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E M P LO Y M E N T O UTLO O K IN

ELECTRONICS
MANUFACTURING

U N IT ED STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F LABOR
Maurice J . Tobin, Secretary

B U R EA U O F LA B O R S TATIS TIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

in cooperation with
V ET ER A N S A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK SERIES



Bulletin No. 1072




Employment Outlook in

ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING




Bulletin No. 1072
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LA B O R
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU O F L A B O R STATISTICS
Ewan Clasue, Commissioner

In cooperation with
VETERANS A D M IN ISTRA TIO N

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C.

-

Price 25 cents




LETTER O F TRANSMITTAL
U

n i t e d

S

t a t e s

D
B

e p a r t m e n t
u r e a u

o f

W ashington, D .

The

S

e c r e t a r y

o f

L

a b o r

L

of
a b o r

C

L

a b o r

S

tatistics

,
,

F eb, ru a ry 21, 1952.
.
'

:

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the employment outlook in elec­
tronics manufacturing occupations. This is one of a series of reports based on
studies conducted in the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Service for use in vocational
counseling of veterans, young people in schools, and others interested in choosing a
field of work. These reports describe the Nation’s needs for trained workers in each
major industry and occupation under the defense mobilization program. The study
was financed largely by the Veterans Administration, and the report was originally
published as a Veterans Administration pamphlet for use in vocational rehabilitation
and education activities.
The study was prepared by Stuart A. Pettingill with the assistance of William
Shickler. The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the generous assistance received from
unions, trade associations, electronics companies, and from other Government
agencies.
E

Hon.

M

a u r i c e




J.

T

o b i n

w a n

C

l a q u e

,

Com m issioner.

,

S ecreta ry o f Labor.

Ill




CONTENTS
Page
1

T h e electronics industry____________________________
H o w electronics products are m a d e _______________________________________ ____________________
Electronics workers________ \ _____________________ ___________________________________________

3
6

W o r k i n g conditions a n d earnings______________________________________________________________

8

H o u r s a n d earnings_______________________________________________________________________

8

Vacations, pensions, a n d other benefits___________________________________________________

9

W o r k i n g conditions a n d unionization_____________________________________________________

9

E m p l o y m e n t outlook____________________________________________________________ _____________

, 10

Past trends in e m p l o y m e n t _______________________________________________________________

10

Increasing d e m a n d for electronics products_______________________________________________

10

C h a n g e s in technology___________________________________________

13

I m p a c t of defense production_____________________________________________________________

14

E m p l o y m e n t opportunities_______________________________________________________________

15

Seasonal a n d cyclical variations___________________________________________________________

16

Outlook in individual occupations_____________________________________________________________

16

Administrative a n d executive positions___________________________________________________

16

Professional positions_____________________________________________________________________

16

D r a f t s m e n ________________________________________________________________________________

18

Clerical, stenographic, a n d other office jobs________________________

19

A s s e m b l y a n d other semiskilled a n d unskilled processing jobs_____________________________

19

Electronic technicians_____________________________________________________________________

19

Skilled metalworking a n d tooling jobs____________________________________________________

20

M a i n t e n a n c e jobs_______________

2l

Materials handling a n d custodial jobs___________________

2l

H o w to enter the industry__________________________________________________________________ __

22

TABLES
1. Concentration of electronics e m p l o y m e n t in metropolitan areas, M a r c h 1951_______________

2

2 . Percentage distribution of workers in electronics manufacturing, b y occupation, January 1947_

7

3. L a b o r turn-over rates in radio, television, a n d related products manufacturing c o m p a r e d
with the all-manufacturing average, b y month, 1950-51______________________________

8

4. Average hourly earnings in radio, television, a n d related products manufacturing c o m p a r e d
with the all-manufacturing average, b y year, 1947-50, a n d b y month, 1951__________

8

5. Average weekly hours in radio, television, a n d related products manufacturing c o m p a r e d with
the all-manufacturing average, b y year, 1947-50, a n d b y month, 1 951________________

9

CHARTS
1. Production flow in television manufacturing________________________________________________

4

2 . E m p l o y m e n t in electronics manufacturing, 1947-51________________________________________

11

3. Production of radio a n d T V

sets c o m p a r e d with e m p l o y m e n t in radio, T V , a n d related

products manufacturing, 1947-50____________________________________________________

14

4. Engineers as a percent of all employees in electronics manufacturing plants, July 1951________

17

5. D r a f t s m e n as a percent of total plant workers in electronics plants, S eptember 1950________

19

6 . Selected skilled metal a n d tool workers as a percent of all plant workers in electronics plants,

Se p t e m b e r 1950__________________________________________________________

21

APPENDIXES
I. Electronics has m a n y applications_______________________________________________________
II.
III.

24

Percentage distribution of workers in electronics manufacturing, b y occupation, January
Percentage distribution of professional a n d skilled workers in radio, television, a n d related

1 9 4 7 __________________________________________________________ "_____________________
products manufacturing, b y occupation, S eptember 19 5 0 _______________




____________

26
27

V




EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK IN ELECTRONICS
MANUFACTURING
The Electronics Industry
The young and rapidly growing electronics in­
dustry employed 280,000 workers in the manufac­
ture of electronics products in October 1951.
Electronics manufacturers produced military and
commercial products worth $2% billion and parts
and tubes worth another half billion in 1950. A l­
though the peacetime use of electronics equipment
is best typified by the familiar radio and television
set, electronics equipment is also vital in modern
warfare. The Armed Forces require large quan­
tities of radio and radar equipment for communi­
cations, air warning, navigation, and many other
purposes. Present defense programs call for ex­
panded military purchases of radio and radar
equipment which will be added to the civilian de­
mand for radio and television sets and other civil­
ian electronics products. As a result, many addi­
tional electronics workers may be needed during
the next 2 years.
Any device which uses gaseous or vacuum tubes
is considered electronic. The electronics industry
includes manufacturers of home radio and tele­
vision receivers; military, commercial, and indus­
trial radio and radar equipment; and their com­
ponent parts and tubes. The industry is often
divided into two parts for purposes of statistical
reporting: (1) Radio, television, and related
products manufacturing; and (2) electron tube
manufacturing. But electronics is more than a
class of products or a group of manufacturing
industries. It is really an applied science utiliz­
ing certain basic mechanical and electrical prin­
ciples. Application of these principles has al­
ready given birth to radio and television broad­
casting, international radio communication, and
other industries. Future developments will prob­
ably create other industries or materially affect
existing ones. Appendix I (p. 24) lists the wide­
spread uses of electronics products.




The aircraft, telephone equipment, and other
manufacturing industries now produce appreci­
able amounts of electronics equipment. Employ­
ment opportunities in the electronics industry are
so closely related to opportunities in other indus­
tries manufacturing electronics products that they
cannot be considered separately.
The electronics industry came into being after
the First W orld War although successful transAtlantic radio communication had been accom­
plished at the turn of the century. The invention
and improvement of vacuum tubes permitted a
more widespread use of radio communications,
and radio was used widely for military communi­
cations during the First World War. Before that
A ir Forces r a d a r u n it u se d fo r a ir traffic control a n d a ir w a r n in g .

1

time, radio communications had been largely con­
fined to maritime use. Radio broadcasting began
in November 1920, and in the following years
broadcasting stations sprang up all over the United
States. The demand for home receiving sets cre­
ated a new industry and large firms developed that
specialized in their manufacture. Commercial,
industrial, and military electronics manufactur­
ing also increased steadily during this period. The
Second W orld War, with its mammoth need for
military electronics equipment, brought about an
increase in the amount and variety of output. A l­
though employment and production dropped
sharply after the war, the introduction of tele­
vision stimulated another cycle of expansion. By
the end of 1950, the industry’s total value of output
had almost returned to the wartime peak.
Although electronics products have a wide vari­
ety of commercial, industrial, and military uses,
they can be divided into four major groups: (1)
Radio and television receiving sets; (2) commer­
cial, industrial, and military electronics equip­
ment; (3) component parts; and (4) electron
tubes.
In peacetime, more workers are employed in
the manufacture of receiving sets— and their parts
and tubes—than of any other electronics product.
Relatively few are employed in military, indus­
trial, and commercial electronics manufacturing,
which includes radio and television broadcasting
transmitters, motion-picture sound equipment,
commercial receiving equipment, military radio
and radar equipment, test equipment, and many
other electronics products. During periods of re­
armament or wartime, however, employment in
the manufacture of these products increases
sharply.
Employment in the manufacture of parts and
electron tubes depends upon the amount of com­
plete electronics equipment produced, because most
components are used in fabricating new equipment.
More than a third of all electronics workers are
normally engaged in parts or tube manufacture.
Some electronics manufacturing firms specialize
in making home receiving sets, tubes, or parts,

2



whereas others make both finished equipment and
components. Several large producers of home
radio and television sets merely assemble pur­
chased parts and tubes. Many firms manufacture
only specialized industrial, commercial, or mili­
tary equipment or parts. Electronics manufac­
turing is only a side line for some aircraft, auto­
mobile, refrigeration, and electrical equipment
manufacturers. Some electronics manufacturers,
however, also make other products.
Medium- and large-size firms employ the great
majority of electronics workers. In 1947, less
than 10 percent of the Industry’s workers were
employed in establishments with fewer than 100
workers, and over half the industry’s workers
were in plants employing over 1,000 workers.
Electronics workers are heavily concentrated in
the Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia metro­
politan areas. More than a third of all electronics
workers were employed in these areas in March
1951 including almost half the workers engaged
in manufacturing radio and television sets. At
the same time, almost a third of all parts workers
were employed in the Chicago and Philadelphia
metropolitan areas and over a third of all electron
tube workers were employed in the New York and
Boston metropolitan areas.
T able 1 .— C o n c e n tr a tio n

o f e le c tr o n ic s e m p l o y m e n t
m e t r o p o lit a n a re a s , M a r c h 195 1

Metropolitan area

________

Percent of
total em­
ployment

________ ____ ________

100.0

Chicago, 111___ _____ _ __ __ _ ______ __________
New York, N. Y.; Newark, N. J. ___
_ ________ _______
Philadelphia, Pa.; Camden, N. J ..
. ______ _____ _
Boston, M ass___ __________
_______________ - ____
Indianapolis, Ind_____ _ ____ _
. . _____ ____ _
__

