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EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK IN

DEPARTMENT STORES

U N IT ED STATES D EP A R T M EN T O F LABOR
M a u r i c e J . T o b i n , Secretary

B U R EA U O F LA B O R STATISTICS
E w a n C l a g u e , Commissioner

In cooperation with V E T E R A N S A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

O CCUPATIO N A L O UTLO OK S E R IE S




Bulletin No. 1020




Employment O utlook in
D EP A R TM EN T STO R ES

Bulletin No. 1020
U N ITED S TA T E S D E P A R TM E N T O F L A B O R
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU O F L A B O R STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

In cooperation with
V E TE R A N S A D M IN IS TR A TIO N

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D. C.




Price 20 cents




Letter of Transmittal

U nited S tates D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor S tatistics,

Washington, D . 67.,March 15,1951.

The S ecretary of L abor:
I have the honor to transm it herew ith a report on the em ploym ent outlook in depart­
m ent stores. This is one of a series of occupational studies conducted
in the B ureau’s
O ccupational Outlook B ranch for use in vocational counseling of veterans, young people
in schools, and others interested in choosing a field of work. The study was financed
largely by the V eterans A dm inistration, and the report was originally published
as a V et­
erans A dm inistration pam phlet for use in vocational rehabilitation and education activities.
The study was prepared by Raym ond D.Larson w ith the assistance of Jam es J. Treires.
The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the generous assistance received from the unions, trade
associations, departm ent stores, and governm ent agencies.
E wan Clague, Commissioner.
Hon. M aurice J. T obin ,

Secretary of Labor.

Contents

Page

Summary__________________________________________________________________________
1
The department store industry________________________________________________________
1
Employment outlook________________________________________________________________
2
1950-60 decade_________________________________________________________________
2
Long-run trends_________________________________________________________________
3
Movement to suburban areas_____________________________________________________
5
Hiring, qualifications, and training_____________________________________________________
6
Hiring workers__________________________________________________________________
6
Qualifications___________________________________________________________________
6
Training_______________________________________________________________________
7
In school___________________________________________________________________
7
In the store_________________________________________________________________
7
Opportunities for advancement________________________________________________________
9
Department store jobs----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
Merchandising__________________________________________________________________
11
Selling jobs-------------Buying jobs________________________________________________________________
12
Receiving_________________________________________________________________________
Customer service________________________________________________________________
14
Wrapping and packing_______________________________________________________
14
Delivery___________________________________________________________________
14
Alterations and repairs_______________________________________________________
14
Adjust ments_________________________________________________________
Maintenance and operation_______________________________________________________
15
Maintenance________________________________________________________________ 15
Housekeeping_______________________________________________________________
16
Elevator operation___________________________________________________________ 16
Protection__________________________________________________________________ 16
Financial control________________________________________________________________
16
Publicity_______________________________________________________________________ ,17
Personnel______________________________________ _________________________________



11
13
15

17

Contents— Continued

Earnings and working conditions______________________________________________________________
Earnings_________________________________________________________________________________
All store jobs________________________________________________________________________
Sales clerks__________________________________________________________________________
Other nonsupervisory employees_______________________________________________________
Hours of work, vacations, and discounts____________________________________________________
Workweek___________________________________________________________________________
Vacations_____________________________________:______________________________________
Discounts_________________________________
Labor unions____________________________________________________________________________
TABLES
1. —Number of establishments and employees in retail trade, 1948______________________________
2. —Department store workers by State mid-March 1948______________________________________
3. —Department stores’ share of combined sales of department stores and nine related kinds of
business 1929, 1935, 1939, 1948--'-_______________________________________________________
4. —Percent of workers by type of job________________________________________________________
5. —Average weekly earnings of workers in selected occupations in department and women’s ready-towear stores in selected cities May-July 1950______________________________________________
6. —Scheduled hours and days per week for full-time workers (men and women) in department and
women’s ready-to-wear stores May-July 1950_____________________________________________
7. —Paid vacations for full-time workers in department and women’s ready-to-wear stores May-July
1950___________________________________________________________________________________
8. —Paid holidays for full-time workers (store and office workers) in department and women’s ready-towear stores May-July 1950______________________________________________________________
9*—^Discount policies for full-time workers in department and women’s ready-to-wear stores M ayJuly 1950___________________________________________________________________________
CHARTS
1. —Department store sales volume has increased greatly since 1919__________________________
2. —Employment in department stores________________________________________________________
3. —Average number of sales transactions for each hour worked in selected large department stores_
4. —Index of employment in department stores, 1948__________________________________________
5. —Typical organization pattern of a large department store----------------------------------------------------




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Employment O utlook in Department Stores
Summary

About 2,600 department stores with 750,000
workers are located in cities throughout the Na­
tion. The largest stores and a large proportion
of the workers are concentrated in metropolitan
areas. Some department stores have as few as 25
employees; the largest have thousands of workers.
Running a department store calls for a wide
assortment of workers, ranging from porters to
store executives. Selling employees account for
almost half the workers. For many jobs, em­
ployers prefer applicants with training in business
methods, but most of the beginning jobs can be
filled by workers with no previous retail experi­
ence. Higher-level positions, on the other hand,
frequently call for store experience in addition
to specialized training. About two out of three
employees are women.
The employment trend in department stores has
been upward over the years and is likely to con­
tinue in this direction. Increasing population and
income, and the establishment of new suburban
outlets will be the chief causes of rising employ­
ment. Although a number of additional workers
will be needed to run new stores and to enlarge

the staffs of some established stores, few jobs will
result from growth in the industry compared with
the number of openings resulting from turn-over.
Increased business activity caused by defense
expenditures will have little effect on total em­
ployment, but will temporarily increase the rate
of turn-over. By the same token, any small dips
in business will decrease employment very little,
if at all. In any event, department stores offer
employees more security than many other indus­
tries.
Earnings among nonsupervisory employees
vary greatly. In general, sales clerks earn more
than nonselling employees, and men earn more
than women. Pay checks of more than $100 a
week are not uncommon among men sales clerks
in big cities. In some large cities, on the other
hand, many women sales clerks earn less than $30
a week. A large and increasing number of de­
partment store employees work on a 5-day-week
schedule of 40 hours. Most department stores
give their workers vacations and holidays with
pay, and allow them discounts on items purchased
in the store.

The Department Store Industry

More than 830,000 workers were employed in
2,590 department stores in November 1948. (See
table 1.) Census of Business figures show that
these stores had about 12 percent of all the workers
in retail trade and sold 10.6 billion dollars5worth
of merchandise, representing over 8 percent of the
dollar volume for all retail trade. Department
stores were defined as departmentalized retail
establishments with 25 or more employees selling
a broad line of merchandise including a variety of
apparel and home furnishings. Mail order houses
selling a wide variety of merchandise were in­
cluded in the data for department stores.



A growing proportion of department stores are
members of chain organizations. Some depart­
ment store chains cover only a local area and have
as few as four stores. Others are Nation-wide
organizations with hundreds of stores and many
thousands of employees. The biggest department
store chain had about 600 stores with 66,000 em­
ployees in 1945. Many of the units in this chain,
however, are small stores not considered depart­
ment stores. For chain stores, the buying, person­
nel, credit, and other operation policies are deter­
mined by a home office or home store. As a result,
there are fewer workers at the managerial level,
1

and their duties are limited to a much greater ex­
tent than in independent stores. For example,
buyers in independent stores frequently have the
responsibility of deciding not only what merchan­
dise to buy but how much and where; in chain
organizations the central offices do most of the
buying.
T able 1.— 'Number of establishments and employees in

,

retail trade 19^8

Retail trade group
Total
General merchandise group_____ ___
Department stores.
__
Other general merchandise stores
Food group____
_ __
Eating and drinking places _ _ _
Apparel group
__
Furniture, furnishings, appliance group. __
Automotive group
_
Gasoline service station
Lumber, building, h a r d w a r e g ro u p
Drug and proprietory stores
Liquor stores ___ _
Second-hand stores _____
Other retail stores

Paid employees,
workweek
ended nearest
Nov. 15 1

Establish­
ments
1,769,993
74,140
2, 590
71,550
504,480
346, 555
115, 333
85, 548
86,196
188, 305
98, 797
55, 851
33, 628
16, 964
164,196

6,927,891
1,378,672
833,173
545,499
1,012,934
1,345,338
580, 919
374,812
634,654
287,896
479,888
282,390
52, 613
20,787
476,988

1 Includes employees paid for less than full workweek. Excludes members
of proprietors’ families who work without pay.
Source: Preliminary 1948 Census of Business data.

Closely related to chains are “ownership
groups.” These are department stores under com­
mon ownership, but they do not have centralized
buying—a major characteristic of chain organiza­
tions. For the most part, the stores in these
ownership groups operate as independent stores
under their original names. They generally do
most of their own buying, have their own credit
policies, and frequently appeal to different income
groups. The degree of control, however, varies
considerably from one group to another.

