man marks guide lines, reference points, and other instructions to operators on rough castings, forgings, or metal stock. He uses a wide assortment of instruments, including the scriber, with which he marks lines on the surface of the metal; the center punch, used to indicate the centers on the ends of metal pieces to be ma chined or drilled; the keyseat or box rule, used for drawing lines and laying off distances on curved surfaces; dividers, for transferring and compar ing distances; L- or T-squares for determining right angles; and calipers and micrometers for accurate measurement. Not only must the lay-out man work with extreme accuracy, but also he has to be familiar with the operation and uses of each of the standard machine tools. Generally it takes from 6 to 10 years to develop this skill, including the machinist apprenticeship or equivalent training needed to learn the funda mentals of machine-shop practice. Earnings in this occupation are among the highest in machine shops. the early fifties as production in metalworking plants expands to meet defense requirements. Where To Get Additional Information Employment Outlook in Machine-Shop Occu pations. Bulletin No. 895. U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1947. 28 pp., 3 charts, 7 illus. Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price, 20 cents. Persons interested in opening their own metal working business would do well to consult Estab lishing and Operating a Metalworking Shop. U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of For eign and Domestic Commerce, 1945. Superin tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price, 35 cents. T h e la y -o u t man m ust have a broad know ledge of m a cn in e -sh op w o rk and be able to use m arking and m e a -u rin g in stru m e n ts. Ph o to g r a p h by u . S d ep a r tm e n t of Labo r Outlook This is one of the smaller machine-shop occu pations. However, employment opportunities for qualified men are likely to be good, since there is a trend toward employing skilled lay-out men in conjunction with semiskilled machine-tool opera tors in production shops. A considerable rise in the number of lay-out men is in prospect during 195 FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS Foundries constitute one of the principal metal working fields and one of the larger sources of employment for trained workers in manufactur ing. The more than 5,000 foundries in the United States employed about 435,000 production workers in July 1950, many of them in skilled occupations. Prospects are that a large number of new workers will get foundry jobs during the 1950-60 decade. Earnings are above the average for factory work generally. Characteristics of Foundries Foundries are places where castings are made. A casting is formed by pouring molten metal into a mold and allowing the metal to harden, taking the shape of the mold. This is one of industry’s 196 basic metalworking methods since it can produce metal parts in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Castings in general use include automobile cylin der blocks, wTater mains, bathtubs, machinery bearings, ship propellers, railway car wheels, ma chine-tool bases, radiators, valve bodies, locomo tive frames, and hundreds of other industrial applications. Casting is applied to a number of different metals and their alloys. Gray iron accounts for most of the tonnage produced and the largest seg ment of employment in the entire foundry field. Steel and malleable iron are the other important types of ferrous metals which are cast. Among the nonferrous metals, the main casting materials are brass, bronze, aluminum, and magnesium. Foundries usually specialize in casting one or tvTo FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS metals—since somewhat different kinds of equip ment and methods are used for the various metals. Most foundry workers can transfer, however, from casting one type of metal to another without much extra training. Foundries differ greatly in the way their pro duction is organized. Production foundries make large quantities of identical castings, using mainly machine methods and requiring relatively few skilled workers. Many of the production foun dries are “captive” or “integrated” foundries, that is, they are departments of firms which use cast ings in manufacturing finished products such as automobiles, various types of machinery, agricul tural implements, plumbing and heating equip ment, or electrical machinery. Jobbing foundries, on the other hand, make a variety of shapes and sizes of castings, usually in limited quantities. Although the amount of mechanization has been increasing, hand methods are still used to a great extent in jobbing shops, and a relatively high pro portion of skilled workers is required. Jobbing foundries are usually separate establishments (“independent” or “commercial” foundries), sell ing their castings to other companies. The dis tinction between production and jobbing foundries is not always sharply defined, as production found ries often do some jobbing work and jobbing foundries may carry on some semiproduction operations. Foundries vary greatly in size. In 1947, of the more than 1,600 independent gray-iron foundries, only 13 had more than 1,000 workers each. On the other hand, over one-half of the gray-iron found ries employed fewer than 50 workers. Both steel foundries and malleable-iron foundries are gen erally larger than the typical gray-iron foundry; more than half of the workers in these foundries were employed in plants with more than 500 em ployees. Nonferrous foundries are typically small; four-fifths of them had fewer than 50 em ployees each in 1947. As the map (chart 52) shows, most of the foundry jobs are in the Midwestern and North eastern States. Foundries tend to be near the great concentrations of metalworking industries for which they produce castings, and near the sup ply of such basic materials as pig iron, coke, and nonferrous metals. The leading foundry States are Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Michigan. However, foundry jobs appear in substantial num NUMBER OF FOUNDRY JOBS FAR ABOVE PREWAR THOUSANDS OF PRODUCTION WORKERS 470 Prewar 1939 Wartime Peak 1944 1947 1949 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS CHART 53 bers in other parts of the country. Alabama, for example, has many foundry workers; in Cali fornia, foundry employment has recently become more important. Every State has some foundry jobs. Employment Outlook Foundries are expected to hire many new work ers during the 1950-60 decade. Openings will be particularly numerous during the early fifties, as metalworking industries—the principal users of castings—expand to meet defense requirements. Many job opportunities will be created by the need to replace those workers who leave the foundries because of death, retirement, or shifting to other fields of work. There has been a long-run upward trend in foundry production and employment. This trend reflects the growth of the whole economy and par ticularly the great expansion of the metalworking industries including the automobile, machinery, railroad, electrical equipment, and plumbing and 197 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK heating equipment industries. However, foundry activity lias also shown wide fluctuations from year to year. To a high degree, these fluctuations are associated with changes in general business con ditions; foundries are especially hard hit during depressions, but in boom times, their situation is particularly favorable. For example, there was a drop of 07 percent in iron and steel castings out put between 1929 and 1933, and a rise of 82 percent between 1939 and 1917. Wartime also causes sharp fluctuations in foundry activity. Tremen dous requirements for castings for aircraft, tanks, and ordnance lead to a rapid rise in foundry out put, followed by some postwar decline. Chart 53 shows the trend of foundry employ ment in recent years. It can be seen that the num ber of workers employed in foundries is far above prewar, although somewhat lower than the war time peak. In July 1950, about 435,000 pro duction workers had jobs in foundries (including both independent and integrated foundries). In the early fifties, foundry employment is ex pected to rise above this level, because of the need for castings by defense industries during the next decade. Long-run prospects are good in many of the industries which use large amounts of castings, including automobile, electrical equipment, farm machinery, many kinds of industrial equipment, and plumbing and heating supplies. This should F o u n d ry w o rk e rs p ouring molten metal into sand m olds to form castings. 198 mean gradually increasing levels of castings production. However, foundry employment is not expected to rise quite as much as pro duction. Continued technical advances in foun dry methods will mean that fewer workers will be needed to produce a given amount of cast ings. Some of the more important technological changes may include more extensive installation of materials-handling equipment and greater use of permanent-mold castings. Although no great rise in employment is antici pated, over the long run, foundries will hire many workers each year because of the need to replace employees who leave the foundries. Openings re sulting from death and retirement may run about 6,000 to 10,000 annually. Replacement demand of this kind will be especially important in the more skilled occupations, in which there are many workers of relatively advanced age. An even greater number of openings should result from the shifting of experienced foundry workers into other kinds of employment. In the semiskilled and un skilled occupations, most of the job openings will arise in this way. Replacements will also be needed for those entering the Armed Forces. F o u n d ry W o rkers and T h eir Jobs Most skilled jobs in foundries, as well as many of the less skilled, are not found elsewhere in in dustry. Estimated employment in some of the principal foundry occupations is shown in chart 54. There are many occupations which are not typical of foundry work as such, but which are, nevertheless, represented in foundries. These workers are found throughout industry and in clude maintenance workers (such as carpenters and electricians), engineers, clerical employees, and laborers. The customary employment practice is to hire only men for most foundry occupations. During the war, a large number of women worked in foundries, but relatively few have remained. In May 1950, about 5 percent of all employees in independent iron and steel foundries were women. The proportion of Negroes in foundries is fairly high. They are employed not only in many un skilled and semiskilled foundry occupations but also to a substantial extent as skilled molders and coremakers. Wages in foundries are somewhat above the aver FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS age for manufacturing as a whole. In July 1950, production workers in independent iron and steel foundries earned an average of about $1.51 an hour (including pay for overtime and night work). Those in nonferrous foundries averaged about $1.60 an hour. This compares with average hourly earnings of about $1.46 for all manufactur ing industries in the same month. The working environment varies greatly among individual foundries. In some, the conditions compare favorably with metalworking industries generally; in others, safety and comfort are below the average for metalworking. Foundries are sometimes hot places to work, particularly near the melting units in the summer months. Smoke and fumes are sometimes a nui sance. Noise may be a problem in certain opera tions, particularly in cleaning and finishing. The injury rate in foundries tends to be rela tively high, but there has been considerable im provement of working conditions and safety prac tices in recent years. The