13. 6
12. 7
10.3
5.6
4.0

Syracuse, N. Y ___ _ _____________ __ ______________
_
Los Angeles, Calif__ __ . . . _____ ____ _ _______ _______
Fort Wayne, Ind___ _
_ _________ . . . ____ ___________
Baltimore, Md- .
_ _____ __ _ . . . _________ ____ _
Buffalo, N. Y _____________________________________________

3.7
3.0
2.1
1.9
1.9

Paterson-Passaic, N. J__ _ ______________ _____________ _
Cincinnati, Ohio... ______ . . . . __
_______ _______ __
Milwaukee, Wis_____________________
______ . . .
Cleveland, Ohio.*.. . ____________ ______ _____ ______

1.7
1.4
1.1
1.0

All others__________ ___________________ ____ ________ ____

36.0

Total_____________

...

in

How Electronics Products A re M ade
Processes in electronics manufacturing vary
from plant to plant because of the wide range of
products. The principal peacetime electronics
products are mass-produced by manufacturing
methods similar to those of other industries.
However, some complex specialized military, com­
mercial, and industrial equipment and components
are made to order in small quantities.
Radio and television receivers are made on as­
sembly lines where each worker performs a highly
specialized task. The majority of receiver manu­
facturers purchase their parts and tubes from
other manufacturers. After these components
are received, they are often spot tested before be­
ing sent to the various assembly stations. In gen­
eral, receivers in various stages of completion
move down the assembly line, which may be a con­
tinuous moving belt or simply a long bench upon
which sets are pushed from one worker to another.
The chassis (the metal box to which most com­
ponents are attached) is usually stamped out of
sheet metal and some parts are riveted to it in a
subassembly line or room. After the chassis is
prepared, it starts down the main assembly line
where other parts are attached, wired, and sol­
dered. A t frequent intervals, it is inspected and
tested for proper assembly and electrical wiring.
Quality control (the periodic testing and in­
spection of a product to see if it is being made ac­
cording to specifications) is extremely important
in electronics manufacturing and increases with
the complexity and quality of product. Most as­
sembly operations are highly specialized and per­
formed with great rapidity, and all operations are
carefully timed to maintain a continuous produc­
tion flow.
As the chassis moves down the assembly line,
parts are placed or timed to reach the assembler
when needed. Small parts are often “ hopper
fed” into boxes by the side of the assemblers.
Large parts move by overhead conveyor or are
carted, depending upon the size of plant or the
quantity ordered. Some assemblers attach small
parts, and others add wires or solder connections.
Operations are subdivided as much as possible and
workers are assisted by models, diagrams, and
color coding of parts and wires. The degree of
999378— 52—

2




specialization depends upon the size of plant and
type of product.
At the end of the line, tubes are added and the
receiver is adjusted and tested as a unit. In­
spectors and testers check its quality and, in some
television firms, operate it for a while to see if
defects develop. Defective units are shunted aside
to skilled all-round “ trouble shooters” who locate
and correct the difficulty. After receiving final
inspection, completed receivers are placed in cabi­
nets (which are purchased or made in other de­
partments) and sent to the shipping department
to be crated for storage or shipment. Chart 1
illustrates the organization of production in a
typical television manufacturing plant.
Behind this mechanized flow lies much engi­
neering. In such a highly competitive industry,
the elimination of even a single part or wasted
motion saves time and cost when multiplied by
thousands of sets. This high degree of production
planning makes electronics manufacturing an en­
gineer’s industry.
Electronics equipment more complex than re­
ceiver sets is produced in smaller quantities, with
similar production techniques but with decreasing
mechanization and worker specialization as the
S k ille d w o r k e r s on a te le v isio n a s s e m b ly lin e .

3

Cha rt 1.

P R O D U C T I O N F L O W IN T E L E V I S I O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

4




unit volume declines. Custom-made products re­
quire more skilled labor. Large military and
commercial units are often broken down into subassemblies which are built separately and then
assembled and tested as a unit. Many types of
military equipment operate on extremely high
frequencies where radio waves have properties
similar to light waves. The electrical adjustment
of such equipment is extremely critical and re­
quires precision manufacture. Some of the com­
ponents associated with radar, such as metal wave­
guides, must be machined or cast with the greatest
precision.
Even when military equipment is produced bv
assembly-line methods, the work is quite different
than for receiver manufacture. Assembly work­
ers on military electronics products perform more
operations and must be able to follow more de­
tailed diagrams and instructions. Because ac­
curacy is more important than speed, the work
pace is not as rapid as in the making of receiver
sets.
The manufacture of standard parts, such as
capacitors, resistors, transformers, and coils, is on




a large-volume, mass-production basis, and usually
involves relatively simple production processes.
Tube manufacturing is highly mechanized.
Much semiautomatic and automatic machinery is
used except for special purpose tubes made in rel­
atively small quantities. Receiving tube manu­
facturers employ an even greater proportion of
semiskilled and unskilled assembly workers than
home radio and television manufacturers. On the
other hand, some specialized transmitting tubes
such as klystrons and magnetrons require consid­
erable precision metalworking. Plants making
this type of tube use many skilled workers.
Tube manufacture usually includes the follow­
ing steps: (1) Receiving of materials; (2) fabri­
cation of the parts of the tube from these materi­
als; (3) their assembly into the completed ele­
ments of the tube; (4) mounting of these elements
into the tube base; (5) sealing the glass bulb into
the base; (6) removing the air from inside the
tube; (7) final testing; and (8) packaging and
shipping. Quality control is maintained by fre­
quent inspection and testing throughout.

A n in sp e c tio n o p e ra tio n in t e le v is io n tub e m a n u fa c tu rin g .

5

Electronics Workers
The great majority of workers engaged in mak­
ing radio and television sets, parts, and electron
tubes are either semiskilled or unskilled assembly
workers. However, some parts of the industry
need more skilled workers than others.
Radio and television receiver manufacturers
employ few workers in such skilled occupations
as tool-and-die making, inspection, and trouble­
shooting. Some firms assemble only purchased
parts and often pay other firms for doing their
research and development. Such companies em­
ploy only a few professional workers who are
engaged almost entirely in production en­
gineering.
A few large integrated electronics manufactur­
ing companies make all kinds of products and
employ all types of electronics workers. They
have extensive research and development organi­
zations which employ engineers and scientists as
well as technicians. Manufacturers of special­
ized military, commercial, and industrial equip­
ment and components also engage in extensive
research and development. Research and de­
velopment engineers, draftsmen, electronic tech­
nicians, skilled machine-tool operators, machin­
ists, die setters, and other skilled workers are
required in greater proportion in the manufacture
o f military equipment than in other electronics
manufacturing.
A s s e m b le r s p e rfo rm in g s p e c ia liz e d ta sk s on a ra d io -p h o n o g ra p h
a s s e m b ly lin e .

6




Some components require highly skilled labor
and extensive research and development, but most
components manufacturers employ fewer profes­
sional and skilled workers than do manufacturers
of final products. For example, receiving tube
manufacturers employ a larger proportion of
plant workers than does the rest of the industry,
and they also use a larger proportion of semi­
skilled and unskilled women assemblers. On the
other hand, manufacturers of specialized military
and industrial tubes employ more professional
and skilled workers than do receiving tube manu­
facturers. Appendix I I (p. 26) shows the pro­
portion of'workers in major occupational groups
in radio, television, and related products manu­
facturing.
Approximately one out of five electronics work­
ers are employed in office jobs and professional,
executive, and administrative positions. The
ratio of engineers to other employees is higher
in electronics manufacturing than in most manu­
facturing industries. Also, draftsmen and other
semiprofessional workers are employed in small
numbers along with the engineers.
Three-fourths of the plant workers can be di­
vided into nine major occupational groups (the
remaining fourth being in miscellaneous jobs too
detailed to classify conveniently) :
(1) A ssem b ly w orkers make up the industry’s
largest occupational group. More than a third of
all electronics employees are engaged in assembly
tasks. These workers assemble parts, wire sets,
wind coils, solder joints, mount parts, weave cables,
and perform similar assembly tasks. Most of
these workers are either semiskilled or unskilled,
although some skilled workers are employed in
these occupations in military and commercial
equipment manufacturing.
(2) Q uality con trol and related ivorkers make
up another large group. Workers engaged in in­
spection, testing, tuning, adjusting, calibrating,
and trouble-shooting, comprise about a tenth of
the industry’s employees. These workers are
closely connected with quality control and their
proportion and skill vary widely with the type of
product. A large proportion of the industry’s in­
spectors and testers are semiskilled, but this occu-

pation also includes some of the industry’s most
highly skilled workers.
(3) Approximately 5 percent of the industry’s
workers are employed in m eta lw orkin g and tool­
in g occupations such as machine-tool operators,
production machinists, tool-and-die makers, plat­
ers, and punch-press operators. The majority are
semiskilled, although this group contains some of
the industry’s most highly skilled workers.
(4) M iscellaneous processin g w ork ers , such as
painters and welders, comprise about 3 percent of
the industry’s labor force. As in assembly jobs,
most of these workers are semiskilled or unskilled.
(5) F orem en compose about 2 percent of the
workers. These are skilled or semiskilled workers
who supervise less-experienced workers perform­
ing similar tasks.
(6) Custodial w ork ers , such as janitors, guards,
and watchmen, comprise less than 2 percent of the
total employment. These jobs are very similar to
their counterparts in other industries and are
manned by unskilled or semiskilled workers.
T able 2 —
.