Most department stores are located in heavily
populated districts—in cities and their suburbs.
Employment is therefore greatest in the States
with the biggest urban populations. Five States—
New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, California, and
Ohio—had 44 percent of the department store em­
ployees in 1948. (See table 2.) The following
cities, in the order named, had the greatest num­
ber of department store employees: New York,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit,
Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Washington, D. C., St.
Louis, and Boston.
,

. T able 2.— Department store workers by State mid-March

1948

State
New York......................._
Pennsylvania. . ..............
Illinois—.......................... .
California—____________
Ohio...................................
Total, five States___
Michigan—.____ ______
Texas_________________
Massachusetts_________
Missouri--------------------Indiana________ _____
New Jersey----------------Wisconsin_____________
Minnesota_____________
District of Columbia____
Washington___________
Maryland_______ ____
North Carolina-----------Georgia_______________
Virginia..............................
Iowa_____ ____________
Florida_______________
Tennessee_____________
Oregon_______________
Connecticut—._________
Louisiana_____________

Number
of em­
ployees
in midMarch
1948
88,193
73, 206
66, 846
65, 522
64,821
358, 588
36, 562
33, 593
28,185
25,021
23,154
22, 511
21,748
18, 830
15, 872
15, 376
15, 213
14,099
13, 998
13,996
13,844
11, 785
11, 755
10, 933
9, 962
9,167

State
Oklahoma_____________
Alabama..................... .
Colorado...........................
Kentucky_____________
Nebraska_____________
West Virginia....................
Kansas_________ ____
South Carolina.................
Utah...................................
Arkansas_____________
Rhode Island............... .
Mississippi_______ _____
Idaho_________________
Maine________________
Montana._____________
Arizona..............................
South Dakota_________
North Dakota-------------New Mexico___________
Hawaii__ _____________
New Hampshire-_______
Nevada_______________
Delaware----------- --------Wyoming------- ------ -----Vermont____ ________
Total, United States.

Number
of em­
ployees
in midMarch
1948
8,442
8,211
7,601
7,468
6,985
6, 511
6,392
4, 735
4, 678
4,498
3,865
3,485
2, 828
2, 666
2,440
2, 388
2, 212
2,115
1,627
1,468
1, 062
849
829
819
774
819,140

Source: County Business Patterns, U. S. Department of Commerce from
data supplied by the U. S. Bureau of Old Age and Survivor’s Insurance.

Employment Outlook
1 9 5 0 - 6 0 Decade

Department stores will hire thousands of work­
ers each year during the 1950-60 decade. Most
of them will be taken on for beginning jobs.
Workers will be needed to replace department
store employees who die, retire, or leave their jobs
for other reasons; to fill positions in new stores;
and to enlarge the staffs of existing stores when
2




business increases or when hours of work are short­
ened. Although department store employment
will tend to rise slowly in the future, the number
of openings created by growth in the industry will
be very small in comparison with the openings
which will result from turn-over. Because a high
proportion of the employees are women who often
leave their jobs to get married or to have children
and young workers who tend to move from job to

job, turn-over is high. For persons who plan
department store careers, however, it is important
to know that they will be in an expanding industry.
To them, growth in department store employment
means that there will be greater job security and
a better chance to reach top-level positions.
International developments in 1950 have led
to increased defense expenditures and a conse­
quent heightening of economic activity generally.
The effect of this on the total number of depart­
ment store jobs will be very slight. In boom
periods, department stores have more sales, but
these are handled for the most part by the regular
staff. As a result of expansion after World War
II, the number of stores and employees is now
adequate to handle any reasonable increase in
sales. Nevertheless, it will be much easier for new
people to enter this field during the next few years.
Turn-over in department stores will be exception­
ally high, particularly in the lower-paid jobs.

The demand for workers in defense industries
and the higher wages offered will induce many
people to leave their department store jobs, creat­
ing openings for new workers.
Long -Run Tre n d s

We can expect a long-run upward trend in de­
partment store employment as the population
grows and as per capita income continues to rise.
Under these conditions, department store business
and employment are likely to increase even if the
share of retail trade going to department stores
should decrease slightly.
Department stores had a smaller proportion of
total trade in 1948 than in 1939, yet their sales
increased tremendously. This rise in sales was a
continuation of the trend after 1919, when data on
dollar sales were first collected. The volume of
goods sold has not increased as much as dollar

D E P A R TM E N T S TO R E S A L E S V O L U M E
G R E A TLY
index

HAS

INCREASED

SINCE 1919

1935-39 = 100

IN0EX

SALES INDEX ADJUSTED BY APPLYING BUREAU

UNITEO STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




OF LABOR STATISTICS' CONSUMERS PRICE
INDEXES FOR APPAREL AND HOUSEFURNISHINGS

Source: FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD

3

volume, however, because of changes in the pur­
chasing power of the dollar. Chart 1 shows the
index of sales and the same series adjusted by
roughly allowing for price changes in the major
lines of goods handled by department stores. This
upward trend in volume is likely to continue.
Employment in department stores, like sales,
has had an upward trend. Chart 2 shows the
average employment in department stores for se­
lected years since 1929. The number of workers

dropped during the depression, but by 1939 rose
above the 1929 figure, and continued to rise slowly
until 1945. Employment began to climb rapidly
in 1946, reached a peak in 1948, and declined
slightly in 1949. For the next several years, em­
ployment probably will remain near the 1949 level.
Because of this, most job openings will arise from
turn-over, which tends to be high.
In department stores employment is more closely
related to the volume of business than it is in
industries which can more easily make use of
labor-saving devices. Many manufacturing in­
dustries, for example, can expand production con­
siderably through technological improvements
4



without increasing their work forces. To be sure,
department stores have also made progress in
reducing labor requirements. They have mecha­
nized warehouses, introduced office machines to
eliminate clerical work, and used various self­
selling techniques to reduce the number of sales
clerks needed. The buildings themselves are being
designed scientifically to keep the cost of handling
goods and of maintenance at a minimum.
Frequently, however, reductions in staff brought
about by these means are offset by adding to the
services offered by the stores or by shortening the
hours of work. Chart 3 shows the year-to-year
variations in the number of transactions per man­
hour for 13 big stores between 1940 and 1948.
Except for the rise during the war years, trans­
actions per man-hour did not change significantly
from 1940 through 1948. The amount of the
average transaction rose, however, from $2.45 to
$4.70. Efforts to reduce labor requirements can
be expected to continue, but, because of the nature
of department store operations, it is unlikely that
there will be any substantial decrease in the num­
ber of workers needed to handle a given volume
of merchandise. As volume increases over the
long run, therefore, employment in department
stores probably will continue to grow.
The experience of department stores in the de­
pression of the thirties gives some indication of
how employment would be affected by a dip in
business activity. From 1929 to 1939, their busi­
ness fell off just as it did almost everywhere, but
not as much as that of their direct competitors.
(See table 3.) In 1929, department stores had 9
percent of the total retail trade volume, and in
1939,9.5 percent. Of the combined volume of busi­
ness done by them and the businesses with which
they compete most directly, department stores had
T able

3.

— Department stores9 share of combined sales of
department stores and nine related kinds of business,
1929, 1935, 1939, 19^8

Kind of business

Percent of sales
1929

1935

1939

1948

Department stores___________________ 29.5
9 related kinds of business_____________ 70.5
Total ____________ ___________ 100.0

39.6
60.4
100.0

39.3
60.7
100.0

134.2
65.8
100.0

1 Lower percentage for department stores in 1948 compared with 1939
partly a result of Census of Business change in definition for department
stores.
Source: Census of Business.

CHART 3

A V ER A G E NUM BER O F S A LE S TRA N SA C TIO N S FOR EA C H HO UR W O R K ED
IN SELEC TED LA RG E D EPA R TM EN T STO R ES

1940

1941

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

1942

1943

1944

THE NUMBER OF TRANSACTIONS DIVIDED BY TOTAL MAN-HOURS
AND BY TOTAL SELLING MAN-HOURS FOR IS DEPARTMENT STORES
EACH WITH ANNUAL SALES IN EXCESS OF 5 MILLION DOLLARS

29.5 percent in 1929 and 39.5 percent in 1939.
Largely because of these relative gains, employ­
ment did not drop as much as it did in many other
branches of retail trade.
For several reasons, jobs are not likely to be af­
fected by small dips in economic activity. When
times are hard people continue to buy many of the
types of goods sold by department stores, and,
although the volume of trade may drop, depart­
ment stores probably will continue to provide fullscale services and keep most of their staffs in order
to meet customer demand. Moreover, when em­
ployment must be cut, stores can lay off workers
from the sizable crews of part-time employees.
The Census of Business for 1948 shows that
department stores had a smaller share of retail
trade in that year than in 1939. This was partly
because the 1948 definition of department stores
excluded many stores that were counted in 1939
985552°— 51------2



1945

1946

1947

1948

Source'- "OPERAT ING RESULTS OF DEPARTMENT AND SPECIALTY STORES

IN 1948"--MALCOLM P. McNAIR, HARVARD UNIVERSITY,
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.

(table 1), and partly because in 1948 customers
were spending a larger proportion of their money
on goods such as automobiles, furniture, rugs,
major appliances, lumber, and hardware, which
department stores either do not handle or which
do not comprise a major proportion of their total
sales. In the long run, the spending pattern is
expected to be similar to that of 1939, and the
relative position of department stores is likely to
improve.
Movem ent to Suburban Areas

The trend toward establishing branch and chain
department stores in outlying, residential areas is
likely to continue for many years as an increasing
number of people move to the suburbs. This does
not mean that the big stores in downtown business
sections are likely to be abandoned, but that there
5

will be a greater number of smaller department
stores in outlying sections. These stores will ac­
count for most of the gains in employment in the
future.
Most of the new suburban department stores
will be owned and operated by firms already in
the industry. Many of the new stores will be
units in large national chains. Others will be
branches of local stores already established in
downtown business sections. The new stores will
need experienced workers who in many cases will
be chosen from other stores in the organization.
Those who are successful in the branch stores will
be eligible for more responsible jobs in the main
store or bigger stores in the organization.
Although additional jobs will be created by the

establishment of suburban stores, opportunities in
certain lines of work will not grow correspond­
ingly. Units in a chain organization and in branch
stores need few workers in operations which are
handled mostly at the home office or in the main
store. Advertising, many personnel matters, fi­
nancial control, buying, and delivery are largely
taken care of by the central offices; and, of course,
chain units do not have staffs of top executives.
As a result, chain and branch stores have smaller
proportions of higher level personnel, and offer
fewer opportunities in some departments than
independent stores. The over-all occupational
pattern in the industry, however, is not likely to
change significantly for several years at least.