frequency of accidents varies among the different foundry occupations. In general, patternmaking and coremaking are the least hazardous, molding is somewhat more unsafe, arid jobs in melting and chipping tend to have among the highest injury rates. The large majority of foundry workers are union members. The principal labor organizations cov ering these workers include the International Moklers and Foundry Workers Union of North America (AFL), the United Steelworkers of America (CIO), and the United Automobile, Air craft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (CIO). Most patternmakers are mem bers of the Pattern Makers’ League of North America (AFL). The first step in casting is for the patternmaker to make a wood or metal pattern in the shape of the final casting desired. Sandmixers prepare sand for use in molding and coremaking. Hand molders make the sand molds into which metal is poured. The molds are made by packing and ram ming sand around the patterns. Molders* helpers may assist in these operations. Machine molders operate one of several types of machines which simplify and speed up the making of large quanti ties of identical sand molds. Goremakers shape the bodies of sand, or “cores,” which are placed inside molds in order to form any hollow spaces needed in castings. Core assemblers may be used CHART 54 to put together core sections. Gore-oven tenders operate furnaces in which cores are often baked. With the mold made and the cores, if any, put inside, the next step is to pour the molten metal into the mold. A melter operates a furnace used to melt metal for castings. The actual pouring is customarily done by a pourer, although in some small foundries it is part of the molder’s job. When the casting has cooled off, it is taken out of the mold by shake-out men and sent to the cleaning and finishing department. Sandblasters and tum bler operators run the various kinds of cleaning equipment. Chippers and grinders remove excess metal and finish castings. The casting may be placed in an annealing furnace to improve its physical properties; annealers run these furnaces. Casting inspectors then check finished castings for structural soundness and proper dimensions. An other group of workers are the foundry techni cians—skilled workers having to do with quality control in the making of castings. Among the many types of jobs associated with foundry work, three occupations—molder, core maker, and patternmaker—stand out as especially significant. Molding and coremaking are rela tively large occupations and include a high pro portion of skilled jobs requiring apprenticeship or equivalent training. Although fewer workers are engaged in patternmaking, the skill needed is very high and apprenticeship is the normal method of entry. For the less skilled foundry jobs, per sons without previous foundry experience may be hired directly or foundry laborers may be up graded. The leading foundry occupations are discussed below. 199 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK Hand Molders (D. O. T. 4-81.010 and .030) These foundry workers use mainly hand meth ods to prepare the sand molds into which metal is poured to make castings. A mold is made by packing and ramming prepared sand around a model or pattern of the desired casting and then removing the pattern, leaving in the sand a hollow space in the shape of the casting to be made. Molds for smaller castings are usually made on a workbench by bench molhers; those for large and bulky castings are made on the foundry floor by -floor molders. Skill requirements in this occupa tion vary considerably. An all-round hand molder (journeyman) makes widely varying kinds of molds. A less skilled molder does more repetitive work, specializing on a single kind of mold. Hand molders work mainly in jobbing foundries. In production foundries, where most of the molding is done bv machine, some journeyman molders are employed in skilled, specialized molding jobs and in supervisory positions. A flo o r m older sm ooth ing sand m old. Co u r tesy of n a t io n a l a r c h iv e s Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship, or the equivalent in experience, is needed to become a journeyman molder and thus to qualify for all round hand molding and for the skilled specialized or supervisory jobs. Men with this training are also preferred for many kinds of machine molding. For the less skilled jobs, not more than 6 months of on-the-job training is usually required. For a molding apprenticeship, an eighth grade education is usually the minimum, and many em ployers specify additional school work up to and including high school graduation. Eighth grade schooling, however, suffices for most jobs as learn ers of less skilled hand molding. Physical standards for molding jobs take into account the need for continual standing and mov ing about, frequent lifting, good vision, and manual dexterity. Hand molders are among the highest paid foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly earnings of male floor and bench molders in independent ferrous foundries in the summer of 1950, are shown in the following tabulation: Birmingham. . . . Boston___ Buffalo__ Chicago Cincinnati__ _____ Cleveland _ . Denver___. . _ . Detroit______ Hartford__ Houston __ Indianapolis. _ Los Angeles._ Milwaukee._ __ Minneapolis-St. Paul. Newark-Jersey City. ________ New York ___ Philadelphia Pittsburgh____ ____ Portland, Oreg St. L o u is .__ _ _ . San Francisco Toledo____ F loor $1. 15 1. 67 1. 65 1. 76 1. 70 1. 83 1.53 ... 1. 92 1. 83 1.62 ... 1. 72 1. 76 1. 83 1. 61 1.71 1. 73 1. 70 1. 69 1. 77 1. 69 1. 85 1. 76 B ench $1. 15 1. 68 1. 64 1. 74 1. 60 1. 76 1. 90 1.70 1. 62 1. 64 1. 66 1. 61 1. 72 1. 72 1. 68 1. 61 1. 76 1. 73 1. 85 1. 61 Hand molders with all-round training have good chances for promotion to supervisory jobs. Opportunities for advancement are much more limited for the less skilled hand molders. 200 FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS Machine Molders (D. O. T. 4-81.050; 6-81.010 and .020) Machine molders are foundry workers who op erate one of several types of machines which simplify and speed up the making of large quanti ties of identical sand molds for castings. The basic duties of a machine molder consist mainly of assembling the flask (molding box) and pattern on the machine table, filling the flask with pre pared sand, and operating the machine by the properly timed use of its control levers and pedals. Machine molders sometimes are qualified journey- man molders who require little supervision and who set up and adjust their own machines. More commonly, however, the machine molder is a semi skilled worker, whose duties are limited to operat ing the machine which is set up for him. Machine molders are employed mainly in production foundries which make large quantities of identical castings. For molding machine jobs of the more difficult and responsible types, a 4-year molder apprentice ship or equivalent training is required. However, machine molding of the less skilled variety is ordi narily learned in from 30 to 90 days of on-the-job training. Average physical strength is needed. Machine molders are generally among the high est paid foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly earnings of men operating molding ma chines in independent ferrous foundries in the summer of 1950, are shown in the following tab ulation : Birmingham________ $1. 21 Boston_____________ 1.65 Buffalo____________ 1.93 Chicago------------------ 1.73 Cincinnati------------ 1. 81 Cleveland__________ 1.81 Denver____________ 1.53 Detroit____________ 1.95 Hartford___________ 1.86 Indianapolis------------- 1.97 C O U R TES Y OF U . S . O F F IC E OF EDUCATION M a c h in e m olders operate m achines w h ich sim p lify and speed up the m aking of a large q u a n tity of id entica l m olds. Los Angeles________ $1. 91 Milwaukee________ 1. 91 Minneapolis-St. Paul. 1. 70 Newark-Jersey City_ 1.74 Philadelphia______ 1. 78 Pittsburgh________ 1. 66 Portland, Oreg_____ 1. 78 St. Louis__________ 1. 78 San Francisco_____ 1. 84 Toledo____________ 2. 03 A machine molder who lias completed an ap prenticeship or acquired other all-round molding experience is often in line for promotion to a supervisory job. A semiskilled machine molder, however, generally has much less chance for ad vancement. Hand Coremakers (D. O. T. 4-82.010) These workers use hand methods to prepare the bodies of sand, or cores, which are placed in molds to form hollows or holes required in metal cast ings. A core is made by packing prepared sand into a hollow form (core box) so that the sand is compressed into the desired shape. Small cores are made on a workbench by bench coremakers; large and bulky cores are made on the foundry Hoor by -floor coremakers. Skill requirements in this occupation differ considerably. All-round hand coremakers (journeymen) prepare a variety of larger or more intricate cores. The less skilled coremakers make the small and simple cores, fre quently produced in large numbers, so the work is highly repetitive. Journeyman hand coremakers usually work in 201 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK of on-the-job training is usually required. For coremaking apprentices, an eighth grade educa tion is usually the minimum, and many employers specify additional school work up to and including liigh-school graduation. Eighth grade schooling, however, suffices for most jobs as learners of less skilled hand coremaking. Physical requirements for light coremaking are fairly modest, since the work is not strenuous; women are frequently employed in the less skilled coremaking jobs. Coremaking is generally some what safer than other foundry work. Hand coremakers are among the better paid foundry workers. Average straight-time hourly earnings of male hand coremakers in independent ferrous foundries in the summer of 1950’, are shown below: H a n d corem akers prepare the bodies of sand, or “ c o re s ," w hich are placed in m olds to form the hollow s or holes required in metal castings. jobbing foundries. Some journeyman coremakers work in production foundries as supervisors or in skilled, specialized jobs. Semiskilled hand coremakers are generally employed in production foundries. Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship, or the equivalent in experience is needed to become a journeyman coremaker. Molding and coremaking training is often combined in a single apprentice ship. For the less skilled jobs, only a few months Birmingham_______ $1.15 Boston____________ 1. 07 Buffalo___________ 1. 70 Chicago___________ 1. 70 Cincinnati------------- 1.74 Cleveland_________ 1. 80 Denver___________ 1. 54 Detroit___________ 1. 95 Hartford__________ 1. 50 Houston__________ 1. 57 Indianapolis_______ 1.00 Los Angeles-----------$1. 71 Milwaukee________ 1.82 Minneapolis-St. Paul- 1. 01 Newark-Jersey City- 1. 02 New York_________ 1.70 Philadelphia______ 1.92 Pittsburgh________ 1. 73 Portland, Greg____ 1. 78 St. Louis__________ 1. 75 San Francisco_____ 1. 84 Toledo____________ 1. 