P e?'cen ta g e d is tr ib u tio n o f iv o r k e r s in e le c tr o n ­
ic s m a n u fa c tu r in g , b y o cc u p a tio n , J a n u a r y 191ft

Occupational group

Total____

__

_

_

_____ _____ _________________

Percent of
total
100.0

Office workers:
Executive, administrative, and professional workers._ _
Clerks, stenographers, and other office workers _
_ _

12.5

Plant workers:
A ssem blers____ _ _
_
_
Inspectors, testers, and electronic technicians _ _ _ _
Metalworking and tooling workers.__ ___ _ _______
_
Miscellaneous processing workers________
_ _
Working foremen._
_
Custodial workers (guards, janitors, watchmen) ___ _
Maintenance workers
_ _ _ _ _
_ _ _
____
__
_ _
Materials handling workers. _
Plant clerical workers
__ _ _ ___ _
__ _ _
Other plant workers______
__ _

29.3
8.8
5.2
3.1
2.0
1.9
1. 3
1.3
l .l
25.8

7.7

(7) M aintenance w ork ers , such as highly skilled
carpenters, electricians, machinists, mechanics,
and millwrights, keep the plant and equipment in
repair and install new machinery and other equip­
ment. Less than 2 percent of all workers in the
industry are employed in these occupations.
(8) M aterials-handling jo b s , such as packing
and crating, goods receiving, and stockroom work,
require a fairly large number of the industry’s
employees. Assembly firms require many workers
to handle the numerous components. Some mili­




tary and commercial equipment requires special
packaging involving considerable labor. The
great majority of these jobs are semiskilled or un­
skilled.
(9) Electronics manufacturing requires a num­
ber of plant clerical w orkers to keep stock records,
check in supplies, and do other clerical work which
can be done more efficiently in the plant than in
the general offices of the company. These plant
clerical workers comprise only 1 percent of all
workers.
In September 1950, 58 percent of plant workers
in radio, television, and related products manu­
facturing were women. In radio and television
receivers and components manufacturing, a greater
proportion of workers are women than in com­
mercial and military electronics equipment manu­
facturing. In March 1950, two-thirds of the plant
workers in electron tube manufacturing were
women. This large proportion of women, who
make up one of the chief reservoirs of labor,
aids expansion during periods of general labor
shortage.
The proportion of women employed in elec­
tronics production varies with general employ­
ment conditions. During periods o f manpower
stringency such as W orld War II, the proportion
o f women increased sharply. However, even
then, the great majority were employed in semi­
skilled and unskilled jobs. Since the war, more
women are in skilled jobs, but the proportion is
still insignificant.
The “ separation rate” (the number of workers
who leave every month as a percentage of total
employed) is customarily higher in this industry
than in manufacturing as a whole (table 3). A l­
though the industry is subject to periodic lay-offs,
a large proportion of workers who leave quit vol­
untarily. It is fairly easy for workers to change
jobs because the type of work is similar to other
manufacturing. As in other industries, there is
usually a large turn-over of women who leave work
to raise families. These high turn-over rates
create openings for new workers each year. A l­
though some vacancies arise each year as older
workers retire, fewer jobs are created by retire­
ment in this industry than by other forms of
turn-over.

7

T able 3 —
.

L a b o r t u r n -o v e r r a te s in ra d io , te le v is io n , a nd r e la te d p r o d u c ts m a n u fa c tu r in g c o m p a r e d w ith th e allm a n u fa c tu r in g a v e r a g e , b y m o n th , 1 9 5 0 -5 1
Radio, television, and related products

All-manufacturing

Separation 2
Year and month
Total ac­
cessions 1

Total sep­
arations 2

Total ac­
cessions 1
Total

Quits

Discharges

Lay-offs

Military
and mis­
cellaneous

I
1950- January______ ____ ________________________________
____ __________ ____ . _
February
M arch________________________________________________
April_________________________________________________
M a y __________________________________________________
June. ______ _______ . . . _____________ . . . . . . . .
July
_______________________________________________
August_______________________________________________
September_______________________________________ . . .
October______________________________________________
N o v e m b e r ____ ________________________ . . . . _ . .
December_________ _______ ______________ _______

3.6
3.2
3.6
3.5
4.4
4.8
4.7
6.6
5.7
5.2
4.0
3.0

3.1
3.0
2.9
2.8
3.1
3.0
2.9
4.2
4.9
4.3
3.8
3.6

6.5
6.3
6.6
6.1
6.7
7.2
8.8
12. 7
9.6
9.0
5.4
2.9

4.7
4.4
4.9
3.7
4.5
3.4
2.7
4.1
5.6
6.2
5.9
6.1

1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.1
1.9
1.5
3.0
3.7
3.9
3.4
2.5

0.4
.5
.5
.4
.5
.4
.5
.5
.9
1.1
.8
.5

2.4
2.0
2.3
1.3
1. 7
1.0
.6
.3
.6
.7
1.4
2.8

0.1
.1
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1
.3
.4
.5
.3
.3

1951: January______________________________________________
____
February ____________ . _________ . . . ___
. . . ________________ _____ __
M a r c h ___ . . . ______
April
____________________________________________
M a y __________________________________________________
J u n e .______ . . . _______________ _________________
July
_______________________________________________
__________________________________________
August
September . _. _______ _ _____ _______. . .
... .
____________________________________ _
October_____
_.
November . ____________ ... . . . _. . . _______
D ecem ber3 __________ . . . .
______________

5.2
4.5
4.6
4.5
4.5
4. 9
4.2
4.5
4.3
4.3
3.9
2.9

4.1
3.8
4.1
4.6
4.8
4.3
4. 6
5.3
5.1
4.5
4.3
3.3

6.5
6.5
6.6
4.4
5.6
5.5
4.3
6.5
9.3
8.3
5.6
2.9

7.0
4.9
6.2
10.9
8.1
6.8
6.3
6.2
5.2
5.6
4.8
4.0

2.7
2.6
3.2
2.8
3.2
2. 7
2.3
3.2
3.5
3.2
2.6
2.1

.6
.5
.7
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.8
.7
.3

2.5
.5
.9
6.5
3.2
2.6
2.5
1.5
.3
.7
.7
.9

1.2
1.3
1.4
1.1
1.2
1 0
1.0
1.0
.9
.9

.8
.7

1 The number of additions to employment per 100 employees during the calendar month.
2 The number of terminations per 100 employees during the calendar month.
^Preliminary.

Working Conditions and Earnings
Hours and Earnings
Earnings in electronics manufacturing have
been traditionally lower than those in manufac­
turing as a whole, owing to the small proportion
o f skilled workers. In December 1951, hourly
earnings in radio and related products manufac­
turing averaged $1.46 an hour, while earnings in
all manufacturing averaged $1.64 an hour (table
4). Skilled workers in electronics manufacturing
usually receive about the prevailing wage for their
particular skill in the area in which they work.
Increased military production will probably raise
the industry’s average earnings even if wage rates
continue at 1951 levels, because a higher propor­
tion of skilled labor will be required. Table 4
shows earnings in radio and related products
manufacturing since 1947.
“ Incentive pay” plans, under which a worker’s
earnings increase with the amount of work done,
are fairly common in electronics manufacturing.
Piecework is the most common incentive system,
especially in parts and tube manufacturing.
Group incentive plans, which provide for in­
creased pay to every worker in a group as they in-

8



T able 4 —
.

A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea r n in g s in ra d io , t e l e v is io n ,
a nd r e la te d p r o d u c ts m a n u fa c tu r in g c o m p a r ed w i t h t h e
a ll-m a n u fa c tu r in g a v e r a g e , b y y e a r , 1 9 4 5 -5 0 , a nd b y
m o n th , 195 1

Year and month

All-manu­
facturing

Radio, tele­
vision, and
related prod­
ucts

_______
___ _ _____ . . .
Average. __ _
Average___ __ .
...
.
.....
_.
Average.
__ . _ _____
_______ .
Average___________________________________

$1. 237
1.350
1. 401
1.463

$1.133
1. 238
1.283
1.318

___ _______ . . .
1951: January____ . . ___
February.. .
. ____
..
___ . . .
M arch_____________________________________
A p ril..
M a y _____________
___ __ ___ __
June . . . ___
. . . ______ _______
July_______________________________________
August____________________________________
September._ . ___
___ __ .
___ __ .
O c to b e r________
____ ______ . . . .
N o v e m b e r...__________
.
______
December h .______________________________

1.555
1. 561
1. 571
1. 578
1.586
1.599
1.598
1. 596
1.613
1.615
1. 625
1.635

1.405
1.415
1.414
1.415
1.428
1.446
1.463
1.435
1.456
1.473
1.476
1.460

1947:
1948:
1949:
1950:

1 Preliminary.

crease their production as a team, are in operation
in some radio and television assembly plants.
In 1950, the workweek in the electronics in­
dustry was slightly longer than that in manufac­
turing as a whole. However, the industry’s aver­
age workweek dropped below the average in all­
manufacturing as radio and television receiver

production dropped off during the first half of
1951 (table 5). In normal times, the electronics
industry works a 40-hour week, but during World
War II, the workweek reached a peak of 46.8
hours. Average weekly hours have increased
moderately with expanding defense production,
but are not expected to approach W orld War II
levels during the period of partial mobilization.
Despite heavy lay-offs in radio and television
receiver manufacturing during the spring of 1951,
many plant workers were on extra-shift operations
in July 1951. One-seventh of all plant workers in
radio, television, and related products manufac­
turing were employed on second or third shifts
during April 1951. In electron tube manufactur­
ing the ratio was more than 30 percent. As
the defense electronics program reaches its peak
and offsets the decline in civil production, there
may be some increase in extra-shift work.
5.— A v e r a g e i v e e k l y h o u rs in ra d io , te le v is io n , and
re la te d p r o d u c ts m a n u fa c tu r in g c o m p a r e d tvith th e all­
m a n u fa c tu r in g a v e r a g e , ~by y e a r , 1 9 ^ 1 -5 0 , and ~by m o n th ,
1951

T able

Year and month

1947:
1948:
1949:
1950:

- --------------Average_____
Average-. ____ - _
_______________
Average_____
____ . _______________
Average_____ ____ _______ ____________

1951: January___________________________________
February- ---------- -------- ------------- . .
M arch___ _
_ _______ _______ . . - _
April______________________________________
M a y _______________________________________
_ ______
--------------June______
July_______________________________________
August
- -- - ____ - --------- ------------ - ________ ________
September___
October- . . .
______
_ _ ____________
November______
_______ ________
Decem ber1_ __
.. -

Radio, tele­
All-manufac­ vision, and
turing
related prod­
ucts
40.4
40.1
39. 2
40.5

39.2
39.2
39.5
40.7

41.1
40.9
41.1
41.0
40.7
40.7
40.2
40.3
40.6
40.5
40. 5
41. 2

40.8
40.5
40.4
40.1
40.2
40.4
39.2
39.9
40.8
41.0
41.5
41.7

1 Preliminary

V acations, Pensions, and Other Benefits
Most workers in the industry receive 2 weeks’
vacation with pay. Some firms give 3 weeks’ va­
cation to employees with over 10 years’ service.
Almost all workers have from 6 to 10 paid holidays
each year, depending upon company practice.
Almost all electronics workers are covered by
some form of death benefit or sickness insurance
plan. These vary widely among companies in
coverage and benefits. One of the most compre­
hensive plans provides death benefits, group sick­
ness and disability insurance, and hospitalization




benefits up to $12 a day including provisions for
some surgeons’ fees. Less comprehensive pro­
grams provide other combinations of group life
insurance, sickness and accident insurance, or hos­
pitalization insurance benefits. A great majority
of electronics workers are covered by some form
of pension plan.