H iring, Qualifications, and Training

H irin g W o rk e rs

Q ua lifica tions

Department stores recruit workers in several dif­
ferent ways. They take applications from persons
who come into their employment offices, advertise
in newspapers, contact State, high school, and col­
lege placement officers, and get recommendations
from employees. To an increasing extent, depart­
ment store employees are coming from the ranks
of persons trained under the distributive educa­
tion cooperative program (described on p. 7).
All applicants are interviewed and given tests to
determine their qualifications.

Applicants hired have a wide variety of personal
characteristics, educational backgrounds, and
skills. Most new workers start at the bottom in
the departments to which they are assigned. Be­
cause the types of jobs are so different, applicants
who fail to qualify for one job may be entirely
suitable for another. Even for the jobs which
persons without a great deal of experience can fill,
there is considerable variation in the personal
qualifications demanded. For example, for sales
work, only applicants who are presentable and
who speak distinctly are considered. These quali­
fications are not nearly as necessary for persons
who are placed in beginning jobs which do not
require meeting the public. Among the latter
type jobs are those in the office; in stock, ware­
house, and receiving work; and on the mainte­
nance and cleaning crews.
Sales clerks are an extremely important group
not only because they are in the key role of selling
merchandise but also because they are in continu­
ous contact with the store’s customers. A store’s
reputation for courtesy, good service, and faildealing depends largely on how its sales clerks
perform. For this reason, they are carefully
selected.

Checkers unpack merchandise and checkit for quantity and condition.

6



To get a sales job in a department store, one
should, first of all, have a high school education.
There are exceptions, but this is now almost a
standard qualification. A pleasing personality
and appearance, a good voice, normal hearing and
eyesight, and general all-round good health so
as to be able to stand all day are other important
requirements.
About two out of three department store em­
ployees are women. They are hired mostly for
clerical, selling, and office jobs, but many of them
are promoted to supervisory positions such as sec­
tion manager and buyer. Men predominate in
warehouse operations, maintenance, receiving, and
protection work and have most of the jobs in cer­
tain selling departments—major home appliances,
floor coverings, and furniture. Most of the store
executives are men, but more and more women
are reaching high-level positions. Large chain
organizations, as a rule, use men in managerial
positions, and women are confined to lower-level
jobs.
Some applicants are hired to work a few hours
every working day or 2 or 3 days a week, rather
than full time. Many of these workers are married
women who do not want full-time jobs. During
the rush seasons, for the Christmas trade partic­
ularly, large numbers of workers are taken on
for temporary full-time jobs. The seasonal upsand-downs in department-store employment are
shown in chart 4.
Tra in in g
In School

A person who wants to work in a department
store can readily get special training. Most high
schools give courses designed to fit young men
and women for general business work. Subjects
such as business English, business mathematics,
economics, and salesmanship give the student a
general background for any business position. To
provide specialized training in retailing, high
schools have established courses in merchandising,
principles of retailing, and retail selling. This
movement has been encouraged by the GeorgeDeen Act of 1936 which provides for Federal aid
to States which set up “distributive education”
programs. Part of the Federal funds are used
to help pay the salaries of teachers, who, to qualify
for this work, must have had retailing experience.



M attaches price tag to hcsiery with marking machine.
arker

Two main types of programs have been set up
under this act. One provides night school train­
ing and training in the store to persons already
working full time in distributive businesses. The
other provides for cooperative part-time train­
ing, whereby students spend certain hours in
school classes in distributive education and work
part time in local stores. Department stores have
been especially willing to cooperate with the
schools in training students. The 286,000 trainees
enrolled in adult extension classes and the 26,000
students enrolled in cooperative part-time classes
in 1949 represented a considerable gain over pre­
vious years. More and more schools are including
this type of education in their programs.
Colleges also offer courses which are helpful
preparation for work in department stores. Many
courses prepare students for the general business
field, and a growing number prepare specifically
for retailing. A few colleges offer highly special­
ized courses which lead to a bachelor’s degree in
retailing; others offer graduate work. These pro­
grams usually include cooperative part-time work
in stores in addition to specialized courses in re­
tailing.
In the Store

Every worker hired by a department store gets
some training in the store before he takes over
a job. Most stores try to give all new employees
at least a brief picture of systems and methods,
and of store organization, rules, and policies, in
7

CHART 4

IN D E X O F E M P L O Y M E N T IN D E P A R T M E N T S T O R E S
INDEX

1948

INDEX

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

I948

addition to training for a particular job. For
some types of jobs, employees can be taught what
to do in a day or two; for others fairly long
Selling employees attend a training class.

8



training periods are necessary. Porters, markers,
wrappers, and elevator operators, for example, re­
quire only short training periods, whereas sales
clerks, cashiers, receiving clerks, and some office
workers need longer training periods.
Some stores have wT
ell-organized training pro­
grams; others do a minimum of training, usually
by having an employee instruct the newcomer.
The large stores generally have organized train­
ing programs, and the small stores informal
systems.
A number of stores have a special training pro­
gram for promising young employees who are
considered potential supervisors. This training
is designed to acquaint the employee with the over­
all operations of the store so that he may better
understand how his particular department should
operate to serve the best interests of the store.
Classroom instruction is given in all phases of
department store operations.

In addition, some stores have a squad of college
graduates and selected young employees whom
they train for junior executive jobs. These train­
ees work at lower level jobs on a schedule which
requires them to spend a certain number of weeks
or months working in each of the main divisions

of the store. The employees who do well in this
program have good prospects for promotion. It
must be emphasized, however, that only the bestqualified employees are chosen for promotional
training and that selection for training is no
guarantee of a speedy rise up the ladder.

Opportunities for Advancement

Sales clerks have two regular avenues of promo­
tion. They can be appointed to such positions as
head of stock, assistant buyer, and section man­
ager, or they can be transferred to selling in other
departments where average earnings are higher.
Successful clerks in some of the departments where
earnings are high frequently earn more money
than they would if they were promoted to super­
visory positions.
Supervisory and lower-grade executive positions
are nearly always filled by persons with retail store
experience, usually by promoting workers in the
store. The number of outsiders hired for these
positions depends on store policy and on the avail­
ability of qualified people working at lower-level
jobs; increasingly, however, department stores are
following the policy of promoting their own work­
ers rather than hiring outsiders.
Usually only persons with a great deal of suc­
cessful retail experience and demonstrated admin­
istrative ability are considered for top executive
positions. Store policies in choosing executives
vary considerably. Some stores and chain organi­
zations rarely select outsiders for executive posi­
tions. Others have a less rigid promotion-fromwithin policy and sometimes hire buyers, control­
lers, store superintendents, personnel officers, and
other executives from outside the organization.
College graduates frequently enter jobs at the
same level as nongraduates, since store experience
is needed before the principles learned in school
can be applied. However, those who have already
worked in department stores under cooperative
programs and those who have had specialized
training in such fields as personnel, advertising,
and accounting sometimes start at a higher level
than nongraduates. Even with the advantage of
a degree and specialized training, the college
graduate has no guarantee of rapid promotion.
He is competing with all the employees at his level,



and unless he can demonstrate superiority, he will
progress no faster than the nongraduate.
Many of the persons selected for executive train­
ing in department stores are chosen directly from
colleges and universities; others are selected from
the store’s regular staff. College graduates are
not, however, the only ones groomed for respon­
sible positions. Generally, employers feel that col­
lege graduation alone does not set a person apart
as executive material. Some employees who have
gone directly from high school into department
stores are superior to the average college graduate
in the basic qualities needed for supervisory and
executive positions and have the additional ad­
vantage of 4 years of store experience. This ex­
perience is very valuable and is given a good deal
of weight in selecting potential executives.
Employer attitudes toward the value of college
specialization in such courses as business, market­
ing, and retailing vary widely. Some feel that
such specialization is helpful, particularly the
training given in certain recognized schools.
Others feel that good fundamental training,
broad background in college subjects, and basic
aptitude for work are the important considera­
tions, and that potential executives can get their
specialized training on the job.
A young person starting a career in a depart­
ment store should try to weigh his chances for
reaching supervisory and executive positions. To
measure his prospects he should compare his own
capabilities with those of the other employees at
his level. Does he have an edge in personality,
intelligence, and capacity for hard work?
Another factor which has much to do with an in­
dividual’s chances for promotion is the number of
supervisory and executive positions compared
with the number of lower-level jobs. About 8 out
of 100 department store employees are supervisors
9

departments ? Staffing patterns vary widely from
one store to another. The largest stores have many
employees not found in smaller stores, such as
comparison shoppers and workers in testing lab­
oratories. A number of employees in large stores
specialize in advertising and display; in smaller
stores this type of work is often combined with
other duties. Even among stores of the same size
there are wide differences in the proportion of
workers in different occupations. Some stores
have large numbers of workers in repair shops
and restaurants, for example, but other stores
have much of the repair work done by outside
concerns and have limited eating facilities. Many
stores do not have their own delivery service. De­
partment stores frequently lease sections of the
store to outside organizations to operate beauty
parlors, photographic shops, food stores, and other
specialized departments. These organizations
have their own employees. Policies on other
customer services, such as merchandise returns,
mail and telephone orders, and credit transactions,
vary widely among stores, and particularly be­
tween local department stores and units in Nation­
wide chains. These differences are reflected in the
proportion of workers employed in certain
occupations.
The various duties in the over-all operations
of a department store are described in the fol­
lowing sections of this report. Because there are
about 900 different department store jobs, only
those occupations are mentioned which occur in
fairly large numbers or are important for other
reasons. The occupations are divided into broad
groups as shown in chart 5.