85 A hand coremaker who has completed his ap prenticeship or acquired equivalent, all-round ex perience may be promoted to a supervisory job. Machine Coremakers (D. O. T. 6-82.010, .020, and .030) Machine coremakers operate several different types of machines which force prepared sand into specially shaped hollow forms to make sand cores. These cores are placed in molds to form hollow spaces required in the castings. The duties and skill of machine coremakers vary. Some workers are required to set up and adjust their own ma chines and do any necessary finishing operations on the cores; less skilled coremakers are more closely supervised, and the necessary adjusting of the machines is done for them. Machine core makers are employed mainly in production found ries, where large quantities of identical castings are made. 202 Generally, for the less skilled machine-coremaker jobs only a brief period of on-the-job train ing is needed, and no special form of preparation is required. Persons without previous foundry experience may be hired directly, or foundry laborers or helpers may be upgraded to this work. However, a 3- or 4-year coremaker apprentice ship, or equivalent training, is sometimes needed for the more difficult and responsible machine coremaking jobs. For many types of machine coremaking, little physical strength is needed, and some women are employed. FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS Patternmakers (D. O. T. 5-17.010 and .020) Patternmakers are the highly skilled craftsmen who construct patterns and core boxes for castings. They are classified, primarily, according to the kind of material they use in making patterns. Those who construct wooden patterns constitute about two-thirds of the total. Of the remainder, most are metal patternmakers, although there are a few who work with other materials, such as plaster. To do his job properly, a patternmaker must understand general foundry practice. He works from blueprints and plans the pattern, taking into consideration the manner in which the object will be cast and the type of metal to be used. The wood patternmaker selects the appropriate wood stock and lays out the pattern, marking the de sign for each section on the proper piece of wood. Using power saws, he cuts each piece of wood roughly to width and length. He then shapes the rough pieces into their final form, using various woodworking machines—such as borers, lathes, planers, band saws, and sanders—as well as many small hand tools. Finally, he assembles the pat tern segments by hand. The duties of a metal patternmaker differ from those of a wood patternmaker principally in that metal and metalworking equipment are substi tuted for wood and woodworking equipment. Metal patternmakers prepare patterns from metal stock, or, more commonly, from rough castings made from an original wood pattern. To shape and finish their work, they use a variety of metal working machines, including the engine lathe, drill press, milling machine, power hacksaw, grinder, and shaper. Apart from these differ ences, metal patternmaking is similar to work on wood patterns, requiring blueprint reading and lay-out. Throughout his work the patternmaker care fully checks each dimension of the pattern. A high degree of accuracy is required, since any imperfection in the pattern will be reproduced in the castings made from it. Other duties of pat ternmakers include making core boxes (in much tiie same manner as patterns are constructed) and repairing patterns and core boxes. Patternmaking is done in specially equipped pattern shops, which are of two types—independ ent and integrated. Independent pattern shops are separate establishments which make patterns for sale. An integrated shop may be operated in conjunction with a foundry which uses the pat terns; on the other hand, it may be the pattern department of a plant that buys castings from a commercial foundry, to which it supplies appro priate patterns with each new order for castings. Apprenticeship, or a similar program of on-thejob training, is the principal means of qualifying as a journeyman patternmaker. Because of the high degree of skill and the wide range of knowl edge needed for patternmaking, it is very difficult to obtain the necessary training through inform ally picking up the trade. Good trade school courses in patternmaking provide useful prepara tion for the prospective apprentice, and may in some cases be credited toward completion of the apprentice period. However, these courses do not substitute for apprenticeship or other on-the-job training. The usual apprenticeship period for patternmaking is 5 years, or about 10,000 working hours. At least 720 hours of classroom instruction in re lated technical subjects is normally provided dur ing apprenticeship. Since wood and metal pat ternmaking differ in certain essential respects, there are separate apprenticeships for each type. Patternmaking, although not strenuous, requires considerable standing and moving about. A high degree of manual dexterity is especially important because of the precise nature of many hand opera tions. For all practical purposes,,this is entirely a man’s occupation. Patternmaking is among the highest paid occu pations in manufacturing. In independent pat tern shops, union patternmakers in such large foundry centers as Chicago, Cleveland, and De troit generally earn upward of $2 an hour straight-time, and some make as much as $3.50 an hour. 203 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK Average straight-time hourly earnings of pat ternmakers in independent ferrous foundries in the summer of 1950, are shown below: Buffalo___________ $1.79 Chicago___________ 2.10 Cleveland ________ 2.28 Hartford__________ 1. 89 Indianapolis_______ 2. OS Los Angeles_______ 2. 82 Milwaukee________ 81. 75 Philadelphia______ 1.92 Pittsburgh________ 1. 78 St. Louis_______ ___ 1. 9.1 San Francisco_____ 2. 27 An experienced patternmaker may be advanced to pattern lay-out man or pattern-room foreman. Occasionally a journeyman may have the oppor tunity to start a small pattern shop of his own. When patternmaking employment is not available, journeymen patternmakers can find jobs in related fields. Wood patternmakers can qualify for nearly every kind of skilled woodworking jobs— cabinetmaking, for example. Metal pattern makers are suited for many types of machine shop work, including the jobs of machinist, machine tool operator, and lay-out man. (See: Machine Shop Occupations, p. 186.) Chippers and Grinders (Foundry) (D. O. T. 6-82.910) Chippers and grinders constitute a large group of workers—most of them semiskilled—in the cleaning and finishing departments of foundries. Chipping consists of removing the excess metal from castings by means of pneumatic hammers or hand hammers and chisels. In grinding, a me chanically powered abrasive wheel is used to smooth and finish castings. Although chipping and grinding may be separate occupations they are often combined in one job, especially in the smaller G rin d e rs use m e chanically pow ered a bra sive w heels to sm ooth fin ish castings. Ph o to g r a p h by U. S. d ep a r tm e n t op and La b o r foundries. There are variations in skill require ments. depending on the intricacy of the castings on which work is done, the degree of precision required, and the amount of supervision given the worker. Chippers and grinders are employed in both jobbing and production foundries. The basic duties of the chipper or grinder are generally learned in a brief period of on-the-job training, and no special form of preparation is needed. Persons without previous foundry ex perience may be hired directly, or foundry laborers may be upgraded to this work. Considerable ex perience in chipping and grinding is required, however, to qualify for the more intricate, precise, and responsible duties. In many respects chipping and grinding in volves strenuous work, and at least average strength is needed. Consequently, relatively few women are employed in this occupation, and they work only on small castings. Average straigilt-time hourly earnings of male chippers and grinders in independent ferrous foundries in the summer of 1950, are shown in the following tabulation: Boston__________ __ Buffalo Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland 1leaver _ Detroit Hartford Houston Indianapolis Los Angeles 204 $1.20 1.40 1. 51 1. 89 1. 57 1. 28 1.74 1. 38 1. 13 1. 73 1. 30 Milwaukee Minneapolis-St.PaulNewark-.Jerse.v City_ New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland, Oreg ... St. Louis San Francisco Toledo $1. 60 1.40 1. 22 1.29 1.47 1.52 1.50 1. 02 1. 53 1. 72 FOUNDRY OCCUPATIONS Castings Inspectors (D. O. T. 6-82.920) Casting inspectors are foundry workers who check finished castings for structural soundness and proper dimensions. The more skilled inspec tors are able to read blueprints, to work on widely different types of castings, and to mark partially defective castings to show what should be done to salvage them. The less skilled do routine measur ing and checking of large numbers of identical castings under close supervision. Castings inspec tors are employed in both jobbing and production foundries. Skilled inspector jobs are usually filled by pro motion from lower-grade inspection jobs or from other cleaning and finishing occupations, such as that of chipper and grinder. For the less skilled work, previous foundry experience may not be needed. Physical requirements depend on the size of castings inspected and the availability of me chanical handling equipment. In the lighter types of inspection work some women are employed, mainly for the less skilled jobs. Skilled inspectors may be promoted to the jobs of chief inspector or cleaning room foreman. Melters (Foundry) (D. O. T. 4-91.351; .411, .441, .447, .571, and .572) A foundry melter operates or directs the opera tion of a furnace used to melt metal for castings. He usually specializes on a particular type of fur nace—cupola, open-hearth, electric, crucible, or reverberatory—and on one or two metals. Skill requirements in this occupation depend on the way the foundry is organized and the type of melting equipment used. Skilled melters need little super vision and are responsible for charging the fur nace, controlling the furnace temperature and melting time, and determining from the appear ance of the molten metal when it is ready for pouring. Less skilled melters work under close supervision of a foundry manager or an engineer and need use little independent judgment. Melters are employed in both production and jobbing foundries. As a rule, there are no apprenticeships or other organized training programs provided for melt ers. The less skilled melting jobs are learned in a brief period of informal training. The usual way to get one of the more skilled jobs is to begin as a furnace helper or less skilled melter and grad ually learn the trade. The more skilled melters must have some familiarity with general foundry practice, shop arithmetic, and certain practical aspects of chemistry and metallurgy. Since the duties of melters are in many respects strenuous, physical requirements are fairly high and nor mally only men are employed. Accidents to work ers in the melting units tend to occur more frequently than to those in other departments of the foundry. 