W orking Conditions and Unionization
Working conditions in electronics manufactur­
ing compare favorably with those in other indus­
tries. Plants are generally clean, well-lighted,
and relatively free from noise. The work in most
electronics occupations is not strenuous. How­
ever, the assembly line operations require speed,
and the continual repetition of many small tasks
creates monotony. Employers make an effort to
help relieve this monotony of work by frequent
rest periods. Cafeterias, recreational facilities,
and social programs are also provided for employ­
ees, and some plants provide music during working
hours.
Injuries in electronics manufacturing are less
frequent and less severe than those in manufac­
turing as a whole. Shock from high voltages is
the most serious hazard, but few workers come in
contact with high voltages. Burns from solder­
ing irons, and cuts, bruises, punctured fingers, and
similar minor injuries are more common hazards.
About half the electronics plant workers belong
to labor unions, but only a small proportion of
office workers are organized. The principal
unions in the industry are the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers
(CIO ) ; International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers (A F L ) ; United Electrical, Radio, and
Machine Workers of America (Ind.) ; and the
International Association of Machinists (A F L ).
A ll of these unions represent workers in several
industries and their electronics membership is not
known.
Plant contracts with the unions differ in re­
quirements relating to plant employees. Some
require new employees to join the union within a
specified period of time. In others, membership
is voluntary, but a union is designated as the
workers’ sole bargaining agent. Although most
plants are free to hire whomever they choose, the
union in some plants can reject applicants it
deems unsatisfactory.
9

Employment Outlook
During the next few years, employment oppor­
tunities in electronics manufacturing will depend
upon the volume of defense orders and the amount
o f critical materials available for civilian use. The
many defense requirements may increase employ­
ment above previous postwar highs despite further
cut-backs in civilian production because of critical
materials shortages. Electronics employment is
expected to be considerably greater at the peak
o f the current mobilization period than at the end
of 1951. Thereafter, employment may decline
moderately for a time when defense orders decline.
However, military production is expected to con­
tinue at relatively high levels for many years and
to employ more workers than before the outbreak
of hostilities in Korea. Shortages of materials
will gradually disappear as military production
tapers off, and as the production o f raw materials
is expanded. This will remove the limitations
on civilian production, and substantial increases
in civilian electronics employment should com­
pensate for declining employment in military pro­
duction. After the defense mobilization period,
electronics employment will not drop to the levels
prevailing before June 1950. Eventually, employ­
ment is likely to rise above the rearmament peak.

Past Trends in Employment
During the last 30 years, employment in elec­
tronics manufacturing has increased, although
there have been periodic fluctuations. With the be­
ginning of commercial broadcasting in 1922, elec­
tronics employment increased rapidly until about
1930, dropped during the depression years, but
soon recovered, and by the middle thirties ex­
ceeded the 1929 peak. Except for a short drop
during the 1938-39 recession, employment con­
tinued to increase until the end of World W ar II.
An all-time peak was reached in 1944 when an
estimated 380,000 wage and salary workers were
employed by military electronics equipment and
components manufacturers.
Employment dropped sharply immediately
after World War I I but soon recovered, and in­
creased until 1947. Even during 1945 and 1946,
when electronics manufacturers were converting
from military to civilian production, the elec­
10




tronics employment average was higher than in
1941 and substantially higher than in 1939. Em­
ployment declined sharply in 1948 and 1949
(although the value o f electronics production
advanced considerably), and then began to rise
steadily beginning in mid-1949. Postwar employ­
ment reached its highest level in December 1950,
when 292,000 wage and salary workers were
employed.
The high level of employment in the last 3
months of 1950 was due to both increased military
production and record radio and television re­
ceiver production. Production o f receivers ex­
ceeded sales during the first half o f 1951, and as a
result manufacturers curtailed production and
laid off workers during the second quarter of
1951 to reduce excess inventories. Beginning
with July of that year, electronics employment
began to recover. Radio and television manu­
facturers gradually reduced their inventories and
began to recall workers who had been laid off.
At the same time, military equipment manufac­
turers were hiring increasing numbers of workers.

Increasing Dem and for Electronics Products
Electronics manufacturing is a young and ex­
panding industry. Its products are more widely
used every year. The radio and television re­
ceivers used for home entertainment are the in­
dustry’s principal products during normal times.
The industry also makes many types of commer­
cial and industrial electronics products which are
increasing rapidly in number and value and be­
coming a larger part of the industry’s total output.
The armed services require many types of elec­
tronics products and during wartime or rearma­
ment periods, military electronics equipment be­
comes the industry’s principal product.
An estimated 100 million radio sets and 16 mil­
lion television sets are now in use. Nation-wide
broadcasting networks provide entertainment and
information to the owners of these sets. Tele­
vision has grown rapidly and television sets are
expected in time to become almost as numerous
as radio sets. To achieve this goal, manufactur­
ers will have to produce almost four times the
number of sets made so far, in addition to the

transmitters and relay stations required for a
national television network. Every extension of
television service to new areas increases the
demand for television sets.
The demand for radio sets will also continue.
Radio manufacturers and dealers have been sell­
ing to a replacement market for years, and demand
is greater now than formerly. Television will
probably establish a similar pattern when it
reaches maturity. Color television sets will prob­
ably replace black and white receivers and greatly
increase the volume of electronic components used
in manufacturing. Even the periodic replace­
ment of obsolete or worn out receivers will provide
continuing employment for a significant part of
the industry.
999378— 52--- 3




Producers of industrial and commercial elec­
tronics equipment are employing an increasing
proportion of the industry’s work force because
there has been a rapid expansion in the use of
such items. Although these products still com­
prise only a minor proportion of the industry’s
output, they are increasing in importance.
Aircraft and ships at sea use radio and radar
for communication, navigation, traffic control, and
avoidance of collision. Police and fire depart­
ments, taxis, and trucks use two-way radio com­
munications to dispatch and control their vehicles.
The railroads also use radio for controlling
switches and locating cars in assembly yards.
Telephone and telegraph companies transmit
and relay messages through electronic carrier and
11

A r a d a r u n it u sed on a sm a ll fish in g sh ip .

repeater systems, and send radio and television
programs over these systems and their microwave
relay links. International radio communications
companies provide overseas radio telephone and
radio telegraph service.
Electronics products are also used in medicine,
research, and geological exploration. Industrial
uses are becoming widespread. Public utilities use
electronics carrier equipment to regulate electric
power loads and automatically report damaged
lines. In industry, electronic devices are used: to
automatically record and regulate industrial proc­
esses ; for remote control of dangerous operations;
to time operations accurately; and to inspect out­
put. Educational institutions, atomic energy
plants, and the Government also use electronics
equipment.
Future developments will probably greatly in­
crease the volume and variety of industrial and
commercial electronics products. For example,
television offers great promise for education, office
and plant intercommunication systems, and spe­
cial communications operations. The Nation's
telephone system may eventually become a tele­
vision system. Television developments or elec­
tronic techniques yet unknown may become even
more important.
Facsimile reproduction (o f printed material
electronically by wire or radio) is already used in
the transmission o f weather maps, charts, and dia­
grams. Techniques have been developed to send
bulk printed matter such as books and newspapers
by high speed facsimile processes. Facsimile re­
production can be made part of rapid printing
12




processes whereby newspapers could be scanned in
New York and simultaneously printed in Los
Angeles. These and similar developments will in­
crease the demand for many types of electronics
equipment and components.
The armed services also use many types of elec­
tronic products. Modern warfare requires vast
amounts of electronics equipment and the armed
services will be the largest buyers of these products
during the defense period. Troop communica­
tions now extend down to the patrol leader who
keeps in touch with his company commander by
an electronic “ handie-talkie.” Aircraft, tanks,
ships, and other mobile weapons maintain con­
tact with each other and their bases by radio.
Even the tail gunner in an aircraft talks to his
pilot over an electronic intercommunication sys­
tem. Higher military headquarter’s communica­
tions must handle a gigantic volume of adminis­
trative traffic in a global war involving far-flung
theaters of operations and tremendous problems
of troop supply. Strategic air operations require

A n in fa n t r y so ld ie r u sin g a “ h a n d ie - t a lk ie .”

world-wide collection and transmission of weather
data by such means as high speed radio teletype
and facsimile reproduction.
Despite the rapid growth of military communi­
cations, other military uses of electronics have as­
sumed even greater importance. Aircraft and
ships use radio and radar for navigation, to detect
enemy forces, and to prevent collision with
friendly craft. A ir defense depends upon radar
air-warning networks to rapidly locate and iden­
tify hostile forces. The interconnecting high­
speed communications networks coordinate warn­
ing activities and alert friendly forces. Other
radar networks guide friendly fighters to intercept
enemy raids before they reach their objectives.
These fighters use airborne radar to “close in” on
the enemy and aim their guns. Bombers use radio
and radar equipment to locate targets and aim
bombs. Naval forces use radar and sonar elec­
tronic devices to detect and intercept enemy ships
and submarines or to identify friendly craft.
Electronic fire-control equipment is used to aim
naval guns and field artillery. Electronic prox­
imity fuzes explode shells and other missiles upon
reaching their targets. Guided missiles are elec­
tronically controlled throughout their flight.
Radio and radar devices are used also to detect and
track storms or report weather in the upper
atmosphere.
The number of electronic devices in large air­
craft has quadrupled since W orld War II. Radio
and radar equipment on some current models ac­
counts for almost half the cost of the entire air­
craft. Electronic control devices comprise most
of the cost of some guided missiles. The amount of
electronic equipment per man in the armed serv­
ices has increased several times since W orld War
I I and will continually increase with new uses.