The degree of skill and experience needed to
sell goods in different departments varies widely.
For example, many items, such as men’s socks,
neckties, and underwear, are sold on a self-service
basis. In selling self-selected merchandise, the
sales clerk merely writes up the transaction and
takes payment. Stores can use employees with
little experience and knowledge of salesmanship
for this type of work. Selling major appliances or
furniture, on the other hand, calls for more sales­
manship. The clerks must be able to determine
what the customers want, be familiar with the
stock, and know the characteristics of each piece
of merchandise. Experienced employees with a
flair for salesmanship are therefore likely to be
found working in the furniture and major appli­
ances departments. They may be found also in
several other departments, including those selling
floor coverings, women’s shoes, and the more ex­
pensive items of clothing. The differences in the
skill required for selling various kinds of mer­
chandise are reflected in the earnings data shown
in table 5, page 19.
Many department stores use what is known as
the sponsor system for training sales employees.
Under this system, after new clerks have been
Salesgirl helps customer select a coat.

M erchandising
Selling Jobs

Selling is the main function of a store. Nat­
urally we would expect to find that a large propor­
tion of a store's personnel are sales clerk s. In
some departments in large stores, duties of sales
clerks are confined to selling goods to customers.
In other departments and in smaller stores, in
addition to selling, sales clerks often wrap goods
and take payment, and sometimes handle stock.
The proportion of sales clerks ranges roughly
from 40 percent in large stores to 60 percent in
smaller stores.



11

given preliminary instruction by the training sec­
tion, they are put under the guidance of experi­
enced employees called sponsors until they learn
how to carry on the job alone. Sponsors receive
additional pay for this type of work.
The work of stockmen, cashiers, and wrappers
is closely related to that of sales clerks. These
jobs are found in large stores, where many sales
clerks are mainly responsible for making the sale;
other workers receive payment, wrap the packages,
and take care of the stock. Stockmen bring mer­
chandise from stockrooms or warehouses to the
selling floor and place it on counters or racks ac­
cording to size, color, and other specifications.
They also inspect the merchandise as it comes in
and keep inventory records.
In large stores, mail and telephone orders are
not usually handled on the selling floor. Tele­
phone order clerks answer customers’ questions
about goods and make out orders, on special forms,
from the customers’ descriptions and their own
knowledge of the stock. Mail order clerks open
letters from customers and handle the orders in
the same way. Mail and telephone selling are
becoming increasingly popular, especially for
standard brand goods.
Sales clerks and other workers in selling de­
partments are supervised by section managers, by
buyers, and, in many cases, by both section man­
agers and buyers, depending on how the store is
organized. The supervisors keep records of time
worked, arrange work and lunch schedules, and
see that the sections of the store for which they are
responsible work smoothly and are kept clean and
orderly. In addition, they see that customers are
satisfied, adjust some types of complaints, and are
generally responsible for the carrying out of store
policies.
Buying Jobs

The buying and merchandising operations of a
store are handled by buyers and their assistants in
each selling department, by division merchandise
managers who are responsible for several related
departments, and, at the top, by the general mer­
chandise manager who reports to the general
manager.
Buyers are expected to anticipate the quantity
and the kinds of goods to be sold in their depart­
12



ments. Their decisions on the quantity and types
of merchandise to buy are based on such factors
as (1) past sales, (2) studies of trends in customer
preference and in the merchandise being manu­
factured, and (3) estimates of the amounts cus­
tomers will spend. Suppose, for example, that an
appliance buyer is trying to figure out how many
and what types of washing machines he should
order. His starting point is the record of the pre­
vious year’s sales. Then, he must decide whether
he is likely to sell more or fewer washers and what
types will be in demand. To do this, he needs to
answer questions such as: Will his customers be
less prosperous than during the previous year?
Will they want automatic, semiautomatic, or
wringer-type washers? What makes of washer
will they prefer? What will the store’s competi­
tors be doing ? In making his decisions, the buyer
must consider these and many other factors and,
at the same time, stay within the limits of his
merchandise budget. Deciding how much money
each buyer can spend is one of the main duties of
the division merchandise manager and the general
merchandise manager, who work closely with the
general manager and controller in making these
decisions. Once a buyer knows what merchandise
he is likely to need, he must visit those markets in
which it is sold. Often this requires traveling to
distant cities and foreign countries.
Responsibilities and duties of buyers vary
widely* from store to store. In some stores, buyers
play a big part in determining the kinds and
amounts of merchandise to be purchased. In
others, they are much more limited and must have
their suggestions for purchases reviewed by their
supervisors. Buyers in some stores have direct
authority over the sales clerks and stockmen and
actually manage their departments, whereas in
other stores the sales clerks report to the section
managers.
A buyer must have a thorough knowledge of
merchandise, markets, prices, and consumers’ de­
sires. He must be shrewd at bargaining and in
making calculations. If he manages his depart­
ment in addition to buying its goods, he must also
be skilled in selling, dealing with the public, and
carrying on the details of administration.
Member stores in chain organizations usually
do not have buyers. Department managers, un­
der the guidance of the store managers, order from

Receiving clerk and his assistants check information printed on incoming cartons.

cle rk a ssista n ts unload the goods from cars and
trucks and place them on tables, racks, bins, or
the floor. R e c e iv in g clerk s compare the shippers’
invoices with the merchandise packages to see
that the quantities are correct and that there has
been no damage. In smaller stores, receiving
clerks often do all the receiving, unpacking,
checking, and marking.
Checking is the next operation. M erch a n d ise
ch eckers unpack the goods and check each item
for quantity, price, color, and damage. The buyer
or his assistant checks the quality of incoming
goods and sets the prices at which they are to be
marked. When the unloading, unpacking, and
checking have been completed, the goods are ready
for the third operation—marking.
M a rk e rs attach the retail price to each item by
using crayons, rubber stamps, or price tickets.
Price tickets may be marked by hand or machine.
Large stores use special machines that mark the
ticket and attach it to the merchandise in one
motion. When the prices of goods already on the
selling floor are changed, the goods are usually
sent back to the marking department for re­
marking.
After the merchandise has been received, un­
packed. checked, and marked, it is turned over to
the selling departments. This is the final opera­
tion in the receiving department. Porters and
stockmen move the goods to the reserve stockrooms
and the selling floor. Furniture and other large
items are usually received at the warehouse and
are delivered direct to customers who have made
their selections from floor samples in the store.

Receiving

M work at one of the many lines of moving merchandise.
arkers

the central organization. They can select only the
merchandise listed by the home office and seldom
deal directly with suppliers.
Buyers are helped in the proper pricing of goods
by co m p a riso n sh o p p e rs. These workers visit
other department stores to price and to buy mer­
chandise similar to that sold by their employers.
This work is secret in nature and it requires a good
memory and some acting ability. Many stores
rotate this job among saleswomen so that other
stores will not discover the identity of the com­
parison shopper. Once a shopper is known to peo­
ple in the other stores, it is hard for her to get
information.

The receiving department takes the merchan­
dise from shippers’ cars and trucks. This depart­
ment then unpacks, checks, and marks the mer­
chandise and sends it to the stockrooms or the
selling floor. It is supervised by the traffic m a n ­
a g e r who is also responsible for routing incoming
goods over the most practical and economical car­
rier. The receiving department performs four
distinct operations, some of which are combined
in smaller stores but are further broken down
in large stores.
The first operation is physically receiving the
merchandise into the store. P o r te r s and re c e iv in g



13

Custom er Service
Wrapping and Packing

When a customer wishes to have his purchase
delivered, it must be packaged. The salesperson
gives the article to a w r a p p e r , who wraps it neatly
and carefully and places it on the shipping belt
or in a hamper from which it is taken to the
delivery department. Fragile goods and bulky
merchandise are handled by special groups of
workers. P a c k e rs pack fragile goods which re­
quire strong, carefully made-up packages to pro­
tect the contents, and large items which cannot
be handled by wrappers.
Delivery

One of the most important extra services pro­
vided by department stores is free delivery. Al­
though many stores have their own delivery de­
partments, some hire outside organizations to
deliver their packages, or, through an arrangement
with other stores, run a cooperative delivery
service.
The delivery department receives the packaged
merchandise, sorts it by route, loads it on trucks,
delivers it to the customer, and collects c. o. d.
charges. The p a c k a g e ro u te r reads the addresses
Fitter m gown for alterations.
arks

to which the packages are to be sent, marks the
proper delivery route numbers on them, and places
them on the conveyor belt. P a c k a g e so rte rs read
the route numbers on the packages, take them from
the belt, and place them in the proper route bins.
Before the goods can be taken from the bins
and loaded on the trucks, a record must be made
of their being sent out. Some stores use sh ee t
w r ite r s , who go from bin to bin recording on a
special form the essential information about each
parcel. Other stores use a system in which each
parcel has a stub attached with the information
printed on it. A stu b b e r goes from bin to bin
removing the stubs, which he then files. This job
is often combined with that of the router or sorter.
The d e liv e r y -tr u c k d r iv e r loads the goods onto
the truck in the order that will make delivery
easiest. In rush seasons when he has a helper,
the driver has the more responsible duty of driv­
ing the truck and collecting c. o. d. charges, and
he joins his helper in loading and unloading. The
driver also sets up furniture in customers’ homes,
brings returned goods back to the store, and keeps
delivery records. Money received from c. o. d.
orders is given to the d e liv e r y c a sh ie r , who keeps
records of c. o. d. operations.
Trucks are maintained by g a ra g e m ech a n ics
under the supervision of a u to m o b ile r e p a ir sh o p
fo rem e n . In large garages, a ga s a n d o il m a n is
responsible for keeping trucks supplied with gas
and oil and for keeping records of the amounts
of these supplies on hand.
Alterations and Repairs