205 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK Foundry Technicians <D. O. T. 1-86.170) This is a group of skilled foundry occupations having to do with quality control in the making of castings. Included are workers with such special ized duties as the testing of molding and core making sand, chemical analysis of metal, opera tion of machines which test the strength and hard ness of castings, and the use of X-ray or magnetic apparatus to inspect the internal structure of castings. T e c h n ic ia n s w o rk in g in a fo u n d ry la b o ra to ry. 206 In general, a high school education is a pre requisite, and employers may require additional technical schooling. However, most of the foundry technician’s duties are learned on the job. Physical strength is not ordinarily needed, and women are often employed. Foundry technicians may advance to supervisory positions in their various specialized fields. T h e s e w o rk e rs have to do w ith q u a lity control in the m aking of castings. FORGE SHOP OCCUPATIONS Forge shop work is among the smaller fields of employment in metalworking. In late 1949, about 45,000 workers were employed in forge shop occu pations.1 However, these are among the best-paid factory occupations and include a high proportion of skilled jobs. During the fifties, there will be many job opportunities for new workers in forge shops. Most openings will be for laborers or help ers; the more-skilled forge shop jobs are generally filled by upgrading experienced men. Nature of Forge Shop Work Forging is used to shape metal objects which are required to withstand great stress, such as automobile crankshafts and axles, locomotive wheels, and marine engine drive shafts. Steel is the main material used, but brass and other nonferrous metals are also forged. In general, forgings are produced in machines which pound or squeeze heated metal into the desired shape. This is similar to the work done by the old-time blacksmiths, except that machine power is substituted for the blacksmith’s arm, and dies replace his hammer and anvil. Forge shop jobs are found in a variety of indus tries. The largest group is in independent steel forgings plants, producing forgings for sale to other industries. Many workers, however, are employed in the forge departments of plants which use forged parts in their final products, such as automobiles, railroad equipment, hand tools, or machinery. A number of these workers are in forge shops operated as part of steel mills. Employment of forge shop workers is concen trated mainly in the metalworking centers of the Midwest and Northeast. Forge shops are located near the steel producing centers, which provide steel for forgings, as well as near the metalwork ing plants which are the major users of forged products, such as automobiles, machinery, and railroad equipment. Accordingly, the bulk of forge shop jobs are found in the industrial centers of Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, Pennsyl vania, and New York. Employment Outlook The long-range trend of forge-shop employment is upward. This is indicated by chart 55 which shows production worker employment in the inde pendent iron and steel forgings industry during the last half century. The upward trend reflects the growth of the whole economy as well as the great expansion of metalworking industries which are the users of forgings. It has also re sulted from the development of improved forging methods, leading to wider use of forged parts. During wartime especially, the industry expe rienced great gains because of the critical impor tance of forged parts in many military products. In part, these gains have been retained in postwar CHART 55 1Forge shop occupations, as used here, are those characteristic of the forging process, including operation of the forging ham mers and presses, and preparing metal for forging, heat treat ing to remove the stresses resulting from the forging process, the removal of excess metal and scale, and inspection. Not consid ered as employed in forge shop occupations are those workers who have machining, maintenance, custodial, or other nonforging jobs in forge shops. 207 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK periods. The chart also reveals that forging ac tivity is extremely sensitive to the business cycle; relative to the economy as a whole, forging is espe cially hard hit during depressions. For example, by 1933, employment in independent iron and steel forge shops had dropped to about 40 percent of the 1929 level, while employment in manufacturing as a whole had dropped to about 70 percent of that level. During the early fifties, the number of forge shop jobs is expected to rise substantially. Ex panding defense requirements will greatly increase activity in the Nation’s forge shops. In the long run, moderate growth is in prospect in this field. Most of the industries which use forged parts in their final products, such as automobiles, tractors, farm machinery and aircraft have generally favor able long-run prospects. Most job openings will be for helpers and la borers, since the more skilled jobs are generally filled by upgrading experienced men. In addition to opportunities that may be created by any rise in employment, shifting of less skilled workers into other fields of work will create jobs for be ginners. The need to replace older workers drop ping out of the shops because of death or retire ment or transferring to physically less-demanding forge shop work will provide promotional oppor tunities for experienced workers and will create additional vacancies in starting jobs. Forge Shop Workers and Their Jobs There are many different kinds of jobs in the metal forging process. The principal jobs are those having to do with the operation of the forging hammers and presses. These hammers and presses usually are run by crews of 2 or more, some times as many as 10 or 15. Operators and their crews generally specialize on a particular kind of forging hammer or press. Considerable strength and endurance are required for these jobs, in order to do the necessary heavy lifting and to withstand the noise, heat, and vibration typical of forge shops. Virtually all the workers are men. 208 In addition to the hammer and press crews, forge shops have many workers engaged in cleaning, finishing, or inspecting forgings, as w^ell as labor ers employed mainly in moving materials. The more-skilled forge shop jobs, such as drophammer operator, are filled by promoting men from lower-rated jobs. For example, a man starts as a helper on a drop-hammer crew, advances to the job of heater, and then to hammer operator. Ordinarily this takes several years to achieve. Earnings in forge shops are among the highest in industry. In July 1950, production work ers in independent iron and steel forging plants earned an average of $1.76 an hour (including pay for overtime and night work). In the same month, the average for all manufacturing indus tries was about $1.46 an hour. In part, the level of forge shop earnings is accounted for by the prevalence of incentive pay; the generally diffi cult working conditions are also a factor in the wage scale. Earnings in certain occupations, such as that of hammer operator, range considerably higher. Recent earnings data for individual forging occupations are not available for most indus tries. However, in the automobile industry, in February 1950, average straight-time hourly earn ings were $2.57 for hammermen (steam, medium) ; $2.08 for upsetters (3 inch and over); and $1.94 for heaters. Because some of these jobs require speed and stamina, older men are often unable to con tinue in the occupation and transfer to lower-rated, physically less-demanding forge shop jobs. Forge shops are typically hot and noisy, and much of the work is strenuous. Accident fre quency rates for forge shops are somewhat higher than the average for metalworking industries. Most forge shop workers are union members. The leading unions in this field include the Inter national Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forg ers and Helpers (AFL), the United Steelworkers of America (CIO), and the United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (CIO). Some of the more important forge shop occu pations are briefly described below. FORGP] SHOP OCCUPATIONS Helpers (Hammer and Press Crews) (D. O. T. 6-88.713 and 8-93.71) The basic entry job on hammer and press crew is that of helper. This worker assists the ham mer or press operator in bringing the materials op to the machine and helping in manipulating the metal. On the smaller equipment, the job of helper is often combined with that of heater. It is important to note the generally modest educational requirement for forge shop jobs. Em ployers usually require no more than an eighthgrade education for helpers and other workers in entry occupations. With experience, these work ers can rise to more skilled and better paid jobs. Heaters (D. O. T. 6-88.732) When a vacancy occurs, experienced and quali fied helpers are upgraded to the job of heater. The heater prepares metal shapes for forging by heat ing the metal pieces in a furnace. His duties include operating the furnace and feeding fuel to it, controlling the temperature, placing the metal shapes in the furnace, taking them out when prop erly heated, and transferring them to the forging machine. A growing number of shops require heaters to have some technical knowledge of metal lurgy. Experienced heaters are in line for promo tion to higher-rated jobs on the hammer crews. T h e ham m ersm ith su p e rvise s a crew of men. C O U R TES Y O F N A TIO N A L AR C H IV ES 209 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK Hammersmiths (D. O. T. 4-86.120) The hammersmith operates a hammer equipped with unshaped (open) dies, used to pound heated metal into required shapes. (This is what the blacksmith does by hand.) This method is em ployed in forging objects which are too large for closed dies (shaped to form a particular object) or which are needed in quantities too small to jus tify the expense of making closed dies. The ham mersmith supervises several men—for example, an assistant operator (or “hammer driver”), a heater, and one or more helpers assigned to his hammer. The work is generally considered more skilled than closed die forging. In addition to control of the hammer stroke and careful manipulation of the heated metal under the die, the job requires a knowledge of forging practice, blueprint reading, properties of metals, and shop arithmetic. At least several years of forge shop experience in lower-grade jobs is required to become a ham mersmith. It is usual to begin as a helper. An experienced helper, who shows the needed apti tudes, may be promoted to the job of heater, and thence to assistant operator. Hammersmiths are selected from among the more experienced assistants. Drop-Hammer Operators (D. O. T. 4-86.120) A drop hammer is a kind of forging machine which pounds metal into various shapes between closed (shaped) dies. The operator directs the work of the heater and supervises any helpers as signed to his hammer. He may also direct his crew in setting up the hammer. The two princi pal types of hammers are steam and board. The operators of steam hammers are generally con sidered more skilled than those on board hammers. On both types of hammers, the skill required usu ally tends to increase with the size of the hammer and the complexity of the object to be forged. Men can transfer from one type of hammer to another only with an additional period of training. Because of their greater skill, steam-hammer oper ators can more readily transfer to board hammers than board-hammer operators to steam. Drop-hammer operator jobs are filled by up grading experienced heaters. Usually a minimum of 2 to 4 years’ experience in the forge shop is required. Upsettermen (D. O. T. 4-86.125) The upsettermen in forge shops operate upsetter forging machines used to form metal between closed dies (shaped to make a particular object) which move horizontally, pressing the metal along its greatest length. This action causes the metal to spread along its other dimensions, until it takes on the required form. The upsetterman directs a small crew, consisting of a heater and helpers as 210 signed to his machine. He must know how to control the heating operation, to adjust the ma chine’s pressure on the metal, and to position the metal stock between the dies. In general, the larger the object forged, the greater the skill required. Several years’ work experience is gen erally needed to learn upset forging; heaters gen erally are upgraded to fill vacancies. FORGE SHOP OCCUPATIONS Forging-Press Operators (D. O. T. 4-86.125) These workers operate forging presses, which shape metal by squeezing it between either closed (shaped) or open (unshaped) dies. Open die press forging, which generally requires consider ably more skill than closed die work, is used where a relatively small number of large pieces are re quired. In open die press forging, the operator shapes the heated metal by manipulating it under an unshaped die (making his job comparable in skill to that of the hammersmith). He usually supervises a crew of at least several workers. Closed die presses are mainly used where large quantities of relatively small forgings—either steel or nonferrous—are needed. The closed die-press operator may supervise a small crew or may .work alone. Both kinds of press operators must know how to control the heating of the metal, to regu late the pressure of the machine, and to position the work in the dies. Duties may also include set ting up the press. To become an open die-press operator, the worker begins as a helper on a press crew and progresses to higher-rated jobs as vacancies occur; it usually takes at least several years to rise to the job of operator. Closed die work can be learned more quickly. Where crews are used, the worker starts as a helper. Where one man operates the press, inexperienced men, or workers in lower rated jobs elsewhere in the shop, are assigned as trainees. Other Forge Shop Workers One of the larger groups of forge shop workers are inspectors. Some inspectors examine forged pieces for flaws and faulty workmanship while the forgings are still hot. Others inspect forgings after trimming, checking dimensions and appear ance to determine whether required standards and specifications are met. Another group of forge shop occupations is in the cleaning and finishing departments. Trim mers remove excess metal with a saw or trimming press. Chippers and grinders remove surplus metal and imperfections by means of pneumatic or hand hammers and chisels or by using a mechani cally powered abrasive wheel. Blasters operate sandblasting or shotblasting equipment to clean and smooth forgings. Bidders dip forgings in an acid solution to remove scale. Heat treaters, by controlled heating and cooling of the forged pieces, alter the physical properties of forgings to pro duce a specified degree of hardness and strength. 