Changes in Technology
Increased demand for electronics products
means increased production, and more opportu­
nity to standardize products and economize on
labor through increased use of machinery and
mass-production techniques.
Manufacturing techniques have generally kept
pace with the products developed by this industry.
Despite the intricacy of television receivers (re­
quiring synchronization to millionths of a sec-




A r a d a r u n it c a p a b le of re c e iv in g e ch o e s from th e m o o n .

olid), they are assembled largely by semiskilled
and unskilled labor. Almost 7.5 million televi­
sion and 15 million radio receivers were produced
in 1950. Many components (an average tele­
vision set has some 400 electrical and 500 mechani­
cal components) are used in several places in each
set. The large volume of production of radio and
television receivers and components has permitted
the use of automatic processes which have not been
used up to now. Already there are signs that the
industry may be approaching a “ technological
revolution.” Some basic electronic circuits are
common to many products and could be made and
subassembled in great quantities by automatic
processes.
Several new techniques offer promise of sub­
stituting automatic or semiautomatic machine
processes for hand assembly. One of these
(printed circuits) makes parts and subassemblies
by alternate processes of painting and baking. In
this process, individual parts, such as condensers
and resistors, can be made and connected by
machinery.
13

Another process currently being developed,
called component and circuit die stamping, makes
small mechanical parts by automatic die stamping
and wires the unit or subassembly by similar proc­
esses. This technique may permit the automatic
production of complex wiring assemblies and may
overcome the limitations of hand assembly, wir­
ing, and soldering. Other automatic assembly
and wiring processes now being developed may
have widespread effects upon electronics employ­
ment and occupational needs. Metallic crystals,
known as “ transistors,” may ultimately replace

Chart 3. PRODUCTION OF RADIO AND TV SETS
COMPARED WITH EMPLOYMENT IN RADIO,
TV, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING
1 9 4 7 -4 9 A v e r a g e = lOO
In dex

receiving tubes. This will greatly affect employ­
ment in plants making tubes.
As a result of improvements in manufacturing
techniques, the long run increase in electronics
production will not result in a corresponding in­
crease in employment. In 1950, the radio, tele­
vision, and related products industry produced
over tw o and a half times the 1947 output of radio
and television receivers (the industry’s principal
product) with only 12 percent more production
workers (chart 3).
Nevertheless, past experience suggests that elec­
tronics production may expand even more rapidly
than labor-saving improvements. I f this is the
case, employment will continue to increase over
the years although at a less rapid rate than pro­
duction. The greatest impact of changes in
manufacturing methods will probably be upon
individual occupations. Automatic assembly and
wiring processes currently being developed may
ultimately replace many workers now employed
in assembly operations and reduce the size of the
industry’s largest occupation.. These develop­
ments will probably have an opposite effect upon
the number of professional and skilled workers
because any large-scale mechanization would in­
crease the number of tool-and-die makers, ma­
chine-tool set-up men, machinists, and other skilled
workers required to operate or set up the machin­
ery. Additional production engineers would also
be required to plan and organize the production
flow.

Impact of Defense Production
The rearmament program will have a strong
effect upon employment opportunities throughout
the electronics industry. The defense program
will require a dollar volume of electronics equip­
ment almost comparable to that of World War II.
However, the physical volume of equipment will
be considerably less because newer equipment is
more complex and expensive than W orld War II
equipment.
Military equipment is produced in much smaller
quantities than home radio and television sets and
designs are changed more frequently. Over 60
percent of the value of the defense electronics
program will be spent for a small number of large
and expensive radar systems. As a result, there
14




will be less mass production and specialization of
labor than in the manufacture of home radio and
television sets, but more skilled labor will be re­
quired.
A large part of the electronics industry is usu­
ally engaged in home radio and television manu­
facturing. Many producers assemble only parts
and tubes purchased from other manufacturers,
and they employ only limited numbers of skilled
workers and engineers. These firms are best
equipped to engage in subcontracting or the mass
production of standard military equipment.
However, present military equipment is more
complex than in World War I I and standard
items will be produced in much smaller quantities.
Receiver manufacturing firms may find it diffi­
cult to obtain enough military orders to offset the
decline in civil production resulting from short­
ages of copper, aluminum, and other materials.
This will directly affect employment opportunities
in these firms during the partial mobilization.
Full mobilization would, however, tax all assem­
bly firms to the limit of their capacity, and addi­
tional employees would be needed to produce the
volume of standard equipment required.
Firms whose main business is making aircraft,
ordnance, electrical equipment, or other products
other than electronics, are producing an increasing
amount of military electronics equipment and
adding many electronics workers. Military air­
craft and other weapons contain electronics equip­
ment which directly affects their operation and
performance. The design of aircraft and other
weapons and their associated electronics equip­
ment are, therefore, closely related. This is
especially true of guided missiles which are liter­
ally built around the electronic control mechanisms
which guide them to their targets. For these
reasons, aircraft and other nonelectronics manu­
facturers are expected to increase their electronics
manufacturing activities.

Employment Opportunities
Employment opportunities in electronics manu­
facturing during the next few years will depend
on the volume of defense orders and the amounts
of critical materials available for civilian produc­
tion. Unless the defense program is reduced or
spread out over a longer period of time, military
electronics production will employ large numbers




of workers. Defense production was increasing
rapidly at the end of 1951 and beginning to make
up for lower civilian production. Although the
value of military electronics production at the
peak of the rearmament program will be quite
large and will compare favorably with 1950 civil­
ian production, an appreciable amount of this
military production will consist of nonelectronic
equipment, components, and accessories which will
be made outside the industry. Thus, the resulting
employment may be less than that for a com­
parable value o f civilian electronics production.
At the end of 1951, further cut-backs in radio
and television receiver production were expected
during 1952 as a result of shortages of critical
materials. However, even at the peak of the de­
fense program, the electronics industry will still
be making many radio and television sets. On the
other hand, commercial and industrial electronics
production is expected to remain relatively stable.
Total employment in the industry may be greater
during most of the mobilization period than it
was at the 1950 peak.
Employment opportunities for electronics work­
ers will vary widely among plants, depending
upon the amount of military orders each plant has
to supplement its civilian production. Plants al­
most entirely engaged in civilian production will
have a less favorable employment outlook than
plants with large military contracts. Firms mak­
ing such products as aircraft, ordnance, and elec­
trical equipment will continue to offer excellent
employment opportunities for skilled electronics
workers and engineers. West Coast aircraft and
other military electronics producers were hiring
skilled workers and engineers in eastern and midwestern electronics manufacturing areas at the end
of 1951. Because of their geographical location,
their recruiting program was not extended to less
skilled workers.
Employment opportunities will also vary widely
by occupation. Until defense production of elec­
tronics equipment approaches its peak, employ­
ment opportunities for unskilled and semiskilled
workers will be less favorable than for profes­
sional and skilled workers. The latter group will
be in demand throughout the partial mobilization
period.
Military production is expected to remain at
relatively high levels for a number of years. More
15

workers will be employed in this type production
than before the outbreak of hostilities in Korea,
even when the defense program begins to taper
off. Electronics employment, however, may de­
cline somewhat for a time as defense orders de­
cline. Radio and television receiver production
and employment will gradually increase as the
supply of raw materials is expanded to the point
where enough materials are available for both mil­
itary and civilian needs. Although the demand
for television sets may not return to 1950 levels for
some time, in the long run the additional television
stations which will be licensed by the Federal
Communications Commission and the introduc­
tion of color television will both stimulate the de­
mand for receivers. Receiver production and em­
ployment will then return to previous high levels.
At the same time, commercial and industrial elec­
tronics equipment manufacturing is expected to
increase more rapidly than other electronics man­
ufacturing and employ a greater proportion of the
industry’s work force than at the present time.
The combination of a relatively high level of mil­
itary production and increasing civilian produc­
tion may raise and sustain electronics employment
above even the rearmament peak, despite continu­
ing improvement in manufacturing techniques.
In predicting future electronics employment it
must be borne in mind that electronics is a tech­
nical innovation similar to steam power or elec­
tricity. Long-run employment opportunities

must be evaluated in terms of expansion involving
many industries. In the long run, there should
be excellent employment opportunities for all
types of electronics workers. However, employ­
ment opportunities will probably vary by occupa­
tion with a declining emphasis on the skilled
metalworking occupations required for military
production.

Seasonal and Cyclical V ariations
During the year electronics employment usually
varies more than all-manufacturing employment.
People buy more home radios and television sets
during the fall and winter months, especially dur­
ing the Christmas season. On the other hand,
more automobile and portable radios are sold dur­
ing spring and summer months. Employment
usually reaches a peak during the fall and drops
to its lowest level in mid-summer. However, this
seasonal variation is not substantial and it does
not apply uniformly to all electronics products or
occupations.
Employment variations resulting from general
business conditions are far more important. Like
all durable goods, the demand for electronics prod­
ucts varies with the business cycle. This has been
obscured by the high employment level prevailing
in the postwar period, but if the economy shouhl
return to prewar conditions, some unemployment
of electronics workers can be expected during pe­
riods of low business activity.

Outlook in Individual Occupations
Adm inistrative and Executive Positions

Professional Positions

Most electronics products are made by large
firms. Therefore, there are many and varied
administrative and professional positions in the
industry. In addition to the management, there
are salesmen, purchasing agents, production execu­
tives, personnel officials, advertising specialists,
public relations men, accountants, and industrial
relations men. The qualifications and duties of
these positions are similar to those in other indus­
tries. Opportunities for advancement are very
good in this expanding industry. Earnings de­
pend upon the responsibility of the position and
the experience o f the employee.