Many of the items sold by department stores
have to be altered to suit the customer, other items
are made to order by the store, and, frequently,
merchandise is returned for repairs. These jobs
are handled in the various workrooms.
Clothing is naturally one of the lines which re­
quire alterations to give customers the proper fit.
Men’s ready-to-wear garments are fitted by a m en's
fitte r who makes marks on the nearest standard
size in stock where alterations will have to be made
to get the best fit. The garment is then taken to a
ta ilo r , who makes the alterations. He is aided by a
se w in g m a ch in e o p e r a to r , who does the easier ma­
chine sewing, and by a m a ch in e p r e s se r , who
presses the altered garment. Women’s ready-towear clothing is altered in a similar manner.
When a customer wants a made-to-order garment,
14



the c u sto m ta ilo r helps him choose the material,
takes measurements, designs the garment, and in­
structs assistants in making it. Alteration of mil­
linery is another important merchandise service.
Drapery and upholstery often require altera­
tions to suit individual customers. A d r a p e r y
c u tte r lays out and cuts drapery material to the
size ordered by the customer. These pieces are
sewed together by a d r a p e r y sea m stress. Repairs
and adjustments to upholstery are made by a
fu r n itu r e u p h o lste re r. A slip -c o v e r c u tte r cuts
material to fit a customer’s furniture, and a s lip ­
c o v e r sea m stre ss sews the pieces together.
In recent years, floor coverings cut to fit the
room have become very popular. Department
stores employ c a r p e t c u tte rs and c a r p e t se w e rs ,
who prepare sections of carpet to the customer’s
specifications. The flo o r-c o v e rin g e s tim a to r has
the job of measuring the customer's room and de­
termining how to cut the rolls of carpet or
linoleum so as to waste as little as possible. The
flo o r-c o v erin g la y e r install the carpet or linoleum
in the customer’s home.
As a convenience to customers, most stores have
a cold storage vault for storing furs and employ
f u r clean ers and fu r re p a ire rs. Many stores pro­
vide other services such as watch repairing, ap­
pliance and radio repairing, and interior decorat­
ing advice.

who listens to complaints, and a tra c e r , who in­
vestigates the facts and helps make the adjust­
ment.
Maintenance and O peration
Maintenance

The maintenance department has the job of
keeping the store clean, comfortable, and attrac­
tive. This is a big job which calls for a sizable
crew of workers. Most of the buildings are large
with complicated systems of electrical wiring, ven­
tilating, plumbing, telephone lines, sprinkler
pipes, elevators, and electric stairways. All of
these must be kept in good operating condition.

Adjustments

Jealous of their reputations for fair dealing,
department stores will often go to great length to
give a customer satisfaction. For this purpose,
large stores operate a bureau of adjustments,
known to most people as the “complaint depart­
ment.” Most complaints arise from such things
as nondelivery of merchandise, damage to goods
received by the customer, defective or unsatisfac­
tory merchandise, improper alterations or repairs,
bookkeeping errors on charge accounts, and lack
of courtesy or efficiency on the part of employees.
The a d ju s tm e n t m a n a g e r supervises this bureau.
Working under his supervision are a d ju ste rs who
listen to complaints and try to work out a solution
that is fair to the customer and the store. The
adjusters try to satisfy all legitimate requests for
adjustment because the stores realize the value of
a customer’s good will. In some stores the ad­
juster’s work is divided between an in te r v ie w e r ,



Carpenter constructs star for Christmas decoration.

Maintenance of the building is the responsibility
of the m a in ten a n ce s u p e r in te n d e n t , who directs
the work of a number of differently skilled crafts­
men. C a rp e n te rs build and repair store fixtures,
display stands, and other woodwork in the build­
ing; p a in te rs keep walls, floors, and fixtures neat
and attractive; and p lu m b e rs install new pipes
and repair the piping systems. E le c tric ia n s are
15

responsible for the- store’s lighting and wiring
systems. Minor repairs on elevators, electric stair­
ways, ventilating equipment, and other machines
are made by m a in ten a n ce m ech an ics. Heating,
air-conditioning, and ventilation are the respon­
sibility of the c h ie f s ta tio n a r y en g in eer and his
crew. Among the workers in the engineering crew
are electricians, pipefitters, firemen, and oilers.
Housekeeping

Housekeeping is supervised by the h o u sek eep in g
His porters do all the janitor work, such
as scrubbing and sweeping, removing trash, wash­
ing windows, and rearranging fixtures. M a id s or
p o rte re sse s do the same sort of cleaning work ex­
cept for the heavy jobs. Most of the cleaning is
done before the store opens in the morning or after
it closes at night.

m a n a g e r.

Elevator Operation

Since most stores have three or more stories,
they must have elevators and/or electric stairways.
E le v a to r o p e ra to rs convey passengers from floor
to floor, call out the main lines of goods located on
each floor, and answer questions about the location
of merchandise. The e le v a to r s ta r te r stays on the
main floor and regulates the departure of elevators
so as to keep traffic moving smoothly. He also
instructs and supervises the elevator operators,
from whose ranks he himself has usually been
promoted.
Protection

Protection against fire and theft at night is
the responsibility of the 'w atch m an , who patrols
the store looking for signs of fire or disorder and
sends in an alarm in serious situations. During
the day, the sto re d e te c tiv e polices the store in
street clothes, watching carefully for any signs
of shoplifting. He must be so skilled in detecting
thievery that he will catch anyone stealing mer­
chandise, but, at the same time, he must never ar­
rest a person without proof of guilt because of the
store’s liability for damage suits. In addition to
detectives, the stores employ uniformed g u a rd s to
safeguard the public and protect property.
Financial Control

As in every large enterprise, department stores
must keep accurate records of all the operations.
16



A large number of workers are engaged in col­
lecting and analyzing all the figures coming in
from every part of the store. The director of
these activities is called the co n tro lle r. He is re­
sponsible for all bookkeeping, accounting, credit
and collections, cash disbursements, and budget
control. Working with other store executives, he
helps to keep the store on a sound financial
footing.
Among the workers in the financial and recordkeeping departments are b o o k k e e p e rs , who collect
information from the various departments and
record it on standard forms, and c a lc u la tin g -m a ­
ch in e o p e r a to r s , who make routine computations.
There are also a c c o u n ta n ts , who check the figures
for accuracy and consistency and then prepare
financial statements, such as balance sheets, profitand-loss statements, and reports to stockholders.
High-level accountants determine the most efficient
systems for recording costs and other operating
data. Workers with a basic knowledge of arith­
metic can be trained on the job for clerical work
and lower-level bookkeeping jobs. For account­
ing and the more difficult statistical work, on the
other hand, a high degree of skill and training is
needed. Ordinarily, the training is acquired out­
side department stores—in colleges and business
and correspondence schools. Persons already
working at lower-level jobs in the stores need addi­
tional training to be eligible for promotion.
The credit bureau headed by the c r e d it m a n a g e r
keeps records of customers’ accounts, investigates
applicants for charge accounts, sends out monthly
bills, and makes up reports for the controller.
Among the workers in this bureau are c r e d it a p p li­
cation c le rk s , who check local sources of informaFile clerks handle the voluminous credit records of a large store.

tion about the reliability of applicants, and c r e d it
who award charge accounts in rou­
tine cases. Customers' account cards are kept in
order by -file clerk s. B illin g -m a c h in e o p e ra to rs
type monthly bills on special machines. Remind­
ing customers that their accounts are overdue is
the responsibility of the c o lle ctio n clerk s.

in te r v ie w e r s ,

Publicity

Making the public aware of the store, its
merchandise, and its services is the function of
the publicity department. The main activities
of this department are preparing advertisements
and planning and setting up store displays.
The a d v e r tis in g m a n a g e r is responsible for the
store’s advertising program. He finds out what
merchandise the buyers want to advertise and after
he decides where to advertise—in newspapers, or
through radio and television stations—he sets up
a general plan for the ad. His subordinates work
out the details. The c o p y w r ite r composes short,
simple sentences describing the chief selling points
of the merchandise. Sketches and drawings of
merchandise in use or in a natural or attractive
setting are created by the co m m ercia l a r tis t. When
photographs of the goods are needed, they are
taken by the c o m m ercia l p h o to g ra p h e r. The la y ­
o u t m a n arranges drawings, photographs, and
copy so as to make an effective page of advertising.
The p ro d u c tio n m an proofreads the finished ad­
vertisement, clears it with the buyer and the adver­
tising manager, and sees that it is printed at the
right time. For these specialized jobs in adver­
tising, department stores prefer persons with pre­
vious training. Sometimes, however, workers in
clerical or helper jobs in the advertising depart­
ment acquire the needed skills and thus earn pro­
motions.
The d is p la y m a n a g e r plans and directs the con­
struction of window and floor displays. The
d is p la y a r tis t designs, constructs, paints, and
sketches backgrounds and fixtures used in window
or interior displays. The sig n w r ite r paints or
prints signs. Window dressing is supervised by a
w in d o w tr im m e r , who arranges merchandise in
showcases and windows so that it will attract
passers-by. Under his direction, w in d o w trim m e r
h e lp ers put backgrounds in place, move display
fixtures and signs, and place merchandise on racks,



Acommercial artist prepares a newspaper ad.

pedestals, and mannequins. The display of fashion
merchandise requires the services of the d is p la y
s ty lis t , who keeps the publicity department in­
formed of the latest trends in fashions and styles.
Personnel