211 OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS Arc and Gas Welders (D. O. T. 4-85.020, .030: 6-85.080) Outlook Summary Employment is expected to rise over the long run. During the early fifties, job openings should be particularly numerous. Nature of Work In electric arc and gas welding, metal parts are joined through the application of heat intense enough to melt the edges to be joined. The welder controls the melting by properly directing the heat, either from an electric arc or from a gas welding torch, and adds filler metal where necessary to com plete the joint. In hand arc welding, the most commonly used method, the welder “strikes’- an arc by touching the metal part to be welded with an electrode and then withdrawing the electrode a short distance. The arc results when the electric circuit is broken by withdrawing the electrode making the current jump the gap between the metal to be Avelded and the electrode. The welder then guides the electrode along the joint to be welded, holding it at the proper arc length. In gas welding, the welder directs the flame from a gas welding torch along the joint to be welded. The flame is usually produced by combustion of oxygen and acetylene or other fuel gases. The welder must know how to light and adjust the torch for various metals and kinds of welds. Experienced arc and gas welders should be able to make various kinds of welds in different metals, work from different positions, and read welding symbols. To a considerable extent, particularly in main tenance and repair work, welding is done by mem bers of other crafts. The boilermaker, the struc tural steel worker, the machinist, and the automobile mechanic, all may be required to know and perform welding in their work. Typically, however, in production work, welding is done by workers who specialize in its application. No matter where he works, the skilled welder should 212 have some practical knowledge of the fabricating and assembling operations in the field of work in which he is engaged. For example, a welder working in a shipyard should know in general how ships are put together, or one employed in a boiler shop should understand how boilers are assem bled. If the welder moves into a type of work in which he is not experienced, some of the basic practices in the new field must be learned. Training and Qualification A course in welding methods, usually in public or private vocational schools, followed by exten sive job experience, has been the common way for skilled welders to receive their training. During World War II, there were a number of “trainingwitliin industry” programs which have been con tinued in areas where there is a fairly large demand for welders and training facilities in schools are not readily available. Formal ap prenticeships in welding alone are not often found. Frequently, welders doing the simpler repetitive types of work are trained on the job, without any special instruction, in about f> months. To be come an all-round skilled welder, regular course instruction in welding is desirable, either in pub lic or private vocational schools or in courses conducted by industrial firms to train their work ers. Before enrolling in a private school, the prospective student should check with the local educational authorities about the quality of the instructions offered. The American Welding So ciety has issued codes of recommended standards for welding courses which provide for a minimum of 150 hours of actual welding practice under qualified instructors and not less than 20 hours of class instruction in welding theory. Experi ence has shown that a longer learning time is usually required. Since a poor weld may have serious consequences in the failure of the completed product when in use, welders are usually required to have passed qualification tests established by the American OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS Welding Society. Requirements are administered by insurance companies, employers, and inspec tion agencies as specified by the applicable code. In addition, welders must be licensed to do cer tain types of construction work in some localities. Where Employed Welding jobs are found in a wide range of in dustries. Most welding jobs, however, are in pro duction work in the metal products industries; the leading employers are those making machin ery, automobiles, electrical equipment, ships, air craft, boilers and tanks, and fabricated structural steel. Examples of places where welders are used mainly in maintenance work are railroad shops, electric power plants, street railway systems, paper mills, foundries, and chemical plants. A large number of welders work in local repair shops that either specialize in welding or do general metal repair work. Usually these are small shops, and very often they are owned and operated by indi vidual welders, with perhaps several employees to assist. These shops serve mainly their local com munities, repairing such things as farm equip ment, automobile parts, and industrial machinery, and making welded products on a subcontract basis for local manufacturing plants. Because of their wide employment among differ ent industries, jobs for welders are found in all sections of the country. Many of the jobs are con centrated in the industrial centers in the Midwest ern and Northeastern States, where the machinery, automobile, and electrical equipment plants are mainly located. Some companies often have open ings in foreign countries for employment on pipe line work and similar construction. Outlook During the early fifties, there will be many open ings for welders. Expanding defense requirements in such industries as aircraft, ordnance, machinery, iron and steel, and electrical equipment will sub stantially increase the need for welders. A very important consideration in the outlook for welders is the extent of shipbuilding and repair activity. At the World War II peak, 180,0001 welders had jobs in the shipyards; this was twenty times the 1 Estim ate includes other types of welders and burners in addi tion to arc and gas welders as of December 1943. Co u r te s y o f n a t io n a l a r c h iv e s W e ld e rs are su b je ct to certain hazards in th e ir w ork , but these can be alm ost e n tire ly avoided by proper precautions. prewar (1910) total. Total employment in United States shipyards in August 1950 was less than 150,000—about a twelfth of the World War II peak of 1,700,000. Although no such expan sion as occurred in World War II is expected, any large increase in shipyard activity would result in many jobs for welders. In the long run, prospects are for a gradual growth in the number of jobs for arc and gas welders. The metalworking industries, which employ most of these workers, have a generally favorable long-run outlook. Moreover, new uses for welding are being found, and as a result of new developments in welding, more and more types of material can be welded. This should also mean an increase in the number of arc and gas welding jobs. The gains in employment, how ever, may not keep pace with the increase in amount of welding done, as techniques become more efficient, fewer man-hours are required to do a job. Especially in production work, new applications of welding methods will call for auto matic welding machines which do not have to be operated by skilled hand welders. Among the less skilled welders, there is con siderable shifting of experienced workers into other occupations; this will create opportunities for newcomers. Death and retirement of experi enced welders will also provide openings for new comers; however, this will be a relatively less im 213 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK portant source of jobs than in many other occupa tions, since the welders are a comparatively young group of workers. A few experienced, all-round welders will be able to establish their own welding repair and service shops. Prospects for such shops depend upon the situation in the particular community in which the shop is located. Before a new shop is opened the needs of the community and the com petition to be faced should be carefully considered. Earnings and Working Conditions Recent information is not available on earnings of welders in most of the industries which employ them. Average straight-time hourly earnings of men in arc and gas welding jobs in machinery plants in November 1949, are shown in the accom panying tabulation. Arc and gas welders in passenger car assembly plants received $1.70 an hour, straight-time, in February 1950. In petroluem refineries, average straight-time earnings were $2.02 an hour in Sep tember 1948. In the airframe industry in MayJune 1949, average straight-time earnings of Class A hand welders (production) were $1.67 an hour, and $1.53 an hour for Class B hand welders (production). Welders are subject to certain hazards in their work, but these can be almost entirely avoided by proper precautions. Without such precautions arc welders may be exposed to minor skin burns and eye injuries and to electric shock. Similarly, gas welders are subject to the possibility of explo sion and fire and, when welding is done in confined spaces, poisonous fumes or gas may be present. These hazards can be largely eliminated, however, by training in safety methods and by the use of Class A Atlanta_________ ___ ____ Baltimore _____ _ _ ___ Boston__ __ __ Buffalo _ __ __ ________ Chattanooga _ _ __ __ Chicago _______ _ _ _ _ _ Cincinnati _ __ _ _ __ Cleveland _ ___ ______ Dallas_________ _ ______ Denver____ ____ _____ Detroit_____ _ __ _ _ __ H artford___ ___ __ _ Houston___ _ __ _ ____ Indianapolis________ _ __ Los Angeles ______ ______ Milwaukee __ __ _ __ Minneapolis-St. Paul Newark-Jersey City_ _ __ New York _ _ _ __ _ _ Philadelphia___ ____ __ _ Pittsburgh __ ____^ _____ Portland, Oreg _ _ _ _ __ Providence ________ _ __ St. Louis _______ ____ Seattle ____ __ _ _ _ __ Syracuse __ __________ Tulsa_ _ _________ _ _ __ Worcester __ _________ _ $1. 44 1. 57 1. 53 1. 63 1. 61 1. 68 1. 48 1. 80 1. 36 1. 72 1. 81 1. 46 1. 76 1. 59 1. 74 1. 68 1. 58 1. 81 1. 83 1. 83 1. 63 1. 72 1. 48 1. 89 1. 76 1. 57 1. 47 Class B $1. 16 1. 32 1. 48 1. 40 1. 36 1. 51 1. 27 1. 55 1. 25 1. 46 1. 76 1. 58 1. 43 1. 58 1. 53 1. 57 1. 68 1. 51 1. 50 1. 66 1. 