Most of the professional workers in electronics
manufacturing are in technical fields such as
engineering and allied activities. Electronics
manufacturers employ many engineers and drafts­
men, especially in the production of militarjr
equipment. In July 1951, there was 1 engineer for
every 12 employees in military and commercial
equipment manufacturing plants, 1 for every 21
employees in radio and television receiver plants
or in electron tube plants, and 1 for every 50 em­
ployees in parts plants. Military production has
already sharply increased the demand for en-

16




gineers, who are especially needed for research
and development, designing, and retooling.
Although electronics manufacturers employ
appreciable numbers of physicists, chemists, math­
ematicians, and metallurgists, the great majority
of professional workers are engineers. Physicists
and mathematicians sometimes design electron
tubes and are employed in other specialized re­
search and development jobs along with chemists
and metallurgists.
The majority of professional workers are em­
ployed in engineering departments or laboratories
where they are engaged in research, development,
or design. Electronics manufacturing requires
continuing research and development, and some
electronics manufacturers maintain extensive
laboratories for pure research.
Another major group of professional workers is
employed in quality control and other production
jobs. The intricate flow of many components
into production lines requires extensive produc­
tion engineering and quality control. There is
great competition in the manufacture of radio and
television receivers and components, and costs are
important. Production costs can be reduced by
changing the design of products and improving
production methods.
A smaller group of professional workers is em­
ployed in sales engineering, technical liaison with
other firms or the government, or in other tech­
nical jobs outside the plant.
Electronics manufacturers employ several types
o f engineers. Electronic and other electrical en­
gineers are most numerous, although many me­
chanical and industrial engineers are also em­
ployed in the industry. Electrical engineers usu­
ally have some electronics training and can be
used in many circuit designing jobs. Mechanical
engineers are used in mechanical designing and
production engineering jobs. Industrial engi­
neers design jigs and fixtures, make time and
motion studies, analyze costs, and determine pro­
duction methods.
On the average, about three times as many elec­
tronic and other electrical engineers are employed
as mechanical engineers. However, military
equipment and components manufacturing use a
higher proportion of mechanical engineers than
other electronics manufacturing. Military elec­
tronics equipment contains many mechanical com­
ponents or accessories such as gear trains, servo­




Chart 4. ENGINEERS AS A PERCENT
OF ALL EMPLOYEES IN ELECTRONICS
MANUFACTURING PLANTS
J u ly 1951

PLANTS

Percent

M ilitary &
C om m ercial
Equipm ent

Radio & TV
R eceiver

Tubes

Parts

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

mechanisms, antenna towers or supporting struc­
tures, and heavy “hardware.” Moreover, many
electronic devices are used to control, or are closely
associated with, other equipment or devices of
mechanical nature. The design of electronic de­
vices used to aim and fire guns, sight and release
bombs, control guided missiles or aircraft in flight,
or perform similar functions must be closely in­
tegrated with the design and engineering of this
mechanical equipment.
Earnings of engineers depend upon the experi­
ence and education of the individual. In the sum­
mer of 1951, beginning engineers with B. A. or
B. S. degrees were starting at $250 to $300 a month.
Salaries have probably risen since then because of
competition.
As a result of the rearmament program, employ­
ment opportunities for electronics engineers are
the best since World War II. Electronics manu­
facturing is only one of many areas of employ­
ment. requiring engineers. It is estimated that
4,000 more engineers will be required in elec­
tronics products manufacturing during the next
2 years.
17

A large transm itting tube used for broadcasting.

Long-range employment opportunities for en­
gineers in electronics manufacturing are also fa­
vorable. The ratio of engineers to other electronics
workers will probably continue to increase over
the years. Electronics equipment is becoming
more complicated. With the advent of color tele­
vision, this will be true even of home television
sets. Owing to the shortages of frequencies, an
ever-increasing amount of electronics equipment
will operate at extremely high frequencies where
more research and development is required. Even
when materials become plentiful, military, com­
mercial, and industrial equipment will comprise
more of the industry’s output than before Korea
and radio and television set production will prob­
ably no longer dominate the industry. All these
trends will increase the industry’s need for en­
gineers.
Employment opportunities for beginning engi­
neers are also excellent. Qualified applicants
should experience no great difficulty in finding
employment during the next few years because
of the high demand for engineers and declining
graduations. However, electronic engineering re­
quires increasing technical qualifications and
18




knowledge. Many electronic equipments are
closely integrated with mechanical devices, and
training or experience in mechanical engineering
is a valuable asset for electronic engineers engaged
in the research, development, or production of
military equipment. There is an increasing de­
mand for electronic engineers with additional
training or experience in mechanical, aeronautical,
optics, ordnance, and other engineering fields.
Some electronic research and development jobs re­
quire considerable training or familiarity with
chemistry or physics, and engineers with such
backgrounds have additional employment oppor­
tunities.
Engineers with only limited training and ex­
perience who may get jobs during the present
shortage of engineers may have difficulty com­
peting in a peacetime economy with graduates
who have greater professional training. Quali­
fied engineers graduating in the next several years
should be able to find jobs even in a peacetime
economy.
In the next year most job openings will be found
among firms planning to enter electronics manu­
facturing, and especially the manufacture of mili­
tary electronics products. Aircraft manufac­
turers and other nonelectronics manufacturers
will continue to provide excellent opportunities
during the defense period although, in the long
run, radio and television set manufacturing may
provide the greater number of openings.

Draftsmen
A higher proportion of draftsmen are required
for military electronics production than for the
manufacture of other types of electronics prod­
ucts. They are already in demand throughout
the industry (chart 5). Draftsmen are usually
employed in the engineering department. The
industry employs both mechanical and electrical
draftsmen, with the latter being more numerous.
Some highly skilled draftsmen design the lay-out
of parts in equipment. Employment opportu­
nities for electronics draftsmen will be good
throughout the defense period, especially in plants
engaging in extensive research and development.
An estimated 1,000 additional draftsmen will be
needed in the next 2 years. Full mobilization
would probably require two or three times as many
draftsmen as are currently employed in the
industry.

Chart 5. DRAFTSMEN AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL
PLANT WORKERS IN ELECTRONICS PLANTS
S e p te m b e r 1950
PLANTS
M ilitary &
Com m ercial
Equipment

Radio & TV
R eceiver

Parts

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Long-range employment opportunities for qual­
ified electronics draftsmen are also favorable be­
cause this occupation is expected to grow pro­
portionally with the industry. However, with
declining emphasis on defense production, fewer
draftsmen will be required and workers entering
the industry during the defense period with lim­
ited qualifications may experience difficulty com­
peting with more qualified entrants. In the past,
top drafting jobs were often filled by beginning
engineers.

Clerical, Stenographic, and Other Office Jobs
The electronics industry employs many clerks,
stenographers, bookkeepers, typists, and other
office workers. Most o f these jobs require some
clerical experience or training. Working condi­
tions and earnings are comparable to office work
in other industries. About one out of every eight
workers in the electronics industry is employed in
the front office, and additional clerical workers are
employed in the plants. Employment opportuni­
ties for office workers should be good for several
years.

Assem bly and Other Sem iskilled and
Unskilled Processing Jobs
Almost half of all electronics workers are em­
ployed in semiskilled or unskilled assembly or




other processing jobs. Over 1,600 separate oper­
ations are required in the manufacture of a tele­
vision set. These operations are performed in
large part by highly specialized persons trained
for single tasks. Parts and tube workers also per­
form highly specialized and repetitive tasks by
hand or machine. Common assembly and proc­
essing occupations include assemblers, semiskilled
and unskilled machine tool operators, punch-press
operators, solderers, wirers, welders, semiskilled
or unskilled inspectors and testers. Workers in
these occupations have an opportunity to advance
to higher paid jobs as working foremen.
Employment opportunities for workers desiring
to enter these occupations will be generally favor­
able when defense production reaches high levels.
Despite the greater skill requirements for military
production, the great majority of workers em­
ployed in manufacturing are semiskilled and un­
skilled. Manufacturers of military equipment
will continue to hire workers in these occupations
throughout the defense period. Short-run em­
ployment opportunities will vary widely among
plants and areas.
In the event of full mobilization, the volume of
military production and the shortage of skilled
labor would require the mass production of many
military items. Jobs now performed by skilled
labor would be broken down into specialized assem­
bly and processing operations which could be per­
formed by semiskilled and unskilled women
workers. Electronics manufacturing w
rould then
require great numbers of workers for these
occupations.
Long-run employment opportunities depend
upon the rate of expansion of the industry and its
technological developments. Automatic machin­
ery and processes for assembling electronics prod­
ucts may reduce the numbers of hand assembly
workers now required, but the high turn-over in
these occupations will always provide some job
opportunities.

Electronic Technicians
Only a small proportion of the Natioms elec­
tronic technicians are employed in electronics
manufacturing. “Electronic technician” is a gen­
eral title used to describe a wide variety of jobs
requiring considerable experience and familiarity
with basic electronic theory, circuits, and test
equipment. The job titles and duties vary from
19

plant to plant. Many are employed in engineer­
ing departments or research laboratories as engi­
neering aides and assistants, laboratory techni­
cians, radio technicians, or in other jobs where
they assist engineers in the construction and test­
ing of experimental models or designs. They may
also design and make specialized test equipment,
induction solderers, or other equipment used in
manufacturing electronics products.
Electronic technicians also help production en­
gineers maintain the quality control so necessary
in the production of a complex product. These
workers are employed as quality inspectors, final
testers, precision inspectors, other skilled testers
and inspectors, shrinkage analysts, trouble shoot­
ers, skilled aliners and phasers, and other quality
control jobs. They may also supervise less skilled
workers performing similar tasks. Electronic
technicians are occasionally used to assemble and
test complex, specialized equipment made in small
quantities and requiring special skills. In addi­
tion, electronic technicians are employed as tech­
nical representatives, field engineers, factory
service technicians, or in other field installations
or repair jobs.
Electronic technicians employed in manufac­
turing must be familiar with basic electronic
theory, circuits, and the function of electrical com­
ponents. They must be able to work from wiring
diagrams and blueprints and be able to use the
basic formulas, tables, charts, and manuals neces­
sary for calculating circuit values. They must
also know how to use testing and measuring
devices, such as oscilloscopes, signal generators,
and frequency meters.
Skilled electronic technicians repairing defective television

Approximately 12,000 electronic technicians are
now engaged in fabricating electronics equipment
in the electronics and aircraft manufacturing in­
dustries. The defense program will require at
least 4,000 additional electronic technicians in
electronics manufacturing during the next 2 years.
Full mobilization would require several times as
many as are now employed in the industry.
Employment prospects for qualified entrants
will be excellent during the next few years. Most
job openings will be in plants with extensive mili­
tary contracts rather than in plants which are still
mainly engaged in radio and television receiver
production. Employment prospects will be better
among plants manufacturing finished equipment
than in components plants. Aircraft plants will
continue to provide excellent employment oppor­
tunities for trained workers.
Qualified electronic technicians probably have
better long-range employment prospects than any
other skilled electronics manufacturing occupa­
tion. Only a small proportion of these highly
skilled workers are employed in electronics manu­
facturing, and employment opportunities in other
activities are improving even more rapidly than
in manufacturing. Although the same basic
knowledge and training required in manufactur­
ing is needed for servicing electronics equipment,
employment opportunities for trained men are in
large part determined outside the industry. Serv­
ice jobs depend on the volume of electronics equip­
ment in use, which fluctuates less than manufac­
turing, and this tends to stabilize employment in
the occupation.
Advances in the art of electronics will open up
many new jobs each year, but these same advances
will require higher qualifications.

receivers.