The personnel department is responsible for
hiring and training good workers and keeping
them contented with their jobs. Establishing per­
sonnel policies and conducting labor relations are
the responsibilities of the p e rso n n e l d ire c to r. He
and his staff handle grievances of individual work­
ers ; in stores in which the workers are organized,
the}7deal with the union and, in many cases, with
several unions.
Before applicants are hired, they are screened
by one or more in te rv ie w e rs. Often, tests are given
to determine the type of work for which they are
best suited. If they pass the interviews and
physical examination satisfactorily, they are hired.
The training section is responsible for teaching
new employees store policies, how to do their work,
and how their jobs are related to other store
operations. Promotional and executive training
programs are supervised by this section.
17

Responsibility for the safety, morale, recreation,
and insurance of employees lies with the welfare
section. Employee morale is promoted through
outings, company newspapers, and athletic pro­
grams. Other matters for which the personnel
department is responsible are transfers, discipline,
job evaluation, wage payment plans, and counsel­
ing. Because the personnel department is respon­

sible for the many activities which affect the
relations between the store and its employees, the
key employees should have thorough training as
well as a wide knowledge of many general sub­
jects. For this reason, more and more college
graduates are being selected for work in personnel
departments. As in other departments, though,
they must usually start in lower-level jobs.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Ea rn in g s
All Store Jobs

Earnings of department store employees below
the supervisory level have a very wide range.
Sales clerks generally have the highest earnings,
many of the men having weekly pay checks of
more than $100. Elevator operators and porters
usually are at the bottom of the earnings scale;
some of them earn less than $30 a week. Earnings
for the same types of work differ greatly from
city to city, and from one store to another in the
same city in both supervisory and nonsupervisory
occupations. Even within a single store, indi­
vidual earnings differ greatly among buyers and
sales clerks.
Information on earnings of nonsupervisory de­
partment store employees in 1950 is available from
a survey covering 17 metropolitan areas.1 (See

18




table 5.) The earnings shown for these 17 areas
are not of course typical for cities not included
in the survey. These average weekly earnings
data do not reflect that the employees on the regu­
lar staff of department stores usually have steady
year-round employment, and that they generally
have other advantages—vacations, paid holidays,
and discounts on merchandise.
Sales Clerks

Sales clerks in department stores are paid in one
of four ways: (1) straight salary; (2) salary plus
commission; (3) straight commission; (4) and
salary plus a bonus after they have sold an estab­
lished quota.
1 The information in this and the following section is based on
a survey made by the Division of Wage Analysis, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, in May—
July 1950.
Selected occupations were studied in 158 department and
women’s ready-to-wear stores, each with more than 250 workers,
located in 17 areas in various sections of the country.

—Average weekly earnings1 of workers, selected occupations in department and women's ready-to-wear stores
in selected cities, May-July 1950 2

T able 5.

Occupation and sex

Atlanta

Baltimore

Boston

Buffalo

Chicago

Dallas

Denver

MinneapolisSt. Paul

WOMEN
Store occupations

Cashier-wrappers. ________
___ ___ _
Elevator operators, passenger________ ______________
Fitters, women’s garments__________________________
Sales clerks, regular or upstairs departments:
Bedspreads, draperies, and blankets_______________
Blouses and neckwear._____ _________ ________
Boys’furnishings____________________ ___
___
Housewares (except china, glassware, and lamps)_____
Men’s furnishings.. _ ______________ _____________
Notions and trimmings. ______________________
Piece goods (yard goods, upholstery fabrics)_____ __
Silverware and jewelry (excluding costume jewelry)__
Women’s accessories (hosiery, gloves, and handbags).__
Women’s and misses’ dresses_____________ ________
Women’s shoes__ _______ ________________________
Women’s and misses’ suits and coats________________
Sewers, alteration, women’s garments________________
Stock girls, selling sections___ ____________________

$27. 59
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
34.31
(3)
37.64
31.01
(3)
(3)
(3) 72
37.
042.08
30. 45
22. 22

$27. 43
25. 55
38. 44
33.39
29. 88
32.28
32. 57
33.64
30. 04
33.21
37.28
31.68
35. 47
36.18
39.63
31.58
27.75

$29. 29
30. 34
38. 79
33. 45
33. 24
34.11
35. 21
33.83
31.68
32.57
(3)
33.51
34. 90
40. 59
41.59
34. 41
(3)

$28.31
26.74
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3) 66
35.
30.03
(3)
(3)
32.12
36. 86
43.62
40. 96
29. 54
(3)

$40.82
37.09
53.14
54. 24
46. 03
47.66
49. 21
47. 84
42. 27
47.28
47. 95
43. 96
49. 22
58. 42
57. 79
41.04
34. 07

$29. 99
0
0
42. 96
42. 30
43.86
37. 59
44.03
31.80
38.25
44.38
39. 81
44. 47
57.39
70. 57
027.32

0 08
$35.
0
0
0
0
046.12
040.48
040.16
44.23
048. 81
35. 99
0

$32. 45
36.11
43.60
40. 67
34. 80
39. 44
37.18
38.98
33. 77
37.10
41.05
38.68
40. 74
49.29
45. 99
35.15
32.28

(3)
(3) 62
37.
(3)
• (3)
(3)

(3) 40
39.
35. 82
42. 20
36. 97
33. 27

33. 51
(3)
34.03
39.31
35. 96
40.70

(3)
32.89
33.13
40. 91
34.83
32.94

41. 67
44.17
40.10
44. 39
44. 66
40.79

37.12
0
042.93
40.20
34.63

035. 67
36.39
41.74
38. 70
38.82

35. 89
41.67
37.53
41.35
41.56
38.41

(3)
(3)
(3)
0
(3)
29.10
(3)
(3)
(3)
70.19
95. 71
(3)
74.04
86. 62
(3)
48.64
(3)
35.35
56. 50

69.87
(3) 74
51.
59. 44
36.24
30.88
34.04
(3)
43.40
63.49
88. 21
(3) 52
82.
60. 40
42. 38
47. 82
29.16
38.39
(3)

73.14
(3)
51.64
(3)
37.60
38. 46
40.36
39.64
45.19
76.73
111.89
(3)
95.32
76.33
40.34
61.52
31.77
45. 41
60. 40

63. 02
0
0
0
034.04
0
0
0
083.09
0
064. 46
51.76
56.19
0
054. 27

92.48
058.24
74.83
44. 79
42.24
44.48
64. 55
69. 81
94. 89
98. 61
086.27
85. 91
67. 81
68.70
39.06
46.85
62. 67

82. 01
32.03
47.24
0
031.74
0
0
0
0
0
079.69
81.84
62. 26
66. 09
30. 79
38.25
60.94

80.71
0
0
0
39.18
34.81
0
0
0
0
0
0
078.25
57. 79
0
0
0
0

84. 41
0 61.20
63. 70
47. 37
41.91
50.16
53. 03
65.14
84.90
93. 30
56. 25
86. 75
75. 82
61.41
63.00
37.24
50.03
46.43

Office occupations

Billers, machine (billing machine) .. _. _________
Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine)______________
Calculating-machine operators (Comptometer type)____
Clerks, payroll_______ __________________________
Stenographers, general__________ ____ ____________
Switchboard operators. ___ ....................... .....................
MEN
Store occupations

Carpenters, maintenance______ ________ ___________
Elevator operators, passenger_______________________
Finishers, furniture__ _________ ______________ ...
Fitters, men’s garments____________________ ______
Packers, bulk_______________________________ ____
Porters, day (cleaners)______________________ . . . .
Beceiving clerks (checkers)--------- ----------------- ... _
Sales clerks, regular or upstairs departments:
Bedspreads, draperies, and blankets________________
Boys’ clothing__________________________________
Floor coverings.. _____ _________________________
Furniture and bedding____________________ _ .........
Housewares (except china, glassware, and lamps)____
Major appliances (refrigerators, stoves, washers, etc.)4..
Men’s clothing_____________________________ ...
Men’s furnishings_____ __________________________
Women’s shoes ____________ ___________________
Stockmen, selling sections_____ _______ ______ _ ...
Stockmen, warehouse_____ _______________________
Tailors, alteration, men’s garments________ ______ _
See footnotes at end of table.




19

T able

5.— Average weekly earnings1 of workers, selected occupations in department and women's ready-to-ivear stores
in selected cities, May-July 1950 2—Continued
Occupation and sex

New
Orleans

New
York

Philadel­ Pitts­
burgh
phia

Provi­ San Fran- Seattle
ciscodence Oakland

Washing­
Toledo ton, D. C.