45 proper equipment such as goggles and ventilating devices. Where To Get Additional Information Employment Opportunities for Welders. Bul letin No. 844. United States Department of La bor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. 19 pages. Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price 10 cents. Acetylene Burners (D. O. T. 6-86.215) Outlook Summary Increasing employment in this relatively small field is anticipated during the early fifties. Nature of Work Acetylene burners (also referred to as “oxygen cutters”), use an oxyacetylene torch to cut or trim metal objects to the desired size or shape. The 214 oxygen cutting equipment generally consists of a torch into which oxygen and acetylene gas are fed from hoses connected with the gas Supply. The ignited acetylene, which serves as the fuel gas, heats the metal, and jets of oxygen do the actual cutting. Torch tips, through which the flames are di rected, come in various sizes, depending upon the nature of the cutting jobs. The operator prepares OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS for the cutting job by attaching the proper torch tip for the particular job, connecting the torch to the gas hoses, and regulating the flow of gases into the torch for the desired cutting flame. He then guides the torch manually along previously marked lines or, following a template or pattern, cuts through the metal. In some cases, he marks the lines on the metal himself, following blueprints or other instructions. In other cases, the cutting torch or torches are mounted on a machine which by electronic or mechanical means automatically follows the proper line of cut. Training and Qualifications Acetylene burners are semiskilled workers. Newcomers usually learn the work in a relatively short period of on-the-job training. Experienced acetylene gas welders can easily qualify for jobs as burners, if they desire, since theirs is a more skilled job and covers all the things that the burner has to know. 'Where Employed Acetylene burners are generally employed in plants where operations include cutting steel plates to size, removing metal from castings, trim ming rough steel shapes, and cutting up scrap metal. Among the principal employers of acety lene burners are the shipbuilding, steel, machinery, fabricated structural steel, and boiler shop indus tries. Many are also employed by firms that pre pare and sell scrap metal to be re-used in steel mills and foundries. Outlook The number of jobs for acetylene burners is ex pected to rise during the early fifties as a result of expanding military requirements in the industries employing these workers. A substantial revival of shipbuilding, for example, would result in many openings in this occupation. Over the longer run, increased use of oxygen cutting machines will hold down increases in employment of burners, even when metalworking activity is expanding. In addition to any increase in employment, replace ment needs will provide some openings for new workers in this relatively small field. See also Arc and Gas Welders, page 212. Resistance Welders (D. O. T. 6—85.010, .020, .030, .060, and .100) Outlook Summary There will be many openings for resistance welders during the early fifties. Nature of Work Resistance welders, unlike hand arc and gas welders, who use manual methods, are operators of resistance welding machines. These machines fuse metal part by bringing them together under heat and pressure. The pieces of metal to be joined are pressed between two electrodes through which electric current is passing. The parts being welded offer sufficient resistance to the flow of cur rent to create intense heat, which, together with the pressure, fuses them together. The principal types of resistance welding machines are the spot, seam, projection, flash, and upset welding ma chines and portable spot welding guns. The super visor, or in some cases the operator, sets the con trols of the machine for the desired electric current and pressure. The operator mainly feeds and aligns the work, starts the machine, and then re moves the work when it is finished. The ma chines that weld automobile bodies are large and highly automatic, while smaller and less-automatic machines are used to assemble such products as metal furniture. Most resistance welding operators learn their work on the job in a relatively short time. The length of the learning period depends upon the scope of the duties. Some welding operators, fol lowing general directions, insert the proper elec trodes and regulate and adjust the welding ma chine each time a different welding operation is begun. To do this, a wyelder should learn the meaning of welding symbols, the characteristics of different metals, and how to select and install the electrodes. In most welding jobs, however, the machine is set up and adjusted for the welding operator, and the welding is simple and repetitive. Beginners can learn these jobs in a month or two. 215 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK Where Employed Resistance welding operators are employed al most entirely in metal-working industries, par ticularly in plants assembling large quantities of products made of sheet metal and intended for the final consumer rather than as equipment to be used in factories. Thus, most of the jobs are in the industries making automobiles, aircraft, ma chinery, ordnance, electrical household appliances, refrigerators, metal furniture, and similar prod ucts. Some are also employed in machinery, in dustrial electrical equipment, and aircraft plants. Because metalworking employment is concent rated in the Midwest and Northeast, most of the jobs are located in these regions. Outlook There will be many openings for resistance welders during the early fifties. Expanding de fense requirements in many industries which em ploy large numbers of resistance welders will re sult in rising employment in this occupation. Over the longer run, a gradual upward trend in employment is in prospect. Opportunities for these workers depend upon prospects in the metalworking industries and the extent to which resistance welding becomes widely used. The metalworking industries, which employ most, of the workers in the occupation, are expected to increase their activity over the long run. In recent years, rapid progress has been made in improving resistance welding methods and in spreading its use to more products. For example, only during the thirties did welding become ex tensively used in assembling automobiles, al though now it is a very important part of the process. About 15,000 welders were employed in passenger car plants in 1950, of which over twothirds were resistance welders. Further gains in the use of resistance welding are expected. The resulting rise in the employment of machine weld ers will be limited, however, by a trend toward the use of more rapid and highly automatic machines. There is likely to be a sizable number of job open ings, however, because, as is the case in many semi skilled occupations, transfer of experienced workers to other fields is relatively common. Earnings and Working Conditions Earnings usually range somewhat below those of arc welders and skilled machine-tool operators. In February 1950, average straight-time hourly earnings in passenger automobile plants were: gun welders, $1.64; spot welders, $1.62; and machine welders, $1.57. The hazards connected with resistance welding are not great, and generally the working condi tions compare favorably with those in other metal working operations. Where To Get Additional Information Employment Opportunities for Welders. Bul letin No. 844. United States Department of La bor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1945. 19 pages. Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price, 10 cents. Assemblers (Machinery Manufacturing) (D. O. T. 4-75.120; 6-78.632) Outlook Summary This occupation will provide many job oppor tunities for new workers during the fifties. Nature of Work These workers assemble machinery parts to form complete units, such as a machine tool or Diesel engine, or subassemblies such as a gear box or fuel pump. Floor assemblers put together heavy machinery or equipment on shop floors, fitting and finishing parts with hand and power tools and fastening them together with bolts, 216 screws, or rivets. Bench assemblers assemble ma chinery parts into subassemblies or small complete units while working at a bench. Skilled assem blers work on the more complex machines and subassemblies with little or no supervision. They must know how to read blueprints and how to use precision measuring instruments and various hand and power tools, such as scrapers, chisels, files, and drill presses. The less-skilled assemblers do re petitive operations under close supervision and are generally not responsible for the final assem bling of complex jobs. OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS Where Employed Assemblers are employed in a wide variety of nonelectrical machinery plants, including those which make machine tools, pumping equipment, tractors, refrigerators, business machines, and in ternal combustion engines. Assemblers work in machinery plants through out the country. Most of the jobs for these work ers are concentrated in the Midwest and Northeast, particularly in Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Mich igan, New York, and Wisconsin. T ra in in g a n d Q ualifications For the more-skilled assembling jobs, machin ists and others with experience are usually em ployed. Inexperienced workers may be hired as trainees or helpers and trained on the job to do the less-skilled assembling. Assemblers usually specialize on one type of machinery or equipment. Often they cannot read ily transfer to assembly of other products, or even of similar products in other plants, without addi tional training. Atlanta __ _____ Baltimore Boston. _ Buffalo Chattanooga Chicago Cincinnati ... Cleveland Dallas. _ Denver Detroit. . Hartford _ Houston Indianapolis Los Angeles Milwaukee Minneapolis-St. Paul Newark-Jersev Citv. New York. Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland, Oreg Providence____ St. Louis____ Seattle________ Syracuse Tulsa Worcester _ Class A Class B $1. 54 1. 60 1. 62 1. 47 1. 50 1. 69 1. 47 1. 76 1. 39 1. 63 1. 81 1. 58 1. 63 1. 50 1. 62 1. 72 1. 57 1. 80 1. 81 1. 63 $1. 10 1. 46 1. 44 1. 38 1. 47 1. 52 1. 34 1. 61 1. 71 1. 41 1. 63 1. 79 1. 67 1. 37 1. 57 1. 31 1. 57 1. 40 1. 41 1. 47 1. 47 1. 60 1. 52 1. 52 1. 55 1. 49 1. 66 1. 58 1. 28 1. 35 1. 53 1. 20 1. 67 Class C $1. 17 1. 32 1. 07 1. 33 1. 06 1. 33 1. 48 1. 23 1. 15 1. 58 1. 22 1. 32 1. 29 1. 44 1. 36 1. 23 1. 09 1. 16 1. 52 1. 12 1. 