Skilled M etalw orking and Tooling Jobs
O f an estimated 20,000 skilled workers em­
ployed in electronics manufacturing at the end of
1951, more than half were employed as skilled
machine tool operators, production machinists,
platers, tool-and-die makers, machine tool set-up
men, die setters, or in other skilled metalworking
or tooling jobs. Approximately 3 percent of all
electronics employees are working in these jobs.
Expanding defense production will require
many more of these workers than will be released
by cut-backs in civilian production, because mili­
tary electronics requires a higher proportion of
2 0




skilled metal and tool workers than does receiver
production. Electronics manufacturers are al­
ready experiencing increasing difficulty in hiring
skilled workers, especially in areas with large
metalworking employment. An estimated 6,000
additional skilled metal and tool workers will be
required during the next 2 years in electronics
manufacturing. Other defense industries require
far greater numbers of these workers. As a re­
sult, the electronics industry will face sharp com­
petition from other industries for the limited sup­
ply of qualified workers.
Full mobilization would require many of these
skilled workers. Not even complete curtailment
of civilian electronics production and maximum
job dilution could provide enough workers, and
extensive training programs would have to be
undertaken.
Employment opportunities will be excellent as
long as the industry has a large volume of defense
orders. Should defense production of electronics
equipment return to levels existing before the
outbreak of hostilities in Korea employment op­
portunities for new entrants would become much
less favorable.

M aintenance Jobs
Less than 2 percent of all electronics workers
are employed as carpenters, electricians, machin­
ists, mechanics, and millwrights. These work­
ers maintain electronics plants and facilities, and
perform installation work.
Employment opportunities in these jobs depend
almost entirely on the level of production and
are only moderately affected by changes in the
type of product. Long-run employment oppor­
tunities for qualified workers entering these occu­
pations should also be favorable.

M aterials H andling and Custodial Jobs
The fabrication of finished products from many
small mechanical and electrical components re­
quires extensive materials handling. Electronics
manufacturing requires stock clerks, truck drivers,




Chart 6.

SELECTED SKILLED METAL AND TOOL WORKERS *
A S A PERCENT OF ALL PLANT WORKERS
IN ELECTRONICS PLANTS
Se p te m b e r 1950

PLANTS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU of IABOR statistics

* M achinists, tool and die m akers,
machine tool set-up men, skilled
machine tool operators, platers, and
m illw righ ts

truckers, packers, shipping clerks, and other
workers who comprise between 5 and 10 percent
of all electronics employees. Guards, janitors,
and watchmen are fairly numerous and make up a
larger proportion of total employees than do main­
tenance employees.
Duties and qualifications for these occupations
are similar to their counterparts in other manu­
facturing industries. They require only limited
training, which is usually acquired on the jobs.
The number of workers required in these occu­
pations wull depend on the industry’s level of pro­
duction. As the defense program boosts output,
employment opportunities will increase. Mili­
tary equipment requires more parts and materials
handling than civilian production, and some mili­
tary equipment requires special packaging, crat­
ing, and moisture-proofing. A larger proportion
of these workers were employed during the last
war than at present, and it is reasonable to expect
a similar situation as military production in­
creases. The security requirements of military
production necessitates more guards and watch­
men. Employment opportunities for most of
these occupations should be favorable for the next
2 years. Long-range employment opportunities
will depend on the industry’s level of production.

21

How To Enter the Industry
Electronics employers hire most of their work­
ers through their own personnel offices. Qualified
applicants desiring electronics employment should
contact these offices. Many firms have arrange­
ments with universities and technical or trade
schools which provide trained workers. The State
employment service will help place prospective
electronics workers and furnish them with in­
formation on local employment conditions.
Individuals planning careers in electronics man­
ufacturing should prepare themselves for their
future jobs. The type and extent of preparation,
o f course, will depend upon the occupation
selected. Executive and professional positions
usually require a college degree in engineering or
business administration. Office jobs require office
experience or business college training.
Persons without previous experience who wish
to enter subprofessional jobs or skilled occupations
can obtain qualifying training or experience by at­
tending trade or technical schools or by becoming
apprentices in the desired trade. Prospective
students should select a school with a good repu­
tation because the quality of instruction is very
important. Information on trade and technical
schools can be obtained from State education de­
partments, the United States Office of Education
o f the Federal Security Administration, Wash­
ington 25, D. C., and educational associations,
such as the National Council of Technical Schools,
2601 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.
Persons planning to attend schools should also
check with prospective employers as to the extent
to which graduates are accepted as trained work­
ers. Information on apprenticeships can be
obtained by contacting employers or by writing
the Bureau o f Apprenticeship, United States De­
partment of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.
Assembly and processing jobs require little
preparation beyond elementary education and
basic aptitudes, such as manual dexterity and an
ability to follow simple instructions.
Higher executive and administrative positions
are generally filled by promotion. Junior posi­
tions are usually filled by college graduates.
Electronics products are highly technical. There­
fore, engineering training is valuable in sales,
production, and purchasing positions.
Engineering jobs are usually filled by gradu­
22




ates of recognized engineering schools and uni­
versities, but skilled workers and trade-school
graduates are sometimes advanced into these posi­
tions. Many manufacturers prefer graduates of
universities which grant degrees in radio engi­
neering, and some prefer engineers with post­
graduate training. Research and development
positions generally require more academic train­
ing than production engineering positions. Only
a few universities grant first degrees in radio or
electronic engineering. Therefore, many elec­
trical engineers or physicists with specialization
in electronics are hired each year.
Persons planning engineering careers should
complete an engineering course at a recognized
engineering school or university. Information on
universities, colleges, and technical schools offer­
ing engineering training can be obtained by writ­
ing the United States Office of Education, Fed­
eral Security Agency, Washington 25, D. C., or
the Engineers Council for Professional Develop­
ment, 25-33 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York
18, N. Y.
Electronics draftsmen require a knowledge of
electrical symbols, circuits, and mathematics in
addition to their basic drafting training. Experi­
enced draftsmen can acquire this knowledge from
home study. The best way to learn drafting is by
attending a good vocational school or completing
an apprenticeship.
For such skilled workers as machinists, tool-anddie makers, millwrights, electricians, or carpen­
ters, apprenticeship is one of the best ways to
enter the industry. These jobs are very similar
to their counterparts in other industries, and
previous experience in the trade is usually enough
qualifying experience.
Electronic technicians need a knowledge of
theoretical electronics before they can be consid­
ered skilled, and until they acquire it they can
never advance very far in this occupation. This
knowledge can be acquired in several ways. One
can start out as a helper or apprentice and learn
it on the job. Some of the best technicians are
self-taught radio amateurs who acquired both the
theoretical and practical aspects through home
study and experimentation. This method requires
ability, self-discipline, and initiative. Moreover,
electronics is fast advancing beyond the home

tinkering stage and is beginning to require equip­
ment beyond the financial abilities of most
amateurs.
One of the best ways to prepare for these jobs
is by attending a good trade, technical, or voca­
tional school where one can acquire basic theory
and familiarity with testing and measuring
equipment.
The armed services provide excellent electron­
ics experience and training and have excellent
service schools. Young men entering the Armed
Forces who are interested in electronics work
should try to attend one of these schools and seek
assignment to a communications group. Techni­
cians with military electronics training are usually
familiar with the types of equipment produced
by manufacturers who employ the greatest num­
ber of electronic technicians. For this reason,
many employers prefer workers with military
electronics experience. Electronics research and
development have become so expensive that mili­
tary has outstripped civilian electronics develop­
ment, and technicians trained in manufacturing,




operating, or repairing military equipment are
often the only technicians available with this
experience.
In addition to the basic theoretical knowledge
and familiarity with test and measuring equip­
ment, electronic technicians need specialized prac­
tical experience which is usually acquired by
on-the-job training.
Even unskilled assembly jobs require some
training and the ability to distinguish colors and
shapes of parts and to follow simple instructions.
Applicants for such jobs are often given aptitude
and personality tests to determine their fitness
for employment.
The great majority of electronics manufacturing
jobs require only limited training. Some firms
place new workers directly on the production lines
where they receive on-the-job training from ex­
perienced workers and supervisors. Other firms
have special training courses and practice produc­
tion lines where they prepare workers for the
main assembly line.

23

A P P E N D IX

I

Electronics Has M an y A pplications
Entertainment:
Home radio and television:
Radio receivers.
Television receivers.
Recorders and phonographs.
Citizens’ radio.
Broadcasting:
Radio broadcasting:
AM transmitters.
FM transmitters.
Television broadcasting.
Studio recording and sound equipment.
Program pickup stations.
Booster stations.
Motion pictures:
Sound recording.
Projection.
Military electronics:
Ground:
Communications:
Communication centers:
Radio teletype.
Radio telephone.
Radio telegraph.
Facsimile.
Tactical communications.
Radio and radar navigational aids.
Air traffic control.
Weather observation.
Air warning radar.
Fighter control radar.
Armament:
Gun-laying equipment.
Guided missiles.
Proximity fuses.
Mine detectors.
Airborne:
Communications:
Liaison (air-ground).
Command (air to air).
24




Military electronics— Continued
Airborne— Continued
Air navigation, radio and radar:
Long range.
Short range.
Instrument landing.
Collision warning.
Air traffic control:
Radio.
Radar.
Identification.
Armament:
Search radar.
Radar bombing.
Electronic bombsights.
Gun-sighting equipment.
Aircraft control mechanisms.
Shipboard:
Communications (radio telephone, tele­
graph, teletype, and facsimile):
Ship to shore.
Ship to ship.
Warning and detection equipment:
Radar:
Air warning.
Search.
Fighter control.
Collision warning.
Sonar.
Radio and radar navigation equipment.
Armament:
Gun laying.
Proximity fuses.
Guided missiles.
Ship control mechanisms.
Common carrier communications:
International:
Radio telephone.
Radio teletype.
Radio telegraph.

Common carrier communications— Continued
International— Continued
Submarine cable booster and repeater
equipment.
Domestic:
Telephone repeater stations.
Microwave relay stations.
Program transmission.
Telephoto.
Facsimile.
Transportation:
Ground:
Railroad radio.
Taxi radio.
Truck radio.
Water:
Communications (radio telephone, tele­
graph, and teletype):
Ship to shore communications.
Distress.
Weather.
Passenger telephone service.
Navigation, radio, and radar.
Collision warning.
Air:
Air-ground communications.
Traffic control.
Navigation.
Instrument landing.
Radio altimeters.
Collision warning.
Industrial electronics:
Control devices:
Electronic timers.
Remote control devices.
Automatic control devices.
Inspection and quality control equipment.
Automatic power distribution.