WOMEN
Store occupations

Cashier-wrappers-- ... _ ______________________ _______
(3)
Elevator operators, passenger . __________________ ______ $24.25
Fitters, women’s garments. _ ___________________________ (3)
Sales clerks, regular or upstairs departments:
Bedspreads, draperies, and blankets_______ __ _ . . _____ 38.53
Blouses and neckwear________________ __ ____________ (3)
Boys’ furnishings_____________________________________ 34.35
Housewares (except china, glassware, and lamps)_________
(3)
Men’s furnishings. __ _ ______________ _______ ______
35. 49
Notions and trimmings____________ _____ ... ______
29. 41
Piece goods (yard goods, upholstery fabrics)___________ _ _ 35.13
Silverware and jewelry (excluding costume jewelry)_______ (3)
Women’s accessories (hosiery, gloves, and handbags)______
34.18
Women’s and misses’ dresses. ______________ ________
38.20
Women’s shoes.. ______ ____________________________
(3)
44.69
Women’s and misses’ suits and coats____________________
Sewers, alteration, women’s garments_____ ______________
26.66
Stockgirls, selling sections-------------- -----------------------------(3)

$40. 94
39. 45
61.15
47.38
41.66
47. 57
46.65
46.11
41.70
50.43
53.68
42.76
46.73
67. 42
51.37
47. 80
37.79

$30.59
42.11
44.31
44.90
36.53
40. 47
39. 67
38. 59
35. 77
38.79
40.19
38. 61
44. 41
49.64
54.73
42.08
27.12

$40.82
44.61
54. 45
49. 80
43.37
46.33
45.68
47. 78
42.00
45.32
50.37
43.35
48. 56
55. 92
63.15
46.36
43. 77

$30. 71
30. 56
38.11
35.20
33. 96
(3)
(3)
35. 51
(3)
(3)
(3)
34.29
34.40
(3)
36.85
35. 41
(3)

$42. 65
46. 5S
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
49.88
44.69
(3)
(3)
48.44
51. 09
59. 41
57.02
47.02
(3)

$38.16
38. 78
47. 67
41.42
38.43
39. 02
39.24
40. 07
38. 50
39.31
39.73
38. 50
44.94
(3) 06
53.
40. 95
(3)

$36.17
37.70
45.08
45. 82
39.73
41.57
43.00
42.15
41.05
40.94
(3)
43.28
45.18
(3)
56.70
41.39
(3)

(3)
$30.20
44.16
38. 44
34. 56
39.76
36.38
41.25
34.82
37.15
44. 02
36.16
40. 46
48.88
43. 26
38. 47
27. 21

36.64
(3)
32.38
40.42
33.00
31.25

49.86
45. 97
44. 01
47.20
42.97
43.10

(3)
38. 50
34. 54
37. 67
37.10
36. 87

(3)
(3)
(3) 96
48.
42. 59
43.93

(3)
39. 41
35. 02
40.23
33.34
32.80

(3)
49.62
45. 54
50. 56
47. 77
46.04

41.87
(3)
39. 55
46.17
43.52
40.93

40.88
(3) 97
38.
42. 88
42.24
39. 59

(3) 72
39.
40.36
42.11
42. 67
39. 22

(3)
(3)
44.79
(3)
(3) 02
27.
36.81
47.30
(3) 71
73.
99.94
57.84
105. 70
63. 92
52.00
56.60
31.29
(3)
(3)

78.20
45.83
65. 27
74.83
48. 49
44.26
43. 54
58.09
70.69
114.32
153.27
48. 47
121. 87
98.96
57. 50
83.02
40.05
53. 46
62.11

99. 47
42.70
56. 54
68.65
38. 66
40. 46
41.68
60. 65
64. 66
102. 42
115. 72
47. 07
94.15
95. 06
48.96
63. 78
33. 57
45. 51
58. 56

95.63
48.48
76. 21
72. 21
59.83
47.60
54. 01
(3) 37
65.
104. 46
115. 87
(3)
104. 48
107. 56
55.53
60. 51
45.14
59. 42
63. 99

(3)
(3)
67.31
(3)
(3)
37.23
44.20
(3)
(3)
(3)
62.32
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
52.03
(3)
42.15
(3)

89. 56
50. 46
(3)
(3)
52.37
48. 37
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
92.43
(3)
(3) 78
71.
53. 85
72.96
(3)
(3) 57
69.

87.05
(3)
67.22
69.17
54.64
43.01
54. 88
(3)
(3)
81.71
86.72
(3)
(3) 55
85.
50. 32
65. 89
50. 86
52. 66
70. 92

75. 27
(3)
67.66
(3) 41
46.
46. 69
(3)
55. 27
(3) 91
83.
97. 54
(3)
87.00
73. 07
(3) 01
59.
(3) 54
63.
65. 59

82.62
(3) 44
52.
70.11
(3)
31.96
38.73
(3)
50.76
79.72
112.10
(3)
(3)
82.94
62.60
65. 86
(3)
36.58
62.43

Office occupations

Billers, machine (billing machine)________________________
Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine)---------------------------Calculating-machine operators (Comptometer type)------------Clerks, payroll._ _ __________ ________________________
Stenographers, general-______ _________________________
Switchboard operators.....................................................................
MEN
Store occupations

Carpenters, maintenance________________________________
Elevator operators, passenger-----------------------------------------Finishers, furniture_____ _______________________________
Fitters, men’s garments_____________ :---------------------------Packers, bulk__________________________________________
Porters, day (cleaners)--------------------------------------------------Receiving clerks (checkers)-------------------------------------------Sales clerks, regular or upstairs departments:
Bedspreads, draperies, and blankets... ______ ______...
Boys’ clothing_____________________ __________________
Floor coverings_________________________ ____________
Furniture and bedding________________________________
Housewares (except china, glassware, and lamps)__ ______
Major appliances (refrigerators, stoves, washers, etc.) 4 ____
Men’s clothing.. ___________ _____________ _. ----------Men’s furnishings_____________________ ______________
Women’s shoes.. ... . ... _______ .. ... ------------------Stockmen, selling sections__ _____ .. _________ . -------Stockmen, warehouse . . . ___... . ... . --------- -------------Tailors, alteration, men’s garments ______ . ______... ..

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime work.
2 Data for Buffalo and San Francisco relate to January 1950. In these cities
as well as Denver, the occupational coverage was primarily designed for other

studies and was smaller than that used in the regular study of department and
women’s ready-to-wear stores.
3 Data not available.
4 Excludes radios and television receivers.

Many sales clerks—both men and women—have
high earnings. Earnings, in the various selling
departments in 1950 varied widely from city to
city. (See table 5.) For example, the intercity
range for saleswomen in women’s accessory depart­
ments was from $48.44 to $31.68, in women’s
dresses from $51.09 to $34.40, and in women’s suits
and coats from $70.57 to $36.85.
Moreover, earnings wuthin a city for clerks sell­
ing the same kinds of merchandise differed greatly
from one store to another. For example, 11 women
selling women’s and misses’ dresses in Denver
earned less than $35 a week, 3 others earned more
than $95, and the earnings of the rest were scat­
tered between these figures. Generally, sales per-

sonnel in large stores had higher earnings than
those in small ones.
Men sales clerks generally had considerably
higher earnings than women, mostly because men
clerks are concentrated in the selling departments
which pay the most, and women in the selling
departments which pay the least. Very often only
a small proportion of the women remain with the
stores long enough to be promoted to higher-pay­
ing departments. Salesmen of furniture and
bedding had the highest earnings in most of the
cities. In 5 cities these employees averaged over
$100 a week; average earnings were between $80
and $100 in all other cities except Providence
($62.32). Men selling floor coverings or major

20



the upstairs departments. Although the earnings
of sales personnel generally wrere higher in large
stores than in small stores, there was no such pat­
tern among the nonselling occupations.

appliances (excluding radios and television re­
ceivers) in 3 cities and men’s clothing salesmen in
1 city were the only other workers whose weekly
levels of earnings exceeded $100. Men’s furnish­
ings salesmen had substantially lower average
earnings, ranging from $40.34 in Boston to $67.81
in Chicago.

H o urs o f W o rk , Vacations, and

Discounts

Workweek

Full-time employees in most of the stores sur­
veyed had workweeks of 40 hours or less. (See
table 6.) A 40-hour workweek was scheduled for
all full-time employees in all the establishments
studied in Atlanta, Denver, New Orleans, San
Francisco-Oakland, Seattle, and Toledo. A ma­
jority of the stores in Baltimore, Buffalo, Chicago,
New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Providence,
and Washington had this schedule. Regular
wmrkweeks of over 40 hours were scheduled in
more than half the stores in Minneapolis-St. Paul.
In Boston and Buffalo different stores reported
workweeks of 40 hours, more than 40 hours, and
less than 40 hours. Ten of the 26 New York
stores studied had workweeks of 37y 2 hours or
less, and none had workweeks longer than 40 hours.
A majority of the stores included in the survey
had their employees on 5-day workweek schedules,
but in 3 cities all reporting stores had 6-day
workweeks.

Other Nonsupervisory Employees

Nonselling department store employees below
the supervisory level are usually paid by the hour
or by the week. Their average earnings generally
were lower than those of sales clerks. However,
women fitters of women’s garments had higher
average earnings in every city than did the women
sales clerks in the majority of the selling depart­
ments. In New York, fitters had average weekly
earnings of $61.15, a figure which was topped only
by women clerks selling women’s shoes in New
York and women’s suits and coats in Pittsburgh.
Among the men in nonselling jobs, carpenters,
tailors, and fitters generally had earnings that com­
pared favorably with earnings in some of the sell­
ing sections. In every city, however, earnings of
the nonselling groups shown in table 5 fell con­
siderably below those of the clerks who sold
furniture and beddings and major appliances in
T able

6.— Scheduled hours and days per week for full-time workers in department and women’s ready-to-wear stores

,

May-July 1950

San
MinneWash
At­ Balti­ Boston Buf­ Chi­ Dallas Den­ apolis- New New Phila­ Pitts­ Provi­ Fran- Seattle Toledo ington,
Or­ York del­ burgh dence ciscover St. leans
falo cago
lanta more
OakD. C.
phia
Paul
land

Item
Total establishments
studied
Scheduled hours:
Less than 37$i _
37^
Over 37M, less
j
than 40. __
40_________
42
43 or 43^
44
45
Other _ __
Scheduled days:
5

-

_

6

5^ 2

4

8

11

9

1
4

1
7

6
3

7

6
2

10
1

8

11

4

2
6
1

6

1
1
7

4
3

26

13

8

5

11

7

1
4

18

1
1

1
5

18

2
8

i1

1
3
1

6

3
1
21
1
1
2
23

8

5
4

4

16

2
8

4
7

•2
2

26

2
1
10

8

18

7

5

8
1

7

7

5

7

1
4

8

1 One store had a 34-hour week for women only and a 40^-hour week for men.
2 On alternate weeks, employees in 1 establishment work a 5-day (36^ hours) week.