11 c o u r te s y of n a t io n a l , a r c h i v e s Bench assem b lers f it toge th e r and assem ble sm all m a ch in ery parts into com plete u n its or su b a ssem b lies. Much of the wrork in bench assembling is rela tively light, and women are often employed in the less-skilled jobs. Outlook The number of jobs for assemblers is expected to rise substantially during the early fifties as the machinery industries expand to meet defense re quirements. The outlook, in the longer run, is for continued growth in employment. The machin ery industries which employ these workers have had a long-range upward trend in employment ; in July 1950, production workers in nonelectrical machinery manufacture totaled about 1,000,000, which was over 50 percent above the 1929 level. In addition to the new openings that may be created by the expected increase in employment, replacement needs will provide a considerable number of job opportunities for new workers. This is a relatively large occupation—about 100,000 jobs in the fall of 1949. Death and retirement of experienced workers should provide approxi mately 1,500 to 2,500 job openings annually. More over, shifting into other occupations is common among the less-skilled assemblers and many job opportunities will be created in this way. Re 217 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK placements will also be needed for assemblers called up for military service. Although the long-range outlook is generally favorable, it should be noted that machinery man ufacturing industries are extremely sensitive to the business cycle and to changing military needs; the past trend of employment, while up ward, has been marked by extreme ups and downs. Compared to manufacturing as a whole, the ma chinery industries are particularly hard hit during depressions. Between 1929 and 1932, for example, the number of wage earners in the nonelectrical machinery industries dropped by about 55 percent while manufacturing employment as a whole de clined by only 38 percent. Earnings and Working Conditions Earnings of assemblers vary widely, depending on their skill grade, the type of product assembled, the size and location of the plant in which they are employed, and whether they are paid on an incen tive basis. Average straight-time hourly earnings of male assemblers in machinery plants in Novem ber 1949, for selected large cities are shown in the accompanying tabulation. These earnings exclude premium pay for overtime and night work. Most assemblers are members of unions. There are several labor organizations in the field, includ ing the International Association of Machinists (Ind.), the International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (CIO), and the United Automobile Aircraft and Agricul tural Implement Workers of America (CIO). Working conditions for assemblers are usually good compared with factory work in general. Their places of work, generally, are relatively clean, well-lighted, and free from dust. Bee also Machine Shop occupations, p. 186. Inspectors (Machinery Manufacturing) (D. O. T. 4-78.671; 6-78.671) Outlook Summary Where Employed Rising employment is expected in this occupa tion during the first part of the fifties. Inspectors are employed in a wide variety of nonelectrical machinery plants, including those which make machine tools, tractors, refrigerators, internal combustion engines, and business ma chines. They work in machinery plants throughout the country. Most of the jobs for these workers are concentrated in industrial centers of the Midwest and Northeast, particularly Ohio, Illinois, Penn sylvania, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin. Duties and Training These workers examine complete units of ma chinery (such as turret lathes), subassemblies (such as starter mechanisms), or individual metal parts. They look for various defects, checking dimensions and appearance against required standards and specifications. The more skilled in spectors work with little or no supervision and examine either a variety of parts or relatively com plex units. They must be able to read blueprints and interpret specifications. Often they are re quired to use such measuring devices as calipers, gages, and micrometers. Skilled inspectors usu ally must have a general knowledge of machining and other metalworking processes. The less skilled inspectors inspect large numbers of iden tical parts or relatively simple products under close supervision. Often they use specially pre pared gages and other measuring instruments which greatly simplify inspection. 218 Training and Qualifications Skilled inspectors are obtained from the ranks of metal-processing workers, such as machine tool operators, or by upgrading less-skilled inspectors. Inexperienced workers are often hired for the lessskilled jobs and taught to do repetitive inspection in a brief period of on-the-job training. The work is not strenuous and many women are employed as inspectors. Because of the nature of the wTork, good eyesight is generally required. Inspectors usually specialize on one type of product; often they cannot readily transfer to in OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS spection of other products, or even similar prod ucts in other plants, without additional training. Outlook The number of jobs for inspectors is expected to rise substantially during the early fifties as the machinery industries expand to meet defense re quirements. In late 1949, machinery plants em ployed about 30,000 inspectors. The outlook, in the longer run, is for continued growth in employment. The machinery industries which employ these workers have had a long-range upward trend in employment; in July 1950, production workers in nonelectrical machinery manufacture totaled about 1,000,000 which was over 50 percent above the 1929 level. In addition to the new jobs that will be created by increases in employment, replacement needs will provide job opportunities for new workers. Death and retirement of experienced inspectors should provide about 500 to 700 job openings an nually. Moreover, shifting into other occupations is common among the less skilled inspectors and job opportunities will be created in this way. Re placements will also be needed for workers called up for military service. Although long-range employment prospects are generally favorable, it should be noted that ma chinery manufacturing is extremely sensitive to the business cycle; the past trend of employment, while upward, has been marked by extreme fluctua tions. Compared to manufacturing as a whole, the machinery industries are particularly hard hit during depressions. Earnings and Working Conditions Earnings of inspectors vary considerably, de pending on their skill, grade, the type of product inspected, and the size and location of the plant in which they are employed. Average straighttime hourly earnings of male inspectors in ma chinery plants in selected large cities in ^November 1949 are shown in the following tabulation. These earnings exclude premium pay for overtime and night work. City Class A Class B _____ $1. 51 Baltimore _ Boston __ 1. 67 Buffalo _ _ 1. 64 Chattanooga _ _ _ __ 1. 50 Chicago. _ 1. 72 Cincinnati __ 1. 48 Cleveland. _ _ 1. 73 Dallas __ __ 1. 59 Detroit_______ _ _ 1. 98 Hartford_____ _ _ 1. 57 H ou ston___ 1. 75 Indianapolis. _ _ _ 1. 63 Los Angeles __ _______ 1. 73 M ilwaukee__ 1. 66 Minneapolis—St. Paul _ 1. 65 1. 65 Newark-Jersey Citv ___ 1. 82 New York __ Philadelphia. __________ 1. 77 Pittsburgh _ ____ __ _ _ Providence . . . __ 1. 48 St. Louis._ __ __________ 1. 54 1. 54 Syracuse. ______. . . Tulsa __ ________ ___ 1. 40 Worcester _ __ _______ 1. 53 $1. 38 1. 46 1. 38 $1. 21 1. 29 1. 48 1. 32 1. 61 1. 32 1. 64 1. 32 1. 45 1. 24 1. 41 1. 49 1. 41 1. 55 1. 37 1. 46 1. 45 1. 51 1. 77 1. 32 1. 37 1. 35 1. 19 1. 41 Class C 1. 47 1. 38 1. 37 1. 20 1. 23 1. 32 1. 11 1. 21 Most inspectors are members of unions. There are several labor organizations in the field. Among such organizations are the International Association of Machinists (AFL), the Interna tional Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers (CIO), and the United Automobile, Air craft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (CIO). Working conditions for inspectors are usually good compared with factory work in general. Their places of work, generally, are relatively clean, well-lighted, and free from dust. See also Machine Shop Occupations, page 186. 219 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK Blacksmiths (D.O.T. 4-86.010) O u tlo o k S u m m a r y W h ere E m p lo y e d Long-run prospects are for little change in the employment of blacksmiths. Replacement needs will provide some opportunities for new workers. Most blacksmiths work in small shops which re pair farm and garden equipment, tools, automo bile parts, and household articles. Often these shops perform other services, such as welding and tool dressing; a few shoe horses. Many black smiths are self-employed, operating their own shops. Other blacksmiths are employed in maintenance and repair departments in metalworking plants, in railroad repair shops, and in coal and metal mining. Blacksmiths are found in all parts of the coun try, many in small rural communities as well as in large industrial centers. Nature o f Work Blacksmiths use mainly hand methods to shape and repair metal articles and parts. They heat metal in a forge and hand-hammer the metal on an anvil into the desired shape. They also forgeweld metal by heating the pieces and hammering them together; sharpen tools such as chisels, drills, and picks by heating them and hammering the cutting edges to proper shape; and heat-treat metal articles to improve their physical properties. B lacksm iths use m ainly hand m ethods to shape and repair metal a rticle s and parts. Co u r tesy 220 of Nat onal A r c h iv e s OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS Training and Qualifications Some workers enter this occupation through ap prenticeship, others by picking up the trade while working as laborers or helpers in blacksmith shops. The apprenticeship period is generally 3 or 4 years and customarily includes blueprint reading, train ing in the use of tools and equipment, heat-treating metal, forging methods, and welding. Considerable physical strength is required in order to pound metal into shape and to handle heavy metal parts. Outlook There will be a small number of openings for new workers in this occupation. Few yoling men have entered the occupation in the last several decades. A large proportion of the men now engaged in the trade are of relatively advanced age, nearing the time when they will have to be replaced. Openings for new workers will occur because of this replacement demand rather than because of expanding employment. Prospects for those entering the occupation are for continued employment over a long period. About 40,000 blacksmiths were employed in 1940, substantially fewer than 20 or 30 years before. However, there has been little change in employ ment in recent years and no further decline is an ticipated. The number of blacksmiths working in small repair shops is expected to remain stable be cause of the diversified demands for their services and the importance of blacksmithing in local com munities. Since blacksmiths employed in manu facturing plants, railroads, and mines generally do maintenance work, which tends to be fairly steady, there should not be much fluctuation in the number of jobs for these workers. Boilermakers (D. O. T. 4-83.100) Outlook Summary Where Employed The number of boilermakers is expected to rise during the early fifties as a result of expanding defense requirements. Over the longer run, a moderate downward trend in employment is likely. Replacement needs, however, will provide openings for new workers. Boilermakers are employed in railroad repair shops, construction projects, boiler repair shops, and electric power plants throughout the country; in boiler shop products plants concentrated in the Great Lakes, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific Coast areas; in coastal shipyards; and in the oil refining areas of Texas, Pennsylvania, California, New York, and other States. Other industries employ ing boilermakers include steel, chemicals, and machinery. Nature of Work Boilermakers fabricate, assemble, and repair boilers, tanks, vats, smoke stacks, and similar products made of heavy steel plate. Their work involves such duties as planning and laying out work from blueprints or specifications; cutting plate to size and shape with power shears or acetylene burners; shaping plates on power presses; assembling parts by bolting, riveting, or welding; and calking seams and rivet heads. Many men qualified as all-round boilermakers, however, specialize in a single boiler-shop func tion, such as welding. Some of the most skilled boilermakers do only lay-out work—marking the steel plates to show other workers where the metal is to be sheared, welded, bent, or otherwise fabricated. Training and Qualifications To become an all-round boilermaker, a 4-year apprenticeship or equivalent on-the-job training is usually required. Welders, helpers, and other boiler-shop workers sometimes have the opportu nity to learn the trade without serving an appren ticeship. Much of the boilermaker’s