Industrial electronics— Continued
Industrial heating.
Induction solderers.
Intercommunication systems, office and plant.
Mineral and oil exploration.
Electronic instruments:
Test and measuring equipment.
Laboratory equipment.
Electronic computers.
Government:
Navigational aids, air and marine.
Weather broadcasts.
Air traffic control.
Communications:
Coast Guard.
Weather.
Forestry.
Police.
Fire.
Weather observation.
Atomic energy electronic equipment.
Research and development:
Test and measuring equipment.
Laboratory equipment.
Electronic computers.
Amateur radio, radar, and television.
Education and research:
Radio and television receivers.
Radio and television broadcasting stations.
Motion picture sound equipment.
Laboratory equipment.
Test and measuring equipment.
Electronic computers.
Medical electronics:
X -ra y equipment.
Electron microscopes.
Electronic diagnosis.
Diathermy.

25

A P P E N D IX

II

Percentage Distribution of W orkers in Electronics M anufacturing, by
O ccupation, Ja n u a ry 19 4 7
O c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p

All workers____________________________________________________ _____________________________

P ercen t

100. 0

Office workers_____________________________________________________
Administrative, executive, a n d professional______________________________________________
Clerks, stenographers, a n d other officeworkers___________________________________________

20. 2
7. 7
12. 5

Plant workers_______________________________________________________________________________
Assembling_____________________________________________________________________________
Assemblers:
Class A ________________________________________________________________________
Class B ________________________________________________________________________
Class C ________________________________________________________________________
Solderers___________________________________________________________________________
Wirers_____________________________________________________________________________
Inspection a n d testing__________________________________________________________________
Inspectors a n d testers:
Class A ________________________________________________________________________
Class B ________________________________________________________________________
Class C __________________________________________ . ____________________________
_
M e t a l a n d tool w orkers_________________________________________________________________
M a c h i n e tool operators:
Class A ________________________________________________________________________
Class B ________________________________________________________________________
Class C ________________________________________________________________________
Miscellaneous__________________________________________________________________
Machinists, production_____________________________________________________________
P u n c h press operators______________________________________________________________
Platers_____________________________________________________________________________
Set-up m e n , m a c h i n e tool_________________________________________________________
Tool a n d die m a k e r s _______________________________________________________________
Miscellaneous processing workers_______________________________________________________
Painters____________________________________________________________________________
Welders, h a n d a n d m a c h i n e ________________________________________________________
Winders, coil_______________________________________________________________________
Apprentices, learners, helpers______________________________________________________
Miscellaneous processing jobs______________________________________________________
W o r k i n g f o r e m e n ___________
Custodial (guards, janitors, w a t c h m e n ) _________________________________________________
M a i n t e n a n c e ____________________________________________________________________________
Carpenters_________________________________________________________________________
Electricians________________________________________________________________________
Machinists_________________________________________________________________________
M a i n t e n a n c e m e n __________________________________________________________________
Mechanics______________________________________________________________________
Millwrights ______________________________________________________________________
Materials handling_____________________________________________________________________
Plant clerical___________________________________________________________________________
Other plant w orkers______________________________________________________ ^ ____________

79. 8
29. 3

26




.4
2. 5
18. 8
2. 9
4. 7
8. 8

1
.

1
.
3.

1
.

2.
1
.
1
.

1
1
6
2
O O W i-^ fcO O O O O fcO O O C O O O O i-^ C O ^ ^H ^ O C O fcO O S tO O O ^ C O ^

1
.
2.
5.
5.

1
.
1 1
.
25. 8

A P P E N D IX

III

Percentage Distribution of Professional and Skilled W orkers in R adio, Television,
and Related Products M anufacturing, by Occupation, September 1 9 5 0 1
All radio
a n d tele­
vision plants

Occupation

All plant employees_

_

Engineers 2_ _
Electrical
Mechanical _
Skilled metal workers
Machinists
Tool a n d die ma k e r s
Machine-tool operators, Class A ____
Set-up men, m a c h i n e tools
Platers
Millwrights
Skilled inspectors a n d testers (electronic
technicians)
Draftsmen2 _

Radio a n d tele­
vision receiver
manufac­
turing plants

Military a n d
commercial
equipment
manufac­
turing plants

Parts m a n u facturi ng
plants

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

3. 5
2. 7
.8
4. 1
.5
1. 1
1 3
.
.3
.4
.2

1. 8
1 3
.
.5
1. 8
.3
.5
.4
.2
.2
.2

9. 0
7 2
.
1. 8
7 3
.
.9
1 7
.
3. 2
.8
.5
.2

3. 0
1. 0

4. 2
.6

2. 6
2. 2

1. 5
1. 0
.5
3. 6
.4
1 4
.
.9
.3
.5
.1

2. 0
.6

1 Derived from information collected in the BLS Survey of Occupational Composition, September 1950.
2 Although engineers and draftsmen are not classified as plant workers, the ratio of engineers and draftsmen to total plant workers
is shown for purposes of comparison.




27

O C C U P A T IO N A L O U T L O O K P U B L IC A T IO N S O F TH E
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Studies of employment trends and opportuni­
ties in the various occupations and professions are
made available by the Occupational Outlook
Service o f the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
These reports are for use in the vocational guid­
ance of veterans, in assisting defense planners, in
counseling young people in schools, and in guid­
ing others considering the choice of an occupation.
Schools concerned with vocational training and
employers and trade-unions interested in on-thejob training have also found the reports helpful
in planning programs in line with prospective
employment opportunities.
Two types of reports are issued, in addition to
the Occupational Outlook Handbook: O ccu pa­

tional ou tlook bulletins describing the long-run
outlook for employment in each occupation and
giving information on earnings, working condi­
tions, and the training required.
Special' rep orts issued from time to time on such
subjects as the general employment outlook, trends
in the various States, and occupational mobility.
These reports are issued as bulletins of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Most of them may
be purchased from the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington 25, D. C., at the prices listed
with a 25-percent discount on 100 copies or more.
Those reports which are listed as free may be
obtained directly from the United States Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wash­
ington 25, D. C., as long as the supply lasts.

O CCU PATIO N A L OUTLOOK H AN DBO O K
E m p l o y m e n t Information on M a j o r Occupations for U s e
in Guidance.

Bulletin

998

(1951

Revised

Edition.)

$3. Ulus.

Includes brief reports on more than 400 occu­
pations o f interest in vocational guidance, includ­
ing professions; skilled trades; clerical, sales, and
service occupations; and the major types of farm­
ing. Each report describes the employment
trends and outlook, the training qualifications re­
quired, earnings, and working conditions. Intro­

28




ductory sections summarize the major trends in
population and employment and in the broad in­
dustrial and occupational groups, as background
for an understanding of the individual occupa­
tions.
The Handbook is designed for use in counsel­
ing, in classes or units on occupations, in the train­
ing of counselors, and as a general reference. Its
600 pages are illustrated with 103 photographs
and 85 charts.

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK BULLETINS

Aviation Occupations, Employment Opportunities in, Part II— Duties, Qualifications, Earnings,
and Working Conditions
Bulletin 837-2 (1946). Illus__________________________________________________________
Foundry Occupations, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 880 (1946). Illus____________________________________________________________
Business Machine Servicemen, Employment Outlook for
Bulletin 892 (1947). Illus____________________________________________________________
Machine Shop Occupations, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 895 (1947). Illus____________________________________________________________
Printing Occupations, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 902 (1947). Illus____________________________________________________________
Plastics Products Industry, Employment Outlook in the
Bulletin 929 (1948). Illus____________________________________________________________
Electric Light and Power Occupations, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 944 (1948). Illus____________________________________________________________
Radio and Television Broadcasting Occupations, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 958 (1949). Illus____________________________________________________________
Railroad Occupations, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 961 (1949). Illus____________________________________________________________
Building Trades, Employment Outlook in the
Bulletin 967 (1949). Illus____________________________________________________________
Engineers, Employment Outlook for
Bulletin 968 (1949). Illus____________________________________________________________
Elementary and Secondary School Teachers, Employment Outlook for
Bulletin 972 (1949). Illus____________________________________________________________
Petroleum Production and Refining, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 994 (1950). Illus____________________________________________________________
Men’s Tailored Clothing Industry, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 1010 (1951). Illus___________________________________________________________
Department Stores, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 1020 (1951). Illus___________________________________________________________
Accounting, Employment Outlook in
Bulletin 1048 (1952). Illus___________________________________________________________
Earth Scientists, Employment Outlook for
Bulletin 1050 (1952). Illus___________________________________________________________
Merchant Marine, Employment Outlook in the
Bulletin 1054 (1952). Illus___________________________________________________________




Price

30 cents
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15 cents
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20 cents
20 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents
50 cents
55 cents
40 cents
30 cents
25 cents
20 cents
20 cents
30 cents
30 cents

29

OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK SUPPLEMENTS

Effect of Defense Program on Employment Outlook in Engineering
P
rice
(Supplement to Bulletin 968, Employment Outlook for Engineers) (1951)_______________15 cents
Effect of Defense Program on Employment Situation in Elementary and Secondary School
Teaching
(Supplement to Bulletin 972, Employment Outlook for Elementary and Secondary School
Teachers) (1951)_________________________________________________________________ 15 cents
SPECIAL REPORTS

Occupational Data for Counselors. A Handbook of Census Information Selected for Use
in Guidance
Bulletin 817 (1945). (Prepared jointly with the Occupational Information and Guidance
Service, U. S. Office of Education)________________________________________________ 20 cents
Factors Affecting Earnings in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Bulletin 881 (1946)_____ 10 cents
Occupational Outlook Information Series (by States)
VA Pamphlet 7-2 (1947). (When ordering, specify State or States desired)___ (each)__ 10 cents
Employment, Education, and Earnings of American Men of Science
Bulletin 1027 (1951)__________________________________________________________________ 45 cents
Fact Book on Manpower (1951)__________________________________________________________
Free
Employment Opportunities for Student Personnel Workers in Colleges and Universities
• (1951)_________
Free
Elementary and Secondary School Principalships—Chief Advancement Opportunity for Public
School Teachers (1951)________________________________________________
Free
Employment Opportunities for Counselors in Secondary and Elementary Schools (1951)_____
Free
O CCUPATIO N AL OUTLOOK M A ILIN G LIST

Schools, vocational guidance agencies, and others who wish to receive brief summaries of each new
Occupational Outlook report, usually accompanied by a wall chart, may be placed on a mailing list
kept for this purpose. Requests should be addressed to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department
of Labor, Washington 25, D. C., specifying the Occupational Outlook Mailing List. Please give your
postal zone number.

30




U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1952


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102