21

Labor U n io n s

Vacations

All stores studied had provisions for paid vaca­
tions. The usual practice was to give a vacation
of 1 week after a year’s service and 2 weeks after
2 years. (See table 7.) Regular store and office
workers had paid holidays in all but 10 of the 158
stores studied. (See table 8.) The number of
paid holidays ranged from 1 to 10, with 6 or 7
days granted most frequently.
Discounts

All but one of the stores studied gave discounts
ranging between 10 and 20 percent on merchandise
purchased by full-time employees. (See table 9.)
Three out of five stores allowed discounts as soon
as the employees were hired. Most stores extended
this privilege to members of the employees’ im­
mediate families.
T able

Som6 department store workers are members of
labor organizations. Union strength is concen­
trated in several large cities. The principle union
organizing all types of department store workers
is the Retail Clerks International Association,
AFL. Several unions concentrate mostly on cer­
tain specialized types of department store work­
ers that are within their jurisdiction. Deliverymen and warehousemen are organized by the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffers,
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, AFL.
Tailors and other store personnel are organized
by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Amer­
ica, CIO. Persons working on dress alterations,
salespeople in women’s apparel, and in some cases
other store personnel are organized by the Inter­
national Ladies Garment Workers Union, AFL.
Other smaller unions also organize department
store workers.
,

7 -Paid vacations for full-time workers in department and women's ready-to-wear stores M ay-July 1950

Vacation policy
Total establishments studied--------

At­ Balti­ Bos­ Buf­ Chi­ Dal­ Den­ Minne- New New Phila­ Pitts­ Provi­ San Se­ To­ Wash­
apolis- Or­
del­
lanta more ton falo cago las ver St. Paul leans York phia burgh dence Fran- attle ledo ington,
ciscoD. C.
Oakland
4

8

11

9

7

2
1
1

4
3
1

9
9

2
2

2

4

2

7

3
2
1
4

4
3
1

8
7
1

11
2
9

9
4
5

4

8

11

3
1

8

2
1
1

6

8

11

4

26

13

8

5

18

3
3

1
1

2
2

17
9
8

5
5

1
1

1
1

6

5

10

2

9

8

7

3
2
1
2

7
3
4

6
5
1

8
5
3

11
11

4
2
2

26
19
2
5

13
12
1

8
7
1

9

7

8

7

4
1
3

13

3
6

11
4
7

26

10
1

6
1
5

23
3

4
3
1

9
9

2
2

1
1

3
3

2
2

2
2

2

4

2

7

3
2
1
4

5

5

9

4
3
1

8
7
1

11
2
9

9
4
5

7
3
4

6
5
1

8
5
3

4

8

11

9

7

8

3
1

8

10
1

3
6

7

6
1
5

7

5

8

4
4

2
1
1

Store w orkers

After 6 months of service:
Total establishments with vaca­
tions _ _ -- __________ -Under 1 week_______________
1 week... __________________
Over 1 week, under 2 weeks___
2 weeks.. _________________
Establishments with no vacations.
After 1 year of service:
Total establishments with vaca­
tions_____________________
1 w eek ...----------------------- ..
Over 1 week, under 2 weeks___
2 weeks
_ _____________
Over 2 weeks._ ___ _____.
Establishments with no vacations.
After 2 years of service:
Total establishments with vaca­
tions................................. . -.
1 week
_ _________ _ .
Over 1 week, under 2 weeks.
2 weeks.. . ___________ _ Over 2 weeks.____ _ ..
Establishments with no vacations.

8

17

7

1

6

5
1
2
2

18
16
2

7
7

5
5

8
7
1

8

5

18

7

5

13

8

3
2

18

7

5

8
1
7

17
9
8

•5
5

1
1

1
1

2

9

8

7

3
2
1
2

11
11

4
2
2

26
19
2
5

13
12
1

8
7
1

11
4
7

4
1
3

26

13

23
3

13

Office w orkers

After 6 months of service:
Total establishments with vaca­
tions . _____ ___ . __
Under 1 week____ ___ ._
1 week _ ____ _ ____ . __
Over 1 week, under 2 weeks__
2 weeks
___ __ _.
Establishments with no vacations.
After 1 year of service:
Total establishments with vaca­
tions-------------- --------------1 week________ _ ---- --------Over 1 week, under 2 weeks___
2 weeks.. _ ___________ . ...
Over 2 weeks.______________
After 2 years of service:
Total establishments with vaca­
tions___________________ ..
1 week
_
...
Over 1 week, under 2 weeks.
2 w eeks..________ ____ ___
O ver 2 w eeks
_ _
22



8

4
4

2
1
1

17

7

1

6

5
1
2
2

18
16
2

7
7

5
5

8
8

8

5

18

7

5

8

3
2

18

7

5

8
1
7

T able 8.—

Paid holidays for full-time workers in depar tment and women’s ready-to-wear stores, May-July 1950

Item

San
Wash­
At­ Balti­ Bos­ Buf­ Chi­ Dallas Den­ Minne- New New Phila­ Pitts­ Provi­ Fran- Seattle Toledo ington,
apolis- Or­ York del­ burgh dence ciscolanta more ton falo cago
ver St. Paul leans
OakD. C.
phia
land

Total establishments
studied __________
Total establishments
providing paid holidays_._ __ ________
N umber of holidays:
1___
2____________
3___
4_____ _____
5____________
5 H ______________
6____________
6V9 ___________
7_____
71/2___
8______
9___
10___
Establishments with no
paid holidays

4

8

11

9

7

6

8

11

4

26

13

8

5

18

7

5

8

4

8

6
2

9

7

6

8

11

4

26

13

8

4

18

7

5

4

8

11

3
1

1
1
23
1

1
12

8

1
16
1

7

4

5
1
8

8
1

2
1
1
5

7

4
1

5

4

4

JL „

,

T able 9.— Discount policies for full-time workers in department and women’s ready-to-wear stores May-July 1950

Item
Total establishments studied. __ _____
Total establishments with discount privileges______________________________
Discount on merchandise wearable to
work:
Upon employment_______________ __
5 percent_____________ _
10 percent_____________ __ _
15 percent__________ ______
20 percent_______. __ _ _
Over 20 percent
__ _ ___ __
Other_______ ________ ______
After waiting period. ______________
10 percent______________ ________
15 percent__ _______________ _ _
20 percent_____________________ _
Over 20 percent ... __ _ ___
No discount on merchandise wearable to
work
Discount on other wearable merchandise:
Upon employment____________ __ ...
5 percent __________ _ __ _
10 percent______________
_____
15 percent____________
20 percent______________ __ _
Over 20 percent __ _
Other
After waiting period____ . _
__
10 percent
15 percent______ _____ _
20 percent _ __ ______
Over 20 percent _ .
Other __________
Other discount policies. .
__ __
No discount on other wearable to work
merchandise
__
Discount on other merchandise: 1
Upon employment.. . . . . . . . ._ „
5 percent
10 percent______ _________________
15 percent
20 percent__. . .
Over 20 percent
Other_______ .. _______ ______
After waiting period _________ _ _ __
___ _
10 percent__
15 percent__ . ______________
20 percent
.. _____ _
Over 20 percent _ ______________
N o discount on other merchandise _.
Discount privileges granted to other
members of employee’s family:
Yes____________________________
No . .

San
Minne- New
At­
Fran- Se­ To­ Wash­
Chi­
New Phil­ Pitts­
ing­
lan­ Balti­ Bos­ Buf­ cago Dal­ Den­ apolis- Or­ York adel­ burgh Provi­ cisco- attle ledo ton,
las ver St. leans
dence Oakphia
ta more ton falo
Paul
D. C.
land
4

8

11

9

7

6

8

11

4

26

13

8

5

18

7

5

8

4

8

11

9

7

6

8

11

4

25

13

8

5

18

7

5

8

1
1

7
4
3

3
2
1

6
3
3

4
3
1

4
2
1
1

2
2

3
1
2

5
5

4

5
1
4

5
1
4

8
1
2
4
1

3

3

2
1

3

2
1
1

6
1
5

4
2
1
1

3
2
1

10
3
5
1
1
8
2
5
1

5
1
4

1

10
2
3
3
2
1
1

3
2
1

10
]
2
6
1
15
1
2
8
4
1
10
7
2
1
15
7
2
2
4

9
4
1
4

3
2
1

10
2
3
3
2
1
1

9
5
1
3

5
5

4
1
2
1

3
2
1

10
6
3
1
1
1

3
2
1

7
5
1
1

5
5

4
1
3

1
1

1
1

3
1
1
1

1

11

4

10
3

8

1

1
1

7
4
3

3
2
1

5
3
2

4
3
1

4
2
1
1

2
2

3
1
2

1

8
1
2
4
1

4
1
2
1

3
3

2
1
1

6
1
1
4

1

1
1

7
4
3

3
2
1

6
6

4
3
1

4
2
1
1

2
2

3
1
2

1

8
2
3
2
1

3
2

3

2
1
1

6
1
2
3

9
2

9

6

8

4

1
7
1

1

3
5
2

1
1

1
1

1
9
7
1
1
8
5
2
1
13
13

1
1
2
1
1
4
3
1
1
1

1
3
2

10
3
4
2
1
8
2
6

2

3

1
1

3

5
1
4

5
1
4

5

2
1
1

10
3
4
2
1
8
2
6
18

7

5

2
2

5
2
3

3
1
2

5
1
4

3
1
2
5
5

5

7
1

1Not applicable to women’s ready-to-wear stores.



23
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1951