work is fairly strenuous and at least average physical strength is needed. Outlook The number of jobs for boilermakers is expected to rise during the early fifties as a result of expand 221 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK ing defense requirements. A substantial revival of shipbuilding, for example, would result in many openings in this occupation. Over the longer run, however, prospects are not as favorable. There has been a downward trend in boilermaker em ployment over the last three decades. In 1940, the Census counted about 33,000 boilermakers in the labor force (employed or seeking work); this was only about half the number reported in 1920. In early 1950, the number of boilermakers em ployed was somewhat higher than prewar, but be low the wartime peak, when many boilermakers were working in shipyards. Many of these war time workers had been quickly trained in some part of boilermaking and were not all-round boiler makers. After being released from the shipyards at the end of the war, many of these less-skilled men went into other lines of work. In railroad repair shops—the leading source of jobs for boilermakers in peacetime—employment of these workers has decreased steadily since World War II. Class I railroads employed an average of about 13,500 boilermakers in 1946; in 1948, they employed about 12,000. In June 1950, the number was about 9,800—about the prewar level. There have been two main factors responsible for the decline in employment in this occupation. One has been the general tendency in boilermaking operations to utilize specialized workers (such as welders) to do the various parts of the boiler maker job, thereby reducing the need for all-round boilermakers. The other has been the specific trend toward less boilermaking work in the con struction and repair of railroad equipment; this is a direct result of the increasing use of Diesel and electric locomotives in place of steam locomo tives. In contrast to work on steam locomotives, relatively few boilermakers are used in making and repairing the Diesel and electric types. Both factors are expected to continue to operate in the future, so that further declines in the number of boilermaking jobs is likely over the long run. In spite of the expected drop in the number of 222 jobs, over the long run there should be opportuni ties for a number of new workers to enter this occupation. A high proportion of the experienced boilermakers are older men who will be leaving the labor force; deaths and retirements during the 1950-60 decade may total something in the order of 10,000, or nearly a third of the number of exper ienced boilermakers in 1940. Other replacements will be necessary for men shifting to jobs in other fields or entering military service. This indicates that replacement needs may be considerably greater than any probable reduction in employ ment. Moreover, men trained in all-round boiler making will have some opportunities to get special ized boilermaking jobs, since they are preferred by most employers to the men qualified in only one part of the work. Earnings and Working Conditions Earnings of boilermakers vary among the indus tries in which they are employed. In September 1949, the wage rate for boilermakers working for steam railroads was generally about $1.74 an hour. In construction work, in July 1949, the average hourly wage rate of union journeyman boiler makers in 77 cities was $2.39. Recent wage data are not available for boilermakers employed in other industries. Boilermaking tends to be more hazardous than most other metalworking occupations. The injury frequency rate in the boiler-shop-products indus try is considerably higher than the average for manufacturing industries as a whole. Boilermakers are generally unionized. A large number are members of the International Brother hood of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America (AFL) ; others have been or ganized by industrial unions, such as the United Steelworkers of America (CIO) and the Indus trial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America (CIO). See also Arc and Gas Welders, page 212. Rail road shop trades, page 426. OTHER METALWORKING OCCUPATIONS Millwrights (D. O. T. 5-78.100) Outlook Summary Long-run prospects are for a fairly stable level of employment in this occupation. Some increase is probable during the early fifties as new plants and equipment are added to meet expanding de fense needs. Nature of Work The job of a millwright is to install, dismantle, move, and set up heavy machinery and industrial equipment. Millwrights also prepare the plat forms on which machines are mounted and help plan the location of new equipment in the plant. They sometimes perform some of the duties of industrial machinery repairmen in addition to their regular work. They should have consider able knowledge of the structure and operation of the equipment on which they work. Millwrights usually specialize on particular types of industrial machinery, such as paper-mill machinery or ma chine tools. Where Employed Millwrights are employed in most manufactur ing plants which use heavy machinery arid equip ment. Many of these workers are in the metal working industries, such as machinery, automo biles, and iron and steel. Automobile plants alone employed about 4,000 in early 1950. Other large groups are employed in various nonmetal indus tries, including pulp-and-paper mills, sawmills, and flour mills. Some millwrights are employed by building contractors in the installation of ma chinery and equipment in new factory buildings. A small number work for machinery manufac turers who do the installation of their machinery in customers’ plants. Millwrights work in every State. However, most of the millwright jobs are in the major indus trial areas of the Midwest and Northeast, with Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois the leading States. Training and Qualifications Entry into this occupation is usually through a millwright apprenticeship or equivalent on-the job training. The apprenticeship period is gen erally 4 years and the training customarily in cludes blueprint reading; use of hoisting equip ment; installation, assembly, and repair of indus trial machinery and equipment; and acetylene burning. However, inexperienced workers may be hired as helpers or laborers and pick up the occupation while working. Outlook Some increase in the number of millwrights is probable during the early fifties, as new plants and equipment are added to meet expanding defense needs. In late 1949, the number of millwrights was well above prewar (1940), when about 40,000 were employed. A major factor in the high post war level of employment of millwrights has been the large expenditure made by industry for new plants and equipment during the last few years. The outlook in the longer-run is for a fairly stable level of employment in this occupation. Al though new plant and equipment expenditures may fall off somewhat, employment is expected to hold up fairly well. These workers have continuing functions in plants using heavy equipment, in connection with repair and rearrangement of the equipment. Moreover, the growing mechanization of industry has a tendency to expand the need for millwrights. Job opportunities for new workers will result mainly from the need to replace expe rienced millwrights who switch to other jobs, re tire, or die. Death and retirement alone may create about 1,000 openings each year. Earnings and Working Conditions Recent information on wages for most industries employing millwrights is not available. However, average straight-time hourly earnings for mill wrights employed in passenger car manufacturing plants in February 1950, were $1.80. In a wage agreement made in July 1948 between the United States Steel Corp. and the United Steelworkers of America (CIO), a standard hourly rate of $1.77 was specified for millwrights in iron and steel plants. Millwrights are generally unionized. Their un223 OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK ion affiliation varies according to the industry in which they are employed. Some of the more im portant unions include the International Asso ciation of Machinists (Ind.) ; United Steelworkers of America (C IO ); United Automobile Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, International Union (C IO ); International Broth erhood of Carpenters and Joiners (A FL ); and International Brotherhood of Pulp Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers (AFL). See also Industrial Machinery Repairmen, p. 180. Riveters, Pneumatic (Manufacturing) (D. O. T. 4-84.060; 6-95.080 and .082) Outlook Summary Employment of riveters is expected to decline gradually over the long run. However, prospects in the early fifties are more favorable. Nature of Work These workers use riveting equipment which is driven by compressed air to fasten together metal parts. Pneumatic hammers are most commonly used, although specialized pneumatic-riveting ma chines are used in some manufacturing plants. Where heavy steel plates have to be fastened, as in ship construction, the large rivets which are used must be heated before they are hammered. In hot riveting, the riveter is assisted by a rivet heater and a worker usually called a bucker who backs up the rivet while it is being hammered by the riveter. Rivet heaters are not needed in cold riveting and some pneumatic-riveting equipment, especially in aircraft plants, can be operated by the riveter alone. Pneumatic riveters who are employed in manu facturing industries are found mainly in plants making aircraft, industrial cars and trucks, and agricultural equipment; boilermaking shops; loco motive and car-building and repairing shops; and shipyards. The more skilled riveters do many types of work; they must be able to read blueprints, use riveting hammers of varied types and sizes, and select appropriate hammers, dies, and rivets. Some of the more skilled riveting in certain indus tries, boilermaking and shipbuilding, for exam ple, is done by journeymen qualified in other occu pations, such as structural iron workers, boiler makers, and sheet metal workers. However, most riveters in manufacturing plants do repetitive work which does not call for the skills of the all round riveter. 224 The less skilled pneumatic riveters are generally trained in several months on the job. Boiler makers, sheet metal workers, and other journey men who do skilled riveting have had formal apprenticeships in their trade or the equivalent in experience. Outlook During the early fifties, there will be many open ings for new workers in this occupation to meet the needs of the expanding aircraft and other defense industries employing riveters. Other openings will be created in the event that shipbuilding and repairing are greatly expanded as a matter of na tional policy. The long-run outlook is for a gradual decline in the number of riveters. This will result mostly from the substitution of welding for rivet ing in the fabrication of many products. Welding has been replacing riveting in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue in the future, particularly in the shipbuilding and boiler making industries. In addition, the development of specialized high speed riveting equipment, es pecially in the aircraft industry, will permit more work to be done by fewer riveters. However, there will be some job openings for new workers to re place experienced men who leave this occupation. Earnings and Working Conditions In airframe plants in May-June 1949, average straight-time hourly earnings of riveters were $1.43 for Class A workers and $1.24 for Class B. Riveting is noisy work, and much of it is done in cramped positions (for example, inside aircraft fuselages). See also Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations, p. 273, and Shipbuilding and Ship Repairing Occupations, p. 259. U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1953